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jOld Rossdhu Castle, Dumbartonshire. 

Stonioway Castle, Rjss-shire. 


Castles Siuclair and Giruigoe, U'ick. 

Stiiiiug in the beginning of the 18th Century. From Slezer's Theatrum Scotice. 


Monastery of Inchcolm, Fu-th of Forth. 

Coldingham Priory, Berwickshire, prior to restoration of 1854. 


Coilsfleld, Tarbolton, Ayrshire (now Montgomerie). The Mansion of Colonel Hugh Sloutgomery, afterwards 
Earl of Eglintou, where Burns's Highland Mary served as dairymaid. 

*' Ye banks and braes, and streams around 
The castle o' Montgomery." 

Churchyard of Balquhidder, Perthshire The Burial-place of Rob Roy Macgregor. 


North Aisle of the Nave of Dunfermline Abbev, 

Cape Wrath, Sutherlandshire. 


Citadel, Leith. 

The Old Tolbooth, Edinburgh—" The Heart of Midlothian "—Demolished in 1817. 



Scale of.V, a MilB 


subsoil. In an early charter of Coldingliam priory, Thor 
informs his lord, Earl David, tliat King Edgar had 
given him Ednaham waste, that he had peopled it, and 
built from the foundation, and endowed ivith a plough- 
gate of land, a chm'ch in honour of St Cuthbert ; and 
he prays his son to confirm his donation of the church 
to St Cuthbert and the monks of Durham. 'Here,' 
says Dr Skene, ' we have in fact the formation of a 
manor with its parish church, and in a subsequent 
document it is termed the mother church of Hedenham ' 
{Gelt. Scotl, ii. 367, 1877). Hendersyde Park, which 
is separately noticed, is the only mansion ; but five 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards. Ednam is in the presbytery of Kelso and 
sjTiod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living is worth 
£208. The present church, built in 1800, contains 260 
sittings ; and a public school, with accommodation for 
133 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 
116, and a grant of £112, 17s. Valuation (1882) 
£9268, 15s. 2d. Pop. (1801) 598, (1831) 634, (1861) 
599, (1871) 613, (1881) QlZ.—Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Edrachillis. See Eddkachillis. 

Edradour, a burn and a hamlet in Moulin parish, 
Perthshire. The burn runs 4J miles south-westward to 
the Tummel, forming at one point a picturesque fall of 
120 feet, called the Black Spout ; and the hamlet, Mil- 
ton of Edi'adour, lies on the burn, 2 mUes E of Pitlochry. 

Edradynate, an estate, with a mansion, in a detached 
portion of Logierait parish, Perthshire, near the left 
bank of the Tay, 3 miles NE of Aberfeldy. Its owner, 
James Stewart-Robertson, Esq. (b. 1823 ; sue. 1862), 
holds 1765 acres in the shire, valued at £688 per annum. 

Edrington Castle, a ruined fortalice in Mordington 
parish, Berwickshire. Crowning a steep rock on the 
left bank of Whitadder Water, 5 miles W by N of Ber- 
wick, it seems to have been a solid substantial strength, 
well fitted to check incursions and depredations from 
the English side of the Tweed, on the W being totally 
inaccessible. It figures frequently in Border wars and 
treaties ; and, ' having for some time been held by the 
EngUsh, was restored in 153i by Henry VIII. to James 
V. Down to the close of last century it continued to 
be four stories high, but is now reduced to a small frag- 
ment. Modern Edxington Castle is in the immediate 
vicinity of the ruins ; and Edrington House stands on 
the E bank of a small tributary of the Whitadder, 4 
miles WNW of Berwick. 

Edrom, a village and a parish in the E of central Ber- 
wickshire. The village stands near the right bank of 
Whitadder Water, 5 furlongs NNW of Edrom station, 
on the Eeston and Dunse branch of the North British, 
this being 3| miles ESTE of Dunse ; at it is a post and 
railway telegraph office. 

The parish, containing also the village of Allanton, 
is bounded N by Bunkle, NE by Chirnsidt, E by Hutton, 
SE by Whitsome, S by Swinton and Fogo, and W by 
Langton and Dunse. With a very irregular outline, it 
has an utmost length fi'om ENE to WSW of 75 miles, 
a varying breadth of 1 mUe and 4f miles, and an area 
of 9634-2" acres, of which 89| are water. Whitadder 
Water roughly traces all the northern and north-eastern 
border; and Blackadder Water, coming in from the 
SW, traces for a short distance the boundary with Fogo, 
and then runs 5 mUes east-north-eastward, through the 
interior, to the Whitadder at Allanton. A mineral 
spring, caUed Dunse Spa, is on the W border, IJ mile 
SSE of Dunse ; and was long celebrated for its reputed 
medicinal qualities, but fell into disrepute and total 
neglect. The surface lies all within the Merse, is 
mostly low and flat, and rises nowhere higher than 286 
feet above sea-level. The rooks are chiefly clay, marl, 
and sandstone. The clay occupies about two-thards of 
the entire area ; the marl is in thin beds, never more 
than 2 or 3 feet thick ; and the sandstone is generally 
of a whitish hue, and has been quarried. The soils, to 
a small extent, are reclaimed moor ; in general, are 
highly fertile ; and, excepting over about one-eighth of 
the entire area, occupied by roads, buildings, and planta- 
tions, are all in tillage. Pools and lochlets formerly 


generated marsh, but have all been completely drained. 
Ancient fortalices were at Broomhouse, Nisbet, and 
Blackadder, and keeps or bastels were at Kelloe and 
two or three other places. Edrom House stands in the 
western vicinity of Edrom village, and has beautiful 
grounds. Other mansions, separately noticed, are Broom- 
house, Kelloe, Kimmerghame House, Nisbet House, 
Blackadder House, AUanbank, and Chirnside-Bridge 
House ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 3 of between £100 and £500, and 2 
of from £20 to £50. Edrom is in the presbytery oJ 
Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the liv- 
ing is worth £424. The parish church, buOt in 1732, 
contains 600 sittings ; and a Free church at Allanton 
contains 450. Edrom public, Sinclair's HiU public, 
and Allanton school, with respective accommodation 
for 172, 101, and 95 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 83, 50, and 37, and grants of £81, 13s. 6d., 
£44, 14s., and £18, 4s. Valuation (1865) £18,879, 
12s. Id. ; (1882) £21,469, lis. Pop. (1801) 1355, (1831) 
1435, (1861) 1592, (1871) 1513, (1881) 1514.— Orrf. Sur., 
shs. 34, 26, 1864. 

Edzeil (13th century Edale), a village of Forfarshire 
and a parish partly also of Kincardineshire. The vil- 
lage, formerly called Slateford, stands, 185 feet above 
sea-level, towards the S of the parish, near the right 
bank of the river North Esk, and 6 mUes N by W of 
Brechin, under which it has a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments. Dat- 
ing from the 16th century, but greatly improved since 
1839, it now is a pleasant little place, with its neat 
stone houses, flower-plots, and pretty environs ; and 
has a branch of the Union Bank, a National Security 
savings' bank, an insurance agency, 2 inns, a gas-light 
company, 2 libraries and reading-rooms, a curlmg club, 
and a Highland games association. Fairs are held here 
on the third Thursday of February, the first Monday of 
May, 26 May, the Friday of July after Old Deer, the 
Wednesday after 26 August, the Thirrsday of October 
before Kirriemuir, and 22 November. 

The parish is bounded NE by Strachan, E by Fetter- 
cairn, S and W by Stracathro, W by Lethnot, and NW 
by Lochlee. It has an utmost length of llf miles from 
NNW to SSE, viz., from Mount Battock to Inchbare 
Bridge ; its greatest breadth, from E to W, is 5J miles ; 
and its area is 20,229i acres, of which 308S are water, 
and 1104 belong to the Kincardineshire or Neudos sec- 
tion, which till at least 1567 formed a distinct parish. 
The North Esk flows If mile north-eastward along the 
Lochlee boundary, then 6 miles south-south-eastward 
through the northern interior, and lastly 5 miles, stUl 
south-south-eastward, along the Kincardineshire border ; 
at the SE corner of the parish it is joined by West 
Watek, which winds 45 miles east-south-eastward along 
all the Stracathro boundary. The delta between these 
streams, to the S of the village, with extreme length 
and breadth of 2J and li mUes, is low and flat, sinking 
to 120, AvhUst nowhere attaining 200, feet above sea- 
level. Northwards the surface rises rapidly to 748 feet 
at Colt HUl, 663 at the Blair, 1321 at the HiU of 
Corathro, 2220 at the *HiU of Wirren, 872 at Mappact 
HUl, 1986 at Bulg, 1686 at *Oraigangowan, 968 at 
Whups Craig, and 2250 at the * southern slope of Mount 
Battock (2555 feet), where asterisks mark those heights 
that rest upon the confines of the parish. The rocks are 
primary chiefly, and an iron mine was for a short time 
worked at Dalbog about the beginning of the 17th cen- 
tivry. Much of the arable land consists of moderate 
black loam or stiffish clay, but hardly more than an 
eighth of the entire area is in tUlage, the rest being aU 
either pastoral or waste, with the exception of some 200 
acres under wood. EdzeU Castle lies in a hoUow, IJ 
mUe W by N of the viUage, and 3 furlongs from the left 
bank of West Water ; its nuns, for size and magnifi- 
cence, are matched in Angus and Meams only by those 
of Dunnottar. Its oldest portion, the gi'eat square donjon 
or Stirling Tower, to the S, has waUs 4 to 5 feet thick, 
and is 60 feet high ; and, till the havoc wrought by the 
great storm of 12 Oct. 1838, its battlements were easUy 



accessible. The extensive pile to the N", though much 
more ruinous than the keep, dates only from the 16th 
century, having been buUt by David, ninth Earl of 
Crawford, and his son. ' The garden wall is ornamented 
by a number of elaborate carvings in stone. On the E 
wall are the celestial deities, on the S the sciences, and 
on the W the theological and cardinal virtues, forming 
one of the most interesting memorials of the kind in 
Scotland.' The Edzell estate belonged in 1296 to the 
Glenesks, after them to a branch of the Stirlings which 
faUed about the middle of the 14th century in two co- 
heiresses, one of whom, Catherine, by Alexander, third 
son of Sir David Lindsay of Crawford, was mother of 
the first Earl of Crawford. The lordship of Glenesk was 
sold in 1715 to the Earl of Panmure ; and, sharing the 
fortunes of the Brechin property, it now belongs to 
the Earl of Dalhousie. In 1662 Edzell Castle received 
a visit from Queen Mary, in 1651 from Cromwell's sol- 
diery, and m 1746 from the Argyll Highlanders, to 
whom its ruinous state is in great measure due. Auch- 
mull Castle, 2^ miles NNW of the village, was also 
built by the Lindsays early in the 16th century, and 
was demolished in 1773. At ColmeaHie, 3 miles NNW 
of AuchmuU, are two concentric 'Druidical circles,' the 
outermost measuring 45 by 36 feet, and its highest stone 
standing being 5J feet above ground ; another, whose 
last boulder was removed in 1840, was at Dalbog, 2J 
miles NNW of the village ; and at Dalbog stood also a 
pre-Reformation chapel. Of the old parish church of 
St Lawrence, on the bank of West Water, 3 furlongs 
SSW of EdzeU Castle, only the Lindsays' slated burial 
vault remains, built by the ninth Earl of Crawford. 
George Low (1746-95), the Orkney naturalist, was a 
native. The Earl of Dalhousie owns nearly all the For- 
farshire, and Gladstone of Fasque nearly aU the Kin- 
cardineshire, portion. Edzell is in the presbytery of 
Brechin and synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is 
worth £205. The present church, built at the village 
in 1818, contains 650 sittings. 'There is also a Free 
church ; and two public schools, Edzell and Waterside, 
with respective accommodation for 200 and 60 children, 
had (1880) an average attendance of 112 and 15, and 
grants of £90, 5s. and £19, 18s. 8d. Valuation (1857) 
£4842, (1882) £6875, 3s. 4d., of which £630, 14s. 6d. 
was for the Kincardineshire section. Pop. (1801) 1012, 
(1831) 974, (1841) 1064, (1871) 976, (1881) 823.— Orr?. 
Sur., shs. 57, 66, 1868-71. See the Earl of Crawford's 
Lives of the Lindsays (3 vols. 1849), and Andrew Jer- 
vise's Land of the Lindsays (1853). 

Effock Water, a mountain rivulet in Lochlee parish, 
Forfarshire, running 4J mUes east-north-eastward to 
the North Esk at a point 1-J mile SE of Lochlee 
church, and giving to its basin the name of Glen Effock. 
It has, during this brief course, a total descent of 1550 
feet. — Ord. Sur., sh. 66, 1871. 

Egg. See EiGG. 

Eggemess. See Eagerness. 

Egilshay. See Eagleshat. 

Eglin Lane. See Eagton Lane. 

Eglinton. See Kilwinning. 

Eglinton Castle, the chief seat of the Earl of Eglin- 
ton, in Kilwinning parish, Ayrshire, on the left bank 
of Lugton Water, 2J miles N of Irvine. A castellated 
edifice of 1798, it comprises a large round keep and 
round corner turrets, connected by a curtain — to use 
the language of fortification. The whole is pierced 
with rows of modern sash-mndows, which in some 
degree destroy the outward effect, but add to the inter- 
nal comfort. The interior corresponds with the magni- 
tude and grandeur of the exterior. A spacious entrance- 
hall leads to a saloon 36 feet in diameter, the whole 
height of the edifice, and lighted from above ; and off 
this open the principal rooms. All are furnished and 
adorned in the most sumptuous manner ; and one of 
them in the front is 52 feet long, 32 wide, and 24 high. 
Everything about the castle contributes to an imposing 
display of splendid elegance and refined taste. Nor are 
the lawns around it less admired for their fine woods, 
varied surfaces, and beautiful scenery. The park is 


1200 acres in extent, and has one-third of its area in 

The first of the Anglo-Norman family of Montgomerie 
that settled in Scotland was Robert (1103-78), who 
probably was a nephew of the third Earl of Shrewsbury, 
and who, soon after June 1157, obtained from his 
father-in-law, Walter the Steward, a grant of the lands 
of Eaglesham, in Renfrewshire. This was, for more 
than two centuries, the chief possession of the Scottish 
branch of the Montgomeries. Sir John de Montgomerie, 
ninth of Eaglesham, married Elizabeth, daughter 
and sole heiress of Sir Hugh de Eglinton, and through 
her acquired the baronies of Eglinton and Ardrossan, 
the former of which had been held by her ancestors 
from the 11th century. At the battle of Otterburn 
(1388) he had the command of part of the Scottish 
army under the brave Earl of Douglas, and, by his 
personal valour and military conduct, contributed not a 
little to that celebrated victory. The renowned Harry 
Percy, best known as Hotspur, who commanded the 
English, Sir John took prisoner with his own hands ; 
and with the ransom he received for him, he built the 
castle of Polnoon in Eaglesham. His grandson. Sir 
Alexander Montgomerie, was raised by James II., before 
1444, to the title of Lord Montgomerie ; and his great- 
grandson, Hugh, third Lord Montgomerie (1460-1545), 
was created Earl of Eglinton in 1508, having pre- 
viously entered upon a feud with the Earl of Glencaim, 
which long continued between their descendants, and 
occasionally broke forth in deeds of violence, such 
as the burning of Eglinton in 1528. Hugh, fourth 
earl, a youth of singular promise, had enjoyed his in- 
heritance only ten months when he fell a victim to this 
hereditary feud. Riding from his own castle towards 
Stirling on 20 April 1586, he was, near the bridge of 
Annick, waylaid and shot by David Cunningham of 
Robertland and other Cunninghams, emissaries of the 
Earl of Glencah-n. So late as twenty years after this 
event, on 1 July 1606, the old feud broke out in a 
violent tumult at Perth, under the very eyes of parlia- 
ment and the privy council. In the 18th century, all 
the valuable improvements in gardening, planting, and 
agriculture, which, during half a century, were made 
in the parish of Kilwinning, and throughout a great 
part of Ayrshire, proceeded, in great measure, from the 
spirited exertions, combined with the iine taste, of 
Alexander, tenth earl, who was murdered near Ardrossan 
in 1769. Nor was Hugh, twelfth earl (1740-1819), less 
distinguished for his magnificent and costly schemes to 
enrich the district of Cunningham, and advance the 
public weal of Scotland, by improving the harbour of 
Ardrossan, and cutting a canal to it from the city of 
Glasgow. Under his successor was held, in August 1839, 
a gorgeous pageant, the Eglinton Tournament, one of 
the actors in which was Prince Louis Napoleon, after- 
wards Emperor of the French, whilst the Queen of 
Beauty was Lady Seymour, a grand-daughter of Sheri- 
dan. The present and fourteenth Earl, Archibald 
WiUiam Montgomerie (b. 1841 ; sue. 1861), holds 
23,631 acres in Ayrshire, valued at £46,551 per annum, 
including £9520J for minerals and £4525J for harbour 
works. See Ardrossan, Skelmoklie, Seton, and 
William Eraser's Memorials of the Montgomeries (2 vols. , 
Edinb., 1859).— Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Eglis. See Eagles. 

Eglishay. See Eagleshay. 

Eglismonichty, an ancient chapelry, now included in 
Monifieth parish, Forfarshire. The chapel stood on a 
crag above Dighty Water, nearly opposite Balmossie 
mill ; and, having continued long in a state of ruin, 
was demolished for building material about 1760. 

Eigg or Egg, an island in Small Isles parish, Inver- 
ness-shire. It lies 3 miles NE of Muck, 4 SE of Rum, 
5 SW of Sleat Point, and 7^ W of Arisaig. It 
measures 6i miles in length from NNE to SSW, 4 mUes 
in extreme breadth, and 5590 acres in area. It is inter- 
sected in the middle, from sea to sea, by a glen ; and it 
takes thence its name of Eigg, originally Ee, signify- 
ing a ' nick ' or ' hollow. ' It is partly low, flat, and 


arable ; partly hilly, rooky, and waste. A promontory, 
upwards of IJ milo in length, exhibits columnar cliffs 
almost equal in beauty to those of StalTa, and rises into 
a hill, called the Scuir of Eigg, 1339 leet in altitude, 
of peculiar romantic contour, skirted with precipices, 
and crowned with a lofty columnar peak. The rooks, 
both in that promontory and in other parts, possess 
high interest for geologists, and are graphicaUy and 
minutely described by Hugh Miller in his Cruise of the 
Betsy. Numerous caves, some of them wide and 
spacious, others low and narrow, are around the coast. 
An islet, called Eilan-Chastel or Castle Island, lies to 
the S, separated from Eigg by a sound which serves as 
a tolerable harbour for vessels not exceeding 70 tons in 
burden. About 900 acres are cultivated for cereal crops, 
and are fairly productive. Scandinavian forts, or re- 
mains of them, are in various parts ; a barrow, alleged 
to mark the grave of St Donnan, is on Kildonnain farm ; 
and a narrow-mouthed cavern in the S, expanding in- 
ward, and measuring nearly 213 feet in length, has 
yielded many skulls and scattez'ed bones of human 
beings. In 617 St Donnan, one of the 'Family of 
lona,' went, with his inuintir, or monastic family, 52 
in number, to the Western Isles, and took up his abode 
in Eigg, ' where the sheep of the queen of the country 
were kept. This was told to the queen. Let them all 
be killed, said she. That woidd not be a religious act, 
said her people. But they were murderously assailed. 
At this time the cleric was at mass. Let us have respite 
tUl mass is ended, said Donnan. Thou shalt have it, 
said they. And when it was over, they were slain every 
one of them' (Skene's Celtic Seotlatid, ii. 152, 1877). 
Yet grimmer is the cavern's history. Towards the close 
of the 16th century, a band of the Macleods, chancing 
to land on the island, were hospitably welcomed by the 
inhabitants, till, having offered rudeness to the maidens, 
they were bound hand and foot, and sent adrift in a 
boat. Rescued by a party of their own clansmen, they 
were brought to Dunvegan, the stronghold of their 
chief, to whom they told their story, and who straight- 
way manned his galleys and hastened to Eigg. On 
descrying his approach, the Macdonalds, with their 
wives and children, to the number of 200, took refuge 
in a cave. Here for two days they remained undis- 
covered, but, having sent out a scout to see if the foe 
was departed, their retreat was detected. A waterfall 
partly concealed the mouth of the cave. This Macleod 
caused to be turned from its course, and, heaping up 
wood around the entrance, set fire to the pile, and 
suffocated all who were within (Skene's Highlanders, ii. 
277, 1837). Eigg has a post office under Oban, SmaU 
Isles parish church and manse, a Roman Catholic church 
(1844), and a public school. Pop. (1831) 452, (1851) 
646, (1861) 309, (1871) 282, (1881) 291. 

Eil, a sea-loch, partly in Argyllshire, partly on the 
mutual border of Argyll and Inverness shires, and con- 
sisting of two distinct portions — Upper and Lower Loch 
Ed. ^Upper Loch Ed, commencing 4 miles E by S of 
the head of Loch Shiel, extends thence 6f miles east- 
by-southward, with a varying breadth of 4 and 7J fur- 
longs. Then come the Narrows, 2 mUes long, and 1 
furlong wide at the narrowest ; and then from Gorpach, 
at the entrance to the Caledonian Canal, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Fort AViOiam, Lower Loch EU strikes 9| 
miles south-westward, mth varying width of 5 furlongs 
and IJ mUe, to Corran Narrows, where it merges with 
Loch Linnhe, of which it is often treated as a part. It 
receives, near Fort William, the Lochy and the Nevis, 
and is overhung here by the mighty mass of Ben Nevis 
(4406 feet).— Ord. Sur., shs. 62, 53, 1875-77. 

Eilan. See Ellan. 

Eildon Hills, The, are situated in the parishes of Mel- 
rose and Bowden, Roxburghshire, the town of Melrose 
lying in the Tweed valley on the N, and the village of 
Bowden, which overlooks Teviotdale being on the S. 
They rise from one base of N and S extension into three 
coneshaped summits, their length being IJ mile, and 
their breadth ^ mile. The middle summit is the highest 
(1385 feet), that to the NE attaining 1327, and that to 


the S 1216, feet. These summits stand apart, the 
northern 5 furlongs, and the southern 4, from the 
middle one. The appearance they present from all sides 
is very striking, especially from the wide rich country 
to the N, E, and S swept by the Tweed and the 
Teviot, and bounded in the latter direction by the blue 
Border Cheviots. Their weird aspect from this quarter, 
where these three summits stand out in bold relief, is 
enough to justify the popular tradition which repre- 
sents them as originally one mass cleft into three by the 
demon familiar of Michael Scott. The view from these 
summits is of vast scope and great variety of interest. 
On the E the eye ranges over the curves of the silver 
Tweed as far as the rising-ground overlooking Berwick 
at its mouth, on the SE and S as far as the Cheviots and 
the long ridge of Carter Fell, on the SW to the hills of 
Liddesdale and Eskdale, on the W to the heights of 
Ettrick and Yarrow, while, as it sweeps by N, it takes 
in beyond Galashiels the pastoral uplands of the Gala 
and the darkening range of the lonely Lammermuirs. 
The panorama thus swept is rich in scenes of romantic 
and historic as well as physical interest. On the hills 
themselves are the remains of a strong Roman encamp- 
ment as well as a tumulus which is supposed to be of 
Druidical origin, and the whole country to E and S 
swarms mth legends of old Border valour, Border bal- 
lad, and Border foray. ' I can stand on the Eildon Hill,' 
said Sir Walter Scott, ' and point out forty- three places 
famous in war and verse. ' 'There at our feet and to the 
E lie the rich lands of the Abbeys of Melrose, Dryburgh, 
Kelso, and Jedburgh, and on the horizon the classic 
battlefields of Chevy Chase and Flodden, while, over all 
breathes the magic genius of Sir Walter, whose honoured 
ashes rest down there among those of the Dryburgh 
monks. On these hills the imagination may still trace 
the figure of Thomas the Rhymer ; and a spot is pointed 
out on the slope of the north-eastern hill, marked by a 
stone where stood the Eildon tree, under which he con- 
ceived and delivered to superstitious ears the fortune he 
darkly foresaw in store for his native country. One of 
his prophecies that refers to this spot, forecasting what 
might seem miraculous at the time, though it has been 
often since fulfilled — 

' At Eildon Tree, if you shall be, 
A brig over Tweed you there may see ; ' — 

shows him to have been a man of patriotic fervour as 
well as natural shrewdness. The Roman encampment 
here already referred to, appears to have been of consider- 
able extent. It occupied chiefly the north-eastern hill, 
where it was 1| mile in circuit, and where the remains 
of it, inclusive of two fosses, an earthen dyke, four gates, 
and the general's quarter, can stUl, it is said, be traced. 
To place, however, Tremontium on the Eildon Hills is 
to do great violence to Ptolemy's text, according to Dr 
Skene, by whom Tremontium is identified with Bkuns- 
WAKK. The supposed Druidical relic in the AY is a 
mound, called the Bourjo, of evidently artificial con- 
struction, and here the Baal priests of the ancient Cale- 
donians, it has been thought, were wont to offer 
sacrifices to the sun-god. It is an oak bower, sur- 
rounded by a deep trench, and is approached by a plain 
way made to it from E to W, called the Haxalgate. 
The hills are composed of porphyritic trap or whinstone, 
Avith a large proportion of felspar, which reflects a silvery 
gleam in the sunshine that has wrought itself into poetic 
description ; while the soil is hard and mostly covered 
with grass. On the southern hiU the opening of a 
quarry some years ago laid bare a perpendicular cliff of 
regular basaltic columns, about 20 feet elevation of 
which stands exposed, looking over Bowdenmoor to the 
W. On the sides of these hUls, like the ' Parallel Roads 
of Glenroy,' sixteen terraces are traceable, which rise 
one above another like the steps of a stair. The Eildons 
lately became, by purchase, the property of the Duke of 
Buccleuch ; and on their eastern slope, which is finely 
wooded, stands Eildon HaU, the residence of the Earl 
of Dalkeith, the eldest son of the Duke. Except on the 
Bowdenmoor side, and where, as on its E, there are 



woods and enclosed grounds, cultivation extends a good 
way up from their base, though not so far as it once 
did, it would seem, under the monks, on the side of 
Melrose particularly. — Orel. Sur., sli. 25, 1865. See 
chap, xxxiv. of James Hunnewell's La'/ids of Scott (Edinb. 

Eilean. See Ellan. 

Eilean-Aigas. See Aigas. 

Eileanmore. See Ellanmoee. 

Eillan. See Ellan. 

Eire. See Findhoen. 

Eisdale. See Easdalb. 

Eishart, a sea-loch in the S of the Isle of Skye, 
Inverness-shire, separating the Strathaird peninsula 
from the upper part of the peninsula of Sleat. It opens 
at right angles to the mouth of Loch Slapin, and, strik- 
ing 6^ miles east-north-eastward, diminishing gradually 
from a width of 2J- miles to a near point, and terminates 
at an isthmus 3J mUes broad from the head of Loch 
Indal. ' There is not, ' says Alexander Smith, ' a 
prettier sheet of water in the whole world. Everything 
about is wild, beautiful, and lovely. You drink a 
strange unfamiliar air ; you seem to be sailing out of 
the 19th century away back into the 9th.' 

Elchaig, a stream of EintaU parish, SW Eoss-shire, 
formed by two head-streams — the AUt na Doire Gairblie, 
flowing 5J mUes south-westward from Loch Muirichinn 
(1480 feet) ; aad the AUt a Ghlomaich, which, winding 
3f mUes north-north-westward from Loch a Bhealaich 
(1242 feet), makes, by the way, the beautiful Falls of 
Glomach. From their confluence, at an altitude of 
290 feet, the Elchaig itself flows 6J mUes west-north- 
westward to the head of salt-water Loch Ling. It 
is a fine salmon and trout stream. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
72, 1880. 

Elohies. See Knookando. 

Elcho, a ruined castle in Rhynd parish, Perthshire, 
on the right bank of the Tay, 4 mUes by river, 5J by 
road, ESE of Perth. Ee-roofed about 18-30, to preserve 
it from further dUapidation, it is of considerable extent, 
and remains entire in the walls, which are strong and 
massive, in very durable material. Its battlemented 
top, gained by several winding stairs, in good preseiwa- 
tiou, commands magniiicent prospects up and down the 
river. Elcho belongs to the Earl of Wemyss, and gives 
to him, and through him to his eldest son, the title of 
Baron Elcho, dating from ie2S.— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 

Elderslie, a village in Abbey parish, Renfrewshire, 
with a station on the Glasgow and South-Western Rail- 
way, 2J mUes W by S of Paisley, under which it has a 
post of&ce. Consisting principally of two rows of houses 
along the road from Paisley to Johnstone, and inhabited 
chiefly by weavers and other operatives, it is notable 
as the reputed birthplace of Sir WUliam WaUace, who 
hence is often styled the Knight of Elderslie. The 
estate on which it stands was granted in the latter half 
of the 13th century to Sir Malcolm Wallace, who is sup- 
posed to have been the Scottish hero's father, and with 
whose descendants it continued tUl, in 1729, it came to 
Helen, only chUd of John WaUace of EldersUe, and 
wife of Archibald Campbell of Succoth. By her it was 
sold, in 1769, to the family of Speirs. A plain old house 
in the viUage claims to be that in which Sir William 
Wallace was born ; but, though partly of ancient struc- 
ture, bears unmistakable marks of having been built 
long after his death ; yet, very probably occupies the 
spot on which the house of Sir Malcolm WaUace stood. 
A venerable yew tree in its garden, known popularly as 
' WaUace's Yew,' must likewise have got its name, not 
from any real connection with the patriot, but simply 
from the situation in which it stands. A still more 
famous oak tree — 'WaUace's Oak' — standing a little 
distance to the E, was gravely asserted to have afforded 
shelter, from the pursuit of an English force, to Wallace 
and 300 of his followers ; and continued in tolerable 
vigour till 1825, when its trunk girthed 21 feet at the 
base, ISJ feet at 5 feet from the ground, and 67 feet 
in altitude, whilst the branches covered 495 square 


yards. Time and relic-mongers, however, had reduced 
it to little more than a blackened torso, when by the 
gale of Feb. 1856 it was leveUed with the dust (pp. 
205, 206 of Tram. HicjM. and Ag. Soc, 1881). At the 
vUlage are a quoad sacra church (1840 ; 800 sittings) 
and the WaUace pubUc school. — Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Elderslie, an estate, with a mansion, in Renfrew 
parish, Renfrewshire, named after Elderslie in Abbey 
parish. The mansion, on the left bank of the Clyde, ^ 
mile E of Renfrew town, was buUt in 1777-82, and en- 
larged and improved at subsequent periods. Engirt by 
a fine park, it presents a handsome frontage to the 
Clyde, and contains a number of interesting relics as- 
sociated with the name of Sir WUliam WaUace, and 
brought from Elderslie viUage. It owner, Alexander 
Archibald Speirs, Esq. (b. and sue. 1869), holds 11,259 
acres in the shire, valued at £14,954 per annum. 

Eldrig or Elrig, a vUlage in Mochrum parish, SE Wig- 
townshire, 3 miles NW of Port WUUam. Eldrig Loch, 
1 mile to the N, Ues 260 feet above sea-level, has an 
utmost length and width of J mUe and 1 furlong, and 
contains some fine trout. — Ord. Sur., sh. 4, 1857. 

Eldrig. See Elleig. 

Elgar or Ella. See Shapinshat. 

Elgin, a parish containing a city and royal burgh of 
the same name in the E" of the coimty of Elgin. It is 
bounded on the N by Spynie ; on the NE and E by St 
Andrews-Lhanbryd ; on the S by Rothes, Birnie, and 
DaUas ; on the W by Eafford, and on the NW by Alves. 
Its shape is very irregular, but the greatest length from 
SW to NE is 11 mUes, and its greatest breadth from N 
to S 4J miles. The area is 19,258 acres, of which nearly 
12,000 are under cultivation, upwards of 2000 are under 
wood, and most of the remainder is pasturs-land, very 
Utile of the surface being waste. The soil varies consi- 
derably, being in many places (especiaUy on the aUuvial 
flats lying along the banks of the river Lossie) a good 
black loam, rich and fertile ; in other places, particularly 
towards the S of the parish, it is a Ught sandy loam pass- 
ing in many parts into almost pure sand ; elsewhere, 
again, it is clay. The subsoU is clay, sand, or gravel. 
In the W of the parish the underlying rock is a hard, 
whitish-grey sandstone, which is almost throughout of 
exceUent quality for building purposes. In 1826 a con- 
siderable quantity of it from the ridge to the N of Plus- 
carden was sent to London, to be used in the construc- 
tion of the new London Bridge. In the E the underlying 
rock is an impure siUcious limestone, which was at one 
time, at several places, quarried and burned for lime, but 
this, which was of a duU brown colour, was so impure 
and inferior, whether for buUding or agricultural pur- 
poses, that the workings have been abandoned. The 
western part of the parish is occupied by the long vaUey 
of Pluscarden, which is bounded on the N by the steep 
slope of the EUdon or Heldun HUl (767 feet), separating 
the parish from Alves, and on the S by the gentler 
slope leading to the Hill of the Wangle (1020), which 
separates Elgin from DaUas. The smface of the rest of 
the parish is undulating, and rises graduaUy from N to 
S from the height of about 36 feet above sea-level at the 
extreme E end of the parish to a height of about 900 
feet on the extreme S, on the slopes of the Brown Muir 
HOI. The main line of drainage is by the river Lossie, 
and the tributary streams that flow into it. The Lossie 
enters the parish near the middle of the S side, and 
forms the boundary between Elgin and Birnie for about 
3 mUes. It thereafter passes across to the northern side 
where it turns abruptly to the E and winds along, form- 
ing the boundary between Elgin and Spynie, and be- 
tween Elgin and St Andrews-Lhanbryd. It has every- 
where a very winding course, and is confined by 
artificial banks, against which (notwithstanding its 
quiet appearance and placid flow on ordinary occasions) 
it rushes furiously in times of flood. About 2 miles 
from the city of Elgin it is joined by the Black Burn or 
Black Water, a stream of fair size, which flows along 
and carries oif the drainage of the whole valley of Plus- 
carden. About a quarter of a mile lower it receives the 
water from a small canal formed for the drainage of the 



district of Mostowie in tho NW comer of the parish. 
Other small streams in or passing partly through the 
parish are the Tyock and Muirton or Linkwood Burn. 
The parish contains the city of Elgin, the village of New 
Elgin, and the hamlets of Clackmarras and Muir of Mil- 
tondutf. There is a distillery at Miltonduff, a brewery 
W of the city near Bruceland, and a small woollen mill 
at Colebums, near the entrance of the Glen of Rothes. 
The industries carried on in or about the city are noticed 
in the following article. In the landward part of the 
parish there are a number of meal and flour mills. The 
mansion-houses of Blackhills and Westerton are noticed 
separately, as also is the chief object of antiquarian in- 
terest in the landward district, Pluscarden Abbey. The 
parish is traversed by the Highland railway, by the 
Morayshire section of the Great North of Scotland rail- 
way system, by the main road from Aberdeen to Inver- 
ness, and by the road to Kothes and Speyside. Four pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
38 hold between £100 and £500, 59 hold between £50 and 
£100, and 134 hold each between £20 and £50. The 
parish is in the presbytery of Elgin (of which it is the seat) 
and the synod of Moray. The charge is collegiate, and 
the stipend of each of the ministers is £572. The senior 
minister has besides a manse and glebe worth respec- 
tively £40 and £43 a year, while the second minister 
has a glebe worth about £17 a year. The churches are 
noticed under the city of Elgin, in which they all 
stand, except a charge of the Free Church of Pluscarden, 
the congregation of which has accommodation in one 
of the rooms of Pluscarden Abbey. This was formerly 
a church of the royal bounty, but ceased to be con- 
nected with the Establishment at the Disruption in 1843. 
The parish is one of fifteen forming the Morayshire 
Poor Law Combination, with a poorhouse in a suburb of 
Elgin to the N, but in the parish of Spynie. The build- 
ings, which were erected in 1865, rise to a height of two 
stories, and are surrounded by walled-in grounds of fair 
size. They are in the Elizabethan style, treated very 
plainly. The porter's lodge is at the enti-ance from the 
turnpike road to Lossiemouth, and from this a sti-aight 
path leads to the chief entrance in the centre of the main 
building in which are the governor's and matron's rooms, 
and the board-room, dining-hall, and chapel. On either 
side of the central portion are the day-rooms, with the 
dormitories above. The public schools of Mostowie, jSTew 
Elgin, and Pluscarden, and Clackmarras school, with re- 
spective accommodation for 139, 175, 120, and 64 chil- 
dren, had (1882) an average attendance of 77, 74, 63, and 
35, and grants of £59, 3s. , £58, 2s. , £49, 9s. 6d. , and £38, 
4s. Valuation(1881)oflands, £11,354, 5s. Pop. (1801) 
4345, (1831) 6130, (1841) 6083, (1851) 7277, (1861) 8726, 
(1871) 8604, (1881) 8741.— Orrf. Sur., shs. 95, 85, 1876. 

The presbytery of Elgin comprises the parishes of Elgin, 
Alves, St Andrews-Lhanbryd, Bimie, Drainie, Duflus, 
Speyraouth, Spynie, and Urquhart, the quoad sacra parish 
of Burghead, and the mission of Lossiemouth. Pop. (1871) 
22,966, (1881) 23,984, of whom 2638 were communicants 
of the Church of Scotland in 1878.— The Free Church 
has also a presbytery of Elgin, with 2 churches in the city 
of Elgin, 1 in the glen of Pluscarden, and 7 at respec- 
tively Alves, Burghead, Garmouth, Hopeman, Lossie- 
mouth, and Urquhart, which 9 churches together had 
3144 members in 1881. — The United Presbyterians have 
a presbytery of Elgin and Inverness, meeting generally 
at Forres, and exercising supervision over 2 churches in 
Elgin and 10 at respectively Archiestown, Bm'ghead, 
Campbelton, Forres, Inverness, Lossiemouth, Moyness, 
Nairn, Nigg, and Tain, which 12 chiirches together had 
1875 members in 1880. 

Elgin, a city and royal burgh, and the county town 
of Elginshire, is one of the brightest and most picturesque 
little towns in Scotland. It is situated on the right 
bank of the river Lossie in the NE end of the parish 
of Elgin, and includes within the municipal and parlia- 
mentary boundaries small portions of the parishes of 
Spynie and St Andrews-Lhanbryd. It has a station 
on the Highland railway, and is the terminus of the 
Craigellachie and Lossiemouth sections of the Great 

North of Scotland railway system. It will also be the 
terminus of the new extension of that system westward 
from Portsoy by Cidlen and Buckie to Elgin, the bill 
for the construction of which has recently (1882) passed 
through Parliament. It is by rail 5 miles SSW of 
its seaport, Lossiemouth, 12| NNW of Craigellachie, 
18 WNW of Keith, 37 ENE of Inverness, 12 ENE of 
Forres, 71 J NWby W of Aberdeen, 178 N of Edinburgh 
vid Dunkeld and Forres (187J vid Aberdeen), and 194 
NNE of Glasgow vid Forres (223^ vid Aberdeen). The 
main part of the city lies along a low ridge running E 
and W, and sloping gently to the S ; and this, as well 
as the adjacent lower land on which the rest of the town 
is built, is shut in and sheltered on all sides by well- 
wooded rising-grounds approaching close to tlie to^vn, 
and by their protection greatly assisting the sandy and 
porous subsoil in producing the mUd and healthy climate 
which the citizens enjoy. Much of the scenery in the 
neighbourhood is extremely beautiful, e.specially the 
wooded districts to the W and N, known as the Oak- 
wood and Quarrywood, and along the banks of the Lossie ; 
while the surrounding district is so fertile, that the in- 
habitants delight, and justly so, in claiming for the 
environs of their ancient city the distinguished appella- 
tion of ' the Garden of Scotland. ' 

The origin of the name is lost, and though many 
conjectures have been made, most of them are somewhat 
unsatisfactory. The derivation that finds most favour 
is one that takes its rise from the legend on the cor- 
poration seal [Sigillum commune civitatis de Hclgyn), 
and from the spelling Helgyn it is argued that the place 
has received its name from Helgy, a general of the army 
of Sigurd, the Norwegian Earl of Orkney, who about 
927 overran Caithness, Ross, Sutherland, and Moray, 
and who may possibly have formed a settlement here ; 
but the town is noticed in 1190, in the Chartulary of 
Moray, with the name spelled Elgin as at present, 
which seems to be against this. Be that as it may, 
both name and town are very old, for we find that at an 
early period Elgin was a place of note, and a favourite 
and frequent royal residence, probably on account 
of the excellent hunting which was to be had in the 
neighbouring roj'al forests. Nor did the royal visits 
altogether cease till the middle of the 16th century. 
Edward I., in his progress through the North in 1296, 
turned back at Elgin, after staying for two days in its 
royal castle. He also passed through it in 1303, when 
he lived for some weeks at Kinloss Abbey, 10 miles to 
the W. Again, in 1457, James II., having resumed 
possession of the Earldom of Moray, which had been 
held by one of his foes the Douglases, and being minded 
to bestow it on his infant son, came down to set things 
in order, and was so charmed by the country that he 
stayed for some time and hunted, and often dwelt at 
one of the cathedral raanses, which used to stand at 
what is now theiNE corner of King Street. James IV. 
also paid it a'visit in 1490, and Queen Maiy is said to 
have also been in the neighbourhood. It was a royal 
burgh in the reign of David I., and received from 
Alexander II. a royal charter, which is still carefully 
preserved. About the same time that the city received 
this royal charter, it also became the cathedral seat of 
the great bishopric of Moray, for in 1224 Bishop Andrew 
de Moravia settled his episcopal see — which had hitherto 
been unfixed, and sometimes at Bimie, sometimes at 
Spynie, sometimes at Kinneddar — permanently at the 
Church of the Holy Trinity at Elgin ; and to this it 
owes the peculiar character which it had almost un- 
altered down to the beginning of the present century, 
and which it still, though to a very slight degree, 
retains. It bore, and still bears, a strong resemblance 
to St Andrews — a likeness which is to be attributed to 
the circumstance of its having been, like that ecclesias- 
tical metropolis, the seat of an important and wealthy 
see, and the residence of a numerous band of dignified 
ecclesiastics and affluent provincial gentry, drawn to- 
gether here as to a common centre of attraction. Many 
of the quaint old houses remained till a recent period, 
and a few (not the most characteristic specimens) are 



still standing, although, just as in Edinburgh and else- 
where, the ancient mansion - houses were long since 
' handed down ' to artisans and others in the lower 
ranks of life. Though a new town has sprung up, and 
the old has in a measure ' cast its skin, ' and has thus 
hecome almost entirely renovated, yet the period is by 
no means remote when Elgin wore the antiquated, still, 
and venerable aspect which so well befits the habits and 
harmonises with the repose of genuine ecclesiastics in 
the full enjoyment of an intellectual ' oHum cum digni- 
tate. ' Till little more than sixty years ago the town 
consisted of one main street running from E to W, with 
narrow streets, lanes, or closes striking off from each side 
at right angles, like ribs from a spine. The houses that 
lined the sides of the long main street, as it then existed, 
were of venerable age, with high-pitched roofs, overlaid 
with heavy slabs of priestly grey, presenting to the 
street the fore-stair and an open piazza, consistmg of a 
series of pillared arches in the front wall over the 
entrance to a paved and sheltered court within, in 
which, as well as in his humbler small dark shop or 
cellar, was the ancient merchant wont at times, with a 
perfect sense of security, to leave his goods and walk 
unceremoniously off — ' his half-door on the bar ' — to 
breakfast, dinner, or his evening stroll. The piazzas are 
all long since gone, and only a very few of the houses 
in which they were now remain, though several of the 
pillars and arches are yet to be seen. The last house 
that had the piazza open was Elchies House, a most pic- 
turesque specimen of the old burgh architecture, which 
was removed in 1845 to make way for the buildings 
occupied by the Caledonian Banking Company, and 
quite recently the best of the remaining examples was 
removed to make way for the block of buildings on the 
N side of High Street immediately to the W of the 
Royal Bank. A fine stone mantelpiece, which was in 
the old house, has found a position of honour in the 
new building, and so also have the quaint gablets over 
the windows on the attic floor. The dates of their 
erection and the names of their proprietors were usually 
inscribed upon the lintels of these ancient domiciles, 
and here and there might be seen carved one of those 
religious quotations which the taste of the 16th century 
so much delighted in, and with which our Reformation 
forefathers saluted those who crossed their thresholds. 
The pavement was an ancient causeway, which tradition 
modestly reports to have been the work of Cromwell's 
soldiers, though most likely it was many ages older. 
It rose high in the middle, and the 'crown of the 
causeway,' where the higher-minded folks delighted to 
parade, was elevated, and distinguished by a row of 
huge stone blocks, while those of a more moderate size 
occupied the sloping sides. The drains, which ran along 
the street, were crossed rectangularly by the common 
gutter, which passed immediately to the E of the Com- 
mercial Bank, and carried all the surface sewage of the 
western part of the town to an open ditch at the 
Borough Brigs. In heavy rains it often swelled into a 
rapid stream of considerable size. There were no side 
pavements tUl the Earl of Fife, aided by the citizens 
and the road-trustees, introduced them in 1821. About 
the centre of the town the street then, as now, widened 
out at the point where stand the parish church and the 
water-fountain, and the centre of the wider space was 
occupied by the old church of St Giles and the 'Tolbooth. 
St Giles, or 'the Muckle Kirk' — the old parish church 
— was pulled down in the end of 1826 to make way for 
the present parish church. It was a very old building, 
so old indeed that there is no record of its first erection, 
but it was older than the cathedral, and was very early 
mentioned as a parsonage. There is little doubt that 
the centre tower — a square heavy mass without a steeple 
— was as old as the 12th century. It was dedicated to 
St Giles, the patron saint of the city, said to be one of the 
early missionaries from lona. In the palmy days of the 
cathedral's glory it was in the bishop's pastoral charge. 
The form of the church was that of a Greek cross, with 
nave, choir, and transepts. The nave had two rows of 
massive pillars, surmounted by arches ; its roof outside was 


covered with heavy slabs of hewn stone. The principal 
entrance was a large door in the W end, over which was 
a handsome three-light window. In the middle of the 
16th century it had altars belonging to the different in- 
corporated trades, who also maintained a chaplain, but 
at the Reformation these were all swept a,way, and there 
were lofts or galleries erected for the various incorpora- 
tions, possibly above the sites of the old altars, and pro- 
bably about the same time the nave and the choir were 
separated, and the former became what was known as 
' the Muckle Kirk,' while the latter formed ' the Little 
Kirk.' The timber that supported the roof of heavy 
freestone slabs over the Muckle Kirk having become de- 
cayed, the whole of the roof fell — providentially between 
services — on Sunday, 22 June 1679, the same day on 
which the battle of Bothwell Bridge was fought, and 
the whole of the western part of the fabric was destroyed. 
The rebuilding began the following year, and was finished 
in 1684, when two long aisles, one on each side, were 
added, and the church was reseated after the Presbyterian 
fashion. The massive oak pulpit, which cost at that 
time £244 Scots, is still to be seen in the church at 
Pluscarden. It has some curious carved work about it, 
and even yet bears the old iron rim for the baptismal 
basin, while the iron sandglass holder lies close by. Both 
are specimens of characteristic twisted iron work. Al- 
though the interior of the Muckle Kirk, — with its rows of 
massive sandstone pillars running along the aisles and 
topped by high-peaked arches ; with its beams of wood, 
from which were hung by strong iron chains massive 
brass chandeliers ; with its old pulpit and curious gal- 
leries, and with its walls hung from place to place with 
the coats of arms of the principal heritors, or mth black 
boards setting forth the charity and brotherly kindness of 
those who had 

' Mortified their cash, 
To mortify their heirs,' 

and bequeathed simis of money to be managed by the 
kirk-session for the benefit of the poor, — possessed a 
dignity and grandeur of no common order, its exterior 
was not at all rich in architectural display, but yet 
everything connected with it was held in such veneration 
by the citizens that its demolition caused a general feeling 
of deep regret, if not dismay, which the unequivocal 
symptoms of decay and the impending danger of a repeti- 
tion of the accident of 1679 did not at all diminish. The 
original transepts were removed about 1740, and the Little 
Kirk was so ruinous that it had to be demolished in 1800. 
The old Tolbooth stood to the W of St Giles, and down 
to 1716 must have been a very primitive sort of erec- 
tion, for in 1600 the building had a thatched roof, as is 
testified by the entry in the to\vn's records: ' Item, £3, 
6s. 8d. for fog to theck the Tolbooth.' In 1605 a new 
one was erected, ' biggit wt stanes frae ye kirkyard 
dyke, and sclaited wt stanes frae Dolass ; ' but it was 
burned in 1701, and thenew one, begun in 1709andfinished 
in 1716 or 1717, was used as court-house, council-room, 
and prison, and remained in use till 1843. It had a 
massive square tower, with a round corner turret and a 
clock and bell. The bell now hangs between the burgh 
and county buildings, and the works of the clock are in 
the museum. In the museum is also preserved the lintel 
of the doorway, with the very suggestive motto, ' Suuin 
cuique trihue.' The ' Muckle Cross ' was near the E end 
of the old church of St GUes, but is now also numbered 
with the things that were, the site it occupied being 
marked by two rows of paving-stones, laid so as to form 
a cross. The cross itself was ' a hexagonal pillar of 
dressed ashlar, 12 feet high, and large enough to contain 
a spiral stair. Around its base was a stone seat. From 
the top of the pillar rose a shaft of stone, surmounted 
by the Scottish lion rampant, and the initials (C. R. ) of 
King Charles II.' The 'Little Cross' still stands near 
the E end of the town, opposite the Museum, and not 
far from an old house, originally with a piazza, and at 
one time the place of business of Duff of Dipple, an an- 
cestor of the Earl of Fife. It is supposed to mark the 
western limit of the chanonry or precincts of the cathe- 
dral, and to occupy the site of a cross erected with part 


of the money paid in 1402 by Alexander, third son of 
the Lord of the Isles, in compensation for his having, 
when on a raid, attacked and plundered the chanonry of 
Elgin. The present shaft of the Little Cross is not, how- 
ever, older than the 17th century. The cathedral pre- 
cinct was surrounded by a wall about 12 feet in height 
and from 6 to S feet in thickness, of run lime work. A 
small part of it at the E gate or Pann's Port still exists, 
and a considerable portion, extending across the field to 
the SW of Pann's Port, was removed so late as 1866. 
Of the three gates, which were each defended by a port- 
cullis, the Pann's Port is the only one remaining. The 
town itself seems also to have at one time had some 
defence, possibly a pallisade, for there was a gate near 
the W end, called the West Port, close to West Park ; 
a second, about the middle of Lossie Wynd, called 
the Lossie Wynd Port ; a third, at the S end of Com- 
merce Street, called from the old name of the street the 
School Wynd Port : and a fourth, in South College Street, 
close to the Bied House, called the East Port. These 
gates were all removed in the latter part of last century, 
and were probably erected when the town and its ap- 
proaches were restored after the destruction caused by 
the Wolf of Badenoch. They must certainly have been 
of later date than the 15th century, for there is a per- 
sistent tradition that previous to the Douglas troubles 
in the midiUe of the 15th century the old church of St 
Giles stood at the extreme E end of the town, and there 
were buildings extending westward along the ridge by 
Gray's Hospital and Fleurs, as far as the knoll (now 
^ mile from the city), called the Gallow Hill. In 1452, 
in the struggle against the ' banded Earls, ' the contest 
was carried on in the North between the Earl of Huntly 
and Archibald Douglas, Earl of Moray. After the battle 
of Brechin and the defeat of the Earl of Crawfurd, Huntly 
started in pursuit of the Earl of Moray, who had been 
raiding in Strathbogie, and pursued him beyond Elgin, 
tQl he took up a strong position on the heights above 
Pluscarden. Halting at Elgin,* and finding that part 
of the to\vn was inhabited by those favourable to the 
Douglas cause, and the other part by those favourable 
to himself, he burned the whole of the former portion, 
and hence the proverb, ' Half done as Elgin was half 
burned.' Huntly 's men having, however, scattered in 
search of plunder, Douglas attacked them, and drove 
them into the Bog of Dunkinty, to the NW of the 
cathedral, where some 400 or 500 of them perished, and 
this gave rise to the jeering rhyme : 

* Oh where are your men. 
Thou Gordon so gay? 
In the Bog of Dunkinty, 
Mowing the hay.' 

It is said that the part then burned was the western 
half, and that it was never rebuilt, but that the new 
buildings were erected to the E beyond St Giles, and so 
the town was continued eastward in the direction of the 
cathedral. This Archibald Douglas seems — though 
Lady Hill still belongs to the Earl of Moray — to have 
been the last constable of the royal castle of Elgin, 
which stood on the flattened summit of the Lady Hill, 
a conical-shaped eminence near the W end of High 
Street. The ruins of the Castle are all that remain of 
the oldest building in connection with Elgin. From 
its isolated and commanding position Lady Hill no 
doubt attracted the attention of our rude ancestors at a 
very early period. It was a place of importance, and 
probably fortified with earthworks, in the time of the 
Celtic Mormaers of Moray. The ruins still existing are 
those of walls faced with rough ashlar (now, alas, nearly 
all gone), and backed with r\m lime work, and date 
from the time of David I., for Elgin is mentioned as a 
king's burgh in his reign, and must therefore have had 
a royal castle at that time. Malcolm IV. mentions it 
in a charter granted in 1160, and it is again referred to 
in a deed granted by William the Lyon. Both David 
and William held their courts here, as also did Alexan- 

* Pitscottie (2d edit., Glasgow, 1749, p. 80) says it was Forres, 
but the evidence seems conclusive in favour of Elgin, and the 
proverb puts the matter beyond dispute. 


der II. and Alexander III. ; and Wyntoun records 
numerous visits of the former to Elgin. Edward I. re- 
sided in the Castle during his two days' stay at Elgin 
in 1296 ; and in the journal of his proceeding, preserved 
in the Cottonian MSS. , it is described as ' ion chastcU et 
bonne villc,' or 'a good castle and a good town.' It 
probably suffered, however, in the few following years, 
for some of the wooden apartments in the interior of 
the place were burned whUe it was held by the English 
governor (Henry de Rye), and, accordingly, when 
Edward returned in 1303, it was not seemingly con- 
sidered a fitting residence for him. From this time it 
ceased to be a royal or even a baronial residence, but 
still continued to possess its keep, chapel, and probably 
its storehonses, and it no doubt was maintained as a fort, 
and perhaps used as a prison for at least a century and 
a half afterwards ; but after the forfeiture of the 
Douglases the buildings were neglected, and fell 
rapidly into decay. The works seem to have occupied 
the greater portion of the flat part on the top of the hill, 
which measures about 85 yards in length by 45 in 
breadth. It is difiicult to form anj' idea of the plan of 
the buddings, but there seems to have been a strong 
outer wall and a massive keep. There seem also to have 
been an outer and an inner court, and a circular de- 
pression near the NAV angle of the remains of the keep 
is said to mark the draw-well. There were gates to both 
the E and the W, the latter being the chief one. From 
some points of view Lady Hill looks as if a smaller hill 
had been set down on the top of a larger, and for this 
tradition has assigned a reason. An earlier castle stood 
at a lower level, but the ' pest ' having appeared, hung 
over it for some time as a dark blue cloud, which was 
by some means induced to settle, and then the inhabi- 
tants gathering, covered the Castle and all its inmates 
deep under a fresh mound of earth, which now con- 
stitutes the upper part of the hill. 

' the Castle in a single night 

With all its inmates sunk quite out of sight ; 
There at the midnight hour is heard the sound 
Of various voices talking under ground ; 
The rock of cradles — wailing infants' cries, 
And nurses singing soothing lullabies.' 

In 1858 excavations were made on the top of the hill 
by the Elgin Literary and Scientific Association, but 
nothing of any importance was discovered. On the top 
of the hill now S-tands a Tuscan column erected by sub- 
scription by the inhabitants of the county in 1839 to 
the memory of the last Duke of Gordon. A stair leads 
up the shaft, and from the top a very extensive view 
may be obtained. The statue of the duke is 12 feet 
high, and was placed on the top in 1855. The cannon 
close by is one of those captured at Sebastopol, and was 
presented to the city of Elgin by the War Office in 1858. 
The hill takes its name — Lady HUl — from the chapel in 
the Castle, which was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, 
and a spring in the neighbourhood to the westward — 
deep-seated, and very cool in summer — is still kno%\Ti as 
Mary Well, no doubt for the same reason. The flat 
ground immediately to the N of Lady HUl, and lying 
between it and the river Lossie, is known as Blackfriars 
Haugh. It was formerly the site of a monastery, of the 
Dominicans or Black Friars, which was founded by 
Alexander II., when the order was first introduced into 
Scotland in his reign. No account of the building nor 
of anything connected with it now remains, nor is any 
trace of it left, though some parts of the ruins were in 
existence up to the middle of last century. There was 
a monastery of the Franciscans or Greyfriars near the E 
end of the town. The original buildings founded also 
by Alexander II. stood on the ground now occupied by 
the garden of Dunfermline Cottage, on the S side of 
High Street, at the Little Cross, but this structure fell 
into decay in the beginning of the 15th century, between 
1406 and 1414, and the new buildings which stand on 
the S side of Greyfriars Street, in the ground to the E 
of Abbey Street, were erected. A dovecot and some 
ruins of the older building remained till the beginning 
of the present century, when they were demolished, and 



the stones used in the erection of the present garden 
walls of Dunfermline Cottage. Of the newer buildings 
extensive remains still exist. The walls of the church 
are pretty entire, though the roof fell about the middle 
of the last century, or perhaps earlier, for now an ash 
tree, which measures i feet in circumference, grows 
through one of the windows. Part of the monastery 
walls form part of the modern mansion-house of Grey- 
friars. The church was the meeting-place of the trades 
from 1676 till about 1691. Still further to the E, on a 
field now feued by the trustees of Anderson's Institution 
as a play-field, stood the Maison Dieu, or House of God, 
a foundation dating also from the time of Alexander II., 
and largely endowed by Bishop Andrew de Moravia for 
the reception'of poor men and women. It was burned by 
the Wolf of Badenoch at the same time as the cathedral 
in 1390, and was never rebuilt. After the Reformation 
the revenues belonging to it, which had reverted to the 
Crown, were, by a charter dated 1620, granted to the 
' Provost, Bailies, Councillors, and community of Elgin, ' 
to support poor and needy persons, to maintain a teacher 
of music, and to increase the common revenue of the 
burgh. The support of the poor and needy persons is 
carried out by the Bied House, in South College Street, in 
which 4 poor men reside, each of whom has a small house, 
a strip of garden, and £12, 10s. a year. The original 
building was erected in 1624, but this structure having 
become ruinous was pulled down, and the present one 
erected in 1846. The tablet from the old house, with a 
representation of an old style Bied-man, and the inscrip- 
tion ' Hospitalium Burgi de Elgin per idem conditum, 
1624,' and the text, ' Blessed is he that considereth the 
poor ; the Lord \Till deliver him in time of trouble,' has 
been built into the gablet over the doorway of the new 
building. There was a Leper House farther to the E, 
on the opposite side of the road, but the only trace of it 
remaining is the name given to the fields, viz., 'the 
Leper Lands.' Still farther to the E, close to the point 
where the Aberdeen road crosses the Lossiemouth rail- 
way, is a pool, tiU recently of considerable depth, known 
as ' the Order Pot,' a name corrupted most probably 
from the Ordeal Pot, and the place where presumptive 
witches underwent the ordeal by water. It may have 
also been the place where criminals sentenced to be put 
to death by drowning (as was sometimes the case) were 
executed, and was probably the only remaining specimen 
of such a ' pit. ' In Ehind's Sketches of 3Ioraij there is 
a long account of the death of a supposed witch by 
drowning at this place. Traditionally it was supposed 
to be bottomless, but in the course of years the amount 
of rubbish thrown into it materially diminished its size, 
and within the last year it has been numbered with the 
things that were, and it will therefore no longer be 
possible that the old prophecy that 

* The Order Pot and Lossie grey 
Shall sweep the Chan'ry Kirk away,' 

attributed to Thomas the Rhymer, can be fulfilled. 

The crowning glory of old Elgin, as of the modem 
city, is the Cathedral, still grand, though but a ruin and 
a shadow of what once was, when the cathedral church 
of the diocese of Moray was not only ' the lantern of the 
north,' but also, as Bishop Bur states so plaintively in 
his letter to the King, complaining of the destruction 
caused by the Wolf of Badenoch, ' the ornament of the 
district, the glory of the kingdom, and the admii'ation 
of foreigners.' 'It is,' says Chambers in his Picture of 
ScotlaTul, ' an allowed fact, which the ruins seem still 
to attest, that this was by far the most splendid speci- 
men of ecclesiastical architecture in Scotland, the abbey 
church of Melrose not excepted. It must be acknow- 
ledged that the edifice last mentioned is a wonderful 
instance of symmetry and elaborate decoration ; yet in 
extent, in loftiness, in impressive magnificence, and 
even in minute decoration, Elgin has been manifestly 
superior. Enough still remains to impress the solitary 
traveller with a sense of admiration mixed with astonish- 
ment. ' Shaw in his description of it does not hesitate 
to say that ' the church when entire was a building of 


Gothic architecture inferior to few in Europe. ' ' At a 
period,' observes Mr Rhind, 'when the country was 
rude and uncultivated, when the dwellings of the mass 
of the people were mere temporary huts, and even the 
castles of the chiefs and nobles possessed no architectural 
beauty, and were devoid of taste and ornament, the 
solemn grandeur of such a pile, and the sacred purposes 
with which it was associated, must have inspired an awe 
and a reverence of which we can form but a faint concep- 
tion. The prevailing impulse of the religion of the 
period led its zealous followers to concentrate their 
whole energies in the erection of such magnificent 
structures ; and while there was little skill or industry 
manifested in the common arts of life, and no associa- 
tions for promoting the temporal comforts of the people, 
the grand conceptions displayed in the architecture of 
the Jliddle Ages, the taste and persevering iudustry, 
and the amount of wealth and labour bestowed on these 
sacred edifices find no parallel in modern times. When 
entire, indeed, and in its pristine glory, the magnificent 
temple must have afforded a splendid spectacle. A vast 
dome, extending from the western entrance to the high 
altar, a length of 2S9 feet, with its richly ornamented 
arches crossing and recrossing each other to lean for 
support on the double rows of stately massive pillars — 
the mellowed light streaming through the richly stained 
windows, and flickering below amid the dark shadows 
of the pointed aisles, whUe the tapers of the altars 
twinkled through the rolling clouds of incense — the 
paintings on the walls — the solemn tones of the chanted 
mass, and the gorgeous dresses and imposing processions 
of a priesthood sedulous of every adjimct to dazzle and 
elevate the fancy, must have deeply impressed a people 
in a remote region with nothing around them, or even 
in theii' uninformed imaginations, in the slightest degree 
to compare with such splendour. No wonder that the 
people were proud of such a structure, or that the clergy 
became attached to it. It was a fit scene for a Latin 
author of the period, writing on the " tranquillity of the 
soul," to select for his Temple of Peace, and under its 
walls to lay the scene of his philosophical dialogues.' 
It has been already noted that the early cathedral of the 
diocese was at Birnie, Einneddar, or Spynie. This practice 
seems to have answered for a time, for though the 
bishopric of Moray was founded by Alexander I. shortly 
after his accession (1107), it was not till 1203 that 
' Bricius the sixth bishop made application to Pope 
Innocent III. to have a fixed cathedral, and the Pope 
ordered that the cathedi'al should be fixed at Spynie,' 
which probably led to the foundation of what after- 
wards developed into the Bishop's Palace at that place. 
[See Spynie.] Bricius died in 1222, and his successor, 
Bishop Andrew de Moravia, coming in the reign of 
Elgin's great benefactor, Alexander II., and having 
obtained from him an extensive site on the banks of the 
Lossie, made in 1223 fresh application to Pope Honorius, 
representing the solitary unprotected site of the cathedral, 
and its distance from market, and praying that it might 
be translated to Elgin as a more suitable place, and 
there settled at the church of the Holy Trinity, a 
little to the NE of the town, adding as an additional 
reason that the change was desired, not only by the 
chapter, but also by the King. The Pope readily con- 
sented, and on 10 April 1224 issued a bull directed 
to the Bishop of Caithness, the Abbot of Kinloss, and 
the Dean of Koss, empowering them to make the desired 
change if they should see fit ; and these dignitaries, 
having met at Elgin on 19 July 1224, 'appointed 
the said church of the Holy Trinity to be the cathedral 
church of the diocese of Moray, and so to remain in all 
time coming ; ' and on the same day the foundation- 
stone of the cathedral was laid yniXi all due pomp and 
ceremony. Bishop Andrew de Moravia lived for eighteen 
years after, and therefore carried the building far towards 
completion, if he did not, as is most likely, actually 
finish it. Of this first building probably now Uttle, if 
any, part is left, for it is recorded by Fordun under the 
year 1270, that the cathedral of Elgin and the houses of 
the canons were burned, whether by accident or design 


lie does not say. Part of the walls of the S transept 
seems somewhat dilTerent in structure and design from 
the rest of the building, and may possibly belong to the 
earlier building. The ruins now standing probably then 
date from a period immediately subsequent to this, and 
then arose that grand structure which the Chartulary of 
Moray describes as the ' mirror of the country and the 
glory of the kingdom ; ' which Bower in his continua- 
tion of Fordun calls ' the glory of the whole land ; ' 
which Buchanan terms ' the most beautiful of all which 
then existed in Scotland ; ' and of which, in still later 
times, Mr BiUings has written that for size and orna- 
ment, as its lovely and majestic fragments stiU indicate, 
it must have been unmatched. Stately as it was, it was 
doomed to still farther misfortune, for in 1390 it was 
again destroyed and burned by the Earl of Badenoch, 
Alexander Stewart, son of Robert II. , and best known 
as the Wolf of Badenoch. The Wolf having seized 
some of the church lands in Badenoch was excommuni- 
cated, and in his ire descended on the low country in 
1390, and in May burned the town of Forres with the 
choir of the church and the manse of the archdeacon. 
In June he followed this up by coming to Elgin and 
burning a considerable part of the town of Elgin, the 
church of St Giles, the Hospital of Maison Dieu, the 
official residences of the clergy in the chanonry, and the 
cathedral itself. This sacrilegious outburst of the Earl 
of Badenoch and his 'wyld, \Yykked Heland-men,' as 
WjTitoun calls them, was too great to he overlooked, 
even though the aggressor was the King's son, and 
Bishop Bur sent a very plaintive appeal to the King for 
aid and reparation, and the Wolf was at last compelled 
to yield, when ' on condition that he should make satis- 
faction to the bishop and church of Moray, and obtain 
absolution from the Pope,' he was absolved by the 
Bishop of St Andrews in the Blackfriars Church at 
Perth. In spite of the old age and feebleness of Bi-shop 
Bur, he pressed on the rebuilding of the church energeti- 
cally, and this was continued by his successors, Bishops 
Spynie and Innes, and even at the death of the latter 
the structure was not finished, for at the meeting of 
chapter held to elect his successor, the canons agreed 
that whichever of them was elected bishop, should 
appropriate a third of the revenues of the See for build- 
ing purposes, until the cathedral was completed. Mr 
Billings thinks that the amount of destruction caused by 
the Wolf of Badenoch was very much overrated ; ' the 
pointed arches,' he says, 'and their decorations are a 
living testimony that he had not so ruthlessly carried 
out the work of destruction ; and there is every reason 
to believe that the portions which have since gi'adually 
crumbled away are the inferior workmanship of the 15th 
and 16th centuries, while the solid and solemn masonry 
of the 13th still remains.' The immense amount of 
destruction accomplished, however, may be best esti- 
mated when we consider the long period during which 
the reconstruction had to be carried on — for the Wolfs 
raid was in 1390, and Bishop Innes died in 1414, and 
the rebuilding was not then completed ; and this not- 
withstanding the fact that the See was a wealthy one, 
and that no doubt a considerable portion of the revenue 
was devoted to the building. Even as it was some of 
the work does not seem to have been very good, for in 
1506 the great central tower which stood at the inter- 
section of the nave, choir, and transepts, either fell or 
showed such signs of impending disaster that it had to 
be taken down. It reached to a height of 198 feet 
(including the spire), and must have been a stately 
structure, for the rebuilding, though begun in 1507, 
was not completed till 1538, and from that time till the 
Reformation the structure remained perfect. In 156S, 
however, the privy council, hard pressed by their 
necessities, appointed the Earl of Huntly Sheriff of 
Aberdeen and Elgin, with some others, ' to take the lead 
from the cathedral churches of Aberdeen and Elgin, and 
sell the same ' for the maintenance of Regent Moray's 
soldiers. The vessel freighted with the metal had, 
however, scarcely left the harbour of Aberdeen on her 
way to Holland, where the plunder was to be sold, 


when she sank with all her cargo. From that time 
onward the cathedral, on which so much care and 
thought had been spent, was long left exposed to the 
ravages of wind and weather. In 1637 the rafters of 
the choir, which had been standing without cover, were 
blown down, and in 1640 Gilbert Ross, minister of 
Elgin, ' with the assistance of the young laird of Innes, 
the laird of Brodie, and others, all ardent Covenanters, ' 
broke down the carved screen and woodwork inside, and 
destroyed it. In the presbytery records it is minuted 
on 24 Nov. 1640 that 'that day Mr Gilbert Ross 
regreatted in Presbyterie the imagerie in the rood loft 
of the Chanrie Kirk, yerfor the moderator and the said 
Mr Gilbert was appointed to speak to my Lord of 
Murray for demolishing yrof The 'demolishing' was 
carried out on 28 Dec. , and Spalding, who records the 
circumstance, tells also that the minister was anxious 
to use the timber for firewood, but that every night the 
kindling log went out, and so the attempt was given 
up. The tracery of the AV window is said to have been 
destroyed between 1650 and 1660 by a party of Crom- 
well's soldiers. The walls remained pretty entire down 
to 1711, when on Easter Sunday the foundations of the 
great central tower gave way, and the structure falling 
to the westward, destroyed the whole of the nave of the 
building and part of the transepts. The mass of rubbish 
became at ouce a ' prey to every needy adventurer in 
want of stones to build a dyke, a barn, or a byre,' till 
1807, when, through the exertions of Mr Joseph King 
of Newmill, a wall was built round the churchyard, and 
a keeper's house was erected. In 1816 the attention of 
the Barons of the Exchequer, who claim the walls and 
all the area within as belonging to the Cro'wn, was 
called to the ruinous state of the buildings, which have 
been from that time onwards most diligently cared for 
by the Crown authorities. Some idea of the former 
condition of things may be formed when it is remem- 
bered that John Shanks, the first keeper, who was 
appointed to superintend the ruins in 1825, cleared out 
and disposed of 3000 barrow-loads of rubbish. 

Like all the churches of the time, the cathedral 
stood E and W, and had the form of a Jerusalem or 
Passion Cross. The principal entrance was at the W 
end, between two lofty square towers. On each side 
of the nave was a double aisle. The aisle on the S side 
of the chancel, which is known as St Mary's aisle, is 
still pretty entire, and so is the chapter-house, which 
stands near the angle between the N transept and the 
chancel. The great centre tower rose at the intersection 
of the nave, choir, and transepts. The western towers, 
which are still pretty entire, rise to the height of 84 
feet. The communication between the different floors 
was by means of circular stairs in one of the angles in 
each tower. The great entrance is in the wall between, 
and consists of a finely carved pointed arch, 24 feet 
high, which again divides into two pointed doorways. 
The ornamented space between, at the top, is said to 
have contained a statue of the Virgin, and the other 
niches may have been for statues of some of the saints. 
Above this is the great pointed western window, 28 feet 
high, which must at one time have been filled with 
elaborate tracery, but so completely did Cromwell's men 
do their work, that of this now not a scrap remains. 
The great gateway is entered by a flight of steps, and 
leads to the nave, where the numerous and splendid 
processions used to take place, while the multitudes who 
witnessed them were present in the aisles at the sides, 
which were separated from the nave by rows of stately 
pillars rising up to support the roof. Pillars and roof 
are now alike gone, and only the bases of the former 
remain. Between the nave and the choir, where the 
rites were performed, stood the pillars that supported 
the walls of the great central tower, and on each side 
were the transepts. The choir extended eastward to the 
high altar, beyond which was the Lady Chapel. The S 
aisle and transept were dedicated to St Peter and St Paul, 
and the N aisle to St Thomas h Becket, the martyr. 
The crossing was separated from the choir by a screen, 
on the E side of which was a painting representing 




the D.iy of Juilgment, and on the W was a representa- 
tion of the Crucilision. This "was destroyed in 1646, 
as has been already noticed, by some zealous Reformers. 
Spalding records it as very wonderful, that although the 
screen had been standing exposed to the weather from 
the time of the Reformation, ' and not a whole window 
to save the same from storm, snow, sleet, and wet, ' yet 
the painting ' was so excellently done that the colours 
and stars had never faded, but kept whole and sound. ' 
Some remains of painting may still be ti'aced on the 
arch of the recess in St Mary's aisle, over the statue 
of Bishop John "Winchester, who died in 1458. The 
high altar stood on the spot now occupied by the 
granite monument to the Rev. Lachlan Shaw, one of the 
ministers of the parish, and the iirst historian of the 
province of Moray. The altar was reached by an ascent 
of three steps, and must have been very strongly lighted, 
as the eastern gable immediately behind is pierced by two 
rows of slender lancet - headed windows, with five in 
each row, and these are again surmounted by the 
circidar eastern ivindow. The choir and the nave were 
also lighted by a double row of windows with pointed 
arches, the lower range being the largest, and both tiers 
ran along the whole extent of the church. The stone- 
work intervening between the windows on both tiers 
was constructed so as to form a corridor round the 
whole biulding. The windows were filled with richly 
tinted glass, fragments of which have been found 
amongst the ruins. The chapter-house, attached to 
the northern cloister, is extremely elegant. It is later 
in style than the other parts of the building, and was 
probably buUt diu'ing the incumbency of one of the 
Bishop Stewarts, of whom there were three, in the latter 
part of the 15th century. At all events, there are on 
the roof three Stewart coats of arms. It is an octagon 
with an elaborately groined roof. The groins spring 
from the angles, meet at fine bosses, and again separate 
to reunite in the centre in the gi'eat ' Prentice ' Pillar, 
which is 9 feet in circumference, and is a very beautiful 
specimen of the workmanship of the period. One side 
of the octagon is occupied by the door, and each of the 
other seven is pierced by a large window. In the 
interior, over the doorway, are five niches — a row of four 
and one by itself over. The four are said to have held 
statues of the four evangelists, while the solitary one 
above contained a figure of the Saviour, but this seems 
doubtful. Opposite the doorway is the niche reached 
by steps, where the throne of the bishop was placed, 
and the space on either side was occupied by the stalls 
of the dignitaries who sat in council with him. The 
chapter-house is richly ornamented with sculptured 
figures, and it now also contains gi'otesque heads and 
various other fragments of carving, which have been 
found in clearing out the ruins. It is like all the 
choice portions of the ecclesiastical buildings of the 
Middle Ages, known as the ' Apprentice Aisle, ' having 
been bmlt, according to the curious but hackneyed 
legend, by an apprentice in the absence of his master, 
who from envy of its excellence mm-dered him on his 
return — a legend so general (See Roslin) that probably 
it never applied to any cathedral in particular, but 
originated in the mysticisms of those incorporations of 
Freemasons who in the Middle Ages traversed Europe, 
furnished with papal bulls, and ample privileges to 
train proficients in the theory and practice of masonry 
and architecture. On the E side of the entrance to the 
chapter-house is a small dark chamber which was used 
as a lavatory. It has an interesting association with 
General Anderson, who left the fortune with which the 
institution at the E end of the town, now known as 
Anderson's Institution, was built, for the stone basin 
here was his cradle. The dimensions of the cathedral 
are as follows : — length from E to W, including towers, 
289 feet ; breadth of nave and side aisles, 87 feet ; 
breadth of choir including walls and aisles, 79 feet ; 
length across transepts including walls, 120 feet ; 
height of W towers, 84 feet ; height of E turrets, 60 
feet ; height of middle tower, including spire, 198 feet ; 
height of grand entrance, 24 feet; height of chapter- 

house, 34 feet ; breadth of chapter -house, including 
walls, 37 feet ; height of great western window, 27 feet ; 
diameter of eastern circular window, 12 feet ; height of 
side walls, 43 feet ; breadth of side aisles, 18 feet. 

The chapter consisted of 22 canons, who resided within 
the chanonry or college, to the boundary-wall of which 
reference has already been made, and memorials of which 
appear in the names of North College Street and South 
College Street, as well as in the modern mansion-houses of 
North College and South College, the former being the 
residence of the Dean — whose memory is embalmed in 
the adjoining flat along the river kno\\Ti as Deanshaugh, 
and the bend beyond known as Dean's Crook — and the 
latter of the Sub-Dean. Duffus Manse and Unthank 
Manse — residences of the canons who were ministers of 
Duffus and Unthank — which stood at the N end of 
King Street, remained till the early part of the present 
century ; the other 18 had disappeared long before. 
The canons were chosen from the clergy of the diocese 
and officiated in the cathedral, each receiving for his 
services over and above the revenues of his vicarage in 
the country parish, whence he was chosen, a manse and 
garden in the college, and a portion of land called a pre- 
bendum. The dignified clergy were the Dean, who 
was minister of Auldearn ; the Archdeacon, who was 
minister of Forres ; the Chanter, who was minister of 
Alves ; the Treasurer, who was minister of Kinneddar ; 
the Chancellor, who was minister of Inveraven ; 
the Sub-Dean, who was minister of Dallas ; and 
the Sub-Chanter, who was minister of Rafford. The 
Bishop had civil, criminal, and ecclesiastical courts and 
officers, and his power within his diocese — which com- 
prehended the present counties of Moray and Nairn, and 
part of those of Aberdeen, Banff, and Inverness — was 
almost supreme. The first Bishop of Moray on record 
is Gregory, who held the See in the reign of Alexander 
I. and the beginning of that of David I. There were 28 
Roman CathoHe and 8 Protestant Bishops — the last of the 
former being Patrick Hepburn, an uncle of the notori- 
ous Earl of Ijothwell. The Bishop's town residence, or 
the Bishop's Palace, as it is commonly called, stands 
close to the SW corner of the enclosing-wall of the 
cathedral. The northern part is supposed to have been 
erected by Bishop John Innes about 1406, but besides 
his initials it bears also the arms of one of the bishops 
of the name of Stewart, probably David. The S wing 
was built by Bishop Patrick Hepburn, and bears his 
arms and initials, with the date 1557. Soon after the 
Reformation it was granted by the Crown to Alexander 
Seton, Earl of Dunfermline, who lived a considerable time 
in it, and from whom it got the name of Dimfermline 
House. Probably the Bishops never lived much in it, 
as they had their principal residence at Spynie Castle. 

The revenues of the bishopric were no doubt at first 
very limited, but by the bounty of successive kings, 
nobles, and private individuals, they afterwards became 
very ample. King William the Lyon was a liberal donor. 
At a very early period he granted to the See the tenth 
of all his returns from Moray. Grants of forests, lands, 
and fishings were also made by Alexander II., David 
II. , and other sovereigns, besides the Earls of Moray, 
Fife, etc. The rental for the year 1563, as taken by the 
steward of the bishop, was £1649, 7s. 7d. (Scots), besides 
a variety of articles paid in kind. At this period, how- 
ever, the revenue had been greatly dilapidated, particu- 
larly by Bishop Hepburn, and a large proportion of the 
church lands had been alienated, the full rents were not 
stated, and probably the rental then given did not 
amount to a third of the actual income in the flourishing 
period of the bishopric. The estates with the patronages 
belonging to the bishop remained vested in the Crown 
from the Reformation till 1590, when James VI. as- 
signed them to Alexander Lindsay, a son of the Earl 
of Crawford, and grandson of Cardinal Beaton, for 
payment of 10,000 gold crowns which he had lent to 
his Majesty when in Denmark, Lindsay being at the 
same time created Baron Spynie. The King afterwards 
prevailed on Lord Spynie to resign the lands in order 
that they might be appropriated to the use of the Pro- 


testant bishops of Moray, but the rights of patronage 
remained with tlie Spynie family till its extinction in 
1671, when they were reassumed by the Crown as uUi- 
mushmrcs. They were granted by charter in 1674 to 
James, Earl of Airlie, by whom they were disponed to 
the Marquis of Huntly in 1682. 

The burying-grouud about the cathedral contains 
many quaint and curious monuments, the inscriptions 
on some of the 17th and ISth centmy stones being 

Particularly noteworthy. On one dated 1777 a hus- 
and records of his wife that — 

* She was remarkable for 
Exact, Prudent, Genteel Economy ; 
Ready, Equal Good Sence ; 
A Constant flow of cheerful Spirits ; 
An uncommon sweetness of natural temper ; 
A great warmth of Heart Affection, 
And an early and continued piety.' 

And he adds that ' strict justice demands this tribute to 
her memory.' On another, with the date 1687, are four 
very pointed lines — 

* This world is a Citie full of streets, 
And death is the mercat that all men meets. 
If lyfe were a thinij that monic could buy, 
The poor could not live and the rich would not die' 

The stone coffin near the S entrance is said to have con- 
tained the body of King Duncan, previous to its re- 
moval and re-interment at lona. St Mary's aisle was 
the burial-place of the Gordon family, the tomb in the 
E end being that of the first Earl of Huntly (date 1470). 
The blue slab in the N"VV corner marks the bmial -place 
of some of the bishops, and the great blue slab in the 
chancel, close by, marks the grave of Bishop Andrew de 
Moravia, the founder of the cathedral. The granite 
monument to the Rev. Lachlan Shaw has been already 
mentioned. In a line with the wall of the chancel and 
of the N transept is an old Celtic pillar which was found 
in 1823 about 2 feet below the surface of the High Street, 
near the site of old St GUes Church. It is 6 feet 
long, 2J broad, and 1 thick, but is evidently incomplete. 
On the obverse is a hunting party with men, horses, 
and hawks, and, on the reverse, is a cross covered with 
-so-called Runic knots, and iigures in the attitude of 

Arms of Elgin. 

■supplication. The arms of Elgin are Saint Giles in a 
pastoral habit holding a book in his right hand and 
a pastoral staff in his left. The motto is Sic Hut ad 

The new parish church which stands in the centre of 
High Street is one of the most elegant structures in the 
north of Scotland. It was erected in 182S at a cost of 
nearly £10,000. The length, including walls, is 96 feet, 
the breadth 60J, and the height from floor to ceiling is 
31 feet. It has at the W end a spacious portico, com- 
posed of six massive Doric fluted columns, surmounted 
by a pediment. At the E end is a tower, with clock and 
bells. The lower part of the tower is square, the upper 
circular, with six fine Corinthian pillars, with a slightly 
dome-shaped roof, and a fiuial. The whole rises to 


a height of 112 feet ; and the upper part is a copy of 
the Choragic monument of Lysicrates. There is sitting 
accommodation for about 2000. There are two Free 
churches, two United Presbyterian churches, an Epis- 
copal church, a Roman Catholic church, a Congrega- 
tional church, a Baptist chapel, and a building in the 
occupation of the Plymouth Brethren. Each of the Free 
churches has a mission hall or children's church in con- 
nection with it. The Assembly Rooms, at the corner 
of High Street and North Street, were erected by the 
Trinity Lodge of Freemasons in 1821. They contain a 
large ball-room and supper-room. There is a public 
subscription reading-room on the ground -floor. The Elgin 
Club (1863) has a fine building in Commerce Street, with 
reading-room, billiard-room, and card-rooms. Near the 
' Little Cross ' is the Museum, belonging to the Elgin 
Literary and Scientific Association. It contains a number 
of interesting and curious objects, and among the fossils 
from the rocks of the neighbom'hood are some specimens 
so rare that they are to be seen nowhere else. The Elgin 
Institution, at the E end of the town, was erected and 
endowed in 1832, from funds, amounting to £70,000, 
bequeathed for the maintenance of aged men and women, 
and the maintenance and education of poor or orphan 
boys or girls, by Lieut. -General Andrew Anderson (1746- 
1S24), who was cradled in the stone basin in the lavatory 
of the cathecb'al, and who rosefrom the position of a private 
soldier to the rank of Major-General in the Honourable 
East India Company's service. The style of the building 
is Grecian, and there is a central circular bell-tower and 
dome. Over the principal entrance to the N is a sculp- 
tured group, representing the founder, with one hand be- 
stowing bread on an aged woman, and with the other hold- 
ing a book before a boy and girl. There is accommodation 
provided for 50 children anii 10 aged persons. The man- 
agement is carried on by a house governor, a female teacher, 
and a matron. On leaving the institution at the age of 
fom-teen, the boys are apprenticed to any trade or occupa- 
tion they may desire, and during their apprenticeship 
have a yearly allowance. Attached to the institution is a 
free school for the education of children whose parents, 
though in narrow circumstances, are still able to maintain 
and clothe them. Standing at the opposite end of the 
town, Gray's Hospital is another memorial of the munifi- 
cence of Elgin's sons. It was built and endowed from 
a fund of £26,000, left by Dr Alexander Gray (1751- 
1808), a native of Elgin, who had acquired a large fortune 
while in the service of the East India Company. The 
hospital is intended for the relief of the sick poor of the 
town and county of Elgin. The building is a handsome 
erection, in the Grecian style, with a projecting portico 
of Doric columns on the eastern front, and a central 
dome which is seen for a long distance round. It forms 
a fine termination for High Street on the W. There is 
a resident physician, and two of the doctors in town visit 
the building daily. Immediately to the W of the hos- 
pital is the Elgin District Lunatic Asylum. It was 
originally built by voluntary assessment in 1834, but 
was greatly enlarged and improved in 1865, when it 
passed into the charge of the Lunacy Board. The Bm'gh 
Com-t-House (1841) and County Buildings (1866) stand 
on the S side of High Street a short distance W from the 
Little Cross. Both buildings are Italian in style, the 
former being very plain, while the latter has rusticated 
work along the lower part. The centre projects, and has 
eight Ionic columns, with frieze and cornice. The court- 
room is 30 feet by 40. There are offices for the procurator- 
fiscal, the county-clerk, the town-clerk, and the sheriff- 
clerk, as well as a room for Council meetings. There are 
two woollen manufactories close to the town — one at the 
E end — Newmill, and the other in Bishopmill. The chief 
textures made are plaids, tweeds, kerseys, and double- 
cloths. There is a brewery immediately to the E of the 
cathedral. There is a flour-mill atlKingsmills close by, 
and also a saw-mill ; and there is a large saw-mill further 
to the S, near the Morayshire railway station. There 
are large nurseries at both ends of the town ; and there 
is also a tan-work near the Lossie, on the N side. There 
is a gas supply and a water supply by gravitation, both. 



now under the charge of the corporation. There is a 
market company, established in 1850, with buildings 
comprising a fish, beef, and vegetable market, a corn 
market hall, and a concert hall, which is let for concerts, 
lectures, and theatrical entertainments. There are a branch 
of the Bible Society, a literary and scientific association, 
two mason lodges, several cricket clubs, a curling club, 
a bowling club owning a fine bowling green, a boating 
club, a football club, and a horticultural society. There 
are six incorporated trades — the hammermen, the 
glovers, the tailors, the shoemakers, the weavers, and 
the square-wriglits. Besides the Bied-House or Alms 
House already mentioned, there are a number of other 
charitable funds and mortifications. The Guildry divides 
an income of upwards of £400 a year for the benefit of 
decayed brethren, and of the widows and children of 
deceased members. The Guildry Society also manage 
the Braco and Laing's Mortifications. There is a chari- 
table fund connected with the Incorporated Trades. 
There are a number of these trusts under the kirk-ses- 
sion, the chief being Petrie's ; and a number under the 
management of the corporation, the chief being the 
Auchry Mortification. The Academy stands in Academy 
Street, near the centre of the to'mi. There is a ' general 
school, ' mentioned in the Eegistrum Moraviense as early 
as 1489 ; and this was no doubt the same as the gi-ammar 
school which we find mentioned in 1535, and which was 
then under the jurisdiction of the magistrates. In 1594 
part of the funds arising from liaison Dieic were granted 
by the Crown for the support of a master to teach music, 
and a 'sang school' was established. The old grammar 
school stood near the top of Commerce Street, which was 
long known as the School Wynd. The schools were 
united when the present buildings were erected in 1800. 
The Academj' was one of the eleven high-class schools 
scheduled in the Education Act of 1872, and then passed 
from the management of the Town Council to that of 
the School-Board. There are four masters for respec- 
tively, classics, mathematics, English, and modern 
languages. Bishopmill public, Elgin girls' public. West 
End public, Auderston's Free, and a Roman Catholic 
school, with respective accommodation for 178, 415, 200, 
255, and 140 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 123, 298, 195, 195, and 77, and grants of £106, 4s. 6d., 
£252, 13s., £196, 3s. 6d., £170, 9s., and £58, 19s. 6d. 
There is also a private day school for boys and girls ; and 
three ladies' boarding and day schools are well attended. 

Elgin has a head post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, branches of 
the Bank of Scotland and the British Linen Co., Cale- 
donian, Commercial, North of Scotland, Royal, and Union 
Banks, a National Securities Savings' Bank, oflices or 
agencies of 48 insurance companies, 5 hotels, and 1 news- 
paper — The Elgin Courant and Courier (1827), published 
every Tuesday and Friday. The chief courts for the 
county are held at Elgin. A weekly market is held on 
Friday. Cattle markets are held fortnightlj' on the second 
and last Friday of every month. Feeing markets are held 
on the last Friday of March for married farm servants, 
on the Friday before 26 May, on the last Friday of July 
for harvest hands, and the Friday before 22 November. 
There is a considerable trade in grain. Coaches run 
on Tuesday and Friday to Garmouth and Kingston-on- 

Elgin unites with Banff and Macduff, Cullen, Inverurie, 
Kintore, and Peterhead to form the Elgin Burghs, which 
district returns one member to Parliament (always a 
Liberal since 1837). The Corporation consists of a pro- 
vost, i bailies, and 12 councillors. The revenue of the 
burgh was £715 in 1832, £835 in 1860, £803 in 1870, 
and £762 in 1881. Under the Lindsay Act, the Town 
Council act as Police Commissioners, and under a 
special Road Act for the county and burgh, they act as 
Road Trustees for the burgh. The police force is separate 
from the county, and consists of a superintendent, a 
sergeant, and 4 constables. The municipal constitu- 
ency was 272 in 1854, 750 in 1875, and 921 in 1882 ; 
while the parliamentary constituency was 756 in 1875, 
and 930 in 1882. Annual value of real property 


(1815) £2435, (1845) £9031, 17s., (1872) £22,433, (1831) 
£30,297, 18s. 6d., plus £781 for railways. Pop. of 
the royal hurgh (1831) 4493, (1861) 6403, (1871) 6241, 
(1881) 6286 ; of the parliamentary burgh (1861) 7543, 
(1871) 7340, (1881) 7413, of whom 3257 were males and 
4156 females. Houses (1881) 1396 inhabited, 44 vacant, 
25 building. 

See Shaw's History of the Province of Moray (Edinb. 
1775; new ed., Elgin, 1827; 3d ed., Glasgow, 1882);. 
Young's Annals of Elgin (Elgin, 1879) ; Sinclair's Elgin 
(Lond. 1866); Tajlo-c's Edvjard I. in the North of Scot- 
land (Elgin, 1858) ; Watson's Morayshire Described 
(Elgin, 1868) ; and the Registriim Episcopatus Moravi- 
ensis (edited for the Bannatyne Club by Cosmo Innes,- 
Edinb. 1837). 

Elgin, New, a village, with a public school, in Elgin 
parish, just beyond the municipal boundary of the city, 
3 furlongs S by E of the station. Pop. (1861) 520, (1871) 
559, (1881) 625. 

Elginshire or Moray, a maritime county on the 
southern shore of the Moray Firth, forming the central 
division of the old Province of Moray. It used formerly 
to consist of two separate tliough not widely detached 
parts, a portion of Inverness-shire having, by one of 
those zig-zag arrangements that may be traced back to 
the days of feudal jurisdiction, got between the two 
portions. In 1870, however, by ' The Inverness and 
Elgin Coimty Boundaries Act,' a part of the united 
parishes of Cromdale and Inverallan, including the vil- 
lage of Grantown, was transferred from Inverness to 
Elgin, and portions of the parishes of Abernethy and 
Duthil from Elgin to Inverness. The population of the 
former district was (1861) 3377 ; and of the latter in the 
same year 2750, so that Elginshire gained somewhat in 
population by the change. The new arrangement has 
proved in many ways advantageous, and has rendered 
the county more compact. Elginshire is bounded on 
the N by the Moray Firth, on the E and SE by Banff- 
shire, on the S and SW by Inverness-shire, and on the 
W by Nairnshire ; and on the centre of the western 
border it surrounds two small detached portions of the 
latter county. Its gi-eatest length from NE to SW, 
from Lossiemouth to Dulnan Bridge in Strathspey, is 
34 miles ; its greatest breadth from E to W, from 
Bridge of Haughs near Keith to Macbeth's HOlock 
on the Hardmuir to the W of Forres, is 29J miles. 
The coast -line along the shore at high -water mark 
measures 30 miles, and a straight line from the mouth 
of the Spey on the E to the sea near Maviston sand- 
hills on the W measures 26 mUes. The total area, 
according to the Ordnance Survey, and inclusive of 
inland waters and foreshores, is 312,378 '810 acres. 
Roughly speaking, the county forms a sort of triangle, 
with a sharp apex to the NW, and somewhat blunt 
corners to the S and NE, and in this triangle the 
northern 'and western sides measure 25 miles, and the 
south-eastern side somewhat more — all the measure- 
ments being in straight lines. Over 25 miles of the 
accurate boundary on the"E is traced by the river Spey, 
and over 24 on the W by the watershed along the north- 
eastern prolongation of the Monadhliath Mountains ; 
but everywhere else, except along the Moray Firth, the 
boundary is purely artificial. Starting from the NE 
comer the boundary-line follows the principal channel 
of the Spey for the time being for about 2 miles, and 
then strikes south-eastward through Gordon Castle — 
part of which is in Elginshire and part in Banffshire — 
till it reaches Bridge of Haughs about | mUe to the W 
of Keith. It then skirts the S side of the Highland 
railway to near Mulben station, where it turns abruptly 
away to the S, and takes in a part of the long slope 
of Ben Aigan. Returning to the Highland raCway, it 
skirts the N side of the line as far as the bridge over 
the Spey. From this point it follows the course of 
the Spey for many mUes up as far as Inveraven church, 
when it leaves the river, and takes in a part of Inveraven 
parish, measuring about 2J mQes by 1 mile, passes back 
along the river Aven, and again up the Spey for a mile. 
It then strikes to the SW along the watershed of the 


Cromdale Hills, but returns to the Spey about 2 miles 
■due E of Grantown, and keeps to the river as far as 
Dulnan Bridge. It then turns up the Dulnan for 
about a mile, and from that point proceeds in a direction 
more or less northerly (not taking minor irregularities 
into account), until it reaches the Moray Firth about 5 
miles W of the mouth of the river Findhorn. The 
lower part of the county is flat, and remarkable for its 
amenity of climate, high cultivation, and beauty of 
landscape, in which respects it holds the highest position 
in the northern lowlands. The only exception is a part 
between the mouth of the Findhorn and the western 
boundary, which is covered by a mass of sand constantly 
in motion in the slightest breeze of wind, and known as 
the Cidbin Sands. Culbin was at one time almost the 
richest and most fertile part of the county, but now 
some 3600 acres are little better than an arid waste. 
In 1693 the rental was worth what might be represented 
by £6000 of our present money, but in 1694 or 1695 
sand began to blow in from the shore, and rapidly 
overwhelmed the whole district. From the Findhorn 
eastward to Burghead, the tract along the coast is also 
barren and sandy, and from Lossiemouth eastward to 
the mouth of the Spey there are a series of great gravel 
ridges formed from the boulders brought down by the 
Spey, which have been in the course of ages carried 
westward by the inshore cm-rent, and thrown up by the 
sea. The district adjoining the coast along the parishes 
•of Urquhart, St Andrews-Lhanbryd, Drainie, Duifus, 
Spjmie, Alves, Kinloss and Dyke, and Moy is rich and 
fertile with hea^'y loam and strong clay soils, and is so 
flat that it might be mistaken for a portion of England 
set down there by accident. High wooded ridges run- 
ning through Alves, Elgin, and St Andi'ews-Lhanhryd 
separate this from another flat district, not, however, of 
so great extent as the last, nor so level, extending 
through Speymouth, Elgin, and Forres, and sweeping 
up to the S to the beginning of the hill country, which 
occupies the S part of the county, where the land is 
mostly covered mth heather and given over to gTouse 
and the red deer, and where cultivation, when carried 
on at all, is under much harder conditions of soil and 
climate than in the rich and fertile ' Laigh of Moray.' 
There are, however, along the courses of all the streams 
numerous, though small, flats or haughs of great fer- 
tility. The SOU of the arable lands of the county may 
be classified under the general names of sand, clay, 
loam, and reclaimed moss. Sand, or a light soil in 
which sand predominates, extends, with inconsiderable 
■exceptions, over the eastern half of the lowlands, or 
most of Speymouth, Urc^uhart, St Andrews-Lhanbryd, 
and Drainie, the eastern part of Spynie, part of Elgin, 
and the lower lands of Birnie and Dallas. A clay soil 
prevails throughout Dufi'us and Alves, part of Spynie, 
and small strips in the sandy district. A loamy soil 
covers extensive tracts in Duffus, Alves, and Spj'nie, 
■and nearly the whole of Kinloss, Forres, Dyke, the 
lower lands of RaSord and Edenkillie, and the alluvial 
grounds of the highland straths. A clay loam covers a 
considerable part of Knockando. Moss, worked into a 
condition of tillage, occurs to a considerable extent in 
Knockando, and in strips in the flat districts in the low 
situatious. It is superincumbent on sand, and is so 
peculiar in quality as to emit, on a hot day, a sulphureous 
smell, and to strongly aifect the colour and formation of 
of rising grain : it occurs also on the flats and slopes of 
the lower hUls of the uplands, peaty in quality, but 
corrected by the admi.xture of sand. The far extending 
upland regions are prevailing moss and heath. 

Though the low district has a northern exposure, the 
■climate is so mUd that the hardier kinds of fruit — all 
the varieties of the apple, and most of the varieties of 
the pear and the plum — may, with very little attention, 
be grown abundantly ; and fruits of greater delicacy — 
the apricot, the nectarine, and the peach — ripen suffi- 
ciently on a wall in the open air. The wind blows from 
some point near the 'W during about 260 days in the 
j'ear, and in summer it is for the most part a gentle 
breeze, coming oftener from the S than from the N side 


of the W. TVinds from the NW or K generally bring 
the heaviest and longest rains. The district has no 
hills sufficiently elevated to attract the clouds while 
they sail from the mass of mountains in the S towards 
the heights of Sutherland. The winter is singularly 
mild, and snow lies generally for only a very biief 
period. In the upland districts rain falls to the amount 
of 5 or 6 inches more than the mean depth in the low 
country, and there the seasons are often boisterous and 
severe, and unpropitious weather delays and, by no 
means seldom altogether, defies the elTorts of the former. 

Rather more than half the county is drained by 
the Spey and its tributaries. Of the latter the most 
important are the Aven and the Dulnan, neither of 
which have, however, more than a very small portion 
of their course within the county. The middle part of 
the county is drained by the river Lossie. It rises near 
the centre of the upper part of the shire, and has a very 
sinuous course in a general north-easterly direction, till 
it enters the sea at Lossiemouth. Its principal tribu- 
taries are the Lochty or Black Burn, the Burn of Glen 
Latterich, and the Burn of Shogle. Tlie western part 
is di-ained by the Findhorn and its tributaries. The 
whole course of the Findhorn is very beautiful and 
picturesque, till it expands, near the mouth, into the 
open sheet of Findhorn Loch or Findhorn Bay. There 
is at the mouth, between the village of Findhorn and 
the Culbin Sands, a dangerous and much-dreaded bar. 
The principal tributaries are the Divie and the Dorbock. 
The latter issues from Lochindorb, and flows parallel 
to the western boundary of the county, at a distance of 
about a mile, along a course of about 10 miles, wdien, 
after uniting with the Divie, the streams fall into the 
Findhorn near Eelugas. The prmcipal lochs are — Loch- 
indorb, which lies among the mountains, near the 
point where Elgin, Nairn, and Inverness unite. It is 
2J miles long and 5 furlongs broad at the widest 
part. The Loch of Spynie, now only 5 furlongs long 
by 14 furlong wide, was formerly an extensive lake 
3 miles long and f mile wide, but by the drainage 
operations carried on from time to time between 1779 
and 1860, the whole of the loch was drained except- 
ing a mere pool a little to the W of the old Castle 
of Spynie. The present sheet of water has been re- 
formed by the proprietor of Pitgaveny. Loch-na-Bo 
{i X 14 furl.) lies 1 mile to the SE of the village of 
Lhanbryd. It contains a large number of excellent 
trout. The banks are prettil}' wooded, though up to 
1773 the surrounding tract was merelj' a barren heathy 
moor. There are a number of chalj'beate springs in the 
county, but none of them are at all distinguished for 
their medicinal properties. The surface of the county 
rises gi'adually from N to S, the ridges getting higher 
and higher till between Creag-an-Tarmachan and the 
Cromdale Hills, a height of 2328 feet is attained. The 
principal elevations going from E to "W and from N to 
S are Findlay Seat (life feet), Eildon or Heldun Hill 
(767), HUl of the Wangle (1020), Knock of Braemory 
(1493), James Roy's Cairn (1691), Cairn-an-Loin (1797), 
Craig Tiribeg (1586), Carn Sgriob (1590), Creag-an-Eigh 

Geology. — The geology of the Morayshire plain has 
given rise to considerable controversy. For a time 
indeed, the age of the reptiliferous sandstones N of the 
town of Elgin was one of the most keenly disputed 
points in Scottish geology. They had been classed for 
many years with the Old Red Sandstone formation ; but 
when Professor Huxley announced in 1858 that the 
Elgin reptiles had marked affinities with certain Tiiassic 
forms, geologists began to waver in this belief. The 
subsequent discovery of the remains ot Ht/perodapcdon — 
a tjqjical Elgin reptile — in beds of undoubted Triassic 
age, in England and in India, caused some of the keenest 
supporters of the old classification to abandon it alto- 
gether. It must be admitted, however, that the strati- 
graphical evidence is far from being satisfactory, owing 
to the great accumulation of glacial and post-glacial 

The oldest rocks in the county belong to the great 



crystalline series composing the central Highlands, of 
which excellent sections are exposed in the Fiudhorn 
between Coulmony and the Sluie, in the Divie, the 
higher reaches of the Lossie, and in the streams draining 
the western slopes of the valley of the Spey. They 
consist mainly of alternations of grey micaceous gneiss, 
quartzites, and mica schists, the prevalent type being 
gneissose ; and with these are associated, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Grantown, an important bed of crystalline 
limestone. In the Findhorn basin they form a well- 
marked syncline, extending in a SE direction from the 
bridge of Daltulieh to the junction of the Dorbock with 
the Divie. This trend, however, is quite exceptional, 
for when we pass eastwards to the valleys of the Lossie 
and the Spey, they assume their normal NE and SW 
strike. As the prevalent dip of the strata is towards 
the SE, it is evident that there is a gradually ascending 
series in that direction. In the valley of the Spey they 
plunge underneath the quartzites, which are so well 
displayed at Boat of Bridge, on the slopes of Ben Aigan, 
and at Craigellachie ; and these are overlaid by the 
grand series of schists containing actinolite, andaliisite, 
and staurolite that cover wide areas in Banffshire. 

The Old Red Sandstone strata, which come next in 
order, rest on a highly eroded platform of these crystal- 
line rocks. From the manner in which they wind round 
the slopes of the hills formed by the metamorphic series, 
sweeping up the valleys and filling ancient hollows, it 
is evident that the old land surface must have under- 
gone considerable denudation prior to Old Red Sandstone 
times. Within the limits of the county there are repre- 
sentatives both of the upper and lower divisions of this 
formation, which differ widely in lithological character 
and organic contents. The members of the lower divi- 
sion are displayed on the banks of the Spey ISf of Boat 
of Bridge. At the base there is a coarse breeeiated con- 
glomerate, which, though it attains a thickness of about 
600 feet on the right bank of the river, thins away to 
a few feet when traced to the N. This massive con- 
glomerate is overlaid by red sandstones, shales, and 
clays in the neighbourhood of Dipple, and from the 
limestone nodules embedded in the shales numerous 
ichthyolites have been obtained. This fossiliferous 
band, commonly known as the fish-bed, forms an im- 
portant horizon in the Lower Old Red Sandstone of the 
Moray Firth basin. There can be little doubt that the 
outcrop at Dipple is on the same horizon as the well- 
known bed in the Tynet Burn, about 3 miles to the 
NE, which is one of the most celebrated localities in 
the North of Scotland for well-preserved ichthyolites. 
Amongst the species obtained from these localities are 
the following : — Cheiracanthits Miirchisoni, Diplacanthus 
striatus, Ostcolepis major, and Glyptolepis leptopterus. 
Like the succession in TjTiet Burn, the Dipple fish-bed 
is overlaid by coarse conglomerate passing upwards into 
red pebbly sandstones, which are well seen at the bridge 
of Fochabers. The sandstones on the left bank of the 
Spey, above the fish-bed have yielded some large speci- 
mens, which are probably fragments oi Pterygotus. This 
fossil, which is characteristic of the Upper Silurian and 
Lower Old Red Sandstone formations, has been found in 
the flagstones of Forfarshire, Caithness, and Orkney. 
N of the bridge of Fochabers the succession in the Spey 
is obscured by alluvial deposits ; but in the Tynet and 
Gollachie sections there is an ascending series to certain 
contemporaneous volcanic rocks, which are of special 
importance, inasmuch as they are the only relics of 
volcanic activity during this period in the Moray Firth 
basin. From the persistent NNW inclination of the 
strata in the Spey and Tynet sections, we would natu- 
rally expect to find the members of the lower division 
extending westwards across the Morayshire plain. But 
with the exception of the great conglomerate filling the 
ancient hollow of the vale of Rothes, which may justly 
be regarded as the equivalent of the conglomerate in 
the Spey, there is no trace of the members of the lower 
division till we pass westwards to Lethen Bar in Nairn- 
shire. They are overlapped by the Upper Old Red 
Sandstone strata, which sweep up the valleys of the 


Lossie and the Findhorn till they rest directly on the 
metamorphic rocks. In other words, there is in this- 
area a marked unconformity between the upper and 
lower divisions, which is equally apparent in the count}' 
of Nairn. The boundary line of the upper division 
extends from Glensheil on the Muckle Burn, eastwards 
by Sluie on the Findhorn, thence curving northwards 
round the slope of the Monaughty Hill, and winding up 
the Black Burn as far as Pluscarden Abbey. From this 
point it may be traced eastwards across the Lossie to 
Scaat Craig at the mouth of the Glen of Rothes. In 
the neighbourhood of Dallas there is a small outlier of 
thick-bedded sandstones, which, in virtue of the fish 
scales embedded in them, must be grouped with the 
upper division. 

Lithologically the Upper Old Red strata are very 
different from the older series. The dominant feature 
of the division is the occurrence of massive grey and 
yellow sandstones, full of false bedding, with occasional 
layers of conglomerate. By far the finest section of 
these strata is exposed on the Findhorn, between Sluie 
and Cothall, where the river has cut a deep gorge 
through them, exposing magnificent cliffs of the mas- 
sive sandstones. They are inclined to the NNW, at 
angles varying from 5° to 10°, and in the course of 
this section upwards of 1000 feet of strata are exposed. 
At Cothall they pass underneath a remarkable bed of 
cornstone, containing calcite, arragonite, iron pyrites, 
and chalcedony, which is overlaid on the right bank of 
the river by red marls. By means of small faults, which 
are well seen on the left bank, the cornstone is repeated 
towards the N. To the S of Elgin the members of this 
series are exposed on the Lossie and at Scaat Craig 
where they have a similar inclination ; but, owing to 
the covering of superficial deposits, no continuous sec- 
tion is visible. At Glasgreen, near New Elgin, there is 
a band of cornstone closely resembling that at Cothall 
and apparently occupying the same horizon, which can 
be traced at intervals in a NE direction to the Boar's 
Head rock on the sea-coast. Again, to the N of Elgin, the 
j'ounger series extends along the ridge from Bishopmill 
to Alves. They are admirably displayed in the quarries 
at the former locality, where they have been extensively 
worked for building purposes. The fossils obtained from 
the Upper Old Red strata consist of fish scales, bones, 
and teeth, and, though by no means plentiful, they have 
been found at various localities. They occur in the 
Whitemyre quarry on the Muckle Burn, in the Fiud- 
horn cliffs, at Alves, in the Bishopmill and Dallas 
quarries, and again at Scaat Craig. The last of these 
is most widely known. Here they are embedded in a 
conglomeratic matrix, and show signs of having been 
subjected to aqueous action. The characteristic fossUs 
of the upper division are Holopitychius nohilissimiis, 
Deiidroclus latus, D. strigatus, and PtericJdhys major. 

In the tract of gi'ound lying to the N of the Quarry 
Wood ridge, the strata are met with which have given 
rise to so much controversy. They consist of pale grey 
and yellow sandstones in which the reptilian remains have 
been found, and with these is associated a cherty and 
calcareous band, commonly known as ' the cherty rock 
of Stotfield. ' This term was first applied to it by the 
Rev. George Gordon, LL.D., of Birnie, to whose valu- 
able researches, extending over half a century, geologists 
are specially indebted for the information they possess 
regarding this district. Along mth the calcareous por- 
tion of the Stotfield rook there are nodular masses of 
flint, and throughout the matrix, crystals of galena, 
iron pyrites, anil blende are disseminated. Attempts 
have recently been made to work the galena at this 
locality, which have not been attended with success. 
This rock is also exposed at Inverngie and to the S 
of Loch Spynie, where, as at Stotfield, it rests on the 
reptiliferous sandstones. The latter are visible at Spynie, 
in the Findrassie quarry, and on the N slope of the 
Quarry Wood. They also extend along the ridge be- 
tween Burghead and Lossiemouth, being admirably dis- 
played on the sea-cliffs between these localities. In this 
interesting section one may study to advantage the 


lithological characters of the strata. Indeed the false- 
bedded character of the sandstones is so conspicuous 
that it is no easy matter to determine their true dip. 

In endeavouring to solve the problem of the strati- 
graphical position of the beds now referred to, it is of 
the utmost importance to remember that the reptiliferous 
sandstones are never seen in contact with the strata, yield- 
ing Upper Old Jicd Sandstone fish-remains. Though they 
occur near to each other in the neighbourhood of Bishop- 
mUl and the Quarry Wood, there is no continuous section 
showing their physical relations. Along the boundary 
line at these localities, the strata in both cases dip to 
the NNW, and to all appearance the angle of inclination 
is much the same. It is not to be wondered at, therefore, 
that the advocates of the old classification persistently 
maintained the existence of a perfectly conformable pas- 
sage between the Upper Old Bed beds and the reptili- 
ferous sandstones. The two sets of strata have many 
points in common, and were it not for the remarkable 
palfEontological evidence, they might naturally be re- 
garded as members of the same formation. The sugges- 
tion has been made by Professor Judd, whose contribution 
to the literature of the subject is by far the most valu- 
able which has recently appeared, that the reptiliferous 
sandstones are thrown against the Upper Old Red beds 
by powerful faults. But no trace of these faults is to 
be seen on the surface along the lines indicated by him, 
save that on the shore at Lossiemouth, which brings the 
patch of oolitic strata against the cherty rock of Stot- 
field. Quite recently, however, Mr Linn of H.M. 
Geological Survey has discovered fish scales of Upper 
Old Red age in flagstones, on the raised beach W of 
Stotfield. These flagstones dip to the NNW at a gentle 
angle, and it is possible that they may form part of a 
small ridge of Upper Old Red sandstone protruding 
through the younger strata. In that case the reptili- 
ferous sandstones may probably rest with a gentle un- 
conformity on the older strata. 

The fossils which have invested these beds with special 
importance belong to three species, viz. : Stagonole2ns 
Eoiertsoni, Telcrpeton Elgincnse, and Hyperodapiedon 
Gordoni. The remains of these reptiles have been 
found in the sandstones at Lossiemouth, at Spynie, and 
in the Findrassie quarry, while in the Ouramingston 
sandstones only footprints have been obtained. The 
Stagonolcpis, which, according to recent discoveries, must 
have been about 18 feet long, was a crocodile allied to the 
modern Caiman in form. Its body was protected by 
dorsal and ventral scutes ; and it possessed elongated 
jaws after the manner of existing Gavials. The Telcr- 
peton and Hy^ierodapedon were species of lizards, the 
former measuring about 10 inches and the latter about 
6 feet in length. It is interesting to observe that the 
terrestrial lizard, Telcrpeton, differs but little from exist- 
ing forms, thus furnishing a remarkable example of a per- 
sistent tjrpe of organisation. The Hypierodapedon bears 
a close resemblance to the existing Sphenodon of New 
Zealand. The important discovery of the remains of 
Eyperodapicdon in undoubted Triassic strata in War- 
wickshire, Devonshire, and in Central India ultimately 
led geologists to regard the reptiliferous sandstones of 
Elgin as of the same age. The palfeontological evidence 
from the Elgin sandstones is quite in keeping with this 
conclusion, for in no single instance have reptilian 
remains been found in the same beds with Upper Old 
Red fishes, though the strata have long been extensively 
quarried, and though careful attention has been paid to 
any indications of organic remains. On the whole, 
then, the evidence bearing on this long disputed ques- 
tion seems to be in favour of grouping the reptiliferous 
sandstones with the Trias. 

On the shore at Lossiemouth, to the N of the fault 
bounding the cherty rock of Stotfield, a small patch of 
greenish white sandstones occurs, which, from the series 
of fossils obtained by Mr Grant, must be classed -n-ith 
the Lower Oolite. 

Throughout the plain of Moray there is a remarkable 
development of glacial and post-glacial deposits. Indeed, 
owing to the great accumulation of these deposits the 


striD3 left by the ancient glaciers are not readily found. 
A beautiful example, however, occurs on the hill of 
Alves, where the direction of the markings is ESK, 
which is in keeping with the general trend over the 
plain along the S side of the Moray Firth. The boulder 
clay in the neighbourhood of Elgin, and in fact in the 
upland districts generally, presents the usual character 
of a tenacious clay with striated stones. It occasionally 
contains intercalated masses of sand and gravel of inter- 
glacial age, indicating considerable climatic changes 
during that period. A remarkable example occurs on 
the left bank of the Dorbock opposite Glenerney, where, 
in a drift section about 100 feet high by aneroid measure- 
ment, three boulder clays are exposed which are separated 
by rudely stratified sands and gravels, the whole series 
being capped by stratified sands and finely laminated 
clays. An important feature connected with the history 
of the glacial deposits in the Elgin district is the occur- 
rence of numerous blocks containing secondary fossils. 
They occur in the boulder clay, and they are likewise 
strewn over the surface of the ground. From an examina- 
tion of the fossils it is evident that the boulders belong to 
the horizons of the Lower and Middle Lias, the Oxford 
clay, and the Upper chalk. Th e most remarkable example 
of a transported mass occurs at Linksfield, which de- 
mands special attention on account of its enormous size. 
Unfortunately the section is now covered up, but from 
the excellent descriptions of Mr Duff and Dr Malcolmson, 
there can be no doubt that the succession of limestones 
and shales yielding fish-remains, Cyp>rides and Estherim, 
rests on boulder clay and is covered by it. The fossils 
obtained from this transported mass do not fix the age 
of the beds with certainty, but they probably belong 
to the horizon of the Rhretic or Lower Lias formations. 

Throughout the district there arc widespread sheets 
of sand and gi'avel, and along the banks of the Spey, 
the Lossie, and the Findhorn there are high-level ter- 
races which are evidently of fluviatile origin. They are 
grandly developed in the Findhorn basin along the bor- 
ders of Elginshire and Nairnshire, and their character- 
istic features may be most conveniently described in 
connection with the post-glacial deposits of the latter 
count}'. The 100, 50, and 25 feet raised beaches are 
well represented within the limits of the county. The 
lowest of these forms a belt of flat land stretching 
from Lossiemouth westwards by Old Duffus Castle to 
the plain S of Burghead. It is evident, therefore, that 
the ridge between Lossiemouth and Inverugie must 
have formed an island in comparatively recent times. 
This sea-beach also forms a broad strip of low-lying 
ground between Burghead and the western limit of the 
county, and at various points it is obscured by great 
accumulations of blown sand, of which the most remark- 
able are the Culbin sandhills. As these deposits are 
continued into the adjoining county of Nairn their 
striking features and their mode of formation will be 
described in connection mth that county. Between 
Lossiemouth and the Spey the present beach is bounded 
by a series of ridges which are evidently due to wave 
action. They consist of alternations of gravel and shingle, 
the stratification of which usually coincides with the ex- 
ternal form of the mounds. They run parallel with the 
existing coast-line, and occur at no gi-eat distance from 
each other ; indeed so rapidly do they succeed each other 
as we advance inland, that upwards of twenty of them 
may be counted in regular succession. An interest- 
ing example of a ' kitchen midden ' occurs on the old 
margin of the Loch of Spynie on the farm of Brigzes. 
From the interesting description given by Dr Gordon, it 
is clear that the two mounds must have attained consider- 
able dimensions ; the latter measuring 80 by 60 yards, 
and the smaller 26 by 30 yards. Among the shells com- 
posing the refuse heap are the periwinkle, the oyster, the 
mussel, the cockle, the limpet, and of these the first is by 
far the most abundant. The occurrence of these mounds 
along the inner margin of the 25-feet beach furnishes 
interesting evidence of the elevation of the land since 
its occupation by man. On the other hand the sub- 
merged forest, which occurs to the W of Burghead, 



clearly points to the depression wliich preceded the 
recent changes in the relative level of sea and land. 

The cultivation of the county is, on the whole, in a 
highly advanced condition. In 1870 there were 552 
farms not exceeding 5 acres each ; 532 of from 5 to 20 
acres ; 378 of from 20 to 50 acres ; 312 of from 50 to 
100 ; and 285 above 100 acres. Most of the farms are 
held on lease of nineteen years. The farm steadings 
have of late years undergone great improvement, and on 
the majority of the large and middle sized farms there 
are comfortable and well-fitted dwelling-houses. Most 
of the farms, too, have acquired additional value by the 
enlargement of fields, the removal of dilapidated dykes, 
the covering-in of ditches, the reclamation of waste 
portions, drainage and the gro^vth of hedge fences or 
the erection of wire paling, as well as by the extensive 
and marked improvements in farm implements, and by 
the introduction of the reaping machine. Some farms 
are cropped on the seven and some on the sis shift 
course, but the majority of the farmers adhere to the five. 
The acreage under woods and plantations is 45,868, and 
according to the Board of Trade Agricultural Returns 
the total acreage ' under all kinds of crops, bare fallow, 
and grass' is 103,376, including 5165 acres under per- 
manent pasture or grass not broken up in rotation. 

The cattle in ElgLa are fewer in proportion to the 
cultivated acreage than in any other county N of Forfar- 
shire, but estimated by the excellence of individual 
animals, they have more than average merit. They 
are mostly a cross breed between the short horned and 
polled breeds, produced with gi'eat attention to the high 
character of the bulls. This cross breed is believed to 
be hardier, to grow more rapidly, and to take on flesh 
more readily than any other variety. There are also a 
number of well-known herds of shorthorns, and though 
pure polled cattle are not very numerous, the Morayshire 
herds are very celebrated, and can generally manage to 
hold their own at the leading shows in Scotland and 
England, and even in France. Morayshire sheep are 
also well known. Leicesters are the standard breed for 
the lower part of the county, and the blackfaced sheep 
for the higher ground, where the conditions of existence 
are too severe for the Leicesters. Some farmers keep 
crosses, and at Gordon Castle there are Southdowns. 

The manufactures of the county are comparatively 
inconsiderable. Whisky is one of the chief products, 
there being seven distilleries in full operation within 
the county. Besides the wool manufactories at Elgin 
and Coleburn, in the Glen of Rothes, there are others 
at St Andrews-Lhanbryd, Forres, and Miltonduff. 
Tan works have long existed in Elgin and Forres. 
Shipbuilding on a small scale is carried on at King- 
ston, at the mouth of the Spey. There used to be a 
considerable herring fishing at Lossiemouth, Hopeman, 
and Burgliead, but for a number of j'ears the home 
fishing has been almost a complete failure, and most of 
the boats prefer to go to some of the larger ports at 
Aberdeen, Peterhead, or elsewhere. Each of the three 
seaports just mentioned has a tidal harbour, and there 
is a coasting trade, particularly in slates, coal, and pit 
props. There are chemical works at Forres and Burg- 
head. Black cattle and field produce are the principal 
articles of export, but in some years the cattle are in 
little or no demand, and the field produce is all required 
for home consumption. There are large quantities of 
salmon sent S from the valuable fisheries at the mouths 
of the Spey and Findhorn, and from the fixed net fishings 
along the intervening coast. Timber from the Strath- 
spey Forests has also long been exported. The principal 
jjorts are in order from E to W, Garmouth, Kingston, 
Lossiemouth, Burghead, and Findhorn, but they are all 
small, none of them being more than a sub-port. At 
Burghead, cargoes are discharged in connection with the 
chemical works at Burghead and Forres. Numerous 
fairs for live stock are held at Elgin, Forres, Findhorn, 
Lhanbryd, and Garmouth, but they are less valued by 
the farmers than the fairs of Banffshire. 

The county is intersected by a number of railways. 
The Inverness and Keith portion of the Highland rail- 


way enters the shire near Keith, and passes through it 
from E to W, by Lhanbryd, Elgin, and Forres. There 
are branch lines to Burghead (from Alves station), and 
to Findhorn (from Kinloss) ; but the latter is not in 
the meantime being worked. At Forres, the Forres 
and Perth section branches off and passes through the 
county from N to S, till it leaves it about 4 miles S of 
of Grantown, close to the point where the Dulnan and 
Spey unite, and therefore almost at the most southerly 
point of the shire. Starting from Elgin, as its northern 
terminus, the Great North of Scotland railway system 
has a branch line from Elgin to Lossiemouth. The 
main line passes southward through the Glen of Rothes, 
passes Rothes, and leaves the county when it crosses 
the Spey at Craigellachie. At CraigeUachie the line 
branches, one part passLug on to Keith and Aberdeen, 
and the other turning up Spey-side. The Spey-side 
section runs for the first 6 miles on the Banffshire side 
of the river, but at Carron it crosses to Elginshire, and 
with the exception of about | mile near Ballindal- 
loch, remains in Elginshire till it passes into Inver- 
ness-shire, about 2 miles E of Grantown. It joins the 
Highland railway system at Boat of Garten. There 
was at one time a branch line connecting the Great 
North (Morayshire) system at Rothes with the High- 
land system at Orton, but it has not been worked for 
a number of years. A bill has now (1882) passed 
through Parliament, granting powers for the construc- 
tion of a railway along the coast, from Elgiu to Portsoy. 
This line will, when made, intersect the county from 
Elgin eastwards as far as Fochabers. The roads aU over 
the county are numerous and excellent. A suiTey, 
made in 1866, gave the total length of roads within 
the county at 439 mUes. In 1864 tolls were abolished 
all over the shire, except at the Findhorn Suspension 
Bridge, near Forres, where there was at that time a 
special debt of £2000 still remaining. 

The royal burghs are Elgin and Forres ; the other 
towns, with each more than 1000 inhabitants, are 
Branderbnrgh, Burghead, Fochabers, Grantown, Hope- 
man, Rothes, and Bishopmill ; and the smaller towns 
and principal villages are Lossiemouth, Findhorn, Gar- 
mouth, New Elgin, Kingston, Archiesto'wn, Lhanbryd, 
Mosstodlach, Urquhart, Stotfield, New Duffus, Gum- 
ingston, Roseisle, Kinloss, Crook, Coltfield, Rafford, 
Dallas, Edenkillie, Dyke, Kintessack, and Whitemyre. 
The principal seats are Gordon Castle (partly in Banff- 
shire), Darnaway Castle, Innes House, Castle-Grant, Duf- 
fus House, Eallindalloch Castle, Alt3're, Roseisle, Rose- 
islehaugh, Inverugie, Muirton, Orton House, Sprmgfield, 
Inverugie, Dunkinty, Easter Elchies, Wester Elchies, 
Dumphail, Seapark, Kincorth, Dalvey, Westerton, Black- 
hUls, Milton Brodie, Newton, Doune, Sanquhar House, 
Drumduan, Dallas Lodge, Relugas, Logic, Grange Hall, 
Brodie House, Orton, Auchinroath, and Burgle. 

The county is governed by a lord-lieutenant, a vice- 
lieutenant, 27 deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, 3 assistant 
sheriif-substitutes, and 114 magistrates. The ordinary 
sheriff court is held at Elgin, on every Monday for 
proofs in civil causes, on every Thursday for ordinary 
business of civil causes, and on every or any Tuesday, 
as occasion requires, for criminal causes. The com- 
missary court for Elginshire and Nairnshire is held at 
Elgin. Sheriff small debt courts are held at Elgin on 
every Wednesday ; at Forres, six times a year ; at 
Grantown, four times a year ; at Rothes, four times a 
year ; at Fochabers, three times a year. The police 
force, in 1881, exclusive of that for Elgin burgh, com- 
prised 16 men ; and the salary of the chief constable 
was £230. The number of persons apprehended or cited 
by the police in 1880, exclusive of those in Elgin burgh, 
was 239 ; the number of these convicted, 224 ; the 
number committed for trial, 22 ; the number not dealt 
with, 124. The annual committals for crime, in the 
average of 1836-40, were 19 ; of 1841-45, 35 ; of 1846-50, 
41 ; of 1851-55, 39 ; of 1856-60, 59 ; of 1861-65, 58 ; of 
1865-69, 48 ; of 1871-75, 20 ; and of 1876-80, 22. The 
prison is in Elgin, and is one of those still retained 
under the new Prisons' Act. The annual value of real 


property, in 1815, was £73,288 ; in 1845, £98,115 ; in 
1875, £208,167; in 1882, £228,073. Elgin and Nairn 
Bhires return a member to parliament ; and the Elgin- 
shire (y.nstituency, in 1882, was 1746. Pop. (1801) 
27,760, (1821) 31,398, (1841) 35,012, (1861) 43,322, 
(1871) 43,128, (1881) 43,788, of whom 20,725 were 
males, and 23,063 females. Houses (1881) 8611 in- 
habited, 391 vacant, 71 building. 

The registration county gives off part of Cromdale 
parish to Inverness-shire, and parts of Inveraven and 
Keith to Banffshire ; takes in part of Dyke and Moy 
from Nairnshire, and parts of Bellie, Boharm, and 
Rothes from Banffshire. It comprehends nineteen en- 
tire quoad civilia parishes, and had in 1871 a population 
of 44,549, and in 1881 a population of 45, 108 All the 
parishes are assessed for the poor. Fourteen of them, 
mth one in Banffshire, form the Morayshire Combina- 
tion, which has a poorhouse at Bishopmill. One is in 
the Nairn Combination. The number of registered 
poor, for the year ending 14 May 1881, was 1230 ; of 
dependants on these, 641 ; of casual poor, 283 ; of de- 
pendants on these, 221. The receipts for the poor were 
£12,736, Os. 8Jd., aud the expenditure was £12,602, 
19s. 9d. The percentage of illegitimate births was 13 '6 
in 1871, 17-1 in 1878, 13 in 1879, and 16-8 in 1880. 

The county comprises the si.xteen entire parishes of 
Alves, St Andrews-Lhanbryd, Birnie, Drainie, Duffus, 
Elgin, Speymouth, Spynie, and Urquhart, constituting 
the presbytery of Elgin ; DaUas, Edenkillie, Forres, 
Kinloss, and Rafford, in the presbytery of Forres ; 
Knoekando, in the presbytery of Aberlour ; and Crom- 
dale, in the presbytery of Abernethy. It shares with 
Banffshire the parishes of Bellie and Keith, in the pres- 
bytery of Strathbogie and Boharm ; Inveraven and 
Rothes, in the presbytery of Aberlour ; and with Nairn- 
sliu'e the parish of Dyke, in the presbytery of Forres. 
There are quoad sacra parishes at Burghead and Lossie- 
mouth, and mission churches at Advie and Knoekando. 
The whole are within the jurisdiction of the synod of 
Moray. In the year ending 30 Sept. 1880, the county 
had 62 schools (51 of them public), with accommodation 
for 10,202 scholars, 7466 on the registers, and 5800 in 
average attendance. The certificated, assistant, and 
pupU teachers numbered respectively 91, 5, and 74. 

The territory now forming Elginshire belonged to the 
ancient Caledonian Vacomagi, and was included in the 
Roman division or so-caUed province of Vespasiana. It 
formed part of the kingdom of Pictavia, and underwent 
many changes in connection with descents and settle- 
ments of the Scandinavians. In the Jliddle Ages it 
formed the middle part of the great province of Moray 
[see Moeat], although it early became a separate part 
of that province. It seems to have been disjoined from 
Inverness as early as 1263, for in that year Gilbert de 
Rule is mentioned in the Eegistnun Moraviense as 
sheriff of Elgin. The sheriff of Inverness still, how- 
ever, at times exercised a jurisdiction within the county 
of Elgin ; aud the proper erection of the county and 
sheriffdom was not till the time of James II. , the earlier 
sheriffs having probably had much narrower limits to 
their power. The principal antiquities are the so-called 
Roman well and bulls at Burghead, standing stones at 
Urquhart and elsewhere, cup-marked stones near Burg- 
head and near Alves, the cathedral, etc., at Elgin, 
Spjmie palace, Birnie church, the abbey of Kinloss, the 
priory of Pluscarden, the Michael kirk at Gordonstown, 
the old porch of Duffus church, Sueno's Stone at Forres, 
remains of Caledonian encampments on the Culbin 
Sands, a sculptured cave near Hopeman, castles at 
Elgin, Forres, Lochindorb, Rothes, and Duffus, and the 
towers at Coxtou and Blervie. See Shaw's Eistory 
of the Province of Moray (Edinb. 1775; 2d ed., Elgin, 
1827 ; 3d ed., Glasgow, 1882) ; A Walk Round Moray- 
shire (Banff, 1877) ; Watson's Morayshire Described (El- 
gin, 1868) ; Leslie and Grant's Survey of the Province of 
Moray (1798). 

Elibank, an estate, with a mansion and a ruined castle, 
in Yarrow parish, Selkirkshire. The mansion, Elibank 
Cottage, stands on the right bank of the river Tweed, 5J ! 


mUes E of Innerleithen. In 1595 the estate was granted 
to the eminent lawyer. Sir Gideon Murray, a cadet of 
the Darnhall or Blackbarony line ; and by him, doubt- 
less, Elibank Tower was either wholly built or extended 
from the condition of an old Border peel. ' Now a 
shattered ruin, ' says Dr Chambers, ' occupying a com- 
manding situation on the S bank of the Tweed, Elibank 
stiU shows signs of having been a residence of a very 
imposing character, defensible according to the usages 
of the period at which it was inhabited. ' Sir Gideon's 
daughter, Agnes, was the ' Muckle-mou'ed Meg ' of 
Border story, who really, in 1611, did wed young Wil- 
liam Scott of Harden, though the story otherwise 
seems to have no foundation ; and Sir Gideon's son, 
Patrick, was in 1643 raised to the peerage as Lord 
Elibank. Two younger sons of the fourth Lord Elibank, 
Alexander and James, are notable — the first as a violent 
Jacobite, and the second for his five months' defence of 
Fort St Philip, Minorca (1781-82), with less than 1000 
men against 40,000 French and Spaniards. The Darn- 
hall, Ballencrieff, and Elibank estates were all united 
in the person of Alexander Murray (1747-1820), who 
succeeded as seventh Lord in 1785 ; and Elibank 'Tower 
has since been left to sink to decay. The present Lord 
Elibank holds 1168 acres in Selkirkshu-e, valued at £361 
per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. See Darnhall, 
and pp. 345-354 of Dr William Chambers' History of 
Peeblesshire (Edinb. 1864). 

Elie or Ely, a small police burgh and a parish on the 
SE coast of Fife. The town stands close to the shore at 
the head of a bay of its own name, and has a station on 
the East of Fife section of the North British, 4| miles 
WSW of Anstruther, 14 ENE of Thornton Junction, 
and 34 NE of Edinburgh. In bygone times a place of 
some importance, it retains a few antique mansions in 
a street near the beach, but mainly consists of modem 
well-built houses. It has for a long time been a place 
of considerable resort for summer sea-bathing, but 
carries on little trade, although it possesses an excellent 
natural harbour, much improved by quays and a pier, 
and affording safe and accessible shelter during gales 
from the W or SW. The bay is 7 furlongs wide across 
the entrance, and thence measures 3J to its inmost re- 
cess ; it is flanked on the E by EUe Ness, and by Chapel 
Ness on the W. Wadehaven, a little to the E of the 
harbour, has a depth of from 20 to 22 feet of water at 
ordinary tides, and is said to have been named after 
General Wade, who recommended it to Government as a 
suitable harbour for ships of the royal navy. Imme- 
diately to the W is the small old burgh of Earlsferrt, 
on whose capital links an elegant golf club-house was 
lately erected ; and Elie itself has a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 
a branch of the National Bank, 2 hotels, gas-works, 
water-works (conjointly with Earlsferry and St Mon- 
ance), a subscription library of 4000 volumes, the parish 
church (1726 ; 610 sittings), with a spire, a Free church, 
and a public school. Having in 1865 adopted the 
General Police and Improvement Act, it is governed by 
a chief magistrate, 2 junior magistrates, and 3 other 
police commissioners, with a town-clerk and a treasurer. 
Burgh assessable rental (1882) £3804. Pop, (1861) 706, 
(1871) 626, (1881) 625, of whom 79 were in Kiloonquhar 

The parish down to about 1639 formed part of Kil- 
conquhar, by a strip of which — 5 furlongs broad at the 
narrowest — it now is divided into two unequal portions. 
The larger cf these, containing the town, is bounded W 
and N by KUconquhar, NE by St Monance, and SE and 
S by the Firth of Forth, which here has a minimum 
^vidth of 8:^ mUes. The smaller or westerly portion is 
bounded NE and SE by KUconquhar, and W by New- 
burn. It has an utmost length and breadth of 9 and 
7i furlongs, as the main body has of 2 J and IJ miles ; 
and the area of the whole is 2241 J acres, of which 650 j 
belong to the westerly section, and 210J are foreshore. 
The surface is generally flat, and rises nowhere into a 
hill. KUconquhar Loch (4x3 furl.) touches the 
northern boundary of the main body ; and Cocklemill 



Burn traces tie soutli-eastern border of the detached 
portion. The rocks belong chiefly to the Carboniferous 
formation, but include, on the coast, greenstone, basalt, 
clinkstone, and trap-tufa. The carboniferous rocks, too, 
are traversed by trap-dykes ; and they comprise sand- 
stone, limestone, shale, coal, and clay-ironstone. Some 
50 acres are under wood ; and nearly all. the rest of the 
land, excepting the links, is in tillage. Natives were 
Eobert TralU (1612-1716), a divine of the Church of 
Scotland, and James Horsburgh, F.R.S. (1762-1836), 
the eminent hydrographer. Elie House, to the NNE 
of the town, was built towards the close of the 17th 
century, and is a large edifice in the Renaissance style, 
with beautiful grounds. Its owner, William Baird, 
Esq. (b. 1848; sue. 1864), holds 3120 acres in the 
shire, valued at £8223 per annum. Elie is in the pres- 
bytery of St Andrews and synod of Fife ; the living is 
worth £200. The public school, mth accommodation 
for 112 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 
94, and a grant of £83, 10s. Valuation (1866) £6136, 
(1882) £7234, 9s. Pop. (1801) 730, (1831) 1029, (1861) 
826, (1871) 775, (1881) G70.— Orel. Sur., sh. 41, 1857. 

Eliock. See Elliock. 

Eliston, an ancient baronial pile in Kirkliston parish, 
Linlithgowshire, on the left bank of the Almond, 1 mile 
ESE of Drumshoreland station. It is supposed to have 
been an ancient hunting-seat of the kings of Scotland, 
particularly of James II. and James IV. ; and it now be- 
longs to the Earl of Hopetoun. 

Eliston, Renfrewshire. See Elliston. 

Elizafield, a village in Torthorwald parish, Dumfries- 
shire, near Collin, 4J miles E by S of Dumfries. 

Ella. See Elgak." 

EUag Loch, a lake of Kincardine parish, N Ross- 
shire, 6J miles NW of Oikell Bridge. Lying 500 feet 
above sea-level, it has an utmost length of 2 and IJ 
furlongs ; is notable for wild swans ; and sends off a 
stream 1 J mile east-north-eastward to the river OikeU. — 
Ord. Sicr., sh. 102, 1881. 

Ellam or Ellem, an ancient parish in the N of Berwick- 
shire, now incorporated with Longformacus. It lies 
along Whitadder Water, among the Lammermuir Hills ; 
and it gives its name to Ellem inn and EUemford on 
Whitadder Water, 6 miles NW of Duns. It belonged 
to the Earls of Dunbar, and, after their forfeiture, was 
given by the Crown to Thomas Erskine. 

Elian or An Eilein, a loch in the Rothiemurchus por- 
tion of Duthil parish, Inverness-shire, stretching along the 
base of Ordban Hill. Lying 840 feet above sea-level, it 
has an utmost length and breadth of 7| and 4J furlongs ; 
contains an islet, with ruins of a stronghold of the Wolf 
of Badenoch ; and is skirted by some noble remains of 
the ancient Caledonian forest. — Ord. Sur., sh. 74, 

EUanabriech, a village in Kilbrandon parish, Argyll- 
shire, on the W coast of Sell island, opposite Easdale 
island, and forming practically one seat of population 
with Easdale village. See Easdale. 

EUan-Aigas. See Aigas. 

EUan-an-Tighe. See Ellan-na-Kelly. 

EUan-Chaistal. See Castle-Island. 

Elian Collumkill, a small island in Portree Bay, Isle 
of Skye, Inverness-shire. It got its name in honour of 
St Columba ; and the bay in which it lies was long 
called Loch Collumkill. See also Ekisort. 

Ellan-Dheirrig. See Dheierig. 

EUandonan, a small rocky island, crowned by a 
ruined, ivy-clad, ancient castle, in KintaU parish, Ross- 
shire, at the forking of Loch Alsh into Lochs Long and 
Duich, 8J miles E of Kyle Akin. The castle presents a 
picturesque appearance, backed by a noble range of hills. 
Occupying the site of a Caledonian vitrified fort, it is 
said to have been given in 1266 to Colin Fitzgerald, son 
of the Earl of Desmond, and to have been the scene in 
1331 of a severe act of retributive justice by Randolph, 
Earl of jMoray, then warden of Scotland, who executed 
in it fifty delinquents, and ranged their heads round its 
■walls. Certain it is that it was long a stronghold of the 
Mackenzies of Eintail, and that it sustained in 1539 a 


famous attack by Donald Gorm, a claimant to the 
lordship of the Isles, whose assault on it cost him 
his life, and is celebrated in a ballad by Colin Mac- 
kenzie in Scott's Border 3Iinstrelsy. In 1719 it was 
garrisoned by a Spanish force under William Mackenzie, 
fifth Earl of Seaforth, with the Earl Marischal and the 
Marquis of TuUibardine ; but three English ships-of- 
war soon battered its mde square tower to pieces, and 
its defenders retired to Glenshiel. 

EUan-Duirinnis, an islet (3^ x IJ furl.) of Ardchattan 
parish, Argyllshire, in Loch Etive, opposite Bunawe, 
It lies in the line of the ferry over the loch, and is con ■ 
nected with the mainland by a raised road approach. 

EUan-Fada, an island of South Knapdale parish, 
Argj'llshire, near the head of Loch Caolisport. It 
affords shelter from the heavy swells raised by the SW 
gales, and there is good anchorage for vessels on its lee 

Elian -Finnan, a small island of Ardnamurchan 
parish, Argyllshire, in Loch Shiel, at the boundary 
with Inverness-shire. 

EUan-Freuch, an islet, with ruins of an ancient 
fortalice, in the Sound of Islay, Argyllshire. 

Ellan-Gainvich. See Sanda, Small Isles, Argyll- 

EUan-Gheirrig. See Dheieeig. 

Ellangowan. See Caeelaveeock. 

EUan-Issa. See Issat. 

EUan-Lochscar, the chief one of several islets off the 
SW side of Lismore island, Argyllshire, at the mouth 
of Portnamarloch. 

Ellan-Maree, a wooded islet of Gairloch parish, Eoss- 
shire, one of the smallest and most easterly of the 
island group towards the middle of Loch Maree. It 
seems to have been the site of a pre-Reformation chapel 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and hence to have got its 
name, which some, however, derive from the GaeL 
Ellaii-mac-Ei(jh, ' the island of the king's son,' a prince 
of Norway, according to tradition, having been bm-ied 
here. It contains remains of an ancient burying-ground, 
and has also a deep well, consecrated in popular super- 
stition to Saint Maree. TUl not very long ago Ellan- 
Maree was supposed by the country folk round to possess 
a virtue for the cure of insanity — their method for 
obtaining the cure being to drag the lunatic to the shore 
of the lake, fasten him by a rope to a romng boat, and 
tow him round the island, after which he had to drink 
some water from the holy well. The island was visited 
by Queen Victoria in Sept. im.—Ord.Sxir.,sh. 92,1881. 

Ellan-More, a pastoral isle of Tiree and CoU parish, 
Argyllshire, adjacent to the NE coast of Coll island. 

Elian-More, a pastoral isle of South Knapdale parish, 
Argyllshire, in the Sound of Jura, near the mouth of 
Loch Swin. An ancient chapel, dedicated to St Connao, 
stands nearly in the middle, and, measuring only 15 
feet by 8, is an arched structure, covered with flags, and 
in a state of high preservation. It includes an upper 
chamber, accessible only by a ladder, and supposed to 
have been used for concealment ; contains an admirably 
sculptured effigy of a priest, under a canopy ; and is 
adjoined by an apartment, now roofless. The shaft of 
an ancient cross stands on the highest point of the island ; 
and the disc of the cross, showing on one side a quaint 
representation of the Crucifixion, on the other side a 
scroll-work of foliage, was discovered in the vicinity in 

Elian Munde, an islet of Lismore and Appin parish, 
Argyllshire, in Loch Leven, opposite Ballachulish and 
the mouth of the rivulet Coe. It contains the ruins of 
a church, founded, on the site of a Culdee cell, about 
the middle of the 10th century by an abbot of the name 
of Mund ; and around the ruins is an ancient cemetery 
still in use. A former parish, including the island, and 
taking name from it, comprehended Glencoe and the 
adjacent parts of Appin, and now is incorporated chiefly 
with Lismore and Appin, and partly mth KUmallie. 

EUan-na-Coomb or Ellan-na-Naoimh, a small island 
of Tongue parish, Sutherland, separated from the main- 
land by the strait of Caol Bean, 1 fmiong wide at the 


narrowest, a little W of Torrisdale Ba)-, and 9 furlongs 
E by S of EUan-nan-Eon. With utmost length and 
breadth of 4^ and 3J furlongs, it rises to a height of 231 
feet, contains traces of an ancient chapel and cemetery, 
and is so tunnelled and perforated on the S side that 
half-flood tide, during a north-westerly gale, throws up 
from it a jet d'eau 30 feet high, followed by a detonating 
sound like the report of cannon. — Ord. Sur., sh. 114, 

EUan-na-Kelly or EUan-an-Tighe, the southern one 
of the three Shiant isles, in the Outer Hebrides, in the 
Minch, 5\ miles SE of Ushenish Point in Lewis, and 22J 
S by E of Stornowaj'. It connects with Garv-EUan by 
a neck of rolled pebbles, covered only at a concurrence 
of spring tide and tempestuous wind ; and is 1 mile long, 
whilst varying in width from 1 to 2J furlongs. Its 
basaltic rock presents some columnar masses similar to 
those of Ulva and Staffa ; and its tumulated but verdant 
surface affords rich sheep pasture. It appears to have 
anciently been the seat of a monastery or hermitage, 
whence it took its name, signifying the ' island of the 
cell ; ' and it still possesses some ruins which look to have 
been ecclesiastical. — Ord. Sur., sh. 99, 1858. 

EUan-na-Naoimh. See Ellan-na-Coomb and Gab- 
VELOOH Isles. 

EUan-nan-Gobhar, an islet in Loch Aylort, Ardna- 
murchan parish, Inverness-shire. It is an abrupt 
irregular mass of mica slate ; and it contains two 
vitrified forts within a few yards of each other — the one 
of an oblong figure, and 140 paces in circumference, 
the other circular, and 90 paces in circumference. 

Ellan-nan-Eon (Gael, 'seal island'), an inhabited 
island of Tongue parish, N Sutherland, to the E of the 
entrance to the Kyle of Tongue, 5J miles NNE of 
Tongue church. Measuring 1 mUe by 6^ furlongs, and 
rising to a height of 247 feet above the sea, it is parted 
on the NW by a narrow channel from EUan-Iosal (^ 
mile X 2J furl. ; 171 feet), and is girt with high preci- 
pitous rocks, deeply channelled on the N side by narrow 
fissures. On the N side, too, is a noble natural arch, 
150 feet high and 70 wide ; whilst towards the middle 
of the island is a large round hole, which is supposed to 
communicate with the sea by a natural tunnel. The 
fissures of its cliffs are swept, with great violence, by 
winds impregnated with saline matter, and, leaving de- 
posits of salt, so are used, without any artificial appliance 
of salt, for curing fish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 114, 1880. 

Ellan-Rorymore, an island in Loch Maree, Gairloch 
parish, Ross-shire. It was planted with pines about the 
year 1815, and it contains vestiges of a subterranean cir- 
cular structure, similar to a Scandinavian dun or burgh. 
John Roy, ancestor of the Mackenzies of Gairloch, held 
it as a place of security from the attacks of the Macleods ; 
and it was afterwards occupied by his son Alexander or 
Allister, who figures in tradition as a man of great 
wisdom and valour. 

EUan-Subhainn, a wooded island of Gairloch parish, 
Ross-shire, the largest of the group towards the middle 
of Loch Maree, 5 furlongs N of Talladale. It measures 
1 by 5 mile, and to the NW contains a small loch. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 92, 1881. 

Elian-Vow, an islet of Arrochar parish, Dumbarton- 
shire, towards the head of Loch Lomond, 2i miles N by 
W of Inversnaid. It is beautifully wooded, and some 
of its trees are very old, said to have been planted by 
King Robert Bruce. It also contains ruins of an ancient 
fortalice of the Macfarlanes ; and a vault beneath the 
ruins was inhabited, early in the present century, by an 
ascetic of the Macfarlane clan, and bears the name of the 
Hermit's Cave.— Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Elian- Wirrey or EUan-Mhuire, the easternmost of the 
three Shiant isles, in the Outer Hebrides, i mile E of 
Gaiv-Ellan and 5 furlongs NE of Ellan-na-Kelly. With 
a crescent-like outline, it measures 7J by 24 furlongs, 
and presents a basaltic and verdant appearance similar 
tothat of EUan-na-Kelly.— Oi-c?. Sur., sh. 99, 185S. 

Ellar. See Shapikshay. 

Ellemford. See Ellam. 

Ellenabeich. See Ellanabeiech. 


Ellen, Port. See Port Eixon'. 

Ellen's Isle or Eilean Molach, an islet of Callander 
parish, Perthshire, towards the foot of Loch Katrine, 
immediately opposite Ben A''enue. Highly romantic in 
appearance, craggy and wooded, it is the centre of the 
action of Sir Walter Scott's Lady of the Lake ; and it 
contained, for some time, a modern sylvan lodge like that 
described in the poem, decorated with trophies of the 
chase and fray, but destroyed by accidental fire in 1837. 
Together with the sm-rounding shores, aided by the 
strong natnral defences of the circumjacent ravines and 
mountains, it long served as a fastness of Highland 
caterans in their marauding expeditions against the 
Lowlanders. — Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Eller. See Shapikshay. 

EUer-Holm, a verdant isle of Shapinshay parish, 
Orkney, lying across the mouth of EUwick Bay, on the 
SW side of Shapinshay island. 

EUim. See Ellam. 

EUinor. See Port Ellinoe. 

EUiock, an estate, with a mansion, in Sanquhar parish, 
NW Dumfriesshire, on the left bank of EUiock Burn, 3 
mUes SE of Sanquhar. It belonged to Robert Crichton, 
lord advocate of Scotland in the reigns of Queen Mary 
and James VI., and father of James Crichton (1560-83), 
best known as ' the Admirable Crichton.' The room in 
which the latter was born is kept in nearly its original 
condition. (See Clunib, Perthshire.) By the lord 
advocate the estate was sold to the DalzeUs, afterwards 
Earls of Carnwath, and from them it went to the 
Veitches, its present owner, the Rev. WiUiam Douglas 
Veitch (b. 1801 ; sue. 1873), holding 5163 acres in 
the shire, valued at £1693 per annum. EUiock Bmii, 
rising on Wether Hill, at the Penpont border, runs 
3 miles north-north-eastward to the ffith, and descends 
in this short course from 1400 to 400 feet above sea- 
level. — Ord. Sur., sh. 15, 1864. See Patrick Fraser 
Tytler's Life of the Admirable Crichton (1819 ; 2d ed. 

Elliot Junction, a station in Arbirlot parish, Forfar- 
shire, on the Dundee and Arbroath section of the Cale- 
donian, at the junction of the branch to Carmyllie, If 
mile SW of Arbroath station. 

Elliotston Tower. See Castlb-Semple. 

Elliot Water, a stream of SE Forfarshire, rising at an 
altitude of 550 feet above sea-level in the W of Carmyllie 
parish, and running 8 mUes east-south-eastward through 
or along the borders of Carmyllie and Arbirlot, tUl it 
falls into the German Ocean, near Elliot Junction, IJ 
mUe SW of Arbroath. Its banks, at the mansion of 
Guynd, picturesque by nature, have been highly adorned 
by art ; and its steep wooded deU below Arbirlot village 
has many memories of Dr Guthrie, and presents an 
interesting reUc of the past in the grey old tower of 
Kelly Castle.— Or^;. Sur., shs. 57, 49, 1868-65. 

EUishill, an estate, with a mansion, in Peterhead 
parish, Aberdeenshire, 2J mUes WNW of the town. 

EUisland, a small farm in Dunscore parish, Dumfries- 
shire, on the right bank of the broad, wooded Kith, 5| 
miles NNW of Dumfries and 2i SSE of Auldgirth sta- 
tion. Extending to 170 acres, it was rented for £50 
a year by Robert Burns (1759-96) from Whitsunday 
1788 to December 1791, his landlord being Mr Patrick 
Miller of Dalswixtox. A new five-roomed house was 
built ; the farm has a kiudly soil, its holmland portion 
loamy and rich ; and its walks by the river-side com- 
mand fair views of Feiars C.a.ese, Dalswinton, and 
Cowhill Tower. So here Bm'ns set himself to work the 
ground, till in the autumn of 1789 he was appoiuted a 
ganger, with a salary of £50, when EUisland was made 
a dairy rather than an arable farm," with from nine to 
twelve cows, three to five horses ('Pegasus' or 'Peg 
Nicholson ' among them), and several pet sheep. Things 
prospered not, and the close of the third year saw him 
forced to remove to Dumfries and bid farewell to 
pleasant EUisland, ' leaving nothing there, ' says Allan 
Cunningham, ' but a putting-stone, with which he loved 
to exercise his strength, a memory of his musings that 
can never die, and £300 of his money sunk beyond 



redemption in a speculation from which all had augured 
happiness.' Yet was the EUisland life a fruitful one, 
for the world, if not for the poet, since here were written 
To Mary m Heaven and Taw. o' Shanter. — Ord. Sut., 
sh. 9, 1863. See "WUliam M'Dowall's Burns m Dum- 
fnessUre (Edinb. 1870). 

Ellon, a village and a parish of E Aberdeenshire. The 
village stands, 40 feet above sea-level, on the left bank 
of the Ythan, 5 furlongs ESE of Ellon station on the 
Formartine and Buohan section of the Great North of 
Scotland, this being 19J mUes N by E of Aberdeen, and 
llj S by E of Maud Junction. The ancient seat of 
jurisdiction for the earldom of Buchan, it belonged, in 
pre -Reformation times, to Kinloss Abbey in Elginshire, 
and thence was often called Kinloss-EUon. It now is a 
thriving centre of local trade, under the superiority ef 
Mr Gordon of EUon, and retains the site of its ancient 
■open-air courts in the Mote or Earl's HUl, a small 
mound which long was occupied by the stables of the 
New Inn, but which now is railed in and cleared of dis- 
.figuring buildings. The Ythan is spanned here by a 
handsome three-arch bridge ; and the newer part of the 
village, to the W of this bridge, comprises a number of 
well-built houses, in rows or detached, ivith pretty 
gardens, fringing the water-side ; the older portion, to 
the E, is much less regular. Its salubrious climate and 
the Ythan's good trout-iishing attract a fair number of 
summer visitors to Ellon, which possesses a post office, 
■with money order, savings' bank, insurance, and railway 
lelegraph departments, branches of the Aberdeen Town 
and Count}', North of Scotland, and Union Banks, a local 
savings' bank, 12 insurance agencies, 3 chief inns, gas- 
works (1827), a neat town-hall in connection with the 
New Inn, a brewery, and a horticultui'al society. Cattle 
and grain markets are held on the first and third Mon- 
days of every month ; hiring markets on the Tuesday 
after 11 April and the Wednesday after 12 November. 
The ancient cruciform church of St Mary, bestowed on 
Kinloss in 1310, was superseded in 1777 by the present 
;plain parish church, which, renovated and decorated in 
1876, contains 1200 sittings. The Free church, built in 
1825 as an Independent chapel, contains 350 sittings ; 
a U.P. church of 1827 contains 340 ; and a fine Epis- 
copal church, St Mary of the Rock, was rebuilt (1870) 
in the Early English style from designs by the late Mr 
G. E. Street, R.A., and consists of narthex, nave, ante- 
choir, and apsidal chancel. Mass, too, is celebrated 
every alternate Sunday by a priest from Strichen. Pop. 
of village (1861) 823, (1871) 811, (1881) 964. 

The parish is bounded N by Old Deer, NE by Cruden, 
E, SE, and S by Logie-Buchan, SW by Udny, W by 
Tarves and the Inverebrie section of Methlick, and NW 
by New Deer. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 8| 
miles ; its breadth, from E to W, varies between 3§ and 
■6 J miles ; and its area is 22, 339 J acres, of which 77 
are water. The Ythan has here an east-south-easterly 
course of 6J miles, partly along the Methlick and Logie- 
Buchan borders, but mainly across the southern in- 
terior ; in the W it is joined by Ebrib Burn, and in the 
W by the Burn of Auchmacoy. Coal lighters ascend 
-to within a mile of the village, and spring-tides are 
-perceptible as high as the Bridge of Ellon. S of the 
Ythan the surface attains its highest point above sea- 
level at CairnhUl (256 feet), whilst northwards it rises 
gently to 229 feet near Colehill, 317 near Mossnook, 403 
at Hillhead of Argrain, 321 at Braehead, 496 at Ardarg, 
572 at the HiU of Dudwick, and 530 at Whitestone 
HOI — petty enough hillocks, that yet command far-away 
views to Bennochie and the Grampians. Gneiss and 
.granite are the prevailing rocks, and the soil of the valley 
ds mainly fertile alluvium ; elsewhere it is generally 
poor, either black and moorish or a very retentive clay. 
Thorough draining, however, and artificial manures 
have done much to increase its productiveness ; and 
more than three-fourths of the entire area is now ,in 
tiUage. Woods and plantations cover a small extent, 
the northern and eastern districts of the parish being 
bleak and bare. In the wall of the old church is a 
monument to the Annands of Auchterellon, with their 


arms and the date 1601 ; of Waterton, a stately seat of 
Bannermans and Forbeses between 1560 and 1770, and 
a haunt of ' Jamie Fleeman's, ' slight vestiges remain ; 
but the girls' school stands on the site of the house in 
which the Rev. John Skinner wrote Tullochgorum — 
' the best Scotch song, ' said Burns, ' that ever Scotland 
saw." Of the Ellon Castle of 1780, built by the fom-th 
Earl of Aberdeen, only one tower remains ; its successor 
of 1851, with noble avenue and tasteful grounds, is the 
seat now of George John Robert Gordon, Esq. (b. 1812 ; 
sue. 1873), who holds 5556 acres in the shire, valued at 
£6195 per annum. Other mansions or estates, sepa- 
rately noticed, are Arnage, Dudmck, Esslemont, and 
Turnerhall ; and, in all, 8 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 4 of between £100 
and £500, 1 of from £50 to £100, and 23 of from £20 
to £50. The seat of a presbytery in the synod of Aber- 
deen, EUon gives off portions to the quoad sacra parishes 
of Ardallie and Savoch ; the living is worth £423. 
Barfold public, Drumwhindle public, Ellon public, and 
EUon girls' schools, with respective accommodation for 
120, 100, 350, and 47 chUdi-en, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 61, 45, 270, and 50, and grants of £27, 8s., 
£14, 15s. 6d., £221, 3s. 6d., and £43, 12s. Valuation 
(1860) £15,183, (1881) £23,775, 18s. 9d. Pop. of civil 
parish (1801) 2022, (1831) 2304, (1861) 3913, (1871) 
3698 ; of registration district (1871) 3036, (1881) 3057. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 87, 1876. See Thomas Muir's Records 
oftlie Parish of Ellon (Aber. 1876). 

The presbytery of EUon comprises the parishes of 
EUon, Cruden, Foveran, Logie-Buchan, Methlick, 
Slains, Tarves and Udny, and the chapelry of Barthol. 
Pop. (1871) 15,516, (1881) 16,062, of whom 5282 were 
communicants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. — The 
Free Chm'ch also has a presbytery of EUon, with 
churches at EUon, Cruden, Foveran, MethUck, New 
Machar, Old Meldrum, Slains, and Udny, which to- 
gether had 1971 communicants in ISSl. 

Ellon, Port. See Poet Ellon. 

EUridgehill or Elsrickle, a vUlage near the southern 
border of Walston parish, E Lanarkshire, 4J mUes NNE 
of Biggar. It is a pleasant place, in a picturesque situa- 
tion, and decidedly superior to most smaU Scottish 
viUages. It has a Free church and a schooL Some 
stone coffins, a number of years ago, were exhumed at 
the E end of the village. 

Ellrig, a lake in the NE of Slamannan parish, Stir- 
lingshire, 3J mUes S of Falkh-k. Measuring 5\ by IJ 
fuliongs, it sends off a smaU burn, of some water power, 
9 furlongs south-westward to the Avon. 

EUrig, the highest part of the ridge of upland on the 
mutual border of East Kilbride parish, Lanarkshire, and 
Eaglesham parish, Renfrewshire. It culminates, 4 mUes 
SSE of Eaglesham vUlage, at 1230 and 1215 feet above 
sea-level, and it cradles both the White Cart and head- 
streams of Calder Water. 

Ellwand. See Allen. 

EUwick or Elswick, a fine bay in the SW of Shapin- 
shay island, Orkney. It opens towards Kirkwall ; is 
sheltered, across the entrance, by the green islet of 
EUer-Holm ; has from 4 to 6 fathoms of water, over 
a bottom of hard clay covered with sand ; is skirted, on 
the W side, by a fine beach, with abundance of excellent 
fresh water ; forms almost as good a natural harbour as 
any in Orkney ; and is overlooked by a pleasant modem 

Elphine. See Assynt. 

Elphinstone, a collier vUlage in Tranent parish, W 
Haddingtonshire, 2 miles S by W of Tranent town. It 
has a public school and a Primitive Methodist chapel 
(1867). Elphinstone Tower, 5 furlongs WSW, is a square 
three-storied pile of the 14th or 15th century, a ruin, 
but well preserved, the two lower stories retaining their 
stone vaulting, and the uppermost having been re-roofed 
with slate. In the hall, on the second story, eight 
carved escutcheons are over the fireplace. A mansion, 
built on to the tower in 1600, was demolished in 1865. 
The lands of Elphinstone were held in the 13th and 
14th centuries by Lord Elphinstone's ancestors, and 


paesecT from thorn by marriage to the Johnstons. On a 
December night of veliemeut frost, 1545, George 
Wishart was brought from Ormiston by the Earl of 
Bothwell to Elphinstone Tower, where was Cardinal 
Beaton ; and thence he was taken to St Andrews for 
trial and execution. Pop. of village (1861) 388, (1871) 
488, (1881) fi^l.—Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Elphinstone, a property in Airth parish, E Stirling- 
shire. Passing by marriage to the Tranent Elphinstones 
about the beginning of the 14th century, it has given 
them since 1509 the title of Baron, in the peerage of 
Scotland. See C.vkbeeet. 

Elphinstone, Port. See Port Elphinstone. 

Elrick, an estate, with a mansion, in New Machar 
parish, Aberdeenshire, IJ mile SSW of New Machar 

Elrick, a village in the E of Cabrach parish, W Aber- 
deenshire, 6J miles W by S of Rhynie. 

Elrick or Elrig, Wigtownshire. See Eldeig. 

Elshieshields Tower, a mansion in Lochmaben parish, 
Dumfriesshire, on the right bank of the Water of Ae, 2 
miles NNW of Lochmaben. Partly a modern edifice, 
partly a massive old tower, it is the seat of Theodore 
Edgar Dickson Byrne, Esq. (b. 1833 ; sue. 1876), who 
owns 823 acres in the shire, valued at £963 per 

Elsness, a promontory in Sanda island, Orkney. 
Projecting 1^ mile southward from the main body of the 
parish, and ilanking the W side of Stywick Bay, it 
commands an extensive sea- view, and is crowned by more 
than twenty vitrified cairns, supposed by Dr Hibbert to 
have been signal stations of the Norsemen for com- 
municating with their fleets. 

Elsrickle. See Elleidgehill. 

Elswick. See Ellwick. 

Elvanfoot, an inn and a station in Crawford parish, 
SE Lanarkshire, on the Caledonian railway, adjacent to 
the confluence of Elvan Water and the Clyde, 5^ miles 
SE of Abington, and 12 NW of Moflat. 

Elvan Water, a rivulet of Crawford parish, SE 
Lanarkshire, rising, as Shortcleuch Water, on Lo-wther 
Hill, close to the Dumfriesshire border. Thence it 
winds 7J miles north-eastward till, just after passing 
beneath a viaduct of the Caledonian Railway, it falls 
into the Clyde at Elvanfoot. It descends during this 
course from 2000 to 885 feet above sea-level, and is 
famous for particles of gold which, from time to time, 
have been found in its sands. — Ord. Sur., sh. 15, 

Elvingston, an estate, with a mansion, in Gladsmuir 
parish, Haddingtonshire, 2J miles SSE of Longniddry 

Ely. See Elie. 

Elziotstown. See Castle-Semple. 

Emanuel. See Manuel. 

Embo, a fishing village, with a public school, in 
Dornoch parish, SE Sutherland, 2J miles NNE of 
Dornoch town. 

Endrick Water, a stream of Stirlingshire chiefly, but 
partly of Dumbartonshire, formed, at a point 4^ miles 
SSE of Kippen village, by the confluence of Gourlays 
and Burnfoot Burns, which, rising among the Gargun- 
nock Hills at 1480 and 1450 feet above sea-level, have a 
southerly course of 3J and 2J mDes. Thence it winds 
29 miles (only 15g as the crow flies) westward, till it 
falls into Loch Lomond, towards the foot, and 2f miles 
WNW of Buchanan House. It bounds or traverses the 
parishes of Gargunnock, Fintry, Balfron, Killearn, KU- 
maronock, Drymen, and Buchanan, under which its 
chief features — waterfalls, villages, and mansions — are 
described ; and it receives a number of afiluents, the 
largest of them the Blane. Many parts of Strathen- 
BRIOK, or 'Sweet Innerdale,' are of great beauty ; and 
Richard Franck, in his ofimit Northern Memoirs (1694), 
speaks of ' the memorable Anderwick, a rapid river of 
strong and stiff streams, whose fertile banks refresh the 
borderer, and whose fords, if well examined, are argu- 
ments sufficient to convince the angler of trout, as are 
her deeps, when consulted, the noble race and treasure 


of salmon, or remonstrate his ignorance in the art of 
angling.' The waters are mostly preserved, and the 
trout are still fairly plentiful, with a good many pike, 
sea-trout in autumn, and now and then a salmon. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 39, 30, 38, 1866-71. 

Enhallow, an island of Rousay parish, Orkney, in. 
the sound between the SW side of Rousay island and 
the Evie district of Pomona. It measures about a mUe 
in circumference, has good soil, and is overlooked by 
the headlands and hiUs of Rousay and Pomona. The 
strait between it and Rousay is beset by a reef of rocks, 
covered at high water, and very dangerous to unwary 
mariners. That between it and Pomona bears the name 
of Enhallow Sound ; ofiers but little width of fair way 
to vessels ; is swept by a rapid tide ; and ought never 
to be attempted except in moderate weather, and with a 
fair wind. 

Ennerdale, the valley or basin of the river Endrick, 
in Stirling and Dumbarton shires. 

Ennerio. See Enrick. 

Ennerurie. See Inverury. 

Ennerwick. See Innerwick. 

Ennich or Eunach, a loch towards the head of Glen 
Eunach, in the S of the Rothiemurchus portion of 
Duthil parish, E Inverness-shire. Lying 1700 feet 
above sea-level, it has an utmost length and breadth 
of IJ mile and 2J furlongs ; is overhung by Sgoran 
Dubh (3658 feet) on the W, and Braeriach (4248) on the 
E ; and sends off the AUt na Beinne Moire, 10§ miles 
northward to the Spey at Craigellachie. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 73, 1878. 

Ennoch, a hamlet of Kirkmichael parish, NE Perth- 
shire, near the right bank of the Blackwater, 12J mUes 
NW of Blairgowrie. 

Enoch, a hamlet in Portpatrick parish, Wigtownshire, 
If mile NE of Portpatrick town. 

Enoch, a desolate granite-bound loch of Minnigaff 
parish, NW Kirkcudbrightshire, on the Ayrshire bor- 
der, 5| miles SSW of the head of Loch Doon. With a 
very irregular outline, it is 6i furlongs long and from 
2 to 4 J furlongs wide, lies 1650 feet above sea-level, 
contains three islets, and communicates with Loch Doon 
by Eagton and Gala Lanes. Its waters teem with fine 
red-fleshed trout, averaging J lb. 'Loch Enoch,' says 
Mr Harper, 'is the most apparent rock-basin in the 
district, being situated on the highest part of the granite 
plateau, absolutely bare, grassless, treeless, and weirdly 
wild, every cape, peninsula, and island showing the 
severest ice-action' {Rambles in Galloway, 1876, chap. 
xviii.).— Ord. Sur., sh. 8, 1863. 

Enoch, a lofty hill in the SWofNew Cumnock parish, 
Ayrshire, near the source of the Nith, 6 miles SW by S 
of New Cumnock village. It has an altitude of 1865 
feet above sea-level. 

Enoch. See Ennoch. 

Enoch (Celt, aenacli, 'a place of popular assembly'), 
a barony in Durisdeer parish, NW Dumfriesshire, be- 
tween the Nith and Carron Water, belonging to the 
family of Menzies from the beginning of the 14th cen- 
tury till 1703, when it was sold to James, second Duke 
of Queensberry, thus coming in 1810 to the Duke of 
Buccleuch. Enoch Castle stood on a peninsular spot 
between a deep ravine and the Carron, and bore, on the 
lintel of its gateway, the date 1281. See Dr Craufurd 
Tait Ramage's Drumlanrig Castle and Durisdeer (Dum- 
fries, 1876). 

Enochdhu, a hamlet of Moulin parish, NE Perthshire, 
at the head of Strath Ardle, 10 miles ENE of Pitlochrie, 
under which it has a post office. 

Enrick, a troutful stream of Urquhart parish, N In- 
verness-shire, issuing from Lochnan Eun (5x2 furl. ; 
1650 feet) in a detached portion of Eiltarlity. Thence 
it winds llj mUes north-north-eastward and eastward 
to Loch Meiklie (9x3 furl. ; 372 feet), and thence 6 
mUes eastward along wooded Glen Ubquhart, till at 
Urquhart Bay, near Drumnadrocbit, it falls into Loch 
Ness (48 feet). In its upper course it makes a very 
picturesque cascade, called Moral Fall, near which is a 
tarfe cave, where some leading Jacobites found tem- 



porary concealment after tne battle of Culloden. — Ord. 
Sitr., sh. 73, 1878. 

Ensay, an islet of Harris parish, Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-sliire. Lying 2 miles SW of the main body 
of Harris, it measures 5 mUes in circumference, and is 
all verdant and partly cultivated. 

Enterkln, a troutful burn in Durisdeer parish, NW 
Dumfriesshire, rising, close to the Lanarkshire border, on 
the western slope of Lowther HlU (2377 feet), at an alti- 
tude of 2000 feet above sea-level, and 2| miles S of Lead- 
hiUs. Thence it runs 5| mUes south-south-westward, 
till at Enterkinfoot (280 feet), midway between Sanquhar 
and Thornhill, it falls into the Nith. It is followed 
along all its course by the old Leadhill bridle-path from 
Clydesdale into Nithsdale, that famous Enterkin Pass, 
of which the author of Mab and his Friends has written : 
'A few steps and you are on its edge, looking do'wn 
giddy and amazed into its sudden and immense depths. 
We have seen many of our most remarkable glens and 
mountain gorges — Glencroe and Glencoe ; Glen Nevis 
(the noblest of them all) ; the Sma' Glen, Wordsworth's 
Glen Almain (Glenalmond), where Ossian sleeps ; the 
lower part of Glen Lyon ; and many others of all kinds 
of sublimity and beauty — but we know nothing more 
noticeable, more unlike any other place, more impres- 
sive, than this short, deep, narrow, and sudden glen. 
There is only room for its own stream at the bottom, 
and the sides rise in one smooth and aU but perpen- 
dicular ascent to the height, on the left, of 1895 feet in 
Thii-staue Hill, and, on the right, of 1875 feet in the 
exquisitely moulded Stey Gail, or Steep Gable, so steep 
that it is no easy matter keeping your feet, and if you 
slip you might just as well go over a bona fide mural 
precipice. "Commodore Rogers" would feel quite at 
home here ; we all know his merits — 

■" Commodore Rogers was a man— exceedingly brave — particular ; 
He climbed up very high rocks — exceedingly high — perpendi- 
cular ; 
And what made this more inexpressible. 
These same rocks were quite inaccessible." ' 

Defoe, in his Memoirs of the Church of Scotland, gives a 
vivid description of the rescue here by twelve country- 
men of a minister and five other Covenanters whom a 
company of dragoons was taking prisoners to Edin- 
burgh, July or August 1684. The fall of their com- 
manding officer, shot through the head, so daunted the 
soldiers that without striking a blow — after firing one 
volley, however, according to Wodrow — they yielded 
their prisoners to the rescuing party, whose leaders were 
James and Thomas Harkness, of Looherben, in Close- 
burn.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 15, 1864. See Dr Craufurd Tait 
Ramage's Drumlanrig Castle and Durisdeer (Dumf 
1876), and Dr John Brown's John Leech and other Papers 
(Edinb. 1882). 

Enterkine, an estate, with a mansion, in Tarbolton 
parish, Ayrshire, near the right bank of the river Ayr, 
2| miles S by W of Tarbolton town. 

Enterkinfoot, a hamlet in Durisdeer parish, Dum- 
friesshire, at the foot of Enterkin Burn, 6 miles NNW 
of Thornhill. 

Enterkins-Yett, a place in Currie parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, traditionally said to have been the scene of a 
sanguinary battle between the ancient Caledonians and 
an invading force of Scandinavians. 

Enzie, a hamlet, a qvA)ad sacra parish, and a district 
in the NW of Banffshire. The hamlet lies 3J miles 
ENE of Fochabers, under which it has a post office. 
The quoad sacra parish, containing also the village of 
Port Gordon, comprises the eastern part of Bellie parish 
and the western part of Rathven. It is in the presby- 
tery of Fordyce and synod of Aberdeen ; the minister's 
stipend is £120. The parochial church was built in 
1785, and, as enlarged in 1815 and 1822, contains 400 
sittings. There is also a Free church ; and two public 
schools, Enzie and Port Gordon, with respective accom- 
modation for 170 and 236 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 112 and 171, and grants of £100, 17s. 
and £115, 2s. The district extends from the river Spey 


to Buckie Bum, but is popularly regarded as comprising 
all Bellie and Rathven parishes. Pop. of quoad sacra 
parish (1871) 2251, (1881) 2413.— Ord. Sur., sh. 95, 

Eorradail, a headland in Barvas parish, Lswis, Outer 
Hebrides, Ross-shire, 2i miles SE of the Butt of Lewis. 

Eorsa, a small island of Kilfinichen and Kilvickeon 
parish, Argyllshire, on the W side of Mull, in Loch- 
na-Keal, 2 miles NE of Inch Kenneth. It belonged 
anciently to the Abbey of lona, and is now the pro- 
perty of the Duke of Argyll. It was described in 1549, 
by Dean Munro, as ' fertile and full of corn, ' but now is 
used only for sheep pasture. 

Eousruil, a rocky islet on the W side of North Uist, 
in the Outer Hebrides. It measures -^ mUe in circuit, 
and is notable as a place for capturing seals. 

Eoy, an islet of the Outer Hebrides, between Barra 
and South Uist. 

Erchless Castle, a mansion in KiltarHty parish, In- 
verness-shire, near the left bank of the Beauly, 5 fur- 
longs N of the confluence of the Glass and the Farrar, 
and 10 mUes WSW of Beauly town. A modernised, 
yet still a stately old pile, lofty and narrow, it stands 
in a fine park, completely encircled by wooded hills. 
From the 15th century onwards it has been the seat 
of the Chisholms, one of whom vaunted that in aU 
the world there were but three entitled to the designa- 
tion ' The ' — the Pope, the King, and the Chisholm. 
They were zealous Jacobites, garrisoning their castle 
after Killiecrankie, and fighting at Sheriffmuir and 
Culloden. The Chisholm of to-day, James Sutherland 
Chisholm (b. 1806 ; sue. 1859), holds 94,328 acres in 
the shire, valued at £6566 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
83, 1881. 

Ercildoun. See Earlston. 

Eredine, an estate, with a mansion, in Kilchrenan and 
Dalavich parish, Argyllshire, near the head of Loch 
Awe, 10 miles N by W of Lochgilphead. 

Eriboll, a sea-loch in Durness parish, N Sutherland, 
opening from the sea between Whiten Head and Rispond 
Point, and peneti-ating lOJ miles south-south-westward. 
Its breadth varies between 5 furlongs and 2J miles ; it 
forms, over much of its expanse, particularly at Camas- 
an-Duin Bay, 7 miles from its entrance, one of the 
finest natural harbours in the world, with depth ranging 
from 15 to 60 fathoms ; and just to the N of that bay 
it is crossed by Heilem ferry. Its eastern shore, for 4 
mUes southward from Whiten Head, presents a series of 
caves and arches, pronounced by Dr MaccuUoch ' the 
most extensive and extraordinary on any part of the 
Scottish coast ; ' and its upper part is overhung by 
magnificent alpine summits — Ben Hope (3040 feet) on the 
E, and Crann Stacach (2630) on the 'W.—Ord. Sur., sh. 
114, 1880. 

Erichdie Water, a stream of Blair Athole parish, N 
Perthshire, formed, at a point 4 J miles N by E of Kin- 
loch Rannoch, by the confluence of the AUt Sleibh and 
the Allt na Feith Reidhe, which, rising at altitudes of 
1550 and 1600 feet above sea-level, have an east-south- 
easterly and an east-north-easterly course of 3J and 5 
miles. The Erichdie itself runs 10| miles east-by- 
northward, past Trinafour and Auchleeks, along a wild 
glen, called from it Glen Erichdie ; and falls into the 
Garry at Struan, 4 miles W of Blair Athole village. It 
is joined, IJ mile above Tiinafour inn, by the Allt 
Choin, running IJ mile south-eastward from Loch Choin 
(7i X 1 furl. ; 1360 feet), and sometimes regarded as its 
parent stream. — Ord. Sur., sh. 55, 1869. 

Ericht, a river of NE Perthshire, formed near Strone 
House by the confluence of the Airdle and the Black- 
water, and winding 10 miles south-eastward, mainly 
along the boundary between Blairgowrie and Rattray 
parishes, partly across Bendochy, till it falls into the 
Isla, 2J miles NNE of Coupar-Angus. Dming this 
course the 'ii'eful' Ericht descends from 490 to 115 feet 
above sea-level ; its bed is rocky, its current rapid and 
turbulent ; and the scenery on its banks in many parts, 
particularly at Craighall and in the neighbourhood of 
Blairgowrie town, is singularly romantic. A splendid 



salmon stream before its waters were befouled by the 
works of Blairgowrie, it still contains a good abundance 
of trout, running from J lb. to 2 or even 3 lbs. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 

Ericht, a loch on the mutual border of Perth and 
Inverness shires, and a stream of Fortingall parish, 
Perthshu-e. The loch, beginning 1 mile SW of Dal- 
whinnie station, extends 14 j miles south-south-westward; 
forms, for 5 miles, the boundary between the two 
counties ; has a varying width of J mUe and 9 furlongs ; 
and lies among the central Grampians at an elevation of 
1153 feet above sea-leveL Overhung on its W side by 
the precipitous mountain-range of Ben Alder (3757 
feet), on its £ by Ben Udlajian (3306), it presents an 
aspect of wild desolation and solemn grandeur, having 
nowhere on its shores any other signs of human habita- 
tion than a couple of shooting lodges and a shepherd's 
hut. The fishing is capital, the salmo-ferox running up 
to 20 and 25 lbs. , whilst the trout, though rather shy, 
are very plentiful. The stream, issuing from the foot of 
the loch, runs 5f miles south-south-eastward to Loch 
Eannoch (668 feet), at a point 7 furlongs from that loch's 
head ; flows, for the first mile or two, in slow, deep 
current ; and is afterwards a sheer torrent, lashing and 
tearing its banks with wild fury. — Ord. Sur., shs. 63, 
54, 1873. 

Eriokstartebrae, a hill (1566 feet) contiguous to the 
meeting-point of Dumfries, Peebles, and Lanark shires, 
overhanging the high road from Dumfiies to Edinburgh 
at a point 5 miles NNW of Moffat, and terminating at 
the road's side in an immense hollow, noticed in our 
article Annandalb's Beef Stand. 

Erigmore. See Biknam. 

Erins, an estate, with a mansion, in South Enapdale 
parish, Argyllshu'e, on the W shore of Loch Fyne, 5 
miles N by W of Tarbert. 

Erisa, a loch in the NW of Mull, Argyllshire, com- 
mencing at a point 4 miles WSW of Tobermory. It 
extends 5 miles south-eastward, has a width of | mile, 
contains salmon, grUse, and trout in abundance, and 
sends off a streamlet 4 miles east-south-eastward to the 
Sound of Mull at Aros Castle. 

Erisay, a small island of the Outer Hebrides, Inver- 
ness-shire, between North Uist and Harris. 

Eriska, a small inhabited island of Ardchattan parish, 
Argyllshire, in the mouth of Loch Creran, 3 fuiiongs W 
•of Shian ferry. With utmost length and breadth of IJ 
mile and 5 fm-longs, it rises to a height of 155 feet, and 
is severed from the mainland by a strait little more than 
100 yards wide at the narrowest, and dry at low tide. 
It presents a beautiful appearance, being variously wooded, 
pastoral, and arable ; and forms a pleasant farm. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 45, 1876. 

Eriska (Norse Eiriksey), an island of South Uist parish. 
Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire, separated by a channel 
2 miles wide from the S end of South Uist island. It 
measures 3 mUes in length from N to S, and IJ mile in 
breadth ; and it is notable for having been the place 
where Prince Charles Edward first set foot on the king- 
■dom of his ancestors, 23 July 1745. He landed with his 
attendants from the DoutclU, and passed the night in 
the house of the tacksman, Angus Macdonald — an un- 
comfortable night enough, since the beds were few, and 
the Prince resigned his to Sir Thomas Sheridan, whilst 
the smoke from the chimneyless fire obliged him ever 
and anon to go out into the fresh air. ' What a plague is 
the matter with that fellow,' asked honest Angus, 'that 
he can neither sit nor stand stDl, and neither keep within 
nor without doors ? ' The channel between Eriska and 
South Uist is used as a boat harbour for the export of 
local produce. Pop. (1841) SO, (1861) 396, (1871) 429, 
<1881) 466. 

Erlsort, a long, narrow sea-loch Ln Lochs parish, Lewis, 
Outer Hebrides, Eoss-shire. Opening from the Minch 
at a point 7 miles S of Stomoway, it penetrates 10 mUes 
west-south-westward to within If mile of the upper part 
of Loch Seaforth ; is 1| mile wide at the entrance, but 
onl;^ from 2 to 7 furlongs in its upper reaches ; and con- 
tains, in its mouth, fifteen hilly islets (the Barkin Isles) 

and many excellent anchorages for ships of any size. 
One of its islets, called Tanneray, contains a remarkable 
cave ; on another, EUan CoUumkiU (1 x J mile), the 
largest of the group, stood a chapel dedicated to St 
Columba.— 0)U Sur., sh. 99, 1868. 

Ermit. See Ar.MiT. 

Ernan Water, a rivulet in the Edinglassie section of 
Tarland parish, W Aberdeenshire, rising close to the 
boundary with Banffshire, and running 7i miles east- 
south-eastward, till it faUs into the Don at Inverernan, 
after a total descent of 1300 feet. — Ord. Sur., sh. 75, 

Erncrogo, a small loch near the centre of Crossmichael 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. Lying 380 feet above sea- 
level,. it has an utmost length and breadth of 3 by IJ 
furlongs, and contains two islets, which formerly were 
frequented by sea-gulls. A streamlet, flowing from it 
to the Dee, drives a meal mill that serves for nearly all 
the parish ; otherwise the loch might be advantageously 
drained. — Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Erne. See Eaen. 

Erochd. See Ericht. 

ErriboU. See Eriboll. 

Errickstanebrae. See Eeiokstanebrab. 

Errol, a village and parish in the Carse of Gowrie, 
Perthshire. The village stands 5 furlongs from the Tay's 
N bank, and IJ mile S of Errol station on the Dundee 
and Perth section of the Caledonian, which station is 
lOJ mDes WSW of Dundee and llj E of Perth, and 
near which is Errol post ofl&ce, with money order, sav- 
ings' bank, insurance, and raUway telegraph departments. 
Crowning a gentle eminence that commands a delightful 
view, particularly towards the S and W, it is under the 
superiority of Mrs Molison ; serves as a business centre 
for much of the Carse district ; is inhabited mainly by 
weavers and operatives ; and has a post office of its own 
under Errol, a branch of the Union Bank, 2 chief inns, 
gas-works, 2 schools, a reading-room and library, and fairs 
on the last Wednesday of July and the Saturday after 
the first Friday of October. The parish church, built 
in 1831 after designs by Gillespie Graham, is a cruci- 
form Norman structure, with a conspicuous square tower, 
and contains 1450 sittings. There are also a Free church 
and a U.P. ehm'ch, the latter containing 751 sittings. 
Pop. (1841) 1147, (1861) 1086, (1871) 918, (1881) 890. 

"The parish, containing also the village of Leeto^vn, is 
bounded N by Kinnaird, NE by Inchture, SE and S by 
the Firth of Tay, W by St Madoes and Kinfaims, and 
NW by KUspindie. Its utmost length, from ENE to 
WSW, is 6 mUes ; its breadth varies between If and 3 J 
miles ; and its area is 11,754 acres, of which 2229 are 
foreshore and 17| water. The shore is everywhere flat, 
nowhere exceeding 20 feet above high water mark ; and 
the eastern interior, to the extent of half of the entire 
area, is all but a dead level — its highest point Middle- 
bank (89 feet). The western district is more diversified, 
having several low ridges extending nearly parallel with 
the Tay, and attaining, near Mains of Errol, a summit 
altitude of 156 feet. Three or four very sluggish stream- 
lets, locally called pows, rise near or beyond the north- 
ern and north-western boundaries, and, winding through 
the interior, carry the drainage to the Firth of Tay. 
FossUiferons sandstone and limestone are the predomi- 
ijant rocks. The sandstone is a good building material, 
and has been largely quarried at Clashbennie ; whilst the 
limestone, though coarse, was formerly worked at Murie. 
The soil throughout the flat tracts is carse clay or strong 
argillaceous loam, on the ridges is blackish earth, and, 
as a whole, is singularly fertile. Scarcely a rood of land 
is waste ; little more than 200 acres are under wood, 
including hedgerows ; and the rest of the land is so 
richly cultivated and so beautifully enclosed as well to 
compensate by its luxuriance of aspect for any absence 
of the picturesque. Two standing stones are at Clash- 
bennie and near Inchmartin ; an ancient artificial mound, 
the Law-EnoU, rises in Murie Park ; and at West-town 
is a small ruined pre-Eeformation chapel. Considerable 
commerce, both in export and in import, is done at the 
little harbour of Port AUen. The lands of Errol were 



granted by "William the Lyon (1166-1214) to Us butler, 
AVilliam de Haya, whose descendants, the Hays, obtained 
the hereditary high eonstableship of Scotland in 1315, 
and the earldom of Errol in 1452. (See Lttncakty and 
Slains.) By them the estate was sold in 1634, and, 
after passing through a number of hands, it was pur- 
chased in 1872 by the late Francis Molison, Esq., who, 
at great cost, had restored the old mansion, a three- 
storied quadrangular pile, 100 by 80 feet, with courtyard 
in the centre, when, upon 10 Oct. 1874, it was reduced 
by fire to a mere shell, the damage being estimated at 
£9000. Since then rebuilt, Errol House is now the seat 
of his widow, Mrs Molison, who holds 2135 acres in the 
shire, valued at £7039 per annum. Other mansions, 
separately noticed, are, Murie House, Megginch Castle, 
and Gourdiehill; and, in all, 10 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 8 of between £100 and 
£500, 7 of from £50 to £100, and 13 of from £20 to £50. 
Errol is in the presbytery of Perth and the synod of 
Perth and Stirling; the living is worth £397. Pitrodie 
U. P. church, on the N"W border, 2J miles NW of the 
village, contains 320 sittings ; and Errol public, Glen- 
doick public, and Errol female industrial schools, with 
respective accommodation for 224, 130, and 147 children, 
had (1880) an average attendance of 157, 130, and 147, 
and grants of £112, 4s., £66, 4s., and £70, 2s. Valua- 
tion (1860) £20,089, 5s. 6d., (1882) £22,570, 14s. lid. 
Pop. (ISOl) 2653, (1831) 2992, (1861) 2759, (1871) 2504, 
(1881) 2421.— Ore?. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Erskine (13th century IrscJien), a parish on the 
northern border of Renfrewshire, containing the post 
oifice, village, and railway station of Bishopton, 5 miles 
NNW of Paisley. It is bounded N and NE by the river 
Clyde, E by Inchinnan, S by Houston, and SW and W 
by Kilmalcolm. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 7 
miles ; its breadth, from N to S, varies between 1| and 
3J miles ; and its area is 9092-J acres, of which 1189 
are foreshore and 368 water. The Clyde, a stately sea 
river, sweeping 6-| miles west-north-westward, here 
widens from 1 furlong to 1| mile, and here is crossed 
by Erskine and West Ferries, the former just above Old 
Kilpatrick village, with quays so as to serve for horses 
and carriages as weU as for foot passengers ; the latter 
opposite l3umbarton Castle. The Renfrewshire shore 
is much of it low and flat, and throughout all the eastern 
interior the surface nowhere exceeds 150 feet above sea- 
level. The western division is hillier, attaining 317 feet 
near Netherston, 600 at Barscube, 583 at GallahOl, 626 
near Bogside, and 611 near Langside — heights that com- 
mand magnificent views along the Clyde, up Gare Loch 
and Loch Long, and away to the Grampians. Dargavel 
Burn traces most of the southern boundary, and several 
short burns rise in the interior, and run to the Clyde ; 
whilst springs of excellent water are everywhere plentiful. 
The rocks of the E are chiefly carboniferous, and those 
of the W eruptive. Minerals of the zeolitic family 
abound in the latter ; aud fine specimens have been 
found of mesotype and amethystine quartz. Sandstone, 
for building purposes, has been worked in three quarries ; 
and trap rock, for road metal, in several places. The 
soil is mainly either a light ft'iable retentive earth, with 
tiUy subsoil, or a sharp dry earth, incumbent upon 
trap. Nearly a twelfth of the entire area is under 
wood ; about a fifth is pastoral, mossy, or waste ; and 
all the rest is arable. In 1226 the barony of Erskine 
was held by one Henry de Erskine, of whose descendants 
the fifth had a grant of Alloa, the twelfth was created 
Earl of Mak, and by the fourteenth this property was 
sold in 1638 to Sir John Hamilton of Orbiston. From 
the Hamiltons it was purchased in 1703 by the noble 
famOy of Blantyke, and it now belongs to Charles 
Stuart, twelfth Baron Blantyre (b. 1818 ; sue. 1830), 
who owns 4449 acres in the shire, valued at £9016 
per annum. The present mansion stands on a rising- 
ground above the Clyde, f mile WNW of Erskine 
ferry, and 2 miles NNE of Bishopton. Built in 1828 
after designs by Sir Robert Smirke, it is a splendid 
Tudor edifice, and commands a view as varied as it is 
beautiful. One feature in the finely-wooded park is an 


obelisk, 80 feet high, erected to the memory of Robert, 
eleventh Lord Blantyre (1777-1830), who, after serving 
through the Peninsular campaign, was killed by a stray 
bullet during the Brussels insurrection. Dargavel has 
been separately noticed, as also has Bargarran of witch- 
craft fame. The Rev. Walter Young, D.D., F.R.S., 
and the Rev. Andrew Stewart, M.D., the former famoua 
as a musician, the latter distinguished for great skill in 
pulmonary complaints, were ministers of Erskine, the 
one tin 1814, the other till 1839. Seven proprietors^ 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 5 of 
between £100 and £500, 9 of from £50 to £100, and 22 
of from £20 to £50. Erskine is in the presbytery of 
Greenock and S3Tiod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is 
worth £387. The parish church, IJ mile NNE of 
Bishopton, was buUt in 1813, and is a handsome Gothic 
edifice, containing 500 sittings. At Langbank there 
is a quoad sacra church, at Bishopton a Free church ;. 
and two public schools, Erskine and Undercraig, with 
respective accommodation for 245 and 113 children, had 
(1880) an average attendance of 137 and 54, and grants 
of £108, 9s. 6d. and £53s. 6s. Valuation (1860> 
£12,048, (1882) £20,098, 19s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 847,. 
(1831) 973, (1861) 1457, (1871) 1565, (1881) 1653.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Esk (Cymric wysg, Gael, uisge, ' water '), a river of E 
Dumfriesshire, formed by the confluence of the Black 
and White Esks, the former of which rises in the W of 
Eskdalemuir parish, on the NE slope of Jocks Shoulder, 
at an altitude of 1600 feet, and thence runs 12J miles- 
south-south-eastward, whilst the White Esk, springing, 
from the NE acclivity (2000 feet) of Ettrick Pen, in the 
N of the same parish, runs 14J miles south-by-eastward, 
on the way being joined by Gaewald Water, Moodlaw 
and Rae Burns, and a number of lesser tributaries. 
They unite, 490 feet above sea-level, at the SE comer 
of Eskdalemuir ; and from this point the Esk winds 
22J miles soutli -eastward, and south-south-eastward 
through Westerkirk, Langholm, and Canonbie parishes, 
then for 5 furlongs flows south-south-westward along 
the English Border, and finally passes off into Cumber- 
land on its way, past Longtown, to the head of the 
Solway Firth. Its principal affluents, during its 
Scottish course, are Megget Water, Wauchope Water, 
Ewes Water, Tarras Water, and Liddel Water, all 
under charge of the Esk and Liddel Fisheries Associa- 
tion, and all, like itself, affording capital sport. The 
salmon disease, however, has wrought great havoc here, 
for, according to a table prepared by the Chief Con- 
stable of Dumfriesshire, between 1 Jan. 1881 and 31 
March 1882, 422 salmon, 3 sea-trout, 3 herling, 5 parr, 
and 1 yellow trout were found dead in the Esk and its- 
tributaries, besides 196 salmon and 1 herling that were 
destroyed as being affected by disease. Its memories, 
its geology, and its scenery — heathery uplands in its- 
higher reaches, and wooded luxuriant haughs after it 
passes Langholm — are noticed under Eskdale, Dum- 
friesshire, and the parishes that it traverses. — Ord. 
Sur., shs. 16, 10, 11, 1864-63. 

Esk, a river iiowing through Midlothian into the 
Firth of Forth at Musselburgh. It is composed of the 
Korth and South Esks, which unite 7 furlongs below 
Dalkeith Palace. The North Esk rises in the parish ot 
Linton, Peeblesshire, at Boarstone and Easter Cairn- 
hiU, and, after a brief course through barren moorland 
districts, touches the boundary of Midlothian. This 
boundary it foUows for 2J miles, and receives the Carlops 
Burn and some other small tributaries. It proceeds in 
a north-easterly direction through or along the borders 
of the parishes of Penicuik, Lasswade, Glencorse, Cock- 
pen, and Dalkeith ; and in its upper course, near Carlops, 
passes through 'Habbie's Howe,' the scene described 
in Allan Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd. The most notable 
portion of the valley of the North Esk is where it flows 
through RosLiN Glen and Hawthoenden, presenting 
here a scene of striking beauty, which is visited by thou- 
sands of strangers, attracted not less by the picturesque 
elements of the scene than by the literary and historic 
recollections of the spot. Below Lasswade the North Esk 


traverses the magnificent pleasure-grounds of Melville 
Castle, and afterwards enters the policies of Dalkeith 
Palace, joining with the South Esk, after a north-easterly 
com-se of 17 miles, at a scene of great sylvan beauty. 
The basin of the North Esk abounds in valuable minerals 
of the Carboniferous formation, while from Penicuik to 
Lasswade the abundance of tine springs has made its 
banks the seat of prosperous paper manufactures. Mr 
"Watson Lyall, in his Sporiman's Guide, says: — 'Wliile 
in a scenic point of view the North Esk is famous, in a 
piscatorial sense it is, we are glad to say, a gi-eat deal 
better than it was, owing to the enterprise and judgment 
of the proprietors, which is all the more praiseworthy, 
as their exertions were attended with great expense. 
The refuse of all the paper-mills, etc. , on its banks used 
to be thrown into it, making it utterly worthless, but 
a great improvement has been wrought.' The South 
Esk rises, at an altitude of 1700 feet, on the western 
slope of Blaokhope Soar (2136 feet), in the southern 
extremity of Temple parish ; and thence winds 19 
miles north-by-eastward through or along the borders 
of Temple, Borthwick, Carrington, Cockpen, Newbattle, 
and Dalkeith. This stream receives a number of tribu- 
taries, including the FuUarton or Redside Burn, Gore 
Water, and Dalhousie Burn, all of which yield trout of a 
small size, which are eagerly sought for, the waters being 
mostly free. The village of Temple is quiet and remote, 
but is notable for its old church, once the seat of a body 
of Eed Friars or Templars, established by David I. , and 
at one time endowed with large possessions ; lower down, 
the stream ilows past Dalhousie Castle, surrounded by 
pictui'esque groimds, in which the river forms a pleasing 
feature, and the magniiicent park of Newbattle Abbej', 
famous for its gigantic beeches, a short distance below 
which it joins the North Esk. The basin of the South 
Esk is also rich in coal measures, and in scenic attraction 
it is little inferior to the companion stream, although 
not associated with so much history or romance. Below 
the confluence of the two streams, the Esk winds 3| 
miles north-by-eastward through Dalkeith Park and 
along an alluvial valley, overhung by the eminence on 
which the parish church of Inveresk is situated, passing 
the villages of Cowpitts, Mouktonhall, and Inveresk, and 
reaching the sea at Musselburgh. Of the many bridges 
crossing these streams, the most interesting is the old 
bridge at Musselburgh, which is of great antiquity, and 
is populai'ly believed to be of Roman origin. At a time 
when few bridges existed, this passage of the Esk was 
of great strategic importance, and is notable as having 
been crossed by the Scottish army before the battle of 
Pinkie in 1547, and also in 1745 by the Highland army 
under Prince Charles Edward, previous to the battle of 
Prestonpans.— 0?tZ. Sur., shs. 24, 32, 1864-57. 

Eskadale, a hamlet and a mansion in Kiltarlity 
parish, Inverness-shire, on the right bank of the river 
Beauly, 7 miles SW of Beauly town. The hamlet is 
small and rural, but contains a neat Roman Catholic 
church, St Mary's (1826 ; 600 sittings). The mansion, 
1 mile nearer Beauly, is a handsome edifice, and com- 
mands an extensive view of Strathglass. 

Eskbank. See Dalkeith. 

Esk, Black. See Esk, Dumfriesshire. 

Eskbridge, a station adjacent to the North Esk river, 
at the boundary between Penicuik and Lasswade parishes, 
Edinburghshire, on the Edinbui'gh and Penicuik rail- 
way, 1 mile NE of Penicuik. 

Eskdale, the eastern and smallest one of the three 
districts of Dumfriesshire. It is loosely understood to 
be conterminous with all the Scottish territory within 
the basin of the Esk river ; but it has sometimes been 
treated as excluding the basin of the tributary rivulet 
Ewes, which often is styled Ewesdale ; and, on the 
other hand, it is commonly taken to include the parish 
of Half Morton, which lies beyond the basin of the Esk, 
and is drained into the Sark. The parishes undoubtedly 
comprised in it are Eskdalemuir, "Westerkirk, Lang- 
holm, and Canonbie. The first and the second of these 
parishes, most of the third, and all Ewes, are hilly or 
mountainous, Ijing within the Southern Highlands, and 


thinly peopled ; but the southern part of Langholm and 
all Canonbie and Half Morton are a fine fiat country. 
Eskdale, in the early part of the 12th century, was 
nearly all divided among the Anglo-Norman families of 
Avenel, Soulis, and Rossedal ; in the times of Robert I. 
and David II., was mostly acquired by the Douglases ; 
continued to be held by them till their forfeiture in 
1455 ; passed then to the JIaswells, and continued to 
be held by them throughout the 16th and 17th cen- 
turies. A regality over it was erected in favour of the 
Douglases ; passed, through the Maxwells, to the 
Scotts of Buccleuch ; and, at the abolition of hereditary 
jurisdictions in 1747, was compensated by the payment 
of £1400 to the Duke of Buccleuch. 

Eskdalemuir, a parish of E Dumfriesshire, whose 
chm-ch stands, 620 feet above sea-level, on the right 
bank of the White Esk, 14 miles N"W of Langholm, 
under which there is a post office of Eskdalemuir. It is 
bounded N by Ettrick in Selkirkshire, NE by Roberton 
and Teviothead in Roxburghshire, E and SE by Wester- 
kirk, S and SW by Hutton, and NW by Mofl'at. Its 
utmost length, from N to S, is 12J miles ; its utmost 
breadth, from E to W, is 9J miles ; and its area is 
43,518J acres, of which 236^ are water. The Black 
Esk, rising on Jocks Shoulder ia the W, runs 12 J miles 
south-south-eastward, close to the western and south- 
western border, tracing, indeed, for the last mile of its 
course the southern boundary with AVesterkirk ; and 
the Wliite Esk, from its soirrce on Ettrick Pen, flows 
14^ miles south-by-eastward, cutting the parish into 
two pretty equal parts. By these two streams and 
their innumerable affluents, of which Fingland Burn 
and Garwald Water form picturesque cascades, this 
parish has been channelled into mountain ridges, 
heathy moorland most of it — hence its name Eslcdale- 
muir. At the confluence of the White and Black Esks 
to form the river Esk, the surface declines to 490 feet 
above the sea ; and elevations, northwards thence, to 
the left or E of the AVhite Esk, are the Pike (1001 feet), 
Blaeberry HUl (1376), *Stock HiU (1561), *Quicknin- 
gair Hill (1601), and *Blue Cairn Hill (1715), where 
asterisks mark those summits that culminate on the 
confines of the parish. Between the White and Black 
Esks, again, rise Castle Hill (1054), Ashy Bank (1394), 
*Etteiok Pen (2269), and *Loch Fell (2256) ; and 
lastly, to the right or W of the Black Esk are *Hart 
Fell (1085), Haregrain Rig (1336), and 'Jocks Shoulder 
(1754). The rocks are mainly Silurian, but include 
some Old Red sandstone and conglomerate. The soil 
in general of the pastoral tracts is deep but mossy, 
carpeted with carices or with coarse herbage at the 
best ; but some of the slopes along the White Esk's 
banks are green and aS'ord good gi-azing ; and here, too, 
are some 500 acres of holm-land — naturally wet, but 
greatly improved by draining — that repay the trouble 
of cultivation. On every height almost are traces of 
ancient camps, circular, oval, or rectangular, the most 
curious of which, that of Castle O'er, has been noticed 
in a separate article. Of two stone circles upon Coatt 
farm, the more entire measured 90, and the other 
(partly destroyed by the White Esk) 340, feet. The 
Rev. William Brown, D.D. (1766-1S35), author of 
Antiquities of the Jcivs, was minister for more than 
forty years. The Duke of Buccleuch owns two-thirds 
of the parish, 2 other proprietors holding each an 
annual value of more, and 2 of less, than £500. Dis- 
joined from Westerkirk in 1703, Eskdalemuir is in the 
presbytery of Langholm and synod of Dumfries ; the 
living is worth £405. The church, built in 1826, is a 
neat edifice, containing 893 sittings. A Free church is 
at Davixgton ; and two public schools, Eskdalemuir 
and Davington, with respective accommodation for 60 
and 118 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 
18 and 32, and erants of £28, 8s. and £42, 19s. Valua- 
tion (1860) £8899, (1882) £11,060, 13s. 5d. Pop. 
(1801) 537, (1831) 650, (1861) 590, (1871) 551, (ISSl) 
5iS. —Ord. Sur., shs. 16, 10, 1864. 

Esk, North, a quoad sacra parish in Inveresk parish, 
Edinburghshire, adjacent to Musselburgh post ofiice and 



station, and including the Musselburgh suburb of 
Fisherrow. It is in the presbytery of Dalkeith and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the nominal stipend 
is d£120. The church, in Fisherrow, was built in 1838 
as a chapel of ease, and contains 1000 sittings. See 

Esk, North (the Leva of Ptolemy), a river of Forfar 
and Kincardine shires, formed, at an altitude of 820 
feet above sea-level, by the confluence of Lee and Mark 
Waters at Invermark, near Lochlee church, 17 miles 
NW of Edzell. Thence it winds 29 miles south-east- 
ward, till, at a point 4J miles NNE of Montrose, it 
enters the North Sea. During the last 15 miles of its 
coui'se it roughlj' traces the boundary between Kincar- 
dine and Forfar shires ; and from head to mouth it 
traverses or bounds the parishes of Lochlee, Edzell, 
Fettercairn, Stracathro, Logiepert, Marykirk, Montrose, 
and St C3'rus. Its upper tributaries are, on the right, 
the Effock, the Keeny, and the Mooran, the water of 
the last of which supplies the town of Brechin with 
500,000 gallons a day. The works, constructed in 
1874, cost over £15,000, and the supply is conveyed 
10 miles. On the left bank the Esk receives the Tarf 
at Tarfside, the Tm-ret at MUlden, between Lochlee 
and Edzell, and lower down the Burns of Meallie and 
Auchmull. The course of the North Esk where it 
leaves the Grampians is rugged, wooded, and pictui'esque, 
and that part which forms the county boundary 
pierces for a number of miles through a red sandstone 
gorge. It is crossed by the ' Loups Bridge ' and Gan- 
noohy Bridge, the latter erected in 1732 by James Black, 
a farmer ia the district. Passing tlie village of Edzell, 
it receives West and Cruick Waters at Stracathro, and 
Luther Water at Balmakewan, all from the Howe of 
the Mearns ; then after passing Craigo, Logic, Montrose 
Water-works, and Kinnaber Mills on the right, and 
Marykirk village on the left, it loses itself at length in 
the ocean. On 20 Sept. 1861 the Queen and the Prince 
Consort, with Princess Alice and Prince Louis of Hesse, 
drove down Glenesk from Invermarlc to The Burn, in the 
course of their Fettercairn or ' second great ' expedition. 
The river gives a title to a branch of the Carnegie 
family. Sir John, younger brother to the first Earl of 
Southesk, was created Lord Lour in 1639, Earl of Ethie 
in 1 647, and in 1662 received the titles of Earl of North- 
esk and Lord RosehiU, the latter from an eminence on 
the banks of the river. (See Ethie. ) The river oflers 
good sport, containing as it does, salmon, sea trout, 
and common trout. The net fishings are valuable, 700 
to 800 salmon having been taken on the opening day of 
the season below Marykiz'k Bridge. — Ord. Sur., shs. 66, 
57, 1871-68. 

Eskside. See Musselburgh. 

Esk, South, a river of Forfarshire, 48| miles long, 
rising in the NW corner of the county, at an altitude 
of 3150 feet above sea-level, within J mile of feeders of 
the Callader and Muick, both of which flow to the Dee. 
It flows SE for 20| miles to Inverquharity, to which 
point it is a rugged Highland stream, and thence it 
flows due E to Montrose. In its upper reaches its 
waters are supplemented by Lochs Brandy and Wharral, 
Kottal and Glenmoy Burns, flowing in on the E bank, 
and on the W side by White Water from Glen Doll, 
Drums Burn, and Pkosen Water, joining it at Cortachy. 
Carity Burn enters the Esk from the W, and Glenquiech 
Burn enters from the N. The South Esk then passes 
Tannadice and Finhaven Castle, and, at the last-named 
place, it receives the Lemno, and further down the 
NoBAN, a beautiful and rapid stream. Leaving Auldbar 
Castle on tlie right, the South Esk passes Brechin with 
its castle and cathedral, then the grounds of Kinnaird 
Castle ; and soon after receiving the Pow, a sluggish burn 
7 miles long, expands into Montrose Basin, an inland 
lake at high tide 2 J miles by IJ mile, and 7 miles in 
circumference. At low tide the basin is a melancholy 
expanse of mud with a narrow stream at the S side, 
and the Taycock Burn flowing in at the NE corner. 
The basin is joined to the sea by two channels which 
reunite and form Rossie Island or Inohbrayock, The 


wider of the two outlets is crossed by a suspension 
bridge, built in 1828 at a cost of £20,000, and by the 
new railway viaduct. (See North British Railway.) 
From this point seawards the South Esk presents a fine 
navigable channel. It traverses or bounds the parishes 
of Cortachy and Clova, Kirriemuir, Tannadice, Oath- 
law, Aberlemno, Careston, Brechin, Farnell, Dun, 
Maryton, Montrose, and Craig. The South Esk with 
its tributaries has some capital fishing, but it is largely 
preserved. Trout-fishing, however, is plentiful in all 
the streams, and there are three varieties of this fish — 
one yellowish, another whitish, and a third very dark, 
with small red spots deeply imbedded, and like a pike. 
The title Earl of Southesk was bestowed in 1633 on 
Lord Carnegie, formerly Sir David Carnegie of Kinnaird. 
The peerage was forfeited in 1716 on account of the 
participation of the fifth Earl in the rising of the 
Fifteen, but was restored in the person of the present 
Earl in 1855. See Kinnaird. — Ord, Sur., shs. 65, 56, 
57, 1870-68. 

Esk, White. See Esk, Dumfriesshire. 

Eslemont. See Esslemont. 

Eslin. See Glenessland. 

Esragan, a burn of Ardchattan parish, Argyllshire, 
rising at an altitude of 2100 feet above sea-level, and 
running 4| miles southward to Loch Etive at Inveres- 
ragan, 2^ miles NW of Bunawe. — Ord. Sur. , sh. 45, 1876. 

Esseforse, a cataract in Ulva island, Argyllshire, on 
a tiny hiU stream falling into Ulva North Loch. Above 
it are two lesser waterfalls ; and its own is an unbroken 
and precipitous descent of 90 feet. 

Essenside, a loch near the centre of Ashkirk parish, 
W Roxburghshire. Lying 680 feet above sea-level, it 
measures J by -^ mUe, abounds in fine trout and perch, 
and semds oflTa strearolet to the Ale. — Ord. Sur., sh. 17, 

Esset, a troutful burn of TuUynessle parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, rising among the Correen Hills, at an altitude of 
1300 feet above sea-level, and running 6 J miles south- 
eastward across the middle of the parish, till it falls into 
the Don 9 furlongs below the Bridge of Afford. It has 
a total descent of nearly 900 feet ; drives nine or ten 
mUls during the last 2J miles of its course ; is subject 
to great freshets ; and in the years 1829 and 1835 became 
for some hours a devastating and overwhelming torrent. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Essich, an estate in Inverness parish, Inverness-shire, 
4 miles S by W of the town. 

Essie, an ancient parish of NW Aberdeenshire, united 
at a remote period to Rhynie. Its church, however, 
standing 2i miles WNW of Rhynie village, was not dis- 
continued till about 1760. At Essie, Lulach, Macbeth's 
successor, was slain on 17 March 1058, after a nominal 
reign of seven months. 

Essie, Forfarshire. See Eassie. 

Essiemore. See Auohinchew. 

Essil, an ancient parish in the NE of Elginshire, 
united to Dipple in 1731 to form Speymouth parish. 

Esslemont, an estate, with a station and a mansion, 
in the S of Ellon parish, Aberdeenshire. The station is 
on the Formartine and Buchan section of the Great North 
of Scotland railway. If mile SSW of Ellon station. The 
mansion, IJ mile N by W of the station, on the right 
bank of the Ythan, is a plain building, with a finely- 
wooded park ; its owner, Henry Wolrige Gordon (b. 1831 ; 
sue. 1874), holds 4962 acres in the shire, valued at £4503 
per annum. A ruined fortalice, called Mains of Esslemont 
Castle, is nearer the station. 

Essmore. See Auohinchew. 

Ethie. See Eathie. 

Ethiebeaton. See Monifieth. 

Ethie Castle, the seat of the Earl of Northesk, in 
Inverkeilor parish, Forfarshire, 5 furlongs from the 
coast, and 5 miles NNE of Arbroath. Built and in- 
habited by Cardinal Beaton, it was, with neighbouring 
lands, conferred by his father, in 1596, on Sir John 
Carnegie, who in 1639 was created Lord Lour, and in 
1647 Earl of Ethie — a title which he exchanged in 1662 
for that of Earl of Northesk. WiUiam, seventh Earl, 


G.C.B. (1756-1331), was third in command at Trafalgar. 
His grandson, George John Carnegie, present and ninth 
Earl (b. lSi3 ; sue. 1878), holds 4844 acres in the shire, 
valued at £7762 per annum. — Ord. Stcr., sh. 57, 1868. 

Etive, a river and a sea-loch in the Lorn district of 
Argyllshire. The river issues from Lochan Mathair Etive 
(J X J mile ; 970 feet) on desolate Rannocli Muir, at the 
mutual border of Lismore and Glenorchy parishes, 2 miles 
E of Kingshouse inn. Thence, past Kingshouse and Dal- 
ness, it runs 15J miles west-south-westward and south- 
westward, mainly through the parish of Ardchattan, till 
it falls into the head of the loch. It is fed by rivulets in- 
numerable ; near Dalness and Coileitir it forms two fine 
cascades ; and the fishing is good for salmon and sea trout 
from Dalness downwards, for river trout higher up. Glen 
Etive is grandly alpine, flanked on the right by Buaoh- 
aille-Etive (3345 feet) and Ben Veedan (3766), which 
part it from Glencoe ; on the left by Glach Leathad (3602) 
and Ben Starav (3541). ' Several houses or huts,' says 
Professor Wilson, ' become visible no long way up the 
glen ; and though that long hollow — half a day's jour- 
ney — till you reach the wild road between Inveroran and 
Kingshouse — lies in gloom, yet the hillsides are cheerful, 
and you delight in the greensward, \vide and rock-broken, 
should you ascend the passes that lead into Glencreran 
or Glencoe. But to feel the full power of Glen Etive, 
you must walk up it till it ceases to be a glen. When 
in the middle of the moor, you see far otf a solitary 
dwelling — perhaps the loneliest house in all the High- 
lands — and the solitude is made profounder, as you pass 
by, by the voice of a cataract, hidden in an awful chasm, 
bridged by two or three stems of trees, along which the 
red deer might fear to venture ; but we have seen them 
and the deer-hounds glide over it, followed by other 
fearless feet, when far and wide the Forest of Dalness 
was echoing to the hunter's horn. ' 

Loch Etive extends first 10-^ miles south-westward to 
Bunawe, and then winds 8f miles westward, till at 
Dunstaffnage Castle it merges in the Firth of Lorn. Its 
width — from J to IJ mile over the upper loch — is If 
furlong at Bunawe ferry, IJ mile at Airds Bay, and IJ 
furlong at Connel ferry. Prof. Geikie sees in Loch 
Etive a good example of an ancient submerged glen, be- 
longing to the secondary stage of submergence, higher 
than Loch Fyne and lower than Loch Maree. ' It nar- 
rows,' he remarks, ' at Connel ferry, and across the strait- 
ened part runs a reef of rocks, covered at high water, but 
partly exposed at ebb. Over this barrier the flowing 
tide rushes into the loch, and the ebbing tide rushes out, 
■with a rapidity which, during part of the time, breaks 
into a roar of angry foam like that of a cataract. The 
greatest depth of the loch above these falls is 420 feet ; 
at the falls themselves there is a depth of only 6 feet at 
low water ; and outside this barrier the soundings reach, 
at a distance of 2 miles, 168 feet. Loch Etive is thus a 
characteristic rock-basin, and an elevation of the land 
to the extent of only 20 feet would isolate the loch from 
the sea, and turn it into a long, winding, deep, fresh- 
water lake.' Many have described the beauties of Loch 
Etive, none better than Dorothy Wordsworth. 'The 
loch,' she writes, 'is of a considerable width ; but the 
mountains are so very high that, whether we were close 
under them or looked from one shore to the other, they 
maintaiued their dignity. I speak of the higher parts 
of the loch, above Bunawe and the river Awe, for down- 
wards they are but hills, and the water spreads out wide 
towards undetermined shores. On our right was Ben 
Cruaohan (3611 feet), rising directly from the lake, and 
on the opposite side another mountain, called Ben 
Duirinnis (1821), craggy, and exceedingly steep, with 
wild wood growing among the rocks and" stones. We 
crossed the water, which was very rough in the middle, 
but calmer near the shores ; and some of the rocky basins 
and little creeks among the rocks were as still as a mirror, 
and they were so beautiful with the reflection of the 
orange-coloured sea- weed growing on the stones or rocks, 
that a child, with a chUd's delight in gay colours, might 
have danced with joy at the sight of them. It never 
ceased raining, and the tops of the mountams were con- 


cealed by mists, but as long as we could see across the 
water we were contented ; for though little could be seen 
of the true shapes and permanent appearances of the 
mountains, we saw enough to give us the most exquisite 
delight : the powerful lake which filled the large vale, 
roaring torrents, clouds floating on the mountain sides, 
sheep that pastured there, sea birds and land birds. 
. . . Cruachan, on the other side of the lake, was 
exceedingly grand, and appeared of an enormous height, 
spreading out two largo arms that made a cove down 
which fell many streams swollen by the rain, and in the 
hollow of the cove were some huts which looked like a 
village. The top of the mountain was concealed from 
us by clouds, and the mists floated high and low upon 
the sides of it. . . . Friday, Sept. 2, 1803.— De- 
parted from Taynuilt about seven o'clock this morning, 
having to travel 8 miles down Loch Etive and then to 
cross Connel ferry. Our road was at first at a consider- 
able distance from the lake, and out of sight of it, among 
undulating hills covered mth coppice woods, resembling 
the country between Coniston and Windermere ; but it 
afterwards carried ns close to the water's edge, and in 
this part of our ride we were disappointed. We knew 
that the high mountains were all at the head of the lake, 
therefore had not expected the same awful grandeur' which 
we beheld the day before, and perceived by glimpses ; 
but the gentleman whom we met -with at Dalmally had 
told us that there were many fine situations for gentle- 
men's seats on this part of the lake, which had made us 
expect gi-eater loveliness near the shores, and better 
cultivation. It is true there are pleasant bays, with 
grounds prettily sloping to the water, and coppice.'woods, 
where houses would stand in shelter and sun, looking on 
the lake ; but much is yet wanting — waste lands to be 
ploughed, peat-mosses drained, hedgerows reared ; and 
the woods demand a gi-ant of longer life than is now their 
privilege. But after we had journeyed about 6 miles, a 
beautiful scene opened upon us. The morning had been 
gloomy, and at this time the sun shone out, scattering 
the clouds. We looked right down the lake, that was 
covered with streams of dazzling sunshine, which revealed 
the indentings of the dark shores. On a bold promontory, 
on the same side of the loch where we were, stood DuN- 
staffnase Castle, an irregular tall building, not with- 
out majesty ; and beyond, with leagues of water between, 
our eyes settled upon the island of Mull, a high moun- 
tain, green in the sunshine, and overcast with clouds, — 
an object as inviting to the fancy as the evening sky in 
the west, and, though of a terrestrial green, almost as 
visionary. We saw that it was an island of the sea, but 
were unacquainted with its name : it was of a gem-like 
colour, and as soft as the sky. The shores of Loch 
Etive, in their moorish, rocky wildness, their earthly 
bareness, as they lay in length before us, produced a 
contrast which, with the pure sea, the brilliant sun.shine, 
the long distance, contributed to the aerial and romantic 
power with which the island was invested.' In 1871, 
Dr R. Angus Smith discovered, in a large moss on the 
shores of Loch Etive, an ancient lake-dwelling, 50 feet 
long and 28 broad, on a platform 60 feet in diameter ; 
whilst a large cairn disclosed two megalithic chambers, 
counected by a narrow passage, and each of them 20 feet 
long. Relics these, possibly, of that dim, far-away 
Fingalian age, whose memories linger round ' Bere- 
GONIUM,' Dunstafi'nage, and other spots on or near to the 
shores of Loch Etive.— Orf?. Sur., shs. 54, 53, 45, 1873- 
77. See pp. 143-153 of Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour in 
Scotland (ed. by Princ. Shairp, 1874) ; Professor Archi- 
bald Geikie's Scenery and Geology of Scotland JLond. 
1865) ; and Loch Etive and the Sons of Uisivxch (Lond. 

Etterick, a bay on the W side of the Isle of Bute, 
opening near the extremity of the Kyles of Bute, 24 
miles ENE of Ardlamont Point. It measures 1 mile 
across its entrance, and 5 furlongs thence to its inmost 
recess ; a dingle extends from it, 2 miles east-north-east- 
ward across the island, to the head of Karnes Bay ; and 
Glen More descends southward to its N side, and brings 
down to it a bmm from a point ■ivithin IJ mile of the 



northern extremity of the island. — Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 

Ettleton, an ancient parish of Liddesdale, S Rox- 
burghshii'e, since 1604 incorporated with Castleton 
parish. Its church stood near the W bank of Liddel 
Water, 9 furlongs SSW of Newcastleton. 

Ettrick, a parish of Selkirkshire, whose tree-girt 
church and manse nestle, 800 feet above sea-level, in a 
sunny corner of the high green hills, J mile from the 
left bank of Ettrick Water, but Tvith their own little 
Kirk Burn— 4f miles SSE of ' Tibby Shiels,' Sf SW of 
Tushielaw Inn, and 18J SW of the post-town, Selkirk. 
It is bounded N by Yarrow, NE by Kirkhope, SE by 
the Selkirkshire and Roxburghshire portions of Roberton, 
S by Eskdalemuir in Dumfriesshire, AV by Moffat in 
Dumfriesshire, and NW by Lyne in Peeblesshire. From 
NE to SW its utmost length is 12| miles ; its breadth, 
from NW to SE, varies between 74 furlongs and 10 
miles, being greatest at the middle ; and its area is 
42,682| acres, of which 296 are water. The Loch of the 
Lowes (6|xlf furl.) lies nearly all within the NW 
corner of Ettrick parish, to which also belongs the 
western half of the upper f mOe of St Maky's Loch ; 
whilst on the eastern and south-eastern border are 
Cleaebukn Loch (2Jxl fuii.), Crooked Loch (2x1 
furl.), and Kingside Looh (2Jxlf furl.). From its 
source upon Capel Fell, at the SW extremity of the 
parish, Ettrick Water winds 14^ miles north-east- 
ward through the interior, and then 9 furlongs along 
the Kirkhope border, descending during this course from 
1900 to 745 feet above sea-level, and being joined by 
TiMA Water, • Rankle Burn, Tushielaw Burn, and 
thirty-four lesser tributaries. From NE to SW, the 
chief elevations to the left or NW of the Ettrick are the 
Kip (1293 feet), "Turner Clench Law (1809), Tushie Law 
(1431), Coom Law (1619), Thirlestane Hill (1475), Ward 
Law (1951) and Craig Hill (1597) behind the church, 
Penniestone Knowe (1807), *Muckle Knees (1929), 
*Herman Law (2014), *Andrewhinney (2220), Black 
Knowe Head (1938), *Bodesbeck Law (2173), and 
*Capel Fell (2223) ; to the right or SE of the stream 
rise Cacra Hill (1546), Gamescleuch Hill (1490), Law 
Kneis (1634), *Quickningair Hill (1601), Hope Head 
(1697), Cauld Face (1756), Black Knowe (1804), and 
Ettrick Pen (2269) — where asterisks mark those sum- 
mits that culminate on the confines of the parish. The 
rocks are Silurian, gi-eywacke chiefly and clay slate. 
The soil of the haughs is iine alluvium, of the skirts of 
the hOls is either sandy or gravelly or else a cold stiff 
clay, and on their shoulders and summits is mostly a 
deep moss. Barely 400 acres are arable, barely 300 are 
under wood, though a start was made in 1865 to break 
up the hill -sides at Ramsaycleuch for tillage, and 
though Lord Napier's plantations round Thirlestane 
Castle have thriven exceedingly. Nor of permanent 
pasture are there more than 120 acres, although from 
the point where the Ettrick's defile broadens into valley, 
a mile above the church, meadows begin to appear, 
where cattle graze — Ayrshires and shorthorns, with a 
few of the Highland breed. The rest of the parish is 
all one mighty sheep-walk, wave upon wave of long, 
green, rounded hills, whose rich grass feeds enormous 
flocks of Cheviots. Fitting that Ettrick should be for 
ever associated with the ' Ettrick Shepherd, ' James 
Hogg (1770-1835). The cottage in which he was born, 
by Ettrick Hall, 3 fmdongs ESE of the church, fell 
down about 1830 ; but his grave in the churchyard 
remains for a shrine of pilgrimage. (See Altrive and 
St MLaey's Loch.) There, too, are buried William 
John, eighth Lord Napier (1786-1834), who died in 
China, ihd the Rev. Thomas Boston (1676-1732), 
minister of Ettrick from 1707, and author of The Four- 
fold State. Many are the memories of this well- 
cherished divine, who tells us of his last communion 
how 'there, were nearly 800 commimicants, great num- 
bers of them from a considerable distance. Tlie 
hospitality of the farmers, and all those who had it in 
their power to accommodate and support them, during 
the preaching days, was beyond all praise. At one 


farm place they accommodated nine sciare, at another 
they had half a boU of meal baken, besides a quantity 
of loaf bread ; they killed three lambs, and made up 
thirty beds.' But, indeed, to enumerate all of interest 
that attaches to Ettrick were to write a volume which 
still remains to be written, and to trench on our articles 
BuccLEucH, Tushielaw, Gamescleuch, Chapelhope, 
Kirkhope, and Thirlestane Castle. Mansions other 
than the last are Cacra Bank and Rodono ; and besides 
the 2 chief proprietors, the Duke of Buccleuch and 
Lord Napier, there are 2 holding each an annual 
value of more, and 6 of less, than £100. Ettrick is in 
the presbytery of Selkirk and synod of Merse and 
Teviotdale ; the living is worth £342. The church, 
built in 1824, is a neat edifice, with a square tower and 
310 sittings ; and a public school, 3 fmiongs to the E, 
with accommodation for 62 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 25, and a grant of £31, 14s. 6d. 
Valuation (1865) £9852, 19s. 7d., (1880) £12,356, 12s. 6d. 
Pop. (1801) 445, (1831) 530, (1861) 434, (1871) 434, 
(1881) 397.— Ord Siir., sh. 16, 1864. 

Ettrick-Bank, an estate, with a mansion, in Selkirk 
parish, Selkii-kshire, on the left bank of Ettrick Water, 
2J miles N by E of Selkirk town. It belongs to the 
same proprietor as Sunderland Hall. 

Ettrick-Bridge, a village in Kirkhope parish, Selkirk- 
shire, on Ettrick Water, 7 miles WSW of Selku-k. It has 
a post oflice under Selkirk, an inn, and Kirkhope manse ; 
and it serves as an angling centre for the lower reaches 
of Ettrick Water. 

Ettrick Forest, a popular, poetic, and historic name 
for the whole or chief part of Selkirkshire, together with 
contiguous parts of Peebles and Edinburgh shires. 
AU the country drained by the Ettrick and the Yarrow, 
with part of that drained by other affluents of the 
Tweed, as also the country now forming the upper ward 
of Clydesdale, was clothed Tsith wood once, a remnant 
of the ancient Caledonian Forest. Oak was the com- 
monest tree, mingled with birch and hazel. Great 
numbers of oaks have been dug up in mosses which 
evidently owed their formation to the stagnation of 
water upon the neglected woodlands. The forest, 
judging from the prevalence of a Saxon nomenclature 
throughout the district, appears to have been early 
settled by the Northumbrian Saxons. From the time 
of Earl David (afterwards David I.), early in the 12th 
century, many grants were made, chiefly to the abbeys 
of Selkirk, Melrose, and Kelso, of various ■' easements ' 
within the wide range of the forest. At the close of the 
13th century Edward I., acting as arbiter of Scotland, 
gave away the forest's timber ; and was followed in this 
conduct by Edward II. and Edward III. Robert Bruce 
at his accession gave the forest to Sir James Douglas in 
guerdon of his services ; and with his family it con- 
tinued tUl their forfeiture in 1455. On the 4th of Aug. 
in that year Ettrick Forest was, by Act of parliament, 
annexed to the Crown. Abounding in beasts of chase 
and birds of prey, the forest now became again — what it 
had been before its tenure by the Douglases — a favourite 
hunting-ground of the Scottish kings. In 1528, 
James V. ' made proclamation to all lords, barons, 
gentlemen, landward-men, and freeholders, that they 
should compear at Edinburgh, with a month's victuals, 
to pass with the King where he pleased, to danton the 
thieves of Tiviotdale, Annandale, Liddisdale, and other 
parts of that country ; and also warned all gentlemen 
that had good dogs to bring them, that he might hunt 
in the said country as he pleased : the whilk the Earl of 
Argyll, the Earl of Huntly, the Earl of Athole, and so 
all the rest of the gentlemen of the Highland, did, and 
brought their hounds with them in like manner, to 
hunt with the King, as he pleased. The second day of 
June the King past out of Edinburgh to the hunting, 
with many of the nobles and gentlemen of Scotland with 
him, to the number of twelve thousand men ; and then 
past to Meggitland, and hounded and hawked all the 
country and bounds ; that is to say, Pappert-law, St 
Mary-laws, Carlavirick, Chapel, Ewindoores, and Long- 
hope. I heard say, he slew, in these bounds, eighteen 


score of liarts ' (Pitscottie's History of Scotland, folio 
edition, p. 143). After this stately hunting, James, 
who ' made the rush-bush keep the cow,' in order to 
increase his revenues, turned 10,000 sheep into Ettrick 
Forest, to graze there under the tending of a thrifty 
keeper, instead of 10,000 bucks that scoured its wood- 
lands during the bounteous age of Edward I. ; and by 
this act he led the way to such a conversion of the 
entire forest into sheep-pasture, as occasioned a rapid 
and almost total destruction of the trees. The last 
sovereign of Scotland who visited it for the sake of 
the chase was the beautiful Mary. Excepting a few 
straggling thorns, and some solitary birches, no traces 
of ' Ettricke foreste feir ' now remain, although, wher- 
ever protected from the sheep, copses soon arise without 
any planting. 

Ettrick Pen, a moimtain on the mutual border of 
Ettrick parish, Selkirkshire, and Eskdalemuir parish, 
Dumfriesshire, at the sources of Ettrick Water and the 
White Esk, 2J miles ENE of Capel Fell, and 7J ENE of 
Moffat. A central height of the Southern Highlands, it 
attains an altitude of 2269 feet above sea-level, and 
commands round three-fourths of a circle a very exten- 
sive prospect ; yet it is so hidden in the intervening 
segment, by mountains of similar altitude to itself, as 
to make but a slight figure in the general landscape. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 

Ettrick Water, a river of Selkii'kshire, rising in the 
south-western extremity of the county, on Capel Fell 
(2223 feet), at an altitude of 1900 feet, 5^ miles ENE of 
Moffat, and within a half-mile of affluents of both the 
Esk and Moffat Water. Thence it winds 32g miles 
north-eastward through or along the borders of Ettrick, 
Kirkhope, Selkirk, and Galashiels parishes, till, 2J 
miles below Selkirk town, it falls into the Tweed. It 
makes during this course a total descent of 1600 feet, 
and is joined by Tiraa and Yarrow Waters, mth many 
lesser tributaries. Its scenery and the many interesting 
spots by which it flows are noticed in our articles on the 
four above-named parishes, and on Ettrick Forest, Oak- 
wood, Bowhill, Carterhaugh, Philiphaugh, Haining, and 
Sunderland Hall. The song of Ettrick Bccnfcs, composed 
in the 16th or the 17tli century, but printed first in 
Thomson's Orpheus Calcdonius (1725), 'has,' says Prof. 
Veitch, ' some exquisite references to local scenery and 
traits of the older shepherd life, which could have been 
noted only by a native of the district, or one resident 
there, and thoroughly familiar with the people and the 
scenes.' The fishing, mostly open to the public, is 
capital, the trout ranging between J lb. and 3 lbs., 
though running smaller above Tushielaw. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 16, 17, 25, 1864-65. 

Eu. See Ewe. 

Euchan Water, a rivulet in Sanquhar parish, NW 
Dumfriesshire, rising on the SE slope of Blaoklaeg 
Hill, close to the meeting-point of Dumfries, Kirkcud- 
bright, and Ayr shires, and running 9J miles east- 
north-eastward through mountain scenery, till it falls 
into the Nith opposite Sanquhar Castle, after a total 
descent of 1500 i<xt.—Ord. Sur., sh. 15, 1864. 

Euchar, a rivulet in Lorn district, Argyllshire, issuing 
from Loch Scammadale, and running 2 miles west-by- 
southward, then 2 north-westward, till it falls into the 
sea at Kilninver. It traverses a deep, rocky, and finely 
wooded ravine, and makes a waterfall a mile above its 
mouth. Trout, of J lb. each, are plentiful ; and salmon 
and sea-trout collect in a pool below the fall. 

Eunaoh, Loch. See Ennich. 

Evanton, a village in Kiltearn parish, Ross-shire, 
5 nrile from the Cromarty Firth, and 3 furlongs SW of 
Novar station, this being 6\ miles NE of Dingwall. 
Founded about 1810 on a waste piece of land, it presents 
a neat and regular appearance, better than that of most 
other villages in the North ; and it has a post office, 
mth money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, an inn, and fairs on the first Tuesday of June 
and December. Pop. (1860) 584, (1871) 526, (1881) 
436.— Orrf. Sv.r., sh. 93, 1881. 

Evan Water, a stream of Lanark and Dumfries shires, 


rising in Crawford parish, close to the summit level 
(1012 feet) of the Caledonian railway, and so near 
Little Clydes Burn, the reputed head-stream of the 
Clyde, as now to receive a rill that formerly flowed to 
that river. Thence it runs 12J miles south-south- 
eastward through Crawford, Moffat, and Kirkpatrick- 
Juxta parishes, till it faUs into Annan Water, opposite 
the influx of Moffat Water, and 2 miles SSE of Jloffat 
town, at an altitude of 290 feet. With a rocky bed, and 
a rapid or impetuous current, it traverses a glen remark- 
able for affording transit both to the Glasgow and Carlisle 
road and to' the Caledonian railway through an alpine 
precipitous range of the Southern Highlands. High up it 
is conveyed by an aqueduct across the line, and, soon re- 
appearing far below, it afterwards is frequently crossed by 
the railway ; whilst from head nearly to foot it is flanked 
by green mountains, rising to altitudes of 800 to 1800 
feet above sea-level, yet rounded and comparatively soft 
in contour. Its glen possesses considerable amenity ; 
contains, above Beattock, the ruined castle of Achin- 
CAss ; and opens there into the fine broad strath of 
Aunandale. — Ord. Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 

Evelaw (popularly Ively), an old tower in Westruther 
parish, Berwickshire, lOJ miles ENE of Lauder. One 
of the castellated houses common on the Border prior to 
the union of Scotland and England, it still is tolerably 

Eveliek or Pole Hill, a wooded summit (944 feet) of 
the Sidlaws, in Kilspindie parish, Perthshire, 5.^ miles 
ENE of Perth. Commanding one of the iinest prospects 
in Scotland, it is croAvned, on its SE shoulder, with 
vestiges of an ancient fortification, seeming to have 
comprised two concentric stone walls and a fosse. Eve- 
lick Castle, a ruin at the eastern base of the hill, was 
the ancient seat of the Lindsays, knights of Eveliek, 
and appears to have been a place of considerable 

Evelix, a stream of Creich and Dornoch parishes, SE 
Sutherland, issuing from Loch an Lagain (7 J x If furl. ; 
446 feet), 4J miles NE of Bonar Bridge." Thence it 
winds 5J miles east-south-eastward along the mutual 
boundary of the two parishes, next 7i miles east-south- 
eastward and west-south-westward through the interior 
of Dornoch, till it falls into Dornoch Firth at Meikle 
Ferry. Its banks, over most of its course, are beauti- 
fully wooded ; and it affords fair trout and grilse fishing. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 102, 103, 94, 1878-81. 

Everyman's Land. See Scone. 

Evie, a parish in the NE of the mainland of Orkney, 
containing Dale hamlet, 16 miles NW of Kirkwall, 
and a post office (Evie) under Kii-kwall, with money 
order and savings' bank departments. 

The present parish has, since the Reformation era, 
comprised the ancient parishes of Evie and Rendall — 
Evie on the N, Rendall on the S ; and it lies near 
Enhallow island, within a mile of Rousay, AVire, and 
Gairsay islands, and 2 J miles AV of Shapinshay. Bounded 
N and E by the sea, S by Firth, and W by Harray and 
Birsay, it has an utmost length from NW to SE of 15 
miles, an utmost breadth of 4 J miles, and an area 
of 14,720 acres. Costa Head terminates the north- 
eastern extremity of Evie, and is a hill of consider- 
able size and elevation, presenting to the ocean a 
front of precipitous rock. No other headland of any 
importance is on the coast, nor are there any of those 
deep indentations elsewhere so frequent in Orkney. 
The beach, excepting at Woodwick Bay, is rocky, 
and forms, in some parts, a mural bulwark against 
the billows, but in others is low and flat. Woodwick 
Bay, on the mutual boundary of Evie and KendaU, 
penetrates IJ mile inland, and has a beach of beautifuj 
white shell sand. Gairsay island, which belongs tc 
Rendall, is nearly circular, and measures 4 miles in 
circumference. From Costa Head a range of monotonous 
hills, 300 to 400 feet in height, and moorish mostly or 
mossy, extends along all the Birsay and Harray border, 
and sends off spm's, less lofty than itself, into the interior 
of Rendall. Swaney Loch (IJ x 1 mile) interrupts that 
hill-range at a distance of IJ mile from Costa Head, and 



discharges itself, by a streamlet through Birsay, to the 
ocean. The hills were formerly all in a state of com- 
monage, but began about 1841 to be diyided. The 
arable land is all a gentle slope from the skirts of the 
hUls to the shore, varying in breadth from J to IJ mile. 
The rocks range from blue slate to white sandstone, and 
some are as hard as flint and as dark as lava, while 
others are soft and of a brownish-grey hue. Naturally 
a fine agricultural district (the best land facing north- 
ward), the arable soil is mostly a rich black loam, and 
has generally a lighter and sharper character in Rendall 
than in Evie. Agriculture is further advanced in the 
latter than in the former division, the estate of Swaney 
having been much improved by the proprietor. A peat 
moss occupies an entire large vale in Rendall ; and other 
peat mosses, which might easily be drained, occupy 
hollows in other low tracts. Turbary moss, affording an 
ineshaustible supply of excellent peat fuel, abounds in 
the vales or hollows among the hills. Aikerness, Isbister, 
Swaney, Rendall Hall, and Burgar are chief residences ; 
and the first was the birthplace of the judge. Sir William 
Honyman, Bart. (1756-182S). Numerous tumuli are in 
Evie ; no fewer than nine Picts' houses stand along the 
shores of Evie and Rendall ; and a small old farmhouse 
at Cottascarth in Rendall, on being taken down in 1832, 
was found to have concealed in its walls 150 silver coins, 
a few of them Scottish, and most of the others of Eliza- 
beth, James VI., and Charles I. Two proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 4 of between 
£100 and £500, 5 of from £50 to £100, and 6 of from 
£20 to £50. Evie and Rendall is in the presbytery of 
Kirkwall and synod of Orkney ; the living is worth 
£307. Evie church, built towards the close of last 
century, contains 498 sittings. Other places of worship 
are Rendall chapel of ease, a Free church, and a Congre- 
gational chapel ; and the four schools of Costa, Evie, 
Kendall, and Gairsaj', with respective accommodation 
for 65, 89, 86, and 20 children, had (1882) an average 
attendance of 31, 62, 45, and 7, and grants of £41, 
7s. 6d., £50, 18s., £55, 12s. 6d., and £4, 4s. Valuation 
(1881) £2163, 10s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 1415, (1831) 1450, 
(1851) 1408, (1871) 1340, (1881) 1361. 

Evlix. See Evelis. 

Evert, an intricate sea-loch on the E side of North 
Uist island. Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire. Opening 
3J miles S of Loch Maddy, it penetrates 7 miles west- 
ward, has numerous ramifications, and forms a safe 

Ewe, a river, a sea-loch, and an island of Gairloch 
parish, NW Ross-shire. The river, issuing from Loch 
Maree, runs 3J miles west-north-westward to the head of 
the sea-loch at Poolewe, is voluminous but rapid, and, 
abounding with salmon and sea-trout of prime size and 
quality, is excelled by no stream in the W of Scotland 
for angling. The sea-loch extends 10 miles north-north- 
westward from Poolewe to the North Minch, and from 
a width of 3 miles at the beautiful little bay of Aultbea 
contracts to IJ mUe below Cove, but expands again to 
8J miles at its entrance between Ru Rea and Greenstone 
Point. Its shores are rocky ; its flanks bare, broken, 
and ridgy. The island lies nearly in the middle of the 
sea-loch, measures 2J miles by 1 mile, and has a pleasant 
cultivated surface. Pop. (1861) 48, (1871) 50, (18S1) 

Ewes, a parish in the NE of Eskdale, E Dumfries- 
shire, whose church stands, 400 feet above sea-level, on 
the right bank of Ewes Water, 4 miles N by E of Lang- 
holm, the post-town and station. It is bounded N by 
Teviothead in Roxburghshire, NE and E by Castleton, 
also in Roxburghshire, SE by Canonbie, SW by Lang- 
holm, and W by Westerkirk. Its utmost length, from 
N to S, is 9J miles ; its utmost breadth, from E to W, 
is 7 miles ; and its area is 25,010 acres, of which 69J 
are water. From Mosspaul (827 feet), one of its two 
.sources. Ewes Watek flows 9J miles south-by-west- 
ward, till it passes into Langholm ; whilst from Harts- 
garth Hill, another of the Esk's tributaries, Taeeas 
Water, runs 61 miles south-south-westward, then 1| 
mile along the Canonbie border. The entire parish, 


then, is a double basin, rimmed on three sides by moun- 
tain watershed. Along Tarras Water its surface declines 
to 450, along Ewes Water to 370, feet above the sea ; and 
elevations to the left or E of Ewes Water, northwards, are 
Muckle Knowe (1186 feet), *Watch Hill (1642), Arkleton 
Hill (1708), *Koan Fell (1862), Pike Fell (1637), and *Tud- 
hope Hill (1961), where asterisks mark those summits 
that culminate on the confines of the parish ; whDst to 
the right or W of the Ewes rise *Addergill HUl (1276), 
♦Meg's Shank (1571), Roughbank Height (1474), *Faw 
Side (1722), and *Wisp HiU (1950). The rocks are 
mainly greywacke and grejTvacke slate, but include 
some trap. Less than 1200 acres is arable, and some 
200 are under wood, nearly all the remainder being 
pastoral. Dorothy Wordsworth, who with her brother 
drove down Ewesdale on 23 Sept. 1803, gives us a vivid 
word-painting of the landscape : — ' Mosspaul, the inn 
where we were to bait. The scene, -with this single 
dwelling, was melancholy and wild, but not dreary, 
though there was no tree nor shrub ; the small streamlet 
glittered, the hills were populous with sheep ; but the 
gentle bending of the valley, and the correspondent 
softness in the forms of the hills, were of themselves 
enough to delight the eye.' The hills are unchanged, 
but the dwellers among them have altered greatly in 
the last two centuries. It is hardly a hundred years 
since the Lords of Justiciary rode from Jedburgh to 
Dumfries through Ewesdale, impassable then by any 
vehicle. Here once, when Henry Home (the after Lord 
Kames) went for the first time on the circuit as advocate- 
depute, Armstrong of Sorbie inquired of Lord Minto in 
a whisper, ' What lang, black, dour-looking chiel' that 
was they had got wi' them ? ' ' That,' said his lordship, 
' is a man come to hang a' the Armstrongs. ' ' Then, ' 
was the dry retort, 'it's time the EUiots were ridin'.' 
Now the parish is traversed down all its length by the 
high road from Edinburtjh to Carlisle. The property is 
divided among four. Ewes is in the presbytery ot 
Langholm and synod of Dumfries ; the living is worth 
£389. The parish church, originally dedicated to St 
Cuthbert, isahandsome Gothic edifice of 1867, containing 
230 sittings ; and a public school, with accommodation 
for 60 children, had (1880) an average attendance of 32, 
and a grant of £40, 6s. Valuation (1860) £5230, (1882) 
£6663, 3s. Pop. (1801) 358, (1831) 335, (1861) 356, 
(1871) 338, (1881) 337.— Ord Sur., shs. 11, 10, 17, 

Ewes. See Lttggate Water. 

Ewesdale. See Ewes, Dumfriesshii-e. 

Ewes Water, a rivulet of Eskdale, E Dumfriesshire, 
formed by two head-streams. Blackball and Mosspaul 
Burns, the latter of which, rising near Mosspaul inn, 
close to the Roxburghshire border, runs 2f miles south- 
by-westward, whilst Blackball Burn winds 3f miles 
west-south-westward from its source on the western 
acclivity of Tudhope Hill. Onward from their con- 
fluence Ewes Water flows 8 miles south-by-westward, 
till, after a total descent of 900 feet from its highest or 
Tudhope source, it falls into the Esk at Langholm town. 
All but the last IJ mile of its course lies through the 
parish of Ewes, and here it is joined by Unthank, 
Meikledale, Arkleton, and five or six lesser burns. 
Like all the Esk's tributaries, the Ewes is a capital 
fronting stream — its river-trout smallish, four or so to 
the lb., but its sea-trout running from 1 lb. to 3 lbs. — 
Orel. Sur., shs. 17, 11, 1864-63. 

Exnaboe, a village of Dunrossness parish, in the S of 
Shetland, 3 miles from Boddam hamlet. 

Eye, a loch on the mutual border of Fearn and Tain 
parishes, NE Ross-shire, f mile NE of Fearn station. 
Lying 51 feet above sea-level, it has an utmost length 
and breadth of If mile and 4J furlongs. —Ot-cZ. Sur., sh. 
94, 1878. 

Eye, a small river of NE Berwickshire, rising on 
Monynut Edge at an altitude of 1260 feet above sea- 
level, and 2^ miles SW of Oldhamstocks village. Thence 
it winds 20 miles east-south-eastward and north -north- 
eastward, till it falls into the German Ocean at Eye- 
mouth town. It traverses or bounds the parishes of 


Oldhamstocks, Cockburnspath, Abbey St Bathans, Cold- 
ingliam, Ayton, and Eyemouth ; receives, midway 
between Ayton and Eyemouth, the considerable tribute 
of Ale "Water ; traverses, for the most part, a naiTow 
vale of pleasant aspect ; is followed, along great part 
of its course, and frequently crossed and recrossed, by 
the North British railway ; and abounds in trout of 
small size but excellent quality. — Ord. Sur., shs. 33, 
34, 1863-61 

Eyebroughy or Ibris, a basaltic islet of Dirleton 
parish, Haddingtonshire, in the Firth of Forth, J mile 
from the mainland, and 3| mUes W by N of North 

Eyemouth, a fishing town and a parish of Berwick- 
shii-e. The town stands 3 miles NNE of Ayton, and 2J 
NNW of Burnmouth station, this being 5i miles NNW 
of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and 52 E by S of Edinbm-gh. 
The river Eye here falls into the German Ocean at the 
head of a small semicircular bay, immediately S of 
the larger bay that takes its name from Coldingliam 
Shore. On the NW side are precipitous whinstone rocks, 
and the cliffs begin to rise again on the S side of the 
river, between Eyemouth and Burnmouth attaining a 
height of from 70 to 339 feet above sea-level. Out at 
the entrance to Eyemouth Bay are the ' Hurears,' rocks 
upon which the sea, when even slightly stirred, breaks 
with much force and beauty. The place itself is not so 
greatly altered from what it was in 1827, when 
Chambers's Picture of Scotland described it as ' dark and 
cunning of aspect, full of cm-ious alleys, blind and other- 
wise, and having no single house of any standing but 
what could unfold its tale of wonder.' Stories of 
smugglers, namely, for Eyemouth in last century was a 
noted seat of the ' free-trade,' and many of the older 
dwellings retain deep hiding-holes for smuggled goods. 
But, though the streets are still narrow and intricate, a 
good many better-class houses had been built within 
the past three years, and the town showed every sign of 
well-being and progress, when the great disaster of 
1881 threw it back to what it was fifteen years before. 
A town-hall, built in 1874 at a cost of £1200, is a hand- 
some Romanesque structure ; a fine new public-school 
was erected in 1876 ; and in 1880 part of the old parish 
school was opened as a reading-room, with a public 
library of 2400 volumes. Eyemouth, besides, has a post 
office under Ayton, with money order, savings' bank, 
insurance, and telegraph departments, branches of the 
Commercial and Royal Banks, 12 insurance agencies, 
3 hotels, a gas company (1847), water-works (1856), 
now under the management of the Police Commission, 
a masonic lodge, St Abb's (1757), a cemetery, and fairs 
on the first Thursday of June and the last Thursday of 
October. Places of worship are the parish church (1812 ; 
450 sittings) with a neat spire, a fine new Free church 
(187S ; 450 sittings), aU.P. church(1842 ; 500 sittings), 
and an Evangelical Union chapel (250 sittings). 

The present harbour is formed by a stone E pier of 
1768 (one of Smeaton's earliest designs), and a short W 
jetty, with an entrance between them 154 feet wide ; 
but it is wholly inadequate, and will, one may trust, be 
ere long superseded by the harbour works designed by 
Messrs Meek, C.E., of Edinburgh, at a cost of £82,891. 
Of this total, £22,232 are for inner works, viz. , extension 
of basin-jetty to 700 feet, quay on outer side of new 
basin (600 feet), undersetting existing cjuaj's, etc. ; and 
£60,659 for outer works, viz., E pier (440 feet), W pier 
(1050 feet), middle pier (6S0 feet), harbour quay (500 
feet), etc. The outer works would enclose an area of 2 j 
acres, or treble the existing available area, with a depth 
of 6 feet at low water, and of 8 feet at the entrance. 
Backed by strong influence, the harbour trustees have 
applied to the harbour works loan board for £20,000, as 
a first instalment to commence the works, but as yet it 
is hard to say what will be the result of this application. 
Its urgency was terribly instanced by the great gale of 
14 Oct. 1881, which cost the lives of 191 fishermen 
belonging to fishing-ports from Burnmouth toNewhaven, 
129 of them to Eyemouth alone. They left 107 widows, 
60 adult dependants, and 351 children under 15 years 


of age, for whom a relief-fund of £50,000 was raised, 
chiefly in Scotland. Out of this fund widows and de- 
pendants get 6s. per week, and boys and girls 2s. 6d., 
the boys till they reach the age of 14, the girls of 15, 
years. Up to the As,y of the disaster 48 boats could have 
mustered at Eyemouth for the haddock fishing ; their 
number now is reduced to 28, that of the fishermen from 
360 to 230. The Eyemouth winter fishing-boats are 
among the largest and finest in Scotland ; and the 
fishermen among the best and most energetic to be any- 
where met with. From October 1881 to June 1882 
about 1050 tons of haddocks, of a value to the fishermen 
of £13,000, were caught by the 28 crews of the place, 
these crews consisting of 6 or 7 men each. In the 
capture, 900 tons of mussels, costing £1800, were used 
as bait, almost the whole of which was brought by rail 
from Boston in England. Prior to the disaster nearly 
100 boats belonging to Eyemouth were engaged in the 
herring fishery ; now they are reduced to 70. In each 
of these boats from 2 to 4 hired hands from other places 
are employed. Eyemouth is head of a fishery district 
marching with that of Leith, and extending from St 
Abb's Head southward to Amble. In this district the 
number of boats in 1882 was 601, of fishermen 1627, of 
fish-curers 58, and of coopers 181, whilst the value of 
boats was £44,691, of nets £42,528, and of lines £6864. 
The following is the number of barrels of herrings cured 
here in difi'erent years— (1864) 43,458, (1871) 46,127, 
(1873) 42,939, (1874) 52,060, (1878) 18,056, (1879) 
58,177, (1880) 58,639, (1881) 67,915. 

As a dependency of Coldingham priory, and the only 
harbour within its limits, E3'eraouth acquired early im- 
portance, being known in the reign of Alexander II. 
(1214-49) as a commodious haven for the import of sup- 
plies, and the shipment of wool, hides, etc. On a smaU 
bold promontory, called the Fort, to the N of the town, 
is a series of grassy mounds, remains of a fortification, 
erected by the Protector Somerset in his invasion of 
Scotland, and reconstructed by Mary of Lorraine and 
Cromwell. An Eyemouth notary -public, George Sprott, 
was executed in 1608 for being privy to the Gowrie 
Conspiracy, into which he was di-awn by Logan of Fast 
Castle ; from Eyemouth the Duke of Marlborough as- 
sumed his first title of Baron in the peerage of Scotland. 
But none of its other memories are equal in interest to 
that thus jotted do-\Tn in 'Byxms'sBorder Tour: — 'Friday, 
18 May 1787. Come up a bold shore from Berwick, 
and over a wild country to Eyemouth — sup and sleep at 
Mr Grieve's. Saturday. — Spend the day at Mr Grieve's 
— made a royal arch mason of St Abb's lodge. Mr 
William Grieve, the oldest brother, a joyous, warm- 
hearted, jolly, clever fellow ; takes a hearty glass, and 
sings a good song. Mr Robert, his brother and partner 
in trade, a good fellow, but says little. Take a sail 
after dinner. Fishing of all kinds pays tithes at Eye- 
mouth. ' The entry in the lodge books shows that he 
was admitted gratis, on the score of his ' remarkable 
poetical genius.' In 1597, by a charter from James VI. 
in favour of Sir George Home of Wedderburn, Eyemouth 
was erected into a free burgh of barony, with the privi- 
lege of a free port ; but having adopted the General 
Police and Improvement Act (Scotland) in 1866, it now 
is governed by a body of nine commissioners. Its 
municipal constituency numbered 568 in 1882, when 
the annual value of real property within the burgh was 
£5745. Pop. (1831) 1100, (1861) 1721, (1871) 2324, 
(1881) 2825, or, with Ayton suburb, 2877. 

The parish was anciently included in the territory of 
Coldingham Priory, and did not assume a parochial form 
earlier than the reign of James VI. It still encloses the 
Highlaws detached portion (SOf acres) of Coldingham 
parish. Bounded N by the German Ocean, E, S, and SW 
by Ayton, and W by Coldingham, it has an utmost 
length from N to S of If mile, an utmost breadth from 
E to W of 1^ mile, and an area of 1079J acres, of which 
64 are foreshore and llj water. Ete Water flows 1^ 
mile north-north-eastward along the eastern border to 
Eyemouth Bay ; and Ale Water, flowing If mile east-by- 
southward to the Eye, traces all the south-western and 



soutliem boundary. The coast rises 90 feet from tlie 
sea in rocky precipitous cliffs, wHch here and there are 
channelled by deep fissures or gullies, and at one place 
are pierced by a cavern ; except at two points where 
roads have been scooped down its Assures, and at Eye- 
mouth, where it is dissevered by the Eye, it admits no 
access to the beach. The interior is undulating, or 
slightly hilly, attaining 212 feet above sea-level at a 
point on the Coldingham road 7 furlongs W of the town, 
252 at Highlaws, and 305 on the western boundary. 
The rocks comprise traps, greywacke, and Old Red sand- 
stone, in such connections one with another as are emi- 
nently interesting to geologists. The soil in general is 
fertile. All the land, since the latter part of last century, 
has been in productive condition. Linthill House, over- 
looking the confluence of the Ale and the Eye, 1^ mile 
S by W of the town, is an old mansion, and was the scene, 
in 1752, of the murder of the widow of its proprietor, 
Patrick Home. Milne-Home of Wedderburn is chief 


proprietor, 7 others holding each an annual value of 
between £100 and £500, 11 of from £50 to £100, and 42 
of from £20 to £50. Eyemouth is in the presbytery of 
Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living 
is worth £279. The public school, with accommodation 
for 800 chUdren, had (1882) an average attendance of 
450, and a grant of £387. Valuation (1865) £5624, 
14s. Id., (1882) £9084, lis. Pop. (1801) 899, (1831) 
1181, (1851) 14SS, (1861) 1804, (1871) 2372, (1881) 
2935.— OrtZ. Sur., sh. 34, 1864. 

Eylt, Loch. See Eanxooh. 

Eynort, a sea-loch in the E of South Uist island. Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire. Opening at a point 84 miles 
N of the south-eastern extremity of the island, it strikes 
6 miles north-westward to within a brief distance of the 
western coast ; and, with a very irregular outline, ex- 
hibits wild and picturesque features of scenery, that 
only want trees or copsewood to render it in many 
places enchantingly beautiful. 






FAD (Gael, fada, 'long'), a narrow loch on the 
mutual border of Rothesay and Kingarth parishes, 
Isle of Bute. Lying 48 feet above sea-level, it 
extends 2i miles north-north-eastward, varies in 
width between 1 and 2J furlongs, and sends off a stream 
7 furlongs north-by-eastward to Rothesay Bay at Rothe- 
say town. It presents in its scenery a miniature of some 
of the most admired lakes in the Highlands ; contains 
perch, pike, and trout ; and has, on its western shore, 
2 miles SSW of Rothesay, a neat two-story house, Wood- 
end or Eean's Cottage, built in 1827 by the tragedian 
Edmund Kean (1787-1833), and afterwards occupied 
by Sheridan Knowles (1784-1862).— Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 

Fad, a lake near the centre of Colonsay island, Jura 
parish, Argyllshire. 

Fad, a lake in Portree parish. Isle of Skye, Inverness- 
shire, 3J miles NNE of Portree town. Measuring J by 
\ mile, it teems with ti-out, and sends off a streamlet 5 
furlongs north-north-eastward to Loch Leathan (1 X 1 
mile), which streamlet, issuing from that loch, proceeds 
f mile north-eastward to the cliffs, and there descends 
to the sea in a clear leap of 300 feet. 

Fad. See IxcH Fad. 

Fada. See Ellau-Fada. 

Fada-Lochan, a lake of Gairloch parish, NW Eoss- 
shire. Lying 1000 feet above sea-level, and 928 acres in 
area, it has an utmost length and width of 3 j miles and 
5 furlongs. Two streams flow from it — one 4j mUes 
south-south-westward to Loch Maree, near its head ; the 
other 2| miles north-westward to Fionn Loch. — Ord. 
Stir., sh. 92, 1881. 

Faichfield, an estate, with an old mansion, in Long- 
side parish, Aberdeenshire, 4 miles W of Peterhead, and 
2| ESE of Longside station. 

Faifley. See Duntocher. 

Fail, a rivulet and the site of a monastery in Tarbol- 
tou parish, Ayrshire. The Water of Fail, rising in 
Craigie parish, winds 7i miles south-eastward, till below 
CoiLsriELD or Montgomerie it falls into the river Ayr 
at FaUford, 22 miles WSW of Mauchline. The monas- 
tery, St Mary's, stood on the right bank of the rivulet, 
H mile NNW of Tarbolton town, and, founded in 
1252 by Andrew Bruce for Red or Trinity friars, was 
cast down by the lords of council in 1561, when its 
lands fell to the Wallace family. One old satirical 
poem says of its friars, that 'they never wanted gear 
enough as long as their neighbours' lasted ; ' and 
another runs — 

' Tlie triars of Fail drank berrs'-brown ale, 
The best that ever was tasted ; 
The monks of Melrose made crude kail, 
On Fridays, when they fasted." 

Failford. See Fail. 
Falray. See Piiaeay. 

Fairbum Tower, a ruined stronghold of the Mac- 

kenzies in Urray parish, Eoss-shire, near the left bank 
of the Orrin, and 2J miles S by E of Contin. 

Fairfolk, a tumulus near the summit of Carmyllie Hill, 
in Carmyllie parish, Forfarshire. Popular superstition 
long regarded it as a favourite haunt of fairies. Part of 
it was, many years ago, thrown down, and found 
to contain a small brass ring and some fragments of 

Fairholm, an estate, with a mansion, in the SE of 
Hamilton parish, Lanarkshire, on the left bank of 
Avon Water, 1 j mile W of Larkhall. 

Fairies' Dyke. See Cumeeae, Gkeat. 

Fair Isle (Scand. /arr, 'a sheep'), an island of Dunross- 
ness parish, Shetland, 29 miles SSW of Sumburgh Head, 
and nearly midway between Shetland and Orkney. 
It measures 3 miles in length, and nearly 2 in 
breadth ; is inaccessible except at one point on the 
NE ; and rises into three lofty promontories. One of 
these, the Sheep Craig, is nearly insulated, has a conical 
shape, and rises to the height of 480 feet. The upper 
grounds are mostly covered vnih excellent sheep pasture, 
and the lower are fairly fertile, but the island does not 
raise grain enough for its inhabitants. These, who 
dwell chiefly in the middle vale, are engaged — the men 
in fishing, and the women in hosiery. 'The art of knit- 
ting woollen articles of various colours and curious pat- 
terns is said to have been taught the islanders by the 
200 Spaniards who escaped from the wreck at Strom- 
ceiler Creek of the flagship of the Duke de Medina 
Sidonia, the admii-al of the Spanish Armada, when re- 
treating in 1588 before the English squadron. In 1868 
a German emigrant ship went full sail into Sheltie Cave ; 
but this time happily no lives were lost. Canada has 
from time to time received a good deal of the surplus 
population, and in 1874 there was serious talk of an 
emigration en ■masse to New Zealand. There is an 
Established mission church ; and a public school, with 
accommodation for 56 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 24, and a grant of £29, 15s. Pop. 
(1801) 160, (1841) 232, (1861) 380, (1871) 236, (1881) 

Fairlaw, an estate, vdth a mansion, in Coldingham 
parish, Berwickshire, 2 miles WSW of Reston station. 

Fairley or Farland Head. See Kilbride, West. 

Fairlie, a coast village and a quoad sacra parish in 
the S of Largs parish, NW Ayrshire. Sheltered east- 
ward by uplands that rise to a height of 1331 feet, the 
village is charmingly seated on the Firth of Clyde, 1§ 
mile E of Great Cumbrae by water, 2f miles S by E of 
Largs by road, and 4J N of West Kilbride by an exten- 
sion of the Glasgow and South-Western railway, opened 
on 1 June 1880, and traversing at the back of the 
village one of the longest tunnels in the S of Scotland. 
A century since it was only a tiny fishing hamlet, but 
now it has several handsome villas, an Established 
church (1833 ; 300 sittings), a Free church, a school, 
2 inns, a post office, with money order and savings 



bant departments, 2 railway stations, of wliicli that 
at the Pier is a fine erection of 1882, a steamboat pier 
(1882), and a j-acht building-yard, wliicb, dating from 
X812, lias turned out some of the finest clippers afloat. 
Keleukne Castle stands IJ mile to the N ; and at the 
village itself is Fairlie House, the seat of Charles Stuart 
Parker, Esq. (b. 1829), M.P. for Perthshire from 1868 
to 1874, and for Perth from 1878, who owns 2 acres 
in the shire, valued at £100 per annum. Fairlie 
Burn, rising on Fairlie Moor (1100 feet), and hurrying 
2 mile.s westward to the Firth along the boundary 
between Largs and West Kilbride, threads in its lower 
course a lovely glen. Here, on a roimded knoll, above 
a waterfall, stands the ruins of Fairlie Castle, a square 
tower, built in 1521, the seat of Fairlies of that ilk who 
fimire from the 14th to the 18th century. Elizabeth 
Halket, Lady WarcUaw (1677-1727), laid in this tower 
the scene of her fine ballad Hardyknute. The quoad 
sacra parish is in the pi-esbytery of Greenock and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr. Pop. of village (1871) 294, (1881) 
672 ; oiq. s. parish (1871) 313, (1881) 771.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 21, 1870. See pp. 82-85 of Wemyss Bay (Paisley, 

Fairlie, a mansion in Newhills parish, Aberdeenshire, 
5J mUes W by N of Aberdeen. It is a seat of the 
owner of Tonlet. 

Fairlie House, a mansion in Dundonald parish, Ayr- 
shire, on the left bank of the Irvine, 1 mile SW of 
Gatehead station, and SJ miles WSW of Kilmarnock. 
It was the seat of the Fairlies of Robertland and Fairlie, 
of whom Sir Charles Arthur Cuningham-Fairlie (b. 
1846) succeeded in 1881 as tenth Bart, since 1630. 

Fairport. See Arbroath. 

Fairway, a sunken rock of Dunfermline parish, Fife, 
in the Firth of Forth S of the E end of Long Craigs. 
It is covered, at lowest stream ebb, by 5J or 6 feet of 

Fairy-Bridge, a place in Duirinish parish, Isle of 
Skye, Inverness-shire, 3 miles from Dunvegan. An 
annual fair is held at it for the sale of black cattle. 

Fairy-Knowe, an eminence in Lecropt parish, Perth- 
shire, near Sunnylaw farm, in the vicinity of Bridge of 
Allan. It is crowned with an ancient Caledonian camp, 
15 feet high. 

Fala and Soutra, a united parish of Edinburgh and 
Haddington shires, containing in its Fala or ilidlothian 
portion the village of Fala, whose post office is Black- 
shiels, and which stands 3 J miles SE of Pathhead, 15i 
SE of Edinburgh, and 3| ENE of Tynehead station^ 
The parish, containing also part of the hamlet of Fala 
Dam, I mile to the NW, is bounded NE by Humble, 
SE by Channelkirk in Berwickshire, S by Stow, SW by 
Heriot, W by detached sections of Stow, Borthwick, 
Cranston, and Humble, and NW by Crichton. Its 
utmost length, from N"NE to SSW, is 5 mUes ; its 
breadth, from WNW to ESE, varies between 1 mile and 
3J miles ; and its area is 6066| acres, of which 3126A 
belong to the Edinburghshire or Fala portion, and 
2940J to the Haddingtonshire or Soutra portion. By 
Brothershiels Burn, Dean Burn, and East Water, Fala 
is parted from Soutra ; and Armit Water runs south- 
south-westward towards the Gala along most of the 
Channelkirk border. In the extreme N the surface 
declines to 600 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 819 
near Fala village, 1209 at Soutra Hill, and 1250 at 
Upper Brotherstone. The whole is upland, then ; but 
the northern section, comprising somewhat less than 
half of the entire area, is gently undulating, fertile, and 
well cultivated, whUst the southern mainly consists of 
the westernmost part of the Lammermuirs, and, with 
the exception of a few arable patches, is all of it one great 
sheep-walk. The rocks are mainly Silurian ; and the 
soil in general is thin and gravelly. A large moss, 
Fala Flow, IJ mile SSW of the village, has been con- 
siderably reduced by draining since 1842, but still 
supplies great quantities of peat. Peel towers stood at 
Fala Hall and Gilston ; but the chief antiquity, an 
ancient hospice, is separately noticed under Soutra. A 
mansion is Woodcot, If mile E by S of the village; and 


4 proprietors hold each an annual value of more, 2 of 
less, than £500. This parish is in the presbytery of 
Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the 
living is worth £233. The church, at the village, is a 
plain old building, containing 250 sittings. There is 
also a U.P. church (1787 ; 250 sittings) ; and a public 
school, with accommodation for 80 children, had (1880) 
an average attendance of 64, and a gi'ant of £64, 2s. 8d. 
Valuation (1882) £2697, 18s. Pop. (1801) 354, (1831) 
437, (1861) 382, (1871) 364, (1881) 312, of whom 111 
were in Soutra.— OrcZ. Sur., shs. 33, 25, 1863-65. 

Fala Dam. See Crichton and Fala. 

Faldonside, an estate, with a mansion, in Galashiels 
parish, Roxburghshire, 4 J miles W by S of Melrose. Its 
owner. Miss Milne, holds 1100 acres in the shire, valued 
at £1499 per annum. 

Falfield, an estate, with a mansion, in Kilconquhar 
parish, Fife, 3 J mUes ESE of Ceres. 

Falkirk, a town and parish of SE Stirlingshire. A 
parliamentary burgh, a seat of considerable trade and 
industry, and the virtual capital of the south-eastern 
portion of the county, the town stands near the south- 
ern bank of the Forth and Clyde Canal, and Z\ miles SE 
of the right shore of the Firth of Forth. By road it is If 
mile SSE of Carron Iron-works, and 7J miles ENE of 
Linlithgow ; whilst from two North British stations — 
Grahamston, on the Polmont and Larbert loop-line 
(1852), at the town, and Falkirk, on the Edinburgh 
and Glasgow section (1842), | mile SSW — it is 25J miles 
W by N of Edinburgh, 3 SW of Grangemouth, 11 SSE 
of Stirling, and 21 1 ENE of Glasgow. The site is partly 
a gentle hill-side, partly low level ground on the southern 
skirt of the Carse of Forth, and commands magnificent 
views of the Ochils, the Denny and Campsie Hills, and 
the Grampian Mountains. The town itself, as seen from 
vantage grounds to the N and NW, presents a striking 
appearance, and forms a fine foreground to the beautiful 
prospect beyond, but, when one enters it, disappoints 
expectation, and, for its size and importance, has few 
attractions to offer. Falkirk proper, as a whole, is still 
old-fashioned and irregular ; but its far-spreading sub- 
urbs, Grahamston, Forganhall, Arnothill, etc., comprise 
a number of good recent streets, rows, villas, and cot- 
tages ; and its environs are beautified by the woods of 
Cajllend-AR, Bastaskine, and other mansions. 

The town steeple, in the market-place, rebuilt in 1813 
on the site of a tower of 1697, is 146 feet high, and con- 
tains a clock and two bells ; immediately W of it is a 
stone equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington, erected 
by public subscripition in 1854. The burgh buildings 
and prison (1866-69) are Scottish Baronial in style, and 
comprise a mansard-roofed SE tower, 60 feet high, a 
spacious court-hall, and a council-room ; the prison, con- 
taining nine cells, since 1878 has merely served as a 
place of imprisonment for terms of not more than four- 
teen days. The town-haU, Italian in style, and seated 
for upwards of 1600 persons, is the corn exchange of 
1859, reconstructed in 1879 at a cost of over £5000. 
Italian, too, is the Science and Art School, which, 
opened by the Earl of Rosebery in 1878, has a large 
hall and five smaller ones, among them a chemical labo- 
ratory. Other noteworthy edifices are the National 
Bank (1863), the Young Men's Christian Association 
Hall (1880), and the Catholic Institute (1881). 

The cruciform parish church, said to have been founded 
by Malcolm Ceannmor(1057-93), and to have been granted 
in 1166 by the Bishop of St Andrews to Holyrood Abbey, 
was razed to the ground in 1810, when two ' most inter- 
esting' inscriptions were found in the debris — inscrip- 
tions whose faulty Latinity and faultier chronology 
should at once have stamped them for palpable forgeries. 
The present church of 1811 is a plain be-galleried edifice, 
with stained-glass windows and 1300 sittings. The 
ancient steeple of its predecessor, 130 feet high, upborne 
on four lofty arches, serves for its vestibule, and contains 
a marble monument to the Rev. John Brown Paterson 
(1804-35), with four life-size elfigies, which, believed to be 
those of the earliest feudal lords of Callendar, lay in the 

5 transept of the old church, and were transferred to their 


present position in 1S52. There are, besides, Grahams- 
ton quoad sacra church, Falkirk and Bainsford Free 
churches, West, East, and Grahara's Koad U.P. 
churches. Evangelical Union, Congregationalist, and 
Baptist chapels. Episcopal Christ Chui-ch, and Roman 
Catholic St Francis Xavier's. Of these, Grahamston 
quoad sacra church (1874-75 ; 800 sittings) is an Early 
French Gothic edifice, whose high-pitched front gable is 
flanked by two steeples, 120 and 62 feet high ; Graliam's 
Koad U.P. church (1878-79 ; 600 sittings) is a striking 
example of Gothic, with square tower and octagonal 
spire, 110 feet high ; and Gothic also are Bainsford Free 
church (1879 ; 450 sittings), Christ Church (1864 ; 200 
sittings), and St Francis (1843 ; 600 sittings). 

Since the passing of the Education Act of 1872, much 
has been done in the burgh in behalf of education, 
£8592 having been expended between 1873 and 1879 in 
enlarging the Central or old Free Church school, and 
in building the Northern, Comely Park, and Bains- 
ford schools. In the year ending 15 May 1881, the 
five public schools under the burgh board — Southern, 
Central, Northern, Bainsford, and Comely Park — with 
respective accommodation for 402, 348, 401, 300, and 
300 children, had an average attendance of 365, 265, 
416, 205, and 302, and grants of £354, 7s. 6d., £221, 17s., 
£408, 2s. 3d., £176, 15s., and £278, 3s. 7d. A hand- 
some new Roman Catholic school, accommodating 200 
children, was opened in 1881 ; and there are also a 
Ragged and Industrial School (1857) and Falkirk Aca- 
demy, which gives instruction in English, classics, 
modern languages, mathematics, science, and music. 

Falkirk has a new post office (1882), with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and railway telegraph depart- 
ments, branches of the Bank of Scotland and the Clydes- 
dale, Commercial, National, and Royal Banks, a National 
Securities Savings' Bank (1845), offices or agencies of 
27 insurance companies, 6 hotels, and 2 newspapers — 
the Thui'sday and Saturday Liberal FalHrk Herald 
(1846) and the Saturday Conservative Falkirk Express 
(1880). Thursday is market-day ; and cattle markets 
are held on the last Thursday of January, the first 
Thursday of March, and the Thursday before the third 
Friday of April, cattle and horse markets on the third 
Thursday of May and the second Thursday of July, and 
hiring fairs on the first Thursday of April and the last 
Thursday of October. The famous Falkirk Trysts on 
Stenhousemuir, 3 miles to the NNW, are held, for 
cattle and horses, on the second Tuesday and Wednes- 
day of August, September, and October ; for sheep, 
on the Monday before the September and October Trysts ; 
and for hiring, on the last Thursday of October and the 
first Tuesday of November. Transferred hither from 
Crieff about 1770, these Trysts are among the largest 
cattle markets in the kingdom. The town conducts an 
extensive retail trade, and serves as the centre to a 
busy and populous district. In or close to it are Aitken's 
large and long - established brewery, 2 distilleries, 7 
chemical and dynamite works, 3 fire-brick and tile- 
yards, and a leather factory ; but iron-founding is the 
staple industry.* The Falkirk Iron- works, started in 
1819 by a colony of workmen from Cakkon, came to its 
present proprietors, the Messrs Kennard, in 1848, and 
now is second only to Carrou itself. The buildings 
cover 8 acres ; and the employes, 900 men and boys, 
turn out weekly more than 300 tons of castings — stoves, 
grates, viaduct girders, garden seats, verandahs, etc. 
Here, during the Crimean War, 16,000 tons of shot and 
shell were manufactured. Other works, with date of 
establishment and number of hands employed, are the 
Union Foundry (1854 ; 100), Abbot's Foundry (1856 ; 
120), Burnbank Foundrv (1860 ; 140), Gowanbank Iron- 
works (1864 ; 300), Grahamston Iron-works (1862 ; 350), 
Camelon Iron Co. (1872; 180), Parkhouse Iron Co. 
(1875 ; 100), Gael Foundry (1875 ; 40), Port Downie 
(1875 ; 100), Forth and Clyde Iron-works (1876 ; 80), 
Springfield Iron-works (1876; 20), Etna Foundry (1877 ; 
120), and CaUendar Iron Co. (1877 ; 80). 

* So long ago as 1695 we find the Darien Company contracting 
Sor Falkirk smith and cutlery work. 

Seal o£ Falkirk. 


The town was made a burgh of barony in 1600, and a 
burgh of regality in 1646, its afiau's being managed till 
1850 by a body of 
28 ' stint - masters ' 
or feuars elected by 
the different trades. 
Now the burgh — 
since July 1882 
divided into four 
wards — is governed 
by a provost, 3 
bailies, a treasurer, 
a town-clerk, and 
9 councillors, who 
also are commis- 
sioners of police 
under the Falkirk 
PoUce and Improve- 
ment Act of 1859. 
With Airdrie, Ha- 
milton, Lanark, and Linlithgow, it sends one member 
to parliament (always a Liberal since 1857), Falkirk 
being the returning burgh. The corporation revenue 
was £4480 in 1881, and the parliamentary and municipal 
constituency numbered 1508 in 1882, when the annual 
value of real property amounted to £43,209, against 
£23,487 in 1874. Pop. (1841) 8209, (1851) 8752, (1861) 
9030, (1871) 9547, (1881) 13,170, of whom 6743 were 
males, and 6427 females. Houses (1881) 2721 inhabited, 
114 building, 9 vacant. Pop. with suburbs (1881) 15, 599. 

Falkirk in Latin is termed Varia Capella, and still 
is kno'svn to Highlanders as Eaglaisbreac. Both mean 
' the speckled church,' or ' the church of the mixed 
people ; ' and Falkirk, or rather Pawkirk, is the Saxon 
equivalent for the same, being compounded of A.-S. 
fall, 'of various colours,' and circe, 'kirk or church.' 
Antoninus' Wall passed just to the S, and various 
Roman relics have from time to time been found. St 
Modan, fellow-worker with St Ronan, on a mission 
connected with the Romish party, appears to have been 
here about the year 717 ; and in 1080, in revenge for 
Malcolm Ceannmor's devastation of Northumberland, 
William the Conqueror sent his son Robert to Scot- 
land, ' who, having gone as far as Egglcshrcfh, returned 
without accomplishing anything.' Prior to Sauchie- 
bm-n (1488) the discontented nobles occupied Falkirk, 
whose old church witnessed a solemn subscription of 
the League and Covenant in 1643, and which two 
years later was decimated by the plague. These are 
the leading events in Falkirk's history, besides the two 
battles and passing visits from Robert Burns (25 Aug. 
1787), from Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy (14 
Sept. 1803), and from the Queen and Prince Consort 
(13 Sept. 1843). ' Like the bairns o' Fa'kirk, they'll 
end ere they mend,' says a popular by- word, but 
Falkirk has produced one most illustrious ' bairn ' in 
Admiral Sir Charles Napier (1786-1860), who was born 
at Merchiston HaU. Another native was Henry Belfrage, 
D.D. (1774-1835), an eminent Secession minister ; whilst 
residents were William Symington (1760-1831), a claimant 
to the invention of steam navigation, and James Wilson, 
D. D. , author of a History of Egypt, and minister of Fal- 
kii'k from 1794 to his death in 1829. 

Of the two battles of Falkirk, the first was fought on 
22 July 1298 between Scottish and English armies, led 
by Sir William Wallace, then guardian of the kingdom, 
and Edward I. of England. 'The invading host is said 
by the English chroniclers of the day to have numbered 
7500 mounted men-at-arms (3000 of them clad in coats 
of mail) and 80,000 foot — a force before which Wallace's 
poor army, less than a third of the enemy's, was fain to 
retreat, leaving Edward a desert to tread where neither 
was there food to eat nor man to direct him on the way. 
The plan bade fair to succeed, but treachery revealed tho 
whereabouts of Wallace, and Edward at once advanced 
from Kirkliston to Linlithgow, so eager to bring the 
matter to an issue that not even the breaking of two of 
his ribs by a kick from a horse could make him defer 
the fight. For Wallace there was no alternative. ' In 



the tattle of Stirling,' says Dr Hill Burton, 'the great 
point made was the selection of the ground ; in this he 
showed even more of the tactician in the disposal of his 
troops where they were compelled to fight. It is a 
strong testimony to skill in the ordering of an army 
that it should be not only distinct, but hold a shape 
of which we can estimate the merit by knowing how 
valuable it is in modern warfare. The English chronicler 
describes the marshalling of the Scots army with such 
clearness that a picture or diagram would not have 
improved it. Taking up a slightly inclined plain, "Wallace 
drew lip his small body of 1000 mounted cavaliers 
in the rear, and distributed the footmen into circular 
clumps. In each circle the men knelt down — those in 
the outer rim at least — and held their lances obliquely 
erect ; within the circle of lancers were the bowmen. 
The arrangement, save that it was circular instead of 
rectangular, was precisely the same as the " square to 
receive cavalry " which has baffled and beaten back so 
many a brilliant army in later days. It seemed at first 
as if "Wallace's circles were to have a similar history. 
The first eiforts against them were ineffectual, and the 
horsemen seemed shy of charging the thick clnmps of 
spears. The inequality of force was too great, however, 
to be neutralised by skill. The charges of Edward's 
mounted horsemen at last crushed the circles, one after 
another, and when this was done the rest was mere rout 
and slaughter. "Wallace managed to carry a small body 
out of the field, and marched to Stirling. They found 
it useless to attempt to hold the place ; so, destroying 
what they could, they marched on no one knows whither, 
the commander and his followers alike disappearing 
from the history of that war' [Hist, of Scotl., ii. 200, ed. 
1876). No monument marks the field of battle itself, 
midway between the Carron and the town ; but on the 
top of a hill, 1 mile SE of Callendar AYood, stands 
'Wallace's Stone,' a pillar 10 feet high, erected in 1810 
to replace the smaller original slab, a little to the W. In 
the churchyard of Falkii-k is the gravestone of Sir John 
Graham of Abercorn, who fell in the action, and who, 
as well as Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, was here interred. 
The gravestone has been trebly renovated ; or rather 
there are three superincumbent stones, each of the 
upper ones being a copy of the one beneath it. On all 
are the following inscriptions : 

' Mente manuque potens, et Valine fidus Achates, 
Conditur hie Gramus, bello interfectus ab Anj^dis. 

' xxii. Julii, anno 1293 ' 

* Here lyes Sip Jolin tlie Grame, baitli wight and wise, 
Ane of the chiefs who reschewit Scotland thrice. 
Ane better knight not to the world was lent, 
Nor was gude Grame of truth and hardiment.' 

The second battle of Falkirk wa? fought on 17 Jan. 
1746, between the Highland arm}', 8000 strong, of Prince 
Charles Edward, and 9000 Hanoverians under General 
Hawley, 1300 of whom were hoi'se, and 1000 Argyll 
Highlanders. The Prince was preparing to lay siege to 
Stirling Castle, but news being brought of Hawley's 
advance from Edinburgh to its relief, determined to give 
him battle. The English commander, aniving at Fal- 
kirk, encamped between the town and the former field 
of battle, there to wait till he should gather sufficient 
intelligence for the arrangement of his operations. The 
foe, so far from being daunted by his approach, resolved 
to attack him in his camp, and skilfully used such feints 
to divert and deceive the royal troops, that they were 
just about to cross the Carron at Dunipace before they 
were perceived. Hawley, a pig-headed disciplinarian, 
with an easy contempt for ' undisciplined rabbles, ' was 
breakfasting at Callander House with the Jacobite Count- 
ess of Kilmarnock ; and ' "Where is the General ? ' was 
his officers' frequent inquiry, till at length the General 
rode furiously up, his grey hair streaming in the ivind. 
He found his men formed already, and, seeing the High- 
landers advancing towards a hill near South Bantaskine, 
1\ mile S"W of the town, sent the dragoons on to seize 
and to hold the height, and ordered the foot to follow. 
The author of Douglas, John Home, who served as lieu- 
tenant in the Glasgow Volunteers, describes how, ' at 


the very instant the regiments of foot began to march, 
the day was overcast ; and by-and-by a storm of wind 
and rain beat dii'ectly in the face of the soldiers, who 
were marching up the hill with their bayonets fixed, and 
could not secure their pieces from the rain. The cavalry 
was a good way before the infantry, and for some time 
it seemed a sort of race between the Highlanders and the 
dragoons which should get first to the top of the hill. ' 
The Highlanders won the race, and drew up in a battle- 
array of two lines, with a reserve in the rear. The royal 
troops, making the most of their circumstances, formed 
in two lines along a ravine in front of tlie enemy ; but, 
owing to the convexity of the ground, saw their antago- 
nists, and were seen in turn, only in the central part 
of the line. Their dragoons were on the left, com- 
manded by Hawley in person, and stretching parallel to 
more than two-thirds of the enemy's position ; and their 
infantry were on the right, partly in rear of the cavalry, 
and outlined by two regiments the enemy's left. The 
armies standing within 100 yards of each other, both 
unprovided on the spot with artillery, Hawley ordered 
his dragoons to advance, sword in hand. Meeting with 
a warm reception, several companies, after the first onset, 
and receiving a voUey at the distance of ten or twelve 
paces, wheeled round, and galloped out of sight, disor- 
dering the infantry and exposing their left flank by the 
flight. The Highlanders, taking advantage of the con- 
fusion, outflanked the roj'al forces, rushed down upon 
them with the broadsword, compelled them to give way, 
and commenced a pursuit. The King's troops, but for 
the spirited exertions of two unbroken regiments and a 
rally of some scattered battalions, who checked the pur- 
suers, would have been annihilated; as it was, they had 
12 officers and 55 privates killed, and in killed, wounded, 
and missing lost altogether 280 men according to their 
own returns, 1300 according to the Jacobites. Among 
the persons of rank who were left dead on the field were 
Sir Robert Munro of Foulis, Bart., and his brother Dun- 
can, a physician. They were biu'ied beside each other 
in the churchyard of Falkirk, and commemorated in a 
superb monument erected over their ashes, and inscribed 
with a succinct statement of the circumstances of their 
death. The Jacobites' loss was only some 40 killed and 
80 wounded ; and they remained at Falkirk till the 19th, 
when they returned by Bannockburn to resume the in- 
vestment of Stielijtg Castle. See vol. i., pp. 619-630, 
of Keltic's History oftM Scottish Highlands (Edinb. 1875). 
The parish of Falkirk contains also the suburbs of 
Grahamston, Bainsford, Camelon, Parkfoot, and Gart- 
crow, and the villages of Laurieston and Glen, part of the 
town of Grangemouth, and part of the villages of "West 
Carron Iron-works and Bonnybridge ; and it formerly 
included the territories now forming the parishes of 
Denny, Slamannan, Muiravonside, and Polmont. It is 
bounded N by Dunipace, Larbert, and Bothkennar, E 
and SE by Polmont and Muiravonside, S by Slamannan, 
SW by Cumbernauld in Dumbartonshire (detached), and 
N"\V by Denny. Its utmost length, from ENE to "WS"W, 
is 9| miles ; its breadth varies between IJ and 5| miles; 
and its area is 19,822J acres, of which 13J are foreshore 
and 258 water. Cakeon "Water roughly traces all the 
northern border, and quits it within the Firth of Forth's 
foreshore. If mile from the open channel of the fii'th ; 
its affluent. Bonny "Water, winds 4 miles east-north- 
eastward on or close to the boundary with Denny ; "West 
QuAP.TEK Burn, rising in the SW of the interior, runs 
east-north-eastward to the boundary with Polmont, 
then north-north-eastward along that boundary to the 
Carron at Grangemouth ; and lastly the river Avon 
traces all the Slamannan border. Lochs EUrig (5J x If 
furl.) and Green (IJ x 1 furl.) lie 3 J mUes S and 5 miles 
WSW of Falkirk town, but present no feature of special 
interest. The land, from the confluence of Carron Water 
and West Quarter Burn, southward and west-south-west- 
ward, to the extent of about a third of the entire area, 
is all but a dead level, and consists of rich carse soil in 
the highest state of cultivation. From the town on- 
ward the surface is partly undulating, partly hilly, rising 
west-south-westward to 405 feet near Standalane, 612 


near "Westside, and 596 near Saucliierig ; southward and 
soutli-south-westwarJ to 646 near Greencraig, 675 near 
Loch AUrig, and 5S1 near Greenrig. Most of that region 
is arable, and much of it is diversified by natural woods 
and thriving plantations, but a considerable tract, near 
the southern boundary, is moor and moss. Of the entire 
area, 11,000 acres are arable, 4851 are pasture, 1900 are 
waste, and ISOO are under wood. The rocks belong to 
the Coal Measures of the Carboniferous formation. Coal 
of excellent quality is so abundant as to be largely ex- 
ported ; sandstone, limestone, and ironstone occur in the 
same district as the coal ; and lead, copper, sDver, and 
cobalt have been found, though not in considerable 
quantities. Vestiges of Antoninits' Wall occur in 
various parts ; traces of the Roman town of Old Camelon 
existed till a comparatively recent period ; some wheat, 
supposed to have lain concealed from the time of the 
Roman possession, was found about the year 1770 in the 
hollow of a quarry near Castlecaey ; funereal urns and 
stone coffins have been exhumed in various places ; and 
several moats or artificial earthen mounds, used in the 
Middle Ages as seatsof justiciary courts and deliberative 
assemblies, are in Seabegs barony. The Forth and Clyde 
Canal, commencing at Grangemouth, traverses the parish 
through nearly its gi'eatest length, or about 9 miles ; 
the Union Canal, deflecting from the Forth and Clyde 
Canal IJ mile W of the town, traverses the parish to the 
length of fully 3 mUes, passing on the way a tunnel 3 
furlongs in length ; the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway 
makes a reach of nearly 7h miles within the parish, and 
traverses a long tunnel immediately E of Falkirk station ; 
the Polmont and Larbert loopdine of the North British 
railway, and the branch from it to Grangemouth, are 
entirely within the parish ; the junctions of that line 
with both the Caledonian and the North British lines 
from the W, and with the branch line to Denny, are on 
the N border, about 2 miles W by N of the town. The 
Greenhill junctions, and the line from the upper one of 
them to the Larbert junctions, also are within the parish, 
about 2 miles from the western boundary ; and the reach 
of the Caledonian railway from the lower Greenhill junc- 
tion makes a curving sweep of fully 2J miles to the 
western boundary. Callendar, Kerse, and Bantaskine, 
noticed separately, are chief mansions ; and 7 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 71 of 
between £100 and £500, 89 of from £50 to £100, and 236 
of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Linlithgow and 
sjmod of Lothian and Tweeddale, this parish is ecclesiasti- 
cally divided into Falkirk proper and the quoad sacra par- 
ishes of Grahamston, Camelon, Grangemouth, Slaraannan, 
Cumbernauld, and Bonnybridge ; JFalkirk itself being a 
living worth £583, 9s. By the parish school-board £9793, 
7s. has been expended since 1872 m the erection of the 
three new public schools of Bonnybridge, Camelon, and 
Laurieston. These three and Auchingean, with respective 
accommodation for 420, 350, 300, and 67 children, had 
(1880) an average attendance of 305, 309, 250, and 43, 
and grants of £296, lis. 6d., £314, 10s. 6d., £249, 4s., 
and £44, 5s. Valuation of landward portion of parish 
(1882) £46,233, 19s. lOd., plus £18,461 for railways and 
canals. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 8838, (1821) 11,536, 
(1841) 14,108, (1861) 17,026, (1871) 18,051, (1881) 25,143 ; 
of?.s.parish(1881)ll,549.— Ord.;S'Mr.,sh.31,1867. See 
Robert Gillespie's Hound About Falkirk (Glasgow, 1868). 
Falkland, a small town and a parish in the Cupar 
district of Fifeshire. The town stands at the NE base 
of East Lomond hill, 2f miles NW of Falkland Eoad 
station on the North British railway, this being 2J miles 
SSW of Ladybank Junction, 8J S\V of Cupar-Fife, 5J 
N by W of Thornton Junction, and 254 N of Edin- 
burgh. It once was a place of much resort, the capital 
of the stewartry of Fife, the residence of the retainers 
of the earls of Fife, and afterwards the residence of 
the courtiers of the kings of Scotland ; and it possesses 
memorials of its ancient consequence in the remains of 
the royal palace, some curious old houses, and such local 
names as Parliament Square, College Close, and West 
Port. It is now, and has long been, a sequestered country 
town, and though enlivened by a few modern erections, 


it consists mainly of unpaved roadways, sloping alleys, 
intricate lanes, and picturesque old houses. A house of 
two stories, fronting the palace, bears an inscription 
vnth the date 1610, intimating it to have been a royal 
gift to Nichol Jloncrieff ; the house adjoining it occu- 
pies the site of the residence of the royal falconer, and 
retains an insciibed stone of the year 1607 ; and there 
are houses bearing later dates in the same century. A 
three-storied house on the S of the square, now used as 
a co-operative store, was the birthplace of the famous 
Covenanter Richard Cameron. 

Falkland was originally a burgh of barony belonging 
to the Earls of Fife, but it was erected into a royal burgh 
in 1458, during the reign of James II. The preamble 
to the charter of erection states, as the reasons for 
granting it, the frequent residence of the royal family 
at the manor of Falkland, and the damage and incon- 
venience sustained by the many prelates, peers, barons, 
nobles, and others of their subjects who came to their 
country-seat, for want of innkeepers and victuallers. 
This charter was renewed by James VI. in 1595. Among 
the privileges which these charters conferred, was the 
right of holding a weekly market, and of having foiu: 
fairs or public markets annually. To the public markets 
two others were subsequently added — one called the 
linseed market, held in spring, and the other the harvest 
market, held in autumn. There are now seven public 
markets held throughout the year. These occur in the 
months of January, February, April, June, August, 
September, and November, but only the last is well 
attended. Like the neighbouring burgh of Auchter- 
muchty — although certainly entitled originally to have 
done so — Falkland does not appear at any time to have 
exercised its right of electing a member to the Scottish 
parliament ; consequently its privileges were overlooked 
at the time of the Union ; but since the passing of the 
Reform Bill, its inhabitants having the necessary qualifi- 
cation are entitled to a vote in the election of a member 
for the county. In all other respects, however, this 
burgh enjoys the 
privileges of a 
royal burgh. It 
is governed by 
a town-council, 
consisting of 3 
magistrates, 8 
councillors, a 
treasurer, and a 
town-clerk. The 
magistrates, be- 
sides managing 
with the council 
the civil affairs of 
the burgh, hold 
courts from time 
to time for the 
decision of ques- 
tions arising out 
of civil contracts 
and petty delicts. No town, probably, in Scotland it 
better supplied with spring water. This was brought in 
1781 from the neighbouring Lomonds by means of pipes, 
and is distributed by wells situated in different parts of 
the burgh. This useful public work cost about £400 
sterling, and was executed at the expense of the corpora- 
tion. Falkland has a post office under Ladybank, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 
a branch office of the British Linen Company Bank, 3 
insurance agencies, 2 hotels, gas-works, and a masonic 
lodge. The town-house, which is ornamented with a 
spire, was erected in 1302, and contains a hall in which 
the burgh courts and the meetings of the town-council 
are held ; its lower story, occupied now by a draper's 
shop, served originally as a lock-up house. The parish 
church, built in 1849, by the late 0. T. Bruce, Esq., at 
a cost of £7000, is a handsome Gothic edifice, with a 
fine spire and 900 sittings. There is also a Free church, 
whilst at Freuchie, 2 miles to the eastward, are another 
Established and a U.P. church. The manufactm'e of 

Seal of Falkland. 


linens and woollens is the staple industry, brewing and 
brick-making being also carried on. Pop. (1841) 1313, 
(1861) 1184, (1871) 1283, (1881) 1068, of whom 972 
were in the royal burgh. 

The lands of Falkland, including what now constitutes 
the burgh, belonged originally to the Crown, and were ob- 
tained from Malcolm IV. by Duncan, sixth Earl of Fife, 
upon the occasion of his marriage with Ada, the niece 
of the king. In the charter conferring them, which is 
dated 1160, the name is spelled ' Falecklen.' The lands 
of Falkland continued, with the title and other estates, 
with the descendants of Duncan until 1371, when Isobel, 
Countess of Fife, the last of the ancient race, conveyed the 
earldom and estates to Robert Stewart, Earl of Monteith, 
second son of Eobert II., who thus became seventeenth 
Earl of Fife, and in 1398 was created Duke of Albany. On 
the forfeiture of his son, Mm-doch, in 1424, the lands of 
Falkland reverted to the Crown, and the town was 
shortly afterwards erected into a royal burgh. The courts 
of the stewartiy of Fife — which comprehended only the 
estates of the earldom — were also removed from the 
county town of Cupar to Falkland, where they were 
afterwards held as long as the office of steward existed. 
In 1601, Sir David Miu'ray of Gospetrie, first Viscount 
Stormont, obtained a charter of the Castle-stead of 
Falkland, with the office of ranger of the Lomonds and 
forester of the woods, and he also held the office of 
captain or keeper of the palace and steward of the 
stewartry of Fife. The lands called the Castle-stead, 
with the offices and other parts of the lands of Falkland, 
were afterwards acquired by John, first Duke of Athole, 
who was appointed one of his majesty's principal secre- 
taries of state in 1696, and lord high commissioner to 
the Scottish parliament the following year. He was 
twice appointed to the office of keeper of the privy seal, 
and was made an extraordinary lord of session in 1712. 

At an early period, the Earls of Fife had a residence 
here, called the castle of Falkland. Not a vestige of 
this buUding now remains, but its site appears to have 
been in the immediate neighboiu'hood of where the 
palace was afterwards built. This fortalice had in efi'ect 
the honours of a palace while it was occupied by one of 
the blood-royal, Robert, Duke of Albany, who, for 34 
years, had all the power of the state in his hands, under 
the different titles of lieutenant-general, governor, and 
regent. Although Eobert gives it the more hmnble 
designation of ' Manerium nostrum de Fawkland, ' it 
was, in fact, the seat of authority; for his aged and 
infirm father constantly resided in the island of Bute. 
It receives its first notoriety, in the history of our 
country, from the death here, on 27 March 1402, of 
Albany's nephew, David, Duke of Rothesay, eldest son 
of Robert III. That madcap prince was on his way to 
seize the castle of St Andrews, whose bishop had just 
died, when at Strathtjrum he was arrested imder a 
royal warrant, and brought a prisoner to the castle of 
Falkland. There, says the popular legend, adopted by 
Scott in Tlic Fair Maid of Perth, he was thrust into a 
dungeon, and left to die of starvation. His life was for 
some days feebly sustained by means of thin cakes, 
pushed through a crevice in the wall by the young 
daughter of the governor of the castle ; but her mercy 
being viewed by her ruthless father in the light of 
perfidy to himself, she was put to death. Even this 
brutal act did not deter another tender-hearted woman, 
employed as wet-nurse in the family, who supplied him 
with milk from her breasts by means of a long reed, 
until she, in like manner, fell a sacrifice to her compas- 
sion. Certain it is that the prince's body was removed 
from Falkland for burial in the Abbey of Lindores, that 
public rumour loudly charged Albany and Douglas with 
his murder, and that a parliamentary inquiry resulted 
in a declaration to the doubtful effect that he 'died by 
the visitation of Providence, and not otherwise.' Wyn- 
toun laments his untimely death, but says nothing of 
murder ; so that by Dr Hill Burton the regent is ac- 
quitted of this foul blot upon his character (Hist. Scotl. , 
a. 380-396, ed. 1876). 

After the lands and castle of Falkland came to the 


Crown by the forfeiture of the earldom, the first three 
Jameses occasionally resided at the castle, enjoying the 
pleasures of the chase in the adjoining forest, and on 
the Lomond hills ; and iu consequence of this the 
charter was granted by James II., erecting the town 
into a royal burgh. It is impossible now to ascertain 
whether James III. or James IV. began to build the 
palace, as both of these monarchs were fond of architect- 
ure, and both employed workmen at Falkland ; but the 
work was completed by James V. in 1537, and with him 
the palace is closely associated. Hence he escaped out 
of Angus's hands to Stirling, disguised as a stable-boy, 
May 1528 ; and hither, broken-hearted by the rout of 
Solway Moss, he retm-ued to die, 13 Dec. 1542. By his 
deathbed stood Cardinal Bethune, Kirkcaldy of Grange, 
and his old tutor, Sir David Lindsay, who told him of 
the birth, a few days before, of Mary at Linlithgow. 
' It came with a lass, and it will go with a lass,' said 
James ; then, turning his face to the wall, spake no- 
thing more. Here Mary of Guise, his widowed queen, 
often resided, while she governed the kingdom for 
her infant daughter ; and here she found it necessary 
to give her reluctant consent to the armistice agreed 
to near Cupar with the Lords of the Congregation. 
Here, too, the unfortimate Mary, after her return from 
France, oft sought relief iu the sports of the field from 
the many troubles of her short and unhappy reign. 
She appears first to have visited it in Sept. 1561, on her 
way from St Andrews to Edinburgh. She returned in 
the beginning of the following year, having left Edin- 
burgh to avoid the brawls which had arisen between 
Arrau and Bothwell ; and resided partly at Falkland, 
and partly at St Andrews, for two or three months. 
She occupied her mornings in hunting on the banks of 
the Eden, or in trials of skill in archery in her garden, 
and her afternoons in reading the Greek and Latin 
classics with Buchanan, or at chess, or with music. 
During 1563, after her return from her expedition to 
the North, she revisited Falkland, and made various 
short excursions to places in the neighbom-hood ; and 
again, in 1564, and after her marriage with Darnley in 
1665. After the birth of her son, she once more visited 
Falkland ; but this appears to have been the last time, 
as the circumstances which so rapidly succeeded each 
other, after the murder of Darnley, and her marriage 
with Bothwell, left her no longer at leisure to enjoy the 
retirement it had once afforded her. 

James VI., while he remained in Scotland, resided 
often at the palace of Falkland ; and indeed it seems to 
have been his favourite residence. After the Raid of 
Ruthven (1582), James retired here, calling his friends 
together for the piirpose of consulting as to the best means 
of relieving himself from the thraldom under which he 
had been placed ; and he was again at Falkland in 1592, 
when Francis Stewart, Earl of Bothwell, made one of his 
desperate attempts on the king's person, and was driven 
back solely by the timely assistance of the neighbouring 
peasantry. After the riots in Edinburgh in 1696, James 
again retired here, where he employed himself partly in 
hunting, and partly in plotting the destruction of the 
Presbyterian religion, and the introduction of Episcopacy. 
In 1600, he was again residing at Falkland, when the 
fii'st act was played of the so-caUed Gowrie Conspiracy. 
The king, on 5 Aug., was about to mount his horse, to 
follow his favourite sport, when the mysterious message 
was delivered to him by Alexander Ruthven, brother 
to the Earl of Gowrie, which induced James, after the 
buck was killed, to ride to Perth. In 1617, when James, 
now King of Great Britain, visited Scotland, he, in his 
progress through the kingdom, paid his last visit to 
Falkland. In 1633, when Charles I. visited Scotland, 
he slept three nights here, on his way to Perth ; and on 
his return, he slept two nights in going to Edinburgh, 
and created several gentlemen of the county knights. 
Upon the 6th of July 1650, Charles II., who had arrived 
from Holland on the 23d of the preceding month, 
visited Falkland, where he resided some days, receiving 
the homage of that part of his subjects who were desirous 
of his restoration to the crown of his ancestors ; and 


here lie again returned, after his coronation at Scone, on 
the 22d of Jan. 1651, and remained some days. 

The oldest portion of the palace, which was erected 
either by James 111. or James IV., forms the S 
front, and still is partially inhabited. On each floor 
there are six windows, square-topped, and divided by 
mullions into two lights. Between the windows, the 
front is supported by buttresses, enriched with niches 
in which statues were placed, the mutilated remains of 
which are still to be seen, and terminating in ornamented 
pinnacles which rise considerably above the top of the 
wall. The lower floor is the part inhabited, and the 
upper floor is entirely occupied by a large hall. The 
western part of this front of the palace is in the castellated 
style, and of greater height than the other ; it is orna- 
mented with two round towers, between which is a 
lofty archway which forms the entrance to the court- 
j'ard behind, and which, in former times, was secured 
by strong doors, and could be defended from the towers 
that flank it. James V. made great additions to the 
palace, and appears to have erected two ranges of build- 
ing, equal in size to that described, on the E and N 
sides of the courtyard. As completed by him, therefore, 
the palace occupied three sides of a square court, the 
fourth or western side being enclosed by a lofty wall. 
The range of building on the N side of the court has 
now entirely disappeared, and of that on the E, the 
bare walls alone remain, these two portions of the palace 
having been accidentally destroyed by five in the reign 
of Charles II. Having erected his addition to the 
palace in the Corinthian style of architecture, James 
assimilated the inner front of the older part of the 
building, by erecting a new fagade in the same style 
with the rest of the ^building. The building consisted 
of two stories, a basement or lower floor, and a principal 
one, the windows of which are large and elegant, when 
we consider the period. Between the windows, the 
facade is ornamented with finely proportioned Corinthian 
pillars, having rich capitals ; and between the upper 
row of windows are medallions, presenting a series of 
heads carved in high relief, some of which are beautifully 
executed, and would lead us to believe that more than 
native talent had been engaged in the work. On the 
top of the basement which supports the pillars, the 
initials of the king and of his queen, Mary of Guise, are 
carved alternately. 

The palace of Falkland, deserted by its royal inmates, 
was for a long series of years sufl'ered to fall into decay : 

* The fretted roof looked dark and cold. 

And tottered all around ; 
The carved work of ajjes old 

Dropped mther'd on the ground : 
The casement's antique tracery 

Was eaten by the dew ; 
And the night-breeze, whistling mournfully. 

Crept keen and coldly through.' 

But it is now the property of Mr Bruce, who takes 
great interest in its careful preservation, as well as in 
ornamenting the court-yard with flowers and shrubs, 
and the ground in its immediate neighbourhood, which 
has been laid out as a garden. The mixture of Gothic, 
Baronial, and Palladian architecture in this building 
makes it of much interest to the antiquarian. The 
main front, although distinctly Baronial, has been 
treated with buttresses and pinnacles, till it assumes 
the outward appearance of some ancient chapel, while 
alongside stand the two round towers of the gatewaj-, 
with shot-holes, portcullis, and massive walls, that look 
incongruous. In the inside, this part at one time 
presented the appearance of a narrow, stone-roofed main 
building, winged with two round towers corresponding 
to those at the entrance. But the space between those 
has been filled up to widen the building, and provide a 
gallery leading to the large hall, and it is on this later 
face that the Corinthian pillars and rows of medallions 
are shown. At a certain level on the old towers there 
is a bold string course, and it is remarked by architects 
how admirably the row of medallions, on the same level, 
carries on the line, although of such a different style of 
architecture. The ruined E wing of the square presents 


similar medallions, but they are between the rows of 
windows, not alternate with the main windows as in 
the other wing, and are far less eftective. The grand 
hall, occupying the main building to the front, shows a 
paunelled roof, of which some part of the colouring still 
remains, and part of the original decoration of the walls 
is also seen. One end of the hall is separated from the 
corridor by a magnificent screen in oak, consisting of 
slender turned pillars rising from floor to ceiling, and 
displaying a very marked style of chamfering, at the 
changes from round to square, where the pUlars are 
divided into stages. A stone balcony runs round the 
two towers, with their connecting building, and the 
main portion of the front, and from this height a very 
delightful view of the surrounding country is obtained. 
The view from the southern jiarapet of the palace has 
long been admired. On the one hand, the Lomond 
hills spread out their green sides, and point their conical 
summits to the sky ; on the other, the whole strath of 
Eden, the Howe of Fife from Cupar to Strathmiglo, lies 
open and exposed. Within the railing in front of the 
palace stands a full-length statue of Mr Onesiphorus 
Tyndall Bruce, and in the quadrangle are two finely- 
executed bronze statues in a sitting posture, also by Sir 
John Steell — one of Dr John Bruce and the other of 
Col. Bruce. 

It might reasonably be supposed that, while Falkland 
continued to be the occasional residence of royalty, it 
was not only a place of resort to the higher classes, but 
that the peasantry would be permitted to enjoy that 
festivity here which was most congenial to their humours. 
As it was a favourite residence of that mirthful prince 
James V., it might well be conjectm'ed, from his peculiar 
habits, that he would be little disposed to debar from 
its pnrlieus those with whom he was wont frequently 
to associate in disguise. Accordingly — although it is 
still matter of dispute among our poetical antiquaries, 
whether the palm should not rather be given to his 
ancestor James I. — one of the most humorous effusions 
of the Scottish muse, which contains an express refer- 
ence to the jovial scenes of the vulgar at Falkland, has, 
with great probability, been ascribed to the fifth of this 
name : 

* Was ne^ir in Scotland hard nor sene 

Sic dansin nor deray, 
Nouthir at Falkland on the Grene, 

Nor Pebillis at the Play 
As wes of wowaris, as I wene. 

At Christis kirk on ane day,' etc. 

According to Allan Ramsay and the learned Callander, 
' Chrystis Kirk ' is the kirktown of Leslie, near Falkland. 
Others have said, with less probability, that it belongs 
to the parish of Leslie, in that part of the county of 
Aberdeen called the Garioch. Pinkerton thinks that, 
besides the poems of ClirisUs KirTc and Peblis to the 
Play, a third one, of the same description, had been 
written, which is now lost, celebrating the festivities of 
' Falkland on the Grene.' This phraseology might refer 
to what has been called ' the park at Falkland.' Sir 
David Lindsay, being attached to the court, must have 
passed much of his time at this royal residence. Ac- 
cording to his own account — notmthstanding the badness 
of the ale brewed in the burgh — he led a very pleasant 
life here ; for, in the language of anticipation, he bids 
adieu to the beauties of Falkland in these terms : 

' Fare Weill, Falkland, the forteresa of Fyfe, 
Thy polite park, under the Lowmouud law. 
Sum tjTne in the, I led a lustie Ij'fe, 
Tlie fallow deir, to se thame raik on raw. 
Court men to cum to the, thay stand grait aw, 
Sayand, thy burgh bene of all burrowis baill. 
Because, in the, they never gat gude aill.' 

In 1715 Bob Eoy and his followers, who had hung 
about Sheriffmuir, without taking part with either side 
in that struggle, marched to Falkland, and, seizing the 
place, levied contributions from the district. 

Owing to its courtly smTOundiugs, Falkland long showed 
superior refinement in its inhabitants ; and ' Falkland 
bred ' had become an adage. The superiority, however. 


of Falkland breeding is, like the former grandeur of the 
town and palace, now among the things that were. The 
place is remarkable also for a reminiscence of a totally 
opposite kind. ' A singular set of vagrants existed long 
in Falkland called Scrapies, who had no other visible 
means of existence than a horse or a cow. Their 
ostensible employment was the carriage of commodities 
to the adjoining villages ; and in the intervals of work 
they turned out their cattle to graze on the Lomond hill. 
Their excursions at night were long and mysterious, for 
the pretended object of procuring coals ; but they roamed 
with their little carts through the country-side, seeming 
whatever they could lift, and plundering fields in autumn. 
Whenever any inquiry was addressed to a Falkland 
Scrapie as to the support of his horse, the ready answer 
was — "Ou, he gangs up the (Lomond) hill ye ken."' 
The enclosing of the hill and the decay of the town, 
however, put an end to this vagrancy. 

The parish of Falkland contains also the villages of 
Feeuohie and Ne^vton of Falkland. It is bounded N 
by Auchtermuchty, E by Kettle, SE by Markinch, S 
by Leslie, SW by Portmoak in Kinross-shire, and W 
and NW by Strathmiglo. Its greatest length, from E 
to "VV, is 5§ miles ; its greatest breadth, from N to S, 
is 3| miles ; and its area is 8265^ acres. By Couland, 
Maspie, and other small burns, the drainage is carried 
partly southward to the Leven, but mainly northward 
to the Eden, which flows just outside the northern 
boundary ; and the highest point in Falkland between 
the two river-basins is the East Lojioxd (1471 feet), 
since the loftier West Lomond (1713) falls within the 
Strathmiglo border. The parts of the parish to the N 
and E of the town sink to 130 feet above the sea, and are 
almost a dead level ; but most of the surface is finely 
diversified with gentle valleys and wooded hUlsides. 
The rocks are variously eruptive and carboniferous — 
greenstone and limestone ; and a vein of galena, dis- 
covered about 1783 on the S side of the East Lomond, 
was thought to be argentiferous, but never repaid the 
cost of working. The soil, too, varies, but is mainly a 
fertile light friable loam. Woods and plantations cover 
some 400 acres ; about a fifth of the entire area is 
pastoral or waste ; and all the rest of the land is under 
cultivation. Kilgour, 2^ mUes W by N of the town, 
was the site of the ancient parish church, and anciently 
gave name to the entire parish. Traces of several pre- 
historic forts are on the Lomond hills ; remains of 
extensive ancient military lines are in the lands of Nut- 
hill ; and several old coins, chiefly of Charles I. and 
Charles II. , have been found among the ruins of Falk- 
land Palace. The ' Jenny Nettles ' of song hanged 
herself on a tree in Falkland Wood, and was buried 
under a cairn on the Nuthill estate. Falkland House, 
or Nuthill, f mile W of the town, was built in 1839-44, 
after designs by Mr Burn, of Edinburgh, at a cost of at 
least £30,000, and is a fine edifice in the Tudor style, 
with a pleasant well-wooded park. Its owner, Andrew 
Hamilton Tyndall-Bruce, Esq. (b. 1842; sue. 1874), 
holds 7058 acres in the shire, valued at £10,092 per 
annum. Three other proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 9 of between £100 and 
£500, 10 of from £50 to £100, and 31 of from £20 to 
£50. In the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife, 
this parish since 1880 has been ecclesiastically divided 
into Freuchie and Falkland, the latter a living worth 
£358. Two public schools, Falkland and Freuchie, 
with respective accommodation for 280 and 255 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 182 and 255, and 
grants of £169, Is. 4d. and £178, 10s. Valuation (1866) 
£10,847, 6s. lid., (1882) £12,518, 16s. 2d. Pop. 
(1801) 2211, (1831) 2658, (1861) 2937, (1871) 3069, 
(1881) 2698, of whom 1581 were in Falkland q. s. parish. 
—Orel. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. See James AV. Taylor's 
Some Historical Antiquities, chiefly Ecclesiastical, con- 
nected with Falkland, Kettle, and Leslie (Cupar, 1861). 

Falkland, Neivton of, a village in Falkland parish, 
Fife, 1 mile E by S of Falkland town. It carries on 
some manufactures of dowlas and sheeting, and is 
inhabited principally by weavers. 


Falkland Road, a statioj near the meeting-point 
of Falkland, Kettle, and Markinch parishes, Fife, on 
the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee section of the North 
British railway, 3 miles NNW of Markinch Junction. 

Fallen Rocks, a vast mass of blocks of Old Red 
sandstone on the N coast of Arran island, Buteshire, 
2 miles NNW of Sannox. They occur on the sea-face 
of an isolated mountain ridge, 5J miles long and \\ 
mile broad, so situated as to compel the coast-road 
round the island to make a detour there inland ; they 
consist of masses hurled from an overhanging cliff which 
fell in the way of landslip ; they strew a steep slope and 
a skirting beach in magnificent confusion ; they look 
like a rocky avalanche rushing to the shore, and form a 
piece of singularly striking scenery ; and they can be 
approached on land only on foot and by wary walking. 

Falloch, a rivulet of Perth and Dumbarton shires, 
rising, at an altitude of 2600 feet above sea-level, on 
Ben-a-Chp.oin^, close to the southern border of Killin 
parish. Thence it runs 3J miles north-by-westward to 
a point (563 feet) IJ mile SW of Crianlarich Hotel, and 
thence 3J miles south-westward, 3J miles southward, 
tUl it falls into the head of Loch Lomond (23 feet) at 
Ardlui. The chief of its many mountain affluents are 
the Dubh Eas and the AUt Arnan or Alderstan on the 
right, and the Allt Inse on the left. From the point 
where it turns southward, it traverses the romantic 
glen named after it Glen Falloch ; forms, in one 
part, a fine cascade ; and has mostly a rapid current, 
though finally it subsides into comparative sluggishness. 
Its trout, as a rule, run small, but are so plentiful that 
from ten to twelve dozen have been taken by one rod in 
the course of a few hours. — Ord. Swr., shs. 46, 38, 

Fallside, a station in Bothwell parish, Lanarkshire, 
on tlie Glasgow South-Side and SlotherweU branch of 
the Caledonian raUway, 1 mile ESE of Uddingston. 

Falside, an estate, with a mansion, in Kinneff parish, 
Kincardineshire, 3 miles N by E of Bervie. 

Falside Castle, an ancient peel-tower in Tranent 
parish, Haddingtonshire, 2 miles SW of Tranent town, 
and 2| ESE of Musselburgh. The E part of its stone 
vaulted roof remains ; and a building, a little to the 
SW, though later, is quite as ruinous. Standing high, 
420 feet above sea-level, Falside commands on a clear 
day a glorious view of the Pentlands, Arthur's Seat, the 
Firth of Forth, North Berwick Law, and the Bass. 
Early in the 14th century, under King Robert the 
Bruce, the lands of Falside were forfeited by Alexander 
de Such, who had married a daughter of Roger de 
Quincy, Earl of Winchester ; and they came then to 
the great Seton family, one of whose younger branches 
styled themselves Setons of Falside. A spot near the 
castle was the scene of a disastrous skirmish in 1547, 
on the day before the battle of Pinkie. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
32, 1857. 

Fanna, a hill near the meeting-point of Hobkirk, 
Southdean, and Castleton parishes, Roxburghshire, 
forming part of the watershed between Teviotdale and 
Liddesdale, 8J miles SE of Hawick. It has an alti- 
tude of 1687 feet above sea-level. 

Fannich, Loch, a lake of Contin parish, towards the 
centre of Ross and Cromarty. Lying 822 feet above 
sea-level, it extends 6| miles east-south-eastward and 
east-by-northward, has a varying -width of 3 and 7 
furlongs, and sends off a stream 6J miles east-south- 
eastward to Loch Luichart. On its northern shore, lo 
miles WNW of Garve station, stands the shooting- 
lodge of Fannich deer-forest, a mountainous region, 
whose loftiest summit is Sgurr Mor (3657 feet), 3| miles 
N of the loch. There are boats on the latter, but the 
trout are small and none too plentiful. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
92, 1881. 

Fannyside, a shallow loch and a moor in Cumber- 
nauld parish, Dumbartonshire. The loch, 2| miles SE 
of Cumbernauld town, lies 550 feet above sea-level, and 
measures 6| furlongs in length by from 1 to 2 furlongs 
in breadth. It contains a few pike and perch, but no 
trout. The moor lies around the loch, chiefly on tha 



N side, comprises upwards of 3 square miles, and has 
traces of a Roman road, running soutliward from Castlc- 
cary.— 0/-rf. Sur., sir. 31, 1S67. 

Far. Sue Farr. 

Faray. See Pharay. 

Fare, Hill of, a broad-based granitic eminence on the 
mutual border of Aberdeen and Kincardine shires, 
belonging to the parishes of Echt, Midmar, Kincardine 
O'Neil, and Banchory-Ternan, and culminating, at 
1545 feet above sea-level, 4j miles NNW of Banchory 
village. It forms part of tlie northern screen of the 
basin of the Dee, is partly dissevered by the marshy 
hollow of CoRRicHiE, contains some valuable peat 
moss, and affords excellent pasture for numerous flocks 
of sheep, producing mutton of very superior flavour, 
whilst its fine luxuriant heaths abound in moor-fowl, 
hares, and other game. — Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Farg, a stream of Perthshire chiefly, but partly of 
Kinross-shu'e and Fife, rising among tlie Ochils at an 
altitude of 800 feet above sea-level, and 5| miles N by 
W of Milnathort. Thence it winds lOJ miles south- 
south-westward, east-by-southward, and north-north- 
eastward, bounding or traversing the parishes of Forgan- 
denny, Arngask, Dron, and Abernethy, till, at a point 
If mile NW of Abernethy town, it falls into the river 
Earn. Containing plenty of burn trout, it mostly 
traverses a deep, narrow, romantic, wooded glen, called 
from it Glen Farg ; and it is followed, down that glen, 
by the turnpike road from Edinburgli to Perth. On 
6 Sept. 1S42 the Queen and Prince Albert drove down 
' the valley of Glen Farg ; the hills are very high on each 
side, and completely wooded down to the bottom of the 
valley, where a small stream runs on one side of the 
the road — it is really lovely.' — Ord. Sur., shs. 40, 48, 

Farigaig, a troutful stream of the Nairnshire portion 
of Daviot parish, and of Dores parish, NE Inverness- 
shire. It is formed, 840 feet above sea-level, and 1 mile 
WE of Dunmaglass Lodge, by the confluence of two 
head-streams, the longer of which, the AUt Uisg an t- 
Sithein, rises at an altitude of 2500 feet, and runs 6| 
miles north-by-westward. From their point of con- 
fluence the Farigaig winds 8^ miles north-north-west- 
ward and south-westward, till it falls into Loch Ness at 
Inverfarigaig, 2J miles NNE of Foyers. It receives a 
rivulet running J mile west-by-southward from Loch 
RuTHVES (2J miles x 4J furl. ; 700 feet), and it traverses 
a deep and finely wooded defile. — Ord. Sur., sh. 73, 

Farkin or Firkin, a small bay and a small headland 
in Arrochar parish, Dumbartonshire, on the W side of 
Loch Lomond, 1| mile NNW of Rowardennan Ferr}'. 

Farland Head. See Kilbride, "West. 

Farme, a mansion in Rutherglen parish, Lanarkshire, 
on the left bank of the Clyde, 1 mile N by E of Ruther- 
glen. Consisting of a very ancient castellated structure 
in a state of high preservation, with harmonious modern 
additions, it forms one of the finest specimens of the old 
baronial mansion-house in the W of Scotland. The 
estate, which mainly consists of extensive fertile haugh 
half engirt by a bold sweep of the Clyde, belonged to 
successively the royal Stewarts, the Crawfords, the 
Stewarts of Minto, the Flemings, and the Hamiltons, 
and now is held Isy Allan Farie, Esq. (b. 1832 ; sue. 
1879), who owns 295 acres in the shire, valued at £3139 
per annum, including £1537 for minerals. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 31, 1867. 

Famell, a parish of E Forfarshire, whose church 
stands on the southern side of the pretty Den of Farnell, 
4 mUes SSE of the post-town Brechin, and 1 furlong 
2SrW of Farnell Road station on the Scottish North- 
Eastern section of the Caledonian, this being 3J miles 
SW of Bridge of Dun Junction. 

The parish is bounded W, NW, and N by Brechin, NE 
by Dun, E by Maryton, SE by Craig, S by Kiunell and 
Maryton (detached), and SW by Guthrie. Its length, 
from E by N" to "W by S, varies between 2i and 4| miles ; 
its utmost breadth is 3J miles ; and its area is 5755 acres, 
of which 49 J lie detached, and 52-!- are water. The river 


South EsK winds 1| mile east-by-southward along the 
northern border, and just beyond the NE corner of the 
parish receives Pow Burn, which, coming in from Kin- 
nell, and running north-eastward across the south-eastern 
interior, then along the Maryton boundary, itself is 
joined by two or three rivulets from the W. In the NE 
the surface declines to 20 feet above sea-level, thence 
rising gently to 200 feet at the western border, and more 
rapidly southward to 446 on Ross Muir. ' The whole 
of Farnell belongs to the Earl of Southesk, whose estate 
is one of the most compact and desirable in the county, 
extending as it does to 22,525 acres, and bringing an 
annual rental of £21,811. The soU is mostly a clayey 
loam, in parts rather stiff, and in others of a moorish 
texture. The subsoil is chiefly clay, mixed with gi-avel, 
and resting on the Old Red sandstone. On the higher 
parts whinstone shoots up here and there to within a few 
inches of the surface,' etc. {Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc, 
1881, pp. 87-89). Farnell Castle, J mile WNW of the 
church, was visited by Edward I. of England on 7 July 
1296, and first is heard of as a grange or residence of the 
Bishops of Brechin. Now turned into an almshouse for 
old women, it is a plain three-story pile, with a turn- 
pike staircase on its southern front ; the oldest or SW 
part was built about the beginning of the 16th century, 
perhaps by Bishop Meldrum. Bishop Campbell re- 
signed the lands of Farnell in 1566 to his patron and 
chief, the fifth Earl of Argyll, who within two years 
bestowed them on his kinswoman, Catharine, Countess 
of Crawford. Her grand-daughter married Sir David 
Carnegie of Kinnaird, afterwards Earl of Southesk ; and 
with his descendants, save for the period of their for- 
feiture (1716-64), Farnell has since continued. Kinnaird 
Castle is noticed separately. Since 1787 comprising 
gi'eat part of the ancient parish of Cuikstone or Kin- 
naird, Farnell is in the presbytery of Brechin and 
synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is worth £385. 
The church, on a rising-ground, surrounded by fine old 
trees, is a neat Gothic edifice of 1806, containing 330 
sittings ; an ancient stone monument found here, with 
carving on it of the Fall of Adam, is figured in Dr John 
Stuart's Sculptured Stones of Scotland (1867). Farnell 
public school, with accommodation for 138 children, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 120, and a grant of £106. 
Valuation (1857) £5692, (1882) £7142, 14s. 6d., 2}lus 
£1259 for railway. Pop. (1801) 576, (1831) 582, (1861) 
703, (1871) 580, (1881) 613.— Ord Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 
See chap. ii. of Andrew Jervise's Memorials of Angus 
and Mearns {Ediuh. 1861). 

Famell Road. See Farnell. 

Famua. See Kikkhill, Inverness-shire. 

Famwell. See Farnell. 

Farout Head or Fair-aird, a promontory in Durness 
parish, N Sutherland, projecting 2J miles north-north- 
westward, between Balnakiel or Baile na CiUe Bay on 
the W and the entrance to Loch ErihoU on the E, tUl it 
terminates in a point 8i miles ESE of Cape Wrath. Its 
sides rise in rocky cliti's to a height of 329 feet above 
sea-level, and present a sublime appearance ; its summit 
commands a magnificent view from Cape Wrath to 
Whiten Head.— Ord. Sur., sh. 114, 1880. 

Farr, a hamlet and a parish on the N coast of Suther- 
land. The hamlet, Bettyhill of Farr, lies at the head 
of Farr Bay, 9 furlongs E of the mouth of the river 
Naver, 30 miles W by S of Thurso, and 27 NNE of 
Altnaharrow ; at it are an inn and a post office under 
Thurso, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 

The parish, containing also the hamlets of Altna- 
harrow, Aksiadale, and Strathy, is bounded N by 
the North Sea, E by Reay and Kildonan, SE by Clyne, 
S by Rogart, SW by Lairg, and W by Durness and 
Tongue. Its utmost length, from NNE to SSW, is 32 
miles ; its breadth, from E to W, varies between 8J and 
18J miles ; and its area is 195,197 acres, of which 343 
are foreshore and 6422J water. The coast-line, 21i miles 
long if one follows its ins and outs, but only 11 mea- 
sured along a straight line, is indented from E to W by 
Strathy, Armadale, Kirtomy, and Farr Baj-s, and pro- 



jects a prominent headland in Strathy Point (287 feet), 
lesser ones in Kirtomy Point (467), Fair Pomt (369), 
and Creag Riiadh (331). It is 'composed,' says Mr 
Archibald Young, ' either of bold rocks from 20 to 200 
feet high, against which the waves of the North Sea 
break with fearful violence, or of shallow sands, on 
which heavy surges are generally rolling. Yet, on all 
this extent of coast, there is nothing worthy of the 
name of a harbour ; though at Kirtomy and Armadale, 
and in one or two creeks, boats may land in moderate 
weather. It is impossible to doubt that this want of 
harbour accommodation for fishing boats very much 
hinders the prosecution of the fishings of cod, ling, 
haddocks, and herrings, which abound off the coast, 
and that the establishment of a commodious and secure 
landing-place for boats would be a great boon to the 
district,' etc. (pp. 45-50, Sutherland, 1880). Inland, 
the surface is everywhere hilly or mountainous, from N 
to S attaining 553 feet at Naver Rock, 1728 at Beinn's 
Tomaine, 3154 at conical *Ben Clibeiok, 2669 at the 
*NE shoulder of Ben Hee, and 2278 at *Creag nah- 
lolaire, where asterisks mark those summits that cul- 
minate on the confines of the parish. Loch Navek (6J 
miles X 4^ furl. ; 247 feet) lies towards the SW, and, 
whilst receiving the river of Mudale and other streams 
at its head, discharges from its foot the river Naver, 
winding 18| miles north-by-eastward to the sea. The 
Naver, | mile below its efflux from Loch Naver, is 
joined by the Malert, which itself flows 7 miles north- 
north-eastward out of Loch Coir' an Fhearna(3 J miles X 3^ 
furl. ; 570 iebt), a lake that lies towards the southern 
extremity of Farr, and at its head communicates by a 
narrow channel with Loch a' Bealaich (1§ x J mile). 
The eastern shore of Loch Loyal likewise belongs to 
Farr, and its effluent, the Borgie, above and below 
Borgie Bridge traces 2J miles of the boundary with 
Tongue ; on the eastern border lies Loch nan Cuinne 
(3x1 mile ; 392 feet), the westernmost of the Baden 
chain of lakes, so that the drainage partly belongs to 
the basin of Helmsdale river. Out of Loch Strathy 
(7 X 2S furl. ; 646 feet) Strathy Water runs 14J miles 
north-by-eastward to Strathy Bay, and drains, with its 
affluents, the NE district of Farr, whose chief other 
stream is Armadale "Water, running 5 miles north-by- 
eastward to Armadale Bay, whilst of lakes bej'ond num- 
ber one other only needs notice — Loch Meadie (1§ x J 
mile ; 405 feet). The rocks on the seaboard are mainly 
Devonian, and granite and gneiss prevail throughout 
the interior. A whitish sandstone, capable of fine 
dressing by the chisel, has been quarried at Strathy ; 
and near it is limestone, of first-rate manurial quality. 
Along Strathnaver, the finest strath perhaps in all the 
county, there is a considerable extent of good haugh 
land, a mixture of sand, gravel, and moss ; and along 
the Strathy, too, there are here and there arable patches 
of fertile thin sandy soil. Sheep-farming, however, is 
the staple industry, the largest of several large sheep 
farms being Langdale, Rhifail, Clebrig, and Armadale. 
The scanty vestiges of Boeve tower have been separately 
noticed ; ' duns,' barrows, and standing stones make up 
the remaining antiqmties. The Duke of Sutherland is 
sole proprietor. In the presbytery of Tongue and synod 
of Sutherland and Caithness, this parish is divided eccle- 
siastically into Farr and Strathy, the former a living 
worth £206. Its church, built in 1774, was restored in 
1882 ; in the churchyard is a very early stone obelisk, 
sculptured with crosses and other emblems. Two public 
schools, Farr and Strathy, mth respective accommodation 
for 125 and 99 children, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 45 and 34, and grants of £30, 14s. and £25, 8s. Valua- 
tion (1860) £5496, (1882) £10,390, 19s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 
2408, (1831) 2073, (1861) 2103, (1871) 2019, (1881) 1930, 
of whom 1140 were in Farr q. s. parish, and 790 in that 
of Strathy.— Or(?. Sur., shs. 114, 115, 108, 109, 1878-80. 
Faxr, an estate, with a mansion, in Daviot and Dun- 
lichity parish, Inverness-shire, on the Nairn's left bank, 
6% miles SSW of Daviot church. Its owner, Francis 
Henry Pottinger Mackintosh, Esq. (b. 1840; sue. 1880), 
holds 4500 acres in the shire, valued at £935 per annum. 


Farragon Hill, a mountain in Dull parish, Perthshire, 
4 miles NNW of Aberfeldy. It rises to an altitude of 
2559 feet above sea-level, and commands an extensive 
view over a wild mountainous country. 

Farraline, Loch, a lake of Dores parish, NE Inverness- 
shire, 3 miles E by S of Inverfarigaig. Lying 650 feet 
above sea-level, it has an utmost length and width of 9 
and 2J furlongs, abounds in trout, and sends off a stream 
3| miles north-north-eastward to the Farigaig. A num- 
ber of muskets, discovered here in 1841, in the course 
of drainage operations, were supposed to have been 
thrown into the loch during the troubles of the '45. — 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 73, 1878. 

Farrer, a small river of Ross and Inverness shires. 
It rises among mountains of SW Ross-shire, 9 miles E 
of the head of Loch Carron, and thence winds 27 J miles 
east-north-eastward and east-by-southward, expanding 
at various points into Lochs Monae, Miulie, and 
Bunacharan (IJ mile x 2J furl. ; 367 feet), till, 5 fur- 
longs S by W of Eechless Castle, it unites with the 
Glass to form the river Beatjly. Its glen, Strath- 
farrer, is a series of circular meadowy spaces, two of 
them occupied by Lochs Miulie and Bunacharan, and all 
flanked by bold, rocky, intricate, mountainous accli- 
vities, partly fringed with wood ; and it displays a rich 
variety of picturesque scenery. Its waters are well 
stocked with trout and grilse. A carriage road, striking 
into Strathfarrer from Strathglass, crosses the river, 
near its mouth, by a strong bridge, and ascends the 
glen to the foot of Loch Monar ; and a footpath goes 
thence, through a wild mountain region, and partly 
through a mountain pass, to Lochs Carron and Alsh. 
Masses of graphite or black lead lie embedded among 
gneiss rocks in the mouth of Strathfarrer. — Ord. Sur. , 
shs. 82, 83, 1882-81. 

Farthingbank, a hamlet in Durisdeer parish, NAV 
Dumfriesshire, near the right bank of the Nith, 5h miles 
NNW of Thornhill. 

Fascadale, a place on the northern coast of Aid- 
namurchan parish, Argyllshire, 20 miles NNW of 
Salen, in Mull. 'The Oban and Skye steamer touches 

Faseny Water, a Lammermuir rivulet of Garvald and 
Whittingham parishes, S Haddingtonshire, rising close 
to the Berwickshire border at an altitude of 1550 feet 
above sea-level, and winding7i miles east-north-eastward 
till it falls into the Whitadder at Mill Knowe, 3 miles 
WNW of Cranshaws church. It possesses great interest 
to geologists as exposing a fine section of the Lammer- 
muir rocks, and is well stocked with trout. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 33, 1863. 

Faskally, an estate, with a mansion, in Moulin parish, 
Perthshire, at the confluence of the rivers Tummel and 
Garry, 2 miles NW of Pitlochry. Nature and art 
have combined to render it ' a very pretty place, ' as 
Queen Victoria styles it in her Journal, 11 Sept. 1844. 
Its owner, Archibald Butter, Esq. (b. and sue. 1805), 
held 17,586 acres in the shire, valued at £5670 per 

Faskine, an estate and a village in Old Monkland 
parish, Lanarkshire, on the right bank of North Calder 
Water, | m: W of Calderbank. The estate contains 
coal and ironstone mines, worked from an earlier period 
than any others in the great Clydesdale mineral field. 
Pop. (1861) 514, (1871) 656, (1881) 475. 

Faslane, a small bay in Row parish, Dumbartonshire, 
on the E side of Gare Loch, IJ mile SSE of Gareloch- 
head. An ancient castle of the Earls of Lennox here 
is now represented by only a grassy mound ; but a 
pre-Reformation chapel, dedicated to St Michael, has left 
some vestiges. 

Fasnacloich, a mansion in Lisniore and Appin parish, 
Argyllshire, in Glencreran, 2J miles NE of the head of 
Loch Creran, and 13| N of Taynuilt station. It stands 
on the NW shore of Loch BaUe Mhic ChaUein or Fasna- 
cloich (4J x If furl.), a beautiful expansion of the river 
Creran, containing plenty of sea-trout and salmon ; and 
it is the seat of John Campbell Stewart, Esq. (b. 1832), 
who holds 5000 acres in the shire, valued at £736 per 



inrium. There is a post office of Fasnacloicli. — Onl. 
Sur., sli. 53, 1877. 

Fasnakyle, a mansion in Kilmorack parish, Inverness- 
shire, at tlie confluence of the Affric and Amhuiun 
Deabhaidli to form the river Glass, 2| miles SW of 
Gleualfric Hotel. 

Fasque, a mansion in Fettercairn parish, SW Kincar- 
dineshire, between Crichie Burn and the burnof Garrol, 1| 
mile N by W of Fettercairn village. Built in 1S08-9 at a 
costof £30,000 by Sir Thomas Ramsay of Balmain, seventh 
Bart, since 1625, it is a large palatial looking edifice, 
commanding a wide prospect, and surroimded by beauti- 
ful and extensive policies, with a lake (3x1 furl.) 
and many trees of great dimensions and rare grandeur. 
The Fasque estate, held by the Eamsays from the 15th 
century, was purchased about 1S2S by the Liverpool 
merchant, Mr John Gladstones (1764-1851), who in 1846 
was created a baronet as Sir John Gladstone of Fasque 
and Balfour, and whose fourth son is the Premier, 
William Ewart Gladstone (b. 1809). The eldest. Sir 
Thomas Gladstone, D.C.L., second Bart. (b. 1804), pos- 
sesses 45,062 acres in the shire, valued at £9175 per 
annum. ' The Fasque property,' WTites Mr James 
Macdonald in Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc, 1881, pp. 
114,115, ' now extends from Fettercairn village to within 
less than 10 miles of Banchory on Deeside, a distance of 
over 16 miles. By far the greater portion lies on the 
Grampian range, and consists of black heath-clad hills 
intersected by numerous valleys or small straths in which 
there is a good deal of green pasture. On the immense 
estate of Glendye, pm-chased by Sir Thomas about 
1865 from the Earl of Southesk, there are several small 
farms in the lower parts towards Banchory, while on 
the other estates there is a large extent of excellent 
arable land, mostly good rich loam, strong and deep in 
some parts and thin in others, but all over sound and 
fertile. The property contains a great deal of valuable 
wood, not a little of which has been planted by Sir 
Thomas and his father. ... A very commodious 
farm-steading was erected on the home farm (670 acres) 
in 1872.' The Episcopal church of Fasque, St Andrew's, 
was built by Sir John, who made his place of sepul- 
ture within its walls. — Ord. Sur., sh. 66, 1871. See 


Fassifern, an estate, with a mansion, in the Argyll- 
shire section of Kilmallie parish, on the northern shore 
of Upper Loch Eil, 7 J miles WNW of Fort William. It 
was the seat of a branch of the Camerons, to which be- 
longed Col. John Cameron (1771-1815), who fell at Quatre 
Bras, and over whose grave in Kilmallie churchyard at 
Corpach is a lofty obelisk, with an inscription by Sir 
Walter Scott. A stone quarry on the estate supplied 
material for constructing the Caledonian Canal and 
building a quay at Fort William. 

Fast, an ancient military strength in Bedrule parish, 
Roxburghshire, 1 furlong NW of the ruins of Bedrule 
Castle. It seems to have been an outwork of the 
castle, and is now represented by merely a mound. 

Fast Castle, a ruinous sea-fortress in Coldingham 
parish, Berwickshire, perched on a jutting cliff that 
beetles 70 feet above the German Ocean, H miles NW 
of Coldingham village, 3 WNW of St Abo's Head, and 
7 E of Cockburnspath station. Backed by high grassy 
hni slopes, it presents one shattered side of a low square 
keep, ^^•ith a fragment more shattered still overhanging 
the sea-verge of its rock, which, measuring 120 by 60 
feet, is accessible only by a path a few feet wide, and 
formerly was c^uite dissevered from the mainland by a 
chasm of 24 feet in width that was crossed by a draw- 
bridge. In 1410, it was held by Thomas Holden and an 
English garrison, who had long harassed the country by 
their piUaging excursions, when Patrick, second son of 
the Earl of Dunbar, with a hundred followers, took the 
castle and captured the governor. According to Holin- 
shed, Fast Castle again fSl into the hands of the English, 
but was recovered by the foUoiving stratagem in 1548— 
' The captain of Fast Castle had commanded the hus- 
bandmen adjoining to bring thither, at a certain day, 
gi-eat store of victuals. The young men thereabouts. 

having that occasion, assembled thither at the day ap. 
pointed, who, taking their burdens from their horses, 
and laying them on their shoulders, were allowed to 
pass the bridge, which joined two high rocks, into the 
castle ; where, laying down that which they brought, 
they suddenly, by a sign given, set upon the keepers of 
the gate, slew them, and before the other Englishmen 
could be assembled, possessed the other places, weapons, 
and artillery of the castle, and then receiving the rest 
of the company into the same, through the same great 
and open gate, they wholly kept and enjoyed the castle 
for their countrymen.' Sir Nicolas Throgmorton, in 
1567, characterises it as a place ' fitter to lodge prisoners 
than folks at liberty;' and, in 1570, when only 
tenanted by ten Scots, Drury, Marshal of Berwick, after 
taking Home Castle, was sent to invest Fast Castle with 
2000 men, it being the next principal place that be- 
longed to the Homes. Passing from them by marriage 
about 1580, ' Fast Castle,' says Sir Walter Scott, 
in his Provincial Antiquities, ' became the appro- 
priate stronghold of one of the darkest characters of 
that age, the celebrated Logan of Restalrig. There 
is a contract existing in the charter-chest of Lord Napier 
betwixt Logan and a very opposite character, the cele- 
brated inventor of logarithms, the terms of which 
are extremely singular. The paper is dated July 1594, 
and sets forth — "Forasmuch as there were old reports 
and apipearances that a sum of money was hid within 
Jolm Logan's house of Fast Castle, John Napier should 
do his utmost diligence to search and seek out, and by 
all craft and ingine to find out the same, and, by the 
grace of God, shall either find out the same, or make it 
sure that no such thing has been there." For his reward 
he was to have the extra third of what was found, and 
to be safely guarded by Logan back to Edinburgh. 
And in case he should find nothing, after all trial and 
diligence taken, he refers the satisfaction of his travel 
and pains to the discretion of Logan. ' Logan was next 
engaged in the mysterious Gowiie Conspiracy (1600). 
It was proposed to force the King into a boat from the 
bottom of the garden of Gowrie House, and thence con- 
duct him by sea to that ruffian's castle, there to await 
the disposal of Elizabeth or of the conspirators. Logan's 
connection with this affair was not known till nine years 
after his death, when the correspondence betwixt him 
and the Earl of Gowrie was discovered in the possession 
of Sprott, a notary public, who had stolen them from 
one John Bour, to whom they were intrusted. Sprott 
was executed, and Logan was condemned for high 
treason, even after his death, his bones having been 
brought into court for that purpose. Almost gi'eater, 
however, than any historic interest connected with Fast 
Castle is the fictitious one with which Scott invested it 
in his Bride of Lamiiurmoor, by choosing it for proto- 
type of 'Wolf's Crag,' the solitary and naked tower of 
Edgar Eavenswood. — Ord. Sur., sh. 34, 1864. See 
Perth, Dirleton, Baldoon, and chap, xxxvi. of James 
F. Hunnewell's Xa?ids 0/ &o« (Edinb. 1871). 

Fatlips Castle, an ancient fortalice in Minto parish, 
Roxburghshire, on the crown of Minto Crags, near the 
left bank of the Teviot, | mile EKE of Minto House. 
Supposed to have been a stronghold of the TurnbuUs, 
it is figured in Grose's Antiquities of Scotland, and 
appears there as still comprising two stories ; but it is 
now a small fragmentary ruin. 

Fatlips Castle, an ancient fortalice in Symington 
parish, Lanarkshire, on a spur projecting from the SE 
skirt of Tinto Hill, 2 miles NNE of Wiston. It is now 
represented by only a piece of wall 'about 6 feet high 
and fully 6 feet thick. 

Fauldhouse, a mining village in the SW corner of 
■\Vhitburn parish, SW Linlithgowshire, with a station 
on the Cleland and Midealder line of the Caledonian, 
6J miles WSW of West Calder. Lying in a bleak 
region of collieries, ironstone mines, and paraffin works, it 
stands within a mile of Crofthead and Greenburn, 
rillages simOar to itself, and practically forms one with 
them. It has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of the 




National Bank, and an endowed scliool. An Established 
Mission church, built at a cost of £1700, was raised to 
quoad sacra status in 1872 ; St John's Roman Catholic 
church (1873 ; 550 sittings) is a good Early English 
edifice. Pop. of Fauldhouse and Crofthead (1871) 3151, 
(1881) 3000 ; of quoad sacra parish (1881) 3933.— Ord 
Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Faungrass, a burn in Cranshaws and Greenlaw 
parishes, Berwickshire, rising on Evelaw, among the 
Lammermuirs, on the SE border of Cranshaws, and 
running 5 miles south-eastward and southward to Black- 
adder Water, at a point If mile NW of Greenlaw town, 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Fawside. See Falside. 

Fea, an eminence in Cross parish, Sanday Island, 
Orkney. It rises gently from the E, terminates in a 
maritime precipice on the W, is pierced in the base of 
the precipice by curious caverns, and commands from its 
summit very fine views. 

Feachan, Feoohan, or Feuchan, a sea-loch on the 
mutual boundary of Kilninver and Kilbride parishes, 
Argyllshire. Penetrating the land 4J miles, first south- 
eastward, next east-north-eastward, it is 1 mile wide at 
the entrance, and from 1 furlong to J mile higher up ; has 
a depth of 15 fathoms ; is flanked by high rocky promon- 
tories ; receives at its head the Nell, and at Eihiinver 
the Euchar ; and at the time of spring tides has the ap- 
pearance of a wide rapid river. 

Feam, a village and a coast parish of NE Ross and 
Cromarty. The village. Hill of Fearn, stands 50 feet 
above sea-level, IJ mile E by S of Fearn station, on the 
Highland railway, this being 3J miles SE of Tain, and 
22 NE of Dingwall ; at it is a post oflice, with money 
order, savings' bank, and railway telegraph departments. 

The parish, containing also the fishing villages of 
Balintore and Hilton of CadboU, 24 miles SE and 2| 
ESE of Hill of Fearn, is bounded NW by Tain, KE by 
Tarbat, SE by the Moray Firth, S by Nigg, and SW and 
W by Logie-Easter. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 5 
miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 4§ miles ; 
and its area is 7711g acres, of which 123j are foreshore 
and 289J water. The coast-line, 3J miles long, rises 
steeply near Geanies in precipitous cliff's to a height of 
200 feet above the sea, but southward is low and sandy ; 
inland the surface is much of it nearly fiat, and nowhere 
exceeds 150 feet. Loch Eye (If mile x 4i furl. ; 51 
feet), on the Tain border, is almost the only lake that 
has not been drained ; and there are no streams of any 
consequence. The predominant rock is Old Red sand- 
stone ; but the small vein of limestone that runs from 
the North Sutor to Tarbat Ness, crops out at Geanies. 
The soil is largely a very rich fertile loam, and agri- 
culture is carried to high perfection, steam-ploughing 
having been introduced in 1875, whilst from a little 
knoll near Cadboll no fewer than eighteen steam-stalks 
may be counted. Cattle-feeding, too, is carried on, 
especially on the farms of the Cadboll property, belong- 
ing to Macleod of Invergordon. Geanies estate under- 
went great improvement from 1840 under the care of 
that eminent agriculturist, Kenneth Murray, Esq. 
(1826-76), who succeeded his brother in 1867, and who 
extended the arable area from 2016 to 4000 acres, the 
new land being partlj' reclaimed from bog and moss, 
partly from moor, and partly from lochs. Geanies 
Hou-se, 4 miles ENE of Hill of Fearn, commands a 
glorious view over the Moray Firth, and is now the seat 
of his son, WiUiam Hugh Eric Murray, Esq. (b. 1858), 
who holds 5303 acres in the shire, valued at £4401 
per annum (only £2160 in 1843). Other mansions are 
AUan House and Rhynie House, standing IJ mile SW 
and 1| NE of Hill of Fearn. The Prjemonstratensian 
Abbey of Fearn was founded in 1221 by Ferchard 
Macintaggart, Earl of Ross, in Edderton parish, but 
in 1338 was transferred to Fearn to escape the ferocity of 
neighbouring clans. Of its twenty-one abbots the fif- 
teenth was the protomartyr of the Scottish Reformation, 
Patrick Hamilton (1503-28), who was burned at St An- 
DEEWS. He was but a youth when he obtained the abbacy 
in 1524, and it is doubtful whether he ever took orders ; 

anyhow his connection with Fearn was little more than 
titular. The abbey church comprised a nave, a choir (99 
X 25J feet), a Lady chapel, and two transeptal chapels — 
First Pointed mainly in style, with later insertions and 
additions, the whole having been completed by Abbot 
James Cairncross in 1545. It served as the parish 
church from the Dissolution till 1742, when on a Sunday 
of October the ponderous stone roof fell in, as graphically 
told in Hugh Miller's Scenes and Legends, under the 
title of 'The Washing of the Mermaid.' Forty-four 
persons were killed, and more must have lost their lives, 
but that the stalwart preacher, Robertson of Gairloch, 
set his shoulder against the door, and so propped up the 
side wall. The pile lay in ruins till 1772, when it was 
patched up to serve anew as parish church ; and though 
lamentably mutilated, with its E end cut oft' for the 
Balnagowan mausoleum, it still retains many features of 
interest — three sedilia, two piscinas, a credence, three 
monumental eifigies, and some good lancet and traceried 
windows. Another antiquity, noticed separately, is 
Lochslin Castle. Five proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 3 of between £100 and £500, 
and 3 of less than £100. Fearn is in the presbytery of 
Tain and synod of Ross ; the living is worth £332. 
The parish or abbey church stands 5 furlongs SE of the 
village, and a Free church IJ mile E by N. Three 
public schools, all of recent erection, at Balmuchy, Hill 
of Fearn, and Hilton, with respective accommodation 
for 80, 120, and 178 children, had (1880) an average 
attendance of 51, 102, and 160, and grants of £41, 6s., 
£96, lis., and £135, 17s. Valuation (1882) £10,467, 
2s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 1528, (1831) 1695, (1861) 2083, 
(1871) 2135, (1881) 2135.— OirZ. Sur., sh. 94, 1878. 

Feam, two disti-icts and a rivulet in Edderton 
parish, Ross-shire. The districts are Easter Fearn and 
Wester Fearn ; and the rivulet intersects or divides 
them northward to the inner Dornoch Firth. See 

Feam or Fern, a parish in the central part of Forfar- 
shire, whose church is beautifully situated on an iso- 
lated hillock in the midst of a romantic den, 9 miles 
N by E of Forfar, and 7 W of Brechin, under which 
there is a post office of Fearn. It is bounded N by 
Lethnot, E by Menmuir and Careston, S and W by 
Tannadice. Its utmost length, from NNW to SSE, is 
5§ miles ; its greatest breadth, from E to W, is 3J miles ; 
and its area is S811f acres, of which 20 are water. Clear- 
flowing NoEAN Water winds 4 J miles east -south- 
eastward along all the southern border, on its way tc 
the South Esk ; and Cetjick Water, an affluent of the 
North Esk, rising in the northern extremity of the 
parish, runs 5| miles south-soutli-eastward, then IJ 
mile eastward, through the interior, and passes off into 
Menmuir. In the SE the surface sinks to less than 
300 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 421 feet near 
Wellford, 605 near Noranside, 970 at Deuchar HUl, 
1003 at Greens of Shandford, 1009 at *Mansworn Rig, 
1682 at *Benderochie, 1377 at Craig of Trusta, and 1900 
at the *Hill of Garbet, where asterisks mark those sum- 
mits that cidminate on the borders of the parish. The 
rocks include clay slate and Old Red sandstone, and the 
slate has been quarried ; whilst the soil is fertile through - 
out the Strathmore district and in parts of the central 
valley. On a rocky and precipitous reach of Noran Water 
stand the haunted ruins of the castle of Vayne, or 
ancient manor-house of Fearn, originally a three-story 
pile of friable red sandstone, with a round south-wes- 
tern tower. Falsely ascribed to Cardijial Bethune, and 
greatly enlarged towards the close of the 17th century 
by Robert, third Earl of Southesk, this, or a prede- 
cessor, was the seat of the Montealtos or Mowats, who 
held the estate of Feam from the reign of William the 
Lyon (1166-1214) till some time prior to 1450. In 
that year it was in the possession of the Earls of Craw- 
ford, from whom it passed about 1594 to the Carnegies 
of SoTJTHESK. By them it was sold in 1766 to Mr John 
Mill, whose son built Noranside. The small estate of Deu- 
chars has its interest, as having been owned by Deuchars 
of that Ilk from the 10th cenfury till 1818. The ' Kel- 


jiie's Footmark ' is still to be seen in a sandstone rock 
near the castle of Vayne, but little or nothing remains 
of a ' Druidical circle,' of a circular prehistoric dwelling, 
or of three tumuli on the hills, one of which yielded a 
number of ancient urns. Noranside is the chief man- 
sion, and tlie property is divided among five. Fearn is 
in the presbytery of Brechin and synod of Angus and 
]\Ieams ; the living is worth £220. The church, origi- 
nally founded by Bishop Colman about 666, and dedi- 
cated to St Aidan, was rebuilt in 1806, and contains 
238 sittings ; whilst a public school, with accommo- 
dation for 60 chilren, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 43, and a grant of £52, 10s. A''aluation (1857) £4155, 
(1882) £5194, 10s. 9d. Pop. (1801) 448, (1831) 450, 
(1861) 439, (1871) 348, (1881) 316.— Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 
1868. See chap. v. of Andrew Jerviso's Zand of the 
Lindsays (Edinb. 1853). 

Fechley or Fichlie, a place in Towie parish, W 
Aberdeenshire, IJ mile ENE of Towie church. The 
Peel of Fechley, a mound here, partly natural and 
partly artificial, measm'es upwards of 60 feet in height, 
and from 127 to 200 feet in summit breadth ; is sur- 
rounded by a fosse, from 12 to 41 feet in width, and 
from 8 to 35 feet in depth ; and is crowned with vitrified 
remains of a tower. 

Fechtin Ford, a place on the border of Muiravonside 
parish, Stirlingshire, on Avon Water, 1 mile above 
Manuel House. It is traditionally said to have been 
the scene of a feud between the shepherds of the con- 
fronting banks. 

Federate, a ruined castle in New Deer parish, Aber- 
deenshire, 2 miles N of New Deer village. Surrounded 
partly by a fosse, partly by a morass, it was approach- 
able only by a causeway and a drawbridge ; formed an 
incomplete square, with great thickness of wall, and 
with the corners rounded off ; and, dating from some 
period unknown to either record or tradition, is said to 
have been one of the last strongholds of the Jacobite 
forces after the battle of Killiecrankie. 

Fender, a burn in Blair Atliole parish, Perthshire, 
rising on the SW slope of Benglo at an altitude of 3050 
feet above sea-level, and running 6§ miles south-west- 
ward along an alpine glen, till, after a total descent of 
2400 feet, it falls into the river Tilt, 1 mile N by E of 
Blair Athole village. It makes three picturesc^ue falls, 
the first about a mUe from its mouth, the third at its 
influx to the Tilt ; approaches the last fall through a 
narrow recess ; and in a boiling and eddying series of 
five descents, to the aggregate depth of 30 feet, thimders 
into the Tilt at a point where the latter flows in dark 
gloom between two vertical cliffs of limestone rocks. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 55, 1869. 

Fendoch, an ancient camp in Monzie parish, Perth- 
shire, on the high ground at the lower end of the Sma' 
Glen or deep narrow defile of Gleualmoud, 9 furlongs 
W by N of BucHANTY, and 3 miles NE of Monzie 
church. Overlooked by a native strength upon Dira- 
MOEE, it is traditionally called the Roman Camp, and 
may be truly regarded as the work of the Eoman 
legions under Agricola or one of his successors. It 
measm-es 180 paces in length by 80 in breadth, and 
is alleged to have had accommodation for 12,000 men ; 
it was defended on two sides by water, on the other side 
by morass and precipice ; and it continued till about 
the beginning of the present century to retain consider- 
able portions of both rampart and fosse, but has subse- 
quently been greatly levelled by tillage and road-making 
operations. A moor immediately E of it was, till a 
recent period, dotted with cairns over an extent of 
several acres, — several of the cah'ns measuring from 10 
to 14 paces in diameter ; and it is thought, from the 
number and size of these cairns, and from human re- 
mains having been found beneath them, to have been 
the scene of some great ancient battle. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
47, 1869. 

Fenella, several localities in the SW and S of Kincar- 
dineshire. Strathfenella Hill, in the western vicinity 
of Fordoun vUlage, is a crescent-shaped isolated ridge 
3 miles long, and 1358 feet high. Fenella Strath, to 


the N of the hill, is a pleasant vale traversed by Luther 
Water. Fenella Castle, 1 mile W of Fettercairn village, 
is the vestige of an ancient structure, situated on an 
eminence, enclosed by an inner and an outer wall, and 
surrounded on three sides by a morass. Fenella Den, 
in St Cyrus parish, is traversed by a burn running to 
the North Esk river, making a cascade of 65 feet in fall, 
and crossed by two handsome bridges, one of them 
120 feet high. All these take their name from Fenella, 
daughter of the Mormaer of Angus, and wife of the 
Mormacr of the Mearus, who in 994 is said to have slain 
Kin^ Kenneth III. at Fenella Castle, to revenge the 
death of her son. 'Not only Hector Boece,' says Dr 
Hill Burton, 'but the older and graver chroniclers, 
Fordun and Wyntoun, bring out this aifair in a highly 
theatrical shape. We are to suppose that the victim 
has been lured in among the avenger's toils. He was 
led into a tower of the castle " quhilk was theiket with 
copper, and hewn with mani subtle mouldry of flowers 
and imageries, the work so curious that it exceeded all 
the stuft' thereof." So says the translator of Boece. In 
the midst of the tower stood a brazen statue of the king 
himself, holding in his hand a golden apple studded 
with gems. " That image," said the Lady Fenella, " is 
set up in honour of thee, to show the world how much 
I honour my king. The precious apple is intended for 
a gift for the king, who will honour his poor subject by 
taking it from the hand of the image." The touching 
of the apple set agoing certain machinery which dis- 
charged a hurdle of arrows into the king's body. The 
trick is copied from some of those attributed to the 
Vehmic tribunals. The picturesque district between 
Fettercairn and the sea is alive with traditions of 
Fenella and her witcheries' (Hist. Scotl, i. 339, ed. 

Fenton Bams. See Dieleton. 

Fenwick, a village and a parish in Cnnninghame dis- 
trict, Ayrshire. IThe village stands 430 feet''above sea- 
level on the right bank of Fenwick Water, 4| miles 
NNE of Kilmarnock, under which it has a post office 
with money order and savings' bank departments. Pop. 
(1871) 469, (1881) 366. 

The parish is bounded NE by Eaglesham in Renfrew- 
shire, E and SE by Loudoun, S by Kilmarnock, SW by 
Kilmaurs and Dreghorn, W by Stewarton, and NW by 
Stewarton and by Mearns in Renfrewshire. Its utmost 
length, from E to W, is 8 miles ; its breadth, from N 
to S, varies between 2 and 5J miles ; and its area is 
18,161^ acres, of which 57 are water, (jrawfurdland and 
Fenwick Waters, gathering their head-streams from 
Eaglesham, run west-south-westward and south-west- 
ward across the parish, and, passing into Kilmarnock, 
there unite to form Kilmarnock Water ; whilst Loch 
Goix or Blackwoodhill Dam (7x3 fmd. ) just touches 
the north-eastern boundar}'. The surface sinks, below 
Dalmusternock, in the furthest S, to 340 feet above sea- 
level, and rises thence east-north-eastward to 714 feet 
at Airtnock, 836 at Greenhill, 807 at Grins Hills, and 
932 near the eastern border; north-north-eastward or 
northward to 7S5 at Dicks Law, 914 near Loch Goin, 
556 at East Pokelly, 754 at Greelaw, and 876 at Drumboy 
Hill. Thus, though, as seen from the hills of Craigie 
in Kyle, Fenwick looks all a plain, it really attains no 
inconsiderable altitude, and from many a point com- 
mands far-reaching views of Kyle anil the Firth of 
Clyde, away to the heights of Carrick and the Arran 
and Argyllshire mountains. Originally, for the most 
part, fen or bog, the land, in spite of a general scarcity 
of trees, now wears a verdant, cultivated aspect, being 
chiefly distributed into meadow and natural pasture. 
Fossiliferous limestone is plentiful ; in the W are a free- 
stone quarry, and a thin seam of coal ; and seams of 
ironstone, with coal and limestone, are on the Eowallan 
estate. 'This estate was held from the 13th till the be- 
ginning of the ISth century by the Mures of Eowallan, 
of whom a curious Historie, published at Glasgow in 
1825, was written by Sir William Mure (1594-1657), ' a 
man ' — we have it on his ipse dixit — ' that was pious 
and learned, had an excellent vein in poesie, and much 



delj'ted in bnilding and planting.' His son and 
grandson both were zealous Covenanters ; and during 
the former's time the celebrated William Guthrie, who 
was minister of Fenwick from 1644, is said to have held 
conventicles in the house of Rowallan after his ejection 
(1664). Fitly enough, the sufferings of the martyrs 
and confessors of the Covenant "were chronicled in the 
Scots Worthies of a native of Fenwick, John Howie 
of Lochgoin (1735-91). He was descended from a 
"Waldensian refugee who had settled here so long ago as 
1178 ; and Lochgoin, in the days of his great-grand- 
father, had twelve times been pillaged by the persecutor. 
In his own daj' that ancient and sequestered dwelling 
became a kind of covenanting reliquary, wherein were 
enshrined the Bible and sword of Paten, the standard 
of Fenwick parish, the drum that was sounded at 
Drumclog, and so forth. To revert to Rowallan, it 
passed, through an heiress, to the fifth Earl of LouDOtTff. 
Three proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 9 of between £100 and £500, 3 of from £50 to 
£100, and 13 of from £20 to £50. Disjoined from 
Kilmarnock in 1642, Fenwick is in the presbytery of 
Irvine and synod of Glasgow and Ayi- ; the living is 
worth £200. The parish church, at the village, was 
built in 1643, and contains 850 sittings. It retains its 
original black oak pulpit, with a half-hour sand-glass ; 
and the jougs .still hang from the S gable. There are 
also Free and U.P. churches; and two public schools, Fen- 
wick and Hairshaw, with respective accommodation for 
120 and 65 children, had (1880) an average attendance 
of 92 and 39, and grants of £75, 19s. and £31, 12s. 
Valuation (1860) £11,637, (1882) £15,635, 10s. Pop. 
(1801) 1280, (1831) 2018, (1861) 1532, (1871) 1318, 
(1881) 1152.— OrfZ. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Ferdun, a streamlet of Fordoun parish, Kincardine- 
shire. Formed by two burns that descend from the 
frontier Grampians, and unite at Olattering-Briggs, it 
runs 5f miles south-south-eastward, past the W end of 
Strathfenella HUl, to a confluence with Luther Water, 
1| mile W of Laurencekirk.— OrA Sur., sh. 66, 1871. 

Fereneze or Femeze, a range of hills on the mutual 
border of Abbey and Neilston parishes, Renfrewshire, 
culminating, IJ mile W by S of Barrhead, at 725 feet 
above sea-level. 

Fergus, a lake (3x1 furl.) on the mutual border of 
A}T and Coylton parishes, Ayrshire, 4^ miles SE of Ayr 
town. It has an islet in its centre, contains pike, and 
sends off a rivulet 1 mile southward through Loch 
Snipe to Loch Martnaham. — Orel. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Fergushill, a collier village in Kilwinning parish, 
Ayrshire, If mile E of Kilwinning town. Founded 
about the year 1835, it has a public school for the 
children of the colliers and a mission station of the 
Chm-ch of Scotland. Pop. (1861) 279, (1871) 531, 
(1881) 537. 

Ferguslie, a western suburb of Paisley, in Renfrew- 
shu'e. It lies within Paisley parliamentary burgh, and 
was built on an estate which belonged for some time to 
the monks of Paisley, but was afterwards divided. An 
old castle stood on the estate, and has left some remains ; 
and a modern mansion, called Ferguslie House, is now 
on it. See Paisley. 

Ferguston, a farm, near Bearsden station, in New 
Kilpatrick parish, Dumbartonshire, retaining, on the 
face of a hill, a reach of the fosse of Antoninus' Wall. 

Ferintosh, a detached section of Nairnshire, at the 
head of Cromarty Firth, surrounded by Ross-shire, 
and lying about 2| mUes SE of Dingwall. It forms the 
central district of the united parish of Urquhart and 
Logie-Wester ; it comprises part of the Mullljuie, and 
part of the strath at that ridge's south-western base ; it 
is bounded, along the W, for 2J- miles, by the river 
Conan and the upper part of Cromarty Firth ; and it 
comprises 5973 acres of land, partly moor, partly 
pasture, but chiefly arable. The barony of Ferintosh 
was purchased about 1670 by the Forbeses of Cijlloden, 
who here have a mansion, Ryefield Lodge ; and a 
privilege of distilling whisky on it, from grain of its 
own growth free of duty, was granted in 1689 to 


Duncan Forbes, father of President Forbes, but was 
withdrawn in 1785, being compensated by a grant of 
£20,000. The great improvements carried out on the 
estate since 1847 in the way of reclaiming, draining, 
fencing, building, etc., are described in Trans. Bighl. 
anclAg. Soc, 1877, pp. 113-116. 

Ferintosh, Newton of, a hamlet in Ferintosh district, 
Nairnshire, If mile ESE of Conan- Bridge. It has a 
post office under Dingwall. 

Fern, Forfarshire. See Feaen. 

Femell. See Faenell. 

Femeze. See Fereneze. 

Femie, an estate in Monimail parish, Fife, 4 miles W 
of Cupar and 3| NNE of Ladybank. It appears to have 
been part of the original demesne of the Earls of Fife ; 
and it retains a baronial fortalice of great antiquity, 
once a place of considerable strength, surrounded by 
marshy gi'ound. Its owner, Francis Walter Balfour, 
Esq. (b. 1831 ; sue. 1854), holds 1725 acres in the shire, 
valued at £3224 per annum. 

Femie, Easter, a hamlet in Monimail parish, Fife, 
2| miles W of Cupar. 

Femiegair, a village, with a station in Hamilton 
parish, Lanarkshire, on the Lesmahagow railway, at 
the junction of the eastward line from Hamilton, 2;^ 
miles NNW of LarkhaU. Pop. (1871) 395, (1881) 551. 

Femieherst Castle, a Border stronghold in Jedburgh 
parish, Roxbiu-ghshire, on the right bank of Jed Water, 
2J miles S by E of Jedburgh town. It was the ancient 
seat of the Kerrs of the Lothian line, as Cessfoed was 
that of the Roxburghe Kers — offshoots both of the same 
Anglo-Norman stock, but wrangling ever as to seniority. 
Ralph Kerr about 1350 settled in Teviotdale, and his 
seventh descendant is designated of Fernieherst in the 
parliament records of 1476. To this date, then, or 
somewhat earlier, belonged the original castle, where 
Sir Andrew or ' Dand ' Kerr was taken prisoner by the 
English under Lord Dacre, after a valiant defence, 
24 Sept. 1523. With the aid of D'Esse's French auxili- 
aries, his son. Sir John, retook the castle in 1549 ; and 
his son, Sir Thomas, on 22 Jan. 1570, the day after 
Moray's murder at Linlithgow, swept over the Border 
with fire and sword, hoping to kindle a war that might 
lead to Queen Mary's release. For this, in the follow- 
ing April, the Earl of Sussex demolished Fernieherst, 
which was not rebuilt till 1598. Sir Thomas's fourth 
son was Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, Sir Thomas 
Overhury's murderer ; whilst the eldest son, Andrew, 
was also ennobled as Lord Jedburgh in 1622. The 
third Lord Jedburgh, Ralph Kerr's twelfth descendant, 
died without issue in 1692, when the representation of 
the family in the male line devolved on his second 
cousin once removed, Robert, fourth Earl of Lothian, 
who in 1701 was created Marquis of Lothian. (See 
Newbattle. ) Not the least interesting of Fernieherst's 
many memories is the visit paid to it on 21 Sept. 1803 
by Scott and Wordsworth, whose sister writes : ' Walked 
up to Fernieherst, an old hall in a secluded situation, 
now inhabited by farmers ; the neighbouring ground 
had the wildness of a forest, being ii-regularly scattered 
over with fine old trees. The wind was tossing their 
branches, and sunshine dancing among the leaves, and 
I happened to exclaim, "What a life there is in trees ! " 
on which Mr Scott observed that the words reminded 
him of a young lady who had been born and educated 
on an island of the Orcades, and came to spend a sum- 
mer at Kelso and in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. 
She iised to say that in the new world into which she 
was come nothing had disappointed her so much as 
trees and woods ; she complained that they were life- 
less, silent, and, compared with the grandeur of the 
ever-changing ocean, even insipid. At first I was sur- 
prised, but the next moment I felt that the impression 
was natural. > . . The valley of the Jed is very 
solitary immediately under Fernieherst ; we walked 
down to the river, wading almost up to the knees in 
fern, which in many parts overspread the forest ground. 
It made me think of our walks at Allfoxden, and of 
oitr own park — though at Fernieherst is no park at 


present — and the slim fa^vns that we used to startle 
from tlioir couching-places among the fern at the top of 
the hill. Wo were accompanied on our walk hy a 
yonng man from the Braes of Yarrow, William Laidlaw, 
an acquaintance of Mr Scott's, who, having been much 
delighted with some of William's poems which he had 
chanced to see in a newspaper, had wished to be intro- 
duced to him ; he lived in the most retired part of the 
dale of Yarrow, where he had a farm ; he was fond of 
reading and well informed, but at first meeting as shy 
as any of our Grasmere lads, and not less rustic in his 
appearance.' See pp. 265-267 of Dorothy Wordsworth's 
Towi- in Scotland (ed. by Princ. Shairp, 1874). — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 17, 1861 

Femielea. See Fernilee. 

Femilee, a hamlet on the S border of Galashiels parish, 
Selkirkshire, on the left bank of the river Tweed, near 
Yair Bridge, SJ miles NNW of Selkirk. Fernilee 
mansion here, now a decayed edifice, was the seat of the 
Kutherfords, and in one of its turrets the beautiful Miss 
Alison Rutherford (1712-94), who in 1731 became the 
wife of Patrick Cockburn, advocate, wrote her version 
('I've seen the smiling,' etc.) of the Flowers of tlie 

Fern-Tower, a mansion in Crieff parish, Perthshire, 
on the SE slope of the pine-clad Knock (911 feet), 
2 miles NNE of Crieff town. In 1810 Sir David Baird 
(1757-1829), the hero of Seringapatam, married Miss 
Ann Campbell Preston of Valleyfield and Fern-Tower ; 
and it was at Fern-Tower that he spent his last years 
and died. His widow survived him till 1847 ; and 
now the estate belongs to Lord Abercromby, who holds 
in Stirlingshire 10,407 acres, valued at £6007 per annum. 
See Tom-a-Chastel, Aiethrey, and Tullibody. 

Ferrintosh. See Ferintosh. 

Ferry. See QuEENiiFERRY. 

Ferry bank, an estate, with a mansion, in Cnpar parish, 
Fife, 1 mile SW of the town. 

Ferryden, a fishing village in Craig parish, Forfarshire, 
on the right bank of the South Esk river, 1 mile above 
its mouth, directly opposite Montrose, but 1^ mile 
therefrom hy road. Till the river was bridged, it was 
the ferry-station on the road from Aberdeen, by way of 
Montrose, to the S of Scotland. It conducts a fishery 
so extensive as to employ about 200 men in boats, to 
send off' loads of fish to the markets of Montrose, Brechin, 
Forfar, Dundee, Perth, and other towns, and to supply 
immense quantities to fish-curers in Montrose for the 
markets of the South. It contains a post office under 
Montrose, the Free church of Craig, and two public 
schools. Pop. (1861) 1113, (1871) 1395, (1881) 1520.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Ferry, East and West. See Broughty Ferry. 

Ferryfield, a print-work in BonhUl parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, on the left bank of the river Leven, in 
the vicinity of Bonhill town. 

FerryhiU. See Aberdeen-, p. 9. 

Ferry Hill, a peninsula in Inverkeithing parish, Fife, 
bearing on its point the village of North Queensferry. 
It is connected with the mainland by an isthmus 4i 
furlongs broad, and rises to an altitude of 200 feet above 

Ferry, Little, a ferry (1 furlong broad) on the mutual 
boundary of Dornoch and Golspie parishes, Sutherland, 
across the neck of water between Loch Fleet and the sea, 
4J miles N by E of Dornoch town. An action was 
fought on the N side of it, in 1746, between the 
Jacobites and the militia. 

Ferry, Meikle, a ferry (5^ furlongs broad) on the 
mutual boundary of Ross-shire and Sutherland, across 
a contracted part of the Dornoch Firth, 4 miles NW of 
Tain, and 4| WSW of Dornoch. It formerly was used 
as the chief thoroughfare between the eastern parts of 
the two counties ; but it suffers much obstruction from 
winds and currents ; and the road round by Bonar 
Bridge, though exceedingly circuitous, has long been 
generally preferred. 

Ferry-Port-on-Craig, a town and a parish in the ex- 
treme NE of Fife. Standing on the southern side of 


the entrance of the Firth of Tay, the town by water is 
7 furlongs S of Broughty Ferry and 3J miles E by S of 
Dundee, whilst by rail it is llj miles NNE of Cupar 
and 45J NNE of Edinburgh. It sprang into being and 
took its name from an ancient ferry, whose port was 
dominated by a rock or craig ; and it acquired a great 
and sudden increase of prosperity, from the purchase in 
Sept. 1842 of the right of ferry by the Edinburgh and 
Northern (now the North British) Company, by whom 
the ferry has since been worked in connection with the 
railway. Thenceforth it came to be occasionally known 
as Tayport, a name that has now almost superseded its 
older designation ; and it has, ever since the opening of 
the railway, been a place of important thoroughfare. 
Tayport, besides, is a favourite bathing resort, ■nlth 
many new villas and cottages commanding delightful 
views of the opposite coast ; and employment is fur- 
nished to its toivnspeople by a flax and jute spinning 
mill, 2 linen factories, 2 sawmills, a timber-yard, engine 
works, a bobbin factory, and a shipbuilding yard, as 
also by the valuable salmon fisheries and mussel dredg- 
ing of the Tay. It has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of 
the North of Scotland Bank, 7 insurance agencies, gas- 
works, 3 inns, a new public school, a Young Men's 
Christian Association, a masonic hall, and a temperance 
hall, which last, erected in 1877, measures 60 by 34 
feet, and has accommodation for 500. The parish 
church (1794 ; repaired 1882) is a neat edifice, con- 
taining 850 sittings ; and other places of worship are 
Free and U. P. churches. The railway works include a 
large artificial basin ; an outer mole or breastwork, con- 
structed with great skill and at vast expense, to shelter 
this basin from E and N winds ; an inner breastwork or 
landiug-shp, 600 feet long and 30 high, divided into 
two inclined planes with rails along them, for ready 
conveyance of the carriages to the steamer's deck at all 
states of the tide ; and a quay-wall, 200 feet long, at the 
eastern end of the basin, to facilitate embarkation and 
debarkation in even the most imfavourable circumstances 
of tide and weather. The harbour thus comprises a 
sheltered floating basin, fully 600 feet long and 200 in 
average breadth, with a depth of 28 feet of water at full 
spring tides, and of not less than 8 feet at the lowest 
tides. Steamers ply regularly in direct line to Dundee ; 
so that both the townspeople and railway passengers 
have the option of going either direct to Dundee or 
circuitously by way of Broughty Ferry. Pop. of town 
(1831) 1538, (1861) 1773, (18'71) 2498, (1881) 2630. 

The parish, constituted in 1606, and supposed to have 
previously formed part of Leuchars, is bounded N by 
the Firth of Tay, E by the German Ocean, SE by 
Leuchars, and SW and W by Forgan. Its utmost 
length, from WNW to ESE, is 4| miles ; its utmost 
breadth is 1§ mile ; and its area is 4952 J acres, of 
which 21774 f^'e foreshore. The coast to the E of the 
town is flat and for the most part sandy, including 
nearly all this large expanse of foreshore, but westward 
of the town it is rocky and irregular, and inland the 
surface rises rapidly to 129 feet at Spearshill, and to 300 
at Waterloo Towers and Scotscraig Law. The rocks are 
chiefly eruptive, and include considerable quantities of 
beautiful spar. In part of the parish the soil, though 
light and variable, is kindly and fertile ; and upon 
Scotscraig Mains there are a few fields of very superior 
land, the rental of the entire farm, which extends over 
502 acres, having risen from £977 in 1864 to £1210 in 
1876. Two lighthouses, to E and W of the village, 
serve, with those on the Forfar shore of the firth, to 
guide the navigation of the Tay. An old building, now- 
represented by scanty vestiges, and usually called the 
Castle, seems to have been erected subsequent to the 
invention of gunpowder, and was probably designed to 
act, in concert with Broughty Castle, for defence of the 
entrance of the firth. Scotscraig is the chief mansion, 
and Maitland Dougall is a principal proprietor, 3 others 
holding each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 1 
of between £100 and £500, 6 of from £50 to £100, and 
28 of from £20 to £50. This parish is in the presbj^ery 



of St Andrews and synod of Fife ; the living is worth 
£279. The public school, with accommodation for 676 
children, had (1880) an average attendance of 348, and 
a grant of £286, 9s. 6d. Valuation (1866) £5972, 
12s. 9d., (1882) £10,163, 14s. Sd. Pop. (1801) 920, 
(1841) 1714, (1861) 2013, (1871) 2674, (1881) 2818.— 
Ord. Sur., sli. 49, 1865. 

Ferrytown-of-Cree. See Creetown. 

Feshie, a rapid stream of Alvie parish, SE Inverness- 
shire, rising among the Grampian Mountains at an 
altitude of 2750 feet, and 5J miles W by N of the 
meeting-point of Aberdeenshire, Inverness-shire, and 
Perthshire. Thence it winds 23 mUes northward, mostly 
along the Kingussie border, till, nearly opposite Kiucraig 
station, it falls into the river Spey, after a total descent 
of fully 2000 feet. Quite early in its course the Feshie 
approaches within J mile of Geldie Burn, a rise of barely 
50 feet here parting the basins of the Spey and the Dee. 
It was by this route, up Glen Geldie and down Glen 
Feshie, that the Queen and the Prince Consort rode from 
Deeside to Strathspey on 4 Sept. 1864. (See Alvie.) 
In the great flood of Aug. 1829 the Feshie did enormous 
damage, and rose at the romantic old bridge of Inver- 
eshie to a height of 25 feet above its ordinary level. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 64, 74, 1874-77. See chap. xii. of Sir 
Thomas Dick Lauder's Moray Floods (3d ed. 1873). 

Feshie-Bridge, a hamlet in Kingussie parish, Inver- 
ness-shire, on the left bank of the Feshie, 1 J mile above 
its mouth, and 2J miles SE of Kincraig station. It has 
a post ofBce under Kingussie. 

Fetheray. See Fiddkie. 

Fetlar, an island and a civil parish in the N of Shet- 
land. The island lies 3 miles E of Yell, 4 S of Unst, 
and 33 N by E of Lerwick, under which it has a post 
office. Its greatest length, from NW to SE, is 6J miles ; 
its greatest breadth is 2| miles ; and its area is estimated 
at 5500 acres. The outline is rendered so irregular by 
numerous headlands and sea inlets as to give a large 
extent of sea coast. The principal bays or sea inlets are 
Tresta, with a sandy beach ; Aith, with a pebbly beach ; 
Funzie, used as a ling fishing station ; Gruting, with a 
pebbly beach ; Urie, with a rude pier ; Sand, of small 
extent and sandy ; and Mowick, used for the transport- 
ing of peats from an inland hill by sea to the other bays 
of the island. The interior comprises several hills and 
vales, but nowhere exceeds 521 feet above sea-level. The 
rocks comprise gneiss, syenite, granite, cjuartzite, syen- 
itic greenstone, mica slate, chlorite slate, clay slate, 
serpentine, and diallage rock. Bog iron ore, of a very 
rich quality, occurs in peat moss ; chromate of iron is 
found in the serpentine rock ; and some veins of copper 
ore have been found. About 1200 acres are under 
cultivation, and have, for the most part, a tolerably 
fertile soil of sand and loam. Not a tree or shrub is 
anywhere to be seen. Brough Lodge is the principal 
residence. Pop. (1831) 843, (1S61) 548, (1871) 517, 
(1881) 431. 

The parish, including also the northern part of Yell 
island, and bearing the name of Fetlar and North Yell, 
has a total area of 26,659 acres. The Yell portion of it 
is much more rugged than Fetlar, but will be described 
in our article on Yell. The Earl of Zetland is chief 
proprietor, but 2 others hold each an annual value of 
between £100 and £500, 4 of from £50 to £100, and 2 
of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Burravoe and 
sjTiod of Shetland, Fetlar forms one quoad sacra parish 
and North Yell another, the former a living worth £222. 
Its church, rebuilt in 1790, contains 267 sittings. There 
is also a Free church of Fetlar ; and 3 public schools — 
Fetlar, Braeside, and Sellafirth — \rith respective accom- 
modation for 70, 30, and 54 children, had (1880) an 
average attendance of 43, 43, and 12, and grants of 
£45, 2s., £42, 5s., and £17. Valuation (1881) £1877, 
lis. 3d. Pop. ((1793) 1346, (1831) 1680, (1861) 1480, 
(1871) 1410, (1881) 1252. 

Fetterangus, a village in the Banffshire (detached) 

section of Old Deer parish, 5 furlongs from the right 

bank of N Ugie AVater, and 2 miles NNW of Mintlaw, 

under which it has a post office. Here is a girls' 



endowed school. Pop. (1881) 345, (1871) 362, (1881) 

Fettercaim (10th century FotherJcern), a village and 
a parish of SW Kincardineshire. A burgh of barony, 
the village stands, 220 feet above sea-level, at the con- 
fluence of Crichie and Balnakettle Burns, lOf miles 
NNE of Brechin, 12 NNW of Montrose, and 4} WNW 
of Laurencekirk, under which there is a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph 
departments. It has, besides, a branch of the North of 
Scotland Bank, a national security savings' bank, 3 
insurance agencies, an inn, gas-works, a public hall, a 
library, quoit, cricket, and curling clubs, a farmers' 
club, a distillery, and cattle and hiring fairs on the days 
before Whitsunday and Martinmas. At the W end of 
the bridge a graceful triumphal arch has been erected to 
commemorate the royal visit of 20 Sept. 1861, a visit 
thus described in the Queen's Journal : ' At a Cjuarter- 
past seven o'clock we reached the small quiet town, or 
rather village, of Fettercaim, for it was very small — not 
a creature stirring, and we got out at the quiet little 
inn, "Ramsay Arms," quite unobserved, and went at 
once upstairs. There was a very nice drawing-room, 
and, next to it, a dining-room, both very clean and 
tidy — ^then to the left our bed-room, which was exces- 
sively small, but also very clean and neat, and much 
better than at Grantown. Alice had a nice room, tie 
same size as ours ; then came a mere morsel of one (with 
a "press-bed"), in which Albert dressed; and then 
came Lady ChurchUl's bedroom just beyond. Louis 
[Prince Louis of Hesse] and General Grey had rooms in 
an hotel, called "The Temperance Hotel," opposite. 
We dined at eight, a very nice, clean, good dinner. 
Grant and Brown waited. They were rather nervous, 
but General Grey and Lady Churchill carved, and they 
had only to change the plates, which Brown soon got 
into the way of doing. A little girl of the house came 
in to help — but Grant turned her round to prevent her 
looking at us ! The landlord and landlady knew who 
we were, but no one else except the coachman, and they 
kept the secret admii'ably. The evening being bright 
and moonlight and very still, we all went out, and 
walked through the whole village, where not a creature 
moved ; through the principal little square, in the 
middle of which was a sort of pillar or Town Cross on 
steps, and Louis read by the light of the moon a pro- 
clamation for the collections of charities which was 
stuck on it. We walked on along a lane a short way, 
hearing nothing whatever — not a leaf moving — but the 
distant barking of a dog ! Suddenly we heard a drum 
and fifes ! We were greatly alarmed, fearing we had 
been recognised ; but Louis and General Grey, who 
went back, saw nothing whatever. Still, as we walked 
slowly back, we heard the noise from time to time, and 
when we reached the inn door we stopped, and saw six 
men march up with fifes and a drum (not a creature 
taking any notice of them), go down the street, and 
back again. Grant and Brown were out, but had no 
idea what it could be. Albert asked the little maid, 
and the answer was, "It's just a band," and that it 
walked about in this way twice a week. How odd ! 
It went on playing some time after we got home. We 
sat till half-past ten working, and then retired to rest. 
— (Saturday, Sept. 21. ) Got to sleep after two or three 
o'clock. The morning was dull and close, and misty 
with a little rain ; hardly any one stirring ; but a few 
people at their work. A traveller had arrived at night, 
and wanted to come up into the dining-room, which 
is the "commercial travellers' room;" and they had 
difficulty in telling him he could not stop there. He 
joined Grant and Brown at their tea, and on his asking 
"What's the matter here?" Grant answered, "It's a 
wedding party from Aberdeen." At "The Temperance 
Hotel " they were very anxious to know whom they had 
got. All, except General Grey, breakfasted a little 
before nine. Brown acted as my servant, brushing my 
skirt and boots, and taking any message, and Grant as 
Albert's valet. At a quarter to ten we started the same 
way as before, except that we were in the carriage which 


lady Clnwchill and the General had j'esterday. It was 
■unfortunately misty, we could see no distance. The 
people had just discovered who we were, and a few 
cheered us as we went along.' The cross referred to 
iere ^o an octagonal shaft, rising from a circular stepped 
ba?^ment, and was originally erected at the extinct 
tjwn of Kincardine by John, fii-st Karl of Middleton. 
It bears his arms and initials, with the Scottish lion 
and the date 1670. In the centre of the village there is 
also a drinking fountain, a memorial to Sir John H. 
Stuart Forbes (1804-66). Pop. of village (1841) 280, 
(1861) 339, (1871) 391, (1881) 398. 

The parish is bounded NW by Strachan, NE and E 
by Fordoun, SE by Marykirk, S by Stracathro in For- 
farshire, and W by Edzell, also in Forfarshire. Its 
utmost length, from N to S, is 8| miles ; its breadth, 
from E to W, varies between 4J furlongs and 4g miles ; 
and its area is 13,803J acres, of which 75 are water. The 
iNorth EsK flows 4| miles south-south-eastward along 
the Edzell boundary, and for IJ furlong touches the 
parish again at its south-eastern corner ; 1 mile N of 
Edzell village, it is spanned by the romantic Bridge of 
Gannochy, which, built in 1732 and widened in 1796, 
is founded on two stupendous rocks, and rises to great 
height above the river's bed. Black Burn, the Esk's 
immediate tributary, drains the level and low-lying 
southern interior, which forms a portion of the Howe of 
Mearns. The Burn of Garrol, rising on the southern 
acclivity of Hound Hillock, runs 5J miles south-east- 
ward and south-by-eastward, mainly along the north- 
eastern and eastern border, till, at a point 5 fui'longs 
SE of the village, it is joined by the confluent Crichie 
■and Balnakettle Bm'ns ; as Duurie Burn the united 
stream winds 1§ mile onward along the eastern border, 
then passes off into Marykirk on its way to Luther 
Water, and so ultimately to the North Esk. In the 
furthest SE the surface declines to 115 feet above sea- 
level, thence rising northwards gently to 194 feet near 
Arnhall and 200 at Bogmuir, more rapidly to 428 near 
West Woodtown, 1035 near Garrol Wood, and 1698 at 
heath-clad Hound Hillock, close to the northernmost 
point of the parish. The rocks are partly eruptive, 
partly Devonian, including granite, quartzite, mica 
slate, greenstone, red sandstone, limestone, etc., which, 
in a section along the North Esk, are seen in every 
kind of irregular stratification. Very fine porcelain clay 
occurs on the banks of Balnakettle Burn ; and at Balna- 
kettle bog iron ore has been found of the latest forma- 
tion. Rather more than half of the entire area is in 
tillage, nearly one-seventh is under wood, and the rest 
is either pastoral or waste. The soil is deep, strong, 
rich loam around the village, but in other parts of the 
parish not a little of the land consists of moderate black 
loam or stifSsh clay. Great improvements, described in 
Trans. Eighl. and Ag. Soc, (1881, pp. 113-115), have 
been carried out within the last thirty years on the 
lands of Fasque, The Burn, Balmain, and Fettercairn, 
the first two of which estates have been noticed sepa- 
rately. That of Fettercairn or Middleton was held for 
upwards of five centuries by the Middleton family, of 
whom General Middleton (1610-73) was at the Restora- 
tion created Earl of Middleton and Lord Clermont and 
Fettercairn. Forfeited by his son, the second and last 
earl, the estate was purchased in 1777 by Sir John 
Wishart Belsches or Stuart, Bart., and through his 
daughter's marriage (1797) passed to Sir William Forbes, 
Bart, of PiTSLiGO. His grand-daughter, Harriet Willia- 
mina (d. 1869), in 1858 married Charles Trefusis, twen- 
tieth Baron Clinton of Mastock since 1299 (b. 1834 ; 
sue. 1866) ; and their son, Charles John Robert (b. 
1863), now holds in Kincardineshire 5007 acres, 
valued at £4057 per annum. Fettercairn House, a 
little N by E of the village, was built in 1666 by the 
first Earl of Middleton, and enlarged in 1829 by Sir 
John Stuart-Forbes, and again by Lord Clinton in 1877. 
Balbegno and Fenella Castle, the chief antiquities, have 
separate articles. Fettercairn is in the presbytery of 
Fordoun and synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is 
worth £356. The parish church, at the village, was 


built in 1804, and contains 800 sittings. There are also 
a Free church and Fasque Episcopal church, St Andrew's ; 
and three schools — Fettercairn public. Inch public, and 
Fasque — with respective accommodation for 180, 120, 
and 78 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 
114, 49, and 66, and grants of £89, 18s., £35, 
19s., and £54, 2s. Valuation (1856) £9412, (1882) 
£12,057, 6s. Pop. (1801) 1794, (1841) 1791, (1861) 
1700, (1871) 1539, (1881) 1503.— Ord. Sur., shs. 66, 67, 

Fetteresso (10th century Fodresach), a hamlet and a 
coast parish of Kincardineshire. The hamlet lies on the 
left bank of Carron Water, IJ mile W of Stonehaven. 
The parish contains also all the New Town or northern 
part of Stonehaven, the post office village of Muohalls, 
the fishing- villages of Cowie, Stranathro, and Skateraw, 
and the stations of Stonehaven, Muchalls, and Newton- 
hill. It is bounded N by Maryculter and Banchory- 
Devenick, E by the German Ocean, S by Dunnottar, W 
by Glenbervie, and NW by Dm-ris. Its utmost length, 
from E to W is 7^ miles ; its breadth, from N to S, 
varies between 5 and 7 J miles ; and its area is 27,529 
acres, of which 223^ are foreshore, and 61 water. 
Carron Water rims 6| miles eastward, mainly along 
the southern boundary to the sea at Stonehaven, 
uniting just above its mouth with Cowie Water, which 
here winds 7j miles east-south-eastward, for the first 
^ mile along the Glenbervie border, and then through 
the southern interior. The central and northern 
districts are drained by Muchalls Burn and the Burn of 
Elsick, running to the sea, and by Crynoch Burn, flow- 
ing east-north-eastward and northward, past Netherley 
House, till it passes into Maryculter on its way to the 
river Dee. The coast is bold and rocky, niched and 
van dyked by a score of small bays and headlands (the 
chief of these Garron Point), and rising rapidly to 100 
feet and more above sea-level. Inland the surface is 
irregular, though nowhere mountainous, the chief eleva- 
tions to the S of Cowie Water being Cheyne Hill (552 
feet), the HUl of Swanley (700), Elf Hill (715), and the 
Hill of Trusta (1051), whilst to the N of it rise Kemp- 
stone Hill (432), White Hill (495), Curlethney Hill 
(806), Meikle Carewe Hill (872), the Hill of Pitspunkie 
(666), Craigneil (886), and, on the northern border, 
Berry Too (558). The landscape presents a striking 
contrast of picturesqueness and the most utter bleak- 
ness. The vales of the Carron and the Come, and 
spots on the seaboard, are very lovely ; but other dis- 
tricts are comparatively tame. Gneiss and Old Red 
sandstone are the prevailing rocks ; but granite, por- 
phyry, and chloride slate occur as well. Near Stone- 
haven the soil is mostly sharp friable loam, but in the 
more inland and higher parts it is an inferior clayey or 
moorish loam. Various improvements in the way of 
draining and building have been carried out since 1855, 
and considerable reclamations effected within this 
century. The latest, about 1860, was the dividing of 
the commonty of Cowie, 2000 acres or thereby, among 
the proprietors interested, who then let it out in small 
lots to tenants on improving leases. About 2000 acres 
are imder wood. Ancient Caledonian remains were 
formerly more numerous than now ; but Eaedyke Camp, 
Caledonian, not Roman, one of the many sites of the 
Battle of the Grampians, is still almost entire, occupy- 
ing a space of 71 acres on a hill 4 miles NW of Stone- 
haven. Another camp, more evidently Roman, was 
formerly on ground contiguous to Stonehaven. Numer- 
ous tumuli, most of them small, but some of them very 
large, are on Kempstone Hill, 2J miles N of the town, 
and are supposed to be sepulchral monuments, raised on 
a battlefield. Remains of a small old castle and of St 
Mary's pre-Reformation chapel, are on the coast at 
Cowie. Malcolm's Mount, 1 mile W of Stonehaven, 
takes its name from Malcolm I., King of Alban (942-54), 
who, according to the Ulster Annals, was slain here by 
the men of Mearns, though later chronicles remove his 
death further N — to Ulurn in Moray. Fetteresso 
Castle, near the left bank of Cowie Water, 2 miles W 
by S of Stonehaven, stands in a park adorned with 



many venerable trees. A seat once of the great Earls 
Marisehal, it was partly rebuilt and greatly extended 
about 1830 by Colonel Dutf, whose grandson, Robert 
WiUiam Duff, Esq., M.P. (b. 1835; sue. 1861), holds 
8722 acres in Kincardineshire, valued at £4536 per 
annum. (See Cultek, Aberdeenshire, and Glassafgh. ) 
Other mansions, separately noticed, are Cowie, Elsick, 
Muchalls, Netherley, Newtonhill, Rickarton, and Ury ; 
and, in all, 9 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 10 of between £100 and £500, 17 of 
from £50 to £100, and 47 of from £20 to £50. In the 
presbytery of Fordoun and synod of Angus and Mearns, 
this parish is ecclesiastically divided into Fetteresso 
proper, Cookney (formed 1859), and Rickarton (1872), 
the first a living worth £473. The plain but very 
ancient church, St Caran's, at Fetteresso hamlet, is 
still represented by its walls or shell, and by its large 
kirkyard, one of Stonehaven's three cemeteries. The 
present parish church, near the town, was built in 1810, 
and, as enlarged and greatly improved (1876-78) at a 
cost of £3000, contains 1300 sittings, and possesses a 
fine organ. Other places of worship are noticed under 
Stonehaven, Cookney, Rickarton, and Muchalls. The 
eight schools of Cairnliill, Cookney, Muchalls, Nether- 
ley, Rickarton, Stonehaven, Tewel, and Newtonhill — 
the last Episcopalian, the others all public — with total 
accommodation for 964 children, had (1881) an average 
attendance of 667, and grants amounting to £539, 
18s. Valuation (1856) £21,147; (1883) £32,730, 12s., 
2Jhcs £4346 for railway. Pop. (1801) 3687, (1831) 5109, 
(1861) 5527, (1871) 5665, (1881) 5541, of whom 3565 were 
in Fetteresso registration district, and 3102 in Fetteresso 
ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Siti:, shs. 67, 66, 1871. 

Fettemear, an ancient chapelry and an estate in the 
S of Chapel of Garioch parish, Aberdeenshire, near the 
left bank of the Don, 1 mile NNW of Kemnay station. 
The chapelry was constituted in 1109 ; its original church 
was built in the same year ; and ruins of that church or of 
a successor of it, together with its cemetery, still exist. 
The estate belonged to the bishops of Aberdeen, and, 
conveyed by the last Roman Catholic bishop to the 
Leslies of Balquhain, is held now by Charles Stephen 
Leslie, Esq. (b. 1832 ; sue. 1870), who omis 8940 acres 
in the shire, valued at £7388 per annum. Its mansion 
was originally a summer lodging of the bishops when 
surveying the canons and priests of the chapelry church, 
and is now a handsome and commodious modern resi- 
dence. A Roman Catholic church, St John's, was 
founded near the site of the ancient church in 1859, 
but not opened till 1869, and consists of nave, chancel, 
porch, and belfry, all built of granite, with sandstone 
dressings. — Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Feuchan. See Feachan. 

Feugh, Water of, a stream of Aberdeen and Kincardine 
shires, rising, at an altitude of 1800 feet above sea-level, 
in the S of Birse parish, close to the Forfarshire border, 
3 miles AVNW of Mount Battock. Thence it winds 19J 
mUes east-north-eastward either through or along the 
borders of Birse, Strachan, and Banchory-Ternan, till it 
falls into the Dee opposite Banchory village, after a 
total descent of 1640 feet. Its lowest reach is spanned 
by the Bridge of Feugh, and includes a romantic water- 
fall ; its principal affluents are the Aan and the Dye, 
both separately noticed ; and it is a capital trouting 
stream, containing also salmon in its lower waters. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 66, 1871. 

Fewin or Fionn, a loch on the mutual border of Assynt 
parish, SW Sutherland, and the Coigach section of 
Cromartyshire, 3^ miles SE of Lochinver. The lower- 
most of a chain of lakes in the basin of the river Kiekaig, 
and lying 357 feet above sea-level, it has an utmost 
length and width of 2J miles and 3 furlongs, and teems 
with beautiful trout, ranging between J lb. and 10 lbs. 
—Ord. Swr., sh. 101, 1882. 

Fiag or Fiodhaig, a rivulet in Lairg parish, Suther- 
land, issuing from Loch Fiodhaig (IJ mile x 5J furl. ; 
650 feet), and running 5| miles southward to Loch Shin 
(270 feet), at a point 5J miles ESE of that lake's head. 
It traverses a glen called from it Glen Fiodhaig, and 


abounds in capital trout, with a few salmon. — Ord. Sur. , 
sh. 108, 1880. 

Fiddioh, a small river of Banff"shire, rising in the S of 
Mortlach parish, on the NE slope of Corryhabbie Hill, 
at an altitude of 2300 feet, and 4J miles SSE of Ben 
Rinues. Thence it winds 18| miles north -north -eastward 
and north-westward, tUl, after a total descent of nearly 
2000 feet, it falls into the river Spey at CraigeUachie 
Junction. It is a capital trout and salmon stream ; and 
its basin is partly an upland glen, partly a beautiful 
vale, bearing the name of Glenfiddich or Fiddichside, 
and is proverbially notable in its lower reaches for 
fertility. DuUan "Water is its principal affluent ; it 
traverses or bounds the parishes of Mortlach, Boharm, 
and Aberlour ; and it flows by Auchindoun, Duiftown, 
and Balvenie, all three of which are noticed separately. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 75, 85, 1876. 

Fidra or Fetheray, a rocky basaltic islet of Dirleton 
parish, Haddingtonshire, 3 furlongs from the coast, and 
2| mOes WNW of North Berwick. It has ruins of a 
small old chapel. 

Fife or Fifeshire, a maritime county on the E side of 
Scotland. It is bounded on the N by the Firth of Tay, 
on the E by the German Ocean, on the S by the Firth 
of Forth, and on the W by Perth, Clackmannan, 
and Kinross shires. Its greatest length, from Fife Ness 
west-south-westward to Torry, is 41J miles ; its greatest 
breadth in the opposite direction, from Newburgh on the 
Tay to Burntisland on the Firth of Forth, is 21 miles ; 
and its area is 513 square miles or 328,427 acres, of 
which 12,338i are foreshore and 1082 water. The 
western boundary, 61 miles long if one follows its ins 
and outs, is marked here and there, from S to N, by 
Comrie Burn, Loch Glow, Lochornie Burn, Benarty 
Hill, and the rivers Leven and Farg, but mostly is arti- 
ficial. The northern coast, which has little curvature, 
trends mostly in an east-north-easterly direction, and 
measures 20f miles in length ; the eastern is deeply 
indented by St Andrews Bay or the estuary of the 
Eden, and in its southern part forms a triangular 
peninsula, terminating in Fife Ness, on the N of the 
entrance to the Firth of Forth. The coast measures in 
a straight line from Tents Moor Point to Fife Ness 14J 
miles, but along its curvatures 24 miles. The southern 
coast, 55 miles long, from Fife Ness to North Queensferry 
runs generally in a south-westerly direction, and from 
North Queensferry to the western boundary takes a west- 
north-westerly turn. The shore-line projects slightly at 
Elie Ness, Kinghorn Ness, and North Queensferry, and 
has considerable bays at Largo and Inverkeithing. It 
ofi'ers a pleasing variety of beach and shore, partly 
rocky and partly sandy, but generally low and gentle. 
The sea has, from time to time, made great encroach- 
ments on the shores of Fife, at IJurntisland, Kirkcaldy, 
Dysart, Grail, St Andrews, and other places, eating away 
fields, gardens, fences, piers, and even dwelling-houses. 

Fife, for its size, has a smaller fresh-water area than 
has any other Scotch count}', smaller indeed than have 
several Highland parishes. The only streams of any 
consequence are the Eden, winding 29J miles east- 
north-eastward to St Andrews Bay ; the Leven, flowing 
16J miles eastward (the first 1| in Kinross-shire) out of 
Loch Leven to Largo Bay ; and the Orr, creeping 
17 miles east-by-northward to the Leven a little above 
Cameron Bridge. The lakes, too, all are small — 
Kilconquhar Loch (4x3 furl.), in the SE ; Kinghorn 
Loch (IfxlJ furl.), Camilla Loch (2x1 furl.). Loch 
Gelly (5|- x 3^ furl. ), Loch Fifty (8x2 furl. ), and Loch 
Glow (6 X 3 J furl. ), in the S and SW ; and Lindores 
Loch (6|x3 furl.), in the NW. And the surface, 
though mostly undulating or hilly, is nowhere moun- 
tainous, the principal heights being Lucklaw Hill (626 
feet), in the NE ; Kellie Law (500) and Largo Law 
(965), in the SE ; Burntisland Bin (632) and Dunearn 
Hill (671), in the S ; East Lomond (1471) and West 
Lomond (1713), near the middle of the W border ; 
Benarty Hill (1167), Knock Hill (1189), and Saline Hill 
(1178), in the SW ; and Green Hill (608), Black Craig 
(665), Norman's Law (850), and Lumbenny Hill 

Brilisk ^Blcs. 


• f > 



in the NW. So tliat Mr Hutchison is fully justified in 
saying that ' the physical aspect of Fife possesses 
nothing specially remarkable, and, compared ■with por- 
tions of the contiguous counties, may be described as 
rather tame. Geologically, it consists of one or two 
extensive open valleys and some smaller ones, vnth the 
alternating high lands, and then a gradual slope all 
round the coast towards the sea. Lofty mountains 
there are none ; only hills, of which the principal are 
AVilkie's "ain blue Lomonds," Largo Law, and Nor- 
man's Law. The Eden and the Leven, with some 
tributary streams, are the only rivers in the interior ; 
but the absence of any imposing volume of water inland 
is amply atoned for by the two noble estuaries of the 
Forth and the Tay, which, with the German Ocean, 
surround three-fourths of the county. Fife, as a whole, 
although the surface is nowhere flat, but pleasantly 
undulating all over, except, perhaps, in what is called 
the " Howe of Fife," is lacking in both the picturesque 
and the sublime, and it has never been regarded as a 
hunting-field for tourists. Its grand attractive feature, 
however, in the way of scenery, is the sea-coast. "He," 
says Defoe, " that will view the county of Fife, must go 
round the coast;" and Mr Billings remai-ks that "a 
ramble amongst the grey old towns which skirt the 
ancient Kingdom of Fife might well repay the archi- 
tectural or archaeological investigator." We might add 
that the tourist who was daring enough to abjure 
Schieliallion and Loch Maree for a season, and " do " 
the coast of Fife instead, would be equally surprised 
and delighted with his vacation trip ; a seaboard which 
is begirt with a score or more of towns and townlets, 
nearly as many ruined castles, several islands, and bays 
and creeks and picturesque projections innumerable. ' 

Geology. — The oldest rocks in the county belong to 
the volcanic series of the Lower Old Red Sandstone. 
The members of this series, consisting of a great succes- 
sion of lavas and tuffs, can be traced from the Ochils 
where they are folded into a broad anticline NE by the 
Sidlaws to Dunnottar in Kincardineshire. The high 
grounds bounding the Howe of Fife on the N side are 
composed of these igneous materials, indeed they cover 
the whole area between Damhead and Tayjiort. They 
are inclined to the SSE at gentle angles, so that we 
have only the southern portion of the anticlinal arch 
represented in the county. Lithologically these ancient 
lavas are composed of red and purple porphyrites, 
which, at certain localities, are associated with ex- 
tremely coarse agglomerates. In the neighbourhood of 
Auchtermuchty, and even to the E of that locality, 
the agglomerates present appearances indicating partial 
rearrangement by water ; indeed in some places they 
are indistinguishable from conglomerates formed by 
aqueous action. When we come to describe the pro- 
longations of these rocks in Forfarshii-e and Kincardine- 
shire it will be seen that the volcanic accumulations, 
which, in Perthshire and Fifeshire, have hardly any 
intercalations of sedimentary material, are associated in 
the former counties with conglomerates, sandstones, and 
shales, till at Dunnottar they are represented by a few 
thin sheets of porphyrite. It is probable, therefore, that 
the partially waterworn agglomerates at Auchtermuchty 
are indications of the change of physical conditions. 
On the slope overlooking the Tay, near the vUlage of 
Balmerino, some thin beds of sandstone and shales are 
intercalated with the porphyrites which have yielded 
remains of fishes similar to those obtained in the For- 
farshire flagstones. 

A long interval must have elapsed between the close 
of the Lower and the beginning of the Upper Old Red 
Sandstone periods, which is indicated by a strong un- 
conformity between the two series. This vast interval 
was characterised by certain sti-iking physical changes 
which may be briefly summarised. Between the OchUs 
and the flanks of the Grampians a great succession of 
sedimentary deposits, nearly 10,000 feet in thickness, 
rests conformably on the volcanic series, which originally 
extended far to the S of their present limits. Indeed 
they must have completely buried the volcanic accumu- 


lations, though not necessarily to the extent indicated 
by their thickness N of the Ochils. The Grampian 
chain formed the northern margin of the inland sea in 
which these deposits were laid down, and the sediment 
may have decreased in thickness in proportion to the 
distance from the old land surface. At any rate, during 
the interval referred to, the volcanic rocks and overlying 
sedimentary deposits were folded into a great anticlinal 
arch, the latter were removed by denudation from the 
top of the anticline, and the volcanic series was exposed 
to the action of atmospheric agencies. Further, the 
great igneous plateau, during its elevation above the 
sea-level, must have been carved into hills and valleys 
ere the deposition of the Upper Old Red Sandstone. 

The members of the latter series are traceable from 
Loch Leven through the Howe of Fife by Cupar to the 
sea coast. Along this tract they rest unconformably on 
the volcanic rocks just described, and they pass con- 
formably below the Cementstone series of the Carboni- 
ferous system. They consist of honeycombed red and 
yellow sandstones which become conglomeratic towards 
the local base, the pebbles being derived from the under- 
lying rocks. On the W side of the Lomonds they dip 
to the E, while in the neighbourhood of Sti'athmiglo, 
where their thickness must be about 1000 feet, they are 
inclined to the SSE. This series has become famous 
for the well-preserved fishes obtained in the yellow sand- 
stones of Dura Den, comprising Phanero2}Uuron Ander- 
soni, Pterichthys hydropJiilus, GlyiAolaemus Kinnairdi, 
Glyptopomiis minor, Holoptychius Andersoni. The last 
form seems to have been fossilised in shoals. Eoloptychius 
iiohilissimus and Pterichthys major are found in the 
underlying red sandstones. 

The Upper Old Red Sandstone is succeeded by the 
various divisions of the Carboniferous system which are 
well represented in the county. The succession may be 
readily understood from the following table of the strata 
given in descending order : — 

{ Red sandstones. 
Coal Measures. \ Sandstones, shales, ^ith several 
j workable coal seams and iron- 
( stones. 


Millstone Grit. 

( Coarse sandstone and con- 
( glomerate. 

i Upper Limestone series. 
Middle series with coals and 
ironstones but containinff no 
Lower Limestone series. 

'Cementstone series comprising 
blacls and blue shales with 
marine zones, limestones, sand- 
Calciferous J stones with thin seams and 
Sandstones. ] streaks of coal passing: con- 
formably dowiiwards into red 
and yellow sandstones (Upper 
(^ 1^ Old Red Sandstone). 

The Cementstone series occupies several detached areas, 
and presents two distinct types. Along the coimty 
boundary between Fife and Kinross there is a small 
outlier on the N slopes of the Cleish Hills representing 
the W type. There the strata consist of blue clays and 
sandstones with cementstone bands and nodules. The 
members of this series, of a tj^pe approaching that to 
the S of St Andrews, crop out also on the W and N 
slopes of the Lomonds, and they extend E by Cults 
and Ceres to the coast. By far the most important 
development of this series, however, occurs in the 
triangular area between Elie and St Andrews and round 
the shore by Fife Ness. The essential feature of the 
group is the occurrence of a great thickness of shales 
with marine bands characterised chiefly by Myalina 
•modioliformis and Schizodus Salteri. These shales alter- 
nate with sandstones and limestones, the latter being 
charged with ti'ue Carboniferous Limestone forms. About 
midway between St Monans and Pitteuweem on the 
coast, the members of this series pass conformably 
below the basement beds of the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone with an inclination to the W, and from this 
point E to Anstruther there is a steady descending 



series for 2 miles. Upwards of 3900 feet of strata are 
exposed in this section, and yet the underlying red 
sandstones are not brought to the surface. At Anstruther 
the beds roll over to the E, and the same strata are re- 
peated by gentle undulations as far as Fife Ness. It is 
probable, therefore, that the beds at Anstruther are the 
oldest of the Cementstone series now exposed at the sur- 
face between Elie and St Andrews. From the valuable 
researches of Mr Kirkby, it appears that aU the fossils, 
save Sanguinolitcs Abdensis, which are found in the 
marine bands near the top of the series at Pittenweem, 
occur also in the Carboniferous Limestone. Not until 
nearly 3000 feet of strata have been passed over, do we 
find forms that are peculiar to this horizon, some of 
which are given in the following list : — Littorina 
scotoburdigalensis, Cypricardia bicosta, Myalina modioli- 
formis, Sanguinolites Abdensis, Schizodus Salteri, Bairdia 
nitida, Cythere siiperba, Kirkbya sjnralis. Another dis- 
tinguishing feature of this type of the Cementstone series 
is the presence of numerous cases of ostracod crustaceans, 
of which the most abundant form is Lcjjcrditia Okeni 
var. Scotoburdigalensis. Numerous thin seams and 
streaks of coal, varying from a few inches to 2 feet in 
thickness, are exposed in this coast section. They rest 
on fii'eclays which are charged with stigmarian rootlets. 

The Cementstone group is likewise met with in the 
neighbourhood of Burntisland, an area which is invested 
rath special importance on account of the great develop- 
ment of volcanic rocks to be described presently. In 
this district they occupy a semicircular area extending 
from Inverkeithing Bay to near Kirkcaldy. A line 
drawn from Donibristle N by Camilla Loch near Auchter- 
tool, thence winding round Raith Park and S to the 
sea-shore at Seafield Tower, marks the rim of the semi- 
circle. Along this line they pass conformably below 
the basement beds of the Carboniferous Limestone. The 
sedimentary strata with the interbedded volcanic rocks 
are folded into an anticlinal arch, the lowest beds being 
exposed near Burntisland where they are inclined to the 
N and NNW. From the presence of marine zones in 
the Calciferous Sandstones of this area, it is evident 
that the Burntisland district forms a connecting link be- 
tween the types represented in Midlothian and between 
Pittenweem and St Andrews. The Grange limestone 
at Burntisland is regarded as the equivalent of the 
Burdiehouse Limestone to the S of Edinburgh. 

In the "W of Fife the members of the Carboniferous 
Limestone lap round the anticlinal arch of the 
Cementstone series at Burntisland, and they cc^ver the 
whole of the area between that arch and the Cleish 
Hills. To the E and W they pass below the Dysart 
and Kinglassie coal-fields respectively, reappearing to the 
N in the Lomond HUls, and being traceable from thence 
into East Fife as far as Westfleld and Eadernie. As in 
other districts in Scotland this series is divisible into 
three groups, described in the foregoing table. The 
limestones of the lowest group occur at Roscobie, Dun- 
fermline, Potmetal, and on the Lomond HOls. The 
middle division consists of a succession of sandstones 
and shales with coals and ironstones, comprising the 
Torryburn, Oakley, Saline, Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy, 
and Markinch coal-fields. Indeed, this group forms the 
chief source of the gas coals and blackband ironstones 
of Fife. The limestones of the upper group are com- 
paratively insignificant. They crop out on the coast E 
of Pathhead, where they pass below the Millstone Grit. 

The latter series, consisting of coarse sandstone and 
conglomerate, forms a narrow border round the Dysart 
coal-field on the W and the Kinglassie coal-field on the 
S. It is well exposed on the shore to the E of Path- 
head, where it is rapidly succeeded by the true Coal- 
measures. The latter are best developed in the Dysart 
and Leven coal-fields, though a small area is also met 
■with at Kinglassie. This series consists of sandstones, 
shales, numerous workable coal seams, clayband iron- 
stones, and an overlyins group of red sandstones. In 
the Dysart and East Wemyss coal-field there are no 
fewer than fourteen seams of coal which are inclined to 
the E at angles varying from 10° to 20°. 


A remarkable feature of the Carboniferous system as 
represented in Fife is the great development of contem- 
poraneous and intrusive volcanic rocks. In this county 
volcanic activity seems to have begun somewhat later than 
in the Edinburgh district, and to have been partly coeval 
with that in West Lothian. In the neighbourhood of 
Burntisland there must have been a continuation of the 
volcanic action from the horizon of the Grange Lime- 
stone in the Cementstone series to the basement beds of 
the Carboniferous Limestone. The basaltic lavas and 
tuffs which were ejected during that period are admir- 
ably displayed on the shore section between Burntisland 
and Seafield Tower near Kirkcaldy, where they are 
interstratified with marine limestones, sandstones, and 
shales. _ But on the Saline Hill in West Fife there is 
conclusive evidence that volcanoes must have been 
active even during the deposition of the coal-bearing 
series of the Carboniferous Limestone. That eminence 
marks the site of a vent from which tuff was ejected 
which was regularly interbedded with the adjacent 
strata. Seams of coal and ironstone are actually worked 
underneath the tuff on the S side of Saline Hill, and not 
far to the E a bed of gas coal is mined on the slope of 
the Knock Hill which forms another ' neck ' belonging 
to that period. 

In East Fife, as the researches of Professor A. Geikie 
have conclusively shown, there is a remarkable develop- 
ment of volcanic vents which are now filled with tuff or 
agglomerate. Upwards of fifty of these ancient orifices 
occur between Leven and St Andrews, piercing the 
Calciferous sandstones, the upper or true Coal-measures, 
and even the overlying red sandstones, which are the 
youngest members of the Carboniferous system. It is 
evident, therefore, that most of these ' necks ' must 
be of later date than the Carboniferous period. Nay, 
more, from the manner in which they rise along lines 
of dislocation, and pierce anticlinal arches as well as 
synclinal troughs, from the way in which the volcanic 
ejectamenta rest on the denuded edges of the Carboni- 
ferous Limestone series, there can be no doubt that they 
were posterior to the faulting, folding, and denudation 
of the strata. Professor A. Geikie has suggested that 
they probably belong to the period of volcanic activity 
indicated by the ' necks ' of Permian age in Ayi'shire. 
Largo Law is a striking example of one of the cone- 
shaped necks, and so also is the Binn Hill at Burnt- 
island. Another great vent, upwards of J mile in 
length, occurs on the shore at Kincraig Point, E of 
Largo Bay, which is filled with tuff. In this case the 
tuflf is pierced by a mass of columnar basalt, the columns 
rising to a height of 150 feet above the sea-level. The 
occurrence of veins and masses of basalt is a common 
feature among these necks, but it is seldom that such a 
remarkable example of columnar structure is displayed 
in the series. The Rock and Spindle near St Andrews 
is an excellent instance of the radial arrangement of the 

No less remarkable are the great intrusive sheets of 
basalt and dolerite which are conspicuously developed 
in the Carboniferous rocks of Fife. Indeed, in none of 
the other counties in Scotland do they occur in such 
numbers. From the Cult Hill near Saline, they are 
traceable E along the Cleish Hills to Blairadam. They 
cap Benarty and the Lomonds, and from that range 
they may be followed in irregular masses to St Andrews 
and Dunino. Another belt of them extends from 
Torryburn by Dunfermline to Burntisland, thence 
winding round by Auchtertool to Kirkcaldy. They 
occur mainly about the horizon of the lowest limestones 
of the Carboniferous Limestone series, and are, in all 
probability, the E extension of the intrusive sbeets at 
Stirling Castle and Abbey Craig. But in addition to 
these great intrusive masses of Carboniferous age, there 
are various dykes of basalt having a general E and W 
trend, which may probably belong to the Tertiary 
period. Of these, the best examples are met with in the 
Old Red Saiidstone area, near Damhead, and W of 

The direction of the ice flow dming the glacial period 


was SE across the Oehils, but as the ice sheet approached 
the Firth of Forth it veered round to the E and ENE. 
An instance of this hrtter movement occurs near Petty- 
cur N of Burntisland, where the strias point E 15° N. 
Througliout the county there is a widespread covering 
of boulder clay, which, like the deposit on the SE 
slopes of the Sidlaws, contains an assemblage of 
boulders derived from the Grampians. A great series 
of sands and gravels rests on the boulder clay at 
certain localities, which seems to have a direct connec- 
tion with the retirement of the ice. Where there are 
open valleys forming passes across the Oehils, great 
ridges of gravel are met with parallel to the trend 
of the valleys. Near the mouths of the passes the 
material is very coarse, but it gradually becomes finer 
and more water-worn as we advance southwards. 
Similar deposits are met with in the E of Fife, which 
are, to a large extent, of the same origin. There is no 
trace of the later glaciation within the county. 

The 100-feet beach is traceable round the greater part 
of the coast-line, being well developed at Dunfermline, 
Eirkcaldy, and in the Howe of Fife. The arctic shells 
at Elie occur in the fine clays of this beach, and in a 
simUar deposit of the same age near Cupar, bones of a 
seal have been exhumed. Along the estuary of the Tay 
this beach forms but a narrow terrace of gravel, owing 
to the comparatively steep slope flanking the sliore. In 
that neighbourhood there are indicarons of an old sea 
margin at the level of 75 feet, as if there had been a 
slight pause in the upheaval of the land. The 50 and 
25 feet beaches are well represented, the one merging 
into the other. In the East Neuk of Fife the latter is 
bounded by an inland clilf, in which sea-worn caves are 
not uncommon. 

The soil — we abridge from Mr Macdonald — to the IT 
of the Eden is quick and fertile, nowhere very deep or 
very strong, but kindly, highly productive, and specially 
suited for the cultivation of grass. The Howe of Fife 
or Stratheden, comprising both sides of the Eden up as 
far as Cupar, has a rich fertile soil, parts of it being 
exceedingly productive. S of the Eden the land rises 
gradually, tiU, in Cameron parish, it reaches 600 feet. 
On this high land the soil is cold and stiff and of a 
clayey character, with a mixture of lime. Round Lady- 
bank it is very light and shingly, as though its richest 
earthy coating had been swept oft' by a current of water. 
The land on the rising-ground in CoUessie, Monimail, 
Cults, and Kettle parishes is heavier and more valuable 
than in the valley of Ladybank. In the neighbourhood 
of the Lomonds and on the high land of Auctermuchty, 
Leslie, and Kinglassie the soil is light, but sharp and 
valuable for grass ; in Beath, Auchterderran, and Bal- 
lingry it is principally cold and stiff, though several 
excellent highly-cultivated farms are in these parishes. 
A good deal of land on the N side of Dunfermline is 
strong retentive clay, on the S is thin loam with a 
strong clayey subsoil. In Saline, Torryburn, and Car- 
nock the soil is mainly a mixture of clay and loam, 
and is generally very fertile. All along the coast, too, 
though variable in composition, it is rich and productive. 
The ' Laich of Dunfermline ' has a'strong clayey soil, very 
fertile on the whole, but somewhat stiff' to cultivate. 
The soil between Inverkeithing and Leven varies from 
light dry to strong clayey loam, rendered highly pro- 
ductive and friable by superior cultivation ; it is deep 
rich loam about Largo, and light in Elie, both equally 
fertile and productive ; and along the E coast it is deep, 
strong, and excellent, consisting chiefly of clay and rich 
loam. Near St Andrews the soil is by no means heavy, 
while the section NE of Leuchars village is sandy and 
very light, especially on the E coast, where a large tract 
of land known as Tent's Moor is wholly covered with 
sand, and almost useless for agricultural pm'poses. In 
Forgan and part of Ferryport-on-Craig the soil, though 
light and variable, is kindly and fertile. 

In the whole of Scotland the percentage of cultivated 
area is only 24 '2; in Fife it rises as high as 74 '8, a 
figure approached by only six other counties — Linlith- 
gow (73-1), Berwick (65'4), Haddington (64-4), Kinross 


(62-8), Renfrew (57-8), and Edinburgh (57-1). This 
being the case, little has been reclaimed of recent years 
in Fife, since little was left to reclaim ; but great im- 
provements have been effected since 1850 in the way of 
draining and re-draining, fencing, building, etc. The 
six-course shift of rotation predominates ; leases are 
nearly always for 19 years ; and ' in the matter of land 
apportionment Fife is almost all that could be desired.' 
Out of 2392 holdings, there are 1307 of 50 acres and 
under, 217 of from 50 to 100, 643 of from 100 to 300, 
192 of from 300 to 500, 32 of from 500 to 1000, and 1 
only of o^er 1000. In 1875 rents varied between 17s. 6d. 
and £5 (or in Crail even £8) an acre, but the latter 
high figures have had to come down in the face of the 
great recent agricultural depression. Fife, having more 
to lose, has perhaps suffered more than any other Scotch 
county ; and in the summer of 1880 no fewer than 18 
of its farms, extending over 3301 acres, were vacant, 
whilst several others had been stocked and taken under 
charge of their landlords. Fife is not a great county 
for live-stock, and the majority of its cattle are Irish 
bred. The few cows kept are crosses mostly of some- 
what obscure origin ; the bulls are almost all shorthorns. 
Since the dispersion of the famous Keavil herd in 1869, 
the breeding of pure shorthorns has all but ceased. 
Neither is sheep-farming practised to the extent one 
might look for, soil and climate considered. The sheep 
are almost all hoggs — good crosses between Cheviot 
ewes and Leicester tups — with a few black-faced in the 
western and higher parts of the shire. Nearly all the 
farm-horses are Clydesdales or have a strong touch of 
the Clydesdale, powerfully built and very hardy, great 
care having been exercised of recent years in the selec- 
tion of stallions, with highly successful results. Many 
good ponies are kept, and hunters and carriage-horses 
are generally of a superior class. Swiue are not nume- 
rous, but have been greatly improved by crossing the 
native sows with Berkshire boars. The following table 
gives the acreage of the chief crops and the number of 
live-stock in Fife in different years : — 

1 1S66. 




Wheat,. . . . 





Barley,. . . . 










Sown Grasses, . 





Potatoes, . . . 





Turnips, . . . 





Cattle, .... 










Horses, . . . 










The yearly rainfall varies considerably, from 21J 
inches at Cupar to 36J at Loch Leven, which, though 
in Kinross-shire, may be taken as representing the 
western portion of the Fife peninsula. Still, it is not 
by any means heavy ; and the climate, greatly improved 
by thorough drainage, and modified by the nearness of 
the sea, is mild and equable. Westerly winds prevail, 
and the biting E winds that sometimes sweep the coast 
are broken inland by the numerous belts and clumps of 
plantation that stud the fields. Less than one-twenty- 
third of the whole of Scotland is under woods ; in Fife 
the proportion is fully one-seventeenth, viz., 19,471 
acres, a figure surpassing twenty, and surpassed by only 
twelve, of the Scottish coimties. Dr Samuel Johnson 
remarked in 1773 ' that he had not seen from Berwick 
to St Andrews a single tree which he did not believe to 
have grown up far within the present century.' So far 
the remark did good, that, widely read by the landed 
gentry, it stimulated the planting fever to intensity, 
and hundreds of acres of hillside now are clothed with 
trees which otherwise might have retained their primeval 
bareness. It was false, none the less, as shown by five 
tables in Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural 
Society for 1879-81, where sixteen of the 'old and re- 

' Included all horses, not only those engag 

1 in farming. 



markable ' trees described are trees of Fife — 4 Spanisli 
chestnuts at Aberdour and Balmerino, 2 asb-trees at 
Ottei-ston and Donibristle, 3 sycamores at Aberdour and 
Donibristle, 1 oak at Donibristle, and 6 beeches at 
Otterston, Donibristle, Kellie Castle, Leslie House, and 
Balmerino. To which might have been added the two 
famous walnuts of Otterston, planted in 1589, and felled 
by the great gale of January 1882. 

The damask manufacture of Dunfermline is probably 
unequalled in the world for excellence of design and 
beauty of finish. Other linen manufactures, compris- 
ing sail-cloth, bed-ticking, brown linen, dowlas, duck, 
checks, and shirting, together with the spinning of tow 
and flax, are carried on at Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy, 
Dysart, Leslie, Auchtermuchty, Kiugskettle, Ladybank, 
Strathmiglo, Falkland, Ferryport-ou-Craig, and other 
places. The cotton manufacture has never employed 
much capital, but maintains many workmen in the 
service of Glasgow houses. Breweries are numerous, and 
there are several pretty extensive distilleries. The manu- 
facture of floor-cloth (at Kirkcaldy), ironfounding and 
the making of machinery, the tanning of leather, the 
manufacture of earthenware and porcelain, paper, and 
fishing-nets, coach-building, ship-building in iron and 
wood, and the making of bricks and tiles, are also carried 
on. The maritime traffic is not confined to any one 
or two ports, but diff'uses itself round nearly all the 
coasts, at the numerous towns and villages on the Tay, 
the German Ocean, and the Forth, though chieily on 
tlie latter. It is of considerable aggregate extent, 
and has grown very rapidly of recent years, according 
to the statistics of the one headport, Kirkcaldy. 
Lastly, there are the fisheries, for cod, ling, hake, etc. , 
in the home waters, and for herrings as far afield as 
Wick and Yarmouth. The following are the fishing 
towns and villages, with the number of their boats and 
of their resident fishermen in 1881 : Limekilns (5, 12), 
Inverkeitliing (7, 21), Aberdour (5, S), Burntisland 
(21, 45), Kinghorn (11, 20), Kirkcaldy (18, 27), and 
Dysart (6, 10), belonging to Leith district ; and IJuck- 
haven (198, 410), Methil (6, 20), Leveu (1, 3), Largo 
(34, 60), Elie and Earlsferry (13, 24), St Monance 
(147, 405), Pittenweem (91, 240), Anstruther and 
OeUardyke (221, 573), Grail (34, 50), Kingsbarns 
(8, 30), Boarhills (3, 8), and St Andrews (57, 145), 
belonging to Anstruther district. Total, 886 boats 
and 2114 men and boys. In the Anstruther district 
the number of barrels of herrings cured was (1866) 
19,618, (1878) 7523, (1881) 10,315i ; of cod, ling, and 
hake taken (1866) 32,569, (1873) 104,647, (1881) 
209,426. Steam ferries are maintained between Newport 
and Dundee, between Ferryport-on-Craig (Tayport) and 
Broughty Ferry, between Burntisland and Granton, and 
between North Queensferry and South Queensferry. 
There was formerly a ferry from Dirleton in Hadding- 
shire to Earlsferry, also from Kirkcaldy and Petty cur to 
Leith and Newhaveu ; but these have been long since 

A main line of railway, connecting by ferry with 
Granton, commences at Burntisland, goes along the 
coast to Dysart, strikes thence northward to Ladybank, 
and forks there into two lines — the one going north- 
eastward to Tayport (communicating there by ferry with 
Broughty Ferry), and the other going north-westward 
to Newburgh, and proceeding thence into Perthshire 
towards Perth. One branch line leaves from the Tay- 
port fork, in the vicinity of Leuchars, and goes south- 
eastward to St Andrews ; and another branch leaves 
the same fork north-westward to the vicinity of New- 
port, to communicate by the viaduct across the Firth of 
Tay, now in process of reconstruction, the fii'st Tay 
Bridge having fallen in 1879. Another line, coming 
eastward from Stirling, passes Alloa, Dunfermline, 
Crossgates, and LochgeDy, forming a junction with the 
main line at Thornton. From the last-named station a 
railway runs eastward along the coast to Leven, Largo, 
Elie, and Anstruther ; and a line connecting Anstruther 
with St Andrews is (1882) under construction. From 
Alloa and Kinross a railway enters the upper reach of 


Eden valley, passing to the vicinity of Auchtermuchty, 
and thence SE to a junction with the main line at 
Ladybank. A railway from Cowdenbeath goes north- 
north-westward into Kinross-shire, to join the Alloa 
and Ladybank line at Kinross. A railway has been 
constructed, by the owner of the property, from Thorn- 
ton to Buckhaven and Wemyss. A line from North 
Queensferry to Dunfermline, worked in connection with 
the ferry, is intended to afford a through line to the 
N on the construction of the Forth Bridge, and con- 
necting lines to Perth through Glenfarg, and between 
luverkeithing and Burntisland, form part of the 
scheme. The Cupar district contains 85 miles of turn- 
pike roads and 126 mUes of statute labour roads ; the 
Dunfermline district, 45J of turnpike roads and 49^ of 
statute labour roads ; the St Andrews district, 135| of 
turnpike roads and 73J of statute labour roads ; the 
Kirkcaldy district, 77 of turnpike roads and 674 of 
statute labour roads ; the Cupar and Kinross district, 
22J of roads ; the Outh and Nivingston district, 27J of 
tmnpike roads ; the Leven Bridge district, 7^ of roads. 

The county returns one member to parliament (always 
a Liberal since 1837) ; and its constituency was 4845 in 
1882. Royal burghs exercising the parliamentary 
franchise are — Dunfermline (constituency 2330) and 
Inverkeithing (188), included in the Stirling district of 
burghs ; the Kirkcaldy district of burghs, comprising 
Kirkcaldy (2018), Burntisland (645), Dysart (1773), 
and Kinghorn (225), with a total constituency of 4661 ; 
and the St Andrews district of burghs, comprising 
St Andrews (766), Anstruther-Easter (207), Anstruther- 
Wester (86), Crail (190), Cupar (733), Kilrenny (348), 
and Pittenweem (304), with a total constituency of 
2634. The royal burghs not now exercising the parlia- 
mentary franchise are Newburgh, Auchtermuchty, Falk- 
land, and Earlsferry. Leslie, Leven, Linktown, West 
Wemyss, and Elie are burghs of barony or of regality ; 
and Ladybank and Loohgelly are police burghs. 

Mansions, all noticed separately, are Balcaskie, Bal- 
carres, Birkhill, BroomhiU, Cambo, Charleton, Craw- 
ford Priory, Donibristle, Dysart House, Elie House, 
Falldand House, Fordel, Gihliston, Grangemuir, Inch- 
dairnie, Inchrye Abbey, Kilconquhar, Largo House, 
Leslie House, Nanghton, Otterston, Pitcorthie, Raith, 
Wemyss Castle, and many others. According to Mis- 
cellaneous Statistics of the United Kingdom (1879), 
304,363 acres, with a total gross estimated rental of 
£905,577, were divided among 10,410 landowners, two 
together holding 20,595 acres (rental £29,081), five 
32,847 (£53,354), fifty-two 92,748 (£187,004), thirty- 
five 47,724 (£133,689), sixty-five 45,484 (£80,435), two 
hundred and one 51,157 (£117,993), etc. 

The county is governed by a lord-lieutenant, a vice- 
lieutenant, forty-five deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, two 
sherififs-substitute, and 344 commissioners of supply and 
justices of peace. It is divided into an eastern and a 
western district, each with a resident sheriff-substitute ; 
and sheriff^ ordinary and debts recovery courts are held 
in Cupar, Dunfermline, and Kirkcaldy. Sheriff small- 
debt courts are also held at Cupar, Dunfermline, Kirk- 
caldy, St Andrews, Anstruther, Auchtermuchty, Leven, 
and Newburgh. There is a burgh police force in Dun- 
fermline (11), and in Kirkcaldy (16) ; the remaining 
police in the county comprise 67 men, under a chief 
constable, whose yearly pay is £375. The number of 
persons tried at the instance of the police in 1880 was 
1049 ; convicted, 959 ; committed for trial, 85 ; not 
dealt with, 120. The committals for crime in the 
annual average of 1836-40 were 167 ; of 1841-45, 147 ; 
of 1846-50, 138; of 1851-55, 103; of 1856-60, 125; of 
1861-65, 142; of 1865-69, 141; of 1871-75, 75; of 
1876-80, 61. The registration county gives off a part 
of Abernethy parish to Perthshire ; takes in parts of 
Arngask parish from Perthshire and Kinross-shiie ; and 
had in 1881 a population of 172,131. The number of 
registered poor in the year ending 14 May 1881 was 
3293 ; of dependants on these, 2120 ; of casual poor, 
1876 ; of dependants on these, 1197. The receipts for 
the poor in that year were £39,593, 17s. 3Jd. ; and the 


expenditure was £38,099, 16s. 6Jd. The number of 
pauper lunatics was 432, tlieir cost of maintenance 
being £8881, 9s. 6d. The percentage of illegitimate 
births was 7-5 in 1872, 7-1 in 1878, and 6-8 in 1880. 

Altliougli seventeenth in size of the thirty-three 
Scotch counties, Fife ranks as fifth in respect of rental- 
roll (only Aberdeen, Ayr, Lanark, and Perth shires sur- 
passing it), its valuation, exclusive of the seventeen 
royal bui-ghs, of railways, and of water-works, being 
(1815) £405,770, (1856) £543,536, (1865) £581,127, 
(1875) £698,471, (1876) £686,338, (1880) £700,651, 
(1882) £697,448, 17s., or £2, 2s. 6d. per acre. Valua- 
tion of railways (1882) £57,683 ; of water- works (1882) 
£4551 ; of burghs (1866) £146,129, (1879) £246,555, 
(1882) £288,472. In point of population it stands 
seventh, the six higher counties being Aberdeen, Ayr, 
Edinburgh, Forfar, Lanark, and Renfrew shires. Pop. 
(1801) 93,743, (1811) 101,272, (1821) 114,556, (1831) 
128,839, (1841) 140,140, (1851) 153,546, (1861) 154,770, 
(1871) 160,735, (1881) 171,931, of whom 80,893 were 
males and 91,038 females, and of whom 88,146 were in 
16 towns, 44,577 in 65 villages, and 39,208 rural, the 
corresponding figures for 1871 being 76,449, 43,182, and 
41,104. Houses (1881) 36,854 inhabited, 3079 vacant, 
199 building. 

The civil county comprehends sixty-one quoad civilia 
parishes and parts of two others, with the extra-parochial 
tract of the Isle of May. There are also sixteen quoad 
sacra parishes and three chapels of ease belonging to the 
Church of Scotland. The places of worship within it 
in 1882 were, 86 of the Chui'ch of Scotland (35,071 
communicants in 1878), 51 of the Free Church (11,663 
communicants in 1881), 41 of United Presbyterians 
(10,747 members in 1880), 1 of United Original Seceders, 
5 of the Congregationalists, 5 of the Evangelical Union, 
7 of Baptists, 8 of Episcopalians, and 4 of Roman Catho- 
lics. The Established Synod of Fife, meeting at Kirk- 
caldy on the second Tuesday of April and at Cupar in 
October, comprehends the presbyteries of Dimfermline, 
Kinross, Kirkcaldy, Cupar, and St Andrews, and thus 
takes in Kinross-shire and the Perthshire parishes of 
Culross, Fossoway, and Muckart. Pop. ^(1871) 170,823, 
(1881) 179,636, of whom 37,251 were communicants of 
the Church of Scotland in 1878. The Free Church Synod 
of Fife, meeting at Kirkcaldy on the second Tuesday of 
April, and at Cupar, St Andrews, or Dunfermline on the 
second Tuesday of October, comprises presbyteries iden- 
tical with those of the Established Church, and had 
12,727 communicants in 1881. 

It is claimed by the natives of Fife that it has a more 
peaceful history than most other counties in Scotland, 
containing no great battlefields, and although prominent 
in many important events, displaying to view few signal 
crimes and no great national disasters. Ancient stone 
circles, standing stones, and cairns or tumuli abounded, 
but are not now to be found, though remains of hill forts 
exist in several places. On Dunearn there are remains of 
such a fort, and another strong one was on Carueil HiU, 
near Carnock, and stood adjacent to some tumuli which 
were found in 1774 to enshrine a number of urns contain- 
ing Roman coins. Traces of two Roman military stations 
are found near the same locality ; and a Roman camp for 
AgricoZa's ninth legion was pitched in the vicinity of 
Loch Orr, confronting Benarty Hill on the right and the 
Cleish Hills on the left. Human skeletons, found at 
various periods on the southern seaboard, are regarded 
as relics of conflicts with invading Danes in the 9th 
and following centuries. Great monastic establishments 
were formed at St Andrews, Dunfermline, Balmeriuo, 
Lindores, Inchcobn, and Pittenweem, and have left 
-considerable remams. Mediaeval castles stood at St 
Andrews, Falkland, Leuchars, Kellie, Dunfermline, Bam- 
briech, Balcomie, Dairsie, Aberdour, Seafield, Loch Orr, 
Tarbet, Rosyth, Inverkeithing, Raveuscraig, Wemyss, 
Mouimail, Balwearie, etc. , and have left a large aggregate 
of interesting ruins. Old churches, with more or less of 
interest, exist at Crail, St Monance, Leuchars, Dysart, 
Kirkforthar, Dunfermline, Dairsie, and St Andjews. 

Early in the summer of S3 a.d. Agricola had his army 


conveyed across the Bodotria, or Firth of Forth, and 
landing, as is said, at Burntisland, gradually but 
thoroughly made himself master of Fife, whilst his fleet 
crept round its shores, and penetrated into the Firth of 
Tay. The eastern half of the peninsula was then pos- 
sessed by the Vernicomes, and the western by the 
Damnonii, one of whose three towns, the ' Victoria ' of 
Ptolemy, was situated at Loch Orr, a lake, now drained, 
in Ballingry parish. The Damnonii, says Dr Skene, 
' belonged to the Cornish variety of the British race, and 
appear to have been incorporated with the southern 
Picts, into whose language they introduced a British 
element. The Frisian settlements, too, on the shores 
of the Firth of Forth, prior to 441, may also have left 
their stamp on this part of the nation ; and the name of 
Fothrik, applied to a district now represented by Kin- 
ross-shire and the western part of Fife, may preserve a 
recollection of their Rik or kingdom.' Fife itself is 
probably the Frisian _^67i, 'a forest;' the name Frisian 
Sea is applied by Nennius to the Firth of Forth ; and 
part of its northern shore was kno^vn as the Frisian 
Shore. By the establishment of the Scottish monarchy 
in the person of Kenneth mac Alpin (844-60) Fib or Fife, 
as part of southern Pictavia, became merged in the king- 
dom of Alban, of which under Constantin III. (900-40) 
it is described as forming the second of seven provinces, 
a province comprising the entire peninsula, along with 
the district of Cowrie. It thus included the ancient 
Pictish capital, Abernethy, whither in 865 the primacy 
was transferred from Dunkeld, and whence in 908 it was 
again removed to St Andrews. In 877 the Danes, ex- 
pelled by the Norwegians from Ireland, sailed up the 
Firth of Clyde, crossed the neck of the mainland, and 
attacked the province of Fife. They routed the ' Scots ' 
at Dollar, and, chasing them north-eastward to Inver- 
dovet in Forgan, there gained a second and more signal 
victory. King Constantin, son of Kenneth mac Alpin, 
being among the multitude of the slain. On two ac- 
counts this battle is remarkable, first as the only great 
conflict known for certain to have been fought on Fife 
soil ; and, secondly, as the earliest occasion when the 
term ' Scotti ' or Scots is applied to any of the dwellers in 
Pictavia. According to Hector Boece and his followers, 
Kenneth mac Alpin appointed one Fifus Duffus thane or 
governor of the province of Fife, but thanes of Fife there 
never were at any time, and the first Macduff, Earl of 
Fife, figures in three successive charters of David I. 
(1124-53), first as simply 'Gillemichel Makduf,' next as 
' Gillemichel Comes,' and lastly as ' Gillemichel Comes 
de Fif.' In earlier charters of the same reign we hear, 
indeed, of other Earls of Fife — Edelrad, son of Malcolm 
Ceannmor, and Constantin, — but between these and the 
Macduffs there seems to have been no connection. ' The 
demesne of the Macduff Earls of Fife appears to have 
consisted of the parishes of Cupar, Kilmany, Ceres, and 
Cameron in Fife, and those of Strathmiglo and Auchter- 
muchty in FothriS', near which Macduff's Cross was 
situated. "Whether this sept were the remains of the 
old Celtic inhabitants of the province, or a Gaelic clan 
introduced into it when its chief was made Earl, it is 
difficult to say ; but it is not impossible that it may have 
been a northern clan who followed Macbeth (1040-57) 
when the southern districts were subjected to his rule, 
and that there may be some foundation for the legend 
that the founder of the clan had rebelled against him, 
and adopted the cause of Malcolm Ceannmor, and so 
maintained his position. Some probability is lent to 
this supposition by the fact that the race from whom 
the Mormaers of Moray derived their origin is termed 
in one of the Irish genealogical MSS. Clan Duff, and 
that the Earls of Fife undoubtedly possessed from an 
early period large possessions in the North, including the 
district of Strathaven. The privileges of the clan, how- 
ever, stand on a different footing. From the earliest 
period the territory of Fife comes prominently forward 
as the leading province of Scotland, and its earls occupied 
the first place among the seven earls of Scotland. The 
first two privileges, of placing the king on the Coronation 
Stone, and of heading the van in the arm}', were proba.bly 



attached to the province of Fife, and not to any par- 
ticular tribe from which its earls might have issued ; on 
the other hand, the third seems derived from the insti- 
tution connected -with the ancient Fine,' etc. (Skene's 
Celtic Scotland, iii. 61-63, 305, 306, 1880). 

The history of Fife centres round no one town, as that 
of Dumfriesshire round Dumfries, but is divided among 
three at least — St Andrews for matters ecclesiastical ; 
for temporal, Dunfermline and Falkl,vnd. Each of 
the latter has its royal palace ; and Dunfermline was the 
burial-place of eight of Scotland's kings, from Malcolm 
Ceannmor (1093) to the great Robert Bruce (1329), thus 
including Alexander III. , who met with his death in Fife, 
being dashed from his horse over the headland of King- 
horn (1286). Duncan, Earl of Fife, was one of the three 
guardians appointed to rule the southern district of the 
kingdom in the absence of Alexander's infant daughter, 
the Maid of Norway ; but lie was murdered in 1288 ; 
and his son, the next earl, was too young to seat John 
Baliol on the Coronation Stone (1292) or to take any part 
in the earlier scenes of the War of Independence. During 
that war, in 1298, the Scottish victory of 'Black Irn- 
syde ' is said to have been won by "Wallace over Aymer 
de Valence in Abdie parish, near Newburgh. The young 
Earl was absent at the English court in 1306, but his 
sister, the Countess of Buchan, discharged his functions 
at Bruce's coronation, for which, being captured by 
Edward, she was hung in a cage from one of the towers 
of Berwick. Presently, however, we find him on Bruce's 
side ; and, according to Barbour, it was he and the 
sheriff of Fife who, with 500 mounted men-at-arms, were 
flying before an English force that had landed at Doni- 
bristle, when they were rallied by "William Sinclair, 
Bishop of Dunkeld. Another English force under the 
Earl of Pembroke, in 1327, landed in Fife, and stormed 
the Castle of Leuchars ; and in 1332 Edward Bruce and 
the ' disinherited barons ' landed at Kinghorn, and marched 
north-westward to Dupplin, in Strathearn. A parlia- 
ment was held at Dairsie Castle in 1335, but failed to 
accomplish its purposes ; and another was then held at 
Dunfermline, and appointed Sir Andrew Moray to the 
regency. The English immediately afterwards invaded 
Scotland, sent a powerful fleet into the Firth of Forth, 
and temporarily overmastered Fife. A Scottish army, 
soon collected by Sir Andrew Moray to confront them, 
besieged and captured the town and castle of St Andrews, 
and, save in some strongly garrisoned places, drove the 
English entirely from the county. The Steward of Scot- 
land (afterwards Robert II. ) succeeded Sir Andrew Moray 
in the command and direction of that army ; and, in the 
year of his accession to the throne (1371) the earldom of 
Fife was resigned by the Countess Isabella, last of the 
]\Iacdulf Une, to his third son, Robert, Earl of Menteith, 
whose brother Walter had been her second husband. The 
new Earl of Fife was created Duke of Albany in 1398, 
and it is as the Regent Albany that his name is best 
known in history, whilst the deed whereby that name is 
most familiar was the murder — if murder it were — of the 
Duke of Rothesay at Falkland (1402), which figures in 
Sir Walter Scott's Fair Maid of Perth. 

Andrew Wood, in 1480, attacked and repulsed a 
hostile English squadron, which appeared in the Firth 
of Forth ; and he received, in guerdon of his services, a 
royal gi'ant of the village and lands of Largo. A body 
of 13,000 infantry and 1000 horse, suddenly leaded in 
Fife and Forfarshire, formed part of the Scottish army, 
which, in 1488, fought in the battle of Sauchieburn. The 
Douglases, in 1526, after defeating their opponents at 
Linlithgow, advanced into Fife, and pillaged Dunferm- 
line Abbey and St Andrews Castle. Fife figures pro- 
minently in Scottish Reformation history. At St An- 
drews were burned the English Wiclifite, John Resehy 
(1408), the German Hussite, Paul Crawar (1432), and 
Scotland's own martyrs, Patrick Hamilton (1528), Henry 
Forrest (1533), and George Wishart (1546). Barely two 
months had elapsed ere the last was avenged by the 
murder of Cardinal Beaton, and barely thirteen years 
ere, in the summer of 1559, John Knox's 'idolatrous 
sermon ' had roused, in Tennant's words — 


' The steir, strabush, and strifc, 
\Vlian, bickerin' frae the towns o' Fife, 
Great ban^g o' bodies, thick and rife, 

Gaed to Sanct Androis town, 
And wi' John Calviu i' their heads. 
And hammers i' their hands and spades, 
Enraged at idols, mass, and beads, 

Dang the Cathedral down.' 

At Crail the crusade began, and from Crail the preacher 
and his ' rascal multitude ' passed on to Anstruther, Pit- 
tenweem, St Monance, St Andrews, the abbeys of Bal- 
merino and Lindores, and almost every other edifice in. 
the county, large or small, that seemed a prop of the 
Romish religion. Queen Mary, in 1563, spent nearly 
four months in Fife, moving frequently from place to 
place, but residing chiefly at Falkland and St Andrews, 
where Chastelard was beheaded for having burst into her 
chamber at Burntisland. Next year, she spent some 
time at the same places ; and at Wemtss Castle in Feb. 
1565 she first met her cousin. Lord Darnley. Donibristle, 
in 1592, was the scene of the murder commemorated in 
the ballad of The Bonnie Earl o' Moray ; and Falkland 
Palace, in 1600, was the scene of the antecedent of the 
mysterious affair known as the Gowrie Conspiracy. Fife 
suffered more injury to trade than most other districts of 
Scotland, from the removal of the court to London, at 
the accession of James "V^I. to the crown of England (1603). 
Its enthusiasm for the Covenant was great, and the sea- 
ports put themselves in a state of defence when, on 1 Jlay 
1639, the Marquis of Hamilton arrived in the Firth of 
Forth with 19 Royalist vessels and 5000 well-armed men, 
of whom, however, only 200 knew how to fire a musket. 
This alarm passed off with the pacification of Berwick ; 
and the next marked episode is the battle of Pitkeavie, 
fought near Inverkeithing on 20 July 1651, when 6000 
of Cromwell's troopers defeated 4000 adherents of Charles 
IL, killing 1600 and taking 1200 prisoners. Then comes 
that darkest scene in aU Fife's history, the murder by 
men of Fife on Magus Muir of Archbishop Sharp, 3 May 
1679, so strongly illustrative of the fanaticism, the super- 
stition, and the unwarlike spirit of its perpetrators. The 
Revolution (1688) was followed by a long and severe 
famine, a great depression of commerce, and an exhaus- 
tion of almost every resource ; the Darien scheme (1695- 
99) proved more disastrous to Fife than to most other 
parts of Scotland ; at the Union (1707) legitimate com- 
merce was all but annihilated, its place being taken by 
smuggling. (See Dysart.) The Earl of Mar landed 
from London at Elie in Aug. 1715, the month, of the 
famous gathering at Braemar; on 12 Oct. Brigadier Mac- 
intosh of Borlum succeeded in conveying 1600 Jacobites 
from Fife to East Lothian over the Firth of Forth ; and 
about the same time the Master of Sinclair, proceeding 
fromPerth through Fife with 400 horsemen, surprised two 
Government vessels at Burntisland, which furnished the 
rebels with 420 stands of arms. The plundering of the 
custom-houseatPiTTENWEEM by Wilson, Robertson, and 
other smugglers, is memorable as leading to the Porteous 
Riot at Edinburgh (1736). Among many illustrious 
natives are Tennant and Dr Chalmers, born at Anstruther; 
Lady Ann Barnard, at Balcarres ; Alexander Hamilton, 
at Creich ; Sir David Wilkie, at Cults ; Lord Chancellor 
Campbell, at Cupar ; Charles I. and Sir Noel Paton, at 
Dunfermline ; Richard Cameron, at Falkland ; Adam 
Smith, at Kirkcaldy ; Alexander Selkirk, at Largo ; Sir 
David Lindsay, at Monimail ; Major 'Wh3rte Melville, at 
Mount Melville, near St Andrews ; and Lady Elizabeth 
Halket, at Pitreavie. 

A characteristic feature of Fife is its large number of 
small seaport towns, in many places so close as to be 
practically a continuous town. Buchanan used the ex- 
pression oppidulis proecingitur to describe it, and James 
"VI. called the county a grey cloth mantle with a golden 
fringe. The modern demand for harbours capable of 
admitting large vessels has tended to concentrate the 
shipping of Fife at Burntisland, and the establishment 
of large factories has in like manner concentrated popula- 
tion in such places as Dunfermline and Kirkcaldy. Thus, 
though Fife is rich and fruitful in its land, and has many 
important industries, as well as large import and export 


trades, most of the coast towns are so quiet and decayed 
as to give the casual visitor a much less favourable im- 
pression of the county than a complete examination 

The county acquired its popular name of the ' Kingdom 
of Fife,' partly from its great extent and value, and partly 
from its forming an important portion of the Pictish 
dominion. It anciently, as we have seen, was much more 
extensive than it now is, comprehending nearly all the 
region between the Tay and the Forth, or the present 
counties of Fife, Kinross, and Clackmannan, the detached 
or Culross district of Perthshire, and the districts of Strath- 
earn and Monteith. Dismemberments of it were made at 
various periods. In 1426 the county of Kinross was formed; 
other changes were afterwards made to form the stewartries 
of Clackmannan and Culross ; and in 1685 three parishes 
were cut oS' to complete the present county of Kinross. 
Numerous ancient hereditary jurisdictious existed in 
the county, and, in common with similar jurisdictions 
in other parts of Scotland, were abolished, under com- 
pensation, in 1747. The chief of these were that of the 
steward of the stewartry of Fife, for which the Duke of 
Athole received £1200 ; that of the bailie of the regality 
of Dunfermline, for which the Marquis of Tweeddale 
received £2672, 7s. ; that of the bailie of the regality 
of St Andrews, for which the Earl of Crawford received 
£.3000 ; that of the regality of Aberdour, for which the 
Earl of Morton received £93, 2s. ; that of the regality of 
Pittenweem, for which Sir John Anstruther received 
£282, 15s. 3d. ; that of the regality of Lindores, for 
which Antonia Barclay of CoUerny received £215 ; and 
that of the regality of Balmerino, which had been for- 
feited to the Crown through Lord Balmerino's participa- 
tion in the rebellion of 1745, and so was not valued. 

See Sir Robert Sibbald's History of Fife (Edinb. 1710; 
new ed., Cupar, 1803); J. M. Leighton's History of Fife 
(3 vols., Glasgow, 1840) ; Thomas Rodger's Kingdom of 
Fife (2 vols., Cupar, 1861) ; Walter Wood's East Neuk 
of Fife (Edinb. 1S62); M. F. Conolly's Biographical 
Dictionary of Eminent Men of Fife (Cupar, 1862) ; his 
Fifiana (Cupar, 1869) ; William Ballingall's Shores of 
Fife (Edinb. 1872) ; James W. Taylor's Historical An- 
tiquities of Fife (2 vols., Edinb., 1875) ; James Mac- 
donald's ' Agriculture of Fife,' in Trans. Highl. and Ag. 
Soc. (1876);T. Hutchison's 'Kingdom of Fife, 'in i^'roscr's 
Magazine (1878) ; besides works cited under IJalmekino, 


Dura Den, Dysart, Falkland, Inchcolm, Lindores, 
Isle of May, and St Andrews. 

Fife-Keith. See Keith. 

Fife Ness, a low headland in CraU parish, Fife, 2 miles 
NE of Crail town, 5 N by W of the Isle of May, and 16 
NNE of North Berwick. It flanks the northern side of 
the entrance of the Firth of Forth, is the most easterly 
point in Fife, and terminates the tract popularly called 
the East Neuk of Fife. It has traces of a defensive wall 
running across it, and said to have been constructed by 
the Danes in 874 to cover an invasive debarkation ; and 
it is subtended for a considerable distance seaward by a 
dangerous reef, noticed in our article on Caer. — Ord. 
Sar., sh. 41, 1857. 

Fife Railway, West of. See North British Railway. 

Fifeshire. See Fife. 

Figach. See Fiag. 

Figgate Bum. See Duddingston. 

Figgate Whins, a tract of land in Duddingston 
parish, Edinburghshire, traversed aud mainly drained 
by Figgate Burn. It was anciently a forest, where Sir 
William Wallace is said to have mustered his forces for 
the siege of Berwick, and Gibson of Dukie to have been 
pounced upon by Christy's Will — this latter a false ver- 
sion of the story. In 1762 it was sold for only £1500 ; 
and it now is partly the site of the widespread watering- 
place of Portobello, and partly the fertile tract extending 
south-westward thence to the eastern skirts of Arthur's 

File. See Benfile. 

Fillan, a stream of Killin parish, W Perthshire, rising, 
at an altitude of 2980 feet, on the northern side of Ben- 


LOY (3708 feet), close to the Argyllshire border. Thence 
it winds llj miles east-north-eastward and east-south- 
eastward, past Dalree and Crianlarich, along a glen called 
from it Strathfillan, till it falls into the head of Loch 
Dochaet, or rather expands into that loch, being thus 
the remotest head-stream of the river Tay. It is followed 
along all its lower course by tlie Callander and Oban 
railway. Within J mile of its left bank, and 2J miles 
SSE of Tyndrum, stand the ruins of an Austin priory 
church, dedicated in 1314 to St Fillan by Robert Bruce 
as a thauk-oft'ering for the victory of Bannockburn. The 
square-shaped ' Bell of St Fillan,' of cast bronze, with 
double-headed dragonesque liandle, lay on a gravestone 
here till 1798, when it was stolen by an English traveller. 
In 1869 it was restored to Scotland, and now is deposited 
in the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum, where also now 
is the quigrach or silver head of St Fillan's crozier, car- 
ried to Canada in 1818, and returned by its hereditary 
keeper, Mr Alex. Dewar, to Scotland in 1877. This bell 
used to be rung during that curious superstitious rite — 
a kind of forerunner of the Spiritualists' rope-trick — ac- 
cording to which lunatics were brought to the neighbour- 
ing ' Holy Pool of Fillan,' and plunged in its waters just 
before sunset, then bound hand and foot, and left all 
night in the ruins beside what was known as ' St Fillan's 
Tomb. ' If in the morning they were found still bound, 
the case was abandoned as hopeless ; but if the knots 
were untied, it was deemed the merciful work of the 
saint, and the sufferers were quit for ever of their malady. 
Of St Fillan himself very little is known, except that he 
belonged to the close of the 5th centuiy, is called an lohar 
('the leper'), was a disciple of Ailbe in Emly, and in 
the Irish calendar is said to have been of Rath Erenn in 
Alban, or 'the fort of the Earn in Scotland.' Some 
hagiologists, however, maintain that this leprous saint 
of Strathearn was distinct from him of Strathfillan, whom 
they assign to a century later. — Ord. Sur., sh. 46, 1872. 

Fillans, St, a village in Comrie parish, Perthshire, 
on the N bank of the river Earn, just below its efflux from 
Loch Earn, 13 miles W by N of Crieff, under which it 
has a post and telegraph office. Both as to situation and 
structure one of the pleasantest villages in Scotland, it 
comprises a range of slated one-story houses, mantled 
with ivy and honeysuckle, an hotel, called the Drummond 
Arms, a Free church, and a public school. On a green 
level plain here the St Fillans Highland Society, insti- 
tuted in 1819, for twelve years held a famous annual 
meeting for athletic sports. Dundurn and the conical 
hill of Dunfillan have been separately noticed. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 47, 1868. 

Finaglen or Finglen, a glen, traversed by a mountain 
burn, in Comrie parish, Perthshire, descending from 
Ben Bhan, 1§ mile north-north-eastward to Loch Earn, 
at a point 2 miles W by S of St Fillans. 

Finart, an estate, with a mansion, in Row parish, 
Dumbartonshire. T'he mansion, standing on the E shore 
of Loch Long, 3 miles N of Garelochhead, is the seat of 
Edward Caird, LL. D. , professor of moral philosophy in 
Glasgow University since 1866. It has finely wooded 
grounds, and is overhung by a hill and mountain that 
command a superb view of Loch Long. Hill and moun- 
tain are often called Finart, but really consist of, first, 
Tom Buidhe (936 feet), 1 mile NE of the mansion, and, 
next. Ben Mhanarch (2328), culminating 9 furlongs ESE 
of that hill—Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Finart, Argyllshire. See Glekfinart. 

Finavon. See Finhaven. 

Fincastle, a north-eastern district of Dull parish, 
Perthshire, extending 3^ miles along the N bank of the 
Tummel from the foot of Loch Tummel to Bonskeid 
House, and IJ mile along the S bank of the Garry from 
Blair Athole village to Auldclune. Fincastle Burn flows 
through the midst to the Tummel, along a fertile narrow 
strath, and near its left bank stands Fincastle House, the 
seat and death-place of Sir Robert Gilmour Colquhoun, 
K.C.B. (1803-70), who for seven years served as Consul- 
General in Egypt. The district takes its name from 
having anciently contained no fewer than fifteen castles, 
vestiges of a number of which may still be seen ; and it 



gives the title of Viscount to the Earl of Dttnmoee. 
It has a post office under Pitlochry, 6 miles to the SE. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 55, 1869. 

Findhom, a seaport village in Kinloss parish, KW 
Elginshire, at the right side of the mouth of Findhorn 
river, and on the point of a peniusula between Find- 
horn and Burghead Bays. By road it is 5 miles N 
of Forres and %\ NE of Kinloss station on the Highland 
railway, this station heing 9J miles W by S of Elgin 
and 27| ENE of Inverness. A branch line from Kin- 
loss to Findhorn, opened in 1860, has now for some 
years been discontinued. The original town, which 
stood at least 2 miles westward of the present one, was 
destroyed by the drifting of the Culbin Sands ; the 
next one stood a mile NW, on ground now covered by 
the sea, and was swallowed in a few hours by the 
great inundation of 1701 ; and even the present town 
is so beset with surge-lashed sand-banks, that it, too, 
possibly may some day share their fate. A place of 
worship in it, used iirst as a dissenting meeting-house, 
and next as a chapel of ease, was built on the sand, and 
fell in Jan. 1843. The town, from its situation at the 
mouth of the Findhorn, known in Gaelic as the Erne, 
is commonly called by the Highlanders Inverenw, It 
ranks as a burgh of barony ; is the centre of an extensive 
fishery district between Buckie and Cromarty ; and 
carries on some commerce'in the export of salmon, grain, 
and other goods, and in the import of coals, groceries, 
and manufactured wares. It has a post office under 
Forres, a good harbour, a Free church, a girls' public 
school, and a public library. The harbour is partly 
natural, partly artificial, with a stone pier, two quays 
of hewn stone, and a breastwork connecting the pier 
with one of the quays ; and has, in the shallowest part 
of the channel at its entrance, lOi feet of water in the 
lowest neap tide, and from 13 to 17 feet in spring tides. 
In 1881, the number of boats employed in the district 
was 470, of fishermen and boys 2063, of fish-curers 49, 
and of coopers 54 ; the value of the boats being £29,423, 
of the nets £41,827, and of the lines £4909. The follow- 
ing is the number of barrels of herrings salted or cured 
in difi'erent years :— (1866) 29,572, (1870) 16,311, (1878) 
2389, (1879) 9443, (1880) 16,255, (1881) 9753 ; of cod, 
ling, or hake taken (1866) 20,779, (1873) 67,837, (1879) 
56,191, (1880) 34,265, (1881) 15,255. Pop. (1841) 806, 
(1861) 891, (1871) 701, (1881) 605.— OrcZ. Sur., sh. 94, 

Findhorn, a river of Inverness, Nairn, and Elgin shires, 
rising in the southern exti-emity of Moy and Dalarossie 
parish, among the Monadhliath Mountains, 5J miles N 
by W of Laggan Bridge, and thence muding 62| miles 
north-eastward, till it falls into the Moray Firth at 
Findhorn village. In the first 7^ mUes of its course it 
bears the name of Abhainn Cro Chlach (' stream of the 
stone fold ') ; and a 13th century charter alluctes to it 
as the Earn, so that Findhorn is possibly a corruption 
oi fionn-ear-an, ' wan east-flowing river,' the greater part 
of its basin being still known as Strathdearn. It is 
joined by the Eskin, Moy Burn, the Divie, Muckle 
Burn, and numerous mountain toiTents ; it expands, 
between Forres and Findhorn village, into a triangular 
tidal lagoon, 2 miles long and 2| wide, called Findhorn 
Bay or Harbour, and again contracts to 2J furlongs at 
its mouth. Its scenery, alpine at first, then moderately 
mountainous, and finally lowland, exhibits almost every 
variety of picturesqueness, from the wildly grand to 
the softly beautiful, abounding in features of wood and 
rock, gorge and cliff, fertile valley and finely-contoured 
hUl, and is not excelled, either in diversity of attraction 
or in aggregate richness, by the scenery of any equal 
length of stream in Scotland. From 2800 feet above 
sea-level at its mossy source, it descends to 1627 at the 
Eskin's confluence, 950 at Findhorn Bridge, 580 at the 
Bridge of Dulsie, and 280 near Relugas House ; and 
thus its current is impetuous in the upper, swift in the 
middle, and broad and placid in the lower reaches. Its 
volume varies greatly in time of drought and in time of 
heavy rain ; and it is subject to such strong, sudden 
freshets as sometimes to roll down a waU-Hke wave of 


water with irresistible and destructive force along the 
narrow or contracted parts of its bed, and to overflow 
its banks and make a lake of all the lowland portions of 
its valley. In the Plain of Forres, over 20 square miles 
were so inundated by it in the memorable floods of 
Aug. 1829, that a large boat, in full sail, swept along 
its basin to within a few yards of the town. The Find- 
horn is still a fine salmon and trout river, though not 
what it was half a century since, when in a single day 
360 salmon were taken from one pool. It traverses or 
bounds the parishes of Moy and Dalarossie, Cawdoi, 
Ardclach, Edinkillie, Forres, Dyke and Moy, and Kin- 
loss ; and in our articles on these, its various features 
of bridge, mansion, village, and town are noticed. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 73, 74, 84, 94, 1876-78. See chaps, 
ii.-x. of Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's Moray Floods (Elgin, 
1830 ; 3d ed. 1873). 

Findlater, an estate on the coast of Fordyce parish, 
Banffshire. It formerlj' belonged to the Ogilvies of 
Deskford, and gave them the title of earl from 1638 till 
1811. That title expired at the death of the seventh 
Earl of Findlater and fourth of Seafield, who was suc- 
ceeded in his estates and in the earldom of Seafield by 
his cousin. Findlater Castle stood on a peniusulated 
rock overhanging the sea, 2 miles E of Cullen, and 4 
"W by N of Portsoy, and, with permission of the Crown, 
was fortified in 1445 by Sir Walter Ogilvie, knight, of 
Auchleven. It was one of the places which refused to 
receive Queen Mary on her visit to the North (1562), and 
is now a curious picturesque ruin. See Cullen. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 

Findochty, a fishing-village in Rathven parish, Banff- 
shire, 3| miles W by N of Cullen. Founded in 1716 
by a colony of fishermen from Fraserburgh, it has an 
infant public school, 141 boats, and 300 men and boys 
engaged in fishing. Its sheltered harbour, with 24 feet 
depth of water, and 270 feet of width at the entrance, was 
greatly improved by the Fishery Commissioners in 1882- 
83. Near it is a medicinal spring situated within high 
water mark. Pop. (1861) 393, (1871) 812, (1881) 936.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 

Findogask. See Gask. 

Findon, an estate inUrquhart and Logie-Wester parish, 
Ross-shire, on the SE shore of Cromarty Firth, 5 mUes 
NE of Conan Bridge. Traversed by a bmm of its own 
name, that makes a fine cascade of 20 feet in a yawning 
bosky gorge, it belongs to Mackenzie of Mountgeeald, 
and by improvements in the way of draining, fencing, 
and building, had its rental raised from £3774 in 1867 
to £4624 in 1876. 

Findon, a farm in Gamrie parish, NE Banffshire, 5 fur- 
longs S by W of Gardenstown. Its rocks are famous for 
great abundance and variety of fossil fish, ganoids chiefly, 
many of which were figured and described by Agassiz. 

Findon or Finnan, a fishing -village in Banchory- 
Devenick parish, Kincardineshire, IJ mile NE of Port- 
lethen station, this being 8 miles S by W of Aberdeen. 
It is a little place, of no more consequence than other 
fishing villages on the E coast ; but it has gained 
celebrity for having been the first place to prepare the 
dried fish, called from it Findon or Finnan haddocks. 
Its boats number 30, its fishermen 96 ; and there is a 
public school Pop. (1861) 190, (1871) Z30.—Ord. Sur., 
sh. 67, 1871. 

Findrack, an estate, with an old mansion, in Lum- 
phanan parish, Aberdeenshire, 2J miles ENE of Lum- 
plianau station. It was sold in 1670 by Sir Robert 
Forbes of Learney to the Erasers ; and its present 
owner, Francis Garden Fraser (b. 1815 ; sue. 1824), 
holds 1600 acres in the shire, valued at £895 per annum. 

Findrassie, an estate, with a mansion, in Spynie 
parish, Elginshire, 2J miles NW of Elgin. It belonged, 
from the first half of the 16th century, to a branch of 
the Leslies, descended from Robert, youngest son of the 
third Earl of Rothes ; but, sold in 1825 by Sir Charles 
Leslie, fifth Bart, since 1625, it now is the seat of Mrs U 
Forster, only daughter and heiress of the late James ■ 
Ogilvie Tod, Esq. (d. 1837), who holds 690 acres in " 
the shire, valued at £602 per annum. 



Fine. See Fyne. 

Finella. See Fenella. 

Finfan, a farm in Urquhart parish, NE Elginsliire, li 
mile WSW oF Garraoutli. It has a mineral well, of 
similar quality to Strathpeffer spa, and a neat cottage 
was built at it by General Sir James Duff for supplying 
the water to occasional visitors. 

Fingal's Cave. See St.4.ffa. 

Fingal's Fort. See Dun Fionn and Knockfin. 

Fingal's Griddle, an ancient Caledonian monument 
in Ardnamurchan parish, Argj'llshire. It is situated 
on Ormsaigmore, and consists of large stones in the 
torm of a rude altar, surrounded by remains of a circle 
of smaller stones. 

Fingal's Oak, a famous old tree in Ardchattan parish, 
Argyllshire, near Barealdine House. It girthed 29 feet 
(only half its original size) in 1835, and continued so to 
decay and crumble, that in 18-44 it measured but 23 feet 
in girth. 

Fingal's Seat. See AiT-SniDBE-TnuiN. 

Fingal's Stair. See Beseaddan. 

Fingask, an estate, with a mansion of 1834, in Daviot 
parish, Aberdeenshire, 2 miles W of Old Meldrum. A 
small enclosure on the estate is thought to have com- 
prised a pre - Reformation chapel. Its owner, John 
Mauson, Esq., holds 585 acres, valued at £860 per 

Fingask or Marlee, a loch in the S of Blairgowrie 
parish, NE Perthshire. Lying 139 feet above sea-level, 
it has an utmost length and breadth of 3 and 2 furlongs, 
is connected by rivulets with Black and "White Lochs of 
similar extent, and sends oflf a stream J mile south- 
south-westward to Lunan Burn. It is notable for hav- 
ing furnished from its bed great quantities of mauurial 
clay or marl.— Ort?. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Fingask Castle, a fine old mansion in Kilspindie 
parish, Perthshire, 3^ miles NNW of Errol station. It 
stands on the W side of a wooded glen, 200 feet above 
the Carse of Gowrie, and by Dr Chambers is described as 
an irregular but picturesque structure, comprising a tall 
front tower of 1594 ; a still older central portion ; an 
addition of about 1675, with pepper-bos turrets at the 
angles ; and a modern dining-room, conservatory, etc. 
On one side is a winding avenue of pines and sycamores ; 
on the other a beautiful garden, with a terrace beyond, 
that commands a magnificent view of the Firth of Tay, 
the Sidlaws, and the Grampians. Within are portraits 
of the Old Chevalier, Clementina his wife. Prince Charles 
Edward, his brother Henry, Cardinal of York, the poet 
William Hamilton of Bangour, and many members of the 
Threipland family, which seems to have migrated from 
Thriepland in Kilbucho parish, Peeblesshire, about the 
beginning of the 17th century, and which in 1672 
bought Fingask from a cadet of the Bruces of Clack- 
mannan, two years later adding thereto the adjacent 
estate of Kinnaied. Patrick Threipland, becoming 
provost of Perth in 1665, was knighted in 1674 for 
diligence in suppression of conventicles, was made 6 
baronet of Nova Scotia in 1687, and in 1689 died a 
prisoner in Stirling Castle. His son, Sir David (1666- 
1746), in 1715 was one of the first to join the standard 
of the Earl of Mar, with his eldest son and namesake. 
The latter was captured whilst crossing the Firth of 
Forth under Macintosh of Borlum, but effected a daring 
escape from Edinburgh Castle. The Old Chevalier 
passed the night of 7 Jan. 1716 in the 'State-room' of 
Fingask, and was again there in the following month ; 
in March Sir David was a fugitive, and his castle was 
occupied by a party of Government dragoons. The 
forfeited estate, however, was leased by Lady Threipland 
from the York Building Company, who had bought it 
for £9606. In the '45 the eldest son, David, fell at 
Prestonpans ; but the youngest, Stuart (1716-1805), 
went through the entire campaign, for some time shared 
in the Prince's wanderings, and at length escaped to 
France, disguised as a bookseller's assistant, Fingask 
meantime having been plundered by dragoons. Return- 
ing in 1747, he set up as a physician in Edinburgh, and 
in 1783 bought back the estate for £12,207, whilst to 

his son, Patrick (1762-1837), the baronetcy was restored 
in 1826. His son, the fifth baronet. Sir Patrick -Murray 
Threipland (1800-82), dying without issue, was succeeded 
by his cousin, William, second son (b. 1867) of William 
Scott Kerr, Esq. of Chatto and Sunlaws, Ro.xburgh- 
sliire, who holds 2814 acres in Perthshire, valued at 
£3019 per annum, besides the estate of Toftixgall in 
Caithness, and who has assumed the name of Murray 
Threipland in accordance with the last baronet's will. 
—0)-d. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. See Robert Chambers, 
LL.D., The Threqilands of Fin gas!; (Edinb. 1880). 

Fingland, a burn in Traquair parish, Peeblesshire, 
rising just within Yarrow parish, Selkirkshire, at an 
altitude of 1300 feet, and fiowing 4i miles north-by- 
westward till it falls into Quair Water a little above 
Traquair village. 

Fingland, a burn in Eskdalemuir parish, NE Dumfries- 
shire, running to the White Esk at a point J mile NNE 
of Davington Free church. A cascade on it, called 
Wellsburnspout, makes a leap of 56 feet, and shows pic- 
turesquely in times of heavy rain. 

Fin Glen, a glen in the W of Carapsie parish, Stirling- 
shire, traversed by a burn which, rising in the S of 
Killearn parish, on the NE shoulder of Earl's Seat (1894 
feet), runs 4J miles south-south-eastward, till, near 
Campsie Glen station, it unites with the Pow and Kirk- 
ton Burns to form the Glazert. Though somewhat less 
picturesque than Kirkton Glen, Fin Glen has a larger 
volume of water and two very beautiful waterfalls ; whilst, 
like Kirkton Glen, it presents features of gorge, crag, and 
wood somewhat similar to those of the Trossachs. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 31, 1866. 

Finglen, Perthshire. See Fikaglen. 

Finhaven (auc. Fot7mcvyn = Gael. fodha-fainn, 'place 
under a hill '), a ruined castle in Oathlaw parish, Forfar- 
shire, on a rising-ground at the influx of Lemno Burn to 
the South Esk, 5J miles NNE of Forfar and 8 WSW of 
Brechin. A stately five-storied tower, 86 feet high, larger 
but plainer than Edzell, it dates in its present condition 
from the latter half of the 16th century. ' The N wall is 
yet entire, but the S one is rent through two-thirds of 
the length of the building, and on some frosty morning 
at no distant date will inevitably crumble to pieces.' 
According to Thomas the Rhymer's prediction : 

* When Finhaven Castle rins to sand. 
The warld's end is near at hand.' 

The ruin is a very storehouse of strange memories. 
Hither David, thir'd Earl of Crawford, and his foeman 
but brother-in-law, Ogilvy of Inverquharity, were 
brought, sore wounded, from the battle of Aeekoath 
(1446). The Earl died after a week of lingering torture ; 
and scarce was he dead, when the Countess hurried to 
Inverquhaiity's chamber, and smothered him with a 
pillow, thus avenging her husband by murdering her 
own brother. ' Earl Beardie ' or ' the Tiger ' Earl of 
Crawford fled to Finhaven from the rout of Beeohin 
(1452), and, on alighting from his horse, exclaimed that 
gladly would he pass seven years in hell to gain the 
honour of Huntly's victory. Eleven months later he 
was pardoned by James II., who here received a sump- 
tuous entertainment ; but the King, having sworn in 
his ivrath ' to make the highest stone of Finhaven the 
lowest,' must needs, to keep his word, go up to the roof 
of the castle and thence throw down a stone that was 
lying loose on the battlements. On the Covin Tree of 
Finhaven, grown from a chestnut dropped by a Roman 
soldier. Earl Beardie hanged Jock Barefoot, the Careston 
gDlie who had dared to cut a walking-stick therefrom, 
and whose ghost oft scares the belated wayfarer. The 
Covin Tree was levelled to the ground in 1760 ; but, in 
the secret chamber of Glamis, Earl Beardie still drees 
his weird, to play at cards until the clap of doom. In 
1530 David, eighth Earl, was for thirteen weeks 
imprisoned in the dungeons of Finhaven by his son, the 
Wicked Master, who eleven years after was stabbed by a 
Dundee cobbler for taking from him a stoup of drink. 
David, tenth Earl, in 1546 married Margaret, daughter 
of Cardinal Beaton. The nuptials were solemnised at 



Finhaven with great magnificence, in presence of the 
Cardinal, who that same month was murdered at St 
Andrews. Held by the Lindsays since 1375, the estate 
was sold in 1629 by the fourteenth Earl of Crawford to 
his cousin. Lord Spynie. Later it was owned by the 
Carnegies, till in 1775 it was sold for £19,500 to the 
Earl of Aboyne. It was sold again in 1805 for £45,000 
to a Mr Ford, and was re-sold in 1815 for £65,000 to a 
subsequent Earl of Aboyne, belonging now to that 
Earl's representative, the Marquis of Huntly. Wooded 
Finhaven Hill extends along all the south-eastern border 
of Oathlaw parish, and some way into Aberlemno. Cul- 
minating at a height of 751 feet above sea-level, it com- 
mands a beautiful view of Strathmore, and is crowned, 
on its north-eastern shoulder, with a vitrified fort, in the 
form nearly of a parallelogram 380 feet long and 112 at 
the broadest. Anciently there was a parish of Finhaven, 
divided now between Oathlaw and Aberlemno ; and well 
on into the present century the former parish was oftener 
called Finhaven than Oathlaw. The church, standing 
1 mile E of the castle, was built in 1380, and fell into 
disuse about the beginning of the 17th century. In its 
side aisle, however, the thirteenth Earl of Crawford was 
buried as late as 1622, and this aisle was left standing till 
1815. In 1849 the ancient encaustic pavement of the 
church was laid bare, and two monuments were found at a 
considerable depth, one being of a robed ecclesiastic. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. See chap. iv. of Andrew 
Jervise's Land of the Lindsays (Edinb. 1853). 

Fink, St, a hamlet and an ancient chapelry in Bendochy 
parish, Perthshire, 2| mQes NE of Blairgowi'ie. The 
chapelry included the tract above the confluence of the 
Ericht and the Isla. 

Finlagan, a hill-girt loch in Killarrow and Kilmeny 
parish. Isle of Islay, Argyllshire, 4J miles W by N of 
Port Astaig. Measuring 1 by J mile, it sends off a 
rivulet of its own name to salt-water Loch Gruinard, 
and abounds with trout and salmon, the former averaging 
J lb. each. An islet in it is crowned by the ruins of the 
castle and chapel of the Macdonalds, Lords of the Isles ; 
and on its shore are traces of a pier for communicating 
with the castle. 

Finlarig, a picturesque ruined castle in Killin parish, 
Perthshire, at the head of Loch Tay, Ih mile N by E of 
Killin village. An ancient seat of the Earl of Breadal- 
bane's ancestors, it figures in Sir Walter Scott's Fair 
Maid of Perth as the death-place of the chief of the clan 
Quhele, and is a narrow three-story ivy-clad pile, with a 
square tower at one corner. Adjoining it is the burying- 
vault of the Breadalbane family ; and around is an un- 
dulating park with grand old trees. The scene of a 
sanguinary fight between the Campbells and the Mac- 
donalds is in its neighbourhood. —Ord. Sur. , sh. 46, 1872. 

Finlas, a lake in Straiten parish, Ayrshire, 5 miles S 
by W of Dalmellington. Lying 840 feet above sea-level, 
it extends IJ mile from NW to SE, has a varying width 
of J furlong and 2 j furlongs, is fed from Loch Derclach 
at its head, and from its foot sends off Carpel Burn 1^ 
mile north-eastward to Loch Doon. Boats are kept on 
it, and the trout fishing is good. — Ord. Sur., sh. 8, 1863. 

Finlas, a streamlet in Luss parish, Dumbartonshire, 
rising at an altitude of 1800 feet, and running 4f miles 
south-eastward along an alpine glen, called from it 
Glenfinlas, and eastward and north-by-eastward through 
low, rich, wooded grounds, till it falls into a baylet of 
Loch Lomond 3 furlongs SW of Eossdhu House. — Ord. 
Sur., sh, 38, 1871. 

Finlay's Castle. See Nairx. 

Finlay's Mire. See Moxquhittee. 

Finlayston House, a mansion in the NW corner of 
Kilmalcolm parish, Renfrewshire, near the S shore of 
the Clyde, IJ mile W by N of Langbank station, and 
3 miles E by S of Port Glasgow. Partly an edifice of 
the latter half of the 15th century, it was long a resi- 
dence of the Earls of Glencairn ; and, under the fifth or 
' Good ' Earl, was the scene of a notable celebration of 
the Lord's Supper by John Knox (1556). It is also 
associated with the name of Alexander Montgomery, a 
poet who flourished in the time of James VI. , and wrote 


The Cherrie and the Slae ; and it commands a brilliant 
view across and along the Clyde. — Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 

Finnan, a stream in the Inverness-shire section of 
Ardnamurchan parish, rising at an altitude of 1586 feet 
above sea-level, close to the Kilmallie border, and thence 
running 5J miles south-south-westward to the head of 
Loch Shiel, along a narrow rocky mountain glen, called 
from it Glenfinnan. The glen, toward the mouth of 
the stream, opens in four directions, somewhat in the 
manner of four divergent streets; and, terminating at 
the head of the loch in a small plain, is crossed there by 
a road leading 35 miles westward from Banavie, up Loch 
Eil, to Arasaig. This was the scene of the unfurling of 
Prince Charles Edward's banner at the commencement 
of the Rebellion of 1745, an event sung finely by Pro- 
fessor Aytoun in his Lays of the Cavaliers. ' The spot,' 
says Hill Burton, ' adopted for the gathering was easily 
accessible to all the garrisons of the Highland forts. It 
was only 18 miles distant from Fort William, and almost 
visible from the ramparts ; but when a general gathering 
in force was intended, the presence of the forts — well 
adapted as they were to keep down petty attempts — was 
no impediment to it. The 19th of August was the day 
fixed for the momentous ceremony ; but the Prince's 
faith in his destiny was again tried, for, when he arrived, 
the glen was silent and deserted, save by the ragged 
children of the hamlet, who glared with wondering eyes 
on the mysterious strangers. After two hours thus 
spent, the welcome sound of a distant bagpipe was 
heard, and the Camerons, between seven and eight hun- 
dred strong, appeared on the sky-line of the hill. Before 
the group dispersed in the evening, the number assembled 
amounted to 1500 men. The post of honour on the 
occasion was given to the old Marquis of Tullibardine, 
heir to the dukedom of Athole, who, like his young 
master, had come to " regain his own." ' Prince Charles's 
Monument here, a tower with a Gaelic, Latin, and 
English inscription, was founded in 1815 by Alex. Mac- 
donald of Glenaladale, whose namesake lodged the Prince 
on the night preceding the Gathering, and whose de- 
scendant, John Andrew Macdonald, Esq. of Glenaladale 
(b. 1837 ; sue. 1870), has his seat at Glenfinnan, holding 
24,000 acres in the shire, valued at £1550 per annum. 
Glenfinnan has also a post office under Fort William, an 
inn, a public school, with accommodation for 33 children, 
and the Roman Catholic church of SS. Mary and Finnan, 
an Early English edifice of 1873. St Finnan's green 
islet, at the head of Loch Shiel, has been the burial place 
of the Macdonalds since their first settlement in these 
lonely glens ; and a square bronze bell — one of three to 
be found in Scotland, and as old, it may be, as Columba's 
day — still rests on the altar slab of its ruined chapel. 
See Shiel, Loch.— Ord Sur., sh. 62, 1875. 

Finnan, Kincardineshire. See Findon. 

Finnart, a shooting-lodge in Fortingal parish, NW 
Perthshire, on the S shore of Loch Eannoch, just below 
its head, 10 miles W by S of Kinloch Eannoch. On the 
shootings, which form part of the Struan Eobei'tson 
property, there were killed between 12 Aug. and 8 Oct. 
1881 no fewer than 3002 head of game, including 2253 
grouse and 671 blue hares. A little SW of the lodge is 
an Established mission chapel. — Ord. Sur., sh. 54, 1873. 

Finnart, Dumbartonshire. See Finart. 

Fionich or Camock Bum. See Caenock. 

Finnleston. See Glasgow. 

Finny. See Vbnnt. 

Finnyfold or Whinnyfold, a fishing hamlet in the S 
of Cruden parish, Aberdeenshire, 2J miles SSE of the 
church. The rocks in its vicinity exhibit transition 
from gneiss to granite, and form a good study for geolo- 

Finstown, a village in Firth and Stenness parish, Ork- 
ney, at the head of Firth Bay, 6 miles WNW of Kirkwall. 
It has a post oflice, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments ; horse and cattle fairs on the 
third Monday of every month ; and a recently erected 
pier, 500 feet long, where an extensive trade is carried on 
in coal, lime, manures, grain, etc. Pop. (1881) 160. 


Fintray, a village and a parish of SE Aberdeenshire. 
The village, Hatton of Fintray, stands within 3 furlongs 
of the Don's left bank, 3J miles E by N of Kintore, and 
IJ mile NNE of Kiiialdie station on the Great North 
of Scotland, this being 10 J miles N\V of Aberdeen, under 
which Fintray has a post office. Fairs are held here on 
the first Saturday of February, April, and December. 

The parish is bounded NE by the Banffshire section 
of New Machar and by Udny, E by the main body of 
New Machar, S by Dyce and Kinnellar, SW by Kintore, 
and W and NW by Keithhall. Rudely resembling a tri- 
angle in outline, with northward apex, it has an utmost 
length from N by W to S by E of 4 miles, an utmost 
width from E to W of 5 J miles, and an area of 7389 acres, 
of which 69J are water. The Don, ■\vinding 7J miles 
east-by-southward, from just below Kintore to opposite 
the manse of Dyce, roughly traces all the south-western 
and southern boundary ; and, where it quits the parish, 
the surface sinks to 116 feet above sea-level, thence rising, 
in gentle knolls and rounded eminences, to 300 feet at 
Woodhill, 245 at the parish church, 325 near Cairnie, 
and 415 at the Hill of Tillykerrie in the furthest N. 
Granite and gneiss are the prevailing rocks, traversed by 
veins of coarsish limestone ; and the soil of tiie haughs 
along the Don is a rich alluvium, of the grounds above 
them is dry and early on a gravelly subsoil, and elsewhere 
ranges from peat earth and blue gravelly clay to yellow 
loam of a more productive nature. Eleven-fourteenths of 
the entire area are regularly or occasionally in tillage, about 
660 acres are imder wood, and the rest is either pastoral 
or waste. Cothal Mill here was a large woollen fac- 
tory, now stopped, with steam and water power, and 
upwards of 100 hands. Patrick Copland, LL.D. (1749- 
1822), professor of natural philosophy at Aberdeen, was 
a native, his father being parish minister. Fintray House, 
near the bank of the Don, 7 furlongs E of the vUlage, is 
a large modern mansion in the Tudor style ; the estate 
was acquired in 1610 by the first of the Forbeses of 
Ckaigievae, having belonged to the Abbey of Lindores 
in Fife from 1224 down to the Reformation. Another 
residence is Disblair Cottage ; and 3 proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 2 of between 
£100 and £500, and 2 of less than £100. Fintray is in 
the presbytery and sj'nod of Aberdeen ; the living is 
worth £391. The church, at the village, is a neat and 
substantial structure of 1821, containing 800 sittings ; 
and 2 public schools, Disblair and Hatton, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 100 and 140 children, had (1882) 
an average attendance of 57 and 116, and grants of £40, 
18s. and £91, 6s. Valuation (1860) £5583, (1882) £7965, 
14s. Sd. Pop. (1801) 886, (1831) 1046, (1861) 1003, 
(1871) 1108, (1881) 1032.— Ord Sur., sh. 77, 1873. 

Fintry, a hamlet and a parish of central Stirlingshire. 
The hamlet stands, 400 feet above sea-level, on the left 
bank of Endrick Water, 5 miles ESE of Balfrou, 16 WSW 
of Stirling, and 17 N by E of Glasgow, under which it 
has a post office. Gonachan hamlet lies 5 furlongs E by 
S of it, and Newtown hamlet | mile WNW. 

The parish is bounded NW by Balfron, NE by Gar- 
gunnock, E by St Ninians, SE by Kilsyth, S by Campsie, 
SW by Strathblane, and W by Eillearn. Its utmost 
length, from E to W, is 6| miles ; its breadth, from N 
to S, varies between 2| and 5 miles ; and its area is 
13,881 acres, of which 109 are water. From its source 
(1600 feet) upon Campsie Miur, in the S of the parish, 
the river Carron flows 6 mOes east-north-eastward, at 
first along the boundary with Campsie, but chiefly 
through the south-eastern interior, till it passes off east- 
ward into Kilsyth. Endrick Water, gathering its head- 
streams from the N of Fintry and the SW of Gargunnock, 
winds 3J miles south-eastward and southward along the 
GargunnockandStNiniansborder, then, bending sharply, 
continues 5| miles west-by-northward, and passes off 
into Balfron. About a mUe below its westerly bend, 
it hurls itself over a precipice 94 feet high, and makes a 
superb cascade — the 'Loup of Fintry.' DungoU (1396 
feet) and Gartcarron Hill (1006) form the ' divide ' be- 
tween these streams, which at one point approach within 
7 furlongs of each other — the Carron running eastward 


to the Firth of Forth, and the Endrick westward to Loch 
Lomond, and so to the Firth of Clyde. The surface 
mainly consists of soft green hills, part of the range that 
stretches from Stirling to Dumbarton — the Fintry Hills 
in the N, in the S the Campsie Fells. It declines along 
the Carron to 750 feet above sea-level, along the Endrick 
to 270 ; and the highest points in the parish are Stronend 
(1676 feet) near the north-western, Meikle Bin (1870) 
near the south-eastern, and Holehead (1801) exactly on 
the southern, border. The only inhabited parts are the 
two intersecting valleys, watered by re.spectively the 
Carron and the Endrick. The Carron's vaUey, so far as 
within the parish, is mostly meadow, and has few in- 
habitants. The Endrick's valley, narrow at its eastern 
extremity, opens gradually to a width of about a mile, 
and partly exhibits, partly commands, a series of richly 
picturesque scenes. Cultivated fields, interrupted by 
fine groves, along the river's banks, hedgerows and plan- 
tations around Culcreuch on the N side, and some well- 
arranged clumps of trees on the skirts and shoulders of 
the hills to the S, combine to form an exquisite picture. 
The flanking hill-ranges, occasionally broken and pre- 
cipitous, wreathed sometimes in clouds, and always wear- 
ing an aspect of loveliness and dignity, produce an im- 
posing effect along the entire reach of the valley ; and 
the summits of Ben Lomond and other mountains of the 
frontier Grampians, seen in vista away to the W, pre- 
sent a noble perspective. In a hill called the Dun, near 
the hamlet, is a range of basaltic pillars. Seventy pillars 
are in front, some of them separable into loose blocks, 
others apparently unjointed from top to bottom. Some 
are square, others pentagonal or hexagonal ; and they 
rise perpendicularly to a height of 50 feet. At the E end 
of the range they are divided by interstices of 3 or 4 
inches ; but as the range advances they stand closer and 
closer, till at last they are blended in one solid mass of 
honeycombed rock. Trap also constitutes most of the 
other liUls, which often have such forms or projections 
as add no little to the beauty of the scenery. Granite 
occurs in detached fragments, and coal in several small 
seams ; in Dun Hill are extensive beds of red ochre ; 
and fire stone, jasper, and fine specimens of zeolite are 
found among the rocks. The soil, in most parts of the 
valleys, is light and fertile ; but of the entire area only 
1020 acres are in tillage and 100 under wood, the rest 
of the land being either pastoral or waste. Fintry or 
Graham's Castle, the ancient stronghold of the Grahams 
of Fintry, stood near the left bank of Endrick Water, 
on the St Ninians side, 3J miles E of Fintry hamlet, 
and now is represented by mere vestiges. Sir Daniel 
Macnee (1806-82), portrait painter, and president of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, was a native. Culcreuch, 
which has been noticed separately, is the only mansion ; 
and its owner and the Duke of Montrose divide nearly all 
the property. Fintry is in the presbytery of Dumbarton, 
and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth 
£228. The church, at the hamlet, was built in 1823, 
and is a neat edifice, with a W tower and 500 sittings. 
A public school, and a free school endowed with £3000 
by the late John Stewart, Esq. , with respective accom- 
modation for 90 and 82 children, had (1881) an average 
attendance of 33 and 57, and grants of £32, Is. 6d. and 
£60, 3s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £4532, (1882) £5329, 
14s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 958, (1831) 1051, (1851) 823, (1861) 
685, (1871) 499, (1881) 414— a decrease due to the stop- 
page of a cotton mill. — Ord. Sur., shs. 31, 30, 39, 38, 

Fintry, an estate in Mains and Strathmartine parish, 
Forfarshire, 3 miles NNE of Dundee. From the Earls 
of Angus it passed by marriage to the Grahams of Fintry ; 
was held by them for several centuries ; contained Cla- 
VERHOUSE, the family seat of the famous Viscount Dun- 
dee ; and went eventually to Erskine of Linlathen. 
Fintry Castle, built in 1311 on the steep bank of a 
rivulet amidst a dense mass of lofty trees, comprised a 
quadrangle, with a strong tower pierced by a principal 
gateway facing W ; had a passage over that gate, whence 
missiles could be showered upon assailants ; was de- 
fended by several outworks ; and is now extinct. The 



joausoleum of the Grahams is still in the parish church- 

Fintry, a small bay on the W side of Big Cumbrae 
island, Buteshire. It is a mere incurvature 5 furlongs 
long ; but it has a fine beach of yellow sand nearly 300 
yards broad, overlooked by a succession of pleasant 
natural terraces ; and so it is well situated to become 
some day the site of a watering-place. 

Finzean House, a mansion in Birse parish, S Aber- 
deenshire, 7 miles SE by E of Aboyne station, this being 
32^ miles W by S of Aberdeen. A fine old. building, 
forming three sides of a quadrangle, it stands amid 
large and richly wooded grounds. Its owner, Robert 
Tarquharson, Esq., M.D., F.R.C.P. (b. 18-37; sue. 
1876), was elected Liberal member of West Aberdeen- 
shire in 1880, and holds 16,809 acres in the county, 
valued at £6167 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 66, 1871. 

Fiodhaig. See Fiag. 

Fionaven. See Foinaven. 

Fionnchairn or Finoharn, a ruined fortalice in Eil- 
michael-Glassary parish, Argyllshire, on the steep SE 
margin of Loch Awe, 2J miles ENE of Ford, near the 
loch's head. A small but strong keep, it is said by 
tradition to have belonged to a chieftain called Mac Mhic 
Jain, and to have been bimied by a vassal whose wife he 
had wTonged, and by whom he himself was slain. 

Fionn Loch, a lake on the mutual border of Gairloch 
and Lochbroom parishes, NW Koss-shire, 3^ miles N 
of Letterewe on Loch Maree, and 6 E of Poolewe. 
Lying 559 feet above sea-level, and 2238J acres in area, 
it extends 5f miles north-north-westward, has a vary- 
ing width of 4 furlong and IJ mile, teems with trout, 
and sends ofi^ the Little Greinord 5| miles north-by- 
eastward to the head of Greinord Bay. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
92, 1881. 

Firhall, an estate, with a mansion, in Nairn parish, 
Nairnshire, on the left bank of the river Nairn, | mile S 
of Nairn station. 

Firkin Point, a small headland in Arrochar parish, 
Dumbartonshire, on the W side of Loch Lomond, 2f 
miles SSE of Tarbet. 

Firth, a bay in the mainland of Orkney. Opening on 
a line westward from the String, or the sound betw en 
the mainland and Shapinshay, it measures 2^ miles 
from N to S across the entrance, penetrates 3J miles 
west-south-westward, and contracts to a width of 11 fur- 
longs, but re-expands presently to a width of 1 5. It is 
noted for its oyster beds ; contains, in its upper part, the 
islets of Damsay and Grimbister Holm ; sends off, from its 
NW corner, the little bay of Isbister ; and is bounded on 
the lower reach of its northern side by Kendall parish, 
of its southern side by Kirkwall or St Ola parish. 

Firth, a parish in the mainland of Orkney, bounded 
N by Kendall parish, E by Firth Bay and Eirlvwall 
parish, S by Orphir and Stenness, and AV by Harray. 
It includes the islets of Damsay and Grimbister Holm ; 
contains Finstown village ; and is united to Stenness. 
The united parish of Firth and Stenness, in its SW or 
Stenness portion, communicates by a bridge with Strom- 
ness parish, and is largely bounded by Stenness Loch and 
Hoy Sound. Its greatest length, from NE to SW, is 8A 
miles ; and its greatest breadth is 4 J miles. The shores 
of the united parish are undulating and fertile ; but the 
interior consists largely of moor and hill, covered with 
heath and peat-moss. Between 1841 and 1879, how- 
ever, the late Mr Kobert Scarth of Binsoarth did 
much in the way of reclaiming, enclosing, draining, 
liming, and planting — improvements described at length 
in pp. 48-51 of Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc. (1874). A 
lake and a singular Caledonian monument are noticed in 
our article on Stenness. Two proprietors hold each an 
annual value of between £100 and £500, 2 of from £50 
to £100, and 4 of from £20 to £50. This parish is in 
the presbytery of Cairston and synod of Orkney ; the 
living is worth £225. There are 2 parish churches, 
that of Firth built in 1813, and that of Stenness in 
1793. There are also a U.P. church of Firth and Free 
churches of Firth and Stenness ; and 2 public schools, 
Firth and Stenness, with respective accommodation for 


160 and 100 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 77 and 62, and grants of £82, 5s. 6d., and £64, 10s. 
Valuation of Firth and Stenness (1881) £1752, 10s. lOd. 
Pop. (1801) 1272, (1S61) 1493, (1871) 1434, (1881) 

Fisheross, a village near Sauchie in the detached 
portion of Clackmannan parish, Clackmannanshire, 2 
miles NNE of Alloa. Pop., together with Sauchie, 
(1871) 419, (1881) 320. 

Fisherie, a hamlet in King Edward parish, NW 
Aberdeenshire 8 miles NNE of TuiTiff, under which it 
has a post ofiice. 

Fisherrow. See Musselburgh. 

Fisherton, a hamlet and a quoad sacra parish in May. 
bole parish, Ayrshire. The hamlet lies near the coast, 
1 J mile SW of the Head of Ayr, and 6 mUes SW of Ayr, 
its station and post-to^Ti. The parish is in the presbytery 
of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the minister's 
stipend is £120. The church was originally a chapel 
of ease, and was preceded by a preaching station com- 
menced about 1820. Pop. (1871) 609, (1881) 609.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Fishertown, Banffshire. See Cullen. 

Fish-Holm, a small island in Delting parish, Shetland, 

3 miles S of the southern extremity of Yell. 
Fishie. See Feshie. 

Fishlin, a small island in the N of Shetland, 6 mUes 
S of the southern extremity of Yell. 

Fishtown. See Cullen. 

Fishwick, an ancient parish of SE Berwickshire, 
united to Hutton in 1614. Its small, long, narrow 
church, standing close to the left bank of the Tweed, 
7 furlongs above the Union Chain Bridge, and 5J miles 
WSW of Berwick, belonged for some time to the monks 
of Coldingham, and is now a picturesque ruin. The 
ancient cemetery lies around the ruin, and is stiU 
occasionally in use. 

Fishwives' Causeway. See Duddingston. 

Fitch, a village in the S of Shetland, 3J miles from 
its post-town, Lerwick. 

Fitful Head (Old IS oxse fit- ficcll), a large bold headland 
in Dunrossness parish, Shetland, flanking the NW 
side of Quendale Voe, 6 miles NW of Sumburgh Head. 
It rises to a height of 929 feet ; is seen at a great 
distance by vessels approaching from the SW ; and 
consists chiefly of clay slate. In the Pirate Scott fixes 
here the abode of the prophetess, Noma. 

Fithie, a beautiful lake (SJxJ furl.), with wooded 
shores, in Forfar parish, Forfarshire, 2 miles ENE of 
the town. 

Fithie, a rivulet of SW Forfarshire. It rises on 
Balcallo Hill at an altitude of 800 feet above sea- 
level, and running 8 miles south-eastward, through or 
along the borders of Tealing, Murroes, Dundee, and 
Montfieth parishes, falls into Dichty Water, IJ mile 
above that stream's entrance to the Firth of Tay. 
It makes, in its lowermost reach, valuable alluvial 
deposits on its banks. — Ord. Sur., shs. 48, 49, 1868-65. 

Fittiok, a place in Nigg parish, Kincardineshire, on 
Nigg Bay, If mile SE of Aberdeen. It was the site of 
an ancient church, St Fittick's, now extinct ; and it 
once gave name to Nigg Bay. 

Fitty, a lake on the mutual border of Dunfermline 
and Beath parishes, Fife, 3 miles NE of Dunfermline 
town. It measm'es 1 by J mile ; is rather shallow, and 
of tame aspect ; receives a stream of 3J miles in length 
of run from the Saline Hills ; sends off Lochfitty Burn 

4 miles east-north-eastward to the Orr ; and contains 
pike, perch, and mussels. — Ord. Sttr., sh. 40, 1867. 

Fitty, a hill in the W of Westray island, Orkney. 
The highest part of a range, called elsewhere Skea 
and Gallo, it rises to the height of 652 feet above sea- 
level, and served and was used in 1821 as a station of 
the 'Trigonometrical Survey. 

Five Mile House, a hamlet in Liff and Benvie 
parish, Forfarshire, 5 miles NW of Dundee, under which 
it has a post ofiBce. 

Fladda, an island of Portree parish, Inverness-shirCj 
in Raasay Sound, 4 miles E of the nearest part of Skye, 


and 9 KE of Portreo town. It measures IJ by J mile, 
and is separated from Eaasay only by a narrow strait, 
wliich is dry at half-tide. Pop. (1861) 45, (1871) 54, 
(1S81) 54. 

Fladda, an island of South Uist parish. Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-shire, immediately N" of Eona island, and 2^ 
miles SE of the nearest part of North Uist island. It 
measures 4J miles in circumference. Pop. (1861) 48, 
(1871) 76, (1881) 87. 

Fladda, a small island of Barra parish, Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-shire, 2 miles S of Vatcrsay. 

Fladda, the northernmost of the Treshinish isles in 
Kilninian and Kilmore parish, Argyllshire, 3 miles SW 
of Treshinish Point, a north-western extremity of Mull. 
Its surface is flat and monotonous. 

Fladda, an islet of Kilbrandon and Kilchattan parish, 
Argyllshire, near Easdale. A lighthouse on it shows 
a fixed light visible at the distance of 11 nautical miles, 
red toward the Bogha-Nuadh rock, and white toward 
the mainland and channel to the S, but masked in other 

Fladda, a flat islet in the NW extremity of Harris 
parish, Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire, in the mouth 
of Loch Reasort. 

Fladda, an uninhabited pastoral islet of Eilmuir 
parish, Inverness-shire, 4J miles SE of Aird Point in 

Fladdachuain, an uninhabited pastoral islet of Kilmuir 
parish, Inverness-shire, 6 miles NW of Aird Point in 
Skye. It measures f mile in length and 300 yards in 
average breadth ; is clothed with remarkably flue grass ; 
had anciently three burying-places ; and also, till a 
recent period, retained nine stones of an ancient Cale- 
donian stone circle. A one-inch diameter ring, of plaited 
gold wires, was found in a moss here, and bought for 
the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum in 1851. 

Fladibister, a hamlet in Dunrossness parish, Shetland, 
S miles S of Lerwick. 

Flanders Moss, a tract of low, flat ground in the NE 
of Drymen parisli, SW Stirlingshire, on the southern 
bank of the Forth. Lying from 40 to 60 feet above 
sea-level, it is believed to have passed from the condi- 
tion of a rich alluvial plain to the condition of a bog, 
through the overthrow of a forest on it by the Roman 
army in the time of Severus ; and has, to a great extent, 
in recent times, been reclaimed by means of channel 
cuttings to the Forth. It is skirted, to the SE, by the 
Forth and Clyde Junction section of the North British 
railway. — Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Flannan Isles or Seven Hunters, a group of seven 
small uninhabited islands in Uig parish, Outer Hebrides, 
Ross-shire, 21 miles WNW of Gallon Head in Lewis. 
Called by Buchanan Insula: Sacrce, they possess some 
monuments, supposed to be religious relics of the ancient 
Caledonians, but seemingly as late as the 7th or 8th 
centui-y ; and they are frequented by immense flocks of 

Fleet, a small river of SE Sutherland, rising at an 
altitude of 750 feet above sea-level, 2 miles E by S of 
Lairg church, and thence winding 16f east-south-east- 
ward, till it falls below Little Ferey into the Dornoch 
Firth. Its principal affluent is the Cairnaig, and it 
intersects or bounds the parishes of Lairg, Rogart, Gol- 
spie, and Dornoch. In its upper and middle reaches it 
traverses a fine glen called from it Strathfleet ; lower 
down it expands into a tidal lagoon. Loch Fleet (3| x 16 
miles), similar to the lagoons of the Forfarshire South 
Esk and the Findhorn ; but in the last mile above its 
mouth it again contracts to a width of from 1 to 2J 
fmiongs. Its strath, from a point near- the source all 
down to the head of the lagoon, is traversed by the 
Sutherland railway, in a gradient of 1 in 84 ; and its 
stream, | mile NW of Rogart station, near the High 
Rock of Craigmore, is crossed by the railway on a stone 
viaduct with a single arch of 55 feet in span. The 
lagoon is crossed towards its head by the lyiound, an 
emimnkment 995 yards long, which, taking over the 
public road for the eastern seaboard of Sutherland, was 
completed in 1816 at a cost of £12,500, and is pierced 


at its E end with four arches and sluices for the transit 
of the river and of tidal currents. Above the Mound 
the lagoon is now mainly a swampy flat, covered with 
alders ; below, it has been curtailed to the extent of 400 
acres, by the reclamation of its bed from the tides ; and 
within its mouth it contains a harbour 260 yards broad, 
with IS feet of water at ebb tide, perfectly sheltered in all 
weather, and serving for the importation of coals, lime, 
bone-dust, and general merchandise, and for the expor- 
tation of agricultural and distillery produce. The river 
is frequented by sea-trout, grilse, and salmon ; and the 
neck of it between the lagoon and the sea contains a 
fine salmon cast — ' the only spot in the kingdom where 
angling for salmon has been successfully practised in 
salt water.' The depth of water over the bar at the 
river's mouth is IS feet at full spring tide, and 44 feet 
at ebb tide.— Ord Sur., shs. 102, 103, 1881-78. 

Fleet Street. See Anwoth and Gatehouse. 

Fleet, Water of, a small river of Girthon parish, S"W 
Kirkcudbrightshire. The Big "Water of Fleet is formed 
at a point 2g miles above a 20-arch viaduct of the Port- 
patrick railway, by the confluence of Carrouch, Mid, 
and Cardson Burns, which all three rise on the eastern 
side of Cairnsmoke of Fleet (2331 feet). Thence it 
runs 6J miles south-south-eastward along the liirkma- 
breck and Anwoth border, till it is joined by the Little 
"Water of Fleet, which, issuing from triangular Loch 
Fleet (3x2 furl. ; 1120 feet), has a south-by-easterly 
course of 7 J miles. After their union, near Castramont, 
the stream, as "Water of Fleet, flows 4;j miles south-by- 
eastward, and then, a little below Gatehouse, expands, 
over the last 3| miles of its course, into the fine estuary 
of Fleet Bay. It traverses charming scenery throughout 
its middle or lower reaches, and is navigable by small 
vessels up to Gatehouse. Its waters are strictly pre- 
served, and trout, sea-trout, and herlings are plentiful, 
but salmon nowadays are few and far between. — Ord. 
Sicr., shs. 4, 5, 1857. 

Flemington, a village in Avondale parish, Lanarkshii'e, 
containing Strathaven station, and ^ mile NE of the 

Flemington, a village in Ayton parish, Berwickshire, 
near the North British railway, f mile E by N of Ayton 

Flemington, a burn in Newlands parish, Peebles- 
shire, running 4;^ miles south-westward, till, after a total 
descent of 700 feet, it falls into Lyne "Water, 2 miles S 
by E of Eomanno Bridge. 

Flemington, an estate, with an old castle, in Aber- 
lemno parish, Forfarshire, the property of Patrick Web- 
ster, Esq. of Westfield. "The castle, standing 300 yards 
E of the parish church, presents a strong and stately 
appearance. It was inhabited by the proprietor till 
about 1830, and afterwards was occupied by farm- 

Flemington, a collier village, of recent growth, in 
Cambuslaug parish, NW Lanarkshire, 1 mile from Cam- 
buslang village. Pop. (1881) 691. 

Flemington, an estate, with a mansion, in Petty parisli, 
NE Inverness-shire, f mile NE of Fort George station. 
Separated from Kilravock in 1787, it is now the property 
of Lewis Carmichael Urquhart, Esq., of Elgin. Loch 
Flemington (4J x IJ furl.) lies 1 mile SSE on the Croy 
border, half in Naii'n and half in Inverness shire. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Fleurs. See Floors. 

Flexfield, a hamlet in Mouswald parish, Dumfries- 
shire, 6 J miles E by S of Dumfries. 

Flint, an eastern offshoot of the Broughton Heights, 
on the mutual border of Stobo and Eirkurd parishes, 
Peeblesshire, 4J miles NNE of Rachan Mill. It has an 
altitude of 1756 feet above sea-level. 

Flisk, a parish of N Fife, whose church to the NE 
stands 1 furlong S of the Firth of Tay, 6 miles ENE of 
Newburgh station, and 7S NNW of the post-town 
Cupar, whilst on its SW border is the little village of 
Glenduckie, 4^ mUes E by N of Newburgh. Bounded 
NW and N by the Firth of Tay, E by Balmerino, SE by 
Creich, S by the Aytonhill section of Abdie, and 8"^ 



by Dunbog, it has an utmost length from ENE to WSW 
of 4J miles, a varying breadth of 4^ furlongs and 2 
miles, and an area of 285 4 J acres, of which 240 J are 
foreshore. The firth, expanding here from IJ to 3 miles, 
is fringed by a level strip 70 to 550 yards in breadth, 
beyond which the surface rises rapidly to 714 feet at 
Glenduckie Hill, 800 on the boundary with Abdie, and 
600 on that with Creich, whilst from Glenduckie sinking 
again to less than 200 on the Dunbog border. The 
rocks are partly eruptive, partly Devonian, and the soil 
in general is a clayey loam. Rather more than one- 
tenth of the entire area is under wood, one-fifteenth is 
natural pasture, and all the rest is under cultivation. 
Ballanbreich Castle, a picturesque ruin, has been separ- 
ately noticed. Two parsons of Flisk in the first half of 
the 16th century, John Waddell and James Balfour, 
were judges of the Court of Session ; and another, John 
Wemyss, towards the close of that century, became 
principal of St Leonard's College, St Andrews. The 
property is mostly divided among three. Giving off a 
portion quoad sacra to Dunbog, Flisk is in the presby- 
tery of Cupar and synod of Fife ; the living is worth 
£259. The parish church, built in 1790, contains 153 
sittings ; and a public school, mth accommodation for 73 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 40, and a 
grant of £49, 6s. Valuation (1866) £3666, 16s. 3d., 
(1882) £4452, 2s. lOd. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 300, 
(1831) 286, (1861) 313, (1871) 280, (1881) 259 ; of q. s. 
parish (1871) 212, (1881) 21Z.— Orel. Siir., sh. 48, 1868. 

Float Bay or Port Float, a small bay in Stoneykirk 
parish, Wigtownshire, 6 miles SE of Portpatrick. It is 
said to have got its name from the wreck here of some 
of the ships of the Spanish Armada or ' Flota ; ' but 
above it is the moss or flow of 'Meikle Float.' 

Float Moss, a large expanse of low meadowy ground 
m Carstairs, Carnwath, and Pettinain parishes, Lanark- 
shire, along the banks of the Clyde, in the south-eastern 
vicinity of Carstairs Junction. It used to be frequently 
flooded by freshets of the river, so as at times to resemble 
a large and dreary-looking lake ; and it took its name 
from a float or large boat which formerly served in lieu 
of a bridge across the Clyde, and which cost £500. The 
Caledonian railway goes across it, on works which were 
formed at great expense ; and it has here timber viaducts 
for allowing free scope to the freshets of the river. 

Flodda. See Fladda. 

Flodigairy, an ancient house in Kilmuir parish, Isle 
of Skye, Inverness-shire. A loud rumbling noise, heard 
from beneath an eminence in its close vicinity, is sup- 
posed to be caused by the roll of sea-billows into some 
natural tunnel or subterranean cavern. 

Floors Castle, the seat of the Duke of Eoxburghe, in 
Kelso parish, Roxburghshire, 3 furlongs from the N 
bank of the Tweed, and IJ mile WNW of Kelso town. 
As built for the first Duke in 1718 by Sir John Vanbrugh, 
a better playwright than architect, it was severely plain, 
not to say heavy-looking ; but in 1849 and following 
years the whole was transformed by Playfair of Edin- 
burgh into a sumptuous Tudor pile — one of the most 
palatial residences of the Scottish nobility. The gar- 
dens, too, already beautiful, were greatly extended 
(1857-60) ; the home farm, to the rear of the castle, 
was rearranged and in great measure rebuilt (1875) ; 
and no fewer than 120 model cottages were erected on 
the estate — all these improvements being carried out by 
James, sixth Duke (1816-79), who had the honour of 
receiving visits here from Queen Victoria (Aug. 1867), the 
Prince and Princess of "Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh, 
the Duke of Albany, etc. John, third Duke (1740- 
1804), is remembered as a famous bibliomaniac. His 
library, numbering nearly 10,000 books, was sold in 
1812, when the first edition of the Decameron (1471) 
brought £2260, and Caxton's Historye of Troye (1461) 
1000 guineas. James Henry Robert Innes-Ker, present 
and seventh Duke since 1707 (b. 1839 ; sue. 1879), holds 
50,459 acres in the shire, valued at £43,820, 8s. per 
annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. See Eoxbxjkgh, 
Eelso, and Cessfoed. 

Flotta, an island in the S of Orkney, lying nearly 


midway between Hoy and South Ronaldshay, and flank- 
ing part of the southern side of Scalpa Flow, 15 miles 
SSW of Kirkwall. It has a post office under Stromness. 
It measures 3^ miles in length from NE to SW, by 2 j 
miles in extreme breadth, and is deeply pierced on the 
north-eastern side by an elongated bay called Pan- 
hope, which forms an excellent harbour. The coast 
is mostly high and rocky ; the interior low, tame, and 
heathy, consisting mainly of sandstone and sandstone- 
flag. Specially well situated for fishing, and famous 
for its excellent fishing boats, it was the residence 
of the ancient Norwegian historiographer, sent from 
Norway to collect information respecting Scotland, and 
gave name to his work, the Codex Flotticensis, from 
which Torfaeus and subsequent historians drew much of 
their materials on the ancient condition of the northern 
districts of Scotland. Ecclesiastically, the island is 
included in the parish of Walls and Flotta. Pop. 
(1841) 405, (1861) 420, (1871) 423, (1881) 425. 

Flotta-Calf, a pastoral island of Flotta parish, Orkney, 
adjacent to the north-eastern extremity of Flotta island, 
and measuring 2 miles in circumference. 

Flowerdale, an old-fashioned mansion of the middle 
of last century, with beautiful grounds and finely-wooded 
policies, in Gairloch parish, NW Ross-shire, adjacent to 
Gairloch village, and to the head of the Gair Loch. It 
is the seat of Sir Kenneth-Smith Mackenzie of Gairloch, 
sixth Bart, since 1702 (b. 1832 ; sue. 1843), who holds 
164,680 acres in the shire, valued at £7842, 15s. per 
annum. His ancestor, ' Eachin Roy ' or ' Red Hector,' 
second son of Alexander, seventh chieftain of KintaU, ob- 
tained a grant of Gairloch barony from James IV. in 1 494. 

FlowerhilL See Aikdkib. 

Fluchter, a village in Baldemook parish, SW Stirling- 
shire, 2 miles E of Milngavie. 

Fludha, an estate, with a mansion, in Kirkcudbright 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, IJ mile from the town. 

Fochabers, a small town in Bellie parish, NE Elgin- 
shire. It stands, 140 feet above sea-level, on the right 
bank of the Spey, 4 miles above its mouth, and 3 miles 
E by N of Fochabers station, in Speymouth parish, on 
the Highland railway, this station being 6^ mUes ESE 
of Elgin and llf WNW of Keith. Its present site is 
an elevated gravel terrace in a deep wooded valley, but 
it stood in the immediate vicinity of Goedon Castle 
till the close of last century, when, to improve the 
grounds of that noble mansion, it was rebuilt on the line 
of road from Aberdeen to Inverness, about a mile 
farther S. The ancient market-cross still stands in 
the ducal park. A handsome three-arch bridge, 382 
feet long, that spans the Spey here, was partly swept 
away by the great flood of 1829, which raised the river 
nearly 9 feet above its ordinary level. The town has a 
quadrangular outline, with central square and streets at 
right angles one to another ; presents a neat, weU-built, 
and modern appearance ; serves as a business centre for 
a considerable extent of surrounding country ; com- 
municates by coach with Keith and Portsoy ; and has a 
post oSice, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, 
and railway telegraph departments, branches of the 
Union and Aberdeen Town and Count}' Banks, a branch 
of the Elgin Savings' Bank, a penny savings' bank, 9 
insurance agencies, an hotel called the Gordon Arms, a 
county police station (1869), a reading-room and library, 
and a gas-light company. Thursday is the day of a 
weekly corn market ; fairs are held on the third Thurs- 
day of January and February, the fourth Wednesday of 
March, the fourth Thursday of April and May, the first 
Thursday of July, the second Wednesday of August, 
and the first Thursday of October and December ; and 
sheriff small debt courts sit on the Saturday after the 
second Monday of February, June, and October. Bellie 
parish church, on the S side of the square, is a hand- 
some edifice of 1797, with a portico and a spire. Other 
places of worship are a Free church, a Roman Catholic 
church (1828), and an Episcopal church, which, built 
in 1835 at a cost of £1200, was, at a further cost of 
over £2000, internally restored in 1874. The antiquary, 
George Chalmers (1742-1825), and William Marshall 


(1748-1833), whom Burns styles 'the first composer of 
Strathspeys of the age,' were both born at the old town. 
Milne's Free School arose from a bequest of £20,000 by 
Alexander Milne, another native, who died at New 
Orleans in 1838. Opened with great ceremony in 1846, 
it is a splendid edifice, finely situated, and comprises a 
hall (58 by 22 feet), 4 other class-rooms, and a rector's 
dwelling-house. It is conducted by a rector, an 
English master, an arithmetic and writing master, and 
a mistress — all appointed by a body of directors, and, 
with accommodation for 723 children, it had (1881) an 
average attendance of 336, and a grant of £284, 2s. 
The town is a burgh of barony, governed by a baron 
bailie under the Duke of Richmond and Gordon. Pop. 
(1841) 1135, (1861) 1149, (1871) 1227, (1881)1189.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 95, 1876. 

Fodderty, a parish of south-eastern and central Ross 
and Cromartj', traversed for 6J miles by the Dingwall 
and Skye branch of the Highland railway, from a point 
1§ mile W by N" of Dingwall to the foot of Loch Garve. 
Strathpeffer station thereon lies 4J miles WNW of 
Dingwall ; and the parish also contains Strathpeffer 
Spa, AuoHTERNEED hamlet, and Makybukgh village. 
It is bounded N by Kincardine, NE by Alness, Kiltearn, 
and Dingwall, SE by Urquhart, S by Urray, and SW 
by Coutin. Its utmost length, from NAY to SE, is 23 
miles ; its width varies between 1 mile and 7| miles ; 
and its area is 65,264g acres, of which 988 J are water, and 
2720f belong to the Maryburgh or south-eastern portion, 
detached from the main body by a strip of Dingwall 
parish, g furlong broad at the narrowest. Through this 
south-eastern section the Conan ilows If mile north- 
north-eastward to the head of Cromarty Firth ; whilst 
in the main body, the Peffer, rising at an altitude of 
1750 feet, winds 7J miles south-south-eastward and east- 
by-northward, till, If mile above its mouth, it passes 
off into DingwaU. Lakes are Loch Ussie (6J x 4§ furl. ; 
419 feet), lying partly in Dingwall and partly in the 
detached portion ; Lochs Garve (1 J x J mile ; 220 feet) 
and Gorm (2 x 2i furl. ; 1900 feet)," on" the Contin bor- 
der ; Crom Loch (J mile x 31 furl. ; 1720 feet), on the 
Kincardine border ; and Loch Toll a' Mhuic (5f x 2 
furl. ; 880 feet), in the nortli-western interior. The 
surface declines to 20 feet above sea-level along tte 
Peifer, and S of the railway attains 579 feet at conical 
Knock Farril, 801 at Creag Ulladail, and 874 at Creag 
an Fhithich ; north-westward it rises to 1172 at Druim 
a' Chuilein, 1705 at Cam Gorm, 3106 at An Cabar, 3429 
at huge lumpish *Ben Wyvis, 2206 at *Carn nan Con 
Ruadha, and 2551 at Meall a' Ghrianain, where asterisks 
mark those summits that culminate on the confines of 
the parish, the highest point in whose detached portion 
is 628 feet. A calcareo-bituminous rock — fish-bed schist 
of the Old Red sandstone series — occurs in large quan- 
tities in the lower parts of Fodderty. It emits, when 
broken, a peculiar foetid odour ; and to it the Wells 
owe their ingredients and properties. A seam of soft 
friable bitumen in a hill above Castle-Leod is capable of 
jdelding a high percentage of oil, though not enough to 
repay the cost of working, as proved by investigations of 
1870-71. The rocks of the mountainous north-western 
region are gneissose chiefly, of Silurian age. The soil 
of the arable lands ranges from a strong reddish clay to 
a fine free loam, and great improvements have been 
carried out on the Duchess of Sutherland's property 
since 1867 in the way of reclaiming, fencing, planting, 
building, etc. ; still the arable area is small, compared 
with hUl-pasture and moorland. A cairn, measuring 
260 feet by 20, is on the lands of Hilton, where and on 
Cromarty estate are remains of two stone circles ; two 
standing stones adjoin the parish church ; and several 
kistvaens or ancient stone cofiins have been found to 
the N of the churchyard. The chief antiquity, the 
vitrified fort on Knock Farril, is noticed separately, 
as also is the chief mansion, Castle-Leod. Four pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
2 of between £100 and £500, and 6 of less than £100. 
Giving off portions to the quoad sacra parishes of Car- 
nach and Kinlochluichart, Fodderty is in the presbytery 


of Dingwall and synod of Ross ; the living is worth 
£354. The parish church, 9 furlongs ESE of Strath- 
peffer station, was built in 1807, and, as enlarged in 
1835, contains 640 sittings. There are two Free churches, 
one of Maryburgh and one of Fodderty and Coutin ; and. 
two public schools, Fodderty and Maryburgh, ivith re- 
spective accommodation for 165 and 121 children, had 

(1881) an average attendance of 111 and 117, and gi'ants 
of £84, Is. and £107, Is. 6d. Valuation (1860) £7538, 

(1882) £12,583, 15s. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 1829, 
(1831) 2232, (1861) 2247, (1871) 2121, (1881) 2047, of 
whom 1381 were Gaelic-speaking ; of ecclesiastical parish 
(1871) 1943, (1881) 1S80.— Ord. Sur., shs. 83, 93, 1881. 

Foffarty, a property in Kinnettles parish, Forfarshire, 
3 miles SSW of Forfar. A Roman Catholic chapel, with 
manse and ofiBces, was built here soon after tlie Refor- 
mation, on the margin of a den at the foot of Kincaldrum 
Hill ; and, burned by a party of royal dragoons in 1745, 
remained in a roofless and ruinous condition for many 
years, till it was razed to the foundations in 1816. 

Fogo, a liamlet and a jiarish of central Berwickshire. 
The hamlet lies on the right bank of Blackadder Water, 
14 mile E of Marchmont station, and 4 J miles S by W 
of its post-town. Duns. 

The parish is bounded N and NE by Edrom, E by 
Swiuton, S by Eccles, SW by Greenlaw, and NW by 
Polwarth. Its utmost length, from ENE to WSW, is 
5J miles ; its utmost breadth is 2 miles ; and its area is 
4669 acres, of which 17J are water. Blackadder Water 
winds 3f miles north-eastward through the north-western 
interior, and then for 1 mile traces the northern border ; 
its channel is a sort of huge furrow here, between 
parallel ranges of low heights, that nowhere sink much 
below 300, or much exceed 500, feet above sea-level. 
Sandstone, the principal rock, was formerly quarried ; 
and boulder clay lies so deep that the steep banks of the 
Blackadder can be ploughed within a few yards of the 
stream. The soil on the higher grounds is a deep black 
loam, extremely fertile ; that of the lower grounds is 
thinner, and lies on till, yet is very far from being un- 
productive. Some 300 acres are under wood, 40 or so 
are natural pasture, and all the rest of the land is under 
cultivation. A Roman camp, crowning a commanding 
elevation (500 feet) at Chesters, near the south-western 
extremity of the parish, and approached by a causeway 
through a marsh, has been nearly obliterated by the 
operations of agriculture. Caldra and CharterhaU, both 
separately noticed, are mansions ; and the property is 
divided among four. Fogo is in the presbytery of 
Duns and synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living 
is worth £300. The parish church, on the Blackadder's 
bank, at the village, is an old and picturesque, ivy- 
mantled building, enlarged in 1853, and containing 278 
sittings. A public school, with accommodation for 123 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 57, and a 
grant of £52, 18s. 6d. Valuation (1882) £7959. Pop. 
(1801)507, (1831) 433, (1851) 604, (1861) 559, (1871) 
502, (1881) 468.— Oi-A Stir., shs. 26, 25, 1864-63. 

Foinaven or Foiime-Bheinn, a mountain (2980 feet) 
on the mutual border of Eddraehillis and Durness parish, 
NW Sutherland, 5| miles WSW of the head of Loch 

Folda, a hamlet in Glenisla parish, NW Forfarshire, 
13 mUes NNW of Alyth. It has a Christian Knowledge 
Society school and a post office under Alyth. 

FoUart, Loch. See Dunvegan. 

Foodiecast, a hamlet in the SW corner of Dairsie 
parish, Fife, 1 J mile N of Cupar. 

Footdee. See Aberdeen, p. 9. 

Fopachy, a landing-place for vessels, but without 
any proper harbour, in Kirkhill parish, Inverness-shire, 
on the S side of the Beauly Firth, f mile NW of Bun- 
chrew station. 

Forbes, a hamlet and an ancient parish in Aberdeen- 
shire. The hamlet lies on the left bank of the river 
Don, at the Bridge of Alford, If mUe WNW of Alford 
village, and has a good inn, the Forbes Arms, and a 
post office under Aberdeen. The parish was annexed in 
1722 to Kearn, from which it is separated by a range of 



hills ; and has, since 1808, been united to TuUynessle. 
It has belonged, from the 13th century, to the noble 
family of Forbes of Castle Foeees. — Ord. Siir., sh. 76, 

Ford, a village in Borthwick and Cranston parishes, 
Edinburghshire, on the left bank of the river Tyne, J mile 
"W by N of Pathhead, 4J miles ESE of Dalkeith, and 10 J 
SE of Edinburgh. It practically forms one village Avith 
Pathhead, but it has a post office of its own name under 
Dalkeith, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, and a United Presbyterian church, 
birilt in 1851. See Ckanston and Pathhead. — Oi-d. 
Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Ford. See Fokd-Lochawe. 

Fordel, an estate, with a mansion, in Dalgety parish, 
Fife. The mansion, standing 2J miles NNE of Inver- 
keithing, is a castellated edifice, whose picturesque 
grounds contain a darkly wooded glen, with a cascade 
of 50 feet in fall. It was the seat of George William 
Mercer-Henderson, Esq. (1823-81), who o-\vned 1955 acres 
in the shire, valued at £5843 per annum, and on whose 
death Fordel passed to his youngest sister, Edith Isabella, 
married in 1S66 to the Hon. Hamilton - Hew - Adam 
Duncan, second son of the first Earl of CamperdoAvn. 
Extensive coal mines, worked on the estate since 1600, 
still yield a large though a diminished output. They 
lie beneath a surface rising from a few feet to 420 feet 
above sea-level, being chielly situated in the southern 
and south-eastern vicinity of Crossgates ; and liave a 
tram railway, called the Fordel railway, 4 miles in 
length, communicating with the seaboard village of St 
Davids, li mile E by S of Inverkeithing. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 40, 32, 1867-57. 

Fordel Square, a collier village in Dalgety parish, 
Fife, contiguous to the boundary with Aberdour, and on 
the Fordel railway, near its northern extremity, f mile 
ESE of Crossgates. Part of it is called Wemyss Square, 
and the whole is often called simply Fordel. Pop. 
(1861) 813, (1871) 641, (1881) 488. 

Ford-Lochawe, a village in Kilmartin and Glassary 
parishes, Argyllshire, J mile SSW of the head of Loch 
Awe, and 12 miles N of Lochgilphead, under which 
it lias a post and telegraph oflice. During the summer 
months it forms a point of communication between a 
public coach running from Ardrishaig and a small 
steamer sailing up from Brander, at the foot of Loch 
Awe ; and it has an inn, a public school, and an Estab- 
lished mission station, conjoint with one at Lochgair. — • 
Ord. Sur., sh. 37, 1876. 

Ford of Frew, a ford in the river Forth, on the 
mutual boundary of Stirlingshire and Perthshire, 3 
furlongs NE of Kippen station. It was formerly de- 
fended by a small fortress. 

Ford of Pitcur, a hamlet in Eettins parish, Forfar- 
shire, 3 miles SE of Coupar-Angus. 

Fordoun, a parish in Kincardineshire, containing the 
post-oifice village of Auohinblae, 5| miles N by E of 
Laurencekirk, and 2J NNW of Fordoun station, on the 
Scottish North-Eastern section of the Caledonian, which 
station is 27J miles SSW of Aberdeen, and 30 NE of 
Forfar, and at which is a post ofiice of Fordoun, with 
money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph 

The parish is bounded NW and N by Strachan, NE by 
Glenbervie, SE by Arbuthnott, S by Laurencelurk and 
Marykirk, and W by Fettercairn. Its gi'eatest length, 
from E to W, is lOJ miles ; its utmost breadth, from N 
to S, is 7g miles ; and its area is 26,937 acres, of which 88i 
are water. Beevie Water, gathering its four head- 
streams in the northern exti'emity of the parish, winds 11 
mUes south-eastward and south-by-westward, chiefly 
along the Glenbervie and Arbuthnott borders ; Litthek 
Water, from its source above Drumtochty, curves 5| 
miles south-eastward and southward, past Auchinblae, 
on its way to the river North Esk ; and of two of its 
own little tributaries, Ferdun Water and Dourie Burn, 
the former traverses the western interior, the latter 
traces the boundary with Fettercairn. Sinking along 
Bervie Water to 170, along Luther Water to 190, feet 


above sea-level, the surface thence rises to 717 feet 
at Knock Hill, 725 at Herscha HDl, 1055 at Black Hill, 
1358 at Strathfinella Hill, 1000 at Arnbarrow Hill, 1664 
at *Whitelaws, 1488 at *Cairn O'Mouut, 1194 at HiU of 
Annahar, 1527 at *Goyle Hill, 1146 at Aikenhead, and 
1291 at the *Builg, where asterisks mark those summits 
that culminate right on the north-western border. The 
northern and larger portion of the parish, known as the 
Brae district, consists, thus, of ridges and spurs of the 
frontier Grampians, with intersecting glens and vales ; 
and presents, especially along the course of Luther Water, 
and around the base of Strathfinella HUl, not a few scenes 
of more than common beauty. The southern district, 
part of the Howe of the Mearns, is all nearly level, 
nowhere attaining 300 feet above sea-level. The 
principal rocks of the uplands are clay slate, mica slate, 
and other metamorphic rocks ; those of the Howe are 
New Red sandstone, sandstone conglomerate, and 
intruded trap ; and limestone occurs at Drumtochty and 
Glenfarquhar. The soil of this, the most important agri- 
cultural parish in the county, is very various. A large 
proportion is strong clayey loam, a considerable extent 
good medium loam, and a pretty large area light loam. 
The subsoil is a mixture of clay and gravel in some 
parts, and hard gravel in others (Trans. Highl. and 
Ag. Soc, 1881, pp. 115-117). Fully one-thirteenth 
of the entire parish is under wood, and rather less 
than one-half is arable. Near Fordoun House are 
traces of a Roman camp; the 'Priest's AVells,' in 
'Friar's Glen,' above Drumtochty, mark the probable 
site of a religious house, said to have been a Carmelite 
friary ; a stone circle stood on Herscha HiU, an 
ancient castle in Glenfarquhar; and Arnbarrow Hill 
was traversed by the Deer Dyke. Antiquities no- 
ticed separately are Finella Castle, Castleton, and 
the site of the town of Kincardine, the former capital 
of the county. George Wislrart, burned at St Andrews 
as a heretic in 1546, was of Pittarrow; and other natives 
ofFordoun were Alexander Hamilton, M.D. (1739-1802), 
an eminent physician, and the judge James Burnet, Lord 
Monboddo (1714-99), who anticipated Darwin in an evo- 
lution theory — of monkeys whose tails wore off with con- 
stant sitting. So, too, according to Camden, was John 
of Fordun, a 14th century chronicler, whose 'carefully 
manipulated fictions' — the Scotichronicon — have been 
edited by Dr Skene (Edinb. 1871) for the ' Historians of 
Scotland ' series. To Fordun this parish is mainly in- 
debted for its supposed ccmnection with the ' chief apostle 
of the Scottish nation,' St Palladius, whose name is pre- 
served in Paldy Fair, and whose chapel, with a'rude piscina, 
still stands in the parish churchyard. In 430, we are 
told. Pope Celestine sent him to Scotland ( ' in Scotiam ') 
'as the first bishop therein, with Serf and Ternan for 
fellow- workers ; and at Fordoun he founded a church, and 
shortly afterwards there was crowned with martjrrdom.' 
But ' Scotia ' in 430 could have meant Ireland only; and 
Skene, in vol. ii. of his Celtic Scotland (ISII ,^^. 26-32), 
shows that St Serf belonged to the latter part of the 7th 
century. His solution is, that Ternan, and Ternan 
alone, really was a disciple of Palladius, and brought his 
relics from either Ireland or Galloway to his own native 
district in the territories of the southern Picts, who had 
been converted by St Ninian, and that, as founder of 
the church of Fordoun in honour of Palladius he became 
to some extent identified with him. (See also Banohokt- 
Ternan and CuLROSS.) Fordoun House, Ij mUe SSE 
of Auchinblae, belongs to Viscount Arbuthnott, but is 
merely a farmhouse now. Other mansions, treated of 
separately, are Drumtochty Castle and Monboddo 
House ; and 11 proprietors hold each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 3 of between £100 and £500, 3 of 
from £50 to £100, and 16 of from £20 to £50. Fordoun 
gives name to a presbytery in the synod of Angus and 
Mearns ; the living is worth £440. The church, a little 
to the S of Auchinblae, is a good Gothic structure of 
1829, with 1230 sittings, and a conspicuous tower 93 feet 
high. There is also a Free church. The ' Minstrel, ' 
James Beattie (1735-1803), was parish schoolmaster from 
1753 to 1758. 'Three public schools — Fordoun, Landsend, 


and Tipperty — mth respective accommodation for 208, 
60, and 49 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 131,33, and 33, and grants of £130, 4s. 6d., £24, 17s., 
and £43, 15s. Vahiation(lS56) £15,949, (1882) £21,610, 
10s. 8d., 2jZi(s £1821 for railway. Pop. (1801) 2203, 
(1831) 2238, (1861) 2297, (1871) 2113, (1881) lS92.—Ord. 
Sur., sh. 66, 1871. 

The presbytery of Fordoun, now meeting at Laurence- 
kirk, comprises the qzwad civilia parishes of Arbuthnott, 
Benholm, Bervie, Dunnottar, Fettercairn, Fetteresso, 
Fordoun, Garvock, Glenbervie, Kinnelf and Caterline, 
Laurencekirk, Marykirk, and St Cyrus, with the quoad 
sacra parishes of Cockney and Rickarton. Pop. (1871) 
23,895, (ISSl) 23,830, of whom 7479 were communicants 
of the Chm'ch of Scotland in 1878.— The Free Church 
also has a presbytery of Fordoun, with churches at Ben- 
holm, Bervie, Fettercairn, Fordoun, Glenbervie, Kinneff, 
Laurencekirk, Marykirk, St Cyi'us, and Stonehaven, 
which together had 1572 communicants in 1881. 

Fordyce, a village and a coast parish of Banffshire. 
The village, standing on the right bank of the Burn of 
Fordyce, 2J miles SW of Portsoy and 4 ESE of CuUen, 
is a burgh of barony under the Earl of Seaiield, having 
received its first charter in 1499, and another in 1592. 
It has a post office under Bantf, and a fair on the second 
AVednesday of November. 

The parish contains also the town of PoRTSOT, with 
the villages of Sandend and Newmills, and prior to the 
Reformation comprehended likewise the present parishes 
of Cullen, Deskford, and OrdiquhiU. It is bounded N 
by the Moray Firth, E by Boyndie, SE by Ordiquhill, 
SW by Grange, and W by Deskford and Cullen. Its 
utmost length, from NNE to SSW, is 7g miles ; its 
utmost breadth, from E to W, is 5§ miles ; and its area 
is 17,430 acres, of which 197| are foreshore, and 34| 
water. The Burn of Botne, rising on the northern 
slope of Knock Hill, runs first aci'oss the southern 
interior, then 7 miles north-north-eastward along all 
the BojTidie border to the sea ; Duen Burn runs 6 
miles through the middle of the parish to the sea at 
Portsoy ; and Fordyce Burn, rising at the boundary 
with Deskford, runs 3J miles across the north-western 
district to the sea at Sandend Bay. The coast, which, 
measured along its sinuosities, is 8| miles long, is some- 
what bold and rocky, with bays at Portsoy and Sand- 
end, and headlands called East Head, Redhythe Point, 
Crathie Point, and Logic Head (189 feet). It is pierced 
with several caves, the principal Dove, Kitty, Bow, 
Cloutty, and Findlater Caves, none of them of any great 
extent. The interior is partly a fine flat, with frequent 
inequalities or rising-grounds, and partly a series of 
hUls, with intervening and flanking vales and dales. 
Chief elevations, from N to S, are Cowhythe (257 feet), 
Crannoch Hill (300), Duen HiU (651), Fordyce Hill 
(580), the Hill of Inverkindling (923), and Knock HUl 
(1409), the last of which, culminating at the meeting- 
point with Grange and Ordiquhill, presents a majestic 
appearance, and serves as a landmark to mariners 
throughout a considerable sweep of the Moray Firth. 
The rocks exhibit great diversity, at once of character 
and of interconnection ; and, from the time of Hutton 
do^vnward, have strongly attracted the attention of 
geologists. A beautiful serpentine forms two masses, 
respectively 73 and 1500 feet wide, in the vicinity of 
Portsoy, and is associated with syenite, hornblende, 
quartzite, clay slate, limestone, and talc or mica slate, 
whilst containing asbestos, amianthus, mountain cork, 
steatite, schiller-spar, magnetic iron, chromate of iron, 
and other minerals. Mostly greenish and reddish in 
hue, sometimes yellowish and greyish-wdiite, it has 
often been called Portsoy marble, and is highly valued 
as a material for ornamental objects, having been 
exported in some quantity to France for adorning 
Versailles Palace. Yeius of graphite granite, compris- 
ing quartz and felspar crystals in such arrangement, 
that a polished section resembles rudely formed letters, 
occur iu the same neighbourhood ; and a beautiful 
quartzite, suitable for use in potteries, has been quarried 
on the northern side of Durn Hill, and exported to 


England. Limestone has been worked in three quarries 
near Fordyce village, near Sandend, and at the mouth 
of the Burn of Boyne ; and trap rocks, comprising com- 
mon greenstone, syenitic greenstone, hypersthenic 
greenstone, and augitic greenstone, occupy most of the 
interior. The soil is variously a light or a clay loam, 
and a strong clay, very productive along the seaboard, 
but cold and wet towards the S. One-half of the 
entire area is regularly or occasionally in tillage ; one- 
fifteenth is under wood ; and the rest is either pastoral 
or waste. Glassaugh House is a chief mansion, and 
Findlater Castle a chief antiquity, both being separately 
noticed. Other antiquities are remains of an ancient 
camp on Durn Hill, and cairns, tumuli, and remains of 
ancient Caledonian stone circles in various places. Four 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 6 of from £50 to £100, and 18 of from £20 to 
£50. The seat of a presbytery in the synod of Aber- 
deen, this parish is divided ecclesiastically into Fordyce 
proper and the quoad sacra parish of Portsoy, the former 
a living worth £418. Its parish church, at the village, 
was built in 1804, and contains 1100 sittings. At the 
vUlage, too, is a Free church ; and five other places of 
worship are noticed under Portsoy. Fordyce Academy, 
an institution for the education and board of nine boys 
of the name of Smith, natives of the parish, was founded 
and endowed in 1790 by Mr George Smith of Bombay. 
Besides three schools at Portsoy, the five public schools 
of Bogmuchals, Brodiesord, Fordyce, Fordyce female, 
and Sandend, with respective accommodation for 49, 70, 
124, 72, and 64 children, had (1881) an average attend- 
ance of 35, 39, 136, 66, and 42, and grants of £31, 8s. 
6d., £32, 10s. 6d., £121, 12s., £57, 15s,, and £37, 5s. 
Valuation (1843) £8712, 3s. 5d., (1882) £19,216, 4s. 
Pop. (1801) 2747, (1831) 3364, (1861) 4145, (1871) 
4153, (1881)4289, of whom 1976 were in the ecclesiastical 
parish and the registration district of Fordyce. — Urd, 
Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 

The presbytery of Fordyce comprises the quoad civilia 
parishes of Banff, Boyndie, Cullen, Deskford, Fordyce, 
Ordiquhill, and Rathven, the quoad sacra parishes of 
Buckie, Enzie, Ord, and Portsoy, and the chapelry of 
Seafield. Pop. (1871) 25,776, (1881) 26,345, of whom 
4507 were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 
1878. — The Free Church also has a presbytery of For- 
dyce, whose ten churches of Banff, Boyndie, Buckie, 
CuUen, Deskford, Enzie, Fordyce, Ordiquhill, Port- 
knockie, and Portsoy, together had 2514 communicants 
in 1881. 

Forebank. See Dundee, p. 418. 

Foreholm, a small island of Sandsting parish, Shet- 
land, J mile E of the nearest pioint of the mainland, and 
5 miles S by W of the southern extremity of Yell. 

Foreman or Fourmau Hill, an eminence at the meet- 
ing-point of Forgue, Huntly, aud Kothiemay parishes, 
on the mutual border of Aberdeen and Banft' shires, above 
the right bank of the river Deveron, 5 mUes NE by jST of 
Huntly town. It rises to a height of 1127 feet above 
sea-level ; has a beautiful form, somewhat conical ; is 
finely wooded for a good way up ; and commands an ex- 
tensive and diversified view. Queen Mary, when on her 
way to Rothiemay House, passed over it by what is still 
called the Queen's Road. — Ord. Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Foreness, a small peninsxda in Sandsting parish, 
Shetland, opposite Foreholm, and between Sand Voe 
and Sand Sound Voe. 

Forestfield. See Foeeestfield. 

Forestmill, a hamlet, with a public school, in Clack- 
mannan parish, Clackmannanshire, on the left bank of 
the Black Devon, 3^ miles ENE of Clackmannan toivn. 
The poet Michael Bruce (1746-67) taught a school here 
in 1766. 

Forewood. See Murieston. 

Forfar, a royal and parliamentary burgh, the seat of 
a presbytery, and the capital of Forfarshire or Angus, 
is situated in the centre of the southern portion of the 
county. By road it is 12J miles SW of Brechin, 14 
NNE of Dundee, and 54 NNE of Edinburgh ; whilst, 
as the junction of the Dundee and Forfar branch (1870) 



of the Caledonian witli its ' through ' line to Aherdeen 
(1839-50), it is 15i miles WSW of Bridge of Dun Junc- 
tion, 57i SSW of Aberdeen, 17J N by "W of Broughty 
Ferry, 63| NNE of Edinburgh, 32^ NE of Perth, and 
95 NE of Glasgow. The country round is undulating ; 
and the town stands, 200 feet above sea-level, in a kind 
of basin formed by the surrounding slopes. It is a burgh 
of great antiquity, having been a royal residence in the 
time of Malcolm Ceannmor, whose castle was situated on 
the Castlehill, a conical mound at the NE end of the town. 
This is alleged by Boece and Buchanan to have been the 
meeting-place of the parliament held in 1057, at which 
surnames and titles were first conferred on the Scottish 
nobility. The castle, from remains in existence at the 
beginning of this century, is supposed to have been very 
extensive, and the ruins furnished building material for 
the old steeple and the W entrance of the old church, as 
well as for many houses in the town. A figure of the 
castle appears in the common seal of the burgh as well 
as on the market-cross of 1684, which was removed a 
good many years ago by the magistrates to the site of 
the old castle. Malcolm's queen, St Margaret, had also 
a residence on the Inch in Forfar Loch, a sheet of water 
which, lying in Glamis parish, but immediately W of 
the town, at an altitude of 171 feet, has been reduced 
by draining operations to an utmost length and breadth 
of 9 and 2 furlongs. The Inch, reduced now to a 
peninsula, was for many years regarded as wholly arti- 
ficial, a ' crannog ' in fact or lake-dwelling ; but recent 
researches shew that it is ' the highest part of a narrow 
ridge of natural gravel which runs into the loch, and 
the so-called causeway is a continuation of this ridge as 
it dips into the deep water' {Ancient Scottish Lake- 
DtDellings, Edinb. 1882). This causewaj', which was sup- 
posed to run the whole length of the island, was said by 
tradition to have been used in former days as a means 
of passing from the island. Tradition, too, associates 
some weapons found in the loch in 1770 with the mur- 
derers of Malcolm II., who, after committing the crime 
in Glamis Castle, tried to cross Forfar Loch on the ice, 
and were dro^vned. Besides these scraps of questionable 
history, memorials of royal residence survive in the 
designations of such localities as the King's Muir, the 
Queen's Well, the Queen's Manor, the Palace Dykes, and 
so on. An annual /ete in honour of Queen Slargaret, 
held on the Inch, was long a vestige of the royal con- 
nection with Forfar. The charter elevating the town 
to the dignity of a royal burgh was granted by David I. 
(1124-53), and the records of the parliaments of Scotland 
show that assemblies were held there by "William the 
Lyon, by Alexander II. , and by Robert II. The tovm 
was almost totally destroyed by accidental fire in 1244. 
In 1291 King Edward I. of England was refused admis- 
sion to the castle by Gilbert de Umfraville ; but it was 
occupied by him and his suite from the 3d till the 6th 
of July 1296. In 1808, when ' stuffit all with IngUs- 
men,' this castle was captured by Bruce and Philip, the 
forester of Plater, who, making an escalade under cover 
of night, slew all the garrison, and 'brek doun the 
wall.' It was never rebuilt. In the Great Rebellion 
Forfar adhered to the King, so, after the English had 
taken Dundee, Colonel Ocky marched thence to Forfar 
with a considerable body of dragoons, and not only 
liberated an imprisoned spy, but pillaged and harassed 
the town. In 1665 a charter of confirmation of its 
early privileges was granted by Charles II. in requital 
of this plundering and of the protest of ex-Provost 
Strang in 1647 against the proposal to hand over 
Charles I. to the tender mercies of the English rebels. 
In 1684 the market-cross was erected at the expense of 
the Crown, and stood in its original position for a cen- 
tury and a half, till removed as before noted. In con- 
nection with Provost Sti-ang, or rather with his posterity, 
a curious story is told. Two of this family had settled 
at Stockholm, where they prospered. About the end 
of the 17th century they sent home a fine-toned bell for 
the parish church steeple. When the gift arrived at 
Dundee, the magistrates of that place claimed it on the 
ground that it was too good for Forfar. A struggle 


took place, in the course of which the tongue of the 
bell, said to have been of silver, was wrenched out and 
thrown into the river. After a time the Forfar folk got 
possession of their property, but the Dundee magistrates 
refused to let it be conveyed away unless the town of 
Forfar bought all the ground it would pass over between 
the quay and the boundary of Dundee. A large sum 
had to be paid, and the road is known still as Forfar 
Loan. The townsfolk of Forfar turned out in holiday 
costume to welcome the gift on its arrival. A new 
tongue was not supplied for a centm-y, and even now 
the clapper in use is regarded as insufficient to bring 
out the full tones of the bell. Dundee was not the only 
town with which Forfar got at loggerheads. The sutors 
of Forfar and the weavers of Kirriemuir had a long- 
standing feud, which often used to result in blows. 
Drummond of Hawthornden relates that, when he 
visited Forfar in 1648, he was refused shelter because 
he was a poet and a royalist. He passed on to Kirrie- 
muir, where they equally abhorred these two ' crimes ;' 
but, anxious to ditt'er from the Forfarians, they made 
him heartily welcome. In return he wi'ote a quatrain, 
in which Kirriemuir was praised and Forfar satirised. 
A body of WUliam of Orange's forces, stationed at 
Forfar in 1689, ate and destroyed all kinds of victual 
to the value of £8000, forced horses, carts, and free 
quarters to the extent of £2000 more, and left the tol- 
booth and schoolhouse in a state of ruin. Another 
reminiscence of the 'good old times' is centred in a 
specimen of the ' branks ' called the witches' bridle, 
which, long preserved in the old steeple, is now in the 
public library. It consists of a collar in four sections, 
hinged so as to enclose the neck. Behind is a short 
chain, and in front a prong, like the rowel of a spur, 
projects inwards, and was fixed in the mouth to act as 
a gag at the executions. The victims were led by the 
chain to the Witches' Howe, a small hollow N of the 
town, where the stake was erected. The bridle was 
picked up from the ashes after the execution. Nine 
women were burned at Forfar between 1650 and 1662 ; 
and ' Johne Kinked, pricker of the mtches in Trenent,' 
being brought to Forfar, was made a freeman of the 
burgh just ten days after that honour had been con- 
ferred on a cadet of the noble family of Keith-Marischal. 
A highwayman hanged on Balmashanner HiU in 1785 
was the last person executed in Scotland by sentence of a 
sheriff. Patrick Abercrombie, physician and historian, 
was born at Forfar in 1656 ; and John Jamieson, D.D. 
(1759-1839), of ' Scottish Dictionary ' fame, was minister 
of the Secession congregation from 1780 till 1797. Archi- 
bald Douglas, son of the second Marquis of Douglas, was 
in 1661 created Earl of Forfar, a title which devolved 
on the Drdce of Douglas at the death of the second Earl 
from seventeen wounds received at Sheriffmuir (1715), 
and with the Duke it expired (1761). One curious 
thing in connection with Forfar is the fact that, down 
to 1593, its market-day was Sunday. 

Before considering the present condition of Forfar, it 
is interesting to look at some details of its peculiarities 
given in the Old Statistical Account. The minister of 
the parish, writing there in 1793, tells that before 1745 
there were not above seven tea-kettles and the same 
number of watches and pairs of bellows in the burgh ; 
while in his time every house had a kettle and bellows, 
and 'almost every menial must have his watch.' In 
the middle of last century, a Forfarian who bought a 
shilling's worth of butcher meat or an ounce of tea 
would hide the fact from his neighbours as if he had 
committed a crime. One ox, valued at forty shillings, 
supplied the flesh market for a fortnight, and indeed a 
carcase was seldom killed unless most of it were be- 
spoken. Each man buUt his house as he chose, and the 
town was both irregular and dirty. The dirtiness of 
the burgh was the cause of a murder on 9 May 1728. 
Charles, sixth Earl of Strathmore, was returning from a 
funeral entertainment with a party of gentlemen, when 
Carnegie of Finhaven was jostled by Lyon of Brigton 
into a kennel in Spout Street. He rose covered with 
mud, and, making a thrust at Brigton, ran the Earl 

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through the body, for which he wa3 tried, but acquitted 
through the ability of his counsel, Robert Dundas of 

On his progress to London in 1603, James VI., runs 
the story, was entertained with great magnificence 
by the mayor of one of the English burghs ; and 
some of the English courtiers hinted that such open- 
handedness would be rare in Scotland. ' Fient a bit o' 
that,' said canny James, 'the Provost o' my burgh o' 
Forfar, whilk is by no means the largest town in Scot- 
land, keeps open house a' the year round, and aye the 
mae that comes the welcomer.' The provost kept an 
alehouse. It was in Forfar that a neighbour's cow drunk 
up the browst which a brewster's wife had set to the 
door to cool. The alewife raised an action against her 
neighbour, who was assoilzied, since, by immemorial 
custom, nothing was ever charged for a standing drink 
or stirrup-cup. And it was Forfar Loch that an Earl of 
Strathmore proposed to drain, by tumbling a few hogs- 
heads of whisky into it, and setting the ' drucken 
writers of Forfar ' to drink it dry. 

In 1526 Boece speaks of Forfar as 'having in time 
past been a notable citie, though now it is brought to 
little more than a countrie village, replenished with 
simple cottages ; ' down to the middle of last century its 
' sinuous and Hi-compacted streets consisted chiefly of 
old thatched houses ; ' but the Forfar of to-day is a 
comfortable and well-built town with several good 
public buildings. The High Street, with West Port, 
extends irregularly, from SW to NE, to a length of 
about 1200 yards. Castle Street branches off to the 
northward, and contains the sherifli'-court houses, built 
in 1869-71. They consist of a centi'e of two stories 
with wings and attics, and comprise a principal court- 
room 50 feet long, 33 broad, and 26 high ; and a 
smaller court-room 21 by 24 feet. The old county 
buildings were near these courts, and were buUt about 
1830 at a cost of nearly £5000. In 1869, after the open- 
ing of the sheriff-com-t houses, they were condemned as 
unsuited to their purposes, and a diiEcnlty arose as to 
what should be done with them. Ultimately they were 
pulled down, and new county buildings, designed by Jlr 
"Warch'op, erected in their stead. They cost £4000, and 
include a county hall 65 by 35 feet, and other apart- 
ments, one of them a strong-room for records. In the 
haU are portraits of the hero of Camperdown by Opie, 
of Henry Dundas, Lord MelviUe, by Raeburn, and 
others. The town-hall is close to the court-houses, 
and affords accommodation to the free library, which, 
opened on 7 Jan. 1871, contains 4450 volumes. The 
county police station stands at the E corner of the 
county buildings, vnth which it communicates on both 
stories. In 1869 a hall for public meetings was erected 
by Mr Peter Eeid, of ' Forfar Rock ' celebrity, at a cost 
of £5000. Mr Reid afterwards spent £1000 in furnish- 
ing and adorning the hall. During his lifetime he was 
to draw the revenues of the hall, keeping it in good re- 
pair, and in June 1874 he made a disposition by which 
it and all its contents should go to the town on his 
death. In Nov. 1870 a public meeting resolved to 
place a marble bust of Mr Reid in the haU, and this 
resolution was carried into effect, Mr J. Hutchison, 
E.S.A., being the sculptor. The county prison, which 
stands a little to the northward of the town, was erected 
in 1843, legalised in 1852, and closed by order of the 
Home Office in 1882. 

The Priory church of Restenneth served for the parish 
church tm 1591, when a church was built at the town. 
The present parish church was built in 1791, and, as 
altered in 1836, contains 1800 sittings. Its handsome 
spire, 150 feet high, was added in 1814 ; and an organ 
was introduced in 1881. St James's quoad sacra church, 
seating 1100 people, was buUt in 1836 at a cost of 
£1200. Of two Free churches— Forfar and East— the 
former is a fine new edifice of 1880-81, built in "West 
High Street at a cost of £5000, and containing 1000 
sittings. The handsome United Presbyterian church, 
with 500 sittings, was built in 1854 ; and the Inde- 
pendent chapel, with 460, was built in 1836 at a cost 


of about £650. The Episcopal church of St John tha 
Evangelist, in East High Street, is in the Early English 
stj'le, and was erected in 1879-81, at a cost of £12,000, 
from designs by Mr R. R. Anderson. It consists of a 
nave (90 feet by 31), with a N aisle (74 x 18| feet) and 
a chancel (42J x 21J feet). The spire at the extremity 
is incomplete, 40 feet only of the projected 163 having 
been constructed. The height of the church to the apex 
of the nave is 42 feet, and the building is seated for 600. 
The organ, by Conagher, stands in a chamber 24 by 12 
feet, and the case, like the pulpit and choir stalls, is of 
carved oak. This is the third Episcopal church in 
Forfar since 1775. At the Revolution of 1688 the Epis- 
copalians were not ejected from the parish church, but 
remained till the' beginning of the 18th century, and 
communion was administered there by them at Christmas 
and Easter till 1721. After that, service was unin- 
terruptedly held in the old Priory church of Restenneth, 
and after 1745 in houses in secret till 1775, when a church 
wa-s built. This building still stands, but it was only 
occupied by the Episcopal congregation till 1822, when 
Dean Skinner built the church that was pulled down 
in 1879 to make room for the present one. A Baptist 
chapel in Manor Street is an Early Gothic edifice, built 
in 1876 at a cost of £1700, and containing 400 sittings. 
In 1881 the following were the six schools under the 
burgh school-board, with accommodation, average at- 
tendance, and Government grant : — Academy (534, 238, 
£199, 13s.), East (300, 296, £259), Forfar (273, 186, 
£155), Industrial (184, 94, £63, 7s.), North (300, 300, 
£262, 6s.), WeUbraehead (280, 250, £177, 7s.), and 
"West (300, 269, £229, 2s. 6d.). 

There are in the burgh, an infirmary, a choral union, 
a subscription library (founded 1795), a mechanics' 
reading-room, horticultural, building, debating, golf, 
angling, cricket, bowling, and other societies and clubs, 
including two good templar lodges. A fine cemetery, 
11 acres in extent, to the southward of the town, was 
opened in 1850, and contains a monument, erected in 
1852 by subscription, to Sir Robert Peel. The figure 
stands upon a large pedestal, and is surmounted by a 
dome upborne on eight pillars. The architect was Mr 
James Maclaren of Dundee, and the sculptor Mr Wm. 
Anderson of Perth. The gas-works are managed by the 
corporation ; and a fh-st-class supply of gravitation water 
was introduced into the town in 1881. 

As regards manufactures Forfar makes a small show 
compared with other towns in the county. Coarse 
linen and jute manufacture, tanning, and one or two 
minor industries practically exhaust the catalogue. In 
old days Forfar was famous for the manufacture of 
wooden soled shoes or brogues, from which arises the 
appellation 'the sutors of Forfar,' above alluded to. 
There are three incorporated trades — glovers, shoe- 
makers, and tailors, that of the shoemakers being the 
most ancient. 
The incorpora- 
tion of weavers 
was abolished by 
an Act of Parlia- 
ment for the im- 
provement of the 
linen trade. For- 
far has a post 
office, withmoney 
order, savings' 
bank, insurance, 
and telegraph 
branches of the 
Bank of Scotland 
and of the Royal, 
British Linen, 
National, Union, Seal of Forfar, 

and Commercial 

Banks, a National Security savings' bank, 26 insur- 
ance agencies, 5 hotels, and a Friday Liberal paper, 
the Forfar Herald (1878). The burgh is governed by a 
provost, 3 bailies, a treasurer, and 10 councillors, who 



also act as police commissioners. The regular courts are 
the burgh or bailie courts, and the burgh police court. 
Forfar unites with Mo^'TKOSE, Arbroath, Brechin, and 
Eervie to return a member to parliament, its parlia- 
mentary and municipal constituency being 1452 in 1882. 
The corporation revenue was £3094 in 1881. Annual 
value of real property (1866) £17,434, (1876) £28,255, 
(1882) £34,080, 16s. 3d., ^jZus £1919 for railways. Pop. 
of royal burgh (1881) 13,579 ; of parliamentary burgh 
(1841) 8362, (1851) 9311, (1861) 9258, (1871) 11,031, 
(1881) 12,817, of whom 6686 were males, and 7131 
females. Houses (1881) 2868 inhabited, 69 vacant, 15 

The parish of Forfar, containing also Lunanhead, 
Carseburn, and Kingsmuir hamlets, IJ mUe NE, IJ 
NNE, and If SE of the town, is bounded N by Rescobie, 
E by Rescobie and Dunnichen, S by Inverarity, SW by 
Kinnettles, W by Kinnettles and Glamis, and NW by 
Kirriemuir. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 4| 
miles ; its breadth, from E to W, varies between 2J and 
4i miles ; and its area is 8379^ acres, of which 26J are 
water. Loch Fithie (3i x J furl. ), 2 miles ENE of the 
town, is a pretty little sheet of water, with wooded 
rising banks ; Restenneth Loch, near Lunanhead, was 
drained many j'ears ago for its marl. Streams there are 
none of any consequence ; but the drainage is partly 
carried eastward to the Lunan, and partly westward to 
Dean "Water. The surface, all part of Strathmore or the 
Howe of Angus, is flat to the N of the town, sinking 
little below, and little exceeding, 200 feet above sea- 
level, but rises southwards to 672 feet at Balmashanner 
Hill and 761 near Lour. The rocks are Devonian, 
lower or Forfarshire flagstones ; and the soil is mainly 
a fertile loam. There are traces of a ' Pictish camp ' at 
Restenneth, and of a ' Roman camp ' a little more than 
i mile NE of the town, the latter ' capable of holding 
upwards of 26,000 men ; ' but Restenneth Priory is the 
chief antiquity. This is noticed separately, as also is 
the only mansion. Lorn' House. Eight proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 28 of 
between £100 and £500, 37 of from £50 to £100, and 
123 of from £20 to £50. The seat of a presbytery in 
the synod of Angus and Mearns, this parish is eccle- 
siastically divided into Forfar proper and St James's 
quoad sacra parish, the former a living worth £540. 
Two landward public schools, Kingsmuir and Lunan- 
head, with respective accommodation for 80 and 120 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 69 and 89, 
and grants of £58, 17s. and £77, 8s. 6d. Valuation 
(1857) £7955, (1882) £12,346, 16s. lid., ^jfes £3701 for 
raCways. Pop. (1801) 6167, (1831) 7049, (1861) 10,838, 
(1871) 12,585, (1881) 14,470, of whom 3882 were in St 
James's, and 10,588 in Forfar ecclesiastical parish. — 
Orel. Sur., sh. 67, 1868. 

The presbytery of Forfar comprehends the quoad 
civilia parishes of Forfar, Aberlemno, Cortachy, Dun- 
nichen, Glamis, Inverarity, Kinnettles, Kirriemuir, 
Oathlaw, Rescobie, and Taunadice, the quoad sacra 
parishes of Clova, Forfar St James, Kirriemuir-South, 
and Glenprosen. Pop. (1871) 27,694, (1881) 35,201, of 
whom 8429 were communicants of the Church of Scot- 
land in 1878. — The Free Church also has a presbytery 
of Forfar, with 2 churches in Forfar, 2 in Kirriemuir, 
and 4 in respectively Aberlemno, Dunnichen, Kin- 
nettles, and ilemus, which eight had together 2140 
communicants in 1881. 

Forfar and Arbroath Railway. See Aebeoath axd 
FoEFAK Railway. 

Forfarshire, a large maritime and agricultural comity, 
nearly corresponding to the ancient district of Angus, 
occupies the south-eastern corner of the central penin- 
sula of Scotland, having for its seaboard the Firth of 
Tay on the S, and the German Ocean on the E, and for 
its inland boundaries, on the NE Kincardineshire, on 
the N Aberdeenshire, and on the W Perthshire' Its 
limits are, on the S, Dundee, 56° 27' ; on the N, Mount 
Keen, 56° 58', N latitude : and on the E, the Ness, 
near Montrose, 2° 26'; on the W, at Blacklunans, 3° 24', 
longitude \V of Greenwich. Eleventh in point of size 


of the counties of Scotland, it has an utmost length 
from N to S of 36 miles, an utmost width from E to W 
of 36 J miles, and an area of 890 square miles or 569,840 
acres, of which 6486 are foreshore and 3178 water. It 
is divided into four well-marked natural divisions — the 
shore district, consisting chiefly of sandy dunes and 
links, 37 miles long, with a breadth of from 3 to 8 miles ; 
the range of the Sidlaw HUls, 22 miles long by 3 to 6 
miles broad; Strathmore, the ' great valley, ' otherwise 
called the Iforve of Angus, 32 miles by 4 to 6 miles 
broad ; and the hilly district or Braes of Angus, rising 
into the Grampian range, and measm-ing 24 mUes by 
5 to 9 miles broad. 

The Grampian district foiTQS the north-western divi- 
sion, and includes about two-fifths of the superficial 
area. Like the rest of the range, the Grampian moun- 
tains here run from SW to NE, forming the barrier 
between the Highlands and the Lowlands of Scotland ; 
and exhibit ridge behind ridge, with many intervening 
valleys cut out by streams and torrents, tUl they form, 
at their water-line or highest ridge, the boundary line 
of the coimty. The portions of them included in For- 
farshire are called the Benchinnin Mountains ; and, 
viewed in the group, are far from possessing either the 
grandeur of the alpine districts of the West, or the 
picturesqueness and beauty of the highlands of the 
South. From the higher summits of the Grampians, a 
brilliant view is obtained, not only of Forfarshire and 
part of Perthshire, but of Fife, East Lothian, and the 
heights of Lammermuir. 

The Strathmore district of Forfarshire is part of the 
gi'eat vaUey of that name, and stretches from the western 
boundary of the parish of Kettins, away north-eastward 
through the whole county, to the lower part of the 
North Esk. From its northern point south-westward 
it lies along the foot of the Forfarshire Grampians, till 
it forms the parish of Airlie ; and it thenceforth, till 
the termination of the parish of Kettins, shares the con- 
tinuation of Strathmore with Perthshh'e. Its sm-face is 
beautifully diversified by gentle eminences, fertile fields, 
plantations, villages, and gentlemen's seats. Small por- 
tions of it are covered with water during wet seasons, 
and, in other respects, have perhaps not received due 
attention from the cultivators of the soil. 

The Sidlaw district of Forfarshire derives its distinc- 
tive features from the Sidlaw Hills. These are a con- 
tinuation or offshoot of a range which runs parallel 
to Strathmore or the Grampians, from the HUl of Kin- 
nouU near Perth, to the NE extremity of Kincardine- 
shu'e. Seen from Fifeshire, the Sidlaws appear to rise 
at no great distance from the estuary of the Tay, and 
shut out from view the scenery of Strathmore and the 
lower Grampians. They culminate in Auchterhouse Hill 
at an altitude of 1399 feet above the level of the sea ; and 
in some places are covered with stunted heath, while in 
others, they are cultivated to the top. The Sidlaw dis- 
trict terminates at Red Head, a promontory on the 
coast, in the parish of Inverkeilor, between Arbroath 
and Montrose. From some of the detached liQls, 
respectively on the north-western and the south-eastern 
sides of the range, brilliant views are obtained, on the 
one hand, of the whole extent of Strathmore, and, on 
the other, of the scenery along the Firth of Tay and the 
German Ocean. 

The maritime district of Forfarshire is, for a brief 
way, in the parish of Inverkeilor, identified with the 
Sidlaw district, but extends from the Tay and the 
limits of Liff and Lundie on the S to near the mouth of 
the North Esk on the N. In its southern part, it is at 
first of very considerable breadth ; but it gradually 
narrows as it becomes pent up between the Sidlaw HOls 
and the ocean ; and, overleaping the former, it thence 
stretches northward parallel to the Howe of Angus. 
'This district is, with a few exceptions, fertile and 
highly ciUtivated. Excepting a few rounded jutting 
hills — some of which are designated by the Gaelic name 
of Dun — its surface slopes gently to the Firth of Tay on 
the S, and the German Ocean on the E. At Broughty 
Ferry, where the Firth of Tay is very much contracted, 


an extensive tract of links or sandy downs commences, 
and thence sweeps along a great part of the parishes of 
Jlonifieth and Barry. Two other sandy tracts of incon- 
siderable breadth str-eteh along the coast respectively 
betAVeen Panbride and Arbroath, and between the 
embouchures of the South Esk and the North Esk. In 
many places these doAvns evince, by extensive beds of 
marine shells, at heights ranging from 20 to 40 feet, 
that they were at one period covered with the sea. The 
maritime district is adorned with towns and villages, 
elegant villas and comfortable farm-steads, numerous 
plantations, and, in general, ample results of successful 
culture and busy enterprise. 

The Tay, though it expands into an estuary 12 miles 
before touching the county, and cannot, while it washes 
its shores, be considered as a river, is greatly more 
valuable to Forfarshire than all its interior waters. 
Sandbanks in various places menace its navigation, but 
are rendered nearly innocuous by means of Eghthouses 
and other appliances. From the mouth of the Tay to 
near Westhaven, the coast on the German Ocean is 
sandy ; and thence north-eastn'ard to near Arbroath, it 
cannot safely be approached on accoimt of low, and, in 
many cases, sunken rocks. At a distance of 11 J miles 
SE of Arbroath, the Bell Eock Lighthouse Ufts its 
fine form above the bosom of the ocean. A mile north- 
eastward of Arbroath the coast becomes bold and rocky, 
breaking down in perpendicular precipices, and, in many 
places, perforated at the base with long deep caverns, 
whose floors are boisterously washed by the billows of 
the sea. The Red Head, a rocky promontory, 267 feet 
in almost sheer ascent, terminates this bold section of 
the coast, as it does the inland range of the Sidlaws. 
Lunan Bay now, with a small sweep inward, presents 
for nearly 3 miles a fine sandy shore, and offers a safe 
anchorage. The coast again becomes rocky and bold as 
far as to the mouth of the South Esk ; and thence to 
the extremity of the county, it is low and sandy. 

At Beoughty Feery there is a rocky promontory on 
which stands Broughty Castle, and from this point to 
the boundary of Perth on the "W the coast-line is flat 
and aUuviah Excepting a cantle cut out on the TV by 
Perthshii'e, the county is nearly square, and lines inter- 
secting the limit points named meet near Shielhill 
Bridge in the parish of Tannadice, where 
* The waters of Prosen, Esk, and Carity 
Meet at the birken bush of Inverquharity.* 

The surface of Forfarshire is much diversified. Along 
the northern and western boundaries extends the Gram- 
pian range, having Glas Maol (3502) as the highest 
point, with upwards of sixty peaks exceeding 2000 feet. 
The Sidlaw Hills, on the S of the great glen, form 
a picturesque element in the scenery of the county. 
These are verdant hills, with a maximum height of 1399 
feet at Auchterhouse HUl, and run down gradually to 
the eastward, where the range is cultivated to the top. 
Principal summits in the Grampian range are Cairn na 
Glasher (34S4 feet), Cairn Bannoch (3314), Broad Cairn 
(326S), Tolmount (3143), Driesh (3105), Mount Keen 
(3077), idayar (3043), Fiualty (2954), Braidcairn (2907), 
Ben Tirran (2939), "White Hill (2544), Carn Aighe (2S24), 
Bonstie Ley (2S68), Monamenach (2649), Mount Bat- 
tock (2555), Black HUl (2469), Hill of Cat (2435), Cairn 
Inks (2483), East Cairn (2518), Mount Blair (2441), 
Cock Cairn (23S7), West Knock (2300), the HlH of 
Wirren (2220), The Bulg (1986), Naked Tarn (1607), 
and the White Caterthun (976). In the Sidlaw HiUs, 
theGallowhm(1242feet), Gash (1141), Keiaor(1088),and 
Hayston HUl (1034) are notable. Dundee Law, over- 
looking the town, is 571 feet in height. In the Braes 
of Angus the county presents much that is grand and 
characteristic in hUl scenery ; and in the southern parts 
the finely-wooded and richly-cultivated landscape pre- 
sents great beauty and attractiveness. The lochs of the 
county, as weU as its rivers, are insignificant in view of 
the large district drained, the course of the streams 
being necessarily short, as from the position of the 
watershed the comity receives no streams from other 
districts, whUe it gi<res off some that increase in bulk 


before augmenting the Tay, which reckons as a Perth- 
shire river. Two mountain burns, the Lee and the 
Eunoch or Unich, unite in Lochlee parish. If mUo 
above the lake of that name, which, measuring 9 by 2J 
furlongs, is ' a wild lake closed in by mountains.' The 
Lee, flomng from the loch, joins the Mark at Invermark, 
forming the North Esk, a stream which, after a course 
of 29 miles, falls into the German Ocean, and traces, 
during the last 15 mUes of its course, the boundary 
between Forfar and Kincardine. Its principal afSuent 
in the county is West Water, rising in Lethnot parish, 
and joining the Esk at Stracathro. The South Esk, 
rising in Clova, has a course of 48 j mUes, and runs into 
Montrose Basin. In its upper course it is a moimtain 
stream, but, after receiving its principal tributaries, it 
runs due E through Strathmore as a quiet lowland 
river. Parallel with its upper course is Glen Prosen, 
whence the South Esk receives Prosen Water. The other 
main afSuents are the Carity, the Noran, the Lemno, 
and the Pow. Further is the beautiful valley of Glen 
Isla, where the Isla has its rise. One-third of the total 
course of this stream is in Perthshire, where it joins the 
Tay, after receiving the waters of many small streams. 
On the Isla is a waterfall of 80 feet, the ' Reeky Linn,' 
so called from the cloud of spray constantly thrown up ; 
and further down are the Slugs of Auchrannie, a dark 
channel where the river runs between steep rocks. One 
affluent of the Isla, the Dean, issues from Fokfae Loch ; 
and one of the Dean's tributaries, the Arity, presents the 
peculiarity of rising within 7 miles of the mouth of the 
Tay, and running a course of 70 mUes before it falls 
into the German Ocean. The smaUer streams flowing 
direct to the sea embrace the Lunan, running into the 
bay of that name, the Brothock, the EUiot, the Dighty, 
rising in the Lochs of Lundie and receiving the Fithie, all 
of which reach the ocean between Arbroath and Broughty 
Ferry. The lochs and streams of Forfarshire afford excel- 
lent sport for the angler. The North Esk yields salmon, 
sea-trout, and common trout, the net fishings being very 
valuable, as many as 700 or 800 salmon being taken on 
the first day of the season. The South Esk and its tri- 
butaries yield trout, while salmon are also plentiful 
from Brechin downwards, but the latter are strictly 
preserved. The Isla, both in its Forfarshire and its 
Perthshire sections, receives a high character from Mr 
Watson Lyall in his Sportsman's Chiide ; salmon pene- 
trate to the Slugs of Auchrannie, and up to this point 
there are heavy pike and trout of very fine quality. 
Above the Reekie Linn the stream yields first-rate sport. 
Loch Wharral, in the same locality, is abundant in good 
small trout. Loch Brandy, situated amidst wild and 
beautiful scenery, 2070 feet above sea-level, is uncertain, 
but frequently gives good sport. Loch Esk, in Clova, 
affords large but shy trout. Dun's Dish, an artificial 
loch near Bridge of Dun, and private property, yields 
perch. Forfar Loch is famous for large pike and perch, 
the former running to 30 lbs. on occasion. Loch Lee, 
the largest in the county, yields trout of two kinds and 
char in abundance. The Lochs of Lundie, in the parish 
of Lundie, belong to Lord Camperdown, and yield perch 
and pike. The reservoirs of Monikie have been stocked 
with Loch Leven and other trout, and yield fair sport. 
Loch Kescobie yields perch, pike, and eels, and is open 
to the public. The county contains several notable deer 
forests, including those of Clova, Caanloohan, Bachna- 
gairn, and Invermark. In the latter the Mark stream 
flows, and at the ' Queen's WeU, ' formerly the TFliiie 
Well, and now named in commemoration of the fact of 
Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort having rested 
and lunched here in Sept. 1861 in travelling from 
Balmoral to Invermark Lodge, the Earl of Dalhousie 
has erected a handsome monument of three open crossed 
arches resembling a Scottish crown. It bears an in- 
scription in imitation of that in Marmion — 
* Rest, weary traveller, on this lonely green. 
And drink and pray for Scotland's Queen.' 

The Queen describes the scene as very grand and wUd, 
the ' Ladder Burn, ' running down a steep and winding 
path, as ' very fine and verv striking.' 



Geology. — The county of Forfar is divided into two 
distinct geological areas by a line drawn from Lintrathen 
Loch NE by Gortachy Castle to near Edzell. The tract 
lying to the W of this line is occupied by metamorphosed 
Silurian strata ; while to the E, the Old Red Sandstone 
formation stretches across Strathmore and the chain of 
the Sidlaws to the sea coast. 

The Silurian rocks occurring along the margin of the 
Old Red Sandstone area are comparatively unaltered, 
consisting mainlj' of grey and green clay slates with 
occasional pebbly grits. These beds are inclined to the 
NW, but as we ascend the valleys of the Isla, the 
Prosen, and South Esk, they are thrown into a great 
synclinal fold, and they re-appear in a highly altered 
form with a SE dip. In their metamorphosed condition 
they consist of mica schists and gneiss, with bands of 
pebbly quartzite which are well displayed on the Braes 
of Angus. Beyond the area occupied by these stratified 
rocks, a great mass of granite stretches from Cairn Ban- 
noeh to Mount Battock. along the confines of Forfarshire 
and Aberdeenshire. 

The Old Red Sandstone of Forfarshire has long been 
celebrated for the fishes and eurypterids found in the 
shales and flagstones. The recent discovery of myriapods 
in the same strata has tended to increase the interest in 
the history of this formation as developed in the county. 
The researches of Lyell, Woodward, Lankester, Po\vrie, 
Page, Mitchell, and others, have amply revealed the 
nature of the organisms which flourished during that 
ancient period. The fossils occur on two distinct 
horizons, the position of which has now been accurately 
defined. But apart from the interesting series of organic 
remains, this formation claims attention on account of 
its remarkable development in Forfarshire and Kincar- 
dineshire. The total thickness of the Lower Old Red 
Sandstone in these two counties cannot be less than 
20,000 feet, and yet neither the top nor the base of the 
series is visible. This vast series was deposited on the 
bed of an inland sheet of water to which the name of 
Lake Caledonia has been applied by Professor A. Geikie. 
The northern margin of that ancient lake was defined 
by the Grampian chain, and even during the deposition 
of the highest members of the series, a portion of that 
tableland must have remained above the water. One of 
the most interesting phases of that period was the dis- 
play of volcanic activity which gave rise to great sheets 
of lavas and ashes, the igneous materials being regularly 
interbedded with the sedimentary strata. The volcanic 
series attains its greatest development in Perthshire, as 
will be shown in the description of the geology of that 

The geological structure of the area occupied by the 
Lower Old Red Sandstone of Forfarshire is comparatively 
simple. Two great flexures, which can be ti-aced far 
into Perthshire on the one side, and into Kincardine- 
shire on the other, cross the county in a SW and NE 
direction. In Strathmore, the strata form a synclinal 
trough, the axis of which extends from the mouth of 
the burn of Alyth to Stracathro, and in the centre of 
this basin the highest beds in the county are exposed. 
Again the chain of the Sidlaws coincides with a great 
anticlinal fold which brings to the surface the oldest 
members of this formation in the county. It ought to 
be remembered, however, that in the Lower Old Red 
Sandstone of Perthshire we find strata which occupy a 
higher horizon. A line drawn from the neighbourhood 
of Longforgan NE to Montrose, marks the crest of the 
arch referred to, from which the strata dip in opposite 
directions at angles varying from 10° to 15°. The oldest 
beds, consisting of brown and grey sandstones, flag- 
stones, and shales, are exposed along the crest of the 
anticline between Longforgan and Leysmills E of 
Friockheim. The well-known Arbroath paving stones 
belong to this horizon, but perhaps the most con- 
spicuous member of this sub-division is a thin band of 
shale from 1 to 3 feet thick forming the lower fish bed. 
It can be traced along the NW side of the axial fold 
from Balruddery Den to Tealing, and on the SE side 
from Duntrune by Carmyllie to Leysmills. At all these 


localities it has yielded fish remains, huge eurypterids, 
myriapods, and fragments of land plants. The strata 
just described are succeeded on both sides of the arch 
by the members of the volcanic series consisting of thick 
sheets of diabase-porphyrite which are interbedded with 
sandstones, flags, and thin bands of conglomerate. These 
ancient lavas are the northern prolongations of the vol- 
canic series of the OchUs. Though they form pro- 
minent ridges in the Sidlaws, their thickness is insig- 
nificant when compared with their development in the 
former range. 

The volcanic series is conformably overlaid along the 
NW side of the arch by sandstones and conglomerates 
containing an important band of shales and a bed of 
cornstone. This band of shales which constitutes the 
Upper or Turin fish bed has been traced from Turin 
Hill NE by Farnell to Cauterland in Kincardineshire — 
a distance of 14 miles. Similar organic remains to those 
already described have been obtained from this bed at 
these three localities. The members of this subdivision 
are inclined to the NW at angles varying from 10° to 
15°, and this dip continues till the centre of the basin 
is reached near Tannadice, where the highest beds in 
the county are exposed, consisting of red sandy marls. 
Though the latter resemble some of the strata belonging 
to the Upper Old Red Sandstone, they are in reality 
only a conformable portion of the lower division. At 
Coranside, N of Tannadice, they occupy a strip of ground 
about 2 miles broad, but when followed to the NE, the 
basin gradually widens till at the county boundary the 
sandy marls cover an area about 3 mUes in breadth. 
They 'tail ofi',' however, near Tannadice, and the under- 
lying sandstones and conglomerates occupy the centre 
of the syncline till we pass westwards to Alyth, where 
the sandy marls re-appear and are well developed in the 
Tay at Stanley. 

Along the northern margin of the trough the strata 
rise rapidly to the surface. They are inclined at high 
angles owing to the great fault which runs along the 
flanks of the Grampians from Stonehaven to the Firth 
of Clyde. Throughout a great part of its course this 
dislocation throws the Old Red Sandstone against the 
crystalline rocks of the Highlands, but between Cor- 
tachy in Forfarshire and Crietf in Perthshire, it traverses 
the Old Red Sandstone area. In the latter case it 
brings different members of this formation against each 
other. At various localities between Cortachy and the 
county boundary near Edzell, the position of the fault 
is admirably defined. The coarse conglomerates and 
sandstones underlying the red sandy marls are tilted 
against the Silurian clay slates at angles varying from 
60° to 80°. The same high angle is observable on the 
E side of the dislocation where it traverses the Old Red 
Sandstone W of Cortachy, particularly in the river Isla 
at Airlie Castle. On the W side of the fault between 
Cortachy and the Isla and onwards to the Tay the vol- 
canic series reappears dipping to the SE at comparatively 
low angles. The members of this series rest unconfor- 
mably on the Silurian rocks, but difler considerably in 
character from their representatives in the Sidlaws and 
the Ochils, Instead of great sheets of porphyrite and 
tuffs we have massive trappean conglomerates with thin 
beds of lava. This difference is readily accounted for 
by their proximity to the margin of the ancient lake. 
Even the strata, which immediately underlie the red 
sandy marls W of Tannadice and Stracathro, are more 
markedly conglomeratic than the beds occupying the 
same horizon on the E side of the trough. 

The following list comprises the fossUs obtained from 
the two fish beds of Forfarshire : — (Fishes), AcantTwdes 
Mitclielli, Diplacanthus gracilis, Euthacanthus M'NicoU, 
E. gracilis, E. elegans, E. grandis, E. curtus, Parcxiis 
incurvus, P. falcatiis, C'limatius rcticulatus, C. tincijiatus, 
C. scutiger, Ccjyhalopterus Paget, Pteraspis Mitchelli, 
Eucephalaspis Lyellii, E. Powrei, E. Pagei, E. asper, 
Scaphaspis Loydii. (Eurypterids), Pterygotus Anglicus, 
P. minor, Stylonurus Powrei, S. Scoticus, S. ensiformis, 
Eurypterus Breiosteri, E. pygmams. (Myriapods), 
Kampecaris Forfarcasis, Archidesmiis M'NicoU. The 


occurrence of mjTiapods in these beds has only recently 
been proved. The genus Kampccaris or grub shrimp, 
whicli was discovered by the late Dr Page in the For- 
farshire flagstones, and which could not be accurately 
described owing to the imperfect preservation of the 
fossils, was regarded by him as probably a small 
phyllopod or the larval form of an isopod crustacean. 
From specimens recently obtained, Mr B. N. Peach has 
pointed out that Kavi2}ecaris comprises two genera of 
myriapods which differ from aU other forms in having 
their body segments free, and possessing only one pair 
of walking limbs. These are the oldest known air- 
breathers, and must have flourished when Upper Silurian 
forms were still in existence. 

To the N" of Dundee the axial beds are traversed by a 
series of intrusive dolerites which have altered the 
strata in immediate contact with them. Dundee Law 
is probably the site of an old ' neck ' from which some 
of the contemporaneous volcanic rocks were probably 

The only patch of Upper Old Red Sandstone in the 
county occurs on the shore about 1 mile N of Arbroath. 
The strata cover about ^ mile of the coast-line at 
Cardingheugh Bay, and on the S side of the bay they 
rest unconformably on the members of the lower divi- 
sion, while to the N they are brought into conjunction 
with each other by a fault. They consist of soft honey- 
combed red sandstones and breccias which as yet have 
proved unfossiliferous. 

During the glacial period the ice sheet moved down 
the glens of the Isla, the Prosen, and South Esk, cross- 
ing Strathmore and surmounting the Sidlaws in its 
inarch towards the sea. The general trend of the ice- 
flow was SE though its coui'se was considerably deflected 
by the Sidlaws. In order to override this barrier the 
ice sheet must at least have been upwards of 1500 feet 
thick. The boulder clay which accumulated underneath 
the ice is well developed throughout the county. To 
the E of the Old Red Sandstone boundary, boulders 
of various metamorphic rocks from the Grampians are 
associated with Old Bed conglomerates, sandstones, 
flagstones, and volcanic rocks in this deposit. This 
feature is observable not only in the sections throughout 
Strathmore, but even on the SE slopes of the Sidlaws. 
The latter fact clearly indicates that the moraine j^rofonde 
must have been transported across the chain and de- 
posited in the lee of the hiUs. But these foreign blocks 
are likew'ise met with, perched on the slopes and tops 
of various eminences in the Sidlaws, as for instance on 
the hills between Lunnelly Den and Lundie at a height 
of 1000 feet, and on the summit of Craigowl at a height 
of 1500 feet. The widespread sheets of clay, sand, and 
gravel, and the long ridges of the same materials in 
Strathmore were probably formed by the vast torrents of 
water caused by the melting of the retreating glaciers. 
As the glaciers shrunk back into the glens they de- 
posited moraines of which the great transverse barrier 
at Glenairn in the valley of South Esk is a remarkable 
example. An interesting description of this great ter- 
minal moraine has been given by Sir Charles Lyell. 
When seen from the S side it resembles an immense 
rampart about 200 feet high athwart the valley. Its 
breadth from N to S is about i mile, and on the E 
side it has been denuded by the Esk for a space of 300 
yards. The lower portion of this rampart, from 50 to 
80 feet thick, consists of unstratified mud charged with 
boulders, while the upper portion, from 50 to 100 feet 
thick, is composed of finely stratified materials. The 
alluvial flat above the barrier represents the site of an 
ancient loch which was eventually drained by the water 
cutting a channel through the morainic deposits. The 
100, 50, and 25 feet raised beaches are represented at 
various points on the coast. The lowest of them may 
be traced continuously from Broughty Ferry to Ar- 
broath, swelling out into a broad plain to the S of 
Barry and Carnoustie, where it is covered in great part 
by sand dunes. The stratified sands and gravels com- 
posing this terrace contain shells identical with those 
now living. 


The soils of Forfarshire may be classified into primary 
and secondary, or those formed by disintegration of 
native rocks, and those deposited from a distance by 
running water ; and, in a general view, they are mostly 
of a red or reddish colour, frequently inclining to 
brown, dark brown, or black. The primary soils, on 
the uplands of the Grampian district, are generally 
moorish and thin, resting on whitish retentive clay, 
and frequently perforated by rocks. In other districts 
•with gravelly bottoms the soil is generally thin, mossy, 
and encumbered with loose stones ; while those districts 
with sandstone bottoms are chiefly of a tenacious clay, 
very unfertile, yet capable of being so worked as to 
produce excellent wheat. On clayey or tiUy bottoms 
the soil is a strong clay, redder and decidedly better 
than those named, while those parts with trap rock 
below are generally friable and very fertile clays; but 
often on the northern declivity, and among the hol- 
lows of the Sidlaw Hills, too shallow to admit the 
plough. The secondary soils, in the glens of the 
Grampian district, are generally so sandy as to be loose 
and friable, or so strong as to be practically unmanage- 
able. In the other districts these soils ai'e often so 
intermixed with the primary soils that they can hardly 
be distinguished, yet occurring distinctively along the 
banks of streams, or in old beds of lakes and river-expan- 
sions, and frequently a considerable W'ay up the slopes 
adjacent to these. In the Strathmore district, the low 
tracts range in character from sand, through different 
kinds of gravel, to trap cUtris, vegetable mould, and 
carse clay, and are comparatively unfertile. In hollows 
these soils have been saturated with moisture, and con- 
verted into fens or mosses. Around Montrose Basin are 
patches of a carse clay, similar to that of the carses 
of Gowrie and Falkirk. In the whole of Scotland the 
percentage of cultivated area is only 24 -2 ; in Forfar- 
shire it is 44 '4, a percentage higher than that of twenty- 
one, and lower than that of ten, other Scottish counties. 
Less than one twenty-third of the whole of Scotland is 
under woods ; in Forfarshire the proportion is more than 
one-nineteenth, viz., 30,287 acres. The finest of its trees 
are noticed under Kinnaird, Gray, and Panmure. 

Agriculture continued long in Forfarshire to be as 
inert or rude as in most other parts of Scotland, but it 
shared early in the activity of the new agricultural era, 
and acquired vigour from the efforts of Dempster of 
Dunnichen and other extensive landowners, and from 
the Lunan, the Strathmore, the Angus and IMearns, and 
Angus and Perthshire, and the Eastern Forfarshire 
Agricultural Associations. For many years prior to 
1872, it exhibited an energy, a skill, and a success 
little inferior to those of the Lothians. As indicating 
the progress of agriculture in Forfarshire in recent times, 
the following interesting summary is quoted from Mr 
James Macdonald's prize paper on Forfar and Kincar- 
dine, published in the Transactions of the Highland and 
Agricultural Society, fourth series, vol. xiii., 1881 : — 

' From the Rev. Mr Rodger's report on Forfarshire, 
drawn up in 1794, it appears that wheat was then culti- 
vated in every parish in the lower part of the county ; 
that Angus oats, still famous, had thus a wide reputa- 
tion ; that some grasses were used on almost every farm ; 
that turnips were freely grown ; and that potatoes were 
cultivated with great success, the yield in some instances 
being as high as from 50 to 60 bolls of 16 stones per 
acre. The number of cattle was estimated at 36,499 — 
a small breed, ranging in weight from 16 to 20 stones 
avoirdupois, occupying the higher ground, and a larger 
breed, weighing from 40 to 70 stones, the lower parts. 
Sheep numbered 53,970, and were mostly of the black 
faced, a few being of the ancient dun or white-faced 
kind, and others of mixed breeding. On some of the 
better managed farms, and around proprietors' residences, 
there was a good deal of enclosed land, mostly under 
pasture. Farm implements were still primitive, but 
improvements were fast being introduced. The clumsy 
old Scotch plough, modernised by metal boards, was 
still in use, but improved ploughs, chiefly of Small's 
make, were speedily superseding it. It was not un- 



common to see four horses attached to a plough ; and 
oxen were employed on many farms. Ploughmen's 
wages without board averaged about Is. 3d. per day, 
There was then a large extent of wood in the county, 
and early in the present century the area was greatly 
increased by Lord Airlie, Sir James Carnegie, the Strath- 
more family, and others. The Rev. Mr Headrick states 
the number and rental of the farms in 1813 as follows — 
viz., under £20 of annual value, 1574 farms ; £20 and 
under £50, 565 ; £50 and under £100, 682 ; £100 and 
under £300, 315 ; above £300, 86 ; total, 3222. 

' The spirit of improvement aroused in the last cen- 
tury has never been allowed to lie dormant. True, 
during the last 25 years a smaller extent of land has 
been reclaimed than during either the last 25 years of 
the 18th century or the first 25 of the present, but that 
has not been due to any flagging in the spirit of im- 
provement, but simply to the fact that only a limited 
area of suitable land remained for the proprietors and 
tenants of the past 25 years to bring under cultivation. 
There has been less done lately simply because there has 
been less to do. No reliable data exist upon which to 
estimate the extent of land reclaimed during the first 
half of the present century. The Rev. Mr Headrick 
estimated the arable land in Forfarshire in 1813 at 
340,643 acres, but it is clear that that far exceeded the 
actual extent ; for the area at present under all kinds 
of crops — here, fallow, and grass — falls short of it by 
nearly 90,000 acres. 

' Confining ourselves to the last 25 years, we find that 
there has been a substantial increase in the extent of 
arable land. The following table affords a pretty correct 
indication : arable area in 1854, 219,721 acres ; in 1870, 
238,009 ; in 1880, 253,373. The percentage of the 
arable area in Forfarshire under cultivation in 1870 was 
41 '8, now it is 44 •5. This increase, equal to 1246 acres 
a year, must be regarded as highly creditable, especially 
when it is considered that, as previously stated, agricul- 
tural improvement had been carried to a great length 
long before the period to which the above table refers, 
so far, indeed, as to leave comparatively little to be 
done. The main portion of the new land lies in the 
Braes of Angus along the foot of the Grampians, but 
there is also a fair proportion on the Sidlaw range. 

' The reclamation of land, however, has not consti- 
tuted the whole of the agricultural improvements in the 
county during the last 25 years. Indeed, it is doubtful 
if it has not in outlay been far exceeded by the improve- 
ment in farm buildings, draining, fencing, roadmaking, 
and other accessories which tend to develop the resources 
of the soil. There has been a great deal done in the 
improvement of farm buildings, and these are now, on 
the whole, fully abreast of the times. In several parts 
of Forfarshire, re-draining might be carried out with 
advantage ; but stiU, since 1854, a great improvement 
has been effected in the condition of the land in this 
respect. In the wheat and potato districts there is yet 
a large stretch of open land, but in the parts where the 
pastm'iug of live-stock holds a prominent place in the 
economy of the farm, a great extent of fencing, mostly 
■wire and stone dykes, has been erected within the last 
25 or 30 years. In service or farm roads, too, as well as 
in the county roads, there has been considerable im- 
provement, while not a little has been done in the way 
of straightening watercourses, squaring fields, draining 
small pieces of lake or swamp, clearing the land of 
stones, and in other small but useful works.' 

The areas under various crops are given in the follow- 
ing table : — 

Grain Ceops — Acres. 






1854, . 
1870, . 
1875, . 
1881, . 







GK.iss, Root Crops, &c. — Acres. 


Hay, Grass, 
and Perma- 
nent Pasture. 



1854, . 
1870, . 
1875, . 
1881, . 





The agi'icultural live-stock in the county is shown in 
the following table : — 



Horses. 1 Sheep. 



1854, . 
1870, . 
1875, . 
1881, . 









The polled Angus breed of cattle has a history of 
peculiar interest, and the herds existing in the county 
are valuable and important. From Mr Macdonald's 
report on the agricultm-e of the county, we learn that 
last century the excellent beef producing qualities of the 
herd had been discovered, and that several poUed herds 
were formed. The credit of being the first to commence 
the systematic improvement of the breed belongs to Mr 
Hugh Watson, KeUlor, an intimate friend of Sir Walter 
Scott, and associated with Booth, Wetherell, and other 
noted improvers of the cattle breeds of the kingdom. 
His herd was founded in 1808, and consisted of 6 cows 
and a bull left him by his father, and of 10 of the best 
heifers and the best bull he could find at Trinity Muir 
Fair. Although no complete record exists of Mr Wat- 
son's system, his theory was to ' put the best to the best 
regardless of afiinity or blood. ' His herd was dispersed 
in 1860. The entrance of rinderpest dealt a heavy blow 
to the cultivation of breeding herds, but there has been 
a revival, and the county contains several well-known 
herds, including that at Mains of Kelly, founded in 
1810. The breeding of shorthorns was long carried on 
by Mr hya.]! at Kincraig, near Brechin, and afterwards 
at Old Montrose, but this herd, nearly extinguished by 
rinderpest in 1865, was finally dispersed in 1874. Mr 
Arkley of Ethiebeaton and other shorthorn breeders 
have small herds in the county. 

The breed of black cattle, previous to the introduction 
of turnips and sown grasses, was small, and the cattle 
were yoked in the plough in teams. The breed stUl re- 
mains smaller in the remote than in the more cultivated 
districts, but, as stated by Mr Macdonald, it has been 
improved throughout most of the county by crossings 
and importations, so as to correspond in progress with 
the progress in the arts of tUlage. The distinction be- 
tween the best feeding and the best milking breed, so 
essential to improvement in matters of the dairy, is 
much less maintained or observed than in AjTshire and 
other dairy districts. The original breed of sheep was 
the small white-faced sheep, believed to have been the 
aboriginal breed of Britain ; but, in the early part of 
the present century, it was almost wholly superseded by 
the black-faced sheep, brought principally from Peebles- 
shire. Goats were at one time kept in the mountainous 
districts, but on account of the injury they did to plan- 
tations they were extirpated in the latter part of last 

The manufacture of coarse fabrics from flax, jute, and 
hemp, is carried on to a vast extent in Forfarshire, and 
comprises considerably more than half of the entire 
linen trade of Scotland. The spinning of yarn in large 
mills, and the working of canvas, broad sheetings, 
bagging, and other heavy fabrics in factories, are con- 
structed on a vast scale in the large towns ; and the 
weaving of osnaburghs, dowlas, and common sheetings 
employs an enormous number of handlooms in the 
smaller towns and villages. Mr A. J. Warden gives 
the number of linen factories, in Sept. 1867, as 72 in 


Dundee, 18 in Arbroath and its neighbourhood, 6 in 
Montrose and its neighbourhood, 6 in Forfar, 4 in 
Brechin, and 2 in Carnoustie — altogether 108 ; and they 
had 278,564 spindles, 11,329 power-looms, and 7715 of 
nominal horse-power, and employed 46,571 persons. 
The spinning, weaving, and bleaching of linen are car- 
ried on in various other quarters, but chiefly for manu- 
facturers in these towns. Manufactures of leather, 
gloves, soap, candles, hand cards, machinery, confec- 
tionery, and other articles also are carried on in con- 
siderable magnitude, but only or chiefly in the large 
towns, principallj' Dundee, Arbroath, and Montrose, 
and are noticed in our articles on these places. The 
railways of the county embrace the Dundee and Perth, 
which runs a few miles along the coast to Dundee ; the 
Dundee and Arbroath ; the North British, Montrose, 
and Arbroath, along the coast, to Montrose ; the Mon- 
trose and Bervie, going along the coast into Kincardine- 
shire ; the Tay Bridge connections at Dundee ; and the 
connections and branches to Forfar, Brechin, Kirriemuir, 
etc. (See Caledonian Railway and North Beitish 
Railway. ) 

Forfarshire, with a constituency of 3642 in 1882, 
retui'ns one member to parliament, always a Liberal 
since 1837, there havin" been only one contested election 
(in 1872) during all that period, and even then both 
candidates were Liberals. Dundee returns two members ; 
and Montrose, Arbroath, Brechin, and Forfar, forming 
with Bervie the Montrose Burghs, return one. Other 
towns are Kirriemuir, Lochee, Broughty Ferry, Car- 
noustie, and part of Coupar- Angus ; and the principal 
villages are Auchmithie, Barnhill, Claverhouse, Do^vn- 
lield, Edzell, Ferryden, Friockheim, Glamis, Hillside, 
Letham, Monifieth, Newtyle, and Northmuir. Man- 
sions, all noticed separately, are Airlie Castle, Cortachy 
Castle, Ethie Castle, Glamis Castle, Kinnaird Castle, 
Brechin Castle, Auldbar Castle, Panmm'e House, Inver- 
mark Lodge, Caraldston Castle, Rossie, Duntrune, 
Ochterlony, Hospitalfield, Stracathro, Bandirran, Lin- 
dertis, Liulathen, Baldovan, Invergowrie, Baldowie, etc. 
A great proportion of the landed property of the county 
at the beginning of the 18th century was held by the 
Lyons, the Maules, the Douglases, the Ogilvies, the 
Carnegies, and a few other ancient families ; but much 
of the large estates, after the introduction of manufac- 
tures and trade, underwent subdivision, and passed into 
other hands. Not one-third of 40 barons, recorded by 
Edward in 1676 as proprietors in the county, are now 
represented by their descendants, and a portion of even 
the few ancient families who continue to be proprietors 
are now non-resident. So rapidly has landed property 
in many parishes passed from hand to hand, that the 
average term of possession by one famUy does not exceed 
40 years. According to Miscellaneous Statistics of the 
United Kingdom (1879), 555,994 acres, with a total 
gross estimated rental of £1,243,109, were divided 
among 9339 proprietors, one holding 136,602 acres 
(rental £55,602), one 65,059 (£21,664), two together 
44,418 (£25,327), two 27,334 (£22,456), fourteen 
90,307 (£72,096), twenty-five 83,744 (£96,566), thirty 
41,695 (£64,222), forty-two 29,254 (£156,731), one 
hundred and four 28,148 (£76,719), etc. 

The county is governed by a lord-Ueutenant, a vice- 
lieutenant, 31 deputy-lieutenants, and 231 justices of 
the peace. It forms a sheriffdom, with resident sheriflTs- 
substitute at Dimdee and Forfar, courts being held at 
the former town on Wednesday and Friday, and at the 
latter on Thursday, throughout the session. A sherLBf 
small-debt court is also held at Forfar on Thursday, 
and at Dundee on Tuesday. Small debt courts are held 
at Monti'ose on the third Friday, at Arbroath on the 
third Wednesday, and at Ku-riemuir on the third Mon- 
day, of January and every alternate month. There is 
a burgh police force in Arbroath (18 men), Brechin (6), 
Dundee (161), Forfar (9), Kirriemuir (2), and Montrose 
(12) ; the remaining police in the county comprise 43 
men, under a chief constable, whose yearly pay is £300. 
In 18S0 the number of persons in the county and in the 
six burghs tried at the instance of the police was 479 


and 6461 ; convicted, 449 and 6242 ; committed for 
trial, 42 and 473 ; not dealt with, 189 and 1970. The 
registration county, divided into 54 registration dis- 
tricts, had 268,653 inhabitants in 1881. The number 
of registered poor in the year ending 14 May 1881 was 
5550 ; of dependants on these, 2787 ; of casual poor, 
1612; of dependants on these, 1194. The receipts for 
the poor in that year were £53,712, 17s. 7Jd. ; and 
the expenditure was £54,880, 7s. 3d. The numljer of 
pauper lunatics was 789, their cost of maintenance 
being £15,348, 3s. lid. The percentage of illegitimate 
bii-ths was 11-6 in 1871, 10 in 1877, and 9-9 in 1880. 

Although eleventh in size of the thirty-three Scotch 
counties, Forfarshire ranks as sixth, or next to Fife, in 
respect of rental roll, its valuation, exclusive of railways 
and burghs, being (1856) £370,519, (1866) £462,138, 
(1876) £554,407, (1882) £590,382, Is. 6d., plus £101,194 
for railways and £823,375, 6s. lid. for the five parlia- 
mentary burghs. Total (1882) £1,514,951, 8s. 5d. In 
point of population it stands fourth, Aberdeen, Edin- 
burgh, and Lanark shires alone surpassing it. Pop. 
(1801) 99,053, (1811) 107,187, (1821), 113,355, (1831) 
139,606, (1841) 170,453, (1851) 191,264, (1861) 204,425, 
(1871) 237,567, (1881) 266,360, of whom 120,091 were 
males, and 146,269 females. In 1881 the number of 
persons to each square mile was 304 ; and the dwellers 
in the nine towns numbered 214,760, in the thirteen 
villages 8261, and in the rural districts 43,339, the 
corresponding figures for 1871 being 186,185, 7130, and 
44,252. Houses (1881) 52,688 inhabited, 3236 vacant, 
115 building. 

The county is divided into 56 civil parishes, of which 
6 are partly situated in other counties. Edzell has a 
small piece in Kincardineshire ; Alyth, Caputh, and 
Coupar-Angus are principally in Perthshire ; and por- 
tions of Liff and Benvie, Lundie and Fowlis, are in the 
latter county. There are 25 quoad sacra parishes, and 
these with the civil go to make up the presbyteries of 
Forfar, Brechin, and Arbroath, and partly to form 
those of Dundee and Meigle — all of them included in 
the synod of Angus and Meams. The Free Church 
has similar divisions, with 62 charges within Forfar- 
shire ; and the United Presbyterian Church, in its 
presbyteries of Arbroath and Dundee, has 27 Forfar- 
shire charges. The Scottish Episcopal Church has 13 
churches ; the Roman Catholic, 6 ; and other places 
of worship are 2 English Episcopal, 7 Evangelical 
Union, 11 Congregational, 4 Wesleyan, 6 Baptist, 1 
Unitarian, and 2 United Original Seceders. In the 
year ending Sept. 1881 there were 195 schools (147 
public), which, with accommodation for 38,411 children, 
had 36,244 on the roUs, and an average attendance of 
20,901. Their staflf consisted of 313 certificated, 55 
assistant, and 289 pupil teachers. 

The territory now constituting Forfarshire belonged 
to the Caledonian tribe of the Vernicomes. It formed, 
till the time of Kenneth II., a part of Southern Pic- 
tavia ; and from 935 and earlier to 1242 was included 
in the old Celtic mormaership or earldom of Angus. 
Its civil history possesses hardly a distinctive feature ; 
and, excepting a few facts which properly belong to 
the history of its principal towns, Brechin, Arbroath, 
Dundee, Forfar, and Montrose, and to its castles, as 
Finhaven, Edzell, and AirUe, it is blended in the 
general history of the counties N of the Forth. The 
chief immigrant barons, at the period of the Anglo- 
Saxon colonisation, whose descendants continued to 
figure most conspicuously in the county, w-ere the 
Lyons, the Maules, and the Carnegies. Sir John 
Lyon, a gentleman of Norman extraction, having marj 
ried a daughter of King Robert II., obtained, among 
other grants, the castle and lands of Glamis, and was 
the founder of the noble family of Barons Glamis, 
Tannadice, Sidlaw, and Strathdighty, and Earls of 
Strathmore. Guarin de Maule accompanied William 
the Conqueror from Normandy to England ; Robert de 
Maule, a son of Guarin, followed Earl David, afterwards 
King David, into Scotland ; Roger, the second son of 
that Robert, married the heiress of William de Valoniis, 



Lord of Panmure and chamberlain of Scotland in the 
time of Alexander II. ; and from them sprang the 
Maules, afterwards Earls of Panmure, and the Fox- 
Maule-Ramsays, now Barons Panmure and Earls of Dal- 
housie. The Carnegies ramified into several branches, 
two of which became respectively Earls of Southesk and 
Earls of Northesk. 

Remains of vitrified forts are found on Finhaven Hill 
In Oathlaw parish, on Drumsturdy Moor in Monifieth 
parish, and on Dundee Law. Ancient hill forts are 
traceable on White Caterthun and Brown Caterthun 
in Menmuir parish, at Denoon Law, 2^ miles SW of 
Glamis, and on Dunnichen Hill, Dumbarrow Hill, Car- 
buddo Hill, Lower Hill, and several other eminences. 
In many instances these forts are indicated only by heaps 
of loose stones. Cairns and ancient standing stones 
are in various places, particularly in Aberlemno and 
Monikie parishes. Vestiges of Koman camps are at 
Haerfaulds in Lour Moor, at a part in Forfar Moor 
about J mile NE of Forfar town, and at War Dykes or 
Black bikes, 2J miles N of Brechin. At Dukuichen 
the revolted Picts defeated and slew Ecgfrid, the Nor- 
thumbrian king, recovering thus their independence, 
20 May 685. Carved stones at Glamis are believed to 
refer to the drowning of the murderers of Malcolm II. , 
who are said to have perished by falling through the 
ice on Forfar Loch. In Rescobie Castle, Donald Bane, 
brother to Malcolm Ceannmor, was tortured by his 
nephew Edgar, and died in 1097, his enemy djdng ten 
years later. Queen Mary, in her journey N, visited 
the abbey at Coupar- Angus and the castle of Edzell. 
Great mediaeval castles were at Forfar and Dundee, but 
hjve long been extinct ; and other mediteval castles, 
still represented by considerable remains, in various 
conditions of conservation or of ruin, are Broughty 
Castle at Broughty Ferry, Red Castle at the head of 
Lunan Bay, Airlie Castle in Airlie parish, Finhaven 
Castle in Oathlaw parish, Invermark Castle and Edzell 
Castle in Glenesk, Kelly Castle near Arbroath, and 
Affleck Castle in Monikie parish. A round tower, 
similar to the famous round towers of Ireland, and the 
only one in Scotland except one at Abernethy, is at 
Brechin. Interesting ancient ecclesiastical edifices, or 
ruins of them, are the parish church or quondam cathe- 
dral of Brechin, the tower of the town churches of 
Dundee, the abbey of Arbroath, the Priory of Restenneth, 
and the churches of Eettins and Fowlis. Several monas- 
tic edifices, of inferior note to Arbroath Abbey, were in 
Dundee, Montrose, Brechin, and other places, but have 
in most instances entirely disappeared. See Andrew 
Jervise's Memorials of Angus and Mearns (Edinb. 1861), 
and Land of the Lindsays (Edinb. 1853) ; William Mar- 
shall's Historic Scenes in Forfarshire (Edinb. 1876) ; 
J. C. Guthrie's Vale of Strathmore (Edinb. 1875); 
T. Lawson's Report on the Past and Present Agriculture 
of Forfarshire (Edinb. 1881); James Macdonald's 'Agri- 
culture of the County of Forfar' in Trans, of the Sigld. 
and Ag. Soc. (1881); Alex. J. Warden's Angus or For- 
farshire, the Land and People (4 vols. , Dundee, 1880-83) ; 
and works referred to under Arbroath, Bkeohin, 
Coupar- Angus, Dundee, and Maryton. 

Forfarshire Railway. See Dundee and Fokfar 

Forgan, a parish in the N of Fife, on the Firth of 
Tay, containing the post-town of Newport and the 
village of Woodhaven, the former 11 miles NNE of 
Cupar and 1^ mile SSE of Dundee (by steam ferry). It 
is bounded NW by the Firth of 'Tay, E by Ferryport- 
on-Craig and Leuchars, S by Leuchars, Logie, and Kil- 
many, and W by Balmerino. Its utmost length, from 
E by N to W by S, is 5J miles ; its breadth varies be- 
tween IJ and 3 miles ; and its area is 5082i acres, of 
which 100 are foreshore. The Firth of Tay, contracting 
here from 2^ miles to IJ mile, is crossed at Wormit 
Bay, in the western extremity of the parish, by the 
new Tay Bridge. The coast-line, 3J miles long, trends, 
with slight curvature, from SW to NE ; and above and 
below Newport projects the small headlands of Pluck 
the Crow Point and Craig Head (formerly Skarness). 


The shore at ebb tide is entirely silt or clay, at high 
water shows a line of gravel or boulders ; and the coast 
is all bold or rocky, rising rapidly in places to a height 
of 100 feet above sea-level. The interior presents an 
irregular and undulating surface, a series of heights and 
hollows that attains 300 feet near Northfield, Inverdovet, 
St Fort, and Wormithill, and 400 at Newton Hill in 
the SW corner of the parish. The land slopes generally 
towards the Tay ; and the immediate seaboard is, to a 
large extent, studded with villas of Dundee merchants 
and manufacturers, and, finely adorned with gardens, 
shrubberies, and woods, commands magnificent views 
across and along the Tay. The principal rocks are 
sandstone, sandstone conglomerate, fine-grained green- 
stone-trap, and amygdaloidal greenstone, the last of 
which has been largely quarried, both for house-building 
and for enclosures. The soil, over the greater part of the 
area, consists of the debris of the trap rocks, being partly 
light and gravelly, but chiefly either a good black loam 
or a clayey earth. About four-fifths of the entire area 
are in tillage, the rest being pretty equally divided be- 
tween grass and plantations. Cairns or tumuli, com- 
posed of small stones, were formerly numerous ; and 
rude ancient urns have been found at Newport, at 
Westfield, and in Tayfield Park. At Inverdufatha or 
Inverdovet, in 877, the Danes, pursuing the Scots from 
Dollar, gained a great victory, in which KingConstantin 
mac Kenneth was among the great multitude slain. St 
Fort and Tayfield are the chief mansions ; and 6 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
14 of between £100 and £500, 27 of from £50 to £100, 
and 80 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of St 
Andrews and synod of Fife, this parish since 1878 has 
been ecclesiastically divided into Forgan proper and New- 
port, the former a living worth £357. Its old church 
standing in ruins at a beautiful sequestered spot, 2 J mUes 
SE of Newport, was anciently held by St Andrews priory ; 
the present one was built in 1841, and contains 550 sit- 
tings. Four other places of worship — Established, Free, 
U. P. , and Congregational — are noticed under Newport ; 
and two public schools, Forgan and Newport, with 
respective accommodation for 130 and 421 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 106 and 272, and 
grants of £91, 17s. lOd. and £270, 9s. Valuation 
(1866) £12,705, (1882) £26,183, 2s. 2d. Pop. of civil 
parish (1801) 916, (1831) 1090, (1851) 1125, (1861) 
1326, (1871) 2243, (1881) 3308 ; of ecclesiastical parish 
(1881) 1533.— Orrf. Sur., shs. 49, 48, 1865-68. 

Forgandenny, a post-office village in Perthshire, and 
a parish partly also in Kinross-shire. The village 
stands 130 feet above sea-level, 3 miles W of its post- 
town. Bridge of Earn, and 1 mile S of the river Earn, 
and of a station of its own name on the Scottish Centi-al 
section of the Caledonian railway, this station being 44 
miles SW of Perth. 

The parish, containing also the hamlet of Path of 
Condie, 5 miles S by W, is bounded N by Aberdalgie 
and the Craigend section of Forteviot, E by Dunbarny, 
Dron, and Arngask, S by the southernmost section of 
Forteviot and by Orwell, and W by Dunning and the 
main body of Forteviot. Its utmost length, from N by 
E to S by W, is 7i miles ; its breadth varies between 
If and 3J miles ; and its area is 8998^ acres, of which 
12131 belong to Kinross-shire, and 52| are water. The 
river Earn, winding 2j miles eastward along or just 
beyond all the northern boundary, describes some of 
those graceful curves, and forms some of those beautiful 
peninsulas, for which it has been so much admired ; and 
the Water of Mat, its affluent, has here a course of 5§ 
miles — the first 2 miles north-eastward along the bound- 
ary with Dunning, and the last ^ mile northward along 
that with Forteviot. Both the "Earn and the May, the 
former all along the northern boundary, the latter in its 
lower reach, sometimes overflow their banks ; but they 
amply compensate any damage they infiict by bringing 
down rich deposits of fertilising silt. One or two 
springs adjacent to the eastern boundary possess exactly 
the same medicinal properties as the Pitcaithly wells. 
The northern district, from 30 to 150 feet above the sea. 


is part of the beautiful valley of Strathearn, and, 
though ascending gradually southwards, is on the 
wliole level. The southern, beyond the village, com- 
prises fully three-fourths of the entire area, and runs up 
among the Ochil Hills, attaining 300 feet on Dumbuils, 
102S on Castle Law, 624 near Ardargie Mains, 797 near 
Rossieochill, and 1354 at Slungie Hill, whose summit, 
however, falls just within Orwell parish. It mainly 
consists of hill and upland, with little intersecting vale ; 
yet has but a small aggregate of bare or rocky surface, 
and is mostly disposed in either good pasture or corn- 
fields. The rocks are partly Devonian, but principally 
eruptive ; and they include some limestone, some iron- 
stone, and great abundance of such kinds of trap as 
are suitable for building. The soil on some of the lands 
adjacent to the Earn is carse clay, on others a sandy 
alluvium ; further S is a rich, black, argillaceous loam ; 
and on the arable lands of the centre and the S is 
variously a sandy earth, a black earth, and a reddish 
clay, better adapted for oats than any other sort of 
grain. JIuch land formerly pastoral or waste has been 
reclaimed ; and barely 1000 acres have never been sub- 
jected to the plough. The mansions of Ardargie, 
Condie, Freeland, and Rossie are separately noticed, as 
likewise are a small Roman camp on Ardargie estate, an 
extensive Danish fortification on Castle Law, and 
remains of another ancient fortification on Dumbuils. 
Five proprietors hold each an annual value of £300 and 
upwards, 5 of between £100 and £500, and 4 of from 
£20 to £50. Forgandenuy is in the presbytery of 
Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling ; the living is 
worth £272. The parish church at the village is very 
old, and contains 410 sittings. There is also a Free 
church ; and two public schools, Forgandenny and Path 
of Condie, with respective accommodation for 113 and 
64 childi'en, had (1881) an average attendance of 79 and 
40, and grants of £67, 2s. and £44, 6s. Valuation 
(1882) £7913, 3s. 2d. Pop. (1801) 958, (1831) 917, 
(1861) 739, (1871) 632, (1881) 627, of whom 10 were in 
Kinross-shire. — Ord. Sur., shs. 48, 40, 1868-67. 

Forglen, a parish of NE Banffshire, whose church 
stands 2 J mUes WNW of Turriff", under wliicii there is 
a post oiSce of Forglen. It is bounded N and NE by 
Alvah, E and S by Turriff in Aberdeenshire, and SAV 
and W by ^larnoch. Its utmost length, from NW to 
SE, is 5| miles ; its utmost breadth is 3| miles ; and 
its land area is 6249 acres. The river Deveeok flows 
3 J mUes east -north -eastward along all the southern, 
then 3J miles along all the eastern and north-eastern, 
border. Sinking in the NE to 75 feet above sea-level, 
the surface thence rises to 400 feet at Todlaw Wood, 
323 near Sawmill Croft, 557 at Auldtown Hill, 600 
near Craiglug, and 575 at Craig Aithry. It thus is 
beautifully varied with gently rising grounds, having 
a gradual slope towards the Deveron, and being well 
sheltered by woods and hills. Greywacke rock pre- 
vails in the W, and appears also in the N and the 
centre ; whilst clay slate predominates in the lower 
grounds and towards the S. The soil is generally light 
— sandy along the Deveron, clayey in parts of the 
interior, and seldom loamy. Fully one-fifth of the 
entire area is under wood, and nearly all the rest of the 
land, partly in result of recent reclamation, is either 
regularly or occasionally in tillage. Forglen House, on 
the left bank of the Deveron, 2J miles NW of Turriff', is 
a noble castellated edifice of 1842, successor to an older 
mansion that dated from the middle of the 15th 
century. It is the seat of Sir Robert John Abercromby 
of Birkenbog, chief of the clan Abercromby, and seventh 
Bart, since 1636 (b. 1850; sue. 1872), who owns 8053 
acres in the shire, valued at £6290 per annum. Car- 
nousie, the other mansion, is noticed sejxirately ; and 
the property is divided among three. Constituted a 
parish about 1640 out of portions of Alvah and llarnoch, 
Forglen was sometimes known as Tennan or St Eonan 
(Adamnan) from an ancient chapel in it, remains of 
■which still exist. This chapel, or a predecessor, was 
Adamnan's principal churcli among the northern Picts 
towards the close of the 7th century ; and in it was pre- 


served the JSrichannoch, or banner of Columba. For- 
glen is in the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aber- 
deen ; the living is worth £225. The present parish 
church, built in 1806, contains 450 sittings. A Free 
church stands 2J miles to the WNW ; and two public 
schools, boys' and girls', with respective accommodation 
for 120 and 85 children, had (1881) an average attend- 
ance of 76 and 47, and grants of £85 and £42, 8s. 2d. 
Valuation (1860) £4470, (1882) £5378, 14s. 8d. Pop. 
(1801) 605, (1831) 820, (1861) 783, (1871) 845, (1881) 
7U.—0rd. Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Forgue, a parish on the north-western border of Aber- 
deenshire. The church, near which a hamlet once 
existed, is situated 5J miles E of Rothiemay station, 
and 74 NE of Huntly, under which there is a post 

The parish is bounded N and NE by Inverkeithny 
in Bantfshii'e, E by Auchterless, S by Culsahnond and 
Insch, W by Drumblade and Huntly, and NW by 
Rothiemay in Banffshire. Its utmost length, from N 
to S, is 7§ miles ; its breadth, from E to W, varies 
between 2 and 5| miles ; and its area is 17, 379 J acres, 
of which 25i are water. The river Deveron winds 
9 fuidongs along the Rothiemay border ; Glen Water or 
tlie Ury, flowing 2| miles eastward through the Glen of 
Foudland, traces all the southern boundary ; the 
Yi'HAN rises in the southern interior, and passes off into 
Auchterless ; whilst Forgue and Frendraught Burns, 
uniting below the church, carry most of the drainage 
northward to the Deveron. The surface declines along 
the Deveron to 242 feet above sea-level, at the confluence 
of Forgue and Frendraught Bm'ns to 232, along the Ury 
to 538, and along the Ythan to 508 ; and the interior 
is a fine alternation of vales and hillocks, holms and 
knolls. The north-western extremity is occupied by 
part of Foreman Hill (1127 feet) ; and in the S rise 
Broom Hill (1006), Wether Hill (943), and the Hill of 
Bainshole (1042). The chief rocks are greywacke, clay 
slate, limestone, granitic gneiss, and syenitic greenstone, 
of which the slate and limestone were formerly quarried 
at Lambhill and Pitfancy. The soils are various — 
sandy, gravelly, loamy, clayey, and mossy ; some rich 
and grateful, others poor and barren ; some yielding 
from eight to ten returns of the seed sown, others re- 
turning no more than two or less than three. Much of 
the land incapable of being turned to any better account 
is covered with plantations. An interesting ruin, 
famous in ballad and separately noticed, is Frendraught 
Castle ; other antiquities are remains of several an- 
cient Caledonian stone circles, and of what is conjec- 
tured to have been a Roman redoubt. The Admirable 
Crichton (1560-83) has been claimed as a native, falsely, 
since Eliook, in Dumfriesshire, was his birthplace ; but 
in Forgue was born the eminent antiquary, John Stuart, 
LL.D. (1813-77). A large distillery is at Glendronach, 
and fairs are held at Hawkhall. In 1875 a neat cottage 
hospital was built in this parish by Mrs Morison of 
Bognie, for patients resident in the parishes of Forgue, 
Ythan-Wells, Auchterless, and Inverkeithny. In front 
of it is a granite cross 20 feet high, erected by the 
tenantry in 1876 as a memorial to her husband, the 
late Alexander Morison, Esq., in pursuance of whose 
wishes this hospital was founded. Mansions are Auch- 
aber, Aucharnie, Boyne's Mill, Cobairdy, Corse, Drum- 
blair House, Drumblair Cottage, Frendraught, Haddo, 
and Temple-land ; and 5 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 8 of between £100 
and £500, and 3 of less than £100. In the presbytery 
of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, this parish includes 
the chief part of Ythan-Wells quoad sacra parish, 
itself being a living worth £343. Its church, erected 
in 1819, is a substantial edifice, with 900 sittings, 
Gothic windows, and a fine-toned organ, presented 
by Walter Scott, Esq. of Glendronach, in 1872. There 
are also a Free church of Forgue, and an Episco- 
pal church, St Margaret's, which latter, rebuilt in 1857, 
is an Early English structure, with nave, chancel, and 
a tower and spire 110 feet high. Forgue public, Largue 
public, and Forgue EpiscopaUan school, with respective 



accommodation for 140, 100, and 60 children, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 79, 82, and 51, and 
grants of £71, 6s. 6d., £76, lis., and £34, 8s. Valuation 
(1860) £11,006, (1881) £13,538, Is. 9d. Pop. of civil 
parish (1801) 1768, (1831) 2286, (1861) 2686, (1871) 
2623, (1881) 2422 ; of ecclesiastical parish (1871) 1332, 
(1881) IZOS.—Ord. Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 
Forkings, a hamlet of S Eoxburghshire, 9 miles E by 

5 of Hawick. 

Forkins. See Wilsontown. 

Formal, Knock of, a hill near the SW border of Lin- 
trathen parish, W ]?orfar.shire, on the western shore of 
the Loch of Lintrathen, 4 miles N by E of Alyth. It 
rises to an altitude of 1158 feet above sea-level, and is 
covered with wood to the top. 

Forman. See Foreman. 

Formartine, a central district of Aberdeenshire. It 
is bounded on the NE by Buchan, on the E by the 
German Ocean, on the S by Aberdeen, on the SW by 
Garioch, on the NW by Strathbogie. It comprises all 
the seaboard from the Ythan to the Don ; extends up 
the N side of the Ythan's basin and past Turriff to the 
Deveron ; and is separated by a ridge of low hills, near 
Old Meldrum, from Garioch. It contains 16 qtioad 
civilia parishes, and has an area of about 280 square 
mUes. It consists partly of a strong soil intersected by 
bogs, and partly of an excellent clay capable of a high 
degree of improvement ; and it gives the title of Viscount 
to the Earl of Aberdeen. 

Forneth, a hamlet in Clunie parish, NE Perthshire, 

6 miles W by S of Blairgo^vi'ie, under which it has a post 
office. Forneth House, J mile nearer Blairgowrie, 
crowns a fine elevation on the NAY bank of the loch of 
Clunie, and commands a beautiful prospect of the lake, 
its islet, and surrounding scenes. 

Fornoughty, a hamlet in Rathven parish, NW Banff- 
shire, SJ miles S of Buckie. 

Forres (Gael, far-uis, 'near the water'), a parish in 
the NW of the county of Elgin, is bounded on the NE 
by Kinloss, on the E, SE, and S by Rafford, on the 
SW by Edinkillie, and on the "W by Dyke and Moy. 
Near the middle of the western boundary, at Moy Carse 
westward from Invererne, the boundary is formed by a 
detached portion of Nairnshire, measuring 4 furlongs by 
2. With this exception, the boundary on the SW and 
W is the river Findhorn ; elsewhere it] is artificial and 
excessively irregular. There is a long narrow strip 
running N and S, and from the middle of this a horn- 
like projection runs eastward into the parish of Eaflbrd, 
and terminates near Califermoss. The greatest length 
from the point on the N in Findhorn Bay, where Forres 
unites with the parishes of Kinloss and Dyke and Moy, 
to the point on the S where it unites with the parishes 
of Rafford and Edinkillie, is ej miles ; and the breadth, 
from E to W, from the most easterly point of the long 
projection already mentioned, to the point on the W on 
the river Findhorn, where the parishes of Forres, Edin- 
killie, and Dyke and Moy unite, is 5j. Owing, how- 
ever, to its irregular shape, the area is only 5440 acres. 
The surface in the northern district is low and level, 
and is highly cultivated, as is also that of the central 
district, which is diversified by small round hills 
crowned with clumps of trees that, along with the hedge- 
rows, give to the neighbourhood of Forres a peculiarly 
English aspect. In the eastward projection the ground 
rises more steeply, and at Califcr Hill attains a height 
of 700 feet above sea-level. The wooded ridge of Cluny 
HUl, close to the town of Forres, is noticed in the 
following article. The woods of Altyre in the S are 
extensive and, in some places, picturesque. The soil 
of the lower and central districts is mostly a good 
loam, but in parts it is light and sandy, and, like 
most of the ' Laich of Moray, of which an old proverb 
says, that 

' A misty May and a drappin' June 
Put the bonnie Land o' Moray abune,* 

it takes a good deal of rain in the earlier part of the 
season to bring the crops to full perfection. The soil of 
the southern portion is poorer and in parts mossy. The 


underlying rocks are sandstone and impure limestone, a 
quarry in the latter in the extreme S of the parish, near 
Cothall, being sometimes worked. The climate is good 
and the air dry and pure. The parish is drained by the 
river Findhorn, flowing 5J miles northward along all the 
western border, and by the Burn of Forres or Altyre, 
which, entering from Eafi'ord parish, winds 5^ miles 
northward past the W end of the town, till it falls into 
Findhorn Bay. Although the mouth of this burn and 
the mouth proper of the river Findhorn are a mile apart 
along the edge of the bay, and the edge of the bay is 
more than a mile and a half from the town of Forres, 
yet, during the great flood of the 3 and 4 Aug. 1829, 
so much were both river and burn swollen, that their 
waters united near the W end of the town at the Castle 
Hill, the whole of the low country to the N being under 
water. ' The view of the inundated plain of Forres, ' 
says Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, ' from the Castlehill of 
the borough, on the morning of the 4th, though truly 
magnificent, was such as to overwhelm the mind of the 
spectator with dismay. From Mundole, about 2 miles 
to the AV of Forres, and from Forres to Findhorn, about 
5 miles to the N, the whole plain was under water. 
The river and the burn met under the Castlehill, and 
the inundation spread over the rich and variously 
cropped fields, and over hedges, gardens, orchards, and 
plantations. In this "world of waters" the mansions 
of proprietors, the farmhouses and offices, the trees, and 
especially the hedgerows, giving its peculiarly English 
appearance to the environs of Forres — the ricks of hay, 
and here and there a few patches of corn standing on 
situations more elevated than the rest, presented a truly 
wonderful scene. One-half of the bridge of Forres, over 
the burn immediately under the Castlehill, had disap- 
peared during the night, having parted longitudinally ; 
and, overthe part that yet remained, the people on the W 
side of the burn were hastily removing their families, 
cattle, and furniture to the hill on which Forres stands, 
after having waded to the middle to rescue them from the 
flood.' The Loch of Blairs, measuring 3 by 2 furlongs, 
and lying 2^ miles SSW of tlie toivn, is partly in Forres 
parish, partly in Raff'ord. The parish is traversed by the 
Highland railway system. The line from Inverness to 
Keith passes across the parish near the centre from SW to 
NE for a distance of 2 miles. At the W end of the town 
of Forres the Perth section of the line branches off and 
passes in a SE direction through the parish for more 
than 2J miles. At the SW end of the Inverness and 
Keith section, the Findhorn is crossed by a heavy plate- 
girder bridge with 3 spans of 150 feet each, the girders 
being supported by massive abutments on each side, 
and by 2 piers in the waterway, of the river. The piers 
are founded on rock 15 feet below the bed. The great 
road from Aberdeen to Inverness passes through the 
parish a little to the S of the railway for a distance of 
24 miles. It passes through the town of Forres, and 
crosses the Findhorn by an elegant suspension bridge, 
which was erected in 1831 from designs by Sir Samuel 
Brown, R.N. The river was formerly crossed at the 
same place by a handsome bridge of 3 arches, but it was 
swept away by the great flood of 1829, and, at the same 
time, a mile of the turnpike road to the E was destroyed, 
and ' left in deep holes full of salmon. ' The present bridge 
was erected to replace the one destroyed by the flood. It 
cost nearly £10,000, and the last remaining toll in the 
county of Elgin was its lately-abolished pontage. The 
chains are supported at either side of the river by well 
proportioned Gothic towers. The industries of the parish 
are connected with the town of the same name, and are 
noticed in the following article. Sanquhar House, f 
mile S of the tovm, is an Elizabethan structure, in plan 
resembling a double cross, and greatly enlarged in 1863. 
The main building is two stories high, and at the NW 
corner rises an octagonal three-story tower. There 
are good gardens, and in the park are a number of fine 
tree's ; whilst to the N of the house is a beautiful 
artificial lake. William Fraser-Tytler (1777-1853), 
eldest son of Lord Woodhouselee, in 1801 married 
Margaret Cussans, only daughter and heiress of George 


Grant of Eurdsyards or Sanquhar ; and his second son, 
Charles Edward Fraser-Tj'tler of Aldourie and Balmain 
(1816-Sl), who held 1310 acres in Elginshire, and 
15,978 in Inverness-shire, valued at £1813 and £3151 
per annum, has left Aldoukie in the former county to 
liis eldest surviving son, Edward Grant, and Sanquhar 
to the third, AVilliam Theodore. Invereme House, 
which is IJ mile N by W of the town, is a quad- 
rangular building cf four stories, built in 1818. The 
old name of it was Tannachy, and it belonged to the 
family of Tulloch of Tannachy, who, however, had to 
part with it in 1772. The name has been changed since 
the present proprietor acquired it in 1834. It was at 
ouo time the residence of Charles St John, the well- 
known author of JFild Sports of the Highlands and of 
Natural History and Sport in Moray. Forres House, 
which is on the outskirts of the town, has a large 
garden and policies extending to the base of the Cluny 
Hill. The site was formerly occupied by a fine old 
mansion-house which also belonged to the Tannachy 
family. Drumduan House is near the E end of the 
to\vn. Seven ^proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 or upwards, 15 of between £100 and £500, 43 
of from £50 to £100, and 69 of from £20 to £50. 
The parish is in the presbytery of Forres and synod 
of Moray ; the living is worth £386. The public, 
the infant public, and the industrial Episcopalian 
school, with respective accommodation for 400, 169, 
and 108 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 
269, 118, and 86, and grants of £240, 10s., £88, 17s., 
and £76, ISs. A''aluation, exclusive of burgh, (1881) 
£7787, 4s. Pop. (1801) 3114, (1831) 3895, (1861) 4112, 
(1871) 4562, (1881) 4762.— Orrf. Sur., shs. 84, 85, 94, 

Forres is the seat of a presbytery in the synod of 
Moray, comprehending the parishes of Forres, Dallas, 
Dyke, Edinkillie, Kinloss, and Rafford. Pop. (1871) 
10,359, (1881) 10,202, of whom 760 were communicants 
of the Church of Scotland in 1878.— The Free Church 
has also a presbytery of Forres, including churches 
in the same sis parishes, which together had 1960 
members in 1881. 

Forres, a town, with the privileges of a royal burgh, 
in the centre of the foregoing parish. It stands on a 
terraced ridge, extending from E to W, and sloping 
gently to the N" and S. The site is pleasant and well 
sheltered, the surrounding country finely wooded and 
beautiful ; and the sheltered situation combined with 
the dry soil makes it one of the healthiest places in 
Scotland, so much so, indeed, that it has sometimes 
been called the Montpelier of Scotland. The large 
number of detached villas and the great extent of 
garden ground give the town the appearance of being 
much larger and having a gi'eat many more inhabitants 
than is actually the case. The station on the Highland 
railway, greatly improved in 1876-77, is the junction of 
the Inverness, the Keith, and the Perth sections of the 
system. The railway convenience thus afforded has 
greatly aided in the development of the town and the 
increase in its trade and population that have taken 
place in recent years. By rail it is 6 miles S of Find- 
horn, 12 "W by S of Elgin, 30 WNW of Keith, 83i N"\V 
by W of Aberdeen, 25 EKE of Inverness, 166 NN-rt of 
Edinburgh, and 182 NNE of Glasgow. 

The name Forres is probably the Gaelic far, 'near,' and 
uis, ' water ; ' but however that may be, it is a place of 
considerable antiquity. It has been by many wi-iters 
identified with the Varris of Ptolemy's chart, and 
mention is made by Boece that so early as 535 certain of 
its merchants were for some trifling cause put to death 
and their goods confiscated to the king. Malcolm I. is 
said to have resided in the neighbourhood ; and Ulurn 
or Vlern, where, according to the later chronicles, he 
was killed in 954, has by some writers been identified 
with Blervie Castle, 4J miles ESE of Forres. (See 
Fetteresso. ) King Dubh or Duffus, the son of Mal- 
colm, is said to have been murdered in the castle at 
Forres by Donald, the governor, in 967 ; and there is a 
curious story that his body was hidden under the bridge 


of Kinloss, and that, till it was found, the sun did not 
"hine. At Forres, according to Boece, the 'gracious' 
King Duncan held his court, and Shakespeare, founding 
thereon, has made Macbeth and Banquo, going to the 
camp, meet the weird sisters on the Hard Muir, in the 
parish of Dyke close by — 

* How far is't called to Fon*es ? ' 

Though early Forres thus was evidently a place of as 
much importance as or even more than Elgin, it does 
not seem to have been able to keep pace with its rival 
after the foundation of the bishopric, when Elgin be- 
came the centre of ecclesiastical power and influence in 
the province. At what date Forres became a royal burgh 
is uncertain, as all the older charters have been lost, 
and the oldest now remaining is one of De novo damus, 
granted by King James IV., and dated 23 June 1496. It 
narrates that the king, ' understanding that the ancient 
charters granted to the town of Forres have been de- 
stroyed in time of war or by the violence of fire,' now 
grants anew in free burgage all the lands and rights 
formerly belonging to the community, ivith power to 
elect a provost and bailies, etc. , who were to exercise 
jurisdiction within the burgh boundaries. Liberty was 
also given to erect a cross and to hold ' a weekly mar- 
ket on Friday, and an annual fair, beginning on the 
Vigil of St Lawrence, and to continue for eight days 
. . . with all and sundry other privileges and im- 
munities of a free bm'gh.' The oldest notices of the 
place that exist from contemporary documents are in 
connection with the castle, which stood on a green 
mound at the "W end of the town, now known as the 
Castle Hill. A northern bard has declared that 

* . . . Forres, in the days of yore, 
A name 'mang Scotia's cities bore. 
And there her judges o'er and o'er 

Did Scotland's laws dispense ; 
And there the monarchs of the land 
In former days held high command. 
And ancient architects had planned, 
By rules of art in order grand. 

The royal residence.' 

The older castle of Forres, where King Dufi'us is said to 
have been murdered, and which is said to have been 
razed after his death, was probably by no means so 
grand as this, and was very possibly of %vood. ' Its 
keep and walls were no doubt strengthened, if not 
rebuilt, in the reign of David I., when the town which 
it protected is first mentioned as a king's burgh. It was 
then surrounded by a forest, in which the burgesses had 
the privilege of wood-bote granted to them by that 
monarch.' The castle was a royal residence, and 
William the Lyon dated charters here in 1189 and 1198, 
and Alexander II. dated a charter from the same place 
in 1238. In 1264 William Wiseman, sheriff of Forres, 
paid £10 for the erection of a new tower be3'ond the 
king's chamber ; and in the chamberlain's accounts 
about the same time, in the reign of Alexander III., 
there are entries of expenditure for various articles for 
the king's table here. King David II. issued a writ at 
the castle of Forres in 1367, and it is mentioned again 
in 1371 under Robert II. The castle was the oilicial 
residence of the hereditary sheriff's of Moray, and so 
was in the possession of the family of Dunbar of West- 
field for more than 300 years. From them it passed to 
the Earl of Seafleld, and now belongs to Sir Charles R. 
Macgrigor, Bart., London. The ruins which now stand 
on the Castle Hill are not the remains of the old castle, 
hut the relics of a house projected and partly built by 
William Dawson, provost of Forres, about 1712. The 
foundations of the old castle were exposed when the NW 
slope of the hill was being planted with trees nearly 
twenty years ago. On the level space to the W of the 
ruins stands a lofty obelisk of polished Peterhead gran- 
ite resting on a freestone base. This base is 24 feet 
square ; the die of the obelisk is 9J feet square ; and 
the whole structure rises to a height of 65 feet. It was 
erected by public subscription, in 1857, in memory of 
Assistant-Surgeon James Thomson, who, as set forth in 
the inscription, was present with the 54th Regiment 'at 




the battle of Alma in 1854 ; and a few days afterwards, 
when the British were leaving the field, volunteered 
to remain behind with 700 desperately wounded Rus- 
sians. Isolated from his countrymen, endangered by 
the vicinity of large bodies of Cossacks, ill-supplied with 
food, and exposed to the risk of pestilence, he succeeded 
in restoring to health about 400 of the enemy and em- 
barking them for Odessa. He then died from the effects 
of excessive hardships and privation. This public 
monument is erected as a tribute of respect for the virtue 
of an officer whose life was useful and whose death was 
glorious. ' Dr Thomson was a native of Cromarty, but 
the authorities there refused a suitable site for the 
obelisk, and the subscribers accepted the offer of Dr 
Thomson's friend, Sir Charles R. Macgrigor, of this site 
on the Castle Hill at Forres. Opposite the entrance to 
the Castle Hill on the site now occupied by Auchernack 
Cottage stood a humble house, where James Dick (1743- 
1S28), the founder of the Dick Bequest, was born. Early 
in the present century Mr Dick had accumulated in 
America the large fortune of £140,000. This fortune he 
at his death bequeathed to trustees for the benefit of the 
parochial schoolmasters in the counties of Aberdeen, 
Banff, and Elgin ; and so well has the fund Iseen man- 
aged by the Society of Writers to the Signet, that the 
principal teacher of one school in every parish in these 
counties receives, after passing a qualifying examination, 
from £20 to £30 from this fund. Besicles the castle, 
other objects of antiquarian interest that may be men- 
tioned are Sueno's Stone and the Witch's Stone. Both 
are at the E end of the town near the old toll-house, 
Sueno's Stone being to the E and the Witch's Stone to 
the W of it. Sueno's Stone is an elaborately carved 
pillar of hard reddish grey sandstone, about 23 feet high, 
4 wide at the base, and 15 inches thick. The broad 
faces are towards the N and S. On the N side are three 
divisions. Below are two figures seemingly bending 
towards one another, while a smaller human figure 
stands behind each. In the upper division is a long 
cross, with a circle at the intersection of the arms. The 
cross and the whole of the centre division are covered 
with elaborate carving, forming so-caUed Runic knots. 
The edges are also covered with Runic knotting, and at 
the base of one of them are several figures, seemingly 
females. On the S side there are five divisions. The 
first shows groups of figures, with the walls of some 
building in the background ; the second lias a body of 
horsemen advancing at full gallop, and infantry follow- 
ing with spears in their hands and shields on their arms. 
The sculptured figures in the third are engaged in battle ; 
at the top warriors seem to be attacking a gateway ; and 
in one of the corners are a number of headless bodies. 
The fourth division shows bound captives, some appar- 
ently women, while above is a row of warriors with un- 
sheathed swords. The last division is much worn, but 
seems to have contained a number of figures on horse- 
back. The stone received its name from Boece's sup- 
position that it was erected to commemorate a victory of 
Sueno, son of Harakl, King of Denmark, gained at 
Forres over the forces of Malcolm II. in 1008. Dr 
Skene, however, inclines to the belief that it comme- 
morates a fray in the year 900 between Sigurd the 
Powerful, Norwegian Earl of Orkney, and a Scottish 
earl, Melbrigda, in which the latter fell and all his men 
with him. ' Earl Sigurd and his men fastened their 
heads to the saddle-straps in bravado, and so they rode 
home triumphing in their victory. As they were proceed- 
ing Earl Sigurd, intending to kick at his horse with his 
foot, struck the calf of his leg against a tooth protrud- 
ing from Earl Melbrigda's head, which scratched him 
.'ilightly ; but it soon became swollen and painful, and 
he died of it. He was buried in a mound at Ekkials- 
bakki,' which Dr Skene proceeds to identify with the 
river Findhorn {Celtic Scotland, i. 337, 1876). In 
1813 eight human skeletons were found near the pillar ; 
and in 1827 a large stone coffin was dug out of a steep 
bank above the Findhorn. Of the pillar there is an 
excellent drawing in the first volume of Stuart's Sculp- 
tured Stones of Scotland (Plates xviii. -xxi. ). The Witch's 

Stone is at the foot of the hawthorn hedge on the S side 
of the turnpike road to the W of the old toll-house. It 
is the remaining one of three stones which traditionally 
marked the spot where three witches, accused of plotting 
the death of King Duffus, were put to death. The king, 
according to the tradition preserved, after returning from 
one of his visits to Forres, was taken ill at Scone. His 
physicians, unable to check the disease, concluded that 
ho had been bewitched while in the North, and instruc- 
tions were sent to the governor of the castle to institute 
inquiries. The witches were surprised at midnight, and 
found with a wax image of the king slowly melting 
before the fire. They were immediately seized and 
taken to the top of Cluny Hill, and there each was 
placed in a barrel. The barrels were then sent rolling 
down the hill, and at the place where they stopped they 
and their contents were burned, and stones set up to mark 
the spot. The survivor at one time was broken up for 
building purposes, but the town authorities caused the 
pieces to be brought back, clasped with iron, and placed 
in the original position. A stone within the field on 
the opposite side of the road is said to be another of 
the three, but this is doubtful. Forres seems to have 
been, from the days of the weird sisters downwards, a 
place of note for witches ; and the last of them, an old 
woman named Dorothy Calder, was, by the aid of fifteen 
cart-loads of peats, burned to death early in last cen- 
tury on the top of Drumduan Hill, the common place 
of execution. Near the centre of the town stands the 
town-house, built in 1839 on the site of the old Tol- 
booth, which dated from 1700. The present building 
is in the Tudor style, mth a handsome square tower. 
It contains the council chamber, the town-clerk's offices, 
and the court-room. Close to it, in the centre of the 
street, is a neat little market-cross, erected in 1844. 
It is an imitation of the great crosses of the Middle 
Ages, and somewhat resembles, though on a very small 
scale, the Edinburgh monument to Sir Walter Scott. 
A little to the W is the Falconer Museum (1870), a 
neat building in the Italian style. The expense of its 
erection was covered by a sum of money bequeathed for 
this purpose by Alexander Falconer in 1856, and a far- 
ther bequest by his brother, the late Dr Hugh Falconer 
(another of the distinguished sons of Forres), so weU. 
known for his palaeontological labours, who besides be- 
queathed to it a number of curiosities as a nucleus for 
the collection. It contains a number of the Sewalik 
fossils discovered and admirably described by Dr Fal- 
coner, and the collection of Old Red sandstone fishes 
formed by the late Lady Gordon-Cumming of Altyre, 
many of them being specimens described and named by 
Agassiz. The Mechanics' Institute is on the N side of 
High Street. It is a massive quasi-classical building, 
with a good library, etc. , and contains two large halls, 
which are used for public meetings, concerts, etc. 
Anderson's Institution was erected in accordance with a 
deed of settlement of a native of Forres, Jonathan An- 
derson, who, in 1814, made over to the magistrates and 
town council the lands of Cowlairs, near Glasgow, for 
the purpose of erecting a school and paying a teacher, so 
that the children of necessitous parents in the parishes 
of Forres, Rafford, and Kinloss might be instructed in 
reading, English, writing, arithmetic, and such other 
branches of education as the provost, magistrates, and 
town council should judge proper. It is a Grecian 
structure of 1824, remodelled in 1881, at a cost of over 
£3000, to meet the requirements of the Education Act. 
The Agricultural Hall was erected, in 1867, by a joint- 
stock company at a cost of £1700. It is an oblong 
building, Grecian in style, and measures 150 by 58 feet. 
In it are held the Christmas shows of the Forres and 
Northern Fat Cattle Club. A gallery along the sides 
and the N end gives space for the display of grain, 
seeds, farm-implements, etc. The market buildings 
were erected also by a joint-stock company in 1851 ; 
and an auction mart was opened in 1877. Gas was 
introduced in 1837, and water in 1848. The parish 
church was built in 1775, and repaired in 1839, and 
again in 1860 ; there is accommodation for over 1000 



worshippers. It stands on the site of the old church of 
St Lawrence. There are a Free church (783 sittings), a 
Gothic United Presbyterian church (1871), with several 
stained-glass windows, superseding a building of date 
1812, St John's Episcopal church (1840), Italian in 
style, a Gothic Independent church (1866), an Evan- 
gelical Union church, and a Baptist chapel (1860). 

To the SE of the town is the wooded ridge of the 
Cluny Hill, which belongs to the burgh, and is laid out 
for the recreation of the inhabitants. The ridge is 
covered with fine plantations, and walks wind along in 
all directions amid the trees. There are three distinct 
hills, and on the summit of the highest is an octagonal 
tower, erected by public subscription in 1806 to com- 
memorate Lord Nelson and his victories. It is 24 feet 
in diameter, and 70 high. On panels on the outside 
are inscribed ' In memory of Admiral Lord Nelson,' 
'Nile, 1 August 1798,' 'Copenhagen, 2 April 1801,' 
and 'Trafalgar, 21 August 1805.' There are a number 
of floors, and the room on the first contains a marble 
bust of Lord Nelson. The top is reached by a spiral 
stair, and the view therefrom is magnificent. The 
eye ranges over a wide expanse of country, beginning 
with the richly wooded plains of Kinloss, Forres, and 
Dyke and Moy, and passing over the Moray Firth to 
the distant blue hills of Ross and Sutherland. On the 
southern slope of the hill is the Cluny Hill Hydro- 
pathic Establishment, admirably situated on dry soil, 
■Nvith a sheltered and sunny exposure, and commanding 
an extensive and fine view. 

Forres has a head post office, with money order, sav- 
ings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, offices 
of the British Linen, National, Caledonian, and Eoyal 
Banks, a National Security Savings' bank, agencies of 
19 insurance companies, 9 hotels and inns, a branch of 
the Bible Society, a number of religious and charitable 
societies, a property investment company, 3 masonic 
lodges, a cricket club, etc. There are also a woollen 
manufactory, a chemical work, a bone-mill, two flour- 
mills, a saw-mill, and a brewery. The Liberal Forres, 
Elgin, and Nairn Gazette (1837) is published on Wed- 
nesday ; the Independent Moray and Nairn Express 
(1880) on Tuesday and Friday. A weekly market is held 
on Tuesday, and fairs for cattle and other live stock are 
held on the Tuesday before the third AVednesday of 
January, February, March, and April, on the Tuesday 
before the second Wednesday of Jlay, on the second 
Tuesday of June, on the first Tuesday of August, on the 
fourth Tuesday of September and October, and on the 
Tuesday before the third Wednesday of November. A 
lamb fair is held on the first Tuesday of July, and a fair 
for fat stock on the Tuesday in December before the 
London Christmas market. Hiring fairs are held on 
the Saturday before 26 May, on the first Tuesday of 
August, and on the Satiu'day before 22 November. 
Justice of Peace courts sit on the first Monday of 
each mouth, and the sheriff holds a small debt circuit 

court on the second 
Monday of Febru- 
ary, AprU, June, 
August, October, 
and December. 
The town is gov- 
erned by a provost, 
3 bailies, a dean of 
guild, a treasurer, 
and 11 councillors, 
who, under the 
ed in 1865, are also 
commissioners of 
police. The town 
possesses extensive 
lands, the bound- 
ary of which, ex- 
tending over about 
15 miles, was officially perambulated in 1840. The arms 
of the to^vn are Saint Lawrence (the patron saint) 
in a long habit, holding a gridiron : round his heacl 

Seal of Forres. 


is a nimbus, at his right side is a crescent, and at the 
loft a star of six points ; in his right liand is a book. 
The motto is Jcliova tii, miki Beus, quid deest ? Forres 
unites with Inverness, Nairn, and Fortrose in return- 
ing a member to parliament, its parliamentary and 
municipal constituency numbering 407 in 1882. Cor- 
poration revenue (1832) £620, (1854) £707, (1879) 
£2235, (1881) £1715. Burgh valuation (1867) £7796, 
(1875) £11,116, (1882) £14,498. Pop. of parliamentary 
and police burgh (1851) 3468, (1861) 4112, (1871) 3959, 
(1881) 4030, of whom 2257 were females, and 3110 were 
in the royal burgh. — Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Forrestfield, a North British station, at the N border 
of Shotts parish, Lanarkshire, near the meeting-point 
\rith Linlithgow and Stirling shires, 6J miles ENE of 
Airdrie, and 8 W by S of Bathgate. 

Forrestmill. See Foeestmill. 

Forrig. See Fokgue. 

Forsa, a rivulet of Torosay parish, MuU island, Argyll- 
shire. Rising on the skirt of BentaUoch, it runs 6 J miles 
north-north-westward along a glen called from it Glen- 
forsa, and falls into the Sound of Mull at Pennygown, 
where its width is 22 yards. It contains both salmon 
and sea-trout, and is open to anglers from the Salen 
Hotel. Glenforsa has an average width of J mile, and 
is flanked by grassy or heathy hills, that rise with an 
acclivity of 30 degrees. 

Forse, an estate, with a mansion. In Latheron parish, 
Caithness, 2i miles W of Lybster. Its owner, George 
Sutherland, iEsq. (h. 1827 ; sue. 1846), holds 8000 acres 
in the county, valued at £2482 per annum. Forse 
fishing hamlet, 2 miles WSW of Lybster, has an inn ; 
and on the cliffs here is the site of an old castle. 

Forsinard, a station, an inn, and a post office in Reay 
parish, E Sutherland, on the Sutherland and Caith- 
ness railway, 20J miles SW of Halkirk, 24i NNW of 
Helmsdale, and 35i WSW of Wick. 

Forss, a stream and an estate of NW Caithness. Forss 
Water, issuing from Loch Shurrery (321 feet), winds 12J 
miles northward, through or along the borders of Reay, 
Halkirk, and Thurso parishes, till it falls into the North 
Sea at Crosskirk Bay. It is subject to great freshets, doing 
much injury to the lands near its banks ; and is well 
frequented by sea-trout and grUse. Forss House, near 
the right bank of the stream, 5J miles W of Thurso 
town, is the seat of Charles Wemyss Sinclair, Esq. (b. 
1862; sue. 1376), who owns 12,700 acres in the county 
valued at £5610 per annum. There is a post office of 
Forss under Thurso. — Ord. Sur., sh. 115, 1878. 

Fort Augustus. See Augustus Fokt. 

Fort Charlotte. See Lerwick. 

Forter, an ancient castle of the OgOvies in Glenisla 
parish, Forfarshire, on the right bank of the Isla, 4 
miles NNW of Kirkton of Glenisla. Commanding the 
glen, together with passes leading to Glenshee and Brae- 
mar, it was plundered and destroyed by the Earl (later 
Marquis) of Argyll in July 1640 — the month of the 
burning of the ' bonnie house of Airlie.' It appears to 
have been a place of considerable size and strength ; 
and is now represented by walls partly almost entire, 
and partly ruinous. — Ord. Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 

Forteviot, a village and a parish of SE Perthshire. 
The village stands, 60 feet above sea-level, on the right 
bank of May Water, i mile above its influx to the Earn, 
and has a station on the Scottish Central section of the 
Caledonian, 7 miles SW of Perth, under which there is 
a post office of Forteviot. On a small eminence now 
called the Halyhill, at the W end of the village, over- 
hanging May Water, stood Fortevieth, the ancient 
capital of Fortrenn. According to the legend of the 
foundation of St Andrews, Angus mac Fergus, King of 
the Picts (731-61), here built a church, his three sons 
having already dedicated a tenth of the city to God and 
St Andrew ; and in his palace here Kenneth mac Alpin 
died in 860. Wynton records a cmious story that 
Malcolm Ceannmor was an illegitimate son of King 
Duncan by the miller of Forteviot's daughter : anyhow, 
Forteviot was a favourite residence with Malcolm ; and 
on the ' Miller's Acre,' near the Halyhill, Edward 



Baliol's army encamped before the battle of Dutplin 

The parish, comprising the ancient parishes of Fort- 
evict and Muckersie, consists of three separate portions 
— the main body, containing the village ; the Kirkton 
Hill section, immediately W of Craigend village, and 2 
miles ENE of the main body ; and the Struie section, 
1 J mile SE of the southern extremity of the main body. 
The said main body is bounded N by Tibbermore and 
Aberdalgie, E and SE by Forgandenny, SW by Dunning, 
and W by Dunning and Findo Gask. Its utmost length, 
from NNW to SSE, is 4| miles ; and its utmost breadth, 
from E to W, is 2f miles. The Struie section (2^ x 1§ 
miles) is bounded E by Arngask, SE and SW by Orwell, 
and on all other sides by Forgandenny ; and the Kirkton 
Hill section (Ig x If mile) is bounded N and NE by 
Perth, E by Dunbarny, S by Dunbarny and Forgan- 
denny, and W by Aberdalgie. The area of the whole is 
7952J acres, of which 2893§ belong to the detached 
sections, and 167J are water. In the main body, the 
Eakn winds 3| miles east-north-eastward, viz., 5 fur- 
longs along the Findo Gask and Dunning border, next 
1^ mile across the interior, then If mile along the 
Aberdalgie border ; and its beautiful aiHuent, Mat 
Water, after tracing J mile of the Forgandenny border, 
runs 3 miles westward and north-by- westward through 
the interior. Dupplin Lake (3 J x 2^ furl. ) lies, at an 
altitude of 410 feet, towards the north-western corner. 
Along the Earn the surface declines to close upon 30 
feet above sea-level, thence rising to 431 feet near Upper 
Cairnie and 504 near Invermay home farm. The Struie 
section is drained by Slateford Burn to May Water, 
which itself traces 44 furlongs of the north-western 
border ; its surface, a portion of the Ochils, rises north- 
ward from 500 feet to 1194 on Dochrie Hill at its 
southern extremity. Lastly, the north-eastern section 
attains 596 feet in Kirkton Hill, and is washed on the 
S by the winding Earn. The rocks are chiefly eruptive 
and Devonian ; and the soil along the Earn is of high 
fertDity ; whilst the southern and north-western por- 
tions of the main body are finely wooded. Invermay, 
the chief mansion, is noticed separately ; and 4 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 5 of between £100 and £500, 2 of from £50 to 
£100, and 2 of from £20 to £50. Forteviot is in the 
presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling ; 
the living is worth £339. The church, at the village, 
erected in 1778, contains 250 sittings ; and the old 
church of Muckersie, on the May's left bank, 1 mile 
ESE of Invermay, was long the burying-place of the 
Belshes family. A public school, with accommodation 
for 98 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 61, 
and a grant of £62, 4s. 6d. Valuation (1843) £6301, 
(1882) £8261, 13s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 786, (1831) 624, 
(1861) 595, (1871) 567, (1881) 61S.—0rd. Sur., shs. 48, 
40, 1868-67. 

Fort George. See Geoege, Fokt. 

Forth, a mining village and a quoad saara parish in 
Carnwath parish, E Lanarkshire. The village, standing 
800 feet above sea-level, is 1 mile SSW of Wilsontown, 
3 miles W of Auchengray station, and 7f NNE of 
Lanark, under which it has a post office. At it are an 
Established church, a Free church, a branch bank of 
the British Linen Co., an hotel, and a public school, 
which, with accommodation for 250 children, had (1881) 
an average attendance of 141, and a grant of £116, 12s. 
The quoad sacra parish, in the presbytery of Lanark 
and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, was constituted in 
1881. Pop. of village (1871) 784, (1881) 757 ; of parish 
(18S1) 2072.— Ord Sur., sh. 23, 1865. 

Forth, a river and an estuary flowing through or 
between Stirlingshire, Perthshire, Clackmannanshire, 
Fife, and the Lothians. The river is formed by two 
head-streams, Duchray Water and the Avondhu (' black 
water'), rising 2| miles distant from one another, and 
cfiecting a confluence at a point 1 mile W of the hamlet 
of Aberfoyle. Duchray Water, rising, at an altitude of 
3000 feet, on the N side of Ben Lomond (3192), If mile 
E of the shore of the loch, winds 13f miles north- 


north-eastward, south-eastward, and east-north-eastward 
through the interior or along the borders of Buchanan, 
Drymen, and Aberfoyle parishes, for 6f mUes tracing 
the boundary between Stirling and Perth shires. The 
Avondhu, rising, on the western border of Aberfoyle 
parish, at an altitude of 1900 feet, flows 9 miles east- 
south-eastward, and expands, in its progress, into Loch 
Chon (If X f mile ; 290 feet) and the famous Loch Akd 
(2J mUes x | mile ; 103 feet). Both of the head-streams 
traverse a grandly mountainous country, and abound in 
imposing and romantic scenery. From their confluence, 
80 feet above sea-level, the united stream winds east- 
south-eastward to Stirling, through or along the borders 
of the parishes of Aberfoyle, Drymen, Port of Monteith, 
Kippen, Gargunnock, Kincardine, St Ninians, Lecroft, 
and Logic, during greater part of this course forming 
the boundary between Stirlingshire and Perthshire. At 
Stirling the river, from the confluence of its head-streams, 
has made a direct distance of about 18J miles, but mea- 
sures 39 along the curves and meanderings of its bed. 
It flows principally through low, flat, alluvial grounds, 
but is overlooked everywhere, at near distances, by 
picturesque hills, and exhibits great wealth of scenery, 
embracing the softly beautiful as well as the brilliant 
and the grand. Two important and beautiful tribu- 
taries, the ' arrowy ' Teith and Allan Water, join the 
Forth 3| and If miles above Stirling. From Stirling 
to Alloa the river separates Stirlingshire from Perth- 
shire and Clackmannanshire ; and while the direct line 
measures only 5§ miles, the windings of the river, 
popularly called the Links of Forth, are 12| mUes long. 
The stream is flanked by broad carse lands, of such 
value that, according to the old rhyme, 

* A crook o* the Forth 
Is worth an earldom o' the north.' 

Below AUoa the river becomes less remarkable for its 
sinuosity of movement, and, losing partly its fresh- 
water character, begins to expand slowly into a fine 
estuary, reaching the German Ocean at a distance of 
51J miles from Alloa. The Firtli of Forth, as it is now 
called, divides Clackmannanshire, part of Perthshire, 
and Fife from Stirlingshire, Linlithgowshire, Edin- 
burghshire, and Haddingtonshire ; and has a width of 
J mile at AUoa, J mile at Kincardine ferry, and 3 miles 
just above Borrowstounness. At Queensferry, in conse- 
quence of a peninsula on the N side, the basin suddenly 
contracts to a width of IJ mile ; but below Queensferry 
it again expands to 5J mUes at Granton and Burntisland 
ferry, and between Prestonpans and Leven to a maxi- 
mum width of 17 miles. The Firth again contracts, 
between Dirleton and Elie Ness, to 8J miles ; and enters 
the ocean, between Fife Ness and the mouth of the 
river Tyne, vrith a width of 17^ miles. The islands, 
with the exception of Inchgarvie and two or three other 
rocky islets in the vicinity of Queensferry, are in the 
wider parts of the Firth, comprising Inchcolm, Cra- 
MOND island, and Ixchkeith. The last, measuring 
5 by IJ furlongs, is crowned with a lighthouse, and in 
1881 was rendered defensible by the erection of three 
batteries with heavy guns. Half a dozen small islands 
(FiDRA, Ceaigleith, etc. ) lie ofi' the Haddingtonshire 
coast ; while the entrance is flanked by the romantic 
Bass Rock on the S and the Isle of May on the N. 
The estuarj' in mid channel has a maximum depth of 
37 fathoms ; opposite Queensferry the soundings are 
in 9 fathoms ; on the expanse known as Leith Koads, 
they vary from 3 to 16 fathoms ; opposite EHe Ness 
they reach 28 fathoms ; and, in the vicinity of the Isle 
of May, run from 14 to 15 fathoms. The tides are so 
affected by conflicting currents, by islands and shallows, 
and by the irregularities of the shores, as to vary much 
both in respect of velocity and time. The flowing tide, 
over the sands of Leith, runs IJ knot an hour, and 
appears to flow for only four hours, while the ebbing 
tide continues for eight hours. The tides on the N 
shore, opposite these Roads, run from 3 to 3J knots aa 
hour, and have an equal duration in flow and in ebb. 
The flowing tide, from Kinghorn Ness to the promontory 




-'^■H i^ 


W of Aberdour, runs at the rate of SJ knots an hour ; 
through the contraction at Queensferry, it runs at the 
rate of 5 knots an hour, and, 6 miles above that con- 
traction, at from 2 to 2J miles an hour. The ebb 
tide, at about 6 miles above Queensferry, runs at the 
same rate as the flow tide ; but, through the contraction 
at Queensferry, it runs at the rate of 6 knots an hour ; 
and, in Inverkeithing Bay, immediately E of that con- 
traction, turns for two hours to the "W at the rate of IJ 
knot an hour. The estuary presents safe roadsteads at 
Elie Roads, Leith Roads, Burntisland Roads, Inver- 
keithing Bay, St Margaret's Hope immediately above 
Queensferry, and various other localities. It has good 
docks at Leith, Granton, Borrowstounness, Grangemouth, 
and Burntisland ; good harbours at Dunbar, Anstruther, 
Cockenzie, and Fisherrow ; and numerous harbours of 
varying character and capacity along the N shore from 
Crail to Alloa. The navigation was long regarded as 
dangerous ; but, though shoally in various localities, 
and somewhat obstructed by sandbanks, it is now, with 
the aid of lighthouses on the islands of May and Inch- 
keith and of accurately drawn and minute charts, so 
signally safe as rarely to be marked with a ship'wreck. 
Seven vessels, however, were stranded on the Carr 
reef, off Fife Ness, during 1870-81 ; and the gale of 
14 Oct. 1881 did dreadful havoc to the fishing boats 
of Newhaven and Fishereow. Numerous industrial 
works are on the shores, from Alloa and Borrowstoun- 
ness downward ; vast repositories of coal, limestone, and 
ironstone are so near it, on both shores and westward 
from its head, as to send down much of their output to 
it for shipment ; and all these, along with the extensive 
and productive fisheries of Leitii and ANSTRtrTHER dis- 
tricts, attrast large numbers of vessels of all sizes. 

The basin of the Forth is estimated at 645 square 
miles. The length of the river and its estuary, mea- 
sured in a direct line from the Ducliray's source on Ben 
Lomond to the entrance, is only SO miles ; but, follow- 
ing the bends of river and estuary, is 116.^ miles, viz., 
52J to Stirling, 12g thence to Alloa, and 51| thence to 
the German Ocean. The chief tributaries above Alloa 
are, on the right bank, Kelty Water, Boquhan Burn, 
and Bannock Burn ; on the left bank. Goodie Water, the 
Teith, Allan Water, and the Devon; and the chief 
streams flowing into the estuary are, on the right side, the 
Carron, the Avon, the Almond, the Water of Leith, and 
the Esk ; on the left side, the Leven. The river contains 
salmon, grilse, sea-trout, trout, pike, perch, and eels ; and 
its salmon are large and delicate. Several good salmon 
casts for the angler occur about the influx of the Teith ; 
but all the salmon fisheries below that point are held 
strictly as private property, and are let under stringent 
conditions. The estuary abounds with white fish of all 
kinds ; and large fleets of fishing-boats from Newhaven, 
Fisherrow, Buckhaven, Anstruther, and other places 
procure abundant supplies for the daily markets of 
neighbouring and distant towns. Of late years the use 
of steam trawlers has been introduced, and, while the 
catch is thus increased, the older style of fishers allege 
that the spawn and spawning beds are injured by the 
trawl nets. Herrings generally shoal into the Firth 
once a year, and have in some years yielded a prodi- 
gious produce ; but they are esteemed in some respects 
inferior in quality to the herrings of the western coast. 
The extensive sand beds, together with immense quan- 
tities of seaweed, are favourable to the deposit of the 
spawn of fishes; and mussels, contributing so largely 
to the support of the finny tribes, are very abundant. 
Oysters formerly lay in beds adjacent to Cramond and 
Inch Mickery, as well as near Prestonpans ; but they 
were over-fished, almost to comparative exhaustion ; and 
they are now inferior, both in quality and in size, to the 
oysters obtained in many other parts of the British coasts. 

An ancient ferry crosses the river at Queensferry, and 
connects on the S side with a branch from the Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow section of the North British railway 
at Ratho station, and with a line to Dunfermline on the 
N. A still more important ferry is that from Granton 
to Burntisland, which, in the meantime, forms the link 


between the southern and the northern portions of the 
North British railway system. Both of the ferries named 
are now in the hands of the North British Railway 
Company, and are maintained under certain statutory 
obligations as to the fare to be charged, aud the mini- 
mum number of passages to be made daily. In former 
times the Queensferry was on the line of the Great 
North Road, the mails crossing here en route for Kin- 
ross, Perth, aud the North. The ferry between Leith 
or Newhaven and Kirkcaldy or Pettycur has long 
since been abandoned, as has also the 'Earl's Ferry,' from 
a place in Fife still bearing that name to the nearest 
point in East Lothian. Many projects have been made 
to bridge the Forth or to tunnel it, the latter proposal 
being described in several pamphlets published early 
in the present century. Although there are, with the 
railway bridges, several structures now spanning the 
Forth there, the bridge of Stirling was at one time an 
important because almost solitary access to the North. 
A bridge is known to have existed here six centuries 
ago, and some remains of it, about J mile above the 
existing 'old bridge,' are still, it is said, to be seen. 
Below Stirling, a bridge has been erected (1882-83) by 
the Alloa Railway Company, to connect with the South 
Alloa Branch of the Caledonian railway. The main 
feature of this bridge is a swing-opening by which the 
river, at high water, remains navigable by steamers 
and small vessels to Stirling as heretofore. Several 
plans have been drawn up for improving the crossing at 
Queensferry and below. In 1851 Sir Thomas Bouch 
perfected the ' floating railway ' between Granton and 
Burntisland, a plan in which by the use of adjustible 
loading apparatus, and of large flat steamers, the rail- 
way company was enabled to carry goods trains over the 
ferry without breaking bulk. This system has remained 
in constant operation for upwards of thirty years. In 
1861 a railway from Edinburgh to Perth was projected 
by Bouch, the proposal being at that time to carry the 
trains over by ' floating railways ' similar to those used 
at Burntisland. Three years later the first design for 
a bridge over the Forth was proposed by him. The 
bridge was to be 3 miles long, crossing the shallower 
part of the river a mile above Charleston, with a height 
of 125 feet above the river, and 5 spans of 500 feet each 
in the fairway. In 1873, after the Tay Bridge had been 
begun, the bolder design of crossing at Queensferry, 
using the island of Inchgarvie as the central support for 
2 spans of 1600 feet each, was put forward by Sir 
Thomas Bouch. This scheme was eagerly taken up, 
despite the fact that it was to be partly on the suspen- 
sion principle, and required piers of 600 feet high to 
bear the chains. It was reported on, in its scientific 
aspects, by Hawkshaw, Barlow, Bidder, and other en- 
gineers, and, as regards wind pressure, by Dr Pole and 
Sir George Airey, the astronomer royal. But the fall of 
the Tay Bridge disparaged the project, and it was aban- 
doned. In 1882, however, under an absolute guarantee 
for the interest on the capital by the North British, 
Midland, Great Northern, and North Eastern railways, 
the Forth Bridge proposal at Queensferry has been re- 
newed, and statutory powers for its erection have been 

The Firth of Forth has played a not unimportant 
part in the troublous history of Scotland, having been 
visited by hostile fleets at various times from 83 a.d. 
downwards. In 1549, the island of Inchkcith was seized 
and fortified by the English under the Duke of Somer- 
set, from whom it was taken by the French commander, 
then in alliance with the Scots. In 1567, an act was 
passed for the demolition of the fort on Inchkeith, and 
though this was not fully carried out (since Johnson and 
Boswell found the fort in fair preservation in 1773), the 
Firth for three centuries remained defenceless. At 
the entrance to Leith harbour a Martello tower was 
erected, and there is, nominally, a fort in that town, 
but the former is disused, and both are inadequate for 
defence against modern ordnance. After many years' 
agitation, steps were in 1880-81 taken for the construc- 
tion of three batteries on Inchkeith, and one on King- 



horn Ness, which, mounted with heavy guns, completely 
command the channels N and S of the island. — OrcL. 
Sur., shs. 38, 39, 31, 32, 40, 33, 41, 1857-71. See 
David M. Home's Estuary of the. Forth ai\d adjoining 
Districts viewed geologically (Edinb. 1871), and works 
cited under Fife and Stiklingshire. 

Forth and Clyde Canal or Great Canal, The, con- 
structed to connect the Firths of Forth and Clyde, was 
opened for traffic in 1790. The possibility of making a 
short cut through this neck of Scotland was discussed as 
early as the reign of Charles II., and the plan was 
revived without success in 1723 and 1761, — the survey 
in the former year being made by Mr Gordon, author of 
the Itinerarium Septentrionale, and in the latter, at Lord 
Napier's expense, by Mr Robert Mackell. The latter 
survey was approved by the Board of Manufactures of 
Scotland, who, in 1763, employed Mr Smeaton to make 
a survey of the proposed route. This engineer put 
down the expense as £80,000, which was thought too 
great to justify further proceedings. In 1766 some 
Glasgow merchants began a subscription of £30,000 for 
a canal 4 feet deep and 24 broad, but parliament refused 
to sanction the scheme, owing to the smallness of the sum, 
which had been fully subscribed in two days after the 
proposal. Another combination was made, and a new sub- 
scrijrtion for £150,000 set on foot. In 1767 parliament 
gave the required permission for the incorporation of 
' The Company of Proprietors of the Forth and Clyde 
Navigation,' the stock to consist of 1500 shares of £100 
each, with liberty to borrow £50, 000. Work was begun 
in l768 under the superintendence of Mr Smeaton, the 
first sod being cut by Sir Lawrence Dundas on 10 July. 
In July 1775 the canal was completed up to Stocking- 
field, at which point a branch to Glasgow was con- 
structed and was carried to Hamilton Hill near that 
cit}', where a basin and storehouses were made. By 
this time all the capital and the loan had been spent, 
as well as the income from other sources. The revenue 
from the part then opened was only £4000, and the pros- 
pects were gloomy all round, the shares falling to half 
their original price. In 1784 assistance was given by 
the Government, who handed £50,000 of the revenue 
from the forfeited estates of the Jacobites to the corpora- 
tion. This was not a gift, for the Government stipu- 
lated that the Crown should draw the ordinary dividend 
for that sum. In July 1786 the cutting of the canal 
was resumed under the superintendence of Mr Robert 
"Whitworth, and, by July 1790, it was opened from sea 
to sea. At the opening ceremony the chairman, accom- 
panied by the magistrates of Glasgow, poured a barrel 
of Forth water into the Clyde, — this interesting cere- 
mony being witnessed by a large concourse of people. 
The first vessel to pass through was the sloop Agnes of 
80 tons burthen, belonging to Port Glasgow, and built 
at Leith for the herring fishery and coasting trade. 
This took place on 31 Aug. ; and on 9 Sept. the sloop 
Mary M'Ewan was the first to accomplish the journey 
the other way. The Hamilton Hill basin was found too 
small, and the large depot at Port Dundas was 
constructed to answer the needs of Glasgow. Here 
a junction was afterwards effected with the Monk- 
land Canal, and the two were amalgamated in 1846. 
The branch connecting the two was furnished with 
substantial quay walls for the accommodation of barges 
imloading ; and up to 1850, the sum expended on the 
Forth and Clyde and Monkland Canals was £1,090,380. 
Although the canal was planned to be only 7 feet 
deep, its depth was practically 10. Its length was 
38| miles — 35 miles direct between the Forth and 
Clyde, 2| miles of the branch to Port Dundas, and a 
mile of the continuation to the Monkland Canal. The 
gi'eatest height of the canal above the sea is 156 feet, 
and this is attained by means of twenty locks on the 
eastern and nineteen on the western sides, a differ- 
ence due to the different water-level of the two rivers. 
The locks are each 74 feet long and 20 broad, with 
a rise of 8 feet. They admit the passage of vessels 
of 68 feet keel, 19 feet beam, and 8^ feet draught of 
water. The average breadth of the canal on the sur- 


face is 56 feet, and at the bottom 27 feet. Above 
thirty bridges span the canal, and it in turn crosses 
about forty aqueducts, the largest of which is that over 
the Kelvin at Maryhill, consisting of four arches S3 feet 
high, which convey the waterway across a dell 400 feet 
wide. This work was begun in June 1787, and com- 
pleted in April 1791, at a cost of £8500. Water for the 
canal is supplied from eight reservoirs, covering a space 
of 721 acres. 

The canal begins, at the E end, about a mile up the 
river Carron at Grangemouth. Hence it goes south- 
westward to Grahamston and Bainsford, where a basin 
was made for the Carron Company's traific. It then 
continues in the same direction to Camelon, and then 
trends to the W to Lock 16, where it is joined by 
the Union Canal from Edinburgh. Thence to Wind- 
ford Loch, near Castlecary (where it attains its greatest 
elevation), it goes in a westerly and south-westerly 
direction. A quarter of a mile further on it leaves 
Stirlingshire, though for many miles it keeps closely 
to the borders of that county. Passing N of Kilsyth 
it comes to Kirkintilloch, and J mile fm-ther on enters 
Lanarkshire. In 4 miles the branch to Port Dundas 
is reached (this branch being on the summit level 
throughout), and from this point the canal proceeds 
northward a little. As it approaches the Kelvin 
viaduct the locks become numerous, and the scenery 
through which the canal passes is picturesque and 
romantic. At this point it re-enters Dumbartonshire, 
and thence it proceeds about 5 miles till it is joined by 
a junction canal, extending to the Clyde at the mouth 
of the Cart, formed in 1839 for the benefit of Paisley. 
For 3| miles the Forth and Clyde navigation follows the 
course of the Clyde in a north-westerly direction, finally 
joining the river at Bowling Bay, where a harbour and 
wharves were constructed at a cost of £35,000. For a 
great part of its course the canal follows the line of 
' Graham's Dyke, ' or Antoninus' W.a.ll, showing how 
closely the Ptomans attained the shortest line between 
the two great estuaries. The completion of this work 
was no small event, for we read that, as there was 
only 7 feet of water at the Broomielaw, while the canal 
was 8 feet deep, its basin, 'immediately on its being 
made open for traffic, became a more important port 
than the Broomielaw. ' The whMigig of time has cer- 
tainly brought in its revenges in this case. 

Considerable scientific and historical interest attaches 
to the Forth and Clyde Canal as the scene of early ex- 
periments in steam navigation. After Mr Patrick 
Jliller and Mr Symington had, on Dalswinton Loch, 
proved the feasibility of using steam on the water, they 
came to Edinburgh, and had a boat of 30 tons burthen 
constructed at Carron. In November 1789 this vessel 
was launched on the Forth and Clyde Canal. In presence 
of hundreds of people the vessel started, and attained a 
speed of 6 miles an hour. On reaching Lock 16 un- 
happily the fioats of the paddlewheels gave way, and the 
experiment had to be stopped. Ten years later Lord 
Dundas desu-ed Symington to construct a steamer to be 
used as a tug on the canal, and in March 1802 the Char- 
lotte Dundas towed two laden barges of 70 tons burthen 
each a distance of 19^ miles with great ease. This 
vessel was built by Mr Hart, of Grangemouth, and its 
hull lay for many years in a creek between Locks 8 and 
9 ; her timbers were afterwards made into furnitm'e or 
other relics. In consequence of the success of this ex- 
periment, a proposal was made to the proprietors to use 
steam tugs instead of horse power, but it was rejected 
on the ground that the wash from the paddles would 
destroy the banks of the canal. Another result of 
Symington's success was a poem by a Mr Muir of Kirk- 
intilloch, which gives expression to the common won- 
derment at the phenomenon — 

' When first, by labour, Forth and Clyde 
Were taught o'er Scotia's hills to ride 
In a canal deep, lan^j, and wide, 

Naebody thought 
Sic wonders, without win' or tide, 

Wad e'er be wrought. 


* But lately wc hae seen a lij^hter 
Wi' in her tail a fanner's fligliter, 
May bid boat-haulers a' gae dight her 

Black sooty vent ; 
Than half a dozen horse she's wigliter 

By ten per cent. 

' It was sae odd to see her pullin', 
An' win' an' water baith unwillin* ; 
Yet deil may care, she, onward swellia'. 

Defied them baith, 
As constant as a mill that's fuUin' 

Gude English claith. 

' Can e'er, thought I, a flame o' reek. 
Or boilin' water's caudron smeek, 
Tho' it was keepit for a week, 

Perform sic wunnerg, 
As quite surprise amaist the feck, 

O' gazin' hunners?' 

In September 1839 another experiment in tlie use of 
steam was made on tlie canal, but tliis time the power 
•was proposed to be supplied by an engine running along 
the bank ; and a light railway having been formed along 
the path near Lock 16, a locomotive engine of moderate 
power was put on it. On 11 Sept. the engine was 
attached successively to passenger boats, lightly and 
heavily laden ; to sloops, single and in pairs ; and to a 
string of nine miscellaneous sailing vessels. The pas- 
senger boats were drawn at a rate of 16 or 17 miles an 
hour, the single sloops at 3i, and the string of vessels at 
2i. Greater velocities could have been attained, but, 
though the wash was seen to have little effect on the 
banks, the rates were restricted to those mentioned. 
All the experiments were satisfactory, but as the appli- 
cation of the system to the whole canal would have 
been very costly, it was abandoned. 

All that remains of the history of the canal may be 
gathered from a sketch of its financial fortunes. In 
1841 it was stated that ' this canal has been most lucra- 
tive to the proprietors. In 1S20 their capital was 
£519,840, and the income in 1836 was £63,743." In 
1839 the revenue was £95,475 ; and in 1850, four years 
after their amalgamation, the returns from the Forth and 
Clyde and Monkland Canals was £115,621, while the 
total sum spent on the two from the beginning was 
£1,090,380. In 1867 the joint-undertakings were taken 
over by the Caledonian Railway Company, when they 
were valued at £1,141,333. The terms of transfer were 
that the railway company should pay an annuity of 
£71,333, being a guaranteed dividend of 6| per cent, 
secured by a lien over the works and revenues. In 1881 
for convenience the stock was nominally increased, so 
as to amalgamate it with other guaranteed stocks at 
an equal rate of 4 per cent. From the half-yearly 
balance-sheet of the company, published in Sept. 1882, 
it appears that the receipts from the canal were £43,882, 
8s. 9|d. , while the expenditure for the six months was 
£14,609, 5s. OJd. 

Forth and Clyde Railway. See Nokth British 

Forthar, a place with extensive lime-works in Kettle 
parish, Fife, 2 miles S by W of Kettle village. The 
limestone at it contains 98 per cent, of pure lime ; and 
the working of it gives permanent employment to a 
great number of men. 

Forthar Castle, Forfarshire. See Foeter. 

Forthill, an eminence in Monifieth parish, Forfarshire, 
^ mile NW of Broughty Castle. A fort, erected on 
it in 1548 as a flanking post of the English garrison in 
Broughty Castle, was dismantled in 1550 ; left remains 
12 feet high till 1782 ; and is now completely obliter- 
ated. A camp was formed on the same eminence fully 
J mile E of the fort, and has left slight traces of its 

Forthie Water, a rivulet of Kincardineshire, rising in 
the W of Dunnottar parish, and winding 4 J mOes 
south-westward, chiefly along the mutual boundary of 
Glenbervie and Arbuthnott, till it falls into Bervie 
Water 1 mile S of Drumlithie. — Orrf. Sur., shs. 67, 66, 

Forth Iron-works. See Caenock and Oakley. 


Fortingall, a hamlet and a large highland parish of 
Athole and Breadalbane districts, NW Perthshire. The 
hamlet stands, 400 feet above sea-level, 3 furlongs N of 
tho left bank of the Lyon, 1§ mile N of the lower waters 
of Loch Tay, and 8 miles W by S of Aberfeldy, under 
which it has a post office. Here is a good hotel ; and 
faus are held here on 9 Aug. o.s., and 6 and 7 Dec. 

The parish contains also Kinlooh Rannoch village, 
18 miles NNW of Fortingall by road, but only 8J as 
the crow flies, and Innerwick hamlet, lOJ miles W ; 
and it comprises two detached portions. The main 
body is bounded NE by Blair Athole, E by Dull, S by 
Kcnmore and detached sections of Weem, Kenmore, 
and Killin, W by Glenorchy and Lismore in Argyllshire, 
NW and N by Kilmonivaig and Laggan in Inverness- 
shire. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 20J miles ; 
its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 20J miles ; and 
its area is 185,551 acres. The Bolfraoks or eastern 
detached portion, lying 1 mile W by S of Aberfeldy, 
and measuring 4§ by li miles, is bounded N tor 13 
mile by the "Tay, and on all other sides by detached 
sections of Logierait, Dull, and Weem. The larger 
south-western detached portion, containing Loch Lyon, 
has an utmost length and breadth of 7J and 6g miles, 
and is bounded E and SE by sections of Weem and 
Kenmore, on all other sides by Glenorchy parish in 
Argyllshire. The area of the whole is 204,346J acres, 
or 319 square miles, of which 18,795J acres belong to 
the detached portions, and 7663J are water. In the 
south-western detached portion the river Lyon rises 
close to the Argyllshire border at 2400 feet above sea- 
level, and runs 4 miles northward to Loch Lyon (If x J 
mile ; 1100 feet), below which it here has an east-by- 
northerly course of 2J miles along the Kenmore and 
Weem border. Through Weem it continues 1 mile 
eastward, and then, entering the main body of Fortin- 
gall, winds 25J miles east-north-eastward and east-by- 
northward, chiefly through the southern interior, but 
at three points tracing the southern boundary, till at 
length, where the Keltney joins it, and IJ mile above 
its own confluence with the Tay, it passes ofi' to Dull. 
Thus Fortingall claims all but 2^ miles of its entire 
course (36 miles), during which its chief affluent is 
Keltney Burn, rising at 2700 feet upon Carn Mairg, 
and hurrying 5| miles east-by-northward through the in- 
terior, then 3i south-south-eastward along the boundary 
with Dull. Loch Laidon or Lydoch (5i miles x i mile ; 
924 feet), on desolate Rannoch Muii-, belongs partly to 
Glenorchy, but mainly to Fortingall ; from it the Gauir. 
winds 7 miles eastward to the head of Loch Rannoch 
(9§ mUes x 5i to 9 furl. ; 668 feet). The river TuMMEL, 
issuing from the foot of Loch Rannoch, has here an 
eastward course of 6J miles, 3§ thereof marking the 
southern boundary of the Lochgarry section of Logie- 
rait ; and to Loch Rannoch, towards its head, the 
Ericht runs 5| miles south-south-eastward out of Loch 
Ericht (1153 feet), whose lower 7 miles are partly in 
Laggan but chiefly in Fortingall. Such, broadly, are 
the drainage features of this parish, which, lying all 
within the basin of the Tay, at the very heart of the 
Grampians, offers rich variety of highland landscape — 
soft valley and rugged glen, jagged ridge and soaring 
summit, with, westwards, mile on mile of moorland 
plateau. Along the Tummel the surface sinks to 600, 
along the Lyon to 350, feet above sea-level ; and from 
E to W, the principal heights to the N of the Tummel, 
Loch Rannoch, the Gauir, and Loch Laidon, are Ben 
Mholach (2758 feet), Stob an Aonaich Mhoir (2805), 
*Ben Chumhann (2692), Ben Phaelagain (2836), 
*Sgur Gaibhre (3128), *Carn Dearg (3084), and *Cruach 
(2420) ; between Loch Rannoch and the Lyon, MeaU 
Crumach (2217), conical Schiehallion (3547), Caen 
Mairg (3419), *Carn Gorra (3370), Ben Meggernie 
(2158), *Garbh Mheall (3000), and *Stuchd an Lochain 
(3144) ; to the S of the Lyon, *Meall Luaidhe (2558), 
*Ben nan Oighreag (2978), and *Meall Ghaordie (3407), 
where asterisks mark those summits that culminate 
right on the confines of the parish. In the south- 
western detached portion, around Loch Lyon, rise Meall 



Daill (2858), *Ben Ckeachan (3540), *Ben Ach- 
ALLADER (3399), Ben Vankooh (3125), *Ben-a- 
CiiAiSTElL (2897), *Creag Mhor (3305), and *Ben 
Heasgarnicli (3530) ; in the eastern or Bolfracks sec- 
tion, *Craig Hill (845), Meall Mor (1626), and Meall 
Dun Dhomlmuill (2061). The Moor of Bannocli lies, 
in large measure, upon granite ; elsewhere the rocks are 
principally quartzose, of Silurian age. Clay slate, of 
tissUe character, appears in a hill above Fortingall 
hamlet and on the eastern side of Scliiehallion. Good 
limestone is plentiful in the E ; and several veins of 
]narble, of varied hues occur in different parts. Rock 
crystals, spars, and pebbles of great variety and 
brilliancy are often found among the mountains ; and 
a vein of lead ore in Gleulyon, seemingly of consider- 
able richness, was worked for some time about the 
beginning of last century. The soil of the level strips 
along the vales is generally gravelly and dry ; on the 
skirts and lower slopes of the hUls, though cold, yields 
good enough pastm-age ; and on the higher acclivities is 
for the most part bleak and barren moor. Very little 
of the land is arable, an enormous proportion being 
either sheep-walk, grouse-moor, or deer-forest. Still, 
gi'eat improvements have been made within this century 
in the reclamation and enclosing of land, and in farm- 
buildings. Chief antiquities are an ancient Caledonian 
stone circle, near the parish church ; a Roman camp 
between the hamlet and the Lyon, by Skene regarded 
as an outpost of the Emperor Severus beyond the Tay 
(208 A.D.); traces of fourteen wide circular forts ; and 
the striking ruin of Garth Castle. This is separately 
noticed, as also are the chief mansions — Glenlyon House, 
Garth House, and Chesthill, near Fortingall hamlet ; 
Meggernie Castle, above lunerwick ; Rannoch Lodge, 
Finuart Lodge, and Croiscrag, at or towards the 
head of Loch Rannoch ; Dalchosnie, Dun Alastair, 
and Innerhadden, near Kinloch Rannoch ; and Bol- 
fracks, in the eastern detached portion. Thirteen pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of more, and two of 
less, than £500. In the presbytery of Weem and synod 
of Perth and Stirling, this parish is ecclesiastically 
divided into Fortingall proper, Innerwick or Glenlyon, 
and Kinloch Rannoch — the first a living worth £207. 
Its church, at Fortingall hamlet, is a venerable building, 
containing 376 sittings ; and in the churchyard, pro- 
tected by iron rails, is the shattered torso of the famous 
yew-tree, supposed to be fully 3000 years old — ' probably 
the oldest authentic specimen of vegetation in Europe.' 
In Pennant's day (1772) it measured no less than 56 feet 
in girth, but now there are only two fragments of the 
shell. These still put forth branches and leaves, and 
outside the enclosure is a vigorous scion, 36 feet high, 
and fully 150 years old. A Free church stands on the 
same bank of the Lyon, ^ mile E of the hamlet ; and a 
new public school, vfith accommodation for 100 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 57, and a grant of 
£67. Other churches and schools are noticed under 
Glenlyon and Kinloch Rannoch. Valuation (1866) 
£17,651, 14s. Id., (1882) £21,263, 14s. 2d. Pop. of 
civil parish (1801) 3875, (1831) 3067, (1861) 2181, (1871) 
1766, (1881) 1690, of whom 1398 were Gaelic-speaking ; 
of ecclesiastical parish (1871) 700, (1881) 616 ; of regis- 
tration district (1881) 56S.—Ord. Sur., shs. 55, 54, 46, 
47, 1869-73. 

Fortrose, a royal and parliamentary burgh in the 
parish of Rosemarkie, Ross-shire, is situated on the 
!NW side of the inner Moray Firth, at the north-eastern 
extremity of the Black Isle Road, nearly opposite Fort 
George, 8J miles S by E of Invergorden Ferry, 9 SSW 
of Cromarty, and lOJ NNE of Inverness. It consists 
of two towns, Chanoney and Rosejiarkie, J mile dis- 
tant from each other, and first politically united under 
James II. in 1455, when they were constituted a free 
burgh in favour of the Bishop of Ross. The burgh 
lapsed to the Crown after the Reformation, but in 1590 
Chauonry was enfranchised ; and in 1592 the towns were 
re-united under the title of the royal bm-gh of Fortress, 
afterwards softened into the present name Fortrose. 
Chanonry Point, a long tongue of land, covered with 


fine links, and edged with sandy beach, which stretches 
into the sea between the towns, has suggested an ety- 
mology for the name, meaning ' fort of the peninsula ; ' 
other authorities e.^cplain it as 'strong fort.' A light- 
house of the second class was built in 18 46 at the extremity 
of this point, whence also there is a ferry (1 mUe broad) to 
Fort George and the Inverness coast. Fortrose (or at 
least one of its component parts) early appears in history 
as an ecclesiastical seat. Lugadius or Moluog, an abbot 
and bishop of Lismore, who died in 577, founded a Colum- 
ban monastery in Rosemarkie. About the 8th century, 
Albanus Kiritinus, surnamed Bonifacius, who seems to 
have been a bishop of the Irish-Roman Chm-ch, named 
Curitan, came to Scotland ; and, in 716, says Wynton, 

* In Eos he fowndyd Rosmarkyne,' 

dedicating his church to St Peter. When David I. came 
to the throne in 1124 he founded the bishopric of Ross, 
and placed the diocesan seat at Rosmarkyn or Rosemarkie. 
The presence of an educated clergy raised the place to a 
high degree of culture ; and famous schools of divinity 
and law flourished under the shadow of the cathedral. 
Down so late even as the time of Cromwell the little 
town enjoyed a considerable amount of general prosperity. 
Now, however, Forti'ose has no trade ; and its connection 
with the outer world is chiefly maintained through the 
summer visitors, who are annually attracted by the 
beautiful situation of the town, its picturesque neigh- 
bourhood, its fine links, and its facilities for sea-bathing. 
New houses have recently begun to spring up for the 
better accommodation of these visitors. Fortrose is regu- 
larly buUt, well-lighted with gas, and abundantly 
supplied with water. Its most interesting edifice is 
the ruined cathedral dedicated to SS. Peter and Boni- 
facius, situated within a wide, grassy enclosure in the 
centre of the town. The sole remains now are the S 
aisle of the chancel and nave, and a detached chapter- 
house ; and an old bell is also preserved, dated 1460. 
When perfect the cathedral was a handsome red sand- 
stone building, presenting a beautiful specimen of the 
pure Early Decorated style, and dating from about the 
beginning of the 14th century. Its total length was 
120 feet ; and it comprised a nave of 4 bays, with aisles 
14 feet wide, and rormd-headed windows ; a choir, with 
aisles, Lady-chapel, west-tower, quasi-transept, rood 
turret, and, to the NE, a vaulted chapter-house over a 
crypt. The greater part of the cathedi-al and the whole 
of the former bishop's residence were removed by Oliver 
Cromwell to provide building material for his fort at 
Inverness. Within the precincts of the cathedral stood 
the various residences of the high officials of the chapter, 
the archdeacon's house, the rectory of Kirkmichael, and 
the manses of the parochial charges of CulUcndden, 
Lemlair, Rosskeen, Alness, Kiltearn, Contin, Kilmuir, 
West Kilmuir, Kincardine, Logic, ObstUl, and St 
Katherine's ; but of these no vestiges remain. In 
Jan. 1880, a hoard of 1100 silver coins of Robert III. 
was discovered, buried in the cathedral green, halfway 
between the sites of Kiltearn manse and of the ancient 
tumulus (now levelled) known as the 'Holeridge.' A 
large new Volunteer hall, capable of seating 400 persons, 
was erected in the town in 1881. Fortrose is the seat of 
the presbytery of Chanonry. It contains two Established 
churches. Rosemarkie parish church (1821 ; 800 sit- 
tings) is said to occupy the site of an ancient church 
buUt by, and dedicated to, St Bonifacius ; Fortrose church 
from a chapel of ease was raised to quoad sacra status in 
1873. The Free church is a tasteless edifice in the 
Pointed style. The Episcopalian church of St Andrew 
was buUt in 1828 at a cost of about £1100, and is seated 
for 190. It is Gothic in style, and looks well from the 
sea. There is also a Baptist chapel (1806) in the town. 
The historian. Sir James Mackintosh (1765-1832), who 
was born at Aldourie, was educated at Fortrose from 
1775 to 1780. The present academy, which offers a 
very good secondary education, was founded in 1791. 
Its management is vested in subscribers of 50 guineas, 
whose rights are hereditary, and who are each entitled 
to present a bursar or free-scholar ; in subscribers of 20 


guineas, whose rights are for life ; in the clerical members 
of Chanonry presbytery ; and in the provost of Fortrose. 
In 1882 it had 62 scholars, with a teaching-staff of 2. 
Eosemarkie Public school, under the school-board, con- 
sisting of a chairman and 4 members, had in 1882 a 
teaching-staff of 2, and 81 scholars. There is also an 
infant school for girls. The Mechanics' Institute pos- 
sesses an excellent library and a reading-room. The 
town contains an office of the Caledonian bank and 
agencies of 7 insurance companies. There are 3 chief 
hotels. The Black Isle Steam Shipping Company's 
steamer runs between Inverness and Fortrose twice a 
day on Mondays, AYeduesdays, and Thursdays, and once 
on Tuesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, during summer, 
and once a day in winter ; whilst other steamers afford 
communication with Inverness 2 or 3 times a week. A 
mail-gig also runs daily to Inverness. The nearest 
station is Fort George on the Highland railway, 6 miles 
to the ESE ; but to reach it, the Fort George or Arder- 
sier Ferry has to be crossed. The harbour of Fortrose 
is safe and convenient, and was thoroughly repaired 
in 1881 ; and at the same date a new wooden pier, 
about 240 yards long, was erected. Steamers can enter 
the old harbour only at certain states of the tide; but they 
can now touch at this pier at any time. 'There are 
markets at Fortrose for cattle, grain, and farm produce 
every month, on the Monday preceding the Muir of Ord 
market, except in April and Jime, when the dates are 
respectively the first and the third Wednesdays of the 
month. Hiring markets are combined with the above 
in April, August, and November. 

The burgh has an independent revenue, besides enjoy- 
ing the benefit of various charitable mortifications, so 

Seal of Fortrose. 

that the rate of taxation is low. The burgh has adopted 
the Lindsay Police Act, under which the council, consist- 
ing of provost, 3 bailies, dean of guild, treasurer, and 9 
councillors are commissioners. The same body are also 
commissioners for the harbour, under a provisional order 
for its management. The sheriff-substitute of Dingwall 
holds quarterly circuit small-debt courts at Fortrose; 
and a justice of peace court is held on the first Wednesday 
of each month. With Inverness, Forres, and Nairn, 
Fortrose returns a member to parliament, its parlia- 
mentary and municipal constituency numbering 141 in 
1882, when the annual value of real property within 
the burgh amounted to £3418, its corporation revenue 
being £293. Pop. (1821) 932, (1841) 1082, (1851) 1148, 
(1861) 928, (1871) 911, (1881) 869 ; of royal burgh be- 
yond the parliamentary limits (1881) 117; of Fortrose 
quoad sacra parish (1881) i92.— Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 
See the Rev. J. M. Neale's Ecclesiological Notes on Ross 
(Lend. 1848), and A. E. Scott's Illustrations of Fortrose 
Cathedral (Edinb. Architect. Assoc, 1873). 

Foss, a hamlet and a qiwad sacra parish in Dull 
parish, Perthshire. The hamlet stands near the right 
liank of the river Tummel, 1 J mile WSW of the head of 
Loch Tummel, and 12 miles W of its post-town, Pit- 
lochry. It has a fair on the second Tuesday of March, 


old style. Foss House, | mile nearer the loch, is a seat 
of Sir Eobert Menzies, Bart, of Castle-Menzies. The 
parish, constituted by ecclesiastical authority in 1830, 
by civil authority in 1845, is in the presbytery of Weem 
and synod of Perth and Stirling ; its minister's stipend 
is £120. Pop. (1871) 270, (1881) 2W.—0rd. Sur., sh. 
55, 1869. 

Fossoway, a parish chiefly in Perthshire, but partly 
in Kinross-.shire, containing the villages of Blairingone, 
Crook of Devon, and Carnbo, and comprising the 
ancient parishes of Fossoway and Tulliebole, united 
about 1614. Very irregular in outline, it is bounded N 
by Dunning, NE by Orwell, E by Kinross, SE by Cleish, 
S by Torryburn and Saline in Fife, SW by Clackmannan 
and Dollar in Clackmannanshire, and W by Muckart 
and Glendevon. Its length, from ENE to WSW, varies 
between 2J and 8| miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to 
S, is 5 J miles ; and its area is 17, 356 J acres, of which 
6904J belong to the Kinross-shire or Tulliebole section. 
On or close to the Glendevon and Muckart border, the 
' crystal Devon ' winds 9g miles south-eastward and 
west-south-westward, from just above Downhill to near 
Pitgober, the point where it first touches and that 
where it leaves this parish being only 4J miles distant 
as the crow flies. During this course it exhibits the 
finest of its famous sceuery, described in our articles 
Devil's Mill, Rumbling-Bridge, and Caldron Linn. 
Other chief streams are Gairney Water, which falls into 
the Devon below the Caldron Linn, and South Queich 
Water, running to Loch Leven. Perennial springs of pure 
water are everywhere abundant ; a petrifying spring is 
on the lands of Devonshaw ; and a medicinal spring, 
erroneously known as Dollar Water, is on the lands of 
Blairingone. The surface declines along the Devon to 
close on 100 feet above sea-level, and S of Crook of 
Devon, it, though undulating, nowhere much exceeds 
600 feet ; but northwards it rises to 734 feet near 
Knoekintinny, 1496 at Lendrick Hill, 1134 at Cloon, 
1573 at Mellock Hill, and 1621 at Innerdouny Hill— 
srmimits these of the Ochils. The rocks are partly 
eruptive, partly carboniferous. Trap and sandstone are 
quarried in several places ; coal has been worked in three 
mines, ironstone in one ; and limestone occurs in con- 
nection with both, whilst copper ore, not rich enough 
to repay the cost of working, is found near Rumbling- 
Bridge. The soils are variously clayey, loamy, gravelly, 
and mossy ; and some are fertile, others very inferior. 
Fully three-fifths of all the land are regularly or occa- 
sionally in tillage, and some 650 acres are under wood. 
Aldie and Tulliebole castles are prominent objects, both 
separately noticed ; mansions are Devonshaw and Glen 
Tower ; and an old circular ruin on the lands of Aldie, 
an oblong moated mound on the barony of Coldrain, 
the Gallow Knowe adjacent to Crook of Devon village, 
and the Monk's Grave between the lands of Gartwhinean 
and those of Pitfar, are chief antiquities. Fonr pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
23 of between £100 and £500, 9 of from £50 to £100, 
and 18 of from £20 to £50. Giving off a portion to the 
quoad sacra parish of Blairingone, this parish is in the 
presbytery of Kinross and synod of Fife ; the living is 
worth £265. The parish church, near Crook of Devon 
village, was built in 1806, and contains 525 sittings. 
There is also a Free church of Fossoway ; and two public 
schools, Carnbo and Fossoway, with respective accommo- 
dation for 88 and 170 children, had (1881) an average 
attendance of 42 and 77, and gi-ants of £52, 12s. and 
£51, 4s. 2d. Valuation (1882) £8782, 5s. 8d. Pop. 
(1801) 1312, (1831) 1576, (1841) 1724, (1861) 1584, 
(1871) 1461, (1881) 1267, of whom 772 belonged to the 
Perthshire section, and 934 to the ecclesiastical parish 
of Fossoway.— Ord Sur., shs. 40, 39, 1867-69. 

Fothringham, a Scottish Baronial mansion of 1859, 
designed by the late David Bryce, in Inverarity parish, 
Forfarshire, at the southern base of wooded Fothringham 
Hill (800 feet), 6 miles S by E of Forfar. It is a seat of 
WalterThos. Jas. Scrymsoure-Fothringham,Esq. of Pow- 
RIE, Fothringham, and Tealing (b. 1862; sue. 1864), 
who owns 12,529 acres in the county, valued at £13,400 



per annum, and whose ancestor settled in Forfarshire in 
the latter half of the 14th century. — Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 

Foudland, an upland tract in Forgue, Insch, and 
Culsalmond parishes, Aberdeenshire. Flanking the upper 
basin of the Ury, and extending E and W, it rises to a 
maximum altitude of 1529 feet above sea-level, and 
has in main degree a bleak moorish surface. Slates 
of clear light blue colour and excellent quality abound 
in the Insch part of it ; were long quarried to the 
amount of nearly a million pieces a year, chiefly for 
the market of Aberdeen ; but ceased to be in higli 
request, principally in consequence of the greater cheap- 
ness of sea-borne slates from the quarries of Easdale in 
Argyllshire.— OrcZ. Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Foula. See Fowla. 

Foulden, a village and a parish in the eastern part 
of Merse district, Berwickshire. The village stands 1 
mile to the N of Whitadder "Water, and 5^ miles S of 
Ayton station, 4 E by S of Chimside, and 5 WNW of 
Berwick-upon-Tweed, under which it has a post office. 
A pretty little place, it once was a burgh of barony and 
a place of considerable size and note, and had its Border 
peel-tower, whilst its church, on 23 March 1587, was the 
meeting-place of Elizabeth's commissioners with those 
of James VI., to vindicate the execution of Queen Mary. 

The parish is bounded N by Ayton, E and SE by 
Mordington, S by Hutton, and W by Chirnside. Its 
utmost length, from E to W, is 2^ miles ; its utmost 
breadth, from N to S, is 2f miles ; and its area is 3298 
acres, of which 20 are water. Whitaddee Water winds 
2J mUes east-by-southward between steep banks along 
all the southern border, and receives three little burns 
from this parish, one of which traces most of the 
boundary with Mordington. The surface declines at 
the SE corner to less than 100 feet above sea-level, 
thence rising to 389 feet near Blinkbonny, 461 near 
Mosspark, 421 near St Johns, and 642 at Greenfield — 
heights that command a wide and magnificent view of 
Flodden and other famous historic scenes. The rocks 
are mainly Devonian ; and the soil ranges from stony 
clay in the S to loamy towards the centre, and light and 
moorish in the N. Rather more than one -twelfth of the 
entire area is under wood, chiefly in the central dis- 
trict ; one-ninth is natural pasture ; and all the rest is in 
tillage. Foulden House, to the E of the village, is the 
seat of the chief proprietor, John Wilkie, Esq. (b. 1806 ; 
sue. 1817), who holds 2550 acres in the shire, valued 
at £5245 per annum. Another mansion is Newlands 
House, ^ mile N of the village. Foulden is in the 
presbytery of Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviot- 
dale ; the living is worth £260. The church, rebuilt in 
1786, contains 166 sittings; and a public school, with 
accommodation for 72 children, had (1881) an average 
attendance of 41, and a grant of £38, 9s. 6d. Valuation 
(1865) £5563, 2s. lOd., (1882) £6529, 16s. Pop. (1801) 
393, (1831) 424, (1861) 431, (1871) 425, (1881) 393.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 34, 1864. 

Foulis Castle, a mansion in Kiltearn parish, Ross- 
shire, standing f mile N"W of, and 200 feet above, the 
Cromarty Firth, close to whose shore is Foulis station 
on the Highland railway, 2 miles SSW of Evanton 
or Novar, and 4J NNE of Dingwall. A splendid 
pile, with beautiful grounds, it is the seat of Sir Charles 
Munro, ninth Bart, since 1634 (b. 1795 ; sue. 1848), 
the chief of the clan Munro, who, after serving under 
Wellington, was made a Columbian general by Bolivar 
in 1818, and who owns 4453 acres in the shire, valued 
at £3781 per annum. The Foulis estate has been held by 
the Munroes since early in the 12th century, on the tenure 
of furnishing a snowball, if required, at midsummer. 
They fought at Bannockburn, Halidon Hill, Harlaw, 
Pinkie, Fontenoy, and Falkirk ; and Robert Munro, the 
eighteenth or ' Black ' Baron, with 700 men from his ovra 
estate, served under the ' Immortal ' Gustavus, and died 
of a wound at Ulm in 1633. The Munroes' slogan is 
•Castle Foulis in flames. '—Ord Sur., sh. 93, 1881. 

Foulshiels, a place in Selkirk parish, Selkirkshire, on 
the left bank of Yarrow Water, opposite Newark Castle, 


and 3J miles W by N of Selkirk town. A farmhouse 
(now ruinous) here was the birthplace of the African 
traveller, Mungo Park (1771-1805), and the place of his 
residence on the eve of his second and fatal expedition. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Fountainbleau. See Dumfries. 

Fountainhall, the seat of Sir Thomas H. Dick Lauder, 
Bart., in Pencaitland parish, Haddingtonshire, IJ mile 
SW of Pencaitland village, and 5 mUes SSE of Tranent. 
The lands of Fountainhall were acquired by Sir John 
Lauder, who in 1688 was created a baronet of Nova 
Scotia, and whose ancestors had been lairds of the Bass 
Rock from the 13th to the 16th century. His son. Sir 
John (1646-1722), an eminent lawyer and statesman, 
was appointed a lord of Session in 1689, "ivith the title 
of Lord Fountainhall. He is remembered by his Deci- 
sioTis, as is his fourth descendant. Sir Thomas Dick- 
Lauder (1784-1848), by his fictions and other writings. 
The present and ninth baronet. Sir Thomas-North Dick- 
Lander (b. 1846 ; sue. 1867), holds 600 acres in East 
and 68 in Mid Lothian, valued at £1174 and £1066 per 
annum.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. See Sir T. Dick- 
Lander's Scottish Rivers (Edinb. 1874). 

Fountainhall, a hamlet in Stow parish, SE Edin- 
burghshire, on the right bank of Gala Water, with a 
station on the North British railway, 4J miles NNW of 
Stow village, under which it has a post office. 

Fouiman Hill. See Foreman. 

Fourmerkland, a place in Holywood parish, Dum- 
friesshire, 5 miles WNW of Dumfries. A small tower 
here was built by R. Maxwell in 1590. 

Fourmilehouse, a village in Tealing parish, Forfar- 
shire, 4 mOes N by E of Dundee. 

Foveran, a coast parish of E Aberdeenshire, contain- 
ing the seaport village of, which stands at 
the right side of the Ythan's embouchure, 5 mUes SE 
of Ellon station, 6J E by N of Udny station on the 
western border, and 13J NNE of Aberdeen, under which 
it has a post and telegi-aph office, and with which it 
communicates by coach. It is bounded N by Logic- • 
Buchan, NE by Slains, E by the German Ocean, S by 
Belhelvie, and W and NW by Udny. Its utmost 
length, from E to W, is 6J miles ; its greatest breadth 
is 3J miles ; and its area is 10,844 acres, of which 248f 
are foreshore, and 63 water. The Ythan, in places 
here ^ mile broad at high water, flows IJ mile south- 
south-eastward between Foveran and Slains to its bar- 
obstructed mouth in the German Ocean, and at New- 
burgh is joined by Foveran Burn, which, rising near 
TUlery, runs 7J miles through the interior ; whilst 
another of its tributaries. Tarty Burn, traces most of 
the Udny border. The coast-line, 1^ mile long, is low 
and sandy ; and from it the surface rises gently inland 
to 300 feet at HUlhead of Ardo, 78 at the parish church, 
212 near Davieshill, and 400 at the western border near 
Edgehill. The principal rocks are trap, gneiss, mica 
slate, and conglomerate ; and the soU varies from a 
sandy loam to a rich clay loam and a strong clay. The 
parish is poorly wooded, its eastern exposure stunting 
what trees there are ; and nearly all the land is devoted 
to agriculture, large tracts of waste having been drained 
and enclosed about the beginning of the present cen- 
tury. The castle of Knockhall, 1 mile NNW of New- 
burgh, built by the Udny family in 1565, was captured 
by the Covenanters under the Earl Marischal and the 
Earl of Errol in 1639 ; and, accidentally burned in 1734, 
still stands in a ruinous state. Of Foveran Castle, near 
Foveran House, not a vestige remains. The oldest part 
bore the name of Turing's Tower, after its first pos- 
sessors, from whom it passed, about the middle of the 
17th century, to a branch of the Forbeses of Tolquhoun. 
A rhyme, ascribed to Thomas of Ercildoune, foretold — 

* When Turing's Tower falls to the land, 
Gladsmuir shall be near at hand ; 
When Turinj,''s Tower falls to the sea, 
Gladsmuir the next year shall be.' 

The tower did fall not long before 1720, and in 1745 
the Highlanders were for giving the name of Gladsmuir 


to their victory at Prestonpans (Chambers's Popular 
Rhymes, p. 219, ed. 1870). An ancient buryin^-ground 
near the vUlage retains a fragment of the ' Eed Chapel 
of Buchan,' or Chapel of the Holy Rood. Foveran 
House, 1 mile SSW of Newburgh, is an old mansion ; 
whilst Tilleiy, in the W of the parish, li mUe SSE of 
Udny station, is a more recent Grecian edifice. Five 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 6 of between £100 and £500, 1 of from £50 to 
£100, and 6 of from £20 to £50. Foveran is in the 
presbytery of Ellon and sjTiod of Aberdeen ; the living 
is worth £296. The parish church, on the right bank 
of Foveran Burn, 1^ mile SW of Newburgh, is a plain 
edifice of 1794, containing 700 sittings, and a marble 
monument with two fine busts of Col. John Aumistus 
and Col. Robert FuUerton Udny, of Udny and Dudwick, 
who died in 1859 and 1861. There is also a Free 
church 1| mUe further SSW ; and three public schools 
— CultercuUen, Foveran, and Newburgh Mathers — with 
respective accommodation for 100, 170, and 169 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 128, 105, and 170, 
and grants of £116, 17s., £74, 14s., and £143, 9s. 
Valuation (1860) £9099, (1881) £13,166, 13s. 7d. Pop. 
(1801) 1391, (1831) 1609, (1861) 1891, (1871) 1859, 
(1881) 2042.— 0/-d Siir., sh. 77, 1873. 

Fowla or Foula, a Shetland island belonging to Walls 
parish, 16 miles "WSW of the nearest part of the Shetland 
maiuland, and 35 NNE of the nearest part of Orkney. 
It measures about 3 miles in length by 1 J mile in breadth ; 
and, as viewed at a little distance, appears to consist of 
five conical hUls, rising steeply from the water, till tlie 
highest attains an altitude of 1300 feet. It is easily 
seen on a clear day from the northern parts of Orkney ; 
and, tested by Tacitus' words in speaking of the ut- 
most limits of Agricola's victories, it has better claims 
than any other island to be deemed the Ultima Thule 
of the ancients. Only one spot, the fishing station of 
Ham, situated on its E side, is available as a landing- 
place ; the coast all round, except at that spot, is almost 
one unbroken precipice, rising sublimely and terribly to 
the shoulders or tops of the hills ; and the brink of these 
cli6fs, 1100 to 1200 feet high, commands a most giddy, 
impressive, and magnificent view over wide expanses of 
the encircling Atlantic. The single landing-place is 
much frequented as a fishing-station ; the cliffs are 
denizened with myriads of cormorants, kittywakes, 
gulls, and other sea-fowl ; and the rocks are sandstone, 
except where claystone slate occm's near Ham. ' Fowla,' 
says a •miter in Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc. (1874), 
' seems to be chiefly valued as a fishing and curing station, 
and the only agriculture practised in it is that of the 
Shetlander pure and simple. Yet, in our opinion, it is 
capable of producing finer crops than any other island 
in the group. Much of the soil is naturally good, and 
the climate is manifestly more largely affected by the 
Gulf Stream than that of any other part of Scotland. 
Nowhere else have we seen crops of here, oats, and 
potatoes grow so luxuriantly ; while the natural pasture 
of the steep but grassy hUls is rich and varied in the 
nature of its component plants. On the other hand, 
nowhere are the ruinous efi'ects of the " scalping" system 
more conspicuous, a whole district of the island, between 
the tillage and the mountain, being laid utterly bare, 
the turf carried off, and the naked rocks left to glare 
in the sunshine.' Fowla belongs to the proprietor of 
Melby estate, on the western coast of Mainland. Its 
islanders are remarkably hardy, have few wants, and 
feel sti'ong attachment to their rugged home. Pop. 
(1837) 202, (1S61) 233, (1871) 257, (1881) 267. 

Fowlis Castle. See FouLis. 

Fowlis-Easter, a parish on the eastern border of 
Perthshire, containing the village of Fowlis, 6 miles 
WNW of Dundee ; and, since 1618, united to the con- 
tiguous parish of Ltjndie in Forfarshire. It is bounded 
SW by Longforgan in Perthshire, and N by Lundie, E 
and S by Litf and Benvie, in Forfarshire. Its utmost 
length, from WNW to ESE, is 43 miles ; its width 
from j mile increases eastward to 2J miles ; and its 
area is 2827 acres, of which nearly 3 are water. The sur- 


face ascends, from flat carse lands to the braes of the 
Carse of Gowrie, from less than 180 feet above sea-level 
near Mains of Fowlis to 929 at Blacklaw Hill, at the 
north-western extremity, which commands a beautiful 
view of the Carse and of the southern screens of the 
Tay. A lake of 55 acres, the Piper-Dam, lay in its 
upper part, but was drained about 1780 for sake of its 
marl. About two-thirds of the land are in tillage ; and 
the rest is mainly disposed in woodland and pasturage. 
By David I. Fowlis and other lands were gi-anted, for 
gallantry at the Battle of the Standard (1138), to William 
of Maule, who was succeeded by his son-in-law, Roger 
of Mortimer. From the latter's descendant, Fowlis 
passed by marriage (1377) to Sir Andrew Gray of Brox- 
mouth, the first Lord Gray ; and by the ninth Lord it 
was sold, in 1669, to an ancestor of the present pro- 
prietor, Keith-Murray of Ochtertyre. Fowlis Castle 
stands to the S of the village, towards the head of the 
beautiful Den of Fowlis or B.4.lrdddekt, a favourite 
field alike for geologist and botanist. From 200 to 300 
years old, it was suflered to go to decay towards the 
close of last century, but has recently been rendered 
habitable for farm labourers. A church of Fowlis-Easter 
is first mentioned in 1180, and in 1242 was dedicated 
to St Marnan. The present church is commonly said 
to date from 1142, but is Second Pointed in style, and 
probably was built about 1452 by Andrew, second Lord 
Gray of Fowlis, who made it collegiate for a provost and 
several prebends. Measuring externally 89J by 29 feet, 
it is all of hewn stone, and retains a finely-sculptured 
aumbrye, a mutUated octagonal font (restored from 
OchtertjTe), and a curious carved rood screen, with 
paintings of the Crucifixion, the B. V. Mary and the 
infant Christ, St John Baptist and the Agnus Dei, St 
Peter, etc. Of three round-headed doorways, one has 
been blocked up ; and one, the priest's, is enriched with 
a crocketed canopy. In the chui'chyard are a cross- 
carved cofBn-slab and a plain passion cross 6 feet high. 
A public school, vrith accommodation for 91 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 43, and a grant of 
£49, 19s. Valuation (1882) £3731, 17s. 2d. Pop. (1831) 
322, (1861) 317, (1871) 291, (1881) 311.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 48, 1868. See vol. ii. of Billings' Baronial and 
Ecclesiastical Antiquities (1852) ; T. S. Muir's Descrip- 
tive Notices of Ancient Parochial aiid Collegiate Churches 
of Scotland (Lond. 1848) ; and an article by Andrew 
Jervise in vol. vii. oi Procs. Soc. Ants. Scotl. (1870). 

Fowlis-Wester, a parish of central Perthshire, con- 
taining Fowlis village, 2| miles NNE of Abercairney 
station, and 4f EKE of Crieff, under which it has a post 
office. Gilmerton, 2 mUes NE of Criefl', with another 
post office, lies on the western border of the parish, 
which consists of two slenderly united sections and a 
small detached north-westerly district. The main body 
is bounded N by Little Dunkeld, E by Little Dunkeld, 
a detached section of Monzie, and Methven, SE by 
Methven, S by Madderty, SW by Criefl', W by Crieff 
and Monzie, and NW by the Amulree section of Dull. 
Its utmost length, from N to S, is lOi mUes; its breadth 
varies between 5 furlongs and 65 mfles ; and its area is 
22,85SJ acres, of which 65-J are water, and 590j belong 
to the detached portion, which extends for 4J furlongs 
along the river Almond, 5 miles WSW of Amulree. 
Nearly 9 miles lower down the Almond has an east-by- 
northerly course of 9 furlongs along the boundary with 
Crieff, 5-J furlongs across the interior at the neck of the 
main body, and 1 J mile along the boundary with Jlonzie 
(detached) ; whOst the Bean winds 3J miles along all 
the northern border. Other boundaries of the parish 
are traced by Fendoch, Shiligan, and Milton Burns, and 
sluggish Pow Water separates it from Madderty. Here, 
in the SE, along the Pow, the surface declines to less 
than 200 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 441 feet 
at Aldie, 706 near Drummick, 806 at Murray's HiU, 
1098 at Stroness, 1153 at MeaU Quhanzie, and 2117 at 
Meall Tarsuinn. The northern portion of the main 
body, whilst sinking to 490 feet along the N bank of 
the Almond, rises north-north-westward to 932 feet at 
CastlehiU, 1737 at Craig Lea, 2025 at MeaU Reamhar, 



2044 at Meall nan Caoraioli, and 1569 at Dalreoch Hill, 
from which again it descends to 700 feet along the 
Bran. Lastly, the detached position varies in altitude 
from 800 feet to 2367 on Beinn na Gainimh at its 
north-eastern corner. The northern division of the 
main body, consisting of rugged spurs of the Grampians, 
and dividing Strathbran from Glenalmond, is, with 
trifling exception, all of it wild or pastoral. The 
southern, in a general view, has a singularly varied and 
unequal surface, flecked and clumped with coppices 
and groves ; but along Pow Water, throughout the 
southern border, consists of an opulent and finely -shel- 
tered valley. The dells and ravines of the hiUier por- 
tions are graced in numerous places with tiny cascades, 
and abound throughout with other features of fine close 
scenery. The hills themselves, with their large extent 
of southern exposure, are so adorned with wood and iine 
enclosures as to present a very charming appearance ; 
and, from many points, they command magnificent 
views of Strathearn. Granite, clay slate, and sandstone 
are the prevailing rocks ; but columnar trap and lime- 
stone also occur. The slate, of beautiful dark blue 
colour, possesses superior pi'operties for roofing purposes, 
andhaslongbeenlargelyquarriedat Ckaiglea. Thesand- 
stone in places suits well for building, having a beauti- 
ful colour and a dm-able texture ; admits of fine polish ; 
and has been quarried on the lands of Abercairney and 
Cultoquhey. The soil, alluvial in the valley of the Pow, 
is elsewhere variously gravelly, sandy, loamy, and 
clayey. Little more than a fourth of the entire area is 
in tillage ; woods and plantation cover somelSOO acres; and 
the rest is pastoral or waste. The castle of the ancient 
Earls of Strathearn stood on the E side of a ravine f mile 
E of Powlis village, and is now represented by only a 
grassy knoll. Remains of a double concentric stone circle, 
comprising 40 stones in the exterior range, and measur- 
ing 54 feet in circumference, croivn the brow of a hill to 
the N of the village ; and three other ancient Cale- 
donian standing stones and a cromlech are on the W ; 
whilst in the middle of the village square stands the 
' Cross of Fowlis,' transferred to its present site from Eal 
na croisk, near the mouth of the Sma' Glen, and sculp- 
tured with figures of men and animals. Buchanty has 
been noticed separately, as likewise are the four mansions, 
Abercairney, Cultoquhey, Glen Tulchan, and KeiUor 
Castle. Sir David Moray of Gorthie, author of The Tra- 
gical Death of Sophonisba (1611), and governor to Prince 
Henry, was born at Abercairney ; and at the parish school 
were educated the Rev. William Taylor, D.D. (1744-1823), 
principal of Glasgow University, and the Rev. Archi- 
bald Alison (1757-1839), author of the Essay on Taste. 
Fowlis-Wester gives off portions to Monzie and Logie- 
almond, and itself is a living, of £327 value, in the 
presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and 
Stirling. The church, at the village, is a long and ugly 
edifice of Reformation time, with 500 sittings, and with 
a fine lych-gate, bearing date 1644, but evidently older. 
The patron saint was Beanus, born 'apud Fovlis in 
Stratherne ; ' and tUl 1877 a yearly market was held at 
Fowlis village on his birthday, 26 Oct. o.s. Balgowan 
public, Fowlis public, and Glenalmond subscriptic school, 
with respective accommodation for 84, 114, and 67 chil- 
dren, had (1881) an average attendance of 60, 53, and 14, 
andgi-antsof£54, 2s., £45, 15s., and £27, 6s. Valuation 
(1866) £14,092, (1SS3) £15,569, 19s. lid. Pop. of civil 
parish (1801) 1614, (1831) 1680, (1861) 1433, (1871) 1161, 
(1881) 1112, of whom 51 were Gaelic-speaking ; of eccle- 
siastical parish (1871)850, (1881)771 ; of registration dis- 
trict (1871) 1028, (1881) 978.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 47, 1869. 

Fowlsheugh, a range of cliffs on the coast of Dunnot- 
tar parish, Kincardineshire, 2^ miles S of Stonehaven. 
Measuring upwards of a mUe in length, and rising very 
boldly from the sea, it consists of Old Red sandstone 
and conglomerate, the latter containing nodules of quartz 
and limestone. Myriads of guDs, coots, and other sea- 
fowl here build their nests ; and it is let to a tenant for 
the perilous privilege of taking the birds and their eggs 
by means of ropes lowered from the top. 

Fowlshiels. See Foulshiels. 


Foxhall, an estate, with a mansion, in Kirkliston 
parish, Linlithgowshire, near the left bank of the Al- 
mond, 3 furlongs E by S of Kirkliston village. 

Foxton, an estate, with a mansion, in Cupar parish, 
Fife, 2 miles NE of the town. 

Foyers or Fechlin, a small river of Boleskiue and 
Abertarff parish, central Inverness-shire, issuing from 
Loch KiLLiK (IJ X J mile ; 1050 feet), and thence wind- 
ing 9 miles north-north-westward and northward, till it 
falls into Loch Ness, opposite the peak of Mealfourvonie 
(2284 feet), and lOJ miles NE of Fort Augustus. Its 
course is chiefly along a high glen, with wild mountain 
screens, and during the last IJ mile it makes a total 
descent of 400 feet, including two surpassingly pictur- 
esque falls, amid grandly romantic accompaniments of 
rock and wood. Foyers House, the property of Fountaine 
Walker, Esq. of Ness Castle, stands at the left side of 
its mouth ; and on the right side, above the steamboat 
jetty, is the Foyers Hotel, on the site of what was called 
the ' General's Hut, ' from General Wade of road-making 
celebrity. A carriage-way ascends by easy traverses from 
the pier to the falls, and footpaths afford short cuts for 
pedestrians. The upper faU is a leap of 40, and the 
lower fall of 165, feet. Dr E. D. Clarke, the celebrated 
traveller, pronounced the lower fall to be a finer cascade 
than that of Tivoli, and inferior only to the Falls of 
Terni ; and Robert Burns, as he stood beside it on 5 
Sept. 1787, TiTote :— 

* Amonfj the heathy hills and rugged woods. 
The roaring Foyers pours his mossy floods, 
Till full he dashes on the rocky mounds, 
Where thro' a shapeless breach his stream resounds. 
As high in air the bursting torrents flow. 
As deep recoiling surges foam below. 
Prone down the rock the whitening sheet descends. 
And viewless echo's ear, astonish'd, rends. 
Dim-seen, thro' rising mists and ceaseless showers, 
The hoary cavern, wide surrounding, lowers ; 
Still thro' the gap the struggling river toils. 
And still below the horrid caldron boils.* 

' The fall of Foyers, ' says Professor Wilson, ' is the 
most magnificent cataract, out of all sight and hearing, 
in Britain. The din is quite loud enough in ordinary 
weather — and it is only in ordinary weather that you 
can approach the place from which you have a full view 
of all its grandeur. When the fall is in flood — to say 
nothing of being di-enched to the skin — you are so 
blinded by the sharp spray smoke, and so deafened by 
the dashing and clashing and tumbling and rumbling 
thunder, that your condition is far from enviable, as you 
cling, "lonely lover of nature," to a shelf by no means 
eminent for safety, above the horrid gulf. In ordinary 
Highland weather — meaning thereby weather neither 
very wet nor very dry — it is worth walking a thousand 
miles for one hour to behold the fall of Foyers. The 
spacious cavity is enclosed by "complicated cliffs and 
perpendicular precipices " of immense height ; and 
though for a while it wears to the eye a savage aspect, 
yet beauty fears not to dwell even there, and the horror 
is softened by what appear to be masses of tall shrubs or 
single shrubs almost like trees. And they are trees, 
which on the level plain would look even stately ; but 
as they ascend, ledge above ledge, the walls of that 
awful chasm, it takes the eye time to see them as they 
really are, while on our first discernment of their char- 
acter, serenely standing among the tumult, they are felt 
on such sites to be sublime. Between the falls and the 
strath of Stratherrick, a space of three or four miles, the 
river Foyers flows through a series of low rocky hills 
clothed with birch. They present various quiet glades 
and open spaces, where little patches of cultivated 
ground are encircled by wooded hillocks, whose surface 
is pleasingly diversified by nodding trees, bare rocks, 
empurpled heath, and bracken-bearing herbage. It was 
the excessive loveliness of some of the scenery there that 
suggested to us the thought of going to look what kind 
of a stream the Foyers was above the fall. We went, 
and in the quiet of a summer evening, found it 

' " Was even the gentlest of all gentle things.'" 

See Steathebriok, Boleskine and Adeetaeff, and 


chap. IT. of James Brown's Round Talle Club (Elgin, 
lS7i).—0nl. Sur., sh. 73, 1878. 

Fracafield, a village in Shetland, SJ miles from 

Fraisgill, a cavern in Durness parish, Sutherland, 
on the W base of Whiten Head and the E coast of Loch 
Eriboll, 6 miles NNE of Heilem ferry, ileasuring 50 
feet in height and 20 in width at the entrance, it runs 
about J mile into the bowels of the eartli, and gradually 
contracts into lowness and narrowness. Its walls are 
variegated with a thousand colours so softly and deli- 
cately blended, as to outvie the finest productions of the 
painter's brush. — Ord. Sur., sh. 114, ISSO. 

France, Little, a hamlet at the boundary between 
Liberton and Newton parishes, Edinburghshire, i mile 
S of Craigmillar Castle, and 3 miles SE of Edinburgh. 
It got its name from being the residence of some of 
Queen Mary's retainers, brought with her from France. 

Frankfield, a lake (2J x 2 furl. ), near Millerston, on 
the mutual border of Barony and Cadder parishes, 
Lanarkshire, sending oif a rill to Hogganfield Loch. 

Fraoch Eilean, a small island in Loch Awe, Argyll- 
shire, 2J miles SW of Kilchurn Castle and J mile NE 
of Inishail. The hero Fraoch, going to gather its ser- 
pent-guarded apples, which the fair Mego longed for, 
slew and was slain by the monster — a legend which 
recalls the classic myth of the Hesperides, and which 
forms the theme of an ancient Gaelic poem, translated 
about 1770 by the Rev. Dr John Smith. In 1267 the 
islet was granted by Alexander III. to Gilbert Mac- 
naughton ; and it contains the ruins of a strong fortalice, 
in which the JIacnaughton chieftains resided. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 45, 1876. 

Fraoohy, Loch. See Fkeuchie. 

Fraserburgh, a town and a parish in the NE e.-itrem- 
ity of Aberdeenshire. Founded by Alexander Eraser of 
Philorth in 1569, at first the town was known as Faith- 
lie, the name of a free burgh of barony erected by 
charter of Queen Mary five years earlier ; but by a new 
charter of 1601, it was constituted 'a free port, free burgh 
of barony, and free regality, to be called in all time 
coming, the Burgh and Regality of Fraserburgh.' It 
is built on the southern slope of Kinnaird's Head, and 
along the western shore of Fraserburgh Bay, by road 
being 22 miles E of Banff and 17i NNW of Peterhead, 
whilst by rail, as terminus of the Formartine and 
Buchan branch (1865) of the Great North of Scotland 
railway, it is 13 miles NNE of Maud Junction, 41 NNE 
of Dyoe Junction, 47i N by E of Aberdeen, 162^ NNE 
of Edinburgh, and 200 NE by N of Glasgow. Kinnaird's 
Head (the Promontorium Taexalium of Ptolemy), \ mile 
to the N, is a rocky headland, composed of mica slate, 
and 61 feet high. The Erasers' castle here, dating from 
1570, is a rectangular four-storied tower, 39 feet by 27 ; 
on its roof a lighthouse was built in 1787, whose lantern, 
rising 120 feet above high water mark, shows a fixed 
light, red over Rattray Briggs, white in all other 
directions, and visible at a distance of 17 nautical miles. 
A sea-crag, 60 yards to the eastward, is crowned by the 
massive ' Wine Tower,' which, measuring 25} by 20 
feet, and 25 high on the landward side, contains two 
vaulted apartments. The only doorway is on the upper 
story, and the wooden stair leading up to this is 
modern, so that how the tower was formerly entered, 
aud_ what was its purpose, remain a puzzle to the 
antiquary. The style, however, of five freestone carv- 
ings, that adorn the roof and two windows, is thought 
to refer it to the 15th century. Beneath it is a cave, 
the Seiches Hole, believed to penetrate 100 feet, but now 
much choked with stones. Scarce a vestige remains of 
a square three-storied tower at the W end of the town, 
part of a college begun by Alexander Eraser, he having 
obtained a charter in 1592 to erect a university. The 
scheme fell through, but his building was once called 
into requisition, when, on the outbreak of the plague at 
Aberdeen in 1647, King's College for a time removed to 
Fraserburgh. The town itself, overlooking the harbour 
and bay, is neat and regular. Its principal streets run 
parallel to the bay, with others crossing at right angles ; 


and recent shoreward improvements and northward 
extensions have always tended to enhance its symmetry. 
The Town House, built in 1855, is a handsome Grecian 
edifice, whose dome-crowned tower contains a niche, 
with a statue of Alexander Eraser, sixteenth Lord Saltoun 
(1785-1853), a hero of Waterloo and of the Chinese opium 
war. His portrait hangs in the town-hall, on the second 
floor, with one of his ancestor, the founder of the town. 
A market-cross, erected by that founder, stood originally 
on a large hexagonal basement, with nine gradations of 
steps ; and, as restored in 1853, is an oval stone shaft 
12 feet in height, surmounting a pedestal, and itself sur- 
mounted by the Royal and Fraser arms. The prison 
since 1874 has served only for the detention of prisoners 
whose period does not exceed three days. The parish 
church, rebuilt in 1802 and restored in 1873-74, is a 
plain structure, with clock-tower and spire and 1000 
sittings. The new West quoad sacra church (1877 ; 800 
sittings) cost £4000, and has a very effective spire. A 
fine new Free church was erected in 1880 at a cost of 
£6398 ; and other places of worship are the U.P. church 
(1875 ; 350 sittings), the Congregational church (1853 ; 
550 sittings), the Evangelical Union church (1854), the 
Baptist church (1880), and St Peter's Episcopal church 
(1791 ; 300 sittings). The last is a cruciform pseudo- 
Norman edifice, enlarged and refitted in 1840 and 1880, 
with a good organ and a marble tablet to Bishop Alex- 
ander Jolly, D.D. (1755-1838), who from 1788 till his 
death was minister here, and a Life of whom, by the 
Rev. W. Walker (2d ed. , Edinb. , 1878), contains much of 
interest relating to Fraserburgh. The Academy, opened 
in 1872, was built at a cost of £2700, and further endowed 
with £5000, by the late James Park, merchant ; the 
Girls' Industrial school (1863) was mainly founded by 
the late Miss Strachan of Cortes, as a memorial to her 
brother, James Strachan, Esq. , M. D. , Inspector General 
of Army Hospitals, Madras ; and a new public school, 
costing over £6000, was opened in Sept. 1882. It has 
accommodation for 800 children, and supersedes the 
former burgh school. The hospital was built by the 
late Thomas Walker, fishcurer, and gifted by him to 
the town ; whilst the Dalrymple public hall and cafe 
was built at a cost of £4500, upwards of £2300 of which 
was given by the late Captain John Dalrymple. It is 
Scottish Baronial in style, and the hall has accommoda- 
tion for 1100 persons. 

The town has, besides, a post ofiice, with money 
order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph depart- 
ments, branches of the Bank of Scotland and the 
Aberdeen Town and County, North of Scotland, and 
Union Banks, 13 insurance agencies, 2 hotels, a gas-light 
company, a water supply from Ardlaw, complete new 
sewage works, formed at a cost of over £4000 in 1877, a 
custom-house, a mechanics' library, a news-room, a 
masonic lodge, a lifeboat (ISSO), an Independent Friday 
paper, the Fraserburgh Advertiser (1852), etc. There is 
a weekly cattle auction ; corn markets are held on Tues- 
day and Friday : and a sheriff small debt court sits four 
times a year. Whale and seal fishing is quite extinct ; 
and shipbuilding has dwindled away, only 4 vessels of 
418 tons having been launched here during 1875-78, and 
none during 1879-81. Some employment is furnished by 
two breweries, a bone-mill, two rope and sail yards, and 
four saw-mills ; and a large trade is done in the export 
of agricultural produce, and the import of coals, timber, 
and groceries, Fraserburgh being a 'creek' of Peterhead; 
but herring fishing is the staple industry. 

The harbour, founded by Alexander Fraser on 9 March 
1576 'in the name of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,' 
had only one small pier. The north, south, and middle 
piers were built between 1807 and 1S37 at a cost of 
£30,000, the space within the pier heads being nearly 
8 acres, with a depth, according to the tides, of 11 to 
16 feet of water inside and along the quays, and of 6 
to 20 feet at the entrance. In 1855 and following years 
a new N harbour of 8 acres of sheltered water, with a 
low- water depth of 10 feet at the entrance, was formed 
by the construction of a pier and breakwater, giving a 
total berthage of 8850 feet, of which 6025 are available 



for shipping. Tlie estimated cost of this N harbour 
(£25,000) was more than doubled, and even then the 
breakwater was left unfinished till 1875, when, and in 
following years, it was carried to a length of 850 feet. 
The latest undertaking (1881) has been the deepen- 
ing of both harbours and the widening of the quays, 
£30,000 having been borrowed for that purpose from 
the Public Works Loan Commissioners. ' Of late 
years,' to quote from an article on 'Fraserburgh' in 
the Scotsman of 11 April 1882, 'the chief increase 
in the herring fishery has been from the Aberdeen- 
shire ports, the principal of which are Aberdeen, 
Peterhead, and Fraserburgh. Dming the season of 
1874, about the most productive year on record up till 
1880, more than 1800 boats were fishing from these 
ports and their immediate neighbourhood, and about 
400,000 crans of fish, or more than one-third of the 
entire take of herrings in Scotland, were captured by 
these boats ; so that the market value of the herrings 
now brought into the Aberdeenshire ports in an average 
year is equal to the whole land rental of the county. 
The sea is thus as productive as the land ; and if there 
were better harbour accommodation — though that of 
late years has been considerably improved — the produc- 
tion of the sea might be still further increased. The 
requisites of a perfect fishing-boat harbour are an en- 
trance that will allow the largest class of boats to have 
free access and egress at all times of the tide ; perfect 
shelter within the entrance ; suflicient space for all the 
boats that frequent the place during the fishing season 
to lie together without crowding or jostling ; enough 
depth of water inside to enable them to be afloat at all 
times of the tide ; and proper facilities for fitting out, 
taking in their nets, lines, and other gear, and for 
landing their fish. Aberdeen, Peterhead, and Fraser- 
burgh are the only ports on the stormy E coast of 
Scotland that piossess to a considerable extent these 
requisites, and they have, consequently, reaped, and 
will continue to reap, a rich reward. Their proximity 
to the best fishing grounds of the teeming North Sea 
certainly gives them exceptional advantages ; but with- 
out the sums judiciously expended at all the three places 
on harbour extension and improvement, these natural 
advantages would have been comparatively useless. The 
following statistics with regard to Fraserburgh, where 
for many years past the Harbour Commissioners have 
been engaged in improving and extending the harbour 
accommodation, are remarkable and interesting : — 

' I. Number of Boats, Crans, and Barrels of Fish, 
' AND Total Value op Herrings. 


No. o£ 




Total Value 

of Exports 

at 25s. 





















































89, 984 J 




































' Of these large values two-thirds are estimated on 
reliable data to be expended on labour. 

'II. Number of Fishing-Boats Owned within 
Fraserburgh Dlstriot on 1 Jan. 1882. — Number of 
boats of all kinds, 688 ; number of fishermen employed, 
2151 ; value of boats, £49,199 ; value of nets, £55,115 ; 
value of lines, £5450 ; total value of boats, nets, and 
lines, £109,764. 

'III. Harbour Revenue.— (1850) £1559, 17s. Id. ; 
(1855) £1743, 13s. 3d. ; (1860) £1458, 19s. 3d. ; (1865) 


£2361, 13s. 9d. ; (1870) £3630, Is. ; (1875) £6344, 
Is. 5d. ; (1880) £10,185, Os. lid. 

' IV. The total rental of fish-curing yards in Fraser- 
burgh amounted, in 1862, to £393, 15s. — say £400 at 
twenty years' purchase, £8000. In 1880-81 the rental 
of fish-curing yards is seen by the valuation roll to be 
£2842, 13s., besides ground rent charged otherwise in 
the roll — say £3000 at twenty years' purchase, £60,000. 
The curing stations at Balaklava belonging to the Har- 
bour Commissioners contain an area of 7297 square 
yards, and rented, in 1862, for £65, 10s. ; in 1877-78, 
for £352 ; and in 1880-81, for £506. The curing yards 
belonging to the Town Council contain an area of 8422 
square yards, and rented, in 1862, for £55 ; and, in 
1880-81, for £207, 5s. 

' Such is a brief account of the wonderful prosperity 
and development of Fraserburgh during the last thirty 
years — a result owing in part to the advantages of its 
situation with reference to the best fishing grounds in 
the North Sea, but chiefly due to the skUl and per- 
severance with which the harbour has been enlarged, 
deepened, and improved. There is now not only a 
spacious inner harbour, extending over an area of 20 
acres, but beyond its entrance a breakwater, inside 
which there is an area of about 8 acres of sheltered 
water, with from 1 to 2 fathoms at low tide, where the 
largest class of fishing-boats can at all times lie water- 
borne and in perfect safety. The above-quoted harbour 
returns show that where fishermen are supplied -srith a 
good harbour they are willing to pay adequate dues for 
the shelter and safety which it enables them to com- 
mand. ' 

The harbour is managed by 13 commissioners ; and 
the town, as a burgh of barony, is governed by a pro- 
vost (Lord Saltoun), a baron bailie, 14 councillors, a 
dean of guOd, and a burgh fiscal. In 1871 it adopted 
the General Police and Improvement Act (Scotland) of 
1862, to be administered by an elected body of 12 police 
commissioners. The municipal constituencj' numbered 
1050 in 1882. Pop. (1851) 3093, (1861) 3472, (1871) 
4268, (1881) 6583, of whom 6529 were in the police 

The parish of Fraserburgh, known as Philorth or 
Faithlie tUl early in the 17th century, consists of a main 
body and a considerable detached district. The main 
body is bounded N by the Moray Firth, NE by Fraser- 
burgh Bay, SE and S by Rathen, SW and W by 
Pitsligo. Its utmost length, from AVNW to ESE, is 3g 
miles ; whilst its width, from NNE to WSW, varies 
between 2J and 3J miles. The detached district, lying 
IJ mile SSW of the main body, has an utmost length 
and breadth of 2| and 2| miles ; it is bounded NE and 
E by Rathen, S by Strichen, SW and W by Aberdour 
(detached), and NW by Tyrie. The area of the whole 
is S667i acres, of which 27471- lie detached, 258§ are 
foreshore, and 41§ are water. The northern coast, 
extending 2J miles along the Moray Firth, is low 
though rocky, but rises into bold headland at EiN- 
naird's Head (61 feet) ; the north-eastern, extending 
2| miles along Fraserburgh Bay, is most of it low and 
sandy, skirted by bent-covered hillocks. Fraserburgh 
Bay measures 2J miles across the entrance, from Kin- 
naird's Head to Cairnbulg Point, and 9 furlongs 
thence to its inmost recess ; on a fine summer day, with 
a fleet of vessels riding at anchor in it, it presents a 
charming scene. The Water of Philorth creeps 2g 
miles north-north-eastward, along all the south-eastern 
border, to its mouth in Fraserbm-gh Bay ; and two 
burns, draining the rest of the main body, flow north- 
ward and north-eastward to the sea. The smface, 
throughout the main body, rises from the coast, but so 
slowly as to appear almost flat, and attains its maximum 
altitude in the Sinclair Hills (167 feet). The detached 
district is hillier, attaining 315 feet at Mountsolie, 
whilst the summit of Mormond Hill (769 feet) falls just 
beyond its SE corner. Mica slate, granite, limestone, 
and ironstone are plentiful ; and there are several 
chalybeate springs. The soil in many parts is sandy 
and light, in others loamy and clayey ; and nearly all 


the land, except 400 acres of plantations and 200 of 
moss in the iletaclied portion, is arable. Philorth 
House, noticed separately, is the only mansion ; and 
Lord Saltoun is much the largest proprietor, 2 others 
holding each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 6 of 
between £100 and £500, 22 of from £50 to £100, and 
54 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Deer and 
synod of Aberdeen, this parish since 1877 has been 
divided into Fraserburgh proper and West Church 
quoad sacra parish, the former a living worth £407. A 
chapel of ease, served by a missionary, stands at Tech- 
muiry in the detached portion, 5| miles SSW of the tovra. 
Five schools— Fraserburgh public, the Girls' Industrial, 
St Peter's Episcopalian, Broadsea General Assembly, and 
Techmuiry public — with respective accommodation for 
417, 233, 304, 77, and 115 children, had (1881) an aver- 
age attendance of 417, 233, 304, 77, and 115, and grants of 
£341, 6s., £207, 12s., £183, 19s., £70, 14s. 6d., and 
£33, 16s. Valuation (1855) £12,073, (1875) £28,568, 
(1882) £37,176, 16s. 9d. Pop. (1801) 2215, (1821) 2831, 
(1841)3615, (1861) 4511, (1871) 5301, (1881) 7596, of 
•whom 54 were on board vessels in the harbour, 4304 
in the ecclesiastical parish of Fraserburgh, and 3238 
in that of AVest Church.— Ord Sur., sh. 97, 1876. 

Freasgeal. See Feaisgill. 

Freeburn, a hamlet in Moy and Dalarossie parish, 
Inverness-shire, on the left bank of Findhorn river, 15 j 
miles SE of Inverness, and 1 j mile NNW of Findhorn 
Bridge. It has an inn ; and fairs are held at it, for 
cows, on the Saturday after 19 May ; for lambs, on the 
Friday after 12 August ; for cattle, on the Monday in 
August after Beauly, the Monday after the third 
Tuesday of September, and the Saturday in October 
after Beauly. 

Freefield, an estate, with a mansion, in Rayne parish, 
Aberdeenshire, 4i miles NE of Insch. Its plain man- 
sion was built about the middle of last centui-y, has 
beautifully wooded grounds, and is a seat of Alexander 
Leith, Esq. of Freefield and Glenkindie (b. 1817 ; sue. 
1859), who owns 8566 acres in the shire, valued at 
£4217 per annum. His father. Gen. Sir Alexander 
Leith, K.C.B., was a distinguished Peninsular officer. 
—Orel. Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Freeland, an estate, -nith a mansion, in Forgandenny 
parish, SE Perthshire, | mile SSE of Forgandenny 
station, and 2| miles W of Bridge of Earn. 

Frenchland Tower. See Moffat. 

Frendraught, an estate, with an old mansion, in 
Forgue parish, NW Aberdeenshire, 21 miles SSE of 
Forgue church, and 11 ENE of Huntly. On the N 
side of the house is still a fragment of the older tower, 
whose basement story was vaulted with stone, the three 
upper floors being all of wood, and which, one October 
night of 1630, was the scene of the tragedy known as 
the ' Burning of Frendraught. ' Sir James Crichton, 
great-grandson of the first Lord Ckichton, chancellor 
of Scotland, about the close of the 15th century ob- 
tained the lordship of Frendi-aught, in the heart of the 
Gordon country. A feud between his descendants and 
the Gordons (whose chief was the Marquis of Huntly) 
had led to a skirmish on 1 Jan. 1630, in which 
Gordon of Rothiemay was slain ; and this affair the 
Marquis had patched up by desiring Crichton to pay 
50,000 merks to Rothiemay's widow. Some nine 
months later the Marquis again was called upon to act 
as arbiter, this time between Crichton and Leslie of 
Pitcaple, whose son had been wounded in another 
fray ; and this time he decided in Crichton's favour. 
Leslie rode off from Bog of Gight or Gordon Castle with 
threats of vengeance ; and the Marquis, fearful for 
Crichton's safety, sent him home under escort of his 
eldest son, young Lord Aboyne, and others — one of 
them, strangely enough, the son of the slaughtered 
Rothiemay. 'They rode,' says Spalding, 'without in- 
terruption to the place of Frendraught, without sight 
of Pitcaple by the way. Aboyne took his leave from 
the laird, but upon no condition would he and his lady 
suffer him to go, and none that was with him, that 
night, but earnestly \irged him (though against his 


will) to bide. They were well entertained, supped 
menily, and to bed went joyfully. The Viscount was 
laid in a bed in the old tower (going off the hall), and 
standing upon a vault wherein was a round hole, de- 
vised of old, just under Aboyne's bed. Robert Gordon, 
born in Sutherland, his servant, and English Will, his 
page, were both laid beside him in the same cham- 
ber. The Laird of Rothiemay, with some servants, waa 
laid in an upper chamber, just above Aboyne's. , . . 
Thus, being all at rest, about midnight this dolorous 
tower took fire in so sudden and furious a manner that 
the noble Viscount, the Laird of Rothiemay, English 
Will, CoUn Ivat, and other two, being six in number, 
were cruelly burned and tormented to death, without 
help or relief. Sutherland Robert, being in the Vis- 
count's chamber, escaped this fire with the life. George 
Chalmers and Captain Rollick, being in the third room, 
escaped also this fire ; and, as was said, Aboyne might 
have saved himself also if he would have gone out of 
doors, which he would not do, but suddenly ran upstairs 
to Rothiemay's chamber and wakened him to rise ; and, 
as he is wakening him, the timber passage and lofting 
of the chamber hastily takes fire, so that none of them 
could win down stairs again ; so they turned to a win- 
dow looking to the close, where they piteously cried 
many times, "Help! help! for God's cause." The 
Laird and the Lady, with their servants, all seeing and 
hearing the woeful crying, made no help nor manner of 
helping, which they perceiving cried oftentimes mercy 
at God's hands for their sins, syne clasped in each 
other's arms, and cheerfully suffered their martyrdom.' 
The Marquis of Huntly, in the belief that the fire 
was no accident, but that gunpowder and combustibles 
had been piled in the vault below, instituted pro- 
ceedings ; and a commission, sent to inspect the pre- 
mises, reported that the fire must have been raised 
designedly and from within. For a short time im- 
prisoned but never brought to trial, Crichton on his 
part sought to fasten the crime upon Pitcaple, one of 
whose kinsmen, John Meldrum, was actually hanged 
and quartered as the perpetrator. One thing seems 
certain, that Crichton had court influence in his favour, 
Charles I. desiring to counterbalance Huntly's feudal 
sway ; and in Crichton's own lifetime, his eldest son, 
James, was created Viscount Frendraught (1642). The 
title expired with the fourth Viscount in 1698 ; and the 
lands of Frendraught now belong to the widow of the late 
Alex. Morison, Esq. of Bognie, whose ancestor married 
the widow of the second Viscount. — Ord. Sur., sh. 86, 
1876. See vol. ii. of Chambers' Domestic AnnaJs (1858) ; 
Sir A. Leith Hay's Castellated Architecture of Aherdeen- 
shire (1849) ; vol. vi., pp. 209-213, of Hill Burton's 
History of Scotland (ed. 1876) ; and, for the fine old 
ballad, ' The Fire of Frendraught, ' Prof. Ay toun's 
Ballads of Scotland (1861). 

Freswiok, a townsliip, a mansion, and a bay in 
Canisbay parish, Caithness. The township, near the 
coast, 4 miles S of John o' Groat's House, and 12 N of 
Wick, has a girls' public school, and fairs on the second 
Tuesday of February and of December. Freswick House, 
on the SW shore of the bay, at the mouth of the Gill 
Burn, 1 mile SE of the school, is the property of Thom- 
son-Sinclair of DuKEEATH. John o' Gkoat's Hottse 
and BucHOLiE Castle are on the estate. Freswick Bay, 
measuring IJ mUe across the entrance between Skirsa 
and Ness Heads, and J mile thence to its inmost recess, 
has a half-moon form, and lies completely exposed to 
the K—Ord. Sur., sh. 116, 1878. 

Freuch or Fraoch. See Claig. 

Freuchie, a loch in detached portions of Dull and 
Kenmore parishes, Perthshire, in Glenquaich, IJ mile 
W of Amulree. Lying 880 feet above sea-level, it has 
an utmost length and breadth of 1 j and 3J furlongs ; 
sends off to the E the river Braan ; and contains small, 
lively trout, with far too many pike. Glenquaich 
Lodge, a shooting-box of the Earl of Breadalbane, is on 
its south-western shore.— OrcZ. Sur., 47, 1869. 

Freuchie, a village near the E border of Falkland 
parish, Fife, 1| mile NNW of Falkland Road station, 



and 2 miles E by S of Falkland town. A quaint old 
place, ■with narrow winding streets, small courts, and 
bullet-paved closes, it strikingly represents the times 
when folks travelled only on foot or on horseback, and 
when all goods were conveyed by pack-horses ; and it 
anciently lay in such relation to the precincts of Falk- 
land, that disgi'aced courtiers were sent hither on their 
dismissal, whence the proverbial saying, ' Go to 
Freuchie.' It has a post office under Ladybank, a 
branch bank of the British Linen Co., an hotel, a 
power-loom linen factory, an Established church, a 
United Presbyterian church, and a public school. The 
Established church, built in 1875 at a cost of £1100, 
contains 400 sittings, and in 1880 was raised to qzioad 
sacra status ; the IJnited Presbyterian church contains 
450 sittings. Pop. of village (1841) 713, (1861) 961, 
(1871) 1195, (1881) 1059 ; of qiioad sacra parish (1881) 
im.—Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Frew. See Ford of Frew. 

Friardykes, a place in Stenton parish, Haddington- 
shire, the site of a cell of Melrose Abbey, used for 
rusticating refractory monks. 

Friars Brae, an eminence in Linlithgow parish, on 
the S side of the town. It was anciently crowned by a 
Carmelite friary, founded in 1290, and dedicated to the 

Friars Carse, an estate, with a mansion, in Dunscore 
parish, Dumfriesshire, on the right bank of the Nith, 
2 mUes SSE of Auldgirth station, and 6^ NNW of 
Dumfries. It was the seat, in pre-Reformation times, 
of a cell of Melrose Abbey ; and in the avenue leading 
to the mansion are a number of antique sculptured 
stones, believed to have belonged thereto. Passing at 
the Reformation to the Kirkpatricks, then the pro- 
prietors of EUisland, it went in 1634 to the Maxwells 
of Tinwald, afterwards to the Riddels of Gleuriddel, 
and later to Dr Crichton, who bequeathed it to 
found the Crichton Institution at Dumfries. Built, 
about 1774, on a piece of rising ground, round which 
the Kith makes a graceful curve, it often was visited 
by Robert Burns during his three years' tenancy 
of Ellisland. Here he foregathered with 'iine, fat, 
fodgel ' Grose, a brother antiquary of Captain Riddel's ; 
and here he acted as arbiter in the great Bacchanalian 
tourney of the JVhistle. ' As the authentic prose his- 
tory,' says Burns, 'of the JFliisilc is curious, I shall 
here give it. In the train of Anne of Denmark there 
came over a Danish gentleman of gigantic stature and 
great prowess, and a matchless champion of Bacchus. 
He had a little ebony whistle, which at the commence- 
ment of the orgies he laid on the table, and whoever 
was the last able to blow it was entitled to carry it off 
as a trophy of victory. After many overthrows on the 
part of the Scots, the Dane was encountered by Sir 
Robert Lawrie of Maxwelton, who, after three days' 
and three nights' hard contest, left the Scandinavian 
under the table, 

* " And blew on the whistle his requiem shrilL" 

Sir Walter, son to Sir Robert, afterwards lost the 
Whistle to Walter Riddel of Glenriddel ; and on 
Friday, 16 Oct. 1790, at Friars Carse, the Whistle was 
once more contended for by Sir Robert of Maxwelton, 
Robert Riddel of Glenriddel, and Alexander Fergusson 
of Craigdarroch, which last gentleman carried off the 
hard-won honours of the field.' Allan Cunningham 
adds that ' the Bard himself, who drank bottle and 
bottle about, seemed quite disposed to take up the con- 
queror when the day dawned.' Another of his poems 
was written in Friars Carse Hermitage, which, now a 
ruin, was then ' a snug little stone building, measuring 
lOJ feet by 8, and supplied with a window and fire- 
place. Captain Riddel gave him a key, so that he could 
go in and out as he pleased.' An autograph copy of the 
JVhistle is in the Thomhill Museum ; and the pane of glass 
from the Hermitage on which Burns wrote the opening 
lines of the ode is in the possession of Arch. Fnllarton,—Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. See chap. i. of William 
M'Dowall's Burns in Dumfriesshire (Edinb. 1870). 


Friars Croft. See Dttnbae. 

Friars Dubb. See Bervie. 

Friars Glen, a sequestered glen in Fordoun parish, 
Kincardineshire, at the base of Strathfinella Hill, 
beyond Drumtochty Castle. A small Carmelite friary 
here is still represented by foundations. 

FriecMan. See Ikch Feiechlajt. 

Friockheim, a modern village in Kirkden parish, 
Forfarshire, on the right bank of Lunan Water, with a 
station on the Arbroath and Forfar section of the Cale- 
donian railway, 6J miles NW by W of Arbroath and 
If mile ESE of Guthrie Junction. About the year 
1830 operatives connected with textile manufactures 
were induced to feu houses at a cheap rate on the estate 
of Middleton ; and Friockheim acquired material in- 
crease of importance, first by the Arbroath and Forfar 
railway (1S39) placing it on a grand thoroughfare be- 
tween these towns, next by the Aberdeen railway 
(1850) making it a centre of transit of all places N of 
the 'lay. It has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of 
the North of Scotland Bank, 4 insm-ance agencies, a 
police station, gas-works, a cemetery, an assembly hall, 
a library- and reading-room, a horticultural society, and 
cattle, sheep, and hiring fairs on 26 May or the Thurs- 
day after, on the Monday in July after Arbroath fair, 
and on 22 November or the Thursday after. The quoaxl 
sacra parish, constituted in 1870, is in the presbytery 
of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns ; the 
stipend is £120, with a manse. Its church, built in 
1836 and enlarged in 1840, is a neat edifice, with a 
steeple and 500 sittings. 'There are also a Free church 
and an Evangelical Union chapel ; and a public school, 
with accommodation for 250 children, had (1881) an 
average attendance of 210, and a grant of £183, 15s. 
Pop. of village (1841) 805, (1861) 1239, (1871) 1119, 
(1881) 1098 ; of?, s. parish (1871) 1432, (1881) 1501, of 
whom 360 were in Inverkeilor and 1141 in Eirkden. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Frogden, a farm in Linton parish, Roxburghshire. 
A spot on it, marked with five or six upright stones ia 
circular arrangement, is called the Tryste, and was a 
place of muster in the old times for Border forays into 

Froon. See FRimJ. 

Frostly, a burn in Teviothead parish, Roxburghshire, 
rising, as Linhope Burn, close to the Castleton border, 
at an altitude of 14S0 feet, and running 5 miles north- 
north-westward, along a narrow glen, till, after a descent 
of 900 feet, it falls into the Teviot just below Teviot- 
head church.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 17, 1864. 

Fruchie. See Freuchie. 

Fruid Water, an upland bum in Tweedsmuir parish, 
SW Peeblesshire, rising close to the Dumfriesshire bor- 
der, at an altitude of 2500 feet, on the N side of Hart- 
fell (2651). Thence it runs 8 miles north-north-west- 
ward, mainly along a beautiful glen, flanked by high 
green hills, till, after a total descent of 2626 feet, it 
falls into the Tweed 1^ mile SSW of Tweedsmuir church. 
Vestiges of an ancient Border peel are on its right bank 
at Fruid farm, 3 J miles from its mouth. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 16, 1864. 

Fruin Water, a troutful stream of W Dumbartonshire, 
rising on Maol an Fheidh (1934 feet), at an altitude of 
1500, in the NW of Row parish, 2 miles NE of the 
head of Gare Loch, and thence winding 12 J miles south- 
eastward and east-north-eastward, through or along the 
borders of Row and Luss parishes, till it falls into Loch 
Lomond, nearly opposite the lower end of Inchmurrin 
island and 2J miles N by W of Balloch pier. Its upper 
glen, named after it Glenfruin, is flanked, on the NE 
side, by Ben Chaorach (2338 feet), Ben Tharsxtinn 
(2149), and Balcnock (2092), a mountain range that 
figures grandly in the sky-line of the views from the 
upper waters of the Firth of Clyde, and on the SW side 
by the Row hills (1183) ; whilst the last 4 miles of its 
course are through a low and luxuriant plain. Dumfin 
(200 feet), an eminence here, 3 miles ENE of Helens- 
burgh, is crowned by traces of a ' Fingalian ' fort ; and 



on the right or opposite banlc of tlie stream stands the 
ruined castle of Bannachra, where in July 1592 Sir 
Humphry Colqiilioun, tlie Laird of Luss, was besieged 
by an invading party of Macfarlanes and Macgregors. 
The loophole still is shown through which he was shot 
dead by an arrow, guided by the treacherous torch of 
one of his own servants. At Strone, 3 miles ESE of 
Garclochhead, was fought the bloody clan conflict of 
Gleufruin in 1603. Early in that year Allaster Mac- 
gregor of Glenstra, followed by 400 men, chiefly of his 
own clan, but including also some of the clans Cameron 
and Anverich, armed with ' halberschois, pow-aixes, 
twa-handit swordis, bowis and arrowis, and with hag- 
butis and pistoletis,' advanced into the territory of Luss. 
Alexander Colquhoun, under his royal commission, 
granted the year before in consequence of the Macgre- 
gors' outrage at Glenfinlas, had raised a force which 
some writers state to have amoxinted to 300 horse and 
500 foot. ' On 7 Feb. the Macgregors, ' says Mr Fraser, 
' were in Glenfruin in two divisions, one of them at the 
head of the glen, and the other in ambuscade near the 
farm of Strone, at a hollow or ravine called the Crate. 
The Colquhouns came into Glenfruin from the Luss 
side, which is opposite Strone — probably by Glen Luss 
and Glen Mackurn. Alexander Colquhoun pushed on 
his forces in order to get through the glen before en- 
countering the Macgregors; but, aware of his approach, 
Allaster Macgregor also pushed forward one division of 
his forces and entered at the head of the glen in time 
to prevent his enemy from emerging from the upper end 
of the glen, whilst his brother, John Macgregor, with 
the division of his clan, which lay in ambuscade, by a 
detour took the rear of the Colquhouns, which prevented 
their retreat down the glen without fighting their way 
through that section of the Macgregors who had got in 
their rear. The success of the stratagem by which the 
Colquhouns were thus placed between two fires seems to 
be the only way of accounting for the terrible slaughter 
of the Colquhouns and the much less loss of the Mac- 
gregors. The Colquhouns soon became unable to main- 
tain their ground, and, falling into a moss at the farm 
of Auchingaich, they were thrown into disorder, and 
made a hasty and disorderly retreat, which proved even 
more disastrous than the conflict, for they had to force 
their way through the men led by John Macgregor, 
whilst they were pressed behind by Allaster, who, 
reuniting the two divisions of his army, continued the 
pm-suit." All who fell into the victors' hands were in- 
stantly slain ; and the chief of the Colquhouns barely 
escaped with his life after his horse had been killed 
under him. Of the Colquhouns 140 were slain, and 
many more wounded, among them a number of women 
and children. "When the pursuit was over, the work of 
plunder commenced. Hundreds of live stock were 
carried off, and many of the houses of the tenantry were 
burned to the ground. The reckoning, however, was 
speedy, for on 3 April the name of Gregor or Macgregor 
was for ever abolished by Act of the Privy Council ; and 
by 2 March 1604 thirty-five of the clan Gregor had 
been executed, among them Allaster himself. — Ord. 
Sur., shs. 38, 30, 1871-66. See William Fraser's adefs 
of Colquhoun and tlicir Country (Edinb. 1869). 

Fuda, a small fertile island of Barra parish. Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire, J mile NE of the nearest 
point of Barra island. It exhibits a number of granite 
veins, impregnated with iron. Of its 6 inhabitants, in 
1871, 4 were males ; of the same number, in 1881, 5 
were females. 

Fuinafort, a place in Eilfinichen and Eilvickeon 
parish, Mull island, Argyllshire, 6 miles from Bonessan. 
It has a post office under Oban. 

Fuirdstone, an ancient tower on Wester Balnabriech 
farm, in Caraldston parish, Forfarshire. Demolished 
early in the present century, it formerly gave its name 
to the parish. 

Fulden. See Foulden. 

Fulgae, a lofty skerry of Shetland, on the NW coast 
of Papa Stour island. It rises almost murally from the 
sea, and is pierced with caverns. 

FuUarton. See Maryton. 

FuUarton. See Tollcross. 

FuUarton, an Ayrshire burgh of barony within the 
bounds of the parliamentary burgh of Irvine, but lying 
in Dundonald parish, on the left or opposite bank of 
the river Irvine. With Irvine it is connected by a 
handsome stone four-arch bridge of 1746, and from 1690 
to 1823 it was supposed to belong to Irvine parish, 
having in the former of those years been technically 
united thereto ; but, an appeal being made to the Court 
of Session in 1823, it was found to have legally belonged 
all along to Dundonald. An Established church, built 
as a chapel of ease in 1836 at a cost of £2000, contains 900 
sittings, and in 1874 was raised to quoad sacra status, 
its parish being in Ayr presbytery and the sjiiod of 
Glasgow and Ayr. There are also a Free church and a 
public school. See Irvine and Dundonald. Pop. of 
parish (1881) 4009.— OrtZ. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

FuUarton House, a seat of the Duke of Portland in 
Dundonald parish, Ayrshire, IJ mile ESE of Troon. The 
estate around it tielonged to the Foulertouns or FuUar- 
tons of that ilk from the 13th century till 1805, when 
it was sold to the third Duke of Portland by Col. Wil- 
liam FuUarton (1754-1808). This gallant soldier and 
author, immortalised in Burns's Vision, was born at 
FuUarton House, which was built by his father in 1745. 
It has since been twice enlarged by the addition of 
wings, and what was once the back is now the front — a 
great improvement, any sacrifice of architectural grace 
being more than compensated by the fact that the house 
now faces the Firth of Clyde and isle of Arran. That 
Louis Napoleon stayed here in 1839 is false ; but the 
fourth Duke's third son, the Conservative leader and 
sportsman. Lord George Bentinck (1802-48), passed 
much of his boyhood at FuUarton. John William 
Arthur Charles James Cavendish Bentinck, present and 
sixth Duke since 1716 (b. 1857 ; sue. 1879), holds 
24,787 acres in Ayrshire, valued at £60,533 per annum, 
including £10,708 for harbour works, and £16,199 for 
minerals. — Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. See LAKGWELLand 
the Eev. J. Kirkwood's Troon and Dundonald (3d ed., 
Kilmar., 1881). 

Fulton. See Bedrule. 

Fulwood Moss, a former peat-moss in Houston parish, 
Renfrewshire, a little W of Houston station, and ?A miles 
NW of Paisley. Extending over 98 acres, it was re- 
claimed by the Glasgow Corporation in 1879-80 at a 
cost of £4539, no fewer than 1882 waggons, or fully 
12,000 tons, of Glasgow rubbish being shot into the 
moss. The reclamation, besides giving work to 300 of 
the unemployed, has proved a financial success, good 
crops of potatoes having already been raised from what 
was previously worthless ground. — Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 

Funtack, a burn in Moy and Dalarossie parish, Inver- 
ness-shire, winding 2| miles east-south-eastward along 
Strathdearn, from Loch Moy to the river Findhorn. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Funzie, a bay of Fetlar island, Shetland, the only ling- 
fishing station in the island. It is overlooked by re- 
mains of a pre-Eeformation chapel. 

Furnace, a post-ofSce village in Inverary parish, Ar- 
gyllshu'c, on the shore of Loch Fyne, in the mouth of 
Glenleacainn, 8 miles SSW of Inverary town. It took 
its name from an iron smelting work of the early part 
of the present century, but it now depends on the great 
granite quarry of DtTN Leaoainn, started in 1841, and 
rendered famous by its 'monster blasts' of Oct. 1871, 
Sept. 1876, and Sept. 1880. In the glen, a little way 
above the village, is a gunpowder manufactory, consist- 
ing of small houses scattered over a considerable area. 

Fushiebridge, a village in Borthwick parish, Edin- 
burghshire, near the left bank of Gore Water, 1 mile S 
by E of Gorebridge. Across the stream lies Fushiebridge 
station on the Waverley route of the North British, 12j 
miles SSE of Edinburgh. 

Fyne, a mountain rivulet and a large sea-loch in ArgyU- 
shire. The rivulet, rising on the south-western skirts 
of Benloy, a little NW of the meeting-point with 



Dumbarton and Perth shires, runs 6J miles south-south- 
westward, along a wild Highland glen, called from it 
Glenfyne, and falls into the head of the sea-loch 7 fur- 
longs NE of Cairndow. — Ord. Sur., shs. 46, 45, 37, 

The sea-loch first strikes 27 miles south-westward ; then 
makes a sudden expansion, and sends off to the N the 
considerable bay of Loch GiLP, leading into the Crinan 
Canal ; and then strikes 13J mUes south-by-eastward, 
till, opposite Ardlamont Point, it merges in the Sound 
of Bute, the Kyles of Bute on the left, and Kilbrennan 
Sound, aU passing into the Firth of Clyde. Its breadth 
is If fui'long near Cairndow, If mile at Inverary Ferry, 
1 mile near Strachur, 2 miles at Lachlan Bay, IJ mUe 
at Otter Ferry, 4J miles at KUfinan Bay, 2g miles at 
Barmore Island, and 5 mUes at Ardlamont Point. Its 
screens, from head to foot, show great variety of both 
shore and height, and present many scenes of singular 
force and beauty ; but as a whole they offer little of the 
grandeur and romance that characterise the screens of 
many others of the great Highland sea-lochs. Around 
the head, and downwards past Inverary, they have strik- 
ing forms and lofty altitudes, attaining 2955 feet in 
Ben-an-Lochain and 2557 m Ben Bheula ; round 
Inverary, too, they have great masses of wood, and some 
strongly picturesc[ue features of hill and glen and park. 
In most of the reaches thence they have much verdure, 
some wood, and numerous hUls, but rarely exhibit 
stronger features of landscape than simply the laeautif iil ; 
towards the entrance, however, they combine, into great 
variety and magnificence, with the islands of Bute and 
Arran. The waters have been notable from time imme- 
morial for both the prime quality and the great abun- 
dance of their herrings. One of the twenty-five fishery 
districts of Scotland has its headquarters at Inverary ; 
and two others have their headquarters at respectively 
Rothesay and Campbeltown. — Ord. Sur., shs. 37, 
29, 1876-73. See pp. 124-132 of Dorothy Wordsworth's 
Tour in Scotland (ed. by Princ. Shairp, 1874). 

Fyrish or Cnoc Fyrish, a wooded hiU in Alness parish, 
Eoss-shire, culminating 1 J mile ISfNW of Novar House at 
an altitude of 1483 feet above sea-level. It seems to have 
been used in ancient times as a station for beacon fires ; 
and is crowned by an artificial structure of upright stone 
blocks in rude form of an Indian temple. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 93, 1881. 

Fyvie, a parish of Aberdeenshire, containing "Wood- 
head village, 2J furlongs from the left bank of the river 
Ythan, and 3 miles E by S of Fjrvie station on the 
Banff branch of the Great North of Scotland railway, 
this station being 7 miles SSE of Tui-riff, and 31i NNW 
of Aberdeen. In 1673 Alexander, thii-d Earl of Dun- 
fermline, obtained a charter, erecting the lordship of 
Fyvie into a free burgh of barony, with a tolbooth and 

market cross, at which should be held three annual 
fairs. With this burgh of Fyvie, Woodhead has been 
dentified ; and its dilapidated cross was rebuilt in 1846, 
ome years before which date the tolbooth — long a 
dwelling-house — had been pulled down. The fairs have 
been discontinued, but a cattle market is held on the 
third Thursday of every month at Fyvie station, and on 
the second Monday of every month at Eothie station, 
also in Fwie parish, 3^ miles to the SW. Fyvie besides 
has a post ofiice, with money order, savings' bank, and 
railway telegraph departments, a branch of the Aber- 
deen Town and County Bank, 3 insurance agencies, 
and a horticultural association. 

The parish is bounded N and NE by Monquhitter, E 
by Methlick, SE by Tarves, S by Meldrum, SW by 
Daviot and Eayne, W by Auchterless, and NW by 
Turriff. Its utmost length, from NE to SW, is 10| 
miles ; its breadth varies between 7 furlongs and 6^ 
miles; and its area is 29,650 acres, of which 64| are 
water. From Towie Castle, at the NW corner of the 
parish, the Ythan, a small stream here, first traces 2 
miles of the boundary with Auchterless, next winds 8J 
miles south-eastward and north-eastward through the 
interior, and lastly flows 2f miles east-by-northward 
along the Methlick border. It receives in its course a 


good many little afBuents, and divides the parish into 
two pretty equal parts. Where, below Gight Castle, it 
passes off into MethUck, the surface declines to 88 feet 
above sea-level, thence rising south-westward to 499 
feet at the Hill of Blairfowl, 691 near Stoneyfield, 629 
near Waulkmill, and 700 on the Eayne border ; north- 
westward to 466 near MonkshUl, 587 near Gouidas, and 
585 at Deers Hill. The leading rocks are greywacke 
and slate in the SW, Old Eed sandstone over a small 
portion of the NW, and elsewhere greenstone or basalt, 
often intersected by veins of quartz, calcareous spar, 
hematite, etc. The soil along the banks of the Ythan is 
a lightish loam of great fertility, especially in the part 
called the Howe of Fyvie ; and in other parts is ex- 
tremely various — gravelly, mossy, etc. Fully four- 
sevenths of the entire area are in tillage, one-fifteenth is 
under wood, one-tenth is pasture, and the rest is either 
moss or heath. Founded by Fergus, Earl of Buchan, in 
1179 for Benedictines of Tiron, and subordinate to 
Arbroath Abbey, St Mary's priory stood in a meadow 
between the Ythan and the parish church, a cross, on a 
base of hewn stones, surmounting a rough round cairn, 
having been erected in 1868 on the site of its church, 
which was buDt by Prior Mason in 1470. Gight 
Castle, on the Ythan, towards the eastern extremity of 
the parish, is an interesting ruin, noticed separately ; 
and a ruined mill, IJ mile NE of Fyvie Castle, was the 
scene of the ballad of Mill o' Tifty's Annie, or Agnes 
Smith, who died in 1678. On the outskirts of St John's 
Well farm are remains of a cairn, Cairnchedly, which 
has yielded a number of small earthen urns ; and, to the 
NE of the Castle, Montrose, in Oct. 1644, was nearly 
surprised by Argyll with a greatly superior force — an 
episode known as the ' Skirmish of Fyvie. ' Fyvie 
Castle, on the Ythan's left bank, J mile NE of Fyvie 
station, dates from remote antiquity, it or a predecessor 
having received a visit from Edward I. of England in 
1296. It then was a royal seat, and such it continued 
till 1380, when the Earl of Carrick (later Eobert III.) 
made it over to his cousin. Sir James de Lindsay. From 
him it passed in 1397 to Sir Henry Preston, his brother- 
in-law, and from him about 1433 to the Meldrums, who 
sold it in 1596 to Sir Alexander Seton, an eminent 
lawyer, created first Earl of Dunfermline in 1606. The 
fourth and last Earl being outlawed in 1690, his forfeited 
estate was purchased from the Crown in 1726 by 
William, second Earl of Aberdeen, whose descendant, 
the present proprietor, Alexander Henry Gordon, Esq. 
(b. 1813 ; sue. 1880), holds 11,700 acres in the shire, 
valued at £8741 per annum. The Fyvie Castle of to- 
day is a stately chateau -like pile erected at various 
periods, from the 15th on to the 18th century ; and 
stands in the midst of a finely-wooded park, with an 
artificial lake (^ mile x J furl.). Other mansions are 
Eothie-Norman and Kintroon, and, in all, 7 proprie- 
tors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
3 of between £100 and £500, and 9 of from £20 to £50. 
In the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, 
Fyvie comprises chief part of Millbres q^wad sacra 
parish, and itself is a living worth £369. The church, 
originally dedicated to St Peter, stands near the left 
bank of the Ythan, 1| mile SE of Fyvie station ; and, 
rebuilt in 1808, contains 1114 sittings. At Woodhead 
are St Mary's Established mission church, a plain but 
commodious Free church, altered and decorated in 1878, 
and All Saints' Episcopal church, which. Early English 
in style, was built in 1849, and received the addition of 
a tower and spire in 1870. Another Episcopal church, 
St George's (1796-1848), is at MeiklefoUa, If mile SSE 
of Rothie station. Seven schools — Fyvie, MeiklefoUa, 
Steinmanhill, Woodhead, All Saints', Fyvie female, and 
St Katherine's — with total accommodation for 841 
cliildren, had (1881) an average attendance of 518, and 
grants amounting to £428, 8s. 6d. Valuation (1860) 
£13,663, (1881) £23,335, 14s. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 
2391, (1831) 3252, (1861) 4344, (1871) 4511, (1881) 
4403 ; of ecclesiastical parish (1881) 3235 ; of registra- 
tion district (1871)3306,(1881) 3Z17.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
86, 1876. 




GADGIRTH, an estate, witli a mansion, in Coylton 
parish, Ayrsliire, on the left bank of the river 
Ayr, 4 miles SSW of Tarbolton. Its owner, 
Major-Gen. Francis Claud Burnett (b. 1811 ; sue. 
1833), holds 1500 acres in the shire, valued at £2106 per 

Gadie, a burn of Aberdeenshire, rising in Clatt parish, 
and running 10 J miles east-by-northward through Leslie, 
Premnay, and Oyne parishes, till it falls into the Ury, 
9 furlongs E of Oyne church. It is celebrated in several 
of the Latin poems of Arthur Johnston, and also in a 
fine old ballad, beginning — 

* O an I were where Gadie ring, 
'Mang fragrant heath and yellow whins, 
Or brawlin down the bosky linns. 
At the back o' Bennochie.* 

After the capture of Pondicherry in 1793, a Highland 
regiment, marching into the town, was suddenly arrested 
by hearing this ballad sung by a Scottish lady from an 
open window. — Ord, Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Gaiok, a desolate alpine tract, a forest once, in Kin- 
gussie parish, Inverness-shire, around the head of 
Glentromie, contiguous to the Perthshire border. It 
touches, or rather overlaps, the watershed of the central 
Grampians, its mountain summits culminating at an 
altitude of 2929 feet above sea-level; and it abounds 
in grandly romantic scenery, including on its southern 
border one of the most accessible and picturesque of the 
passes over the central Grampians. It partly contains, 
partly adjoins, three lakes — Loch an Duin (10 x 1 J furl. ; 
1680 feet). Loch Bhradain (4i x 1| furl. ; 1460 feet), and 
Loch an t-Seilich (9 x 3 J furl. ; 1400 feet). Wood there 
is none now, except some scattered birch copse ; but the 
' forest ' is stocked by numerous herds of red deer, be- 
longing to Sir George Macpherson Grant, Bart, of Inver- 
eshie ; and by him it is let for £2000 a year. It contains 
only one Jiouse, Gaick Lodge, 10 miles S by E of Kin- 
gussie. — Ord. Sur., sh. 64, 1874. 

Gainvich. See Sanda, Argyllshire. 

Gairbridge. See Guard Bridge. 

Gairden. See Gaien. 

Gairie, a rivulet of Kirriemuir and Glamis parishes, 
Forfarshire, flowing round two sides of Kirriemuir town, 
and, after a south-south-easterly com'se of 7J miles, fall- 
ing into Dean Water 2 miles NE of Glamis village. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 

Gair Loch. See Gaielooh, Eoss-shire. 

Gairloch (Gael, gearr-loch, ' short loch '), a coast vil- 
lage and parish of W Ross-shire. The sea-loch, that gives 
them name, strikes 6J miles east-south-eastward from 
the North Minch, and measures 3J across the entrance, 
where lies the island of Longa, whilst 3 J miles higher up, 
near the southern shore, is the smaller island of Horris- 
dale. Gairloch village stands on its north-eastern shore, 
by water being 30 miles NNE of Portree in Skye, by road 
6 SW of Poolewe, 9 WNW of Talladale or Lochmaree 
hotel, 18 ^VNW of Kinlochewe hotel, and 28 WNW of 
Auchnasheen station on the Dingwall and Skye section 
(1870) of the Highland railway, this station being 25J 
miles NE of Strome Ferry and 27f WSW of Dingwall. 
It communicates with Auchnasheen by a daUy coach, 
with Portree by a weekly steamer ; and has a post office, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a branch of the Caledonian Bank, a steamboat pier, 
and a good hotel, greatly enlarged in the last few years. 

The parish, containing also Poolewe, Talladale, and 
Kinlochewe, is bounded NE by Greinord Bay and Loch- 
broom parish, E by Contiu parish, SE by Lochalsh and 
Lochcarron parishes, S by Applecross parish and Loch 
Torridon, and W by the North Minch. It has an utmost 
length, from E to W, of 25 miles ; an utmost width, 
from N to S, of 22 miles ; and an area of 356 square 
mUes, or 227,8S0f acres, of which 1639J are foreshore 
and 16,996i water. The seaboard, 90 miles long, is 
bold and rocky, rising rapidly to 100 and 400 feet above 
sea-level, and deeply indented by Geeinord Bay, Loch 

Ewe, Gair Loch, and Looh Toeeidon. The river Coulin 
or A Ghairbhe. entering from Lochcarron parish, winds 
6J miles northward, through Lochs Coulin and Clair, 
along the Lochcarron border and through the interior 
to Kinlochewe, where it is joined by a rivulet, running 
Z\ miles north-westward down Glen Docherty. As Kin- 
lochewe river, the united stream flows 2f miles north- 
westward to the head of famous Loch Maeee (12| miles 
X 3 furl, to 2J miles ; 32 feet above sea-level), and from 
its foot, as the river Ewe, continues 2J miles north-north- 
westward, tUl at Poolewe it falls into Loch Ewe. Lochan 
Fada (3| miles x 5 furl. ; 1000 feet), lying near the Loch- 
broom border, sends off a stream 4 j miles south-south-west- 
ward to Loch Maree, near its head ; and Fionn Loch (5f x 
1^ miles ; 559 feet), lying right on the Lochbroom border, 
sends off the Little Greinord along that border 5J miles 
north-by-eastward to the head of Greinord Bay. These 
are the principal streams and lakes of Gairloch parish, 
whose very large fresh-water area (more than fifteen 
times larger than that of the whole of Fife) comprises 
the 7090| acres of Loch Maree, the 2238|- of half of Fionn 
Loch, the 923 of Lochan Fada, the 203 of part of Dubh 
Loch (9x3 furl.) at the head of Fionn Loch, the 345| of 
Loch na h-Oidhche (If mile x 3| furl.), the 166 of Loch 
ToUie (74 X 5 furl.), etc. The surface is grandly diversi- 
fied by tall pyramidal quartz mountains, the chief being 
Ben Airidh a'Char (2593 feet), Ben Lair (2817), Ben 
Sleooh (3217), and Ben a'Mhuiuidh (2231), to the NE 
of Loch Maree ; to the SW, Bus-bheinn (2869) and Ben 
Eay or Eighe (3309). The rocks are primary, of Lauren- 
tian, Cambrian, or Devonian age. Less than 5000acres, or 
one-fortieth of the entire area, is returned as ' arable, wood- 
land, or rough pasture,' the rest being aU of it mountain, 
moor, and deer-forest. So that Gairloch depends far 
less on agriculture proper than on sheep-farming and the 
fisheries of the streams and lochs and neighbouring seas. 
In 1823 Hugh Miller was sent to Gairloch village with 
a party of fellow-quarrymen, and chapters xii. and xiii. 
of My Schools and Schoolraasters give a graphic descrip- 
tion of his sojourn here. ' For about six weeks,' he 
writes, 'we had magnificent weather; and I greatly en- 
joyed my evening rambles amid the hiUs or along the 
sea-shore. I was struck, in these walks, by the amazing 
abundance of wild flowers which covered the natural 
meadows and lower hUl-slopes. . . . How exquisitely 
the sun sets in a clear, calm summer evening over the 
blue Hebrides ! Within less than a mile of our barrack 
there rose a tall hill (1256 feet), whose bold summit 
commanded all the Western Isles, from Sleat in Skye to 
the Butt of the Lewis. . . . The distafl^ and spindle 
was still in extensive use in the district, which did not 
boast a single spinning-wheel, a horse, or a plough, no 
cart having ever forced its way along the shores of Loch 
Maree. . . . They tell me, that, for certain, the 
fairies have not left this part of the country yet. ' The 
chief antiquities of Gairloch are described under Loch 
Maree, which, from the 12th to the 19th of September 
1877, received a visit from Queen Victoria. Mansions, 
both noticed separately, are Floweedale and Lettee- 
EWE ; and Sir Kenneth Mackenzie owns rather more 
than two-thirds of the entire rental. In the presbytery 
of Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg, this parish since 
1851 has been ecclesiastically divided into Gairloch and 
Poolewe, the former a living worth £319. Its church, 
built in 1791, contains 500 sittings ; in the graveyard 
lies buried the Gaelic bard, WUliam Ross (1762-90), who 
was schoolmaster here for the last four years of his life. 
There are Free churches of Gairloch and Poolewe ; and ten 
public schools — Achtercaii-n, Bualnaluib, Inverasdale, 
Kinlochewe, Laide, Mellon Udregle, Melvaig, Opinan, 
Poolewe, and Sand — with total accommodation for 820 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 380, and 
grants amounting to £373, lis. Valuation (1860) 
£6849, (1882) £10,700, 9s. lid. Pop. of civil parish 
(1801) 1437, (1821) 4518, (1861) 5449, (1871) 5048, 
(1881) 4594, of whom 4316 were Gaelic-speaking ; of 



ecclesiastical parish (1871) 2425, (1881) 2277 ; of regis- 
tration district (1881) 4479, of wtom 1461 were in the 
northern and 3018 in the southern division. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 91, 92, 81, 82, 100, 1881-82. 

Gairlooh, Dumbartonshire. See Gareloch. 

Gairlochy, a hamlet in Kilmallie parish, Invemess- 
shire, at the foot of Loch Loohy, 3 miles WNW of Spean 

Gairn, a small river of Crathie and Glenmuick par- 
ishes, SW Aberdeenshire, rising, on the eastern side 
of Ben Avon, at 3550 feet above sea-level, and thence 
■finding 20 miles east-south-eastward along a mountain 
glen called from it Glengaikn, tOl, after a total descent 
of 2810 feet, it falls into the Dee at a point If mile 
NW of Ballater. The Bridge of Gairn, on the line of 
road from Aberdeen to Castleton, spans it J mile above 
its mouth, and here is a post office under Aberdeen. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 75, 65, 1876-70. 

Gaimey Bridge, a farm at the NE verge of Cleish 
parish, Kinross-shire, on the left bank of Gairney "Water, 
If mile SSE of Kinross. In a public house here, on 
the site of the farmstead stables, Ebenezer Erskine and 
the three other fathers of the Secession formed them- 
selves into a presbytery, 15 Dec. 1733 ; and on the site 
of the farmhouse itself, the young poet Michael Bruce 
(1746-67) taught a small school in 1765-66.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 40, 1867. 

Gaimey Water, a burn of Glenmuick and Aboyne 
parishes, SW Aberdeenshire, rising at an altitude of 
2500 feet, and running 5f miles north-north-eastward, 
through Glentanner Forest, till, after a descent of 1880 
feet, it falls into Tanner Water at a point 54 mUes SW 
of Aboyne village.— Ord Sur., sh. 66, 1871."" 

Gaimey Water, a rivulet partly of Perthshire, but 
chiefly of Kinross-shire. Eising among the hills of the 
, Perthshire section of Eossoway parish, it runs 3 J miles 
east-south-eastward, chiefly along the boundary be- 
tween Perth and Kinross shires ; and then proceeds 4| 
miles east-by-northward, chiefly along the boundary 
between Cleish parish on the right and Fossoway and 
Kinross parishes on the left, till it falls into Loch Leven 
2 miles SE of Kinross town.— Orti. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Gaimside. See Glexgairn. 

Gairsay, an island of Evie and Kendall parish, Ork- 
ney, IJ mile E of the nearest part of Orkney main- 
land, and 14 NW of Shapinshay. It measures 2 miles 
in gi-eatest length, and 1 J mile in greatest breadth ; con- 
sists chiefly of a conical hill of considerable altitude ; 
rises steeply on the W side ; includes, on the E and on 
the S, some low, fertile, well-cultivated land ; contains, 
close to the S shore, remains of a fine old mansion, once 
the seat of Sir William Craigie ; and has a small harbour, 
called Millburn, perfectly sheltered on all sides, mainly 
by Gairsay itself, and partly by a small island in the 
harbour's mouth. Pop. (1851) 41, (1871) 34, (1881) 37. 

Gaitnip, a range of coast crags in the S of Kirkwall 
parish, Orkney, on the E side of the upper part of Scapa 
Bay. Several caverns penetrate it, all formed by disin- 
tegrating action of the sea ; and one, Uke a narrow wind- 
ing tunnel, over 300 feet long, and from 12 to 20 feet 
high, is beautifully studded with stalactites. 

Galashiels, a parliamentary burgh and parish of Sel- 
kirkshire. The town is situated on both banks of the 
river Gala, 4 miles WNW of Melrose, 6 N of Selkirk, 
18 ESE of Peebles, and 28 SSE of Edinburgh by road. 
It is a station on the Waverley section of the North 
British railway, and from it diverge branch lines to 
Selkirk and Peebles. The name, from Gala and shiels 
or shielings, signifying shepherds' huts, appears to 
have designated originally a small vUlage, on the site 
of what is now called the old or high town, which 
had found its nucleus in the baronial seat of Gala, on 
the S bank of the river. This Gallowschel was a place 
of considerable antiquity, and is traditif nally said to 
have contained a hunting-seat of the Scottish monarchs. 
Its name appears in a charter of the early part of the 
14th century ; it is mentioned as containing a tower of 
Earl Douglas in 1416 ; and it figures in documents 
relating to the marriage of James IV. with the Princess 

Arms of Galashiels. 


Margaret of England. The old peel tower, known as 
' Hunters' Ha',' stood till the end of last century ; and 
ivy-clad ruins of the tolbooth, whose vane bore date 
1669, were demolished in the summer of 1880. The 
decay of the village has been arrested by the prosperity 
of the modern town, and its site is now occupied by 
numerous handsome villas and dwelling-houses. The 
armorial bearings of Galashiels are a fox and a plum- 
tree, and are said to have been 
assumed in memory of an event 
that occurred during Edward 
IIl.'s invasion of Scotland 
(1337). A party of English, 
encamped in or near the town, 
had begun to straggle through 
the neighbouring woods in 
search of wild plums, when 
the inhabitants of Galashiels 
fell suddenly upon them, drove 
them headlong to a spot on the 
Tweed, nearly opposite Abbots- 
ford, stUl known as the ' Eng- 
lishmen's Syke,' and cut them 
down almost to a man. Con- 
gratulating themselves on an 
exploit that had proved to be 
sourer fruit for the invaders than the plums they had 
been seeking, the villagers dubbed themselves ' the Sour 
Plums 0' Galashiels,' and are celebrated under that name 
in an old song. The arms of the town, however seem 
to indicate some confusion of thought between this event 
and the fable of the fox and grapes. 

The modern town owes its origin, as well as its growth 
and prosperity, to the spirit of manufacturing enterprise, 
which first seized the people in last century. Galashiels 
has no history apart from the narrative of the develop- 
ment of its manufactures, and although mills on the 
Gala are mentioned in. the early 17th century, it was 
not till the 18th that a general move was made down to 
the banks of the stream which afforded such excellent 
water-power. Dorothy Wordsworth, speaking of the 
place in 1803, describes it as 'the village of Galashiels, 
pleasantly situated on the banks of the stream ; a pretty 
place it once has been, but a manufactory is established 
there ; and a townish bustle and ugly stone houses are 
fast taking place of the brown-roofed thatched cottages, 
of which a great number yet remain, partly overshadowed 
by trees. ' Since that time the prosperity and activity of 
the burgh have reached a very high pitch. An important 
factor in furthering the prosperity of the town was the 
opening of the various railways — to Edinburgh and 
Hawick, to Selkirk, and to Peebles — which furnished 
access to the best markets at a lessened cost for the 
manufactures of the town. 

The burgh of Galashiels stretches for 2 miles along 
both sides of the Gala, which flows through the narrow 
town from NW to SE. For the most part it is buUt on 
the alluvial ground along the banks, but it also sends 
offshoots, extending up the slopes of the adjacent hiUs. 
It is flanked or overlooked on the one side by Meigle 
HUl (1387 feet) and Gala HUl, and on the other by 
Buckholm and Langlee Hills ; and the environs are 
picturesque and varied in their scenery. Situated thus 
on the border between Selkirkshire and Roxburghshire, 
the burgh belongs to two parishes — Melrose and Gala- 
shiels — which are, however, for all civil and police 
purposes, regarded as one community in Selkirkshire, 
though for parochial matters each parish rates its own 
district. The boundary between them is exceedingly 
irregular ; and though Melrose parish, which takes in 
the Ladhope district of the burgh, lies to the N of the 
Gala, and Galashiels parish generally to the S, the stream 
does not form the boundary between them. Some time 
ago both districts were about equal in population, but 
with the recent opening up of Gala policies, a new town 
has arisen in Galashiels parish, both larger and finer in 
appearance than the Melrose portion. 

The aspect of the town is unassuming. Most of it 
is either straggling or iiTegular ; the central parts 


tmd 'bolli extremities, contiguous to the river, consist 
mainly of factories, shops, ofiices, and workmen's liouses. 
The part S of the Gala is made up chiefly of one long 
irregular street, with two newer and shorter streets and 
detached buildings, stretching along the narrow level 
strip that intervenes between the river and the hills. 
The northern part of the town, which is the quarter 
showing the greatest extension and improvements in 
recent times, has a number of short, irregular streets 
and rows and clusters of buildings that reach up the 
face of the hill. The suburbs, especially Abbotsford 
Koad, Jleh-ose Road, and Windy Knowe, are adorned 
with large and elegant villas, olfering one of the best 
and most visible evidences of the prosperity of the 
Galashiels manufacturers. The river, which is spanned 
by five bridges, of which two are railway viaducts, is, in 
times of drought, almost entirely drawn off by the fac- 
tories ; but in times of freshet it is not always prevented 
by strong bulwarks from flooding the adjacent streets. 
A heavy flood on 12 July 1880, and another on 10 March 
1881, were attended with great damage to property along 
its banks. There is no drainage system whatever, and 
at all times the Gala serves as the common sewer for the 
refuse from the factories and houses — a fact which at 
times is unpleasantly impressed upon the olfactory nerves 
of visitors to the town. The railway within the burgh 
is crossed by one foot-bridge and two for wheeled traffic. 
Galashiels has no imposing show of buildings. The 
houses, with the exception of the suburban villas, are in 
a plain and unambitious style ; and even the shops are 
few and small in consideration of the population and 
relative importance of the town. The public buildings 
are neither very numerous nor very fine. The town- 
hall, built in 1860 at a cost of £3000, is a handsome 
edifice of two stories, with a large hall capable of con- 
taining 600 persons, besides a smaller hall and committee- 
rooms. The Corn Exchange was erected in 1860 at a 
cost of £1100, and has a hall with accommodation for 
500 persons. The Volunteers' Hall was built in 1874, 
and cost £3500 ; the Masonic Hall buildings, including 
shops and small dwelling-houses, as well as the public 
rooms, were erected in 1876 for about £3000 ; and the 
Good Templar Hall can accommodate 300 persons. All 
these halls are the property of various companies of 
shareholders. The public hospital was projected in 
1872. The public Hbrary was erected in 1873 at a cost 
of about £1000, and is managed by a committee chosen 
from among the town council and the householders. In 
1881-82 the income of the library was £296, derived chiefly 
from an assessment of Id. per £ ; and the expenditure was 
£271. There is a very large number of associations and 
combinations for various purposes — social, commercial, 
helpful, and pleasurable — among the people of Galashiels. 
These include a Mechanics' institute and library, a cot- 
tagers' horticultural society, two farmers' clubs, a pro- 
vident building society, a provision store and several 
co-operative store companies, a manufacturers' corpora- 
tion, masonic, good templar, and foresters' lodges, clubs 
for angling, cricket, football, bicycling, bowling, curling, 
etc., a literary society, two total abstinence societies, 
and various religious societies, an ornithological society 
and club, an entomological society, and several benefit 
societies. The churches and meeting-houses are numerous 
and capacious. The parish church is a semi-Gothic edifice 
dating from 1813, and contains about 850 sittings. Lad- 
hope church serves for a quoad sacra parish constituted in 
1855, and comprising part of the town within Melrose 
parish. It contains about 900 sittings. The West church 
serves for a quoad sacra parish constituted in 1870, and 
was buUt at a cost of £1400 In Nov. 1881 a fine new 
church was opened, its erection, begun in 1878, being 
the result of the growing needs of the populous town. 
It serves as a consort to the parish church, the parish 
minister and his assistant holding alternate services in 
the two buildings. The style of the new edifice is Early 
Decorated Gothic ; the estimated cost is £13,000, exclu- 
sive of the spire, which is designed to be 190 feet high, but 
of which only the tower is as yet completed. The church, 
which is seated for 950 persons, has a nave S3 feet long, 


besides aisles and transepts ; the height to the apex of 
the roof is 62 feet. A large organ was placed in this 
church at a cost of £1150. Galashiels Free church was 
built in 1875 at a cost of about £5150, to supersede a 
previous edifice. It is in the Gothic style, with two 
gables in the transept, and is seated for 650 persons. 
A hall in the same style adjoins it. Ladhope Free 
church contains 550 sittings. The East United Presby- 
terian church, built in 1844, with 840 sittings, super- 
seded a previous church that was nearly as old as the 
modern town. The West United Presbyterian church 
was opened in 1880, also on the site of a former church, 
and affords room for upwards of 800 hearers. The South 
United Presbyterian church, an edifice in the Early 
English style, with a square tower 70 feet high, was 
opened in Aug. 1880. It cost £4500, and accommodates 
between 750 and 800 persons. St Peter's Episcopal 
church, an Early English building dating from 1853, 
was enlarged by the addition of a new chancel and S 
aisle in 1881, when a new organ also was erected, and con- 
tains between 450 and 500 sittings. The Gothic Roman 
Catholic church of Our Lady and St Andrew, opened in 
1858, with 400 sittings, was not entirely completed tiU 
1872. Other places of worship are an Evangelical Union 
chapel (rebuilt 1872) ; two Baptist chapels, Galashiels 
(1804) and Stirling Street (1875); two meeting-houses 
of Plymouth Brethren ; and one of Christadelphians. 

Schools, in the year ending 30 Sept. 1881, with accom- 
modation, average attendance, and grant, were the 
burgh public (470, 546, £452, 4s. 6d.), the infant public 
(156, 137, £85, 17s.), Ladhope public (252, 204, £118, 
19s.), the Episcopalian (263, 265, £231, 7s. 6d.), the 
Roman Catholic (313, 109, £94, 18s. 6d.), and Glendin- 
ning Terrace public (300, 350, £328, 16s.), this last being 
under the Melrose school-board. The burgh public 
school in Gala Park was erected in 1875 at a cost of 
£4200 ; and £8500 has since been spent in providing 
additional accommodation. There are various private 
schools, including three young ladies' schools and the 
academy for boys, which wiU probably soon be recog- 
nised as a higher class public school, and which the 
burgh school-board has agreed to lease, provided they 
obtain the sanction of the Education Department. 

Galashiels contains a head post office, with all the 
usual departments, including a savings' bank. The 
other banks comprise branches of the Bank of Scotland, 
British Linen Company, Commercial Bank, National 
Bank, and Royal Bank of Scotland. Thirty -six iasur- 
ance companies are represented by branches or agents 
in the town. There are 7 inns and hotels. Two weekly 
newspapers, both Liberal in politics, are published at 
Galashiels — The Border Advertiser, established in 1848, 
and The Scottish Border Record, established in 1881. A 
weekly market is held each Tuesday, a special market 
for seed-corn on the third "Wednesday in March, another 
for wool on the second Thursday of July, and one for 
general business on 7 Oct. 

Galashiels contains 4 iron and brass foundries and 3 
engineering works, 3 dye-works, 1 skinnery, perhaps 
the largest in Scotland, though at present (1882) only 
in course of being rebuilt after a destructive fire, and 
several establishments for the production of such mill 
furnishings as shuttles, heddles, etc. ; besides the usual 
shops for the local trade of a country town. But by 
far its most important interest centres in the manu- 
facture of woollen cloth ; the greater part of the popu- 
lation is connected with it ; the largest buildings in the 
town are its woollen mills, and the most ornate the 
mansions of its tweed manufacturers. The industry 
seems to have been followed in the district from an early 
period ; for a charter of 1622 makes mention of certain 
wault-mUls (fulling-mills). But even in 1774, 150 
years later, no great progress had been made, for only 
some 170 cwts. of wool was used at Galashiels, and 
woven into blankets and coarse 'Galashiels Greys.' At 
the same date, the united rental of the three wauLk-mUls 
in the town was £15. But before the close of the 18th 
century an advance was begun. In 1790 the first carding 
machine in Scotland was erected at Galashiels, and that 



was only the forerunner of many new machines and 
modes introduced by the active and enterprising manu- 
facturers. In that year mills began to be erected for 
the reception of the new machinery ; but by far the 
greater part of the 660 cwts. of wool used in the district 
in 1792 was woven in the dwellings of the weavers. 
Few years passed in the beginning of the present century 
without the introduction of some improvement that 
enhanced the quality of the cloth, or lessened the cost 
of production. The chief products up tiU 1829 were, 
as before, blankets and cloth of home-grown wool, with 
knitting yarns and flannels ; but the depression of that 
year, co-operating with a change of fashion, inflicted a 
check on the prosperity of Galashiels. The manufac- 
turers skilfully adapted themselves to circumstances, 
and introduced new fabrics, of which the chief were 
tartans and mixed trouserings in tweed. Thenceforward 
the prosperity of the town has been steady and uniform ; 
and, notwithstanding the keen and growing rivalry of 
the mills in Selkirk, Hawick, Dumfries, Innerleithen, 
etc. , the manufacturers of Galashiels, as they were the 
first to introduce the wooUen manufactures into the 
south of Scotland, have constantly maintained their posi- 
tion at the head of the industry. The chief fabrics now 
produced at Galashiels are the world-renowned tweeds ; 
but yarns, blankets, plaids, shawls, tartans, narrow 
cloths, grey and mixed crumb-cloths, and blanket shawls 
of variegated patterns, also bulk largely in its trade re- 
turns. In 1882 there were 17 woollen-mills in operation, 
and 3 large and 1 small yarn-spinning mills. There are 
no factories for the manufacture of hosiery, although 
there are two or three stocking-makers in the town who 
do a little business privately. There are also 3 tweed 
■warehouses, on a tolerably extensive scale, which carry 
on a home and foreign trade. The manufacturers are 
exceedingly averse to affording information concerning 
the extent of their operations ; and it is diflicult to ob- 
tain accurate returns as to the number of hands employed 
or the yearly value of goods manufactured. 

Galashiels proper was made a burgh of barony in 
1599, and, till 1850, was administered by a baron-bailie 
under the Scotts of Gala, who succeeded the Pringles of 
Gala as superiors in 1632. The town adopted the General 
Police and Improvement Act for Scotland in 1864, and 
began to be governed under that Act by a provost, 2 
junior magistrates or bailies, and 12 councillors or com- 
missioners of police. In 1868 it was constituted a 
parliamentary burgh, and it unites with Hamck and 
Selkirk in returning one member to parliament. In 
1876 the boundaries of the burgh were extended for 
municipal purposes, though not for parliamentary elec- 
tion purposes. In 1882 the corporation consisted of a 
provost, 4 bailie.s, a treasm'er, and 9 councillors, elected 
in terms of a bill introduced into parliament in 1875 for 
extending the limits of the police burgh, and for invest- 
ing the governing body with efficient powers. The same 
bill authorised the corporation to construct waterworks, 
with a compensation reservoir on theCaddon, a clear water 
reservoir on Howesdean, and a service reservoir to the S 
of Leebrae. These were completed in 1879 at a cost of 
about £60,000. The police force, in 1882, consisted of 
12 men, and a superintendent, receiving a salary of £116. 
Police courts are held as occasion may require. Small 
debt courts are held on the second Mondays of February, 
AprU, June, and December, on the last Monday of July, 
and on the first Monday of October. A gas company 
was estabUshed in 1836, and a water company in 1839. 
Great improvements were made in the matter of clean- 
ing and lighting the town after 1864 ; but both the 
water supply and the drainage continued for several 
years in an unsatisfactory condition. The only funds 
at the disposal of the magistrates and council are such 
as arise under the Police Act. The annual value of 
real property in the parliamentary burgh, exclusive of 
railways, was £29,838 in 1872; £56,904, 5s. 5d. in 1882; 
£56,699, 12s. lid. in 1883, this being the first decrease 
on record. The municipal constituency, in 1883, was 
2758 ; and the parliamentary, 1828. Pop. of the par- 
liamentary burgh (1871) 9678, (1881) 12,435; of the 


entire town (1831)2209, (1851) 5918, (1861) 6433, (1871) 
10,312, (1881) 15,330, of whom 7250 were males and 
8080 females, whilst 9140 were in the parish and police 
burgh of Galashiels and 6190 in Melrose parish. Houses 
(1881) 3123 inhabited, 114 vacant, 82 building. 

Galashiels parish is situated partly in Selkirkshire 
and partly in Roxburghshire, its larger portion being 
in the former county. It includes the ancient parishes 
of Boldside in Selkirkshire, and Liudean in Roxburgh- 
shire ; and the union appears to have been carried 
through in 1640. The parish as it now exists is bounded 
on the NE and E by Melrose, on the SE by Bowden, on 
the S by Selkirk, on the W by Selkirk and the Selkirk- 
shire section of Stow, and on the NW by the Selkirk- 
shire section of Stow. Its greatest length, from NW 
to SE, is 6J mUes ; its greatest breadth is 3:^ miles ; 
and its area is 8589 acres, of which 150 are water, 
and 5710 belong to Selkirkshire. From Caddonfoot 
to the Ettrick's influx the river Tweed winds 3| 
miles east-south-eastward along the boundary with 
Selkirk parish, and then, bending 2J miles north- 
north-eastward, divides the Boldside from the Lin- 
dean section and from the Abbotsford corner of Mel- 
rose. The Ettrick, for the last If mile of its course, 
divides the Lindean section from Selkirk parish. Cab- 
don Water, over its last 6J fm-longs, traces the N half 
of the western border ; and Gala Watee, for 3J mUes 
above its junction with the Tweed, traces the boundary 
with Melrose parish on the NE. Cauldshiels Loch 
(2| X 1 furl. ) is in the Lindean section ; in the Boldside is 
Hollybush Loch (2 x J furl.). If mile S of the tovm. The 
whole parish of Galashiels is hilly ; but the hills expand 
on wide bases, and have in general rounded tops and a soft 
outline. They yield a good quantity of land to the plough 
and for plantation, and aiford excellent pasture-land for 
sheep, and they are usually separated from each other 
by beautiful narrow valleys. The principal heights are, 
in Selkirkshire, Meigle Hill (1387 feet), Mossilee HiU 
(1264), Neidpath HiLl (1203), Blakehope HiU (1099), 
and Gala Hill (904) ; in Roxburghshire, Cauldshiels 
Hill (1076 feet). White Law (1059), Lindean Moor (968), 
and Broad Hill (943). Greywacke and clay slate are 
the prevailing rocks, and these furnish most of the 
local building material. Ironstone has been found, but 
no quantity of sandstone, limestone, or coal. The soil 
along the river banks is sandy, on the rising-ground N 
of the Tweed, dry and gravelly ; and on similar ground 

5 of the Tweed, it has a considerable admixture of clay 
resting upon till. Some small patches of table-land, 
distant from the rivers, have black mould. Nearly 
one-third of the land is arable ; most of the remainder 
is pasture, though a respectable number of acres is 
under wood. Antiquities are represented by the begin- 
ning of the Catkail, a reach of Roman road, the Rink 
camp on the Rink Hill, relics of various other Roman 
and Pictish fortifications, and Feenilee Tower. Gala 
House, a little S of the town, is a recent Scottish Baronial 
edifice, one of the last works of the late David Bryce ; 
its owner, John H. F. Scott, Esq. (b. 1859 ; sue. 1877), 
holds 3600 acres in Selkirkshire, valued at £3396 per 
annum. Another mansion is Faldon'SIDE ; and, in all, 

6 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 18 of between £100 and £500, 16 of from £50 
to £100, and 56 of from £20 to £50. In the presby- 
tery of Selkirk and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, this 
parish is ecclesiastically divided into Galashiels proper. 
West Church quoad sacra parish, and part of the quoad 
sacra parish of Caddonfoot, the first a living worth £527. 
Under the landward school-board, Galashiels and Liu- 
dean public schools, with respective accommodation for 
266 and 60 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 132 and 61, and grants of £71, 8s. 4d. and £59, 16s. 
Valuation of landward portion (1881) £4743, 3s. 4d. 
Pop. (1801) 844, (1831) 1534, (1861) 3379, (1871) 6062 
(1881) 9742, of whom 6347 were iu the ecclesiastical 
division of Galashiels, 3252 in that of West Church, and 
143 in that of Caddonfoot.— Orti. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Gala Water, a river of Edinburgh, Selkirk, and Rox- 
burgh shires, rising among the Moorfoot HiUs in the 


first-named county, and joining the Tweed near Melrose, 
after a course of 21 miles, during which it descends 
from 1100 to 300 feet above sea-level. From its source 
on the northern verge of Heriot parish, the Gala first 
flows for 2 miles eastward to the boundary of a detached 
portion of Stow parish, and thence takes a south- 
south-easterly direction, which it maintains to the 
SE border of Edinburghshire, successively crossing 
the eastern wing of Heriot parish, tracing the boundary 
between Heriot and Stow, and traversing the main 
body of the last-named parish. "Within Stow parish it 
receives, on the right, the Heriot Water and the Lug- 
gate Water — the former a tributary almost as large as 
the Gala itself — and on the left, the smaller affluents, 
Armit or Ermet Water, Cockum Water, and Stow Bum. 
Its further course lies in a south-easterly direction, 
chiefly along the boundary between Roxburghshire and 
Selkirkshire, till it reaches the Tweed, into which it 
falls a little below Abbotsford, and about 2J miles W of 
Melrose. The course of the Gala is remarkably sinuous ; 
and the road from Edinburgh to Jedburgh and Carlisle, 
which traces the windings of the river along the E bank 
is, says Mr Chambers, at least a third longer than the 
crow-flight. An older road ran along the W bank ; but 
the North British railway line, which traverses almost 
the entire length of the valley, crosses and recrosses the 
stream several times. The river-basin consists for the 
most part of a narrow valley flanked with rounded hills, 
and jiresents scenery with all the usual characteristics of 
the Scottish Lowlands, alternating agricultural and 
pastoral scenes with the rougher beauty of uncultivated 
nature. At the beginning of the century, the Gala dale 
was almost entirely pastoral and nearly destitute of 
trees ; but since then much of the ground has been 
broken up by the plough ; and numerous plantations 
have arisen, in many cases as the protection or ornament 
of the private mansions along the banks. Of these last 
the chief are Crookston, Burnhouse, Torsonce, Bow- 
land, Torwoodlee, and Gala. As a fishing-stream, the 
Gala was once famous for the abundance of its trout ; 
now, however, it has been so much over-fished, that a 
considerable amount of time and skill, and perhaps a 
certain amount of good fortune, are required to secure 
even a small basket. The Gala waters Stow village, 
and 2 miles of its course lie through the busy to^vn of 
Galashiels, whose mills sometimes in summer draw off 
almost all the water from its natm-al channel. There 
are several ruined castles and towers in the valley of the 
river, and traces of perhaps a dozen ancient camps. The 
name Gala has been connected with the Welsh garw, 
' rough ; ' some authorities derive it from the Gaelic gwala, 
meauiug ' a full stream. ' An ancient name for the 
vallej' was Wedale, sometimes explained as meaning the 
vale of woe, as having been the scene of some sanguinary 
prehistoric struggle ; others connect it with the Norse 
Ve, a temple or church, and translate the name ' holy 
house dale. ' In Wedale Dr Skene places Guinnion, the 
scene of one of the twelve battles of Arthur. Two bal- 
lads, one of them by Burns, celebrate the ' braw lads o' 
Gala Water.'— Ord Sur., sh. 25, 1865. See Sir Thomas 
Dick-Lauder's Scottish, Rivers (Edinb. 1874). 

Galatown. See Gallatotvn. 

Galbraith. See Inch Galbraith. 

Galdry or Gauldry, a village in Balmerino parish, 
Fife, on a plateau on the centre of a ridge of hill, 1 J mile 
S of the Firth of Tay and 4i mUes SW of Newport. It 
has a police station. 

Gallangad, a burn of Dumbarton and Kilmaronock 
parishes, Dumbartonshire, rising near Dougnot Hill 
(1228 feet), and winding SJ miles north-by-eastward, 
till, near Drymen station, it falls into Endrick Water. 
During the last 2J miles of its course it traces the boun- 
dary between Dumbarton and Stirling shires, and here 
bears the name of Catter Burn. —Ord. Sur.,sK 30,1868. 

Gallary. See Gallery. 

Gallato-wn, a suburban village in Dysart parish, Fife, 
5 furlongs NNW of Dysart station, commencing at the 
N end of Sinclairtown, and extending \ mile northward 
along the road from Kii-kcaldy to Cupar. It is included 


in the parliamentary burgh of Dysart, but (since 1876) 
in the royal burgh of Kirkcaldy. Originally called Gal- 
lowstown, it took that name either from the frequent 
execution at it of criminals in feudal times, or from the 
special execution of a noted robber about three centuries 
ago ; and it long was famous for the making of nails. 
It now participates generally in the industry, resources, 
and institutions of Sinclairtown ; and it has a Free church 
and a public school. 

Gallengad. See Gallangad. 

Gallery, an estate, with a mansion, in Logiepert parish, 
Forfarshire, on the right bank of the North Esk, 5 miles 
NNW of Dubton Junction. Its owner, David Lyall, 
Esq. (b. 1826), holds 1576 acres in the shire, valued at 
£1932 per annum. A hamlet, Upper Gallery, stands 
3 miles nearer Dubton. — Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Gallow or Gala Lane, a rivulet of Kirkcudbright and 
Ayr shires, issuing from the Dungeon Lochs, and running 
6J miles north-by-eastward, chiefly along the mutual 
boundary of the two counties, to the head of Loch 
1)0011.— Ord. Sur., sh. 8, 1863. 

Galloway, an extensive district in the south-western 
corner of Scotland, which originally and for a consider- 
able period included also parts of Ayrshire and Dum- 
friesshire, has for ages past been identified simply and 
strictly with the shire of Wigtown and the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright. The name, though inextricably inter- 
woven with Scottish history, designates no political 
jurisdiction, and is unsanctioned by the strict or civil 
nomenclature of the country. The district is bounded 
on the N by AjTshire and Dumfriesshire, on the E by 
Dumfriesshire, on the S by the Solway Firth and Irish 
Sea, and on the W by the Irish Channel and Firth of 
Clyde. Its greatest length, from E to W, is 63J miles ; 
and its greatest breadth, from N to S, is 43 mUes. It 
is divided into three districts — Upper Galloway, includ- 
ing the northern and more mountainous parts of the 
two shires ; Lower Galloway, embracing the southern 
and lowland sections E of Luce Bay ; and the Ehinns of 
Galloway, consisting of the peninsula SW of Luce Bay 
and Loch Ryan. Galloway has long been famous as an 
excellent pastoral district ; and though its unsettled 
condition long kept its agriculture in a backward state, 
the last hundred years have seen splendid progress 
made. The Galloway breed of horses is celebrated, and 
large droves of polled black cattle used to be reared for 
the southern markets. Of late, however, Ayi'shire 
cattle have been superseding the native breed ; and 
dairy-farming is coming into favour. The absence of 
coal, lime, and freestone has protected Galloway from 
the erection of busy industrial or manufacturing centres. 
The surface, on the whole, is undulating ; and to quote 
Mr Henry IngHs, ' there is no district of Scotland more 
rich in romantic scenery and association, few which 
possess the same combination of sterile grandeur and 
arcadian beauty, and fewer still which are blessed with 
a climate equal in mildness of temperature to that of 
Galloway. The tulip-tree flourishes and flowers at St 
Mary's Isle, and the arbutus bears fruit at Kirkdale.' 
But for all save historical details, we must refer to our 
articles on Kiekcudbeightshirb and Wigtownshire. 

The district, afterwards called Galloway, was in early 
times held by tribes of the nation of the Brigantes. 
Ptolemy, writing in the 2d century of our era, calls 
them Novantes and SelgovEe. The former occupied ths 
country W of the Nith, and had two towns — Lucopibia 
at Whithorn, and Kerigonium on the E shore of Loch 
Eyan. The Selgovte or Elgovte lay to the E, extend- 
ing over Dumfriesshire, and their towns were Trimon- 
tium, Uxellum, Corda, and Carbantorigum, whose sites 
Dr Skene finds respectively on Birrenswark Hill, on 
Wardlaw Hill, at Sanquhar, and at the Moat of Urr, 
between the Nith and Dee. A large amount of ethno- 
logical controversy has been waged over these peoples ; 
some authorities recognising in them a Gothic, others a 
Cymric, and others a Gaelic, race. The authority we 
have just named considers them to have been Celtic 
tribes of the Gaelic branch. Intercepted by the Britons 
of Strathclyde from their northern Gaelic relations, and 



surrounded in their little corner by a natural girdle of 
sea and mountain, this people long retained their 
individuality. They were known as the Picts of 
Galloway centuries after the word Pict had disappeared 
elsewhere from the country ; and they appeared under 
that name as a division of the Scottish army at the 
Battle of the Standard in 1138. We know little con- 
cerning Galloway in Roman times. Agricola, overrun- 
ning it in 79 A.D., added it to the Eoman province in 
Britain, and Roman military remains are tolerably 
frequent in certain districts. In 397 it is related that 
St Ninian built a church at Candida Casa, formerly 
Lucopibia, dedicated it to St Martin of Tours, and 
began the conversion of the Picts. After the departure 
of the Romans from Britain, Galloway appears, from 
the evidence of topographical names and old chronicles, 
to have been governed by a series of Pictish kings ; but 
probably early in the 7th century the Northumbrian 
rulers of Bernicia brought it under their sovereignty, 
and for several centm-ies remained the nominal superiors 
of its lords. There is no authority for the common 
narrative of immigrations of Irish Celts into Galloway 
during the 8th and following centuries. It is at this 
period that the modern name emerges. The district 
was known to the Irish as Gallgaidel or Gallgaidhel, 
and to the Welsh as Galwyddel, from the Celtic cjall, ' a 
stranger ; ' and the name, besides indicating the land of 
strangers, seems to have some reference also to the fact 
that the Gaelic population was under the rule of the 
Anglian Galle or strangers. From the above terms 
came Gallweithia, Galwethia, and many other forms. 
Latinised as Gallovidia, and appearing now as Galloway. 
Towards the end of the 8th century the power of the 
Angles began to decline. Betle, who gives to the 
Gallowegian Picts the alternative name of Niduari from 
Nid or Nith, like NovautiB from Novius, the name 
under which Ptolemy knew the same river, relates that 
one of the four bishoprics into which Northumbria was 
divided had its seat at Candida Casa. The first bishop 
was appointed in 727 ; the Angles appear to have been 
too weak to appoint another after Beadulf about 796. 
The Northmen, who first appeared in England in this 
century, did not overlook Galloway ; and there is some 
ground for believing that the Gallowegians themselves 
partly adopted a piratical life. During the next two 
or three centuries Galloway was probably ruled by 
native rulers in tolerably complete independence ; and 
it had the honour of being the locality whence Kenneth 
mac Alpin emerged to obtain the throne of Scotia. 
About the middle of the 11th century the name Galweya 
was used to include the whole country from Sohvay to 
Clyde. In the Orkneyinga Saga, which narrates the 
history of the Norwegian Jarl Thorfiun, a contemporary 
of Macbeth, Galloway is referred to under the name of 
Gadgeddli ; and it probably formed one of the nine 
earldoms that Thorfinn possessed in Scotland. Malcolm 
Ceannmor, who succeeded to the throne of Scotia in 
1057, recovered Galloway from the Norse supremacy, 
though it is probable that many Northmen remained in 
the district. In 1107, David, youngest son of Malcolm 
Ceannmor, received Scotland S of the Forth and Clj'de 
as an earldom ; and in the charter which he granted in 
1113 to the newly-founded monastery of Selkirk, he 
assigned to the monks the tenth of his ' can ' or dues 
from Galweia. David's ascent of the Scottish throne in 
1124 may be regarded as the date of the union of 
Galloway with Scotland. 

Various attempts ha^e been made to furnish Galloway 
with a line of independent lords during the earlier parts 
of its obscure history, and we even hear of a certain 
Jacob, Lord of Galloway, as having been one of the 
eight reguli who met Edgar at Chester in 973. But all 
these efforts are entirely unauthentic, and are based 
upon comparatively modern authorities. From the 
reign of David I. we are on more historical ground. 
After the death of Ulgric and Duvenald, described as 
the native leaders of the Galwenses, at the Battle of the 
Standard in 1138, Fergus, who may possibly have been 
of Nirrwegian connections, was appointed first Earl of 


Galloway. This powerful noble married Elizabeth, a 
natural daughter of Henry I. of England. In 1160 he 
joined Somerled, Norse ruler of Argyll, in a revolt 
against Malcolm IV., but was subdued after three 
battles and compelled to resign his lordship to his sons. 
He retired as canon regular to Holyrood, where he died 
in the following year. His gifts and endowments to 
Holyrood Abbey were very extensive ; and that house 
possessed more lands in the stewartry than any other. 
Uchtred and Gilbert, sons and successors of Fergus, 
accompanied King William the Lyon on his expedition 
to England in 1173 ; but when he was taken prisoner 
they hurried home, expelled with cruel slaughter the 
English and Norman inhabitants of Galloway, and 
attempted to establish their independence of the Scottish 
government, even offering to swear fealty to England. 
William, on his release in 1174, marched at once to 
Galloway, where, however, Gilbert, who had cruelly 
murdered his brother at Loch Fergus, made humble 
submission and gave hostages. Gilbert died in 1185, 
and Roland, son of the murdered Uchtred, succeeded, 
after first quelling a revolt under Gilpatrick, and sub- 
duing Gilcolm, a powerful freebooter, who had invaded 
Galloway. Duncan, the son of Gilbert, received the 
earldom of Carrick. Roland married Elena, daughter 
of the Constable of Scotland, and eventually succeeded 
to his father-in-law's high office. It is said that Roland 
swore allegiance to Henry II. of England for the lands 
of Galloway, and that the English monarchs continued to 
look upon that district as part of their lawful dominions. 
Alan succeeded his father in 1200 as Lord of Gallo- 
way. He assisted King John in his Irish expedition in 
1211, and appeared as one of the barons who extorted 
the Magna Charta from that king. Later, however, he 
returned to his Scotch allegiance, and succeeded to his 
father's office of constable. He died in 1234, leaving 
three daughters and an illegitimate son. On the king's 
refusal either to accept the lordship himself or to pre- 
vent the partition of the land among the Norman hus- 
bands of the three heiresses, the Gallowegians rose in 
fierce i-evolt, and were with difficulty reduced to 
obedience in 1235. Roger de Quincy, husband of Elena, 
Alan's eldest daughter, received the lordship. This 
strict enforcement of the rule of legitimate succession 
marks the transition in Galloway from the Brehon law 
to feudalism. From that date lands began to be held by 
charter and lease, the rights of property began to be 
more secure, and agriculture began to be attempted. 
De Quincy died in 1264. In 1291, when the Scot- 
tish succession was disputed after the death of the 
Maid of Norway, one-half of the lordship of Galloway 
belonged to John Baliol, a son of Alan by Margaret, 
granddaughter of David I. ; the other half was shared 
by William de Ferrers, Alan de Zouch, and Alexander 
Comyn, Earl of Buchan, husbands of the three daughters 
of De Quincy. Of the three last Comyn alone is of im- 
portance in the history of Galloway. The Gallowegians, 
during the wars of the succession, naturally sided with 
the Comyns and the Baliols, and speedily shared in 
their disasters. AVhen John Baliol was obliged to resign 
his dependent crown, Edward I. considered Galloway as 
his own ; and he immediately appointed over it a 
governor and a justiciary, disposed of its ecclesiastical 
benefices, and obliged the sherifi's and bailiffs to account 
for the rents and profits of their bailiwicks in his ex- 
chequer at Berwick. In 1296 he granted to Thomas of 
Galloway aU the lands, etc., that had been granted to 
him there by his father Alan ; and at the same time he 
restored all their former liberties and customs to the 
men of Galloway. In 1297, WaU'ace is said to have 
marched into the west ' to chastise the men of Gallo- 
way, who had espoused the party of the Comyns, and 
supported the pretensions of the English ; ' and a field 
in the farm of Borland, above the village of Minnigaff, 
still bears the name of Wallace's camp. During his 
campaign of 1300, Edward I. marched from Carlisle 
through Dumfriesshire into Galloway ; and though 
opposed first by the remonstrances, and next by the 
warlike demonstrations of the people, he overran the 


whole of the low country from the Nith to the Cree, 
pushed forward a detachment to Wigtown, and compelled 
the inhabitants to submit to his yoke. In 1307, Robert 
I. marched into Galloway, and wasted the country, the 
people having refused to repair to his standard ; but he 
was obliged speedily to retire. In the following year, 
Edward "Bruce, the king's brother, invaded the district, 
defeated the chiefs in a pitched battle near the Dee, 
overpowered the English commander, reduced the 
several fortlets, and at length subdued the entire terri- 
tory. Galloway was immediately conferred on him by 
the king, as a reward for his gallantry ; but after the 
death of Alexander, his illegitimate son, whom the king 
had continued in the lordship, in 1333, it reverted to 
the crown. When Edward Baliol entered Scotland to 
renew the pretensions of his father, Galloway became 
again the wretched theatre of domestic war. In 133i, 
assisted and accompanied by Edward III., he made his 
way through this district into the territories to the N, 
and laid them waste as far as Glasgow. In 1347, in 
consequence of the defeat and capture of David II. at 
the battle of Durham, Baliol regained possession of his 
patrimonial estatss, and took up his residence in Buittle 
Castle, the ancient seat of his famUy. In 1347, heading 
a levy of GaUowegians, and aided by an English force, 
he invaded Lanarkshire and Lothian, and made Scotland 
feel that the power which had become enthroned in 
Galloway was a scourge rather than a protection. In 
1353, Sir William Douglas overran Baliol's territories, 
and compelled M'Dowal, the hereditary enemy of the 
Bruces, to renounce his English adherence and swear 
fealty to his lawful sovereign. After the restoration of 
David II. and the expulsion of Baliol, Archibald 
Douglas, the Grim, obtained, in 1369, Eastern and 
Middle Galloway, or Kirkcudbrightshire, in a grant 
from the crown, and, less than two years after. Western 
Galloway, or Wigtownshire, by purchase from Thomas 
Fleming, Earl of Wigtown. This illegitimate but most 
ambitious son of the celebrated Sir James Douglas ob- 
tained, at the death of his father, in 1388, on the iield 
of Otterburn, the high honours and the original estates 
of the house of Douglas ; and now, while holding in 
addition the superiority of all Galloway, became the 
most powerful as well as the most oppressive subject of 
Scotland. On an islet in tlie Dee, surmounting the 
site of an ancient fortlet, the residence of former lords 
of Galloway, he built the strong castle of Threave, whence 
he and his successors securely defied the enemies that 
their violence and oppression raised against them. 
About the middle of the 15th century one of those earls 
of Douglas and lords of Galloway carried his lawless in- 
solence so far as, on the occasion of a quarrel, to seize 
Sir Patrick Maclellan of Bombie, the sheriff of Galloway, 
and to hang him ignominiously as a felon in Threave 
Castle. The Douglases experienced some reverses, and 
were more than once sharply chastised in their own 
persons, yet they continued to oppress the GaUowegians, 
to disturb the whole country, and even to overawe and 
defy the crown, till their tm'bulence and treasons ended 
in their forfeiture. James, the ninth and last earl, and 
aU his numerous relations, rose in rebellion in 1453 ; 
and, two years afterwards, were adjudged by par- 
liament, and stripped of their immense possessions. 

The lordship of Galloway with the earldom of Wigtown 
was annexed to the crown, and in 1469 was conferred, 
with other possessions, upon Margaret of Denmark, as 
part of her dowry when she married James II. But 
although the king had introduced a milder and juster 
rule, the troubles of Galloway were not yet over. For 
some time after the faU of the Douglases it was occa- 
sionally distracted by the feuds of petty chiefs, familiarly 
known by the odd name of ' Neighbour Weir. ' Early 
in the 16th century a deadly feud between Gordon of 
Lochinvar and Dunbar of Mochrum led to the slaughter 
of Sir John Dunbar, who was then steward of Kirkcud- 
bright ; and, during the turbulent minority of James 
v., another feud between Gordon of Lochinvar and 
Maclellan of Bombie led to the slaughter of the latter 
at the door of St Giles's Church in Edinburgh. In 


1547, during the reign of Mary, an English army over- 
ran Eastern Galloway, and compelled the submission of 
the principal inhabitants to the English government ; 
and after tlie defeat of Langside, Mary is falsely said to 
have sought shelter in Dundrennan Abbey, previous 
to her flight into England across the Solway. In the 
following month (June 1568) the regent Moray entered 
the district to punish her friends ; and he enforced the 
submission of some and demolished the houses of others. 
In 1570, when Elizabeth wished to overawe and punish 
the friends of Mary, her troops, under the Earl of Moray 
and Lord Scrope, overran and wasted Annandale and 
part of Galloway. As the men of Annandale, for the 
most part, stood between the GaUowegians and harm, 
they expected to receive compensation from their western 
neighbours for their service ; and when they were re- 
fused it, they repaid themselves by plundering the dis- 
trict. The people of Galloway warmly adopted the 
Covenant, and suffered much in the religious perse- 
cutions of the time. The story of the martyrs of 
Wigtown \vill be told elsewhere. The rising that was 
crushed by General Dalziel, in 1666, at RuUion Green 
had its beginning at Dairy in Kirkcudbrightshire. 
Among the strict Cameronians and ' wild western 
Whigs,' the men of Galloway were represented. In a 
happier age Loch Ryan sheltered WUliam II I. 's iieet on 
his voyage to Ireland in 1690 ; and since then the his- 
tory of Galloway has mainly consisted in the advance 
of agriculture and of the social condition of the people. 

Galloway gives name to a synod of the Church of 
Scotland, a synod of the Free Church of Scotland, and 
to a presbytery of the United Presbyterian Church. The 
former synod, meeting at Newton-Stewart, and includ- 
ing the presbyteries of Stranraer, Wigtown, and Kirk- 
cudbright, comprises the whole of Wigto^vnshire and aU 
Kirkcudbrightshire W of the river Urr, besides Ballan- 
trae and Colmonell parislies in Ayrshire. Pop. (1871) 
67,280, (1881) 66,738, of whom 14,402 were communi- 
cants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. The Free Cliurch 
synod, having the same limits, with the exclusion of the 
two Ayrshire parishes, and divided into three presby- 
teries of the same names as above, had 4512 members in 
1881 ; whUst the United Presbyterian presbytery had 
1704 in 1880. The pre-Reformation Church of Scotland 
liad a see of Galloway, with a church at Whithorn ; 
and the present Roman Catholic Church has a diocese of 
GaUoway, re-established in 1878. The Episcopal Church 
has a united diocese of Glasgow and GaUoway. 

See Andrew Symson's Description of Galloway 
mdclxxxiv. (Ediab. 1823); Thomas Murray's Literary 
History of Galloway (Edinb. 1822) ; William Mackenzie's 
History of Galloway (2 vols., Kirkc, 1841) ; Sir Andrew 
Agnew's History of the Hereditary Sheriffs of Galloway 
(Edinb. 1864) ; P. H. MacKerlie's History of the Lands 
and their Owners in Galloway (5 vols. Edinb. , 1870-78) ; 
Malcolm Harper's Ramhles in Galloway (Edinb. 1876) ; 
and works referred to under Kirkoudbkightshire and 

Galloway House, the family seat of the Earls of Gal- 
loway, in Sorbie parish, SE Wigtownshire, within J mile 
of Rigg or Crtjggleton Bay, and IJ SE of Garliestown 
station, this being 9J mUes SSE of Wigtown. Built in 
1740, it is a plain large edifice, with projecting wings, a 
fine conservatory, beautiful gardens, and a nobly wooded 
park ; and it commands a magnificent prospect of the 
shores of Wigtown Bay and the Solway Firth, away to 
the Isle of Man and the far, blue Cumberland mountains. 
Within hang thirty family portraits, begianing with Sir 
Alexander Stewart, who was thirteenth descendant of 
Alexander, fourth lord high steward of Scotland, through 
his younger son. Sir John Stewart of BonkiU or Bunkle, 
and the Stewarts of Dalswinton and Garlies, and who 
in 1607 was created Lord Garlies, in 1623 Earl of GaUo- 
way. Alan Plantagenet-Stewart, present and tenth 
Earl (b. 1835 ; sue. 1873), holds 23,203 acres in Wig- 
townshire and 55,981 in Kirkcudbrightshire, valued at 
£24,864 and £7334 per annum.— Or«i. Sur., sh. 4, 1857. 

Galloway, MuU of, a precipitous headland, forming 
the southernmost point of the Ehinns of Galloway, and 



so of Scotland (lat. 54° 38' N, long. 4° 53' W), in Kirk- 
maiden parish, SW Wigtownshire. By water it is 26 
miles E by N of Ireland, 22J NNW of the Isle of Man, 
and 50 W by N of Cumberland ; whilst by road it is 5 
miles S by E of Drumore and 22J SSE of Stranraer. Ex- 
tending 1 J mile eastward, and from 1 J to 3 fm'longs broad, 
it rises to 210 feet above sea-level at its eastern extrem- 
ity, which is crowned by a lighthouse that, 60 feet high, 
was erected in 1828-30 at a cost of £8378. Its light, sup- 
plied by a new apparatus of 1880, is intermittent, visible 
for 30 and ecUpsed for 15 seconds ; and can be seen at a 
distance of 23 nautical miles. ' The prospect from the 
lighthouse,' says Mr M'llraith, 'is very fine. To the N are 
the fields of Cardryne, Cardrain, and Mull. Away to the 
eastward stretches the Bay of Luce, with the rocky scars 
looming through the sea mist ; and beyond are the out- 
lines of the Machars and Minnigaff Hills. Southward is 
the wild blue sea, and on the horizon, very plain in clear 
weather, is the Isle of Man. Ireland is discernible in 
the glittering west.' The Novantce of Ptolemy, the Mull 
retains remains of considerable earthworks, Scandinavian 
probably ; whilst, according to tradition, it was the last 
asylum of the two last of the Picts — ' short wee men they 
were, wi' red hair and long arms, and feet sae braid that 
when it rained they could turn them up o^vre their heads, 
and then they served for umbrellas. ' How they did not 
reveal their mystery of bremng heather ale is delight- 
fully told in Chambers's Popular FJiyvies, though there 
the story is not localised. Half a mile N of the narrow 
neck that joins the Mull to the mainland, at the foot of 
the steep cliffs, is St Medan's Cave or the Old Chapel at 
the Mull, of which the late Mr T. S. Muir wrote that 
' the cave is very small, its length being only 11 feet, its 
greatest width rather over 9, and the roof so low as 
scarcely to admit of an upright posture under it. In 
the making of the chapel, which joins to in front as the 
nave, so to speak, of the chancel-like cell, it is curious 
to observe how largely the labour has been economised 
by using the rocks, which, rising perfectly upright and 
smooth, form its two side walls. The builded walls, 
which, with those of nature's fui-nishing, enclose an area 
of nearly 15 feet by llj, are of great thickness, and are 
composed principally of clay slate, well put together, but 
without lime. That fronting the sea, now little more than 
breast high, has a narrow window at about its middle, and 
there is a pretty wide doorway wanting the lintel close 
to the rock-wall on the S. The rear wall, covering the 
face of the crag, rises much higher, and may perhaps be 
as high as ever it was ; but on no part of it is there any 
trace of a roof. ' Hard by is the Well of the Co, or Chapel 
Well ; and here, on the first Sunday in May, the country 
people used to assemble, at no such remote period, to 
bathe in the well, leave gifts in the cave, and pass the 
day in gossiping and amusements. — Orel. Sur., sh. 1, 
1856. See pp. 253-255 of M. Harper's Sambles in Gallo- 
way (Edinb. 1876), and pp. 139-142 of W. M'llraith's 
Wigtorcirshire (2d ed., Dumf., 1877). 

Galloway, New, a post-town and royal burgh in the 
parish of Kells, Kirkcudbrightshire, is situated on the 
right bank of the Ken, at the intersection of the road 
from Kirkcudbright to Ayrshire with that from Newton- 
Stewart to Dumfries, 17i miles NE by E of Newton- 
Stewart, 19 NNW of Kirkcudbright, 25 W of Dum- 
fries, and 38 SE of Ayr. It stands, 200 feet above 
sea-level, at the foot of an irregular ridge of ground 
in the vicinity of Kenmure Castle ; and it is sur- 
rounded by charming and picturesque scenery. Loch 
Ken, If mile SSE, and the neighbouring streams are 
good trouting waters. Although New Galloway is a 
place of municipal dignity, it can hardly be described 
as more than a village. It consists for the most part 
of a main street running N and S, cut by a cross street 
about half as long running E and W, and a scanty 
sprinkling of detached houses ; while the population has 
been almost stationary in point of number for the last 
eighty years. The burgh is clean and neat. At the 
centre or cross stands the town-hall, with a neat spire, 
and a clock placed there in 1872 by subscription. The 
office of the Clydesdale Bank is a neat granite edifice. 


Half a mile 17, but not within the royalty, the parish 
church of Kells, built in 1822, raises its neat stone front 
and square tower. A handsome stone bridge of five arches, 
erected in the same year as the church, spans the river 
J mile to the E. The station of New Galloway is about 6 
miles SSE of the town ; and a 'bus runs between them 
twice a day. A sort of suburb of the burgh, in tha 
form of a number of detached cottages, called the Mains 
of Kenmure, lies scattered to the E between the town and 
the bridge. 

King Charles I. bestowed upon Sir John Gordon of 
Lochinvar a charter, dated 15 Jan. 1629, empowering 
him to create a royal burgh of Galloway on his estates 
in Kirkcudbrightshire. The site fixed upon was probably 
St John's Claughan of Dairy, but no settlement seems to 
have followed this first charter, which was changed by 
another charter under the Great Seal, dated 19 Nov. 
1630, and confirmed by Act of Parliament in June 1633 

Seal of New Galloway. 

Under this latter charter the present site was selected, 
and the burgh privileges seem to have soon attracted a 
few settlers ; but the place could never acquire any trade 
or manufacture, and the inhabitants were for the most 
part simple mechanics, agricrdtural labourers, and a few 
ale-house and shop keepers, while the houses were, even 
at the beginning of the present century, low, ill built, 
straw-thatched, and often dilapidated. Since then, 
however, the appearance of the houses and the social 
condition of the people have made considerable advances. 
By charter the corporation of the burgh was to comprise 
a provost, 4 bailies, dean of guild, treasurer, and 12 
councillors ; but by the sett, as reported to and sanc- 
tioned by the convention of royal burghs on 15 July 
1708, the council was then declared to consist of 1 pro- 
vost, 2 bailies, a treasurer, and 15 councillors. In 1832 
the entire parliamentary constituency, as enrolled, was 
14, and consequently it was quite impossible to supply a 
council of the usual number. The corporation consists 
of a provost, 2 bailies, and 9 councillors. Pairs are held 
here on the first Wednesday of April o. s., and on the 
Thursday of August before Lockerbie. Justice of Peace 
courts are held on the first Monday of every month, and 
steward's circuit small debt courts on 6 Feb., 12 April, 
and 25 Sept. The burgh has a parliamentary constitu- 
ency of 60, and unites with Wigtown, Stranraer, and 
Whithorn in returning a member to parliament. The 
KeUs parochial school, at New Galloway, with accom- 
modation for 193 scholars, had (1881) an average at- 
tendance of 123, and a grant of £115, 15s. Valuation 
(1875) £896, (1882) £1044. Pop. of parliamentary 
burgh (1841) 403, (1861) 452, (1871) 407, (1881) 422, of 
whom 232 were females. In the royal burgh beyond 
the parliamentary limits the population, in 1881, was 4. 
Houses, inhabited 98, vacant 8, building 0. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 9, 1S63. 
Gallowflat, an estate, with a mansion, in Eutherglen 


parish, Lanarkshire. It was acquired, in 1759, by 
Pati'ick Robertson, W. S. , whose great-grandson, Francis 
Robertson-Reid (b. 1822 ; sue. 1866), holds 70 acres in 
tlie shire, vahied at £4824 per -annum. An ancient 
tumulus here was surrounded by a fosse, out of which a 
fish pond was formed in 1773, when a paved passage, 
6 feet broad, was discovered leading up to the top of 
the tumulus. 

Gallowgate. See Aberdeen and Glasgow. 

Gallowgreen. See Paisley. 

Gallowhill, a hamlet, with a public school, in Alford 
parish, Aberdeenshire, IJ mileW byS of Alford village. 

Gallowslot. See Thrbave. 

Galston, a town and a parish in the NE of Kyle 
district, Ayrshire. The town stands chiefly on the 
southern bank of the river Irvine, and on the New- 
mUns branch of the Glasgow and South- Western rail- 
way, 1 mile SSW of Loudoun Castle, 2 mOes W by S 
of Newmilns, and 5 E by S of Kilmarnock, under 
which it has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, insurance, and telegraph departments. Its site 
is low, surrounded by gentle rising-grounds, and over- 
hung on the N by the woods and braes of Loudoun ; 
and with its charming environs it presents a very 
pleasing appearance. A fine stone three-arch bridge 
across the Irvine unites a Loudoim suburb to the town, 
which long was a mere hamlet or small village, main- 
tained chiefly by the making of shoes for exportation 
through Kilmarnock. It acquired sudden increase of 
bulk and gradual expansion into town by adoption of 
lawn and gauze weaving for the manufacturers of Paisley 
and Glasgow, and had 40 looms at work in 1792, 460 in 
1828. Weaving is still the staple industry, there now 
being seven muslin and blanket factories, besides a 
paper-millboard factory and a steam saw-mill ; and 
Galston wields a considerable local influence as the 
centre of an extensive coalfield and of an opulent 
agricultural district. It has a station, branches of the 
British Linen Co. and Union banks, offices or agencies 
of 10 insurance companies, a stately pile of the feudal 
times called Lockhart's Tower, 4 hotels, a gas company, 
and fairs on the third Thursday of April, the first 
Thursday of June, and the last Wednesday of Novem- 
ber. The parish church, erected in 1808, has a spire 
and clock, and contains 1028 sittings. Other places of 
worship are a Free church, an Evangelical Union chapel, 
and a U.P. church, the last a handsome recent edifice 
in the Byzantine style ; whUst in Oct. 1882 a costly 
Roman Catholic church was about to be built. Blair's 
Free School, an elegant massive edifice, affords education 
and clothing to 103 children; and Brown's Institute, 
built by Miss Brown of Lanfine in 1874 at a cost of over 
£3000, comprises reading and recreation rooms, with a 
library of nearly 3000 volumes. In 1864 the town par- 
tially adopted the General Police and Improvement Act 
of Scotland ; and it is governed, under that Act, by 3 
magistrates and 6 commissioners. Valuation (1882) 
£6633. Pop. (1831) 1891, (1851) 2538, (1861) 3228, (1871) 
4727, (1881) 4085, of whom 434 were in Loudoun parish. 

The parish, containing also the hamlet of Allanton, 
with parts of the villages of Newmiln'S and Daevel, is 
bounded N by Kilmarnock and Loudoun, E by Avon- 
dale in Lanarkshire, S by Sorn, Mauchline, and Ric- 
carton (detached), SW by Craigie, and W by Riccarton. 
Its utmost length, from E to W, is 10 miles ; its breadth, 
from N to S, varies between 1| and 3J miles ; and its 
area is 15,304 acres, of which" 60| are water. Avon 
Water, rising in the south-eastern corner, runs 4J 
mUes north-eastward along the Lanarkshire border. 
Cessnock Water, at three different points, traces 7i 
furlongs of the boundary with Mauchline, 2f miles of 
that with Craigie, and 1| mile of that with Riccarton ; 
whilst the river Irvine, from a little below its source, 
flows 10 mOes westward on or close to all the northern 
boundary, and from the interior is joined by Logan 
Burn, Burn Anne, and several lesser tributaries. Where, 
in the NW, it quits the parish, the surface declines to 
less than 140 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 359 
feet near Millands, 566 near Sornhill, 618 at Molmont, 


797 near Burnhead, 965 near Greenfield, 1054 near 
Hardhill, 982 at TuUoch Hill, and 1259 at Distink- 
HORN. A strip of rich alluvial level, highly fertile 
and well cultivated, lies all along the Irvine ; a belt of 
brae, largely covered with woodland, extends southward 
from the alluvial level to the distance of 2J miles ; and 
much of the remaining area consists of rising-grounds 
and hills which, bleak and sterile till 1810, are now 
variously arable land, good pasture, or covered with 
plantation. In the extreme E and SE is a considerable 
tract of high upland, mostly carpeted with heath or 
moss, and commanding magnificent prospects over all 
Cunninghame, most of Kyle, and a great part of Carrick, 
away to Arran and the dim distant coast of Ireland. 
Loch Gait, at the eastern extremity, was once a sheet of 
deep water, but now is a marsh ; and Loch Bruntwood, 
too, in the south-western extremity, has been completely 
drained. The rocks are partly eruptive, partly car- 
boniferous. Trap rock appears on the summits and 
shoulders of many of the hills ; coal is largely mined in 
the W ; sandstone, of a kind suitable for paving and 
roofing flag, is quarried ; and limestone also is worked. 
Agate and chalcedony, though seldom of a character to 
be cut into gems, are often found at Molmont ; and a 
beautiful stone, called the 'Galstsn pebble,' occurs in 
the upper channel of Burn Anne. The soil ranges in 
character, from rich alluvium to barren moor. Nearly 
two-thirds of all the land are arable ; woods and planta- 
tions cover some 1000 acres ; and the rest is either 
pastoral or mossy. An ancient Caledonian stone circle 
at Molmont has been destroyed ; in the E of the parish 
a Roman coin of Caesar Augustus was discovered in 
1831 ; and here an extensive Roman camp above 
AUanton has left some traces. Sir William Wallace 
fought a %dctoriou3 skirmish with the English at or 
near this camp ; he had several places of retirement 
among the eastern uplands of Galston and Loudoun; 
and he has bequeathed to a hill in the former, and to a 
ravine in the latter, the names of respectively Wallace's 
Cairn and Wallace's Gill. The ' Patie's MUl ' of song 
is in the neighbourhood of Galston town. Cessnock 
Castle and Lanfine House are separately noticed. 
Seven proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 50 of between £100 and £500, 33 of from 
£50 to £100, and 11 of from £20 to £50. Giving off 
since 1874 a portion to Hurlford quoad sacra parish, 
Galston is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr. The value of the living is returned 
as £298, but a considerable extra revenue has of late 
years been derived from the working of minerals in the 
glebe. Three public schools — AUanton, Barr, and Gal- 
ston — with respective accommodation for 53, 368, and 
337 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 26, 
340, and 370, and grants of £21, 17s. 6d., £205, 12s., 
and £115, 12s. lid. Valuation (1860) £16,475 ; (1882) 
£30,808, 9s. 2d., plus £2614 for railway. Pop. of civil 
parish (1801) 2113, (1831) 3655, (1861) 5254, (1871) 6331, 
(1881) 5961 ; of ecclesiastical parish (1881) 576S.—Ord. 
Sur., shs. 22, 23, 1865. 

Galtway, an ancient parish in Kirkcudbrightshire, 
united about the year 1683 to Kirkcudbright, and now 
forming the central part of that parish. It contained 
the priory of St Mary's Isle, subordinate to Holyrood 
abbey, and its church and lands, till the Reformation, 
belonged to that priory. Its church stood on high 
ground, 2 miles SSE of Kirkcudbright town, measured 
30 feet by 15, and has left some traces of its walls ; 
whilst the churchyard, now completely engirt by plan- 
tation, and presenting a very sequestered appearance, is 
still used by the Selkirk family. 

Galval or Gouldwell Castle. See Boharm. 

Gamescleuch, a ruined tower in Ettrick parish, Sel- 
kirkshire, near the right bank of Ettrick Water, If mUe 
E of Ettrick church. It was built about the middle of 
the 16th century by Simon, second son to Sir John Scott 
of Thirlestane, Lord Napier's ancestor ; but, according 
to tradition, was never occupied, Simon having been 
poisoned by his stepmother the night before his mar- 
riage. A bum on which it stands has a north-westward 



inn of 1§ mile, and is flanked, on the right side, by 
Gamescleuch Hill, rising to an altitude of 1490 feet 
above sea-level. — Ord. Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 

Gameshope, a small lake (1 x § furl.) and a burn in 
Tweedspiuir parish, Peeblesshire. Lying 1850 feet above 
sea-level, within l\ mile of the Dumfriesshire border, 
and 2 miles NE of the summit of Hartfell, it occupies 
a lofty upland hollow, and is the highest tarn in all the 
Southern Highlands. The burn, rising close to the 
Dumfriesshire border, 2 mUes E by N" of the summit 
of Hartfell, runs 4| mUes north-by-westward ; receives, 
at a point 1^ mile from its soui'ce, a short small affluent 
from the loch ; and falls into TaDa Water at a point 3 
miles SE of that stream's influx to the Tweed. Both 
the loch and the burn abound in excellent dark-coloured 
trout.— Orrf. Siir., sh. 16, 1864. 

Gamhair. See Gauik. 

Gamhna, a lake in the W of Eothiemurchus, Inver- 
ness-shire, 1 furlong SE of Loch-an-Eilein. Lying 895 
feet above sea-level, it has an utmost length and breadth 
of 3-i and 1^ furlongs, and is encircled by tall, dark 
Scottish pines. — Ord. Sur., sh. 74, 1877. 

Gamrie (12th century Gamcryn), a coast parish of 
Banff'shire, containing the post - town, seaport, and 
station of Macduff, with the fishing villages of Gak- 
DENSTOWN and Crovie. It belongs to Buchan district, 
and is connected only for two brief spaces with the 
main body of Banffshire. It is bounded N by the 
Moray Firth, E and SE by Aberdour in Aberdeenshire, 
S by King Edward in Aberdeenshire, and W by Alvah, 
the Montcoffer or detached section of King Edward, 
and Bans'. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 8 J mUes ; 
its breadth, from N to S, varies between IJ and 4| miles ; 
and its area is 17,293J acres, of which 240 are foreshore 
and 11 water. Torr Burn, running to the sea, traces 
for 3J miles the eastern boundary ; and Logie Burn, 
running in a landward direction to fall eventually into 
the Deveron, follows much of the King Edward border ; 
whilst the Deveron itself, immediately above its influx 
to the sea, separates Gamrie from Bans'. Numerous 
burns drain the interior, some of them running to the 
sea, others belonging to the Deveron's basin, and most 
of them traversing romantic dells. Not a drop of water 
runs into Gamrie from any other parish ; but all its 
Imrns either rise within itself or merely touch its bor- 
ders ; and several of them are highly interesting for 
either the fitfulness of their course, the beauty of their 
falls, or the utility of their water-power. Towards the 
SE is a very small lake, the Standing Loch, which lies 
in a hollow ingirt by hillocks, nearly the highest ground 
in the parish, and in early spring is a nightly resort of 
wild geese. A mineral spring, called Tarlair Well, is 
on the coast near Macduff, and has enjoyed considerable 
medicinal repute. The coast, if one follows its bends, 
measures fully 10 mUes in extent, and is one of the 
grandest and most picturesque of any in Scotland, at- 
taining 366 feet at Troup Head, 363 at Crovie Law, 
.536 near More Head, and 404 at Melrose Law. A 
rocky rampart, in some places perpendicular, in all 
precipitous, presents everywhere such features of 
savage grandeur as thrill or overawe the mind. Parts 
of it are inaccessible to the foot of man, and others 
bend just enough from the perpendicular to admit a 
carpeting of gi'eensward, and here and there are tra- 
versed by a winding footpath like a staircase, which few 
but native cragsmen are venturesome enough to scale. 
The summits of this rampart are only a few furlongs 
broad, and variously ascend or decline towards the 
S, then breaking down in sudden declivities into ravines 
and dells, which run parallel to the shore ; and they 
command sublime views of the ever-changeful ocean to 
the N, and of a great expanse of plains and woods, of 
tumulated surfaces and mountain-tops, to the S and W. 
Several mighty chasms cleave the rampart from top to 
bottom, and look like stupendous rents made by shock of 
earthquake ; they yawn widely at the shore, and take the 
form of dells toward the interior ; and they have zigzag 
projections, with protuberances on the one side corre- 
sponding to depressions or hollows on the other. The 


most easterly of these is at Cullykhan, near Troup 
House ; another is at Crovie fishing vUlage ; a third, 
the chief one, called Afforsk Den, is at Gamrie old 
church ; and the most westerly, called Oldhaven, is 
between the lands of Melrose and those of Cullen. 
Several caverns pierce the sea-bases of the rocky ram- 
part ; and two of these, in the neighbourhood of Troup, 
are of great extent and very curious structure, and bear 
the singular names of Hell's Lum and Needle's Eye. 
The villages of Gardenstown and Crovie nestle on such 
contracted spots at openings of the great rampart as to 
have barely standing room, requiring even to project 
some of their houses into shelves or recesses of the accli- 
vities ; and are so immediately and steeply overhung by 
the braes, that persons on the tops of the braes might 
fancy that they could peer into the chimneys of the 
houses. The interior of the parish, all southward from 
the summit of the coast range of rampart, slopes away, 
mostly in a southerly or south-westerly direction, to the 
basin of the Deveron, and is finely diversified by hills, 
deUs, and precipices, rising to 588 feet above sea-level 
at Troup Hill, 652 at the Torr of Troup, 643 near Dub- 
ford, 603 near Littlemoss, 558 near MDlhow, and 461 
near Headitown. The rocks possess great interest for 
geologists, and have been specially discussed or noticed 
by Sedgwick, Murchison, Prestwick, Hugh Miller, and 
others. Granite has been occasionally worked ; and 
greywacke, greywacke slate, and clay slate, in exceed- 
ingly tilted, fractured, and contorted positions and 
mutual relations, predominate on the seaboard and 
through much of the interior. The greywacke is 
quarried for building purposes, and the clay slate was 
formerly worked at Melrose as a coarse roofing slate and 
slab-stone. Old Red sandstone. Old Eed conglomerate, 
and Devonian shales also occur, but rest so unconform- 
ably on the edges of the slates, and present such faults 
and dislocations, that their connections with one another 
and with related rocks cannot be easily determined. 
The soils vary from a fertile loam to a barren benty 
heath ; and those on the sandstone and conglomerate 
are more fertile than those on the slate. Woods cover 
some 750 acres ; and of the rest about one-half is under 
cultivation, the other either pastoral or waste. Findon 
Castle, near the old church, is said to have been garri- 
soned by a Scottish force to watch and resist invasions 
by the Danes, and now is represented by only a green 
conical mound. The ruins, too, of Wallace Tower, 
occupying the Ha' Hill upon Pitgair farm, consist only 
of two detached masses of wall. Vestiges and memo- 
randa of Danish invasion are in numerous places. 
Troup House, the chief mansion, is separately noticed ; 
and its owner divides the best part of the parish with 
the Earl of Fife, 7 lesser proprietors holding each an 
annual value of between £100 and £500, 13 of from £50 
to £100, and 42 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery 
of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, this parish is divided 
ecclesiastically into Gamrie proper and Macduff, the 
former a living worth £415. The ancient parish church 
of Gamrie, St John's, alleged to have been founded in 
1004 by the Mormaer of Buchan in place of one demo- 
lished by invading Danes, and granted by William the 
Lyon to the monks of Arbroath between 1189 and 1198, 
is now an interesting ruin, situated at the head of 
Gamrie Bay, on a hill-terrace in the mouth of Afforsk 
Den, J mile WSW of Gardenstown. The present parish 
church. If mUe SSW of Gardenstown, is a very neat 
edifice of 1830, containing 1000 sittings. Other places 
of worship are a Free church and those of Gardenstown 
and Macduff; and five schools — Bracoden, Clenterty, 
Longmanhill, Macduff, and Macduff Murray's Institu- 
tion — with respective accommodation for 400, 150, 104, 
700, and 100 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 194, 90, 71, 554, and 60, and grants of £161, 9s., 
£79, Is., £60, 14s. 6d., £494, Os. 7d., and £31, 12s. 
Valuation (1882) £20,633, 19s. Id., of which £7210, 
19s. 9d. was for Gamrie proper. Pop. of civil parish 
(1801) 3052, (1831) 4094, (1861) 6086, (1871) 6561, 
(1881) 6756 ; oi q. s. parish (1881) 2652 ; of registration 
district (1871) 3151, (1881) 3106.— Ord. Sur., sh. 96, 


1876. See cliaps. viii., x., xi., of Samuel Smiles's Life 
of a Scotch Naturalist (1876). 

Gannel Bum. See Gloomingside. 

Gannochy, Bridge of. See Fetteecaien. 

Ganuh or Gaineuuh, a triangular lake (2 x li furl.) 
in the upper part of Kildonau parish, Sutherland, 6 miles 
W of Forsinard station. It abounds with trout and 
char.— Ord. Sur., sh. 109, 1878. 

Garabost. See Gaeeabost. 

Garallaa, a coUier village, with a public school, in 
Old Cumnock parish, Ayrshire, 2 miles SW of Cumnock 
town. Garallan House is the seat of Patrick Charles 
Douglas Boswell, Esq. (b. 1815), who holds 594 acres 
in the shire, valued at £1738 per annum. 

Garan or Garaahill. See Muirkire. 

Garan or An Garbh-eilean, an islet of Durness 
parish, Sutherland, 4| miles E by S of Cape Wrath, and 

1 mile from the shore. It measures 3 furlongs in circum- 
ference and 60 feet in height, and is a crowded resort of 
sea-fowl.— OrfZ. Sur., sh. 114, ISSO. 

Garbh Allt, a mountain burn of Braemar, Aberdeen- 
shire, formed by two head-streams that rise on Loch- 
nagar, and running 1 mUe north-by-westward to the 
Dee, at a point f mile E of Invercauld bridge. It is an 
impetuous stream, traversing a romantic glen ; and it 
makes one splendid fall. 

Garbh Allt, a mountain burn in Arran island, Bute- 
shire. It rises, 4 mQes NW of Brodick, on the eastern 
side of Ben Tarsuinn, and runs 24 mUes south-south- 
eastward and east-by-northward down a \vild and de- 
clivitous glen, careering and leaping along a granite 
channel in a series of striking falls, till it plunges head- 
long into confluence with Glenrosie Water, at a point 

2 miles WNW of Brodick.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 21, 1870. 
Garbh Bhreao, a lake (2 x IJ furl. ; 926 feet) in KU- 

tarlity parish, Inverness-shire, SJ miles SSW of Erch- 
less Castle. It abounds in trout. 

Garbhdhun, a picturesque waterfaU on the river 
<5auir, in Fortingall parish, Perthshire. 

Garbh Mheall. See Fortingall. 

Garbhreisa, an islet of Craignish parish, Argyllshire. 
The largest of a group of five, it is faced with cliff's, and 
flanks one side of the strait called the Great Door. 
See Craignish. 

Garbh Uisge, a reach of the northern head-stream of 
the river Teith in Callander parish, Perthshire. Issuing 
from Loch Lubnaig, and traversing the Pass of Leny, 
it winds SJ miles south-eastward, till, at a point 3 fur- 
longs SW of Callander town, it unites with the Eas 
Gobhain to form the Teith.— Ord. Sicr., sh. 38, 1871. 

Garchary. See Dee, Aberdeenshire. 

Garchonzie, a tract of land on the mutual border of 
Oallander and Port of Monteith parishes, Perthshire, 
between Loch Veuachar and Callander town. A san- 
-guinary conflict, in woods here, was fought between two 
Highland clans. 

Garden, an estate, with a mansion, in Kippen parish, 
Stirlingshire, IJ mile ENE of Bucklyvie. Its owner, 
James "Stirling, Esq. (b. 1844; sue. 1856), holds 3238 
acres in Stirling and Perth shires, valued at £2752 
per annum. 

Gardens, a village of central Shetland, 1 mUe from 

Gardenstown, a fishing village in Gamrie parish, 
Banffshire, in the mouth of a romantic ravine at the head 
of Gamrie Bay, 8 mUes ENE of Banff, under which it 
has a post and telegraph oiEce. Founded in 1720 by 
Alexander Garden, Esq. of Troup, it stands so close to 
the high overhanging cliffs as to be almost directly 
imder the eye of any one standing on the top, and rises 
from an older part close upon the sea to a newer part 
on ledges and in recesses of the cliSs. At it are a har- 
l)our for fishing boats, a branch of the North of Scotland 
Bank, an Established mission station (1873 ; 360 sit- 
tings), and a U.P. church. In 1881 the number of its 
fishing boats was 98, and of its fishermen and boys 155. 
Pop. (1841) 348, (1861) 607, (1871) 717, (1881) 871.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 

Garderhouse, a hamlet in Sandstiag parish, Shetland, 


15 miles WNW of Lerwick, under which it has a post 

Gardnerside, a vDlage near Bellshill in Bothwell 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

Garee. See Gareee. 

Gare Loch, a branch of the Firth of Clyde, projects 
into Dumbartonshire between the parishes of Roseneath 
and Row, running off almost due N from the upper 
waters of the Firth. The part of the Firth of Clyde 
lying between a line drawn from Roseneath Point to 
Helensburgh, and one from Roseneath to Row Point, is 
not properly included in the Gare Loch, though frequently 
spoken of as forming part of it. This external portion 
is at first about IJ mile wide, but contracts tolerably 
rapidly to a breadth of 4J furlongs, just before it expands 
again into a rude circle, of wliich Roseneath Bay forms 
one hemisphere. At the entrance to the Gare Loch 
proper the breadth of the passage is only 1 furlong. 
The total length of the external portion is 2 mUes. 
The Gare Loch proper extends for 4J miles in a north- 
north-westerly direction between the parishes of Rose- 
neath on the W and Row on the E, to within IJ mile of 
Loch Long. For nearly its entire length it keeps an 
average breadth of 7 furlongs, but about 64 from its 
head it suddenly contracts to 3 furlongs, which breadth 
it retains to the northern extremity. Immediately 
before this contraction Farlane Bay, on the E side, in- 
creases the breadth temporarily to nearly 7i fmiongs. 
The only other noteworthy bay is Stroul Bay, imme- 
diately to the NW of the narrow entrance to the loch. 
The shores of the Gare Loch are low and shingly, and, 
with the exception of Row Point, have no projections of 
importance. Carnban Point is the name given to a 
blunt angle just N of Shandon on the Row side. The 
tidal current is strong, and runs at the rate of 3 to 
4 miles an hour, while off' Row Point especially it is 
forced in varying directions. The depth in mid-channel 
varies from 10 to 30 fathoms. 

The basin of the Gare Loch is a narrow and shallow 
cup among the Dumbartonshire hills. Along the Rose- 
neath or AV side the loch is flanked partly by the weU- 
wooded and undulating gi'ounds of Roseneath Castle, 
but chiefly by a softly outlined chain of moorland hills, 
that nowhere rises to a greater height than 651 feet. 
On the Row or eastern side a narrow belt of low-lying 
or gently-sloping ground intervenes between the beach 
and a chain of rounded summits, that culminates nearly 
midway between Helensburgh and Garelochhead at a 
height of 1183 feet. Around the N end of the Gare Loch, 
and between the flanking ranges of hills, runs a semicir- 
cular connecting link in the shape of a heathy saddle, 256 
feet high, over which tower the lofty containing moun- 
tains of Loch Long. The water-basin thus limited is not 
wider than from 2 J to 4 miles, so that the streams which 
fall into the Gare Loch, though numerous, are small, the 
longest having a course of only 2^ mUes. The scenery 
on the Gare Loch, though by no means grand, is pic- 
turesque ; the outlook from its mouth towards Ardmore 
and Erskine, and the view of the lofty Argyllshire 
hills over its northern end, especially so. The climate 
of the valley of the Gare Loch is mild in winter and 
spring, but it tends to become sultry and relaxing in 
summer. The rainfall is large ; and the wind, though 
not frequent nor strong, is gusty ; and as squalls coming 
down the valleys between the hills are not infrequent, 
the navigation of the loch is somewhat dangerous for 
small sailing boats. For large vessels, however, the 
Gare Loch aflFords an excellent anchorage, with good 
shelter ; and the measured miles on which the speed 
and strength of new Clyde-buUt steamers are usually 
tested and their compasses adjusted is plied in the Gare 
Loch. The training-ship Cumlerlavd, in which boys 
are "educated as seamen, is permanently stationed off 
Row. The various villages on the Gare Loch are 
favourite summer residences for sea-bathers and others ; 
and several steamers maintain communication between 
them and Glasgow, Greenock, Helensburgh, etc. On 
the Row side of the Gare Loch are situated, to the S, the 
outlying portions of Helensburgh, and the villages ot 



Row, Shandon, and Garelochhead ; while tlie intervals 
between these are studded with mansions, villas, and 
ornate cottages, for the most part the country quarters 
of the rich merchants of Glasgow and its neighbourhood. 
Among the best known of these is the mansion of West 
Shandon, now largely added to and occupied as a hydro- 
pathic establishment. On the opposite shore are the 
piers of Mambeg, Rachane, Clynder, and Eoseneath, 
similarly separated from each other by private resi- 
dences, though a great part of the coast lies within the 
policies of Roseneath Castle, the property of the Duke 
of Argyll.— Orc^. Sur., shs. 37, 38, 30, 1866-76. 

Garelochhead, a village in Row parish, Dumbarton- 
shire, just at its junction with Roseneath parish, is 
pleasantly situated at the head of the Gare Looh, 
7| miles NN"W of Helensburgh, the nearest station, 
and 2 miles SSE of Portincaple Ferry on Loch Long. 
The village is smaU, and contains neat little houses 
standing amidst garden-plots and shrubberies, and it 
ranks as one of the favourite watering-places on the 
Clyde. It communicates by steamers with Helens- 
burgh, Glasgow, Greenock, etc. The Established church, 
a neat modern edifice, was built as a chapel of ease, and 
became in 1874 a quoad sacra parish church. There are 
also a Free church and a public school in the village. 
Pop. of village (1871) 433, (1881) 460 ; of q. s. parish 
(1881) 751.— Orri. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Garf Water, a rivulet of Wiston and Roberton parish, 
in the upper wai'd of Lanarkshire, running 6J miles 
eastward along the southern base of the Tinto range, 
till, just below a viaduct of the Caledonian railway, it 
falls into the Clyde at a point IJ mile NNW of Laming- 
ton station. 

Gargunnook, a village and a parish in the N of 
Stirlingshire. The village stands 7 furlongs SW of 
Gargunnock station on the Forth and Clyde Junction 
section of the North British, this being 24| miles ENE 
of Balloch, and 6 W by N of Stirling, under which 
there is a post and telegraph office. Occupying a 
pleasant site on the slope of a rising-ground, whose 
summit commands an extensive and beautiful view, 
it is a neat place, with little gardens attached to its 

The parish is bounded N by Kilmadock and Kincar- 
dine in Perthshire, E and SE by St Ninians, SW by 
Fintry, and W by Balfron and Kippen. Its utmost 
length, from N to S, is 5| miles ; its utmost breadth, 
from E to W, is 4 miles ; and its area is 9913j acres, of 
which 54| are water. The river Forth winds llj miles 
east-by-southward along all the northern border, though 
the point where it first touches and that where it quits 
the parish are only 3J miles distant as the crow flies. 
It here has an average breadth of 60 feet, with a depth 
of 12 feet, and, at a point a mile from the eastern 
boundary, approaches close to Gargunnock station. En- 
DRiCK Water, in two of its head-streams, traces much 
of the south-eastern and south-western borders ; whilst 
BoQtTHAN Burn, coming in from Fintry, runs 4 miles 
north-by-eastward to the Forth along all the western 
boundary, and traverses a glen so gi'andly romantic and 
so beautifully wild as to have been sometimes compared 
to the Trossachs. Several burns rise in the interior, 
and run, some to Endrick Water, more to Boquhan 
Bm-n, or to the Forth ; and some of them have con- 
.siderable volume, and rush impetuously down craggy 
steeps, forming in times of heavy rain far-seen and far- 
heard cataracts. Perennial springs are numerous, and 
two chalybeate springs are near Boquhan Burn. The 
northern district, all within the folds of the Forth, and 
a short distance southward thence, is carse land, from 
35 to 44 feet above sea-level, and was covered for cen- 
turies by part of the ancient Caledonian Forest. Passing 
thereafter into a condition of moss so deep and swampy 
as to be almost worthless, it was in the course of last 
century completely reclaimed, and thenceforth possessed 
a value and fertility similar to the Carses of Stirling, 
Falkirk, and Gowrie. The middle district, down to a 
line from nearly 2 miles to nearly 3J S of the Forth, 
rises gently from the carse district, and lay in a ne- 


glected state, mostly waste and wild, overrun with 
furze and broom, tUl towards the close of last century 
it was thoroughly reclaimed by draining and hedging, 
and now is all an expanse of beauty, mostly under the 
plough, and largely embellished and sheltered \vith 
wood. The southern district consists entirely of the 
north-western portion of the Lennox range, called the 
Gargunnock HiUs, whose highest point, Carleatheran 
(1591 feet), is 2 miles SSW of the village. It once was 
all, or nearly all, a moorish waste, but now in result of 
improvements is a capital sheep-walk, and commands 
from the summits and shoulders of its hUls a wide, 
diversified, and splendid prospect. The rocks beneath 
the low lands include red and white sandstone, and are 
thought to be carboniferous ; those of the hUls are 
chiefly eruptive. The soil of the carse is a rich, loamy 
clay, on a subsoil of blue or yellow clay, with subjacent 
bed of sea-shells ; that of the middle district, in parts 
adjacent to the carse, is a fertile loam, and elsewhere 
is clayey and sandy ; whilst that of the hills is partly 
clay and partly wet gi-avel. Of the entire area, 1120 
acres are in tillage ; 574 are under wood ; 3638 are in 
pasture ; and nearly all the rest of the laud is waste. 
Keir Hill, near the village, was a fortified place in the 
end of the 13th century, and appears to have been sur- 
rounded by a rampart, and defended by two confluent 
streams and a fosse. It rises to a considerable elevation, 
and measures 140 yards in circumference on the summit. 
Gargunnock Peel, on a rising-ground, 50 yards from 
the Forth and 1 mile NE of the village, was erected 
seemingly to command a ford on the river, and was 
surrounded by a rampart and a fosse, but now is repre- 
sented by only part of the fosse. Sir William Wallace, 
with a band of retainers, is said to have taken post 
upon Keir Hill, whOe an English garrison held Gargun- 
nock Peel ; and he sallied from the hill, drove the 
English from the peel, and then crossed the Forth by 
the Bridge of Offers J mile higher up. An ancient 
tower belonging to the Grahams stood on the lands of 
Boquhan ; its ruins were removed about the year 1760. 
A battle between the Grahams and the Leckies was 
fought, at some imrecorded period, on the western 
border of the parish ; and here a great quantity of 
human bones, with spearheads and fragments of brass 
armour, were exhumed about 1800. Gargunnock House, 
5 furlongs E by N of the village, is an interesting 
building, with a fine modern front, but a massive fi 
wing of considerable antiquity ; its owner. Col. John 
Stiriing Stirling (b. 1832 ; sue. 1839), holds 1881 acres 
in the shire, valued at £1489 per annum. Other man- 
sions, separately noticed, are Boquhan, Leckie, and 
Meiklewood ; and 3 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 3 of between £100 and £500. 
Gargunnock is in the presbytery of Stirling and synod 
of Perth and Stirling ; the living is worth £246. The 
parish church, at the village, was built in 1774, and 
contains 500 sittings. There is also a Free church 
station ; and a public school, mth accommodation for 
167 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 57, 
and a grant of £50, Is. Valuation (1860) £7724, 
(1882) £8009, 19s. 6d., plus £1550 for railway. Pop. 
(1801) 954, (1831) 1006, (1841) 803, (1861) 728, (1871) 
675, (1881) 698.— Ore?. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Garie. See Gaikib. 

Garifad, a village in the Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire. 
Its post-town is Kilmuir, under Portree. 

Garioch, an inland district of Aberdeenshire. It is 
bounded on the NE and E by Formartine, on the S by 
Mar, on the W by Mar and Strathbogie, and on the NW 
by Strathbogie. It has an area of about 150 square 
miles, contains 15 parishes, and gives name to a presby- 
tery in the synod of Aberdeen. It is bounded or bor- 
dered by a range of hills, extending about 20 mUes 
westward from the vicinity of Old Meldrum ; it com- 
prises fertile, warm, well-sheltered valleys, notable for 
the salubrity of their climate ; it used, on account of 
its fertility, to be called the granary of Aberdeenshire ; 
it has long been famed as a summer resort for invalids ; 
it experienced great development of its resources from 


the opening of the Inverurie Canal, and now enjoys 
better advantages from the superseding of that canal by 
the Great North of Scotland railway ; and it has a 
farmers' club, dating from 1808, and a medical associa- 
tion, dating from 1867. The presbytery of Garioch, 
meeting at Inverurie and Insch, comprehends the 
parishes of Bourtie, Chapel of Garioch, Culsalmond, 
Daviot, Insch, Inverurie, Keithhall, Kemnay, Kintore, 
Leslie, Meldrum, Monymusk, Oyne, Premnay, and 
Eayne, with the chapelry of Blairdaff. Pop. (1871) 
20,132, (1881) 20,136, of whom 5731, according to a 
Parliamentary Return (1 May 1879), were communicants 
of the Church of Scotland in 1878.— The Free Church 
also has a presbytery of Garioch, meeting at Pitcaple, 
and comprising churches at Blairdafif, Chapel of Garioch, 
Culsalmond, Insch, Inverurie, Kemnay, Kintore, Leslie, 
Oyne, and Rayne, which ten churches together had 
2173 communicants in 1881. 

Gaxioch, Chapel of. See Chapel of Gaeioch. 

Garion, a place on the NE border of Dalserf parish, 
Lanarkshire, 2J miles SE of Larkhall. A bridge 
here over the river Clyde, erected in 1817, has three 
arches, each 65 feet in span, with a roadway 21J feet 
wide ; and measures 34 feet in height from the bed of 
the river to the top of the parapet. 

Garleton, a range of porphyrite hills in the N of Had- 
dington parish, culminating, IJ mile N" of the town, at 
an altitude of 590 feet above sea-level. A western spur 
is crowned by a conspicuous column, a monument to 
John, fourth Earl of Hopetoun (1766-1823), the Penin- 
sular hero. Garleton Castle, at the N base of the range, 
was once a superb mansion, a seat of the Earls of 
Winton, but is now a fragmentary ruin. — Ord. Sur. , sh. 
33, 1863. 

Garlies, a ruined castle in Miuuigaff parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, 2J miles N by E of Newton-Stewart. 
From the latter half of the 13th century the seat of the 
ancestors of the Earl of Galloway, it gives to the Earl 
the title of Baron (ere. 1607). It has, for several 
hundred years, been in a state of ruin ; and, though 
now in a fragmentary condition, it has walls so very 
tightly mortar-bouud as to be nearly as solid as rock. 

Garliestown, a small towTi and a bay in Sorbie parish, 
SW Wigtownshire. Founded about 1760, by John, 
seventh Earl of Galloway, then Lord Garlies, the town 
stands on the W shore of the bay, in the northern 
vicinity of Galloway House, and by the Wigtownshire 
branch (1875) of the Caledonian is 5 miles NXE of 
Whithorn, and 9| SSE of AVigtown. It bends in the 
form of a crescent round the bay, and, consisting of 
neat substantial houses, built of whinstone, presents a 
pleasant appearance. Rope and sail making, ship - 
building, fishing, and a saw-mill afford employment. 
A considerable commerce in the export of agricultural 
produce, and the import of coal, lime, manures, etc., is 
carried on from a harbour, which, naturally good, was 
artificially enlarged and improved about 1855 ; and 
Garliestown has a post office, mth money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, two hotels, a Congre- 
gational chapel, a public school, a bowling green, and a 
Good Templars' hall, with accommodation for 300 per- 
sons. By steamboat it communicates with Glasgow, 
Liverpool, and Douglas in the Isle of Man. Pop. (1861) 
685, (1871) 683, (1881) 699. 

Garliestown Bay, striking north-westward from the 
Irish Sea in the same direction as Wigtown Bay, has a 
breadth of \ mile at the entrance between Eggerness 
Point and the breakwater, a length thence of 5 furlongs 
to its inmost recess, and a depth of from 20 to 30 feet 
at high water, though at low tide its upper part is aU left 
dry. Engirt for the most part by flat sandy shores, but 
partly overlooked by rising grounds, it lies on a bed of 
such deep soft clay as to afford secure anchorage, and is 
admirably adapted to accommodate the coasting vessels 
between many points, particularly between Dublin and 
Whitehaven. The tide runs out from Wigtown Bay six 
hours, and takes the same time to return, but in Garlies- 
town Bay it fiows five h^urs from the S, and ebbs seven. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 4, 1857. 


Garlogie, a village, with a woollen factory, in Skene 
parish, Aberdeenshire, 2A miles SW of Skene Church, 
and 10 W of Aberdeen. The factory draws water power 
from Loch Skene ; and has attached to it a commodious 
schoolhouse, for the children of the work-people. 

Garlpool. See Gaepol, Dumfriesshire. 

Garmond, a village in llonquhitter parish, NW Aber- 
deenshire, on a rising-ground IJ mile N by E of 
Curainestown, and 7 miles ENE of Turriff. It was built 
in the latter part of last century. 

Garmouth, a seaport village in Urquhart parish, 
Elginshire, on the left bank of the river Spey, | mile 
S of Kingston at its mouth, 4| miles N by W of Foch- 
abers, and 5 NE by E of Lhanbryd station, this being 
3^ miles E by S of Elgin. A burgh of barony, under 
the Duke of Richmond and Gordon, it chiefly consists 
of modern liouses, neatly arranged in regular street lines ; 
it has a harbour naturally good, but severely damaged 
by the great flood of 1829, and always subject to fresh 
shiftings and obstructions of ground from heavy freshets 
of the Spey ; and it, at one time, conducted a remarkably 
large timber trade, in the export of tree-trunks floated 
down to it from the forests of Glenmore, Abernethy, 
Rothiemurchus, and Glenfishie. It still deals largely 
in timber, both for exportation and for local shipbuilding, 
the latter industry having somewhat revived in 1870, 
after a great depression ; and it also imports coal, 
exports agricultural produce, and carries on a valuable 
salmon fishery. Garmouth was plundered by the Mar- 
quis of Montrose in the February, and burned in the 
Jlay, of 1645 ; and at it King Charles II. landed from 
Holland on 23 June 1650. It has a post office, with 
money order and savings' bank departments, a branch of 
the Caledonian Bank, gas-works (1857), a fair on 30 
June, a Gothic Free church (1845), \vith an octagonal 
tower, and a public school. The last, on an eminence 
between it and Kingston, is a handsome Elizabethan 
edifice, erected in 1875-76 at a cost of over £1600. 
Pop. (1831) 750, (1861) 802, (1871) 636, (1831) 626.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 95, 1876. 

Garmylton. See Haddington. 

Garnet Hill. See Glasgow. 

Garngad Hill. See Gl.asgow. 

Gamkirk, a station, a seat of fireclay manufacture, 
and an estate near the southern border of Cadder parish, 
Lanarkshire. The station, on the Glasgow and Gam- 
kirk section (1831) of the Caledonian railwaj', is 5J miles 
ENE of Buchanan Street station in Glasgow, and 4 
WNW of Coatbridge. The fireclay works, in the near 
vicinity of the station, comprise large buildings, and 
produce vases, flower-pots, cans, crucibles, water-pipes, 
and other articles of remarkable elegance and dura- 
bility. The Garnkirk fireclaj', occurring in beds from 
4 to 19 feet thick, and equal if not superior to Stour- 
bridge clay, resembles light-coloured sandstone in 
tint, and withstands a mucli stronger heat than any 
other fireclay known in Scotland. Its composition is 
53 '4 per cent, of silica, 43 '6 of alumina, 0'6 of lime, 
1'8 of peroxide of iron, and 0'6 of protoxide of man- 
ganese ; while that of Stourbridge clay is 63 '30 of silica, 
23 '30 of alumina, 073 of lime, 1'80 of oxide of iron, 
and 10-30 of water. Garnkirk House, | mile NNW of 
the station, is the property of Alex. Sprot, Esq. (b. 
1853 ; sue. 1870), who holds 1792 acres in the shire, 
valued at £4063 per annum, including £1043 for 
minerals Pop. of Garnkirk, Crow Row, and Heath- 
field, (1861) 554, (1871) 656, (1881) 7S2.—Ord. Sur., 
sh. 31, 1867. 

Gamock, a small river of Cunninghame district, Ayr- 
shire, rising among the Mistylaw Hills, at an altitude 
of 1600 feet above sea-level, close to the Renfrewshire 
border, and winding 21 J miles southward till it falls 
into the Irvine, J mile above that river's influx to the 
sea, and unites with it to form Irvine harbour. It 
traverses or bounds the parishes of Kilbirnie, Dairy, 
Kilwinning, Stevenston, and Irvine ; makes, before 
reaching Kilbirnie village, a wild and lonely cataract, 
the Spout of Garnock ; lower down proceeds slowly 
through a fiat fertile country, over a gravelly bed, with 



an average breadth of 60 feet ; and receives on its right 
bank Rye and Caaf Waters, on its left bank Lugton 
and Dusk Waters. Always subject to freshets, it some- 
times overflows its banks in its lower reaches with 
devastating effects ; and, on an autumn day of 1790, it 
rose 4 feet higher than it had ever been known to do 
before, destroyed a great quantity of standing corn, and 
carried away many sheaves to the sea. The trout and 
salmon fishing is very fair, the waters being everywhere 
preserved. A viscountcy of Garnock was created in 
1703 in favour of John Crawford of Eilbirnie, whose 
grandson, the fourth Viscount, succeeded in 1749 to the 
earldom of Crawford. It became dormant in 1808. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 30, 22, 1866-65. 

Gamqueen, a village, with brickworks, on the mutual 
border of New Monkland and Cadder parishes, Lanark- 
shire, near Glenboig station. Garnqueen Loch here 
receives a burn fi-om New Monkland parish, and sends 
off one, by way of Croftfoot MiU, into confluence with 
the burns from , Bishop and Johnston Lochs. Pop. of 
village (1871) 307, (1881) 934. 

Garpel, a burn in Glenkens district, Kirkcudbright- 
shire, rising in Dairy parish, and running 5J miles 
south-westward, through that parish and on the bound- 
ary with Balmaclellan, to the river Ken, IJ mile N by 
E of New Galloway. It has, in some parts, a narrow 
rugged channel, overhung by lofty wooded precipices, 
and it makes a fejv iine falls, the most picturesque of 
which bears the name of Holy Linn, and is associated 
witli events in the persecution of the Covenanters. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Gaxpel Water, a burn in Muirkirk parish, E Ayrshire. 

It rises, at an altitude of 1755 feet, close to the boundary 

with Lanarkshire, and runs 4J miles north-westward 

J till it falls into the river Ayr at a point 1 mile WSW of 

Muirkirk to^xn.— Ord. Sur., sh. 15, 1864. 

Garpol or Garlpool Water, a burn of Kirkpatriek- 
Juxta parish, Dumfriesshire, rising close to the Lanark- 
shire border at an altitude of 1300 feet, and winding 5| 
miles east-by-southward, partly along the Moffat bound- 
ary, but mainly through the interior, till, after forming 
a cascade near Acbincass Castle, it falls into Evan 
Water at a point IJ mile SW of Moffat town. A very 
strong chalybeate, called Garpol Spa, near it, is pro- 
perly not a spa or spring, nor perennial, but is formed, 
fitfully and occasionally, in warm weather, by rain water 
imbibing and dissolving mineral constituents from fer- 
rugino-aiuminous soil. — Ord. Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 

Garr. See Gap.rt, Auchtergaven, Perthshire. 

Garrabost, a village in the Eye peninsula, Stornoway 
parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides, Ross-shire, 7 miles E by 
N of Stornoway town, under which it has a post office. 
A Free church was built here in 1881. Pop. (1861) 
418, (1871) 482, (1881) 309. 

Garraghuism Cave. See Coll, Stornoway. 

Garrallan. See GAr,.A.LLAX. 

Garrawalt. See Gakawalt. 

Garrel. See Gaevald. 

Garrison, The. See Millport. 

Garroch, an estate, with a modem mansion, in Eells 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 5 miles NW of New Gallo- 

Garroch Head, a headland, 210 feet high, at the 
southern extremity of Bute island, Buteshire, 2f miles 
W of Little Cumbrae. The peninsula that it terminates 
is joined to the rest of Kingarth parish by a low sandy 
isthmus 9i furlongs wide, and, with an utmost length 
and breadth of 2J and 2 miles, attains 485 feet at Torr 
Mor, 119 at Dunagoil, and 517 at Suidhe Plantation, 
near the SW shore of Kilchattan Bay. See St Blane's 
Chapel and Devil's Cauldron. — Ord. Sur., sh. 21, 

Garroohory. See Garaohaky. 

Garron, a headland in Fetteresso parish, Kincardine 
shire, flanking the N side of Stonehaven Bay. It con- 
sists of a light green coloured rock, of intermediate 
character between trap and serpentine, and passing into 
chloride slate. 

Garry, a burn in Auchtergaven parish, Perthshire. 


It rises in boggy ground at the head of Glen Garr, a hill 
pass on the mutual border of Auchtergaven and Little 
Dnnkeld parishes ; rims 7i miles south-eastward, past 
Auchtergaven manse ; receives the tribute of Corral 
Burn ; and falls, at Leak, into Ordie Bum. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 47, 48, 1869-68. 

Garry, a lake and a river of Blair Athole parish, N 
Perthshire. Lying 1330 feet above sea-level, and having 
a maximum width of 2J furlongs, Loch Garry extends 
2g miles north-north-eastward to within | mile of Dalna- 
spidal station on the Highland railway. It is screened, 
all round, by bare, loft}', rugged mountains ; receives a 
dozen mountain torrents, flowing to it through gorges 
among the mountains ; and exhibits a wild, sequestered 
aspect, being in some parts so closely beset by its moim- 
tain screens, as to have scarcely a foot-breadth of shore. 
Its trout are numerous, but small and shy. The river 
Garry, issuing from the foot of the lake, runs 22 miles 
east-south-eastward, mainly through Blair Athole parish, 
but over the last 5 miles of its course, below Blair Athole 
village, along the borders of Dnll and Moulin parishes, 
till, at FaskaUy House, below the Pass of Killie- 
CEANKIE, it falls into the Tummel, after a total descent of 
nearly 1000 feet. It receives, on its left bank, the Eden- 
don, Ender, Bruar, TUt, and AUt Girnaig, and on its right 
the Erichdie ; is closely followed, from head to foot, by 
the Highland railway and by the great road from Inver- 
ness to Perth ; and changes, in scenic character, from 
alpine wildness and dismal bleakness to a rich variety 
of picturesqueness. One of the most impetuous rivers 
of Scotland, it is, as the Queen writes, ' very fine, rolling 
over large stones, and forming perpetual falls, with birch 
and mountain-ash growing down to the water's edge. ' 
In times of freshet it comes down with sudden burst 
and tumultuous fury, tearing up its slaty or gravelly bed, 
carrying off heavy fragments, and menacing the very 
cliff's upon its banks. — Ord. Sur., shs. 54, 55, 1873-69. 

Garry, a river and a lake in Glengaeky district, In- 
verness-shire. The river, issuing from the foot of Loch 
QuoiOH (555 feet above sea-level), runs lOJ miles east- 
ward to Loch Garry (258 feet), on emerging from which 
it winds 3J miles south-eastward and east-by -northward, 
till it falls into Loch Oich (105 feet), on the line of the 
Caledonian Canal, at Invergaeey, 74 miles SW of Fort 
Augustus. Loch Garry is thus an expansion of the 
river, having a length of 4J miles east-bj'-northward, 
with a varying width of 1 furlong and -| mile. It lies 
in a beautifnl glen, with lofty receding mountains, and, 
immediately engirt by a series of low, swelling, birch- 
clad eminences, bursts into view, from foot to head, at 
a point near its eastern extremity. Towards its foot it 
contains a little island, by which and a peninsula it is 
almost divided in two. Both lake and river abound in 
salmon, salmo-ferox, and trout. —Ord Sur., shs. 62, 63, 

Garrynahine, a hamlet in Uig parish, Lewis, Outer 
Hebrides, Eoss-shire, at the head of Loch Eoag, 14 
miles W by S of Stornoway, under which it has a post 
office. Here, too, is a good hotel. 

Garscadden, an estate, with a mansion and a village, 
in New Kilpatrick parish, Dumbartonshire. Held by 
successively the Flemings, the Erskines, and the Gal- 
hraiths, the estate passed about 1664 to the Campbell 
Colquhouns of Killermont. The mansion, standing If 
mile WSW of Bearsdeu station and 3 miles WNW of 
MaryhUl, is remarkable for a castellated Gothic gate- 
way, larger and more imjiosing than any similar structure 
in the W of Scotland. The work of a fanciful architect 
near Paisley, named Charles Ross, this gateway was for- 
merly embellished with fantastic ornaments, and much 
visited by pedestrians from Glasgow and Paisley as a 
nine-days' wonder ; and, though now stripped of its orna- 
ments, is still somewhat of an architectural curiosity. 
Pop. of the village (1871) 602, (1881) 6i9.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 30, 1866. 

Garscube, an estate, with a mansion, in New Kilpatrick 
parish, Dumbartonshii-e. The mansion, standing on the 
right bank of the river Kelvin, 1 mile NW of Maryhill 
station and 5 miles NW of Glasgow, was erected in 


1827, after designs by "W. Burn, in tlie Elizabethan 
style, and has very beautiful gi'ounds. Acquired by the 
Colquhouns in 1558, the estate of Garscube passed about 
the middle of the 17th century to John Campbell of 
Succoth, whose descendant, Islay Campbell, was created 
Lord Advocate in 178i, President of the Court of Ses- 
sion under the title of Lord Succoth in 1789, and a 
baronet in 1808. His son. Sir Archibald, became a 
Lord of Session in 1809, also under the title of Lord 
Succoth ; and Ms grandson. Sir George (1829-74), held 
2395 acres in Dumbartonshire, 926 in Stirlingshire, and 
253 in Lanarkshire, valued respectively at £6257, £1567, 
and £571 per annum. He was succeeded as fifth Bart., 
by his cousin, Archibald Spencer Lindsay Campbell (b. 
1852).— Ort«. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Gartcosh, a village and station in Cadder parish, 
Lanarkshire, on the Caledonian railway, 2 j miles NW 
of Coatbridge and 7 ENE of Glasgow. Near it are 
Gartcosh Fireclay Works. Pop. (1881) 356. 

Gartferry, an estate, with a mansion, in Cadder 
parish, Lanarkshire, 2i miles NNE of Garnkirk station. 

Garth, a village in Delting parish, Shetland, 2 miles 
from Mossbank. 

Garth Castle, a mansion in Fortingall parish, NW 
Perthshire, on the left bank of the Lyon, IJ mile ENE 
of Fortingall hamlet, and 7 miles W by S of Aberfeldy. 
It was the birthplace of Major-General David Stewart 
(1772-1829), Governor of St Lucia, and author of 
Sketches of the Highlanders ; and the seat of Sir Archi- 
bald Campbell, G.C.B., Bart. (1770-1843), Governor of 
New Bnmswick and commauder-in-chief in the Burmese 
war. Now it is the property of Sir Donald Currie, 
K.C.M.G. (b. 1825), who purchased the estate for 
£51,000 in 1880, the year of his election as Liberal 
member for Perthshire, and who has built a consider- 
able addition, including a tower. Old Garth Castle, 2J 
miles NNE, near the right bank of Keltney Burn, is a 
ruinous square keep, crowning a rocky promontory 150 
feet high. It was a stronghold of Alexander Stewart, 
Earl of Buchan (the ' Wolf of Badenoch '), in the latter 
half of the 14th century.— Ord Sxir., sh. 55, 1869. 

Garth Castle or Caisteal Dubh, a ruined fortalice in 
Moulin parish, Perthshire, among a larch plantation 
J mile SE of Moulin village. It looks, from its style of 
architecture, to have been built in the 11th or 12th 
century, but is unknown to record. 

Garthland, an estate, with a mansion, in Lochwin- 
noch parish, Renfrewshire, in the western vicinity of 
Lochwinnocli town. Purchased by his ancestor in 1727, 
it belongs to Henry Macdowall, Esq. (b. 1845 ; sue. 
1882), who holds 2825 acres in the shire, valued at 
£2707 per annum. 

Garthland Mains, a farm in Stoneykirk parish, Wig- 
townshire, of miles SSE of Stranraer. Here in 1840 
was demolished a square tower, which, 45 feet high, 
bore on its battlements the date 1274, and was long the 
stronghold of the ancient and powerful family of the 

Gartinqueen Loch. See Gaknqiteen. 

Gartloch, an estate, with a mansion, in Cadder parish, 
Lanarkshire, on the NW shore of Bishop's Loch, 1 mile 
SSE of Garnkirk station. 

Gartly, a parish of NW Aberdeenshire, comprising a 
detached portion of Banffshire, and, near its southern 
border, containing Gartly station on the Great North of 
Scotland railway, 5 miles S of Huntly and 35^ NW of 
Aberdeen, with a post and railway telegraph ofSce. 
Bounded NE by Drumblade, SE by Insch, S by Een- 
nethmont and Khynie, W by Cabrach and Glass in 
Banifshire, and NW and N by Huntly, it has an utmost 
length from E to W of lOJ miles, an utmost breadth 
from N to S of 4J miles, and an area of 1S,126J acres, of 
which 3S| are water, and 6348f belong to the Banifshire 
section. The Bogie winds 3f miles northward through 
the interior, having the Barony or Banffshire section to 
the E and the Braes or Aberdeenshire section to the W, 
and then proceeds \\ mile north-north-westward along 
the Drumblade border. The Urt has its source in the 
E of the Barony ; and the Braes is drained to the Bogie 


by Kirkney Burn and by Lag Burn and Priest's Water, 
uniting to form Ness Bogie, whose lateral vales, as also 
Strathbogie itself, abound in charming scenes of quiet 
pastoral beauty. The surface is hilly, sinking along the 
Bogie to 386 feet above sea-level, and thence ascending 
in the Barony section to 632 feet at Birkenhill, 1029 at 
Wind's Eye, 1375 at Wishach Hill, and 1369 at the 
Hill of Corskie ; in the Braes, to 1148 at the * southern 
shoulder of Clashmaoh Hill, 1069 at the Hill of Col- 
lithie, 1495 at the *Hill of Kirkney, 1263 at the *Hm 
of Bogairdy, 1248 at Slough Hill, 1086 at the Hill of 
Drumfergue, and 1724 at *Grumack Hill, where asterisks 
mark those summits that culminate right on the borders 
of the parish. Basalt or greenstone appears along 
Kirkney Burn, but the rocks are mainly Silurian— 
greywacke, with strata of limestone and laminate clay 
slate, which, grey or bluish-green in hue, has been 
largely quarried at Corskie. The soil in Strathbogie 
and in the transverse vales is for the most part a fertile 
clay loam ; that of the Barony is light and sandy, in- 
cumbent on a hard retentive subsoil. A good many 
acres have been reclaimed since 1841, but barely a third 
of the entire area is in tillage, the rest being either 
pasture, moor, moss, or a scanty proportion of wood. 
From the 12th to the 16th century, the Barony of 
Gartly belonged to a branch of the Barclays, who, as 
hereditary high sheriffs of Banffshire, procured its 
annexation to that county ; at their castle here (now 
in ruins) Queen Mary spent a night of October 1562, 
the month of the Battle of Corrichie. A number of 
cairns that formerly stood on Millhill farm, near the 
parish church, are believed to have been sepulchral 
monuments of a skirmish fought there after the Battle 
of Harlaw, and, being opened and removed about the 
year 1801, were found to contain some broken fragments 
of armour. Of other and more ancient cairns on Faich- 
hill and Riskhouse farm, one was found to contain a 
funereal urn ; in the Braes were four pre-Reformation 
chapels. John Barclay (1546-1605), jurist and satirist, 
was probably a native. The Duke of Richmond and 
Gordon is sole proprietor. Gartly is in the presbytery 
of Strathbogie and synod of Moray ; the living is worth 
£361. The parish church, near the right bank of the 
Bogie, 2 miles N by E of Gartly station, is a handsome 
Gothic edifice of 1880, mth 400 sittings and E and W 
gable rose-windows filled, like the rest, with cathedral 
glass. Its predecessor was a plain old building of 1621, 
originally dedicated to St Andrew. A Free church 
stands, across the river, 9 furlongs to the NW ; and 
Barony public. Braes public, and Gartly female schools, 
with respective accommodation for 82, 60, and 50 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 42, 21, 
and 32, and grants of £33, 3s., £28, 10s., and £28, Is. 
Valuation (1860) £5165, (1883) £6301, 6s. lOd. Pop. 
(ISOl) 958, (1831) 1127, (1861) 1029, (1871) 972, (1881) 
890, of whom 476 were in Aberdeenshire, and 414 in 
BanS'shire. -OrfZ. Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Gartmore, a village and a quoad sacra parish in Port 
of Monteith parish, SW Perthshire. The village stands 
on the peninsula between the river Forth and Kelty 
Water, 4J miles NW of Bucklyvie, and 1 mile from 
Gartmore station on the Strathendiick and Aberfoyle 
railway (1882). It has a post office under Stirling, and 
a free library, the gift of Mr John M 'Donald, a Glasgow 
merchant. Gartmore House, J mile NE of the village, 
is a commodious mansion, a seat of William Cunning- 
hame Graham-Bontine, Esq. of Ardoch and Gartmore 
(b. 1825 ; sue. 1863), who owns 2009 acres in Perthshire, 
6931 in Stirlingshire, and 1940 in Dumbartonshire, 
valued respectively at £1499, £4134, and £2662 per 
annum. The parish, constituted in July 1869, is in the 
presbytery of Dunblane and sjmod of Perth and Stir- 
ling ; its minister's stipend is £120, with a manse. The 
church, built as a chapel of ease in 1790 at a cost of 
£400, underwent great improvements in 1872, and con- 
tains 415 sittings. There is also a Free church ; and 
Gartmore public and Dalmary sessional school, with re- 
spective accommodation for 135 and 54 children, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 83 and 42, and grants 



of £78, 10s. 6(1., and £43, Os. 2d. Pop. of q. s. parish 
(1871) 353, (1881) 718, of whom 343 were in Drymen 
parish, Stirlingshire. — Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Gaxtmom Dam, a reservoir on the mutual border of 
Alloa and Clackmannan parishes, Clackmannanshire, 2 
miles ENE of Alloa town. Formed about the year 1700, 
and repaired and improved in 1827 and 1867, it has an 
utmost length and breadth of 6 and 2J furlongs ; is fed 
from the Black Devon rivulet in Clackmannan parish ; 
and supplies water-power for the machinery of Alloa 
Colliery and of several factories. — Ord. Sur., sh. 39,1869. 

Gartnavel. See Glasgow. 

Gartness, a village, with iron-works, in Shotts parish, 
Lanarkshire, on the left bank of North Calder Water, 
2 miles ESE of Airdrie. 

Gartness, a station and an estate on the W border of 
Stirlingshire. The station is on the Forth and Clyde 
Junction section of the North British railway, IJ mile 
ENE of Drymen station, and 22 miles WSW of Stirling. 
The estate lies around the station, along Endrick 
Water, on the mutual border of Drymen and Killearn 
parishes ; and possesses much interest, both for its 
scenery and for association with the life and labours of 
John Napier of Merehiston (1550-1617), the inventor of 
logarithms. Endrick Water here, over a run of J mile, 
traverses a natural cleft in the solid rock, and rushes 
vexedly over a series of mural ledges ; in one part, it 
passes through a caldron-shaped cavity, the Pot of 
Gartness, and forms there a picturesque cascade. A 
woollen factory hard by succeeded an ancient mill, the 
noise of which, along with that of the cataract, disturbed 
the mathematician amid his studies. Though falsely 
claimed as a native of Gartness, he at least was the 
member of a family who held the estate from 1495, 
and he is known to have resided here at various periods 
of his life, and here to have prosecuted those studies 
which have immortahsed his name. An old castle, 
overhanging the Pot of Gartness, was his place of resi- 
dence, and has left some fragments ; a stone taken from 
its ruins, and bearing the date 1674, is built into the 
gable of the factory ; and some stones, with markings or 
engravings on them believed to have been made by 
him, are in possession of the present proprietor of the 
estate.— Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Gartney or Strathgartney, an upland tract in the W 
of Callander parish, Perthshire, along the northern 
shore of Loch Katrine. 

Gartsherrie, a suburban town and a quoad sacra 
parish in Old Monkland parish, Lanarkshire. The 
town is partly identical Avith the E side of Coatbridge, 
partly extends about a mile to the NNW ; and, lying 
along the Monkland Canal and reaches of the Cale- 
donian and North British railway systems, presents an 
urban aspect throughout its identity with Coatbridge, 
and a strictly suburban aspect in its north-westward ex- 
tension. It contains, in its urban part, the parish 
church and a large academy, — in its suburban part, 
extensive iron -works and dwelling-houses for the 
operatives in these works, being collectively the most 
prominent of the seats of iron manufacture which give 
to Coatbridge district its characteristic aspect of flame 
and smoke and busy traffic. It has a station of its own 
name on the Caledonian railway, near the forking of the 
line towards respectively Glasgow and Stirling, \\ mile 
NNW of Coatbridge station. The church, crowning an 
eminence f mile S of the iron-works, was built in 1839 
at a cost of £3300, chiefly defrayed by Messrs Baird. A 
handsome edifice, with a spire 136 feet high, it figures 
in the general landscape as a striking feature of Coat- 
bridge, and contains 1050 sittings. The academy, near 
the church, is also a handsome and prominent edifice, 
and supplies a liberal course of instruction, under a 
rector and three male and two female assistants. It 
and a school at the iron-works, with respective accom- 
modation for 666 and 612 children, had (1881) an aver- 
age attendance of 400 and 253, and grants of £417, 8s. 
and £188, 15s. The iron-works of Messrs Baird, first 
put in blast on 4 May 1830, are among the best organ- 
ised manufactories in Scotland, and have long had a 


wide and high reputation for producing iron of superior 
quality. The furnaces, fourteen in number, stand in 
two rows, one on each side of the canal, and about 40 
yards distant from it. Built at different periods, in 
different patterns, they have generally a cylindrical 
shape, 22 feet in diameter and 60 high ; are worked on 
the hot-blast system ; and have four engines for generat- 
ing the blast, three on one side of the canal, one on the 
other side, and the four with an aggregate power equal 
to 750 horse. There are 400 workmen's houses, each 
with two or three apartments, a small garden plot, and 
a cheap supply of gas and water. Gartsherrie House, 
near the station, is a modern mansion, a seat of George 
Frederick Russell Colt, Esq. (b. 1837 ; sue. 1862), who 
owns 1416 acres in Lanarkshire, valued at £6421 per 
annum, of which £4023 is for minerals. It was the 
residence and death-place of Alexander Whitelaw, Esq. 
(1823-79), Conservative member for Glasgow from 1874. 
The parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr, and was endowed entirely by the 
late James Baird, Esq. of Cambusdoon ; its minister's 
stipend is £120. Pop. of parish (1871) 10,041, (1881) 
9070.— Orti. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. See Andrew Miller's 
Rise, and Progress of Coatbridge and the Surrounding 
Neighbourhood (Glasg. 1864). 

Gartshore, an estate, v/iih a mansion, in Kirkintilloch 
parish, DumlDartonshire. The mansion, standing 3 miles 
E of Kirkintilloch town, is a fine old edifice, with beau- 
tiful surrounding woods. The estate was purchased, a 
few years before his death, by Alexander Whitelaw, 
Esq., who owned 1710 acres in Dumbartonshire, valued 
at £5755 per annum, of which £3781 was for minerals. 
See Gartsherrie. — Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Gart, The, a fine mansion in Callander parish, Perth- 
shire, on the left bank of the river Teith, IJ mile SE of 
the village. Built about 1832 by Admiral Sir William 
Houston Stewart, it now is the seat of Daniel Ainslie, 
Esq., who holds 180 acres in the shire, valued at 
£212 per annum. 

Garturk, a quoad sacra parish in the south-eastern 
district of Old Monkland parish, Lanarkshire. It was 
constituted in January 1870 ; and its post-town is Coat- 
bridge, IJ mile to the NW. It comprises a compact 
area, including the villages of Whifflet, Rose hall, 
and Calder, and also the Calder Iron-works, belonging 
to the firm of William Dixon (Limited). These works 
are interesting, as the place where the famous and valu- 
able blackband ironstone, which has proved such a 
source of wealth to Scotland, was first discovered. The 
discovery was made in 1805 by Robert Mushet, from 
whom it received the name of ' Mushet Blackband,' and 
as such it is still known. In this parish there are also 
several other large iron and engineering works, and 
numerous coal mines of considerable depth. The parish, 
which is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr, was endowed at a cost of upwards of 
£8000, of which £1500 was from the General Assembly's 
Endowment Fund, the remainder being raised by volun- 
tary subscription. The church, erected in 1869 and 
renewed in 1880, is a handsome edifice — the interior, 
which is richly ornamented, being one of the finest 
specimens of the Decorated style to be seen in this part 
of the country. Adjoining the church and under the 
same roof with it is a very comfortable manse, prettily 
situated amidst a plantation of trees. The parish con- 
tains two good schools — one close beside the church, 
supported by the proprietors of Calder Iron-works ; the 
other in Rosehall, maintained by the o^vners of Rosehall 
colliery. With respective accommodation for 227 and 
173 children, these schools had (1881) an average at- 
tendance of 278 and 208, and grants of £238, 9s. and 
£172, Is. Pop. (1871) 3883, (1881) 4266.— Ord Sur., 
sh. 31, 1867. 

Garvald, a vUlage and a parish in Haddingtonshire. 
The village stands towards the N of the parish, 450 feet 
above sea-level, on the left bank of Papana Water, 5J 
miles S of East Linton station, and 5| ESE of Hadding- 
ton ; it has a post office under Prestonkirk. 

The present parish, comprising the ancient parishes of 


■Garvald and Bara, united in 1702, is bounded N, NE, 
E, and SE by Whittiugham, S by Lauder in Berwick- 
shire, W by Yester and Haddington, and NW by Morham. 
Its utmost length, from NNE to SSW, is 8^ miles ; its 
breadth varies between If and 4J miles ; and its area 
is 13,442 acres. The northern division, comprising 
about one-fourth of the entire area, is a lowland tract, 
all rich in the characters of soil, cultivation, and beauty, 
that mark the great plain of East Lothian ; but the other 
divisions consist of portions of the Lammermuir Hills, 
ascending to their watershed at the Berwickshire border, 
and are mostly bleak, heathy, and mossy, with occasional 
patches of verdure. In the N the surface declines to 
390 feet above sea-level, and rises thence to 900 at Snaw- 
don, 1250 at Eangely Kipp, and 1631 at Lowrans Law. 
Hope's Water and two other head-streams of Gifford 
Water, descending from the southern heights, unite near 
the western boundary, and pass into Yester on their way 
to the Tyne. Papana Water rises on the south-eastern 
border, and, winding 5 miles northward through the in- 
terior, past the village, to the northern boundary, pro- 
■ceeds thence, under different names, to the sea at Bel- 
haven Bay ; within this parish it runs along a very rocky 
bed, and is subject to violent freshets, sweeping down 
stones of great weight, and overflowing portions of its 
banks. In 1755 it rose to so great a volume as to flood 
some houses in the village to the depth of 3 feet. The 
rocks in the N include excellent sandstone, which has 
beenquarried ; and those of the hills are chiefly SUurian. 
The soil in the N is a deep rich clay ; in the NE is of a 
light gravelly nature ; and on the hills is thin and spongy. 
An ancient circular camp, 1500 feet in circumference, is 
on Garvald farm, and four or five others are dotted over 
the hills. Whitecastle and Yester Castle, the chief an- 
tic^uities, are noticed separately, as likewise are the two 
mansions, Hopes and Nunraw. Four proprietors hold 
each an annual value of more, and two of less, than £500. 
Garvald is in the presbytery of Haddington and synod 
of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is worth £303. 
The parish church, at the village, is an old building, 
enlarged in 1829, and containing 360 sittings. There is 
also a Free church ; and a public school, with accommo- 
dation for 110 children, had (1881) an average attend- 
ance of 75, and a grant of £57, ISs. 6d. Valuation 
(1860) £9444, (1878) £10,046, 19s., (1883) £9320, 10s. 
Pop. (ISO!) 749, (1831) 914, (1S61) 891, (1871) 832, 
(1881) 7oS.~Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Garvald or Garrel, an ancient parish and a burn in 
Dumfriesshire. The parish was annexed, about 1674, 
partly to Johnstone, chiefly to Kirkmichael ; and it 
continues to give name to the two farms of Upper and 
Nether Garrel. Its church, rebuilt so late as 1617, 
stood on the right bank of Garvald Bm-n, 3J miles NE 
of Kirkmichael church ; and now is represented by 
ruined walls and an enclosed burying-ground. The 
burn, rising at an altitude of 1050 feet above sea-level, 
winds 7i miles south-south-eastward through all the 
length of the parish, till it glides into Ae Water, 2 miles 
NNW of Lochmaben. AVith a total descent of 860 feet, 
it forms a number of tiny cascades and cataracts, making 
in one place a fall of 18 feet over a mural rock. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Garvald or Garrel, a hill and a bum in Kilsyth parish, 
S Stirlingshire. The hill is part of the Kilsyth range, 
and culminates 2J mUes NW by N of Kilsyth town 
at an altitude of 1381 feet above sea-level. The burn, 
issuing from a reservoii- on a high plateau, IJ mOe 
WSW of the hill's summit, and running IJ eastward 
under the name of Birken Burn, proceeds 2J miles 
south-eastward to Kilsyth town, during which course it 
makes an aggregate descent of 1000 feet, necessarily 
forming cataracts and falls. It next goes 1^ mile south- 
westward across Kilsyth plain to the river Kelvin ; but, 
in traversing the plain, is so drawn off' for water-power 
and to a lake as to be generally dry except during a 
freshet. — Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Garvald or Garwald Water, a stream of Eskdalemuir 
parish, Dumfriesshire, rising, on the southern slope of 
Ettrick Pe.v, at an altitude of 1850 feet, close to the Sel- 


kirkshire border, and thence winding 6| miles south- 
south-eastward and east-north-eastward till it falls into 
the Wbite Esk, 2 miles NNW of Eskdalemuir church. 
It receives a number of mountain tributaries, and makes 
a magnificent waterfall, called Garvald Linn. This linn 
is a long descent over a stony channel, sloping here, and 
there precipitous, between rocky flanks, for the most part 
naked, but clothed at intervals with copse and brush- 
wood ; and forms now a cascade, now a capricious cata- 
ract, now a rushing rapid. — Ord. Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 

Garvald House, a mansion in Linton parish, NW 
Peeblesshire, near the left bank of South Medwin Water, 
IJ mile NW of Dolphinton station, and 4^ miles WSW 
of West Linton. Having passed by marriage to the 
Dicks of Prestonfield from a family of the name of 
Douglas, it was purchased in 1827 for £11,650 by John 
Woddrop, Esq. of Dalmarnock, whose son, William 
Allan-Woddrop, Esq. (b. 1829 ; sue. 1845), holds 2225 
acres in Peeblesshire and 3205 in Lanarkshire, valued 
at £760 and £3029 per annum. See Biggae. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 24, 1864. 

Garvald Point. See Greenock. 

Garvalt. See Garawalt. 

Garvan, a hamlet, with a public scbool, in the Argyll- 
shire section of Kilmallie parish, on the southern snore 
of upper Loch Eil towards its head, 9| miles W by N 
of Fort William. 

Garvary or Blar Garvary, a hill (864 feet) in Kincar- 
dine parish, Ross-shire, 2j miles SSW of the church. 

Garve, a loch on the mutual border of Contin and 
Foddertj' parishes, Ross-shire, | mile SE of Garve station 
on the Dingwall and Skye railway, this station being 
llf miles W by N of Dingwall, and having a post and 
railway telegraph office. Here also there is a good inn. 
Lying 220 feet above sea-level, the loch has an utmost 
length and breadth of IJ and J mile, has finely wooded 
shores, is traversed by the Blackwater, and contains 
abundance of trout, running 2 or 3 to the lb. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 83, 1881. 

GarvEilan or Garbh-Eilean, the north-westernmost 
of the three Shiant Isles iu the Outer Hebrides, Ross- 
shire, in the North Minch, 4J miles ESE of the nearest 
point of the Lewis, and 21 S of Stornoway. Triangular 
in shape, it has an utmost length and breadth of 7J and 
3 furlongs ; is separated from Ellan-na-Kelly only by 
a neck of rolled pebbles, commonly dry, except at a 
concurrence of spring tide and tempestuous wind ; has a 
surface diversified with hollows and declivities ; and 
abounds in rich pasture. — Ord. Sur., sh. 99, 1858. 

Garvellan. See Gaean. 

Garvelloch, a group of four pastoral islets in Jura 
parish, Argyllshire, 2J miles W of Lunga. They ex- 
tend 4 miles from NE to SW, and are nowhere more than 
J mile broad ; are now valuable solely on account of the 
excellence of their pasture for sheep and black cattle ; 
but have yielded marble, a specimen of which exists at 
Inverary Castle. Adamnan terms them Insula Hinia 
or Hinhina, and in 545 St Brendan seems to have 
founded a monastery on the most westerly of the group, 
Eilean na Naoimh ('island of the saints'). Swept away 
by the defeat of the Dalriadan Scots in 560, this monas- 
tery was refounded a few years after by St Columba ; 
and 'still,' says Dr Skene, 'there are remains of some 
very primitive ecclesiastical buildings which we can 
identify with Columba's monastery, the first he founded 
after that of lona, and which, fortunately for us, owing 
to the island being uninhabited, not very accessible, and 
little visited, have not disappeared before the improving 
hand of man. The remains are grouped together about 
the middle of the island, on its north-eastern side. 
Here there is a small sheltered port or harbour, and near 
it a spring of water tenned Tohar Clmllum na Chille, or 
Columba's Well. Near the shore, S of this, in a shel- 
tered grassy hollow, are the remains of the cemetery, 
with traces of graves of great age ; and adjoining it a 
square enclosure, or small court, on the E of which are 
the remains of buildings of a domestic character. N of 
this is the church, a roofless building, formed of slates 
without mortar, and measuring 25 feet by 15. NE of 



this is a building resembling the cells appropriated to 
the abbots of these primitive monasteries. Farther off, 
on higher ground, are the remains of a kiln, and on a 
slope near the shore two beehive cells resembling those 
used by anchorites.' See Appendix to Dr Reeves' 
Adamnan (Edinb. 1874), and vol. ii., pp. 78, 97, 128, 
246, of Dr Skene's Celtic Scotland (Edinb. 1877). 

Garvel Point. See Greenock. 

Garvock is a parish in Kincardineshire, bounded on 
the NE by the parish of Arbuthnott, on the SE by Ben- 
holm and St Cyrus, on the SW by Marykirk, and on 
the NW by Laurencekirk. Its extreme length, from 
NE to SW, is rather more than 7 miles ; its greatest 
breadth, from NW to SE, about 4 miles ; and its area is 
7982 acres, of v?hich 16 are water. The name is derived 
from two Celtic words denoting a ' rough marsh or 
meadow.' Though cultivation has done much in the 
way of improvement, there are stUl parts of the parish 
to which the original name is not inappropriate. It is 
intersected, but very unequally, by what is distinctively 
named the ' Hill of Garvock,' a range of high land 
covered with heath. On the NW of this ridge are 
Bamhill, and the upper lands of several farms otherwise 
lying in Laurencekirk. On its S lies much the larger 
part of the parish, descending gently to form a hollow 
plain, chiefly of cultivated land, and rising again to 
higher ground (where it borders upon Benholm and St 
Cyrus) varied by a single narrow opening, the source of 
the romantic Den Finella. Bervie Water, well known 
to anglers, winds 1-| mile along the border of Garvock, 
separating it from Arbuthnott. It receives two incon- 
siderable streams in the parish, one of them flowing, 
when not checked by drought, through the picturesqiie 
Woodburnden. The surface of the parish along the 
Bervie Water is 140 feet above the level of the sea. It 
rises thence, and at Denhead attains a height of 462 
feet, falling on the SE border to 455 feet. The three 
highest points of the Hill of Garvock are cairns, situated 
from the parish church respectively 7 furlongs NE, 3 
furlongs NW, and 12 furlongs SW, and their various 
altitudes being 854, 813, and 915 feet. On the last the 
tower of Johnston is built. Those cairns and others in 
different parts of the parish are supposed to be relics of 
the Druids ; and several have been foimd to contain 
evidence of having been places of sepulture at a very 
early period. There is one on Barnhill, which tradition 
marks as the grave of two travelling merchants who, 
early in the 18th century, quarrelled and fought on the 
spot, and were both killed. Here it may be noted, in 
the words of Mr Jervise, that ' stone cists, flint arrow- 
heads, and curious stone balls have been found in vari- 
ous parts of Garvock ; and in March 1875 there was 
discovered, at a depth of 15 inches, in a gravel hillock 
near Brownies' Leys, an oval-shaped vessel made of 
burned clay, about 11 inches deep by about 8 inches 
wide, and containing part of a skull and other human 
remains.' But the spot which has attained the greatest 
celebrity is that known as Brownies' Kettle, or Sheriff's 
Kettle, on the farm of Brownies' Leys and estate of Davo. 
Here was the caldron in which John Melville of Glen- 
bervie, Sheriff of the Mearns, met his cruel fate at the 
hands of his brother barons, being ' sodden and suppit 
in bree, ' in literal compliance with the too hasty sen- 
tence of his majesty James I. The story is too well 
known for a detailed account to be given here. The 
unnatural deed was perpetrated about 1420 or 1421, 
and on 1 Sept. of the latter year, Hugh Arbuthnott, 
George Barclay, Alexander Falconer, William the Gra- 
ham, Gilbert Middleton, Patrick Barclay, and Alexander 
of Graham were received ' to the lawes of Clane Macduff 
for the deid of quhillome John the MalavUIe, Laird of 
Glenbervy.' The chief actor, David Barclay, prefen'ed 
to seek for safety by building the Kaim of Mathers, to 
the security of which he retired for a time. The heri- 
tors are James Badenoch Nicholson, for the lands of 
Arthurhouse ; Hercules Scott, for the lands of Balha- 
garty ; David Scott Porteous, for the lands of Bradie- 
ston ; George Taylor, for the lands of Craig and 
Biadiestown ; Alfred Farrell, for the estate of Davo ; 


David A. Pearson, for lauds of Johnston, etc. ; trustees 
of the late Earl of Kintore, for the lands of Bedford ; 
Patrick Dickson, for the estate of Barnhill; James 
Scott, for Easter Tulloch ; trustees of the late John 
Scott, for Upper Tulloch ; and Viscount Arbuthnott, for 
the lands of Whitefield. The soil has been described as 
' mostly either thin or medium loam resting on a hard 
subsoil, or stiff clayey loam lying on a cold sour bottom. 
Considering that a large portion of this parish consists 
of uncultivated hUly ground, the rise in rental must be 
regarded as very large. As already indicated a large 
extent of land has been reclaimed on the slope of Garvock 
Hill during the last twenty-five years' ( Trans. HigM. and 
Ag. Soc, 1881, p. 112). Tradition bears that a large part 
of Garvock was in ancient times a forest, and there are 
traces of the deer-dyke by which it was enclosed. It is 
uncertain how much interest was held in the parish by 
Hugh le Blond, who had owned the patronage, and 
land also in the neighbourhood, of the church, or how 
long that interest continued in the family of Arbuth- 
nott. But in the first quarter of the 14th century the 
lands of Garuoeis were among the gifts to Sir Alexander 
Fraser, Thane of Cowie, brother-in-law of King Robert 
I., and Great Chamberlain of Scotland, who fell at the 
Battle of Dupplin in 1329. His grand-daughter, Mar- 
garet Fraser, became the wife of Sir William Keith, 
founder of the castle of Dunnottar, and the barony of 
Garuoeis was for several generations in possession of the 
Keiths-Marischal. It is included in charters to the fiirst 
earl and the fourth, who died in 1581. In his time a 
lease of the lands of Shiells was given to James Keith, 
great-grandson of the second earl, ' a man of parts and 
merits, ' devoted to Queen Mary, a favourite of his chief, 
and captain of the castle of Dunnottar. He was head 
of the family of Craig, and, though possessed of lands 
in several counties, including some in Garvock, he made 
his residence on Shiells. There he had virtually exer- 
cised the powers of baron, administering justice and 
holding councils on the Baron-hill (Barnhill) ; while the 
adjoining height, stUl known as Gallow-bank, had been 
utilised by the grim ' finisher ' of the law. The 17th 
century began the breaking up of the barony into vari- 
ous holdings. Before 1628, Bradieston ('town of the 
flat meadow land ') was in possession of Robert Keith, 
grandson of the above-mentioned James, and Provost of 
Montrose, who subsequently acquired the barony of 
Scotston and Powburn and the lands of Haddo. He 
was commissioner from the burgh of Montrose in the 
Scottish Parliament of 1639, and he died in 1666. His 
initials, 'R. 1666 K.,' with shield and crest, are still 
found on a stone which had been part of a funeral 
monument, and is now built into a wall of the church. 
The lands of Balhagarty ('town of the priest') are 
known to have belonged in 1637 to Earl Marischal, and 
they were in possession of Scott of Scotstarvet before 
1672. There was a charter of the lands of Whitefield 
in 1617 to Sir Robert Arbuthnott and his wife, Mary 
Keith ; and in 1677 the Hon. Alexander, younger son 
of the first Viscount Arbuthnott, had a charter of the 
lands of Tullochs (' little hills '). In the last quarter of 
the 17th century three branches of a distinguished 
family were conterminous proprietors. In 1672 the 
lands of BamhiU and Henstown were in possession of 
Lord Falconer of Haulkerton ; in 1682 Smiddiehill and 
adjoining parts belonged to Sir David Falconer of New- 
ton ; and in 1684 the lands of Shiells were disponed to 
Sir Alexander Falconer of Glenfarquhar. The eldest 
branch succumbed, and the Haulkerton title and estates 
passed to Glenfarquhar, who enjoyed them only for 
three years, when David Falconer of Newton succeeded, 
as fifth Lord Falconer ; and, coming into possession of 
the whole lands which had belonged to the three 
families, was probably the largest heritor of Garvock for 
the time. Space cannot be given for a detailed account 
of the transmission of the various lands to their present 
respective proprietors, but it may be stated that in 
course of this transition the parish numbered among its 
heritors more branches than one of the Barclays, descend- 
ants of the once powerful De Berkeleys. The church 


was rated in 1275 at 1 8 mcrks. In 12S2 Hugh le Blond, 
Lord of Arbuthenoth, granted to the monks of Arbroath 
the patronage of the church of Garvock, with an ox -gang 
of land and some common pasture. The earliest re- 
corded vicar was "William, who did homage to King 
Edward in 1296. Coming to Reformation times, the 
church with three others was served, in 1574, by one 
minister, who had the Kirklands and a money stipend 
of £133, 6s. Sd. Scots. The reader had £20 Scots. 
There has been no vacancy in the office of parish minis- 
ter since 1698, the successive incumbents having all had 
assistants and successors ordained before their death. 
The stipend is returned as £183 ; the manse (built in 
1866) is valued at £25, and the glebe at £15. The 
church (built in 1778) is seated for about 300 people. 
The churchyard has a few old gravestones ; and on tlic 
manse offices there is the fragment of one with date 
1603. The church was dedicated to St James ; and a 
well in the den near the manse, called St James's "Well, 
had the reputation once of working miraculous cures. 
St James's Fair, now at Laurencekirk, was long held 
near the church on Barnhill, where the site may still be 
traced by the turf seats which did service in the 
various tents. The parish has always been well pro- 
vided with the means of education. The public school 
(built in 1866) has accommodation for 92 pupils. In 
1881 there was an average attendance of 37, and the 
government grant was £41, 2s. 6d. Garvock has also a 
joint interest in the school at "Waterlair, and gives an 
average attendance there of about 30 scholars. The 
valuation of the parish, in 1856, was £4215. In 1883 it 
had reached £6270, 13s. lid. The population, in 1755, 
was 755 ; in 1801 it was 468. The highest point it has 
reached since was 485 in the year 1811 ; and the late 
census (1881) reduced it to a minimum of 428. — Ord. 
Siir., shs. 66, 57, 1871-68. 

Garvock. See Pitlitee. 

Garvock, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Dun- 
ning parish, Perthshire, 1 mile ENE of the town. Its 
owner, Robert Grreme, Esq. (b. 1841 ; sue. 1859), holds 
644 acres in the shire, valued at £844 per annum. 

Gascon Hall, an ancient castle, now a ruin, in the 
SE corner of Trinity Gask parish, Perthshire, on the N 
bank of the Earn, 1 J mile WN"W of Dunning station. 
Tradition makes it the place where Sir "William "Wallace, 
according to Blind Harry's narrative, encountered the 
ghost of Faudon ; but it must have been built long 
after Wallace's day. The real Gascon Hall appears to 
have stood about IJ mile NE of this castle, on a spot 
amid the present woods of Gask. 

Gask or Findo Gask, a hamlet and a parishTin Strath- 
earn district, Perthshire. The hamlet lies IJ mile SSE 
of Balgowan station, and 2J miles N by "W of Dunning 
station, this being 94 miles "WS'W of Perth, and 4:^ NE oi 
Auchterarder, under which there is a post office of Gask. 

The parish, containing also Olathy village, and hav- 
ing Balgowan station on its north-western border, is 
bounded N'W by Madderty and Methven, E by Tibber- 
more and Forteviot, S by Dunning, S"W by Auchterarder, 
and "W by Trinity Gask. Its utmost length, from N to 
S, is 4 miles ; its utmost breadth, from E to "W, is 2f 
miles ; and its area is 5227i acres, of which 42 are water. 
The river Eakn, winding 35- miles eastward, roughly 
traces all the southern boundary ; and the sirrface, 
sinking along it to close upon 30 feet above sea-level, 
thence rises gently to 382 feet near Charlesfield, and 
427 near the manse, from which point it again slopes 
softly down to 190 feet along Cowgask Burn, flowing IJ 
mile south-westward on the boundary with Madderty. 
Sandstone and grey slate have both been quarried, and 
marl occurs in several places. The soil is partly argil- 
laceous, partly a fertile loam. More than 1200 acres 
are under wood. A Roman road, traversing the summit 
ridge, on the line of communication between two camps 
in Scone and Muthill parishes, has a breadth of 20 feet, 
and consists of compactly-built rough stones. It is 
flanked, at intervals, by traces of fortified posts, each 
to be garrisoned by from 12 to 19 men. One of these 
posts has from time immemorial been called the "Witch 


Enowe, and is said to have been the scene of executions 
for the imputed crime of sorcery. "William Taylor, 
D.D. (1744-1823), afterwards Principal of Glasgow Uni- 
versity, was minister of Gask ; and natives were Thomas 
Smeaton (1636-83), an early Presbyterian divine, and 
the sculptor, La^vrence Macdonald (1798-1878). So, 
too, was Carolina Oliphant, Lady Nairn (1766-1845), 
who was author of The Laird 0' Cockpcn, Tlic Land 0' 
the Leal, The Auld House, and others of Scotland's 
choicest songs. Her ancestor. Sir "William Oliphant, 
about the beginning of the 14th century, acquired broad 
lands in Perthshire from Robert the Bruce, and became 
the Lord of Gasknes and Aberdalgie ; and Lawrence 
Oliphant, his descendant, was in 1458 created Lord 
Oliphant. The fifth of the title, ' ane base and unworthy 
man,' soon after 1600 sold all his great estates but Gask, 
which in 1625 was purchased by his cousin, the first of 
the 'Jacobite lairds.' On 11 Sept. 1745, Prince Charles 
Edward breakfasted at the 'auld house,' and a lock of 
his hair is still a family heirloom ; in the following 
February Gask was ransacked by the Hanoverians. The 
present mansion, begun in 1801, stands 9 furlongs S"W 
of the hamlet, amid finely wooded grounds, and is the 
seat of Mrs Grjeme Oliphant, the widow of James Blair 
Oliphant (1804-47), who was eighteenth in unbroken 
male descent from Sir "William. She holds 4940 acres 
in the shire, valued at £4354 per annum. Gask is in 
the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and 
Stirling ; the living is worth £233. The chm-ch, at the 
hamlet, was built in 1800, and contains nearly 400 sit- 
tings. A public school, with accommodation for 76 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 35, and a 
grant of £44, 19s. 6d. "\^aluation (1882) £5119, 3s. 6d. 
Pop. (1801) 601, (1831) 428, (1861) 399, (1871) 369, 
(1881) 364.— Ord Srtr., shs. 47, 48, 1869-68. See T. 
L. Kington Oliphant's Jacobite Lairds of Gask (Gram- 
pian Club, 1870). 

Gask Hill. See Collessie. 

Gask House, an old mansion in Turriff parish, Aber- 
deenshire, 1| mile S by E of the town. From the 
Forbeses it passed through several hands to the fourth 
Earl of Fife early in the present century ; by him was 
let to the seventh Earl of Kintore for a hunting box ; 
but now is merely a farm-house. 

Gasstown, a village in Dumfries parish, Dumfries- 
shire, IJ mile SSE of Dumfries to^vn, under which 
it has a post office. It was founded about 1810 by 
Joseph Gass. Pop., with Heathery Row, (1871) 521, 
(1881) 467. 

Gatehead, a collier village in the S of Kilmaurs parish, 
Ayrshire, near the right bank of the river Irvine, 2^ 
miles "WS\¥ of Kilmarnock. It has a station on the 
Kilmarnock and Ayr section of the Glasgow and South- 
"Wcstern railway. 

Gatehope, a burn in Peebles parish, Peeblesshire, ris- 
ing at an altitude of 1750 feet on the soiithern slope of 
Cardon Law (1928), near the meeting-point with Inner- 
leithen and Eddleston parishes. "Thence it runs 4 J 
miles south-south-westward, tiU, after a total descent of 
1245 feet, it falls into the Tweed 5 furlongs ESE of 
Peebles town.— Ord Sm:, sh. 24, 1S64. 

Gatehouse, a town of S"W Kirkcudbrightshire, on the 
"W^ater of Fleet, 9 miles \\^'SW of Kirkcudbright and 6 
SE by S of Drumore, with both of which it communi- 
cates twice a day by coach. Comprising Gatehouse 
proper on the left bank of the river in Girthon parish, 
and Fleet Street suburb on the right bank in Anwoth 
parish, it has picturesque environs, that ascend from 
luxuriant valley to an amphitheatre of distant hUls, and 
commands navigable communication 1 J mile down Fleet 
"Water to that river's expansion into Fleet Bay or estuary, 
and so to "Wigtown Bay and the Irish Sea. It sprang, 
about the middle of last centiu'y, from a single house 
situated at the gate of the avenue to Cally House — 
hence its name Gatehouse-of- Fleet — and rapidly rose to 
manufacturing importance, so as to have, at the begin- 
ning of the present century, four cotton factories, a fair 
proportion of cotton-weaving hand-looms, a wine com- 
pany, a brewery, a tannery, and workshops for nearly 



every class of artisans. It made a grand effort, too, by 
deepening Fleet Water to the sea and otherwise, to 
establish a great commercial trade, and seemed for a 
time to menace the Glasgow of the West with the 
energetic rivalry of a Glasgow of the South. Somewhat 
suddenly it suffered such arrest to further progress as 
has made it from 1815 stationary or retrograde ; and 
now its only industrial works are a bobbin and bark 
mill and a brewery. Still, it consists of neat and 
regular streets, and presents, in its main body or Gate- 
house proper, a sort of miniature of the original New 
Town of Edinburgh, being one of the handsomest to\vns 
in GaUoway, equalled indeed by very few in Scotland. 
It has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
insurance, and telegraph departments, branches of the 
Bank of Scotland and the Union Bank, offices or agencies 
of 6 insurance companies, 2 hotels, a handsome clock- 
tower, a fine stone bridge across the Fleet, the parish 
church, a Free church, a United Presbyterian church, 
an English Episcopalian church, a public news-room, a 
public library, a gas company, a weekly market on 
Saturday, a cattle market on the second Satui'day of 
every month, and hiring fairs on the Saturdays before 
Castle-Douglas fair. The clock-tower, of Craignair 
granite, built in 1871, stands at the N end of the 
principal street, and rises to a height of 75 feet. The 
bridge succeeded one of the 13th century, has twice 
been widened, and comprises two spacious arches. The 
parish church of Girthon was buOt in 1817, and contains 
714 sittings ; and another parish church, that of Anwoth 
(1S26 ; 400 sittings), stands If mile W by S. The United 
Presbyterian chui-ch is in the Fleet Street suburb ; and 
the Episcopalian church stands in the grounds of Cally. 
The improvement on the Fleet's navigation includes a 
canal or straight cut along the river, made at a cost of 
about £3000, and enables vessels of 60 tons' burden to 
come up to the town. The exports are principally grain, 
the imports principally coal and lime. The town was 
made a burgh of barony, by royal charter, in 1795 ; 
adopted the Police Act in 1852 ; and is governed by 
a provost, 2 bailies, and 4 councillors, and by com- 
missioners of police, with the provost at their head. 
A justice of peace small debt court is held on the first 
Saturday of every month. Fom- schools — Girthon, CaUy, 
Fleetside boys', and Fleetside girls' — with respective ac- 
commodation for 149, 139, 91, and 85 children, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 101, 86, 68, and 84, and 
grants of £96, 9s., £79, 5s., £68, 5s. 8d.,and£S7, 5s. lid. 
The municipal constituency numbered 102 in 1882, when 
the annual value of real p'roperty was £2826. Pop. 
(1851) 1750, (1861) 1635, (1871) 1503, (1881) 1286, of 
whom 337 were in Anwoth. — Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Gateside, a village in Beith parish, Ayrshire, 1 mile E 
by S of Beith town. Pop. (1871) 350, (1881) 374. 

Gateside, a village in Neilston parish, Renfrewshire, 
on the left side of Levern Water, and on the Glasgow 
and Neilston railway, IJ mile WSW of the centre of 
Barrhead. One of the cluster of seats of manufacture, 
all popularly called Barrhead, it had a cotton factory so 
early as 1786. Pop. (1861) 455, (1871) 399, (1881) 465. 

Gateside, a small village in Kirkgunzeon parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire, 3 furlongs ESE of Kirkgunzeon 
church, and 4J miles NNE of Dalbeattie. 

Gateside, a farm in Caraldston parish, Forfarshire, 
near the K bank of the South Esk, ih miles W by S of 
Brechin. It is supposed to adjoin the site of the 
Roman station .Slsica, and to have got its name from 
a gate or port of the station towards the river. 

Gateside, a village in Whitburn parish, Linlithgow- 
shire, J mile W by S of Whitburn town. 

Gateside, a hamlet in Markinch parish, Fife, IJ mile 
NNW of Markinch village. 

Gateside, a village in Strathmiglo parish, Fife. See 

Gattonside, a village in Melrose parish, Roxburgh- 
shire, on the left side of the Tweed, 1 mile N by W of 
Melrose town, under which it has a post office, and with 
which it communicates by a foot suspension-bridge. 
Lying scattered among groves and orchards, 300 feet 


above sea-level, it retains some traces of a large and 
beautiful pre-Reformatiou chapel ; it is celebrated for 
both the quality and the quantity of its fruit ; and it 
is overlooked, on the N, from Allen Water to Leader 
Water, by a range of softly outlined heights, the Gat- 
tonside Hills, that culminate at 927 feet. Gattonside 
was granted by David I. to Melrose Abbey in 1143, and 
places round it still bear such names as the Abbot's 
Meadow, the Vineyard, Friar's Close, the Cellary 
Meadow, etc. Gattonside House, J mile to the W, is 
the seat of Robert Blair Maconochie, Esq., W.S. (b. 
1814), second son of the late Lord Meadowbank, who 
holds 298 acres in the shire, valued at £485 per annum. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Gauhsness, a place on the W coast of Dunrossness 
parish, Shetland, near Fitful Head. A vein or bed of 
iron pyrites here was, many years ago, unsuccessfully 
worked with the view of finding copper ore ; and then 
produced many hundred tons of ii'on pyrites, which 
were thrown into the sea. 

Gauir or Gaoire, a stream of Fortingall parish, NW 
Perthshire, issuing from Loch Laidon (924 feet), which 
at its head receives the Ba, and winding 7 miles east- 
ward to Loch Rannooh (668 feet), mainly across bleak 
Rannoch Muir. It expands midway, in times of heavy 
rain, into a large temporary lake. Loch Eigheach ; 
forms several tumultuous far-sounding waterfalls ; enters 
the head of Loch Rannoch by two channels, enclosing a 
green triangular islet ; and contains abundance of trout, 
running from J to 3 lbs. — Ord. Sur., sh. 64, 1373. 

Gaul. See Lochnagaul and Loohnangaul. 

Gauldry. See Galdkt. 

Gavel. See Geil. 

Gavieside, a village of recent origin in West Calder 
parish, Edinburghshire, 2 miles N by E of West Calder 
town. Pop. (1871) 550, (1881) 456. 

Gavinton, a village in Langton parish, Berwickshire, 
2 miles SW of Duns. Built in 1760 to supersede the 
ancient village of Langton, which stood J mile to the 
N, it took its name from Mr Gavin, the then proprietor, 
and is a neat place, on a regular plan, with a post office 
under Duns and Langton parish church. 

Gawreer or Garrier, a burn in Cuuninghame district, 
Ayrshire, rising 2 miles S by W of Stewarton, and run- 
ning 6i miles south-south-westward along the boundary 
between Dreghorn parish on the right and Kilmaurs on 
the left, till it falls into Carmel Water, 4^ furlongs 
above the Carmel's influx to the river Irvine. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Gaylet Pot or Geary Pot, a cavern and a natural 
shaft on the coast of St Vigeans parish, Forfarshire, 
about a mile S of Auchmithie village. The cavern, 
piercing the base of a cliff 150 feet high, opens from 
the sea in a rude archway about 70 feet high and 40 
Nvide, penetrates the land to the distance of 300 feet, 
and gradually contracts to a minimum height and 
width of 10 or 12 feet. The shaft opens in the midst 
of an arable field, goes perpendicularly down to the 
extremity of the cavern, is proximately circular at the 
mouth, measures there 150 feet in diameter, and, in its 
descent to the cavern, has an outline resembling that 
of an inverted urn. The sea enters the cavern, and 
takes up to the foot of the shaft the fluctuations of the 
tide ; and when it is urged by an easterly wind, it 
bursts in at high water with amazing impetuosity, 
surges and roars with a noise which only the great depth 
and contractedness of the shaft prevent from being 
heard at a considerable distance, and then recedes with 
proportionate violence, and makes a bellowing exit from 
the cavern's mouth. — Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Geanach or Gannoch, a mountain in Birse parish, S 
Aberdeenshire, 4 miles WNW of Mount Battock, near 
the meeting-point with Kincardineshu-e and Forfarshire. 
It belongs to the Grampian range, and has an altitude 
of 2396 feet above sea-level. 

Geanies House. See Feakn, Ross-shire. 

Gearr Abhainn, a river in Inverary parish, Argyll- 
shire, running 5 furlongs southward from the river 
Shira's expansion of Dotjloch to Loch Fyne. Its 


water is alternately fresh and salt, according to the ebb 
or flow of the tide ; and is well stored with trout, sal- 
mon, white fish, and shell fish. Its name signifies 
'short river,' and alludes to the shortness of its course. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 37, 1876. 

Geary Pot. See Gaylet Pot. 

Geauly or Gieuly. See Geldie Burn. 

Ged. See Jed. 

Geddes House, a mansion in Nairn parish, Nairnshire, 
i miles S of Nairn town. Standing amid liighly em- 
bellished grounds, it is the seat of John Mackintosh- 
Walker, Esq. (b. 1828 ; sue. 1872), who holds 878 acres 
in the shire, valued at £983 per annum. See Naikn. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Gail or Glengavel Water, a rivulet in Avondale 
parish, Lanarkshire, rising close to the Ayrshire bor- 
der, and running 5 miles north-north-westward, till it 
falls into the Avon at a point 5| mUes SW of Strathaven. 
—Ord. Sur. , sh. 23, 1865. 

Geldie Bum, a trout and salmon stream of Crathie 
and Braemar parish, SAV Aberdeenshire, rising, at an 
altitude of 2300 feet above sea-level, 9 furlongs SE of 
the meeting-point of Aberdeen, Perth, and Inverness 
shires, and running 8^ miles northward and eastward, 
till, after a total descent of 982 feet, it falls into the 
Dee at a point 3 miles WSW of the Linn of Dee. See 
Feshie.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 64, 1874. 

Geletra. See Gometra. 

Gelly, Fife. See Loohgellt. 

Gelston or Gilston, a village in Kelton parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, 2i miles SSE of Castle-Douglas, under 
which it has a post office. Gelston Castle, i mile SE 
of the village, was built by the late Sir William Douglas, 
Bart., whose niece and heiress, Mrs Maitland-Eirwan, 
holds 5080 acres in the shire, valued at £3967 per 
annum. An ancient parish of Gelston now forms the 
south-eastern district of Kelton. Its church stood ad- 
jacent to a ravine or giU, traversed by a brook, and has 
left some vestiges. — Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Gelt or Guelt Water, an AjTshire burn formed by the 
confluence of Back Lane and Clocklowie Burn, and wind- 
ing 4J miles west-north-westward along the boundary 
between New and Old Cumnock on the left and Auchin- 
leck on the right, tiU it unites with Glenmore Water at 
Kyle Castle, 6 miles E of Cumnock town. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 15, 1S64. 

General's Bridge. See Bowhill. 

General's Hut. See Foyers. 

Genoch, an estate, with an old-fashioned mansion, in 
Old Luce parish, Wigtownshire, IJ mile SW of Dunragit 

George, Fort, a strong regular fortress in Ardersier 
parish, Inverness-shire, on a promontory projecting into 
the Moray Firth, 3 miles NNW of Fort George station 
on the Highland railwaj', this being 5f miles WSW of 
Nairn and 9J NE of Inverness. Station and fortress 
have each a post oSice, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments. Built three years after the 
rebellion of 1745, at an estimated cost of £120,000, but 
an actual cost of more than £160,000, it covers 12 acres 
of ground ; has a polj-gonal line, with six bastions ; is 
defended, on the land side, by a ditch, a covert way, 
a glacis, two lunettes, and a ravelin ; is bomb-proof 
and strong, yet could readily be assaUed from neigh- 
bouring ground ; and contains accommodation for 2180 
men. It is the depot of the Seaforth or 78th and the 
Cameron or 79th Highlanders ; and its inmates num- 
bered 1202 in 1881, of whom 948 were military.— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Georgemas Junction, a station in Halkirk parish, 
Caithness, on the Sutherland and Caithness railway, 
14 miles WNW of Wick, and 61 SSE of Thurso. 

Georgetown, a village in Dumfries parish, Dumfries- 
shire, 2i miles ESE of the town. 

Gerardine's Cave. See Drainie. 

Geylet Pot. See Gaylet Pot. 

Geyzen Briggs, a shoal or broad bar across the Dor- 
noch Firth, on the mutual border of Ross-shire and 
Sutherland, 3 miles below Tain. It greatly obstructs 


navigation, and sometimes occasions a tumultuous roar 
of breakers. 

Gharafata, a headland in KUmuir parish, Isle of 
Skye, Inverness-shire. 

Ghost's Enowe. See Craigengelt. 

Ghulbhuinn or Ben Gulabin, a hill (2641 feet) at the 
head of Glenshee in Kirkmichael parish, NE Perthshire. 

Giant's Chair, a picturesque spot on the river DuUan 
in Mortlach parish, Banffshire. A beautiful small cas- 
cade here is called the Linen Apron. 

Giant's Fort (Gael. Dun-na-foghnikar), one of two 
conjoint ancient circular enclosures in the southern 
division of KUlean and Kilchenzie parish, Kintyre, 
Argyllshire. The other is called Dun Fliinn or Fingal's 
Fort. They have few characters definable by anti- 
quaries ; but they attract the attention of travellers, 
and are vulgarly regarded as ancient residences of Fingal 
and his giants. 

Giant's Leg, a natural arch on the S coast of Bressay 
island, Shetland. It projects fi'om a cliff into the sea, 
and stands in such depth of water that boats can pass 
through it in favourable weather. 

Giant's Stone, a standing-stone in Tweedsmuir parish, 
SW Peeblesshire, near the right bank of the Tweed, ^ 
mile SSW of the church. It is 5 feet high, and adjoins 
two smaller boulders. 

Gibbieston, a village in Auchtergaven parish, Perth- 
shire, 3J miles W by N of Bankfoot. 

Gibbon. See Craig Gibboh-. 

Gibb's Cross, a place on the moors of Wedderlie farm 
in Westruther parish, Berwickshire, 3 mUes NNE of 
Westruther village. It is traditionally said to have 
been the scene of a martyrdom for the Protestant faith. 

Gieuly. See Geldie Burn. 

Giffen. See Beith. 

Gifferton or Giffordtown, a village in CoUessie parish, 
Fife, li mile NW of Ladybank. It is of modern erec- 
tion, and consists of neat comfortable houses. 

Giffnock, a hamlet in Eastwood parish, Renfrewshire, 
1 J mile S of PoUokshaws. It has a station on the Glas- 
gow and Busby railway, and lies near extensive quarries 
of an excellent buUding sandstone, popularly called 
' liver rock. ' 

GifFord, a village in the N of Yester parish, Hadding- 
tonshire, lying, 340 feet above sea-level, on the right 
bank of Gifford Water, 4 J miles SSE of Haddington. 
Set in a wooded vale, and sheltered by well cultivated 
bills, it is a pretty little place, its two streets of unequal 
length consisting chiefly of neat two-story houses, and 
one of them ending in the fine long avenue that leads 
up to Yester House. It has a post ofiice under Had- 
dington, with money order, savings' bank, and telegi-aph 
departments, an inn, two public schools, and fairs on 
the last Tuesday of March, the third Tuesday of June, 
and the iirst Tuesday of October — this last having still 
some importance. Here, too, are Yester parish church 
(1708 ; 560 sittings) and a handsome new Free church 
(1880 ; 310 sittings). The latter occupies a prominent 
position on the rising-ground above the village, and, 
built at a cost of £1700 in the Gothic style of the 14th 
century, has a NE tower and spire. Gifi'ord has claimed 
to be the birthplace of John Knox, the great Reformer. 
Beza in his Icoiies (15S0) calls him ' Giffordiensis ; ' and 
Spottiswood states in his History (1627) that Knox 'was 
born at Gifford in the Lothians. ' But two contemporary 
Catholic writers, Archibald Hamilton (1577) and James 
Laing (1581), assign to Haddington the honour in 
question ; and recent investigation has proved, more- 
over, that no village of Gifford was in existence until 
the latter half of the 17th century. So that the late 
David Laing, who in 1846 had followed Knox's bio- 
grapher, Dr Thomas M'Crie, in preferring Gifford, 
reversed his verdict in 1864 in favour of the Giffordgate, 
a suburb of Haddington (article ' Knox ' by the Rev. 
C. G. M'Crie, in Encycl. Britannica, 9th ed., vol. xiv., 
1882). Two lesser divines at least were natives — James 
Craig (1682-1744) and John Witherspoon, D.D. (1722- 
94), the president of Princetown College, New Jersey. 
Though the village thus is hardly two centuries old, it 



derived its name from the GifFords, who under William 
the Lyon (1165-1214) added Yestred or Yester to their 
Lothian possessions, and after whom the parish itself is 
often, though not legally, called Giiford. Their male 
line failed with one Sir Hugh in 1409, but his daughter 
wedded an ancestor of the Marquis of Tweeddale, the 
present superior of Gifford. Pop. (1861) 458, (1871) 
455, (1881) 582.— Orel. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Giffordgate. See Haddington. 

Giffordtown. See Gifferton. 

Gifford Water, a burn of Haddingtonshire, rising, as 
Hope Water, among the Lammermuirs, at an altitude 
of 1500 feet, in the southern extremity of Garvald and 
Bara parish, close to the Berwickshire border. Thence 
it winds llj miles northward and north-westward 
through or along the borders of Garvald, Yester, Bol- 
ton, and Haddington parishes, till it falls into the 
Tyne, at a point If mile SSW of the town of Hadding- 
ton, and 190 feet above sea-level. A first-rate trout- 
stream of much gentle beauty, it traverses the wooded 
gi-ounds of Yester House, Eaglescarnie, Coalstoun, and 
Lennoxlove, and bears in its lower reaches the name of 
Coalstoun Water.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Gigalum. See Gigultjm. 

Gigha, an island and a parish of Argyllshire. The 
island lies 1| mile W of the nearest point of Kintyre, 
and 2J miles NW of Moniemore, near Tayinloan, by 
ferry to Ardminish. It has a post office under Greenock, 
and communicates by boat from its northeru extremity 
with the steamers on the passage between Tarbert and 
Port Ellen or Port Askaig in Islay. It measures 6 
miles in length from NNE to SSW ; varies in width 
between 1^ furlong and IJ mile ; and, with the neigh- 
boiiring island of Caea, has an area of 3913J acres, 
of which 266J are foreshore. Its coast is so jagged 
as to measure 25 miles in extent ; and, bold and rocky 
on the W side, has there two caverns, the Great and 
the Pigeons' Caves, the latter of which is coated with 
calcareous spar, and much freqjiented by wild pigeons. 
At the south-western extremity it is pierced by a 
natural tunnel 133 feet long, with two vertical aper- 
tures, and so invaded by surging billows in a storm 
as to emit dense vapour and loud noises. Much, 
too, of the E coast, although not high, is bold and 
rocky enough ; and here are various sandy bays, very 
suitable for sea-bathing, whilst those of Ardminish, 
Druimyeon, and East Tarbert afford good anchorage. 
The harbour, on the N side of the islet of Gigulum, is 
much frequented by coasting vessels, and is considered 
safe in all sorts of weather. The interior westward 
attains 225 feet beyond the church, 260 at Meall 
a Chlamaidh, and 153 at Cnoe Loisgte. The rocks 
are mica slate, felspar slate, chlorite slate, and horn- 
blende slate, ^vith veins of quartz and a few transverse 
dykes of basalt. The soil, except on the hills, is a 
rich loam, with a mixture here and there of sand, 
clay, or moss. About three-fifths of the land are 
in tillage, but barely 7 acres are under wood. Springs 
of good water are plentiful, and two of them afford 
water-power to a corn-mill. Some ten boats are 
employed during three or four months of the year in 
cod and ling fishing on banks 2 or 3 miles distant. 
Dunchiiie or Keefe's Hill, towards the middle of the 
island, appears to have been anciently crowned with a 
strong fortification ; and a hill, now used as a steamer 
signal-post, at the northern end of the island, is crowned 
by a cairn, called 'Watch Cairn,' and seems to have 
formerly served as a beacon station for giving alarm 
in case of invasion. Achamore House, 7 fui'longs 
SSW of the church, is the Scottish seat of the pro- 
prietor, Capt. William James Scarlett (b. 1839 ; sue. 
1880). — The parish comprises also the brownie-haunted 
island of Cara, 1 mile to the S of Gigha, and 185 feet 
high at the Mull of Cara, with the uninhabited islet of 
Gigulum in the sound between them, and bears the name 
of Gigha and Cara. It is in the presbytery of Kintyre 
and synod of Argyll ; the living is worth £298. The 
church, which stands at the head of Ardminish Bay, was 
built about 1780, and contains 260 sittings. An ancient 


chapel, J mile SSW, is now represented by ruined waUs 
and a bm-ying-ground. A public school, with accommo- 
dation for S3 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 39, and a grant of £44, 2s. 6d. Valuation (1882) 
£2466, 7s. lOd. Pop. (1801) 556, (1831) 534, (1861) 
467, (1871) 390, (1881) 382, of whom 4 belonged to Cara. 
—Orel. Sur., sh. 20, 1876. See Captain Thomas P. 
White's ArchcEological SJcctcJies in Kintyre and Gigha 
(2 vols., Edinb., 1873-75). 

Gighay, a small pastoral island of Barra parish, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire, 2 miles SW of Eriskay, and 
3 NE of the nearest point of Barra island. 

Gight, a ruined castle in Fyvie parish, N Aberdeen- 
shire, on the left bank of the Ythan, 3J miles ENE 
of Woodhead or Fyvie village, and 9 SE of Turriff. 
Crowning the brink of a rocky eminence, with the Braes 
of Gight on one side, and the Braes of Haddo or For- 
martine on the other, it commands a circle of exquisite 
scenery, dates from remote times, and continued to be 
inhabited till the latter part of last century. It figures 
commonly in history as the House of Gight, was plun- 
dered by the Covenanters in 1644, and now is remarkable 
only for the great strength of its remaining walls. The 
estate, having belonged for many generations to the 
Maitlands, became about 1479 the property of William 
Gordon, third son of the second Earl of Huntly. It 
remained in possession of his lineal descendants till 1785, 
when the last heiress, Catherine Gordon of Gight, 
married the Hon. John Byron ; so that it would have 
passed to their son, Lord Byron the poet, had it not 
been sold in 1787 to the third Earl of Aberdeen. — Orel. 
Sur., sh. 87, 1876. 

Gighty, a bm-n of Forfarshire, rising near Rossie Re- 
formatory, and running 5J miles south-westward along 
the borders of Craig, Maryton, Lunan, Kinnell, and In- 
verkeilor parishes, till it falls into Lunan Water at a 
point If mile E of Friockheim. It drives several mills. 
—Orel. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Gigulum, an uninhabited islet of Gigha parish, Argyll- 
shire, in the sound between Gigha island and Cara. It 
measures 2J furlongs by 1. 

Gilbertfield, a decayed mansion in Cambuslang parish, 
Lanarkshire, at the N base of Dechmont Hill, 1 mile 
SE of the town. Built in 1607, it was for some time 
the residence of Allan Ramsay's friend and brother- 
poet. Lieutenant William Hamilton of Gilbertfield 

Gil Bum, a rivulet in Borrowstounness parish, Lin- 
lithgowshire, rising near the centre of the parish, and 
running along a beautiful ravine to the Firth of Forth. 
Its glen, according to tradition, is haunted by the 
wraith of AUie or Alice, Lady LUburne, who threw her- 
self down from the walls of Kiuneil House, and who was 
either the mistress of a Duke of Hamilton or the wife of 
the Cromwellian colonel for some time resident at 

Gilcomston. See Aberdeen. 

Gildermorry, a place in Alness parish, Ross-shire. 
It is the site of a pre-Reformation chapel ; and near it 
are two huge stones of very extraordinary appearance, 
Clach-nam-han ('stone of the women"), which are said 
to mark the spot where several women were smothered 
by a snowstorm on their way to the chapel. 

Gilfillan, a place near the middle of Sorbie parish, 
Wigtownshire. It was the site of an ancient church. 

Gill, a reach of the river Cree on the mutual boun- 
dary of Kirkcudbrightshire and Wigtownshire, com- 
mencing about a mile NNW of Minnigaff church. It 
traverses a narrow gorge, richly fringed with wood, and 
romantically picturesque. 

Gill or Port Gill, a small bay on the mutual border 
of Stonykirk and Kirkmaiden parishes, Wigtownshire, 
8J miles SE by S of Portpatrick. 

Gillander, a cave in the E of Golspie parish, Suther- 
land. It occurs on the face of a white sandstone rock, 
and seems to have been gradually formed by atmospheric 

Gillean. See Locealsh. 

Gills, a village and a bay in Canisbay parish, Caith- 


ness. The village stands at the head of the bay, li mile 
W of the parish church, and 15| mOes E by N of Thurso. 
The bay has a triangular outline, measuring 3 miles 
across the entrance, and 7 furlongs thence to its inmost 
recess. It is sheltered by Stroma island, but lies open 
to the NE and the NNW, and has a beach of flat rocks 
and shingles. — Orel. Sur., sh. 116, 1878. 

Gillybum, a hamlet in Little Dunkeld parish, Perth- 
shire, 4 mile NW of Murthly station. 

Gilmansoleuch, a ravine, traversed by a burn, in 
Kirkhope parish, Selldrkshire, descending from Black- 
knowe Hill (1806 feet) IJ mile to the river Ettrick at a 
point SJ miles NE of Tushielaw Inn. 

Gilmerton, a mansion in Athelstaneford parish, Had- 
dingtonshire, 4 miles NE of Haddmgton, and Sj ESE 
■of Drem Junction. It is the seat of Sir Alexander 
Kinloch, tenth Bart, since 1686 (b. 1830 ; sue. 1879), 
Avho holds 2846 acres in the shire, valued at £7673 per 
3.mmm.— Orel. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Gilmerton, a modern, well-built village in Fowlis- 
Wester parish, Perthshire, 2 miles NE of Crieff, under 
■which it has a post office. 

Gilmerton, a village and a quoad sacra parish in 
Liberton parish, Edinburghshire. The village by road 
is 4 miles SSE of Edinburgh, and 3 WNW of Dalkeith ; 
whilst its station on the Loanhead and Glencorse branch 
of the North British, f mOe SSE, is 84 miles from 
the former city. Standing high, 400 feet above sea- 
level, and commanding a fine view of Edinburgh, it 
comprises three streets, and mainly consists of low 
one-story cottages. At it are a post office, an inn, a 
police station, 3 schools, an adult and a children's 
convalescent home (1881), and the quoad sacra church ; 
whilst on its SW outskirt stands Gilmerton House, 
an old-fashioned white mansion, whose owner, Sir 
David Baird of Newbyth, Bart., holds 751 acres in 
the shire, valued at £3456 per annum, besides £400 for 
minerals. Coal of prime quality has here been mined 
since 1627 and earlier, and down to the opening of the 
Dalkeith railway the carters or coal-bearers of Gilmer- 
ton, who largely furnished Edinburgh with fuel, formed 
a class by themselves. The humours of their annual 
horse races, 'My Lord's, 'as they were called, are vividly 
sketched by Moir in Maiisic JVaucTi. Ironstone, too, 
has been mined for a number of years ; and the work- 
ing of it is likely to be greatly extended under the 
management of the newly-formed Caledonian Steel 
and Iron Company. A little to the NW of the vil- 
lage is a limestone quarry of vast extent, the oldest 
perhaps in Scotland, at all events worked from imme- 
morial time. At first it was worked from the sur- 
face, afterwards it was mined ; and the produce was 
brought up in successive epochs by women, by asses, 
and by steam-power. Even with the aid of machinery 
it ceased at length to repay the cost of working, and 
since 1827 it has been almost entirely abandoned. Now, 
like a huge deep trench, f mile long, it presents a 
shelving declivity, overgrown with brushwood and wild 
flowers, and sending off lateral caverns, whose roof of 
soUd rock is upborne by massive piers, left as props in 
the process of mining. This vast colonnaded cavern, 
instead of proceeding far inwards, where the rapid dip 
of the stratum — at an angle of 45° — would have carried 
the miner too far beneath the surface, advances obliquely 
up the side of the ridge or hill, and thus one may wan- 
der some way underground and yet never lose the fight of 
day. At the village itself, near the entrance from 
Edinburgh, is a singular cave, hewn from the solid rock 
dming 1719-24 by a blacksmith named George Paterson. 
Rooms, beds, and a table bearing aloft a punch-bowl, 
all are nicely chiselled from the rock, which thus pro- 
vided both dwelling-house and furniture. Several aper- 
tm-es in the roof served for windows to let in the light 
from above. The constructor of this strange subter- 
ranean abode had it fitted up with a well, a washing- 
house, and a forge ; and here, pursuing his craft, he 
lived with his family till his death, about 1735. The 
cave was for years a great object of curiosity, and even 
yet has occasional visits paid to it. The quoad sacra 


parish is in the presbytery of Edinburgh and synod of 
Lothian and Tweeddale ; the stipend, from enQo^^^nent 
of 1860, is £120 with a manse. The church was built 
as a chapel of ease in 1837, and enlarged by two aisles 
in 1882. The public, the female industrial, and Mr 
Moore's school, with respective accommodation for 267, 
76, and 110 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 101, 73, and 90, and grants of £92, 13s. 6d.,£64, 6s., 
and £48, 17s. 8d. For the female industrial school an 
elegant new schoolroom and teacher's house were built in 
1882 at the expense of the Misses Anderson of Moreduu. 
Pop. of village (1861) 596, (1871) 765, (1881) 1082; of 
q. s. parish (1871) 1062, (1881) nZQ.—Ord. Sur., sh. 
32, 1857. 

Gilmilnscroft, a mansion in Sorn parish, Ayrshire, 2| 
mUes E by S of Catrine. Its owner. Miss Gray Far- 
quhar (sue. 1845), the representative of an old Ayrshire 
family, holds 2386 acres in the shire, valued at £1071 
per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Gihnour's Limij a beautiful cascade on Touch Burn, 
in St Ninians parish, Stirlingshire. 

Gilnockie, a station on the Langholm branch of the 
North British railway, in Canonbie parish, Dumfries- 
shire, 2| mUes N by W of Riddings Junction, and 4J 
SSE of Langholm. The Border peel-tower of Gilnockie 
stood on a small promontory, washed on three sides by 
the river Esk, so steep and rocky as to be scarcely ac- 
cessible except on the land side, and defended there 
by a deep ditch. It gave designation to Johnie Arm- 
strong, the Border freebooter of ballad fame, and puts 
in a claim against Hollows Tower, a little higher up 
the river, to have been his principal residence. Seem- 
ingly it became ruinous soon after Armstrong's execu- 
tion by James V. at Caerlanrig (1529) ; and, eventually 
obliterated to make room for a bridge over the river, it 
is now not represented by even the slightest vestige. 
(See DuME. ) Distinct remains of a Roman station are 
on a rising-ground a little N of the station. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 11, 1863. 

Gilp, a burn and a bay on the mutual boimdary of 
Kilmichael - Glassary and North Enapdale parishes, 
Argyllshire. The burn has a brief course south-east- 
ward to the bay's head. The bay. Loch Gilp, descends 
from the burn's mouth, 2J miles south-south-eastward, 
into line with the great southward reach of Loch Fyne, 
and broadens gradually from 3 furlongs to If- mile. It 
sends off, from its "W side, the Crinan Canal ; and is 
mostly so shallow as not to be navigable for boats of any 
considerable burden at low tide. See Lochgilphead, 
Aedkishaig, and Ceinan Canal. — Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 

Gilston, Eirkcudbrightshire. See Gelston. 

Giouly. See Geldie Burn 

Girdle Ness, a promontory in Nigg parish, Kincar- 
dineshire, flanking the S side of the mouth of the river 
Dee, and terminating 2 mUes ESE of Aberdeen. It 
forms the eastern extremity of a spur of the Grampian 
mountains ; and is crowned with a lighthouse, which, 
built in 1833 at a cost of £11,940, shows two fixed 
lights, 115 and 185 feet above mean tide, and visible at 
the distance of 16 and 19 nautical mUes. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 77, 1873. 

Girlsta. See Tingwall. 

Gimigoe. See Castles Girnigoe and Sinclair. 

Gimock Bum, a rivulet in Crathie and Braemar 
parish, SW Aberdeenshire, rising at an altitude of 1800 
feet, and running 6 j miles north-north-eastward to the 
river Dee, at a point 3 mUes W by N of BaUater. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 65, 1870. 

Girthgate, an ancient bricUe-road in Roxburghshire 
and Edinburghshire, leading northward from Old Mel- 
rose up the vale of Allen Water and over the moors to 
the ancient hospice of Soutra. Traces of it stUl exist. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 25, 33, 1865-63. 

Girthhead, an estate, with a mansion, in Wamphray 
parish, Dumfriesshire, on the left bank of the Annan, 
1 J mile S by W of Wamphray station. 

Girthon, a parish of SW Kirkcudbrightshire, contain- 
ing the greater part of the post-town of Gatehouse, and 



trayersed across its northern lialf by 4| miles of the 
Portpatrick section of the Glasgow and South-Western 
railway. It is bounded N and NE by Eells, E by Bal- 
maghie and Tw3mholm, SE by Borgue, SW by Wig- 
town Bay, W by Anwoth and Kirkmabreck, and NW 
by Minnigaff. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 14J 
miles ; its breadth varies between 1| and 6| miles ; and 
its area is 34,993J acres, of which 943 J are foreshore 
and 675J water. The river Dee winds 6 miles east- 
south-eastward along all the boundary with Eells, and 
from Girthon is fed by a dozen or so of burns ; but the 
drainage mainly belongs to the Water of Fleet, which, 
with its principal head-stream, traces all the western 
border, and from the interior receives Little Water of 
Fleet and numberless lesser tributaries. Four lakes, 
with their utmost length and breadth and their altitude 
above sea-level, are Loch Whinyeon (4 J x 4 J furl. ; 
725 feet), on the Twynholm border ; Loch Skerrow 
(5J X 4 furl. ; 425 feet), close to the Balmaghie border ; 
Loch Fleet (3x2 furl. ; 1120 feet), in the north-western 
interior ; and Loch Grexnoch (2 miles x 3 furl. ; 680 
feet), on the Minnigaff border. Three-fourths of the 
land, comprising all the northern and most of the cen- 
tral division, with a strip along the eastern border, is 
bleak and heathy upland, with but few spots devoted to 
tillage or capable of producing corn. The upland con- 
sists rather of broad masses, irregularly intersected by 
water-courses, than of continuous ridges or distinct 
hills, and rarely rises to mountain altitude. Some of 
the principal summits, from S to N, are Cairntook Hill 
(1000 feet), Gastramont Hill (700), White Top of Cul- 
reoch (1000), Craiglowrie (1079), Craigronald (1684), 
Craigwhinnie (1367), Auchencloy Hill (684), Shaw Hill 
(1255), and Bound FeU (1319). The rest of the land, 
comprising a strip along the middle and lower reaches 
of the Fleet, is chiefly undulating, partly flat or gently 
sloping, and all of it fertile, finely cultivated, and 
highly embellished. Granite predominates throughout 
the uplands, and metamorphic rocks, chiefly clay slate, 
prevail in the lowlands. Slate has been quarried on 
Culreoch farm ; and a vein of copper ore, on the lands 
of Enrick, was leased, and for some time worked, by a 
Welsh company. The soil of the uplands is very poor ; 
that of the lowlands is naturally various, and has been 
highly improved. About 4000 acres are regularly or 
occasionally in tillage, and a fair proportion throughout 
the lowlands is under wood. Three small ancient moats 
are at Gastramont, Enrick, and Bush Park ; and at 
Enrick stood an occasional residence of first the abbots 
of Tongland, nest the bishops of Galloway, which has be- 
queathed to its site the name of Palace Yard. The Rev. 
William Erskine, who figures among the worthies in 
Wodrow's History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scot- 
land, was minister of this parish, in which, at Auchen- 
cloy, Claverhouse shot four Covenanters, 18 Dec. 1684. 
Besides the three Faeds, the celebrated artists, already 
noticed under Barlay Mill, natives of Girthon were 
Captain James Murray Denniston (1770-1857), author of 
Legends of Galloway, and Thomas Murray, LL.D. 
(1792-1872), author of the Literary History of Galloicay. 
Mansions, both separately noticed, are Gaily and Gastra- 
mont ; and 2 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 17 of from £20 to £50. Girthon is 
in the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of Gallo- 
way ; the living is worth £203. The old church, 2 
miles SSE of Gatehouse, is a roofless ruin, with a grave- 
yard, the Broughton vault, and the grave of ' Kobert 
Lennox, who was shot to death by Grier of Lagg, in the 
paroch of Tongland, for his adherence to Scotland's 
Covenants, 1685.' A little further S is the site of the 
Mill of Girthon or the Lake, whose miller was fined in 
1300 by Edward I. of England. The present parish 
church is noticed, with three other places of worship 
and the schools, under Gatehouse. Valuation (1860) 
£7328, (1882) £8942, 2s. lOd. Pop. (1801) 1727, (1831) 
1751, (1861) 1702, (1871) 1586, (1881) 1415.— Orrf. Sur., 
shs. 5, 4, 8, 9, 1857-63. 

Girvan, a town and a parish in Carrick district, Ayr- 
shire. The town stands on the coast at the mouth of 


the Water of Girvan, 10 miles by sea E by S of Ailsa 
Craig, whilst by two sections of the Glasgow and South- 
western railway — the Maybole and Girvan (1860) and 
the Girvan and Portpatrick Junction (1876) — it is 21i 
miles SSW of Ayr, 62 SSW of Glasgow, and 45 NNE of 
Portpatrick. Its name originally was Invergarvan, in 
allusion to Girvan Water, which was formerly called 
the Garvan ; and it seems to have been founded in the 
11th century, but never till a recent period rose above 
the condition of a village. Extending southward from 
the river's mouth along the shore, and overlooked by 
hills that culminate a mile inland at 827 feet above sea- 
level, it enjoys a delightful site, picturesque surround- 
ings, and a splendid view of the Firth of Clyde, but 
possesses few attractions of its own. Robert Heron, in 
his JoiLrney through the Western Counties of Scotland in 
1792, though liberal enough in praises generally, of 
Girvan wrote : — ' The houses are huts more miserable 
than those of Ballantrae. They are so low as to seem, 
at the S end of the village, rather caves dug in the 
earth than houses buUt upon it ; though, on the NW 
side and close upon the banks of the river, there are 
some more decent and commodious houses.' The town 
has been greatly extended and vastly improved since 
Heron's day, and it now contains some very fair public 
buildings and numerous comfortable private houses ; 
yet it still is far inferior in structure and aspect to 
many Scotch towns of its size, and looks more like an 
overgrown village than even a third-rate considerable 
town. Many or most of its houses are still one-story 
cottages, containing merely a dwelling-room and weaver's 
workshop ; and even a considerable proportion of the 
recently-built ones are small untidy tenements, occupied 
by cotton weavers, not a few of them immigi-ant Irish. 
The parish church (1770 ; 760 sittings) in the autumn 
of 1882 was about to be rebuilt at a cost of £4000. 
The South church, bmlt as a chapel of ease in 1839, and 
containing 900 sittings, was raised in 1875 to quoad 
sacra status. Other places of worship are a Free church 
(1844), a U.P. church (1870 ; 450 sittings), St John's 
Episcopal church, and the Roman Catholic church of the 
Sacred Hearts (1860 ; 200 sittings). Girvan, besides, 
has a post ofiice, with money order, savings' bank, in- 
surance, and telegraph departments, branches of the 
British Linen Co., Commercial, National, Royal, and 
Union Banks, offices or agencies of 25 insurance com- 
panies, 2 hotels, a town-hall, assembly rooms, a Me- 
chanics' Institute, a reading-room, a lifeboat institution, 
a gas-light company, a weekly market on Monday, and 
fairs on the first Monday of April and October. Cotton- 
weaving is still carried on, though not as in 1838, when 
the number of hand-looms, including a few in the neigh- 
bourhood, was no less than 1800, the fabrics woven 
being almost all coarse cottons for the manufacturers of 
Glasgow. A harbom', at the mouth of Girvan Water, 
was formerly