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O 11 D N A iN C E 



Statistical, §iagntpTrir;tl, iiiiiJ fjistaiicil 






E D I N B U E G II : 




18 8 4. 



Ardviaick Castle, Suthcrlandt-liirt;. 

l.iiili Arkai-f, Iiiveiiic'ss-.sliiie. 


Cndgluill Hijuse, Ceres, t.fufchiie. 

Ciaigicvar Castle, Loocliel-Cushnie, Aberd-unshiru. 

(lid iMiin-wbin Custle, liutlierhuidsliiie. 

Duiii'ubiii Castle, Siitlimlaiidshlre. 


Dunottar Castle, Kiucaidiue.^htre, in the lith eeutury. Kn.piii Slezer's TUeatruia Scot(it (lOl'y). 

Dimkuld, Pcrlhshiie, in Uie 17tli Leiitury. From Slezers TutiUrum itodtt (lo'JJ). 





Fort Aui^ustus, Invrness- shire. 

■<ya.£(^aN /J 

frciidraught lluuse, /Vbunicuiishiiu, wiUi thu luiiis of the old C'astlu 


Sculptured Front of Old College, Glasgow (founded in 1450). 

Piirt of the (iiiadniuglc, Old College, (Jlasgow. 



- ' • - ■ t B 

Gordon Castle, Monysliire. From Nattfcs' Scotia i)«/)(0(«. at tlic cmi of tlio ITtli cMiliiry. I'roiii SlczcrV Tlii:«ti-am Si-oIki (ic.'.t:}). 


Perth ill the 17ih uoiituiy. From Slezei's T/uatrum Scout (1693). 

I'.us.T ut lviiliooni:ikie, ' crths liic, iii l.i.^l vuiilu.y. 






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Corwar, an estate, with a mansion, in Colraonell 
parish, S AjTshire, 3^ miles ESE of Banhill station. 


Cor3miulzie. See CoRRiEsniiziE. 

Coryvreckan. See Cokkievrechan 

Coshieville, a place, with an inn, in Strath Appin, 
Dull parish, Perthshire, 5i miles W by N of Aberfeldy, 
on a road leading northward to Tummel Bridge, over a 
pass 1262 feet high. 

Cessans. See Glamis. 

Costa, a headland at the northern extremity of the 
mainland of Orkney, on the mutual border of Evie and 
fUrsay parishes. Projecting to a point 4 miles EXE of 
the Brough of Birsay, it comprises a hill 478 feet high, 
and presents to the ocean a bold precipitous cliff. See 

Costerton House. See Crichtox. 

Cotbum, a hill (559 feet) on the i_utual border of 
Turriff and ilonquhitter parishes, N Aberdeenshire, i^ 
miles NE of the town of Turriff. 

Cotehill, a loch, measuring 1 J by 1 furlong, in Slains 
parish, E Aberdeenshire, 1 mile W by X of the church. 

Cothal, a place with factories of tweed and woollen 
cloth in Fin tray parish, Aberdeenshire, on the left bank 
of the Don, 7k miles XNW of Aberdeen, and 2| NXW 
of Dyce Jimction. The factories were established in 
1798, and are famous for both the quantity and the 
quality of the tweeds which they turn out. 

Cotiiiemuir. See Keig. 

Cotton, a village in Auchindoir and Kearn parish, W 
Aberdeenshire, 7 furlongs ESE of Rhynie. 

Coul, a mansion in Contin parish, SE Ross-shire, a 
little NE of the parish chm'ch. Built in 1821, it 
is a handsome edifice, with finely-wooded policies ; its 
owner. Sir Arth\ir-Geo. -Ramsay Mackenzie, eleventh 
Bart, since 1673 (b. 1865; sue. 1873), holds 43,189 
acres in the shire, valued at £5215 per annuni 

Coul, a mansion in the parish and 1 mile EXE of the 
station of Auchterarder, SE Perthshire. 

Coulatt, a loch on the mutual border of Knockando 
and Dallas parishes, Elginshire, 4 mUes "W by X of 
Knockando church. Lying 1100 feet above sea-level, 
it measures li by 1 furlong, and sends off the Burn 
of Coulatt, flowing 6^ miles E and SSE to the Spey, 7 
furlongs SSE of the said church. — Ord. Sur., sh. 85, 

Coull, a coUier hamlet in Markinch parish, Fife, If 
mile XW of Markinch town. 

Coull, a parish of S Aberdeenshire, whose church 
stands 3;^ miles XX W of Aboj-ne station, this being 32i 
miles W by S of Aberdeen. It is bounded X by Leochel- 
Cushnie, E by Lumphanan, S by Aboyne, W by Logie- 
Coldstone and Tarland-Migvie. Irregidar in outline, it 
has an utmost length from XXE to SSW of 5f miles, a 
varjdng breadth of 5| furlongs and 4| miles, and an area 
of 9053 acres. The drainage is carried mainly to the 
Dee, but partly also to the Don — by the Bum of Tarland 
to the former, and to the latter by the Bum of Corse. 
In the extreme SE the surface sinks to 410 feet above 
sea-level, thence rising westward to Scar Hill of Tilly- 
duke (984 feet), and northward to *Mortlich (1248), 
Leadhlich (1278), *Crag (1563), and Loanhead (994), 
where asterisks mark those summits that culminate on 
the confines of the parish. The rocks are all of primary 
formation, the eastern hills consisting chiefly of reddish, 
the western of grepsh, granite ; and the soils vary from 
gravel-mixed clay to loam and moorish uplands. A 
' Druidical ' circle on Tomnaverie, a number of small 
cairns upon Corse Hill, and ti-aces of the Terry Chapel 
on Xewton of Corse make up the antiquities, with the 
ruined castles of Corse and Coull. The latter at the 
opening of the 13th century was the seat of the great 
Durward family, of whom it was said that, a Durward 
dying, the church bell of Coull tolled of its o^vn accord. 
A stately pile, it measured some 50 yards square, and 
had five turrets and four hexagonal towers. Corse Castle 
bears date 1581, and, though long roofless, is compara- 
tively entire. The lands of Corse, forming part of the 
barony of Coull and O'Xeil, were in 1476 bestowed on 


Patrick Forbes, armour-bearer to James III. , and youngest 
son of the second Lord Forbes. Among his descendants 
were Patrick Forbes (1564-1635), Bishop of Aberdeen 
from 1618 ; and his son, John Forbes (1593-1648), the 
scholar and Episcopalian confessor, whose estate was 
repeatedly ravaged by the famous freebooter Gilderoy. 
The bishop's male line failing with his grandchildren, 
Corse passed to the Forbeses of Craigievar, and now is 
held by the late Sir John Forbes' second son, James 
Ochoncar Forbes, Esq. (b. 1837 ; sue. 1846), who owns 
1946 acres in the shire, valued at £1679 per annum. His 
modem mansion, near the old castle, is 3^ miles NW 
of Lumphanan station, and 4J NE of CouU church. 
Two proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 2 others holding between £100 and £500, 
and 1 between £50 and £100. In the presbytery of 
Kincardine O'Xeil and synod of Aberdeen, CouU has 
since 1621 given off the Corse di\-ision quoad sacra to 
Leochel-Cushnie ; the living is worth £202. The church 
(1792 ; restored 1876 ; 220 sittings) has a fine-toned bell 
that was cast in Holland in 1644. A public school, with 
accommodation for 103 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 83, and a grant of £79, 12s. 6d. Valua- 
tion (1881) £4006, 15s. 7d. Pop. (1801) 679, (1831) 
767, (1851) 734, (1871) 824, (1881) 783.— Ord Sur., sh. 
76, 1S74. 

Coull, Braes of. See Lintrathex. 

CouUin. See Cuchullix. 

Coulmony House. See Ardclach. 

Coulport, a hamlet on the W side of Roseneath parish, 
Dumbartonshire, on Loch Long, 4 miles N by W of 
Cove. It maintains a feiry across Loch Long to Arden- 
tinny, and has a new pier, erected in 1880, when also seve- 
ral acres were laid out for feuing purposes. The Kibble 
Crystal Palace, in the Glasgow Botanic Gardens, was 
removed from Coulport in 1872. 

Coulter, a loch in the S of St Ninians parish, Stirling- 
shire, near the foot of the Lennox Hills, 6;^ miles SSW 
of Stirling. "With an utmost length and width of 5 and 
3 furlongs, it is shallow towards the "W, but very deep 
to the NE ; contains perch and pike ; and sends off its 
superfluence by Auchenhowie Bum to the Carron. Dur- 
ing the great earthquake of Lisbon (1735) it was vio- 
lently agitated, and sank about 10 or 12 feet. — O/d. 
Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Coulter, Lanarkshire. See Culter. 

Coultra. See Balmerixo. 

Countesswells, an estate, with an old mansion, in 
Peterculter parish, Aberdeenshire, 4f miles WSW of 
Aberdeen. Its owner, ilajor And. GammeU of Drum- 
tochty Castle, holds 5208 acres in the shire, valued at 
£5470 per annum. There are a post oflBce of Countess- 
wells under Aberdeen and a public school. 

Coupar-Angus, a to^^m and a parish partly in Forfar, 
but mainly in Perth, shire. The town stands in the 
centre of Strathmore, near the left bank of the Isla, on a 
small tributary of that river, 4J miles SE of I31air- 
gowrie, 12| XE by X of Perth, and 15 XW of Dundee ; 
whilst its station, the junction for Blairgowrie, on the 
Scottish Midland section of the Caledonian, is 15| miles 
from Perth, 22 from Dimdee, 62f N by W of Edinburgh, 
and 79^ XE of Glasgow. The part of it on the left bank 
of the rivulet is in Angus or Forfarshire ; and, being 
the older portion, occasioned the whole to be called 
Coupar-Angus. Dating from a remote antiquity, the 
town was long a time-worn, decayed, and stagnant place, 
but within recent years has undergone great revival and 
improvement, and become a centre of much traffic and a 
seat of considerable trade. It is governed by nine police 
commissioners, under selected sections of the general 
police and improvement act of Scotland, adopted in July 
1871 ; and has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, branches of 
the Bank of Scotland, the Union Bank, and the Xational 
Bank, a local savings' bank, five jirincipal inns, a gas 
company, a town-house with a steeple, a literary associa- 
tion, masonic and good templar lodges, a Bible society, a 
young men's Christian association, bowling and curling 
clubs, and a volunteer corps. In 1874 a much-needed 



water supply was iutroJuccJ, at a cost of nearly £4000, 
from springs on the Pitcur estate, Avhich are guided to 
a reservoir close to the Dundee turnpike, containing 
55,000 gallons. There are three linen- works, a tannery, 
farina works, a brewery, and steam saw-mills. A grain 
market is held on Thursday, and cattle markets fall on 
the third Thursday of every month but June, August, 
September, and October. The Queen has driven thrice 
through Coupar- Angus, on 11 Sept. and 1 Oct. 1S44, 
and 31 Aug. 1S50. Henry Guthrie (1600-76), Bishop 
of Dunkcld, was a native. A Roman camp here, imme- 
diately E of the churchyard, is supposed to have been 
formed either by Agricola or LoUius Urbicus, and seems 
to have been a square of 1200 feet, with two strong 
ramparts and wide ditches ; but now is represented only 
by remains of the eastern part of the ramparts. In 
1164 King Malcolm the ilaiden founded the Cistercian 
abbey of St Mary's within the area of this Roman camp. 
A large and stately structure, richly endowed by several 
of the Scottish kings and by the Hays of Errol, it passed 
at the dissolution to the Balmerino family. An ivy- 
clad fragment, in the SW corner of the churchyard, is 
all that is left of it, a beautiful arch having been 
demolished in 17S0 to furnish material for the parish 
church. This, dating originally from 1681, was in great 
measure reconstructed in 1780, and thoroughly rebuilt 
in 1859. Other churches are the Free, U.P. (1790), 
Evangelical Union (1789), Original Secession (1826), 
and Episcopal (1847). A new one-story public school, 
erected (1876-77) at a cost of £2700, with accommoda- 
tion for 502 children, had in 1880 an average attendance 
of 299, and a grant of £286, 18s. 6d. Pop. (1793) 1604, 
(1841) 1868, (1861) 1943, (1871) 2149, (1881) 1959. 

The parish, containing also the villages of Arthur- 
stone, Balbrogie, and AVashington, is bounded N by 
Alyth, NE by Meigle, SE by Meigle and Kettins, S by 
Cargill, and NW by Caputh, Blairgowrie, and Bendochy. 
Its greatest length, from NE to SW, is 6 miles ; its 
lireadth varies between 5 furlongs and 2| miles ; and its 
area is 4769| acres, of which 184 are in Forfarshire, and 
70^ are water. The Lsla, winding lOg miles ' in many 
a loop and link,' roughly traces all the northern and 
north-western border ; along it lies a considerable ex- 
tent of haugh-land, protected by embankments, 7 feet 
high, from inundations by the river. The rest of the 
area mainly consists of the level grounds of Strathmore, 
but is bisected from NE to SW by a ridge, along which 
runs the great highway from Perth to Aberdeen, and 
which commands a splendid view of the Sidlaw Hills 
along the one side of the strath, and of the Grampian 
ilountains on the other. In the extreme SW the sur- 
face sinks to 100 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 
224 near Keithick, 172 at Kemphill, 210 at Easter Den- 
head, and 208 near Arthurbank. The formation is Old 
Red sandstone ; and the soil is mainly a good sandy 
loam. Mansions are Balgersho House, Keithick House, 
lsla Park, Balbrogie, Arthurstone, Denliead, Kinloch, 
and Bankhead ; and 6 proprietors hold 'each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 15 of between £100 and 
£500, 14 of from £50 to £100, and 45 of from £20 to 
£50. Giving olf a portion quoad sacra to Meigle, 
Coupar-Angus is in the j)resbytery of Jleigle and synod 
of Angus and Mearns ; the living is worth £442. Valua- 
tion (1882) £16,297, 14s. 2d., of which £1844, 16s. Id. 
was for the Forfarshire section. Pop. of civil parish 
(1801) 2416, (1831 ) 2615, (1861) 2929, (1871) 3055, (1881) 
2819, of whom 265 were in Forfarshire ; of q. s. parish 
(1871) 2797, (18S1) 2i,i&.—0rdSur., shs. 48, 56, 1868. 
See the Rev. C. Rogers' and Major-Gen. A. S. Allan's 
licntal Look and Jli^torical Notices of the Abbey of 
Coupar-Aiifjus {2 vols., Grampian Club, 1879-80). 

Cour, a mansion in Saddell parish, Kintyre, Argyll- 
shire, on Kilbrannan Sound, 7i miles N by E of Carra- 

Courance, a hamlet in Kirkmichael parish, Dumfries- 
shire, 9 miles NW of Lockerbie, under wliich it has a 
post office. Courance House is the seat of John Seton- 
Wightman, Esq. (b. 1846 ; sue. 1879), who owns 2750 
aiTes in the .shire, valued at £1705 i)er annum. 


Courthill. See Lanoside. 

Cousland, a village in Cranston parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, ;!^ miles ENE of Dalkeith, under which it has a 
post office. It was burned by the Protector Somerset in 
1547, at the time of the battle of Pinkie. A chapelry 
of Cousland was annexed to Cranston parish about the 
era of the Reformation ; its chapel stood on the SW 
side of the village, and has left some remains. 

Couston. See Bathgate. 

Couthally. See Cowtiially. 

Couttie, a hamlet in Bendochy parish, E Perthshire, 
on the right bank of the lsla, 1 mile NW of Coupar- 

Cove, a fishing village in Nigg parish, Kincardineshire, 
with a station on the Caledonian railway, 4f miles S by 
E of Aberdeen, under which it lias a post office. At 
it are St Mary's Episcopal church (1868), a public and 
an Episcopal school, an hotel, and a harbour, which, 
mainly natural, or very slightly improved by art, serves 
often as a place of refuge to boats in high north-easterly 
winds. The fishermen engage in various kinds of fishery, 
and have considerable reputation for the drying and 
smoking of haddocks. A cave enters from the beach in 
the vicinity, and probably gave name to the village. 
Pop. (1861) 385, (1871) 450, (1881) 550. 

Cove, a charming watering-place in Roseneath parish, 
Dumbartonshire, to the right or E of the entrance to 
Loch Long, IJ mile WNW of Kilcreggan, and 6 miles 
by water WNW of Greenock. Of modern growth, and 
conjoined as a police burgh with Kilcreggan, it comprises 
a number of neat villas and cottages. At it are a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, a steamboat pier, and Craigrownie quoad 
sacra church. See Kilcreggan and Craigrownie. 

Cove, a fishing hamlet in Cockburnspath parish, 
Berwickshire, 3 furlongs E of Cockburnspath station. 
Its harbour, 3 furlongs further to the eastward, is ap- 
proached through a sloping tunnel, which, hewn out of 
soft rock, is 65 yards long, and just wide enough to 
admit a horse and cart ; it has a pier for ii.sliing-boats on 
a little bay, surrounded by cliffs 100 to 200 feet in 
height. The hamlet, consisting of little more than a 
score of one-story cottages, had a fishing population of 
21, of whom no fewer than 11 perished, within -h mile 
of home, in the disastrous gale of 14 Oct. 1881. 

Cove, an estate, with a mansion, in Kirkpatrick- 
Fleming parish, Dumfriesshire, on the left bank of Kirtle 
Water, 1 mile W of Kirkpatrick station. 

Cove. See Ulva and CAOLisroitT. 

Cove-a-Chiaran. See Campbeltown. 

Covesea (j)Opularly Causca), a little village on the 
coast of Di"ainie parish, Elginshire, 5J miles NNW of 
Elgin, and 3^ W of Lossiemouth. The shore here is 
rocky, precipitous, and strikingly picturesque. In one 
place a gently sloping road leads through a natural arch, 
with stately pillars, to a stretch of fine natural meadow on 
the beach, shut in to the landward by smooth and mural 
Old Red sandstone cliffs, GO to 100 feet high ; elsewhere 
are caves, fissures, arches, stacks, and fantastic forms of 
rock, various and romantic as the ruins of a vast city, 
and far too numerous to be appreciablj' damaged Ibr 
ages to come by either the elements or the hand of man. 
Two pecidiarly interesting objects are an isolated rock, 
which, looking like an inverted pyramid, is 60 feet high, 
30 across the top, but only 8 aci'oss the base ; and the 
Laird's Stable, a cavern, which, once the abode of a 
hermit, was used as a stable by Sir Robert Gordon of 
Gordon.stown during the '45. In another cave, near 
llopeman, have been found a flint arrow-head, bones of 
tlic beaver and the crane, and other traces of prehistoric 
occui)ancy ; and the roof of a third is sculptured with 
figures of the half-moon, sceptre, fish, and suchlike 
symbols of ancient Celtic art. A reef or chain of skerries, 
extending parallel to the coast, about J mile from the 
shore, was the scene of many shijiwrecks ; but since 
1846 it has been crowned with a lighthouse, built at a 
cost of £11,514, and showing a revolving light, visible 
at the distance of I85 nautical miles. The light a]>])ears 
in its brightest state once every minute, and, from W by 



N i N to SE by E ^ E, it is of the natural appearance ; 
but from SE by E ^ E to SE J S, it has a red colour. 
See pp. 323-337 of Jas. Brown's Round Table Club 
(Elgin, 1S73). 

Covington, a hamlet and a parish iu the Upper Ward 
of Lanaikshire. The hamlet stands lietvreen the Clyde 
and the Caledonian railway, \\ mile X by E of its 
station and post-to^vn Thankerton, this being 33^ miles 
S\V of Edinburgh and 36J SE of Glasgow ; at it is the 
parish chmxh (230 sittings), an old building enlarged in 
the early part of last century. A neighbouring tower, 
built in 1442 by Lindsay of Covington barony, is now a 
fine ruin ; and Covington Mill was the place where that 
famous martyr of the Covenant, Donald Cargill, was 
seized by Irving of Bonshaw in May 16S1. 

The parish, containing also the villages of Thankerton, 
Kewtown of Covington (7 furlongs XXE of Thankerton), 
and Hillhead (f mile XXE of the church), comprises 
the ancient parishes of Covington and Thankerton, 
united some time between 1702 and 1720. Bounded 
XW by Pettinain, E by Libberton, SE by Syming- 
ton, and "W by Carmichael, it has an utmost length 
of 5 miles from XXE to SSW, viz., from the Clyde 
below Brown Ford to the top of Tinto ; its greatest 
breadth, from E to W, is 2g miles ; and its area is 
5167| acres, of which 53 are water. The Clyde, here 
winding 3| miles west-north-westward and northward, 
roughly traces all the boundary with Libberton ; and 
three or four bums run to it through the interior or on 
the borders of the parish. In the extreme XE the sur- 
face sinks to 630 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 
829 at Hillhead, 1049 near Wellbrae, 1013 at Chester, 
661 at Thankerton bridge, and 2335 on Tixxo ; it is 
divided among meadows or low well-cultivated fields 
along the Clyde, pastoral slopes, and heathy uplands. 
Nearly two-fifths of the entire area are under the plough, 
and about 80 acres are in wood. Other antiquities than 
Covington Tower are a cairn, three camps, and a 
' Druidical temple.' Here, in 1S28, his father being 
parish minister, was bom the late Lord Advocate, "Wil- 
liam Watson, who in ISSO was raised to the peerage as 
Baron Watson of Thankerton. St John's Kirk is the 
only mansion : and 2 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of more, 2 of less, than £500. Covington is in 
the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale ; the living is worth £265. A public school 
at Xewtown of Covington, ^"ith accommodation for 70 
children, had (ISSO) an average attendance of 44, and 
a grant of £48, 3s. Valuation (1882) £6487, 9s. Pop. 
(1801) 456, (1831) 521, (1861) 532, (1871) 454, (1881) 
444.— Crrf. Sur., sh. 23, 1865. 

Cowal, the mid eastern district of Argyllshire. Its 
north-western extremity is an isthmus between the head 
of Loch Fyne and the boundary with Perthshire ; whilst 
its north-eastern is a range of mountains along the 
boundary with Perth and Dumbarton shires, to the 
head of Loch Long ; and all the rest is a peninsula 
bounded E by Loch Long and the Firth of Cl3'de, S by 
the Kyles of Bute, and W by Loch Fyne. Its length, 
from the head of Glen Fyne on the XXE to Lamont 
Point on the SSW, is 37 mUes ; and its greatest breadth 
is 16 J mUes. It comprehends the parishes of Lochgoil- 
head and Kilmorich, Dunoon and Kihnun, Strachur and 
Stralachlan, Inverchaolain, Kibnodan, and Kilfinan, and 
the quoad sacra paiishes of Ardentinny, Inellan, Kiru, 
and Sandbank, with the chapelries of Strone, Toward, 
Kilbride, and Tighnabruaich. See Argyllshire. 

Cowcaddens. See Glasgow. 

Cowdailly. See Cowth.a.lly. 

Cowdenbeath, a village in the S of Beath parish, Fife, 2 
miles WS W of Lochgelly, and 3 furlongs X by W of Cow- 
denbeath station on the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee 
section of the Xorth British, this being 5J miles EXE 
of Dunfermline. It has a post office under Lochgelly, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a Free church, and a public school ; and in the 
neighbourhood are the extensive collieries of the Cowden- 
bea^th Coal Co. Pop. (1861) 1148, (1871) 1457, (1881) 

Cowden Castle, a mansion in Muckart parish, Perth- 
shire, 2J miles EXE of Dollar. Occupjang the site of 
an ancient fortalice, which belonged to the see of St 
Andrews, it is the seat of John Christie, Esq. (b. 1824 ; 
sue. 1859), who owns 1672 acres in the shire, valued at 
£1625 per annum. 

Cowdenhill, a hamlet near Borrowstounness, NW 

Cowdenknowes, an estate, with a mansion, part ancient 
and part modern, in Earlston parish, BerAvickshire, on 
the left bank of Leader Water, 1 mile S of Earlston 
village. Its strong old tower, with deep pit beneath 
and ' hanging tree ' outside (the latter cut down barely 
50 years since), was the seat of those ancestors of the 
Earls of Home whose feudal cruelties called forth the 
malediction — 

' Vengeance ! vengeance ! when and where ? 
Upon the house of Cowdenknowes, now and ever mair.' 

Their estate has long been alienated, and now is held by 
William Cotesworth, Esq. (b. 1827), who owns 2331 
acres in Berwick and Roxburgh shires, valued at £2702 
per annum. Behind the house rises Earlston Black 
Hill (1031 feet), a picttiresque conical eminence, crowned 
with remains of a Roman camp. All know the plaintive 
air and one at least of the three versions of the ballad — 

' " O the hroom, and the bonny, bonny broom. 
And the broom of the Cowdenknowes," 
And aye sae sweet as the lassie sang 
I' the bught, milking the ewes." 

But the broom-sprinkled braes and haughs of Cowden- 
knowes — ' one of the most classical and far-famed spots 
in Scotland' — ^had been sadly stripped of their golden 
adornments by the so-called march of agrictdtural im- 
provement, when, in the winter of 1861-62, the hand of 
Xature nipped what man had spared. See pp. 133-137 
of Lauder's Scottish Rivers (ed. 1874). 

Cowey's Linn, a waterfall of 35 feet in leap in Eddie- 
stone parish. Peeblesshire, on a head-stream of Eddlestone 
Water, 3 miles X by W of Eddlestone village. 

Cowgate. See Ditsdee, Edixeuegh, and Macch- 

Cowglen, a hamlet and a mansion in Eastwood parish, 
Renfrewshire, 2 ndles W by S of PoUokshaws. Coal 
and limestone are worked iu the vicinity. 

Cowhill Tower, a mansion in Hol}"wood parish, Dimi- 
friesshire, on the right bank of the Xith, 4^ miles XXW 
of Dumfries. 

Cowie, a fishing village and a stream of Kincardine- 
shire. The village, in Fetteresso parish, stands on the 
X side of Stonehaven Bay, and f mile X by E of Stone- 
haven town. Anciently it was a free burgh, under 
charter of Malcolm Ceannmor, who, on a rock over- 
looking the sea, is said to have built a small fortalice — • 
the Castle of Cowie. Of this some vestiges remain, 
while its First Pointed chapel, which afterwards be- 
longed to Marischal College, Aberdeen, is a picturesque 
ruin, with a burjing-ground still in use. Cowie House, 
hard by, is a seat of Alex. Innes, Esq. of Raemoir (b. 
1812 ; "sue. 1S63), who o-wns 4750 acres in the shire, 
valued at £2847 per annum. Cowie Water, rising on 
the western border of Glenber\ie parish at 1000 feet 
above sea-level, winds 13 miles eastward through the 
rocky and wooded scenery of Glenbervie and Fetteresso 
parishes, and at Stoxehavex falls into Stonehaven Bay. 
It is fairly stocked with small trout ; is subject to high 
freshets, which often do considerable damage ; and is 
crossed, | mile XXW of Stonehaven, by the grand 
fourteen -arched Glenury Viaduct of the Aberdeen rail- 
way, which, in one part 190 feet high, commands a fine 
view of the river's ravine, the vale and town of Stone- 
haven, Dimnottar Castle, and other features of the sur- 
rounding landscape. — Ord. Sur., shs. 66, 67, 1871. 

Cowiefauld, a hamlet in Strathnnglo parish, Fife, 2 
miles WSW of Strathmiglo \illage. 

Cowie's Linn. See Cowey's Lixx. 

Cowlairs. See Gl.\sgow. 

Cowlatt, Loch. See Coulatt. 

Cowpits, a village in Inveresk parish, Edinburghshire, 


on the right bank of the Esk, U mile S of Mussel- 

Cowshaven. See ABEnroiTv. 

Cowthally, a ruined castle in Carnwath parish, Lanark- 
shire, on the edge of a moss H mile NW of Carnwath 
viUage. From the reign of Da'vid I. (1124-53) to 1603 
it was the seat of the powerful family of Somervillc, 
which, ennobled in 1430 under the title of Baron Somer- 
ville, became extinct in 1870 on the death of the nine- 
teenth Lord. P.urned by the English in 1320, but 
aftenvards rebuilt, it was surrounded by moat and ram- 
part, and accessible only by a drawbridge. James Y. 
and VL were both entertained here with great magni- 
ficence, the latter punningly remarking that the castle 
rather should be called Goiv-daily, because a cow and 
ten sheep were killed there every da}'. See Drum and 
the eleventh Lord Somerville's curious Memorie of the 
Somervilles (2 vols., 1815). 

Coxton, an old castellated mansion in St Andrews- 
Lhanbride parish, Elginshire, 2 miles ESE of Elgin. A 
tall square structure, ^^'ith turrets at the angles, it bears 
date 1644, but is fully a century older; and it was the 
residence of the Inneses of Invermarkie, but belongs 
now to the Earl of Fife. See vol. 1. of Billings' Baronial 
Antiquities (1845). 

Coyle or Coila (popularly Kill), a stream of Kyle dis- 
trict, AjTshire. It rises in the S of Ochiltree parish 
close to the boundary with Coylton, and winds 14i 
miles north-westward to the river Ayv, at a point 3j 
miles E of the town of Ayr. It makes a cascade, 25 
feet ^vide and 15 feet in fall, under the ridge on which 
stands Sundrum House ; its yellow trout are good, Init 
not over plentiful ; and at llillmunnoch, on its bank. 
Burns makes the ' Poor and Honest Sodger ' return to 
his ain dear maid. 

Coylton, a village and a parish in Kyle district, Ayr- 
shire. The village stands 2 miles W by N of Drongan 
station and 6 ESE of Ajt, under which it has a post 
office, and consists of two parts, Coylton proper and 
New Coylton. It is traditionally said to have got its 
name from the 'Auld King Coil' of Coilsfield, but 
figures in old records as Quiltoun and Cuiltoun. 

The parish, containing also the villages of Craighall, 
Woodside, Rankinston, and Joppa, is bounded N by 
Tarbolton, E by Stair and Ochiltree, S by Dalmellington, 
SW by Dalr}Tnple, W by Ayr, and NW by St Quivox. 
Its greatest length, from NNW to SSE, is 8^ miles ; its 
breadth varies between 7 furlongs and 3§ miles ; and its 
area is 11,752| acres, of which 160| are water. From a 
little below Stair church to just above Mainholm, the 
river Ayk winds 7f miles west-south-westward along all 
the northern and north-western border ; to it flows the 
Water of CoYiiE, latterly through the NE interior, but 
chiefly along the boundary with Ochiltree and Stair. 
Lochs Mautnaham (1 J x J mile) and Snipe (li x § furl. ) 
lie on the Dalrymple border ; and on the Ayr border is 
Loch I'ergus (3x1 furl.). Where the Ayr quits the 
parish the surface sinks to less than 50 feet above sea- 
level, thence rising to 139 feet near Craighall, 356 at 
Raithhill, 253 near Joppa, 799 at Craigs of Co3de, 1241 
at Ewe Hill, 1122 at Brown Rig, and 1426 at Benwhat, 
which last, however, culminates just beyond the southern 
border. Coal, ironstone, trap rock, sandstone, lime- 
stone, and potter's clay are worked, the recent great 
increase in the population being due to mining develop- 
ment ; plumbago was mined, from 1808 till 1815, on 
the farm of Laigh Dalmore ; fire-clay abounds in the 
neigld)Ourhood of a limestone (|uarry ; and Water-of- 
Ayr stone, used for hones, was raised for some years on 
Knocksho"gle farm. The soil of the holms or flat 
grounds along the streams is light and loamy, on a 
sandy or gravelly bottom ; elsewhere it is inostly a poor 
cohesive clay on a stilf, cold, tilly subsoil, with patches 
of moss or peat. About 70 per cent, of the entire land 
area is in tillage, 23 in pasture, and 7 under wood. 
Antiquities are a large stone, Ijy tradition associated 
with tlie name of ' Auld King Coil ;' the castellated por- 
tion of Sundrum House ; fragments of the old parish 
church ; and the sites of two pre-Reformation chapels. 


A field on Bargleuch has yielded four stone coflins ; and 
silver coins of Elizabeth, James VI., and Charles I. 
have been dug up on Bargunnoch farm. JMansions are 
Sundrum, Gadgirth, Rankinston, Martnaham Muir, and 
Oakbank ; and the property is divided among 14 land- 
owners, 6 holding each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 3 of between £100 and £500, 1 of from £50 to 
£100, and 4 of from £20 to £50. Coylton is in the 
presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the 
living is worth £331. The church, built in 1836, is a 
good Gothic edifice, with a tower upwards of 60 feet 
high, and contains 744 sittings. Two public schools, 
Coylton and Littlemill, with respective accommodation 
for 293 and 220 children, had (1880) an average attend- 
ance of 191 and 134, and grants of £162, 12s. 6d. and 
£96, 19s. Valuation (1860) £10,481, (1882) £20,454, 
8s. 9d., including £911 for railway. Pop. (ISOl) 848, 
(1831) 1380, (1861) 1604, (1871) 1440, (1881) 3100.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Crag or Craiglich, an eminence (1563 feet) on the 
mutual border of CouU and Lumphanan parishes, Aber- 
deenshire, 7^ miles SSW of Alford. 

Craggie or Creagach, a loch on the mutual border of 
Lairg and Rogart parishes, SE Sutherland, 3^ miles 
ENE of Lairg village. Lying 525 feet above sea-level, 
it measures 1 mile by 2J furlongs, and, with a stiflish 
breeze, affords as good trouting as any in Sutherland. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 102, 1881. 

Craggie or Creagach, a loch in Tongue parish, Suther- 
land, receiving the superfluence of Loch Loyal, and 
sending ott' its own to Loch Slaim, through two short 
reaches of the river BoRGiE, each 1 furlong long. L)'- 
ing 369 feet above sea-level, it is 1§ mile long from S to 
NNE ; varies in breadth between IJ and 3h furlongs ; 
and contains magnificent trout and salmo-ferox, mth 
occasional salmon and grilse. One of its trout scaled 
8\hs.— Ord. Sur., sh. 114, 1880. 

Craibstone. See Aberdeen, p. 17. 

Craichie. See Dunnichen. 

Craig, an estate, with a mansion, in Colmonell parish, 
S Ayrshire, on the Stinchar, 2 miles ENE of Colmonell 

Craig, an estate, with a mansion, in Kilmaurs parish, 
Ayrshire, between Carmel Water and the river Ir\ane, 
4 miles W by S of Kilmarnock. Its owner, Allan Pol- 
lok-Morris, Esq. (b. 1836; sue. 1862), holds 165 acres 
in the shire, valued at £846 per annum. 

Craig. See Neilston. 

Craig, a hamlet and a coast parish of Forfarshire. 
The hamlet, Kirkton of Craig, stands on the brow of a 
gentle acclivit}', 1^ mile SSW of Montrose, and com- 
mands a splemlid view over Montrose Basin and town 
away to the Grampians. 

The parish, containing also the fishing villages of 
Ferryden and Usan or Ulysses' Haven, comprises the 
ancient parishes of Inchbrayock or Craig and St Skeoch 
or Dunninald, united in 1618. It is bounded N by 
Montrose Basin and the mouth of the South Esk, SE 
by the German Ocean, S bj^ the Dysart section of 
j\Iaryton and by Lunan, SW by Kinnell, W by Far- 
nell, and NW by Maryton proper. Its utmost length 
is 5| miles from ENE to WSW, viz., from the Ness 
to tiny Nicholls Loch upon Ross Muir ; its width 
varies between 1^ and 2J miles ; and its area is 4865j 
acres, of which 345J- are foreshore, and 137i water. 
The northern border slopes gently do-\vii to 
Basin ; and Rossie island there, lying at the head of 
the South Esk's eOlucnce to the sea, and separated 
from the mainland only by a narrow channel, belongs 
to Craig, but will be separately noticed. The E coast 
is rocky, and toward the S precipitous, at Boddin 
Point rising rapidly to 200 feet above sea-level. On 
the Ness, or most easterly point of the coast, where the 
South Esk falls into the sea, is a lightliouse, whose light, 
fixed white till 1881, is now double intermittent or 
occulting, visible at a distance of 17 nautical miles. The 
interior, with gradual southward and south-westward 
ascent, forms, for the Tuost part, an undulating table- 
land ; and, attaining 234 feet near Balkeillie, 426 near 


Balstout, and 503 near the Keformatory, commands 
from many points extensive views. The rocks are 
chiefly erujjtive and Devonian, and include greenstone, 
amj-gdaloid, sandstone, and limestone. A eoai-se sand- 
stone is worked in several quarries for building ; lime- 
stone was long extensively worked ; and many varieties 
of beautiful pebbles are found in the amygdaloid. The 
soil in the E is sandy, westward inclines to moorish, 
and in the central and much the largest section is a 
strong rich loam. Fully five-sevenths of the entire 
area are in cultivation, a little less than a fourth being 
either in pasture or commonage, whilst some 300 acres 
are under wood. An old castle stood on the coast, in 
the immediate vicinity of Boddin, and has left slight 
vestiges called Black Jack ; and a square earthen bat- 
tery, traditionally said to have been thrown np by 
Oliver Cromwell, stood on a small headland at the 
mouth of the South Esk. The most interesting 
antiquity, however, is the strong castle of the barony 
of Craig, — a barony nearly identical with the present 
estate of Rossie. Frequently mentioned by Scottish 
chroniclers, it stood on the N side of the parish, and is 
now represented by a tower and gatewaj", and by part 
of a dwelling-house added in 1639. Mansions are Rossie 
Castle, Dunninald House, and Usan House ; and the 
property is divided among 4 landowners, 1 holding an 
annual value of over £5000, 2 of over £2000, and 1 of 
over £400. Craig is in the presbytery of Brechin and 
synod of Angus and Meams ; the living is worth £360. 
The parish church, erected in 1799, is a good building 
with a square tower SO feet high, and figures finely in the 
landscape ; a Free church is at Ferryden. Four public 
schools — Craig, Ferryden Senior, Ferryden Infant, and 
"VVesterton — with respective accommodation for 143, 160, 
165, and 42 children, had (18S0) an average attendance 
of 99, 144, 165, and 25, and grants of £8S, Os. 6d., 
£91, Is., £132, 10s., and £32, 3s. Rossie Reformatory, 
towards the soirth-westem comer of the parish, oh miles 
SW of Montrose, was established in 1857, and had on 
an average 72 inmates in 1880, when its total receipts 
were £1193, inclusive of a Treasury allowance of 
£1093. Valuation (1882) £12,486, 8s. 2d., including 
£1225 for railway. Pop. (1801) 1328, (1831) 1552, 
(1861) 2177, (1871) 2402, (1881) 2589.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
57, 1868. 

Craig or Craig-of-Madderty. See St David's. 

Craigallion, a loch in Strathblane parish, SW Stir- 
lingshire, 2 miles AVSW of Strathblane station. Lying 
380 feet above sea-level, it measures 3| furlongs by 1^, 
and has finely-wooded shores. 

Craigandarrocb. See Ballater. 

Craiganeoin, a deep natm-al amphitheatre in Moy and 
Dalarossie jtarish, Inverness-shire, 1 mile SE of Moy 
church. Surrounded by high rocks, and accessible only 
through one narrow passage, it was used in old 
by the Highland caterans for concealing their wives 
and children during their raids into the low countr}- ; 
and was the scene of a skii-mish in the '45, known as 
the Rout of Moy. 

Craiganfhiach or Raven's Rock, a precipitous crag in 
the W of Fodi-lertj" parish, Ross-shire. It gives off a 
ver}' distinct echo, and is near a strong chalj^beate spring, 
the Saints' Well. 

Craiganoin. See Craigaxeoix. 

Craiganroy, a commodious and safe harbour in Glen- 
shiel parish, Ross-shire, at the S corner of Loch 

Craigarestie, a chief summit of the Kilpatrick Hills, 
in Old Kilpatrick parish, Dumbartonshire. It cul- 
minates 1^ mile NKE of Bowling, on the SW side of 
Loch Humphrey, at 1166 feet above sea-level. 

Craigbamet, an estate, \vith a mansion, in the W of 
Campsie parish, S Stirlingshire, If mile W by N of 
Campsie Glen station. Its o\vner, Major Chs. Graham- 
Stirling (b. 1827 ; sue. 1852), holds 3343 acres in the 
shire, valued at £1716 per annum. 

Craigbeg, a hill, 1054 feet high, in Dm-ris parish, Kin- 
cardineshire, 5^- miles ESE of Banchory. 

Craigbhockie and Craigboddich, two lofty cliffs in 


Loth parish, Sutherland, confronting each other on 

opposite sides of a small burn running to Loch Glen. 

Craigcaffie Castle, the old square tower of the NeU- 
sous in Inch parish, Wigtownshire, 3^ miles NE of 
Stranraer. It was surroimded by a fosse, but never 
could have been a place of much strength ; now it is 
occupied b)- farm labourers. 

Craig Castle. See Auchixdoir axd Keakx, and 
Castle Craig. 

Craigchailliach,a summit(2990feet)in the Finlarig sec- 
tion of Weem parish, Perthshire,3;i miles K by W of Killin. 

Craig Cluny, a precipitous granite height in Crathie 
parish, Aberdeenshire, IJ mile E of Castleton of Brae- 
mar. It overhangs the public road, and is clothed far 
up with rowan, weeping birch, and lofty pines. See 
Charters Chest. 

Craigcrook Castle, a picturesque old mansion in 
Cramond parish, Edinburghshire, nestling at the foot 
of the north-eastern slope of Corstorphine Hill, 1 
mile W of Craigleith station, and 3^ miles W of Edin- 
burgh. Built probably in the 16th century by one of 
the Adamsons, it was sold in 1659 to John Mein, in 
1670 to John HaU, in 1682 to Walter Pi-ingle, and in 
1698 to John Strachan, who, dying about 1719, be- 
queathed for charitable uses all his propertj* — 334 acres, 
valued now at £1259 per annum. From early in this 
century till 1814 it was the residence of the publisher, 
Archibald Constable (1775-1827), whose son and bio- 
gi'apher, Thomas (1812-81), was bom here, and who in 
1815 was succeeded by the celebrated critic and lawyer, 
Francis Jeffrey (1773-1850). The latter describes it as 
' an old narrow high house, 18 feet wide and 50 long, with 
irregular projections of all sorts, three little staircases, 
turrets, a large roimd tower at one end, and an old 
garden (or rather two, one within the other), stuck close 
on one side of the house, and surrounded with massive 
and aged walls, 15 feet high.' He straightway set 
about the task of reformation ; and during the thirty- 
five summers that he passed at Craigcrook, by extending 
and remodelling the gardens (a prototype of those of 
' Tully-Yeolau ' in Scott's Waverley), and by additions 
to the house in 1835 and earlier, he made it at last a 
lovely and most delightful spot. See Cockburn's Life 
of Lord Jeffrey (2 vols., Edinb. 1852). 

Craigdaimve, a sea inlet on the W side of North 
Knapdale parish, Argyllshii'e, branching from the Sound 
of Jiu'a near Keils Point. 

Craigdam, a hamlet in Tarves parish, Aberdeenshire, 
1\ mile SW of Tarves village. At it are a U. P. church 
(1806 ; 600 sittings) and a girls' public school. 

Craigdarroch, an estate, Avith a mansion, in Glencaim 
parish, Dumfriesshire, 2\ miles W of Moniaive. Its 
owner, Robert Cutlar Fergusson, Esq. (b. 1855 ; sue. 
1859), holds 2264 acres in the shire, valued at £1755 
per annum. Craigdarroch Burn, rising upon the eastern 
slope of Cornharrow Hill at 1500 feet above sea-level, 
close to the boundary with Kirkcudbrightshire, runs 6 
miles east-by-southward to the vicinity of Moniaive, 
where it unites with Dalwhat and Castlefern burns to 
form the river Cairx. — Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Craigdarroch, an estate, with a modern mansion, in 
Contin parish, SE Ross-shue, 4 miles WSW of Strath- 
peffer. The mansion stands amid romantic scenery, 
near the north-eastern shore of Lcvch Achilty. 

Craig-David. See Bervie Brow. 

Craigderg, a ridge of granitic rocks in Inverness parish, 
Inverness-shire, adjacent to the side of Loch Dochfour. 
An ancient watchtower stood upon it, and is sujjposed 
to have been an outpost of Castle-Spiritual. 

Craigdhuloch, a stupendous cliff in the SW comer 
of Glenmuiek parish, Aberdeenshire, adjacent to the 
boundary with Forfarshire. It overhangs the S side of 
the small, dark, sequestered Loch Dhuloch ; soars to 
the height of more than 1000 feet; and is thought by 
some observers to be grander than the famous rocks of 

Craigdow, a loch (If x \h furl.) on the mutual border 
of Kirkoswald and Maybole parishes, W Ayrshire, 3i 
miles SW of Maybole town. 




Craigellachie (Gael, crcag-eagalach, ' rock of alarm '), 
a bold aiul wooded height(1500 feet) on the mutual border 
of Duthil and Alvie parishes, E Inverness-shire, near 
the left bank of the Sjiey, above Aviemore station. It 
gave the clan Grant their slogan or war-cry, ' Stand fast, 
Craigellachie. ' 

Craigellachie, a village in the N of Aberlour parish, 
W Hantl'sliire, lincly seated, 300 feet above sea-level, on 
the left bank of the Spey, which here receives the Fid- 
dich, and here is crossed by a handsome iron bridge, 
with round embattled towers at the angles and a single 
arch of 100 feet span, erected in 1815 at a cost of £8000, 
as also by the viaduct (1857) of the Great North of 
Scotland railway. The junction of the Jlorayshire, 
Keith, and Strathspey sections of that system, it is 12^ 
miles SSE of Elgin, 14| WSW of Keith, 68 XW by W 
of Aberdeen, 33^ NE of Boat of Garten, and 121f N by 
E of Perth ; and has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments, two insurance 
agencies, gas-works, an hotel, an Established church, 
with 116 sittings, and a girls' school, vnth. accommoda- 
tion for 81 children. "Water has been introduced, and 
building actively carried on since the summer of 1880, 
when a new street was sanctioned round the top of the 
lofty quartz crag above the station, on feus given off by 
Lord Fife at £8 per acre. — Ord. Sicr., sh. 85, 1876. 

Craigencat, a hill on the N border of Dunfermline 
parish, Fife, | mile E by S of Loch Glow, and If SSE 
of Cleish village. Rising to an altitude of 921 feet 
above sea-level, it mainly consists of basaltic rock, 
which is quarried for dykes and road-metal, and it 
exhibits very regular basaltic columns with many 
horizontal divisions. 

Craigend, a farm on the N border of Newabbey 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 3J miles NW of Newabbey 
\'illage. A rocking-stone on it, 15 tons in weight, may 
be put in motion by a child. 

Craigend, an estate, with a mansion, in Strathblane 
parish, Stirlingshire, 3^ miles N by W of Milngavie. 
The mansion, Craigend Castle, was built in 1812, and 
is a splendid edifice, standing amid fine grounds ; its 
owner is the ex-diplomatist, the Right Hon. Sir Andrew 
Buchanan, G.C.B., of Dunburgh, Bart. (cr. 1878), who, 
born in 1807, succeeded his father in 1860, and holds 
883 acres in the shire, valued at £948 per annum. 

Craigend, a hamlet and a moor in Campsie parish, 
Stirlingshire. The hamlet lies on Powburn, adjacent to 
the Blane VaUey railwa}', 2 miles E by S of Strathblane 
station. The moor extends from the southern -sdcinity 
of the hamlet to the boundary with Baldernock, and 
attains an altitude of 634 feet above sea-level. 

Craigend, a village in Perth East Church parish, Perth- 
shire, 2 miles S of Perth. At it are a public school and 
a U.P. church (1780 ; 413 sittings). 

Craigend, a mansion in Liberton parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, near Craigmillar Castle, 2J miles SSE of Edin- 
burgh. Built in 1869, it is a large edifice in the Gothic 
style, and has, at the SE corner, a circular tower 60 feet 

Craigendarroch. See Ballatek. 

Craigends, an estate, with an old mansion, in Kil- 
barchan parish, Renfrewshire, on the right bank of the 
Gryfe, 3 miles NNW of Johnstone. Its owner, .John 
Charles Cunninghame, Esq. (b. 1851 ; sue. 1866), holds 
3136 acres in tlie shire, valued at £9985 per annum, in- 
cluding £2508 for minerals. 

Craigengelt, an estate in the SW of St Ninians 
pni-ish, Stirlingshire, W of Loch Coulter, and 5J miles 
WNW of Denny. It includes a considerable mass of 
the Lennox Hills, and contains a circular cairn or 
mound called the Ghost's Knowe, which, 300 feet in cir- 
cumference, is engirt by twelve very large stones. This 
is one only out of several artificial inounils, clothed with 
fine grass, and called the Sunny Hills ; and Craigengelt 
is believed to have been, in olden times, the scene of 
many tragical events. 

Craigengower, a liill in Straiton parish, Ayrshire, 
9 furlongs SE of Straiton village. Rising to a height of 
1160 feet aViove sea-level, it is crowned with a handsome 

monument to Colonel Blair, who fell in the Crimea ; and 
it commands an extensive view. 

Craigenputtoch, a lonely farm at the head of Dun- 
score parish, in Nithsdale, Dumfriesshire, lying, 700 
feet above sea-level, at the SW base of Craigenputtoch 
Moor (1038 feet), 10 miles WSW of Auldgirth station, 
and 15 WNW of Dumfries. From May 1828 to May 
1834 it was the home of Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) 
and his wife, Jane Welsh (1801-66), she having inherited 
it from her father, whose ancestors owned it for many 
long generations, going back, it may be, to great John 
Welsh of Ayr (1570-1623). Here he wrote Sartor Ee- 
sartus, here received two visits from Lord Jeffrey, and 
hence sent Goethe a description of his residence as 'not 
in Dumfries itself, but 15 miles to the NW, among the 
granite hills and the black morasses which stretch west- 
ward through Galloway, almost to the Irish Sea. In 
this wilderness of heath and rock our estate stands forth 
a green oasis, a tract of ploughed, partly enclosed, and 
planted ground, where corn ripens,, and trees afford a 
shade, although surrounded by sea-mews and rough - 
woolled sheep. Here, with no small effort, have we 
built and furnished a neat substantial dwelling ; here, 
in the absence of professional or other office, we live to 
cultivate literature according to our strength, and in 
our own peculiar way.' In 1807, the 3-ear succeeding 
the death of Mrs Carlyle, he bequeathed the estate — 773 
acres, valued at £250 per annum — to Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, to found ten equal competitive 'John Welsh 
bursaries,' five of them classical, five mathematical. — 
Orel. Sicr., sh. 9, 1863. See Carlyle's Reminiscences 
(1881), and his Life by J. A. Froude (1882). 

Craigenscore, a mountain in the N of Glenbucket 
parish, W Aberdeenshire, 21 miles N of the church. It 
has an altitude of 2000 feet above sea-level. 

Craigentinny (Gael, creag-an-teine, ' rock of tire '), an 
estate, with a mansion, in South Leith parish, Mid- 
lothian, lying between Edinburgh and the Firth of 
Forth, 2;^ miles EXE of the city. The property of 
Samuel Christie-ililler, Esq. (b. 'l811 ; sue. 1862), it 
extends over only 652 acres, yet is valued at £5739 per 
annum. This high rental is due to the fact that here 
are the most extensive meadows in Scotland, all of 
which have been under regular sewage irrigation for 
upwards of 35 years. The produce is annually sold to 
cow-keepers at £16 to £28 (in one year £44) an acre, and 
the gi'ass per acre is estimated at from 50 to 70 tons. 
It is cut five times a year ; and two men suffice to keep 
the ditches in order {Traits. Eight, and Ag. Soc, 1877, 
p. 24). 

Craigenveoch, a mansion in Old Luce parish, Wigtown- 
shire, on the N side of Whitefield Loch, 3;^ miles ESE 
of Glenluce. Built in 1876, it is a splendid Scottish 
baronial pile, the seat of Admiral Right Hon. Sir Jn. 
Chs. Dalrymjile Hay, third Bart, since 1798 (b. 1821 ; 
sue. 1861), who, having previously represented Wake- 
field and Stamford, was in 1880 elected member for the 
Wigtown burghs, and who owns 7400 acres in the shire, 
valued at £6601 per annum. 

Craigflower, an estate, with a mansion, in Torryburn 
parish, SW Fife, 3:^ miles E of Culross. It was the i)ro- 
perty of the Right Hon. Sir Jas. Wm. Colvile of Ochil- 
tree (1810-80), Indian jurist and privy councillor, who 
owned 1002 acres in the shire, valued at £2279 per 

Craigfoodie, a hill and a mansion in the N of Dairsi' 
parish, Fife. The hill, culminating 3^ miles NE ot 
Cupar, at 554 feet above sea-level, presents to the SW 
a mural front, partly consisting of columnal basalt. 
The mansion stands on the SE slope of the hill, If mile 
NW of Dairsie station. 

Craigford, a village in St Ninians parish, Stirling- 
shire, distant 1 mile from Bannockburn. 

Craigforth, an estate, with a mansion, in Stirling 
parish, Stirlingshire. Tlie mansion stands on the right 
bank of the river Forth, 2 miles WNW of the town ; 
and, together with the estate, takes name from a bohl 
and wooded crag. It is a seat of Geo. Fred. Wil. 
Callander, Esq. of Akukinglass (b. 1848 ; sue. 1851), 



who holds 601 acres in Stirlingshire, and 51.670 in 
Ai'gyllsliire, valued respectively at £1886 and £5626 per 
auuum. Here lived and died the antiquary, John Cal- 
lander (1710-S9). 

Craig-Gibbon, a summit in a detached section of 
Metliven parish, Perthshire, 3h miles SSW of Dunkeld. 
One of the Lower Grampians, it rises to a height of 1263 
feet above sea-level, and is surmounted by an obelisk. 

Craig-Gowan, a wooded height (1437 feet) in Crathie 
and Braemar jiarish, SAV Aberdeenshire, 9 furlongs S by 
E of Balmoral. On it are Prince Albert's Cairn (1863), 
and others, the first of which was reared on 11 Oct. 1852, 
by the Queen, the Prince Consort, and all the royal 
children, according to age. See Balmoral and p. 101 
of the Queen's Journal (ed. 1877). 

Craighall, a village in the NW of Coylton parish, 
Ayrshire, on the left bank of the river Ayr, and 4 miles 
E b)- N of AjT town. 

Craighall, an estate, with a ruined, castellated man- 
sion, in Ceres parish, Fife. The ruined mansion stands 
on the N side of a deep wooded den, traversed by a 
bm-n, 3 J miles SE of Cupar ; and, buUt by Sir Thomas 
Hope, King's Advocate to Charles I., still presents a 
grand appearance. See Pinkie. 

Craighall, an estate, with a mansion, in Rattray 
parish, Perthshire, 3 miles N of Blairgowrie. * A modern- 
ised ancient edifice, on a pentnsulated rock, rising 214 
feet sheer from the Ericht, and formerly defended on 
the land side by a fosse and two towers,' the mansion 
■was visited by Scott in the summer of 1793, and was one 
of the prototypes of ' Tidly-Veolan' in Wavcrley. The 
Rattrays of Craighall-Rattray are said to date back to 
the reign of Malcolm Ceannmor (1057-93) ; and the 
present proprietor, Lieut. -Gen. Clerk Rattray, C.B. 
(b, 1832 ; sue. 1851), holds 3256 acres in the shire, 
valued at £2928 per annum. 

Craighall, New, a collier village on the mutual border 
of Liberton and Inveresk parishes, Edinburghshire, near 
New Hailes station on the North British, and 2 miles 
WSW of Musselburgh. At it are an Established chapel 
of ease (1878), built, like the houses, of brick, and the 
Benhar Coal Co. 's school, which, with accommodation 
for 403 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 
240, and a gi-aut of £166, 6s. Pop. (1861) 336, (1881) 

Craighall, Old, a collier village, with a school, in 
Inveresk parish, Edinburghshu'e, If mile SSW of 

Craighead. See Cajipsie. 

Craighead, a village in Redgorton parish, Perthshire, 
on the left bank of the Almond, 1 mile N by W of 
Alraondbank station. 

Craighead, an estate, with a mansion, in Blantyre 
parish, Lanarkshire, on the left bank of the Clyde, 1 
mile S of Bothwell village. 

Craighead, a place where Caaf Water forms a fine 
cascade in a narrow wooded dell, on the mutual boun- 
dary of Dairy and Kilwinning parishes, Ayrshire. 

Craiffheads, a village connected with Barrhead town, 
in Renfrewshire. 

Craighirst, one of the Kilpatrick Hills in Old Kil- 
pati-ick parish, Dumbartonshire, 2\ miles N of Dun- 
tocher. It has an altitude of 1074 feet above sea- 

Craighlaw, an estate, with a handsome modern man- 
sion, engirt by w-ell-wooded policies, in Kirkcowan 
parish, Wigtownshire, IJ mile W by N of Kirkcowan 
village. Its owner, Malcolm Fleming Hamilton, Esq. 
(b. 1869 ; sue. 1876), holds 6300 acres in the shire, 
valued at £2577 per annum. 

Craighom. See Alva, Stirlingshire. 

Craig House, a fine old, many-gabled Scottish man- 
sion ill St Cutlibcrts parish, Midlothian, on the north- 
eastern slope of wooded Craiglockhart Hill, 2j miles 
SW of Edinburgh. Haunted ('tis said) by the ghost of 
one Jacky Gordon, it belonged to Sir William Dick, 
Knight, of Braid, who, from being Lord Provost of Edin- 
burgh, and possessor of £226,000, equal to £2,000,000 
of our present money, died in the King's Bench a pauper 

in 1655. Lons: after, it was the residence of the his- 
torian, John Hill Burton (1809-81). 

Craigie, a village and a parish in Kyle district, Ajrr- 
shire. The village stands 4 miles S of Kilmarnock, 
under which it has a post ofiice. 

The parish, incluiling part of the ancient parish of 
Barnweill, was itself united to Riccarton till 1647. 
It is bounded N by Riccarton, NE by Galston, E bv 
INlauchline, SE by Tarbolton, SW by Monkton, anil 
NW by Symington. Rudely resembling a triangle, 
with south-westward apex, it has an utmost length from 
NE to SW of 5| miles, an utmost breadth of 4i 
miles, and an area of 6579J acres, of which 3 are 
water. Cessxock Water winds 1 mile along the Galston 
border ; but the drainage is mostly carried southward or 
south-westward by the Water of Fail and the Pow 
Burn. The surface is undulating, attaining 507 feet 
above sea-level near Harelaw in the NW, and 458 near 
Pisgah in the S, heights that command a brilliant 
panoramic view, away to Ben Lomond, Jura, and the 
Irish coast. Coal, both bituminous and anthracitic, 
has here been mined in several places and at different 
times, though never with much success ; whilst the work- 
ing of limestone of the finest quality has lately been aban- 
doned, chiefly on account of the distance from railway. 
Great attention is paid to dairy -farming, more than half of 
the entire area being in pasture, whilst about 170 acres are 
under wood. William Roxburgh (1759-1815), physician 
and botanist, was born at Underwood in this parish. 
Its chief antiquities are artificial mounds, which either 
were seats of justice or military encampments, and the 
ruins of Craigie Castle, \^ mile WSW of the church. A 
very ancient structure, this was the seat, first of the 
Lindsays, and then of the Wallaces of Craigie. (See 
LocHRTAN House, Wigtownshire.) Mansions are 
Cairnhill, Barnweill, and Underwood. Craigie is in the 
presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayi' ; the 
living is worth £300. The church, erected in 1776, 
stands at the village, as also does a public school, which, 
with accommodation for 126 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 40, and a grant of £30, 14s. 
Valuation (1882) £10,724, 5s. 2d. Pop. (1801) 786, 
(1831) 824, (1861) 730, (1871) 618, (1881) 590.— Ort^. 
Hxir., sh. 22, 1865. 

Craigie, an estate, with a mansion, in St Quivox 
parish, Ayrshire, on the right bank of the river Ayr, and 
1^ mile E by S of Ajt town. Wallacetown lies on the 
estate, whose owner, Rich. Fred. Fothringham Camp- 
bell, Esq. (b. 1831 ; sue. 1860), holds 2099 acres in the 
shire, valued at £3770 per annum. 

Craigie, an estate, with a mansion, in Dundee parish, 
Forfarshire, near the Fii-th of Tay, 2 miles E by N of 
Dundee town. Its owner, David Chs. Guthrie, Esq. (b. 
1861 ; sue. 1873), holds 309 acres in the shire, valued 
at £979 per annum. 

Craigie. See Perth and Belhelvie. 

Craigie, a village in Caputh parish, Perthshire, 4J 
miles WSW of BlairgowTie, under w-hich it has a post 

Craigie or Creagach, Loch. See Borgie. 

Craigiebams. See Duxkeld. 

Craigiebuckler. See Banchory-Devenick, 

Craigiebum, an estate, with a mansion, in JIoflFat 
parish, Dumfriesshire, on the right bank of Jloffat 
Water, 2g mdes E of Mott'at town. Craigicljurn Wood 
was a favourite haunt of the poet Burns about 1789, the 
birthplace of Jean Lorimer, his 'Chloris.' 

Craigiehall, an estate, with a mansion, in the SE of 
Dalmeny parish, Linlithgowshire, on the left bank of 
the Almond, 7 furlongs W of Cramond Bridge, and 3J 
miles W by S of Davidson's Mains. Its owner, James 
Charles Hope Vere (b. 1858 ; sue. 1872), holds 2217 acres 
in Mid and West Lothian, valued at £5433 per annum. 
(See also Blackwood, Lanarkshire. ) The park around 
the mansion is finely wooded ; and the Almond, where 
skirting it, forms a picturesque cascade beneath a rustic 
bridge. See Dalmexy. 

Craigielands, a neat modern village in Kirkpatrick- 
Juxta parish, Dumfriesshire, near Beattock station, and 



2i miles SSW of Jlottat, under which it has a post 
otfice. Craigiclands House, a modem mansion, is in its 
southern vicinity. 

Craigievar (Gael, creagach-bharr, ' the rocky point '), 
a hamlet and an estate, with a mansion, in Luniphanan 
and Leochel-Cushnie parishes, central Aberdeenshire, 
35 and 4g miles NNW of Lumphauan station, this 
heing 27 miles W by S of Aberdeen, under which there 
is a post ofiice of Craigievar. The liamlet has a public 
school ; and fairs for cattle, sheep, and horses are held 
at it on the Friday before the third Wednesday of April, 
the Friday before 26 Jlay (or 26th, if Friday), the 
Thursday after the last Tuesday of June 0. s., the day 
of July after St Sairs, the Thursday after the second 
Tuesday of August 0. s., and the Friday after the first 
Tuesday of September 0. s. The estate belonged to the 
Jiortimcrs from 1457 and earlier down to 1610, when it 
was purchased by "William Forbes of Menie (1566-1627), 
a cadet of the Forbeses of Corse, who, ' by his diligent 
merchandising in Denmark and other parts, had become 
extraordinary rich.' His son and namesake (1593- 
1648), a zealous jCovenanter, and the breaker up of the 
freebooter Gilderoy's band, was created a baronet in 
1630 ; his sixth descendant, the present and eighth 
baronet, Sir William Forbes (b. 1836 ; sue. 1846), holds 
9347 acres in the shire, valued at £8539 per annum. 
The Mortimers are said to have commenced the castle, 
but to have been stayed by lack of funds ; by William 
Forbes it was finished in 1626. Built of granite, a tall, 
narro-n- clustered tower, seven stories high, it is in the 
best style of Flemish castellated architecture, one of the 
most perfect specimens extant, and as such is figured in 
five of Billings' i)lates — three showing the exterior ^vith 
its corner tuiTcts, corbelling, and crow-stepped gables ; 
one, the banqueting hall, with mighty fireplace, oaken 
furnishings, and ' curiously plaistered ' ceiling and 
chimney-iiiece ; and the fifth, a bedroom, not so unlike 
Queen Mary's at Holyrood. — Orel. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 
See vol. i. of Billings' Baronial Antiquities (1845). 

Craiglea, a hill (1737 feet), with a slate quarry, in 
Fowlis- Wester parish, Pertlisliire, on the Logiealmond 
estate, 6| miles NW of Methven Junction. The slate 
vein is of excellent quality; yields two kinds of slates, 
the one dark blue, the other of a sea-green hue ; and has 
long been worked to the extent of above 1,200,000 slates 
a year. 

Craigleith, an islet of North Berwick parish, Had- 
dingtonshire, 1 mile N of North Berwick town. Measur- 
ing 14 by 1 furlong, it rises to a height of 80 feet ; 
consists of greenstone, bare and barren ; and is inhabited 
only by rabbits, jackdaws, and sea-fowl. In 1814 Sir 
Hew Dalrymple bought it from the Town Council for 

Craigleith, an extensive sandstone quarry near the 
W border of St Cuthberts parish, Edinburghshire, J 
mile E of Blackball village, and 2 miles W bj' N of 
Edinburgh ; close to it is Craigleith station on the Leith 
branch of the Caledonian. Belonging to the upper 
group of the Calciferous Sandstone scries, it i)rcsent3 a 
deep excavation 12 acres in area, and longsu]i)>]ied most 
of the stone with which the New Town of Edinburgh 
was built, its original rental of only £50 rising to 
£5500 during the great building ))criod in Edinburgh, 
from 1820 till 1S2G. The Craigleith stone is of two 
kinds — the one of a fine cream colour, called liver rock ; 
the other of a greyish white, called feak rock. Three 
trunks of great fossil coniferous trees have been here 

Craigleoch, a cliff on the western verge of Rattray 
parisli, rerthshire, at a very romantic gorge in the 
chaiiml of tlie river Ericht, a little al)ovc Craigjiall. 

Craiglockhart, an ancient baronial fortalice in Lanark 
ptirish, Lanarkshire, on the right bank of Mouse Water, 
opposite Jerviswood. It jirobably was erected by some 
remote ancestor of the Lockliarts of Lee ; but it figures 
very slightly in either records or tradition ; and it now 
is a ruined, lofty, pictures(|Ue tower. 

Craiglockhart, a wooiled basaltic hill in Colinton 
parish, Jlidlothian, I mile ESE of Slateford, and 2.J 


miles SW by W of Edinburgh. Attaining a height of 
550 feet above sea-level, it commands a wide westward 
view, awaj^ to the frontier Grampians ; at its base is a 
skating-pond, formed in 1873 by Mr Cox of the Edin- 
burgh Gymnasium. It got its name from the neigh- 
bouring square tower or keep, built by an ancestor of 
the Lockliarts of Lee about the middle of the 13th 
century, and now rejiresented by only the basement 
arched story ; and in turn it has given name to a man- 
sion, a poorhouse, an Established mission church, and 
a hydropathic establishment, in its vicinity. The 
mansion, built about 1823, stands between the hill and 
Slateford, on the verge of a wooded bank, sloping down 
to the Water of Leith. The Edinburgh Poorhouse, at 
the back or SE of the hill, was built in 1869, and, as 
enlarged in 1878, has accommodation for 827 inmates. 
The church, an iron one, opened in 1880, is near the old 
tower, as this again is near the hydropathic establish- 
ment, which occupies a commanding site to the SW of the 
hill, and which, designed by Alessrs Peddie & Kinnear, 
was erected during 1878-80, being a plain but dignified 
edifice, rustic Italian in style, with central tower, slightly 
projecting wings, and accommodation for 200 visitors. 

Craigluscar, a hill (744 feet) in Dimfennline parish, 
Fife, 3 miles NW of Dunfermline town. A limestone 
quarry near its summit exhibits a bed of trap interjposed 
between two of limestone. 

Craiglush, a loch (2 x ^ mile) in Caputh parish, E 
Perthshire, traversed by Lunan 13urn, which runs from 
it 1 furlong south-south-eastward to the beautiful Loch 
of Lows. 

Craigmaddie, an estate in Baldernock and Strathblane 
parishes, Stirlingshire, 2 miles NE of Milngavie. It 
contains a stately modern mansion ; a fragmentary ruin 
of the moated tower of the Galbraiths, dating from 1238 
or earlier ; a group of cairns, alleged to mark the scene 
of a battle between the Danes and the Picts ; that 
singular cromlech known as the Auld Wives' Lift ; a 
lake of about 10 acres ; a fine expanse of park and wood ; 
and an extensive moor, rising to an altitude of 633 feet, 
and going into junction with Craigend Aloor. 

Craigmark, a mining village in Dalmellington parish, 
Ayrshire, 1 j mile NNW of Dalmellington town. Pop. 
(1861) 543, (1871) 616, (1881) 383. 

Craigmarloch, a small village on the mutual border 
of Kilsyth parish, Stirlingshire, and Cumbernauld 
parish , Dumbartonshii'e. 

Craigmile, an' estate, with a mansion, in Kincardine 
O'Neil parish, S Aberdeenshire, 1^ mile E of Torphins 

Craigmill, a small village in the Clackmannanshire 
section of Logic parish, at the southern base of Abbey 
Craig. It formerly was notorious for the smuggling of 

Craigmill. See Rattuay. 

Craigmillar Castle, a grand old ruin in Liberton 
parish, Midlothian, 3 miles SE of I'^dinburgh. Crown- 
ing the brow of a gentle eminence, it commands from its 
topmost roof a magnificent view of Arthur's Seat, the S 
side of the city, the firth and the shores of Fife, Aber- 
lady Bay, and the Pentlands ; and itself consists of a 
lofty square keep or tower, an inner ivy-clad court, and 
a quadrangular embattled wall, 30 feet high, with 
circular corner towers — the whole engirt by an outer 
rampart or else, in places, by a moat. The ' new part,' 
to the W, was added so late as 1661 ; the keep must be 
older than 1427 (the earliest date preserved) ; but much 
of the building, as it stands to-day, was reared most 
likely after its burning by Hertford in 1544. ' On the 
boundary wall,' says Sir Walter Scott, 'may be seen 
the arms of Cockburn of Ormiston, C'ongalton of Con- 
galton, ]\loul)ray of Barnbouglc, and Otterl)urn of Red- 
ford, allies of the Prestonsof Craigmillar ; whilst in one 
corner of the outer court, over a ])ortal arch, are the 
arms of the family, three unicorns' heads couped, with 
a cheese-i>ress and barrel or tun, a wretched rebus to 
express their name ' — this sculptured fragment bearing 
date 1510. Within are the noisome diniu'fons, in whose 
partition wall a skeleton was found bricked up (lil3); 


the kitchen, with mighty oven ; Queen Mary's bower, 
■\rith two or three dubious relics ; her bedchamber, 
measuring but 7 by 5 feet, yet having two \vindows and 
a fireplace ; and the great banqueting hall, 36 feet long, 
and 22 feet broad, with walls 10 feet in thickness, 
chimney 11 feet wide, a barrel-vaulted roof, and deep 
embrasured windows, on the stone seat of one of which 
may be faintly traced a diagram of the old game of the 
' Walls of Troy. ' The name of this place occurs pretty 
early in the national records, in a charter of mortifica- 
tion granted in 1212 by William, son of Henry de 
Craigmillar, whereby he gives, ' in pure and perpetual 
alms,' to the church and monastery of Dunfermline, a 
certain toft of land in Craigmillar, in the southern part 
leading from the town of Xidreif to the church of 
Liberton, which Henry de Edmonton holds of him. 
Later, Craigmillar belonged to one John de Capella, and 
from him it was purchased in 1374 by Sir Simon 
Preston, whose descendants retained it for nearly three 
centuries, and, during that pei'iod held the highest 
offices in the magistracy of EtUnburgh. In 1478 John, 
Earl of ilar, 'ane fair and lustie man,' was here im- 
prisoned b}' James III. , his brother, and only removed 
to meet his doom by treacherous lancet in the Canon- 
gate ; and James V., with Gawin Douglas, his tutor, 
was sent here during his minority, when the pest was 
raging in Edinburgh. Queen Marj^, after her return 
in 1561, made Craigmillar so frequent a residence, 
that a neighboui'ing hamlet, where her French retinue 
lodged, retains to this day the name of Little France ; 
in December 1566 we read of her lying here sick, 
and ever repeating these words, * I could ■wish to be 
dead. ' Here, too, in the same month, her divorce from 
Darnley was mooted by Both well, Murray, Le thing- 
ton, Argyll, and Huntly, in the so-called ' Conference 
of Craigmillar,' and propounded to Mary herself; and 
to Craigmillar it was at fii'st proposed to have Darnley 
conveyed, instead of to Kirk of Field. Mary's son, 
James VI. , is said to have planned at Craigmillar his 
matrimonial excursion to Denmark; and Mary's de- 
scendant. Queen Victoria, in 1842 drove by its ruins, 
which have been sketched and Avi'itten of by 'fat, fodgel' 
Grose, Sir Walter Scott, Thomson of Duddingston, Sir 
Thomas Dick Lauder, Hill Burton, and many others. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. See vol. i. of Billings' 5aro«iaZ 
Antiquities (ISio), a.n.^ Historical Sketches of Craigmillar 
Castle (Edinb. 1875). 

Craigmore, a precipitous hill, 1271 feet high, in Aber- 
foyle parish, Perthshire, flanking the Laggan's northern 
bank, and culminating 1 mile XW of Aberfoyle hamlet. 

Craigmore. See Bex-ax-Armuinn. 

CTaig-na-Ban, a roimded, granitic, fir-clad hiU (1736 
feet) in Crathie and Braemar parish, SW Aberdeenshire, 
1| miie SE of Abergeldie. On it, to save his own life, 
a wizard is said to have hunted do^^m a -n-itch and handed 
her over to justice ; and on it Prince Frederick William 
of Prussia gave the piece of white heather (emblem of 
good luck) to the Princess Royal on the day of their 
betrothal, 29 Sept. 1855. 

Craig-na-Faoilinn, a stupendous crag, 934 feet high, 
in Durness parish, Sutherland, overhanging the public 
road at the head of Loch Eriboll, near the mouth of 
Strath Beg. 

Craignafeile, a stack or rocky tower-like islet off the 
NE coast of the Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire, near a 
cascade falling to the sea, in the vicinity of Loch Staffin. 
It presents some resemblance to a statue in Highland 
costume ; hence the name crcag-na-fheilidh, ' the rock of 
the kilt.' 

Craignaiolar or Creag na h-Iolaire (Gael, 'eagle's 
crag'), a rocky hill (1750 feet) projecting from a moun- 
tain range, in Duthil parish, Elginshire, 3:^ miles NNW 
of the parish church. It has several fissures, one of 
which, near the western extremity, cuts it sharply from 
top to bottom. See also Bex-ax-Armuinx. 

Craignair. See Buittle. 

Craigneil, an ancient fortalice in Colmonell parish, 
SW Ayrshire, near the left bank of the Stincliar, 7 fur- 
longs S of Colmonell village. Built in the 13th century, 


it was a hiding-place of Robert Bruce ; was afterwards 
a feudal prison and place of execution ; and is now a 
picturesque ruin, crowning a rock}- mount, and com- 
manding a view of the Stinchar's valley from Penmore 
to Knockdolian. 

Craignethan, a ruined castle or, rather, fortified 
manor-house, in Lesmahagow parish, Lanarkshire, ^ 
mile ENE of Tillietudlem station on the Lesmahagow 
branch of the Caledonian, and 5i miles WXW of Lanark- 
It stands on the left bank of the river Xethan, 1|- mile 
above its influx near Crossford village to the Clyde ; and 
is said to have been rebuilt by the celebrated architect. 
Sir James Hamilton of Fynnart, commonly kno^vn as 
the Bastard of Arran. He was beheaded in 1540, but 
three years later the family estates were restored to his 
son. Sir James Hamilton of Evandale. Popularly iden- 
fied with the ' Tillietudlem ' of Old Mortality, Craig- 
nethan, to quote James Hunnewell's Lands of Scott 
(1871), 'is a mere shell and wreck of its former self; 
yet, like most ruined castles, it is not wanting in 
pictm-esqueness and romance. It is approached by a 
road like that described in the novel — jsteep, winding, 
and stony, and leading through a ford of the Nethan. 
This is a shallow stream, flowing over a rocky bed, and 
bending around a point that rises, with grey crags and 
steep, gi'ass or tree clad banks, to a commanding eleva- 
tion, on which is the castle, built of sandstone, now 
faded and weather-worn. The extent of Craignethan 
once was great ; even now there is a large garden -nithin 
its walls. The keep, at the outer or river side, is very 
ruinous ; and indeed the whole structure is much dila- 
pidated, large quantities of materials having been taken 
from it for the construction of ignoble buildings. But 
there can still be found in it many picturesque combina- 
tions of wall and tower, of stone-arched ceiling, or of 
broken vaulting, streaming with graceful ivy-sprays, or 
of shattered battlements, garlanded with shrubbery. 
A story told of many old residences is told of this : 
Queen Mary is said to have occupied, dm'ing several 
days before the battle of Langside, a large hall, yet 
partly existing, and called the Queen's Room. Craig- 
nethan has been an important fortress, held by Hamil- 
tons, by Haj's, and by Douglases. The scenery around 
it has some degree of grandeur as well as beauty ; and 
Sir Walter, on his visit in 1799, was so much pleased 
with the place, that the proprietor oflered him use for 
life of a small house within the walls. I was told that 
the novel is commemorated here by quite a large periodi- 
cal festivity, held bv the families of farmers and others, 
and called the Tillietudlem Ball. '— C/rcZ. Sur., sh. 23, 
1865. See also J. B. Greenshield's Annals of the Parish 
of Lesmahagoiu (Edinb. 1864). 

Craigneuk, a mining Aillage in Dalziel parish, Lanark- 
shire, If mile WXW of Wishaw, and If ESE of 
Motherwell. Forming since 1874 part of Wishaw police 
burgh, it has a Primitive Methodist chapel, a small 
Roman Catholic school, and a pubKc school. Pop. 
(1S61) 716, (1871) 1377, (1881) 2330. 

Craignish, a South Argyll parish on the W coast of 
Argyllshire, adjoining the steamboat route from Glas- 
gow, via the Crinan Canal, to Oban, and containing the 
hartdet of Ardfern, -nnth a post oflice under Lochgilp- 
head, 18 miles to the SE. It anciently was called 
indiscriminately Kilmorie and Craignish, and it retains 
a burial-ground and a ruined chapel, still bearing the 
name of Kilmliori. Its south-south-western half is pen- 
insidar, and its entire outline approaches that of a 
scalene triangle, with south-south-westward vertex. Its 
peninsula is bounded E by Loch Craignish and W by 
the Atlantic Ocean ; on its other sides the parish bor- 
ders on Kilninver, Kilchrenan, and Kilmartin. Its 
greatest length, from NXE to SSW, is 11 miles, and 
its average breadth is about 2 miles. The extent of 
coast is fully 16 miles. Loch Craignish, o]iening from 
the lower part of tlie NE side of Loch Crinan, pene- 
trates 6 miles to the XNE, and diminishes in width from 
3 miles at the mouth to 7 furlongs near the head, where 
it forms a commodious harbour, with good anchorage. 
Craitruish Point Hanks the W side of the loch's mouth, 
^ 297 


and terminates the parish's peninsula ; and both that 
point and the small neighbouring island of Garbhreisa 
are faced A\-ith cliffs. A sti-ait, called Dorusmore or the 
Great Door, between Craignish Point and Garbhreisa, is 
swept by a rapid tidal current, but has a deep channel, 
and is usually traversed by the steamers from Port Crinan 
to Oban. Abreast of the mainland, chiefly in the S and 
within Loch Craignish, are upwards of twenty islands 
and numerous islets and rocks, serried round with ro- 
mantic cliffs. The peninsula commences, in the south- 
south-western extremity, in a near point ; extends 
to a length of about 6 miles ; widens gradually to 2J 
miles ; swells, on the eastern side, into numerous green 
eminences of 300 feet and less in elevation ; has, along 
Loch Craignish shore, a narrow strip of land ; and is 
cut there into numerous little headlands and winding 
baylets. A flat tract, less than J mile broad, and very 
slightly elevated above the sea ; extends from the 
western shore across the head of the peninsula to a 
rivulet in the E, running along the boundary with 
Kilmartin. The district N of that tract is partly a 
section of the valley of Barbreck, extending upward 
from the head of Loch Craignish, and mainly a rugged, 
heathy, hilly region, attaining an extreme altitude of 
700 feet above sea-level, and commanding, from its 
higher points, extensive and diversified views. There 
are twelve lakes, many rills, and numerous perennial 
springs. The prevailing rock is claj^ slate. The soil of 
the arable grounds is principally a loamy mould, less 
fertile than it looks to be. Much good land, or land 
which might be profitably reclaimed, lies waste. Re- 
mains of a large, strong, mediaeval fortalice are near the 
north-western boundary ; and vestiges of rude forts, 
supposed to be Scandinavian, are in eleven places. 
Craignish Castle, standing on the peninsula, 2^ miles 
from the point, includes a strong old fortalice, which 
withstood a six weeks' siege by Colkitto, but is mostly 
a good modern mansion, rebuilt about 1832 ; its owner, 
Fred. Chs. Trench-Gascoigne (b. 1814), holds 5591 acres 
in the shii-e, valued at £1013 per annum. Other man- 
sions are Bakbukck and Dail ; and the property is 
divided among 6 landowners, 3 holding each an annual 
value of £r00 and upwards, 2 of between £100 and 
£500, and 1 of from £50 to £100. Craignish is in the 
presbytery of Inverary and synod of Argyll ; the living 
is worth £215. The church, 8 miles NW of Kilmartin, 
was erected in 1826, is a neat edifice, and contains 500 
sittings. There is also a Free Churcb preaching station. 
Craignish public and Barbreck girls' schools, with re- 
spective accommodation for 85 and 41 children, had 
(1880) an average attendance of 35 and 33, and gi-ants 
of £43, 10s. 6d. and £41, 4s. Valuation (1882) £3889, 
12s. Id. Pop. (1801) 904, (1831) 892, (1861) 618, (1871) 
481, (1881)451. 

Craignook. See Craigneuk. 

Craignure, a hamlet in Torosay parish. Mull island, 
Argyllshire, on a small bay of its own name, at the SE 
end of the Sound of Mull, 2\ miles NW of Achnacraig. 
It has an inn, a post-office under Oban, and a steamboat 

Craigo, a village, with a public school, in Logiepert 
parish, Forfarshire, on the North Esk's right bank, with 
a station on the Aberdeen section of the Caledonian, 3^ 
miles NNW of Dubton Junction, and 6^ NNW of 
Jlontrose. Craigo House, Ih mile S by E of Craigo 
station, is the property of Thos. Macpherson-Grant, 
Esq., W.S. (b. 1815; sue. his cousin, Thos. Carnegy, 
Esq., 1856), who holds 4713 acres in the .shire, valued at 
£7082 per annum. Pop. of village (1861) 359, (1871) 
376, (1881) 124, a decrease due to the stoppage of a flax 
.spinning-mill and a bleachfield. See Logikpkut. 

Craigoch, a ])urn in Portpatrick parish, Wigtownshire, 
running 4 miles west-south-westward to the North Chan- 
nel at Dunskcy Castle, 5 furlongs SSE of Portpatrick 
town. It KUii]ilios a small artificial lake, stocked with 
trout, in the vicinity of Dunskey House. 

Craigowl. See Glammi.s. 

Craigphadrick, a wa«ded hill in Inverness parish, 
Inverne-sshire, between Beauly Firth and the valley of 


the Ness, If mile W of Inverness tovra. Terminating th 3 
north-western hill-flank of the Great Glen of Scotland, 
it rises to an altitude of 430 feet above sea-level ; and 
its rocky tabular summit is crowned with a double- 
walled, rectangular vitrified fort, 240 feet long and 90 
wide, which commands an extensive view. The palace 
of King Brude, near the river Ness, which Columba 
visited in 565, was by Dr Reeves identified vdih Craig- 
phadrick ; but Skene observes that ' it seems unlikely 
that in the 6th century a royal i)alace should have been 
in a vitrified fort, on the top of a roclcy hill nearly 500 
feet high, and it is certainly inconsistent with Adamnan's 
narrative that the vSaint .should have had to ascend such 
an eminence to reach it' {Cellic Scotland, ii. 106, note, 

Craigrie, a village in the parish and 5 furlongs WSW 
of the town of Clackmannan. 

Craig Rossie, a green hill on the mutual border of 
Auchterarder and Dunning parishes, Perthshire, 2^ miles 
E by S of Auchterarder town. It is one of the most 
conspicuous of the Ochils, rising to an altitude of 1250 
feet above sea-level. 

Craigrostan. See Craigrotston. 

Craigrothie, a village, -n-ith a public school, in Ceres 
parish, Fife, IJ mile WSW of Ceres town. It is a 
burgh of barony, governed by a bailie and councillors. 
Pop. (1861) 308, (1881) 192. 

Craigrownie, a quoad sacra parish in Roseneath 
parish, Dumbartonshire, comprising the police burgh of 
Cove and Kilcreggan. It is in the presbytery of Dum- 
barton and sjniod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the stipend is 
£120. Its church stands at the E side of the entrance 
to Long Loch, near Barons Point ; in its vicinity is 
Craigro\vnie Castle. Pop. (1871) 1103, (1881) 1136. 
See Cove and Kilcreggan. 

Craigroy, an eminence in the W centre of Ross-shire, 
5 miles ESE of the head of Loch Maree. 

Craigroyston or Rob Roy's Cave, a cavern in Buchanan 
parish, Stirlingshire, at the E side of Loch Lomond, 7 
furlongs N by W of Inversnaid. It occurs, within a steep 
rugged rock, a little above the water's edge ; is wild and 
deep ; and has a narrow entrance, partly concealed by 
fallen blocks. Robert Bruce spent a night in it after 
the battle of Dalrj' ; and Rob Roy frequented it as a 
place of consultation with his subalterns for planning 
his raids. 

Craigs, a hamlet in Liberton parish, Edinburghshire, 
5 furlfyigs NE of Liberton village. 

Craigs. See Duntocher. 

Craigs, a mansion in the parish and 2 mUes ESE of 
the town of Dumfries. 

Craigs, Stirlingshire. See Rum ford. 

Craigskean, an old baronial fortalice, now reduced to 
a ruinous frngment, in Maybole parish, Ayrshire. 

Craigs of Blebo. See Blebo Craigs. 

Craigs of Coyle. See Coyltox. 

Craigs of Ness, a rocky gorge on the mutual border 
of Straiton and Dalmellington parishes, Ayrshire, in the 
course of the river Doon, immediately below its efflux 
from Loch Doon. Cliffs on each side, 230 feet high, are 
richly clothed with shrubs and trees, and form so close 
a gorge as to leave a width of not more than 4 or 5 
yards for the fretting current of the river. 

CraigspajTOW, a hilly section of Newburgh parish, 
Fife, projecting southward from the main body of the 
parish, and rising to an altitude of about 600 feet above 

Craigston. See Barra. 

Craigston Castle, a mansion in King-Edward parish, 
NW Al)crdeenshire, 4^ miles NNE of Turriff. Founded 
in 1004-7 by John Urquhart, Tutor of Cromarty, it con- 
sisted originally of a central tower and tAvo projecting 
wings, but was so altered by connecting archwork as to 
be made quadrangular, and is now an interesting edifice, 
with beautiful grounds and plantations ; among its por- 
traits are three by Jameson and four of the dethroned 
Stuarts. The present owner, Francis Edward Romulus 
Polhud-Uniuhart (b- 1S48 ; sue. 1871), holds 3998 acres 
in the shire, valued at £2856 per annum. 



Craigthornhill, an estate, with a mansion, in Glas- 
ford parish, Lanarksliire, 5 miles S by E of Hamilton. 

Craigton. See Peteeculter. 

Craigton, a village in IMonikie parish, Forfarshire, 5 
miles "SVNW of Carnoustie, under which it has a post 

Craigton, an estate, with an old mansion and a bleach- 
iield, in the Dumbartonshire section of New Kilpatiick 
parish. The mansion stands near the eastern base of 
the Kilpatrick Hills, 3J miles NE of Duntocher ; is a 
large edifice of 1635 ; and has been converted into 
domiciles for the operatives of the bleaclifield. The 
bleachfield lies on Craigton Burn, a rivulet rising 
on the Kilpatrick Hills, and running 3 J miles south- 
eastward to the Allander ; and contains all appliances 
for the best treatment of yarns. A public school 
adjoins it. 

Craigton, a village in Airlie parish, "W Forfarshire, 4 
miles S\V by W of Kirriemuir. See Airlie. 

Craigton, an estate, with a mansion, in Abercoru 
parish, Linlithgowshire, 2 miles NW of Winchburgh 

CraiguUian, a loch in Strathldane parish, SW Stir- 
lingshire, If mile WSW of Strathblane village. "With 
an utmost length and breadth of 3| and 1 J fui'longs, it 
lies 380 feet above sea-level, on a j^lateau that terminates 
in an imposing range of basaltic columns, popularly 
called the Pillar Craig. 

Craig Vinean, a long, wild, wooded ridge of hill in 
Little Dunkeld parish, Perthshire, between the con- 
fluent Tay and Bran, culminating 1§ mile W of Inver 
village, at 1247 feet above sea-leveL Diversified all 
over with rocky protuberances, sharp undidations, and 
deep hollows, it both contains charming close views 
within its ovm recesses, and commands wide prospects 
from its vantage-grounds ; and it forms a romantic 
feature in the envii'ons of Dunkeld. 

Craigwood, a pyramidal hill (558 feet), with a terrace 
around it, in Dunkeld parish, Perthshire, a little to the 
E of Dunkeld town. It commands a very fine view of 
Dunkeld, and of the mountain-passes diverging thence. 

Crail, a seaport town and a parish of the East Neuk 
of Fife. A royal and parliamentary burgh, the town is 
picturesquely situated in a gullj!", beyond which the red- 
roofed houses rise again. It is 2-| miles WSW of Fife 
Ness, 10 SE of St Andrews, and 4^ NE of Anstruther 
station, this being 38f miles NE of Edinburgh ; and on 
the Anstruther and St Andrews railway, now (1882) in 
course of construction, it is to have a station of its own. 
It dates from remote times, figuring so far back as the 
first half of the 9th century as a seat of commerce with 
the Netherlands, an important fishing and fish-curing 
station. And still it retains an old-woiid character ; still 
down towards the sea rise massive, antique dwelling- 
houses ; and though the gates are gone, the name of 
' 2)orts ' preserves their memory. A royal castle or 
palace, the occasional residence of David I. (1124-53), 
surmounted the low cliff a little E of the harbour, but, 
excepting the merest fragment of a wall, has wholly dis- 
appeared. So old, however, is the parish church, that 
many have fancied the ' sair Sanct ' himself may have 
prayed ^^ithin its walls — a fancy forbidden by the style 
(Second Pointed) of its architecture. As repaired in 
1828, it contains 900 sittings, and consists of an aisled 
nave, 80 feet long ; a chancel, reduced from 55 to 22§ 
feet ; and a western tower, with stunted octagonal 
spire. The SW porch has been destroyed, but the 
dedication cross is yet decipherable on the walls, into 
which has been built a far more ancient cross, sculp- 
tured with animals and other emblems. Till 1517 
this church of St Macrubha was held by Haddington 
Cistercian nunnery, whose prioress, with Sir William 
ilyreton, then made it collegiate, for a provost, ten pre- 
bendaries, a sacrist, and choristers. On 9 June 1559, 
John Knox, attended by a 'rascal multitude,' preached 
from its pulpit his Perth 'idolatrous sermon,' with the 
usual outcome of pillage and demolition ; and to it in 
1648 the Earl of Crawford presented James Sharp, arch- 
bishop that was to be. The castle had a chapel dedi- 

Seal of Crail. 

cated to St Rufus ; and the site of another, at the beach 
to the E of the town, is known as the Prior Walls. A 
Free church and a U.P. church are in the town, which 
further has a neat town-hall, a post office, with money 
order, savings' baidc, and telegraph departments, a branch 
of the Commercial Bank, a local savings' bank, 7 insur- 
ance agencies, a public library, a principal inn, two 
public schools, a brewery, and gas-works. The neigh- 
bouring golf links are small and uneven, gi'eatly inferior 
to those of Balcomie, IJ mile further to the eastward. 
The harbour is hard to enter, and neither the oldest nor 
the best ; for the ancient havi-n, Roome Bay, i mile 
eastward, is naturally larger and better sheltered, and 
could, at comparatively trifling cost, be converted into 
a deep, safe, and accessible anchorage for fully 200 ves- 
sels. But at present Ci-ail's commerce comprises little 
more than import of coals, and the export of grain and 
potatoes, for a small 
surrounding district ; 
and the harbour re- 
venue was only £82 in 
1867, £134 in 1874, 
£190 in 1880, and 
£126 in 1881. Fish- 
ing is carried on to a 
noticeable extent, but 
to an extent much less 
than at some other 
towns and villages of 
Fife, or indeed at Crail 
itself in the days when 
its sun-dried haddocks 
were widely famous as 
' Crail capons. ' Of late 
years Crail has become a favourite resort of summer 
visitors, for whose accommodation several handsome 
villas have been built. The burgh, first chartered by 
Robert the Bruce in 1306, is governed by a provost, 2 
bailies, a treasurer, and 5 other councillors ; with St 
Andrews, Oupar, Kilrenny, the two Anstruthers, and 
Pittenweem, it retm-ns a member to parliament ; the 
municipal and parliamentary constituency numbering 
190 in 1882, when the corporation revenue and burgh 
valuation amounted to £226 and £3444. Pop. (1841) 
1221, (1861) 1238, (1871) 1126, (1881) 1145. 

The parish is bounded N by St Leonards and Kings- 
barns, NE by the German Ocean, SE by the Firth of 
Forth, S by Kilrenny, SW by Carnbee, and NW by 
Dunino. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 6f miles ; 
its breadth varies between 1 and 2§ miles ; and its area 
is 6782f acres, of which 399^ are foreshore. The coast, 
6 miles in extent, is bold an cT rocky, and little diversified 
by creek or headland. Its most marked features are 
Fife Ness at the N side of the entrance of the Firth of 
Forth, and the skerries of Carr and Balcomie. Kippo Bum 
traces 2§ miles of the Kingsbarns, and Chesters Burn 2 
miles of the Dunino, boundary ; whilst a rivulet runs to 
the Firth at the town. The land rises steeply from the 
shore to a height of from 20 to 80 feet above sea-level, 
thence swelling gently west-north-westward to 300 feet 
near Redwells, 400 near Kiugsmuir House, and looking 
all, in a general view, to be flat, naked, and uninterest- 
ing. It has little wood, and not a lake or hill or any 
considerable stream to relieve its monotony ; but com- 
mands, from its higher grounds, a very lovely and ex- 
tensive prospect. The prevailing rocks are of the Car- 
boniferous formation. Sandstone, of good quality for all 
ordinary purposes, occurs in almost every quarter ; and 
limestone abounds, but lies too deep to be easily worked. 
Coal and ironstone have both been mined ; and clays 
have been dug for local brickyards. The soil varies in 
character, from the richest black loam on the immediate 
seaboard, to thin wet clay in the NW ; and the rent 
has varied accordingly, from £1, 10s. to £8 an acre. 
Between Balcomie and Fife Ness is an ancient stone 
work, supposed to date from the 9th century, and 
l)opularly known as the Danes' Dyke ; other anticjuities 
are the ruined fortalices of Barns, Balcomie, and Airdrie. 
These are all separately noticed, as likewise are the 



mansions of Kingsmuir, Kirkmay, and Wormistone. 
Eight proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 6 of between £100 and £500, 11 of from 
£50 to £100, and 14 of from £20 to £50. Crail is in 
the presbytery of St Andrews and synod of Fife ; the liv- 
ing is worth (1882) £379. The two public schools, East 
and West, with respective accommodation for ISO and 
142 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 110 
and 84, and grants of £91, 12s. and £56, 14s. lid. 
Valuation (1882) £11,631, 6s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 1652, 
(1831) 1824, (1S61) 1931, (1871) 1847, (1881) 1740.— 
Ord. Suri, sh. 41, 1857. See the Rev. C. Rogers' 
3:(!istcr of tlie Collegiate Church of Crail (Grampian 
Club, 187'7). 

Crailing, a village and a parish of Teviotdale, in 
Roxburghshire. The village stands on Oxnam Water, 
IJ mile ESE of Nisbet station on the Jedburgh branch 
of the North British, 4^ miles NE of Jedburgh, and 7 
SSW of Kelso, under which it has a post oiEce. 

The parish, containing also the village and station of 
Xisbet, comprises the ancient parishes of Crailing, Nisbet, 
and Spittal. It is bounded NW and NE by Roxburgh, 
E by Eckford, SE by Oxnam, SW by Jedburgh, and W 
by Anerum. Its greatest length, from N by W to S by 
E, is 4| miles ; its greatest breadth, from E to W, is 4 
miles ; and its area is 6043^ acres, of which 78 are water. 
The Teviot, ^^inding 4^ miles east-north-eastward on 
the Jedburgh border and through the interior, here from 
the S receives OxxAM Water, whose last 2J miles belong 
to Crailing. The surface, where the Teviot quits the 
parish, sinks to 150 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 
619 feet near Littlelonley, on the S side of the river ; on 
the N, to 774 at Peniel Heugli and 527 near Blackrig 
jdantation. On Peniel Heugh is the Yv'^aterloo Column, 
150 feet high, whose top is gained by a spiral staircase, 
and which bears inscription, ' To the Duke of Wellington 
and the British Army, AVilliam Kerr, sixth Marquis of 
Lothian, and his tenantry, dedicate this monument, 30 
June 1815.' These heights excepted, most of the parish 
consists of parts of the lowest, warmest, richest, and most 
lovely region of the Teviot's basin. The rocks of the 
hills are eruptive, those of the valley Devonian; and 
sandstone, of fine building quality, has been quarried 
in two places. The soil in general is a light loam. 
About 300 acres are imder wood, less than lOUO are in 
permanent pasture, and nearly all the rest is under the 
plough. A Roman road may still be traced in the west ; 
and two camps, supposed to be Roman, have left some 
vestiges on Peniel Heugh. David Calderwood, the 
Church historian, here entered on the ministry about 
1604 ; and Samuel Rutherford (1600-61), the eminent 
Covenanting di\ane, was the son of a Nisbet farmer. 
MouNTEViOT, a seat of the Marquis of Lothian, is one of 
the three chief mansions, the others being Palace and 
Crailing House, a plain modern mansion, which crowns a 
gentle eminence above the wooded banks of Oxnam Water. 
Its owner, Jn. Paton, Esq. of Crailing (b. 1805 ; sue. 1826), 
holds 1493 acres in the shire, valued at £2323 per annum, 
and shares nearly all this parish with the Marquis, the 
latter owning its northern, and the former its southern, 
division. Crailing is in the presbytery of Jedburgh and 
synod of .Merse and Teviotdale ; the living is worth 
£370. The church, rebuilt about the middle of last 
century, is a very plain structure containing 300 sittings 
A Free church contains 262 sittings ; and a public school, 
with accommodation for 81 cliildren, had(1880)aii average 
attendance of 63, and a gi-ant of £49, 9s. 6d. Valuation 
(1882) £9374, 19s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 669, (1831) 733, 
(1861) 673, (1871) 657, (1881) 638.— On/. Sur., shs. 17, 
25, 1864-65. 

Crammag or Crummag, a precipitous headland on the 
W coast of Kirkmaiden parish, Wigtownshire, 5 miles 
NW of the Mul) of Galloway. It is cut olf from tlie 
neighbouring moi>T by remains of a trench and a vitrified 
ram part. 

Cramond, a village in the NW corner of Edinburgh- 
shire, and a pari.>5h partly also in Liidithgowshire. Tlie 
village is pr<-ttily situatc<I on the Firth of Forth, at the 
E side of tlie mouth of tlie river Almond, 5 miles S of 


Aberdour, 3 WNW of Craigleith station on the Leith 
branch of the Caledonian, and 5 WNW of Edinburgh, 
with which it communicates four times a day by omnibus. 
Its name in Celtic signifies ' the fort upon the Almond ;' 
and it occupies the site of an important Roman station, 
which was connected by a fine military way with the 
great English Watling Street and with Antoninus' Wall, 
and which has yielded coins of eleven emperors, three 
altars, a ))avemeut, and other Roman remains. From 
1628 to 1730 it gave the title of Baron to the family of 
Richardson. At it are a post ofiice, boys' and girls' 
schools, and the parish church. 

The parish, containing also the seaport of Granton, 
the villages ofDAVinsoN's Mains and Cuamond Bridge, 
and a small part of Leith burgh, is bounded N by the 
Firth of Forth, E by St Cuthberts, S by Corstorphiue, 
SW by Kirkliston, and W by Dalmeny. Its greatest 
length, from E to W, is 4 J, or from ENE to WSW 5|, 
miles ; its greatest breadth, from N to S, is 2 miles ; and 
its area is 6662 acres, of which 704| are foreshore, and 
42J are water, whilst 1185 belong to Linlithgowshire. 
Cramond Island, f mile NNE of the village, may be 
reached at low water on foot, and, measuring 3 by 1^ 
furlongs, aflbrds pasturage for a few sheep ; IJ mUe 
further is another still smaller basaltic islet. Inch 
Mickery. The shore line, 5 miles long, is fringed at 
places with low beds of mussel-mantled rocks, and backed 
by a terrace, marking the former lower level of the land ; 
the walk along it from Grauton to Cramond village is 
one of the pleasantest round Edinburgh. The Almond 
winds 3§ miles east-north-eastward and north-north- 
eastward to the Firth, roughly tracing all the Linlith- 
gowshire boundary ; from Craigiehall onward its banks 
are finely wooded. The surface, though undulating, 
nowhere much exceeds 200 feet above sea-level, except 
iu the S which includes the northern slopes, but not 
the tower-crowned summit (520 feet) of fir-clad Cor- 
STORPHINE Hill. The whole, however, is so richly 
adorned with mansions and parks, woods and well- 
cultivated fields, as everywhere to present a charming 
aspect. The trees include the four splendid sycamores 
of Braehead, Cammo, Cramond House, and Craigiehall, 
which, with respective height of 101, 75, 89, and 70 feet, 
girth 12f, ISJ, ISi, and 16^ feet at 1 foot from the 
ground ; and Cramond House has also a beech and an 
oak, 85 and 60 feet high, and 26^ and 10 feet iu circum- 
ference. The rocks belong mainly to the Calciferous 
Limestone series, but diorite intrudes on Corstorphiue 
Hill, and basalt at five dillcrent localities — on the coast, 
at the Almond's mouth, and on its banks higher up. 
Clay ironstone has been raised here by the Curron Com- 
pany ; and a mmeral sining, iu the grounds of Barnton, 
as Marchfield Spa enjoyed once some medicinal celebrity. 
The soil is various, but on the whole is good. Oyster 
and other fisheries have greatly declined in value, but 
employment is given by Granton's industrial establish- 
ments, by the ink and chemical works of Caroline 
Park, by the British and Oriental Ship Coating Com- 
pany, and by Cramond Iron Company, which dates from 
1771. Families formerly connected with this parish 
were those of Hope of Grantouu, Ramsay of Barnton, 
Howison of Braehead, Adamson of Craigcrook, Inglis of 
Cramond, Argyll, and Balmerino : amongst its illus- 
trious natives or residents were John Law of Lauriston 
(1671-1729), projector of the Mississippi scheme; Geo. 
Cleghorn (1716-89), professor of anatomy in Dublin 
University; Jas. Hamilton, M. D. (1749-1835); John 
Philip Wood (1760-1838), antiquary; Archibald Con- 
stable (1775-1827), the celebrated publisher; his sou 
and biographer, Thomas Constable (1812-81) ; Scott s 
darling, Marjorie Fleming (1803-11); Francis Lord 
Jetfrey (1773-1850), the famous critic; and Andrew 
Lord Rutherford (1791-1851), an eminent judge of ses- 
sion. At Jlarchfield, too, the late William Sharpe ot 
Hoddam bred ilarthaLynn, the dam of Voltigeur, from 
whom all the best racing blood in England is tlfsceuded. 
Cramond House, a little eastward from the village, is a 
handsome and commodious mansion, founded about 1680, 
and greatly enlarged in 1772 ; a square three-storied 



tower to the XW is the only remains of a 15th century 
palace of the Bishops of Dunkekl. Its present owner, 
successor of the Inglises, is Lieut. -Col. John Cornelius 
Craigie-Halkett (b. 18-30 ; sue. 1877), who holds 637 
acres in Midlothian, valued at £2520 per annum. Other 
mansions are Barntox, Bkaehead, Broomfield, Craig- 
CROOK, Dry law, Lauristox, JIuiRHorsE,Cammo or Xeav 
Saughtux, and Silverkxowes ; and 10 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 7 of 
between £100 and £500, 7 of from £50 to £100, and 23 
of from £20 to £50. Cramond is iu the presbytery of 
Edinburgh and sjTiod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the 
li\"ing i5 worth £480. The cruciform parish church, 
originally dedicated to St Columba, was rebuilt in 1656, 
and, as enlarged in 1701 and ISll, contains 958 sittings. 
Other places of worship are noticed imder Graxtox and 
Davidsox's Maixs ; and five public schools — Cramond, 
Cramond female, Davidson's Mains, Granton mixed and 
infant, and Lennie — with respective accommodation for 
164, 70, 123, 211, and 62 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 86, 58, 98, 209, and 49, and grants of 
£67, 6s., £46, 5s., £67, 9s., £16-3, 4s. 6d., and £36, 12s. 
Valuation (1860) £23,078, (1882) £38,606, of which 
£983 belonged to the Linlithgowshire section, and £3600 
was for railwavs, waterworks, &c. Pop. (1801) 1411, 
(1831) 1984, (1861) 2695, (1871) 3020, (1881) 2945, of 
whom 84 belonged to Linlithgowshire. — Orel. Sur., sh. 
32, 1857. See John P. Wood's Ancient and Modern 
State of the Parish of Cramond (Edinb. 1794). 

Cramond Bridge, a hamlet in Cramond parish, at the 
boundary between Edinburgh and Linlithgow shires, 
on the river Almond, and on the Queensferry highroad, 
5 miles WXW of Edinburgh, and IJ mile SSW of 
Cramond village. It has a post office under Cramond, 
a good inn, and an eight-arched bridge, erected in 1823. 
See Beaehead. 

Cramond Regis. See Bakxtox. 

Crane, a deep triangular lochlet (§ x J furl. ) in Dunsyre 
parish, E Lanarkshire, amid the moorish south-western 
Pentlands, 1100 feet above sea-level, and 3^ miles NW 
of Dunsyre village. It abounds with perch and pike. 

Cranloch. See St Axdrews, Elginshire. 

Crannich. See Weem. 

Cranshaws, a Lammermuir hamlet and parish in the 
N of Berwickshire. The hamlet lies, 676 feet above 
sea-level, on the right bank of "Whitadder Water, 16 
milfs SE by E of Haddington, and 9 KW of Dunse, 
under which it has a post office. 

The parish consists of two sections, which are sepa- 
rated from each other by a strip (J mile broad at the 
narrowest) of Longformacus, and the northernmost of 
which contains the hamlet. This, with an utmost 
length and breadth of 2| and 22 miles, is bounded N 
by the Gamelshiel section of Stenton in Haddington- 
shire, E and S by Longformacus, and W by Whitting- 
ham in Haddingtonshire. The southern and larger 
division measures 5^ miles from E to W ; has a varying 
width, from X to S, of IJ and 3| miles ; and is bounded 
KW, N, and E by Longformacus, S by Greenlaw and 
Westruther, and SW by Lauder. Including 30^ acres 
of water, the total area is 8738;^ acres, of which 2589 
belong to the northern, and 6149:^ to the southern, por- 
tion. The Whitadder runs 3| miles on or near to the 
northern and eastern border of Cranshaws proper, whose 
highest points are Cranshaws Hill (1245 feet) and Main- 
slaughter Law (1381) ; whilst Dye Water runs 5 miles 
east-by-southward along all the northern boundary of 
the lower division, whose surface rises from less than 700 
feet above sea-level to 1298 on Dunside Hill and 1522 on 
Blyth Edge. The rocks are Silurian ; and much of the soil 
is poor, the arable land along the streams amounting to 
only some 900 acres. A tumulus crowns Mainslaughter 
Law, which is said to have got its name from the battle 
fought in 1402 between Hejibum of Hailes and the Earl 
of Dunbar. The fine old peel tower called Cranshaws 
Castle, standing towards the centre of the northeni 
section, measures 40 bv 24 feet, and is 65 feet high ; a 
former stronghold of the Douglases, and the haunt of a 
drudging brownie, it now is the seat of the eldest son 

of the Earl of Morton, Sholto-George-Watson Douglas, 
Lord Aberdour (b. 1844), who, holding 2551 acres in the 
shire, valued at £1050 per annum, divides this parish 
with 2 other landowners. It is in the presbytery of 
Dunse and sjtioiI of Merse and Teviotdale; the living is 
worth £200. The church, at the hamlet, was built in 
1739, and contains 120 sittings ; whCst a public school, 
with accommodation for 55 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 35, and a grant of £52, 14s. 6d. 
Valuation (1882) £2492, 16s. Pop. (1801) 166, (1831) 
136, '1861) 134, (1871) 142, (1881) 106.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
33, 1863. 

Cranston, a parish en the XE border of Edinburgh- 
shire, containing the villages of CorsLAXD, Edgehead, 
and Ford, the last being i mile W by N of Pathhead, 
and 4J miles ESE of Dalkeith, under which it has a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments. Irregular in outline, Cranston is 
bounded XW by Inveresk ; X by Tranent, and E by 
Ormiston and Humbie, in Haddingtonshire ; SW by 
Crichton and Borthwitk ; and W by Xewbattle and 
Dalkeith. Its greatest length, from XX'W to SSE, is 42 
miles ; its breadth, from E to W, varies between 3^ fur- 
longs and 3g miles ; and its area is 5102J acres, of which 
2f are water, and 677^ belong to the Cakemuir section, 
lying If mile S of the SE angle of the main body. 
Ttxe Water, here a very small stream, bisects the 
parish north-north-eastward, running chiefly within the 
beautiful parks of Oxenford and Prestouhall. "\^^lere, 
below TMiitehouse mill, it passes into Ormiston, the 
surface sinks to 300 feet above sea-level, thence lising 
north-westward to 500 feet near Airfield and 637 
near Mutton Hole, whilst in the Cakemuir section it 
attains an altitude of over 1000 feet. The formation 
belongs to the Carboniferous Limestone series ; and 
sandstone, limestone, and coal are largely worked, the 
last in Edgehead and Prestonhall collieries. About 250 
acres are under wood ; and nearly all the remaining area, 
with the exception of rather less than a third of the 
Cakemuir division, is in a state of high culrivation. 
Cranston Dean Bridge, over the Tyne, on the southern 
border, with three semicircular arches, each 17 feet in span 
and 46 high, is a modem structure ; as likewise is Lothian 
Bridge, also over the Tyne, which, 82 feet high, has five 
semicircular arches, each 50 feet in span, sitrmounted 
by ten segment arches of 54 feet in span and 8 feet of rise. 
Cakemuir Castle is the chief and almost sole antiquity ; 
the quaint old manse, near Prestonhall, having been de- 
molished forty or fifty years since. A hospice formerly, 
connected with that of Soutra, it bore the monkish 
inscription — ' Diversorium infra, Habitaculum supra. ' 
To the Cranston family this parish gave the ritle of 
Baron in the peerage of Scotland from 1609 till the 
death of the last and eleventh Lord in 1869. The man- 
sions are Oxextord and Prestoxhall, 4 proprietors 
holding each an annual value of more, and 1 of less, 
than £500. Cranston is in the presbytery of Dalkeith 
and sjTiod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is 
worth £372. The parish church, near Ford, the second 
built within this century, is a good Gothic edifice, with 
a tower ; and at Ford itself is a U. P. church. Two 
public schools, Cousland and Cranston, with respective 
accommodation for 93 and 116 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of S3 and 113, and grants of £63, 6s. 
and £99, 4s. Valuation (1882) £9048, including £19 
for a shoi't reach of the !Macmerry branch of the X'orth 
British. Pop. (1801) 895, (1831) 1030, (1861) 1035, 
(1871) 1036, (1881) 998.— Ord. Sur., shs. 32, 33, 1857- 

Cranstonhall. See Glasgow. 

Craspul or Craisaphuill, a loch (4| x 1^ furl.) in 
Durness parish, XW Sutherland, 1 fuilong W of Dur- 
ness manse, and ^ mile XE of Loch Bhrlay, like which 
it is fed by subterraneous tunnels through limestone 
rocks, and abounds in excellent trout. 

Crathes Castle, a mansion in Banchory -Teman parish, 
XW Kincardinesliire, ^ mile X of the left bank of the 
Dee, and Ig WXW of Crathes station, this being 14 
miles WSW of Aberdeen, and 3 E by X of Banchory. A 



line old chateau-like btriictuiv, with a lofty gi-anite tower, 
s([uare and turreted, it was built partly iu 152S, partly 
at later periods, and is the seat of the Burnetts of Leys, 
whose founder, Alexander de Burnard, in 1324 obtained 
a charter of lauds in Kincardineshire. His great-grand- 
son, Robert Burnett (flo. 1409), was the first ' Baron o' 
Leys,' a title familiar from an ancient ballad ; and 
Thomas Burnett, twelfth proprietor of Leys, and imcle 
iif Bishop Gilbert Burnett, was in 1626 created a baronet 
of Nova Scotia. His eighth descendant. Sir Robert 
l>umett of Leys, eleventh Bart. (b. 1S33 ; sue. 1876), 
iiwns 12,025 and 84 acres in Kincai'dine and Aberdeen 
shires, valued at £5007 and £109 per annum. See 
Banchory -Terxan. 

Crathie and Braemar, a large parish of SW Aberdeen- 
j-hire, whose church stands, 920 feet above sea-level, 
near the left bank of the Dee, 7^ miles W by S of 
Ilallater station, and 51 of Aberdeen, under which 
Crathie has a post office. 

The parish, containing also the village of Castletok, 
comprises the ancient parish of Braemar, annexed at a 
period unknown to record. It is bounded N by Kirk- 
inichael in Banffshire, and by Strathdon ; NE by Glen- 
muick ; SE by Glenmuick, and by Gleuisla in Forfarshire ; 
S by Kirkmichael and Blair Athole, in Perthshire ; W by 
the Glenfeshie portion of Ahne, in Inverness-shire ; and 
XW by Duthil-Rothiemurchus, also in Inverness-shire. 
Irregular in outline, it has a varying length from E to 
W of 8^ and 24 miles, a varying width from N to S of 
9J and 16| miles, and an area of 183,2371 acres, of 
which 9S0f are water. The Dee, rising close to the 
Inverness-shire border, runs 11 miles south-south-east- 
ward to the Geldie's confluence, and thence winds 25^ 
miles east-north-eastward, mostly through the middle 
of the parish, but for the last 4| miles along the 
Glenmuick boimdary. During this course it descends 
from 4060 feet above sea-level at its source to 1318 
where it receives the Geldie, 1214 at the Linn of Dee, 
1108 at Victoria Bridge near Mar Lodge, 872 opposite 
Crathie manse, and 720 at the Girnock's confluence 
in the furthest E ; its principal affluents here, all of 
them rising in Crathie and Braemar, and all de- 
scribed in separate articles, are Geldie Burn, Lui Water, 
Ey Burn, Quoich Water, Clunie Water with its tributary 
GaUader Burn, Feardar Burn, Gelder Burn, and Girnock 
Burn. Lakes, witli their utmost length and breadth, 
and with their altitude above sea-level, are Loch Etch- 
achan (4 X 3i furl. ; 3200 feet). Loch Brodichan (21 x 
1 furl. ; 2303 feet). Loch Callader (6J x 1^ furl. ; 1627 
feet), Loch Ceannmor (1 J x f furl. ; 2196 feet), and 
Lochxagar (2^ X 1| furl. ; 2570 feet), besides thirteen 
smaller tarns. From W to E the chief elevations to the 
left of the Dee are *Braeriach (4248 feet), *Bex Mac- 
DHUi (4296), Derry Cairngorm (3788), Carn a ilhaim 
(3329), Cam Crom (2847), Sgor Mor (2666», Carn j\Ior 
(2057), *Beinna' Chaoruinn(3553), Beinn Bhreac(3051), 
Meall na Guaille (2550), Creag a Bhuilg (2190), *Bena- 
I'.OURD (3924), Carn Elrig Mor (2068), Carn Eas (3556), 
Cam na Drochaide (2681), 'Ben Avon (3843), Carn 
Liath (2821), Jleikle Elrick (2318), *Meikle Geal Charn 
(2533), * Brown Cow Hill (2721), Culardoch (2933), 
Craig Leek (2085), Meall Alvie (1841), Leac Ghorm 
(1946), Tom Bhreae (2276), An Creagan (1857), and 
Creag Mhor (1643), where asterisks mark those summits 
that culminate on the borders of the parish. To the 
left or W and S of the Dee rise Caiuxtoul (4241 feet). 
The Devil's Point (3303), *Monadh Mor (3651), Beinn 
Bhrotain (3795), Carn-Cloich-mhuilinn (3087), Duke's 
Cliair (2010), Carn Geldie (2039), *Carn an Fhilleir 
(3276), •AnSgarsoch (3300). Cnapan Garbh (2206), Carn 
Liath (2676), * Beinn lutharn Mhor (3424), Mor Shron 
(2819), Cam Aosda (3003), * The Cairnwell (3059), Sron 
Dubh(1909), Carn an Tuirc (3340), * Cairn na Glasha 
(3484), Creaf' Choinnich (1764), Carn nan Sgliat (2260), 
Creag nan Leachda (2549), Meall an t-Sluichd (2771), 
Creag Doineanta (1910), the Princess Royal's Cairn 
(1479), Ripe Hill (1678), Cam Fiaclan (2703), •Locii- 
NAOAU (3786), Princess Alice's Cairn (1278), Prince 
Albert's Cairn (1437), Creag a Ghaill (1971), *Conach- 


craig Hill (2777), *Meall Gorm (1809), and Creag 
Ghiubhais (1593). Containing thus parts or the whole 
of three of the four highest summits in Scotland, Crathie 
presents a landscape as varied as it is beautiful — its 
clear-flowing salmon river and sweep of valley with 
broad plantations, green fields, and stately mansions, its 
rounded corries and narrow glens, its somlare deer-forests 
and heathery grouse moors, all set in a ring of trackless, 
serrated mountains. (See Aberarder, Alt-na-Giutha- 
sACH, Carr, Caiiixaqueex, Charters Chest, Coruie- 
MULZiE, Craig-Cluxy, Craig-Gowax, Craig-na-Bax, 
Garrawalt, Moxaltrie, etc.) The prevailing rock 
is granite, alternating in jdaces with gneiss, lime- 
stone, and quartz, near Castleton traversed by a vein of 
serpentine ; the soil of the arable lands is generally a 
light sandy loam. Woods and natural forests of Scotch 
firs, larch, and birch must cover an enormous area, 
acres on acres of rocky hillside having been planted with 
millions of trees, both native and foreign, within the 
last hundred years, whilst in Mar Forest are firs from 
two to three centuries old, and containing 100 or 200 
cubic feet of timber (pp. 273-275, 2'raiis. Highl. and Ag. 
Soc. , 1874). The mansions are Balmoral Castle, Aber- 
geldie Castle, Ixvercauld House, and Mar Lodge ; 
the Queen, the Earl of Fife, and Farquharson of Inver- 
cauld holding each an annual value of more, and 31 
other proprietors of less, than £100. Giving off since 
1879 the quoad sacra pai-ish of Braemar, Crathie is 
in the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and S3'nod 
of Aberdeen ; the living is worth £370. The parish 
church is a plain edifice of 1806, seated for 800, 
and adorned ■\\'ith a two-light stained-glass window, 
erected by Her Majesty in 1873 to the memory of 
Xorman Slacleod, who preached his first sermon as 
court chapdain here on 29 Oct. 1854. At Easter Bal- 
moral, on the opposite bank of the Dee, across a sus- 
pension bridge, is Crathie Free church, ^vith a spire ; 
other places of worship are noticed under Castletox. 
Besides the school there, Crathie public, Aberarder, 
Abergeldie female, and Crathie Side schools, with re- 
spective accommodation for 98, 184, 39, and 67 children, 
had (1880) an average attendance of 65, 15, 18, and 35, 
and grants of £48, 2s., £22, 17s., £14, 6s., and £46, 
8s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £7868, (1881) £14,430. Pop. 
(1801) 1876, (1831) 1808, (1861) 1574, (1871) 1566, 
(1881) l61B.—0rd. Sur., shs. 65, 64, 75, 1870-76. See 
the Rev. .Tames M. Crombie's Braemar and Balmoral 
(2d ed. 1875). 

Craufurdland Castle. See Crawfxjrdland. 

Crawford, a village and a parish in the upper ward 
and the south-eastern extremity of Lanarkshire. The 
village, toward the NW corner of the parish, stands on 
the left bank of the Clyde (here crossed by a chain bridge 
of 75 feet span), opi)osite the influx of Midlock and 
Camps Waters, and adjacent to the Caledonian railway, 
2| miles SE of its post-town and station, Abington, this 
being 43J miles SW of Edinburgh. Enjoying anciently 
the privileges of a burgh of barony, it was, prior to the 
railway period, an important resting-place for travellers, 
but now is little more than a rural hamlet, with an 
hotel, the parish cliurch, and a public school. 

The parish, containing also the village of Leadhills, 
is traversed for 12^ miles by the main trunk of the 
Caledonian, wliich here attains its summit level (1012 
feet), and here has the stations of Abington and Elvan- 
foot. It is bounded N by Lamington ; NE by Culter ; E 
by Tweedsmuir, in Peeblesshire ; SE by Jloflat and Kirk- 
]iatrick-Juxta, in Dumfriesshire ; S by Closeburn, and 
SW by Durisdeer and Sanquhar, all three also in Dum- 
friesshire ; W and NW by Crawfordjolin. Its utmost 
lengtli, from N to S, is 144 miles ; its breadth, from E to 
W, varies between IJ and llg miles; and its area is 
68,839i acres, of which 313 are water. Evax Water is 
formed by several head-streams in the E of the parish ; 
otherwise the drainage system has been alreadj' sketched 
under the Clyde, which here from its source near the 
soutliern boundary takes a northerly course of 28 miles, 
and wliich here receives, on the left hand, Powtrail, Elvan, 
and Glengonner Waters, ami, on the right, Little Clydes 



Bum and Midlock and Camps Waters — all of tlieni rising 
in Crawford, and all of them separately noticed. Where 
the Cl3xle quits the parish, the surface sinks to 800 feet 
above sea-level, these rising southward, south-eastward, 
and eastward to mountain watersheds of the Southern 
Highlands, which separate Clydesdale from Nithsdale, 
Annandale, and Tweeddale The chief elevations from 
N to S to the W of the Clvde are Eavengill Dod 
(1758 feet), Wellgrain Dod (1813), Lousie Wood Law 
(2028), Dun Law (2216), Green Lowther (2403), and 
Ballencleuch Law (2267) ; whilst to the E rise South- 
wood Rig (1556), the Pinnacle (1819), *Coomb Dod 
(2082), YearngiU Head (1804), Wintercleuch Fell (1804), 
*Whiteside Hill (1817), and Earncraig Hill (2000), where 
asterisks mark those summits that culminate on the 
borders of the parish. The glens or vales for the most 
part have considerable breadth of bottom, and are partly 
dry, partly wet and spongy. The rocks are in places 
metamorphic, but chiefly Silurian. Roofing slate has 
been worked in one small quarry ; lead ore is extensively 
mined at Leadhills, where also many valuable minerals, 
as gold, silver, calamine, blende, manganese, malachite, 
azure copper ore, iron pjTites, etc., have been found. 
The soU on the banks of the Clyde, and near the mouths 
of its affluents, is variously alluvial, loamy, sandy, and 
gravelly ; that of nearly all the remaining area is moorish. 
About 2200 acres are arable, less than 160 are under 
wood, and all the rest is either pastoral or waste. 
Crawford Castle, or Tower Lindsay, on the right bank 
of the Clyde, opposite Crawford village, is a ruined 
baronial stronghold, once defended by a moat ; from the 
close of the 12th century till 1488 it was the seat of the 
Lindsays, who in 1398 received the earldom of C^a^^•fo^d. 
(See Cults and Balcarees.) The parish is traversed 
b}' a Roman road, branching off near Elvanfoot to Xiths- 
dale and Annandale, and flanked by two well-preserved 
Roman camps on Boadsberry HUl and White Camp 
farm. It also contains three native camps or hill-forts, 
and the sites of several pre-Reformation chapels. jSTew- 
ton House is the only mansion ; but the property is 
divided among 12 landowners, 8 holding each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 1 of between £100 and £500, 
1 of from £50 to £100, and 2 of from £20 to £50. 
Detaclied from Leadhills for church and school and 
registration purposes, Crawford is in the presbytery of 
Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is 
worth £335. The church, rebuilt in 1875, contains 
2S0 sittings ; and three public schools — Crawford, Daer- 
Powtrail, and Summit — with respective accommodation 
for 103, 27, and 53 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 57, 14, and 22, and gi'ants of £71, 93., 
£27, 16s., and £32, 14s. Valuation (1860) £13,774, 
(1S82) £22,598, 17s. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 1671, 
(1831) 1850, (1861) 1590, (1871) 1829, (1881) 1763; 
oiq. s. parish (1881) 698.— Orel. Sur., shs. 15, 16, 1864. 

Crawfordjolm, a village and a parish in the SW of 
the upper ward of Lanarkshire. The village stands, 950 
feet above sea-level, near the left bank of Duneaton 
Water, 6| miles N by E of Leadhills, and 4 W of its 
post-town and station, Abington, this being 43^ miles 
SW of Edinburgh. At it are a post office, 2 inns, the 
manse, the parish church, and a public school ; and by 
Dorothy Wordsworth, who, with her brother and Cole- 
ridge, drove through it in August 1803, it was described 
as ' a pretty, cheerful-looking village, but one that must 
be very cold in A\'inter, for it stands on a hillside, and 
the vale itself is very high gi'ound, unsheltered by 
trees.' One specialty has Crawfordjohn, that the curl- 
ing-stones made at it are the best to be found in 

The parish, containing also Abixgton village, is 
bounded N by Douglas, NE by Wiston, E by Laraing- 
ton, SE by Crawford, SW by Sanquhar and Kirkconnel 
in Dumfriesshire, W by Auchinleck and Muirkirk in 
Ayrshire. Its utmost length is 12J miles from E by N 
to W by S, viz. , from Abington to the Ayrshire boundary ; 
its breadth diminishes from 9| miles in the E to 7 furlongs 
in the W ; and its area is 26,460^ acres, of which 103;}: are 
Water. The Clyde flows 2i miles northward along all the 

eastern boundary, whilst the south-eastern is traced for 
24 miles by its afiluent, Glengonner Water. Snar Water, 
draining the south-eastern district, runs 6 miles north- 
ward to Duneaton Water ; and Duxeatox Water itself 
rises close to the Ayrshire border, and thence winds 19 
miles east-by-northward to the Clyde, its first 6j miles 
following the Douglas, and its last If mile the Wiston, 
boundary. Where the Clyde quits the parish, the sur- 
face sinks to 750 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 
1130 at Knock Leaven, 1260 at Black Hill, 1400 at 
Mountherrick, 1584 at Drake Law, 1620 at Rake Law, 
1808 at Wanlock Dod (just within Sanqubar), 1616 at 
Cairn Kinny, and 1843 at Stony Hill (just within 
Auchinleck). The rocks are mainly metamorphic and 
Silurian, partly carboniferous ; and they include lime- 
stone and white sandstone, with traces of coal and of lead 
and copper ores. The soil of some of the low gi-ounds 
along the streams is a deep rich loam', of others sandy 
or gravelly ; whilst here and there on the hill-slopes it 
is a strong red clay, and elsewhere generally moorish. 
Some 3200 acres are arable, and not more than 50 are 
under wood. Vestiges of three old castles are at Moss 
Castle, Glendorch, and Snar ; and ti-aces of one large 
ancient camp crown the SE shoulder of Black Hill ; 
whilst near Shieldholm is another, supposed to be 
Roman. In 1839, the Eglinton Tournament year. Prince 
Louis Napoleon, Fi'ench emperor that was to be, arrived 
at Abington inn, wet, tired, and hungry, from a day's 
grouse-shooting on Crawford Muir. He could get no 
sitting-room, so took bis supper by the kitchen fire, 
slipped away to bed, and early next morning started again 
on foot. Abington House is the only mansion ; and 3 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 6 of between £100 and £500, and 5 of from £20 
to £50. Giving off a small portion to LeadhUls quoad 
sacra parish, Crawfordjohn is in the presbytery of Lanark 
and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth 
£356. The parish church, enlarged and repewed in 1817, 
contains 310 sittings. At Abington is a Free church ; 
and three schools — Crawfordjohn, '\^^litecleuch, and 
Abington — with respective accommodation for 72, 23, 
and 93 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 64, 
12, and 50, and grants of £54, 17s., £27, 8s. 2d., and 
£53. Valuation (1882) £11,007, 193. Pop. (1801) 712, 
(1831) 991, (1861) 980, (1871) 853, (1881) 8id.—0rd. 
Sur., sh. 15, 1864. 

Crawford Priory, a mansion in the N of Cults parish, 
central Fife, near the right bank of the Eden, 3 miles 
SW of Cupar. Built in 1813 by Lady Mary Lindsay 
Cra^rford, who in 1808 had succeeded to the Crawford- 
Lindsay estates on the death of her brother, the twenty- 
second Earl of Crawford, it was originally a splendid castel- 
lated edifice in the Gothic style, but fell into neglect and 
dilapidation, till in 1871-72 it was thoroughly renovated 
and enlarged, a carriage porch and vestibule being then 
erected at the S entrance, and a Gothic tower and spire, 
115 feet high, at the E side, whilst a portion of the 
interior was converted into a private Episcopal chapel. 
It now is a seat of George Frederick Boyle, sixth Earl of 
Glasgow (b. 1825 ; sue. 1869), who owns 5625 acres in 
the shire, valued at £9085 per annum. See also CuM- 
brae, Hawkhead, and Kelburx. 

Crawfordton, an estate, with a modem mansion, in 
Glencairn parish, W Dumfriesshire, IJ mile from 
Moniaive. Its owner, George Gustavus Walker, Esq. 
(b. 1831), was county member 1865-68 and 1869-74; 
and holds 7660 acres in the shire, valued at £3478 per 

Crawfurdland Castle, a mansion in Kilmarnock 
parish, Ayrshire, on the left bank of Crawfurdland 
Water, 3 miles NE of Kilmarnock town. Comprising 
a strong, tliick-walled, ancient tower, and a fine modern 
Gothic centre, it has been for upwards of six centuries 
the seat of a branch of the Craufurds ; its present holder, 
Lieut. -Col. Jn. Reg. Houison-Craufurd (b. 1811; sue. 
1871), owns 1876 acres in the shire, valued at £1988 
per annum. (See also Braehead.) Crawfurdland Water, 
formed by two head-streams in Fenwick parish, close to 
tlie Renfrewshire border, winds 8^ miles south-westward 



through Fenwick and Kilmarnock parishes, and, IJ mile 
NNE of Kilmarnock town, unites with the Fenwick to 
form Kilmarnock Water.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Crawick, a rivulet of NW Dumfriesshire, formed, at 
780 feet above sea-level and -within a mile of the Lanark- 
shire border, by the confluence of Wanlock and Spango 
Waters. Thence it winds 8 miles south-south-westward 
along the boundary between Sanquhar and Kirkconnel 
parishes, and fulls "into the Nith f mile WNW of San- 
quhar town. — Ord. Sur., sh. 15, 1864. 

Crawick Mill, a village in Sanquhar and Kirkconnel 
parishes, Dumfriesshire, on Crawick Water, 1 mile NW 
of Sanquhar town. It lies within Sanquhar burgh 
bounds, and has an extensive carpet and tartan factory. 

Cray, a place in Kirkniiehael parish, NE Perthshire, 
on the left bank of Shee Water, 15 miles N by W of 
Hlairgowrie. Here are a Free church and Cray House, 
whose Q-wner, Mrs Robertson, holds 437 acres in the 
shire, valued at £113 per annum. 

Crayinch, a wooded islet of Kilmaronock parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, in Loch Lomond, ^ mile NE of Inchmurrin. 
Triangular in shape, it measures 2 by 1 J furlongs. 

Creack, a village in Auchindoir parish, W Aberdeen- 
shire, 3i miles SW of Rhynie. 

Creagach. See Ciiaggie. 

Creca. See Axxan. 

Cree, a river of Galloway, issuing from Loch Moan, 
which lies, 675 feet above sea-level, on the mutual 
boundary of Ajt and Kirkcudbright shires. Thence it 
winds 11 miles south-south-westward along that bound- 
ary, and next 21J miles south-eastward along all the 
boundary between Kirkcudbright and Wigtown shires, 
past Newton -Stewart, till at Creetown it falls into the 
head of Wigtown Bay, the lena jEstiiarium of Ptolemy. 
On its right lie the parishes of Barr, Colmonell, and Pen- 
ninghame, on its left of MinnigatT and Kirkmahreck ; 
and on its left it receives Minnoch Water, Penkill Burn, 
and Palnure Burn. Navigable for small craft as high 
as Carty, it assumes near Penninghame House a lake- 
like appearance, widening at intervals to close on a 
furlong ; here were of old the celebrated ' Cruives of 
Cree,' i.e., salmon-traps in the stone cauls or dam-dykes, 
which, serving the country-folk for bridges, came to be 
well-known landmarks. Throughout most of its lower 
course the 'crystal Cree' flows through flat flowery 
meadows, its banks being only occasionally adorned Avith 
heathery knolls and lichened or fern-clad rocks ; but 
from Bargrennan upwards its scenery is wild and moun- 
tainous, a succession of desolate moorlands. Trout may 
be caught in considerable quantities in the upper waters ; 
salmon and sea-trout at several good casts about Penning- 
hame House ; and smelt or sperling, during March, in 
the brackish waters of the estuary. — Ord. Sur., shs. 8, 
4, 1857-63. See pp. 12-22 of Wm. M'Hraith's Wigtovm- 
shire (2d ed., Dumf., 1877). 

Creebridge, a village, with a public school, in Minni- 
gaff parish, Kirkcudl)rightsliire, on the left bank of the 
Cree, opposite Newton-Stewart, with which it is con- 
nected by a five-arch bridge, erected in 1813 at a cost of 

Creed (Gael. Av^Jiuinn Ghride), a rivulet in the S of 
Stornoway parish, Lewis island, Ross-shire. Formed 
by two head-streams at an altitude of 300 feet above sea- 
level, it winds 9J miles east-south-eastward to the 
western side of Stornoway Harbour, f mile SSW of 
Stornoway town. It traverses Loch an Oash and Loch 
a Chlachain, and makes a fall opposite Sir James 
Matheson's Grotto, up to which point it abounds in sea- 
trout, grilse, and salmon. — Ord. Sitr., sh. 105, 1858. 

Creeinch. See Crayixch. 

Creetown, a small seaport towTi in Kirkmabreck parish, 
SW Kirkcudbrightshire, on the estuary of the river 
<Jree or head of Wigtown Bay, 3| miles as the crow 
Hies NE of Wigtown, and 1 mile S of Creetown station 
on the Portpatrick railway, this being 64 miles SE of 
Newton -Stewart, and 43^ WSW of Dumfries. A 
village, called Creth, occupying its site, was in 1300 the 
rendezvous of an PZnglish army ; and either that village 
or a successor to it, bearing the name «f Ferrytown of 


Cree, became nearly extinct in the ISth century. The 
present town, founded in 1785, embraced some houses 
which still remained of the old village, and was made a 
burgh of barony in 1792, to be governed by a bailie and 
four councillors, elected triennially by the resident 
feuars. It stands between Moneypool and English- 
man's Burns, amid a great expanse of beautiful scenery ; 
and, chiefly consisting of modern houses, each with its 
garden and orchard, relies in great measure for support 
on the neighbouring granite quarries. At it are a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and railway 
telegrajih departments, 2 chief inns, a public school, 
the parish church (1834 ; 800 sittings), and a neat U.P. 
church (300 sittings) ; whilst in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood are the mansions of Barholm and Cassencarie. 
Capt. Jas. Murray Denniston (1770-1857), author of 
Legends of Galloway, died at Creetown. Pop. (1841) 
984, (1851) 1302, (1861) 968, (1871) 805, (1881) 970.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 4, 1857. 

Creggans. See SritACHrR. 

Creich, a parish of N Fife, extending to within 5 
furlongs of the Firth of Tay, and containing the villages 
of Luthrie and Brunton, each ^vith a post office under, 
and respectively 54 and 6| miles NW of, Cupar-Fife. 
It is bounded NW by Flisk, NE by Balmerino, E by 
Kilmany and Moonzie, S by Monimail, SW by Dunbog, 
and W by the easternmost section of Abdie, having 
an utmost length from NNE to SSAV of 3^ miles, a 
width of 1| mile, and an area of 2341 acres. The sur- 
face, sinking in the south-eastern corner to less than 
200 feet above sea-level, is elsewhere a congeries of hills, 
which on the NW border attain 568 feet, and at Black 
Craig in the NE 665 — heights that command a magni- 
ficent view of the Tay's basin, away to the Sidlaws and 
the Gi'ampians. Some of the hills are cultivated to the 
top ; others are partly covered with plantations ; and 
others, again, are rocky and heathy. Several burns, 
rising here, unite near Luthrie to form Motray Water, a 
tributary of the Eden. The rocks, eruptive mainly, 
include greenstone, am3'gdaloid, clinkstone, and basalt ; 
and a laminar or stratified trap has been worked in one 
quarry, basaltic clinkstone in another. The soil is vari- 
able, ranging from black or thin sharp gravelly loam to 
clay or moss. On Green Craig is a hill-fort, consisting 
of two concentric lines of circumvallation ; and a little 
to the SE are the ruins of the old parish church, and of 
Creich Castle, which, three stories high, and 47 feet long 
by 39 broad,' appears to have been a place of very 
considerable strength, and was defended on one side by 
a morass, now drained, on the other by outworks. In 
1502 the estate around it was acquired from the Littles 
or Liddels by Sir David Bethune, whose daughter, 
Janet, Lady Buccleuch, is the ' Lad ye of Branxholm ' 
in Sir Walter's Lay, and whose great-granddaughter 
was one of the ' Queen's four Maries ; ' it passed by 
purchase to the Bethunes of Balfour about the middle 
of the 17th century. Of Parbroath Castle, a seat of the 
Setons, in the S of the parish, hardly a vestige remains. 
Natives were the Rev. Alex. Henderson (1583-1646), 
the zealous Covenanter, and John Sage (1652-1711), 
nonjuring Archbishop of Glasgow. Creich is in the 
presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife ; the living is 
worth £282. The parish church, i mile NNW of 
Luthrie, is a good Gothic structure, built in 1832, and 
containing 252 sittings. A Free church stands near 
Brunton. The public school, with accommodation for 
80 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 74, and 
a grant of £59, 8s. Valuation (1882) £4044, 16s. 8d. 
Pop. (1801) 405, (1831) 419, (1861) 377, (1871) 387, 
(1881) 386.— On/. Stir., sh. 48, 1868. 

Creich, a very large Highland in the S of 
Sutherland, containing, towards its SE corner, the 
village of Bon.\r-Bridge, and traversed for 5g miles by 
the Sutherland railway, with Invershin station thereon, 
3i miles NNW of Ardgay, and 17^ NW of Tain. It is 
bounded at its north-western extremity by Assynt and 
Eddrachillis ; along its north-eastern side by Lairg, 
Rogart, and Dornoch ; at its south-eastern corner by the 
upper waters of Dornoch Firth which separate it from 


Edderton in Eoss-shire ; and along its south-western 
side by Kincardine, likewise in Koss-shire. From SE to 
NW its greatest length is 31^ miles ; its breadth vaiies 
between 1| and 9^ miles ; and its area is 110,736f acres, 
of which 735 are foreshore and 1911^ water, it thus 
being nearly half the size of all Midlothian. Lakes 
of the interior, from SE to NW, Avith their utmost 
length and width and their altitude above sea-level, are 
Loch MiGDALE (2 miles x 3 furl. ; 115 feet) Loch a' 
Ghobhair (4x1 furh ; 7-12 feet). Loch an Lagain (7^ x 
If furl. ; 446 feet), sending off the Evelix, Loch Laro 
(7ixli furh ; 600 feet), Loch na Claise Moire (7x3 
fiu'l. ; 774 feet), Loch na Faichde (4x1^ furl. ; 1400 
feet). Loch Garn nan Conbhairean (4 x If furl. ; 1104 
feet), and a number of smaller tarns. On the Dornoch 
border lies Loch BriE (1^ x J mile ; 527 feet) ; on the 
Rogart, Loch Cracail Mor (6xlJ furh ; 620 feet); on 
the Kincardine, Loch Ailsh (7 x 4^ furl. ; 498 feet) ; and 
on the Eddrachillis, Gorm Loch Mor (7x4 furl. ; 846 
feet). The river Cassley, issuing from the last, hurries 
2O2 miles south-eastward along tlie middle of the parish 
to the OiKELL, which itself winds So^ miles south- 
south-eastward and east-south-eastward along all the 
Kincardine boundary, through Loch Ailsh and the Kyle 
of Sutherland, to the head of Dornoch Firth, at Bonar- 
Bridge. At Invershin, lower down than the Cassley, it is 
joined from the N by the Shix, whose last 5J miles lie 
either on the boundary with Lairg or through the 
interior of Creich. The surface, hilly everywhere, in 
the NW is mountainous, attaining 1090 feet on ileall 
Moraig, 937 on Meall Mor, 1318 on Cnoc a Choire, 1341 
on Beinn an Rasail, 1785 on Beinn na Eoin, 2345 on 
Meall an Aonaich, and 3273 on Benmore Assynt, the 
loftiest summit of Sutherland. Benmore is made up of 
Silurian quartzite and trap ; lower down are carboni- 
ferous and Old Picd sandstone rocks. Very hard trap 
has been worked in two quarries : and a small vein of 
manganese occurs at Rosehall, which, in common with 
Flode, Pulrossie, and other places, also yields excellent 
clay ; but coal and shale have been sought for in vain. 
Woods cover a considerable area round Bonar-Bridge, 
where the soil of the plough-lands is mostly a light 
gravelly loam ; and there are several good arable and 
sheep farms. The largest of the latter is Invercassley, 
which, extending to 35,000 acres, comprises much 
black land, lying high, and so exposed to wind and 
frost. Prof. Harry Rainy, M.D. (1792-1876), was a 
native. Antiquities are a ' Pictish tower ' and a stone 
circle near Rosehall, two groups of stone circles near 
Bonar-Bridge, and, near the church, a vitrified fort on 
the Dun of Creich and a standing stone, 8 feet long by 
4 bro^d, which is said to have been reared on the grave 
of a Danish chieftain. Rosehall House is the principal 
mansion, and 3 proprietors hold each an annual value 
of £1800 and upwards, 3 of between £500 and £830, 4 
others of more, and 2 of less, than £100. Creich is in 
the presbytery of Dornoch and synod of Sutherland ; 
the living is worth £260. The parish church, on Dor- 
noch Firth, 3| miles ESE of Ardgay, was built in 1790, 
and contains 500 sittings. There are also two Free 
churches of Creich and Rosehall ; and four public 
schools — Bonar-Bridge, Invershin, Larachan, and Rose- 
hall — with respective accommodation for 158, 47, 100, 
and 90 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 
60, 20, 47, and 71, and grants of £50, 15s., £34, £53, 13i3. 
6d., and £60, lis. 6d. Valuation (1860) £5466, (1882) 
£11,732, lis. 4d., including £649 for railway. Pop. 
(1801) 1974, (1831) 2562, (1861) 2521, (1871) 2524, 
(1881) 2223, of whom 1571 were in Bonar, and 652 in 
Rosehall, registration district. — Ord. Sur., sh. 102, 1881. 

Creid. See Creed. 

Creinch. See Ceayinch. 

Creoch, Loch. See Cumnock, New. 

Cretan, a stream and a sea-loch in the N of Argyll- 
shire, separating the district of Appin from the parish 
of Ardchattan. The stream rises 4f miles SSE of Balla- 
chulish, on the south-western slope of Sgor na h-Ulaidh 
(3258 feet), at 2500 feet above sea-level, and thence winds 
11^ miles west-south-westward to the head of the sea-loch. 


The lower part of its glen is finely wooded, and here it 
receives the Ure, and traverses Loch Fasnacloich ; its 
waters are strictly preserved, and the salmon and trout 
fishing is good. — The sea-loch curves 8 miles west-south- 
westward, nm-th -westward, and south-westward to Loch 
Linnhe, opposite the upper part of Lismore Island, and 
nowhere is more than 1| mile broad, whilst narrowing 
to 2 furlongs at its mouth near Shian Ferry, and to 1 
furlong towards its head near Creagan Ferry, being 
crossed at these two ferries by different routes from Oban 
to Ballachulish. With an average depth of 15 fathoms, 
and a spring-tid« of 15 feet, it affords good harbourage 
in all its lower parts. By Dorothy Wordsworth it is 
described as ' a large irregular sea-loch, with low sloping 
banks, coppice woods, and uncultivated grounds, with a 
scattering of cornfields ; as it appeared to us, very 
thinly inhabited ; mountains at a distance.' See Glex- 
ceeeax. — Orel. Sur., shs. 45, 53, 1876-77. 

Creth. See Ceeetown. 

Crianlarich, a hamlet in Killin parish, W Perthshire, 
at the mouth of Strathfillan, with a station on the Cal- 
lander and Oban railwa}-, 5^ miles SE of Tyndrum. 
Lying 522 feet above sea-level, it has an hotel and a 
public school, and by coach communicates with Ardlui 
at the head of Loch Lomond, 9 miles to the SSAV. 

Crib Law, a hill (1389 feet) in the Selkirkshire por- 
tion of Roberton parish, 3 miles ENE of the meeting- 
point of Selkirk, Roxburgh, and Dumfries shires. 

Crichie, a hill (500 feet) in the N of Kintore parish, 
Aberdeenshire, If mile S by W of Inverurie. Bruce 
was encamped here in 1308 at the time of his victory 
over the Comj-ns in Bocetie parish. 

Crichie House, a mansion in Old Deer parish, NE 
Aberdeenshire, | mile SE of Stuartfield. 

Crichope Linn. See Closebuex. 

Crichton, a parish on the E border of Edinburghshire, 
containing, at its northern extremity, the village of 
Pathhead, on the road from Edinburgh to Lauder, 5 
miles ESE of Dalkeith, and 3| N of Tynehead station. 
Tynehead itself and Fala Dam hamlet "(2| miles SE of 
Pathhead) also belong to Crichton, which is bounded 
NE by Cranston and by Humbie in Haddingtonshire, 
SE by Fala, the Blackshiels section of Humbie, the 
Cakemuir section of Cranston, the CowbraehUl section 
of Borthwick, and the Falahill section of Stow, SW and 
W by the main body of Borthwick. Its utmost length, 
from N to S, is 4i miles ; its width, from E to W, varies 
between 3§ furlongs and 3^ miles ; and its area is 4821^ 
acres, of which nearly f acre is water. Ttxe Water, 
rising close to Tynehead station, meanders 3 miles 
north-north-eastward along all the western border ; the 
interior is drained by several subaffluents of Humbie 
Water. The surface, sinking near Pathhead to close on 
400 feet above sea-level, and to 600 at Costerton, attains 
804 feet at a point 7 furlongs ESE of the church, and 
900 upon Crichton Moss. The rocks belong mainly to 
the Carboniferous Limestone series, •with a patch of basalt 
on the higher ground ; limestone has been largely worked ; 
and coal occurs, though not under conditions to be pro- 
fitably mined. The soil over fully four-fifths of the 
area is rich and deep, accessible most of it to the plough, 
and yielding abimdant crops ; the high lands are shel- 
tered by belts of thriving plantation. A ri<iug-gi-ound 
at Longfaugh, commanding a wide and beautiful pro- 
spect, is crowned by remains of a fort, supposed by some 
to be a Roman camp ; but Crichton's chief antiijuity 
is Crichton Castle, a magnificent massive ruin, which 
forms the grand feature in the landscape, as it rises from 
a projecting terrcplein within a hundred yards or so of 
the top of the hill on the Tyne's right bank, ^ mile S of 
the church. A Turstan de Creicliton is one of the 
witnesses to the charter of foundation of Holyrood 
Abbey (1128) ; his most famous descendant was Sir 
William Crichton, the founder of both castle and church, 
who, as chancellor of Scotland, was alternately rival and 
friend of Sir Alexander Livingston, and who in 1440 at 
Edinburgh Castle beheaded the young Earl of Douglas 
and his brother — an act of treachery for which his own 
fortress was taken and dismantled by the Douglases. (See 



Douglas Castle. ) In 1445 Sir William was made Lord 
Crifhton, the third holder of which title lost his estates 
in 14S4 for joining Albany against James III. After four 
years' tenure bv the minion Ramsay, they were granted 
in 14SS to Patrick Hepburn, first Earl of^BoTHWELL, by 
whose great-grandson, Darnley's murderer, they were 
once more forfeited in 1567. Nine years later James VI. 
bestowed them on his ill-starred cousin, Francis Stewart, 
fifth Earl of Bothwell; and subsequently they passed 
through the hands of a dozen proprietors, from one of 
whom, Hepburn of Humbie {c. 1649), the Castle was 
nicknamed Humbie's Wa's, till at last they came to the 
Callendars. Queen Mary feasted in the castle hall, on 
occasion of the marriage here of her natural brother. Sir 
John Stewart ; but Crichton's chief interest lies, with 
most readers, in the visit paid to it by ' Marmion. ' 
Scott's lines describe the ruin faithfully : — 

' Crichton ! though now thy miry court 

But pens the lazy steer and sheep; 

Thy turrets rude, and tottcr'd keep. 
Have been the minstrel's loved resort. 
Oft have I traced within thy fort, 

Of mouldering shields the mystic sense. 

Scutcheons of honour or pretence, 
Quarter'd in old armorial sort, 

Remains of rude magnificence. 
Nor wholly yet has time defaced 

Thy lordly gallery fair ; 
Nor yet the stony cord unbraced. 
Whose twisted knots, with roses laced. 

Adorn thy ruin'd stair. 
Still rises unimpair'd below 
The courtyard's graceful portico 
Above its cornice, row and row 
Of fair hewn facets richly show 

Their pointed diamond form.' 

'Crichton,' he adds in the Notes, 'is a large ruinous 
castle on the banks of the Tyne, built at different times, 
and ^vith a very dilferent regard to splendour and accom- 
modation. The oldest part of the building is a narrow 
keep or tower, such as formed the mansion of a lesser 
Scottish baron ; but so many additions have been made 
to it, that there is now a large courtyard, surrounded by 
buildings of different ages. The eastern front of the 
court is raised above a portico, and decorated with 
entablatures bearing ancliors. All the stones in this 
front are cut into diamond facets, the angular projections 
of which have an uncommonly rich appearance. The 
inside of this part of the building appeal's to have con- 
tained a gallery of great length and uncommon elegance. 
Access was given to it by a magnificent staircase, now 
quite destroyed. The soffits are ornamented with twin- 
ing cordage and rosettes ; and the whole seems to have 
been far more splendid than was usual in Scottish 
castles.' So that Crichton still offers a signal contrast 
to its grim square neighbour, Borthwick, even although, 
since Sir Walter's day, its courtyard has been encum- 
bered by the fall of a huge portion of the massive north- 
eastern tower. Costerton House, 3^ miles ESE of 
Pathhead, at the eastern extremity of the parish, is 
the principal mansion, the seat of David Ainslie, 
Esq. ; and the property is mostly divided among 5 
heritors. Crichton is in the presbytery of Dalkeith and 
.synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is worth 
£353, exclusive of manse and glebe. The collegiate 
church of SS. JIary and Kentigern, 1| mile SSW of 
Pathhead, was founded in 1449 for a provost, 8 pre- 
bendaries, a sacrist, and 2 singing boys. Second 
Pointed in style, it was to have been cruciform, but 
never received the nave, so now comprises a chancel, 
with sedilia ; transej)ts, the northern of which is blocked 
up with an un.siglitly vault ; and a massive, square, 
sad<lie-backed tower. The chancel, which, serving for 
parish church, contains 500 sittings, is disfigured by a 
gallery, and several of the windows have been blocked 
up ; but the whole might at no great cost be restored to 
its pristine beauty. A public school, with accommoda- 
tion for 209 children, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 183, and a grant of £174, lis. Valuation (1882) 
£8343, including £532 for railway. Pop. (1801) 923, 
(1831) 1325, (1861) 1364, (1871) 1223, (1881) 1094.— 
Ord. Snr., slis. 32, 33, 1857-63. See Billings' Baronial 


and Ecclesiastical Antiquities (1845) ; Sir Thos. Dick 
'La.wiiev's Scottish Rivers {new gA. 1874); and J. W. SmaU's 
Leaves from my Sketch Books (1880). 

Crichup Linn. See Closeburn. 

Criech. See Creich. 

Crieff (Gael, crubha, ' haunch '), a to^\•n and a parish 
of central Perthshire. The town stands on ground 
ascending from the Earn's left bank, 100 to 400 feet 
above sea-level, at the terminus of the Crietl" Junction 
and the Crieff & Methven branches of the Caledonian, 
opened respectively in 1856 and 1866. By road it 
is 6h miles E by S of Connie, and by rail 18 W of 
Perth, 108 SW of Aberdeen, 38 WSW of Dundee, 9 
NNW of Crieff Junction, 26 NNE of Stirling, 62^ NNW 
of Edinburgh, and 56;^ NNE of Glasgow. Boldly rest- 
ing on a sunny or southward slope, and sheltered from 
cold winds by pine-clad eminences, this ' Montpelier of 
Scotland ' has long been famous for its pure, dry 
climate no less than for its exquisite sunoundings. 
' From every street,' to quote the Beauties of Upper 
Strathearn, ' a landscape of rare sweetness and beauty is 
disclosed. The valley, here widening to 10 or 15 miles, 
is studded E, S, and AV, as far as the eye can reach, 
with mansions and villages, embowered in oak or pine 
woods. Here and there the Earn — no mean stream — is 
seen gliding along its winding course, now with the 
dash of a mountain torrent, and anon with the measured 
tread of a royal pageant, till the eastern view is lost 
under the receding slopes of the Ochils. On the N and 
NAV the Grampians, with Bex Choxzie (3048 feet) for 
centre piece, rear their dark forms against the sky-line, 
in summer and autumn shining in their natural bloom.' 

Charters were dated from Crieff so long ago as 1218, 
and for centuries it has been recognised as the capital of 
Strathearn, the seat of the great civil jurisdiction of tlie 
Earls Palatine till 1483, and of the criminal courts of 
the Stewards or Seneschals down to the abolition of herit- 
able jurisdiction in 1748. The 'kind gallows of Crieff,' 
whence sometimes of a morning a score of plaids had 
dangled in a row, still stood at the western end of tlie 
town, when Scott came hither in 1796 ; and he notes in 
Waverley how the Highlanders M'ould touch their 
bonnets to it, with the ejaculation — ' God bless her nain 
sell, and the Tiel tamn you ! ' To this day may be seen 
the ponderous iron stocks, and near them an octagonal 
stone fleur-de-lis, 10 feet in heiglit, tlie cross of the 
burgh of regality of Drummond (1688) ; whilst further 
to the eastward is the Cross of Crieft', transferred to its 
present position little more than a century since from 
the ancient barony of Trowan, and by some archieolo- 
gists pronounced to be of Norman, by others of Runic, 
character {Sculptured Stones of Scotland, 1867). Other 
antiquities the town has none ; for its massy Tolbooth 
of 1685, with cage and clock-tower and corbie-stepped 
gables, was demolished in 1842 ; and, though it gave 
shelter to the great Montrose, Crieff dwindled into a 
mere kirktown between 1483 and 1683. Then it began 
to revive, George Drummond of Milnab, afterwards 
provost of Edinburgh, giving off pieces of his lands in 
feu ; but on 26 Jan. 1716, it was burned to the last house 
by 350 of the Chevalier's Highland adherents. For 
some years it lay in ruins ; but from 1731 James Drum- 
mond, titular third Duke of Perth, bestirred himself in 
the work of repair and improvement, laying out James 
Square and extending the town westward, whilst found- 
ing a large linen factory. This was destroyed in tlie 
'45, when tlie loyal town narrowly escaiied a second 
singeing, and the Drummond estates were forfeited to 
the Crown. By the commissioners, however, who 
managed them from 1752 to 1784,* bleacliing, tanning, 

* In 1784 the Drummond estates were conferred by George III. 
on Captain James Druiiininnd, who claiiiicd to be heir-male of 
Lord .Tohn Drummoiid, brother of the third Duke of Perth, 
and who, In 1707, was created Haron Perth. They now are held 
by his grand-daughter, Clementina Heatlicdte-Drumniond -Wil- 
loughby. Baroness Willoughby de Eresby, and Joint Hereditary 
Chamberlain of Kngland, having been uiisiiecessfully claimed 
(lSfJS-71) by George Drummond, Earl of Perth and Melfort, aa 
nearest heir-male of the third Duke. See Dkliimu.n1) Castlk, 
Pkktu, and Strathearn. 


paper-making, and other imlustries were fostered to a 
height that bade fair to make Crietf an important 
industrial centre ; and the woollen manufacture was 
added in 1812, about which time three whisky distil- 
leries, with eight malting house, were also started. The 
last were all closed in 1S28 ; and, generally speaking, 
Crielfs mauufaetui'es received a signal blow from tlie 
termination of the great war with France, as well as from 
changes in fashions, machinery, and modes of transit. 
Prospects brightened once more with the opening of the 
railway ; and since 1856 Crieft .\\s made rapid progress, 
so that, where scarcely thirty years ago villas and cot- 
tages ornees were 'almost totally wanting,' they now 
may be counted by dozens, and only within the last 
decade £200,^^00 has been expended on new buildings. 
Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy here passed the 
night of 9 Sept. 180-3 ; and on 10 Sept. 1842 the Queen 
drove through the town, which has given birth to the 
poet David Mallet (1700-65), the chemist Prof. Thos. 
Thomson (1773-1852), and Prof. Jas. Gibson, D.D. 

The old Drummond Arms, where Prince Charles 
Edward, after reviewing his forces, held a stormy 
council of war (3 Feb. 1746), was recently feued to the 
Commercial Bank of Scotland, and premises for the 
bank and a large hotel have been built. The Royal, 
too, one of three other hotels, besides two temperance 
ones, has been greatly enlarged ; but the chief hospice 
<br tourists and invalids is Strathearn House, the large 
hydropathic establishment, erected in 1867 at a cost of 
£30,000, 1 mile NNE of the station. It stands 440 feet 
above sea-level, on the southern slope of the sheltering 
Knock, in grounds 70 acres in extent ; and is a dignified 
Elizabethan structure, four stories high, and 345 feet 
long, with a turreted square tower and 200 apartments, 
of which the dining and drawing rooms are 84 feet 
long, 30 ^vide, and 15 and 30 high. It has Tm-kish 
and other baths in great variety ; and its water-sup- 
j)]y, 20,000 gallons per diem, is brought from springs, 
gathered in a reservoir an acre in extent, and 4 miles 
distant, and by Prof. Brazier of Aberdeen was reported 
to be one of the finest and purest waters he had ever 
examined. At or near the town are a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph 
departments, branches of the Bank of Scotland and the 
British Linen Co., Clydesdale, Commercial, Korth of 
Scotland, and Union Banks, a local savings' bank, an 
ugly to'ssTi-house (1850), containing a mechanics library, 
a masonic lodge, a recreation ground (1880), gas-works, 
a commodious station (improved 1873), a cemetery, a 
bridge across the Earn (rebuilt 1867-68) three manufac- 
tories of woollen shirtings, blankets, tweeds, and plaid- 
ings, two chemical manure works, two tanneries, and 
one distillery. There are two Saturday papers published 
— the Liberal Stratlicarn Uerald (1856) and the Liberal- 
Conservative Cr if ff Journal [Idibl). Tuesday is market- 
day, and fairs are held on the first Tuesday of every 
mon*h ; but the famous Michaelmas Tryst, where 
30,000 black cattle would be sold by the Highlanders to 
English drovers for 30,000 guineas and upwards, was 
removed to Falkirk about 1770. MacKy, in his 
Joanicy Throiujh Scotland (1723), has sketched its 
humours with a vigorous hand ; and Robert Donn's 
Gaelic poem describes the home-sickness that came over 
him while counting of droves in its enclosures. 

Nowhere is the great building acti\-ity of modem 
Crieff displayed more markedly than in its schools and 
churches. The ancient parish church of St Thomas was 
demolished in 1787, when forty gold coins of Robert I. 
were found in its Gothic walls. On its site arose the 
plain East church, with an ill-designed bell-tower ; but 
this, in turn, in 1881 gave place to a goodly Gothic 
edifice in Strathearn Terrace, built at a cost of £4500, 
and seating 1000 worshippers. The "West church, built 
as a chapel of ease in 1838, and raised to quoad sacra 
status in 1864, also contains 1000 sittings. In 1881 
the Free church was rebuilt in Comrie Street, at a cost 
of £4500, exclusive of site ; and, Scoto-Gothic in style, 
has 860 sittings and a massive tower, whose .slated spire 


rises to 120 feet. The U.P. church (533 sittings) was 
rebuilt in 1837 ; St FiUan's Roman Catholic church 
(200 sittings) in 1871; and St Columba's Episcopal 
church (600 sittings) in 1877, the last at a cost of £6000, 
in the Early Decorated style, with a spire 130 feet high. 
There are, moreover. Baptist and Independent chapels. 
Thomas Morison, native of Muthill, and builder in 
Edinburgh, d}-ing in 1826, left the residue of his 
fortune to accummulate to the value of £20,000, with 
which, in 1859, was founded Morison's Academy, a 
Scottish Baronial structure, standing in gi-ounds 10 acres 
in extent, just to tlie N of the town, whilst St Mar- 
garet's College, at the E end of Crieff, was afterwards 
purchased by the seven trustees for the rector's residence 
and boarders. As remodelled in 1878, the Academy has 
a rector, English, mathematical, and modern languages 
masters, and a lady superintendent, and gives a liberal 
education to 120 boys and girls of the upper and middle 
classes. Taylor's Institution, under 6 managers, was 
founded by William Taylor of Cornton, tallow chandler 
in Crieff (d. 1841), for the children of the poor of the 
parish, and in 1859 was enlarged by addition of a 
female industrial school. It and the public school, with 
respective accommodation for 252 and 450 children, had 

(1880) an average attendance of 211 and 309, and giants 
of £170, 9s. and £247, 4s. 

Having adopted the General Police and Improvement 
Act in 1864, Crieff is governed by a senior and a jimior 
magistrate and 10 police commissioners. Its municipal 
constituency numbered 560 in 1882, when the bm-gh 
valuation'amounted to £20, 439, the revenue being £1098, 
including* assessments. Pop. (1776) 1532, (1792) 2071, 
(1835) 3835, (1851) 3824, (1S61) 3903, (1871) 4027 

(1881) 4469, of whom 110 were in Muthill parish, and 3 
in that of Monzievaird and Strowan. 

The parish comprises two divisions, united by a strip 
5 furlongs wide at the narrowest, and belonging — the 
southern to Strathearn, the northern to Gleualmond. 
The southern, containing the town, is bounded NE by 
Monzie and FowUs-Wester, SE by Madderty and the 
Innerpeftray section of ilonzie, S and SW by Muthill, 
and W by 5lonzievaird-Strowan ; whilst the northern, 
containing Corriemuchloch hamlet, is almost enclosed 
by the main and outlying portions of !Monzie and 
Fowlis-Wester. The utmost length of the whole is IO5 
miles from SSE to NXW, viz. , from the Earn at Stra- 
geath Ferry to the summit of Beinn na Gainimh ; the 
utmost wi(ltn of the southern division is 3^ miles from 
E to W, of the northern 7i miles from SE to XW ; and 
the area of the entire parish is 20,546| acres, of which 
162 are water, and 90| lie detached within Fowlis- 
AVester. The Earn winds 4 J miles south-eastward, 
roughly ti-acing all the iluthill boundary ; and its 
tributary, Tueiiet Water, flows 2 miles southward along 
the Monzievaird and Strowan border, which higher U]' 
is traced by Barvick Burn. The Shaggie Burn, 
another of the Tm'ret's affluents, has here a west-south- 
westerly run of 1^ mUe, and it.'self receives Keltie 
Burn, flowing 4^ miles south-south-eastward along the 
boundary with Monzie. Lastly, the Almuxd takes a 
winding east-south-easterly course of 10 miles in the 
northeru division, during which it descends from 870 to 
500 feet above sea-level. The surface, sinking at the 
SE corner to less than 100 feet, thence rises to 911 feet 
on the Knock of Crieff, 1196 on the Hill of Callander, 
and 2498 on Stonefield Hill ; in the Glenalmond i)ortio!i 
the chief elevations are Beinn na Gainimh (2367 feet), 
Meall Reamhar (2186), and Dun ilor (1520). The rocks 
are chiefly Old Red sandstone in the south, and clay- 
slate in the N ; the soil near the town is a pretty ricli 
loam, but elsewhere ranges from sandy or gravelly to 
stiff, reddish, tilly clay. With the exception of some 
560 acres under wood, the whole almost of the Strath- 
earn division is under cultivation ; the Glenalmond 
portion, on the other hand, is everywhere Highland in 
character. Anti(iuities are the Roman camp of Fen- 
Docii, Clach-xa-Ossian, a fort on Dun Mor, and a 
cairn on tlie opj)osite hill. Ferx Thwer is the prin- 
I cipal mansion ; and 8 proiirietors liold each an annual 
' 307 


value of £500 and upwards, 11 of between flOO and 
£500, 32 of from £50 to £100, and 60 of from £20 to 
£50. Crietf is in tlie presbytery of Auchterarder and 
sjTiod of Pertli and Stirling ; the living is worth £293. 
Valuation (1868) £17,926, 13s. 2d., (1882) £30,680, 
15s. Sd. Pop. (1801) 2876, (1831) 4786, (1861) 4490, 
X1S71) 4598, (1881) 4852.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 47, 1869. 
See S. Korner's I'ambles ronnd Crieff and Uxcursicnis 
i7i(othe IIighlands{Edinh. 1858); Bean'tiesof Upper Strath- 
earn (Crieff, 1854 ; 3d. ed. 1870) ; and Orieff, its 
Traditions and Characters, with Anecdotes of Strathearn 
(Edinh. 1S81). 

Crieff Junction, a station in Blackford parish, Perth- 
shire, at the deflection of the Crietf Junction railway 
from the Caledonian, 2^ miles SSW of Auchterarder, 
and 9 SSE of Criefl'. 

Criffel, a barren though verdant granitic mountain- 
group of SE Kirkcudbrightshire, commencing in New- 
abbey parish near the Kith, and running south-westward 
across Kirkgunzeon, Urr, and Colvend, down almost to 
the shore of the Solway Firth. It culminates in conical, 
peaked Knockendoch (1867 feet), 2^ miles S by W of 
Newabbey village, and from this ' huge Criffel's hoary 
top,' as Wordsworth calls it, commands in clear weather 
a map-like \dew of the Solway's basin and the Cumber- 
land mountains beyond, with far-away glimpses of 
Arran, Ireland, and the Isle of Man. 'Drayton,' saj-s 
Dorothy Wordsworth, 'has prettily described the con- 
nection this neighbourhood has with Cumberland when 
he makes Skiddaw say — 

' " Scurf ell from the sky, 
That Annandale doth crown, with a most amorous ej'e 
Salutes me every day, or at my pride looks grim, 
Oft threat'ning me with clouds, as I oft threat'ning him." ' 

According to a prophecy ascribed to Thomas the Rhymer, 
' in the evil day coming safely shall nowhere be found 
except atween CrifFel and tha sea.' — Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 

Crimond (anc. Creichmont, ' clay hill '), a hamlet and a 
coast parish of Buchan, NE Aberdeenshire. The hamlet, 
Ij'ing 2J miles inland, is 3 miles ESE of Lonma}' station, 
8| SE by S of Fraserburgh, and 9 NW of Peterhead, 
under which it has a post office. 

The parish, containing also the fishing hamlet of 
Rattray, formerly a royal burgh, 2 miles to the ENE, 
is bounded SW, NW, and N by Lonmay, NE and E by 
the German Ocean, and SE by St Fergus in Banffshire 
(detached). Its length is 6§ miles from ENE to 
WSW, viz. , from Rattray Head to a little beyond the 
Loch of Kininmonth ; its width in an opposite direction 
varies between 1| and 2| miles ; and its area is 6281^ 
acres, of which 243^ are water, and 148i foreshore. 
The coast-line, 2§ miles in extent, includes the low, 
rocky, shelving promontory of Rattray Head ; and else- 
where presents a broad band of flat beach, backed by bent- 
covered sand-hills. The interior rises abruptly from the 
shore to 106 feet above sea-level near the coastguard 
station, and, thence descending gradually towards the 
centre, ascends again gently southward and south-west- 
ward to 136 feet near South Mosstown, 228 at Upper 
Ridinghill, and 284 at Lochhills. Loch STR.\TnBEG, 
2§ miles long, and from 2 to 4i furlongs broad, lies on 
the northern border, and receives burns and runnels 
draining the interior ; the Loch of Kininmonth (3x1 
furl.), in the SW, has been recently drained. Streams 
of pure water are scarce, most being tainted with iron. 
Dark blue granite prevails in the E ; red granite, gene- 
rally in a cruml)ling condition, is found in the W ; trap 
rock is also abundant ; and limestone was at one time 
quarried. The soil near the coast is light and sandy ; 
towards the centre is generally of a black loamy nature, 
resting on a clay bottom ; and elsewhere is cold and 
wet. Nearly five-sevenths of the entire area are arable, 
less than one-eighth is pastoral, and plantations cover 
a considerable extent. Crimond estate belonged once 
to the Earls of Errol, whilst Logic was the seat of 
a branch of the Gordons ; but both belong now to 
Ethel, daugliter (b. 1869) of the late Sir Alex. Banner- 
man of CiuMONMOGATE. Logie was the scene of the 


fine old Jacobite song, Logic o' Biichan, believed 
to have been written about 1736 b}' George Halket, 
schoolmaster at Rathen ; and at a spot called the Battle 
Fauld, tradition points out the grave of the hero of the 
famous ballad, Sir James the Rose. A circular mound, 
called Castle Hill, at the E end of Loch Strathbeg, was 
the site of a castle of Com}-n, Earl of Buchan ; and near 
it are the First Pointed ruins of St ]\Iary's chapel of 
Rattray ; whilst on the farm of Netherton of Logie is 
an ancient Caledonian circle in a high state of preserva- 
tion. John Farquhar (1751-1826), known as 'the rich 
Farquhar of Fonthill,' was a native. Rattray House is 
the principal mansion ; and 3 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of more, 5 of less, than £100. Giving off 
a south-western portion to the quoad sacra parish of 
Kininmonth, Crimond is in the presbytery of Deer and 
synod of Aberdeen ; the living is worth £296. The 
present church, at the hamlet, was built in 1812, and, 
containing 500 sittings, has a steeple and clock ; its 
ruined predecessor, near the manse, f mile N by W, is 
said to have been a prebend of St Machar's at Aberdeen 
in 1262, and bears date 1576. A public school, with 
accommodation for 142 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 98, and a grant of £84, 2s. Valuation 
(1881) £5997, 12s. 7d. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 862, 
(1821) 900, (1841) 767, (1851) 893, (1871) 887, (1881) 
827 ; of ecclesiastical parish (1881)815. — Ord. Sur., shs. 
97, 87, 1876. 

Crimonmogate, a mansion in Lonmay parish, Aber- 
deenshire, 1^ mile W of Lonmay station. Grecian in 
style, with a hexastyle granite portico, it was built 
towards the middle of the present century at a cost of 
£10,000 ; in its finely-planted grounds is a granite 
obelisk to the memory of Patrick Milne, who bequeathed 
the estate to the Banuermans. The present owner. Sir 
George Bannerman of Elsick, tenth Bart, since 1682 (b. 
1829 ; sue. 1877), holds 7660 acres in the shire, valued 
at £7745 per annum. 

Crinan, a village, a sea-loch, and a canal, in Argyll- 
shire. The village, called sometimes Port-Crinan, stands 
in Kilmartin parish, on the northern side of the sea- 
loch, not far from the W end of the canal, 5^ miles 
WNW of Lochgilphead, under which it has a post 
office ; at it are an excellent inn, a wharf and slip, and 
a lighthouse. The steamers, in the line of communica- 
tion between Glasgow and Oban, call at it ; and here 
the Queen and Prince Albert spent the night of 18 Aug. 
1843 on board the royal yacht. — The sea-loch, extend- 
ing 4^ miles north-westward, opens into the upper part 
of the Sound of Jura, adjacent to the mouth of Loch 
Craignish ; and leads the way, round Craignish Point, 
to the passage, between Scarba and Luing islands, to 
the Firth of Lorn. Its head is narrow and tame ; but 
most of its north-eastern side is rich in interesting 
features ; and its mouth, 3 miles wide, between Craig- 
nish and Ardmore Points, with a group of islets in its 
own waters, and with the northern extremity of Jura in 
front, is strikingly ])icturesque. — The canal goes from 
the middle of the AV side of Loch Gilp, 9 miles west- 
north-westward, to Loch Crinan, in the vicinity of 
Crinan village, and enables vessels of 200 tons burden, 
from the upper Firth of Clyde to the Firth of Lorn, to 
avoid the difficult and circuitous passage of 70 miles 
round the Mull of Kintyre. Projectecl by Sir John 
Rennie in 1793, at an estimated cost of £63,678, it was 
opened in 1801 at an actual cost of £141,810 ; and even 
then other loans had to be obtained, which by 1814 
had burdened the Company with a debt of £67,810. It 
is cut chiefly through chlorite schist, traversed by trap 
dykes, and showing indications of great geognostic dis- 
turbance ; and has eight locks between Loch Gilp and 
the summit-level (59 feet), and seven between that and 
Loch Crinan, thirteen of these locks being each 96 feet 
long and 24 wide, and the other two 108 feet long and 
27 wide. The average depth of water is only 10 feet, 
the canal being fed by reservoirs on the hill above, whose 
bursting (2d Feb. 1859) washed away part of the banks 
and choked the channel for upwards of a mile with dihris. 
The repairs took a sum of £12,000, which was disbursed 


by Government. The canal is used chiefly by small 
coasting and fishing vessels, by goods steamboats plying 
between the Clyde and Inverness, and by an elegant, 
roomy, and well-appointed steamboat conveying passen- 
gers between large steamers at Ardrishaig and Port- 
Crinan. Since 1818 the canal has been managed by the 
Commissioners of the Caledonian Canal. Its revenues 
arising from the tolls have, on the average, been barely 
sufficient to cover the current expenses of maintenance 
and repair. The receipts and expenditure, in most 
years, have been nearly equal, in the year ending 30th 
April 1S64 being £3605 and £4545; in 1869, £4316 and 
£4394 ; in 1873, £4614 and £4727 ; in 1876, £5057 and 
£4341 ; in 1878, £5966 and £4381 ; and in 1879, £5730 
and £4929, whilst the passages in the last-named year 
numbered 2668. 

Cringletie, an estate, with a mansion, in Eddlestone 
parish, Peeblesshire, 3 miles KNW of Peebles. The 
mansion, standing on a finely-wooded plateau, to the 
right of Eddleston Water, was rebuilt in 1863 in the old 
Scotch manor-house style, and contains some fine family 
portraits by Gainsborough, Raebum, and othere. For 
more than two centuries it has been the seat of a branch 
of the Murraj's, which has produced a gallant soldier 
and an eminent judge — Col. Alex. Murray (d. 1762), 
and Jas. Wolfe Murray, Lord Cringletie (1760-1836). 
The son and namesake of the latter (b. 1814) holds 5108 
acres in the shire, valued at £2647 per annum. 

Crocach. See Cbokach. 

Crocketford, a village on the mutual border of Urr 
and Kirkpatrick-Durham parishes, Kirkcudbrightshire, 
near Achenreoch and Milton Lochs, 9 miles "WSW of 
Dumfries. Founded by the Buchauites in 1787, it has 
a post office under Dumfries, and a public school ; near 
it is Crocketford House. 

Croe, a clear-flowing river of Glenshiel parish, SW 
Koss-shire, formed by two head-streams at an altitude 
of 180 feet above sea-level, and nmning 5^ miles west- 
north-westward — latterly along the Kintail border — to 
the head of Loch Duich. It abounds in sabnon and sea- 
trout, but is preserved. — Orel. Sur., sh. 72, 1880, 

Croftanrigh. See Dalrt and Edixbuegh. 

Crofthead. See Neilstox. 

Crofthead, a large mineral village in Whitburn parish, 
SW Linlithgowshire, 3| miles S by W of Whitbm-n 
village, and 1^ mile EXE of Crofthead station on the 
Morningside section of the North British, this being 6| 
miles SSW of Bathgate. It has itself a Free church 
and a public school ; and it practically forms one with 
Fauldhouse and Greenbum villages, lying 1 mile WSW 
and I mile SW. See FArLDHOusE. 

Croftinloan, an estate, with a mansion, in Logierait 
palish, Perthshire, near the left bank of the Tay, 2 
miles SE of Pitlochrie. Its owner. Admiral Jack Henry 
Murray (b. ISIO), holds 110 acres in the shire, valued 
at £225 per annum. 

Croftmartaig, a hamlet adjoining the village of 


Croftness, a hamlet, with a Christian Knowledge 
Society's female school, in Glenlivet quoad sacra parish, 

Crofts. See Ceossmichael. 

Crogo, a hamlet in the SE of Balmaclellan parish, 
KE Kirkcudbrightshire, 1^ mile XXW of Corsock. 

Croick, a quooxl sacra parish in Kincardine parish, 
Ross-shire, whose church (1827), manse, and school stand 
in the Black Water's sequestered valley, 10 miles W of 
its station and post-town, Ardgay. It is in the presby- 
tery of Tain and sjTiod of Ross ; the minister's stipend 
is £120, with a manse and a glebe worth each £5 a year. 
— Orel. Sur., sh. 102, 1881. See Kincardine. 

Crokach, a loch in Assynt parish, Sutherland, 3 miles 
X of Lochinver. Lying 380 feet above sea-level, it is 
1| mile long, and from ^ furlong to 3 furlongs wide ; is 
studded with thirteen islets ; and contains fine, well- 
shaped trout. 

Crokach, a loch in the SW corner of Reay parish, 
Sutherland, 5^ miles W by X of Forsinard station. 
Lying 950 feet above sea-level, it contains two islets, 


and presents an irregular outline, with utmost length 
and breadth of 5^ and 4 furlongs. 

Crolin. See Croulix. 

Crom, a loch on the mutual border of Fodderty and 
Kincardine parish, Ross-shire, 7J miles NW of the head 
of Loch Glass. Lying 1720 feet above sea-level, it has 
an utmost length and breadth of f mile and 3^ lurlongs^ 
and communicates with the river Carron. 

Cromack. See Ceammag. 

Cromal or Cromwell's Mount, a circular elevation in 
Ardersier parish, XE Inverness-shire, on the ridge of hill 
behind Campbeltown. It rises about 20 feet above the 
adjacent level of the ridge ; is crowned by an ancient 
Caledonian fort, with a rampart 5 feet high and 360 
feet in circumference ; and commands a very extensive 
view, including parts of seven or eight counties. 

Cromar, a sub-district of Aberdeenshire, on the X side 
of the middle reach of the river Dee. It comprehends 
the parishes of Coull, Tarland^ and Logie-Coldstone, and 
a small part of Glenmuick. 

Cromarty, the county town and a parish of Cromarty- 
shire. A seaport and parliamentary burgh, the town 
lies low on the southern shore of the Cromarty Firth, 2 
miles W by S of its Sutor-guarded entrance, 4J miles E 
by S of Invergordon by water and 8 by the shore-road 
and Invergordon ferry, llf SSE of Tain, 9 XXE of 
Foitrose, and 19^ XXE of Inverness. For more than 
three centuries the sea has been steadily gaining on its 
site, so that where the old biirgh stood is covered deep 
by each returning tide ; but at a remote period the sea 
came higher up than now, and its ancient margin is 
marked by an eminence that, rising abruptly from the 
level to a height of 100 feet, next forms a tableland, and 
thence sweeps gently upward to the Southern Sutor. 
On the said eminence, right above the town, stood the 
old castle of the Urquharts, a massy, time-worn building, 
battlemented, stone-roofed, and sis stories high. It was 
rased to the ground in 1772, and its place is occupied by 
Cromarty House ; hard by, a column, 40 feet high, is sur- 
mounted by Handyside Ritchie's life-size statue (1859) of 
Cromarty's most celebrated son, the stonemason geolo- 
gist and author, Hugh Miller (1802-56). Even before 
his day the antique gabled houses of 'Old Cromarty' 
had mostly disappeared ; but their successors have in 
turn grown old, and the whole place presents an appear- 
ance of picturesque decay and desolation, 30 out of its 
287 domiciles standing imtenanted in 1881. The Bay 
of Cromarty forms one of the finest natural harbours in 
the world, and during winter storms ship after ship 
comes pressing into it for shelter. Thither they are 
guided by a lighthouse, whose fixed red light is visible 
for 13 nautical miles, and which was built on the Point 
in 1846 at a cost of £3203. From a commodious quay, 
constructed in 1785, and repaired and extended in 1880, 
goods valued at £25,000 were shipped to London in 1807. 
But by the railwa}' the commerce of Easter Ross has 
been diverted to Invergordon ; and fishing and fish- 
curing are now the only industries of Cromarty. It still 
is head of the fishery district between Findhorn and 
Helmsdale Loch, in which during 1880 there were cured 
2223 barrels of white herrings, besides 1504 cod, Ung, 
and hake, — taken by 298 boats of 2451 tons ; the persons 
employed being 904 fishermen and boys, 8 fish-curers, 
12 coopers, and 831 others, and the total value of boats, 
nets, and lines being estimated at £30,505. A brewery, 
a hemp and cloth factory, and one or two timber-yards 
have all been closed ; two fairs have become extinct ; 
but a weekly market is held, in name at least, on Tues- 
day. There are three churches — the 16th century 
parish church, described as ' a true Presbyterian edi- 
fice ;' an Established Gaelic church, built about 1785 ; 
and a Free church : and Cromarty has besides a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, branches of the Caledonian and Commer- 
cial Banks, 5 insurance agencies, 3 hotels, a neat town- 
hall (1782) with cupola and clock, a masonic lodge, 
and 3 benevolent societies. A royal burgh once, it was 
reduced in 1672 to the rank of a burgh of barony, but 
by the Reform Act of 1833 unites with the other five 



Wick burghs in returning a member to Parliament ; and, 
having adopted the General Police and Improvement 
Act of 1862, is governed by a provost, 9 councillors, and 
9 police commissioners. Its parliamentary and muni- 
cipal constituency numbered 83 in 1882, when its valua- 
tion amounted to £1922. Pop. (ISOl) 1993, (1831) 
2215, (1851) 1988, (1861) 1491, (1871) 1476, (1881) 

Tlie parish, forming the north-eastern extremity of 
the Black Isle peninsula, is bounded N by Cromarty 
Firth, SE by the Moray Firth and Rosemarkie, SW by 
Rosemarkie, and W by Resolis. Its utmost length, from 
NE to SW, is 7i miles ; its width, from NW to SE, varies 
between 1 J and 2h miles ; and its area is 7060 acres. 
The coast-line, 9h miles long, presents for 3 miles to the 
Moray Firth a huge brown wall of beetling precipice, 
rising to 225 feet near JI'Farquhar's Bed, and 463 at 
the Southern Sutor, whose highest knoll is termed the 
Gallow Hill, from its having been the place of execution. 
The northern shore, on the other hand, all along Cro- 
marty Bay, is fringed by the level strip, already noticed, 
behind which the green bank slopes ujiwards to a height 
in places of 100 feet ; further inland the surface ascends 
to the broad AuDMEANACii ridge, attaining 241 feet near 
Newton, 477 near Bannan, and 548 near Glenurquhart. 
The Sutor, or ' Hill of Cromarty,' to quote Hugh J\Iiller, 
' is one of a chain belonging to the great Ben Nevis line 
of elevation ; and, though it occurs in an Old Red sand- 
stone district, is itself a huge primary mass, upheaved 
of old from the abyss, and composed chiefly of gi'anitic 
gneiss and a red splintery hornstone. It contains also 
numerous veins and beds of hornblend rock and chlorite 
schist, and of a peculiar-looking granite, of which the 
quartz is white as milk, and the felspar red as blood.' 
In the cliff are two lines of caves — one hollowed by the 
waves long centmies ago, and another that the surf is 
still busy scooping out. I\Iany of the former — as the 
Doocot or Pigeon Caves, and the inferior though better- 
kno^\'n Droi)ping Cave — 'are lined with stalactites, de- 
posited bj' springs that, filtering through the cracks and 
fissures of the gneiss, find time enough in their passage 
to acquire what is known as a petrifying, though, in 
reality, only an incrusting quality.' Garnets are plenti- 
ful along the shore, where, too, are the Clach Malloch 
or Cursed Stone, an enormous granitic boulder, and five 
vast natural archways in the rocks. But for full exposi- 
tion of Cromarty's sermons in stones the reader himself 
must turn to Hugh Miller's Scenes and Lcjends of the 
North of Scotland (1835) and My Schools and School- 
masters (1854), which further record its memories of 
JIacbeth, Thane of Cromarty ; of Wallace's fabled defeat 
of the English, 4 J miles SW of the town ; of the Chap- 
lain's Lair; of the Black Years (1694-1701); of the 
Meal ilob (1741), etc. Towards the close of the 13th 
century one William Urquhart of Cromarty was heritable 
sherifi" of the county ; among his descendants was the 
ail-but admirable Sir Thomas Urquhart (1613-60), trans- 
lator of Rabelais, and author of 128i folio quires of MS., 
wherein he discussed as many or more original inventions. 
That wily statesman, Sir Geo. Mackenzie of Tarlaat (1630- 
1714), was created Viscount Tarbat in 1685 and Earl of 
Cromartie in 1703. His second son, Kenneth, who 
became a baronet in 1704, obtained the extensive estate 
of Cromarty ; but his eldest son. Sir Geo. Mackenzie, 
member for the shire, was driven by bankruptcy to sell 
it in 1741 to William Urquhart of ItlELDHUM. Five 
years later the earldom was attainted in the person of 
George, third Earl, for his part in the '45 ; nor was it 
revived till 1861, and then in favour of his fourth 
descendant, Anne Hay-Mackenzie, Duchess of Suther- 
land, with limitation to her second son, Francis, Viscount 
Tarbat. There are now in the ]>arish 6 lesser land- 
owners, 1 holding an annual value of between £100 and 
£500, 2 of from £50 to £100, and 3 of from £20 to £50 ; 
but much the largest proprietor is Col. Geo. Wm. Holmes 
Ross of Cromarty House (b. 1825 ; sue. 1852). His 
estate extends over 7946 acres, of which 4112 arc arable, 
2625 in pasture, and 1209 under wood ; its rental has 
been raised, by reclamations and other inn)rovenients, 


from £5144 in 1850 to £6128. The soil is principally 
loam, but clay abounds in some parts, and moorish soil 
in others ; and the rent of an acre ranges from 10s. to 60s. 
The moorish land reclaimed at a cost of £20 per acre 
was previously under wood ; on the other hand, all the 
available waste has been planted (pp. 107-111 of Trans. 
Uighl. and Ag. Soc, 1877). Cromarty is in the pres- 
bytery of Chanonry and synod of Ross ; the living is 
worth £399. Prior to the Reformation there were six 
chapels within its bounds, three of which were dedicated 
to SS. Duthac, Bonnet, and Regidus ; but scarcely a 
vestige remains of any one of them ; whilst a Red or 
Trinitarian priory, founded about 1271, has vanished 
utterly. In 1875-76 two new board schools were built 
at a cost of £6000 in the town and at Peddicston, 4 J 
miles to the SW. With respective accommodation for 
300 and 120 children, these had (1880) an average 
attendance of 164 and 40, and grants of £134, 8s. 6d. 
and £19, 5s. Pop. (1801) 2413, (1831) 2901, (1841) 
2662, (1861) 2300, (1871) 2180, (1881) 2009.— On/. Sur., 
sh. 94, 1878. See P. Payne's Life of Hugh Miller (2 
vols., 1871), andWm. Fraser's Earls of Cromartie : their 
Kindred, Country, and Correspondence (2 vols., 1876). 

Cromarty Bay, a southward expansion of Cromarty 
Firth, 4§ miles wide across a chord drawn west-by- 
soiithward from Cromarty to Newhall Point, the distance 
from that chord to the inmost recess of the shore being 
1^ mile. Its sandy south-western corner, ofi'ering at 
low-water a broad expanse of foreshore, is known as 
Udale Bay. 

Cromarty Firth, the estuary of the river, in 
Ross and Cromarty, commencing between Marj'burgh 
and Dingwall, 5| miles N of the head of Beauly Fii'th, 
and thence extending 19| north-eastward and eastward 
to the Moray Firth, where its entrance, 7 furlongs broad, 
is guarded by the North and South Sutors, 400 and 
463 feet high. Its width is If mile near Kinnaird 
House, 1§ at Kiltearn manse, 1 at Balconie Point, 
1 J at Alness Bay, f at Invergordon, and 7| miles from 
the head of Udale Bay north-eastward to the head of 
Nigg Bay ; but that of its channel nowhere exceeds 9 
furlongs above Invergordon. On its right lie the parishes 
of Urquhart, Resolis, and Cromarty, on its left of Ding- 
wall, Kiltearn, Alness, Rosskeen, Kilmuir Easter, Logie 
Easter, and Nigg ; and it receives the Peft'ery, Ault- 
grande, and Alness rivers on its left side, which is closely 
followed by the Highland railway. Again we must turn 
to Hugh Miller for a description of the broad and deep 
lowest reach, as viewed from the Moray Fii'th in a clear 
morning of summer : — ' The foreground is occupied by 
a gigantic wall of bro^^Ti precipices, beetling for many 
miles over the edge of the firth, and crested by dark 
thickets of furze and pine. A multitude of shapeless 
crags lie scattered along the base, and we hear the noise 
of the waves breaking against them, and see the reflected 
gleam of the foam flashing at intervals into the darker 
recesses of the rock. The waters find entrance, as de- 
scribed by liuclianan, through a natural postern scooped 
out of the jniildle of this immense wall. The huge pro- 
jections of clilf on either hand, with their alternate 
masses of light and shadow, remind us of the out-jets 
and buttresses of an ancient fortress ; and the two Sutors, 
towering over the opening, of turrets built to command 
a gateway. The scenery within is of a softer and more 
gentle character. We see hanging woods, sloping pro- 
montories, a little quiet town, and an undulating line 
of blue mountains, swelling as they retire into a bolder 
outline and a loftier altitude, until they terminate, some 
20 miles away, in snow-streaked, cloud-cajiped Ben 
Wyvis.'— On?. Sur., shs. 83, 93, 94, 1881-78. 

Cromartyshire, a county, interlaced with Ross-shire, 
in the N of Scotland. It comprehends an ancient 
sheriirdom, hereditary in the family of Unpihart ol' Cro- 
marty, and detached districts annexed in tlie latter part 
of tlic 17th century, at the instance of Viscount Tarbat, 
afterwards Earl of Cromarty. The ancient sherifl'dom, 
or olil shire, comprises Cromarty parish, the greater 
part of Resolis parish, and an undefined portion of the 
Mullbuy ; and is usually stated to have a length of about 



i f F [ rllj J ji^x^AULY; CROMAilTrAlTiD MORAY 



16 miles, a breadth of about 6h or 7 miles, and an area 
of about 39,690 acres. The detached districts are a 
district surrounding Tarbat House, on the NE seaboard 
of Cromarty Firth ; a district commencing on the Dor- 
noch Firth a little E of Tain, and extending eastward 
to the Moray Firth in the vicinity of Geanis ; two small 
tracts in Kincardine pai-ish, adjacent to the river Carron ; 
a district extending west-north-westward from the vici- 
nit}"^ of Dingwall, and including Castle-Leod and part of 
Ben Wyvis ; two tracts on the N of respectively Loch 
Fannich and Loch Nid ; a tract along the S side of the 
middle and upper parts of Little Loch Broom ; the large 
district of Coigach, lying between Loch Broom and 
Sutherland, and extending to Loch Enard and Rhu More 
promontory ; and the Summer islands, lying in the N 
side of the mouth of Loch Broom. These eight are esti- 
mated to measure aggi-egately about 344 square miles, 
or 220,586 acres. The ancient valuation of the property 
was £12,896 ; but the modern valuation of the property, 
and all the other modern statistics, are merged into 
those of Ross-shire. Tlie county has a court of lieuten- 
ancy of its own ; but it has no sheriff or even sheriff- 
substitute of its own ; and, as to its fiscal affairs, its 
parliamentary representation, and even its parochial 
distribution and its territorial character, \vith tlie ex- 
ception only of Cromarty parish, it is always practically 
treated as simplj'- a component part of Ross-shire. 

Crombie, a small village and an ancient parish in the 
SW extremity of Fife. The village stands 1^ mile S of 
Cairneyhill, and 3^ miles SW of Dunfermline. The 
parish is now incorporated with Torryburn, comprising 
that part of it to the S of the Burn of Torry, and also 
certain detached lands, which, distant 7^ miles, are 
annexed quoad sacra to Saline. Its church stood on a 
commanding site, overlooking the Firth of Forth, and 
is now represented by some ruins. 

Crombie, a burn in Kingoldrum parish, Forfarshire. 
It rises 2 miles JT of Kingoldrum village ; runs past that 
village ; describes a semicircle toward the E ; proceeds 
If mile west-south-westward; and falls into the river 

Crombie, a burn in the S of Inveraven parish, Banff- 
shire, rising close to the Aberdeenshire border, at 2400 
feet above sea-level, and running 7:^ miles north-north- 
westward to Livet "Water at Tombae. 

Crombie, a burn and an old castle in Marnoch parish, 
Banffshire. The burn, rising near the Ordiquhill border, 
runs 3 miles southward to the Deveron at Marnoch 
manse ; and the castle stands on the right side of the 
bm-u, IJ mile N of the said manse. Supposed to be 
very ancient, and looking to have been a place of some 
strength, it now consists of three stories, but formerly was 
much higher ; and belongs now to the Earl of Seafield. 

Crombie Point, a small headland, a small harbour, 
and a hamlet in Torryburn parish, SW Fife, on the 
Firth of Forth, 1^ mile SE of Torryburn village, and 
If W by N of Charlestown. The harbour is a calling 
place of the Granton and Stirling steamers. 

Cromdale, a parish, chiefly in Elginshire, but partly 
also in Inverness-shire. In its Elginshire portion, on the 
Spey's right bank, is Cromdale station on the Strathspey 
section of the Great Iv'orth of Scotland, 3 miles NE of 
Granto\vn station and 21 SW of Craigellachie Junction ; 
near it are a post office under Grantown, a new public 
school (1877), the parish church (1809; 900 sittings), 
and a viire suspension footbridge (1881) over the Spey, 
195 feet in span. 

The parish, till 1870 mainly in Inverness-shire, con- 
tains also the town of Ghantown ; the station of Dava, 
at the XW border, Sh miles NNW of Grantown ; the 
station of Advie ; and the station of Broomhill, 3| 
miles SSW of Grantown. It is bounded XW by Eilin- 
killie; NE by Knockando; E by Inveraven, and SE by 
Kirkmichael, in Banffshire ; S by Abernethy, and SW 
by Duthil, in Inverness-shire ; and W by Ardclach, in 
Nairnshire. Its utmost length, from NE to SW, is 16 
miles ; its utmost breadth, from N W to SE, is llg miles ; 
and its area is 64,253 acres, of which 899;^ are water. The 
Spey winds 20^^- miles north-eastward along the border 


and through the interior, descending in this course from 
about 680 to 480 feet above .sea-level ; and the Divie 
and Dorbock, feeders of the Findhorn, rise in the NW 
corner of the parish, the Dorbock issuing from Lochin'- 
DORB, which, 2^ miles long and from IJ to 5 furlongs 
broad, lies at an altitude of 769 feet on the Edinkillie 
boundary. To the S of it lie Loch an t-Sithein (2f x 1 
furl.), Lochan Dubh (1 x 4 furl. ), and Loch Ruigh a' 
Bhuair (2x1 furl.). Chief elevations to the left or W 
of the Spey, from NE to SW, are Gallow Hill (1210 
feet), Geal Charn (1487), Carn na h-Eige (1673), Larig 
Hill (1783), Creag a' Bharrain (1324), Cam an Loiti 
(1798), Carn na Doire (1294), Carn Bad na Caorach 
(1557), Craig Tiribog (1586), and Beinn Mhor (1545); 
whilst to the right, on the Banffshire and Inverness- 
shire border, rise Tom a Chait (1646 feet), Creag an 
Tarmachain (2121), Carn Eachie (2329), and Tom Biath 
(1163), tliese latter belonging to the heathy Cromdale 
Hills. Granite is a predominant rock ; and limestone 
of prime quality abounds in places, and has been largely 
worked for both building and manure. The soil of the 
haughs along the Spey is very fertile ; that of the other 
arable lands is generally thin and dry. Barely a tenth 
of the entire area is under the plough, and woods and 
plantations cover at least as much, the country round 
Granto\vn, and indeed the whole strath of the Spey, 
being finely adorned with trees. On May 1, 1690, the 
war in Scotland between James VII. and William of 
Orange was virtually ended by the affair of the Haughs 
of Cromdale, when, at a spot 2h miles E by S of Crom- 
dale station, the dragoons of Sir Thomas Livingstone 
surprised Buchan's sleeping Highlanders, 800 in number, 
slaying more than 300, and taking 100 prisoners. 
The ruined castle of Muckerach is separately noticed, as 
like^ase is Castle-Grant, whose owner, Ian Charles Grant- 
Ogilvie, eighth Earl of Seafield (b. 1851 ; sue. 1881), 
is almost the sole proprietor. In the presbytery of 
Abernethy and synod of Moray, Cromdale comprises the 
ancient parishes of Inverallan and Advie, and is now 
divided into the quoad sacra parishes of Inverallan and 
Cromdale, the latter being worth £298, with manse and 
glebe. Besides two schools in Grantown, four public 
schools — Achanarrow, Ad\ae, Cromdale, and Dava — 
with respective accommodation for 70 90, 100, and 50 
children, had (1880) an average attendance of 33, 34, 
55, and 29, and grants of £40, 2s., £26, lis., £35, 16s., 
and £36, 13s. 6d. Valuation (1881) £13,554, 2s., of 
which £1627, 18s. was in the Inverness-shire section. 
Pop. (1801)2187, (1831) 3234, (1861) 3943, (1871) 3817, 
(1881) 3642, of whom 1166 were in Cromdale quoad sacra 
parish. — Ord. Sur., shs. 74, 75, 84, 85, 1876-77. 

Cromlix, a barony in Dunblane parish, Perthshire, 
around Dunblane town. Cromlix Cottage, 4 miles N 
of Dunblane, is a seat of the Hon. Arthur Hay Drum- 
mond, the late Earl of KinnouU's third son (b. 1833 ; 
sue. 1866), who owns 7465 acres in the shire, valued at 
£4240 per annum. The mineral wells of Cromlix are 
noticed in connection with Duxblaxe Hydropathic 

Cromore. See Eeisoet, Loch. 

Cromwell Park, a village, with bleach-works, in Red- 
gorton parish, Perthshire, on the left bank of the 
Almond, 1^^ mile NW of Almondbank. 

Cromwell's Fort. See Ayr and Inverness. 

Cromwell's Mount. See Broxmouth. 

Crona, two small flat islets of Assynt parish, Suther- 
land, 5 furlongs SW of Oldany island. 

Cronberry, a village of recent origin in Auchinleck 
parish, Ayrshire, 2 miles NE by N of Lugar. It owes 
its origin to iron-works of the Eglinton Iron Co., and 
has a school in connection therewith. Pop. (1871) 997, 
(18S1) 799. 

Crook or Creuch, a summit (1446 feet) on the western 
border of Kilmalcolm parish, Renfrewshire, f mile from 
the A3'rshire border, and 5 miles S by W of Greenock. 

Crook, a place on the N border of St Ninians ii;irish, 
Stirlingshire, on tiie Haimock rivulet, 1^ mile ESE of 
Stirling. Miss Elizabeth Hamilton (1758-1816) resided 
at it whilst writing her Cottagers of Glenburnie. 



Crook, an inn on the mutual liorder of Tweedsmuir 
and Dmiunielzier parishes, S Peeblesshire, standing, 746 
feet above sea-level, near the left bank of the Tweed, 1 J 
mile NNE of Tweedsmuir church and 12 miles SSE of 
Biggar, under which it lias a post oflice. A well-known 
hostelry in the old coaching days, it now is only a resort 
of anglers for the head-waters of the Tweed. Nether 
Oliver Dod (1673 feet) culminates f mile to the WSW. 

Crook, Forfarshire. See CuuicK. 

Crookedholm, a village in Kilmarnock parish, Ayr- 
shire, on the right bank of the Irvine, li mile ESE of 
Kilmarnock town, and f mile N of Hurlford Junction. 
At it are a public school and a worsted siiinning-mill, 
in connection with carpet factories in Kilmarnock. Pop. 
(1S61) 6-20, (1S71) 770, (ISSl) 657. 

Crook of Alves, a hamlet in Alves parish, Elginshire, 
8i furlongs N of Alves station. 

Crook of Devon, a small old village in the Kinross- 
Bhire section of Fossoway parish, on the left bank of the 
Devon, at its sharp westward bend or crook, witli a 
station on the Devon Valley section of the North British, 
14 mile ENE of Rumbling- Bridge, and 6 miles WSW of 
Kinross. It is a burgh of baronJ^ 

Crookston, an estate, with a ruined castle, on the E 
border of Abbey parish, Renfrewshire. The estate be- 
longed in the 12th century to Robert de Croc, a gentle- 
man of Norman ancestry, and passing by marriage in 
the 13th to the illustrious family of Stewart, was then 
united to the estates of Darnley, Neilston, Inchinnan, 
and Tarbolton. It was held by Henry, Lord Darnley 
(1546-67), who became the husband of Queen Mary ; 
and in 1572 was granted to his younger brother Charles 
Stewart, fifth Earl of Lennox. Afterwards it passed 
through many hands to the Duke of Montrose, and 
was purchased from the second Duke in 1757 by Sir 
John Maxwell of PoUok. The castle stands on the 
summit of a wooded slope, overhanging the left bank of 
Levern Water, 3 furlongs above its influx to the White 
Cart, and 3J miles ESE of Paisley. Once a massive 
edifice, with centre, two lofty towers, and battlemented 
wings, surrounded by a rampart and a moat, it now 
consists of only one shattered tower, 50 feet high. John 
Wilson, Tannahill, Motherwell, Burns, and many anony- 
mous poets have celebrated Crookston in verse ; and 
most persons, though on little better authority than 
loose tradition, believe that it, not Wemyss, was the 
scene of Lord Darnley's betrothal to Queen Mary in 
1565, and the place where they spent the days im- 
Diediatel}- after their marriage. A stately j'ew, known 
as 'the Crookston Tree,' standing a little to the E, and 
popularly regarded as having been a favourite haunt of 
the royal lovers, became eventually blasted and leafless, 
less from natural decay than in consequence of being 
hacked and hewn by relic-hunters for pieces to be con- 
verted into snuff-boxes and small ornamental ai'ticles, 
till it was eventually rooted up by Sir John Maxwell in 
1817. Common tradition, too, asserts that Queen Mary 
from Crookston Castle viewed the battle of Langside, — 
a tradition adopted by Wilson in his poem of the Clyde, 
and by Sir Walter Scott, both in his novel of The Abbot 
and in his History of Scotland; but the castle is 3A 
miles W by N of the battlefield, is completely hid from 
it by intervening heights, and, moreover, was in the 
rear, not of the Queen's army, but of the enemy. — Ord. 
Siir. , sh. 30, 1866. See David Semple's Tree of Crocston : 
being a Refutation of the Fables of the Courtshi}) of Queen 
Marie and Lord Darnley under the Yew Tree (Paisley, 

Crookston, an estate in Borthwick and Stow parishes, 
Edinburghshire. Its mansion, in the NE of Stow, 
stands on the left bank of flala Water, If,' mile N of 
Fountainhall station, and is the seat of John Borthwick, 
Esq. (b. 1825; sue. 1846), who holds 9723 acres in 
Edinburgh and Berwick shires, valued at £5851 per 
annum. See Borthwick. 

Croot, a loch (12 x jf furl.) in Kirkmichael parish, 
Ayrshire, near Ijarnsheau Loch, and 3J miles NE of 
Kirkmichael village. 

Crosbol. See Cuaspul. 


Crosby. See Tkoon and Duxdonald. 

Cross. See Luce, Water of. 

Cross. See Bakvas, Lewis. 

Crossall, a sTnall eminence in Dalmeny parish, Lin- 
lithgowshire, If mile ESE of Queensferry. It is sur- 
mounted by remains of an ancient stone cross, and, in 
pre-Reformation times, was a station of devotees on 
pilgrimage to Dunfermline. 

Cross and Bumess, a united parish in the N of 
Orkney, comprising the south-western and north- 
western limbs of Sunday island, and also, in its quoad 
civilia estate, the island of North Ronaldsha3\ It 
contains a post office of the name of Sanday, with money 
order and saviags' bank departments, under Kirkwall ; 
and, bordered on the E for 1^ mile by Lady parish, is 
on all other sides surrounded by the sea. Cross, which 
forms the south-western section, terminates in a dismal 
moor of 200 acres, separating it from Bukness. Well 
sheltered by Eday from westerly winds, it presents a 
diversified surface, which rises at two points to more 
than 300 feet above sea-level, and breaks down, at one 
of its heights, in a coast precipice perforated by curious 
caverns ; a considerable lake is occasionally visited by 
flocks of wild swans. Burness, separated on the E from 
the greater part of Lady parish by Otterswick Bay, has 
flat shores and a verdant fertile surface. The rocks are 
sandstone, sandstone flag, and a little limestone. The 
neiglibouring sea-waters produce enormous quantities of 
shell-fish. This parish is in the presbytery of North 
Isles and s)mod of Orkney ; the living is worth £245. 
There are two parish churches. Cross, with 248 sittings, 
and Burness with 262. In May 1880, in making ex- 
cavations for the foundations of an addition to the 
manse, it was discovered that the old building, lately 
demolished, had been standing on the ruins of an ancient 
broch. For schools and population see Sanday. 

Crossbasket, an estate, with a mansion, in the NE 
corner of East Kilbride parish, Lanarkshire, f mile W 
by S of High Blantyre station. 

Crossbost, a hamlet in Lochs parish, Lewis island, 
Outer Hebrides, Ross-shire, on the northern shore of 
salt-water Loch Luirbost, 9 miles SSW of Stornoway, 
imder which it has a post office. Near it are a new 
Free church (1881), and Luirbost public schooL 

Crosschain Hill. See Fala. 

Crossfield Hill. See Unst. 

Crossford, a village in the N of Lcsmahago parish, 
Lanarkshire, near the left bank of the Clyde, imme- 
diately above the Nethan's influx, 4^ miles NW by W 
of Lanark, under which it has a post office. At it are 
Free and U. P. churches; and near it are the ruins of 
Ckaignethan. ' In 1686,' saj's honest Patrick Walker, 
' many people gathered together about Crossford, where 
there were showers of bonnets, hats, guns, and swords, 
which covered the trees and ground ; companies of men in 
arms marching along the water side ; coni[)anies meeting 
comjianies all through other, and then all falling to the 
ground, and disap])earing, and other companies appear- 
ing the same way. I went there three afternoons 
together, and, as I could observe, there were two of the 
people that were together saw, and a third that saw not ; 
and though I could see nothing, yet there was such a 
fright and trembling upon those that did see, that was 
discernible to all from those that saw not,' etc. (Cham- 
bers's Domestic Annals, ii. 485). Pop. (1841) 431, 
(1861) 530, (1871) 543, (1881) 816.— O^t^. Sur., sh. 23, 

Crossford, a village, with a public school, in Dunferm- 
line parish, Fife, Ih mile WSAV of Dunferndine town. 

Crossford. See Glencaiiix, Dumfriesshire. 

Crossgatehall, a hamlet in Inveresk parish, Edin- 
burghshire, 2 miles SSE of Inveresk station. 

Crossgates, a village on the inutual border of Dun- 
fermline and Dalgety parishes, Fife, with a station on 
the North ]'>ritish railway, 3^ miles ENE of Dunferm- 
line. Inhabited chiefly by colliers, it is surrounded at 
near distances by extensive coal mines ; adjoins lines of 
mineral railway, communicating with St David's har- 
bour on Inverkeithing Bay ; and has a post office, with 



money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 
2 hotels, a U.P. church (1802; 531 sittings), and a 
public school, -which, with accommodation for 160 
children, had (ISSO) an average attendance of 124, and 
a grant of £91, 2s. Pop. (1841) 646, (1861) 1115, (1871) 
1181, (1881) 1215. 

Crossgates, a hamlet on the "W border'of Cults parish, 
Fife, 3 furlongs SW of Pitlessie. 

Crossgellioch, a wild mossy moor in Carsphairn 
parish, N Kirkcudbrightshire. Three Covenanters, plain 
country men, when returning from a conventicle in the 
vicinity, in the winter of 1684, were met here by Claver- 
house and a party of his men, and were summarily shot. 
Their bodies were bm-ied on the moor ; and, at a recent 
period, were found embalmed in the moss, ' shrouded in 
their hosen, in their coats, and in their bonnets, exactly 
as they fell.' 

Crossgills, a hamlet in Ruthwell parish, S Dum- 
friesshire, 3 furlongs NW of Ruthwell station. 

Crosshall, a colliery village in the SW of Polmont 
parish, Stirlingshire, 2^ miles SSE of Falkirk. 

Crosshall, an ancient monument in Eccles parish, Ber- 
%vickshire, 1 mile N of Eccles village. It comprises a 
monolithic sandstone pedestal, 9 feet square and 2^ high, 
and a monolithic sandstone column, rising fully 10 feet 
from the pedestal, through which it passes deep into 
the ground, and carved in its N and S faces with curious 
sculptures. It is thought by some antiquaries to have 
been raised to the memory of a Percy of Northumberland, 
by others to have been erected after the second crusade, 
in the latter half of the 12th century, to the memory of 
the father of Sir John de Soulis. The place where it 
stands was formerly called Deadriggs, and is tradition- 
ally said to have been the scene of a bloody battle. 

Crosshands, a village, with a public school, in Mauch- 
line parish, Ayrshire, 2 miles KNW of Mauchline 

Crosshill, a village in Kirkmichael parish, AjTshire, 
and a quoad sacra jjarish partly also in Kirkoswald and 
Maybole parishes. The village stands on the left bank 
of Girvan Water, 3 miles SE of Maybole, and 2S NE of 
Kilkerran station. Chiefly consisting of a long regular 
street of one-story houses, running at right angles from 
the river, it has a post office under Maybole, with 
money order and savings' bank departments, a principal 
inn, an Established chui'ch (1838), a Free chui'ch, and a 
school. The quoaA sacra parish, constituted in 1853, is 
in the presbytery of Ayr and s}'nod of Glasgow and 
Ayr ; its two public schools, Crossbill and Kilkerran 
Hillside, with respective accommodation for 270 and 
61 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 159 
and 52, and grants of £125, 14s. and £39, 3s. Pop. 
of village (1841) 116-3, (1861) 1107, (1871) 835, (ISSl) 
740 ; of?, s. palish (1871) 1372, (1881) 1284, of whom 
1006 were in Kirkmichael. — Orel. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Crosshill, a south-eastern outbreak of Baillieston 
village, in Old Monkland parish, Lanarkshire. 

Crosshill. See Govanhill. 

Crosshill. See Strathave^. 

Crosshouse, a village in Kilmaurs parish, Ayrshire, 
on Carmel Water, 2^ miles W of Kilmarnock, and 1 
mile SSAV of Crosshouse station. At it is the handsome 
Established church (1882 ; 450 sittings) of a quoad 
sacra parish, formed out of Kilmaurs and Dreghorn, and 
also a public school. Coal has long been wrought in the 
vicinity, and ironstone during the last 12 or 13 years. 
Pop. of village (1861) 468, (1871) 713, (1881) 631 ; of 
q. s. parish (1881) 2424. 

Crosshouses, a hamlet in Kettle parish, Fife, 2 miles 
SE by E of Kettle village. 

Cross Isle, a small island in Dunrossness parish, 
Shetland, off the mouth of Quendal Bay, 3^ mUes WNW 
of Sunburgh Head. 

Crosskirk, a place on the SW coast of Westray 
Island, Orkney, distant 1 mile from Westray manse. 
A pre-Reformation church here was used by Presby- 
terians till about 1776, and then became ruinous ; its 
ancient burjing-ground is still in use. 

Crosslee, a hamlet in Stow parish, Edinburghshire, 

on the south-eastern verge of the county, near Gala 
Water and Bowland station, 3 miles S of Stow village, 
under which it has a post office. 

Crosslee, a village in Houston parish, Renfrewshire, 
on the left bank of the Gryfe, 2^ miles NW of John- 
stone station. A cotton mill, built here in 1793, was 
burned down about 1858 ; and the villagers now are 
mainly employed in the neighbouring oil-works of 
Clippens. Pop. (1861) 383, (1871) 379, (1881) 400. 

Crossmichael, a village and a parish of central Kirk- 
cudbrightsliire. The village, pleasantly-seated on the 
left bank of the lake-like Dee, with a station upon the 
Glasgow and South-Western, 3| miles NW of Castle- 
Douglas, has an inn and a post office ; but its cross, St 
Michael's, round which was held a Michaelmas fair, has 
long since disappeared. 

Containing also Clarebrand hamlet and a north- 
western outskirt of Castle -Douglas, the parish is 
bounded NE by Kirkpatrick-Durham and Urr, SE by 
Buittle, S by Kelton, SW by Balmaghie, and NW by 
Parton. Its utmost length, from NAV to SE, is 5g miles ; 
its breadth, from NE to SW, varies between 2f and 4| 
miles ; and its area is 10,148J acres, of which 220J are 
water. The Dee winds 44 miles south-south-eastward 
along all the boundary with Balmaghie, Urr Water 
4| along that with Kirkpatrick-Dm-ham and Urr ; and 
in the interior are Lochs Culgruft (2x1 furl.), Erncrogo 
(3 X li), RoAX (3i X 2g), and Smaddy (1 x f ), with three 
or four tinier lakelets. The surface, which sinks along 
the Dee to less than 200, and along Urr Water to less 
than 100, feet above sea-level, has a general north- 
north-westerly rise, being studded by a number of low 
eminences, and culminating at 711 feet on the western 
shore of Loch Roan. The rocks are chiefly Silurian ; 
and the soils of the arable lands, along the streams and 
among the hills, which in places are cultivated up to 
the top, are extremely various, including fine alluvium 
and rich loam, -with some tilly clay, but chiefly present- 
ing a sandy character. Near Glenlochar Bridge stood 
an abbey, whose history is utterly lost ; and of six moats, 
the largest and best-defined is that of Crofts, which 
rises in several stages to a round grassy plat, 280 feet in 
diameter, and commands a beautiful prospect. Weapons 
and urns, supposed to be Roman, have been found ; and 
a cau-n at Blackerne yielded in 1 756 a silver ring and an 
amber bead, now in the Edinburgh Antiquarian iluseum. 
Mansions are Greenlaw, Glenlochar Lodge, Danevale 
Park, MoUance, and Ernespie ; and 10 proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 17 of be- 
tween £100 and £500, 2 of from £50 to £100, and 7 of 
from £20 to £50. Crossmichael is in the presbji;ery of 
Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway ; the living is 
worth £339. The parish church, at the hamlet, was 
built in 1751, and contains 650 sittings ; in the grave- 
yard is a tombstone to ' William Graham, shot dead by 
a party of Claverhouse's troop, for his adherence to 
Scotland's Reformation Covenants, 1682.' There is also 
a U.P. church, near Castle-Douglas; and two public 
schools, Crossmichael and Clarebrand, with respective 
accommodation for 200 and 100 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 89 and 79, and grants of £96, 
Is. 6d. and £88. 7s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £10,725, 
(1882) £15,024, '4s. lOd. Pop. (1801) 1084, (1831) 
1325, (1861) 1536, (1871) 1492, (1881) lZi3.—0rd. 
Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Crossmill. See Corsemill. 

Crossmyloof, a village in the NW comer of Cathcart 
parish, Renfrewshire, 1 mile NE of Pollokshaws, and 
1^ SSW of Glasgow, under which it has a post and 
telegraph office. At it are a public school, an Established 
mission station, and an extensive bakery, started in 
1847. At a council of war here, according to a popular 
myth, Queen Mary, on the morning of the battle of 
Langside, laid a small crucifix on her hand, saying, 'As 
surely as that cross lies on my loof, I will this day 
fight the Regent,'— hence the name Orossmyloof. Pop. 
(1841) 587, (1861) 939, (1871) 988, (1881) 1195. 

Crosspol, a bay in the S of Coll island, Argyllshire. 
It measures 2 miles across, but lies exposed to tlie S and 



the SW, and is profusely studded with sunken rocks. 
A sandy beach, about a mile long, fringes it on tlie N, 
and is the chief feature of its kind in Coll. 

Crossraguel, a ruined Clngniac abbey in Kirkoswald 
parish, Ayrshire, 2 miles SW of Maybole. It seems to 
have derived its name (Lat. CmxRcjaJis, 'king's cross') 
from a cross of St Oswald, King of Xorthumbria {oh. 
643), but itself was dedicated to the Virgin ]\Iary, and 
was founded about 1240 by Duncan, first Earl of Car- 
rick, for Clugniacs of Paisley, from which it was made 
exempt in 1244. The last of its abbots, Queutin 
Kennedy, in 1562 held a famous dispute with John 
Knox at ]\laybole ; he died in 1564, when a pension of 
£500 a year'was conferred upon George Buchanan out 
of the abbey's revenues. Their bulk was granted to 
AllanStewart, who, as commendatorvisitingthebounds of 
Crossraguel in 1570, was pouncedon by Quentin'suephew, 
Gilbert, fourth Earl of Cassillis, and carried olf to the sea- 
castle of DuNTRE, there, in the Black Vault, to be 
' roasted in sop ' until he consented to subscribe ' a five- 
year tack and a nineteen-year tack and a charter of feu of 
all the lands of Crossraguel, with all the clauses necessar 
for the great King of Carrick to haste him to hell ' (Cham- 
bers's Dom. Ann., i. 65-67). To the Earl's desire, how- 
ever, to turn it to his own account we probably owe the 
partial preservation of the abbey. Its ruins. Second 
Pointed in style, comprise some portions of the domestic 
buildings on the S side, the walls of the church, and 
the square chapter-house, with high arched roof upborne 
by a clustered pillar. The roofless church is a narrow 
aisleless oblong, measuring internally 160 by 25 feet, and 
divided nearly midway by a gabled wall, containing a 
doorway. The choir ends in a three-sided, and 
retains an aumbry, sedilia, and an altar tomb. See 
vol. iL of Grose's Antiquities of Scotland (1791), and 
vol. i. of Billings' Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities 

Crossroads. See Grange, Banffshire. 

Crossroads. See Dreguoex, Ayrshire. 

Croulin Isles, a group of islets in Applecross parish, 
Ross-shire, off the N side of the entrance of Loch Carron. 
Croulinmore, the largest of them, is 1 mile long. 

Crovie, a fishing village in Gamrie parish, NE Banff- 
shire, on the E side of Gamrie Bay, 1 mile NE of Gar- 
denstown. Supposed to have been founded early in the 
ISth century, it stands in a rocky ravine, which is 
traversed by a brook ; and it presents the gable end of 
its houses to the sea, the other end to a bank of the 
ravine. Pop. (1881) 258. 

Crowbutt, a hamlet in Chirnside parish, Berwickshire, 
1 mile NE of Chirnside village. 

Crowlista. See Uig. 

Croy, a station in the W of Cumbernauld parish, 
Dumbartonshire, on the Edinburgh and Glasgow section 
of the North British, Ig mile SSE of Kilsyth, and 11 J 
miles NE of Glasgow. 

Croy, a hamlet on the NE border of Inverness-shire, 
and a parish partly also in Nairnshire. The hamlet lies 
8 miles SW of Nairn and 3 S of Fort George station, 
which is lOi miles NE of Inverness, and under which 
it has a post office. 

The ])arish, containing also Clephanton village, 6^ 
miles SW of Nairn, comprises the ancient parishes of 
Croy and Dalcross, united in the latter part of the 15th 
century. Bounded N by Nairn parish, E by Cawdor, 
S by Aloy and Daviot, and NW by Daviot and Petty, 
it has an utmost length, from NNE to SSW, of 10^ miles ; 
a varj-ing width of 1^ and 4§ jniles ; and a land area of 
22,779 acres. This last includes the Leys or .south- 
western division, which, severed from the main body by 
a .strip (5 furlongs wide at the narrowest) of Daviot, is 
on all other sides surrounded by Inverness, its greatest 
length and breadth being 6J and IJ miles. The river 
Naiun winds 122 miles north-eastward along the bor- 
ders and through the interior of the main portion, from 
just below Daviot House to just above Kosi'lif Id ; the 
Loch of the Clans (2 x 1 furl.) lies in the northern ex- 
tremity, and on the Petty boundary is Loch Flcmington 
(4A X If furl.). The beautiful strath of the Nairn here 


sinks from 400 to 100 feet al)ove sea-level ; but the sur- 
face generally is flat and forbidding in aspect, including 
the wide bleak moors of Clava and Culloden, and only 
in the south-eastern corner rising steeply to 1000 feet 
on Saddle Hill, 1027 on Creagan Glas, and 1787 on 
Beinn Buidhe JIhor. The rocks are variously granite, 
gneiss. Old Red sandstone, unconsolidated drift, and 
liassic limestone, the last of which has been calcined for 
economic purposes. The soil in the eastern division is 
of all descriptions, so interspersed with one another that 
scarcely two continuous acres can be found of the same 
quality ; that of the western is also various, but forms, 
on the whole, a fine mixture of clay black land and 
sandy or gravelly materiah Great improvements have 
been effected since 1845, hundreds of acres that once 
were barren moor having either been planted or brought 
under the plough. A remarkable ancient Caledonian 
monument, comprising two concentric circles of large 
stones, two large slabs within the inner circle, and a 
huge upright of conglomerate a few feet W of the outer, 
crowns a round gravel mound on the NW border of the 
parish ; and remains of crannoges or ancient lake-dwell- 
ings, formed of alternate strata of stones, earth, and oak, 
and resting on oaken piles strongly fixed by transverse 
beams, were discovered at the draining of a lake in the 
eastern end of the parish. The Stones of Clava are 
separately noticed, as likewise are the battlefield of 
Culloden, the ruins of Dalcross Castle, and the four 
mansions, Cantray House, Holme Rose, Kilravock Castle, 
and Le3'S Castle. Seven proprietors hold each an annual 
value of more, and five of less, than £500. Croy is in the 
presbytery of Nairn and synod of Moray ; the living is 
worth £384. The parish church, at the hamlet, was 
built in 1767, and contains 527 sittings ; a Free church 
stands 1 mile to the SSW. Two schools, Clava and 
Croy, with respective accommodation for 100 and 150 
children, had (1880) an average attendance of 32 and 
129, and grants of £36, 10s. and £129, 3s. 6d. Valua- 
tion (1880) £10,399, 19s. 2d., of which £3699, Is. 6d. 
was in Nairnshire. Pop. (1801) 1601, (1831) 1664, 
(1861) 1873, (1871) 1841, (1881) 1709.— Oni Sur., sh. 
84, 1876. 

Cruach or Stob na Cruaich, a mountain (2420 feet) 
on the NW border of Perthshire, culminating If mile 
NW of Loch Laidon. 

Cruachan. See Ben Gritachan. 

Cruachlussa (Gaeh 'mountain of plants'). See 
Knapdale, NonTii. 

Crucifield. See Unst. 

Cruden {c7vju or crush Dane, according to the popular 
etymology), a coast parish of Buchan, NE Aberdeen- 
shire, with a post office of its own name at Auchiries 
hamlet. Si miles SSW of Peterhead, and 9| NE of its 
station and post-town, Ellon, with which it communicates 
daily by coach. It is bounded NW by Longside, NE 
by Peterhead, E by the German Ocean, S by Slains and 
Logie-Buchan, SWand W by Ellon. Its utmost length, 
from E to W, is 7^ miles ; its breadth, from N to S, varies 
between 2J and 6^ miles; and its area is 18,444J^ acres, 
of which 164^ are foreshore and 14 water. Except 
for 2 miles of sands at Cruden Bay, the coast-line, 
7^ miles long, is fringed with a range of stupendous 
cliffs, projecting the headlands of Hare Craig, Jlurdoch 
Head, and Wardhill, and indented by Long Haven, 
Yoag's Haven, North Plaven, the Bullers of Buchan, 
Robie's Haven, and Twa Havens, whilst off them lie 
Dunbuy islet ami a long sunken reef, the Scares of 
Cruden. The clifls to the S, 100 feet high, consist of 
greenstone or basalt ; and those to the N, at j)oints 
attaining 200 feet, of reddish granite, with trap-dykes 
on the l')lackhill. Inland the general surface sinks little 
below 100, ami little exceeds 200, feet above sea-level ; 
but rises to 281 at the Hill of Ardilfery, 354 at the Hill 
of Auquharney, 447 at the Corse of Balloch, 346 at Hill- 
side of Aldie, and 374 near Newtown, the three last close 
to the Longside border. Cruden Water, rising just 
within Longside, winds 11 miles east-l>y-southward to 
the northern corner of Cruden Bay, dividing the parish 
into two nearly equal parts, and receiving the burns of 


Lacca and Gask ; its current has been utilised to drive 
a wool-mill at Auquhaniey and several meal-mills lower 
down. Great quantities of peat-moss lie along the 
northern boundary ; and forests of oak and other hard- 
wood trees anciently occupied much of the area, luit now 
are represented only by a few old trees, dwarfed by the 
sea-breeze that has stunted the clumps and plantations 
of Slains and Auquhamey. Granite and trap are the 
prevailing rocks ; and the former has been quaiTied 
along the northern cliffs, under great disadvantages of 
both' working and transport. The neighbouring waters 
teem with fish ; and at a cost of £3000 a new harbour 
has recently been formed at the village of Poet Erroll, 
where Cruden Water falls into the bay ; it consists of 
an outer and an inner basin, the latter 5400 square 
yards in area. On the plain skirting Cruden Bay 
Malcolm II. of Scotland is said to have defeated Canute, 
afterwards King of England, in 1014 ; but the battle is 
one of those which, in Dr Hill Burton's words, ' only 
find a local habitation and a name, along with the 
usual details, from late and questionable authority.' 
A mound, evidently artificial, and popularly called the 
Battery, cro^\-ns a height to the N of the Hawklaw, and 
to the SE of that mound are remains of what seems to 
have been a vitrified wall. Another artificial mound, 
the Moathill, a seat most probably of feudal justice, and 
an eminence, called Gallowhill, where criminals were 
executed, are on Ardiffery farm ; whilst Highlaw, 1 mile 
from the coast, is cro^vned by a tumulus, said to have 
been used for beacon fires, and commanding a fine view 
over the low surrounding country, away to the Gram- 
pians. A 'Druidical circle,' J mUe W of the parish 
church, was demolished in 1831 ; a necklace of jet and 
amber, three stone cists, flint implements, a rude old 
granite font, and other relics of antiquity, have been 
from time to time discovered ; and the Bishop's Bridge 
over Cruden "Water, near the church, was built in 
1697 by the Right Rev. Dr Jas. Drummond of Brechin, 
and widened by the Earl of Erroll in 1763. Slaixs 
Castle, however, is the chief artificial feature in the 
parish, where 8 proprietors hold each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 4 of between £100 and £500, and 
3 of from £20 to £50. Giving off portions to Ardallie, 
Blackhill, and Boddam qiwad sacra parishes, Cruden is 
in the presbytery of Ellon and sjmod of Aberdeen ; the 
living is worth £800. The parish church, on the right 
bank of Cruden Water, 1 mile SSW of Auchiries, was 
built in 1776, and enlarged in 1834, when two round 
towers were added ; it contains 820 sittings, and has 
a church-hall beside it. At Hatton, If mile WXW, 
stands the Free church (1844) ; and | mile SSW is St 
James's Episcopal church (1843 ; 440 sittings), which. 
Early English in style, has a nave and chancel, a spire 
90 feet high, an organ, and three stained-glass windows. 
Of St Olave's or Glaus' chapel, near the New Bridge, 
said to have been founded by Canute, the last remains 
were carried away for road-metal in 1837. Errol Epis- 
copal school and the public schools of Auchiries, Bog- 
brae, Coldwells, and Hatton, with respective accommo- 
dation for 140, 102, 68, 90, and 150 children, had (1880) 
an average attendance of 87, 78, 72, 100, and 108, and 
grants of £50, 13s., £61, 18s., £54, £72, 16s., and 
£92, 3s. Valuation (1843) £8792, (1881) £16,072, 13s. 
6d. Pop. (1801) 1934, (1831) 2120, (1861) 2743, (1871) 
3124, (1831) ?AU.—Ord. Sur., sh. 87, 1876. 

Cruggleton, an ancient coast parish of SE Wigtown- 
shire, united in the middle of the 17th century to Kirk- 
madrine and Sorbie, and now forming the south-eastern 
section of the present Sorbie. Its ruined Norman church, 
3 miles S of Garliesto\vn, belonged to Whithorn priory, 
and, consisting of nave and chancel, measures 67^ by 30 
feet. Cruggleton Castle, 3 furlongs to the E, stoocl on 
a bold rocky headland, over 100 feet high, mid-way 
between Rigg or Cruggleton Bay and Port Allan. Sup- 
posed to have been built by Nor.semen, it was long 
the seat of the Irish M'Kerlies; is .said to have been 
captured by both Edward I. and Wallace ; and after 
passing through many hands, came eventually to the 
Agnews. It is now represented by only an arch, the 


foundations of some walls, and distinct traces of a 

Cruicksfield, an estate, with a mansion, in the S of 
Bunkle parish, Berwickshire, 4 miles NE of Dunse. 

Cruick Water, a sti-eara of NE Forfarshire, rising at 
the northern extremity of Fearn parish, and running 
15| miles south-south-eastward and east-north-eastward 
through Fearn, Menmuir, and Stracathro, till it falls 
into the North Esk, 5 furlongs E of Stracathro church. 
A capital trouting stream, but possessed of little beauty, 
it descends from 1480 to 118 feet above sea-level, and 
becomes after heavy rains a voluminous and furious 
toiTent, though dwindling to a mere rill in time of 
drought.— Oat;. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Cruikston. See Crookston. 

Cruin. See Ixchcruin. 

Cruister, a hamlet near Sandwick, in Dunrossness 
parish, Shetland. 

Cruivie, a ruined square tower on the lands of Straiton, 
in Logic parish, NE Fife, 2| miles NNE of Logie 

Crummag Head, See Cramjiag. 

Crutherland, an estate, with a mansion, in Glasford 
parish, Lanarkshire, on the right bank of Calder Water, 
2f miles SE of East Kilbride. 

Cryston. See Chrtstox. 

Cuan, a narrow sound separating Luing island from 
Seil island, in KUbrandon and KUchattan parish, Argyll- 
shire. It has a very strong current, running at the rate 
of 7 or 8 miles an hour ; and, in consequence of the 
church standing near it, gives name popularly to the 

CuchuUins or Coolins, a group of savagely picturesque 
mountains in Bracadale and Strath parishes, Isle of 
Skye, Inverness-shire. Rising from the sea-shore to the 
E of Loch Brittle and N of Loch Scavaig, and extending 
north-eastward to Glen Sligachan, eastward to the valley 
of Strath, they occupy an area of about 35 square miles, 
and are a confused assemblage of barren heights, from 
2000 to 3000 feet high, distinguishable, by striking 
differences in outline, feature, and colouring, into two 
great sections. The southern and larger of these con- 
sists of smooth, conoidal masses, that rise from a 
labyrinth of low ground — each separate from its fellow, 
nearly all streaked from summit to base with broad 
reddish sheets of dihris, and many of them abrupt, 
acclivitous, and rounded like vast bare cones. The 
northern section, on the other hand, consists of singularly 
rugged and sen-ated ranges and masses of mountains, 
intersected by wild ravines, and shooting up in sharp 
and jagged peaks. It is mainly formed of hypersthene, 
whose dark metallic aspect is relieved by scarce one 
blade of vegetation ; and, strongly attracting rain-clouds 
from the ocean, it often is lashed with storms. Always, 
even amid the blaze of summer sunshine, a region of 
desolation, without any play of colours, it looks under a 
■WT-eathiug of clouds to be little else than an assemblage 
of deep and horrible abysses, which the eye vainly en- 
deavours to penetrate ; dark Loch Coruisk lies in its 
very core. The loftiest peak is Scuir-na-Gillean (3183 
feet), 4i mUes S of Sligachan inn ; and six other summits 
are estimated to exceed 3000 feet above sea-leveh See 
chaps. V. and vi. of Alexander Smith's Summer in Skye 

Cuckold-Le-Roi. See Cocklerue. 
Cuen or Loch nan Cuinne. See Baden. 
Cuff Hill. See Beith, Ayrshire. 
Cuil, a bay in Appin, Argyllshire, opening fi-om Loch 
Linnhe, 4.^ miles NE of Shuna island. With a semi- 
circular outline, on a chord of 1;^ mile, it is engirt with 
a fine sandy beach, receives the river Duror, and is 
often frequented by large shoals of herrings.— Ore?. Sur., 
sh. 53, 1877. 

Cuilhill, a village in Old Jlonkland parish, Lanark- 
shire, 2 miles AV of Coatbridge. 

Cuillie or Culaidh, a loch in the upper part of Kildonan 
parish, Sutherland, 2i miles SSW of Forsinard station. 
Rudely triangular in shape, it has an utmost length of 
3 and 2 furlongs, and teems with trout. 



Cuiltrannich, a hamlet in Kenmore parish, Perth- 
shire, luar the north-western shore of Loch Tay, 9 miles 
NE of Killin. 

Cuilunum Moss, a hamlet in Port of Monteith parish, 
S\V Perthshire, 1| mile WNW of Port of Monteith 

Culag, a rivulet of Assynt parish, SW Sutherland, 
issuing from a lochlet 2 miles SE of the summit of 
Canisp, and thence running 8 miles west-north-westward 
to the head of Loch Inver, at Culag Hotel It expands 
in its course into a series of eight or nine small lakes, 
which teem with trout, and in which, too, sea-trout and 
grilse are sometimes taken. — Ord. Sur., sh. 107, 1881. 

Culbin, a sandy desert on the southern coast of the 
Moray Firth, extending across the entire breadth of 
Dyke and Moy parish, Elginshire, into Kinloss parish, 
Elginshire, and Auldearn parish, Nairnshire. Compris- 
ing some 9500 acres of what was once the very garden 
of Jloray, it began to be overwhelmed with sand as far 
back as 1100, according to Boece ; but the barony itself 
of Culbin was not destroyed till 1670-95, ' the which 
was mainly occasioned by the pulling up by the roots of 
bent, juniper, and broom bushes, which did loose and 
break the surface and scroof of the sand-hills.' Now all 
is covered with sand or sand-hills, to a depth in places 
of 100 feet. The worst jiarts lie immediately west of 
the lagoon and mouth of the Findhorn river, and these 
underwent so great a change as to shift the river's mouth 
nearly 2 miles eastward, and to overwhelm the ancient 
town and harbour of Findhorn. — Ord. Sur., shs. 84, 94, 
1876-78. See vol. iii., pp. 119, 120, of Chambers's 
Domestic Annals of Scotland (1861). 

Culblean, a hill range in tlie E of the Tullich section 
of Glenmuick parish, SW Aberdeenshire, 4 miles NE 
of Ballater. Extending about 5 miles south-by-eastward 
from Morven Hill to the vicinity of the Dee, it has an 
altitude of 1750 feet above sea-level, and at its southern 
end contains the curious natural excavation called the 
Vat. Here, on 30 Nov. 1335, the Scottish regent, Andrew 
Murray of Bothwell, defeated David, thirteenth Earl 
of Athole, who, setting his back to a rock, said it should 
flee as soon as he, and so fell, with many of his 3000 

Culbockie, a village in Urquhart and Logie-Wester 
parish, Koss-shire, 9 miles ENE of Dingwall, under 
which it has a post office. At it stands a public school ; 
and fairs are held here on the fourth Wednesday of 
April, the first Wednesday of July, the last Wednesday 
of October, and the second Wednesday of December. 

Culbumie. See Kiltarlity. 

Culchary, See Cawdor. 

Culcreuch, an estate, with a mansion, in Fin try parish, 
Stirlingshire. The mansion, standing 1^ mile NNW 
of Fintry village and 5 miles E by S of Balfron, is a fine 
edifice, with beautiful grounds. Its present owner is 
Sir Geo. Home-Speirs, tenth Bart, since 1671 (b. 1832 ; 
sue. 1849), who in 1858 married the niece and heiress of 
the late Alex. G. Speirs, Esq. of Culcreuch, and who 
holds 7172 acres in the shire, valued at £2098 per 
annum. A large cotton factory, 5 furlongs SW of the 
mansion, near Newtown village, was erected by the pro- 
prietor of the estate about 1796. 

Culdees Castle, a mansion in Muthill parish, Pertli- 
shire, standing on a commanding site, amid a fine })ark 
near the left bank of Machany Water, ^ mile WSW of 
Muthill station, and 4J miles SSE of Crieff. Its owner, 
Rt. Thos. Napier Speir of Burnbrae, holds 1619 acres 
in I'ertlishire, valued at £1972 per annum. 

Culduthel, a hamlet, with a public school, in the 
parisli of Inverness, 3 miles S by E of Inverness town, 
under which it has a post oHice. 

Culhom House, a seat of tlie Earl of Stair in Stranraer 
parish, Wigtowiisliire, 1^ mile SE of Stranraer town. 
Jiuilt for a barracks, it is a large clumsy brick edifice, 
but stands amid iinely-wooded policies. 

Culkein. See Assynt. 

Cullalo Hills. See Aberdoue and Aucutertool, 

Cullean. See Colzean. 


CuUen, a coast town and parish of Banffshire. A 
seaport and royal and parliamentary burgh, tlie town is 
situated on Cullen Bay, at the mouth of the Burn of 
Deskford, 5| miles W by N of Portsoy station, with 
which it communicates thrice a day by omnibus, and 
which is 21 miles NNW of Tillynaught Junction, 8f W 
by N of Banft', 18 NNE of Grange Junction, and 61| 
NW of Aberdeen. Its mean-looking Old Town, stand- 
ing a little inland, about the year 1822 was utterly 
demolished, to make way for improvements at Cullen 
House ; a somewhat ancient part, called Fishertown or 
Seatown, on the shore, has a very irregular appearance, 
and is inhabited chiefly by fisher-folk. Close to the 
eastern extremity of Seatown, but on much higher 
ground, is the New Town, which, built in 1822 and 
subsequent years in lieu of the demolished Old To^vn, 
presents a regular and pleasant aspect, with its open 
market-place and its three streets, respectively 300, 
400, and 550 yards long, and which at first was planned 
to be fully double its existing size. It enjoys the most 
charming environs, in the sweep of its crescent bay, in 
the rocky grandeur of the neighbouring coast, and in the 
lawns and woods of Cullen House, away to the conical 
Bin Hill of Cullen (1050 feet), 2| miles to the SW. 
At the town itself are a post office, under Fochabers, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, branches of the Union and North of Scotland 
Banks, 6 insurance agencies, gas-works, a public library, 
a news-room, and 3 hotels, to one of which, built in 
1829, a town-hall is conjoined, with council, court, and 
ball rooms. The cruciform parish church, St Slary's, 
5 furlongs SSW of the town, was founded by King 
Robert I., and made collegiate in 1543 for a provost, 6 
prebendaries, and 2 singing boys, by Sir Alexander 
Ogilvie of Deskford, whose recumbent effigy surmounts 
a large and richly-ornamented tomb in a mural recess ; 
as enlarged by an aisle about 1798, it contains 800 
sittings. Other places of worship are Seafield chapel of 
ease (1839 ; 450 sittings), a Free church, and an Inde- 
pendent chapel ; whilst a public school, with accommo- 
dation for 300 children, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 348, and a gi-ant of £329, 4s. In the cemetery is a 
grey granite obelisk, 14 feet high, erected in 1876 to the 
memory of Provost Smith. The Castlehill, an eminence 
overhanging the sea, is cro^vned by remains of an ancient 
fort, whence vitrified stones have been extracted ; but 
whether this is the royal castle where died Elizabeth, 
the Bruce's queen, or whether it stood nearer Cullen 
House, is doubtful. The eminent physician, Sir James 
Clark, Bart. (1788-1870), was a native of Cullen. Its 
harbour was formed in 1817, and enlarged in 1834, by 
tlie Earl of Seafield, at a cost of more than £10,000. 
With a depth at 
the pier-head of 8^ 
feet at neap, and 
of 12 at .'ipring 
tides, it is one of 
the best artificial 
havens in the 
Moray Firth. The 
chief imports are 
coals, salt, and 
staves ; and ex- 
ports are herrings, 
dried fish, oats, 
potatoes, and tim- 
ber. The catching 
and curing of fish 
is the staple in- 
dustry ; and there 
are also a boat- 
building yard, a rope and sail works, a woollen factory, and 
a brewerv. Fairs for cattle and horses are held on the 
third Friday of May and the first Friday of November. 
Dating its burgh privileges from the reign of William 
the Lyon (1105-1214), Cullen is governed by a provost. 
2 bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, a billet master, 
and 6 other councillors ; with Elgin, Banff, Macduff, 
Peterhead, Kintore, and Inverurie, it returns a member 

Seal of Cullen. 



to parliament. Its parliamentary and municipal con- 
stituency numbered 322 in 1882, when the burgh 
valuation amounted to £3615, whilst the corporation 
revenue was £67. Pop. (1841) 142-3, (1851) 1697, (1861) 
1821, (1871) 2056, (1881) 2033. 

The parish of Cullen, triancfular in shape, is bounded 
N by the Moray Firth, E "by Fordyce, and SW by 
Rathven. Its utmost lengtli, "from N to S, is If mile ; 
its utmost width, from E to W, is 1^ mile ; and its 
area is 925 acres, of which 38| are foreshore, and 
15 water. The coast-line, IJ mile long, presents a 
bold rocky front to the Bay of Cullen, which is 2| 
miles wide across a chord drawn from Scar Nose to 
Logic Head, and which from that chord measures 7 
furlongs to its innermost recess. Three singular masses 
of rock here have been named the Three Kings of Cullen, 
most likely after the Magi, or Three Kings of Cologne — 
Caspar, Melchior, and Balthazar — whose skulls are sho\vn 
in the cathedral there. The deep-channelled Burn of 
Deskford, other'wise known as Cullen AVater (Gael, cul-an, 
' back-lying water'), flows 2^ miles north-north-westward 
along all the Rathven border ; and the surface attains 
143 feet above sea-level at the cemetery, and 211 towards 
the centre. A bed of stratified quartz, reposing conform- 
ably on a thick stratum of compact greywacke, underlies 
all the parish ; Old Red sandstone forms two of the Three 
Kings, ^ mile W of which are two patches of New 
Red sandstone, on disrupted greywacke and beneath 
beds of drift ; and in the S is fine lias clay, well 
marked by lias fossils. The soil near the shore is 
a mixture of sand and gravel, and elsewhere ranges from 
strong clay or light loam to a fine rich loam incumbent 
on a soft clay bottom. Cullen House, near the parish 
church, is a huge pile erected at various periods ; the 
whole, as remodelled and enlarged in 1861 by the late 
Mr David Bryce, is a noble specimen of Scottish Baronial 
architecture. It crowns a steep rock on the right bank 
of the Buru of Deskford, across which a one-arch bridge 
of 82 feet span leads to the grounds and park, which, 
beautiful with streams and lakelets, trim lawns and 
stately groves, extend far into Rathven parish, and 
among whose adornments is a graceful temple, com- 
manding a splendid view over the neighbouring sea. 
The house itself is rich in works of art ; and its charter- 
room contains a valuable series of documents, extending 
back three centuries from 1705. Sir Walter Ogilvie, 
Knight, of Auchleven, younger brother of that Sir John 
Ogilvie who received a grant of the castle of Airlie, 
towards the middle of the 15th century married Mar- 
garet, sole daughter and heiress of Sir John Sinclair of 
Deskford and Findlater, and thereby acquired the said 
estates. His seventh descendant was in 1638 created 
Earl of Findlater. That title expired with James, 
seventh Earl, in 1811 ; and Cullen now is held by Ian 
Charles Grant-Ogilvie, eighth Earl of Seafield since 1701 
(b. 1851 ; sue. 1881), who owns 48,946 acres in Banffshire, 
valued at£34, 260 per annum. (See also Castle-Grant.) 
Three lesser proprietors hold each an annual value of 
from £50 to £100, and 23 of from £20 to £50. Cullen 
is in the presb3'tery of Fordyce and synod of Aberdeen ; 
the living is worth £226. Valuation, exclusive of burgh 
(1882), £1217, 4s. lOd. Pop. of entire parish (1801) 
1076, (1831)1593,(1861)1975,(1871)2215, (1881)2187. 
Orel. Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 

CuUenoch, the ancient name of Laurieston, a village 
in Balmaghie parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 6 miles WNW 
of Castle-Douglas. It was the meeting-place of the 
Kirkcudbrightshire war committee of the Covenanters, 
constituted in 1640. 

Cullen of Buchan. See Gamrie. 

Cullen Park, a mansion in Avondale parish, Lanark- 
shire, close to Strathaven. 

Cullen Water. See Deskford, Burn of. 

Cullerley. See Echt. 

Cullicudden, a hamlet and an ancient parish in Reso- 
lis parish, Ross-shire. The hamlet lies on the SE shore 
of Cromarty Firth, 4| miles WSW of Invergordon, and 
25^ N of Inverness ; at it are a public school and a post 
office, with money order and savings' bank departments. 

The parish, united to Kirkmichael subsequent to 1688, 
now forms the western district of Resolis. A fragment 
of its church is still standing. A quarry of sandstone 
suited for many kinds of public buildings, and varying 
in colour from red to deep yellow, has long been worked 
in the vicinity of the hamlet. 

CuUin. See CrcHVLLiN. 

CuUisaid or Cuil na Sith, a loch in the SE of Tongue 
parish, Sutherland. Lying 390 feet above sea-level, it 
measures Ih furlongs by 1, and sends ofl' a stream 1§ 
mile east-north-eastward to the head of Loch Loyal. 

CuUivoe, a hamlet and a bay in North Yell parish, 
Shetland, 40 miles N of Lerwick, under wliich the 
hamlet has a post and telegraph ofiice. 

Culloden (Gael, cul-oitir, ' back-hnng coast-ridge '), 
an estate and a battlefield on the NE verge of Inverness- 
shire, in the parishes of Inverness, Croy, Daviot-Dun- 
lichity, and Petty. Culloden House stands 1;^ mile SE 
by S of Culloden station on the Highland railway, this 
being close to the Firth of Beauly and 3| miles ENE of 
Inverness. Backed by plantations, it commands a magni- 
ficent view, and ' has been renewed in an elegant style ' 
since 1746, when our engraving shows it to have been a 
plain four-storied edifice, with battlemented front and 
central bell-turret. "Within it hang portraits of 'Grey' 
Duncan Forbes (1572-1654), M.P. and provost of Inver- 
ness, who bought the estate from the laird of M'Intosh 
in 1626 ; of his great-grandson and namesake, the cele- 
brated Lord President of the Court of Session(1685-1747) ; 
and of many others of the line — 'a cluster,' Hill Burton 
observes, ' of open, handsome, and ingenuous counte- 
nances.' The present and tenth laird, also a Duncan 
Forbes (b. 1851 ; sue. 1879), holds 5655 acres, valued 
at £4553 per annum. 

About If mile ESE of the mansion is the battlefield, 
Ctilloden or Druramossie Muir, a broad, flat, sandstone 
ridge that from 500 feet above sea-level sinks gently to 
300 feet along the left bank of the river Nairn, across 
which rise the steeper heights of Croy and Dalcross 
parish— Saddle Hill (1000 feet), Creagan Glas (1027), 
and Beinn Bhuidlie ]\Ihor (1797). Planting and culture 
have somewhat changed its aspect, so that now it is but 
an opening in a wooa, — an opening the size of a park of 
6 or 8 acres, — traversed by a carriage road from Inver- 
ness to Nairn, and studded with grassy mounds that 
mark the graves of the slain. In the summer of 1881 
these graves were cared for by the present proprietor, 
one stone being inscribed ■with the names of the clans 
M'Gillivray, M'Lean, and M'Lauchlan, whilst there are 
separate stones for Clan Stewart of Appin, Clan Cameron, 
and Clan M'Intosh, and two graves are marked 'Clans 
mixed. ' Then on a new ' Great Cairn, ' CO feet in height, 
a slab has been placed, s-ith this legend : — 'The Battle 
of Culloden was fought on this moor, 16th April 174f>. 
The graves of the gallant Highlanders who fought for 
Scotland and Prince Charlie are marked by the names 
of their clans.' 

The invasion of England over and the battle of Fal- 
kirk won, the Highland army, from besieging Stirling 
Castle, retired to Inverness, where, on 12 April 1746, 
news reached them, scattered and disorganised, that the 
Duke of Cumberland had marched from Aberdeen. 
Fording the deep am! rapid Spey, he on the 14th entered 
Nairn, where the Prince's outposts halted till he was 
within a mile of the town, beginning their retreat in 
.sight of the British army. Next day, the Duke's birth- 
day, the royal camp was a scene of festivity, provisions 
being plentifully supplied by a fleet of storesliips that 
had followed along the coast ; but the Prince, enjoying 
no such advantage, found himself forced to hasten the 
issue of the contest by a third appeal to arms. It was 
therefore resolved in a council of war to attack the 
enemy's camp in the night, and thus to compensate, so 
far as might be, for inferiority of numbers, and yet more 
for the want of cavalry and cannon. But as a surprise, 
to be successful, must be ellected with speed and concert, 
it is manifest that prompt obedience and accurate calcu- 
lation are indispensable. The Highlanders did not finish 
their preparations till the evening was far advanced, 



and, the night being very dark, they could not com- 
plete their march until it was too late to hazard an 
onset with any prospect of advantage. Orders were 
therefore given for a retreat, and the wearied clansmen, 
retracing their steps under a load of melancholy and 
suspicion, resumed their original gi-ound on Culloden 
Muir. In the opinion of the wisest among Charles's 
officei-s, his arm}', after a march at once so harassing 
and discouraging, should have taken up a position be- 
yond the liver Nairn, where the bank was high and 
inaccessible to cavalry. But to such reasonable pro- 
posals he turned a deaf ear, being moved by a romantic 
notion that it was unworthy of him to retire in the 
presence of an enemy, or even to avail himself of any 
sujieriority that might be attained by the judicious 
choice of a field of battle. He would rather await the 
onset of the Duke of Cumberland, who, profiting by the 
experience of Cope and Hawley, made his dispositions 
with much more skill and foresight than had been 
shown at Frestonpaus or Falkii'k. 

Before commencing the march, written instructions, 
which had been communicated to the commanders of 
the difl'erent regiments, were read at the head of every 
company in the line. They ran, that if those to whom 
the charge of the train or baggage horses was entrusted 
should abscond or leave them, they should be punished 
with instant death ; and that if any officer or soldier 
misconducted himself during the action, he should be 
sentenced. The infantry marched in three parallel 
divisions or columns, of five regiments each, headed by 
General Huske on the left, Lord Sempill on the right, 
and General Mordaunt in the centre. The artillery and 
baggage followed the first column on the right ; and the 
dragoons and horse, led by Generals Hawley and Bland, 
were on the left, forming a fourth column. Forty of 
Kingston's horse and Argyllshire men led the van. 

The charge of ranging the Highland army in line of 
battle on this important occasion was entrusted to 
O'Sullivan, who acted in the double capacity of adjutant 
and quartermaster-general. This officer, in the oiiinion 
of Lord George ^lurray, a high authority certainly, was 
utterly unfit for such a task, and committed gross blun- 
ders on every occasion of moment. In the present 
instance, he did not even visit the ground where the 
army was to be drawn up, and committed a ' fatal error ' 
in omitting to throw down some park walls on the 
left of the English army, which being afterwards taken 
possession of by the Duke of Cumberland, it was found 
impossible to break the English lines from the destruc- 
tive flank-fire opened therefrom on the right of the 
Highland army, as it advanced to the attack. While 
the Duke of Cumberland was forming his line of battle, 
Lord George Murray was very desirous to advance and 
demolish these walls ; but as sucli a movement would 
have broken the line, the officers about him considered 
that the attempt would be dangerous, and he therefore 
did not make it. 

The Highland army was drawn up in three lines. 
The first, or front line, consisted of the Athole brigade, 
which had tlie right, the Camerons, Stewarts of Appin, 
Frasers, M'Intoshes, il'Lauchlans, M'Leans, John Roy 
Stewart's regiment, and Farquharsons, united into one 
regiment ; the M'Leods, Chisholms, M'Donalds of Clan- 
ranald, Keppoch, anil Glengarry. The three M 'Donald 
regiments formed tlie left. Lord George ^Murray com- 
manded on the right. Lord John Druiiimond in tlie 
centre, and the Duke of Perth on the left, of the first 
line. There had been, a day or two before, a violent 
(■ontention among the chiefs about precedency of rank. 
The M'Donalds claimed tlie riglit as their due, in sup- 
l)ort of wliich claim they stated, that as a reward for the 
fidelity of Angus J^I 'Donald, Lord of tlie Isles, in pro- 
tecting Robert the Bruce for upwards of nine months in 
Ids dominions, that prince, at the battle of Bannock- 
Iturn, conferred the post of lionour, tlie riglit, on the 
•M'Donalds, — that this ])Ost had ever since been held 
by them, unless wlien yielded from courtesy, as to the 
chief of tlio il'Leans at tlie battle of Harlaw. Lord 
George Murray, however, maintained that, under the 


Marquis of Montrose, the right had been assigned to the 
Athole men, and he insisted that that post should now 
be conferred upon them. In this rmseasonable demand. 
Lord George is said to have been supported by Loehiel 
and his friends. Charles refused to decide a question 
with the merits of which he was imperfectly acquainted ; 
but, as it was necessary to adjust the difference imme- 
diately, he prevailed upon the commanders of the 
M 'Donald regiments to waive their pretensions in the 
present instance. The M'Donalds in general were far 
from being satisfied with the complaisance of their com- 
manders, and, as they had occupied the post of honour 
at Prestonpans and Falkirk, they considered their de- 
privation of it on the present occasion ominous. The 
Duke of Perth, while he stood at the head of the Glen- 
garry regiment, hearing the murmurs of the M'Donalds, 
said, that if they behaved with their wonted valour 
they would make a right of the left, and that he would 
change his name to M 'Donald ; but the haughty clans- 
men paid no heed to him. 

The second line of the Highland army consisted of 
the Gordons under Lord Lewis Gordon, formed in 
column on the right, the French Royal Scots, the Irish 
piquets or brigade. Lord Kilmarnock's foot guards, 
Lord John Drummond's regiment, and Glenbucket's 
regiment in column on the left, flanked on the right by 
Fitz-James's dragoons, and Lord Elcho's horse-guards, 
and on the left by the Perth squadron, under Lords 
Strathallan and Pitsligo, and the Prince's body-guard.s 
under Lord Balmerino. General Stapleton had the 
command of this line. The third line, or reserve, con- 
sisted of the Duke of Perth's and Lord Ogilvy's regi- 
ments, under the last-mentioned nobleman. The 
Prince himself, surrounded by a troop of Fitz-James's 
horse, took his station on a very small eminence behind 
the centre of the first line, from which he had a com- 
plete view of the whole field of battle. The extremities 
of the front line and the centre were each protected by 
four pieces of cannon. 

The English army continued steadily to advance in 
the order already described, and, after a march of eight 
miles, formed in line of battle, in consequence of the 
advance guard reporting that they perceived the High- 
land army at some distance making a motion towards 
them on the left. Finding, however, that the High- 
landers were still at a considerable distance, and that 
the whole body did not move forward, the Duke of 
Cumberland resumed his march, and continued to 
advance till within a mile of the enemy, when he 
ordered a halt, and, after reconnoitring the position of 
the Highlanders, re-formed his army for battle in three 
lines, and in the following order. 

The first line consisted of six regiments, viz., the 
Royals (the 1st), Cholmondeley's (the 34th), Price's 
(the 14th), the Scots Fusilcers (the 21st), Monro's 
(the 37th), and Barrel's (the 4th). The Earl of Albe- 
marle had the command of this line. In the interme- 
diate spaces between each of these regiments were placed 
two pieces of cannon, making ten in all. The second 
line consisted of five regiments, viz., those of Pulteney 
(the 13th), Bligh (the 20th), Sempill (the 25th), Li- 
gonier (the 4Sth), and Wolfe's (the 8th), and was under 
the command of General Huske. Three pieces of 
cannon were jdaced between the exterior regiments of 
this line and those next them. The third line or corps 
de reserve, under Brigadier Jlordaunt, consisted of four 
regiments, viz., Battereau's (the 62d), Howard's (the 
3d), Fleming's (the 3(3th), and Blakeney's (the 27th), 
flanked by Kingston's dragoons (the 3d). The order in 
which the regiments of the dilierent lines are enume- 
rated is that in which they stood from right to left. 
The flanks of the front line were protected on the left 
by Kerr's dragoons (the 11th), consisting of three 
squadrons, commanded by Lord Ancrum, and on the 
right by Cobliam's dragoons (the 10th), consisting also 
of three S(piadions, under General Bland, with the ad- 
ditional security of a morass, extending towards the 
sea ; but, thinking liimself (juite safe on the right, the 
Duke afterwards ordered these last to the left, to aid in 



an intended attack upon tlie riglit flank of the High- 
landers. The Argyll men, with the exception of 140, 
who were upon the left of the reserve, remained in 
charge of the baggage. 

The dispositions of both armies are considered to 
have been well arranged ; but both were better cal- 
culated for defence than for attack. The arrangement 
of the English army is generally considered to have 
been superior to that of the Higlilanders ; as, from the 
regiments in the second and third lines being placed 
directly behind the vacant spaces between the regiments 
in the lines before them, the Duke of Cumberland, in 
the event of one regiment in the front line being 
broken, could immediately bring up two to supply its 
place. But this opinion is questionable, as the High- 
landers had a column on the flanks of the second line, 
which might have been used either for extension or 
echelon movemeut towards any point to the centre, to 
support either the first or the second line. 

In the dispositions described, and about the distance 
of a mile from one another, did the two armies stand 
for some time, each expecting the other to advance. 
Whatever may have been the feelings of Prince Charles 
on this occasion, those of the Duke of Cumberland ap- 
pear to have been far from enviable. The thoughts of 
Prestonpans and Falkirk could not but raise in him 
direful apprehensions for the result of a battle aflecting 
the very existence of his father's crown ; and that he 
placed but a doubtful reliance upon his troops is evident 
from a speech which he now made to his army. He 
said that they were about to fight in defence of their 
king, religion, liberties, and property, and that if only 
they stood firm he had no doubt he should lead them on 
to certain victory ; but that as he would much rather be 
at the head of one thousand brave and resolute men 
than of ten thousand mixed with cowards, if there 
were any amongst them, who, through timidity, were 
difiident of their courage, or others, who, from con- 
science or inclination, felt a repugnance to perform their 
duty, he begged them to retire immediately, and pro- 
mised them free pardon for so doing, since by remaining 
they might dispirit or disorder the other troops, and 
bring dishonour and disgrace on the army under his 

As the Highlanders remained in their position, the 
Duke of Cumberland again put his army in marching 
order, and, after it had advanced, with fixed bayonets, 
within half a mile of the front line of the Highlanders, 
it again formed as before. In this last movement the 
English army had to pass a piece of hollow ground, 
which was so soft and swampy, that the horses which 
drew the cannon sank ; and some of the soldiers, after 
slinging their firelocks and unyoking the horses, had to 
drag the cannon across the bog. As by this last move- 
ment the army advanced beyond the morass which pi'o- 
tected the right flank, the Duke immediately ordered up 
Kingston's horse from the reserve, and a small squadron 
of Cobham's dragoons, which had been patrolling, to 
cover it ; and to extend his line, and prevent his being 
outflanked on the right, he also at the same time ordered 
up Pulteney's regiment (the 13th), from the second line 
to the right of the Royals ; and Fleming's (the 36th), 
Howard's (the 3d), and Battereau's (the 62d), to the 
right of Bligh's (the 20th) in the second line, leaving 
Blakeney's (the 27th) as a reserve. 

During an interval of about half an hour some 
manoeuvring took place, in attempts by each army to 
outflank the other. Meanwhile a heavy shower of sleet 
came on, which, though discouraging to the Duke's 
amiy, from the recollection of the untoward occurrence 
at Falkirk, was not considered very dangerous, as they 
had now the wind at their backs. To encourage his 
men, the Duke of Cumberland rode along the lines 
addressing himself hurriedly to every regiment as he 
passed. He exhorted his men to rely chiefly upon their 
bayonets, and to allow the Highlanders to mingle with 
them, that they might make them ' know the men they 
had to deal with.' After the changes mentioned had 
been executed. His Highness took his station behind the 

Royals, between the first and the second line, and almost 
in front of the left of Howard's regiment, waiting for 
the expected attack. Jleanwhile, a singular occurrence 
took place, characteristic of the self-devotion which the 
Highlanders were ready on all occasions to manifest 
towards the Prince and his cause. Conceiving that by 
assassinating the Duke of Cumberland he would confer 
an essential service on the Prince, a Highlander re- 
solved, at the certain sacrifice of his own life, to make 
the attempt. With this intention he entered the 
English lines as a deserter, and, being gi'anted quarter, 
was allowed to go through the ranks. He wandered 
about with apparent indiflerence, eyeing the different 
officers as he passed along, and it was not long till an 
opportunity occurred, as he conceived, for executing his 
fell purpose. The Duke having ordered Lord Bury, one 
of his aides-de-camp, to reconnoitre, his lordship crossed 
the path of the Highlander, who, mistaking him, from 
his dress, for the Duke (the regimentals of both being 
similar), instantly seized a musket from the ground, and 
discharged it at his lordship. He missed his aim, and 
a soldier, who was standing by, shot him dead on the 

The advance of Lord Bury to within a hundred yards 
of the insurgents appears to have been considered by the 
Highlanders as the proper occasion for beginning the 
battle. Taking ofl' their bonnets, they set up a loud 
shout, which being answered by the royal troops with a 
huzza, the Highlanders about one o'clock commenced 
a cannonade on the right, which was followed by the 
cannon on the left ; but the fire from the latter, owing 
to the want of cannoneers, was, after one round, discon- 
tinued. The first volley from the right seemed to 
create some confusion on the left of the royal army, but 
so badly were the cannon served and pointed, that 
though the cannonade was continued upwards of half an 
hour, only one man in Bligh's regiment, who had a leg 
carried off by a cannon-ball, received any injury. After 
the Highlanders had continued firing for a short time, 
Colonel Belford, who directed the cannon of the Duke's 
army, opened fire from the cannon in the front line, at 
first aiming chiefly at the horse, probably either because 
from their conspicuous situation they oftered a better 
mark than the infantry, or because it was supposed that 
Charles was among them. Such was the accuracy of 
the aim taken by the royal artillerj', that several balls 
entered the gi-ound among the horses' legs and be- 
spattered the Prince with the mud that they raised ; 
and one of them struck the horse on which he rode two 
inches above the knee. The animal became so unman- 
ageable, that Charles was obliged to change him for 
another, and one of his servants, who stood behind with 
a led horse in his hand, was killed on the spot. Ob- 
serving that the wall on the right flank of the Highland 
anny prevented him from attacking on that point, the 
Duke ordered Colonel Belford to continue the cannonade, 
with the view of provoking the Highlanders and draw- 
ing them on to attack. They, on the other hand, en- 
deavoured to lure the royal army forward, and sent down 
several parties by way of defiance. Some of these ap- 
proached three several times within a hundred yards of 
the right of the enemy, firing their pistols and brandish- 
ing their swords ; but with the exception of the small 
squadron of horse on the right, which advanced a little, 
the line remained immovable. 

ileanwhile. Lord George Murray, observing that a 
squadron of the English dragoons and a party of foot, 
consisting of two companies of the Argyllshire men, and 
one of Lord Loudon's Highlanders, had detached them- 
selves from the left of the royal army, and were march- 
ing down towards the I'iver Nairn, conceived that it 
was their intention to flank the Highlanders, or to come 
ujion their rear when engaged in front, so directed Gordon 
of Avochy to advance with his battalion, and prevent 
tlie foot from entering the enclosure. Bat before this 
battalion could reach them, they had broken into it, and 
throwing down part of the east wall, and afterwards a 
piece of the west wall in the rear of the second line, 
made a free passage for the dragoons, who formed in tho 


rear of the Prince's army. Upon this, Lord George 
ordered the guards -ind" Fitz-Jamcs's horse to form 
opposite to tiie dragoons to keep them in check. Each 
party stood upon one side of a ravine, the ascent to 
which was so steep, that neither couhl venture across in 
presence of the other with safety. The foot remained 
within the enclosure, and Avochy's battalion was 
ordered to watch their motions. 

It was now high time for the Highlanders to come to 
% close engagement. Lord George had sent Colonel 
Kerr to the Prince, to know if he should begin the 
attack ; the Prince ordered him to do so, but his lord- 
ship, for some reason or other, delayed advancing. It 
is probable he expected that the Uuke would come 
forward, and that by remaining where he was, and 
retaining the wall and a small farmhouse on his 
right, he would avoid the risk of being flanked. 
Perhaps he waited for the advance of the left wing, 
which, being not so far forward as the right, was 
directed to begin the attack, and orders had been sent 
to the Duke of Perth to that effect ; but the left remained 
motionless. Anxious for the attack, Charles sent a fresh 
order by an aide-de-camp to Lord George Murray, but 
his Lordship never received it, as the bearer was killed 
by a cannon-ball while on his way to the right. He 
sent a message about the same time to Lochiel, desiring 
him to urge upon Lord George the necessity of an imme- 
diate attack. 

Galled be3'ond endurance by the fire of the English, 
which carried destruction among the clans, the High- 
landers grew clamorous, and called aloud to be led 
forward without further delay. Unable any longer to 
restrain their impatience. Lord George had just resolved 
upon an immediate advance ; but before he had time to 
issue the order along the line, the M'Intoshes, wath a 
heroism worthy of that brave clan, rushed forward 
enveloped in the smoke of the enemy's cannon. The 
fire of the centre field-pieces, and a discharge of mus- 
ketry from the Scotch Fusileers, forced them to incline 
a little to the right ; but all the regiments to their 
right, led on by Lord George ]\Iurray in person, and the 
united regiment of the M'Lauchlans and M'Leans on 
their left, coming down close after them, the whole 
moved forward together at a pretty quick pace. When 
within pistol-shot of the English line, they received a 
murderous fire, not only in front from some field-pieces, 
which for the first time were loaded now with grape, 
but in flank from a side battery supported by the 
Campbells, and Lord Loudon's Highlanders. Whole 
ranks were swept away by the terrible fire of the Eng- 
lish. Yet, notwithstanding the carnage in their ranks, 
the Highlanders continued to advance, and, after giving 
their fire close to the English line, which, from the 
density of the smoke, was scarcely visible even within 
pistol-shot, the right wing, consisting of the Athole 
Highlanders and the Camerons, rushed onward sword 
in hand, and broke through Barrel's and Monroe's regi- 
ments, which stood on the left of the first line. These 
regiments bravely defended themselves with their spon- 
toons and bayonets ; but such was the impetuosity of 
the onset, that they would have been cut to pieces had 
they not been supported Ity two regiments from the 
second line, on whose approach they retired behind the 
regiments on their right, after sustaining a loss in killed 
and wounded of upwards of 200 men. After breaking 
through these two regiments, the Highlanders hurried 
forward to attack the left of the second line. They were 
met by a tremendous fire of grape from the three field- 
pieces on the left of the second line, and by a discharge 
of musketry from Bligh's and Scmpill's regiments, which 
carried havoc through their ranks, and ma<le them at 
first recoil ; but, maddened by despair, and utterly 
regardless of their lives, they rushed upon an enemy 
wiioni they felt but could not see amid the cloud of 
smoke in which the assailants were wra])]ied. By the 
Stewarts of Appin, the Frasers, the M'Intoshes, and 
the other centre regiments, a charge as fierce was made 
on tlie foe ])efore them, driving them back upon the 
•ecoud line, which they also attempted to break ; but, 


finding themselves unable, they gave up the contest, 
not, however, until numbers had been cut do^^•n at the 
cannon's mouth. While advancing towards the second 
line, Lord George Murray, in attempting to dismount 
from his horse, which had become unmanageable, was 
thrown ; but, recovering himself, he ran to the rear and 
brought up two or three regiments from the second line 
to support the first ; but though they gave their fire, 
nothing could be done, — all was lost. Unable to break 
the second line, and terribly cut up by the fire of Wolfe's 
regiment, and by Cobham's and Kerr's dragoons, who 
had formed en jwtcnce on their right flank, the right 
wing also gave up the contest, and, turning about, cut 
their way back, sword in hand, through those who had 
advanced and formed on the ground they had passed 
over in charging to their front. 

In consequence of the unwillingness of the left to 
advance first as directed. Lord George Murray had sent 
the order to attack from right to left ; but, hurried 
by the impetuosity of the M'Intoshes, the right and 
centre did not wait till the order, which required some 
minutes in the delivery, had been communicated along 
the line. Thus the right and centre had considerably 
the start, and, quickening their pace as they went along, 
had closed with the front liue of the English army before 
the left had got half way over the ground that separated 
the two armies. The diff'erence between the right and 
centre and the left was rendered still more considerable 
from the circumstance, as noted by an eye-witness, that 
the two armies were not exactly parallel to one another, 
the right of the Prince's army being nearer the Duke'a 
than the left. Nothing could be more unfortunate for 
the Prince than this isolated attack, as it was only by a 
general shock on the whole of the English line that he 
had any chance of victory. 

The clan regiments on the left of the line, fearful 
that they would be flanked by Pulteney's regiment and 
the horse which had been brought up from the coiys de 
reserve, held back. After receiving the fire of the regi- 
ments opposite to them, they answered it by a general 
discharge, and drew their swords for the attack ; but, 
observing that the right and centre had given way, they 
turned their backs and fled without striking a blow. 
Stung to the quick by the misconduct of the M 'Donalds, 
the gallant Keppoch advanced with drawn sword in one 
hand and pistol in the other ; but he had not gone far 
when a musket-shot brought him down. He was fol- 
lowed by Donald Roy M 'Donald, formerly a lieutenant 
in his own regiment, and now a captain in Clanranald's, 
who, on Keppoch's falling, entreated him not to throw 
away his life, assuring him that his wound was not 
mortal, and that he might easily join his regiment in 
the retreat ; but — with the exclamation, ' My God ! 
have the children of my tribe forsaken me?' — Keppoch 
refused to listen to the solicitations of his clansman, 
and, after recommending him to look to himself, and 
receiving another shot, he fell to rise no more. 

Fortunately for the Highlanders, the English army 
did not follow up the advantage it had gained by an 
immediate pursuit. Kingston's horse at first chased the 
M 'Donalds, some of whom were almost surrounded by 
them ; but they were kept in check by the French 
piquets. The dragoons on the left of the English line 
were in like manner kept at bay by Ogilvy's regiment, 
which faced about upon them several times. After 
these ineffectual attempts, the English cavalry on the 
right and left met in the centre ; and, the front line 
having dressed its ranks, orders were issued for the 
whole to advance in pursuit. 

Charles, who, from the small eminence on which he 
stood, had observed with the deepest concern the defeat 
and flight of the clans, was about to advance to rallj 
them, contrary to the earnest entreaties of Sir Thomas 
Sheridan and others, who assured him that he would 
not succeed. All their expostulations would, it is said, 
have failed, had not General O'SuUivan laid hold of 
the bridle of Charles's horse, and led him off the field. 
It was, indeed, full time to retire, as the whole army 
was now in full retreat, followed by Cumberland's forces. 


To protect the Prince and secure his escape, most of his 
horse assembled about liis person ; but tlicre was little 
danger, as the victors advanced ver}- leisurely, and con- 
fined themselves to cutting down defenceless stragglers 
who fell in their way. After leaving the field, Charles 
put himself at the head of the right wing, which retired 
in such order that the cavalry sent to pursue could make 
no impression on it. 

At a short distance from the field of battle, Charles 
separated his army into two parts. One of these divi- 
sions, consisting, with the exception of the Frasers, of 
the whole of the Highlanders and the low country regi- 
ments, crossed the river Nairn, and proceeded towards 
Badenoch ; the other, comprising the Frasers, Lord 
Jolin Drummond's regiment, and the French piquets, 
took the road to Inverness. The first division passed 
within pistol-shot of the body of English cavalry which, 
before the action, had formed in the rear of the High- 
land army, without the least interruption. An English 
officer, wiio had the temerity to advance a few paces to 
seize a Highlander, was instantly cut down by him and 
killed on the spot. The Highlander, instead of running 
away, deliberately stooped down, and, pulling out a 
watch from the pocket of his victim, rejoined his com- 
panions. From the evenness of the ground over which 
it had to pass, the smaller body of the Prince's army was 
less fortunate, as it suffered considerably from the 
attacks of the Duke's light horse before it reached 
Inverness. Numerous small parties, which had de- 
tached themselves from the main body, fell under the 
sabres of the cavalry ; and many of the inhabitants of 
the town and neighbourhood, who, from motives of 
cui'iosity, had come out to witness the battle, were 
slaughtered without mercy by the ferocious soldiery, 
who, from the similarity of garb, were perhaps unable 
to distinguish them from Charles's troops. This indis- 
criminate massacre continued all the way from the field 
of battle to a place called Mill-burn, within a mile of 
Inverness. Not content with the profusion of blood- 
shed in the heat of action and during the pursuit, the 
infuriated soldiery, provoked by their disgraces at Pres- 
tonpans and Falkirk, traversed the field of battle, and 
massacred in cold blood the maimed and dying. Even 
some officers, whose station in society, apart altogether 
from feelings of humanity, to which they were utter 
strangers, should have made them superior to this 
vulgar triumph of base and illiberal minds, joined in 
the work of assassination. To extenuate the atrocities 
committed in the battle, and the subsequent slaughters, 
a forged regimental order, bearing to be signed by Lord 
George Murray, by which the Highlanders were enjoined 
to refuse quarter to the royal troops, was afterwards 
published, it is said under the auspices of the Duke of 
Cumberland ; but the deception was easily seen through. 
As no such order was alluded to in the official accounts 
of the battle, and as, at the interview which took place 
between the Earl of Kilmarnock and Lord Balmerino, on 
the morning of their execution, both these noblemen 
stated their entire ignorance of it, no doubt whatever 
can exist of the forgery. The conduct of Charles and 
his followers, who never indulged in any triumph over 
their vanquished foes, but always treated them with 
humanity and kindness, high as it is, stands higher still 
in contrast with that of the royal troops and their com- 

From the characteristic bravery of the Highlanders, 
and their contempt of death, it is likely that some of 
those who perished, as well on the field after the battle 
as in the flight, did not yiekl their lives without a 
desperate struggle ; and history has preserved one case 
of individual prowess, in the person of Golice Macbane, 
that deserves to be recorded. This man, who is repre- 
sented to have been of the gigantic stature of 6 feet 4^ 
inches, was beset by a party of dragoons. Assailed, he 
set his back against a wall, and, although covered with 
wounds, defended himself with target and claymore 
against the onset. Some officers, who observed the 
unequal conflict, were so struck witii the desperate 
bravery of Macbane, that they gave orders to save him ; 


but the dragoons, exasperated by his resistance, and the 
dreadful havoc he had made among their companions, 
thirteen of whom lay dead at his feet, would not desist 
till they had cut him down. 

According to the official accoimts published by the 
government, the royal army had only 50 men killed, 
and 259 wounded, including 18 officers, 4 of whom were 
killed. Lord Robert Kerr, second son of the JMarquis of 
Lothian, and captain of grenadiers in Barrel's regiment, 
was the only person of distinction killed ; he fell covced 
with wounds, at the head of his company, when the 
Highlanders attacked his regiment. The loss on the 
opposite side was never ascertained with any degi'ee of 
precision. The number of the slain is stated, in some 
publications of the period, to have amounted to upwards 
of 2000 men, but these accounts are exaggerated. The 
loss could not, however, be much short of 1200 men. 
The Athole brigade alone lost more than the half of its 
officers and men, and some of the centre battalions came 
off" with scarcely a third of their men. The M'ln- 
toshes, who were the first to attack, suffered most. 
With the exception of three only, all the officers of this 
brave regiment, including M'Gillivray of Drumnaglass, 
its colonel, the lieutenant-colonel, and major, were killed 
in the attack. All the other centre regiments also lost 
several officers. M'Lauchlan, colonel of the united 
regiment of M'Lauchlan and M'Lean, was killed by a 
cannon-ball in the beginning of the action, and M'Lean 
of Drimmin, who, as lieutenant-colonel, succeeded to 
the command, met a similar fate from a random shot. 
He had three sons in the regiment, one of whom fell in 
the attack, and, when leading oft' the shattered remains 
of his forces, he missed the other two, and, in returning 
to look after them, received the fatal bullet. Charles 
Eraser, younger of Inverallochie, lieutenant-colonel of 
the Eraser regiment, and, in the absence of the blaster 
of Lovat, commander of it on this occasion, was also 
killed. When riding over the field after the battle, the 
Duke of Cumberland observed this brave youth lying 
wounded. Raising himself upon his elbow, he looked 
at the Duke, who, offended at him, said to one of his 
officers : ' Wolfe, shoot me that Highland scoundrel 
who thus dares to look on us with so insolent a stare. ' 
Wolfe, horrified at the inhuman order, replied that his 
commission was at his royal highness's disposal, but 
that he would never consent to become an executioner. 
Other officers refusing to comiuit this act of butchery, a 
private soldier, at the command of the Duke, shot the 
hapless youth before his eyes. The Ajjpin regiment had 
17 officers and gentlemen slain, and 10 wounded ; and 
the Athole brigade, which lost fully half its men, had 
19 officers killed and 4 wounded. The fate of the heroic 
Keppoch has been already mentioned. Among the 
wounded, the princijial was Lochiel, who was shot in 
both ankles with grape-shot at the head of his regiment, 
after discharging his pistol, and while in the act of 
drawing his sword. On falling, his two brothers, be- 
tween whom he was advancing, raised him up, and 
carried him off the field in their arms. To add to his 
misfortunes, Charles also lost a considerable number of 
gentlemen, his most <levoted adherents, who had charged 
on foot in the first rank. 

Lord Strathallan was the only person of distinction 
that fell among the low country regiments. Lord Kil- 
marnock and Sir John Wedderburn were taken prisoners. 
The former, in the confusion of the battle, mistook, 
amidst the smoke, a party of English dragoons for Fitz- 
James's horse, and was taken. Having lost his hat, he 
was led bare-headed to tlie front line of the English 
infantry. His son, Lord Boyd, who held a commission 
in the English army, unable to restrain his feelings, 
left the ranks, and, going up to his imfortunate parent, 
took off his own hat, placed it on his father's head, and 
returned to his place without uttering a word. 

At other times, and under different circumstances, a 
battle like that of CuUoden would have been regarded 
as an ordinary occurrence, of which, when all matters 
were duly considered, the victors could make small 
boast. The Highland army did not exceed 5000 tight- 



ing men ; and when it is considered that they had 
been two days without sleep, were exhausted by the 
march of the preceding night, and hatl scarcely tasted 
food for forty-eight hours, the wonder is that they fought 
so well as they did, against an army almost double in 
point of numbers, and labouring under none of the dis- 
advantages to which, iu a more esjjecial manner, the 
overthrow of the Highlanders is to be ascribed. Never- 
theless, as the spirits of the great majority of the nation 
had been sunk to the lowest state of despondency by the 
reverses of the royal arms at Prestonpans and Falkirk, 
this unlooked-for event was hailed as one of the greatest 
military achievements of ancient or modern times ; and 
the Duke of Cumberland, who had, in consequence, an 
addition of £25,000 per annum made to his income by 
parliament, was regarded as the greatest hero of ancient 
or modern times. In its consequences, as entirely and 
for ever destructive of the claims of the unfortunate 
house of Stuart, the battle was one of the most imjjort- 
ant ever fought. Though vanquished, the Highlanders 
retired from the field with honour, and free from that 
foul reproach which has fixed an indelible stain upon 
the memories of the victors. 

After the carnage of tlie day had ceased, the brutal 
soldiery, who, from the fiendish delight which they took 
in sprinkling one another with the blood of the slain, 
' looked,' as stated bj^ one of themselves, ' like so many 
butchers rather than an army of Christian soldiers,' 
dined on the field of battle. After his men had finished 
their repast, the Duke of Cumberland marched forward 
to take possession of Inverness, and on his way received 
a letter, which had been addressed to General Bland, 
signed by six of the French ofiicers in the insurgent 
army, ottering in behalf of themselves and their men to 
surrender unconditionally to His Royal Highness. As 
he was about to enter the town he was met by a drum- 
mer, who brought him a message from General Staple- 
ton, olfering to surrender and asking quarter. On 
receiving this communication, the Duke ordered Sir 
Joseph Yorke, one of his ofiicers, to alight from his 
horse, and pencil a note to General Stapleton, assuring 
him of fair quarter and honourable treatment. The 
town was then taken possession of by Captain Campbell, 
of Sempill's regiment, with his company of gi'enadiers. 

Xotwithstauding the massacres which were committed 
immediately after the battle, a considerable number of 
wounded Highlanders still survived, some of whom had 
taken refuge in a few cottages adjoining the field of 
battle, while others lay scattered among the neighbour- 
ing inclosures. Many of these men might have recovered 
if ordinary attention had been paid to them ; but the 
stern Duke, considering that those who had risen in 
rebellion against his father were not entitled to the 
rights of humanity, entirely neglected them. But, bar- 
barous as such conduct was, it was only the prelude to 
enormities of a still more revolting descrijition. At first 
the victors conceived that they had completed the work 
of death by killing all the wounded they could discover ; 
but when they were informed that some still survived, 
they resolved to despatch them. A Mr Hossack, who 
had filled the situation of provost of Inverness, and who 
hud, under the direction of President Forbes, jjcrformed 
important .services to the government, having gone to 
pay his respects to the Duke of Cumberland, found 
Generals Hawley and Huske deliberating on this in- 
liuman design. Observing them intent upon their 
object, and actually proceeding to make out orders for 
killing the wounded Highlanders, he ventured to remon- 
strate against such a barbarous step. ' As his majesty's 
troops have been happily successful against the rebels, 
I hope,' he said, 'your excellencies will be so good as 
to mingle mercy with judgment.' Hawley, in a rage, 
••ried out, ' D — n the l)Uiipy ! does he pretend to dictate 
here ? Carry him away ! ' Anotiier ofiicer ordered Hos- 
sack to be kicked out, and the order was obeyed with 
such instantaneous precision, that tlie ex-i)rovost found 
Inmself at the bottom of two fiights of stejjs almost in a 

In terms of the cruel instructions alluded to, a party 


was despatched from Inverness the daj' after the battle 
to put to death all the wounded they might find in the 
inclosures adjoining the field of Culloden. These orders 
were fulfilled with a punctualit}^ and deliberation that 
is sickening to read of. Instead of despatching their 
unfortunate victims on the spot where they found tliem, 
the soldiers dragged them from the places wliere they 
lay weltering in their gore, and, having ranged them on 
some spots of rising ground, poured in volleys of mus- 
ketry upon them. Next day parties were sent to search 
all the houses in the neighbourhood of the field of battle, 
with instructions to carry thither all the wounded High- 
landers they could find and despatch them. Many were 
iu consequence murdered ; and the young laird of 
M'Leod was heard frankly to declare, that on this 
occasion he himself saw seventy-two persons killed in 
cold blood. The feelings of humanity were not, how- 
ever, altogether obliterated in the hearts of some of the 
officers, who spared a few of the wounded. In one in- 
stance the almost incredible cruelty of the soldiery was 
strikingly exemplified. At a short distance from the 
field of battle there stood a small hut, used for shelter- 
ing sheep and goats in cold and stormy weather, into 
which some of the wovmded had crawled. On discover- 
ing them the soldiers immediately secured the door, to 
prevent egi'ess, and thereupon set fire to the hut in 
several places, and all the persons within, to the number 
of between thirty and forty, perished in the flames. 

Another instance of fiendish cruelty occurred the 
same day. Almost immediately after the battle, nine- 
teen wounded officers of the Highland army, unable to 
follow their retiring companions, secreted themselves in 
a small plantation near Culloden House. Thence they 
were afterwards carried to the courtyard of the mansion, 
where they remained two days in great torture weltering 
in their blood, and Mitliout the least medical aid or 
attention but such as they received from the President's 
steward, who, at the hazard of his own life, alleviated 
the suflerings of his unhappy countrymen by several 
acts of kindness. These wretched sulferers were now 
tied with ropes by the brutal soldiery, thrown into 
carts, and carried out to a park wall at a short distance 
from Culloden House. Dragged out of the carts, they 
were ranged in order along the wall, and were told by 
the ofiicer in command of the party to prepare for death. 
Such of them as retained the use of their limbs fell down 
upon their knees in prayer ; but they had little time 
allowed them to invoke mere}-, for in a minute the sol- 
diers received orders to fire, and, from a distance of only 
two or three yards, the unfortunate gentlemen were almost 
all instantly shot dead. To complete the butchery, 
the soldiers were ordered to club their muskets and dash 
out the brains of such as showed any symptoms of life, 
an order which, horrible to tell, was actually fulfilled. 
A gentleman named John Fraser, who had been an offi- 
cer in the Master of Lovat's regiment, alone survived. 
He had received a Ijall, and, being obsei'ved to be still 
alive, was struck on tlie face by a soldier with the butt 
end of his musket. Though one of his cheek-bones and 
the upper part of his nose were broken, and one of his 
eyes dashed out by the blow, he still lived, but the 
party, thinking they had killed him, left him for dead. 
He would probably have expired, had not the attention 
of Lord Boyd, son of the Earl of Kilmarnock, when 
riding past, been fortunately attracted by the number 
of dead bodies lying together. Espying, at a little dis- 
tance from the heap, one body stirring, his lordship 
went up, and having ascertained from the mouth of the 
sufferer who he was, ordered his servant to carry Mr 
Fraser to a cottage near at hand, where he lay concealed 
for three months. He lived several years afterwards, 
but was a crijqile for life. 

See The Culloden Papers, 1625-1748 (1815); Hill 
Burton's Life of Duncan Forbes (ISiS), and vol. viii. , pp. 
486-496, of his Jlistory of Scolland (ed. 1876); Robert 
Chambers's History of the llehcllion (1S47); and Alex. 
Charles Ewald's Life and Times of rrincc Charles 
Stuart (2 vols., 1876). 

CuUow, a farm in the parish and near the hamlet of 


Cortachy, NW Forfarshire, 5 miles N of Kirriemuir. 
A sheep fair is held here on the last Friday of April. 

Cully. See Cally. 

CuUykhan, a romantic ravine in the E of Gamrie parish, 
Bantlshire, traversed by a brook, and descending to the 
sea, near Troup House. 

Culmallie. See Golspie. 

Culquhanny. See Colquhony. 

Culrain, a station in Kincardine parish, N Ross-shire, 
on the Highland railway, 3 miles NW of Ardgay, under 
which it has a post and telegraph office. Near it is 
Culrain Lodge. 

Culross (Gael, 'back or neck of the peninsula'), a 
small town and a parish in the detached district of Perth- 
shire. A royal and parliamentary burgh, the town 

Seal of Culross. 

stands on the Firth of Forth, 2i miles SSE of East 
Grange station, this being 6 miles W by N of Dunferm- 
line, and 7f ESE of Alloa. It occujnes the face of a 
brae, amid gardens and fruit-trees, and, as seen from 
the Firth, has a pleasing and picturesque aspect ; but, 
once a place of importance, it has fallen into gi'eat decay. 
It had a Cistercian abbey which possessed much wealth, 
and worked large neighbouring coal mines ; it conducted 
so great a trade in salt and coal that sometimes as many 
as 170 foreign vessels lay off it simultaneously in the 
Firth, to receive the produce of its salt-pans and its 
mines ; it carried on a great manufacture of the round 
iron baking-plates called girdles, w'hich, as noticed in 
Scott's Heart of Midlothinn, rendered its hammermen 
pre-eminently famous ; and it acquired, towards the close 
of the ISth century, extensive works for the extraction 
of tar, naptha, and volatile salt from coal. It lost, how- 
ever, all these sources of prosperity, and with them its 
proper characteristics as a town ; and it now is an old- 
world, sequestered place, whose chief attractions are 
its beautiful surroundings and various architectural an- 
tiquities, of which the ' Palace,' a house near the 
middle of the village, bearing dates 1597 and 1611, 
is one of the most interesting. Its abbey, dedicated 
to SS. ilary, Andrew, and Serf, was founded in 
1217 by Malcolm, Earl of Fife, and, with the 
lands belonging to it, was granted to Sir James 
Colville, who, in 1609, was created Lord Colville of Cul- 
ross. The aisleless choir, First Pointed in style, 
remains of the abbey church, together with a fine, 
lofty, and very perfect western tower, originally central, 
of early Second Pointed character ; and the former, as 
modernised about 1S24, serves as the parish church, con- 
taining nearly 700 sittings. The rest of the abbey is in 
ruins. A recess on the N side of the church is the 
burial-place of the Bruce family, ami shows white 
alabaster effigies of Sir George Bruce {ob. 1625), his lady, 
and their eight children, and a niche for the .silver 
casket in which was enshrined the heart of Edward, 
Lord Bruce, who fell in a duel near Bergen-op-Zoom iu 


1613. Culross Abbey House, in the near vicinity of the 
church, was built in 1608 bj' Edward, Lord Bruce of Kin- 
loss ; and, bought from the Earl of Dundonald by Sir 
Robert Preston, by him was nearly demolished, and after- 
wards rebuilt in 1830, being now a spacious edifice, 
delightfully situated, commanding an extensive prosjiect 
of the basin of the Forth, and having in its policies a noble 
medlar tree and a Spanish chestnut, 80 feet high, and 
19 J^ in girth at 1 foot from the ground. It again belongs 
to the Bruces in the person of the Earl of Elgin, who holds 
in Perthshire 232 acres, valued at £1871 per annum. 
(See Broomhall. ) The ancient parish church, | mile W 
by N of the abbej% was formally superseded by the abliey 
church in 1633, and is now represented by some ruins 
of Norman or First Pointed origin, with several interest- 
ing tombstones. At the E end of the town are vestiges of 
a chapel, built in 1503 by Robert Blackadder, Archbishop 
of Glasgow, and dedicated to St Mungo or Kentigern, 
who is commonly stated to have been educated by St 
Serf at the monastery of Culross, against which Skene 
maintains that Kentigera died in extreme old age in 
603, and that Servanus did not found the church of 
Culross till between the years 697 and 706 {Celt. Scotland, 
ii. 31, 184, 257). Anyhow an Episcopal church. Transi- 
tion Norman in style, with nave, apse, N organ chamber, 
and bell-gable, containing a chime of three bells, was 
dedicated to St Serf in 1876. There are also a Free 
church and an endowed school, called Geddes' Institu- 
tion, which, rebuilt by the late Miss Davidson at a 
cost of £1500, gives education to twenty boys and girls, 
and possesses one free Edinburgh bursary. A public 
school, with accommodation for 140 children, had (1880) 
an average attejidance of 103, and a grant of £92, 
7s. 6d. To the E of the town are remains of a hos]iital 
founded for six aged women in 1637 by the first Earl 
of Elgin, the recipients of whose charity now live in 
a modern building erected by Sir Robert Preston. 
Charities of considerable value were instituted also by 
Dr Bill, Sir Robert Preston, and Miss Halkerston of 
Carskerdo. The town has a post office under Alloa, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, 2 inns, a plain town-house, and a fair on the 
third Tuesday of July. Erected into a burgh of barony 
in 1484, and into a royal burgh in 1588, it is governed 
bj'^ a provost, 2 bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 
4 councillors ; and unites ^\-ith Stiklixg, Dunfermline, 
Inverkeithing, and Queensferry in returning a member 
to parliament. The parliamentary constituency num- 
bered 59 in 1882, when the annual value of real property 
amounted to £1647, while the corporation revenue for 
1881 was £51. Pop. (1851) 605, (1861) 517, (1871) 467, 
(1881) 373. Houses (1881) 96 inhabited, 22 vacant. 

The parish, containing also the villages of Blairburn, 
Comrie, and Low Valleyfield, is bounded NW by Clack- 
mannan, NE and E by Saline, Carnock, and Torrybnru 
in Fife, S by the Firth of Forth, SAV and W by Tulli- 
allan. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 4 miles ; its 
breadth, from E to W, varies between If and 3| miles ; 
and its area is 8949 acres, of which 1311^ are foreshore 
and 54 water. The surface rises abruptly from the shore 
to 250 feet above sea-level behind Low Valleyfield, and 
undulates thence, in gentle inequalities, throughout 
most of the parish, attaining^ 317 feet near Mounteclaret 
in the N, but nowhere forming anything that deserves 
to be called a hill. Bluther and Grange Burns are the 
chief streams. The rocks are mainly carboniferous ; 
but, with the exception of Blairhall, the once extensive 
collieries are now too much exhausted to afibrd a profit- 
able return. One pit near Culross Abbe}' House was 
carried almost a mile beneath the Firth, communicating 
there by a sea-sliaft with an insidated wharf for tiie 
shii)ping of its coal ; and was reckoned one of the 
greatest wonders in Scotland, but was drowned by the 
great storm of Jlarch 1625. Tradition relates that 
James VI., revisiting his native country in 1617, and 
(lining at the Abbey House, expressed a desire to see 
this mine ; that he was lirought by his host. Sir Gcorgfl 
Bruce, to the said wharf ; and that, on seeing himself 
surrounded by the waves, he raised his customary cry of 



'Treason.' 'Whereon Sir George, pointing to an elegant 
pinnace moored at the wharf, offered him the choice of 
going ashore in it, or of returning by the way he came ; 
and "the King, preferring the shortest way, was taken 
directly ashore, expressing much satisfaction at what he 
had beheld (Forsyth's Beauties of Scotland, ISO.".). Iron- 
stone occurs in thin seams between beds of clay slate, 
in ililfereut places, though not plentifully enough to 
defray the expense of working ; and a bed of limestone 
18 feet thick is found in one place at an awkward inclina- 
tion. Fire-clay also occurs, and has been used for pot- 
tery. The soil, for the most part argillaceous, is mixed 
in many places with sand, and rests commonly on 
masses of sandstone or shale. Natives were Robert Pont 
(1529-1606), churchman and senator of the College of 
Justice; Henry Hunter, D.D. (1741-1802), a distin- 
guished divine ; and Thomas Cochrane, tenth Earl of 
Dundonald (1775-1860), author of Autobiograp/iij of a 
Seaman. The principal mansions are Culross Abbey, 
Culross Park, Valleyfield, Comrie Castle, Blair Castle, 
Brankston Grange, Balgownie Lodge (old but modern- 
ised), and DrxiMARLE Castle, whose ancient predecessor 
was the traditional scene of the murder of l^ady MacdutF 
and her children. Seven proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 5 of between £100 and £500, 
and ItJ of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Dun- 
fermline and synod of Fife, Culross has been a collegiate 
charge since about 1640, when the town was at the 
height of its prosperity ; the stipend of each minister 
is on an average £200. Valuation (1871) £9328, 4s. 6d., 
(1882) £6855, lis. 7d. Pop. (1801) 1502, (1831) 1488, 
(1861) 1423, (1S71) 1354, (1881) 1130.— Ord Sur., sh. 
39, 1869. See The Legends and Commemorative Cele- 
bratiois of St Kcntigem {Edinh. 1872); the Rev. A. W. 
Hallen's ' Notes on the Secular and Ecclesiastical Anti- 
quities of Culross,' in vol. xii. oi Frocs. Sac. Ants. Scotl. 
(1878); and D. Beveridge's Culross and Tulliallan 
(Edinb. 1882). 

Culroy, a hamlet in Maybole parish, Ayrshire, 3 miles 
N of Maybole town. 

Culsahnond, a hamlet and a parish in Garioch district, 
Aberdeenshire. The hamlet — a farm-house, the church, 
and the manse — stands at 600 feet above sea-level, near 
the left bank of the Ury, 4| miles NNE of its post-town 
and station, Insch^ this being 27A miles NW of Aberdeen. 

Containing also Colpy post-office hamlet, and bounded 
N by Forgue, NE by Auchterless, E by Rayne, S by 
Oyne, SW and W by Insch, the parish has an utmost 
length from N to S of 5 miles, a varying width from E 
to W of If and 3§ miles, and an area of 6995 acres, 
of which 1 is water. The drainage is carried south-south- 
ea-stward by the upper Ury; and the surface, sinking in 
the S to 310 feet above sea-level, thence rises northward 
to 431 feet at Little Ledikin, 521 near Mellenside, 607 
at Fallow Hill, 1078 at the wooded Hill of Skares, and 
1219 at the Hill of Tillymorgan. A fine blue slate was 
quarried prior to 1860; and a vein of ironstone, extend- 
ing across the parish from Rayne to Insch, was proved, 
by specimens sent to Carron works, to contain a large 
projiortion of good iron. A subterranean moss, in some 
parts more than 8 feet deep, occurs on Pulquliitu farm ; 
and a strong mineral spring, said to be beneficial in 
scrofulous complaints, is at Saughen-loan. The soil is 
mainly a yellowish clay loam, lighter and mixed with 
fragments of slate on the uplands, and at Tillymorgan 
giving place to moss and inferior clay. Plantations cover 
a considerable area. Cairns were at one time numerous ; 
two stone circles have left some traces on Colpy farm ; 
two sculptured standing -stones (figured in l)r John 
Stuart's great work, 1866) are on the lands of Newton ; 
and stone coffins, flint implements, etc., have been 
from time to time discovered. Newton and William- 
stun are the principal mansions ; and 5 proprietors 
hoM each an annual value of more, 3 of less, than 
£100. Culsalmond is in the presbytery of Garioch 
ami synod of Aberdeen ; the living is worth £220. The 
parish church, an old building, was the scene of one of 
tlio.-.e contests that led to tlic Disrupti(m ; and the 
neighbouring Free church, Kariy Eiiglisii in style, with 


a tower, was erected in 1866 at a cost of £2000, its 
predecessor from 1843 having been a mere wooden 
shed, in the 'deep hollow of Caden.' There are also 
an Independent church and Tillymorgan Episcopal 
chapel (1851) ; whilst Culsalmond public school (re- 
built 1876) and Tillymorgan Episcopal school, witii re- 
spective accommodation lor 150 and 64 children, had 
(1880) an average attendance of 100 and 43, and grants 
of £61, 8s. and £33, 13s. 6d. Valuation (1881) £6415, 
16s. 5d. Pop. (1801) 730, (1831) 1138, (1861) 1165, 
(1871) 896, (1881) 828.— Ord Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Culsh. See Deer, New. 

Culter, a station, an estate, and a rivulet on the SE 
border of Aberdeenshire. The station is on the Deeside 
railway, within Peterculter parish, near the influx of 
Culter rivulet to the river Dee, 1% miles WSW of Aber- 
deen. The estate is mainly in Peterculter parish, partly 
in Drumoak, and from the 13th century till 1726 be- 
longed to a branch of the Cummings. Culter House 
here, 1 mile NE of the station, is a large old mansion, 
said to have been built by Sir Alexander Gumming, who, 
in 1695, was created a Baronet, and whose son, Sir 
Archibald (1700-75), for a time was ruler of the 
Cherokees. It now is a seat of Rt. Wni. Duff, Esq. of 
Fetteresso and Glassaugh, who, born in 1835, has sat 
for Banfi'shire since 1861, and who owns 1588 acres in 
the shire, valued at £1747 per annum. The rivulet, 
rising on the W border of Cluny parish, meanders 10 
miles eastward, through Cluny and on Cluny's boundaries 
with Midmar and Edit ; expands into Loch Skene, on 
the mutual boundary of Echt and Skene ; and proceeds 
thence 4 miles south-eastward, partly on the same 
boundary partly through Peterculter, to the Dee. Its 
lower reaches, with features of lake and linn, steep 
banks and wooded cliffs, bridges and mills, present a 
series of romantic scenes. See Peterculter. 

Culter, a village in the upper ward and the E of 
Lanarkshire, and a parish partly also in Peeblesshire. 
The village stands upon Culter Water, 2f miles SSW of 
Biggar, and Ig mile SSE of Culter station on the 
Peebles branch of the Caledonian, this lieing If mile W 
by N of Symington Junction, and 17^ miles W by S of 
Peebles. It chiefly consists of neat houses, embowered 
among shrubs and trees ; at it are the Tmrish church, a 
public school, and a post office under Biggar ; whilst a 
Free church stands 1 mile to the N. 

The ]iari.sli is bounded N by Biggar and Skirling, E 
by the Killjucho and Glenholm portions of Broughtou, 
SE by Drummelzier, SW by Crawford and Lamington, 
and NW by Symington. In shape resembling a rude 
triangle with southward apex, it has an utmost length 
from N by W to S by E of 7| miles, an utmost breadth 
from E to W of 3| miles, and an area of 11,932^ acres, 
of which 48o are water, and 1713 belong to Peeblesshire, 
being also, however, claimed for BiloI'GHTON'. The 
Clyde winds 2| miles north-north-eastward along all 
the Symington border ; and its affluent Culter Water, 
formed by three head-streams in the southern extremity 
of the parish, runs 6| miles northward and north-west- 
ward, first through a narrow glen, where it makes some 
romantic falls, and next across a finely- wooded, culti- 
vated plain. The surface sinks near Culter station, at 
the NW corner of the parish, to 665 feet above sea- 
level, thence rising eastward to 1345 feet on the Har- 
tree Ilills, and southward to 820 near Cornhill, 745 at 
Highfield, 939 at Nether Hangingshaw, 1187 on Snaip 
Hill, 1596 on Turkey Hill, 1880 on *Scawdmans Hill, 
2087 on *King Bank Head, 1578 on Ward Law, 2454 on 
*Culter Fell, 1769 on Woodycleuch Dod, 1679 on 
Knock Hill, 1874 on Snowgill Hill, and 2141 on *Hill- 
shaw Head, where asterisks mark those summits that 
culminate on the Peeblesshire border. The northern 
district, including the Peeblesshire section, comprises a 
considerable jiortion of the broad dingle extending from 
the Clyde in the neighbourhood of Symington eastward 
to the lower reach of Biggar Water ; with its mansions, 
lawns, and groves, it presents an aspect more like that 
of a rich English level than like that of a Scottish hill 
region. The southern district exhibits a striking con- 


trast to the northern, a long range of green hills, partly 
planted and parked, rising steeply from the plains and 
gradually merging into heathy mountains, the ' divide ' 
between Clydesdale and Tweeddale. The rocks include 
some Devonian conglomerate, but are mainly Silurian ; 
whilst the soil over most of the lower grounds is a sandy 
loam, in the eastern part of the Peeblesshire section 
inclines to clay, and on the braes and hills is light and 
dry. About one-third of the area is either regularly or 
occasionally in tillage, and upwards of 400 acres are 
under wood. The antiquities include live circular 
camps, two tumuli, the remains of Cow Castle near the 
eastern border, and, in the Peeblesshire portion, the site 
of Hartree Tower. Culter Allers House, near the 
village, a Scottish Baronial edifice of 1882, is the seat 
of John Menzies Baillie, Esq. of Culter Allers (b. 1826 ; 
siic. 1880), who owns 4648 acres in the shire, valued at 
£2010 per annum ; and other mansions, separately 
noticed, are Birthwood, Cornhill, Culter Mains, and Har- 
tree. In all, 3 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
more, and 4 of less, than £500. Culter is in the i)resby- 
tery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the 
living is worth £290. The parish church, built in 
1810, contains 300 sittings ; and the Free church, 
dating from 1843, was restored in 1874 at a cost ex- 
ceeding £900. The public school, with accommodation 
for 89 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 66, 
and a grant of £64, lis. Valuation (1882) £8941, 
7s. 6d. , of which £2141, 14s. 6d. was in Peeblesshire. 
Pop. (1801) 369, (1831) 497, (1861) 665, (1871) 593, 
(1881) blL—Ord. Sur., sh. 24, 1864. 

CultercuUen, a village, with a public school, in 
Foveran parish, Aberdeenshire, 1| mile E by S of Udny 
station, and 15 miles N by W of Aberdeen, under which 
it has a post office. 

Culter Mains, an estate, with a mansion, in Culter 
parish, Lanarkshire, 3^ miles SW of Biggar. 

Cultoquhey, an estate, with a mansion, on the W 
border of Fowlis-Wester parish, Perthshire. The man- 
sion stands 24 miles NE of Crietf, and is a gi'aceful 
edifice in the Tudor style, after designs by Smirke. 
The property of the Maxtones since 1410 and earlier, 
the estate is now held by Jas. Maxtone Graham, Esq. 
(b. 1819 ; sue. 1846), the thirteenth in unbroken male 
descent, who assumed the name of Graham on succeed- 
ing in 1859 to the lauds of Redgorton, and who owns 
2519 acres in the shire, valued at £3117 per annum. 

Cults, a parish of central Fife, containing to the "VV the 
post-office village of Pitlessie, 4 J miles S W of Cupar and 
2i E of its station and post-town, Ladybank, this being 
28^ miles N by E of Edinburgh. Bounded N by Moni" 
mail and Cupar, E by Ceres, S by Kettle, and W by 
Kettle and CoUessie, it has an utmost length from N 
to S of 2| miles, a varying width from E to W of 9 
furlongs and 2| miles, and an area of 2925 acres, of 
■which 95 lie detached, and 1 is water. The Eden winds 
3 miles north-eastward along the CoUessie and Cupar 
borders and through the interior ; where it quits the 
parish in the furthest N, the surface sinks to close on 
100 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 698 feet near 
Brotus in the SW and 622 at Walton Hill, which latter, 
however, culminates just within Ceres. The rocks are 
chiefly carboniferous ; and sandstone and limestone are 
extensively worked, whilst coal was at one time mined. 
The soil, in the N, is a light brownish sand ; in the centre, 
is chiefly a soft black loam ; on the sides and tops of the 
hills, is a strong fertile clay. A fort on the western 
slope of Walton Hill is the only antiquity of Cults, 
whose greatest son was Scotland's greatest painter. Sir 
David Wilkie (1785-1841), born in the simple manse. 
His father was parish minister, and at the school here 
Davie is said to have liked best ' to lie agroufo on the 
grun wi' his slate and pencil,' at the church to have 
sketched the portraits for 'Pitlessie Fair' (1804) and 
the ' Village Politicians ' (1806). Crawford Piuury is 
the chief mansion, and the Earl of Glasgow is chief pro- 
prietor, 3 others holding each an annual value of 
between £100 and £500, 1 of iVom £50 to £100, and 5 of 
from £20 to £50. Giving off a portion to Springfield 


quoad sacra parish. Cults is in the presbytery of Cupar 
and synod of Fife ; the living is worth £210, The 
church, 1 mile ENE of Pitlessie, was built in 1793, and, 
as enlarged in 1835, contains 430 sittings ; the interior 
is adorned with a noble piece of sculpture by Chantrey, 
erected by Wilkie in memory of his parents. At 
Pitlessie also are a U.P. church and Cults public school, 
which, with accommodation for 150 children, had 
(1880) an average attendance of 82, and a grant of £64, 
17s. Valuation (1882) £6596, 17s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 
699, (1831) 903, (1861) 800, (1871) 767, (1881) 704.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Cults, a hamlet in the Aberdeenshii-e section of 
Banchory-Devenick parish, near the left bank of the 
Dee, with a station on the Deeside railway, 4 miles 
WSW of Aberdeen, under which it has a post and 
telegraph office. At it are a Free church and an en- 
dowed school ; and near it stands Cults House, whose 
owner, Rt. Shirra-Gibb, Esq. (b. 1847 ; sue. 1880), 
holds 981 acres in the shire, valued at £1669 per 
annum. Two stone coffins, containing human remains, 
were found a little to the N of this mansion in 1850 ; 
and three large cairns are still on the estate. 

Culvain, a summit, 3224 feet high, in Kilmallie parish, 
Inverness-shire, 2^ miles SSE of the head of Loch Ar- 

Culzean. See Colzean. 

Cumbernauld, a thriving town and a parish in the 
detached section of Dumbartonshire. The town is 
situated on the high road from Glasgow to Edinbiu'gh 
through Falkirk, 1^ mile N of Cumbernauld station on 
the Caledonian, and 2 miles SW of Castlecary station on 
the North British, this being 15i miles NE of Glasgow, 
6i W by S of Falkirk, and SIJ W by N of Edinburgh. 
A picturesque old place, sheltered to E and SE by the 
grounds of Cumbernauld House, it was created a burgh 
of barony in 1649, and has a post office under Glasgow, 
a branch of the Royal Bankj a local savings' bank, 2 
chief inns, gas-works, many new handsome villas, and a 
cattle-fair on the second Thursday of May. The parish 
church here is an old building, containing 660 sittings ; 
the Free church dates from 1826, having belonged to 
the Original Secession, but has been lately almost rebuilt ; 
and there is also a new U.P. church. Haudloom 
weaving of checks and other striped fabrics is still 
carried on, but mining and quarrying are the staple 
industry. Pop. (1861) 1561, (1871) 1193, (1881) 1064. 

The parish, contahiing also the village of Condohrat, 
was disjoined from Kirkintilloch in 1649, under the 
name of Easter Lenzie. It is bounded NW by Kilsyth, 
NE by Denny, and E by Falkirk, all three in Stirling- 
shire ; S by New Iilonkland, in Lanarkshire ; and W by 
Kirkintilloch. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 
7^ miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 4 miles ; 
and its area is 11,804 acres, of which 168J are water. 
Fannyside Loch, 2g miles SE of the town, is the only 
one that has not been drained of several lakes ; it is 6| 
furlongs long and from 1 to 2 furlongs broad. The 
new-born Kelvin traces 3| miles of the north-western, 
and Luggie Water 4| miles of the southern, border; 
whilst the former throughout is also closely followed by 
4 J miles of the Forth and Clyde Canal. The surface is 
prettily diversified with gentle acclivities and fertile 
vales, sinking in the AV to close on 200 feet above sea- 
level, and rising eastward to 482 feet at Croy Hill, 513 
near Carrickstone, 528 near West Forest, and 580 near 
Garbet on Fannyside Muir, which, yielding now nothing 
but gorse and heather, was, do^vn to a comparatively 
recent period, occupied by a renmant of the ancient 
Caledonian Forest. Here, till at least 1571, the savage 
white cattle still ran wild, since in that year a writer 
complains of the havoc comuutted by the King's party 
on the deer in the forest of Cumbernauld and its ' quhit 
ky and buUis, to the gryt destructione of polecie and 
hinder of the commonweil. For that kynd of ky and 
bullis hes bein keipit this money yeiris in the said 
forest ; and the like was not mentenit in ony uther 
partis of the He of Albion.' The rocks are partly erup- 
tive, partly belong to the Carboniferous Limestone 



Bcries. A colliery is at Xetherwood ; ironstone has been 
mined to a snialfextent by the Cairon Company ; and 
limestone, brick-clay, sandstone, and trap are all of them 
largely worked, the sandstone for building, the trap for 
road-metal, paving, and rough masonry. The soil 
varies in quality, but is ehielly a deep clay of tolerable 
fertility. Fully eleven-sixteenths of the entire area are 
under the plough ; woods may cover one-sixteenth more ; 
and the rest is pastoral or waste. Antoninus' AVall, 
ti-aversing all the northern border, nearly in the line of 
the canal, has left some scanty remains ; and a Roman 
road, leading southward from Castlecary, is partially 
traceable on Fannyside Muir. On the standing-stone 
of Carrickstone Bruce is said by tradition to have 
planted his standard, when marshalling his forces on 
the eve of the battle of Bannockburn ; and pre-Reforma- 
tion chapels are thought to have existed at Achenbee, 
Achenkill, Chapelton, Kildrum, Kilmuir, and Croy. 
Cumbernauld House, standing amid an extensive park, 
i mile ESE of the town, superseded an ancient castle, 
wliich, with its barony, passed about 1306 from the 
Comyns to Sir Robert Fleming, whose grandson. Sir 
iMalcolm, was lord of both Biggar and Cumbernauld ; 
it is now a seat of John William Burns, Esq. of Kilma- 
hew (b. 1837 ; sue. 1871), owner of 1670 acres in the 
shire, valued at £3394 per annum. Other mansions 
are Dullatur House, Nether Croy, and Greenfaulds ; and 
4 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 16 of between £100 and £500, 12 of from £50 
to £100, and 35 of from £20 to £50. Taking in quoad 
sacra a small portion of Falkirk parish, Cumbernauld is 
in the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr ; the living is worth £380. Three public schools — 
Cumbernauld, Condorrat, and Arns— and Drumglass 
Church school, with respective accommodation for 350, 
229, 50, and 195 children, had (18S0) an average at- 
tendance of 225, 98, 30, and 171, and grants of £230, 
6s. 6d., £90, 3s., £41, 5s., and £1G2, 8s. 6d. Valuation 
(1860) £15,204, (1882) £25,098, 15s. Pop. (1801) 1795, 
(1831) 3080, (1861) 3513, (1871) 3602, (1881) 4270.— 
Old. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Cumbrae, Great, Big, or Meikle, an island of Bute- 
shire in the Firth of Clyde, 2^ miles E of Bute at the 
narrowest, and 1| mile WSW of Largs in Ayrshire. 
Resembling a pointed tooth in outline, with Farland 
and Portachur Points for fangs, and between them the 
town of Millport on isleted Millport Bay, it has an 
utmost length of 3| miles from NNE to SSW, viz., from 
Tomont End to Portachur Point ; an utmost width, 
from E to W, of 2 miles ; a circumference of 10^ miles ; 
and an area of 3120^ acres. A road has been lately 
formed right round the island, whose immediate sea- 
board is a low, flat beach, backed generally by steepish 
slopes, and, to the SE, by bolder but verdure-clad cliffs 
that rise to 302 feet within 3 furlongs of the shore, and 
present in the Lion Rock a quasi-miniature of Arthur's 
Seat. The interior is hilly, culminating at 417 feet 
towards the centre of the island, to the W of three little 
loclis, one of which sends off a rivulet southward to 
ilillport Bay. The principal rock is Old Red sandstone, 
disru2)ted and overlaid by various traps. The sand- 
stone is similar to that of the mainlancl, from which it 
appears to have been severed by sea erosion ; the traps 
are chiefly greenstone, and in the form of dykes have 
strangely altered the sandstone strata, fusing and recon- 
.solidating them into a dark quartz -like substance. 
Many of the dykes, having better withstood the de- 
uudating influence of air and water, stand out boldly 
from the sandstone ; and two especially, to the SE, look 
like Cyclojjean walls, 100 and 205 feet long, and 40 and 
75 feet high. These are deemed, in the island folklore, 
to be remains of a huge bridge, reared by witchcraft 
ami devilry to link Cumbrae to the Ayrshire coast. The 
soil is varied. On the higher parts of the island it is 
ligiit, gravelly, and thin, bedded on moss, and covered 
witii heath ; in some of the valleys is a fertile loam, and 
produces excellent crops ; along the E coast is light and 
sandy ; and in the S abounds in marl. Draining, sea- 
weed manuring, and liming have effected great improve- 


ments ; and wheat, early potatoes, and turnips are very 
extensively gro\\"n. Most of the farms carry .stocks 
of from 20 to 40 dairy cows. The climate is both 
healthy and pleasant, less moist than that of Arran 
or the mainland. Included once in the Hebrides, 
Cumbrae was held by the Norsemen ; and, after 
its cession to Scotland, belonged for some time to 
the Stewarts, who later mounted the throne. A cairn 
on the NE coast and the remains of Billikellet are 
the only antiquities, as no traces are left of the camp 
that Haco is said to have formed on the eve of the battle 
of Largs. In 1609 we find the captain of Dumbarton 
Castle complaining that ' Robert Huntar of Huntarston 
and Thomas Boyd, provost of Irwyn, had gone to the 
Isle of Comra, and tane away all the hawks thereon,' 
which hawks, it appears, were a famous breed belonging 
to the king. The Garrison is the only mansion, and 
its owner, the Earl of Gla.sgow, divides the island 
with the Marquis of Bute ; but 7 feuars hold each an 
annual value of between £100 and £200, 30 of from £50 
to £100, and 59 of from £20 to £50. By itself Great 
Cumbrae is a parish in the presbytery of Greenock and 
s}'nod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £160. 
Places of worship are noticed under Millport ; and a 
public school, with accommodation for 300 children, had 
(1880) an average attendance of 185, and a grant of 
£156, 14s. Valuation (1882) £16,910. Pop. (1801) 
506, (1831) 912, (1861) 1236, (1871) 1613, (1881) 1856. 
—Orel. Sur., sh. 21, 1870. See D. Landsborough's 
Excursioiis to Arran and the tivo Cumbraes (Edinb. 1851), 
and Arch. M'Neilage, ' On the Agi-iculture of Buteshire ' 
in Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc, 1881. 

Cumbrae, Little, an island of Buteshire,* 1^ mile 
SSW of Millport, and about the same distance E of the 
southern extremity of Bute and W of the Ayrshire 
coast. Triangular in shape, with base to SW and apex 
to NNE, it has an utmost length and breadth of If 
mile and 7f furlongs, whilst its area is estimated at 700 
acres. The surface rises, in a series of terraces, to 409 
feet above sea-level toward the middle of the island, 
and, with exception of a few patches of potatoes and 
ordinary garden produce, is all wild moorland, burrowed 
by rabbits, and grazed by scattered sheep. The geolo- 
gical formation is Secondary trap, resting on a sub- 
stratum of Old Red sandstone. A circular lighthouse, 
30 feet high, the earliest but one in Scotland, was built 
on the highest point about 1750, and commands a mag- 
nificent panoramic view ; but has been superseded by 
another lighthouse on the western coast, which was 
built in 1826, raises its lantern 106 feet above high 
water, and shows a fixed light, visible at a distance of 
15 miles. A strong old tower, on an islet oft" the E 
coast, believed to have been erected as a watch-post 
against the Scandinavian rovers, was surrounded by a 
rampart and a fosse, and accessible only by a draw- 
bridge. It belonged to the Eglinton family, who still are 
proprietors of the island ; gave refuge, in times of trouble, 
to that family's friends ; was surprised and burned by 
the troops of Oliver Cromwell ; and now is roofless and 
dilapidated. On the NE slope of the hill are the tomb 
and ruined chapel of St Vey. Valuation (1882) £308. 
Pop. (IS.",!) 17, (1861) 20, (1871) 11, (1881) 23. 

Cuminestown, a straggling village in Monqnhitter 
parish, N Aberdeenshire, 6 miles ESE of Turrift', under 
which it has a post office, with money order and savings' 
bank departments. Founded in 1763 by Cumine of 
Auchry, it contains a branch of the Aberdeen Town and 
County Bank and the plain Episcopal chapel of St Luke 
(1844 ; 130 sittings), whilst adjoining the parish church 
and Free church of Monqnhitter. A fair is held at it on 
the Thursday after 27 AprU. Pop. (1841) 477, (1861) 

Cumlodden, a quoad sacra parish in Glassary and 
Inverary jiarishcs, Argyllshire, on the NW side of Loch 
Fyne, its church (1841 ; 300 sittings) standing 1 mile 
WSW of Furnace and 8 miles SW of its post-town, 
Inverary. Constituted in 1853, it is in the presbytery 

* Little Cumbrae is assigned in the census to West Kilbride, but 
to Ardrossan in the Ordnance maps and valuation rollM. 


of Inverarj' and synod of Argyll ; the minister's stipend 
is £120. Two public schools, Cunilodden and Furnace, 
wdth respective accommodation for 78 and 110 children, 
had (1880) an average attendance of 48 and 78, and 
grants of £23, 10s. "2d. and £78, 6s. Pop. of q. s. 
parish (1871) 826, (1881) 837 ; of registration district of 
Cumloddcn and Minard (1881) 1142. 

Cumloden, a summer residence of the Earl of Gal- 
loway in Minnigatf parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, pictur- 
esquely seated upon Penkill Water, 2 miles NE of 

Cummertrees, a village and a coast parish of Annandale, 
Dumfriesshire. The village stands, f mile inland, on 
Pow Water, near Cummertrees station on the Glasgow 
and South- Western railway, llf miles ESE of Dumfries, 
and 3J W of Annan, under which it has a post office. 

The parish, containing also the village of Powfoot, 
and comprising, since 1609, the ancient piarish or chapelry 
of Trailtrow, is bounded N by St ]\lungo and Hoddam, E 
by Annan, S by the Sol way Firth, and W by Ruthwell 
and Dalton. Its utmost length, from N to S, is o\ miles ; 
its breadth, from E to W, varies between 2^ and 4g 
miles ; and its area is 11,747^ acres, of which 2206| are 
foreshore and 75^ water. The river Annan winds 2^ 
miles E by S along all the northern boundary ; and Pow 
Water, entering from Ruthwell, flows through the 
interior south-eastward to the Firth, which here at high 
water has a breadth of 4 to 6 miles, at low of only 3 to 7 
fui'longs. At flow of tide, its waste of level sand is 
swept by the Solway's celebrated ' bore,' which, rushing 
upwards at the speed of 8 or 10 miles an hour, roars 
with a tumult heard overfall the parish, and sometimes 12 
or 15 miles further northward. The seaboard, 3g miles 
long, is low and sandy, in the E alone attaining to 65 
feet above sea-level ; but, however featureless by nature, 
it has its interest as one of the scenes in Scott's novel of 
Redgauntlct. Inland the ground rises slowly northward 
to 87 feet near Hurkledale, 160 at Muirhouse, 183 at 
Upper Mains, 242 near Norwood, and 350 on Repentance 
Hill, from which again it descends rather rapidly to 
less than 100 feet along the Annan. The rocks are 
mainly Devonian. Limestone, 30 feet thick and contain- 
ing 96 per cent, of carbonate of lime, is extensively 
worked at Kelhead ; and sandstone has been got from 
two quarries. The soil is sandy along the coast ; in 
some of the central parts is a fertile loam incumbent 
on limestone ; and northward is loam incumbent on 
sandstone, whilst elsewhere it ranges from a thin wet 
cla}'' incumbent on hard till, and requiring much manure 
and labour, to reclaimed bog, drained and improved at 
great expense. About 6200 acres are regularly or 
occasionally in tillage, and 1300 under wood. In a 
field called Bruce's Acres, on the farm of Broom, 
Robert Bruce is said to have sustained a severe repulse 
from the English. Hoddam Castle and the Tower of 
Repentance, the chief antiquities, are separately noticed, 
as also are the mansions of Kinmount and Murray- 
thwaite. The Marquis of Queensberry is much the largest 
proprietor, 5 holding each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 1 of between £100 and £500, and 2 of from 
£20 to £50. Giving off a small portion to Bridekirk 
quoad sacra parish, Cummertrees is in the presbytery 
of Annan and synod of Dumfries ; the living is worth 
£200. The church, which was founded by Robert 
Bruce has been repeatedly rebuilt and enlarged, and 
now contains 450 sittings. Two public schools, Cum- 
mertrees and Trailtrow, with respective accomm odation 
for 130 and 44 children, had (1880) an average attend- 
ance of 86 and 32, and grants of £69, lis. and £39, 10s. 
Valuation (1882) £9607, 13s. 5d. Pop. of civil parish, 
(1801) 1633, (1831) 1407, (1861) 1232, (1871) 1116, 
(1881) 1092; oi quoad sacra parish (1871) 1072, (1881) 
1068.— Orr/. Sur., shs. 6, 10, 1863-64. 

Cumming's Camp. See Bourtie. 

Cuinming's Castle. See Dalsw^inton. 

Cummingstown, a straggling coast village in Duffus 
parish, Elginshire, 1 J mile E of Burghead. Pop. (1851) 
155, (1871) 2SS, (1881)244. 

Cumminstown. See Cuminestown. 


Cumnock (Celt, cuwar, 'meeting,' and oich, 'water'), 
a town of Ayrshire, chiefly in Old Cumnock parish, but 
partly also in Auchinleck. It lies in a sheltered hollow, 
362 feet above sea-level, on the left bank of winding 
Lugar Water, joined here by Glaisnock Burn, 5 furlongs 
WSW of one station on the main line of the Glasgow 
and South-Western, and ^ mile N by W of another on 
its Ayr and Cumnock section, by rail being 15f miles 
SE of Kilmarnock, 49i S of Glasgow (39;^ via Barrhead), 
33 SW of Carstairs, 6"!^ SW by W of Edinburgh, 42| 
NW of Dumfries, and 17:^ E by S of Ayr. With central 
square, three spacious streets, and a number of narrow 
lanes, it presents a pjleasant, well-to-do appearance, and 
has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments, branches of the Bank of Scot- 
land, the Clydesdale Bank, and the Royal Bank, 15 in- 
surance agencies, 3 hotels, a gas company, an athenaium 
(1792), a fine cemetery, and 2 Saturday papers — 
the Cumnock Express (1866) and the Liberal Cum- 
nock Ncics (1880). Thursday is market-day, and 
fairs are held on the Thursday in February after Old 
Candlemas (cattle and horses), the Thursday after 6 
March (race and hiring), the Wednesday after 6 June 
(cattle), the Wednesday after 13 July (cattle and hiring), 
and the Wednesday after 27 October (fat stock). The 
snuff'-box manufacture, so famous 50 years since, is 
wholly extinct, transferred to Mauchline ; and though 
there are two establishments for the weaving of tweeds 
and other woollen stutts, a pottery, and two dairy and 
agricultural machine works, mining is now the staple 
industry, the neighbourhood abounding in coal and 
blackband ironstone. The central square was formerly 
the churchyard, and the present churchyard was once the 
place of execution ; it contains the graves of two Cove- 
nanting worthies, shot here in 1685, and also the ashes 
of the Prophet Peden (1626-86), which, buried in Auchin- 
leck kirkyard, were forty days after lifted by dragoons, 
and reinterred at the foot of the Cumnock gallows. The 
parish church, rebuilt in 1867, is a good Second Pointed 
structure, with 1100 sittings, stained-glass windows, a 
turret clock, and a fine organ, the last erected in 1881. 
There are also a Free church, a U.P. church with 900 
sittings, a new Congregational church (1882) on the 
Auchinleck side of the Lugar, and a handsome Roman 
Catholic church (1881-82). The public school, too, 
built since the passing of the Education Act, is a very 
elegant and commodious edifice, among the finest in the 
South of Scotland. Having adopted the Lindsay Act 
in 1868, Cumnock is governed by a senior magistrate 
and 8 other police commissioners. Its municipal con- 
stituency numbered 472 in 1882, when the burgh valua- 
tion amounted to £8043. Pop. (1801) 1798, (1851) 2395, 
(1861) 2316, (1871) 2903, (1881) 3334, of whom 93 were 
in Auchinleck parish. — Orel. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Cumnock, New, a village and a parish of Kyle district, 
E Ayrshire. Nearly adjoining Afton-Bridgend, Path- 
head, and Mansfield, the village stands, 600 feet above 
sea-level, on the right bank of the Nith, at the influx of 
Afton Water, and has a station on the Glasgow and 
South-Western railway, b\ miles SE of Cumnock, and 
21| SE of Kilmarnock. At it are a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 
branches of the Bank of Scotland and the Royal Bank, 
9 insurance agencies, 3 chief inns, and a parish library 
(1828) ; a fair is held here on 18 May. 

The parish, containing also the villages or hamlets of 
Afton-Bridgend, Pathhead, Mansfield, Castle, Connell 
Park, Craigbank, and Dalleagles, formed till 1650 part 
of Old Cuninoek. It is bounded N by Old Cumnock 
and Auchinleck ; E by Kirkconnel and Sanquhar, in 
Dumfriesshire ; SE and S by Dairy and Carspliairn, in 
Kirkcudbrightshire ; SW by Dalmellington ; and NW 
by Ochiltree. Its greatest length is 15 miles from ENE 
to WSW, viz., from the Dumfriesshire border near 
Glengaber Hill, to the Dalmellington boundary near 
Benbain ; its breadth varies between 3| furlongs and 
10| miles ; and its area is 48,357^ acres, of which 261J 
are water. The Nith, rising in the SW corner, winds 
\b'i miles northward, north-eastward, and eastward 



througli the interior, its left bank bcinj:; closely followed, 
from the village downwards, by the Glasgow and South- 
western railway ; of its numerous feeders here, the 
principal is Aftox Water, flowing 9 miles northward 
from tlie southern extremity of the parish. The drain- 
age goes thus mainly to the Solway, but partly also to 
tiie Firth of Clyde, as Black and Guelt "Waters, sub- 
allluents of the river Ayr, trace most of the Ochiltree 
and Auchinleck boundaries. North-westward of the 
village are three little lakes in a row, Meikle Creocli 
Loch (3 X 2f furl.), Little Creoch Loch (3 x 1 J furl. ), and 
Klack Loch (2 x 1 furl. ). The surface sinking along the 
shallow and sluggish Nitli to less than 600 feet above 
sea-level, is everywhere hilly, mountainous in the S. 
Chief elevations to the left of the Nith from its source 
are Prickeny Hill (1G76 feet). Black Hill (1076), Cars- 
gailocb Hill (1176), CarnivanHill (1061), High Polquheys 
(1027), *Craigdully Hill (1352), Cuiisanx-one Hill 
(1547), Clocklowie Hill (1441), and *Niviston Hill 
(1507), where asterisks mark those summits that cul- 
minate on the confines of the parish ; to the right rise 
Enoch Hill (1S65), Benty Cowan (1560), Milray Hill 
(1724), Ashmark Hill (1218), Auchincally Hill (1662), 
Struthers Brae (1778), Wedder Hill (1961) Dalhanna Hill 
(1177), Blackwood Hill (898), Hare Hill or the Knipe 
(1950), Bl.^ckckaig Hill (2229), *Blacklarg Hill (2231), 
*Alwhat (2063), and *Albang (2100). The rocks in the S 
are chiefly Siluiian, in the N carboniferous. Limestone 
and sandstone, the latter coarse-grained and yellowish 
white in hue, have both been worked in several quarries ; 
and coal, partly cannel, partly sj^lint, is mined at Afton, 
Bank, Knockshinnock, Lanemark, Pathhead, and South 
Boig. Galena has been got in considerable quantities on 
the Afton estate ; and ironstone occurs plentifully in 
bands and balls. The soil of the Silurian tracts is 
chiefly of a gravelly nature, and that of the Carboni- 
ferous tracts is generally argillaceous. Fully 6000 
acres have been reclaimed from a waste or almost un- 
profitable condition since 1818 ; and now about 9300 
acres are either regularly or occasionally in tillage, whilst 
some 270 are under wood. An ancient tumulus on 
Polquhaise farm was found, on removal, to contain a 
sarcophagus and fragments of human bones. One 
baronial fortalice stood near the village, another at 
Blackci'aig, and a third near the source of the Nith ; but 
all have disappeared and left no vestige. In March 1882, 
at Craigs, near the foot of Blaekcraig, in lonely Glen 
Alton, a shepherd found 40 gold and over 140 silver 
coins of James V. ilansfield House, Lochside House, 
Craigdarroch, and Bank House are the principal man- 
sions ; and 10 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
i;500 and upAvards, 5 of between £100 and £500, 3 of 
from £50 to £100, and 20 of from £20 to £50. New 
Cumnock is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £250. The 
parish church, between Afton-Bridgend and New Cum- 
nock villages, was built in 1832, and is a handsome 
edifice, containing 1000 sittings. There are also three 
Free churches — New Cumnock, Afton, and Bank ; and 
tliree public schools — Bank, Dalleagles, and New Cum- 
nock — with respective accommodation ibr 160, 85, and 
450 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 182, 
75, and 295, and grants of £127, lis., £30, 18s. 4d., 
and £249, 18s. Valuation (1860) £17,496, (1882) 
£34,592, 13s. 6d., including £2934 for railway. Pop. 
(1801) 1381, (1831) 2184, (1861) 2891, (1871) 3434, 
(1881) Z78\. —Ord. Sitr., shs. 15, 14, 1864-63. 

Cumnock, Old, a {)arish in the E of Kyle district, Ayr- 
shire. It contains the station and most of the town of 
Cumnock, besidesasmall partof Lr(!AulK(iN-wouKs,and 
formed one narish with New Cumnock till 1650, when, 
being curtailed by the separation of New Cumnock, it 
changed its name from Cunmock to Old Cumnock. It 
is bounded N and NE by Auchinleck, E and S by New 
Cumnock, and W by Ochiltree. Its utmost length, from 
E to \V, is 9^ miles ; its Ijreadth, from N to S, varies 
between 9 furlongs and 4^ miles; and its area isl4,20!i^ 
acres, of which 69.^ are water. All the Auchinleck 
border is traced, first, Viy Guelt Water, running 2S miles 


north-westward to Glenraore Water ; next, by Glen- 
more Water, running 4g miles west-north-westward to 
form Lugar Water ; lastly, by the Lugar itself, wind- 
ing 7^ miles west-by-southward : and a number of burns 
flow northward through the interior to these three 
streams. In the NW, near Pennyfadzeoch, where the 
Lugar quits the parish, the surface sinks to close on 300 
feet above sea-level, thence rising to 693 near Whitehill, 
1198 at Hogh Mount, 764 near Sliield, 1081 at Avisyard 
Hill, 1034 at Airds Hill, and 1352 at CraigdoUyeart 
Hill in the SE. The scenery, tame in places, in most 
presents a pleasing, finely cultivated aspect, and along 
the Lugar is often highly picturesque. The roc;ks are 
chiefly carboniferous. Limestone and sandstone, both of 
excellent quality, are worked ; and bituminous and 
anthracitic coal is mined. The soil by the Liigar is 
frequently a fine alluvium, and elsewhere is mostly of a 
clayey nature, incumbent on strong till ; but on the 
higher lands is mossy. About 2000 acres are moorland, 
500 or so are planted, and the rest are all under the 
plough. The chief antiquities are ruins of Ferringzean 
Castle within the policies of Dumfries House, traces of 
Boreland Castle on the S side of the parish, vestiges of 
a small pre-Reformation chapel on the farm of Chapel- 
house, and graves or memorials of several martyrs of the 
Solemn League and Covenant. Hugh Logan, ' the 
Laird of Logan ' and celebrated wit of Ayrshire, resided 
on Logan estaite ; and James Taylor, the associate of 
Miller of Dalswinton in the invention of steam-navigation, 
superintended the mines on that of Dumfries House 
about the close of the 18th century. ]\Iansions, all 
separately noticed, are Dumfries House, Garrallan, Glais- 
nock, and Logan ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 7 of between £100 and £500, 
21 of from £50 to £100, and 28 of Irom £20 to £50. 
Old Cumnock is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £315, or £365 
with voluntary supplement from heritors. Garrallan 
public, Old Cumnock public, and Old Cumnock Roman 
Catholic school, with respective accommodation for 100, 
600, and 216 children, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 93, 574, and 140 children, and grants of £75, 3s., 
£471, 9s., and £128, 3s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £14,424, 
(1882) £27,225, 12s. 9d., including £4899 for railways. 
Pop. (1801) 1991, (1831) 2763, (1861) 3721, (1871) 4041, 
(1881) 4860.— 6')-d Sur., shs. 14, 15, 1863-64. 

Cumrue, Loch. See Kirkmichael, Dumfriesshire. 

Cumston. See Compstone. 

Cunnigar, an artificial mound in Midcalder parish, 
Edinburghshire, between Alidcalder village and the 
river Almond. On it witches are said to have been 
burned in bygone days. 

Cunninghame, a poor-law combination and a terri- 
torial district in Ayrshire. The combination includes 
only part of the district, yet extends southward into 
Kyle, comprisingthe parishes of Ardrossan, Beith, Dairy, 
Dreghorn, Dundonald, Dunlop, Galston, Irvine, Kil- 
birnie. West Kilbride, Kilmarnock, Kilwinning, Loudon, 
Stevenston, Stewartou, and Symington. The poorhouse 
contains accommodation for 279 inmates. Pop. (1871) 
102,015, (1881) 106,014.— The territorial district is the 
northern one of the three districts into which Ayrshire is 
divided. It comprises the parishes of Ardrossan, Beith, 
Dairy, Dreghorn, part of Dunlop, Fcnwick, Irvine, Kil- 
birnie. West Kilbride, Kilmarnock, Kilmaurs, Kilwin- 
ning, Largs, Loudon, Stevenston, and Stewarton ; and 
contains the towns and villages of Ardrossan, Saltcoats, 
Beith, Dairy, Dunlop, Fenwick, Irvine, KilViirnie, Glen- 
garnock. West Kilbride, Kilmarnock, Kilmaurs, Cross- 
house, Kilwinning, Largs, Fairlie, Newmilns, Darvel, 
Stevenston, and Stewarton. It is bounded N and NE 
by Renfrewshire, E by Lanarkshire, S by the river 
Irvine, which separates it from Kyle, SW and W by 
the Firth of Clyde. Its greatest length from N W to SE 
is 29i miles, and its greatest breadth in the oj)posite 
direction 12;i' miles. The surface is jdeasantly diversi- 
lii'd witli liill and dale, and rises, in the N W, into con- 
siderable heights, but cannot be said to have any 
mountains. The chief streams, besides the Irvine, are 


the Rye, the Caaf, the Garnock, the Dusk, the Lugton, 
the Auiiick, the Fenwick, and the Craufurdlarul or 
Kilmarnock. The only considerable sheet of fresh 
water is Kilbirnie Loch. Trap rocks constitute most of 
the hills, but carboniferous rocks prevail elsewhere, and 
are rich in sandstone, limestone, ironstone, and coal. 
Extensive iron-works are at Dairy and Glengarnock, and 
very productive coal mines are in various places. The 
dairy husbandry rose to high perfection in Dunlop, 
Beith, and Stewarton in the latter part of last century, and 
it has ever since maintained a high character thi'ougliout 
most of the district. The ancient family of De Morville, 
the constables of Scotland, were in the r2th and 13th cen- 
turies proprietors of almost all the land, and they are 
supposed to have had their residence at either Glengar- 
nock or Southannan. Many other families subsequently 
became proprietors ; and not a few of them, particularly 
those of Eglinton, Gleneairn, and Loudon, took a lead- 
ing part in the affairs of the kingdom during its most 
agitated times. The district appears to have been at 
one time under the control of the corporation of Irvine, 
and, for a long period prior to the abolition of feudal 
jurisdictions, it formed a bailiwick under the Earls 
of Eglinton. Valuation (1882) £434,248, including 
£38,512 for railways. Pop. (1831) 63,453, (1861) 95,593, 
(1881) 105,231. See Ayrshire and Cunninghame, 
Topographised by Timothy Pont, A.M., 1604-8, %oith 
Continuations and illustrative Notices by the late James 
Dobie of Crummock (1876). 

Cunninghamhead, a mansion in Dreghorn parish, 
Ayrshire, near Cunnmghamhead station on the Glasgow 
and South-Western railway, this being 4 miles WNW 
of Kilmarnock. Its owner, Richard Kerr, Esq. (b. 
1845 ; sue. 1853), holds 560 acres in the shire, valued 
at £1440 per annum. 

Cunninghar. See Tillicoultry. 

Cunning or Cunnan, a holm of about 50 acres at the 
right side of the mouth of the river Doon, in Ayrshii-e. 
It formerly lay on the left side of the river, but came to 
be on the right side in consequence of the river altering 
its course ; and, though now in Kyle district, it belongs 
to the Carrick parish of Maybole. 

Cunningsburgh. See Conningsburgh and DuN- 


Cunnoquhie, an estate, with a handsome modern 
mansion, in Monimail parish, Fife, 1 mile NE of Moni- 
mail church, and 4^ miles W by N of Cupar. Its 
owner, Mrs W. Pitcairn, holds 561 acres in the shire, 
valued at £937 per annum. 

Cunzierton, a hill (1100 feet) in Oxnam parish, Rox- 
burghshire, 6^ miles ESE of Jedburgh. It is crowned 
witb a large, double-trenched, ancient Caledonian camp ; 
and is engirt, at about 150 feet from the summit, with 
a defensive mound. 

Cupar, the north-western of the four divisions of Fife, 
consisting chiefly of the upper and middle basin of the 
Eden, and of the parts of the seaboard of the Firth of 
Tay from the boundary with Perthshire to a point a few 
hundred yards W of the original Tay Bridge, and nearly 
opposite Dundee. It comprises the parishes of Abdie, 
Auchtermuchty, Balmerino, Ceres, Collessie, Creich, 
Cults, Cupar, Dairsie, Dunbog, Falkland, Flisk, Kettle, 
KUmany, Logie, Monimail, Moonzie, Newburgh, and 
Strathmiglo, with parts of Abernethy and Arngask. Its 
length north-eastward is about 17^ miles ; and its 
breadth is about 10 miles. See Fife. 

Cupar or Cupar-Fife, a town and a parish of central 
Fife. A royal and parliamentary burgh, the political 
capital of the shire, and a seat of considerable trade, the 
town stands 100 feet above sea-level, amid undulating and 
richly-wooded environs, mainly on the left bank of the 
Eden. By road it is 12g miles S of Dundee, 10 W by S 
of St Andrews, and 30 NNE of Edinburgh ; whilst by 
the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee section of the North 
British it is 5^ miles NE of Ladybank Junction, 25^ 
ESE of Perth, 4"4 ENE of Stirling, 13;| NNE of Thornton 
Junction, 29 NE of Dunfermline, \i^ NNE of Edin- 
burgh, llf SSW of Tayport, and 16^ S of Dundee via 
the new Tay Bridge. It had a royal charter from 


David II. in 1363, but prior to that appears to have 
been a royal burgh, and has made some figure in history. 
A castle which stood on the eminence now called School 
Hill, but which has utterly disapjjearod, was the seat of 
the Macdulfs, Earls of Fife, who first are heard of in the 
reign of David I. (1124-53). Almost a hundred years 
earlier, according to Leighton's Fife Illustrated, ' when 
the castle of Cupar was the residence of Macduif, the 
lord or Maormore of Fife, it was the scene of that horrid 
tragedy, the murder of his wife and children by Macbeth, 
of which Shakespeare has made such a beautiful use in 
his Y>l-a,y oi Macbeth.' But Skene has shown that the 
whole well-known tale of Macduff, ' Thane of Fife ' — a 
title unknown to history — appears first in the Chronicle 
of Fordun and his interpolator Bower, i.e., belongs to 
the 14th and 15th centuries {Celtic Scotland, iii. 303-306, 
1880). The court of the Stewartry of Fife was lield 
at this castle till the forfeiture of Albany, Earl of Fife, 
in 1425, when it was transferred to Falkland. The 
proverbial expression, ' He that will to Cupar maun to 
Cupar,' alludes to the times when Cupar was the seat 
of the ancient courts of justice for Fife, and signifies 
much the same as ' A wilful man must have his own 
way.' Theatrical representations, called Mysteries or 
Moralities, professing to serve purposes such as now are 
served by at once the pulpit and the press, were ex- 
hibited on the northern slopes of the School Hill, then 
called the Playfield, for many ages till the Reformation 
— among them Sir David Lindsay's Satyre of the Thrie 
Estaitis (1535), that scathing attack on the priests, 
which has been termed ' by far the greatest interlude ir 
English literature.' Whether Sir David was born in 
Monimail at the Mount or in East Lothian is a moot 
question, but there is no doubt that the Mount was his 
property and frequent residence, and that he sat for Cupar 
in the parliaments of 1542 and 1543. Many of the 
kings and princes of Scotland, including nearly all the 
Jameses, Mary of Guise, Queen Maiy, and Charles II. , 
visited the town, and were entertained by its magistrates, 
Charles getting ' some desert to his foure houres in the 
Tolbooth, and a musicke song or two from Mr Andro 
Andersone, scholemaster ther for the tyme,' 6 July 1650. 
John Knox, in 1560, preached here to the Lords of the 
Congregation ; and a noted conference was held in the 
previous year, on Tarvit Hill, \% mile to the S, between 
the Congregation and Mary of Guise, the Queen Regent. 
The Rev. William Scot, who wrote the Jpologetical 
Narration of the State of the Kirk of Scotland, was 
minister of Cupar from 1595 till 1642, and at his own 
expense erected the spire of the parish church, which 
still exists. A handsome mural tombstone to his memory 
is still to be seen in the churchyard, though its Latin 
inscription is quite illegible. In the churchyard, too, 
is a plain upright stone inscribed : — ' Here lies interred 
the heads of Laur. Hay and Andrew Pitulloch, who 
sulFered martyrdom at Edinburgh, July 13th, 1681, for 
adhering to the Word of God and Scotland's covenanted 
work of reformation ; and also one of the hands of David 
Hackston of Rathillet, who was most cruelly murdered 
at Edinburgh, July 30th, 1680, for the same cause.' 
Which Hackston was one of the twelve murderers of 
Archbishop Sharp on Magus Muir in 1679. At Cupar, 
in 1718, the Archbishop's descendant. Sir James Sharp, 
Lord George Murray, and Sir David Threipland of 
Fiugask were arraigned for their share in the '15, but 
the proceedings against them proved abortive. John, 
Lord Campbell (1781-1861), Chancellor of England, was 
born in a house still standing in the Crossgate, his 
father being parish minister ; and the Life of him 
by his daughter, published in 1880, contains much of 
interest relating to Cupar. Another native was the 
portrait and landscape painter, Charles Lees, R.S.A. 

Old Cupar lay all on the left or N side of the Eden, 
and had six gates or ports at thorouglifares which mostly 
retain their ancient names. The West Port stood at 
the W end of lionnygate ; the Lady Port towards the 
northern extremity of Lady Wynd ; the East Port 
almost opposite the Town llall ; the Bridge Port at 


Seal of Cupar. 


a point where the Eden now is crossed by the South 
Bridge leading to the North British station ; the Mill 
Port at Millgate ; and the Kirkgate Port at the W end 
of Kirkgate. The present town comprises three principal 
streets, several lanes and alleys, some suburbs on the N 
and E and AV, and a considerable suburb on the S side 
of the Eden ; containing many new houses, it presents 
a well-built, cleanly, thri\ing "appearance. It has been 
lighted with gas since 1830 ; and in December 1876 a 
new water-supply was introduced from two storing ponds 
at Clatto and Skelpie, about 4^ miles SSW of the town. 

The Town Hall 
stands at the junc- 
tion of St Catherine 
Street and Cross- 
gate, and is a plain, 
neat 'structure, sur- 
mounted by a cupola 
and belfry. The 
County Buildings, 
in St Catherine 
Street, were en- 
larged in 1836 and 
again in 1872, pre- 
sent a neat though 
plain facade, and 
contain the county 
hall, the sheriff 
court - room, and 
offices for the public 
clerks. In the county hall are a fine portrait of John, Earl 
of Hopetoun, by Sir Henry Raeburn ; a very valuable por- 
trait of Lord kellie in his official robes, by Sir David 
Wilkie ; portraits of George II., George III., and Queen 
Charlotte, by Ramsay, son of the 'Gentle Shepherd;' 
besides a copy of a good portrait of Lord Elgin, Viceroy 
of India, and marble busts of his lordship and of the 
late J. H. E. TVemyss of Wemyss and Torrie, M.P. 
The old county prison, on the S side of the Eden, now 
serves as the Fife Artillery Militia storehouse. The new 
prisonoccupiesaconspicuous site a little to the NE of the 
town, and built, at a cost of over £3000, on a greatly 
improved plan, is now under Government management, 
aud has accommodation for 33 male and 13 female 
prisoners. Opposite the TowTi Hall stood an ancient 
cross, which, comprising an octagonal base and a round 
pillar surmounted by a unicorn, was taken down in 
1817. Its pillar was presented, at hir own request, 
to Colonel Wemyss of Wemyss Hall, and by him was 
re-erected on the lower northern slopes of Tarvit Hill 
(to the S of the town), at the very spot on which, it is 
believed, the treaty between Mary of Guise and the 
Lords of the Congregation was subscribed. The Corn 
Exchange, built in 1862 at a cost of £4000, is an edifice 
in the Gothic style, with a spire 136 feet high ; it 
contains 46 stalls for market business, and was designed 
to serve also as a music and lecture hall, but has not 
good acoustic qualities. The railway station stands on 
the S side of the Eden, and is handsome and com- 
modious ; near it, on the Kirkcaldy road, is a statue by 
Mr Ho\yie of Edinburgh, of the Disruption worthy, 
David Maitland Makgill Crichton, Esq. of Rankcilour 
(1801-51). One piece of ground for a public park was 
gifte<l to the town in 1871 by Provost Hood, another, 
adjoining, in 1872, by Provost Nicholson. The Lady 
Burn, intervening, was then arched over, and the two 
gifts, with the original cart-haugh, now form a continuous 
park, comprising some 15 acres of green meadow, and 
torming one of the most valualde amenities of the burgh. 
The original ])arish church stood 3 furlongs NW 
of the town, but within the old walls, on a rising 
ground near Springfield House ; became a ruin in the 
early part of the 15th century ; and was completely 
obliterated in 1759. Its successor, in Kirkgate Street, 
built in 1415, is said to have been a beautiful Gothic 
structure of poli.shed .sandstone, measuring 133 feet 
in length by 54 in width ; but it, too, fell into decay, 
and was taken down in 1785. The present church, 
then erected, partly on the same site, is a plain unattrac- 


tive building, containing 1300 sittings. The church of 
1415 had a tower, to which the spire already mentioned 
was added by Mr Scot in the beginning of the 17th 
century ; and this tower and spire are separated from 
the present church by an intervening vestry or session- 
house, into which part of one of the aisles of the 
former church was converted. The ancient church of 
St ^lichacl, on the S side of the Eden, crowned a 
a small conical eminence, St Michael's Hill, now mostly 
covered with the plantation that shelters the NE en- 
trance to Tarvit House, the seat of James Home Rigg, 
Esq. of DoAvnfield. The present church of St ]\Iichael 
stands in the town, was erected in 1857 at a cost of 
£1800, and, altered and improved in 1871, contains 810 
sittings. With a legacy of £7500, bequeathed by the 
late Sir David Baxter of Kilmaron, a tine new Free 
church, mixed Gothic in style, Mith tower and spire 135 
feet high, was built (1876-77) on the N side of the Bonny- 
gate. Other places of worship are Bonnygate U. P. church 
^1866 ; a handsome structure), Boston U. P. church (1850), 
a Baptist chapel, a Roman Catholic chapel (1879 ; the 
upper flat of a dwelling-house), and St James's Epis- 
copal church. The last stands on or very near the site 
of St Mary's Dominican friary, which, founded by one 
of the Earls of Fife, was by James V. annexed to St 
Andrews, and the last remnant of which, a part of 
its church, consisting of fine sandstone masonry, 
was removed at the forming of St Catherine Street, 
now containing the Episcopal church. This, as rebuilt 
about 1870, is a neat Gothic structure of white freestone, 
with nave and one side aisle, and with a new organ, 
erected in 1876, that far surpasses any other in the 
county. Two burgh schools, dating back to the reign 
of Charles I., were in 1823 superseded by an academy, 
which in turn gave place, in 1831, to a Madras academy, 
founded and endowed b}' the late Dr Andrew Bell. 
New buildings were then erected, but the old ones 
also were retained ; and the whole may be described as 
sufficiently good and commodious, though the playground 
is somewhat small, extended about 1865, but since 
curtailed by the erection of additional class-rooms and 
sheds for shelter of the pupils. In the middle of the 
original playground there stood till about 1860 an 
old one-story building, occupied as a sewing school 
at one end, and at the other as a class-room for 
pupils whose fees were provided by the parochial board or 
other local charity. This was superseded by the erec- 
tion in Kirkgate of a modern suite of class-rooms, which 
in ISSl were greatly enlarged, mostly out of accumula- 
tions of an annual sum of £40 bequeathed by the late 
Alexander Bogie of Balass and Newmill ' for the 
education of poor children ' in Cupar parish. This 
Kirkgate school and the academy are both under the 
management of Dr Bell's trustees (the lord-lieutenant 
of the county and Cupar parish ministers, provost, 
and dean of the guildry), in whom is vested the estate 
of Egmore in Galloway, which in 1881 yielded £746 
towards the expenses of the institution. The upper 
school of the Madras Academy gives instruction in 
English, classical and modern languages, mathematics, 
drawing, etc. , to 200 pupils ; whilst its lower school 
and South Side or Kirkgate school, with respective 
accommodation for 288 and 450 children, had (1880) 
an average attendance of 296 and 211, and grants of 
£246, 9s. and £153, 6s. The Baxter Institute, at West 
Port, for the education of young ladies, was built and 
endowed in 1871 by the late Sir David Piaxter. The 
Duncan Institute (1870), in Crossgate, founded for the 
working classes of Cupar, Dairsie, and Kilconquhar l)y the 
late Miss Duncan of Edcngrove, is a handsome edifice in 
the Scotch baronial style, with a spire 114 feet high ; 
and contains 2 reading-rooms, a library, a recreation 
room, a lecture hall, a musoum, and a billiard room. 
A handsome and commodious Parish Sabbath School 
Hall, lately erected at a cost of over £2000, contains a 
memorial window to its founder, the late John Pitcairn, 
Esq. of Pitcullo. Other institutions are a local asso- 
ciation of the Educational Institute of Scotland, 2 
amateur musical associations, a young men's Christian 


association, an Established Church 3'oung men's mutual 
improvement society, a floral and horticultural society, 
chess, ciarliug, golf, cricket, bowling, and athletic games' 
clubs, 4 masonic lodges, a property investment company, 
2 friendly societies, a temperance society, and Good 
Templars' and Foresters' lodges. 

The town has a head post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and railway telegraph depart- 
ments, offices of the Royal, National, Commercial, 
Clydesdale, and British Linen Co.'s banks, a national 
security savings' bank, 23 insui-ance agencies, 5 hotels, 
and 3 weekly newspapers — the Thursday Liberal Fife 
Herald (1822), the Thurstlay Conservative Fifeshire 
Journal (1833), and the Saturday Fife Neics (1870). 
A weekly corn market is held on Tuesday ; a horse 
and cattle market on the first, and an auction mart 
for cattle on the first and third, Tuesdays of every 
month ; fairs and feeing markets on the first Tuesday 
of August and either on 11th November or the fol- 
lowing Tuesday. Large trade is done in the selling and 
grinding of corn ; and other industries are brewing, 
malting, dyeing, tanning, flax-spinning, and the weaving 
of all kinds of linens ; whilst much business accrues 
from the town's position and character as the political 
capital of the county. It was distinguished, too, at 
one time for the production of beautiful specimens of 
typography and the publication of many useful books, 
Cupar being then the seat of publication for St Andrews 
University. The earliest extant charter constituting 
Cupar a royal burgh is David II. 's of 1363. The burgh 
is governed by a provost, 3 bailies, a dean of guild, a 
treasurer, and 12 councillors, who also act as police 
commissioners ; and it unites with St Andrews, Crail, 
Kilrenny, the Anstruthers, and Pittenweem in sending 
a member to parliament. A guildry exists apart from 
the dean of guild court, a shadowy relic of the old times 
of monopoly, that lingers on chiefly or solely because 
its president is ex officio a trustee of the Madras academy. 
Five incorporated trades — hammermen, wrights, weavers, 
tailors, and fleshers — also prolong a formal existence from 
the past. The municipal constituency numbered 725 
and the parliamentary 733 in 1882, when the annual 
value of real property within the burgh amounted to 
£20,830, 10s. 4d. (£15,178 in 1871), whilst the corpora- 
tion revenue for 1881 was £193. Pop. of parliamentary 
burgh (1851) 5605, (1861) 5029, (1871) 5105, (1881) 
5010. Houses (1881) 1118. 

The parish, containing also the villages of Brighton, 
Springfield, and Gladney, comprises the ancient parish 
of St Michael-Tarvit, annexed in 1618. It is bounded 
N by Kilmany and Dairsie, E by Dairsie and Kemback, 
S by Ceres and Cults, W by Monimail, and NW by 
Moonzie. Its greatest length, from N to S, is 3g miles ; 
its greatest breadth, from E to W, is 3^ miles ; 
and its area is 5737 acres, of which IJ are water. 
The river Eden winds 4| miles north-eastward and east- 
north-eastward along the Ceres border and through tlie 
interior ; it originally traced all the boundary between 
Cupar proper and St Michael-Tarvit, but, in conse- 
quence of an artificial straightening of its course at 
the town, has now a small portion of St Michael's 
en its N bank. Lady Burn, coming in from Moni- 
mail, and receiving an affluent from the confines of 
Dairsie, drains most of the northern district, and falls 
into the Eden at the E end of the town. The sur- 
face is beautifully diversified by undulations or rising- 
grounds, and makes a rich display of culture and wood. 
In the extreme E the Howe of Fife or Stratheden 
declines to less than 80 feet above sea-level, thence 
rising to 313 feet at Hawklaw and 400 at Kilmaron 
Hill on the left, and to 600 at Tarvit Hill on the 
right, side of the Eden. A ridgy mound of fresh-water 
gravel, commencing at the School Hill, the site of the 
ancient castle of Cupar, strikes northward up the flank 
of Lady Burn, and runs in a serpentine direction till it 
culminates in a sort of peak — the Mote or Moat Hill, 
traditionally said to have been the meeting-place of 
councils of war and courts of justice under tlie ' Thanes 
of Fife.' Sandstone conglomerate prevails along the 


Lady Burn, and elsewhere white sandstone of excellent 
building quality ; whilst trap rocks, chiefly greenstone 
and clinkstone, form most of the rising-grounds. The 
sandstone is worked in four quarries, the greenstone in 
two. The soil, in the N and the E, is chiefly a friable 
loam on a gravelly subsoil ; in the S and the W, is 
more inclined to sand ; but, almost everywhere, has 
been highly improved, and produces the finest crops. 
The mansions are Kilmaron, Tarvit, Springfield, Wemjss 
Hall, Dalgairn (formerly Dalyell Lodge), Hilton, Cairnie, 
Pitbladdo, Prestonhall, Foxton, Ferrybank, Belmore, 
Bellfield, Bonville, Blalowan, and Westfield, and most 
of them are separately noticed. Six proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 28 of between 
£100 and £500, 43 of from £50 to £100, and 93 of from 
£20 to £50. Cupar is the seat of a presbytery in the 
synod of Fife ; and it includes the greater part of the 
quoad sacra parish of Spkingfield. The charge is 
collegiate, the two ministers officiating alternately in 
the parish church and St Michaers,'and the living of the 
first charge being worth £448, of the second £411. 
An ancient chapel stood on the lands of Kilmaron. 
Brighton public school, with accommodation for 67 
children, had (1880) an average attendance of 37, and a 
grant of £26, 4s. Valuation (1866) £25,280, 6s. 5d., 
(1882) £36,480, 8s. iA.,plus £1680 for railway. Pop. 
(1801) 4463, (1831) 6473, (1861) 6750, (1871) 7102, 
(1881) nOi.—Ord. Sur., shs. 48, 40, 1868-67. 

The presbytery of Cupar comprehends the quoad civilia 
parishes of Abdie, Auchtermuchty, Balmerino, Ceres, 
CoUessie, Creich, Cults, Cupar, Dairsie, Dunbog, Falk- 
land, Flisk, Kettle, Kilmany, Logic, Monimail, Moonzie, 
Newburgh, and Strathmiglo, and the quoad sacra 
parishes of Freuchie, Ladybank, and Springfield. Pop. 
(1871) 30,679, (1881) 26,693, of whom 7507 were com- 
municants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. — The Free 
Church also has a presbytery of Cupar, M-ith churches 
at Newburgh, Auchtermuchty, Ceres, CoUessie, Cupar, 
Dairsie, Falkland, Flisk, Kettle, Logic, Monimail, and 
Strathmiglo, which together had 2307 communicants in 
1881. — Lastly the United Presbyterian Synod has a pres- 
bytery of Cupar, with 2 churches in Auchtermuchty, 2 
in Ceres, 2 in Cupar, and 6 in respectively Freuchie, 
Kettle, Lathones, Pitlessie, Rathillet, and St Andrews, 
the 12 having 2746 members in 1880. 

Cupar-Angus. See Coupar-Angus. 

Cupar-Grange. See Coupar-Grange. 

Cuparmuir, a village in Cupar parish, Fife, If mile 
W of Cupar town. It consists of a few scattered cot- 
tages, with a tile-work and a sandstone quarry. 

Cupinshay. See Copenshay. 

Cur, a stream of Strachur parish, Cowal, Argyllshire, 
formed by two head-streams at an altitude of 380 feet, 
and running 6f miles south-westward and south-east- 
ward to the head of Loch Eck. Its course, for the 
first 2 miles, is rough and rapid, and forms several fine 
cascades ; but lower down becomes smoother, and makes 
a number of beautiful turns. — Ord. Sur., sh. 37, 1876. 

Curate's Steps, a small pass at the side of the river 
Ayr, near Sorn Castle, in Sorn parish, Ayi'shire. It 
got its name from a tradition that an obnoxious Epis- 
copalian minister fled by it from his enraged flock, in 
the times of forced Episcopacy prior to 1688. 

Curate's Well, a copious intermittent spring on the 
glebe of Dunsyre, in Dunsyro parish, Lanarkshire. It 
issues from two circular patches of soft sand, engirt with 
very hard clay and gravel ; and at intervals of five or ten 
minutes it bubbles up as if emitting air. 

Curgarff. See Cougarf. 

Curgie, a small bay in Kirkmaiden parish, Wigtown- 
shiri', on the W side of Luce bay, 3 miles N of the Mull 
of Galloway. 

Curlee or Caerlee. See Innerleithen. 

Curling Hall, an estate, with a mansion, in Largs 
parish, Ayrshire, near tlic shore, a little S of the town. 
It includes part of the battlefield of Lakgs, and contains 
a memorial of the battle, in the form of a sculptured 
stone, with an inscribed copper plate affixed to it by Dr 
John Cairnie in 1823. 



Curr, a hill (1849 feet) in llorehattle parish, Rox- 
burghshire, oi miles E by S of Morebattle village, and 
^ mile from the English Border. 

Curreath, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Dun- 
donald parish, Ayrshire, 3 miles ENE of Troon. 

Ciirrie, a village and a parish of W central Edinburgh- 
shire. The village, a pleasant little pkce, stands on the 
steep left bank of the Water of Leith. here spanned by 
a 14th century bridge, 6 miles SW of Edinburgh, having 
one station (Curriehill) on the main line of the Cale- 
donian, and another (Currie) on its Balerno loop ; at it 
is a post office, \vith money order, savings' bank, insur- 
ance, and telegraph departments. Pop. (1861) 345, (1871) 
329, (1881) 255. 

The parish containing also the villages of Balerno 
and Hermiston, is bounded N by Corstorphine, E by 
Corstorphine and Colinton, SE by Penicuik and the 
Listonshiels section of Kirkliston, SW by Midcalder, 
W by Kirknew'ton, and NW by Ratho. Its utmost 
length, from NNE to SSW, is 8^ miles ; its breadth 
varies between 4^ furlongs and 4^ miles ; and its area is 
11,236 acres, of which 132 J are water. The Water of 
Leitii, coming in from the uplands of Midcalder, winds 
1\ mile north-north-eastward along the Kirknewton bor- 
der, next 6 miles east-north-eastward across the middle 
of the parish, receiving by the way Dean, Cock, and 
BAVEL.4.W Burns, and other still smaller tributaries. 
Near the Colinton and Penicuik boundaries lie Clubbie- 
dean, Harelaw, and Threipmuir reservoirs, supplying 
the Edixbuugii waterworks ; and the Union Canal runs 
2| miles through the northern interior in the \dcinity of 
Hermiston. The surface, in the N forming part of the 
Corstorphine plain, has a general southerly rise to the 
Pentland Hills from less than 200 feet above sea-level to 
800 on Warlaw Hill, 1250 near Craigenterry, and 800 at 
East Rig. The rocks belong mainly to the Calciferous 
Limestone series, traversed at Ravelrig by a mass of 
diorite ; whilst just to the SE of Threipmuir reservoir is 
one of three separate localities among the Pentlands, 
where rocks of Ujiper Silurian age are so surrounded and 
covered unconformably by the Lower Old Red sandstone, 
that their relations to the Lower Silurian series can no- 
where be ascertained. Excellent 9:indstone abounds 
along the left bank of the Water of Leith, especially in 
the neighbourhood of Balerno, and has been largely 
(juarried ; limestone of inferior quality has been worked 
ou the Malleny estate ; and a German, one Joachim Gonel, 
proposed in 1683 to open a copper-mine near East Mill, 
but the scheme would seem to have fallen to the ground. 
The soil of the uplands is moorish ; but that of the low 
tracts is rich and highly cultivated, the rental of one or 
two farms here having increased 700 per cent, within 
the last 150 years. Dairy-farming and sheep-farming 
are also carried on ; and within the parish are 2 large 
paper-mills and 2 snuff manufactories. Sibbald and 
other antiquaries identified Currie with 'Coria,' the 
cluef seat of the Damnonii in the 2d century, a.d., 
which Skene, however, places at Carstairs ; among its 
antiquities are a supposed Roman station on Ravelrig 
Hill and the ruins of Lennox Tower and Curriehill 
Castle. Illustrious natives or residents were Sir Thomas 
Craig (1538-1608), author of Jus Feudalc ; the Lord 
Clerk Register, Sir John Skene of Curriehill (1549-1612), 
legal antiquary ; his son. Lord President Sir James 
Skene (1580-1633) ; Sir Archibald Johnston, Lord War- 
riston (1010-63), lawyer and statesman ; Jas. Anderson, 
LL.D. (1739-1808), wTiter on agriculture ; General 
Thomas Scott of Malleny (1745-1841) ; John Marshall, 
Lord Curriehill (1794-1868) ; and his son and namesake 


(1827-81), also an eminent judge. The principal man- 
sions are Baberton, Curriehill, Hermiston, Lennox Lea, 
Lyraphoy, Malleny, Ravelrig, and Riccarton ; and 13 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 9 of between £100 and £500, 9 of from £50 to 
£100, and 25 of from £20 to £50. Currie is in the pres- 
bytery of Edinburgh and synod of Lothian and Tweed- 
dale ; the living is worth £395. The parish church, at 
the village, successor to one that down to the reign o. 
Charles I. appears to have been subordinate to the 
collegiate church of Corstorphine, was built about 1785, 
and contains 800 sittings. A Free church for Currie 
and Colinton stands at Juniper Green ; at Balerno 
are a U. P. church and St Mungo's Episcopal chapel; 
and two public schools, Balerno and Currie, and Balerno 
Episcopal school, with respective accommodation for 
176, 200, and 126 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 103, 122, and 57, and grants of £82, 
5s. 6d., £95, 18s., and £39, 4s. Valuation (I860) 
£18,692, (1882) £32,217, including £8443 for railways 
and waterworks. Pop. (1801) 1112, (1831) 1883, (1861) 
2248, (1871) 2360, (1881) 2390.— Orc^. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Currie, an estate, with a mansion, in Borthwick parish, 
Edinburghshire. The mansion, standing on a head- 
stream of Gore Water, 2\ miles SE of Gorebridge, con- 
sists partly of a former inn, partly of excellent additions, 
and reposes among sheltering wood under the shadow 
of Borthwick Castle. Its owner, Stuart Brown, Esq. 
(b. 1818), holds 904 acres in the shire, valued at £866 
per annum. A previous mansion, demolished about 
1809, stood on a rising-gi-ound overlooking the old 
church and valley of Borthwick. 

Curriehill, an estate, vdilx a mansion, in Currie parish, 
Edinburghshire, 1 mile SW of Curriehill station on the 
Caledonian, this being 5J miles SW of Edinburgh. A 
castle, a little W of the mansion, figured as a place of 
strength in the time of Queen Mary, being held by the 
Queen's opponents. See Cuerie. 

Cushieville. See Coshieville. 

Cushnie, an ancient parish in Alford district, Aber- 
deenshire, annexed in 1798 to Leochel, and now form- 
ing the western section of that parish. Cushnie or 
Sockaugh Hill, at the meeting-point with Towie, Logie- 
Coldstone, and Tarland, 7 miles SW of Alford village, 
has an altitude of 2032 feet above sea-level, and com- 
mands a very extensive view. Cushnie Burn, rising on 
the north-western shoulder of the hill, runs 4^ miles 
east-north-eastward along Cushnie Glen and the Howe 
of Cushnie to a confluence with Leochel Water at Brigton 
of Ininteer. Cushnie barony, originally called Cus- 
scnin (Gael, ch'oisinn, 'corner'), belonged, in the 12th 
century, to a family of its own name ; went by marriage, 
in the early part of the 14th century, to the Leslies, 
ancestors of the Earls of Rothes ; and passed, in 1628, 
to the Lumsdens. The old House of Cushnie, built in 
1707, has long been uninhabited ; but near it a small 
neat mansion was erected by the late proprietor, the 
Rev. Hy. T. Lumsden (died 1867), whose widow holds 
3000 acres in the shire, valued at £2588 per annum. 
His uncle, Matthew Lumsden, LL.D. (1788-1856), was 
an eminent orientalist. — Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. See 

Cuthill or Cuttle, a suburb of Prestonpans town, 
Hadilingtonsliire. Separated from the W end of that 
town by a rill, it is a dingy unpleasant place ; and 
formerly had a salt work, a magnesia manufactory, and 
an extensive pottery. 

Cuttlehill, a mansion in Aberdour parish, Fife, | 
mile E by S of Crossgates station. 





DAAN, a bum of Edderton parish, Ross -shire, 
formed hy two head-streams, and running 2| 
miles north-north-eastward to the inner Dornoch 
Firth, at Ardmore Point, If mile W by N of 
Meikle Ferry. 

Daer Water, the principal head-stream of the Clyde, 
rising in the extreme S of the parish of Crawford and of 
the cbhire of Lanark, at 2000 feet above sea-level, on the 
NE slope of Gana Hill (2190 feet), within J mile of the 
Dumfriesshire border and of a sub-affluent of the Annan. 
Thence it runs lOJ miles northward to a confluence with 
Powtrail "Water, at a point 2 f miles S of Elvanfoot ; and 
their united waters thenceforward bear the name of the 
river Clyde. Traversing a dreary region of bleak moun- 
tains and moorish uplands, and joined by sixteen little 
affluents, it has a rapid, noisy, and frolicsome cm-rent ; 
enjoys high repute as a trouting stream ; and gives the 
titie of Baron (ere. 1646) to the Earl of Selkirk.— Orrf. 
Sur., sh. 15, 1864. 

Daharick, a moor in Midmar parish, Aberdeenshire, 
said to have been the scene of a battle between Wallace 
and Comyn. 

Daiglen, a bum in Tillicoultry parish, Clackmannan- 
shire, rising at an altitude of 1750 feet, and running If 
mile south-eastward to form with Gannel Bum the Bum 
of Tillicoultry. 

Dailly, a village and a parish in Carrick district, Ayr- 
shire. The village of New Dailly stands on the left 
bank of Girvan Water, 7 furlongs SSE of Dailly station, 
on the Ayr and Girvan railway, this being 5i miles EXE 
of Girvan, and 7^ SSW of Maybole, under which it has 
a post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments. Greatly improved and enlarged 
since 1825, it is substantially built and regularly aligned ; 
at it are a principal inn, the parish and Free churches, 
a public school, and a working men's club. Pop. (1841) 
591, (1861) 650, (1871) 554, (1881) 696. 

The parish, called ancientlv Dahnaolkeran ('dale of 
St Keiran '), had its church till 1691 at Old Dailly, U 
miles to the WSW ; in 1653 it was shorn of a large tract 
to form Barr parish, but acquired a small annexation 
from Kirkoswald. It includes Ailsa Craig : yet itself 
at no point touches the sea, being bounded NW and N 
by Kirkoswald, NE by Kirkmichael, E by Kirkmichael 
and Straiton, S by Barr, SW and W by Girvan. 
Its utmost length, from E to W, is 7| miles ; its 
breadth, from N to S, varies between I5 and 6 miles ; 
and its area is 18,078^ acres, of which 82| are water. 
GiRVAX Water, followed pretty closely by the railway, 
winds 9J miles west-south-westward through the nortli- 
western interior or along the northern and western 
borders ; and several burns run to it from the interior. 
In the SW, where it passes off into Girvan, the surface 
sinks to close upon 50 feet above sea-level, thence rising 
north-eastward to 500 feet at High Craighead, 329 near 
Kilgrammie, 700 at Quarrel Hill, and 850 at Kirk Hill ; 
south-eastward and eastward to 908 at Green Hill, 1059 
at Hadvard Hill, 981 at Peat Pag, 1049 at Barony Hill, 
1007 at Caim Hill, and 1385 at Garleffin Fell. The 
rocks belong partly to the Calciferous Sandstone series, 
partly to the Carboniferous Limestone ; and coal is 
worked at Bargany and Dalquharran, limestone at Craig- 
head, while sandstone also is plentiful. The tract 
along Girvan Water is a pleasant vale, fertile, richly 
wooded, and well cultivated ; the soil is here partly 
alluvial, and elsewhere ranges from argillaceous or light 
and dry, incumbent on gravel, to thin, wet, and spongy 
on the hills, which, naturally heathy or mossy, have 
been in places reclaimed, and almost everywhere afford 
good pasturage. Baronial fortalices stood at Old Kil- 
kerran, Dalquharran, Brunston, and Penkill ; a chapel 
of St Macarius * stood at Machrykill, another of Our 
Lady in Ladyrjlcn, and a third at Altichapel ; whilst 

* In Procs.Ayr and Wigtown Archceol. Soc. (18S2) is a notice of 
the sole relic of this chapel— a stone supposed to have been a bap- 
tismal font of hi^h antiquity. 

on the western shoulder of Hadyard Hill, which com- 
mands a magnificent view, is a doubly-entrenched camp, 
possibly formed in the days of Robert Bruce, and measur- 
ing 300 feet by 195. Natives of Dailly were the poet, 
Hew Ainslie (1792-1878) ; Thos. Thomson (1768-1852), 
lawyer and antiquary ; and his painter brother, the Rev. 
Jn. Thomson of Duddingston (1778-1840): and Prof. 
Alex. Hill, D.D. (1785-1867), was minister from 1816 to 
1840. Mansions, all separately noticed, are Bargany, 
Dalquharran Castle, Kilkerran, Killochan Castle, and 
Penkill Castle ; and 5 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 2 of between £100 and £500, 
and 6 of from £20 to £50. Dailly is in the presbj-tery 
of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ajt ; the living is 
worth £397. In 1881 it was all but resolved to rebuild 
the parish churcli (1766; 600 sittings), but for the pre- 
sent things are at a standstill. Four schools — Dailly 
public, Kilgrammie public. Old Dailly public, and Wal- 
laceto^vn Works — with respective accommodation for 227, 
109, 75, and 90 children, had (1880) an average attend- 
ance of 168, 55, 39, and 89, and grants of £135, 14s., 
£27, 13s., £40, 14s., and £61, 4s. Valuation (1882) 
£16,288, 18s. lOd., plus £2618 for railway. Pop. (1801) 
1756, (1831) 2074, (1861) 2050, (1871) 1932, (1881) 2204. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 14, 8, 1863. 

Dairsie, a parish in the NE of Fife, containing at its 
eastern border the village of Dairsiemuir or Osnabm-gh, 
5 furlongs NNW of Dairsie station, this being 3^ miles 
SSW of Leuchars Junction, and 3 ENE of Cupar, under 
which it has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, and railway telegraph departments. Bounded 
NW by Kilmany and Logie, N and E by Leuchars, SE 
by Kemback, SW and W by Cupar, the parish has an 
utmost length from E to W of 2| miles, a var\-ing 
breadth from N to S of 5 furlongs and 2J miles, and 
an area of 2560^ acres, of which 5;^ are water. The 
Eden winds 2^ miles north-eastward along aU the Kem- 
back border ; and where, close to Dairsie station, it 
quits this parish, the surface declines to less than 100 
feet above sea-level, thence rising westward and north- 
westward to 505 feet on Foodie Hill, and 554 on Ckaig- 
FOODIE, which, presenting to the SW a precipitous and 
quasi-columnar front, commands a verj- extensive view. 
Sandstone abounds in the S ; and trap-rock is quarried 
in two places. The soil, in most parts fertile, in many 
is rich and deep ; and little or nothing is waste. Dairsie 
Castle, a ruin on a rising-ground near the Eden, was the 
meeting-place of a parliament in 1335, and was occupied 
by John Spottiswood, Archbishop of St Andrews, when 
■writing his History of tlie Church and State of Scotland. 
Craigfoodie is the chief mansion ; and 4 proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £1000 and upwards, 2 of between 
£500 and £1000, 1 of from £100 to £500, and 3 of from 
£20 to £50. Dairsie is in the presbytery of Cupar and 
synod of Fife ; the living is worth £400. The parish 
church containing 313 sittings, was 'built and adorned 
after the decent English fashion ' by Archbishop Spottis- 
wood in 1621. A squat, four-bayed oblong, ^ith octa- 
gonal bell-turret and dwarf-spire, it 'only shows,' says 
Hill Burton, ' that the hand of the builder had lost its 
cunning, and that neither the prelate nor his biographer 
had an eye for mediaeval art ; it is a piece of cold 
mimicry, like the work of the cabinetmaker rather than 
of the architect,' etc. {Hist. Scot., vii. 102, ed. 1876). 
There is also a Free church ; and a public school, with 
accommodation for 135 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 112, and a grant of £90, 9s. Valuation 
(1882) £6573, 3s. lid. Pop. (1801) 550, (1831) 605, 
(1861) 638, (1871) 687, (1881) 693.— Ord. Sur., shs. 
48, 49, 1868-65. See vol L of Billings' Antiquities 

Dairsiemuir. See Dair.sie. 

Dalarossie (Gael, dail-a-rois, ' field of the point '), an 
ancient parish of NE Inverness-shire, now annexed to 
Moy. More populous than Moy, it lies along the Find- 
hom river, and on its left bank, 3| miles SW of Findhorn 



bridge and 20i SE of Inverness, has a church (1790 ; 450 
sittings) and a public school. 

Dalavich, an ancient parish and a registration district 
in Lorn, Argj-Ushire. The parish, now annexed to Kil- 
chrenan, lies along the loch and river of Avich, onward 
to Loch Awe, on whose western shore, 14 miles WNW 
of Inverarv, stand its church and its public school. 
Pop. of district (1871) 217, (ISSl) 225. See KiL- 


Dalbaxber, a village on the E border of Fowlis-Wester 
parish, Perthshire, 2 miles WSW of Methven village. 

Dalbeattie, a thriving police burgh in Urr parish, SE 
Kirkcudbrightshire, standing, SO feet above sea-level, on 
Dalbeattie Bum, 7 furlongs from its influx to Urr 
Water, with a station on the Glasgow and South-Western 
railway, 5J miles ESE of Castle -Douglas, 15i NE bv E 
of Kirkcudbright, 14i SW of Dumfries, 108i SSW of 
Edinburgh, and 106J S by E of Glasgow. Founded as 
a mere village in 1780, this ' Granite City of the South ' 
owes its quick recent extension to the neighbouiing 
quarries of Craignair in BriTTLE, to the opening of the 
railway in 186u, and to its situarion near the Ukk, 
which, for large vessels, is navigable as high as Dub o' 
Hass, 5 miles to the S, and for small craft up to quite 
close to the town. It consists of a main street with 
others diverging, and has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of 
the Union Bank, 11 insurance agencies, 4 hotels, a gas 
company, a town-hall with illuminated clock, a mechanics' 
institute (1877), a literary association, bowling and 
quoiting greens, masonic, oddfellows', and foresters' 
lodges, etc. There are extensive bone, paper, bobbin, saw, 
and flour mills, dye-works, an iron-forge, and concrete 
iforks ; but Dalbeattie's chief industrial establishments 
are the great steam granite-polishing works of ilessrs 
Newall and Messrs Shearer, Field, & Co. , which employ 
several hundreds of workmen as quarriers, hewers, and 
polishers ; have furnished granite for the Liverpool docks, 
the Thames Embankment, lighthouses in Ceylon, and 
the paving of many large cities at home and abroad ; 
and, besides other monuments, supplied that at Hughen- 
den to Viscountess and Viscount Beaconsfield. Hiring 
fairs are held on the second Tuesday of April and Octo- 
ber. Dalbeattie forms a quoad sacra parish in the pres- 
bytery and synod of Dumfries, its minister's stipend 
being £300. A new parish church. Early English in 
style, with 900 sittings and a spire 130 feet high, was 
built in 1880 at a cost of £5000 ; and, at a cost of nearly 
£2000, a new Free church, Romanesque in style, was 
bmlt in 1881. Other places of worship are a U.P. 
church (1818 ; 350 sittings), an Evangelical Union 
church, St Peter's Roman Catholic church (1814 ; 300 
sittings), and Christ Church Episcopal (1875), another 
Early English edifice, with tower unfinished. A public, 
a female public, and a Roman Catholic school, with 
respective accommodation for 500, 65, and 154 children, 
had (1880) an average attendance of 384, 57, and 80, 
and grants of £327, lis. 2d., £47, 2s., and £65, lis. 
Under the General Police and Improvement Act of 1862, 
the burgh is governed by a senior and two junior magis- 
trates and six other police commissioners. Its munici- 
pal constituency numbered 750 in 1882, when the annual 
value of real property amounted to £9712. Pop. of 
burgh (1841) 1430, (1861) 1736, (1871) 2937, (1881) 
3862; of qiLoad sacra parish (1881) 4132.— Ord. Hur., 
8h. 5, 1857. 

DaJblair. See GLEXMt'iR, 

Dalcaimie Linn. See Beheeth. 

DalcapozL See Duxkeld and Dowallt, 

Dalchally, a glen in Glenisla parish, Forfarshire, 
tntversfil by Cally Water to the river Lsla at a jioint 6 
miles N of Glenisla church. 

Dalchonzie, an estate, with a modem mansion, in 
Coriirio parish, Pertlishire, on the right bank of the 
Earn, 2^ miles W of Comrie village. 

Daichosnie, an estate, with a mansion, in Fortingall 

parish, N\V Perthshire, near the right bank of the 

Tummel, \\ mile ESE of Kinloch Rannoch. Its owner. 

General Alaatair M'lan M'Donald, of Dux Alastaik 



(b. 1S30 ; sue. 1866), chief of the M'Donalds of Keppoch, 
holds 14,000 acres in the shire, valued at £2676 per 

Dalchreichard, a hamlet, with a public school, in 
Urquhart and Glenmoristou parish, luverness-shire, on 
the left bank of the Moriston, 1 mile W of Torgyle 

Dalcross, a ruined castle in the united parish of Croy 
and Dalcross, NE Inverness-shire, 2 miles SE of Dalci'oss 
station on the Highland railway, this being 6f miles 
NE of Inverness. Bmlt by the eighth Lord Lovat in 
1621, it afterwards passed to the il'Iutoshes, whose nine- 
teenth cliief, Lachlan, lay here in state from 9 Dec. 1703 
till 18 Jan. 1704, when 2000 of the Clan Chattan fol- 
lowed his remains — scanty enough, one would fancy — to 
their last resting-place in Petty ehmxh. Here, too, 
the Royal troops were put in array immediately before 
the battle of Culloden. Dalcross stands high (362 feet 
above sea-level), and commands a continuous view from 
ilealfourvonie to the Ord of Caithness ; it consists of 
two square, lofty, corbie-gabled blocks, joined to each 
other at right angles. See Croy. 

Dalcruive or Dalcrue, a place in Methven parish, 
Perthshire, 2 miles XE of ilethven village, on the right 
bank of the Almond, which here is crossed by a fine 
bridge, erected in 1836-37, with one semicircular arch 
of SO feet span. 

Daldawn or Dildawn, an estate, with a modern man- 
sion, in Keltou parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, on the left 
bank of the Dee, 3 miles SW of Castle-Douglas. 

Dalduff, an ancient baronial fortalice in Maybole 
parish, Aj'rshire, now represented by only ruinous 
walls, 3 nules SE of Maybole town. 

Dale, a village of Shetland, 3J miles from its post- 
to^vn, LerAvick. 

Dalgain. See SoRX. 

Dalgamock, an ancient parish in Xithsdale, Dumfries- 
shire, annexed to Closebum in 1697. It nearly sur- 
rounded the original parish of Closeburn ; and its 
beautiful churchyard, l| mile S of Thornhill, contains 
the grave and tombstone of the persecuted Covenanter 
James Harkness. Here stood a village, a burgh of 
barony, where a famous market-tryst was held, that 
seems to have been continued after most or all of the 
houses had disappeared, and is alluded to in Burus's 
lines : 

' But a' the next week, as I fretted wi' care, 

I gaed to the trj'st o' Dalgamock ; 
And wha but my fine fickle lover was there ! 

I glowi-'d as I'd seen a warlock, a warlock ; 

I glowr'd as I'd seen a warlock.' 

Dalgarven, a village in Kilwinning parish, Ayrshire, 
on the right bank of the Garnock, contiguous to the 
Glasgow and Soi;th-Westem railway, 2 miles N by W 
of Kih\inning town. 

Dalgenross. See Dai.gixross. 

Dalgety or Delgaty, an estate, with a mansion, in 
Turiitl' parish, N Aberdeenshire, 2 miles EXE of Turrilf 
town. For three centuries and a half the property of 
the Hays of ErroU, it was sold in 1762 to Peter Garden, 
Esq. of Troup, and by his son resold in 1798 to James, 
second Earl of Fife, whose nephew. Gen. the Hon. Sir 
Alexander DuS" (1778-1851), long made it his residence. 
Finally it was purchased by a younger brother of the 
present Governor of iladras, Ainslie Douglas Ainslie, 
Esq., who, born in 1838, changed in 1866 his name 
C rant-Duff to that of Ainslie, and who holds 2822 acres 
in the shire, valued at £1768 per annum. The oldest 
part of Dalgety Castle, with walls more than 7 feet 
thick, is older perhaps than its earliest extant date 
(1579); and, added to at various jjcriods down to the 
present century, the whole is now a stately Sf[uare, 
winged pile, its battlements — 66 feet from the ground — 
commanding a beautiful view. The grounds are finely 
wooded, and contain a lake (2JxifurL). — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 86, 1876. 

Dalgety, a coast of SW Fife, containing the vil- 
lages of St Davids, Fordel, and Mossgreen, with part of 
Cko-ssgates, and traversed down to the coast at St Davidft 


by the Fordel mineral railway ; whilst its church stands 
l| mile W by S of the post-towu Aberdour, and 4^ miles 
AV by S of Burntisland. It is bounded W and N by 
Dunfermline, NE by Aberdour, and SE by the Firth of 
Forth, here from 1£ to 4J miles broad. Its utmost 
length, from N to S, is 4^ miles ; its breadth, from E to 
AV, varies between 4^ furlongs and 2| miles ; and its 
area is 3710:j acres, of which SoZ^ are foreshore and 12f 
water. The coast-line is fully 5J miles long, if one 
foUows the bends of Barnhill, Braefoot, Dalgety, and 
Donibristle Bays, the largest of which, Dalgety Bay, 
measures 6J furlongs across the entrance, and 3;^ thence 
to its inmost recess. From the shore, which in places 
is beautifully wooded right down to the water's edge, the 
surface here and there rises steeply to 100 feet and 
more above sea-level, thence gently ascending through- 
out the interior, till close to the northern border, J mile 
E of Crossgates, it attains 426 feet. A darkly-wooded 
glen, cleaving the grounds of Fordel, is traversed by a 
brook which makes a fine waterfall of 50 feet ; and a 
beautiful little loch is at Otterston, which still boasts 
some magnificent trees. Among them are a beech and 
an ash, 90 and 80 feet high, and 15| in girth at 5 feet 
from the ground ; but a gale of January 1882 laid low 
two venerable walnut-trees, the largest of which girthed 
15§ feet at 16 from the ground. The rocks are chiefly 
of the Carboniferous formation, and include great 
abundance of sandstone, limestone, and coal ; the 
last, of very superior quality, is mined at Fordel. The 
arable soil is loam, partly light and dry, more generally 
deep and strong. A village of Dalgety stood at the head 
of Dalgety Bay, 4 mile SSE of the present church ; but 
the ivy-clad ruins of St Bridget's kirk, dating from 
the 12th century, are aU that now mark its site. First 
Pointed in style, these retain a piscina and a number of 
quaint old epitaphs ; whilst Chancellor Seton, first Eaid 
of Dunfermline (1555-1622), is bui'ied in a vault to the 
W. Almost the last to preach within their walls was 
Edward Irving. Other antiquities are Fordel Castle and 
a fragment of Couston Castle, at the E end of Otterston 
Loch, the retreat this of Charles I.'s persecuted chaplain, 
the Rev. Robert Blair (1583-1666), whose grave is at 
Aberdour ; of Seton's favouiite residence, Dalgety 
House, not so much as a stone remains. The chief 
mansions are Donibristle House, Fordel House, Cock- 
AiRNiE, and Otterston (1589), the two last both the 
property of Captain Moubray, R.N. (b. 1818 ; sue. 
1848), whose ancestor, a cadet of the Bai-nbougle Mou- 
brays, settled here in 1511, and who owns 500 acres in 
the shire, valued at £794 per annum. In all, 3 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
2 of from £50 to £100, and 5 of from £20 to £50. Giving 
off its northern portion to the quoad sacra parish of Moss- 
green, Dalgety is in the presbytery of Dunfermline and 
.synod of Fife ; the living is worth £358. The present 
church, built in 1830, is a good Gothic structure, con- 
taining 500 sittings ; and 2 public schools, Hillend 
and Mossgreen, with respective accommodation for 116 
and 220 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 
102 and 168, and grants of £80, lis. and £147. 
Valuation (1882) £7695, 15s. 5d. Pop. (1801) 890, 
(1831) 1300, (1861) 1569, (1871) 1310, (1881) 1321.— 
Old. Sur., shs. 32, 40, 1857-67. See pp. 25-54 of J. C. 
R. Buckner's Rambles Hound Aberdour (Edinb. 1881). 

Dalginross (Gael, dail-chinn-rois, ' field at the head of 
the point '), a village in Comrie parish, Perthshire, on 
the peninsula between the AVater of Ruchill and the 
river Earn, 3 furlongs S of Comrie town. Dalginross 
Plain, to the S of the village, contained two Roman 
camps, one of them occupying an area of 16 acres, sup- 
posed by some antiquaries to liave been the ' A'^ictoria ' 
of the ninth Legion. See Blairinroar. 

Dalguise, a village, with a Society's school, in Little 
Dunkeld parish, central Perthshire, on the right bank 
of the Tay, with a station on the Highland railway, 4^ 
miles NNAV of Dunkeld, under which it has a post 
and telegraph office. The railway crosses the Tay, ^ 
mile N of the station, on a latticed iron-girder viaduct 
360 feet in span, resting on one stone pier, and terminat- 


ing at each end in handsome towers and wings of 
masonry 71 feet long, and there it begins to open on the 
beautiful Vale of Athole. Dalguise House, near the vil- 
lage, is partly an old building, partly modem ; the 
estate was given by AA'^illiam the Lyon to Dunkeld 
chm-ch, and in 1543 was transferred by Bishop Crichton 
to John, second son of Steuart of ArntuUie, whose de- 
scendant, John Steuart, Esq., tenth Laird of Dalguise 
(b. 1799; sue. 1821), holds 1750 acres in Perthshire, 
valued at £1036 per annum, but is non-resident, having 
been one of the earliest settlers in Cape Colony, where 
he is Master of the Su[ireme Court. 

Dalhalvaig. See Reay. 

Dalhonzie. See Dalchonzie. 

Dalhousie Castle, a noble mansion in Cockpen parish, 
Midlothian, on the left bank of the river South Esk, 2J 
miles S by AV of Dalkeith, 1§ mile SE of Bonnyrigg, 
and 1^ S by AV of Dalhousie station on the AVaverley 
route of the North British, this being 9 miles SE of 
Edinburgh. In the first half of the 12th centm-y Simon 
de Ramsay received a grant of lands in Midlothian from 
David I. ; in 1296 and 1304 AA'^illiam de Ramsay swore 
fealty to Edward 1. of England for the lands of ' Dal- 
wokie.' His sou. Sir Alexander, was one of the great 
Scotch leaders in the AVar of Independence, the capturer 
of Roxburgh, who for reward was starved to death in 
the Castle of Hermitage (1342); in 1400 his namesake 
and fourth descendant successfully defended Dalhousie 
against Henry lA". of England. This Sir Alexander 
was slain at Homildon (1402), as was another at Flodden 
(1513). In 1618 George Ramsay, eleventh in descent 
from the first Sir Alexander, was raised to the peerage 
as Lord Ramsay of ]\Ielrose, a title changed in the fol- 
lowing year to that of Lord Ramsay of Dalhousie ; and 
in 1633 his son and successor, AVilliam, was created Earl 
of Dalhousie and Baron Ramsay of Kerington. During 
his time we find Oliver Cromwell dating his letters from 
Dalhousie Castle, 8 and 9 Oct. 1648. The fifth, sixth, 
seventh, and ninth Earls were all of them soldiers, 
George, the ninth (1770-183S), for service done in the 
Peninsula being raised in 1S15 to the peerage of the 
United Kingdom as Baron Dalhousie of Dalhousie. His 
third son and successor, the Indian administrator, James 
Andrew Brouu-Ramsay (1812-60), was born and died at 
Dalhousie, at Dalhousie received a call from the Queen 
and Prince Albert on 4 Sept. 1842, was Governor- 
General of India from 1847 to 1855, and in 1849 was 
created Marquis of Dalhousie, of Dalhousie Castle and 
the Punjaub. This title died with him, but those of 
Earl of Dalhousie and Baron Ramsay devolved on Ms 
cousin, Fox Maule, second Lord Panmure (1801-74), 
whose cousin and successor Admiral George Ramsay 
(1806-80) became a peer of the United Kingdom in 1875 
as Baron Ramsay of Glenmark. His son, the present 
and thirteenth Earl, John AVilliam Ramsay, Commander 
R.N., K.T. (b. 1847), is eighteenth in descent from the 
first Sii" Alexander, and holds 1419 acres in Midlothian 
and 136,602 in Forfarshire, valued respectively at £3452 
and £55,602 per annum. (See Brechin and Panmure.) 
Dating from the 12thcentui-y, Dalhousie is described by 
the Queen as ' a real old Scottish castle, of reddish stone;' 
but by the ninth Earl it was so altered and enlarged 
tliat it is hard to say how much is old and how much 
modern. Anyhow it is a stately castellated pile, with 
lofty tower and a fine collection of family portraits ; on 
10 Oct. 1867 it narrowly escaped entire destruction by 
fire, with the loss of the third story and attics of the 
central portion. The park is finely wooded, and the 
garden of singular beautj'. Less than a half mile to the 
NW flows Dalhousie Burn, which, rising near New- 
bigging, runs 5 miles north-eastward along the boundary 
of Carrington with Lasswade and Cockpen, and through 
the interior of tlie latter parish, till near Dalhousie 
station it joins the South Esk. A pretty streandet, 
%dth steep but wooded banks, it makes a descent from 
about 700 to less than 200 feet above sea-level. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 32, 1857. See Peter Mitchell's Parish of 
Cockpen in the Olden Times (Dalkeith, 1881). 

Dalintober, a suburban village in Canipbclto-wn parish, 



Argyllshire, on the N side of the head of Campbeltown 
Loeh. Lyins; within the parliamentary boundaries of 
Campbeltown bingh, it is a thriving place, with a sub- 
stantial small pier. 

Daljairroch, an estate, with a mansion, in Colmonell 
parish, S Ayrshire, on the right bank of the Stinchar, 
near Pinmore station, and 4' miles ENE of Colmonell 
village. Comprising 1927 acres, it was sold in 1875 for 
.i4S,000. There is a post office of Daljarroch. 

Dalkairnie Linn. See 15erbeth. 

Dalkeith, a town and a parish in the E of Edinburgh- 
shire. The town stands, 182 feet above sea-level, on a 
peninsula from 3 to 5 furlongs wide between the North 
and South Esks, and by road is 4^ miles S by W of 
Musselburgh and 6 SE "of Edinburgh, whilst, as ter- 
minus of a branch line 3| furlongs long, it is 8| miles 
SE of Edinburgh. It is also accessible from Eskbank 
station, 5 furlongs to the SW, on the main Waverley 
route of the North British, this being 8| miles SE of 
Edinburgh and 90J N by W of Cadisle. A low and 
flat-backed ridge, the peninsula slopes more steeply to 
the North than the South Ksk ; of the town's fair sur- 
roundings this picture is given in David Moir's Mansie 
Wauch : — ' Pleasant Dalkeith ! with its bonny river, 
its gardens full of gooseberry bushes and pear-trees, its 
grass parks spotted with sheep, and its grand green 
woods.' The High Street widens north-eastward from 
30 to 85 feet, and terminates at a gateway leading up to 
Dalkeith Palace, the principal seat of the Duke of Buc- 
cleuch, which palace, as centring round it all the chief 
episodes in Dalkeith's history, must here be treated of 
before Dalkeith itself. 

The Anglo-Norman knight, William de Graham, a 
witness to the foundation charter of Hol3'rood Abbey 
(1128), received from David I. the manor of Dalkeith ; 
his seventh descendant, John de Graham, dying without 
issue about the middle of the 14tli century, left two 
sisters, his heiresses, of whom one, ]\Iarjory, conveyed 
Dalkeith by marriage to the Douglases. ' In my 
youth,' says Froissart, ' I, the author of this book, 
travelled all through Scotland, and was full fifteen days 
resident with William, Earl of Douglas, at his castle of 
Dalkeith. Earl James was then very young, but a pro- 
mising youth,' etc. Doughty Earl James it was who, 
capturing Hotsimr's trophy, cried out that he would set 
it high on the tower of his castle of Dalkeith — a taunt 
that led to the battle of Otterburn (1388). In 1452 tlie 
town was plundered and burned by the brother of the 
murdered sixth Earl of Douglas, but the castle held out 
gallantly under Patrick Cockburn, its governor ; in 
1458 James II. conferred on James Douglas of Dalkeith 
the title of Earl of JMorton ; and at the second Earl's castle 
James IV. first met his afiianced Queen, the Princess 
Margaret of England, 3 Aug. 1503, when, ' having 
greeted her with knightly courtesy, and passed the day 
in her company, he returned to his bed at Edinburgh, 
very well content of so fair meeting.' In 1543, Cardinal 
Beaton was committed prisoner to Dalkeith Castle, 
which in 1547 had to yield to the English victors of 
Pinkie after a valiant defence. James, fourth Earl of 
Morton, the cruel and grasping Regent, built at Dal- 
keith about 1575 a magniiicent palace, richly adorned 
with tapestries and pictures, and fitter for king tlian 
subject — the ' Lion's Den ' the country people called it. 
Hither on Sunday, June 11, 1581, just nine days after 
the Lion's head had fallen beneath the Maiden's axe, 
James VI. returned from the jtarish kirk with two 
jiipers playing before him and with the Duke of Lennox, 
Morton's accuser and successor. The Modern Solomon 
revisited Dalkeith in 1G17, when Archibald Symson, the 
parish minister, addressed to him a congratulatory 
poem, Philomela Lalkethcnsis ; and in 1633 Charles I. 
was here magnificently entertained. In the winter of 
1637-38, Ibllowing close on the Liturgy tumults, the 
Privy Council adjourned from Linlithgow to Dalkeith 
Palace, whither twelve out of the sixteen 'Tables,' or 
commissioners, representing the supplicants of every 
estate, came to present their menacing [irotcstation ; and 
in the si)ring of 1639 these Tables made themselves 


masters of the palace. "Within it, besides military 
stores, were found the regalia — crown, sceptre, and 
sword — which, with all reverence, were brought back 
by the nobles to Edinburgh Castle. Francis Scott, 
second Earl of Buccleuch, purchased Dalkeith from the 
ninth Earl of Morton in 1642. Dying in 1651, he left 
two daughters, Mary (1648-61) and Anne (1651-1732), 
who, successively Countesses of Buccleuch in their own 
right, married, at the early ages of 11 and 12, Walter 
Scott of Highchester and the ill-fated Duke of Mon- 
mouth, both of them lads of only 14 years. The Countess 
Mary's custodier was the celebrated General Monk, who 
as such had a five years' lease of Dalkeith (1654-59), and 
lived there quietly, busying himself with gardening, but 
ever regarded jealously by Cromwell. Her mother, who 
for third husband had taken the Earl of Wemyss, is 
described by Baillie as a witty, active Avoman, through 
whom Monk acted on the Scottish nobles, and through 
whom the Scottish nobles acted in turn on ilonk ; and 
that ' sl}^ fellow' is said to have planned the Restoration 
in rooms, still extant, overhanging the Esk. Monmouth 
himself must often have been here ; in 1663 he and his 
child spouse were created Duke and Duchess of Buccleuch 
and Earl and Countess of Dalkeith. The Duchess of 
the Lay of the Last Minstrel, she, after Monmouth's 
execution (1685), lived chiefly at Newakk Castle in 
princely style, more rarely at Dalkeith Palace, which, as 
it stands to-day, was mainly built by her. Her grandson 
and successor, Francis, second Duke of Buccleuch (1695- 
1751), in whose time Prince Charles Edward passed two 
nights at Dalkeith (1 and 2 Nov. 1745), married the 
eldest daughter of James, second Duke of Queensberry ; 
and their grandson Henry, third Duke (1746-1812), 
inherited the dukedom of Queensberry in 1810. With a 
younger brother, assassinated at Paris in 1766, he had 
made the grand tour under the tutelage of Adam Smith ; 
and he did much to improve his tenantry and vast 
estates. To him Scott owed his appointment (1799) as 
sherifl'-depute of Selkirkshire ; and his son and successor, 
Charles William Henry (1772-1819), is also remembered 
as a kindly friend to both Sir Walter and the Ettriek 
Shepherd. His son, Walter-Francis Montagu-Douglas- 
Scott (b. 1806 ; sue. 1819), has entertained royalty 
twice, in the persons of George IV. (15-29 Aug. 1822) 
and Queen Victoria and Prince Albert (1-6 and 13-15 
Sept. 1842). He is the fourth largest landowner in 
Scotland, holding 432,338 acres, valued at £187,156 per 
annum, viz., 3536 in Midlothian (£28,408, including 
£1479 for minerals and £10,601 for Granton harbour), 
253,514 in Dumfriesshire (£97,530), 104,461 in Rox- 
burghshire (£39,458), 60,428 in Selkirkshire (£19,828), 
9091 in Lanarkshire (£1544), and 1308 in Fife, Kirkcud- 
bright, and Peebles shires (£3SS). See Bowhili,, 
DnuMLANRiG Castle, and Buanxholm. Such are 
some of the memories of Dalkeith Palace, which, crown- 
ing a steep, rocky knoll above the North Esk's right 
bank, was mainly rebuilt by the Duchess of Monmouth in 
the early years of the 18th century. Her architect. Sir 
John Vanbrugh, better known for his plays than his build- 
ings, chose as a model Loo Palace in the Netherlands ; 
the result is a heavy-looking Grecian pile of reddish stone, 
with recessed centre and projecting wings. The interior, 
however, is rich in treasures of art — six family portraits 
by Gainsborough and Sir Joshua Reynolds, Wilkie's 
]iortrait of George IV., three landscapes by Claude, and 
other paintings by Holbein, Rembrandt, Annibal 
I'aracci, Van Dyck, etc., with the furniture given to 
Monmouth by Charles II. The park, extending into 
Newton and Inveresk parishes, and ringed by a high 
stone wall, has a total area of 1035 acres, 130 of which 
are occupied by a remnant of the ancient Caledonian 
Forest. One kingly oak is 93 feet high, and girths 18^ 
feet at 1 foot from the ground ; whilst an ash and three 
beeches, with respective girth of Vi'i, 17, 10;^, and 14^ 
feet, are 95, 110, 103, and 95 feet liigh. Landscape 
gardening has done much to enhance the beauties duo 
to an undulating surface and to the windings of the 
rivers Esk, which iinite 7 furloiigs below tJie jtilace ; and 
tJie formality in the ueneral disposition of the grounds 


and in the planting, that offended both Gilpin and 
Stoddart, is ever softening with the lapse of years. See 
William Fraser, The Scotts of BuccJeuch {Edinh. 187S). 

Apart from castle and palace, Dalkeith has nothing 
more notable in its history than Mr Gladstone's electoral 
address of 20 March 1880. Connected ^\ith it by birth, 
education, or residence were the poet, John Rolland 
(flo. 1575); David Calderwood (1575-1650), ecclesiastical 
historian; Archibald Pitcairne (1652-1713), poet and 
physician ; the judge, William Calderwood, Lord Polton 
(1661-1733) ; John Love (1695-1750), Buchanan's vin- 
dicator, and rector of the grammar school from 1739 till 
his death ; Alexander Wedderburn, Lord Longborough 
and first Earl of Rosslyn (1733-1805), Lord High Chan- 
cellor of England ; the historian, Principal William 
Robertson, D. D. (1721-93) ; Henry Dnndas, Viscount 
Melville (1742-1811) ; John Kay, the caricaturist (1742- 
1826), for six years 'prentice to a Dalkeith barber ; 
Ralph Wardlaw, D.D. (1779-1853), an eminent divine ; 
Robert Mushet (1782-1828), of the Royal Mint ; and 
Norman Macleod, D.D. (1812-72), who was minister 
from 1843 to 1851. 

Nor, apart from its church, has the town miich to 
show in the way of antiquities — a few old sculptured 
stones let into modern buildings, ' Cromwell's orderly 
house ' in Chapelwell Close, and a fragment of a piscina 
in an old house near the palace gate. The market-cross 
has long since disappeared, but hiring fairs are held on 
the last Thursday of February, the first Thursday of 
April, and the second Thursday of October ; horse and 
cattle fairs on the Thursday of May after Rutherglen 
and the third Tuesday of October, and corn markets on 
every Thursday in the year.* The Corn Exchange, built 
in 1855 at a cost of £3800 from designs by the late D. 
Cousin of Edinburgh, is a large hall, 172 by 50 feet, and 
45 feet high, with open-timbered roof and a gable-front 
to the High Street, adorned by a panel bearing the 
Duke's arms. The Town-hall, a plain old building, 
stands also in the High Street ; the Foresters' hall, in 
Buccleuch Street, measuring 80 by 45 feet, seats 800 
persons, and was erected in 1877 at a cost of £4700 ; and 
the Combination poorhouse, for eleven parishes, at Gal- 
lowshall, accommodates 121 inmates, and was built at a 
cost of £4058 in 1849, being the first of such houses in 
Scotland. Dalkeith has besides a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph depart- 
ments, branches of the Commercial (1810), the National 
(1825), the Royal(1836), and theClydesdale Banks (1858), 
a National Security Savings' bank (1839), 20 insurance 
agencies, 6 chief inns, gas-works (1827), a working men's 
club and institute (1867), a scientific association (1835), 
a science school (1870), an agricultural society (1836), 
Liberal and Conservative clubs (1879), a masonic hall, a 
town mission (1846), a Royal Infirmary auxiliary society 
(1841), a total abstinence society (1837), bowling, 
cricket, and curling clubs, two papers — the Thursday 
Dalkeith Advertiser and the Saturday Dalkeith Herald, 
etc. The streets are fairly well paved, but the 
drainage is very defective, as also was the water supply, 
till in 1878 an arrangement was made with the Edin- 
burgh Water Company to bring in a fresh supply from 
the Moorfoot Hills, under their recent Extension Act, 
the works being carried out in 1879 at a cost of £6000. 
Ironfounding, brushmaking, and market-gardening are 
the leading industries. 

The old or East Parish church is of unknown date ; 
but Pope Sixtus' bull of 1475 refers to the collegiate 
establishment of St Nicholas of Dalkeith, consisting of 
a provost, 5 canons, and 5 prebends, as having been 
'founded and endowed from ancient times.' Second 
Pointed in style, it consists of an aisled navs (78 x 53 
feet), a choir (44 x 27) with trigonal apse, N and S tran- 
septs, and a western clock -tower and octagonal spire 85 
feet high. The choir, however, which, with its canopied 
niches, is much more highly decorated than the rest of 

* The weekly corn market was changed from Sunday (on which 
it had been held ' past memory of man ') to Thursday by an Act 
of the Scottish Parliament of 15S1, which also appointed the yearly 
October fair. 


the fabric, has long been roofless, cut off from the nave 
by an unsightly wall ; and forty years since nave and 
transepts were ' choked with galleries, rising tier above 
tier behind and around the pulpit — a curious example 
of Scotch vandalism. There was, however, something of 
the picturesque in the confused cramming of these "lofts" 
into every nook and corner, in the quaint shields, de- 
vices, and texts emblazoned in front of the seats allotted 
to different guilds. The weavers reminded the congre- 
gation of how life was passing " swiftly as the weaver's 
shuttle," and the hammermen of how the Word of God 
smote the rocky heart in pieces' (Life of Norman Macleod, 
1876). Now, as restored by the late David Bryce, R. S. A. , 
in 1852, the church contains 760 sittings, and presents 
a goodly appearance, but for the lack of the choir, in 
which are two recumbent effigies, probably of James, 
first Earl of Morton, and his dame, as also the graves of 
the young Countess Mary and her sister, the Duchess of 
Monmouth. The West Church, on a commanding site 
above the North Esk, was erected in 1840 at the cost of 
the Duke of Buccleuch, and is a cruciform Early English 
structure, ■with 950 sittings, and a spire 167 feet high. 
King's Park U.P. church, also Early English in style, 
with 700 sittings and a spire of 140 feet, was built in 
1869-70 at a cost of £3300 ; and Buccleuch Street U.P. 
church, a Lombardo- Venetian edifice, in 1879, at a cost 
of £8767. Other places of worship are Back Street U. P. 
church (436 sittings), a Free church, a Congregational 
church (300 sittings), Wesleyan, Baptist, and Evangelical 
Union chapels, St David's Roman Catholic church (1854 ; 
500 sittings), and St Mary's Episcopal church (1845 ; 250 
sittings). The last, situated just -within the gateway of 
the ducal park, is a beautiful Early English building, 
comprising a nave with open roof, a chancel elaborately 
groined in stone, and a S vestry. Back Street public 
school, the new Burgh public school, and the Roman 
Catholic school, \Wth respective accommodation for 204, 
500, and 235 children, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 107, 340, and 135, and grants of £94, 15s., £239, 10s., 
and £117, 9s. 

Under the successive holders of castle and palace, 
Dalkeith was for centuries a burgh of barony ; on the 
abolition of hereditary jurisdictions, in 1747, the Duke 
claimed £4000 for the regality, and was allowed £3400. 
In terms of Acts passed between 1759 and 1825 twelve 
trustees were appointed, of whom the baron-bailie was 
always one ; but in 1878 the General Police Act was 
adopted after repeated rejection, and the toi,\Ti is now 
governed by a chief magistrate, 2 other magistrates, and 9 
commissioners. Valuation (1882) £27,806. Pop. (1841) 
4831, (1851) 5086, (1861) 5396, (1871) 6386,(1881) 6711. 

The parish, containing also the village of Lugton and 
the greater part of Whitehill village, is bounded NW 
by Newton, NE by Inveresk, E by Cranston, SE and 
S by Newbattle, and SW by Lasswade. Its utmost 
length, from E to W, is 3f miles ; its utmost breadth, 
from N to S, is If mile ; and its area is 2345^ acres, of 
which IJ are water. The North Esk -u-inds 2| miles, 
mostly through the interior, but partly along the Lass- 
wade and Newton borders, till, near the northern ex- 
tremity of the parish, it is joined by the South Esk, 
which, entering from Newbattle, has a northerly course 
here of 2 miles. As the river Esk, their united waters 
flow on 1 furlong north-eastward along the Newtou 
boundary ; and, at the point where they pass into In- 
veresk, the surface declines to 100 feet above sea-level, 
thence rising gently south-south-westward and south- 
eastward to 182 feet at Dalkeith High Street, 300 at 
Longside, and 400 near Easter Cowdcn. The rocks 
belong to tlie coal-measures of the Carboniferous forma- 
tion, and coal is largely worked, whilst an extensive bed 
of brick and tile clay occurs at Newfarm and near Gal- 
lowshall. The soil is generally a good deep loam, with 
subsoil of clay and gravel ; and the rent of the land is 
high, particularly tliat occupied by gardens. The Duke 
of Buccleuch holds about seven-eigliths of the entire 
parish, 2 other proprietors holding each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 31 of between £100 and 
£500, 52 of from £50 to £100, and 113 of from £20 to 



£50. Part of Kestalrig deanery till 1592, and now the 
seat of a presbytery in'tlie synod of Lothian and Tweed- 
dale, Dalkeith is divided ecclesiastically into East and 
"West parishes, the former a living worth £506. Two 
schools under the landward board, Dalkeith public and 
Whitehill colliery, with respective accommodation for 
163 and 121 children, liad (ISSO) an average attendance 
of 137 and 98, and tcrants of £128, 9s. 6d. and £36, 10s. 
Valuation (1860) £23,847 ; (1882) £34,868, plus £2154 
for raUways and waterworks. Pop. (1801) 3906, (1821) 
5169, (1841) 5830, (1861) 7114, (1871) 7667, (ISSl) 7707. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

The presbytery of Dalkeith, established in 1581, com- 
prises the ancient parishes of Borthwick, Carrington, 
Cockpen, Cranston, Crichton, Dalkeith, Falaand Soutra, 
Glencorse, Heriot, Inveresk, Lasswade, Newbattle, New- 
ton, Ormiston, Penicuik, and Temple ; the quoad sacra 
parishes of West Dalkeith, North Esk, Rosewell, Roslin, 
and Stobhill ; and the chapelry of New Craighall. Pop. 
(1871) 45,099, (1881) 50,932, of whom 8990 were com- 
municants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. — The 
Free Church also has a presbytery of Dalkeith, compris- 
ing the churches of Carlops, Cockenzie, Cockpen, Dal- 
keith, Gorebridge, Loanhead, Musselburgh, Ormiston, 
Penicuik, Roslin, and Temple, which together had 2688 
members in 1881. 

Dallachy. See Bellie. 

Dallas, a village and a parish of central Elginshire. 
Tlie village stands on the left bank of the Lossie, 11 
miles SW of Elgin, and 84 SE of Forres, under which 
it has a post office. 

The parish, containing also Kellas village, 3J miles 
to the ENE, is bounded N by Elgin, E by Birnie, SE 
by Rothes and Knockando, W by Edinkillie, and NW 
by Rafford. Rudely triangular in outline, it has an 
utmost length of 10^ miles from its north-eastern angle, 
near Lennocside, to Carn Kitt}-, at its south-western 
apex ; an utmost breadth from E to W of 7 J miles ; and 
an area of 22,024| acres, of which 122 are water. The 
Lossie, issuing from Loch Trevie, near the south-western 
corner of the jjarish, winds 154 miles north-north-east- 
ward and east -north -eastward through the interior, 
descending in this course from 1300 to 300 feet above 
sea-level ; near Lennocside, at the north-eastern corner, 
it is joined by Lennoc Burn, flowing 4 miles northward 
along all the Birnie border, and forming a waterfall, the 
Ess of Glenlatterach ; whilst Black Burn, another of 
the Lossie's affluents, runs 3f miles north-eastward along 
all the boundary with Rafford, thence passing off into 
Elgin. LodisDanas(3i X 11 furl.) and Trevie (1 x ^furl.) 
lie right upon the Edinkillie border ; Loch Coulatt (1 J x 
1 furl.) falls just within Knockando ; and fifteen loch- 
lets, tinier still, are dotted over the south-western in- 
terior. From NE to SW the chief elevations to the 
right of the Lossie are Mill Buie (1100 feet). Cairn Uish 
(1197), Meikle Hill (932), Cas na Smorrach (1146), and 
Carn Kitty (1711) ; to the left rise wooded Mulundy Hill 
(708), another Mill Buie (1216), and Carnache (1179). 
These hills are variously arable, planted, and heathy ; 
the straths are well cultivated, and exhibit much natural 
beauty. Granite is the prevailing rock, but sandstone 
and grey slate have both been quarried ; the soil is 
generally light loam on a gravelly bottom along the 
J.ossie, a vegetable mould incumbent on till in parts of 
tlic uplands, and moor or moss along the southern bor- 
der. Tor Castle, J- mile N by E of the village, was 
built in 1400 by Sir Thomas Gumming of Altyue, and, 
lung the Cummings' stronghold, consists now only of 
ruined outworks and a moat. The property is mostly 
"lividcd among three. Dallas is in the presbytery of 
I'orres and .synod of Moray ; the living is worth £188. 
The present church, near the village, was built in 1794, 
and contains 250 sittings ; its ancient, heatlier-tliatched 
j)redece.ssor was dedicated to St Michael ; and a stone 
shaft, 12 feet high, in the kirkyard, surmounted by a 
fleur-de-lis, is tlie old market-cross. A Free church 
stands J mile NE of the village ; and two public schools, 
Dallas and Kellas female, witli respective accommoda- 
tion for 140 and GO children, had (1880) an average 


attendance of 85 and 27, and grants of £81, 9s. 6d. and 
£18. Valuation (1881) £5542, 12s. Pop. (1801) 818, 
(1841) 1179, (1861) 1102, (1871) 1060, (ISSl) 915.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 85, 1876. 

Dallintober. See Dalintober. 

Dalmahoy (Gael, dail-ma-thuat.h, 'field to the north'), 
a mansion in Ratho parish, Edinburghshire, 1| mile S 
by E of Ratho village, and 24 miles W by N of Gurriehill 
station. Built partly in the early years of last century, 
partly at subsequent periods, it has grounds of great 
beauty, commanding tine distant views, and open to 
strangers. The estate, having belonged from 1296 and 
earlier to the family of Dalmahoy, passed in the middle 
of the 17th century to the Dalrymples, from whom it 
was purchased about 1750 by the seventeenth Earl of 
Jlorton ; and Dalmahoy is now the chief seat of Sholto- 
John Douglas, twentieth Earl of Morton since 1458 (b. 
1818 ; sue. 1858), who holds 8944 acres in the shire, 
valued at £9041 per annum. (See also Aberdour and 
CoNA. ) Dalmahoy Crags, overlooking the Caledonian 
railway IJ mile SSW of Dalmahoy House, rise to an 
altitude of 680 feet above sea-level, stoop precipitously 
to the AV, and constitute a grand feature in the general 
landscape of the Western Lothians. Dalmahoy has an 
Episcopal chapel, St Mary's. 

Dalmally, a village in Glenorchy parish, Argyllshire, 
on the left bank of the Orchy, near the north-eastern 
extremity of Loch Awe, with a station on the Callander 
and Oban railway, 24J miles E of Oban, 62;^ WNW of 
Stirling, and 16 by road NNE of Inverary. Nestling 
among trees, and at the same time commanding magnifi- 
cent views of the basin and mountain screens of Loch 
Awe, it is a favourite resort of anglers, and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, an hotel, a Free church, a public school, 
and a fair on the Friday of October after Kilmichael ; 
whilst on an islet in the Orchy here stands Glenorchy 
parish church (1811 ; 570 sittings), an octagonal Gothic 
structure with a spire. 

Dalmary. See Gartmore. 

Dalmelling. See Dalmullen. 

Dalmellington, a small toAvn and a parish on the S 
border of Kyle district, Ayrshire. The town stands, 
600 feet above sea-level, in a recess sheltered by hills, 
at the terminus of a branch (1856) of the Glasgow and 
South-Western, f mile NE of the Bogton Loch expan- 
sion of the river Doon, and 9 miles SE of Hollybush, 15 
SE of Ayr, 51 SSW of Glasgow, and 72 SW of Edin- 
burgh. Dating from the 11th century, and a burgh of 
barony, it was long little else than a stagnating village, 
but in recent times has become a centre of traffic in 
connection with new neighbouring iron-works ; at it are 
a post office, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments, a branch of the Royal Bank, 4 
insurance agencies, 2 hotels, gas-works, a reading-room 
and library, and a public school, erected in 1875 at a 
cost of £3000, whilst fairs are held here on the last 
Thursday of February and the day after Moniaive, i.e., 
on the second or third Saturday of August. The parish 
church, built in 1846, is a handsome edifice in the Saxon 
style, with a lofty tower and 640 sittings ; and other 
places of worship ai'e a Free church (400 sittings), an 
Evangelical Union chapel, and the Roman Catholic 
church of Our Lady of the Rosary (1860 ; 170 sittings). 
Pop. (1801) 1299, (1871) 1514, (1881) 1453. 

The parish, containing also the mining villages of Ben- 
quhat, liurnfoothill, Craigmark, Lethanliill, and Water- 
side, is bounded N by Coylton and Ochiltree, E by New 
Cumnock, SE by Carsphairn in Kirkcudbrightshire, SW 
by Loch Doon and Straiton. Its greatest length, from 
N Wto SE, is 9^ miles ; its breadth, from NE to SW, varies 
between 1^ and 4^ miles ; and its area is 17,9265 acres, of 
which 144 are water. Locli D(K)N, with utmost length 
and width of 5| miles and 6^ furlongs, lies just within 
Straiton, 680 feet above the level of the sea; and, issuing 
from it, the river Doon winds lOJ miles north-westward 
along all the rest of the Straiton border, near the town 
expanding into Bogton Loch (6 x 2\ furl. ), and receiving 
Muck Water and other burns from the interior. On the 



Kirkcudbrightshire border, 4 miles SSE of the town, is 
Loch Muck (5xl| fiud. ). Below Dalharco, where the 
Doon quits Dalmelliugton, the surface sinks to 500 feet 
above sea-level, thence rising eastward and south-east- 
ward to 1103 feet near Hillend, 986 on Green Hill, 1426 
on Benquliat, 925 on Craigmark HUl, 1521 on Bex- 
EEOCH, 1333 on Benbain, 1107 on Knockskae, 1621 on 
Bexbeack, 1760 on Wixdy Staxdakd, 1484 on Camp- 
bell's Hill, and 1071 on Muckle Eritf Hill. A plain or 
very gentle slope lies along the Doon over a length of 
about 3 miles in the vicinity of the town, and, measuring 
1 mUe in extreme width at the middle, has nearly the 
figm-e of a crescent, narrowed to a point at both ex- 
tremities. The surface everywhere beyond that plain 
rises into continuous eminences or mountain ridges, of 
which that nearest the Doon almost blocks its com'se at 
the NW angle of the parish, and extends away eastward 
as a flank to the plain, till it terminates abruptly, to 
the NE of the town, in a splendid basaltic colonnade 300 
feet high and 600 feet long. Two other ridges run 
south-eastward and southward, and to the N are ad- 
joined by a ridge extending into New Cumnock. The 
hills, in general, have easy accli\dties, and in only three 
places, over short distances, are precipitous ; yet they 
form mountain passes of picturesque character, in one 
or two instances of high grandeur. Two of the ridges, 
on the way from the town to Kirkcudbrightshire, ap- 
proach each other so nearly for upwards of a mile, as to 
leave between them barely sufficient space for the public 
road and the bed of a mountain-brook ; two others 
which flank the Doon at its egress from mountain- 
cradled Loch Doon, are rocky perpendicular elevations, 
and stand so close to each other for about a mile, as to 
seem cleft asunder by some powerful agency fi'om above, 
or torn apart by some convulsive stroke from below. 
The gorge between these heights, a narrow, lofty-faced 
]iass, bears the name of the Xess Glen, and opens at its 
north-western extremity into the crescent-shap^jed plain. 
The springs of the parish are pure, limpid, and perennial, 
and issue, for the most part, from beds of sand and 
gravel. The rocks are partly eruptive, partly Silurian, 
partly carboniferous. Sandstone, limestone, coal, and 
ironstone abound. The coal belongs to the most 
southerly part of the Ayrshire coalfield, is of excellent 
quality, has been worked in numerous pits, and aflords 
a supply not only to the immediate neighbourhood, but 
to places in Galloway 30 miles distant. The ironstone 
also is of good quality, and has been extensively worked 
since 1847. Iron-works were erected in that year at the 
villages of "Waterside and Craigmark, and had five out 
of eight furnaces in blast in 1879. The soil, along the 
river side, is chiefly a deep loam ; on the north-western 
acclivities, is a wet argillaceous loam, resting on sand- 
stone ; on the hills of the NE and E is moss ; and on 
those of the S is partly peat but chiefly light dry earth, 
incumbent on Silurian rock. About 1310 acres are 
regularly or occasionally in tillage, 750 under wood, and 
275 in a state of commonage, whilst about 1150, now 
pastoral or waste, are capable of reclamation for the 
plough ; and 150 at a spot | mUe below the to\\'n are 
morass, resting on a spongy bed, and embosoming some 
oaks of considerable si^e. An ancient moat, surrounded 
^vith a deep dry fosse, and supposed to have been a seat 
of feudal justice courts, rises on the SE of the toA\'n ; and 
within the town itself an edifice lately^stood, which, 
known by the name of Castle House, is said to have 
borne date 1003 ( i), and supposed to have been constructed 
with materials from a previous strong castle beyond 
the moat. Another ancient structure, believed to have 
been a place of considerable strength, and traditionally 
associated with a shadowy King Alpin, surmounted a 
cliff in a deep glen, and was protected on three sides 
by mural precipices, on the fourth side by a fosse. The 
Roman road from Ayr to Galloway passed through the 
parish, and was not entirely obliterated till 1830. Three 
very large cairns, one of them more than 300 feet in 
circumference, were formerly on the hills. Dalmelliug- 
ton figured largely in the Stuart persecution of the 
Covenanters, and is rich in traditions respecting their 

sufferings. Mr M'Adam of Craigengillan and Berbeth 
is much the lai'gest proprietor ; but 3 otliers hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 2 of between £10ft 
and £500, 5 of from £50 to £100, and 25 of from £20 to 
£50. Dalmellington is in the presbytery of Ayr and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £212, 
Dalmellington, Benquhat, Craigmark, Lethanhill, and 
Waterside schools, with respective accommodation for 
300, 203, 222, 292, and 585 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 137, 149, 181, 216, and 328, and 
grants of £135, 8s. 6d., £123, 14s. 6d., £151, 13s. 6d., 
£150, 10s., and £292, 13s. Valuation (1882) £18,082, 
plus £2987 for railway. Pop. (1801) 787, (1841) 1099, 
(1851) 2910, (1861) 4194, (1871) 6165, (ISSl) 6384, of 
whom 772 belonged to Benquhat, 525 to Burnfoothill, 
383 to Craigmark, 1165 to Lethanhill, and 1473 to 
Waterside.— 0/-rf. Sur., shs. 14, 8, 1863. 

Dalmennoch, a small bay in Inch parish, Wigtown- 
shire, on the E side of Loch Ryan, 3^ miles NNE of 
Stranraer. It has excellent anchorage. 

Dalmeny, a village and a coast parish of NE Linlith- 
gowshire. The village stands 3 furlongs N by E of 
Dalmeny station on the Queensferry branch of the 
North British, this being If mile SE of South Queens- 
ferry and 8| miles WNW of Edinburgh, under which 
there is a post office of Dalmeny ; a pretty little place, 
it commands from its rising-gi-ound a fine view over the 
neighbouring Firth. 

The parish, containing also the hamlet of Craigie, in- 
cludes the island of Ixchgarvie, but since 1636 has 
excluded the roj'al bm-gh of South Queexsfeery, which 
it surrounds on all the landward sides. It is bounded 
N by the Firth of Forth (here from 9 furlongs to 3| 
miles broad), E by Cramond, S by Corstorphine in Mid- 
lothian and hj Kirkliston, and W by Abercom. Its 
utmost length, from E to W, is 4| miles ; its \vidth, 
from N to S, varies between IJ and 3 miles ; and its 
area is 6797^ acres, of which 16f are water, and 656 
belong to the detached Aldcathie portion. The river 
Almoxd winds 2J mUes east-north-eastward, roughly 
tracing all the Midlothian border ; and Dolphington 
Burn runs to the Firth through the interior, whose sur- 
face nowhere much exceeds 200 feet above sea-level. It 
is, however, charmingly diversified by the three rocky 
and well-wooded ridges of Dundas, Mons, and Craigie, 
and falls rather rapidly northward to the Firth, where the 
shore-line, 4f miles long, is backed by a steepish bank. 
The rocks belong to the Calciferous Sandstone series, 
with patches of basalt intruding at South QueensfeiTy, 
Dundas Castle, Craigiehall, and Hound Point, and a 
larger one of diorite over much of Dalmeny Park. The 
soil of Aldcathie and of the higher grounds is generally 
a shallow clay, on a cold bottom ; but that of the slopes 
and low gi'ounds is a fertile loam, whereon thrive first- 
rate crops of wheat, potatoes, and turnips, as also the 
luxuriant and pictui'esque plantations of the Earl of 
Roseberv. Noteworthy are two ash-trees at Craigiehall, 
which, 80 and 90 feet high, girth 10;^ and 16 feet at 1 
foot from the ground. Employment, other than that 
of agriculture and those connected with South Queens- 
ferry, is furnished by recently-established oilworks. 
John Durie, a learned divine and would-be uniter of 
divided churches, was minister from 1648 to 1656 ; 
and William Wilkie, D.D. (1721-72), eccentric author 
of the forgotten Epigoniad, was born at Echline farm. 
In 1C62 Sir Archibald Primrose, Bart., lord-clerk-regis- 
ter of Scotland and a lord of session, late lord-justice- 
general, purchased from the fourth Earl of Haddington 
the barony of Barnbougle and Dalmeny ; his third 
son, Archibald, was, in 1700, created Baron Primrose 
and Dalmeny and Viscount Rosebery, in 1703 Earl of 
Rosebery ; and his fifth descendant, Archibald Philip 
Primrose (b. 1847 ; sue. 1868), holds 24,220 acres in Mid 
and West Lothian, valued at £24,844 per annum (£2616 
for minerals). See Rosebery and JIallexy. On 3 
Sept. 1842, a very wot day, the Queen and Prince Albert 
drove over to lunch at Dalmeny. The jiark is described 
in her Joui'nal as ' beautiful, with trees growing down 
to the sea. It commands a very fine view of the Firth, 



the Isle of May, the Bass Rock, and of Edinburgh. The 
grounds are very extensive, being hill and dale and 
wood The house is quite modern ; Lord Rosebery 
built it, and it is very pretty and comfortable.' On 16 
Aug. 1877 Her Majesty again visited Dalmeny Park. 
Other mansions, both separately noticed, are Dundas 
Castle and Craigiehall. Dalmeny is in the presbji:ery 
of Linlithgow and s}Tiod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; 
the li\'ing is worth £434. The church, at the village, 
contains 350 sittings, and, consisting of nave and chancel, 
is the most perfect specimen of Norman architecture to 
be found in Scotland. "Without, the chief feature is ' the 
main entrance door in a porch projecting to the S, the 
archway of which is supported on two plain pillars with 
Norman capitals. There are over this door the remains 
of a line, concentric with the arch, of sculptured figures 
and animals, many of which are fabulous, and bear a 
considerable resemblance to those which appear on the 
ancient sculptured stones. . . . The interior has a fine 
massive simple effect. The small chancel, lower than 
the rest of the church, is in the form of an apse, con- 
sisting of a semicircle with the arc outwards, under a 
groined arch, the ribs of which are deeply moulded and 
ornamented with tooth-work.' So wrote Dr John Hill 
Burton in Billings' Antiquities (1845); and at Dalmeny 
that able antiquary and historian was fitly buried, 13 
Aug. 1881. Two public schools, under a common 
school-board, Dalmeny and South Queensferry, with 
respective accommodation for 160 and 275 children, had 
(1880) an average attendance of 102 and 149, and grants 
of £82, 7s. and £101, lOs. Valuation (1860) £11,404, 
(1882) £17,251, 8s. 9d. Pop. of parish (1801) 765, (1831) 
1291, (1861) 1274, (1871) 1492, (1881) 1643, of whom 612 
were in South Queensferry parliamentary burgh ; of 
registration district (1871)916, (1881) Wil.—Ord. Sur., 
8h. 32, 1857. 

Daimigavie, an estate, with a mansion, in Moy and 
Dalarossie parish, NE Inverness-shire, on the right 
bank of the upper Findhorn, 19 miles SSW of Tomatin. 
Its OAvner, .ffineas Mackintosh, Esq. (b. 1813), holds 
7000 acres in the shire, valued at £489 per annum. 

Dalmonach. See Boxhill. 

Dalmore, an estate, with a mansion, in Stair parish, 
Ayrshire, on the left bank of the river Ajt, 3 miles S of 

Dalmore, a seaport village in Rosskeen parish, Ross- 
flhire, on the Cromarty Firth, f mile SE of Alness station, 
and 25 miles W of Invergordon. From Belleport pier, 
J mile to the E, considerable quantities of timber are 
shipped for the N of England ; and there are also a 
distiller}-, a flour-mill, and a steam saw-mill. 

Dalmuir, a burn and a village in Old Kilpatrick 
parish, Dumbartonshire. The burn rises among the 
Kilpatrick Hills in Cochno and other head-streams, col- 
lecting which in the north-eastern vicinity of Duntocher 
it thence runs 2^ miles south-westward to the Clyde. 
The village stands on the burn, 3 furlongs above its 
mouth, and 1| mile SE of Kilpatrick village, with a 
station on the Dumbarton section of the North British, 
9f miles NW by W of Glasgow, under which it has a 
post office. Near it are chemical works and the huge 
Clydebank shipbuilding yard and engineering works, 
whli-li cover 30 acres, and employ 2000 men. 

Dalmullin or Dalmelling, a place in St Quivox parish, 
Ayrshire, If mile E by N of Ayr. A Gilbertine priory 
was founded here in 1230 by Walter, Lord High Steward 
of Scotland ; but in 1238 it became a cell of Paisley 

Daimyot. See Du.vmy.\t. 

Dalnacardoch, a .shooting-lodge (erst a stage-coach 
hostelry) in I>lair Athole parish, Perthshire, on the 
great Highland road from Pertli to Inverness, and on the 
left bank of the Garry, 6 J miles WNW of Struan station. 
Here Prince Charles Edward passed the night of 29 Aug. 
1745 ; and here on 9 Oct. 1861 the Queen and Prince 
Consort, travelling incognito, had ' a shal)l)y pair of 
horses put in, with a shabby driver driving from the bo.\.' 

Dalnaspidal (Gael, dail-an-spi'leal, 'field of the hos- 
pice'), a station on the Highland railway in Blair 


Athole parish, Peri;hshire, within 5 furlongs of the foot 
of Loch Garry, and 15f miles WNW of "Blair Athole 
village. Near it is a shooting-lodge of the Duke of 
Athole ; and, named after an ancient hospitium or small 
inn, it lies amid a wild, bleak, alpine tract, where 
numerous standing stones and cairns mark the graves of 
persons who fell in battle or perished in the snow. A 
party of Cromwell's troops, encamping here, were 
attacked and worsted bj' the men of Athole and some of 
the Camerons of Lochiel ; and here, on the night of 16 
March 1746, Lord George Murray divided the force with 
which he proposed to take Blair Castle. 

Dalnavert, an estate, with a mansion, in Alvie parish, 
Inverness-shire, near the right bank of the Spey, 1^ 
mile ENE of Kincraig station. 

Dalness, a shooting-lodge in Ardchattan parish, Argjdl- 
shire, on the right bank of the Etive, 5i miles NNE of 
the head of Loch Etive, and 18 NE of TaynuUt. The 
Etive here makes a very fine waterfall. 

Dalnotter House, a mansion in Old Kilpatrick parish, 
Dumbartonshire, adjacent to the Clyde, f mile SE ot 
Old Kilpatrick village. 

Dalpersie or Terpersie, a small old castellated mansion 
(now a in Tullyuessle parish, Aberdeenshire, 
1 mile NW of Tullyuessle church. 

Dalquhaxran Castle, a fine mansion in Dailly parish, 
Ayrshire, on the right bank of Girvan Water, 5 furlongs 
E of Dailly station, this being 7f miles SSW of Maybole. 
Built about 1790, it was the seat of the Right Hon. 
Thos. Fran. Kennedy (1788-1879), who sat for the Ajt 
burghs from 1818 till 1884, and whose son and successor, 
Fran. Thos. Romilly Kennedy, Esq. (b. 1842), holds 
4142 acres in the shire, valued at £5941 per annum, in- 
cluding £900 for minerals. 

Dalquhum. See Renton. 

Dalree. See Dalry. 

Dalreoch, a quoad sacra parish in Cardross parish, 
Dumbartonshire, with a station on the Vale of Leven 
raihva}', ^ mile N by W of Dumbarton. Constituted in 
1873, it includes the Dumbarton suburbof West Bridgend, 
and is in the presljytery of Dumbarton and synod of 
Glasgow and Ajt. Stipend £120. The church, in West 
Bridgend, was erected iu 1871, and is a handsome edifice. 
Pop. (ISSl) 3634. 

Dalrigh. See Dalry. 

Dalruadhain. See Campbeltown. 

Dairy, a town and a parish in Cunninghame district, 
AjTshire. The town stands on a rising-ground between 
Rye and Caaf Waters, and at the right side of the river 
Garnock, 3 furlongs W by N of Dairy Junction on the 
main line of the Glasgow and South-Western railwaj', 
this being 15^ miles SW of Paisley, 22i SW of Glasgow, 
70i WSW of Edinburgh, Hi NW of Kilmarnock, 9 NE 
of Ardrossan, 6if N by W of Irvine, and 17^ N by W of 
AjT. A tract of countrj' around it was anciently under 
special royal jurisdiction, and bore the name of the 
King's District or Valley (Gael, dail-righ) ; and a field 
on which its first houses were built was called the King's 
Field (Gael, croftanrigh), a name that it still retains 
in the slightly modified form of Croftangry. The parish 
church, St Margaret's, dependent once upon Kilwin- 
ning Abbey, and originally occupying a different site, 
was rebuilt on that field about the year 1608, and gave 
origin to the town. The site is eligible enough for a 
seat of traffic and industry, and commands an extensive 
southward and north-eastward view ; but, owing to 
great freshets in the Garnock, the Rj'e, and the Caaf, it 
sometimes has almost the aspect of an island. The 
town was long no more than a petty hamlet, in 1700 
comprising but six dwelling-houses, and about the be- 
ginning of this century numbering barely 800 inhabit- 
ants ; afterwards it rose somewhat speedily to the 
dimensions of a smallish town, with a population of 
about 2000 in 1835. Some nine j-ears later it started 
into sudden importance as a seat of business for the 
great neighbouring iron-works of Blair and Glengar- 
XOCK ; and then assumed, along with its environs, an 
appearance so different from what it had borne before, 
that a visitor acquainted with it only in its former cor- 



(lition woiild hardly have kuo\TO it for the same place. 
Now consisting of twelve streets, it contains great 
numbers of well-built modern houses and not a few ex- 
cellent shops, and has a post office, ■with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegi'aph departments, 
branches of the British Linen Co., Clydesdale, and 
Union banks, 16 insurance agencies, 4 hotels, gas-works, 
town buildings, with library and reading-room, a Good 
Templars' hall, assembly rooms, 3 woollen factories, a 
worsted mill, an oil and stearine factory, etc. Thurs- 
day is market-day, and a fair is held on .31 July and 1 
August. A gravitation water supply, capable of afford- 
ing 130,000 gallons per diem, has been introduced at a 
cost of £9000 ; and in the centre of the town is a hand- 
some granite fountain. The parish church was rebuilt in 
1771, and again in 1S71-73, the present being a cniciform 
Gothic edifice, with 1100 sittings, stained ^vindows of 
Munich glass, and a tower and spire 124 feet high. 
Other places of worship are the AVest Established church, 
a Free church, a U. P. church (508 sittings), and St 
Palladius' Roman Catholic church (1851 ; 500 sittings). 
Besides a j^ublic school at Burxside and Kersland 
Barony school at Dex, the 3 public schools of Blair- 
mains, Townend, and AYest End (enlarged at a cost of 
£3000), and Dairy female industrial Church of Scotland 
school, with respective accommodation for 100, 296, 
625, and 192 children, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 44, 293, 476, and 166, and grants of £32, 13s., £263, 
8s., £449, 6s., and £130, 3s. Pop. (1851) 2706, (1861) 
4232, (1871) 4133, (1881) 4021. 

The jmrish contains also the villages of Blair AVorks, 
Burnside, Den, Drakemyre, and Riddens, with part of 
Glengarnock. A^ery irregular in outline, it is bounded 
N by Kilbirnie, NE by Beith, SE by Kilwinning, S by 
Kihvinniug and Ardrossan, AV by AVest Kilbride, and 
NAV by Largs. Its utmost length, from KXAV to SSE, 
is 9 miles ; its breadth, from EXE to AA^SAV, varies 
between J mile and 6| miles ; and its area is 19,361 
acres, of which 77 are water. The river Girxock, com- 
ing in from Kilbirnie, flows 6| miles south-by-westward 
through the interior and along the Kilbirnie and Kil- 
winning borders ; it is followed throughout this course 
by the Glasgow and South-AVestern railway, and receives 
on the right hand Rye and Caaf AVaters, and Bombo 
Burn and Dusk AA^'ater on the left. The surface, sinking 
in the extreme S to 85 feet above sea-level, thence 
rises north-eastward to 239 feet at Muirhead, 334 at 
Bowertrapping, and 357 near East Middlebank — north- 
north-westward and northward to 302 near Linn House, 
869 at Gill Hill, 1099 at Baidlaxd Hill, 1216 at Cock 
Law, 1261 at Green Hill, 652 at Carwinxixg Hill, and 
1378 at Rough HlU, whose summit, however, falls just 
A\ithin Largs. The rocks are partly eruptive, partly car- 
boniferous. Limestone has long been largely worked ; 
and coal is mined of excellent quality, partly in seams 
from 2| to 5 feet thick. Ironstone, of very rich quality, 
began to be worked about 1845, when two farms which 
had been sold to the Glengarnock Iron Company for 
£18,000 were shortly afterwards resold to the Blair 
Iron Company for £35,000. Agates have been found in 
the bed of the Rye. The soil along the Girnock is deep 
alluvial loam, and to the E of it is chiefly thin, cold, 
retentive clay. In some parts to the AV of the Girnock, 
it is an adhesive clay ; along the base of the hills, has 
generally a light dry character, incumbent on either 
limestone or trap ; and elsewhere is often reclaimed moss. 
Antiquities, other than those of Blair and Carwinning, 
are cairns and a moat near the to^vn — the Courthill 
Mound, which, excavated in the winter of 1872, was 
found to contain large deposits of human bones and 
ashes. The Blairs have been lairds of Blair for wellnigh 
seven centuries ; one of the line. Sir Bryce, was foully 
murdered at Ayr by the English in 1296. Anotlier of 
Dairy's worthies was Sir Robert Cunningham, physician 
to Charles II. ; and Captain Thomas Craufurd of 
Jordanhill (1530-1603), who gallantly took Dumbartox 
Castle in 1571, spent the close of his life at Kersland. 
The chief mansions are Blair, Gifl"en, Kirklaxd, 
Linn, Maulside, Ryefield, Swindridgemuir, Swinlees, 

and AA^'aterside ; and 8 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 43 of between £100 and 
£500, 32 of from £50 to £100, and 88 of from £20 to 
£50. Dairy is in the presbytery of Irvine and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £364. AA'^est and 
Kersland Barony churches are chapels of ease. A^alua- 
tion (1860) £70,893 ; (1882) £44,227 ; ^J^iW £6798 for 
railways. Pop. (1801) 832, (1831) 1246, (1841) 4791, 
(1851) 8865, (1861) 11,156, (1871) 10,885, (1881) 10,215. 
—Orel. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Dairy, a village and a parish of N Kirkcudbrightshire. 
The village stands, 200 feet above sea-level, on the left 
bank of the Ken, near the southern extremity of the 
parish, 3^ miles NNAV of New GaUoway, and 9| NAV 
by N of Parton station, with which it communicates 
t\vice a day by omnibus. Called variously Dairy, 
Claughan of Dahy, and St John's Town of Dairy, it 
offers a picturesque assemblage of houses, irregularly 
scattered over a considerable space of gi'ound, with 
gardens, hedges, and rows of trees ; at it are a post 
and telegi-aph office, a branch of the Union Bank, a 
good hotel, and a public hall (1858). Pop. (1861) 639, 
(1871) 637, (1881) 585. 

The parish was anciently one with Kells, Balmaclellan, 
and Carsphairn, comprising the entire district of Glen- 
kens, and had several chapels, all subordinate to a 
mother church. It is bounded NAV by New Cumnock, 
in Ayrshire ; N by Sanquhar and NE by Penpont, 
in Dumfriesshire ; E b}- Tjmron and Glencairn, also in 
Dumfriesshire ; SE by Balmaclellan ; SAA^ by Kells ; and 
AV by Kells and Carsphairn. Its utmost length, from 
N by E to S by AV, is 15 J mUes ; its breadth, from E to 
AA'', varies between 1^ and 71 mUes ; and its area is 
34,729| acres, of which 194 are water. In the extreme 
N, close to the meeting-point of Kirkcudbright, Ayr, 
and Dumfries shires, the AVater of Kex rises at 1870 
feet above sea-level, and thence winds 21J miles south- 
south-westward and south -south -eastward, mainly 
along the Carsphairn and Kells borders ; it is joined by 
Carroch Burn, Black AA'ater, Earlston Bum, and 
other streams from the interior, and by Garpel Burn, 
which rims south-westward along the boundary with 
Balmaclellan. That with Glencairn is traced for 2;^ miles 
by Castlefern Burn ; and in the interior are these four 
lakes, Avith utmost length and breadth and altitude, — 
Lochixvar (4|- X 2h furl. ; 770 feet), Knocksting 
(IJ X li furl. ; 980 feet), Regland (1^ x ^ furl. ; 900 
feet), and Knockman (IJ x ^ furl. ; 875 feet). At the 
southern extremity, where the Ken quits the parish, 
the surface sinks to 165 feet above sea-level, thence 
rising northward and north-eastward to 559 feet near 
Kirkland, 825 near Gordonston, 700 at Ardoch Hill, 
1062 at Corse Hill, 1127 at Stroan Hill, 1262 at AVether 
HUl, 950 at Mackilston Hill, 1127 at Gleushimeroch 
Hill, 1154 at Lochlee Hill, 1188 at Fingland Hill, 1300 
near Cornharrow, 1376 at ManwhUl, 1900 at *Benbrack, 
1750 at Coranbac Hill, 1900 at *Ewe Hill, 2063 at 
*Alwhat, and 2100 a* Lorg Hill, where asterisks mark 
those summits that culminate on the borders of the 
parish. Granite and trap are the prevailing rocks ; but 
lalue slate occurs, and has been quarried. The southern 
district consists in gi'eat measure of rich arable land 
and fertile holms, interspersed with wood ; the northern 
is all an assemblage of swelling liills and heathy moun- 
tains. A pavement, found at Chapelyards, on Bogue 
farm, in 1868, is thought to mark the site of a religious 
house ; and besides several moats, cairns, and hill-forts, 
there are remains of a stronghold on an islet in Lochin- 
var, a trench — the 'AA^highole' — near the top of a hill 
on Altrye farm, the Gordons' old tower of Earlston, 
and, at the village, a large stone, known as St John's 
Chair. David Landsborough, D.D. (1782-1854), poet 
and naturalist, was a native ; so, too, was John Gordon 
Barliour (1775-1843), author of several works, and 
a friend of Hogg and 'Christopher North.' He is 
buried in the churchyard, where also rest three mar- 
tyred Covenanters. The old church was associated 
with a Tam-o'-Shanter-like legend, and in it Grierson 
of Lag stabled his troopers' horses ; whilst at this vil- 



lage originated the great Covenanters' rising, that ended 
at Rullion Green. Three proprietors hold each an an- 
nual value of £500 and upwards, 3 of between £100 
and £500, 3 of from £50 to £100, and 13 of from £20 
to £50. Dalrj- is in the presbytery of Kirkcudbright 
and synod of Galloway ; the living is worth £337. The 
]n-esent parish church was built in 1S32 at a cost of 
£1400, and contains 700 sittings. At the village is also 
a U.P. church (1826 ; 200 sittings) ; and Glenkens Free 
church stands at Bogue, li nnle'to the E. Three public 
schools— Corseglass, Dairy, and Stroanfreggan— with re- 
spective accommodation for 37, 125, and 32 children, 
had (1880) an average attendance of 12, 105, and 10, and 
grants of £27, 2s., £78, lis. 8d., and £25, 9s. Valua- 
tion (1860) £7792, (1882) £13.275, 13s. 4d. Pop. (1801) 
832, (1831) 1246, (1861) 1149, (1871) 1074, (1881) 988. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Dairy. See EDiXBuncir. 

Dairy, Dalrigh, or Dalree, a place in the W of Killin 
parish, W Perthshire, near StrathfiUan Free church, 
and li mile SE of Tyndrum station. It was the scene 
in 1306 of a sharp skirmish between Robert Bruce and 
^lacdougal of Lorn, when the famous Brooch of Lorn, 
graphically described in Scott's Lord of the Isles, and 
said to be still in possession of the Macdougals of Dun- 
oily, was torn from Bruce. 

Dalrymple, a village and a parish on the SW bor- 
der of Kyle district, Ayrsliire. The village, a pleasant 
little place, stands on the right bank of the Doou, 9 fur- 
longs SE of Dalr3Tnple station on the Ajt and Girvan 
section of the Glasgow and South-Western, this being 
4^ miles SSE of Ayr, under which it has a post office. 
Near it is a pirn mill, supplying the Paisley Anchor 
Thread Co. Pop. (1861) 261, (1871) 309, (1881) 300. 

The parish, containing also Skkluon JIills, is bounded 
NW by Ayr, NE and E by Coylton, SE by Dalmelling- 
ton, S by Straiton and Kirkmichael, and W by May- 
bole. Its utmost length, from WNW to ESE, is 7^ 
miles ; its breadth, from NE to SW, varies between \^ 
and 4| miles ; and its area is 7960 acres, of which 127| 
are water. The 'bonny Doox,' running amidst alter- 
nations of bold and wooded banks and fertile haughs, 
winds lOf miles west-north-westward along all the Kirk- 
michael and Maybole boundary ; and Loch ilAUTNAHAM, 
»vith utmost length and breadth of 1\ and ^ mile, lies 
on the Coylton border 290 feet above sea-level, and sends 
off a rivulet south-westward to the Doon. In the interior 
are Lochs Snipe (1-J^xi furh) and Kerse (3x1 furl.). 
Where the Doon quits the parish, near Macmanniestou, 
the surface sinks to 120 feet above sea-level, thence rising 
to 305 near Balsarroch, 379 near Merkland, 417 near Ben- 
ston, 533 at Laurieston, 545 at Knockshinnoch, 1112 at 
Bow Hill, and 1406 at Kilmein Hill — little roiinded 
eminences that command extensive and varied views over 
land and firth to Arran, Ben Lomond, and the Grampians. 
The rocks are partly eruptive, but chiefly Devonian and 
carboniferous ; and limestone and ironstone are worked. 
The soil on a few of the eminences is barren clay, on 
most is argillaceous loam, and on the lands along the 
streams and lochs is a sandy or gravelly loam. Some 
1900 acres ai"e hill pasture or meadow, about 500 are 
under wood, and all the rest of the land is arable. 
The chief antiquities are remains of three Caledonian 
forts and traces of the Roman road to Ayr. Dalrymple 
barony, belonging in the 13th century to a family of 
its own name, from which are descended the Earls of 
Stair, passed in 1371-77 to John Kennedy of Dunure, 
ancestor of the Marquis of Ailsa and Earl of Cassillis, 
who is at present chief proprietor. Mansions are Shel- 
don and Hollybush ; and 4 proprietors besides the Mar- 
quis hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
2 of between £100 and £500, and 5 of from £20 to 
£50. Dalrymple is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £394. The 
church, near the village, was built in 1849. There is 
also a Free church (1863) ; and Dalrj'mple public school 
and the Dalmellington Iron-works srhool at Kerse, with 
respective accommodation for 150 and 165 children, had 
(1880) an average attendance of 129 and 135, and grants 


of £107, 9s. and £101, 13s. Valuation (1882) £11,742, 
lis. 8d., i)lus £4451 for railways. Pop. (1801) 514, 
(1831) 964, (1861) 1325, (1871) 1412, (1881) 1362.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Dalserf, a Clydesdale village and parish in the Middle 
Ward of Lanarkshire. The village, standing on the left 
bank of the Clyde, 1 mile E of Ayr-Road station, 3 miles 
ESE of Larkhall, and 7 SE of Hamilton, was formerly a 
place of some size and importance, but has long been 
going steadily into decay, and now consists of only a 
few low-roofed cottages, situated among gardens. 

The parish, which also contains the villages of Mill- 
IIEUGU and Rosebank, and most of the town of Lakk- 
HALL, formed anciently the chapelry of JMachan under 
Cadzow or Hamilton, itself being known as Machanshire ; 
and, having passed from the Comyns to the royal Bruces, 
and from them again to an ancestor of the Duke of Hamil- 
ton, was afterwards divided among junior branches of 
the Hamilton family, and, probably about the era of the 
Reformation, was constituted a parish, taking name from 
Dalserf village. It is bounded NW by Hamilton, NE by 
Cambusnethan and Carluke, SE by Lesmahagow, and 
SW by Stonehouse. Kite-shax3ed in outline, it has an 
utmost length from N by W to S by E of 5§ miles, an 
utmost breadth from E to W of 3^ miles, and an area of 
7035f acres, of which 79^ are water. The Clyde winds 
4g miles north-westward along all the Carluke and Cam- 
busnethan border ; Cander Water 2:^ miles north-north- 
westward to the Avon along the Stonehouse border ; 
and Avon Water itself 3| miles, also north-north-west- 
ward along the Stonehouse and Hamilton border. Where 
the Clyde Cjuits the parish, opposite Lower Carbarn, the 
surface sinks to less than 100 feet above sea-level, thence 
rising to 345 feet beyond Larkhall, 477 at Strutherhill, 
576 at Canderdikehead, and 623 at Cander Moss, in the 
southern corner of the parish, whose interior forms a 
sort of plateau between the Clyde and the Avon. The 
rocks are chiefly of the Carboniferous formation. Coal 
abounds, and is extensively mined at Ashgill, Broomhill, 
Canderside, Cornsilloch, Skcllyton, etc. ; ironstone is 
known to be plentiful ; and sandstone, of quality to 
furnish excellent building blocks, is largely quarried. 
The soil, along the Clyde, is rich alluvium ; on the banks 
rising steeply from the Clyde, is of various quality ; and, 
on the higher grounds, is mostly strong heavy clay. 
All the land, except a small patch or two of moss, is 
either regularly or occasionally cultivated. The tract 
adjacent to the Clyde lies almost in the heart of the 
luxuriant range of the Clydesdale orchards, and was 
famed for its fruit from ver}' early times ; but, o\\4ng to 
frequent failure of crops and increasing importation of 
fruit from England, Ireland, and foreign countries, has 
ceased to be exclusively devoted to orchard purposes. 
The dairy, on the other hand, for butter, cheese, and 
fatted calves, has much attention paid to it. The Rev. 
John Macmillan, founder of the Reformed Presbyterians 
in 1743, lived for some time near Millheugh, and lies in 
Dalserf churchyard ; and the Rev. James Hog, one of 
the twelve vindicators of the famous Marrow ^Modern 
Divinity (1721), was parish minister. The principal 
mansions are Buoomhill, Dalserf House, and Millburn 
House; and much of the property is divided between 
the Hamiltons of Raploch and the Hamiltons of Dalserf, 
the latter holding 3200 acres in the shire, valued at 
£4700 per annum. Three other proprietors hold each 
an annual value of £500 and upwards, 11 of between 
£100 and £500, 19 of from £50 to £100, and 36 of from 
£20 to £50. In the presbytery of Hamilton and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr, this parish is divided into the 
quoad sacra parishes of LAiUvn.\LL and Dalserf, the 
latter being worth £373. The church, at the village, 
was built in 1655, and contains 500 sittings. Two 
public schools, Dalserf and Shawsburn, with respective 
accommodation for 202 and 300 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 198 and 189, and grants of 
£191, 3s. and £168, 3s. Valuation (1860) £19,313, 
(1882) £34,594, 8s. Pop. (1801) 1660, (1831) 2680, (1861) 
4876, (1871) 7341, (1881) 9376, of whom 2674 were in 
Ddhcvi quoad aacra parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 23, 1865. 



Dalsholm or Dawsholm, a village in New Kilpatrick 
parish, SE Dumbartonshire, on the right bank of the 
Kelvin, 4;^ miles NW of Glasgow. It has a paper-mill 
and beautiful environs ; and near it is an ancient artitieial 
mound, the Courthill, supposed to have been a seat of 
feudal courts of justice. 

Dalskaith, an estate, with a mansion, in Troqueer 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 3 miles SW of Dumfiies. 

Dalswinton, a small village, with a public school, in 
Kirkmahoe parish, Dumfriesshire, 2 miles SE b}' E of 
Auldgirth station, and 7i NNW of Dumfries, under 
which it has a post office. Dalswinton House, 1 mile 
SSE, and within ^ mile of the Kith's right bank, is an 
elegant and commodious mansion, erected by LIr Patrick 
Miller (1731-1815), Burns's landlord, on the site of an 
ancient castle of the Comyns. This self-made genius 
launched on an isleted loch (2x1 furl. ) one of the 
earliest steamboats, with the most perfect success, 14 
Oct. 1788. ' He spent,' says Carlyle, 'his life and his 
estate in that adventure, and is not now to be heard of 
in those parts, having had to sell Dals^^'inton and die 
quasi-bankrupt, and, I should think, broken-hearted' 
{Reminiscences, i. 129, 130). The estate, held formerly by 
ComjTis, Stewarts, and Maxwells, is now the property of 
William MacaliHue-Leny, Esq. (b. 1839; sue. 1867), who 
holds 5724 acres in the shire, valued at £4282 per annum. 

Dalton, a village and a parish of Annandale, Dum- 
friesshire. The village stands on Dalton Bm-n, 6 miles 
SSE of Lockerbie, under which it has a post office. 

The parish, comprising the ancient parishes of Meikle 
and Little Dalton, and annexed to Mouswald from 1609 
till 1633, is bounded N by Lochmaben, NE by Dr3'fes- 
dale and St Mungo, SE by Cummertrees, S by Ruth- 
well, and W by Mouswald. With a very irregular out- 
line, it has an utmost length from NNW to SSE of 5| 
miles, an utmost breadth from E to W of 3§ miles, and 
an area of 6941 acres, of which 55 are water. The river 
Anxax ■\^•inds 4^ miles south-eastward along all the 
Dryfesdale and St Mungo border, and its tributary, 
Dalton Burn, twists and turns 5f miles SSE, ENE, and 
N, through the interior ; whilst Pow Water, rising in 
the S, passes off direct to the Solway Firth through 
Ruthwell and Cummertrees. The surface, nowhere 
lower than 150 feet above sea-level, is flat or but gently 
imdulated over all the S and E of the parish, but in the 
NW attains 604 feet at Butterwhat, 720 at Almagill, 
and 800 at Holmains. The rocks are partly eruptive, 
partly Devonian, and largely Silurian. The soil, in 
most of the low tracts, is light alluvial loam ; in most of 
the higher ground is sand and gravel ; and in some 
parts is a cold clay on a till bottom, with a few patches 
of reclaimed bog. About 600 acres are pastoral or waste, 
500 or so are under wood, and all the rest of the land is 
arable. AVm. Beattie, M.D. (1793-1875), biographer of 
the poet Campbell, was a native. Dormont and Eam- 
MEESCALES are the chief mansions ; and 3 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of more, 5 of less, than £500. 
Dalton is in the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of 
Dumfries ; the living is worth £283. The parish church, 
built in 1704, contains 300 sittings ; and a public school, 
with accommodation for 85 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 60, and a grant of £51, 17s. 
Valuation (1882) £7077, 6s. 3d. Pop. (1801) 691, 
(1831) 730, (1861) 679, (1871) 577, (1881) 579.— Orel. 
Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Dalton. See Lightburx. 

Daltonhook, a place on the SW border of Dryfesdale 
parish, Dumfriesshire. It has lime-works and vestiges 
of an ancient strong tower. 

Dalvaddy, a hamlet in Campbeltown parish, Argyll- 
shire, 3 miles W of Campbeltown town. Coal of an 
inferior quality is mined adjacent to it, and is conveyed 
by a canal to Campbeltown. 

Dalveen, a wild pass (1200 feet) over the Lowther 
Mountains, from the head -streams of Powtrail AVater in 
Crawford parish, Lanarkshire, to those of Carron Water 
in Durisdeer, Dumfriesshire. 

Dalvey, a place in Croradale parish, S Elginshire, on 
the right bank of the Spey, 6 miles NE of Grantown. 

Dalvey House, a handsome modern mansion in Dyke 
and Mov parish, Elginshire, crowning a knoll, on the 
left bank of the Muckle Burn, 2i miles W by S of 
Forres. Its owner, Norman Macleod, Esq. (b. 1857 ; 
sue. 1876), holds 1328 acres in the shire, valued at 
£1357 per annum. 

Dalwhat Water, a stream of Glencaim parish, W 
Dumfriesshire, rising at an altitude of 1680 feet within 
^ mile of the Kirkcudbrightshire border, and running 10 
miles east-south-eastward, till, f mile below Moniaive, 
it unites with Craigdarroch and Castlefern Waters to 
form Cairn AVater.— Ord Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Dalwhinnie, a station on the Highland railway in 
Kingussie parish, Inverness-shire, on the Truim's left 
bank, 1 mile NE of the head of Loch Ericht, 13 miles 
SSW of Kingussie, and 58f NAV of Perth. Here are a 
post and telegraph office and the Loch Ericht Hotel, 
successor to an inn, which, built by Government, was 
an important stage in the old coaching days, from its 
vicinity to the Pass of Drumochter. At Dalwhinnie, 
Cope held a council of war on 27 Aug. 1745, and two 
days later Prince Charles Edward was joined by Dr 
Cameron, bringing Cluny Macpherson ; at Dalwhinnie 
inn, too, the Queen and Prince Consort, during their 
' Third Great Expedition ' incognito, passed the night 
of 8 Oct. 1861, supping off two miserable starved High- 
land chickens, T\"ith onl}' tea, and without any potatoes, 
and on the morrow receiving a visit from the present 
Cluny Macpherson (pp. 165, 166, of the Quee7i's Journal, 
ed. 1877). 

Dalwick. See Da wick. 

Dalyell Lodge. See Dalgairn. 

Dalziel, a central parish of the middle ward of Lanark- 
shire, containing the village of Craignetik, and, at its 
western border, the greater part of the police burgh of 
Motherwell, this being 2h miles NE of Hamilton, 
124 ESE of Glasgow, and" 5| SSE of Coatbridge. 
Bounded NAV and N by Bothwell, NE by Shotts, SE 
by Cambusnethan, and SAV by Hamilton, it has an 
ritmost length from NAA'' to SE of 3J miles, an utmost 
breadth from NE to SAV of 2§ miles, and an area of 
3085 acres, of which 45f are water. South Calder 
AA^ater traces all the Shotts and most of the Bothwell 
boundary as it meanders westward to the Clyde, which 
itself flows north-westward for 2g miles, and again for 3f 
furlongs, along the Hamilton border. Sinking beside 
the Clyde to less than 100 feet above sea-level, the sur- 
face thence rises eastward to 259 feet near North Mother- 
well, 308 near AVindmillhill Street, and 322 near Middle 
Johnston, and forms in the centre and towards the SE 
a flatfish ridge or low plateau. The rocks, belonging to 
the Carboniferous formation, abound in coal, ironstone, 
and sandstone flag, whose working, conjointly with the 
establishment of iron and steel works at Motherwell, 
has led to the abnormal growth of population. The soil 
on the low grounds along the Clyde is fertile alluvial 
loam, and elsewhere is mostly a heavy yellow clay. 
About 50 acres are disposed in orchards, and woods or 
plantations cover 400 more. The Roman AA^'atling Street 
ran through this parish from ESE to AA'"NW; and a bar- 
tizaned summer-house in the grounds of Dalzell House, 
commanding a brilliant view, was built in 1736 on the 
site of a Roman camp. This Dalzell House, J mile 
from the Clyde's right bank, and If SSE of Mother- 
well, was built in 1649 by Hamilton of Boggs, two years 
after his purchase of the estate from the Earl of Carn- 
wath, whose ancestors, the Dalzells, had held it from 
time immemorial. Described by Hamilton of AA'ishaw 
as 'a gi'eat and substantial house,' it adjoins a much 
older peel-tower, 50 feet high, with walls 8 feet in 
thickness; its owner, John Glencairn Carter Hamilton, 
Esq. (b. 1829 ; sue. 1834), possesses 2460 acres in the 
shire, valued at £14,959 per annum, including £10,779 
for minerals. Six other proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 16 of between £100 and 
£500, 20 of from £50 to £100, and 26 of from £20 to 
£50. In the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glas- 
gow and Ayr, this parish is divided ecclesiastically into 
Dalziel and South Dalziel, the latter a quoad sacra 



parish constituted in 1880, its church tlie old parish 
church (1789 ; enlarged 1860 ; 658 sittings) in AVindmill- 
hill Street. Dalziel itself (a living worth £210) has 
now its church in Merry Street, Moth eu well, under 
which and Craigneuk other places of worship are noticed. 
Five schools — Craigneuk, Dalziel, Jluir Street, Mother- 
well Iron-works, and ^Motherwell Roman Catholic — with 
respective accommodation for 666, 448, 400, 425, and 238 
children, had (1880) an average attendance of 350, 433, 
271, 473, and 317, and grants of £293, ISs., £340, lis., 
£150, 12s., £402, 13s. 6d., and £233, 14s. Another 
Roman Catholic school, at Craigneuk, was opened in 
ISSO. Valuation (1860) £21,956, (1880) £61,325, (1882) 
£55,942. Fop. (1801) 611, (1831) 1180, (1861) 5438, 
(1871) 9175, (1881) 13,864.— Orrf. Siir., shs. 23, 31, 

Damflf. See D.^^mph. 

Damhead, a village in Arngask parish, at the meeting- 
point of the counties of Kinross, Fife, and Perth, in 
a vale of the Ochil Hills, 3 miles NN\V of Mawcarse 
station, and 4f N by E of Milnathort. It has a post 
office under Kinross. 

Damph or Loch an Daimh, a lake of Lochbroom 
parish, in the Coigaeh district of Cromart3'shire, 10 
miles E of Ullapool. Hill-girt, and fringed with birch 
woods along its south-eastern shore, it lies at an altitude 
of 672 feet above sea-level, is If mile long from SW to 
NE, and has an utmost width of Iq furlong. It sends 
off a streamlet to the Oykell, and its waters are well 
stocked with trout— Orr^. Sicr., sh. 101, 1882. 

Damph, a lake in Applecross parish, W Ross-shire, 
^ niUes E of Shieldaig. Lying among high mountains, 
it measures 3^ miles in length by i mile in width ; 
abounds in trout; and sends off the Balgay to Upper 
Loi-h Torridon. 

Dams, a village in Kettle parish, Fife, 14 mile S of 
Kettle village. 

Damsay, an island of Firth parish, Orkney, in Firth 
Bay, 4 miles WNW of Kirkwall. Measuring scarcely 
a mile in circumference, it is so beautil'ul as to have 
been sometimes styled the Tempe of the Orkneys ; it 
anciently had a strong castle and a famous church, 
which have entirely disappeared ; and it now is used 
for the jiasturing of a few hundreds of sheep. 

Damsbum, a hamlet in Logic parish, Clackmannan- 
shire, 1^ mile W of Alva. 

Damside, an estate, with a mansion, in Auchterarder 
parish, Perthshire, If mile NE of the town. Its owner, 
Mrs Macduff-Duncan (sue. 1872), holds 353 acres in the 
shire, valued at £491 per annum. 

Damyat. See Uunmyat. 

Dandaleith, a beautiful haugh in Rothes parish, Elgin- 
shire, on the left bank of the Spey, with a station on 
the Morayshire railway, 2^ miles SSE of Rothes village, 
ami f mile NW of Craigellachie Junction. 

Dane's Dyke. See Cuail. 

Daneshalt or Dunshelt, a village in Auchtermuchty 
parish, Fife, 1^ mile SE of Auchtermuchty town, under 
which it has a post office. It is said to have got its 
name from the Danes' first halting here in their lliglit 
from Falkland Moor ; and at it are gas-works, a linen 
factory, farina works, and a public scliool, which, with 
accommodation for 83 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 56, and a grant of £41, 15s. Poj). (1861) 
567, (1871) 483, (1881) 414. 

Danevale Park, a mansion in Crossmichael parish, 
Kirkcudl)rightshire, on the left bank of the Dee, 2f 
miles NW of Castle-Douglas. Its owner, "Wm. Renny, 
Es<|. (b. 1849 ; .sue. 1879), holds 610 acres in the shire, 
valued at £1036 per annum. 

Dankeith, an estate, with a mansion, in Symington 
jiarisli, Ayrshire, 4f miles SE of Kilmarnock. 

Danna, an inhabited island in North Knapdale parish, 

Danskine, an inn in Garvald parish, Haddingtonshire, 
5.i miles SE Vjy S of Hadilington. 

Dara, a livulet in the N W of Aberdeenshire. It 
on tiie southern confines of Alierdour jiarish, and, bear- 
ing for .some distance the name of Idoch Water, runs 


10 miles south-westward, past Newbyth and Cumines- 
town, till, making a bend near the middle of Turriff 
parish, it thence runs 3 miles north-westward to the 
Deveron, a little below Turriif town. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
86, 1S76. 

Dara Den. See Dura Den. 

Dardar, a ravine in Aberdour parish, Aberdeenshire, 
traversed by an impetuous brook to the Moray Firth. 
A cascade of three successive leaps occurs in the brook's 
course, and in times of freshet makes a somewhat grand 
and striking appearance. 

Dargavei, an estate, with a mansion, in Er,skine 
parish, Renfrewshire. The mansion, 1 mile SSW of 
Bishopton station, was built partly in 1574, partly at a 
i-ecent period ; and is in the French style of Queen Mary's 
reign ; its owner, AVilliam Hall-]\Iaxwell, Esq. (b. 1847 ; 
sue. 1866), holds 803 acres in the shire, valued at £1621 
per annum. 

Dargie, a village in Liff and Benvie parish, Forfarshire, 
near ^lylnefield, and 4 miles W of Dundee. 

Dark Mile. See Archaig. 

Darleith, an estate, with a mansion, in the SW of 
Bonhill parish, Dumbarton.shire, 3 miles N by W of 
Cardross. Its owner, Archibald Buchanan Yuille, Esq. 
(b. 1812 ; sue. 1879), holds 1292 acres in the shire, 
valued at £845 per annum. 

Darlington. See Stewarton. 

Darmead Linn. See Cambusnethan. 

Darnaway Castle, a noble mansion in Dyke and Moy 
parish, Elginshire, in the valley of the Findliorn, IJ 
mile W of that river's left bank, and 2i miles SSE of 
Brodie station, this being 3| miles W by S of Forres, 
under which there is a post office of Darnaway. Crown- 
ing a gentle eminence, and overtopping a vast extent of 
forest, it commands a magnificent view, and was built 
about 1810, being a large, oblong, castellated pile of 
very imposing appearance — a seat of the Earl of Moray, 
M'ho owns 21,669 acres in Elginshire, valued at £9420 
per annum. Of the castle founded here by Randolph, 
Earl of Moray, early in the 14tli century, nothing is 
left but the banqueting hall, which, forming a back 
Aving to the modern mansion, measures 89 feet in length 
by 35 in width, and has an arched oaken roof, somewhat 
similar to that of the Parliament House in Edinburgh. 
It contains a portrait of the ' Bonny Earl of Moray ' who 
was murdered at Donibristlc ; and in it Queen Mary 
held her court in 1564. The park is finely wooded, 
upwards of ten millions of trees having been planted 
towards the close of last century, to fill up gaps in 
Darnaway Forest, which extends into Edinkillie. See 
Moray, Dyke, Donieuistle, Douxe, and Castle- 
Srv ART.— Orel. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Darnconner. See Dernconnek. 

Darngaber, a village in Hamilton parish, Lanarkshire, 
near Quarter Road station, and 3 miles S of Hamilton 

Damhall, a seat of Lord Elibank in Eddlestone par- 
ish, Peeblesshire, on a rising-ground, ^ mile WNW of 
Eddlestone station. Originally a Border tower, from 
1412 the -seat of the Murrays of Haltoun or Blackbarony, 
it was greatly added to in the first half of the 17th 
century, and now is a massive square chateau-liko 
edifice, with beautiful grounds and a fine old limetree 
avenue. JIontolieu-Fox 01ii)hant-Murray, tenth Baron 
Elibank since 1643 (b. 1840 ; sue. 1871), holds 2660 
acres in the shire, valued at £2297 per annum. See 
Eliisank, Ballkncrieb'f, and Pitiieavles. 

Darnick, a village in Melrose parish, Roxburghshire, 
near the right bank of the Tweed, 7 furlongs W of 
Melrose town, under which it has a post office. Dar- 
nick Tower, the chief of three peels that once stood 
clustered here, and the finest specimen extant of its 
kind, was founded by the Heltons about 1425, but, 
razecl and cast down by the English in 1545, appears to 
have been repaired or rebuilt in 1509 — the date of the 
crest (a bull's head) above the entrance door. A massive 
square tower, battlemented and corbie-gabled, with side 
stair-turret, it still is habitable, and still is held by a 
descendant of its founder, Andrew lleiton, Esq., F.S.A. 



(b. 1827 ; sue. 1870), whose eousin and predecessor con- 
verted it into a kind of Border antiquarian museum. 
Scott coveted it sorel}% to make an armoury of it, and 
from it was jestingly dubbed, by his familiar friends, 
tlie Duke of Darnick. Pop. of village (1841) 280, (1871), 
435, (1881) 371. See James Wade's History of ildrosc 
Abbey (Edinb. 1861). 

Damley, an ancient barony in Eastwood parish, Ren- 
frewshire, 1^ mile E of Barrhead. It belonged for ages 
to a branch of the house of Stewart, and in 1460 gave 
the title of Baron to Sir John Stewart, who in 1488 
became Earl of Lennox, and whose fourth descendant 
was Henry Lord Darnley (1546-67), the husband of 
Queen Mary. It still gives title of Earl (ere. 1675) to 
the Duke of Richmond and Lennox, but by the first of 
his line was sold in the beginning of the 18 th century 
to the Duke of Montrose ; and, passing again by sale in 
1757 to Sir John JMaxwell of PoUok, belongs now to 
Stirling-Maxwell of Pollok and Keir. It gives a prefix 
name to several seats of manufacture and other locali- 
ties within its limits. 

Daxnow, a hamlet, with a public school, in Kirkcowan 
parish, Wigtownshire, 4 miles NW of Kirkcowan village. 

Damwick. See Daenick. 

Darra, a hill in the S of Turriff parish, Aberdeen- 

Darrach, a conspicuous hill in the W of Denny parish, 
Stirlingshire, an eastwai'd abutment of the Kilsyth 
Hills that culminates, at an altitude of 1170 feet above 
sea-level, 3f miles W of Denny town. 

Daniel. See Glendaeuel. 

Darvel or Derval, a village chiefly in Loudon parish, and 
partly in Galston parish, Ayrshire, on the river Irvine, If 
mile E of Newmilns station, this being 7^ miles E by S 
of Kilmarnock. Regularly built and fairly prosperous, 
it mainly depends on haudloom weaving and the manu- 
facture of muslins ; and has a jJost ofliice under Kilmar- 
nock, a branch of the Union Bank, gas-works, a Free 
church, a public school, a working men's institute, and 
a subscription library. The working men's institute was 
erected in 1872 at the instance of Miss Brown of Lan- 
fine, and contains an amusement room, a reading-room, 
and a committee room, capable of transmutation into a 
hall accommodating 500 persons. The lands of Darvel 
belonged anciently to the Knights Templars, and were 
independent of tenure, not even holding of the Crown. 
Pop. (1841) 1362, (1861) 1544, (1871) 1729, (1881) 1718. 
—Urcl. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Dava, a station on the Highland railway, at the 
mutual border of Cromdale and Edinkillie parishes, 
Elginshire, 8h miles NNW of Grantown, under which 
it h as a post and telegi'aph office. Here, too, is a public 
school. See Cromdale. 

Davarr or Devar, a small island in the mouth of Camp- 
beltown Loch, Campbelto^vn parish, Argyllshire. Rising 
300 feet above sea-level, it has an utmost length and 
breadth of 5 and 4 J furlongs, and serves as a natural break- 
water to Campbeltown harbour, protecting it from wind 
and wave. To the S side of the loch's mouth it is 
joined by a sand-bar | mile long, bare at low water ; 
and its north-eastern point is crowned with a light- 
house, that shows a bright white light every half minute, 
visible at the distance of 17 nautical miles. 

Daven, a triangular loch on the mutual border of 
Logie-Coldstone and Glenmuick parishes, Aberdeenshire, 
^\-ithin ^ mile of Loch Kinord, and IJ mile NW of 
Dinnet station. Lying 480 feet above sea-level, it has 
an utmost length and breadth of 6 and 4| furlongs, 
contains pike and perch, and sends off Dinnet Burn 
rimning 2^ miles SE to the Dee at Mill of Dinnet. 
Close to it are to be seen the remains of a native town, 
which Skene identifies with 'Devana,' a name preserved 
in that of the loch itself. See Abehdeex, p. 17. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Davids, St, a seaport village in Dalgety parish, Fife, 
on the NE horn of Inverkeithing Bay, at the terminus 
of the Fordel mineral railway, li mile E by S of Inver- 
keithing. It has a good harbour, and exports immense 
quantities of coaL 

Davids, St, a village in Maddirty parish, Perthshire, 
on the estate of Craig of ]\Iadderty, If mile S by W of 
Madderty station. Founded by the late Lady Baird 
Preston of Fern Tower, it superseded a decayed old 
burgh of barony, and is a beautiful place, with a hand- 
some endowed schoolhouse. 

Davidson's Mains or Muttonhole, a well-built village 
in Cramond parish, Edinburglishire, H mile WNW of 
Craigleith station, and 3^ miles AVNW of Edinburgh. 
It has a post office, wath money order, savings' bank, 
insurance, and telegraph departments, a station of the 
Edinburghshire police, the Free church of Cramond, 
and a public school. Pop. (1841) 470, (1861) 599, 
(1871)736, (1881) 740. 

Davington, a hamlet, with a public school and a Free 
church, in Eskdalemuir parish, Dumfriesshire, near 
the right bank of the AVhite Esk, 16i miles NNW of 

Daviot, a hamlet and a parish in Garioch district, 
central Aberdeenshire. The hamlet stands 5 miles 
NNW of Inverurie, this being 16:| miles NW of Aber- 
deen, under which Daviot has a post ofiice. 

The parish is bounded N and NE by Fyvie, E by Old 
Meldrum, SE by Bourtie, SW and W by Chapel of 
Garioch, and NW by Rayne. Its utmost length, from 
NNW to SSE, is 31 miles ; its breadth, from E to W, 
varies between 2^ furlongs and 3| miles ; and its land 
area is 4454 acres. Lochter Burn traces aU the Bourtie 
boi'der ; and, where it quits this parish, the surface 
sinks to 200 feet above sea-level, thence rising with 
gentle undulations to 401 feet near Lumphart, 415 at 
the church, 513 near Wicketslap, 529 near Loanhead, 
and 434 at Knowhead. The prevailing rock is trap in 
the central higher grounds, coarse gneiss in the S and 
E. The soil, on the lower grounds, is generally peat 
humus on bluish clay ; on the slopes, is commonly a 
rich loam or a strong clay ; on the higher grounds, is 
gravelly and thin. About 3700 acres are in tillage, 180 
under wood, 100 moss, and 150 either waste or very 
slightly reclaimed. Three stone circles and two pre- 
Reformation chapels stand or have stood within the 
parish. Glack, with its lofty tower, is a conspicuous 
object ; and other mansions, also separately noticed, 
are jMounie and Fingask — 4 proprietors holding each an 
annual value of more, and 4 of less, than £100. Daviot 
is in the presbytery of Garioch and synod of Aberdeen ; 
the living is worth £153. The church, built in 1798, 
contains 400 sittings ; and a public school, with accom- 
modation for 150 children, had (1880) an average at- 
tendance of 101, and a grant of £92, 17s. Valuation 
(1881) £5.532, 7s. Pop. (1801) 644, (1831) 691, (1861) 
614, (1871) 597, (1881) old.— Urcl. Sur., shs. 76, 86, 

Daviot and Dunlichity, a united parish of NE Inver- 
ness-shire mainh', but partly also of Nairnshire, 388 
acres at its north-eastern extremity belonging to the 
main body, and 12,600 towards the S forming a detached 
portion, of that count}'. The parishes of Daviot and 
Dunlichity were united in 1618, but still are so far dis- 
tinct as each to have its church, that of Daviot standing 
near the Nairn's left bank, 6f miles SE of Inverness, 
under which there is a post oliice of Daviot, whilst that 
of Dunlichity stands 1 mile EXE of the foot of Loch 
Dundelchack and 6f miles SW by S of Daviot church. 
The united parish, then, is bounded N and NE by Croy- 
Dalcross, SE and S by Moy-Dalarossie, SW by Boleskine- 
Abertarff, and NW by Dores, the Farraline section of 
Boleskine, Inverness, and the Leys section of Croy. Its 
utmost length is 22g miles from NE by N to SW by S ; 
and its breadth varies between 4i furlongs and 7:^ nules. 
The river Nairx, rising towards the S of the parish, 
winds 22J miles north-north-westward and north-north- 
eastward, chiefly through the interior, but for the last 
3i miles along the Croy and Dalcross border ; during 
this course it descends from 2480 to close on 300 feet 
above sea-level. The southern Nairnshire section is 
drained to Loch Ness by the Faiugaig, formed by two 
head-streams near Dunmaglass Lodge, and running 2 
miles north-north-westward till it passes into Dores, 



Besides twenty-six tiny lakelets — eighteen of tliera 
dotted over Drummossie Muir — there are, in the in- 
terior, Lochs CoiRE (5 X 23 furl. ; altitude, 865 feet) and 
Clachax (4 X J mile ; 683 feet), and, on the Dores 
border. Lochs Buxaciiton (i x ^ mile ; 701 feet), DuN- 
DELCHACK (3i[ miles X 1 mile ; 702 feet), and Ruthven 
(9 X 2^ furl. ; 700 feet). The surface sinks, as we have 
said, to close on 300 feet along the Nairn, and thence 
south-south-westward the chief elevations to tlie right 
or E of its course are *Beinn na Buchanich (1312 feet), 
*Beinn a' Bhenrlaich (1575), Meall na Fuar-ghlaic (1552), 
*Carn nan Uisgean (2017), Reinn Bhreae (1797), *Carn 
Glac an Eich (2066), Cam Mor (1222), *Carn na Sao- 
bhaidh (2321), Cam Doire na h-Achlais (206G), and 
*Carn Ghriogair (2637) ; to the left or AV of the Nairn 
are Drummossie Muir (874), *Creag a' Chlachain (1000), 
Creag Dhubh (1450), Stac na Cathaig (1463), Garbh- 
bheinn Bheag (1711), Beinn Bhuidhe (2329), *Carn 
Odhar (2618), Beinn Dubh-choire (2261), *Meall Donn 
(1560), Beinn Bhuraich (2560), and *Carn na Saobhaidhe 
(2658), where asterisks mark those summits that culmi- 
nate on the bordersof the parish. Gneiss, granite, Old Red 
sandstone conglomerate, and black and blue bituminous 
shale are the chief rocks. Numerous low sand-hills, 
seemingly formed by flux and reflux of some great body 
of water, are on both sides of the Nairn, extending from 
Daviot Bridge, 2 miles higher up. ]\Iarl, to a depth of 
from 5 to 6 feet, formed an extensive bed in Tordarroch 
Moss, at a depth of from 5 to 7 feet below the surface ; 
and was largely and effectively used for improving the 
lighter arable lands. The soil, in some places, is light 
and sandy ; in others, wet and spongy, on a clay bottom ; 
in others, a black mossy humus ; and in many, a com- 
pound of two or more of these. Daviot Castle, near 
Daviot House, was built in the beginning of the 15th 
century by David, Earl of Crawford ; a square three- 
story structure, surmounted by round turrets at the 
angles, and girt by a wall enclosing an extensive area, 
and b}' a fosse with a drawbridge, it seems to have been 
a place of great strength, but is now represented by only 
fragmentary ruins. Dun-Daviot Hill, in the vicinity of 
the church, appears to have been used, in times of danger, 
as a signal station. Remains of ancient Caledonian 
stone circles are at Daviot, Gask, Farr, and Tordarroch ; 
and several ancient tumuli on the hills have been found 
to contain funereal relics. Daviot House and Farr 
House both stand on the left bank of the Nairn. The 
former, 7 furlongs NNE of Daviot church, is a com- 
modious modern mansion ; the latter, 6| miles SSW, is 
partly old, paiily modern. Other estates are Brin, 
FLifHiTY, and Dunmaglass ; and in all 8 proprietors 
hold an annual value of more, 3 of less, than £100. 
This parish is in the presbytery of Inverness and synod 
of Moray ; the living is worth £356. Daviot church 
(500 sittings) was rebuilt in 1826, Dunlichity (300) in 
1758 ; and service is performed in them alternately, A 
Free church stands 4if miles SSW of Daviot church ; and 
5^ miles further SSW is St Paul's Episcopal church of 
Strathnairn, which, originally erected in 1817, was 
rebuilt in 1869 at a cost of £900, and contains 200 
sittings. The five schools of Daviot, Dunmaglass, Farr, 
Nairnside,^ and Strathnairn, the three first public and 
the last Episcopalian, with respective accommodation 
for 83, 50, 90, 90, and 150 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 34, 19, 37, 58, and 48, and grants 
of £41, 12s., £32, 18s. 6d., £41, 7s., £48, 15s., and 
£49, 10s. Valuation of Inverness-shire portion (1880) 
£10,358, 8s. Id. ; of Nairnshire portion (1882) £1465, 10s. 
Pop. (1801)1818, (1831) 1738, (1861) 1741, (1871) 1598, 
(1881) 1252.— On^. Sur., .shs. 84, 73, 74, 83, 1876-81. 

Davo, a romantic wooded ravine in Garvock parish, 
Kincardineshire. It contains a quarry of excellent 
buiMing red sandstone. 

Davoch. See HAi.F-DAVAcn, 

Dawan. Si(! Daven. 

Dawick House, a modem castellated mansion, stand- 
ing amid finely-wooded ground.s, in the NE corner of 
Dmmmclzior parish, Peeblesshire, 2^ furlongs S of the 
Tweed's right bank, and it mile SSW of Stobo station 


this being 6^ miles WSW of Peebles. Held by the 
Veitches from the 13th to the close of the 17th century, 
the estate then passed to the lawyer, James Naesmyth 
(d. 1706), who was known as the ' Deil 0' Da'wlck.' His 
grandson and namesake, the second baronet (sue. 1720 ; 
d. 1779), was the eminent botanist, Linnoeus' pupil, who 
planted in 1735 the Dawick avenue of silver firs, and to 
whom Scotland owes the introduction of the lai'cli in 
1725. His great-grandson, the present Sir James Nae- 
smyth of Posso, fifth Bart, since 1706 (b. 1827 ; sue. 
1876), owns 15,485 acres in the shire, valued at £3557 
per annum. On a knoll, 1-| furlong S by W of the 
house, still stands the old church of Dawick parish 
(suppressed 1742), which serves now as the family 
mausoleum. — Orel. Sur., sh. 24, 1864. 

Dawsholm. See DALSHOLir. 

Dead Burn, a burn in Newlands parish, Peeblesshire, 
running 3 miles south-south-westward to Lyne Water, 
at a point 2i miles SSE of Linton. 

Dead Loch. See Yarrow. 

Deadman's Gill, a burn in the E of Mouswald parish, 
Dumfriesshire, whose bank is traditionally alleged to 
have been a place of execution. 

Deadmen's Holm, a piece of alluvial flat in Tarbolton 
parish, A}Tshire, opposite the mouth of Bloody Burn. 
It and the burn are alleged to have got their name from 
being the scene of some ancient massacre or tragedy. 

Deadriggs. See Crosshall, Berwickshire. 

Dead Water, See Castleton, Roxburghshire. 

Dean, the ancient seat of the Boyds, Earls of Kilmar- 
nock from 1661 to 1746, in Kilmarnock parish, Ayr- 
shire, on a gentle rising-ground above the right bank 
of Kilmarnock Water, 1 mile NNE of Kilmarnock town. 
Dating from some very early period unknown to record, 
it was destroyed by accidental in 1735, and is now 
a massive picturesque ruin. 

Deanbumhaugh, a hamlet in Roberton parish, partly 
in Roxburghshire, partly in Selkirkshire, on Borthwick 
Water, 7| miles WSW of Hawick, under which it has a 
post office. 

Deanston, a manufacturing village in Kilmadock 
parish, Perthshire, on the swift Teith's right bank, 1 
mile W of Doune. It presents an appearance greatly 
superior to that of most seats of manufacture, consisting 
chiefly of extensive cotton-mills founded in 1785, and 
of dwelling-houses for the workpeople, but including 
Deanston House ; and has a post office under Stirling, 
a large school, a circulating library, and a savings' bank. 
James Smith (1789-1850), as manager of its mills from 
1807, made great displays of genius, and stands on the 
roll of fame, among the Wattses and the Arkwrights 
as a mechanician, among the Youngs and the Sinclairs 
as the inventor of tliorough drainage, and among the 
Howards and the Clarksons as a philanthropist. Pop. 
(1841) 982, (1861) 727, (1871) 627, (ISSl) 700. 

Deanston, Ayrshire. See Stewarton. 

Dean Water, a small, deep, sluggish river of W 
Forfarshire, issuing from Forfar Loch (171 feet), and 
running 13J miles west-south-westward, through or 
along the borders of Kinnettles, Kirriemuir, Glamis, 
Airlie, Eassie, and Meigle in Perthshire, till it falls into 
the Isla 1 mile N of Meigle village, after a total descent 
of barely 50 feet. It abounds in pike, perch, and prime 
tront— Orel. Sur., shs. 57, 56, 1868-70. 

Deasthack, a burn in Kiltarlity parish, Inverness- 
shire, running to the Beauly at Fasnacoil. 

Dechmont, a hill-summit on the SW border of Cam- 
buslang parish, Lanarkshire, 5h miles SSE of Glasgow. 
The highest point of the hill-range that terminates 
north-westward in Carmunnock, it has an altitude of 
602 feet above sea-level, and commands a magnificent 
view, whose beauties form the theme of a descriptive 
poem by John Struthers. The Beltane fires long 
blazed from its summit ; and on its slopes were formerly 
many Caledonian cairns and suchlike structures, now 
almost totally obliterated. 

Dechmont House, a mansion in Livingstone parish, 
Linlitiigowshire, 3^ miles WSW of Uphal'l station. Its 
owner, Airs Jleldruni, holds 1200 acres in the shire 



valued at £18G0 per annum. A little to the NE are 
Declimont village and Dechmont Hill (686 feet), which 
commands a very extensive prospect. 

Dee, a river chiefly of S Aberdeenshire, but partly also 
of Kincardineshire. It rises from tlie very bosom of 
the Cairngorm Mountains, in the SW corner of Aber- 
deenshire, close to the boundary with Banff, Inverness, 
and Perth shires ; and runs first south-south-eastward, 
but generally east-by-northward along the Braemar and 
Deeside districts of Aberdeenshire, across a wing of 
Kincardineshire, and along the boundary between Aber- 
deenshire and Kincardineshire, to the sea at Aberdeen. 
Its length, if one follows its windings, is 87^ miles, viz. , 
2J from the source of Garchary Burn to its confluence 
\vith Larig Burn, 11^ thence to the Linn of Dee, 6| 
thence to the Clunie's influx near Castleton, 9 thence to 
Balmoral, 9J thence to Ballater Bridge, 13| thence to 
Aboyne Bridge, 15| thence to Banchory Bridge, 17| 
thence to the old Bridge of Dee, and 1§ thence to its 
mouth in the North Sea. Its drainage area is esti- 
mated at 700 square miles ; and from 4060 feet above 
sea-level at the Garchary's source it descends to 1976 at 
the Larig's confluence, 1640 at the Geusachan's influx, 
1214 at the Linn of Dee, 1066 near Castleton, 872 near 
Balmoral, 663 at Ballater, 397 at Aboyne, 296 at the 
Bridge of Potarch, 102 at Drumoak ferry, and 72 at 
Peterculter. Its velocity, above Castleton, is fitful and 
various, ranging from cascade to current, from torrent 
to pool ; but, below Castleton, averages 3^ miles per 
hour, with a mean depth of 4 feet, and is so regular as 
nowhere to furnish water-power to a mill. Its tribu- 
taries partake of its own character, being mountain- 
torrents in the upper part of the basin, and, in the 
lower, gently gliding streams ; or, in some instances, 
are impetuous first, next slow. Its waters are remark- 
able for both perennial flow and limpid purity ; con- 
tinue, a long way down its course, to be almost wholly 
unafi'ected by any such circumstances as pollute most 
other rivers ; and, even in its lower reaches where the 
drainage of farms and villages runs into them, are com- 
paratively well protected from defilement by skilful 
methods of land drainage. 

The Dee has been almost universally identified with 
the Deva of Ptolemy, but the Latin editions prior to 
1525 all read Leva, and Skene observes that ' the distance 
both from the Firth of Tay and from Kinnairds Head 
corresponds more closely with the mouth of the North 
Esk than with that of the river Dee.' By Celtic 
scholars Dee itself has been variously interpreted by 
' dark ' or ' smooth ' or ' double water,' the last signifi- 
cation referring to the river's two-fold soi;rce, in the 
Larig and Garchary Burns. The Garchary, issuing from 
Well Dee (4060 feet) between Cairntoul and Braeriach, 
hurries 2f miles east-south-eastward to a confluence 
with the Larig, which, itself rising from the Wells of 
Dee (2700 feet) between Braeriach and Ben Macdhui, 
runs IJ mile southward, and midway is joined by a 
half subterraneous torrent rushing 1 mile westward from 
its source (4200 feet) upon Ben Macdhui. And which, 
then, is the veritable head-stream ? Dr Hill Burton 
elects in favour of the Larig, as less desperately flighty, 
more voluminous, and more in the line of the glen, 
than the Garchary ; but, on the whole, the latter carries 
the day, by its longer descent and very much higher 
birth. The scenery of the meeting of the two streams is 
terrible, wilder even than that of Glen Sannox, Glencoe, 
or Coruisk ; and serves to explain how the influence of 
alpine landscape has darkened the imagination of the 
Highlanders, and given aspects of gloom and supersti- 
tion to their traditions. Hogg, speaking of Ben Macdhui, 
exaggerates nothing, but fails to give due force and 
fulness to his picture, when he says — 

' Beyond the grizzly cliffs that guard 

The infant rills of Highland Dee, 
Where hunter's horn was never heard, 

Nor bugle of the forest-bee, 
'Mid wastes that dern and dreary lie, 

One mountain rears its mighty form. 
Disturbs the moon in fiassing by, 

And smiles above the thuuderstorm.' 

A barrren and desolate region, of which, as a boy, 
Hill Burton was told by Donald that it was ' a fery 
fulgar place, not fit for a young shentleraan to go to at 
all ; ' and of which, some forty years later. Hill Burton 
wrote that, ' if we compare this defile to another of the 
grandest mountain - passes in Scotland — to Glencoe — 
we find a marked dill'ercnce between them. The scene 
of the great tragedy, grand and impressive as it is, has 
no such narrow walled defiles. The mountains are high, 
but they are of the sugar-loaf shape — abrupt but never 
one mass of precipice from top to bottom. Cairntoul 
resembles those hills, though it is considerably more 
precipitous ; but Braeriach is as much unlike them as a 
tower is distinct from a dome.' Through this narrow 
glen, then, that begins to widen below the Geusachan's 
influx, the united waters of Garchary and Larig flow, as 
the Dee, over a broken rocky bed in alternate sweeps, 
rapids, and cascades, till, at a place 6| miles above 
Castleton of Braemar, it forms a remarkable series of 
small falls — the Linn of Dee. The Linn is a natural 
sluice of rock, with rugged sides, and jagged, shelving 
bottom, 300 yards long, and at one point barely 4 feet 
wide — an easy jump. Through it the river shoots in 
small cascades ; and it is spanned by a handsome white 
granite bridge, opened in 1857 by Queen Victoria. The 
river, about IJ mile below the Linn, begins to touch 
some marks of cultivation ; but it soon afterwards 
enters Mar Forest, through which it flows to some 
distance beyond Castleton, receiving in it the Lui and 
the Quoich from the N, and the Ey and the Clunie 
from the S. It next traverses Invercauld Forest ; pro- 
ceeds thence past Balmoral and Abergeldie ; receives 
two small tributaries, from respectively the N and the 
S, in the vicinity of Balmoral ; passes on to Ballater ; 
and receives, in the neighbourhood of that village, the 
Gairn or Gairden from the N, and the Muick from the 
S. Its scenery between the Linn and Ballater is noticed 
in our articles on Braemar and Balmoral, and its 
scenery around Ballater and for some miles further on 
is described as follows by William Howitt : ' The hills 
are lofty, grey, and freckled ; they are, in fact, bare 
and tempest-tinted granite, having an air of majestic 
desolation. Some rise peaked and splintered, and their 
sides covered with cUhris, yet, as it were, bristled with 
black and sharp-looking pine forests. Some of the hills 
run along the side of the Dee, covered with these woods, 
exactly as the steep Black Forest hills in the neigh- 
bourhood of Wildbad.' Meadow, cornfield, and garden, 
however, begin to show themselves as one approaches 
Ballater, ever more and more as the river rolls on towards 
the sea. 

The Dee, from a point about 3^ miles E of Ballater, 
flows through a gradually widening valley, still narrow, 
but with less and less of its former Highland character ; 
and it forces its way through a comminuted compound 
of granite, gneiss, porphyry, greenstone, and hornblende 
debris, and receives on both banks numerous small tri- 
butaries. It enters Kincardineshire at a point 3J miles 
SE of Kincardine O'Neil, and, traversing that county 
over a run of 9f miles, receives in it, on the right bank, 
the tribute of the Feugh. Retouching Aberdeenshire at 
the SW corner of Drumoak parish, it thence runs 14^ 
miles along the boundary between the two counties to 
the sea at Aberdeen ; and, from the point of its entering 
Kincardineshire onward to its mouth, oilers alternations 
of tame hill scenery and beautiful lowland landscape. 
From source to mouth it traverses or bounds the parishes 
of Crathie, Glenmuick, Aboyne, Birse, Kincardine 
O'Neil, Strachan, Banchory-Tcrnan, Durris, Drumoak, 
Peterculter, Maryculter, Banchory-Devenick, Nigg, and 
Old Machar ; and in our articles on these fourteen 
parishes full details are given as to the villages, man- 
sions, and other features of its course. 

The Dee was once the most finely wooded and the 
best fishing river in Scotland ; and, though much 
damaged by entails, manufactories, and stake-nets, it 
still, for wood and fish, has scarce a rival among British 
rivers. Salmon contrive to force their way, up all its 
currents and obstructions, to points above the Liun, 



and, though not now caught in any such quantity as in 
bygone days, are still taken in great numbers. About 
20,'000 salmon and 40,000 grilse are caught in an average 
season ; but these numbers include those taken by stake- 
nets and on the beach adjacent to the river's mouth. 
The best catch of the 1881 season was got about the 
middle of July, when some 600 fish were landed in a 
single day from the Pot and Fords. The finest reach of 
the° river for rod-fishing extends from Banchory to 
Ballater. Clean-run salmon have often been taken by 
the rod so early as the 1st of February, in the waters 
above Ballater, at a distance of 50 mUes from the sea ; 
but they rarely ascend the Linn till after the middle of 
May. As a rule they run small, 7 to 10 lbs. on an 
average. The connections of the river with the water- 
supply and commerce of Aberdeen, as also the diversion 
of its channel, are noticed in our article on that city. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. U, 65, 66, 76, 67, 77, 1870-74. See 
chaps, xxiii. -xxv. of Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's Moray 
Floods (Elgin, 1830 ; 3d ed. 1873) ; James Brown's Kew 
Deeside Guide (Ab., 1843) ; and Dr John Hill Burton's 
Cairngorm Mountains (Edinb. 1864). 

Dee, a river of "W Kirkcudbrightshire, issuing from 
Loch Dee, a lonclv lake that lies among the heathery 
lieights of Minnigatf— Laraachan Hill (2349 feet), 
Curleywee (2212), Craiglee (1741), and Cairngarroch 
(1800). Itself 750 feet above sea-level, Loch Dee is 7 
furlongs long and from 1 J to 4 furlongs ^vide ; its 
waters are still well stocked with trout, which have, 
however, been sadly thinned by pike, and which average 
1 lb. in weight, though seven or eight years since a 
monster of 12 lbs. was taken here. Leaving this 
mountain lake, the Dee, or Black Water of Dee, Avinds 
18^ miles east-south-eastward till, after traversing 
Stkoan Loch, it is joined, just opposite to Parton 
station, by the "Water of Ken, a stream of much larger 
volume than its own. For the next 5 miles, on to 
Glenlochar Lodge, their miited waters assume the aspect 
of a long narrow lake — called, indeed, sometime a second 
Loch Dee — that widens here to half a mUe, and there 
contracts to barely a hundred yards. From Glenlochar, 
on past the islets of Threave Castle and Lodge, our 
river sweeps, through a rocky channel, llf miles south- 
ward and south-south-westward to Kirkcudbright town, 
thence 3 miles southward through a broadening estuary 
to its mouth in Kirkcudbright Bay. It thus has a total 
course of 38 J rniles, during which it traverses or bounds 
the parishes of Minnigaff, Kells, Girthon, Balmaghio, 
Parton, Crossmichael, Kelton, Tongueland, Kirkcud- 
bright, Twynholm, and Borgue, and during which it 
receives Cooran Lane, the Ken, and Tarf Water, with a 
number of lesser tributaries. It is navigable to Tongue- 
land, or about 7 miles from the Solway ; and it 
sometimes rises in freshets to 8 feet above its ordinary 
level Its waters, particularly before their confluence 
with the Ken, are so mossy and dark-hued as to render 
its name of Dee or ' dark stream,' and specially its 
duplicate name of Black Dee, entirely appropriate. 
Its salmon, too, are of a darker colour and much fatter 
than those of most rivers in the S of Scotland, and are 
held in high estimation ; its waters contain also sea-trout, 
river-trout, pike, perch, and large quantities of pearl- 
mussels.— Ort^. ,Swr., shs. 8, 9, 5, 1863-54. 

Dee, Bridge of, a south-western suburb of Aberdeen, 
on the river Dee, 2 miles from the centre of the city. 
It has a iiost office under Aberdeen. 

Dee, Bridge of, a village on the SE border of Bal- 
maghie parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, on the right bank 
of tiie Dee, with a station on the Kirkcudbriglit raihva}', 
3 miles SW of Castle-Douglas. It has a Christian 
Knowledge Society's school. 

Deechoid or Deadh Choimhead, a hill (1255 feet) in 
ihickaiiu ])arish, Argyllshire, 5i miles E by S of Oban. 

Deer, a place in jlorton ]iarish, Dumfriesshire, near 
Morton Castle, and 2^ miles N by W of Tliornhill. It 
has remains of an entrenched strong fortification, sup- 
posed to Jiave been a Roman castellum. 

Deer, an ancient parish and a presbytery, partly in 
Baufl'shire, but chiefly in Aberdeenshire. The ancient 


parish was divided, about the year 1694, into the present 
parishes of New Deer and Old Deer. The presbytery, 
meeting at Maud, is in the synod of Aberdeen, and 
comprises the old parishes of Aberdour, Crimoud, Kew 
Deer, Old Deer, St Fergus, Fraserburgh, Longside, Lon- 
may, Peterhead, Pitsligo, Eathen, Strichen, and Tyiie ; 
the quoad sacra parishes of Ardallie, Blackhill, Boddam, 
Fraserburgh West Church, Inverallochy, Kininmonth, 
New Pitsligo, Peterhead East Church, and Savoch ; 
and the chapelries of New Maud, Techmuiry, and Peter- 
head Robertson Memorial IMission Church. Pop. (1871) 
49,199, (1881) 54,420, of whom 14,052 were communi- 
cants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. — The Free 
Church also has a presbytery of Deer, with 2 churches 
at Peterhead, and 11 at respectively Aberdour, Clola, 
Fraserburgh, Longside, New Deer, New Pitsligo, Old 
Deer, Pitsligo, Rathen, Strichen, and St Fergus, which 
together had 2832 communicants in 1881. 

Deer or South Ugie Water. See Ugie. 

Deer- Dike, a substantial earthen fence along the mutual 
boundary of Garvock and Laurencekirk parishes, Kin- 
cardineshire. Probably part of an enclosure round a 
deer-forest, comprising most or all of Garvock parish, it 
continued tUl last century to be tolerably entire, and 
still has left distinct traces. 

Deer-Law, a hill (2065 feet) on the mutual border of 
Yarrow parish, Selkirkshire, and Lyne parish, Peebles- 
shire, 2 miles NW of St Mary's Loch. 

Deemess, a parish of Orkney, comprising a peninsula 
in the extreme E of Pomona and the islands of Copen- 
shay, Cornholm, and Horse. Its kirkto^^Ti stands on 
the E coast of the peninsula, 8^ miles E by S of Kirk- 
wall, under which it has a post ofiice. Extending from 
Moul Head south-westward to the isthmus that connects 
it with St Andi'ews parish, and measuring 5 miles in 
length by 3 in extreme breadth, the said peninsula is 
bounded W and NAV by Deer Sound, E by the North 
Sea, and SE by Newark Bay ; the islands lie from 1| 
mile to 3 miles to the E. From the shores, which are 
haunted by myriads of sea-birds, the surface of the 
peninsula rises to a somewhat tabular summit. The 
soil consists mostly of loam, resting on red clay, and is 
highly susceptible of improvements, such as draining 
and a liberal application of shell sand, of which there is 
an inexhaustible supply. From 50 to 60 boats are em- 
ployed in the herring fishery ; kelp is manufactured ; 
and very strong ropes, fitted for various economic pur- 
2)Ose8 of the farmer, are made from the shoots of Empe- 
trum nigrum, from the roots of Arundo arcnaria, and 
from the herbage of Holcus lanatus. Several tumuli 
are on the higher grounds ; and remains of a large 
Pict's house, called Dingy's Howe or Duncan's Height, 
stand near the end of the isthmus. The parish is united 
quoad civilia to St Andrews, from which, however, it 
was separated quoad sacrain 1845; Deerness itself being 
a living in the presbytery of Kirkwall and synod of 
Orkney, with stii>end of £120, a manse, and 3 acres of 
glebe. The church was originally a parliamentary 
one. There is also a Free church ; and three public 
schools — Deerness, St Andrews, and Tankerness — with 
respective accommodation for 155, 55, and 80 children, 
had (1880) an average attendance of 92, 50, and 44, 
and grants of £80, 4s., £41, and £33, 14s. Valuation 
of civil parish (1881) £1976, 16s. 6d. Pop. of same 
(1801) 660, (1831) 661, (1861) 831, (1871) 863, (1881) 

Deer, New, a village and a parish in Buchan district, 
NE Aberdeensliire. The village stands towards the 
middle of tlie parish, 2| miles WSW of ilaud Junction, 
this being 13 miles W by N of Peterhead, 16 SSW of 
Fraserburgh, antl 31^ N by E of Aberdeen, under which 
New Deer has a jwst office, with money order and 
savings' bank departments. Anciently called Auch- 
rcddie, it includes at its south-eastern cutskirt a suburb 
retaining that name ; and it straggles for over a 7nile 
along the ascending ridge of a steepish liill. Within 
recent years it has undergone great improvement, good 
new dwelling-houses having taken the place of low old 
huts ; and it has branches of the North of Scotland and 


Aberdeen Town and County banks, 11 insurance agencies, 

2 local savings' banks, 2 hotels, a market-place, a 
public hall (1864), a children's library, agricultural 
and horticultural societies, and fairs on the third 
Wednesday of January, the "Wednesday after 12 April, 
the Thursday before "26 May, the Wednesday after 
19 June, the second Tuesday of August, the Wed- 
nesday after 19 October, and the Thursday after 22 
November. A public school, ^^'ith accommodation for 
240 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 163, 
and a grant of £139, 17s. Pop. (1861) 475, (1871) 643, 
(1881) 753. 

The parish, containing also part of New JIaud, is 
bounded N bv Tj-rie, NE by Strichen, E by Old Deer, 
SE and S by Ellon, SW by Tarves and Methlick, W by 
Fj-vie and ilonquhitter, and NW by King-Edward. 
In outline rudely resembling a triangle with south- 
.south-eastward apex, it has an utmost length from 
NNW to SSE of 12^ miles, an utmost breadth from E 
to W of 5f miles, and an area of 26,765 acres. The 
drainage is mainly carried eastward by head-streams of 
South Ugie Water ; but the Burns of Elrick or Nether- 
muir and AUathan or Asleed, flowing southward to the 
Ythan, trace much of the eastern and western borders. 
The surface, sinking to 197 feet above sea-level near 
Tillysnaught at the south-eastern angle of the parish, 
and to 196 near New Maud on the eastern boundary, 
thence rises gently north-north-westward and north- 
westward to 440 feet near Muckle Clofrickford, 540 near 
Barrack, 503 at the Hill of Culsh, 529 near Corsehill, 
619 at the Hill of Corsegight, 487 at Whin Hill, and 
630 at Bonnykelly ; of which the Hill of Culsh, i mile 
beyond the Free church, so far overlooks the surround- 
ing country as on a clear day to command a view to 
Peterhead, Bennochie, the Bin of CuUen, and Ben 
Rinnes. The district toward the NE and the SE, to 
the extent of 7 or 8 miles, looks almost like one con- 
tinuous cornfield, dotted with green crops, and ter- 
minated by a gentle rising-gi'ound in the form of an 
amphitheatre. Granite is the prevailing rock ; but 
limestone, of coarse quality, has been worked on the 
lands of Barrack. Moss covers an inconsiderable area, 
which yearly grows less and less, owing to plant- 
ing, reclamation, or consumption as fuel. The soil, 
with few exceptions, is light and shallow, and over 
a great proportion of the land rests on an iron-bound 
pan from 6 inches to 2 feet thick. Remains in the 
mosses indicate the existence of a primeval forest ; but 
now, except at Brucklay, Artamford, and Nethermuir, 
the parish is rather poorly off for trees. Fedderat 
Castle, 2§ miles NNE of the village, was anciently a 
strong six-storied structure, surrounded partly by a 
morass, partly by a fosse, and approachable only by a 
causeway and a drawbridge ; but is now an utter ruin. 
Ancient Caledonian standing stones, a rocking-stone, 
and stone circles, in various places, have nearly all been 
destro3'ed ; some tumuli have yielded urns and sarco- 
phagi. At Brucehill, 2 miles W of the village, Edward 
Bruce is said to have encamped, before he defeated the 
Comyns at Aikey Brae (1308). Brucklay Castle 
and Nethermuir House are the chief mansions ; and 
10 proprietors hold each an annual value of more, 93 of 
less, than £100. In the presbytery of Deer and synod 
of Aberdeen, New Deer gives olf portions to the quoad 
sacra parishes of Savoch, Newbyth, and New Pitsligo ; 
the living is worth £380. The parish church, built at 
the village in 1838, in place of an earlier one of 1622, 
is a Third Pointed edifice, with 1500 sittings, and a 
tower, completed in 1865. A neat Free church stands 

3 furlongs NNW of the parish church, and Artamford 
U. P. church | mile NE ; the latter, rebuilt in 1876 at a 
cost of £1400, is Gothic in style, and contains 420 
sittings. There are also another U. P. church at ^Vhite- 
hill (3^ miles N), a Congregational chapel, and a few 
Plymouth Brethren. Eight schools — Brucklay, Cairn- 
banno. New Deer, Knaven, Oldwhat, Whitehill, Bonny- 
kelly, and Honeynook — with total accommodation for 
1029 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 569, 
and grants amounting to £525, 6s. 6d. Valuation (1843) 


£10,905, (1881) £23,211, 4s. 7d. Pop. of parish (1»01) 
2984, (1831) 3525, (1861) 4385, (1871) 4853; of regis- 
tration district (1871) 4147, (1881) 4097.— Ore?. Sur., 
sh. 87, 1876. 

Deer, Old, a village and a parish of Buchan, NE 
Aberdeenshire. The village stands, 134 feet above sea- 
level, on the right bank of South Ugie Water, \\ mile 
SW by W of Alintlaw station, this being %\ miles 
W by N of Peterhead, 3^ E by N of Maud Junction, 
and 35 N by E of Aberdeen. An ancient place, it 
has been mostly rebuilt within the past half centurj', 
and has a post office under Mintlaw, a branch of the 
North of Scotland Banking Co., a savings' bank (1825), 
an inn, a fair (St Drostan's) on the Wednesday after 
19 Dec, and two public schools, which, with respective 
accommodation for 167 scholars and 81 girls, had (1880) 
an average attendance of 119 and 58, and grants of 
£92, 15s. and £52, 14s. 

The parish also contains the villages of Stuartfield, 
Clola, and Fetterangus, \\ mile S by W, 3| miles SSE, 
and 2J miles NNE, of Old Deer village. Its north- 
eastern portion forming a detached section of Banfl'- 
shire, it is bounded N W and N by Strichen, NE by Lon- 
may, E by Longside, SE by Cruden, S by Cruden and 
Ellon, and W by New Deer. Its utmost length, from 
N to S, is 9 J miles ; its breadth, from E to W, varies 
between 4 and 6| miles ; and its area is 27, 439 J acres, 
of which 2812 belong to the Banffshire portion. South 
Ugie Water has here an east-south-easterly course of 6^ 
miles ; North Ugie Water winds 7 miles east-south- 
eastward along all the northern and north-eastern 
border ; and before Pitfour House is an artificial lake of 
45 acres (3§ x 1 furl.); whilst springs, either pure or 
chalybeate, are numerous, and some of them bear such 
names as Grinie's, Lady, Abbey, Chapel, and Annie's 
Well. The sm-face, everywhere undulating, presents an 
assemblage of low rounded hills, most of them culti- 
vated to the very top ; at Baluss Bridge, on the eastern 
border, it sinks to 100 feet above sea-level, and rises 
thence north-westward to 397 feet at Drinnies AVood, 
410 at Knapperty Hill, 432 at Braeside, and 466 at 
White Cow Wood — westward and south-westward to 
292 at Wuddyhill, 460 at Wind Hill, 551 at the HUl of 
Dens, 465 near Bulwark, 423 near Little Elrick, 407 
near Littlemill, 420 at Slampton Hill, and 392 at 
Windy Hill — south-south-westward and south-south- 
eastward to 474 at Skelmuir Hill, 478 near Wester 
Craighead, and 469 at Smallburn Hill. The prevailing 
rocks are granite, syenite, and limestone, which have 
been largely worked at Aikey Brae and other places ; 
and blocks occur of gneiss and pure white quartz. The 
soil is very diversified, ranging from argillaceous to 
loamy, sandy, or gravelly. The woods and plantations 
of Aden, Pitfour, and Kinmundy cover a large extent, 
and those of the two first comprise some very fine hard- 
wood trees. Woollen mills are at MUlbreck and Aden, a 
brewery and a distillery at Biffie. About 580 Columba 
and Drostan,hisnephew, came from lona unto Aberdour, 
and thence to the other town, which pleased Columba, 
because it was full of God's grace ; and he asked of the 
Mormaer Bede to give it him, and he would not. But, 
his son falling sick, the Mormaer went to the clerics to 
ask a prayer of them, and gave them in offering from 
Cloch in tiprat to Clock pette mic Garnait. They 
made the prayer and health returned. Then Columba 
gave Drostan that cathair, and blessed it, and left as his 
word, ' Whosoever come against it, let him not be many- 
yeared victorious.' Drostan weeping as the}' parted, 
said Columba, 'Let Deer* be its name henceforward.' 
Dowai to the reign of David I. (1124-53) this Columban 
monastery retained unimpaired its clerical element and 
Celtic character, according to the priceless testimony of 
certain Gaelic notices written during that reign on the 
blank pages of the Book of Deer, a Latin MS. of the 9tli 
century containing St John's and parts of the other three 
gospels, the Apostles' Creed, and a fragment of an office 
for the vi-sitation of the sick, which MS. , discovered by 

* I.e., Gael, der, now deiir, 'a tear.' Dair, 'an oak,' has been 
suggested as a more likely etymon. 



Mr H. Bradshaw in 1S60 in the library of Cambridge 
Uuiversitv, was ably edited for the Spalding Club by the 
late Dr John Stuart in 1S69 (Skene's Celtic Scotland, 
vols, ii., iii., 1877-SO). St Mary's Abbey of Deer, on the 
left bank of South Ugie Water, % mile WNW of the 
village, was founded, either in 1218 or 1219, by William 
Comyu, Earl of Buchan, for monks of the Cistercian 
order, being colonised by three brethren from KjTiloss ; 
the last of its abbots, Robert Keith, second son of the 
fourth Earl Marischal, obtained the erection of its lands 
into the temporal lordship of Altrie (15S7). Early 
English in style, red sandstone in material, the ruins 
were enclosed and cleared of rubbish in 1809, when it 
appeared that the cruciform church must have consisted 
of chancel, transept, and five-bayed nave with N aisle, 
the whole measuring 150 by from 27 to 38^ feet, or 90 
across the transept. Here has been localised the ballad 
of ' Sir James the Rose,' whose grave is also shown at 
Haddo in Crimond ; on Aikey 13rae the Comyns were 
finally routed by Edward Bruce ; and by Aikey-side one 
of their line, an Earl of Buchan, is said, by his death, 
whilst hunting, to have verified Thomas the Rhymer's 
prediction. Vestiges remain of six stone circles ; several 
cairns have j-ielded stone cists and m-ns ; flint imple- 
ments have been found in great abundance ; and other 
antiquities are the ruinous manor-house of Clachriach 
and remains of the small old parish church of Fetter 
angus. The Stone of Deer, a syenite block standing 6 
Itet out of the ground at the NW corner of the old 
Abbey church, is figured in the Sculptured Stones of 
Scotland (1867), but was demolished about 1854. The 
principal mansions are Pitfouk, Kinmuxdt, and Aden, 
the last a good modern buUding, 3 furlongs ENE of the 
village, whose o^vner, Jas. Geo. Ferguson Russell, Esq. 
(b. 1836 ; sue. 1875), holds 8402 acres in the shire, 
valued at £6989 per annum. The rest of the parish is 
divided among 16 proprietors, 10 holding each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 1 of between £100 and 
£500, 1 of from £50 to £100, and 4 of from £20 to £50. 
In the presbytery of Deer and synod of Aberdeen, Old 
Deer gives olf portions to the q. s. parishes of Ardallie, 
Kintnmonth, and Savoch of Deer ; the living is worth 
£388. The parish church, with over 1000 sittings, stands 
at the village, and, built in 1788, was greatly improved 
(1880-81) at a cost of £2811, the walls being raised, 
an entrance porch added, a memorial window inserted, 
and a clock-tower and spire, 103 feet high, erected of 
Aikey Brae granite, with a library room on its basement 
floor. At the village also is St Drostan's Episcopal 
church (1851 ; 300 sittings). Early English in style, and 
lich in painted glass ; other places of worship are 
noticed under Stuartfield, Maud, and Clola. SLx 
schools, all public but the last, which is endowed, are 
at Bank, Clochcan, Bulwark, Shannas, Stuartfield 
(girls'), and Fetterangus (do.) ; and these, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 100, 110, 62, 110, 140, and 76 
children, had (1880) an average attendance of 61, 107, 43, 
94, 130, and 69, and grants of £.jO, 8s. 6d., £72, Is., 
£33, 19s., £73, 9s., £100, 6s., and £61. 4s. 6d. Valua- 
tion (1843) £13,165, (1882) £30.372, 12^. lOd. Pop. of 
civil parish (1801) 3552, (1821) 3841, (1841) 4453, (1861) 
5174, (1871) 5085, (1881) 4935 ; of registration district 
(ISSl) 4274.— O/tZ. Sur., sh. 87, 1876. 

Deer, Savoch of. See Savoch. 

Deershaw, a village in the N of Banffshire, distant 
6 miles trom Banlf. 

Deer Sound, a spacious natural harbour on the E 
side of the Mainland of Orkney, entering from Stronsay 
Firth, and separating the parish of Deerness from that 
of St Andrews. Lying nearly due SW and NE, and 
measuring 4 miles in length, by from 1 mile to 2^ 
miles in breadth, it has beautifully winding shores, a 
clean sandy bottom mi.ved with clay, and a depth of 6 
or 7 fathoms. It is well sheltered from all winds, and 
affords in many parts good anchorage. Any number of 
vessels might liere find refuge ; and it was formerly 
frequented by whaling ships on their way to the Arctic 
seas, but is now very little used. 

Deeside, the valley of the Aberdeenshire Dee, or, 


more specially, the part of that valley downward from 
Braemar to the sea. 

Deil's Beef-Tub. See Axnaxdale's Beef-Stand. 

Deil's Cauldron. See Devil's Cauldron. 

Deil's Causeway. See Stonehouse. 

Deil's or Plots' Dyke, a long line of ancient fortifica- 
tion in Galloway and Dumfriesshire, commencing at Loch 
Ryan near lunermessan, the site of the ancient Rerigo- 
nium, a town of the Novantae, and extending, by way 
of MiuuigaQ', Glencairn, Penpont, and Lochmaben, to 
the upper part of the Solway Firth at a point opposite 
the western extremity of the Roman wall of Hadrian 
across the N of England. It is now quite obliterated in 
many parts, and more or less obscm-e in many others, but 
still in some is very distinct. It appears to have been 
invariably 8 feet broad at the base, to have had a fosse 
along its N or inland side, and to have been built, in 
most places, of unchiselled blocks of common moorstone ; 
in others, of stone and earth commingled ; and in a few, as 
at Hightae Flow in Lochmaben parish, entirelj' of earth. 
It separates the fertile lands of the seaboard districts 
from the irreclaimable wastes and \v\\A fastnesses of the 
mountains, and may be presumed to have been built by 
an industrious or comparatively settled people on its 
southern, as a defence against a warlike or comparatively 
roving people on its northern, side. All facts respecting 
it, however, even all trustworthy traditions, have been 
lost. Chalmers, the author of Caledonia, says, in a letter 
to Mr Joseph Train, who traced the Deil's Dyke from 
end to end : — ' Considering all its circumstances, it is 
extremely difiicult to assign its age, its object, or its 
builders. In Ireland there is nothing like the Deil's 
Dike ; the inference is that it was not made by Irish 
hands. I am disposed to think that this work is several 
centuries older than the arrival of the Irish Cruithne 
in Galloway.' And again: — 'It is obviously a very 
ancient work, and was probably formed by the Romanised 
Britons after the departure of the Roman armies. ' — Ord. 
Sur., shs. 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 6, 1856-64. 

Deil's Dyke, a denudated trap dyke projecting from the 
general line of the SE coast of Big Cumbrae island in 
Buteshire. See Cujibrae. 

Deil's Mill. See Devil's Mill. 

Delfour, a place, with ancient Caledonian monuments, 
in Alvie parish, Inverness-shire, 1| mile WSW of Alvie 
church. The monuments are a central cairn, two con- 
centric circles of standing stones around the caii-n, and 
an obelisk, 8^ feet high, 25 feet to the W. 

Delgaty Castle. See Dalgety. 

Delney, a station on the Highland railway, in Kilmuir 
Easter parish, Ross-shire, 3^ miles NE of Invergordon. 

DeLnies. See Nairn. 

Deloraine, two pasture farms in Kirkhope parish, 
Selkirkshire, 13 miles SW of Selkirk. The title of Earl 
of Deloraine in the peerage of Scotland was conferred in 
1706 on Henry Scott, second surviving son of the Duke 
of Monmouth, and became extinct at the death of his 
grandson, the fourth Earl, in 1807. 

Delting, a parish in the Mainland of Shetland, in- 
cluding the islands of Bigga, Fishholm, Brother Isle, 
Little Roe, and Jluckle Roe, only the last of which is 
inhabited. It is bounded N by Yell Sound, separating 
it from Yell ; E by Lunnasting and Nesting ; S by 
Weesdale and Sandsting ; and W by St Magnus Bay 
and Sulein Voe. Joined to Northmaven by a narrow 
neck of land, less than 100 feet broad, that seimrates 
the German from the Atlantic Ocean, it has an utmost 
length of 20 miles, and varies in breadth from 3 to 6 
miles, being much intersected by voes or arms of the 
sea. The surface is, for the most part, hilly, bleak, 
and barren ; but along the banks of the voes and in 
the valleys are patches of good arable land. The chief 
harbours are St Magnus Bay, Sulem Voe, Olnafirth 
Voe, Busta Voe, and Goufirth Voe. In the island of 
iluckle Roe there is some fine rock scenery ; and the 
sea washes into several large caves — the haunts of 
numerous wild birds. There are remains of an ancient 
artificial harbour at Burravoe, and some vestiges of 
a I'ictish house at Brough, on Yell Sound. Fully 


one-half of the parish belongs to the estate of the 
Gitfords of Busta. The next largest proprietor is 
Major Cameron of Garth. The other properties are 
small. The principal residences are Busta, Garth, 
Udhouse, Mossbank, and Voe. There are large stores 
and fish-curing establishments at Voe, Brae, and Moss- 
bank. Delting is in the presbytery of Olnafirth and 
synod of Shetland ; the stipend is £150, with 9 merks 
of glebe and a good manse. There are two parish 
churches, distant about 10 miles fi'om one another, viz., 
Scatsta, built in 1811, and Olnafirth in 1868. There 
are also a Free church at Brae and a U.P. church at 
Mossbank ; and the six schools of Brae, Goufirth, 
Firth, Muckle Roe, Olnafirth, and Mossbank, with 
total accommodation for 254 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of -164, and grants amounting to 
£201, 14s. Valuation (1882) £2361, 12s. 8d. Pop. 
(1801) 1449, (1831) 2070, (1861) 1975, (1871) 1862, 
(1881) 1654. 

Delvine, an estate, with a mansion, in Caputh parish, 
Perthshire, near the left bank of the Tay, 4^ miles NE of 
Mui'thly station, and 74 ESE of Dunkeld. Its owner, 
Sir Alex. Muir-Mackenzie, third Bart, since 1805 (b. 
1840 ; sue. 1855), holds 4241 acres in the shire, valued 
at £6420 per annum. 

Demyat. See Dunmyat. 

Den, a village in Abdie parish, Fife, near the Lady- 
bank and Perth railway, l| mile SE of Newburgh. 

Den, a village of recent and rapid growth in Dairy 
parish, AjTshire, 2J miles NE of Dairy to^vn. At it is 
Kersland Barony Church of Scotland school, which, 
with accommodation for 281 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 167, and a grant of £116, 3s. 

Denbrae, an estate, with a mansion, in St Andrews 
parish, Fife, 2f miles WSW of the town. 
Denbum. See Aberdeen. 

Den Fenella, a romantic ravine, traversed by a burn, 
in Garvock and St Cjtus parishes, Kincardineshire. It 
commences about Ih mile E by S of Laurencekirk, and 
extends 3^ miles south-eastward to the sea, at a point 
1| mile SW of Johnshaven. It took its name from 
Fenella or Finvela, daughter of the Earl of Angus, in 
the time of Kenneth III. ; and here she is said to have 
been slain by her pursuers as she fled from Kincardine 
Castle, after the murder of the king at Fettercairn 
through her treachery (995). Its beauties of crag and 
chasm and wooded bank have often been celebrated 
in prose and verse ; near its mouth is a beautiful 
■waterfall, 65 feet in leap ; and its stream is spanned 
by a handsome bridge and by the viaduct of the Bervie 

Denfind, a steep winding ravine, traversed by Pitairlie 
Burn, in Monikie parish, Forfarshire. It bisects a 
reach of hill in the central part of the parish ; and, at a 
point where its sides are precipitous, is spanned by a 
massive one-arched bridge. 

Denhead, a village, with a public school, in Cameron 
parish, Fife, 3 miles SW of St Andi'cws, under which it 
has a post office. 

Denhead and Denmill, a conjoint village, with a spin- 
ning-mill, in Litf and Benvie parish, Forfarshire, 2 
miles W of Lochee. 

Denhead of Auchmacoy, a hamlet, vrith a public 
school, in Logie- i^>uclian parish, E Aberdeenshire, 2^ 
miles E by N of Ellon, under which it has a post 

Denholm, a village in Cavers parish, Roxburghshire, 
on a low plateau above the right bank of the Teviot, 2 
miles E of Hassendean station, and 5 NE of Hawick. 
With a deep wooded dell to the W, called Denholm- 
Dean, it forms a square round a neatlj^-fenced pul)lic 
green, and chiefly consists of well-built houses with 
gardens attached, having been greatly improved by the 
late James Douglas, Esq. of Cavers. Yet, modern as it 
looks, the place is old, since we read of its burning by 
Hertford in 1545. The low, thatched, wliitewashed 
cottage still stands on the N side of the village, in which 
was bom the scholar-poet John Leyden (1775-1811), and 
in the middle of the village green an obelisk was erected 


to his memory in 1861. Inhabited mainly by stocking 
weavers, quarrymen, and farm labourers, Denholm has 
a post office under Hawick, with money order, savings' 
bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, 3 inns, a 
stone bridge over the Teviot (1864), a Free church (1844 ; 
364 sittings), a public school, an excellent sub.scription 
library, a horticultural society (1849), and public water- 
works, which, formed in 1874 at a cost of more than 
£700, draw their supply from a spring nearly 2 miles 
distant, and afford 50 gallons per day for each inhabi- 
tant. Pop. (1861) 766, (1871) 659, (1881) 645. See 

Denino. See Dunino. 

Denmill, Forfarshire. See Denhead. 

Denmiln Castle. See Abdie. 

Dennissness, a headland in Cross and Bumess parish, 
Sanday island, Orkney. 

Denjiiston. See Glasgow. 

Denniston. See Dumbarton. 

Denny, a to\vn and a parish of SE Stirlingshire. The 
town stands on the right bank of the Carron, opposite 
Dunipace, with which it is connected by a bridge ; by 
road it is 5^ mUes WNW of Falkirk, 5^ NNE of Cum- 
bernauld, and 7i S by E of Stirling, whilst, as terminus 
of a branch of the Scottish Central section of the Cale- 
donian, opened in 1859, it is 3f miles WNW of Larbert 
Junction, 32^ WNWof Edinburgh, and 25^ NE of Glas- 
gow. Only a small village down to the close of last cen- 
tury, it is almost entirely modern, and has a post office, 
v\ith money order, savings' bank, insurance, and tele- 
graph departments, branches of the Bank of Scotland 
and Clydesdale Bank, 13 insurance agencies, 3 hotels, a 
gas company, a people's hall, library, and reading-room, 
an Oddfellows' hall, and fairs on the AYednesdays before 
12 May and after 11 November. Large public schools 
were built in 1875 at a cost of £5000 ; and places of 
worship are the parish church (1813 ; 768 sittings) with 
a turreted steeple 75 feet high, a Free church (1843), 
a U.P. church (1796; reconstructed 1881), and the 
Roman Catholic church of St Patrick (1861). In 1876 
Denny and Dunipace were formed into a police burgh, 
which, governed by 9 commissioners, had a municipal 
constituency of 580 in 1882. Pop. of Denny alone (1841) 
1881, (1851) 2446, (1861) 2428, (1871) 2433, (1881) 2823; 
of police burgh (1876) 3595, (1881) 4081. 

Besides part of Bonnybridge, 2| miles to the SSE, 
the parish contains also the villages of Denny-Loanhead, 
Parkfoot, Longcroft, and Haggs, which extend con- 
tinuously along the Glasgow highroad, Denny-Loanhead 
being IJ mile S, and Haggs 3| miles SSW, of Denny 
town. It is bounded NW by St Ninians, NE and E by 
Dunipace, SE by Falkirk, SW by Cumbernauld in Dum- 
bartonshire (detached) and Kilsj-th, and W by Kilsyth. 
From E to W its utmost length is 5| miles ; its width, 
from N to S, varies between 5i furlongs and 3J miles ; 
and its area is 8356| acres, of which 48 are water. The 
Carron winds 7^ miles east-north-eastward and east- 
south-eastward on or close to all the boundary with St 
Ninians and Dunipace ; Bonny Burn runs 4f miles east- 
south-eastward and east-north-eastward along all the 
Dumbartonshire and Falkirk border ; and three others 
of the Carron's affluents flow east-north-eastward through 
the interior. At the eastern extremity of the parish the 
surface declines along the Carron to 100 feet above sea- 
level, thence rising westward to 234 feet near Hillend, 
400 near Banknoc'k, 696 at conical ilyot Hill, 563 near 
Leysbent, 460 at Cowden Hill, 965 at Tardulf Hill, and 
1170 at Darrach Hill upon Denny Muir. The rocks are 
partly eruptive, partly carboniferous ; and the soil is 
loamy along the Bonny and the lower reaches of the 
Carron, gravelly throughout the central district, and 
marshy or moorish over most of the uplands. Of the 
entire area, 5840 acres are in tillage, 789 pasture, 1499 
waste, and only 181 under wood. Coal and ironstone 
are mined, and employment is further afforded by paper, 
chemical, and engine works at Denny town, by Carron- 
bank Foundry (1860) and Denny iron-works (1870), by 
Bonnybridge Columbian stove works (1860), foundry 
(I860), and malleable iron-works (1877), and by Baukier 



distillery. Banknock House is the chief mansion ; and 
5 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 20 of between £100 and £500, 37 of from £50 
to £100, and 70 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery 
of Stirling and synod of Pertli and Stirling, this parish 
was detached from Falkirk in 161S, and is now divided 
ecclesiastically among the quoad sacra parishes of Haggs, 
Bonnybridge, and Dennv, the two first formed in 1875 
and 1878, and the last' a living worth £393. Denny 
public and Roman Catholic and Lawhill and Longcroft 
public schools, with respective accommodation for 350, 
188, 50, and 250 children, had (1880) an average attend- 
ance of 278, 115, 16, and 236, and grants of £244, 
7s. lOd., £113, lis., £27, 18s., and £2u6, 10s. Valua- 
tion (1860) £13,098 ; (1882) £24,820, 4s. 4d., including 
£1833 for raUway. Pop. of parish (1801) 2033, (1831) 
3843, (1861) 4988, (1871) 4993, (1881) 5728 ; of Denny 
registration district (1881) 4228.— Crc^. Sur., sh. 31, 

Denny-Loanhead, a village in Denny parish, Stirling- 
shire, \i mile S of Denny town. It has a post office 
under Dennj', and a U.P. church, which, succeeding one 
of 1735, was built in 1815 at a cost of £1400, and 
contains 731 sittings. 

Denoon, a glen, traversed by a burn, in Glamis and 
Eassie parishes, W Forfarshire. Rising on the north- 
eastern slope of Auchterhouse Hill (1399 feet), the burn 
^\^nds 6^ miles north-by-westward, till it falls into Dean 
"Water, at a point 23 miles WNW of Glamis village. 
The Sidlaws at its head and along its course have alti- 
tudes of from 1200 to 600 feet above sea-level ; and the 
tracts flanking its lower parts subside into the plain of 
Strathmore. Vestiges of an ancient fortification, crown- 
ing isolated Denoon Law (689 feet) within the glen, 2^ 
miles SW of Glamis village, comprise foundations of 
a circular wall 1020 feet in circumference and faint 
traces of interior buildings, and bear the name of 
Denoon Castle. The circular wall is believed to have 
been 30 feet broad and 27 feet high, and the entire forti- 
fication is supposed to have been designed as a place of 
retreat in times of danger. — Ord. Sur., shs. 48, 56, 

Denovan, a village, a calico-printing establishment, and 
an estate in Dunipace parish, Stirlingshire. The village 
stands near Carron Water, | mile ENE of Denny, and has 
charming environs. The calico-printing establishment 
is on the Carron, adjacent to the village ; was com- 
menced in the year 1800 ; and employs a large number 
of persons, many of whom reside in Denny. The estate 
comprises about one-fourth of the parish, and belongs to 
Forbes of Callendar. 

Denside, a hamlet, with a girls' school, in Tannadico 
parish, Forfarshire. 

Derclach, a loch in Straiton parish, S Ayrshire. 
Lying 870 feet above sea-level, it has an utmost length 
and width of 4i and 1 J furlongs, and sends off a rivulet 
1 furlong eastward to the head of Loch Finlas. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 8, 1863. 

Derculich, an estate, ■with a mansion, in Dull parish, 
Perthshire, near the left bank of the Tay, 3^ miles NE 
of Aberfeldy. Loch Derculich, 2 miles to the NNW, 
falls partly within a detached portion of Logierait parish, 
and, lying about 1200 feet above sea-level, has an utmost 
length of 4 J furlongs, with a varying width of 1§ and 4 
furlongs. It contains some pike anil abundance of fine 
trout, which will not, however, always rise to the fly ; 
and it sends off Derculich Burn, running 2^ miles 
south-south-eastward to the Tay. — Ord. Sur., sh. 55, 

Dergan (Gael, dcarfj-ahhuinn, 'red river'), a rivulet 
in Ardchattan parish, Argyll.shire, rising at an altitude 
of 1100 feet, and running 4^ miles north-north-westward 
along Glen Salloch and tlirough the woods of Bak- 
CALUINK, to Loch Creran. — Ord. Sur., sh. 45, 1876. 

Demconner, a large village of recent growth in Auchin- 
leck paiisii, Ayrshire. At it arc a Church of Scotland 
mission station (1874) and a public school. Pop. (1871) 
928, (1881) 14.35. 

Demock. See Darnock. 


Deny or Loch an Dithreibh, a lake in the S of Tongue 
parish, Sutherland, 6;^ miles SSW of Tongue church. 
Lying 268 feet above sea-level, it is 1^ mile long and 5 
furlongs wide, sends ott' the Kinloch to the head of the 
Kyle of Tongue, and abounds in yellow trout. — Ord. 
Sur., shs. 114, 108, 1880. 

Derry, a burn of Crathie and Braemar parish, SW 
Aberdeenshire, issuing from Loch Etciiachan (1320 
feet), on the NE side of Ben Macdhui, and running 6^ 
miles east-south-eastward and southward, till it falls into 
Lui Water at Derry Lodge (1386 feet), 9 miles WNW of 
Castleton. The ordinary ascent of Ben Macdhui is up 
Glen Derry, which the Queen in her Journal describes as 
' very fine, with the remnants of a splendid forest, 
Derry Cairngorm (3788 feet) being to the right, and 
Derry Water running below.' — Ord. Siir., shs. 64, 65, 

Dervaig, a village, with public and girls' schools, in 
Kilniniau parish. Mull island, Argyllshire, at the head 
of Loch Cuan, 8f miles WSW of Tobermory. 

Derval. See Darvel. 

Deskford, a village and a parish in the N of Banff- 
shire. The village, Kirktown of Deskford, stands on 
the left bank of the Burn of Deskford, 4 miles S of 
Cullen, like Mhich it has a post ofiice under Fochabers. 

Bounded NE and E by Fordyce, S by Grange, and NW 
and N by Rathven, the parish has an utmost length from 
NNE to SSW of 4J miles, an utmost breadth of 3 
miles, and an area of 8170 acres, of which 15 are water. 
Deskford Burn, with a north-north-easterly course 
here of 5| miles, divides the parish into two pretty 
equal halves ; and the surface, sinking at the northern 
extremity to close on 100 feet above sea-level, thence 
rises southward to 353 feet at the wooded Gallows 
Knowe, 556 at Cotton Hill, 504 at Weston, 845 at the 
Hill of Clashmadin, 871 at Black Hill, and 1028 at 
Lurg Hill, whose summit, however, falls just within 
Grange. Numerous small cascades occur on the Desk- 
ford's affluents, one of them, called the Linn, being a series 
of leaps with total fall of 30 feet, and with surroundings 
of high beauty. The rocks, having undergone great 
geognostic disturbance, include almost vertical strata of 
mica slate, with fragments of quartz embedded therein, 
and a rich bed of fine compact limestone, which has been 
largely worked. The soil, in the strath, is chiefly loam 
resting on strong deep clay ; but, toward the hills, is 
light, black, mossy humus, overlying clay and gravel. 
About one-third of the entire area is either regularly or 
occasionally in tillage ; some 600 acres are under wood, 
either natural or planted ; and the rest is either pasture 
or waste. This parish has long been the property of 
the Earls of Findlater and Seafield ; and Deskford 
Tower, which, standing near the village, was demolished 
within this century, was the ancient family seat. Skeith 
Castle, once also a striking feature, has left no vestiges ; 
and another venerable edifice, probably baronial, but 
possibly ecclesiastical, stood in the garden of Inalterie 
farmhouse, and is now represented by only a vault. 
A curious relic, found about 1816 in a mossy knoll 
adjacent to that old vault, con.sisted of brass some- 
what in the form and of the size of a swine's head, 
with a wooden tongue moved by springs, and with 
tolerably e.xact representations of eyes ; it is now in the 
museum of the Banft' Scientific Institution. Deskford 
is in the presbytery of Fordyce and synod of Aberdeen ; 
the living is worth £355. A new parish church. Pointed 
Gothic in style, was built in 1872 at a cost of £1000, 
and contains 500 sittings. There is also a Free church ; 
and a new public school, erected in 1876 at a cost of 
£1182, with accommodation for 162 children, had (1880) 
an average attendance of 111, and a grant of £97, 8s. 6d. 
Valuation (1882) £4441, 8s. Pop. (1801) 610, (1831) 
828, (1861) 1031, (1871) 972, (1881) 849.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 96, 1876. 

Deskford or Cullen Bum, a rapid, deep-channelled 
stream of Banffshire, rising in the S of Deskfoid parish, 
and tiience winding 7^ miles north-eastward-north, 
north-westward, and again north-eastward till it falls 
into the Moray Firth at Cullen Bay. 



Deskry, a rivulet of SW Aberdeenshire, rising, at an 
altitude of ISOO feet, on the western shoulder of Morven 
Hill (2862 feet); close to the meeting-point of Glenniuiek, 
Logie-Coldstone, and Strathdon parislies. Thence it 
\sinds 10 miles north-north-eastward and west-south- 
westward, between Logie-Coldstono and Strathdon par- 
ishes, across the Migvie district of Tarland parish, and 
between that district and Towie parish, till it falls into 
the Don i mile E of Castle-Newe. Its trout are small 
but excellent. — Onl. Sur., sh. 75, 1876. 

Dess, a station in the NE of Aboyne parish, Aber- 
deenshire, on the Deeside railway, 3 miles NE of Aboyne 

Deuchar, an estate, with a mansion, in Fearn parisli, 
Forfarshire, S miles W by N of Brechin. 

Deuchar. See Yarrow. 

Deugh, a stream of Carsphairn parish, N Kirkcud- 
brightshire, rising on the eastern slope (2000 feet) of 
Windy Standard, and thence curving 5 miles westward 
along the Ayrshire border, next 15 miles southward, 
east-south-eastward, and southward again through the 
interior, till, at the SE angle of the parish, and at a 
point 7 miles NNW of New Galloway, it falls into the 
Ken, after a descent of 1620 feet. — Ord. Sur,, shs. 15, 
14, 8, 9, 1863-64. 

Devar. See Davaee. 

Deveron or Doveran (Gael, da-abhuinn, 'double 
river'), a river of Aberdeen and Banft' shires, rising in 
two main head-streams — whence the name — among the 
mountains of Cabrach, the longer of the two having its 
source on the mutual border of Cabrach and Glenbucket 
parishes, 3 miles SW of the summit of the Buck of Cab- 
rach (2368 feet). Thence it has a total course of 61g miles, 
viz., 25^ from its source to the Bridge of Gibston near 
Huntly, 24 thence to Eastside Bridge near Turriff, and 
12§ thence to its mouth ; and during this course it de- 
scends from 1847 feet above sea-level at its source to 414 
near Huntly and 114 near Turriff. It partly winds along 
in serpentine folds, but, on the whole, goes north-east- 
ward to the influx of the Bogie below Huntly, northward 
thence to Rothiemay, eastward or east-north-eastward 
thence to the vicinity of Turriff, and northward thence 
to the Moray Firth. Its connections with respectively 
Aberdeenshire and Banffshire are so fitful, leading it 
now into the one county, now into the other, now along 
the boundary between the two, as to render it more a 
pjuzzler than an expounder in political topography ; yet, 
in one long sweep, from above Glass church to the 
vicinity of Rothiemay church, it runs entirely mthin 
Aberdeenshire ; and over another long sweep, from a 
point 4 mUes AVSW of Turriff' to its mouth at the Moray 
FirtL, it roughly traces the boundary line between the 
shires. The parishes immediately watered by it, 
whether through their interior or along their confines, 
are Cabrach, Glass, Huntly, Cairnie, Fordyce, Rothie- 
may, ilarnoch, Inverkeithny, Turriff', Forglen, Alvah, 
King-Edward, Banff, and Gamrie. The river, in the 
upper part of its course, is a mountain stream, careering 
along a series of glens, always rapid, sometimes impetuous, 
and occasionally subject to tremendous freshets. All 
the bridges on it above Huntly were swept away by the 
great flood of Aug. 1829, when at Huntly it rose 22 
feet above its ordinary level. But its march, in the 
middle and lower parts of its course, is tranquil and 
beautiful, through fertile plains, amid brilliant em- 
bellishments of wood and mansion, with several stretches 
of close scenery as exquisitely fine, in both nature and 
art, as almost any in Great Britain. The fertility of 
its banks, like that of the banks of the Don, is celebrated 
in both proverb and song. Its chief tributary, besides 
the Blackwater and Bogie, is the Isla, which joins it a 
little above Rothiemay. The Deveron, thence to tlie 
sea, is about two-thirds the size of the Don. Well 
stocked \vith salmon and trout, it is mostly preserved, 
except about Huntly ; and it has bag-net fisheries on 
either side of its mouth, extending into the sea. A 
shifting bar here varies with gales of wind, and under- 
went such change in 1834 as first to close entirely the 
former mouth, and next to lay open a new one 600 

yards further to the E ; hence disputes have arisen 
among the cruive owners as to the line of the river's 
bed. The salmon fishings up the river belong chiefly to 
the Earl of Fife, partly also to Abercromby of Forglen 
and Gordon of ]\layen ; those at its mouth belong partly 
to the Earl, partly to the town of Banff. — Ord. Sni:, 
shs. 75, 85, 86, 96, 1876. See chap. xxi. of Sir Thomas 
Dick Lauder's Moray Floods (Elgin, 1830 ; 3d ed. 1873). 

Devil's Cauldron, an ancient circular structure in 
Kingarth parish. Isle of Bute, a little AV of the head of 
Kilchattan Bay, and 7 miles S of Rothesay. It is 
situated within a grove, not far from the ruins of St 
Blank's Chapel, of which it was an appendage and ^^'ith 
wiiich it probably communicated by a subterranean 
passage. It consists of a dry-stone wall, 10 feet thick 
and 74 feet high, enclosing a space 30 feet in diameter, 
with an entrance from the E ; and it is said to have been 
used, in pre-Reformation times, as a place of penance. 

Devil's Cauldron, a wild and very romantic chasm, 
on the mutual boundary of Comrie and ilonzievaird 
parishes, Perthshire, 11 mile N of Comrie village. Led- 
nock Water traverses it ; and ' the stream, after cutting 
its path through a black crag, the sides of which it has 
polished to the appearance of ebony, throws itself im- 
petuously into a basin, where it hisses, and foams, and 
shrieks, and writhes, like a demon newly plunged into 
Tartarus. ' 

Devil's Cowe, a cave in Kincraig Hill, at the south- 
western extremity of Kilconquhar parish, Fife. 

Devil's Dike. See Deil's Dike. 

Devil's Mill, a waterfall on the mutual boundary of 
Perthshire and Kinross-shire, on the river Devon, about 
350 yards ENE of Ruml:>ling-Bridge, and IJ mile WSW 
of Crook of Devon. The river here, after rushing along 
a craggy ravine, and passing into a chasm of consider- 
able length but scarcely 6 feet in Avidth, falls over a 
rock into a deep cavity, where it is tossed round with 
such great violence as to beat constantly on the rocky 
sides of the chasm, and cause a clacking noise like 
that of a mill at work. The waterfall is not seen ; but, 
in ordinary states of the river, when neither too low 
by draught, nor too high by freshet, the noise is very 
distinctly heard. A common reason given by the 
country people for the name Devil's Mill is, that the 
noise continues on all days alike, paying no regard to 
Sunday ; but another reason given is, that the scene and 
working of the waterfall are indicative of a grinding to 
destruction. A cavern, called the Pigeon's Cave, is near 
the waterfall. 

Devil's Staircase, an abruptly declivitous byroad on 
the N border of Argyllshire, deflecting from the high- 
way at the head of Glencoe, 3 miles W of King's House. 
It descends northward to the head of Loch Leven, and 
communicates there with an old road north-north- 
westward to Fort William. 

Devol's Glen, a ravine, traversed by a brook, in Green- 
ock and Port Glasgow parishes, Renfrewshire. Com- 
mencing among hills 794 and 682 feet high, and descend- 
ing 2J miles north-eastward to the E end of Port 
Glasgow town, it is rocky, wooded, and romantic. It 
is flanked, near the head, by a precipice, called Wallace's 
Leap, over which Sir William Wallace is fabled to have 
leaped on horseback; and it contains two beautiful 
though tiny waterfalls, respectively about 20 feet and 
about 100 feet in leap. 

Devon, a river of Perth, Kinross, Clackmannan, and 
Stirling shires, rising among the Ochils in the N of 
Alva parisli, at an altitude of ISOO feet, and 9 furlongs 
WNW of tlie summit of Bencleuch. Thence it winds 14 
miles north-eastward, eastward, and south-eastward to 
the Crook of Devox, and thence again 191 west-south- 
westward, till, after a total course of 33f miles, it falls 
into the Forth at Cambus, 2| miles W by N of Alloa, 
and only 5:^ miles in a straight line SSW of its source. 
During this course it traverses or bounds the parishes of 
Alva, Blackford, Tillicoultry, Glendevon, Fossoway, 
Muckhart, Dollar, Tillicoultry, Alva, Logic, and Alloa. 
The last song written liy Burns, written as he lay dying 
at Brow (12 Jidy 1796), was, 'Fairest maid on Devon 


banks, Crystal Devon, -windinf; Devon ' — the maid, that 
Charlotte "Hamilton of Mauchline, whom he had seen at 
Harviestoun nine years before, and then had celebrated 
in another most exquisite lyric — 

' How pleasant the banks of the clear winding Devon, 

With green spreading bushes, and flowers bloominj fair ! 
But the bonniest flower on the banks of the Devon 
Was once a s\veet bud from the banks of the Ayr.' 

Others than Bums have sung of the beauties of the 
Devon and its valley, shown at their best in a long 
reach below the Crook of Devon, where the stream 
traverses a series of ravines and chasms, and makes 
the famous falls described in our articles Devil's Mill, 
Rumbling-Bridge, and Caldron Linn. The cliffs that 
riank its chasms and ravines are of no great height, 
nowhere exceeding much 100 feet ; but they acquire 
aspects of sublimity and savageness from the narrow- 
ness and gloom of the spaces which they enclose, and 
aspects of picturesqueness and witchery from copsewood, 
herbage, and overshado\ving woods. The river's aggre- 
gate descent, from source to mouth., is close upon ISOO 
feet, and its basin is so ramified among nearly all the 
southern and south-western Ochils as sometimes to send 
down freshets to the plains, with the suddenness and 
volume of a waterspout. The river is not navigable, 
yet, according to a survey made by James Watt in 1760, 
it could be rendered navigable for several miles at a cost 
of about £2000. It is a capital trouting stream, every- 
where open to the public ; its trout average rather less 
than 4 lb. each. The Stirling and Dunfermline rail- 
way crosses it, near the mouth, on a viaduct partly sup- 
ported by piers, partly suspended on strong timber 
beams ; and the Devon Valley railway follows it from 
its lower waters upward to Crook of Devon. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 39, 40, 1869-67. 

Devon, Black or South, a small river of Fife and 
Clackmannanshu-e, rising on Outh Muir (900 feet) 
in the N of Dunfermline parish, 7 furlongs WSW of 
Duraglow, the highest of the Cleish HUls, and thence 
running 15^ miles westward and south-westward through 
and along the borders of Saline and Clackmannan 
parishes, till it falls into the Forth, IJ mile SE of 
Alloa. It has very small volume in droughty seasons, 
most of its waters being then collected in dams or 
reservoirs for driving mills ; it takes the name of 
Black Devon from the gloomy appearance of its waters ; 
and it contains some pike and little trout. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 40, 39, 1867-69. 

Devon, Crook of. See Crook of Devon. 

Devon Iron-works, an extensive establishment in the 
Sauchie section of Clackmannan parish, Clackmannan- 
shire, near the left bank of the Devon, 2^ miles NNE 
of Alloa. Including three furnaces and a large foundry, 
it turns out 6000 tons of pig-iron in the year, and con- 
verts a considerable portion thereof into cast-iron goods ; 
and it communicates, by one railway with Alloa Har- 
bour, by another with Clackmannan Pow at the mouth 
of the Black Devon. 

Devonshaw, a hill (1275 feet) in Lamington and 
"Wandel parish, Lanarkshire, on the right bank of the 
Clyde, opposite Roberton village. Its SW shoulder is 
crowned with an ancient circular camp. 

Devonside, a village in Tillicoultry parish, Clackman- 
nanshire, -J mile SSE of Tillicoultry town. It adjoins 
a brick and tile work, and is near a coal mine. Fop., 
with Langan. (1881) 555. 

Devon Valley Railway, a railway in Clackmannan, 
Perth, and Kinross shires, partly along the middle 
reaches of the river Devon, and thence deriving its 
distinctive name. A reach of 3^ miles north-east- 
ward, from a junction with tlie Stirling and Dunfermline 
railway at Alloa to Tillicoultry, is practically a portion 
of the line, but was opened in 1851, prior to any part 
of the line proper, as a branch of the Stirling and Dun- 
fermline railway. The Devon Valley line proper, extend- 
ing from a junction with that branch at Tillicoultry 
east-north-eastward to a junction with the Fife and Kin- 
ross railway, in the vicinity of Kinross, was originally 
projected in 1857, and authorised in 1858, on a capital of 


£90,000 in shares and £30,000 in loans. It was formed, 
under the original authority, only from Rumbling- 
Bridge to Kinross Junction ; the rest being formed, in 
two successive reaches, under connection from 1866 with 
the North British system. The reach from Rumbling- 
Bridge to Kinross is 6i miles long, was opened on 1 May 
1863, traverses a level district, and has no works of 
more than ordinary consequence except a rock cutting 
at Rumbling-Bridge. The reach from Tillicoultry to 
Dollar is 2^- miles long ; was begun to be formed in 
1867, and completed in May 1869 ; and also has no 
works of more than ordinary consequence. The reach 
from Dollar to Rumbling-Bridge is 4^ miles long ; was 
begun to be formed in 1869, and opened on 1 May 
1871 ; has several works of very heavy character ; and 
rises to a summit-level of 320 feet above the elevation 
of its starting-point at Dollar. An embankment on 
it contiguous to Dollar is 40 feet high and more than 
900 yards long. A viaduct over the Devon is 52 feet 
high and 390 "feet long; has six arches, each of from 
49 to 55 feet in span ; and curves on a radius of 30 
chains. A cutting at Arndean is 80 feet deep at the 
deepest part, and involved the removal of about 180,000 
cubic yards of sand. A viaduct in Gairnej^ Glen is 110 
feet high and 360 feet long ; has six arches each 45 feet 
in span ; and occupies a most picturesque position. Ten 
other small viaducts and seven overarching bridges 
occur between Dollar and Rumbling-Bridge. Since 1 
Jan. 1875 the Devon Valley has been amalgamated ^vith 
the North British. 

Dewar, a hamlet in Heriot parish, Edinburghshire, 6J 
miles S of Middleton. Dewar farm, adjacent to the 
hamlet, contains a spot called the Piper's Grave, tradi- 
tionally associated with a foolish and fatal exploit of a 
Peebles piper ; and Dewar Hill, not far therefrom, is 
crowned with a remarkable large stone, called Lot's Wife. 

Dewarton, a village on Vogrie estate, in Borthwick 
parish, Edinburghshire, li mile W of Ford. 

Dews, a small marsh}' lake in Fetteresso parish, Kin- 
cardineshire. It once was of considerable extent, but 
has become exceedingly reduced, and it is so occupied 
with aquatic plants as to be sometimes called Lily Loch. 

Dheirrig or Eilean Dearg (Gael. ' red island '), an 
islet of Inverchaolain parish, Argyllshire, the furthest 
of a small group in the mouth of Loch Riddon, at the 
elbow of the Kyles of Bute, 2\ miles NW of Coliutraive. 
It is crowned by ruins of a fort, erected by Archibald, 
ninth Earl of Argyll, in 1685, during his disastrous 
expedition from the Netherlands. 

DMvach. See Divach. 

Dhruim, a river-gorge in Kilmorack parish, Inverness- 
shire, extending about 2 or 3 miles south-westward from 
Kilmorack church, and traversed by the river Beauly. 
It is flanked by steep mountain acclivities, clothed with 
birch and pine ; is fringed, along the river's brinks, by 
rows of oaks, alders, and weeping birches ; is swept, 
along the bottom, by a series of cascades over shelving 
masses of red sandstone ; and has, altogether, a roman- 
tically picturesque character. 

Dhu. See Bexdhu. 

Dhu or Dubh Loch (Gael. ' black lake '), a wild moun- 
tain lake in the SW of Glenmuick parish, Aberdeenshire, 
If mile AV of the head of Loch Muick, to which it sends 
otf the Allt an Dubh-loch. Lpng 2091 feet above sea- 
level, it has an utmost length and breadth of 5J and 1 J 
furlongs, and is overhung to the S by Cairn Bannoch 
(3314 feet) and Broad Cairn (3268), which culminate 
just on the Forfarshire border. Here, on 16 Sept. 1852, 
the Queen received confirmation of the death of the 
Duke of Wellington.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 65, 1870. 

Dhuheartach, a rocky basaltic islet of Argyllshire, 
15i miles SW of lona. Lying fully exposed to the 
Atlantic, it is 240 feet long, 130 broad, and 35 high, 
and was surmounted in 1867-72 by a lighthouse rising 
143 feet above high-water level. The lighthouse is a 
parabolic frustum, and was built of granite (quarried and 
dressed at Carraid, on the shore of the Sound of lona, and 
landed with great difficulty on the rock. Only 27 days 
in 1867, 38 days in 1868, 59 days in 1869, and 62 days 


in 1870 were sufficiently calm to permit the landing of 
the materials. The light, which is visible for ISi 
nautical miles, is fixed white, except between S by W 
i W, and ^Y ^ N, where it is fixed red. See the Builder 
for Feb. 2, 1S72, and May 6, 1876. 

Dhuisk or Dusk, a rivulet of Colmonell parish, in the 
S of Carrick, Ayrshire. Formed by the Feoch and 
Pollgowau Burns, at a point 1 J mile ESE of Barrhill 
village, it thence runs 6 miles north-westward, closely 
followed by the Girvan and Portpatrick railway, till 
near Pin wherry station it falls into the Stinchar. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 8, 7, 1863. 

Dibaig, a hamlet, with a public school, near the 
mutual boundary of Applecross and Gairloch parishes, 

Dichmont, a hill-summit in St Vigeans parish, Forfar- 
shire, 1 mile NE of St Vigeans village. It rises to an 
altitude of 323 feet above sea-level, and is cro\\nied with 
a large hollow cairn or mound, anciently used as a seat 
of justice, and now clothed with greensward. 

Dichty or Dighty Water, a stream of S Forfarshire. 
Rising in four head-streams, among the Sidlaw Hills, in 
the W of Lundie parish, it runs 15 miles east-south- 
eastward through Auchterhouse, Mains and Strathmar- 
tine, Dundee, and Monifieth parishes ; receives, within 
Dundee parish, the tribute of Fithie ^Yater ; and falls 
into the Firth of Tay 1| mile ENE of Brouglity Ferry. 
It drives several mills in the middle and lower parts of 
its course, and is well stocked with trout. — Orel. Sur. , 
shs. 48, 49, 1868-65. 

Digmore, a small harbour in Xorth Uist island. Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire, on Balranald farm, towards 
the middle of the island. 

Dildawn. See Daldawx. 

Dillarbum, a village in Lesmahagow parish, Lanark- 
shire, 1^ mile NXE of Abbeygi-een. 

Dilty, a morass in Carmylie and Guthrie parishes, 
Forfarshire, 1^ mile ESE of Kirkbuddo station. Measur- 
ing about \ mile either way, it sends off two streamlets 
in opposite directions — the head-stream of the Elliot 
running eastward directly to the sea, and a tributary 
streamlet running westward to the river Dean. 

Dinart. See Durxess. 

Dingwall (Scand. 'hill of justice'), a town and a 
parish of SE Ross-shire. A royal and parliamentary 
burgh, the town stands on the north-western shore, and 
a little below the head, of Cromarty Firth, which here 
is joined by the PefFer ; by road it is 13J miles NW of 
Inverness via Kessoek Ferry, and by rail, as junction of 
the Dingwall and Skye railway (1870) with the main 
Highland line (1862), 53 EXE of Strome Ferry, 82| 
SW V.y S of Helmsdale, 18^ NW of Inverness, 210^ 
NNW of Edinburgh, and 226J N by W of Glasgow. 
The beautifully-wooded plain on which it stands was 
once a swampy marsh, but since 1817 thorough drainage 
and spirited agriculture have made it one of the loveliest 
valleys in the N of Scotland. The burgh, lying snugly 
among rich clumps of trees, at the entrance of Strath 
PefFer, chiefly consists of one main street, a mile in 
length ; and, while the majority of its houses are irre- 
gularly disposed and unpretentious architecturally, still 
there are several very handsome residences, most of 
which have sprung up within the past thirty years. 
Yet Dingwall is a place of hoar antiquity, the county 
town, having arisen under the shelter of the neighbour- 
ing castle of the Earls of Ross, which, built close beside 
the Firth, was almost surrounded by water, but now has 
left hardly a vestige, its site being partly occupied by a 
modern mansion. The To\\'n -house is a curious old- 
fashioned edifice, with a spire ; the County Buildings, a 
handsome castellated pile a little way E of the town, 
were erected in 1845 at a cost of £5000, and contain a 
court-house, county rooms, and a prison with eighteen 
cells. A public hall was built in 1871 ; and a cottage 
hospital, H-shaped in plan, in 1872-73, as a memorial 
to the late Dr "William Ross. Near the church is a 
plain and simple obelisk, 6 feet S(j[uare at the base, and 
57 feet high, but thrown slightly oft' the perpendicular 
by an earthq^uake of 1816 j in 1875 it ijroved upon 


exploration to mark the resting-place of its founder, 
George Mackenzie, the celebrated first Earl of Cromartie 
(1630-1714). The parish church itself, with a steeple 
and 800 sittings, was built in 1801 ; the present hand- 
some Free church in 1869 ; and the Episcopal church of 
St James, an Early Decorated structure with 120 sittings, 
in 1872, its predecessor having been destroyed by fire 
the year before. In 1874 a public park, adjoining the 
Beauly road, was gifted to the burgh by the late Sir 
James Matheson, Bart, of the Lews, who had at one 
time been provost ; and Dingwall besides has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, and 
railway telegraph departments, branches of the Bank of 
Scotland and the Caledonian and National banks, 21 
insurance agencies, 3 hotels, gas-works, a masonic lodge, 
a literary association, militia barracks, a poorhouse, and 
a Friday paper, the Ross-shire Journal (1875). A corn 
market is held on every Wednesday from 26 September 
to 30 Jilay, and the following are the fairs throughout 
the year : — New Year Market, third Wednesday of 
January ; Candlemas (cattle and produce), do. of Febru- 
ary ; Janet's, first Wednesday of June ; Colin's (cattle, 
etc. ), first Tuesday of July ; Fell Maree, first Wednesday 
of September ; Martha's, do. of November ; and Peffer, 
Tuesday before Christmas. After the forfeiture of the 
Earls of Ross in 1476 Dingwall seems to have gone down 
in the world ; and its petition of 1724 to the Convention 
of Burghs sets forth that ' the town is almost turned 
desolate, as is weel known to all our neighbours, and 
there is hardly anything to be seen but the ruins of old 
houses, and the few inhabitants that are left, having now 
no manner of trade, live only by labouring the neigh- 
bouring lands, and our inhabitants are still daily de- 
serting us.' Accordingly, in 1733, Inverness sent a 
deputation, which brought back word that Dingwall 
had no trade, though one or two were inclined to carry 
on trade if they had a harbour, also that it had no 
prison, and that for want of a bridge across an adjacent 
lake the people were kept from both kirk and market. 
Now, though its trade is still not very great, and 
though manufactures are conspicuous by their absence, 
Dingwall at least has a harbour. A mile below the 
bridge coasters had once to load and unload on the mud 
at low-water, their cargoes being carried along a bad road 
to and from the E end of the town. This inconvenience 
was remedied by shaping the lower reach of the Pefi^er into 
a regular canal, 2000 yards long, with two wharfs at 
which vessels of 9 feet draught can lie — such improve- 
ments being carried out in 1815-17 at a cost of £4365, of 
which £1786 was furnished by the Highland road commis- 
sioners and £600 by the Convention of Burghs. Erected 

Seal of Dingwall. 

into a royal burgh by Alexander II. in 1226, and having 
adopted the General Police and Improvement Act of 
1862, Dingwall is governed by a provost, a senior and a 
junior bailie, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 10 coun- 
cillors, who also act as police commissioners. With 
Wick and four other burghs, it returns a member to 



parliament, its municipal and parliamentary con^9ti- 
tuency numbering 229 in 1882, when the annual value 
of real property, exclusive of railway, was £7533, whilst 
the cori)oratiou revenue for ISSl was £152, and the har- 
bour revenue £210. Pop. (1841) 1739, (1S51) 1966, 
(1861) 2099, (1871) 2125, (1S81) 1918. Inhabited houses 
(ISSl) 351. 

The parish is bounded N and NE by Kiltearn, SE by 
the head of Cromarty Firth and by the river Conan, 
separating it from the Nairnshire district of Ferintosh, 
S by the Tollie section of Fodderty and by Urray, and 
SW by the main body of Fodderty. It has an utmost 
length of 61 miles from NNW to SSE, and its width 
varies between 9 J furlongs and 4| mUes, whilst tapering 
north-westward to a point. The Peffer winds 2J miles 
east-south-eastward along the Fodderty border and 
through the interior to the Firth ; the Skiach runs 1| 
mile north-eastward across the northern interior ; and 
Loch Ussie (6i x 43 furl.) lies at an altitude of 419 feet, 
partly within a western projecting wing. Except for 
the low level stiip, 3 furlongs wide, between the Firth 
and the Inverness highroad, and for a portion of Strath 
Peffer, the surface is everywhere hilly, even mountainous, 
from S to N attaining 259 feet near Blackwells, * 628 
near Croftandrum, *SS2at Cnoc Mor, *450 at Knock- 
bain, 1109 at Cnoc a' Bhreac, and * 2000 at Meall na 
Speireig, those heights that culminate on the parish's 
borders being marked with asterisks, and one and all 
being dominated by Ben Wytis (3429 feet). The rocks 
are gneiss and mica slate in the northern uplands, and 
in the S conglomerate and Old Ked sandstone. Around 
the town there is a deep deposit of loam with a large 
admixture of clay, very suitable for the growth of wheat, 
but demanding great care in the cultivation ; the soil 
on the lower slopes of the rising-grounds is also clayey ; 
and the higher cultivated laud is mountain clay or 
moorish soil, the former becoming very fertile Avith long- 
continued good treatment, the latter very difficult to 
improve (Mr James Macdonald in Trans. Higlil. and Ag. 
Soc, 1877). In the N are remains of an ancient Cale- 
donian stone circle. Tulloch Castle is the chief man- 
sion ; and 2 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 12 of between £100 and £500, 21 of 
from £50 to £100, and 26 of from £20 to £50. Ding- 
wall is the seat of a presbytery in the synod of Ross ; 
the living is worth £436. A public school, with accom- 
modation for 360 children, had (1880) an average attend- 
ance of 222, and a gi-ant of £177, 3s. Valuation (1881) 
£4992, 18s. 2d., of which £2654 was held by Duncan 
Davidson, Esq. of Tulloch. Pop. (1801) 1418, (1831) 
2124, (1861) 2412, (1871) 2443, (1881) 2211.— Ord. Sur., 
shs. 83, 93, 1881. 

The presbyterj- of Ding^\-all comprises the old parishes 
of Alness, Contin, Dingwall, Fodderty, Kilmorack, Kil- 
tearn, Urquhart, and Urray and Kilchrist, and the quoad 
sacra parishes of Carnoch and Kinlochluichart. Pop. 
(1871) 16,562, (1881) 15,517, of whom 330 were com- 
municants of the Church of Scotland in 1S78. — The Free 
Church also has a presbj-tery of Dingwall, with churches 
at Alness, Dingwall, Fodderty, Garve, Kilmorack, 
Kiltearn, Maryburgh, Stiathconon, Unjuhart, and Urray, 
which together had 4351 members and adherents in 

Dingwall and Skye Railway, The, designed to open 
up to railway facilities the western coasts of Eoss and 
Inverness, and by means of steamers to afford access to 
the principal islands of the Outer and Inner Hebrides, 
was originally projected to reach Kyle Akin (the Strait 
of Haco), where the island of Skye is separated from the 
mainland by a narrow channel. A bill for a line to this 
point was obtained in 1864, but the difficulty of raising 
the capital caused the adoption of a modified schema, 
carrj-ing the line to its present western terminus on Loch 
Carron. The railway, branching from the Highland line 
at Dingwall, rises a short distance therefrom upon a steep 
incline, on which is situated the first station, Strathpefl'er 
(4^ miles). This station occupies a remarkably elevated 
position, the famous spa that gives it name beiiK; situated 
IJ mile away iu the deep valley below. The view from 


this portion of the line is magnificent ; prominent amongst 
the objects of interest being Castle-Leod, belonging to 
the Duchess of Sutherland (Countess of Cromartie in her 
own right), which is seen in the midst of fine trees. 
After leaving Strathpeffer, the line passes through a 
cutting close vmder Craig -an- fhitaich, the ' Raven's 
Rock,' whose precipitous face, 250 feet high, beetles 
ominously over the railway. Half-a-mile further the line 
enters Ross-shire, and passes Loch Garve, the first of a 
series of fine lochs wliich skirt the route. The shores 
are nicely wooded. The station of Garve (II5 mUes) 
forms the starting-point for Lochbroom and Ullapool 
by a wild coach road over the Biridh More. The line 
afterwards passes Loch Luichart, where there is a station 
(17 miles), and the Grudie, Loch C'uUiu, and Strathbran 
aflbrd varying aspects of Highland scenerj'. Achanault 
station (21;| miles) is a favourite starting-point for the 
ascent of a number of the giant mountains of Ross-shire. 
Auchnasheen station (27$ miles) is the starting-point 
for the coach to Gairloch, the road passing along the 
whole length of Loch Maree, and forming one of the 
finest drives in Scotland. Beyond Auchnasheen the 
line, after crossing the Bran on a fine lattice bridge, 
reaches its summit-level, and immediately begins to 
descend to the western coast. There is here some re- 
markably Mild and bleak scenery ; and at Auchnashel- 
lach, the shooting-lodge of Lord Wimbome, suiTOunded 
by fine grounds, appears like an oasis iu the desert. 
The line then skirts Loch Dougall, 4 miles in length, 
with vast precipitous hills rising from it. Strathcarron 
station (45| miles) at the head of Loch Carron is next 
reached, forming the station for Janetown on the op- 
posite side of the loch, and for the wild region of Loch 
Torridon. From Attadale, the line skirts the upper 
waters of Loch Carron, and reaches its terminus at Strome 
Ferry (53 miles). The line was cheaply constructed, 
the principal works being the cutting above Strathpefl'er 
and a few large bridges. The total capital expenditure 
amounted to £330,000. In 1881 the line was amalga- 
mated with the Highland railwaj-. In the winter of 
the same year high tides damaged tlie line, which sub- 
sequently was blocked by a heavy fall of rock, these inter- 
ruptions occurring between Attadale and Strome Ferry ; 
and the traffic was on both occasions interrupted for a 
number of daj-s. 

Dingy's How, an ancient tumulus 36 feet high on the 
isthmus at the southern extremity of St Andrews pai-ish, 

Dinlabyre, an ancient chapelry in Castleton parish, 
Roxburghshire, on the left bank of Liddel Water, 1 mile 
SSE of Steele Road station. An old-fashioned mansion, 
now a farm-house, occupies the site of its chapel. 

Diimiurchie. See Bakr. 

Dinnet, a station, a burn, and a moor of S Aberdeen- 
shire. The station is on the Deeside section of the 
Great North of Scotland railway, 4^ miles W of AbojTie. 
The burn, issuing from Loch Daven, and receiving also 
the effluence of Loch Kinord, runs 2^ miles south-east- 
ward along the boundary between Aboyne and Glen- 
muick parishes, falls into the Dee in the vicinity of 
the station, and may be regarded as the line of demar- 
cation between the Lowlands and Highlands of Dee- 
side. The moor flanks the W bank of the burn, is a 
bleak dismal tract, and contains several cairns and 
several vestiges of ancient warfare. Near the station is 
a Gothic church, built in 1875 at a cost of £700 as 
a chapel of ease to Aboyne, and raised to quoad sacra 
status in 1881. 

Dinwoodie, a station in Applegarth parish, Annan- 
dale, Dumfriesshire, on the Caledonian railway, 6 miles 
NNW of Lockerbie. Dinwoodie Hill (871 feet), IJ 
mile to the ENE, is crowned with two hill-forts ; and 
on its SE slope is the graveyard of a chapel, said to have 
belonged to the Knights Templars. 

Dionard. See Durxess. 

Dippen, an estate, with a mansion, in SaddtU parish, 
E Kintyre, Argyllshire, close to Carradale village. 

Dippin, a grandly mural headland on the SE coast of 
Arran island, Buteshire, 1^ mile NE of Kildonan Castlo, 



and 4 miles S by "W of tlie southern entrance of Lamlasli 
Bay. A range of precipice 300 feet high, it rises 
sheer from the water's edge ; is leapt by a brook, in a 
curve of spray, to the sea ; and forms a very conspicuous 
landmark to mariners. 

Dipple, an ancient parish of NE Elginshire, on the 
left bank of the river Spey, opposite Fochabers. It was 
united with Essil in 1731 to form Speyraouth ' parish. 
Its church was dedicated to the Holy Ghost ; and at its 
lychgate stood a small building known as ' The House 
of the Holy Ghost.' Around this building funeral 
parties would always bear the corpse, following the course 
of the sun ; nor could they be driven from that practice 
till the house was demolished. 

Dippool Water, a rivulet of Carnwath parish, E 
Lanarkshire, rising near the Edinburghshire border at 
an altitude of 1050 feet above sea-level, and running 7^ 
miles south-south-westward, till it falls into Mouse 
"Water, 2 miles NNW of Carstairs Junction. Its waters 
contain good store of line large trout. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
23, 1S65. 

Dirie or Dirrie More, a desolate mountain pass in 
Lochbroom parish, central Koss-shire, on the road from 
Dingwall to Ullapool. On the watershed between the 
Atlantic and German Oceans, it attains its maximum 
altitude (909 feet) near the head of Loch Droma, 161 
miles NW of Garve station, and 3J miles SSE of the 
summit of Ben Dearg (3547 feet). — Ord. Sur., sh. 92, 

Dirleton, a village and a coast parish of N Hadding- 
tonshire. The village stands, towards the middle of the 
parish, 2| miles WSW of North Berwick, and 1^ mile 
NW of Dirleton station, this being 2| miles NNE of 
Drem, imder which Diideton has a post office. One of the 
prettiest villages in Scotland, it chiefly consists of neat 
modern cottages, each with its plot of flowers and shrubs, 
arranged along two sides of a large triangular green, on 
whose third or south-eastern side the ivy-clad ruins of 
Dirleton Castle stand amidst gardens of singular beauty, 
their bowling-green adorned with grand old evergi-een 
oaks. This seems to be the identical stronghold that in 
1298 offered a stubborn though fruitless resistance to 
Anthony Beck, the fighting Bishop of Durham ; its 
ruinous state is due in great measure to the ordnance of 
Monk and Lambert, who, in 1650, captured it from a 
garrison of mosstroopers, hanging their captain and 
two of his followers. The parish church, at the N end 
of the village, bears date 1661, and, altered and enlarged 
in 1825, contains 600 sittings. There are also a Free 
church, an inn, a librarv, and a public school. Pop. 
(1861) 354, (1871) 323, (1881) 403. 

The parish, containing also the villages of Gullane, 
Kingston, and Fenton, is bounded NW and N by the 
Firth of Forth (here 8J miles broad at the narrowest), E 
by North Berwick, and S by Athelstaneford and Aber- 
lady. Its length, from E to W, varies between 2| and 5^ 
rniles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 3§ miles ; and 
its area is 10,798| acres, of which 1620| are foreshore 
and 2 water. The coast-line, 9 miles long, rises almost 
boldly to 100 feet above sea-level at Eklbottle Wood, 
but elsewhere is mostly fringed by the flat sandy East, 
West, and GuUane Links ; to the W it is indented by 
Gullane and Aberlady Bays ; and off it to the N lie the 
three islets, composed of greenstone rock, of Eyebroughy, 
Fidra, and Lamb. The sluggish Peffer Burn, tracing 
the southern boundary, is the only noteworthy rivulet ; 
and inland the surface is very slightly undulated, its 
highest point (118 feet) occurring on the road to Drem, 
5 mile SS W of the village. The rocks are partly eruptive, 
partly carboniferous, and including dark-red jasper veins, 
excellent building sandstone, some coal, and considerable 
quantities of ironstone. The soil is extremely various — 
in one part a deep, stiff, alluvial clay, and near the 
coast stretches of the lightest sand, burrowed by hun- 
dreds of rabbits ; whilst there is also much deepj free 
loam, the product of which in summer and autumn 
presents an appearance of almost unrivalled luxuriance. 
Fenton Barns, If mile N by E of Drem, is famous in 
agricultural annals as the home, till 1873, of George 

Hope, Esq. (1811-76), an interesting Life of whom, by 
his daughter, was published in 1881. Sir John Haly- 
burton, slain at the battle of Nisbet in 1355, had wedded 
the daughter and co-heiress of William De Vaux, lord of 
Dirleton, and got with her that estate : his grandson, 
Sir Walter, Lord Treasurer of Scotland, founded a col- 
legiate church at Dirleton in 1446, and six years earlier 
was created Lord Halyburton of Dirleton — a title for- 
feited in 1600 by John, third Earl of Gowrie and .sixth 
Lord Ruthven and Dirleton, who won over Logan of 
Restalrig to his plot by the proffered bribe of the lands 
and castle of Dirleton. ' I care not,' wrote Logan, ' for 
all else I have in this kingdom, in case I get grip of 
Dirleton, for I esteem it the pleasantest dwelling in Scot- 
land.' (See Perth and Fast Castle. ) To-day the Earl 
of Mar and Kellie bears the title of Baron Dirleton and 
Viscount Fentoun, conferred in 1603 and 1606 on Sir 
Thomas Erskine, afterward Earl of Kellie, who with his 
own hand had slain the Earl of Gowrie ; that of Earl of 
Dirleton was held, from 1646 till his death before 1653, 
by Sir James Maxwell, who seems, in 1631, to have 
bought the estate. In 1663 it was once more sold to 
Sir John Nisbet, who as Lord Advocate bore the title 
Lord Dirleton, and whose descendant, Lady ilary Nisbet- 
Hamilton, of Aecherfield and Biel, owns two-thirds 
of the parish. Five other proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 4 of between £100 
and £500, 4 of from £50 to £100, and 11 of from £20 to 
£50. Dirleton is in the presbytery of Haddington and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is worth 
£509. Three public schools — Dirleton, Gullane, and 
Kingston — with respective accommodation for 145, 81, 
and 123 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 
100, 34, and 56, and grants of £74, £16, 14s., and 
£32, 3s. Valuation (1882) £16,499, 8s. Pop. (1801) 
1115, (1831) 1384, (1861) 1540, (1871) 1419, (1881) 1506. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 33, 41, 1863-57. See vol. ii. of 
Billings' Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities (1852). 

Dirlot Castle, an ancient fortalice in Halkirk parish, 
Caithness, on a rugged crag above the river Thurso, 15 
miles S of Thurso town. It is said to have been the 
stronghold of a daring freebooter, a kinsman of the 
Dunrobin Sutherlands, and to have been accessible only 
by a drawbridge, but is now represented by slight 

Dirrie. See Dieie. 

Dirrington, Great and Little, two of the Lammermuir 
Hills in Longformacus parish, Berwickshire. Great 
Dirrington culminates 1^ mile SSE of Longformacus 
hamlet, and has an altitude of 1309 feet above sea-level ; 
and Little Dirrington culminates nearly \\ mile further 
SSW on the boundary with Greenlaw parish, and has 
an altitude of 1191 feet. 

Dim, Loch. See Deerie. 

Disblair, an estate, with a mansion, in Fintray parish 
Aberdeenshire, 2J miles WSW of New Machar station. 

Distinkhorn, a hill in Galston parish, Ayrshire, 5 
furlongs from the Lanarkshire border, and of miles ESE 
of Galston village. It has an altitude of 1259 feet 
above sea-level, and commands a magnificent view. 

Ditch Hall, an ancient structure of earth and turf on 
Inverchadain farm, in Fortingal parish, Perthshire. It 
is described by Blind Harry ; is said to have been Sir 
William Wallace's resting-])lace for a few days, and the 
place where he was joined by the men of Kanuoch, on 
the eve of his march against the English at Dunkeld 
and Perth ; and is still represented by some remains. 

Divach, a shooting-lodge in Urquhart and Glen- 
moriston parish, Inverness-shire, 2J miles SW of Drum- 
nadrochit hotel. Romantically situated between the 
Coiltie and its affluent, the Allt Coire na Ruighe, Mith 
the lofty Divach Falls, it was a favourite residence of 
John Phillip, R.A. (1817-67), and figures in Shirley 
Brooks' Sooner or Later. 

Divie, a rivulet of Cromdale and Edinkillie parishes, 
Elginshire, rising, at an altitude of 1400 feet, on the E 
slope of Carn Bad na Caoracli (1557 feet), 3 miles SE 
of Dava station, and thence running V2\ miles north- 
north-westward, till, after receiving Dorbock Burn, it 



falls, near Relugas, into the river Fintlhorn. A capital 
trout stream, strictly preserved, it almost vies with the 
Fiudhorn in the wild and varied beauty of its scenery, 
and is subject to terrific freshets, that of Aug. 1829 
doing damage at Dunphail to the extent of £5000. 
Near Edinkillie church the Divie is spanned by a viaduct 
of the Highland railway, which, measuring 500 feet in 
length of masonry, and comprising 315 feet of arching, 
rises to a maximum height of 170 feet above the ordi- 
nary level of the stream. Four battlemented towers 
command the approaches, which are gained by embank- 
ments containing 190,000 cubic yards of material. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1S76. See chaps, v.-vii. of Sir 
Thomas Dick Lauder's Moray Floods (Elgin, 1830 ; 
3d ed. 1873). 

Dobson's Well, a weak chalybeate spring in Hadding- 
ton parish, i mile W of Haddington town. 

Dochaxt, a loch, a river, and a glen in Killin parish, 
Perthshire. Lying at the head of the glen, 1 mile E of 
Crianlarich station, and 512 feet above sea-level, the 
loch measures 6 by 1^ furlongs, is overhung to the SE 
by conical Benmore (3843 feet), and contains a small 
•wooded islet, on which stand the ruins of a castle of the 
Campbells of Lochawe. At its head it receives the 
FlLL.\N, and from its foot sends off the river Dochart, 
which flows 13:J miles east-north-eastward to the head 
of Loch Tay (290 feet), in the first | mile of its course 
expanding into Loch Tubhair (IJ mile x 2^ furl. ; 512 
feet), and ^ mile from its mouth being joined by the 
Lochy. Just above Killin, it ' takes up a roaring 
voice, and beats its way over a rocky descent among 
large black stones ; islands in the middle turning the 
stream this way and that ; the whole course of the river 
verv wide.' Stream and lochs contain salmon and 
trout, also — unluckily — pike. Glen Dochart, at a point 
2i miles SW of Killin, is joined at right angles from 
the S by Glen Ogle, and takes up thence, past Loch 
Dochart, the Callander and Oban railway ; along it 
from W to E are Lochdochart Lodge, Luic station 
and hotel, Auchlyne House, and Ardchyle hamlet. 
For an exquisite picture of loch and river and glen 
we must recur to Dorothy Wordsworth, who, with 
her brother, drove from King's House to Luib on Sun- 
day, 4 Sept. 1803: — 'We had about eleven miles to 
travel before we came to our lodging, and had gone 
five or six, almost always descending, and still in the 
same vale (Strath Fillan), when we saw a small lake 
before us, after the vale had made a bending to the left. 
It was about sunset when we came up to the lake ; the 
afternoon breezes had died away, and the water was in 
perfect stillness. One grove-like island, with a ruin 
that stood upon it overshadowed by the trees, was 
reflected on the water. This building, which, on that 
beautiful evening, seemed to be wra])ped up in religious 
quiet, we were informed had been raised for defence by 
some Highland chieftain. All traces of strength, or 
war, or danger are passed away, and in the mootl in 
which we were we could only look upon it as a place of 
retirement and peace. The lake is called Loch Dochart. 
We passed by two others of inferior beauty, and con- 
tinued to travel along the side of the same river, the 
Dochart, through an irregular, undetermined vale — 
poor soil and nmch waste land. ... On Alonday 
we set ofl" again a little after six o'clock — a fine morning 
— eight miles to Killin — the river Dochart always on 
our left. The face of the country not very interesting, 
though not unjjleasing, reminding us of some of the 
vales of the north of England, though meagi-e, nipped- 
up, or shrivelled compared with them. Within a mile 
or two of Killin the land was better cultivated, and, 
looking down the vale, we had a view of Loch Tay. 
. . . We crossed the Dochart by means of three 
bridges, which make one continued bridge of great 
length. On an islan<l Ijelow the bridge is a gateway 
with tall pillars, leading to an old burying-ground be- 
longing to some noble family' (pp. 185-187 of Recollec- 
timis of a Tour in Scotland, ed. by Princ. Shairp, 1874). 
This burying-gi-ound is that of the Macnabs, from whom 
Glcu Dochart was named the Macnab country. It now 


is included in the Breadalbane territory, the clan having 
emigrated to Canada in the first two decades of the 
present century. Francis, twelfth laird (1734-181G), 
was an eccentric character, who, in company once with 
some English gentlemen connected with the Excise, 
answered a query respecting the state of Glen Dochart 
with : ' Ther was once a crater callt exciseman sent 
up to my country, but — they kilt him.' — Ord. Sur., sh. 
46, 1872. 

Dochfour, a lake in Inverness parish, Inverness-shire, 
in the Great Glen, 5 miles SW of Inverness town. An 
expansion of the river Ness, separated by a run of 
only \ mile of that river from the foot of Loch Ness, it 
measures 1^ by \ mile, and is sometimes called Little 
Loch Ness. The hills around are beautifully wooded, 
and a burn that runs into it makes some pretty cascades. 
Dochfour House, on its western shore is a mansion in 
the Venetian style, described by Prince Albert as 'new 
and very elegant, with a fine garden,' on occasion of his 
visit here, 16 Sept. 1847. Its owner, Evan Baillie, Esq. 
(b. 1798), holds 141,148 acres in the shire, valued at 
£15,931 per annum.— Orrf. Sur., sh. S3, ISSl. 

Dochgarroch, a hamlet in Inverness parish, Inver- 
ness-shire, on the Caledonian Canal, at the foot of Loch 
Dochfour, 4J miles SW of Inverness. It has a regulat- 
ing lock on the canal, for averting winter floods of Loch 
Ness whenever these rise above the standard-level of the 
navigation ; and has also a public school. 

Dodbum. See Allan, Roxburghshire. 

Dod Hill. See Wanlockhead. 

Dods-Corse Stone, an ancient cross on Boon farm, in 
Legerwood j)arish, Berwickshire, 4 miles ESE of Lauder. 
It is a sandstone shaft, sunk into a square sandstone 
block, and is said to have been a market-cross. 

Dodside, a hamlet in Mearns parish, SE Renfrewshire, 
near Newton-Mearns. 

Doecleugh, a place on Skelfliill farm, in Teviothead 
parish, Roxburghshire, 7 miles SSW of Hawick. It has 
an ancient Caledonian hill-fort, and it adjoins the line 
of the Catrail. 

Dogden, an extensive moss on the mutual border of 
Greenlaw and Westruther parishes, Berwickshire. 

Dogs, Isle of, a tiny wooded island in Loch Laggan, 
Laggan parish, Inverness-shire, nearlj' opposite Ardveri- 
kie. It is said to have contained the kennel of ancient 
Scottish kings for their huntings in Lochaber. 

Dog's Stone (Gael. Clach-a-Choin), a huge isolated 
conglomerate block on the shore of Oban Bay, Argyll- 
shire, f mile NNW of Oban town. AVith a deejily 
water-worn base, and an outline somewhat similar to 
that of an inverted cone, it embeds large fragments and 
boulders, and seems at one time to have formed part of 
a high precipitous sea beach. Curious legends are 
attached to it — that Fingal here tethered his ' blue-eyed 
hunter' Bran, and that the Lords of Lorn kennelled 
their hounds beside it at their hunting expeditions with 
the Lords of the Isles. 

Dogton, a farm in Kinglassie parish, Fife, 4f miles 
NW of Kirkcaldy. It contains an ancient hewn stand- 
ing stone, 4 1 feet high above the socket, and 11 inches 

Doine, a lake in Balquhidder parish, Perthshire, in 
the ujjper part of the Balquhidder vale, 4| miles W 
by S of Balquhidder hamlet. Lying 420 feet above sea- 
level, it has an utmost length and breadth of 7i and 2^ 
furlongs ; is overhung steeply to the N by ]\Ieall Jlona- 
chyle (2123 feet) ; and by a reach of the river Balvag, 
1^ furlong in length, communicates eastward with Loch 
VoiL, from which it is separated by only a low patch 
of haugh, that in times of freshet is sometimes over- 
flowed.— 0/y;. Sur., sh. 46, 1872. 

Doll, a glen in the NW of Cortachy and Clova parish, 
Forfarshire, near the meeting-point with Pcrtli and 
Aberdeen shires. It is traversed by the White Water, 
running 6\ miles cast-south-eastward to the river South 
Esk, at a point 3 miles WNW of Clova hamlet ; and it 
is remarkalile for the variety of its flora and for an over- 
hanging rock, the Scorrie of the Doll. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
Go, 1870. 


Dollar (Celt, dal-aird, 'vale amid the hills'), a small 
town and a parish of Clackmannanshire. The town 
stands at the foot of the Ochils, ISO feet above sea- 
level, and 5 furlongs N of the right bank of the Devon ; 
and by the Devon Valley section (1851-71) of the North 
British it is 6 J miles NE by E of Alloa, 41 i NW of Edin- 
burgh, 12| ENE of Stirling, and lOf WSW of Kinross. 
Traversed by Dollar Burn, whose glen, followed up- 
wards, leads to the noble ruins of Castle-Campbell, 
it has been greatly improved and extended in recent 
years, and presents a pleasant picturesque appearance ; 
at it are a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments, a branch of the Clydesdale 
Bank, the Castle-Campbell hotel, gas-works, the Dollar 
club, a working men's reading-room, ableachfield (1787), 
and two brick and tile works. Fairs are held on the 
second Monday in May and tlie third Monday in Octo- 
ber. Places of worship are the parish church (1841 ; 
700 sittings), an imposing Gothic structure, with a con- 
spicuous tower ; a neat Free church (1858 ; 600 sittings) ; 
aU.P. church (1876; 360 sittings), built at a cost of 
£4500, and adorned \vith a spire 70 feet high ; and the 
new Episcopal church of St James the Greater (1882), 
Early English in style, with apsidal chancel, 7 rose 
■irindows, 8 lancets, etc. John M'Nab (1732-1802), a 
Dollar herd-boy, who as a sea-captain had risen to wealth 
and settled at Mile-end, London, left £55,110 Three per 
Cents, the half of his fortune, ' for the endowment of a 
charity or school for the poor of the parish of Dollar. ' 
With this bequest, which by the end of 1825 had accum- 
ulated to £74,236, was founded in 1818 Dollar Institu- 
tion or Academy, whose board of trustees comprises 15 
ex officio members under an Act of 1847, and which, 
•with a principal and 20 other teachers, gives (1882) 
instruction to 402 paying and 110 free scholars in classics, 
French, German, English, history, mathematics, mecha- 
nics, science, drawing, singing, and other branches of a 
liberal education ; whilst its lower and infant depart- 
ments, with accommodation for 597 children, had (1880) 
an average attendance of 373, and a grant of £323. The 
building, erected in 1819 after designs by W. Playfair, 
of Edinburgh, and gi'eatly extended in 1867, is a Grecian 
edifice, 186 feet long and 63 wide, with a hexastyle 
portico ; a dome, upborne by fluted columns ; a library, 
45 feet square and 45 high, containing 5000 volumes ; a 
splendid upper hall, 60 feet long, 42 vride, and 24 high ; 
and a well-kept garden of 5 acres. The Institution has 
drawn, on the one hand, many families to Dollar ; and, 
on the other, a number of its scholars board with the 
principal or under masters : its former alumni include 
James Dewar, since 1875 Jacksonian professor of natural 
and experimental philosophy at Cambridge, and a goodly 
list besides of distinguished ministers, engineers, mer- 
chants, and others. Its income in 1881 comprised 
£2235 from endowment, £1750 from school fees and 
£739 from other sources ; whilst the expenditure 
amounted to £4605, of which £3075 was for salaries. 
Pop. of town (1841) 1131, (1851) 1079, (1861) 1540, 
(1871) 2090, (1881) 2120. 

The parish, containing also Sheardale village. If mile 
to the SSW, is bounded NW by Blackford, and N by 
Glendevon, in Perthshire ; E by Muckhart and Fossoway, 
both also in Perthshire ; S by Clackmannan ; and W by 
Tillicoultry. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 3 J miles ; 
its breadth, from E to W, varies between 1§ and 3g miles ; 
and its area is 4795^ acres, of which 22 are water. The 
Devon, entering from Muckhart, winds 3| miles west- 
ward, across the southern interior and on or close to 
the Tillicoultry border, and receives on the way Dollar 
Bum, which, itself hurrying 1| mile south-by-eastward 
past the town, is formed just below Castle-Campbell by 
the Bums of Sorrow and Care, running 2J miles east- 
south-eastward, and li mile south -south-eastward and 
southward, from the northern confines of the parish. 
Westward along the Devon the surface declines to close 
upon 50 feet abo%'e sea-level, thence rising southward to 
353 feet near Sheardale, and northward to 538 near 
Hillfoot House, 2111 at King's Seat on the western 
border, and 2110 at "NVTiitewisp Hill in the N — smooth 


summits these of the green pastoral Ochils, that com- 
mand magnificent views. A spongy morass, Maddy 
Moss, on the NW border, lying at an altitude of from 
1500 to 1750 feet, and covering upwards of 150 acres, 
occasionally bursts its barrier, and sends down a muddy 
torrent, by the Burn of Sorrow, to the Devon. The rocks 
of the hills are eruptive, those of the valley carbonifer- 
ous. Coal and sandstone are plentiful ; copper, iron, 
and lead were formerly wrought in the Ochils, a little 
above the town ; and beautiful agates have been found 
on the top of Whitewisp; whilst a chalybeate spring, 
powerfully astringent and of medicinal efficacy both ex- 
ternally and internally, was discovered in 1830 at Vicar's 
Bridge. The soil is argillaceous along the Devon, and 
on the lands thence to the hills is light and gravelly — 
about 1740 acres being either arable or grass land, 230 
under wood, and all the rest either hill-pasture or waste. 
In 877 the Danes, expelled by the Norwegians from 
Ireland, entered the Firth of Clyde, and, passing through 
the region watered by the Teith and Forth, attacked the 
province of Fife. A battle fought by them at Dollar 
went against the Scots, who, fleeing north-eastward to 
Inverdovet in Forgan, were there a second time routed, 
King Constantin mac Kenneth being among the multi- 
tude of the slain (Skene's Celtic Scotland, i. 327, 1876). 
The other chief episode in Dollar's history is the burning 
of its vicar, Thomas Forret, for heresy, at Edinburgh, 
in 1538. From 1493 to 1605 most of the parish belonged 
to the Earls of Argyll ; at present 4 proprietors hold each 
an annual value of £500 and upwards, 10 of between 
£100 and £500, 18 of from £50 to £100, and 44 of from 
£20 to £50. Dollar is in the presbytery of Stirling and 
svnod of Perth and Stirling ; the living is worth £243. 
Valuation (1866) £6049, (1882) £12,641, 15s. Pop. 
(1801) 693, (1831) 1447, (1861) 1776, (1871) 2524. 
(1881) 24:99.— Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 1867. 

Dollar Law, a mountain on the mutual bor er of 
]\Ianor and Drummekier parishes, Peeblesshire, 4| miles 
SE of Drummelzier village, and 9h miles SW by S of 
Peebles. Rising 2680 feet above sea-level, it commands 
a view over the Lothians, and away over Berwickshire, 
to Northumberland. 

Dollars, an estate, with a mansion, in Riccarton parish, 
Ayrshire, on the left bank of Cessnock Water, 4| miles; 
SE of Kilmarnock. 

DoUas. See Dallas. 

DoUerie, a mansion in Madderty parish, Perthshire^ 
2f miles E by S of Crieff. Its owner, Anthony Murray. 
Esq. (b. 1802 ; sue. 1838), holds 1104 acres in the shire, 
valued at £1768 per annum. 

Dolls. See Glenochil. 

Dolphingston, a hamlet in Prestonpans parish, Had- 
dingtonshire, 1^ mile W of Tranent. It contains several 
broken walls and gables, evidently of great antiquity, 
and probably monastic. 

Dolphinton, a post-office hamlet and a parish on the 
eastern border of the upper ward of Lanai-kshire. The 
hamlet stands 7 furlongs SSW of Dolphinton station, 
which, as the junction of two branches of the Caledonian 
and North British, is 11 miles E by N of Carstairs, IC 
WSW of Leadburn, and 27^ SW of Edinburgh. 

The parish is bounded NE and E by Linton, and SE 
by Kirkiu'd, in Peeblesshire , SW by Walston ; and NW 
by Dunsyre. In shape a triangle, with southward apex, 
it has an utmost length from N by E to S by W of of 
miles, an utmost breadth from E to W of 2^ miles, and 
an area of 3581^ acres, of which 7^ are water. The 
drainage belongs partly to the Clyde, partly to the 
Tweed, inasmuch as South Medwin Water runs 2| 
miles south-westward along all the boundary with Dun- 
syre, Tahtii Water 1 mile southward along that with Lin- 
ton ; and Back Burn, rising in tlie S of the parish, flows 
3 miles north-eastward to the Tarth through the interior. 
In the \V along the Medwin the surface declines to a little 
more, in the E along the Tartli to a little less, than 700 
feet above sea-level ; and the ' divide ' between the two 
river systems is marked by White Hill (1437 feet) and 
Blacic Mount (1689). The rocks, over nine-tenths of 
the entire area, are eruptive ; the soil, in most parts, is 


a dry friable earth or sandy loam. More than 300 acres 
are under wood, and about 250 acres of the uplands 
might be profitably reclaimed. The manor belonged in 
the former half of the 12th century to Dolfine, elder 
brother of the first Earl of Dunbar, after whom it re- 
ceived its name ; subsci]uently it became a pertinent of 
BoTHWELL, and shared long in the fortunes of that 
barony. Major Learmont, who commanded the Cove- 
nanting horse at the battle of RuUion Green (1666), and 
long lay in hiding from pursuit by the authorities, held 
the property of Newholm, and was interred in Dolphin- 
ton churchyard; "William Leechman, D.D. (1706-85), 
professor of theology in Glasgow university, was son of 
a Dolphinton farmer ; and Dr Alton, author of interest- 
ing works on Palestine, was minister, and wrote the 
article ' Dolphinton ' for the iN'ceo Statistical Account. 
Dolphinton House, a little W of the village, is the seat 
of John Ord Mackenzie, Esq., W.S. (b. ISll ; sue. 1850), 
who owns 3027 acres, valued at £2262 per annum. This 
parish is in the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian 
and Tweeddale ; the living is worth £208. The church 
is old, and contains 1-10 sittings ; whilst a public 
school, with accommodation for 83 children, had (1880) 
an average attendance of 46, and a grant of £48, ISs. 
Valuation (1882) £3464, 4s. Pop. (1801) 231, (1831) 
302, (1861) 260, (1871) 231, (1881) 292.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 24, 1864. 

Dolphiston, a farm in Oxnam parish, Roxburghshire, 
near the right bank of Jed Water, 4f miles SSE of 
Jedburgh. Its curious old Border fortalice, now de- 
molished, was the haunt of a brownie, till, hurt 1)y the 
ofifer of a coarse linen shirt, he departed, and in depart- 
ing sang— 

' Sin' ye've gien me a harden ramp, 
Nae mair o' 3'our corn I \rill tramp.' 

Don, a river of S Aberdeenshire, that forms a sort of 
twin stream to the Dee, ranking next thereto among 
Aberdeenshire rivers as regards at once basin, magni- 
tude, and notability, and possessing like it much volume 
of water and much fine scenery, with very little com- 
mercial importance. Yet the Don differs essentially 
from the Dee in some great characters and even presents 
some striking contrasts. It rises, as a small mossy 
stream, If mile SSAV of Meikle Geal Charn (2833 feet), 
close to the Banffshire border, and within a mile of the 
river Aven ; and thence winds eastward in a direction 
somewhat parallel to the Dee, at a mean distance of 
about 9 miles to the N, but through a country much 
less mountainous, and abounding far more in plains and 
meadows. AVith little or none of the impetuousness or 
fitfulness of the Dee, it displays a prevailing current of 
gentleness, calmness, and regularity, and, making great 
loops and bends now to the right, now to the left, it 
falls at last into the German Ocean, 1 mile NE of Old 
Aberdeen, and 2i miles N of the mouth of the Dee. 
From soiu'ce to mouth it has a total length, following 
its windings, of 82 J miles, viz., 20§ to Castlc-Newe 
bridge, 42| thence to the Ury's influx, and 19^ thence 
to the sea. And from 1980 feet above sea-level at its 
source, it descends to 1320 at Cock Bridge near Corgarff 
Castle, 900 near Castle-Newe, 450 near Alford, and 170 
at the mouth of the Ury. Its chief tributaries are the 
Conrie, tlie Carvie, and the Leochel on the right bank, 
and the Ernan, the Nochty, the Bucket, the Kindy, and 
the Ury on the left. The parishes traversed or bounded 
by it are Strathdon, Tarland, Glenbucket, Kildrummy, 
Towie, Leochel, Auchindoir, Alford, Tullynessle, Keig, 
Tough, Monymusk, Oyne, Chapel of Garioch, Kemnay, 
Inverurie, Kintore, Keithhall, Fintray, Kinnellar, Dyce, 
New Machar, Newhills, and Old Machar ; and in our 
articles on these parishes details will be found as to the 
villages, seats, etc., along its banks. 

The river's course, from the liead of Strathdon to the 
upper part of Alford, lies chiefly along a series of glens ; 
contracts then, for a short distance, into a narrow gullet ; 
but opens presently into a considerable vale, with great 
expanses of meadowland on tlie immediate banks ; and 
lastly, from the New Bridge of Old Aberdeen to the sea, 
is a narrow artificial channel. Its original mouth is 


presumed to have been identical with that of the Dee ; 
was afterwards at a point nearly midway between the 
Dee's and its own present mouth ; and was diverted to 
its present situation by the cutting of an artificial chan- 
nel for its lower reach, about the year 1750, under the 
direction of Professor James Gregory. The river is sub- 
ject to great freshets ; swept away, in the autumn of 1768, 
the greater part of the crops on the haughs and level 
lands adjacent to its bed ; made similar devastation in 
Aug. 1799 ; rose, on 4 Aug. 1829, to a height of 14 
feet above its ordinary level ; and is now prevented 
from working similar havoc onl}' hy extensive embank- 
ments in the parts of its course most subject to inunda- 
tion. It is one of the best trouting streams in Scotland 
(especiall}' in its ujiper waters), and has some valuable 
salmon fishings. Pike are fortunately few ; but river 
trout, ranging in weight from h lb. to 5 lbs. , abound, as 
also do salmon and sea-trout. As many as forty salmon 
were killed in one season, by a single rod, in one pool 
near Alford Bridge ; and 3000 salmon and grilse were 
netted at its mouth in a single week of July 1849. 
Between 1790 and 1800 the yearly average number of 
salmon and grilse caught in the Don amounted to 
43,240, between 1813 and 1824 to 40,677 ; and in 1881 
towards the end of July and throughout August the net 
fishings of the nether Don yielded between 300 and 400 
salmon per day, but this was a great improvement over 
the past two years. — Ord. Sur., shs. 75, 76, 77, 1876-73. 
See chap. xxii. of Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's Moray 
Floods (Elgin, 1830 ; 3d ed. 1873). 

Don, a sea-loch in the E of Mull island, Argyllshire, 
opposite the middle of Kerrera. Striking 2| miles north- 
westward, and nowhere exceeding 1 mile in width, it 
has, at the S side of its mouth, the hamlet of Achnacraig. 

Donald's Cleuch, a cul de sac in the SE of Tweedsmuir 
parish, Peeblesshire, striking off from Gameshope Burn 
to Donald's Clench Head (2616 feet) on the Dumfries- 
shire border. It is thought to have got its name from 
being a retreat of the famous Covenanter, Donald Cargill. 

Donan, a small island at the SW corner of Ross-shire, 
in Loch Alsh, at the point where that sea-loch forks 
into Lochs Long and Duich. 

Donan Castle. See Castle-Donnan. 

Donavourd, an estate, with a mansion, in Logierait 
parish, Perthshire, near the left bank of the Tay, 2 miles 
SE of Pitlochry. Its o\vner, George Gordon, Escp (b. 
1816 ; sue. 1838), holds 2760 acres in the shire, valued 
at £577 per annum. 

Don, Bridge of, a suburb of Old Aberdeen, in Old 
]\Iachar parish, Aberdeenshire, on the river Don, 2 miles 
N of Alierdcen, under which it has a post office. 

Donibristle, an estate in Dalgety parish, Fife, on the 
Firth of Fortli, 3 miles WSW of Aberdour. Long the 
property of the abbots of Inchcolm, it was granted along 
with the other possessions of that abbey to Sir James 
Stuart, Lord Donne, whose son and namesake, the 
' I)onny Earl of Moray,' was slain here by Gordon of 
Cluny and the Earl of Huntly on 7 Feb. 1592 — an 
episode that forms the theme of a fine old ballad. The 
present Earl of Moray holds 7463 acres in Fife, valued 
at £11,086 per annum. The mansion of Donibristle has 
thrice been burned, on the last occasion in 1858, when 
a number of valual)le portraits perished in the flames. 

Donibristle Colliery, a village, with a public school, 
in Aberdour parish, Fife, 2 miles ESE of Crossgates. 

Doon, a steep round hill (945 feet) in Tynron parish, 
Dumfriesshire, terminating the SE end of a hill-range 
between Scar and Shinnel Waters, 4 miles WSW of 
Thornhill. It seems anciently to have been thickly 
clothed with forest, and was crowned at an early period 
by some kind of fortalice or habitation, which is said 
to have been a retreat of Robert Bruce, after his slaying 
the Red Comyn at Dumfries. 

Doon, a huig hill of considerable height (582 feet), the 
outmost spur of tlie Lammermuirs, in Spott parish, Had- 
dingtonshire, 2J miles S by E of Dunbar. On its top 
and slope lay David Leslie's Scotch army, 23, 000 strong, 
the two first days of September 1650, the third being that 
of the Battle of Dunbak. 



Doon, a loch partly in Kirkcudbrightshire, but chiofly 
in Ayrshire, and a river dividing the Ayrshire districts 
of Carrick and Kyle. Lying 680 feet above sea-level, 
the loch extends 5| miles north-by-eastward and north- 
westward to within 3 miles of Dalmellington town, and 
varies in width between 2 and 6h furlongs. It receives, 
at its head, Gala and Carrick Lanes, discharging the 
effluence of Lochs Enoch, Macaterick, and Riecawr ; on 
its western side, is joined by Garpel Burn, flowing out 
of Loch Finlas ; and, at its foot, sends 'off the river 
Doon. Its surface is studded with five little islands 
or groups of islands, viz., from S to N, Pickinaw Isles, 
Castle Island, Saugh Island, Garpel Islands, and Gor- 
don's Island, on the second of which is a ruined octan- 
gular tower — ' Balliol's Castle.' By Chalmers this was 
identified wath Laight Alpin, the scene of the death 
of King Alpin of Dalriada in 741, which Skene, how- 
ever, places on the eastern shore of Loch Ryan ; by 
Tytler it is said to have been basely yielded to the Eng- 
lish in 1306, when Seaton, its lord, who had married a 
sister of Bruce, was carried to Dumfries and executed. In 
1S26, nine ancient canoes, hollowed each from a single 
oak tree, and from 16J to 22J feet long, were found 
sunk in the loch near this islet. Boats are kept, and 
trout and char are fairly plentiful. ' Viewed from a 
distant eminence,' says Mr Harper, 'Loch Doon has 
more the appearance of a river than a lake. It is sur- 
rounded by lofty hills (1000 to 2000 feet in height) on 
both the Carsphairn or Galloway and the Straiton or 
Carrick side, the Gallowegian being green and grassy, 
excellent for sheep pasture, to which they are almost 
entirely devoted. Those on the Carrick side are wild 
and solitary, vnih nought but rocks and heather. By 
tunnels, which have been formed to prevent the lake, 
when swollen by heavy rains, from overflowing the ex- 
tensive tracts of meadow-land along the banks of the 
river, its waters have been lowered considerably from 
their original level, and the exposure of tracts of barren 
sand, gravel, and stone on its banks, detracts consider- 
ably from its beauty ' {llamhles in Galloway, 1876). 

The river Doon, emerging by these two tunnels, cut out 
of the solid rock, rushes impetuously into ISTess Glen, a 
romantic wooded gorge some 30 feet wide, 300 deep, and 
1 mile long ; expands next into Bogton Loch (6 x 1\ 
furl. ), in the vicinity of Dalmellington ; and thence 
winds north-westward, past Waterside, Patna, Dalrymple, 
Cassills House, Auchendrane House, and Alloway, till, 
after a total course of 26| miles, it falls into the Firth 
of Clyde, If mile S by W of Ayr. Its tributaries are 
numerous, but small. The parishes, on its left bank, 
are Straiton, Kirkmichael, and Maybole ; on its right, 
Dalmellington, Dalrymple, and Ayr or Alloway. For 
the first 3 miles below Bogton Loch the Doon's right 
bank is fringed by the crescent-shaped vale of Dalmel- 
lington ; . for the next 5, on either side rise treeless, 
heathy knolls, or tame, uninteresting hills ; but thence, 
right onward to the sea, the stream has channelled out 
a mighty furrow, 10 to 200 feet deep, and 30 to 150 
yards wide at the top, its bosky sides — 

' the bonnie winding banks 
Wliere Doon rins, wimplin, clear.' 

' Naebody sings the Doon, ' thus Bums complained in 
1785 ; but Burns himself atoned for the neglect, so that 
its ' Banks and Braes, ' the Downans of Cassillis, and 
auld Kirk-Alloway ' shine wi' the best ' now, even with 
Tweed and Yarrow. Its waters contain good store of 
trout, sea-trout, and salmon ; and large pike lurk in its 
more sluggish pools. — Ord, Sur., shs. 8, 14, 1863. 

Doon Hill. See Doon. 

Doonholm, a mansion in Ayr parish, A}Tshire, on the 
right bank of the Doon, 3 miles S of the town of Ayr. 
It is the seat of the judge, Colin Blackburn, P.C. (b. 
1813), who in 1876 received a life-peerage as Baron 
Blackburn of Killearn, and who holds 154 acres in the 
shire, valued at £344 per annum. 

Doonside, an estate, with a mansion, and with ves- 
tiges of an ancient castle, in Maybole parish, Ayrshire, 
on the left bank of the Doon, 3 miles S of Ayr. 

Dorary, an isolated hilly pendicle of Thurso parish, 
Caithness, surrounded by Reay and Halkirk parishes, 
4^ miles SSW of the main body of Thurso parish. It 
belonged to the Bishops of Caithness ; it has remains of 
an ancient chapel, called Gavin's Kirk or Temple Gavin ; 
and it commands a very grand and extensive view. 

Dorback Bum. See Abernethy, Inverness-shire. 

Dorbock, a picturesque rivulet of Edinkillie parish, 
Elginshire, issuing from Locuindokb (969 feet), and 
running 8| miles north-north-eastward along the Crom- 
dale border and through the interior, till, \ mile S of 
Dunphail House, it falls into the Divie, like which it 
wrought great havoc in the August floods of 1829. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Doreholm, an islet of Northmaven parish, Shetland, on 
the N side of St Magnus Bay, 1^ mile ESE of the south- 
western extremity of Northmaven mainland. It rises 
rockily and massively from the water, and is pierced by a 
natural arch or tunnel, 54 feet high, lighted by an open- 
ing at the top, and permitting boatmen to fish under it. 

Doras. See Kettixs. 

Dores, a village and a parish of NE Inverness-shire. 
The village stands on the eastern shore of Loch Ness, 
towards its foot, 7 miles SSW of Inverness, under which 
it has a post office ; at it are a small inn and a steam- 
boat pier. 

The parish is bounded NE by Inverness, SE by 
Daviot-Dunlichity and the Farraline section of Bole- 
skine, SW by Boleskine-Abertarff, and NW bj' Loch 
Ness and Inverness. Its utmost length, from NNE to 
SSW, is 15i miles ; its breadth, from WNW to ESE, 
varies between 1 furlong and 4J miles ; and its land 
area is 25,693 acres, including the two small Dell and 
Killin sections, surrounded by Boleskine. The river 
Faeigaig, entering from Daviot, and winding 65 miles 
north-north-westward and south-westward to Loch Ness 
at the south-western corner of the parish, is the only 
considerable stream ; and the eastei'n half of the lower 
lOf miles of Loch Ness belong to Dores. Other lakes, 
with utmost length and breadth and altitude, are Lochs 
Bunachton (| x ^ mile, 701 feet), Dundelchack (3| 
miles X 1 mile, 702 feet), and Ruthven (2J miles x 4^ 
furl., 700 feet), on the Daviot border ; Loch Farraline 
(9 X 2 J furl. , 650 feet), on the Boleskine detached bor- 
der ; and, in the interior. Loch Ashey (If mile x 5 
furl., 716 feet), Lochan nan cun Ruadha (3| x 2 furl., 
750 feet). Loch Ceo-Glas (7x1 furl., 760 feet), and 
eight smaller ones. Except for the narrow strip along 
Loch Ness, traversed by Wade's military road, which 
ranges in altitude between 56 and 106 feet above sea- 
level, for Strath Dores, and for a portion of Strath- 
errick, the surface everywhere is hilly or mountainous, 
elevations from NNE to SSW being Drumashie Moor 
(776 feet), Creag a' Chlachain (1000), Ashie Moor (790), 
Tom Bailgeann (1514), Carn an Fheadain (1445), and 
Cairn Ardochy (1116). Llost of the land is suited only 
for sheep-pasture, the light arable soils lying chiefly 
along the bottom of the valleys, but with patches here 
and there among the hills. The rocks are mainly 
granitic ; and woods and plantations cover a consider- 
able area, especially along the shore of Loch Ness. 
Vestiges of an ancient fort, supposed to be Scandinavian, 
and called Dun-Richnan or the Castle of the King of the 
Ocean, are at the head of Loch Ashey, I4 mile SE of the 
village ; and several cairns a little to the E, one of them 
almost equal in size to all the rest, are fabled to com- 
memorate a victory won by Fingal over Ashi, the son of 
a Norwegian king, and give the name of Drumashie 
('Ashi's ridge') to their site. Aldourie Castle is 
the principal mansion ; and 3 pro]>rietors hold each 
an annual value of £500 and upwards, 4 of between 
£100 and £500. Dores is in the presbytery of Inver- 
ness and synod of Moray ; the living is worth £300, 
The parish church, at the village, was built in 1828, 
and contains 500 sittings. A preaching-station is at 
Torness, in Stratherrick, 6 miles S of the village ; and 
a Free church for Dores and Bona stands \% mile NNE 
of the same ; whilst three public schools — Aldourie, 
Bunchrubin, and Strathenick — with respective accom. 



modation for 125, 80, and 110 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 20, 18, and 48, and grants of 
£35, Is., £26, and £55, 18s. Valuation (1881^ £9008, 9s. 
Pop. (1801) 1313, (1831) 1736, (1861) 1506, (1871) 1401, 
(1881) 1146.— Orrf. Siir., shs. 73, 83, 1878-81. 

Dormont, an estate, with a mansion, in Dalton parish, 
Dumfriesshire. The mansion, standing on tlie right bank 
of the Annan, 6 miles SSW of Lockerbie, was built in 
1823, and is an elegant edifice, amid charming grounds ; 
its o^vner, William Carruthers, Esq. (b. 1867 ; sue. 1878), 
holds 6355 acres in the shire, valued at £4698 per annum. 

Dormont, a small vale in Hounam parish, Roxburgh- 

Domadilla, an ancient ' dun ' or tower in Durness par- 
ish, Sutherland, in Strathmore, near the S base of Ben 
Hope. Traditionally said to have been built by a Scottish 
king, to serve as a hunting seat, it is now reduced to a 
fragment, which, 16 feet high and 150 feet in circum- 
ference, consists of two concentric walls of slaty stones. 

Domal, a loch on the mutual border of Colmonell par- 
ish, S Ayrshire, and Penninghame parish, NE Wigtown- 
shire, 5f miles SE of Barrhill station. Lying 380 feet 
above sea-level, it is 5 furlongs long from E to W ; varies 
in width between 1 and 4^ furlongs ; is studded with six 
or seven tiny islets ; contains pike and trout, the latter 
of from h lb. to 5 or 6 lbs. weight ; and sends off Carrick 
Burn, running 2;^ miles eastward to the Cree, at a point 
2 miles W by S of Bargrennan. — Ord. Siir., sh. 8, 1863. 

Domie, a fishing village in Kintail parish, Ross-shire, 
at the head of Loch Alsh, where it branches into Lochs 
Long and Duich, and in the vicinity of Castle-Donnan, 
7i miles S of Strome Ferry. It contains some good 
houses, and has a post oSice under Lochalsh, a girls' 
public school, and a ferry across the outlet of Loch Long. 

Domoch, a coast town and parish of SE Sutherland. 
The capital of the count}', and a royal and parliamentary 
burgh, the town is 8f miles N by E of Tain vid Meikle 
Ferry, 14.^ E of Bonar-Bridge station, and 7 SSE of the 
Mound station, ^vith which it communicates daily by 
mail gig, and which itself is 20i miles SW of Helms- 
dale, 23 ENE of Bonar-Bridge, 805 NNE of Inverness, 
272J NNW of Edinburgh, and 289 NNE of Glasgow. 
'Close outside the town,' says AVorsaae, 'there stands 
the Earl's Cross, a stone pillar in an open field, which 
is simply the remains of one of those market-crosses, so 
often erected in pre-Reformation times. As a matter of 
course, the arms of the Earls of Sutherland are carved 
on one side of the stone, and on the other are the arms 
of the town — a horsealioe. Tradition, however, will 

Seal of Dornoch. 

have it that the pillar was reared in memory of a battle, 
fought towards the middle of the 13th century by an 
Earl of Sutherland against the Danes. In tlie heat of 
the fray, while the Earl was engaged in hand-to-hand 
combat with the Danish chief, his sword broke : but in 
this desperate strait, he was lucky enough to lay hold 
of a horseshoe (the whole leg of a horse, say some) that 
accidentally lay near him, with which he succeeded in 
killing his antagonist. The horseshoe is said to have 


been adopted in the arms of the town in memory of this 
feat ; ' and the name Dornoch is popularly derived from 
the Gaelic dorn-eich, 'a horse's hoof,' though dor-n-ach, 
' field between two waters,' is a far more probable 
etymon. Be this as it may, Dornoch, to quote Profes- 
sor J. S. Blackie, who wandered hither in the autumn 
of 1881, is 'an old-fashioned, outlying, outlandish grey 
nest, to which no stranger ever thinks of going except 
the sheriff of the county, and he only half a stranger ; 
. . an interesting old town, with a splendid 
beach for bathing, a fresh, breezy, and dry atmosphere, 
and a golfing ground second to none in Scotland. ' Of 
the last, indeed. Sir Robert Gordon wrote in 1630 that 
' about this toun, along the sea coast, there are the 
fairest and largest linkes or green feilds of any pairt of 
Scotland, fitt for archery, golfing, ryding, and all other 
exercise ; they doe surpasse the feilds of Montrose or 
St Andrews.' The town itself — no more than a village 
really — consists of wide regular streets, and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, a branch of the Caledonian Bank, 6 in- 
surance agencies, 2 hotels, a newsroom, and a public 
library. The see of Caithness, first heard of about 1130, 
had here its principal church, dedicated to St Bar or Fin- 
bar ; by Bishop Gilbert de Moravia (1222-45) this church 
was organised as the cathedral of the Virgin Mary, with 
a chapter of ten canons, a dean, precentor, chancellor, 
treasurer, and archdeacon ; and, as rebuilt by him, in 
the First Pointed style, it consisted of an aisled nave, 
transept, choir, and massive central tower, topped with 
a dwarfish spire. The tower is all that remains of St 
Gilbert's work, since in 1570 the cathedral was burned 
by John Sinclair, Master of Caithness, and lye Mackay 
of Strathnaver, who, taking advantage of the minority 
of Alexander, twelfth Earl of Sutherland, besieged and 
plundered Dornoch with a small army fi'om Caithness. 
Fortunately the tower escaped, and with it some fine 
Gothic arches, which latter, however, fell before the 
terrific gale of 5 Nov. 1605 — the day on which the Gun- 
powder Plot was discovered. In 1614 the thirteenth Earl 
of Sutherland partially repaired the cathedral, to make 
it available for parish church ; and in 1835-37 it was 
rebuilt by the Duchess of Sutherland at a cost of £6000. 
The present fabric, containing 1000 sittings, is a mix- 
ture of Gothic and Vandalism, and measures 126 feet 
by 92 across the transepts. In the southern transept 
lie sixteen of the Earls of Sutherland ; in the northern 
is a stone sarcophagus, removed from the choir, and 
surmounted by a cross-legged effigy of either the founder 
or the founder's brother. Sir Richard de Moravia ; and 
the choir, now mausoleum of the Sutherland family, is 
graced by a fine marble full-length statue of the first 
Duke (1758-1833) by Chantrey, with a large tablet 
behind, recording the lineage and virtues of his Duchess- 
Countess (1765-1839). An old tower, fronting the 
cathedral, represents the Bishop's Palace, which, also 
burned in 1570, lay in ruins till 1813, when jiart of it 
was fitted up as the county courthouse and gaol. Subse- 
quently the whole was removed, excepting this western 
tower, lofty and picturesque ; and on the site thus 
cleared were built the large and handsome County 
Buildings, comprising courthouse, prison, record-room, 
and county meeting-room. The prison was discontinued 
in 1880, that of Dingwall taking its place ; and in 1881 
the ancient tower was refitted and refurbished as a quaint 
dwelling-place for English sportsmen. Of a monastery 
of Trinity Friars, alleged by Gordon to have been 
founded here between 1270 and 1280, not even a vestige 
remains. Besides the Cathedral, now used as the parish 
church, there is also a Free church ; and a public school 
and a Christian Knowledge Society's school, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 135 and 84 children, had (1880) 
an average attendance of 49 and 42, and grants of 
£39, 5s. 6d. and £32, 3s. Erected into a free royal 
burgh and port by Charles I. in 1628, Dornoch is 
governed l)y a provost, 2 bailies, a dean of guild, a 
treasurer, and 4 councillors ; with Wick, Tain, Ding- 
wall, Cromarty, and Kirkwall it returns one memlier to 
parliament. The municipal and parliamentary consti- 


tuency numbered 71 in 1SS2, when the annual value of 
real property was £901. Pop. (1831) 504, (1841) 451, 
(1851) 599, (1S61) 647, (1871) 625, (1881) 496. 

The parish contains also the villages of Clashmore and 
Embo, 3f miles W, and 2| NNE, of tlie town ; and it 
comprises the Kinnauld portion which, surrounded by 
Eogart and Golspie, and lying, 5 furlongs N of the 
main body, along the left bank of the Fleet, measures 
1^ by 1 mile, and adjoins Rogart station, close to its 
western extremity. It is bounded NW and N by 
Rogart, XE by Golspie, E and S by the Dornoch Firth, 
and SW and W by Creich ; and has a varying length 
from E to "W of 4| and 9 J miles, a varying breadth from 
N to S of 7 furlongs and 8§ miles, and an area of 33,931 
acres, of which 3194^ are foreshore and 284 water, 
■while 717§ belong to the detached portion. The Fleet 
flows 2 miles east-south-eastward along the Golspie 
border to the head of salt-water Loch Fleet, which, 3^ 
miles long, and from IJ furlong to 1§ mile wide, opens 
beyond Little Ferry to Dornoch Firth ; the Cairnaig, 
issuing from Loch Buie, runs 6| miles east-by-northward 
to the Fleet through the north-western interior ; and 
the EvELix winds 5J miles east-south-eastward along 
the boundary -with Creich, then 7| miles east-south- 
eastward and west-south-westward to Dornoch Firth at 
Meikle Ferry. The seaboard, 12 miles long, is low antl 
flat, fringed to the S by Cuthill and Dornoch sands and 
links, to the E by Embo and Coul links ; inland the 
surface rises west-north-westward to 261 feet near Asdale, 
700 at Creag Asdale, 290 near Poles, 326 near Achavan- 
dra, 700 at Creag Amaill, 930 at Creag Liath, 1000 at 
Meall nan Eun, 898 at Cnoc na Feadaige, 1048 at Meall 
a' Chaoruinn, and 1144 at Beinn DonuiU. The rocks 
are Secondary — for the most part sandstone, which has 
been largely quarried ; and coal occurs at Clashmore. 
The soil is clayey inland and sandy near the sea, with 
an irregular belt of black loam intervening. In Little- 
town, within the burgh, is the spot where in 1722 
an old woman was burned for transforming her daughter 
into a pony and getting her shod by the devil — 
the last judicial execution this for witchcraft in Scot- 
land. Modern Skibo Castle, successor to that in 
which the great Marquis of Montrose was temporarily 
confined after his capture in Asstnt, is the principal 
mansion ; and 2 proprietors hold each an annual value 
of more, 3 of less, than £500. Dornoch is the seat of a 
presbytery in the synod of Sutherland and Caithness ; 
the living is worth £435. Balvraid, Embo, Rearquhar, 
and Skibo schools, all of them public but the last, 
with respective accommodation for 80, 62, 100, and 76 
children, had (1880) an average attendance'of 32, 33, 
55, and 18, and gi-ants of £31, 16s. 6d., £20, 3s. 6d., 
£45, 5s., and £30, Is. Valuation (1882) £7619, 17s. 6d., 
of which £5242 belonged to the Duke of Sutherland, and 
£1501, 13s. 6d. to E. C. Sutherland- Walker, Esq. of Skibo. 
Pop. (1801) 2362, (1831) 3380, (1861) 2885, (1871) 2764, 
(1881) 2522.— Ord Sur., shs. 103, 94, 102, 1878-81. 

The presbytery of Dornoch comprehends the old 
parishes of Assynt, Clyne, Creich, Dornoch, Golspie, 
Kildonan, Lairg, Loth, and Rogart, and the quoad sacra 
parish of Stoer. Pop. (1871) 16,649, (1881) 15,998, of 
whom 314 were communicants of the Church of Scotland 
in 1878. — The Free Church also has a presbytery of Dor- 
noch, ^^-ith churches at Assynt, Clyne, Creich, Dornoch, 
Golspie, Helmsdale, Lairg, Rogart, Rosehall, and Stoer, 
and preaching-stations at Kildonan and Shinness, of 
which the nine first had together 4059 members and 
adherents in 1881. 

Dornoch, Firth of, the estuary of the river Oikel. 
Commencing at Bonar- Bridge, at the SE end of the Kyle 
of Sutherland, it extends 9^ miles east-south-eastward to 
Meikle Ferry, and thence 13 miles east-north-eastward till 
it merges with the North Sea at a line between Tar bat 
Ness and Brora. It has a varying width of 7i furlongs 
above "Wester Fearn Point, 2\ furlongs at the Point 
itself, IJ mile below Easter Fearn, 3^ furlongs at Ard- 
more Point, 2J miles at Edderton, 5J furlongs at Meikle 
Ferry, 3j miles at Tain, If mile at the SE corner of 
Dornoch parish, and 10^ miles from lirora to Tarbat 


Ness. A shoal across it 3 miles below Tain, called Geyzen 
Briggs from occasioning a tumultuous roar of breakers, 
forms a great obstruction to navigation, yet is not so 
continuous as to hinder vessels, under direction of a 
pilot, from safely passing. The N side of the firth, 
between that bar and Meikle Ferry, offers some har- 
bourage for small vessels in calm weather ; and Cambus- 
currie Bay, immediately above Meikle Ferry, forms an 
excellent roadstead, where vessels of considerable burden 
can lie at anchor, and where good harbour accommoda- 
tion could easily be provided. The Great North Road, 
with nexus at Meikle Ferry, was formerly the main line 
of communication between the southern and the northern 
shores, but always was subject to delay at the ferry, 
so that the road round by Bonar-Bridge, though very 
circuitous, came to be generally preferred ; and now tho 
railway, consisting of the Highland line on the S side 
and the Sutherland line on the N side, takes the same 
roundabout route. The waters of the firth abound in 
shellfish, cod, and haddocks, but never have been vigor- 
ously fished. —OrrZ. Sur., shs. 102, 93, 94, 1881-78. 

Domock, a village and a coast parish of Annandale, 
Dumfriesshire. Standing § mile inland, the village has 
a station on the Glasgow and South- Western railway 14 
miles NW of Carlisle and 3 E of Annan, under which it 
has a post office. 

The parish, containing also Lowtherton village, 1 mile 
E by N of Dornock village, is bounded N and NE by 
Kirkpatrick-Fleming, E by Gretna, S by the Solway 
Firth, and W and NW by Annan. Its greatest length, 
from N to S, is 4^ mUes ; it greatest breadth is 2^ mUes ; 
and its area is 5779| acres, of which 1149^ are foreshore, 
nearly 4 are water, and 523 belong to the Robgill de- 
tached portion, lying 4 mile to the N and surrounded 
by Kirkpatrick-Fleming and Annan. The Solway here 
is 1^ mile wide ; but its channel, barely J mile across, 
may be forded at low tide, by those at least who know 
the perils of their path. The shore-line, 2\ miles long, 
is low and sandy ; and from it the surface very gradually 
rises to 59 feet at Muirhouse, 135 near Stapleton, 200 
beyond Hallton, and 265 at Broadlea in the Robgill 
portion, whose NE border is traced for 7 furlongs by 
KiRTLE Water, the only stream of any consequence. 
The land is all low ; and, excepting some 40 acres of 
wood and 750 either pastoral or waste, is all under the 
plough. Neither coal nor limestone has been found, 
but sandstone is plentiful. The soU, in general, is loam 
on a clayey bottom. The antiquities comprise remains 
of an ancient Caledonian stone circle, traces of a Roman 
military road, the towers of RobgUl and Stapleton, and 
several curious old tombstones in the parish grave3'ard, 
where are also three sculptured stones. Swordwellrig, 
7 furlongs WNAV of the village, is said to have been the 
scene in the 15th century of a victory over the English, 
in which Sir William Broun of Coalstoun defeated and 
slew Sir Marmaduke Langdale and Lord Crosby. Rob- 
gill, Stapleton, and Blackyett are the chief mansions ; 
and 5 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 5 of between £100 and £500, 3 of from £50 to 
£100, and 3 of from £20 to £50. Dornock is in the 
presbytery of Annan and s3mod of Dumfries ; the living 
is worth £330. The church, built in 1793, contains 
300 sittings. A public school and an infant and female 
school, with respective accommodation for 86 and 77 
children, had (1880) an average attendance of 68 and 43, 
and grants of £55, 4s. and £34, 13s. Valuation (1882) 
£7177, 16s. 4d. Pop. (1801) 788, (1831) 752, (1861) 
856, (1871) 826, (1881) 814.— OrcZ. Sur., shs. 6, 10, 

Dorrington. See Dirrixgtox. 

Dorrory. See Dorart. 

Dorusmore. See Ckaignish. 

Dosk, an ancient parish on the W border of Kincardine- 
shire, now forming the south-eastern portion of Edzell. 

Double-Dikes. See Stoneuouse. 

Douchfour. See Dochfour. 

Dougalston, an estate, with a mansion, on the SE 
border of New Kilpatrick parish, Dumbartonshire, \\ 
mile ESE of Milngavie. Its owner, Robert Ker, Esq., 


holds ISOO acres, valued at £3575 per annum. Doutjal- 
ston Loch (4^x1 furl.), on the Stirlin";shire border, 
contains an islet, and abounds in water plants, some of 
them of rare species. 

Douglas, a burn in Yarrow parish, Selkirkshire, rising, 
at an altitude of 2000 feet above sea-level, on Black- 
house Heights, contiguous to the Peeblesshire border, 
and running 6 miles east-south-eastward and south- 
south-eastward, till, 2 miles below Blackhouse Tower, 
it falls into Yarrow Water, at a point 1^ mile E by N 
of the foot of St Mary's Loch. "With a fall of 1200 feet, 
it traverses a deep and gloomy glen (hence its name 
dubh-qhias, ' dark grey '), "and teems with capital trout 
of about h lb. weight.— Orrf. Sur., shs. 24, 1(5, 1864. 

Douglas, a town and a parish in the Upper "Ward of 
Lanarkshire. The town stands on the right bank of 
Douglas "Water, 3i miles SS"W of Douglas station on a 
branch of the Caledonian, this being 7^ miles SS"W of 
Lanark, 11 SW of Carstairs Junction, 39^ S"W of Edin- 
burgh, and 13:J- ENE of :Muirkirk. Formerly a place of 
much political importance, a burgh of barony with high 
magisterial powers, and a seat of considerable trade and 
marketing, it has fallen into great decadence, and now 
presents an antique and irregular appearance. Its streets 
are narrow, some of the houses look as if they still be- 
longed to the Middle Ages ; and the townsfolk, with few 
exception s, are weavers, mechanics, or labourers. A cotton 
factory, established in 1792, continued in operation only 
a few years ; and a connection with Glasgow in handloom- 
weaving is now, too, all but extinct. The town, never- 
theless, is still a place of some provincial consideration, 
possesses a fair amount of local business, and is replete 
with antiquarian interest. It has a post office under 
Lanark, mth money order, savings' bank, and railway 
telegraph departments, branches of the Commercial and 
Royal Banks, 7 insurance agencies, the Douglas Arms 
inn, gas-works, the parish church, a Free church, a U.P. 
church, a public school, and fairs on the third Friday of 
March and October. The kirk of St Bride, founded in 
the 13th century, but Second Pointed in style, was a 
prebend of Glasgow cathedral, and seems to have been 
a large and stately edifice, now represented by only a 
small spire and the choir, which latter was always till 
1761 the burial-place of the Douglas family. In 1879-81 
it underwent an extensive restoration, the vault beneath 
the High Altar being entirely renewed and much en- 
larged. The old coffins have been removed, and in the 
new vault are now interred the late Earl and Countess of 
Home. In the centre of the floor of the choir above is a 
beautiful marble and alabaster monument of the Coun- 
tess, which presents a striking contrast to the faded and 
mutilated effigies around it ; and the E window is filled 
with stained glass in memory of the Earl. ' Here,' says 
Sir "Walter Scott, 'a silver case, containing the dust of 
what was once the brave heart of Good Sir James, is still 
pointed out; and in the dilapidated choir above appears, 
though in a sorely ruinous state, the once magnificent 
tomb of the warrior himself This monument is sup- 
posed to have been wantonly mutilated and defaced by 
a detachment of Cromwell's troops, who, as was their 
custom, converted the kirk of St Bride of Douglas into 
a stable for their horses. Enough, however, remains to 
identify the resting-place of the great Sir James. Tlie 
effigy, of dark stone, is cross-legged, and in its original 
state must have been not inferior in any respect to 
the best of the same period in Westminster Abbey.'* 
The Covenanters, in the times of the persecution, had 

* Thus Sir Walter, but the minister of Douglas, the Rev. W. 
Smith, writes : 'As to tlic silver heart-case, I am not sure. There 
are two enclosed in a nindern box ; but they are neglected, as it is 
not kno\VTi whose hearts they are; and as to beinj,' silver, most 
people would say they were lead. Last century the school stood 
in the churchyard. There was no door on the ciioir, and the boys 
had full liberty to do as they liked, which liberty they undoubtedly 
took. So that the mutilation of statues attributed to Cromwell 
was performed by inferior destructionists. The lead cases in the 
BhajH; of hearts are much broken, havinj,' had the same treatment 
as the monuments. I may mention that, though the body of the 
Good Sir James was brought to Douglas according to tradition or 
history, no bones were found when recently the 8i)ace under the 
stone effl)^ was opened.' 


close connection with the town, being better sheltered 
in its neighbourhood than in most other districts, and 
in April 1689 the Caraeronian regiment was here em- 
bodied in defence of the Protestant government of 
William and Mary, under the command of the eldest 
son of the second Marquis of Douglas. Pop. (1841) 
1313, (1861) 1426, (1871) 1371, (1881) 1262. 

The parish, containing also the villages of Uddington 
and Rigside, 2J and 4 miles NE of the town, as likewise 
Inches station, 6f miles SW of Douglas station, is 
bounded NW by Lesmahagow, NE by Carmichael, E by 
Wiston-Roberton, SE and S by Crawfordjohn, and W 
by Muirkirk in Ayrshire. Its xitmost length is 11| 
miles from NE to SW, viz., from the confluence of 
Poniel and Douglas AVaters to Cairntable ; its utmost 
breadth, from NW to SE, is 6J miles ; and its area is 
34,317^ acres, of which 180| are water. Douglas 
AVater, rising 1500 feet above sea-level, in the south- 
western corner of the parish, winds 16^ miles north- 
eastward through all the interior, on the way receiving 
]\Ionks and Kennox Waters, Glespin and Parkhall Burns, 
and Poniel Water, which last, running 9J miles east- 
north-eastward, traces nearly all the boundary with 
Lesmahagow ; whilst Duneaton Water flows 6j miles 
east-by-southward, along all the southern border, on its 
way to the Clyde. The surface, declines to less than 
600 feet above sea-level at the north-eastern corner, 
where Douglas Water passes from the parish ; and 
elevations to the left or N of its course, from NE to 
SAV, are Poniel Hill (842 feet), Arknev Hill (1225), 
AVindrow Hill (1297), Hagshaw Hifl (1540), Shiel Hill 
(1122), *Hareshaw Hill (1527), *Brack Hill(,1306), and 
•Little Cairntable (1693), asterisks marking those sum- 
mits that culminate on the Ayrshire boi'der. To the 
right or S of the Douglas rise Robert Law (1329), Scaur 
Hill (1249), Parkhead Hill (1241), Pagie Hill (1273), 
AucHENSAUGii Hill (1286), PinkstoneRig (1255), Hart- 
wood Hill (1311), Douglas Rig (1535), and Cairntable 
(1944). The rocks of the valley belong to the Carboni- 
ferous formation, and comprise very fine coal (including 
valuable gas coal), some ironstone, limestone, and beau- 
tiful white sandstone. The coal is extensively mined, both 
for home use and for exportation, and the limestone and 
sandstone are quarried. There are several pretty strong 
chalybeate springs. The soil in most parts of the strath 
is a free black mould, in some is lighter and gravell}', 
and in others is clay ; on the moors it is mostlj' humus or 
moss, but even here in places a deep loam. Fully three- 
sevenths of the rental are from arable land, nearly 
one-half is from pasture, and the rest is from minerals. 
Cairns are on Auchensaugh and Kiikton hills ; and a 
large one, found to contain a sarcophagus, stood formerly 
on Poniel farm. Ancient churches or chajicls were at 
Andershaw, Glenlaggart, Parishholm, and Chapel Hill. 
The chief residences are Douglas Ca.stlk, Carmacoup, 
Springhill, and Crossl)urn ; and 2 proprietors, besides 
the Earl of Home, hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 2 of between £100 and £500, 7 of from 
£50 to £100, and 17 of from £20 to £50. Douglas is in 
the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; 
the living is worth £471. Three new public schools — 
Douglas, Rigside, and Stablestone — with respective ac- 
commodation for 250, 130, and 130 children, had (1881) 
an average attendance of 161, 96, and 82, and grants 
of £144, lis. , £89, Is. , and £87, 10s. Valuation (1860) 
£12,836, (1882) £21,545, 8s. Pop. (1801) 1730, (1831) 
2542, (1861) 2490, (1871) 2624, (1881) 26n.—Ord. Sur., 
shs. 23, 15, 1865-64. 

Douglas Castle, an ancient ruin and a modern seat 
in Douglas parish, Lanarkshire, near the right bank of 
Douglas AVater, | mile NNE of Douglas town. The 
Douglases, ' whose coronet so often counterpoised the 
crown,' and who so closely linked the district of Dou- 
glasdale to Scottish story, 'were,' says Hill liurton, 
' children of the soil, who could not be traced back 
to the race of the enemy or stranger, as, whatever 
may have been their actual origin, they were known 
as rooted in Scotland at the time when the Norman 
adventurers crowded in.' The first great man of the 


house was the Good Sir James, the friend and com- 
panion of Robert the Bruce in his valorous efforts to 
achieve the independence of Scotland. His o\vn castle 
of Douglas had been taken and garrisoned by the troops 
of Edward I. ; and he resolved to recapture it, and at the 
same time inflict signal chastisement on the intruders. 
Tradition tells us that a beautiful English maiden, the 
Lady Augiista de Berkely, had replied to her numerous 
suitors that her hand should be given to him who should 
have the courage and ability to hold the perilous castle 
of Douglas for a year and a day ; and Sir John de Walton, 
auxiousto win by his valour so lovely aprize, with Edward's 
consent, undertook the defence of the castle. For 
several months he discharged his duty with honour and 
bravery, and the lady now deeming his probation accom- 
plished, and not un-^-illing perhaps to unite her fortunes 
to one who had proved himself a true and valiant knight, 
wrote him a letter of recall. By this time, however, he 
had received a defiance from Douglas, who declared 
that, for all Sir John's valour, bravery, and vigilance, 
the castle should be his own by the Palm Sunday of 
1307 ; and De Walton deemed it a point of honour to 
keep possession till the threatened day should be past. 
On the day named Douglas, assembling his followers, 
assailed the English as they returned from the church, 
and, having overpowered them, took the castle. Sir 
John de AValton was slain in the conflict, and the letter 
of his lady-love, being found on his person, afflicted the 
generous and good Sir James 'full sorely.' The account 
of this captui'e of the Castle of Douglas, taken from 
Barbour's Bncs by Hume of Godscroft, is somewhat 
different. ' The manner of his taking it is said to have 
beene thus — Sir James, taking with him only two of his 
servants, went to Thomas Dickson, of whom he was re- 
ceived with tears, after he had I'evealed himself to him, for 
the good old man knew him not at first, being in mean and 
homely apparel. There he kept him secretly, in a quiet 
chamber, and brought unto him such as had been trusty 
servants to his father, not all at once, but apart, by one 
and one, for fear of discoverie. Their advice was, that 
on Palm Sunday, when the English would come forth 
to the church, and his partners were conveened, that 
then he should give the word, and cry "the Douglas 
slogan," and presently set upon them that should happen 
to be there, who being despatched the castle might be 
taken easilj-. This being concluded, and they come, as 
soon as the English were entred into the church with 
palms in their hands (according to the custom of that 
day), little suspecting or fearing any such thing, Sir 
James, according to their appointment, cryed too soon, 
"A Douglas, a Douglas!" which being heard in the 
church (this was St Bride's church of Douglas), Thomas 
Dickson, supposing he had beene hard at hand, drew 
out his sword and ran upon them, having none to second 
him but another man, so that, oppressed by the number 
of his enemies, he was beaten downe and slaine. In the 
meantime, Sir James being come, the English that were 
in the chancel kept off the Scots, and having the advan- 
tage of the strait and narrow entrie, defended themselyes 
manfully. But Sir James, encouraging his men, not so 
much by words as by deeds and good example, and 
having slain the boldest resisters, prevailed at last, and 
entring the place, slew some twenty-six of their number, 
and tooke the rest, about ten or twelve persons, intend- 
ing by them to get the castle upon composition, or to 
enter with them when the gates should be opened to 
let them in. But it needed not, for they of the castle 
were so secure that there was none left to keep it, save 
the porter and the cookc, who knowing nothing of what 
had hapned at the church, which stood a large quarter 
of a mile from thence, had left the gate wide open, the 
porter standing without, and the cooke dressing the 
dinner Avithin. They entred without resistance, and 
meat being ready, and the cloth laid, they shut the gates 
and took their refection at good leisure. Now that he 
had gotten the castle into his hands, considering with 
himself (as he was a man no lesse advised than valiant) 
that it was hard for him to keep it, the English being 
as yet the stronger in that countrey, who if they should 


besiege him, he knewe of no rcliefe, he thought it better 
to carry away such things as be most easily transported, 
gold, silver, and apparell, with ammunition and armour, 
whereof he had greatest use and need, and to destroy 
the rest of the provision, together with the castle itseife, 
than to diminish the number of his followers there 
where it could do no good. And so he caused carry the 
meale and meat, and other comes and grain into the 
cellar, and laid all together in one heape : then he took 
the prisoners and slew them, to revenge the death of his 
trustie and valiant servant, Thomas Dickson, mingling 
the victuals with their bloud, and burying their carkasses 
in the heap of come : after that he struck out the heads 
of the barells, and puncheons, and let the drink runn 
through all ; and then he cast the carkasses of dead 
horses and other carrion amongst it, throwing the salt 
above all, so to make all together unuseful to the enemie ; 
and this cellar is called j-et the Douglas lairder. Last 
of all he set the house on fire, and burnt all the timber, 
and what else the fire could overcome, leaving nothing 
but the scorched walls behind him.' 

In 1313, Sir James took the castle of Roxburgh, and 
in the following year commanded the centre of the 
Scottish van at Baxnockburx. In 1317 he defeated 
the English under the Earl of Arundel ; and in 1319, 
in conjunction with Randolph, Earl of Moray, he 
entered England by the west marches with 1500 
men, routed the English under the Archbishop of York 
at the so-called Chapter of Mitton, and, eluding Edward 
II., returned with honour to Scotland. When Robert 
the Bruce was on his deathbed, in 1329, he sent for his 
true friend and companion in arms the Good Sir James, 
and requested him, that so soon as his sjiirit had 
departed to Him who gave it, he should take his heart 
and ' bear it in battle against the Saracens. ' Douglas 
resolved to carry the request of the dying king into 
execution, and for this purpose obtained a passport 
from Edward III., dated 1 Sept. 1329. He set sailin 
the following year w^th the heart of his honoured 
master, accompanied by a splendid retinue. Having 
anchored off Sluys, he was informed that Alphonso XL, 
the King of Leon and Castile, was engaged in hostilities 
in Grenada with the Moorish commander Osmj'n ; and 
this determined him to pass into Spain, and assist the 
Christians to combat the Saracens. Douglas and his 
friends were warmly received by Alphonso, and encoun- 
tering the iloslems at Theba, on the frontiers of Anda- 
lusia, on Aug. 25, 1330, put them to rout. Douglas 
eagerly followed in the pursuit, and, taking the casket 
which contained the heart of Ijruce, he flung it before 
him, exclaiming, ' Onward, as thou wert wont, thou 
noble heart, Douglas will follow thee ! ' The Saracens 
rallied, and the Good Sir James was slain. His com- 
panions found his body upon the field along with the 
casket, and sorrowfully bore them back to Scotland, 
where the heart of the Bruce was deposited at Melrose, 
though his body was interred in the royal tomb at Dun- 
fermline, whilst Sir James was buried at Douglas, and 
a monument erected to him by his brother Archibald. 
The old poet Barbour, after reciting the circumstances 
of Sir James's fall in Spain, tells how — 

' Quhen his men langf had mad murnyn, 
Thai debowlyt him, and syne 
Gert scher him swa, that myclit be tane 
The flescli all haly fra the bane, 
And the carioune thar in haly place 
Erdyt, « ith rycht gret worschi)), was. 
The bariys liave thai with them tane 
And syne ar to thair sc!iii>i)is yane 
Syne towart Scotland held thair way, 
And thar ar cummyn in full g-ret hy 
And the bauys honorahilly 
In till the kirk off Doujrlas war 
Erdyt, with dull and mekill car. 
Schyr Archebald has sune jrert syn 
Off alaJbastre, baith fair and fyue, 
Or save a tumbe sa richJy 
As it bchowyt to swa worth j.' 

Sir James's nephew was raised to the earldom of Douglas 
in 1357 by David II.; and during this reign and the 
two which succeeded the house of Douglas attained a 
degree of power scarcely inferior to that of royalty itself; 



so that, as has been remarked by an old liistorian, it 
became a saying that ' nae man was safe in the country, 
unless he were either a Douglas or a Douglas man.' The 
Earl went abroad with a train of 2000 men, kept a sort 
of court, and even created knights. In 1424, Archibald, 
the fourth Earl, became possessed of the dukedom of 
Touraine, for services rendered to Charles YII. of France. 
"William, the sixth Earl, a stripling not yet 15, succeeded 
to the family power at a stage when it had attained a 
most formidable height. Their estates in Galloway — 
where they possessed the stronghold of Threave — and 
those of Annaudale and Douglas, comprised two-thirds 
of Scotland to the S of Edinburgh ; the people viewed 
them as the champions of Scotland, especially after the 
victor}' of Otterbum, and since single-handed they had 
won back the border lauds ceded to England by Edward 
Baliol ; lastly, through the marriage of the Good Sir 
James's brother and heir with Domagilla, the Red 
Comyn's sister and Baliol's niece, the Douglases could 
found a most plausible claim to the Scottish tlirone, and, 
but for Baliol's unpopularity, might have contested the 
accession of Robert II. It was at this time, however, 
the policy of Crichton — one of the ablest of those who 
had the direction of affairs during the minority of James 
II. — to humble the overgrown power of the nobles ; and 
accordingly Earl William, having been decoyed into the 
castle of Edinburgh, was subjected to a mock trial for 
treason, and beheaded 24 Nov. 1440. ' This noble 
youth and his brother and a few other principal friends, ' 
says Hume of Godscroft, 'on their arrival in Edinburgh, 
went directly to the castle, being led as it were and 
drawn by a fatal destiny, and so came in the power of 
their deadly enemies and feigned friends. At the very 
instant comes the Governor, as was before appointed 
betwixt them, to play his part of the tragedy, and both 
he and the chancellor might be alike embarked in the 
action, and bear the envy of so ugly a fact, that the 
weight thereof might not be on one alone. Yet to play 
out their treacherous parts, they welcome him most 
courteously, set him to dinner with the king at the 
same table, feast him royally, entertain him cheerfully, 
and that for a long time. At last, about the end of 
dinner, they compass him about with armed men, and 
cause present a bull's head before him on the board. 
The bull's head was in those days a token of death, say 
our histories ; but how it hath come in use to be taken 
and signify, neither do they nor any else tell us ; neither 
is it to be found, that I remember, anywhere in history, 
save in this one place ; neither can we conjecture what 
affinity it can have therewith, unless to exprobrate gross- 
ness, according to the French and our own reproaching 
dull and gross wits, by calling him calfs-head {tete 
de veau) but not bull's head. The young nobleman, 
either understanding the sign as an ordinary thing, or 
astonished with it as an uncouth thing, upon the sight 
of the bull's head, offering to rise, was laid hold of by 
their armed men, in the king's presence, at the king's 
table, which should have been a sanctuary to him. And 
so without regard of king, or any duty, and mthont any 
further process, without order, assize, or jury, ^vithout 
law, no crime objected, he not being convicted at all, a 
young man of that age, that was not liable to the law in 
reganl of his youth, a nobleman of that place, a worthy 
young gentleman of such expectation, a guest of that 
acceptation, one who had reposed upon their credit, who 
had committed himself to them, a friend in mind, who 
looked for friendship, to whom all friendship was pro- 
mised, against duty, law, friendship, faith, honesty, 
humanity, hospitality, against nature, against human 
society, against God's law, against man's law, and the 
law of nature, is cruelly executed and put to death. 
David Douglas, his younger brother, was also put to 
death with him, and Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauld ; 
they were all three beheaded in the back court of the 
castle that lieth to the west.' 

' When E^rl Douplas to the Castle came 
The courts they were fu" Krim to see ; 
And he liked na the feast aa they sat at dine, 
The tables were gerved sac oilenUie. 


' And full twenty feet fro the table he sprang 
When the grislj' bull's head rnet his e'e. 
But the Crichtouns a" cam' troupin in, 
An' he coudna fight an' wadna flie. 

' O, when the news to Hermitage came, 
The Douglasses were brim and wud ; 
They swore to set Embro' in a bleeze, 
An' slochen't wi' auld Crichtouu's blood.' 

The dukedom of Touraine reverted to the French king ; 
but, after three years of depressed fortune, the Douglases 
rose to a greater degree of power than ever in the 
person of "William, the eighth Earl, who, professing to 
be in favour with the young king, James II. , appointed 
himself Lieutenant-General of the kingdom. Having 
fallen, however, into partial disgrace, he went abroad 
(1450), and his castle of Douglas was demolished during 
his a'bsence by order of the king, on account of his 
vassals' insolence. On the return of the Earl, he made 
submission to the king, a submission never meant to be 
sincere. He sought to assassinate Crichton the chancel- 
lor, hanged Herries of Terregles in despite of the king's 
mandate to the contrary, and in obedience to a royal 
warrant delivered up the Tutor of Bombie — headless. 
By leaguing, moreover, with the Earls of Crawford and 
Ross, he united against his sovereign almost one-half of 
the kingdom. But his credulity led him into the selfsame 
snare that had proved fatal to the former Earl. Relying 
on the promise of the king, who had now attained to the 
years of manhood, and having obtained a safe-conduct 
under the great seal, he ventured to meet him in Stirling 
Castle, 13 Jan. 1452. James urged him to dissolve the 
Bands, the Earl refused. 'If you will not,' said the en- 
raged monarch, drawing his dagger, ' then this shall ! ' 
and stabbed him to the heart. 1 he Earl's four brothers 
and vassals ran to arms with the utmost furj' ; and, 
dragging the safe-conduct, which the king had gi'anted 
and \'iolated, at a horse's tail, they marched to Stirling, 
burned the town, and threatened to besiege the castle. 
An accommodation ensued, on what terms is not known ; 
but the king's jealousy, and the new Earl's power and 
resentment, prevented its long continuance. Both 
took the field, and met near Abercorn (1454), at 
the head of their armies. That of the Earl, composed 
chiefly of Borderers, was far superior to the king's, 
in both numbers and valour ; and a single battle must 
in all probability have decided whether the house of 
Stewart or the house of Douglas was henceforth to sit 
upon the throne of Scotland. But while his troops im- 
patiently expected the signal to engage, the Earl ordered 
them to retire to their camp ; and Sir James Hamilton 
of Cadzow, in whom he placed the greatest confidence, 
convinced of his lack of genius to improve an oppor- 
tunity, or of his want of courage to seize a crown, 
deserted him that very night. This example was fol- 
lowed b}' manj' ; and the Earl, despised or forsaken by 
all, was soon driven out of the kingdom, and obliged to 
depend for his subsistence on the King of England. 
The overgrown strength of this family was destroyed in 
1455 ; and the Earl, after enduring many vicissitudes, 
retired in his old age to Lindores Abbey in Fife, and 
died there in 1488. 

Tlie title of Earl of Douglas, of this the first branch 
of the family, existed for 98 years, giving an average of 
11 years to each possessor. The lands of the family 
reverted to the Crown, but shortly afterwards were 
bestowed on the Earl of Angus, the head of a younger 
branch of the old family, descended from George Dou- 
glas, the only son of William, first Earl of Douglas, by 
his third Avife, Margaret, Countess of Angus, who in 
1389, on his mother's resignation of her right, received 
her title. This family assisted in the destruction of the 
parent-house ; and it became a saying, in allusion to 
the complexion of the two races, that the red Douglas 
had put down the black. Among its members were 
several who figured prominently in Scottish story, 
such as Archibald, fifth Earl, known by the soulriquct 
of 'Bell-the-Cat ;' and Archibald, sixtli Earl, who, marry- 
ing Margaret of England, widow of James IV., was 
grandfather of the unfortunate Henry Lord Darnley, 
the husband of Queen JIary and father of James VI. 



This Archibald, during the minority of his step-son 
James V. , had all the authority of a regent. William, 
eleventh Earl of Angus, was raised to the marquisate of 
Douglas, in 1633, by Charles L This nobleman was a 
Catholic and a royalist, and inclined to hold out his 
castle against the Covenanters, in favour of the king ; 
but he was surprised by them, and the castle taken 
(1639). He was one of the best of the family, and kept 
up to its fullest extent the olden princely Scottish hospi- 
tality. The king constituted him his lieutenant on the 
Borders, and he joined Montrose after his victory at 
Kilsyth (1645), escaped from the rout at the battle of 
Philiphaugh, and soon after made terms with the ruling 
powers. The first Jlarquis of Douglas was the father 
of three peers of different titles — Archibald, his eldest 
son, who succeeded him as second Marquis ; William, 
his eldest son by a second marriage, who became third 
Duke of Hamilton ; and George, his second son, by the 
same marriage, who was created Earl of Dumbarton. 
Archibald, tliird Marquis, succeeded in 1700, and was 
created Duke of Douglas in 1703. In the '15 he adhered 
to the ruling family of Hanover, and fought as a volun- 
teer in the battle of Sheriffmuir. He died childless at 
Queensberry House, Edinburgh, in 1761, when the ducal 
title became extinct, the Marquisate of Douglas devolv- 
ing on the Duke of Hamilton, on account of his descent 
from the first Marquis. The real and personal estate 
of the Duke of Douglas was inherited by his nephew, 
Archibald Stewart, Esq. , who assumed the surname of 
Douglas, and in 1790 was created Baron Douglas of 
Douglas — a title re-granted in 1875 to the eleventh Earl 
of Home (1799-18S1), who had married the grand- 
daughter of the above-named Archibald Stewart, and 
now borne by his son and successor, Chs. Alex. Douglas 
Home (b. 1834), the present Earl, who holds in Lanark- 
shire 61,943 acres, valued at £24,764 per annum, besides 
a large and increasing revenue from minerals. (See also 
BoTHWELL and The Hirsel.) 

Such are some of the memories of this time-worn 
ruin, interesting also as the 'Castle Dangerous' of Sir 
Walter Scott's last romance, and the last place to which 
he made a pilgrimage in Scotland, His preface, trans- 
mitted from Naples in 1832, contains the following 
passage : — ' The author, before he had made much pro- 
gress in this, probably the last of his novels, undertook 
a jom-ney to Douglasdale, for the purpose of examining 
the remains of the famous castle, the Kirk of St Bride of 
Douglas, the patron-saint of that great family, and the 
various localities alluded to by Godscroft, in his account 
of the early adventures of Good Sir James. But though 
he was fortunate enough to find a zealous and well- 
infarmed cicerone in Mr Thomas Haddow, and had 
every assistance from the kindness of Mr Alexander 
Finlay, the resident chamberlain of his friend Lord 
Douglas, the state of his health at the time was so feeble 
that he found himself incapable of pursuing his re- 
searches, as in better days he would have delighted to 
do, and was obliged to be contented with such a cursory 
view of scenes, in themselves most interesting, as could 
be snatched in a single morning, when any bodily 
exertion was painful. Mr Haddow was attentive enough 
to forward subsequently some notes on the points which 
the author had seemed desirous of investigating ; but 
these did not reach him until, being obliged to prepare 
matters for a foreign excursion in quest of health and 
strength, he had been compelled to bring his work, such 
as it is, to a conclusion. The remains of the old castle 
of Douglas are inconsiderable. They consist, indeed, of 
but one ruined tower, standing at a short distance from 
the modem mansion, which itself is only one wing of 
the design on which the Duke of»Douglas meant to 
reconstruct the edifice, after its last accidental destruc- 
tion by fire. His grace had kept in view the ancient 
prophecy that, as often as Douglas Castle might be 
destroyed it should rise again in enlarged dimensions 
and improved splendour, and projected a pile of build- 
ing, which, if it had been completed, would have much 
exceeded any nobleman's residence then existing in 
Scotland ; as, indeed, what has been finished, amounting 

to about one-eighth of the plan, is sufficiently extensive 
for the accommodation of a large establishment, and 
contains some apartments the extent of which is mag- 
nificent. The situation is commanding ; and though 
the Duke's successors have allowed the mansion to 
continue as he left it, great expense has been lavished 
on the environs, which now present a vast sweep of 
riclily undulated woodland when viewed from the 
Cairntable mountains, repeatedly mentioned as the 
favourite retreat of the great ancestor of the family in 
the days of his hardships and persecution.' See David 
Hume of Godscroft, History of the House and Puice of 
Douglas and Angus (1644 ; new ed. by Ruddiman, 2 
vols. 1743). 
Douglasdale. See Douglas Water. 
Douglas-Mill, a quondam inn (well known in old 
coaching days) in Douglas parish, Lanarkshire, 2^ miles 
NE of Douglas town. Coleridge and Wordsworth and 
his sister Dorothy dined here 20 Aug. 1803. 

Douglas-Park, an estate, with a mansion, in Bothwell 
parish, Lanarkshire, on the right bank of South Calder 
Water, If mile E of Bothwell village. 

Douglastown, a village in Kinnettles parish, Forfar- 
shire, on the right bank of Arity Water, at the western 
verge of the parish, 3J miles SW of Forfar, under which 
it has a post office. At it stand the handsome new 
parish school and a large flax-spinning mill, founded, 
like the village, in 1792. 

Douglas Water, a burn of Arrochar and Luss parishes, 
Dumbartonshire, formed by two head-streams, within f 
mile of Loch Long, and running 4| mUes east-by-south- 
ward, chiefly along the mutual boundary of the two 
parishes, to Loch Lomond at Inveruglas, opposite 
Rowardennan. Its basin is a grand glen, flanked on the 
N side by Tullich Hill (2075 feet), Ben Vreac (2233), 
and Stob Gobhlach (1413), and on the S by Doune Hill 
(2409), Mid Hill (2149), and Ben Dubh (2106).— Or(«. 
Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Douglas Water, a burn in Inverary parish, Argyll- 
shire, issuing from Loch Dubh-ghlas (4 x § furl. ; 1050 
feet), and curving 6 J miles eastward to Loch Fyne, at a 
point 2f miles SSW of Inverary town. It contains 
salmon, sea-trout, and yellow trout. A section of rock 
in its channel, 100 feet high, shows alternate strata of 
mica slate and limestone. — Ord. Sur., sh. 37, 1876. 

Douglas Water, a stream of SW Lanarkshire, rising, 
1500 feet above sea-level, between Cairntable (1944 feet) 
and Little Cairntable (1693), at the SW corner of 
Douglas parish, within a furlong of the Ayrshire border. 
Thence it winds 16^ miles north-eastward through 
Douglas parish, and 3| miles north-north-eastward along 
the mutual boundary of Carmichael and Lesmahagow 
parishes, till, after a total descent of fully 900 feet, it 
falls into the Clyde at a point nearly 1| mile above 
Bonnington Linn, and 2f miles SSE of Lanark. It 
receives, on its left bank, Monks and Poniel Waters, and, 
on its right bank, Kennox AVater and Glespin, Parkhall, 
Craig, Ponfeigh, Shiels, and Drumalbin Burns ; con- 
tains good store of trout ; and gives the name of Douglas- 
dale to its basin or valley, which, comprising nearly all 
Douglas parish and considerable portions of Carmichael 
and Lesmahagow, is so overhung by a conspicuous part 
of a great range of watershed catching the rain clouds 
from the S and AV, as to render the volume of the 
Douglas nearly equal to that of the Clyde at the point 
of confluence, and has such a configuration as to impart 
some peculiarity to the climate. ' The district,' says 
the New Statist, ' is exposed to high winds, particularly 
from the SW and W, which, being confined as in a 
funnel by the high grounds on each side, sweep down 
the strath with tremendous violence.' — Ord. Sur., shs. 
15, 23, 1864-65. 

Doulas or Dulaich, a loch in Lairg parish, S Suther- 
land, 2i miles NE of Lairg village. L3-ing 480 feet 
above sea-level, it measures 3 by 14 furlongs, sends off a 
rivulet to Loch Shin at Lairg village, and itself receives 
one, running f mile eastward from Loch Craggie, like 
which it abounds in very fine trout, running about ^ lb, 
each.— Ord. Sur., sh. 102, 1881. 357 


Doule, a lake in Strathcarron, Ross-shire, adjacent to 
the Dingwall and Skye railway, 6 miles NE of the head 
of Loch Carron. It it an expansion of the river Carron, 
measures about 2 miles in length, contains three islands, 
and is well stocked with trout. 

Douloch or Dubh Loch, a lake in Inverary parish, 
Argyllshire, at the foot of Glen Shira, 2 miles NE of 
Inverary town. An expansion of the Sliira rivulet, 
measuring | mile by 1^ furlong, it lies only 25 feet above 
the level of Loch Fyne, extends to within 5 furlongs of 
the Shira's mouth, and in spring-tides receives some 
small portion of Loch Fyne's sea-water. It yields trout 
and salmon, sometimes in the same net with herrings 
and other sea fish ; and takes the name of Douloch, 
signifying ' the black lake,' from the sombreness and 
depth of its waters. A baronial fortalice of the Lairds 
of ilacnaughton stood on its southern shore, and is 
now a ruin. — Ord. Sur., sh. 37, 1S76. 

Doune or Dun of Creich. See Cueicii, Sutherland. 

Doune, a modern mansion, in the Rothiemurchus por- 
tion of Duthil parish, E Inverness-shire, on the left bank 
of the Spey, 2J miles SSW of Aviemore station. Its 
owner. Sir John Peter Grant of Rothiemurchus, K.C. B. , 
G.C.M.G. (b. 1S07 ; sue. 1S4S), was Lieut. -Governor of 
Bengal 1859-62, and Governor of Jamaica 1866-73 ; he 
holds 24,457 acres in the shii'c, valued at £2291 per 

Doune, an oval, flat-topped mound in Strathdon 
parish, W Aberdeenshire, at the W side of the Water of 
Nochty, just above its influx to the Don. Mainly (it 
would seem) of drift or diluvial formation, artificially 
altered and fortified, it was surrounded by a moat 26 
feet wide and 16 deep, and measures 970 feet in circum- 
ference at the base, 60 in vertical height, and 562 in 
circumference at the top, which, about half an acre in 
area, shows foundations of buildings. According to 
vague tradition, it was the site of Invernochty church. 

Doune, a mountain in Luss parish, Dumbartonshire, 
at the head of Glenmallochan, 5| miles NW by W of 
Luss village. It has an altitude of 2409 feet above sea- 

Doune or Down Law, a hill (663 feet) in the SW of 
Roxburgh parish, Roxburghshire, adjoining Peniel 
Heugh in Crailing. 

Doune (Gael, 'the hill'), a village in Kilmadock 
parish, S Perthshire, with a station on the Dunblane 
and Callander section of the Caledonian, 78 miles ESE 
of Oban, 7i SE of Callander, 3| W by N of Dunblane, 
8| NW of Stirling, 45 NW of Edinburgh, and 38^ NNE 
of Glasgow. It stands near the left bank of the swil't 
river Teith, which here receives Ardoch Burn, and here 
is spanned by a noble two-arched bridge, founded in 
1535 by Robert Spittal, tailor to the Jlost Noble Princess 
Margaret, the Queen of James IV. , and widened 3 feet 
in 1866. The village of Bridge of Teith adjoins it, and 
on the opposite side of the river, 1 mile to the W, stands 
that of Deax.stox ; whilst just to the S frown the hoary 
ruins of Doune Castle, and behind rise the heathery 
Braes of Doune, which culminate in Uamh Bheag (2179 
feet), 62 miles to the NW. Itself, Doune mainly con- 
sists of a larger and two smaller well-built streets, 
radiating from an old central market-cross ; and has a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, branches of the Royal and Union 
Banks, 5 insurance agencies, an hotel and 2 inns, a gas 
company, a public library, a volunteer corps, curling 
and bowling clubs, a masonic lodge (1789), a Free Gar- 
deners' lodge (1819), and a horticultural institution 
(1837). Thursday is market-day ; and fairs are held on 
the second Wednesday of Jlay, the last Wednesday of 
July (hiring), the Tuesday before the first Wednesday of 
November (sheep), the first AVcdnesday of November 
(cattle and horses), and the fourth Wednesday of No- 
vember (sheep and cattle), four of these fairs having 
been authorised by Act of Parliament in 1665. Once 
famous for its manufacture of Highland pistols and 
sporans, Doune now depends chiefly upon Deanston 
cotton-mill, started in 1785. Places of worship are the 
parish church (1822; 1151 sittings^ a Gothic edifice, 


with handsome tower and beautiful pulpit ; a Free 
church ; a U. P. church at Bridge of Teith, of which Dr 
John M'Kerrow, historian of the Secession, was minister 
from 1813 till his death in 1867 ; the Roman Catliolic 
church of SS. Fillan and Alphonsus-(1875 ; 300 sittings); 
and St ]\Iodoc's Episcopal church (1878 ; 120 sittings), 
which. Early English in style, consists of a four-bayed 
nave barrel-vaulted in oak, a three-bayed chancel groined 
in stone, a N organ transept, and a N sacristy, with 
beautiful stained-glass E and W windows and wooden 
triptych reredos. A public and an infant school, with 
respective accommodation for 131 and 94 children, had 

(1880) an average attendance of 56 and 42, and grants 
of £48, 14s. and £28. The superior of the village is the 
Earl of Moray, whose Perthshire seat is Doune Lodge. 
Pop. (1841) 1559, (1851) 1459, (1861) 1256, (1871)1262, 

(1881) 997.— Or(?. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Doune Castle, a stately baronial stronghold, at the 
SE end of Doune village, on the steep, woody, green- 
sward peninsula, formed by the river Teith and Ardoch 
Burn. Roofless and ruinous, though still a majestic 
pile, it has been said to date from the 11th century, but 
probably was either founded or enlarged by Murdoch 
Stewart, second Duke of Albanj-, and Governor of Scot- 
land from 1419 to 1424. At his execution (25 May 
1425) on the heading-hiU of Stirling, it went to the 
Crown, and, given by James IV. to Margaret, his queen, 
passed in 1525 to her third husband, Henry Stewart, a 
lineal descendant of the first Duke of Albany. To his 
brother. Sir James, the custody of it was afterwards 
granted by James V. ; and Ms son and namesake, created 
Lord Doune in 1581, coming into full possession, trans- 
mitted the same to his posterity, the Earls of Moray. 
From time to time a residence of royalty, including of 
course Queen Mary, it was garrisoned in the '45 for Prince 
Charles Edward by a nejiliew of the celebrated Rob Roy, 
and then was mounted with a twelve-pounder and 
several swivels. Scott brings his hero 'Waverley' 
within its walls ; and it was really the six days' prison 
of Home, the author of Douglas, who, with five fellow- 
captives from the field of Falkirk, escaped by means of 
a blanket-twisted rope. This noble specimen of Scottish 
baronial architecture measures 96 feet each way, and, 
with w^alls 10 feet in thickness and 40 in height, com- 
prises a massive north-eastern keep-tower, which, 80 
feet high, commands a most lovely view ; within are 
the court-yard, guardhouse, kitchen, great hall (63 by 
25 feet), the I3aron's Hall, and Queen Mary's Room. 
' The mass of buildings,' says Dr Hill Burton, 'forms 
altogether a compact quadrangle, the towers and curtains 
serving as the extensive fortifications, and embracing a 
court-yard nearly surrounded by the buildings. The 
bastioned square tower of the 15th century is the ruling 
feature of the place ; but the edifice is of various ages, 
and includes round staircase towers and remains of 
the angular turrets of the beginning of the 17th cen- 
tury. Winding stairs, long ranging corridors and 
passages, and an abundance of mysterious vaults, strong, 
deep, and gloomy, reward the investigator who has leisure 
enough to pass an hour or two within its hoary walls ; 
but, as we generally find in the old Scottish baronial 
edifices, there are few decorative features, and immense 
strength has been the great aim of each builder.' See 
Billings' Baronial Antiquities (1852). 

Doune Lodge, a mansion in Kilmadock parish, Perth- 
shire, li mile NW of Doune village. Till some time 
into the present century it bore the name of Cambus- 
wallace, and as such is remembered as the house where, 
on 13 Sept. 1745, Prince Charlie ' prce'd the mou' of 
Jliss Robina Edmondstone. From the Edmondstones 
it has come to the Earls of Moray, the tenth of whom, 
about 1852, did much to improve the estate, building 
new lodges and extensive oflices, crowned by a conspi- 
cuous steeple ; and George Stuart, present and thirteenth 
Earl (b. 1814 ; sue. 1872), holds 40,553 acres in the shire, 
valued at £10,800 per annum. (See Mokav, DoNl- 
BUisrr.E, Dauxaway, and CASTLE-SruAnr. ) 

Dounies. See Doavnies. 

Dounreay. See Reav. 



Dour, a burn in Abenlour parish, Aberdeenshire, run- 
ning Sg miles north-by-eastward to the Moray Firth at 
a point 1 mile N of New Aberdour village. 

Doura, a village in Kilwinning parish, Ayrshire, 
Z][ miles ESE of the town. Extensive coal-works are 
in its vicinity, and are connected with the Ardrossan 
branch of the Glasgow and South-Western railway by 
a single-line railroad. 

Dourie, a burn of ^larjdcirk parish, Kincardineshire, 
formed, 5 furlongs SE of Fettercairn village, by Balna- 
kettle, Crichie, and Garrol Burns, and thence running 
3^ miles south-south-eastward along the Fettercairn 
border and through the interior, till, 9 furlongs NNW 
of Marykirk station, it falls into Luther AVater. — Ord. 
Sur., shs. 66, 57, 1871-68. 
Dovan. See Devon. 

Dovecothall, a village on the S border of Abbey 
parish, Renfrewshire, on the river Levern, conjoint 
with Barrhead. It contains the oldest of the cotton 
mills in the Barrhead district, and shares largely in the 
bleachfield and print field business of Barrhead. 
Dovecotwood. See Kilsyth. 

Dovehill, one of the Barrhead villages in Renfrew- 
Doveran. See Deveron. 

Dovesland, a suburb in Abbey parish, Renfrewshire, 
on the S side of Paisley. It forms part of Charleston 
district, was mainly built after the year 1830, and has a 
large population, chiefly weavers. 
Dow. See Glendow. 
Dowal. See Doule. 

Dowally, a village in the united parish of Dunkeld 
AND Dowally, central Perthshire, 5 furlongs SSE of 
Guay station on the Highland railway, this being 55 
miles NNW of Dnnkeld station. It stands on the left 
bank of the Tay, which here is joined by Dowally Burn, 
and, J mile higher up, is spanned by Dalguise viaduct. 
Dowally Burn issues from Lochan Oisinneach Bheag 
(l^xf furl.) in Logierait parish, and runs 7^ miles 
south-south-westward, traversing Lochan Oisinneach 
Mhor (4 X 2J furl. ) and Loch Ordie (5x3^ furl. ), whilst 
receiving a streamlet that runs J mile north-westward 
from Dowally Loch (If x f furl.). At the village are a 
public school and an Established church (1818 ; 220 
sittings), which retains the old jougs of the church of St 
Anne, built here by Bishop George Brown of Dunkeld 
in 1500, when Dowally, till then a chapelry of Caputh, 
was constituted a separate parish. It now is united to 
Dunkeld, but stands so far distinct, that it is a Gaelic, 
while Dunkeld is an English, district. Pop. of Dowally 
registration division (1861) 486, (1871) 461, (1881) 431. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 55, 1869. 

Dowalton Loch, a former lake on the mutual border of 
Sorbie, Kirkinner, and Glasserton parishes, SE Wig- 
townshire, 6 miles SSW of Wigtown. With a length of 
1| mile from WSW to ENE, a varying breadth of 1 and 
5;| furlongs, and a depth of from 6 to 20 feet, it covered 
212 acres, but was entirely drained in 1862-63 by its 
three proprietors Sir W. Maxwell of Monreith, Vans 
Agnew, and Lord Stair, its bottom now forming excel- 
lent meadow-land. Of its eight little islets two near 
the north-western or Kirkinner shore were then dis- 
covered to bo artificial crannoges or pile-built lake- 
dwellings. These yielded bones of the ox, pig, and 
deer, bronze vessels (one of them of Roman workman- 
ship), iron axe and hammer heads, glass and amber 
beads, and part of a leather shoe, with finely-stamped 
pattern, twenty-six of which relics are now in the 
Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum ; and in the neighbour- 
ing waters of the loch five canoes were found, from 21 to 
26 feet long. On the shore of a western inlet stood 
Longcastle, the ancient keep of the M'Doualls, from 
whom the loch got its name ; its site is now marked by 
fragments of crumbling wall. — Onf. Sur., sh. 4, 1857. 
See Dr John Stuart's 'Notices of a Group of Artificial 
Islands in the Loch of Dowalton ' in vol. vi. of Procs. 
Soc. Ants. Scotl., and pp. 45-47 of Wm. M'llraith's 
JFifffjjicmhire {-Zd cd. , Dumf. , 1877). 
Dowie Dens. See Yarkow. 

Dowloch. See Doulocji. 

Down. See Doune. 

Downan, a quondam ancient chapelry in Glenlivct, 
Inveraven parish, Banlf'shire, near the Livet's confluence 
with the Avon. A bridge over the Livet at Upper 
Downan being almost entirely destroyed by the flood of 
1829, a new one, on a better site lower down the stream, 
was built in 1835. 

Downans. See Castle-Donnan, 

Downess. See Downies. 

Downfield, a village, with a public school, in Mains 
and Strathmartin parish, Forfarshire, 2 miles N by W 
of Dundee, under which it has a post ofiice, with money 
order and savings' bank departments. 

Downie. See Cambustane. 

Downie Park, an estate, with an elegant modern man- 
sion, in Tannadicc parish, Forfarshire, on the left bank 
of the South Esk, 1 mile SE of Cortachy Castle, like 
which it belongs to the Earl of Airlie. 

Downies, a fishing hamlet, with a small harbour, in 
the extreme SE of Banchory-Devenick parish, Kincar- 
dineshire, 1 mile S by E of Portlethen station. 

Downreay. See Reay. 

Dow- Well. See Innerleithen. 

Draffan Castle. See Dunixo. 

Dragon-Hole, a cave in the rocky face of Kinnoull 
Hill, near the mutual boimdary of Kinnoull and Kin- 
fauns parishes, Perthshire. It is diflScult of access ; has 
capacity for about twelve men ; is traditionally said to 
have been a hiding-place of Sir William Wallace ; and, 
till after the era of the Reformation, was a scene of 
superstitious observances. 

Drainie, a coast parish of Elginshire, comprising the 
ancient parishes of Kinneddar and Ogstoun, and contain- 
ing the villages of Branderburgh and Stotfield, and 
the post-town and station of Lossiemouth, 5| miles N 
by E of Elgin. It is bounded N by the Moray Firth, 
NE and E by Urquhart, SE by St Andrews-Lhanbryd, 
S by Spynie, and SW by Duifus. Its length, from E 
to W, varies between 3:^ and 4§ miles ; its utmost 
breadth, from N to S, is 3g miles ; and its area is 7254J 
acres, of which 273| are foreshore and 16J water. 
The coast-line, 5 miles long, is partly low and flat, 
partly an intricate series of cavernous rocks, noticed 
under Covesea. On the Dufl"us border, J mile inland, 
the surface attains 241 feet above sea-level, at Covesea 
195, near Lossiemouth 124 ; but to the S it every- 
where is low and flat, ranging between 43 feet at the 
parish church and only 9 at Watery Mains. The river 
Lossie curves 2^ miles northward, north-westward, and 
north-eastward, along all the Urquhart border, and just 
above its mouth receives the Spynie Canal, bending 3^ 
miles northward from the former bed of Loch Spynie, 
which, lying upon the southern boundary, was origin- 
ally aliout 3 miles long and 1 mile broad, but by drainage 
operations, carried out about 1807, and again in 1860-70, 
has been reduced to a sheet of water in St Andrews- 
Lhanbryd parish of only 5 by 1^ furlongs. Low tracts 
along the Lossie were formerly subject to inundation, 
and suffered much damage from the flood of 1829, but 
now are protected by embankments. A white and 
yellow sandstone quarried here is in great request, both 
for local building and for exportation ; and a vein of 
limestone lies between Lossiemouth and Stotfield, where 
surface lead ore also has thrice been the object of fruit- 
less operations — during last century, in 1853, and in 
1879-81. The soil is so various that scarcely 20 acres 
of any one same quality can be found together, and it 
often passes with sudden transition from good to bad. 
Rich loam or marly clay lies on the low drained fields, 
elsewhere is mostly a lighter soil, incumbent on gravel 
or on pure white sand ; and about a square mile of thin 
heathy earth, in the middle of the parish, having 
resisted every effort to render it arable, was at last con- 
verted into a small pine forest. Kinneddar Castle, a 
strong occasional residence of the P.ishops of Moray, 
stood by Kinneddar churchyard, whilst the first church 
of Drainie (1673) exists still in a state of ruin. Gerar- 
dine's Cave or Iloly-JIauhcad, near Lossiemouth, was 



probably the abode of a liermit, and, measuring 12 
feet square, had a Gothic doorway and -window, which 
commanded a long view of the eastern coast, but in the 
course of working the quarries it was totally destroyed. 
GouDONSTOAVN is the only mansion ; and 2 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 2 of 
between £100 and £500, 4 of from £50 to £100, and 30 
of from £20 to £50. Drainie is in the presbytery of 
Elgin and svnod of iloray ; the living is worth £327. 
The parish cliurch, 2| miles SW of Lossiemouth, was 
built in 1S23, and contains 700 sittings. A chapel of 
ease and a Free church are at Lossiemouth ; U. P. and 
Baptist churches at Brandcnburgh ; and three public 
schools— Drainie, Kinneddar, and Lossiemouth— with 
respective accommodation for 85, 246, and 400 children, 
had (1880) an average attendance of 61, 199, and 293, 
and grants of £41, 6s., £133, 15s., and £253, 16s. 6d. 
Valuation (1860) £7565, (1881) £12,099, 19s. Pop. 
(1801) 1057, (1831) 1206, (1861) 3028, (1871) 3293, (1881) 
•39SS.—Onl. Sur., sh. 95, 1876. 

Drakemyre, a village in Dairy parish, Ayrshire, 
i mile N of Dairy town. Pop. (1831) 126, (1861) 426, 
("1871) 536, (1881) 325. 

Dreel, a burn in the East Neuk of Fife, rising in the 
NWof Carnbee parish, at an altitude of 580 feet above 
sea-level, and running 6 miles southward, south-eastward, 
and eastward, through Carnbee and along the boundary 
between Abercromby and Pittenweem on the right, and 
Carnbee, Anstruther-"\Vester, and Anstruther-Easter on 
the left, till it falls into the Firth of Forth at Austruther 
old harbour. 

Dreghom, a village and a parish on the southern 
border of Cunninghame district, Ayrshire. The village, 
standing 3 furlongs from the right bank of the river 
Irvine, is 2^ miles ESE of Irvine and 5 W of KUmarnock, 
having a station on the branch of the Glasgow and 
South-Western between those towns ; at it is a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and railway 
telegraph departments. It^chiefly consists of irregular 
lines of whitewashed houses, interspersed with trees, 
and, occupying a gentle acclivity above adjacent flats, 
commands a fine view of the waters and screens of the 
Firth of Clyde. Pop. (1861) 901, (1871) 821, (1881) 

The parish comprises the ancient parishes of Dregliorn 
and Perceton, united in 1668, and contains the greater 
part of Pjankhead and Perceton villages. It is bounded 
NW and N by Stewarton, E by Fenwick, SE by Kil- 
maurs, S by Dundonald, and W by Irvine. Its utmost 
length, from NE to SW, is 6 miles ; its breadth, from 
KW to SE, varies between ^ mile and 2§ miles ; and its 
area is 5661§ acres, of which 36 are water. The river 
luviNE glides 2§ miles westward along all the southern 
border ; Carrier Burn, running 6^ miles south-westwai'd 
to Carmel Water, and Cakmel Water, running 4^ fur- 
longs westward to the Irvine, trace nearly all the 
boundary with Kilmaurs ; whilst Annick Water, 
another of the Irvine's affluents, winds lOi miles south- 
westward on or near to all the boundary with Stewarton 
and Irvine. Sinking at the south-western corner of tlie 
parish to 30 feet above sea-level, the surface thence 
rises gently north-westward to 97 feet beyond Dregliorn 
village, 150 near Warwickdale, 226 near Albonhead, 
and 258 near Whiterig. The rocks are mainly carboni- 
ferous. Coal is largely worked, and ironstone, lime- 
stone, and sandstone abound. The soil, in the SAV 
ranging from loam to gravel, is elsewhere mostly a deej) 
rich loam ; and all the land, excepting some acres of 
wood and meadow, is under cultivation. Thougli now 
much subdivided, the entire parish belonged in 
the 12th century to the De Morvilles, lord high 
constables of Scotland, from whom it passed in 
1196 to Roland, Lord of Galloway. Mansions are 
Annick Lodge, Cunningiiamiikad, Perceton, Spiiing- 
8IUE, and Warwickliill ; and 9 proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 am! ui)wards, 9 of 
between £100 and £500, 3 of from £50 to £100, and 14 
of from £20 to £50. In the jires))ytery of Irvine and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr, Dregliorn gives oil' about 


450 acres, with 350 inhabitants, to the quoad sacra 
parish of CiiossiiousE ; the living is worth £448. The 
parish church (1780 ; reseated 1876 for 500) stands 
at the village, where also are a Free Chiu'ch mis- 
sion station and an Evangelical Union chapel ; and 
Dregliorn Free church is at Perceton village. Three pub- 
lic schools — Crossroads, Dregliorn, and Springside — with 
respective accommodation for 100, 300, and 300 children, 
had (1880) an average attendance of 34, 248, and 234, 
and grants of £32, 4s. , £237, 8s. , and £200, 15s. A'alua- 
tion (1860) £18,915, (1882) £22,679, 9s., plus £3243 for 
railways. Pop. (1801) 797, (1831) 888, (1841) 1222, 
(1861) 3283, (1871) 3241, (1881) 3949.— Orc^. Sur., sh. 
22, 1865. 

Dreghom Castle, a 17th century mansion, twice en- 
larged within the last 80 years, in Colintou parish, 
Edinburghshire, at the northern base of the Pentlands, 
I mile SE of Colinton village. Tlie estate, whence John 
Slaclaurin (1734-96) assumed the title of Lord Dreghorn 
on his elevation to the bench, belonged in 1671 to Sir 
William ilurray, Master of Works to Charles II., and 
in 1720 to the Homes, whose tutor, the poet David 
Mallet, here wrote the famous ballad of William and 
Margaret. Afterwards it passed to the Trotters, and 
now is owned by Robert Andrew Macfie, Es(i. , who, born 
in 1811, was member for Leith from 1S6S to 1874, and 
who holds 968 acres in the shire, valued at £2136 per 
annum. In Sept. 1881 Dreghorn Castle was honoured 
by a visit from Kalakaua, King of the Hawaiian 

Drem, a village and a barony in Athelstaneford parish, 
Haddingtonshire, i^ miles N by W of Haddington. 
The village stands on the North British railway at the 
junction of the branch to North Berwick, being 4| miles 
SSW of that town, and 17i E by N of Edinburgh ; at 
it is a j)ost office, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments. The barony, comprising more 
than 800 acres of fine land, belonged once to the Knights 
Templars, and is now the property of the Earl of Hope- 
toun. A small Roman station seems to have been on 
it, and ^ mile distant therefrom was a Caledonian or 
Romano-British town, which appears to have been 
strongly fortified, and has left distinct traces on the 
cro\\Ti of a conical eminence to the extent of about 2 
acres. The priest's house of the Knights Templars' esta- 
blishment is still standing, as also are a holly hedge that 
fenced the priest's garden and the greater part of a little 
chapel, served by the priest ; but the grave3'ard attached 
to the chapel lias been converted into a fruitful garden. 
About 100 yards from the old chapel a very perfect 
specimen was discovered in Aj^ril 1882 of an ancient 
sepulchre, formed of six red .sandstone flags, and contain- 
ing a skull and a clay urn. 

Drhuim. See DiiituiM. 

Drimachtor. See Duumociitek. 

Drimadoon, a small bay on the SW side of the Isle 
of Arrau, liuteshire, opening from Kilbrannan Sound, 
nearly opposite Saddel Castle. It is a mere encurvature, 
measuring 2 miles along the chord, and 4J furlongs 
thence to its inmost recess ; receives the Black Water ; 
and is flanked on the N side by Drimadoon Point, sur- 
mounted by remains of an extensive doon or fort and by 
a standing stone. 

Drunarbane, a village in Kilmallie parish, Inverness- 
shire, on the E shore of lower Loch Eil, 2^ miles SW of 
Fort William. 

Drimmashie. See Dhummossie. 

Drimmie, an estate in the W of Longforgan parish, 
SE rertlisliire. The mansion on it was the residence 
of tlie Kinnaird family after the destruction of ]\Ioncur 
Castle by fire in the beginning of last century ; but it 
was taken down about the year 1830. The Snabs of 
Drimmie (177 feet) are an abrupt termination of a beauti- 
ful bank, extending north-westward from the bold rocky 
point of Kingoodie ; and tliey command a fine view of 
the Carse of Gowrie. 

Drimmieburn. See Per-sie. 

Drimnin, an estate, with a mansion, in Morvern 
parish, Argyllshire, on the Sound of Mull, opposite 


Tobermory, 12J miles NW of ]\Ioi'vern hamlet. Its 
owner, Joseph Clement Gordon, Esq. (b. 1838 ; sue. 
1845), holds 7422 acres in the shire, valued at £853 per 
annum. St Columba's Roman Catholic church here, 
with 80 sittings, was built in 1833 by the late Sir 
Charles Gordon of Drimnin ; and, overlooking the Sound, 
occupies the site of an old castle, of no great import- 
ance, which was demolished to give place to the church. 

Drimsjmie, an estate, with a mansion, in Lochgoil- 
head parish, Argjdlshire. The mansion stands in the 
mouth of a romantic ravine, ^ mile W of Lochgoilhead 
village, and has finely wooded grounds. 

DrimyeonlDeg, a bay (7x6 furl.) on the E side of 
Gigha island, Argyllshire, to the N of Ardminish Point. 
It is capacious enough for local trade, and has good 
anchoring ground. 

Drochil Castle, a ruin in Newlands parish, Peebles- 
shire, on the brow of a rising-ground between the 
confluent Tarth and Lyne Waters, 7 miles WNW of 
Peebles. A noble pile, mantled in ivy and crusted with 
yellow lichens, its basement story converted into byres, 
it was, says Pennicuik, ' designed for a palace more 
than a castle of defence, and is of mighty bulk ; founded, 
and more than half built, but never finished, by the 
then great and powerful Regent, James Douglas, Earl of 
Morton. Upon the front of the S entry of this castle 
was J.E.O.M., James, Earl of Morton, in raised letters, 
with the fetter-lock, as "Warden of the Borders. This 
mighty Earl, for the pleasure of the place, and the 
salubrity of the air, designed here a noble recess and 
retirement from worldly business ; but was prevented by 
his unfortunate and inexorable death three years after, 
anno 1581 ; being accused, condemned, and execute by 
the Maiden, at the Cross of Edinburgh, as art and part 
of the mui'der of our King Henry, Earl of Darnley, 
father to King James the Sixth ' {Description of Tweed- 
dale, 1715). See also vol. ii. of Billings' Baronial 
Antiqicitics (1852).— Ord. Sur., sh. 24, 1864. 

Droma, a troutful loch in Lochbroom parish, central 
Ross-shire, 6 miles WNW of Aultguish inn, and 16| NW 
of Garve station. Lying 905 feet above sea-level, it has 
an utmost length and breadth of 1;^ and ^ mile, and 
sends off the Droma rivulet 5J miles west-north-west- 
ward, to form, with the Cuileig, the river Broom. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 92, 1881. 

Dromore. See Drumore. 

Dron, a hill in Longforgan parish, Perthshire, ad- 
jacent to the boundary with Forfarshire, 2 miles NW of 
Longforgan village. It rises to an altitude of 684 feet 
above sea-level ; and it has, within a dell on its southern 
slope, some remains of a chapel of the 12th century, 
belonging to Coupar- Angus Abbey. 

Dron, a parish of SE Perthshire, whose church stands 
2 miles SSE of its station and post-village, Bridge of 
Earn, that being 3| miles SSE of Perth. It includes a 
detached district separated from the W side of the main 
body by a strip of Dunbarney, 1 furlong to ^ mile across ; 
and it is bounded N by Dunbarney, NE and E by Aber- 
nethy, SE by the Fifeshire and S by the Perthshire 
section of Arngask, SW and W by Forgandenny. Its 
utmost length, from E to W, is 3J miles ; its breadth, 
from N to S, varies between 1^ and 2^ miles ; and its 
area is 4192g acres, of which 63 1§ belong to the detached 
district, and 5 are water. The Farg winds 3| miles 
along the south-eastern and eastern border ; and in the 
NE, where it passes off into Abernethy, the surface 
sinks to 45 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 751 on 
Balmanno Hill and 950 on Dron Hill — grassy, copse- 
decked summits of the Ochils these. The rocks are 
mostly eruptive, but include some sandstone, and show 
appearances of coal. The soil on the low grounds is 
chiefly clay and loam, and on the uplands is compara- 
tively light and shallow. About five-eighths of the 
entire area are in tillage, nearly oiio-tenth is underwood, 
and the remainder is pasture. The detached district is 
called Ecclesiamagirdle, and probably got its name from 
an ancient chapel of which some fragments still exist. 
Here and in Dron churchyard are two Martyrs' graves ; 
on Balnianno Hill is a large boulder rocking -stone. 


B.VLMAXXO Castle and Gleneaux House are the chief 
residences ; and the property is divided among 7, 4 
holding each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 1 of 
between £100 and £500, 1 of from £50 to £100, and 1 
of from £20 to £50. Dron is in the ])resbytery of Pertli 
and synod of Perth and Stirling ; the living is worth 
£256. The church is a good Gothic edifice, built about 
1826, and containing 350 sittings ; the public school, 
with accommodation for 62 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 44, and a grant of £32, 9s. Valua- 
tion (1882) £4639, 6s. Pop. (1801) 428, (1831) 464, 
(1861) 376, (1871) 343, (1881) 335.— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 

Dronach, a haugh in Methven parish, Perthshire, on 
the left bank of the Almond, h mile AVNW of Lynedoch 
Cottage, and 4 miles NW of Almondbank. Here, 
overshadowed by yew-trees, and enclosed by an iron 
railing, is the grave of ' Bessie Bell and Mary Gray,' who 
died of the plague in 1666. Their gravestone bears 
inscription : ' They lived — they loved — they died. ' See 

Drongan, a station on the Ayr and Cumnock section 
of the Glasgow and South-Western railway, 9i miles 
ESE of Ayr. In its vicinity are Drongan House, Drongan 
colliery, and a tolerably entire but ruined tower, once 
the residence of a branch of the Crawford family. 

Drongs, a curious insulated rock in Northmaven 
parish, Shetland, at the back of Hillswick Ness. Rising 
almost sheer from the water to a height of 100 feet, 
it is cleft in three places nearly to the bottom, and, 
seen through a fog or at a distance, resembles a ship 
under sail. 

Dronley, a village in the S of Auchterhouse parish, SW 
Forfarshire, IJ mile WSW of Dronley station on the 
Ne^-tyle branch of the Caledonian, this being 11 mOes 
NNW of Dundee. See Auchterhouse. 

Dronochy, a broken, ancient, sculptured cross in For- 
teviot parish, SE Perthshire, on a rising-ground to the 
S of Forteviot Halyhill. It is one of several crosses or 
pillars that mark the precincts of the ancient Picta^^an 
palace of Forteviot. 

Dropping Cave, a stalactite cavern in the coast cliffs of 
Slains parish, Aberdeenshire, 3 furlongs E by N of the 
parish church. Its entrance is low, but its interior is 
lofty and capacious, and is encrusted, less richly now 
than once, with numerous beautiful stalactites. 

Druidhm. See Dhruim. 

Druidibeg, an isleted loch in South Uist island, Inver- 
ness-shire, 1 6 miles N of Loch Boisdale hotel. It measures 
3 miles in length and 1 mile in width ; abounds in 
trout ; and sends off a copious streamlet, which drives 
the chief mill of the island. 

Druids' Bridge, a series of huge submerged blocks of 
stone in Glenorchy parish, Argyllshire, extending a con- 
siderable distance into Loch Awe, a little to the N of 
Cladich. They are traditionally said to be part of the 
foundation of an intended ancient bridge across the lake. 

Druids' Hill. See Dundroich. 

Druie. See Duthil. 

Druim. See Dhruim. 

Drum, an estate, with a mansion, in Libertou parish, 
Edinburghshire, ^ mile SE of Gilmerton. Long held 
by the Lords Somerville, the thirteenth of whom built 
the present house towards the middle of last century, it 
now is the property of John More Nisbett, Esq. of 
Cairnhill, who owns 270 acres in Midlothian, valued 
at £951 per annum. 

Drumachargan, a conical, copse-clad hill (512 feet) 
in Monzievaird and Strowan parish, Perthshire, near the 
left bank of the Tay, 1 J mile WNW of CrieH". 

Drumadoon. See Drimadoon. 

Drumalban. See Grampians. 

Drumbaig. See Assynt. 

Drumbeg. See Drymen. 

Drumblade, a parish of NW Aberdeenshire, whose 
church stands 4^ miles E by N of Huntly, under which 
there is a post office of Drumblade. 

The parish, containing Huntly station, is bounded 
NE and E by Forgue, SE bv Lisch, SW by Gartly, W 



and NW by Huntly. Its greatest length, from N to S, 
is 5§ miles ; its greatest breadth, from E to W, is 5-J 
miles ; and its area is 9332i acres. The Bogie winds 3§ 
miles northward along the Gartly and Iluntly border ; 
and Glen Water, a head-stream of the Ury, 1^ mile 
east-north-eastward along all the boundary w-ith Insch ; 
whilst several burns cither traverse the interior or trace 
the remaining boundaries. The surface, sinking in the 
NE along the Burn of Forguo to 306 feet above sea- 
level, thence rises to 671 feet near Garrieswell, 637 at 
Boghead, 700 at Bx Hill, 716 at Woodbank, and 906 
near Upper Stonyfield, the southern division of the 
parish being occupied by a series of gently-rounded hills. 
Clay-slate, grey granite, and trap are the prevailing 
rocks ; and masses of limestone occur to the E of Lessen- 
drum. The soil, in the valleys, is chiefly a deep rich 
loam ; on the higher grounds, it is thin and gravelly, 
but fairly fertile. Fully three-fourths of the entire area 
are arable, extensive reclamations having been carried 
out within the last fifty years ; woods cover about 
one-sixteenth ; and the rest is either pastoral or waste. 
The chief historic event is Bruce's encampment at Sliach 
in 1307, when, sick though he was, he held Comyn's 
forces in check ; and Robin's Height and the Meet Hil- 
lock are supposed to have been occupied by his troops. A 
Roman road is said to have run past Meikletown ; and 
antiquities are two prehistoric tumuli, a few remaining 
stones of a ' Druidical ' circle, and the Well of St Hilary, 
the patron saint, which was formerly resorted to by 
pilgrims. Lessendrum is the only mansion ; and 3 
proprietors divide most of the parish. Drumblade is in 
the presbytery of Turrift' and synod of Aberdeen ; the 
living is worth £206. The parish churcli, built in 1773, 
contains 550 sittings ; and 1 mile SW stands a Free 
church. A public and a girls' and industrial school, 
with respective accommodation for 99 and 51 children, 
had (1880) an average attendance of 31 and 50, whilst 
the latter received a grant of £38, 15s. Valuation 
(1881) £8533, 4s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 821, (1831) 978, 
(1861) 926, (1871) 931, (1881) 9i3.— Orel. Sur., sh. 86, 

Drumblair, an estate, with a modern mansion, in 
Forgue parish, W Aberdeenshire, 10 miles ENE of 

Drumcarrow. See Cameron. 

Drum Castle, a mansion in Drumoak parish, Aber- 
deenshire, 1 mile NAV of Drum station on the Deeside 
railway, this being 10 miles WSW of Aberdeen. The 
house itself is a large Elizabethan edifice, built in 1619, 
and adjoins a three-story, massive granite keep, the 
Tower of Drum, which, dating from the 12th or 13th 
century, measures 60 by 40 feet, and is 63 feet high, 
with walls 12 feet in thickness. This was the royal 
fortalice conferred, with the Forest of Drum, in 1323, by 
Robert Bruce, on his armour-bearer. Sir William de 
Irvine, whose grandson. Sir Alexander, commanded and 
fell at Haklaw (1411), whilst his thirteenth descendant, 
also a Sir Alexander (d. 1687), has been identified with 
the ' Laird o' Drum ' of a good old ballad. The present 
and twenty-first laird, Alexander Forbes Irvine, Esq. 
(b. 1818 ; sue. 1861), holds 7689 acres in tlic shire, 
valued at £5210 per annum. The Hill of Drum, extend- 
ing west-south-westward from the mansion, rises gra- 
dually, on all sides, from gently undulated low ground 
to an elevation of 414 feet above sea-level, and from its 
SE shoulder commands an extensive view. At its 
south-western base, 1^ mile W of Park station, lies the 
shallow, weedy Loch of Drum (6 x 2.V furl. ; 225 feet), 
which, receiving a streamlet from Banchory-Ternan, 
sends off its eflluence southward to the Dee. — Orel. Sur., 
shs. 76, GG, 1874-71. 

Drumcharry, a hamlet in Fortingal parish, Perth- 
shire, i>n the left bank of the Lyon, 7i miles W of 

Drumclog, a wide boggy moorland tract in Avondale 
parish, Lanarkshire, near the Ayrshire border, and 6 
miles SW of Strathaven. Here stands a somewhat 
showy monument, inscribed, 'In commemoration of tlie 
victory obtained on this battlefield, on Sabbath the 


lltli of June 1679, by our Covenanted forefathers over 
Graham of Claverhouse and his dragoons.' On 29 May 
1679, eighty horsemen hnd affixed to Rutherglcn market- 
cross the ' Declaration and Testimony of the True Pres- 
byterian Party in Scotland,' and, following up this 
public defiance, an armed conventicle met on 11 June 
on the boggy slope of conical Loudon Hill, where 
Bruce, 370 years before, had defeated the English in- 
vader. Service was scarce begun, when the watchers 
brought word that Claverhouse was at hand, and, the 
congregation breaking up, the armed men moved off to 
the farm of Drumclog, 2^ miles to the eastward. Two 
hundred or more in number, all well armed with fusils 
and pitchforks, and forty of them mounted, they were 
officered by Hall of Haughhead, Robert Fleming, Balfour 
of Burley, and Hackston of Rathillet, who wisely took 
up position behind a cleft, where lay the water of a 
ditch or 'stank.' Across this cleft the skirmishers of 
either side kept firing ; the question appeared to be, 
which would cross first, or which hold longest out ; 
when suddenly two parties of the Covenanters, one 
headed by young William Cleland the poet, swept round 
both ends of the stank with so much fury that the 
dragoons could not sustain the shock, but broke and 
fled, leaving thirty-six dead on the field, where only 
three of their antagonists were killed. Such was Drum- 
clog, preceded by Magus Muir, followed by Bothwell 
Brig, an episode immortalised by Scott in Old Mortality, 
sung too by Allan Cunningham, and thus alluded to by 
Carlyle, under date April 1820: — 'Drumclog Moss is 
the next object I remember, and Irving and I sitting by 
ourselves under the silent bright skies among the "peat- 
hags," with a world all silent around us. These peat- 
hags are still pictured in me ; brown bog all pitted and 
broken into heathy remnants and bare abrupt wide 
holes, 4 or 5 feet deep, mostly dry at present ; a flat 
wilderness of broken bog, of (juagmire not to be trusted 
(probably w^etter in old days there, and wet still in rainy 
seasons). Clearly a good place for Cameronian preach- 
ing, and dangerously difiicult for Claverse and horse 
soldiery if the suffering remnant had a few old muskets. 
... I remember us sitting on the brow of a peat-hag, 
the sun shining, our own voices the one sound. Far, far 
away to the westward over our brown horizon, towers 
up white and visible at the many miles of distance a 
high irregular pyramid. "Ailsa Craig," we at once 
guessed, and thought of the seas and oceans away yon- 
der.'— On/. Sur., shs. 22, 23, 1865. See W. Alton's 
History of the Rencounter at Dnmidog (Hamilton, 1821) ; 
voh vii. , pp. 221-226, of Hill Burton's History of Scot- 
land (ed. 1876) ; and vol. i., p. 178, of Carlyle's Remini- 
scences (1881). 

Drumcoltran, an old, strong, square tower in Kirk- 
gunzeon parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

Drumderfit, a ridge of hill (482 feet) in Kilmuir- 
Wester parish, Ross-shire, 4 miles N by W of Inveruass. 
The ridge, which projects from the N side of Ord Hill, 
was the scene about 1400 of the destruction of an army 
of the Lord of the Isles, by a stratagem and a night 
attack on the part of the men of Inverness ; and is 
extensively studded with cairns. 

Drumderg, a jiromiuent hill (1250 feet) in Loth parish, 
Sutherland, flanking the head of Glen Loth, and forming 
the southern shoulder of Beinn Dobhrain (2060 feet). 
The glen at its foot was the scene in the 16th century 
of a bloody conflict between the inhabitants of Loth 
and the men of Strathnavcr. 

Driunellie or Marlee Loch, a lake in Lethendy parish, 
Perthshire, 2;^ miles W by S of Pilairgowrie. An expan- 
sion of the river Lunan, it lies 190 feet above sea-level, 
has an utmost length and width of 1 mile and 3;| fur- 
longs, and teems with perch and pike, the latter running 
up to 30 lbs. Its trout, of from 2 to 5 lbs. , are very 
shy.— 0/v/. Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 

brumelzier. See Duummklzieu. 

Drumgeith, a village, with a public school, in Dun- 
dee parish, Forfarshire, 3 miles ENE of Dundee. 

Drumgelloch, a village in New Monklaud parish, 
Lanarkshire, 7 furlongs E of Airdric. 


Drmnglow or Dumglow. See Cleisii. 

Drumgray, a village in New Monklaud parish, Lanark- 
shire, 4 miles ENE of Airdrie. 

Drumin, a mansion in Inveraven parish, Banffshire, 
between the confluent Livet and Aven, 5 miles S of Bal- 
lindalloch. Close to it are the ruins of Castle-Duumik. 

Dmmimior House. See ArcniNDOiu and Keakx. 

Drumkilbo, an estate, ^yith a mansion, in Meigle par- 
ish, E Perthshire, 9 furlongs E by N of ileigle village. 

Drumlamford, an estate, with a mansion of 1838, in 
Colmonell parish, S Ayrshire, 4 miles SE of Barrhill 
station. Near it is Drumlamford Loch (2 x 1^ furl.). 

Drumlanrig Castle, a seat of the Duke of Buccleuch 
in Durisdeer parish. Upper Nithsdale, Dumfriesshire, 
17 miles NW of Dumfries, and 3h NNW of Thornhill. 
It crowns the last spur of a drmti or long ridge of 
hill, on the right bank of the Nith ; and, visible from 
afar, stately, embowered in trees, itself has a view do^^^l 
all the Nith's rich valley, away to the heights of 
Criffel. It forms a hollow square, four stories high, 
surmounted with corner turrets, and presenting such 
an array of windows, that, say the dalesfolk, there 
are as many as the year has days. From the- inner 
quadrangle staircases ascend at the angles in semicircular 
towers ; \vithout, the architraves of windows and doors 
are profusely adorned with hearts and stars, the armorial 
bearings of the Douglases. The castle fronts N, but has 
also a noble fagade to the E, combining on either side 
aspects of strength and beautj', the lineaments of a 
mansion and a fortress ; herein, too, that it is nightly 
secured, not only by a thick door of oak, but by a pon- 
derous gate of iron. Falsely ascribed to Inigo Jones, 
like Heriot's Hospital, which it no little resembles, the 
present castle took ten years in building, and was 
finished in 16S9, the year after the Revolution. "Wil- 
liam, first Duke of Queensberry — celebrated in civil 
history as a statesman, and in the annals of the Cove- 
nanters as an abettor of persecution — planned and com- 
pleted it ; and he expended upon it such enormous sums 
of money, and during the only night that he passed 
within its walls, was so 'exacerbated by the inaccessi- 
bility of medical advice to relieve him from a temporary 
fit of illness,' that he quitted it in disgust, and after- 
wards wrote on the bills for its erection, ' The Deil pike 
out his een wha looks herein ! ' Among seventeen por- 
traits, by Lely and Kneller mostly, one of William III. 
bears marks of claymore wounds — a memorial of the 
Highlanders' brief sojourn in the castle on their retreat 
from Derby (1745). The barony of Drumlanrig belonged 
to the Douglases as early at least as 1356, and for four 
centuries passed from father to son with only a single 
break (1578), and then from grandsire to grandson. In 
1388 James, second Earl of Douglas, conferred it on the 
elder of his two natural sons. Sir William de Douglas, 
first Baron of Drumlanrig, whose namesake and ninth 
descendant was created Viscount of Drumlanrig in 1628 
and Earl of Queensberry in 1633. William, third Earl 
(1637-95) was created Duke of Queensberry and Earl of 
Drumlanrig in 1684 ; and Charies, third Duke (1698- 
1778), was succeeded by his first cousin, William, third 
Eari of March and Ruglen (1725-1810). 'Old Q,' that 
spoiler of woods and patron of the turf, the ' degenerate 
Douglas' of Wordsworth's indignant sonnet, was in 
turn succeeded by Henry, third Duke of Buccleuch, 
great-grandson of the second Duke of Queensberry ; and 
his grandson, the fifth and present Duke, is seventeenth 
in descent from Sir AVilliam, the first baron, and owns 
in Dumfriesshire 253,514 acres, valued at £97,530 per 
annum. (See Dalkeith.) Among the episodes in 
Drumlanrig's history are its pillage by the English 
under Lord AVliarton (1549), an entertainment given at 
it to James VI. (1 Aug. 1617), its capture by the Par- 
liamentarians (1650), and Burns's frequent visits to its 
chamberiain, John M'Murdo (1788-96). From 1795 till 
liis death ' Old Q.' ■v\Tought hideous havoc in the woods, 
here as at Neidpath ; so that the hills wliich Ikirns had 
known clad ■ndth forest, AVordsworth in 1803 found 
bleak and naked. The castle, too, unoccupied by its 
lords for upwards of forty years, fell into disrepair, but 


the present Duke, on attaining his majority in 1827, at 
once took in hand the work of restoration and replant- 
ing, so that the castle, woods, and gardens of Drum- 
lanrig are now once more the glory of Upper Nithsdale 
— the woods, which retain a few survivors from the 
past (finest among these, two oaks, two beeches, a 
sycamore, and the limetree avenue of 1754) ; and the 
gardens and policies, which were thus described by 
Pennant (1772) : ' The beauties of Drumlanrig are not 
confined to the highest part of the grounds ; the walks, 
for a very considerable way by the sides of the Nith, 
abound with most picturesque and various scenery. 
Below the bridge the sides are prettily wooded, but not 
remarkably lofty ; above, the views become wildly mag- 
nificent. The river runs through a deep and rocky 
channel, bounded by vast wooded cliffs that rise sud- 
denly from its margin ; and the prospect down from the 
summit is of a terrific depth, increased by the rolling of 
the black waters beneath. Two views are particularly 
fine — one of quick repeated but extensive meanders 
amidst broken sharp-pointed rocks, which often divide 
the river into several channels, interrupted by a short 
and foaming rapids coloured with a moory taint ; the 
other is of a long strait, narrowed by the sides, precipi- 
tous and wooded, approaching each other equidistant, 
horrible from the blackness and fury of the river, and 
the fiery-red and black colours of the rocks, that have 
all the ap)pearance of having sustained a change by the 
rage of another element.' The Glasgow and South- 
western railway, a little N of Carronbridge station, 
traverses a stupendous tunnel on the Drumlanrig 
grounds, 4200 feet in length, and nearly 200 feet be- 
neath the surface, \nth an archway measuring 27 feet 
by 29. —Ord. Sur. , shs. 15, 9, 1864-63. See Dr Craufurd 
Tait Ramage's Drumlanrig Castle and the Douglases 
(Dumf. 1876). 

Drumlean, a hamlet in Aberfoyle parish, Perthshire, 
near the NE shore of Loch Ard, 3 miles WNAY of Aber- 
foyle hamlet. 

Drumlemble. See Campbeltowx. 

Drumlithie, a village in Glenbervie parish, Kincar- 
dineshire, with a station on the Caledonian railway, 7^ 
miles SW of Stonehaven. At it are a post office imder 
Fordoun, Avith railway telegi-aph, a school, Glenbervie 
Free church, and St John's Episcopal church (1863), a 
Gothic edifice, with organ and two stained-glass win- 

Drummachloy, Glenmore, or Ettrick Bum. See Bute. 

Drummellan, an estate, with a mansion, in Maybole 
parish, Ayrshire, 1^ mile NE of Maybole town. 

Drummellie. See Deumellie. 

Drummelzier, a decayed village and a parish of SW 
Peeblesshire. The village, standing ujion Powsail Burn, 
^ mile above its influx to the Tweed, is 2| miles SE of 
Broughton station, 8 ESE of its post-town Biggar, 3 
WSW of Stobo station, and 9i WSAV of Peebles. 

The parish included Tweedsmuir till 1643, and since 
1742 has comprehended the southern and larger portion 
of the old parish of Dawick. It is bounded N by Stobo, 
E by Manor, SE by the Megget section of Lj'ne, S by 
Tweedsmuir, and W by Crawford and Culter in Lanark- 
shire and by Broughton. In outline rudely resembling 
a boot, with heel at SE and toe at SW, it has an utmost 
length of 11 J miles from its north-eastern angle near 
Stobo station to its soutli-wcstern near Coomb Dod, an 
utmost breadth from E to AV of 6 J mi les, and an area of 
18,029^ acres, of which 81 are water. For 5f miles 
the silver Tweed, entering from Tweedsmuir 3 furlongs 
below Crook inn, meanders north-by-eastward across the 
south-western interior and on or close to the boundary 
with Broughton, next for 33 miles east-by-northward 
along most of tlie Stobo border. During this course it 
falls from about 740 to 590 feet above sea-level, and is 
joined by five streams that rise in Drummelzier — Pol- 
mood Burn (running 4 miles WNW, mostly along the 
Tweedsmuir bonier), Kingledoors Burn (5| miles NE), 
Stanhojie Burn (4i miles WNW), Carton Burn (2^ miles 
W by N), and Powsail Burn (IJ mile NW), this last 
being formed by Drummelzier IJurn (2j| miles NW) and 



Scrape Bum (2^ miles WNW). The surface sinks, then, 
to 590 feet at the north-eastern angle of the parish, and 
rises thence southward and south-westward to * Breach 
Law (16S4 feet), Scawd Law (1658), Den Knowes(1479), 
Finglen Rig (1295), Dulyard Brae (1609), the * Scrape 
(23-17), *Pvkestone Hill (2414), Drummelzier Law (2191), 
Glenstivon Dod (2256), Craig Head (1550), *Long Grain 
Knowo (2306), Taberon Law (2088), * Dollar Law 
(2680), Lairdside Knowe (1635), Polmood Hill (1548), 
Birkside Law (1951), Hunt Law (2096), Dun Rig (2149), 
*Dun Law (2584), *Cramalt Craig (2723), and *Broad 
Law (2723), on the right or E side of the Tweed ; and, 
on the left, to Quilt Hill (1087), *Glcnlood Hill (1856), 
Nether Oliver Dod (1673), * Coomb Hill (2096), *Glen- 
whappcn Rig (2262), Hillshaw Head (2141), and * Coomb 
Dod (2082), where asterisks mark those summits that 
culminate on the borders of the parisli. These big 
bro^vn hills fill nearly all the parish ; only to the NW 
the Plain of Drummelzier, a fertile alluvial haugh, ex- 
tends for about 2 miles along the Tweed, being, it is 
said, the largest level space on the river above Kelso. 
The rocks are mainly Lower Silurian, and include some 
workable slate and a mass of compact and very white 
limestone. The soil is rich loam on the haughs, and 
elsewhere is generally sharp and strong. The entire 
area is either pastoral or waste, with the exception of 
barely 700 acres in tillage and a little over 400 under 
wood, the latter chiefly on the Dawick estate. Drum- 
melzier Castle, cro\vning a rocky knoll on the Tweed, 1 
mile SW of the church, is a sheltered fragment of the 
16th century fortalice of the head of the Tweedie sept ; 
and on the top of a high pyramidal mount, 3| furlongs 
E by N of the church, are vestiges of the more ancient 
Tinnies or Thanes Castle, demolished by order of James 
VL in 1592. 'At the side of the Powsail Burn,' to 
quote from Pennicuik's Description of Tivcediale (1715), 
' a little below the churchyard, the famous prophet 
Merlin is said to be buried. The particular place of his 
grave, at the foot of a thorn tree, was shown me, many 
year ago, by the old and reverend minister of the place, 
Mr Richard Brown ; and here was the old prophecy ful- 
filled, delivered in Scotch rhyme to this purpose : 

' " When Tweed and Po«-sail meet at Merlin's grave, 
Scotland and England shall one monarch have ; " 

for the same day that our King James the Sixth was 
crowned King of England, the river Tweed, by an extra- 
ordinary flood, so far overflowed the banks, that it met 
and joined with Powsail at the said grave, which was 
never before observed to fall out, nor since that time. ' 
Dawick House is the chief mansion ; and the property 
is divided among five. Drummelzier is in the presby- 
tery of Peebles and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; 
the living is worth £319. St Cuthbert's chapel, in the 
upper part of the strath of Kingledoors, has disappeared ; 
the present church, at the village, contains nearly 200 
sittings ; and a public school, with accommodation for 
44 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 31, and 
a grant of £40, 15s. 6d. Valuation (1881) £4579, 
13s. 3d. Pop. (1801) 278, (1831) 223, (1861) 209, 
(1871) 221, (1881) 208.— Ord. Sur., sh. 24, 1864. 

Drummidoon. See Diiimapoon. 

Dnimmilling, an estate in West Kilbride parish, Ayr- 
shire, near the village. 

Drummin. See Drumin and Ca.stle-Drumin. 

Drummochy, a village on the seaboard of Largo parish, 
Fife, a little W of Largo station. 

Dnunmond Castle, the Scottish scat of Lady Wil- 
loughby dc Ercsby, in jMuthill parish, Perthshire, on a 
picturesque rocky site, 3^ miles SSW of Crieff, and 3;/ 
WNW of Muthifl station. It was founded in 1491 by 
the first Lord Drummond, on his removal from Stob- 
IIALL ; and was the seat of tliat nobleman's descendants, 
the Earls of Perth. The founder of the Drummond 
family is said to have been one Alauricc, a Hungarian 
noble, who in 1067 arrived witli Eadgar iEtheling and 
St Margaret at the court of Malcolm Ceannmor, and 
who from that king received the lands of Drymen or 
Drummond in Stirlingshire. His sixth descendant. Sir 


Malcolm Drummond, was rewarded by Bruce with lands 
in Perthshire for services done at Bannockburn (1314), 
where he advised the use of caltrops against the enemy's 
horse — advice referred to in the family motto, ' Gang 
warily.' Annabella Drummond (1340-1401), }iis great- 
grand-daughter, was queen to Robert IIL, and so the 
ancestress of Queen Victoria ; and Sir John Drummond 
(1446-1519), twelfth in descent from the founder, was 
lather to fair Mistress Margret, the vriie but not queen 
of James IV., who, with her sisters Euphemia and 
Sybilla, was poisoned at Drummond Castle in 1502. 
The same Sir John was created Lord Drummond in 
1487 ; and James, fourth Lord Drummond, was created 
Earl of Perth in 1605. James, fourth Earl (1648-1716), 
was, like his predecessors, a zealous Royalist, and fol- 
lowed James II. into exile, from him receiving the title 
of Duke of Perth. His grandson, James, third titular 
Duke of Perth (1713-46), played a prominent part in 
the '45, commanding at Prestonpans, Carlisle, Falkirk, 
and Culloden. The Drummond estates, forfeited to the 
Crown, were conferred by George III. in 1784 on Captain 
James Drummond, who claimed to be heir-male of Lord 
John Drummond, this third Duke's brother, and who 
in 1797 was created Baron Perth and Drummond of Stob- 
hall. At his death in 1800 they passed to his daughter, 
Clementina-Sarah, who in 1807 married the Hon. Peter 
Burrell, afterwards nineteenth Baron Willoughby de 
Eresby ; and their daughter, Clementina Elizabeth 
Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby (b. 1809), widow of 
Lord Aveland, Baroness Willoughby de Eresby, and 
Joint Hereditary Chamberlain of England, in 1870 
succeeded her brother in the Drummond estates, which 
from 1868 to 1871 were unsuccessfully claimed by George 
Drummond, Earl of Perth and Melfort, as nearest heii'- 
male of the third Duke. Her Ladyship owns in Perth- 
shire 76,837 acres, valued at £28,955 per annum. 

Drummond Castle is twofold, old and modern. The 
old edifice was visited often by James IV., and twice by 
Queen Mary in July and the Christmas week of 1566. 
It suff"ered great damage from the troops of Cromwell, 
and fell into neglect and dilapidation after the Revolu- 
tion of 1688 ; but was strengthened and garrisoned by 
the royal troops in 1715, and, that this might not happen 
again, was mostly levelled to the foundation by the 
Jacobite Duchess of Perth in 1745. Partially rebuilt 
about 1822, it was put into good habitable condition, 
])reparatory to a visit of Queen Victoria and Prince 
xVlbert in Sept. 1842 ; and now is partly fitted up as an 
armoury, well stored with Celtic claymores, battle-axes, 
and targets. The modern edifice, standing a little E of 
the old, forms two sides of a quadrangle, facing N and 
W ; and is of plain construction, comparatively poor in 
architectural character ; but contains some interesting 
portraits of the Stuarts. A temporary wooden pavilion, 
within the quadrangle, served as a banqueting hall dur- 
ing the visit of the Queen and Prince Albert ; and an 
apartment in wliich Prince Charles Edward had slept, 
served as Prince Albert's dressing-room. A beautiful 
garden, often pronounced the finest in Great Britain, 
lies in three successive terraces, on a steep slope, under 
the S side of the castle rock ; comprises about 10 acres ; 
and exhibits the three great styles of European liorticul- 
ture — tlie Italian, the Dutch, and the French. A nobly- 
wooded park * about 2 miles in diameter, witli many a 
feature of both natural beauty and artificial embellisli- 
inent, spreads all round tlie castle, as from a centre. 
Within it are the conical hill of Torhmi (1291 feet), l^ 
mile to the WNW ; and the Pond of Drummond (5 x 2| 
furl.), h mile to the ENE. The exquisite scenery of 
Stratliearn lies under the eye and away to the E ; and a 
sublime sweep of the Grampians fills all tlie view to the 
N. — Ord. Sur., sh. 47, 1869. See Beauties of U2)i)cr 
Strathcarn (3d ed., Crieff, 1870). 

Drummore. See Drumore. 

* The Transactions of the Uighland and Agricultural Societt/ 
for ISSO-Sl give the dimensiona of twelve magnificent beechca 
here and seven oaks, according to which the tallest of the beeches 
is 101 feet high and 15 feet in girth at 1 foot from the groinid, the 
thickest being 2!) feet in girtli and 71 feet high; whilst of the oaka 
the largest is 70 feet high and I'Ji in girth. 


Drmmnossie Muir, a bleak, broad-backed, sandstone 
ridge on the mutual border of Dores, Inverness, Daviot, 
and Croy parishes, ISTE Inverness-shire. Forming the 
north-eastern and declining portion of the continuous 
south-eastern hill-screen of the Great Glen of Scotland, 
it presents to the view, from the neighbourhood of In- 
verness, an almost straight sky-line ; has an average 
summit elevation of 800 feet above sea-level ; and in- 
cludes, at tlie NE end, the battlefield of Culloden. 

Drum muir. See Botiuphxie. 

Drumnadrochit, a hamlet, with an hotel, in Urquhart 
and Glenmoriston parish, Inverness-shire, in the mouth 
of Glen Urquhart, Ih mile W by S of Temple Pier, on 
the AV shore of Loch Ness, and 14 miles SAV of Inver- 
ness, under which it has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments. Cattle fairs 
are held here on the Tuesdays of October and November 
before Beauly. 

Drumnetermont. See Dkummietermox. 

Drumoak, a parish partly in Kincardine, but chiefly 
in Aberdeenshire, traversed by the Deeside section of 
the Great North of Scotland, with Drum and Park 
stations thereon, 10 and 11 miles WSAV of Aberdeen, 
under which Drumoak has a post office. It is bounded 
N by Echt and Peterculter, SE by Peterculter, S by 
Dirrris, and SW by Banchory-Ternan ; and rudely re- 
sembling a triangle in shape, with apex to ENE, it has 
an utmost length from E to AV of 5^ miles, an utmost 
breadth from N to S of 3J miles, and an area of 7401:^ 
acres, of which 2021^^ are in Kincardineshire, and 164J 
are water. The broadening Dee flows 4^ miles east- 
north-eastward along all the boundary with Durris ; and 
Gormack Burn 5| miles eastward along that with Echt 
and Peterculter, to form with Leuchar Bui'n the Burn of 
Culter, which itself for J mile continues to separate Drum- 
oak and Peterculter. Towards the SAV the shallow, weedy 
Loch of Drum (6 x 2J furl. ) lies at an altitude of 225 feet. 
Sinking along the Burn of Culter to 123, and along the 
Dee to 82, feet above sea-level, the surface rises to 350 
feet on Ord Hill, 414 on the central ridge of the Hill of 
Drum, and 254 at the parish church. Gneiss and granite 
are the prevailing rocks ; and the soil, light and sandy 
along the Dee, elsewhere ranges from good black loamy 
on the higher southern slope to gravellj' and moorish 
overlying moorband or retentive blue stony clay. Nearly 
a fourth of the entire area is under wood, over a sixth 
is pastoral or waste, and the rest is in cultivation. James 
Gregory (1638-75), the greatest philosopher of his age 
but one, that one being Newton, was born in Drumoak, 
his father being parish minister ; and so perhaps was his 
brother David (1627-1720), who himself had a singular 
turn for mechanics and mathematics. Arrow-heads, 
three stone coffins, and silver coins have been found ; 
a curious sculptured stone was transferred in 1822 from 
Keith's Muir to the top of Hawk Hillock in the policies 
of Park ; but the chief antiquity is the Tower of Drum, 
which is separately noticed, as likewise are the man- 
sions of Drum and Park. Five proprietors hold each an 
annual value of more, and 3 of less, than £100. Drumoak 
is in the presbytery and synod of Aberdeen ; the living 
is worth £230. The church, ^ mile N of Park station, 
is a good Gothic edifice of 1836, containing 650 sittings ; 
and a Free church, erected at a cost of £1500, was opened 
at Park in January 1880. Dn;moak public, Sunnyside 
female Church of Scotland, and Glashmore sessional 
school, with respective accommodation for 108, 33, and 
49 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 63, 25, 
and 22, and grants of £61, 16s., £18, 2s., and £15, 6.s. 
Valuation (1881) £5678, 19s. 8d., of which £1025, 
19s. 5d. was for the Kincardineshire section. Pop. 
(1801) 648, (1831) 804, (1861) 996, (1871) 1032, (1881) 
9B0.—Ord. Sur., shs. 76, 77, 66, 1871-76. 

Dnunochter (Gael, driiim-uachdar, ' upper ridge '), a 
mountain pass (1500 feet) over the Central Grampians, 
on the mutual border of Perth and Inverness shires, 
5| miles S of Dalwhinnie station, and 2 NNW of Dal- 
naspidal. Flanked to the AV by the Boar of Badenoch 
(2452 feet), Bruach nan lomalrean (3175), and Ben 
Udlaman (3306), to the W by Creagan Doire an Donaidh 


(2367) and Chaoruinn (3004), it is traversed both by 
the Great North Road from Perth to Inverness and by 
the Highland railway, being the highest point reached 
by any railway in the Kingdom. Snow often drifts 
here to a great extent, lying 30 feet deep in the storm 
of March 1881.— OrrZ. Sur., sh. 63, 1873. 

Drumochy. See Drummochy. 

Drumore, a lochlet (1 x ^ furl.) on the mutual border 
of Kirkmichael and ilaybole parishes, AjTshire, ^ mile 
NNW of Kirkmichael village. 

Drumore, a seaport village in Kirkraaiden parish, 
SAV Wigtownshire, on a small bay of its own name, at 
the AV side of Luce Bay, 5 miles N by AV of the Mull of 
Galloway, and 17^ S by E of Stranraer, with which it 
communicates daily by coach. It has a post office, ^vith 
money order and savings' bank departments, 4 inns, a 
public school, a small harbour with a (juay and good 
anchorage, and ruins of a castle, still habitable in 1684; 
and it carries on some small commerce in the export of 
agricultural produce, and the import of coals and lime. 

Drumore, an estate, with a mansion, in Prestonpans 
parish, Haddingtonshire, on the coast, 1| mile ENE of 
Musselburgh. Its owner. Col. AVilliam Aitchison (b. 
1827 ; sue. 1846), holds 121 acres in the shire, valued 
at £872 per annum, including £538 for minerals. 

Drumore, a station at the mutual boundary of Anwoth 
and Kirkmabreck parishes, SW Kirkcudbrightshire, on 
the Castle-Douglas and Portpatrick railway, 4j miles 
ENE of Creetown. 

Drumour. See Duxkeld, Little. 

Drumpellier, extensive iron-works and mineral pits 
of Old Monkland parish, Lanarkshire, in the western 
■vicinity of Coatbridge. Drumpellier House, IJ mile 
AV of the town, is the property of D. Carrick-Buchanan, 
Esq. of Caeradale, who holds 868 acres in Lanark- 
shire, valued at £500 per annum. 

Drumry, an estate on the AV border of New Kilpatrick 
parish, Dumbartonshire, 2^ miles ESE of Duntocher. 
From the Callendar family it passed in 1346 to the 
Li\'ingstones, and from Sir James Hamilton of F}Tiart 
in 1528 to Laurence Crawfurd of Kilbirnie, ancestor of 
the Crawfurd-PoUoks of Pollok. Some ruins on it 
have been thought to be those of a chapel which he 
founded, but more probably are a remnant of Drumry 

Drumsargard or Drumsharg, an ancient barony in 
Cambuslang parish, Lanarkshire. Comprising nearly 
two-thirds of the parish, it belonged successively to the 
Oliphants, Alurrays, Douglases, and Hamiltons, and 
changed its name in the 17th century to Cambuslang. 
Its stately castle, crowning a round flat-topped mound, 
20 feet high. If mile ESE of Cambuslang church, has 
left scarcely a vestige. 

Drumsharg. See Drum.=iaegard. 

Drumshoreland, a station and a moor in Uphall 
parish, Linlithgowshire. The station is on the Edin- 
burgh and Bathgate section of the North British, 1 mUe 
S of Broxburn, 7| miles E by N of Bathgate, and Hi AV 
of Edinburgh. The moor, extending from tlie southern 
vicinity of the station to the Almond or Edinburgh- 
shire border, comprises some 200 acres of uncultivated 
land, one-half of it covered with natural wood. 

Drumsleet. See Troqueer. 

Drumsturdy, a straggling village in Monifieth parish, 
Forfarsliire, at the N base of Laws Hill, 6 miles ENE 
of Dundee. 

Drumtochty Castle, a mansion in Fordoun parish, 
Kincardineshire, on the left bank of Luther Water near 
its source, 1 mile NNE of Strathfinella HiU (1358 feet), 
2 miles AVNW of Auchinblae village, and 4J NW of 
Fordoun station. A splendid Gothic edifice, built at a 
cost of £30,000 from designs by Gillespie Graham, and 
standing in finely-wooded grounds, it is the scat of Major 
Andrew Gammell of Countesswells, who holds in Kin- 
cardineshire 4823 acres, valued at £2224, 9s. per annum. 

Drumvaich, a hamlet in Kilniadock parish, Perth- 
shire, on the left bank of the Teith, 4 miles AVNAV of 

Drunkie, a loch on the mutual border of Aberfoyle 



and Port of Monteith parishes, Pertlisliire, 3 miles NNE 
of Aberfoyle hamlet, ami 3 SE of the Trosachs Hotel. Ly- 
ing 450 feet above sea-level, it extends 9 furlongs north- 
north-eastward to within J mile of Loch YenaLhar, and 
varies in width between 1 and 7^ furlongs, the latter 
measured along a narrow westward arm. Its shores 
are prettily wooded, and it contains tine red-fleshed 
trout, running from J to 1 \h.—Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Drybridge, a village in Whitburn parish, Linlithgow- 
shire, 1 mile NE of the meeting-point of Linlithgow, 
Edinburgh, and Lanark shires, and within f mile of 
Fauld house and Crofthead stations. 

Drybridge, a station in Dundonald parish, AjTshire, 
on the Kilmarnock and Troon railway, 5 miles W by S 
of Kilmarnock. 

Dryburgh Abbey, a noble monastic ruin in Merton 
parish, S\V Berwickshire, 1^ mile E of Newtown St 
Boswell's station, and 4^ miles ESE of Melrose, or 6 by 
way of Bemersyde Hill. It stands, 200 feet above sea- 
level, in the midst of a low green haugh, that, measur- 
ing 3| by 2 J furlongs, is sheltered northward by a woody 
hill (588 feet), and on the other three sides is washed by 
a horseshoe bend of 'chiming Tweed,' whose right or 
opposite bank is steep and copse-clad — beyond it the 
triple Eildons (1385 feet). The haugh itself is an 
orchard, dedicated by ' David, Earl of Buchan, to 
liis most excellent Parents ; ' and the ruins, of reddish- 
brown sandstone, hewn from the quarry of Dryburgh, 
are so overgrown with foliage that 'everywhere you 
behold the usurpation of nature over art. In one 
roofless apartment a fine spruce and holly are to be seen 
flourishing in the rubbish ; in others, the walls are 
completely covered with ivy ; and, even on the top of 
some of the arches, trees have sprung up to a con- 
siderable growth, and, clustering with the aspiring 
pinnacles, add character to the Gothic pUe. These aged 
trees on the summit of the walls are the surest records 
we have of the antiquity of its destruction' {Monastic 
Annals of Tcviotdalc). The .site is uneven, the chapter- 
house standing ten steps below, and the church ten 
steps above, the cloisters, which, grassy and open now, 
were 93 feet square. To the N of them stood the church ; 
to the S the refectory (100 x 30 feet), with beautiful 
W rose-window of twelve lights ; and to the E, the 
abbot's parlour, library (23 x 23 feet), dormitory 
(45 X 23 feet), chapter-house (47 x 23 feet ; 20 high), 
St Modan's chapel or sacristy (24 x 13 feet), etc. All 
the conventual buildings are in the Transition style 
from Romanesque to First Pointed ; and the most 
perfect of them all is the chaj)ter-house, which still 
retains its barrel - vaulted roof and arched sedilia 
along its eastern wall, whilst a double circle on tlie 
floor marks, it is said, the founder's sepulchre. Nearly 
opposite this chapter-house is a goodly yew-tree, as old 
as, if not older than, the abbey. The church was cruci- 
form, and comj^rised a six-bayed nave (98 x 55 feet), a 
shallow transept (75 x 20 feet) with eastern aisles, 
and a two-bayed choir with a presbytery beyond, in 
place of a lady chapel — the whole building measuring 
190 feet from end to end. Transept and choir are 
First Pointed in style ; but the nave, restored in the 
first half of the 14th century, is altogether Second 
Pointed. ' Are ' and ' is,' we say, though little remains 
of this great monument of former piety .save the nave's 
western gable, the gable of the S transejit with its large 
and fine five-light window, and St Mary's Aisle — a frag- 
ment of choir and N transept, containing the tombs of 
the Haigs of 15emer.syde, of the Erskines, and of Sir 
"Walter and Sir Walter's kinsfolk. St Mary's Aisle, 
whereof wrote Alexander Smith, that ' when the swollen 
Tweed raves as it sweeps, red and broad, round the 
ruins of Dryburgh, you think of him who rests there — 
the magician asleep in the lap of legends old, the 
sorcerer buried in the heart of the land he has made 

The eleventh Earl of ]5uchan, we are told by Allan 

Cunningham, waited on Lady Scott in 1819, when the 

illustrious author of Wavcrlcy was brought nigh to tlic 

grave by a grievous illness, and begged her to intercede 



with her husband to do him the honour of being buried 
in Drj-burgh. 'The ])lace,' said the Earl, 'is very 
beautiful,- — ^just such a place as the poet loves ; and as 
he has a fine taste that way, he is sure of being gratified 
with my oiler.' Scott, it is said, good-humouredly 
promised to give Lord Buchan the refusal, since he 
seemed so solicitous. The peer himself, however, was 
buried in Dryburgh three years before the bard. The 
last resting-place of Sir Walter Scott is a small spot 
of ground in an area formed by four pillars, in one of 
the ruined aisles that belonged to his boasted forbears — 
the Haliburtons of Merton, an ancient baronial famUy, of 
which Sir Walter's paternal grandmother was a member, 
and of which Sir Walter himself was the lineal representa- 
tive. On a side wall is the following inscription : — ' Sub 
hoc tumulo jacet Joannes Haliburtonus, Baro de Mer- 
toun, vir religione et virtutc clarus, (jui obiit 17 die 
Augusti, 1640.' Beneath there is a coat-of-arms. On 
the back wall the later history of the .spot is expressed 
on a tablet as follows : — ' Hunc locum sepulturae D. 
Senescliallus Buchaniie Comes Gualtero, Thomse et 
Roberto Scott, Haliburtoni nepotibus, concessit, 1791 ;' 
—that is to say, the Earl of Buchan granted this place 
of sepulture in 1791, to Walter, Thomas, and Robert 
Scott, descendants of the Laird of Haliburton. The 
persons indicated Avere the father and uncles of Sir 
Walter. The second of these uncles, however, and his 
own wife, were the only members of his family there 
interred before him. Lady Scott was buried there 
in May 1826 ; Sir Walter himself on 26 Sept. 1832 ; 
his sou. Colonel Sir Walter Scott, in Feb. 1847 ; and 
John Gibson Lockhart, ' his son-in-law, biographer, and 
friend,' in Nov. 1854. So small is the space that the 
body of ' the mighty minstrel ' had to be laid in a 
direction north and south, instead of eastward, facing 
the Advent dawn. 

' So there, in solemn solitude, 

In that sequester'd spot 
Lies mingling with its kindred clay 

The dust of Walter Scott ! 
Ah ! where is now the flashing eye 

That kindled up at Flodden field, 
That saw, in fancj', onsets fierce, 

And clashing spear and shield,— 

' The eager and untiring step, 

That urged the search for Border lore. 
To make old Scotland's heroes known 

On every peojiled shore,— 
The wondrous sjiell that summon'd up 

The charging squadrons fierce and fast, 
And garnished everj' cottage wall 

With pictures of the past, — 

' The graphic pen that drew at once 

The traits alike so truly shown 
In Bertram's faithful pedagogue, 

And haughty Marmion, — 
The hand that equally could paint, 

And give to each proiiortion fair, 
The stern, the wild Meg Merrilies, 

And lovely Lady Clare, — 

' The glowing dreams of bright romance 

That teeming filled his ample brow, — 
Where is his daring chivalry, 

Where are his visions now ? 
The open hand, the generous lieart 

That joy'd to soothe a neighbour's pains? 
Naught, naught, we see, save grass and weeds 

And solemn silence reigns. 

' The flashing eye is dimm'd for aye ; 

The stalwart limb is stiff and cold ; 
Ko longer jiours liis trumpet-note 

To wake the jousts of old. 
The generous heart, the open hand, 

The ruddy cheek, the silver hair. 
Are mouldering in the silent dust — 

All, all is lonely there !' 

The same eleventh Earl of Buchan was devotedly at- 
tached to Dryburgh. At a short distance from the abbey 
he constructed, in 1817, an elegant wire suspension-bridge 
over the Tweed, '260 feet in lengtli, and 4 feet 7 inches 
between the rails, which was blown dowii about 1850. 
His Lordship also erected on his grounds here an Ionic 
temple, with a statue of Apollo in the inside, aud 



a bust of the bard of The Seasons surmounting the 
dome. He raised, too, a colossal statue of Sir "William 
Wallace on the summit of a steep and thickly-planted 
hill ; which, placed on its pedestal 22 Sept. 1814, 
the anniversary of the victory at Stirling Bridge in 1297, 
was the first AVallace monument in Scotland. ' It 
occupies so eminent a situation,' saj'S Mr Chambers, 
'that "Wallace, frowning towards England, is visible 
even from Berwick, a distance of more than 30 miles.' 
The statue is 21^ feet high, and is formed of red sand- 
stone, painted white. It was designed by Mr John 
Smith, a self-taught sculptor, from a supposed authentic 
portrait, which was purchased in France by the father of 
the late Sir Philip Ainslie of Pilton. The hero is re- 
presented in the ancient Scottish dress and armour, with 
a shield hanging from his left hand, and leaning lightly 
on his spear with his right. A tablet below bears an 
appropriate inscription. 

Burns visited the ruins on 10 Slay 1787, "Words- 
worth and his sister Dorothy on 20 Sept. 1803 ; and 
Sir "Walter Scott, in his Miiistrdsy of the Scottish Border, 
gives an interesting account of one who actually dwelt 
amongst them — the Nun of Dryburgh. This was a 
poor wanderer, who took up her abode, about the middle 
of last century, in a vault which during the day she never 
quitted. It was supposed, from an account she gave of 
a spirit who used to arrange her habitation at night, 
during her absence in search of food or charity at the 
residences of gentlemen in the neighbourhood, that the 
vault was haunted ; and it was long, on this account, 
regarded -n-itli terror by the country folk. She never 
could be prevailed upon to relate to her friends the 
reason why she adopted so singular a course of life. 
' But it was believed,' says Sir Walter, ' that it was 
occasioned by a vow that, during the absence of a man 
to whom she was attached, she would never look upon 
the sun. Her lover never returned. He fell during 
the civil war of 1745-6, and she never more beheld the 
light of da}^. ' 

The name Dryburgh has been derived by followers of 
Stukely from the Celtic darach-bruach, ' bank of the 
grove of oaks ; ' and vestiges, we are told, of Pagan 
worship have been found in the Bass Hill, a neighbour- 
ing eminence, among which was an instrument used for 
killing the victims in sacrifice. St Modan, a champion 
of the Pioman party, came hither from Ireland in the 
first half of the 8th century ; but it is something worse 
than guesswork to suppose, with Mr Morton, that he 
founded a monastery which ' was probably destroyed by 
the ferocious Saxon invaders under Ida, the flame-bearer, 
who landed on the coast of Yorkshire in 547, and, after 
subduing Northumberland, added this part of Scotland 
to his dominions by his victory over the Scoto-Britons 
at Cattraeth. ' St Mary's Abbey was founded by Hugh 
de Morville, Lord of Lauderdale and Constable of Scot- 
land, in 1150.* According to the Chronicle of Melrose, 
Beatrix de Beauchamp, wife of De Morville, obtained a 
charter of confirmation for the new foundation from 
David I. ; and the cemetery was consecrated on St 
Martin's Day, 1150, 'that no demons might haunt it ; ' 
but the community did not come into residence till 1 3 
Dec. 1152. The monks or canons regular (to give them 
their proper title) were Premonstratensians from Alnnick ; 
and their garb was a coarse black cassock, covered by a 
white woollen cope, ' in imitation of the angels of heaven, 
who are clothed in white garments,' hence their familiar 
designation — White Friars. Tradition says, that the 
English, under Edward II., in their retreat in 1322, 
provoked by the imprudent triumph of the monks in 
ringing the church bells at their departure, returned and 
burned the abbey in revenge. Bower, however, as Dr 
Hill Burton remarks, ' cannot be quite coiTect in saying 
that Dryburgh was entirely reduced to powder, since 

* On p. 100 of his Iliiifonj and Poetry of the Border 
(187&), Prof. Vcitch remarks that ' Dryburgh was founded a Httle 
later [than 1136] by Hugh de Morville, who succeeded his father 
in 1159, and died in 1162. Some hold that Morville u-a.s imidicated 
in the murder of Thomas d, Beclcet. If so, the founding and rich 
endowment of Dryljurgh was probably an expiation for this early 
deed of his life.' Hut, surely, Uecket was murdered in 1170. 

part of the building yet remaining is of older date than 
the invasion.' King Piobcrt the Bruce contributed 
liberally towards its repair ; but it has been doubted 
whether it ever was fully restored to its original magni- 
ficence. Certain flagrant disorders, which occurred here 
in the latter half of the 14th century, drew down the 
severe censure of Pope Gregory XL upon the inmates. 
An alumnus of Dryburgh about this period has been 
claimed in the ' Philosophicall Strode,' to whom and 
the ' moral Gower ' Chaucer inscribed his I'voilus and 
Crcsscidc ; way, Chaucer himself is said to have paid a 
visit to Dryburgh. Alas ! the claim is ruthlessly de- 
molished by Dr Hill Burton in Billings' AntiqicUies. 
AVithin 20 miles of the Border, the abbey was ever ex- 
posed to hostile assaults ; and we hear of its burning by 
Richard II. in 1385, by Sir Robert Bowes and Sir Bryan 
Latoun in 1544, and again by the Earl of Hertford in 
1545, in which last year, some months before, James 
Stewart, the abbot commendator, had with other chief- 
tains crossed the Tweed into Northumberland, and 
burned the village of Hornclifi'e, but by the garrisons 
of Norham and Berwick had been attacked and driven 
back with heavy loss, before he could effect more 
damage. This same James Stewart was, through a 
natural daughter, the ancestor of the Rev. Henry 
Erskine of Chirnside (1624-96) and his two sons, the 
founders of the Secession, Ebenezer (1680-1754) and 
Ralph (1685-1752). Of these Henry and Ebenezer were 
both of them born at Dryburgh, and the former is 
buried here. 

Annexed to the Crown in 1587, the lands of Dryburgh 
M'cre by a charter of 1604 granted to John Erskine, 
Earl of Mar, and erected into the lordship and barony 
of Cardross. From the Earl's great-grandson, Henrj', 
third Lord Cardross, they passed by purchase in 1682 to 
Sir Patrick Scott, younger of Aucrum, in 1700 to 
Thomas Haliburton of Newmains, in 1767 to Lieut. -Col. 
Charles Tod, and finally in 1786 to David Stewart 
Erskine, eleventh Earl of Buchan. Tlieir present holder 
is his great-great-grandson, George Oswald Harry 
Erskine Biber-Erskine, Esq. (b. 1858 ; sue. 1870), who 
owns 359 acres in the shire, valued at £977 per annum. 
His seat, called Dryburgh Abbey, adjoins the ruins, as 
also does Dryburgh House. "The latter, a Scottish 
Baronial edifice, enlarged by Messrs Peddie & Kinnear 
in 1877, was for some time the residence of the Right 
Hon. Charles Baillie, Lord Jerviswoode (1804-79). — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. See James Morton's i/oruis<ic 
AuTials of Tcviotdale (Edinb. 1832) ; Sir D. Erskine's 
Annals and Antiquities of Dryburgh (Kelso, 1836) ; J. 
Spottiswoode's Liber S. Marie de Dryburgh (Bannatyne 
Club, Edinb., 1847) ; Dryburgh Abbey : its Monks and 
its Lords (3d ed., Lond., 1864) ; vol. ii., p. 321, of the 
Rev. J. F. Gordon's Monasticon (Glasg. 1868) ; and Jas. 
F. Hunnewell's Xftzicfe o/<S'coi!i (Edinb. 1871). 

Dry Bum, a rivulet in the E of Haddingtonshire, 
issuing from little Black Loch (500 feet), in Spott 
parish, on the northern slope of the Eastern Lammer- 
muirs, and running 5 J miles east-north-eastward, chiefly 
along the boundary between Innerwick and Dunbar 
parishes, to the sea in the vicinity of Skalcraw, 4 miles 
ESE of Dunbar town. 

Dr3^e, a small river of Annandale, Dumfriesshire, 
rising in the northern extremity of Hutton parish, at 
an altitude of 1900 feet, on the southern slope of Loch 
Fell (2256 feet), within 1^ mile of the Selkirkshire 
border, and hh miles E by S of Moff'at. Thence it runs 
18^ miles southward and south-south-westward, through 
the northern half of Hutton, across the eastern wing of 
Applegarth, and through the W of Dryfesdale, till it 
falls into the Annan at a point 2 miles AV of Lockerbie, 
and 140 feet above sea-level. Its basin, above Hutton 
church, is hilly moorland ; but, in the middle and lower 
parts, is champaign country, nearly all under the plough. 
Open to the public, its waters contain abundance of 
trout, herlings, and a few salmon. In fair weather 
small and singularly liiai)id, it swells after heavy rain 
into rapid and roaring freshet, and occasionally, over 
breadths of rich loamy soil, cuts out a new channeL 



The ancient parish church of Dryfesdalc stood on 
Kirkhill, on the SE of the Dryfc. In 1670, both it 
and part of its graveyard were swept away, and their 
site converted into a sand-bed, by one of the Dryfe's 
impetuous inundations. Next year, a new church was 
built near the former site, on what was thought a more 
secure spot ; yet even this was, in a few years, so 
menaced bj- the encroachments of the river, wliich tore 
away piece after piece of the graveyard, that, along with 
its site, it was finally abandoned. These disasters were 
regarded as the verification of an old saying of Thomas 
the Rhymer, which a less astute observer of the furiously 
devastating power of the Dryfe than he might very 
safely have uttered — 

' Let spades and shools do what they may, 
Dryfe shall tak Drysdale kirk away." 

The church of 1670, and even greater part of the ceme- 
tery, have now wholly disappeared. A story has long 
been current in Annandale, that ' a Dryfesdale man once 
buried a wife and married a wife in ae day, ' which fell 
out thus. A widower, after mourning for a reasonable 
time the spouse whom he had buried in Dryfesdale, was 
proceeding, on a wet and stormy day, to take to him- 
self a second helpmate, when, crossing the bridge at the 
head of the bridal party, he saw the coffin of his former 
wife falling from ' the scaur ' into the torrent, and 
gliding towards the spot on which he stood. To rescue 
it from the water, and re-commit it to the earth was no 
long task, after which the wedding proceeded merrily. 
The tract along the lowermost reach of the Drj'fe is a 
stretch of low level land, consisting of silt and detritus 
brought down by the freshets, and called Drj'fe Sands. 
The spot is memorable as the scene of a sanguinary 
conflict, in Dec. 1593, between the Maxwells and the 
Johnstones. The former, though much superior in 
numbers, were routed and pursued with the loss of 
700 men, including their commander, Lord Maxwell. 
Many, on reaching Lockerbie, were there cut down in a 
manner so ruthless as to give rise to the proverbial 
phrase for a severe wound, ' a Lockerbie lick. ' Two 
very aged thorn-trees, the 'Maxwell Thorns,' stood on 
the field of conflict, ^ mile below the old churchyard 
of Dryfesdale, but about 1845 were swept away by a 
freshet— Ord. Sur., shs. 16, 10, 1864. See pp. 232-234 
of Robert Chambers' Popular llkymes of Scotland (ed. 
Dryfe Sands. See Dryfe. 

Dryfesdale (popularly Drysdale), a parish in the middle 
of Annandale, Dumfriesshire, containing in the S the 
village of Bexi;.\ll, and towards the centre the town of 
LocKEnBiE, whose station on the main line of the Cale- 
donian is 25| miles NW of Carlisle, and 75J S by W of 
Edinburgh. It is bounded N and NE by Applegarth, 
E by Hutton, SE by Tundergarth, S by St Mungo, SW 
by Dalton, and W by Lochmaben. Its utmost length, 
from NNE to SSW, is 7\ miles ; its breadth, from E to 
W, varies between 1 mile and 4| miles ; and its area is 
10,372 acres, of which 1402 are water. From below 
Applegarth church to just below Daltonhook the Annan 
winds 9 miles south-by-eastward, tracing, roughly or 
closely, the Lochmaben and Dalton boundaries ; and 
Dryfe Water, its atlluent, flows 4 miles south-westward 
on the Afiplcgarth border and through the north- 
western interior. Along the Hutton border Cohuie 
Water runs 1| mile southward to the Water of Milk, 
which itself meanders 2| miles south-westward along all 
the Tundergarth boundary. In the flat S, the surface, 
where the Annan quits this parish, sinks to less than 140 
feet above sea-level, thence rising north -north-eastward 
to 234 feet at Bengali Hill, 391 near Lockerbie Hill, 733 
at Whitewoollcn Hill, 708 at Sloda Hill, 734 at Croft- 
head Hill, and 774 on Newfield Moor — heights that 
command a very extensive view. The rocks of the hills 
are eruptive and Silurian ; those of the plains include a 
very soft sandstone and a dark-coloured limestone. The 
soil, on most of the hills, is rich enough to be arable ; 
on much of the low flat grounds, is light and dry ; and 
along the streams, is deep, fertile, alluvial loam. About 


350 acres are pastoral or waste, 250 are imder wood, and 
all the rest of the land is either regularly or occasionally 
in tillage. Vestiges of strong old towers are at Nether- 
place, Old Walls, Kirkton Mains, Myrehead, and Dal- 
tonhook. Remains of eight camps, some square or 
Roman, others circular or Caledonian, occur in difl'erent 
places, chiefly on eminences ; and two of them, Roman 
and Caledonian, confront each other on hills to the 
NE of Bengali village. Traces exist, too, of a Roman 
road, running northward from England by way of 
Brunswark Hill, and sending off a westward branch to 
Nithsdale. Mansions are Lockerbie House and Dryfe- 
holm ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 15 of between £100 and £500, 15 of 
from £50 to £100, and 35 of from £20 to £50. Dryfes- 
dale is in the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of 
Dumfries ; the living is worth £222. The churches are all 
at Lockerbie, where Dryfesdale public school, a Gothic 
building erected in 1875 at a cost of £4500, with accom- 
modation for 600 children, had (1880) an average attend- 
ance of 407, and a grant of £323, 18s. Valuation (1860) 
£10,881, (1882) £18,833, 2s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 1893, 
(1831) 2283, (1861) 2509, (1871) 2825, (1881) 2971.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Drygate. See Glasgow. 

Drygrange, an estate, with a mansion, in ^lelrose 
parish, Roxburghshire, on the right bank of Leader 
Water, f mile above its influx to the Tweed, and 2J 
miles ENE of Melrose. The mansion, a fine old build- 
ing, amid ancestral trees, occupies the site of the chief 
granary of j\Ielrose Abbey. Granted by the Abbey to 
David Lithgow in the reign of James V., the estate has 
come, through several hands, to Sir George Hector 
Leith-Buchanan, seventh Bart, since 1775 (b. 1833 ; 
sue. 1842), who married in 1861 the only daughter of 
the late Thomas Tod, Esq. of Drygrange, and who holds 
1315 acres in the shire, valued at £1724 per annum. 
Drygrange Bridge, across the Tweed near the Leader's 
confluence, takes over the road from Melrose and St 
Boswells to Lauder, and commands a beautiful view of — 

' Ercildoune and Cowdenknowes, 

Where Homes had ance commanding ; 
And Drygrange wi' the milk-white ewes, 
'Twixt Tweed and Leader standing.' 

Dryhope, a burn, a hill, and a Border peel-tower in 
the A\' of Yarrow parish, Selkirkshire. The burn rises 
on Deepslake Knowe (1717 feet), and runs 2g miles south- 
south-eastward to Yarrow Water, at a jioint 2i furlongs 
NE of the foot of St Mary's Loch. The hill, called 
Dryhope Rig, flanks the right side of the upper course 
of the burn, and has an altitude of 1712 feet above sea- 
level. Dryhope Tower, crowning a slight eminence on 
the right bank of the burn, 5 furlongs N of the Loch, 
and 15^ miles WSW of Selkirk, was one of the strongest 
peel-houses in Ettrick Forest — square and lofty, com- 
manding a glorious view up the vale of the Yarrow and 
over the Loch of the Lowes away to the Moffatdale Hills. 
Here, about 1550, was born the 'Flower of Yarrow,' 
^lary Scott, the bride of Wat Scott of Harden, whom 
her father engaged to find in inan's and horse meat at 
his tower of Dryhope for a year and a day, in return for 
the profits of the first Michaelmas moon. Five barons 
pledged themselves for the observance of the contract, 
which was signed for all parties by a notary public, 
none of the seven being able to write his name. Wat 
either succeeded or ousted his father-in-law, for on 13 
July 1592, James VI. issued at Peebles a warrant to 
demolish the fortalicc of Dryhope, ' pertaining to Walter 
Scott of Harden, who was art and part of the late 
treasonable fact perpetrate against his highness' own 
person at Falkland. ' Demolished, however, Dryhope was 
certainly not, for the tower, though roofless, is still in 
good preservation — the property still of a Scott, the 
Duke of Buccleuch.— On^. Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 

Drjnnen, a village and a parish of SW Stirlingshire. 
The village stands 1§ mile N by W of Drymcn station, 
on the Forth and Clyde Junction section of the North 
British, this being 6^ miles ENE of Balloch and 23^ 
WSW of Stirling ; and, forming a good centre for visit- 



ing some of the fine scenery in the W of Stirlingshire, 
it has a post office under Glasgow, with money order, 
savings' bank, and railway telegraph departments, a 
branch of the Royal Bank, and fairs for cattle, sheep, 
and horses on the last "Wednesday of April, 17 May, and 
the Friday before the first Doune November market, for 
hiring on 21 May and the first Friday of November. 

The parish is bounded N by Aberfoyle and Port of 
Monteith, in Perthshire ; E and SE by Kippen, Balfron, 
.and Killearn ; S and SW by Dumbarton and Kilmaro- 
nock, in Dumbartonshire ; and W by Buchanan. Its 
utmost length, from N by E to S by W, is 11 miles; 
its breadth varies between 6-\ furlongs and lOJ miles ; 
and its area is 30,973:^ acres, of which 123 are water. 
ExDRiCK Water, entering from Killearn, flows 7f miles 
southward and west-north-westward ' in many a loop 
and link ' along the Killearn and Kilmaronock borders 
and across the southern interior ; from the N it is 
joined here by Altquhar, from the SW by Catter, 
Burn. Duchray and Kelty Waters, again, both head- 
streams of the Forth, trace 4 and 2| miles of the Aber- 
foyle border ; and the Forth itself winds 3f miles east- 
ward along all the boundary with Port of Monteith. 
The drainage belongs thus partly to the Clyde and 
partly to the Forth ; but the ' divide ' between the two 
river systems is marked by no lofty height. Along the 
Endrick the surface sinks to about 30 feet above sea- 
level, along the Forth to 40 ; and the highest point in 
Drymen between is Bat a' Charchel (750 feet), whilst 
the road from DrjTuen village to Buckl3-vie nowhere 
exceeds 310 feet. In the southern wing of the parish 
are Meikle Caldon (602 feet) and Cameron Muir (530) ; 
in the north-western, Drum of Clasmorei(577), Maol 
Ruadh (624), *Gualann (1514), Elrig (683), Maol an 
larairne (720), and the * south-eastern shoulder (1750) of 
Bexvraick, where asterisks mark those heights that rise 
on the Buchanan boundary. The tract along the Endrick, 
a narrow vale, in places scarcely a mile in width, con- 
trasts strongly with the wide desolate moorlands on either 
side of it, and presents in some parts very beautiful scenery. 
A stretch of about 3 miles by 2h, to the S of this valley, 
mainly consists of Cameron Muir, which passes into 
junction with the western skirts of the Lennox Hills ; 
and the region to the N of the vallej^, measuring about 
8^ miles by 9, and bisected by the watershed between 
the Clyde and Forth, is almost all either moss or moor 
or mountain, its north-eastern portion forming part of 
Flanders Moss, which, lying along the Forth, has been 
in recent years extensively reclaimed. The greater por- 
tion of the arable land lies at elevations of from 40 to 
250 feet above sea-level ; but here and there cultivation 
has been carried as high as 450 feet. The soil ranges 
from fertile clay and rich brown loam, through nearly 
all gradations, to moorish earth and spongy moss ; but 
the commonest soU is poor and tilly, over a cold retentive 
bottom. About 9944 acres are in tillage, 1350 pas- 
ture, 556 under wood, and 21,700 waste. Duchray 
Castle is an interesting antiquity. A large cairn, in 
which sarcophagi and human bones were found, was on 
East Cameron farm ; and remains of a Roman foit, 
known as Garfarran Peel, are on Garfarran farm, at the 
western extremity of Flanders JIoss. Drumbeg, near 
the parish church, was long but falsely believed to be 
the birthplace of John Napier of Merchiston (1550-1617), 
whose patrimonial inheritance was partly situate here, 
and who at the house of Gartness, on the Endrick, close 
to a waterfall, the Pot of Gartness, worked out much 
of his famous treatise on logarithms. Mansions are 
Endrickbank and Park House. The Duke of Montrose 
and Wm. C. G. Bontine, Esq. of Gartmore, own land 
respectively to the yearly value of £4000 and £2053 ; 
and 8 other proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 12 of between £100 and £500, 8 of 
from £50 to £100, and 13 of from £20 to £50. Drymen 
is in the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glas- 
gow and Ayr ; th»; living is worth £368. The parish 
„hurch (1771 ; 400 sittings) stands near the village, 
where also is a U.P. church (1819). Two public schools, 
AucHiNTEOiG and Drymen, with respective accommoda- 

tion for 56 and 120 children, had (ISSO) an average 
attendance of 20 and 75, and grants of £33 and £69, 
19s. 2d. Valuation (1860) £11,508, (1882) £16,455, 
7s. 3d., plus £8671 for railway. Pop. (1801) 1607, 
(1831) 1690, (1861) 1619, (1871) 1405, (1881) 1431.— 
Orel. Sitr., shs. 38, 30, 1871-66. 

Drynie, an estate, with a mansion, in Kilmuir- Wester 
parish, Ross-shire, near the W shore of the Moray Firth, 
4 miles N bj' E of Inverness. 

Drynoch, a burn in Bracadale parish, Isle of Skye, 
Inverness-shire, running 4 J miles westward to the head 
of Loch Harport. 

Drysdale. See Dryfesdale. 

Duag, an alpine streamlet in the W of Blair Athole 
parish, Perthshire, rising near the watershed of the 
central Grampians, and running impetuously 2| mile.s 
south-south-eastward to the Garry in the vicinity of 

Dualt, a bum of Strathblane and KQleam parishes, 
Stirlingshire, rising on Auchineden HiU, at an alti- 
tude of 830 feet, and ninning 3 miles north-north-east- 
ward, chiefly along the mutual boundary of the parishes, 
till, near Killearn House, it falls into the Caruock, a sub- 
afiluent of the Endrick. In a deep, wooded glen a little 
above its mouth, it forms, with several smaller falls, one 
beautiful cascade of 60 feet.—Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Duard or Rudha Dubh Ard, a headland (91 feet) to 
the N of the entrance of Loch Broom, XW Ross-shire, 
opposite Horse island, and 8 miles NW of Ullapool. 

Duart, a small bay and a ruined castle in Torosay 
parish, ]\Iull island, Argyllshire. The bay, opening at 
the north-eastern extremity of Mull, opposite the SW 
end of Lismore, measures 1 by f mile. The castle, 4J 
miles N of Achnacraig, stands on a bold headland at the 
E side of the bay, and commands one of the grandest 
prospects in the Western Highlands. Dating from some 
unknown period of the Norsemen's invasion, and first 
coming into record in 1390 as the stronghold of the 
Macleans of Mull, it comprises a massive square tower 
(75 X 72 feet) of seemingly the 14th century, and a range 
of less ancient buildings. In 1523 Lachlan Maclean of 
Duart exposed his wife, the Earl of Argyll's daughter, 
on a tide-swept islet between Lismore and Mull, the 
' Lady's Rock,' whence she was rescued by a passing 
boat — an episode dramatised in Joanna Baillie's Family 
Legend, and only one out of the many tragedies wit- 
nessed by Duart's walls in the endless feud between the 
Macdonalds and the Macleans, from whom the estate 
passed to the Argyll family in the latter half of the 17th 
centurj-. Modern Duart House, IJ mile NNW of 
Achnacraig, is the seat of Arbuthnot Charles Guthrie, 
Esq. (b. 1825), who owns 23,012 acres in the shire, 
valued at £3217 per annum. 

Dubbieside or Innerleven, a coast village on the E 
border of Wemyss parish, Fife, at the right side of the 
mouth of tlie river Leven, opposite Leven town. It 
communicates with Leven by a suspension-bridge over 
the river, shares in its industries, and has a U. P. church. 

Dubbs Cauldron, a pretty cascade on Wamphray 
Water, in Wamphray parish, NE Dumfriesshii-e. 

Dubcapon. See Duxkeld and Dowally. 

Dubford, a hamlet in Gamrie parish, NE Banffshire, 
1 mile S of Gardenstown, and 7^ miles E of Banft", under 
which it lias a post oSice. 

Dubh Loch. See Douloch. 

Dublin Row, a village on the N border of Lesmahagow 
parish, Lanarkshire, almost continuous with Kirkfield- 
bank. If mile W of Lanark. 

Dub of Hass. See Dalbeattie. 

Dubston, a hamlet in Gamrie parish, Banffshire, near 

Dubton, a railway junction in the NW corner of 
Montrose parish, Forfarshire, on the Scottish North- 
Eastern section of the Caledonian, at the deflection of 
the branch lino to Montrose, near Hillside village, 3 
miles NNW of Montrose. Dubton House, in its vicinity, 
is the seat of Thomas Renny-Tailyour, Esq. (b. 1812 ; 
sue. 1849), who holds 557 acres in the sliire, valued at 
£2081, 7s. per annum. 



Duchall, an estate, with a mansion of 1768, in Kil- 
malcolm parish, Renfrewshire, on the right bank of the 
Grj-fe, If mile SSW of Kilmalcolm village. From the 
IStli century the estate, with a castle standing IJ mile 
to the WNW, belonged to the Lyles, the seventh of 
whose line was created Lord Lyle about 1446. The 
fourth and last Lord sold it a century later to Jolin 
Porterfield of Porterlield, wliose descendants held it for 
fully 300 years. It is now the property of Sir Michael 
Shaw-Stewart of Ahdc.owan. 

Duchal Law, the eastern summit (725 feet) of the 
Braes of Glenitfer in Abbey parish, Renfrewshire, 3^ 
miles S of Paisley. It commands an extensive and very 
lovely view. 

Duchray, an estate, with an old castle, in Drymen 
parish, Stirlingshire. The castle, on the right bank of 
Duchray Water, 3 miles "WSW of Aberfoyle hamlet, and 
10 NW of Bucklp-ie station, was formerly a stronghold 
of those Grahams who in 1671 fought the Earl of Airth 
upon Aberfoyle bridge, and is now beautifully mantled 
with i^-y. Its orchard contains some aged filbert trees, 
producing a peculiarly large and fine-flavoured nut. 

Duchray Water, the southern head-stream of the river 
Forth, in Stirling and Perth shires, rises, at an altitude 
of 3000 feet, on the N side of Ben Lomond (3192), and 
thence winds 13| miles north-north-eastward, south- 
eastward, and east-north-eastward through the interior 
or along the borders of Buchanan, Drjnnen, and Aber- 
foyle parishes, till, at a point 1 mile W of Aberfoyle 
hamlet, it unites with the Avondhu to form the Laggan. 
See Foivni.—Ord. Sur., sh, 38, 1871. 

Ducraig, a rocky islet of Dunfermline parish, Fife, in 
the Firth of Forth, ^ mile SW of Rosyth Castle, and 2f 
miles NW of Queensferry. The depth of water adjacent 
to it, at tlie lowest ebb tide, is 21 feet. 

Duddingston, a village and a coast parish of Mid- 
lothian. Tlie village, Ig mile WSW of Portobello 
station, and 2^ miles SE by E of Edinburgh Post Office 
through the Queen's Park, stands, at an altitude of 
150 feet above sea-level, at the south-eastern base of 
Arthur's Seat and near the north-eastern shore of Dud- 
dingston Loch. With background of hill, and foreground 
of park and manse and antique kirk and lake, it is 
itself a pretty little place, consisting of a small back 
street and a single row of plain good old-fashioned 
villas. At it are an inn, a post office under Edinburgh, 
and a plastered house to the E in which Prince Charles 
Edward is said to have passed the night before the 
battle of Prestonpans ; whilst at Duddingston Mills, 
a hamlet J mile nearer Portobello, are a public 
school and Cauvin's Hospital. A plain white villa- 
like building this, founded by Louis Cauvin, French 
teacher in Edinburgh, and afterwards farmer at Dud- 
dingston, who, dying in 1825, bequeathed his pro- 
perty for the maintenance and education of the sons of 
poor but honest teachers and farmers, or, failing such, 
master-printers, booksellers, and farm servants. It was 
opened in 1833, and gives instruction to 17 boys in 
classics, modern languages, mathematics, etc. 

Tlie parish, containing also the town of Portobello 
and Joppa, and the village of Easter Duddingston, is 
bounded N by South Leith, NE by the Firth of Forth, 
S by Liberton, SW by St Cuthberts, and W by Canon- 
gate. Its utmost length is 3g miles from ENE to WSW, 
viz., from the Firth, at the mouth of Burdiehouse Burn, 
to the old Dalkeith road above Echo Bank ; its utmost 
width is li mile ; and its area is 1899^ acres, of which 
143 are foreshore and 25^ water. Burdiehouse or 
Brunstane Burn winds 2 miles east-north-eastward to 
the Firth along the Liberton border, which westwards, 
near Peffermill, is traced for ^ mile by the straightened 
Burn of Braid ; and the I5uni of Braid, or Figgate, or 
Jordan (its aliases are many), thereafter Hows 2^ miles 
north-eastward to the Firth at the Is W end of Porto- 
bello, through Duildiiigston Park and the wooded dell 
of Duddingston Mills. Reed-fringed Duddingston Loch, 
580 yards long, and from 70 to 2G7 yards wide, was 
cleared of its weeds, and thereby greatly improved, in 
the summer of 1881. It is truly a beautiful little sheet 


of water, in summer with its swans and waterfowl, in 
winter with its crowds of skaters and curlers, and 
always with the church, the boathouse tower, and the 
bold Hangman's Craig. The coast-line is low, though 
rocky to the E, whose boulder-clay mussel-beds gave 
name to Musselburgh ; and the shore is fringed with a 
terrace or raised sea-beach that marks the former margin 
of the Firth. Inland the surface is gently undulating 
but nowhere hilly, attaining its highest point (300 
feet) at the eastern shoulder of Dunsajjie Rock, and 
everywhere so dominated by Arthur's Seat (822 feet) as 
to look flatter than it really is. The rocks are mainly 
carboniferous, in the W belonging to the Calciferous 
Sandstone series, next to the Carboniferous Limestone 
series, and to the coal-measures in the furthest E, and 
jielding coal, sandstone, limestone, and brick clay. 
The soil is loamy, resting on strong clay, towards the 
SE ; light and sandy along the coast ; and elsewhere a 
brownish earth of no gi'eat natural fertility. Less than 
two centuries since the entire parish was an unreclaimed 
moor, covered with sand, and diversified only by the 
stunted growth of the Figgate AVhins, that forest where 
Wallace is said to have mustered his forces for the siege 
of Berwick, and Gibson of Durie to have been pounced 
upon by Christie's Will.* But about 1688, the ONATier of 
Prestonfield, Sir James Dick, became Lord Provost of 
Edinburgh ; and, better acquainted than his contempo- 
raries with the fertilising powers of city manure, availed 
himself of ready and thankful permission to enrich there- 
with the sterile soil of his estate. So successful were his 
policy and example that, arid and worthless as Dudding- 
ston had been, it ranks now among the most highly- 
rented land in the United Kingdom, with its lush grass- 
meadows and steam-tilled cornfields. In 1745, James 
Hamilton, eighth Earl of Abercorn (1712-89), bought 
from the Duke of Argyll the barony of Duddingston, 
and here, in 1768, built Duddingston House, a Grecian 
pile designed by Sir William Chambers, which cost, 
with its pleasure-grounds, £30,000, and now stands in a 
finely-wooded park. His descendant and namesake, the 
first Duke and tenth Earl of Abercorn (b. 1811 ; sue. 
1818), holds 1500 acres in Midlothian, valued at £7400 
jier annum. Prestonfield is the other chief mansion ; 
and 4 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 52 of between £100 and £500, 125 of from 
£50 to £100, and 130 of from £20 to £50. The Fish- 
wives' Causey, an obscure by-road near Portobello 
brickworks, is an undoubted fragment of the Roman 
road between Inveresk and Cramond ; and over Burdie- 
house Burn, leading up to Brunstane House, is a 
beautiful old bridge, Roman so-called ; whilst from the 
bed or shores of Duddingston Loch bronze implements 
have been dredged or dug up in such numbers as to 
suggest that in the Age of Bronze an extensive manufac- 
ture of weapons must have been carried on at its margin. 
In Duddingston died Sir John Hay (lCOO-54), a senator of 
the College of Justice ; in Duddingston was educated 
William Smellie (1740-95), the }irinter-naturalist ; and 
in Duddingston, son of a farmer at Clearburn, was born 
the Rev. Thomas Gillespie (1708-74), founder of the 
Relief body. But the name associated most closely with 
the parish is that of the great landscape painter, its 
minister from 1805, the Rev. John Thomson (1778- 
1840) — 'Thomson of Duddinston, heavy and strong,' 
as Dr John Brown calls him — who at the manse here 
was visited by Sir Walter Scott, John Clerk of Eldin, 
Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, Turner, Wilkie, etc. In the 
presbytery of Edinburgh and synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale, this parish is divided ecclesiastically into 
Portobello and Duddingston, the latter a living wortli 
£440. The church, with chancel, nave, N transept, 
low square tower, 350 sittings, and organ, dates from 
the Korman era of church architecture, and under 
William the Lyon (1166-1214) was acquired by the 
mouks of Kelso Abbej'. It has been grievously knocked 
about and added to at various periods, a window of the 
transept bearing date 1621, but it still retains a 

* Falsely, since the seizure took j)lace near liis own seat in Fifo 
(Hill Uurton, Hint. 6c(/(., vi. 17, cd. 1S70). See DiRii:. 


beautiful chancel arch and S doorway of Romanesque 
workmanship ; and at tlie churchyard gate the old 
' loupin'-on-stane ' is still to be seen, with the iron jougs 
hanging beside. The public school, with accommoda- 
tion for 147 children, had (18S0) an average attendance 
of 57, and a grant of £40, 14s. Valuation (1SS2) 
£14,450, exclusive of Portobello, but including £2604 
for railways. Pop. (1801) 1003, (1831) 3862, (1861) 
5159, (1871) 6369, (1881) 7815, of whom 1124 were in 
Duddingston ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Siir. sh. 32, 
1857. See J. W. Small's Leaves from my Skctch-Books 
(Edinb. ISSO). 

Duddingston, Easter, a village in Duddingston 
parish, Midlothian, 1:| mile ESE of Portobello station. 

Dudhope. See Duxdee. 

Dudwick, an estate in Ellon parish, Aberdeenshire, 
4 mik\s XXE of Ellon village. The semi-castellated 
mansion on it was the seat of General James King 
(1589-1652), the Swedish veteran, who, by Charles I., 
was created Lord Eythin or Ythan in 1642. Having 
long been a farmhouse, it was demolished within the last 
twenty years. Dudwick Hill (572 feet) is one of the 
highest points in Buchan. 

Duflf House, a seat of the Earl of Fife iu Banff parish, 
Banffshire, near the middle of an extensive plain, on 
the left bank of the river Deveron, 3 furlongs S by E of 
the town of Banff. Built in 1740-45 by "WiUiam Lord 
Braco, after designs by the elder Adam, at a cost of 
£70,000, it is a large quadrangular four-storied edifice, 
in the Roman style, with balustrades and domical tower- 
like projections at the four angles, and is adorned ex- 
ternally with statues and vases. Two wings, that would 
have given it an oblong shape, were never added. 
Within is a fine collection of paintings, comprising 
portraits of the Constable de Bourbon by Titian, of 
Charles I., Henrietta Maria, Strafford, Lord Herbert, 
and the Countess of Pembroke by Yan Dyck, of Mrs 
Abingdon and the Duchess of Gordon by Sir Joshua 
RejTiolds, of the fourth Earl of Fife by Raeburn, and 
of the late Countess by Sir Francis Grant, beside pictures 
by Quentin Matsys, Murillo, Cuyp, Ruysdael, Snyders, 
"Wouvermans, Doraenichino, Holbein, Velasquez, etc. 
The Library, 70 feet long, contains over 15,000 volumes, 
and is rich in 17th century pamphlets and Spanish 
works, collected mostly by James, fourth Earl (1776- 
1851), during his Peninsular campaign. The whole 
was reorganised and catalogued by Mr A. Robertson in 
1881. The Armoury, among other relics, contains three 
Andrea Ferraras, and the target and huge two-handed 
sword of the freebooter M'Pherson, who was hanged at 
Banff in 1701. In 1780 "William Nicol and Burns 
went over Duff House, where the latter was greatly 
taken with portraits of the exiled Stuarts. The finely- 
wooded park, extending nearly 3 miles along the Deveron 
from Banff to Alvah Bridge, comprises parts of two 
counties and four parishes, and measures 14 miles in 
circumference ; abounds in drives and walks of singular 
beauty ; and includes the site of St Mary's Carmelite 
friary, founded before 1324, which site is now occupied 
by the Gothic mausoleum of the Fife family. Alex- 
ander- WiUiam-George DufiF, sixth Earl Fife since 1759 
(b. 1849 ; sue. 1879), holds 152,820 acres in Banff, Elgin, 
and Aberdeen shires, valued at £72,813 per annum. — 
Ord. Snr., sh. 96, 1876. See James Imlach's History of 
Banff (Banif, 1868). 

Duff-Kinnel, a rivulet in the NW of Annandale, Dum- 
friesshire. It rises in Kirkpatrick-Juxta parish, and 
runs about 4 miles south-eastward, chiefly along the 
boundary between that parish and Johnstone, to a con- 
fluence with the Kinnel, a little above Raehills. 

DufiFtown, a small police burgh in Jlortlach parish, 
Banffshire, 1 mile S of a station on the Great North of 
Scotland railway, this being 4 miles SE of Craigellachie 
Junction, 10^ SW of Keith, and 64 NW of Aberdeen. 
"With Conval and Ben Rinnes to the S'W, Auchendoun 
Castle to the SE, and Balvenie Castle to the N, it stands, 
600 feet above sea-level, within ^ mile of the Fid- 
dich's left bank ; and founded in 1817 by James Duff, 
fourth Earl of Fife, it is laid out in the form of a crooked- 


armed cross, with a square and a tower in the centre 
At it are a post office, ^vith money order, savings' bank, 
and railway telegraph departments, branches of the 
North of Scotland and the Aliordeen Town and County 
Banks (the latter rebuilt in 1880), 7 insurance agencies, 
an hotel, a distiller}^, and limeworks. Cattle fairs are 
held on the third Thursday of May and September, and 
the fourth Thursday of all the other ten months ; feeing 
fairs on the "Wednesday before 26 May, the third "Wed- 
nesday of July, and the "Wednesday before 22 Novem- 
ber. MoRTLAcn parish church stands 3^ furlongs to 
the S ; and at the village itself are a Free church, the 
Roman Catholic church of Our Lady of the Assumption 
(1825 ; 200 sittings), and St Michael's Episcopal church 
(1880; 130 sittings), a pretty little Gothic building this. 
Queen Victoria di'ove through Dufftown in the summer 
of 1867. Its municipal constituency numbered 230 in 
1882, when the annual value of real property was £2300. 
Pop. (1841) 770, (1851) 998, (1861) 1249, (1871) 1250, 
(1881) 1252.— Orf^. Sur., sh. 85, 1876. 

Duffus, a vdllage and a coast parish of Elginshire. A 
neat clean place, Iving 1 mile inland, the village of New 
Duffus is 4i miles" E by S of Burghead station, 2 ESE 
of Hopeman, and 5| NW of Elgin, under which it has 
a post office. Pop. (1S61) 159, '(1871) 170, (1881) 161. 

The parish, containing also the small towns and vil- 
Roseisle, is bounded W and NW by the Moray Firth, 
NE by Drainie, SE by New Spynie, and SW by 
Alves. Its length, from E to W, varies between 3| 
and 6^ miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 3J 
miles ; and its area is 9865^ acres, of which 1 is 
water, and 386f are foreshore. The coast-line, 7^ 
miles long, is fringed to the W, along Burghead Bay, 
by low sandy links ; elsewhere, at Burghead and along 
the north-western shore, it is almost everywhere rocky, 
in places precipitous, to the E being pierced by some 
large and remarkable caves. Inland, the flat-looking 
surface attains 225 feet at Clarkly Hill, 235 near Inver- 
ugie, 241 near Burnside, and 287 at Roseisle, thence 
again gently declining southward and south-eastward to 
only 32 feet at Bridgend and 11 at Unthank. The sea- 
board, to the breadth of J mile, was once a rich culti- 
vated plain ; but ha\'ing been desolated by sand drift, 
in a similar manner to the Culbin Sands, was afterwards 
reclaimed for either pasture or the plough, and now 
presents an appearance of meagi-e fertility. The rest of 
the land is all arable. No river touches the parish, 
scarcely even a rivulet ; and springs are few and scanty. 
Sandstone and limestone occur, and are quarried. The 
soil, in the E, is a deep and fertile claj', like that of tlie 
Carse of Gowrie ; in the W, is a rich black earth, oc- 
casionally mixed with sand, but generally yielding first- 
rate crops. So that, not from its situation, but from its 
great fertility, this parish has been called the Heart of 
Morayshire. Fully five-eighths of the entire area are in 
tillage, about one-third is pasture, and some 350 acres 
are under wood. Duffus Castle, If mile SE of the vil- 
lage, was built in the time of David II., and, crowning 
a mound near the NW shore of Spynie Loch, was sur- 
rounded with a moat, and approached by a drawbridge ; 
its walls, 5 feet in thickness, consisted of rough, cemented 
stones. Belonging originally to the family of De Jloravia, 
it afterwards was long the seat of the family of Suther- 
land, who bore the title of Lords Duffus from 1650 till 
1843 ; and it is now a picturesque ruin. An obelisk, 
falsely thought to have been erected by Malcolm II. in 
commemoration of a victory over the Danes under Camus, 
stood till within the present century near Kaim ; and 
several tumuli are on the heights at the shore, whilst 
sarcophagi have been exhumed on the estate of Inverugie. 
Duffus House, 3 furlongs ESE of the village, is the 
seat of Sir Archibald Dunbar of Northficld, sixth Bart. 
since 1698 (b. 1803 ; sue. 1847), who owns 1828 acres 
in the shire, valued at £3414 per annum. Another 
mansion is Inveuxigie ; and the whole parish is divided 
among 27 proprietors, 7 holding each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 1 of from £50 to £100, and 19 of 
from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Elgin and 



synod of Moray, this parish is divided ecclesiastically 
iuto Dutfus and Hurghead, the former worth £353. Its 
church is a handsome edifice of 1868, with a spire. 
Four jiublic schools — Burghead, Dutlus, Hopeman, and 
Roseisle — with respective accommodation for 351, 126, 
362, and 38 children, had (ISSO) an average attendance 
of 256, 93, 240, and 23, and grants of £204, 16s. 6d., 
£97, 15s. 6d., £198, 19s., and £29, 12s. 6d. Valuation 
(18S1) £13,949, 19s. Pop. (1801) 1339, (1831) 2308, 
(1861) 3308, (1871) 3716, (1881) 3985.— Ord. Sicr., sli. 
95, 1876. 

Dugalstone. See Dougalston. 

Dugden. See Dogden. 

Duich, a beautiful sea-loch in the SW corner of Ross- 
shire, deflecting from the head of Loch Alsh, and striking 
5i miles south-eastward along the SW side of Kintail 
parish. From a width of J mile at its entrance it ex- 
pands to IJ at the head ; and it takes up roads from 
the coast, along its northern and southern shores, to 
respectively Strathaffric and Glenshiel. Its screens con- 
sist of mountains, rising right from its margin, partly 
in bold acclivities, and partly in gentle undulating 
ascents, clothed with verdure or variegated with rocks 
and trees. Within 6 miles of its head stand Ben 
Attow (3383 feet) and Scuir na Cairan (3771). 

Duirinish or Durinish, a parish in the W of Skye, 
Inverness-shire, containing the village of Dunvegan, 
on Loch FoUart, 23i miles W by N of Portree, under 
which it has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments. Extending from the 
Grishinish branch of Loch Snizort on the N to Loch 
Bracadale on the S, it is bounded on its E or landward 
side bj' the parishes of Snizort and Bracadale ; its 
length is 19, and its breadth 16, miles ; whilst its coast- 
line, measured along the bays and headlands, is about 
80 miles ; and its area must be fully 100 square miles. 
Sea-lochs run far up into the interior, cutting it iuto an 
assemblage of peninsulas ; and are flanked with grounds 
rising in some places rapidly, in other places gently, 
from their shores. The headlands are mostly huge lofty 
masses of rocks, which rest on bases descending sheer 
into deep water ; and the coast of the northern district 
is a continuous alternation of vertical clifi's and low 
shores, striking enough when first beheld, but wearying 
the eye by its monotony. The shores and islets of 
Loch Follart or Dunvegan Loch, with Dunvegan Castle 
for centre-piece, form a grandly picturesque landscape ; 
and the coast, from Dunvegan Head to Loch Bracadale, 
consists for the most part of clifi's, very various in 
height and slope, many of them lofty and almost per- 
pendicular, and nearly all of such geological composition 
as to present a singular striped appearance. Some 
isolated pyramidal masses of rock, similar to the ' stacks' 
of Caithness and Shetland, stand oS" the coast, and 
figure wildly in the surrounding waters, the most strik- 
ing and romantic of these being known as Macleod's 
Maiden'.s. The northern district consists of Vatemisli 
peninsula, and constitutes the quoad sacra parish of 
Halen ; the other districts may be comprised in three — 
Glendale, extending westward from a line near the head 
of Dunvegan Loch ; Kilmuir, extending southward from 
Dunvegan Loch to Loch Bay, and containing the parish 
church ; and Arnisort, extending eastward from Kilmuir 
to the boundaries with Snizort and Bracadale. The 
only mountains are the Greater and Lesser Helvel or 
Halivail, in the western peninsula, which, rising to an 
altitude of 1700 feet above sea-level, and ascending in 
regular gradient, with verdant surface, are truncated at 
the top into level summits, and to seamen are familiar 
as Macleod's Tables. Hills occur in two series, but are 
neither very high nor in any other way conspicuous. 
Numerous caverns, natural arches, and deep crevices 
are in the cliffs of the coast. Issay Island is nearly 
2 miles long, and has a fertile soil and a considerable 
population ; but all the other islands are small and 
uninhabited. The rocks are chiefly trap ; but they in- 
clude beds of fossilifcrous limestone, thin strata of very 
fioft .sandstone, and thin scams of liard brittle coal. 
Zeolites of every variety are very plentiful ; steatite 


aboivnds, especially about Dunvegan ; and augite and 
olivine are found. The soil in a few tracts is clayey ; 
and in still fewer is gravelly, in most parts being either 
peat moss or a mixture of peat moss and disintegi'ated 
trap. DuNVEG.vx Castle is at once the chief mansion 
and antiquity. Other mansions are Vaternish, Orvost, 
and Grieshernish ; and other antiquities are fifteen Dan- 
ish forts, several tumuli, and a number of subterranean 
hiding-iilaces. Maclcod of ilacleod is owner of half the 
parish, 3 other proprietors holding each an annual value 
of £500 and ujjwards, and 3 of between £100 and £500. 
In the presbytery of Skye and synod of Glenelg, this 
parish is divided ecclesiastically into Halen and Duir- 
inish, the latter being a living worth £208. Its church, 
built in 1832, contains nearly 600 sittings ; and there is 
also a Free church of Duhrinish. The eight public schools 
of Borreraig, Borrodale, Colbost, Dunvegan, Edinbain, 
Knockbreck, Lochbeag, and Valtin Bridge, and the 
Free Church school of Arnisort, with total accommoda- 
tion for 923 children, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 477, and grants amoimting to £413, Os. 5d. Valua- 
tion (1881) £7683, 12s. Pop. (1801) 3327, (1831) 4765, 
(1861) 4775, (1871) 4422, (1881) 4317. 

Duirinnis or Duimish, a grassy islet (3 x IJ furl.) of 
Ardchattan parish, Argyllshire, in Loch Etive, opposite 
Bunawe. It contains a dwelling-house, and is con- 
nected with the mainland by a stone bulwark. 

Duisky, a village in Kilmallie parish, Argyllshii-e, 
on the soutliern shore of Upper Loch Eil, 7 miles W 
by N of Fort William. 

Duke's Bowling-Green. See Argyll's Bowling- 

Dulaich, Loch. See Doulas. 

Dulcapon. See Dunkeld and Dowally. 

Dulcie-Bridge. See Dulsie-Bridge. 

Dull, a village and a parish of central Perthshire. 
The village stands in the Strath of Appin, f mile from the 
Tay's left bank, and 3^ miles W of Aberfeldy ; an ancient 
place, but now decayed and small, it retains in its centre 
a ponderous cruciform pillar, one of four that marked the 
limits of the ancient sanctuary of Dull. Two of them, re- 
moved to form an ornamental gateway to the house of the 
local factor, have been recently placed for preser^^ation 
in the old chm-ch of Weem ; the fourth has disappeared. 

The parish consists of three distinct portions — the 
first containing Dull village, the second containing the 
greater part of Aberfeldy and also the village of 
Amulree, and the third or Garrow section, which, very 
much smaller than either of the others, lies 5J miles 
WNW of Amulree. Its total area is 64,730 acres, of 
which 1313 are water, whilst 47, 233| belong to the main 
body, and 17, 496 J to the detached portions. The main 
body is bounded NW and NE by Blair Athole, E by 
Moulin, Logierait, and Little Dunkeld, S by detached 
portions of Logierait, Weera, and Fortingal, and SW 
and W by Fortingal. It has an utmost length of 13§ 
miles from NW to SE, viz., from the north-western 
slope of Craig nan Garsean to a little beyond Loch 
Ceannard ; its utmost width is 12 miles from NE 
to SW, viz., from the river Garry, opposite Auld- 
clune, to the confluence of Keltney Burn with 
the Lyon. The said Lyon flows 1^ mile east-south- 
eastward along the southern border to the Tay ; 
and the Tay itself at three different points has a total 
east-north-easterly course of 8| miles — 2J from the 
Lyon's confluence to just above Dunacree, f mile along 
the northern border of the Aberfeldy section, and 5^ miles 
along the N of the Grandtully portion of the main 
liody — descending during that coui'se from 280 to 210 
feet above sea-level. The TuMmel winds 13 miles 
eastward along the northern border and through the 
northern interior, its expansion. Loch Tummcl (25 x J 
mile), belonging half to Blair Athole and half to Dull ; 
and the Gaury, the Tummel's aflluent, has here at two 
points a total east-south-easterly course of Ih mile 
between Blair Athole and Auldclune villages. Lakes, 
other than Loch Tummcl, are Loch Kinardochy (3x2 
furh), Loehan a' Chait (2^x3 furl.). Loch Ceannard 
(5ix3furl. ), and five or sLx smaller ones dotted ovei 


the interior ; Lochs DEncuLiCH (4| x 4 furi. ) and 
Classic (3ixlJ furl.), partly belonging to Logierait ; 
and Loch Bhaic (3x1 furl. ), of which two-thirds are in 
Blair Athole. The surface sinks to about 210 feet 
above sea-level along the Tay, 360 along the Tum- 
mel, and 390 along the Garrv ; and the chief elevations 
are Grandtully Hill (1717 feet), to the S of the Tay ; 
*Beinn Eagach (2259), Tarragon Hill (2559), Weem 
Hill (1638), the Rock of DuU (1557), Craig Odhar (1710), 
Meall Tarruin chon (2559), Dun Coilloch (1866), the 
*north-eastem shoulder (3100) of Schiehalliox, and 
Craig Kynachar (1358), between the Tay and the Tum- 
mel ; and, to the N of the Tummel, Meall na h-Iolaire 
(1443) and *Craig nan Garsean (1566), where asterisks 
mark those summits that culminate on the borders of the 
parish. The Aberfeldy and Amulree portion, again, 
has an utmost length from N to S of 9J miles, and a 
var)'ing breadth from E to "W of f mile and 4| miles, 
being bounded N by the Tay, E by Weem (detached), 
Little Dunkeld, and Fowlis-AVester, S by CiiefF, and 
SW and W by detached sections of Fowlis-Wester, 
Monzie, Kenmore, Fortingal, and Logierait. In the S 
the QuAiCH has an east-south-easterly course of 3| 
miles, traversing Loch Freuchie (If mile x 3 J furl.), 
which mostly belongs to this portion of DuU, other 
lakes thereof being Loch Hoil (3 x 2 J furl. ), Lochs na 
Craig (4x1 furl.) and Fender (2| x 2 furl.) on the 
eastern border, Lochan a'Mhuilinn (IJ x § furl.), and 
Loch Uaine (2^ x | furl. ). The surface sinks at Amulree 
to close on 900 feet, and the chief elevations to the S of the 
Quaich are *Geal Cham (2000 feet), *Beimi na Gainimh 
(2367), and *MeaU nam Fuaran (2631), whilst to the N 
of it rise *Creag an Loch (1760), *Meall Dubh (2021), 
and Craig Forinal (1676). Lastly, the Garrow portion, 
measuring 3| bj^ If miles, is bounded W and N by 
Kenmore, and on the other sides by detached sections of 
"Weem and Monzie. The Quaich flows 3J miles along 
its northern border ; and the surface, sinking at the 
north-eastern corner to 990 feet, thence rises to Garrow 
Hill (2402 feet). Cam Bad an Fhraoich (2619), and 
Cam nan Gahbhar (2790), all three of which culminate 
upon the southern border. Mica slat«, occasionally in- 
terspersed Avith quartz, granite, chlorite, and horn- 
blende slate, is the predominant rock ; limestone forms 
a considerable bed, and is quarried at Tomphobuil ; a 
bluish building stone, similar to chlorite and talc slate, 
occurs on the Aird of Appin ; and marl, in small 
quantities, is found in several places. The soil, in 
some parts, is a thin mould or a brownish loam, mixed 
with sand ; in others, is a mixture of clay and loam ; in 
others, is light and gravelly ; and in others, is of a wet 
mossy nature. Between 651 and 661 St Cuthbert, 
coming to a town called Dull, forsook the world, and 
became a solitarj'. On the summit of Doilweme, or 
Weem Hill, 1^ mile to the NE, he brought from the 
hard rock a fountain of running water, erected a large 
stone cross, built an oratory of wood, and hewed a bath 
out of a single stone. At Dull, within seventeen years 
of St Cuthbert's death in 687, Adamnan founded a 
monastery, which was dedicated to himself, and to 
which a very extensive territory was annexed — the 
' abthanrie ' or abbacy of Dull. Embracing a large 
portion of the western part of the earldom of Athole, 
and containing the two thanages of Dull and Fortingal, 
this was possessed in the tirst half of the 11th century 
by Crinan, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and ancestor both of 
the royal dynasty that terminated with Alexander III. 
and of the ancient Earls of Athole (Skene's Celtic Scot- 
latid, vols. ii. , iii. , 1877-80). The antiquities include a 
number of forts, cairns, and standing stones, a stone 
circle, and three moat-hills. Mansions, separately 
noticed, are Grandtully, Foss, Moness, and Derculich ; 
and the chief proprietors are the Earl of Breadalbane, 
Sir Robert Menzies, and Sir Archibald Douglas-Drum- 
mond-Stewart, 4 others holding each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 6 of between £100 and £500, 3 of 
from £50 to £100, and 6 of from £20 to £50. In the 
presbytery of Weem and synod of Perth and Stirling, 
this parish is divided ecclesiastically among Foss, Ten- 


andry, Amulree, and Dull, the last a living worth £360. 
Dull parish church, a pre-Reformation edifice, consisting 
of nave and chancel, and, as recently renovated, con- 
taining 330 sittings, stands at the village ; it was dedi- 
cated to St Adamnan, under his Celtic name of Eonan. 
Other places of worship are noticed under Aberfeldy, 
Amulree, Grandtully, and Tummel-Bridge. The public 
schools of Didl, Foss, Grandtully, and Tummel-Bridge, 
with respective accommodation for 95, 48, 75, and 38 
children, had (1880) an average attendance of 44, 13, 48, 
and 20, and grants of £43, Is., £26, 2s., £49, 19s., and 
£35, Is. Valuation (1866) £16,754, 9s. 3d., (1882) 
£19,759, 5s. Pop. of parish (1801) 4055, (1831) 4590, 
(1861) 2945, (1871) 2681, (1881) 2578 ; of registration 
district (1871) 677, (1881) 6lo.— Orel. Sur., shs. 55, 47, 

Dullaji Water, a stream of Mortlach parish, Banflf- 
shu-e, formed by the confluence of Tavat and Corry- 
habbie Bums at the head of Glen Rinnes, and thence 
running 5| miles north-eastAvard, till it falls into the 
Fiddich, I mile E of the centre of Dufitown. All open 
to the public, it contains abundance of trout, running 
4 or 6 to the Vo.—Ord. Sur., sh. 85, 1876. 

DuUatur, a tract of low land on the northern border 
of Cumbernauld parish, Dumbartonshire, traversed by 
the Forth and Clyde Canal, the line of Antoninus' 
Wall, and the Edinburgh and Glasgow section of the 
Xorth British railway, li mile WNW of Cumbernauld 
town, and 2 miles ESE of Kilsyth. Lying almost on 
a level with the canal, it was all till a recent period a 
deep and spongy, almost impassable morass, immedi- 
ately N of what is supposed to have been Bruce's 
mustering-ground on the eve of his march to Bannock- 
burn (1314), and S of the Kilsyth battle-field (1645). 
At the cuttmg of the canal through it in 1769-70, 
swords, pistols, and other weapons were foimd in it, sup- 
posed to have been lost or thrown away in the rout 
from Kilsyth ; bodies of men and horses, including a 
mounted trooper completely armed, were also brought 
to light ; and mA-riads of small toads, each much the 
size of a nut or Turkej^ bean, issuing from it, hopped 
over all the fields northward for several miles, and could 
be counted from 10 to 30 iu the space of 1 square j-ard. 
DuUatur YiUas here, on a plot of 164 acres, round the 
old mansions of Dykehead and DuUatur, were erected in 
1875-76 ; and Dullatur station, opened in the latter year, 
is 12| mUes NE oi Glasgow:— Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Dulnain, a river of Badenoch, NE Inverness-shire, 
rising at an altitude of 2600 feet among the Monadh- 
liath Mountains, 8 mUes AV by N of Kincraig station, 
and running 28 mUes north-east-by-eastward, tUl it 
faUs into the Spej at Ballintomb, 3 miles SSW of Gran- 
town, after a descent of 1900 feet. It traverses the 
parishes of Kingussie, Alvie, DuthO, and Cromdale, the 
Inverness-shire and Elginshire portions of Cromdale 
being, parted by the last 9 furlongs of its course ; and 
just above its mouth it is crossed by an iron-trellised 
viaduct of the Highland raUway. It has generaUy a 
small volume, yet is very rapid ; and, when swollen 
■with rain or melted snow, it often does much damage 
to the corn lands on its banks. The tract traversed 
by it in Duthil parish is called Dulnainside ; was ex- 
tensively covered with a forest which was destroyed 
by a fierce conflagration about the beginning of last 
century ; and was, till then, a haunt of wolves. Its 
waters contain good store of trout, some pike, and 
occasional salmon and grilse. — Ord. Sur., sh. 74, 1877. 

Dulnain-Bridgc, a hamlet in the InveraUan section of 
Cromdale parish, Elginshire, with a bridge (1791) over 
Dulnain river, 3 mUes SW of Grantown, imder which it 
has a post oflice. 

Dulsie-Bridge, a hamlet in Ardclach parish, Nairn- 
shire, on the river Findhorn, 5 miles above Ardclach 
church, and 12 SSE of Nairn. The river here tra- 
verses a rocky and wooded gorge of singular beauty, 
and is crossed by a bridge, which, carrying over Wade's 
military road from Grantown to Fort George, has a 
bold main arch of 46 feet iu span, with a subsidiary 
smaller arch. 




Dumbamie. See Duxbarnie. 

Dumbarrow. See Dunbauuow. 

Dumbarton, a town and parish of Dumbartonshire. 
A seaport, a royal and parliamentary burgh, and the 
capital of the county, the town stands on the left bank 
of the Leven, f mile above its influx to the Clyde, and 
at the junction of the Glasf^ow & Helensburgh and 
Vale of Leven sections of the North British railway, by 
water being 4f miles E by N of Port Glasgow and 7J E 
of Greenock, by rail 4i S of Balloch Junction, 34^ 
WSW of Stirling, SJ ESE of Helensburgh, 16 WNW 
of Glasgow, and 63J W of Edinburgh. Its site is a low 
flat plain, skirted to the W by an east-south-easterly 
curve of the Leven, and screened to the E by the 
Kilpatrick Hills (1313 feet), whilst south-south-east- 
ward, between the town and the Clyde, stands the 
castle-crowned Rock of Dumbarton. From the crescent- 
shaped High Street, running 5 furlongs concentric with 
and near the course of the Leven, Cross Vennel and 
Church Street strike north-north-eastward to Broad- 
meadow ; and a stone five-arch bridge, 300 feet long, 
built towards the middle of last century, leads over the 
Leven to the western suburbs, in Cardross parish, of 
Bridgend and Dennystoun — the latter founded in 1853, 
and named in honour of its projector, William Denny. 
Within and without, Dumbarton, it must be owned, 
presents an irregular and unattractive appearance, little 
in keeping with its fine surroundings ; and, as seen from 
the Clyde, it looks a mere aggregate of huddled houses, 
chequered in front by the timbers of shipyards, and 
overtopped by more chimneys than steeples. Yet few 
Scotch towns have made more rapid progress than has 
Dumbarton since 1852, in point of dwellers rather than 
of dwellings, whence overcrowding ; but now (1882) 
Messrs Denny propose to erect a new suburb for 2000 
families at the eastern extremity of the town, and at the 
same time to form a new graving-dock that will take in 
the largest vessel afloat. Amongst the improvements 
of the last thirty years are the opening of a large and 
beautiful cemetery (1854) ; the embanking of Broad- 
meadow (1858) ; the introduction of water from Gar- 
shake Reservoir (1859) at a cost of £8500, the present 
supply exceeding 15,000,000 gallons ; the taking over 
of the gas-works, which date from 1832, by the Corpora- 
tion (1874) ; and the adoption of the Free Libraries Act 
(1881). The chief want now is a better public park or 
recreation ground than marshy Broadmeadow. 

The Burgh Hall and Academy, built in 1865-66 at a 
cost of £7000, is a goodly edifice in the French Gothic 
style of the 13th century, with a frontage of 132 feet, 
and a central tower 140 feet high. The Academy, in 
front, comprises four large class-rooms ; and the Hall, to 
the rear, is 80 feet long, 40 wide, and 37 high, having 
accommodation for nearly 1000 persons. The County 
Buildings and Prison, Imilt in 1824 at a cost of over 
£5000, were in 1863 enlarged by two wings and other- 
wise reconstructed at a further outlay of £5170; and 
the Prison now contains 31 cells. A Combination Poor- 
house, with accommodation for 156 paupers and 40 
lunatics, was erected at a cost of £7000 in 1865 ; an 
epidemic hospital in 1874. St John's Masonic Hall 
(1874-75) has accommodation for 200 persons ; the 
Philosophical and Literary Society (1867) occupies the 
lower portion of the Town Mission House (1873) ; and 
there are also a Mechanics' Institute (1844), the Salmon 
Club (1796), a curling club (1815), a bowling club (1839), 
a Bums club (1859), a friendship association (1861), etc. 
Dumbarton has a post office, ■with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, branches of the Com- 
mercial, Clydesdale, and Union Banks, agencies of 32 
insurance companies, 2 hotels, and 2 newspapers — the 
Wednesday Liberal Dumbarton Herald (1851) and the 
Saturday Independent Lennox Herald (1862). Tuesday 
is market-day, and fairs are held on the thinl Tuesday 
in March (St Patrick's) for seeds and horses, the first 
Wednesday in June (Carman) for cattle and horses, and 
the second Wednesday in August (Lammas) for cattle 
and hay. 

Extensive glass and chemical works, established in 

1777, and employing 300 men, were closed about two 
years after the death in 1831 of Provost Dixon and his 
son, then for a time reopened, and finally discontinued 
in 1850, when their three prominent brick cones were 
taken do\\"n. The stoppage of these works seemed 
likely to deal a great blow to Dumbarton's well-being ; 
but their place has been more than supplied by ship- 
building, which now employs upwards of 4000 hands. 
The two great shipbuilding firms are those of Messrs 
M'Millan (1834) and Messrs Wm. Denny & Bros. (1844). 
From the yard of the former firm, which covers 5 acres, 
198 vessels of 116,348 tons were launched during 1845- 
76. Messrs Denny removed in 1857 from the Wood 
Yard, on the Cardross side, to the Leven Shipyard, on 
the Dumbarton side, which, covering 15 acres, has six 
landing berths, each of 3000 tons capacity ; and they 
during 1844-76 turned out 192 vessels of 234,358 tons. 
Two lesser, but still large, shipyards have been opened 
since 1871 ; and the total output was 14,000 tons in 
1872, 18,400 in 1873, 32,000 in 1874, 33,000 in 1875, 
17,500 in 1876, 28,500 in 1877, 41,557 in 1878, 33,230 
in 1879, 34,036 in 1880, and 26,296 in 1881. Dum- 
barton's first iron steamer was launched in 1844, its 
first screw in 1845, and its first steel steamer in 1879 : 
whilst among the more notable vessels built here are 
the Peter Stuart (1867) of 1490 tons, the largest iron 
sailing ship till then constructed in any Scottish port ; 
the Stuart Hahnemann do. (1874) of 2056 tons; and 
the Piavcnna Peninsular and Oriental steam-liner (1880) 
of 3448 tons. The other industrial establishments of 
Dumbarton comprise Denny & Co.'s engineering works 
(1851); Paul & Co.'s engine and boiler works (1847); 
Ure & Co.'s iron foundry (1835) ; the Dennystoun 
Forge (1854), with a 5-ton double-acting Nasmyth steam- 
hammer ; 3 saw-mills ; a rope and sail yard ; brass- 
founding, boat-building, and ship-painting works, etc. 

In 1658 the magistrates of Glasgow made overtures to 
their brethren of Dumbarton for the purchase of ground 
for an extensive harbour, which the latter rejected on 
the ground that ' the influx of mariners would tend to 
raise the price of butter and eggs to the inhabitants.' 
Port Glasgow was thereupon founded, and Dumbarton 
thus lost the chance of becoming a seaport second to 
few in the world. Down to 1700 the burgh retained its 
chartered privilege of levying customs and dues on all 
ships navigating the Clyde between the mouth of the 
Kelvin and the head of Loch Long, but in that year it 
sold this privilege to Glasgow for 4500 merks, or £260 
sterling. This and the deepening of the Clyde to 
Glasgow have done much to lower Dumbarton's com- 
mercial prestige, and it now ranks merely as a sub-port. 
Nor are its harbour accommodations great, the improve- 
ments carried on since 1852 — such as the deepening of 
the Leven's channel — having generally had less regard 
to shipping than to shipbuilding. An excellent quay, 
however, and a capacious dock have been constructed, 
mainly at the expense of the late James Lang ; and in 
1874-75 a splendid pier of pitch pine was built at a cost 
of £8000. Extending from the Castle Rock into the 
Clyde, it consists of gangway (640 x 15 feet) and pier- 
head (90 X 25 feet), the river's depth at the extremity 
of the pier-head being 10 feet at low water, so that 
steamers can touch at any state of the tide. 

St Patrick's collegiate church, founded in 1450 by 
Isabella, Duchess of Albany, at the end of Broadmeadow, 
fell into disuse at the Reformation, and now is repre- 
sented by a single tower arch, removed to Church 
Street in 1850 to make room for the railway station. 
The old parish church, at the foot of High Street, a 
quaint, begalleried, cruciform structure, with western 
spire, was built about 1565, and demolished in 1810. 
Its successor, completed in 1811 at a cost of £6000, is a 
handsome edifice, with spire and clock, 1500 sittings, 
and three stained-glass windows, two of them geomet- 
rical designs, and tlie third (1876) depicting Christ's 
Sermon on the Mount. A second Established church is 
now (1882) about to be built in the town ; and on the 
Cardross side is Dalreoch quoad sacra church (1873 ; 
cost £2000 ; 620 sittings). Free churches are the North 


(1844 ; rebuilt 1877) and the High (1864 ; cost £5000 ; 
850 sittings), a fine Gothic building, -ivith a spire of 140 
feet. The U.P. church of West Bridgend (1861) has a 
good organ ; another in High Street (182(5) was enlarged 
and decorated in 1874 at a cost of nearly £2700. Other 
places of worship are a Wesleyan Methodist chapel 
(1862), a Baptist chapel (1876), a new Evangelical 
Union chapel (1882), St Patrick's Roman Catholic 
church (1830 ; 500 sittings), and St Augustine's Epis- 
copal church (1872-73 ; 650 sittings), an Early Geometric 
Pointed edifice, with nave, side-aisles, lofty clerestory, 
chancel, and ' sticket ' steeple, whose cost, inclusive of 
a parsonage, came to close on £9000, and which has all 
but superseded the smaller St Luke's (1856). The 
Academy, College Street public, West Bridgend public, 
an Episcopal, and a Roman Catholic school, ^\ith re- 
spective accommodation for 826, 371, 530, 361, and 373 
children, had (1880) an average attendance of 485, 533, 
314, 221, and 262, and grants of £527, 19s. 6d., 
£398, 5s. 6d., £271, 14s., £220, 2s. 6d., aud_£177, lis. 
Aproiws of the schools, the famous novelist, Tobias 
Smollett (1721-74) here learned the 'rudiments' under 
Buchanan's vindicator, John Love (1695-1750), who 
was a native of Dumbarton, as also were the judge. Sir 
James Smollett of Bonuill (1648-1731), its member for 
twenty-one years, and Patrick Colquhoun, LL.D. (1745- 
1820), the well-known statist and metropolitan magis- 
trate. One of its ministers was the Rev. James Oliphant 
(1734-1818), the 'Auld Light professor' of Burus's 

Constituted a free royal burgh by Alexander IL in 
1222, Dumbarton received fresh charters from several of 

his successors, all 
of which were con- 
firmed in 1609 by 
James YL It now 
is governed by a 
provost, a toAvn- 
clerk, 3 bailies, a 
treasurer, a dean of 
guild, a master of 
works, and 8 coun- 
cillors. The Gene- 
ral Police and Im- 
provement Act 
(Scotland) of 1850 
was adopted in 
1854, and the 
magistrates and 
town council are 
commissioners of police. An Act was obtained by the 
magistrates and town council in 1872, empowering 
them to purchase the old and to erect new gas-works, 
to improve the water- works, to erect the new pier, and 
to construct tramways to Alexandria. The police force 
in 1881 comprised 9 men ; and the salary of the 
superintendent is £150. The sheriff county court is 
held every Tuesday and Friday during session ; the 
debts recovery court every Friday ; the sheriff's ordin- 
ary small debt court every Tuesday during session, 
and occasionally during vacation ; and quarter sessions 
are on the first Tuesday of March, May, and August, 
and the last Tuesday of October. Dumbarton, along 
■with Kilmarnock, Renfrew, Rutherglen, and Port 
Glasgow, returns one member to parliament, its muni- 
cipal and parliamentary constituency numbering 1758 
in 1882. The annual value of real pi'opcrty within the 
parliamentary burgh was £15,004 in 1856, £37,532 in 
1875, and £45,898 in 1881-82, when the corporation 
revenue was £1048, and the harbour revenue £1339 (in 
1866, £738). Pop. of royal burgh (1801) 2541, (1811) 
3121, (1821) 3481, (1831) 3623, (1841) 4391, (1851) 
4590, (1861) 6090 ; of pari, burgh (1851) 5445, (1861) 
8253, (1871) 11,404, (1881) 13,782, of whom 3482 were 
in Cardross parish. Houses (1831) 2478 inhabited, 
40 vacant, 51 building. 

The Castle of Dumbarton is situated on an acute 
peninsula at the left side of the Leven's influx to the 
Clyde, and consists partly of a mass of rock, partly of 

Seal of Dumbarton. 


superincumbent buildings. The rock appears to over- 
hang both rivers — huge, mural, weather-worn — for 
several hundred yards down to their point of confluence. 
It culminates at 240 feet above sea-level, measures 
1 mile in circumference, and figures picturesquely in 
most of the views of the upper waters of the Firth of 
Clyde. The rock is of basalt, like Ailsa Craig, the Bass, 
Stirling Castle Rock, and other single, sharply-outlined 
heights, that start abruptly from sea or plain. It rises 
sheer from the low circumjacent level, and stands by 
itself, without any hills near it. The basalt tends to 
the prismatic form, being slightly columnar, and in 
places magnetic ; and is all the more curious for pro- 
truding through beds of sandstone, nearly a mile distant 
from any other eruptive formation. The rock towards 
the summit is cloven by a narrow deep chasm into a 
double peak, and presents its cloven sides to S and N. 
The western peak is 30 feet higher than the eastern, but 
not so broad, and bears the name of Wallace's Seat. 
The buildings on the rock have difl"ered in extent and 
form at different times, and do not seem to have ever 
had any high architectural merit. The entrance, in 
old times and till a recent period, was on the N side, 
by a gradually ascending footpath, through a series of 
gates, which now might be interesting antiquities had 
the}' not been sold for old iron. The present entrance 
is on the S side, through a gateway in a rampart, whence 
a long flight of steps leads to a battery and the governor's 
house — a modern white building utterly out of keeping 
with the character of the place, and used now as the 
quarter of the married men of the Coast Brigade stationed 
here. A second, narrower flight leads from the gover- 
nor's house to the cleft between the two summits, and 
at one point is overarched by a small structure, alleged 
to have been the prison of Wallace, but clearly much 
later than Wallace's day. The barracks, the armoury, 
the Duke of York's battery, and the water tank stand 
in the cleft of the rock, and a steep winding staii- con- 
ducts thence to the top of the western summit, which is 
surmounted by a flagstafl", and retains vestiges of a 
small circular building, variously pronounced a wind- 
mill, a Roman fort, and a Roman pharos. The barracks 
contain accommodation for only 150 men, and the 
armoury has lost its 1500 stand of arms since the Crimean 
war ; while the batteries, though capable of mounting 
16 guns, would be of little avail for clefensive purposes, 
and at best could only serve to rake the channel of the 
Clyde. The castle, too, can be fully commanded by 
artillery from the brow of Dumbuck (547 feet), 1 mile 
to the E, so that ever since the invention of gunpowder 
it has been rendered unavailable for its original purposes, 
but it is maintained as a national fortress, in terms of 
the Articles of Union. Nor is it undeserving of good 
maintenance, for, besides forming a noble feature in a 
most noble landscape, it commands from its western 
summit three distant prospects — each difterent, and 
each of singular beauty. The first up the Clyde towards 
Glasgow — Dunglass Castle on its promontory, Erskine 
House opposite, with boats, ships, wooded hills, and 
many buildings ; the second down the broadening estu- 
ary — Port Glasgow and Greenock, and the mountains 
that guard the entrance of Loch Long ; and the third 
up the Yale of Leven, away to the dusky summits of 
Loch Lomond. ' If the grand outline of any one of the 
views can be seen, it is sufficient recompense for the 
trouble of climbing the Rock of Dumbarton. ' So thought 
Dorothy Wordsworth, who, with her brother and Cole- 
ridge, made that climb, on 24 Aug. 1803 (p]). 57-62 of 
her Tovr in Scotland, ed. by Princ. Shairp, 1874). 

Dumbarton has been identified with the Roman naval 
station 2'hcodosia, with Ossian's Balclutlut ( ' town on the 
Clyde '), and with Urbs LcgionU (' city of the legion '), 
the scene of Arthur's ninth battle against the heathen 
Saxons in the beginning of the 6th century. The third 
identification slightly confirms the first, and itself is 
strengthened by the town's title of Castrum Arthuri 
in a record of David II. (1367) ; of the second we are 
told that, whilst Ossian says of Balclutha, ' The thistle 
shakes there its lovely head,' the true Scotch thistle, 



though really rare in Scotland, does still grow wild on 
Dumbarton Rock. On this rock (in alto mantis Ihin- 
hrdcn) the legend of St Monenna, who died in 519, 
records that, consecrated a virgin hy St Patrick, she 
founded one of her seven Scotch churches. Be this as 
it may, from the battle of Ardderyd (573) we find the 
Cumbrian British kingdom of Strathclyde comprising 
the present counties of Cumberland, Westmoreland, 
Dumfries, Ayr, Lanark, Peebles, Renfrew, and Dum- 
barton ; its northern half occupied by the Damnonii, 
belonging to the Cornish variety of the British race ; its 
first king Rhydderch Hael, Columba's and Kentigern's 
friend ; and its cajtital the strongly fortified rock on the 
Clyde's right bank, termed by the Briton's Alduith 
('height on the Clyde'), and by the Gadhelic people 
iJnnhrcatan {' fort of the Britons'). By the victory in 
654 of Osuiu or Osway of Northumbria over Penda of 
Mercia, the ally of these Britons, the latter became Osuiu's 
tributaries ; but Ecgfrid's crushing defeat at Dunnichen 
in 685 restored them to iull independence. This lasted 
Ao\\n to 756, when a Northumbrian and Pictish army 
under Eadberct and Angus mac Fergus pressed so hard 
upon Alclyde, that the place was surrendered after a 
four months' siege ; and four years later we hear of the 
burning of its fortress, 'which,' says Hill Burton, ' was 
probably, after the fashion of that day, a large collec- 
tion of wooden houses, protected by the height of the 
rock on which it stood, and, whei'e necessary, by em- 
bankments.' In 870 Alclyde sustained a second four 
months' siege, this time by the Vikings, under Olaf the 
White, Norwegian King of Dublin, who reduced its 
defenders by famine. Before which siege, with the dis- 
organisation of Northurabria, the whole of the British 
territory from the Clyde to the Derwent had once more 
become united under its line of independent kings, 
claiming Roman descent, the last of whom, Donald, 
died in 908. Thereon the Britons elected Donald, 
brother to Constantin, King of Alban ; and thus Alclyde 
became dependent on Alban, till in 1018 its sub-king 
Owen or Eugenius the Bald was succeeded by Duncan, 
]\Ialcolm II. 's grandson — the 'gracious Duncan' of 
Macbeth. Malcolm dying in 1034, Duncan succeeded 
him as King of Scotia, in which Strathclyde thenceforth 
becomes absorbed. In 1175 the northern portion of the 
old Cumbrian kingdom, nearly represented by Dumbar- 
tonshire, was formed by William the Lyon into the 
earldom of Levenach or Lexnox, and conferred on his 
brother David. By 1193 this earldom had come into 
possession of Aluin, the first of a line of Celtic earls, 
who, down to their extinction in 1425, frequently figure 
in Dumbarton's history, but who only retained the 
castle till 1238, from which year onward it was always 
a ro}-al fortress. As such, during the competition for 
the Scottish crown (1292), it was delivered up to Edward 
I. of England, who gave it over to Baliol, on the ad- 
judication in his favour; but from 1296 to 1309 it was 
held again by the English, with Sir Alexander Wouteith 
for governor. He it was who on 5 Aug. 1305 took 
Wallace captive at Glasgow, so that likely enough the 
'ubiquitous troglodyte ' was really fur a week a prisoner 
here, where (as elsewhere) his huge two-handed sword is 
preserved in the armoury, along with old Lochaber 
axes and skene-dhus 'from Bannockburn,' flint pistols, 
rude pikes, and tattered regimental colours. In 1313, 
according to our least veracious chroniclers, Bruce, 
almost single-handed, achieved the cajiture of Dumbar- 
ton Castle. A sort of Guy Fawkes and Bluebeard episode 
this, with keys and a cellar figuring largely therein — 
the cellar first full of armed English soldiery, who are 
overawed by the Monarch, and the traitor Monteith 
next led to it in fetters, but presently pardoned by the 
magnanimous Hero. Anyhow, by Bruce the castle was 
committed to tlie governorshi]) of Sir Malcolm Fleming 
of Cumbernauld, whose son was one of the few that 
escaped from Halidon Hill (1333), when Dumbarton 
became the rallying-point of the remnant adhering to 
the boy-king, David II. Sir Roliert de Erskine was 
next appointed governor (1357), and after him Sir John 
de Dennistoun or Danielstoim. He was succeeded by 


his son, Sir Robert, on whose death in 1399 Walter, 
his brother, the parson of Kincardine O'Neil, forcibly 
seized the castle, as belonging heritably to his family. 
He held it till 1402, surrendering it then in the hope of 
obtaining the vacant see of St Andrews — a hope cut 
short by his death before the end of the year. In 1425 
James Stewart, son of the late Regent Albany, and 
grandson of the eighth and last Celtic Earl of Lennox, 
assaulted and burned the town of Dumbarton, and 
murdered the king's imcle. Sir John Stewart, who held 
the castle with only thirty-two men. Dumbarton was 
next besieged in 1481 by the fleet of Edward IV., but 
was bravely and successfully defended by Sir Andrew 
Wood of Largo. For the next half century the hisrory 
of Dumbarton is virtually that of the Stewart Earls 
of Lennox. Their founder, John, having taken up 
arms against James IV. , the castle was twice besieged 
in 1489 — first by the Earl of Argyll without success, 
and then by the young king himself, who after a six 
weeks' leaguer compelled the four sons of Lennox to 
capitulate. The surprise of the castle one stormy night 
by John, third Earl (1514), the landing here of Albany 
from France (1515), the establishment of a French 
garrison (1516), the interception of a large French sub- 
sidy (1543) by Matthew, Iburth Earl, Lord Darnley's 
father, and his design of betraying the fortress to Eng- 
land (1544) — these are events that can merely be glanced 
at in passing. On 7 Aug. 1548 Queen Mary, then 
six years old, embarked at Dumbarton for France ; in 
July 1563 she paid a second visit to the castle ; and 
hither her army was marching from Hamilton when its 
progress was barred at Langside, 13 May 1568. For 
nearly three years the castle held out for her under its 
governor, John, fifth Lord Fleming ; and the story of 
how it was taken by escalade on the night of 1 April 
1571 deserves to be told -n-ith some fulness. Captain 
Thomas Craufurd of Jordanhill, to whom the attack 
was entrusted, had long been attached to the house of 
Lennox. He it was whose evidence was so important 
regarding the death of Darnley, and who afterwards 
accused Lethington as one of the murderers, since which 
time he appears to have resumed the profession of arms. 
In the enterprise he was assisted by Cunningham, com- 
monly called the Laird of Drumwhassel, one of the 
bravest and most skilful ofiicers of his time, and he had 
been fortunate in bribing the assistance of a man named 
Robertson, who, having once been warden in the castle, 
knew every crag of the rock, 'where it was best to climb, 
and where fewest ladders would serve.' With him and 
a hundred picked men Craufurd set out from Glasgow 
after sunset. He had sent before him a few light horse 
to prevent intelligence by stopping all wayfarers, and 
about midnight he arrived at Dumbuck, within a mile 
of the castle, where he was joined by Drumwhassel and 
Captain Hume. Here he explained to the soldiers the 
hazardous service on which they were engaged, pro- 
vided them with ropes and scaling ladders, and, 
advancing c^iuckly and noiselesslj'^, reached the rock, 
whose summit was fortunately wrapped in a heavy fog, 
whilst the bottom was clear. But, on the first attempt, 
all M-as likely to be lost. The ladders lost their hold 
while the soldiers were on them ; and had the garrison 
been on the alert, the noise must have inevitably be- 
trayed them. They listened, however, and all was still. 
Again the ladders were fixed, and, their ' craws ' or 
steel hooks this time catching firmly in the crevices, the 
leaders gained a small out-jutting ledge, Mhere an ash 
tree had struck its roots. Fixing the ropes to its 
branches, they speedily towed up the rest of their 
comrades. They Avere still, however, fourscore fathoms 
from the wall. They had reached but the middle of the 
rock, day was breaking, and when, for the second time, 
they planted their ladders, a singular impediment 
occurred. One of the soldiers in ascending was seized 
with a fit, in which he convulsively grasped the stejis so 
firmly, that no one could either pass him or unloose his 
hold. But Craufurd's presence of mind suggested a 
ready expedient ; he tied him to the ladder and turned 
it round, so the passage was once more free. They were 


now at the bottom of the wall, where the footing was 
narrow and precarious ; but once more fixing their 
ladders in the copestone, Alexander Kamsav, Craufurd's 
ensign, and two other soldiers, stole up, and though at 
once discovered by a sentinel, leapt down and slew him, 
sustaining the attack of three of the guard tiU they were 
joined by Craufurd and the rest. Their weight and 
struggles to surmount it brought the wall down with a 
run, and afforded an open breach, through which they 
rushed in shouting, 'A Damley, a Damley!' Craufurd's 
watchword, given evidently from affection to his hapless 
master, the murdered king. According to Dr Hill 
Burton, the point thus gained was the top of the 
western peak, the ascent being made to the left of the 
present entrance ; and from this vantage-ground the 
assailants now turned the cannon on the garrison, who, 
panic-struck, attempted no resistance. Fleming, the 
governor, from long familiarity with the rock, managed 
to escape down the face of an almost perpeu'iicular 
gully, and, passing through a postern which opened upon 
the Clyde, threw himself into a fishing-boat, and so 
passed over to Argyllshire. In this achievement the 
assailants lost not a man, and of the garrison only four 
were slain. In the castle were taken prisoner .John 
Hamilton, Archbishop of St Andrews, who was fotmd 
with mail shirt and steel cap on, Yerac, the French 
ambassador, Fleming of Boghall, and John Hall, an 
English gentleman, who had fled to Scotland after 
Dacre's rebellion. Lady Fleming, the wife of the 
governor, was also taken, and treated by the Eegent 
courteously, being suffered to go free, and carry off with 
her her plate and furniture. But Hamilton, the primate, 
was instantly brought to trial for the murder of Damley 
and Moray, condemned, and hanged and cjuartered 
without delay. 

In 1581, as a signal and crowning favour, Esme 
Stewart, the new-made Duke of Lennox, received the 
governorship of Dumbarton Castle, one of the three 
great national fortresses ; in 16-39 it was seized on a 
Simday by the Covenanters, its captain, 'a vigilant 
gentleman,' attending church with so many of the 
garrison that, they being taken on their homeward way, 
the place was defenceless. It was, however, recaptured 
by the Royalists, to be lost again on 28 Aug. of the 
following year. Thereafter the castle drops quietly out 
of history, a visit from Queen Yictoria on 7 Aug. 1847 
being all that remains to be noticed. Sot of the town 
is there anything worthier of record than the injury 
done it by floods of the Leven in 133i, and again in the 
early years of the 17th century, when the magistrates 
felt obliged to apply to parliament for aid in construct- 
ing bulwarks. A commission of 1607 reported that ' na 
less nor the sowme of threttie thousand poundis Scottis 
money was abUl to befr out and fumeis the necessar 
charges and expenses in pforming these warkis that are 
liable to saif the said burgh from utter destructioune. ' 
A grant of 25,000 merks Scots was accordingly made for 
the ptirpose by parliament ; and, this proving insuffi- 
cient, a farther sum of 12,000 was afterwards granted by 
King James. In 1675 Dumbarton gave the title of 
Earl in the peerage of Scotland to George, third son of 
the first Marquis of Douglas, but this peerage became 
extinct at the death of his son about the middle of the 
18th century. 

The parish of Dumbarton is bounded ^ W by Bonhill ; 
X by Kilmaronock ; NE by Drymen and Killeam in 
Stirlingshire ; SE by Old Kilpatrick ; S, for 3 furlongs, 
by the river Clyde, which separates it from Eenfrewshire ; 
and "W by the river Leven, dividing it from Cardross. 
Its utmost length, from XE to SW, is 6J miles ; its 
breadth, from E to "W, varies between 1^ furlong and 
5f miles ; and its area is 8563 acres, of which 9S| are 
foreshore and 174 water. The Letxx winds 4| miles 
southward along all the western border, and is joined 
from the interior by Murroch Bum ; whilst Overton 
Bum, tracing much of the south-eastern boundary, and 
itself joined by Black Bum, flows direct to the Clyde. 
The southern and western districts, to the mean distance 
of 1^ mile from the Leven, present no striking natural 


feature except the Castle Ro<;k, in whose vicinity they 
lie so little above sea -level as to be sometimes flooded 
by spring rides. From this low valley the surface rises 
north-eastward to Auchenreoch and Dumbarton Muirs, 
attaining S95 feet at Enockshanoch, 1228 at Doughnot 
HUl, Ills at Knockupple, and 892 at Knockvadie. 
Limestone abounds at Munoch Glen, 24 miles XXE 
of the town ; red sandstone is quarried on the moors ; 
and an excellent white sandstone occurs at Dalieoch, 
in Cardross parish. The soil — in a few fields a rich 
alluvium — in some of the arable tracts is very clayey, in 
others gravelly, and in most somewhat shallow, yet 
generally fertile ; whilst that of the moors is sparse, 
and of little value. Strath LE\rEy, on the river Leven 
opposite Eenton, is the chief mansion. Dumbarton is 
seat of a presbytery in the Synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; 
the living is worth £202. Yaluation of landward portion 
(1882; £5108, 5s. Pop. of entire parish (1801) 2541, 
(1831) 362-3, (1861) 6304, (1871) 8933, (1881) 10,837, of 
whom 538 were in the landward portion. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 30, 1866. 

The jjresbytery of Dumbarton comprises the old 
parishes of Arrochar, Baldemock, Balfron, Bonhill, 
Buchanan, Cardross, Drymen, Dumbarton, Fintry, Kil- 
leam, Kilinaronock, New Kilpatrick, Old Kilpatrick, 
Luss, Roseneath, Row, and Strathblane ; the quoad 
sacra parishes of Alexandria, Clydebank, Craigrownie, 
Dalxeoch, Garelochhead, Helensburgh, Jamestown, 
ililngavie, and Renton ; and the chapelries of Dtm- 
tocher, Helensburgh -West, and Kilcresgan. Pop. 
(1871) 56,216, (1881) 70,081, of whom 8971 were com- 
mtmicants of the Church of Scotland in 1873. — The 
Free Church also has a presbytery of Dumbarton, with 
2 churches at Dumbarton, 2 at Helensburgh, 3 at 
Renton, and 14 at respectively Alexandria, Arrochar, 
Baldemock, Bonhill, Bowling, Cardross, Duntocher, 
(rarelochhead, Killeam, Luss, Old Kiljjatrick, Rose- 
neath, Shandon, and Strathblane, which 21 chnrches 
together had 4262 members in ISSl. 

See, besides works cited under DrMBAETOxsHiEE, 
John Glen's Si-story of the Toicn and Castle of Dumbar- 
ton (Dumb. 1847) ; WiUiam Eraser's The Lennox (2 vols., 
Edinb., 1874) ; and Donald Macleod's Castle and Toxcn 
of Du/nharton (Dumb. 1S77'. 

Dumbarton and Helensburgh Railway. See Kobth 
Beitish Railway. 

DTimbart;onshire, a county, partly maritime, but chiefly 
inland, in the W of Scotland, comprising a main body 
and a detached district. The main body is bounded 
N by Perthshire, E by Stirlingshire, SE by Lanark- 
shire, S by the river Clyde and the upper Firth of Clyde, 
which divide it from Renfrewshire, and YT by Argyll- 
shire. Its eastern boundary, fix)m Island Yow, above 
Inversnaid, to the mouth of Endrick Water, runs along 
the mid'lle of Loch Lomond : thence, to the mouth of 
Catter Bum, is trac-ed by En^irick Water ; and, in the 
extreme SE, for 3 miles above Maryhill, is traced 
by the river Kelvin. Its western boundary, exc-ept 
for 9i miles in the extreme X, is all formed by 
Loch Long. Its outline bears some resemblance to that 
of a crescent with the convexity towards the NK Its 
length, from X to S, varies between 4| and 24| nules, 
its breadth, from E to W, between IJ and 18i miles. 
The detached district, commencing 4J miles E by X of 
the nearest point of the main body, and 5 XXE of 
Glasgow, comprises the parishes of Kirkintilloch and 
Cumbernauld ; is bounded X and E by Stirlingshire, S 
and W by Lanarkshire ; and meastires 12f miles in 
maximtun" length from W by S to E by X, and 4 in 
maximum breadth- The area of the entire county is 
270 square miles or 172,677 acres, of which 3814 are 
foreshore and 14,312i water, whilst 19,030 belong to the 
detached district. 

All the northem or Aerochae district of the county, 
lying partly aroimd the head of Loch Lomond, partly 
between that lake and Loch Long, is a group of moon- 
tains, intersected bv deep glens^ Cidminating in Ben 
Yorlich (3092 feet) and Ben Yane (3004), it displays all 
the most characteristic features of grand, romantic, 




beautiful Highland scener)'. The central part from 
Finnart and the middle of Locli Lomond to the hill- 
screens of the Firth of Clyde, but including the penin- 
sula of Roseneath, is a region varying between the 
highland and lowland, and exquisitely blends many a 
feature of sternness and wildness with many of the sweet- 
est loveliness. The lofty hills of Arrochar and Luss, 
in particular, contrast most strikingly with tlie wide ex- 
panse of the pellucid waves of the queen of lakes, far- 
famed Loch Lomond. ' Here savage grandeur, in all 
the towering superiority of uncultivated nature, is seen 
side by side with the very emblem of peace and tran- 
quillity, an alpine lake, which the winds reach only 
b}' stealth.' The southern district, comprising the 
seaboard of the Clyde, the Vale of Leven, and the tract 
eastward of that vale to the extremity of the main body 
of the countj', is generally lowland and rich almost to 
excess with gentle contour and tasteful oruamentation ; 
yet even this is diversified — to some extent broadly 
occupied — with characters of abruptness and boldness, 
shown in the shoulders of tlie Cardross hills, in the mass 
of Dumbarton Rock, in the brows of Dumbuck and of 
basaltic ranges northward of it, and in the capriciously 
escarped, romantic acclivities of the Kilpatriek Hills, 
which, extending 54 miles from E to W, and attaining 
a maximum altitude of 1313 feet in Duncomb and F}ti- 
loch, contain many rich close scenes, and command 
some of the finest and most extensive views in Scotland. 
The detached district is all lowland, and of tame appear- 
ance, nowhere exceeding 480 feet above sea-level, yet 
extends so near the roots of the Campsie Fells as to 
borrow effects of scenery similar to those which the 
tracts along the Clyde borrow from the Kilpatriek Hills. 
No region in Scotland can boast of finer scenery than 
the county of Dumbarton ; and certainly none more 
varied, or oftener visited and admired by strangers. 

Considerably more than one-half of Loch Lomond, 
and fully two-thirds of the islands in it, belong to Dum- 
bartonshire. Loch Sloy in Arrochar, Lochs Humphrey 
and Cochno in Old KUpatrick, Fynloch in Dumbarton, 
Fannyside Loch in Cumbernauld, and several smaller 
lakes, have aggregately a considerable area. The river 
Clyde, from opposite Blythswood to the influx of the 
Leven, runs 8| miles along the southern border ; and, 
like the Firth, onward to the soutli-western extremity 
of Roseneath, teems ^vith the vast commercial traffic 
of Glasgow. The Leven, M-inding 7^ miles south- 
ward from Loch Lomond to the Clyde, bisects the 
lowland district of the county's main body, and is 
notable at once for the purity of its waters, the richness 
of its vale, and the profusion of bleachfields and print- 
works on its banks. The Endrick, over all its run on 
the eastern boundary, is a beautiful stream. The Kel- 
vin, though ditch-like where it approaches the main 
body's south-eastern border, yet at Killermont and 
Garscube exhibits much exquisite beauty. AUander 
Water drains most of New Kilpatriek to the Kelvin. 
The Falloch, Inveruglas, Douglas, Luss, Finlas, 
Fruin, and other brooks and torrents, with many 
fine cascades, drain most of the Highland tracts 
into Loch Lomond. The Kelvin traces most of the 
northern boundary of the detached district, but every- 
where there retains its ditch-like character. The slug- 
fish Luggie drains the western part of the detached 
istrict to the Kelvin, and some tiny streamlets drain 
the eastern part to the Carron. Many beautiful rivulets 
and burns are in the interior of the main body, running 
either to the principal rivers, or jmrsuing independent 
courses to the Clyde, Gare Loch, or Loch Long. The 
Forth and Clyde Canal traverses the N border of the 
detached district, and afterwards passes along the S 
border of the main body to the Clyde at Bowling Bay. 
Springs of excellent water are almost everywhere nume- 
rous and copious. 

The climate is exceedingly various. Some parts of 
the county, such as the seaboard of the Clyde and the 
Vale of Leven, are comparatively genial, while other 
parts, as the pastoral lancls of Arrochar and the plateaux 
of the Kilpatriek Hills, are comparatively severe. Even 

small tracts only a few miles distant from one another 
are so strongly affected by the configuration of the sur- 
face as to differ widely in regard to heat, moisture, and 
the winds. Nowhere in Scotland do heights and hol- 
lows act more powerfully on climate, the former in the 
way of attracting or cooling, the latter in ventilating or 
warming. Even in places so near and like one another 
as Keppoch, Camus Eskan, Ardincaple, and Bellretiro, 
the aggregate rain-fall, as ascertained by gauges all 
of one construction, was respective!}' 43 "15, 45 "5, 50 '57, 
and 52 '5. The climate, on the whole, however, is good. 
There is more moisture, indeed, than in many other 
parts of Scotland, but the excess is not so much in the 
quantity that falls as in the length of time it takes to 
fall ; and whatever disadvantage arises from a corre- 
sponding excess of cloudiness, seems to be well counter- 
balanced by the prevalence of the genial "W wind 
during no less than about nine months in the j^car. 
Sharp E winds blow in spring, but, even in their 
sharpest moods, they are not so keen as in the eastern 
counties, and are much less accompanied with frosty 

The formation consists of mica slate in the N, with 
dj'kes of whinstone and greenstone ; Lower Silurian 
towards the S ; and Old Red sandstone along the Clj"de 
estuary, where trap rocks of various kinds form Dum- 
barton Castle Rock and Dumbuck Hill, besides the 
main bulk of the Kilpatriek Hills. Mica slate, always 
stratified, often laminated, and generally compris- 
ing much mica, much quartz, and very little fel- 
spar, forms the greater part of the highest and 
most striking uplands of the N. The quartz of the 
mica slate is sometimes so extremely abundant as to 
render the rock more properly quartzose than micaceous. 
The mica slate likewise passes occasionally into talc 
slate, and both the mica slate and the talc slate, be- 
tween Tarbet and Luss, are intersected by beds of 
gi'eenstone, felspar, and porphyry. Clay slate is also 
plentifirl in the N, lies generally on the mica slate, is 
frequently traversed by veins of quartz, abounds with iron 
pyrites, and is quarried as a roofing slate at Luss and 
Camstradden. A kind of limestone slate, or a laminated 
rock strongly charged with lime, occm-s in the same 
tracts as the clay slate. Greywacke, chiefly amorphous, 
seldom slaty, and often abounding with quartz, com- 
mences a little S of Camstradden slate quarrj', and forms 
a large portion of the parishes of Row and Cardross. A 
bluish -black limestone is frequently associated with the 
greywacke. Old Red sandstone extends from the lower 
part of Loch Lomond, through the western part of Bon- 
hill, and through Cardross and Row, to the SW of Rose- 
neath. A yellow sandstone of quite different lithological 
character from the Old Red sandstone, easily chiseled, 
but hardening by exposure, occurs at some parts of the 
seaboard of the Clyde, and extends at intervals and fit- 
fully to Netherton -Garscube. Carboniferous limestone, 
coal, shale, and small beds of ironstone lie above the 
sandstones in the eastern wing of the main body of the 
county, and throughout the detached district ; but 
they aggregately yield a very poor produce compared 
with that of other Scottish regions of the coal forma- 
tion, Dumbartonshire's mineral output for 1878 being 
210,520 tons of coal and 3000 of fireclay. 

The land area of the county is 154,541^ acres, but 
was formerly over-estimated at 167,040 acres ; and, by a 
competent agricultural authority, who so over-estimated 
it, was classified into 6050 acres of deep black loam, 
30,970 of clay on a subsoil of till, 25,220 of gi-avel or 
gravelly loam, 3750 of green hilly pasture, 99,400 of 
mountain and moor, 720 of bog, and 930 of isles in 
Loch Lomond. The rivalry of proprietors in the 
lowland districts, the demand from the markets of 
Glasgow and Greenock, the great increase of general 
local trade, and the new facilities of communication by 
steamboats and railways, have powerfully stimulated 
agricultural improvement. Draining, fencing, reclama- 
tion, skilful manuring, ameliorated courses of rotation, 
and the use of better implements, have all been brought 
largely into play, with the result of greatly enhancing 

AH^'-oa ^:aia3. 





the value of land and increasing the amount of produce, 
lu ISrO the percentage of the cultivated area was 24 '9, 
in ISSl 26 "8, viz., 5 '8 under corn crops, 2'8 under green 
crops, 7 7 under clover, etc., and 10 '4 under permanent 
pasture. A great extension of sheep-farming, begun in 
the early part of the present century, went on vigorously 
and rapidly in the upland districts ; and was accom- 
panied there by the practice of nioor-burning, which 
occasioned such a change on the face of the hills, that 
tracts formerly brown and heathy are now covered with 
pasture. The growth of copsewood on lands unfit for 
tillage or pasture has long been much practised ; and, 
besides being ornamental to the landscape, yields a 
considerable revenue. In 1872 there were 83S8 acres 
under wood. The cattle, in the upland districts, are 
of the Highland breeds ; in the lowland disti'icts, gene- 
rally either crosses between these and the Ayrshire, or, 
on dairy farms or for dairy purposes, pure Ayrshire. 
The sheep, on the hill districts, are mostly the black- 
faced ; on the low grounds, are generally the Cheviot, 
with some mixture of English breeds. The native horses 
are small animals, of intermediate character between 
the ordinary cart-horse and Highland pony ; and with 
few exceptions are scarcely ever used in field labour. 
Cl3'desdale horses, either purchased in the Lanarkshire 
markets or bred from good stallions, are in common use 
on the arable farms. Sw^ne, mostly for home use, are 
kept by almost all the farmers, and by many cottagers. 
Herds of fallow deer are on luchmurrin and Inchlonaig 
in Loch Lomond ; and red deer once abounded in the 
mountain districts, but were long ago exterminated. 
Bee-keeping is largely carried on, especially at Clynder. 

Manufactures struck I'oot in Dumbartonshire in the 
year 1728, and were greatly stimulated and extended 
b}' the formation of good roads, the deepening of the 
Clyde, the opening of the Forth and Clyde Canal, the 
introduction of steam navigation, and the opening of 
successively the Dumbartonshire, the Vale of Leven, the 
Forth and Clyde, the Dumbarton and Helensburgh, 
and the Strathendrick I'ailways. They have also derived 
increase, from demands and facilities for shipbuilding, 
from the growing increase of summer tourists to Loch 
Lomond and Loch Long, and from summer residence of 
multitudes of Glasgow citizens at Helensburgh, Gareloch- 
head, Roseneath, Kilcreggan, Cove, Arrochar, and other 
places ; and they now figure so largely and vigorously as to 
compete in value ^vith the arts of agriculture. Most of 
the low tracts of the county, even such as possess no 
coal within their o'wn limits, have followed Glasgow and 
tried to rival it in some of its departments of manufac- 
ture. The Vale of Leven, in particular, is crowded with 
bleachfields, printfields, dye-works, and cotton-works, 
giving employment to thousands. Cotton-printing, 
cotton-spinning, paper -making, iron -working, ship- 
building, the making of chemicals, and the distilling of 
whisky are all more or less prominent. The salmon and 
herring fisheries are also highly important and lucrative. 
The Forth and Clyde Canal, besides serving for water 
conveyance, concentrates some trade around its W end 
at Bowling Bay. The deepening of the Clyde, in addi- 
tion to its greatly improving the navigation and stimulat- 
ing commerce, produced the incidental advantage of 
adding to the county about 600 acres of rich land — the 
spaces behind the stone walls, formed for confining the 
tidal current, having rapidly filled up with a fine 
alluvial deposit, which soon became available first 
for meadow and next for the plough. The steamboat 
communication is very ample, including lines up and 
down Loch Lomond, and connecting all the chief places 
on the Clyde and on the sea-lochs with Greenock and 
Glasgow. The railways comprise a continuous line 
from Helensburgh east-south-eastward through Dum- 
barton to the south-eastern boundary at the Kelvin, and 
various other lines and branch lines, which are all linked 
by junctions into the general railway system of Scotland. 

The only royal burgh is Dumbarton. The other 
towns are Helensburgh, Kirkintilloch, Alexandria, 
Bonhill, Renton, and Cumbernauld. The chief villages 
are Arrochar, Balloch, Bowling Bay, Cardross, Clyde- 

bank, CondoiTat, Cove, Dalmuir, Dalshohn, Dum- 
buck, Duntocher, Faifley, Gairlochhead, Garscadden, 
Garscube, Hardgate, Jamestown, Kilcreggan, Knights- 
wood, Little Alill, Luss, Milton, Nctherton, New Kil- 
patrick. Old Kilpatrirk, Roseneath, Smithston Rows, 
Waterside, with parts of Yoker and Lenzic. The prin- 
cipal seats are Arden House, Ardincaple, Ardmore, 
Ardoch, Auchendennan, Auchentorlie, Auclientoshan, 
Balloch Castle, Balvie, Baremman, Barnhill, Bloomhill, 
Bonhill Place, Boturich Castle, Cameron House, Camus 
Eskan, Clober House, Cockno House, Cowden Hill, 
Craigrownie, Cumbernauld House, Darleith, Dumbuck 
House, Edinbarnet, Finnart, Garscadden, Garscube, 
Gartshae House, Glenarbuck, Helenslee, Keppoch, 
Killermont, Kilmahew, Kilmardinny, Knoxland, Len- 
noxbank, Roseneath Castle, Rossdhu, Strathleven, 
Stuckgowan, Tillechewan Castle, Westerton House, 
and Woodhead. According to Miscellaneous Statistics 
of the United Kingdom. (1S79), 153,736 acres, with a 
total gross estimated rental of £325,407, were divided 
among 2346 landowners, . one holding 67,041 acres 
(rental £12,943), two together 15,979 (£8794), eight 
20.221 (£29,970), twelve 17,515 (£24,745), eighteen 
12,152 (£15,336), sixty-three 14,737 (£67,632), etc. 

The places of worship within the civil county, in 1881, 
were 17 quoad civilia parish churches, 9 quoad sacra 
parish churches, 3 chapels of ease, 21 Free churches, 11 
U.P. churches, 1 United Original Secession church, 1 
Independent chapel, 2 Baptist chapels, 1 Methodist 
chapel, 1 Evangelical Union chapel, 3 Episcopal churches, 
and 5 Roman Catholic churches. In Sept. 1880 the 
county had 50 schools (39 of them public), which, with 
total accommodation for 11,695 children, had 9729 
on the registers and 7171 in average attendance, the 
certificated, assistant, and pupil teachers numbering 
96, 8, and 87. 

The county is governed (1882) by a lord-lieutenant, 
a vice-lieutenant, 22 deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, a 
sheriff-substitute, and 109 magistrates. The sheriff 
court for the county, and the commissarj'' court are 
held at Dumbarton on every Tuesday and Friday 
during session ; sheriff's small debt courts are held at 
Dumbarton on every Tuesday during session and occa- 
sionally during vacation ; at Kirkintilloch, on the first 
Thursdays of March, June, September, and December ; 
and quarter sessions are held at Dumbarton on the first 
Tuesdays of March, May, and August, and the last 
Tuesday of October. The county gaol is at Dumbarton, 
and has been noticed in our account of that town. The 
committals for crime, in the annual average of 1841-45, 
were 77 ; of 1846-50, 127 ; of 1851-55, 141 ; of 
1856-60, 87 ; of 1861-65, 77 ; of 1865-70, 89 ; of 1871- 
75, 50 ; of 1876-80, 57. The police force of the county, 
in 1881, excluding 9 men for Dumbarton, comprised 43 
men ; and the salary of the chief constable was £250. 
The number of persons tried at the instance of the 
police, in 1880, was 785 ; convicted, 731 ; committed for 
trial, 45 ; not dealt with, 35. Exclusive of Dumbarton, 
the county returns a member to parliament (Liberal 
1837-41, Lib.-Con. 1841-68, Con. 1868-81), its constitu- 
ency numbering 3009 in 1882. The annual value of real 
property, assessed at £71,587 in 1815, was £147,079 in 
1843, £272,138 in 1875, and £384,627 in 1882, or, in- 
cluding railways, etc., £458,761, 13s. Pop. (1801) 
20,710, (1811) 24,169, (1821) 27,317, (1831) 33,211, 
(1841) 44,296, (1851) 45,103, (1861) 52,034, (1871) 
58,857, (1881) 75,327, of whom 37,311 Mere males, and 
38,016 females. Houses (1881) 14,259 inhabited, 1238 
vacant, 191 building. 

The registration county takes in a part of New Kil- 
patritk parish from Stirlingshire, and had, in 1881, a 
population of 78,176. All the parishes are assessed for 
the poor, and 9 of them, with 3 in Stirlingshire and 1 in 
Perthshire, are included in Dumbarton poor law com- 
bination. The number of registered poor, during the 
year ending 14 May 1880, was 1313 ; of dependants on 
these, 881 ; of casual poor, 899 ; of dependants on 
these, 773. The receijits for the poor in the same 
vear were £14,408 ; and the expenditure was£13,790. 
^ 389 


The number of pauper lunatics was 148, and the ex- 
penditure on their account was £1163, 3s. 6d. The per- 
centage of illegitimate births was 67 in 1871, 5 '9 in 
1876, 5 '4 in 1879, and 4-8 in 1880. 

The territory now forming Dumliartonshire belonged 
anciently to the Caledonian Damnonii or Attacotti ; was 
included by the Romans in their province of Yespasiana ; 
and, exclusive of its detached district, was long a main 
part of the ancient district of Lennox or Levenax. 
That district included a large part of what is now Stir- 
lingshire, and portions of what are now Perthshire and 
Renfrewshire. It was constituted a county by AVilliam the 
Lyon, and underwent curtailments after some period in 
the 13th century, reducing it to the limits of the present 
main body of Dumbartonshire. The county then changed 
its name from Lennox to Dumbartonshire ; and, in the 
time of Robert I. , had annexed to it its present detached 
district. It was the scene of many contests between 
Caledonians and Romans, between Cumbrians and 
Saxons, between Scots and Picts, between Highland 
clan and Highland clan, between the caterans and the 
Lowlanders, between different parties in the several 
civil wars of Scotland ; and made a great figure, espe- 
cially in the affairs of Antoninus' Wall and those 
of the Cumbrian or Strathclyde kingdom, in the events 
of the wars of the succession, and the turmoils of the 
cateran forays in the time of Eob Roy. Some of the 
salient points in its history are touched in the account 
of Dumbarton Castle, and in the article on Lennox. 
Several cairns and a cromlech still extant, several 
rude stone coffins, and fire-hollowed canoes found 
imbedded in the mud of the river close to the castle a 
few years ago, are memorials of its Caledonian period. 
A number of old rude forts or entrenchments, parti- 
cularly in its Highland districts, are memorials of 
Caledonian, Pictish, and Scandinavian warfare within 
its limits. Vestiges of Antoninus' Wall, and relics 
found on the site of that wall along all the N border of 
its detached district, and along the SE border of its 
main Ijody onward to the wall's western end at Chapel- 
hill in the vicinity of Old Kilpatrick village, and an 
ancient bridge and a sudatorium at Duntocher, are 
memorials of the Romans. Several objects in Dum- 
barton Castle, and particularly historical records in 
connection with the castle, are memorials of the civil 
wars ; a mound in the E end of Cardross parish, not 
far from Dumbarton town, indicates the last residence 
or death -place of Robert Bruce ; numerous old castles, 
some scarcely traceable, some existing as ruins, some 
incorporated with modern buildings, as at Faslane, Bal- 
loch, Ardincaple, Dunglass, and Kirkintilloch, are 
relics of the several periods of the baronial times ; and 
other objects in various parts, particularly in Glenfruin, 
are memorials of sanguinary conflicts among the clans. 
See Joseph Irving's History of Du7nhartonshire, Civil, 
Ecclesiastical, and Territorial (Dumb. 1860) ; his Book 
of Dumhartonsliire (3 vols. 1879) ; and William Eraser's 
Chiefs of Colquhoun and their Country (2 vols., Edinb., 

Dumbartonshire Railway. See Caledonian Rail- 

Dumbreck, a hill on the mutual boundary of Strath- 
blane and Cam psie parishes, SW Stirlingshire, culminat- 
ing l.| mile NNE of Strathblane village, and rising to an 
altitude of 1664 feet above sea-level. It forms part of 
the western chain of the Lennox Hills ; and overhangs 
Ballagan Glen on the W, and Fin Glen on the E. 

Dumbreck, a triangular loch (2xjs furl.) in Strath- 
blane parisli, SW Stirlingshire, 1 mile SW of Strath- 
bhine village. 

Dumbuck, a village and a mansion in the W of Old 
Kilpatrick parish, Dumbartonshire. The village stands 
near the Clyde, If mile E by S of Dumbarton ; and the 
nei'dibouriiig mansion, Dumbuck House, is the property 
of John Edward Geils, Esrp (b. 1812; sue. 1843), who 
owns 655 acres in the shire, valued at £1209 per annum. 
Wooded Dumbuck Hill (547 feet), immediately to the 
N, is a bold basaltic abutment from the south-western 
extremity of the Kilpatrick Hills, that stoops preci- I 


pitously to Dumbarton plain. It commands a magni- 
ficent prospect from Tinto to Arran, and from the 
Grampians to Ayrshire ; and so much outtops Dum- 
barton Castle as easily to command it by artillery, yet 
was occupied with little efifect by Prince Charles Edward's 
forces in the '45. 

Dumbuils, an eminence (300 feet) in Forgandenny 
parish, SE Perthshire, 1 mile SE of Forgandenny village. 
Low, craggy, and elliptical, it has traces on the crests 
of its accessible sides of an ancient bulwark, formed of 
very large granite boulders ; and it commands a brilliant 
view of Lower Strathearn and the Firth of Tay. 

Dumcrieff, a handsome mansion, with finely wooded 
grounds, in Moffat parish, N Dumfriesshire, on the 
right bank of Moffat Water, 2 miles SE of IMoffat town. 
Owned first by Murrays, then by the future Sir George 
Clerk of Penicuik, it was the residence about 1785 of 
John Loudon Macadam, of road-making celebrity, and 
next of Burns's biographer, Dr James Currie (1756- 
1805), by whom, a few months before his death, it was 
sold to l)r John Rogerson (1741-1823), court physician 
at St Petersburg for close upon fifty years, it now 
belongs to his great-grandson. Lord Polio, who holds 
7220 acres in the shire, valued at £3044 per annum. 

Dumfin, an eminence (200 feet) in Luss parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, on the left bank of Fruin W^ater, 3 miles 
ENE of Helensburgh. It takes its name, signifying 
'the fort of Fin,' from its legendary connection with 
Fingal ; and it has traces of an ancient fort. 

Dumfries, a to^-n and a parish on the SW border of 
Dumfriesshire. A royal and parliamentary burgh, a 
seaport— since the era of railways of little importance — 
a seat of manufacture, the capital of Dumfriesshire, the 
assize town for the south-western counties, and practically 
the metropolis of a great extent of the S of Scotland, 
the town stands on the left bank of the river Nith, and 
on the Glasgow and South-Wcstern railway at the 
junction of the lines to Lockerbie and Portpatrick, by 
rail being 14^ miles WSW of Lockerbie, 15 J AVNW of 
Annan, 19| NE of Castle-Douglas, 80^ ENE of Port- 
Patrick, 42i SE of Cumnock, 92 SE by S of Glasgow, 
S9f S by W"of Edinburgh, 33 WNV: of Cariisle, and 333| 
NNW of London. The site is mainly a gentle elevation, 
nowhere higher than 80 feet above sea-level, partly the 
low flat ground at its skirts ; extends about 1 mile from N 
to S, parallel to the river ; rises steeply from the banks 
at the N end, and is blocked there by a curve in the 
river's course ; and bears the lines of Castle Street and 
High Street along its summit. Maxwelltown, along 
the Kirkcudbrightshire bank of the Nith, directly oppo- 
site and nearly of the same length as Dumfries, seems 
to be rather a part of the town than a suburb, and is 
partly included in the parliamentary (though not in the 
royal) burgh. Behind JMaxwelltown to the W is Corbelly 
Hill, a broad-based, round, and finely-outlined elevation, 
on the summit of which stand a church and convent of 
the Immaculate Conception, erected in 1881-82, from de- 
signs by Messrs Pugin, for Nuns of the Perpetual Adora- 
tion of the Blessed Sacrament ; whilst a little lower down 
is a picturesque building, serving the double purpose 
of an observatory and a museum of natural history and 
antiquities The view from the top of this hill is very 
extensive, and also of great natural beauty — the broad 
and level valley, for the most part highly cultivated, 
of the Nith, abounding in mansions, villas, gardens, and 
nursery grounds ; the iloH'at and Galloway Hills, with 
the higher peaks of Queensberry and Criffel ; and, over 
the Solway, the far-away Cumberland mountains. Alto- 
gether, the landscape, seen from the top of Corbelly Hill, 
is not so unlike the plains of Lombardy. Dumfries itself, 
in architectural structure, relative position, social charac- 
ter, marketing importance, and general influence, holds a 
high rank among the towns of the kingdom. It is a 
minor capital, ruling in the S with nearly as much sway 
as Edinburgh in the E. It has either within itself or 
in its immediate outskirts an unusually large proportion 
of educated and wealthy inhabitants, giving evident 
indication of their presence in the tone and manners ; 



and is seen at once, by even a passing stranger, to be a 
place of opulence, taste, and pretension. It has some- 
times been called, by its admirers, ' the Queen of the 
South ; ' and it was designated by the poet Burns, ' Maggie 
by the banks o' Nith, a dame wi' pride eneuch.' It is 
the cynosure of the south-western counties ; and it 
swaj's them alike in the interests of mind, of trade, 
and of commerce. It has no rival or competitor, 
none at least that can materially compare with it, 
between Ayr and Carlisle, or between the Irish Sea and 
the Lowther ilountains. And even as a town, though 
other influential towns were not remote, it challenges 
notice for its terraces and pleasant walks beside 
the river ; for its lines and groups of villas around 
its outskirts ; for its picturesqueness of aspect as 
seen from many a vantage-ground in the near vici- 
nity ; for the spaciousness of its principal streets ; 
and for a certain, curious, pleasing romance in the 
style and collocation of many of its edifices. It so 
blends regularity of alignment with irregularity as to 
be far more fascinating than if it were strictly regular ; 
and it so exhibits its building material, a red-coloured 
Permian sandstone, now in the full flush of freshness 
from the quarry, now in worn aspects of erosion by time, 
as to present a tout ensemble of mingled sadness and 

Three bridges connect Dumfries and Maxwelltown ; 
but only the uppermost one is available for carriages ; 
and this commands a good view of all the riverward 
features of the burgh and the suburb, stretching partly 
to the N but chiefly to the S. The space along the 
Dumfries bank, between the bridges, is a wide street- 
terrace ; the space further down, to a much greater dis- 
tance, is an expanded or very wide street-terrace, used 
partly as the cattle market, partly as a timber market, 
and called the Sands ; and the space still further down, 
opposite the foot of the town and a long way past it, is 
a broad grassy promenade, fringed along the inner side 
by a noble umbrageous avenue, and called the Dock. 
The central streets present an array of fairly well-ap- 
pointed shops. All the streets are paved, drained, clean, 
and well-lighted ; and outlets on the roads to the N, to 
the S, and to the E are studded with villas. Yet parts 
of the to^^^l, particularly numerous lanes or closes off 
High Street, some intersecting lanes from street to 
street, and portions of the old narrow streets are disagree- 
able and unwholesome. The Nith contributes much to 
both salubrity and beauty ; ajJproaches, in long winding 
sweeps, imder high banks richly clothed with wood ; 
breaks immediately beyond the lower bridge, over a 
high caul, built for the water supply of gi-ain mills on 
the Maxwelltown side ; swells into a lake-like expanse 
above the caul ; leaps into rapid current at low tide 
below it ; is driven back by the flow of tide against it ; 
and, both above and below the town, to the extent of 
several miles, has verdant banks tracked mth public 
roads and footpaths. 

The uppermost bridge was built in 1790-94 ; encoun- 
tered great difficulties in the erection ; cost, with the 
approaches to it, £4588 ; and occasioned, for the forming 
of Buccleuch Street, an additional cost of £1769 ; and is 
a structure more substantial than elegant, yet not desti- 
tute of beauty. The middle bridge was built in the 13th 
century by Devorgilla, mother of John Baliol ; and for 
many long generations was held to be second only 
to London Bridge. It had originally nine arches, and 
is commonly, but erroneously, said to have had thirteen ; 
suS"ered, in course of burghal improvements, demolition 
of about one-third of its length at the Dumfries end ; 
has now only six arches ; is ascended, at the Dumfries 
end, by a flight of steps, so as to be accessible only by 
foot passengers ; and makes a prominent figure both in 
curious picturesqueness and as a great work of the early 
mediseval times. The lowermost bridge was opened on 
the last day of 1875 ; cost nearly £1800 ; is an iron 
suspension structure for pedestrians ; mcasui-es 203 feet 
in length and 6^ feet in width ; and has sides of trellis 
work rising 35 feet from the roadway to the finial. The 
County Buildings stand on the S side of the lower part 

of Buccleuch Street ; were erected in 1863-66, after 
designs by David Rhind, of Edinburgh, with aid of 
£10,418 from Government ; are in the Scottish Baronial 
style, with peaked towers and open Italianised para- 
pets ; present an imposing castellated appearance ; rise 
to a height of four stories, including a sunk story ; and 
contain a court-hall with accommodation for 300 persons, 
and offices or rooms for all departments of the county 
business. The prison of 1851, adjoining the E end of 
the County Buildings, is surrounded by a high wall, 
that greatly disfigures the aspect of the street. This 
building, not fulfilling the requirements deemed necessary 
in modern prisons, has been condemned ; and a .site for 
a new one was purchased by government in 1881 for 
£1400 on the western outskirts of Maxwelltown. The 
Town-Hall, on the N side of Buccleuch Street, opposite 
the prison, was originally the spacious chapel or ' taljer- 
nacle ' erected by Robert Haldane in 1799. Having 
stood for some years unoccupied after the Haldane 
collapse, it was purchased in 1814, altered, renovated, 
and architecturally adorned, to be used as the county 
courthouse ; and, after the opening of the new County 
Buildings in 1866, was sold for £1020 to the town 
council. Within it hang portraits of William and Mary 
of Orange, and Charles, the third Duke of Queensberry ; 
and here is preserved the famous Silver Gun of the Seven 
Trades, the mimic cannon, 10 inches long, which James 
VI. presented to the craftsmen in 1617, to be shot for 
on Kingholm Merse — a custom kept up till 1831. The 
stack of buildings in the centre of High Street, cleaving 
it for a brief space into two narrow thoroughfares, con- 
tains the old town council room, and is surmounted by 
a steeple called originally the Tron, but now the Mid, 
Steeple. This steeple was erected in 1707, at a cost of 
£1500, from designs (not of Inigo Jones, but) of a cer- 
tain Tobias Bachup of Alloa. It figures prominently, 
both in the High Street's own range and in every land- 
scape view of the town, but has now a weather-worn and 
neglected appearance. The Trades Hall, on the E side 
of High Street opposite the Mid Steeple, was rebuilt 
in 1804 at a cost of £11,670 ; and, the trades' corpora- 
tion privileges having been abolished in 1846, was 
sold to a merchant in 1847 for £650. The Assembly 
Rooms stand in George Street, were erected at a compara- 
tively recent period, and are neat and commodious. 
The Theatre, in Shakespeare Street, built in 1790, and 
rebuilt and decorated in 1876, was the scene of early 
eftbrts of Edmund Kean and Macready. A Doric column 
to the memory of the third Duke of Queensberry was 
erected in Queensberry Square in 1804 ; and an orna- 
mental public fountain (1860) stands in the centre of 
the lower expansion of High Street. 

The railway station stands at the north-eastern extre- 
mity of the town ; was constructed, in lieu of a previous 
adjacent one, in 1863; and contains accommodation for 
the junctions of the lines from Lockerbie and Portpatrick 
with the Glasgow and South-Western. It includes a fine 
suite of buildings for offices, waiting-rooms, and hotel ; 
had, till 1876, all its building on the W side of the rail- 
wav, confronted, along the opposite side, by a broad 
brilliant parterre ; but in 1875-76, preparatory to its be- 
coming the working nexus between the Scottish systems 
and the English Midland system, rmderwent great exten- 
sion and improvement by the erection of a booking-office 
and other buildings on the E side, the provision of three 
times the previous amount of accommodation ibr goods, 
the construction of new premises for engines and smiths' 
shops, the formation of a great series of new sidings, the 
laying down of three new lines of rails, and the opening 
of a new approach street, so that it is now a station at 
once handsome, picturesque, and commodious. A via- 
duct of the Glasgow and Nortli-Wcstern railway crosses 
the Nith about a mile N of the station ; and some other 
railway works of considerable magnitude are in the 
vicinity. Most of the banking-offices in the town are 
neat or handsome edifices, and .several of them are of 
recent erection. The King's Arms Hotel and the Com- 
mercial Hotel, on the confronting sides of tlic lower ex- 
pansion of High Street, are old and spacious cstahlish- 



ments ; and the latter was the headquarters of Prince 
Charles Edward during three days of Dec. 1745. 
The QueensbeiTy Hotel, near the junction of English 
Street and High Street, is a recent elegant erection. 
The Southern Counties Club, in Irish Street, was 
erected in 1874 ; is a handsome two-story edifice ; and con- 
tains an elegant billiard room, 45 feet bj' 25, and other 
fine large apartments. Nithsdale woollen factory, at 
the foot of St Michael Street, overlooking the Dock 
promenade, was erected in 1858-59 ; is a vast, massive, 
turreted edifice, almost palatial in aspect ; and has a 
chimney stalk rising to the height of 174 feet. Tro- 
queer woollen factories, on the Kirkcudbrightshire side 
of the Nith, almost directly opposite the Nithsdale fac- 
tor)', are two structures of respectively 1866-67 and 
1869-70, and more than compete with the Nithsdale 
factory in both extent of area and grandeur of ajipear- 

St Slichael's Established church stands off the E side 
of St Michael Street, near the site of its pre -Reformation 
predecessor. Built in 1744-45, and repewed and reno- 
vated in 1869 and 1881, it contains 1250 sittings, and 
is surmounted by a plain but imposing steeple, 130 feet 
high. The churchyard around it — a burial-jilace for 
upwards of seven centuries — is crowded with obelisks, 
columns, urns, and other monuments of the dead, com- 
puted to number folly 3000, and to have been raised at 
an aggregate cost of from £30,000 to £100, 000. Among 
them are the mausoleum of the poet Burns, a granite 
]>yi'amid (1834) to the memory of three martyi's of the 
Covenant, and over 300 'first-class monuments.' Grey- 
friars Established church stands on the site of Dumfries 
Castle, fronting the N end of High Street, and succeeded 
a previous church on the same site, built in 1727 partly 
of materials from the ancient castle. Itself erected in 
1866-67, after designs by Mr Starforth, of Edinburgh, 
at a cost of nearly £7000, it is a richly ornamented 
Gothic edifice, the finest in the burgh, with a beautiful 
spire 164 feet high. St Mary's Established church, at 
the N end of English Street, on the site of a 14tli 
century chantry, reared by the widow of Sir Christopher 
Seton, was built in 1837-39, after designs by John Hen- 
derson, of Edinburgh, at a cost of £2400. It also is 
Gothic, with an open spire formed by flying buttresses, 
and was renovated and reseated in 1878. The Free 
church in George Street, built in 1843-44 at a cost of 
£1400, is a plain mansion-like edifice, containing 984 
sittings. The Territorial Free church, at the junction of 
Shakespeare Street with the foot of High Street, was 
built in 1864-65 at a cost of £1800, and contains 
500 sittings. The U.P. church in Loreburn Street, 
rebuilt in 1829 at a cost of more than £900, contains 
500 sittings. The U.P. church in Buccleuch Street, re- 
built in 1862-63, after designs by Alexander Crombie, 
at a cost of £2000, is a handsome Gothic edifice, 
and contains 700 sittings. The U.P. church, in Town- 
head Street, was built in 1867-68 ; succeeded a previous 
church in Queensberry Street, built in 1788 ; is a 
handsome edifice ; and contains 460 sittings. The 
Reformed Presbyterian church, on the E side of Irving 
Street, was built in 1831-32, and interiorly recon- 
structed in 1866 ; is a neat building ; and contains 650 
.sittings. The Independent chapel, on the "VV side of 
Irving Street, was built in 1835, enlarged in 1862, 
repewed and renovated in 1880 ; is a neat structure in 
the Italian style ; and contains 650 sittings. The Wes- 
leyan chapel in Buccleuch Street, at the corner of Castle 
Street, is a modest edifice, and contains 400 sittings. 
The Episcopal church of St John's, in Dunbar Terrace, 
was built in 1867-68, after designs by Slater and 
Carpenter, of London ; is a striking structure in pure 
First Pointed style, with a tower and spire 120 feet 
high; and contains 460 sittings. The Catholic Apos- 
tolic chapel, in Queen Street, was built in 1865 at a 
cost of £1000, and is a small building with a towerlet 
and pinnacle 58 feet high. The Baptist chapel in 
Newall Terrace, successor to one in Irisli Street, is a 
solid, plain edifice, seated for 420, erected in 1880 
at a cost of £1900. The Roman Catholic church of St 


Andrew, pro-cathedral of the diocese of Whithorn or 
Galloway, in Shakespeare Street, near English Street, 
was built in 1811-13 at a cost of £2600. Romanesque 
in style with Byzautine features, it received the addition 
of a fine tower and octagonal spire (1843-58), 147 feet 
liigh, of N and S transepts and a domed apse (1871-72); 
and in 1879 the interior was beautifully decorated with 
arabesque designs. For all these improvements St 
Andrew's is indebted to the Maxwells of Terrcgles, and 
mainly to the late Hon. I\Iarmaduke Constable Maxwell, 
a monument to whom was placed in it in 1876. The 
Roman Catholic schools adjoining the cliuixh are ex- 
cellent buildings ^vith separate departments for boys, 
girls, and infants. Pupils on roll, 430 ; average attend- 
ance, 360 ; Government gi'ant, May 1881, £296, Os. 6d. 
The jMarist Brothers, a R.C. teaching order, a lay as- 
sociation of men, under vows of obedience, poverty, and 
chastity, have, since 1874, had their head house for the 
three kingdoms at St l^Iichael's Mount, formerly Lam-al 
Bank, a mansion within 5 or 6 acres of ground in a 
south-eastern suburb. St Michael's Mount is also used 
as a sanatorium for the invalided brothers of the Order ; a 
Provincial resides ; and there is a Novitiate attached. St 
Joseph's Commercial College, formerly the old infirmary 
building, altered and enlarged, is a R.C. middle-class 
boarding school for boys, conducted by these Marist 
Brothers. About 40 pupils from various parts of the 
kingdom, and a few foreigners, are instructed in modern 
languages, mathematics, English, etc. 

The Academy or High School, erected in 1802 on the 
brow of the Nith's steep bank near Greyfriars' church, 
is surrounded by a playground, 1-^ acre in extent, 
and presents a plain j^et imposing appearance. With 
accommodation for 500 scholars, it gives instruction 
to boys and girls in classics, modern languages, 
mathematics, arithmetic, -writing, drawing, and all de- 
partments of English. Under the school-board, the 
Academy is conducted by a rector, 3 other masters, 
3 assistants, and 1 lady teacher, mth endo^^^nents 
amounting to £262, and £48 per annum to keep up 
fabric from the to\A-n. In 1882 there were 281 pupUs 
on the roll. There are several bursaries — 1 of £18, 1 of 
£15, 3 or 4 each of £12, and a number of special prizes, 
besides 22 bursaries provided for by additional bequests, 
entitling successful competitors to a free education at 
the Academy, with use of books. There are 1 private 
school for boys and 2 ladies' schools, all well attended. 
There are 3 elementary board schools — Lorubum Street, 
St Michael Street, and Greensands, of which the two 
first were erected in 1876 at a cost of £3770 and £2800. 
With respective accommodation for 500, 400, and 236, 
the three had a total avei-age attendance of 1064 during 

School fees — Elementary schools, . £639 10 3 
,, Academy, . . . 1510 12 9 

School rate, 1182 16 1 

Teachers' salaries — Elementary schools, 1467 6 6 
,, Academy, . . 1660 4 10 

The Episcopal school — a small plain building in St 
David Street — has 130 scholars on the roll, an average 
attendance of 100, and a government grant of £80. The 
Industrial school, Burns Street, founded in 1856, with 
accommodation for 80 boys in 1882, is supported partly 
by voluntary contribution and partly by government 
grant. There are also an Industrial Home for destitute 
and orphan girls, supported by voluntary contribution ; 
and several charitable associations of a minor character. 
In 1880, a Youn^ Men's Christian Association and a 
Young Women's do. were established, both having since 
been fairly well supported. The Mechanics' Institute 
(1825), near the foot of Irish Street, was built in 1859-61, 
and is a First Pointed edifice, including a lecture-hall 
(76 X 58 feet ; 46 high), with accommodation for 1000 
persons, in which cheap public lectures are delivered 
during the winter montns. Connected Mith the main 
building, but facing St Michael Street, stands the 
antique town-house of the Stewarts of Shambelly, which 
serves for reading-room and librarj', and is also the 
librarian's residence. The Crichtoii Institution, on a 


rising-ground off tlie public roail, IJ mile SSE of the 
town, originated in a bequest of over £100,000 by Dr 
James Crichton of Friars Carse. He had thought of a 
university ; but, owing to the failure of attempts to 
obtain a charter, his trustees decided to construct a 
lunatic asvlum for affluent patients. As partially buUt 
(1835-39), "at a cost of fully £50,000, it was to have 
taken the form of a Greek cross, with central low 
octagonal tower, but, as completed (1870) at a further 
outlay of £40,000, it has somewhat departed from the 
original plan, the whole being now a dignified Italian 
edifice, one of whose finest featm-es is the magnificent 
recreation hall. The neighbouring Southern Counties 
Asylum, for pauper lunatics, was erected in 1848 at a 
cost of £20,000 ; it and the Crichton Royal Institution 
had respectively 359 and 145 inmates in ISSl. 

The Dumfries parish schools (landward) ai'e Catherine- 
field, Noblehill and Throhoughton, Kelton and Brown- 
hall combined — three in all. For 1881 the aggregate 
fees were £187, 5s. 5d. ; annual education grant £372, 
10s. 6d. ; balance from rates £215, 16s. 7d. ; teachers' 
salaries £652, 14s. lid. ; retiring allowances £70. 

In 1879, the estate of Hannahfield and Kingholm 
having fallen to the Queen as ultima hares, that portion 
of the estate to the south of the town on the river bank, 
known as Kingholm Merse, has been made over to the 
coi-poration — subject to servitude in favour of the War 
Department — for golf, cricket, and purposes of general 
sport and recreation. The cro^vn has also granted a 
gift of £9500 from the estate, in trust, for the improve- 
ment of education in the counties of Dumfries and 
Wigtown and in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright ; the 
trustees to create bursaries and scholarships, open to 
competition for pupUs educated in primary schools, 
under the condition that successful competitors shall 
continue their education at secondary schools or at 
universities. The trustees have now in operation a 
' tentative scheme for the Hannahfield bursaries ' in the 
three counties, which is likely to be of great advantage 
to many deserving students. But the scheme in its pre- 
sent form is thought to be open to objection, and vnll 
certainly be referred to the Education Department unless 
a compromise is arrived at with objecting school-boards. 
The Dumfries and Galloway Royal Infirmary stands 
in a situation similar to that of the Crichton Institu- 
tion, a little nearer the town ; was erected in 1869-71, 
after designs by ilr Starforth, at a cost of £13,000 ; 
has aiTangements and appliances on the most ap- 
proved plans ; and is maintained chiefly by legacies, sub- 
scriptions, parochial allowances, and annual grants from 
the coimties of Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, and Wigtown. 
The workhouse occupies an airy healthy site to the S of 
the town ; was erected in 1853-54 at a cost of more than 
£5500 ; contains accommodation for 127 pauper inmates ; 
serves entirely for the parish of Dumfries ; and has 
commonly from 70 to 80 pauper inmates, maintained at 
an annual cost of about £600. ilorehead's Hospital 
stands in St Michael Street, opposite St Michael's 
Church ; was fouuded and endowed, in 1733, by two 
persons of the name of Morehead ; gives lodging and 
support to poor orphans and aged paupers of both sexes, 
and pensions to upwards of 40 widows at their own 
homes ; and is maintained, partly by its own funds, 
partly by subscriptions and donations. 

Dumfries is broadly stamped with the name of the 
poet Burns (1759-96). His term of residence here 
flashed on the popular mind so vividly as to have been 
at once and till the present day esteemed an epoch — 
'the time of Bums.' The places in it associated with 
his presence outnumber, at least outweigh, those in Ayr, 
Irvine, Kilmamock, Tarbolton, Mauchline, or Edin- 
burgh. He appeared first in the town on 4 Jime 1787, 
and came to it then on invitation to be made an 
honorary burgess. He became a resident in it, on re- 
moval from Ellisland, in December 1791. For eighteen 
months he lived in a house of three small apartments, 
on the second floor of a tenement on the N side of 
Bank Street, then called the Wee Vennel. He then 
removed to a small, self-contained, two-story house 


on the S side of a short mean street striking eastward 
from St Michael Street, in the northern vicinity of St 
Michael's Church. The street was then called Millbrae 
or 5Iillbrae-Hole ; but, after Bums's death, was desig- 
nated Burns Street. The house, in the smaller of whose 
two bedrooms he died on 21 July 1796, was occupied 
afterwards by his widow down to her death in 1834, 
and purchased in 1850 by his son, Lieut. -Col. William 
Kicol Burns. It is now occupied by the master of the 
adjoining Industrial School, continues to be as much as 
possible in the same condition as when Burns inhabited 
it, and, through courtesy of its present occupant, is 
shown to any respectable stranger. Nearly a hundred 
of Burns's most popular songs, including ' Auld Lang- 
syne,' 'Scots wha liae wi' Wallace bled,' 'A man's a man 
for a' that,' '0 whistle and I'll come to ye, my lad,' 
'My love is like a red, red rose,' 'Ye banks and braes o' 
bonnie Doon,' 'Cauld kail in Aberdeen,' 'Willie Wastle,' 
'Auld Rob Morris,' and 'Duncan Gray,' were written by 
him either in this house or in the house in Bank Street. 
Many objects, too, in and near the town, and many per- 
sons who resided in or near it, are enshrined in his 
verse. The High School which preceded the present 
academy was made accessible to his children by a special 
deed of the Town Council (1793), that put him on the 
footing of a real freeman. The Antiburgher Church 
in Loreburn Street, on the site of the present U.P. 
church there, was frequently attended by him in ap- 
preciation of the high excellence of the minister who 
then served it. The pew which he more regularly 
occupied in St Michael's Church bore the initials, ' R. 
B, ' cut with a knife by his own hand ; and was sold, at 
the repairing of the church in 1869, for £5. A window 
pane of the King's Arms Hotel, on which he scratched 
an epigi'am, drew for a long time the attention of both 
townsmen and strangers. A volume of the Old Statisti- 
cal Account of Scotland, belonging in his time to the 
public library of which he was a member, was transferred 
to the mechanics' institute, and bears an original verse 
of his in his own bold handwriting. Another volume 
there, a copy of De Lolme on the British Constitution, 
presented by him to the library, contains an autograph 
of his which was interpreted at the time to indicate 
seditious sentiments. The Globe Tavern which he used 
to frequent, and on a window of which he inscribed the 
quadrain in praise of ' Lovely Polly Stewart ' and a new 
version of ' Coming through the Rye,' retains an old- 
fashioned chair on which he was wont to sit ; and the 
mere building, situated in a narrow gloomy close ofl" High 
Street, is hardly less replete with memories of him than 
is the house in which he lived and died. To the Trades' 
Hall, akeady noticed, his coffined corpse was removed 
on the eve of his public funeral. The matrix of the 
cast of his skull, taken at the interment of his widow 
in 1834, continued in the possession of the townsman 
who took it, and probably is still in safe keeping in 
the town. His remains were originally buried in the N 
comer of St IMichael's chm-chyard, with no other monu- 
ment than a simple slab of freestone * erected by his 
widow ; but, in 1815, were transferred to a vault in a more 
appropriate part on the SE border, and honoured with a 
mausoleum, erected by subscription of fifty guineas from 
the Prince Regent and of various sums from a multitude 
of admirers. The mausoleum, in the form of a Grecian 
temple, after a design by Thomas F. Hunt, of London, 
cost originally £1450, and contains a mural sculpture by 
Turnerelli, representing the Poetic Genius of Scotland 
throwing her mantle over Burns, in his rustic dress, at 
the plough. It is now glazed in the inten-als between 
its pillars, to protect the sculptiire from erosion by the 
weather ; and, besides Bums's own remains, covers those 
of his widow and their five sons. The late 'William 
Ewart, I\I.P., placed a bust of the poet in a niche of the 
front wall of the Industrial School ; and on 6 April 1882 
Lord Rosebery unveiled Mrs D. 0. Hill's fine marble 
* So says Mr M'Dowall, but, accordinjj to Dorothy Wordsworth, 
there was ' no stone to mark the spot ' when, on IS Aug. 1803, with 
Coleridfre and her brother William, she stood beside tlie 'untimely 
grave of Burns.' Can it be that here too they were nnsinfurmed, 
as in the case of Rob Roy's grave, noticed under Bau^iiiidijbr? 



sutiie, on the open space in front of Greyfriars Church. 
Nearly 10 feet high, it is raised 5 feet from the ground 
on a pedestal of grey Dalbeattie granite ; and represents 
Bui-ns, resting on an old tree root, in the act of produc- 
ing one of his deathless lyrics. A collie snuggles to his 
right foot, and near by lie bonnet, song-book, and shep- 
herd's pipe. See William M'Dowall's Burns in Dum- 
frksshirc (Edinb. 1S70). 

Dumfries has a head post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, 
offices of the Bank of Scotland, the British Linen Co. , 
and the Clydesdale, Commercial, National, Royal, and 
Union Banks, and offices or agencies of 30 insurance com- 
panies. Three newspapers are published — the Liberal 
and Independent Dumfries Courier (1809) on Tuesday, 
the Conservative Dumfriesshire and Galloivay Herald 
(1835) on Wednesday and Saturday, and the Liberal 
Dumfries and Galloway Standard (1843) also on Wed- 
nesday and Saturday. A weekly market of much 
importance is held every AVcdnesday for the sale of 
sheeji, cattle, pigs, etc. ; and on the same day, in a 
covered building in Loreburn Street, a sale of butter and 
eggs is held. Another market of secondary importance 
is also held on Saturday. Horse fairs are held on a 
Wednesday of February, either the second day of that 
month 0. s. or the Wednesday after it, on the Wednes- 
day before 26 May, on the AVednesday after 17 June o. s., 
on either 25 Sept. or the AVednesday after, and on the 
AVednesday before 22 Nov. ; pork fairs are held on every 
AVednesday of January, February, March, November, 
and December ; and eight hiring fairs are held in the 
course of the year. A sale of cattle on the Sands, at 
the AVednesday weekly market, dates from 1659 ; was 
preceded, from a time long before the Union, by a weekly 
sale on Monday ; drew always large supplies from Dum- 
friesshire and Galloway for transmission into England ; 
rose progressively to such importance that, dming a 
considerable course of years, so many as about 20,000 
head of cattle were annually sold on the Sands to English 
purchasers ; suffered a severe check, partly by the open- 
ing of the railways, partly by weekly auction of live 
stock, partly by other causes ; and became so reduced 
toward 1865, that the number of cattle shown in that 
year was only 9605. The number sent from the station, 
in 1859, was 13,975, but in 1866 was only 3470. The 
sale of sheep, at the weekly markets, seems not to have 
commenced till about the end of last century ; but it 
increased rapidly in result of the turnip husbandry ; 
and it amounted, during the five years ending in 1866, 
to the annual average of about 28, 000 sheep ; yet, like 
the Sands or market sale of cattle, it was much curtailed 
by auction sales and private transfer. The number 
of sheep sent from the station, chiefly to England, in 
1859, was 43,932; in 1865, 47,105; "in 1881, 60,000. 
The total sale of cattle and sheep on the Sands, and in 
the auction marts, in 1866, was 9828 cattle and 47,239 
sheep. The sale of pork, in the weekly market on the 
Sands, for many years prior to 1832, amounted usually 
to upwards of 700 carcases in one day, in the busiest 
part of the year, often to many more, but it also re- 
ceived a severe check by the opening of the railways 
and by other causes. The number of carcases shown on 
the Sands in all 1859, was only 13,550 ; in 1867, 10,235. 
The stock sold in the market or at auction in 1881 were, 
cattle 26,415, sheep 82,327, calves 1352, pigs 1086. The 
number of horses sold is also very large. 

The port of Dumfries is strictly the river Nith, in its 
run of 14 J miles to the channel of the Solway, but com- 
prises besides all the Scottish side of the Firth, from 
Sarkfoot to Kirkandrews Bay ; and includes, as creeks or 
sub-ports, Annan, Barlochan, and Kirkcudbright. Its 
harbourage nearly everywhere is tidal, with great dis- 
advantage from the peculiar ' bore ' of the Solway — a 
sudden rapid breast of water of short duration, followed 
by hours of total recess, leaving nothing but shallow 
fresh-water streams across great breadths of foreshore. 
At Dumfries itself there is no better accommodation 
than a series of quays, one at Dumfries dock, .and three 
at intervals down to a distance of 5 miles. The naviga- 


tion of the Nith was always difficult ; but, in years prior 
to 1834, at a cost of £18,930, it underwent material 
improvement. A rock which obstructed the channel 
at Glencaple, 5 miles below the toAvn, was cut away ; 
other obstacles in the river's bed were removed ; the 
landing-places at the river's mouth, and the lighthouse 
on Southerness flanking the mouth, were put in better 
condition ; a quay at Glencaple, and two quays at Kel- 
ton, and near Castledyke, between Glencaple and the 
town, were constructed. The quay at the town itself 
was renovated and extended, and embankments and 
other works, to counteract the devastating eff"ect of the 
tide's impetuous rush up the river, were formed. The 
town's harbour, in consequence, became safer for small 
vessels, accessible to larger vessels than before, and ac- 
cessible also to coasting steamers ; yet, in result of suc- 
cessively the opening of the Glasgow and South-Western 
railway in 1850, the opening of the Castle-Douglas and 
Dumfries railway in 1859, the opening of the Lockerbie 
and Dumfries railway in 1863, the opening of the Sil- 
loth railway and wet-dock in 1864, and the opening of 
the Solway Junction railway in 1869, it has lost an 
amount of traffic more than equal to all that it pre- 
viously gained. The revenue from the harbour, in 1831, 
was a little short of £1100 ; in 1844, £1212 ; in 1864, 
£555 ; in 1867, £474 ; in 1881, £332, 7s. 9d. The 
tonnage belonging to the port and sub-ports, which 
averaged 8292 during 1840-44, had risen to 15,286 in 
1860, but sank to 11,682 in 1866, to 7764 in 1873, and 
to 3971 on 31 Dec. 1881. In 1881, the tonnage of ships 
inwards was 32,469; outwards, 32,869. The principal 
imports are timber, slate, iron, coal, wine, hemp, and 
tallow ; and the principal exports are wheat, barley, 
oats, potatoes, wool, and sandstone. The customs, which 
averaged £8576 a year during 1840-44, and £11,540 
during 1845-49, amounted to £6524 in 1864, to £4986 
in 1869, to £4583 in 1874, and (inclusive of duty on 
British spirits) to £7500 in 1881. 

The productive industry of Dumfries, till a recent 
period, went little beyond ordinary local artisanship, 
but it is now vigorous and flourishing in various im- 
portant departments of trade and manufacture. The 
large number of wai-ehouses and shops bears evidence to 
a healthy amount of competition among business people, 
both for the ordinary retail trade, and also for the 
wholesale supply of numerous county towns and villages. 
There are two important foundries, one very extensive, 
for the construction and repair of engines, agricultural 
machines, implements, etc. The manufacture of hosiery 
is increasing yearly in importance, and gives employ- 
ment to a large number of hands in several factories of 
considerable size. Tanning and currying, and coach- 
building are also important, and there are many em- 
ployers of skilled labour, of high standing, in various 
departments of trade. The manufacture of tweeds was 
introduced in 1847, and has gone on since then steadily 
increasing. There are several factories of moderate 
size, and three of the largest size, the latter now (1882) 
owned by one firm (Messrs AA^'alter Scott & Sons), and 
employing a large number of hands. 

Constituted a royal burgh by David I. (1124-53), and 
divided into four wards, Dumfries is governed by a pro- 
vost, 3 bailies, a dean of 
guild, a treasurer, and 
22 other councillors. 
The General Police and 
Improvement Act of 
Scotland was adopted 
prior to 1871 ; and the 
magistrates and town 
councillors act as com- 
missioners of police. 
The income of the police 
commissioners arises 
chiefly from rates, and 
in 1880-81 amounted to 
£4619, 19s. 7d. The 
assize or justiciary court 
is held twice a year. The shcrifl" court for the county is 

Seal of Dumfrioi 



held every Tuesday and Friday during session ; the sheriff 
small debt court, and the debts recovery act court, every 
Tuesday in time of session, and on the same days that 
ordinary courts are held in vacation. A court of county 
justices is held in Dumfries every Monday. The water 
and gas works of the burgh are public propertj', and are 
well managed, the rates to consumers steailily diminish- 
ing. With Annan, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben, and 
Sanquhar, Dumfries I'eturns one member to parliament 
(always a Liberal since 1837) ; in 1SS2 its parliamentary 
constituency numbered 1858, its municipal 1282. 
Corporation revenue (1867) £1599, (1875) £2360, (1881) 
£2204. Valuation (1861) £30,028, (1870) £42,860, 
(1882) £57,713, of which £4344 was in railways. Pop. 
of royal burgh (1841) 10,069, (1851) 11,107, (1861) 
12,313, (1871) 13,710, (1881) 15,759; of parliamentary 
burgh (1851) 13,166, (1861) 14,023, (1871) 15,435, 
(1881) 17,090, of whom 9283 were females. Houses 
in parliamentary burgh (1881) 3642 inhabited, 174 
vacant, 17 building. 

The name Dumfries was anciently written Dunfres, 
and is supposed to have been derived from the Gaelic 
words dun and phreas, signifying 'a mound covered 
with copse wood,' or 'a hill-fort among shrubs.' A 
slight rising-gi'ound on the area now occupied by Grey- 
friars Church was the site of an ancient fort, afterwards 
reconstructed into a sti-ong castle ; is presumed to have 
been clothed with copse or natural shrubs ; and appears 
to have given origin to the name. The burgh's armorial 
bearing was anciently a chevron and three fleur-de-lis, 
but came to be a winged figure of St Michael, ti'ampling 
on a dragon and holding a pastoral staff. The motto 
is, 'A'loreburn' — a word that, during centuries of 
sfruggle against invaders, was used as a war-cry to 
muster the townsmen. The side toward the English 
border being that whence invasion usually came, a place 
of rendezvous was appointed there on the banks of a rill 
called the Lower Burn, nearly in the line of the present 
Loreburn Street ; and when the townsmen were sum- 
moned to the gathering, the cry was raised, ' All at the 
Lower Bum, ' — a phrase that passed by elision into the 
word 'A'loreburn.' A village, which ere the close of 
the 10th century had sprung up under the shelter of 
the fort on the copse-covered mound, grew gradually 
into a town, and was the seat of the judges of Galloway 
in the reign of William the Lyon, who died, in 1214, about 
which period or a little later it seems to have become a 
centre of considerable traffic. Streets on the line of the 
present Friars' Vennel and of the northern part of High 
Street, with smaller thoroughfares toward Townhead 
and Loreburn Street, appear to have been its oldest 
portions ; and are supposed to have had, about the 
middle of the 13th century, nearly 2000 inhabitants. 
The erection of the old bridge before the middle of the 
13th century, together with the high character which 
that structure originally possessed, indicates distinctly 
both the importance then attained by the town and 
the line in which its chief riverward thoroughfare 
ran ; and another structure, erected by the same 
bountiful lady who erected the bridge, also indicates the 
position of the nucleus around which the town lay. 
This was a Minorite or Greyfriars' monastery, situated 
near the head of Friars' Vennel, where now the Burns 
Statue stands ; and, small though it was, as compared 
with many abbeys, it seems to have been a goodly 
First Pointed edifice, comprising an aisled church, a 
range of cloisters, a refectory, and a dormitory. In 
1286 Robert Bruce the Competitor and the Earl of 
Carrick, his son, mth banner displayed assaulted and 
captured the castle of Dumfries, a royal fortress of the 
child-queen Margaret, the Maid of Norway ; and in 
the summer of 1300 King Edward I., on his way to the 
siege of Caerlaverock, seized and garrisoned this castle, 
and added the high square keeji, part of which re- 
mained standing till 1719. In the beginning of 1306 
the famous Robert Bruce was in London, called thither 
as King Edward's counsellor, when a warning of peril 
was sent him by the Duke of Gloucester, his friend — 
a sum of money and a pair of spurs. The hint was 

enough ; that day he started for Scotland, his horse shod 

backwards, that the hoof-prints might throw pursuers 
off the track. On February the 4th he halted at Dum- 
fries, where the English justiciars were sitting in assize 
— John Comyn of Badenoch, surnamed the Red, among 
the throng of barons in attendance. Him Bruce en- 
countered in the church of the Minorites, and, falling 
into discourse, made the proposal to him : ' Take you 
my lands, and help me to the throne ; or else let me 
take yours, and I will uphold your claim.' Comyn 
refused, with talk of allegiance to Edward, and their 
words waxed hotter and hotter, till, drawing his dagger, 
Bruce struck a deadly blow, then hurried to his friends, 
who asketl if aught were amiss. ' I must be off, ' was the 
answer, 'for I doubt I have .slain the Red Comyn.' 
'Doubt ! ' cried Kirkpatrick of Closeburn, ' I mak sikar ;' 
and, with Sir John de Lindsay, rushing into the church, 
despatched the wounded renegade outright. A frenzy 
seized them ; they carried the castle by assault ; and 
thus was rekindled the War of Independence. One 
episode therein was that, in this same year of 1306, Sir 
Christopher Seton, Bruce's brother-in-law, was hanged 
by the English at Dumfries, on the Crystal Mount, 
where his widow afterwards founded a chapel in honour 
of the Holy Rood. 

The town was burned by the English prior to 1448 ; 
suffered devastation by them at other periods ; and, in 
1469, obtained from the Crown all the houses, gardens, 
revenues, and other property which had belonged to the 
Grey Friars. It was burned again by the English in 1536, 
and was then revenged by Lord Maxwell. That noble- 
man, with a small body of retainers, made an incursion 
into England, and reduced Penrith to ashes ; and either 
he or some member of his family, mainly with materials 
from the Greyfriars' monastery, strongly reconstructed 
Dumfries Castle. Queen Mary, in October 1565, when 
the town, was held by Murray and other disaffected nobles, 
favourers of the Reformation, marched against it with 
an army of 18,000 men, at whose approach the leaders 
of the opposition retreated over the Border. The castle 
was again taken and the town sacked, in 1570, by the 
English imder Lord Scrope and the Earl of Essex. The 
townsmen, in 1583, erected a bartizaned, two-storied 
stronghold, called the New Wark, to serve both as a 
fortress to resist invasion and as a retreat under dis- 
comfiture ; and, either about the same time or at an 
earlier period, they constructed likewise, between the 
town and Lochar Moss, a rude fortification or extended 
rampart, called the Warder's Dike. But all vestiges of 
these works, of the castle, and of the monastery are now 

In 1617 James VI. spent two days at Dumfries in 
royal state, and was sumptuously entertained at a pub- 
lic banquet. The to^vn shared largely in the disasters 
that overspread Scotland under Charles I., and still 
more largely in those of the dark reign of Charles II., 
when, in November 1666, a fortnight before the battle 
of RuUion Green, fifty mounted Covenanters and a larger 
party of peasants on foot here seized Sir James Turner, 
and, with him, a considerable sum of money. The 
Cameronians, or those of the Covenanters who resisted 
the settlement at the Revolution, were comparatively 
numerous in the surrounding district ; and, on 20 Nov. 
1706, about 200 of them rode into the town, issued 
a manifesto against the impending union of Scotland and 
England, and burned the articles of union at the cross, 
but did not succeed in precipitating the town into any seri- 
ous disaster. In October 1715 word was brought to the 
magistrates that the Jacobite gentry of the neighbour- 
hood had formed a design to surprise the town ; and, it 
being the sacramental fast-day, and the provincial synod 
being then in session, the clergy mustered their fencible 
parishioners, so that 'a crowd of stout Whigs flocked in 
from tlie surrounding districts and villages, with their 
broad bonnets and grey hose, some of them mounted on 
their plough-horses, others on foot.' That vcrv evening 
they were joined by a strange ally, no other tnan Simon 
Eraser, the infamous Lord Lovat, who, with five fol- 
lowers, all armed to the teeth, rode up to the head inn, 



e)i route from London to the North. Hill Burton de- 
scribes the suspicions aroused by the presence of this 
large, square-built, peculiar-looking man ; how, having 
shown his credentials, he presently helped to bring 
in the Jlarquis of Annandale, beset by the Jacobites 
under Viscount Kenmure ; and how their courteous and 
partly convivial meeting was interrupted by a rumour 
of attack, a body of horse having ridden up close to 
the town.* A Jiarty of the townspeople, during the 
insurrection of 1745, cut off at Lockerbie a detach- 
ment of the Highlanders' baggage ; and, in conse- 
quence, drew upon Dumfries a severer treatment from 
Prince Charles Eilward than was inflicted on any other 
to^vn of its size. Prince Charles, on his retui'n from 
England, let loose his mountaineers to live at free 
quarters in Dumfries ; and he levied the excise of the 
town, and demanded from its authorities a contribution 
of £2000 and of 1000 pairs of shoes ; but, an alarm having 
reached him that the Duke of Cumberland had mastered 
the garrison left at Carlisle and was marching rapidly on 
Dutafries, he hastily broke away northward, accepting for 
the present £1100 for his required exaction, and taking 
hostages for the payment of the remainder. The town 
suffered loss to the amount of about £4000 by his visit, 
besides the damage caused by the plundering of his troops; 
but, in acknowledgment of its loyalty to the Crown, and 
as part compensation for its loss, it afterwards got £2800 
from the forfeited estate of Lord Elcho. Later events 
have mainly been either commercial, political, or social ; 
and, with the exception of a dire visitation of cholera (15 
Sept. to 27 Nov. 1832), by which nearly 500 perished, 
they have left no considei'able mark on its annals. It 
may, however, be noticed that the Highland and Agri- 
cultural Society has held its meeting here in 1830, 1837, 
1845, 1860, 1870, and 1878. The town, on the whole 
since 1746, has plenteously participated in the benign 
effects of peace and enlightenment ; and, though mov- 
ing more slowly than some other towns in the course of 
aggrandisement, it has been excelled by none in the 
graceftilness of its progress, and in the steadiness and 
substantiality of its improvement. 

The title Earl of Dumfries, in the peerage of Scot- 
land, conferred in 1633 on the seventh Baron Crichton 
of Sanquhar, passed in 1694 to an heiress who man-ied 
the second son of the first Earl of Stair. Her eldest 
son, William, who succeeded her in 1742 as fourth Earl 
of Dimifries and his brother James in 1760 as fomth 
Earl of Stair, died mtliout issue in 1768, when the 
former title devolved on his nephew, Patrick Mac- 
dowall of Feugh (1726-1803), whose daughter married 
the eldest son of the first Marquis of Bute ; and the 
title now is borne by her great-grandson, John (b. 1881), 
son and heir of the present Marquis of Bute. On the 
towii's roll of fame are the following eminent natives or 
residents, the former distinguished by an asterisk : — 
The Rev. "William Veitch, who was minister of Dumfries 
during the conflict between Presbji;erianism and E])is- 
copacy, and whose biography was Avritten by the Rev. 
Dr M'Crie ; the Rev. Dr Henry Duncan of Ruthwell 
(1774-1846), author of the Philosophy of the Seasons, 
who started the Courier, and founded here the earliest 
of all savings' banks, and a statue of whom is in front 
of the Savings' Bank building ; * Dr Benjamin Bell 
(1749-1806), the eminent surgeon; Sir Andrew Halliday 
(1783-1839), a famous physician, who spent his latter 
years and died in Dumfries ; * Sir John Richardson 
(1787-1865), the surgeon and naturalist of Sir John 
Franklin's overland Polar expedition ; *Sir James An- 
derson (b. 1824), the telegraph manager; *Gen. William 
M'Murdo, C.B. (b. 1819), the son-in-law and favourite 
officer of Sir Charles Najiier, the hero of Scinde ; John 
M'Diarmid (1790-1852), editor of the Scrap Book, author 
of Sketches from Nature and a Life of Cowpcr, and for 35 
years the talented conductor of the Dumfries Courier ; 
Thomas Aird (1802-76), the well-known poet, and editor 
of the Dumfriesshire Herald from 1835 to 1863 ; William 

* It is noteworthy that tlie first book printed nt Dumfries was 
Peter Rae's Ilhtonj of Vie Rebellion in Scotland, in Dumfries, 
Galloway, etc. (1718). 


M'Dowall (b. 1815), author of the Man of (he Woods and 
of the Eistory of Dumfries, and editor of the Dumfries 
Standard from 1846; * James Hannay (1827-73), author 
of Eustace Conyers, Singleton Fontcnoy, and other works 
of fiction; *Dr Robert Carruthers (1799-1878), of Inver- 
ness, but long connected with Dumfries, the author of a 
Life of Pope, the Highland Note-Book, the Encyclopccdia 
of English Literature, etc., and of ten Dumfries Por- 
traits, which appeared in the Dumfriesshire Monthly 
Magazine, begun in 1821 ; William Bennet, editor of 
the three volumes of the Dumfries Monthly Magazine, 
begun in 1825 ; Allan Cunningham, John Mayne, 
Robert Anderson, Joseph Train, Robert Malcolmson, 
Dr Broivne, and Dr John Gibson, who contrilnited 
largely to these two periodicals ; the Rev. William 
Dunbar, editor of the Nifhsdale Minstrel, a volume of 
original poetry published in 1815 ; William Paterson 
(1658-1719), the founder of the Bank of England, and 
the projector of the Darien Expedition ; Patrick IMiller 
of Dalswinton (1731-1815), the distinguished inventor 
and agriculturist; *Robert Thorburn, A.R.A. (b. 1818), 
the famous miniature painter ; Kennedy, the landscape 
painter; Dunbar and Currie, the sculptors; * James 
Pagan (1811-70), journalist ; * Joseph Irving (b. 1830), 
historian and annalist; Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), a 
Svriter of books;' *John Mayne (1759-1846), minor 
poet and journalist ; and not a few besides. 

The parish, containing also the villages of George- 
town, Gasstown, and Locharbriggs, with part of the 
village of Kelton, is bounded NAV by Holj^wood and 
Kirkmahoe, NE by Tinwald, E by Torthorwald, S by 
Caerlaverock, and AV by Troqueer and Terregles in Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. Its greatest length, from N to S, is 6f 
miles ; its greatest breadth is 3J miles ; and its area is 
10,200 acres, of which 69^ are foreshore and 98^ water. 
The NiTH winds 7 miles south-by-eastward along all 
the boundary with Holj^wood and Kirkcudbrightshire, 
and sluggish Lochaii Water 7i south-south-eastward 
along that with Tinwald and Torthorwald. Near Loch- 
thorn, 2h miles NNE of the town, is a little lake (1^ x f 
furl.), which, in time of hard frost, is much frequented 
by skaters and curlers. A mineral spring, called 
Crichton's AVell, occurs in Lochar Moss ; another, a 
strong chalybeate, on Fountainbleau farm. The pictur- 
esque low height of Clumpton rises 2 miles NE of the 
town ; and an undulating low eminence, as formerly 
noticed, forms chief part of the site of the town, south- 
ward of which another low ridge of hills runs nearly 
parallel to the Nith, at about lialf a mile's distance, 
into Caerlaverock ; and rises at Trohoughton to 312 feet. 
The rest of the surface is nearly a dead level, sink- 
ing to 40, and rarely exceeding 100, feet. The western 
face of the ridge, overlooking the Nith, is gently sloping, 
and highly embellished ; but the eastern breaks down 
in abrupt declivities, presents a bold front and a com- 
manding outline, and forms, about 1^ mile from the 
town, two precipitous ledges, called the Maiden Bower 
Craigs, one of them containing a remarkable cavity, 
said to have been used by those mythic beings, the 
Druids, as a sort of 'St Wilfrid's needle,' or ordeal of 
chastity. A broad belt of Lochar Moss, along the 
eastern border, continued all sheer morass down into 
the i)resent century, but now is extensively reclaimed, 
and partly clothed with verdure or Mith wood. Permian 
sandstone is the prevailing rock, and has been largely 
quarried. The soil, in the SW, is a pretty strong clay ; 
in the flat lands by the Nith, is mostly clay incumbent 
on gravel ; in the N and NK, is a light reddish sandy 
earth resting on sandstone ; and in the E, is either native 
moss, reclaimed moss, or humus. Nearly four-fifths of the 
entire area are rctjularly or occasionally in tillage, some 
350 acres are under wood, and nearly all the rest of the 
land is capable of remunerative reclamation or culture. 
An ancient castle of the Comyns stood ^ mile SSE of 
the town, on a spot overlooking a beautiful bend of the 
Nith, and still called Castledykes. A meadow near it 
bears the name of Kingholm, and may have got that 
name either by corruption of Comyn's holm or in honour 
of Robert Uruce. Another meadow, by the riverside 


northward of the town, is called the Nunholm, from its 
lying opposite the ancient Benedictine nunnery of 
Lincluden. This parish is the seat of both a pres- 
bytery and a synod, and it is divided ecclesiasti- 
cally into the three parishes of St ilichael, Greyfriars, 
and" St Mary, the value of the two first livings being 
£436 and £336. Valuation, exclusive of burgh, (1882) 
£20,877, 18s. Id. Pop. of entire parish (1801) 7288, 
(1831) 11,606, (1861) 13,523, (1871) 14,841, (1881) 
16,839.— (9/-fZ. Sur., shs. 10, 9, 1864-63. 

The presbytery of Dumfries comprises the old par- 
ishes of Caeriaverock, Colvend, Dumfries-St Michael, 
Dunifries-Gre3rfriars, Dunscore, Holywood, Kirkbean, 
Kirkgunzeon, Kirkmahoe, Kirkpatrick-Durham, Kirk- 
patrick-Irongray, Lochrutton, Newabbey, Terregles, 
Tinwald, Torthorwald, Troqueer, and Urr, and the 
quoad sacra parishes of Dumfries-St Marv, Dalbeattie, 
and MaxweUtown. Pop. (1871) 38,967, (1881) 41,099, 
of whom 7072 were communicants of the Church of 
Scotland in 1878. — The Free Church also has a presby- 
tery of Dumfries, with 3 churches in Dumfries, 2 at 
Dunscore, and 12 at Corsock, Dalbeattie, Dalton, Glen- 
caple, Hightae, Irongray, Kirkbean, Kirkmahoe, Kirk- 
patrick-Durham, Maxwelltown, Newabbey, and Ruth- 
well, which 17 had together 3216 members in 1881. — 
The tr. P. Synod likewise has a presbytery of Dumfries, 
with 3 churches in Dumfries, 2 in Sanquhar, and 10 
at Burnhead, Castle-Douglas, Dalbeattie, Dairy, Dun- 
score, Lochmaben, Mainsriddle, Moniaive, Thomhill, 
and Urr, which together had 2814 members in 1880. 

The synod of Dumfries comprises the presbyteries 
of Dumfries, Lochmaben, Langholm, Annan, and Pen- 
pont. Pop. (1871) 94,023, (1881) 96,018, of whom 
17,897 were communicants of the Church of Scotland 
in 1878. — The Free Church also has a synod of Dum- 
fries, comprising presbyteries of Dumfries, Lockerbie, 
and Penpont, and superintending thirty-four congrega- 
tions, which together had 7256 members in 1881. 

See John M'Diarmid's Picture of Dumfries and. its 
Environs (Edinb. 1832) ; William WDov;&\\'s History of 
the Burgh of Dumfries ; with Notices of Nithsda.le, 
Awiiandale, and the Western Border (Edinb. 1867 ; 2d 
ed. 1873) ; and his MemoriaAs of St Miclw,el's, the Old 
Parish Churchyard, of Dumfries (Edinb. 1876). 

Dumfries House, a seat of the Marquis of Bute in 
Old Cumnock parish, Ayrshire, near the left bank of 
Lugar Water, 2 miles W of Cumnock town, and | mile 
N of Dumfries House station on the Ayr and Cumnock 
section of the Glasgow and South-Western, this being 
loi miles E by S of Ayr. Built about 1757 by William 
Dalrymple, fourth Earl of Dumfries, it has a drawing- 
TDom htmg with very fine old tapestry, said to have been 
presented by Louis XIV. to one of the former Earls, 
and stands amid finely wooded grounds that contain the 
ruins of Terringzean Castle, and extend into Auchinleck 
parish, on the opposite bank of the Lugar, which here is 
spanned by an elegant bridge. The ilarquis holds 
113,734 acres in Ayrshire, valued at £25,263 per annum, 
including £2506 for minerals. — Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 
Dumfriesshire, a coast and Border county in the S of 
Scotland. It is bounded N by Lanark, Peebles, and 
Selkirk shires ; NE by Roxburghshire ; SE by Cumber- 
land ; S by the Solway Firth ; SW by Kirkcudbright- 
shire ; and XW by Ayrshire. Its length, from W to E, 
varies between 21 and 46i miles ; its breadth, from N 
to S, between 13 and 32 miles; and its area is 1103 
square miles or 705,945| acres, of which 20,427 are 
foreshore and 5301^ water. Its outline is irregularly 
ellipsoidal, being indented to the depth of 13 miles 
by the southern extremity of Lanarkshire, and to the 
depth of of miles by Ettrick Head in Selkirkshire. 
Its boundary line, over all the W, NW, N, and NE, 
to the aggregate extent of 120 miles, is mainly moun- 
tain watershed ; over most of the march witli Cum- 
berland, to the aggregate extent of 11 miles, is variously 
Liddel Water, Esk river, and Sark Water ; over all the S, 
to the extent of 21 miles, is the Solway Firth ; along the 
SW, to the extent of 15 miles, is the river Nith and Cluden 
Water. The summits on or near the upland boundary line 


include Auchenchain (1271 feet) and Blackcraig (1961) 
at the Kirkcudbrightshire border ; Blacklorg (2231), 
M'Crierick's Cairn (1824), and Halfmerk Hill (1478), at 
the Ayrshire border ; Mount Stuart (1567), Wanlock 
Dod (1808), Lowther HUl (2377), Well Hill (1987), 
Wedder Law (2185), and Queensberry (2285), at the 
Lanarkshire border ; HartfeU (2651) and White Coomb 
(2695), at the Peeblesshire border ; Herman Law (2014), 
Andrewhinney (2220), Bodesbeck Law (2173), Capel Fell 
(2223), Ettrick Pen (2269), Quickningair Hill (1601), 
and Black Knowe (1481), at the Selkirkshire border ; 
and Stock Hill (1561), Roan Fell (1862), and Watch 
Hill (1642), at the Roxburghshire border. 

All the northern part of the county is prevailingly 
upland. Mountains or high hills, with similar altitudes 
to those on the boundary line, and intersected with only 
a small aggregate of glens or vales, occupy all the north- 
western, the northern, and the north-eastern border to 
a mean breadth of 7 or 8 miles ; and spurs or prolonga- 
tions of them strike south-eastward, southward, and 
south-westward, to lengths of from 2 or 3 to 7 or 8 miles, 
sometimes shooting into summits nearly as high as those 
on the borders, but generally sinking into low hills, and 
separated from one another by broadening vales. These 
uplands constitute a large and prominent portion of the 
Southern Highlands of Scotland ; but they differ much, 
in both segregation and contour, from the upland masses 
of most of the Northern Highlands. Few or none of 
the mountains have the ridgy elongations, the rugged, 
craggy outlines, or the towering peaked summits so 
common in Argj'll, Perth, Inverness, and Ross shires ; 
but almost all of them, whether on the borders or in the 
interior, lie adjoined in groups, rise from narrow bases 
over rounded shoulders, and have summits variously 
domical, conical, and tabular or flat. Three of the most 
remarkable of the interior heights are Caimkinna (1813 
feet) in Penpont, Langholm Hill (1161) in the vicinity 
of Langholm, and Brunswark Hill (920) in the NE of 
Hoddam, all three having forms of peculiar character, 
quite in contrast to those prevailing in the Northern 
Highlands. The region southward of the uplands breaks 
into three great valleys or basins, traversed by the rivers 
Nith, Annan, and Esk ; and is intersected, between the 
Nith and the Annan, to the extent of about 7 miles 
southward from the vicinity of Amisfield, by the range 
of the Tinwald, Torthorwald, and Mouswald Hills, with 
curved outlines, cultivated surfaces, and altitudes of 
from 500 to 800 feet above sea-level, and commanding 
gorgeous, extensive, diversified prospects. The basias 
of the Annan and the Esk S of a line drawn from 
Whinnyrig, past Ecclefechan, Craigshaws, Solway Bank, 
and Brooinholm, to ;Moorbumhead, cease to be valleys, 
or are flattened into plains, variegated only by occa- 
sional rising-grounds or low hUls, either round-backed 
or obtusely conical. The valley of ihe Nith also, for 
10 miles before it touches the Solway, is in all respects 
a plain, ^vith exception of a short range of low hills in 
Dumfries and Caerlaverock parishes and a few unini- 
portant isolated eminences ; and the E wing of it, 
partly going flatly from it to the base of the Tinwald 
HiUs, partly going southward, thence past the smaU 
Dumfries and Caerlaverock range to the Solway Firth, is 
the dead level of Lochar Moss. 

The river Nith and one or two of its unimportant and 
remote tributaries enter Dumfriesshire through openings 
or gorges in its north-western boundaries, and a small 
tributary of the Annan enters through a gorge in the 
N ; but all other streams which anywhere traverse the 
county rise within its own limits. The Nith, from the 
point of entering it, and the Annan and the Esk, from 
short distances below the source, draw toward them 
nearly all the other streams, so as to form the county 
into three great valleys or basins, but the Nith giving 
the lower part of the right side of its basin to Kirkcud- 
brightshire, and the Esk going entirely in its lower part 
into England. The tliree rivers all pursue a south- 
south-easterly course— the Nith in the W, the Annan in 
the middle, and the Esk in the E; and, with the 
exception of some small curvings, they flow parallel to 
^ 397 


one another, at au average distance of about 12 miles, 
imposing upon their own and their tributaries' basins 
the names of respectivelj' Nithsdale, Annandale, and 
Eskdale. The streams whicli run into them are very 
numerous, j-et mostly of short course, of small volume, 
and remarkable chiefly for the beauty or picturesqueness 
of the ravines or the dells which they traverse. The 
chief of those which enter the Nith are, from the W, 
the Kello, the Euchan, the Scar, the Cairn, and the 
Cluden ; from the E, the Crawick, the Minnick, the 
Enterkin, the Carron, the Cample, and the Duncow. 
The chief which enter the Annan are, from the "\V, the 
Evan and the Kinnel ; from the E, the Moffat, the 
Wamphray, the Dryfe, the Milk, and the Mein. The 
chief which enter the Esk are, from the W, the Black 
Esk and the Wauchope ; from the E, the Megget, 
the Ewes, the Tanas, and the Liddel. Four rivulets, 
each 10 miles or more in length, have an indepen- 
dent course southward to the Solway — the Lochar 
and the Cummertrees Pow in the space between the 
Nith and the Annan ; the Kirtle and the Sark in the 
space between the Annan and the Esk. Several of the 
tributary streams, like the three main ones, give their 
names to their own basins — the Jloffat, the Dryfe, and 
the Ewes in particular giving to their basins the names 
of Moffatdale, Dryfesdale, and Ewesdale. A gi'oup of 
lakes, the largest of them Castle Loch (6x5^ furl.), 
lies near Lochmaben ; and dark Loch Skene (6 x If 
furl. ), remarkable for emitting the torrent of the ' Grey 
I*Iare's Tail, ' lies on the N border at the source of Moffat 
Water. Pure springs are almost everywhere abundant ; 
chah'beate springs are near Moffat, Annan, and Ruth- 
well ; and sulphureous at Moflat and Closeburn House. 

The Geology. — The oldest rocks in Dumfriesshire are of 
Silurian age, consisting mainly of greywackes, flagstones, 
and shales, belonging to the upper and lower divisions 
of that formation. A line drawn from the head of Ewes 
"Water in Eskdale, south-westwards by Lockerbie toMous- 
wald, marks the boundarj' between the two divisions, 
the Lower Silurian rocks being met with to the N of 
this limit. The members of both series have been much 
folded ; but by means of the lithological characters of 
the strata, and with the aid of certain fossiliferous bands 
of shales yielding graptolites, it is possible to determine 
the order of succession. In the neighbourhood of Moffat 
the fossiliferous black shales of the lower division are 
typically developed, where they have been divided into 
several well-marked zones by means of the graptolites 
which occur in them in profusion. They are admirably 
displayed at Dobbs Lynn, near the head of Moffat- 
dale, and in the streams on the S side of the Moffat 
valley. The Silurian rocks, ■which now form the great 
mass of high ground throughout the county, were ele- 
vated so as to form a land barrier towards the close of 
the Silui'ian period. In the hollows worn out of this 
ancient tableland, the strata belonging to the Old Red 
Sandstone, Carboniferous, and Permian periods were de- 
posited. But even these newer palaeozoic formations have 
been so denuded that only isolated fragments remain 
of what once were more extensive deposits. 

Along the county boundary in Uiipcr Nithsdale the 
representatives of the Lower Old Red Sandstone are met 
with, where they consist of sandstones and conglome- 
rates, associated with contemporaneous volcanic rot^ks. 
They form part of the great belt of Lower Old Red 
strata stretching from the Braid Hills near Edinburgh 
into Ayrshire. The Upper Old Red Sandstone, on the 
other hand, forms a narrow fringe underlying the car- 
boniferous rocks from the county boundary E of the Ewes 
Water south-westwards by Langholm to Brunswark. At 
the base they consist of conglomeratic sandstones, the 
included pebbles having been derived from the waste of 
the Silurian flagstones and shales. These are overlaid 
by friable Red sandstones and marls, which pass con- 
formably underneath the zone of volcanic materials 
which always intervene between them and the overlying 
Carboniferous strata. The zone of igneous rocks just 
referred to is specially interesting, as it points to the 
existence of volcanic action on the S side of the Silurian 


tableland at the beginning of the Carboniferous period. 
The igneous rocks consist mainly of slaggy and amygda- 
loidal porphyrites, which were spread over the ancient 
sea bottom as regular lava flows. Brunswark Hill is 
made up of this igneous material. Some of the volcanic 
orifices from which the igneous materials were dis- 
charged are still to be met M-ith along the watershed 
between Liddesdale and Teviotdale in the adjacent 
county of Roxburgh. 

The carboniferous rocks are met with in three separate 
areas: — (1.) in the district lying between Langholm and 
Ruthwell ; (2.) at Closeburn near Thornhill; (3.) in the 
neighbourhood of Sanquhar. The first of these areas is 
the most extensive, measuring aliout 22 miles in length, 
and varying in breadth from 2 to 7 miles. The strata 
included in it belong to the Calciferous Sandstone series 
which forms the lowest subdivision of the Carboniferous 
formation. The following zones were made out in the 
course of the geological survey of the district. They 
are given in descending order : — (7. ) Canonbie coals ; 
(6.) Marine Limestone series of Penton, Gilnockie, and 
Ecclefechan ; (5.) Volcanic zone of fine tuff and porphy- 
rite, including about 50 feet of fine shales ; (4.) Irvine 
Burn and Woodcock air sandstones ; (3. ) Tarras Water- 
foot Cementstone series ; (2.) White sandstones ; (1.) 
Brunswark and Ward Law volcanic rocks. 

The recent discovery which has proved so interesting 
and important was met with in the fine shales of zone 
(5) and partly in zone (3). Upwards of twenty new 
species of ganoid fishes were obtained from these 
beds near Langholm, and out of the sixteen genera 
to which these species belong five are new to science. 
Very few of the species are common to the carboniferous 
rocks of the Lothians, which has an important bearing 
on the history of that period. Along with the fishes 
were found about twelve new species of decapod crus- 
taceans and three new species of a new genus of Phyllo- 
pods. Of special importance is the discovery of four 
new species of scorpions. Hitherto the occurrence of 
fossil scorpions in rocks of Carboniferous age has been 
extremely rare. The specimens recently obtained are 
admirably preserved, and from a minute examination of 
them it is evident that they closely resemble their living 
representatives. The remains of several new plants 
were also found in the fine shales already referred to. 

Within the Silurian area. Carboniferous rocks are met 
with in the Thornhill and Sanquhar basins. These 
deposits lie in ancient hollows worn out of the Silurian 
tableland which date back as far as the Carboniferous 
period. At Closeburn and Barjarg there are beds of 
marine limestone associated with sandstones and shales 
which probably belong to the Calciferous Sandstone 
series. Again, at the south-eastern limit of the Sanquhar 
coalfield there are small outliers of the Carl)onif'erous 
Limestone series, consisting of sandstones, shales, and 
thin fossiliferous limestones. The latter rapidly thin 
out, and the true coal measures rest directly on, the 
Silurian platform. From these facts it would appear 
that in Upper Nithsdale the Silurian barrier did not 
sink beneath the sea-level till the latter part of the 
Carboniferous period, not in fact till the time of the 
deposition of the coal measures. The Sanquhar coal- 
field is about 9 miles in length, and from 2 to 4 miles 
in breadth. It contains several valuable coal seams, 
and from the general character of the strata it is pro- 
bable that they are the southern prolongations of the 
Ayrshire coal measures. Another fact deserves to be 
mentioned here, which was established in the course of 
the survey of the county. The Canonbie coal seams do 
not belong to the true Coal Pleasures as has hitherto 
been supposed, but are regularly intercalated with the 
members of the Calciferous Sandstone series. 

The strata next in order are of Permian age which 
are invariably separated from the Carboniferous rocks 
by a marked unconformity. Indeed so violent is the 
unconformity that we find the Permian strata to the 
E of Lochar Moss stealing across the edges of the Cal- 
ciferous Sandstone beds till they rest directly on the 
Silurian rocks. 


Permian strata occur in five separate areas — 1 at Moffat, 
2 at LocliHiaben and Corncockle Moor, 3 between Annan 
and the mouth of the Esk, 4 the Dumfries basin, 5 the 
Thornhill basin. In addition to these areas there is a 
small patch of contemporaneous igneous rocks overlying 
the Sanr^uliar coallield, which is believed to be of the same 
age. In the neighbourhood of Moffat the breccias are 
evidently an ancient morainic deposit of glacial origin. 
Several well-striated stones were found in them resemb- 
ling the scratched stones in ordinarj' boulder clay. In 
the red sandstones of Corncockle Moor reptilian foot- 
prints have been detected, produced by reptiles mov- 
ing in a S direction, which led to the witty remark of 
Dean Buckland ' that even at that early date the migra- 
tion from Scotland to England had commenced.' Be- 
tween Annan and Canonbie the strata consist of red 
sandstones, while in the Dumfries basin the red sand- 
stones of Locharbriggs are overlaid by an alternation of 
red sandstones and breccias. An interesting feature 
connected with the Thornhill basin is the occurrence 
of contemporaneous volcanic rocks at the base of the 
series. They form a continuous ring I'ound the northern 
half of the basin cropping out from underneath the 
breccias and red sandstones. In the Sanquhar basin 
also there are several 'necks' or volcanic vents filled 
■with agglomerate, which in all likelihood mark the 
sites from which lavas of Permian age were discharged. 

It is interesting to note the proofs of the original ex- 
tension of the Permian strata over areas from which they 
have been completely removed by denudation. Some of 
the Carboniferous strata in the Sanquhar coal-field have 
been stained red by infiltration of iron oxide, and in the 
S of the county the Calcifei'ous Sandstone beds overlying 
the Canonbie coals have been so much reddened as to 
resemble externally the Permian sandstones. Even on 
Eskdalemuir the Silurian greywackes have been stained 
in a similar manner. In these cases the older rocks 
■were buried underneath strata of Permian age from 
■R'hich the percolating water derived the iron oxide. 

Within the limits of the county there are intrusive 
igneous rocks of which the most conspicuous example is 
the mass of granite on Spango AVater, about 5 miles N 
of Sanquhar. This mass is about 3 miles long, and 
upwards of 1 mile in breadth. There are also dykes or 
veins of felstone and basalt. One example of the latter 
deserves special notice. It has been traced from the 
Leadhills south-eastwards by Moffat, across Eskdalemuir 
by Langholm to the English border. In texture it varies 
from a dolerite to tachylite, -which is the glassy form of 

Only a passing allusion can be made to the proofs of 
glaciation which are so abundant throughout the county. 
During the period of extreme glaciation the general trend 
of the ice sheet was SE towards the Solway Firth and 
the English border. The widespread covering of boulder 
clay which is now found in the upland vallej's and on 
the low grounds is the relic of this ancient glaciation. 
But in the valleys draining the main masses of high 
ground there are numerous moraines deposited by local 
glaciers. Amongst the finest examples are those round 
Loch Skene at the head of Motfatdale. 

Economic Minerals. — Coal seams occur at Sanquhar 
and Canonbie, and limestone at Closeburn, Barjarg, 
Kelhead, and Harelaw Hill, Liddesdale. Veins of 
silver and lead ore are met with at Wanlockhead, anti- 
mony at Glendinning and Meggat Water. The building 
stones in greatest demand are the white sandstones of 
the Carboniferous formation, the Permian red sandstones 
of Thornhill, Dumfries, Corncockle, and Annan ; while 
in the neighbourhood of Moffat the coarse grits of 
Silurian age are much used. (B. N. Peach, F.K.S.E., 
and J. Home, F.R.S.E., of the Geological Survey of 
Scotland. ) 

The soil in the mountain districts is mainly moorish, 
mostly unsuitable for tillage, and partly irreclaimable ; 
but in places where it has a dry subsoil, is capable of 
gradual transmutation into loam. The soil, in the low- 
land districts, is generally of a light nature, incumbent 
on either rock, gravel, or sand; in Nithsdale and Annan- 


dale, is mostly dry ; in Eskdale, is generally wzt ; in 
some places, -vvliere it lies on a retentive subsoil, is cold, 
and occasions rankness of vegetation ; in considerable 
tracts of the outspread plain, is of a loamy character, 
rich in vegetable mould ; on the gentle slopes of the 
midland district, is an intermixture of loam with other 
soils ; on the swells or knolls of the valleys, and even 
of the bogs, is of a gravelly or sandy character ; on the 
margins of streams, is alluvium, or what is here called 
holm-land, generally poor and shallow in the upland 
dells, but generally rich and deep in the lowland valleys. 
Cla}', as a soil, seldom occurs, except as mixed with 
other substances ; but, as a subsoil, is extensively found, 
either white, blue, or red, under the greensward of 
hills, and beneath soft bogs. Peat-moss exists in great 
expanses both on the hills and in the vales ; and wherever 
it so lies as to be amenable to drainage, is of such a 
character as to be convertable into good soil. Sea-silt, 
or the saline muddy deposit from the waters of the Sol- 
way, spreads extensively out from the estuary of the 
Lochar, and both forms a productive soil in itself, and 
serves as an effective top-dressing for the adjacent peat- 
moss. The percentage of cultivated area is 32 '5 ; 27,472 
acres are under wood ; and little short of two-thirds of 
the entire county is either pastoral or waste. 

Arable farms range mostly between 100 and 150 acres, 
yet vary from 60 to SOO ; and sheep-farms range from 
300 to 3000 acres. Some farms, chiefly along the 
mutual border of the upland and the lowland regions, 
are both pastoral and arable, and are regarded as par- 
ticularly convenient and remunerative ; and these 
comprise about one-third of the total acreage under 
rotation of crops. The cattle, for the dairy, are mostly 
of the Ayrshire breed ; for the shambles or for exporta- 
tion, are mostly of the Galloway breed. The sheep, on 
the uplands, are either black-faced or Cheviots ; in the 
lowlands are a mixe^l breed, resulting fi'om crosses of 
the Cheviots with Leicesters, Southdowns, and Spanish 
breeds. The draught horses are of the Clydesdale breed. 
Pigs are raised chiefly for exportation of pork and bacon 
into England ; and they have, for many years, been an 
object of general attention among both farmers and 
cotters. The value of the pork produced rose from 
£500 in 1770 to £12,000 in 1794, to £60,000 in 1812, 
and to £100,000 in 1867, since which last year it has 
somewhat fallen off, there being only 10,286 pigs in the 
county in 1881 against 15,088 in 1877, and 18,612 in 

The commerce of the county is all conducted through 
Dumfries and its sub-ports. Manufactures in hosiery and 
tweeds have recently become important in Dumfries ; but 
manufactures in other departments, either there or 
throughout the county, are of comparatively small 
amount. Hosiery employs many looms in Thornhill, 
Lochmaben, and other townis and villages ; woollen 
fabrics, of various kinds, are made at Sanquhar and 
Moftat ; ginghams are manufactured at Sanquhar and 
Annan ; muslins, at Kii'kconnel ; com'se linens, at 
Langholm. Weaving, in difi'erent departments, em- 
ploys many hands ; artificership, in all the ordinary 
departments, emplo3-s many more ; and operations con- 
nected with coal and lead-mining employ a few. The 
energies of the county, as compared with those of other 
counties, either in Scotland or in England, are not 
small ; but, partly in consequence of dearth of coal, 
partly for other reasons, they are mainly absorbed 
in the pursuits and accessories of agricidture ; and 
yet, since at least the commencement of the present 
century, they have been so spent as to produce an 
amount of prosperity scarcely, if at all, inferior to what 
has been realised in other counties. The roads, the 
fences, the dwelling-houses, the churches, the people's 
dress, and the people's manners in Dumfriesshire, taken 
as indices of progress and refinement, will bear compari- 
son with those of any other district in Great Britain. 
Tlic railways within the county are the Glasgow and 
South-Western, down Nithsdale, and across the foot of 
Annandale ; the Caledonian, down tlie entire length of 
Annandale ; the Dumfries and Lockerbie, across the 



interior from Dnmfiies to Lockerbie ; the Solway Junc- 
tion, in the S of Aunandale, from the Caledonian near 
Kirtlebridge to the Solway Firth near Annan ; small 

Sart of the Castle-Douglas and Dumfries, on the W bor- 
er of Dumfries parish ; and branches of the Hawick and 
Carlisle section of the North British to Langholm and 

The quoad dvilia parishes, inclusive of two whi^'h 
extend slightly into Lanarkshire, amount to 43. The 
royal burghs are Dumfries, Annan, Lochmaben, and 
Sanquhar. The liurghs of barony are ^lolfat, Lockerbie, 
Langholm, Ecclefechan, Thornhill, and Moniaive. The 
principal villages ai-e Springfield, Eaglesfield, Sunnybrae, 
Bridekirk, Gasstown, Heathery Row, Hightae, Park, Dun- 
reggan. Rowan Burn, Wanlockhead, Greenbrae, Glen- 
caple, Torthorwald, Roucan, Collin, Penpont, Kirkcounel, 
Kirtlebridge, "Waterbeck, Doniock, Cummcrtrees, Ruth- 
well, Clarencefield, Mouswald, Closeburn, Holywood, 
Kelton, Locharbriggs, Amisfield, Dalswinton,"\Vamphray, 
Carronbridge, and Crawick ilill. The principal seats 
are Drumlanrig Castle, Langholm Lodge, Castlemilk, 
Kinmount, Kinharvey House, Glen Stewart, Tinwald 
House, Comlongan Castle, Dumcrieft" House, Springkell, 
Jardine Hall, "Rockhall, Westerhall, Raehills, Craw- 
fordton, Amisfield House, Closeburn Hall, Dalswinton 
House, Hoddam Castle, JMossknow, Halleaths, Mount 
Annan, Craigdarroch, Blackwood House, JIurraythwaite, 
Broomholm, Barjarg Tower, Speddoch, Dormont, Elshie- 
shields, Canisalloch, Conlieath, Capenoch, Courance, 
Glenae, Kirkmichael House, Rammerscales, Craigielands, 
Corehead, Langshaw, Cove, Maxwelltown House, AVar- 
manbie, Bonshaw, Northfield, Boreland, Broorarig, 
Cowhill, Portrack, Gribton, Newtonairds, Milnhead, 
Bumfoot, Lanrick, and Corehead. According to Mis- 
cellaneous Statistics of the United Kingdom (1879), 
676,971 acres, with a total gross estimated rental of 
£595,512, were divided among 4177 landowners, one 
holding 253,514 acres (rental £97,530), one 64,079 
(£27,884), six together 82,759 (£50,690), twelve 81,881 
(£59,150), t-wenty-six 76,576 (£50,977), twenty-eight 
36,800 (£26,318), fifty-three 37,505 (£129,105), etc. 

The covmty is governed (1882) by a lord-lieutenant, 
a vice-lieutenant, 11 deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, a 
sheriff-substitute, and 97 magistrates. The principal 
courts are held at Dumfries ; and sheriff small-debt 
courts are held at Annan on the first Tuesdaj' of 
January, ilaj-, and September ; at Langholm on the 
third Saturday of January, May, and September ; at 
Lockerbie on the first Thursday of April, August, and 
December ; at Mofiat on the first Friday of April, 
August, and December ; and at Thornhill on the second 
Thursday of April, August, and December. The police 
force, in 1881, besides 10 men for Dumfries and 2 for 
Annan, comprised 35 men ; and the salary of the chief 
constable was £400. The nimiber of persons tried at 
the instance of the police, in 1880, besides those in 
Dmnfries and Annan, was 785 ; convicted, 749 ; com- 
mitted for trial, 38 ; not dealt with, 226. Tlie coiuity 
prison is at Dumfries. The committals ibr crime, in the 
yearly average of 1836-40, were 71 ; of 1841-45, 96 ; 
of 1846-50, 209 ; of 1851-55, 141 ; of 1856-60, 99 ; of 
1861-65, 50 ; of 1865-69, 29 ; of 1871-75, 50 ; and of 
1876-80, 50. The annual value of real property, as- 
sessed at £295,621 in 1815, Avas £319,751 in 1843, 
£350,636 in 1861, and £572,945 in 1882, including 
£75,286 for railways. The four royal burghs, together 
with Kirkcudbright, send one member to parliament, 
and the rest of tlie county sends another, and had a con- 
stituency of 3469 in 1882. Pop. (1801) 54,597, (1811) 
62,960, (1821) 70,878, (1831) 73,770,(1841) 72,830, 
(1851) 78,123, (1861) 75,878, (1871) 74,808, (1881) 
76,124, of whom 35,956 were males. Houses (1881) 
15,656 inhabited, 835 vacant, 109 building. 

The registration county takes in small parts of Moffat 
and Kirkpatrick-Juxta parislies from Lauarksliire ; and 
had, in liSl, a population of 76,151. All tlie parishes 
are assessed for the poor. Dumfries parish has a poor- 
house for itself ; and respectively 6 and 9 jjarishes form 
the poor-law combiuatious of Kirkpatrick-Flenung and 


Upper Nithsdale. The number of registered poor, in 
the year ending 14 May 1880, was 1688 ; of dependants 
on these, 872 ; of casual poor, 1312 ; of dependants on 
these, 1007. The receij)ts for the poor, in that year, 
were £19,638, Is. 6jd ; and the expenditure was 
£19,446, 8s. lOd. The number of pauper lunatics was 
211, their cost being £3816, 18s. 8d. The percentage 
of illegitimate births was 15-9 in 1872, 157 in 1877, 
13-5 in 1S79, and 13-8 in 1880. 

Dumfriesshire, in the times of Established Episcopacy, 
formed part of the diocese of Glasgow, and was divided 
into the deaneries of Nithsdale and Annandale. And 
now, under Established Presbyterianism, it lies wholly 
within the province of the sjmod of Dumfries, but does 
not constitute all that proA-ince. Its parishes are dis- 
tributed among the presbyteries of Dumfries, Annan, 
Lochmaben, Langholm, and Penpont ; but those in 
Dumfries presbytery are conjoined with 12 in Kirkcud- 
brightshire, those in Langholm presbytery with Castle- 
ton in Roxburghshire. In 1882 the places of worship 
A^-ithin the county were 49 Established (14,373 com- 
mimicants in 1878), 27 Free (5882 members in 1881), 
22 U.P. (4381 members in 1880), 2 Independent, 4 
Evangelical Union, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist chapel, 3 
Episcopal, and 2 Roman Catholic. In the year ending 
30 Sept. 1880, the county had 115 schools (96 of them 
public), which, with accommodation for 15,126 children, 
had 12,424 on the rolls, and 9709 in average attendance. 

The territory now forming Dumfriesshire, together 
with large part of Galloway, belonged to the Caledonian 
Selgovae ; passed, after the Roman demission, to the 
kingdom of Cumbria or Strathclj'de ; was much over- 
run by the Dalriadans, both from the N of Ireland and 
from Kintyre ; rose, for a time, into a condition of rude 
independence ; was subjugated by the Scots or Scoto- 
Dalriadans after the union of the Scoto-Dalriadan and 
the Pictavian kingdoms ; and was constituted a county or 
placed under a slieriff by "William the Lyon. But, 
during a considerable period, its sheriffs had direct 
authority only within Nithsdale, and no more than 
nominal authority in the other districts. Both Annan- 
dale and Eskdale, from the time of David I. till that of 
Robert Bruce, were under separate or independent 
baronial jurisdiction ; held, in the former, by Robert 
Bruce's ancestors, in the latter, b}'' various great laud- 
owners. The coimty then consisted of the sheriffship of 
Nithsdale, the stewartry of Annandale, and the regality 
of Eskdale ; and was cut into three jurisdictions nearly 
corresponding in their limits to the basins of the three 
principal rivers. ^Bruce, after his accession to the 
throne, framed measures which issued in a comprehen- 
sive hereditary sheriffship ; and an Act, passed in the 
time of George II. , adjusted the jurisdiction of the county 
to the condition in which it now exists. 

Great barons, about the time of David I., were pro- 
prietors of most of the lands in the county. Donegal, 
the ancestor of the Edgars, owned great part of Niths- 
dale, and was called Dunegal of Stranith. The Maccus- 
wells, ancestors of the Maxwells, held the lands of 
Cacrlaverock ; the Comjms held the estates of Dal- 
swinton and Duncow, and lands extending thence south- 
ward to Castled3'kcs in the southern vicinity of Dum- 
fries ; the Bruces, ancestors of the royal Bruce, held 
Annandale, and resided chiefly at Lochmaben ; the 
Kirkpatricks, the Johnstons, the Carlyles, and the 
Carnocs hekl portions of Annandale as retainers of tho 
Bruces ; and the Souliscs, the Avenels, the Rossedals, 
and others held Eskdale. The Baliols also, though 
not properl}"^ barons of the county itself, but only im- 
pinging on it through succession to the lords of Gal- 
loway, yet powerfully afi'ected its fortunes. Dumfries- 
shire, during the wars between the Bruces and the 
Baliols, was placed betwixt two fires ; or, to use a 
different figure, it nursed at its breasts both of the 
competitors for the crown ; and, from the nature of its 
])Osition bearing aloft tlie Bruce in its right arm, and 
both the Balioi and the Comyn in its left, it was pecu- 
liarly exposed to suffering. The successful Bruce, after 
his victory of Bannockburn, gave the Comyns' manor 


of Dalswinton to "Walter Stewart, and their manor of 
Duncow to Robert Boyd ; bestowed his own lordship of 
Annandale, with the castle of Lochmaben, on Sir 
Thomas Randolph, and created him Earl of Moray ; and 
conferred on Sir James Douglas, in addition to the pift 
of Douglasdale in Lanarkshire, the greater part of Esk- 
dale, and other extensive possessions in Dumfriesshire. 
The county suffered again, and was once more the chief 
seat of strife during the conflicts between the Bruces 
and the Baliols in the time of David II. Nor did it 
sufter less in degree, while it suffered longer in dura- 
tion, under the subsequent proceedings of the rebel- 
lious Douglases. These haughty barons, 'whose coronet 
so often counterpoised the crown,' grew so rapidly in at 
once descent, acquisition, power, and ambition, as prac- 
tically to become lords-paramount of both Dumfriesshire 
and Kirkcudbrightshii-e. Their possessions, at their 
attainder in 1455, reverted to the Crown, and were in 
part bestowed on the Earl of March ; yet still, through 
oM influence and through action of old retainers and 
their descendants, continued to give the Douglases a 
strong hold upon the county, such as enabled them to 
embroil it in further troubles. The county was invaded, 
in 1484, by the exiled Earl of Douglas and the Duke of 
Albany ; and thence, during a century and a half, it 
appears never to have enjoyed a few years of continuous 
repose. Even so late as 1607, the martial followers of 
Lord ilaxwell and the Earl of Morton were led out to 
battle on its soil, in a way to threaten it with desola- 
tion ; and all onward till the union of the Scottish and 
the English crowns, marauding forces and invading 
armies, at only brief intervals of time, overran it from 
the southern border, and subjected it to pillage, iire, 
and bloodshed. The county sat down in quietude under 
James VI., and begun then to wear a dress of social 
comeliness ; but again, during the reign of the Charleses, 
it was agitated with broils and insurrections ; and, in 
the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, especially in the latter, 
it was the scene of numerous disasters. The Jacobites 
were strong in it, and worked so vigorously in the cause 
of the Chevalier and the Pretender as to draw destruc- 
tion on their own families. The ilaxwells, in particular, 
were utterly overthrown by the attainder of the Earl of 
Nithsdale in 1715 ; and several other great families lost 
all their possessions and their influence either then or in 
1746. The Dukes of Buccleuch, partly through exten- 
sion of their own proper territories, partly through 
inheritance of those of the Dukes of Queensberry, are 
now by far the largest and most influential lando\vners 
of the county ; and the Marquis of Queensberry and 
Hope-Johnstone of Annandale hold a high rank. 

Caledonian cairns, camps, and hill-forts are numerous 
in many of the upland districts, particularly on the 
south-eastern hills ; remains of Caledonian stone circles 
are in the parishes of Gretna, Eskdalemuir, Wamphray, 
Moffat, and Holywood ; Roman stations, Roman camps, 
or remains of them are at Brunswark, Castle O'er, 
Raeburnfoot, Torwoodmoor, Trohoughton, Gallaberry, 
Wardlaw Hill, and Caerlaverock ; Roman roads con- 
nected the Roman stations with one another, and went 
up Annandale, and westward thence to Nithsdale. A 
remarkable antiquity, supposed by some writers to be 
Anglo-Saxon, by others to be Danish, is in Ruthwell 
churchj'ard ; old towers are at Amisfield, Lag, Achin- 
cass, Robgill, and Lochwood ; and ancient castles, some 
in high preservation, others utterly dilapidated, are at 
Caerlaverock, Comlongan, Torthorwald, Closeburn, Mor- 
ton, Sanquhar, Hoddam, Wauchope, and Langliolm. 
Ancient monasteries were at Dumfries, Ca'Aonbie, Holy- 
wood, and other places ; and a fine monastic ruin is 
still at Lincluden. Vast quantities of ancient coins, 
medals, weapons, and pieces of defensive armour have 
been found. Numerous places figure prominently in Sir 
Walter Scott's Guy Manneriiuj, llcdgauntlct, and Abbot. 
See, besides works cited under Annandale, Caer- 
laverock, Drumlanrig, Dumfries, Lochmaben, and 
Moffat, two articles on Dumfriesshire in Trans. Highl. 
and Ag. S'oc, 1869. 

Dumglow. See Drumglow. 


Dumgree, an ancient parish in the upper part of 
Annandale, Dumfriesshire, now divided between Kirk- 
patrick-Juxta and Johnstone. The larger section of it 
is within Kirkpatrick-Juxta^ and retains there, near the 
right bank of Kinnel Water, some traces of the ancient 

Dumphail. See Duniphail. 

Dun, a parish of NE Forfarshire, containing, towards 
its south-western corner. Bridge of Dun Junction on 
the main line of the Caledonian, 4 miles E bySof Brechin, 
15i ENE of Forfar, and 5f (3i by road) W by N of .Mon- 
trose, under whicli it has a post and railway telegraph 
office. Bounded N by Logiepert, NE by Montrose, SE 
by Montrose Basin, S by the river South Esk, dividing 
it from Iklaryton, SW by Brechin, and NW by Straca- 
thro, the parish has an utmost length from E to W of 
3^ miles, an utmost width from N to S of 2| miles, 
and an area of 6030 acres, of which 1586§ are fore- 
shore and 1374 vvater. Montrose Basin, over all its 
connection with the parish, is alternately an ornament 
and an eyesore — at high-tide a beautiful lagoon, but at 
ebb a dismal expanse of black and slimy silt. The 
South Esk, along all the southern border, is a fine 
stream, abounding with salmon and sea-trout, and it is 
crossed at Bridge of Dun by a handsome three-arched 
bridge, built in 1787. A loch called Dun's Dish (4^ x 
IJ furl.) lies at an altitude of 242 feet in the north- 
western corner, and sends off a burn to the South Esk. 
The land along the river and the basin is low, flat, and 
protected by embankments, thence rises gently to the 
centre of the parish, and thence to the western and 
north-western borders is somewhat tabular, attaining 
230 feet above sea-level near Balnillo, 202 near Dun 
House, 207 near Glenskinno, 279 in Dun Wood, and 
290 near Damside. The soil, on the low flat gi-ound, 
is a fertile clayey loam ; on the ascent thence to the 
centre is partly light and sandy, partly rich blackish 
mould ; and be3'ond is first of good quality, next wet 
and miry. About three-fourths of the entire area are in 
tillage, and nearly one-sixth is under wood. In Dun, 
in 1839, was born Alexander Hay Jaap (' H. A. Page'), 
sub-editor of 6-'oot^ TFordsshice 1865 ; and John Erskine, 
the Laird of Dun (1508-91), was born at the family seat 
of Dun. He was a leader of the Reformation party, and 
at his house in 1555 John Knox preached almost daily, 
making many converts. David Erskine, Lord Dun 
(1670-1755), an eminent, lawyer, and a stanch upholder 
of the Episcopalian non-jurors, was also born at Dun 
House, which, standing 7 furlongs NNE of Bridge of 
Dun, is now the seat of Augustus Jn. Wm. Hy. 
Kennedy-Erskine, Esq. (b. 1866 ; sue. 1870), owner of 
1727 acres in the shire, valued at £3571 per annum. 
The other chief mansion is Langley Park ; and the 
property is mostly divided among four. Dun is in the 
presbytery of Brechin and sjTiod of Angus and Mearns ; 
the living is worth £245. The parish church, 9^ fur- 
longs N by W of Bridge of Dim, was built about 1833, 
and contains 300 sittings ; a public school, with accom- 
modation for 140 children, had (ISSO) an ^average 
attendance of 84, and a grant of £77, 2s. Valuation 
(1882) £7846, 3s. 6d., phis £2024 for railway. Pop. 
(1801) 680, (1831) 514, (1861) 552, (1871) 565, (1881) 
5n.—0rd. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Dunach, an estate, with a mansion, in Kilmore parish, 
Argyllshire, on the N shore and near the head of salt- 
water Loch Feochan, 3i miles S of Oban. It was pur- 
chased in 1871 for £16,500 by Neil Macleod Macdonald, 
Esq. (b. 1836), who holds 463 acres in the shire, valued 
at £409 per annum. 

Dunachton, a barony in Alvie parish, Inverness-shire, 
1;| mile SW of Kincraig station. It passed by marriage, 
about 1500, from the M'Nivens to the Mackintoshes; 
and had a castle, burned in 1689, and never rebuilt. 

Dunagoil, a headland on the SW coast of the Isle of 
Bute, li mile NW of Garroch Head. Rising to a lieight 
of 119 feet, and offering to the sea a steep and rugged ac- 
clivity, that terminates in a lofty, cavernous clitl, it pre- 
sents also to the land side a precipitous ascent, difficult 
of access, and scaleable chiefly by a narrow rugged ledge 



at the southern extremity. Its flattish summit, retain- 
ing vestiges of an ancient vitrified fort, supposed to be 
Scandinavian, commands an extensive view along Kil- 
brannan Sound and the Ficth of Clyde. 

Dunaidh, a large, high, almost inaccessible rock in 
Killarrow parish, Islay island, Argyllshire, near the 
Mull of Islay. An old castle or fort on it, that seems to 
have been a place of remarkable strength, is now an utter 
ruin, witliout any characters of architectural interest. _ 

Dunain or Dunean, an estate, with a mansion, in 
Inverness parish, Inverness-shire, 3 miles SW of Inver- 
ness town. It anciently had a baronial fortalice ; and 
to the N rises Dunain Hill (940 feet). 

Dun Alastair or Mount Alexander, a fine modern 
Scottisli P>aronial mansion in Fortingall parish, Perth- 
shire, on the left bank of the Tummcl, 3 miles E of 
Kinloch Rannoch, and 17 W of Pitlochry. Its prede- 
cessor was the seat of the Struan Robertsons, and it owes 
much of its ornamental planting to the Jacobite poet- 
chieftain of Clan Donnachie, Alexander Robertson (1670- 
1749), the prototype of Scott's ' Baron of Bradwardine.' 
The present house was built by Gen. Sir John Mac- 
donald, K.C.B. (1788-1866). There is a post and tele- 
graph office of Dun Alastair. See Dalchosnie. 

Dunamarle. See Duximarle. 

Dunan, a bold promontory (100 feet) on the Atlantic 
coast of Lochbroom parish, Ross-shire, on the northern 
side of the entrance to Loch Broom, 10^ miles NW of 

Dunan- Aula, a tumulus in Craiguish parish, Argyll- 
shire, in the valley of Barbreck. It is said to have 
been formed over the grave of a Danish prince of the 
name of Olaf or Olaus, who led an invading force into 
sanguinary battle with the natives on gi'ound in its 
vicinity ; and J mile distant are a nimiber of rude monu- 
ments erected in memory of the warriors who fell in the 

Dunans, an estate, with a mansion, in Kilmodan 
parish, A rijyllshire, near the head of Glendaruel, 4 miles 
NXE of Glendaruel House, and 23 NNW of Rothesay. 

Dunaskin, a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, in Dalmellington 
parish, AjTshire, near Waterside station. 

Dunaverty, a quondam castle in Southend parish, 
Argvllsliire, on a small bay of its own name, 5 miles E 
by N of the Mull of KintjTC, and lOJ SSW of Campbel- 
town. Crowning a steep pyramidal peninsula (95 feet), 
with clifi' descending sheer to the sea, and defended on 
the land side by a double or triple rampart and a fosse, 
it appears, both from its site and from its structure, to 
have been a place of uncommon strength, and com- 
manded the approach to Scotland at the narrowest part 
of sea between Scotland and Ireland. An early strong- 
hold of the Lords of the Isles, said to have given shelter 
to Robert Bruce at the ebb of his fortunes, it was cap- 
tured and garrisoned by James IV. in 1493, and in the 
following year recaptured by Sir John of Isla, who hanged 
the governor from the wall, in the sight of the King 
and the fleet. In 1647 it capitulated to General David 
Leslie, who put every mother's son of its garrison to the 
sword, instigated thereto by Mr John Nave, his excel- 
lent chaplain, who ' never ceased to tempt him to that 
bloodshed, yea, and threatened him with the curses 
befell Saul for sparing the Amalekites.' The castle has 
been so completely demolished that scarcely a vestige of 
it now exists. 

Dunavourd. See Donavourd. 

Dunbar (Gael, dun-hai-r, 'fort on the point'), a town 
and a parish on the north-eastern coast of Haddington- 
shire. A royal and parliamentary burgh, seaport, and 
.seat of considerable traffic, the towTi by road is 11 miles 
ENE of Haddington, and 11| ESE of North Berwick, 
wliilst by the North British railway it is 29;^ E of Edin- 
burgh, and 28J NW of Berwick-upon-Tweed. It 
.stands, Carlyle says, 'high and windy, looking down over 
its herring-boats, over its grim old Castle now much 
honey-combed, — on one of those projecting rock-pro- 
montories with which that shore is niched and vandyked, 
as far as the eye can reach. A beautiful sea ; good land 


too, now that the plougher understands his trade ; a 
grim niched barrier of whinstone sheltering it from the 
chafings and tumblings of the big blue German Ocean. 
Seaward St Abb's Head, of whinstone, bounds j'our 
horizon to the E, not very far off; W, by, is the deep 
bay and fishy little village of Belhaven ; the gloomy Bass 
and other rock-islets, and farther the hills of Fife, and 
foreshadows of the Highlands, are visible as you look 
seaward. From the bottom of Belhaven Bay to that of 
the next sea-bight St Abb's-ward, the town and its 
environs form a peninsula. . . . Landward, as you 
look from the town of Dunbar, there rises, some short 
mile off, a dusky continent of barren heath hills, the 
Lammermuir, where only mountain sheep can be at 
home.' To which need only be added that the town 
itself chiefly consists of a spacious High Street and two 
smaller parallel streets. 

At the foot or N end of the High Street stands Dunbar 
House, within the old park of the castle, exhibiting to 
the street a large couchant sY»hinx with extended wings, 
and to the sea a handsome facade with central circular 
portico. Built by the Messrs Fall, and thereafter a 
mansion of the Earl of Lauderdale, it was purchased in 
1859 by Government, and converted into a barrack. 
The park around it, which serves as the parade-ground 
of the Haddingtonshire militia, contained, till its 
levelling in 1871-72, two large artificial mounds, sup- 
posed to be of prehistoric origin. The castle, founded 
at an early period of the Christian era, but many times 
reconstructed in the course of wellnigh a thousand 
years, bore for a long time prior to the invention of 
gunpowder the reputation of impregnability, and was 
one of the grandest fortresses of the Border counties, 
exerting a powerful influence on the national history 
down to its demolition in 1568. Its ruins, already 
grievously dilapidated, were still further reduced by ex- 
cavations for the Victoria Harbour ; but Grose has left 
us two views, and Miller a full description, of them 
in their more perfect condition. Of Miller's description 
the follo-ning is a summary : — The castle is founded 
on a reef of trap rocks, which project into the sea, 
and, in many places, rise like bastions thrown up 
by nature to guard these stern remains of feudal 
grandeur against the force of the waves. The body 
of the buildings measures 165 feet from E to W, 
and in places 207 from N to S. The South Battery — 
by Grose supposed to have been the citadel or keep, and 
now converted into a fever hospital — is situated on a 
detached rock, which, 72 feet high, and accessible only 
on one side, is connected with the main part of the castle 
by a passage of masonry 69 feet long. Tlie citadel mea- 
sures 54 feet by 60 within the walls, and in shape is 
octagonal. Five of the gun-ports, or so-called 'aiTow- 
holes,' remain, and measure 4 feet at the mouth, but 
only 16 inches at the inner extremity. The buildings are 
arched, and extend 8 feet from the outer walls, and look 
into an open quadrangle, whence they derive their light. 
About the middle of the fortress, part of a wall remains, 
through which there is a doorway, surmounted with 
armorial bearings, and leading seemingly to the prin- 
cipal apartments. In the centre are tlie arms of George, 
eleventh Earl of Dunbar, who succeeded his father in 
1369 ; and who, besides the earldom of Dunbar and 
March, inherited from his heroic mother the lordship of 
Annandale and the Isle of Man. The towers had com- 
munication with the sea, and dip low in many places. 
NE from the front of the castle is a large natural cavern 
of black stone, supposed to have formed part of the 
dimgeon, which, Pennant observes, ' the assistance of a 
little art had rendered a secure but infernal prison.' 
But as it has a comnumication with a rockj' inlet from 
the sea on the W, it is more likely that it is the dark 
postern through which Sir Alexander Ramsay and his 
brave followers entered with a supply of j.iovisions to 
the besieged in 1339. It was a i^lace also well suited for 
securing the boats belonging to the garrison. The castle 
is built of a red stone like that of the neighbouring 
quarries. Part of the foundation of a fort, which was 
begun in 1559 for the purpose of accommodating a 


French garrison, may be traced, extending 136 feet in 
front of the castle. This buikling was, however, inter- 
rupted in its progress, antl demolished. In the NW 
part of the ruins is an apartment about 12 feet square, 
and nearly inaccessible, which tradition designates Queen 
Mary's Eoom. 

The public buildings include the town-hall, an old 
edifice ; the assembly-rooms (1822), substantial and com- 
modious,but badly situated ; the prison, legalised in 1864 
for prisoners whose term does not exceed 10 days ; the corn 
exchange (1855); St Catherine's Hall (1872), with ball 
or concert room, and Masonic, Free Gardeners', and Good 
Templars' lodges ; the custom-house ; and the railway 
station, which, standing on the south-eastern outskirts 
of the town, occupies part of the site of Oliver Crom- 
Avell's camp, and is a large Tudor structure, with accom- 
modations suitable to its position nearly midway between 
Berwick and Edinburgh. Not far from the station, at 
the S end of the High Street, stands the parish church, 
on a spot 65 feet above sea-level — the site of a cruci- 
form collegiate church, which, founded in 1342 and 
1392 by Earls Patrick and George for a dean, a vice- 
dean, and 8 prebendaries, measured 123 feet from E to 
AV, and 83 feet across the transept. Built in 1819-21, 
from designs by Gillespie Graham, at a cost of £8000, 
the present church is an elegant structure in the 
Gothic style, with a pinnacled square tower 108 feet 
high, that commands an extensive view, and serves as a 
landmark to mariners. The interior, seated for 1800 
worshippers, is adorned ^^■ith two stained-glass windows, 
erected in 1865 and 1871 ; whilst immediately behind 
the pulpit is a superb monument, erected to the memory 
of George Home, Earl of Dunbar, third son of Alexander 
Home of Mandei'ston. This nobleman was in great 
favour with James VI., and, holding successively the 
offices of high-treasurer of Scotland and chancellor of 
the exchequer in England, was raised to the peerage in 
1605. It was on him that the 'British Solomon' 
chiefly depended for the restoration of prelacy in Scot- 
land ; and, at the parliament held at Perth in 1606, he 
had the skill to carr}' through the act for the restoration 
of the estate of bishops. He died at "Whitehall, 29 
Jan. 1611, 'not,' says Calderwood, 'without suspicions 
of poison.' ' His body being embalmed, and put into a 
coflin of lead, was sent down to Scotland, and with great 
solemnity interred in the collegiate church of Dunbar, 
where his executors erected a very noble and magnifi- 
cent monument of various coloured marble, with a statue 
as large as life.' The monument is 12 feet broad at the 
base, and 26 feet high. The Earl is represented, kneel- 
ing on a cushion, in the attitude of prayer, ^\ith a Bible 
open before him. He is clad in armour, which is seen 
under his knight's robes, and on his left arm is the 
badge of the Order of the Garter. Two knights in armour 
stand on each side as supporters. Above them are two 
female figures, Justice and Wisdom, betwixt whom, and 
immediately above the cupola. Fame sounds her trum- 
pet ; while, on the opposite side. Peace, with her olive 
branch, sheds a laurel wreath on his lordship. Imme- 
diately beneath the monument is the vault, wherein the 
body is deposited in a leaden coffin. Other places of 
worship are a Free church (1844), 2 U.P. churches, with 
respectively 700 and 500 sittings, a Wesleyan Methodist 
chapel, St Anne's Episcopal church, of iron (1876 ; 170 
sittings), and the Roman^Catholic church of Our Lady of 
the Waves (1877 ; made a separate mission in 1881). 
The Burgh public school, the Lamer public school, and 
a Roman Catholic school, with respective accommodation 
for 289, 325, and 125 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 159, 185, and 32, and grants of £134, 10s., 
£140, 15s., and £27, 12s. 

The town has a head post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, 
branches of the Bank of Scotland, the British Linen Co. , 
and t)ie Commercial Bank, 20 insurance agencies, 9 hotels 
and inns, a British workman public-house, a gas com- 
pany, a cemetery compan}', a lifeboat, bowling and golf 
clubs, masonic, foresters', and Good Templars' lodges, 
a clothing society, a total abstinence society, etc. A 


weekly corn market is held on Tuesday, and fairs are 
held on the first Tuesday of February (hiring) and on 
26 May and 22 Nov. if a Tuesday, otherwise on the 
Tuesday after. Malting, brewing, fish-curing, boat- 
building, brickmaking, rope-spinning, iron-founding, and 
the manufacture of agricultural implements, sailcloth, 
and artificial manure are carried on. A printing-press 
was erected in 1795, the earliest in the county ; and from 
it was issued the first Scotch cheap periodical miscellany. 
Trade has greatly fluctuated, both in quantity and in 
kind. The port had long a custom-house of its own, 
with jurisdiction from Gullane Point to the bounds of 
Berwick, but is now a sub-port of Leith. A whale 
fishery company was established in 1752, but, having 
little or no success, was dissolved in 1804. In 1830 six 
vessels were engaged in timber and grain trade with the 
Baltic, and 39 in various coasting trade ; and in 1839 
the vessels belonging to the port were 30 of 1495 tons, 
in 1851 only 11 of 658 tons, this falling-ofi'of the shipping 
trade being mainly ascribed to the opening of the North 
British railAvay. The small Old Harbour, commenced 
with a grant of £300 from Cromwell, in 1820 received 
the addition of a graving-dock, which, proving, how- 
ever, useless, was long ago filled up. The New or Vic- 
toria Harbour, formed in 1844 at a cost of £15,762 by 
the burgh and the Fishery Board, and repaired in 1880 
at a further cost of £2181, covers 5 acres, and is an im- 
portant haven of refuge for vessels between Leith Roads 
and the English Tyne. It has a light, visible for 16 miles. 

Created a royal burgh by David II. (1329-71), Dunbar 
is now governed by a provost, 3 bailies, a treasurer, and 
7 councillors. It partly 
adopted the General Police 
and Improvement Act of 
Scotland prior to 1871 ; 
and, with Haddington, 
North Berwick, Lauder, 
and Jedburgh, it returns 
a member to parliament, 
the parliamentary consti- 
tuency numbering 464 in 
1882, when the annual 
value of real property 
within the burgh amounted 
to £13,887, Is., whilst the 
corporation revenue for 

1881 was £884. Pop. (1841) 3013, (1851) 3038, (1861) 
3517, (1871) 3422, (1881) 3651. Houses (1881) 943 in- 
habited, 104 vacant, 3 building. 

Dunbar is a place of hoar antiquity. At it in 678 — 
the year of his expulsion from his see — the gi'cat St 
AVilfrid, Bishop of York, was imprisoned by Ecgfrid ; 
and in 849 it is said to have been burned by Kenneth 
mac Alpin. In 1072 Gospatric, ex-earl of the Northum- 
brians, and kinsman to JMalcolm Ceannmor, obtained 
from that king Dunbar with the adjacent territory ; and 
the town's history for 360 years centres mainly around 
the sea-built castle of his descendants, the Earls of 
Dunbar and March. Patrick, filth Earl of Dunbar, who 
in 1184 wedded a natural daughter of William the Lyon, 
was justiciary of Lothian and keeper of Berwick ; and 
during his tenure of these ofliccs, in 1214, Henry III. 
invaded Scotland with a powerful army, and, having 
taken the towm and castle of Berwick, next laid siege to 
the fortress of Dunbar, but finding it impregnable, de- 
vastated the country up to the walls of Haddington. A 
marvellous story is told of Patrick, seventh Earl, who, 
during the troublous minority of Alexander III., was 
one of the chiefs of the English faction. Bower, who 
was born at Haddington 100 years after, relates that, on 11 
March 1286, the niglit preceding King Alexander's death, 
True Thomas of Ercildoun or Eaklstox, arriving at 
the castle of Dunbar, was jestingly asked by the Earl if 
the morrow would bring any noteworthy event. Where- 
to the Rhymour made answer mystically : ' Alas for to- 
morrow, a daj' of calamity and misery ! Before the 
twelfth hour shall be heard a blast so vehement as 
shall exceed those of every former period, — a blast that 
shall strike the nations with amazement, — shall humble 


Seal of Dunbar. 


wliat is proiul, and wliat is fierce shall level with the 
grouiul ! The sorest wind and tempest that ever was 
heard of in Scotland ! ' Next day, the Earl and his 
companions having watched till the ninth honr without 
observing any unusual appearance in the elements, began 
to doubt the powers of the seer, and, ordering him into 
their presence, upbraided him as an impostor, whereto 
he replied that noon was not yet past. And scarce 
had the Earl sat down to the board, scarce had the shadow 
of the dial lallen upon the hour of noon, when a mes- 
senger rode furiously up, who, being questioned, cried : 
' Tidings I bring, but of a lamentable kind, to be 
deplorexl by the whole realm of Scotland ! Alas, our 
renowned King has ended his fair life at Kinghorn !' 
'This,' said True Thomas, 'this is the scatheful wind 
and dreadful tempest which shall blow such calamity 
and trouble to the whole state of the whole realm of 

Patrick, eighth Earl of Dunbar — surnftmed Black 
Beard — succeeded in 1289, and in the same year appeared 
at the parliament of Brigham as Comes de Marehia (Earl 
of March or the JNIerse), being tlie first of his line so de- 
signated. He was one of the ten competitors for the 
crown of Scotland (1291) ; and when, in 1296, Edward 
I. with a powerful army entered Scotland, the Earl of 
Dunbar took part against his country. His Countess, 
however, more patriotic than he, delivered the castle 
over to the leaders of the Scottish army. Edward de- 
spatched the Earl of Warrenne with 12,000 men to the 
siege ; whilst the Scots, sensible of the importance of 
this fortress, whose capture would lay their country 
open to the enemy, hastened with their main army of 
40,000 men, under the Earls of Buchan, Lennox, and 
Mar, to its relief. Warrenne, undaunted by the superior 
numbers of the Scots, left part of his army to blockade 
the castle, and with the rest advanced to meet the 
foe. The English had to descend into a valley before 
they could reach the Scots ; and as they descended, the 
Scots, observing some confusion in their ranks, set up a 
shout of exultation, and, causing their horns to be 
sounded, rushed down from their position of advantage. 
But when Warrenne emerged from the glen, and ad- 
vanced undismayed against their formidable front, the 
undisciplined troops, after a brief resistance, fled, and 
were chased with great slaughter as far as Selkirk Forest. 
Edward, next day, with the main body of the English 
army, came up to Dunbar, and compelled the garrison to 
capitulate. So, at least, runs the story, but Dr Hill 
Burton observes, that ' evidently there was not a great 
battle, \vith organised troops and known commanders 
pitted against each other' {Hist. Scot., ii. 170, ed. 1876). 
According to Blind Harry, when Wallace first undertook 
to deliver his country, the Earl of Dunbar refused to 
attend a meeting of the Estates at Perth. Thereupon 
Wallace encountered Patrick in a field near Innerwick, 
where the Earl had assembled 900 of his vassals, and 
with half that number compelled the traitor, after a 
terrible conflict, to retreat to Cockburnspath, himself 
falling back on Dunbar. Patrick now went to Nor- 
thumberland to crave the aid of the Bishop of Durham; but 
his ostensible reason, the Minstrel tells us, was 'to bring 
the Bruce free till his land.' Vessels were immediately 
sent from the Northumbrian Tyne to blockade Dunbar, 
and cut off supplies, while the Earl, with 20,000 men, 
hastened to retake his fortress. In the interim Wallace 
had repaired to the W in quest of succour, and, return- 
ing by Yester, was joined by Hay and a chosen body of 
cavalry. With 5000 men he marched to the support of 
Seton, while the Bishop of Durham, who had remained 
at Norham with Bmce, came to the assistance of Dun- 
bar, and threw himself into an ambuscade near Spott- 
moor. By this unexpected movement Wallace was 
completely hemmed in, when Seton fortunately came to 
his relief. The two armies closed in mortal strife. The 
Scots puslied on so furiously against the Southrons, that 
they were just about to fly, but Patrick was 

' Sa cruel of intent, 
Tl)at all his host tuk of him hardiment; 
Throuch his awue hand he put mony to paio.' 


The desperate valour of the Wallaces, the Ramsaj's, and 
the Grahams was of little avail against the superior 
force of the English ; so that when the ambuscade of 
Bishop Beck appeared, they were on the point of retir- 
ing. Dunbar singled out Wallace amidst the throng, 
and wounded him ; but the hero, returning the blow 
with sevenfold vengeance, clove down Maitland, who 
had thrown himself between. AVallace's horse was killed 
beneath him, and he was now on foot dealing destruction 
to his enemies, when 

' Erie Patrick than, that had gret craft in war, 
With spears ordand guid Wallace doun to bear.' 

But 500 resolute warriors rescued their champion, and 
the war-worn armies were glad to retire. The same 
night Wallace traversed Lammermuir in quest of the 
retreating host, while Bishop Beck, Earl Patrick, and 
Bruce fled to Norham. On his return, the champion, 
still mindful of the odium attached to his name by the 
Earl of Dunbar, — 

' Passit, with monj' awfull men, 
On Patrickis land, and waistit wonder fast, 
Tnk out guids, and places doun thai cast ; 
His steads, sevin, that Mete Hamys was call'd, 
Wallace gert break the burly biggings bauld, 
Baith in the Merse, and als in Lothiane, 
Except Dunbar, standaud he Icavit nane.' 

In 1314 Edward II. of England, after seeing his army 
annihilated at Bannockburu, fled with a body of horse 
towards Berwick ; but Sir James Douglas, with 80 
chosen horsemen, so pressed on the royal fugitive, that 
he was glad to shelter himself in the castle of Dunbar. 
Here he was received by Patrick, ninth Earl, 'full 
gently ; ' and hence, in a fishing-boat, he coasted 
along the shore till he reached the towers of Bam- 
brough. After this, the Earl of Dunbar made peace 
with his cousin. King Robert, and was present at 
Ayr in May 1315, when the succession to the Crown of 
Scotland was settled on Bruce's brother. But after 
the defeat at Halidon Hill (1333), Edward at Berwick 
once more received the fealty of the Earl of Dunbar with 
several others of the nobility ; and the castle of Dunbar, 
which had been dismantled and razed to the gi'ound on 
tlie approach of the English, was now rebuilt at the 
Earl's expense, for the purpose of maintaining an 
English garrison. 

In 1339 the castle was again in the sole possession of 
its lord, and at the service of the Crown of Scotland ; 
and then the Earls of Salisbury and Arundel advanced 
at the head of a large English host to take it. The 
Earl of Dunbar was absent in the North ; so that the 
defence of his stronghold devolved upon his Countess, a 
lady who, from her swarthy complexion, was called 
Black Agnes, and who was daughter to the great Thomas 
Randolph, Earl of Moray. During the siege, Agnes 
performed all the duties of a bold and vigilant com- 
mander. Wlien the battering engines of the English 
hurled stones or leaden balls against the battlements, in 
scorn she would bid a maid wipe off with a clean white 
handkerchief the marks of the stroke ; and when the 
Earl of Salisbury, with vast labour, brought his sow 
close to the walls, the Countess cried : — 

• Beware, llontagow. 
For farrow shall thy sow ! ' 

Whereupon a large fragment of rock was hurled from 
the battlements, and crushed the sow to pieces, with all 
the poor little pigs — as Major calls them — who were 
lurking beneath it. The following is Wyntoun's rhym- 
ing narrative of this most memorable siege : — 

' Schyre William Montague, that sua 
Haii tane the siege, iiriiy gret nia 
A mekil and richt stalwart engine, 
And up smertly gcrt dress it ; syne 
They warpit at the wall great staiics 
Baith hard and heavy for the nanys. 
But that nane nicrrying to them made. 
And alsua wlien tliey castyne had, 
With a towel, a damiscUe 
Arrayed joUily and well, 
Wippit the wall, that they micht see 
To gere them mair annoyed be ; 



There at the sieg-e well lanj they lay, 
But there little vantage got they ; 
For when they bykkyne walj, or assail, 
Thej- tint the maist of their travaile. 
And as they bykeryd there a' day, 
Of a great shot I shall you say. 
For that they had of it ferly, 
It here to you rehearse will I. 
William of Spens percit a Blasowne, 
And thro' three faulds of Awbyrchowne, 
And the Actowne through the third ply 
And the arrow in the bodie, 
While of that d\-nt there dead he lay ; 
And then the Montagu gan say ; 
" This is ane of my Lady's pinnis, 
Her amouris thus, till my heart rinnis." 
While that the siege was there on this wise 
Men sayis their fell sair juperdyis. 
For Lawence of Prestoun, that then 
Haldin ane of the wichtest men, 
That was in all Scotland that tide, 
A rout of Inglismen saw ride. 
That seemed gude men and worthy, 
And were arrayed right richly ; 
He, with als few folk, as they were. 
On them assembled he there ; 
But at the assembling, he was there 
Xnta the mouth stricken with a spear, 
liVTiile it up in the harnys ran ; 
rill a dike he withdrew him than. 
And died ; for nae mair live he might. 
His men his death perceived noucht ; 
And with their faes faucht stoutly, 
While they them vanquish'd utterlj-. 
Thus was this guid man brought tiU end. 
That was richt greatly to commend. 
Of ^et wirschipe and gret bownte 
His saul be aye in saftie. 

Sir WiUiam als of Galstown 
Of Keith, that was of gude renown. 
Met Richard Talbot by the way 
And set him to sa hard assay, 
That to a kirk he gert him gae, 
And close there defence to ma ; 
But he assailed there sae fast. 
That him behov'd treat at the last. 
And twa thousand pound to paj'. 
And left hostage and went his way. 

The Montagu was yet lyand. 
Sieging Dvmbare with stalwart hand 
And twa gallies of Genoa had he, 
For till assiege it by the sea. 
And as he thus assiegend lay. 
He was set intil hard assay ; 
For he had purchased him covyn 
Of ane of them, that were therein, 
That he should leave open the yete. 
And certain term till ham then set 
To come ; but they therein halily 
Were wamit of it pririly. 
He came, and the yete open fand. 
And wald have gane in foot steppand. 
But John of Cowpland, that was then 
But a right poor simple man. 
Shut him off back, and in is gane. 
The portcullis came down on ane; 
And spared Montagu, thereout 
They cryed with a sturdy shout 
"A Montagu for ever mair !" 
Then with the folk that he had there 
He turned to his Herberj*. 
And let him japji; fullyly. 

SjTie Alexander, the Ramsay, 
That trowed and thought, that they 
That were assieged in Dunbar, 
At great distress or mischief were ; 
That in an evening frae the Bass, 
AVith a few folk, that with him was, 
Toward Dunbar, intil a boat. 
He held all pri%il}' his gate ; 
And by the gallies all slyly 
He gat with his company ; 
The lady and all that were there 
Of his coming well comfort were, 
He issued in the morning in hy, 
And with the wachis sturdily. 
Made ane apart and stout melle. 
And but tynscl entered he. 

While jiontagu was there lyand. 
The King Edward of England 
Purchased him help and alya\vn3. 
For he wald amowe were in France; 
And for the Montagu he sends ; 
For he cowth nae thing till end 
Forowtyn him, for that time he 
Was maist of his counsel privie 
When he had heard the king's biddings 
He removed, but mair dwelling. 
When he, I trow, had Ij'ing there 
A quarter of a year and mair. 

Of this assiege in their hethj-ng 
The English oysid to make karping 

" I vow to God, she makes gret stere 
The Scottish wenche ploddere. 
Come I aire, come I late, 
I fand Annot at the yate." ' 

Amongst the nobles who fell in the field of Durham, 
in 1346, was Thomas, Earl of Moray, brother to the 
heroic Countess of Dunbar. As he had no male issue, 
Agnes inherited his vast estates ; and her husband 
assumed the additional title of Earl of Moray. Besides 
the earldom of Moray, the Earl of Dunbar and his 
Countess obtained the Isle of JIan, the lordship of 
Annandale, the baronies of ilorton and Tibbers in 
Nithsdale, of Morthingtoun and Longformacus, and the 
manor of Dunse in Berwickshire, with Mochrum in 
Galloway, Cumnock in Ayrshire, and Blantyre in Clydes- 

George, the tenth Earl of Dunbar and March, suc- 
ceeded his father in 1369. From his vast possessions 
he became one of the most powerful nobles of southern 
Scotland and the great rival of the Douglases. His 
daughter Elizabeth was betrothed, in 1399, to David, 
Duke of Rothesay, son and heir to Robert III. ; and on 
the faith of the Prince, who had given a bond to perform 
the espousals, the Earl had advanced a considerable por- 
tion of her dowry. But Archibald, Earl of Douglas — 
surnamed the Grim — jealous of the advantage which this 
marriage promised to a family whose j»re-eminence in 
the state already rivalled his ovm, protested against the 
alliance, and, by his intrigues at court, through the 
Duke of Albany, had the contract between Rothesay 
and Lady Elizabeth cancelled, and his own daughter 
substituted in her place. Stimg by the insult, Earl 
George •withdrew to England, where Henry IV. gi-anted 
him a pension of £400 during the continuance of war 
with Scotland, on condition that he provided 12 men- 
at-arms and 20 archers with horses, to serve against 
Robert. With a Douglas at Otterbum (1388), he had 
defeated Hotspur ; now, with Hotspur, at Homildon 
(1402), he defeated a Douglas. At last, through the 
mediation of "Walter Halyburton of Dirleton, a recon- 
ciliation was effected in 1408, Douglas consenting to 
Dunbar's restoration, on condition that he himself should 
get the castle of Lochmaben and the lordship of Annan- 
dale, in lieu of the castle of Dimbar and earldom of 
March, which he then possessed. 

George, eleventh Earl of Dunbar and March, suc- 
ceeded his father in 1420, being then nearly 50 years 
old. In 1434, he and his son Patrick visited England, 
The motive of this visit to the English court is not 
known; but the slumbering jealousies of James I. — 
who had already struck a blow at the power of the 
barons — were easilj' roused ; and he formed the bold 
plan of seizing the estates and fortresses of a family 
which for ages had been the wealthiest and most power- 
ful on the Scottish border. The Earl of Dunbar was 
arrested and imprisoned in the castle of Edinburgh, 
while the Earl of Angus, Chancellor Crichton, and Adam 
Hepburn of Hailes were despatched with letters to the 
keeper of the castle of Dunbar, who immediately sur- 
rendered it to the King's authority. In a parliament 
assembled at Perth on 10 Jan. 1435, George was accused 
of holding his earldom and estates after their forfeiture 
by his father's treason. In vain did he plead that his 
father had been pardoned and restored by Albany ; it 
was answered, that a forfeiture incurred for treason could 
not be pardoned by a regent ; and the parliament, in 
compliance with this reasoning, adjudged, ' that, iu 
consequence of the attainder of George de Dunbar, for- 
merly Earl of March and Lord of Dunbar, every right 
both of property and possession in all and each of those 
estates in the earldom of March and lordship of Dunbar, 
and all other lands which he held of our said lord the 
King, with all and each of their appurtenances, did and 
does exclusively belong and appertain to our lord the 
King.' Thus earldom and estates were vested in the 
Crown ; and by James II. the lordship of Dunbar was 
bestowed on his second son, Alexander, third Duke of 
Albany, then in his infancy. 

In i483 Albany gave the castle of Dunbar into the 



hands of the English ; a condition of the truce with 
Henry VII. was, that its recapture by the Scots should 
not be deemed an act of war. On the marriage of Mar- 
garet of England with the King of Scotland in 1502, the 
earldom of Dunbar and lordship of Cockburnspath, with 
their dependencies, were assigned as the jointure of the 
young Queen ; but the castle of Dunbar is expressly 
mentioned as being reserved by the King to himself. 
In 1516 John, fourth Duke of Albany, placed a French 
garrison here, under poor De la Bastie ; and by the 
French it was held till James V. , during his marriage 
sojourn in Paris (1537), expressly bargained for its 
evacuation. Three years later an English spy wrote 
word how James ' at least twice every week in proper 
person, with a privy company of six persons and himself, 
repairs secretly by night, at the hour of twelve of the 
clock or after, to his said castle of Dunbar, and there so 
continues sometimes by the space of one day, and some- 
times of two days, and returns by night again, and 
hath put all his ordnance there in such case that the 
same are in full and perfect readiness to be removed and 
set forward at his pleasure. ' 

The English, in the inroad under the Earl of Hertford, 
in 1544, after their return from the siege of Lcith, and 
after burning Haddington, encamped the second night 
— 26 May — near Dunbar. ' The same day,' says Patten, 
' we burnt a fine town of the Earl of Bothwell's, called 
Haddington, with a great nunnery and a house of friars. 
The next night after we encamped besides Dunbar, and 
there the Scots gave a small alarm to our camp. But 
our watches were in such readiness that the)' had no 
vantage there, but were fain to recoil without doing of 
any harm. That night they looked for us to have burnt 
the to\vn of Dunbar, which we deferred till the morning 
at the dislodging of our camp, which we executed b)- 
500 of our hackbutters, being backed Avith 500 horse- 
men. And by reason we took them in the morning, 
who, having watched all night for our coming and per- 
ceiving our army to dislodge and depart, thought them- 
selves safe of us, were newly gone to their beds ; and in 
their first sleeps closed in with fii'e, men, women, and 
children, were suffocated and burnt. That morning 
being very misty and foggy, we had perfect knowledge 
by our espials that the Scots had assembled a great 
power at a strait called the Pease.' 

In 1547, Hertford, now Duke of Somerset, invaded 
Scotland with an army of 15,000 men ; and having 
crossed the pass of Pease, with ' pulTying and payne,' as 
Patten says, demolished the castles of Dunglass, Inner- 
wick, and Thornton. ' This done, about noon, we 
marched on, passing soon after within the gunshot of 
Dunbar, a town standing longwise upon the seaside, 
whereat is a castle — whicli the Scots count very strong 
— that sent us divers shots as we passed, but all in vain : 
their horsemen showed themselves in their fields beside 
us, towards whom Bartevil with his 800 men, all 
hackbutters on horseback — whom he had right well ap- 
pointed — and John de Rybaud, ^vith divers others, did 
make ; but no hurt on either side, saving that a man of 
Bartevil's slew one of them with his piece. The skirmish 
was soon ended.' In 1548, Dunbar was burned by 
German mercenaries under the Earl of Shrewsbury, on 
his return to England from the attack on Haddington. 

On Monday, 11 March 1566, just two days after 
Rizzio's assassination, Mary at midnight slipped out 
from Holyrood, and, with Damley and six or seven 
followers, riding straight to Seton House, there got an 
escort on to the strong fortress of Dunbar, whose 
governor ' was amazed, early on Tuesday morning, by 
the arrival of his king and queen hungry and clamorous 
for fresli eggs to breakfast.' Having thus seduced 
Darnley to abandon his party, the Queen's next step 
was to avenge the murder of her favourite. A proclama- 
tion was accordingly issued from Dunbar on 16 March, 
calling on the inhabitants of Edinburgh, Haddington, 
Linlithgow, Stirling, etc., to meet her at Haddington 
on Sunday the 17tli ; but it was not till the 27th that 
Bothwell, with 2000 horsemen, escorted the royal pair 
back to Edinburgh. Melville, the interim secretary, 


tells how at Haddington during this homeward journey 
Mary complained bitterly of Darnley's conduct in the 
late assassination ; and on 19 April, in parliament, 
she, ' taking regard and consideration of the great 
and manifold good service done and performed, not only 
to her Highness's honour, weill, and estimation, but 
also to the commonweill of her realm and lieges thereof, 
by James, Earl Bothwell, and that, through his great 
service foresaid, he not only frequently put his person 
in peril and danger of his life, but also super-expended 
himself, alienated and mortgaged his livings, lands, and 
heritage, in exorbitant suras, whereof he is not hastily 
able to recover the same, and that he, his friends and 
kinsmen, for the most part, dwell next adjacent to her 
Highness's castle of Dunbar, and that he is most habile 
to have the captaincy and keeping thereof, and that it 
is necessarily required that the same should be well en- 
tertained, maintained, and furnished, which cannot be 
done without some yearly rent, and profit given to him 
for that effect, and also for reward of his said service : 
therefore, her Majesty infefted him and his heirs-male in 
the office of the captaincy keeping of the castle of 
Dunbar, and also in the c^o^\^l lands of Easter and 
Wester Barns, the lands of Newtonleyes, Waldane, etc. 

So it was to Dunbar Castle that Bothwell brought 
Mary ' full gently,' when, with 800 spearmen, he met 
her at Fountainbridge, on her return from Stirling, 24 
April 1567, ten weeks after the Kirk-of-Field tragedy. 
The Earl of Huntly, Secretary Maitland, and Sir James 
Jlelville, were taken captives with the Queen, while the 
rest of her servants were suffered to depart ; and Mel- 
ville himself was released on the following day. Of Both- 
well and Mary, Buchanan tells that, ' they had scarcely 
remained ten days in the castle of Dunbar, with no 
great distance between the Queen's chamber and Both- 
well's, when they thought it expedient to return to the 
castle of Edinburgh. ' 

The marriage at Edinburgh, the retreat to BoRTH- 
wiCK, and the flight thence in page's disguise to Cake- 
MTJIR — these three events bring Mary once more to 
Dunbar, for the third and last time, on 13 June. With 
Bothwell she left next day to levy forces, and the day 
after that comes Cakeeuky Hill, whence Bothwell 
returns alone, to fly on shipboard, which ends Dunbar's 
great three-act tragedy. 

On 21 Sept. 1567, four companies of soldiers were 
sent to take Dunbar, which surrendered to the Regent 
on 1 Oct., and in the following December the castle, 
which had so often sheltered the unfortunate and the 
guilty, was ordered by Parliament to be destroyed. In 
1581, among several grants excepted b)' James VI. from 
the general revocation of his deeds of gift made through 
importunity, mention is made of the ' forthe of Dunbar 
gi-anted to William Boncle, burgess of Dunbar.' This 
probably referred to the site of the fortress, and per- 
haps some ground adjacent. 

On 22 July 1650, Cromwell, at the head of 16,000 
men, entered Scotland ; on 3 Sept. he fought the 
Battle of Dunbar. Of which great battle and the events 
that led to it we have his o\vn account in a letter to 
Lenthall, Speaker of the Parliament of England : — 
' We having tried what we could to engage the enemy, 3 
or 4 miles W of Edinburgh ; that proving ineffectual, 
and our victual failing, we marched towards our ships 
fur a recruit of our want. The enemy did not at all 
trouble us in our rear, but marched the direct way to- 
wards Edinburgh ; and partly in the night and morning 
slips-through his whole army, and quarters himself in a 
posture easy to interpose between us and our victual. 
But the Lord made him to lose the opportunity. And 
the morning proving exceeding wet and dark, we re- 
covered, by that time it was light, a ground where they 
could not hinder us from our victual ; which was an 
high act of the Lord's Providence to us. We being 
come into the said ground, the enemy marched into the 
said ground we were last upon ; having no mind either 
to strive or to interpose between us and our victuals, or 
to fight ; being indeed upon this aim of reducing us to 
a lock, hoping that the sickness of our army would 


render their work more easy by the gaining of time. 
Whereupon we marched to Musselburgh to victual, and 
to ship away our sick men ; where we sent aboard near 
500 sick and wounded soldiers. 

' And upon serious consideration, finding our weakness 
so to increase, and the enemy lying upon his advantage, 
at a general council it was thought fit to march to Dun- 
bar, and there to fortify the town. "Which, we thought, 
if any thing, would provoke them to engage. As also, 
that the having a garrison there would furnish us with 
accommodation for our sick men, and would be a good 
magazine, which we exceedingly wanted, being put to 
depend upon the uncertainty of weather for landing pro- 
visions, which many times cannot be done, though the 
being of the whole army lay upon it ; all the coasts 
from Berwick to Leith not having one good harbour. 
As also, to lie more conveniently to receive our recruits 
of horse and foot from Berwick. 

' Having these considerations, upon Saturday, the 
30th of August, we marched from Musselburgh to Had- 
dington. Where, by that time we had got the van- 
brigade of our horse, and our foot and train, into their 
quarters, the enemy had marched with that exceeding 
expedition that they fell upon the rear-forlorn of our 
horse, and put it in some disorder ; and indeed had like 
to have engaged our rear-brigade of horse with their 
whole army, had not the Lord, by His Providence, put 
a cloud over the moon, thereby giving us opportunity to 
draw ofl' those horse to the rest of the arm}\ Which 
accordingly was done without any loss, save of three or 
fom- of our afore-mentioned forlorn ; wherein the enemy 
— as we believe — received more loss. 

' The army being put into a reasonable secure posture, 
towards midnight the enemy attempted our quarters, on 
the W end of Haddington ; but through the goodness 
of God we repulsed them. The next morning we drew 
into an open field, on the S side of Haddington ; we not 
judging it safe for us to draw to the enemy upon his 
own ground, he being prej^ossessed thereof; but rather 
drew back, to give him way to come to us, if he had so 
thought fit. And having waited about the space of four 
or five hours, to see if he would come to us, and not 
finding any inclination in the enemy so to do, we 
resolved to go, according to our first intendment, to 

' By that time we had marched three or four miles, we 
saw some bodies of the enemy's horse draw out of their 
quarters ; and by that time our carriages were gotten 
near Dunbar, their whole army was upon their march 
after us. And, indeed, our drawing back in this man- 
ner with the addition of three new regiments added to 
th'jm, did much heighten their confidence, if not pre- 
sumption and arrogancy. The enemy that night, we 
perceived, gatheretl towards the hills, labouring to 
make a perfect interposition between us and Berwick. 
And having in this posture a great advantage, through 
his better knowledge of the country he effected it, by 
sending a considerable party to the strait pass at Cop- 
perspath [Cockburnspath], where ten men to hinder, 
are better than forty to make their way. And truly 
this was an exigent to us, wherewith the enemy re- 
proached us ; as with that condition the Parliament's 
army was in, when it made its hard conditions with the 
King in Cornwall. By some reports that have come to 
us, they had disposed of us, and of their business, in 
sufficient revenge and wrath towards our persons, and 
had swallowed up the poor interest of England, believing 
that their army and their king would have marched to 
London without any interruption ; it being told us, we 
know not how truly, by a prisoner we took the night 
before the fight, that tlieir king was very suddenly to 
come amongst them, with those English they allowed 
to be about him. But in what they were thus lifted up, 
the Lord was above them. 

' The enemy lying in the posture before mentioned, 
having those advantages ; we lay very near him, being 
sensible of our disadvantages ; having some weakness of 
flesh, but yet consolation and sujjport from the Lord 
Himself to our poor weak faith, wherein I believe not a 


few amongst us stand : That because of their numbers, 
because of their advantages, because of their confidence, 
because of our weakness, because of our strait, we were 
in the Mount, and in the Mount the Lord would be 
seen ; and that He would find out a M^ay of deliverance 
and salvation for us ; and indeed we had our consola- 
tions and our hopes. 

* Upon Monday evening — the enemy's whole numbers 
were very great, as we heard, about 6000 horse and 
16,000 foot at least ; ours drawn down, as to sound men, 
to about 7500 foot and 3500 horse, — upon Monday 
evening, the enemy drew down to the right wing aliout 
two-thirds of their left wing of horse. To the right 
wing ; shogging also their foot and train much to the 
right, causing their right wing of horse to edge down 
towards the sea. We could not well imagine but that 
the enemy intended to attempt upon us, or to place 
themselves in a more exact position of interposition. 
The Major-General and myself coming to the Earl 
Roxburgh's house [Broxmouth], and observing this 
posture, I told him I thought it did give us an oppor- 
tunity and advantage to attempt upon the enemy. To 
which he immediately replied, that he had thought to 
have said the same thing to me. So that it pleased the 
Lord to set this apprehension upon both of our hearts at 
the same instant. We called for Colonel !Monk, and 
showed him the thing ; and coming to our quarters at 
night, and demonstrating our apprehensions to some of 
the colonels, they also cheerfully concurred. 

' We resolved, therefore, to put our business into this 
posture : That six regiments of horse and three regiments 
and a half of foot should march in the van ; and that the 
Major-General, the Lieutenant-General of the horse, and 
the Commissary-General, and Colonel Monk to com- 
mand the brigade of foot, should lead on the business ; 
and that Colonel Pride's brigade. Colonel Overton's 
brigade, and the remaining two regiments of horse, 
should bring up the cannon and rear. The time of 
falling-on to be by break of day ; but, through some 
delaj^s, it proved not to be so ; not till six o'clock in the 

' The enemy's word was The Covenant, which it had 
been for diver days. Ours, The Lord of Hosts. The 
Major-General, Lieutenant-General Fleetwood, and Com- 
missary-General W^halley, and Colonel Twisleton, gave 
the onset ; the enemy being in a very good posture to 
receive them, having the advantage of their cannon and 
foot against our horse. Before our foot could come up, 
the enemy made a gallant resistance, and there was a 
very hot dispute at sword's point between our horse and 
theirs. Our first foot, after they had discharged their 
duty, being overpowered with the enemy, received some 
repulse, which they soon recovered. For my own regi- 
ment, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Golt'e, 
and my Major, White, did come seasonably in ; and, at 
the push of pike, did repel the stoutest regiment the 
enemy had there, merely with the courage the Lord was 
pleased to give. Which proved a great amazement to 
the residue of their foot ; this being the first action be- 
tween the foot. The horse in the meantime did, with a 
great deal of courage and spirit, beat back all opposition, 
charging through the bodies of the enemy's horse, and 
of their foot ; who were, after the first repulse given, 
made by the Lord of Hosts as stubble to their swords. 
Indeed, I believe I may speak it without partiality, 
both your chief commanders and others in their several 
places, and soldiers also, were acted [actuated] with as 
much courage as ever hath been seen in any action since 
this war. I know they look to be named ; and there- 
fore I forbear particulars. 

' The best of the enemy's horse being broken through 
and through in less than an hour's dispute, their whole 
army being put into confusion, it became a total rout ; 
our men liaving the chase and execution of them near 
eight miles. We believe that upon the place and near 
about it were about three thousand felain. Prisoners taken: 
of their officers, you have this enclosed list ; of j)rivate 
soldiers, near 10,000. The whole baggage and train taken; 
wherein was good store of match, powder, and bullet; 




all their artillcrj', great and small — thirty gnns. "We 
are confident they have left behind them not less than 
fifteen thousand arms. I have already brought in to me 
near two hundred colours, which I herewith send you. 
AVhat officers of theirs of quality are killed, we yet can- 
not learn ; but yet surely divers are ; and many men of 
quality are mortally wounded, as Colonel Lumsden, the 
Lord Libberton, and others. And, that which is no 
small addition, I do not believe we have lost 20 men. 
Not one commissioned officer slain as I hear of, save one 
cornet, and Major Rooksby, since dead of his wounds ; 
and not many mortally wounded. Colonel "Wlialley 
only cut in the hand-wrist, and his horse (twice shot) 
killed under him ; but he well recovered another horse, 
and went on in the chase. Thus you have the prospect 
of one of the most signal mercies God hath done for 
England and His people, this war' (Carlyle's Cromwell* 
part vi.). 

The subsequent history of Dunbar presents nothing very 
memorable. At it Cope landed his troops from Aberdeen, 
16 to 18 Sept, 1745— the week of the battle of Preston- 
pans In 1779, Paul Jones's sipiadron hovered a brief 
space in front of the town, and, in 1781, Captain G. Fall, 
another American privateer, threatened a descent, but 
sheered off on perceiving preparations making for giving 
him a warm reception. By a strange coincidence the 
provost in the latter year was Robert Fall, member of a 
t'amil)' that, from the middle of the 17th to the close of 
the 18th century, figures largely in the annals of Dunbar 
as one of the chief merchant houses in the kingdom. 
The Falls of Dunbar married into the Scottish baronetcy, 
and gave a Jacobite member to Parliament ; yet Mr 
Simson adduces many reasons for believing that they 
came of the selfsame stock as the Gipsy Faas of Kirk- 
Yetholm — Faa being tlie form under which we first meet 
with the name at Dunbar, in the Rev. J. Blackadder's 
Memoir, under date 1669. When on 22 May 1787 
Robert Burns arrived at ' this neat little town, riding 

like the devil, and accompanied by Miss , mounted 

on an old carthorse, huge and lean as a house, herself as 
fine as hands could make her, in cream-coloured riding-