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A Cottage in Islay, 1774. 


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Hartree, an estate, with a mansion, in the Peebles- 
shire section of Culter parish, 2J miles S by E of Biggar. 
It has been held by the Dickson s since the third decade 
of the 17th century. 

Hartrigge, a mansion in Jedburgh parish, Roxburgh- 
shire, 7 furlongs NE of the town. Approached by a 
fine avenue, it is a Scottish Baronial edifice, formed in 
1854 by David Bryce out of an older and plainer house 
for John, Lord Campbell (1781-1861), Chancellor of 
England, who made it his home for several years. Its 
present possessor, his son, William Frederick Campbell, 
second Baron Stratheden and Campbell since 1S36 and 
1S41 (b. 1824 ; sue. 1860-61), holds 1600 acres in the 
shire, valued at £2278 per annum. Hartrigge, besides, 
was the deathplace of two Scotch judges — William 
Penney, Lord Kinloch (1801-72), and Robert Macfar- 
lane, LordOrmidale (1S02-80).— Orel. Sar., sh. 17, 1864. 

Hart's Leap, a defile on the mutual border of Yarrow 
and Ettrick parishes, Selkirkshire, 2J miles NW of 
Tushielaw. It got its name from a prodigious leap made 
at it by a hart, during a hunt by one of the ancient 
Scottish kings ; and it retains two large stones, 28 feet 
apart, said to have been set up by order of the king, to 
mark the extent of the leap. 

Hartwood, an estate, with a mansion of 1S07, in West 
Calder parish, SW Edinburghshire, 1J mile S of the 

Harvieston, an estate, with an old, thick-walled man- 
sion, greatly enlarged in 1S69, in Borthwiek parish, 
Edinburghshire, 1 mile S by E of Gorebridge. Its 
owner, George Cranstoun Trotter-Cranstoun (b. 1801 ; 
sue. 183S), holds 1652 acres in the shire, valued at £632 
per annum, and whose ancestor bought it about the year 
1750. Some fragments of the ancient castle of Catcune 
are within the grounds. 

Harviestoun, an estate in Tillicoultry parish, Clack- 
mannanshire, at the southern base of the Ochils, 1J 
mile ENE of the town. Its present mansion, Harvies- 
toun Castle, was built in 1S04 by Crawfurd Tait, Esq. 
(1765-1S32), whose youngest son, Archibald (1811-82), 
Archbishop of Canterbury, spent much of his boyhood 
here. It is an elegant edifice, with finely-wooded 
grounds, and was greatly improved by Sir Andrew Orr 
(1802-74), who, having bought the estate in 1859, added 
a new tower and porch, and formed two beautiful ap- 
proaches leading from Tillicoultry and Dollar. His 
brother and successor, James Orr, Esq. (b. 1812), holds 
4726 acres in the shire, valued at £4013 per annum. 
It was during a ten days' visit to Harviestoun in the 
summer of 1787, that Robert Burns saw Charlotte 
Hamilton, the 'fairest maid on Devon banks,' and a 
cousin-german of Mr C. Tait. — Orel. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Hassendean, a station on the Waveriey route of the 
North British, in Minto parish, Roxburghshire, 4J 
miles XNE of Hawick. Past it flows Hassendean Burn, 
winding 4f miles east-south-eastward to the Teviot, and 
overhung, on the left, by Minto Hill (905 feet). An 
ancient baronj', it belonged for ages to a branch of the 
family of Scott, of whom Sir Alexander fell at the battle 
of Hodden ; and makes considerable figure, in record 
and in song, under the names of Halstaneden and 
Hazeldean. Its baronial fortalice or strong peel-tower, 
near the mouth of the burn, is now represented by a 
small fragment forming the gable of a cottage ; and 
there was also a monastic cell, called Monk's Tower, on a 
tract still designated Monk's Croft. An ancient parish 
of Hassendean, conterminous with the barony, belonged, 
as to its teinds and patronage, to the monks of Melrose, 
and about the era of the Reformation was annexed 
chiefly to Minto, but partly to Wilton and Roberton. 
Its church, whose site, by the side of the Teviot, was 
swept away along with the graveyard by a strong flood 
in 1796, was a Norman edifice, and had such strong hold 
on the affections of the dalesmen that they repeatedly 
made indignant resistance to measures for closing it. 
Eventually, however, it was taken down in 1690 in the 
face of a riotous demonstration, on the part of women as 
well as men. — Orel. Sur., sh. 17, 1864. 

Hatton, a village in Cruden parish, E Aberdeenshire, 

8 miles NE of Ellon, under wdiich it has a post office. 
At it are a branch of the Union Bank, a public school, 
and Cruden Free church (1844), which last was the 
nucleus of the village, and after which it at first was 
called the Free Kirkton of Cruden. — Orel. Sur., sh. 87, 

Hatton, an estate, with a mansion, in Marykirk 
parish, S Kincardineshire, 3J miles SW of Laurence- 
kirk. Its owner, Major-Gen. the Hon. Walter Arbuth- 
nott (b. 1808 ; sue. 1868), holds 633 acres in the shire, 
valued at £885 per annum. — Orel. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Hatton, an estate, with a mansion, in Ratho parish, 
Edinburghshire. The mansion, a striking example of 
the Scoto-French chateau of the 17th century, stands 
near the southern verge of the parish, 1J mile SSW of 
Ratho village, and consists of a thick-walled, three- 
story tower of the 15th century, with wings, turrets, 
and other additions of 1670 and later years. It was 
the summer residence of Francis Jeffrey (1812-14). 
Purchased in 1377 from John de Hatton by Allan de 
Lawdre or Lauder, the estate remained with his de- 
scendants till 1653, when it passed by marriage to the 
noble family of Lauderdale, by whom it was sold in 
1792. It then comprehended nearly one-half of the 
parish, but shortly afterwards was parcelled out into six 
properties, of which that of Hatton House, comprising 
500 acres, was purchased in 1870 for £42,000 by the 
Earl of Morton, whose son, Lord Aberdour, soon after 
restored the mansion. — Orel. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. See 
John Small's Castles and Mansions of the Lothians 
(Edinb. 1883). 

Hattonburn, an estate, with a mansion, in Orwell 
parish, Kinross-shire, J mile NNE of Milnathort. Its 
owner, the Hon. Mrs Montgomery, widow of Thomas 
Henry Montgomery, Esq. (1828-79), holds 335 acres in 
the shire, valued at £662 per annum. — Orel. Sur., sh. 
40, 1867. 

Hatton Castle, a square castellated mansion of 1814, 
with finely-wooded grounds, in Turriff parish, N Aber- 
deenshire, 3J miles SE of Turriff town. It comprises a 
fragment of the ancient baronial castle of Balquholly 
(Gael, baile-choille, ' town in the wood '), the seat of the 
Mowats from the 13th century till 1723, when the estate 
was sold to Alexander Duff, Esq. His descendant, 
Garden Alexander Duff, Esq. (b. 1853; sue. 1866), 
holds 11,576 acres in the shire, valued at £9662 per 
annum.— Orel. Stir., sh. 86, 1876. 

Hatton Castle, a ruined fortalice in Newtyle parish, 
SW Forfarshire, at the western base of Hatton Hill 
(870 feet), J mile SE of the village. Built in 1575 by 
Lawrence, fourth Lord Oliphant, it commanded the 
Sidlaw pass of the Glack, down which it looks to an 
extensive prospect of Strathmore. — Orel. Sur., sh. 48, 

Hatton Law, a hamlet in Largo parish, Fife, 1J mile 
NW of Largo station. 

Hatton, Lower, a village in Caputh parish, Perth- 
shire, 1J mile N of Dunkeld. 

Hatton, Wester. See Belhelvie. 

Haugh, a village in Mauchline parish, Ayrshire, on 
the right bank of the Ayr, 1 J mile S of Mauchline town. 

Haughhead, a village in Campsie parish, Stirling- 
shire, at the junction of Fin and Campsie Glens, J mile 
NW of Campsie Glen station. It has a post office 
under Glasgow. 

Haughhead. See Eckford. 

Haugh of Urr, a village in Urr parish, Kirkcudbright- 
shire, near the left bank of Urr Water, 4 miles NNW of 
Dalbeattie, under which it has a post office. 

Haughton, a mansion, with finely-wooded grounds, 
in Alford parish, Aberdeenshire, near the right bank of 
the Don, 1 mile NNE of the village. Purchased by his 
ancestor in the latter half of the 17th century, the 
estate is now held by Robert Francis Ogilvie Farquhar- 
son, Esq. (b. 1823 ; sue. 1854), who owns 4500 acres in 
the shire, valued at £3774 per annum. — Orel. Sur., sh. 
76, 1874. 

Hauster, a burn of Wick parish, E Caithness, rising 
on the Latheron border at an altitude of 556 feet, and 



winding 8J miles north-north-eastward till it falls into 
Wick Water at a point 1J mile W of Wick town. In 
the first 5 miles of its course it traverses Yarehouse and 
Hempriggs Lochs ; and sometimes it bears the name of 
Thrumster Burn.— Ord. Sur., shs. 110, 116, 1877-78. 

Haven, East and West. See East and West Haven. 

Haveton, a village in South Ronaldshay island, 
Orkney, 13 miles S of Kirkwall. 

Hawick, a parliamentary and municipal burgh, and 
the largest seat of population in the eastern Border 
counties, 53 miles SSE of Edinburgh, 45 NNE of 
Carlisle, and 346 NNW of London. It is situated on 
both sides of the Teviot, which enters the town from 
the SW after passing through the haughs and woods of 
Branxholm and Wilton Lodge, an approach of great 
picturesqueness and beauty. The Teviot is joined in 
the centre of the town by the Slitrig, a mountainous 
stream, flowing through a district of romantic interest. 
The town is in a basin, the principal streets being built 
on the level land on both sides of the rivers, from which 
other streets ascend the slopes, and above these are the 
mansions and villas of the principal inhabitants over- 
looking the town, and commanding extensive views of 
the surrounding region. Several of these in size and 
architecture rival the older mansions of the neighbour- 
ing gentry. The district is rich in historic houses and 
in more modern seats. Branxholm, one of the original 
residences of the Buccleuch family ; Harden, of the 
ancient Seotts ; Cavers, of the Douglasses of Liddesdale ; 
Stobs Castle, of the Elliots ; Teviot Lodge, of the Lang- 
lands ; and, of the Chisholms, are in the 
vicinity. Sillerbithall, Heronhill, Thornwood, Buck- 
lands, Brieryards, Teviotbank, Hassendeanburn, and 
Linden-park are all large and elegant mansions. Nearly 
all these seats are surrounded with extensive woods, 
abounding in trees of great size. The town is regular 
in form, and the streets are well built and spacious. A 
great part of the old town has been rebuilt during the 
last thirty years, and several streets have been added 
of late, the houses all of freestone, tasteful and com- 
modious. Several bridges span the Slitrig and Teviot. 
Among the chief buildings are the Exchange Hall, the 
banks, and some of the churches. A large and hand- 
some town-hall is to be built on the present site in the 
High Street, which, with corresponding offices and the 
free library, will contain a public hall capable of seating 
1500 people, and will cost about £10,000. A building 
also is to be erected as a memorial to his Grace the Duke 
of Buccleuch, who has long been the munificent bene- 
factor of the burgh. Few evidences in buildings remain 
of the antiquity of Hawick. The notable exception is 
the building which for a century has been known as the 
Tower Hotel. The older or western side is several 
hundred years old, and formed part of the castle of the 
Drumlanrig Douglasses, which escaped being burned in 
the devastating inroad of the Earl of Sussex in 1570. 
It was used as a residence a century afterwards by Anne 
Scott, who was married to the Duke of Monmouth, and 
was made Duchess of Buccleuch. While this house is one 
evidence of the antiquity of the town, the Moat at a little 
distance bears witness to the far-off antiquity of the town 
and people. This is a circular earthen-mound, 30 feet 
high, 312 in circumference at the base, and at the top 
117. When and by whom this was erected is unknown. 
It is purely artificial, and bears no trace of being a 
sepulchral mound. It is upon an eminence which 
commands a view of all the surrounding hills and 
valleys, a capital station for watchers of apprehended 
attacks, an excellent rendezvous for the defenders of 
their homes, and an elevated station whence chiefs and 
justices might dispense law. There can be no doubt 
that the erection of this was far off in the centuries of 
old, as also was that of the first parish church, 
which dates from an unknown antiquity. No doubt, 
here, as elsewhere, the Christian Church was the founder 
of the civilisation. The previous races were savages, 
until the Church reclaimed and elevated them. The 
foundation of the Church in Hawick is like the Moat — 
it goes back to an impenetrable distance. The first 


mention of it is in the Chronicle of Melrose, which 
states that the Church of St Mary was consecrated in 
1214, but there is no doubt that generations before this, 
and from early Saxon times, Hawick was the seat of 
Christian worship. 

The municipal history of Hawick speaks to its anti- 
quity. In the Scottish Rolls, under date 1347, it is 
said to have been held from the Crown by Richard 
Lovel and his ancestors 'for time immemorial.' Soon 
afterwards the lands passed into the family of Sir 
William Douglas of Drumlanrig, to whom James I., 
while resident in England, gave a charter conveying to 
him the barony of Hawick and a territory embracing 
a large part of the sheriffdom of Roxburgh. Nearly a 
century afterwards, Sir James Douglas granted, in 1537, 
a charter to the inhabitants of Hawick, which was 
confirmed by the deed of Queen Mary of date 12 May 
1545. At the period of granting the charter, the 
town appears to have consisted of 110 houses, inclusive 
of the manor house, church, and mill. The municipal 
jurisdiction was entrusted to 2 bailies and 31 councillors. 
The territorial sovereignty passed from the Douglasses 
of Drumlanrig to the Seotts of Buccleuch. See Dal- 
keith and Drumlanrig. 

Hawick is abundantly supplied with pure water. The 
former supply being inadequate, in 1866 a reservoir was 
made on the Allan, 5 miles SW of Hawick, and an 
amount of 400,000 gallons per day was brought in, 
at a cost of £8000. As the town extended along the 
slopes, it was found necessary to introduce a new supply 
drawn from a much greater height, from the Dodburn, 
and by these combined means 1,000,000 gallons are de- 
livered in the town daily. The various works, with 
the reservoir, a fine sheet of water of 20 acres — a hollow 
among the hills — was constructed at a cost of £15,000. 
The reservoir contains about 54,000,000 gallons. The 
Allan and Dodburn being on the property of the Duke 
of Buccleuch, and the surface for the most part through 
which the pipes are carried, the Duke with his usual 
generosity granted the free right of usage to the town. 
These works were opened by his Grace on 1 Sept. 1882, 
a memorable holiday in the town's annals, the principal 
streets being ablaze with innumerable decorations, and 
all classes vying with each other to do him homage. 
An immense procession, with a great range of carriages, 
accompanied his Grace to the reservoir, where he was 
presented with an address from the Town Council 
descriptive of the connection between the town and the 
ducal house, and the numerous acts of benevolence 
which had endeared him to the people. The proceed- 
ings were followed by a splendid banquet given in his 
honour, and attended by several hundreds, along with 
noblemen and gentlemen from the surrounding district. 
The town also is thoroughly drained on the most ap- 
proved system, massive pipes having been laid in all the 
streets and in connection with all the public works, by 
which several hundred thousand gallons of sewage and 
polluted water from the mills are conveyed to a haugh 
on the W bank of the Teviot, 1 mile distant, where the 
water, after being purified by lime, is collected in tanks, 
and, separated from the solid matter, is discharged over 
aerated beds into the river. These extensive works were 
completed at a cost of £27,000. Hawick has also an 
abundant supply of gas. The old works being in- 
sufficient, new works were erected in 1SS2 near the 
sewerage works at a cost of £10,000. 

The first bank established in the town was a branch 
of the British Linen Co. in 1797. The business 
previously was mainly carried on by a private banker, 
Mr Turnbull, a very shrewd, able, and upright man, who 
bought the estate of Fenwick, etc., and built the man- 
sion of Brieryards. The other branch banks are the 
Commercial Bank (1820), the National Bank (1852), the 
Royal Bank (1856), and the National Security Savings' 
Bank (1815). Among the public buildings are the Town 
Hall, the Exchange, the Temperance Hall, several 
hotels, and the Museum. There is also a large Com- 
bination Poorhouse. Hawick enjoys the benefit of a Free 
Library. There are four weekly newspapers — the Hawick 


Advertiser, Express, News, and Telegraph. Among its 
numerous associations there are the Teviotdale Farmers' 
Club, the "West Teviotdale Agricultural Society, the 
Working Men's Building Society, and several political 
and educational associations. Hawick hears an im- 
portant part in the South of Scotland Chamber of Com- 
merce, and has a flourishing Archaeological Society, by 
which much learning and research have been brought 
to bear on a great variety of interesting subjects, and 
especially on the history and antiquities of the Borders. 
There are several clubs for recreation and amusement. 
The cricket club has a spacious and beautiful park near 
the town, and the bowling clubs have two attractive 
greens, finely kept and ornamented, all given by the 
Duke of Buccleuch at a nominal rent. Hawick has long 
maintained a corps of volunteers, which, in physique, 
bearing, discipline, and general efficiency, ranks among 
the foremost. 

The original church is St Mary's, which dates from 
1214, was rebuilt in 1763, and having been much 
damaged by fire in 1SS0, was restored at a cost of £2000, 
the Duke of Buccleuch contributing above £1000 for 
the purpose. It was from St Mary's that Sir Alex. 
Eamsay of Dalhousie, a noble and patriotic knight, 
while holding a court of justice, was dragged by Douglas 
to Hermitage Castle, and in the dungeon there was 
starved to death. Here also was interred the body of 
Walter, first Earl of Buccleuch, which was brought by 
ship from London to Leith, and after many delays was 
conveyed to Branxholm, and, carried thence attended 
by a great body of retainers, was with much heraldic 
pomp interred among his ancestors. St Mary's was the 
parish church till 1844, when the large and handsome 
edifice in the Norman style of architecture, seated for 
1300, built at the W of the town at the expense of the 
Duke of Buccleuch, was generously given by his Grace 
to the parish church congregation, and became the parish 
church. St Mary's became the property of the Duke, 
and was made a quoad sacra church in 1S60, the Duke 
furnishing the greater part of the endowment. St John's 
church, built in 1879-SO by subscription at a cost of 
£6000, is a fine Early English structure with 800 sittings. 
St John's is a quoad saera parish. Wilton parish church, 
built in 1860, is a beautiful edifice, and contains 950 
sittings. St Cuthbert's Episcopal church, a fine build- 
ing in the Early Decorated style, was erected and en- 
dowed by the Duke of Buccleuch. There are also three 
Free churches, three IT. P. churches, and a Congregational, 
Baptist, and Roman Catholic church. In connection 
with the parishes of Hawick and Wilton there are two 
public cemeteries of large extent, finely situated and 
ornamented and kept in beautiful order. 

Consequent on the passing of the Education Act in 
1S72, there was a great increase in the number of the 
scholars. The town previously was well supplied with 
school accommodation. The parish school buildings 
and teacher's residence, built at the expense of the Duke 
of Buccleuch, were freely transferred to the school board, 
as were the Industrial school (afterwards called Drum- 
Ian rig school) and St Mary's school. The parish school 
of Wilton was also transferred to the board. With the 
compulsory clause and the rapid advance of population, 
additions were needed and have been carried out on a 
large scale in all the older schools. A new school, a large 
and elegant building with teacher's residence, was erected 
on the Jedburgh road for the accommodation of children 
in the NE end of the town. The following are the 
statistics of school accommodation, average attendance, 
and government grants earned for the school year end- 
ing 31 Oct. 1882 : — Buccleuch school Senior and Infant 
642, 678, £541, 4s. ; Trinity Senior and Infant 424, 
364, £318, 10s. ; Drumlanrig 50S, 3S7, £312, 17s. 6d. ; 
Wilton 510, 406, £368, 2s. 3d. ; St Mary's Infant 232, 
146, £112, lis. The total accommodation is 2316, 
attendance 1981, grant £1653, 4s. 9d. Besides the 
board schools there are academies and private schools, 
and schools receiving government grants in connection 
with the Episcopal and Bonian Catholic churches. 
There are also Art and Scientific classes. 


It is interesting to trace the progress of the town in 
manufactures to the rank which it now holds as tha 
first manufacturing town in the South of Scotland. 
Previous to the erection of any of the factories, and 150 
years ago, the first and largest nursery and seed business 
perhaps in the kingdom was established by Mr Dick- 
son, and carried on by his successors, the Messrs Dick- 
son and Messrs Turnbull, till of late years. From these 
nurseries there sprang the first nurseries in Edinburgh 
and Perth, and numbers of trained gardeners were from 
time to time sent forth to take charge at the seats 
of noblemen and gentlemen of all the departments of 

Hawick, being the centre of a great pastoral region, 
and having a number of waterfalls on the Teviot and 
Slitrig, and a people characterised by much intelli- 
gence and enterprise, soon entered on the manufac- 
turing career which has since made it famous. A 
century ago lands, with the water all on the NW side of 
Teviot, were acquired from the estate of Langlands for 
factory purposes, and some time afterwards the Duke of 
Buccleuch gave 99 years' leases of the lands on the E of 
the Slitrig at a nominal rent. Before that time a com- 
pany instituted the manufacture of carpets, table-covers, 
and rugs. This trade continued till 1806, when it was 
given up. The manufacture of broad linen tapes was 
commenced in 1783 and carried on to 1800. The year 
1771 is memorable in the annals of Hawick for the com- 
mencement of the stocking manufacture and the intro- 
duction of the stocking frame, an industry which rapidly 
flourished, and is now carried on to such an extent as 
places Hawick without a rival in Scotland for the making 
of all kinds of hosiery. The honour of founding this 
trade is due to Mr John Hardie, merchant, a bailie of 
the town, a man of notable vigour and of great humour. 
The yarn was carded in the town, and was spun by the 
wives and daughters of farmers in the surrounding 
country. The supply of yarn from the country being 
inadequate for the demand, the manufacturers soon 
afterwards introduced the new spinning machinery. 
The first to bring it in were the Messrs Nixons and 
Wilsons. Mr Hardie's enterprise was followed and ex- 
tended by many of the predecessors of the firms of the 
present time — the Wilsons, the Laings, the Watsons, the 
Elliots, the Pringles, and the Laidlaws, who, besides the 
manufacture of hosiery, engaged in the manufacture of 
flannels, shawls, plaids, and blankets. About 1830 
various firms commenced the manufacture of shepherd's 
checks, the first kinds of twilled cloth, usually called 
twills, and corrupted into the popular name of tweeds, 
and these were followed by the many kinds' of checks 
and stripes, the endless variety of colours and mixtures 
in the plain and fancy styles of all kinds of this famous 
manufacture. Messrs Dicksons and Laings first introduced 
power looms, and, with these and steam pow : er in all 
the factories, the trade rapidly grew into its present 
magnitude. Several firms relinquished the making of 
hosiery, and confined their energy to the extended 
making of tweeds, and now there are in Hawick several 
of the largest and most prosperous tweed factories in 
Scotland. Many of the improvements in the carding, 
spinning, and weaving machinery were suggested and 
carried out here in order to make the machinery for the 
production of woollen goods equal to that employed in 
cotton manufactories. There are no w eleven tweed woollen 
factories, all large, and supplied with the most improved 
machinery. Great extensions in the hosiery manufac- 
ture have been made by the introduction of power loom 
machines, very complex and costly mechanisms, into 
the larger factories of the two Messrs Laings, and of 
Elliot & Priugle. Each of these, wrought by a woman, 
does the work of several men on the frame wrought by 
hand. There are at present thirteen hosiery manu- 
factories at work. Besides these, the great staple 
industries, there are dye-works, tanneries, an oil manu- 
factory, an iron foundry, and an engineering estab- 
lishment. The steadiness of trade in Hawick is much 
due to the absence of strikes and the good feeling which 
exists between the employers and their workers. 






Coming to the oldest industry, grazing and agriculture, 
Hawick has long been its centre in the Border counties. 
This again has been very greatly owing to the house of 
Buccleuch. The lands far around were let on the easiest 
terms, and for two centuries, considering the quality of 
the soil, at a lower rent than anywhere known. This, 
with the security of the tenure, engendered a state of 
things which produced wealth, and as wealth grew the 
desire arose on the part of the tenants to increase their 
acres. Formerly a large number of small farms existed, 
but as the stronger grew in intelligence and wealth, 
they dispossessed their weaker neighbours, and prin- 
ciples of political economy coming in to second those 
efforts, the smaller farms were gradually extinguished, 
and in the existence of the large and wealthy farms 
now, we are brought to see an illustration of the sur- 
vival of the fittest. The writer of this article is one 
of those who regrets the extinction of so many 
small farms, but however this may be, the Duke of 
Buccleuch is the most generous of landlords. No- 
where will one see better houses or more commodious 
steadings than those which are seen in this Border land. 
This circumstance, and the situation and prosperity of 
the town, have made it a great market of grain, and 
especially of live stock. The old fairs for the sale of 
stock have long disappeared, and have been succeeded 
by the well-known sales in the auction mart. One of 
the first originators of these sales in Scotland was the 
father of the present Mr Oliver of Thornwood, who has 
long been known as one of the most extensive salesmen 
by auction of live stock in the kingdom, and at whose 
principal sales, attended by breeders from all parts, as 
man)' as 25,000 sheep and lambs have been disposed of 
in a single day. Besides his principal sales at the mart, 
extending to many acres, near the railway station on the 
river Haugh, covered with wooden pens, and a large 
stone erection for the accommodation of cattle, there is 
a weekly auction every Monday. The weekly corn 
market is held on Thursday, and hiring, cattle, wool, 
and sheep and lamb fairs are held at periods between 
springtime and the beginning of winter. 

The great public festival of the year is the Common 
Riding, and is celebrated at the beginning of June. The 
practice of riding the town's marches dates from time im- 
memorial. On the morning of the first day the Cornet, 
with his mounted troop, all gaily dressed, an d bearing a flag 
the facsimile of one which their ancestors captured from a 
company of English soldiers in the neighbourhood, after 
the battle of Flodden, rides round the municipal lands, 
and this part of the ceremony is concluded by their 
singing in the town, accompanied by the attending 
multitude, the song of The Colour, the rousing martial 
Common Riding song ! The music dates from the most 
ancient times, and expresses more than any other air 
the wild and defiant strain of the war tramp and the 
battle shout. The song seems to have been founded in 
the invocation of the early Saxon warriors to their chief 
deities Thor and Odin before their conversion to the 
Christian faith. In the Anglo-Saxon language it is 
'Tyr hcebbe us, ye Tyr ye Odin,' which is 'May Tyr 
have us, both Tyr and Odin.' The song has been 
changed by local poets in its descent to recent times. 
One refrain of it once was — 

' T for Tiri, for Odin, 
H for Hawick, and C for Common.' 

One of the older versions, still used, was composed 
about a century ago by Arthur Balbirnie. It begins 
thus — 

* We'll a' hie to the muir a-riding, — 
Drurnlanrig gave us for providing — 
Our ancestors of martial order, 
To drive the English o'er the Border. 

■ Up wi' Hawick's rights and common. 
Up wi' a' the Border Bowmen : 
Teribus and Tcri Odin, 
We are up to ride our Common.' 

The more popular song, and the one now sung after 
the riding of the marches, was composed by James 

Hogg nearly seventy years ago. The following are some 
of the stanzas — 

' Scotia felt thine ire, O Odin ! 
On the bloody field of Flodden ; 
There our fathers fell with honour, 
Round their king and country's banner. 

' Teribus, ye Teri Odin, 
Sons of heroes slain at Flodden, 
Imitating Border Bowmen, 
Aye defend your rights and Common. 

* 'Twas then Drurnlanrig, generous donor, 
Gave (immortal be his honour) ! 
What might soothe Hawick's dire disaster, 
Land for tillage, peats, and pasture.' 

The song goes on to describe the victory of the Hawick 
men over a plundering party of English soldiers below 
the town ; and then concludes — 

1 " Hawick shall triumph 'mid destruction," 
Was a Druid's dark prediction ; 
Strange the issues that unrolled it 
Cent'ries after he'd foretold it. 

' Peace be thy portion, Hawick, for ever ! 
Thine arts, thy commerce nourish ever • 
"Down to latest ages send it — 
" Hawick icas ever independent.' ' 

The present municipal constitution of the burgh 
was established by a special act of parliament in 
1861. It is governed 
by a provost, 4 bailies, 
and 12 councillors, who 
also act as Police Com- 
missioners. In 1S67 it 
acquired the rank of a 
parliamentary burgh, 
and, united with Gala- 
shiels and Selkirk, 
returns one member 
to parliament. The 
electors were fortunate 
enough to secure the 
services of the Right 
Hon. George Otto 
Trevelyan, one of 
the most energetic 
and distinguished of 

the younger statesmen on the Liberal side, and between 
him and the great body of his constituents there has 
always been a harmony of political sentiment. The 
annual value of real property rose from £33,652 in 
1872 to £57,556 in 1S83. The revenue derived from 
the burgh property is £1765. The parliamentary 
electors number 2470, the municipal 3013. The popu- 
lation of the burgh extended to its present limits was 
(1S61) 10,401, (1871) 11,356, (1881) 16,184, and is 
rapidly increasing. 

The history of Hawick shows that the people have 
been distinguished for intelligence, enterprise, courage, 
and a love of political freedom. If few have attained to 
lasting national distinction, it has always been rich in 
humourists, poets, and local historians, who have 
sweetened its native air and enrobed its romantic 
scenery in the charms of literature. In his valuable 
history James Wilson says— that Gawin Douglas, after- 
wards Bishop of Dunkeld, was appointed rector of 
Hawick in 1496. According to Dr Laing, the late 
celebrated antiquary, the reading of the original 
MS. is Haiochc, which was the old name of Linton 
or Prestonkirk, near Dunbar. It is therefore doubt- 
ful at least whether the poet bishop tuned his Virgilian 
verse by the banks of the Slitrig. The Rev. William 
Fowler, parson of Hawick, was celebrated as a poet and 
a scholar. Several of his pieces in MS. are preserved in 
the library of the University of Edinburgh. The Rev. 
Alexander Orrok, who died in 1711, a profound divine 
and one of the leaders of the Church of Scotland, was a 
man of warm and extensive charity, and a promoter of 

Seal of Hawick. 


higher education, leaving a large part of his property 
for an endowment to the Grammar School. The Rev. 
William Crawford, minister of Wilton, who died in 
1742, was the author of several religious works of a 
high order, eminently practical, and much read through- 
out the country. Dr Thomas Somerville, for nearly 60 
years minister of Jedburgh, and celebrated for his his- 
tory of the reign of Queen Anne, was born in the parish 
manse, and was the son of the minister. The Rev. Dr 
John Young, minister of the first antiburgher congrega- 
tion, a man of powerful ability, was the author of various 
works, and, among them, of a work in explanation and 
defence of the British Constitution, a book written to 
expose and counteract the revolutionary sentiments 
which spread in many parts of the country after the 
French Revolution. The book came to the notice of Mr 
Pitt, who was so struck with its force, and impressed 
with its utility for the times, that he sent a complimen- 
tary letter to Dr Young, and secured a pension for two 
of his daughters. The parish of Wilton enjoyed for 53 
years the ministry of Dr Samuel Charters, a man of 
warm benevolence and exalted piety, a deep thinker, an 
accomplished scholar, a Christian philosopher, whose 
excellences shine in his published sermons, and in his less 
known Essay on Bashfulncss, which reveals such a de- 
licate knowledge of the human heart, and such a power 
of portraying its most tender movements, as to give him 
a place among the more famous sentimentalists of the 
land. Mr Robert Wilson, a native of the town, and de- 
voted to its interests, published his history of Hawick 
in 1825. The annals of the town and neighbourhood, 
after much and learned research, were compiled by Mr 
James Wilson, the town clerk, and were published in 
1850. This work has been much approved, has been 
widely circulated, and has stimulated the production 
of similar annals of other towns. Foremost, however, 
of all the citizens of Hawick in national reputation, 
stands James Wilson, long the editor of the Economist, 
and the chief expounder of the principles of political 
economy which have been widely dominant throughout 
the empire. Having entered Parliament he rose in 
influence and authority, and at a very peculiar and 
critical juncture in our Eastern affairs, after the Mutiny, 
was appointed and sent out to act as the Finance Minister 
of India. He brought his great knowledge and energy 
to bear on the accumulated difficulties which met him, 
and in a short time succeeded in promoting the most 
beneficial improvements in the regulation of taxation 
and finance. But very soon his career was terminated 
by a fatal disease induced by his extraordinary exertions, 
and he died to live in the memory of his contemporaries, 
and in the role of the great aud beneficent statesmen 
whom Britain has been enabled to give to sway the 
destinies of the Indian Empire. 

Previous to 1850 the parish of Hawick reached from 
Teviot stone, the source of the river, to 1 mile below the 
town, 16 miles long, by 2 to 3 miles broad. It thus in- 
cluded a large part of the vale of the ' sweet and silver 
Teviot. ' In the above year the larger part was disjoined, 
and, with a considerable part of the parish of Cavers, 
was formed into the quoad ovinia parish of Teviothead. 
The Duke of Buccleuch was here also the benefactor, 
building both church and manse at his own expense, 
giving ground for the glebe, and furnishing the 
greatest part of the stipend. The parish is 6 miles from 
SW to NE, 3 miles broad, and contains 6203J acres, of 
which 90| are water. At the hamlet of Newmill, at the 
upper end, there is a landward school, with schoolhouse, 
with accommodation for 117 children, an average atten- 
dance of 72, and a grant of £70, 14s. The scenery of 
the parish is soft and beautiful throughout — Teviot, 
with its tributaries, the Allan, the Borthwick, and the 
Slitrig, flowing through smiling valleys richly cultivated, 
rising into slopes and knolls crowned with woods, and 
backed by ranges of undulating hills. Branxholm stands 
on an elevated terrace above the Teviot, rich in its an- 
cient woods, the scene of Sir Walter Scott's Lay of the 
Last Minstrel, and of one of Allan Ramsay's finest songs, 
dedicated to The Bonnie Lass of Branksome — 


' As I cam' in by Teviotside, 
And by the braes of Branksome, 
There first I saw my blooming bride, 
Young', smiling:, sweet, and handsome." 

Nearer the town, and on a beautiful eminence which 
commands one of the finest views on the Border, stands 
the ancient tower or peel of Goldielands, one of the 
most complete now in the South of Scotland. It has 
been already mentioned that the approach to the town, 
alongside the parks and woods of Teviot Lodge, is of 
remarkable beauty, and, after leaving the town, fair 
Teviot has the same tale to tell. The valuation of the 
landward parish was £4547 in 1882. In 1881 the popu- 
lation of the entire parish was 11,758, of whom 5211 
were in Hawick parish, 3464 in St Mary's quoad sacra, 
and 3083 in St John's quoad sacra. 

1 Sweet Teviot, on thy silver tide, 

The glaring bale-fires blaze no more, 
No longer steel-clad warriors r}de 
Along thy wild and willowed shore. 

'AH now is changed, and halcyon years 

Succeed the feudal baron's sway ; 
And trade, with arts and peace, appears, 
To bless fair Scotia's happier day.' 

Hawkhead, an estate, with a mansion, in Abbey 
parish, Renfrewshire, on the left bank of the White 
Cart, 1\ miles SE of Paisley. It belonged in the 
middle of the 15th century to the doughty Sir John 
Ross, wdiose son and namesake appears in the parlia- 
ment roll of 1489-90 as the first Baron Ross of Hawk- 
head — a title that expired with the fourteenth Lord in 
1754. The estate passed first to his eldest sister, Mrs 
Ross Mackye, and next to a younger sister, Elizabeth, 
widow of the third Earl of Glasgow. Her son, the 
fourth Earl, succeeded her in 1791, and in 1815 was 
created Baron Ross of Hawkhead in the peerage of the 
United Kingdom. (See Kel3Tjrne Castle. ) Hawkhead 
House, originally a large ancient tower, underwent such 
enlargement in the time of Charles I. as to take the 
form of a quadrangle. It was visited in 1681 by the 
Duke of York, afterwards James VII. Repaired and 
improved in 17S2, it is now an irregular pile of antique 
appearance, with gardens originally formed in the Dutch 
style, and a finely-wooded park. — Ord. Sur. , sh. 30, 1866. 

Hawthornden, the romantic home of the poet Drum- 
mond, in Lasswade parish, Edinburghshire, 1J mile NE 
of Roslin, and 5 furlongs NW of Hawthornden Junction 
on the Peebles branch of the North British, this being 
11^ miles S by E of Edinburgh. Standing upon the 
steep right bank of the North Esk's rocky pine-clad 
glen, classic Hawthornden is ' a venerable and pictur- 
esque looking edifice. The left side, as you face it, con- 
sists of a hoary mass of ivy-clad masonry, perhaps 600 
years old, while the inhabited part to the right is a 
pleasant irregular house, with gables and a turret in the 
style of the 17th century.' Over the doorway are carved 
in marble the armorial bearings of Dr William Aber- 
nethy Drummond (1720-1809), Bishop of Edinburgh ; 
and near them is a Latin inscription by the poet, telling 
how in 1638 he restored the house for himself and his 
successors ; whilst a tablet, placed by the Bishop on tin 
gable, runs — ' To the memory of Sir Lawrence Aber- 
nethy of Hawthornden , a brave and gallant soldier, who 
in 1338 conquered Lord Douglas five times in one day, 
yet was taken prisoner before sunset.' Within, the 
most interesting objects are a great two-handed sword, 
Robert Bruce's 'tis said ; a good portrait of the poet's 
father, Sir John Drummond, who was gentleman-usher 
to James VI. ; and a poor one of the poet himself. He, 
William Drummond, the ' Scottish Petrarch,' was born 
here on 13 Dec. 1585 ; here in the winter of 1618-19 he 
entertained Ben Jonson, who had walked from London 
to Edinburgh ; and, here, broken-hearted by Charles I.'s 
execution, he died on 4 Dec. 1649. The present owner 
is Sir James Hamlyn Williams-Drummond, fourth Bart, 
since 1828 (b. 1S57 ; sue. 1S6S). The grounds are of 
great beauty, and contain a large sycamore, called the 
'Four Sisters' or 'Ben Jonson's Tree,' whilst a rocky 
seat is named the ' Cypress Grove ' after Drummond's 




first published production. Some curious artificial caves 
are in cliff's below the mansion and further up the North 
Esk's ravine. Formed, it would seem, with prodigious 
labour out of solid rock, they communicate one with 
another by long passages, and have access to a draw-well 
of great depth, bored from the court-yard of the man- 
sion. Like the 'earth-houses' of the North, they pro- 
bably belong to prehistoric times. Three of them bear 
the names of the King's gallery, the King's bedchamber, 
and the King's dining-room ; and they were occupied in 
133S as military retreats by the adventurous band of 
Sir Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie. These caves were 
visited, on 14 Sept. 1842, by Queen "Victoria. A fine 
view is got of Hawthornden from a point of rock over- 
hanging the river, and popularly called John Knox's 
pulpit : 

' The spot is wild, the banks are steep, 
With eglantine and hawthorn blossom'd o'er, 
Lychnis, and daffodils, and hare-bells blue ; 
From lofty granite crags precipitous, 
The oak, with scanty footing, topples o'er, 
Tossing his limbs to heaven ; and, from the cleft, 
Fringing the dark -brown natural battlements, 
The hazel throws his silvery branches down ; 
Then, starting into view, a castled cliff, 
'Whose roof is lichen'd o'er, purple and green, 
O'erhangs thy wandering stream, romantic Esk, 
And rears its head among the ancient trees.' 

See Prof. David Masson's Drummond of Hawthornden 
(Lond. 1S73), and John Small's Castles and Mansions of 
the Lothians (Edinb. 1883).— Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Hayland or Hailan, Loch. See DtrNNET. 

Hayocks, an estate, with a mansion, in Stevenston 
parish, Ayrshire, 1 mile NE of the town. 

Haystoun, a farmhouse in Peebles parish, Peebles- 
shire, amid fine old trees on a knoll overhanging the 
right bank of Glensax Burn, 2 miles S by E of Peebles 
town. Built in 1660, and forming three sides of a quad- 
rangle, it is a good example of an old-fashioned country- 
seat; and over its chief entrance has a tablet, sculptured 
with the armorial bearings of the Hays, who acquired 
the estate in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries. 
Its present proprietor, Sir Robert Hay of Smithfield and 
Haystoun, eighth Bart, since 1635 (b. 1825 ; sue. 1867), 
holds 9755 acres, valued at £4515 per annum. The 
reach of Glensax Burn through the grounds is often 
called Haystoun Burn.— Ord Sur., sh. 24, 1864. 

Haywood. See Hetwood. 

Hazelbank, a village in Lesmahagow parish, Lanark- 
shire, on the left bank of the Clyde, near Stonebyres 
Fall, U miles WNW of Lanark. Pop. (18S1) 319. 

Hazlefield House, a mansion in Rerwick parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, 10J miles SSW of Dalbeattie. 

Hazlehead, a mansion in Newhills parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, 3 miles W by S of Aberdeen. The estate, S32 
acres, has a yearly value of £1130. 

Heacamhall, Heacle, or Hecla. See Uist, South. 

Head of Ayr, a rocky, precipitous headland in May- 
bole parish, Ayrshire, flanking the S side of the Bay of 
Ayr, 4 miles SW of Ayr town. Abutting from the 
northern skirt of Brown Carrick Hill, it has an alti- 
tude of 258 feet above sea-level, and consists of black, 
earthy, tufaceous trap, traversed at one part by a thick 
basaltic vein. — Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Hearthstane Burn. See Harestane. 

Hebrides or Western Islands, a large group or series 
of groups of islands and islets extending along the 
greater portion of the western coast of Scotland. 
Anciently, the Hebrides comprehended also the islands 
in the Firth of Clyde, the peninsula of Kintyre S of the 
narrow neck of land between East and West Loch Tar- 
bert, the island of Rathlin off the NE coast of Ireland, 
and even the Isle of Man, but the modern Hebrides 
embrace only the islands flanking the W coast from 
Cape Wrath on the N to Kintyre on the S, and extend- 
ing from 58° 32' of N latitude to 55° 33', or a distance, 
measuring in a straight line from the Butt of Lewis on 
the N to the Mull of Islay on the S, of 205 miles. The 
islands are divided into two main groups, the Inner 
Hebrides and the Outer Hebrides. The former extend 

along the coast for 150 miles, measuring in a straight 
line from the Point of Aird at the N end of Skye to the 
Mull of Islay at the S end of the island of that name ; 
and the distance of the various islands from the main- 
land varies from less than half a mile at the narrow 
strait of Kyle Rhea, at the SE corner of Skye, to 18J 
miles at the N end of Skye, 51A at Tyree, and 21 
at the S end of Islay. The Inner Hebrides are divided 
into two portions by the Point of Ardnamurchan. The 
division to the N may be called the Skye group, and 
consists of Skye with the adjacent islands of South 
Rona, Fladda, Eaasay, Scalpa, Longa, Pabbay, Soay, 
Canna, Rum, Eigg, and Muck, and a number of smaller 
islets. These are separated from the mainland by part 
of the Minch, the Inner Sound, Kyle Akin, the mouth 
of Loch Alsh, Kyle Pihea, Glenelg Bay, and the Sound 
of Sleat. All the islands belong to the county of Inver- 
ness, except Rum, Canna, Muck, Sandy, which are in 
Argyll, and some small islets close inshore along the 
coast to the N of Loch Alsh, which are in Ross-shire. 
Rum, Eigg, Canna, Muck, and Sandy are known as 
the Small Isles. The division S of Ardnamurchan falls 
into two sub-divisions — the Mull group extending from 
Ardnamurchan S to the Firth of Lome, and the Islay 
group extending from the Firth of Lome southward 
along the coast of Kintyre. The first group contains 
Mull, with the cluster of islands round it, viz., Lis- 
more, Kerrera, Iona, Staffa, Eorsa, Gometra, and Diva, 
while westward are the small group of the Treshinish 
Islands, and still farther W the islands of Coll and Tyree. 
Besides these there are a number of smaller islets, in- 
cluding, to the SSW of Tyree, the rock on which the 
Skerryvore Lighthouse is built. The group is separ- 
ated from the mainland by the Sound of Mull, the 
sound between Lismore and the mainland, and the 
Sound of Kerrera. The second group has the largest 
island, Islay, at the extreme S end, and gradually tapers 
to the NNE by Jura, Scarba, Luing, Shuna, and Seil. 
To the E of Islay, and within a mile and a half of the 
Kintyre coast, is the island of Gigha, while to the W of 
Jura are Colonsay and Oronsay. The group is separated 
from the mainland by the narrow passages to the E of 
Seil and Shuna, and farther S by the Sound of Jura. 
The whole of the islands S of Ardnamurchan are in 
the county of Argyll. 

The Outer Hebrides or Long Island group lies to the 
W of the Inner Hebrides, and has the long triangular 
portion known as Lewis to the N, and an extended 
irregular chain tapering away in a S by W direction. 
The northern extremity is W by S of Cape Wrath, and 
distant from it 46 miles, while the southern extremity 
at Barra Head is W by N of Ardnamurchan, and dis- 
tant from it 54 miles. The islands extend from N 
latitude 58° 31' at the Butt of Lewis, to 56° 48' at Barra 
Head, and over a distance, measuring in a straight line 
between these two points, of about 130 miles ; and they 
are so closely connected that the whole chain is often 
spoken of as the Long Island. To the N is the largest 
island of the Hebrides, the northern part of which is 
known as Lewis, while the southern part is called 
Harris. Off the NE of Lewis are the Shiant Isles, 
while on the W side, in Loch Roag, is the island of Great 
Beruera. Off the E coast of Harris, at the entrance to 
East Loch Tarbert, is the island of Scalpa, while on the 
W and S are Scarpa, Taransay, Ensay, Killigray, Groay, 
and a very large number of smaller islands and islets. 
Separated from this island by the Sound of Harris is the 
island of North Uist; and across a narrow channel 
about A mile wide, still farther S, is Benbecula. To the 
S of Benbecula, and separated from it by the Sound of 
Benbecula, is South Uist, with the Sound of Barra at 
its southern extremity ; and to the S of this lies the last 
sub-group of the Outer Hebrides known as the Barra 
Isles. North and South Uist and Benbecula in reality 
form only one island, as the straits separating them are 
fordable between half tide and low water. At the N 
end of North Uist are the smaller islands of Shillay, 
Pabbay, Berneray, Boveray, Valay, Tahay, Hermetray ; 
on the SE are Flodda, Rona, and Grimisay ; while to 


the SW is Baleshare Island, with 8 miles to the W the 
group of small islands known as the Monach Islands. 
There are a number of islets about Benbecula, but the 
only one of any size is Wiay at the NE corner. Con- 
nected with South Uist the only islands of importance 
are Eriskay and Lingay at the S end. Of the Barra 
Isles the principal is Barra, with the isles of Fioray, 
Fuda, Gighay, and Hellisay, at the N end ; and 
A r atersay, Muldoanich, Flodday, Sanderay, Lingay, and 
Pabbay ; while farther S still are Mingalay and Bernera, 
the latter being the most southerly of all the Outer 
Hebrides. About 20 miles off the centre of the W coast 
of Lewis is the small group of the Flannan Isles or the 
Seven Hunters. Sixty miles W of Harris in N latitude 
57° 49' 20", 'set far amid the melancholy main,' is the 
small group consisting of St Kilda and the adjacent 
islets of Levenish, Soa, and Boreray. Lewis is separated 
from the W coast of Ross and Sutherland by the arm of 
the Atlantic called the Minch, which is from 24 to 40 
miles wide ; while Harris, North Uist, and Benbecula 
are separated from Skye by tbe Little Minch, which is 
from 15 to 18 miles wide. A line following the course 
of the stream flowing into the head of Loch Resort, and 
then turning round the S end of the high ground 
between Loch Langabhat and Loch Seaforth, and 
reaching the latter about the centre of the W side, 
opposite the centre of Eilean Seaforth, is the boundary 
between Lewis and Harris. The former, with the 
Shiant Isles, belongs to the county of Koss ; Harris and 
all the other islands to the S are in Inveruess-shire. 
' The disposition,' says Hugh Miller in his Cruise of the 
Betsey, ' of land and water on this coast suggests the 
idea that the Western Highlands, from the line in the 
interior whence the rivers descend to the Atlantic with 
the islands beyond to the Outer Hebrides, are all parts 
of one great mountainous plain, inclined slantways into 
the sea. First the long withdrawing valleys of the 
mainland, with their brown mossy streams, change 
their character as they dip beneath the sea-level and 
become salt-water lochs. The lines of hills that rise 
over them jut out as promontories, till cut off by some 
transverse valley, lowered still more deeply into the 
brine, and that exists as a kyle, minch, or sound, swept 
twice every tide by powerful currents. The sea deepens 
as the plain slopes downward ; mountain-chains stand 
up out of the water as larger islands, single mouutains 
as smaller ones, lower eminences as mere groups of 
pointed rocks ; till at length, as we pass outwards, all 
trace of the submerged land disappears, and the wide 
ocean stretches out and away its unfathomable depths. 
. . . But an examination of the geology of the coast, 
with its promontories and islands, communicates a 
different idea. These islands and promontories prove 
to be of very various ages and origin. The Outer 
Hebrides may have existed as the inner skeleton of 
some ancient country contemporary with the mainland, 
and that bore on its upper soils the productions of 
perished creations at a time when by much the larger 
portion of the Inner Hebrides — Skye and Mull and the 
Small Isles — existed as part of the bottom of a wide 
sound inhabited by the Cephalopoda and Enaliosaurians 
of the Lias and the Oolite.' The rock of the Outer 
Hebrides is gneiss, as is also that of Iona, Tyree, and 
Coll, and it is to the hard tough nature of this that 
their continued existence is still due, for, acting as a 
screen to protect the western coast of the mainland from 
the wild waves of the Atlantic, they have to withstand 
the fury of a surge that would probably have long since 
destroyed anything less durable. Even as it is, the 
broken character of the groups, the winding character 
of the coast-lines, and the number and the twisting 
shores of the bays and lochs attest the severity of the 
struggle. The currents and waves in the narrow straits 
and passages are everywhere powerful and dangerous, 
and require the greatest skill and care in their naviga- 
tion, while in stormy weather they are often for days, 
and sometimes even for weeks, quite impassable. 'The 
steamship ploughs her way through the passage, though 
sometimes with difficulty, and those who stand on her 


deck look down on the boiling gulf in safety, but it is 
different with those who sit in a tiny craft with the 
water lapping around and over them, and the bubbling 
roar painfully audible. These tideways are ugly indeed 
to the seaman's eye.' One of the most dreaded passages 
is the Gulf of Corrievrechan between Scarba and Jura. 
It 'is the Hebridean Mahlstrom, ever regarded with 
fearful eyes by the most daring sailors of the inland 
deep. Poets may be allowed to sing like Campbell of 
"the distant isles that hear the loud Corbrechtan 
roar ; " or, like Scott, of 

' " Scarba's isle, whose tortured shore 
Still rings to Corryvreckan's roar," ' 

but the dread in the heart of the seaman is far from 
poetical, for, much as the accounts have been exag- 
gerated, the danger is very real here as elsewhere, ' con- 
sisting, not in the whirlpools, but in the terrific sea, 
raised by the wind when contending with the tidal 
wave and the long Atlantic swell in the narrow passage 
of the sound. . . . Caught in the numberless cur- 
rents, a ship becomes at once unmanageable, and must 
drive whither Fate directs, either to strike ou some 
corner of the coast, or to spring her planks and sink to 
the bottom ; or perhaps, as happened on one traditional 
occasion, to be swept in safety out of the tide along the 
Jura shore. In the most dangerous part of the gulf, 
where it is a hundred fathoms deep, there is a sub- 
merged pyramidal rock, rising precipitously to within 
fifteen feet of the surface, and the result is a sub- 
aqueous overfall, causing in its turn infinite gyrations, 
eddies, and counter-currents. There is most danger at 
the flood tide, which sets from the eastward through 
the gulf at the rate of ten or twelve miles an hour, and 
encounters the whole swell of the Western Atlantic 
rolling into the narrow sound. At the turn of the tide 
there is a brief lull, during which in calm weather boats 
have passed through ; but the attempt is at all times to 
be avoided, as the slightest miscalculation as to the 
tides, or the sudden rising of the wind, would render 
escape impossible. ' The roar of Corrievrechan is heard 
at all times at a considerable distance. In all the 
narrower passages the tidal currents run so strong, that 
it is quite impossible for a sailing vessel to attempt to 
oppose them. The water whirls and seethes and boils, 
tossing boat or vessel about, now in one direction, now 
in another, and carrying either helplessly forward, for 
unless the wind be very fresh, it is left behind, and the 
helm is useless. The squalls, too, are very dangerous 
and fickle, and the Minch is particularly noted for its 
stormy seas. ' Go in December,' says Robert Buchanan, 
in speaking of the wildness of the Hebridean straits, ' to 
the Sound of Harris, and on some stormy day gaze on 
the wild scene around you ; the whirling waters, sown 
everywhere with isles and rocks — here the tide foaming 
round and round in an eddy powerful enough to drag 
along the largest ship — there a huge patch of sea-weed 
staining the waves, and betraying the lurking reef 
below. . . . Watch the terrors of the great Sound, 
the countless reefs and rocks, the eddies, the furious 
wind-swept waters, and pray for the strange seamen 
whose fate it may be to drive helplessly thither. Better 
the great ocean in all its terror and might. ' 

The scenery of the Inner Hebrides does not differ 
very much from that of the barer and wilder parts of 
the Highlands. There are the same rugged mountains, 
with stretches of moorland or peat moss alternating with 
rough pasture or stony waste, the same hill crofts, and the 
same cultivated districts in the low grounds and along 
the courses of the streams or the shores of some of the 
bays. In the Outer Hebrides, however, the difference is 
considerable. There the islands are destitute of wood ; 
and though they are all more or less hilly, the hills are 
low, except in Harris, where they reach an extreme 
height of 2662 feet, and they are, besides, everywhere 
so smooth and heavy in their outlines as to possess but 
little grandeur. To the S of the Sound of Harris, 
between that island and North Uist, the hilly ground is 
chiefly confined to the E coast, while the western shore 



is flat, and still further S there are wide tracts of peat- 
moss. The cliffs are generally too low to show any 
striking rock scenery ; but the shores of Lewis in many 
places form an exception, as do also the cliffs of the 
islands of Bernera and Mingalay at the extreme S, which 
rise to a height of over 1000 feet, and are the dwelling- 
places of enormous numbers of sea-birds. Tame as the 
scenery in general may seem, however, to be, there are 
times and seasons when it presents aspects of beauty 
and grandeur. 'What,' says Macgillivray, 'can be 
more delightful than a midnight walk by moonlight 
along the lone sea-beach of some secluded isle, the 
glassy sea sending from its surface a long stream of 
dancing and dazzling light ; no sound to be heard save 
the small ripple of the idle wavelet, or the scream of a 
sea-bird watching the fry that swarms along the shores ! 
In the short nights of summer the melancholy song of 
the throstle has scarcely ceased on the hill-side, when 
the merry carol of the lark commences, and the plover 
and snipe sound their shrill pipe. Again, how glorious 
is the scene which presents itself from the summit of 
one of the loftier hills, when the great ocean is seen 
glowing with the last splendour of the setting sun, and 
the lofty isles of St Hilda rear their giant heads amid 
the purple blaze on the extreme verge of the horizon.' 
In another passage he thus draws the picture of the 
winter storms: 'After a continued gale of westerly 
winds, the Atlantic rolls in its enormous billows upon 
the western coasts, dashing them with inconceivable 
fury upon the headlands, and scouring the sounds and 
creeks, which, from the number of shoals and sunk 
rocks in them, often exhibit the magnificent spectacle 
of terrific ranges of breakers extending for miles. Let 
any one who wishes to have some conception of the 
sublime, station himself upon a headland of the W coast 
of Harris during the violence of a winter tempest, and 
he will obtain it. The blast howls among the grim and 
desolate rocks around him. Black clouds are seen 
advancing from the W in fearful masses, pouring forth 
torrents of rain and hail. A sudden flash illuminates 
the gloom, and is followed by the deafening roar of the 
thunder, which gradually becomes fainter, until the 
roar of the waves upon the shore prevails over it. 
Meantime, far as the eye can reach, the ocean boils and 
heaves, presenting one wide-extended field of foam, the 
spray from the summits of the billows sweeping along 
its surface like drifted snow. No sign of life is to be 
seen, save when a gull, labouring hard to bear itself up 
against the blast, hovers overhead, or shoots athwart 
the gloom like a meteor. Long ranges of giant waves 
rush in succession towards the shores. The thunder of 
the shock echoes among the crevices and caves ; the 
spray mounts along the face of the cliffs to an astonish- 
ing height ; the rocks shake to their summit ; and the 
baffled wave rolls back to meet its advancing successor. ' 
The Hebrides are, however, seen to most advantage 
in distant sea views, and these, whether from the main- 
land or from amid the islands themselves, are always 
strikingly picturesque, and in many cases cause a 
pleasant surprise by their wild and lonely beauty. 
Coleridge says that the distant view of the Hebrides 
from some point he had forgotten was one of the five 
finest things in Scotland. The point was probably that 
which afforded him his first view from the SE about 
Kintyre, and though his idea is a somewhat exaggerated 
one, yet, under good conditions of light, the appearance 
thus presented is very fine. Hugh Miller has thus 
described an evening view from the W coast of Ross-shire 
at the Gairloch : — ' flow exquisitely the sun sets in a clear 
calm summer evening over the blue Hebrides ! Within 
less than a mile of our barrack there rose a tall hill, whose 
bold summit commanded all the Western Isles from Sleat 
in Skye to the Butt of Lewis. To the south lay the 
trap islands ; to the north and west the gneiss ones. 
They formed, however, seen from this hill, one great 
group which, just as the sun had sunk, and sea and sky 
were so equally bathed in gold, as to exhibit on the 
horizon no dividing line, seemed in their transparent 
purple — darker or lighter according to the distance — a 


group of lovely clouds, that, though moveless in the 
calm, the first light breeze might sweep away. Even 
the flat promontories of sandstone, which, like out- 
stretched arms, enclosed the outer reaches of the fore- 
ground — promontories edged with low red cliffs, and 
covered with brown heath — used to borrow at these 
times from the soft yellow beam a beauty not their own. 
Amid the inequalities of the gneiss regions within— a 
region more broken and precipitous, but of humbler 
altitude than the great gneiss tract of the midland 
Highlands — the chequered light and shade lay, as the 
sun declined in strongly contrasted patches, that be- 
trayed the abrupt inequalities of the ground, and bore 
when all around was warm-tinted and bright, a hue of 
cold neutral grey.' Cuthbert Bede, in referring to a 
sunset view from the Kintyre end, speaks in similar 
terms of ' the long stretch of Islay and Jura with their 
purple peaks standing out so sharply against the broad 
bars of molten gold, and the nearer islets floating in a 
sea whose hue changed from bright emerald to deepest 
violet, with countless sparkles at every throb.' Viewed 
from the Sound of Jura the conical and far-seeing Paps 
of Jura close up the view immediately on the N, and 
rise to a height of 2569 feet ; the north-eastern point 
of Islay is screened by the dark and broken precipices 
of M'Carter's Head ; the eastern entrance of the sound 
seems dotted over with islets, or walled across with the 
spray of the vexed waters ; Colonsay lies away to the W, 
and on the E the rugged summits of Arran tower aloft 
in the distance, and over the intervening seas and the 
peninsula of Kintyre. From Dunolly Castle, near Oban, 
there is an excellent view of the S group of the inner 
Hebrides, while from Ardnamurchan there is one still 
more extensive and impressive. ' To the south lies Mull in 
mist, piling her dull vast hills out above the line of break- 
ing foam ; while away to the south-west, cairn after cairn 
looming through the water show where barren Coll is 
weltering in the gloomy waste. To the far west, only 
cloud resting on cloud, above the dim unbroken water- 
line of the Atlantic. But northward all brightens, for 
the storm has passed thence with the wind, and the 
sunlight has crept out cold and clear on craggy Rum, 
whose heights stretch grey and ghostly against a cloud- 
less sky. Hard by, in shadow, looms the gigantic 
Scaur of Eig, looking down on the low and grassy line 
of Muck, 

' " Set as an emerald in the casing sea." 

Beyond all these, peeping between Rum and Eig, pen- 
cilled in faint and ghostly peaks hued like the heron's 
breast, are the wondrous Cuchullin Hills of Skye — born 
of the volcano on some strange morning in the age of 
mighty births. The eye seeks to go no farther. It 
rests on those still heights, and in a moment the perfect 
sense of solitude glides into the soul ; thought seems 
stationary, brooding over life subdued.' Lord Teign- 
mouth, indeed, speaking of Skye, is bold enough to 
claim that ' the grandest scenery perhaps of Scotland 
occurs in the south-eastern division of the island. 
Crossing Loch Slapin, I proceeded along the rugged 
coast of Strath to its point called the Aird, a promon- 
tory which — penetrated by caverns, or severed into 
buttresses, in some places projecting far in tabulated 
ledges over the sea, tinted richly with yellow, green, 
and other colours — presents a strikingly beautiful and 
majestic front to the stormy ocean, to the ravages of 
which its shattered and perforated precipices bear ample 
testimony. Reflecting the rays of an unclouded sun, it 
offered a brilliant contrast to the dark forms of Rum 
and the neighbouring islands which rose to the south- 
ward. We rowed slowly under the Aird, as every cove 
or buttress deserves attention, till the opposite headland 
beyond Loch Scavaig discovered itself, and as we entered 
the bay the precipitous and serrated ridges of the Coolin 
Mountains towered in all their grandeur above the 
shores, terminating a perspective formed by the steep 
side of the two prominent buttresses of the range, and 
enclosing the gloomy valley and deep dark waters of Loch 
Coruisk, from which the principal peaks rise abruptly.' 



One very peculiar feature of the Hebrides is the im- 
mense number of lochs scattered everywhere about, and, 
indeed, taking them all in all, there is no part of the 
known world more watered from above and from below 
than the Hebrides, for during more than two-thirds of 
the year they are drenched with almost incessant rain, 
while, wherever the islands are not intersected by wind- 
ing arms of the sea, they abound in rivulets or fresh- 
water lakes. Immense numbers of tiny waterfalls streak 
their cliffs where little burns rush down, and gradually 
gather into larger streams. Of these last, upwards of 
forty are large enough to contain salmon, and they also 
abound in trout and eels. Lakes and lochans are so 
numerous, particularly in the Outer Hebrides, as to 
almost defy numeration. They are everywhere 'as 
thickly sown amid the land as islands amid the Pacific 
waters.' The lakes in North Uist aione, which measures 
about 13 by 16J miles, were counted by one careful 
observer up to the number of 170, and these were sup- 
plemented by such a number of lochans that it was too 
tedious to reckon them. The entire number of lochs in 
the Hebrides may indeed be safely computed at 1500, 
and their area as extending over 50,000 acres, of which 
those of Lewis and Uist alone cover more than half. 
These lakes, though they frequently interrupt communi- 
cation and occasion other inconveniences, offer but little 
compensation in return except by providing breeding 
and dwelling places for various species of water birds 
and of fish. They are mostly shallow, none exceeding 
3 or 4 fathoms in depth, and are indeed, both in them- 
selves and in their surroundings, of a character such as 
the genius of improvement would seek to banish alto- 
gether. The islands are also extensively intersected by 
inlets and arms of the sea, many of which have winding 
shores, with narrow fiords branching off in all directions, 
and spreading about in a regular network of waters. 
Loch Maddy, for instance, in North Uist, has only a 
surface area of 10 miles, but yet its shore-line measures 
fully 300 miles. So numerous and branching are these 
sea-lochs that their windings give the islands a coast- 
line of about 4000 miles, and their deep and long-reach- 
ing bays are eminently valuable in connection with the 
fishings for the sheltered harbours they afford for boats 
and ships. 

The area of the Hebrides, exclusive of foreshores and 
the larger lochs, is in round numbers 1,S00,000 acres or 
2S12 square miles. As regards size, the islands may be 
distributed into four classes. The first class, containing 
the largest islands, includes Islay, Jura, Mull, Skye, 
both Uists, and Harris and Lewis, and these taken 
together comprehend about eight-ninths of the entire 
area. The second class includes Gigha, Colonsay, Luing, 
Seil, Eerrera, Lismore, Ulva, Gometra, Tyree, Coll, 
Eigg, Rum, Raasay, Rona, Barra, Benbecula, and Ber- 
nera. The third class includes Scarba, Lunga, Easdale, 
Inniskenneth, Iona, Muck, Canna, Scalpa, Fladda, 
Flodda, Eriskay, Pabbay, Boveray, and Taransay. 
The fourth class includes about 120 tiny islets with 
some little productive value, and a large number of 
rocky islets and skerries. Inclusive of these last the 
entire number of islands and islets has been set down 
in round numbers as 500, but understanding islands 
and islets to be objects which on a large map have a 
distinct figure and characteristic outline, the number is 
reduced to about 160, and of these 100 are at present — 
18S3 — inhabited all the year round, while a number of 
others are inhabited temporarily during the summer 
months only. The inhabited islands, with their popu- 
lations in 1871 and 1S81 respectively, are as follows : — 
In Argyllshire, Balnahua (146 ; 10S), Calve (7 ; 10), 
Canna (48 ; 57), Cara (4 ; 4), Cama (9 ; 7), Coll (723 ; 
643), Colonsay (408 ; 387), Danna (54 ; 40), Devaar (5 ; 
5), Diminish (4 ; 24), Easdale (504 ; 460), Earrait (122; 
51), Eriska (5 ; 7), Frielhouse (3 ; 1), Garvelloch (10 ; 
0), Gigha (3S6 ; 378), Gometra (26 ; 30), Inniskenneth 
(S ; 8), Iona (236 ; 243), Islay (S143 ; 7559), Jura (761 ; 
773), Kerrera (101; 103), Lismore (720; 621), Luing 
(582 ; 527), Lunga (5 ; 17), MacCaskin (8 ; 6), Muck 
(53 ; 51), Mull (5947 ; 5229), Musdale (10 ; 9), Oronsay 

in Morvern (17 ; 0), Oronsay beside Colonsay ^48 ; 10), 
Oversay (13 ; 15), Pladda at Jura (9 ; 10), Rum (81 ; 
89), Sanda (57 ; 14), Sanday (58 ; 62), Scarba (7 ; 19), 
Seil (731 ; 661), Sheep in Kilbrandon (4 ; 2), Sheep off 
Lismore (6 ; 4), Shuna in Kilbrandon (15 ; 14), Shuna 
off Lismore (14 ; 8), Skerryvore (3 ; 3), Skerryvuille 
(14 ; 19), Torsay (20 ; 10), Tyree (2834 ; 2730), Ulva off 
Kintyro (19 ; 19), Ulva in Kilninian (71 ; 53). In 
Inverness-shire are Balleshare (246 ; 266), Barra (1753 ; 
1869), Benbecula (1563; 1661), Bernera (373; 452), 
Berneray (38 ; 72), Boveray (146 ; 137), Calvay (0 ; 6), 
Eigg (282; 291), Ensay (6; 6), Eriskay (429; 466), 
Fladda (76; 87), Flodda (54; 54), Fuda (6; 6), Grimisay 
in North Uist (283 ; 292), Grimisay in South Uist (6 ; 
28), Harris (3008 ; 3463), Heisker (114 ; 111), Hellisay 
(5 ; 9), Hut (6 ; 10), Killigray (9 ; 6), Kirkibost (9 ; 12), 
Levera (8 ; 11), Mhorgay (8 ; 6), Mingalay (141 ; 150), 
Monach (11 ; 13), Ornsay (42 ; 47), Pabbay off Barra 
(24 ; 26), Pabbay off Harris (8 ; 2), Pabbay oil' Strath 
(6 ; 10), Raasay (389 ; 478), Rona (157 ; 176), Ronay 
(6 ; 6), St Eilda (71 ; 77), Sanderay (7 ; 10), Scalpa 
(421 ; 540), Scalpay (48 ; 37), Scarp (156 ; 213), Shona 
(102; 118), Skye (17,330; 16,889), Soay (120; 102), 
Taransay (68 ; 55), North Uist (3222 ; 3371), South 
Uist (3669 ; 3825), Vallay (48 ; 29), Vatersay (23 ; 19), 
Wiay off Skye (5 ; 4), Wiay off South Uist (6 ; 5). In 
Ross are Bernera (539 ; 596), Croulin (26 ; 9), Lewis 
(22,939; 24,876), Pabay (0; 9), Shiant_(5; 6). The 
uninhabited islands of any note are Ree in Argyll and 
Ascrib in Inverness. 

Westerly winds prevail on an average from August 
till the beginning of March, and are generally accom- 
panied by very heavy rains ; but during most of March, 
and often also during October and November, a NE or 
NNE wind prevails, and this, though intensely cold, is 
generally dry and bracing. Northerly and southerly 
winds are not very frequent, and seldom last more than 
two or three days. The mountains of Jura, Mull, and 
Skye, attaining to an elevation of from 2000 to 3000 
feet, intercept the damp winds blowing oil' the Atlantic, 
and so draw down on the land in their vicinity large 
quantities of moisture ; but they at the same time 
modify the climate around them, and screen the lower 
land in their neighbourhood from the violent winds 
that sweep everywhere off the sea. Though the com- 
paratively low islands of Tyree, Coll, Benbecula, North 
Uist, and the low seaboards of Harris and Lewis have 
abundance of rain, they are probably little, if at all, 
damper than the western sea-board districts of the 
mainland. Frost and snow seldom cause much incon- 
venience on the large or high islands, and are almost 
unknown on the small and low ones. Rain falls on an 
average on 264 days in the year, and the amount of 
rainfall is about 48 inches. The mean temperature for 
November, December, January, and February is 39°, 
for the rest of the year 49°. Owing to the comparative 
warmth of the islands and the lowness and closeness to 
the sea of the arable ground, and notwithstanding the 
damp and their unsheltered position, grasses and corn 
attain maturity at a very early period after their first 
start from the ground. In the southern isles sown hay 
is cut down between the latter end of June and the 
middle of July, and in the northern isles ten to fourteen 
days later ; iu all the islands barley is often reaped in 
August, and crops of all sorts secured in September ; and 
in Uist, Lewis, and Tyree, bere has ripened and been cut 
down within ten weeks of the time of sowing. In spite 
too, of the same unfavourable conditions, longevity is 
of as frequent occurrence as among an equal amount of 
population in any other part of Europe, and many of 
the old prevalent diseases are here, just as on the main- 
land, losing their epidemic and malignant character. 

Soils and Agriculture. — In a region so extensive there 
is, as might be expected, a great diversity of soils. It 
has been said of the Outer Hebrides that ' nature has 
wasted her capabilities in a climate to which she has 
refused vegetation, nay even denied a soil ; that which 
is not rock is sand, that which is not sand is bog, 
that which is not bog is lake, that which is not 



lake is sea,' but this is very much exaggerated ; and 
although the islands as a whole are by no means very 
fertile, there are yet many districts where the land is 
fairly productive, and they are indeed more populous 
and aggregately more productive than the same extent 
of many parts of the mainland Highlands, or even of 
the mountainous parts of Northumberland, Cumberland, 
and Westmoreland. Islay, for example, has 36 square 
miles of a thin stratum of decomposed limestone, occa- 
sionally intermixed with clay and gravel, 6everal miles 
of rich clay land, and some thousands of acres of good 
loam. Gigha, with red clay and gravel, and inferior to 
many of the islands in natural capabilities, affords an 
excellent example of what might, by vigorous and judi- 
cious management, be accomplished in many seemingly 
inhospitable parts of the Highlands. Jura, though 
seeming to a cursory glance to be mostly mere barren 
mountain, yet contains some fertile patches of clayey 
gravel and patches of stony loam, as well as many 
hundred acres of improvable moss. Mull, though pre- 
dominantly upland moor, has a considerable tract of 
soil formed from disintegrated basalt, and producing 
good grassy sheep pasture. Lismore has abundance of 
grass, and where well managed the calcareous soil yields 
good results under tillage. Skye possesses all the 
varieties of soil found in the Scottish Lowlands, except 
pure sand, and, notwithstanding the prevalence of barren 
mountains and marshy moor, there are patches of con- 
siderable fertility. In one parish alone there are 4000 
acres of as fine loam and loamy clay on a gravelly 
bottom as are to be found anywhere in Scotland. The 
Outer Hebrides, over most of the seaboard and in por- 
tions of the interior, have a soil of disintegrated gneiss 
or granite, which, when mixed with clay or shell sand, 
or when manured with the sea-weed that lies plentifully 
at hand, yields abundant crops of oats and bere. All 
along the western side of this chain there is a good deal 
of sand-drift, but the action of this may here be regarded 
as beneficial. The tenant of the land is for the time 
being injured, and the land rendered barren in places 
where the sand rests too deep, yet the sand is shell-sand, 
and where it does not lie too deep is of immense benefit 
to the soil. In North and South TJist, in Barra, in 
Coll, in Harris, in Colonsay, and in many of the other 
islands as well, the sand is drifted into the interior, 
where, at the marshy ground along the base of the 
hills, it meets with the moisture it needs, and peat, on 
which it acts as a manure. ' It brings on a coat of 
verdure, where nothing grew before but heath ; whence 
that which on the flat and arid shores is the cause of 
small spots of barrenness, is, in its progress, the source 
of extensive fertility. The springing of white clover is 
one among the results which prove this good effect, as 
that is an invariable result of the application of cal- 
careous matter to Highland pastures. The proprietors 
have not hitherto been aware of the nature of this pro- 
cess, of so much importance in the agriculture of these 
islands. They have forgotten to note the difference 
between their own lands and those which sand injures ; 
judging by habit, and forgetting to observe or reason.' 
About two-thirds of the entire Hebrides may be reckoned 
as moor or moss, and there is a considerable portion 
bare rock or pure sand ; but the moss is of great value 
and importance, both as capable of improvement into 
pasture or arable land and as providing the only fuel 
used throughout the islands. It has been estimated 
that of the whole area about 200,000 acres are arable 
and meadow land ; about 23,000 are occupied by vil- 
lages, farmhouses, gardens, and gentlemen's parks ; about 
11,000 are occupied as glebes, churchyards, and school- 
masters' crofts ; about 800,000 as hill pasture, paying 
rent, and partially enclosed ; about 26,000 dug for peat 
or occupied by roads, etc. ; about 30,000 is barren sand 
and bare rock ; and about 700,000 is occupied by moor, 
marsh, and undrained lochs. 

The Hebrides were in the beginning of the present 

century distributed into 49 estates, 10 of which yielded 

from £50 to £500 of yearly rental, 22 from £500 to 

£3000, and 8 from £3000 to £18,000. Six of the largest 



were in possession of noblemen. About one-fifth of all 
the land is under strict entail, and about three-fifths 
belong to absentees. The great estates are managed by 
factors, who usually reside on them. In the actual 
working of the soil four different classes are con- 
cerned : first, proprietors, who keep their lands under 
their own management ; second, tacksmen, who hold 
land under ' tacks ' or leases, and with rents of over £50, 
and sometimes amounting to several hundred pounds 
a year ; third, tenants who hold lands of the proprietor 
without leases, and whose rents are from £20 to £50 
a year ; fourth, crofters holding land without lease either 
of the proprietor or of the tacksman, and whose rents 
never exceed £20 a year, and are generally very con- 
siderably below that sum. This class may be taken to 
include the cottars of some districts, who are sub-tenants 
holding from year to year. Some of the proprietors 
who work their own lands have extensive estates, and 
are keen and successful agriculturists. The tacksmen 
used formerly to be connected with the proprietors by 
clanship or blood, and formed a body of resident gentry ; 
but after the rebellion of 1745, most of the chiefs anct 
other proprietors suddenly raised the rents, and deprived 
the tacksmen of the power of sub-letting their lands. 
The sudden rise of rents took the tenants by surprise, 
and large numbers of them emigrated in disgust and 
despair. The present tacksmen are simply the larger 
tenants, with security of holding, and it is much to be 
regretted that similar security is not given to the smaller 
tenants, as to the lack of it is due the utter absence of 
any attempt at improvement. The crofters and cottars, 
who form the great bulk of the population, are very 
similar to the cottars of the mainland, and a consider- 
able portion of their small rents is often paid in labour. 
Generally with large families — whom they in many cases 
prefer to have with them in a state of abject misery 
rather than send them out to service, which they esteem 
a great hardship — they would in most cases be very 
much happier in the actual position of ordinary day- 

When the old tacksman system was broken up, about 
the middle of last century, many of the farms held by 
tacksmen seem to have been taken directly from the 
proprietor by joint-tenants, who grazed their stock upon 
the pasture in common, and tilled the arable land in 
' run-rig,' that is, in alternate 'rigs' or ridges, distri- 
buted annually. Since the commencement of this cen- 
tury, the arable land has in most cases been divided 
among the joint-tenants or crofters in separate portions, 
the pasture remaining as formerly in common. The 
first effect of this division into separate crofts was a 
great increase of produce, so that districts which had 
formerly imported food now became self-supporting. 
But evils followed which had not been foreseen. So 
long as the farms were held in joint-tenancy there was 
a barrier to their further sub-division which could rarely 
be overcome. But when each joint-tenant received his 
own separate croft, this restraint for the most part 
ceased. The crofters who had lived in hamlets or clus- 
ters of cottages now generally established themselves 
separately on their crofts. ' Their houses, erected by 
themselves,' says Sir John M'Neill, who was appointed 
by Government to report on the district in 1850, in 
consequence of the great distress in 1846, 'are of stone 
and earth, or clay. The only materials they purchase 
are the doors, and, in most cases, the rafters of the roof 
on which are laid thin turf, covered with thatch. The 
crofter's furniture consists of some rude bedsteads, a 
table, some stools, chests, and a few cooking utensils. 
At one end of the house, often entering by the same 
door, is the byre for his cattle ; at the other, the barn 
for his crop. His fuel is the peat he cuts in the neigh- 
bouring moss, of which an allotted portion is often 
attached to each croft. His capital consists of his cattle, 
his sheep, and perhaps one or more horses or ponies ; 
of his crop that is to feed him till next harvest, pro- 
vide seed and winter provender for his animals ; of 
his furniture, his implements, the rafters of his house, 
and, generallv, a boat, or share of a boat, nets or other 



fishing gear, with some barrels of salt-herrings, or 
bundles of dried cod or ling for winter use.' As origin- 
ally portioned out the crofts appear to have been quite 
sufficient to maintain the crofter's family, and yield the 
landlord his yearly rent. But when kelp was largely 
and profitably manufactured, when potatoes were exten- 
sively and successfully cultivated, when the fishings 
were good, and the price of cattle was high, the crofter 
found that his croft was more than sufficient for his 
wants ; and when a son or a daughter married, he 
divided it with the young couple, who built themselves 
another house upon the ground, sharing the produce, 
and contributing to the rent. Thus many crofts which 
are entered on the landlord's rent-roll as in the hands 
of one man, are, in fact, occupied by two, three, or even 
in some cases, four families. On some estates efforts 
were made to prevent this sub-division, but without 
much success. If the erection of a second house on the 
croft were forbidden, the married son or daughter was 
taken into the existing house ; and though the land 
might not be formally divided, it was still required to 
support one or more additional families. It appears 
that attempts were made in some cases to put an end to 
this practice, 'but it was found to involve so much 
apparent cruelty and injustice, and it was so revolting 
to the feelings of all concerned, that children should be 
expelled from the houses of their parents, that the evil 
was submitted to and still continues to exist.' The 
population thus progressively increasing received a still 
farther stimulus from the kelp manufacture. This pur- 
suit required the labour of a great number of people for 
about six weeks or two months in each year ; and as it 
was necessary to provide them with the means of living 
during the whole year, small crofts were assigned to 
many persons in situations favourable for the manufac- 
ture, which, though not alone able to maintain a family, 
might, with the wages of the manufacture, suffice for 
that end. When a change in the fiscal regulations de- 
stroyed this manufacture, the people engaged in it were 
thrown out of employment, and had they not been 
separated by habits and language from the majority of 
the population of the kingdom, they would no doubt 
have gradually dispersed and sought other occupations. 
But having little intercourse with other districts, which 
were to them a foreign 'Country, they clung to their 
native soil after the manufacture in which they had been 
engaged was abandoned. Their crofts were then insuffi- 
cient to afford them subsistence. Emigration somewhat 
retarded the increase of numbers, but the emigrants were 
the more prosperous of the tenants and crofters, not the 
persons who had difficulty in supporting themselves at 
tome. The proprietors, anxious to check the redundant 
population, and to increase their rents so materially 
reduced by the decay of the kelp manufacture, let the 
lands vacated by the emigrants to tacksmen, who were 
able, by their large capital and the new system of sheep- 
farming, to pay higher rents than the crofters could 
offer. These increased rents were at the same time col- 
lected at less cost, with less trouble, and with more 
certainty. The proprietors were thus led to take every 
opportunity of converting lands held by crofters into 
large farms for tacksmen, planting the displaced crofters 
on fishing crofts and crofts on waste land, and thus the 
crofters who had supplanted the first race of tacksmen 
were in turn supplanted by a new race. 

In the beginning of the present century many of the 
landlords in the Hebrides devoted themselves vigorously 
to the improvement of both land and people, and, in 
general, with great success. The chief improver at an 
early date, both as to extent and energy, was Campbell of 
Islay, who so revolutionised the agricultural character 
of that island between 1820 and 1840, that, from a con- 
dition of being obliged to import grain to the value of 
£1200 annually, it passed into a condition of being able 
to supply a sufficiency of grain for all the Hebrides and 
the Western Highlands. Mr Clark, of Ulva, went to Bel- 
gium in 1S46, in order to study the system of petite cul- 
ture, so that he might introduce it on his estate in the 
Hebrides, but he says — ' The result of my investigation 

was to convince me that the Belgian system was alto- 
gether unsuited for Ulva or any other part of tho 
Hebrides ;' and, indeed, though the croft system is in 
most cases precisely a system of spade husbandry, the 
results will always differ widely from those obtained on 
the Continent with better soil and a finer climate. The 
peasant proprietary which generally accompanies spade 
husbandry seems, for the same reason, equally unsuit- 
able, for Mr Walker, who, as one of the assistant-com- 
missioners on the Royal Commission on Agriculture, 
instituted extensive inquiries into the state of the 
Hebrides, and had ample opportunity of studying the 
subject, gives, in a minute and painstaking report, pub- 
lished in a blue-book in 1881, the following very decided 
opinion : — ' Peasant proprietors on such islands would be 
a failure ; a large and rich proprietary willing to spend 
for the benefit of property and people is what is most 
required, and will do most good.' Pre-eminently such a 
proprietor as Mr Walker seems to desiderate was the 
late Sir James Matheson, the greatest benefactor of the 
Hebrides in the present age, who, in 1844, purchased 
the vast estate of Lewis from the representatives of the 
last Earl of Seaforth. For 417,416 acres the sum of 
£190,000 was paid, and since then a sum of over 
£400,000 has been expended in rebuilding a number of 
houses, of which there are altogether about 3500 on the 
estate, in making 170 miles of good road, in constructing 
roads and draining, etc. The heaviness of some items 
of outlay may be imagined when it is mentioned that 
all the wood, lime, and slate had to be imported spe- 
cially, while £4000 was spent in relieving cases of dis- 
tress during the famine in 1846 and 1S47 ; and £10,069 
in aiding families to emigrate in 1851, '52, '55, '62, '63, 
during which years 2231 persons left, mostly for Canada. 
The present proprietrix of the estate is Lady Matheson. 
When Sir James purchased Lewis in 1844, it was in a 
very primitive condition, and, notwithstanding all his 
efforts for its improvement, it is still far from occupying 
the position it might. Were the crofters only energetic 
much might be done by the proper trenching of the 
gravelly or clay -gravel soils exposed by the cutting and 
removal of peat for fuel. The clay-gravel is difficult 
to drain, and heavy, but the lighter parts would yield 
good crops, while the mixture of decomposed rock soils 
with moss makes land that yields excellent natural 
grass. The ordinary crops of the Hebrides are oats 
(mostly the black variety), here, rye (in a few of the 
sandy districts), turnips, and potatoes. The latter hold 
indeed a similar place in the Hebrides to what they do 
in Ireland, and constitute four-fifths of the food of the 
inhabitants, and so any failure in the potato crop is 
always followed by severe distress, sometimes almost 
universal, and, if accompanied by any other failures, 
leads to necessity for direct aid from without. This was 
strikingly shown in 1846 and 1847, after the first out- 
break of the potato disease ; and again in the present 
winter (18S2-83) distress has been exceptionally severe, 
as not only was the potato crop a failure in 1882, but 
also the East Coast fishing, on which so many of the 
crofters largely depend, while at the same time a violent 
gale, in the autumn, utterly destroyed the crop just as 
it was ready for being cut. 

The agricultural condition of the two groups of the 
Inner Hebrides may be gathered from the condition of 
Islat, Rum, and Skte, for which reference may be made 
to these articles. In the Outer Hebrides there is 
hardly any such thing as regular scientific cultivation, 
as no rotation is observed except upon a few of the 
larger farms, and, indeed, on some crofts where the 
whole produce is necessary for the subsistence of man 
and beast, no part of the arable land has been under 
grass or allowed to rest for more than 100 years, while 
in many cases the seaweed, which is almost the only 
manure employed, is very exhausting to the soil. 
Where rotation is observed, the shift is either five, six, 
or seven, as best suits the particular case. In Lewis 
there are 36 farms with a rental of £4878, lis. 10d., 
and of these 10 are altogether pasture, while in 14 a 
few acres are cultivated for winter keep of stock, and ia 



12 there is fairly good cultivation. There are 2790 
crofts, with a total rental of £8104, 5s. 7d., or nearly 
£2, ISs. of rental for each, occupiers having also the right 
of pasture in the moorland in the centre of the island, 
which enables them on an average to keep 4 cattle and 
10 sheep, while there is on an average 1 horse or pony 
for every 4 crofts. The yearly produce of 2000 of the 
best crofts is 8 bolls of meal and 4 tons of potatoes. In 
the case of the others, the produce is less ; and a good 
deal of meal has to be imported. The best arable land 
rents at 15s. per acre, medium at 10s., and poor at 5s. 
All these remarks apply also to Harris except that it is 
rougher, and the patches of arable land are smaller and 
more difficult to cultivate. In North Uist the state of 
things is the same, but the soil is drier and yields best 
returns in moderately wet seasons. On the sandy soil 
rye is cultivated. The yield of grain is 2J to 2f quarters 
per acre, potatoes 5 tons, and turnips 10 to 12 tons. 
The rent of the best arable land is 10s. per acre 
medium 5s., poor 2s. 6d. In Benbecula and South 
Uist the state of matters is almost exactly the same, as 
it is also in the islands still farther to the S. The 
bere is not reaped in the ordinary way, but is plucked 
up by the root and used for thatching the houses. The 
thatch consists of two layers, and every spring the 
upper layer is taken off and laid carefully aside, while 
the under layer, which has become considerably de- 
cayed, and has got very much impregnated with soot 
from the peat smoke of the winter, is taken off, and 
spread over the fields as potato manure. The upper 
layer is then replaced on the roof, and in autumn re- 
ceives a covering of fresh straw, and the process is re- 
peated every year. The newer houses are fairly good, 
but the older are very primitive structures, mostly 
without chimnej-s or windows, though some of them 
have a solitary pane of glass inserted in the thatch. 
They are low, rounded at the corners, and with round 
roofs, which, in general appearance, bear a strong re- 
semblance to a potato pit. The walls, which are seldom 
more than 5 feet high, are constructed of two fences 
of rough boulders packed in the centre with earth, and 
in some cases 5 to 6 feet thick. People and cattle are 
all stowed away together under one roof, and only in 
some cases is there a partition between the part set 
aside for the human beings and that which shelters 
animals. There is only one entrance, and the floor of 
the end belonging to the cattle is made lower, so that the 
compost may collect during the whole of the winter, and 
be all taken out at once in spring to be used as manure. 
The thatch roof is held down by ropes of heather, cross- 
ing one another, and secured against wind by large 
stones tied to their ends. The floor is of hard clay, and 
the fire is in the centre. 

As might be expected from the estimated amount of 
arable and grazing land already given, the pasture lands 
of the Hebrides are much more important than the 
arable grounds, and comprehend by far the greater 
portion of the islands. The high pastures yield herb- 
age all the year round, while the low, though luxuriant 
and rich during summer and autumn, are totally useless 
in winter and spring. A large amount of very rich 
pasture occurs in Skye, Islay, Lismore, Tyree, the 
Uists, and Lewis, and much of it with better manage- 
ment ought to yield far better results than it does. 
That in North Uist is better adapted for cattle than 
sheep, while the grazing of Barra is the best in the 
Hebrides. The breed of cattle — the same as in the 
Highlands — was originally the same in all the islands, 
but now various kinds have been introduced. The 
Islay and Colonsay cattle are much superior to those in 
the other islands, and command a price from 50 to 100 
per cent, higher. Attention is given to breeding, and 
not to fattening. Very good cheese and butter are 
produced, the excellent quality being due to the good- 
ness of the milk. On farms in the Stornoway district 
the cattle are mostly Ayrshire crosses, but elsewhere 
they are of the Highland breed, and inferior in quality. 
About 1500 head of cattle annually leave the Lewis 
district alone and in addition 200 are slaughtered in 


Stornoway, or, in other words, about one in every eight 
of the Lewis cattle is converted into money every year. 
The animals in the possession of the farmers are much 
superior to those of the crofters, and bring a higher 
price in the market, the former selling at from £6 to 
£10, and the latter at from £2, 10s. to £6, 10s. In 
North Uist, Benbecula, South Uist, and the islands to 
the S, the state of matters is the same, but the High- 
land cattle of North Uist are the best in the Hebrides. 
The cattle fairs at Stornoway and Loch Maddy are 
events of the Hebridean year. The sheep are of a 
number of different breeds. Down almost to the 
beginning of the present century the only breed known 
was the native or Norwegian sheep, the smallest in 
Europe, thin and lank, with straight horns, white face 
and legs, and a very short tail. It was probably in- 
troduced at the time of the Scandinavian invasion. 
Early in the century the black-faced breed was intro- 
duced, and soon made its way, as it was three times 
heavier and more valuable than the former, and was at 
the same time equally hardy. About the middle of the 
century the Cheviot breed was introduced, and now the 
principal breeds are these and the black-faced, though 
crosses, half-bred and grey-faced, are also being intro- 
duced. In the Outer Hebrides the cost to the tacksmen 
for grazing Cheviot or cross is about 3s. 6d. a head, 
and to the crofters for black-faced about Is. 6d. In 
summer both cattle and sheep are herded in common, 
the crofters paying the expense of watching in propor- 
tion to the number of their sheep. Ponies are very 
common, and those of Barra were at one time very 
celebrated, but they have of late years fallen off. Such 
horses as there are are very undersized even in Lewis, 
where Sir James Matheson made great efforts for their 
improvement by the introduction at his own expense of 
excellent stallions. Improvement, indeed, is needed, 
not only in breeding, but in feeding and tending. One- 
year-old ponies sell at from £3 to £5 ; older and larger 
animals at from £10 to £15 ; and animals of the best 
class at from £20 to £30. Pigs were formerly held in 
great aversion, but are now reared in some districts in 
considerable numbers. 

Fislieries, etc. — The shores of the Hebrides and the 
W coast of the adjacent mainland form an excellent 
fishing ground, but the industry is not by any means 
so largely developed as it might be, and this is due to 
many causes, but in particular to the want of good 
harbour accommodation. The crofters would, indeed, 
be badly off were it not for the harvest of the sea, and 
yet their lack of energy and their poverty prevent them 
from taking full advantage of it, and allow the energy 
and enterprise of the East Coast fishermen to carry off 
the greater part of the spoil. In consequence of the 
nature of the shores and the violence of the sea, fishing 
is scarcely possible along the western coast of the Outer 
Hebrides. The favourite stations are along the coasts of 
Knock and Lochs in Lewis, and at Loch Boisdale and 
Barra farther S. In the beginning of the present 
century the herring fishing, though subject, as it 
always is, to considerable fluctuations, was good ; but 
between 1830 and 1840, it fell off to a large and 
alarming extent, and caused during that time, and 
particularly in 1S36 and 1837, a very great amount of 
misery and destitution. Iu 1840 the herring returned 
in large shoals, but so sudden and unexpected was their 
reappearance that the people, utterly unprepared, had 
not salt enough to cure the herrings they caught, and 
could in that year realise little other advantage than a 
temporary increase in their own immediate supplies of 
food. From that time the fishing has been regular and 
good. There are two seasons — in spring and in autumn. 
The former is carried on by boats from all quarters, but 
the latter is left to the home boats. ' A busy sight 
indeed is Loch Boisdale or Stornoway in the herring 
season. Smacks, open boats, skiffs, wherries make the 
narrow waters shady ; not a creek, however small, but 
holds some boat in shelter. A fleet indeed ! — the 
Lochleven boat from the East Coast with its three masts 
and three huge lugsails ; the Newhaven boat with its 


two higsails ; the Isle of Man "jigger;" the beautiful 
Guernsey runner, handsome as a racing yacht, and 
powerful as a revenue-cutter, besides all tho numberless 
fry of less noticeable vessels from the fat west country 
smack, with its comfortable fittings, down to the 
miserable Arran wherry. Swarms of sea-gulls float 
everywhere, and the loch is so oily with the fish de- 
posit that it requires a strong wind to ruffle its surface. 
Everywhere on the shore and hill-sides, and on the 
numberless islands rises the smoke of camps. Busy 
swarms surround the curing-houses and the inn, while 
the beach is strewn with fishermen lying at length, and 
dreaming till work-time. In the afternoon the fleet 
slowly begins to disappear, melting away out into the 
ocean, not to re-emerge till long after the grey of the 
next dawn. . . . Besides the regular fishermen and 
people employed at the curing-stations, there are the 
herring gutters — women of all ages, many of whom 
follow singly the fortunes of the fishers from place to 
place.' The East Coast boats bring over their own 
women, and on their arrival invariably encamp on 
shore, where the women keep house for the crew. 
The Hebrides are included in five of the twenty-five 
fishing districts into which Scotland is divided. Some 
of these include also portions of the western coasts of 
the mainland. The headquarters of the districts are 
Stornoway, Loch Broom, Loch Carron and Skye, 
Campbeltown, and Inveraray. The number of boats 
employed at these at different dates, with the number of 
men, the value of the whole property in boats, nets, 
and lines, and the number of barrels of herrings salted, 
and the number of cod, ling, or hake taken, is shown 
in the following table : — 



Men and 

Value of 

Barrels of No. of cod, 
herring, etc. , taken. 







So plentiful among the Hebrides are the materials for 
the manufacture of kelp, that for a long series of years 
this was much more valuable than either agriculture or 
fisheries. From the beginning of the manufacture down 
to 1790, the price of kelp per ton was from £2 to £6 ; 
but the subsequent great war with France having checked 
the importation of barilla, the price rose to £15, and 
ultimately to £20, per ton, and from 5000 to 6000 tons 
were produced annually. Till 1822 considerable duties 
were levied on the articles — barilla, pot and pearl ash, 
and black ash — that could compete with it in the 
market ; but in that year the duty on salt (which was, 
along with sulphur, used in the manufacture of black 
ash) was reduced from 15s. to 2s. a bushel. Shortly 
after the duty on barilla was also reduced, and the 
remaining duty on salt, as well as on alkali made from 
salt, was entirely removed. This was in turn followed 
by a large reduction of the duty on foreign sulphur and 
on pot and pearl ash, and an entire removal of that on 
ashes from Canada ; and the consequence was, that the 
kelp manufacture was almost destroyed, and a period of 
great misery and destitution followed. Many of the 
landowners were almost ruined, as they lost at once 
about five-sixths of their rental ; and the large popula- 
tion engaged in the manufacture suriered very severely. 
The price is now about £6 per ton, but the industry is 
almost abandoned, except in North Uist. Down to 
1865, in Benbecula, on an average, about 500 tons were 
made, and in South Uist about 650, yielding a profit to 
the proprietor of about £1200 ; but the manufacture 
there has now almost entirely ceased. The time for 
making kelp is during the months of June, July, August, 
and September ; and that of the Hebrides is inferior to 
the kelp of the Orkneys, and is only used in the manu- 
facture of soap. Since the failure of the kelp manufac- 
ture, the Hebrides may be said to have no industries 
except at one or two places. Mr Campbell of Islay tried 
to introduce the weaving of book muslin on his property, 


by bringing some families of weavers from Glasgow, and 
providing them with cottages and weaving appliances, 
in a locality where weaving was cheap ; but though the 
attempt was well made and duly prolonged, it did not 
succeed. The spinning of yarn formed at one time a 
staple in Islay, and while it flourished, employed all 
the women on the island, £10,000 worth of yarn being 
exported in a year ; but it was unable to withstand the 
competition of the Glasgow manufactories. In Islay, 
now, a good deal of whisky is made, and in Skye there 
is a distillery at Talisker, and a small woollen manufac- 
tory near Portree, while at Easdale and Balnahua there 
are slate quarries of large extent, turning out about ten 
millions of slates annually. There is a small chemical 
work near Stornoway ; and in all the islands a good deal 
of wool is carded, spun, and woven into plaiding, 
blankets, and coarse fabrics. 

The people are a hardy, industrious, patient, and, in 
the main, a contented race, except when external influ- 
ence works on their ignorance or their feeling of hard- 
ships. Reforms in many ways are much needed, but 
have to be carried out with great caution, as the island 
nature is very tenacious of old habits, however wrong. 
The main sources of livelihood of the crofters are their 
small patches of land, and the fishing in winter, spring, 
and autumn at home, and in summer on the East Coast, 
where they supply the boats engaged in the herring 
fishing with ' hired hands. ' The struggle for existence 
is hard even when all these succeed ; when one or more 
fails, much misery is the result. The people have all a 
sad, serious look about them, as if life were too serious for 
laughter. 'There is no smile,' says Robert Buchanan, 
' on their faces. Young and old drag their limbs, not as 
a Lowlander drags his limbs, but lissomly, with a swift 
serpentine motion. The men are strong and powerful, 
with deep-set eyes and languid lips, and they never 
excite themselves over their labour. The women are 
meek and plain, full of a calm domestic trouble, and 
they work harder than their lords.' The last clause 
might indeed in many, many cases be read, that they 
work hard while their lords do nothing at all, and come 
much nearer the truth ; and even Mr Buchanan himself, 
with all his deep appreciation of what is best and 
noblest in their character, and much as he dwells on 
their love of home and family, their purity and their kind- 
liness, is forced to admit the charge of indolence. ' The 
people,' he says, 'are half-hearted — say an indolent 
people. They do no justice to their scraps of land, 
which, poor as they be, are still capable of great im- 
provement ; but their excuse is, that they derive little 
substantial benefit from improvements made where 
there is only yearly tenure. They hunger often, even 
when the fjords opposite their own doors are swarming 
with cod and ling ; but it is to be taken into considera- 
tion that only a few of them live on the sea-shore or 
possess boats. They let the ardent east country fisher- 
man carry off the finest hauls of herring. Their work 
stops when their mouths are filled, and yet they are ill 
content to be poor. All this, and more than this, is 
truth, and sad truth.' The inhabitants of the outer 
islands are very much isolated ; for though steamers 
sail regularly from the Clyde and from Oban to all the 
larger islands, the internal communication, except in 
Lewis and Harris, is poor, and the arms of the lochs 
difficult to cross. People, when they meet, talk, not 
of the weather, but of the state of the fords. In out- 
lying corners the people would fare but badly sometimes, 
were it not for the visits of small trading vessels, barter- 
ing goods of all kinds for fish, or any other marketable 
commodities the people have to dispose of. The inner 
islands are well provided with roads, and have much 
more frequent communication. Skye has communica- 
tion also by steamer with Stronie, the western terminus 
of the Dingwall and Skye section of the Highland rail- 

The only towns of any great importance in the 
Hebrides are Stornoway in Lewis, Tobermory in Mull, 
Bowmore in Islay, and Portree in Skye, while there are 
about twenty villages with populations of over 300. 



Most of these are in Lewis. Almost all the crofter 
townships are along the coast. Some of them are at 
important points of communication, such as Bunessan 
in Mull, Kyle-Akin and Broadford in Skye, Tarbert in 
Harris, and Loch Maddy in North Uist. Fairs for live 
stock are held regularly in Islay, Jura, Mull, Tyree, 
Skye, South Uist, Benbecula, North Uist, and Lewis, 
while dealers travel through all the districts. The 
quoad civilia parishes of the Hebrides are : in Ross-shire 
— Barvas, Lochs, Stornoway, and Uig ; in Inverness- 
shire — Barra, Bracadale, Duirinish, Harris, Kilmuir, 
North Uist, Portree, Sleat, Small Isles (Eigg), Snizort, 
South Uist, and Strath ; in Argyll — the whole parishes 
of Coll, Colonsay, Gigha, Jura, Kilchornan, Kildalton, 
Kilfinichen, Killarrow, Kilninian, Small Isles (Canna, 
Muck, Rum, and Sandy), Torosay, and Tyree, and por- 
tions of the parishes of Ardchattan, Campbeltown, Kil- 
brandon, Kilmartin, Kilmore, Lismore, Morvern, North 
Knapdale, and Southend. There are also included the 
quoad sacra parishes of Cross (in Barvas), Knock (in 
Stornoway), Bernera (in Harris), Halin-in-Waternish 
(in Duirinish), Stenscholl (in Kilmuir and Snizort), 
Trumsigarry (in North Uist), Aharacle (in Ardnamurchan 
and Morvern), Duror (in Lismore), Iona (in Kilfinichen), 
Kinlochspelvie (in Torosay), Oa (in Kildalton), Portna- 
haven (in Kilchornan), Tobermory (in Kilninian), Ulva 
(in Kilninian). There are also 34 Free churches, 2 U.P. 
churches, a Congregational church, 4 Baptist churches, 
3 Episcopal churches, and 5 Roman Catholic churches. 
The Argyllshire section has a sheriff-substitute with his 
headquarters at Tobermory ; the Inverness-shire section 
has a sheriff-substitute at Portree for Skye, and another 
at Loch Maddy for Harris and the islands to the S ; 
in the Ross-shire section there is a sheriff-substitute for 
Lewis, with his headquarters at Stornoway. Of the 
larger islands, Lewis belongs to Lady Matheson ; Harris 
to the Countess Dowager of Dunmore and to Sir E. 
Scott ; North Uist to Sir John W. C. Orde of Kilmory ; 
Benbecula, South Uist, and Barra to Lady Gordon-Cath- 
cart of Cluny. Benbecula and South Uist were purchased 
in 1839 by the late Colonel Gordon of Cluny for£124,229, 
and Barra in 1S40 for £49,500, and since then about 
£6000 has been expended on it. The area of Lewis is 
417,416 acres, and the rental £17,343, 13s. 7d., exclusive 
of Stornoway ; Harris, 122,500 acres, rental £5979, 
9s. Id. ; North Uist, 68,000 acres, rental £5000 ; Ben- 
becula, 22,874 acres, rental £1800 ; South Uist, 82,154 
acres, rental £4S00; Barra, 24,916 acres, rental £1900. 
Pop. of the whole of the islands, (1871) 81,100, (1SS1) 

History. — The Hebrides make their first appearance 
in historical times as the Ebudae of Ptolemy. He 
only knew five islands under that name, and all these 
lay to the S of Ardnamurchan, and were probably Islay, 
Jura, Mull, Scarba, and Lismore, while Skye is men- 
tioned separately as Scetis. The inhabitants at first 
were probably Picts, but by the beginniug of the 7th 
century, while the districts N of a line drawn through 
the centre of Mull belonged to the Northern Picts, those 
to the S had fallen into the hands of the Dalriadic Scots. 
It is from one of the chief Dalriadic tribes, the Cinel 
Loarn, that the Lome district takes its name. The 
islands became known to the Scandinavian sea-rovers 
about the end of the 8th century (a. d. 794), and suffered 
severely from their attacks during the whole of the 9th 
century. In 880 some petty Norwegian kings, who 
resisted the celebrated Harald Harfager's power in the 
north, made permanent settlements in the islands of 
the west, and thence piratically infested the coasts of 
Norway. In 888 Harald retaliated, and according to 
the Islands Landnamabok, subdued all the Sudreys — a 
name given to the Western Islands in distinction to the 
Orkneys, which were the Nordreys or Northern islands 
— so far west that no Norwegian king afterwards con- 
quered more, except King Magnus Barefoot. He had 
hardly returned home, however, when the petty kings 
or vikings, both Scottish and Irish, ' cast themselves 
into the islands, and made war and plundered far and 
wide, but in the following year they fell under a fresh 


ruler. This was one of their own number, Ketill Flat- 
nose, who had settled in the Sudreys, and who now 
probably, however, with Harald's aid, made himself 
their king. By the 10th century the islands had been 
extensively colonised by the Norwegians, and very com- 
pletely subdued to Norwegian rule, and to the Scandi- 
navians they were a valuable possession, and ' eminently 
fitted to serve as a stronghold for the Northern Vikings, 
whose strength consisted almost entirely in their large 
and well-constructed ships.' In 990 the Hebrides passed 
by conquest from the Danes of Dublin into the posses- 
sion of Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, and were governed by a 
deputy appointed by him. Ragnal Macgophra, who had 
seized the supreme power, was driven out by Sigurd in 
1004, and we find a native chief, Gilli (evidently, how- 
ever, tributary to Sigurd), ruling shortly after. Sigurd 
was killed in 1014 at the battle of Clontarf, and for a 
while the Isles were free ; but they again, about 1034, 
passed under the rule of his (Sigurd's) son, Thorfinn, in 
whose hands they remained till his death. From 1064 
to 1072 they were annexed to the Irish dominions of 
Diarmid Macmaelnambo, and they next passed into the 
possession of Setric and his son Fingal, kings of the 
Isle of Man. Godred Crovan, a Norwegian, having 
landed on the Isles as a fugitive in 1066, gradually drew 
around him influence and power, so that between 1075 
and 10S0 he was able to dethrone Fingal and take pos- 
session of the throne of Man. His son Lagman was 
placed over the Hebrides. In 1093, while Malcolm 
Ceannmor was busy making preparations for his fatal 
expedition into England, Magnus Barefoot, who had 
recently become King of Norway, revived the Nor- 
wegian claims, and enforced them by a descent on 
the islands with a large and powerful fleet. He 
does not seem to have disturbed the rulers he found 
in power, but merely to have caused them to become 
his vassals, and so Godred Crovan remained ruler 
till his death in Islay in 1095. Lagman his son went 
on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where he died, and Mag- 
nus appointed a new Norwegian ruler named Inge- 
mund, whose government proved, however, so oppres- 
sive, that he was murdered in Lewis. To avenge his 
death Magnus again passed to the islands with large 
forces, and after he had deprived the Earls of Orkney of 
power, and sent them prisoners to Norway, ' He went 
with his whole army to the Sudreys, but when he came 
there he commenced plundering immediately, burned 
the inhabited places, killed the people, and pillaged 
wherever he went. But the people of the country fled 
to various places, some up to Scotland, or into the 
fjords or sea-lochs, some southward to Satiri or Kintyre, 
some submitted to King Magnus and received pardon.' 
The animus against the original inhabitants of the 
islands thus shown by Magnus would seem to point 
to the murder of Ingemund as being merely part of a 
general scheme to throw off the Norwegian yoke. When 
Magnus returned to the Isles after a visit to the Isle of 
Man, he entered into an agreement with the King of 
Scots, ' by which all the islands to the west of Scotland, 
between which and the mainland a helm-carrying ship 
could pass, were ceded to him ; ' and as he wished to 
include Kintyre in the number, he is reported to have 
had his galley drawn across the narrow neck of land 
between East and West Loch Tarbert. The islands 
were thus severed from all connection with Scotland — a 
condition that lasted for more than 150 years. On the 
death of King Magnus in Ulster in 1104, the native 
islanders, with the assistance of some Irish under 
Donald MacTadg, appear again to have attempted to 
throw off the Norwegian yoke, but in 1113 Olave, the 
son of Godred Crovan, who had taken refuge in Eng- 
land, recovered possession of the now independent king- 
dom of the Isles, and reigned till 1153 or 1154, when he 
was murdered by his nephews. Godred the Black, 
Olave's son, succeeded him, but so alienated his sub- 
jects by his arrogance, that Somerled, the powerful and 
ambitious thane of Argyll, who had married Ragahildis, 
the daughter of Olave, was encouraged to try to gain 
the throne for his infant son Dougall. He carried the 


child all through the islands, and compelled the inhabi- 
tants to give hostages to him as their true king. When 
Godred heard of this proceeding he sailed against the 
rebels with a fleet of eighty galleys, but was so gallantly 
opposed, that by way of compromise he ceded to the 
sons of Somerled the Hebrides S of Ardnamurchan, and 
thus in 1156 the kingdom of the Isles was divided into 
two portions, and rapidly approached its ruin. In 1158 
Somerled, acting nominally for his sons, invaded and 
devastated the Isle of Man, drove Godred to seek a 
refuge in Norway, and apparently took possession of all 
the Isles ; while in 1164, becoming still more ambitious, 
he menaced all Scotland, landed a powerful force on the 
Clyde near Renfrew, and there perished either in battle 
with Malcolm IV., or by assassination in his tent. The 
northern isles now returned, with the Isle of Man, to 
Godred ; Islay was allotted to Ronald, a son of Somer- 
led ; and all the other isles were inherited by Dougall, 
in whose name they and the whole Hebrides had been 
seized by Somerled. All these chieftains, and some of 
their successors, were contemporaneously known as 
Kings of the Isles, and were subordinate to the King of 
Norway. Ronald was the ancestor of the Lords of the 
Isles or Macronalds, and Dougall of the Lords of Lome 
or Macdougalls, with their seat at Dunstaffnage. The 
Scots were jealous of a foreign power so near their 
coasts, and Alexander II. sent ambassadors to King 
Haco, ' begging him to give up those lands in the 
Hebrides which King Magnus Barefoot had unjustly 
taken from King Malcolm.' To this Haco answered 
that the matter had been settled, and that besides the 
King of Scotland had not formerly had power in the 
Hebrides. Alexander next offered to buy the islands, 
and when this too was refused he collected an army 
and invaded them. "While Alexander was in Kerrera 
he had a dream in which St. Olaf, St. Magnus, and St. 
Columba appeared, and bade him return, ' but the King 
would not, and a little after he fell sick and died.' His 
successor, Alexander III., 'a meike prince,' did not 
give the matter up, for in 1262 messengers came to 
Haco to tell him that the King of Scots would surely 
win the Hebrides ; and complaining also of very barbar- 
ous cruelties practised by the Earl of Ross and other 
Scots. Haco ' made ready swiftly for war, ' and got a 
large army together, and himself set sail at the head of 
his fleet in a ' great vessel that was built all of oak, and 
had twenty banks of oars, and was decked with heads 
and necks of dragons beautifully overlaid with gold.' 
After visiting Orkney he sailed to Lewis, and then to 
Skye, where Magnus, King of Man, met him, and then 
on to Kerrera, where he was met by King Dougall and 
the other Hebrideans. The other King of the Isles, 
John, would not follow Haco, as he held more land of 
the King of Scotland than of the King of Norway. The 
expedition ended in the battle of Largs and the defeat 
of the Norwegians, and Alexander followed this up with 
such vigour, that in 1265 he obtained from the suc- 
cessor of Haco a cession of all the Isles. Islay, and the 
islands adjacent to it, continued in the possession of the 
descendants of Ronald, and Skye and Lewis were con- 
ferred on the Earl of Ross, all in vassalage to the 
Scottish monarch. In the wars of the succession, the 
houses of Islay and the North Isles gave hearty support 
to Robert Bruce till 1325, when Roderick Macalan of 
the North Isles intrigued against the king, and was 
stripped of his possessions ; while about the same date 
Angus Oig of Islay received accessions to his territories, 
and became the most powerful vassal of the Crown in 
the Hebrides. John, the successor of Angus, taking a 
different course, joined the standard of Edward Baliol, 
and when that prince was in possession of power, re- 
ceived from him the islands of Skye and Lewis. After 
Baliol's fall, David II. allowed John to retain possession 
of Islay, Gigha, Jura, Scarba, Colonsay, Mull, Coll, 
Tyree, and Lewis ; and granted to Ronald, son of 
Roderick Macalan, Uist, Barra, Eigg, and Rum. 
Ronald died in 1346 without heirs, and Arnie his sister, 
wife of John, became his heir, and John, consolidating 
his possessions with his own, assumed the title of Lord 


of the Isles. In revenge for some fancied slight of the 
government he rebelled, but was subdued, and in 1369 
reconciled to King David. Having divorced his first 
wife, he married Margaret, daughter of Robert, high 
steward of Scotland; and in 1370, when Robert suc- 
ceeded to the throne, altered the destination of the 
lordship of the Isles so as to make it descend to his off- 
spring by his second wife, the grandchildren of the 
king. John died in 13S0, and was succeeded as Lord 
of the Isles by Donald, his eldest son by the second 
marriage. He married Mary Leslie, who afterwards 
became Countess of Ross, and was thus involved in the 
well-known contest with the Regent Albany, which 
resulted in the battle of Harlaw. He had a great repu- 
tation in the Hebrides for many good qualities. He 
died in 1420 in Islay, and was pompously buried beside 
his father at Iona. 

Alexander, the third Lord of the Isles, was formally 
declared by James I. to be undoubted Earl of Ross, and 
in 1425 he was one of the jury which sat in judgment 
on Albany and his sons, as well as the old Earl of 
Lennox. Having become embroiled with his kinsmen, 
the descendants of the first Lord of the Isles by his 
first marriage, and having shared in those conflicts 
which disturbed the Hebrides so much during the early 
part of the 15th century, he was, in 1427, summoned 
to Inverness with other Highland and Island chieftains, 
and was arrested and imprisoned. So much did this 
irritate him, that after regaining his freedom he, in 
1429, made a levy throughout the Isles and Ross, and 
at the head of 10,000 men devastated the Crown lands 
in the vicinity of Inverness, and bumed the town itself. 
In his retreat he was overtaken by the King and the 
royal forces in Lochaber, and was so hard pressed that 
he resolved to cast himself on the royal clemency ; and 
on the eve of a solemn festival, clothed in the garb of 
poverty and wretchedness, he rushed into the King's 
presence amid his assembled Court at Holyrood, and, 
surrendering his sword, abjectly sued for pardon. He 
was imprisoned for two years at Tantallon, and after 
his release he conducted himself peaceably, and even 
rose into favour. During the minority of James II. he 
held the responsible and honourable office of Justiciary 
of Scotland N of the Forth. In 1445 he returned to 
his evil ways, and joined in a treasonable league with 
the Earls of Douglas and Crawford against the infant 
King, but before the plot had fairly developed he died 
at Dingwall in 1449. 

John, the fourth Lord of the Isles and the third Earl 
of Ross, having joined the Douglas cause, made a foray 
on the mainland, and did a considerable amount of 
mischief, but he very shortly after made his submission, 
and was received into favour, for in 1457 he filled the 
very important and responsible office of one of the 
Wardens of the Marches, and in 1460, previous to the 
siege of Roxburgh Castle, he offered, at the head of 
3000 armed vassals, to march in the van of the royal 
army, so as to hear the first brunt of an expected Eng- 
lish invasion ; and his loyalty was so trusted that he 
was ordered to remain as a sort of bodyguard near the 
King's person. On the accession of James III., how- 
ever, he became again troublesome, and after sending 
deputies to England to offer his assistance in case of an 
invasion, he poured an army into the northern counties 
of Scotland, and assumed a regal style. It was not till 
1 475 that he was denounced as a rebel, and summoned 
to appear before parliament at Edinburgh. He did not 
appear, and incurred sentence of forfeiture : but when 
a large force was gathered to enforce the sentence, he 
came to Edinburgh and threw himself on the King's 
mercy. With great moderation on the part of the 
King, he was restored to his forfeited possessions, and, 
making a voluntary surrender to the Crown of the 
Earldom of Ross and some other possessions, he was 
created a baron and a peer of parliament, with the title 
of Lord of the Isles. He could not, however, keep his 
rebellious family in order, and in 1493 he was deprived 
of his title and estate, and, after being for some time a 
pensioner on the King's household, he sought a retreat 



in Paisley Abbey, which he and his ancestors had 
liberally endowed, and there died the last of the Lords 
of the Isles. 

The Lordship of the Isles being thus legally extinct, 
James IV. seems to have resolved on attempting to 
prevent the ascendancy of any one family by distri- 
buting the power and the territories among a number 
of the minor chiefs, and in 1496 an effort was made to 
extend the dominion of the law by making every chief- 
tain in the Isles responsible for the due execution of 
legal writs upon any of his clan, on pain of becoming 
personally subject to the penalty exigible from the 
offender. The King, in 1499, finding all his efforts to 
produce order unavailing, suddenly changed his policy, 
revoked all the charters given to the chiefs, and com- 
missioned Archibald, Earl of Argyll, and others, to let 
on short leases all the lands of the lordship as they 
stood at the date of forfeiture. Donald Dubh, who was 
generally regarded as the representative of the last Lord 
of the Isles, and who had been kept in prison to pre- 
vent him from agitating his claims, escaped in 1503, and, 
finding the district in a disturbed condition, in conse- 
quence of the royal measures, had but little difficulty in 
raising an armed force, which he led to the mainland. 
There he laid the whole of Badenoch waste, and the 
insurrection assumed such a formidable character that 
two years were required for the vindication of the King's 
authority. In 1504 the islanders were expelled from 
the mainland, and in the following year the King per- 
sonally led his forces against the islands in the S, 
while Huntly attacked them on the N, and the rebel- 
lion was quelled. Torquil Macleod of Lewis and some 
other chiefs still holding out in despair, a third expedi- 
tion was undertaken in 1506, and led to the capture of 
the castle of Stornoway, and Donald Dubh was again 
made prisoner, and shut up in Edinburgh Castle. Jus- 
ticiaries were appointed for the North Isles and South 
Isles respectively — the courts of the former being held 
at Inverness or Dingwall, and those of the latter at 
Tarbert or Lochkilkerran ; attempts were made to dis- 
seminate a knowledge of the laws, and the royal authority 
became so established that the King, up to his death in 
1513, was popular throughout the islands. In the con- 
fusion that followed the battle of Flodden, Sir Donald 
of Lochalsh seized the royal strengths in the islands, 
made a devastating irruption upon Inverness-shire, and 
proclaimed himself Lord of the Isles. In 1515 he made 
his submission to the Regent, and though he attempted 
in 1517 to bring about another rising, this proved a 
failure. There was another outbreak in 1528, caused 
by the withdrawal of many of the grants of Crown 
lands, and in 1539 Donald Gorme of Sleat made a deter- 
mined effort to place the Lordship of the Isles and the 
Earldom of Ross on their old independent footing. His 
death was at once followed by the failure of the insur- 
rection, and the matter led to the voyage of James V. 
round the Isles in 1540. The King's measures were 
vigorous and effective ; but after his death in 1542 
Donald Dubh escaped, and, receiving support from all 
the Islesmen except the Macdonalds of Islay, again 
dangerously disturbed the peace of the realm. He was 
encouraged by the fickle dealing of Albany, and in 1545 
swore allegiance to England. Donald, however, died 
that year, and the chiefs of the southern islands then 
elected James Macdonald of Islay to succeed him. The 
Macleods of Lewis and Harris, the Macneils of Barra, 
the Mackinnons, and the Macquarries, however, held 
aloof, and obtained a reconciliation with the Regent ; 
while in the following year the island chiefs generally 
were amnestied, and returned to their allegiance. James 
Macdonald then dropped the assumed title of Lord of 
the Isles, and he seems to have been the last person 
who even usurpingly bore it, or on whose behalf a 
revival of it was attempted. The subsequent history of 
the Hebrides is that of the mainland. 

The Hebrides belonged to various clans. In the 
Outer Hebrides, Lewis was in the possession of the Mac- 
leods of Lewis ; while Harris belonged to the Macleods of 
Harris ; North Uist, Benbecula, and South Uist to the 


Macdonalds of Clan Donald ; and Barra to the Macneils. 
In the Inner Hebrides, Skye and the adjacent islands 
were divided among the Macleods, Macdonalds, and 
Mackinnons ; the Small Isles were held by the Mac- 
donalds ; Tyree, Coll, and Mull by the Macleans ; Diva 
by the Macquarries ; Colonsay by Clan Duffie or the 
Macfies ; Islay and the S end of Jura as far as Loch 
Tarbert by the southern branch of the Macdonalds ; the 
N end of Jura and the adjacent islands as far as Luing 
by the Macleans ; Lismore by the Stewarts of Appin ; 
and Kerrera by the Macdongals. 

See Martin's Description of the Western Islands ; Pen- 
nant's Tour ; Johnson's Journey to the Western Islands 
of Scotland ; Boswell's Tour to the Hebrides; Gregory's 
History of the Western Highlands and Isles of Scotland; 
Macculloch's Description of the Western Islands of Scot- 
land (1819) ; Buchanan's Land of Lome (1871), and 2d 
edition under the title of Tlie Hcbrid Isles (1883) ; 
Chambers's Journal for 1876 ; Mr "Walker's report in the 
Report of the Royal Commission on Agriculture (1881) ; 
Alex. Mackenzie's History of the Macdonalds and Lords 
of the Isles (Inverness, 1SS1) ; and All the Tear Round 
for April 1S83. 

Heck, a village in Lochmaben parish, Dumfriesshire, 
2| miles SSE of Lochmaben town, and 3i "WSW of 
Lockerbie. One of the villages called the Four Towns, 
it stands on a rising-ground, the Hill of Heck ; and 
sometimes, during a freshet of the river Annan, is com- 
pletely begirt with water, so as to look like an island in 
a lake, and to be approachable only by means of a boat. 
It got its name, signifying 'a rack for feeding cattle,' 
from its being made, in times of freshets, a retreat of 
cattle driven from their ordinary pasture on the haugh 
to be fed from racks on its rising-ground. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 10, 1864. 

Hecla. See Uist, South. 

Heiton, a village in Roxburgh parish, Roxburghshire, 
2 J miles SSW of Kelso, under which it has a post office. 

Helensburgh, a town and quoad sacra parish within 
the parish of Row, Dumbartonshire, is picturesquely 
situated on the shore of the Firth of Clyde, near the 
entrance to the GareLoch, and directlyoppositeGreenock, 
which is 4 miles distant. The town lies 8 miles by rail 
NW of Dumbarton, and 23 WNW of Glasgow. It is 
the terminus of the Glasgow and Helensburgh branch 
of the North British railway ; and it has direct com- 
munication with Edinburgh and other districts via Cow- 
lairs Jnnctiou. By water it has steam communication 
with Glasgow, Greenock, and all parts of the Clyde ; and 
in summer it is the starting-point for some of the best- 
known tourist and excursion steamer-routes. Helens- 
burgh is built partly on a low belt of flat ground con- 
tiguous to the beach, and partly on the gentle slope of 
a low range of hills that rises immediately behind. The 
town, whose outskirts extend into Cardross parish 
towards the E, stretches along the coast for about 1J 
mile, and it has an average breadth of 6 furlongs. For 
the most part it is carefully laid out on the rectangular 
plan, the longer streets running parallel to each other, 
with the shorter streets cutting them at right angles. 
Each of the rectangles thus formed comprises about 2 
acres, never occupied by more than four houses, except 
in the two chief streets near the sea. A terraced street, 
extending along the coast, and buttressed for a part of 
its length by a sea-wall, is, with the thoroughfares im- 
mediately adjoining, chiefly occupied by shops and tho 
dwellings of the poorer classes ; but where it begins to 
leave the town proper, it is flanked by a number of 
handsome and pretentious villas, standing each within 
its own grounds. The more inland thoroughfares, and 
especially those on the slope, are spacious and well-kept r, 
many have broad and carefully-trimmed ribands of turf 
betwixt the side-walks and the carriage-way ; and 
several are planted, boulevard-fashion, with small trees. 
The houses that line these streets are chiefly villas and 
neat cottages ; and as each is separated from the quiet 
thoroughfare by a garden or shrubbery, the whole at- 
mosphere of this retired town is delightfully sequestered 
and rural. The houses in most cases are the property 


of retired merchants and others who are well-to-do ; 
many are the country quarters of families whose winter 
residence is in Glasgow. As is to he expected, the 
private buildings are neat and pretty rather than hand- 
some ; and the public buildings are not numerous. In 
Aug. 1S78 was laid the foundation-stone of new muni- 
cipal buildings. They are built in the Scottish Baronial 
style at a cost of £6000, and have a frontage of 50J feet 
to Princes Street and of 80 feet to Sinclair Street, and 
contain a small hall. The present public hall in King 
Street, with a neat Gothic front, was erected in 1845 as 
a U. P. church ; but since the erection of the new U. P. 
church it has been let for meetings, concerts, etc. It 
holds about 450. At the E end of the same street 
stands the new hospital, erected in the cottage style at 
a cost of £3000 from a bequest left by Miss Anne 
Alexander, and partly supported also by funds from the 
municipal authority under the Public Health Act. On 
the esplanade a monument was raised to Henry Bell in 
1872, at a cost of nearly £900. It consists of an obelisk, 
rising 25 feet from a base 3 feet square, and claiming to be 
the largest single block of red Aberdeen granite erected 
in Scotland. The total height of base and column is 34 
feet ; and it bears the following inscription : — ' Erected 
in 1S72 to the memory of Henry Bell, the first in Great 
Britain who was successful in practically applying steam- 
power for the purposes of navigation. Born in the 
countv of Linlithgow in 1766. Died at Helensburgh in 

The quoad sacra parish church, erected in 1847 near 
the beach at the E end of the esplanade, is a large oblong 
building with a plain square tower and little pretensions 
to beauty. It contains 800 sittings. The West Estab- 
lished church ranks as a chapel of ease, and contains 
about 800 sittings. The foundation-stone of this hand- 
some Gothic edifice was laid on 1 Feb. 1877, and the 
total cost was about £6500. It superseded an iron 
church built in 1868 for £600. The West Free church, 
a large ornamental Gothic building with tower and spire, 
was erected in 1S52 on the site of a former Original 
Secession church. The E or Park Free church, also a 
large Gothic edifice with tower and spire, was built in 
1862-63 near the public playground. The U.P. church 
occupies a prominent site on the rising-ground, and was 
built in the same style, with tower and spire, in 1S61, 
at a cost of upwards of £5000. The Congregational 
chapel was rebuilt in 1881 in James's Street at a cost of 
over £3000 ; and a new and larger one is meditated on 
the same site. The old square building of this body, 
known as the Tabernacle, built in 1802, was the first 
place of worship in the burgh. The Episcopalians of 
Helensburgh built the Church of the Holy Trinity in 
1842, a schoolhouse in 1851, and a parsonage in 1857 ; 
but in 1866 the first was pulled down, and on its site 
rose the Church of St Michael and All Angels, a hand- 
some Early French edifice, consecrated in May 1S68. A 
Roman Catholic mission was founded in Helensburgh in 
1865, with a place of worship to hold 300. In 1879-81 
a new church, dedicated to St Joseph, was built of 
white and red Dumbarton stone in Gothic style, with 
400 sittings. In 1S78 a plain mission-hall was erected 
in West King Street for religious and educational pur- 
poses, especially in connection with the Helensburgh 
Working Boys' and Girls' Religious Society. 

The following are the schools under the burgh school- 
board, with their respective accommodations, average 
attendances, and government grants for 18S1 : — Helens- 
burgh public school (450, 226, £196, 18s. Sd.); Grant 
Street public school (319, 265, £254, 4s. lid.); Roman 
Catholic (237, 1S3, £128, 3s.); and Episcopalian (91, 
68, £59, 14s.). Besides these there are various private 
schools, boarding and otherwise, for boys and girls. 

Gas was introduced into the burgh about 1S46, and 
is managed by a gas company. A plentiful supply of 
water is obtained from a reservoir, opened in 1S68, on 
Mains Hill above the town, and by means of a pipe from 
Glenfruin, laid in 1S72. Among the associations of the 
town may be mentioned a cemetery company, with a 
beautifully situated extramural cemetery, agricultural 


and horticultural societies, bowding, cricket, curling, 
and skating clubs, a reading-room and library, and a 
public library. In January 1883 the Public Libraries 
Act was rejected at a public meeting of ratepayers. 
Several acres in the E end of the burgh are enclosed as 
a public playground, for cricket, quoits, etc. ; and there 
is a safety skating pond, of about 4 acres, on the Luss 
road, to the N ; and fine bowling-greens. In 1878 a 
quantity of ground, enclosed and laid out as a park, 
situated at Cairndhu Point in Row parish, was presented 
to the burgh through the generosity of a few of the 
citizens. This is known as Cairndhu Park. Helens- 
burgh has a post office under Glasgow, and branches of 
the Bank of Scotland, the Union, and Clydesdale Banks. 
The offices of all these banks are fine buildings ; that of 
the first is in the Scottish Baronial style, and cost £3000. 
Seventeen assurance companies are represented by agents 
or offices in the burgh. There are three principal hotels ; 
one of them, the Queen's, formerly known as the Baths, 
was the residence of Henry Bell. The Helensburgh 
News, a Conservative organ established in 1876, is pub- 
lished on Thursdays ; the Helensburgh and Gareloch 
Times and Property Circular, a Liberal paper begun in 
1879, appears every Wednesday. 

Although it was one of the original inducements to 
settle at Helensburgh, that 'bonnet-makers, stocking, 
linen, and w r oollen weavers ' would ' meet with proper 
encouragement,' the burgh never attained any com- 
mercial importance ; and it has no productive industry 
beyond what is required to meet its own wants, and 
those of the summer visitors who annually swell the 
population. Herring and deep sea fishing occupy some 
of the inhabitants. Since the opening of the railway to 
Glasgow in 1857, the mild climate of the district has 
combined with the convenience of access to make it a 
favourite summer resort ; though of late years the 
popularity of other watering-places has perhaps dimin- 
ished that of Helensburgh to some extent. Notwith- 
standing various proposals, Helensburgh never had a 
harbour ; and the completion of the railway superseded 
the necessity of one. The quay, a rough pile built in 
1817, used frequently to be submerged ; but in 1861 it 
was greatly enlarged and improved. In 1881 a fine new 
pier was built at Craigendoran, J mile to the E, by the 
North British Railw-ay Company ; but it is situated 
wholly in Cardross parish, and is exclusively in the 
hands of the company. 

In January 1776 the lands of Malig or Milrigs were 
first advertised for feuing by Sir James Colquhoun, the 
superior, who had purchased them from Sir John Shaw 
of Greenock. Feuars came in gradually, and for some 
years the slowly growing community was known simply 
as New Town or Muleig ; but eventually it received the 
name of Helensburgh, after the superior's wife, daughter 
of Lord Strathnaver. In 1802 it was erected into a free 
burgh of barony, under a provost, 2 bailies, and 4 coun- 
cillors ; with a weekly market and 4 annual fairs. The 
insignificance of the last is indicated by the fact that 
in 1821 the fair customs were let for five shillings. 
The introduction of steam navigation lent an impetus to 
the growth of the burgh. Henry Bell (1767-1830) 
removed in 1807 to Helensburgh, where, while his 
wife kept the principal inn, ' The Baths,' he occupied 
himself with a series of mechanical experiments, whose 
final result was the launch of the Comet (Jan. 12, 1812), 
the first steamer floated in the eastern hemisphere. Henry 
Bell was provost of the burgh from 1S07 to 1809. From 
1846 till 1875 the town was governed under a police act 
obtained in the former year ; while at the latter date 
the General Police and Improvement Act was adopted. 
The municipal authority now consists of a provost, 2 
bailies, and 9 commissioners. The police force cousists 
of 9 men, including a superintendent, with a salary of 
£160. No fail's of any sort are held now. 

The quoad sacra parish was formed in 1862, and is 
coterminous with the burgh ; on the E it is bounded by 
Cardross parish, on the S by the Firth of Clyde, on the 
W by Ardencaple parish, and on the N it extends to 
the N boundaries of the farms of Kirkmichael, Stuck, 



Malig, Glenan, Easterton, and Woodend. It is in- 
cluded in the presbytery of Dumbarton and the synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr. The municipal constituency num- 
bered 1580 in 1883, when the valuation of the burgh 
amounted to £57,595. Pop. (1851) 2841, (1861) 4163, 
(1871) 5975, (1881) 7693, of whom 4411 were females, 
and 235 were Gaelic-speaking. Houses (1881) in- 
habited 1581, vacant 211, building 39.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 30, 1866. 

Hellmuir Loch. See Kirkhope. 

Hell's Glen, a rugged, solitary glen in Lochgoil- 
head parish, Argyllshire. Deep and narrow, it com- 
mences at a 'col' (719 feet), 3J miles E by N of 
Inveraray ferry on Loch Fyne, and thence descends 2| 
miles south-eastward to a point (194 feet) 2| miles 
NNW of Lochgoilhead village. — Ord. Sur., sh. 37, 

Helmsdale, a coast village in Kildonan parish, East 
Sutherland, with a station on the Sutherland and Caith- 
ness railway (1871-74), 46 miles SSW of Georgemas 
Junction, 82f NNE of Dingwall, and 101J NNE of 
Inverness. It stands at the mouth of the river Helms- 
dale, which here is crossed by a handsome two-arch 
bridge of 1811, and by which it is divided into Helms- 
dale and East Helmsdale on the left, and "West Helms- 
dale, Marrel, and Gartymore on the right bank. A 
ruined castle, on the right bank, 1-i furlong below the 
bridge, was built as a hunting-seat by the seventh Coun- 
tess of Sutherland in 1488, and is noted as the scene, in 
July 1567, of the murder of the eleventh Earl of Suther- 
land and his countess. The earl's aunt, Isobel, poisoned 
them both at supper, and would also have poisoned their 
son ; but the cup that she mixed for him was drunk by 
her own son, who was next heir to the earldom. He died 
within two days, as within five did the earl and countess 
at Dunrobin Castle ; and the wretched mother com- 
mitted suicide at Edinburgh on the da} r appointed for 
her execution. The instigator of this foul tragedy was 
George, fourth Earl of Caithness. The village, dating 
from 1818, is neat and regular, and has a post-office, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a branch bank of the British Linen Co., an inn, 
a good natural harbour with a pier and breastwork of 
1818, 29 boats and 50 fisher men and boys, Kildonan 
parish church (1841), a Free church, and two public 
schools. Helmsdale is head of the fishery district ex- 
tending from Embo to Dunbeath, in which in 18S2 the 
number of boats was 215, of fishermen 772, of fish-curers 
30, and of coopers 56, whilst the value of boats was 
£7459, of nets £13,140, and of lines £1135. The fol- 
lowing is the number — of barrels of herrings cured or 
salted in this district (1867) 45,302, (1874) 12,196, 
(1879) 22,656, (1881) 20,485 ; of cod, ling, and hake 
taken (1867) 21,363, (1873) 45,048, (1874) 15,667, (1878) 
18,282, (1881) 6281. Pop. (1841) 526, (1861) 1234, (1871) 
1511, (1881) 1334, of whom 675 were in Helmsdale and 
East Helmsdale.— Ord Sur., sh. 103, 1878. 

Helmsdale River. See Kildoxax. 

Helvels or Halivails. See Duirinish. 

Hempriggs, an old mansion in Wick parish, Caith- 
ness, near the coast, 2 miles S by W of Wick town. It 
belongs to the same proprietor as Ackergill Tower. 
Hempriggs village is | mile nearer the town ; and J 
mile to the W lies Hempriggs Loch (6J x 6 furl. ; 156 
feet) ; whilst Hempriggs Stacks, in the sea near the 
beach, are lofty insulated rocks, — the chief one per- 
forated with a natural arch, and all of them 
thronged by myriads of sea-fowl. — Ord. Sur., sh. 116, 

Henderland, a farm in the Megget section of Lyne 
and Megget parish, S Peeblesshire, on the left bank of 
Megget Water, 5 furlongs W of St Mary's Loch, and 18 
miles WSW of Selkirk. A spot here, called the Chapel 
Knowe, which some years ago was enclosed and planted, 
contains a grave-slab, sculptured with a sword and other 
emblems, and bearing inscription ' Here lyis Perys of 
Cokburne and hys wyfe Mariory.' This was the famous 
Border freebooter, Piers Cockburn of Henderland, whose 
ruined stronghold stands hard by, and whose execution 


at Edinburgh by James V. in 1529 forms the theme of 
that exquisite ballad The Border Widow's Lament — 

' I sew'd his sheet, making; my mane ; 
I watch'd the corpse, myself alane ; 
I watch'd his body night and day ; 
No living creature came that way. 

'I took his body on my back, 
And whiles I gaed, and whiles I sat ; 
I digg"d a grave, and laid him in, 
And happ'd him wi' the sod sae green, 

1 Nae living man I'll love again, 
Since now my lovely knight is slain ; 
Wi' ae lock o' his yellow hair 
I'll chain my heart for evermair.' 

Hendersyde Park, a mansion in Ednam parish, Rox- 
burghshire, 1 mile NE of Kelso. It is the seat of Sir 
George Richard Waldie-Griffith, second Bart, since 
1858 (b. 1820; sue. 1878). 

Henlawshiel. See Kirkton, Roxburghshire. 

Henwood, an ancient forest in Oxnam parish, Rox- 
burghshire, around Oxnam Water, 5 miles SE of Jed- 
burgh. It abounds in natural fastnesses ; presented for 
ages such depths and intricacies of wooded ravine as 
rendered it almost impervious ; was often used, in the 
times of the Border raids and feuds, as a place of rendez- 
vous or of refuge ; and gave occasion for the war-cry ' A 
Henwoody ! ' to raise and lead a Border onset. 

Herbertshire. See Denny and Dunipace. 

Herdmandston, an estate, with a mansion, in Salton 
parish, Haddingtonshire, on the right bank of the Tyne, 4 
miles SW of Haddington. Modernised and enlarged, 
the house is partly of high antiquity, and down to the 
close of last century showed vestiges of battlements, 
turrets, and a fosse. It was long the residence of the 
Hon. Adam Gillies (1787-1842), a Senator of the Col- 
lege of Justice. In the park, close by, are remains of a 
chapel, erected by John de St Clair in the 13th century, 
and still used as the family burying vault. Henry St 
Clair, the founder of the line, obtained a charter of 
the estate from Richard de Morville in 1162. His 
descendant, Charles St Clair, in 1782 established his 
claim to the barony of Sinclair, created in 1489 and 
dormant since 1762 ; and his grandson, Charles William 
St Clair, fourteenth Baron Sinclair (b. 1831 ; sue. 1880), 
holds 4346 acres, valued at £5747 per annum, viz., 545 
acres in Haddingtonshire (£1149), 1550 in Berwickshire 
(£3355), and 2251 in Roxburghshire (£1243).— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 33, 1863. See Nisbet House, and John 
Small's Castles and Mansions of the Lothians (Edinb. 

Herdsman. See Bdachaille. 

Heriot, a parish of SE Edinburghshire, containing, 
towards its NE corner, Heriot station on the Waverley 
section of the North British railway, 19J miles (16 by 
road) SE of Edinburgh, with a post and telegraph 
office. It is bounded NW by Temple and Borthwick, 
NE by Crichton, Fala, and detached sections of Borth- 
wick and Stow, SE by the main body of Stow, SW by 
Innerleithen in Peeblesshire, and W by Temple. Its 
greatest length, from NE to SW, is 7f miles ; its 
greatest breadth is 4£ miles ; and its area is 15,038£ 
acres. Formed by the confluence of Blackhope, Hope, 
and Dewar Burns, which all three have their source near 
the Peeblesshire border, Heriot Water winds 4| miles 
east-north-eastward through the interior, till it unites 
with Gala Water, itself rising on the northern verge 
of the parish. At the point of their confluence the sur- 
face declines to 770 feet above sea-level, and thence it 
rises westward and south-westward to the Moorfoot 
Hills, attaining 1394 feet near Roughsware, 1508 at 
*Torfichen Hill, 1550atDod Law, 1435 at Dun Law, 
1684 at *Mauldslie Hill, and 2136 at *Blackhope Scar, 
where asterisks mark those summits that culminate just 
on the confines of the parish. All the interior, except- 
ing strips of vale along the course of the streams, is hilly 
upland ; but the hills, except on the boundaries, are 
not ranges but congeries, which, having to a large ex- 
tent been laid down in permanent pasture, no longer 


offer a bleak and heathy appearance. The climate is 
bracing, and very healthy. The rocks are mainly 
Lower Silurian. The soil in the vales adjacent to the 
streams is of the finest description, and, except in 
late seasons, produces abundant crops. As it is, 
little more than one-third of the entire area is either 
regularly or occasionally in tillage, or might be profit- 
ably brought under the plough. Two ancient Cale- 
donian stone circles were on Heriot Town Hill-head and 
Borthwick Hall Hill-head ; traces of ancient circular 
camps are on some of the other hills ; the head and foot 
stones of what is known as the ' Piper's Grave ' are on 
Deivak farm ; and a stone on which a woman was burned 
for imputed witchcraft is supposed to have been near 
Heriot station. The only mansion, Borthwick Hall, on 
the right bank of Heriot AVater, 3J miles SW of Heriot 
station, is now the seat of David Johnstone Macfie, Esq. 
(b. 182S), who holds 2036 acres in the shire, valued at 
£118S per annum. The Earl of Stair is a much larger 
proprietor, and there are 5 lesser ones. Heriot is 
in the presbytery of Dalkeith and synod of Lothian 
and Tweeddale ; the living is worth £222. The parish 
church, near Borthwick Hall, rebuilt in 1835, contains 
210 sittings ; and a public school, with accommoda- 
tion for 108 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 54, and a grant of £56, 5s. Valuation (1860) £4315, 
(1883) £5968, plus £1339 for railway. Pop. (1801) 320, 
(1831) 327, (1861) 407, (1871) 414, (1881) 429.— Ord. 
Sur., shs. 24, 25, 1S64-65. 

Hermand, a mansion in West Calder parish, Edin- 
burghshire, on the right bank of Hardwood Water, li 
mile ENE of West Calder village. It was built towards 
the close of last century by the judge Lord Hermand. 

Hermiston, a village in Currie parish, Edinburghshire, 
adjacent to the Union Canal, 1 mile SSE of Gogar 
station, and lg N by W of Currie village, under which 
it has a post office. 

Hermiston. See Herdmaxdston. 

Hermitage Castle, a ruined stronghold in Castleton 
parish, Liddesdale, S Roxburghshire, on the left bank 
of Hermitage Water, 3J miles NW of Steele Road sta- 
tion, and 5J N by E of Newcastleton. 'About the 
oldest baronial building in Scotland,' says Dr Hill 
Burton, 'it has scarcely any flanking works — nothing 
but abutments at the corners, like the Norman towers ; 
but in this instance they meet in a wide Gothic arch 
overhead.' Its position is one of great natural strength, 
and was further secured by extensive earthworks and by 
a deep fosse, which enclosed it on the E, W, and N. 
Morasses and mountains surround it ; and the grim 
towers, with their few, narrow windows and massive, 
loopholed walls, add gloom to the desolate and cheerless 
region. The interior is now a complete ruin. Her- 
mitage Castle was founded in 1244 or a little earlier by 
Walter Comyn, fourth Earl of Menteith, Liddesdale 
having been held by the Soulis family from the first 
half of the preceding century. On the Soulises' for- 
feiture in 1320, Liddesdale was granted by Robert the 
Bruce to Sir John Graham of Abercorn, whose heiress, 
Mary Graham, conveyed it to her husband, Sir William 
Douglas, ' the Knight of Liddesdale ' or ' Flower of 
Chivalry.' He it was who, on 20 June 1342, at Hawick 
seized the brave Sir Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie, 
and carried him captive to Hermitage Castle, where he 
shut him up in a dungeon, and left him to die of star- 
vation. It is told that above the place of his confine- 
ment was a granary, and that with grains of corn which 
dropped down through the crevices of the roof Ramsay 
protracted a miserable existence for seventeen days. In 
1492 Archibald Douglas, fifth Earl of Angus, exchanged 
Liddesdale and the Hermitage with Patrick Hepburn, 
first Earl of Bothwell, for Bothwell Castle on the Clyde. 
Thus, in October 1566, the fourth and infamous Earl of 
Bothwell was lying sore wounded by ' little Jock Elliot ' 
at the Hermitage, whither Queen Mary rode madly over 
from Jedburgh (a stiff 20 miles), remained two hours 
'to his great pleasure and content,' and then galloped 
back — a feat that she paid for by a ten days' fever. In 
1594, shortly after the forfeiture of Francis Stuart, last 


Earl of Bothwell, the lordship of Liddesdale was acquired 
by Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch, wdiose ancestor David 
had in 1470 received a gift of the governorship of the 
Hermitage ; and the castle has since remained in the 
possession of the Buccleuch family. — Ord. Sur., sh. 11, 
1863. See Castleton, Dalkeith, and Dr William 
Fraser's Scotts of Buccleuch (2 vols., Edinb. , 1878). 

Hermitage, The, a mansion in St Cuthbert's parish, 
Midlothian, near the left bank of the Braid Burn, 3| 
miles S by W of Edinburgh Post-office. It is the 
home of the essayist, John Skelton, LL.D. (b. 1831). 

Hermit's Cave. See Ellan-Vow. 

Herrick. See Strathepjuck. 

Herriot's Dyke, an ancient earthen rampart, sub- 
tended by a ditch, through the centre of Berwickshire, 
westward from Berwick, past Greenlaw town and West- 
ruther village, to the valley of Leader AVater. It is 
still traceable about 1 mile N of Greenlaw ; it is re- 
corded to have long been traceable for about 14 miles 
thence to the E ; and it is still traceable also in the 
northern vicinity of Westruther ; but when it was con- 
structed, or by whom, or for what purpose, is not 

Heugnhead, a hamlet in Strathdon parish, W Aber- 
deenshire, near the right bank of the Don, 16 miles 
SSW of Rhynie. 

Hevera, an island of Bressay parish, Shetland, in 
Scalloway Bay, 2 miles S of Burra. It measures 1 mile 
in diameter, has the appearance of a high rock, and is 
accessible only at one wild creek, overhung by cliffs. 
Near its S side is an islet, called Little Hevera. Pop. 
(1871)32, (1881) 35. 

Heywood, a collier village in Carnwath parish, E 
Lanarkshire, with a station on the Auchengray and 
Wilsontown branch of the Caledonian railway, l| mile 
E by S of Wilsontown. It has a post office under 
Lanark, a public school, and an Established chapel of 
ease (1878). Pop. (1S71) 793, (1881) 1121.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 23, 1865. 

Hieton. See Heiton". 

Highfield House, a mansion in Urray parish, SE 
Ross-shire, 1J mile NNW of Muir of Ord station, and 4 
miles N by W of Beauly. Its owner, George Francis 
Gillanders, Esq. (b. 1854 ; sue. 18S0), holds 10,000 acres 
in the shire, valued at £2255 per annum. Highfield 
Episcopal church, St Mary's, was built in 1836, and re- 
stored in 1872.— Ord. Sur., sh. 83, 1881. 

Highlandman, a station in Crieff parish, Perthshire, 
on the Crieff Junction railway, li mile SE of Crieff 

Highland Railway, a railway serving the north and 
north-western districts of Scotland, and traversing the 
counties of Perth, Moray, Nairn, Inverness, and Ross, 
with allied lines extending into the counties of Suther- 
land and Caithness, and, at Strome Ferry on the west 
coast, giving access to Skye and the Hebrides. The system 
comprises 305J miles in the main line, 110J of allied 
railways worked by the Highland Company, and 7J 
of the Caledonian railway from Perth to Stanley, over 
which the Company has running powers under an annual 
toll of £5000. The inception of the Highland railway 
as a through line dates from 1856, when powers were 
obtained to construct a line called the Inverness and 
Aberdeen Junction from Keith, the terminus of the 
Great North of Scotland railway (see Great Noeth of 
Scotland Railway) to Nairn. In 1854 the Inver- 
ness and Nairn railway had been authorised, and was 
opened as a single line, 15J miles in length, in Novem- 
ber 1855, this being the first portion of the system 
actually in operation. The railway from Nairn to 
Keith, 40 miles, was opened in August 1858. In 1861 
an act was obtained for the construction of the Inver- 
ness and Ross-shire railway, which was opened to Ding- 
wall, IS miles, in June 1862, and to Invergordon, 31J 
miles, in May 1863. In 1861 the branch from Alves to 
Burghead, 54 miles, was authorised, and it was opened 
in 1862. In the meantime, by an act passed in June 
1862, the Inverness and Aberdeen Junction and the 
Inverness and Ross-shire railwavs were amalgamated ; 



and by an act passed in 1S63, the amalgamated company 
obtained powers to make an extension to Tain and 
Bonar-Bridge, 26J miles, the last-named station being 
the northern limit of the subsequently amalgamated 
companies. While these railways were being constructed 
on the basis of affording a continuation from the Great 
North of Scotland line northwards, steps were taken to 
open up an independent access to the North. In July 
1854, the Perth and Dunkeld railway was incorporated, 
and the line, 8| miles, was opened in April 1856. By 
an act passed in 1861, the Inverness and Perth Junction 
railway was sanctioned, 103 \ miles in all, consisting of 
a single line from Forres, on the railway first named, to 
the terminus of the Perth and Dunkeld railway, with a 
branch to Aberfeldy. This line (which was to be worked 
by the Inverness and Aberdeen company) was opened 
from the south to Pitlochry in June, from Forres south- 
wards to Aviemore in August, and throughout in Sep- 
tember 1863. In that year this company was amal- 
gamated with the Perth and Dunkeld. In June 1865, 
the various railways now described were amalgamated 
under the title of the Highland Railway. In July 1865 
an act was obtained for the construction of the Dingwall 
and Skte Railway, which was in 1880 amalgamated 
with, and now forms an integral part of, the Highland 
railway. In the same year powers were got for the 
Sutherland railway, which was projected to run from 
Iuvergordon, the northern terminus of the Highland 
railway, to Brora, a distance of 32J miles. The line 
was made to Golspie only, being 26f miles ; and under 
an act obtained in 1S70, the Duke of Sutherland was 
empowered to make a railway from Golspie to Helms- 
dale, a distance of 17 miles, occupying 6 miles of the 
line formerly authorised, which were then abandoned. 
In July 1871 the Sutherland and Caithness railway was 
authorised, from Helmsdale to "Wick, with a branch to 
Thurso, the line being 66 miles in length. It was 
opened in July 1874. All these lines last described 
were made on the footing of being worked by the High- 
land company. In 18S3 the total capital of the High- 
land railway (including the capital of the amalgamated 
Dingwall and Skye, £330,000) was £3,817,047, of which 
there had been raised in shares £2,775,692 (ordinary 
stock £1,681,962, the remainder in preference stocks at 
various rates), in debenture stocks £1,041,355. The 
capital of the Sutherland Railway Company amounted 
to £204,850 (£144,930 ordinary stock, the remainder 
debenture loans) ; the Duke of Sutherland had expended 
£70,585 on his railway ; and the Sutherland and Caith- 
ness Railway Company's capital amounted to £414,559 
(ordinary stock £294,849, the remainder debenture 
loans), making on the entire system a capital expendi- 
ture of £4,440,040. On its ordinary stock the Highland 
Railway Company has for some time paid a steady 
dividend ; and the Sutherland Company, after meeting 
interest on its loan capital, has paid on its ordinary 
stock a small dividend of from | to 1J per cent. The 
Duke of Sutherland regularly publishes the accounts of 
his 17 miles of railway, on which, however, there is no 
proper capital account, as no charge is made for the 
land, occupied. Taking the actual outlay in construct- 
ing the line, the profit, after meeting the demands of 
the working company, would be equal to nearly 3 per 
cent. Throughout, the system consists of single line of 
railways, with suitable passing places at stations, etc. , 
but the section between Inverness and Dalcross has been 
made a double line. In the year last reported upon the 
Highland railway carried 137,425 first class, 67,242 
second class, and 1,040,592 third class passengers, 
yielding, with 1921 season ticket holders, a revenue of 
£140,755. Parcels and mails gave a revenue of £50,935, 
merchandise £98,999, live stock £25,467, minerals 
£24,810, and miscellaneous £7100, making a total 
revenue of £349,080. For working the allied lines the 
company received £21,733 in the year. The rolling 
stock to earn this revenue consisted of 71 locomotives, 
283 passenger vehicles (including luggage vans, etc.), 
and 2404 waggons of various kinds, embracing the 
significant item of 15 snow ploughs. The passenger 


and goods traffic over the system is largely carried on 
by mixed trains, so that the mileage under each head 
cannot be given separately. The train mileage on the 
principal line was 1,266,369^ miles, on the Sutherland 
railway 56,252, on the Duke of Sutherland's rail- 
way 36,383|, and on the Sutherland and Caithness 
railway 128,315; or a total of 1,486,321J train miles 
in the year. The accounts of the lesser companies 
are issued once a year ; and from the last published 
accounts it appears that in the year the Sutherland 
Company carried 59,668 passengers, yielding £4095 in 
fares, and that the total revenue for the year was 
£10,779. The Duke of Sutherland's railway carried in 
the year 40,652 passengers, and had a total revenue of 
£5945 ; and the Sutherland and Caithness railway 
carried 98,168 passengers, and received a total revenue 
of £19,363. The receipts per train mile were, on the 
Highland railway, 69.62d. and 60.21d. respectively in 
the two halves of the year, on the Sutherland railway 
45.35d., on the Duke of Sutherland's railway 38.81d., 
and on the Sutherland and Caithness railway 36. S5d 
The Highland Railway Company is conducted by a 
board consisting of a chairman, deputy-chairman, and 
18 directors ; the Sutherland railway by a board con- 
taining a chairman and 3 directors ; and the Sutherland 
and Caithness railway by a board comprising chairman, 
deputy-chairman, and 6 directors. The Duke of Suther- 
land's railway is managed, financially, as part of the 

While the Highland railway and its allied lines have 
been largely instrumental in opening up a picturesque 
and interesting portion of Scotland, and in attracting 
many thousands of tourists annually to famous places 
and districts, the primary object in their construction 
has been the improvement of the country and the 
development of its resources. The lines have been con- 
structed to a very large extent by capital provided in 
the district ; and while the financial success of the 
main railway has made it a favourite with investors, 
the continuation lines afford very little prospect of being 
made remunerative in a direct way. In the construction 
of the railways, the land has, as a rule, been obtained 
on favourable terms, the railways having been made 
after the earlier ideas that such works would impair or 
destroy the value of property had died down. The rail- 
ways reckon as amongstthe cheapest lines in the kingdom, 
the average cost of construction having been, on the 
original Highland line, £14,400 ; on the Dingwall and 
Skye, £5880 ; on the Sutherland, £7548 ; on the Duke 
of Sutherland's railway (outlay only), £4400 ; and on 
the Sutherland and Caithness, £6280 per mile. 

The trains northward on the Highland railway are 
made up in the general station at Perth, at platforms 
set apart for the purpose ; and from that terminus to 
Stanley the route is over the Caledonian railway. From 
Stanley (7^ miles from Perth) the line proceeds through 
a rich part of Perthshire, a portion of Strathmore, and 
reaches Murthly station (11J miles), beyond which the 
finely-wooded grounds of Murthly Castle are skirted. 
The line passes through a tunnel of 300 yards just before 
reaching Birnam station (15J miles), which occupies a 
fine position on the side of Birnam Hill, with the Tay 
flowing between the railway and the finely-situated town 
of Dunkeld. We are here recalled to the fact that the 
valley of the Tay, wdiere we now are, is the proper gate 
of the Highlands ; and in selecting this as the point at 
which to break through the mountain barriers, the rail- 
way simply followed the example set by all, whether 
Roman invaders, military road makers like General 
Wade, or the more peaceable Highland Roads and 
Bridges Commissioners, who have essayed the task. 
The tourist finds himself here in the midst of the softer 
attractions of the Highlands. The town of Dunkeld is 
beautifully situated amongst wooded hills, and its old 
cathedral occupies a picturesque site, while at its side are 
shown the first larches seen in Scotland, the tree having 
been introduced by the Duke of Athole in 1738. Leaving 
Dunkeld, the railway crosses the Bran, and beween this 
point and Dalguise (20i miles) there is a tunnel of 360 


yards. At Dalguise the line crosses the Tay on a hand- 
some lattice-girder bridge of 360 feet span. From here 
to Guay (21 J miles) the line passes through a fine valley, 
with hill and wood and river, making up a beautiful 
scene. Beyond Guay there is a fine view of the district 
of the junction of the Tay and the Tummel ; and Ballin- 
luig Junction (24 miles) is reached, where the Aberfcldy 
line branches off. This branch, 9 miles long, crosses both 
rivers on lattice -girder bridges, the Tay in two spans of 
136 feet and two of 40 feet, aud the Tummel in two spans 
of 122 feet and two of 35 feet each. There are on the 
branch upwards of forty bridges, and also a number of 
heavy cuttings and embankments. There is a station 
at Grandtully (4J miles) and at Aberfeldy, the latter 
being 33 miles from Perth. The next station on the 
principal line is Pitlochry (2S| miles), beyond which 
the railway traverses the famous and picturesque ' Pass of 
Eilliecrankie,' with Killiecrankie station, 32J miles from 
Perth. Just before entering a short tunnel at the head 
of the pass, the railway passes over a remarkable bit of 
engineering, being carried on a lofty viaduct of stone 
about five hundred yards long, and open below in ten 
arches, generally dry, but provided in case of damage 
from flood. This viaduct rises 40 feet above the bed 
below, and as it curves round towards the tunnel, it 
affords the traveller a very interesting view of the wild 
pass and its surrounding hills. At Blair Athole (35J 
miles) is seen the old house or castle of Blair, originally 
a singularly plain building, but now very much altered 
and improved by the present Duke of Athole. The 
trees along the railway grounds, planted originally to 
shut out the railway, now effectuall}' shut out the view 
of the castle except at one or two points, where a 
momentary glimpse of it can be obtained. At a few 
miles' distance the river Bruar is crossed. The famous 
' petition ' made by Burns to the Duke of Athole has 
been granted so fully that the beautiful falls on the 
stream are now quite concealed from public view. Nu- 
merous walks and bridges have been made to display 
their beauties. We now enter upon the more remote 
aud bleak portion of the line. The river Garry is seen 
on the right, fretting and tossing over a very rocky bed ; 
while on the left ranges of magnificent hills fill up the 
scene. At Struan or Calvine station (40 miles) the rail- 
way is carried across the river Garry on a fine stone 
bridge of three arches 40 feet in height. Below the 
centre span, which is 80 feet wide, the old road is 
carried across the river Garry on an old bridge. Ap- 
proaching Dalnaspidal station, the railway is carried 
through a very heavy rock cutting. Looking westwards 
a fine glimpse is obtained of Loch Garry. There is a 
good road from Dalnaspidal by the foot of Schiehallion, 
one of the most striking of Highland mountains. The 
road skirts Loch Rannoch and Loch Tay on its route 
to Aberfeldy. Before reaching the next station, the 
line ascends by steep gradients to its summit-level on 
the boundary of the counties of Perth and Inverness, 
the height being 1462 feet above sea-level. The scenery 
here is wild and desolate, presenting scarcely a sign of 
human occupancy, or even of animal life save that of 
grouse, for which the district is famous. We are here 
traversing the forest of Drumouchter or the ' cold ridge.' 
Crossing the watershed, the line descends rapidly for a 
short distance, and then with a gentler gradient reaches 
Dalwhinnie (58 miles), where, in the midst of a scene 
of great desolation, the traveller is astonished to find 
a busy railway station, with many passengers joining 
and leaving the train, this being the centre of a wide 
district at which many roads converge. Two pro- 
minent hills on the left are called respectively the Sow 
of Athole and the Boar of Badenoch. The next station 
is Newtonmore (6SJ miles), the distance of 10J miles 
between those stations marking the desolate character 
of the district through which the railway is here carried. 
The township of Kingussie (71 j miles) occupies an im- 
portant position as a half-way station on the journey to 
Inverness, and also as the point from which the coach runs 
daily by Loch Laggan and Spean Bridge to Fort William. 
The next station is Boat of Inch (77£ miles). On leaving 


Kingussie, the ruined barracks of Ruthven are seen upon 
a mound to the right ; aud further on the left, on the 
side of a wooded hill, are seen Belville House and the 
monument erected to Macphersou of Belville, the trans- 
lator aud editor of Ossian. The line is now completely 
in rear of the Grampians, and at this part of the journey 
splendid views of the northern ranges in Inverness-shire 
are obtained. Two miles from Boat of Inch the railway 
passes Tor Alvie, on the top of which is placed a cairn 
in memory of Highlanders wdio fell at Waterloo, and on 
the Hill of Kinrara a tall pillar to the memory of the last 
Duke of Gordon. Further on the opposite side the mass 
of the Hill of Craigellachie is seen to the left. Aviemore 
station (834 miles) is next reached. Along this portion 
of the line have been executed some difficult engineering 
works, including a considerable amount of embanking, 
to guard the railway against the floods on the impetuous 
river Spey. Passing on to Boat of Garten station (88£ 
miles), the railway forms there a junction with the 
Strathspey railway (see Great North of Scotland 
Railway). Re-entering Inverness-shire, the railway 
reaches Broomhill or Abernethy station (92| miles), and 
here, bending more to the northward, takes leave of the 
Spey, whose course it has followed for many miles, and 
reaches Grantown (96 miles), beyond which it enters 
upon heavy rock cuttings, and ascends by steep gradients 
to an inferior summit-level on the Knock of Brae 
Moray. Dava station (104i miles) lies on the northern 
slope of the range, the line here descending by rapid 
gradients. Five miles from Dava the railway crosses 
the river Divie on a large stoue bridge of seven spans, 
and of great height. Like the other large viaducts 
on this line, this bridge is flanked by battlemented 
towers at each end. Beyond Dunphail station is the 
descent towards Forres, in the course of which a fine 
view is in clear weather obtained from the train, ex- 
tending over the Moray Firth, and showing beyond the 
broken coast-line and fine mountain ranges in Ross, 
Sutherland, and Cromarty. The train passes through a 
deep cutting, and immediately thereafter crosses a 
gigantic embankment of 77 feet high, and it then 
descends to Forres Junction (119J miles), where the 
lines to Keith and Inverness diverge. 

At Keith station (149J miles from Perth) there is a 
through connection over the Great North of Scotland 
railway to the south. The stations between Keith and 
Forres are Mulben (5 miles), Orton (8J), Fochabers 
(Hi), Lhanbryde (14J), Elgin (17|), Alves Junction 
(23), and Kinloss (27) from Keith respectively. At 
Orton there is a nominal junction with the Moray- 
shire branch of the Great North of Scotland railway, 
which is now disused. From Alves the Burghead 
branch, 5 miles long, strikes off,, with a stopping 
place at Coltfield platform, and from Kinloss a short 
branch leads to Findhorn. At present (18S3) the 
company is constructing a branch 13J miles long to 
connect the important harbour of Buckie with the 
system at Keith. Resuming the main journey towards 
Inverness, we cross the Findhorn river on a handsome 
girder bridge of three large spans. To the right are 
seen glimpses of the Culbin sands, which many years 
ago covered over a fertile tract of country. The first 
station is Brodie (122| miles from Perth), at which 
Nairnshire is reached, and the river Nairn is crossed on 
a stone bridge of four 70-feet spans, reaching Nairn 
station (128j miles). The line then proceeds to Fort 
George station (134i miles), near the military depot of 
that name, to Dalcross (137J), and Culloden (140|), 
reaching the central station at Inverness (144), where 
are placed the administrative offices and the exten- 
sive workshops of the company. Leaving Inverness 
the line crosses the Ness by a line stone bridge, 
and afterwards crosses the Caledonian Canal by a 
swing bridge, so as not to interfere with the traffic of 
the canal. The line in this part of its course follow? 
in some measure the indentations of the coast, skirt 
ing in succession the Beauly Firth, Cromarty Firth, 
and Dornoch Firth, till Bonar-Bridge, at the head oi 
the last named, is reached. The stations are Bunchrew 



(34 miles from Inverness), Leutran (of), Clunes (74), 
Beauly (10), Muir of Ord, near the great market-stance 
of that name (13), Conon (16$), Dingwall (184), Novar 
(25), Invergordon (314), Delny (34|), Parkhill (36|), 
Nigg (391), Fearn (40f), Tain (Hi), Meikleferry (46f ), 
Edderton (49J), and Ardgay (57 J), this terminus of the 
Highland line proper being 201 J miles from Perth. The 
extension from Inverness to Ardgay passes through the 
rich agricultural district of Easter Ross, with woods and 
mansions indicating a cultivated and prosperous com- 
munity. At Muir of Ord the country is bleaker, and 
the portion from Tain to the terminus is also of a less 
rich character. On the right going N the eye of the 
traveller meets a pleasing succession of changeful 
scenes as the several arms of the sea are approached 
and left, and the mountains of Ross-shire at varying 
distances give a striking character to the prospects in 
that direction. For its extent, the line from Inverness 
to Tain presents the best proportion and the finest 
examples of cultivated landscape on the system. 

The Dingwall and Skye branch (so called because 
from its western terminus it communicates by steamer 
with the Isle of Skye) leaves the main line at Dingwall, 
and, proceeding by a steep ascent, reaches Strathpeffer 
station (44. miles), which occupies an elevated position 
above the village and spa giving it a name. Proposals 
are now (18S3) under consideration to make a branch on 
a lower level to the village itself, with the ultimate 
purpose of forming a loop with the main branch further 
on, and so save the heavy gradients of this part of the 
line. This route was originally proposed, but was 
abandoned owing to the opposition of one of the pro- 
prietors. Leaving Strathpeffer, the railway continues 
the ascent, and passes through a remarkable rock- 
cutting, over which towers the gigantic mass of the 
Raven Rock (Crmcj-an-fhithaich) 250 feet high. Skirt- 
ing Loch Garve, the line next reaches Garve station 
(12 miles), at which point the coach for Ullapool, cross- 
ing the ' Diridh More, ' connects with the railway. A 
bleak district of nine miles is here encountered, and 
then the railway runs along the margin of the lower 
end of Loch Luichart, where the landscape is finely 
wooded. Between Loch Luichart station (17 miles) and 
Achanault (21J miles) the line follows the watercourse 
of the district, passing the falls of Grudie and crossing 
the Achanault Burn at the point where two small lochs 
are divided by a neck. At Auchnasheen (27J miles) 
the coaches for Loch Maree and Gairloch connect with 
the railway, and a short distance beyond the line 
crosses the watershed, reaching a summit-level of 634 
feet above the sea-level. From Garve onwards the line 
passes through a district of splendid mountain scenery, 
and from Auchnasheen, descending rapidly towards the 
western shore, enters upon scenes of much grandeur and 
desolation, enlivened by an attractive oasis in Auchna- 
shellach (40 miles), a picturesque house surrounded by 
fine gardens placed in the midst of a bare and forbidding 
mountain region. At Strathcarron (45f miles) the rail- 
way strikes the coast of Loch Carron, an extensive 
sea loch, and, pursuing the shore-line, reaches Attadale 
(48 miles) and Strome Ferry (53 miles from Dingwall 
and 215J from Perth), the present terminus of the 
line. The originally proposed terminus was 10$ miles 
further on, at Kyle-Akin, where a narrow strait only 
divides the mainland from Skye, the titular terminus 
of the railway. 

The Sutherland railway starts from Bonar-Bridge, 
and, following the line of the Kyle of Sutherland, 
strikes inland until the foot of Loch Shin is reached, 
when it curves seaward again, traversing Strath Fleet 
and reaching the sea at Golspie. Beyond Invershin 
station (34 miles from Bonar) the railway follows the 
course of the river Shin, a romantic scene, in the course 
of which some heavy rock cuttings and embankings 
had to be executed. Lairg station (9 miles) is a noted 
terminus for anglers, who here leave the railway for 
Loch Shin and a multitude of inland and sea lochs 
which have no nearer access, and to which conveyance 
is had in mail gigs, etc. Passing from the hilly dis- 


triets into more cultivated regions, the railway passes 
Rogart (19 miles) and The Mound (23), the latter 
situated at the great embankment, with sluices, built by 
the Highland Roads and Bridges Commissioners at a 
cost of £12,000. Golspie station (264 miles) stands at 
the W end of the fishing village of that name, at the E 
end of which stands the palatial residence of the Duke 
of Sutherland, Dunrobin Castle. The railway route is 
now for 17 miles carried on by the line built by the 
Duke of Sutherland almost entirely at his own expense. 
Beyond Golspie there is a private station called Dun- 
robin, only used when notice to stop is given, and 
occupying a position near one of the approaches to the 
castle. The other stations are Brora (6 miles), Loth 
(114), and Helmsdale (17), the last-named, at the im- 
portant fishing village of that name, being the 
terminus of the Duke of Sutherland's railway. From 
Helmsdale the route is continued by the line of the 
Sutherland and Caithness Company. Beyond Helms- 
dale the public road northwards crosses the Ord of 
Caithness, but the railway line turns aside to follow 
inland the course of the Helmsdale river, in Strath 
Hie, the first station being Kildonan (94 miles from 
Helmsdale), beyond which it crosses a long stretch of 
wild and exposed country, where snow blocks on the 
railway are of frequent occurrence in winter. The 
stations here are Kinbrace (16| miles), Forsinard (24J), 
and Altnabreac (32£), beyond which, in a more low- 
land territory, there are stations at Scotscalder (41|) 
and Halkirk (44), and at Georgemas Junction (46) the 
lines for Wick and Thurso diverge. The distance to 
Thurso is 6J miles, with an intermediate station at 
Hoy, the terminus being 298 miles from Perth. The 
line to Wick proceeds to Bower (2| miles from the 
junction), Watten (64), and Bilbster (9), the extreme 
terminus of the system being at Wick, 14 miles from 
Georgemas Junction, 161 j from Inverness, and 305 from 

The Highland railway and its continuations fulfil an 
important function in providing communication over a 
very large portion of Scotland, performing the three- 
fold task of opening up a market for the produce of the 
hills in sheep, cattle, grain, etc. , of carrying merchan- 
dise into the district from other quarters, and of open- 
ing up to tourists and sportsmen some of the grandest 
portions of Scottish scenery. Excepting Inverness, the 
towns served by the line are small, but, as will be seen, 
the railway touches at many fishing villages on the 
Moray Firth and further BT, embracing the important, 
but not now undisputed, capital of the herring fishery, 
Wick. By means of the branch to Strome Ferry it has 
opened up an alternative route to Skye and the Outer 
Hebrides, previously only accessible by long sea voy- 
ages. In the extreme N the development of the railway 
has not rewarded those by whose capital the lines were 
made, the sinuous line followed in order to render the 
system valuable locally having in a great measure 
lessened its likelihood of proving a good through line 
for traffic to Orkney. In the branches to Aberfeldy 
and Strome Ferry, as well as in the main through 
route, the railway holds an important place in the 
tourist routes throughout Scotland, many tours in 
conjunction with coaches, steamers on the Caledonian 
Canal, etc. , being organised. The most striking feature 
of the system, in the eye of a stranger, is the long 
stretches of apparently desolate country through which 
the railway for many miles pursues its way, while at 
many points the view obtained from the train embraces 
scenes of grandeur and impressiveness not excelled in 
any other railway in the kingdom. The Highland 
Company is now (1883) engaged in resisting the pro- 
posal to construct a new railway to Inverness, traversing 
the line of the Caledonian Canal, Glencoe, Loch Lomond, 
etc. , to a junction with the North British railway near 

Hightae, a village and a lake in Lochmaben parish, 
Dumfriesshire. The village stands on a fertile alluvial 
tract near the river Annan, 2J miles SSE of Lochmaben 
town, and 4 SW of Lockerbie. The largest of the so- 


called Four Towns, it has a post office under Lockerbie, 
a Free church, and a public school. Hightae Loch 
(2| x 1J furl.) lies 1J mile NNW of the village, and 3 
furlongs S by W of the Castle Loch , and is well stocked 
with fish. Pop. of village (1871) 409, (1881) 324.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Hightown. See Heiton. 

Hillend, a village in Inverkeithing and Dalgety par- 
ishes, Fife, 1£ mile NE of Inverkeithing town. It has 
a post office under Inverkeithing and a public school. 

Hillend, a village in Shotts parish, NE Lanarkshire, 
5 miles ENE of Airdrie. Hillend Reservoir, on the 
mutual border of Shotts and New Monkland parishes, 
is traversed by the North Caldee, and has an utmost 
length and breadth of 10t and 4f furlongs. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 31, 1867. 

Hillhead. See Govan. 

Hillhead, a village and a mansion in Cockpen parish, 
Edinburghshire, near Lasswade. 

Hillhead, an estate, with a mansion, in Caputh parish, 
Perthshire. The mansion, surmounting the brae on the 
E of Dunkeld, and overlooking the town and bridge, is 
an elegant edifice, and commands a panoramic view of 
the surrounding scenery. 

Hillhouse, an estate, with a mansion, in Kirknewton 
parish, Edinburghshire, 1 mile E by N of Midcalder 

Hillhouse, an estate, with a mansion, in Dundonald 
parish, Ayrshire, 3 miles NNE of Troon. Prince Louis 
Napoleon, afterwards Emperor of the French, stayed 
here in 1839 at the time of the Eglinton Tournament. 

Hill of Angels. See Iona. 

Hill of Beath, a mining village in Beath parish, Fife, 
t mile NW of Crossgates station, and 3J miles ENE of 
Dunfermline. Pop. (1871) 315, (1881) 352. 

Hill of Blair. See Blairgowrie. 

Hill of Cromarty. See Cromarty. 

Hill of Dores, one of the Sidlaw Hills in Kettins 
parish, SE Forfarshire, adjacent to the boundary with 
Perthshire, 3 miles SE of Coupar-Angus. It was 
crowned with an old castle, traditionally said to have 
been for some time the residence of Macbeth. 

Hill of Fare. See Fare. 

Hill of Keillor, a village in Newtj'le parish, Forfar- 
shire, 4 miles E of Coupar-Angus. 

Hill of Nigg, a hill in Nigg parish, NE Ross-shire. 
Extending along the coast, from the North Sutor of 
Cromarty to the farm of Shandwick, it measures 4J 
miles in length and 2 in breadth ; rises to altitudes of 
from 300 to 600 feet above sea-level ; presents to the 
sea a precipitous face, pierced with caves and fissures, 
and mostly about 300 feet high ; and commands, from 
its summits, an extensive and brilliant view, from Caith- 
ness and Sutherland to Banffshire and Perthshire. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 94, 1S78. 

Hillside, a village and a quoad sacra parish in Mon- 
trose parish, Forfarshire. The village stands on sloping 
ground, t mile NNE of Dubton Junction, and 2| miles 
NNW of Montrose town, under which it has a post 
office. Straggling over a considerable area, it contains 
a number of fine villas, and is a summer retreat of 
families from Montrose. The parish, constituted in 
1872, is in the presbytery of Brechin and synod of 
Angus and Mearns; its minister's stipend is £120. The 
church was built in 1869 at a cost of £1000. Pop. of 
village (1871) 326, (1881) 314 ; of q. s. parish (1871) 
1352, (1SS1) 1480.— Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Hillside, a village in Banchory-Devenick parish, Kin- 
cardineshire, 1 mile N of Portlethen station. It has a 
post office under Aberdeen. 

Hillside, an estate, with a mansion, in Aberdour 
parish, Fife, a little N of the village. 

Hillside, an estate, with a mansion, in the detached 
section of Torryburn parish, SW Fife, 8 miles NNW of 

Hillslap. See Allen. 

Hills Tower, an ancient tower in Lochrutton parish, 
E Kirkcudbrightshire, 5f miles WSW of Dumfries. 
Dating from times unknown to record, it includes a later 


entrance lodge inscribed with the date 1598, and con- 
tinues in tolerable preservation. 

Hillswick, a seaport village and a voe or bay in North- 
maven parish, Shetland. The village stands on the voe, 
12 miles S by W of the northern extremity of the main- 
land, and 25 NNW of Lerwick, under which it has a 
post office. The voe penetrates the land 3 miles north- 
north-eastward ; is flanked on the W side by a narrow 
peninsula, terminating in a point called Hillswick Ness ; 
affords well-sheltered anchorage ; and is a good deal 
frequented by vessels. 

Hilltown, Berwickshire, etc. See Hilton. 

Hilton, an ancient parish in Merse district, SE Ber- 
wickshire, united in 1735 to Whitsome. The church, 
on a small hill, 1§ mile E by N of Whitsome church, 
was once adjoined by a hamlet, taking from the site the 
name of Hilton or Hilltown ; and is still represented 
by a disused burying-ground. 

Hilton. See Fodderty. 

Hilton of Cadboll, a fishing village, with a public 
school, in Fearn parish, NE Ross-shire, on the Moray 
Firth, 4J miles ESE of Fearn station. Pop. (1861) 385, 
(1871) 429, (1881) 390. 

Hinnisdale or Hinistil, a rivulet in Trotternish dis- 
trict, Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire, running 5J miles 
west-south-westward to Loch Snizort at a point 3 miles 
SSE of the mouth of Uig Bay. 

Hirbesta, a village in the W of Trotternish district, 
Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire. Its post-town is Kilmuir, 
under Portree. 

Hirsel, The, a seat of the Earl of Home in Coldstream 
parish, Berwickshire, on the right bank of Leet Water, 
1 § mile NNW of Coldstream town. A spacious sandstone 
edifice, it stands amid beautiful grounds, adorned with 
very fine woods and with an artificial lake (2 x lj furl.). 
Stone coffins and great quantities of human bonss have 
been exhumed on the grounds. Charles-Alexander- 
Douglas-Home, seventeenth Baron Home since 1473, 
and twelfth Earl of Home since 1605 (b. 1S34 ; sue. 
1SS1), holds 2597 acres iu Berwickshire, valued at 
£5245 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 26, 1864. See also 
Hume, Bothwell, and Douglas Castle. 

Hirst, a hill (959 feet) in Shotts parish, NE Lanark- 
shire, on the watershed between the Clyde and the 
Forth, 1| mile E by N of the parish church. It emits, 
from its E side, the head-stream of the Almond ; and 
its summit commands a very extensive view. 

Hirta. See St Kilda. 

Hoan, a green, fertile island of Durness parish, NW 
Sutherland, within 5 furlongs of the mainland, off the 
W side of the mouth of Loch Eriboll. It measures 
7 by It furlongs, and rises to a height of 83 feet. — Ord. 
Sitr., sh. 114, 18S0. 

Hobgoblin Hall. See Yester. 

Hobkirk (anciently Hopekirk), a Teviotdale parish of 
Roxburghshire, containing the post office of Bonchester 
Bridge, 7 miles E by S of the post-town, Hawick. It 
is bounded E by Bedrule, Jedburgh, and Southdean, S 
by Castleton, and W and NW by Cavers. Its utmost 
length, from NNE to SSW, is 10J miles ; its utmost 
breadth is 4 J miles ; and its area is 16,242 acres, of 
which 49 are water. Rule Water is formed by several 
head-streams in the S, and runs, from their confluence, 
first 4| miles north-north-eastward through the interior, 
next 2£ miles northward on or close to the Bedrule 
border. Some head-streams, too, of Slitrig Water rise 
and run in the SW corner. In the extreme N, the 
surface declines along the Rule to close on 300 feet above 
sea-level, thence rising south-south-westward to 1392 
feet at 'dark Ruberslaw,' 1059 at round, green Bon- 
chester Hill, 1210 at Stonedge Hill, 1312 at Pike Fell, 
1662 at Windburgh Hill, and 1687 at Fanna Hill, which 
belongs to the mountain chain that separates Teviot- 
dale from Liddesdale. The interior mainly consists of 
the narrow vale of Rule Water, with its flanking heights, 
and comprises a belt of haughs scarcely J mile broad. 
Silurian rocks predominate in the S ; sandstone, in the 
N, yields suitable building material ; and limestone 
occurring in considerable masses, has been quarried and 



calcined in several places. Trap rocks are found on 
Windburgh, Bonchester, and Ruberslaw Hills, and in a 
dyke traversing the lower part of the parish from E to 
W. Indications of coal have been observed. Pieces of 
detrital fossil wood are found in the bed of the Rule ; 
and a stratum of agate or coarse jasper, frequently used 
for seals and other ornaments, occurs at Robertslin. 
The soil of the haughs is a deep, strong, fertile clay, 
mixed in some places with small boulders, in other 
places with sand ; that of the acclivities, at a distance 
from the streams, is light, sandy, and naturally very 
barren. Less than one-fifth of the entire area, so late 
as 1836, was in tillage or in grass parks ; but a great 
additional extent of pasture land has since been brought 
under cultivation, and bears fair grain crops. Planta- 
tions cover some 800 acres, and much of the uplands is 
still pastoral or waste. The chief antiquities are ancient 
fortifications on Bonchester Hill, and vestiges of ancient 
camps or fortifications on Ruberslaw, at Wauchope, and in 
several other places. The Rev. Robert Riccalton, author 
of two volumes of essays and sermons, was minister of 
Hobkirk from 1725 till 1769 ; and the poet Thomson, 
spending with him some part of his early life, is said to 
have planned his Seasons here, and to have borrowed 
from surrounding places much of the scenery in its 
descriptions. Mansions, noticed separately, are Hall- 
rule, Harwood, Langraw, "Wauchope, Weens, and "Wells ; 
and 8 proprietors hold each an annual of £500 and 
upwards. Hobkirk is in the presbytery of Jedburgh 
and synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living is worth 
£430. The parish church, f mile S of Bonchester Bridge, 
was built in 1858, and contains 412 sittings. A Free 
church, at Wolflee, contains 200 ; and Hobkirk public 
school, with accommodation for 148 children, had (1881) 
an average attendance of 72, and a grant of £58, 15s. 8d. 
Vaiuation(1864) £9008, 14s. 9d., (1882)£11,595, 18s. lid. 
Pop. (1801) 760, (1821) 652, (1841) 776, (1871) 718, (1881) 
662.— CW. Sur., sh. 17, 1S64. 

Hoddam, an Annandale parish of S Dumfriesshire, 
comprising, since 1609, the ancient parishes of Hod- 
dam, Luce, and Ecclefechan, and containing near its E 
border the post-town and station of Ecclefechan. It 
is bounded N" by Tundergarth, E by Middlebie, SE by 
Annan, SW by Annan and Cummertrees, and W by St 
Mungo. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 5| miles ; 
its utmost breadth, from E to W, is 3J miles ; and its 
area is 7564J acres, of which 50j are water. The river 
ANNAS flows 4| miles south-eastward along the south- 
western border ; its affluent, Milk Water, over the last 
5 furlongs of its course, roughly traces part of the 
western boundary ; and Mein Water, after flowing for 7 
furlongs just beyond the south-eastern boundary, runs 
9J furlongs across a southern wing, and falls into the 
Annan at a point 1J mile SSW of Ecclefechan. The 
south-western and southern district is low and level, 
sinking little below 100, and little exceeding 200, feet 
above sea-level ; from it the surface rises northward to 
474 feet at Three "Well Brae, 503 at Relief, 550 at 
Douglashall, and 920 at conspicuous Brunswark Hill. 
The parish generally is richly embellished with hedge- 
rows, clumps of wood, and high cultivation, and com- 
bines, with surrounding heights, to form a finely 
picturesque landscape. The rocks comprise sandstone, 
limestone, clay-slate, clay ironstone, and thin seams of 
coal. The soil along the Annan is a rich, deep, alluvial 
loam ; in the lands further E and N is light and 
gravelly, yet fertile ; and in the higher grounds towards 
Brunswark Hill inclines to clay, incumbent on a cold 
till. Some 70 acres are under wood ; about one-tenth of 
the entire area is sheep-pasture, chiefly on Brunswark 
Hill ; and all the rest of the land is in tillage. The 
Hoddam estate, held from the 14th or 15th century by 
the powerful Hemes family, was acquired from the 
sixth Lord Hemes about 1627 by Sir Richard Murray 
of Cockfoot, whose nephew, the second Earl of Annan- 
dale, conveyed it about 1653 to David, first Earl of 
Southesk. Charles, fourth Earl of Southesk, in 1690 
sold castle and barony to John Sharpe, whose ancient 
line ended in the four brothers — General Matthew 


Sharpe, Liberal M.P. for the Dumfries burghs from 1832 
to 1841 ; Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe (1781-1851), the 
' Scots Horace Walpole ; ' Admiral Alexander Renton 
Sharpe (d. 1858) ; and William John Sharpe (1797-1875), 
of sporting celebrity. In 1878 the property was pur- 
chased by Edward Brook, Esq. (b. 1825). The original 
castle, said to have been a seat of the royal Bruces about 
the beginning of the 14th century, stood at Hallguards, 
on the left bank of the Annan, 2 miles WS"W of Eccle- 
fechan, and was demolished in terms of a Border treaty. 
The present castle stands in Cummertrees parish, 3§ 
miles WSW of Ecclefechan, near the right bank of the 
Annan, and at the foot of Repentance Hill (350 feet), 
with its conspicuous square, thick-walled beacon-tower, 
25 feet high, and dating from the 15th century. Hod- 
dam Castle itself is of the same period, massive and 
picturesque, enlarged by a wing in Gen. Sharpe's time 
from designs by Mr Burn, and commanding a view of 
one of the loveliest Dumfriesshire straths. Knockhill, 
lh mile WSW of Ecclefechan, is the only mansion in 
Hoddam parish, whose chief antiquities are noted under 
Brunswark. The birthplace and grave of Thomas 
Carlyle are described under Ecclefechan, but it may 
be added that a tombstone was erected to his memory 
in the summer of 1882. When in 573 a.d. St. Kenti- 
gern returned from Wales to the Cumbrian region, 
' King Rydderch Hael and his people went forth to 
meet him, and they encountered each other at a place 
called Holdelm, now Hoddam. . . . Here he fixed 
his see for a time ; but afterwards, warned by divine 
revelation, he transferred it to his own city Glasgow ' 
(Skene's Celtic Scotland, ii. 191, 1877). Five proprietors 
holds each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 3 of 
between £100 and £500, 5 of from £50 to £100, and 16 
of from £20 to £50. Giving off a portion to Bridekirk 
quoad sacra parish, Hoddam is in the presbytery of 
Annan and synod of Dumfries ; the living is worth 
£344. The present parish church, 9 furlongs SW of 
Ecclefechan, was built in 1817, and contains 500 sittings. 
At Ecclefechan are a Gothic Free church (1878 ; 280 
sittings), a Gothic U.P. church (1S65 ; 600 sittings), 
and Hoddam public school, which, with accommodation 
for 294 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 
180, and a grant of £157, 4s. Valuation (1860) £7538, 
(1883) £11,087, 14s. lOd. Pop. (1801) 1250, (1S31) 
1582, (1861) 1653, (1871) 1598, (1881) 1548, of whom 
1445 were in the ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
10, 1864. 

Hodges, a farm in Gladsmuir parish, Haddingtonshire, 
i\ miles SW of Haddington. Once part of an extensive 
common belonging to Haddington, it was given by that 
burgh's magistrates to an eminent lawyer of the name of 

Holburn Head, a magnificent headland (306 feet) in 
Thurso parish, Caithness, flanking the W side of Thurso 
Bay, projecting from a peninsula between that bay and 
the North Sea, and terminating 2 miles N by W of 
Thurso town. The neighbouring rocks exhibit astonish- 
ing scenes of natural grandeur ; and one of them, called 
the Clett, has been noticed separately. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
116, 1878. 

Holehouse, Canonbie, Dumfriesshire. See Hollows. 

Holekettle or Kettle Bridge, a village in Kettle parish, 
central Fife, \ mile S of Kettle village. Pop. (1871) 
493, (1881) 451. 

Holl, a village in the NW of the Isle of Skye, Inver- 
ness-shire. Its post-town is Kilmuir, under Portree. 

Holland, an estate, with a mansion , in Papa Westray , 
Orkney, 20 miles N of Kirkwall. 

Hollandbush, a village on the mutual border of Denny 
and Kilsyth parishes, Stirlingshire, 3 miles SSW of 
Denny town. It stands contiguous to Haggs village. 
Pop. of the two villages (1871), 534, (1881) 524, of 
whom 7 were in Kilsyth. 

Hollows, a ruined Border tower in Canonbie parish, 
SE Dumfriesshire, on the right side of the Esk, 2 miles 
NNW of Canonbie village. Occupying a site of great 
natural beauty, it is 60 feet long, 46 wide, and 70 high ; 
has round turrets at two of its angles ; and was the 



stronghold of the notorious freebooter, Johnnie Arm- 
strong of Gilnockie. — Orel. Stir., sh. 11, 1863. 

Hollow-Wood or Howwood, a village in Loehwinnoch 
parish, Renfrewshire, with a station on the Glasgow and 
South-Western railway, 3 miles SW of Johnstone town. 
It has a post office under Paisley, a public school, and 
a chapel of ease, which last in 1874 was repaired and 
adorned with a handsome memorial window. Pop. 
(1871) 312, (1881) 333. 

Hollybush, a mansion in Dalrymple parish, Ayrshire, 
near the right bank of the Doon, and i mile SW of 
Hollybush 'station on the Ayr and Dalmellington 
branch of the Glasgow and South-Western railway, this 
being 6£ miles SE of Ayr. 

Hollylee. See Holylee. 

Holm, a parish in the SE of Orkney. Comprising 
the ancient ecclesiastical districts of Holm and Paplay, 
the former on the W, the latter on the E, it includes a 
south-eastern section of Pomona and the island of 
Lambholm ; and contains, on the S coast of its Pomona 
section, 7 miles SE by S of Kirkwall, the village of 
St Mary's Holm, with a post office under Kirkwall. Its 
Pomona section is bounded NE by St Andrews and 
Deerness, E by the German Ocean, S by Holm Sound, 
SW and W by Scapa Flow, and N¥ by Kirkwall. Its 
utmost length, from NW to SE, is 6 miles ; its utmost 
breadth is 3| miles ; and its area is 8451 acres. The 
Pomona section has mostly rocky shores ; projects the 
headlands of Koseness to the SE, and of Howquoy or 
Skeldequoy to the SW ; contains several small lakes ; has 
mostly thin, loamy, tolerably fertile soil ; and resembles, 
in its agriculture, the rest of Pomona. Holm Sound, 
separating Pomona from Burray, and varying in breadth 
from 1J mile to 2J miles, contains Lambholm Island 
towards its centre and Glimsholm Island nearer Burray ; 
affords secure anchorage over most of its extent, and 
much shelter contiguous to Lambholm ; and has, on its 
NW coast, a pier where vessels of 50 tons may unload. 
The herring and cod fisheries are extensively carried on. 
Two proprietors hold each an annual value of more, and 
three of less, than £100. Holm is in the presbytery of 
Kirkwall and synod of Orkney ; the living is worth 
£190. The parish church stands on the S coast, and was 
built in 1818. There are also a Free church (1870) and 
a IT. P. church ; and two public schools, East and West, 
with respective accommodation for 60 and 120 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 43 and 65, and 
grants of £35, 13s. 6d. and £72, 13s. 6d. Valuation 
(1860) £1195, (1881) £2766, 15s. Pop. (1801) 871, 
(1831) 747, (1861) 834, (1871) 935, (1881) 1090. 

Holmains, an old baronial tower and a range of hills 
in Dalton parish, Dumfriesshire. The tower, 4 miles 
S of Lochmaben, was the seat of a branch of the Car- 
ruthers family. It does not appear to have been a 
place of great strength, and now is an utter ruin. The 
hills, extending N and S, rise to an altitude of 800 feet 
above sea-level. 

Holme or Holme Rose, an estate, with a handsome 
modern mansion, in Croy parish, NE Inverness-shire, 
near the left bank of the river Nairn, 4 miles S by E of 
Fort George station. Held by his ancestors since 1541, 
it is now the property of the Rev. Hugh Francis Rose 
(b. 1821 ; sue. 1867), who owns 4809 acres in Inverness 
and Nairn shires, valued at £675 per annum. — Orel. 
Sur., sh. S4, 1876. 

Holms Water, a rivulet of Broughton and Glenholm 
parish, W Peeblesshire, rising close to the boundary 
with Lanarkshire at an altitude of 1750 feet. Thence 
it runs 7J miles north-north-eastward, till, after a 
descent of 1100 feet, it falls near Rachan House into 
Biggar Water f mile above that stream's confluence with 
the Tweed. It affords good trout-fishing. — Orel. Sur., 
shs. 16, 24, 1S64. 

Holybush. See Hollybush. 

Holydean Castle. See Bowden. 

Holy Isle, an island of Kilbride parish, Arran, Bute- 
shire, in the mouth of Lamlash Bay. Measuring If 
mile in length and from 3| to 5 furlongs in breadth, 
it rises to a height of 1030 feet. Its surface is pic- 

turesquely variegated with heath-clad acclivities, grassy 
ridges, and columnar masses — the last consisting of 
clinkstone on bases of sandstone, and rising tier above 
tier to the summit. Its height, as seen from the water, 
looks almost grander than that of Goatfell ; and its 
summit is more difficult to scale, and commands nearly 
as brilliant a view. It is said to have got its name from 
being the retreat of a Culdee anchorite, St Maol Jos, 
whose hermitage, in the form of a natural cave, is still 
shown on its western side ; and near this is a spring, a 
' holy well,' which for centuries bore a surpassing repute 
among the superstitious for curing all sorts of diseases. 
Orel. Sur., shs. 13, 21, 1870. 

Holy Isles. See Garvellooh. 

Holylee, an estate, with a mansion, in the Selkirk- 
shire section of Innerleithen parish, near the left bank 
of the Tweed, 2 miles E by N of Walkerburn station. 
Its owner, James George Ballantyne, Esq. (b. 1837 ; 
sue. 1870), holds 6660 acres in Selkirk and Peebles 
shires, valued at £1807 per annum. — Orel. Sur., sh. 25, 

Holy Linn, a wooded, picturesque cascade of Garpel 
Burn, Kirkcudbrightshire, on the boundary between 
Balmaclellan and Dairy parishes. It got its name from 
being the place at which the ejected minister of Balma- 
clellan, in the days of the persecution, baptized at one 
time thirty-six children of his flock. 

Holy Loch, an elongated bay of Dunoon and Kilmun 
parish, Argyllshire. Opening from the Firth of Clyde, 
between Strone Point on the N and Hunter's Quay on 
the S, and striking west-north-westward to the mouth 
of Stratheachaig, it measures 2J miles in length and 7 
furlongs in extreme breadth. It looks right across to 
Ashton and the pleasant seaboard of Renfrewshire ; its 
N side is steeply flanked by heathy Kilmun Hill (1535 
feet), its S side by swells and braes, sloping upward more 
gently to the Bishop's Seat (1651) ; whilst its shores, 
in an almost continuous belt of narrow low ground, are 
fringed with the villages of Strone, Kilmun, Ardna- 
dam, Sandbank, and Hunter's Quay. Its lower part 
affords good anchorage in 16 or 17 fathoms of water ; 
its sides, over much of their extent, have good bathing 
beaches ; and its upper part, during the recess of the 
tide, is silty foreshore, frequented by flocks of sea-fowl. 
Holy Loch is said by tradition to have received its 
name from the stranding within it of a vessel freighted 
with earth from the Holy Land, to lay beneath the 
foundations of Glasgow Cathedral ; and, in the days 
of quarantine, it was the quarantine station for the 
Clyde, with lazaretto and stores on its S shore. — Orel. 
Sur., sh. 29, 1873. 

Holyrood. See Edinburgh. 

Holytown, a town in Bothwell parish, Lanarkshire, 1 
mile E by N of Holytown Junction on the Caledonian 
railway, 5 J miles SSE of Coatbridge, and 11 ESE of 
Glasgow. Surrounded by a well-worked part of the 
Lanarkshire mineral-field, and partaking largely in the 
industry and traffic connected with the working of the 
same, it experienced considerable increase of prosperity 
from the opening of the Cleland and Midcalder railway 
(1866), in result partly of through traffic on that line and 
partly of junction-communication with Motherwell. It 
includes the suburb of New Stevenston, J mile SSW ; 
and has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments, a branch of the Clydesdale 
Bank, 3 insurance agencies, gasworks, a quoad sacra 
parish church, a Free church, and a public school. The 
quoad sacra parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; its minister's stipend is 
£120. Pop. of town (1836) 755, (1861) 1135, (1871) 
2197, (1881) 2480, of whom 1048 were in New Steven- 
ston ; of q. s. parish (1871) 10,099, (1SS1) 10,449.— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Holywood, a village and a parish of Nithsdale, W 
Dumfriesshire. The village stands 1J mile S of Holy- 
wood station on the Glasgow and South-Western rail- 
way, this being 3J miles NNW of Dumfries, under 
which there is a post office. 

The parish is bounded NW and N by Dunscore, NE 



and E by Kirkmahoe, SE by Dumfries, and S by Terre- 
gles and Kirkpatrick-Irongray in Kirkcudbrightshire. 
Its utmost length, from E to W, is 8$ miles ; its breadth, 
from N to S, varies between J mile and 2 j miles ; and 
its area is 8939^ acres, of which 135 are water. The 
Nith sweeps 6 miles south -south-eastward along or close 
to all the boundary with Kirkmahoe and Dumfries ; 
and Cluden Water, its affluent, winds 6| miles east- 
south-eastward along the Kirkcudbrightshire border, 
itself being fed by Cairn Water and other burns. Along 
the Nith the surface declines to 28 feet above sea-level, 
and all the eastern half of the parish is low and flat, 
nowhere exceeding 100 feet ; but the western is hillier, 
attaining 759 feet in Steilston Hill, 786 in Killyleoch 
Hill, and 875 in Speddoch Hill. Silurian rocks prevail 
in the hills, limestone and red sandstone in the plain, 
and boulders of granite, trap, greywacke, and con- 
glomerate abound in many places ; whilst, on some 
lands near the centre, blocks of lead-ore have been turned 
up by the plough. The soil adjacent to the Nith and 
to the Cluden is deep alluvium, entirely free from stones ; 
further back is dry, somewhat light, and mostly incum- 
bent on coarse sand ; still further back is a deep strong 
loam ; and, on the hills, is loamy, but shallow and un- 
suited to the plough. About 300 acres are hill pasture, 
360 moss, 120 meadow, and 500 underwood, all the rest 
of the land being in tillage. In the SE corner of the 
churchyard stood a Premonstratensian abbey, founded 
between 1121 and 1154 by John, Lord of Kirkconnel, a 
member of the Maxwell family. It held the churches 
and church-lands of Holywood, Dunscore, Penpont, 
Tynron, and Kirkconnel, whilst exercising jurisdiction 
over many lands in Nithsdale and East Galloway ; and, 
in 1618, with the property belonging to it, it was con- 
stituted a temporal barony in favour of John Murray 
of Lochmaben and his heirs. The choir of its cruci- 
form church served as the parish church from the Refor- 
mation till 1779, when it was taken down to furnish 
materials for the present building. It is now repre- 
sented by only two good bells in the present church's 
belfry. Joannes de Sacro Bosco, a monk here in 1221, 
became a member of the University of Paris, and was 
one of the greatest mathematicians of the Middle Ages. 
Abbot Dungal and his monks, in 1296, swore fealty to 
Edward I. of England ; and the last abbot, Thomas 
Campbell, gave aid to Queen Mary after her escape from 
Lochleven Castle, and incurred forfeiture in 1568. A 
hospital, with a chapel, near the abbey, was founded by 
Edward Bruce, the brother of King Robert Bruce ; and, 
having been demolished during the wars of the succes- 
sion, in 1372 was rebuilt by Archibald Douglas, Lord of 
Galloway, and endowed with the Gallowegian lands of 
Crossmichael and Troqueer. An ancient Caledonian 
stone circle, J mile to the W of the abbey's site, com- 
prises eleven of its original twelve large stones (the 
'TwelveApostles'), arranged in oval outline on a diameter 
of 240 feet. It is situated near the lower termination 
of an ancient oak grove, which seems to have extended 
6 or 8 miles north-westward into Glencairn parish, and 
which, being looked on as sacred by the ancients, has 
bequeathed the name of Holywood to the parish. 
Another stone circle, comprising nine large stones, 
formerly lay on a small eminence within 200 yards of 
the Nith, .less than a mile to theE of the extant circle, 
but towards the end of last century was broken up and 
removed for building material. At Fourruerkland is a 
small tower, erected in 1590. Charles Irvine, who in 
last century received from Government £5000 for dis- 
covering the method of rendering salt water fresh, was 
a native, as also was Aglionby Ross Carson, LL.D. 
(1780-1850), for 25 years rector of Edinburgh High 
School ; and Bryce Johnstone, D.D. (1747-1805), who 
wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse, was minister of 
the parish from 1771 till his death. Mansions, noticed 
separately, are Broomrigg, Cowhill Tower, Dallawoodie, 
Gribton, Newtonairds, and Portrack ; and 23 proprie- 
tors hold each an annual value of more, 14 of less, than 
£50. Holywood is in the presbytery and synod of Dum- 
fries ; the living is worth £249. The church was built 


in 1779, has a plain square tower, and contains 530 
sittings. Three public schools — Holywood, Speddoch, 
and Steilston — with respective accommodation for 171, 

32, and 43 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 106, 17, and 37, and grants of £86, 10s., £22, Is., 
and £39, 2s. Valuation (1860) £8662, (1883) £12,883, 
12s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 809, (1831) 1066, (1861) 1115, 
(1871) 1069, (1881) 1078.— Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Home. See Hume. 

Honeygreen, a village in the S of Forfarshire, 2 miles 
NE of Dundee. 

Honton, a village in the S of Pomona, Orkney, 8 miles 
SW of Kirkwall. 

Hoove, a village in Tingwall parish, Shetland, 8 miles 
NNW of Lerwick. 

Hope or Hopes Water. See Gifford Water. 

Hope, a river of Durness parish, NW Sutherland, 
formed by three principal head-streams at an altitude 
of 94 feet, and flowing 6J miles northward along Strath- 
more to fresh-water Loch Hope (5 J miles x 1 to 7 furl. ; 
12 feet), whence issuing it continues If mile northward 
till it falls into salt-water Loch Eriboll at a point 3 
miles NE of Heilem inn. ' The drive along the side of 
Loch Hope is very pretty, especially at the entrance to 
Strathmore. On one side are bare hills, and, on the 
other, every ledge and knoll is covered with beautiful 
natural birchwood, above which rise the steep rugged 
sides of Ben Hope ' (3040 feet). Hope Lodge, built of 
timber and slate, forms a picturesque feature in the 
landscape. Both lake and river are well-stocked with 
sea-trout, grilse, salmon, and trout. — Ord. Sur., shs. 
108, 114, 1880. See pp. 58-63 of Arch. Young's Suther- 
land (Edinb. 1880). 

Hopekirk. See Hobkirk. 

Hopeman, a fishing village in Duffus parish, Elgin- 
shire, 2j miles E by N of Burghead station, 6J W by S 
of Lossiemouth, and 6J NW of Elgin. Founded in 
1S05, it rose into prosperity under the late proprietor, 
Admiral Duff of Drummuir, who purchased the pro- 
perty twenty-one years before his death in 1858 ; and it 
now has a post office under Elgin, with money order 
and savings' bank departments, a new and commodious 
harbour (1865), 119 boats and 250 fisher men and boys, 
a Free church (1854), and a public school. The har- 
bour, completely sheltered, includes an outer and an 
inner space, with an entrance from the former to the 
latter, only 36 feet wide, at right angles to the coast. 
It has 5 feet of water at ebb of spring tides at the 
outer extremity of the pier, and 17§ feet of water at 
the top of spring tides, in good berths along the pier ; 
and adjoins a sandy beach where vessels, if unable 
to clear the entrance in a northerly gale, may lie with 
little or no risk to either themselves or their cargo. 
Fish of all kinds common in the Moray Firth are 
found close to the entrance of the harbour ; and the 
fishing-grounds frequented by the boats of the town are 
only about 1 mile or less than 1 mile distant. Pop. 
(1831) 445, (1861) 1070, (1871) 1226, (1881) 1323.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 95, 1876. 

Hope Park. See Edinburgh. 

Hopes, an elegant modern mansion in Garvald parish, 
S Haddingtonshire, on the right bank of Hopes or 
Gifford Water, 9 miles SSE of Haddington. Held 
for more than two centuries by the Hays of Hopes, 
the estate has recently passed to their kinsman, the 
Marquis of Tweeddale. See Yester. — Ord. Sur., sh. 

33, 1863. 

Hopetoun House, the seat of the Earl of Hopetoun, 
in Abercorn parish, Linlithgowshire, near the southern 
shore of the Firth of Forth, 3 miles W by N of South 
Queensferry, and 12 WNW of Edinburgh. A stately 
classical structure, it consists of a centre, erected in 
1702 from designs by Sir William Bruce of Kinross, to 
which many years after Robert Adam added N and S 
wings, that, surmounted by octagonal dome-roofed 
towers, are connected with the body of the house by 
sweeping colonnades. The interior contains a library, 
rich in illuminated MSS. and early specimens of print- 
ing, and a fine collection of paintings, of which an 


'Ecco Homo' by Van Dyck, his portrait of the Marchese 
Spinola, a curious Teniers, and a hunting scene by Cuyp 
were exhibited at London in the Old Masters Collection 
(18S2-83). The N wing is occupied by extensive stables ; 
and the spacious apartment (100 x 39 feet), which forms 
the S wing, and was formerly used as a family riding- 
school, in Sept. 1831 was converted into a ball-room 
on occasion of the coming-of-age of the present Earl. 
Standing on a raised natural terrace, the house com- 
mands a magnificent prospect up the Forth's basin to 
Ben Lomond, and down the blue, widening Firth to 
the Isle of May. Its own grounds, too, are of singular 
loveliness — 12 acres of garden, laid out like those of 
Versailles, and a deer park and other policies, whose trees 
are unrivalled for size and beauty. Chief among them 
are a cedar of Lebanon (1748), an Abies miranda (1S36), a 
tulip tree of Canada, the ' Dark Avenue ' of beeches, a 
cluster of noble oaks, an avenue of fourteen ash trees, 
three Spanish chestnuts, yews, larches, etc.* The 
ancestor of the Hopetoun family was a cadet of the 
Craighall or Pinkie Hopes, Sir James Hope of Hope- 
toun, Lanarkshire (1614-61), eminent as a lawyer and a 
mineralogist. His son, John (1650-82), in 1678 pur- 
chased the Linlithgowshire baronies of Abercorn and 
Niddey ; and his grandson, Charles (16S1-1742), in 
1703 was created Earl of Hopetoun, Viscount Aithrie, 
and Baron Hope, in the peerage of Scotland. In the 
peerage of the United Kingdom the title of Baron Hope- 
toun was conferred in 1809 on James, third Earl (1741- 
1816), of Baron Niddry in 1814 on his half-brother, Sir 
John Hope (1766-1823), the famous Peninsular general. 
The latter, as fourth Earl, feasted George IV. at Hope- 
toun House on 29 Aug. 1822, prior to the king's em- 
barkation for England at Port Edgar. John Adrian 
Louis Hope, present and seventh Earl (b. 1860 ; sue. 
1873), is seventh in descent from Sir James, and holds 
42,507 acres, valued at £43,960, 2s. per annum, viz. 
11,S70 acres in Linlithgowshire (£20,618, 10s.), 7967 
in Haddingtonshire (£15,497, 15s.), 941 in Fife (£1717, 
17s.), 19, ISO in Lanarkshire (£5492), and 2549 in 
Dumfriesshire (£634).— Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1867. See 
Oemiston and Keith House, and John Small's Castles 
and Mansions of the Lothians (Edinb. 1883). 

Hop-Pringle, an old baronial fortalice in Stow parish, 
Edinburghshire, on the right bank of Gala Water, oppo- 
site Crookston, 1J mile NNW of Fountainhall station. 
It is now reduced to slender remains, yet shows evidence 
of having been a strong and important place ; and it 
commands an extensive view. It was the original seat 
of the Hop-Pringle or Pringle family. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
25, 1865. 

Horndean, a village and an ancient parish of SE 
Berwickshire. The village, standing within 5 furlongs of 
the left bank of the river Tweed, 7 A miles NNE of Cold- 
stream, and 2| N of Norham, is an ancient place, which 
shared in important events connected with the wars of 
the succession, and now has a U. P. church containing 
450 sittings. The parish, at the time of the Reforma- 
tion, was united with Upsetlington to form the parish 
of Ladykirk. 

Horsbrugh, a shattered peel-tower in Innerleithen 
parish, Peeblesshire, near the left bank of the Tweed, 2 J 
miles E by S of Peebles. From at least the beginning 
of the 13th century till 1617 it was the castle of the 
Horsbrughs of Horsbrugh. 

Horse Island, a grassy islet in Ardrossan parish, Ayr- 
shire, 5 furlongs N\V of Ardrossan harbour. Measuring 
2f furlongs by 1, and nowhere rising higher than 13 feet 
above sea-level, it affords some shelter to Ardrossan 
harbour, and is the site of a beacon tower. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 21, 1S70. 

Hoseote, a modern mansion in the Selkirkshire por- 
tion of Roberton parish, near the left bank of Borthwick 
Water, SJ miles WSW of Hawick. Its owner, Archibald 
Stavert, Esq. (b. 1828 ; sue. 1857), holds 2139 acres in 
Selkirk and Roxburgh shires, valued at £1400 per annum 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 17, 1864. 

* The height and girth of these and other trees are given in the 
Scotsman (7 Oct. lSS0)and in Trans. Eight. andAg. Soc. (1879-81). 


Hospitalfield, an estate, with a modern mansion, in 
the detached section of St Vigeans parish, Forfarshire, 
1J mile SW of Arbroath. Its owner, Patrick Allan- 
Fraser (sue. 1873), holds 1045 acres in Forfarshire and 
2722 in Perthshire, valued at £1891 and £1538 per 
annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 49, 1865. 

Hospitalmill, a village in Cults parish, Fife, on the 
river Eden, near the Edinburgh and Dundee railway, 1| 
mile NE of Pitlessie. 

Hoswick, a village in Dunrossness parish, Shetland, 
2 miles distant from Sandwick. 

Houl and Houland, two villages in Tingwall parish, 
Shetland. Their post-town is Scalloway, under Lerwick. 

Eouna or Huna, a hamlet in Canisbay parish, Caith- 
ness, adjacent to Houna Ness on the Pentland Firth, 3 
miles W of Duncansbay Head, and 16J N of Wick. It 
has a post office under Wick and an inn, and is the 
ferry station to Orkney. 

Hounam, a Border village and parish of E Roxburgh- 
shire. The village stands on the right bank of Kale 
Water, at the base of gentle rising-grounds, 4J miles S 
by E of Morebattle, 9 E of Jedburgh station, and 11 
SSE of the post-town, Kelso. 

The parish is bounded N and NE by Morebattle, SE 
by Northumberland, S, SW, and W by Oxnam, and 
NW by Jedburgh and Eckford. Its utmost length, 
from N to S, is 7 miles ; its utmost breadth is 5 J miles ; 
and its area is 15,1074; acres, of which 33 J are water. 
Kale Water here winds 8J miles north-by-eastward — ■ 
first 1 mile along the boundary with Oxnam, next 5f 
miles through the interior, then If mile on or close to 
the Morebattle border ; and here it is joined by half a 
dozen burns. Along it, in the extreme N, the surface 
sinks to 390 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 1472 
feet at conical Hounam Law, 1046 at Chesterhouse Hill, 
1117 at Windy Law, 1152 at Chatto Hill, 12S9 at White- 
stone Hill, 1S44 at *Beefstand Hill, 1676 at *Lamb 
Hill, 1573 at ^Blackball Hill, and 13S8 at Woden Hill, 
where asterisks mark those summits of the Cheviot 
watershed that culminate right on the English border. 
Round verdant hills these, that give the parish a 
diversified aspect of waving elevations, intersected with 
numerous deep narrow dells and charming romantic 
vales. The north-western border is comparatively low 
and level ; yet even it is interspersed with several rising- 
grounds. The rocks are chiefly porphyritic, and con- 
tain jaspers, agates, grey amethysts, and rock crystals. 
The soil in the bottom of the vales is mostly either 
alluvium or light sandy loam ; on the lower hills is 
chiefly a sandy gravel ; and on parts of the higher hills 
is moorish or mossy. Most of the land serves only for 
pasture, maintaining large flocks of Cheviot sheep. 
Less than one-eighteenth of the entire area is in tillage 
or in meadow ; whilst rather more than 100 acres is 
under wood. Ancient Caledonian standing stones are 
numerous ; cairns or barrows are in several places ; the 
Roman road called Watling Street forms for 4 miles the 
western boundary, and adjoins there vestiges of several 
camps and semicircular entrenchments ; a large well- 
preserved Roman camp is on Hounam Law ; traces of a 
very extensive fortification, called the Rings, are on the 
farm of Hounam Mains; eminences of the kind called 
moats are in two places ; and ruins of Border peels are 
at Chester House and Heatherlands. Greenhill is the 
only mansion ; and 5 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of more, 3 of less, than £500. Hounam is in the 
presbytery of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and Teviot- 
dale ; the living is worth £327. The church at the 
village, repaired in 1844, contains 180 sittings ; and a 
public school, with accommodation for 43 children, had 
(18S1) an average attendance of 43, and a grant of 
£53, 10s. Valuation (1860) £6908, (1882) £8667, 4s. 8d. 
Pop. (1801) 372, (1831) 260, (1861) 289, (1871) 238, 
(18S1) 263.— Ord. Sur., shs. 18, 17, 1863-64. 

Houndslow, a village in Westruther parish, Berwick- 
shire, 7 miles E of Lauder. 

Houndwood, a hamlet and a quoad, sacra parish in 
the W of Coldingham parish, Berwickshire. The 
hamlet lies on the left bank of Eye Water, adjacent to 



the North British railway, 3 miles WNW of Reston 
station, and 3 ESE of Grant's House station, its post- 
town. It consists of the quoad sacra parish church 
(1836 ; 500 sittings), a Free church (370 sittings), and 
a few detached houses, scattered over a length of about 
£ mile. The quoad sacra parish, comprising about one- 
half of Coldingham, was constituted by ecclesiastical 
authority in 1836, by civil authority in 1851 ; contains 
the mansions of Houndwood House, Newmams, Berry- 
bank, Sunnyside, Coveyheugh, Stoneshiel, Fairlaw 
House, and Renton House ; has vestiges of two or more 
old towers, one of them a hunting-seat of the priors of 
Coldingham ; and is in the presbytery of Chirnside and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale. The stipend is £120. 
Three public schools — Auchincraw, Renton, and Reston 
— with respective accommodation for 104, 103, and 110 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 43, 76, 
and 83, and grants of £38, 12s., £72, 15s., and £71, 
Is. 6d. Pop. of q. s. parish (1871) 1517, (1881) 1516.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 34, 1864. 

Hourn, a sea-loch in Glenelg parish, Inverness-shire, 
dividing Glenelg proper from Knoydart. Opening from 
Sleat Sound, at a point 6 miles SW of Glenelg village, 
and penetrating 14 miles east-south-eastward, it makes 
three successive sweeps in three different directions, and 
contracts somewhat regularly from a width of 3| miles at 
the entrance to a width of only 1 J furlong at the head. 
' The situation of this estuary is one of great natural 
grandeur, and the high walls of mountain that overhang 
it may well have given the idea of gloom and horror 
conveyed in its singular name — the "Lake of Hell." 
The glen itself is a deep and cavernous cleft, the loch 
beginning as a narrow channel, with walls of precipice 
on either side, often just redeemed from utter harshness 
by the pines which keep a precarious footing wherever 
they can. . . . Point after point, precipice after preci- 
pice, stands out each a mailed head with its dark plume 
waving over it.'— Ord. Sur., shs. 72, 71, 1S80-83. See 
Glenelg, Knoydart, Ben Scrial, Corryvarltgan, 
and p. 520 of an article by Captain Thomas P. "White in 
Good Words for 1874. 

Housay. See Housie. 

House or East Burra, an island in Bressay parish, 
Shetland, lying between Burra and the W coast of the 
Mainland, and separated from the latter by Cliff's Sound. 
It commences 8J miles SW of Lerwick, extends 5 miles 
south-south-westward, and has mostly a breadth of from 
£ to 1 mile. Its coast is rocky ; its interior is mostly a 
hilly ridge, and its W side, at one part, approaches so 
near Burra as to be connected with it by a rude timber 
bridge. Pop. (1861) 209, (1871) 239, (1881) 215. 

Househill, an estate, with a mansion, in Nairn parish, 
Nairnshire, 1^ mile S by E of the town. 

Househill, an estate, with a modern mansion and a 
village, in the E of Abbey parish, Renfrewshire, on the 
right bank of Levern "Water, 2| miles NE of Barrhead. 
It contains an iron-work, a brick-work, coal mines, 
and an extensive quarry ; and was sold in 1871 for 
£40,000. The village, called Househill Muir, has 
Hurlet for its post-town, under Glasgow. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 30, 1866. 

Housie Skerries, a group of islets in Nesting parish, 
Shetland, 9| miles E of Mainland and 24 NE of Ler- 
wick. They comprise Housie proper in the centre, 
GrunayandBrurayiutheE, Mickle Skerry in the WNW, 
and a number of islets and skerries immediately "W of 
Housie proper ; and they are often called the Out 
Skerries. The three chief form a triangular group at 
the distance of only a few hundred yards from one 
another ; each is somewhat more than a mile long ; all 
are widely secluded ; and they are the scene of extensive 
fisheries for ling. Pop. (1841) 122, (1861) 60, (1871) 
71, (1881)71. 

House of Muir, a common in Glencorse parish, Edin- 
burghshire, on the eastern slope of the Pentlands, 3 
miles N by W of Penicuik and 8J S of Edinburgh. A 
weekly market for live stock, frequented by the Edin- 
burgh butchers, was for some time held here ; and a 
great annual market for sheep, held from time irnme- 


morial on the first and second Mondays of April, has 
fallen into almost total desuetude. 

Houston, a village and a parish of central Renfrew - 
shire. The village stands 130 feet above sea-level on 
Houston Burn, If mile NNW of Houston or Crosslee 
station on the Bridge of Weir section of the Glasgow 
and_ South-Western, 3f miles "W by S of Houston 
station on the Glasgow and Greenock section of the 
Caledonian, 3 NNW of Johnstone, and 6 WNW of 
Paisley. An older village, now extinct, stood a little 
lower down the burn ; and the present place, founded on 
a regular plan in 1781, consists chiefly of two streets on 
the two sides of the burn, and presents a neat appear- 
ance, with slated two-story houses. It has a post office 
under Johnstone, and a fair on the second Tuesday of 
May. Pop. (1841) 623, (1861) 858, (1871) 518, (1S81) 

The parish, containing also the village of Crosslee 
and part of Bridge of Weir, comprises the ancient 
parishes of Houston and Killallan, which inconveniently 
intersected each other, and were united in 1760. It is 
bounded N and NE by Erskine, SE and S by Kil- 
barchan, and W by Kilmalcolm. Its utmost length, 
from E to W, is 5J miles ; its utmost breadth is 3J 
miles ; and its area is 7644 acres, of which 59J are 
water. Gryfe Water winds 7J miles eastward along 
all the southern and south-western boundary ; its 
affluent, Dargavel Burn, flows 6f miles east-south- 
eastward along all the northern and north-eastern 
boundary ; and the interior is drained to the Gryfe 
by Houston and Barochan Burns. In the extreme E, 
at the Dargavel's influx to the Gryfe, the surface de- 
clines to 20 feet above sea-level ; and the eastern and 
south-eastern districts are low and almost flat, but the 
north-western rises gradually, till near West Glen 
it attains a summit altitude of 623 feet. Carboni- 
ferous rocks prevail in the lower districts, eruptive 
rocks in the higher ; and the former include sand- 
stone, limestone, and coal. The soil of the low flat 
grounds is partly clay and partly loam ; of the higher 
is thin, dry, and in places heathy. Moss to the extent 
of 300 acres formerly lay dispersed through portions 
of the eastern district, but has in great degree been 
reclaimed and brought under the plough, notably in 
the case of Fulwood Moss (1879-SO). Barochan 
Moss, however, of great depth and considerable extent, 
is still a marked feature. The barony of Houston, 
anciently called Kilpeter, from a church on it dedi- 
cated to St Peter, in the middle of the 12th century 
passed from Baldwin of Biggar, sheriff of Lanark, to 
Hugh of Padvinan, and took from him the name of 
'Hugh's-town,' corrupted into 'Houston,' and gave that 
name to his descendants. They retained the barony 
till 1740, between which date and 17S2 it went by sale 
or inheritance to five different proprietors, eventually 
being purchased by Alexander Speirs of Elderslie. 
Houston House was a large, quadrangular, castellated 
pile, with a high tower at the NW corner, and with an 
arched entrance and two turrets on the S front ; stood 
on an eminence surrounded by gardens and woods ; 
and, excepting the E side, was taken down in 1780 to 
furnish building material for the new village. An 
ancient cross, supposed to have been erected by the 
knights of Houston, has a graduated pedestal, an octa- 
gonal pillar 9 feet high, and a surmounting dial and 
globe. Mansions, noticed separately, are Barochan 
House and Gryfe Castle ; and 4 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 4 of between £100 
and £500, 4 of from £50 to £100, and 15 of from £20 
to £50. Houston is in the presbytery of Paisley and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £400. 
The parish church was built in 1874-75, at a cost of 
over £3000, by Mrs Ellice of Invergarry as a memorial to 
her son, Captain Archibald Alexander Speirs (1S40-69), 
M.P. for Renfrewshire. It is an Early Gothic edifice, 
with 600 sittings and a square tower 70 feet high ; and 
in 1876 it was adorned with seven stained-glass win- 
dows. At its E end a new mortuary has been erected, 
containing an interesting 15th century monument of 


the Houston family ; and 2 miles to the NW the ruin 
is still standing of Killallan or St Fillan's church. 
Other places of worship are Houston Free church and 
Houston Roman Catholic church, St Fillan's (1841 ; 300 
sittings! Freeland public, North Houston public, 
South Houston public, and a Roman Catholic school, 
with respective accommodation for 245, 140, 143, and 
103 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 97, 
81, 95, and 50, and grants of £90, 7s., £80, 7s. 6d., 
£76, 13s., and £28, Is. 7d. Valuation (1860) £12,330, 
(1883) £15,885, lis. lOd. Pop. (1801) 1891, (1841) 
281S, (1861) 2490, (1871) 2167, (1881) 2191.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 30, 1S66. 

Houstoun House, a mansion in Uphall parish, Lin- 
lithgowshire, 1 mile NW of Uphall station on the 
Bathgate section of the North British railway, and 5 
furlongs WSW of Uphall village. An old Scottish 
mansion house, of considerable height, with crow- 
stepped gables, and with well laid-out grounds, it was 
founded in the latter half of the 16th century by Sir 
John Shairp, Knight, an eminent lawyer and Queen 
Mary's advocate. Among his descendants have been 
Norman Shairp (1779-1864), Major H. E. I. C. S. ; Ms 
eldest son, Thomas (b. 1814), who holds 567 acres in 
the shire, valued at £S40 per annum ; and his younger 
son, John Campbell, LL.D. (b. 1819), principal of St 
Salvator's College, St Andrews. — Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 
1857. See John Small's Castles and Mansions of the 
Lothians (Edinb. 1883). 

Houton, a headland, a bay, and a small island, in 
Orphir parish, Orkney, at the south-western extremity 
of Pomona, 5 miles SE of Stronmess. The headland 
rises to the height of 300 feet above sea-level, and 
is pierced, at the height of 90 feet, by a cave 14 feet 
long. The bay, adjoining the E side of the headland, 
forms a good natural harbour, and can be entered by 
ships at low water. The island lies across the mouth 
of the bay, and shelters it; but is not quite J mile long, 
and is entirely pastoral. 

Howdens-Hall, a hamlet in Liberton parish, Edin- 
burghshire, 3 miles S by E of Edinburgh. 

Howe, a hamlet in Wick parish, Caithness, 9 miles 
NNW of Wick town, and 5 WNW of Keiss. 

Howe, a hamlet in Colvend parish, SE Kirkcudbright- 
shire, 6f miles SE of Dalbeattie. 

Howford, a village in Nairn parish, Nairnshire, 1J 
mile S by W of the station. 

Howgate, a village in Penicuik parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, If mile SSE of Penicuik town and 11 miles S of 
Edinburgh. It has a U.P. church, rebuilt in 1855, a 
public school, and copious waterworks, opened in May 
1872. From Howgate, be it remembered, came ' Rab ' 
and his two best friends. — Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1S57. 

Howgill, a village in Annan parish, Dumfriesshire, 7 
furlongs E by S of the town. 

Howmore, a village and a registration district in the 
N of South Uist parish, Outer Hebrides, Inverness- 
shire. The village stands on the W coast of South 
Uist island, 7 miles S of the north-western extremity 
of that island, and 36 SSW of Lochmaddy, under which 
it has a post and telegraph office. The registration dis- 
trict is the central one of three districts into which 
South Uist parish is divided. 

Howwood. See Hollow-Wood. 

Hoxa, a peninsular headland on the W side of South 
Ronaldshay island, Orkney, projecting If mile west- 
south-westward, and terminating 1J mile E of Flotta 
island. A flagstone quarry here yields slabs from 6 to 
8 feet in diameter. 

Hoy, the largest, except Pomona, of the Orkney 
islands, lying at the SW of the group. It is separated 
from the Stromness district of Pomona by Hoy Sound, 
which, with a varying width of 1J and 5J miles, con- 
tains midway the island of Graemsay ; from Burray and 
South Ronaldshay islands by Scapa Flow, 5£ to 11 miles 
broad ; and from Caithness by the Pentland Firth, which 
here has a minimum width of 6f miles. Its utmost 
length, from NNW to SSE, is 13J miles ; its breadth 
varies between 3 furlongs and 6J miles ; and its area, 


inclusive of Graemsay, Flotta, and Pharay islands, is 
Clf square miles or 39,510 acres, of which 15,183 
acres belong to Hoy and Graemsay parish and 24,327 
to Walls and Flotta parish. Near its S end it is 
all hut dissevered by an arm of the sea, the Long Hope, 
which, striking 5^ miles west-south-westward, and vary- 
ing in width between £ and 1§ mile, forms one of the 
finest natural harbours in the world. During the French, 
war it was no uncommon thing for a fleet of upwards of 
a hundred large vessels to be lying wind-bound in this 
harbour ; and a fine sight it was to see them spread 
their canvas to the breeze, and move majestically along 
the shores of the island. The district around the Long 
Hope is principally a fine plain, in a state of good culti- 
vation ; but the parts to the N, constituting the main 
body of the island, are almost wholly occupied by three 
large hills, ranged in the form of a triangle, of which 
that to the NE, called the Wardhill of Hoy, is the 
largest, rising from a plain, with a broad base, to the 
height of 1555 feet above the level of the sea. Except 
along the N shores, which are bordered with a loamy 
soil and a rich verdure, the soil is composed of peat and 
clay, the former commonly predominating. The ground 
destined for the production of grain, and that appro- 
priated for feeding cattle, bear but a very small propor- 
tion to what is covered with heath and allotted for 
sheep-walks. The township of Rackwick, 3J miles from 
the N end of the island, is beautifully situated in the 
extremity of a valley to which it gives name, being 
closed in on two sides by very lofty precipices of sand- 
stone, but opening with a fine bay towards the western 
entrance of the Pentland Firth, so that every vessel 
which passes must necessarily come into view. All the 
extent of coast which faces the Atlantic, from the south- 
western extremity of the island, but especially from 
Melsetter in the vicinity of the head of the Long Hope, 
all the way N, past Rackwick, on to the very entrance of 
Hoy Sound, is a series of stupendous rock-scenery, occa- 
sionally exceeding 1160 feet in height, — sometimes per- 
pendicular and smooth, — in other places rent, shivered, 
and broken down in huge fragments, — occasionally 
overhanging the deep, and frowning on the stormy 
surges of the Atlantic. And, at one place, a vast in- 
sulated rock, called the Old Man of Hoy, and shaped 
like an immense pillar, with arches beneath, stands so 
well apart from the adjacent cliff's as to be a conspicuous 
object even from points of view in Caithness, and has 
obtained its name from being fancied to present a rough 
outline of similitude to the human form. This ' gigantic 
column, rising 600 feet above the sea, gives evidence of 
the sculpturing force of the northern waves ; and its 
materials record three episodes in a far-off past, for the 
column itself is a mass of yellow and red sandstone 
belonging to the upper part of the Old Red series, whilst 
the plinth is a fragment of a lava stream, and rests on 
a foundation of Caithness flag. Once a portion of the 
solid cliff, the Old Man has been hewn out from it 
during the interval that has elapsed since the last lin- 
gering glacier melted away from the upland valleys of 
Hoy.' The island generally is the most interesting dis- 
trict of Orkney to the geologist, the botanist, or the 
ornithologist ; and well deserves the attention of any 
naturalist who may have an opportunity of leisurely 
examining it at different seasons of the year. It is the 
Highlands of Orkney, scarcely second to many parts of 
the Highlands of the mainland in various attractions, 
and combining these with interesting features of vale 
and sea-beach. Some of its cliff's are of sandstone, inter- 
sected by amygdaloid and other kinds of trap ; while 
the parts inland consist of sandstone, clay slate, and 
calcareous strata. Grouse are abundant, and hawks 
common ; a beautiful, bold, large kind of falcon may 
now and then be seen ; and several kinds of eagles build 
their eyries on the cliffs. The soil of the arable lands 
is mostly light, wet, and spongy, better for grass than 
grain. ' Walls is the best part of the island, and exten- 
sive improvements were carried out some years ago at Mel- 
setter by a former proprietor, and a large flock of Cheviot 
sheep was introduced, which succeeded well ; but little 



or nothing has been done for the other parts of Hoy. 
If surface-drained, the mountain range in the island 
would suit black-faced sheep' (Trans. Hiqhl. and Ag. 
Soc, 1874, p. 59). A chief antiquity, the Dwarfie 
Stone, and the lighthouses of Candick and Graemsay, 
are noticed separately. There is a post office of Long- 
hope, under Stromness, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments. Near it is Melsetter, 
one of two mansions in this island — the other being 
Hoy Lodge — belonging to John George Moodie Heddle, 
Esq. (b. 1844; sue. 1869), who holds 50,410 acres, valued 
at £3527 per annum. In the presbytery of Oairston 
and synod of Orkney, the island is divided politically 
and ecclesiastically between the parishes of Hoy and 
Graemsay and "Walls and Flotta, the former a living 
worth £170, the latter £200. Hoy church, built about 
1780, contains 182 sittings ; Walls church, built in 
1832, contains 500. Other places of worship are North 
"Walls Established mission church and Walls Free church 
(1877). The five public schools of Hoy, Rackwick, 
Brims, South Walls, and Flotta, and North "Walls 
General Assembly school, with total accommodation for 
374 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 215, 
and grants amounting to £253, 15s. Id. Valuation 
(1881) of Hoy and Graemsay, £868 ; of Walls and 
Flotta, £2486. Pop. of Hoy and Graemsay (1S01) 244, 
(1S31) 546, (1861) 556, (1871) 581, (1881) 603 ; of Walls 
and Flotta (1S01) 993, (1831) 1436, (1861) 1674, (1871) 
1530, (1881) 1506 ; of Hoy island (1841) 1486, (1851) 
1565, (1861) 1535, (1871) 1385, (1S81) 1380. See Hugh 
Miller's Cruise of the Betsy (1858), and Arch. Geikie's 
Geological Sketches at Home and Abroad (1882). 

Hoy Sound. See Graemsay and Hoy. 

Hullerhurst, an estate, with a mansion, in Stevenston 
parish, Ayrshire, 1^ mile N of the town. 

Humbie, a parish in the south-western extremity of 
Haddingtonshire. It consists of a main body and a 
small detached section, and it comprehends the ancient 
parishes of Keith and Humbie, called at the end of the 
17th century Keith-Syinmars and Keith-Hundeby. The 
main body is bounded NW by Ormiston, NE by Salton 
and Bolton, E by Yester, SE by Channelkirk in Ber- 
wickshire, SW by Soutra, and "W by Fala in Edinburgh- 
shire ; and it contains the post office of Upper Keith, 
2 miles NE of Blackshiels. The detached section, 
lying f mile SW of the western boundary of the main 
body, is entirely surrounded by Edinburghshire ; and 
contains Blackshiels post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 3|- miles 
ENE of Tynehead station. The main body has an ut- 
most length from NNW to SSE of 5J miles, an utmost 
breadth from E to "W of 4J miles, and an area of 8797J 
acres ; whilst the detached section, measuring If mile 
by 7 furlongs in extreme length and breadth, is 51Si- 
acres in area. The drainage is carried northward to the 
Tyne by Keith, Humbie, and Birns Waters ; and the 
surface, declining to 370 feet above sea-level in the 
extreme N, thence rises southward to the Lammermuirs, 
attaining 600 feet near Humbie House, 616 near Upper 
Keith, 115S near Blegbie, and 1431 at the south-eastern 
border. The southern district, as part of the Lammer- 
muirs, approaching within 5 mile of Lammer Law (1733 
feet) in Yester parish, is mostly heath or upland pas- 
ture ; but the central and northern districts, compara- 
tively low and level, share the general character of the 
great plain of Haddington, and contain a great aggregate 
of park and wood. One stretch of forest, bearing the 
name of Humbie and Salton "Wood, begins near the 
parish church, and extends 1£ mile northward to the 
northern boundary, and J mile further into Salton 
parish. Silurian rocks predominate in the uplands, 
and rocks of the Carboniferous formation extend be- 
neath the plain. Traces are found of iron ore and 
coal. The soil on the uplands is much of it mossy ; 
in the eastern parts of the low grounds, is a fine light 
gravel, well adapted to the turnip husbandry ; and in 
the northern parts, is variously rich clay, loam, and 
light gravel. Faint vestiges of a Roman castellum are 
on Whitburgh estate, and in front of Keith House are 


remains of a pre-Reformation chapel. Humbie House, 
3J miles NE of Blackshiels, is a seat of Lord Polwarth, 
his grandfather early in the present century having 
succeeded the Hepburnes in this estate, as great-grand- 
son of Helen Hepburne, Countess of Tarras. (See 
Harden.) Keith House and Whitburgh are noticed 
separately ; and the chief proprietors are the Earl of 
Hopetoun and Lord Polwarth, the rest of the parish 
being divided into small estates, each of a single 
farm. Humbie is in the presbytery of Haddington and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is worth 
£406. The parish church, 6J miles NE of Tynehead 
station, was built in 1800, and contains 400 sittings. 
There is also a Free church ; and three schools — Cross- 
roads public, Humbie public, and Leaston Christian 
Knowledge Society's — with respective accommodation 
for 128, 102, and 53 children, had (1881) an average 
attendance of 73, 37, and 29, and grants of £63, 14s. 
6d., £26, 12s., and £21, 7s. 6d. Valuation (I860) 
£9247, (1879) £11,823, lis., (1883) £10,141, 10s. 
Pop. (1801) 785, (1831) 875, (1861) 997, (1871) 967, 
(1881) 907.— Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Hume or Home, a post-office village and a parish of S 
Berwickshire. The village, standing 680 feet above 
sea-level, 3 miles S by W of Greenlaw, and 5J N by "W 
of Kelso, was once a considerable town, teeming with 
the retinue and the dependants of one of the most 
powerful baronial families of a former age, but it has 
passed into decadence and decay, so as to be now a 
mere hamlet. Home Castle crowns a rocky eminence 
hard by, and figures like a beacon-tower over all the 
Merse, forming a picturesque feature in a wide and 
luxuriant landscape. As founded in the 13th century, 
it must have been a lofty and imposing structure ; and, 
ever growing larger and stronger as the lords of Home 
grew richer and mightier, it served at once to over- 
awe and to defend the surrounding country. Prior, 
indeed, to the general use of artillery,* it was deemed 
to be almost impregnable ; but in 1547 the Protector 
Somerset captured it, after a stout resistance by Lady 
Home, whose husband, the fourth Lord Home, had 
fallen in a skirmish the day before the battle of Pinkie. 
He placed in it an English garrison, who in 1549 were 
surprised and slain by young Lord Home. Again, in 
1569, the Earl of Sussex, 'being at Wark, accompanied 
with the whole bands of footmen and a thousand horse, 
with three battery-pieces and two sacris, went to the 
siege of Home, where he planted his battery ; where, 
within twelve hours after the battery was planted, the 
castle was surrendered to him, simply having within 
it 240 soldiers. So the soldiers departed out of it in 
their hose and doublets.' And lastly, in 1650, im- 
mediately after the capture of Edinburgh Castle, Crom- 
well despatched Colonel Fenwick at the head of two 
regiments to seize the Earl's castle of Home. In 
answer to a peremptory summons to surrender, sent 
him by the Colonel at the head of his troops, Cock- 
burn, the governor of the castle, returned two missives, 
which have been preserved as specimens of the frolick- 
ing humour that now and then bubbles up in the 
tragedy of war. The first ran : ' Right Honourable, I 
have received a trumpeter of yours, as he tells me, 
without a pass, to surrender Home Castle to the Lord 
General Cromwell. Please you, I never saw your 
general. As for Home Castle, it stands upon a rock. 
Given at Home Castle, this day, before 7 o'clock. So 
resteth, without prejudice to my native country, your 
most humble servant, T. Cockbtjrn.' The second was 
expressed in doggerel lines, which still are quoted by 
the peasantry, often in profound ignorance of the occa- 
sion when they were composed : — 

' I, Willie Wastle, 

Stand firm in my castle ; 

And a' the dogs o' your town 

Will no pull Willie Wastle down.' 

Home Castle, however, when it felt the pressure of 
* It may here be noted that, according to tradition, James II. 's 
queen, Mary of Gueldres, was lodging- at Home Castle, when the 
King met his death by the bursting of a cannon at the siege of the 
castle of Roxburgh, 3 Aug. 1460. 



Colonel Fenwick's cannon, and saw his men about to 
rush to the attack, very readily surrendered to his 
power, and received within its walls the soldiery of 
Cromwell. Early in the 13th century William, a grand- 
son of the third Earl of Dunbar, acquired the lands of 
Home by marriage with his cousin Ada ; and his eighth 
descendant, Sir Alexander Home, in 1473 was raised to 
the peerage as Baron Home, whilst his twelfth in 1605 
was created Earl of Home and Baron Dunglass. (See 
Bothwell, Douglas Castle, and Hiksel.) In the 
early part of the ISth century Home Castle and the 
domains around it passed into the possession of the 
Earls of Marchmont, a branch of the Homes who for a 
time were wealthier and more influential than the main 
stock, but whose title expired with the third Earl in 
1794. The castle in his time was almost level with the 
ground, but was by him rudely restored from its own 
materials, high battlemented walls being re-erected on 
the old foundations. It is only a ' sham antique ; ' 
but, seen from a distance, it still appears, on its far- 
seeing elevation, to frown over all the Merse and much 
of Roxburghshire. The present proprietor is Sir Hugh 
Hume-Campbell of Marchmont, Bart., great-grandson 
of the second Earl of Marchmont. 

The parish is bounded N\V by Gordon, NE by Green- 
law, E by Eccles, S by Stitchell in Roxburghshire, SW 
by Nenthorn, and W by Earlston. Its utmost length, 
from E by N to W by S, is 4J miles ; its breadth varies 
between 14 and 2J miles ; and its area is 4103 acres, of 
which 3| are water, and 39J lie detached within Earl- 
ston. Eden Watek flows £ mile southward along the 
western boundary ; and Lambden Burn rises in and 
traverses the southern interior, on its easterly course to 
the Leet. Where it passes off into Eccles, the surface 
declines to 3S0 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 700 
at Hume Craigs, 538 at Eallsidehill, 709 at Stenmuir, 
and 654 at North Blinkbonny. A rising-ground called 
Lurgie Craigs, on the south-western border, is faced 
with a fine basaltic colonnade, whose erect, regular, 
polygonal columns are 5 or 6 feet high and 16 inches 
thick. The soil, in most places clayey and strong, in 
some was naturally wet and cold, but nearly everywhere 
has been greatly improved, and brought into a state of 
high cultivation. The property is divided among three. 
The original parish, whose church was dedicated to St 
Nicholas, was four times the size of the present one, 
and comprehended much of the lands now included in 
Gordon and Westruther. In the first half of the 12th 
century the second Earl of Dunbar conferred it on Kelso 
Abbey, whose monks placed large portions of it under 
other parochial arrangement. The curtailed parish was 
annexed in 1640 to the contiguous Roxburghshire parish 
of Stitchell. A public school, with accommodation 
for 96 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 67, 
and a grant of £44, Is. 3d. Valuation (1864) £5000, 
7s. 6d., (1882) £6213, Is. 9d. Pop. (1841) 385, (1861) 
420, (1871) 460, (1881)407.— Od. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Huna. See Houna. 

Hundalee Cottage, a modern mansion in Jedburgh 
parish, Roxburghshire, on the steep left bank of the 
river Jed, 1J mile S by W of Jedburgh town. A strong 
ancient peel tower of the Rutherfurds, destroyed in last 
century, stood on the estate of Hundalee ; and Hundalee 
Cave, on the bank of the Jed, disappeared through a 
landslip in March 1881. 

Hungladder, a village in the NW of the Isle of Skye, 
Inverness - shire. Its post-town is Kilmuir, under 

Hunterfield, a village in Cockpen and Newbattle 
parishes, Edinburghshire, adjoining Arniston Colliery 
village, 5 furlongs NNW of Gorebridge. Pop. (1871) 
487, (18S1) 766, of whom 612 were in Cockpen and 154 
in Newbattle.— Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Hunter's Bay. See Rigg Bay. 

Hunter's Quay. See Dunoon. 

Hunterston, a handsome mansion, built early in the 
present century, in West Kilbride parish, N Ayrshire, 
within 3 furlongs of the Firth of Clyde and 2i miles 
NNW of West Kilbride village. It is the seat of Lieut. - 

Col. Gould Hunter-Weston, son-in-law of Robert Hunter, 
Esq. of Hunterston (1800-80), who owned 881 acres in 
the shire, valued at £1874 per annum, and whose ances- 
tors held this estate as far back as the first half of the 
13th century. Their castle, a small square tower, stands 
not far distant from the present manor house, in which 
is preserved a large and splendid ancient silver brooch, 
richly adorned with gold filigree work, and bearing a 
Runic inscription. Supposed to have been lost by a 
Norseman at the time of the Battle of Largs (1263), it 
was found on the estate in 1826, and is finely reproduced 
in the Archaeological Collections relating to the Counties 
of Ayr and Wigtown (Edinb. 1878). 

Huntfield, an estate, with a mansion, in Libberton 
parish, Lanarkshire, 4 miles NW of Biggar. 

Hunthill, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Jed- 
burgh parish, Roxburghshire, 2 miles SE of the town. 
An old peel tower was on it, but has disappeared. 

Huntington House, a mansion in Haddington parish, 
Haddingtonshire, 2J miles WNW of the town. 

Huntingtower, a village and an ancient castle in 
Tibbermore parish, Perthshire. The village stands 
near Almondbank station on the Perth, Methven, and 
Crieff section of the Caledonian, 3 miles WNW of Perth, 
under which it has a post office. It adjoins the village 
of Ruthvenfield, and since 1774 has been the seat of an 
extensive bleachfield. The works are supplied with 
water through an artificial canal of such antiquity as to 
rank amongst the earliest extant appliances of industry 
in the kingdom. The canal is mentioned in a charter 
of Alexander II. as his mill-lead ; and in 1244 a pipe's 
supply from it was granted to the Blackfriars' monastery 
in Perth. Opening from the river Almond, and approach- 
ing Huntingtower through a meadow, it measures 3 feet 
in depth, nearly 18 feet in breadth, and 4J miles in 
length. Pop. of the conjoint villages of Huntingtower 
and Ruthvenfield (1871) 446, (1881) 458. 

In the reign of William the Lyon (1165-1214) the 
manors of Ruthven and Tibbermore were possessed by 
one Swan, whose descendant, Sir William de Ruthven, 
was raised to the peerage as Lord Ruthven in 1488. 
Patrick, the grim third Lord (1520-66), was the principal 
actor in Rizzio's murder ; his second son and successor, 
William, in 1581 was created Earl of Gowrie. At 
Ruthven Castle, exactly a twelvemonth later, he kid- 
napped the boy-king, James VI. — an affair that, famous 
as the ' Raid of Ruthven,' brought his head to the block 
in 1584. The Gowrie Conspiracy (1600), whose story 
belongs to Perth, cost the life of his son, the third Earl ; 
and from his forfeiture down to early in the present 
century the castle and barony belonged to successively 
the Tullibardine and the Athole Murrays. Their present 
proprietor, William Lindsay Mercer, Esq. (b. 1S58 ; sue. 
1871), owns 465 acres in the shire, valued at £1360 
per annum. Ruthven or Huntingtower Castle consists 
still of two strong, heavy, square towers, battlemented 
and turreted, which, built at different times, and 
originally 9J feet distant from one another, were after- 
wards united by a somewhat lower range of intermediate 
building. The space between the towers, from battle- 
ment to battlement, at a height of 60 feet from the 
ground, is known as the Maiden's Leap, it having, 
according to Pennant, been leapt one night by the first 
Earl's youngest daughter, whose mother had all but 
surprised her with her lover. — Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 
See Perthshire Illustrated (1844). 

Huntly, a quondam hamlet in Gordon parish, SW 
Berwickshire, 4£ miles NE of Earlston. It stood on 
the estate of the ancestors of the ducal family of Gordon, 
and on their removal to the north, gave name to the 
town of Huntly in Aberdeenshire. 

Huntly, a town and a parish in Strathbogie district, 
NW Aberdeenshire. The town, standing 408 feet above 
sea-level on the peninsula at the confluence of tho 
rivers Bogie and Deveron, has a station on the Great 
North of Scotland railway, 12J miles SE of Keith, 8 
SSE of Grange Junction, and 40J NW of Aberdeen. 
By a charter of 1545 to the fourth Earl of Huntly, it 
ranks as a burgh of barony under the Duke of Richmond 



and Gordon ; and it owes much as a seat of trade and 
population to the vicinity of the Duke's seat of Huntly 
Lodge ; much to facility of intercourse with neighbour- 
ing towns and villages ; much to the transit through it 
of the great road from Aberdeen to Inverness ; and still 
more, since 1854, to the construction past it of the Great 
North of Scotland railway. Its site is dry, healthy, 
and beautiful, amid charming hilly environs, heathy 
and swampish once, but now reclaimed, highly culti- 
vated, and richly embellished ; and it comprises nine or 
ten well-built streets, the two principal ones crossing 
each other at right angles, and forming a spacious 
market-place or square, in which stand a colossal sand- 
stone statue, on a granite pedestal, of the last Duke of 
Gordon, by the late William Brodie, R.S.A., and a 
handsome fountain, erected in 1882 in memory of a 
deceased banker. The place thus presents a modern, 
pleasant, and even elegant appearance, the view of it 
from the S being singularly fine, since, besides the 
several features of the town, it takes in the ruin of 
Huntly Castle and the neighbouring mansion and pleas- 
ure-grounds of Huntly Lodge, and rests on the brilliant 
background of Ord Fell (817 feet) and the Bin (1027), 
which are all one mass of forest. Huntly or Strathbogie 
Castle, a stronghold in the 13th century of the Strath- 
bogie Earls of Athole, by King Robert Bruce was granted 
to Sir Adam Gordon, lord of Gordon in Berwickshire, 
who fell at the battle of Halidon Hill (1333). Burned 
and dismantled in 1594 after the battle of Glenlivet, and 
rebuilt in 1602 by the first Marquis of Huntly, it ceased 
to be inhabited about 1760, and now is a stately ruin, 
which retains a few vaults of the original castle, but 
chiefly consists of a large round tower, with a great hall 
43 feet long and 30 broad. Huntly Lodge, on a rising- 
ground, 1J mile N by E of the town and 3 furlongs N 
of the castle, was originally a shooting-bos of the Duke 
of Gordon, but was enlarged in 1832 into a handsome 
and commodious edifice. It served as the residence of 
the Duke of Gordon's eldest son, from the time of the 
removal of the family seat to Gordon Castle ; and after 
the death of the last duke in 1836, became the residence 
of the dowager-duchess. See Gordon Castle. 

The town was almost surrounded with water during 
the great floods in August 1829, but sustained compara- 
tively little damage. The ancient one-arch bridge across 
the Deveron, which commands a very fine view, with- 
stood the pressure of the current ; across the Bogie is a 
good three-arch bridge. A gas company was started 
in 1837 ; and in 1867 water was brought in from the 
Clashmach at a cost of £3140. Stewart's Hall, erected 
in 1874-75 at a cost of over £3000, the bequest of the late 
Alexander Stewart, a solicitor in the place, is a handsome 
Scottish Baronial edifice, with a public meeting-room, a 
public hall (600 seats), a clock-tower 80 feet high, etc. 
The parish church is a plain structure of 1805 ; containing 
1800 sittings. The neat Free church, built in 1S40 at a 
cost of over £1300, in result of the famous Strathbogie 
movements that preceded the Disruption, contains 945 
sittings. Other places of worship are the U. P. church 
(1809 ; 340 sittings), the Gothic Congregational church 
(1851 ; 480), Episcopal Christ Church (1850), a small 
elegant Gothic pile, with a spire, and St Margaret's 
Roman Catholic church (1834 ; 400), with a curious 
crown-topped tower. The public schools on the N side 
of the town, looking down the principal street, were 
erected in 1839-41 by the Dowager-Duchess of Gordon, 
as a memorial to her husband ; form a large and very 
handsome building, pierced with an archway which leads 
up to Huntly Lodge and surmounted by a small spire 
with a clock ; and contain the parochial board school and 
the Gordon female industrial and infant school. Scott's 
Hospital, a fine edifice on the SE side of the town, 
was erected in 1854 from a bequest of the late Dr Scott, 
a native of Huntly, for the maintenance of aged men 
and women. In 1815 James Legge, M.A. , Professor of 
Chinese in Oxford University, was born at Huntly, as 
in 1824 was the poet and novelist, George Macdonald. 

Huntly has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, insurance, and railway telegraph departments, 


branches of the Union, Aberdeen Town and County, 
and North of Scotland Banks, a local savings' bank, 7 
insurance agencies, 3 hotels, a dispensary, a coffee and 
reading room, a Roman Catholic school, a farmers' club, 
a bee-keepers' association, a horticultural society (1846), 
and a Saturday newspaper, the Huntly Express (1863). 
Thursday is market-day ; and cattle-markets are held on 
the first and third Wednesdays of every month. Several 
bleachfields of great repute were long in operation on 
the Bogie ; and the manufacture of fine linen, intro- 
duced from Ireland in 1768, towards the close of last 
century had an annual value of from £30,000 to £40,000. 
These industries have ceased, as also have tanning 
and distilling ; but plough - making, brick and tile 
making, and the ordinary departments of artificership, 
afford employment to a considerable number of the 
inhabitants. A large trade in grain, arising since 1820, 
received a great stimulus from the opening of the 
railway ; and other sources of prosperity are the market- 
ing and export of eggs and cheese, and an extensive 
retail trade in the supply of miscellaneous goods to the 
surrounding country. Having partially adopted the 
General Police and Improvement Act (Scotland) prior 
to 1871, the town is governed by a baron-bailie, a 
senior and two junior magistrates, and 9 police com- 
missioners. The prison, legalised in 1847, has served 
since 1874 for the detention of prisoners for terms not 
exceeding three days. Sheriff small-debt courts are held 
on the second Mondays of March, June, September, and 
December. The municipal constituency numbered 562 
in 18S3, when the annual value of real property within 
the burgh was £7605. Pop. (1831) 25S5, (1861) 3448, 
(1871) 3570, (1881) 3519, of whom 1948 were females. 
Houses (1881) 724 inhabited, 35 vacant, 8 building. 

The parish of Huntly, formed by the union in 1727 of 
the ancient parishes of Dumbennan and Kinnoir, the 
latter to the right or E of the Deveron, is bounded NW 
by Cairnie, N and NE by Rothiemay in Banffshire, E 
by Forgue and Drumblade, SE by Drumblade, S by 
Gartly, and W by Glass. With a very irregular out- 
line, it has an utmost length from NE to SW of 10 
miles, an utmost breadth of 3J miles, and an area of 
12,576| acres, of which 88 J are water. The Deveron 
here has a winding course of lOf miles— first 3 miles 
north-eastward along the Cairnie border, then 4| east- 
south-eastward through the interior, and lastly 3 miles 
north-by-westward again along the boundary with 
Cairnie ; the Bogie flows 2g miles north-north-eastward 
along the Drumblade border, and, after a further course 
of If furlong, falls into the Deveron at a point 1 mile 
NNE of the town. The surface sinks opposite Milltown 
of Bothiemay to 290 feet above sea-level, thence rising 
to 650 feet at St Mungo's Hill, 720 at the Wood of 
Kinnoir, 692 at Dumbennan Hill, 1229 at Clashmach 
Hill, 1000 at Brown Hill, and 1285 at Muckle Long 
Hill. The parish, thus, is for the most part hilly, and 
was formerly bleak, but has undergone extensive re- 
clamation and much embellishment. A considerable 
aggregate of low land, naturally fertile, and now finely 
arable, lies along the banks of the rivers ; and a large 
extent of the hills, once heathy or swampish, is now 
either in a state of good pasturage or adorned with 
thriving plantations. St Mungo's Hill, in the E, ter- 
minates in a large crater-like cavity, generally filled 
with water, and its summit is strewn with fragments of 
lava and pumice-stone. Granite is the prevailing rock ; 
limestone, of a quality not much inferior to marble, 
occurs in small quantity ; and traces of very fine plum- 
bago have been found near the confluence of the rivers. 
The arable soil of Dumbennan is generally a good deep 
loam, but that of Kinnoir is of a cold clayey character. 
The ruins of an old castle are on the Avochy estate. 
The Duke of Richmond is much the largest proprietor, 
1 other holding an annual value of over £500, 2 of 
between £50 and £100, and 14 of from £20 to £50. 
Huntly is in the presbytery of Strathbogie and synod of 
Moray ; the living is worth £330. The Gordon public, 
Kinnoir public, Longhill public, Meadow Street public, 
Gordon female industrial, and a Roman Catholic school, 


with respective accommoJation for 319, 63, 43, 140, 
3G2, and 78 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 190, 54, 21,139, 261, and 54, and grants of £141, lis., 
£54, 10s., £33, 18s. 6d., £96, 10s., £174, 8s. 5d., and 
£35, 14s. 7d. Valuation (1S60) £8061, (1882) £14,681, 
10s. 5d. Pop. (1801) 2863, (1831) 3545, (1861) 4329, 
(1871) 4374, (1881) 4388.— Ord. Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Huntly, a burn in Melrose parish, Roxburghshire, 
issuing from Cauldshiels Loch, and traversing the 
grounds of Abbotsford to the river Tweed. It runs 
through the Rhymer's Glen, named from True Thomas 
of Ercildoun or Earlston, and famous as a loved retreat 
of Sir Walter Scott. Huntlyburn House stands 1 mile 
WSW of Melrose town.— Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Huntly, Perthshire. See Castle-Htjntly. 

Hurlet, a village on the SE border of Abbey parish, 
Renfrewshire, on the left bank of Levern Water, 5 fur- 
longs KW of Nitshill station, 1 J mile NNE of Barrhead, 
and 3 miles SE of Paisley. Standing amid a rich mineral 
field, where coal has been worked for upwards of three 
centuries, and ironstone for close upon fifty years, it 
was the seat from 1753 till 1820 of a copperas work, the 
only one in Scotland up to 1807. Becoming also the 
seat, tentatively in 1766-69 and effectively in 1797, of 
the earliest alum work, it has ever since the latter date 
continued to produce large quantities of alum, muriate 
of potash, and sulphate of ammonia. It has a post 
office under Glasgow. Pop. (1871) 379, (1881) 341.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Hurlford, a town in Riccarton parish, Ayrshire, on 
the left bank of the river Irvine, with a station on the 
Glasgow and South-Western railway, at the junction of 
the Newniilns branch, 2 miles ESE of Kilmarnock, 
under which it has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments. Connected 
by a bridge with the suburb of Crookedholm: in Kil- 
marnock parish, it is the seat of extensive ironworks of 
the Eglinton Iron Co. (1S46), as also of a worsted 
spinning-mill and of large fire-clay works, whilst in 
the neighbourhood are many collieries. A quoad 
sacra parish church, erected in 1S75 at a cost of £S000, 
is an Early English edifice, with 800 sittings, a fine 
organ, and a tower containing the largest bell in the 
county. There are also a Free church, a Roman Catho- 
lic chapel-school (1SS3), an Institute, with public hall 
and reading-room, erected by private liberality, and 
two public schools — Hurlford and Crookedholm. The 
quoad sacra parish, constituted in 1874 with an endow- 
ment of £3000, is in the presbytery of Irvine and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr. Pop. of town (1861) 2598, (1871) 
3488, (1881) 4385, of whom 657 were in Crookedholm ; 
of q. s. parish (1881) 4699, of whom 193 were in Galston 
parish.— Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Hutchison, a village of NW Lanarkshire, 1| mile from 

Hutton, a Border village and parish of SE Berwick- 
shire. The village stands J mile S of Whitadder Water, 
4 J miles NNW of Velvethall station in Northumberland, 
and 7 W of Berwick-upon-Tweed, under which it has a 
post office. It is supposed to have been the camping- 
place of the army of Edward I. in 1296, on the day 
before the capture of Berwick. 

The parish contains also the village of Paxton, and 
comprehends the ancient parishes of Hutton and Fish- 
wick, united in 1614. It is bounded N by Chimside 
and Foulden, E by Mordington and the Liberties of 
Berwick, SE and S by Northumberland, SW by Lady- 
kirk, and W by Whitsome and Edrom. Its utmost 
length, from E to W, is 4 miles ; its utmost breadth, from 
N to S, is 3J miles ; and its area is 5645J acres, of which 
129f are water. Whitadder Water winds 7 miles 
along all the northern and most of the eastern boundary ; 
and the Tweed sweeps 4 miles north-eastward along all 
the Northumberland border, midway being spanned bj' 
the Union Bridge, which, constructed in 1820 at a cost 
of £7500 after designs by Captain Sir Samuel Brown, 
R.N., is a suspension bridge for carriages, the first of 
its kind in Britain. With a carriage-way 27 feet above 
the surface of the stream, it measures 368 feet in length 


and 18 in width. Tho surface of the parish, for the 
most part looking almost a dead level, declines along the 
Tweed to 96 feet, and attains a summit altitude of 244 
feet at a point 5 furlongs SW of Hutton village. The 
ground adjacent to the Whitadder and the Tweed con- 
trasts, in scenic character, with the prevailing tameness 
of the interior, and, being well wooded, is charmingly 
picturesque. Sandstone is a prevailing rock, and can be 
found, at comparatively little depth from the surface, in 
almost every part, whilst a stratum of gypsum occurs 
on Hutton Hall estate. The soil on the lands along the 
rivers is mostly a rich deep loam, incumbent upon sand- 
stone ; but on part of the central lands is thin, wet, 
and cold, overlying a strong tenacious clay. Some 65 
acres are pastoral, about 260 are under wood, and all 
the rest of the land is regularly in tillage. Andrew 
Foreman, Archbishop of St Andrews from 1514 to 
1522, was a native of Hutton ; the Rev. Philip Rid- 
path, editor of the Border History (1776), was minister 
of it ; and George Home of Wedderburn, one of the 
Edinburgh literati towards the close of last century, 
was long a resident. Hutton Hall, on the right bank 
of Whitadder Water, 1| mile NW of Hutton village, 
crowns the brink of an eminence, and comprises a 
very ancient peel-tower, with a long mansion attached, 
of patch-work structure and various dates. Its oldest 
part, a remarkable specimen of a Border stronghold, 
was the seat of one of the ' Seven Spears of Wedder- 
burn ' mentioned by Sir Walter Scott in his Lay of 
the Last Minstrel. The estate of Hutton Hall (630 
acres, valued at £1588 per annum) was purchased in 
1876 for £50,000 by Sir Dudley Coutts Marjoribanks of 
Guisachan, who in 18S1 was raised to the peerage as 
Baron Tweedmouth. Mansions, noticed separately, are 
Meadow House, Paxton House, Spital House, and 
Tweedhill House ; and 7 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 1 of between £100 
and £500, 3 of from £50 to £100, and 5 of from £20 to 
£50. Hutton is in the presbytery of Chirnside and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living is worth 
£355. The parish church is a modern Norman structure 
of 1765, with a massive square tower and 700 sittings. 
Hutton public, Paxton girls' and infants', and Paxton 
schools, with respective accommodation for 80, 48, and 
95 children, had (1SS1) an average attendance of 59, 28, 
and 48, and grants of £52, 14s. 6d., £22, 10s., and £43, 
13s. Valuation (1865) £10,627, (1882) £12,630, 13s. 
Pop. (1801) 955, (1821) 1118, (1861) 1067, (1871) 1077, 
(1881) 962.— Ord. Sur., shs. 26, 34, 1864. 

Hutton and Corrie, an Annandale parish of Dumfries- 
shire, containing, towards the NW, the post office of 
Boreland, near the left bank of Dryfe Water, 5J miles 
NE of Nethercleuch station, and 7 NNE of the post- 
town Lockerbie. Bounded NE by Eskdalemuir, E by 
Westerkirk, SE and S by Tundergarth, and W by 
Dryfesdale, Applegarth, and Wamphray, it has an ut- 
most length from N by W to S by E of 14 miles, an 
utmost width from E to W of 6 miles, and an area of 
23,991J acres, of which 68J are water. Dkyfe Water, 
rising in the northern extremity of the parish at an 
altitude of 1900 feet, winds llf miles southward, till it 
passes off into Applegarth ; the Water of Milk, from a 
point J mile below its source (770 feet), runs 8J miles 
south-westward on or close to all the Tundergarth 
border ; and Corrie Water, its affluent, rising near the 
Eskdalemuir border at 800 feet, flows 7 miles south- 
south-westward through the interior and along the 
boundary with Applegarth and Dryfesdale. The sur- 
face sinks to 370 feet above sea-level along the Milk, 
and to 400 along the Dryfe, thence rising north-north- 
eastward and northward to 827 feet at Pyatshaws Rig, 
10S5 at *Hart Fell, 1021 at Peat Hill, 1259 at Macmaw 
Hill, 1587 at *Laverhay Height, 1754 at *Jocks 
Shoulder, and 2256 at *Loch Fell, where asterisks mark 
those summits that culminate right on the confines of 
the parish. The rocks are mainly Silurian. The NE 
portion of the parish, lying generally high, affords good 
runs for Cheviot sheep ; while on the lower portion, 
which is mostly sound pasturage and meadow land, 



dairy farming is carried on somewhat extensively, with 
some cattle-raising and breeding of half-bred lambs. 
The Corrie side of the parish has of late years been 
greatly improved, and now affords excellent grazing. 
Barely one-eighth of the entire area is arable. Hutton 
Moat and a camp upon Corrie Water make up the anti- 
quities with ten or eleven hill-forts. Mansions are Gil- 
lesbie House (James Alex. Rogerson, Esq. of Waruphray) 
and Shaw (John Graham, Esq. ), both near Boreland post 
office ; and 5 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
more, 3 of less, than £500. Formed by the union of 
the ancient parishes of Hutton and Corrie in 1609, this 
parish is in the presbytery of Loehmaben and synod of 
Dumfries ; the living is worth £405. The church, near 
Boreland, was built about 1710, and, as enlarged in 
1764, contains 312 sittings ; whilst two public schools, 
Corrie and Hutton, with respective accommodation for 


88 and 73 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 
66 and 61, and grants of £79, 18s. and £50, 14s. 6d. 
Valuation (1860) £7766, (1883) £13,417, 8s. 3d. Pop. 
(1801) 646, (1831) 860, (1851) 886, (1S71) 842, (1881) 
814.— Ord. Sur., shs. 10, 16, 1864. 

Hutton Hall, Dumfriesshire. See Caerlaverock. 

Hutton Hall, Berwickshire. See Huttox. 

Hyndford, a hamlet and an estate in Lanark parish, 
Lanarkshire. The hamlet, on the right bank of the 
Clyde, 2J miles SE of Lanark town, bears the name of 
Hyndford-Bridge, from a narrow five-arch bridge across 
the river, greeted in the latter half of last century. 
The estate, extending along the Clyde both above and 
below the hamlet from early in the 16th century, has 
belonged to the family of Carmiehael, and gave them 
the title of Earl in the peerage of Scotland from 1701 
till l&ll.— Ord. Sur., sh. 23, 1S65. See Carhichael. 

I A or I. See Ioka. 
Ibris. See Eyebp.oughy. 
lbrox, a village in Govan parish, Lanarkshire, with 
a station on the Glasgow and South-Western rail- 
way, 7 furlongs S of Govan town, and 2f miles WSW 
of the centre of Glasgow. It contains a number of 
genteel residences, and has a U. P. church. 

Icolmkill. See Ioxa. 

Idoch Water, a burn of Monquhitter and Turriff 
parishes, N Aberdeenshire, rising near Newbyth in the 
SE of King-Edward parish, and running 10J miles 
west-south-westward past Cuminestown, till, after a 
descent of 300 feet, it falls into the Deveron in the 
vicinity of Turriff. In its upper reaches it bears the 
name of the Burn of Monquhitter. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
86, 1876. 

Idvies, a modern mansion in Kirkden parish, Forfar- 
shire, 3 miles SW of Guthrie Junction. Its owner, John 
Clerk Brodie, Esq. (b. 1811), holds 1910 acres in the 
shire, valued at £2560 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 

Hay. See Islat. 

Hie. See Kildonan. 

Illeray, an island of North Uist parish, Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-shire, adjacent to Balleshare island, and in- 
sulated from the SW side of North Uist island only at 
high water. It measures If by J mile, and has a soil 
partly sandy, partly black loam, yielding tolerable crops 
of barley and pasture for cattle. Pop., with that of 
Balleshare, (1861) 199, (1871) 246, (1881) 266. 

Inch, Edinburghshire. See Inch House. 

Inch. See Leven, Loch. 

Inch. See Forfak. 

Inch, a coast parish of NW Wigtownshire. Includ- 
ing till 1617-2S the present parishes of Stranraer and 
Portpatrick, it now comprises all the rest of the ancient 
parishes of Inch and Soulseat, the former named from 
the islet in Castle-Kennedy Loch, opposite the old parish 
church, 3 miles E of Stranraer ; and it contains Castle 
Kennedy and Stranraer stations, the Tradeston suburb 
of Stranraer town, the post-office villages of Cairnryan 
and Lochans, Stranraer, and the hamlet of Aird. It is 
bounded N by Ballantrae in Ayrshire, E by New Luce, 
SE by Old Luce, S by Stoneykirk, and W by Port- 
patrick, Leswalt, Stranraer, and Loch Ryan. Its utmost 
length, from N to S, is 10J miles ; its breadth, from E 
to W, varies between 3§ and 6 miles ; and its area is 
31,919 acres, of which 590 are foreshore and 485 water. 
The coast-line along Loch Ryan, measuring 7| miles, 
includes most of the southern part or head of the loch 
and all the E side, till within 2| miles of the sea. In 
the S and the southern part of the E side it has a flat 
beach, covered with sand or gravel ; but northward it 
grows bold and rocky, and is pierced with several caves 
SO to 100 yards long. The northern and eastern dis- 

tricts, comprising three-fifths of the entire area, are 
everywhere hilly, their highest points being Cairnarzean 
Fell (735 feet), Cairnscarrow (761), Braid Fell (769), 
Brockloch Fell (769), and Mid-Moile (844). Here and 
there are arable patches ; but mostly they are heathy, 
rugged, and unsusceptible of culture. The southern 
and south-western districts form the larger part of the 
isthmus between Loch Ryan and Luce Bay, which, 
though from the hills it looks to be perfectly level, has 
really a gently undulating surface. It seems at no dis- 
tant geological period to have been covered by the sea ; 
and its curious ' pots' or hollows — the largest 1000 feet 
in circumference and 100 feet deep — are supposed to 
have been scooped out by the whirling caused by the 
meeting of opposite tidal currents from Loch Ryan 
and Luce Bay. The Water of Luce runs 7f miles 
south-south-eastward along all the eastern border ; 
Piltanton Burn flows 7 J miles south-eastward and 
eastward along the boundary with Portpatrick, Stoney- 
kirk, and Old Luce ; and a number of short burns drain 
the interior to Loch Ryan or these two streams. Of 
twelve lakes dotted over the interior, most of them in 
the low-level southern district, the two largest and 
finest — Castle-Kennedy and Soulseat — are noticed 
separately. Chalybeate and slightly -sulphuretted 
springs are in several places. The rocks are mainly 
Silurian. Granite occurs in detached blocks ; excel- 
lent slate has been quarried on the lands of Lochryan ; 
lead ore is traditionally said to have been mined ; coal 
has been sedulously but vainly sought ; and extensive 
mosses yield abundance of peat fuel. The soil is 
variously gravelly, sandy, clayej', loamy, and mossy, 
and throughout the low-level district is generally light 
and sandy. Fully two-fifths of the entire area are 
regularly or occasionally in tillage ; woods cover some 
650 acres, and the rest is either pastoral or waste. 
Special objects of antiquarian interest are treated under 
Castle-Kennedy, Craigcaffie Castle, the Deil's Dyke, 
Glenterra, the Moat of Innermessan, Larg Castle, and 
Soulseat Abbey. Sir John Ross (1777-1856), the cele- 
brated Arctic voyager, son of the parish minister, was 
a native ; and Marshal Stair (1673-1747) and General 
Sir John-Alexander-Agnew Wallace, K.C.B. (1775- 
1857), were residents. Mansions, noticed separately, 
are Loehinch Castle, Culhorn, and Lochryan ; and 2 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 4 of between £100 and £500, 4 of from £50 
to £100, and 1 of from £20 to £50. In the presby- 
tery of Stranraer and synod of Galloway, this parish is 
ecclesiastically divided into Lochryan quoad sacra parish 
and Inch proper, the latter a living worth £323. The 
parish church was built in 1862, and contains 400 
sittings. The manse is beautifully situated on a 
peninsula in Soulseat Loch, the site of the old abbey. 
Inch Free church stands near Castle-Kennedy station ; 


and Castle- Kennedy public, Inehparks public, Lochans 
public, and Cairnryan General Assembly school, with 
respective accommodation for 105, 115, 168, and 81 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 74, 73, 
88, and 31, and grants of £59, Is., £43, 12s., £79, 5s., 
and £36, 10s. Valuation (1S60) £14,503, (1883) £17,344, 
2s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 1577, (1831) 2521, (1861) 3469, (1871) 
3268, (1881) 3766, of whom 2254 were in the parlia- 
mentary burgh of Stranraer and 3474 in Inch ecclesi- 
astical parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 3, 1S56. 

Inch or Insh, a lake, an ancient parish, and a quoad 
sacra parish, in Badenoch district, E Inverness-shire. 
The lake lies on the mutual border of Alvie and Kin- 
gussie parishes, J mile S of Kincraig or Boat of Inch 
station on the Highland railway, this being 18J miles 
SSW of Grantown and 5| NE of the post-town Kin- 
gussie. Formed by expansion of the liver Spey, it lies 
721 feet above sea-level, and has an utmost length and 
breadth of 7£ and 4 j furlongs. The rod-fishing is poor, 
but salmon and char are netted in great numbers. The 
Queen, under date 4 Sept. I860, describes Loch Iuch as 
'lovely, not a wild lake, quite the contrary: no high 
rocks, but woods and blue hills as a background.' On 
3 April 1SS1 the lake was completely frozen over with 
ice | inch thick. The ancient parish is united to Kin- 
gussie parish, and forms its north-eastern district. The 
quoad sacra parish, mainly identical with the ancient 
parish, and lying around the upper part of Loch Inch, 
was originally constituted in 1828, and is in the pres- 
bytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray. The stipend 
is £120, with a glebe worth £9 a year. The church, 
an old building, stands near the NE shore of Loch Inch, 
and contains 300 sittings. Pop. (1871) 359, (1881) 455, 
of whom 58 were in Alvie and 397 in Kingussie. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 74, 1877. 

Inch, Aberdeenshire. See Insoh. 

Inchaffray (Gael, innis-abk-reidli, 'island of the 
smooth water ; ' * Lat. Insula IHssarum, ' island of 
masses'), a ruined abbey in Madderty parish, Perth- 
shire, crowning a small rising-ground — an island once — 
on the left bank of ditch -like Pow Water, adjacent to 
Madderty station, 6J miles E by N of Crieff. It was 
founded in 1200 by Gilbert, third Earl of Strathearn, 
and his Countess Matilda, to the memory of their first- 
born son, and to the honour of God, St Mary, and St 
John the Evangelist. Colonised from Scone by canons 
regular of the Augustinian order, and endowed with 
many privileges and possessions by several of the Scot- 
tish kings, it held the churches of Madderty, Auch- 
terarder, Aberuthven, Strageath, Kinkell, etc., and 
down to the Reformation possessed great note and in- 
fluence. In 1556 James Drummond, younger and in- 
fant son of the second Lord Drummond, was secular 
commendator of Inchaffraj'', which was erected into a 
temporal lordship in his favour ; and in 1609 he was 
created Lord Madderty. The abbey, however, and a 
few acres adjoining, with the patronage of twelve 
livings, afterwards passed to the Earls of Kinnoull. 
Much of the walls remained standing till 1816 ; but a 
turnpike road was then carried through the ruins, 
which yielded, at the time of the demolition, a small 
ivory cross, several stone coffins, and a number of 
other interesting objects, and which now are repre- 
sented chiefly by a western gable and a single arched 
apartment. One of the abbots, Maurice, blessed 
Brace's army on the field of Bannockburn (1314); an- 
other was slain at Flodden (1513). — Ord. Sur., sh. 47, 
1869. See Cosmo Innes' Liber Insule Missarum (Banna- 
tyne Club, 1S47). 

Inchard, a sea loch of Eddrachillis parish, NW 
Sutherland, opening from the North Minch, and 
striking 5J miles eastward and south-eastward to 
Rhiconich inn. Its width contracts from 4 miles at 
the entrance to J mile, but expands again to f mile. It 
contains nine islets in its outermost reach ; is pretty 
well inhabited round the shores ; has somewhat bleak 

* Some, however, connect -affray with the Gael, aifrionn, 'mass,' 
in which case the Gaelic and Latin names are identical. 


flanks, relieved with features of good scenery ; and 
forms a fine natural harbour. — Ord. Sur., sh. 113, 

Inchbare, a scattered village in Stracathro parish, 
Forfarshire, 4 miles N by W of Brechin, under which 
it has a post office. 

Inchbelly, a hamlet on the mutual border of Stirling- 
shire and Dumbartonshire, on the river Kelvin, ad- 
jacent to the Forth and Clyde Canal, 1J mile ENE of 
Kirkintilloch. It has a bridge over the Kelvin, on the 
road from Glasgow to Falkirk, and, together with Inch- 
breck, Inchterf, Inchwood, and Netherinch in its neigh- 
bourhood, it owes the ' inch ' of its name to quondam 
insulation by the waters which once occupied the strath 
now traversed by the Forth and Clyde Canal. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Inchberry, a hamlet in the extreme N of Eothes 
parish, Elginshire, 5 J miles SW of Fochabers. 

Inchbervie or Inverbervie, an old round tower in 
Auchtergaven parish, Perthshire, on the right bank of 
the Tay, J mile E of Stanley. It is traditionally said 
to have been a religious house in connection with Dun- 
fermline Abbey, but looks rather to have been a baronial 
fortalice ; and it is now a curious ruin. 

Inchbrakie, a mansion in Crieff parish, Perthshire, 
3 miles E by N of Crieff town. It contains a curious 
carefully preserved relic of olden superstition known as 
Inchbrakie's King and similar in character to the ' talis- 
man ' of Sir Walter Scott's novel. It is a bluish uncut 
sapphire, set in gold, which, in the second decade of last 
century, the Witch of Monzie, Kate M'Niven, as she 
was burning on the Knock of Crieff, is said to have 
spat from her mouth, with the prediction that the 
Grarnes should prosper so long as they kept it safe, the 
Laird of Inchbrakie having vainly attempted to save 
her life. In 1513 the first of these Grammes received 
Inchbrakie, with Fowlis and Aberuthven, from his 
father the first Earl of Montrose ; and his descendant, 
Patrick James Frederick Grteme, Esq. (b. 1S49 ; sue. 
1854), holds 50S8 acres in the shire, valued at £3212 
per annum. Inchbrakie Castle, a little ESE of the 
mansion, was surrounded by a moat, and suffered de- 
molition by Cromwell in 1651 for the fifth laird's 
zealous adherence to the Royalist cause. A beautiful, 
well-wooded park surrounds the mansion and the re- 
mains of the castle, and contains a very old yew tree, 
the second largest, it is said, in Scotland, which is 
believed to have given refuge, in a time of danger, to 
the Marquis of Montrose. — Ord. Sur., sh. 47, 1869. 

Inchbrayock, a triangular island (3 J x 2 J furl.) and 
an ancient parish of NE Forfarshire. The island, lying 
in the South Esk river, between Montrose Basin and 
the German Ocean, is separated from the mainland, on 
both sides, only by currents of the divided river. It 
has a low flat surface, nowdiere exceeding 32 feet above 
sea-level, and was included by the Municipal Reform 
Bill in the parliamentary burgh of Montrose. Com- 
municating with that town by a suspension bridge 
(1829), and with the mainland on the other side by a 
stone bridge, it is traversed, in the line of these bridges 
nearly through the middle, by the great coast road from 
Dundee to Aberdeen. At its E end is a dry dock ; and 
it contains a small suburb of Montrose ; whilst, through 
connection with Rossie barony, it is often called Rossie 
Island. The ancient parish comprehended the island 
and some adjacent territory, and in 1618 was united 
with the ancient parish of St Skeoch or Dunninald to 
form the present parish of Craig. The church stood on 
the island, and the graveyard still is used for the united 
parish.— Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Inchbreck. See Inchbelly. 

Inchcailloch (Gael, innis-cailleacli, ' island of the 
nun '), a hilly, wooded island of Buchanan parish, 
Stirlingshire, in Loch Lomond, between Torrinch and 
Balmaha, 7 furlongs NW of the mouth of the river 
Endrick. With an utmost length and breadth of 6J by 
3 furlongs, it belongs to the Duke of Montrose, and till 
1621 was the seat of Inchcailloch parish church, dedi- 
cated to St Kentigerna, a holy woman who had dwelt 




here as an anchorite. The foundations of this church 
(57 x 24 feet) may still be traced ; whilst its ancient 
graveyard is still in use, and contains some curious 17th 
century tombstones. — Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. See Dr 
William Fraser's The Lennox (1874). 

Incheape. See Bell Kock. 

Inchclair. See Clairinch. 

Inchcolm, an island of Aberdour parish, Fife, in the 
Firth of Forth, 5 furlongs SE of the nearest point of the 
mainland and 1J mile S by W of Aberdour village. It 
measures 950 yards in extreme length, or a little over 
half a mile, and from 22 to 220 yards in breadth, to the 
E of the abbey becoming so flat and narrow, that at 
high tides the waters of the Firth meet over it. Both 
the extremities are high and rocky, the western attain- 
ing 102 and the eastern 97 feet above sea-level. It 
chiefly consists of trap, with greenstone to the S, largely 
dusted with scales of a brownish mica ; aid, though 
partly arable, it offers a bleak appearance. Anciently 
called iEinonia, it figures in Shakespeare's Macbeth, 
under the name of Saint Colmes Inch, as the burial- 
place of the defeated followers of Sweno, the Norways' 
king. ' In memory whereof,' adds Raphael Holinshed, 
' many old sepultures are yet in the said Inch, there to 
be seen graven with the arms of the Danes.' In 1123 
Alexander I., crossing the Queensferry on affairs of 
state, encountered a great storm, and was driven upon 
the island of iEmonia, where he was received by a 
hermit who served St Columba in a small chapel, and 
lived upon shellfish and the milk of one cow. Here the 
King was obliged to remain three days, and here, in 
fulfilment of a vow made in the extremity of his peril, 
he founded an Augustinian abbey in honour of St 
Columba. Such is the story told by Walter Bower, 
Abbot of Inchcolm, who carried Fordun's Scotichronicon 
as far down as 1437. From 1335 to 1547 the abbey was 
several times pillaged by the English ; and on the last 
occasion, after the Battle of Pinkie, the Duke of Somer- 
set seized upon Inchcolm as a post commanding ' utterly 
the whole use of the Firth itself, with all the havens 
upon it.' He sent, ' as elect Abbot by God's sufferance, 
Sir John Luttrell, knight, with C. hakbutiers and L. 
pioneers, to keep his house and land there, and LXX. 
mariners to keep his waters, whereby,' observes Patten 
naively, ' it is thought he shall soon become a prelate 
of great power.' During the war with France, in the 
beginning of the present century, the island served as 
an artillery station, with a ten-gun battery on the E 
hill, near whose remains the officers and men of Prince 
Alfred's ship, the Racoon, put up their tents for a fort- 
night (1863). It was resolved in 1883 to erect a 
lighthouse here. In 1543 Inchcolm was granted to 
Sir James Stewart of Beith, afterwards Lord Doune 
and father of the first Earl of Moray. His second son 
in 1611 was created Baron St Colme — a title that passed, 
with the island, at the death of the second Lord, to his 
cousin, the Earl of Moray. A little stone-roofed chapel, 
15| feet long, which served till lately as a pigstye or a 
byre, has been identified by Sir James Simpson with 
the hermitage of King Alexander's day, thus dating 
among the earliest Christian edifices in Scotland. The 
neighbouring ' monastic buildings are of very various 
dates and still very extensive ; and their oblong, light- 
grey mass, surmounted by a tall, square, central tower, 
forms a striking object in the distance, as seen in the 
summer morning light from the higher streets and 
houses of Edinburgh, and from the neighbouring shores 
of the Firth of Forth. ' The tower (20J feet square) is 
so similar in its architectural forms and details to that 
of Icolmkill, that it is evidently a structure nearly, if 
not entirely, of the same age ; and the new choir (78 x 
15 feet) of 1265 is apparently, as seen by its remaining 
masonic connections, posterior in age to the tower on 
which it abuts. These monastic buildings have been 
fortunately protected and preserved by their insular 
situation — not from the silent and wasting touch of 
time, but from the more ruthless and destructive hand 
of man. The stone-roofed octagonal chapter-house 
(22§ feet in diameter) is one of the most beautiful and 

perfect in Scotland ; and the abbot's house, the cloisters 
(34 feet square), refectory, etc., are still comparatively 
entire. Pop. (1881) 7.— Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. See 
vol. iii. of Billings' Baronial and Ecclesiastical Anti- 
quities (1852) ; an article by Mr Thomas Arnold in 
vol. v. of Trans. Architectural Institute of Scotland 
(1859) ; and Sir James Simpson's Archaeological Essays 

Inchconnachan or Colquhoun's Island, an islet of 
Luss parish, Dumbartonshire, in Loch Lomond, 1J mile 
SE of Luss village. It is separated by only narrow belts 
of water from Inchtavannach on the W and Inehmoan 
on the S ; measures 5| furlongs in extreme length by 
3J in breadth ; and is well clothed with natural wood. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Inchcormac, an islet of North Knapdale parish, 
Argyllshire, in the mouth of Loch Swin. It contains 
remains of an ancient chapel, with a sculptured sarco- 

Inchcroin. See Ceayincji. 

Inehcruin (Gael, 'round island'), an islet of Buchanan 
parish, Stirlingshire, in Loch Lomond, \ mile W by N 
of Inchfad, and 9J furlongs WSW of Arrochymore 
Point. With an utmost length and breadth of 4J and 
3 furlongs, it has little wood, and was formerly the 
site of an establishment for the insane. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
38, 1871. 

Inehdairnie, an estate, with a mansion, in Kinglassie 
parish, Fife, 2i miles S by W of Leslie. Its owner, 
Roger Sinclair Ay toun, Esq. (b. 1823), M. P. for Kirk- 
caldy 1862-74, holds 3424 acres in the shire, valued at 
£5047 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Inchdrewer Castle. See Banff. 

Inehdrynich, an estate, with a modern mansion, in 
Glenorchy and Innishail parish, Argyllshire, on the E 
shore of Loch Awe, 5 miles SW of Dalmally. The house 
was leased in 1858 and following years by the celebrated 
etcher, Mr P. G. Hamerton. Its owner, William Muir, 
Esq., holds 4250 acres in the shire, valued at £1260 per 
annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 45, 1876. 

Incheffray. See Inchaffray. 

Inches, a mansion in Inverness parish, Inverness- 
shire, 2| miles ESE of the town. A baronial castle 
stood a little to the N of it ; and its estate, which has 
been greatly improved of recent years, contains quarries 
of excellent sandstone, affording the chief supply of 
building material to Inverness, and is traversed by a 
burn, with some beautiful small cascades. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 84, 1876. 

Inches, Easter and Wester, low flat alluvial tracts 
in the Carse of Falkirk, Stirlingshire, traversed or 
enfolded by the windings of the river Carron. 

Inches, North and South. See Perth. 

Inches Station. See Douglas. 

Inchewan, an estate, with a mansion, in Tannadice 
parish, Forfarshire, on the left bank of the South Esk, 
5 miles ENE of Kirriemuir. Its owner, John Ogilvy, 
Esq., holds 2716 acres in the shire, valued at £2244 per 
annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Inchfad (Gael, innis-fada, 'long island'), a fertile islet 
of Buchanan parish, Stirlingshire, in Loch Lomond, 2J 
furlongs SW of Arrochymore Point. Extending south- 
westward between Inchcailloeh and Inehcruin, it has an 
utmost length and breadth of 7 and 2| furlongs, is but 
partially wooded, and shows the features of an ornate 
farm.— Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Inehgalbraith, a tiny islet of Luss parish, Dumbarton- 
shire, in Locli Lomond, 2J furlongs respectively SE and 
SW of Inchtavannach and Inehmoan, and 4J furlongs 
NE of the point of land adjacent to Rossdhu House. 
It retains some ruins of an ancient castle of the Galbraith 
family, amid a few overshadowing trees. 

Inchgarvie, a rocky islet of Inverkeithing parish, 
Fife, in the Firth of Forth, 3 furlongs SSE of the North 
Queensferry coastguard station and 4 J NE of Long Craig 
near South Queensferry. Measuring 5 furlongs in cir-^ 
cumference, it was crowned with a fort in the reign of 
James IV., which served as a state prison from 1519 
till the purchase of the Bass in 1671) and which was 


visited in 1651 by Charles II. Inchgarvie was re- 
fortified and provided with four iron 24-pounders in 
1779, after the alarm occasioned by the appearance of 
Paul Jones' squadron in the Firth ; and it now forms 
the central support of the two great spans of the Forth 
Railway Bridge.— Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Inchinnan (old forms Inchicnun, Inchcnane, Inchinan; 
Gael, inch, an island, and Tnan, the patron saint; in the 
Ragman Roll the name is Kilinan), a small parish on the 
north-eastern border of Renfrewshire adjoining the river 
Clyde. It is bounded NE by the Clyde (which divides 
it from New Kilpatrick in Dumbartonshire), E and SE 
by Renfrew, SW by Kilbarchan and Erskine, and W and 
NW by Erskine. The boundary on the NE is formed by 
the Clyde for a distance of 2| miles, on the E and SE by 
the Cart and the Black Cart for a distance of 3J miles, and 
at the SW corner by the Gryfe for 3 J furlongs. Along the 
W it is purely artificial. Near the centre of the Clyde 
border is Newshot — corruptly Nushet — island, which is 
1J mile long by 4; wide, while m the Cart before its 
confluence with the Clyde is a smaller one called Colin's 
Isle. At the latter point, according to tradition, a 
vessel once stranded, and long before the litigation due 
to this had ended, the mud and silt had so gathered 
around the wreck as to form a small island covered with 
thriving young firs. The extreme length of the parish 
from North Barr on the N to the junction of the Cart 
and Gryfe on the S is 2J miles, and the extreme breadth 
from the mouth of the Black Cart straight westward is 
3£- miles. The total area is 3527 '993 acres, of which 
60-892 are foreshore and 136-697 are water. The 
height rises gradually from the Clyde southwards and 
westwards. On the SE the height is from 12 to 20 feet, 
and it rises to 52 feet at the Free church, near the 
centre of the parish, and to 182 near Craigend. About 
eight-ninths of the parish is under cultivation, and the 
rest is woodland, roads, houses, etc., there being no 
waste. The soil is excellent, consisting chiefly of strong 
productive clay, and in the lower parts of rich loam. 
The underlying rocks are carboniferous, and consist of 
sandstone, limestone, coal, and volcanic rocks. Basalt 
has been extensively worked since 1760 for the construc- 
tion of jetties, etc., and there are also quarries of sand- 
stone and limestone both of good quality. The centre 
of the parish is about 9 miles distant from Glasgow, 
and 13 from Greenock. The parish is traversed by the 
roads from Paisley to Greenock, and from Renfrew to 
Greenock, but there is no railway within its bounds. 
The Renfrew section of the G. & S. -W. railway passes, 
however, close to the E side, and the Paisley and Greenock 
section of the Caledonian along the SW, and most parts 
are accessible from the Renfrew, Houston, or Bishop- 
ton stations. The Paisley and Greenock road crosses 
the Black Cart by Barnsford Bridge, and the Renfrew 
and Greenock road crosses both the Black and White 
Cart about 30 yards above their junction by Inchinnan 
Bridge. Here there was formerly a public ferry ; and 
an adjoining property is still known as Ferrycroft. In 
1759 a bridge of nine arches was built across the river 
below the junction of the two streams. It was also 
connected by a side arch with the point between the 
streams. It cost only £1450, and proved worth the 
money, for the foundations were bad and the whole 
structure gave way in 1S09. The new bridge above 
the junction was completed in 1S12 at an expense 
of £17,000. It is composed of two divisions, not 
in the same straight line, but forming nearly a right 
angle, each section crossing one of the streams almost at 
a right angle also. It was at the ford here that Argyll 
was captured in 1685 (see Renfrew). Although the 
parish takes its name from Inan, who was a confessor 
at Irvine in the 9th century, and was also patron saint 
of Beith, the church seems to have been dedicated to 
Saint Conval- or Connal or Convallus, who taught 
Christianity here early in the 7th century. According 
to Fordun, who says he was the chief disciple of Saint 
Mungo, and was famous for his virtues and miracles, 
his bones were buried at Inchenane ; and Bede says his 
remains in a stately monument at Inchennan were held 


in great veneration in his day. According to the Aber- 
deen Breviary, Conval sailed miraculously from Ireland 
to the Clyde on a stone which remained on the bank of 
the Cart, and was known as Currus Sancti Convalli, and 
wrought miraculous cures on man and beast. A stone 
called St Connalie's Stone stood near the ancient ford 
on the Renfrew side of the river, and is mentioned in 
the records of the burgh of Paisley in 1620. Mr 
Motherwell (in notes to Renfrewshire Characters and 
Scenes) identifies it with the Argyll stone (see Ren- 
frew), and thinks it was the pediment of a cross 
dedicated to St Connal near his cell, and also marking 
the ford. The church was excepted from Walter Fitz- 
Allan's grant to the monastery of Paisley of all the 
churches of Strathgryfe, as he had already granted the 
church of Inchinnan with all its pertinents to the 
Knights Templars. On their suppression in 1312 it 
was transferred to the Knights of St John of Jerusalem. 
After the Reformation the tithes, temple-lands, etc. 
passed to Lord Torphichen, and the temple-lands sub- 
sequently to Semple of Beltrees. The old church was 
on the site of the present building at the W end of 
Inchinnan bridge, and was a plain structure measuring 
50 feet by 18, with very thick walls. It was built about 
11C0, and was pulled down in 1828, when the floor 
was found to be literally paved with skulls. Four 
tombstones, apparently remains of old stone coffins, 
with ridged tops, are called ' the Templars' graves. ' 
The ground known as Ladyacre was the endowment of 
the Virgin's altar in the old church. The lands of 
Inchinnan were granted by King Malcolm IV. to 
Walter, the High Steward, in 1158, hut on the death 
of Matthew, fourth Earl of Lennox, in 1571, they 
reverted to the Crown, James VI. being the heir. He 
conferred them first on his uncle Charles, then on his 
grand uncle Robert, afterwards Earl of March, and 
thereafter again on Esme Stewart, Lord d'Aubigny, 
a cousin of his father. In 1672 Charles, sixth Duke of 
Lennox, dying without issue, the lands again reverted 
to the Crown, and were granted by Charles II. in 1680 
to his natural son Charles Lennox, Duke of Lennox and 
Richmond, who sold them to the Duke of Montrose in 
the beginning of last century, and he again in 1737 sold 
them to Archibald Campbell of Blythswood, descended 
from the families of Ardkinlas and Douglas of Mains in 
Dumbartonshire, and in his line the property still 
remains. The manor-house stood about 2 furlongs N 
of North Barr House towards the Clyde, and seems to 
have been extensively altered and rebuilt about 1506 by 
Matthew, Lord Darnley, second Earl of Lennox, and to 
have received the name of 'the palace,' which the site 
still bears. According to Crawford's History of Ren- 
frewshire, there were considerable remains of the build- 
ing in 1710, but these had disappeared before the end 
of the century. The estate of North Barr was purchased 
originally in 1670 by Donald M 'Gilchrist, who claimed 
descent from the Lord of Tarbart of Robert the Brace's 
time. Part of it passed to the family of Balfour, but 
the greater part of it was in 1741 acquired by Lord 
Sempill, and again in 1798 by Mr James Buchanan, who 
sold it to Lord Blantyre in 1812. An old baronial 
fortalice on it has since been demolished. South Barr 
was the property of the Boyds, and afterwards of the 
Alexanders, sprung from Claud Alexander of Balloch- 
myle. There is a good mansion-house, built in 1827, on 
the site of the old house, which was burned in 1 826. Park 
House (A. Moffatt, Esq.) is a modern mansion. Robert 
Law, a Covenanting minister, whose curious Journal from 
1638 to 1684 was edited in 1818 by C. K. Sharpe, was 
born in the parish. The post-town is Paisley. Sir Archi- 
bald Campbell of Blythswood is the principal proprietor ; 
6 others told an annual value of £100 to £500 ; and 
there are a few others of smaller amount. Inchinnan 
is in the presbytery of Paisley and the synod of Glas- 
gow and Ayr ; the living is worth £420. The parish 
church, near the left bank of the Black Cart, l| mile 
W by N of Renfrew, is a Gothic building with a square 
tower, and was opened in 1828. The Free church, built 
" at the private cost of Mr Henderson of Park, is If mile 




N"W of the parish church. The public school, with accom- 
modation for 130 children, had (1881) an average attend- 
ance of 40, and a grant of £31, 19s. Valuation (1860) 
£5501, (1879) £8029, 6s., (1883) £7181, 3s. 3d. Pop. 
(1755) 397, (1801) 462, (1831) 642, (1861) 619, (1871) 
584, (1881) 508. The decrease in population is due to 
the stoppage of Southbar Colliery and Rashielea Quarry. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Inchkeith, an island of Kinghorn parish, Fife, in the 
Firth of Forth, 2J miles SE by S of Kinghorn Ness, o\ 
SSE of Kirkcaldy, 3J ESE of Burntisland, 4£ NNE of 
Leith, and 5J N by "W of Portobello. In shape re- 
sembling an irregular triangle with south-south-eastward 
apex, it has an utmost length and breadth of 6| and 2 
furlongs, and a summit altitude of 182 feet. Carlyle 
describes it in his Reminiscences, having rowed over 
from Kirkcaldy in 1817 with Edward Irving and one 
Donaldson : — ' We prosperously reached Inchkeith, ran 
ourselves into a wild, stony little bay (W end of the 
island towards the lighthouse), and stept ashore. Bay 
in miniature was prettily savage, every stone in it, 
big or little, lying just as the deluges had left them in 
ages long gone. Whole island was prettily savage. 
Grass on it mostly wild and scraggy, but equal to the 
keep of seven cows. Some patches (little bed-quilts as 
it were) of weak dishevelled barley trying to grow under 
difficulties ; these, except perhaps a square yard or two 
of potatoes equally ill off, were the only attempt at 
crop. Inhabitants none except these seven cows, and 
the lighthouse-keeper and his family. Conies probably 
abounded, but these were/erre natures, and didn't show 
face. In a slight hollow about the centre of the island 
(which island I think is traversed by a kind of hollow 
of which our little bay was the western end) were still 
traceable some ghastly remains of " Russian graves," 
graves from a Russian squadron which had wintered 
thereabouts in 1799, and had there buried its dead. . . . 
The lighthouse was curious to us, the only one I ever 
saw before or since. . . . Lighthouse-keeper, too, in 
another sphere of enquiry was to me quite new ; by far 
the most life-weary looking mortal I ever saw. Surely 
no lover of the picturesque, for in nature there was 
nowhere a more glorious view. A shrewd healthy 
Aberdeen native, a kindly man withal, yet in every 
feature of face and voice telling you, "Behold the 
victim of unspeakable ennui." We got from him down 
below refection of the best, biscuits and new milk I 
think almost better in both kinds than I have tasted 
since. A man not greedy of money either. We left 
him almost sorrowfully, and never heard of him more. 
The scene in our little bay, as we were about proceeding 
to launch our boat, seemed to me the beautifullest I 
had ever beheld. Sun about setting just in face of us, 
behind Ben Lomond far away. Edinburgh with its 
towers ; the great silver mirror of the Firth girt by such 
a framework of mountains ; cities, rocks, and fields, and 
wavy landscapes on all hands of us ; and reaching right 
under foot, as I remember, came a broad pillar as of 
gold from the just sinking sun ; burning axle as it were 
going down to the centre of the world ! ' The geology 
of Inchkeith is highly interesting ; and, when the tide 
is low, the beds around its northern extremity and part 
of its easterly side are as well displayed, as if pictured 
and sectioned on a geological map. The new roads, too, 
in connection with the fortifications cut the strata 
diagonally, exposing fine sections by which the observa- 
tions around the coast can be checked. Five-sixths or 
more of the island are great sheets of igneous rocks, 
between which are thinner bands of sedimentary de- 
posits, including shales, two thin seams of coal, some 
highly calcareous shales, and at least one band of lime- 
stone. Many of the shales are literally crammed with 
fossil ostracodes and minute phyllopods, amongst which 
estheria are abundant. The flora is rich, henbane and 
sinapis nigra being specially plentiful. A prehistoric 
kitchen-midden was discovered in 1872 ; and on Inch- 
keith Skene places Alauna, a town of the Otadeni, men- 
tioned by Ptolemy in the 2d century a.d. This he 
further identifies with Bede's insular city of Giudi, 

which in 650 Osuiu, King of Northumbria, was forced 
by Penda, the pagan Mercian king, to ransom with all 
the riches in it and the neighbouring region. Under 
James IV., in 1497, many plague-smitten townsfolk of 
Edinburgh were conveyed ' to the Inch, there to remain 
till God provide for their health ; ' and James IV. it 
was who had a dumb woman transported to the island, 
where, being properly lodged and provisioned, two 
infants were entrusted to her care, in order to discover, 
by the language they should adopt, what was man's 
primitive speech. The result proved highly satisfactory, 
as, after allowing them a sufficient time, it was found 
that ' they spak very guid Ebrew ' ! In 1547, after the 
battle of Pinkie, the English erected fortifications on 
Inchkeith, and left there a strong garrison, composed 
in part of a troop of Italian mercenaries ; but on Corpus 
Christi Day, 1549, a combined force of French and 
Scotch, under the Sieur D'Esse, embarked from Leith 
at break of day in presence of the Queen Dowager, 
and, after a fierce contest, expelled the enemy from 
their stronghold, and compelled them to surrender at 
discretion, with the loss of their leader and above 300 
slain. From then till 1560 the island was garrisoned 
by the French ; but James VI. 's first parliament (1567- 
68) ordained 'that the fort of Inchkeith he demolished 
and cast down utterly to the ground, and destroyed in 
such wise that no fundament thereof be occasion to 
build thereupon in time coming.' None the less, on 
18 Aug. 1773 Dr Johnson here found a fort,* whose 
remains were only removed when the lighthouse was 
built in 1803. Rising to an elevation of 235 feet above 
sea-level, and visible at a distance of 21 nautical miles, 
the light of this lighthouse at first was stationary, but 
in 1815 was changed to a revolving light, to distinguish 
it from the fixed light on the Isle of May. In 1835, 
again, it changed its reflecting for a dioptric character ; 
and now it consists of seven annular lenses, which circu- 
late round a lamp of three concentric wicks, and pro- 
duce bright flashes once in every minute, and of five 
rows of curved fixed mirrors, which serve to prolong the 
duration of the flashes from the lenses. After twenty 
years of suggestions and representations, the Govern- 
ment resolved to fortify Inchkeith and Kinghorn Ness ; 
so, the island having been taken over from the Duke of 
Buccleuch, three polygonal batteries were built in 187S- 
81 on the three headlands. Connected one with the 
other by a military road 1J mile long, they are yet 
entirely isolated by ditches 20 feet deep and almost as 
many broad, whilst their massive parapet walls rise 4J 
feet above the floor of the interior. They are mounted 
with four 18-ton guns, two for the S battery, and one 
each for the N and NW batteries. The guns are fired 
over the parapet, and not through embrasures or loop- 
holes, being placed on a raised turret-shaped concrete 
platform on the Moncrieff principle, and run round on 
swivels. — Orel. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Inchkenneth, a grassy island of Kilfinichen and Kil- 
vickeon parish, Argyllshire, at the entrance of Loch-na- 
Keal, on the W side of Mull, 1J mile S by E of the 
E end of Ulva. Measuring 1J mile in length, and 3 
furlongs in extreme breadth, it is low and fertile, and 
took its name from Kenneth, a missionary of Iona, who 
became the head of Achabo Abbey in Ireland, and died 
there in 600. Down to the Reformation it was held by 
the monks of Iona ; and it possesses tolerably entire 
ruins of a First Pointed church, built on the site of the 

* ' In crossing the Firth,' says Boswell, ' Dr Johnson determined 
that we should land upon Inchkeith. On approaching it, we first 
observed a high rocky shore. We coasted about, and put into a 
little bay on the NW. We clambered up a very steep ascent, on 
which was very good grass, but rather a profusion of thistles. 
There were sixteen head of black cattle grazing upon the island. 
Lord Hailes observed to me that BrantOme calls it L'isle des Chevaux, 
and that it was probably "a safer stable " than many others in his 
time. The fort, with an inscription on it, Maria Re : 1564, is 
strongly built. Dr Johnson examined it with much attention. 
There are three wells in the island, but we could not find one in 
the fort. . . . Dr Johnson said, "I'd have this island; I'd 
build a house, make a good landing-place, have a garden and 
vines and all sorts of trees. A rich man of a hospitable turn here 
would have many visitors from Edinburgh."' 


Columban cell, and measuring CO feet by 30, whither 
Boswell retired at midnight to say bis prayers, but 
speedily returned, being frightened by a ghost. Around 
the ruins is a graveyard, containing the tombstones of 
the Macleans of Brolas. In Oct. 1773, at the time of 
Dr Johnson's pilgrimage to the Hebrides, Inchkcnneth 
belonged to Sir Allan Maclean, Bart., who resided on 
it in what is described by Scott as a wretched and ex- 
posed hut. Yet the Doctor, with Boswell, spent two 
days under Sir Allan's roof, and by him and his two 
daughters was entertained with such 'kindness of 
hospitality and refinement of courtesy,' that he looked 
on his sojourn with them as ' a proper prelude to Iona,' 
and commemorated it in a Latin poem, which Professor 
Sir Daniel Sandford of Glasgow translated as follows : — 

' Scarce spied amid the west sea foam, 
Yet once Religion's chosen home, 
Appears the isle whose savage race 
By Kenneth's voice was won to grace. 
O'er glassy tides I thither flew, 
The wonders of the spot to view. 
In lowly cottage great Maclean 
Held there his high ancestral reign, 
With daughters fair whom love might deem 
The Naiads of the ocean stream : 
Yet not in chilly cavern rude 
"Were they, like Danube's lawless brood; 
But all that charms a polish'd age, 
The tuneful lyre, the learned page, 
Combined to beautify and bless 
That life of ease and loneliness. 
Now dawn'd the day whose holy light 
Puts human hopes and cares to flight ; 
Nor 'mid the hoarse waves' circling swell 
Did worship here forget to dwell. 
"What though beneath a woman's hand 
The sacred volume's leaves expand ; 
No need of priestly sanction there — 
The sinless heart makes holy prayer ! 
Then wherefore further seek to rove, 
"While here is all our hearts approve — 
Repose, security, and love?' 

Inchlaw or Lucklaw, a hill in the E end of Logie 
parish, NE Fife, 4 miles S of Newport. It chiefly con- 
sists of yellow felspar porphyry, very hard, and suscep- 
tible of a fine polish ; but its summit is composed of 
flesh-red felspar. Said to have been a hunting-ground 
of the Scottish kings, when residing at Falkland or St 
Andrews, and therefore sometimes called the King's 
Park, it rises to an altitude of 626 feet above sea-level, 
and commands an extensive view, particularly towards 
theN.— Ord. Sur., si. 49, 1865. 

Inchlonaig, an island of Luss parish, Dumbarton- 
shire, in Loch Lomond, 3 furlongs WNW of Strath- 
cashell Point and 6J E of Luss village. Extending 
from NE to SW, and measuring 1 by i mile, it is 
covered over half its surface with a forest of yew trees, 
said to have been planted by Robert Bruce to supply his 
army with bows ; and it has long been used by the 
Colquhouns of Luss as a deer park. — Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 

Inchmahome (Gael, 'island of my little Colman'), 
the larger of the two islets in the Lake of Monteith, 
Port of Monteith parish, SW Perthshire, 3f miles E by 
S of Aberfoyle and 5 furlongs SW of Port of Monteith 
village. With an utmost length and breadth of only 
1J and 1 furlong, it lies on the unruffled water near 
Inch Talla, level but ' plump with rich foliage, brood- 
ing like great birds of calm. You somehow think of 
them as on, not in the lake, or like clouds lying in a 
nether sky — "like ships waiting for the wind." You 
get a coble, and a yauld old Celt, its master, and are 
rowed across to Inchmahome, the Isle of Rest. Here 
you find on landing huge Spanish chestnuts, one lying 
dead, others standing stark and peeled, like gigantic 
antlers, and others flourishing in their viridis senectus ; 
and in a thicket of wood you see the remains of a 
monastery of great beauty, the design and workman- 
ship exquisite. You wander through the ruins, over- 
grown with ferns and Spanish filberts, and old fruit 
trees, and at the corner of the old monkish garden vou 
come upon one of the strangest and most touchiug 
sights you ever saw — an oval space of 18 feet by 12, 
with the remains of a double row of boxwood all round. 


What is this ? It is called in the guide-books " Queen 
Mary's Bower ; " but, besides its being plainly not in 
the least a bower, what could the little Queen, then five 
years old, and "fancy free," do with a bower? It is 
plainly the Child-Queen's Garden, with her little walk, 
and its rows of boxwood, left to themselves for three 
hundred years. Yet, without doubt, "here is that first 
garden of her simpleness." Fancy the little, lovely 
royal child, with her four Marys, her playfellows, her 
child maids-of-honour, with their little hands and feet, 
and their innocent and happy eyes, pattering about 
that garden all that time ago, laughing, and running, 
and gardening as only children do and can. As is well 
known, Mary was placed by her mother in this Isle of 
Rest ' from soon after the battle of Pinkie, Sept. 1547, 
till towards the end of the following February she left 
for Dumbarton, thence to take ship to France. Thus 
the author of Rab and his Friends ; and Mr Hutchison, 
in Trans. Might. andAg. Soc* (1879-80), more minutely 
describes 'the quaint and simple arrangements of 
this mediaeval garden — the three straggling boxwood 
trees, evidently grown from the boxwood edgings of a 
former oval flower-bed still discernible. They are 20| 
feet high, and upwards of 3 in girth at 1 foot from the 
ground, where they branch into several stems, the result 
probably of early clipping. In the centre of the plot 
is a quaint old thorn tree, 22 feet high, and 16 inches 
in girth, but much destroyed by the prevalent west 
winds which sweep across the island, and to whose in- 
fluence it is much exposed.' In 1238 Walter Comyn, 
Earl of Menteith, obtained authority from Pope Gregory 
IX. to build an Augustinian priory on the island of 
' Inchmaquhomok. ' The church was dedicated to Col- 
man, an Irish Pict, who founded the monastery of 
Dromore in Ireland prior to 514. Robert Bruce was at 
least three times at Inchmahome, in 1306, 1308, and 
1310; and here in 1363 his son, David II., widower, 
wedded Margaret Logie, widow. First Pointed in style, 
and measuring 115 feet b} r 36, the church consisted of a 
three-bayed nave, a N aisle, an aisleless choir, and a 
square four-storied bell-tower. The western doorway is 
deeply recessed and richly sculptured ; and the choir 
retains a piscina, sedilia, and an interesting though 
mutilated monument (circa 1294) with recumbent 
effigies of Walter Stewart, Earl of Menteith, and his 
Countess, his legs being crossed crusader- wise, and her 
arm twined around his neck. S of the church are some 
remains of the dormitory, refectory, and vaulted kitchen ; 
but the cloisters in 1644 made way for an awkward 
mausoleum, run hurriedly up to receive the corpse of 
John Graham, Lord Kilpont, who was murdered in 
Montrose's camp at Collace by one of his own vassals, 
James Stewart of Ardvoirlicb. Lord Kilpont's son, the 
second and last Earl of Aikth and Menteith, disposed 
of Inchmahome to the Marquis of Montrose, with whose 
descendant, the Duke, it still remains. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
38, 1871. See Monteith ; the Rev. W. M. Stirling's 
Notes, historical and descriptive, on the Priory of Inch- 
mahome (Edinb. 1S15); Dr John Brown's 'Queen Mary's 
Child-Garden,' in Moree Subsceiuc (Edinb. 1858); and 
Dr William Fraser's Red Book of Menteith (2 vols.. 
Edinb., 1S80). 

Inchmarlo, a mansion in Banehory-Ternan parish, 
Kincardineshire, near the N bank of the Dee, 1J mile 
WHW of Banchory village. Its owner, Duncan David- 
son, Esq. of Tillychetly (b. 1814 ; sue. 1849), holds 985 
acres in Kincardineshire and 1422 in Aberdeenshire, 
valued at £S96 and £S72 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
66, 1871. 

Inchmaraock, an island of North Bute parish, Bute- 
shire, off the W side of the Isle of Bute, adjacent to 
the meeting-point of the Kyles of Bute, the Sound of 
Bute, and Loch Fyne, 6J furlongs W of St Ninian's 
Point. Extending N and S, it has an utmost length 
and breadth of 2 miles and 5J furlongs, in the S attains 

* Where he also gives the height of the largest sycamore, 
Spanish chestnut, and walnut, all three near the western doorway 
of the priory, as SO. S5, and SO feet, their girth at 1 foot from the 
ground being 135, 19*. and 10 feet. 




a summit altitude of 165 feet above sea-level, and grows 
splendid crops of barley. It belonged anciently to tbe 
monastery of Saddel in Kintyre ; and contains the site 
of a small chapel, which was dedicated to St Marnock. 
Pop. (1871) 30, (1881) 18.— Ord. Sur., shs. 21, 29, 

Inchmarrin. See Inchmukrin. 

Inchmartine House, a mansion in the NE corner of 
Errol parish, Perthshire, 2J miles NNW of Inchture 
station. At Westown, 1 mile SW, stood the Church of 
the Blessed Virgin of Inchmartine, a small, plain Gothic 
building, which was anciently held by Coupar-Angus 
Abbey, and which served as a sub-parochial place of 
worship till the latter part of last century. Its burying- 
ground continued to be in use till a much later period. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Inchmurrin, an island of Kilmaronock parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, in Loch Lomond, 5J furlongs WNW of the 
Kilmaronock shore of the lake, and terminating 2| miles 
N by W of Balloch pier. The largest and most southerly 
of the isles in Loch Lomond, it forms, with Inchtorr 
and Inchcailloch, a belt of islets from SW to NE, on a 
straight line across the broadest part of the lake ; and 
measures 1J mile in length by 3§ furlongs in extreme 
breadth. Beautifully wooded, it has long been used by 
the Dukes of Montrose as a deer park ; and has, at its 
SW end, in a grove of venerable oaks, the ruins of an 
ancient castle of the Earls of Lennox, where, after the 
execution of her father, husband, and two sons, Isabella, 
Duchess of Albany and Countess of Lennox, lived till 
her death about 1460. Inchmurrin was visited by 
James IV. in 1506, by James VI. in 1585 and 1617 ; 
on 24 Sept. 1439 it was the scene of the treacherous 
murder of Sir John Colquhoun and his attendants by a 
party of Western Islanders. Near the castle, so late as 
1724, might be seen the ruins of the chapel of St Mirin, 
Paisley's patron saint, which gave the island its name. 
— Ord. Sur., shs. 30, 38, 1866-71. See Dr William 
Eraser's The Lennox (2 vols., Edinb., 1874). 

Inchnadamph. See Asstnt. 

Inchoch Castle, an old baronial fortalice, once the 
seat of the Hays of Lochloy, in Auldearn parish, Nairn- 
shire, near the Highland railway, 1£ mile NE of Auld- 
earn village. 

Inchparks. See Inch, Wigtownshire. 

Inchrye Abbey, a modern mansion in Abdie parish, 
NW Fife, near the NE shore of Lindores Loch, 3 miles 
SE of Newburgh. Built at a cost of £12,000, in the 
Gothic style, with a verandah, battlements, and turrets, 
it has charming grounds, with lawns, meadows, and 
woods, fringing the lake. — Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Inchtavannach or Monk's Island, an islet of Luss 
parish, Dumbartonshire, in Loch Lomond, 1 furlong 
from the western shore, and 7 furlongs SSE of Luss 
village. Extending from N to S, it has an utmost 
length andjbreadth of 7 J and 3 furlongs, and in the N rises 
steeply to 200 feet above sea-level. It is covered with 
natural oak wood, and anciently contained a monastery. 
Coleridge, Wordsworth, and his sister, Dorothy, visited 
it on 25 Aug. 1803.— Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Inchterf, a hamlet, on a quondam island, in the SW 
corner of Kilsyth parish, Stirlingshire, 2J miles ESE 
of Milton of Campsie. 

Inchtorr or Torrinch, a wooded islet (3 x § furl.) 
of Kilmaronock parish, Dumbartonshire, in Loch Lomond, 
70 yards SW of Inchcailloch, and 1 mile NE of the 
north-eastern extremity of Inchmurrin. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
38, 1871. 

Inchture, a village and a parish in the Carse of Gowrie, 
Perthshire. The village stands If mile N by W of 
Inchture station on the Dundee and Perth section of 
the Caledonian, this being 7| miles WSW of Dundee, 
and 14 E by N of Perth. Occupying the crown of 
a rising-ground, anciently an island, it was originally 
called Innis-tuir (Gael. ' island of the tower ') ; and it 
overlooks a luxuriant expanse of circumjacent carse 
lands, and presents a pleasant appearance. At it are a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, an inn, and a large brewery. 

The parish, since 1670 comprising the ancient parishes 
of Inchture and Rossie, is bounded NW by Abernyte, 
NE and E by Longforgan, SE by the Firth of Tay, SW 
by Errol, and W by Kinnaird. Its utmost length, from 
NNW to SSE, is 4| miles ; its breadth varies between 
7J furlongs and 2g miles ; and its area is 5328J acres, 
of which 1199 J are foreshore and 6 water. One 
brook, rising and running 1J mile in the interior, traces 
for 2J miles the boundary with Errol, till, being joined 
from that parish by a larger brook than itself, it forms 
at Powgavie a small but not unimportant harbour on 
the firth ; whilst Huntly Burn, coming down from the 
NW, traces for 3J miles the north-eastern and eastern 
border, and then diverges into Longforgan. The shore- 
line, 9 furlongs long, is low ; and for 3 miles inland the 
surface is all but a dead-level, nowhere exceeding 34 feet, 
and forming part of the rich alluvial fiat of the Carse of 
Gowrie. Then it begins to rise, till it attains 559 feet 
at Hilltown of Ballindean and 567 at wooded Rossie 
Hill — heights that command delightful views of water 
and hill scenery. Trap-rock prevails in the hills ; red 
sandstone and good limestone are found in the lower 
grounds ; and all have been quarried. Veins of copper 
occur, but have never been worked. The soil, on the 
carse lands, is rich argillaceous alluvium ; on the undula- 
tory tracts, is a fertile loam ; and, on much of Rossie, 
is gravelly or sandy. Nearly 500 acres are under wood; 
and several hundred acres are land reclaimed from the 
firth. The chief antiquities are the ruins of Moncur 
Castle and of Rossie church, and a cross on the site of the 
quondam village of Rossie. Mansions are Rossie Priory 
and Ballindean House, both separately noticed ; and 
most of the property is divided among three. Inchture 
is in the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and 
Mearns ; the stipend and communion-elements are re- 
turned at £311, 16s. 9d. The church, at Inchture 
village, is a neat Gothic edifice of 1834, containing 550 
sittings. A public school, with accommodation for 186 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 105, and 
a grant of £99, 3s. 6d. Valuation (1866) £7569, (1883) 
£8065, 5s. 7d. Pop. (1801) 949, (1831) 878, (1S71) 659, 
(1881) 650.— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Inchtuthil, a tract of 200 acres in Caputh parish, 
Perthshire, on the left bank of the river Tay, 2| miles 
E by S of Caputh church, and 74 ESE of Dimkeld. 
Forming a flat oblong plateau, which rises steeply on 
all sides to an elevation of 60 feet above the level of the 
surrounding plain of Stormont, it is identified by Dr 
Skene as the site of Tamea, a frontier town of the 
Vacomagi. It had on its NE border a Roman camp, 
500 yards square, whose stone walls, 9J feet thick, have 
for a century or more been almost levelled by the plough, 
and to the SE of which were two tumuli and a redoubt — 
now distinguished by a group of trees. Inchtuthil, 
moreover, is said to have been part of the land granted 
by Kenneth III. to Hay, for his bravery at the battle of 
Ltjnoaett. — Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Inchyra, a village and a mansion in a detached section 
of Kinnoull parish, SE Perthshire. The village stands 
on the left bank of the river Tay, 1 mile SW of Glen- 
carse station on the Dundee and Perth section of the 
Caledonian, and 5 miles ESE of Perth. It has a good 
harbour, which admits vessels of considerable burden, 
and a ferry communicating with Fingask in Rhynd 
parish. Inchyra House, | mile N by E of the village, 
is a handsome edifice in the Grecian style, with finely 
wooded grounds. — Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Inellan, a village and a quoad sacra parish in Dunoon 
parish, Argyllshire. The village stands on the coast of 
the Firth of Clyde, 3f miles S by W of Dunoon town. 
Founded in 1843, it has risen, from a cluster of villas 
around a castellated hotel, to rank as a fashionable 
watering-place, which, extending more than a mile along 
the shore, is backed by Garrowchorran Hill (1113 feet), 
Corlarach Hill (1371), Beinn Ruadh (1057), and Inellan 
Hill (935). It enjoys abundant facilities of communica- 
tion through the Glasgow and Rothesay steamers ; and 
has a post office under Greenock, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of 


tlio Clydesdale Bank, a steam-boat pier, gas and water 
works, a spacious hotel, a bowling-green, a horticultural 
society, a public school, an Established church, a Free 
church, a U. P. church, and St Margaret's Episcopal 
church, a Gothic edifice of 1875. The Established 
church was built nearly 50 years ago as a chapel of ease 
at a cost of £1100. The quoad sacra parish, constituted 
in 1873, is in the presbytery of Dunoon and synod of 
Argyll; its minister's stipend is £350. Pop. of village 
(1871) 605, (1881) 859 ; of q. s. parish (1881) 1061.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 1873. 

Inganess, a bay on the E side of Pomona, Orkney, 
projecting south-westward between the parishes of Kirk- 
wall and St Andrews. It opens 3 miles ESE of the 
entrance of Kirkwall Bay ; is flanked, on the N"W side, 
by Inganess Head ; measures i\ miles in length, and 
from J to 1J mile in breadth ; expands to its greatest 
breadth in its middle parts ; has a depth of from 2J to 
12 fathoms ; and forms a fine natural harbour for vessels 
of any size. 

Inglismaldie, a seat of the Earl of Kintore in Mary- 
kirk parish, SW Kincardineshire, within J mile of the 
North Esk's left bank, and 6 miles SW of Laurencekirk. 
An old castellated edifice, it was inhabited by the Earl's 
ancestors, the Barons Falconer of Halkerton, and is 
surrounded with extensive woods. 

Ingliston House, a Scottish Baronial mansion of 1846 
in the Edinburghshire section of Kirkliston parish, 2 
miles N of Ratho. Its finely-wooded grounds contain 
an old limetree ('"Wallace's Switch'), which girths 23 
feet at 3 feet from the ground. — Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Inhallow. See Enhallow. 

Inhouse, a village close to Mossbank, in Delting parish, 

Inish. See Inch. 

Inishail, a heathy islet and an ancient parish in Lorn 
district, Argyllshire. The island, with an utmost length 
and breadth of 3 and If furlongs, lies in the lower part 
of Loch Awe, 2J miles SSW of Loch Awe station and 
pier and -4J furlongs WJN W of Cladich pier. In 1857 
the celebrated etcher, Mr Philip Gilbert Hamerton, en- 
camped upon Inishail ; and five years later he published 
two volumes entitled A Painter's Camp in the Highlands, 
and, Thoughts about Art. Inishail had much celebrity 
in the Middle Ages as the site of a small Cistercian 
nunnery, which is said to have been distinguished by 
freedom from the evils that characterised many of the 
institutions of its class, and whose property was con- 
veyed, at the Reformation, to Hay, the Protestant ex- 
abbot of Inchaftray. It is still represented by some 
remains of its chapel. The parish church was in use 
from the Reformation till it was superseded by a new 
church (1773 ; 250 sittings) on the shore, 5 miles SW of 
Dalmally. Its burying-ground was specially used by the 
clan Macarthur, who formerly inhabited the shores of 
the lower part of Loch Awe, and contains numerous 
ancient carved tombstones, with insignia and devices 
of Crusaders, knights, warriors, ecclesiastics, and a peer. 
The parish, united to Glenorchy in 1618, occasions the 
present parish of Glenorchy to be formally designated 
Glenorchy and Inishail ; embraces the islands, waters, 
and flanks of much of the lower part of Loch Awe ; 
contains the mansions of Ardvrecknish, New Inverawe, 
and Inchdrynich ; and shares with Glenorchy proper 
the alternate Sabbath services of the parish minister. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 45, 1876. 

Inishchonell, a beautiful islet of Kilchrenan and Dala- 
vich parish, Argyllshire, in Loch Awe, 8 .miles NE of 
the head of the lake, and 5 furlongs ESE of Dalavich 
church. Here, from the 11th century, the ancestors of 
the Duke of Argyll had their stronghold, Ardchonnel 
Castle, now a picturesque ivy-mantled ruin ; hence they 
maintained a long and arduous struggle with surround- 
ing clans ; and hence they often sent forth their famous 
slogan or defiant war-shout, ' It 's a far cry to Lochow. ' 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 37, 1876. 

Inishdrynich. See Inchdrynich. 

Inisherrich or Innis-Seanamhach, an islet of Kil- 
chrenan and Dalavich parish, Argyllshire, in Loch 


Awe, 5J furlongs SSW of Inishchonell. It contains 
a ruined chapel, with an ancient burying-ground. 

Inishfraoch. See Fraooh Eilean. 

Inishkenneth. See Inchkenneth. 

Inishnadamph. See Assynt. 

Inistrynich House. See Inchdkynioh:. 

Inkerman, a village in Abbey parish, Renfrewshire, 
2 miles WNW of Paisley. It was founded about 1858 
in connection with the working of ironstone mines. 
Pop. (1871) 723, (1881) 948. 

Innellan. See Inellan. 

Inneravon, a tract of land contiguous to the mouth 
of tire river Avon in Borrowstounness parish, Linlithgow- 
shire. A remarkable bed of oyster and other shells 
exists beneath a bank, from the seaward side of this 
tract to the vicinity of Kinneil House, and a Roman 
station is thought by some antiquaries to have stood 
here. A castle of Inneravon or Inveravyne, mentioned 
in the Auchinleck chronicle of James II., is supposed 
to have occupied the site of the Roman station ; and 
an old ruin which still stands here may have been one 
of the corner towers of that castle. 

Inneravon, Banffshire. See Inveravon. 

Innerchadden. See Innerhadden. 

Innerdale. See Endrick. 

Innergellie House, a modern mansion in Kilrenny 
parish, Fife, 1J mile NE of Anstruther. Its owner, 
Edwin Robert John Sandys-Lumsdaine, Esq. of Blaneme 
(b. 1864 ; sue. 1873), holds 428 acres in Fife and 2603 
in Berwickshire, valued at £1182 and £2364 per annum. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 41, 1857. 

Innerhadden House, a mansion in Fortingall parish, 
NW Perthshire, at the foot of a high, mural, romantic 
rock overlooking the E end of Loch Rannoch, 7 furlongs 
SE of Kinloch Rannoch. A spot near it was the starting 
point of a successful skirmish of Robert Bruce against 
the English. 

Innerkip, a village and a coast parish of W Renfrew- 
shire. The village lies, completely buried among trees, 
on the left bank of the Kip, 3 furlongs above its influx 
to the Firth of Clyde and J mile NNE of Innerkip 
station on the Greenock and Wemyss Bay railway, this 
being 2J miles N by E of Wemyss Bay, 5| SW of Upper 
Greenock, and 28J W by N of Glasgow. A little place, 
consisting chiefly of two long rows of houses on either 
side of the turnpike road, it has a post office under 
Greenock, an hotel, a gas company, a plain parish church 
(1S03 ; 600 sittings) with clock-tower and spire, a Free 
church, and St Patrick's Roman Catholic church (1875 ; 
130 sittings), whilst 7 furlongs to the N is the Episcopal 
church of St Michael and All Angels, the private chapel 
of the Shaw-Stewarts, whose mausoleum is in the old 
burying-ground. Innerkip was made a burgh of barony 
before the Union, with the right of holding three annual 
fairs ; was often known as Auld Kirk after the erection of 
the first church at Greenock (1592) ; and is memorable 
in connection with the witchcraft trials of 1662, already 
noticed under Got/rock, and fully described in Sir 
George Mackenzie's Witches of Renfrewshire (1678; new 
ed., Paisley, 1878). The original parish church was 
granted to Paisley Abbey soon after its foundation in 
1169, and was held by the monks down to the Reforma- 
tion. Pop. of village (1861) 449, (1871) 637, (1881) 

The parish, containing also the town of Gotirock and 
the stations of Ravenscraio and Wemyss Bay, is 
bounded W and N" by the Firth of Clyde, E by 
Greenock, SE by Kilmalcolm, and S by Largs in Ayr- 
shire. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 5\ miles ; its 
utmost -width, from E to W, is 4§ miles ; and its area 
is 13,2374 acres, of which 279 are foreshore and 409 
water. The coast-line, 9£ miles long, is fringed by the 
narrow low platform of the firth's old sea-margin, and 
slightly indented by Gourock, West, Lunderston, Inner- 
kip, and Wemyss Bays ; its special features are treated 
under Gourock, Clooh Point, and Wemyss. Inland 
the surface rises somewhat steeply to 478 feet at Barr 
Hill, 610 at Borneven Hill, 701 at White Hill, 907 at 
Leap Moor, 936 at Dtjnrod Hill, 910 at Scroggy Bank, 



and 1446 at Creuch Hill, whose summit, however, falls 
within Kilmalcolm. Loch Thom (If x £ mile) and four 
or five smaller reservoirs of the Greenock "Waterworks 
lie close to the eastern border ; Kelly Burn flows 3f 
miles west-south-westward to the firth along most of 
the Ayrshire boundary ; and the Kip winds 4 miles 
westward through the interior, by the way receiving 
Spango and Dalf Burns, the latter of which, from its 
source upon Leap Moor, hurries 1£ mile north-north- 
westward along a rocky, richly-wooded glen. The 
landscape generally is very charming ; and the views 
from the higher grounds are grand beyond description. 
The predominant rocks are Igneous and Upper Old Ked 
sandstone. Craigmuschat quarry, near Gourock, for up- 
wards of sixty years has yielded abundance of porphy ritic 
greenstone, well adapted for paving ; good building 
material is furnished by the sandstone, and excellent 
road-metal by dykes of trap. The soil is light and 
sandy along the shore, moister and verging to red 
gravel on the higher arable grounds, and moorish or 
moss on the uplands. Rather more than a third of the 
entire area is in tillage ; 550 acres are under wood ; and 
nearly all the remainder is either pasture or waste. 
The chief antiquities are noticed under Akdgowan, 
Dunrod, Gourock, and Leven. Mansions, also 
noticed separately, are Akdgowan, Gourock House, 
Kelly House, and Leven Castle ; and 5 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 46 of 
between £100 and £500, 85 of from £50 to £100, and 
71 of from £20 to £50. Including nearly the whole of 
Gourock quoad sacra parish and a portion of that of 
Skelniorlie, Innerkip is in the presbytery of Greenock 
and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth 
£390. A public school, with accommodation for 229 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 118, and 
a grant of £117, 4s. Valuation (1860) £21,973, (1883) 
£52,588, 16s. Pop. (1801) 1367, (1831) 2088, (1861) 
3495, (1871) 4502, (1881) 5359, of whom 899 were in the 
ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sxir., shs. 29, 30, 1873-66. 
See Gardner's Wemyss Bay, Innerkip, and Largs (Paisley, 

Innerleithen, a town in E Peeblesshire, and a parish 
partly also in Selkirkshire. The town stands 479 feet 
above sea-level, on Leithen "Water, J mile NNE of its 
influx to the Tweed, and has a station on the Peebles 
and Galashiels section of the North British, 6 J miles 
ESE of Peebles, 12J "W of Galashiels, and 33J S by E 
of Edinburgh. A ' quiet, pretty watering-place, it is 
situated in the wide, meadowy valley of the Tweed, 
environed by high, round, green hills ; and has a main 
street of rather new, good-looking houses, with an 
older street extending up a hill-crest to the well.' It 
was a mere kirk-hamlet from the middle of the 12th 
century down to 1790, when a woollen factory was 
started at it by Alexander Brodie, a Traquair black- 
smith who had made a large fortune in London. About 
the same period, too, its medicinal saline spring, and 
the healthiness of its climate, began to attract invalids 
and tourists ; and it acquired much celebrity by the 
general identification of that spring with the ' St 
Ronan's Well ' of Sir Walter Scott's romance (1824). 
Further causes of its well-being have been the institu- 
tion of annual games by the St Ronan's Border Club 
(1827) ; the attractions it offers to anglers as a con- 
venient centre for fishing the waters of the Leithen, the 
Tweed, and the Quair, even of the Yarrow and St Mary's 
Loch ; and the great extension of its woollen industry 
since 1839. Besides some good shops and lodging- 
houses, Innerleithen now has a post office, with money- 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, a 
branch of the Bank of Scotland, a National Security 
savings' bank, 7 insurance agencies, 2 hotels, gasworks, re- 
centdrainage and water works, a volunteer hall, and a pub- 
lic hall. Having adopted certain clauses of the General 
Police and Improvement Act (Scotland) in 1869, it is 
governed by a chief magistrate and a body of police 
commissioners. The medicinal spring, rising on the 
skirt of Lee Pen at an elevation of 200 feet above the 
town, and at a short distance to the W, in 1826 was 


furnished with a verandahed pump-house, containing 
subscription reading-rooms. In every gallon of its 
water are 21672 grains of chloride of sodium, 148'16 of 
chloride of calcium, 16 '17 of chloride of magnesium, 
1*15 of sulphate of magnesia, 5 '03 of carbonate of lime, 
etc., this being the stronger of the two streams into 
which the spring branches. It is in high repute for 
ophthalmic, scorbutic, bilious, and dyspeptic complaints. 
As stated already, the earliest woollen mill was built in 
1790 at a cost of £3000, but it did not come into fairly 
successful operation till 1839, when steam was added to 
the original water-power from the Leithen. Since 1845 
four other woollen mills have been erected at Inner- 
leithen itself, and two at the neighbouring village of 
Walkerburn ; and the seven factories together have 29 
sets of carding-machines, 264 hand and power looms, 
and 18,708 spindles. They use about 960,000 lbs. of 
wool a year ; turn out tweeds, tartans, blankets, etc. , 
to an annual value of over £200,000; and employ 
above 700 workpeople, paying £24,000 of wages a year. 
The parish church was built in 1870, and contains 800 
sittings. A Free church was enlarged in 1878, when 
also a Gothic U.P. church, with 600 sittings, was built 
at a cost of over £2000. St James's Roman Catholic 
church (1881 ; 300 sittings) is in the Early Gothic style 
of the 14th century, and has a tower and spire 97 feet 
high. A handsome school in connection with it was 
built in 1876. The municipal constituency numbered 
477 in 18S3, when the annual value of real property 
within the burgh was £7605. Pop. (1841) 463, (1851) 
1236, (1861) 1130, (1871) 1605, (1881) 2313. Houses 
(1SS1) 469 inhabited, IS vacant, 29 building. 

The parish, containing also the stations of "Walker- 
burn and Thornilee, If and 5 miles E of Innerleithen, 
comprises all the ancient parish of Innerleithen and 
about one-third of that of Kailzie. It is bounded N by 
Temple and Heriot in Edinburghshire, E by Stow, S by 
Traquair and Yarrow (detached), and W by Peebles and 
Eddleston. Its utmost length, from W by N to S by E, 
is 8| miles ; its utmost breadth, from N by W to S by E. 
is 7J miles ; and its areais24,122| acres, of which 3578§ 
belong to Selkirkshire, and 141 are water. A tract of 
836$ acres, belonging to the Selkirkshire section, lies 
detached 3 furlongs E of the main body of the county. 
The river Tweed sweeps llf miles east-by-southward 
along all the southern border ; Leithen Water, its 
affluent, rising in the extreme NW at an altitude of 
1750 feet, runs 9f miles south-south-eastward through 
all the interior, in a line a little W of the middle ; and 
numerous burns flow either to the Leithen or the Tweed. 
Along the latter stream is a belt of very rich haugh ; 
another extends for 3 or 4 miles up the lower course 
of the Leithen ; a narrow border of low land fringes 
parts of the channels of some of the burns ; and all the 
rest of the parish is part of the broad hill range called 
commonly the Southern Highlands, and presents, for 
the most part, a rounded and grassy appearance. 
Where, below Thornilee station, the Tweed quits Inner- 
leithen, the surface declines to 410 feet above sea-level, 
and rises thence northward or north-north-westward to 
1634 feet at Cairn Hill, 1802 at Priesthope Hill, 2161 
at "Windlestraw Law, 2038 at Whitehope Law, 1647 at 
Lee Pen, 1708 at Black Knowe, and 2136 at *Blackhope 
Scar, asterisks marking those summits that culminate 
on the eastern or just beyond the northern boundary. 
Dorothy Wordsworth thus describes the scenery, as 
viewed from the Tweed's valley, down which she drove 
with her brother on Sunday, 18 Sept. 1803:— 'The 
lines of the hills are flowing and beautiful, the reaches 
of the vale long ; in some places appear the remains 
of a forest, in others you will see as lovely a com- 
bination of forms as any traveller who goes in search 
of the picturesque need desire, and yet perhaps with- 
out a single tree ; or at least if trees there are, they 
shall be very few, and he shall not care whether they 
are there or not. . . . The general effect of the 
gently-varying scenes was that of tender pensiveness -. 
no bursting torrents when we were there, but the mur- 
muring of the river was heard distinctly, often blended 


with the bleating of sheep. In one place we saw a shep- 
herd lying in the midst of a flock upon a sunny knoll, 
with his face towards the sky — happy picture of shepherd 
life.' The predominant rocks are Silurian, with some 
porphyries and clay slate ; and they have yielded 
detritus favourable to vegetation. The soil of the 
haughs is alluvial ; on the banks of some of the 
burns is a gravelly loam ; and on the hills consists of 
the disintegrated native rocks. A hard, dark-coloured 
porphyry has been much worked for curling-stones ; the 
fissile greywaeke of Holylee has been employed for 
tessellated pavement ; and a clay slate was at one time 
worked at Thornilee for roofing. Barely one-eleventh 
of the entire area is regularly or occasionally in tillage ; 
plantation covers some 500 acres ; and the rest is either 
sheep-walk or waste. The principal antiquities, besides 
the site or vestiges of five peel-towers, are the oval hill- 
forts of Caerlee and Pirn, 400 and 350 feet in length ; 
the Purvis-hill Terraces, twelve to fourteen in number ; 
and the ruined castle of Nether Horsburgh. The last 
is noticed separately, as also are the mansions of Glen- 
ormistox and Holylee. Six proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 9 of between £100 
and £500, 8 of from £50 to £100, and 47 of from £20 
to £50. Giving off a portion to Caddonfoot quoad sacra 
parish, Innerleithen is in the presbytery of Peebles and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is worth 
£3S5. Three public schools — Innerleithen, Leithenhope, 
and Walkerburn — with respective accommodation for 
283, 32, and 236 children, had (1SS1) an average attend- 
ance of 227, 10, and 158, and grants of £183, £23, 6s., 
and £125, 5s. Valuation (1860) £9616, (1S81) £19,423, 
including £1202 for the Selkirkshire portion. Pop. 
(1801) 609, (1831) 810, (1861) 1823, (1871) 2812, (1881) 
3661, of whom 61 were in Selkirkshire, and 3636 in the 
ecclesiastical parish. — Orel. Sur., shs. 24, 25, 1864-65. 

Innerleven. See Dubbieside. 

Innermessan, a farm in Inch parish, Wigtownshire, 
on the E shore of Loch Ryan, 2-£ miles NE of Stranraer. 
It contains the site of a mediaeval town and an extant 
ancient moat. An ancient town is supposed to have 
preceded the mediaeval one, and now is commonly 
identified with Kerigonium, a seat of the Caledonian 
tribe Novantas, mentioned by Ptolemy in the 2d century 
a.d. (See Beregonittsi.) The mediaeval town is said 
by Symson (1684) to have been 'of old the most con- 
siderable place in the Rhinns of Gallowa}-, and the 
greatest town thereabout, till Stranraer was built ; ' but 
now it is represented by only a tiny hamlet. Inner- 
messan Castle, whose site is occupied by the neat farm- 
house, was built by the first Sheriff Agnew of Lochnaw 
on grounds granted to him by royal charter of 1429, and 
continued to be inhabited till towards the close of the 
17th century. Innermessan Moat, a circular, artificial 
mound, once surrounded by a fosse, measures 336 feet 
in circumference round the base, 78 in sloping ascent, 
and 60 in vertical elevation. Its flat summit, which com- 
mands a fine view, was bored in 1834, and then was 
found to contain a stratum of ashes, charred wood, 
and fragments of bone. — Ord. Sur., sh. 3, 1856. 

Innerpeffrey, a castle in the detached section of Monzie 
parish, Perthshire, on the left bank of the river Earn, 
If mile SSE of Innerpeffrey station on the Perth, 
Methven, and Crieff branch of the Caledonian, this 
being 2J miles ESE of Crieff. Built about 1610 by 
James Drummond, first Lord Madderty, it is now a 
ruin, though the outer walls, the staircase, and some of 
the rooms are fairly entire. Innerpeffrey Chapel, J 
mile nearer the station, since 150S has been the burying- 
place of the noble family of Drummond ; close by it "is 
an endowed school with a library, founded in 1691 with 
a bequest of David, third Lord Madderty. The library 
contains between 2000 and 3000 volumes, among them 
some black-letter works, and a small French Bible of 
1632, bearing the autograph of the great Marquis of 
Montrose.— Ord. Stir., sh. 47, 1869. 

Innertiel. See Invektiel. 

Innerwick, a village and a coast parish of E Hadding- 
tonshire. The village stands 300 feet above sea-level, 


at the base of a steep cultivated hill, li mile W by S of 
Innerwick station on the North British railway, this being 
4 miles ESE of Dunbar, under which it has a post office. 

The parish, containing also the small harbour of 
Skateraw, is bounded 1SW by Dunbar, NE by the 
German Ocean, SE by Oldhamstocks, S by Long- 
formacus in Berwickshire, and W by a detached section 
of Stenton and by the main body of Spott. Irregular 
in outline, it has an utmost length from NNE to SSW 
of 10 miles, a varying breadth of 1J and 3| miles, and 
an area of 13,424J acres, of which 267 are foreshore. 
The coast, measured along its indentations, has a 
length of 2J miles, and it presents a tamely rugged 
and rocky appearance. An upland watershed bisects 
the parish nearly through the middle ; and sends off 
Thornton Burn and other streamlets east-north-east- 
ward to the German Ocean, and Monynut Water and 
other streamlets south-south-eastward into Berwickshire 
towards the Whitadder. About two-thirds of the entire 
surface, comprising a portion ENE of the watershed 
and all the sections from the watershed to the southern 
boundary, are parts of the Lammermuir Hills, and 
present an upland, bleak, and desolate appearance ; the 
loftier summits here from N to S being Blaokoastle 
Hill (917 feet), Cocklaw Hill (1046), Bransby Hill 
(1300), and Peat Law (1209). A series of ravines, inter- 
secting the east-north-eastern declivities of the hills, 
exhibits pleasing features of verdure and wood, and 
overlooks charming prospects towards the ocean, whilst 
a luxuriant and very fertile plain lies all between the 
foot of these ravines and the shore, and is embellished 
in three places with plantation. The rocks are prin- 
cipally Silurian and Devonian, but partly carboniferous ; 
and they include abundance of sandstone and limestone, 
with some ironstone, bituminous shale, and thin seams 
of coal. About four-ninths of the land are regularly or 
occasionally in tillage ; plantations cover some 350 
acres ; and the rest is either pastoral or waste. Inner- 
wick Castle, now a ruin, on a steep eminence overhang- 
ing a rocky glen, 1 mile E of Innerwick village, from 
the Stewarts passed to the Hamiltons, and was captured 
and demolished in 1548 by the Duke of Somerset during 
his invasion of Scotland. Thornton Castle, crowning 
an eminence on the other side of the glen, opposite 
Innerwick Castle, was a stronghold of Lord Home, and 
suffered the same fate from the same hands as Innerwick 
Castle, like which it is now a ruin. A bridge called 
Edinkens, a little S of these two castles, has been 
associated variously with the names of King Edwin 
of Northumbria and King Edward of England, and now 
is represented by slight remains. Four ancient standing 
stones formerly stood near that bridge ; two stone 
coffins, containing a dagger and a ring, were found in 
a field near Dryburn Bridge ; and a place called Corse- 
kill Park, near Innerwick village, is alleged to have 
been the scene of an encounter between Cospatrick and 
Sir William Wallace. An ancient chapel dedicated to 
St Dennis stood on the Skateraw shore, but has utterly 
disappeared. Thurston, noticed separately, is the chief 
residence ; and 4 proprietors hold each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 3 of between £100 and £500, 1 of 
from £50 to £100, and 2 of from £20 to £50. Innerwick 
is in the presbytery of Dunbar and synod of Lothian 
and Tweeddale ; the living is worth £360. The parish 
church, standing on an eminence in Innerwick village, 
is a very plain structure of 17S4. There is also a Free 
church ; and a public school, with accommodation for 
76 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 39, 
and a grant of £24, 7s. Valuation (1879) £12,605, 5s., 
(18S3) £11,425, 12s. Pop. (1801) 846, (1S31) 9S7, 
(1861) 937, (1871) 892, (18S1) 777. —Ord. Sur., sh. 
33, 1863. 

Innerwick, Perthshire. See Glenlton. 

Innes House, a seat of the Earl of Fife, in Urquhart 
parish, Elginshire, 6 miles NE of Elgin. Built in 
1640-53 from designs by William Aitonn (the architect 
probably of Heriot's Hospital), and greatly improved 
about 1825, it consists of two four-story wings and a 
massive square tower, with a neat private chapel, some 



good paintings, beautiful gardens, and a fine broad 
avenue. The barony of Innes "was held by the Inneses 
from the latter half of the 12th century till 1767, when 
Sir James Innes, sixth Bart, since 1625, who in 1812 
succeeded to the dukedom of Roxburghe, sold it to James, 
second Earl of Fife. — Ord. Sur., sh. 95, 1876. See Duff 
House, and vol. iii. of Billings' Baronial Antiquities 

Innis. See Inch. 

InnischonneL See Inishchonnel. 

Inriisdrynich. See Inchdry'NICH. 

Inniserrich. See Inisherrich. 

Innisfraoch. See Fraooh Eilean. 

Innishail. See Inishail. 

Inniskenneth. See Inchkenneth. 

Innocents Howe, a hollow in a moor in Urquhart 
parish, Elginshire, 1J mile E of the parish church. 
Tradition says that, during a Danish invasion, the 
native women and children took refuge in this hollow, 
but were discovered and put to death by the Danes. 

Inord, Loch. See Ainort. 

Insch, a village and a parish in Garioch district, NW 
Aberdeenshire. The village stands, 406 feet above sea- 
level, at the southern extremity of the parish, J mile N 
by E of Insch station on the Great North of Scotland 
railway, this being 13£ miles SE of Huntly, 7 WNW of 
Inveramsay Junction, and 27J NW of Aberdeen. A 
burgh of barony, under the Leith-Hays of Leith Hall, 
it has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and railway telegraph departments, branches of the 
North of Scotland and the Aberdeen Town and 
County Banks, a National Security savings' bank, a 
penny bank, 7 insurance agencies, 2 hotels, a gas com- 
pany, a public hall, a police station, the parish church, a 
Free church, a Congregational church, a horticultural 
society, cattle fairs on the fourth Monday of every month, 
and hiring fairs on the Fridays before 18 May and 18 
Nov. The parish church, containing 500 sittings, was 
built in 1613, and rebuilt in 1883. Pop. (1S41) 215, 
(1861) 411, (1871) 533, (1SS1) 579. 

The parish is bounded N by Drumblade and Forgue, 
E by Culsalmond, SE by Oyne and Premnay, SW by 
Leslie and Eennethmont, and W by Keunethmont and 
Gartly. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 4| miles ; 
its utmost breadth, from E to W, is 3J miles ; and its 
area is 8371J acres, of which 1 J are water. The Shevock 
curves 5 miles east-by-southward along all the south- 
western and south-eastern boundary, passing off from 
this parish lg mile above its confluence with the Ury ; 
and the Ury itself, here sometimes known as Glen Water, 
flows 1\ miles eastward through Glen Foudland along 
all the northern border ; whilst several rills of sufficient 
volume to drive a threshing-machine drain the interior. 
The land is a diversity of hill and dale, sinking in the 
SE to 380 feet above sea-level, and rising thence to 876 
feet at conical Dunnideer, S00 at Candle Hill, 622 at 
Knockenbaird, and 1529 at the Hill of Foudland. Clay 
slate, of excellent roofing quality, was at one time largely 
quarried on Foudland ; gneiss and granite are the pre- 
dominant rocks in the lower hills ; and bog iron occurs 
in considerable quantities in the low grounds adjacent 
to Dunnideer. The soil of the low grounds is mostly a 
light loam, on the slopes of Foudland is a light clay, 
and on its higher parts is moss or heath. About one- 
third of the entire area is pastoral or waste ; plantations 
cover some 50 acres ; and all the rest of the parish is 
under cultivation. The chief antiquity is noticed under 
Dunnideer ; others being a mound or rising-ground 
called the Gallow Hill near Insch village, and some 
Caledonian standing-stones ; whilst the fragment of a 
' Roman sword ' and some links of a very rude gold chain 
have been found on Wantonwells farm. Drumrossie, a 
little E of the village, is the only mansion ; but 5 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
2 of between £100 and £500, 3 of from £50 to £100, and 
6 of from £20 to £50. Insch is in the presbytery of 
Garioch and synod of Aberdeen ; the living is worth 
£309. Three public schools — Glen Foudland, Insch, 
and Largie — with respective accommodation for 64, 184, 


and 128 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 
43, 202, and 71, and grants of £32, 13s., £139, 6s., and 
£52, lis. Valuation (1860) £6542, (1882)£9596, 12s. 4d., 
phis £258 for railway. Pop. (1801) 798, (1831) 1338, 
(1861) 1565, (1871) 1596, (1881) 1536.— Ord. Sur., shs. 
76, 86, 1874-76. 

Inshes House. See Inches. 

Inshewan. See Inchewan. 

Insh, Loch, Inverness-shire. See Inch. 

Inshoch Castle. See Inchoch. 

Inver, a village in Little Dunkeld parish, Perthshire, 
on the right bank of the Tay and the left of the confluent 
Bran, 1 mile WSW of Dunkeld. See Dunkeld, Little. 

Inver, a fishing village in Tain parish, Koss-shire, on 
the S side of the Dornoch Firth, 6| miles E by N of Tain. 
It includes Inverskinnerton, in Tarbat parish ; has 27 
boats and 85 fisher men and boys; and in 1832 lost over 
a third of its inhabitants through a few weeks' ravages 
of the cholera. Pop. (1871) 450, (1881) 396, of whom 
37 were in Tarbat.— Ord. Sur., sh. 94, 1878. 

Inver or Lochinver. See Assynt. 

Inverallan, a quoad sacra parish in Cromdale parish, 
Elgin and Inverness shires, containing the town of 
Grantown. Constituted in 1869, it is in the pres- 
bytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray. Stipend, 
£120.^ Pop. (1871) 2522, (1881) 2497, of whom 2055 
were in Elginshire. 

Inverallochy, a village and a quoad sacra parish in 
Rathen parish, NE Aberdeenshire. The village stands 
on the coast, immediately E of Cairnbulg village, i 
miles ESE of Fraserburgh. It has a post office under 
Aberdeen, a public school, and (including Cairnbulg) 
223 boats and 379 fisher men and boys. Inverallochy 
Castle, If mile S of the village, belonged to the powerful 
family of Comyn ; and till the latter half of last century 
retained a stone above the entrance bearing the sculp- 
tured arms of the Comyns, with an inscription record- 
ing that the estate around it was obtained by Jordan 
Comyn for building the abbey of Deer. It presents an 
imposing but desolate appearance, and, as seen at a dis- 
tance, looks more like an ecclesiastical structure than 
a feudal fortalice. The quoad sacra parish is in the 
presbytery of Deer and synod of Aberdeen ; its minister's 
stipend is £198. The church was originally a chapel of 
ease. Rathen Free church stands 2 J miles SSW of the 
village. Pop. of the two villages (1801) 404, (1831) 
S20, (1S61) 1079, (1871) 1240, "(lSSl) 1200, of whom 
459 were in Cairnbulg; of the q. s. parish (1871) 1593, 
(1881) 1577.— Ord. Sur., sh. 97, 1876. 

Inveramsay Junction, a station in Chapel of Garioch 
parish, Aberdeenshire, on the Great North of Scotland 
railway, 29J miles S by E of Banff, 20J SE of Grange 
Junction, and 20A NW of Aberdeen. 

Inveran, a hamlet in Creich parish, S Sutherland, 
1| mile N by W of Invershin station. It lias a post 
office and a good hotel. 

Inverardoch, a mansion in Kilmadock parish, S Perth- 
shire, near the influx of Ardoch Burn to the Teith, 
J mile SSE of Doune. French in style, it was built in 
1859 from designs by David Bryce, R.S.A. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 39, 1869. 

Inverarity, a parish in the Sidlaw district of Forfar- 
shire. It comprehends the ancient parishes of Inverarity 
and Meathie, and contains the post office of Kincaldrum, 
4^ miles SSW of the post-town, Forfar. It is bounded 
N by Forfar, NE by Dunnichen, E by the detached 
section of Guthrie, SE by Monikie, S by Murroes, SW 
by Tealing, W by Glamis and a detached section of 
Caputh, and NW by Kinnettles. Its length, from E to 
W, varies between 3§ and 5 miles ; its utmost breadth, 
from N to S, is 4J miles ; and its area is 9596J acres, 
of which 14 are water. Arity Water comes in from the 
E, goes west-north-westward through the interior, and 
midway is joined on the left by Corbie Burn. A valley 
or small strath extends along the greater part of the 
Arity's course, and, sinkiug to less than 300 feet above 
sea-level, is encinctured by an amphitheatre of wooded 
hills— Kincaldrum Hill (Oil feet) to theW, Carrot Hill 
(851) to the S, and Fothringham Hill (800) to the N. 


Sandstone and greyslate abound, and have been worked. 
The soil is mostly a heavy loam, black and free in some 
parts, and rather stiff in others, resting closely on the 
boulder clay. A good deal of the land lies, therefore, 
on a damp stiff subsoil, and would be much improved 
by draining and liming. About two-thirds of the entire 
area are under cultivation, one-sixth is under wood, 
and the rest is either pastoral, waste, or water. Anti- 
quities are several tumuli and a very large Roman camp 
at Haerfaulds on the Guthrie border, for the most part 
in very fine preservation, though at one end a portion 
of it has been ploughed over. The mansions are 
Fothringham and Kincaldrum ; and 4 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of more, 1 of less, than 
£500. Inverarity is in the presbytery of Forfar and 
synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is worth £278. 
The church, near the right bank of Arity Water, 4J 
miles S of Forfar and 2f W by N of Kirkbuddo station, 
is a building of 1754, repaired in 1S54, and containing 
600 sittings. The public school, with accommodation 
for 197 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 
75, and a grant of £57, Is. Valuation (1S57) £0310, 
(1883) £11,488, 15s. 10d., plus £371 for railway. Pop. 
(1801) S20, (1841) 997, (1861) 961, (1871) 8SS, (1881) 
862.— Ord. Sur., shs. 57, 49, 1868-65. 

Inveraray (Gael. Inbhir-Aoraidh, of unknown ety- 
mology), a town and a parish in Argyll district, Argyll- 
shire. A royal, parliamentary, and police burgh, the 
capital of the county, and a seaport, the town stands 
on the S side of a small bay, at the Aray's influx to 
Loch Fyne, 6^ miles SW of the head of that sea-loch, 
24£ NNE of Lochgilphead, 56f N by W of Rothesay 
{■Bid Kyles of Bute), 94 S of Cladich on Loch Awe, 42 
SE of Oban, 16 SSW of Dalmally station, 24 W by N 
of Tarbet, 11J NW of Lochgoilhead, 45 NNW of 
Greenock (vid Loch Kok), and 674, NW of Glasgow. It 
communicates daily by steamboat with Glasgow, and 
daily during the summer by coach with Tarbet, Dal- 
mally, Loch Eck, and Lochgoilhead. ' The approach,' 
writes the Queen, ' is splendid ; the loch is very wide ; 
straight before you a fine range of mountains splendidly 
lit up, — green, pink, and lilac ; to the left the little 
town of Inveraray ; and above it, surrounded by pine 
woods, stands the castle of Inveraray, square, with 
turrets at the corner.' Robert Buchanan styles In- 
veraray 'that most depressing of fish-smelling High- 
land towns ; ' but his brother-poet, Alexander Smith, 
described it as 'a rather pretty place, with excellent 
inns, several churches, a fine bay, a ducal residence, a 
striking conical hill — Duniquaich the barbarous name 
of it — wooded to the chin, and an ancient watch-tower 
perched on its bald crown. The chief seat of the 
Argylls cannot boast of much architectural beauty, 
being a square building with pepperbox-looking turrets 
stuck on the corners. The grounds are charming, con- 
taining fine timber, winding walks, stately avenues, 
gardens, and, through all, spanned by several bridges, 
the Aray bubbles sweetly to the sea. No tourist should 
leave Inveraray before he ascends Duniquaich — no very 
difficult task either, for a path winds round and round 
it. When you emerge from the woods beside the watch- 
tower on the summit, Inveraray, far beneath, has 
dwindled to a toy town — not a sound is in the streets ; 
unheard the steamer roaring at the wharf, and urging 
dilatory passengers to haste by the clashes of an angry 
bell. Along the shore nets stretched from pole to pole 
wave in the drying wind. The great boatless blue loch 
stretches away flat as a ball-room floor ; and the eye 
wearies in its flight over endless miles of moor aud 
mountain. Turn your back on the town, and gaze 
towards the north. It is still "a far cry to Loch 
Awe," and a wilderness of mountain peaks tower up 
between you and that noblest of Scottish lakes — of 
all colours too — green with pasture, brown with moor- 
land, touched with the coming purple of the heather, 
black with a thunder-cloud of pines. What a region 
to watch the sun go down upon ! ' (Summer in Skye, 

Founded in 1742, in lieu of an earlier town, which, 


dating from the Argylls' first settlement here, stood in 
front of their pristine castle, Inveraray chiefly consists 
of a row of houses fronting the bay, and a main street 
striking thence at right angles. It is mostly well built, 
the houses neat and substantial ; and has a post office, 
with money order, savings' bank, insurance, and tele- 
graph departments, branches of the National and Union 
Banks, 9 insurance agencies, the Argyll Arms and 3 
other hotels, a water supply (1836), gasworks (1841), a 
police station (1869), cattle markets on the last Friday 
in May and the last Thursday in October, and a wool 
market on the Friday after the second Thursday in July. 
The neat county court-house, of native porphyry, was 
adorned in 1S74 with a bust by Sir John Steell of the 
late Lord Colonsay, a native of Argyllshire, and county 
member from 1843 to 1851. The prison was legalised in 
1848, and, as altered and improved in 1871, has twenty- 
four cells. A sculptured stone cross, 8 feet high, with 
an almost illegible Latin inscription, is supposed to date 
from 1400 or thereby, and to have been brought from 
Iona. It was the town-cross of the older town, on the 
demolition of which it lay for a long time neglected, but 
now it stands at the foot of the principal street. Nearer 
the church is a small obelisk to the memory of seventeen 
Campbells who here were executed without trial for their 
share in Argyll's expedition (1685). The parish church, 
at the head of the principal street, is a long inelegant 
structure of 1794, with a spire rising from the centre of 
its roof. It was greatly injured by lightning in 1837, 
but repaired at considerable cost the following year ; 
and it comprises two places of worship, English and 
Gaelic, with 450 and 470 sittings. There are also a 
Free church (1844 ; 480 sittings), a TJ.P. church (1836 ; 
205), and a temporary Episcopalian chapel. A very 
rude pier was enlarged and improved in 1809, and again 
was extended in 1836 at a cost of £1200, a slip being 
formed to suit every state of the tide. Some trade is 
done in the exchange of Highland produce for general 
merchandise ; and Inveraray is head of a fishery district 
between those of Campbeltown and Rothesay. In this 
district the number of boats in 1S82 was 692, of fisher- 
men 1640, of fish-curers 43, and of coopers 12, whilst 
the value of boats was £15,1S4, of nets £19,572, and of 
lines £1400. The following is the number of barrels of 
herrings cured, and of cod, ling, and hake taken here 
in five different years— (1873) 10,2724, and 900, (1874) 
7135i and 1810, (1878) 13,800 and 5340, (1879) 33,837 
and 2605, (1881) 40,079 and 720, in which last year 
' the most special feature of the west coast fishing was 
the return of herrings to the lower reaches of Loch Fyne, 
where after an interval of many years' poor fishing, 
not only was the take large in itself, but the herrings 
proved exceptionally good both as regards size and 
quality. ' The town was made a burgh of barony in 
1472, and a royal burgh in 1648. It is governed by a 
provost, 2 bailies, and 9 
other councillors, who also 
serve as police commis- 
sioners under the General 
Police and Improvement 
Act (Scotland) of 1862; 
and it unites with Ayk, 
Oban, Campbeltown, and 
Irvine in sending a mem- 
ber to parliament. Assize 
courts are held twice a 
year ; and courts of quar- 
ter sessions are held on 
the first Tuesday of March, 
Hay, aud August, and on 
the last Tuesday of Octo- 
ber. The parliamentary and the municipal constituency 
numbered 107 and 138 in 1SS3, when the annual value 
of real property amounted to £3242, whilst the cor- 
poration revenue was £524 in 1882. Pop. of royal 
burgh (1811) 1113, (1841) 1233, (1861) 1074, (1871) 
981, (1881) 940, of whom 864 were in the parliamentary 
and police burgh. Houses (1881) 211 inhabited, 8 


Seal of Inveraray. 


Inveraray's Mstory is that of the Earls and Dukes of 
Argyll, those zealous champions of civil and religious 
liberty. Their ancestor, Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow 
or Loch Awe, was knighted in 1280, and through his 
prowess bequeathed to the chiefs of his line the Gaelic 
title of Mac Cailean Mhor or Mac Callum More* ('great 
Colin's son'). Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow was raised 
to the peerage as Lord Campbell in 1445 ; Colin, his 
son, was created Earl of Argyll in 1457, and added to his 
possessions the district of Lome — 'so important that we 
nave on occasion found the Lord of Lome spoken of as 
the Maor or chief ruler in these Celtic dominions. In 
the Lowlands the head of the house was successively 
earl, marquis, and duke. About sueh titles his Celtic 
subjects would neither know nor care to know. They 
might be casually spoken of among the tawdry foreign 
decorations conferred upon their chief. To them he 
was something infinitely greater and more illustrious 
as the son of Callum (sic) the Great, who had been the 
Charlemagne or Eing Arthur in their line of chiefs ' 
(Hill Burton's Hist. Scotl., iii. 61, ed. 1876). The 
second Earl fell at Flodden (1513) ; the fourth, who 
died in 1558, was the first of the Scots nobility to em- 
brace the principles of the Reformation. Archibald, 
eighth Earl (1598-1661), the leader of the Covenanters, 
was created a marquis in 1641, in 1651 crowned Charles 
II. at Scone, and by Charles was ten years later be- 
headed at Edinburgh. The Marquis he of Scott's 
Legend of Montrose, where ' Major Dugald Dalgetty ' is 
sent on an embassy to the ' noble old Gothic castle of 
Inveraray, whose varied outline, embattled walls, towers, 
and outer and inner courts presented an aspect much 
more striking than the present massive and uniform 
mansion. '+ Archibald, ninth Earl, for his descent upon 
Scotland in concert with Monmouth's English rebellion, 
was, like his father, executed at Edinburgh (1685) ; his 
son and successor, John, an active promoter of the 
Revolution, was in 1701 created Duke of Argyll, Mar- 
quis of Lome, Baron Inveraray, etc. John, second 
Duke (1678-1743), famous in both 'the senate and the 
field,' is widely known through Scott's Heart of Mid- 
lothian; Archibald, third Duke (1682-1761), built the 
present castle ; and at it John, fifth Duke (1723-1S06), 
entertained Dr Samuel Johnson and Boswell on 25 Oct. 
1773, when the 'Sage' was 'so entertaining that Lady 
Betty Hamilton after dinner went and placed her chair 
close to his, leaned upon the back of it, and listened 
eagerly.' George-Douglas Campbell, present and eighth 
Duke (b. 1S23 ; sue. 1847), has filled the office of Lord 
Privy Seal 1853-55, 1859-66, and 1880-81, of Postmaster- 
General 1855-58, and of Secretary for India 1S68-74. 
He is author of the Reign of Law, Zona, The Afghan 
Question, Primeval Man, and other works ; and he has 
twice had the honour of entertaining Her Majesty at 
Inveraray — for a few hours on 18 Aug. 1S47, and again 
from 22 to 29 Sept. 1875. His son and heir, John- 
Douglas-Sutherland. Campbell, Marquis of Lome (b. 
1845), in 1871 married H.R.H. the Princess Louise, was 
Governor-General of the Dominion of Canada from 1S78 
to 1883, and has published A Trip to the Tropics, Gtiido 
and Lita, etc. The Duke holds 168,315 acres in Argyll- 
shire and 6799 in Dumbartonshire, valued at £45,672 
and £5171 per annum. 

Inveraray Castle, 5 furlongs N by W of the town, and 
on the right bank of the winding Aray, J mile above its 
mouth, ' stands on a lawn, retired from the sea-loch, and 
screened behind by woods that cover the sides of high 
hills to the top, and, still beyond, by bare mountains. ' 
It was built by the third Duke in 1744-61, after designs 

* The latter form is an utter blunder. Sir Walter Scott fell 
into the error, and, when corrected, replied that 'Mac Callum 
More ' was his nickname for Argyll. 

t According to Dr Hill Eurton, ' if we may believe a curious 
old print, the present unsightly pile, with its clumsy bulk and 
tawdry decorations, must have displaced a predecessor which, in 
the beautiful variety of turrets and decorated chimneys crowning 
the massive cluster of square and round towers built into each other 
at different ages below, probably excelled Glamis and the finest 
specimens of this peculiar architecture in the North ' (Hist. Scotl., 
viii. 542, edn. 1876). 


by R. Morris," at a cost, including the laying out of the 
grounds, of over £300,000. A massive, quadrangular, 
two-storied pile, with four round, pointed-roofed corner 
towers, a sunk floor, and a dormer- windowed attic story, 
it is in the Gothic of the 18th century, and consists of 
grey, sombre lapis ollaris or pot-stone, brought from 
the opposite shore of Loch Fyne. On 12 Oct. 1877, 
damage, estimated at £17,500, was caused by a fire of 
unknown origin, which gutted the central tower, and 
destroyed a fine organ, 200 flint-lock muskets used by 
the Argyllshire loyalists against the rebels at Culloden, 
rich tapestries, the well-worn colours of the Argyllshire 
Highlanders, portraits of the fifth Duke and Duchess, of 
the Great Montrose and his rival Argyll, etc. Fortu- 
nately, however, the most valuable paintings, furni- 
ture, and books were saved, the first including portraits 
of the great Marquis and the ninth Earl ; and by 
1880 the building itself was restored to more than 
its former magnificence. On the lawn in front of 
the castle stands the ' Battle Stone, ' a large pre- 
historic monolith; and here is also the ' Gleld Gun' 
or ' Gunna Cam,' a brass cannon 10 feet long, recovered 
in 1740 from the wreck of one of the ships of the 
Spanish Armada which was blown up in Tobermory 
Bay. The park, nearly 30 miles in circumference, is 
nobly wooded, its plantations dating from 1674, 1746, 
1771, 1805-8, and 1832-36, whilst during the last thirty- 
five years no fewer than 2,000,000 oaks, larches, Scotch 
firs, spruces, etc., have been planted by the present 
forester, Mr Stewart. There are three splendid avenues, 
one of limes and two of beeches ; a limetree near 
Essachosan is called the ' Marriage Tree ' from the 
curious union of its branches ; and among the ' old and 
remarkable trees,' whose dimensions are given in Trans. 
Highl. and Ag. Soc. (1879-81), are five at Inveraray — 
a Spanish chestnut (height, 85 feet ; girth, 24£ at 1 
foot from ground), a beech (95 ; 14J at 5), an oak (73 ; 
20J at 1), a sycamore (80 ; 13£ at 3), and a Scotch fir 
(110; 14J at 5). The shootings and fishings are of 
great value ; and it may be noticed that wild turkeys 
were introduced into the woods in 1882. See also Rose- 
neath and pp. 125-133 of Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour 
in Scotland, 1803 (ed. by Princ. Shairp, 1874). 

The parish of Inveraray contains also the village of 
Furnace, so called from its being the site of the first 
Scotch iron smelting furnace ; and comprises the an- 
cient ecclesiastical districts of Kilmilieu and Glenaray, 
and once had churches at Kilmilieu, Glenaray, Achan- 
tiobairt, Kilbride, Kilblane, and Kiimun, with burial- 
grounds at most of these places, and also at Glenshira 
and Kilian. It is bounded N by Glenorchy-Innishail, 
E by Lochgoilhead-Kilmorich and Loch Fyne, SE by 
Loch Fyne, dividing it from Strachur and Stralachlan, 
SW by Kilmichael-Glassary, and W and NW by Kil- 
chrenan-Dalavich. Its greatest length, from NE to 
SW, is 16| miles ; its breadth varies between 2§ and 
6J miles ; and its area is 46,892 acres. All of it, 
except 139 acres forming the territory of the parlia- 
mentary burgh, and 8S0 acres belonging to parts of the 
royal burgh beyond the parliamentary boundaries, was 
formerly the parish of Glenaray, and was returned in the 
census of 1871-81 as a separate civil parish. The coast, 
extending 12i miles along Loch Fyne — 4 J above and 8 
below the town of Inveraray — projects Strone, Dal- 
chenna, Kenmore, and Pennymore Points, and is indented 
by Loch Shira and several little bays ; in the S it is high 
and rocky, but N of Douglas Water it is closely skirted 
by the road from Lochgoilhead or Arrochar to Inveraray 
and Lochgilphead. The streams all flow to Loch Fyne, 
and the chief are the Shira, winding 11 miles south- 
south-westward, and expanding, 5 furlongs above its 
mouth, into the Douloch (6 x 1 j furl.) ; the Aray, run- 
ning 8| miles south-by-eastward ; and Douglas Water, 
curving 6| miles eastward. Loch Leacann (7x3 furl.) 
lies on the boundary with Kilmichael-Glassary ; and 
thirty smaller lakes are dotted over the south-western and 
western interior. Perennial springs occur in thousands ; 

* The elder Adam is commonly named as its architect, but we 
follow an article in the Builder of 2 Oct. 1S75. 


and several of them are slightly chalybeate. A lofty 
line of watershed forms the north-eastern boundary ; a 
lower line of watershed forms all the western boundary ; 
and mountains, hills, and glens occupy most of the 
interior. From SW to NE the principal heights are 
Dun Leacainn (1173 feet), Beinn Dears; (1575), *An 
Suidhe (16S7), *Beinn Bhreae (1723), Sron Reithe (1171), 
Cruach Mhor (1982), Dun Corr-bhile (1055), Stuc Scar- 
dan (159S), *Beinn Chas (2214), *Beinn Ghlas (1803), 
and *Beinn Bhuidhe or Benbtti (3106), where asterisks 
mark those summits that culminate on the confines of 
the parish. ' Its general appearance is mountainous, 
presenting that diversity of form which is always the 
result of the meeting and mingling together of two 
different mountain rocks. Here a mountain of mica- 
ceous schist may be seen rising upward to the height 
of between 2000 and 3000 feet, a huge and isolated 
mass, or stretching along in uniform height and 
unbroken surface, its sloping sides clothed with heath 
and verdure ; and there, collected around the base of 
their prouder and older brethren, ridges of porphyry 
are grouped, sometimes in masses of naked rock 700 or 
800 feet high, and sometimes in low and gentle hillocks, 
mantled with trees or covered with soft succulent 
herbage. The result of the whole is an outline so 
diversified, so waving, and so beautiful as is sufficient 
to delight the eye, and to give noble and characteristic 
features to the scenery. ' The rocks, besides the prevail- 
ing mica slate and porphyry, comprise granite, roofing 
slate, limestone, chlorite rock, and greenstone ; and an 
important granite quarry, famed for its 'monster blasts,' 
has been noticed under Furnace. The soil of the arable 
lands along Loch Fyne is mostly a thin light loam on a 
gravelly bottom ; of the best parts of the valleys, par- 
ticularly of Glenshira, is a deep dark loam on a sandy 
or clayey subsoil ; and elsewhere is mainly moss, mixed 
with a small proportion of detritus from the hills. 
Agricultural improvements, commenced about the middle 
of last century, have since been actively prosecuted ; 
and sheep and cattle farming is largely carried on. 
Plantations now occupy some 3000 acres. Antiquities 
are noticed under Achantiobaiet and Doulooh. Rob 
Roy Macgregor (1665-1734) lodged some time in a house 
on Benbui farm ; and here his son was born, who was 
hanged for the abduction of Jean Key from Balfeon 
parish. Claudius Buchanan, D.D. (1766-1815), the 
Indian missionary, passed most of his boyhood at Inver- 
aray. The Duke of Argyll is sole proprietor. The seat 
of a presbytery in the synod of Argyll, Inveraray in 
1651 was constituted a double ecclesiastical charge — 
English and Gaelic, burgh and landward, or Kirkmilieu 
and Glenaray — the former worth £248, the latter £157. 
Bridge of Douglas public, Church Square public, New- 
town public, Glenaray, and Creggan's female schools, 
with respective accommodation for 130, 154, 105, 48, 
and 43 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 
11, 75, 74, 19, and 29, and grants of £22, 3s., £45, 17s. 
7d., £16, 16s., £30, 4s., and £43, 18s. 6d. Valuation 
(1860) £7973, (1883) £9108. Pop. (1801) 2051, (1841) 
22S5, (1861) 2095, (1871) 1794, (1881) 1706, of whom 
873 were Gaelic-speaking, and of whom 299 were in 
Cumlodden quoad sacra parish, 461 in Glenaray, and 
946 in Inveraray. — Ord. Sur., shs. 37, 45, 1876. 

The presbytery of Inveraray, meeting at Lochgilphead 
on the second last Tuesday of March and the last Tues- 
day of April, Sept., and Nov. , comprises the old parishes 
of Craignish, Inveraray, Kilmartin, Kilmiekael-Glassary, 
North Knapdale, and South Enapdale, the quoad sacra 
parishes of Ardrishaig, Cumlodden, Lochgilphead, and 
Tarbert, and the chapelry of Lochgair. Pop. (1871) 
12,367, (1SS1) 11,328, of whom 1053 were communicants 
of the Church of Scotland. — There is also a Free church 
presbytery of Inveraray, with 2 churches at Lochgilp- 
head and 6 at Ardrishaig, Inveraray, Kilmartin, Loeh- 
fyneside, North Knapdale, and Tarbert, which 8 churches 
together had 2087 members and adherents in 1S83. 

Inverarnan Hotel. See Glenfalloch. 

Inveraven (Gael, inohir-abhuinn, ' confluence of the 
river'), a hamlet in S Banffshire and a parish partly 


also in Elginshire. The hamlet stands on the right 
bank of the Spey and of the confluent Aven, 2 miles 
NE of Ballindalloch station, and has live-stock and 
grain fairs on the third Saturday of January, February, 
March, April, October, and December, the Tuesday in 
May before "Whitsunday, the second Tuesday of July 
o. $., and the Tuesday in November before Martinmas, 
the three last being also hiring markets. 

The parish, containing also Ballindalloch station and 
post office, 12 miles NE of Grantown and 12 SW of 
Craigellachie, is bounded N by Knockando, E by Aber- 
lour, Mortlach, and Cabrach, SE by Glenbucket and 
Strathdon in Aberdeenshire, SW by Kirkmichael, and 
W by Cromdale. Its utmost length, from N by W to 
S by E, is 16§ miles ; its utmost width, from E to W, 
is 8 miles ; and its area is 49,259 acres, of which 1569 
belong to the Elginshire section and 286 are water. In 
the SE or Glenlivet portion of the parish, Livet Water 
is formed by the confluence of Suie and Kymah Burns, 
both rising at an altitude of 2300 feet above sea-level, 
and running— the former 3§ miles southward, the latter 
5J miles north-by-westward. From the point of their 
union (1100 feet) the Livet flows 8| miles west-north- 
westward and north -north-westward, till it falls into the 
Aven at Drumin (700 feet), 5 miles S of Ballindalloch sta- 
tion. The pellucid Aven, entering from Kirkmichael, 
runs 6J miles northward to its confluence with the Spey 
at a point \ mile NE of Ballindalloch station ; and the 
Spey itself, here a noble salmon river, 200 feet broad, 
winds 7§ miles north-eastward along all the Knockando 
boundary, descending during this course from 480 to 358 
feet. The surface is everywhere hilly or grandly moun- 
tainous, chief elevations to the Eof the Aven and the Livet, 
as one ascends these streams, being the * Hill of Phones 
(961 feet), *Cairn Guish (1607), the *western shoulder 
(2500) of Ben Rinnes, Caienacay (1605), *Corryhabbie 
Hill (2563), and Carn an t-Suidhe (2401) ; to the W of 
them, *Creag an Tarmachain (2121), CarnLiath (1795), 
*CarnDaimh (1866), the isolated Boohel (1500), and 
* Carn Mor (2636), where asterisks mark those summits 
that culminate on or close to the confines of the parish. 
The division from the Spey to Cairnacay is Inveraven 
proper ; that from Cairnacay to the Bochel is known as 
Morange ; and that above the Bochel is the Braes of 
Glenlivet. Inveraven proper rejoices in the beautiful 
grounds of Ballindalloch Castle, and almost everywhere 
is adorned with either natural wood or plantations. 
Morange includes a considerable extent of strath, but 
both it and the Braes are utterly bare of wood. A fair 
extent of arable land lies along the banks of the streams, 
and is adorned or overlooked by picturesque features of 
scenery ; but nearly all the rest of the parish is either 
moor or mountain, bleak and barren of aspect. Gneiss 
is the predominant rock. Red granite, suitable for 
building purposes, forms a vein in the N side of Ben 
Rinnes ; limestone, embedded in the gneiss, occurs in 
Morange ; and small portions of asbestos have been 
found on Ben Rinnes, rock crystals in boulders of the 
Aven. The soil of the arable lands is loamy, gravelly, 
or moorish ; but, on the whole, may be pronounced 
good. Antiquities, other than those noticed under 
Ballindalloch and Castle-Deumin, are remains of a 
hunting-seat of the Earls of Huntly at Blairfindy, a very 
large cairn near Buitterlach, and vestiges or the sites of 
Caledonian stone circles and tumuli, and of several pre- 
Reformation chapels. The Battle of Glenlivet is the 
chief event in the history of the parish, natives of 
which have been Gen. James Grant of Ballindalloch 
(1719-1806), the captor of St Lucia, and Sir James 
M'Grigor, Bart., M.D., F.R.S. (1771-1858), long chief 
of the army medical department. The Duke of Rich- 
mond and Gordon and Sir George Macpherson-Grant of 
Ballindalloch are by far the largest proprietors, 1 other 
holding an annual value of more, and 3 of less, than 
£50. Giving off the quoad sacra parish of Glenlivet, 
Inveraven is in the presbytery of Aberlour and synod of 
Moray ; the living is worth £361. The parish church, 
at the hamlet, was built in 1806, and contains 550 
sittings ; a Free church stands on the right bank of the 


Seal of Inverbervie, 


A veil, 3 miles SSE of Ballindalloch station. Other 
places of worship are noticed under Glenlivet , and, 
besides the five schools there, Inveraven public, Mori- 
nish public, and Ballindalloch schools, with respective 
accommodation for 164, 60, and 74 children, had (1881) 
an average attendance of 91, 45, and 31, and grants of 
£82, 2s. 6d., £52, 6s. 6d., and £35, 4s. Valuation 

(1860) £8539, (1881) £9677, of which £938 was for the 
Elginshire section. Pop. (1801) 2107, (1831) 2648, 

(1861) 2639, (1871) 2608, (1881) 2568, of whom 194 
were in Elginshire and 952 in the ecclesiastical parish. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 85, 75, 1876. 

Inveravon, Linlithgowshire. See Innekavon. 
Inverawe, an estate, with a mansion in Ardchattan 
parish, Argyllshire. The mansion, on the right bank 
of the Awe, at the western base of Ben Cruachan, 2J 
miles ENE of Taynuilt station, is surrounded with fine 
old trees ; and the estate belongs to the heirs of the late 
Alex. Cameron-Campbell, Esq. of Monzie and Fassi- 
febn, who held 13,000 acres in Argyllshire and 74,000 
in Inverness-shire, valued at £1043 and £4827 per 
annum. — Ord. Stir., sh. 45, 1876. 

Inverawe, New, or Tirvane, an estate of S62 acres, with 
a mansion, in Glenorchy and Inishail parish, Argyllshire, 
on the RW shore of Loch Awe, 
10 miles SE of Taynuilt. In 
1881 it was sold for £12,500 
to John Stirling Ainsworth, 

Inverbervie, Kincardine- 
shire. See Beevie. 

Inverbervie, Perthshire. See 
Inverbroom. See Loch- 


Inverbrothock, a quoad sacra 
parish in St Vigeans parish, 
Forfarshire, on the coast, at the 
mouth of the Brothoek Burn. 
It comprises the greater part of the suburbs of Arbroath, 
or northern division of the parliamentary burgh ; and, 
constituted by the ecclesiastical authorities in 1834, re- 
constituted by the Court of Teinds in 1854, it is in the 
presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns. 
Stipend, £120. The parish church was built as a chapel 
of ease in 1828 at a cost of £2200, and contains 1224 
sittings. Pop. (1871) 7060, (1881) 8094. 

Invercannich, a hamlet in Kilmorack parish, NW 
Inverness-shire, near the left banks of the Glass and the 
confluent Cannich, 20 miles SWof Beauly, under which 
it has a post office. Here, too, is Glen jiffric Hotel. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 73, 1878. 

Invercarron. See Kincaedine, Ross-shire. 

Invercauld, a mansion in Crathie and Braemar parish, 
SW Aberdeenshire, within 3 furlongs of the Dee's left 
bank, and 4 miles ENE of Castleton (as the crow flies, 
only 1J). A large old Baronial edifice, sheltered all 
round by wooded hills, and having a great extent of 
picturesque Highland grounds, it was altered and en- 
larged in 1872, when a wing and a massive and lofty 
grey granite tower were added, but when the apart- 
ments were demolished whence the Earl of Mar issued 
his famous letters prior to the unfurling of the Jacobite 
standard at Castleton in 1715. Held by his ancestors 
since the close of the 14th century, it is the seat of 
James Ross Farquharson, Esq. (b. 1834 ; sue. 1862), 
who owns 87,745 acres in the shire, valued at £9567 
per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 65, 1870. 

Inverchaolain, a parish in the S of Cowal district, 
Argyllshire. It comprises Loch Striven, and contains 
the village of Colinteaive, with a post office under 
Greenock and a steamboat pier. It is bounded E by the 
united parishes of Eilmun and Dunoon, SW by the Kyles 
of Bute and Rothesay Bay, W by Loch Riddon, and NW 
and N by Kilmodan. Its utmost length, from MW to 
SSE, is 13| miles ; its utmost breadth, from E to W, is 7| 
miles ; and its land area is 29,312 acres. The hilly and 
rugged surface includes some small flat fields adjacent 
to the shore, but generally rises with steep ascent all 


round the coast ; and formerly was, in main degree, 
covered with heath, but has been extensively reclaimed 
into a condition of good sheep pasture. Chief elevations 
from S to N are Kilmarnock Hill (1283 feet), Bodach 
Bochd (1713), *Bishop's Seat (1651), *Cruach nan Capull 
(2005), and "Cam Ban (1869), to the E of Loch Striven ; 
to the W, Meall an Glaic (1325), Meall an Riabhach 
(1587), Beinn Bhreac (1658), and Cruach nan Cuilean 
(1416), where asterisks mark those summits that cul- 
minate just on the eastern border of the parish. The 
scenery along the Kyles and up Loch Riddon is bril- 
liantly picturesque, and exhibits attractions which may 
be compared with those of the Trossachs. Mica slate 
and other metamorphic rocks are predominant ; trap 
rock forms several prominent dykes ; and limestone of 
hard quality occurs to some extent, and has been worked. 
Less than one-thirtieth of the entire area is arable ; about 
one-thirteenth is low-lying pasture or under plantations ; 
and all the rest of the land is either hill pasture or 
waste. Antiquities are a ruined fort on the islet of 
Ellan-DHEIREIG, a standing stone 10 or 12 feet high 
at the head of Loch Striven, and sepulchral tumuli in 
several places. South Hall and Knockdhu are the chief 
mansions ; and the property is divided among seven. 
Inverchaolain is in the presbytery of Dunoon and synod 
of Argyll; the living is worth £190. The parish church, 
on the E shore of Loch Striven, 6 miles N by W of 
Toward, was built in 1812, and contains 250 sittings. 
The ancient church stood on the side of a hill, about 
200 yards above the site of the present one. At South 
Hall, on the Kyles of Bute, there is a Free church, 
which, together with the Free church at Kilmodan, forms 
one ministerial charge ; and two public schools, Inver- 
chaolain and South Hall, with respective accommodation 
for 47 and 42 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 15 and 32, and grants of £24, 10s. and £27, 19s. lOd. 
Valuation (1860) £4081, (1883) £5547, 16s. Pop. (1801) 
626, (1831) 596, (1861) 424, (1871) 443, (1881) 407, of 
whom 125 were Gaelic-speaking. — Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 1873. 

Invercharxon. See Kincardine, Ross-shire. 

Invereoe. See Glenooe. 

Inverdruie, a mansion in the Rothiemurchus portion 
of Duthil parish, NE Inverness-shire, near the right 
bank of the Spey and the left of the confluent Druie, 
1 mile SSE of Aviemore station. 

Invereighty, an estate, with a mansion, in Kinnettles 
parish, Forfarshire, 4 miles SSW of Forfar. 

Inverernan, a mansion in Strathdon parish, SW 
Aberdeenshire, near the left bank of the Don and the 
right of confluent Ernan Water, 18 miles SSW of 
Rhynie. As altered and enlarged about 1825, it pre- 
sents the appearance of a modern villa, in the Italian 
style. Its owner, Lieut. -Gen. Sir John Forbes, K. C. B. 
(b. 1817 ; sue. 1848), holds 15,336 acres in the shire, 
valued at £866 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 75, 1876. 

Invererne House. See Foeees. 

Invereshie, a mansion in Kingussie parish, E Inver- 
ness-shire, near the NE shore of Loch Inch, the right 
bank of the Spey, and the left bank of the confluent 
Feshie, 1J mile SE of Kincraig station. It is a seat of 
Sir George Macpherson-Grant of Ballindalloch, Bart. , 
who holds 103,372 acres in Inverness-shire, 7848 in 
Elginshire, and 14,223 in Banffshire, valued at £5454, 
£2476, and £3617 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 74, 1877. 

Inveresk (Gael. inlMr-uisge, 'confluence of the water'), 
a village and a coast parish of NE Edinburghshire. The 
village stands above the right bank of the winding Esk, 
5 furlongs S of Musselburgh, and J mile rJ by W of 
Inveresk station on the main line of the North British, 
this being 64 miles E by S of Edinburgh. Enjoying so 
healthy a climate as long to have been called the Mont- 
pelier of Scotland, it extends along a broad-based gentle 
ascent, whose higher parts command wide and delightful 
views — northward across the Firth of Forth, south-west- 
ward away to the Pentlands ; and itself it is a pleasant, 
old-fashioned place, whose trees and gardens, last-century 
mansions, and more recent villas give it somewhat the 
aspect of a Thames-side village. The parish church, on 
the western summit of the hill, is a plain, square, barn- 


like edifice of 1805, with 2400 sittings, a high conspi- 
cuous spire, and a churchyard which for beauty is scarce 
to be matched in all the kingdom. Its ancient prede- 
cessor, dedicated to St Michael, and supposed to have 
been founded soon after the introduction of Christianity 
out of the ruins of a Roman station, was gifted by 
Malcolm Ceannmor to the church of Dunfermline. At 
the time of its demolition it had four aisles, two upon 
either side, and measured 102 feet in length. In Dec. 
1545, barely two months before his martyrdom, George 
Wishart preached to large congregations within its 
walls ; and its minister for 57 years was Alexander 
Carlyle, D.D. (1722-1805). He, 'Jupiter Carlyle'— 
the 'grandest demigod,' said Scott, 'I ever saw' — left 
behind him an Autobiography of singular interest, which 
was edited by Dr Hill Burton in 1860. The prsetorium 
of the Roman station of Inveresk, on ground now partly 
occupied by the parish church, from 1547 onwards has 
yielded a number of Roman remains — an altar, a hypo- 
caust (1783), urns, bricks, medals, etc. — described in 
David Moir's Moman Antiquities of Inveresk (Ediub. 
1860). Pop. of village (1871) 341, (1881) 308. 

The parish contains also the town of Musselburgh, 
with the suburbs of Fisherrow and Newbigging, the 
villages of Cowpits and Old Craighall, and part of 
the village of New Craighall. It is bounded N by the 
Firth of Forth, E by Prestonpans and Tranent in Had- 
dingtonshire, SE by Ormiston, S by Dalkeith, SW by 
Newton, and W by Liberton and Duddingston. Its 
length, from N to S, varies between 2J and 3§ miles ; 
its utmost breadth, from E to W, is 3| miles ; and its 
area is 5925J acres, of which 71SJ are foreshore and 51| 
water. The beautiful wooded Ssk enters the parish 
1 furlong below the North and South Esk's confluence 
in Dalkeith Park, and thence winds 3| miles north-by- 
eastward through the interior till it falls into the Firth 
between Musselburgh and Fisherrow ; whilst Burdie- 
house Burn runs If mile north-north-eastward along 
all the north-western border. The Carberry hills, at 
the Haddingtonshire boundary, attain an altitude of 
540 feet above sea-level ; but elsewhere the surface is 
low and flat or gently undulating, and nowhere rises 
much above 100 feet. The rocks belong to the coal- 
measures of the Carboniferous Limestone series ; and 
coal, sandstone, and limestone have all been worked, 
the first from a very early period. The soil of the flat 
grounds is naturally sandy, but has been worked into a 
condition of high fertility ; the land to the S of Inver- 
esk village, on either side of the Esk, is of better quality ; 
and on the high grounds in the SE is clayeyyand yields 
heavy crops of grain. Almost all the land, not occupied 
by buildings or by roads, is in a state of first-rate culti- 
vation ; and, though in places less planted than might 
be desired for shelter and beauty, possesses the tine 
woods of Newhailes and Drumore, and includes a con- 
siderable section of the nobly wooded ducal park of 
Dalkeith. The manors of Little Inveresk, having long 
been held by the monks of Dunfermline, were given by 
James VI. to the first Lord Maitland of Thirlestane, 
under whose grandson, the infamous Duke of Lauder- 
dale, they suffered much curtailment. With exception 
of the parts that had been alienated, they were pur- 
chased in 1709 by Anne, Duchess of Buceleuch and 
Monmouth. Among natives and residents, not noticed 
under Musselburgh and Newhailes, have been Admiral 
Sir David Milne, G. C. B. ; his son, Admiral Sir Alexander 
Milne, Bart, G.C.B., F.R.S.E. ; and Sir David Wed- 
derburn, Bart., M.P. The chief events and antiquities 
are treated under Carberry, Pinkie, and Musselburgh. 
Nine proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 49 of between £100 and £500, 58 of from £50 
to £100, and 140 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery 
of Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, this 
parish is divided ecclesiastically between Inveresk and 
North Esk quoad sacra parish, the former a living worth 
£471. Two landward schools, Cowpits public and Old 
Craighall, with respective accommodation for 59 and 
75 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 30 and 
47, and grants of £18. 5s. 9d. and £17, 3s. Landward 


valuation (1871) £24,489, (1883) £26,322, of which 
£4684 was for railways and waterworks. Pop. of entire 
parish (1801) 6600, (1831) 8961, (1861) 9525, (1871) 
10,071, (1881) 10,537, of whom 7880 were in Mussel- 
burgh, 5133 in Inveresk, and 5404 in North Esk. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Inveresragan. See Esragan. 

Inverey, two clachans in Crathie and Braemar parish, 
SW Aberdeenshire, on Ey Burn at its influx to the Dee, 
5 miles WSW of Castleton. A fragmentary ruin is all 
that represents the ancient fortalice of the Farquharsons, 
cateransofDeeside, one of whom in 1666 shot the 'Baron 
of Brackley. '—Ord. Sw., sh. 65, 1870. 

Invergarry, an estate, with a hamlet, a ruined castle, 
and a modern mansion, in Kilmonivaig parish, Inver- 
ness-shire. The hamlet lies near the NW shore of 
Loch Oich and the N bank of the confluent Garry, 
7J miles SW of Fort Augustus ; at it are a post office, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a branch of the Caledonian Bank, a hotel, and 
a public school. Close to the loch, and If mile SSW of 
the hamlet, is a monument, erected in 1812 by Colonel 
Macdonell, the last chief of the clan Macdonell, to com- 
memorate the ' ample and summary vengeance' inflicted 
about 1661 on the seven murderers of the two young 
Macdonalds of Keppoch. It consists of a small pyramid, 
with seven sculptured heads ; and the spring beneath it 
is called Tober-nan-Ceann (' well of the heads '). The 
ruined castle, i mile S of the hamlet, stands on a rock, 
called ' Creag-an-fitheach,' or 'Rock of the Raven,' 
whence the Macdonells took their slogan or war-cry. 
Long the seat of the chiefs of the clan Macdonell, it twice 
was visited by Prince Charles Edward — on 26 Aug. 1745 
(just a week after the gathering in Glenfinnan), and again 
on 17 April 1746 (the day after Culloden). Then he 
found it all but deserted, and slept on the bare floor ; 
and a few days later it was burned by the 'Butcher' 
Cumberland. It was an oblong five-story structure, 
■with projections. The modern mansion, 3 furlongs 
NNE of the castle, is a handsome edifice, erected in 
1868-69 from designs by the late David Bryce, R.S.A. 
See Glengarry. — Ord. Sur., sh. 63, 1873. 

Invergordon, a thriving seaport town in Rosskeen 
parish, E Ross-shire, on the NW shore of Cromarty 
Firth, with a station on the Highland railway (1863-64), 
12| miles NE of Dingwall and 12| SSW of Tain. 
There is a regular ferry, J mile wide, to the opposite 
shore of the Forth ; and a small pier was built in 1821 
for the accommodation of the passengers. The harbour 
itself, with 16 feet water at spring tides and 13 at 
neap, was formed in 1 82S ; and two large wooden piers 
were erected in 1857 at a cost of £5000 ; but, since the 
railway was opened, Invergordon has lost its steamboat 
communication with Inverness, Aberdeen, Leith, Lon- 
don, etc. The hemp manufacture is now extinct ; but 
there are two steam sawmills and a large bone-crushing 
and manure factory. A place of considerable mark, 
substantially built, well situated for traffic, and of 
growing importance for the export of farming produce, 
Invergordon contains a number of good shops, offers 
fine sea-bathing, and has a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 
branches of the Commercial and North of Scotland 
Banks, 10 insurance agencies, 3 hotels, gasworks (1S72), 
a Wednesday newspaper, the Invergordon Times (1S55), 
and fairs on the third Tuesday of February, the second 
Tuesday of April, old style, the first Tuesday of August, 
the second Tuesday of October, and the second Tuesday 
of December, old style. The Town-Hall (1870-71) is a 
handsome Italian edifice, its pediment showing a sculp- 
tured figure of Neptune ; the public school (1S75-76) is 
a Romanesque structure, surmounted by a belfry. Ross- 
keen parish church, If mile W by N, was built in 1832, 
and contains 1600 sittings ; and Invergordon Free church 
(1861), Gothic in style, cruciform in plan, with a spire 140 
feet high, stands immediately N of the town, and con- 
tains nearly 1000. Invergordon Castle, 7 furlongs NNW, 
was accidentally destroyed by fire in 1801, but, as 
rebuilt in 1873-74, is a fine Elizabethan mansion, with 



beautiful plantations ; its owner, Robert Bruce JEneas 
Macleod, Esq. of Cadboll (b. 1818 ; sue. 1853), holds 
11,830 acres in the shire, valued at £11,021 per annum. 
Having adopted the General Police and Improvement 
Act (Scotland) in 1364, the town is governed by nine 
police commissioners; and sheriff small debt courts sit 
at it in January, April, July, and October. Pop. (1841) 
998, (1861) 1122, (1871) 1157, (1881) 1119, of whom 
1092 were in the police burgh. Houses (1881) 207 
inhabited, 10 vacant, 6 building. — Ord. Siir., sh. 94, 

Invergowrie, a village at the mutual border of Long- 
forgan parish, Perthshire, and Liff and Benvie parish, 
Forfarshire, on the Firth of Tay, with a station upon 
the Dundee and Perth section of the Caledonian, 3J 
miles W of Dundee. Figuring in ancient record as a 
place of royal embarkation, and surrounded by Crown 
lands, which Alexander I. designed to be graced with a 
royal palace, but which he found occasion to convey to 
the monks of Scone, it has a ruined, ivy-clad church, 
said to have succeeded a church of the beginning of the 
8th century, founded by St Bonifacius, and the earliest 
N of the Tay. (See Forteose.) It adjoins the exten- 
sive paper-works of Bullionfield and the village of Mylne- 
field Feus, which in 1881 contained 348 inhabitants. 
The ancient churchyard crowns an eminence, a mound 
of singular shape, washed on one side by the Tay ; and 
on the shore, near the ruined church, are two large 
blocks of stone, the ' Yowes or Ewes of Gowrie,' of 
which Thomas the Rhymer predicted that — 

1 When the Yowes o' Gowrie come to land, 
The day o' judgement's near at hand.' 

A huge boulder, fabled to have been flung from the Fife 
coast by the Devil with the intention to destroy the 
church, lies a little way N of the village ; and a Cale- 
donian stone circle, comprising nine large stones and 
four smaller ones, stands a short distance N of the 
boulder. Invergowrie House, in Liff and Benvie parish, 
2J miles W by N of Dundee and If ENE of Invergowrie 
station, is situated on a bank sloping down to the 
Firth ; was greatly enlarged about 1836 after designs 
by W. Burn ; and commands a beautiful view of a long 
reach of the Firth and the Carse of Gowrie. Its owner, 
George David Clayhills-Henderson, Esq. (b. 1832), holds 
2138 acres in Forfar and Perth shires, valued at £4027 
per annum. The ancient parish of Invergowrie was of 
small extent, and since the middle of the 17th century 
or earlier has been incorporated with Liff and Benvie. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Inverie, an estate, with a mansion and a hamlet, in 
Knoydart district, Glenelg parish, W Inverness-shire. 
The mansion, on the northern shore of Loch Nevis, 10 
miles SSE of Isle Oronsay, and 54 WSW of Fort 
Augustus, was built and inhabited by the late Colonel 
Macdonell of Glengarry, the last of the Highland 
chiefs, and within and without is a curious structure, in 
the oid Celtic style. It is now the property of John 
Baird, Esq. of Knoydart. The hamlet, near the man- 
sion, has a post office under Broadford, an inn, and a 
public school. 

Inverinate, a hamlet, with a public school, in Kintail 
parish, Ross-shire, on the NE shore of Loch Duich, 
1 mile WNW of Kintail church. Inverinate House, 
standing finely embosomed in woods at the base of 
Sgurr an Airgid (2757 feet), had been greatly enlarged 
in the Italian style, when it was burned to the ground 
in 1864.— Ord Sur., sh. 72, 1880. 

Inverkeilor, a village and a coast parish of Forfar- 
shire. The village stands near the right bank of Lunan 
Water, 6 miles N by E of Arbroath station. 

The parish, containing also Leysmill village and 
Chance Inn, with a post and telegraph office, is 
bounded N by Kinnell and Lunan, E by the German 
Ocean, S by St Yigeans, and W by Carmyllie and 
Kirkden. Its utmost length, from E by N to W by S, 
is 11 miles ; its breadth, from N to S, varies between 
9J furlongs and 4J miles ; and its area is 10,516| acres, 
of which 240 are foreshore and 36 water. Keilor Burn, 


which gives the parish its name, rises on the S border, and 
runs 3 miles east-north-eastward to Lunan Bay. Lunan 
Water, coming in from Kinnell, winds 3| miles through 
the interior, then 2gmiles along the boundary with Lunan 
to the sea ; and two head-streams of Brothock Water 
rise and run in the SW. The coast, 5J miles long, 
over the northern half is indented by Lunan Bay, and 
here is low, flat, and sandy, overgrown with bent ; to 
the S it is high and rocky, and at Redhead, the pro- 
montorial termination of the Sidlaw spurs, attains a 
height of 267 feet in picturesque porphyritic cliffs. 
The section N of Lunan Water rises in a beautiful, 
gently ascending bank of arable land to 325 feet 
at Hilton and 290 at Compass Hill ; whilst the 
southern section is mostly a level expanse of fertile 
ground, attaining 262 feet near Boghead, 265 near 
Kinblethmont, and 312 in the extreme W. The rocks 
are Devonian, with intermingling of traps and por- 
phyries. Pavement flag, of the kind popularly called 
Arbroath stone, is quarried and dressed at Leysmill ; 
sandstone of suitable quality for masonry is quarried 
between Lunan Water and Keilor Burn ; and a hard 
bluish trap, well suited for road metal, is quarried on 
the N side of Lunan Water. Agates and other pebbles, 
some of them of fine colour and high density, are found 
in the trap rocks. The soils are various, but generally 
dry and fertile. About 250 acres are under plantation ; 
126 are almost or altogether unfit for cultivation ; and 
all the rest of the land is regularly or occasionally in 
tillage. Antiquities are vestiges of Danish camps, the 
remains of St Murdoch's and Quytefield chapels, and 
Redcastle, which last is separately noticed, as also are 
the mansions of Ethie, Kinblethmont, and Lawton. A 
fourth, Anniston, standing f mile SE of the village, is the 
seat of Lieut. -Col. Arthur John Rait, C. B. (b. 1839 ; sue. 
1877), who owns 978 acres in the shire, valued at £2744 
per annum. In all, 4 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 5 of between £100 and £500, 
1 of from £50 to £100, and 4 of from £20 to £50. 
Giving off a portion to the quoad sacra parish of 
Friockkeim, Inverkeilor is in the presbytery of Ar- 
broath and synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is 
worth £321. The parish church was built in 1735, and, 
as enlarged about 1830, contains 703 sittings. There is 
also a Free church ; and two public schools, Chapelton 
and Inverkeilor, with respective accommodation for 119 
and 232 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 
79 and 143, and grants of £72, Is. 6d. and £125, 18s. 6d, 
Valuation (1857) £13,594, (1SS3) £17,227, 2s. 5d., 2jIus 
£2277 for railway. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 1704, 
(1831) 1655, (1S41) 1S79, (1S61) 1792, (1871) 1521, 
(1881) 1671 ; of ecclesiastical parish (1871) 1189, (1881) 
1311.— Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Inverkeithing, a coast town and parish of SW Fife. 
A royal, parliamentary, and police burgh, and a sea- 
port, the town, standing at thehead of Inverkeithing Bay, 
has a station on a branch line of the North British, 3f 
milesSE of Dunfermline, ljrnileNof North Queensferry, 
and 16 miles WNW of Edinburgh, from which by road it 
is only 13 miles. It occupies a pleasant south-eastward 
slope, which commands a delightful view ; and consists 
of a longish main street, with divergent wynds and 
some shoreward outskirts. Though it has mostly been 
either built or rebuilt in the course of the present cen- 
tury, the ' Inns ' or old palace is still pointed out as 
the residence of Annabella Drummond (1340-1403), 
Robert III.'s widowed queen, who certainly died at 
Inverkeithing. Near it vestiges have been discovered 
of a supposed Franciscan or Dominican monastery. 
The town has a post office, with money order, sav- 
ings' bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of 
the Clydesdale Bank, 7 insurance agencies, 2 hotels, 
a good town-hall, a neat corn market, a curious old 
pillar cross, a subscription library, a masonic lodge, a 
music hall, a curling club, a cemetery, a gas company, 
a mutual marine insurance company, a tolerable har- 
bour, a shipbuilding yard, tan-works, rope-works, fire- 
clay works, and a fair on the first Friday of August, the 
survivor of five, which itself has been growing smaller and 


smaller. The original parish church, St Peter's, was be- 
queathed in 1139 to Dunfermline Abbey by Waldeve, son 
of Gospatric. A reconstruction of 1826, after the fire of 
the year before, the present church is a handsome Gothic 
building, with a nave, side aisles, 1000 sittings, and an 
old W tower. Square and of three stages, with a stunted 
polygonal spire, this is Middle Pointed in style, as also 
is a hexagonal, elaborately-sculptured font, one of the 
finest in Scotland, which, disinterred from the rubbish in 
1806, in making foundations for repairs on the church, 
was at first placed in the porch, but has since been removed 
to a spot near the pulpit, and regularly used for public 
baptisms (T. S. Muir's Ancient Cliurches of Scotland, 
1848). There is also a spacious U.P. church, in which, 
about 1820, the Rev. Ebenezer Brown, second 'son of the 
Self-interpreting Bible, ' preached before Brougham and 
Jeffrey, the first pronouncing him the greatest orator 
they had ever heard, ' whilst Jeffrey declared he ' never 
heard such words, such a sacred untaught gift of speech.' 
The harbour might he deepened and greatly improved, 
yet is pretty good, having a patent slip, and affording 
accommodation for vessels of 200 tons at spring tides, 
though usually it is frequented by smaller vessels. It 
comprises an area called the Inner Bay, which, extending 
over an area of 100 acres, contracts to 1 furlong at the 
entrance between two low small headlands, the East and 
the "West Ness. At low water it is all an expanse of fore- 
shore. The outer hay, broadening rapidly beyond the 
harbour's entrance, includes foreshore over only a small 
space immediately outside the Ness ; measures 1J mile 
across a chord drawn between St Davids and North 
Queensferry, but only § mile from that chord to the 
Ness ; and lies quite open to easterly and southerly winds. 
A good many vessels used to frequent the harbour for 
coal ; but their number has greatly decreased of recent 
years. The town is a royal burgh, under a charter of 
William the Lyon, and, having partly adopted the General 
Police and Improvement Act (Scotland) prior to 1871, is 
governed by a provost, 2 bailies, a treasurer, a dean of 

Seal of Inverkeithing. 

guild, and 7 councillors. It unites with Stirling, Dun- 
fermline, Culross, and South Queensferry in sending 
a member to parliament. The municipal and the 
parliamentary constituency numbered 213 and 195 in 
1883, when the annual value of real property amounted 
to £4666 (against £3024 in 1873 and £5068 in 1882), 
whilst the corporation revenue was £508 in 1882 Pod' 
(1831) 2020, (1S61) 1929, (1871) 1763, (1881) 1653, of 
whom 1646 were In the police and parliamentary and 
1366 m the royal burgh. Houses (1881) 391 inhabited, 
3S vacant. 

The parish, containing also Hillend village and a 
fragment of Limekilns, includes the islets of Bimar 
and Inchgarvie, as also the detached lands of Lo<ne 
and Urquhart, within Dunfermline parish, as far "as 


Milcsniark village. It comprises the ancient parishes of 
Inverkeithingand Rosyth, united in 1636. It is bounded 
W and N by Dunfermline, E by Dalgety, and S by 
the Firth of Forth and the Ferryhill or North Queens- 
ferry section of Dunfermline. Its length, from N to 
S, diminishing westward, varies between 1 furlong and 
4| miles ; its breadth, diminishing northwards, varies 
between £ mile and 3 miles ; and its area is 5020 acres, 
of which 557J are foreshore. The coast, with an extent 
of 4f miles, includes the greater part of St Margaret's 
Hope and Inverkeithing Bay, and is partly low and 
sandy, partly rocky, and rather high. The interior is 
low though undulating, nowhere much exceeding 200 
feet above sea-level throughout all the southern district, 
but rising to 344 near Annfield. The rocks belong to 
the Carboniferous Limestone series ; but basalt intrudes 
in the two islets and over all the SE portion of the 
parish. Except for a small proportion of wood and 
pasture, the entire area is in a high state of cultivation. 
Inverkeithing claims as natives Sir Samuel Greig 
(1735-88), the distinguished Russian admiral, and the 
Rev. Robert Moffat, D.D.(1797-1SS3), the African mis- 
sionary. Its chief antiquity is noted under Rosyth, 
the chief event in its history under Pitreavie. Seven 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 4 of between £100 and £500, 9 of from £50 to 
£100, and 30 of from £20 to £50. Ecclesiastically 
including North Queensferry, this parish is in the 
presbytery of Dunfermline and synod of Fife ; the 
living is worth £440. Inverkeithing and North 
Queensferry public schools, with respective accommo- 
dation for 397 and 100 children, had (18S1) an average 
attendance of 292 and 85, and grants of £250, 16s. and 
£61, 3s. Valuation (1866) £8270, 9s. 5d., (1S83) 
£8483, 16s. Id. Pop. (1801) 2228, (1831) 3189, (1861) 
3124, (1871) 3074, (1881) 2565.— Ord. Stir., shs. 32, 40, 
1S57-67. See W. Simson's Reminiscences of Inverkeith- 
ing (Edinb. 18S2). 

Inverkeithny, a village and a parish of NE Banffshire. 
The village stands, 200 feet above sea-level, on the right 
bank of the Deveron, 3 miles S by E of Aberchirder, 
and 7 WSW of Turriff, under which it has a post office. 

The parish is bounded NW by Rothiemay, N by 
Marnoch, and on all other sides by Aberdeenshire — viz., 
NE by Turriff, SE by Auchterless, and SW by Forgue. 
Its utmost length, from WNW to ESE, is 6J miles ; its 
breadth varies between 5 furlongs and 4J miles ; and its 
area is 76S5 acres, of which 43§ are water. The Deveron 
winds 4J miles east-south-eastward along all the northern 
border, and at the village is joined by the Burn of Forgue. 
The parish is well watered by these and several smaller 
streams, which serve to drive machinery for threshing 
purposes. Along the Deveron, in the extreme E, the 
surface declines to 114 feet above sea-level, thence rising 
to 629 feet at the Hill of Carlincraig, and 738 near 
Newton of Tollo. The parish thus is pleasantly diver- 
sified with hill and dale, and the belt of it along the 
Deveron is beautifully ornate. About 500 acres are 
under wood, 400 are either pastoral or waste, and all the 
rest is regularly or occasionally in tillage. Remains of 
many stone circles are still to be seen, as also traces of 
a Roman camp at Mains of Auchingoul, and of hut- 
dwellings on the Hill of Carlincraig. Three proprietors 
hold each an annual value of more than £1100, and 3 
of between £300 and £500 ; but none are resident. 
Inverkeithny is in the presbytery of Turriff and synod 
of Aberdeen ; the living is worth £300. The parish 
church, at the village, is a handsome edifice, erected in 
1S81 at a cost of nearly £2000, and containing 500 sit- 
tings. At the same time the graveyard was levelled 
and beautifully laid out at a farther cost of £100. Two 
public schools, Easterfield and Kirktown, with respective 
accommodation for 100 and 135 children, had (1881) an 
average attendance of 67 and 86, and grants of £56, Is. 
and £80, 3s. Valuation (1860) £4678, (1833) £5911. 
Pop. (1801) 503, (1831) 587, (1861) 880, (1871) 1000, 
(1881) 909.— Ord. Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Inverkindie, a hamlet in the Glenkindie section of 
Strathdon parish, W Aberdeenshire, at the mouth of 



Kindie Burn, 10 miles SSW of Rhynie. It has a post 
office under Aberdeen. 

Inverlochy Castle, a ruined feudal stronghold in 
Kilmonivaig parish, SW Inverness-shire, on the left 
bank of the Lochy, a little above its influx to salt-water 
Loch Linnhe, and 2 miles NE of Fort "William. Here, 
according to a fabulous tradition, stood an ancient city 
where the Pictish kings occasionally resided, where 
King Achaius in 790 signed a treaty with Charlemagne, 
whither numbers of Frenchmen and Spaniards resorted, 
and which was at last destroyed by the Danes, and 
never thereafter rebuilt. The castle itself is a quad- 
rangular edifice, with round three-story towers at the 
angles, and measures 30 yards each way within the 
walls. The towers and ramparts are solidly built of 
stone and lime, 9 feet thick at the bottom, and 8 above. 
The towers are not entire, nor are they all equally high. 
The western or Comyn's Tower is the highest and 
largest, and does not seem to have been less than 50 
feet when entire, whilst the rampart or screen between 
is from 25 to SO feet in height. About 12 yards from 
the exterior walls are the traces of a ditch, which has 
been from 30 to 40 feet broad. The whole building 
covers about 1600 square yards ; and within the ditch 
there are 7000, or more than 1-J- acre. From the name 
of the western tower and other circumstances, it has 
commonly been supposed that this castle was erected 
either by Edward I. of England, or by his partisans in 
the Great Glen, the powerful Coinyns, with the assist- 
ance of English engineers. More probably, however, it 
was founded in the latter half of the 15th century by 
George, second Earl of Huntly, and it seems to have still 
been in an unfinished state in the time of Charles II. 

Near this place, on Sunday, 2 Feb. 1645, a battle was 
fought between a royalist army under the celebrated 
Marquis of Montrose, and an army, partly Highland 
and partly Lowland, under the Marquis of Argyll. 
Montrose had come up from a winter raid in Argyll- 
shire to attempt the seizure of Inverness, and was 
marching thither through the eastern part of the Great 
Glen, when he suddenly learned that Argyll, with a 
force nearly double his own, was following him. He 
instantly turned about, made a forced march over the 
trackless mountains to the foot of Glennevis, and found 
himself there in the vicinity of Argyll's army, encamped 
at Inverlochy. He arrived in the evening of the 1st, and 
lay under arms all night. Argyll, seeing battle to be at 
hand, and excusing himself on account of some recent 
contusions he had received, committed his army to the 
charge of his cousin, Campbell of Auchinbreck, and went 
on board a galley in the loch. At the dawn of the 2d 
both armies made preparation for battle. Montrose 
drew out his force in an extended line. The right wing 
consisted of a regiment of Irish, under the command of 
Macdonald, his major-general ; the centre, of the Athole 
men, the Stuarts of Appin, the Macdonalds of Glencoe, 
and other Highlanders, under the command of Clan- 
ranald, M'Lean, and Glengarry; and the left wing, of 
some Irish, at the head of whom was brave Colonel 
O'Kean. A body of Irish was placed behind the main 
body as a reserve, under the command of Colonel James 
M 'Donald, alias O'Neill. The general of Argyll's army 
arrayed it in a similar manner. The Lowland forces 
were equally divided, and formed the wings, between 
which were placed the Highlanders. On a rising-ground 
behind this line General Campbell drew up a reserve of 
Highlanders, with a field-piece. Within Inverlochy 
Castle, which was only about a pistol-shot from the 
lines, he planted a body of forty or fifty men to protect 
the place, and to annoy Montrose's men with discharges 
of musketry. At sunrise Montrose gave orders to ad- 
vance. The attack was commenced by his left wing, 
under O'Kean, charging the right wing of Argyll's 
army. This was immediately followed by a furious 
assault upon the centre and left wing of Argyll's forces 
by Montrose's right wing and centre. Argyll's right 
wing, unable to resist the attack of Montrose's left, 
turned and fled ; which circumstance had such a dis- 
couraging effect on the remainder of Argyll's troops, 


that, after discharging their muskets, the whole of 
them, including the reserve, took to their heels. The 
rout became general. An attempt was made by a body 
of 200 of the dismayed fugitives to throw themselves 
into Inverlochy Castle ; but a party of Montrose's horse 
prevented them. Others of the fugitives directed their 
course along the shore of Loch Linnhe, but were all 
either drowned or killed in the pursuit. The greater 
part, however, fled to the hills in the direction of 
Argyllshire, and were chased for 8 miles by Montrose's 
men. As little resistance was made by the defeated 
party in their flight, the carnage was very great, being 
reckoned at nearly 1500 men, or the half of Argyll's 
army ; and many more would have been cut off, had it 
not been that Montrose did all in his power to save 
the unresisting fugitives from the fury of his men, who 
were loth to give quarter to the hated Campbells. 
Having taken the castle, Montrose not only treated 
the officers, who were from the Lowlands, with kindness, 
but gave them their liberty on parole. The loss on the 
side of Montrose was extremely trifling. The number 
of wounded, indeed, is not stated, but he had only three 
privates killed. Immediately after the battle, he sent 
a messenger to Charles I. with a letter, giving an account 
of it, and ending thus : ' Give me leave, after I have 
reduced this country, and conquered from Dan to Beer- 
sheba, to say to your majesty, as David's general to his 
master, Come thou thyself, lest this country be called 
by my name.' When the king received this letter, the 
royal and parliamentary commissioners were sitting at 
Uxbridge, negotiating the terms of a peace ; but Charles 
was induced by it to break off the negotiation — a circum- 
stance which led to his ruin. Scott weaves this battle 
into his Legend of Montrose. 

Modern Inverlochy Castle, 3J miles NE of Fort 
William, is the Scottish seat of William Frederick 
Scarlett, third Baron Abinger since 1835 (b. 1826 ; sue. 
1861), who holds 39,414 acres in the shire, valued at 
£4347 per annum, the Inverlochy estate having been 
purchased from the Gordon family by his grandfather, 
the first Lord Abinger, in the early part of the present 
century. Merely a shooting-box till 1861, it since has 
been greatly enlarged, being partly in the Scottish 
Baronial style of architecture, partly a large ornate 
modern villa, with a round central ffag-tower, and a 
massive square porticoed tower at the principal entrance. 
The material is white granite, with freestone copings. 
Queen Victoria paid a visit here in Sept. 1873. — Orel. 
Sur., sh. 62, 1875. 

Invermark, a roofless, ivy-clad, four-story granite tower 
in Lochlee parish, N Forfarshire, on the peninsula at 
the confluence of the Waters of Mark and Lee, opposite 
Lochlee church, 17 miles NW of Edzell. Said to have 
been built in 1526, and long a seat of the Lindsays, it 
was put in a habitable state soon after 1729, but in 1S03 
was once more reduced to a ruin, to furnish materials 
for the new church and manse. Its massive walls, how- 
ever, more than 3 feet thick, look as though they might 
stand for 300 years to come ; and it retains its pon- 
derous door of grated iron. Invermark belongs now to 
the Earl of Dalhousie, who here has a pretty shooting- 
lodge, ' built of granite, in a very fine position overlook- 
ing the glen with wild hills at the back.' It was visited 
by the Queen and Prince Consort on 20 Sept. 1861. — 
Orel. Sur., sh. 66, 1871. See A. Jervise's Land of the 
Lindsays (2d ed. 1882). 

Invennay, a seat of Lord Clinton in Forteviot parish, 
SE Perthshire, on a rising-ground overhanging the left 
bank of May Water, 1J mile SSE of Forteviot station. 
A plain, neat, modern structure, commanding an exten- 
sive view of the picturesque scenery of the May's valley 
and Lower Strathearn, it has large and beautifully 
wooded grounds. An old baronial fortalice in its 
vicinity, now represented by an ivy-clad ruined tower, 
which retains some apartments in entire condition, 
forms a striking contrast to its modern neighbour. 
'The Birks of Invermay' are the theme of a well 
known lyric by David Mallet, and seem to have been 
sung by earlier poets. Acquired by the Belsches family 


in the latter half of the 17th century, Invermay is now 
the property of Lord Clinton, who holds 119S acres in 
Perthshire, valued at £1016 per anuum. See Fetter- 
caikn. —Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Invermoriston, a hamlet in Urquhart and Glenmoris- 
ton parish, Inverness-shire, at the mouth of Glen- 
moriston, on the NW side of Loch Ness, 7 miles NNE 
of Fort Augustus. It has a post office (Glenmoriston), 
with money order, savings' hank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, an inn, and a public school. Invermoriston 
House is an old but modernised mansion, the seat of 
Ian Robert James Murray Grant, Esq. of Glenmoriston 
(b. 1860 ; sue. 1868), whose ancestor got a charter of 
the estate in 1509, and who holds 74,646 acres in the 
shire, valued at £4955 per annum. It was at Inver- 
moriston, in 1773, that Dr Johnson first conceived the 
thought of his tour to the Hebrides. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
73, 1878. 

Inverneil, an estate, with a mansion, in South Knap- 
dale parish, Argyllshire, 3 miles S of Ardrishaig. Its 
owner, Duncan Campbell, Esq. (b. 1843 ; sue. 187S), 
holds 11,810 acres in the shire, valued at £2977 per 

Inverness (Gael. inbliir-Ness, 'the mouth of theNess'), 
a parish on the NE border of Inverness-shire at the NE 
extremity of the Great Glen of Scotland. It embraces 
the old parishes of Inverness and Bona, and is bounded 
N by the Beauly and Moray Firths, NE by Petty, for 
i mile at the extreme E by Nairnshire, SE and S by 
Daviot and Dunliehity, by a detached portion of Croy 
and Dalcross, and by Dores, SW and W by Urquhart 
and Glenmoriston, and Nff by Kiltarlity and by Kirk- 
hill. Along the sea-shore on the N the boundary is 
natural, as it also is along the line from Racecourse 
Wood SW along the centre of Doehfour Loch and Loch 
Ness to the extreme S point of the parish, 4| miles 
from the NE end of the latter loch. Elsewhere it is 
artificial and very irregular. The extreme length of the 
parish, from Culloden Brickworks on the NE in a line 
straight SW to the borders of the parish of Urquhart 
and Glenmoriston, is 14g miles ; the breadth in aline at 
right angles to this varies from 1£ to Sh miles ; while 
the area is 23,573 acres, of which the most considerable 
portion is under cultivation or woodland, though in the 
southern and south-western parts of the parish there is 
a good deal of waste ground. The surface along the 
seaboard is flat, but rises to the S, until in the SW 
portion of the parish, on the NW side of Loch Ness, at 
Cnoe-na-Goithe, Carn-a-Bhodaich, and Carn-an-Leitre, 
it reaches a height of 1249, 1642, and 1424 feet respec- 
tively. The NE half of the parish consists principally 
of the north -eastermost portion of the Great Glen of Scot- 
land, extending from the lower part of Loch Ness to 
the firths, and is flanked on both sides by the termina- 
tions of the hill boundaries of the glen. These are 
generally well wooded. The surface of the valley is 
mostly flat and but little above sea-level, but at one 
or two points there are considerable undulations. Of 
these we may notice the hill of Tomnahurich ('the hill 
of the fairies ') on the left side of the Ness near the town. 
It is a beautifully wooded isolated mount resembling a 
ship with her keel up, and measuring 1984 feet in 
length, 176 in breadth, and 223 in height. It has now 
been finely laid out as an extramural burying-place for 
the adjacent burgh of Inverness. A little to the W of 
this is a gravel ridge called Tor-a-Bhean or Torvean, 
rising to a height of 300 feet. The soil along the 
coast part is good and well cultivated, and in the 
vicinity of the town it is a fine clayey loam, originally 
formed by deposit from the river Ness and the firths, 
while on the arable land in the SW it is light and 
sandy. The subsoil is gravel and clay, and the under- 
lying rocks in the low grounds belong to the Old Red 
sandstone, while in the upper districts they are meta- 
morphic. Sandstone of a light grey colour, with inter- 
mixture of mica in small scales, and limestone, occurs 
on the lands of Leys, and contains calcareous spar, 
steatite, and heavy spar. The sandstone beside Clach- 
naharry pier, at the mouth of the Caledonian Canal, 


contains celestine. The drainage of the parish is 
effected by the various streams that fall into Loch Ness 
or into the river Ness, among which may he men- 
tioned the burns of Abriachan — flowing from the small 
LochLaide(23 x 2 furl. ; 860 feet) — Doehfour, Holm,and 
Inches, which have some small cascades and good wood- 
land scenery. The parish is traversed by roads leading 
from Inverness as a centre eastward by Elgin to Aber- 
deen, northward by Beauly to Dingwall, etc., south- 
ward by Badenoch to Perth. The Caledonian Canal 
passes through it from the NE end of Loch Ness to the 
Beauly Firth at Clachnaharry, a distance of nearly 6J 
miles, and connects Inverness with the SW of Scotland. 
The regular service of passenger steamers from Glasgow 
has its terminus at Muirtown, about 1 mile from the 
mouth of the canal, and 1 mile NW of the suspension 
bridge over the Ness in the burgh. The parish is also 
traversed by the Highland railway system, which 
passes through its whole breadth along the seaboard, 
for a distance of 6 j miles. The main station is at Inver- 
ness, and there is a station 1 J mile to the NW at Clach- 
naharry. Besides the burgh of Inverness, the parish 
contains also the suburban village of Clachnaharry and 
the villages of Balloch, Culcabock, Hilton, Resaudrie, 
and Smithtown of Culloden. There are a number of 
objects of antiquarian interest, of which some are 
noticed under the town, while others are noticed sepa- 
rately under Bona, Clachnaharry, and Craig Pha- 
drick. Tomnahurich, already noticed, was at one time 
a ward and mote-hill, and in later days the magistrates 
of the burgh of Inverness used to patronise horse-races, 
run round its base. The ridge of Torvean, already 
noticed, seems to take its name from Donald Bane, who 
was in 1187 killed in conflict with the garrison of 
Inverness. Part of it shows traces of an ancient hill 
fort ; and in 1808, near the base, there was dug up a 
massive double-linked silver chain, now in the Anti- 
quarian Society's Museum at Edinburgh. Some cairns 
near the fort are known as Kilvean or Kil-a-Bhcan, the 
cell of Bean or Bane, who is by some identified as the 
islesman just mentioned, but according to others is 
Baithene (536-600), second abbot of Ioua in succession 
to St Columba. The whole estate of Bucht, of which 
Torvean forms part, is said to be also called Kilvean. 
In the Abriachan district there are also traces of a Kil 
and a number of cairns. At Leys, 3 miles SE of the 
burgh of Inverness, is a so-called Druidical circle of no 
great size, but very perfect. There are three circles, 
the external diameter being 30 paces, and the internal 
diameter 6. On the eastern border of the parish is 
part of Drumniossie Muir, where the battle of Culloden 
was fought. Near the mouth of the Ness, now a con- 
siderable way within flood-mark, is a large cairn of 
stones known as Cairn Aire ( 'the cairn of the sea'). It 
is now marked by a beacon, as it is dangerous to vessels 
approaching the harbour. Due W of this, in the Beauly 
Firth, are other three cairns, in one of which urns have 
been discovered. The whole four seem interesting as 
pointing to a change in the relative level of sea and 
land. Mansions, all noticed separately, are Culloden, 
Doehfour, Muirtown, Ness Castle, and Raigmore ; and 
19 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 76 of between £100 and £500, and 88 of from 
£50 to £100. Inverness is the seat of a presbytery 
in the synod of Moray. There are three charges, 
the first, second, and third, for respectively the 
High Church, the West Church, and the Gaelic 
Church, all of which are in the burgh. The stipend 
of the first charge is £388, 10s., with £10 for com- 
munion elements, and a manse and glebe worth re- 
spectively £55 and £105 a year ; that of the second 
charge is £3S7, 18s. Id., with £10 for communion 
elements, and with a glebe worth £106 a year, but no 
manse ; that of the third charge is £136, 6s. 8d. from 
Government, and about £64 from the holders of the 
ancient bishop of Moray's rents, with a glebe worth 
£25 a year, but no manse. Under the landward school- 
board are the public schools of Abriachan, Culcabock, 
Culduthel, Culloden, and Dochgarroch, which, with 



respective accommodation for 100, 100, 100, 137, and 
100 pupils, had (1881) an average attendance of 43, 61, 
62, 43, and 45, and grants of £43, 9s. 6d., £46, 8s. 6d., 
£38, 5s. 7d., £32, 12s. 6d., and £44, 10s. Landward 
valuation (1882) £27,120, lis. lOd. Pop., inclusive of 
burgh (1791) 7930, (1801) 8732, (1821) 12,264, (1841) 
15,418, (1861) 16,162, (1871) 18,552, (1881)21,725, of 
whom 10,412 were males and 11,313 females. — Ord. 
Stir., shs. 83, 84, 1881-76. 

The presbytery of Inverness comprehends the parishes 
of Inverness, Daviot, Dores, Kiltaiiity, Kirkhill, Moy, 
and Petty. Pop. (1871) 28,224, (1S81) 30,092, of whom 
917 were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 
1878. — The Free Church has also a presbytery of Inver- 
ness, with 5 churches in the burgh, 7 churches in 
respectively Daviot, Dores, Eiltarlity, Kirkhill, Moy, 
Petty, and Stratherrick, and a mission station in Strath- 
glass, which 13 together had 5994 members and adherents 
in 1883. 

Inverness, a market town, a seaport, a royal burgh, 
the county town of Inverness-shire, and the chief town 
in the Northern Highlands, is in the northern portion 
of the parish just described. It stands on the river 
Ness from \ to 2J miles from its mouth, and a short 
distance SW of the Moray Firth end of the Caledonian 
Canal. It is the centre of the Highland railway system, 
and is by rail IS* miles SE by E'of Dingwall, 25 WSW 
of Forres, 37 WSW of Elgin, 108J IW by W of Aber- 
deen, 144 NNW of Perth, 160J SSW of Wick, 190J 
NNW of Edinburgh, and 2061 N of Glasgow, while by 
road it is 19J miles SSW of Cromarty, and 614 NE of 
Fort William. The Great Glen, after narrowing at the 
NE end of Loch Ness, begins to widen out as it ap- 
proaches the point of junction with the great hollows 
occupied by the Moray and Beauly Firths, and on the 
level tract thus formed — a plain marked with but few 
inequalities, lying at but a slight elevation above sea- 
level, and traversed by the river Ness from SW to NE 
— stands the whole of the town of Inverness, except the 
southern outskirts. The town is intersected by the 
river Ness, and though the greater part of the built space 
lies E of the course of the river, yet the parliamentary 
boundary extends almost equally on both sides. The 
boundary line extends along the sea-shore from the old 
pier at Kessock to a point midway between the mouth 
of the river and Longman Point, and the southward 
limit is the mouth of the Alltnaskiach Burn, a short 
distance below the Ness Islands. On all sides, except 
along the sea margin, the site is hemmed in by rising 
grounds. The raised sea-beach, which extends along 
most of the coast from the Spey to Inverness, and up the 
Great Glen to Loch Ness at a height of from 80 to 90 
feet, sweeps round to the E and SE of the town, and 
stretches away into the interior in a highly cultivated 
table-land from 1 to 3 miles broad. Behind this is the 
ridge, which, rising gradually from the plain NE of 
Culloden, sweeps south-westward at an average height 
of about 400 feet, and ultimately passes into the moun- 
tain chain that flanks the SE side of Loch Ness. The 
heights on the SW side of the Loch are continued by 
ridges to Dunean Hill (940 feet) and the round-topped 
Craig Phadkick ; while on the opposite shore of the 
firth (which at Kessock is only 1000 yards wide), from 
the Ord Hill of Kessock high ground stretches away 
westward along the shore of the Beauly Firth, and 
north-eastward along the district between the Cromarty 
and Moray Firths, and known as the Black Isle. In 
the plain are two remarkable little hills at the distance 
respectively of 1 and 2 miles from the town ; the first is 
Tomnahurich (' the hill of the fairies'), 223 feet high, and 
shaped like the hull of a ship turned upside down. It 
is finely wooded, and is now very tastefully laid out as 
an extramural cemetery ; the second is Torbhean or 
Torvean, a long gravel ridge about 300 feet high, marked 
with traces of ancient Caledonian fortifications. 

The environs of the town are very beautiful, and 

some of the views of the scenery beyond exceedingly 

fine. ' Inverness,' says Dr M'Culloch in his Letters on 

the Highlands, where he rises on this point into very 



unusual enthusiasm, 'has been strangely underrated. 
. . ,. When I have stood in Queen Street of Edin- 
burgh and looked towards Fife, I have sometimes won- 
dered whether Scotland contained a finer view of its 
class. But I have forgotten this on my arrival at Inver- 
ness. Surely, if a comparison is to be made with Edin- 
burgh, always excepting its own romantic disposition, 
the Firth of Forth must yield the palm to the Moray 
Firth, the surrounding country must yield altogether, 
and Inverness must take the highest rank. Everything 
is done, too, for Inverness that can be effected by wood 
and cultivation ; the characters of which, here, have alto- 
gether a richness, a variety, and a freedom which we 
miss round Edinburgh. The mountain screens are finer, 
more various, and more near. Each outlet is different 
from the others, and each is beautiful ; whether we 
proceed towards Fort George or towards Moy, or enter 
the valley of the Ness or skirt the shores of the Beauly 
Firth, while a short and commodious ferry wafts us to 
the lovely country opposite, rich with wood, and country 
seats, and cultivation. It is the boast, also, of Inverness 
to unite two opposite qualities, and each in the greatest 
perfection — the characters of a rich, open, lowland 
country, with those of the wildest Alpine scenery, both 
also being close at hand, and in many places inter- 
mixed ; while to all this is added a series of maritime 
landscape not often equalled. ' From the Castle Hill — 
a projection north-westward from the terrace already 
mentioned — the view has been, and not unjustly, de- 
scribed as magnificent. On the SW the eye ranges over 
a well-wooded foreground, and along the ridges that 
bound Loch Ness as far as the dome-shaped peak of 
Mealfourvonie. To the W is the wooded ridge which 
terminates in Craig Phadrick, and beyond are the hills 
that cluster around the upper part of the Beauly Firth. 
Beyond the gleaming line of the Firths to the N are the 
wooded ridges that sweep from the Ord Hill of Kessock, 
westward by Redcastle, and eastward towards Fortrose, 
from which they pass on and terminate in the rugged 
Sutors of Cromarty. Beyond, but still at no great dis- 
tance, rises the huge lumpy Ben Wyvis (3429 feet), with 
its flat extended top ; while to the NE spreads the 
opening Firth, bounded by the dim, distant mountain 
ranges of Elgin, Banff, Sutherland, and Caithness. In 
the Ness, just beyond the parliamentary boundary to 
the S of the town, are two islands known as Ness 
Islands. They are beautifully wooded, and the walks 
through the trees form a very pleasing summer resort. 
Last century the magistrates used here to give open-air 
entertainments to the Judges of Assize. The islands 
are connected with one another and with the banks of 
the river by light suspension bridges. 

History. — By Boece and Buchanan Inverness is 
connected, with one of the apocryphal kings, and is 
assigned an origin at least sixty years before the Chris- 
tian era ; but though it was probably a seat of population 
in the centre of a closely-peopled district in the remote 
age of British hill-strengths and vitrified forts, yet the 
first really authentic notice of the district that we have 
is in Adamnan's Life of St Coht-mha. From this it may 
be gathered that about 565 the saint made his way to 
the Court of Brude, king of the northern Picts, who had 
his residence 'at some distance, though not far, from 
the banks of the river Ness. ' Dr Reeves, in his edition 
of Adamnan, is inclined to identify its site with Craig 
Phadrick ; but Dr Skene objects that it is ' unlikely that 
in the 6th century the royal palace should have been in 
a vitrified fort on the top of a rocky hill, nearly 500 
feet high, and it is certainly inconsistent with the nar- 
rative that S. Columba should have had to ascend such 
an eminence to reach it.' He himself is inclined to 
place the Pictish capital on the ridge of Torvean, already 
mentioned, or more probably about ' the eminence E 
of Inverness called the Crown, where tradition places 
its oldest castle.' The King, who was, previous to the 
saint's arrival, lost in paganism, did not give Columba 
a very cordial welcome, and indeed closed the door of 
the fort against him ; but the saint ' approached the 
folding doors with his companions, and, having first 


formed upon them the sign of the cross, he knocked at, 
and laid his hand upon, the gate, which instantly flew 
open of its own accord, the bolts having been driven 
back with great force.' The incident proved too much 
for the King, for the Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 
tells us he was baptized by St Columba, and Adamnan 
himself says that ' when the King learned what had 
occurred, he and his councillors were filled with alarm, 
and, immediately setting out from the palace, advanced 
to meet with due respect the holy man, whom he 
addressed in the most conciliatory and respectful lan- 
guage. And ever after from that day, as long as he 
lived, the King held this holy and reverend man in 
very great honour, as was due. ' We are further told 
that the saint had great trouble with the Druids at the 
King's Court, but vanquished them in many striking 
ways. The oldest or original castle of Inverness — which 
stood on the Crown, and which has for centuries been 
untraceable except by traditional identification of its 
site — has been invested with a romantic interest, from 
its connection with Shakespeare's Macbeth. That this 
edifice was, as Shakespeare assumes, the property of 
Macbeth is very probable, as he was by birth the 
Mormaer of Ross, and by marriage also of Moray, and 
so could hardly fail to have the mastery of the strong- 
hold at the mouth of the Ness. It was not, however, 
the scene of the murder of King Duncan, for his death 
is now recognised as having taken place at Bothgowan, 
which Dr Skene identifies with Pitgaven}', near Elgin. 
When Malcolm Ceannmor vanquished his father's mur- 
derer, he naturally seized his strongholds, and in all 
probability razed his castle at Inverness, and built in- 
stead of it, as a royal residence, a fortress on the summit 
of the Castle Hill, the site of the present County Build- 
ings. This new castle figured for several centuries as 
at once a seat of royalty and a place of military 
strength, receiving at intervals within its walls the 
kings and princes of Scotland, and regularly serving as 
a vantage-ground, whence they or their servants over- 
awed the turbulent and rebellious north. Shaw Mac- 
duff, second son of the Earl of Fife — who assumed the 
name of Mackintosh, and who, after assisting Malcolm 
in crushing an insurrection in Moray, acquired a large 
extent of property in the north — was made hereditary 
governor of the castle. In 1245 it became the prison of 
Sir John Bisset of Lovat, for the imputed crimes of 
connection with the murder of the Earl of Athole and 
of doiug homage to the Lord of the Isles. It was soon 
afterwards captured during the minority of one of its 
hereditary keepers by the Comyns of Badenoch, and 
from that time till the beginning of next century it 
remained in their possession. In 1296 it received an 
English garrison during the visit of Edward I. to the 
north ; hut the King himself does not seem to have 
gone so far. It was again occupied by English troops 
in 1303, but, like the other strongholds of the land, 
subsequently passed into the hands of Bruce's followers, 
and from Bruce's time down to that of James I. it 
was in the immediate power of the Crown ; but at the 
accession of the latter monarch was, after being repaired 
and refortified, again put into the hereditary keeping 
of the captain of the Clan Chattan, the chief of the 
Mackintoshes. In 1427 James I., when on a progress 
through the north to punish some turbulent chiefs, 
lived in the castle, and held in it a parliament, to 
which all the northern barons were sumjnoned. Alex- 
ander, Lord of the Isles, was on this occasion made 
prisoner for a year ; and when once more set free, re- 
turned with an army at his heels to wreak vengeance on 
his keepers. He got into the town, under the pretence 
of friendship for it, and then immediately pillaged the 
place and set it on fire ; but his bold attempt to seize 
the castle was successfully resisted. In 1455 John, his 
successor (who was quite as turbulent as he), or more 
probably Donald Balloeh of Isla, acting as John's lieu- 
tenant, rushed down upon the town, and, after taking 
the castle by surprise, again plundered and burned the 
town. In 1464 the castle was visited and temporarily 
occupied by James III., and in 1499 by James IV. In 


1508 the keepership of the castle was conferred here- 
ditarily on the Earl of Huntly ; and in 1751 we find 
the Duke of Gordon claiming £300 as compensation for 
the abolition of his hereditary office of constable of the 
castle of Inverness. In 1555 the castle received the 
Queen Regent, Mary of Guise, and was the scene of a 
Convention of Estates and of extraordinary courts, sum- 
moned by her to quiet the Highlands and punish caterans 
and political offenders ; and the Earl of Caithness was 
consigned to one of its dungeons because he had har- 
boured freebooters. In 1562 Queen Mary, having en- 
tered the town attended by the Earl of Moray, was 
refused admission to the castle, as the governor was a 
retainer of the Earl of Huntly, who was in rebellion. 
She was in consequence obliged to take up her residence 
and hold her Court in a private house, till, her troops 
having been strengthened by the accession of the 
Mackintoshes, the Frasers, and the Munroes, the castle 
was reduced and the governor hanged. In 1644, on 
intelligence of the descent of a party of Irish on the 
west coast to join the Marquis of Montrose, the castle 
was put in thorough repair and fully garrisoned, and 
next year it successfully held out under Hurry against 
a regular siege by Montrose's troops. In 1649 Mac- 
kenzie of Pluscarden, Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty, 
and other royalists took the castle, demolished the for- 
tifications, and left the ruins to decay and desolation. 
The time of the Revolution, however, saw it again 
patched up and used as a stronghold for the Jacobites, 
the magistrates of the burgh being warmly attached to 
the cause of the dethroned dynasty. It was, however, 
soon wrested from them, and again used as a royal fort. 
In 1718 the government of George I. repaired it, con- 
verted the ancient part into barracks for Hanoverian 
troops, added a new part to serve as a governor's house, 
and gave the whole structure the name of Fort George. 
From engravings and from the description in Burt's 
Letters from the Highlands, written in 1725, it appears 
to have been an imposing battlemented structure of six 
stories, with sharp-pointed roofs and corner turrets. In 
1745 it was occupied successively by Sir John Cope and 
the Earl of Loudon on behalf of the government ; while 
in 1746 it fell into the hands of Prince Charles Edward 
on his return from England, and was blown up. Though 
the castle was thus rendered uninhabitable and useless, 
a large part of the walls long remained entire ; but now 
nothing is left save two bastions with part of the cur- 
tain wall, on the E side of the ascent from the Castle 
Wynd. The site has since been occupied by the County 
Buildings and prison. 

What may have been the appearance of King Brude's 
munitio and domus mentioned by Adamnan it is impos- 
sible to tell, but the huts of the common people, which 
must have stood near at hand, would be the earliest re- 
presentatives of the buildings that form the burgh of 
Inverness ; and the somewhat better dwellings that 
would naturally cluster round the subsequent strong- 
hold on the Crown would represent the second stage of 
the town's growth. Some have even regarded the stone 
with a hole in its centre, which was dug up a number of 
years ago to the E of the road,by Kingsmills to Perth, as 
the socket of the original cross, but this is highly doubt- 
ful. Certain it is that even after it had ceased to be the 
capital of Pictland, the place still remained of impor- 
tance, and early came into prominence as one of the prin- 
cipal centres of the country. Tradition even — in face 
of the fact that such things were unknown at the time — 
asserts that its erection into a royal burgh was in the 
time of Malcolm Ceannmor. Though that cannot, there- 
fore, be the case, yet it was by David I. constituted one 
of the six chief places of the kingdom — loca capitalia 
Scotioe comitatuum per totum regnum — where the King's 
Justiciar held his court. It was at the same time 
made a royal burgh and the seat of a sheriff, whose 
authority extended over all the N of Scotland, and was 
thus one of the earliest free towns in the kingdom. 
William the Lyon seems to have regarded the rising 
burgh with particular favour, for he granted it four 
separate charters by which persons residing beyond the 



bounds of the burgh were prohibited from making ' cloths 
dyed and shorn contrary to the assize of David I. , ' and the 
burgesses were granted exemption from wager of battle 
in civil cases, and from paying toll on their merchan- 
dise anywhere within the kingdom. Three of these 
charters are still in possession of the corporation, and 
form the commencement of a series of ancient munici- 
pal records which is fuller than that of almost any other 
burgh in the kingdom. William also caused a fosse to 
be dug round the town on condition that the burgesses 
should erect a good palisade and agree to keep it in re- 
pair. During the period previous to the invasion ot 
Scotland by Edward I., the Scottish kings occasionally 
visited the burgh on those frequent occasions when their 
power was called into play by incursions of the Norse 
and the northern Vikings, or the necessity of quelling 
the insurrections of the wild inhabitants and the tur- 
bulent chiefs of the adjacent country. In 1229 a power- 
ful chief named Gillespick M'Scourlane burned the town, 
spoiled the Crown lands adjacent to it, and, in his effort 
to assume royal authority, slew all who would not 
acknowledge his authority, but was afterwards defeated, 
captured, and beheaded. In 1233, according to Car- 
donel, Alexander II. founded a convent at Inverness for 
the Dominican Friars. Taylor, in his Edward I. in the 
North of Scotland, says that this same monarch — who 
was a benefactor of the burgh in various ways — settled 
also a colony of Franciscans or Grey Friars, who have 
given name to the modern street and the burying-ground ; 
but there is some obscurity on this point, for Provost 
Inglis, in a MS. dated 1795, and now in the Advo- 
cates' Library, says that the monastery at Inver- 
ness was always 'called by the inhabitants "The Grey 
Friars," although the only one of which we have an 
account in history was that founded by the Dominican 
Order. ... It appears by the town's records, 
that the stones of the Friars' Kirk were sold in 
the year 1653 to Colonel Lilburne, commanding the 
troops of the Commonwealth, for building a fort at 
the river mouth, which was called Oliver's Fort. ' In 
1372, during a quarrel between the Abbot of Ar- 
broath and the Bishop of Moray, the followers of the 
former burned the town of Inverness and the Domini- 
can Monastery, but it must soon have been restored 
again, for the decision of the Bishops of Moray and 
Boss in the dispute between the Wolfe of Badenoeh and 
his wife was read 'in the church of the Preaching Friars, 
Inverness, the 2d day of the month of November in the 
year of the Lord 1389.' Mention of the monastery oc- 
curs from time to time in various documents down to 
1559, when the prior and brethren were obliged to give 
up their property to the safe keeping of the Provost 
and Magistrates of Inverness. What became of the 
silver chalices, spoons, etc. , handed over, is not known, 
but the tenements, rents, etc., were speedily taken pos- 
session of by their keepers ; and, in 1567, a formal grant 
of all the property ' which formerly pertained to the 
Dominican or Preaching Friars ' was obtained from 
Queen Mary, and this was further confirmed by James 
VI. in 1587. 

In the thirteenth century the trade of the burgh was 
extensive, and was, like so much of the northern trade in 
those days, mostly in the hands of Flemings. The 
principal exports were wool, cloths, furs, hides, fish, and 
cattle — the furs possfbly including beaver skins ; for, 
according to Boece, beavers were at one time found on 
the banks of Loch Ness, and one of the Scottish Acts of 
Parliament in the time of David I. records ' beveris 
skins ' among Scottish exports. Inverness was at this 
time too the principal station for the herring fishing in 
the Moray Firth, and, in 1263, the Chamberlain's ac- 
counts mention that Lawrence le Graunt, sheriff of the 
county, paid 20 marks for 20 lasts of herrings which he 
had purchased for the king's household, and 105 shillings 
and 3 pence for their freight to Leith. Materials for ship- 
building too abounded in the neighbourhood, and, in 
12-19, Hugh de Chatellar, Count of St Paul and Blois, 
had a vessel built here which Matthew Paris mentions as i 
being called 'the wonderful ship,' on account of its great 


size. After the accession of Bruce, and during the suc- 
cessive reigns of the Stewarts till near the Union, In- 
verness was constantly exposed to predatory visits from 
the islesmen and the northern clans, and there is a long 
record of skirmishes between its inhabitants and their 
assailants, and of black mail paid as the price of the 
forbearance of rapacious neighbours. At times, too, 
stratagems were tried, and tradition records how, in the 
end of the fourteenth century, when a large body of 
islesmen advanced to Kessock Ferry, and sent a message 
menacing the town with destruction if a large ransom 
were not paid, the provost affected to agree to the 
terms dictated, and sent a large quantity of spirits as a 
present to the chief and his followers. When the isles- 
men, rushing headlong into the trap, had got helplessly 
drunk, the provost and citizens pounced on them and 
slew almost the whole. Their foes had, however, a sub- 
sequent revenge, for, in 1411, the town was burned by 
Donald, Lord of the Isles, while he was on his way to 

The burgh had a new charter granted to it by James 
III., and, in addition to that given by James VI. al- 
ready mentioned, this monarch, who seems to have had 
considerable favour for the burgh, granted what is 
known as the 'great charter' in 1591, and this was 
ratified by the Estates in the time of Charles II. The 
importance of Inverness, as the key of the Highlands, 
was fully recognised by Oliver Cromwell, and it accord- 
ingly became the locality of one of the four forts which 
he constructed for the purpose of overawing Scotland. 
This building — now popularly known as the Citadel — 
was erected in 1652-57 on the N side of the town, on 
the E bank of the river Ness, near its mouth, and cost 
£SO,000. 'It was a regular pentagon, surrounded at 
full tide with water sufficient to float a small bark. 
The breastwork was three storeys high, all of hewn stone, 
and lined with brick inside. The sally-port lay towards 
the town. The principal gateway was to the north, where 
was a strong drawbridge of oak, and a stately structure 
over it with this motto : " Togam tucntur arma," From 
this bridge the citadel was approached by a vault 70 feet 
long, with seats on each side. ' At opposite sides of the 
area, within the ramparts, stood two long buildings, 
each four stories high — the one called the English build- 
ing because built by Englishmen, and the other called the 
Scottish building because built by Scotchmen. In the 
centre of the area stood a large square edifice three stories 
high, the lowerpart occupied as a magazine and provision - 
store, and the highest part fitted up as a church, covered 
over with a pavilion roof, and surmounted by a tower 
with a clock and four bells. There was accommodation 
for 1000 men. ' England supplied the oak planks and 
beams ; Strathglass, the fir ; recourse was had to the 
monasteries of Kinloss and Beauly, the Bishop's Castle 
of Chanonry, the Greyfriars' Church, and St Mary's 
Chapel, in Inverness, for the stone-work ; and so abun- 
dant were the provisions and supplies of the garrison 
that a Scots pint of claret sold for a shilling, and cloth 
was bought as cheap as in England.' Under the keen 
administration of the Commonwealth the fort so annoyed 
the Highland chiefs, that, at their request, and in ac- 
knowledgment of their loyalty, it was destroyed soon 
after the Restoration, when its buildings became a quarry 
for the burghers, and their materials were freely carried 
off and used in the construction of many of the existing 
houses in town. Part of the ramparts too was taken 
away, but the greater part still remains, while a portion 
of the fosse, in a widened and improved condition, is 
now included in the harbour. 

Subsequent to the Revolution the inhabitants of 
Inverness distinguished themselves by enthusiastic 
attachment to both Prelacy and Jacobitism. So much 
so indeed was the former in favour, that in 1691, 
when a Presbyterian minister was for the first time 
after the abolition of Episcopacy appointed to the vacant 
church, the magistrates stationed armed men at the 
church doors to prevent his admission. Duncan Forbes 
of Culloden, father of the famous Lord President Forbes, 
who attempted to force him into the interior, was 

>."'■ -i. -•'■'.< :,;'■■ s ,:: 


driven back, and the resistance continued till a regi- 
ment of soldiers appeared on the scene and placed the 
presentee in the pulpit at the point of the bayonet. For 
years afterwards the magistrates used every means to 
support and forward the Jacobite cause, and at the acces- 
sion of George I. to the throne, they openly opposed 
and endeavoured to prevent his proclamation, and 
roused the populace to a riot. In 1715 Inverness was 
occupied by the Macintoshes for the Jacobites, but the 
post was recovered by the exertions of the lairds of 
Culloden and Kilravoek, aided by Lord Lovat, and the 
castle was then repaired as already noticed. During 
the rebellion of 1745-46, and especially in the stir which 
preceded and followed its closing scene at Culloden, the 
town was regarded as virtually the capital of the losing 
side. ' The English troops committed excesses unusual 
even in a foreign country, and Provost Hossack, going 
to remonstrate, is, by tradition, said to have been 
kicked downstairs by Cumberland's orders. Hundreds 
were confined in the parish church, and many taken 
out to the churchyard and shot. The stone behind 
which they knelt, as also that on which the soldiers 
rested their muskets and took aim at their victims, are 
still seen.' Charles Edward and Cumberland when in 
Inverness lived in turn in the same house. It belonged 
to Lady Mackintosh, the widow of the twentieth chief 
of the clan, and stood on the W side of Church Street. 
It is said to have been the only house then in Inverness 
having a reception-room without a bed in it. From 
this time onwards the path of the burgh has been one 
of peace and prosperity, and but few modern events of 
note need here be noticed. The first public coach be- 
tween Inverness and Perth began to run in 1806, and 
took over two days to aecomjdish the distance, and in 
1811 a mail coach began to run to Aberdeen, and about 
1819 continued its course to Tain and to Staxigoe near 
Wick. On the night of 16 Aug. 1816 the whole place 
was alarmed by a smart shock of earthquake, which 
threw down the chimney tops of many houses, twisted 
the old steeple, and set the bells a-ringing. In 1822 the 
town was much benefited by the opening of the Cale- 
donian Canal, and subsequently in 1855 by the open- 
ing of the Inverness and Nairn railway, which was 
extended to Keith in 1858, and was thus the beginning 
of the present extensive Highland Railway system, 
which, in 1863 and subsequent years, extended itself over 
the north of Scotland. The Free Libraries Act was 
adopted in 1877, and a building, costing £3482, for a 
library of 5440 vols., museum, and school of art, was 
opened in Castle Wynd in 1883. In 1877 also, in conse- 
quence of the territorial rearrangement of the army, the 
Government resolved to make Inverness a garrison town, 
and barracks are (1883) being erected on ground at the 
Crown to the E of the town. They are Scottish Baronial 
in style, and are to cost £60,000. The territorial regi- 
ment to be connected with this — the 79th — district is the 
old 79th Highlanders or The Queen's Own Cameron 
Highlanders. The Highland and Agricultural Society 
have held their show at Inverness in the years 1831, 
'39, '46, '56, '65, 74, and '83, and it was visited by the 
late Prince Consort on 16 Sept. 1S47, when he was pre- 
sent at the Northern Meeting ball. The town is the 
birthplace of Sir Alexander Mackenzie, the author of 
Primitive Marriage, the North American traveller (1783- 
1820), and of J. F. M'Lennan, LL.D. (1S27-S1). 

The town itself, viewed apart from its surroundings, 
might be called almost entirely lowland, and it will 
bear comparison with most of the best modern towns of 
the same size in Great Britain. Defoe, in his Journey 
through Scotland (1723), says there were then 'two 
very good streets in this town, and the people are more 
polite than in most towns in Scotland. They speak as 
good English here as at London, and with an English 
accent ; and ever since Oliver Cromwell was here they 
are in their manners and dress entirely English ; ' and 
Burt says that but few houses in the town were slated. 
Still later the houses were mostly mere thatched cot- 
tages, with here and there town mansions in the Flemish 
st yie belonging to the landed proprietors of the surround- 


ing district. Many of the houses were ranged along 
narrow lanes or closes, with their gable ends to the 
street, while some had outside stone staircases ascend- 
ing to the entrance on the first floor, and others opened 
otf inner courts with arched doorways. A vigorous 
course of change seems to have set in about 1775, and 
again in the close of last century under the then Provost 
William Inglis. Before 1740 harness and saddlery of 
all sorts were so little required that in that year the 
magistrates found it necessary to advertise for a saddler 
to come and settle in the town ; and prior to 1775, when 
the first bookseller's shop was opened in the burgh, the 
few people in the large tract of country around who 
were able, and had occasion, to write letters, were sup- 
plied with materials by the postmaster. About the 
middle of last century a hat had not graced any head 
in the north except that of a landed proprietor or a 
minister, and when it was first assumed by a burgher 
in the person of the deacon of the weavers it excited 
the highest ridicule of the blue-bonneted multitude, 
and drew from them such constant twitting and raillery, 
as only the stoutest pertinacity and the sturdiest inde- 
pendence could have enabled the worthy deacon to 
resist. At the same period the universal costume was 
Celtic and primitive, and so late as about 1790 only 
three ladies with straw bonnets were to be seen in the 
High Church. Now old customs, usages, and costume 
have almost entirely disappeared, and the old games of 
shinty, etc. , have gone along with them. The Inver- 
ness pronunciation of English, which Defoe- particularly 
notices, still enjoys a character of great purity, and of 
being little, if at all, affected by the broad forms of the 
usual lowland dialect. This is generally ascribedto 
the influence of the soldiers of the commonwealth during 
the years they occupied Cromwell's fort. 

Lines of Street, etc. — The section of the town on the 
right bank of the river includes all the site of the 
original town, together with many of the modern ex- 
tensions, while the section on the left bank is entirely 
modern, and exhibits somewhat greater regularity of 
plan. The principal streets on the SE side are High 
Street, Bridge Street, Petty Street, Inglis Street, 
Church Street, Union Street, Academy Street, Chapel 
Street, Shore Street, and Castle Street ; the principal 
ones on the NW side are Huntly Street, Telford Street, 
Celt Street, Grant Street, Queen Street, Eessock Street, 
Telford Road, Tomnahurich Street, and Ardross Street. 
The central district, representative of the old town, 
forms an acute-angled triangle of which the sides are 
Church Street, Inglis Street, and Academy Street, and 
this is still the centre of population and business. The 
streets were first causewayed, sewers formed, and foot- 
paths laid with flags in 1831. In High Street on the 
site now occupied by the British Linen Company's 
Bank was the old town-house of Lord Lovat. The 
house in which Queen Mary lodged when refused admis- 
sion to the castle was, according to tradition, in Bridge 
Street, which is one of the oldest streets in the town. 
Castle Street takes its present name from the neighbour- 
hood of the castle, part of whose walls, as already noticed, 
adjoin the W side. The old name was Domesdale, as it 
led to the place of execution. The large burying- 
ground known as the Chapel-yard in Chapel Street is 
the cemetery of the Dominican monastery already men- 
tioned. Before the present entrance to it was formed, 
it had a neat richly-sculptured gateway with the in- 
scription, 'Concordia parvae res crescunt.' Union 
Street, extending from Academy Street to Church 
Street, was opened up shortly after the completion of 
the railway system in 1863. The prosperity following 
this led also to the formation of Innes Street and 
Ardross Street, the reconstruction of the greater part 
of Tomnahurich Street, and the formation of a number 
of new streets towards Muirtown and Merkinch. 

Bridges. — The Ness was, up to the year 1664, crossed 
by a wooden bridge, which is characterised by one of 
Cromwell's officers as ' the weakest that ever straddled 
over so strong a stream.' It communicated with the 
town on the right bank of the river by an arched way 



which was surmounted by a house. In Sept. 1664 a 
crowd of upwards of 100 persons caused the fall of the 
frail structure, though, curiously, none of the persons 
on it at the time was seriously injured. A new one was 
erected between 1685 and 1689 partly by public sub- 
scriptions and partly by large contributions from the 
town funds. It was a substantial structure of seven 
arches, and stood till 1849, when it was swept away by 
a flood, and in place of it the present suspension bridge 
in a line with High Street was constructed by Govern- 
ment at an expense of £26,000. Farther up, at the 
upper end of Ness Bank, is a handsome suspension foot- 
bridge erected at a cost of £2000 raised by subscription, 
and opened in 1882. Below the main suspension bridge 
is also another suspension foot-bridge in the line of 
Greig Street, erected by public subscription in 1878, 
and lower still are a wooden bridge near the harbour and 
a railway viaduct. The former was first erected by sub- 
scription in 1808 ; the latter is a massive stone structure 
of five arches of 73 feet span, four land arches of 20 feet 
span, and two girder bridges of 37A and 25 feet span, 
one over Shore Street and the other over Anderson 

Public Buildings, etc. — The Town Hall stands in High 
Street, opposite the end of Church Street. It is a build- 
ing in the Scottish style with Flemish features, and cost 
about £15,000. The building, which was designed by 
Messrs Matthews & Lawrie, originated from a bequest 
of £6000 made by Mr Grant of Bught for the purpose 
of erecting a public hall. It was begun in 1878, and 
opened by the Duke of Edinburgh on 19 Jan. 1882. 
In the centre of the principal front which faces the open 
space known as the Exchange is a gable with round 
towers at the sides and an oak spirelet, while a large 
panel over the centre window has the town's arms sculp- 
tured on it. The windows on the main staircase are of 
stained glass, showing the royal arms, the town's arms, 
and the Scottish arms. The main hall is 66 feet long, 
35 wide, and 33 high, with a ceiling of pitch pine 
panelled and decorated with heraldic emblems. The 
windows contain stained glass, some showing the arms 
of the Scottish clans, of the trade incorporations of the 
burgh, the royal arms, and the Scottish arms, others 
allegorical representations of Art, Science, Law, Agricul- 
ture, Education, and Literature. It contains a capitally- 
executed copy of Phillip's portrait of the late Prince 
Consort, a good copy of Ramsay's portrait of Flora 
Macdonald, portraits of Duncan Forbes of Culloden 
and of some other men of more local note, as well as a 
bust of the late Dr Carruthers, by Alexander Munro. 
Offices are provided in the building for the town cham- 
berlain and the town clerk. In the centre of the Ex- 
change is a fountain presented to the town in 18S0 by 
Dr G. F. Forbes, which serves as a protection for the 
palladium of the burgh, the well-known Clach-na-cudhin 
or 'stone of the tubs,' which used at one time, long ere 
the question of water supply became troublesome, to 
stand in the centre of the street, and was then employed 
by the servant girls as a convenient resting place for 
tubs in passing to and from the river. The old cross, 
which used also of old to stand out in the street, is now 
placed at the W end of the new hall. The old town- 
hall — a very plain building of 1708 — stood on the same 
site, and was removed to make way for the present 
structure. The County Hall, locally known as the 
Castle, stands on the Castle Hill, a short distance 
SE of High Street, and occupies the site of the old 
castle formerly noticed. The present building, erected 
in 1834-35, after designs by Mr Burns of Edinburgh, at 
a cost of £7500, is a massive square castellated structure 
of somewhat squat proportions. Adjoining it is the 
County Prison built in 1843 and legalised in 1849. It 
harmonises in style with the County Hall, and with its 
numerous turrets helps to give dignity to the whole 
structure on the hill. Within the Castle are the 
rooms where the Northern Circuit Justiciary Courts 
are held. In the Court House is a portrait by Raeburn 
of the late Charles Grant, long M. P. for the county. 
One of the early prisons was a vault in the masonry 


between the second and third arches of the old stone 
bridge already noticed. It was a dismal chamber of 
about 12 feet square, and light was admitted by a small 
grated opening on the S side of the pier. The entrance 
was by an opening in the roadway of the bridge from 
which a flight of stairs led to a massive iron door. It 
seems to have been used till late in the 18th century, 
and must have been a wretched abode. There was 
another tolbooth in Bridge Street, of the sanitary 
arrangements of which some idea may be gathered from 
the entry in the town records in Sept. 1709, that the 
town-clerk ' paid an officer 4s. 6d. Scots to buy a cart of 
peats to be burnt in the tolbooth to remove the bad 
scent ; ' and in Dec. 1737, the magistrates ordered the 
town-clerk to purchase ' an iron spade to be given to 
the hangman for cleaning the tolbooth.' It must have 
been a very wretched place, for in an official memorial 
from the Town Council to the Commission of Supply, it 
is described as consisting ' only of two small cells for 
criminals and one miserable room for civil debtors,' 
and it is further declared that there were ' at present 
and generally about thirty persons confined in these 
holes, none of which is above thirteen feet square.' 
This was in 1786, and the building was demolished 
about 1790, and was replaced by a new one erected at 
the corner of Church Street and High Street at a cost of 
£3400, of which £1600 was for the steeple which still 
stands, although the other buildings were removed in 
1854. The steeple is 130 feet high, and was much 
twisted by the earthquake of 1S16, but was straightened 
some years after. The Music Hall is a large building 
in Union Street, erected subsequent to 1864, and since 
1871 licensed for the performance of plays ; but for this 
purpose it is pretty much superseded by the Inverness 
Theatre in Bank Street, which was opened in Nov. 1882. 
The latter belongs to a joint stock company, and is a 
plain building with comfortable accommodation for an 
audience of 700. 

The Northern Meeting Rooms are near the head of 
Church Street. The building, which was erected by 
subscription, is spacious but heavy and clumsy. There 
is a ball-room and a dining-room, each being 60 feet 
long by 30 wide. In the ball-room is a full length por- 
trait of the last Duke of Gordon (a copy of Lawrence's 
picture in the Aberdeen County Hall), one of his wife 
by Hayter, and a kit-cat of the celebrated Jane, Duchess 
of Gordon, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. The Northern 
Meeting, instituted in 1788, is the great gathering of the 
North, and is attended by nobility and gentry from all 
parts of the kingdom. The meeting is held annually in 
September, the forenoons being devoted to exhibitions 
of highland games and the evenings to balls. There is 
a permanent pavilion on the SW side of Ardross Street, 
in the park in which the games, etc. are held. The 
park is also used as a cricket ground by the Northern 
Counties Cricket Club. The Young Men's Christian 
Association Building, at the foot of Castle Street, front- 
ing High Street, was erected in 1868 at a cost of £3500. 
It has composite pillars surmounted by a frieze, cornice, 
and entablature. Over the hall wdndows are medallions 
of eminent men, and over the door is a colossal group 
representing Faith, Hope, and Charity. The Work- 
men's Club is in Drummond Street. It dates from about 
1862, and has a billiard and bagatelle room, and a 
library and reading-room. The library contains over 
7000 volumes, including a donation of books from the 
Queen. The Volunteer Drill Hall, near the entrance to 
Bell's Park, is an extensive building, erected in 1873 at 
a cost of £1400. The Public Markets, with entrances 
from Academy Street, Church Street, and Union Street, 
were erected in 1870 at a cost of £3000, and occupy a 
former open market space. The main front is to Market 
Street, opposite the railway station, and has a large 
apartment suitable for a public hall or a corn exchange. 
The railway station stands at the SW end of Academy 
Street, and fronts the end of Union Street. There is a 
large hotel adjoining. The greater part of the present 
structure (wdiich replaced a plainer building on the 
same site) was erected in 1875-76 at a cost of £12,000, 



and £6000 was again spent on extensions in 1881. 
The style is Italian, with a good deal of ornament. 
The railway company have large workshops farther to 
the E. The head office of the^ Caledonian Bank is in 
High Street, opposite Castle Street. Above the base- 
ment, which contains two finely carved archways, is a 
large portico with four fluted Corinthian columns sup- 
porting a pediment flanked by large vases with medallion 
portraits of the Queen and Prince Albert. In the 
tympanum is a finely executed group of allegorical 
figures by Ritchie, of Edinburgh. ' The centre figure 
is Caledonia, holding in her hand the Roman fasces em- 
blematical of unity. On the right is a figure represent- 
ing the Ness, from whose side rises another female form 
symbolic of a tributary stream. On the extreme right 
are two small figures rowing a bark representing Com- 
merce. On the left is Plenty pouring out the contents 
of her cornucopia, a reaper with an armful of cut corn, 
a shepherd and sheep emblematical of the rural interests 
of the country.' The Town and County Bank occupies 
a handsome block of buildings which was purchased for 
it in 1877 for £3700. The Northern Infirmary stands 
on the left bank of the Ness to the SW of the Cathedral, 
and was erected in 1803-4. It has a long plain front 
with a centre and two wings, and is supported by public 
and private collections and subscriptions. The Northern 
Lunatic Asylum stands about If mile SW of the town, 
on the face of the slope between Dunean and Craig 
Phadrick, at a height of 320 feet above sea-level. The 
position is commanding and the view magnificent. The 
buildings were erected in 1860 under the Lunacy Act 
(Scotland) of 1857 at a cost of £45,000. The frontage 
extends to about 600 feet, there are two central pavilion 
towers 90 feet high, and the building, with its sharp 
pointed roofs and angle turrets, is plain but bold. There 
is accommodation for about 350 inmates. The grounds, 
including airing grounds, gardens, and farm, extend to 
176 acres, held at an annual feu-duty of £370. The 
Poorhouse stands on the old Highland Road less than 
1 mile S of the town, and was erected in 1860-61 at a 
cost of about £6000. It is a handsome building, with 
accommodation for 170 inmates, and the grounds ex- 
tend to about 6 acres. The Dispensary and Vaccine 
Institution for the Sick Poor in Huntly Street was 
established in 1832, and is supported by voluntary con- 
tributions, though a recent bequest has given it an 
endowment of about £150 a year. A Highland Or- 
phanage on the cottage system is at present in course of 
erection on the Culduthel road. 

Churches. — The Blackfriars must have had a church 
in connection with their monastery, and there seem to 
have been chapels dedicated to St Giles, to St Thomas, 
and to the Virgin Mary. The two latter were about 
the present Chapel-yard, and the former occupied the 
site of the present Established High Church in Church 
Street. Provost Inglis, in the MS. already referred to, 
says that the parish church was a very ancient structure, 
and that, having become ruinous, it was pulled down in 
1769 and the present church built on its site (1769-72). 
This latter is a large plain structure. Adjoining it is 
an old square tower, said to have been built by Oliver 
Cromwell, and containing a soft clear-toned bell, thought 
to have been brought by the Protector from Fortrose 
Cathedral. It contains 1800 sittings, and is used only 
for services in the English language. Beside it is the 
Established Gaelic church, the charge being founded by 
the Crown in 1706 when the original church was built ; 
but the present very plain structure dates from 1794, 
and contains 1200 sittings. There is an old richly 
carved oak pulpit of Dutch workmanship. The Estab- 
lished West Church is on the left bank of the river to 
the NW, and was erected about 1S50. It contains 1670 
sittings. The Free High Church is near the river on 
the right bank, and was considerably enlarged in 1866. 
It is a handsome building with a good spire. The Free 
North Church is in Chapel Street, and the Free East 
and Free West stand in the NE and NW parts of the 
town respectively. The Queen Street Free church was 
originally United Presbyterian, and was erected for Gaelic 

services. It became a Free church in 1874. The United 
Presbyterian church in Union Street is a good Gothic 
building erected in 1867 to supersede the old church. 
A Wesleyan Methodist church at the junction of Inglis 
Street and Academy Street is a graceful Norman build- 
ing. It was built in 1867, and superseded a former 
church. There are also Independent and Baptist 
churches. The Roman Catholic church (St Mary's), on 
the river bank, was built in 1831, and has accommoda- 
tion for 400 persons. It has a good front. The Epis- 
copal Cathedral of the united diocese of Moray, Ross, 
and Caithness, of which Inverness is the centre, is in 
Ardross Street between the Northern Meeting Park and 
the Ness on a site on the river bank that shows it to 
excellent advantage. It was constructed after designs 
by Mr Alexander Ross, of Inverness, and the style is 
English Middle Pointed Gothic. The length is 166 
feet, the breadth 72 feet, and the height to the ridge of 
the roof 88 feet. There is a clerestoried nave with aisles 
terminating at the principal front in two massive towers 
which are intended to be finished with spires, bringing 
them to the height of 200 feet. There is a short apsidal 
choir with side aisles and quasi transepts. There is also 
an octagonal chapter-house, and the crossing is sur- 
mounted by a fleche. The roof is internally waggon 
vaulted with wood, and there are 22 stalls for clergy- 
men, 32 seats for choristers, and 630 sittings for the 
congregation. There is a fine altar and reredos, and 
the pulpit of stone and marble is highly sculptured and 
enriched. The windows have stained glass, and there 
is an organ with three manuals by Hill. Four single 
sculptured figures, and a large group on the tympanum 
of the door, were put up on the W front in 1876. The cost 
was £20,000 up to the time when it was opened on 1st 
Sept. 1867. The foundation-stone was laid by Arch- 
bishop Longley of Canterbury, assisted by seven bishops, 
in Oct. 1S66, and it was opened by Bishop Wilberforce. 
St John's Episcopal Church is Late Perpendicular Gothic 
in style, and has a tower, which is, however, incomplete. 
It was erected in 1840, and has 350 sittings. The con- 
gregation is representative of an old one which managed 
to survive the troublous times of last century. There 
is a mission chapel of the Holy Spirit in connection with 
the Cathedral. 

Schools. — Inverness is plentifully supplied with schools. 
The Royal Academy, on the NE side of Academy Street, 
near the railway station, was founded in 1792 for the 
liberal education of boys of the upper classes throughout 
the Northern Highlands. It is a plain building with a 
public hall and a number of class-rooms. There are 
separate buildings for girls which were erected in 1867. 
There is a large playground, and accommodation for 
altogether 782 pupils. A large fund, known as the 
Mackintosh of Farr Fund, provides education, clothing, 
and board for nineteen boys, and furnishes a university 
bursary. It is the interest of a sum of money bequeathed 
in 1803 by Captain W. Mackintosh of the Hindostan 
East Indiaman, and the capital is now valued at £28,000. 
The endowment of the school is about £250, but the 
total income, inclusive of fees, is about £1500. It is 
conducted by a rector, ten masters, a lady superin- 
tendent, and two governesses, and is managed by a 
body of directors acting under a royal charter. In the 
public hall is a bust of a former rector, Hector Fraser, 
by Westmaeott, and a painting of the Holy Family by 
Sasso Ferrato. One of the academy pupils was the late 
Baron Gordon, Lord of Appeal. Connected with the 
school is the Royal Academy Club, formed in 1864 to 
maintain permanent friendship among its former pupils, 
and to promote the general interests of the school by the 
establishment of bursaries or otherwise. The building 
also possesses the remains of the small museum collected 
by the Northern Institution for the Promotion of Science 
and Literature. The Northern Counties Collegiate 
School is on Ardross Terrace, and gives education after 
the model of the English public schools. It is managed 
by a council of thirteen influential gentlemen, and is 
conducted by a head-master and two assistant masters. 
There is accommodation for boarders. Under the Burgh 



School Board are the High School, the Central School, 
the Merkinch School, and Claehnaharry School, which, 
with respective accommodation for 552, 350, 350, and 150 
pupils, had (18S1) an average attendance of 253, 312, 346, 
and 76, and gran tsof £219, 13s. 6d., £230, 13s. 6d., £285, 
7s., and £51, 4s. The old High School, on School 
Hill, was originally a Free Church Model Institution, but 
passed in 1873 to the School Board, who, in 1879-80, 
erected a new High School in King's Mills Road at a 
cost of £6000. It is Gothic in style, and is well fitted 
up. The others call for no remark. Raining's School 
is on School Hill. It sprang from a bequest of £1000 
made in 1747 by Dr John Raining of Norwich, for the 
purpose of building and endowing a school in any part 
of the Highlands the General Assembly might appoint. 
It is now under the management of the Society in Scot- 
land for Propagating Christian Knowledge, and is con- 
ducted by a master and a lady superintendent. Bell's 
Institution, or Farraline Park School, is to the NE of 
the Academy. It is a handsome building, erected by 
the Magistrates and Town Council as trustees of the 
late Dr Andrew Bell of Egmont, and affords instruction 
to a large number of children, who are taught on the 
Madras or monitorial system, of which Dr Bell was 
such a staunch advocate. Other schools are the Govern- 
ment School of Arts, the Reformatory School in Rose 
Street, Bishop Eden's Mission School, a Roman Catholic 
School, and various private schools. 

Trade and Commerce, etc. — Malting was for genera- 
tions the chief employment in the town, which enjoyed 
almost a monopoly in the trade, and supplied all the 
northern counties, the Hebrides, and the Orkneys with 
malt. In the end of the 17th century half the architec- 
ture of the town was a mass of malting-houses, kilns, 
and granaries ; but from that time the trade gradually 
fell off, and by 1745 the place looked almost like a mass 
of ruin from the deserted and dilapidated buildings 
connected with the malt trade. At the end of last 
century an extensive white and coloured linen thread 
manufacture, that is said to have given employment 
to 10,000 people, had its centre at Inverness, but it is 
now gone owiug to the spirited competition of the 
towns of Forfarshire. A bleachfield and two hemp 
manufactories then in operation have also disappeared. 
A woollen factory on the Ness at Holm, about 2 miles 
up the river, was established about 1798, and is the 
oldest woollen factory in the north of Scotland. It is 
worked by both water and steam, employs about 100 
hands, and produces tweeds, mauds, plaiding, and 
blanketing. There are also the large works in connection 
with the Highland railway, ship and boat building yards, 
two large wood-yards and saw-mills, several polished 
granite and marble works, a rope work, a tan work, two 
breweries, a distillery, a tobacco manufactory, several 
foundries, and two nurseries. Considerable trade also 
accrues from the town being the residence of respectable 
annuitants, and from its being a centre for tourists and 
sportsmen. The railway now makes communication 
easy and rapid, both S and N, and Mr Macbrayne's 
steamers, which ply from Glasgow to Inverness by the 
Caledonian Canal — twice a week all the year round, and 
during the summer months once a day — connect it 
readily with the SW of Scotland. Since 1875 a steamer 
has also plied once a fortnight from Liverpool to Inver- 
ness, Aberdeen, and Leith, and vice versa, going by the 
Caledonian Canal. This makes Inverness a centre from 
which all sorts of miscellaneous goods are supplied to 
the smaller towns and villages throughout a very large 
tract of country round about. Along the river there 
are considerable salmon fishings. There are ordinary 
markets every Tuesday and Friday, and markets for 
horses, cattle, and sheep are held on the Fridays suc- 
ceeding the Muir of Ord market. The great Wool Fair 
is held on the second Thursday of July and the suc- 
ceeding Friday and Saturday. It was established in 
1817 for the sale of sheep and wool, and took place 
originally in June, but the date was afterwards changed 
to July. The sales effected every year average about 
£200,000. There are produce markets on the last 


Friday in July and in August, and on the last Thursday 
in November, and a hiring fair is held on the Friday 
before 26 May. A fat stock exhibition is held in the 
end of the year. 

For several centuries prior to the Union, Inverness 
was much frequented by foreign traders, and carried on 
a considerable commerce with continental ports, but 
much of this was in the first half of the 18th century 
diverted to Glasgow. An improved state of matters 
followed, however, on the changes that took place in the 
Highlands subsequent to 1745-46, and the commerce 
was still further extended by the transference of trade 
from foreign ports to the port of London, which began 
about 1803, and again received fresh extension after the 
full completion of the Caledonian Canal in 1847. The 
Aberdeen and Leith trade at one time carried on by 
steamers has now passed over to the Railway Company. 
The registration district of the port extends from Inver- 
ness to the Spey on the E, to Bonar- Bridge on the N, 
and from Fort William to Rhuestoer, — including the 
islands of Skye, Raasay, Cana, — on the W. The number 
of vessels in this district, with their tonnage, has been, 
at various dates, as follows : — 


No. of Vessels. 


1S31, . . . 



1861, . . . 



1S67, . . . 



1S75, . . . 



1SS3, . . . 



About half the vessels and nearly two-thirds of the 
tonnage belong to Inverness itself. 

The harbour lies within the mouth of the Ness, and 
consists of two parts — the one at Thornbush, about 700 
yards above the mouth of the river, where there is a 
pier for large steamers ; and the other about 400 yards 
further up, on the opposite side of the river, and in 
direct communication with the railway station. It was 
greatly improved in 1847, under an Act providing for 
the enlargement of Thornbush pier, the deepening of 
the river channel, the formation of a wet dock adjacent 
to the timber bridge, and the construction of quays and 
breastworks in the vicinity of the railway. The harbour 
trustees are the provost, bailies, dean of guild, treasurer, 
five members elected by shipowners, and five elected by 
merchants in the town. The following table shows 
the tonnage of vessels that entered from and to foreign 
and colonial ports and coastwise with cargoes and bal- 
last : — 




British. Foreign. 





1853, . 
1S60, . 
1S67, . 
1S74, . 
1SS2, . 











The amount of customs in 1S66 was £3571, in 1S71 
£3552, in 1874 £4264, and in 1SS1 £395S. The prin- 
cipal imports are coal, pig-iron, timber, hemp, wines, 
bacon, fish, boots, shoes, linen and woollen drapery, hard- 
ware, china and glass ; and the principal exports are 
grain, potatoes, wool, sailcloth, ropes, cast-iron, dairy 
produce, leather, and malt liquors. Till 1820 oatmeal 
was imported to the extent of 10,000 bolls yearly; it 
is now exported to nearly the same amount. About 
90,000 tons of coal are imported annually. 

The piers at Kessock Ferry, £ mile NW of Thorn- 
bush pier, occupy ground that formerly belonged to Sir 
William Fettes, and were constructed at his private 
expense at a cost of about £10,000. There are exten- 
sive wharfs at the Muirtown basin of the Caledonian 

Seal of Inverness. 


Municipality, etc. — The old rulers of Inverness held 
their authority under a sett fixed in 1676 and altered 
in 1722 ; but the old royalty excluded many important 
parts of the modern town — sometimes one side of a 

street being within 
and the other without 
the boundary. This 
caused so much trouble 
that a special Act was 

obtained in IS -47, by 
which the municipal 
boundary was ex- 
tended to the par- 
liamentary boundary 
as fixed in 1S32 ; and 
the modern town coun- 
cil consists of a pro- 
vost, 4 bailies, a dean 
of guild, a treasurer, 
and 14 councillors — 
the town being, for 
municipal purposes, 
divided into three 
wards. The corporation revenue in 18S1-S2 was£3S97. 
The powers of the police are founded on the Act of 1S47 ; 
but the Lindsay Act, adopted in 1874, has now superseded 
it in all matters with which the latter deals. The town 
council acts as the police commission. The police force 
consists of 14 men, and the superintendent has a salary 
of £180. The funds for education and charity managed 
by the council with the stock at their credit in 1882 
are : — Jonathan Anderson's (£3350), Frederick Klein's 
(£910), Dr Bell's (£7420), Robert Fraser's (£125), 
Thomas Fraser's (£100), Baillie's (£200), Burnett's 
(£100), Denoon's(£100), Gollan's (£92), Gibson's (£105), 
Logan's (£212), Duff's (£1068), Davidson's (£273), 
Smith's (£1757). The gas and water company was 
established in 1826, and obtained enlarged powers in 
1S47 ; but Inverness was formerly very ill supplied with 
water. In 1875, however, a bill was obtained empower- 
ing the corporation to buy up the old company and 
introduce water by gravitation from Loch Ashie, 7i 
miles SSW of the town. The new waterworks — including 
a reservoir of 7,000,000 gallons' capacity at Culduthel, 
2 miles S of the town — were opened in the end of 1877, 
and in 1878 a new telescopic gasometer, to contain 
144,000 feet, was erected at a cost of £3515. The town 
has a head post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments. Besides the head office of the 
Caledonian Bank (established 1838, and suspended for 
a short time during the crisis due to the failure of the 
City of Glasgow Bank), there are branches of the Bank 
of Scotland, and of the British Linen Company, the Com- 
mercial, the National, the Town and County, the Union, 
and the Royal Banks. There is also a branch of the 
National Security Savings' Bank, and agencies of 42 insur- 
ance companies, and a large number of excellent hotels. 
The newspapers are the Whig Inverness Courier (1817), 
published on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday ; the 
Liberal Inverness Advertiser (l$i9), published on Friday; 
and the Conservative Northern Chronicle (1881), pub- 
lished on "Wednesday. The Celtic Magazine is published 
monthly. There are three mason lodges — St Andrew's 
Royal Arch Chapter (No. 115), St John's Kilwinning (No. 
6), St Mary's Caledonian Operative (No. 339). Among 
the miscellaneous institutions may be noticed the Inver- 
ness Chess and Draughts Club, the Caledonian Club, the 
Highland Club, the Amateur Dramatic Club, a branch of 
the Bible Society, a Young lien's Christian Association, 
a Young Men's Mutual Improvement Society, the In- 
verness Scientific Society and Field Club, the Literary 
Institute, the Choral Union, the Northern Counties 
Institute for the Blind (in the old High School ; opened 
in 1881), the Gaelic Society, the Curling Club, the 
Bowling Club, the Northern Counties Cricket Club, the 
North of Scotland Heritable Investment Company, the 
Inverness British Workman Public House Company, a 
Coal and Clothing Society, four Friendly Societies, and 
a Farmers' Society. Inverness has six batteries of artil- 


lery volunteers and four companies of rifle volunteers. 
In connection with these the Highland Rifle Association, 
established in 1S61, holds a meeting at Inverness every 
autumn. Sheriff small debt courts are held every Fri- 
day ; Quarter Sessions meet on the first Tuesday of 
March, May, and August, and on the last Tuesday of 
October ; Justice of Peace small debt courts are held 
every month, and for other business as required. 

Inverness, with Forres, Fortrose, and Nairn, returns a 
member to parliament (always a Liberal since 1837). 
Parliamentary constituency (1883) 2298 ; municipal 
constituency 2703, including 405 females. Valuation 
(1875) £56,709, (1883) £83,641. Pop. (1831) 9663, 
(1841) 11,592, (1851) 12,793, (1861) 12,509, (1871) 
14,469, (1881) 17,365, of whom 4047 were Gaelic- 
speaking, and 9019 were females. Houses (1881) 2519 
inhabited, S2 vacant, 67 building. 

See Burt's Letters from a Gentleman in the North of 
Scotland (Lond. 1754) ; Shaw's History of the Province of 
Moray (Edinb. 1775 ; 3d ed., Glasg., 1882); Leslie and 
Grant's Survey of the Province of Moray (Aberdeen, 
179S); Maclean's Reminiscences of Inverness {\hy . 1842); 
Taylor's Edward I. in the North of Scotland (Elgin, 
185S); the various editions of Anderson's Guide to the 
Highlands; Fraser-Mackintosh's Antiquarian Notes 
(Inv. 1865), and his Inverncssiana (Inv. 1S75). 

Inverness Railway. See Highland Railway. 

Inverness-shire, a great Highland count}-, extending 
across Scotland from the E coast along the upper reaches 
of the Moray Firth to the Atlantic on the TV coast 
beyond the Outer Hebrides. It used formerly to consist 
of three detached portions, one of which was dovetailed 
in between two portions of the upper district of Elgin- 
shire ; but in 1870, by ' The Inverness and Elgin County 
Boundaries Act, ' a part of the united parishes of Crom- 
dale and Inverallan, including the village of Grantown, 
was transferred from Inverness to Elgin, and portions 
of the parishes of Abernethy and Duthil from Elgin to 
Inverness. The population of the former district was 
(1861) 3377, and of the latter in the same year 2750, so 
that Inverness lost slightly as regards population. The 
other detached piece is a small portion, measuring about 
1 by | mile, included in Nairnshire, in Strathnairn, 
about £ mile E of Culloden Muir. Five and a half 
miles E of Foyers, on Loch Ness, Inverness includes a 
detached portion of Nairnshire, measuring 7J miles long 
by 5 wide at the widest part. The county is bounded 
on the N by Ross-shire and the Moray Filth, on the E 
by Nairnshire, Elginshire, Banffshire, and Aberdeen- 
shire, on the S by Perthshire and Argyllshire, and 
along the "W by the Atlantic Ocean. The shape is very 
irregular. The compact mainland portion of the county 
may be said to extend from Ben Attow on the W to 
the Cairngorm Mountains on the E, a distance as the 
crow flies of 69 miles ; Ind from Beauly on the N to the 
river Leven on the S, a distance of 57^ miles. From 
this, between Loch Loyne and Glen Loy, a prolongation 
passes westward, widening as it goes till it embraces the 
whole chain of the Outer Hebrides except Lewis, and 
looking on the map like the shattered remains of some 
fucoid of highly irregular shape. From the "W coast of 
South Uist to Loch Loyne, measuring in a straight line, 
is a distance of 92 miles ; and along the line of the 
Outer Hebrides, from Harris to Barra Head, the distance 
is 91 miles. Inverness is the largest county in Scot- 
land, the total area being 4231 - 62 square miles or 
2,708,237 acres, including 91,775 acres of foreshore and 
water. Of this enormous total, however, only 129, S10 
were in 1882 under crop, bare fallow, and grass, and 
162,201 under planted wood ; all the rest being natural 
wood, rough hill grazing, heath, peat, or stony waste. 
And it is not therefore to be wondered at that the county 
should be on the average the second least densely popu- 
lated in the country, there being 22 persons to the square 
mile, while Sutherland has only 12. There are 46 inha- 
bited islands in the county, with a population of 35,523. 
Of the total area 747,739 acres belong to the island, and 
the rest to the mainland, portion of the county. 

Starting at the extreme NW corner at the head of 



Loeh Resort in Lewis, the boundary line curves across 
Lewis and Harris to the centre of Loch Seaforth, and 
then, striking south-eastward across the Minch, takes in 
the whole of Skye, and passes up the Inner Sound 
between Raasay and the mainland, between Longa and 
Croulin Mhor, through Kyle-Akin, along Loch Alsh, 
and half-way up Kyle Rhea. There it quits the sea, 
and strikes E by S along the watershed, between Loch 
Duich and Glen Shiel on the N in Ross-shire, and Loch 
Hourn and Glen Quoieh to the S in Inverness-shire, for 
a distance of about 22 miles at an average height of 
about 3000 feet above sea-level, to the eastern shoulder 
of Aonachair Chrith (3342 feet), where it turns abruptly 
S for a mile to the river Loyne, the course of which it 
follows through the centre of upper Loch Loyne to lower 
Loch Loyne (700). About J mile from the upper end 
of Loch Loyne the line turns for 3 miles to the N"ff, and 
then N across Loch Clunie (606 feet), and in an irregular 
line up to the high ground, where it again takes an 
irregular line south-westward, following the watershed 
by Sgurr nan Conbhairean (3632), Garbh Leac (3673), 
Ciste Dhubh (3218), Cam Fuaralach (3241), and Sgurr a' 
Bhealaich Dheirg (3378), all at the upper ends of Glen 
Moriston and Glen Affrick, and so to Ben Attow (3383). 
Here it turns to the north-eastward by Sgurr nan Ceath- 
reamhnan (3771 feet) and Mam Soul (3877), beyond which 
it quits the watershed, and, crossing a stream flowing 
into Loch Moyley, passes on to Loch Monar about a mile 
from the W end of the loch. From this it takes an 
irregular line eastward along the high ground between 
Strathfarrer and Glen Orrin till it reaches the Highland 
railway midway between Beauly and Muir of Ord 
stations. From this it sends a pointed projection north- 
ward to Muir of Ord station, where it crosses the railway 
and curves back to the estuary of the river Beauly, 2 
miles below the town. The boundary is then the 
Beauly Firth, the Firth of Inverness, and the Moray 
Firth, to Delnies, i miles E of Fort George. Here it 
strikes southward in an excessively irregular line to 
Culloden Muir, and then irregularly by artificial lines 
south-eastward to the river Dulnain at Muckrach ; passes 
along the Dulnain to the Spey, down the latter river for 
about 8 miles, and then SE to Allt Mor Burn, up which 
it keeps to the source ; and then strikes across to the 
AVater of Ailnaek about 3J miles from its mouth. It 
proceeds up this burn to a height of 2059 feet, and then 
strikes SW by Caiplich (3574), and along the whole 
watershed of the Cairngorms, the principal summits 
being Cairngorm (4084) and Braeriach (4248). About 
midway between Cairngorm and Braeriach the boun- 
daries of Banff, Inverness, and Aberdeen all meet. 
About a mile beyond Braeriach, and just above the 
main source of the Dee, the line takes a southerly direc- 
tion to Cairn Ealar (3276 feet), where the boundaries of 
Aberdeen, Inverness, and Perth meet, following all the 
way the watershed between the burns that flow down 
into the Dee, and those that pass by Glen Feshie to the 
Spey. From the mountain just named the line takes a 
very irregular westerly direction along the watershed 
between the burns on the S in Perthshire flowing by 
Glen Tilt and Glen Garry to the Tay, and those flowing 
to the N by Glen Tromie and Glen Truim to the Spey, 
until it reaches Loch Ericht (1153 feet), near the centre 
of the SE bank. The principal summits along this line 
are Cam na Caim (3087 feet), the Boar of Badenoch 
(2432), the Athole Sow (3175), and Beinn Udlaman 
(3306). After turning southward along the centre of 
Loch Ericht for 4| miles, it passes up the burn of TJisge 
Aulder to the top of Beinn Chumhann (2962 feet), and 
then along the watershed between the burns that flow to 
Loch Rannoch and those that flow to Loch Treig (784), 
until it reaches the E end of the basin of the Leven. 
The highest summits here are Sgor Gaibhre (3128 feet) 
and Cam Dearg (3084). From the top of the basin of the 
Leven the line keeps westward along the valley and 
down the course of the river to Loch Leven, and then 
NE along lower Loch Eil, and along the course of the 
river Lochy to a point midway between Loch Eil and 
Loch Lochy, A mile S of the Glen Loy Bum. Here, striking 


in an irregular westerly line, it crosses from side to side 
of Glen Loy, until near the source of the Glen Mallie 
Burn it again takes to the watershed, which it follows 
till it descends to the river Callop, f mile above Loch 
Shiel. The highest summits are Stob a' Ghrianain (2420 
feet) Coille Mhor (2071), Meall a' Phubuill (2535), Gulvain 
(North, 3224 ; South, 3148), Streap (2988), and Beinn 
nan Tom (2603). Passing down Loch Shiel, the line 
includes the island of Eigg, but excludes Muck, Rum, 
and Canna, and then takes in the whole of the Outer 
Hebrides (including St Kilda), all the way N till it 
reaches Loch Resort once more. The island districts 
are treated under the articles Hebrides and Skye, and 
what follows is chiefly confined to the mainland part of 
the county. 

Districts and Surface. — There are throughout the 
county a large number of districts with separate names. 
The Great Glen of Alban, passing in a NE and SW 
direction from the Moray Firth at Inverness, by the river 
Ness, Loch Ness, the river Oich, Loch Oich (105 feet), 
Loch Lochy (93), and the river Lochy to Loch Eil, forms 
a great natural division between the eastern and western 
divisions of the county. Taking the region to the W 
of this, and starting from the N, there are the three 
parallel Glens of Strathfarrer, Cannich, and Strath- 
affric, which, uniting and widening at the lower end, 
give place to Strath Glass along the upper waters of the 
river Beauly. The district occupying the high ground 
between the river Beauly and the river Ness is known 
as The Aird, beyond which, along towards the lower 
part of Glen Urquhart, is Caiplich. To the E of Strath- 
affric is Glen Urquhart, which opens at its lower end on 
the Great Glen about 7 miles from the NE end, and 
farther S is the larger and more important Glen Mor- 
iston, opening on Loch Ness about 5J miles from 
its SW end. Farther S still, and passing due westward 
from Loch Oich, is the long narrow Glen Garry, to the 
S of which, and parallel with it, is the hollow occupied 
by Loch Arkaig, at the commencement of the Locheil 
country. This hollow is continued westward by the 
smaller Glen Pean and Glen Dessary. To the W, along 
the Sound of Sleat are : — Glenelg, between Glenelg Bay 
and Loch Hourn ; Knoydart, between Loch Hourn and 
Loch Nevis ; Morar, between Loch Nevis and Loch 
Morar ; Arasaig, between Loch Morar and Loch Ailort ; 
and Moidart, between Loch Ailort and Loch Shiel. The 
whole of this region forms the wildest and roughest part 
of Inverness-shire. 

While the valleys and ridges to the W of the Great 
Glen have an E and W direction, those to the E of that 
line mostly run from NE to SW. Extending along the 
eastern shore of Loch Ness is the district known as 
Strath Errick — a tableland about 400 feet above sea- 
level. At the SW end of Loch Ness is Glen Tarff ; while 
at the NE end, along Dochfour, is Strath Dores. Across 
the high ground E of this is Strathnaim, along the 
upper waters of the river of the same name. This is 
followed by Strathdearn along the upper waters of the 
Findhorn, and this, again, by the upper portion of 
Strathspey, while to the E of the Spey, on the borders 
of the county, beyond the Braes of Abernethy, is the 
wild district along the western side of the Cairngorms. 
Along the north-eastern border of the county, between 
the Nairn and the Findhorn, is Moy. Above Kingussie 
the valley of the upper Spey runs more nearly from W 
to E, and from it the smaller glens of Markie (N) and 
Mashie (S) branch. The high ground W of Glen Mashie 
between that and the Pattack, which flows into Loch 
Laggan, is the watershed between the Atlantic and the 
German Ocean. To the S of the Spey, and including 
Glen Spean, Glen Roy, Glen Treig, Glen Nevis, and 
some smaller glens, is the great district of Lochaber. To 
the SE of the Spey, and extending from the Braes of 
Abernethy on the N to the head of Glen Spean, and 
lying along the borders of the counties of Perth and 
Aberdeen, is the other great district— Badenoch — which 
includes the Glens of Feshie, Tromie, Truim, andCalder, 
as well as most of the basin of Loch Laggan and the 
north-eastern part of the basin of Loch Ericht. 


Inverness is the most mountainous county in Scot- 
land, and has the most rugged and uneven surface. In 
the immediate neighbourhood of the town of Inverness 
and along the shore of the Beauly Firth there is a flat 
strip of no great extent, and from this there rises a 
series of uplands which pass into lofty hills in all 
directions in the interior and on the borders of the 
county, till finally, near the south-western extremity of 
the county at Ben Nevis (4406 feet), the highest point 
of Great Britain is reached. The range of heights to 
the N of Strathfarrer attains a height of from 1500 to 1S00 
feet, and the same height is reached between Strath- 
farrer and Glen Cannich. Those between Glen Cannich 
and Strath affrie rise to the westward to a still greater 
height until they terminate at Mam Soul and the lofty 
summits about Ben Attow. From Ben Dubh or Ciste 
Dubh (already mentioned), a line of heights runs east- 
ward to the shore of Loch Ness between Strathaffric and 
Glen Urquhart on the N, and Glen Moriston on the_S, 
and reach an average height of over 2000 feet, the prin- 
cipal summits from "W to E being Sgurr nan Ceathrani- 
han (3614 feet), Tigh Mor (3222), Aonach Shasuinn 
(2901), Carn a Choire Chruaidh (2830), Cam a Choire 
Leith (2118), and Mealfourvonie (3060) close to Loch 
Ness. Between Glen Moriston and Glen Garry the 
heights are about 2000 feet, but along the boundary 
line W of the source of the river Loyne they rise to over 
3000, the principal being Aonachair Chrith (3342), 
Sgurr an Lochain (32S2), Creag nan Damh (3012), and 
The Saddle (3317). Between Glen Garry and Loch 
Arkaig the majority of the heights are over 2000 feet, 
and a few approach "or are over 3000. The principal sum- 
mits are Sgor Choinich (2450 feet), Geal Charn (2636), 
Meall Coire nan Saobhaidh (2695), Beinn Tee (2956), Sron 
a Coire Ghairbh (3066), Meall Coire Lochain (2971), and 
Glas Bheinn (2398). To the S of Loch Arkaig are the 
heights on the boundary between the Lochy and Loch 
Shiel already mentioned, and on the E above the Lochy 
the great mass of Beinn Bhan with a double summit 
(West, 2522 ; East, 2613). The district to the W of this, 
intersected by the sea-lochs on the Sound of Sleat 
between Glenelg and Moidart, is very rugged, a consider- 
able number of the hills approaching 3000 feet, and at 
Gleourach (3395), Sgurr a' Mhoraire (3365), Scour 
Gairoch (3015), Sgor Mhor (3290), Sgorna Ciche (3410), 
Sgor nan Coireachan (3125),* Sgor Choileam (3164), 
and elsewhere surpassing that height. Near the south- 
western extremity of the county is Ben Nevis (4406 feet), 
with the shoulders known as Carn Dearg, one (3961) 
to the NW of the summit, and the other (3348) to the 
SW, while beyond the hollow occupied by the tarn is 
Meall an t'Suidhe (2322). To the S beyond Glen Nevis 
a rough sea of hills passes away to the boundary, the 
principal being Mullach nan Coirean (3077 feet), Stob 
Ban (3274), Sgor a' Mhaini (3601), Am Bodach (3382), 
Binnein Mor (3700), and Biunein Beag (30S3) on the S 
side of Glen Nevis ; while E of this are Glas Bheinn 
(2587), Beinn Bhreac (2S63), and Leim Uilleim (2971). 
To the N of Ben Nevis the ground falls at first rapidly, and 
then more slowly towards Glen Speau, while to the east- 
ward and north-eastward the long line of the Grampians 
begins with Aonach Mor (3999 feet), and Aonach Beag 
(4060), which are mere offshoots from the great Ben, the 
ground between sinking only to 2915 feet. Continuing 
north-eastward the principal summits of those that rise 
to a height of over 3000 feet are Stob Coire an Easain 
(3545), Stob Ban (3217), and a nameless summit to the 
"W (3750) ; Stob Choire an Easain Mhor (365S), imme- 
diately to the W of Loch Treig ; Cnoc Dearg (3433), E of 
Loch Treig ; Beinn na Lap (3066), NW of Loch Ossian ; 
Beinn Eibhinn (3611), Aonach Bea (3646), Beinn a' 
Chlachair (3569), Creag Peathraich (3031), and Mullah 
Coire an Iubhair (3443), all in a line to the NE of Loch 
Ossian ; one of the many Carn Deargs (3391) and the 
huge mass of Ben Alder (3757), with the lower top of 
Beinn Bheoil (3333), to the NW of Loch Ericht ; Geal- 
charn (3005), E of Loch Ericht ; Stac Meall na Cuaich 

♦This is N of Glen Dessary. There is another Sgor nan 
Coireachan (3133 feet) S of the head of Glen Pean. 


(3000), between the upper parts of Glen Truim and Glen 
Tromie ; and Meall Tionail (3338), Meal Dubh-achadh 
(3268), Carn Ban (3443), and Sgor an Dubh (3658), all to 
the E of the upper part of Glen Feshie. To the E of these 
is Monadh Mor (3651 feet) on the border of the county 
as the Grampians pass away into Aberdeenshire. To 
the NE are the Cairngorms, the principal summits of 
which have been already given as occurring on the 
borders of the county. In the part of Lochaber to the 
NE of Ben Nevis beyond Glen Spean, and between Glen 
Roy and Loch Laggan, and extending N to the Spey, 
are a large number of hills from 2000 to 3700 feet high, 
the chief being Beinn a' Mheirlich (2994), the double- 
topped Beinn a' Chaoruinn (South, 3437 ; North, 3422), 
An Cearcallach (3250), Creag Meaghaidh (3700), and Carn 
Liath (3298). To the W of this the ground rises rapidly 
from the Spean, and a ridge runs north-eastward be- 
tween Glen Gloy and Glen Roy parallel to Loch Lochy, 
the hills gradually rising in height till at Corryarrick 
a height of 2922 feet is reached between Loch Spey and 
the head of Glen Tarff. From this the chain of heights 
known as the Monadhliath Mountains stretch first E 
along the N side of the upper course of the Spey and 
then NE between the Spey and the Findhorn, till 
within about 5 miles of the boundary between Inver- 
ness-shire and Elginshire. The principal summits are 
Garbh Bheinn (2920 feet), Geal Charn (3036) close to Glen 
Markie, Carn Mairg (3087), A' Chailleach (3045), Carn 
Sgulain (3015), and another of the same name farther 
to the NE (2606). At the higher Carn Sgulain the 
range is split by the river Dulnan, down the sides of 
which the heights pass at an average elevation of about 
2500 feet. A branch of the Monadhliath Mountains 
also passes NE between the upper waters of the Nairn 
and Findhorn, the chief summits being Carn a' Choire 
Ghlaise (2555 feet), Doire Meurach (25S2), Carn na Saob- 
haidhe (2657), Carn Odhar (2618), Beinn Bhuidhe (2329), 
and Beinn Bhreac Mhor (2641). The district between 
Mam Soul and Moidart along the watershed between 
the E and W coasts is the wildest and roughest part of 
the whole shire, and has in consequence got the name 
of the 'rough bounds.' From many parts of it good 
views may be obtained of the surrounding districts, and 
particularly at the head of Glen Pean westward from 
Loch Arkaig. Here Glen Dessary is seen to the N, 
Loch Morar lies below, and away beyond is a wide 
expanse of sea sprinkled with islands — Skye on the 
right ; with Rum, Eigg, and Canna, and the Outer 
Hebrides like a cloud on the distant horizon. 

Rivers and Lochs. — There are a considerable number 
of rivers throughout the county, and the small streams 
are simply innumerable. In the NW Glen Cannich is 
drained by the Cannich and Strathaffric, in the upper 
part by Grivie Water, and then by the river Glass. 
These unite near the upper end of Strathglass, and at 
Erchless Castle are joined by the Farrer from Strathfarrer, 
and thereafter the river thus formed flows eastward and 
enters the sea at the W end of the Beauly Firth. From 
the Aird the burns of Moniack and Bunchrew flow N to 
the Beauly Firth ; while the drainage of the whole of 
the Great Glen NE of Loch Oich is carried off by the 
river Ness, which enters the sea at the town of Inver- 
ness. The only streams of any size that it receives are 
the burn of Leys and the Allt Mor or Big Burn, which 
flows from Loch Ashie. The drainage of the south- 
western part of the Great Glen is carried off by the river 
Lochy, which enters the sea at Loch Eil. Passing first 
along the W side, Glen Urquhart is drained by the 
Enriek, and the Coiltie and Glen Moriston by the river 
Moriston, which in its upper portion receives the Doe 
(N) and the Loyne (S). These flow into Loch Ness ; 
and along the banks of the loch there are also a number 
of smaller burns, the principal being the burn of Abria- 
chan, N of Glen Urquhart. On a small stream flowing 
into the Coiltie are the picturesque falls of Divach. 
Loch Oich and Loch Ness are connected by the river 
Oich. Glen Garry is drained by the river Garry, which 
flows into Loch Oich, and receives an immense number 
of tributaries, the principal being the Kingie (S). Loch 



Lochy receives, all along, a number of small burns ; 
while near the SW corner it is entered by the Arkaig 
from Loch Arkaig, carrying off the drainage of the 
whole district lying in the hollow eastward of Glen 
Dessary and Glen Pean. The river Lochy receives the 
fair-sized stream that issues from Glen Loy close to the 
county boundary. In the district between Glenelg and 
Moidart there are numerous streams falling into the 
various sea-lochs. On the E side of the Great Glen the 
north-eastern part of Strath Errick is drained by the 
Foyers and the streams E and Fechlin which flow into 
it. The region between Corryarrick and the SW end 
of Loch Ness has its drainage carried off by the Doe and 
Tarff, of which the former enters the loch about a mile 
from, and the latter at the SW end, close to Fort 
Augustus. The country immediately E of Loch Oieh 
is drained mainly by Calder Burn, which enters the 
loch at the NE end ; while the district immediately E 
of Loch Lochy is drained mainly by the stream that 
issues from Glen Gloy, and enters the loch 2£ miles 
from its SW end. Almost immediately after leaving 
the loch, the Lochy receives the large tributary of the 
Spean, which carries off the drainage of almost the 
whole of Lochaber. Its principal tributaries are the 
Roy, from Glen Roy on the N ; the Treig, from Loch 
Treig ; the Gulbin, from Loch Ossian ; and the Pattack, 
which flows into Loch Laggan. Round Glen Gloy, 
Glen Roy, and Glen Spean are the fine terraces marking 
old lake margins, and so well known under the name 
of 'parallel roads.' The drainage of the NE flanks of 
Ben Nevis also passes to the Spean ; but that of the N 
and KW is carried off by the river Lundy, which enters 
the Lochy about 2 miles from the mouth ; while that to 
the S and SW is carried off by the Nevis, which enters 
Loch Eil at Fort William. From Mamore comes the 
Water of Kiachnish, which enters Loch Eil farther S. 
Besides all these, a large number of burns flow directly 
into the various lochs, but they are all of small size. 

Excepting the basin of Loch Ericht — the rainfall of 
which passes off to the Tummel — and the burns that 
flow into Loch Laggan, the whole of Badenoch is drained 
by the Spey and its tributaries, as are also the S and SE 
sides of the Monadhliath Mountains, the Grampians 
from Loch Ericht to the borders of Aberdeenshire, and 
the NW side of the Cairngorms. The principal tribu- 
taries from the N and NE are Markie Burn, the river 
Calder, and the river Dulnan, the latter being so large 
as to have a sort of subsidiary basin midway between 
the Spey and the Findhorn, and about 20 miles long. 
The tributaries on the S and SW are Mashie Water, the 
rivers Truirn, Tromie, Feshie, Druie, and Nethy. The 
drainage of the remaining part of the county between 
the Monadhliath Mountains and Strath Errick is by 
means of the rivers Nairn and Findhorn and their tribu- 
taries, the chief of those joining the former river being 
Allt Beag and the Craggie Burn, both from the SE ; 
while joining the latter river are the Kyllachie Burn 
and the Moy or Funtack Burn, both from the W. 

There are within the county, speaking only of the 
mainland part, ninety lochs of fair size, besides a very 
large number of lochans. The principal lochs only can 
here be mentioned, and these are taken in connection 
with the districts in which they lie. The figures give 
the heights above sea-level, and for other information 
reference may be made to the separate articles dealing 
with them. In Strathfarrer, Loch a' Mhuilinn (418 feet) 
and Loch Bunacharan (367) ; in Glen Cannich, Loch Mul- 
lardoch (705) ; in Strathaffrie, Loch Beneveian (720) and 
Loch Affrick (744); in Glen Urquhart, Loch Meiklie 
(372) on the Enrick, and Loch Aslaich (1310) on the 
Coiltie ; in Glen Moriston, the lower half of Loch Clunie 
(606) ; along Glen Garry, Loch Lundie (445), Loch Garry 
(258), Loch Poulary (310), Loch Quoich (555), and Lochan 
nam Breac (574). Loch Quoich receives the river 
Quoich, and Loch Garry also receives some fair-sized 
streams. In the Arkaig valley is Loch Arkaig (140 feet) ; 
in the Great Glen, Loch Lochy (93), Loch Oich (105), Loch 
Ness (50), and Loch Dochfour (50); in Strathdores, 
Loch Ashie (716); in Stratherrisk, Loch Duntelchak 


(702), Loch Ruthven (700), Loch Farraline (650), Loch 
Garth (618), Loch Eillin (1057), Loch Kemp (545), Loch 
Knockie (690), and Loch Tarff (956)— the latter not, 
however, in Glen Tarff, but to the N of it. Between 
the Nairn and Findhorn, 3J miles SW of the boundary 
with Nairnshire, is Loch Moy, draining into the Find- 
horn. On the Spey are Loch Inch (721 feet) and Loch 
Spey (1142) ; while in the basin drained by this river and 
by its tributaries are Loch Garten (726), Loch Phitiulais 
(674), Loch Morlich (1046), Loch Alvie (685), Loch 
an Eilein (840), Loch Eunach (1700), Loch an t'Seilich 
(1400), Loch Bhradain (1460), half of Lochan Duin (1680), 
the rest being in Perthshire, Loch na Cuaich (1298), 
Loch Coultrie (1150), Loch Crunachan (890), and Loch 
Dubh (2200). On the SE border of the county is part 
of Loch Ericht (1153 feet) ; in the valley drained by the 
Spean, Loch Laggan (S19), Lochan na h-Earba (1140), 
Loch a' Bhealaich Shleamhuinn (2116), Loch Pattack 
(1430), Loch a' Bhealaich Bheithe, between Ben Alder 
and Ben Bheoil (2347), Loch Gulbin (1150), Loch Ossian 
(1269), and Loch Treig (784) ; on Ben Nevis, Lochan 
Meall an t'Suidhe (1820) ; to the S of Glen Nevis, Lochan 
Lunn Da Bhra (511), Loch Eilde Beag (1180), and Loch 
Eilde Mor (1120). The whole of the principal rivers 
and lakes abound with fish of various kinds, and furnish 
capital sport. 

As might be expected, the scenery in such a county 
is very varied. The greater part of the county shows 
little but a sea of hills, with bare brown undulating 
expanses of moor between, and intersected by hollows 
occupied by streams or lochs, the whole being in most 
places very dull and dismal except when the heather is 
in bloom. Many of the hollows are, however, well 
wooded, and have fertile haughs along the banks of the 
rivers. This is particularly the case along the line of 
the Great Glen, in Glen Moriston, in Glen Urquhart, 
in Strath Glass, in Moy, along part of Strathdearn, and 
particularly in the valley of the Spey below its junction 
with Glen Truim. There is also a good wooded district 
about Loch Arkaig, on the opposite side of the county 
at the Aird, and eastward of Inverness by Culloden 
towards Croy in Nairnshire ; while the flat country 
along the margin of the Beauly Firth is well wooded 
and fertile. Details of the glens, lochs, and rivers will 
be found under the separate headings, as well as accounts 
of the fine scenery at the falls of Divach, Foyers, Kil- 
moraek, and elsewhere. 

Geology. — The geological history of the mainland 
portion of Inverness-shire is widely different from that 
of Skye and Raasay. These islands contain a grand 
development of Tertiary volcanic rocks resting uncon- 
formably on various members of the Secondary forma- 
tions, to the description of which a separate article will 
be devoted. The mainland portion of the county is 
composed of metamorphic rocks, on which representa- 
tives of the Old Red Sandstone rest unconformably. 
Indeed, if we except a strip of ground stretching along 
the banks of Loch Ness from Inverness, and a limited 
tract in the Beauly basin, the remainder of the area is 
occupied by stratified crystalline rocks and the granite 
masses associated with them. According to the gene- 
rally-accepted theory, these metamorphic rocks are 
regarded as altered sedimentary deposits of Silurian age. 
No detailed investigations have as yet been made with 
the view of determining the order of succession of the 
strata between Glenelg and the crest of the Grampians, 
and hence at present only a general outline can be given 
of the types of strata represented in the area, and some 
of the larger folds. In the W part of the county, along 
the shores of Loch Hourn, and on the serrated peaks 
that overlook the fiord, the beds consist of finely-stratified 
micaceous and quartzose flagstones, which are inclined 
to the SE at comparatively low angles. In these beds are 
found bands of gneiss and micaceous quartzose grits, but 
the flagstones form the dominant members of the series. 
This succession continues, with the same SE inclination, 
as far as Loch Quoich, where a great synclinal fold 
occurs, and the same beds reappear, with a NW inclina- 
tion, for several miles. Beyond this point, as we 


descend Glen Garry, the strata are repeated by a series 
of undulations, till on approaching the Great Glen they 
have a decidedly SW dip. Crossing the Great Glen and 
ascending the valley of the Spean, we find a succession 
of quartzose flagstones with bands of mica schist, which 
are overlaid by mica schists with limestones, the whole 
series dipping towards the SE. From these data, as 
well as from the occurrence of crystalline limestones in 
the island of Lismore, Sir Roderick Murchison and Dr 
Archibald Geikie inferred that the Great Glen coincided 
with an anticlinal fold, which gradually increased towards 
the SW, and brought to the surface the Silurian lime- 
stones and overlying quartzose flagstones of Ross and 
Sutherland. Above the Bridge of Spean the limestones 
and mica schists are associated with hornblendic rocks, 
and these are succeeded by a great development of sericite 
schists, quartz schists, and ordinary mica schists. Fur- 
ther to the E, along the crest of the Grampians at 
Dalwhinnie, there is an anticlinal fold in gray micaceous 
gneiss, schists, and quartzites, which underlie the 
crystalline limestone series of Perthshire. It is pro- 
bable, therefore, that subsequent investigations may 
prove that the latter are on the same horizon as the 
limestones, mica schists, and hornblendic rocks of Glen 

There is one section in the county of special import- 
ance, on account of the variety of minerals obtained from 
the beds. It occurs in Glen Urquhart, not far from 
Drunmadrockit, where the mica schists and gneiss are 
associated with crystalline limestones and serpentine. 
The following minerals have been obtained from this 
locality by Professor Heddle : orthoclase, andesine, 
biotite, edenite, hydrous anthophyllite, tremolite, 
zoisite, kyanite, ehondrodite, Wollastonite, sphene, and 
garnet. Another celebrated mineralogical locality occurs 
in the X of the couuty at Struy. There the minerals 
are embedded in a pegmatite vein, which seems to have 
participated in th e foldings of the micaceous gneiss on 
either side. The predominating mineral in the vein is 
felspar of two very different tints, one displaying a 
delicate pink tinge when the rock is freshly fractured, 
and the other a blue shade. Notwithstanding this 
difference in colour, the chemical analysis points to the 
conclusion that the felspar is orthoclase. Associated 
with the felspar are muscovite, tourmaline, garnets, and, 
still more rarely, zircon with beautiful hexagonal crystals 
of beryl. In the course of the excursions of the Inver- 
ness Field Club, a blue mineral was found in considerable 
abundance in the gneiss and granite between Inverness 
and Abriachan, which on analysis proved to be a new 
mineral, and which has since received the name of 
Abriachanite. Reference ought also to be made to the 
fine crystals of epidote occurring in the granite on the 
shores of Loch Ness near Doehfour. 

Numerous granite masses are associated with the 
stratified crystalline rocks, chiefly to the E of the 
Caledonian Canal. There is one area of considerable 
extent, however, to the W of the Great Glen, along the 
shores of Loch Ness at Abriachan. A portion of the 
granite mass forming the Ben Macdhui range is included 
in this county, and also a fragment of the Rannoch area, 
while small bosses occur to the E of Loch Errocht. One 
of the most interesting of these granite masses is that 
which forms Ben Nevis, because it shows in a con- 
spicuous manner those lithological variations peculiar 
to this type of rock. The lower portion of the mountain 
is composed of coarsely crystalline granite, with the 
normal constituents, while the crest consists of grey and 
pink porphyritic felsite. 

The representatives of the Old Red Sandstone form a 
continuous belt along the E side of the Great Glen, from 
Culloden Moor to near the Falls of Foyers ; while beyond 
Fort Augustus they are traceable along the E shore of 
Loch Oich. Again, on the W side they extend from 
Clachnaharry by Craig Phadrick to near the mouth of 
Loch Ness, reappearing on both sides of Glen Urquhart, 
and capping Mealfourvonie. At the base of the series 
the beds consist of coarse breccias and conglomerate, 
testing unconformably on the crystalline rocks, and 


passing upwards into chocolate sandstones and flags, with 
the well-known band of nodular limestone containing 
ichthyolitcs. The basal beds are admirably displayed 
on Mealfourvonie, on the hills between Inverl'arigaig and 
Loch Duntclehaig, and also in the river Nairn near 
Daviot. The blocks in the conglomerates and breccias 
are composed of the underlying gneiss, mica schists, and 
quartzites, along with fragments of granite and por- 
phyritic felsite. Indeed, so numerous are the granite 
blocks in the breccias near Inverfarigaig, that the infer- 
ence seems obvious that the contiguous granite mass is 
older than the Old Red Sandstone of the Great Glen. 
Many of the breccias and conglomerates show manifest 
proofs of alteration, evidently resulting from the repeated 
earth movements along the Great Glen. The well-known 
fish bed is visible in the Big Burn near Loch Ashie, 
and also in the Nairn section at Nairn-side, where it 
has yielded to Mr Wallace of Inverness remains of 
Diptcrus. This horizon is succeeded by a considerable 
development of purple flags, with occasional bands of 
grit containing fish scales. At various horizons the flags 
are fossiliferous ; but at Hillhead quarry, S of Dalcross 
station, flue plates of Astcrolepis Asmussii have been 

In the Beauly basin there is also a considerable thick- 
ness of the basal conglomerates and breccias, which give 
rise to the picturesque scenery at the Falls of Kilmorack. 
They are traceable S by Belladrum House, in the direc- 
tion of Abriachan. 

The Great Glen is perhaps the most conspicuous 
example in Scotland of the coincidence of a valley with 
a great fracture in the earth's crust. Whether this 
fracture may be of pre-Old-Red-sandstone age, it is 
impossible to say in the present state of our knowledge. 
But from the distribution of the conglomerates and 
breccias along the Great Glen, it is evident that a hollow 
at least must have existed along that line as far back as 
the beginning of Old Red Sandstone times. The high 
inclination of the conglomerates and sandstones, as well 
as the proofs of dislocation of the strata, clearly show 
that they are traversed by a fault. Still further to the 
NE, at Eathie, Port-an-Righ, and Cadh-an-Righ, on the 
W shore of the Moray Firth, patches of oolitic strata 
have been thrown against the cliffs of Old Red Sandstone 
by a fault, the downthrow being to the SE. The direc- 
tion of this fault coincides with the trend of the fracture 
traversing the Great Glen ; and if the one be a continua- 
tion of the other, it would show that there must have 
been displacement of the strata along that line at a 
period later than the upper oolite. It is probable, how- 
ever, as has been suggested by Dr Archibald Geikie, that 
this fracture may be of ancient date, and that it has 
been affected by subterranean movements at different 
geological periods. 

Everywhere throughout the county there are manifest 
proofs of intense glaciation. The splendid roclus 
moutonntes and striated surfaces, the gentle slopes of 
boulder clay, the innumerable moraine heaps, all point 
to prolonged glacial action in these Highland valleys. 
The Great Glen naturally formed the chief outlet for the 
ice which streamed from the valleys on either side of it ; 
but during the maximum glaciation the ice-flow did not 
always coincide with the lines of drainage in these tri- 
butary valleys. Indeed in some cases the ice actually 
ascended the valleys, as in the case of Glen Roy, de- 
scribed by Mr Jamieson. The occurrence of Old Red 
Sandstone fragments at considerable elevations in the 
NE of Inverness-shire, and in the adjoining county of 
Nairn, to which they have been carried by ancient 
glaciers, indicates that the ice must have been so thick 
as to override the hill-tops at the mouth of the Great 
Glen. But in addition to these interesting facts bearing 
on the great extension of the ice, there is conclusive 
proof of the existence of milder periods, when the ice- 
sheet disappeared from the surface of the country. In 
the heart of the boulder clay are found beds of sand, 
gravel, and clay, of considerable thickness, some of 
which are marine and others probably of fresh-water 
origin. These are best developed in the adjacent county 



of Nairn, where they have yielded marine shells ; and a 
description of them will be given in connection with the 
geology of that county. 

Of the various superficial deposits connected with the 
glacial period in Scotland perhaps none has given rise to 
greater controversy than the Parallel Roads of Lochaber. 
Their remarkable features, and the interesting questions 
which they present for solution, have excited the atten- 
tion of geologists from the beginning of the century. 
They are seen to best advantage in Glen Roy, a tributary 
of the Spean, to the S of which lies the inass of high 
ground round Ben Nevis. In Glen Roy there are three 
terraces which are traceable to the head of the valley ; 
their heights above the sea-level being 1148, 1067, and 
855 feet respectively. The lowest of these is prolonged 
into Glen Spean following the windings of that valley 
to the watershed separating it from one of the tributaries 
of the Spey. In Glen Gloy draining into Loch Lochy, 
the highest of these terraces occurs at a height of 1172 
feet, while a second shelf in the same valley stands at 
964 feet. The materials of which the terraces are com- 
posed consist for the most part of angular and sub- 
angular stones derived from the adjacent hill slopes 
which have not been subjected to much aqueous action. 
Indeed a minute examination of the blocks shows con- 
clusively that they are of local origin, resembling the 
detritus which might be dislodged by ordinary atmo- 
spheric agencies of waste. The terraces vary in breadth 
from 40 to 70 feet, and they likewise have a gentle slope 
towards the middle of the valley. Throughout their 
course they remain perfectly horizontal, and on opposite 
sides of the valleys the corresponding terraces are pre- 
cisely on the same level. An important feature con- 
nected with them which helps to throw light on the 
question of their origin, is the fact that each of the chief 
terraces nearly coincides in level with a col or water 
parting between two valleys. The highest of the 
parallel roads in Glen Roy is about the level of the col 
separating that valley from the head waters of the Spey, 
the second terrace is on the level of the Glen Glaster col, 
while the lowest of the three coincides in height with 
the pass at the head of the Spean. 

Various ingenious theories have been advanced to 
account for their origin, hut only one of these has met 
with general acceptance. It ascribes their origin to the 
action of glacier lakes during the glacial period. This 
theory, which was first suggested by Agassiz and sup- 
ported by a strong body of evidence obtained by Mr 
Jamieson in 1S63, and also by the recent researches of 
Mr Jolly, seems to give the most satisfactory explanation 
of the phenomena. According to this theory the ice 
which streamed into the Spean valley from the glens 
round Ben Nevis partly flowed E by Glen Laggan and 
partly down the Spean into the Great Glen. So power- 
ful was this vast accumulation of ice that it actually 
ascended the tributary valley of the Roy. As the 
climatic conditions became less severe and the ice 
retreated to the mouth of Glen Roy, a lake was formed 
the surface level of which was determined by the 
height of the col at the head of the valley. "When the 
water stood at this level it was prevented from escaping 
by the Glen Glaster col owing to the accumulation of 
ice which radiated from the Loch Treig valley. As the 
ice retreated still farther the waters fell to the level of 
the Glen Glaster col when the second terrace was formed, 
and another stage in the retirement of the glaciers is 
indicated by the lowest shelf which, as already indicated, 
is continued throughout Glen Spean and Glen Roy ; the 
surplus water escaping by the Muckal Pass. In each 
case the huge barrier of ice held back the sheet of water 
for a considerable period, and it was during these 
intervals that the materials which were dislodged from 
the hill-slopes were arrested by the surface of the lake 
and were arranged in the form of a narrow shelving 

Throughout the county there are magnificent examples 

of moraines deposited by the later glaciers either in the 

form of conical mounds or sinuous ridges running down 

the valleys or obliquely across them. The materials 



vary in character from loose sandy matter with sub- 
angular stones, some of which are striated, to coarse 
gravel. Special reference ought to be made to the 
remarkable ridges of Torvean and Tomnahurich at the 
mouth of the Great Glen near Inverness, which may 
possibly be of morainic origin. The former runs 
obliquely across the valley to the Asylum Lodge, where 
it bifurcates, one branch extending to Dunain House, 
while the other skirts the Asylum road, and disappears 
at a height of about 350 feet. The branch leading to 
Dunain House stands on the 100-feet terrace, while the 
terminal portion is on the level of the 30-feet beach. 
The ridge of Tomnahurich, which is isolated from that 
of Torvean, rises from the level of the 30-feet beach 
to a height of about 200 feet above the sea. Occa- 
sionally the materials composing these ridges are 
rudely stratified, but more frequently they display 
no such arrangement, being merely a rude assortment 
of shingle or coarse gravel. The stones are such as 
might have been derived from the Old Red Sandstone 
areas, and from the metamorphic and igneous rocks of 
the district. 

The 100-feet terrace forms a belt of richly cultivated 
ground, stretching from Inverness along the slopes of 
Culloden Moor by Fort George station to the county 
boundary. The deposits, which consist of sand, gravel, 
and stratified clays, laid down on stiff sandy boulder 
clay, have been much denuded, and hence the surface of 
the ancient sea-beach is somewhat irregular. Near 
Fort George, on the bluff cliff overlooking the 25-feet 
terrace, a section of dark blue clay is exposed, which 
yielded to Mr Jamieson remains of marine shells. This 
clay or fine silt is well-nigh free from stones, and is 
extremely tough, resembling in general character the 
late glacial clays of the same age in the basin of the 
Forth. The forms commonly met with are Astarte 
sulcata, A. elliptica, Telliiia calcarea, Leda pernula, 
and from their appearance, as well as their position, it 
would seem as if they had lived and died in the deposit 
in which they are now found. Again, at Fort William 
marine shells have been obtained in ancient sea-beaches. 
Some of the forms are now confined to Arctic seas, while 
others are still common to the shores of Britain. The 
25-feet terrace is very well marked in the neighbour- 
hood of Inverness, and is traceable along the S shore of 
the Firth to Fort George, where it is covered by an 
extensive series of sand dunes. 

Soils and Agriculture. — The soils vary very greatly, 
from much of the worst to a little of the best in Scot- 
land. Along the river Beauly and the upper part of the 
Beauly Firth there is a considerable amount of clay, 
unproritably rich in some cases, and producing the same 
crops as similar soils farther to the S ; and the wheat 
and other kinds of grain reach maturity early. Strath- 
glass and Strathfarar are stony, but have some good 
haugh and meadow soil. Along the Aird there is good 
black loam towards the border of the Firth, while towards 
the hills the soil is lighter but good. In both Glen 
Urquhart and Glen Moriston the soil is good, though 
in places very stony. The fringes and haughs of culti- 
vated or cultivable land about the other glens to the 
W are small but of fair quality, and the same may be 
said of the minor districts to the E and of almost the 
whole of Lochaber and Badenoch. In Strathdores and 
the flat district along the Inner Moray Firth towards 
Fort George the land is mostly good and very productive 
loam, though parts of the latter are light and sandy, 
and a part about Fort George is mossy. In Strathnairn 
there are a few patches of haugh and some light sandy 
gravel, and the same holds good of Strathdearn. Along 
Strathspey there is a good deal of fertile loam, generally 
in the Inverness-shire part, tending to lightness, and 
this in the districts below Badenoch produces good crops 
with anything like a fair season, though the frosts are 
unseasonable. In the part of Strathspey in Badenoch 
and Laggan, where the height is from 900 to 1400 feet, 
there is no lack of good loam, but the climate is very 
unfavourable, the stooks of cut grain being sometimes 
not got in till snow has begun to fall, while frosts remain 



late in the season and commence early. The inhabitants 
of the rest of the county are not dependent on the culti- 
vation of the soil. 

Up till about 1S20 farming operations in Inverness- 
shire were in a very backward state, and though a great 
stimulus was given to efforts for improvement by the 
new roads opened about 1S20, and by the Caledonian 
Canal in 1822, it took a long time for it to tell. Be- 
tween 1S54 and the present time the area under crop 
of all kinds has increased more than 100 per cent. In 
1845 there seem to have been in the whole county about 
40,000 acres under crop of all kinds, including grass 
and hay in rotation. By 1S55 this had grown only to 
44,242 acres, while in 1S66 there were 77J70, in 1876, 
S6.652, and in 1SS2, 89,501. The principal increase has 
taken place in the parishes of Ardersier, Croy, Daviot, 
and Dores ; but the improvements in Strathspey and 
elsewhere are also considerable. Still, however, the per- 
centage (4'6) of cultivated area is higher only than that 
of Sutherland (2-4), that for all Scotland being 24-2, 
and for Fife 74 'S. The areas under the various crops 
are given in the following tables : — 

Grain Crofs. — Acre 




Barley or Eere. 



1S54, . . 
1S70, . . 
1S77, . . 
1S82, . . 








Grass, Root Crops, etc. — Acres. 


Hay, Grass, and 
Permanent Pasture. 



1S54, . . 
1S70, . . 
1S77, . . 
1332, . . 




while there are about 900 acres annually under beans, 
rye, vetches, fallow, etc. Between 1867 and 18S2 the 
permanent pasture never broken up has increased from 
32,009 acres to 40,309. In the best agricultural part of 
the county — in the parishes of Ardersier, Dores, Eirkhill, 
Kilrnorack, Kiltarlity, and Petty — the harvest is from a 
week to ten days later than in the Lothians ; but in 
the other parts of the county the time is very variable. 
The farms are worked mostly on the five-shift rotation, 
while on the heavy clays at Beauly the four and six 
shift systems are mostly adopted. The average yield of 
wheat is 2S to 35 bushels, barley 35 bushels, oats 35 to 
45 bushels, and turnips from 14 to 30 tons per acre. 
The very great decrease in the area under wheat is note- 
worthy, as, Elgin excepted, Inverness used to be the 
greatest wheat-growing county N of Kincardine. It is 
probably due to the effect of recent wet seasons on the 
very heavy clay land on which it is grown. 

The agricultural live stock in the county is shown in 
the following table : — 







1S54, . . 
1870, . . 
1876, . . 

18S2, . . 






The cattle belong to the Highland, cross, shorthorn, 
polled, and Ayrshire breeds, though the last is not very 
numerous, nor to be found in many localities except 
about the town of Inverness, where they are kept for 
dairy purposes. There was a very good herd of short- 
horns at Hillkead at Ardersier, but it was broken up in 
1860. There was one at Dochfour from 1S70 till the 
present year, but it was dispersed in May 1SS3 in conse- 
quence of the death of the late Mr Evan Baillie of Doch- 
four. A number of the best animals were purchased 
for, and the Dochfour herd is to be re-established by, the 

present owner of the estate, Mr J. Evan Bruce Baillie. 
Along Strathspey there are a number of polled animals, 
but there are not very many either of this or the short- 
horn breed in the county. Of the Highland breed — 
the one natural to the county — there are more animals 
in Inverness-shire than in any other county of Scotland, 
and everywhere excellent examples of these cattle are 
to be found. One of the principal herds is that at 
Faiilie, 7 miles S of Inverness. Crosses are good in 
a few places, but in most districts they are of a very 
nondescript character, and stand sadly in want of im- 
provement. There was a fine herd at Morayston, Petty, 
which is now broken up ; but good specimens are to be 
found about Beauly and in Strathspey. There are 
Clydesdale horses in the lowland districts, but the 
horses get lighter on the high grounds. For instance, 
in Badenoch they are smaller than in Strathspey, in 
Laggan smaller than in Badenoch, and in Lochaber 
smaller still. Small Highland ponies are very numerous. 
The principal breeds of sheep are the Cheviot and the 
blackfaced, of which there are about equal numbers. 
The finest Cheviots are generally to be found about 
Strathglass ; and on the Braes of Lochaber, Laggan, and 
Badenoch the largest and finest flocks of blackfaced 
sheep in the county, and probably in the Highlands. 
In the lower district a few Leicesters and half-breds are 
kept. Hoggs are mostly sold at Muir of Ord, wethers 
at Falkirk Tryst, and ewes and lambs at the great sheep 
and wool fair held annually at Inverness. The capital 
invested in sheep in the county amounts to over a 
million, and the sale of surplus stock brings in about 
£400,000 a year. The best land rents at from 40s. to 
45s., the medium at 25s., and the poor at from 10s. 
to 15s. per acre. The rents of sheep farms are about 
3s. 6d. to 4s. per head for blackfaced, and 5s. to 6s. for 
Cheviots. About 90 per cent, of the holdings are under 
50 acres, and the bulk of the remainder are from 50 to 
250 acres, the arable farms of larger size being very few. 
Some of the sheep grazings are, of course, of large extent. 
In 1875 there were 5665 holdings of 50 acres or less, 239 
of from 50 to 100, 235 of from 100 to 300, and 32 of 
more than 300. 

The area of the county, inclusive of the islands, may 
be estimated as follows : — Arable land under crops and 
permanent pasture, 129,810 acres ; lakes and rivers, 
124,240 ; woods, including all the natural wood, 250,000 ; 
deer forests, 350,000 ; which leaves the very large re- 
mainder of 1,900,000, of which about 1,000,000 provide 
feeding for sheep, while 900,000 are heath or waste, and 
of no value except for grouse moors, and some parts not 
even for that, so inaccessible or barren are they. The 
whole district under heath amounts probably to about 
1,350,000 acres or two-thirds of the entire county. The 
higher mountains are not covered with heath to the 
summit, nor are the mountains in all the districts 
equally bare. The hills of Lochaber have a good mixed 
pasture of grass and heath. Glennevis is of this descrip- 
tion, though it skirts the highest mountain in Britain. 
The hills of Arasaig, Glen Pean, Glen Quoich, and Glen 
Roy — those on both sides of Loch Lochy, particularly 
at Lowbridge, where the hills in general are as green as 
a meadow — those on the sides of Loch Oich up to the 
NE end — those in Glenelg, at the head of Strathglass — 
and on the braes of Badenoch, are all green, and yield 
plentiful pasture. Along the ' rough bounds ' on the 
other hand, as well as in Strath Errick and at the head 
of Strathnairn and Strathdearn, hardly a green spot is 
to be seen except along the streams. There is a con- 
siderable amount of peat moss lying on gravel, rock, or 
clay, and furnishing abundant supplies of fuel. It is 
curious that none of these mosses, except a patch at 
Corpach and one or two other places, lie in the bottom 
of valleys, but on land above their general level. The 
deer forests are numerous and extensive. The principal 
are Glenaffric Forest at the top of Strathaffric, Guisachan 
Forest along the S side of Strathaffric, Invermoriston 
Forest 1ST of the entrance to Glen Moriston, Portclair 
Forest S of the same entrance, Glenquoich Forest on the 
N side of Glen Garry E of Glen Quoich, Glengarry Forest 



between Loch Garry and Loch Lochy, Lochiel Forest on 
the S side of Loch Arkaig, Mamore Forest S of Glen- 
nevis, Ben Alder Forest between Loch Laggan and Loch 
Ericht, the Forest of Drumoehter E from Loch Ericht, 
Gaick Forest across the upper part of Glen Tromie, Glen 
Feshie Forest in the upper part of Glen Feshie, and Glen- 
more Forest along the base of the Cairngorms. The 
game in the high woodlands and moors is red deer, roe 
deer, hares, black game, grouse, ptarmigan, and part- 
ridges. Foxes and otters are by no means uncommon, 
while the last Scottish wolf is said to have been killed 
in the Lochiel country in 1680 by Sir Ewan Cameron, 
but this is doubtful, as many districts in Scotland seem 
to have possessed a veritable last wolf. At Abernethy 
and Rothiemurchus in Strathspey there are magnificent 
forests in which almost the whole wood is of natural 
growth. They were at one time much larger, but vast 
quantities of wood were cut down in the beginning of 
the present century. There are 8 proprietors holding 
each 100,000 acres and upwards, 11 between 50,000 
and 100,000, 12 between 20,000 and 50,000, and 58 
between 1000 and 20,000. The principal estates, most 
of which are separately noticed, are Abertarff, Airds, 
Aldourie, Ardmore, Ardverikie, Balmaeoan, Balmain, 
Balranald, Belladrum, Belleville, Bunchrew, Castle 
Stewart, Chisholm, Cluny, Congash, Culloden, Daviot, 
Dochfour, Farr, Fassifern, Fingask, Foyers, Glenmazeran, 
Glenmoriston, Glentruim, Golanfield, Gortuleg, Inver- 
eshie, Invergarry, Inverie, Inverlochy, Invertromie, 
Lakefield, Lentran, Leys, Lochiel, Lovat, Moy, Ness, 
and Raigmore, exclusive of those in the islands noticed 
under Hebrides and Skye. The commerce is centred 
at the town of Inverness, and has been noticed in our 
account of that place, and manufacturing industries 
there are practically none except a woollen manufactory 
and a distillery in Skye, and another distillery at Glen- 
nevis. The mainland fishery centre is at Fort "William, 
and is noticed in that article. The island fisheries are 
noticed in the articles Hebrides and Skye. A large pro- 
portion of the inhabitants of Inverness and its neigh- 
bourhood speak English, but in other districts Gaelic is 
mostly spoken. 

Communications, etc. — For its first respectable roads 
Inverness-shire is indebted to the rebellions of 1715 and 
1745, which otherwise cost it so dear. Immediately 
after that outbreak Fort George, Fort Augustus, and 
Fort William were erected as a chain of forts across the 
country, and detachments were sent thence to Inver- 
ness, to Bernera, opposite Skye, and to Castle Duart in 
Mull, while detachments under the direction of General 
Wade were, between 1726 and 1737, set to work on the 
construction of those military roads which used to excite 
the astonishment and gratitude of travellers, and which 
gave rise to the couplet somewhat Hibernian in expres- 
sion whatever its sentiment — 

' Had you seen these roads before they were made, 
You would hold up your hands and bless General Wade.' 

Still farther progress took place in the beginning of the 
present century, when the Parliamentary Commission 
roads were made. Between 1804 and 1820, 875 miles of 
roadway were made through the Highlands, and prin- 
cipally in Inverness-shire, at a cost to the country of 
£267,000, to the counties concerned of £214,000, and 
to the proprietors of neighbouring estates of £60,000. 
These were added to from time to time till 1845, when 
the present fully adequate system was pretty nearly 
completed. The main lines of communication follow 
the old military roads which were, first, from Inverness 
through Badenoch on by Dalwhinnie to the borders of 
Perthshire (52 miles) ; second, the Boleskine road from 
Inverness to Fort Augustus by the SE side of the Great 
Glen from which a road passed by Glen Tarff, Corrie- 
yairack, and the upper waters of the Spey, till it reached 
the Perth road at Dalwhinnie (30) ; third, the road from 
Fort Augustus to Fort William and on to Ballachulish 
(45) ; and fourth, the S road by Fort George, Nairn, etc. 
Of the new lines of communication the Great North road 
from Inverness passes along the shore of the Beauly 


Firth to Beauly, and thence into Ross. There is a good 
road along the NW side of the Great Glen sending off 
branches to the smaller side glens. A cross road leaves 
the Fort William road at Eilmonivaig, and passes, by 
Glen Spean, Loch Laggan, and upper Strathspey, to 
Dalwhinnie, where it joins the Perth road, and a branch 
striking off at Roy Bridge proceeds by Glen Roy to join 
the road already mentioned as passing over Corrieyairack. 
Another main line of road passes from Glen Foyers by 
Strathnairn to Daviot. The ground on the S side of 
Corrieyairack is so steep that the road had to be carried 
up by a series of seventeen zigzag traverses ; this is now 
used only as a drove road, and here, as well as along the 
higher portion of the Perth road, lines of posts stand by 
the wayside short distances apart, so that the road may 
be ascertained during heavy snowstorms. The minor 
district roads are all excellent. The Caledonian Canal 
along the Great Glen is described in a separate article. 
The Forres and Perth section of the Highland Railway 
system passes through the county for a distance of 41 
miles from the Dulnan river near its mouth on the N to 
the borders of Perthshire at the pass of Drumouchter on 
the S. The Inverness and Keith section of the same 
system enters the county 2 miles E of Fort George 
station, and passes through it for 10 miles to Inverness, 
whence it is continued northward by the Dingwall 
section which passes round the border of the Beauly 
Firth, and quits the county after 13 miles at Muir of 
Ord station. The Speyside section of the Great North 
of Scotland railway passes through the Strathspey dis- 
trict from Boat of Garten to the boundary near Crom- 
dale after a run of 12 miles. 

The only royal burgh in the county is Inverness. 
Fort William is a police burgh with over 1500 in- 
habitants, Beauly a burgh of barony with about 900, 
and Kingussie — the chief place in the upper district — a 
police burgh with over 600. Villages with more than 
300 inhabitants are Campbelton, Clachnaharry, Newton- 
more, and Portree ; and villages of smaller size are 
Balloch, Broadford, Connage, Culcabock, Fort Augustus, 
Glenelg, Hilton, Invermoriston, Kyle-Akin, Lewiston, 
Lochmaddy, Lynchat, Petty, Resaudrie, Smithtown, 
Stein, and Stuarton. Markets are held at Muir of Ord, 
Inverness, Strathdearn (Freeburn), Newtonmore, Kin- 
gussie, Fort Augustus, Fort William, Urquhart, and 
Bridge of Spean. 

The civil county contains the twenty-seven entire 
quoad civilia parishes of Abernethy, Alvie, Ardersier, 
Boleskine and Abertarff, Dores, Duthil, Glenelg, Inver- 
ness, Kilmonivaig, Kilmorack, Kiltarlity, Kingussie, 
Kirkhill, Laggan, Urquhart, Urray, all on the main- 
land ; and Barra, Bracadale, Duirinish, Harris, Kilmuir, 
North Uist, Portree, Sleat, Snizort, South Uist, and 
Strath, in the islands ; and nine parts of parishes, viz., 
Ardnamurehan, Kilmalie, and Small Isles, oil shared 
with Argyll ; Cromdale, shared with Elgin ; and Cawdor, 
Croy, Daviot, Moy, and Petty, all shared with Nairn. 
The quoad sacra parishes of Bernera, Duncansburgh, 
Glengarry, Waternish, Insh, Knoydart, Rothiemurchus, 
Stenscholl, and Trumsigarry, and parts of the similar 
parishes of Aharacle, Ballachulish, and Inverallan, are 
also included. A few of these lie ecclesiastically in the 
presbytery of Dingwall and the synod of Ross ; the 
others are divided among the presbyteries of Inverness 
and Nairn in the synod of Moray, and the presbyteries 
of Abertarff, Lochcarron, Skye, and Uist in the synod 
of Glenelg. The church services are conducted in 
Gaelic, except in one or two cases. There are also 45 
places of worship connected with the Free Church, 3 in 
connection with the U.P. Church, 2 in connection with 
the Baptist Church, 1 in connection with the Wesleyan 
Methodist Church, 6 in connection with the Episcopal 
Church, and 21 in connection with the Roman Catholic 
Church. In the year ending Sept. 1882 there were in 
the county 162 schools, of which 140 were public, with ac- 
commodation for 17,788 children. These had 12,704 on 
the rolls, and an average attendance of 865S. The staff 
consisted of 183 certificated, 11 assistant, and 50 pupil 
teachers. Inverness-shire, with a constituency (18S2-S3) 


of 2112, returns one member to parliament. It is 
governed by a lord-lieutenant, 53 deputy-lieutenants, 
and 250 justices of the peace. It forms a division of 
the sheriffdom of Inverness, Elgin, and Nairn, with 
resident sheriff-substitutes for the Inverness, Fort Wil- 
liam, Skye, and Long Island districts. Ordinary courts 
are held every Thursday and Friday from 1 Oct. to 
31 March and from 1 May to 31 July. There is a small 
debt court every Friday during session, and circuit small 
debt courts at Kingussie on the Tuesday preceding the 
first Wednesday after 16 Jan., and on the Tuesday 
preceding the first Wednesday in May and September ; 
on days not fixed at Fort Augustus and Beauly ; and at 
Grantown for the adjoining Inverness-shire districts on 
the first Wednesday after the 16 Jan. and the first 
Wednesdays in May and September. Quarter sessions 
are held on the first Tuesdays of March, May, and 
August, and the last Tuesday of October ; and monthly 
justice of peace courts are held at Grantown, Kingussie, 
Fort William, Portree, Duuvegan, Long Island, Loch- 
maddy, Barra, and Harris. The police force, exclusive 
of the burgh of Inverness, consists of 40 men (1 to 
each 1826 of the population), under a chief constable, 
with a salary of £250 a year. In 18S1 the number of 
persons tried at the instance of the police was 217, con- 
victed 200, committed for trial 82, not dealt with 33. 
The number of registered poor in 1S81 was 3094, of 
dependants on these 1054 ; of casual poor 458, of de- 
pendants on these 329. The receipts were £2S,106, 
and the expenditure £27,314. All the parishes are 
assessed for the poor except Small Isles. Inverness has 
a poorhouse and a combination, noticed in that article ; 
three parishes belong to the poor-law combination of 
Nairn, and seven to the poor-law combination of Skye. 
The proportion of illegitimate births averages about 
8 per cent., the average death-rate about 17 per 1000. 
Connected with the county are the 2d battalion Cameron 
Highlanders (Militia) ; the 1st Inverness-shire Artillery 
Volunteers, with 6 batteries at Inverness, and outside 
the county batteries at Burghead, Cromarty, Stornoway, 
Loch Carron, and Nairn (2) ; and the 1st Inverness 
Highland Rifle Volunteers, with companies at Inverness 
(4), Fort William, Kingussie, Beauly, Portree, Arder- 
sier, and Roy Bridge. Valuation (1674) £6099, (1815) 
£1S5,565, (1843) £182,064, (1S65) £237,318 (1871) 
£271,912, (1S76) £293,250— all exclusive of burgh, rail- 
ways, and canal,— and (1SS3) £329,S07, Highland rail- 
way £16,679, Great North of Scotland railway £2039, 
and Caledonian Canal £110, or a total of £34S,635, 
exclusive of the burgh. Pop. of registration county, 
which takes in the whole of the parishes of Cromdale, 
Croy, Daviot, Moy, Petty, and Small Isles, but gives off 
its parts of Abernethy, Ardnamurchan, Cawdor, Crom- 
dale, Duthil, KQmalie, and Urray (1871) 84.25S, (1881) 
86.3S9; civil county (1801) 72,672, (1811)77,671, (1S21) 
S9,961, (1831) 94,797, (1841) 97,799, (1851) 96,500, 
(1861) 88,261, (1871) 87,531, (1881) 90,454, of whom 
43,852 were males and 46,602 were females. In 1881 
the number of families was 19,836, the number of houses 
17,215, and the number of rooms 63,097. 

The territory now forming the mainland parts of 
Inverness-shire anciently belonged to the Vacomagi, 
and was afterwards the centre of the territory inhabited 
by the Northern Picts. After the seat of Pictish 
power passed further S, we find the northern part of 
the county forming part of the great division of 
Morevia (see Moray), while the southern part be- 
longed to Argathelia, which extended to the Mull of 
Kintyre. The northern part was for long debatable 
ground between the Kings of Alban and the^Norwegian 
Earls of Orkney, and it was not till the time of Mai- 
colm III. that it passed firmly into the possession of 
the Scottish kings. In the Acts of David I. about the 
middle of the 12th century, the sheriffdom of Inverness 
is mentioned as comprehending the whole of the king- 
dom N of the Grampians. An Act in relation to it 
allowing any man accused of theft a certain period 
within which to produce the alleged vendor of what he 
was accused of having stolen, says :— ' Aif ane dwellis 


bezond Drum Albin in Moray, Ross, Caithness, Argyle, 
or in Kintyre, he sail have fyfteen daies and eke ane 
month to produce his warrand before the Sckircf ; and 
gif he goes for his warrand dwelland in Moray, Ross, or 
in any of the Steids or Places pertaining to Moray, and 
can nocht find nor apprehend his warrand, he sail pass 
to the Schiref of Inverness, wha sail,' etc. The shires 
of Elgin, Nairn, and Cromarty were constituted in the 
second half of the 13th century ; those of Argyll, 
Sutherland, and Caithness were constituted in 1633 ; 
and Ross in 1661, at which time Inverness-shire took 
nearly its present limits, except for the small inter- 
change of territory with Elginshire in 1870. The prin- 
cipal antiquities are noticed in the separate parishes. 
AVe may here mention the vitrified forts at Craig 
Phadrick close to Inverness and others in Boleskine 
and in Kiltarlity. There are Caledonian remains in 
the form of tuinuli, cairns, and stone pillars and circles 
in almost every parish in the county. The duns or 
Pictish towers in Glenelg, and the remains of circles, etc., 
at Clava, are particulaiiy worthy of notice. Besides the 
antiquities noticed in the article on the burgh of Inver- 
ness, there is an old castle at Urquhart on Loch Ness, 
Ruthven Barracks at Kingussie, the ruins of the chapel 
of the chiefs of Clan Chattan in Moy, ruins of Beaidy 
Priory, the castle at Castle Stuart, another at Dalcross 
in Daviot, a building at Ardersier said to have belonged 
to the Knights Templars, and an old church at Laggan. 

The lands in possession of the clans varied from time 
to time, though to a very slight degree. The following 
was the general distribution. The district about Beauly 
and along by the Aircl and Belladrum belonged to the 
Frasers, as did also Strathaffric and Glen Cannich and 
all Strath Errick N to Culduthel near Inverness. 
Strathfarrer and Strathglass were in the hands of the 
Chisholms. All the country along the NW side of 
Loch Ness from the N side of Glen tjrquhart to beyond 
Glen Moriston, and about half way along Loch Oich 
belonged to the Grants, as did also the lower waters of 
the Spey, from Upper Craigellachie, near Aviemore, 
down to the boundary of the county and beyond it. 
The Clan Ranald Macdonalds held the district about 
Glen Garry, and all westward to the Sound of Sleat, 
except a small corner between Loch Hourn and Glenelg 
Bay, which was in the possession of the MacLeods of 
Harris. Along the valleys of Loch Eil and Loeh Arkaig 
were the Camerons, whose domains also crossed the line 
of the Great Glen and extended along Glennevis. In 
Glen Spean, and particularly on the S side, were the 
Macdonalds of Keppoch, and N of them up to Corry- 
arrick were Clan Ranald of Lochaber. The Forest of 
Gaick and Glen Feshie were included in the lands of the 
Earl of Huntly, while the flat country from Inverness 
to Fort George belonged to the Earl of Moray. Between 
Upper Craigellachie and Kinrara, and extending E to 
the Cairngorm Mountains, were the Shaws of Rothie- 
murchus or Clan Quhele ; while the whole of the rest of 
the county by Strathnairn, Strathdearn, Laggan, Loch 
Ericht, and down the river Spey to Kinrara, was in the 
hands of the great and powerful Clan Chattan, the two 
principal septs of which were the Mackintoshes and 
Macphersons. The former occupied the region N of 
the Monadhliath Mountains and the latter the track to 
the S. The elans of the island districts are given under 
the article Hebrides. 

Invernettie or Erickwork Bay, a bay of Peterhead 
parish, NE Aberdeenshire, between Peterhead town 
and Burnhaven village. Crescental in form, it measures 
9 furlongs across the entrance, and 6 thence to its 
innermost recess. A brick-work adjoining the bay, f 
mile SSW of Peterhead, has been in operation since 
the latter part of last century ; produces tiles and bricks 
of excellent quality, from a bed of clay worked to a great 
depth ; and exports large quantities of the bricks from 
a small contiguous harbour. The Mills of Invernettie 
and Invernettie Distillery stand 1J mile SSW of the 
town ; and the mills have such a number of wheels of 
various shapes and sizes as to form a striking scene. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 87, 1S76. 



Invernochty, Doune of. See Doune. 

Inveroran, an inn in Glenorchy parish, Argyllshire, 
on the road from Loch Lomond to Glencoe, at the SW 
end of Loch Tolla, 10 miles NNW of Tyndrum station. 

Inveroy, a village in Kilmonivaig parish, SW Inver- 
ness-shire, on the right bank of the Spean, 12 miles 
ENE of Fort William. 

Inverquharity, a harony, with an old castle, in the 
lower section of Kirriemuir parish, Forfarshire, near the 
South Esk's left bank, 3g miles NNE of the town. It 
belonged for fourteen generations, from 1420 till the 
latter half of last eentury, to a branch of the Ogilvies, 
who received a baronetcy in 1626, and still are designated 
of Inverquharity or Baldovan. Members of this family 
were Alexander, who is said to have been smothered at 
Finhaven (1446) ; another Alexander, who was captured 
on the battlefield of Philiphaugh and executed at Glasgow 
(1646) ; and a Captain Ogilvy, who followed James VII. 
to the battle of the Boyne, and wrote the song It loas 
a' for our rightful King. One of the finest and most 
entire baronial buildings in the shire, Inverquharity 
Castle stands near the confluence of Carity Burn and 
the South Esk, and belongs perhaps to the 15th century. 
It is a four-story structure of strong ashlar work, in 
pointed architecture ; has walls about 9 feet thick, pro- 
jecting considerably near the top, and terminating in 
a parapet ; is machicolated over the gateway ; and con- 
tinues in a state of good preservation. Its heavy door 
of grated iron, similar to that of Invermark, dates from 
either 1444 or 1467.— Ord. Sur., sh. 56, 1S70. See 
chap. vii. of Andrew Jervise's Land of the Lindsays (2d 
ed. 18S2). 

Inverquhomery, an estate, with a mansion, in Long- 
side parish, NE Aberdeenshire, If mile SW of Longside 
station. Its owner, James Bruce, Esq., holds 1300 
acres in the shire, valued at £1650 per annum. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 87, 1S76. 

Invershin, a hamlet in Creich parish, S Sutherland, 
at the confluence of the rivers Shin and Oikell, with a 
station on the Sutherland railway, 3J miles NNW of 
Bonar-Bridge. It has a public school. 

Inverskinnerton. See Inver, Ross-shire. 

Inversnaid, a hamlet in Buchanan parish, NW Stir- 
lingshire, situated at the mouth of Arklet Water, on 
the E shore of Loch Lomond, 4f miles SSE of Ardlui, 
3 NNE of Tarbet, 18 N by W of Balloch, and 5 by 
road WSW of Stronachlachar Hotel on Loch Katrine. 
The point of communication between the two lakes, it has 
a steamboat pier and a good hotel, beside which Arklet 
Water forms a pretty waterfall of 30 feet, spanned by 
a narrow footbridge. Inversnaid was the place where, 
on 28 Aug. 1803, Wordsworth saw the ' sweet Highland 
girl,' the ferryman's sister, whom he celebrates in song, 
and whose beauty and kindness are described in Dorothy 
Wordsworth's Journal. The ruined Garrison of Inver- 
snaid, 7 furlongs NE of the hamlet, was erected in 
1713 to check the depredations of the Macgregors ; and 
was for some time commanded by General Wolfe, when 
he was an officer in the Buffs. See Craigroyston. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Invertiel, a quoad sacra parish in Abbotshall and 
Kinghorn parishes, Fife, comprising part of the southern 
or Linktown extremity of Kirkcaldy. Constituted in 
1869, it is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of 
Fife. The church was built before 1843 as a chapel of 
ease at a cost of £1400, and contains 800 sittings. Pop. 
(1871) 1828, (18S1) 2023, of whom 904 were in King- 
horn parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Invertrosachs, a mansion in Port of Monteith par- 
ish, SW Perthshire, near the southern shore of Loch 
Venaehar, 5 miles WSW of Callander. Built about 
1841, it was the residence for some weeks during the 
autumn of 1869 of Queen Victoria. — Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 

Inverugie, a small village in St Fergus parish, Banff- 
shire (detached), on the left bank of the Ugie, If mile 
above its mouth, 3 miles NW of Peterhead, and § mile 
N by E of Inverugie station on the Peterhead branch 
of the Great North of Scotland railway. The lands of 


Inverugie were granted by William the Lyon (1165- 
1214) to Bernard le Cheyne, of whose descendants 
Reginald was chamberlain of Scotland from 1267 to 
1269, whilst Henry, his brother, was Bishop of Aber- 
deen from 1281 to 1333. Reginald's granddaughter 
conveyed them by marriage about 1350 to a younger 
branch of the Keith family, which in 1538 became 
united to the main stem by the marriage of William, 
fourth Earl Marischal, and Margaret, daughter and co- 
heiress of Sir William Keith of Inverugie ; and, for- 
feited by their sixth descendant, the tenth Earl Maris- 
chal, for his share in the '15, since 1784 they have 
belonged to the Fergusons of Pitfour. The Cheynes' 
original castle stood on the coast, at the influx of the 
Ugie to the ocean, opposite Buchanhaven ; and is now 
represented by only faint vestiges ; but seems from 
these to have been a structure of considerable extent. 
It is said to have been visited by True Thomas of Ercil- 
doune, who prophesied concerning it — 

' Inverugie by the sea, 
Lordless shall thy landis be.* 

The subsequent castle, close to the village, was founded 
about 13S0 by Sir John de Keith, though 'Cheyne's 
Tower ' is probably of earlier date ; but it was mainly 
erected, about the close of the 16th century, by the 
fifth Earl Marischal, who founded Marischal College in 
Aberdeen. Exhibiting features and styles distinctly 
indicative of its various dates, it was, next to Dunnottar 
Castle, the principal seat of the Earls Marischal, and 
forms the theme of many traditions respecting their 
bygone magnificence. In the latter half of last century 
the main building was floored, roofed in, and surmounted 
by an observatory ; but the next proprietor stripped it 
of these modernisings, and suffered ruin to resume her 
sway. On the N it is screened by a rising-ground, the 
Castle Hill, where the Earls once exercised ' the power 
of pit and gallows ; ' and it now exhibits a picturesque 
appearance, with the river winding between its wooded 
banks around three sides of it. — Or d. Sur., sh. 87, 

Inverugie, a handsome modern mansion in Duffus 
parish, Elginshire, within 1 mile of the Moray Firth, 
and 3 miles E by S of Burghead. Purchased by his 
father in 1852, the estate is the property of Edward 
Mortimer, Esq., who holds 673 acres in the shire, valued 
at £973 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 95, 1876. 

Inveruglas, a hamlet in Luss parish, Dumbartonshire, 
on the W shore of Loch Lomond, at the S side of the 
mouth of Douglas Water, 3J miles NNW of Luss 
village. It has an inn, and maintains a ferry (5J 
furlongs wide) across the lake to Rowardennan. 

Inverurie, a town and a parish in Garioch district, Aber- 
deenshire. The town, standing 195 feet above sea-level at 
the confluence of the rivers Dry and Don, has a station 
on the Great North of Scotland railway, 4| miles SE of 
Inveramsay Junction, 3 N by W of Kintore, and 16J NW 
of Aberdeen. It occupies the low peninsula between the 
confluence of the two rivers, and includes the suburb of 
Port Elphinstone on the right or Kintore bank of the 
Don, with which it is connected by a three-arch bridge 
erected in 1791 at a cost of £2000, whilst three bridges 
over the Ury were built between 1S09 and 1S39. So 
straggling is its alignment, that it looks more like a 
village than a town ; yet it possesses far greater import- 
ance than many a place of more pretentious appearance, 
and it dates from remote antiquity. Robert Bruce lay 
sick here on the eve of his victory of Barra in Bourtie 
parish, 22 May 130S ; and here, on 23 Dec. 1745, Lord 
Lewis Gordon, with 1200 Jacobites, surprised and de- 
feated 700 loyalists under the Laird of Macleod. The 
importance, however, of the place originated in the 
opening (1807) of the quondam Aberdeen Canal, whose 
terminus here presented scenes not dissimilar to those 
of the quays of Aberdeen, with sometimes hundreds of 
carts in a day delivering grain, and carrying away coals, 
lime, bones, iron, timber, and building materials. Now, 
since the canal was superseded by the railway (1S54), 
Inverurie serves as a point of concentration and a seat 


of miscellaneous trade for a pretty wide extent of sur- 
rounding country ; and it has a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph depart- 
ments, branches of the Union, Aberdeen Town and 
County, and North of Scotland Banks, a National 
Security savings' bank (1837), 11 insurance agencies, 
2 hotels, a gas-light company, a water supply of 1876, 
a masonic lodge, a Young Men's Christian Association, 
a temperance society, a Bible association, a volunteer 
corps, a curling club, a tannery, a brewery, meal and 
paper mills, Tuesday cattle-markets once or twice a 
month, and feeing-markets in May, July, and Novem- 
ber. The town hall was built in 1863 at a cost of 
£2500, and is a neat Italian edifice with a clock-tower. 
The parish church (1842 ; 1330 sittings) is a beautiful 
Gothic granite structure, repaired and altered in 1876 ; 
and the Free church (1876 ; S00 sittings) is an Early 
English building, with a NE spire 107 feet high. Other 
places of worship are a Congregational church (1S22 ; 360 
sittings), a Wesleyan chapel (1819; 200 sittings), St Mary's 
Episcopal church (1843-57 ; 200 sittings), and the Roman 
Catholic Church of the Immaculate Conception (1S52 ; 
200 sittings). A conical mound, the Bass of Inverurie, 
at the S end of the town, has been noticed separately ; 
another smaller one, to the W of the main street, bears 
the name of Coning Hillock, and is supposed to mark the 
grave of Aedh, King of the Picts, who ' in 878 was slain 
at Nrurim by his own people.' William Thorn (1799- 
1S48), the 'weaver poet of Inverurie,' was for nearly ten 
years a resident ; and the memoir prefixed to the Paisley 
edition of his Poems (1SS0) has much of interest relating 
to the place. Inverurie claims to have been made a 
royal burgh by William the Lyon or Robert Bruce ; and 
under a charter of novodamus, granted by Queen Mary 
in 1558, is governed by a provost, 3 bailies, a dean of 
guild, a treasurer, and 3 common councillors, who also 
act as police commissioners. With Elgin, Kintore, 
Peterhead, Banff, and Cullen, it unites to send a member 
to parliament. The municipal and the parliamentary 
constituency numbered 490 and 429 in 1883, when the 
annual value of real property amounted to £9055 (£7712 
in 1873), whilst the corporation revenue was £3S4. 
Pop. of parliamentary burgh (1S41) 1731, (1861) 2520, 
(1871) 2856, (1881) 2931 ; of royal burgh (1SS1) 2669 ; of 
police burgh (1SS1) 2575 ; and of entire town (1S71) 
2959, (1S81) 3048, of whom 473 were in Port Elphin- 
stone, and 1614 were females. Houses (1S81) 566 in- 
habited, IS vacant, 4 building. 

The parish of Inverurie is bounded E by Keithhall, S 
by Kintore and Kemnay, and W and N by Chapel of 
Garioeh. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 4§ miles ; 
its utmost breadth is 2f miles ; and its area is 4995-J 
acres, of which 49 are water. The Don winds 4 miles 
north-by-eastward along all the southern border, and the 
Urt 5J south-eastward along the northern and eastern. 
At their confluence the surface declines to 170 feet 
above sea-level, thence rising westward to 524 feet at 
Ardtannies Hill, 400 at Dilly Hill, and 780 at Knock - 
inglew Hill. The tract around the town, to the extent 
of S50 acres, is low and flat ; and the Ury's valley is 
broader than the Don's. Granite prevails in the S, trap 
in the W ; and the soil of the low ground is light yellow 
fertile loam, mostly incumbent on sand, whilst that of 
the high grounds is various, and shades away into moor. 
About three-fifths of the entire area are in tillage, one- 
fifth is under wood, and the rest is pastoral or waste. 
Antiquities are two stone circles, the supposed site of a 
' Roman road,' and remains of St Apolinarius' chapel. 
The principal mansion is Manar, situated among well- 
wooded grounds on the southern slope of a hill, 3J miles 
W by S of the town. Its owner, Henry Gordon, Esq. 
(b. 1848 ; sue. 1874), holds 2260 acres in the shire, 
valued at £2115 per annum. Aquhorthies, 1 mile 
further W, was from 1799 till 1829 the seat of the 
Roman Catholic college, transferred in the latter year 
to Blaies. Four proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 5 of between £100 and 
£500, 18 of from £50 to £100, and 56 of from £20 to 
£50. Inverurie is in the presbytery of Garioeh and 


s}Tiod of Aberdeen ; the living is worth £430. Market 
Place public, West High Street public, a Free Church 
infant, and an Episcopal school, with respective accom- 
modation for 317, 200, 102, and 82 children, had (1881) 
an average attendance of 222, 136, 61, and 59, and grants 
of £191, 18s., £130, 3s., £45, 6s., and £41, 9s. 6d. 
Valuation (1860) £S169, (1883) £11,466, plus £1237 for 
railway. Pop. (1S01) 783, (1831) 1419, (1861) 2668, 
(1871) 2970, (1SS1) 303S.— Orel. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 
See John Davidson's Inverurie and the Earldom of 
the Garioeh (Ediiib. 1878). 

Inverwick. See Glenlyon. 

Inzievar, an estate, with a modern mansion, in the 
detached portion of Saline parish, SW Fife, 5 miles W 
of Dunfermline. Its owner, Archibald Vincent Smith- 
Sligo, Esq. (b. 1815), holds 2323 acres in Fife and Perth 
shires, valued at £3594 per annum. — Orel. Sur., sh. 40, 

Iona, an island and quoad sacra parish at the SW 
corner of the island of Mull, and separated from the 
long promontory known as the Ross of Mull by a channel 
about a mile wide, deep enough for the passage of the 
heaviest ships, but dangerous on account of the sunk 
rocks. For quoad civilia purposes the island belongs 
to the parish of Kilfinichen and Kilvickeon, one of 
those into which the island of Mull was divided in 
1730. The date of junction is not known, but at the 
period of the Reformation Iona was still a distinct par- 
ish. The island lies NE and SW, and is about 3J miles 
long and 1$ mile wide. The area is about 2000 acres, 
of which 600 are under occasional cultivation, the rest 
being pasture or waste. In the centre, at the narrowest 
part, a plain extends across from side to side, with a 
small green hillock in the centre. Here the soil is fairly 
good ; but to the N the surface is rougher, and shows 
grassy hollows and rocky rising-grounds, terminating in 
Dun-i (327 feet). To the N a strip of low land extends 
to the shore, and terminates in a stretch of white sand, 
chiefly composed of broken shells. Along the E the 
ground is flat and fertile. To the S of the central plain 
the surface is irregular, with rocky heights and grassy 
hollows, but affording fair pasture. The underlying 
rocks are entirely Laurentian, with a dip nearly vertical, 
the strike being from NE to SW. There are beds of 
slate, quartz, marble with serpentine, and a mixture of 
felspar, quartz, and hornblende passing sometimes into 
a sort of granite. Among other minerals epidote may 
be found. The coast has a number of small rocky bays 
and headlands. It is by no means such a bleak and 
dismal place as it is sometimes represented to be, and 
there is some truth in the Gaelic proverb that asserts 
that if a man goes once to Iona he will go three times. 
The name of the island has a very large number of 
varieties, and, according to Dr Reeves, in his edition of 
Adamnan's Life of St Columba, Iona is a mistake for 
Ioua, the root being Iou. The following are some of 
the names it has had at different dates : — Hyona (A.D. 
657), Hii (730), Columbkill (730), Ii (900), Hi (11th 
century), I-cholaimchille and Ieoa (late 11th century), 
Yona and Iona (circa 1251), Icolmkill {circa 1400), 
Yensis. The old derivations I-thona, ' the island of 
waves,' and I-shona, 'the blessed island,' are now aban- 
doned. Y, I, or Ii is the island, while Columkill is the 
cell of Columba, and Icolumkill or Icolmkill is the 
island of the cell of Columba. 

The chief interest of the island lies in its historical 
associations with St Columba and the introduction of 
Christianity into Scotland ; and so powerful are these 
associations that, though Dr Johnson on his visit in 
1773 had to be carried ashore on the back of a High- 
lander, and had to sleep in a barn among straw, with 
a portmanteau for a pillow, he had yet no thought of 
grumbling, but instead burst out into high praise. ' We 
were now treading that illustrious island which was 
once the luminary of the Caledonian regions, whence 
savage clans and roving barbarians derived the benefits 
of knowledge and the blessings of religion. To abstract 
the mind from all local emotion would be impossible if 
it were endeavoured, and would be foolish if it were 



possible. Whatever withdraws us from the power of 
our senses ; whatever makes the past, the distant, or 
the future predominate over the present, advances us in 
the dignity of thinking beings. Far from me and from 
my friends be such frigid philosophy as may conduct us, 
indifferent and unmoved, over any ground which has 
been dignified by wisdom, bravery, or virtue. That 
man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not 
gain force upon the plain of Marathon, or whose piety 
would not grow warmer among the ruins of Iona.' 
Wordsworth has devoted four sonnets to the same sub- 

' Isle of Colurnba's Cell, 
Where Christian piety's soul-cheering spark 
(Kindled from Heaven between the light and dark 
Of time) shone like the morning- star.' 

And again — 

' On to Iona ! — What can she afford 
To us save matter for a thoughtful sigh, 
Heaved over ruin with stability 
In urgent contrast? To diffuse the Word 
(Thy Paramount, mighty Nature ! and Time's Lord) 
Her Temples rose, 'mid pagan gloom : but why, 
Even for a moment, has our verse deplored 
Their wrongs, since they fulfilled their destiny? 
And when, subjected to a common doom 
Of mutability, those far-famed Piles 
Shall disappear from both the sister Isles, 
Iona's Saints, forgetting not past days, 
Garlands shall wear of amaranthine bloom, 
While heaven's vast sea of voices chants their praise. 

c How sad a welcome ! To each voyager 
Some ragged child holds up for sale a store 
Of wave-worn pebbles, pleading on the shore 
Where once came monk and nun with gentle stir, 
Blessings to give, news ask, or suit prefer. 
Yet is yon neat trim church a grateful speck 
Of novelty amid the sacred wreck 
Strewn far and wide. Think, proud Philosopher ! 
Fallen though she be, this Glory of the west, 
Still on her sons the beams of mercy shine ; 
And "hopes, perhaps more heavenly bright than thine, 
A grace by thee unsought and unpossest, 
A faith more fixed, a rapture more divine, 
Shall gild their passage to eternal rest." ' 

In Aug. 1847 the island was visited by the Queen 
and Prince Albert during their tour in the west and 
their progress northward to Ardverikie. Prince Albert, 
the Prince of Leiningen, the Duke of Norfolk, Earl 
Grey, and Sir James Clark landed, while the Queen 
remained in the yacht and sketched. They had a very 
primitive and decorous reception. A few plainly-dressed 
islanders stood on the shore, carrying tufted willow- 
wands, and prepared to act as an escort ; the body of 
the people stood behind at a respectful distance looking 
eagerly on ; while a few children, in the usual fashion 
of the island, offered pebbles and shells for sale. 

St Columba. — Columba or Colm or Colum was born 
in Ireland a.d. 521, and was from his boyhood noted 
for his piety and devotion to wisdom. Even when a 
young deacon his power was wonderful. Adamnan tells 
how, when he was in Leinster acquiring divine wisdom, 
a young girl fled to his master Gemman for protection. 
Her pursuer, ' an unfeeling and pitiless oppressor of the 
innocent,' without any regard for the presence of the 
holy men, 'stabbed the girl with his lance under their 
very cloaks, and, leaving her lying dead at their feet, 
turned to go away back. Then the old man, in great 
affliction, turning to Columba, said, "How long, holy 
youth Columba, shall God, the just judge, allow this 
horrid crime and this insult to us to go unpunished ? " 
Then the saint at once pronounced this sentence on the 
perpetrator of the deed, "At the very instant the soul 
of this girl whom he hath murdered ascendeth into 
heaven shall the soul of the murderer go down into 
hell ; " and scarcely had he spoken the words when the 
murderer of the innocent, like Ananias before Peter, fell 
down dead on the spot before the eyes of the holy 
youth.' About 545 lie is said to have founded a large 
monastery in Ireland, in a place called, from the number 
of its oaks, Dearmagh, identified with Durrow in King's 
County, and his character for sanctity must have made 
him a man of considerable power and influence. About 


560 Curnan, the son of the King of Connaught, who 
had taken refuge with the saint, was forcibly carried off 
by Diarmaid, King of Ireland, and the latter is said to 
have given further offence by deciding against Columba 
in a dispute with Finnian of Moville about a MS. 
psalter. The second incident is probably false (for there 
is no trace of a quarrel between Columba and Bishop 
Finnian), but the first seems to have led to the great 
battle fought at Culdremhne in Connaught in a.d. 561, 
in which the northern Hy Neill defeated the southern 
Hy Neill, under King Diarmaid, with great slaughter. 
Columba sprang from the tribe of Cinel Conaill, a 
branch of the northern Hy Neill, and is traditionally 
credited with having incited his kinsmen to make war 
on King Diarmaid,*in order to avenge the violated right 
of sanctuary, and to have contributed to their success 
by means of his prayers. He was in consequence held 
responsible for the bloodshed, and was summoned before 
a synod of the saints of Ireland, who decided that he 
must quit Ireland in perpetual exile, and neither again 
gaze on its shores or tread its soil, but must go to a 
distant land and win back from paganism as many souls 
as there had been persons killed in the battle of Cul- 
dremhne. Leaving Ireland he sailed for the Western 
Isles, and after in vain trying Islay, Jura, and Colonsay 
(from all of which Ireland was still visible), he finally 
landed at the S end of Iona, and finding that Ireland 
was no longer to be seen (Cairn Cul-ri-Erin being his 
point of view), he settled there, and began his work 
among the heathen. The part of the story regarding 
his perpetual exile seems to be a fable, for Adamnan 
speaks of him as exercising constant supervision over 
the Irish monasteries with which he was connected, and 
records a large number of visits he is said to have paid 
to Ireland, while he attributes the saint's desire to go 
forth as a missionary merely to his love for Christ. 
'His real motives,' says Dr Skene, 'for undertaking 
this mission seem therefore to have been partly religious 
and partly political. He was one of the twelve apostles 
of Ireland who had emerged from the school of Finnian 
of Clonard, and he no doubt shared the missionary spirit 
which so deeply characterised the Monastic Church of 
Ireland at this period. He was also closely connected 
through his grandmother with the line of the Dalriadie 
kings, and as an Irishman must have been interested in 
the maintenance of the Irish colony in the West of 
Scotland. Separated from him by the Irish Channel 
was the great pagan nation of the Northern Picts, who, 
under a powerful king, had just inflicted a crushing 
defeat upon the Scots of Dalriada, and threatened their 
expulsion from the country ; and while Ms missionary 
zeal impelled him to attempt the conversion of the Picts, 
he must have felt that, if he succeeded in winning a 
pagan people to the religion of Christ, he would at the 
same time rescue the Irish colony of Dalriada from a 
great danger, and render them an important service by 
establishing peaceable relations between them and their 
greatly more numerous and powerful neighbours, and 
replacing them in the more secure possession of the 
western districts they had colonised. ' 

He set out from Ireland in 563 at the age of 42, and, 
according to a quatrain at least as old as the beginning 
of the 12th century — 

' His company was fortj- priests, 
Twenty bishops of noble worth ; 
For the psalm-singing, without dispute, 
Thirty deacons, fifty youths.' 

He seems first to have visited Conall, King of Dalriada, 
and then to have passed on to Iona, where, according to 
the old Irish life, he found 'two bishops,' who 'came to 
receive his submission from him. But God manifested to 
Colum Cille that they were not in truth bishops ; where- 
fore it was that they left the island to him when he ex- 
posed their real history and career.' This story of the 
monks is probably founded on fact, and Dr Skene is of 
opinion that not only was there ' an earlier Christian 
establishment on the island,' but that it belonged to 
that peculiar development of the Irish church which 
was known as the Church of the Seven Bishops. Bede 


tells us that the island of Hii ' had been by the dona- 
tion of the Piets who inhabit these districts of Britain 
given over long before to Scottish monks, from whose 
preaching the}- had received the faith of Christ,' and 
possibly the donation may have been to the earlier 
settlement to which Columba succeeded. However 
that may be, and whether he received the right from 
the Piets or from the Dalriads, his claim to the island 
seems to have been fully recognised and admitted. His 
landing took place probably on the 12 May 503, and tra- 
ditionally at the bay now known as Port-a-ehurakh, and 
he must at once have proceeded to found the monastery 
and establish the ' church which not only embraced 
within its fold the whole of Scotland N of the Firths of 
Forth and Clyde, and was for a century and a half the 
national church of Scotland, but was destined to give 
to the Angles of Northunibria the same form of 
Christianity for a period of thirty years. ' The build- 
ings that now remain are of course of much later date 
than Columba's time. Dr Skene, who has carefully 
and patiently investigated the matter, is indeed quite 
positive that the first erections were on a site about J 
mile to the N of the present cathedral, between Dun-i 
on the W, and the old burying-ground called C'ladh-an- 
diseart on the E. From the lives of St Columba written 
by Cummin (the white abbot, 657-669) and Adamnan 
(abbot 679-704), the original structures were (1) a 
monastery with a small court, on one side of which was 
the church, with a small side chamber, on a second side 
the guest chamber, on the third a refectory, and on the 
fourth dwellings of the monks ; a little way off on the 
highest part of the ground (2) the cell of St Columba, 
where he sat and read or wrote during the day, and 
slept at night on the bare ground with a stone for his 
pillow ; (3) various subsidiary buildings, including a 
kiln, a mill, a barn, and a cowhouse, which latter was, 
however, outside the rampart. Not far off was a 
sequestered hollow (identified by Dr Skene with Cabhan 
cuildcach), to which Columba retired when be wished 
to pray in solitude. The whole was bounded by a 
vallum or rampart, the course of which may still be 
traced. The site of the monastery has already been 
noted, and St Columba's cell seems to have been within 
the rampart immediately to the E of the mound known 
as Cnoc-na-bristeadh clock, close to the house at present 
called Clachauach. The kiln was probably about 100 
yards Nff of Torr-abb, and the mill was in the same 
neighbourhood. It has left its traces in the small 
stream to the N of the present cathedral ruins which 
bears the name of Strutli-a-mhuilinn or the mill stream. 
Remains of old causeways may be traced from the land- 
ing places of Port-na-martir, Port Ronan, and Port-na- 
muintir. All the early buildings, except the kiln, were 
of wood, the guest chamber was wattled, the church 
was of oak, and the cell of Columba was made of planks. 
The monks were divided into three classes, the older 
brethren, who devoted themselves to the religious ser- 
vices of the church, and to reading and transcribing the 
Scriptures ; second, the younger and stronger working 
brothers, who devoted themselves to agriculture and the 
service of the monastery ; and third, the alumni or 
youth under instruction. The}' took a solemn vow at 
the altar, were tonsured from ear to ear, and wore 
white robes with over bodies and hoods of the natural 
colour of the wool. 

After he had set matters in order, the Saint seems to 
have made frequent journeys to the mainland, probably 
for missionary purposes, and in 565 he even made his 
way across Drumalban, and along the Great Glen to the 
court of the Pictish King Brude, which was somewhere 
in the neighbourhood of Inverness. Here, after certain 
miraculous occurrences, he converted Brude, and thus 
prepared the way for the establishment of missions all 
through the territories of the Piets, and for the more 
rapid conversion of the whole Pictish nation. In 574, 
on the death of King Conall, he consecrated his suc- 
cessor Aidan, and in the following year, at the synod of 
Druniceatt, he was able to obtain concessions which 
practically established Dalriada as a kingdom indepen- 


dent of the Irish Ard-ri. The death of Brudo in 584 
deprived Columba of his powerful friend and patron, 
but it opened up new fields of labour. Brude's suc- 
cessor was Gartnaidh, a southern Pict, whose seat was 
at Abernethy on the Tay, and though the southern 
Piets had been converted by Ninian in the beginning of 
the 6th century, they had lapsed, until the labours of 
Columba restored them again to the true faith. Adam- 
nan tells us that four years before his death he had a 
vision that angels had been sent to bear his soul o\\ high, 
but they were stayed by the prayers of his churches. 
When the four years were nearly finished he set every- 
thing in order for his departure. The day before ' he 
ascended the hill that overlooketh the monastery, and 
stood for some little time on its summit, and as he 
stood there with both hands uplifted, he blessed his 
monastery, saying : ' ' Small and mean though this 
place is, yet it shall be held in great and unusual 
honour, not only by Scotic kings and people, but also 
by the rulers of foreign and barbarous nations, and by 
their subjects ; the saints also, even of other churches, 
shall regard it with no common reverence.'" On the 
following day at nocturnal vigils he went into the 
church and knelt down in prayer beside the altar, and 
' his attendant Diormit, who more slowly followed him, 
saw from a distance that the whole interior of the 
church was filled with a heavenly light in the direction 
of the saint,' which, as he drew near, quickly dis- 
appeared. ' Feeling his way in the darkness, as the 
brethren had not yet brought in the lights, he found 
the saint lying before the altar,' and all the monks 
coming in, Columba moved his hand to give them his 
benediction, and so breathed his last on the 9 June 597, 
while ' the whole church resounded with loud lamenta- 
tions of grief. ' His body, ' wrapped in a clean shroud 
of fine linen, and, being placed in the coffin prepared 
for it, was buried with all due veneration,' with no one 
present but his faithful mouks, for all the three days 
and nights of his obsequies there was such a storm that 
no one could cross the sound. 

After Columba's death, the monastery continued its 
career, but under harassing conditions, for under the 
abbot second in succession to the founder began that 
controversy concerning Easter, which was destined to 
work such harm to the Columban Church. In this early 
stage, however, the interference was from without, and 
did not as yet disturb the harmony of the brethren, 
who went on teaching and preaching and spreading 
themselves still farther to the north. When Edwin, 
King of Deira, conquered Bernicia, many of the young 
nobles of the latter country seem to have, in 617, 
taken refuge at Iona, among them being Oswald, who 
afterwards, in 634, invaded Northunibria, and won 
back the kingdom from Penda of Mercia and Caedwalla 
of Wales. As soon as he began to set things in order, 
mindful of his hosts and entertainers, he sent to Iona 
where he had been baptized, and asked for ' a bishop, 
by whose instructions and ministry the Anglic nation 
which he governed might be taught the advantages of 
faith in the Lord, and receive its sacraments ; ' and in 
response to this Aidan was sent. The Columban church 
flourished in Northunibria for thirty years, but the 
Easter difficulty and question about coronal tonsure 
then proved fatal to its further existence, and the 
Northumbrian church conformed to the usages enjoined 
from Borne. The influence of Iona was no sooner lost, 
however, to the south, than it made fresh conquests in 
the north over all that wild district along the W coast 
from Ardnamurchan to Loch Broom, but the parent 
monastery seems to have been in a decaying condition, 
for when Adamnan came into office as abbot, in 679, he 
found it necessary to execute very extensive repairs, and 
sent twelve vessels to Lorn for timber. He tried to 
introduce the Roman calculation as to the time of 
Easter, but his efforts led only to schism, which he 
himself, however, did not live to see. About 717 the 
continued resistance of the community to the cycles of 
nineteen years, ' sent throughout all the provinces of 
the Piets,' caused them to be driven across Drivmalban, 



and entirely out of the dominions of King Naiton ; and 
at this time, therefore, the sway of Iona over the 
monasteries and churches in Pictland entirely ceased 
while the controversy of the styles does not seem finally 
to have ended till about 772. In 749 there was a storm 
in which a great number of the community of Iona 
perished, and in 795 the island was plundered by Danish 
sea-rovers, and this happened again in 798. In 802 the 
island was again plundered, and the buildings of the 
original monastery, as repaired by Adamnan, were 
burned, while in a subsequent attack, in 806, sixty-eight 
members of the community were slain. These visits 
seem to have caused so much alarm as to inspire the 
churchmen with an intention of removing from the 
western islands altogether, and before 807 the remains 
of St Columba were carried away to Ireland and there 
enshrined : Sells was erected, and to it passed the 
primacy over the Columban monasteries in Ireland. 
The relics were brought back in 818, and at that time the 
monastery was rebuilt, and now of stone as affording 
greater safety. The buildings were probably at the 
same time changed to their present site as from its 
natural features offering greater security. The Danes 
granted the monks but a short respite, for in 825 the 
abbot, and probably a number of the community were 
slain for refusing to disclose where the rich shrine of St 
Columba had been concealed. In 878 it was again 
necessary to remove the shrine and relics of Columba 
' to Ireland to escape the foreigners,' but they must 
have been brought back about the close of the century. 
According to the Annals of Ulster, Iona was once more 
plundered by the Danes in 986 on Christmas eve, and 
the abbot and fifteen of the monks were slain, while in 
the following year 360 of these plunderers were slain ' by 
a miracle of God and of Cholaimchille.' Traditionally, 
the martyrdom of these sixteen took place at a bay at 
the N end of the island, and known as Traith ban na 
inanach, or the White bay of the monks. This was the 
last occasion on which Iona suffered from the Danes, but 
the buildings seem to have remained in a ruined state 
thereafter till about 1074, when Queen Margaret 're- 
stored the monastery, . . . rebuilt it, and furnished 
it with monks, with an endowment for performing the 
Lord's work ; ' but the island passed very shortly after 
into the rule of Magnus Barefoot, King of Norway, and 
in 1099 the old order came to an end with the death of 
the last of the old abbots. Under the bishopric of Man 
and the Isles the monastery now became subject to the 
bishopric of Drontheim, to which Man and the Isles 
was suffragan, and probably fell into a state of decay, 
till in 1156 Somerled won the Sudrejar, including Iona, 
and once more restored the connection between Iona 
and Ireland by placing the monastery under the care of 
the Abbot of Deny. In or about 1203 Reginald, Lord 
of the Isles, founded in the island a monastery of Bene- 
dictine Friars formerly thought to be of the Cluniac 
order, but now considered by Dr Skene to have been 
rather a branch of those introduced by David I. in 1113 
from Tyron in Chartres, and settled by him first at 
Selkirk, and subsequently at Kelso. At the same time 
there was founded a nunnery for Benedictine nuns, of 
which Beatrice, the sister of Reginald, was first prioress. 
It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The nuns seem 
at a later date to have been Augustinian. The deed of 
confirmation of the monastery, dated 9 Dec. 1203, still 
exists in the Vatican, and most of the ruins that now 
exist are those of this monastery and nunnery. When 
the Benedictine monastery was established the abbot 
' appears to have attempted to thrust out the prior 
Celtic community and place them in a separate building 
near the town, for we are told in the Ulster Annals that 
in 1203 "a monastery was erected by'Cellach in the 
middle of the Cro of Iona (Croi la) without any legal 
right, and in despite of the family of Iona, so that he 
did considerable damage to the town (Baile)."' The 
Irish clergy, however, brought aid to their brethren, 
and, ' in obedience to the law of the church, pulled 
down the monastery.' A compromise seems, however, 
to have been arranged, for from this time onward the 


old monks of Iona disappear from its history, and the 
Benedictines were supreme. Dr Reeves identifies the 
site of this monastery with the Gleann-an-Teampull, 
but Dr Skene thinks it was near the parish church. 

In a valuable paper read to the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland in 1873, and published in their Proceedings, 
and subsequently in the 1874 edition of Adamnan's Life 
of St Columba, Dr Skene indicated the opinion that 
none of the buildings that remained were of older date 
than the 12th century, being the remains of the build- 
ing founded by Reginald, Lord of the Isles, between 
1166 and 1207, while the capital of one of the columns 
in the tower has sculptured on it, ' Donaldus O'Brolchan 
fecit hoc opus,' and the Ulster Annals record the death 
of Domhnall Ua Brolchain (who was probably prior of 
Iona) in 1203.* Remains that came to light during 
operations undertaken for the partial restoration of 
the buildings in 1874-75 have led him since then to 
modify his opinion, and in a subsequent paper read in 
the end of 1875, and published in the Scottish Society 
of Antiquaries' Proceedings for 1875-76, he points out 
that the little chapel N of the Abbey Church of St 
Mary (it was not a cathedral till near the Reforma- 
tion), and at a little distance from it, had an entirely 
different orientation pointing more to the N, and that 
alongside it some foundations were exposed with a 
similar orientation. To the W of the ruins a small 
building known as St Columba's house was similar in 
orientation, and, therefore, these are probably all re- 
mains of the establishment that preceded the Bene- 
dictine monastery. 

At the instance of the Duke of Argyll, the ruins were 
in 1873 visited by Mr Robert Anderson, architect, 
Edinburgh, who drew up a report with suggestions 
for their repair and partial restoration. These were 
carried out in the autumn of 1S74 and the spring of 
1875 with most excellent taste and judgment, the stone 
for the repairs being all brought from Carsaig Quarry in 
Mull, whence the original materials had been obtained. 
During the operations the foundations of the chapels 
and cloisters, which were formerly mere green mounds, 
have been plainly marked out in order to give a clear 
and accurate idea of the original plan of the Abbey. On 
the N side a great deal was done, the chapel and refectory 
having had walls, doorways, and windows restored, and 
even reconstructed in exact imitation of the style of the 
old architecture. In excavations in the cloister court 
several beautifully carved pillars were exposed. They 
formed the sides of little doors that led from the court 
into the square. The foundation of a cross was exposed 
on the mound known as Torr-Abb (the Abbot's Mound) 
opposite the W front of the church, and from wdiich 
there is a magnificent view. This is probably the little 
hill on which, according to Adamnan, Columba stood 
wdien he gave utterance to the prophecy, already quoted, 
as to the homage that should yet be paid to the island. 
The excavations carried on at the nunnery have shown 
the foundation lines of the buildings, and both here and 
at the cathedral numerous stones were brought to light. 
A short distance NE of the Abbey Church, at Cladh-an- 
diseart, there was found in 1872 a heart-shaped stone 1 
ft. 7 in. long, 1 ft. 3 in. wide, and 4J in. thick, with 
an incised cross on it. Dr Skene is inclined to think 
it is the stone used by Columba as a pillow, and the 
late James Drummond, R. S.A., has suggested that 
besides ' when the remains of St Columba were en- 
shrined this stone, with the sacred emblem carved upon 
it, was put in the place where the saint's body had 
lain' (See Dr Mitchell's Vacation Notes in Cromar, 
Burghead, and Strathspicy, Edinb. 1S75, reprinted from 
the Proceedings of the Soc. Antiq. of Scot.). The 
church, which was dedicated to St Mary, though begun 
in the 12th century, was probably built bit by bit for a 
considerable time after, as was then quite customary. It 
is cruciform in shape, consisting of nave, transepts, and 
choir, with a sacristy on the N side of the choir and side 

* This was the inscription as it existed in 1S4S. Between that 
and 1S50 it was damaged probably by some reckless relic hunter. 
See Reeves' Adamnan's Life of St Coluniba, Ed. 1S74, p. 247. 


chapels on the S. Near the W entrance was a small 
chamber called St Columba's Tomb. The length, from £ 
to W, is 160 feet, and the width 24. The width across 
the transepts is about 70 feet. Over the crossing is a 
square tower 70 feet high, and supported by arches 
resting on four pillars. The tower itself is plain, but it 
is lighted on one side by a window formed by a slab 
with quatrefoil openings, and on the other by a marigold 
or Catherine wheel window with spiral niullions. The 
capitals of the columns are of sandstone, carved with 
very grotesque figures, still sharp and well defined. 
One shows the sacrifice of an ox, another the tempta- 
tion of Adam and Eve, another the fall, another the 
crucifixion, another Peter cutting off Malchus' ear, 
another an angel weighing the good and evil deeds of a 
man, with the devil trying to depress the side of the 
evil deeds. There are three sedilia ' formed with tre- 
foiled ogee arches under connected dripstones, which 
run out afterwards into a horizontal tablet, and have at 
each apex the remains of what seems to have been a 
sculptured head. ' The high altar seems to have been 
of marble, and measured 6 feet by 4. Or Sacheverell 
mentions it in 16S8, and Martin, in his Description of 
the Western Islands in 1702, speaks of the beauty of its 
marble. Before 1772 it had got much destroyed, and 
Pennant, who visited the place in that year, and who 
describes it minutely in his Tour, confesses that he and 
his companions carried pieces of it away. It has since 
vanished entirely. On the N side of the chancel is the 
tomb of Abbot Maekinnon who died in 1500, and oppo- 
site it is that of Abbot Kenneth Mackenzie. Both are 
much defaced. In the centre of the chancel is the 
monument of Macleod of Macleod, the largest in the 
island. To the N and E of the cloisters are the re- 
fectory and chapter-house. The latter is a gloomy 
vaulted chamber, with the roof still entire ; the build- 
ing over it is said to have been the library. The 
library was traditionally very large and valuable, but 
was entirely dispersed at the Reformation, a number of 
the MSS. passing to the Scotch College at Douay. The 
Relig Oran or Reilig Odhrain, i.e., the burial-place of 
Oran, to the SW of the Abbey, is the ancient burial 
place of the monastery. The name is very old, and the 
account of its origin given in the old Irish life of St 
Columba is somewhat peculiar, and shows trace of a 
custom seemingly of wide extent. After he had landed 
at Hy, ' Columbkille said to his people . . . it is 
permitted to you that some one of you go under the 
earth of this island to consecrate it. Odhran arose 
quickly, and thus spake : If you accept me, said he, I 
am ready for that. O Odhran, said Columbcille, you 
shall receive the reward of this : no request shall be 
granted to any one at my tomb, unless he first ask of 
thee. Odhrain then went to heaven.' Tradition has 
considerably amplified this, and makes St Oran be 
buried alive, to appease some fiend who undid at night 
all Columba's work by day at the first occupation of the 
island. Oran was dug up at the end of three days, and 
began immediately to assure the bystanders that there 
was neither deity nor devil, neither future happiness 
nor future punishment, statements which so utterly 
shocked St Columba that he ordered Oran to be at 
once reinterred, and hence has come the Gaelic proverb, 
' Earth to earth on the mouth of Oran, that he may 
blab no more.' Dr Reeves supposes that the place 
received its present name from the first of St Columba's 
fraternity who was buried in it. It contains a chapel 
called St Oran's Chapel, a plain oblong building of 40 
feet by 20, and dating from the close of the 11th cen- 
tury. There is no E window, but in the sides near the 
E end are two narrow openings for light. At the "W 
end is a circular-headed doorway, with beak-head orna- 
ment. Dr Reeves supposes this to be the building 
residting from the liberality of Queen Margaret. The 
oldest tombstones in the cemetery are two with Irish 
inscriptions, requesting prayer for the souls of Eogan 
and of Maelpatrick. Here, it is said, were buried the 
Scottish kings prior to Malcolm Ceannmor, Ecgfrid 
the Northumbrian king (684), Godfred (1188), and 


Haco Ospac (1228). According to Donald Munro, 
Dean of the Isles, who visited the place in the 16th 
century, and left an account of his visit, there were 
three tombs formed like chapels, in which were laid 
' the kings of three fair realms.' The first, which con- 
tained the kings from Fergus II. to Macbeth, was in- 
scribed, Tumulus Begum Scotice; the second, which 
contained the remains of four Irish kings, had the in- 
scription, Tumulus Regum Hibcmice ; the third, with 
eight Norwegian kings, was marked, Tumulus Regum 
Norwegian. An effigy of a man in armour is the monu- 
ment of Macquarrie of Ulva. According to Dr Skene, 
a stone of the early part of the 13th century, with a 
sword, a small cross in a corner, and a treasure box 
(marking the founder of a church), is the tomb of 
Reginald, the founder of the monastery. That of 
Angus, Lord of the Isles in Bruce's time, who was 
interred at Iona in 1306, has a galley on it. There is 
also a portion of a monument to Abbot Maekinnon, 
already mentioned. The reason of the place having 
such sanctity as a burying-ground, is said to be the 
Gaelic prophecy thus paraphrased by the late Dr Smith 
of Campbeltown : — 

' Seven years before that awful day, 
When time shall be no more, 
A watery delude will o'ersweep 
Hibernia's mossy shore. 

' The green-clad Islay, too, shall sink, 
While with the great and good 
Columba's happy isle shall rear 
Her towers above the flood.' 

There is a chapel at the nunnery still farther to the 
S with late Norman features passing into Early English. 
It is now partially restored. Here is the monument of 
the last prioress, much injured by the fall of the roof. 
It bears the inscription 'Hie jacet Domina Anna Donaldi 
Terletti quondam Prioressa de Iona qua; obiit anno 
MDXLIIItio ejus animam Altissimo Commendamus.' 
It has a figure of the prioress with the symbols of the 
mirror and the comb. It w : as asserted by the older 
writers that the island at one time contained 360 crosses, 
and that the synod of Argyll ordered these to be des- 
troyed shortly after the Reformation, but this is plainly 
a very strong case of travellers' stories. There are now 
two entire crosses, traces of other nine or ten in the 
shape of fragments, and of three or four from the names 
of places. The entire ones are St Martin's Cross, oppo- 
site the W door of the Abbey Church, and Maclean's 
Cross, on the wayside between the nunnery and the 
cathedral. The name of the latter is evidently due to 
some popular mistake ; it is 10 ft. 4 in. high, while the 
former is 14 feet high. There was a parish church at 
an early date, and, according to the Old Statistical 
Account, it was distinct from the nunnery church, and 
is there described in 1795 as ' entire, but tottering.' It 
is mentioned in 1561 by the name of Teampul Ronain — 
the church of Ronan. In the 14th and 15th centimes 
Iona was under the Bishop of Dunkeld, but in 1506 it 
passed back to the care of the Bishop of the Isles, and 
from this date till the Reformation it was the Cathedral 
Church of the diocese. In 1648 Charles I. granted the 
island to Archibald, Marquis of Argyll, and it still be- 
longs to his descendant, the present Duke of Argyll. A 
golden chalice belonging to the Abbey was in the pos- 
session of the Glengarry family, and from them passed 
to the service of the Roman Catholic Cathedra] in 
Glasgow. From the sacristy of that church it was 
stolen in 1845, and by the thieves consigned to the 

At Port-a-Ckuraich, where Columba first landed on 
Iona, is a ship-barrow. It is about 50 feet in length, 
and is traditionally the model of St Columba's eurraeh 
or boat. Dr Wilson in the Prehistoric Annals of Scot- 
land is of opinion that it is a sepulchral barrow of some 
fierce Viking, erected during the period when the island 
was so frequently ravaged by the Northmen. There 
were formerly two standing stones at the same place. 
There are also cairns on the W side of the bay, and at 
Sithean Mor (the great fairy mount) there is also a 




tumulus on which Pennant says at the time of his visit 
(1772) there was a circle of stones. 

The parish of Iona contains also five farms in the 
Ross district of Mull. It was erected in 1845, and is in 
the presbytery of Mull and the synod of Argyll. The 
village is to the E of the ruins of the nunnery, and 
there are a few houses in the northern district, hut the 
southern part is uninhabited. The parish church is in 
the village ; the stipend is £120, and there is a manse 
and glebe. There is also a Free church, the minister of 
which resides in Mull, and the old Free church manse 
is now used as a hotel. The post-town is Aros in Mull. 
Pop. (1782) 277, (1841) 1084, (1S71) 865, (1881) 713, of 
whom 645 were Gaelic-speaking. 

See Monro's account in 1549 in the Macfarlane MS. 
in the Advocates Library, and particulars supplied to 
Sacheverell, Governor of Man, by Dean Fraser in 1688 
in the same MS. ; Martin's Description of the Western 
Islands (Lond. 1703) ; Pennant's Tour (Chester, 1774) ; 
Maclean's Historical Account of Iona (Edinb. 1833-41); 
Transactions of the Iona Club, Collectanea de rebus 
Albanicis — Edited by the Iona Club [Edited by 
Donald Gregory and W. F. Skene] (Edinb. 1834); 
Graham's Antiquities of Iona (Lond. 1850) ; C. A. 
Buckler's Cathedral or Abbey Church of Iona (Lond. 
1866) ; Duke of Argyll's Iona (Lond. 1870 ; reprinted 
from the vol. of Good Words for 1869) ; Adamnan's 
Life of St Columba (Scottish Historian Series, Edinb. 
1874); and Skene's Celtic Scotland, vol. ii. (Edinb. 1877). 

Iorsa Water, a stream in Kilrnorie parish, Arran 
island, Buteshire, issuing from tiny Loch na Davie 
(1182 feet above sea-level), and running 8| miles south- 
south-westward to the N side of Machrie Bay. It has 
been widened, 2 miles above its mouth, into artificial 
Loch Iorsa (3 x | furl. ; 146 feet), which, like the 
stream, yields sea and river trout, with occasional 
salmon. See Gleniorsa. — Orel. Sur., sh. 21, 1S70. 

Irongath Hill. See Borrowstoitnness. 

Irongray. See Kirkpatrick-Irongray. 

Irvine, The (Gael, iar-an, 'westward-flowing river'), 
a river of Ayrshire, rising on the Lanarkshire border, at 
an altitude of 810 feet above sea-level, near Drumclog, 
and 7 miles SW by W of Strathaven. Thence it winds 
29J miles westward, dividing Cunninghame from Kyle, 
till it falls into the Firth of Clyde at Irvine town. Its 
principal affluents are Glen Water, Polbaith Burn, Kil- 
marnock Water, Carmel Water, Annick Water, and the 
Garnock ; and it bounds the parishes of Galston, Loudoun, 
Kilmarnock, Riccarton, Kilmaurs, Dreghorn, Dundonald, 
and Irvine, under which full details are given as to the 
town, villages, mansions, and other features of its course. 
If the beauty of the stream, gliding slowly over its 
pebbly bed, the richness and verdure of its haughs, the 
openness of its course, the array of mansions looking 
down upon its meanderings, the displays of industry and 
wealth which salute it on its progress, are taken into 
view, the Irvine will be pronounced one of the most 
pleasing rivers of Scotland, more grateful to the eye of 
combined patriotism and taste, than not a few of the 
highly picturesque streams which have drawn music 
from a hundred harps, and poesy from a cluster of the 
most gifted bards. The Irvine used to yield toler- 
able sport, and down to Kilmarnock the trout-fishing 
still is fair, but lower down its waters are poisoned by 
the refuse of public works and by town sewage. A 
few salmon ascend as far as Shewalton. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 23, 22, 1865. 

Irvine, a town and a parish in Cunninghame district, 
Ayrshire. A seaport and a royal and parliamentary 
burgh, the town lies on the right bank of the river 
Irvine, immediately above a northward loop in the 
river's course, 1| mile in a direct line E by N of its 
mouth, but 2| miles following the winding of its 
channel. The parliamentary burgh includes the large 
suburb of Fullarton, on the left bank of the river, 
within Dundonald parish ; and here stands Irvine 
Junction on the Glasgow and South- Western railway, 
10| miles N by W of Ayr, 74 W of Kilmarnock, 3* SSE 
of Kilwinning, 29£ SW of Glasgow, and 77 WS"W of 

Edinburgh. The site of its main body is a rising- 
ground, with sandy soil, extending parallel to the river ; 
and the site of its suburbs, and of buildings on the out- 
skirts, is low and flat. Sir William Brereton described 
it in 1634 as ' daintily situate both upon a navigable 
arm of the sea and in a dainty, pleasant, level champaign 
country. Excellent good corn there is near unto it, 
where the ground is enriched or made fruitful with the 
sea- weed or lime.' The principal street, f mile long, 
runs through it from end to end, and is mostly spacious 
and airy, presenting an appearance superior to that of 
the main street of most of our second-rate towns. Some 
of the other streets, in whole or in part, are well-built ; 
and the outskirts and environs contain a number of 
villas. The town has been lighted with gas since 1827, 
and in 1878 a gravitation water-supply was introduced 
from a distance of 6 miles at a cost of £40,000. The 
old Town Hall, in the middle of the High Street, was 
built in 1745 ; the new Town Hall, on the E side of 
the High Street, adjacent to its predecessor's site, is an 
Italian edifice of 1859, erected at a cost of £4000. It 
has a fine tower 120 feet high, and contains council 
chambers, a court hall, a library, and other apartments. 
The royal Bank (1858) and the Union Bank (1859) are 
also striking buildings, the latter being in the Venetian 
variety of the Italian style. A four-arch carriage bridge 
over the river was built in 1746, and, as widened and 
improved in 1837, is one of the handsomest bridges in 
Ayrshire ; while the railway viaduct, on the line from 
Glasgow to Ayr, is an elegant six-arch structure. A 
magnificent market-cross, in the centre of the town, 
was taken down in 1694, and used for the erection of 
the meal market ; and two gateways stood formerly at 
the principal entrances from the country, the one across 
High Street, the other across Eglinton Street. In 1867 
was erected a statue of Lord-Justice-General Boyle, by 
Sir John Steell, R.S.A. The parish church, built in 
1774, on a rising-ground in the Golf-fields, to the S of 
the foot of High Street, is an oblong edifice, with 1800 
sittings and a beautiful spire, which figures con- 
spicuously in a great extent of landscape. Fullarton 
Established church, built as a chapel of ease in 1836 at 
a cost of £2000, contains 900 sittings, and in 1874 was 
raised to quoad sacra status. Other places of worship 
are Irvine and Fullarton Free churches, both erected 
soon after the Disruption; two U.P. churches, Trinity 
(1810 ; 800 sittings) and Relief (1773 ; 856 sittings), a 
Baptist chapel (1839 ; 600 sittings), and St Mary's new 
Roman Catholic chapel school (1883 ; 400 sittings). A 
pre-Beformation chapel, dedicated to the Virgin, stood 
on the bank of the river near the parish church ; and at 
the S corner of the churchyard was a monastery of Car- 
melite or White Friars, founded in the 14th century by 
Fullarton of Fullarton. Irvine Academy, in an airy 
situation, a little W of the N end of High Street, is 
surrounded by an enclosed playground of 2 acres, and, 
representing a public school of 1572, was erected in 
1814 at a cost of £2250. It presents a handsome 
appearance, contains eight class rooms, with accommo- 
dation for 514 scholars, has two bursaries of £42 annual 
value, and gives education in English, writing, arith- 
metic, geography, drawing, book-keeping, mathematics 
Latin, Greek, French, German, and Italian. 

Irvine has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, branches 
of the Royal, Union, Clydesdale, and British Linen Co. 's 
Banks, a National Security Savings' Bank (1815), 27 
insurance agencies, 2 hotels, a British public house 
(1881), with hot and cold baths, a Gladstone club (1883), 
a horticultural society, a literary institute, Good Templar 
and Orange halls, a fever hospital, and 3 weekly news- 
papers — the Saturday Herald (1871), the Saturday Times 
(1873), and the Friday Express (1880). A weekly grain 
market is held on Monday ; fairs are held on the first 
Tuesday of May and the third Monday of August ; and 
there are May and August race-meetings. Manufactur- 
ing industry, both on the town's own enterprise and in 
connection with Glasgow and Kilmarnock is extensively 
carried on. Hand-sewing, introduced about 1790, 


eventually rose to such importance as to employ neai'ly 
2000 females ; in the town and neighbourhood, nearly 
2000 females ; whilst hand-loom weaving, particularly 
in the departments of book -muslins and checks, engaged 
400 weavers and 200 winders. At present employment 
is afforded by four large chemical works, a dynamite 
factory, the Irvine Forge Co., and two iron foundries, 
as well as by ship-building, rope-making, and all the 
ordinary kinds of artificership. Here also are large grain 
stores and the workshops of the Glasgow and South- 
western railway. The traffic in connection with the 
railways, and in the interchange of general merchandise 
for country produce, is considerable. The port now 
ranks as a creek or sub-port of Troon ; but, till a recent 
period, it was a head port, with full customs establish- 
ment, and with jurisdiction from Troon to Largs and 
round Arran, in 1760 having more vessels than any 
other port in Scotland, with the exception of Leith and 
of the Upper Clyde ports, then all comprised in Port 
Glasgow. The exports are coal, carpeting, tanned 
leather, tree plants, and miscellaneous articles ; the 
imports are timber, oats, butter, fruits, raw hides, linen 
cloth, and limestone. The mouth of the harbour was 
formerly so encumbered by a bar that, notwithstanding 
extensive operations to clear and deepen the entrance, 
vessels of over 80 or 100 tons burden were obliged to 
take in or deliver part of their cargoes outside, although 
from the bar to the quay there was generally a depth 
of from 9 to 11 feet at spring tides, and occasionally of 
16 during strong southerly or south-westerly winds. A 
great improvement, however, has been effected by the 
extension of the wharf in 1873 and other works ; and 
the trade, which had fallen off, has since revived. 

Irvine is one of the most ancient royal burghs of 
Scotland, having received a charter from Alexander II. 
(1214-49). Another, still extant, was granted by King 
Robert Bruce in 1308 for services rendered during the 
Wars of the Succession, and has heen twelve times 
renewed and confirmed by subsequent monarchs. For 
some time the burgh exercised jurisdiction over the 
whole of Cunninghame, but this it lost by encroach- 
ments of the barons ; and it now is governed by a 

provost, 4 bailies, 
a dean of guild, a 
treasurer, and 12 
councillors. The 
royal burgh is 
limited to Irvine 
proper ; the parlia- 
mentary, including 
Fullarton, unites 
with Ayr, Camp- 
beltown, Inveraray, 
and Oban in send- 
ing amember to par- 
liament. A burgh 
court and a justice 
of peace court is 
held every Monday; 
a sheriff small debt 
court on the first 
Thursday of February, April, June, August, October, 
and December ; and a dean of guild court is held as 
occasion requires. The six incorporated trades — square- 
men, hammermen, coopers, tailors, shoemakers, and 
weavers — early and voluntarily renounced their ex- 
clusive privileges, in advance of most similar bodies in 
Scotland. The corporation property, comprising 422 
acres of arable land, the town hall, the town's mills, 
the meal market, the shambles and washing-houses, etc. , 
yielded a revenue of £1498 in 1832, of £1980 in 1862, 
of £2939 in 1875, and of £2539 in 1882. The municipal 
and the parliamentary constituency numbered 1232 and 
1009 in 1883, when the annual value of real property 
within the parliamentary burgh amounted to £32,641, 
15s. 2d., against £13,854 in 1866, £10,424 in 1875, 
and £25,941, 13s. in 1882. Pop of parliamentary burgh 
(1841) 4594, (1851) 7534, (1861) 7060, (1871) 6S66, (1881) 
8498, of whom 4166 were males and 4508—4209 in 1871 

Seal of Irvine. 


— were in the royal or police burgh. Houses (1881) 1S78 
inhabited, 252 vacant, 9 building. 

The original church belonged till the Reformation to 
the monks of Kilwinning; later it was served from 1618 
to 1640 by David Dickson (1583-1663), hymn-writer and 
commentator. In 1546 the town suffered much from 
the plague ; in 1640 twelve women were executed at it 
for the crime of witchcraft ; and it bore a considerable 
share in the struggles of the Covenanters. In 1783, in 
connection with the Rev. Hugh White, second minister 
of the Relief congregation, and with several other in- 
fluential townsfolk, Elizabeth Buchan (1738-91) here 
founded the fanatical sect of the Buchanites. Expelled 
in the following year by the magistrates, and pelted out 
of the town, she was joined at Kilmaurs by 45 of her 
disciples, and thence proceeded in a kind of exultant 
march to Closebukn in Dumfriesshire (Joseph Train's 
Buchanites from First to Last, Edinb. 1846). In Aug. 
1S39 Irvine was temporarily crowded with strangers, 
pouring in from sea and highway to witness the fetes of 
the Eglinton Tournament. Robert Burns was sent 
hither at midsummer 1781 to learn the trade of a flax- 
dresser under one Peacock, kinsman to his mother. He 
had one small room for a lodging, for which he gave a 
shilling a week ; meat he seldom tasted, and his food 
consisted chiefly of oatmeal and potatoes sent from his 
father's house. ' As we gave, ' he tells us, ' a welcome 
carousal to the New Year, the shop took fire, and burned 
to ashes, and I was left, like a true poet, not worth a 
sixpence.' The Irvine Burns Club possesses the MS. 
from which the first edition of his poems was printed. 
Another poet, James Montgomery (1771-1854), was born 
in a small back dwelling in the street that leads to the 
station ; the room where his father, a Moravian mis- 
sionary, preached, is now a bonnet factory. The 
novelist, John Gait (1779-1839), was born in a house on 
the site of the Union Bank ; and other natives were 
Robert Blair (1593-1666), a noted Presbyterian divine, 
and Lord-Justice-General David Boyle (1772-1853). A 
Viscountcy of Irvine, in the peerage of Scotland, was 
given in 1661 to Henry, the eldest surviving son of Sir 
Arthur Ingram of Temple-Newsom in Yorkshire ; it 
became extinct in 1778 at the death of the ninth Vis- 
count. The ruinous Seagate Castle, belonging to the 
Earls of Eglinton, is supposed to have been the jointure 
house of the Montgomeries, and to have been built soon 
after 1361. Dr Hill Burton, however, has a note on 
' the Normandish tone of its gateway. ... A visit 
to the spot rather confirmed the notion that some of the 
features of the building were of the later Norman. 
There is a round arch, with thinnish rounded mould- 
ings, and small round pillars with square or bevelled 
bases and capitals, with the tooth or star decoration in 
the hollows of the mouldings. The doorway has more 
of an ecclesiastical than a baronial look, although the 
buildiug it belongs to is baronial' (Hist. Scotl., ii. 98, 
ed. 1876). 

The parish of Irvine is bounded N by Kilwinning, 
NE by Stewarton, E by Dreghorn, S by Dreghorn and 
Dundonald, and W by the Firth of Clyde and Steven- 
ston. Its utmost length, from NE to SW, is 4g miles ; 
its utmost breadth is 3| miles ; and its area is 4191 \ 
acres, of which 1S2J are foreshore and 78f water. The 
river Irvine curves 3-J miles west-by-northward on or 
close to all the Dundonald border ; Annick Water, its 
affluent, winds 7 miles south-westward along all the 
boundary with Dreghorn ; and Garnock Water flows 
3j miles southward along that with Kilwinning and 
Stevenston, till it falls into the Irvine just above the 
latter's influx to the Firth of Clyde. The south-western 
district is low and flat ; the north-eastern ascends very 
gradually till it attains 183 feet above sea-level near 
Muirhead, whence a beautiful view is obtained of an 
extensive seaboard, of a great reach of the Firth of 
Clyde, and of the mountains of Arran and parts of 
Argyllshire. The rocks are carboniferous, and abound 
in seams of coal and in good building stone. The soil 
of the SW district is partly a light loam, but mostly of 
a sandy character, and yields heavy grain and green 



crops ; that of the NE is mainly a stiffisk clay. With 
the exception of some 300 acres of drifting sand, the 
entire parish is capable of cultivation ; only a very small 
portion of it is let exclusively for pasture ; but a con- 
siderable aggregate, including part of Eglinton Park 
and numerous clumps of plantation on the north-eastern 
eminences, is under wood. Stane Castle, near Bourtree- 
hill, the remains, it is said, of an ancient nunnery, is 
the chief antiquity. The only mansion is Bourtreehill, 
2 miles E of the town ; its owner, Geoffrey-Dominick- 
Augustus-Frederick Guthrie, second Baron Oranmore 
and Browne since 1836 (b. 1819 ; sue. 1860), holds 2720 
acres in the shire, valued at £4737 per annum. Three 
other proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 19 of between £100 and £500, 35 of from £50 
to £100, and 50 of from £20 to £50. Irvine is the seat 
of a presbytery in the synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the 
living is worth £550. Five public schools — Bank Street, 
Fullarton, Loudoun Street, the Industrial, and Annick 
Lodge — with respective accommodation for 500, 206, 
312, 294, and 165 children, had (1881) an average attend- 
ance of 2S6, 207, 311, 286, and 95, and grants of £204, 
12s., £180, 13s., £288, 6s. 6d., £249, 7s. 6d., and £S2, 
17s. Valuation, inclusive of burgh, (1860) £16,059, 
(1883) £46,264. Pop. (1801) 45S4, (1831) 5200, (1861) 
5695, (1871) 5875, (1881) 6013.— Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 

The presbytery of Irvine comprehends the old parishes 
of Ardrossan, Beith, Dairy, Dreghorn, Dunlop, Fen wick, 
Irvine, Kilbirnie, West Kilbride, Kilmarnock-Laigh, Kil- 
marnock-High, Kilmaurs, Kilwinning, Loudoun, Steven- 
ston, and Stewarton ; the quoad sacra parishes of New 
Ardrossan, Crosshouse, Hurlford, Kilmarnock-St An- 
drews, and Kilmarnock-St Marnoch's ; and the chapelries 
of Dairy-West, Kersland, Fergushill, and Saltcoats. 
Pop. (1871) 96,695, (1881) 100,244, of whom 13,326 
were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. — 
The Free Church also has a presbytery of Irvine, with 
5 churches in Kilmarnock, 2 in Kilbirnie, 2 in Salt- 
coats, and 20 in Ardrossan, Beith, Catrine, Dairy, 
Darvel, Dunlop, Fenwick, Fullarton, Galston, Hurl- 
ford, Irvine, Kilmaurs, Kilwinning, Loudoun, Mauch- 
line, Muirkirk, Perceton, Stevenston, Stewarton, and 
West Kilbride, which 29 churches together had 7323 
members in 1S83. 

Irvine or Irving, an ancient parish in Annandale, SE 
Dumfriesshire, now forming the middle part of Kirk- 
patrick-Fleming parish. The Irvings, who either took 
name from it or gave it name, held large possessions 
here, and had their chief seat at Bonshaw Tower on 
Kirtle Water. They multiplied into an important clan ; 
signalised themselves on many occasions by patriotism 
and valour ; numbered among their daughters ' Fair 
Helen of Kiekconnel Lee ;' and sent off a distinguished 
and flourishing branch to Nithsdale. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
10, 1864. 

Isbister, a fine mansion of recent erection in the 
Kendall portion of Evie parish, Orkney. 

Isla, a beautiful river of Forfar and Perth shires, 
rising among the Grampians, at an altitude of 3100 
feet, 1 J mile NE of the meeting-point of Forfar, Perth, 
and Aberdeen shires, and 6J miles SSW of Lochnagar. 
Thence it winds 29 J miles south-south-eastward, then 
17J miles south-westward, till, after a total descent of 
3000 feet, it falls into the Tay at a point 3 furlongs 
NNW of Cargill station, this being Hi miles NNE of 
Perth, and 4J WSW of Coupar-Angus. Its chief 
tributaries are Melgam Water, the Burn of Alyth, Dean 
Water, the Ericht, and Lunan Water, all noticed 
separately ; and it traverses or bounds the parishes of 
Glenisla, Lintrathen, Airlie, Ruthven, Meigle, Ben- 
dochy, Blairgowrie, Coupar-Angus, Cargill, and Caputh, 
under which, the Reekie Linn, and the Slugs of Ach- 
eannie, are described the mansions, towns, villages, 
and other features of its course. That course is High- 
land in Forfarshire, but in Perthshire assumes a Low- 
land character. It is liable to great freshets ; and, on 
occasion of the thunderstorm of 17 July 1880, the water 
rushed down it in the form of a moving embankment 


10 feet high, and, spreading over the valley, buried 
crops of all kinds in sand, and swept away sheep and 
lambs. The damage caused by another flood, in Sept. 
1881, was estimated at £10,000, including £2000 for 
renewal of embankments. Salmon ascend as high as 
the Slugs of Achrannie, and heavy pike lurk in the 
deep still pools about the river's mouth, whilst its 
upper waters yield capital trout fishing. One sorrowful 
memory the Isla has, that on 16 Oct. 1861 the Queen 
and Prince Consort made their ' last expedition ' to 
Cairnloehan or Canlochan Glen, immediately below the 
Isla's source. The Queen describes it as 'a narrow 
valley, the river Isla winding through it like a silver 
ribbon, with trees at the bottom. The hills are green 
and steep, but towards the head of the valley there are 
fine precipices. To the S is Glenisla, another glen, hut 
wider, and not with the same high mountains. Cairn- 
loehan, indeed, is "a bonnie place."' Still, it was 
somewhat paradoxical of Dr Maeculloch to say that 
1 three yards of the Isla and its tributaries are worth 
all the Tweed put together.' — Ord. Sur., shs. 65, 56, 
48, 1868-70. 

Isla, a small river of Banff and Aberdeen shires, 
rising on Carran Hill at an altitude of 1200 feet above 
sea-level, and running 18J miles north-north-eastward 
through or along the borders of Mortlach, Botriphnie, 
Keith, Grange, Rothiemay, and Cairnie parishes, till, 
after a total descent of 1000 feet, it falls into the 
Deveron at a point J mile ESE of Grange Junction. 
Its scenery is diversified, but generally pleasing, and 
occasionally very beautiful ; and its waters are well 
stocked with trout. — Ord. Sur., shs. 85, 86, 1876. 

Island Glass. See Glass-Ellan. 

Islay, an island in Argyllshire, the chief one of 
the southernmost group of the Hebrides. Its NE 
coast is £ mile distant from Jura at Feolin Ferry ; 
and its E coast is 13J miles distant from the near- 
est point of Kintyre. Its utmost length, from N by 
E to S by W, is 25J miles ; its utmost breadth, in the 
opposite direction, is 19 miles ; and its area is 235 
square miles, or 150,355 acres. Its southern part is 
cleft by Loch Indal into two peninsulas ; and its northern 
part converges to a point somewhat in the manner of 
two sides of an equilateral triangle, whose apex is Rudha 
Mhail, in the extreme N. The Sound of Islay, com- 
mencing opposite Rudha Mhail, and curving 14 j miles 
south-south-eastward, separates all the NE coast from 
Jura ; contracts from 3| miles to £ mile, and thence 
again broadens to 6 ; has abrupt shores, rarely exceed- 
ing 100 feet in height ; and is swept by such rapid tidal 
currents, with short cross billows, as to be very dangerous 
to navigators. A crescental curve, with convexity to 
the E, and slightly diversified by a series of small head- 
lands and bays, defines the coast from the SE end of the 
Sound onward to the island's southern extremity, the 
Mull of Islay, or Mull na Ho, which rises in cliffs to 
the height of 750 feet, and contains a cavern. Loch 
Indal, opening with a width of 8 miles, penetrates 12 
miles north-north-eastward ; forms the expansion of 
Laggan Bay at the middle of its E side ; narrows to a 
width of from 1 J to 3 miles in its upper part ; and is all 
comparatively shallow. Rhynns Point, with small 
islands adjacent to it, flanks the W side of the entrance 
of Loch Indal, and forms the extremity of the south- 
western peninsula. A line running 13 miles north-by- 
eastward from Rhynns Point, and then 15 miles north- 
eastward to Rudha Mhail, defines all the rest of the 
coast ; is cut about midway by Loch Gruinnard, pene- 
trating 4J miles southward to within 3 miles of Loch 
Indal ; and has elsewhere very trivial diversity of 
either bay or headland. The entire coast, in a general 
view, is bounded either by low rocks or by flat shores 
and sandy beaches ; but at the Mull of Islay, as already 
noticed, it soars in cliffs to a commanding height ; and 
about Sanaig, on the NW side, it is pierced with several 
large caves, one of which ramifies into a labyrinth. A 
number of islets lie off the coast, particularly on the E, 
and on the middle of the W side. The interior differs 
much in character from most of the Hebrides and the 


Highlands, exhibiting no assemblage of mountain and 
glen, yet displaying considerable diversity of structure 
and of contour, and containing a fair amount of pleasing 
landscape. Chief elevations, from N to S, to the E of 
Lochs Gruinnard and Indal, are Scaribh Hill (1197 feet), 
Beinn Dubh (974), Sgorr na Faoileann (1444), and Sgorr 
Voucharan (1157) ; to the W, Rock Side Hill (575), and 
Beinn Tartabhaile (755). 

Harbours, with quay or pier, are at Port Askaig, on the 
Sound of Islay; Port Ellen, on the SE coast; Bowmore, 
near the head of the E side of Loch Indal ; Port Char- 
lotte, on the W side of Loch Indal ; and Portnahaven, 
to the N of Rhynns Point. The small bays on the E 
coast are, for the most part, dangerous of approach, on 
account of sunken rocks ; and Loch Gruinnard is almost 
the only place on the W coast which affords any anchor- 
age. Numerous streamlets rise on the heights, run in 
all directions to the sea, afford plenty of water-power for 
any kind of machinery, and abound with trout and 
salmon. Of several small fresh-water lakes dotted over 
the interior, the largest are Loch Guirni (| x -J- mile), 7 
miles TOW of Bridgend, and Loch Finlagan (-§ x | mile), 
3 miles WSW of Port Askaig. Quartz rocks prevail in 
the principal hill ridge ; a fine limestone prevails in the 
northern central district ; and a strip of clay slate 
borders the W side of Loch Indal. Beds of excellent 
slate are plentiful, and have been largely worked ; good 
marble has been quarried ; beds of fine silicious sand, suit- 
able for the manufacture of glass, are so extensive as to 
have furnished many cargoes for exportation ; lime and 
shell sand, for mixture with neighbouring sea-weed and 
moss into composts, are inexhaustibly abundant ; iron 
ore has been worked of prime quality ; lead ore and 
silver are mined ; and copper, manganese, graphite, and 
other metallic minerals have been discovered. The 
average rainfall in eight years ending with 1S75 was 
4Si inches, or 14 below that of Greenock ; and the 
average temperature was very nearly the same as that 
of Edinburgh — the mean in Islay being 47 "1°, in Edin- 
burgh 47'4°. 

'Of late years, ' writes Mr Duncan Clerk, 'the lands 
have passed into new hands, the new proprietors being 
Morrison of Islay (67,000 acres, valued at £16,440 per 
annum), Ramsay of Rildalton (54,250 acres, £S226), 
Finlay of Dunlossit (17,676 acres, £2882), and Camp- 
bell of Ballinaby (1800 acres, £378). The larger por- 
tion of the old native race tenantry has also passed 
away, and their holdings are now mostly occupied by 
tenants from Ayrshire and the Lowland districts, who 
turn their attention principally to dairy -farming, and 
find that Ayrshire stocks thrive exceedingly well. They 
also rear a considerable number of cross lambs, which 
are sent fat to Glasgow early in the season. The hill 
districts, which were formerly only partially stocked, 
are now covered with thriving flocks of black-faced and 
Cheviot sheep, which help to supply the Glasgow mar- 
ket. "West Highland cattle are still reared to a large 
extent, and the number is likely to increase under the 
stimulus of the high price of beef, which Islay supplies 
in perfection. . . . The area of arable land, though 
considerably increased, has not been so rapidly ex- 
tended as might have been anticipated. However, the 
cultivation of land has been very much improved, so 
that the production of food for cattle and sheep is very 
much larger per acre than it was thirty years ago. Many 
fields carry heavier crops of turnips, potatoes, and corn 
than are usual even in the Lowlands. The improved 
culture, and the general rise in the value of farm pro- 
duce, stimulated by the landlords' large expenditure on 
houses, fences, etc. , has caused the rental of the island 
to be nearly doubled within the last thirty years. So 
much room for improvements still remains, however, 
that, with a judicious outlay of capital, it might be 
doubled again in the same number of years. The prin- 
cipal exports from Islay are horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, 
and poultry, cheese, butter, eggs, and, some years, a 
large quantity of potatoes. Whisky is largely produced ; 
and the seven distilleries afford a valuable help in the 
supply of manure, while they also assist in maintaining 


prices of stock in the local markets, many cattle being 
fattened off in connection with them ' ( Trans. Jlighl. and 
Acj. Soc, 1S7S). The arable soils are very various, but 
generally fertile and well cultivated. More than one- 
half of all the island's surface might be advantageously 
subjected to regular tillage ; and much that was formerly 
heathy, pastoral, or badly cultivated is now reclaimed, 
well-worked, and very productive. Enclosing, draining, 
judicious manuring, skilful cropping, and good road- 
making were commenced not long after the era of general 
agricultural improvement in Great Britain, and went on 
with such steadiness as to render great part of the 
island, many years ago, as well dressed as many an 
equal extent of country in the Scottish Lowlands. The 
roads are everywhere excellent, and have good bridges ; 
and a very important one, 15 miles long, from Bridgend 
to Port Ellen, opening up a district of previously little 
value, was begun to be formed so late as 1S41. Drain- 
age operations were facilitated by a very large grant 
under the Government Drainage Act, and by the pro- 
duce of a local brick and tile work. Farming traffic is 
facilitated by abundance of local meal mills, by regular 
markets and fairs at Bowmore, Port Ellen, Bridgend, 
and Ballygrant, and by steamboat communication with 
Glasgow daily during summer, and twice a week in the 
winter. The spinning of yarn was formerly carried on 
to the value of £10,000 a-year, but suffered extinction 
through the action of the Glasgow factories. Telegraphic 
communication with the mainland was established in 
the autumn of 1871. 

The island comprises the parishes of Kilchoman, 
Kildalton, and Killarrow, with the quoad sacra parishes 
of Kilmeny, Oa, and Portnahaven ; and contains the 
villages of Bowmore, Bridgend, Port Charlotte, Portna- 
haven, Port Ellen, and Port Askaig, all twelve of which 
are noticed separately. A sheriff small debt court sits 
at Bowmore four times a year ; and a justice of peace 
small debt court is held on the first Wednesday of 
every month. Islay has a combination poorhouse at 
Bowmore, with accommodation for 48 inmates, a branch 
of the National Bank at Bridgend, a branch of the 
Royal Bank at Port Ellen, 6 Established churches, 5 
Free churches, an Episcopal mission chapel at Bally- 
grant, a Baptist chapel at Bowmore, and 16 schools, 
with total accommodation for 1650 children. Valuation 
(1S60) £20,805, (1883) £38,270. Pop. (1801) 6821, 
(1831) 14,982, (1851) 12,334, (1S61) 10,345, (1871) 8143, 
(1SS1) 7559, of whom 3766 were males, and 6673 were 

Islay was early and long in the possession of the Scan- 
dinavians ; and it retains memorials of their swa} r in the 
remains of many duns and castles, and in such topo- 
graphical names as Kennibus, Assibus, Torribolse, and 
Torrisdale. It passed from them to the kings of Man, 
or sovereigns of the Hebrides ; and it is said to have 
been, while in their possession, the place of their receiv- 
ing rents and dues from large portions of their dominions. 
Two rocks lying near each other, in a harbour on the S 
side of the island, are called respectively Craig-a-neone 
and Craig-a-nairgid, signifying the ' Rock of the silver 
rent ' and the ' Rock of the rent in kind ; ' and these 
are supposed to have got their names from being the 
payment-scene of the Scandinavian royal rents. The 
island next became the residence of the Macdonalds, 
Lords of the Isles, the seat of their court, the sphere 
of their pompous rule over their insular dominion ; and 
it retains the ruin of their castle on an islet in Loch 
Finlagan, the ruin of one of their fortalices at the SE 
entrance of the Sound of Islay, the vestiges of another 
of their fortalices on an islet in Loch Guirm, and the 
ruin of a famous church of their period, surrounded with 
an extensive cemetery, containing curious ancient grave- 
stones, on Island-Nave, adjacent to the NW coast. The 
lands of Islay, along with those of Jura, Scarba, and 
Muckairn, continued to be held, for several generations, 
by the descendants of the Macdonalds ; but they were 
transferred, in the reign of James VI., to Sir John 
Campbell of Calder for an annual feu-duty, the propor- 
tion of which for Islay was £500 ; and they all were 



afterwards sold to Campbell of Shawfield for £12,000. 
The emigrant ship, the Exmouth, in May 1847 struck 
on an iron-bound part of the NW coast of Islay, and 
went almost instantly to pieces, when 220 persons were 

The six parishes of Islay, the parish of Jura, and that 
of Colonsay and Oronsay, constitute the presbytery of 
Islay and Jura in the synod of Argyll, which meets at 
Bridgend on the last Wednesday of each month. Pop. 
(1871) 9564, (1881) 8917, of whom 655 were communi- 
cants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. — A Free 
Church presbytery of Islay comprises the 5 charges of 
Bowmore, Kilehoman, Kildalton and Oa, Killarrow and 
Kilmeny, and Portnahaven, with the mission station of 
Jura, which together had 931 members and adherents 
in 1883. 

Islay, Rhinns of. See Islay and Oesay. 

Isle. See Isle-Toll. 

Isle Ewe. See Ewe. 

Isle Maree. See Ellan-Maeee. 

Isle-Martin, a triangular island of Lochbroom parish, 
N¥ Ross and Cromarty shires. It lies in the firth or 
elongated bay of Loch Broom, 4J miles NW of Ullapool. 
Separated from the coast of Coigach district by a strait 
4 mile wide at the narrowest, it measures 9J by 7J fur- 
longs, rises to 397 feet above sea-level, and is used as a 
fishing station. Pop. (1861) 51, (1871) 42, (1881) 42.— 
Ord. Swr., sh. 101, 1882. 

Isle of May. See Mat. 

Isle of Oransay. See Obansay. 

Isle of Whithorn, a seaport village in Whithorn 
parish, SE Wigtownshire, at the head of a small bay, 2 
miles NE of Burrow Head, and 3^ SE of Whithorn 
town. The most southerly village in Scotland, it 
stands upon what was once a rocky islet, and conducts 
some commerce with Whitehaven and other English 
ports, having a well-sheltered harbour, with a pier 
erected about 1790, and with capacity and external 
advantages sufficient to invite extensive commerce. It 
contains remains of a Scandinavian fort or camp and 
the roofless ruin of ' St Ninian's Kirk,' which has been 
falsely identified with the Candida Casa (397 A. D. ), and 
so believed to represent the earliest place of Christian 
worship in Scotland, but which was probably merely a 


chapel attached to the priory of Whithoen. The 
village has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, an inn, some tasteful 
villas, a lifeboat, a public school, and a neat Free 
church. Pop. (1831) 697, (1861) 458, (1871) 459, 
(1881) 352.— Ord. Sur., sh. 2, 1856. 

Isle Ornsay, a village and an islet in Sleat parish, 
Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire. The village stands on 
the W side of the Sound of Sleat, near the mouth of 
Loch na Daal, opposite the mouth of Loch Hourn, 14 
miles by steamboat route S by W of Kyle-Akin, and 11 by 
road SSE of Broadford, under which it has a post office, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph de- 
partments. Possessing also an inn and an excellent 
natural harbour, thoroughly sheltered, commodious, and 
much frequented by shipping, it is regularly visited by 
the Glasgow steamers to the north on their way through 
the Sound of Sleat, and commands the nearest route for 
tourists, by walking and by boat, to Loch Scavaig and 
the Cuchullin Mountains. The islet is small (§ x J 
mile), but serves to protect the entrance to the harbour. 
It is crowned with a lighthouse, erected in 1857 at a 
cost of £4527, and showing a fixed white light, visible 
at a distance of 13 nautical miles. 

Isles, North. See North Isles. 

Isles, The. See Hebrides. 

Isle-Tanera or Taneramore. See Summer Islands. 

Isle-Toll, a place with a post office under Dumfries, 
in Kirkmahoe parish, Dumfriesshire, near the right 
bank of the Nith, 2J miles SSE of Auldgirth. Isle or 
Isle Tower, near it, is a modern mansion, whose owner, 
Joseph Gillon-Fergusson, Esq. (b. 1848 ; sue. 1879), 
holds 1009 acres in the shire, valued at £1119 per 
annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Issay, a fertile island (1 x J mile) of Duirinish parish, 
Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire, in Dunvegan Bay, opposite 
the middle of Yaternish. It is called also Ellan-Issa 
or the Island of Jesus. 

Ithan. See Ythan. 

Itlaw, a hamlet in Alvah parish, Banffshire, 5 miles 
SSW of Banff, under which it has a post office. 

Ively. See Evelaw. 

Ivybank, an estate, with a mansion, in Nairn parish, 
Nairnshire, close to the town. 

JACKTON, a village in East Kilbride parish, Lanark- 
shire, 3J miles WSW of East Kilbride village. 
Jamaica, a village in Auehterrnuchty parish, 
Fife, 1J mile SSE of the town. 

Jameston, a village in Contin parish, SE Ross-shire, 
1 mile S by W of Strathpeffer. 

Jamestown, a village in Inverkeithing parish, Fife, 
5 furlongs SSW of Inverkeithing town. 

Jamestown, a small town in Bonhill parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, on the left bank of the river Leven, 6J 
furlongs N of Bonhill town. It shares in the busy 
industry of the Vale of Leven, and has a post office, a 
station on the Forth and Clyde Junction section of the 
North British, a quoad sacra parochial church, and a 
public school. The church, erected in 1869 at a cost 
of £3000, in the Early English style, after designs by 
Clark & Bell of Glasgow, has a nave and aisles, 800 
sittings, a spire 130 feet high, and a large W window, 
with mullions and elaborate tracery. The quoad sacra 
parish, constituted in 1873, is in the presbytery of 
Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; its minister's 
stipend is £330. Pop. of town (1861) 869, (1871) 1163, 
(1881) 2171 ; of q. s. parish (1881) 2925.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 30, 1866. 

Jamima. See Jemimaville. 

Janefield, an estate, with a mansion, in Kirkcudbright 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, on the left bank of the Dee, 
1J mile N by E of the town. 

Janetown. See Jeantown. 

Janetstown, a village in Wick parish, Caithness, 5 
furlongs W of the station. 

Jardine Hall, an elegant mansion, with pleasant 
grounds, in Applegarth parish, Dumfriesshire, on the 
left bank of the river Annan, 2J miles NW of Nether- 
cleueh station and 5J NNW of Lockerbie. Built 
in 1814, it is the seat of Sir Alexander Jardine, eighth 
Bart, since 1672 (b. 1829 ; sue. 1874), who holds 5538 
acres in the shire, valued at £5813 per annum. His 
father, Sir William (1800-74), was a well-known orni- 
thologist. Spedlins Tower, the seat of Sir Alexander's 
ancestors, stands on the opposite bank of the river, 
within Lochmaben parish ; and is a strong, turreted, 
ivy-clad structure, bearing date 1605. Within its 
dungeon one Porteous, a miller, was imprisoned by the 
first Baronet, who, being called away to Edinburgh, 
rode off with the key in his pocket, and never once 
thought of his prisoner until he had reached the city. 
Then he sent back, but all too late ; for the miller had 
died of hunger, after gnawing his hands and his feet. 
So the household was vexed by his ghost, until it was 
laid in the dungeon by means of a black-letter Bible. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Jeantown or Lochcarron, a fishing village in Loch- 
carron parish, SW Ross-shire, on the northern shore of 
Loch Carron, 3J miles SW of Strathcarron station, and 
10 SSE of Shieldaig. Consisting chiefly of a straggling 


row of poor dwellings, nearly a mile in length, but 
containing a few pretty good shops and cottages, it has 
a post office (Locficarron), with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of the 
Caledonian Bank, and a good inn. It suffered great 
damage from a gale in November 1881. A rising- 
ground behind it is crowned with a Scandinavian dune ; 
and a road westward from it to Applecross traverses a 
picturesque defile to the head of Loch Kishorn, and 
then, in a series of traverses, ascends a steep mountain 
corrie to the height of 1409 feet, amid stupendous 
precipices, similar to those of Glencoe. — Ord. Sicr., sh. 
82, 1882. 

Jedburgh {Jed-worth, ' town on the Jed '), the county 
town of Roxburghshire, a royal, parliamentary, and 
police burgh, the seat of the circuit court for the counties 
of Roxburgh, Selkirk, and Berwick, the seat of a pres- 
bytery, a post and market town, and the centre of traffic 
to a large extent of country, is situated on the left bank 
of Jed Water, in the SE of Teviotdale. It lies 49 miles 
SE from Edinburgh by road, but 56J by rail ; from 
Kelso 10 miles SSW by road, but 10| by rail ; from 
Hawick 10 miles NE by road, but 18 J by rail ; and 
12 miles NNW from the English border. A branch 
line of railway, 7J miles long, and opened in 1856, 
connects at Roxburgh with the North British line from 
St Boswells to Kelso ; the station, to which the chief 
hotels run omnibuses, being nearly f mile NNE of the 
market-place, beyond the suburb of Bongate. Between 
Jedburgh and Kelso, Hawick, Selkirk, Ancrum, Otter- 
burn, Oxnam, Denholm, etc., carriers' carts go regularly. 

Jedburgh proper, built on a spur of the Dunian ridge, 
may be described as cruciform, the High Street and 
Castle-gate cutting at right angles the Canon-gate and 
Burn-wynd, now Exchange Street, with the market- 
place at the point of intersection. The High Street 
and Castle-gate, the best streets in the town, lying from 
NE to SW, and almost J mile long, are well paved, 
lighted with gas, and contain many of the chief build- 
ings. Charles Stuart (the Pretender) lodged at No. 9 
Castle-gate in 1745. The Canon-gate, which stretches 
eastward from the market-place to the Jed, contains the 
house (No. 27) in which Burns lodged in 1787. Queen 
Street or Back-gate, which runs nearly parallel to the 
High Street, contains the house Sir David Brewster 
was born in (11 Dec. 1781) ; and that inhabited by 
Mary Queen of Scots in 1566, when detained in Jed- 
burgh by severe illness. The latter, with thick walls 
and small windows, is large. It is described in the 
records of the Privy Council as ' the house of the Lord 
Compositor,' and seems, from the arms upon it, to have 
been the property of Wiginore of that Ilk. Wordsworth 
visited Jedburgh in the autumn of 1803, and, owing to 
the inns being full, took up his abode at 5 Abbey Close. 
The attention and willing service of his hostess are re- 
ferred to in the well-known lines : 

' I praise thee, matron ! and thy due 
Is praise, heroic praise, and true. 
With admiration I behold 
Thy gladness, unsubdued and bold ; 
Thy looks, thy gestures, all present 
The picture of a life well spent.* 

Besides the town of Jedburgh proper, there are two 
suburbs — Richmond Row and Bongate. The former, 
purchased by the town in 1669 from the Marquis of 
Lothian, lies on the E side of the Jed; the latter, ex- 
tending N of Richmond Row, belonged at one time to 
the monks, and was bought from Lord Jedburgh. These, 
however, do not belong to the royalty, though included 
within the municipal burgh. Bongate is built on level 
ground, and from it the town gradually rises from an 
elevation of 253 feet above sea-level to one of 388 feet. 
This rise, which culminates at the Town-head, where 
are the abbey and the building called Jedburgh Castle, 
now the jail, makes the town more beautiful and more 
healthy. The river Jed, upon which the town stands, 
is crossed by 7 bridges. 

The County Buildings, situated near the market- 
place, in which the different courts meet, and in which 


the head officials of the town and county transact their 
business, were erected in 1812. They are built of 
polished free-stone, but present no special architectural 
features. The prison occupies the site of the old castle 
of Jedburgh at the top of the town, was built in 1823, 
and is conspicuous, owing to the castellated style of its 
architecture. It has ample cell accommodation, as well 
as courts for ventilation and exercise. Jedburgh Castle, 
of which no trace now remains, is inseparably con- 
nected with the history of the town, to which, from 
its size, position, and strength, it lent protection. 
Built about the 12th century, it was a favourite resi- 
dence of many of the Scottish kings, as David I., 
Malcolm IV., William the Lyon, Alexander II., and 
Alexander III. Within its walls the last-named was 
living when he married Jolande, daughter of the Count 
of Dreux, in 1285 ; and here took place the banquet 
which followed the marriage ceremony in the abbey. 
On the same occasion it was the scene of the well-know-n 
incident, the appearance in the hall of the figure of 
Death, supposed to presage the calamity which befell 
the country by the king's death at Kinghorn in 1286. 
In the troubled times of the Wars of the Succession, Jed- 
burgh Castle changed hands more than once — now held 
by the Scotch, then by the English, until in 1409 when 
the men of Teviotdale rose and ejected the English, 
who had held it for sixty-three years. To prevent it from 
again falling into hostile hands, the castle was then 
destroyed, the money for the work of destruction being 
paid out of the royal revenue, after the first proposal to 
raise it by a tax of twopence upon each hearth in Scot- 
land had been rejected. A part of the foundation was re- 
moved when the prison was built. After the castle was 
demolished, the town was defended by six bastille towers, 
which have also disappeared. Other public buildings 
are the Corn Exchange, built in 1860 by a company who 
hold £2500 worth of stock, and used for sales, concerts, 
lectures, exhibitions, etc. ; the Museum, which occupies 
part of the Corn Exchange, and contains two pennons 
said to have been captured by the weavers of Jedburgh 
at Bannockburn and Killiecrankie, some pieces of the 
old burgh cross, the iron ladle which the town hangman 
was allowed at one time to dip into every sack of meal 
or corn that came into the market, and a good collec- 
tion of fossils. A Maison-Dieu wbich once existed in 
Jedburgh has disappeared altogether, though it has left 
traces of its existence in the name of the 'Maison-Dieu 
acres,' given to a stretch of land, and in that of the 
' Sick man's path,' as a steep road is called which leads 
from Friars-gate to Jedbank. The public park of Jed- 
burgh, formerly part of the Virgin's glebe, is called the 
Lothian Park, after the Marquis of Lothian, who charges 
a merely nominal rent for the use of it. It is situated 
between the Jed and the parish church. 

The chief attraction of Jedburgh, however, is its 
ruined abbey. In 1118 David I. founded a priory on 
the banks of the Jed, and placed it in possession of 
canons regular from the Abbey of St Quentin at Beau- 
vais in France. In 1147 this priory was raised to the 
dignity of an abbey, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and 
the smaller building that had served for the former 
became the nucleus of a more stately "structure. The 
abbey, from its size and wealth, was able to rank with 
the great abbeys of the period, and formed a suitable 
pendant to the castle which stood near it. Its first 
abbot, Osbert, died in 1174. The abbey was endowed 
by David I. with the tithes of the two Jedworths, of 
Langton, Nisbet, Crailing, etc. ; by Malcolm IV. with 
the churches of Brandon and Grendon in Northampton- 
shire, with some land and a fishery on the Tweed ; by 
Ranulph de Soulis with the church of Doddington near 
Brandon, and with the church in the vale of Liddel ; 
and by William the Lyon and various barons with lands, 
churches, houses, both in England and Scotland. In 1220 
a dispute that had lasted for twenty years between the 
canons of Jedburgh and the Bishop of Glasgow was 
ended in favour of the latter by an arbitration given in 
the chapel at Nisbet. The cause of the quarrel was the 
prerogative which the bishop sought to exercise over the 



canons, who resisted, bnt unsuccessfully. When John 
Morel was abbot in 1285, Alexander III. was married to 
Jolande, daughter of the Count of Dreux, in the Abbey 
of Jedburgh, then probably almost entirely built. In 
the wars between England and Scotland (1297-1300) it 
suffered so severely, that the monks were unable to 
inhabit it, and had to be billeted on other religious 
houses. The disasters with which the 14th century 
opened were made up for by a season of prosperity, 
which extended onwards from 1360. By that time at 
least the canons must have regained their ground, as 
they are discovered a few years later exporting wool 
into England that had come from their own flocks. In 
1377 Robert III. added to their possessions the hospital 
of St Mary Magdalene at Rutherford, a few miles dis- 
tant, under the condition that the canons should have 
service regularly performed in the hospital chapel. The 
order of Edward] II. in 1328 to restore all the lands in 
England belonging to Jedburgh Abbey may be noticed, 
as one of its results was to compass the death of certain 
canons who had gone south to claim lands belonging to 
them. This order was, at the best, only partially obeyed. 
In these 3 T ears of border warfare no place was more sacred 
than another — all suffered equally ; and Jedburgh Abbey, 
from its proximity to England and its own commanding 
situation, had to bear the brunt of many an onslaught. 
In 1410, 1416, 1464, it was damaged by repeated attacks 
of the English, though to what extent is not known ; 
but in 1523 both town and abbey fell before the forces 
of the Earl of Surrey on 23 Sept. The abbey was 
especially difficult to capture. When surrendered, 
it was stripped of everything valuable, and then set on 
fire. In 1544-45 the process of destruction was twice 
repeated under Sir Ralph Eure (or Evers) and the Earl 
of Hertford respectively. In 1559 Jedburgh Abbey was 
suppressed, and its revenues went to the Crown. For 
some years it was left almost a roofless ruin. A 
building, designed for the parish church, was afterwards 
erected within the nave, roofed over at the level of the 
triforium, and used as a place of worship up to 1875, 
when a new church, built in excambion by the Marquis 
of Lothian, was opened for public worship, and the 
edifice within the abbey walls dispensed with. Steps 
were forthwith taken to have it removed, so that the 
ruin of the abbey can now be viewed 'clear of that 
incubus upon its lovely proportions.' 

In spite of its somewhat chequered fortune, Jedburgh 
Abbey Church is still wonderfully entire. The out- 
buildings, such as the treasury, library, scriptorium, re- 
fectory, common hall, etc., have disappeared, as well as 
part of the aisles, the eastern termination of the choir, 
and the S transept ; but the centre of the nave, 
central tower, N transept, and the two western bays 
of the choir still remain to furnish a fair idea of the 
proportions of the church. It has been declared ' the 
most perfect and beautiful example of the Saxon and 
Early Gothic in Scotland,' but, like most buildings that 
have been added to from time to time, it shows different 
styles of architecture. The choir, which is Early Nor- 
man, is undoubtedly the oldest part. In it, the lower 
arches spring from corbels in the sides of the round 
pillars, and not from capitals, an arrangement followed 
also in Oxford Cathedral. Jedburgh Abbey may be 
said to resemble those of Dryburgh and Kelso in the 
shortness of its transepts. The present N transept, 68 
feet in length, extended in the 14th century, furnishes a 
good example of Decorated work, and was for long used 
as the burial-place of the Kerrs of Fernieherst, a family 
once famous in Border history, and now represented by 
the House of Lothian. The great N window is divided 
by three mullions, and shows some fine tracery. At the 
point where the nave and choir intersect the transepts, 
rises a tower, 33 feet square and 86 high, though loftier 
at one time. It was divided into two stories, the upper 
of which once contained a clock and peal of bells. The 
oldest part of the tower, the N piers, is Early Norman. 
It was restored at the end of the 15th century. The 
nave, 129 feet long, and 274 broad, is a fine specimen of 
'the transition from the Transition to the developed Early 


English.' ' There are on each side three tiers of arches 
possessing a grace and lightness and beauty of general 
outline much and deservedly admired. The basement 
storey consists of clustered pillars, which support deeply- 
moulded pointed arches ; in the triforium are semi- 
circular arches, subdivided by pointed ones, whilst the 
clerestory is a detached arcade of thirty-six arches, also 
pointed, the wall behind every alternate two being 
pierced for windows. In the lower storeys, the abacus, 
with only one exception, is square, as in all the older 
work, but in the clerestory the square edges are cut 
off, indicating the desire that had set in for new forms.' 
The total length of the building is 235 feet over the 
walls, and 218 within the walls. Sir Gilbert Scott has 
declared the great western door and the S door, which 
leads from the S aisle into the cloisters, to be ' perfect 
gems of refined Norman of the highest class and most ar- 
tistic finish.' The former, almost 14J feet high and 
rather more than 6 broad, is semicircular in form, deeply 
recessed, and elaborately carved. Above it is a large 
window nearly 19 feet in height and 6 in breadth, 
while an exquisite wheel-window has been placed near 
the top of the gable. The S door, which had become 
rather dilapidated, was copied at the expense of Lord 
Lothian, and the copy, most successfully made, has been 
inserted in the nave not far from the original. It is 
adorned with human figures, grotesque animals, and 
foliage. _ This doorway is unrivalled in Scotland, so 
symmetrical are its proportions, so fine its workmanship, 
so delicate the carvings executed upon it. Jedburgh 
Abbey thus shows no fewer than three or four different 
styles of architecture, from which it is easy to refer each 
part to its proper period. The combination which now 
exists is sufficient to make it one of the most interesting 
and beautiful ruins in Scotland, while the care that has 
been expended upon it is well repaid by the improve- 
ments which have been effected. A convent of Francis- 
can friars, founded in 1513, but which has totally dis- 
appeared, may be mentioned, because in it lived and 
died Adam Bell, author of The Wheel of Time. As 
an instance of the influence of the monks may be noted 
the great number of places with ecclesiastical names, as 
Temple Gardens, Friars' Wynd, Friars-gate, Canon-gate. 
Considering its size, Jedburgh is well supplied with 
places of worship and ample school-accommodation. 
The parish church, as already mentioned, was erected 
by the Marquis of Lothian, and opened for service in 
April 1875. Built in the Early English style, of stone 
from the Eildon Hills, and having freestone facings, it 
is seated for 1200 persons, and was erected at a cost of 
£11,000. The Free church, near it, and built in the 
same style, has its appearance marred by the absence of 
a spire. It was erected in 1853, cost £3000, and holds 
650 persons. St John's Episcopal church, founded in 
1843, and built at a cost of £4000, can contain 200 
people. It stands at the foot of Friars-gate, has a beauti- 
ful pulpit, altar, and font of Caen stone, and is one of 
the extremely few Episcopalian churches in Scotland 
with a ' lych ' (corpse) gate. Besides these, there are 
two United Presbyterian churches, a Roman Catholic 
chapel, and Evangelical Union church, the two last 
being small and unpretentious buildings. The High 
Street United Presbyterian church was erected in 1818 
at a cost of £3500, and with accommodation for about 
850 persons ; the Blackfriars United Presbyterian 
church was also built in 1818 at nearly the same cost, 
but with 800 sittings. The Grammar school of Jed- 
burgh was founded about the middle of the 15th cen- 
tury by Bishop Turnbull of Glasgow. Some doubt 
exists as to its precise original location, which was, 
however, near the SE corner of the Abbey tower, from 
which place it was removed in 1751. James Thomson, 
author of the Seasons, and Samuel Rutherford, the 
well-known Scottish divine, were educated at it. It 
passed, in terms of the Education Act of 1872, to the 
landward, and was afterwards purchased by the burgh, 
school board ; has (1S83) 153 scholars on its roll, £106 
of teachers' grant ; and is conducted by a rector, one 
assistant, and a mistress. A new grammar school, to 


cost from £4000 to £5000, with houses for the rector 
and janitor, board-room, large playground, etc., is now 
being built (1S83). The sessional school in Castlegate, 
established in 1851, has (1883) an attendance of 143 
children, and £111 of grant. The town also contains 
several private schools, as the Nest Academy, an infant 
school, and an Episcopalian school. The last-named 
has an average attendance of 163 children, and the 
grant earned amounted to £150. The burgh school 
hoard consists of 7 members. Jedburgh has numerous 
clubs and institutions, as the dispensary, museum, 
mechanics' institute, reading-room, young men's literary 
association, clubs for angling, cricket, bowling, billiards, 
etc. There is one public library belonging, to the 
Mechanics' Institute and two private libraries. Two 
Saturday newspapers, the Liberal Jedburgh Gazette (1870) 
and the Liberal-Conservative Teviotdale Record (1855), 
are published in the town. 

In the unsettled times before the union of the two 
crowns, Jedburgh was unable to embark upon any 
industry that required security for its successful pro- 
secution. During the period that lay between the 
accession of James VI. of Scotland to the English 
throne, and the final union of the two countries under 
Queen Anne, Jedburgh shared in a very lucrative con- 
traband trade, which arose from the unequal duties 
levied on certain goods at the custom-houses of England 
and Scotland. When this was done away with, its 
prosperity ^seemed almost endangered, and would, in 
all likelihood, have been crippled, had not the manu- 
facture of woollen goods been introduced. In Jedburgh, 
which was one of the first towns to take up this 
industry, a spinning-mill was started in 1728, but 
was not successful. Others were set up in 1738, 
1745, 17S6, 1806 ; and in 1883 there are 4 mills work- 
ing, which employ about 300 persons, and turn out 
goods worth nearly £66,000 per annum. The chief 
articles made are woollen tweeds and blankets. Jed- 
burghhasalso an iron-foundry, engineer-works, breweries, 
tanneries, and 2 auction marts. It was for a long time 
famous for its pears, apples, plums, — once ' cried ' in the 
streets of London, where the ' Jethart pears ' were a 
favourite fruit, and a source of considerable income to 
their growers. 

Several of the chief Scottish banks have branches at 
Jedburgh — the Royal, British Linen, Commercial, 
National, and Bank of Scotland. There is also a branch 
of the National Security Savings' Bank, numerous 
agencies for fire and life insurance companies, and a 
head post office, with telegraph and money order office, 
and savings' bank attached. The best hotels in the 
town are the Spread Eagle and the Royal. 

There is a weekly grain market at Jedburgh every 
Tuesday ; there are cattle markets on the third Thurs- 
day of each month from January to May ; and horse 
and cattle fairs. The Rood-day fair on 25 Sept. was 
formerly of great importance, but is now of little con- 
sequence. The magistrates of Jedburgh have jurisdic- 
tion over the St James' Fair, held on 5 Aug. near Kelso. 
Hiring fairs for servants are held shortly before Whitsun- 
day and Martinmas, and an annual fair for the hiring of 
hinds and cottars is held in March. 

The earliest date that can be fixed for the corporation 
of Jedburgh is 1296, that being the year in which the 
townsmen and it took the oath of allegiance to Edward 
I. Owing to none of the council records going further 
back than 1619, and the destruction of the old charters 
in one or other of the Border wars, it is impossible to 
determine the time at which the town was founded, or 
that at which it became a royal burgh. The evidence 
is in favour of an early erection, perhaps as early as the 
reign of David I. In 1556 Queen Mary gave a charter 
to the town which confirmed those that had preceded 
it, gave great power to the magistrates, and ample 
privileges to the burgesses. In 1737 and 1767 the 
burgh was deprived of its magistrates, at the latter date 
owing to misconduct at a parliamentary election. The 
government of Jedburgh is conducted by a provost, 3 
bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 9 councillors. 

Seal of Jedburgh. 


The magistrates act as commissioners of police. At one 
time the corporation had property in lands, houses, mills, 
which yielded a yearly rental 
of £500, but which was sold in 
1S45, to defray the debts in- 
curred by the burgh in a law- 
suit. As a result this income 
has dwindled away to nearly 
nothing, amounting in 1882 to 
no more than £31. Jedburgh 
had at one time eight incor- 
porated trades, with the sole 
right of working for the in- 
habitants within the burgh. 
These were the fleshers, 
glovers, hammermen, masons, 
shoemakers, tailors, weavers, Wrights, with a deacon at 
the head of each. 

The sheriff court meets at Jedburgh every Monday 
and Thursday during session, and a small debt court is 
held on the third Thursday of each month during ses- 
sion, and, in vacation, on such days as the sheriff 
appoints. Courts for summary and jury trials, as well 
as justice of the peace courts, are held as often as 
required. The court of general quarter sessions meets 
on the first Tuesday of March, May, and August, and on 
the last Tuesday of October ; and the Lords of Justiciary 
and Lords Commissioners hold courts at Jedburgh in 
the spring and autumn for the south-eastern circuit, 
which includes the counties of Roxburgh, Berwick, and 
Selkirk. The police force of the burgh is amalgamated 
with that of the county, an arrangement which has 
proved satisfactory. Jedburgh unites with Haddington, 
Dunbar, North Berwick, and Lauder in sending a mem- 
ber to parliament. The parliamentary and the muni- 
cipal constituency numbered 406 and 480 in 1883, when 
the annual value of real property amounted to £12,S93, 
against £9303 in 1864. Pop. of the parliamentary and 
police burgh (1841) 3277, (1851) 3615, (1861) 3428, (1871) 
3321, (1881) 3402, of whom 1800 were females, and 2432 
were in the royal burgh. Houses (1881) 753 inhabited, 
25 vacant, 1 building. 

Jedburgh is mentioned first in the 9th century, when 
it formed part of a gift from Bishop Egfrid to the See 
of Lindisfarne. Some have asserted that the original 
town stood 1J mile further up the stream than the 
present town does, but this is doubtful. The name 
Jedburgh is spelt in as many as eighty-four different 
ways, the oldest of which is probably Oeddewrd, while 
Jedworth (Jed-town) is found in 1147. In common 
speech, the town is still called Jethart, which is less 
corrupt than Jedburgh. About 1097 Jedburgh became 
a burgh and royal domain, owing its rise to the import- 
ance which it assumed under David I., partly to its 
naturally strong position, and partly to the shelter 
afforded by its castle on the Jed. David I. , Malcolm 
IV., William the Lyon, Alexander II., and Alexander 
III. resided in Jedburgh from time to time. The town 
suffered severely in the Wars of the Succession. In 1297, 
to retaliate for damages done to Hexham, Sir Richard 
Hastings led a force against it, and devastated the 
abbey. The men of Teviotdale rose in 1409, recaptured 
the castle which the English had held for sixty-three 
years, and destroyed it. The history of Jedburgh for a 
period of years from this point is simply a succession of 
attacks upon it by the English, and defences of it by 
the Scots, who were generally worsted in spite of the 
gallant resistance they always made. In 1513 the town 
was taken by the Earl of Surrey, and in 1547 it was 
occupied by part of the army, led into Scotland by the 
Duke of Somerset. After this last attack, Lord Dacre 
wrote to Wolsey in the following language which needs 
no comment: — 'Little or nothing is left upon the 
frontiers of Scotland, without it be part of aid houses 
whereof the thak and coverings are taken away, by 
reason whereof they cannot be brint (burned).' In 
1556 Queen Mary held a justice court at Jedburgh, with 
the object of quieting the borders by removing some of 
the turbulent chiefs?. She was detained in it for a few 




weeks by an illness which almost ended fatally, and it 
is said that in the after-troubles of her reign she was 
often heard to exclaim : ' Would that I had died at 
Jedburgh.' In 1571, when the country was divided 
into King's men and Queen's men, the citizens sided 
with the King, and held the town against the Lords of 
Buccleuch and Fernieherst, who marched upon it, 
desirous to chastise the burghers who had affronted a 
herald sent on the Queen's behalf. Thanks to the 
speedy action of the Regent Moray in sending Lord 
Ruthven with reinforcements, the citizens were able to 
stand out against the attack made upon them by Buc- 
cleuch and Fernieherst. The Raid of the Redeswire 
(1575) began in a dispute between the wardens of the 
middle marches about the person of Heury Robson, a 
noted free-lance, who, the Scottish warden demanded, 
should be given up for execution, while the English 
warden alleged that he had escaped. Such disputes 
seldom stopped at words, and, after an interchange of 
insults, the men of Tynedale began the fray by shoot- 
ing their arrows at the Scots. The fighting became 
general, and the Scots were being worsted, when the 
men of Jedburgh, led by their provost, marched upon 
the field and turned the tide of battle. This was the 
occasion on which 

' Bauld Rutherfurd, he was fu' stout, 
Wl* a' his nine sons him about, 
He led the town o' Jedburgh out, 
All bravely fought that day.' 

This was the last of the almost innumerable engage- 
ments that took place on the borders, and in it the war- 
cry of the burghers rose for the last time above the din 
of battle : — 

' Then raise the slogan with ane shout, 
Fye Tynedaill to it ! Jedbrugh 's here.' 

Here too may be mentioned the burghers' favourite 
weapon — the 'Jeddart staff.' It was a stout pole 7 or 
8 feet long, with an iron head shaped either as a hook 
or hatchet. The ' Jeddart axe ' is also mentioned, and 
both must have been formidable weapons. The oldest 
form of the townsmen's war-cry is ' A Jedworth, a Jed- 
worth ; ' but the form ' Jethart 's here ' also existed, while 
that of ' A Jeddart, a Jeddart ' is probably corrupt. 
' Jeddart Justice ' is in Scotland what ' Lidford Justice ' 
is in England. It means ' hanging first and trying 
afterwards, ' and arose first in 1608 from the summary 
way in which Lord Home disposed of a number of cap- 
tured freebooters. When Charles Stuart (The Pre- 
tender) was marching to England in 1745, he, along 
with part of his army, passed through Jedburgh, where 
he lodged in a house in Castlegate, as noted above. At 
the time of the Reform agitation, a meeting was held 
at Jedburgh in 1831, at which Sir Walter Scott, who 
was present, spoke against the projected reform, and in 
consequence met with a most unfavourable reception. 
Jeffrey, however, explains that it was the opinions and 
not the man that met with disapproval. On the 23 
Aug. 1S69 Queen Victoria visited the town. 

Could those who inhabited Jedburgh in the 14th and 
15th centuries observe their town and its present occu- 
pants, they would be unable to recognise the former, 
and the latter would seem strangely different from them- 
selves. The Jedburgh that was pillaged and burned 
again and again during the Middle Ages (though said 
by the Earl of Surrey in 1523 to have been well built 
and to contain many fair houses) must have seemed 
insignificant and mean when compared with the present 
town, in spite of its noble abbey and almost impregnable 
castle. Its then inhabitants were almost as much men 
of war as of peace, ready to share in every foray, so that 
it was commonly said that no border skirmish ever took 
place without the cry of 'A Jedworth, a Jedworth' 
being heard in it. The present town is neat, clean, and 
thriving, and its inhabitants prosperous and quiet. 

Jedburgh has furnished its quota of famous men and 

women to the bead-roll of distinguished Scotsmen and 

Scotswomen. The chief of these are Mary Somer- 

Tille, Sir David Brewster, Dr Somerville, and James 


Bell. Mary Somerville, 'The Rose of Jedwood,' was 
born at Jedburgh Manse on 26 Dec. 1780, and 
died at Naples in 1872. She wrote The Connection of 
the Physical Sciences, Physical Geography, Microscopic 
and Molecular Science, etc. Thomas Somerville, D. D. , 
uncle and father-in-law of the above, was born at 
Hawick in 1741, and died at Jedburgh 1830. He was 
the author of a History of Great Britain in the reign of 
Queen Anne, and a work entitled My own Life and 
Times. Sir David Brewster, born in 1781, died in 
1868, published many scientific treatises, and invented 
the kaleidoscope and lenticular stereoscope. James 
Bell (1769-1833) wrote books on history and geography. 
The parish of Jedburgh contains also the villages or 
hamlets of Bonjedward, 2 miles N of the town ; Ulston, 
If NE ; Lanton, 3 WNW ; and Edgerston, 7J SSE. 
It comprises the ancient parishes of Jedworth, Old Jed- 
worth, and Upper Crailing; and consists of two sections, 
southern and northern, separated by a strip of South- 
dean, 5J furlongs broad at the narrowest. The southern 
or Old Jedworth section, containing Edgerston hamlet, 
is bounded NE and E by Oxnam, S by Northumberland, 
and SW and W by Southdean ; and, having an utmost 
length and breadth of 6| and 4f miles, contains 6604§ 
acres. The northern section, consisting of Jedworth in 
the W and Upper Crailing in the E, is bounded N by 
Crailing and Eckford, E by Hounam, SE by Oxnam, S 
by Southdean, SW by Hobkirk, W by Bedrule, and 
Nff by Ancrum. Its utmost length, from NNE to 
SSW, is 7\ miles ; and its width varies between \ mile 
and 6| miles. The area of the entire parish is 22,670| 
acres, of which 135J are water. Jed Water, after 
tracing 6| miles of the Southdean and Oxnam boun- 
daries, winds 5J miles northward through the interior 
till it falls into the Teviot, which itself meanders 4f 
miles east-north-eastward on or close to the Ancrum 
and Crailing border. Along the Teviot, in the extreme 
N, the surface declines to 170 feet above sea-level, 
thence rising to 523 feet near Monklaw, 705 near Tud- 
hope, 923 at Lanton Hill, 1095 at *Dunian Hill, 1110 
at *Black Law, 957 at *Watch Knowe, 700 near West 
Cottage, and 741 near Kersheugh, where asterisks mark 
those summits that culminate just within Bedrule 
parish. The southern or detached section, which sinks 
along Jed Water to from 530 to 4S0 feet, attains 829 
near Edgerston church, 9S5 at Hareshaw Knowe, 1358 
at Browndean Laws, 1173 at Hophills Nob, 1469 at 
Arks Edge, and 1542 at Leap Hill — green summits 
these of the Cheviots. The rocks include much trap, 
both in mountain masses and in valley-dykes ; but they 
mainly consist of the stratified orders, from the Silurian 
to carboniferous, and in many parts exhibit such inter- 
positions as have furnished subject of interesting study 
to both geologists and economists. White and red 
sandstone, of excellent quality, has been worked in 
several quarries ; good limestone is pretty plentiful ; 
coal has been bored for at various periods from 1660 to 
1798 ; and a bed of iron ore, 3 feet thick, occurs not far 
from the town, near which are also two chalybeate 
springs. Of these Tudhope Well has been successfully 
triedfor scorbutic and rheumatic disorders. The soil, 
in some places a stiffish clay, in others a mixture ot 
clay with sand or gravel, in the valley of the Teviot and 
along the lower reaches of the Jed is a fertile loam, and 
on the higher grounds is very various. A great natural 
forest, called Jed Forest, formerly covered nearly all the 
surface of both sections of the parish, together with all 
Southdean, and parts of contiguous parishes ; and re- 
mains of it, to the extent of many hundred acres, were 
cut down only in the course of last century. Two sur- 
vivors are one beautiful and vigorous oak, the ' King of 
the Woods,' near Fernieherst Castle, with a trunk 43 
feet high and 17 in girth at 4 feet above ground ; and 
another, the 'Capon Tree,' 1 mile nearer Jedburgh, 'a 
short-stemmed, but very wide-spreading oak, with a 
circumference at the base of 24 J feet' {Trans. Highl. 
and Ag. Soc, 1881, pp. 206, 207). Fully a tenth of the 
entire area is still occupied by orchards, groves, and 
plantations ; a large proportion of the uplands, especi- 


ally in the southern section, is disposed in sheepwalks ; 
and the rest of the land is all in a state of high cultiva- 
tion. An ancient military road goes over the Dunian 
from Ancrum Bridge towards the town, 2 miles from 
which a Roman causeway, paved with whinstone, and 
almost entire, passes along the north-eastern district. 
A Roman camp, seemingly about 160 yards each way, is 
near Monklaw ; a well-defined circular camp, ISO feet 
in diameter, with ramparts nearly 20 feet high, is at 
Scarsburgh ; remains of a famous camp, formed by 
Douglas for the defence of the Borders during Bruce's 
absence in Ireland, crown the top of a bank at Lintalee ; 
and vestiges of other camps are at Fernieherst, How- 
dean, Camptown, and Swinnie. Peel-houses, towers, 
and other minor military strengths, appear to have 
been numerous ; but only one at Lanton, and the ruins 
of another at Timpandean, are now extant. Of several 
artificial caves, excavated in rock, on the banks of the 
Jed, the two largest, those of Lintalee and Hundalee, 
disappeared through landslips of 1866 and 1881. Ves- 
tiges of a chapel, founded in 845, are at Old Jedward, 

5 miles SSE of the town ; and verdant mounds indicate 
the sites or the graveyards of others in various places. 
Coins of Canute, Edred, Edwy, Ethelred, Edward I., 
Edward III., and later kings, both Scottish and Eng- 
lish, together with ancient medals, have been found, in 
almost incredible numbers, at Stewartfield, at Bongate, 
at Swinnie, near the abbey, and in other localities. A 
chief antiquity, Ferxieherst Castle, is noticed sepa- 
rately, as also are the mansions of Bonjedward, 
Edgerston, Hartrigge, Huxthill, Langlee, and 
Lintalee. Eight proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 21 of between £100 and 
£500, 35 of from £50 to £100, and 80 of from £20 to 
£50. Including most of Edgerston quoad sacra parish, 
Jedburgh is the seat of a presbytery in the synod of 
Merse and Teviotdale ; the living is worth £523. Two 
landward public schools, Lanton and Pleasants, with 
respective accommodation for 100 and 80 children, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 53 and 49, and grants 
of £37, 19s. and £48, 8s. 6d. Landward valuation 
(1864) £22,10S, 15s. 10d., (1S82) £24,753, 13s. Pop. 
of entire parish (1801) 3834, (1831) 5647, (1861) 5263, 
(1871) 5214, (1SS1) 5147, of whom 4917 were in Jed- 
burgh ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 17, 1864. 

The presbytery of Jedburgh comprises the civil 
parishes of Ancrum, Bedrule, Cavers, Crailing, Eckford, 
Hawick, Hobkirk, Hounam, Jedburgh, Kirkton, Minto, 
Oxnam, Southdean, Teviothead, and "Wilton, and the 
quoad sacra parishes of Edgerston, Hawick St Mary's, 
and Hawick St John's. Pop. (1871) 26,267, (18S1) 
30,769, of whom 5202 were communicants of the Church 
of Scotland in 1878. — There is also a Free Church pres- 
bytery of Jedburgh, with 3 churches at Hawick, and 

6 at Ancrum, Castleton, Crailing, Denholm, Jedburgh, 
and Wolflee, which 9 churches together had 2253 mem- 
bers in 1883. 

See pp. 260-26S of Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour in 
Scotland (ed. by Princ. Shairp, 1874) ; James Watson's 
Jedburgh Abbeij (Edinb. 1877) ; and an article in the 
Saturday Review (1S82). 

Jedfoot Bridge, a railway station in the N of Jed- 
burgh parish, Roxburghshire, If mile N by E of the 
Jedburgh terminus. 

Jed Forest. See Jedburgh. 

Jed Water, a small river of Southdean, Oxnam, and 
Jedburgh parishes, Roxburghshire. It rises, as Raven 
Burn, at an altitude of 1500 feet, on the western slope 
of Carlin Tooth (1801 feet), one of the Cheviots, 1 mile 
from the English Border ; and thence winds 21| miles 
north-by-eastward, till, after a descent of 1325 feet, it 
falls into the Teviot, at a point | mile below Mounteviot 
House. Its tributaries are numerous but small. Its 
basin or vale is a kind of broad tumulated plain, half 
engirdled by the Cheviots and their offsets ; looks, in 
the view from Carter Fell, surpassingly beautiful ; and, 
even as seen in detail, exhibits many a close scene, so 
full of character, as to have fired the muse of Thomson, 
Burns, Leyden, and many a minor poet. An intelligent 


observer, indeed, sees little in it to compete with the 
basins of the Tweed, the Tay, and some other large 
picturesque Scottish rivers ; yet within the brief dis- 
tance of 2 or 3 miles, especially in the parts immediately 
above the town of Jedburgh, he will survey, though on 
a small scale, more of the elements of fine landscape 
than during a whole day's ride in the most favourite 
Scottish haunts of tourists. The rockiness of the river's 
bed, the briskness of its current, the pureness of its 
waters, the endless combinations of slope and precipice, 
of haugh and hillock, of verdure and escarpment, of 
copse and crag, along and around its banks, produce 
many a scene of picturesqueness and romance. Its 
waters are well stocked with trout of good size and high 
character ; but, in consequence of the intricacy and 
woodedness of the banks, they can rarely be angled 
without much skill and patience. — Ord. Sur., sh. 17, 

Jemima ville or Jamima, a village at the mutual border 
of Resolis and Cromarty parishes, Cromartyshire, on the 
southern shore of the Cromarty Firth, 3 miles SSE of 
Invergordon and 4§ WSW of Cromarty. Fairs are held 
on the first Tuesday of April, the first Wednesday of 
August, and the last Tuesday of October. An urn of 
very antique form was found, about 1830, in a neigh- 
bouring earthen tumulus. — Ord. Sur., sh. 94, 1878. 

Jerviston, an estate, with a mansion, in Bothwell 
parish, Lanarkshire, on the right bank of South Calder 
Water, 1J mile NNE of Motherwell. 

Jerviswood, an estate in Lanark parish, Lanarkshire, 
on the left bank of Mouse Water, 1J mile N by E of the 
town. By the Livingstouns it was sold in the middle 
of the 17th century to George Baillie, whose son, 
Robert Baillie of Jerviswood, entitled sometimes the 
'Scottish Sydney,' was hanged at Edinburgh for alleged 
high-treason in 1684, and whose sixth descendant, 
George Baillie of Jerviswood and Mellerstain, in 1S58 
succeeded his second cousin as tenth Earl of Hadding- 
ton.— Ord. Sicr., sh. 23, 1865. See Tyninghahe. 

Jesus, Island of. See Issat. 

Jock's Lodge, a village in South Leith parish, Edin- 
burghshire, on the road from Edinburgh to Portobello, 
adjacent to the S side of the locomotive depot of the 
North British railway, 1 j mile by tram E by N of the 
General Post Office, Edinburgh. Standing on low 
ground, at the NE base of Arthur's Seat, immediately 
above the subsidence into meadow, and surrounded with 
a rich variety of pleasant scenery, it extends somewhat 
stragglingly J mile along the road ; consists chiefly of 
a spacious cavalry barrack and two lines of dwelling- 
houses ; and has a post office, under Edinburgh, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 
a soldiers' home, and a police station. The barrack, on 
its N side, was built of Craigmillar stone in 1793 ; com- 
prises a quadrangular, enclosed area (500 x 300 feet) ; 
contains accommodation for a regiment of cavalry ; 
and includes a neat, comparatively recent, Episcopalian 
chapel. It bears the name of Piershill, after Colonel 
Piers, who occupied a villa on the exact site of the 
officers' quarters in the time of George II., and com- 
manded a regiment of cavalry then stationed in Edin- 
burgh. The name ' Jokis Lodge ' occurs as early as 1650, 
but is of uncertain origin. Pop. , inclusive of Restalrig, 
(1S71) 1647, (1881), 1266, of whom 429 were military. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1S57. 

Jock's Thorn. See Kiljiaurs. 

John o' Groat's House, a quondam octagonal domicile 
in Canisbay parish, NE Caithness, on the flat downy 
shore of the Pentland Firth, If mile W of Duncansbay 
Head and IS miles N of Wick. Its legend is told as 
follows : — During the reign of James IV., a Lowlander 
of the name of Groat — or, according to some versions, 
a Dutchman of the name of John de Groot — arrived 
along with his brother in Caithness, bearing a letter 
from the King, which recommended them to the gentle- 
men of the county. They procured land at this remote 
spot, settled, and became the founders of families. 
When the race of Groat had increased to the number of 
eight different branches, the amity which had hitherto 



characterised them was unfortunately interrupted. One 
night, in the course of some festivity, a quarrel arose as 
to who had the best right to sit at the head of the table 
next the door ; high words ensued, and the ruin of the 
whole family, by their dissension, seemed at hand. In 
this emergency, however, one of them, John, rose, and 
having stilled their wrath by soft language, assured 
them that at their next meeting he would settle the 
point at issue to the satisfaction of all. Accordingly, 
he erected upon the extreme point of their territory an 
octagonal building, having a door and window at every 
side, and furnished with a table of exactly the same 
shape ; and when the next family festival was held, he 
desired each of his kin to enter at his own door, and 
take the corresponding seat at the table. The perfect 
equality of this arrangement satisfied all, and their 
former good humour was thus restored. There are 
many different versions of the above story, but all 
bearing a resemblance to the well-known legend of the 
Knights of the Round Table. One version represents 
John, the ingenious deviser of the octagonal house, to 
have been the ferryraan from Canisbay to Orkney. The 
site of the house is only marked by an outline on the 
turf; but in 1875-76 a good hotel was built hard by, 
with an appropriate octagonal tower, which commands 
a magnificent view. The only European cowry known 
(Cyprcea Europea) is cast up here by the tide, along 
with quantities of other beautiful shells, and bears the 
name of 'John o' Groat's buckie. ' — Ord. Sur., sh. 116, 

Johnshaven, a fishing village in Benholm parish, 
Kincardineshire, with a station on the Bervie branch 
of the North British, 4| miles SSW of Bervie and 9£ 
NNE of Montrose. Standing upon a rocky reach of 
coast, it has a post office under Fordoun, with money 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 3 in- 
surance agencies, 3 inns, 3 friendly societies, coastguard 
and police stations, 59 fishing boats and 120 fisher men 
and boys, a brewery, a sailcloth factory, a Free church, 
and a U.P. church. A public school, enlarged in 1877, 
with accommodation for 282 children, had (1881) an 
average attendance of 207, and a grant of £171, 14s. 
Pop. (1S31) 1027, (1S41) 1172, (1S61) 1089, (1871) 1077, 
(1881) 1041. Houses (1881) 263 inhabited, 27 vacant. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Johnston. See Laurencekirk. 

Johnstone, a parish in Annandale, Dumfriesshire, 
whose church stands on the right bank of the Annan, 
7 furlongs NW of Dinwoodie station on the Caledonian, 
this being 6 miles NNW of Lockerbie, under which 
there is a post office of Johnstone Bridge. Comprising 
the ancient parish of Johnstone and parts of those of 
Dumgree and Garvald, it is bounded N by Kirk- 
patrick-Juxta, E by Wamphray and Applegarth, S by 
Lochmaben, and SW and W by Kirkmichael. Its 
utmost length, from N to S, is 7£ miles ; its breadth 
varies between 1-J and 5§ miles ; and its area is 13,607^ 
acres, of which 116| are water. The Annan winds 6J 
miles south-by -westward along or near to all the eastern 
boundary ; and Einnel Water 9 miles southward along 
the Kirkpatrick-Juxta boundary, across the western 
interior, and along or near to the Kirkmichael boun- 
dary, till it passes off into Lochmaben on its way to the 
Annan. In the extreme S the surface declines to 195 
feet above sea-level, thence rising northward to 380 feet 
near Blackburn, 490 near Williamson, and 749 near 
Hazelbank, and north-north-westward, beyond Kinnel 
Water, to 1076 at Hangingshaw Hill, and 1308 at 
Minnygap Height. Red sandstone, prevailing for up- 
wards of a mile from the southern boundary, has been 
quarried on a small scale ; elsewhere eruptive rocks 
predominate, but have little or no economical value ; 
and lead ore exists in circumstances to have induced a 
search for workable lodes, but has not answered expec- 
tations. Alluvial soil, chiefly dry loam or gravel, 
covers the level tract along the Annan ; peat moss, ex- 
tending over some hundreds of acres, occurs in other 
parts ; and the soil of much of the arable lands on the 
elopes and hills is too poor to yield remunerative crops 


of wheat. About three-sevenths of the entire area are 
in tillage ; woods cover some 1550 acres ; and the rest 
is either pastoral or waste. Dr Matthew Halliday and 
Dr John Rogerson (1741-1823), successively first physi- 
cians to the Empress Catherine of Russia, were natives 
of Johnstone. Loohwood Castle, the chief antiquity, 
and Raehills, the principal mansion, are noticed 
separately ; and J. J. Hope-Johnstone, Esq., is sole 
proprietor. Johnstone is in the presbytery of Loch- 
maben and synod of Dumfries ; the living is worth 
£210. The parish church, built in 1733 and enlarged 
in 1818, contains 500 sittings. Johnstone and Wam- 
phray Free church stands 2J miles N by E ; and John- 
stone public, Cogrieburn, and Goodhope schools, with 
respective accommodation for 110, 58, and 73 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 96, 45, and 59, and 
grants of £77, 12s., £46, 10s., and £53, 2s. 6d. Valua- 
tion (1860) £5807, (1883) £8380, 14s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 
740, (1831) 1234, (1861) 1149, (1871) 1089, (1881) 1002. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Johnstone, a town, quoad sacra parish, and registra- 
tion district in the extreme W of the Abbey parish of 
Paisley, and near the centre of the county of Renfrew. 
The parish was not erected till 1S34, when there was a 
population of over 5000 ; but as early as 1792 a church 
had been built, and in 1794 (when the population was 
only about 1500) the building was ready for use, and 
bounds were perambulated and assigned, within which 
the minister of the Johnstone church had ecclesiastical 
charge. The town, which is a polics burgh, and has 
now slightly outgrown the limits of the original parish, 
stands on the E bank of the Black Cart, and a short 
distance W of the road from Glasgow to Ayr by Paisley. 
It is by rail 3* miles W by S of Paisley, 10^ W by S of 
Glasgow, 14 SE by E of Greenock, and 25A N by E of 
Ayr. It has a station on the Glasgow and Ayr section 
of the Glasgow and South-Western railway system, close 
to the point where the branch turns off north-westward 
to Greenock, and here was also formerly the western 
terminus of the Glasgow, Paisley, and Ardrossan Canal, 
which is now, however, in process of conversion into a 
railway. The town was founded in 1781, the site at the 
E end of a bridge over the Cart, known as ' the Brig o' 
Johnstone, ' having been previously occupied by a small 
hamlet of only ten houses. The first houses afforded 
accommodation to the hands employed at a large cotton- 
mill, erected close by, and since then the place has, in 
virtue of its position in the middle of a large mining 
district, become a considerable industrial centre. The 
mill was built, and the plan of the town laid out by the 
proprietor of the estate of Johnstone, who was also 
superior of the ground on which it stands, and it is to 
his influence that the place owes its first start in pro- 
sperity and its rapid rise, for in the first ten years of its 
existence the population increased from about 50 to 
about 1500. The plan was a regular one, the main 
street (High Street) running almost E and W, and 
being crossed at right angles by numerous minor streets, 
while there are two squares — one Houston Square near 
the centre of the town, and another, Ludovic Square, to 
the S. The houses are substantial stone buildings, and 
viewed from a distance the place has a remarkably airy 
appearance, due in part to the spaciousness of the 
streets, and in part to the number of pieces of open 
garden-ground attached to the houses ; but on closer 
inspection a good deal of the dinginess always associated 
with manufactures becomes at once apparent. It in- 
cludes the village suburbs of Thorn and Overton to the 
E. The principal industries in the burgh are extensive 
foundries and machine works, a paper mill, and linen 
thread works, while round it are scattered a large num- 
ber of cotton mills, giving employment to from 3000 
to 4000 hands. The police act lias been adopted, and 
the affairs of the burgh are managed by a senior magis- 
trate, 2 junior magistrates, and 8 police commissioners. 
The police force consists of 6 men, and a police court is 
held on the first Monday of every month. The com- 
missioners have also had, since 1881, the charge of the 
gas supply, as in that year the property and plant of 


the Gas Company were acquired by tliera at a cost of 
£22,000. The works are at the N side of the burgh. 
The parish church on the S side at the S end of Church 
Street was built, as already noticed, between 1792 and 
1794 as a chapel of ease at a cost of about £1400. It 
contains 995 sittings. The spire was added in 1823, 
and extensive repairs were made in 1877. Tho 
Free church in William Street was built soon after 
the Disruption. There are two United Presbyterian 
churches, the one built in 1791 at a cost of about £900 
and containing 616 sittings, and the other in 1829 at a 
cost of about £1500 and containing 810 sittings. The 
Episcopal church, dedicated to St John the Evangelist, 
is a cruciform building with transepts and chancel. It 
was erected in 1874 and enlarged in 1878, and contains 
400 sittings. The Roman Catholic church, dedicated 
to St Margaret, was originally erected in 1852, but 
previous to 1882 underwent great alteration and recon- 
struction after designs by Messrs Pugin & Pugin. It 
has now a fine ceiling, handsome transept piers, a 
magnificent chancel arch, and good stained glass win- 
dows. It was reopened on 6 Nov. 1882, and has now 
800 sittings. Educational affairs are managed by a 
committee of the Abbey Parish School Board, and the 
schools are Johnstone, Ludovic Square, Nethercraigs, 
M'Dowall Street, Inkermann, and Cardonald Street 
public schools, with accommodation respectively for 600, 
250, 140, 182, 210, and 135 scholars. A school is also 
carried on in connection with St Margaret's Roman 
Catholic church. Johnstone has a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, branches of the National, Royal, and Union 
Banks, a National Security Savings' Bank, and 
agencies of 28 insurance offices. The Royal Bank 
occupies a handsome three-story block erected in 1873- 
74. There are 3 inns. The newspapers are the John- 
stone Gleaner, the Observer, and the Johnstone Herald, 
all three published on Saturday. There is a Public 
Hall and Working Men's Institute, with a news- 
room and a hall, with accommodation for 1000, and 
containing a fine organ presented by Mr Bousfield. 
There are also Assembly Rooms, a temperance hall, a 
Mechanics Institute, a friendly society, a branch of the 
Bible society, a missionary society, a Young Men's 
Christian Association, a volunteer corps (9th coy. 2d 
battalion Renfrewshire), and an Agricultural Society 
which holds a cattle show annually on the Friday of 
Glasgow Fair week (see Glasgow). A horse fair is 
held on the first Friday of January, and a general fair 
on the Thursday after the second Monday of July. The 
fast days fall on the Fridays before the first Saturday 
in April and in October. Johnstone Castle, an elegant 
modern mansion, stands within a large well-wooded 
park, 1 mile S by E of the town. Its owner, George 
Ludovic Houstoun, Esq. (b. 1S46 ; sue. 1862), holds 
1841 acres in the shire, valued at £2S9S per annum. 
Milliken House, a building in the Grecian style, is 1J 
mile to the W. The parish is in the presbytery of 
Paisley and the synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; its minister's 
stipend is £400. The municipal constituency numbered 
2000 in 1883, when the annual value of real property 
within the burgh was £27,150, whilst the revenue, 
including assessments, amounted to £1633 in 1S82. 
Pop. of town (1811) 3647, (1831) 5617, (1S61) 6404, 
(1871)7538, (1881) 9267, of whom 4846 were females ; 
of parish (1871) 8588, (1881) 9201. Houses in town 
(1881) 1872 inhabited, 121 vacant, 25 building.— Orel. 
Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Johnstone Bridge. See Johnstone, Dumfriesshire. 

Johnstounburn, a mansion in Hnmbie parish, SW 
Haddingtonshire, on the left bank of Hunibie Water, 
2J miles NE of Blackshiels. Its owner, Archibald 
Broun, Esq. (b. 1816 ; sue. 1830), holds 456 acres in the 
shire, valued at £82S per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Joppa. See Poetobello. 

Joppa, a village in Coylton parish, Ayrshire, 5J miles 
E by S of Ayr. 

Jordan or Pow Burn, a rivulet of St Cuthbert's and 
Duddingston parishes, Edinburghshire, rising upon the 


northern slope of Craiglockhart Hill, and running 5£ 
miles east-by-northward, along the valley immediately 
S of Morningside, Grange, and Newington, to a con- 
fluence with the Braid Burn at a point J mile S by E of 
Duddingston village. At Newington its channel was 
bricked over in 1S82 ; but the Jordan should ever be 
kept in memory by the charming chapter concerning it 
in Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's Scottish Rivers (1874). 

Jordanhill, a village near the NE border of Renfrew 
parish, Renfrewshire, within 9 furlongs of the N bank 
of the Clyde, and 2£ miles WSW of Maryhill. The 
Jordanhill estate, extending into the Lanarkshire sec- 
tion of Govan parish, comprises only 293 acres, but has 
a value of £4220 per annum, including £3000 for its 
abundant coal, which is worked by the Monkland Iron 
and Steel Co.— Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Jordanstone House. See Alyth. 

Juniper Green, a village in Colinton parish, Edin- 
burghshire, on a high bank above the left side of the 
Water of Leith, with a station on the Balerno loop-line 
(1874) of the Caledonian railway, 1 mile ENE of Currie 
and 5J miles SW of Edinburgh. It has a post office 
under Currie, and two public schools ; consists in great 
measure of villas and pretty cottages ; and, with 
charming environs, including a long reach of the pictur- 
esque dell of the Water of Leith, is a favourite summer 
retreat of families from Edinburgh. A new Free church, 
erected in 1SS0 at a cost of £3000, is in the Gothic 
style of the 13th century, and contains 620 sittings. 
Pop. (1S31) 338, (1861) 531, (1871) 716, (1881) 1018.— 
Orel. Sur. , sh. 32, 1857. 

Jura (Scand. deor-oe, ' deer island '), an island and a 
parish in Argyllshire. One of the southern or Islay 
group of the Hebrides, the island extends north-north- 
eastward, from within J mile of Islay to within f mile 
of Scarba, and lies opposite Knapdale and the southern 
extremity of Lorn, at distances decreasing from 12 to 
2J miles, being separated from Islay by the Sound of 
Islay, from Knapdale and Lorn by the Sound of Jura, 
and from Scarba by the Gulf of Corrievrechan. Its 
utmost length is 28 miles ; and its width increases 
generally south-south-westward from less than 3 to 8§ 
miles ; but towards the middle it contracts to f mile, 
being all but bisected by Loch Tarbert, a long narrow 
arm of the sea, which opens from the W. It communi- 
cates with other Hebrides and with the mainland by the 
Clyde steamers to Islay and to Oban ; maintains ferries 
from Feolin in the S to Islay, from Lagg near the 
middle of the E coast to Keills in Knapdale, and from 
a place in the N to Craignish in Lorn ; and at Craig- 
house has a post office under Greenock, with money 
order and savings' bank departments, at Lagg another 
post office, an inn, and a cattle fair on the last Friday 
of July, and at Small Isles another fair on the Friday 
after the last Tuesday of June. From end to end ex- 
tends a ridge of bleak and rugged mountains, sum- 
mits of which to the N of Loch Tarbert are Clach- 
bhein (912 feet), Ben Garrisdale (1210), Ben Breac(14S2), 
Meall Alt Dubh (794), Rainberg (1495), and Na Ursainge 
(580) ; to the S, Sprinncaldale (1653), Beinn an Oir 
(2569), Beinn a Chaolais (2412), Dubh Beinn (1735), 
Brat Beinn (1123), and Cnoc Reumer (595). The two 
highest of these, Beinn an Oir (Gael, 'mountain of 
gold ') and Beinn a Chaolais ( ' mountain of the sound '), 
are the conical Paps of Jura, which figure conspicuously 
in a multitude of view : s both near and far. The western 
declivities of the island are abrupt, rugged, wild, inter- 
sected by numerous torrents, and almost destitute of 
verdure ; and they approach so closely to the shore, in 
skirts as rocky and barren as their shoulders, that very 
scanty space is left for culture or inhabitation. The 
eastern declivities, descending more smoothly and 
gradually, have their lower slopes clothed with vegeta- 
tion, leave a belt of plain between their skirts and the 
beach, and present on the whole a pleasing appearance. 
Several anchoring places are on the W coast ; and two 
good roadsteads, called Small Isles Harbour' and Low- 
landman's Bay, besides several landing-places, are on the 
E coast. The Sound of Jura, contracting north-north- 



eastward, sends off from its mainland side Loehs Caolis- 
port, Sween, and Crinan ; contains a good many islets ; 
and merges at its northern extremity into the tumultuous 
waters of the Gulf of Coeeieveechan. A principal 
rock of Jura is white or red quartz, some of it breeciated ; 
other rocks are micaceous granite, micaceous sand- 
stone, and a bluish red-veined slate, so fine as to 
be used as a whetstone. Its minerals include iron ore, 
a vein of black oxide of manganese, and a fine silicious 
sand suitable for the manufacture of glass. The mica- 
ceous granite is quarried, and the silicious sand has been 
used in glass-making. The soil along the shore is thin 
and stony ; on the slopes is partly moorish, partly im- 
provable moss ; and along the foot of the mountains is 
so beset with springs, or otherwise so spouty, as to be 
wholly unworkable. A dozen small upland lakes lie in 
the hollows among the hills ; and several considerable 
burns, well stocked with trout and salmon, descend to 
the coast. Cattle and sheep farming is carried on ; but 
much the greater part of the island is deer-forest, the 
head of deer being estimated at 2000. Little compar- 
atively of the land is arable, though much that was 
formerly waste has been reclaimed for either tillage or 
pasture. The cattle are a good strong Highland breed ; 
and black-faced and Cheviot sheep were introduced in 
the first two decades of the present century. Several 
barrows and duns are on the hills ; and near Small Isles 
Harbour are remains of an ancient camp, with a triple 
Hue of defence. Jura House, near the southern coast, 


is the seat of James Campbell, Esq. of Jura (1). 1818 ; 
sue. 1878), who holds 55,000 acres, valued at nearly 
£4000 per annum. The other proprietor is Walter Mac- 
farlane, Esq. of Aedlussa, which has been noticed 
separately. In 1877, Henry Evans, Esq., lessee of Jura 
Forest, built a fine large shooting-lodge near Small 
Isles. Pop. (1811) 1157, (1831) 1312, (1851) 1064, (1861) 
858, (1871) 761, (1881) 773. 

The parish of Juea, anciently comprehending the 
islands of Gigha, Cara, Colonsay, and Oronsay, was 
designated Kilearnadale and Kilehattan. Gigha and 
Cara were disjoined about 1729, Colonsay and Oronsay 
in 1861 ; but it still comprises the islands of Belnahna, 
Garvelloch, Lunga, and Scarba, all of which are 
noticed separately. Its present total area is 93,799 
acres, or 146J square miles. This parish is in the 
presbytery of Islay and Jura and synod of Argyll ; 
the living is worth £186. The parish church was built 
in 1776, and, as enlarged and improved in 1842, con- 
tains 249 sittings. There is a Free Church preaching 
station ; and five schools, all of them public but the 
last — Ardlussa, Belnahua, Knockrome, Small Isles, 
and New Brosdale — with respective accommodation 
for 30, 41, 68, 56, and 38 children, had (1881) an aver- 
age attendance of 12, 17, 29, 39, and 25, and grants of 
£24, lis., £29, 4s., £39, 14s., £45, 3s., and £32, 5s. 
Valuation (1883) £5568, 8s. Pop. (1861) 1052, (1871 ) 
952, (1881) 946, of whom 819 were Gaelic-speaking. 

Juxta-Kirkpatrick. See Kiekpateick-Juxta. 


KAIL. See Kale. 
Kailzie (anciently Sophailzic), a former parish 
of Peeblesshire, bisected by the Tweed, and 
suppressed in 1674, when about two-thirds of it, 
on the right bank of the Tweed, were annexed to Tra- 
quair ; whilst the rest, on the left bank, was annexed 
to Innerleithen. The ruins of its church stand, in the 
midst of an old burying-ground, on a burn running 
northward to the Tweed ; and near them, 2J miles ESE 
of Peebles, is Kailzie House, a plain, two-storied man- 
sion of the early part of the present century. Its owner, 
William Connel Black, Esq. (b. 1839), holds 1460 acres 
in the shire, valued at £1441 per annum. — Ord. Stir., 
sh. 24, 1864. 

Kaimes. See Kames. 

Kair House, a neat modern mansion in Arbuthnott 
parish, Kincardineshire, near the left bank of Bervie 
Water, 1J mile NE of Fordoun station. It is the seat 
of David Johnston, Esq., M.D. (b. 1S14), who purchased 
the estate from the Kinlochs in 1867, and holds 871 acres 
in the shire, valued at £1315 per annum. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 66, 1871. 

Kale Water, a stream of NE Roxburghshire, rising, 
as Long Burn, on Leap Hill, one of the central Cheviots, 
near the English Border, at an altitude of 1230 feet 
above sea-level. Thence it runs 14§ miles north-by- 
eastward, through Oxnam, Hounam, and Morebattle 
Earishes, to a point 7 furlongs ENE of Morebattle vil- 
ige ; proceeds thence 5J miles west-north-westward, 
chiefly on the boundary between Morebattle and Linton 
parishes, and through Eckford parish ; and, after a total 
descent of 1135 feet, falls into the Teviot at Kalemouth, 
4f miles S by AV of Kelso. Its upper basin con- 
sists of beautiful, verdant, upland pastures, long noted 
for their excellence, and famous for an esteemed variety 
of the Cheviot sheep, called Kale Water sheep ; its 
middle and lower reaches lie through charming dells, 
across 'ferny knowes,' along a lovely vale, and athwart 
rich fields of ' silvery wheat and golden oats ; ' and its 
lowest reach runs partly down a deep ravine, in bygone 
days a retreat and meeting-place of Covenanters. Miss 
Baillie, supplementing a fragment of a fine old Scottish 

song beginning 'O the ewe-bughting 's bonny, baith 
e'ening and morn,' sings — 

( O the sheep-herding's lightsome amang the green braes, 
"Where Kale wimples clear 'neath the white-blossomed slaes — 
Where the wild thyme and meadow-queen scent the saft gale, 
And the cushat croods leesomely doon in the dale ! 
There the lintwhite and mavis sing sweet frae the thorn, 
And blithe lilts the laverock aboon the green corn ; 
And a' things rejoice in the simmer's glad prime — 
But mj r heart 's wi' my love in the far foreign clime.' 

The Kale still yields capital sport, its trout ranging 
between J and 3 lbs. ; though no longer may two rods 
expect to kill over 400 fish in a single day, as fifty 
years since, in the youth of the late Mr Stoddart. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 17, 18, 26, 25, 1863-64. 

Kalligray. See Calligeat. 

Kames, a hamlet in Liberton parish, Edinburghshire, 
3£ miles S by E of Edinburgh. 

Kames, a straggling village in Kilfinan parish, Argyll- 
shire, on the W side of the Kyles of Bute, 1 J to 2| miles 
SSW of Tighnabruaich. It has a post office under 
Greenock, a steamboat pier, an inn, powder works, and 
an artillery volunteer battery. — Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 1873. 

Kames, a mansion in Eccles parish, S Berwickshire, 
6 miles E of Greenlaw, and 6J NNW of Coldstream. 
A gabbed edifice in the old Scottish style, surrounded by 
fine old trees, it was the birthplace, property, and resi- 
dence of the distinguished judge and philosopher, 
Henry Home (1696-1782) — the place whence, as Lord 
of Session, he took the title of Lord Kames, and where 
he wrote many of his works, and entertained Dr Benjamin 
Franklin in 1759.— Ord. Sur., sh. 26, 1864. 

Kames, a bay, a hill, and a castellated mansion in 
North Bute parish, Buteshire. The bay, indenting the 
E side of Bute island, measures 9J furlongs across the 
entrance, and 7J thence to its inmost recess. It sweeps 
round in half-moon form, and has a good bathing beach. 
The hill overlooks the bay, rises to an altitude of 
875 feet above sea-level, and commands a magnificent 
view. Kames Castle stands at the SE base of the hill, 
within J mile of the bay, and 2| miles NNW of Rothesay, 
in the low fertile dingle which extends across the island 


to Etterick Bay. Long the seat of the Bannatynes of 
Karnes, it comprises a 14th century tower, with a house 
built on it by Sir William Macleod Bannatyne, Knt. 
(1743-1S34), who, on his elevation to the bench in 1799, 
assumed the title of Lord Bannatyne, and from whom 
it passed to the Marquis of Bute. Karnes Castle was 
the birthplace, and for three years the home, of the 
critic and essayist John Sterling (1806-44), whose bio- 
grapher, Carlyle, describes it as 'a kind of dilapidated 
baronial residence, to which a small farm, rented by his 
father, was then attached.' Wester Kames Castle, once 
the seat of the Spences, 3 furlongs NNW of Kames Castle, 
was mainly a small tower of no great antiquity, and is 
now a ruin.— Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 1873. 

Kamesburgh or Port Bannatyne, a village in North 
Bute parish, Buteshire, on Kames Bay, 2J miles NNW 
of Rothesay, with which it was connected by a tramway 
in 1882. Curving round the southern shore of the 
bay, and containing some good houses, let for summer 
quarters, it presents a clean and tidy aspect, and looks 
out upon the beauty of the E end of K3'les of Bute. It 
maintains a herring fishery ; communicates with steamers 
plying between Rothesay and places within or beyond 
the Kyles ; and has a post and telegraph office (Port 
Bannatyne) under Rothesay, a quay and a steamboat 
pier, an excellent hotel, a hydropathic establishment, 
and North Bute Free church (1S43). Pop. (1861) 504, 
(1871) 575, (1881) 651.— Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 1873. 

Kannor. See Cannor. 

Katerine, Ayrshire. See Catkine. 

Katrine, Loch, a lake, the western shore of whose 
upper 2i miles belongs to Buchanan parish, Stirling- 
shire, but which elsewhere extends along the mutual 
border of Callander and Aberfoyle parishes, SW Perth- 
shire. Lying 364 feet above sea-level, it curves 8 miles 
east-south-eastward, and, opposite Letter farm, has an 
utmost width of 7J furlongs, with a maximum depth of 
78 fathoms. Glengyle Water flows 3J miles south- 
eastward to its head, and from its foot it sends off 
Achray Water If mile east-by-southward to Loch 
Achray, belonging thus to the basin of the Teith ; 
whilst forty-eight rivulets leap down the hill-sides to 
its shores. Chief elevations to the N of the lake, from 
head to foot, are Meall Mor (2451 feet), An Garadh 
(2347), Stob a Choin (2839), Cruinn Bheinn (1787), 
Meall Gaothach (1981), Bealach-na-h Imriche (1592), 
Ben A'an (1500), Meall Gainmheich (1S51), and Ben 
Vane (26S5) ; to the S, Maol Mor (2249), Meall Mead- 
honach (S93), Beinn Uaimhe (1962), Ben Lomond 
(3192), Druim nan Cam (1495), and Ben Venue (2393). 
A small iron steamer was launched on its waters in 
1843 ; and the Rob Roy now plies to and fro from 
Stronachlaehar Hotel, 2f miles SE of the head of the 
lake and 5 ENE of Inversnaid on Loch Lomond, to a 
pier at the foot, 1J mile W of the Teossachs Hotel and 
9J miles W by S of Callander. On board of her the 
Queen, with the Princesses Louise and Beatrice, sailed 
up the lake, 6 Sept. 1S69. Loch Katrine belongs to 
the Duke of Montrose and Lady Willoughby de Eresby ; 
it contains some char, abundance of good trout, and pike 
running up to 20 lbs. Its waterworks have been fully 
described under Glasgow. See also BEALAca-NAM-Bo, 
Ellen's Isle, and other articles already indicated. 

Scott visited the Trossaehs and Loch Katrine on 
several occasions duriug 1790-1809, the year before the 
publication of the Lady of the Lake ; and, as Principal 
Shairp remarks, ' the world believes, and will continue 
to believe, that he was the first Sassenach who dis- 
covered the Trossaehs, as it was his poem which gave 
them world-wide celebrity.' In 1790, however, and 
1800 the Rev. James Robertson, minister of Callander, 
had described them in the Old Statistical and his Sketch 
of the most remarkable Scenery near Callander; and in 
1804 we find William Wordsworth endeavouring to 
make his visit hither 'appear not so very foolish, by 
informing the dwellers by the lakeside that this was a 
place much celebrated in England, though perhaps little 
thought of by them. ' No better description exists of 
Loch Katrine than that which is given by his sister 


Dorothy, the more so as it depicts it in its twofold aspect 
— dreary and naked at the head, wooded and ever more 
beautiful towards the foot. ' Coleridge and I,' she writes, 
' as we sate [near Stronachlaehar], had what seemed but 
a dreary prospect — a waste of unknown ground which 
we guessed we must travel over before it was possible to 
find a shelter. We saw a long way down the lake ; it 
was all moor on the near side ; on the other the hills 
were steep from the water, and there were large coppice- 
woods, but no cheerful green fields, and no road that we 
could see ; we knew, however, that there must be a road 
from house to house ; but the whole lake appeared a soli- 
tude — neither boats, islands, nor houses, no grandeur 
in the hills, nor any loveliness in the shores. When we 
first came in view of it we had said it was like a barren 
Ulswater — Ulswater dismantled of its grandeur, and 
cropped of its lesser beauties. When I had swallowed 
my dinner I hastened after William, and Coleridge fol- 
lowed me. Walked through the heather with some 
labour for perhaps half a mile, and found William 
sitting on the top of a small eminence, whence we saw 
the real head of the lake, which was pushed up into the 
vale a considerable way beyond the promontory where 
we now sate. The view up the lake was very pleasing, 
resembling Thirlmere below Armath. There were rocky 
promontories and woody islands, and, what was most 
cheering to us, a neat white house on the opposite 
shore. . . . We were rowing down that side of the 
lake which had hitherto been little else than a moorish 
ridge. After turning a rocky point we eame to a bay 
closed in by rocks and steep woods, chiefly of full- 
grown birch. The lake was elsewhere ruffled, but at 
the entrance of this bay the breezes sunk, and it was 
calm : a small island was near, and the opposite shore, 
covered with wood, looked soft through the misty rain. 
William, rubbing his eyes, for he had been asleep, called 
out that he hoped I had not let him pass by anything 
that was so beautiful as this ; and I was glad to tell 
him that it was but the beginning of a new land. 
After we had left this bay we saw before us a long 
reach of woods and rocks and rocky points, that pro- 
mised other bays more beautiful than what we had 
passed. The ferryman was a good-natured fellow, and 
rowed very industriously, following the ins and outs of 
the shore ; he was delighted with the pleasure we ex- 
pressed, continually repeating how pleasant it would 
nave been on a fine day. I believe he was attached 
to the lake by some sentiment of pride, as his own 
domain — his being almost the only boat upon it — which 
made him, seeing we were willing gazers, take far more 
pains than an ordinary boatman ; he would often say, 
after he had compassed the turning of a point, "This is 
a bonny part," and he always chose the bonniest, with 
greater skill than our prospect-hunters and " picturesque 
travellers ; " places screened from the winds — that was 
the first point ; the rest followed of course, — richer 
growing trees, rocks and banks, and curves which the 
eye delights in. The second bay we came to differed 
from the rest ; the hills retired a short space from the 
lake, leaving a few level fields between, on which was a 
cottage embosomed in trees : the bay was defended by 
rocks at each end, and the hills behind made a shelter 
for the cottage, the only dwelling, I believe, except 
one, on this side of Loch Ketterine. We now came to 
steeps that rose directly from the lake, and passed by a 
place called in the Gaelic the Den of the Ghosts,* which 
reminded us of Lodore ; it is a rock, or mass of rock, 
with a stream of large black stones like the naked or 
dried-up bed of a torrent down the side of it ; birch- 
trees start out of the rock in every direction, and cover 
the hill above, further than we could see. The water 
of the lake below was very deep, black, and calm. Our 
delight increased as we advanced, till we came in view 
of the termination of the lake, seeing where the river 
issues out of it through a narrow chasm between the 
hills. Here I ought to rest, as we rested, and attempt 
to give utterance to our pleasure : but indeed I can 
impart but little of what we felt. We were still on the 
* Goblins' Cave. 



same side of the water, and, being immediately under 
the hill, within a considerable bending of the shore, we 
were enclosed by hills all round, as if we had been upon 
a smaller lake of which the whole was visible. It was 
an entire solitude ; and all that we beheld was the per- 
fection of loveliness and beauty. "We had been through 
many solitary places since we came into Scotland, but 
this place differed as much from any we had seen before, 
as if there had been nothing in common between them ; 
no thought of dreariness or desolation found entrance 
here ; yet nothing was to be seen but water, wood, 
rocks, and heather, and bare mountains above. We 
saw the mountains by glimpses as the clouds passed by 
them, and were not disposed to regret, with our boat- 
man, that it was not a fine day, for the near objects 
were not concealed from us, but softened by being seen 
through the mists. The lake is not very wide here, but 
appeared to be much narrower than it really is, owing 
to the man}' promontories, which are pushed so far into 
it that they are much more like islands than promon- 
tories. We had a longing desire to row to the outlet 
and look up into the narrow passage through which the 
river went ; but the point where we were to land was 
on the other side, so we bent our course right across, 
and just as we came in sight of two huts, which have 
been built by Lady Perth as a shelter for those who 
visit the Trossaehs, Coleridge hailed us with a shout of 
triumph from the door of one of them, exulting in the 
glory of Scotland. The huts stand at a small distance 
from each other, on a high and perpendicular rock, that 
rises from the bed of the lake. A road, which has a 
very wild appearance, has been cut through the rock ; 
yet even here, among these bold precipices, the feeling 
of excessive beautifulness overcomes every other. While 
we were upon the lake, on every side of us were bays 
within bays, often more like tiny lakes or pools than 
bays, and these not in long succession only, but all 
round, some almost on the broad breast of the water, 
the promontories shot out so far.' See pp. 86-107, 
220-235, of Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour in Scotland (ed. 
by Princ. Shairp, Edinb. 1874) ; and Sir George B. 
Airy's Topography of the ' Lady of the Lake' (Lond. 1873). 

Kealoch or An Teallach, a mountain (3483 feet) 
in Lochbroom parish, NW Ross-shire, rising on the S 
side of the upper part of Little Loch Broom, 3^ miles 
SW of Dundonnell. It consists entirely of sandstone, 
but presents an appearance as if it consisted of granite ; 
and rises on one side right from the loch in steep and 
soaring acclivities, on another side from among a series 
of glens, ravines, and ridges, nearly all of white rock 
and unutterably desolate. It overtops all the neigh- 
bouring country, and looks to the eye to be higher than 
any single mountain in Scotland, excepting Ben Nevis ; 
and it commands an extensive view, comprising all the 
details of Lochs Broom and Greinord. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
92, 1881. 

Keanloch. See Kinloch. 

Keannoath. See Oa. 

Kearn. See Auchindoir and Kearn. 

Kearvaig (Gael. Amkuinn Chearbhaig), a rivulet in 
Durness parish, NW Sutherland, issuing from triangular 
Loch na Gainmhich (3J x 3J furl. ; 790 feet), and run- 
ning 6 miles north-north-westward to the sea, at a 
point 2J miles ESE of Cape Wrath. It is ascended by 
sea-trout and a few grilse, but is seldom visited by 
anglers.— Ord. Sur., sh. 113, 1882. 

Keavil, a mansion in Dunfermline parish, Fife, on 
the Pitfirrane property, 2J miles WSW of the town. 

Kedslie, a farm near the S border of the detached 
district of Lauder parish, Berwickshire, 3 miles NW of 
Earlston. Here stood a pre-Reformation chapel, sub- 
ordinate to Lauder church. 

Keen, Mount, a conical mountain (3077 feet), one of 
the Central Grampians, on the mutual border of Lochlee 
parish, Forfarshire, and Glenmuick parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, 7 miles SSE of Ballater by a steep rough track to 
Lochlee, which crosses its western shoulder at an altitude 
of 2500 feet, and up which the Queen rode on 20 Sept. 
1861.— Ord Sur., sh. 65, 1870. 


Keig, a parish of central Aberdeenshire, whose 
church stands near the left bank of the river Don, 
3 miles NNW of Whitehouse station, this being 2J 
E by S of Afford and 26J WNW of Aberdeen, under 
which there is a post office of Eeig. The parish, 
containing Whitehouse station in the extreme S, is 
bounded N by Leslie and Premnay, E by Oyne and 
Monymusk, S by Monymusk and Tough, SW by 
Alford, and W by Tullynessle. Its utmost length, 
from N to S, is 4J miles ; its breadth, from E to 
W, varies between If and 3J miles ; and its area is 
8119J acres, of which 60J are water. The Don winds 
5f miles east-north-eastward here — 5 furlongs along the 
boundary with Alford, 3§ miles through the interior, 
and 9 furlongs along the Monymusk border ; and here 
it is fed by several little burns. Along it the surface 
declines to 335 feet above sea-level, thence rising north- 
ward and north-westward to 1619 feet on Bennochib 
and 929 at the Barmkin, southward to 1250 on the 
western slope of Cairn William. Granite is the pre- 
vailing rock ; gneiss, greenstone, and clay-slate appear 
in a few places ; mica slate lies profusely scattered on 
much of the surface ; and masses of porphyry and some 
tolerable specimens of rock crystal are found. The soil 
of the haugh along the Don is mostly sandy or gravelly 
alluvium, combined with clay ; of the plain, is partly a 
good mould ; and of the arable acclivities, is mostly 
reclaimed moor. Rather less than half of the entire 
area is arable, nearly one-third is under wood, and the 
rest of the land is either pasture or moor. Two Cale- 
donian stone circles, and a ruinous circular enclosure 
of loose stones, called the Barmkin, are the chief anti- 
quities. Castle-Forbes, noticed separately, is the only 
mansion ; and Lord Forbes is the chief proprietor, but 
two others hold each an annual value of between £100 
and £500. Eeig is in the presbytery of Alford and 
synod of Aberdeen ; the living is worth £216. The 
parish church is a neat Gothic structure of 1835, con- 
taining 450 sittings. There is also a Free church ; and 
a public school, with accommodation for 100 children, 
had (1S83) an average attendance of 103, and a grant of 
£102, 7s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £3230, (1882) £4492, 
plus £179 for railway. Pop. (1801) 379, (1S31) 592, 
(1861) 811, (1871) 886, (1881) 776.— Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 

Keil, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Southend 
parish, Argyllshire. The mansion stands near the ex- 
tremity of Eintyre, opposite Sanda island, 10J miles 
SSW of Campbeltown ; and the estate extends a con- 
siderable distance along the coast. A ruined church, 
near the mansion, is traditionally alleged to occupy a 
spot visited by St Columba on his way from Ireland to 
Iona ; and an ancient stone cross, supposed to have been 
erected to the memory of the saint, also stood here, but 
is now represented by only the pedestal. Several iarge 
caves are on the coast, and one of them is alleged by 
the native peasantry to extend 6 miles inland to Killel- 
lan Hill.— Ord Sur., sh. 12, 1S72. 

Keillour, an estate, with a mansion, in Fowlis-Wester 
parish, Perthshire, 2-J miles NNW of Balgowan station. 

Keills, a hamlet and a promontory in North Knap- 
dale parish, Argyllshire. The hamlet lies on the W 
coast, near the southern extremity of the promontory, 
opposite Lagg, in Jura, and 13f miles SSW of Crinan 
Pier. The ferry station for communication from Knap- 
dale and the central parts of Argyllshire, with the 
central parts of Jura, with the N of Islay, and with 
Oronsay and Colonsay, it has a post office under 
Lochgilphead, an ancient cross, and the ruins of an 
ancient chapel. The promontory lies between Loch 
Swin and the Sound of Jura ; extends 84 miles south- 
south-westward ; is comparatively narrow ; and has 
mostly bold rocky coasts, rising murally in many 
places to a height of 300 feet. 

Keilor Burn. See Inverkeilor. 

Keir, a Nithsdale parish of Dumfriesshire, whose 
church stands near the right bank of Scar Water, 1| 
mile SE of Penpont village and 2J miles SW of the 
post-town Thornhill. It is bounded N by Penpont, E 


by Closeburn, S by Dunscore, W by Glencaim, and 
NW by Tynron. Its utmost length, from NW to SE, 
is 7 miles ; its utmost breadth is 2$ miles ; and its area 
is 7890 acres, of which 844 are water. Shinnel Water 
runs 2 miles north-north-eastward along the western 
border to the Sear ; Scar Water winds 3J miles east- 
south-eastward along the northern and north-eastern 
border to the Nith ; and the Nith itself runs 5f miles 
south-south-eastward along the Closeburn boundary to 
the south-eastern extremity in the vicinity of Auldgirth 
Bridge. The southern border is traced by Glenmids 
Burn ; and six other rivulets, each about 1| mile long, 
rise in the interior, and run in almost parallel lines, at 
nearly regular intervals, north-north-eastward to the 
Scar and to the Nith, one of them traversing a romantic 
wooded ravine, and forming in one part a very beauti- 
ful waterfall. Springs are everywhere abundant ; and 
two small lakes, one of them containing leeches, were 
formerly in the W, but have been drained. Low fiat 
alluvial land, with an elevation of from 80 to 280 feet 
above sea-level, lies along the Nith, the Scar, and the 
Shinnel ; and a steep wooded bank flanks most of that 
land all down to the extreme southern extremity. 
Thence the surface rises to 604 feet near Blackwood, 
1171 on the Glencairn border, and 887 at Capenoch 
Moor ; and, as seen from the highway between Thornhill 
and Closeburn, presents a picture of no common beauty. 
Silurian rocks predominate, but newer rocks occur ; and 
limestone and sandstone have been worked at Barjarg 
and Porterstown. The soil of the haugh lands is rich 
alluvium ; of the tablelands is mostly gravelly or sandy ; 
and of the arable portions of the hills is generally a rich 
loam, full of stones. About one-half of all the land is 
arable ; a fair proportion is under wood ; and the rest 
is variously meadow, hill pasture, and waste. Gone are 
a standing stone near the parish church and a ' Court 
Knowe ' on the glebe ; but a stone on Keir Hill marks 
the spot where James Renwick often preached in the 
days of the persecution, and the site of an ancient chapel 
is on Kilbride Hill. Mansions, noticed separately, are 
Barjarg, Blackwood, Capenoch, and Waterside ; and the 
property is divided among five. Eeir is in the presby- 
tery of Penpont and synod of Dumfries ; the living is 
worth £343. The parish church (1814 ; renovated 
1880) contains 330 sittings ; and the Lower public, 
the Upper public, and Capenoch infant schools, with 
respective accommodation for 59, 100, and 75 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 62, 60, and 43, and 
grants of £55, 4s., £55, 7s., and £34, 9s. 6d. Valua- 
tion (1860) £5253, (1S83) £6615, 12s. Pop. (1S01) 771, 
(1831) 987, (1861) 849, (1871) 828, (1881) 745.— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Keir (Celt, caer, 'fort'), a mansion on the mutual 
border of Lecropt and Dunblane parishes, S Perth- 
shire, 1J mile SSW of Dunblane town and If NW of 
Bridge of Allan. The lands of Keir were acquired 
from George Leslie of that ilk in 1448 by Lucas of 
Strevelyn, whose descendant, William, between 1849 
and 1851 ' made considerable alterations in the house, 
removing the entrance from the E to the N, building a 
new set of offices, turning the old entrance hall into a 
noble library, and adding a bay to the eastern front. 
The porch, gateway, and connecting arcade, and the 
terraces which surround three sides of the house, were 
likewise constructed by him ; and he added consider- 
ably to the beautiful pleasure-grounds.' He, Sir 
William Stirling- Maxwell (1818-78), was author of The 
Cloister Life of Charles V. and other works, and sat for 
Perthshire in the Conservative interest from 1852 to 
1868. In 1S65 he succeeded his maternal uncle in the 
Pollok estates and baronetcy, and assumed the addi- 
tional surname of Maxwell. He held 20,814 acres, 
valued at £34,245 per annum, viz., 8863 in Perthshire 
(£5732), 1487 in Stirlingshire (£2370), 4773 in Ren- 
frewshire (£14,171), and 5691 in Lanarkshire (£11,972). 
His son and successor, Sir John Maxwell Stirling-Max- 
well, tenth Bart, since 1682, was born in 1866. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 39, 1869. See Dr William Fraser's Stirlings 
of Keir (Edinb. 1858). 


Keiss, a village and a quoad sacra parish in the NE 
extremity of the parish of Wick, on the NW side of 
Sinclairs Bay, 7| miles N by W of the town of Wick, 
under which it has a post and telegraph office. It also 
possesses a boat harbour, with 58 boats and 135 fisher 
men and boys, an Established church, a Free church, 
and a small Baptist chapel, the last dating from 1750. 
Keiss House is j mile NNE of the village ; Keiss Castle, 
the ruin of a small feudal tower, stands between it and 
the sea. Explorations, carried out in 1864 at Keiss 
Links, laid bare several cists containing human remains, 
and a large number of implements of the stone period, 
which have been described by Samuel Laing, Esq., 
M.P., and Professor Huxley in their Pre-historic Re- 
mains of Caithness (Lond. 1866). The quoad sacra 
parish, constituted by the General Assembly in 1833, 
and erected by the civil authorities after the Disruption, 
is in the presbytery of Caithness and the synod of 
Sutherland and Caithness. Its church, erected by 
Government in 1827 at a cost of £1500, contains 338 
sittings. Two public schools, Aukengill and Keiss, with 
respective accommodation for 80 and 160 children, had 
(1S81) an average attendance of 46 and 76, and grants 
of £34 and £54, 17s. Pop. of village (1871) 327, (1881) 
313 ; of q. s. parish (1871) 1124, (1881) 1348, of whom 
253 were in Canisbay parish. — Ord,. Sur., sh. 116, 

Keith, a parish in the centre of the county of Banff, 
and occupying for some distance its whole width. It is 
about 5 miles from the coast. A portion near the centre 
of the W side crosses the county boundary, and ex- 
tends into the county of Elgin. It is touched at the 
extreme NE corner by the parish of Deskford, and is 
bounded E by the parish of Grange, SE for about 2 miles 
by the county of Aberdeen, S by the parishes of Cairnie 
and Botriphnie, W by Botriphnie, Boharm, and Bellie, 
and NW by Bellie and by Rathven. The boundary is 
artificial, except for about 5 miles on the E side, between 
Keith and Grange parishes, where it is formed by the 
Altmore Burn, and for 2 miles on the W between Keith 
and Bellie parishes, where it is formed by Forgie Burn. 
Though the outline is irregular, the parish is compact. 
The greatest length, from N by E (at the point where it 
touches Deskford parish) to S by W (at a point about 
J mile SW of Edintore House), is 8J miles ; and the 
greatest width, from E (at the point where the Great 
North of Scotland railway passes into Grange parish) 
to W (near the Hill of Mulderie), is 6§ miles. The area 
is 18,264-820 acres, of which 16,381-053 are in Banff- 
shire, and 1883'767 in Elginshire. The surface is very 
irregular and undulating, and varies in height from 338 
feet, at the bridge over the Isla to the NE of the town, 
to 766 feet (Garral Hill towards the NE end of the 
parish), 1199 (on the Meikle Balloch Hill to the SE), 
967 (at Cairds Wood on the S), and 1020 (at the Hill of 
Mulderie on the W). The soil is in many places good 
clay loam, but is often hard, damp, and mossy, and 
somewhat unkindly. By far the larger portion is under 
crop or wooded, there being very little waste ground. 
Two of the woodland sections, one S of Keith, and the 
other SW of Fife-Keith, have, at the expense of the 
superiors of the respective villages, been laid out with 
walks for the use of the public. The drainage of a con- 
siderable part of the parish is effected by means of the 
river Isla, which enters on the SW from Botriphnie 
parish, and flows with a winding course N and NE, 
passing between Keith and Fife-Keith, and then turns 
eastward between Keith and Newmill, and winds E till 
it passes into Grange parish in its onward course to 
junction with the Deveron. There are a number of 
small burns, the principal being the Burn of Newmill, 
which rises in the NW, flows past the W end of the 
village of Newmill, and falls into the Isla ; and the 
Burn of Tarnash, which rises in the SE, and flows E of 
Keith also into the Isla. On three of the streams near 
Keith there are waterfalls, picturesque, though of no 
great size ; and the rocky glens through which the 
burns flow are rich localities for botanists, yielding, 
among other plants, plentiful specimens of the oak, 



beech, and bladder ferns. Near the centre of the parish, 
If mile N of Keith village, is Keith Junction station 
on the Highland and Great North of Scotland railway 
systems. This is the terminus of the Forres and Keith 
section of the former, which passes W by S through the 
parish for a distance of 3J miles. Of the latter, it is 
the junction of the Aberdeen and Keith, and Keith and 
Elgin sections, of which the former passes E through 
the parish for 2§ miles, while the latter follows a wind- 
ing course to the SW for a distance of 4 miles, Fife- 
Keith being accommodated by a station at Earlsmill, and 
the southern part of the parish by a station at Auehin- 
dachy, in Botriphnie. A line from Keith station, at 
present (1SS3) in course of construction, will pass north- 
ward to Buckie. It will form part of the Highland 
system. The parish forms the connecting link between 
the upper and lower districts of Banffshire, and near the 
centre it is traversed from E to W by the great road from 
Aberdeen to Inverness. The underlying rocks are 
primary, and contain in many places beds of limestone 
of excellent quality, which are extensively worked at 
Blackhillock and Braehead. In places grey fluor 
spar is to be found associated with green antimony, 
and on the bank of Tarnash Burn, SE of the village of 
Keith, is a small mass of alum shale. The churches 
and industries are connected with the villages, and most 
of them are noticed in the following article Keith. 
Besides Keith and Fife-Keith the parish contains the 
village of Newmill, about 1 J mile N of Keith, on a slope 
facing S. This is now the centre of the quoad sacra 
parish of Newmill, disjoined in 1877. The church stands 
at the E end. It was erected in 1870, and is a plain 
building containing 520 sittings. There is also a Free 
Church mission house. The population of Newmill village 
was, in 1871, 614 ; in 1881, 651,— of the parish in 1881, 
1431. Besides the public schools at Keith village there 
are also board schools at Auchanacie, Fife-Keith, Glen 
of Newmill, Newmill, and Tarrycroys, which, with 
respective accommodation for 50, 50, SO, 135, and 80 
pupils, had (1SS1) an average attendance of 26, 53, 44, 
112, and 52 respectively, and grants of £39, 14s., £41, 
12s. 6d., £25, 17s. 4d., £92, 6s., and £49, 10s. The 
chief object of antiquarian interest is the old tower 
of Milton near the railway station, once belonging to 
the family of Oliphant. Mention is made in the old 
Statistical Account of stone circles on the Caird's Hill, 
but these have disappeared, as have also the sanative 
properties of the neighbouring Tober-chalaich or Old 
Wife's "Well. The old bridge across the Isla is noticed 
in the following article. The parish anciently extended 
from Fordyce to Mortlach, and belonged to the Abbey 
of Kinloss, to which it was granted by William the 
Lyon. James Ferguson the astronomer (1710-76), a 
native of the adjoining parish of Rothiemay, was edu- 
cated here, and was for a time in service at the farm 
of Ardnedlie, about 1 mile S of the town of Keith. 
Five proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, and 2 hold between £500 and £100. The 
Earl of Fife is the largest landowner, but the Earl 
of Seafield has the largest rental. The only mansion 
is Edintore House. The sum raised by the parochial 
board in 1882 was £2448 from assessments. The 
parish is in the presbytery of Strathbogie and the synod 
of Moray. The stipend is £352, with a manse and 
a glebe worth respectively £28 and £32, 10s. a year. 
Valuation (1883) of Banffshire section £23,275, of 
Elginshire section £1087. Pop. (1801) 3284, (1831) 
4464, (1861) 5943, (1871) 5891, (1881) 6396, of whom 
6163 were in Banffshire, and the rest in Elginshire. — 
Oral. Sur., shs. 85, 86, 1876. 

Keith, a post-town in Banffshire, near the centre of 
the parish described in the last article. It consists of 
the three divisions of Old and New Keith on the 
right bank of the Isla, and Fife-Keith on the left 
bank, but Old Keith to the NW has been swallowed up 
by its younger rival, and both are now collectively 
known as Keith. It is J mile distant from the Keith 
station on the Highland and Great North of Scotland rail- 
ways, and is by rail 124 miles NW of Huntly, 18 ESE of 


Elgin, 20J SW of Banff, 53J NW of Aberdeen, and 170 
N of Edinburgh. By road it is 9 miles SE of Fochabers, 
10 NW of Huntly, and 12 SSW of Cullen. Notwith- 
standing the disadvantage of its distance from the 
station, it is a thriving place, the centre of traffic for 
middle Banffshire, and the centre of communication 
by road between the upper and lower districts of the 
county. Old Keith has a considerable antiquity, for it 
appears in the form of ' Geth ' in a deed granted by ' 
William the Lyon, and in virtue of which the whole of 
Strathisla passed into the possession of the Abbey of 
Kinloss. The deed was granted at Elgin, but bears no 
date, though probably it was about 1177, a year estab- 
lished from other evidence as a time when William 
visited the North. It had a jurisdiction of regality, 
and in virtue of this and of its trade, it was, at an early 
period, superior in consequence to Banff, Cullen, or 
Fordyce, then the other towns in the county. The 
court of regality sat in the church and, treason excepted, 
judged all civil and criminal causes, even including the 
four Crown pleas. The panels were put for trial into a 
window called 'the Boss Window, ' and were committed 
on conviction to the steeple which served as a jail. 
Those convicted on capital charges were executed on 
the hill where New Keith has since been built, the 
place of execution being in Mid Street, on ground 
now occupied by the stable-yard of the Seafield Arms 
Hotel. At the abolition of the regality jurisdictions in 
1748 the value of this one was set down at £200. The 
old town seems to have extended some distance along 
the Isla, but being inconveniently situated it dwindled 
away. It used to be celebrated for the Summer Eve 
Fair, which was up to the beginning of the present 
century one of the most important fairs in Scotland. 
' It lasted about a week, and was attended by people 
from all parts of Scotland. So great was the gathering 
that the town of Keith could not lodge the half of them, 
and they had to seek lodgings in country houses and 
small inns for several miles around.' It is still held, but 
is shorn of its former greatness. Old Keith has been the 
scene of several noteworthy events. On 30 June 1645, 
General Baillie here offered battle to Montrose, who, 
however, considered the position of the Covenanters too 
strong. Baillie seems to have been drawn up on the 
ground now occupied by the new town and along by 
Begg's Brae, while Montrose approached from Aucha- 
nacie. On this occasion Montrose was in the full 
flush of victory after the battle of Auldearn, but in 
1650 he was destined to revisit Keith under different 
circumstances. He was then a captive unkempt and 
ragged. Keith was reached on a Sunday when for some 
unknown reason divine service was to be celebrated in 
the churchyard. The marquis was carried to the spot, 
and the minister of Keith — William Kininmonth, once 
chaplain to General David Leslie — preached at him from 
1 Sam. xv. 33. Montrose 'perceiving the drift of the 
orator said ' ' Rail on, " and submitted in patience. ' In 
1667 a well-known freebooter of the day, Peter Roy 
Maegregor, made a descent on Old Keith, and a bloody 
encounter between his band and the inhabitants of the 
district took place in the old churchyard, with a result 
so little favourable to the ' caterans, ' that Roy was 
taken prisoner and afterwards executed at Edinburgh. 
In 1745 Major Glasgow, an Irishman in the French 
service and acting with the forces of Prince Charles 
Edward, surprised a detachment of government troops 
here and carried off about eighty prisoners. 

New Keith or Keith proper was first laid out about 
1750 by the then Earl of Findlater. It adjoins Old 
Keith on the SE, and occupies the eastern slope of 
what was formerly but a barren moor. It is built on a 
regular plan, there being a central square of large size, 
and three principal streets running parallel to one 
another in a N and S direction with cross lanes. The 
feus measure 15 yds. by 60, so that a large garden is 
provided for each. The principal inn was built in 1823 
by the Earl of Seafield (the present superior), and con- 
tains a large hall in which the district courts were 
formerly held. The public hall, presented to the town 


by the late Mr William Longmore, banker and distiller, 
is at the N end of the town. It is a plain, neat build- 
ing, erected in 1872-73 at a cost of £2000. It contains 
a portrait of Mr Longmore, presented to him in acknow- 
ledgment of his gift. The ground belonging to the 
hall at the W end was also laid out by Mr Longmore at 
his own expense, and presented by him to the town to 
be used as a public bowling green. To the W of New 
Keith and S of Old Keith, and close to the feus of the 
latter, is a cottage hospital named the Turner Memorial 
Hospital in remembrance of the late Dr Turner, Keith, 
who was (in conjunction with Mr Longmore) its chief 
promoter, though he did not live to see it finished. It 
is a plain building erected in 1880 at a cost of £1200, 
and contains 17 beds, including 1 for incurables. The 
endowment fund amounts to about £4000, of which 
£3000 were derived from the residue of the estate of the 
late Dr Taylor, Deputy Inspector-General of Hospitals 
and Fleets — a native of Keith — who founded the Green- 
skares Bursaries at the University of Aberdeen. Other 
support is derived from church collections and voluntary 
subscriptions. There is in the town an abundant water 
supply introduced in 1879 at a cost of £5000. The 
source of supply is 3J miles distant. The question of 
improved drainage is at present (1883) being agitated. 
The lighting is carried out by a private gas company, 
whose works are to the W of the Longmore Hall. The 
parish church, still farther to the W, is a handsome 
building with a square pinnacled tower 120 feet high, 
with clock and bell. It was erected in 1816-19 at a 
cost of £6220, and was repainted in 1874, while gas was 
introduced in 1880. There are 1661 sittings. The 
Free church is a plain building of Disruption date, with 
700 sittings. The United Presbyterian church near the 
square is a plain Gothic building dating from 1853. 
The walls were heightened, and the interior was greatly 
'improved in 1876. It contains 500 sittings. The 
Episcopal church (Trinity) was formerly a very small 
and plain building, built in 1808, but has been replaced 
(18S2-83) by a fine new Geometric Gothic building, 
erected at a cost of £2200, to the NE of the Established 
church. There will be accommodation for 300 persons. 
The Koman Catholic church (St Thomas) in the square, 
with 450 sittings, was erected in 1S31. It is said to be 
modelled after the church of St Maria-de-Vittoria at 
Rome, and has two gigantic statues of St Peter and St 
Paul at the SE and NE corners respectively. There is 
a fine altar-piece, illustrating the incredulity of St 
Thomas, presented to the church by Charles X. of 
France. There are three buildings used as schools, with 
total accommodation for 7S1 pupils. The three consti- 
tute the Keith combined public school working on the 
graded system. There are also an endowed ladies' 
school, with accommodation for 50, and a school in 
connection with the Koman Catholic Church, with 
accommodation for 100 pupils. In the town or its 
immediate neighbourhood there are a distillery, a card- 
ing mill for the manufacture of blankets, etc., a tweed 
manufactory, a brewery, a manure work, an agricultural 
implement manufactory, and grain and flour mills, and 
there is also a large trade in dead meat. There is a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments. There are branches of the Union, 
Town and County, and North of Scotland Banks, and 
agencies of 25 insurance offices. There is a very large 
market stance at the S end of the town, and cattle 
markets are held on the first Friday of every month, 
except in June when the market is held on the first 
Wednesday o. s., and in September (Summer Eve 
Fair) when it is on the Wednesday after the first 
Tuesday o. s. There is a feeing market for married 
servants on the first Friday of March, and for 
others on the Friday before 26 May, on the second 
Friday of July (for harvest), and on the Friday before 
22 Nov. There is a weekly market every Satur- 
day. Sheriff and ordinary small debt circuit courts 
are held in Longmore Hall on the third Saturday of 
every month, and justice of peace courts when required. 
An effort is at present being made to organise a small 


provincial museum in connection with the active field 
club of the district. There are 5 inns, a public reading- 
room and library, an agricultural society, holding a 
spring and a summer show, a property investment com- 
pany, an auxiliary to the Bible Society, and a lodge of 
oddfellows (Strathisla). Pop. of New Keith and Old 
Keith (1841) 1804, (1851) 2101, (1861) 2648, (1871) 3602, 
(1881) 4329. Fife-Keith is to the W of Keith, and is 
separated from it by the Isla. The river is crossed by 
two bridges, one now disused, except by pedestrians, 
built in 1609, and the other at present in use, built in 
1770. A stone in the old bridge bears the inscription 
'Thomas Murray. Janet Lindsay, 1609,' the names 
being traditionally those of a worthy couple who lived 
close to the ford that formerly existed, and who were so 
distressed by the cries of persons in danger, that they 
devoted their savings to the erection of a stone bridge. 
Close by is the churchyard with a fragment of the old 
church, the rest having been removed in 1819. The 
new bridge has a stone with the inscription ' G. III. R. 
R. S. 1770.' Immediately below is the pool called 
'Gaun's Pot,' where witches were drowned, and into 
which they were thrown from a rocky bank on the S 
side. The village itself has a central square with a 
main street passing E and W, and others diverging in 
different directions. The Earl of Fife is superior. It 
was founded in 1817, and has of late years been making 
more rapid progress than of yore. The rate of feu-duty 
is £9 per acre. Pop. (1861) 897, (1871) 945, (1881) 
1196. See also Souter's Agriculture of the County of 
Banff (1S12) ; Sim's Legends of Strathisla (1st ed., Keith, 
1849 ; 2d, Keith, 1851 ; 3d, Elgin, 1862); A Walk from 
Keith to Rothiemay (Elgin, 1862) ; Sim's Old Keith and 
a Stroll to Oairnie (Keith, 1865) ; and Gordon's The 
Book of the Chronicles of Keith, Grange, etc. (Glasg. 

Keith, an ancient parish on the SW border of Had- 
dingtonshire, now forming the western district of 
Humbie parish. Keith and ancient Humbie, at the 
end of the 17th century, were called respectively Keith- 
Symmars aud Keith-Hundeby. Keith Water, formed, 
at the boundary with Edinburghshire, by the confluence 
of Earl Water and Salters Burn, runs 1J mile north- 
eastward, across ancient Keith parish, to a confluence 
with Humbie Water, 4J furlongs N of the present 
parish church. Keith House, once a seat of the Earls 
Marischal, and now the property of the Earl of Hope- 
toun, stands a little to the left of Keith Water, § mile 
WSW of that stream's confluence with Humbie Water 
and 3f miles NNE of Blackshiels. Once a fine old 
building, it acquired the timber used in its construc- 
tion in a gift from the King of Denmark towards the 
close of the 16th century, and has within its grounds 
remains of an ancient chapel and graveyard. Places 
called Keith, Keith Mains, and Upper Keith are within 
from 3 to 10 furlongs of Keith House ; and a fourth 
called Keith Hill lies 2| miles to the SSE.— Ord. Sur., 
sh. 33, 1863. 

Keithhall (Monkegy prior to 1700), a Donside parish 
of central Aberdeenshire, whose church stands 2 miles 
E by S of the post-town, Inverurie. Since 1754 com- 
prising two-thirds of the ancient parish of Kinkell, it is 
bounded N by Bourtie, NE by Udny, E by the Banff- 
shire or detached portion of New Machar and by Fin- 
tray, SE by Fintray, SW by Kintore, and W by Kintore, 
Inverurie, and Chapel of Garioch. Its utmost length, 
from N to S, is 4J miles ; its breadth, from E to W, 
tapering southward, varies between 1 furlong and 4J 
miles ; and its area is 7639 acres, of which 3SJ are 
water. The Ury winds 2J miles south-south-eastward 
along all the Inverurie boundary till it falls into the 
Don, which itself flows 3 miles south-south-eastward 
along all the Kintore boundary. Where it passes off 
from this parish, the surface declines to 153 feet above 
sea-level, thence rising to 395 feet at Cairn More near 
Balbithan, 45S near Cairnhill, and 616 at Selbie Hill on 
the northern border. The rocks include granite, trap, 
and gneiss ; and the soil along the streams is a fertile 
alluvial mixture of clay, loam, and sand, but elsewhere 



is mostly light and gravelly. Nearly two-thirds of the 
entire area are in tillage ; woods and plantations cover 
410 acres ; and the rest is either pastoral or waste. 
Antiquities, other than those noticed under Balbithan 
and Kinkell, are vestiges of three large cairns and of 
two or more stone circles ; and Kinniuck Moor, accord- 
ing to tradition, was the scene of a great encounter 
between the Scots and the Danes. Natives were Arthur 
Johnston (1587-1641), the eminent Latin poet, whose 
ancestors had held the estate of Caskieben for many 
generations, and Alexander Keith, D.D. (1791-1880), 
the well-known writer on prophecy ; but the historian, 
Bishop Gilbert Burnet (1643-1715), was born at Edin- 
burgh, though his father possessed the lands of Grimond. 
The estate of Caskieben (thereafter called Keithhall) was 
purchased from the Johnstons about 1662 by Sir John 
Keith, third son of the sixth Earl Marischal, who in 
1677 was created Earl of Kintore and Baron Keith of 
Inverurie and Keithhall. By the addition about 1700 
of a front and E wing to the older house, he rendered it 
a large and stately mansion, which stands near the 
Ury's left bank, amidst a nobly- wooded park, 1 mile E 
of Inverurie. His ninth descendant, Algernon-Haw- 
kins-Thomond Keith -Falconer, tenth Earl of Kintore 
and thirteenth Lord Falconer of Halkertoun (b. 1852 ; 
sue. 1880), owns 17,021 acres in Aberdeenshire, 1053 in 
Forfarshire, and 17,370 in Kincardineshire, valued at 
£15,802, £1562, and £16,909 per annum. (See Inglis- 
maldie. ) Two lesser proprietors hold an annual value 
of more, and 5 of less, than £100. Keithhall is in the 
presbytery of Garioch and synod of Aberdeen ; the living 
is worth £348. The parish church, built in 1772, and 
repaired in 1875, contains 500 sittings ; and the public 
school, with accommodation for 140 children, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 86, and a grant of 
£75, 5s. Valuation (1860) £4618, (1882) £8551, plus 
£59 for railway. Pop. (1801) 853, (1831) 877, (1861) 
933, (1871) 874, (1S81) 880.— Ord. Sur., shs. 76, 77, 

Keith-Hundeby. See Keith, Haddingtonshire. 

Keithick, an estate, with a mansion, in Coupar- Angus 
parish, Perthshire, 2 miles SW of the town. Its owner, 
Edward Collins "Wood, Esq. (b. 1841 ; sue. 1877), holds 
1787 acres in the shire, valued at £2827 per annum.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Keithinch. See Peterhead. 

Keithock House. See Brechin. 

Keithtown, a hamlet in Fodderty parish, SE Ross- 
shire, If mile W of Maryburgh. 

Kelburne Castle, a seat of the Earl of Glasgow in 
Largs parish, Ayrshire, within h mile of the Firth of 
Clyde, 1J mile N by E of Fair-lie, and 2 miles SSE of 
Largs town. Originally a square tower, it was described 
by Pont in the beginning of the 17th century as 'a 
goodly building, well planted, having very beautiful 
orchards and gardens ; ' and a hundred years later it 
was enlarged by David, first Earl of Glasgow. Special 
features of interest are a metal finial, with the crest of 
the Boyles surmounted by a thistle, and 'an ingeniously 
ornamented sun-dial, where every inch of surface is made 
to tell the story of time, and where its pinnacle, by a 
series of grooves, imitates the crocheting of Gothic 
architecture. ' The estate came into possession of the 
Earl's ancestors so early as the time of Alexander III. 
(1249-86), and gives the title of Viscount to George- 
Frederick Boyle, sixth Earl of Glasgow since 1703 (b. 
1825 ; sue. 1869), who holds 36,879 acres, valued at 
£36,714 per annum, viz., 24,968 in Ayrshire (£18,359), 
4453 in Renfrewshire (£7291), 5625 in Fife (£9085), and 
1833 in Buteshire (£1979). The park contains many 
fine old trees ; comprises much diversity of ground, with 
wooded braes and heights ; and includes a dark, wooded 
glen, where Clea Burn, rising at an altitude of 1280 feet, 
and running 2| miles north-north-westward and west- 
ward to the Firth, forms two romantic waterfalls, the 
lower one 50 feet high.— Ord Sur., sh. 21, 1870. See 
vol. iii. of Billings' Baronial Antiquities (1853). 

Kelhead, a place with lime-works in Cummertrees 
parish, Dumfriesshire, 3 £ miles WNW of Annan. 


Kellas, a hamlet in Murroes parish, Forfarshire, 5 
miles NNE of Dundee. 

Kellas, a village in Dallas parish, Elginshire, on the 
left bank of the Lossie, 6£ miles SSW of Elgin. 

Kellerstain, a mansion in Katho parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, J mile WNW of Gogar station. Its owner, James 
Maitland Logan White, Esq. (b. 1848 ; sue. 1877), holds 
357 acres in the shire, valued at £1352 per annum.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Kellie, an estate, with a decayed mansion, in Carnbee 
parish, Fife. The mansion, 3J miles NW of Pitten- 
weem, was once a grand castellated edifice, but is now 
occupied by a farmer. The estate, which belongs to 
the Earl of Mar and Kellie (see Alloa), contains Kellie 
Law (500 feet) and Kellie coal mine, comprising two 
main seams of cherry coal respectively 7 and 5 feet 
thick.— Ord. Sur., sh. 41, 1857. 

Kelloe, a mansion in Edrom parish, Berwickshire, on 
the left bank of Blackadder "Water, 1J mile SSE of 
Edrom station. Its owner, George Charles Fordyce- 
Buchan, Esq. (b. 1867 ; sue. 1871), holds 824 acres in 
the shire, valued at £2122 per annum. Between the 
mansion and the station is the hamlet of Kelloe-Bastile. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 26, 1864. 

Kello Water, a mountain rivulet of Sanquhar parish, 
NW Dumfriesshire. Rising upon the northern slope 
of Blacklorg Hill at an altitude of 1980 feet, it runs 
2J miles north-north-eastward along the boundary with 
New Cumnock in Ayrshire, and then 5| miles east- 
north-eastward along the Kirkconnel border, till, after 
a total descent of 1480 feet, it falls into the Nith at a 
point 2£ miles WNW of Sanquhar town. It is well 
stocked with trout. — Ord. Sur., sh. 15, 1864. 

Kells, a parish in Glenkens district, Kirkcudbright- 
shire, containing the royal burgh of New Galloway. 
It is bounded NW and N by Carsphairn, E by Dairy, 
Balmaclellan, and Parton, S by Balmaghie, and SW and 
W by Girthon and Minnigaff. Its utmost length, from 
NW to SE, is 15 J miles ; its breadth varies between lg 
and 9 J miles; and its area is 49,3761 acres, of which 
794| are water. The Water of Ken winds 14g miles 
south-south-eastward along all the eastern boundary, 
broadening to 3J furlongs in Loch Ken, below which 
it joins the Dee ; and the Dee itself, from £ mile below 
its efflux from Loch Dee, flows 18J miles east-south- 
eastward along the south-western and southern bor- 
der, and traverses triangular Stroan Loch (4 x 2f 
furl. ; 225 feet). Pulmaddy Burn runs 6g miles east- 
by-southward along the northern boundary to the Ken, 
whose principal affluent from the interior is Pul- 
harrow Burn, running 5{f miles east-south-eastward out 
of Loch Harrow (3 x l| furl. ; 850 feet). Two other 
lakes, communicating with Pulharrow Burn, are Lochs 
Dungeon (6x2 furl. ; 1025 feet) and Minnoch (2 x 1J 
furl. ; 870 feet). The surface is everywhere hilly or 
mountainous, sinking to close on 100 feet above sea- 
level at the SE corner of the parish, where the Ken falls 
into the Dee, and thence rising north-westward to 1066 
at Cairn Edward, 1616 at Cairnsmore or Blackcraig of 
Dee, 1248 at Bennan, 2446 at Meikle Millyea, 2350 at 
Millfire, and 2668 at Corserine — heathy summits these 
of the Rhynns of Kells that command a magnificent 
view. The entire tract along the Ken is eminently 
beautiful, exhibiting in its upper parts a reach of 
narrow vale, flanked and overlooked by grassy or wooded 
slopes, and by romantic ravines and hills, and expand- 
ing in its lower part, especially along Loeh Ken, into 
a fertile alluvial flat, screened and overhung by parks 
and verdant uplands. Much of the interior, to the 
S of the Rhynns, is supposed to have been a hunt- 
ing-ground, first of the Lords of Galloway, afterwards 
of the Kings of Scotland. It retains some stunted 
remains of an ancient and very large forest, and includes 
the two farms of Upper and Nether Forest, patches of 
wood called the King's Forest, and a large meadow, the 
King's Holm. Granite is a predominant rock ; excellent 
slates were formerly quarried in the NE ; iron ore 
abounds in one locality ; and lead ore occurs on Glenlee 
and Kenmure estates, and was formerly mined. The 


soil of the alluvial tract along the Ken is so rich, that, 
in the days prior to modern agricultural improvement, 
it bore crops for twenty-five successive years without 
other manure than the Ken's natural deposits, but else- 
where the soil is exceedingly various, and graduates 
towards the hills and mountains into worthless moor 
or bare rock. The chief antiquities are a large rocking 
stone on one of the heights of the Rhynns, vestiges of a 
defensive wall extending southward through great part 
of the parish, and a stone in the churchyard to the 
memory of Adam M'Whan, who was shot for his adher- 
ence to the Covenant in 1685. Natives were Thomas 
Gordon (1690-1750), political writer ; Robert Heron 
(1764-1S07), a calamitous author; and the Rev. William 
Gillespie (1776-1825), a minor poet and minister of 
Kells from 1801 till his death. Mansions, noticed 
separately, are Kenmure Castle, Glenlee, Balliugear, 
Garroeh, Stranfasket, and Knocknalling ; and 4 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
4 of between £100 and £500, 2 of from £50 to £100, and 
13 of from £20 to £50. Kells is in the presbytery of 
Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway ; the living is 
worth £340. The parish church, 4 mile N by W of 
New Galloway, is a neat stone building of 1822, with a 
square tower and 560 sittings ; and Kells public school, 
with accommodation for 193 children, had (1881) an 
average attendance of 123. and a grant of £115, 15s. 
Valuation (1S60) £6831, (1883) £10,253, 12s. 6d. Pop. 
(1801) 771, (1831) 1128, (1861) 1170, (1871) 1007, (1881) 
970.— Ord. Sur., shs. 9, 8, 5, 1857-63. 

Kelly, a rivulet of E Aberdeenshire, running 5J miles 
east-north-eastward, chiefly along the boundary between 
Methlick and Tarves parishes, and falling into the 
Ythan 1J mile ENE of Haddo House. One of the 
Crown jewels, a highly valuable pearl, is said to have 
been found at the mouth of this stream, and presented 
in 1620 to James VI.— Ord. Sur., sh. 87, 1876. 

Kelly Castle, a grey old tower in Arbirlot parish, For- 
farshire, on a high rock above the right bank of Elliot 
Water, 3 miles WSW of Arbroath. Held by the Auchter- 
lonies from 1444 till 1630, it came in 1679 to the Earl 
of Panmure, an ancestor of the Dalhousie family. 
Now uninhabited, yet scarcely ruinous, it presents a 
picturesque aspect. Near it stands modern Kelly Castle. 
—Orel Sur. , sh. 49, 1865. 

Kelly House, a plain, white mansion, with beautiful 
pleasure-grounds, in Innerkip parish, W Renfrewshire, 
within 3 furlongs of the Firth of Clyde and | mile NNE 
of Wemyss Bay station. The estate was held by the 
Bannatynes from the latter half of the 1 5th century till 
1792, when it was purchased by John Wallace, Esq., 
whose son, Robert (1773-1855), represented Greenock 
from 1833 to 1845, and almost disputes with Rowland 
Hill the parentage of the penny post. Towards the 
close of his parliamentary career, he found himself 
forced to sell Kelly, which in 1S67 was purchased by 
the eminent chemist, Dr James Young, F.R.S. (1811-83), 
owner in Renfrew and Ayr shires of 740 acres, valued at 
£993 per annum. (See also Dukeis.) He added a 
large picture gallery to the house, which was built 
by Mr John Wallace in 1793, and much enlarged 
by his son. One of Livingstone's early friends, Dr 
Young in 1875 entertained for a fortnight the two 
African servants of the great explorer ; and in the 
grounds here they reared a facsimile of the hut they 
had built for their master to die in. Kelly Burn, rising 
at an altitude of 880 feet above sea-level, hurries 3 j 
miles west-south-westward to the Firth, chiefly along 
the Ayrshire boundary. It flows through a narrow 
beautifully wooded glen, overhung by hills 700 to 900 
feet high ; and gives to these hills the name of Kelly- 
burn Braes, sung in a quaint old satirical song, which 
was altered by Burns. — Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 1873. 

Kelso, a Border town and parish of NE Roxburgh- 
shire. The town, which lies, at an altitude of from 100 
to 142 feet above sea-level, on the left or N bank of the 
curving Tweed, opposite the Teviot's influx, by road is 
8f miles WSW of Coldstream, 42 SE of Edinburgh, and 
f mile N by W of Kelso station on a branch of the 


North British, this being 52 miles SE of Edinburgh, 
114 E by N of St Boswells, and 23 WSW of Berwick - 
on-Tweed. From the station one enters across the fine 
five-arch bridge, erected by Rennie in 1800-3 at a cost 
of £17,802. This, the first bridge with the elliptic 
arch, may be said to have marked a new era in bridge- 
building, and was taken by its architect as his model 
for Waterloo Bridge in London. With a length of 494 
feet including the approaches, it has a level roadway 
23J feet wide and 30 feet above the ordinary level of 
the river. Its arches, each 72 feet in span, are separated 
by piers of 14 feet in thickness ; and on either side it 
exhibits six sets of double three-quarter Roman-Doric 
columns, surmounted by a block cornice and balustrade. 
The former bridge, built in 1754 at a cost of £3000, and 
swept away by the great flood of 26 Oct. 1797, is alluded 
to in Burns's Border Tour, under date 9 May 1787 : — 
' Breakfast at Kelso ; charming situation ; fine bridge 
over the Tweed ; enchanting views and prospects on 
both sides of the river, particularly the Scotch side.' 
And one learns that the poet was so impressed with the 
scene, that he reverently uncovered, and breathed a 
prayer to the Almighty. Scott, too, has left on record 
how he could trace hither the awakening within him- 
self ' of that love of natural scenery, more especially 
when combined with ancient ruins or remains of our 
fathers' piety or splendour, which ' was in him ' an in- 
satiable passion ; ' and Leyden's Scenes of Infancy depicts 
this landscape with a truth that attests the power of its 
charm : — 

' Teviot, farewell ! for now thy silver tide 
Conimix'd with Tweed's pellucid stream shall glide ; 
But all thy green and pastoral beauties fail 
To match the softness of thy parting vale. 
Bosom'd in woods, where mighty rivers run, 
Kelso's fair vale expands before the sun : 
Its rising downs in vernal beauty swell, 
And, fringed w-ith hazel, winds each flowery dell ; 
Green spangled plains to dimpling lawns succeed, 
And Tempe rises on the banks of Tweed : 
Blue o'er the river Kelso's shadow lies, 
And copse-clad isles amid the waters rise ; 
Where Tweed her silent way majestic holds, 
Float the thin gales in more transparent folds.' 

Fine as the view is from Kelso Bridge, that from 
Chalkheugh Terrace is almost finer — the meeting of the 
Teviot and the Tweed ; St James's Fair Green ; March- 
mound, with the fragment of Roxburgh Castle ; Spring- 
wood Park ; the Abbey ; Floors Castle, its lawns and 
woods ; the Waterloo Monument on distant Peniel- 
heugh ; and, further still, the triple height of Eildon. 
Nor is Kelso itself unworthy of its environs, comprising 
a spacious central square, four streets diverging thence 
in different ways, two smaller squares, and a number of 
minor cross streets, whose airiness, neatness, and well- 
to-do houses, roofed with blue slate, and built of a light- 
coloured stone, entitle it still, as in 1547, to Patten's 
description — 'a pretty market- town. ' The Kelso, how- 
ever, of Patten's day extended beyond the western limits 
of the present town into ground included now in the 
park of Floors Castle, where the site of its cross may 
still be traced. Long a mere village, a sort of suburb 
to Roxburgh on the opposite side of the Tweed, it rose 
eventually to the condition of a small town, and came 
to be known as Wester Kelso. Another small town, 
distinguished as Easter Kelso, with Kelso Abbey for its 
nucleus, was gradually extended westward into junction 
with Wester Kelso, and, on the destruction of Roxburgh 
in 1460, succeeded that ancient and important burgh as 
a centre of trade and of political and social influence on 
the Eastern Border. The great conflagration of March 
16S4 reduced Wester Kelso to ashes ; but it was at its 
cross, on 24 Oct. 1715, that the Old Chevalier was pro- 
claimed, amid shouts of ' No union ! no malt tax ! no 
salt tax ! ' 

The gas company was started in 1831 ; but on 5 Feb. 
1818 the fishmonger's shop in Bridge Street, formerly 
office of the Kelso Chronicle, and tenanted then by an in- 
genious coppersmith, was lighted with gas, this being 
its earliest introduction to Scotland. In 1866, under 
the direction of Mr Brunlees, C.E., a native of Kelso, 



the town was drained, and a gravitation water supply 
pumped by steam from the Tweed, at a cost of £7000. 
The Town Hall, on the E side of the Market Place, is a 
tetrastyle Ionic edifice of 1816, with a piazza basement 
and a cupola. The Corn Exchange, in the Wood 
Market, was built by subscription at a cost of £3000 in 
1856 from designs by Mr Cousins. Tudor in style, it 
measures 124 by 57 feet, contains 71 stalls, and is some- 
times used for lectures, concerts, and balls. The parish 
church, near the abbey, built in 1773, and much altered 
in 1823 and 1833, is an octagonal structure, containing 
1314 sittings, and has ' the peculiarity of being without 
exception the ugliest of all the parish churches in Scot- 
land, but an excellent model for a circus.' The North 
quoad sacra parish church, a Gothic building, with 750 
sittings and a conspicuous tower, was erected in 1837 at 
a cost of £3460 for the Establishment, to which it 
reverted in 1866, after having for twenty-three years 
belonged to the Free Church. The present Free church, 
on the E side of Roxburgh Street, facing the Tweed, 
was built in 1865-67 at a cost of £6000 for Horatius 
Bonar, D.D., the well-known hymn- writer, who, or- 
dained at Kelso in 1837, was a minister there for 
upwards of thirty years. Decorated in style, with 750 
sittings and a lofty spire, it is not unlike the Barclay 
Church at Edinburgh, and forms a striking feature in 
the landscape. Other places of worship are East Free 
church (1844, remodelled in 1883 ; 500 sittings), the 
First U.P. church (17S8 ; 950 sittings), the East U.P. 
church (1793, remodelled in 1877 ; 475 sittings), the 
Baptist chapel (1878 ; 350 sittings), St Andrew's Epis- 
copal church (1868; 214 sittings), and the Roman Catholic 
church of the Immaculate Conception (1858 ; 230 sit- 
tings). The last succeeded a cottage chapel, burned by 
a mob on 6 Aug. 1856 ; while St Andrew's, a Geometric 
Gothic structure, near the Tweed's bank above the 
bridge, superseded a chapel of 1756, whose congregation 
dated from the Revolution. Kelso High School, at the 
E end of the town, is a handsome red sandstone edifice 
of 1877-78, and comprises a large hall 70 feet long, with 
class-rooms attached, and dormitories above for 30 
boarders. It has higher-class, middle, and elementary 
departments, and is conducted by a rector and 6 
assistants. At the old grammar school, adjoining the 
abbey, Sir Walter Scott in 1783 was the six months' 
school-fellow of James and John Ballantyne ; its site is 
now occupied by a fine new public school (1879). There 
are also the Duchess of Roxburghe's school (1817), the 
Bowmont Street infant school (1880), and two young 
ladies' seminaries. 

Shedden Park, at the E end of the town, was pre- 
sented to the inhabitants in 1851 by the late Mrs 
Robertson of Ednam House, and took its name in memory 
of her nephew, Robert Shedden (1820-49), who perished 
in the search for Sir John Franklin. Comprising an 
area of fully 8 acres, it adds greatly to the attractions 
and amenity of Kelso ; is maintained from the rental of 
a number of dwelling-houses and gardens, given by Mrs 
Robertson for that and for other benevolent purposes ; 
and has a handsome entrance gateway, erected by public 
subscription, in gratitude for the gift. Immediately 
beyond is the beautiful cemetery, the ground for which 
was gifted to the town by the late Duke of Roxburghe. 
Kelso Library, a handsome edifice in Chalkheugh Ter- 
race, overlooking the Tweed, and commanding a very 
beautiful view, contains a valuable collection of books, 
first formed in 1750, and now comprising over 7000 
volumes, the most interesting of which is the identical 
copy of Percy's Reliques that entranced the boyhood of 
Sir Walter Scott. The adjoining Tweedside Physical 
and Antiquarian Society's Museum (1834), with frontage 
towards Roxburgh Street, is a massive two-story build- 
ing ; contains a fine collection of stuffed birds of the dis- 
trict, some portraits, relics of Sir Walter Scott, etc. ; 
and is open free to the public on Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday. The Dispensary, occupying a healthy and 
airy site in Roxburgh Street, was founded in 1777, and 
enlarged and provided with baths in 1818. The Union 
Poorhouse (1853), which has had on average of 10 years 


20 inmates, is a neat and spacious building, with ac- 
commodation for 70 inmates, and is situated in the 
' Tannage ' field, to the N of the North Parish church. 
The Parochial Board offices are in Bowmont Street, to 
the W of the Poorhouse. The number of paupers upon 
the roll is generally about 100, and the assessment 
is at present Is. 7d. per £, raising a total of over 
£2000. Amongst other institutions are the Billiard and 
Reading-room (1855), the New Billiard and Reading- 
room (1852), the Mechanics Institute (1866); the Border 
Union Agricultural Society, established as the Border 
Society in 1812, united with the Tweedside Society in 
1820, and yearly holding a stock and sheep show on 
5 Aug., a bull show in spring, and a great sale of 
Border Leicester and Cheviot rams in September ; an 
Association for the Analysing of Manures and the Test- 
ing of Seeds (among the first of the kind instituted in 
Scotland) ; the Horticultural Society, under the patron- 
age of the Duke of Roxburghe, and holding a great show 
in September ; the Poultry Exhibition (1881), a Dog 
Society (18S3), a Cycling Club (1883), the Total Abstin- 
ence Society (1862), three Good Templar lodges, and a 
Rechabite tent ; two lodges of Freemasons (1815), 
Foresters (1845), and Oddfellows (1841) ; the Choral 
Union (1S64), the Cricket Club (1850), the Border Cricket 
Club (1854), the Bowling Club (1818), the Quoiting Club 
(1851), the Curling Club (1790), the Angling Association 
(1859), and the Border Racing Club (1854). The Kelso 
races are held annually for two days in the beginning of 
October on a racecourse 9 furlongs N of the town, 
which, formed in 1822 out of what was once a morass, 
is perhaps the finest in Scotland ; and the Border 
steeplechases are run in April partly on the racecourse. 
Kelso has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, insurance, and railway telegraph departments, 
branches of the Bank of Scotland, and of the British 
Linen Co., Commercial, National, and Royal banks, a 
National Security savings' bank (1849), offices or agencies 
of 20 insurance companies, the Cross Keys (1760) and 5 
other hotels, and 2 weekly newspapers, the Wednesday 
Conservative Kelso Mail (1797) and the Liberal Friday 
Kelso Chronicle (1S32). A weekly general and corn 
market is held on Friday, a fortnightly auction stock 
sale on Monday ; and the following is a list of the fairs — 
horses, second Friday of March ; wool, second Friday of 
July ; St James's Fair, of very ancient origin, and long 
of great importance, but now little else than a pleasure 
fair, held on the Friar's Haugh, on the right bank of 
the Tweed, opposite Floors Castle, 5 Aug. , or if a Sunday, 
the Monday following ; tups, second Friday of Septem- 
ber ; cattle and ewes, 24 Sept., or if a Sunday, the 
previous Saturday ; hinds and herds hiring, first Friday 
of March ; shearers' port, every Monday during harvest ; 
young men's and women's hiring, first Friday of May 
and November. The sale of corn in the weekly market 
is very great ; and that of Border Leicester rams at the 
September fair is greater than at any other mart in the 
kingdom, viz., from 1405 to 1573 in the four years 
1879-82, when the highest price reached was £160 in 
1879 for a ram of Lord Polwarth's reariug. Formerly 
Kelso was famous for its shoes, its leather, its blue 
bonnets, and the produce of its handloom-weavers ; 
later it ranked second only to Dumfries in pork-curing ; 
but now the town mainly depends on its coach-building 
establishments, fishing-tackle manufactories, cabinet and 
upholstery works, duty-free warehouses for wines and 
spirits, extensive nursery gardens, corn, manure, and 
saw mills, agricultural machinery, iron foundry, and 
Wooden woollen-mills, whose trade in tweeds, blankets, 
and plaidings has much revived since 1880. The 
original Chronicle, published by 'Blackneb' Palmer 
from 1783* to 1803, with its antidote, the existing 
Mail, started by James Ballantyne in 1797, was among 
the earliest Scottish newspapers, its only provincial 
senior being the Aberdeen Journal (1748). Palmer was 

* Kelso can boast of having had a newspaper published in it at 
least weekly for upwards of a hundred years, the centenary of the 
founding of the newspaper press in the town having occurred in 
February, 1S83. 


printing books as early as 1782, one large volume, 
noteworthy for its typography, being still not seldom 
met with in the private libraries in the town ; and 
from the Ballantyne press here the two first volumes 
of Scott's Border Minstrelsy came out in 1802, towards 
the close of which year James Ballantyne removed to 
Edinburgh. 'When the book appeared, the imprint 
" Kelso " was read with wonder by connoisseurs of typo- 
graphy, who had probably never heard of such a place, 
and were astonished at the specimen of handsome print- 
ing which so obscure a town had produced : it was re- 
ceived with the exclamation, "What a beautiful book !'" 
(History of the Ballantyne Press, Edinb. 1871). Kelso's 
printing traditions have since been worthily maintained 
by Messrs Rutherfurd, among whose publications may 
be noticed Hunter's History of Coldingham (1858), the 
Southern Counties Register (1866), the Border Almanac 
(1867, etc.), Stoddart's Songs of the Seasons (1874), the 
Autobiography of John Younger (1882), four or five 
works by the Rev. John Thomson, Hawick, and the 
centenary edition of the poetical works of Dr John 
Leyden. They also issued some of Dr Bonar's works, 
including the once celebrated Kelso Tracts, which 
were the first of his productions to bring him into 
notice as an author. 

A free burgh of barony since 1634, and a police burgh 
under the General Police and Improvement Act (Scot- 
land) of 1S61, the town is governed by a chief magistrate, 
2 junior magistrates, and 9 other police commissioners. 
Police courts are held as occasion requires ; sheriff small 
debt courts on the Fridays after the second Mondays of 
February, April, June, and December, and after the 
last Monday of July and the last Tuesday of September; 
and justice of peace courts on the second Wednesday of 
every month. The police force since 1881 has been 
included in that of the county ; and the prison was 
closed in 1878. The municipal voters numbered 800 in 
1S83, when the annual value of real property amounted 
to £23,580, whilst the revenue, including assessments, 
is £2000. Pop. (1851) 4783, (1861) 4309, (1871) 4564, 
(1881) 46S7, of whom 2510 were females. Houses (1881) 
1085 inhabited, 23 vacant, 6 building. 

Of Kelso Abbey Dr Hill Burton writes, in Billings' 
Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities (1S52), that ' in 
the rich wooded vale where the Teviot meets the Tweed, a 
huge ruin, partly Norman and partly of the earlier pointed 
Gothic, frowns over the pleasant market town, more like 
a fortified castle than the residence of peaceful monks, 
devoted to unambitious repose. The massive tower of 
the building, with corner projections, which are rather 
towers than buttresses, has a great deal of the baronial 
in its character, and probably has a closer resemblance 
to a Norman castle than any other building in Scotland ; 
for, in the purely baronial remains in the North, there 
is no well-authenticated specimen of the Norman form. 
It will be seen that the history of this house has been 
too much in conformity with its warlike architecture, 
and that, situated so close to the dividing line between 
two fierce inimical nations, it had an unquiet career. 
One wonders, indeed, that after the perils and outrages 
it has incurred, so large a mass of it should still remain ; 
and we can see that there must have been sound judg- 
ment in the Norman builder who environed the spiritual 
brethren with such ample means of carnal defence. ' The 
minster, forming a Latin cross, with the head to the W, 
consisted of a large Galilee or ante-church, 23 feet square, 
in lieu of a nave ; an aisleless transept, 71 by 23 feet ; an 
aisled choir, 61 feet wide, and extending into a presby- 
tery and Lady chapel of indeterminate length ; and a 
central tower, 91 feet high and 23 square, surmounting 
the crossing. Thereof is left part of the W front, the 
transept, two bays of the choir, and the S and W sides 
of the tower. The two round-headed arches on the S 
side of the choir spring from massive piers with circular 
side pilasters and boldly projecting capitals ; but the 
two extaut tower arches, 45 feet high, are exquisite speci- 
mens of Early Pointed. The side walls have intersect- 
ing arcades, with rich ornamentation ; the shallow N 
porch (circa 1150), obliquely recessed, with an interlac- 


ing arcade and pediment above the arch, filled with a 
network pattern, has the character of a deep doorway. 
The western archway, half of which now is gone, is 
lavishly sculptured, and offers a striking example of the 
mixed richness and symmetry of Norman decoration. 
Nothing is left of the abbot's hall, the gatehouse, the 
dormitory, and other offices ; but the extant remains are 
sufficient to warrant Cosmo Innes' assertion that 'the 
beautiful and somewhat singular architecture of the 
ruined church of Kelso Abbey still gives proof of taste 
and skill and some science in the builders, at a period 
which the confidence of modern times has proclaimed 
dark and degraded ; and if we could call up to the fancy 
the magnificent abbey and its interior decorations, to 
correspond with what remains of that ruined pile, we 
should find works of art that might well exercise the 
talents of high masters. Kelso bears marks of having 
been a full century in building ; and during all that 
time at least, perhaps for long afterwards, the carver 
of wood, the sculptor in stone and marble, the tile- 
worker, and the lead and iron worker, the painter 
(whether of Scripture stories or of heraldic blazonings), 
the designer, and the worker in stained glass for those 
gorgeous windows which we now vainly try to imitate — ■ 
must each have been put in requisition, and each, in 
the exercise of his art, contributed to raise the taste and 
cultivate the minds of the inmates of the cloister. Of 
many of these works the monks themselves were the 
artists and artisans.' 

In 1113 David, Earl of Huntingdon, brought thirteen 
reformed Benedictine monksfrom the newly foundedabbey 
of Tiron in Picardy, and planted them on the banks of 
the Ettrick beside his Forest castle of Selkirk. In 1126, 
the year after David's accession to the throne, this 
Tironensian abbey of SS. Mary and John was translated 
from Selkirk to ' the place called Calkou,' and here its 
conventual church was founded on 3 May 1128, Rox- 
burgh then being in the zenith of prosperity. David, 
and all his successors down to James V. , lavished on 
Kelso Abbey royal favours. Whether in wealth, in 
political influence, or in ecclesiastical status, it main- 
tained an eminence of grandeur which dazzles the 
student of history. The priory of Lesmahagow and its 
valuable dependencies, 33 parish churches, with their 
tithes and other pertinents, in nearly every district (save 
Galloway and East Lothian) S of the Clyde and the 
Forth, the parish church of Culter in Aberdeenshire, all 
the forfeitures within the town and county of Berwick, 
several manors and vast numbers of farms, granges, 
mills, fishings, and miscellaneous property athwart the 
Lowlands, so swelled its revenues as to raise them to 
£3716 per annum. The abbots were superiors of the 
regality of Kelso, Bolden, and Reverden, frequent am- 
bassadors and special commissioners of the royal court, 
and the first ecclesiastics on the roll of parliament, 
taking precedence of all other abbots in the kingdom. 
Herbert, third abbot of Selkirk and first of Kelso, was 
celebrated for his learning and talent, and having filled 
the office of chamberlain of Scotland, in 1147 was trans- 
lated to the see of Glasgow. Arnold, his successor, 
in 1160, was made bishop of St Andrews, and in 1161 
the legate of the Pope in Scotland. In 1152 Henry, 
the only son of David, and heir-apparent of the throne, 
died at "Roxburgh Castle, and, with pompous obsequies, 
was buried in the abbey. In 1160 John, precentor oi 
the monastery, was elected abbot, and in 1165 he ob- 
tained from Rome the privilege of a mitred abbey for 
himself and his successors. Osbert, who succeeded him 
in 11S0, was despatched in 1182 at the bead of several 
influential ecclesiastics and others, to negotiate between 
the Pope and William the Lyon, and succeeded in obtain- 
ing the removal of an excommunication which had been 
laid on the kingdom, and in procuringforthe King expres- 
sions of papal favour. In 1215 Abbot Henry was sum- 
moned to Rome, along with three Scottish bishops, to at- 
tend the Fourth Lateran Council. In 1236 Herbert, who 
fifteen years before had succeeded to the abbacy, performed 
an act of abdication more rare by far among the wealthier 
wearers of mitres than among the harassed owners of 



diadems ; and, solemnly placing the insignia of his 
office on the high altar, passed into retirement. Edward 
I. of England, having seized all ecclesiastical property 
in Scotland, received in 1296 the submission of the 
Abbot of Kelso, and gave him letters ordering full resti- 
tution. In consequence of a treaty between Robert 
Bruce and Edward III., Eelso Abbey shared in 1328 
mutual restitutions with the English monasteries of pro- 
perty which had changed owners during the inter- 
national wars. In 1420 the abbot, having his right of 
superiority over all other abbots of Scotland, contested 
by the Abbot of St Andrews, by formal adjudication of 
the King was compelled to resign it, on the ground of 
the abbey of St Andrews being the first established in 
the kingdom. In 1493 Abbot Robert was appointed 
by parliament one of the auditors of causes and com- 
plaints. On the night after the battle of Flodden 
(1513) an emissary of Lord Hume expelled the abbot, and 
took possession of the abbey. In 1517 and 1521 Abbot 
Thomas was a plenipotentiary to the Court of England ; 
and in 1526 he was commissioned to exchange with 
Henryor his commissioners ratifications of thepeaceof the 
previous year. On 20 June 1523 the English demolished 
the vaults of the abbey and its chapel or church of St 
Mary, fired all the cells and dormitories, and unroofed 
every part of the edifice. Other inroads of the national 
foe preventing immediate repair or restoration, the 
abbej 7 , for a time, crumbled towards total decay ; and 
the monks, reduced to comparative poverty, skulked 
among the neighbouring villages. From 1536 till his 
death in 1558, James Stuart, the natural son of James 
V., nominally filled the office of abbot, and was the 
last who bore the title. The abbeys of Melrose, Holy- 
rood; St Andrews, and Coldingham were, at the same 
date as the abbey of Kelso, bestowed on James's illegiti- 
mate offspring; and, jointly w 7 ith it, they brought the 
royal family an amount of revenue little inferior to that 
yielded by all the possessions and resources of the Crown. 
In 1542, under the Duke of Norfolk, and again in 1545, 
under the Earl of Hertford, the English renewed their 
spoliations on the abbey, and almost entirely destroyed 
it by fire. On the latter occasion, it was resolutely de- 
fended by 12 monks and 90 other Scotsmen, but, cannon 
being brought up, a breach was opened, apparently in 
the conventual buildings. 'The assault was given to 
the Spaniards, but, when they rushed in, they found 
the place cleared. The nimble garrison had run to the 
strong square tower of the church, and there again they 
held out. Night came before they could be dislodged 
from this their last citadel, so the besiegers had "to 
leave the assault till the morning, setting a good watch 
all night about the house, which was not so well kept 
but that a dozen of the Scots, in the darkness of the 
night, escaped by ropes out at back windows and 
corners, with no little danger of their lives. When 
the day came, and the steeple eftsoons assaulted, 
it was immediately won, and as many Scots slain as 
were within"' (Hill Burton's Hist. Scotl., iii. 242, ed. 
1876). In 1560 the remnant of the brotherhood was 
expelled, and the abbey wrecked, by Reformers. Its 
vast possessions, becoming now Crown property, were 
in 1594 distributed among the favourites of James VI., 
who, by a charter of 1607, erected the abbacy into the 
lordship and barony of Halidean, comprising the town 
and lands of Kelso. Rudely ceiled over, with a thatched 
prison above, the transept served as the parish church 
from 1649 to 1771, when, part of the roof giving way 
during service one Sunday, the people ran out, expecting 
the fulfilment of Thomas the Rhymer's prediction that 
the kirk should fall at the fullest. In 1805 the ruins 
were cleared of unsightly additions ; and in 1866 they 
were placed in a state of thorough repair by the late 
Duke of Roxburghe. 

In the 12th century Kelso was known as C'alkou or 
Calchou, a name which Chalmers identified with Chalk- 
heugh ('chalk height'), a precipitous bank with strata 
of gypsum cropping to the surface ; but, according to 
Professor Veitch, its name was Calchvynyd in the old 
Cymric times. Of events not noticed under our history 


of the abbey and of Roxburgh, the earliest on record 
occurred in 1209, when, a Papal interdict being im- 
posed upon England, the Bishop of Rochester left his 
see, and took refuge in Kelso. Ten years later William 
de Valoines, Lord Chamberlain of Scotland, diea in the 
town. In 1255 Henry III. of England and his queen, 
during a visit to their son-in-law and daughter, Alex- 
ander III. and his royal consort, at Roxburgh Castle, 
were introduced with great pomp to Kelso and its abbey, 
and entertained, with the chief nobility of both king- 
doms, at a sumptuous banquet. In 1297 Edward I., at 
the head of his vast army of invasion, having entered 
Scotland and relieved the siege of Roxburgh, passed the 
Tweed at Kelso on his way to seize Berwick. Truces, 
in the years 1380 and 1391, were made at Kelso between 
the Scottish and the English kings. On the death of 
James II. by the bursting of a cannon at the siege of Rox- 
burgh Castle (1460), his infant son, James III. , being then 
with his mother in the camp, was carried by the nobles, 
in presence of the assembled army, to the abbey, and 
there crowned and treated with royal honours. In 1487 
commissioners met at Kelso to prolong a truce for the 
conservation of peace along the unsettled Border terri- 
tory, and to concoct measures pre lim inary to a treaty of 
marriage between the eldest son of James III. and the 
eldest daughter of Edward IV. The disastrous results 
of the battle of Flodden, in 1513, seem — in consequence 
of James IV. 's death, and of the loss of the protection 
which his authority and presence had given — to have, 
in some way, temporarily enthralled the town to Lord 
Hume, and occasioned, as we have already seen, the 
expulsion of the abbot from his monastery — the first 
of a series of events which terminated in the ruin of the 
pile. In 1515 the Duke of Albany, acting as regent, 
visited Kelso in the course of a progress of civil pacifi- 
cation, and received grave depositions respecting the 
oppressive conduct of Lord Hume, the Earl of Angus, 
and other barons. In 1520 Sir James Hamilton, march- 
ing with 400 men from the Merse to the assistance of 
Andrew Kerr, Baron of Fernieherst, in a dispute with 
the Earl of Angus, was overtaken at Kelso by the Baron 
of Cessford, then Warden of the Marches, and defeated 
in a brief battle. 

In 1522 Kelso, and the country between it and the 
German Ocean, received the first lashings of the scourge 
of war in the angry invasion of Scotland by the army of 
Henry VIII. One portion of the Eiiglish forces having 
marched into the interior from their fleet in the Forth, 
and having formed a junction with another portion 
which hung on the Border under Lord Dacre, the 
united forces, among other devastations, destroyed one- 
half of Kelso by fire, plundered the other half, and in- 
flicted merciless havoc upon not a few parts of the abbey. 
So irritating were their deeds, that the men of Merse 
and Teviotdale came headlong on them in a mass, and 
showed such inclination, accompanied with not a little 
power, to make reprisals, that the devastators prudently 
retreated within their own frontier. After the rupture 
between James V. and Henry VIII., the Earl of Huntly, 
who had been appointed guardian of the Marches, gar- 
risoned Kelso and Jedburgh, and in August 1542 set out 
from these towns in search of an invading force of 3000 
men under Sir Robert Bowes, fell in with them at 
Hadden Rig, and, after a hard contest, broke down 
their power and captured their chief officers. A more 
numerous army being sent northward by Henry, under 
the Duke of Norfolk, and James stationing himself 
with a main army of defence on Fala Moor, the Earl of 
Huntly received detachments which augmented his force 
to 10,000 men, and so checked the invaders along the 
Marches as to preserve the open country from devasta- 
tion. In spite of his strenuous efforts, Kelso and some 
villages in its vicinity were entered, plundered, and 
given up to the flames ; and they were eventually de- 
livered from ruinous spoliation only by the foe being 
forced by want of provisions and the inclemency of the 
season to retreat into their own territory. When 
Henry VIII. 's fury against Scotland was kindled anew 
about the proposed marriage of the infant Queen Mary 



and Prince Edward of England, an English army, in 
1544, entered Scotland by the Eastern Marches, plun- 
dered and destroyed Kelso and Jedburgh, and ravaged 
and burned the villages and houses in their neighbour- 
hood. This army having been dispersed, another 12,000 
strong, specially selected for their enterprise, and led 
on by the Earl of Hertford, next year trod the same 
path as the former invaders, and inflicted fearful devas- 
tation on Merse and Teviotdale. They plundered anew 
the towns of Kelso and Jedburgh, wasted their abbeys, 
and also those of Melrose and Dryburgh, and burned 100 
towns and villages. While Kelso was suffering the in- 
fliction of their rage, 100 men, as mentioned in our notice 
of the abbey, made bold but vain resistance within the 
precincts of that pile. The Scottish army shortly after 
came up, and took post at Maxwellheugh, intending to 
retaliate ; but they were spared the horrors of inflicting 
or enduring further bloodshed by the retreat of the 

In 1553 a resolution was suggested by the Queen 
Regent, adopted by parliament, and backed by the 
appointment of a tax of £20,000, leviable in equal parts 
from the spiritual and the temporal estates, to build a 
fort at Kelso for the defence of the Borders ; but it 
appears to have soon been dropped. In 1557 the Queen 
Kegent, having wantonly, at the instigation of the King 
of France, provoked a war with England, collected a 
numerous army for aggression and defence on the Border. 
Under the Earl of Arran, the army, joined by an 
auxiliary force from France, marched to Kelso, and 
encamped at Maxwellheugh ; but, having made some 
vain efforts to act efficiently on the offensive, was all 
withdrawn, except a detachment left in garrison at 
Kelso and Roxburgh to defend the Borders. Hostilities 
continuing between the kingdoms, Lord James Stuart, 
the illegitimate son of James V., built a house of defence 
at Kelso, and threw up fortifications around the town. 
In 155S the detachment of the army stationed at Kelso 
marched out to chastise an incursion, in the course of 
which the town of Duns was burned, came up with the 
English at Swinton, and were defeated. In 1561 Lord 
James Stuart was appointed by Queen Mary her lieu- 
tenant and judge for the suppression of banditti on the 
Borders, and brought upwards of twenty of the most 
daring freebooters to trial and execution ; and, about 
the same time, lie held a meeting at Kelso with Lord 
Grey of England for the pacification of the Borders. In 
1566, in the course of executing the magnanimous pur- 
pose of putting down by her personal presence the Border 
maraudings, from which she was wiled by her romantic 
and nearly fatal expedition to the Earl of Bothwell at 
Hermitage Castle, Queen Mary visited Kelso on her 
way from Jedburgh to Berwick, spent two nights in the 
town, and held a council for the settlement of some 
dispute. In 1569 the Earl of Moray spent five or sLx 
weeks in Kelso, and had a meeting with Lord Hunsdon 
and Sir John Foster, on the part of England. In 1570 
an English army entered Scotland in revenge for an in- 
cursion of the Lords of Fernieherst and Buccleuch into 
England, divided itself into two co-operating sections, 
scoured the whole of Teviotdale, levelled 50 castles and 
strengths and upwards of 300 villages, and rendezvoused 
at Kelso preparatory to its retreat. The Earl of Both- 
well, grandson to James V. and commendator of Kelso, 
made the town his home during the concocting of his 
foul and numerous treasons ; and during ten years suc- 
ceeding 1584 deeply embroiled it in the marchings and 
military manceuvrings of the forces with which, first his 
partisans, and next himself personally, attempted to 
damage the kingdom. 

Kelso, in 1639, made a prominent figure in one of the 
most interesting events in Scottish history — the repulse 
of the armed attempt of Charles I. to force Episcopacy 
upon Scotland. The Covenanting army of General 
Leslie, numbered variously at from 12,000 to 30,000 
men, rendezvoused at Duns, and, marching thence, 
established their quarters at Kelso. The King, at the 
head of his army, got intelligence at Birks, near Ber- 
wick, of the position of the Covenanters, and despatched 

the Earl of Holland, with 1000 eavalry and 3000 in- 
fantry, to try their mettle. General Leslie, however, 
easily repelled the Earl from Kelso, made a rapid con- 
centration of all his own forces, and next day, to the 
surprise of the royal camp, took up his station on Duns 
Law. The Covenanters of Scotland and the Parlia- 
mentarians of England having made common cause 
against Charles I., Kelso was made, in 1644, the depot 
of troops for reinforcing General Leslie's army in Eng- 
land. Next year the detachment under the Marquis of 
Douglas and the Earl of Airlie, sent by Montrose to 
oppose the operations of Leslie in the Merse, marched 
to Kelso on their way to the battle-field of Philiphaugh, 
where they were cut down and broken by the Cove- 
nanters. Two years later the town was the place of 
rendezvous to the whole Scottish army after their suc- 
cesses in England, and witnessed the disbandment of 
six regiments of cavalry after an oath had been exacted 
of continued fidelity to the Covenant. 

In 1645 Kelso was visited and ravaged by the 
plague. In 1648 a hundred English officers arrived 
at Kelso and Peebles, in the vain expectation of find- 
ing employment by the breaking out of another civil 
■war. On 22 Oct. 1715 the rebel forces of the Pre- 
tender — the Highlanders under Macintosh of Borlum, 
the Northumbrians under Mr Foster and Lord Derwent- 
water, and the men of Nithsdale and Galloway under 
Lord Kenmure— rendezvoused in Kelso ; and next day, 
being Sunday, the infamous Robert Patten preached to 
them at the great kirk on the text, ' The right of the 
first-born is his.' They formally proclaimed James 
VIII., and remained three days making idle demon- 
strations, till the approach of the royal troops under 
General Carpenter incited them to march on to Preston. 
In 171S a general commission of Oyer and Terminer sat 
at Kelso, as in Perth, Cupar, and Dundee, for the trial 
of persons concerned in the rebellion ; but here they 
had only one bill, and even it they ignored. In Nov. 
1745 the left of the three columns of Prince Charles 
Edward's army, on the march from Edinburgh into 
England, which was headed by the Chevalier in person, 
spent two nights in Kelso, and while here suffered 
numerous desertions. From November 1810 till June 
1814 Kelso was the abode of a body, never more than 
230 in number, of French prisoners on parole. The 
only other events that need be noticed are the tremen- 
dous floods of 1782, 1797, and 1831 ; the bridge riots of 
1854 ; and Queen Victoria's visit to Floors Castle, in 
Aug. 1867. 

Illustrious natives of Kelso have been the Rev. Win. 
Crawford (1676-1742), author of Dying Thoughts ; James 
Brown (1709-88), linguist and traveller ; the printers, 
James Ballantyne (1772-1833), and his brother John 
(1774-1821); Robert Edmonstone (1794-1834), artist; 
Sir William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. (1789-1874), en- 
gineer, who spent the first ten years of his boyhood 
here, and, beginning life as a labourer in the building of 
Kelso Bridge, was for weeks disabled by a stone falling on 
him ; and Lieut. James Henry Scott Douglas (1S57-79), 
of Springwood Park, who fell in the Zulu war. The 
Rev. James Melville M 'Culloch, D. D. , educational writer, 
was minister from 1832 to 1843 ; and Thomas Tod Stod- 
dart (1810-80), angler and poet, resided here from 1S36 
till his death. 'Beardie,' the Jacobite great-grand- 
father of Sir Walter Scott, long resided and died in a 
house still existing in the corn market of Kelso. The 
tomb containing his remains and those of others of his 
family is conspicuous in a detached portion of the 
churchyard near the abbey. 

The parish of Kelso, containing also the village of 
Maxwellheugh near the station, comprises, on the 
Tweed's left bank, the ancient parish of Kelso or St 
Mary, formerly in the diocese of St Andrews ; and, on 
the Tweed's right bank, the ancient parishes of Maxwell 
and St James, formerly in the diocese of Glasgow. It 
is bounded N by Stitchel and Ednam, E by Ednam and 
Sprouston, SE by Eckford, SW by Roxburgh, and 
W by Makerston and Smailholm. Its utmost length, 
from N by W to S by E, is 4 J miles ; its breadth varies 




between If and 3| miles ; and its area is 5542 acres, of 
which 153J are water. The Tweed, here a glorious 
salmon river, curves If mile east-north-eastward along 
the Roxburgh border, then 2 miles through the middle 
of the parish ; and the Teviot flows If mile north- 
north-eastward along the Roxburgh border, and next J 
mile through the interior, till it falls into the Tweed 
J mile above Kelso Bridge. The Teviot's average width 
is 200 feet, the Tweed's 440 ; but, above and below the 
bridge, the channel of the latter river is interrupted by 
two low islets — Kelso and Wooden Anas ; and, above 
Kelso Ana, it is ' bridled with a curb of stone ' — the 
long mill-cauld ascribed by tradition to Michael Scott's 
familiar. Eden Water runs 7 furlongs eastward along 
the northern boundary ; and Wooden Burn, falling into 
the Tweed 3J furlongs below the bridge, though only a 
rivulet, is noteworthy for its romantic ravine and its 
tiny but beautiful waterfall. Along the Tweed the 
surface declines to 98 feet above sea-level, thence rising 
northward to 289 feet near Sydenham, 324 near Stodrig, 
and 400 at Easter Muirdean, southward to 281 at South- 
field, 306 near Huntershall, 433 at Middle Softlaw, 
and 526 at the Eckford boundary. As seen from Sweet- 
hope Hill (731 feet), near Stichill House, the entire 
parish looks to be part of a broad, rich strath, a plain 
intersected by two rivers, and richly adorned with 
woods, but from the low ground along the Tweed near 
the town it shows itself to be a diversified basin, a 
gently receding amphitheatre, low where it is traversed 
by the rivers, but cinctured in the distance with sylvan 
heights. Trap rocks prevail in the higher grounds, and 
sandstone, shale, and marl-limestone in the vales. The 
soil on the banks of the rivers is a rich deep loam, in- 
cumbent on gravel ; in the north-western district is a 
wet clay ; and in the S is thin and wet, on a red 
aluminous subsoil. Enclosed plantations cover some 
260 acres ; a large extent of ground is disposed in the 
planted dells of Pinnacle Hill and Wooden, and in the 
splendid parks of Floors and Springwood ; 365 acres 
are in permanent pasture ; and all the rest of the land 
is either regularly or occasionally in tillage. Several 
antiquities of some note that once existed in the land- 
ward districts are now reduced to little more than the 
sites of a Roman tumulus and Bony Brae near 
Wooden, of the ancient churches of Maxwell and St 
James, and of a Maison-Dieu near the right bank of 
the Teviot. There is still a well-defined 'kaim' at 
Kaimknow, 1J mile N of Kelso. Mansions are Floors 
Castle, Springwood Park, Wooden House, Sydenham 
House, Broomlands, Edenside, Ednam House, Eden- 
bank, Pinnacle Hill, Rosebank, Tweedbank, Walton 
Hall, and Woodside, of which the first four are noticed 
separately. The Duke of Roxburghe owns more than 
one-half of the entire rental ; but 7 other proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 19 
of between £100 and £500, 48 of from £50 to £100, 
and 100 of from £20 to £50. The seat of a presbytery 
in the synod of Merse and Teviotdale, this parish is 
ecclesiastically divided into Kelso proper and North 
Kelso, the former a living worth £447. The public, 
the infant, and the Duchess of Roxburghe's school, 
with respective accommodation for 523, 219, and 177 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 220, 
140, and 129, and grants of £214, 19s., £93, and 
£108, 13s. Valuation (1864) £32,848, 14s. 4d., (18S2) 
£32,458, 19s. 4d. Pop. (1801) 4196, (1821) 4860, 
(1841) 5328, (1861) 5192, (1871) 5124, (1881) 5235, of 
whom 2782 were in Kelso proper and 2453 in North 
Kelso.— Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

The presbytery of Kelso comprises the old parishes of 
Ednam, Kelso, Linton, Makerston, Morebattle, Nen- 
thorn, Roxburgh, Sprouston, Stitchel, and Yetholm, 
and the quoad sacra parish of North Kelso. Pop. 
(1871) 12,3S3, (1881) 12,061, of whom 3241 were com- 
municants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. — The 
Free Church has a presbytery of Kelso, with 2 
churches in Kelso, and 8 in Coldstream, Eccles, Gordon, 
Makerston, Morebattle, Nenthorn, Westruther, and 
Yetholm, which 10 churches together had 1877 members 

in 1883. — The U.P. Church has a presbytery of Kelso, 
with 2 churches in Kelso, 2 in Jedburgh, and 5 in 
respectively Greenlaw, Leitholm, Morebattle, Stitchel, 
and Yetholm, which 9 churches together had 2788 
members in 1881. 

See James Haig's Topographical and Historical Account 
of the Town of Kelso (Edinb. 1825) ; Cosmo Innes' Liber 
S. Marie de Calchou ; Segistrum Cartarum Abbacie 
Tironensisde Kelso, 1113-1567 (Bannatyne Club, 2 vols., 
Edinb., 1846); and Rutherfurd's Guide to Kelso (Kelso, 

Keltie Burn, a rivulet of central Perthshire, rising at 
an altitude of 2200 feet above sea-level, and running 4£ 
miles south-south-eastward along the mutual border of 
Crieff and Monzie parishes, till, after a total descent of 
1970 feet, it falls into Shaggie Burn in Monzie Park, If 
mile N of Crieff town. At a point 9 furlongs above its 
mouth it tumbles over a smooth rocky precipice, 90 
feet high, into a pool, Spout Bay, and, going thence 
through a thickly-wooded dell, makes several leaps of 
about 10 feet, then works its way along a narrow rock- 
screened channel. An artificial footpath leads up its 
dell to Spout Bay, where a hermitage stands in such 
position as to command a full view of the cascade. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 47, 1869. 

Keltie Water, a rivulet of Callander parish, Perthshire, 
rising at an altitude of 2200 feet on the southern side 
of Stuc-a-chroin (3189 feet), adjacent to the meeting- 
point of Callander, Balquhidder, and Comrie parishes. 
Thence it ruus 8J miles south-south-eastward, and 2J 
south-by-westward along the Kilmadock border, till, 
after a total descent of 2000 feet, it falls into the river 
Teith in front of Cambusmore House, 2J miles SE of 
Callander town. See Brackland Falls. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 46, 38, 39, 1S69-72. 

Keltney Burn, a rivulet of Fortingall parish, Breadal- 
bane, NW Perthshire, rising at an altitude of 2700 feet 
above sea-level on the northern side of Cam Mairg. 
Thence it runs 5f miles east-by-northward to the boun- 
dary with Dull parish, next 3J miles south-south- 
eastward along that boundary, and falls into the river 
Lyon 1£ mile above that river's confluence with the 
Tay. It mostly traverses wild, rugged, romantic 
scenery ; and, in the vicinity of Coshieville inn, it 
makes a series of picturesque falls, the highest of them 
issuing from a dark narrow opening, and leaping 60 
feet over perpendicular rocks into a deep gloomy dell. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 55, 1869. 

Kelton, a village on the mutual border of Dumfries 
and Caerlaverock parishes, Dumfriesshire, on the left 
bank of the Nith, 3J miles SSE of Dumfries. It is an 
out-port of Dumfries for vessels unable to go further up 
the river ; and it has carried on a small amount of ship- 

Kelton, a parish of Kirkcudbrightshire, comprising 
the ancient parishes of Kelton, Gelston, and Kirk- 
cormack, and containing the post-town and station of 
Castle-Douglas, with the villages of Kelton Hill and 
Gelston. It is bounded N by Crossmichael, E by 
Buittle, SE by Rerwick, SW by Kirkcudbright, and 
W by Tongueland and Balmaghie. Its utmost length, 
from NNE to SSW, is 7| miles ; its breadth varies be- 
tween 7J furlongs and 5J miles ; and its area is 11,424| 
acres, of which 202J are water. Carlinwark Loch 
(6x3 furl. ; 145 feet) lies immediatelyS of Castle-Douglas, 
and sends off Carlinwark Lane 1J mile north-westward 
along the Crossmichael border to the Dee, which itself 
flows 6| miles south-south-westward along all the 
western boundary, and is fed from the interior by 
Mill, Black, Auchlane, and other burns. Along it, in 
the extreme S, the surface declines to less than 200 
feet above sea-level, thence rising to 500 feet at the 
Fell, 400 at Over Arkland, 1125 at Screel Hill, 675 at 
Dungy le Camp, and 300 at Kelton Hill, of which Screel 
Hill commands extensive and brilliant views. Silurian 
rocks are predominant ; soft argillaceous strata lie inter- 
posed with strata of hard compact greywacke ; porphyry 
occasionally occurs in veins or dykes ; granite is found 
in the N ; and ironstone of superior quality is plentiful, 


but has never been worked on account of the dearth of 
coal. The soil, generally thin, in some places is a fine 
loam, and in others, especially on the small conical 
hills, is a deep watery till. Mosses of considerable ex- 
tent are in various places, and exhibit remains of an 
ancient forest. About one-fourth of the entire area is 
under cultivation ; plantations cover some 630 acres, 
and the rest of the land is either pastoral or waste. 
The chief antiquities are remains of a Caledonian stone 
circle on Torrs Farm ; the Caledonian hill fort of 
Dungyle ; another ancient stone fort, 68 paces in 
diameter, at a short distance from that on Dungyle ; 
a Roman tripod found on Mid Kelton farm ; a sarco- 
phagus, 7 feet long, found in a tumulus near Gelston ; 
a number of curious small antiquities found in a morass 
on Torrs Farm and in Carlinwark Loch ; the Gallows 
Slote, on which the victims of feudal tyranny were tor- 
tured or executed, adjacent to the \V side of Carlinwark 
Loch ; a moat in the western vicinity of Gelston Castle ; 
and vestiges or ruins of the ancient churches of Kelton, 
Gelston, and Kirkcormack. The famous piece of ord- 
nance called Mons Meg, now in Edinburgh Castle, is 
believed to have been made in 1455 at Buchan's Croft, 
near the Three Thorns of Carlinwark. Mansions, 
noticed separately, are Carlinwark House, Dildawn, 
Gelston Castle, and Threave House ; and 8 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 11 of 
between £100 and £500, 23 of from £50 to £100, and 
60 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Kirkcud- 
bright and synod of Galloway, the parish since 1S73 
has been divided between Castle-Douglas quoad sacra 
parish and Kelton proper, the latter a living worth 
£338. Its church, If mile S of Castle-Douglas, was built 
in 1806, and, as restored in 1S79-80 at a cost of nearly 
£1S00, contains 450 sittings. Other places of worship 
are described under Castle-Douglas ; and, besides the 
three schools there, Gelston and Rhonehouse public 
schools, each with accommodation for 103 children, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 46 and 59, and grants 
of £53, 19s. and £44. Valuation (I860) £13,642, (1883) 
£20,613, 10s. 6d. Pop. (1S01) 1905, (1S31) 2877, 
(1861) 3436, (1871) 3222, (1881) 345S, of whom 966 
were in Kelton ecclesiastical parish. — Orel. Sur., sh. 5, 

Kelton Hill or Rhonehouse, a village in Kelton parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire, 2i miles SS\V of Castle-Douglas, 
under which it has a post office. It formerly had seven 
annual fairs, of which the June one was very famous as 
a horse fair. 

Kelty, a collier village in Beath parish, Fife, and 
Cleish parish, Kinross-shire, 7 furlongs AV of Kelty 
station on the Kinross-shire section of the North British 
railway, this being 5 miles SSE of Kinross. It has a 
Free church and a public school. Pop. (1871) 793, 
(1881) S60, of whom 752 were in Beath.— Orel. Sur., sh. 
40, 1S67. 

Kelvin, a river of Stirling, Dumbarton, and Lanark 
shires, rising in the great strath of the Forth and Clyde 
Canal at a point 3 miles E by N of Kilsyth, and 160 
feet above sea-level. Thence it flows 21 miles west- 
south-westward and south-south-westward, till it falls 
into the Clyde at Partick, the western suburb of 
Glasgow. It bounds the parishes of Kilsj'th, Cumber- 
nauld, Kirkintilloch, Campsie, Cadder, Baldernock, 
New Kilpatrick, Maryhill, Barony, and Govan, under 
which and Glasgow full details are given as to the 
towns, villages, and other features of its course. Fol- 
lowed pretty closely along its left side by the Forth and 
Clyde Canal, it is very slow and sluggish over the first 12^ 
miles, where it formerly was choked with aquatic vege- 
tation, and often dispread itself far and wide in a man- 
ner betwixt lake and morass. But it was straightened, 
deepened, and embanked ; and now it crawls along with 
all the appearance of a large ditch. For several miles 
it is one of the tamest lines of water in the kingdom ; 
but afterwards it has green and wooded banks ; further 
on it is fringed with luxuriant haughs, and overlooked 
by pleasant braes or hanging plains ; and all along, till 
near its entering its far-famed dell, it borrows much 


interest from the Kilsyth Hills and Campsie Fells, which 
flank the N side of its basin. The affluents which 
come down to it from these heights contribute the larger 
portion of its volume ; and at least Garvald Burn is 
entitled to rank as the parent stream. At Kirkintilloch, 
the Kelvin receives on the right hand the Glazert coming 
down from the Campsie Fells, and on the left Luggie 
AVater creeping in from a region of moors and knolly 
flats. But it still continues languid, and can boast no 
higher ornament for several miles than the luxuriant 
Balmore haughs. Below these it is joined on its right 
side by Allander Water, and passes into a total change 
of scenery. Its basin is henceforth a rolling surface of 
knolls, with no overhanging fells and few extensive 
prospects, but with intricate and endless series of wind- 
ing hollows, abrupt diversities, and charming close views. 
And here at Garscube, 5 miles NW of Glasgow, the 
Kelvin awakens into activity, and enters on Kelvin - 
grove. Its course thence to Partick lies generally 
along a dell of similar character to that of the North 
Esk between Hawthornden and Dalkeith, but with less 
brilliance and more diversity. Some parts contract into 
gorges, others expand into vale ; some wall in the water- 
course between steeps or precipices, others flank it with 
strips of meadow or shelving descents ; some are com- 
paratively tame and soft, while others are wild and harsh. 
But the dell, as a whole, is all feature, all character — 
most of it clothed with trees as thickly as a bird's wing 
with feathers — some parts streaked with cascades, and 
many picturesquely-studded with mansions, bridges, 
and mills. Its waters below Maryhill are intensely 
polluted by factories ; but they elsewhere contain trout, 
pike, perch, and roach, and were formerly frequented 
by salmon.— Orel. Sur., shs. 31, 30, 1867-66. 

Kelvingrove. See Kelvin. 

Kembaek, a parish in the Stratheden district of Fife, 
containing the conjoint villages of Dura-den, Blebo Craigs, 
and Kembaek Mills, 1J mile S of Dairsie station, and 
3h miles E of Cupar, under which there is a post office 
of Duraden. Bounded KW by Dairsie, N by Leuchars, 
NE by St Andrews, E and S by Ceres, and W by Cupar, 
it has an utmost length from E to W of 2| miles, a 
varying width of 7 furlongs and 2| miles, and an area 
of 2602 acres, of which 7| are water. The Eden winds 
3J miles north-eastward along all the Dairsie and 
Leuchars boundary ; and its affluent, Ceres Burn, flows 
1§ mile northward through Dura Den, partly along 
the Ceres boundary, but mainly across the middle of the 
parish. The surface declines along the Eden to less 
than 100 feet above sea-level, and rises thence to 547 
feet at Clatto Hill on the St Andrews border. The 
rocks, comprising trap, sandstone, ironstone, and shale, 
include a vein of lead-ore ; and the fossil fishes of their 
yellow sandstone have been fully noticed under Dura 
Den and the geology of Fife. The soil is variously 
strong heavy clay, deep able black loam, peat, gravel, 
and poor black sand ; and agriculture has been carried 
to high perfection, especially on the Blebo estate, where 
steam power has been employed for a good many years. 
About one-seventh of the entire area is under wood, 
nearly all the remainder being either in tillage or pas- 
ture. Mansions are Bleeo House, Dura House, Kem- 
baek House, and Piumgally ; and 4 proprietors hold each 
an annual value of £500 and upwards, 4 of between £100 
and £500, and 6 of from £20 to £50. Kembaek is in 
the presbytery of St Andrews and synod of Fife ; the 
living is worth £223. The parish church was built in 
1814 at a cost of £700. A public school, with accom- 
modation for 190 children, had (18S1) an average attend- 
ance of 74, and a grant of £67, 18s. Valuation (1866) 
£48S5, 18s., (18S3) £6554, 9s. Pop. (1S01) 626, (1831) 
651, (1861) 896, (1871) 1056, (1881) 853, of whom 380 
were in the three conjoint villages. — Orel. Sur., shs. 
48, 49, 41, 1857-68. 

Kemnay, a village and a parish of central Aberdeen- 
shire. The village stands near the right side of the 
river Don, close by Kemnay station on the Alford 
Valley branch of the Great North of Scotland railway, 
this being 4 miles "W of Kintore and 17| AVNW of 




Aberdeen, under which there is a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments. Occupying a pleasant slope and commanding a 
delightful view of the basin of the Don, with Bennochie 
beyond, it was a paltry hamlet down to 1858, but then 
rising suddenly into note in connection with the open- 
ing and working of neighbouring quarries, it has been 
so rebuilt and extended as to become one of the finest 
villages in the county, and now presents an entirely 
new and tasteful appearance, with cottages and semi- 
detached two-story houses, constructed of granite, roofed 
with blue slate, and adjoined by garden plots. The 
granite quarries, | mile to the N, were opened in 1858 
by the lessee, Mr John Fyfe, an Aberdonian, to whose 
genius and enterprise is owing their great success. 
More extensive than any others in the N of Scotland, 
and employing on an average 250 men all the year 
round, they are worked with aid of seven steam cranes, 
each capable of lifting ten tons, and of two of a novel 
type, devised by Mr Fyfe, and named Blondins, which 
lift smaller stones and rubbish with great despatch. 
The quarries have furnished the principal materials 
for the Thames Embankment and the Forth Bridge ; 
and produce curve stones, paving stones, and building 
stones, of light-greyish colour and close texture, in 
blocks occasionally 30 feet long, and weighing 100 tons. 

The parish is bounded N¥ by Chapel of Garioch, N 
by Inverurie, E by Kintore, SE by Skene, S by Cluny, 
and W by Monymusk. Its utmost length, from N by 
E to S by W, is 5J miles ; its utmost breadth, from E 
to W, is 2J miles ; and its area is 5154§ acres. The 
Don winds 5§ miles along the north-western and 
northern border ; and where it quits the parish, the 
surface declines to 195 feet above sea-level, thence 
rising southward to 400 feet near the quarries and 
500 at Lochshangie Hill. There are numerous springs 
of the finest water, by one of which, yielding nearly 
30, 000 gallons a clay, the village is supplied ; as by 
another of like flow, aided by a ram, are a number of 
dwelling-houses on the Quarry Hill. A low hillocky 
ridge, made up internally of rounded stones and gravel, 
and bearing the name of the Kaims, extends for about 
2 miles on the line of the river, and is evidently a 
moraine. Traces of glacier action are found on the 
surface of the Quarry Hill, when newly bared ; and 
within the radius of a mile around the village there are 
about a dozen erratic boulders of gneiss of huge di- 
mensions, supposed to have been brought down from 
Bena'an near the source of the Don. Granite is the 
predominant rock. The soil along the Don is a rich, 
deep, stoneless loam, and elsewhere is mostly a light 
mould, incumbent on sand or clay. A kistvaen was 
some years since accidentally uncovered by the plough ; 
and an ancient standing-stone exists, measuring 11 J 
feet from the ground, and 9 feet in mean girth. 
Kemnay House, to the S of the village, is a large old 
mansion with finely-wooded grounds ; its owner, the 
Kev. Alex. George Burnett (b. 1816 ; sue. 1847), holds 
4486 acres in the parish, valued at £3250 per annum. 
Two other proprietors hold each an annual value of 
more than £100 ; and there are also a good many feuars. 
Kemnay is in the presbytery of Garioch and synod of 
Aberdeen ; the living, including the value of the glebe, 
is under £200. The church, at the village, is of recent 
erection, and contains some 400 sittings. There is also 
a Free church ; and a public school, with accommodation 
for 355 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 
207, and a grant of £154, 8s. Valuation (1860) £2735, 
(1883) £5643. IPop. (1801) 583, (1831) 616, (1851) 680, 
(1861) 832, (1871) 1300, (1881) 1636.— Orel. Sur., sh. 
76, 1874. 

Kemp. See Camp. 

Kempoch. See Goitrock". 

Ken, a river of Glenkens district, Kirkcudbrightshire, 
rising between Lorg and Blacklorg Hills, at a point j 
mile ESE of the meeting-point of Ayr, Dumfries, and 
Kirkcudbright shires, and 1870 feet above sea-level. 
Thc-nce it winds 28J miles south-by-eastward, till, after 
a total descent of 1720 feet, it forms a confluence with 

the Dee, opposite Parton station. Over the last 4J 
miles of its course it expands into beautiful Loch Ken, 
which, with a varying width of 200 and 800 yards, is 
studded with four wooded islets, and partly fringed 
with plantations. Its principal affluents are the Black 
"Water, the "Water of Detch, and Pulmaddy, Pul- 
harrow, Earlston, Garpel, and Dullarg Burns ; and it 
separates the parishes of Carsphairn and Kells on its 
right bank from Dairy, Balmaclellan, and Parton 
parishes on its left. Its scenery, mountainous in the 
upper reaches, in the middle and the lower parts is a 
series of picturesque groupings of hill and vale ; and 
its waters contain salmon, sea-trout, river-trout, pike, 
and perch. About the middle of last century an enor- 
mous pike, 7 feet long and 72 lbs. in weight, was taken 
in Loch Ken ; the skeleton of its head is still pre- 
served in Kenmure Castle. — Orel. Sur., shs. 15, 9, 5, 

Kender, Loch. See Kinder. 

Kenedar. See King Edward. 

Kenleith, a farm in Currie parish, Edinburghshire, 
on the western slope of the Pentlands, f mile SE of 
Currie village. Here are vestiges of an old camp or 
entrenchment, said to have been formed to prevent a 
stealthy march upon Edinburgh through a narrow pass 
of the Pentlands. 

Kenloeh. See Kinloch. 

Kenloehaline Castle. See Aline, Loch. 

Kenlocheil. See Kinlocheil. 

Kenlochewe. See Kinlochewe. 

Kenlum, a hill (900 feet) in Anwoth parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire, 2J miles NW of Gatehouse-of-Fleet. 

Kenly Burn, a troutful rivulet of the E of Fife, 
formed by the confluence of Cameron, Wakefield, and 
Chesters Burns, and running 3g miles east-north- 
eastward through or along the borders of Dunino, St 
Leonards, St Andrews, and Kingsbarns parishes, till it 
falls into the sea midway between St Andrews city and 
Fife Ness. It is sometimes called Pitmilly Burn. — 
Orel. Sur., shs. 41, 49, 1857-65. 

Kenmore (Gael. ccan-Mlioire, 'Mary's headland'), a 
village and a parish in Breadalbane district, central Perth- 
shire. The village, 6 miles WSW of Aberfeldy, 17 NE by 
E of Killin, and 22 NNW of Crieff, crowns a gentle head- 
land, projecting into the lower or NE end of Loch Tay, and 
washed on the N side by the river Tay, which here, at its 
efflux from the lake, is spanned by a handsome five-arch 
bridge. A pleasant little place, with its two churches, 
its neat white cottages, and its close proximity to Tay- 
mouth Castle, it has a post office under Aberfeldy, a good 
hotel, an orphanage, coach and steamer communication 
with Aberfeldy and Killin, and fairs on the first Tues- 
day of March o. s., 28 June, 26 July, the Wednesday in 
October before Falkirk Tryst, the Friday in November 
before the last Doune Tryst, and 24 Dec. The view 
from the bridge is one of almost unrivalled loveliness ; 
and Burns, who came hither on 28 Aug. 1787, wrote 
over the chimney-piece of the inn parlour what Lock- 
hart pronounces among the best of his English heroics — 

' Admiring Nature in her wildest grace, 
These northern scenes with weary feet I trace ; 
O'er many a winding dale and painful steep, 
Th' abodes of covey'd grouse and timid sheep, 
My savage journey, curious, I pursue, 
Till famed Breadalbane opens to my view. 
The meeting cliffs each deep-sunk glen divides 
The woods, wild scatter'd, clothe their ample sides; 
Th' outstretching lake, emhosom'd mid the hills. 
The eye with wouder and amazement fills ; 
The Tay, meand'ring sweet in infant pride ; 
The palace, rising on its verdant side ; 
The lawns, wood-fring'd in Nature's native taste ; 
The hillocks, dropt in Nature's careless haste ; 
The arches, striding o'er the new-born stream ; 
The village, glittering in the noontide beam.' 

Wordsworth came hither, too, on 5 Sept. 1805, along 
with his sister Dorothy ; and she writes in her Journal 
— ' When we came in view of the foot of the lake, we 
perceived that it ended, as it had begun, in pride and 
loveliness. The view, though not near so beautiful as 
that of Killin, is exceedingly pleasing,' etc. 


The parish, containing also the villages of Acharn 
and Stronfearnan, comprises a main body and five 
detached sections, the area of the whole being 113J 
square miles or 72,542 acres, of which 5346i are water, 
and 32,S41J belong to the main body. This, bounded 
N by Fortingall, NE by Dull, S by Comrie, and on all 
other sides by fragments of Weem, Dull, Monzie, and 
Ellin, has an utmost length from NNE to SSW of 11 J 
miles, whilst its width varies between J mile and 9g 
miles. The Kiltyrie or largest detached section is parted 
therefrom merely by a strip of Weem (detached), 3 fur- 
longs wide at the narrowest, and, bounded W by Killin, 
NW by Fortingall, and on all other sides by fragments 
of "Weem and Killin, has an utmost length from NNW 
to SSE of S§ miles, with an utmost width of 5J miles. 
In the Kiltyrie section and the main body are included 
nearly all the waters of Loch Tay, which, lying at an 
altitude of 355 feet above sea-level, extends 14i miles 
north-eastward, and varies in width between h mile and 
9J furlongs, and which from its foot sends off the river 
Taj', winding 2f miles north-eastward till it passes off 
from the main body. From the shores of Loch Tay the 
surface rises southward to Creag Charbh (20S4 feet), 
Meall Gleann a' Chloidh (223S), *Creag Uigeach (2S40), 
Beinn Bhreac (2341), Creagan na Beinne (2909), and 
Creag an Fhudair (1683) ; northward to Meall nan Tar- 
machan (3421), and broad based, cairn-crowned *Ben 
Lawers (4004), where asterisks mark those summits 
that culminate on the confines of the parish. Three 
smaller lakes are Lochan a' Chait (3 x If furl. ; 24S0 
feet) and Lochan na Lairige (of x 1 furl. ; 1596 feet) on 
the north-eastern and western skirts of Ben Lawers, and 
Lochan Breaelaich (4xl;| furl. ; 1400 feet) to the S of 
Loch Tay. 

The Glenloohy or second largest section, with an 
extreme length of 8 miles from N by E to S by W and 
a varying width of 9 furlongs and 4J miles, is bounded 
SE and SW by Killm, and W, N", and E by fragments 
of Fortingall and "Weem. The Lochy, flowing out of 
tiny Lochan Chailinn (125S feet), has here a north- 
easterly course of 5f miles ; and the Lyon, issuing from 
Loch Lyon, winds 2J miles east-by-northward along all 
the northern boundary. This section is almost com- 
pletely rimmed by lofty mountains — *Beinn Dheiceach 
(3074), *Beinn Chaluinn (3354), *Creag Mhor (3305), 
and Beinn Heasgarnieh (3530). Lower down the Lochy 
either bounds or traverses, for lg and If mile, the two 
smaller sections of Tullieh (6| x 2§ miles) and Moir- 
lanich (1J x 1 mile), in the former of which sections the 
highest summits are Meall Ghaordie (3407 feet) on the 
northern, and Creag Mhor (2359) near the southern, 
boundary. Lastly the Glenqttaich section (4J x 1§ 
miles) is bounded or traversed for 1J mile by the Quaieh, 
includes a corner of Loch Freuchie (If mile x 3 J furl. ; 
8S0 feet), and rises northward to * Meall Dubh (2021 
feet), southward to *Meall nam Fuaran (2631). 

Such is the bare outline of the general features of this 
widely-dispersed Highland parish, whose beauties, anti- 
quities, and history are noticed more fully in our articles 
Acharn, Ben Lawers, Breadalbane, Tay, Tay- 
mouth Castle, etc. Mica slate is the predominant 
rock ; but gneiss, clay and chloride slate, quartz, and 
some varieties of hornblende slate are also plentiful, and 
beds of limestone occur in two or three places. The 
chloride slate, the quartz, and the limestone have been 
worked for building or other purposes. Lead, iron, and 
other ores exist in small quantities among the moun- 
tains. The soil of the arable lands is chiefly a light 
brownish loam, with a slight admixture of clay ; that 
of much of the hill pastures has a light and mossy 
character. At most, one-eighth of the entire area is in 
tillage ; nearly as much is under wood ; and the rest is 
pasture, moorland, mountain, and moss, whose fishings 
and shootings however are very valuable. The Earl of 
Breadalbane is almost sole proprietor, 1 other holding 
an annual value of more, and 1 of less, than £50. 
Giving off its Glenquaich section to the quoad sacra 
parish of Amulree, Kenmore is in the presbytery of 
Weem and synod of Perth and Stirling ; the living is 


worth £340. The parish church, at the village, is a 
cruciform structure of 1760, with 300 sittings and a 
tower at the E end. Other places of worship are the 
Free churches of Kenmore, Ardeonaig, and Lawers, and 
Taymouth Episcopal chapel, St James'. Five public 
schools — Acharn, Ardtalnaig, Fearnan, Kiltyrie, and 
Lawers — with respective accommodation for 118, 86, 50, 
51, and 93 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 74, 35, 26, 32, and 54, and grants of £87, 14s., £49, 
17s., £36, 18s., £36, 8s., and £65, 2s. "Valuation (1866) 
£11,064, lis. Sd., (1883) £11,216, 10s. 8d. Pop. (1S01) 
3346, (1831) 3126, (1861) 1984, (1871) 1615, (1881) 
150S, of whom 1152 were Gaelic-speaking, and 1432 
were in Kenmore ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., shs. 
55, 47, 46, 1869-72. 

Kenmuxe Castle, a seat in Kells parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire, 5 furlongs above the head of Loch Ken, 
and f mile S by E of New Galloway. It stands on a 
high, round, isolated mount, which, till one observes 
the rock that crops out on its S side, might be taken 
for artificial ; and it seems of old to have been sur- 
rounded by a fosse, supplied with water from the river 
Ken. Approached by a noble lime-tree avenue, and 
engirt by well-wooded policies and gardens with stately 
beech hedges, it forms a conspicuous feature in one of 
the finest landscapes in the South of Scotland. The 
oldest portion, roofless and clad with ivy, exhibits the 
architecture of the 13th or 14th, but the main build- 
ing appears to belong to the 17th, century. The 
interior is interesting, with its winding staircases, 
mysterious passages, and heirloom collection of Jacobite 
relics and portraits — the sixth Viscount Kenmure 
(painted by Kneller in the Tower of London), Queen 
Mary, James VI. (by Zuccaro), 'Young Lochinvar' 
(by Lely?), etc. "When or by whom the original por- 
tion of the pile was built, is a matter not known. In 
early times, and even at a comparatively recent date, it 
suffered much from the ravages of war, having been 
burned both in the reign of Mary and during the ad- 
ministration of Cromwell. Originally, it is said to 
have been a seat or stronghold of the Lords of Gallo- 
way ; and John Baliol is reported to have made it his 
frequent residence, nay even to have been born within 
its walls. On the other hand, the lands of Kenmure 
and Lochinvar are said to have been acquired in 1297 
from John de Maxwell by Sir Adam Gordon, whose 
sixth descendant was the first Earl of Huntly (see 
Gordon Castle), whilst his tenth, in the 3'ounger 
line, was created Viscount Kenmure. Thus the 
Gordons of Lochinvar or Kenmure claimed strictly 
the same stock as the Gordons of the north ; and, after 
settling down at Kenmure, they gradually acquired, by 
grant, purchase, or marriage, the greater part of Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. They were distinguished by the confi- 
dence of, and their attachment to, the Stuart sovereigns. 
Sir John Gordon of Lochinvar was a steadfast adherent 
of Mary, and ran serious hazards in her cause. In 1633 
his grandson, Sir John Gordon (1599-1634), was raised 
by Charles I. to the peerage under the title of Viscount 
Kenmure. This nobleman combined attachment to the 
house of Stuart with unflinching fidelity in the profes- 
sion of the Presbyterian religion ; and, much as he is 
known for the honours conferred upon him by Charles, 
he is greatly better known for his intimacy with John 
Welsh and Samuel Rutherford. In 1715, William, the 
sixth Viscount, took an active part in the Rebellion, 
and next year was beheaded on Tower Hill in London, 
entailing upon his family the forfeiture of the title. 
His descendants, however, having bought back the 
estates from the Crown, endeavoured, by serving in 
the army, to atone for their ancestor's error, and dis- 
tinguished themselves by patriotic concern for the 
interests of their tenants, and for the general welfare ; 
and, in 1824, they were restored by act of parliament 
to their ancient honours in the person of John Gordon 
(1750-1840), the forfeited Viscount's grandson. He 
was succeeded by his nephew, Adam, a naval officer, 
who displayed great gallantry on the American lakes 
during the war of 1813, and at whose death in 



1847 the peerage became extinct. Kenmure Castle 
passed to his sister, the Hon. Mrs Bellamy-Gordon, 
owner of 14,093 acres in the shire, valued at £4230 
per annum. John Lowe (1750-38), the author of Mary's 
Dream, was a son of the gardener at Kenmure Castle, 
at which Queen Mary is said to have rested in the 
course of her flight from Langside, and which was 
visited once by Robert Burns. — Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 
1863. See pp. 163, 174-177 of M. Harper's Rambles in 
Galloway (1876) ; and p. 302 of R. Chambers' Popular 
Rhymes of Scotland (edn. 1870). 

Kenmure House, a plain two-storied mansion in 
Barony parish, Nff Lanarkshire, 1 mile NNW of 
Bishopbriggs station. In 1806 Charles Stirling pur- 
chased the lands of Kenmure, adjoining his elder 
brother's estate of Cawder or Cadder, and built the 
greater part of the existing mansion, which he sold, 
with the estate, in 1816 for £40,000 to that same 
brother, Archibald. Kenmure was thus the birthplace 
of the latter's son, Sir William Stirling-Maxwell 
(1818-78). See Keir. 

Kennedy. See Castle-Kennedy. 

Kennet, a collier village, with a public school, in 
Clackmannan parish, Clackmannanshire, 1 mile ESE 
of Clackmannan town, and 1J SSW of Kincardine 
station. Kennet House, 1 mile SE of Clackmannan, is 
a handsome mansion of the beginning of the present 
century, which, commanding a charming view of the 
waters and screens of the Forth, is surrounded by 
gardens and plantations of great beauty, and contains 
a number of family portraits — Gen. James Bruce, 
Brigadier-General Alexander Bruce, Lord Kennet, &c. 
The estate was obtained from his father in 1389 by 
Thomas, a natural son of Sir Robert Bruce of Clack- 
mannan ; and his descendant, Alexander-Hugh Bruce 
(b. 1849), in 186S established his claim to the title of 
sixth Baron Balfour of Burleigh (cr. 1607), as fifth in 
female descent from the fourth Lord. He holds 3064 
acres in Clackmannan, Stirling, Fife, and Perth shires, 
valued at £5103 per annum. Thomas Boston (1676- 
1732), author of the Fourfold State, was tutor at Kennet 
in 1696-97.— Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. See pp. 63-65 of 
James Lothian's Alloa (3d ed. 1871). 

Kennethmont, a hamlet and a parish of NW central 
Aberdeenshire. The hamlet, Kirkhill of Kennethmout, 
stands 58S feet above sea-level and J mile WSW of 
Kennethmont station on the Great North of Scotland 
railway, this being 8 miles SSE of Huntly, 12J WNW 
of Inveramsay Junction, and 32f NW of Aberdeen. It 
has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, and 
railway telegraph departments, a cattle and sheep mar- 
ket on the third Monday of every month, and a hiring 
market on the third Monday of April. 

The parish, comprising the ancient parishes of Ken- 
nethmont and Christ's Kirk, is bounded N by Gartly, 
NE by Insch, SE by Premnay, S by Leslie, SW by 
Clatt, and W by Rhynie. Its utmost length, from E to 
W, is 6 miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 3| 
miles ; and its area is S472 acres, of which 3| are water. 
The Water of Bogie flows 2J miles north-by-eastward 
along all the Rhynie border ; and the Shevock, rising on 
the Moss of Wardhouse, has here a south-easterly course 
of 5g miles on or near to the northern and eastern 
boundaries ; so that the drainage belongs partly to the 
Deveron and partly to the Don. Along the Bogie the 
surface declines to 498, along the Shevock to 490, feet 
above sea-level ; and thence it rises to 1426 feet at 
Knockandy Hill and 1021 at the Hill of Christ's Kirk. 
The rocks include mica and clay slate in the N, trap 
and greenstone in the E, and syenite in the W ; and a 
chalybeate spring near the northern border enjoyed once 
high medicinal repute. The soil is extremely various, 
ranging from clay and loam to moss, but has been greatly 
improved within the last forty years by draining and 
manuring. Plantations cover a considerable area. At 
Ardlair and Cults are traces of two stone circles. Ward- 
house and Leith Hall, \\ mile NE and 1 mile WNW of 
Kennethmont station, are both old but commodious 
mansions ; and their owners, Carlos Pedro Gordon, Esq., 


K.M. (b. 1814; sue. 1866), and Col. Alex. Sebastian 
Leith-Hay, C.B. (b. 1819 ; sue. 1862), holds 13,427 and 
12,546 acres in the shire, valued at £6876 and £7916 per 
annum. Distinguished members of these two families 
have been Admiral Sir James Alex. Gordon, G.C.B. 
(178S-1S69), General Sir James Leith, G.C.B. (1763- 
1816), and Lieut.-Col. Sir Andrew Leith-Hay, K.H., 
M.P. (d. 1862); another native of Kennethmont was 
William Milne, D.D. (1785-1822), the Chinese mis- 
sionary. A third mansion is Craighall ; and, in all, 3 
proprietors hold each an annual value of more, and 2 of 
less, than £500. Kennethmont is in the presbytery of 
Alford and synod of Aberdeen ; the living is worth 
£266. The parish church, built in 1812, contains 400 
sittings. A Free church stands 1 mile ESE ; and a 
public school, with accommodation for 200 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 149, and a grant of 
£12S, 3s. 6d. Valuation (1S60) £4669, (1882) £5S95, 
plus £1516 for railway. Pop. (1S01) 784, (1831) 1131, 
(1861) 1187, (1871) 1062, (1881) 999.— Ord. Sur., shs. 
76, 86, 1874-76. 

Kenneth's Isle. See Inch-Kenneth. 

Kennetpans, a small village in Clackmannan parish, 
Clackmannanshire, on the NE shore of the Forth, 1J 
mile NW of Kincardine. It has a harbour, ranking as 
a subport of Alloa. Kennetpans House stands near the 
village, and commands a fine view of the Forth. 

Kennishead, a place, with a station, in Eastwood 
parish, Renfrewshire, on the Glasgow and Barrhead rail- 
way, 9 furlongs SW of Pollokshaws. 

Kennoway, a village and a parish of S central Fife. 
The village stands 3£ miles E by N of Markinch, and 
li mile N of Cameron Bridge station, this being 3| 
miles ENE of Thornton Junction and 23| NNE of Edin- 
burgh. Occupying the southern slope of an eminence, 
and overhanging a ravine or den, it thence has been 
said to have got the name of Kennoway (Gael, ceann- 
nan-uaigli, 'head of the den'),* and it commands a 
magnificent view of the waters and screens of the Firth 
of Forth. It dates from times long prior to the existence 
of any of its preseut buildings ; but in the arrangement 
of its streets and the style of some of its houses, it re- 
tains indications of antiquity ; and it is prettier, cleaner, 
and more substantial than most of the seaside or the 
collier villages of Fife, whilst possessing a high reputa- 
tion for salubrity. One of its old houses is said to have 
been occupied by Archbishop Sharp on the night pre- 
ceding his assassination ; and fifteen or twenty private 
houses are licensed for the reception of pauper lunatics, 
which has had the effect of greatly lessening the value 
of house property, and keeping away respectable tenants. 
The population has dwindled with the decline in 
handloom weaving, and two annual fairs have become 
extinct. The village is lighted with gas ; and has a 
post office, 2 inns, a savings' bank, and several benefit 
and religious societies. The parish church here, built 
in 1S50 after designs by T. Hamilton of Edinburgh, is 
a Norman edifice, with 650 sittings. The Free church 
was built soon after the Disruption; and the U.P. 
church is noted for having long enjoyed the ministry of 
the Rev. Dr Donald Fraser, biographer of the Erskines. 
Pop. (1S31) 862, (1841) 1101, (1861) 939, (1871) 835, 
(1881) 770. 

The parish, containing also Baintown village and 
Star village, is bounded N by Kettle, E by Scoonie, 
and S and W by Markinch. Its utmost length, from 
E to W, is 3f miles ; its breadth, from N to S, varies 
between 1J and 2J miles ; and its area is 3964J acres. 
Sinking to 170 feet above sea-level at the southern 
border, the surface thence rises gradually northward to 
455 feet near Dalginch, 519 near Baintown, and 669 at 
Lalathan, and is beautifully diversified with gentle and 

* A much more probable derivation, resting on the authority of 
Dr Reeves, is from Kennichi or Kenneth, a disciple of St Columba. 
The ancient name of the parish is Kennochi or Kenntchin, some- 
times Kennochy. The bell of the old parish church, now hung 
above the entrance to Borthwick Hall, Midlothian, has cast upon 
it in raised letters — 'I'm for the Kirk o' Kennochi.' Kennoway 
is a comparatively modern corruption, found in no ancient docu- 


irregular rising-grounds that command extensive and 
brilliant views of the basin of the Forth and of parts 
of the basin of the 'Pay away to the Grampians. The 
streams are all more burns, either tributary to the Leven 
or running through Scoonie to the Forth ; and one of 
them, passing close to Kennoway village, traverses there 
a picturesque ravine. The rocks are variously eruptive 
and carboniferous ; and trap, sandstone, and coal are 
worked. The soil, in the S aud E, is mostly light and 
fertile ; in the centre, is loam or clay, on a retentive 
bottom ; and over part of the N, is dry loam, incumbent 
on trap rock. About one-sixteenth of the entire area is 
under wood, and nearly all the rest is in tillage. Man- 
sions are Kingsdale and Newton Hall ; and 3 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 7 of 
between £100 and £500, 2 of from £50 to £100, and 
15 of from £20 to £50. Kennoway is in the pres- 
bytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife ; the living is 
worth £423. Two public schools, Kennoway and Star, 
with respective accommodation for 230 and 90 children, 
had (1S81) an average attendance of 167 and 82, and 
grants of £135, lis. and £81, 15s. Valuation (1860) 
£8520, (1883) £8988, 14s. Id. Pop. (1S01) 1466, (1881) 
1721, (1841) 2044, (1861) 2012, (1871) 1703, (1881) 1560. 
—Or A. Stir., sh. 40,1867. 

Kennox, an estate, with a mansion, in Stewarton 
parish, Ayrshire, 2J miles WSW of the town. Its 
owner, Charles Somerville M'Alester (b. 1799 ; sue. 
1847), holds 1012 acres in the shire, valued at £1442 
per annum. — Orel. Swr., sh. 22, 1865. 

Kentallen, a village in Lismore and Appin parish, 
Argyllshire, on the E shore of Loch Linnhe, 3 miles 
WSW of Ballachulish. 

Kenziels, a hamlet in Annan parish, S Dumfriesshire, 
1 mile S of the town. 

Keppoch, an estate, with a modern mansion, in 
Cardross parish, Dumbartonshire, 2 miles NW of Car- 
dross station. 

Keppoch, an estate, with a mansion, in Kilmonivaig 
parish, SW Inverness-shire, near the right banks of the 
Spean and the confluent Roy, 16 miles ENE of Fort 
William. It belonged to the M'Intoshes, but was partly 
held by the M'Ranalds ; and, in a contention between 
them, it became the scene of the last clan battle in 
Scotland.— Orel. Sur., sh. 63, 1873. 

Kerbit Water. See Akity. 

Kerelaw, an estate, with a mansion of the close of 
last century and a ruined castle, in Stevenston parish, 
Ayrshire, 5 furlongs N by E of the town. The castle, 
which belonged to the Earls of Glencairn, was sacked 
towards the end of the 15th century by the Montgonieries 
of Eglinton ; and, now a massive ivy-mantled ruin, re- 
cently underwent some renovation, to retard its decay 
and increase its picturesqueness. The sacking of it was 
avenged by the burning of Eglinton Castle to the ground 
in 1528.— Orel. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Kerera. See Kerrbka. 

Kerfield, an estate, with a modern two-story mansion, 
in Peebles parish, Peeblesshire, on the left bank of the 
Tweed, 5 furlongs E by S of Peebles town. 

Kerrera, an island of Kilmore and Kilbride parish, 
Argyllshire, in the Firth of Lorn, opposite the south- 
eastern part of Mull. Separated from the mainland by 
the Sound of Kerrera, J to 1 mile in breadth, and 
Screening, in its northern part, the Bay of Oban, it ex- 
tends 4 1 miles south -south-westward, with a varying 
breadth of 15 furlong and If mile ; and it forms part 
of the line of communication between Oban and Mull. 
Its shores contribute largely to the excellence of the 
romantic harbour of Oban, and contain within them- 
selves two good harbours, called Ardintraive and Horse- 
shoe Bays ; its southern extremity is a promontory, 
exhibiting noble cliff scenery, and crowned with the 
strong, tall, roofless tower of Gylen Castle, probably 
erected in the 12th century, long a stronghold of the 
Macdougals of Lorn, and besieged and captured in 1647 
by a detachment of General Leslie's army. Chief eleva- 
tions from N to S are Barr Dubh (374 feet), Ardchoric 
(617), and Cnoc na Faire (344) ; and the general surface 


is a broken and confused mixture of steep hills and deep 
vales, commanding gorgeous views from the heights, 
containing good arable and pasture land in the hollows, 
and so rapidly alternating as to he traversable only with 
much fatigue and difficulty. The rocks are a remarkabla 
assemblage of trap, schist, slate, and conglomerate, and 
form a singular study to geologists. With the exception 
of two farms, the island is included in the Dunolly 
property. Alexander II., when preparing his expedition 
against the Hebrides, assembled his fleet in Horse-shoe 
Bay, and, being seized with fever there, was taken ashore 
to a pavilion, on a spot still called Dalree or ' the King's 
field,' and there died, 8 July 1249 ; and Hakon of Nor- 
way, in 1263, held a meeting of Hebridean chiefs on 
Kerrera, to engage their aid in his descent on the 
mainland. Pop. (1841) 187, (1861) 105, (1871) 101, 
(1881) 103, of whom 91 were Gaelic-speaking. 

Kerriff. See Kilfinan. 

Kerry. See Kilfinan. 

Kerrycroy, a small neat village in Kingarth parish, 
Bute island, Buteshire, on Kerrycroy Bay, 2J miles SSE 
of Rothesay. 

Kerse House, the seat of the Earl of Zetland, in Falkirk 
parish, Stirlingshire, in the middle of a finely wooded 
park, 5 furlongs SW of Grangemouth. Partly a building 
of high antiquity, but added to at various periods, it 
presents the appearance of a plain Elizabethan mansion, 
and forms the chief ornament of the eastern Carse. 
The estate had been held by Menteths, Livingstones, 
and Hopes, before it was purchased by Lawrence Dundas, 
who in 1762 was created a baronet. His son Thomas 
(1741-1820) was raised to the peerage as Baron Dundas, 
of Aske, co. York, in 1794 ; and his grandson, Laurence 
(1766-1839), was made Earl of Zetland in 1838. Laurence 
Dundas, present and third Earl (b. 1844 ; sue. 1873), 
holds 4656 acres in Stirlingshire, valued at £13,808 per 
annum, including £4256 for coal. — Orel. Sur., sh. 31, 

Kersewell, an estate, with a mansion, in Carnwath. 
parish, E Lanarkshire, 2J miles ENE of the village. 
Purchased by his ancestor at the beginning of the 18th 
century, it is now the property of William Bertram, 
Esq. (b. 1826 ; sue. 1839), who holds 5037 acres in the 
shire, valued at £2893 per annum. — Orel. Sur., sh. 24, 

Kershope Burn, a rivulet of Castleton parish, S Rox- 
burghshire, rising at an altitude of 1255 feet above sea- 
level, and running J mile south-eastward to the boundary 
with Cumberland, and then 8f miles south-westward 
along the English Border, till, after a total descent of 
975 feet, it falls into the Liddel at a point 3^ miles S 
by W of Newcastleton. Its waters are well stocked with 
trout.— Orel. Sur., sh. 11, 1863. 

Kersland. See Den and Dalry, Ayrshire. 

Kessock, a ferry, 3 furlongs wide, between Inverness 
and Ross shires, across the strait between the Moray 
and Beauly Firths, opposite Inverness, under which 
there is a post office of Kessock. It is on the route 
from Inverness to Dingwall and Cromarty, and is 
one of the safest ferries in the north of Scotland. 
The view from the middle of the strait, particularly 
at high water, is exceedingly fine. — Orel. Sur., sh. 83, 

Ket, a streamlet of Glasserton and Whithorn parishes, 
SW Wigtownshire. Rising f mile WNW of Glasserton 
church, and within 1 mile of Luce Bay, it describes a 
semicircle round by Whithorn town, and, after an easterly 
run of 5^ miles, falls into the sea at Portyerrock. — 
Orel. Sur!, sh. 2, 1856. 

Ketland. See Glenketland. 

Kettins, a village and a parish on the SW border of 
Forfarshire. The village stands 1§ mile ESE of Coupar- 
Angus, under which it has a post office. It consists 
of neatly kept cottages and gardens, with a central 

The parish, containing also the hamlets of Ley of 
Hallyburton and Campmuir, is bounded NE by Newtyle, 
E by Lundie, and on all other sides by Perthshire, viz., 
SE by Longforgan, SW by Collace, and W and NW 

35 '3 



by Scone (detached), Cargill, and Conpar-Angus. Its 
utmost length, from NNE to SSW, is 54 miles ; its 
breadth varies between 1| and 4^ miles ; and its area 
is 7815f acres, of which 26 are water and 335§ belong 
to the detached or Bandirran section. The western 
division of the parish, forming part of Strathmore, 
declines to 170 feet above sea-level ; and thence the 
surface rises south-eastward to the watershed of the 
Sidlaw Hills, attaining 1088 feet at Keillor Hill and 
1141 at Gaskhill Wood. The upland district slopes 
gently to the plain, and is partly heathy, partly wooded, 
and partly pastoral ; the lowland district, larger than 
the upland one, is nearly level, highly cultivated, and 
finely embellished. Trap rocks prevail in the hills, 
Old Red sandstone in the plain ; and the latter has 
been quarried in several places, and makes a good 
building-stone. The soil on the higher grounds is 
light and thin ; on the low grounds, is chiefly a silicious 
loam or a friable black mould, and highly fertile. 
About three-fourths of the entire area are in tillage, and 
woods and plantations cover some 1500 acres. ' Picts' 
Houses ' or subterranean caves have been discovered on 
the estates of Lintrose and Pitcur — at the latter in 
1878 ; Pitcur Castle, a ruin, 1 j mile SE of the village, 
was the ancient seat of the Haliburtons ; a fortalice, 
called Dores Castle, and said by tradition to have been 
a residence of Macbeth, crowned a hill to the S of 
Pitcur ; six pre-Reformation chapels stood at Peattie, 
South Corston, Pitcur, Muiryfaulds, Denhead, and the 
S side of Kettins village ; and other antiquities are 
noticed under Campmuir and Baldowrie. Mansions, 
noticed separately, are Hallyburton, Lintrose, Baldowrie, 
and Bandirran ; and the proprietors are R. S. Menzies, 
Esq., the Earl of Wharncliffe, and four others. Includ- 
ing quoad sacra the detached section of Scone, Kettins 
is in the presbytery of Meigle and synod of Angus and 
Mearns ; the living is worth £306. The parish church, 
at the village, was built in 1768, and, as restored and 
enlarged in 1871, contains 500 sittings. The public 
school, with accommodation for 171 children, had (1882) 
an average attendance of 139, and a grant of £127, lis. 
6d. Valuation (1857) £9638, (1883) £12,206, 15s. lid., 
plus £734 for railway. Pop. of the civil parish (1S01) 
1207, (1831) 1193, (1861) 901, (1871) 775, (1881) 848; 
of the ecclesiastical parish (1881) 903. — Orel. Sur., sh. 
48, 1868. 

Kettle, a village and a parish of central Fife. The 
village, standing 130 feet above sea-level, near the right 
bank of the Eden, has a station (Kingskettle) on the 
Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee section of the North 
British railway, f mile S by E of Lactybank Junction, 
6| miles SW of Cupar, and 27J N by E of Edinburgh. 
So low is its site, and so closely skirted by the Eden, as 
almost to be reached by freshets of that river. Originally 
called Catul or Katel ('battle') — a name supposed to 
refer to some ancient unrecorded battle fought in its 
neighbourhood — it stands on ground which of old be- 
longed to the Crown, and hence assumed its alternative 
name of King's Kettle or Kingskettle. It is chiefly 
inhabited by handloom weavers and by artisans ; and 
has a post office under Ladybank, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments, an hotel, 
gasworks, and horticultural and five other societies. 
The parish church is a handsome Gothic edifice of 1881, 
with a pinnacled tower, and nearly 1200 sittings. An 
harmonium was given to it on 4 Jan. 1882, when a new 
session-hall and class-room were also opened. A Free 
church was built at Balmalcolm, f mile E by N, shortly 
after the Disruption. There is also a neat TJ.P. church 
(1853; 600 sittings). Pop. (1831) 527, (1861) 567, 
(1871) 643, (1881) 598. 

The parish, containing also the villages of Hole- 
kettle, Balmalcolm, Coalton of Burnturk, and Muir- 
head, was anciently called Lathrisk, and down to about 
1636 had its church (St Ethernascus') on the lands of 
Lathrisk. It is bounded N by Collessie, NE by Cults, 
E by Ceres, SE by Scoonie, S by Kennoway, SW by 
Markinch, and W by Falkland. Its length, from E to 
W, varies between 4J and 6i miles ; its utmost breadth, 

from N to S, is 2J miles ; and its area is 7612J aiTes. 
The Eden flows 2J miles east-south-eastward along 
the Collessie border, then lg mile east-north-eastward 
through the north-eastern interior. The northern dis- 
trict thus is part of the low flat valley of Stratheden, 
nowhere sinking below 110, or attaining 150, feet abo?e 
sea-level ; but south-eastward the surface rises to 449 
feet near Parkwell and 814 on Clatto HLU. The rorks 
include some trap, but are chiefly carboi iferous ; sa?.d- 
stone, limestone, coal, and a fine ki d of trap have been 
worked ; and ironstone also is found. Tb soil of ihe 
valley is argillaceous alluvium, light r'iable mould, or 
moss-covered sand ; on the higher grounds and the 
hills, is partly strong and clayey, partly light and 
friable, and partly of other and inferior qualities. More 
than half of the land is in a state of excellent cultiva- 
tion, and much of the high grounds consists of capital 
pasture. The antiquities include remains of circumval- 
lations on Bauden and Downfield Hills ; the barrows of 
Pundler's Knowe, Lowrie's Knowe, Lackerstone, and 
five other places ; a cavern at Clatto, formerly com- 
municating with a tower, and notable in old times for 
the Seatons' deeds of rapine and bloodshed ; and the 
sites of two pre-Reformation chapels at Clatto and 
Chapel-Kater. Mansions, noticed separately, are Lath- 
risk and Ramornie ; and S proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 8 of between £100 
and £500, 7 of from £50 to £100, and 17 of from £20 
to £50. Giving off since 1882 a portion to the quoad 
sacra parish of Ladybank, Kettle is in the presbytery of 
Cupar and synod of Fife ; the living is worth £427. A 
public school, built in 1876 at a cost of £3500, with 
accommodation for 400 children, had (1881) an average 
attendance of 221, and a grant of £193, 7s. 6d. Valua- 
tion (1860) £12,375, (1883) £13,636, 6s. 9d. Pop. 
(1801) 1S89, (1831) 2071, (1861) 2474, (1871) 2323. 
(1881) 2054.— Ord. Sxir., sh. 40, 1867. 

Kettle Bridge. See Holekettle. 

Kettleholm Bridge, a hamlet in St Mungo parish, 
Dumfriesshire, on the Water of Milk, 3 miles S by E of 

Kiel, a burn in Largo parish, Fife, formed by Bog- 
hall and Gilston Burns, in the NE of the parish, and 
running 3J miles southward to Largo Bay at Lower 

Kiel or Kilcolmkill, an old church and churchyard in 
the lower part of Ardchattan parish, Argyllshire, 3 
miles N by W of Connel Ferry. Of the church only a 
few traces remain. 

Kiels or Kilcolmkill ('church of Columba'), a pre- 
Reformation parish, now forming part of the parish of 
Southend, in the extreme S of Kintyre, Argyllshire. 
Its old church stands in a burying-ground quite close 
to the shore, and is traditionally said to have been built 
by St Columba. It is 75 feet 3 inches long and 18 feet 
10 inches wide ; part of it is rough primitive masonry ; 
the rest, an addition, seems Norman work. See also 
Keil, Cuthbert Bede's Glencreggan (London, 1861), 
and Muir's Old Church Architecture of Scotland (Edinb. 

Kier. See Keie. 

Kilarrow. See Killaeeow. 

Kilbagie, a place with large pulp and fibre works, for 
the manufacture of paper, in Clackmannan parish, 
Clackmannanshire, 1J mile N of Kincardine. Near it 
is Kilbagie House. 

Kilbarchp.ii (formerly KyTberchan and Kelbcrchan, 
Gael. ' the cell of St Barchan '), a parish containing a 
town of the same name in the centre of Renfrewshire. 
It is bounded N by Houston parish, at the NE corner by 
Erskine, Inchinnan, and Renfrew, SE by Abbey-Paisley 
parish and Lochwinnoch, and W and NW by Kil- 
malcolm. The boundary largely follows the courses of 
streams, keeping on the N to the line of the Gryfe from 
the point of junction with Houston parish downwards to 
the confluence of the Gryfe and Black Cart ; and on the 
SE side, except for about 1 mile, to that of the Black 
Cart, from the junction just mentioned upwards to Castle 
Semple Loch (a distance in a straight line of 6 J, or, in- 



eluding windings, of 9, miles) ; while on tko SW it fol- 
lows the lines of Locher Water and Bride's Burn. The 
greatest length, from NE at the junction of the Gryl'c 
and Black Cart to SW near Greenside, is 6J miles ; the 
greatest hreadth, from NW near Torr Hall to SE on the 
Black Cart, is 4 miles ; and the area is 909S'411 acres, 
of which 92 '609 are water. The height above sea-level 
varies from 18 feet at the NE corner to 620 at the SW 
and 550 on the NW, there being a very rapid rise near 
the centre of the parish. Almost the whole of the sur- 
face is under cultivation or woodland. On the E side 
of the town is an isolated eminence known as Barr Hill ; 
and the rising-grounds to the W, though of inconsider- 
able height, command a fine view, extending from Ailsa 
Craig to Ben Lomond, from the Argyllshire and Perth- 
shire Grampians to the northern Lowthers in the upper 
part of the valley of the Clyde ; and even affording, in 
very favourable weather, a peep of Arthur's Seat at 
Edinburgh. The soil is mostly good, being on the 
lower ground alluvial, and elsewhere clay (S and SW) 
and gravel (N and NW). The underlying rocks are 
sandstone, basalt, volcanic ash, and limestone, with 
beds of coal and iron. The beds of economic value are 
all extensively worked, as is also a bed of a peculiar 
description of basalt, which has been found suitable for 
the construction of ovens. The volcanic rocks are pretty 
rich in various minerals. The drainage of the parish is 
effected by the Gryfe and Black Cart and their tribu- 
taries, of which the Locher, besides tracing part of the 
SW boundary, passes NE through the parish, and flows 
into the Gryfe. There are several small falls along its 
course. The old church of St Barchan, bishop and 
confessor, was in the village, and was one of those in 
Strathgryfe bestowed on Paisley by Walter Fitz-Allan, 
High Steward of Scotland ; and Bishop Jocelin of Glas- 
gow confirmed the church to the monks for their own 
use. St Barchan had at one time a feast, probably on 
the day of the annual fair. In 1401 King Robert III. 
confirmed an endowment granted by Thomas Crawfurd 
of Auchiuames for the support of a chaplain to officiate 
at the Virgin Mary's altar in the parish church of Kil- 
barchan, and also in a chapel dedicated to St Catherine, 
which had been erected by Crawfurd in the church- 
yard, and of which some remains still exist. There 
was also a chapel dedicated to the Virgin a little to the 
E of the castle of Ranfurly, on the farm still called 
Prieston. The property called Kirklands was annexed 
to it, and the building itself remained in a ruined con- 
dition down to 1791. In the SW corner of the parish 
there was formerly a village called Kenmuir, with a 
chapel dedicated to St Bride. Both are alike gone ; but 
the burn known as St Bride's Burn, and St Bride's Mill 
mark the old associations. Blackston on the Black 
Cart was the summer residence of the abbots of Paisley. 
Other antiquities and objects worthy of notice are the 
stone of Clochodrick, the Barr Hill, and the castle of 
Ranfurly. Clochodrick ('the stone of Roderick' — pos- 
sibly some member of the Houston family, or, according 
to others, clach-na-dntidh, 'the stone of the Druids') 
is on the bank of St Bride's Burn, on the SW border of 
the parish, 2 miles from the village, and is separ- 
ately described. The name is at least 700 years old. 
The Barr Hill, or Bar of Kilbarchan, has on its top the 
remains of an old encampment, defended by a semi- 
circular rampart of loose stones, and said to be Danish. 
Ranfurly Castle in the N of the parish, about 1 J mile N 
of the village, was at one time the seat of the Knoxes. 
From this family were descended John Knox the Re- 
former and Andrew Knox, who, on the restoration of 
Episcopacy in 1606, was appointed Bishop of the Isles, 
and in 1622 transferred to the see of Raphoe in Ireland. 
From them the Irish Knoxes, Viscounts Northland and 
Barons Ranfurly, are sprung. The estate was alienated 
in 1665, when it passed into the possession of the Dun- 
donald family, by whom it was sold to the family of 
Hamilton of Holmhead. Near the castle is an artificial 
mound, 330 feet in circumference near the base and 20 feet 
high. Another old baronial castle stood on the estate 
of Auchiuames, but it was demolished in 1762. Auch- 

inames belonged to a branch of the Crawfurds (aiready 
mentioned) from the 14th century to the ISth, when it 
was broken up and sold in portions. The leading family 
in the parish now is Napier of Milliken, directly de- 
scended from the Napiers of Merchiston, the first of 
whom flourished in the reign of Alexander III. The 
chief part of the estate belonged at one time to the 
Wallaces of Elderslie, and constituted a barony called 
Johnston ; from the Wallaces it passed to the Houstons, 
who in turn sold it in 1733 to the ancestor of the present 
proprietor, who gave it his own name of Milliken, while 
the Houston family retained the old name and applied it 
to their estate of East Cochrane, the present Johnstone. 
Milliken House is a handsome Grecian building, erected 
in 1829 near the left hank of the Black Cart. Other 
mansions are Blackstone House, Glentyan House, Craig- 
ends, and Clippens. The parish is traversed by one of 
the main roads from Paisley to Greenock, and also by 
the Glasgow, Paisley, and Greenock section of the Glas- 
gow and South-Western railway, which passes through 
it for a distance of 3^ miles. Houston (Crosslee) and 
Bridge of Weir stations on this branch, and Milliken 
Park and Johnstone stations on the Glasgow, Paisley, 
and Ayr section of the same railway, afford means of 
access ; and the latter, though outside the parish, are 
the stations nearest the village. 

Besides the post-town of the same name the parish 
contains the village of Linwood and part of the village 
of Bridge of Weir. The town of Kilbarchan is near 
the centre of the parish, 1 mile NW of Milliken Park 
railway station, 1£ W of Johnstone, 5 miles W by 
S of Paisley, and 12 W by S of Glasgow. It occupies 
a rising-ground sloping gently S towards Kilbarchan 
Burn, and is sheltered on three sides by well wooded 
eminences rising to a height of nearly 200 feet. It 
became a burgh of barony previous to 1710, but had 
no trade till 1739, when a linen factory was established, 
and three j"ears afterwards another was established for 
the manufacture of lawns, cambrics, etc. for the Dublin 
market. There are now about 1000 looms at work, em- 
ployed in the manufacture of silk and cotton fabrics and 
Paisley shawls. In the centre of the town is a steeple 
erected in 1755, with a schoolhouse of later date. In a 
niche in the steeple there was placed in 1822 a statue of 
Habbie Simpson, piper of Kilbarchan, who died about 
the beginning of the 17th century, and on whom Robert 
Sempill of Beltrees wrote a well-known poem. He is 
also mentioned in the song of Maggie Lauder. The 
public hall was originally a chartist meeting-house of 
small size, but it was in 1872 acquired by the Good 
Templar Lodge of the place, and was then considerably 
enlarged and improved. It is now used for miscellaneous 
public meetings. The parish church is in the form of a 
St George's cross. It was built in 1724, and has 620 
sittings. The U.P. church was originally built in 1786, 
but underwent extensive repair and alteration in 1872 
at a cost of over £1000. It contains 906 sittings. 
There is a post office under Johnstone, with money 
order and savings' bank departments, a gas company 
(1846), two public libraries, a branch of the Clydesdale 
Bank, an agricultural society, a curlers' society, a 
masonic lodge (St Barchau's), dating from 17S4, and 
several friendly societies. There used to be a fair on 
Lillia's day, the 3d Tuesday of July ; and there is a 
horse fair still on St Barchan's day, the first Tuesday 
of December, both o. s. Robert Allan (1774-1841), 
author of a number of songs and poetical pieces of some 
merit, was a native of and a weaver in Kilbarchan. 
Population of the town (1740) about 200, (1791) 1584, 
(1831) 2333, (1861) 2530, (1871) 2678, (18S1) 2548, of 
whom 1385 were females. Houses (1881) 601 inhabited, 
14 vacant, 2 building. 

Since 1880 giving off the quoad sacra parish of Lin- 
wood, Kilbarchan is in the presbytery of Paisley and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £405. 
Churches, other than those already mentioned, are 
noticed under Linwood and Bridge of Weir. The 
school board has under its management Kilbarchan 
public, Kilbarchan female public, Linwood public, and 



Linwood Roman Catholic schools. These, with accom- 
modation for respectively 300, 177, 225, and 100 pupils, 
had in 1881 an average attendance of 254, 143, 174, and 
121, and grants of £285, 3s. 9d.,£125, 2s. 6d.,£160, lis., 
and £85, 5s. Besides the industries formerly mentioned 
there is a print work on the Locher, and a number of 
quarries and coal and iron pits. The principal land- 
owner is Sir Robert J. M. Napier, Bart, of MUliken, 
who owns about one-fourth of the landed property. 
Seven proprietors besides have an annual value of £500 
or upwards, 20 hold between £500 and £100, and there 
are a number of smaller amount. Valuation (1S60) 
£26,361, (1883) £43,469, 15s. lOd. Pop. of civil 
parish, including villages, (1755) 1485, (1774) 2305, 
(1801) 3151, (1831) 4806, (1861) 6348, (1871) 6093, 
(1881) 6868 ; of ecclesiastical parish (1881) 4363.— Ord. 
Swr., sh. 30, 1866. See also Crawford's History of 
Renfrewshire (1710), Hamilton's Desertion of the 
Sheriffdom of Lanark and Renfrew (Maitland Club, 
1831), Orig. Paroch. Scotice, vol. i. (Ban. Club, 1851). 

Kilberry Castle, a mansion in Kilcalmonbll parish, 
Argyllshire, near the E shore of the Sound of Jura, 16 
miles WSW of Tarbert. Founded 1497, burned by an 
English pirate 1513, rebuilt 1844, and enlarged 1871, it 
is the seat of Jn. Campbell, Esq. (b. 1844 ; sue. 1861), 
who holds 20,000 acres, of £2173 annual value. 

Kilbirnie, a town and a parish in Cunninghame dis- 
trict, N Ayrshire. The town stands on the river Gar- 
nock, 200 feet above sea-level, and 9 furlongs NNW of 
Kilbirnie station on the Glasgow and South-Western 
railway, this being 2| miles NNE of Dairy Junction, 9i 
N of Irvine, 12| SW of Paisley, and 19| S W of Glasgow? 
It chiefly consists of a long street running southward 
near the right bank of the river, with a shorter street 
striking off westward from its upper end ; but it also 
includes a suburb, with rows of dwelling-houses and 
two public works, on the left bank of the river. In 
1742 it contained only three houses, in 1792 not more 
than eighty ; but, having risen to be one of the most 
prosperous small seats of population in Scotland, it 
offers now a thriving, cleanly, and cheerful appearance, 
and largely consists of new or recent houses, built of a 
light-coloured sandstone. Ranking as a free burgh of 
barony in virtue of rights conferred on Kilbirnie manor 
before the town itself had any existence, it conducts 
much business in connection with neighbouring mines 
and iron-works ; is the seat of 2 flax-spinning, linen 
thread, and wincey factories, 5 fishing-net factories, 2 
rope-works, and engineering works ; and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, a branch of the Clydesdale Bank, 2 inns, 
a public library, a Good Templars' hall, a gas-light com- 
pany, and a horse fair on the third Wednesday of May, 
o. s. The parish church, 3 furlongs S of the town, was 
anciently held by Kilwinning Abbey, and dedicated to 
St Brendan of Clonfert, an Irish missionary to the 
Western Isles about the year 545. Repaired in 1855, it 
comprises a plain pre-Reformation oblong nave, a square 
W tower, a SE aisle (1597), and the NE Crawfurd 
gallery (1654). The pulpit and this Crawfurd gallery 
exhibit ' some rich carved woodwork of the Renaissance 
period, a thing,' observes Dr Hill Burton, 'very rarely 
to be found in the churches of Scotland. Captain 
Thomas Crawfurd of Jordanhill, who captured Dum- 
barton Castle in 1571, and died in 1603, is buried in 
the churchyard. His monument is peculiar and at- 
tractive. There is a recumbent statue of the warrior 
himself, and of his wife, side by side, after the old 
Gothic fashion, which was becoming obsolete. The 
figures lie within a quadrangular piece of stonework like 
a sarcophagus, and they are seen through slits which 
admit a dim light, giving the statues a mysterious 
funereal tone.' The first Free church, built soon after 
the Disruption, was repaired and decorated in 1875 ; 
the second or West Free church, belonging till 1876 to 
the Reformed Presbyterians, was built in 1824. There 
are also Glengarnock U.P. church (1870) and St Bridget's 
Roman Catholic church (1862). Pop. (1851) 3399, (1861) 
3245, (1871) 3313, (1881) 3404, of whom 1903 were 


females. Houses (1881) 681 inhabited, 14 vacant, 1 

The parish, containing also the greater part of Glen- 
garnock village, is bounded N and NE by Lochwin- 
noch in Eenfrewshire, E by Beith, SE, S, and W by 
Dairy, and KW by Largs. Its utmost length, from 
NNW to SSE, is 7g miles ; its utmost breadth is 3| 
miles ; and its area is 10, 641 \ acres, of which 306 \ are 
water. The Maich, entering from Renfrewshire, flows 
4 miles south-south-eastward along the Lochwinnoch 
border till it falls into Kilbirnie Loch (llf x3J furl. ; 
105 feet), a beautiful lake on the Beith boundary, well 
stored with pike, perch, and trout, and sending off 
Dubbs Burn north-north-eastward to Castle-Semple 
Loch. The Garnock, also rising among the Mistylaw 
Hills, at an altitude of 1600 feet above sea-level, winds 
7J miles south-south-eastward through the interior, 
then lg mile south-south-westward along or near to the 
south-eastern boundary, till it passes off into Dairy. 
Pundeavon, Paduff, and Pitcon Burns run south-south- 
eastward to the Garnock, the last-named tracing most 
of the western boundary. The surface sinks in the 
extreme S to 93 feet above sea-level, and rises thence 
northward to 454 feet near Balgry, 1000 at High Blae- 
berry Craigs, 710 near Glengarnock Castle, 1083 at 
Burnt Hill, 1267 at Ladyland Moor, 1526 at Black Law, 
1663 at Mistylaw, 1615 at High Corbie Knowe, and 
1711 at the Hill of Stake, the three last culminating on 
the northern confines of the parish, and commanding 
one of the widest and most brilliant panoramic views in 
Scotland. Thus the south-eastern district is all low, 
and either flat or diversified with gentle rising-grounds ; 
the central district rises somewhat rapidly north- 
westward, and offers a considerable variety of hill and 
dale ; and the northern, occupying fully one-third of 
the entire area, is all upland, with irregular ranges of 
dusky hills, mossy, heathy, and sterile. The rocks in 
the lowlands belong to the Carboniferous formation ; 
those of the uplands are eruptive, and chiefly consist of 
greenstone and porphyry. Sandstone, limestone, coal, 
and ironstone abound among the carboniferous rocks, 
and have all been largely worked. A vein of graphite 
or plumbago also exists there ; and a vein of barytes, 
and some agates and other rare minerals, are found 
among the hills. The soil in the south-eastern district 
is a deep alluvial loam, a rich clayey loam, or a light 
red clay ; in the central district is mostly light, dry, 
and fertile ; and in the uplands is much of it moss of 
various depths, resting on light-coloured clay. Rather 
less than one-sixth of the entire area is in tillage ; 
plantations cover nearly 100 acres ; and the rest is either 
meadow, hill-pasture, or waste. On the hills are 
remains of several tumuli ; and a pyramidal mound at 
Nether Mill measures 54 feet in length, 27 in breadth, 
and 17 in height. Formerly this parish was divided 
among the three baronies of Kilbirnie, Glengarnock, and 
Ladyland, of which the two last are noticed separately, 
whilst the first passed by marriage from the Barclays to 
the Craufurds in 1470, and from them to the Lindsays 
in 1661, thus coming to the fourth Earl of Glasgow in 
1S33. (See Crawford Priory and Garnock.) Kil- 
birnie Place, accidentally burned in 1757, consists of a 
rectangular 13th or 14th century tower, measuring 41 
by 32 feet, with walls 7 feet in thickness, and of a still 
more ruinous three-storied addition of 1627 ; scarce a 
vestige remains of its gardens, orchard, and avenues. 
Five proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 7 of between £100 and £500, 16 of from £50 
to £100, and 37 of from £20 to £50. Kilbirnie is in 
the presbytery of Irvine and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; 
the living is worth £263. Bridgend, Glengarnock, and 
Ladyland public schools, and Kilbirnie female industrial 
school, with respective accommodation for 211, 400, 
312, and 116 children, had (1881) an average attendance 
of 172, 244, 218, and 92, and grants of £149, 12s., 
£213, 10s., £216, 2s., and £80, 10s. Valuation (1883) 
£19,504, 14s., plus £733 for railway. Pop. (1S01) 959, 
(1841) 2631, (1851) 5484, (1861) 5265, (1871) 4953, (1881) 
5243.— Ord. Sin:, shs. 22, 30, 1865-66. See The Parish 


Church and Churchyard of Kilbimw (Beith, 1S50), and 
John S. Dobie's Church of Kilbirnie (Edinb. 1880). 

Kilblane, an ancient parish in the southern extremity 
of Kintyre, Argyllshire, united with Kilcolmkill to form 
the modern parish of Southend. Some remains of its 
church still exist. 

Kilbrandon and Kilchattan, a united parish in Nether 
Lorn district, Argyllshire, comprising the four pre- 
Keformation parishes of Kilbrandon, Kilchattan, Kil- 
bride, and Kilchoan. It comprehends a section of the 
mainland, with the inhabited islands of Seil, Luing, 
Easdale, Shuna, Torsay, and Inis Capel ; contains the 
villages of Toberonichy, Ellanabriech, and Easdale, the 
last with a post and telegraph office under Oban ; and 
enjoys communication by means of the Clyde and Oban 
steamers. It is bounded N by the Sound of Lorn, NE 
by the Sound of Clachan, E by Kilninver parish, S by 
the northern outlet of the Sound of Jura, and W by the 
Atlantic Ocean. Its length, from N to S, inclusive of 
intersecting sea-belts, is 10 miles ; its breadth is 6 miles ; 
and its area is 14,457 acres, of which 996A are foreshore 
and 74f water. The inhabited islands are all separately 
noticed. The mainland section, comprising 5052A acres, 
is connected with Seil island by a bridge, and chielly con- 
sists of hill pasture. No ground either in it or in the isles 
rises higher than from 600 to 800 feet above sea-level. 
The rocks of the mainland section are interesting chiefly 
for a marble which was at one time worked near Ard- 
maddy; those of the islands are remarkable for extensive 
slate quarries, and for ores of silver, copper, lead, zinc, 
and iron. Much waste land has been reclaimed, and agri- 
culture has been greatly improved. The ruins of several 
old fortalices are the only antiquities. Ardmaddy 
Castle and Aedincaple House have separate articles 
and the Earl of Breadalbane is much the largest proprie- 
tor, 1 other holding an annual value of more, and 3 of 
less, than £100. Kilbrandon is in the presbytery of Lorn 
and synod of Argyll ; the living is worth £240. The old 
parish church, built about 1743 on the S end of Seil island, 
near Cuan ferry, is now abandoned, a new and hand- 
some edifice, with stained-glass windows, having been 
erected in a more central part of the island. There is also 
a Free church ; and three public schools — Ardincaple, 
Easdale, and Luing — with respective accommodation for 
40, 240, and 100 children, had (1881) an average attend- 
ance of 14, 161, and 37, and grants of £22, 3s. Id., 
£157, 6s. 6d., and £22, 16s. 4d. Valuation (I860) 
£8064, (18S3) £6521. Pop. (1801) 2278, (1831) 2833, 
(1S61) 1S59, (1871) 1930, (1S81) 1767, of whom 1621 
were Gaelic-speaking, and 93 belonged to the main- 

Kilbrandon or Kilbrennan Sound, a sea-belt of Bute 
and Argyll shires, commencing at the convergence of 
Loch Fyne and the Kyles of Bute, and extending south- 
by-westward between Arran island and Kintyre penin- 
sula. It measures 27 miles in length, and from 3 to 
15 miles in breadth, and is usually a good herring 
fishing station. Its name signifies the 'church of 
Brendan,' i.e., of St Brendan of Clonfert, who visited 
the Western Isles in 545.— Ord. Sur., shs. 20, 21, 12, 
13, 1S70-76. 

Kilbride, a hamlet in South Uist island, Outer Heb- 
rides, Inverness-shire, 9 miles from Lochboisdale Pier. 
It has a post office under Loehmaddy. 

Kilbride. See Kilbrandon and Kilchattan. 

Kilbride, an ancient chapelry in Kirkmabreck parish, 
SW Kircudbrightshire. Its chapel stood near the shore 
of Wigtown Bay, 2| miles SSE of Creetown. 

Kilbride. See Kilmore and Kilbride. 

Kilbride, a parish in Arran island, Buteshire. Com- 
prising most of the E side of Arran, and including Holy 
Island, it extends from Loch Ranza on the NNW to 
Dippin Head on the SSE, and contains the post-office 
villages of Lochranza, Corrie, Brodick, and Lamlash. 
It is bounded along most of the W by the Arran water- 
shed, which separates it from Kilmory, on the N by the 
Sounc of Bute, and on all other sides by the Firth of 
Clyde. Its utmost length, from NNW to SSE, is 19| 
miles; its utmost breadth, from E to W, is 6 miles; and 


its area is 38,9S5 acres. The surface, the principal 
natural features, and the chief artificial objects have all 
been noticed in our article on Arran, and in other 
articles to which that one refers. The Duke of Hamilton 
is much the largest proprietor, 1 other holding an 
annual value of more, and 1 of less, than £100. Includ- 
ing the quoad sacra parish of Brodick, Kilbride is in 
the presbytery of Kintyre and synod of Argyll ; the 
living is worth £362. The parish church, at Lamlash, 
was built in 1773, and contains 560 sittings ; and there 
are three Free churches of Lochranza, Kilbride, and 
AVhiting Bay. Lamlash public, Whiting Bay public, 
Brodick, and Corrie schools, with respective accommo- 
dation for 138, 120, 99, and 66 children, had (1881) an 
average attendance of 68, 50, 74, and 20, and grants of 
£5S, 17s., £52, 19s., £60, lis., and £24, 5s. Valuation 
(1860) £6211, (1883) £9577. Pop. (1801) 2183, (1841) 
2786, (1S61) 2441, (1871) 2380, (1881) 2176, of whom 
971 were Gaelic-speaking, and 1183 were in the ecclesias- 
tical parish of Kilbride.— Ord. Sur., shs. 21, 13, 1870. 

Kilbride, East, a small town and a parish on the 
western border of the Middle Ward of Lanarkshire. 
The town, towards the NE corner of the parish, stands 
590 feet above sea-level at the terminus of a branch 
line incorporated in 1863-65, by road being 8 miles SSE 
of Glasgow, 6J W by S of Hamilton, and 8J NNW of 
Strathaven, by rail 4J ESE of Busby, Sf SE of Pollok- 
shaws Junction, and 12J SSE of Glasgow. An ancient 
place of poor appearance, towards the close of the reign 
of Queen Anne it was made a burgh of barony, with a 
weekly market and three annual fairs ; and it now has 
a post office under Glasgow, a branch of the Clydesdale 
Bank, gasworks, and a fair on the Friday after 10 June. 
Places of worship are the parish church (1774 ; 900 
sittings), a Free church, and a U. P. church (1791 ; 913 
sittings). Pop. (1841) 926, (1861) 1171, (1871) 1100, 

The parish, containing also the villages of Auldhouse, 
Jackton, Kittockside, Nerston, and Maxwelton, a third 
of the town of Busby, and the stations of Hairmyres 
and Thornton Hall, comprises the ancient parishes 
of East Kilbride and Torrance. It is bounded N by 
Carmunnock and Cambuslang, E by Blantyre and Glass- 
ford, SE and S by Avondale, and W by Loudoun in 
Ayrshire, Eagleshani in Renfrewshire, and the Lanark- 
shire section of Catheart. Its utmost length, from N to 
S, is 9| miles ; its breadth varies between 2J and 5g 
miles ; and its area is 22,7974 acres, of which 37f are 
water. Four rivulets or their head-streams, rising in 
the interior, run divergently — Calder Water, 2| miles 
east-by-northward along the southern boundary on its 
way to the Avon ; White Cart Water, "i\ miles north- 
north-westward along the western boundary ; the Kit- 
tock, past East Kilbride town and Kittockside village, 
westward to the White Cart ; and the Calder or Rotten 
Calder, 7J miles north-north-eastward, chiefly along the 
eastern boundary, on its way to the Clyde. The surface 
declines along the White Cart in the NW to 200, along 
the Rotten Calder in the NE to 450, and along Calder 
Water in the SE to 690, feet above sea-level ; between 
these points it attains 692 feet near Rogerton, 719 at 
Lickprivick, 726 at Crosshill, 791 at Raahead, 1130 at 
Ardochrig Hill, and 1215 at Ellrig. Thus a gradual 
southward ascent, consisting of a regular succession of 
small hills, with very little intervening level ground, 
occupies all the distance from Crossbasket to Ellrig ; 
sloping grounds occupy much of the western and the 
eastern borders ; and high moors, extending outward 
from Ellrig, occupy nearly all the extreme S. The 
rocks are partly eruptive, partly carboniferous. Lime- 
stone and sandstone, both of excellent quality, have been 
very largely worked, as also have Roman cement and 
potter's clay. Ironstone is mined at Crossbasket ; but 
the coal is of limited quantity, and of very indifferent 
quality. Quartz nodules, too, pyrites, shorl, galena, 
and some other minerals are found. The soil is very 
various, and much of it still remains in a mossy condi- 
tion, though agricultural improvement has been actively 
carried on. East Kilbride barony, which comprised 



nearly two-thirds of the parish, belonged to successively 
the Comyns, the Lord High Stewards of Scotland, and 
the Lindsays of Dtjneod, whose stately stronghold, 
Mains Castle, is now a ruin, 7 furlongs NNW of the 
town. The site only is left of Lickprivick Castle, 2 
miles SSW, which for several centuries was the seat of 
Lickprivicks of that ilk. Harelaw Cairn, on Raahead 
farm, was finally demolished in 1808 ; and another cairn 
near Mains Castle has likewise disappeared. The famous 
anatomists, William Hunter, M.D., F.R.S. (1718-83), 
and his brother, John (1728-93), were horn at Long 
Calderwood ; and the cottage of Forefaulds, on the 
Long Calderwood property, was the birthplace of John 
Struthers (1776-1853), author of The Poor Man's Sab- 
bath. Mount Cameron, 7 furlongs ESE of the town, from 
soon after the '45 till her death in 1773, was the residence 
of the well-known Jacobite lady, Mrs Jean Cameron. 
Mansions are Calderwood Castle, Cleughearn Lodge, 
Crossbasket, Torrance, Lawmuir, and Limekilns, of 
which the four first are noticed separately ; and 11 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
53 of between £100 and £500, 31 of from £50 to £100, 
and 44 of from £20 to £50. Giving off ecclesiastically 
two portions to Carmunnock and Chapelton, East Kil- 
bride is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £465. Auld- 
house, East Kilbride, and Jackton public schools, and 
Maxwelton endowed school, with respective accommo- 
dation for 98, 314, 70, and 127 children, had (1881) an 
average attendance of 43, 178, 37, and 66, and grants 
of £47, 19s., £180, 16s., £33, 7s. 6d., and £57, 18s. 
Valuation (1860) £26,181, (1883) £40,355, 3s. 7d. Pop. 
(1801) 2330, (1831) 37S9, (1861) 4064, (1871) 3361, 
(1881) 3975, of whom 3226 were in the ecclesiastical 
parish.— Orel. Sur., shs. 23, 22, 1865. See David Tire's 
History and Antiquities of Mutherglen and East Kilbride 
(Glasgow, 1793). 

Kilbride, West, a small town and a coast parish of 
Cunninghame, NW Ayrshire. The town, standing 1 
mile inland and 150 feet above- sea-level, has a station 
on the Fairlie branch of the Glasgow and South- Western 
railway, i\ miles NNW of Ardrossan and 35| WSW of 
Glasgow. Its site is a finely sheltered depression, on 
tiny Kilbride Burn. An ancient place, it at one time 
possessed a number of mills and other works, which all 
have disappeared ; and weaving and hand-sewing for the 
manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley, the present staple 
employments, are also slowly dying out. It has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, a branch of the Commercial Bank, 3 inns, 
gasworks, a Good Templars' hall, and a cemetery, in the 
centre of which is a monument to Prof. Simson. The 
parish church is a handsome Early English edifice of 
1873, with 610 sittings and a spire 100 feet high. A new- 
Free church, French Gothic in style, with 450 sittings 
and a spire 120 feet high, was built in 1881 at a cost of 
£3500 ; and a new U.P. church of 1882-83 (400 sittings) 
cost £2500. Pop. (1861) 1083, (1871) 1218, (1881) 1363. 

The parish is bounded N by Largs, NE by Dairy, 
SE by Ardrossan, and SW, W, and NW by the Firth 
of Clyde. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 6^ miles ; 
its utmost breadth, from E to W, is 5 miles ; and its 
area is 11,535 acres, of which 1415 are foreshore and f 
is water. The coast, 9 miles in extent, at Ardneil 
Bank, near Farland Head, rises steeply to 456 feet 
above sea-level ; but elsewhere the shore is low and 
shelving, and consists of alternate sandy bays and sand- 
stone reefs. Inland the surface rises eastward to 715 
feet at Black Hill, 1270 at Kaini Hill, 870 at Glentane 
Hill, 10S1 at Caldron Hill, 551 at Law Hill, and 446 
at Tarbert Hill — summits these of rolling continuous 
ridges that command magnificent views of the waters 
and screens of the Firth of Clyde. Kilbride, Southannan, 
and three other burns, which rise near the eastern bor- 
der and run to the Firth, in rainy weather sometimes 
acquire much volume and force ; and Southannan Burn, 
traversing a romantic glen, forms a series of beautiful 
falls. Basalt, porphyry, and Old Red sandstone are 
the predominant rocks ; a stratum of breccia on Kaim 


Hill has been quarried for mill-stones ; and slight veins 
of limestone appear at Farland Head. The soil on low 
portions of the seaboard and the centre, amounting to 
one-fifth or more of the entire area, is partly sand, 
partly poor gravel, partly a rich deep dark mould ; on 
some rising-grounds and on the skirts of some of the 
hills, is loamy or calcareous ; and on most of the up- 
lands, is either spongy or heathy moor. About 170 
acres are under wood, nearly one-third of all the land 
is either pastoral or waste, and the rest is either regu- 
larly or occasionally in tillage. Dairy farming and the 
growing of early potatoes form the main elements in the 
agricultural industry. Since the opening of the railway 
in 1880, the seaboard of the parish is gradually becom- 
ing a favourite resort for summer visitors, principally 
from Glasgow ; and for their accommodation several 
villas have lately been built along the coast. Antiquities 
are several tumuli, remains of a circular watch tower on 
Auld Hill, sites of signal-posts on Auld, Tarbert, Law, 
and Kaim Hills, and the ruins of Portincross, Law, and 
Southannan Castles. One of the large ships of the Spanish 
Armada of 1588 sank in 10 fathoms of water very near 
Portincross Castle ; and one of its cannon is mounted on 
the Castle Green. In 1826, on a hillside near Hunterston, 
a shepherd found an ancient Celtic gold and silver brooch ; 
and 300 old silver coins, mostly of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, were turned up by the plough in 1871 on 
Chapelton farm. Robert Simson, M.D. (1687-1768), pro- 
fessor of mathematics in Glasgow University, and trans- 
lator and editor of Euclid, and General Robert Boyd, 
lieutenant-governor of Gibraltar during the famous siege 
of that great fortress in 1782, were natives of West 
Kilbride. Mansions are Ardneil, Carlung, Hunterston, 
and Seaview ; and 5 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 14 of between £100 and 
£500, 7 of from £50 to £100, and 15 of from £20 to £50. 
Giving off quoad sacra a fragment to New Ardrossan, 
West Kilbride is in the presbytery of Irvine and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £409. A 
public school, with accommodation for 250 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 195, and a grant of 
£168, 9s. Valuation (1860) £13,115, (1883) £18,590, 3s., 
plus £4954 for railway. Pop. (1801) 795, (1831) 1685, 
(1861) 1968, (1871) 1S80, (1881) 2088, of whom 2058 
were in the ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., shs. 21, 
22, 1870-65. 

Kilbryde Castle, a fine old castle in Dunblane parish, 
Perthshire, picturesquely seated on the right bank of 
Ardoch Burn, 3 miles NW of Dunblane town. Dating 
from 1460, it was long the residence of the Earls of 
Menteith, and, with its barony, was acquired in 1669 
by Sir Colin Campbell of Aberuchill. His fifth de- 
scendant, Sir James Campbell, ninth Bart, since 1627 
(b. 1818 ; sue. 1824), holds 5037 acres in the shire, 
valued at £1949 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Kilbucho. See Bkoughton. 

Kilcadzow, a village, with a public school, in Carluke 
parish, Lanarkshire, 2| miles ESE of Carluke town. 
Pop. (1881) 203. 

Kilcalmkill, an estate, with a mansion, in Clyne parish, 
E Sutherland, on the NE side of Loch Brora, 5 miles 
NW of Brora station. It belonged for three centuries 
to the Gordons of Carrol, and was purchased, about the 
year 1810, by the Duke of Sutherland. Its plantations 
group with Carrol Rock to form a picturesque scene ; 
and it contains a very striking and romantic cascade. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 103, 1878. 

Kilcalmonell and Kilberry, a united coast parish in 
Kintyre and Knapdale, Argyllshire, containing the 
village of Clachan and the greater part of the small 
seaport town of Tarbert, each with a post and telegraph 
office under Greenock. It is bounded N by South Knap- 
dale, E by Loch Fyne and by Saddell and Skipness, S by 
Killean and Kilchenzie, and W by the Atlantic Ocean. 
Its greatest length, from NE to SW, is 14 miles ; its 
breadth varies between 2| and 5 miles; and its area is 
51,183^ acres, of which 837 are foreshore and 680 
water. West Loch Tarbert, striking 10 miles north- 
north-eastward, intersects the interior, and divides 


Kilcalmonell from Eilberry. The W coast of the Knap- 
dale or Kilberry section presents a bold front to the 
billows of the Atlantic, and is indented towards the 
southern extremity by small Loch Stornoway, between 
which bay and Loch Tarbert it terminates in the headland 
of Ardpatrick (265 feet). The Kintyre coast is lower 
and more uniform, comprising a largish aggregate of 
sandy shore, and including several small fishing hamlets 
and harbours, from which boats go out to the herring 
fishery. Of twelve or thirteen fresh-water lakes dotted 
over Kilcalmonell, the largest are Lochs Ciaran (8§ x 3J 
furl. ; 353 feet) and Garasdale (4J x 3J furl. ; 404 feet), 
and both are well stocked with trout. The surface is 
hilly but nowhere mountainous, chief elevations from 
N to S being Cruach an t-Sorchain (1125 feet), Cuoc a* 
Bhaileshios (13S3), Cruach nam Fiadh (882), Creag 
Loisgte (650), and Cruach McGougaiu (S13). Limestone 
occurs, and sea-weed is plentiful. A few of the larger 
farms are very well cultivated, and potatoes form the 
staple article of farm produce ; but cattle and sheep 
grazing is much more important than husbandry. Cairns 
are numerous ; remains exist of the chain of forts that 
formerly defended the communication between Kintyre 
and Knapdale ; and other antiquities, treated in special 
articles, are the forts of Dunskeig and the ruins of 
Tarbert Castle. James Colquhoun Campbell, D.D., 
Bishop of Bangor, was born at Stoneficld in 1S13. The 
principal mansions are Ardpatrick, Ballinakill, Dun- 
more, Kilberry, Ronachan, and Achglashach ; and 7 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 
2 of between £100 and £500, 7 of from £50 to £100, 
and 9 of from £20 to £50. Giving off a portion to the 
quoad sacra parish of Tarbert, this parish is in the 
presbytery of Kintyre and synod of Argyll ; the living is 
worth is £255. There are two churches, served alter- 
nately by the minister — Kilcalmonell (1760 ; 600 sit- 
tings) and Kilberry (1821 ; 700 sittings). There are 
also Free churches of Kilcalmonell (at Tarbert) and of 
Kilberry and South Knapdale ; and four public schools — 
Clachan, Dunmore, Kilberry, and Whitehouse — with 
respective accommodation for 95, 50, 60, and 68 chil- 
dren, had (1SS1) an average attendance of 43, 36, 24, and 
49, and grants of £50, £32, 9s., £29, 12s., and £58, 7s. 6d. 
Valuation (I860) £9913, (1S83) £14,365, 13s. 7d. 
Pop. (1801) 2952, (1831) 34S8, (1S61) 2312, (1871) 
2237, (18S1) 2304, of whom 1616 were Gaelic-speaking, 
and 1043 were in the ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 20, 29, 2S, 1873-83. 

Kilchattan. See Kilbrandon and Jura. 

Kilchattan, a village and a bay in Kingarth parish, 
Bute island, Buteshire. The village, 7 mUes S by E of 
Rothesay, forms a curve round the south-western mar- 
gin of the bay, and chiefly consists of plain small cottages. 
It has a post office under Rothesay ; and a new pier was 
built in 1SS0 at a cost of £2000. Later undertakings 
have been the introduction of water at a cost of £1000, 
and the erection of a large hotel and several villas. 
The bay, measuring If mile across the mouth, and 7 
furlongs thence to its inmost recess, has a semi-circular 
outline, and looks eastward to the S end of Eig Cumbrae. 
On 3 Aug. 1881, 5 lives were lost in it by the sinking of a 
yacht. Pop. of village (1SS1) 343.— Ord. Sur., sk. 21, 1S70. 

Kilchenzie. See Killeax and Kilchenzie. 

Kilchoan, a small harbour and a hamlet, with an 
inn and a public school, on the S coast of Ardnamurchan 
parish, Argyllshire. The harbour confronts the conver- 
gence of Loch Sunart and the Sound of Mull, 6J miles N 
by W of Tobermory, and 21 "W" by S of Salen ; forms 
the principal point of communication between much of 
the mainland and Tobermory ; and is occasionally the 
resort of craft bringing cattle from some of the western 
islands to the mainland. 

Kilchoan, an ancient parish in Nether Lorn district, 
Argyllshire, now united with Kilbrandon and Kilchattan. 
Its name is popularly abbreviated into Coan or Cuan, 
and in that form is applied by the natives to the united 

Kilchoman, a parish in the SW of Islay district, 
Argyllshire. Comprising the south-western peninsula 


of Islay island, between Lochs Indal and Gruinnard, 
two farms beyond the eastern side of that peninsula, 
the islets adjacent to the Rhynns of Islay, and the islets 
near the mouth of Loch Gruinnard, it contains the 
villages of Portnahaven, Port Charlotte, and Port 
Wemyss, each of the two former with a post office under 
Greenock. Its utmost length, from NNE to SSW, is 
16j miles ; its average breadth is 5 miles ; and its area 
is 40,164J acres, of which 2006 are foreshore, and 
868 water. The coast and the interior are fully 
described in our article on Islay ; and the lochs, the 
islets, and the villages are noticed in separate articles. 
Barely an eleventh of the entire area is in tillage, nearly 
all the remainder being pastoral or waste. Mansions 
are Cladville House and Sunderland House ; a light- 
house is on Oversay islet, adjacent to the Rhynns ; and 
the chief anticpuities are several standing stones and 
sepulchral tumuli, remains of five pre-Reformation 
churches, and a finely sculptured cross in the parish 
churchyard. Two proprietors hold each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, 2 of between £100 and £500, and 
3 of from £20 to £50. Divided ecclesiastically into Kil- 
choman proper and Portnahaven, this parish is in the 
presbytery of Islay and Jura and synod of Argyll ; the 
living is worth £200. The parish church, built in 
1826, is a neat edifice, and contains 608 sittings. There 
are also Free churches of Kilchoman and Portnahaven ; and 
six public schools — Gortan, Kilchoman, Kilnave, Port 
Charlotte, Portnahaven, and Rockside — with total accom- 
modation for 528 children, had (1881) an average attend- 
ance of 275, and grants amounting to £289, 12s. 
Valuation (1S60) £8413, (1S83) £11,893, Is. 2d. Pop. 
(1801) 2030, (1831) 4822, (1861) 3436, (1871) 2861, 
(18S1) 2547, of whom 2365 were Gaelic-speaking, and 
1687 belonged to Kilchoman ecclesiastical parish. 

Kilchousland. See Campbeltown, Argyllshire. 

Kilchreggan. See Kilcreggan. 

Kilchrenan, a post-office hamlet and a parish in Lorn 
district, Argyllshire. The hamlet, lying 218 feet above 
sea-level at the NE boundary, is lg mile NNW of 
North Port-Sonachan pier and ferry on Loch Awe, 14J 
WSW of Dalmally, 14£ NNW of Inveraray,^ and S SSE 
of Taynuilt station ; and has fairs on the Friday in May 
and the Thursday in October before Oban. 

The present parish, comprising the ancient parishes of 
Kilchrenan to the N and Dalavioh to the S, and extend- 
ing along both sides of the middle reaches of Loch Awe, 
is bounded NE by Glenorchy-Inishail, SE by Inveraray, 
SW by Kilmichael-Glassary and Kilmartin, and NW 
by Kilninver - Kilmelfort and Ardchattan-Muckairn. 
Its utmost length, from NE to SW, is 13J miles ; its 
width, from N W to SE, varies between 2\ and 8i miles ; 
and its area is 23, 439 \ acres, of which 2208* are water. 
From a point 4 \ miles below its head, Loch Awe (22J x 3 
furl, to Z\ miles ; 118 feet) stretches 12J miles north- 
north-eastward, its width here ranging between 3 and 
9J furlongs. Loch Avioh (3£ miles x 5| furl. ; 311 
feet) sends off a stream 1^ mile east-by-southward to 
Loch Awe ; Loch Nant (74 x 2J furl. ; 605 feet) lies 
on the Muckairn boundary ; and forty-five smaller lochs 
and tarns are dotted over the interior and along the 
confines of the parish. The surface, hilly everywhere 
but hardly mountainous, culminates at 1777 feet on the 
south-eastern, and 1407 on the south-western, boundary. 
Lesser heights are Cruach Achadh na Craoibhe (907 
feet), Bealach Mor (846), Maol Mor (1202), and Meall 
Odhar (1255) to the NW, Tom Barra (1052) and Creag 
Ghranda (1406) to the SE, of Loch Awe. Slate is the 
principal rock. Some excellent arable land and natural 
pasturage, with not a little valuable wood, are on the 
shores of the lake ; and the heather that once clothed all 
the hills has, since the introduction of sheep-farming, 
often given place to grass. Mansions, noticed separately, 
are Eredine and Sonachan ; and 2 proprietors hold each 
an annual value of more, 8 of less, than £500. Kil- 
chrenan and Dalavich is in the presbytery of Lorn and 
synod of Argyll ; the living is worth £217. The parish 
church, at Kilchrenan hamlet, and Dalavich chapel of 
ease, near the W shore of Loch Awe, 9 miles SSW, were 



both built about 1771. Three new public schools — Ard- 
chonnel, Dalavich, and Kilchrenan — with respective 
accommodation for 40, 40, and 60 children, had (1881) 
an average attendance of 32, 8, and 33, and grants of 
£35, 10s., £16, 19s. 6d., and £41, 16s. 6d. Valuation 
(1860) £4816, (1883) £6045, lis. 4d. Pop. (1801) 1052, 
(1831) 1096, (1861) 615, (1871) 484, (1881)504, of whom 
444 were Gaelic-speaking. — Orel. Stir., shs. 45, 47, 1876. 

Kilchrist, an ancient parish of SE Ross-shire, now 
annexed to Urray. Its ruined church, a little N of the 
Muir of Ord, adjacent to the boundary with Inverness- 
shire, was the scene in 1603 of the merciless burning of 
a whole congregation of the Mackenzies by the Mac- 
donells of Glengarry, whose piper marched round the 
building, mocking the shrieks of its hapless inmates 
with the pibroch since known, under the name of 
'Kilchrist,' as the family tune of the Clanranald of 
Glengarry.— Ord. Sur., ah. 83, 1881. 

Kilchrist, Kirkcudbrightshire. See Kirkchrist. 

Kilchurn Castle, a ruined stronghold in Glenorchy 
parish, Argyllshire, on a rocky elevation, alternately 
peninsula and island, at the influx of the confluent 
Orchy and Strae to Loch Awe, 2| miles W by N of 
Dalmally. Its site, once occupied by a stronghold of 
the Macgregors, passed first to Sir Duncan Campbell 
of Lochow, ancestor of the Dukes of Argyll, and next 
to his younger son, Sir Colin Campbell, a knight of 
Rhodes, who founded the noble family of Breadalbane. 
The five-storied keep was built by Sir Colin in 1440, 
or, according to an Odysseyan legend, by his lady, 
■whilst he himself was absent on a crusade to Palestine. 
Crusade there was none for more than a hundred years 
earlier, so that one may take for what it is worth the 
further assertion that she levied a tax of seven years' 
rent upon her tenants to defray the cost of erection. 
Anyhow, the S side of the castle is assigned to the 
beginning of the 16th century ; and the N side, the 
largest and the most elegant portion, was erected in 
1615 by the first Earl of Breadalbane. The entire pile 
forms an oblong quadrangle, with one corner truncated, 
and each of the other towers flanked by round hanging 
turrets ; was inhabited by the Breadalbane family till 
the year 1740 ; and five years later was garrisoned by 
Hanoverian troops. Now a roofless ruin, but carefully 
preserved from the erosions of time and weather, it 
ranks as the grandest of the baronial ruins of the Wes- 
tern Highlands, and figures most picturesquely amid the 
magnificent scenery of the foot of Loch Awe, immediately 
overhung by the stupendous masses of Ben Cruachan. 
Wordsworth, who passed by here on 31 Aug. 1803, ad- 
dressed some noble lines to Kilchurn Castle, — 

' Child of loud-throated War ! the mountain stream 
Roars in thy hearing: ; but thy hour of rest 
Is come, and thou are silent in thy age. . . . 
. . . Shade of departed power. 
Skeleton of unfleshed humanity, 
The chronicle were welcome that should call 
Into the compass of distinct regard 
The toils and struggles of thy infant years ! 
Yon foaming flood seems motionless as ice ; 
Its dizzy turbulence eludes the eye, 
Frozen by distance ; so, majestic pile, 
To the perception of this Age appear 
Thy fierce beginnings, softened and subdued, 
And quieted in character — the strife, 
The pride, the fury uncontrollable 
Lost on the aerial heights of the Crusades ! ' 

See pp. 138-142 of Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour in Scot- 
land {187 i) ; chap. ii. of Alex. Smith's Summer in Sky c 
(1865); pp. 215-219 of P. G. Hamerton's Painter's Camp 
in the Highlands (1862) ; and pp. 38-41 of R. Buchanan's 
Eebrid Isles (1883).— Ord. Sur., sh. 45, 1876. 

Kilcolmkill, an ancient parish in the southern ex- 
tremity of Kintyre, Argyllshire, united with Kilblane 
to form the present parish of Southend. The chief 
localities in it are noticed under Keil and Kiels, a con- 
traction for Kilcolmkill. 

Kilcolmkill. See Morvekn. 

Kilcolmkill, Sutherland. See Kilcalmkill. 

Kilconquhar, a post-office village and a coast parish 
in the East Neuk of Fife. The village stands on the 


northern shore of Kilconquhar Loch, and J mile NE of 
Kilconquhar station on the East Fife section of the 
North British, this being 1J mile NW of Elie and 12J 
E by N of Thornton Junction. Pop., with the NW 
suburb of Barnyards, (1861) 300, (1871) 381, (1881) 350. 
The parish, containing also the villages or hamlets 
of Earlsfeeey, Colinsburgh, Largoward, Williams- 
burgh, and Liberty, once comprehended the barony of St 
Monance and the parish of Elie. It now is bounded 
NE by Cameron, E by Carnbee and Abercrombie, S by 
Elie and the Firth of Forth, W by Elie (detached), New- 
burn, and Largo, and NW by Ceres. Its utmost length, 
from NNW to SSE, is 7| miles ; its breadth varies 
between 3 furlongs and 2J miles ; and its area is 7271J 
acres, of which 96J are water and 279J foreshore. The 
coast, extending 3| miles along Largo, Elie, and two 
smaller intermediate bays, is partly fringed by low, flat 
sandy links, but rises abruptly to 200 feet above sea- 
level at Kincraig Hill, from which the surface descends 
gradually to the plain between the railway and Colins- 
burgh. Thence it rises again with gentle northward 
ascent to 300 feet near Balcarres, 500 at Kilbrackmont 
Craigs, 600 near Largoward, and 750 at Dunnikier 
Law. Den or Cocklemill Burn, which enters the 
Firth at the western boundary, is the principal stream- 
let ; and Kilconquhar Loch, measuring 4 by 3 furlongs, 
is a beautiful fresh-water lake, wooded on three sides, 
and very deep in places. Swans haunt it still, as in 
the days of the Witch of Pittenweem, when — 

' They took her to Kinneuchar Loch, 
And threw the limmer iu ; 
And a' the swans took to the hills, 
Scared wi' the unhaely din.' 

All the area S of the Peres and Kilbrackmont ravine 
is drained southward by a brook bearing various names, 
and terminating in Cocklemill Burn ; and the area N 
of the ravine, is drained into the basin of the Eden. 
The parish is rich in charming scenery of its own ; and 
many vantage grounds command magnificent views over 
the basins of the Forth and Tay. Partly eruptive 
and partly carboniferous, the rocks exhibit juxtaposi- 
tions and displacements highly interesting to geologists ; 
and they include columnar basalt, sandstone, ironstone, 
shale, coal, and limestone, the two last of which have 
been long and largely worked. The soil of most of the 
coast district is light loam mixed with sand, and else- 
where is variously argillaceous loam, black loam, rich 
alluvium, and light, sharp, fertile, sandy earth. With 
the exception of some 700 acres of wood and plantation, 
the links, and a few rocky spots, the entire area is either 
under tillage or in a state of drained, enclosed, and im- 
proved pasture. Kilconquhar House, j mile NE of the 
village and 1J ESE of Colinsburgh, is the seat of John- 
Trotter Bethune. who, born in 1827, succeeded as second 
Baronet in 1851, and in 1878 established his claim to 
the titles of Lord Lindsay of the Byres (ere. 1464), Earl 
of Lindsay (1633), Viscount of Garnock (1703), etc. He 
holds 2205 acres in the shire, valued at £5548 per 
annum. His father, Major-General Sir Henry Lindesay- 
Bethune (1787-1S51), distinguished himself in Persia, 
and received a baronetcy in 1836. Balcarres, a mansion 
of singular interest, is noticed separately ; and others 
are Cairnie, Charleton, Falfield, and Lathallan. In all, 
8 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 8 of between £100 and £500, 3 of from £50 to 
£100, and 29 of from £20 to £50. Giving off a portion 
to the quoad sacra parish of Largoward, Kilconquhar is 
in the presbytery of St Andrews and synod of Fife ; the 
living is worth £350, exclusive of a manse and glebe. The 
parish church, on a knoll at the W end of the village, is a 
handsome Gothic edifice of 1S20-21, with 1035 sittings 
and a square tower 80 feet high. There is also a U.P. 
church at Colinsburgh ; and three public schools — Colins- 
burgh, Earlsferry, and Kilconquhar — with respective 
accommodation for 125, 103, and 145 children, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 81, 61, and 80, and 
grants of £76, 14s. 6d., £54, 13s. 6d., and £75, 9s. 
Valuation (1S60) £15,656, (18S3) £17,267, 17s. lid. 



Pop. (1801) 2005, (1841) 2605, (1861) 2431, (1871) 201S, 
(1881) 2053, of whom 1471 were in the ecclesiastical 
parish. — Ord. Stir., sh. 41, 1857. 

Kilcoy, a hamlet in Killearnan parish, SE Ross-shire, 
8 miles WNW of Inverness. It has a cattle fair on the 
Monday in May after Amulree. The lands of Kilcoy, 
lying around the hamlet and along the Beauly Firth, 
were acquired in 1618 by Alexander Mackenzie, fourth 
son of the eleventh Baron of Kintail, and now belong 
to his eighth descendant, Sir Evan Mackenzie, second 
Bart, since 1836 (b. 1816 ; sue. 1S45), who holds 24,65S 
acres in the shire, valued at £7258 per annum. Kilcoy 
Castle, now a ruin, was the birthplace of the distin- 
guished Lieutenant-General Alex. Mackenzie Fraser of 
Inveralloehy, who died in 1809. A cairn, to the N of 
the ruined mansion, is encompassed with circles of 
standing stones, and is one of the largest cairns in the 
Nof Scotland.— Ord. Sur., sh. 83, 1881. 

Kilcreggan, a coast village in Roseneath parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, at the SE side of the entrance to Loch 
Long, directly opposite Gourock, 2J miles E of Strone, 
and 3 J NW of Greenock. Named after an ancient chapel 
now extinct, and dating from 1840, it extends nearly 
1 mile along the beach, and mainly consists of villas 
and pretty cottages, commanding charming views along 
the Firth of Clyde. It may well compete in amenities, 
in the delights of retirement, and in advantages of com- 
munication and supplies, with the other watering-places 
on the Clyde ; is a place of call for the steamers plying 
from Greenock to Kilmun, Lochgoilhead, and Arrochar ; 
and has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
insurance, and telegraph departments, a steamboat pier, 
a recent water supply, a chapel of ease (1872), Roseneath 
Free church (built soon after the Disruption), a U.P. 
church (c. 1S66), and a public school. The police burgh 
of Cove and Kilcreggan curves, from the W end of 
Kilcreggan proper, north-westward and northward, up 
to a point on Loch Long, 24; miles NE of Strone Point ; 
and was constituted by adoption of part of the General 
Police and Improvement Act of 1862. Its municipal con- 
stituency numbered 238 in 18S3, when the annual value 
of real property amounted to £12,000, whilst its revenue, 
including assessments, was £900 in 1882. Pop. (1871) 
878, (1881) 816.— Ord. Sur., shs. 30, 29, 1S66-73. 

Kildalloig, a mansion in Campbeltown parish, Argyll- 
shire, on the S horn of Campbeltown Bay, opposite 
Devar island, and 3J miles ESE of the town. Its owner, 
Sir Norman Montgomery Abercromby Campbell, ninth 
Bart, since 1623 (b. 1846 ; sue. 1875), holds 1340 acres 
in the shire, valued at £380 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
12, 1S72. 

Kildalton, a parish in Islay district, Argyllshire. It 
comprises the south-eastern part of Islay island ; is 
bounded on the NW by Killarrow and Kilmeny ; in- 
cludes Texa, Cavrach, and Inersay islets, the Ardelister 
islands, and the islets off Ardmore Point ; and contains 
the village of Port Ellen, with a post and telegraph office 
under Greenock. Its utmost length, from NNE to SSW, 
is 18 miles ; its utmost breadth is 8 miles ; and its 
area is 48, 380 J acres, of which 662J are foreshore and 
559J water. The coasts and the interior have alike 
been described in our article on Islay. The extent of 
land under cultivation bears but a small proportion to 
what is waste and reclaimable. A great many acres in 
the NE are under brushwood, and a good many acres 
are under nourishing plantations. A principal modern 
building is a handsome light monumental tower, 80 feet 
high, erected to the memory of Mrs Campbell of Islay ; 
and the chief antiquities are remains of two Scandi- 
navian forts, of the last Islay stronghold of the Mac- 
donalds, and of four pre-Reformation chapels. Kildalton, 
the principal residence, 5 miles NE of Port Ellen, is the 
seat of John Ramsay, Esq., M.P. (b. 1814), who holds 
54,250 acres in the shire, valued at £S226 per annum. 
Divided ecclesiastically into Kildalton proper and Oa, 
this parish is in the presbytery of Islay and Jura and 
synod of Argyll ; the living is worth £231. The parish 
church, near Ardmore Point, was built in 1777, and 
contains 450 sittings. There is a Free church of Kil- 

dalton and Oa ; and five public schools — Ardbeg, Glen- 
egidale, Kintour, Oa, and Port Ellen — with respective 
accommodation for 92, 66, 40, 70, and 250 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 49, 19, 17, 22, and 
145, and grants of £40, 14s., £33, 18s. 6d., £30, 2s. 6d., 
£30, 16s., and £88, 13s. Valuation (1S60) £5783, (1883) 
£10,033, 17s. 9d. Pop. (1801) 1990, (1841) 3315, (1861) 
2950, (1871) 2283, (1881) 2271, of whom 2127 were Gaelic- 
speaking, and 2024 were in Kildalton ecclesiastical parish. 

Kildary, a hamlet in Kilmuir-Easter parish, Ross- 
shire, on the right bank of the Balnagown, with a 
station on the Highland railway, 5J miles NE of Inver- 
gordon. It has fairs for live stock on the Tuesday 
before the third Thursday of July, and on the Tuesday 
of each of the other eleven months before Beauly. Near 
it is Kildary House. The Balnagown here is crossed by 
an elegant railway viaduct of 50 feet in span, with a 14- 
feet archway at the N end. — Ord. Sur,, sh. 94, 1878. 

Kildonan (Gael. ' church of St Donnan '), a parish of 
E Sutherland, containing the coast village of Helms- 
dale, with a station on the Sutherland and Caithness 
railway, 46 miles SSW of Georgemas Junction, 82| 
NNE of Dingwall, and 101 J NNE of Inverness. Con- 
taining also the stations and post offices of Kildonan 
and Kinbrace, 9A miles WNW and 16f NW of Helms- 
dale, it is bounded W by Farr, N by Farr and Reay, 
NE by Halkirk and Latheron in Caithness, SE by the 
German Ocean, S by Loth, and SW by Clyne. Its 
utmost length, from NW to SE, is 25| miles ; its width 
varies between 4J and 14J miles ; and its area is 210 
square miles or 138,406§ acres, of which 169 are foreshore 
and 3922§ water. The coast, 4§ miles in extent, is an 
almost unbroken line of rock or rough gravel, preci- 
pitous only towards the NE, where it rises rapidly to 
652 feet at the Ord of Caithness. On or near to the 
western border, at an altitude of 392 feet, is a chain of 
three lakes — Loch nan Cuinne (3 miles x f mile), Loch 
a' Chlair (1 J x 1 mile), and Loch Baddanloch (li mile x 7 
furl.), out of which the Allt Ach' na h-Uai' flows 4 J 
miles east-south-eastward, through Loch-na-moine (7x3 
furl. ; 377 feet), till it falls iuto the river Helmsdale at 
a point 1J mile SSW of Kinbrace station, and 330 feet 
above sea-level. The Helmsdale itself is formed by the 
confluence of two head-streams, of which the Allt 
Airidh-dhamh runs 6j miles south-south-eastward out 
of Loch Leum a' Chlamhain (If x A mile; 770 feet), 
and through Loch Araich-lin (6J x 2A, furl. ; 451 feet), 
whilst the other flows 2| miles south-by-westward out 
of Loch an Ruathair (li, x | mile ; 415 feet). From 
the confluence of these two streams, at a point 3 fur- 
longs N by W of Kinbrace station and 362 feet above 
sea-level, the Helmsdale or Hie (Ptolemy's Ila) flows 
20| miles south-eastward along the Strath of Kildonan, 
till it falls into the sea at Helmsdale village. 'The 
Helmsdale,' writes Mr Archibald Young, 'and the 
numerous lochs connected with its basin, afford perhaps 
the best trout angling in Scotland. The spring salmon 
fishing is excellent. In 1878, up to 1 May, five rods 
killed 250 fish. Among the lochs, Loch Leum a' 
Chlamhain, Baddanloch, and Loch an Ruathair afford 
the best angling. In these three lochs the writer and 
two friends in live days killed with the fly 600 front, 
weighing over 400 lbs. The best day's sport was got in 
Loch Leum a' Chlamhain, at the foot of Ben Griarn 
Mhor, whose summit commands one of the finest views 
in Sutherland ; the eye, on a clear day, sweeping over 
the counties of Caithness and Sutherland, the Pentland 
Firth, and the Orkney Islands' (pp. 32-34, Angler's 
and Skctclicr's Guide to Sutherland, 1880). The surface 
mainly consists of pastoral or moorish uplands, chief 
elevations to the NE of the Helmsdale and the Baddan- 
loch chain of lakes, as one goes up the strath, being 
Creag an Oir-airidh (1324 feet), *Creag Scalabsdale 
(1S19), Beinn Dubhain (1365), Auchintoul Hill (1135), 
the *Knockfin Heights (1442), *Ben Gkiam Bheag 
(1903), and Ben Griam Mhor (1936); to the SW, 
Eldrable Hill (133S), *Beinn na Meilich (1940), *Beinn 
na h-Urrachd (2046), Creag nam Fiadh (1273), and the 
"northern shoulder (2250) of Ben an Akmttinn, where 



asterisks mark those summits that culminate on the 
confines of the parish. The predominant rocks are 
granite, syenite, gneiss, mica-slate, and porphyry. In 
1868-69 the discovery of gold in the drift of the river 
Helmsdale ' created great commotion in the north of 
Scotland. The intelligence of the discovery spread at 
telegraphic speed all over the country ; and thousands 
of people, from every part of the kingdom, flocked to 
the newly-found gold-field. A "city of tents" was 
erected in the centre of the auriferous district ; " claims " 
were allotted, and "cradles" mounted; and digging 
was commenced with much enthusiasm. At the outset 
a fair return was obtained, but it soon began to fail ; 
and, having become unremunerative, the Duke of Suther- 
land closed the "claims," and dispersed the diggers. 
The total value of the gold found was about £6000.' 
Round Helmsdale the soil is light but fertile, whilst up 
the Strath of Kildonan there are several small haughs 
of similar soil, with rather less sand, which yield good 
crops of oats and turnips. The soil on the higher banks 
along this strath consists of reddish gritty sand and 
peat-earth, in which are embedded numerous detached 
pieces of granite or pudding-stone. The bulk of the 
agricultural population was displaced by the introduc- 
tion of sheep-farming between 1811 and 1831, but it 
was mainly removed to the coast district, which then 
belonged to Loth parish ; and, by the annexation of 
that district to Kildonan prior to 1851, the balance of 
population for Kildonan parish was more than restored. 
Since 1877 the Duke of Sutherland has been reclaiming 
1300 acres of moor near Kinbrace station, with the 
steam-plough and other machinery expressly adapted 
to the work, at a cost of from £15 to £20 per acre. 
The object in view is to provide winter feed for sheep, 
and the scheme hitherto has proved highly successful, 
inasmuch as ' the sheep from this newly-reclaimed land 
are the best Scotch mutton in the market, and fetch a 
price not touched by any others, viz. 8Jd. per lb. ' (pp. 
40-47, Trails. Eighl. and Ag. Soc, 18S0). Ancient 
tumuli are numerous ; and remains of circular or Pictish 
towers are in several places. The Duke of Sutherland 
owns more than six-sevenths of the entire property, 3 
others holding each an annual value of more, and 6 of 
less, than £50. Kildonan is in the presbytery of Dor- 
noch and synod of Sutherland and Caithness ; the living 
is worth £267. The old parish church, near Kildonan 
station, was dedicated to that St Donnan who has been 
noticed under Egg, and belonged in pre-Keformation 
days to the abbots of Scone. The present church, at 
Helmsdale village, is a large and substantial edifice 
of 1841. There are also Free churches of Helmsdale 
and Kildonan ; and two public schools at Helmsdale, 
East and West, with respective accommodation for 167 
and 180 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 
79 and 89, and grants of £55, 5s. and £75, 13s. 
Valuation (1860) £4763, (1882) £9522, plus £1709 for 
24 miles of railway. Pop. (1801) 1440, (1831) 237, 
(1861) 2132, (1871) 1916, (1881) 1942, of whom 1146 
were Gaelic-speaking.— Ord. Sur., shs. 103, 109, 1878. 

Kildonan, a village in the N¥ of the Isle of Skye, In- 
verness-shire. Its post-town is Arnisort, under Portree. 

Kildonan, an estate, with a mansion, in Colmonell 
parish, Ayrshire, f mile NW of Ban-hill station. It 
belongs to the Episcopal Fund Trustees. 

Kildonan Castle, an old square tower at the south- 
eastern extremity of Arran island, Buteshire, on a pre- 
cipitous sea-cliff nearly opposite Pladden island, and 
10J miles S of Lamlash. Occupying the site of a 
Dalriadan fortalice, it was originally the residence of a 
branch of the Clan Macdonald, but it seems to have 
served mainly as one of a line of watch-towers, extending 
along the coast of the Firth of Clyde. A largish plain 
lies around the cliff on which it stands, and is called 
Kildonan Plain ; and here are a post office, a mansion, 
and a stone circle. — Ord. Sur., sh. 13, 1870. 

Kildrummy, a hamlet and a parish of W central 

Aberdeenshire. The hamlet, near the Don's left bank, 

is 10 miles W by N of Alford station, and 6J SSW of 

Rhynie ; it has a branch of the Aberdeen Town and 



County Bank, and an inn, whilst near it is Mossat post 
office under Aberdeen. 

The parish is bounded N and NE by Auchindoir, 
E by Tullynessle, SE by Leochel-Cushnie, S by Towie, 
W by detached sections of Strathdon and Towie, and 
NW by Cabrach. With an irregular outline, deeply 
indented by Auchindoir and Kearn, it has an ut- 
most length from WNW to ESE of 7g miles, an ut- 
most breadth of 5| miles, and an area of 10,396 acres, 
of which 44J are water. The Don winds 1 J mile north- 
north-westward along the boundary with Towie, 2J 
miles through the interior, and If mile along the Auchin- 
doir border, which higher up is traced by the Don's 
tributary, Mossat Burn ; and head-streams of the Water 
of Bogie rise and run in the NW. Where the Don 
quits the parish, the surface declines to 560 feet above 
sea-level, thence rising southward to 747 feet at wooded 
Coillebharr Hill, westward and north-westward to 1500 
at Broom Hill, 2368 at the Buck of Cabeach, and 
1611 at Clova Hill. Granite rocks, and rocks akin there- 
to, predominate in the uplands ; whilst sandstone of very 
fine quality is in the low district. The soil on the hills 
affords excellent pasture ; and that in the valleys is 
mostly a rich deep gravelly loam, reputed to be among 
the most fertile in the county. A variety of oat, called 
the Kildrummy oat, with a thin light character, and 
abundance of straw, ripens about a week earlier than 
other approved varieties of oat, and is very suitable to 
high situations, having long been diffused and appreci- 
ated through many parts of Scotland. A considerable 
extent of natural birch wood overhangs a burn that 
flows to the Don, and a fair amount of plantations occu- 
pies other ground. Kildrummy Castle, 1J mile SW of 
the village, crowns a rocky eminence flanked by two 
ravines, and covers an area of 1 acre, with outworks 
occupying fully 2 more. Surrounded by an assem- 
blage of knolls whose intersecting glens and hollows are 
overhung on every side by lofty uplands, it once was 
a seat of the kings of Scotland, and in 1306 was be- 
sieged and captured by Edward I. of England. Early 
in the 14th century it passed to the Lords Erskine, 
Earls of Mar ; served then as the administrative capital 
of both Mar and Garioch districts ; and underwent dis- 
mantlement and much damage in the times of Crom- 
well's wars. A hatching-place of the rebellion of 1715, 
it was forfeited by John, Earl of Mar, in the following 
year, and since 1731 has belonged to the Gordons of 
Waedhouse. The original structure consisted of one 
great circular tower, said to have been built in the time 
of Alexander II., and to have risen to the height of 150 
feet ; later it comprised a system of seven towers, of 
different form and magnitude, with intermediate build- 
ings, all arranged on an irregular pentagonal outline 
round an enclosed court. It retains, in the middle of 
one of its sides, large portions of a chapel, with a three- 
light E window, similar to that in Elgin cathedral ; and 
is now an imposing ruin, one of the most interesting in 
the North of Scotland. Other antiquities are several 
' eirde-houses. ' The House of Clova, If mile W of Lums- 
den, and 6 miles SSW of Rhynie, is a large mansion, 
with finely wooded grounds ; its owner, Hugh Gordon 
Lumsden, Esq. (b. 1850 ; sue. 1859), holds 15,499 acres 
in the shire, valued at £6687 per annum. Another 
mansion is Kildrummy Cottage, Elizabethan in style ; 
and, in all, 3 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of more, 7 of less, than £100. Kildrummy is in 
the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen ; the 
living is worth £207. The church, at the village, is an 
ancient edifice, containing 300 sittings ; beneath its S 
aisle is a burial vault of the Mar family. Clova Roman 
Catholic church of Our Lady and St Moluog, J mile 
from the mansion, is a building of 1880, designed by Mr 
Lumsden himself after the model of the ancient English 
churches. A public school, with accommodation for 130 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 98, and 
a grant of £85, 17s. Valuation (1860) £3351, (1882) 
£4234, 10s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 430, (1831) 678, (1S61) 
590, (1871) 660, (1881) 656.— Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 
Kilearnadale and Kilchatian. See Jura. 


Kilfinan, a village and a parish in Cowal district, 
Argyllshire, The village, standing j mile inland from 
Killinan Bay, on the E side of Loch Fyne, and 5| miles 
NffW of Tighnabruaich, has a post office under Greenock; 
and enjoys ample communication with the Clyde by 
means of the Loch Fyne and other steamers. 

The parish, containing also the village of Tighna- 
bruaich, is bounded N by Stralachlan, NE by Kil- 
modan, E by Loch Riddon and the Kyles of Bute, S by 
the convergence of the Kyles of Bute and Kilbrannan 
Sound, and W and NW by Loch Fyne. Its utmost 
length, from N by W to S by E, is 14§ miles ; its 
utmost breadth, from E to W, is 5J miles ; and its 
area is 33,763 acres, of which 12S8 are foreshore and 
174 water. The coast, with a total extent of 28J 
miles, terminates at the southern extremity in Ard- 
lamont Point, and elsewhere is diversified by a number 
of smaller headlands and bays, including, particularly on 
its W side, Kilfinan, Auchalick, and Kilbride Bays. In 
some parts it is steep and rocky, in others sloping or 
gradually declivitous, and in others low and arable. 
The interior, for the most part, is very rugged, with 
numerous hills running N and S, but it is interspersed 
with arable vales and hollows, and the hills are not 
remarkable for either height or contour. The principal 
summits, from S to N, are Cnocan a' Chorra (414 feet), 
Cnoc na Carraige (680), Creag Mhor (869), Beinn Capuill 
(1419), Beinn Bhreae (1488), Cruach Kilfinan (106S), 
Barr Ganuisg (507), Meall Rearnhar (947), and Cruach 
nan Gearran (1230) ; and most of these command splendid 
views of the Kyles of Bute, the lower reaches of Loch 
Fj'ne, and the lower parts of Knapdale across to the 
Hebrides. The northern division of the parish is called 
Otter, from a singular sand-bank noticed separately. 
The southern is known as Kerriff or Kerry, signifying 
' a quarter ' or ' fourth-part ' ; and, as it is by far the 
larger division, and contains the parish church, it often 
gives name to the entire parish. Loch na Melldalloch 
(4 x 1J furl.) and Loch Asgog (4x2 furl.) lie re- 
spectively 3 and 6 miles S by E of Kilfinan village, 
and both are well stored with trout. Mica slate is the 
prevailing rock, but trap occurs in two or three places, 
and limestone abounds in the N. The soil on low level 
tracts near the sea is mostly of fine light sharp character, 
on pretty extensive tracts further inland is mossy, and 
elsewhere is very various» Barely one-twelfth of the 
entire area is in tillage, a very great extent is disposed in 
pasture, and a considerable aggregate is clothed with 
natural wood. Antiquities are remains of cairns, Cale- 
donian stone circles, several dunes, and Lamont Castle. 
At Karnes is a gunpowder factory. The mansions are 
Ardlamont, Ardmarnoek, Ballimore, and Otter ; and 5 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 3 of between £100 and £500, 10 of from £50 to 
£100, and 28 of from £20 to £50. Kilfinan is in the 
presbytery of Dunoon and synod of Argyll ; the living 
is worth £312. The parish church, at the village, was 
almost wholly rebuilt in 1759, and, with the excep- 
tion of the outside walls, was entirely renovated and re- 
arranged in 1882. It contains 200 sittings, and is a 
very neat and comfortable church. A quoad sacra 
church is at Tighnabruaich, a mission church is at Kil- 
bride, and there are also Free churches of Kilfinan and 
Tighnabruaich. Five public schools — Ardlamont, Kil- 
finan, Millhouse, Otter, and Tighnabruaich — with respec- 
tive accommodation for 23, 80, 136, 37, and 156 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 12, 27, 93, 12, and 
107, and grants of £26, 4s., £38, 13s., £54, 2s. 8d., 
£25, lis., and £89, 7s. Valuation (1860) £5150, (1883) 
£15,129, lis. 4d. Pop. (1801) 1432, (1831) 2004, (1861) 
1891, (1871) 2228, (1881) 2153, of whom 1377 were 
Gaelic-speaking. — Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 1873. 

Kilfinichen and Kilvickeon, a parish in the Mull 
district of Argyllshire. Comprising the south-western 
parts of Mull island, the inhabited islands of Iona, 
Earraid, and Inchkenneth, and several neighbouring 
uninhabited islets, it contains the villages of Bonessan 
and Iona, each with a post office under Oban, and enjoys 
communication by means of the steamers sailing from 


Oban round Mull. It comprehends several of the 
numerous parishes into which Mull was anciently 
divided, anil formed only a part of the one parish into 
which all that district was thrown at the Deformation, 
but was curtailed by the separate erection of Kilninian 
and Kilmore parish in 1688, and of Torosay parish 
about 172S, when it took the name of Kilfinichen and 
Kilvickeon, from two churches which stood on the cen- 
tral and the southern parts of the coast of its Mull main- 
land section. It is naturally divided, in that section, into 
the north-eastern district of Brolass, the central district 
of Ardmeanach, and the south-western district of Ross ; 
and, in consequence of the last of these districts being 
the most prominent of the three, the entire parish is 
often called Ross. It is bounded N by Kilninian and 
Kilmore, E by Torosay, and on all other sides by the 
Atlantic Ocean. Its utmost length, from NE to SW, 
is 23 miles ; its utmost breadth, exclusive of the islands, 
is 18 miles; and its area is 62,730 acres, of which 
24855 are foreshore and 302J water. The islands 
and all the prominent places and objects are noticed in 
separate articles ; and the coasts, the surface, and the 
general features of the Mull mainland section are noticed 
in the article Mull. Loch-na-Keal, containing Inch- 
kenneth island, forms nearly all the boundary with 
Kilninian and Kilmore ; a line of mountain watershed 
forms the boundary with Torosay ; a reach of hills, of 
no great height, forms the inner boundary of Brolass 
district ; and Loch Scridain forms most of the boundary 
between Ardmeanach and Ross districts. Benmore 
(3185 feet), the monarch mountain of Mull, lifts its 
summit on the boundary with Torosay ; Gribon pro- 
montory, with lofty cliffs and receding trap terraces 
that rise to an altitude of 1621 feet, forms much of the 
coast and seaboard of Ardmeanach ; the Ross of Mull 
projects 7 miles further W than the most westerly point 
of Gribon, and terminates within 1 mile of Iona ; Ard- 
tun headland, of grand basaltic character, projects from 
the Ross at the mouth of Loch Scridain ; Inniemore 
headland, also grandly basaltic, and forming part of a 
magnificent reach of cliffs, is on the S coast of Ross 
district, 16 miles E of Iona ; two most imposing and 
picturesque natural archways, called the Carsaig Arches, 
are on the same coast further E ; and Loch Bur, over- 
hung at the head by the grand isolated mountain of 
Ben Buy (2352 feet), is on the sea-boundary with 
Torosay. Three lakes are in Ross — the largest of them 
not more than 1$ mile in length and \ mile in breadth. 
Six rivulets are in Brolass and Ardmeanach, and, 
although brief in course, acquire such volume and 
velocity in times of rain as sometimes to be impassable. 
Numerous other torrents run either to these rivulets or 
to the ocean ; and hundreds of streamlets rush or leap 
down the rocks of Burg, Gribon, Inniemore, and Carsaig. 
Much of the land is barren mountain ; the greater part 
is hilly, and fit at best for grazing ; a comparatively 
small proportion is flat, and part of even that is moss 
or heath. The soil, throughout the arable tracts, is 
chiefly light and dry ; and generally produce sufficient 
meal and potatoes for local consumption, sometime even 
for exportatiou. Cattle grazing, sheep farming, and 
fishing are the chief employments. Antiquities are stand- 
ing stones, Scandinavian round towers, a small ruined 
church on Inchkenneth, the sketches on the walls of 
Unns Cave at the Ross of Mull, and the famous ruins and 
monuments of Iona. Mansions are Inchkenneth House, 
Inniemore Lodge, Pennycross, Pennyghael, Tavool, 
and Tiroran ; and the Duke of Argyll is chief pro- 
prietor, 3 others holding each an annual value of more, 
and 4 of less, than £100. Divided ecclesiastically be- 
tween Kilfinichen and Iona, this parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Mull and synod of Argyll ; the living is worth 
£252. Kilvickeon parish church stands at Bonessan 
in Ross — Kilfinichen parish church on the Loch Scridain 
coast of Ardmeanach, 10 miles ENE of Bonessan ; both 
were built in 1804, and they contain respectively 350 
and 300 sittings. Two other Established places of wor- 
ship are within the parish ; and they and the two 
churches are served, in certain rotation, partly by the 




parish minister and partly by a missionary. A Free 
Church preaching station is in Kilfinichen, and a small 
Baptist meeting-house in Kilvickeon. Four public 
schools — Bonessan, Creich, Iona, and Pennyghael — 
with respective accommodation for 114, 128, 79, and 60 
children, had (1881) an average attendance of 74, 76, 39, 
and 19, and grants of £56, 5s., £72, 19s., £39, 3s. 6d., 
and £35, Is. Valuation (1860) £5150, (1883) £8599, 
3s. 9d. Pop. of civil parish (1811) 3205, (1841) 4102, 
(1861) 2518, (1871) 2448, (1881) 1982, of whom 1838 
were Gaelic-speaking; of ecclesiastical parish (1881)1277. 

Kilfinnan. See Kilfinan. 

Kilgour, an ancient parish of Fife, now incorporated 
with Falkland. Its church, 2J miles W by 1ST of Falk- 
land town, was a building of 40 by 16 feet, with chancel ; 
and its burying-ground continued to be used till the 
beginning of the present century. About 1825, however, 
the foundations of the church were dug up and removed 
to fill up drains, an ancient stone coffin was turned into 
a water-trough, and the graveyard was ploughed over. 

Kilgrammie. See Dailly. 

Kilgraston, an estate, with a mansion, in Dunbarny 
parish, Perthshire, 1 mile SW Bridge of Earn. Sur- 
rounded by a spacious wooded park, Kilgraston House, 
a Grecian edifice, with a fine collection of paintings, 
was destroyed by fire in April 1872 ; and, though in- 
sured for £14,000, involved a loss which that sum could 
not cover. The estate was purchased, shortly before 
his death in 1793, by John Grant, ex-chief-justice of 
Jamaica, whose grand-nephew, Charles Thomas Con- 
stautine Grant, Esq. (b. 1831 ; sue. 1873), holds 2346 
acres in the shire, valued at £3546 per annum. Two of 
the latter's uncles were Sir Francis Grant (1803-78), 
president of the Royal Academy, and General Sir James 
Hope Grant, G.C.B. (1808-75), of Indian and Chinese 
celebrity.— Ord. Eur., sh. 48, 1S6S. 

Kilkadzow. See Kilcadzow. 

Kilkerran, a mansion, with fine grounds, in Dailly 
parish, Ayrshire, 1 mile SE of Kilkerran station on 
the Maybole and Girvan section of the Glasgow and 
South-Western railway, this being 4J miles S of May- 
bole. Granted to his ancestor in the early part of the 
14th century, Kilkerran now belongs to the Right Hon. 
Sir James Fergusson, K.C.M.G., CLE., sixth Bart, 
since 1703 (b. 1832 ; sue. 1849), who has been Conser- 
vative M.P. for Ayrshire 1854-57 and 1859-6S, under- 
secretary for India 1866-67 and for the Home Depart- 
ment 1867-68, and governor of South Australia 186S-72, 
of New Zealand 1S72-74, and of Bombay since 1880. 
He holds 22,630 acres in the shire, valued at £13,539 
per annum ; and the estate contains acid works, lime- 
works, a sawmill, sandstone quarries, and remains of a 
strong castle. — Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1S63. 

Kilkerran. See Campbeltown. 

Kilkivan, a pre-Reformation parish in Kiutyre dis- 
trict, Argyllshire, now forming part of the parish of 
Campbeltown, and lying on the W side of Kintyre 
peninsula, 4 J miles W of the town. 

Kill, Ayrshire. See Cotle. 

Killachonan, a village and a burn in Fortingall parish, 
NW Perthshire. The village stands at the mouth of 
the burn, 8 miles W of Kinloch-Rannoch ; and the 
burn, rising on Beinn Bhoidheach at an altitude of 
2300 feet above sea-level, runs 5g miles south-by-west- 
ward to Loch Rannoch (668 feet), at a point 2J miles E 
of the loch's head. — Ord. Sur., sh. 54, 1873. 

Killallan, an ancient parish in the N centre of Ren- 
frewshire, now incorporated with Houston. The two 
parishes inconveniently intersected each other, and were 
united in 1760. The name Killallan is a modification 
of Kilfillan ; and the church, St Fillan's, in a state of 
ruin, stands 2 miles NW of Houston village. Near it 
are a large hollowed stone and a spring of water, called 
Fillan's Seat and Fillan's Well. 

Killarrow, a parish in Islay district, Argyllshire, 
comprising the central and northern parts of Islay 
island, and comprehending the ancient parishes of Kill- 
arrow and Kilmeny. Often called Bowmore, it contains 
the town of Bowmore and the villages of Bridgend 

and Poet Askaig, all three with a post office under 
Greenock. It is bounded N by the Atlantic Ocean, E 
by the Sound of Islay, S by Kildalton, and W by Loch 
Indal and Kilchoman. Its utmost length, from N to S, 
is 13 miles ; its utmost breadth is 8J miles ; and its 
area is 65,929 acres. The coasts, the interior, and the 
prominent features of the parish have all been noticed in 
our article on Islay. About three-sevenths of the entire 
area are regularly or occasionally in tillage ; between 1000 
and 2000 acres are under wood ; and the rest is pastoral 
or waste. The chief antiquities are ruins of Finlagan 
Castle. Loch Guiem Castle, Claig Castle, and several 
Scandinavian strongholds. Islay House, near Bridgend, 
is now the property of Charles Morrison, Esq. (b. 1817), 
who holds 67,000 acres in the shire, valued at £16,440 
per annum. Two other proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 3 of between £100 and 
£500, and 6 of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of 
Islay and Jura and synod of Argyll, this parish is 
ecclesiastically divided into Killarrow and Kilmeny, the 
former a living worth £181. The ancient parish church 
stood in the SW corner, a little S of Bowmore ; the 
present one, in Bowmore, was built in 1767, and, as 
enlarged in 1828, contains 831 sittings. There are also 
Free churches of Bowmore, Killarrow, and Kilmeny ; 
and Kiels heritors' school and the public schools of 
Bowmore, Kilmeny, Mulindry, and Newton of Kilmeny, 
with respective accommodation for 66, 210, 107, 61, and 
160 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 46, 
132, 69, 19, and 103, and grants of £41, £89, 0s. 8d., 
£59, 5s., £30, 2s., and £108, 12s. Valuation (I860) 
£6609, 8s. 8d., (1883) £16,343, 4s. Pop. (1801) 2781, 
(1821) 5778, (1841) 7341, (1861) 3969, (1871) 3012, 
(1881) 2756, of whom 2181 were Gaelic-speaking, and 
1875 were in Killarrow, 881 in Kilmeny. 

Killcreggan. See Kilceeggan. 

Killean and Kilchenzie, a united parish on the W 
coast of Kintyre peninsula, Argyllshire, containing the 
hamlets or villages of Kilchenzie, 4 miles NW of Camp- 
beltown, under which it has a post office ; Glenbarr, SJ 
miles N by W of Kilchenzie, with a post office under 
Tayinloan ; Killean, 5f miles N by E of Glenbarr ; 
and Tayinloan, 7 furlongs N by E of Killean, with 
a post, money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
office under Greenock, an inn, and fairs on the 
Friday before the last Wednesday of May and the 
Wednesday after the last Thursday of July. Bounded 
N by Kilcalmonell, E by Saddell and Campbeltown, 
S by Campbeltown, and W by the Atlantic Ocean, 
it has an utmost length from N to S of 16g miles, 
a varying breadth of 2| and 6| miles, and an area 
of 42,742 acres, of which 441 are foreshore and 192 
water. The coast-line, extending 18J miles south- 
by-westward from opposite Druimyeon Bay in Gigha 
island to a point 1^ mile W by S of Kilchenzie 
hamlet, projects low Rhunahaorine Point and bolder 
Glenacardoch Point (102 feet), and is slightly indented 
by Beallochantuy Bay and several lesser encurvatures. 
Baee Water, running 8^ miles south-westward, is the 
chief of thirteen streams that flow to the Atlantic ; and 
the largest of ten small lakes are Loch nan Canach 
(3| x 2 furl. ; 475 feet) in the S, and Loch an Fhraoich 
(4x1 furl. ; 709 feet) in the N. A narrow strip of low 
alluvial land lies all along the coast, and from it the 
surface rises rapidly eastward, chief elevations from N 
to S being Narachan Hill (935 feet), Cnoc na Craoibhe 
(1103), Cnoc Odhar Auchaluskin (796), Cruach Mhic- 
an-t-Saoir (1195), Cruach Muasdale (655), *Beinn 
Bhreac (1398), *Meall Buidhe (1228), Cnoc Buidhe 
(1023), and *Ranachan Hill (706), where asterisks mark 
those summits that culminate on the eastern confines 
of the parish. The rocks are eruptive, metamorphic, 
or Devonian ; and have been supposed to include car- 
boniferous strata, containing coal. The soil of the 
lower tracts consists mainly of disintegrations and com- 
minutions of the local rocks, and on the higher 
grounds is mostly moorish. Little more than a tenth 
of the entire area has ever been brought under till- 
age, nearly all the remainder being either pastoral or 



waste. Antiquities, other than those noticed under 
Dundonald and Giant's Fort, are a number of 
barrows, bill forts, and standing stones. Killean 
House, 1 mile S of Tayinloan, was, with exception 
of a handsome new wing, entirely destroyed by 
fire in 1875, but has been since restored ; its owner, 
James Macalister Hall, Esq. of Tangy, holds 7450 acres 
in the shire, valued at £2500 per annum. Other man- 
sions are Glenbarr Abbey, Glencreggan House, and 
Largie Castle ; and, in all, 7 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of more, 5 of less, than £500. This parish 
is in the presbytery of Eintyre and synod of Argyll ; 
the living is worth £264. The parish church, on the 
coast, 3 miles S by W of Tayinloan, was built in 1787. 
Near it is a handsome Free church (1S46), with a tower; 
and at Beallochautuy, 2g miles S by W of Glenbarr, is 
an Established mission church. Five public schools — 
Beallochautuy, Glenbarr, Kilchenzie, Eillean, and 
Rhunahaorine, — with respective accommodation for 
70, 80, 63, 72, and S4 children, had (1881) an average 
attendance of 25, 29, 32, 5S, and 45, and grants of 
£32, 16s., £38, 5s., £54, 16s., £65, 10s., and £45, lis. 
Valuation (1860) £10,55S, (1SS3) £14,110. Pop. (1801) 
2520, (1821) 3306, (1841) 2401, (1S61) 1890, (1871) 
1614, (1881) 1368, of whom 901 were Gaelic-speaking. 
—Orel. Sur., shs. 20, 12, 1876-72. 

Killearn, a village and a parish of SW Stirlingshire. 
The village, standing 270 feet above sea-level, by road 
is 3 miles SW of Balfron and 16i NNW of Glasgow, 
whilst its station on the Blane Valley section of the 
North British is 7| miles SSW of Bucklyvie, 9i Nff 
of Lennoxtown, and 21 NNW of Glasgow, under which 
there are post offices of Killearn and Killearn Station. 
The parish church, erected in 18S0-81 at a cost of 
£6000, from designs by Mr John Bryee of Edinburgh, 
as a memorial to the daughter of Archibald Orr Ewiug, 
Esq. of Ballikinrain, M.P., is a cruciform Early English 
edifice, with 600 sittings and a SE spire 100 feet high. 
The Free church was built soon after the Disruption ; 
and the former parish church of 1826 has been converted 
into a public-hall, with reading-room and library. The 
celebrated George Buchanan (1506-S2) was born at the 
farmhouse of Moss, If mile SSW ; and in 17S8 a 
well-proportioned obelisk, 19 feet square at the base and 
103 feet high, was erected at the village in his honour. 
Pop. (1831) 388, (1861) 420, (1871) 337, (1SS1) 356. 

The parish is bounded N by Balfron, E by Fintry, S 
by Strathblane and by New and Old Kilpatrick in 
Dumbartonshire, SW by Dumbartou, and W and N by 
Drymen. Its utmost length, from E to W,|is 6i miles ; 
its breadth varies between 2§ and 7& miles ; and its 
area is 15,478 acres, of which 108 are water. Endricx 
Water meanders 10J miles westward and southward 
along the Balfron and Drymen boundaries, and towards 
the close of this course forms a picturesque fall at the 
Pot of Gartxess ; and the Blase winds 3 miles north - 
north-westward along the Strathblane borderand through 
the interior, till it falls into the Endrick at a point li 
mile WSW of Killearn village, a little above its mouth 
being joined by Dualt and Carnock Burns, the former 
of which makes one beautiful cascade of 60 feet. For 4 
miles the parish is traversed from N to S by the Loch 
Katrine Aqueduct of the Glasgow Waterworks, which 
passes 3 furlongs E of the village. Perennial springs 
are copious and very numerous ; at Ballewan is a 
mineral spring ; and a triangular reservoir (6 x 3| furl.) 
lies on the Old Kilpatrick boundary. At the Endrick's 
and Blane's confluence, in the extreme W, the surface 
declines to 73 feet above sea-level, thence rising south- 
ward to 547 on Quinloch Muir and 115S at Auchineden 
Hill, and east-south-eastward to 1781 on Clacherty- 
farlie Knowes and 1S94 on Earl's Seat, the highest of 
the Lennox Hills, at the meeting-point with Campsie 
and Strathblane. The general landscape exhibits ex- 
quisite Mendings of lowland and upland, of park and 
pasture, of wood and water ; and both the valleys in 
the lowlands, and the glens and ravines in the uplands, 
disclose some fine close scenery. The rocks of the hills 
are eruptive, those of the valleys Devonian. Sandstone 

has been quarried for building in several places ; and 
one spot has yielded millstones of inferior quality. 
The soil of the arable lands is mainly loamy or argil- 
laceous ; and 5370 acres are in tillage, 1140 are under 
wood, and the rest is either pastoral or waste. A castle 
and a battlefield are noticed under Balglass and Blair- 
essait. Killearn House, near the Carnock's confluence 
with the Blane, 1J mile WSW of the village, is an 
elegant edifice of 1816. Purchased by his grandfather 
in 1814, the estate is the property of John Blackburn, 
Esq. (b. 1843; sue. 1870), who holds 2739 acres in the 
shire, valued at £2355 per annum. Other mansions 
are Ballikinrain Castle, Ballikinrain House, Moss 
House, Carbeth, and Boquhan ; and 2 ] roprietors 
hold each an annual value of more than £2000, 2 of 
more than £S00, and 3 of between £200 and £550. 
Killearn is in the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £232. A 
public school, with accommodation for 210 children, 
had (1881) an average attendance of 130, and a grant 
of £125, 13s. Valuation (1S60) £740S, (18S3) £16,013, 
3s. Pop. (1801) 1039, (1S41) 1224, (1S61) 1171, (1871) 
1111, (1881) 1131.— Ord. Sur., shs. 30, 3S, 1866-71. 

Eillearnadale and Kilchattan. See Jura. 

Eillearnan, a parish of SE Ross-shire, whose church 
stands on the northern shore of the Beauly Firth, 3§ 
miles E by S of Muir of Ord station, and 6J WNW (vid 
Kessock Ferry) of Inverness, under which there is a 
post office of Killearnan. It is bounded S by the Beauly 
Firth, W by Urray, NW by Urquhart, and NE and 
E by Knoekbain, a strip of which, 280 yards wide at the 
narrowest, divides it into two unequal portions, the 
smaller of them to the NE. Its utmost length, from 
E to W, is 5 miles ; its breadth varies between 2J 
and 4J miles; and its area is 8019i acres, of which 
740J are foreshore and 9J water. The shore-line, 5 
miles long, is low, broken by no marked bay or head- 
land ; and the interior rises gradually to the summit of 
the Millbuie, attaining 351 feet near Ploverfield, 217 at 
the Free church, and 500 at the north-western boundary. 
Old Red sandstone is the prevailing rock, and has long 
been quarried ; whilst clay abounds on the shore, and 
is used for mortar and for compost. The soil along the 
coast is sandy or clayish, and in the interior is so diver- 
sified as on one and the same farm to comprise gravel, 
light loam, red clay, and deep blue clay. Nearly one- 
fourth of the entire area is pasture, and the rest is almost 
equally divided between woodland and land in tillage. 
General Mackenzie Fraser and General Sir George Elder 
were natives. Eilcoy and Redcastle, both noticed 
separately, are the chief estates ; and 2 proprietors hold 
each an annual value of between £2500 and £3540. 
Killearnan is in the presbytery of Chanonry and synod 
of Ross ; the living is worth £250. The parish church 
is a cruciform structure of the 18th century, contain- 
ing 570 sittings. There is also a Free church ; and a 
public school, with accommodation for 180 children, had 
(1881) an average attendance of 58, and a grant of £63, 9s. 
Valuation (1882) £6337, lis. lOd. Pop. (1801) 1131, 
(1841) 1643, (1861) 1494, (1871) 1272, (18S1) 1059, of 
whom 558 were Gaelic-speaking. — Ord. Sur., sh. 83, 1881. 

Killellan. See Killallan. 

Killermont, an estate, with a mansion, in New Kil- 
patrick parish, Dumbartou and Stirling shires. The 
mansion, on the right bank of the Kelvin, If mile N of 
Maryhill and 4 miles NNW of Glasgow, is a large and 
elegant edifice, built partly about 1805, partly at earlier 
periods, with extensive and very beautiful grounds. Its 
owner, the Rev. John Erskine Campbell-Colquhoun of 
Killermont and Garscadden (b. 1S31 ; sue. 1872), 
holds 3127 acres in Dumbarton, Lanark, and Stirling 
shires, valued at £8439 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 

Killeter. See Cardross. 

Killiechassie, an estate, with a mansion, in a detached 
section of Logierait parish, Perthshire, on the left bank 
of the river Tay, 1J mile NNE of Aberfeldy. It was 
purchased from H. G. Gordon, Esq., in 1S63, by Ed- 
ward Octavius Douglas, Esq. (b. 1S30), who holds 7396 



acres in the shire, valued at £764 per annnm. — Orel. 
Sur., sh. 55, 1869. 

Killiechonan. See Killachonan. 

Killiecrankie, Pass of, a contraction of the valley of 
the Garry on the western verge of Moulin parish, 
Perthshire, commencing near Killiecrankie or Aldgir- 
naig station (3 miles ESE of Blair Athole), and descend- 
ing 1J mile south-by-eastward to Garry Bridge (3 miles 
NNW of Pitlochry). With an elevation of between 400 
and 300 feet, it is overhung on the E by Ben Vrackie 
(2757 feet) ; and huge Ben-y-Gloe (3671) rises con- 
spicuously 8 miles NNE. Along its eastern slope, some 
way above the bed of the turbulent Garry, the smooth 
Great Highland Road, constructed by General Wade in 
1732, ascends gently from the low country to the head 
of the defile ; and between road and river the High- 
land Railway (1863) goes, clinging to the rock, in 
easy gradients, with only a few yards of tunnel. ' White 
villas,' says Lord Macaulay, ' peep from the birch forest ; 
and on a fine summer's day there is scarcely a turn of 
the Pass at which may not be seen some angler casting 
his fly on the foam of the river, some artist sketching a 
pinnacle of rock, or some party of pleasure banqueting 
on the turf in the fretwork of shade and sunshine. But 
in the days of William III., Killiecrankie was men- 
tioned with horror by the peaceful and industrious in- 
habitants of the Perthshire lowlands. It was deemed 
the most perilous of all those dark ravines through 
which the marauders of the hills were wont to sally 
forth. The sound, so musical to modern ears, of the 
river brawling round the mossy rocks and among the 
smooth pebbles, the dark masses of crag and verdure 
worthy of the pencil of Wilson, the fantastic peaks 
bathed, at sunrise and sunset, with light rich as that 
which glows on the canvas of Claude, suggested to our 
ancestors thoughts of murderous ambuscades and of 
bodies stripped, gashed, and abandoned to the birds of 
prey. The only path was narrow and rugged ; a horse 
could with difficulty be led up ; two men could hardly 
walk abreast ; and, in some places, a traveller had great 
need of a steady eye and foot.' At the head of the Pass, 
near Killiecrankie station, on a diluvial plain of small 
extent, but level as a Dutch polder, was fought the cele- 
brated battle of Killiecrankie, 27 July 1689. General 
Mackay, the leader of King William's forces, marched 
through the Pass on the morning of that day, at the 
head of 3000 infantry and nearly 1000 horse, and drew 
them up upon this level haugh. Early the same morn- 
ing, Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, had 
arrived at Blair Castle (the object of contention), with 
one little troop of cavalry and 2500 foot, including ' 300 
new-raised, naked, undisciplined Irishmen.' Instead of 
descending right down to meet the foe, he went up 
Glentilt, fetched a compass round the Hill of Lude, and 
made his appearance in battle order on the hill-side 
about the position of Urrard House. Mackay immedi- 
ately pushed forward his main body to a terrace midway 
between his antagonist and the haugh, forming them 
there in battle-line three deep, with his cavalry in the 
rear, and leaving his baggage in the Pass. The two 
armies observed each other in silence till past 7, when, 
the midsummer sun having touched the western heights, 
Dundee's army broke simultaneously into motion, and 
came on at a slow trot down the hill. The Highlanders, 
who had dropped their plaids and spurned away their 
socks of untanned hide, and who resembled a body of 
wild savages more than a race of civilised men, advanced, 
according to their usual practice, with their bodies bent 
forward, so as to present the smallest possible surface to 
the fire of the enemy, the upper part of their bodies 
being covered by their targets. To discourage the 
Highlanders in their advance by keeping up a continual 
fire, Mackay had given instructions to his officers to 
commence firing by platoons, at the distance of a 
hundred paces ; but this order was not attended to. 
The Highlanders having come close up, halted for a 
moment ; then, having levelled and discharged their 
pistols, which did little execution, they set up a fearful 
yell, and rushed on the enemy sword in hand, before 


they had time to screw their bayonets on to the end of 
their muskets. In two minutes the battle was lost and 
won. The shock was too impetuous to be long resisted 
by men who, according to their own general, ' behaved, 
with the exception of Hasting's and Leven's regiments, 
like the vilest cowards in nature.' But even had these 
men been brave, their courage would scarce have availed 
them, as their arms were insufficient to parry off the 
tremendous strokes of the axes and the broad and 
double-edged swords of the Highlanders, who, with a 
single blow, either felled their opponents to the earth 
or struck off a limb from their bodies. At the same 
time with this overthrow of Mackay's infantry, and 
immediately under his own eye, there occurred a crash 
on his artillery and cavalry. At this critical moment 
Mackay, who was instantly surrounded by a crowd of 
Highlanders, anxious to disentangle his cavalry, so as 
to enable him to get them forward, called aloud to them 
to follow him, and, putting spurs to his horse, galloped 
through the enemy ; but, with the exception of one 
servant, whose horse was shot under him, not a single 
horseman attempted to follow. When he had gone 
far enough to be out of the reach of immediate danger, 
he turned round to observe the state of matters ; and to 
his infinite surprise he found that both armies had dis- 
appeared. To use his owu expression, ' in the twinkling 
of an eye, in a manner, our men, as well as the enemy, 
were out of sight, being got down pell-mell to the river, 
where our baggage stood. ' ' All was over ; and the 
mingled torrent of red-coats and tartans went raving 
down the valley to the gorge of Killiecrankie.' As 
Aytoun makes the victors say — 

' Like a tempest down the ridges 

Swept the hurricane of steel, 
Hose the slogan of Macdonald, 

Flash'd the broadsword of Lochiel ! 
Vainly sped the withering voile}* 

'Mongst the foremost of our band ; 
On we poured until we met them, 

Foot to foot, and hand to hand. 
Horse and man went down like driftwood, 

When the floods are black at Yule ; 
And their carcasses are whirling 

In the Garry's deepest pool. 
Horse and man went down before us ; 

Living foe there tarried none 
On the held of Killiecrankie 

When that stubborn fight was done.' 

Mackay, with the remnants of Leven's and Hasting's 
regiments, hastened across the Garry, and, collecting as 
many fugitives as he could, led them precipitately over 
the hills, and succeeded, after a perilous retreat, in 
conducting about 400 to Stirling. But had not his 
bagcao-e at the foot of the battle-field arrested the at- 
tention of most of the victors, had not the ground over 
which he retreated been impracticable for pursuing 
horsemen, he might have been able to bring away scarce 
one man. If the importance of a victory is to be 
reckoned by the comparative numbers of the slain, and 
the brilliant achievements of the victors, the battle of 
Killiecrankie may well stand high in the list of military 
exploits. Considering the shortness of the combat, the 
loss on the side of Mackay was prodigious. No fewer 
than 2000 of his men were slain or captured, whilst 
Dundee's own loss was only 900. But as the import- 
ance of a victory, however splendid in itself, however 
distinguished by acts of individual prowess, can be ap- 
preciated only by its results, the battle of Killiecrankie, 
instead of forwarding King James's cause, was, by the 
death of Dundee, the precursor of that cause's ruin. ' At 
the beginning of the action he had taken his place in 
front of his little band of cavalry. He bade them follow 
him, and rode forward. But it seemed to be decreed 
that, on that day, the Lowland Scotch should in both 
armies appear to disadvantage. The horse hesitated. 
Dundee turned round, stood up in his stirrups, and, 
waving his hat, invited them to come on. As he lifted 
his arm, his cuirass rose, and exposed the lower part of 
his left side. A musket ball struck him ; his horse 
sprang forward, and plunged into a cloud of smoko and 
dust, which hid from both armies the fall of the vie- 


torious general. A person named Johnson was near 
him, and caught him as he sank down from the saddle. 
" How goes the day ? " said Dundee. " Well for King 
James," answered Johnson; " but I am sorry for your 
Lordship. " " If it is well for him," answered the dying 
man, "it matters the less for me." He never spoke 
again ; but when, half an hour later, Lord Dunfermline 
and some otherfriendseame to the spot, they thought they 
could still discern some faint remains of life.' Wrapped 
in two plaids, his naked corpse was carried to Blair 
Castle ; and in the Old Church of Blair, overshadowed 
by trees, they buried him.* — Ord. Sur., sh. 55, 1869. 
See Dunkeld ; pp. 197, 207, of Dorothy Wordsworth's 
Tour in Scotland (1874); pp. 32, 35, 40, 167, of the 
Queen's Journal (ed. 1877) ; chap. xiii. of Macaulay's 
History of England (1855) ; Mark Napier's Life and 
Times of Claverhouse (3 vols. 1859-62) ; vol. i., pp. 
365-37S, of John S. Eeltie's Scottish Highlands (1875) ; 
and vol. vii., pp. 371-3S5, of Dr Hill Burton's History of 
Scotland (ed. 1876). 

Killin, a village and a parish in Breadalbane district, 
W Perthshire. The village stands on the peninsula 
between the confluent Dochart and Lochy, j mile WSW 
of the head of Loch Tay, 23 miles WSW of Aberfeldy, 
and 4 NNE of Killin station on the Callander and Oban 
railway, this being 53 j miles W of Oban, 17 NNW of 
Callander, 33 NW by N of Stirling, and 70J NW of 
Edinburgh. Both far and near it is girt by magnificent 
scenery, and, though a small and straggling place, it 
possesses no little importance at once as a centre for 
tourists and as a seat of local and provincial trade. 
The rivers, flowing among rich green fields ; the head- 
long advance of the Dochart over big black rocks ; the 
silent gliding of the gentler Lochy ; the slopes of sur- 
rounding hills, fringed here and there with wood ; Glen- 
doehart and Glenloehy, striking south-westward and 
west - north - westward in diversified grandeur ; the 
monarch mountain of Bex Lawers (4004 feet), 7 miles 
to the NE, appearing there to fill half the horizon ; and 
the long expanse of Loch Tay (14i miles x 9J furl. ; 355 
feet), extending past that mountain, with its gorgeous 
flanks of woods and hills, — all these combine to beautify 
the landscape. 'Killin,' wrote Dr M'Culloch, 'is the 
most extraordinary collection of extraordinary scenery 
in Scotland — unlike everything else in the country, and 
perhaps on earth, and a perfect picture gallery in itself, 
since you cannot move three yards without meeting a 
new landscape. . . . Fir trees, rocks, torrents, mills, 
bridges, houses— these produce the great bulk of the 
middle landscape, under endless combinations ; while 
the distances more constantly are found in the sur- 
rounding hills, in their varied woods, in the bright 
expanse of the lake, and the minute ornaments of the 
distant valley, in the rocks and bold summit of Craig- 
CHAILLIACH, and in the lofty vision of Ben Lawers, 
which towers like a huge giant in the clouds, the 
monarch of the scene.' A bridge of five unequal arches, 
across the Dochart, commands one of the best combina- 
tions of the views ; and a grassy islet, studded with 
tall pines, immediately below that bridge, contains the 

* 'In Athole there has long been a tradition that, after his 
death in the inn at Blair, his body was deposited in the Old 
Church, now the burial place of the Dukes of Athole. In 1794 
the back part of a steel cap or morion, such as was worn by 
officers in 16S9, was recovered by General Robertson of Lude, 
which, with other portions of rusty armour found in the possession 
of some cairds or tinkers, was suspected to have been abstracted 
from the grave of Dundee ; and on investigation such was found 
to be the case. The fragment is now in possession of J. P. 
M'Inroy, Esq. of Lude, whilst Dundee's corselet is preserved in 
the Castle of Blair. When, on the death of the sixth Duke in 
1866, it was resolved to resume the use of the vault in the Old 
Church of Blair, which had ceased to be employed as the burial 
place of the Athole family for about a century, the unpaved soil 
was carefully turned over; and 27 skulls were discovered, but 
none that could be identified as that of Claverhouse ' (epitome of 
an interesting article by Dr Arthur Anderson, C.B., in Notes and 
Queries, 15 May 1S75). Four queries suggest themselves — (1) as 
to how Dundee's corpse came to be 'naked;' (2) as to his 'death 
in the inn at Blair ; ' (3) as to this fragment of a ' morion ' and 
the 'hat' of llacaulay and Hill Burton ; and (4) as to the latter's 
concluding touch of the ' restless and ambitious heart which has 
slept in this quiet spot amidst peasant dust.' 


burial-place of the Macnabs, once the potent chieftains 
of the surrounding country ; whilst a neighbouring 
stone, about 2 feet high, is fabled to mark the grave of 
Fingal, which by some is supposed to have given the 
parish its name (Gael. cill-Fhinn, ' Fingal's burial- 
place'). Killin has a post office under Stirling, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 
branches of the Bank of Scotland and the Union Bank, 
2 hotels, a public library, a water supply (1874), 'bus 
communication with the station, steamboat and coach 
communication with Kenmore and Aberfeldy, a sawmill, 
a tweed manufactory, and fairs on the first Tuesday 
after 11 Jan., 5 May (or the Tuesday after, if that day 
fall on Saturday, Sunday, or Monday), 12 Oct., the 
Friday b