(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland .."

AOaf^Q^^' C^S 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 
in 2012 



Iittp://arcliive.org/details/ordnancegazettv500groo 







H 



O 

;^ 

o 



ORDNANCE 



GAZETTEER OF SCOTLAND: 



A SUBVEY OF SCOTTISH TOPOGRAPHY, 



^UihiuKl, §iopK$]j\rd, ixiih §htoxial 



EDITED BY 

FRANCIS H. GEOOME, 



ASSISTANT EDITOR OF 'THE GLOBE ENCYCLOPEDIA.' 




VOLUME V. 



EDINBUEGH: 

THOMAS C. JACK, GRANGE PUBLISHING WOEKS. 

LONDON: 45 LUDGATE HILL. GLASGOW: 48 GOEDON STEEET. 

18 84. 




Beauly Priory, Inverness-shire. 




Inchmahome Priory, Lake of Monteith, Perthshii'e. 



^.^ -" _»^^:; 



XXIX 




luverlochy Castle, Inverness-shire. 




St. Blane's Cliapel, Loch Fad, Rothesay. 



XXX 




Colonel Gardiner's House, near Prestonpans, Haddingtonshire. 




ErcUless Castle, luveruess-shire 



XXXI 




Duart Castle, Mull, Argylesliire 




Flnlaggan Castle, Islay. 



XXXII 




ORDNANCE 



JOHN BARTHOLOMEW EDINBURGH 



i 



4 



,!>.. L- 



*hli'i' 



-} I ^^-v' I 



StKiUWidie 




ORDNANCE 



JOHN BARTHOLOMEW EOINBURC 



^,o«v: i,^_ 



't^ 5 



>. 



'Uao^ 











F' 



LIBERTON 

A short way E of it is Huntfield, the mansion of 
another landowner ; and two more are Cormiston Towers 
and Oggs Castle, the former at the SE, the latter at the 
NE, corner of the parish. From the 13th till the latter 
part of the 17th century Easter Gledstanes was the seat 
of the Gledstanes of that Ilk, the last of whom, William, 
removed to Biggar, and was the great-great-grandfather 
of Mr Gladstone, the Premier. (See Fasque ; and Prof. 
Veitch's 'Mr Gladstone's Ancestors ' in Frccser's Magazine 
for June ISSO. ) Libherton is in the presbytery of Biggar 
and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is 
•worth £345. The parish church, at Libherton village, 
was built in 1812, and contains 450 sittings. Quoth- 
quan church, at Quothquan village, having become 
ruinous, about 1780 was converted by John Chancellor 
of Shieldliill into a family hurying-place. The cot on 
its AV gable retains a fine-toned bell of 1641. Two 
public schools, Libherton and Quothquan, with respective 
accommodation for 72 and 56 children, had (1882) an 
average attendance of 53 and 31, and grants of £69, 
10s. 6d. and £28, 8s. 6d. Valuation (1859) £5721, 
7s. lid., (1884) £8105, 12s. Pop. (1801) 706, (1831) 
773, (1861) 836, (1871) 691, (1881) Q25.—Ord. Stir., 
shs. 23, 24, 1865-64. 

Liberton ('leper town'), a viUage and a parish of Edin- 
burghshire. The village stands, 356 feet above sea-level, 
on the summit of a low broad-based ridge, 2| miles SSE 
of the centre of Edinburgh ; and is sometimes distin- 
guished as Liberton Eirk, from the fact that it contains 
the parish church. It is somewhat straggling in its 
arrangement, and, besides the poorer class of cottages, 
includes some neat houses and elegant vUlas. There 
are no buildings of any importance except the parish 
church and the Free church. The former is a hand- 
some semi-Gothic edifice, whose square tower, capped 
by four corner pinnacles, forms a very prominent 
object in the landscape. Designed by Gillespie Graham, 
and containing 1000 sittings, it was built in 1815, and 
renovated at a cost of over £1200 in 1882, when gas was 
introduced, a panelled ceiling inserted, the gallery re- 
constructed, the whole reseated, etc. The precise site 
of the present building was formerly occupied by a very 
ancient church, mentioned in the foundation charter of 
Holyrood (1128). When the church which immediately 
preceded the present one was taken down, a curious Pius- 
sian medal of the 13th century is said to have been found 
embedded in the materials. The Free church of Liberton, 
standing nearly A mile to the NE, was built in 1870 at 
a cost of £2200. Liberton post ofiice has money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments. 

Two hamlets, named Liberton Dams and jTether Liber- 
ton, lie respectively 4J furlongs NNW and 6 J furlongs N 
by W of the village. They are mere groups of cottages 
of little pretensions ; but within late years several neat 
though small houses have been built at Liberton Dams. 
In old documents there occurs a mention of a mill at 
Nether Liberton, where there is still a saw-mill ; and 
in 1369 the lands of Nether Liberton were granted to 
William Ramsay and spouse. 

, Liberton parish is bounded N by St Cuthbert's and 
Duddingston, E by Inveresk and Newton, SE by Dal- 
keith, S by Lasswade, and W by Colinton. It extends 
from the Pow Burn at Edinburgh to within a mile of 
Dalkeith, and from the close vicinity of the Firth of Forth 
at Magdalene Bridge to near the E end of the Pentland 
range. Its greatest length, from ENE to WSW, is 5| 
miles ; its greatest breadth is 4J miles ; and its area is 6617 
acres. The scenery of this parish is very beautifully 
diversified, though it never loses its lowland smiling 
character. Just within the W boundary the Braid 
Hills attain their maximum altitude of 698 feet above 
sea-level ; and extending from these are low broad ridges 
and gentle elevations, with alternating belts and spaces of 
plain. The state of cultivation is high, and there are 
numerous private mansions with fine policies. The 
Braid Burn and Burdiehouse Burn flow north-eastward 
through the interior ; and there is a curious bituminous 
spring at St Catherine's, known as the Balm Well. 
The rocks of the Braid Hills are basaltic, but else- 
70 



LIBERTON 

where are carboniferous, belonging either to the Calci- 
ferous Sandstone or to the Carboniferous Limestone 
series. Sandstone, limestone, and coal are extensively 
worked. The soil in some parts is wet clay or dry gravel, 
but in most parts is a fertile loam. Nearly six-sevenths 
of the land are under cultivation, and hardly an acre of 
waste ground is to be seen. The industries are referred 
to in the articles dealing with the various villages. The 
chief seats are Morton Hall, Drum, Inch House, Brun- 
stane, Niddry, Southfield, Moredun, St Catherine's, 
Mount Vernon, Craigend, and Kingston Grange. The 
parish includes, besides the village and hamlets of Liber- 
ton, the villages of Burdiehouse, Gilmerton, Greenend, 
Niddry, Oakbank, and Straiten, parts of the villages of 
Echobank and New Craighall, and some fifteen hamlets, 
with a small part of the burgh and suburbs of Edinburgh. 

It is traversed by several good roads leading S from 
the capital, by the Loanhead and Eoslin branch of the 
North British raUway, which has a station near Gil- 
merton, and by small parts of the St Leonard's branch 
and of the new Edinburgh Suburban branch of the same 
railway. 

Giving off Gilmerton quoad sacra parish, Liberton is 
in the presbytery of Edinburgh and the synod of Lothian 
and Tweeddale ; the living is worth £550. Besides the 
three schools at Gilmerton and an infant private school 
at Sharpdale, Liberton public, Niddry public, and New 
Craighall schools, with respective accommodation for 154, 
129, and 403 children, had (1882) an average attendance 
of 174, 67, and 258, and grants of £153, Is., £54, 
10s. 6d., and £203, 15s. Valuation (1871) £33,571, 14s., 
(1884) £48,944, including £9879 for railways and water- 
works. Pop. (1801) 3565, (1831) 4063, (1861) 3507, 
(1871) 3791, (1881) 6026, of whom 4696 were in the 
ecclesiastical parish, and 295 in the burgh of Edinburgh. 

A hospital anciently stood at Upper Liberton, and is 
supposed to have given rise to the name of the village, 
the original form being Leper town. Near it rose a tall 
peel-house or tower, now utterly vanished, the strong- 
hold it is said of MacBeth, a Ijaron under David I., hold- 
ing a considerable part of the lands of Liberton. By him 
a chapelry was erected at Liberton, and placed under the 
church of St Cuthbert, with which it passed, by grant 
of David I., to the canons of Holyrood. In 1240 the 
chapelry was disjoined from St Cuthbert's, and remained 
till the Reformation as a rectory under the Abbey of 
Holyrood. For a time Liberton was a prebend of the 
short-lived bishopric of Edinburgh, and on the abolition 
of Episcopacy in Scotland it reverted to the Crown. 
Three chapels — one founded at Bridgend by James V., St 
Catherine's near the mansion of that name, and St Mary's, 
founded at Niddry in 1389 by Wauchope of Niddry— 
were subordinate to the parish church. Only a few 
faint vestiges of the walls of the latter, and its burying- 
ground, remain of them. A chapel was built by James 
V. at Bridgend ; and there was a Presbyterian chapel 
erected under the Indulgence of James VII. The par- 
ochial registers date from 1639. 

The chief antiquity in theparishis CRAiGiiiLLARCastle. 
Others are the sites and remains of the buildings above 
mentioned ; Pefi'er MiU, erected in 1636 by one Edgar, 
whose arms, impaled with those of his wife, are over 
the principal door ; and a square tower still standing 
near Liberton Kirk, reputed to be the hold of a fierce 
robber laird, and not to be confounded with MacBeth's 
tower mentioned above. In Scott's Heart of Midlothian 
' Reuben Butler ' is schoolmaster at Liberton ; and 
Peffer Mill is commonly identified with ' Dumbiedikes.' 
A'arious tumuli have been discovered near Mortonhall ; 
and a plane tree near CraigmLllar Castle is said to have 
been planted by Mary Queen of Scots, and reputed one 
of the largest of its kind in the country. In 1863 the 
remains of a Celtic cross, covered with knot-work, were 
found in a wall near Liberton Tower. Part of the 
BoROtrGHiirriP. is in the parish. A rising-ground to 
the E of St Catherine's, formerly called the Priest's 
Hill, has now the name of Grace Mount. Among 
distinguished natives of the parish of Liberton have 
been Mr Clement Little of Upper Liberton, who 

509 



LIDDEL WATER 

founded the College Library of Edinburgh ; Sir Symon 
de Preston of Craigmillar, in whose Edinburgh house, 
as provost, Queen Mary was lodged on the night after 
the affair of Carberry Hill ; Sir John Gilmour of Craig- 
millar, who was Lord President of the Court of Session 
about the period of the Restoration ; Gilbert Wauchope 
and Sir John Wauchope of Niddry, the former a member 
of the celebrated Eeformation Parliament of 1560, and 
the latter a distinguished Covenanter and a member of 
the General Assembly of 1648 ; and Sir James Stewart of 
Goodtrees, who from 1692 till 1713 filled the office of 
Lord Advocate of Scotland. Among the ministers have 
been John Davidson (1584), of prophetic powers ; John 
Adamson (1616) and Andrew Cant (1659-73), both prin- 
cipals of Edinburgh University ; and the late James Begg, 
D.D. (1835-43), of Free Church fame. The Wauchopes 
of Niddry have had a seat in the parish for 500 years, 
and are probably the oldest family in Midlothian. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 32, 1857. See an article in vol. i. of Trans. 
Soc. Ants. Scotl. (1793). 

Liddel Water, a Border stream of Roxburgh and 
Dumfries -hires, formed by the confluent Caddroun, 
Wormscleuch, and Peel Burns, at an altitude of 650 
feet above sea-level, amid the great bog called Dead 
Water, IJ mile ENE of Saughtree station. Thence it 
flows 15J miles south-south-westward through Castleton 
parish, next llj miles along the English Border, having 
Castleton and Canonbie parishes on its right bank and 
Cumberland on its left ; till, after a descent of 545 feet, 
it falls into the Esk at a point 12 miles N of Carlisle and 
7f S by E of Langholm. It is fed by a score of afHuents, 
the chief of them Hermitage Water and Keeshope 
Bum. For 10 miles from its source its banks are bleak 
and naked — in most places a mountain gorge or glen ; 
but afterwards they spread out in a beautiful though 
narrow valley, carpeted with fine verdure, adorned with 
beautiful plantations, and screened by picturesque 
heights. In all the lower part of its course, its banks 
are sylvan, picturesque, and at intervals romantic ; and, 
at a cataract called Penton Linns, 3 miles from the 
confluence with the Esk, they are wildly yet beautifully 
grand. Stupendous rocky precipices, wliich fall sheer 
down to the bed of the stream, and wall up the water 
within a narrow broken channel, along the Scottish side 
have a terrace-walk carried along a ledge, and affording 
a view of the vexed and foaming stream, lashed into 
foam among the obstructing rocks ; and they are fringed 
with a rich variety of exuberant copsewood. In the 
middle of the cataract rises from the river's bed a 
solitary large rock crowned with shrubs, Avhose broken 
and wooded summit figures majestically in a conflict 
with the roaring waters during a high flood. At its 
confluence with the Esk a sort of promontory is formed, 
on which stand the ruins of a fort, called in the district 
the Strength of Liddel. Its salmon and trout fishing 
is good, but like the Esic it has been affected by the 
salmon disease.— OrrZ. Sur., shs. 17, 11, 1864-63. 

Liddesdale. See Castleto>% Canonbie, Hermitage 
Castle ; and Robert Bruce Armstrong's History of Lid- 
desdale, etc. (Edinb. 1884). 

LifF, a village and a parish of SW Forfarshire. Stand- 
ing close to the Perthshire boundary, 250 feet above 
sea-level, and 5 miles WNW of the centre of Dundee, 
the village is a pleasant little place, with a station on 
the Newtyle branch of the Caledonian railway, 4J miles 
from Dundee AVest station. 

The parish contains also the Loohee and Logie 
suburbs of Dundee, the villages of Benvie, Inver- 

GOWRIE, DaRGIE, MuIRHEAD OP LlEF, BiRKHILL FeUS, 

and Backmuir, and part of the village of Milnefield 
Feus ; and, comprehending the four ancient parishes of 
Liff', Logie, Invergowrie, and Benvie, is commonly 
designated Liff and Benvie. The original parish of Liff 
comprehended most of the site of Lochee ; the parish of 
Logie comprised a portion of Dundee burgh, and was 
imited to Liff before the middle of the 17th century; 
the parish of Invergowrie was annexed as early as Logie, 
or earlier ; and the parish of Benvie was annexed in 
1758. The united parish is bounded N by Auchter- 
510 



LILLIESLEAF 

house, NE by Mains and Strathmartin, E by Dundee, 
S by the Firth of Tay, and W by Longforgan and 
Fowlis-Easter. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 4| 
miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 3| miles ; 
and its area is 8053^ acres, of which 4 (at Invergowrie) 
belong to Perthshire, whilst 956J are foreshore, 14J 
mud, and 8f water. Dighty Water and a small tri- 
butary of that stream trace the northern boundary ; 
and Invergowrie Burn, coming in from the NW, and 
receiving affluents in its course, drains most of the 
interior to the Firth of Tay. 'The land rises gently 
from the firth for 3 miles, till near Birkhill Feus it 
attains an elevation of 500 feet above sea-level, and 
then declines northward to Dighty Water. Sandstone, 
of the Devonian formation, and of various colour and 
quality, is the prevailing rock, and has been largely 
quarried. The soil of the lower grounds is either clayey 
or a black mould inclining to loam ; of the higher 
grounds, is light and sandy. Some of the land is of 
very fine quality, and rents at from £4 to £6, this high 
value being due to the proximity of Dundee. A large 
aggregate area, in the K chiefly, is under wood ; some 
60 acres are in pasture ; and all the rest of the parish, 
not occupied by houses, railways, and roads, is in 
tillage. Factories and other industrial establishments 
make a great figure, but are mostly situated at or near 
Lochee. In an enclosure opposite the churchyard of 
Liff may be traced the site of a castle, said to have been 
built by Alexander I. of Scotland, and called Hurly- 
Hawkin. In the neighbourhood of Camperdown House 
was discovered, towards the close of last century, a 
subterranean building of several apartments, rude in 
structure, and uncemented by mortar. Close on the 
boundary with Dundee is a place called Pitalpie, or Pit 
of Alpin, from having been the scene of that memorable 
engagement in the 9th century between the Scots and 
the Picts, when the former lost at once battle, king, 
and many nobles. Mansions, noticed separately, are 
Camperdown, Gray House, Balruddery, and Inver- 
gowrie ; and 18 proprietors holds each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 117 of between £100 and 
£500, 137 of from £50 to £100, and 265 of from £20 to 
£50. Giving off portions to five quoad sacra parishes, 
this parish is in the presbytery of Dundee and synod of 
Angus and Mearns ; the augmented stipend and com- 
munion elements together have a value of £457, 13s. 
The parish church, at Liff village, is a good Early 
English edifice, erected in 1831 at a cost of £2200, with 
750 sittings, and a conspicuous spire 108 feet high. 
There is a Free church of Liff ; and two public schools, 
Liff and Muirhead of Liff, with respective accommoda- 
tion for 114 and 205 children, had (1882) an average 
attendance of 93 and 77, and grants of £74, 10s. and 
£60, 15s. Landward valuation (1857) £11,514, (1884) 
£15,215, lis., ^fes £2099 for railways. Pop. of entire 
parish (1801) 2194, (1831) 4247, (1861) 24,108, (1871) 
35,554, (1881) 43,190, of whom 14 belonged to the 
Perthshire section, whilst ecclesiastically 12,758 were 
in Liff and Benvie, 13,029 in St David's, 4270 in Logie, 
3716 in St Luke's, 6641 in St Mark's, and 2762 in 
Lochee.— Ore?. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Lightbum, a village in Cambuslang parish, Lanark- 
shire, 1 mile ESE of Cambuslang town. Pop. (1881) 
464. 

Lilliards-Edge. See Ancrum. 

Lilliesleaf is a village and parish in the NW of Rox- 
burghshire. The village, 3 miles W of Belses station, 
3J NNW of Hassendean station, and 6 SSW of Newtown 
St Boswells station — all on the AVaverley route of the 
North British railway system — is picturesquely situated 
on a ridge of ground which slopes down first steeply to 
the village, then gradually to Ale Water. Between 
the village and the river lie fields and meadows. Lillies- 
leaf consists mainly of one long narrow street, J mile 
in length, which contains the post oSice, with money 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 2 
inns, the Currie school for girls, and several good 
shops. There is a subscription library, containing 1600 
volumes of all classes of literature. 'The houses exhibit 



LILLIESLEAF 

considerable diversity, some being thatched and others 
slated, while old cottages and new villas are not uu- 
frequently found standing close together. Almost with- 
out exception, the houses have gardens attached to 
them, and, as a natural consequence, flower-culture is 
largely engaged in. Owing to tlie trimness of its 
gardens, and the beauty of its situation, Lilliesleaf is 
among the prettiest of the Border villages, and its 
advantages have been fully appreciated by our Scotch 
artists, who have found in it and its environs charming 
subjects for their brush. 

The parish church, built in 1771, and restored in 
1883, stands a little way beyond the E end of the 
village. It is surrounded on three sides by the church- 
yard, which contains a few curious tombstones, and the 
remains of an old ivy-grown chapel. The recent im- 
provements have changed it from a plain barn-like build- 
ing to one of taste and elegance. They embraced the 
addition of a nave and bell-tower, and the remodelling 
of the interior, which has been suitably painted, and in 
which handsome modern benches have taken the place 
of the old ' box-pews.' The lighting of the church has 
been much improved by the new windows in the nave, 
and the enlargement of the old windows in the transepts. 
A fine-toned bell, which cost about £100, and weighs 
8^ owts., has been presented to the church by Mr Edward 
W. Sprot, younger son of the late Mr Mark Sprot of Rid- 
deU. An interesting relic is the old stone font. It was 
removed from the church at the Reformation, and eventu- 
ally found its way into the moss, where for a long time 
it lay buried. It has lately been dug up, and placed at 
one of the entrance doors of the church. The U.P. 
church, erected in 1805, has 350 sittings. The public 
school, once known as the parish school, was built in 
1822 ; and a girl's school was built by subscription on 
ground bequeathed by the late Mr Currie of Linthill in 
1860. These two, with respective accommodation for 
82 and 84 children, had (1882) an average attendance 
of 36 and 63, and grants of £40, 15s. and £40, 13s. 6d. 
Pop. (1861) 325, (1871) 349, (1881) 315. 

Lilliesleaf parish is bounded NW by Selkirk, N by 
Bowden, NE and E by Ancrum, SE by Minto and 
"Wilton, and W by Ashkirk. Its utmost length, from 
NE to SW, is 6J miles ; its breadth varies between 1 
furlong and 4f miles ; and its area is 67074 acres, of which 
35 are water. Ale Water winds i mile westward along the 
Ashkirk border, then 2i miles north-eastward through the 
interior of the parish, and lastly 4J miles east-by-north- 
ward along the boundary with Bowden and Ancrum. Al- 
most all the land in the parish is arable, and what remains 
is taken up with pasture. The ground is gently undulat- 
ing, sinking in the NE to 390 feet above sea-level, and 
rising thence to 556 feet near the village, 754 near 
Greatlaws, 711 near Newhouse, and 936 at Black Craig. 
The soil is mostly loam and clay, and tliere is little or 
no sand. The predominant rocks are Silurian and De- 
vonian. A portion of the "Waverley route of the North 
British railway passes through the parish. The chief 
landowners are Sprot of Riddell, Currie of Linthill, 
Lords Minto and Polwarth, Mr Scott of Sinton, Mr 
- Stewart of Hermiston, Mr Martin of Firth, Mr Dobie 
of Raperlan, Mr Dickson of Chatto, Mr Pennycook of 
Newhall, and Mr Riddel-Carre of Cavers-Carre. ' An- 
cient Riddell's fair domain' belonged till about 1823 to 
a family of that name, whose ancestor Walter de Rid- 
dell obtained a charter of Lilliesleaf, Whittunes, etc., 
about the middle of the 12th century, and who received 
a baronetcy in 1628. The remoter antiquity of the 
family has been rested upon the discovery, in the old 
chapel of Riddell, of two stone coffins, one of which 
contained ' an earthen pot, filled with ashes and arms, 
bearing a legible date, a.d. 727,' while the other was 
filled with ' the bones of a man of gigantic size. ' These 
coifins, it has been conjectured, contained the remains 
of ancestors of the family, although this view has been 
rejected by Sir Walter B. Riddell. The mansion of Rid- 
dell, 1 j mile WSW of the village, is a plain, but large, 
three-storied house. It is approached from one of the 
lodges by a very fine avenue, IJ mile in length. The 



LINCLUDEN COLLEGE 

present owner. Col. John Sprot (b. 1830 ; sue. 1883), 
holds 3278 acres in the shire, valued at £3427 per annum. 
Another mansion, Cotfield, stands If mile S of the 
village. Lilliesleaf Moor was the scene of many ' Con- 
venticles ' held by the Covenanters, and upon it took 
place several skirmishes between them and their 
opponents. The chief engagement occurred at Bewlie 
Moss. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Selkirk and synod 
of Merse and Teviotdale. The stipend, with manse and 
glebe, amounts to about £400. There was an augmenta- 
tion of 3 chalders in 1882. The old church of Lillies- 
leaf belonged, before the year 1116, to the Church of 
Glasgow, whose right over it was confirmed by several 
Papal Bulls. A church, which also belonged to the See 
of Glasgow, stood at Hermiston or Herdmanstown, and, 
in addition to it, there were chapels at Riddell (where 
Riddell Mill now stands) and at Chapel (on the present 
site of Chapel Farm). Valuation (1864) £6923, 16s. 3d., 
(1884) £7987, 13s. 9d. Pop. (1801) 673, (1831) 781, 
(1861) 772, (1871) 788, (1881) 718.— Ord Sur., shs. 
17, 25, 1864-65. 

Lily Loch. See Dev?s. 

Limecraigs, an estate, with a mansion, in Campbel- 
town parish, Argyllshire. 

Limefield, an estate, with a modem mansion, in West 
Calder parish, Edinburghshire, 1 mile NE of West 
Calder town. 

Limekilns, a coast village of SW Fife, mainly in Dun- 
fermline, but partly in Inverkeithing parish, 1 mile E 
by S of Charlestown and 3 miles SSW of Dunfermline 
town. In 1814 Limekilns had i brigs, 1 schooner, and 
137 sloops ; in 1843 6 brigs, 7 schooners, 16 sloops, and 
1 pinnace, these thirty manned by 168 men ; but now 
there is hardl}' any shipping, owing to altered modes of 
transit. An old house, called the ' King's Cellar,' bears 
date 1581, and was possibly the death-place of Robert 
Pitcairn (1520-84), first commendator of Dunfermline 
and secretary of state for Scotland. George Thomson 
(1759-1851), the editor of a well-known Collection of 
Scottish Songs, was a native. A ' pan house ' for salt- 
making, long discontinued, was started in 1613 ; and 
in 1825 there was built, at a cost of £2000, a U.P. church, 
with 1056 sittings, whose congregation celebrated its 
centenary on 12 Nov. 1882. Limekilns has also a post 
office under Dunfermline, and a public school. Pop. 
(1841) 950, (1861) 828, (1871) 758, (1881) 698, of whom 
21 were in Inverkeithing. — Orel. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Limekilns, a mansion in East Kilbride parish, W 
Lanarkshire, 5 furlongs WNW of the town. Its owner, 
Allan Graham- Barns-Graham, Esq. (b. 1835; sue. 1867), 
holds 2961 acres in Lanark, Ayr, and Renfrew shires, 
valued at £4714 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 23, 1865. 

Limerigg, a village in Slamannan parish, Stirling- 
shire, 1 mile S of Slamannan station, and 6J miles SSW 
of Falkirk. Pop. with Lochside (1871) 623, (1881) 1204. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Linacro, a village in the NW of the Isle of Skye, 
Inverness-shire. Its post-town is Kilmuir, under 
Portree. 

Linbum House, a mansion in Kirknewton parish, 
Edinburghshire, 2 miles ENE of Midcalder Junction. 
Its owner, James Henry Cowan, Esq. (b. 1856 ; sue. 
1875), holds 2357 acres in Edinburgh and Linlithgow 
shires, valued at £4482 per annum.— Orti. Sur., sh. 32, 
1857. 

Lincluden College, a ruined religious house in Ter- 
regles parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, on a grassy mound 
above the right bank of winding Cluden Water, which 
here falls into the Nith, IJ mile N by AV of Dumfries. 
It was originally a convent for Black or Benedictine 
nuns, founded by Uchtred, second son of Fergus, Lord 
of Galloway, about the middle of the 12th century. But 
towards the close of the 14th, Archibald, Earl of Douglas 
and Lord of Galloway, called the 'Grim,' expelled the 
nuns, for ' insolence ' and other irregularities, and con- 
verted the establishment into a collegiate church, with 
a provost and 12 canons — later, a provost, 8 canons, 24 
bedesmen, and a chaplain. In the zenith of their 

511 



LINCLUDEN COLLEGE 

power the Earls of Douglas expended considerable sums 
in ornamenting the place, and, when wardens of the 
West Marches, adopted it as their favourite residence, 
WiUiam, eighth Earl, here holding a parliament in 
1448 to revise the uses of Border warfare. From what 
remains of the ancient building, which is part of the 
provost's house, the choir, and the S transept, an idea 
may be easily formed of its bygone splendour. The 
aisleless three-bayed choir, in particular, was finished 
in the richest style of Decorated architecture, its roof 
resembling that of King's College, Cambridge, and the 
brackets, whence sprung the ribbed arch-work, being 
decked with armorial bearings. Over the door of the 
sacristy are the arms of the Grim Earl, the founder of 
the provostry, and those of his lady, who was heiress of 
Bothwell. Both he and Uchtred, founder of the 
nunnery, were buried here ; and in the choir is the 
mutilated but richly sculptured tomb (c. 1440) of Mar- 
garet, daughter of Robert III., and wife of Archibald, 
fourth Earl of Douglas and first Duke of Touraine. To 
quote from Billings' Ecclesiastical and Baronial An- 
tiquities (1852), ' the character of the edifice, so far as it 
remains, is very peculiar. Though of small dimensions, 
it has, like Michael Angelo's statues, a colossal effect 
from the size of its details. This is conspicuous in the 
bold and massive corbels and capitals of the vaulting 
shafts from which the groined arches, now fallen, had 
sprung. This largeness of feature may be observed in 
the moulding round the priest's door — itself but a small 
object — and in the broken tracery of the window above 
it. Over the interior of the small square door by which 
this part of the ruin is entered, there is a moulding of 
oak wreath, or perhaps, more correctlj' speaking, a 
series of crockets, so grotesquely large as to appear as if 
they had been intended to be raised to a great height, 
so as to be diminished by distance. Heraldic forms 
predominate, probably owing to circumstances which 
the history of the institution will readily suggest. 
Many of the large brackets are shields, but they are 
massed in with the other decorations with more freedom 
and picturesqueness than this species of ornament is 
generally found to admit of. Of the tracery of the 
windows, enough only remains to show how rich, beauti- 
ful, and varied it had been. The patterns, with a 
tendency to the French Flamboyant character, are strictly 
geometrical. The main portion of the church, now exist- 
ing, consists of the choir and a fragment of a transept. 
On the right-hand side, opposite to the tomb and door, 
there are three fine sedilia, partially destroyed. They 
consist of undepressed ribbed pointed arches, each with 
a canopy and crocket above, and cusps in the interior — 
an arrangement that unites the richness of the Decorated 
with the dignity of the Earliest Pointed style. Beyond 
the sedilia is a beautiful piscina of the same character. 
The arch is within a square framework, along the upper 
margin of which there runs a tiny arcade of very beauti- 
ful structure and proportion.' Along the walls of the 
ruin are a profusion of ivy and a few dwarfish bushes ; 
around are a few trees which form an interrupted and 
romantic shade ; on the N is a meadow, sleepily 
traversed by Cluden Water ; on the E is a lovely little 
plain, spread out like an esplanade, half its circle edged 
with the Cludeu and the Nith ; on the SE were, not so 
long ago, distinct vestiges of a bowling-green, flower- 
garden, and parterres ; and beyond is a huge artificial 
mound, cut round to its summit by a spiral walk, and 
commanding a brilliant view of the 'meeting of the 
waters ' immediately below, and of the joyous landscape 
about Dumfries. The place is much cherished by the 
townsfolk of that burgh, and was a favourite haunt of 
the poet Burns, who here says Allan Cunningham 
beheld the ' Vision. ' 

The provosts of Lincluden were in general men of 
considerable eminence ; and several held high offices of 
state. Among them were John Cameron (d. 1446), who 
became secretary, lord-privy-seal, and chancellor of the 
kingdom, archbishop of Glasgow, and one of the dele- 
gates of the Scottish Cliurch'to the council of Basel ; 
John Winchester (d. 1458), afterwards bishop of Moray ; 
512 



LINDORES 

John Methven, secretary of state and an ambassador of 
the court ; James Lindsay, keeper of the privy seal, and 
an ambassador to England ; Andrew Stewart (d. 1501), 
dean of faculty of the University of Glasgow, and after- 
wards bishop of Moray ; George Hepburn, lord-treasurer 
of Scotland ; William Stewart (d. 1545), lord-treasurer 
of Scotland, and afterwards bishop of Aberdeen ; and 
Robert Douglas, the eighteenth and last provost, a 
bastard son of Sir James Douglas of Drumlanrig, who 
was appointed in 1547, and was allowed to enjoy the 
benefice for 40 years after the Reformation. So late as 
Yule tide 1586, Lord Maxwell had mass sung openly in 
the church on three days running. Robert Douglas's 
grand-nephew, William Douglas, the heir of Drumlan- 
rig, obtained a reversion of the provostry, and, after 
Robert's death, enjoyed its property and revenues during 
his own life. Succeeding to the family estates of Drum- 
lanrig, and created afterwards Viscount Dbumlaneig, 
and next Earl of Queensberry, he got vested in himself 
and his heirs the patronage and tithes of the churches 
of Terregles, Lochrutton, Colvend, Kirkbean, and Caer- 
laverock, belonging to the college, and also a small part 
of its lands. But the major part of the property of the 
establishment was in 1611 granted, in difi'erent shares, 
to Sir Robert Gordon of Lochinvar and to John Murray. 
The latter, prior to 1627, conveyed his share, including 
Lincluden College, to Robert, Earl of Nithsdale, whose 
lineal descendant, Capt. Alfred Constable of Terregles, is 
now the owner. Till recently the ruins were neglected, 
but he has done much to preserve this architectural gem, 
by erecting a railing round it, and installing a suitable 
person as custodian. Extensive excavations, too, of the 
foundations, vaults, etc., have furnished a good deal of 
additional information as to the dates of different portions 
of the building. Lincluden House (till recently known 
as Youngfield), a Tudor mansion, a little SW of the 
church, was almost totally destroyed by fire in 1875, but 
was restored in the following year from designs by the 
late David Bryce, R.S.A. , this being his last work. Its 
owner, Major Thomas Young (b. 1826), holds 1318 acres 
in the shire, valued at £1212 per annum. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 9, 1863. See Wm. M'Dowall's History of Dumfries 
(2d. ed. 1873), and an article by E. F. C. Clark in 
Trans. Arch. Inst, of Scotland {lS6i). 

Lindalee. See Lintalee. 

Lindean, a station in Galashiels parish, Roxburgh- 
shire, on the Selkirk branch of tlie North British rail- 
way, near the confluence of Ettrick AVater with the 
Tweed, 2 miles N by E of Selkirk. The ancient parish 
of Lindean is now united to Galashiels. Its church, 
disused since 1586, stood 3 furlongs S of the station, 
and was the place where the body of William Douglas, 
the Knight of Liddesdale, lay during the night after his 
assassination (1353). — Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Lindertis, a mansion in Airlie parish, W Forfarshire, 
3J miles WSW of Kirriemuir. Almost entirely rebuilt 
in 1813, after designs by Elliot of Edinburgh, it is a 
castellated edifice, with well-wooded grounds, and com- 
mands an extensive view of the richest portion of Strath- 
more. The owner. Sir Thomas Munro, second Bart, 
since 1825 (b. 1819 ; sue. 1827), holds 5702 acres in the 
shire, valued at £6580 per annum. His father, Major- 
Gen. Sir Thomas Munro (1761-1827), distinguished him- 
self in India alike as soldier and statesman. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 56, 1870. 

Lindores, a village in Abdie parish, and an ancient 
abbey in Newburgh parish, Fife. The village lies 2 
miles SE of Newburgh, near the railway line from Lady- 
bank to Perth. Near its E end traces of an ancient 
castle, supposed by the natives to have belonged to 
Macduff, 'Thane of Fife,' were discovered about 1800. 
While the workmen were digging into the ruins, they 
came on a ' small apartment with a shelved recess, 
upon which lay a piece of folded cloth, which, on ex- 
posure to the air, soon dissolved and disappeared.' In 
the neighbourhood of the castle there was fought, on 
12 June 1298, the battle of Black Irnsyde or Earnside, 
between AVallace and the Earl of Pembroke, in which 
the English were worsted. Lindores Locli extends 7 



LINDSAY TOWER 



LINLITHGOW 



furlongs from SE to NW, and lias an utmost width 
of 2J furlongs. The railway passes along the south- 
western shore, and the north-eastern is fringed by the 
grounds of Inchrye Abbey. It is well stocked with 
fish, 

Lindores Abbey, situated on ground rising gently from 
the Tay, J mile E of Newburgh, was founded by David, 
Earl of Huntingdon, in 1178 (according to Fordoun), 
but more probaWy about 1196. It was dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary and St Andrew the Apostle, and endowed 
for monks of the Benedictine Order. To Guido, the 
first abbot, Lindores mainly owed its size and import- 
ance. From the remains, it is possible to guess its ex- 
tent and character. 'The church,' says Laing, 'was 195 
feet in length, and the transepts were 110 feet from N 
to S. The' most perfect portion of the abbey remain- 
ing is the groined arch of the porch which formed the 
entrance to the abbey through the cloister court. The 
ruins have recently been cleared of superincumbent 
rubbish, and the ground plan and style of the buildings 
are now clearly seen ; they belong to the Early English 
or First Pointed style, which prevailed in Scotland at 
the period of their erection.' The abbey grew gradu- 
ally in size and riches, being endowed with property of 
various kinds, and those who held the chief office in it 
took a leading part in the aflfairs of the Catholic Church 
in Scotland. From time to time it was visited by kings 
and nobles: by Edward I. (1291), John Baliol (1294), 
Sir William Wallace (1298), David II. The unfortunate 
Duke of Rothesay, who died 27 March 1402, was buried 
there. According to Boece, his body 'kithit meraklis 
mony yeris eftir, quhil at last King James the First 
began to punis his slayaris ; and fra that time furth, 
the mii'aclis ceissit.' In Lindores Abbey James, ninth 
Earl of Douglas, passed the last five years of his life in 
retirement, after thirty years spent in struggling against 
King James II. and King James III. He died there on 
15 April 1483. In 1510 Lindores was erected into a 
regality, which conferred large powers upon the abbot. 
In 1543 the monks were expelled for a short time from 
the abbey; and in 1559, as Knox writes, they were well 
reformed, their mass books and missals burnt, as well as 
their 'idols and vestments of idolatry.' John Leslie, 
the last Abbot of Lindores, who held the abbacy ' in 
trust,' or in comracndam, took an active part in the 
intrigues of the time of Queen Mary. He was a warm 
supporter of the queen. He was appointed abbot in 
1666, and died in 1596. Lindores Abbey soon passed 
into secular hands, the monks were ejected, and its 
large revenues fell to Sir Patrick Leslie, who was created 
first Lord Lindores. Although greatly harmed at the 
Eeformation, Lindores was not completely destroyed. 
Its almost perfect demolition was caused by its being 
afterwards regarded as a convenient quarry from which 
to obtain stones for building purposes. The consequence 
is, that very few traces of it remain, the chief being 
'the groined arch of the principal entrance,' a portion 
of the chancel-walls, and about 8 feet of the western 
tower. The ruins have now been cleared from debris, 
etc., and what remains can be properly seen. 

The title of Lord Lindores was acquired in 1600 by 
the Leslie family, and became dormant at the death of 
its seventh holder in 1775. The mansion beside the 
loch was built on his estate of Lindores by Admiral Sir 
Frederick Maitland, K.C.B. (1779-1839), who received 
Napoleon on board the Bellerophon after Waterloo. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. See Lindores Abbey and its 
Burgh of Neichurgh, by Alexander Laing, F.S.A.Scot. 
(Edinb. 'l876). 

Lindsay Tower. See Ceawfokd. 

Line. See Lyne. 

Ling. See Long, Eoss-shire. 

Linga, an islet of Tingwall parish, Shetland, off the 
SE shore of Hildasay, 2S miles WNW of Scalloway. 
Pop. (1871) 12, (1881) 10. 

Liaga, an islet (2 x If furl. ) of Walls parish, Shetland, 
in Vaila Sound, % mile S by W of Walls. Pop. (1871) 
10, (1881) 13. 

Linga, an uninhabited islet (2J x 1^ furl. ) of Nesting 



parish, Shetland, J mile E of the mainland, and 2| 
miles S by W of the southern extremity of Yell. 

Linga, one of the Trcshinish isles in Kilninian and 
Kilmore parish, Argyllshire. Its coast is low, and its 
interior rises in a succession of terraces to an altitude of 
about 300 feet above sea-level. 

Linga Holm, an islet (6|x3i furl.) of Stronsay and 
Eday parish, Orkney, J mile W of the northern arm of 
Stronsay island. Linga Sound is the strait between 
the islet and Stronsay, and opens southward into St 
Catherine's Bay. 

Lingay, an islet of Barra parish. Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-shire, 34 miles S of Vatersay. It has ex- 
cellent pasturage, but is uninhabited by man. 

Lingay, an islet of North Uist parish. Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-.shire, off the NW coast of North Uist islet,' 
and 2J miles SW of Bernera. It is of small extent and 
uninhabited, but it shelters an excellent anchorage. 

Linhouse Water, a troutful rivulet of W Edinburgh- 
shire, formed by two head-streams which rise among 
the Pentland Hills, and unite at a point 2| miles E by 
S of AVest Calder. Thence it winds 4| miles north- 
north-eastward along the boundary between Midcalder 
and Kirknewton parishes, and, receiving Murieston 
Water on its left side at Midcalder village, it falls into 
Almond Water J mile lower down. — Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 
1857. 

Linkhead, a hamlet in Cockburnspath parish, Ber- 
wickshire, 1 mile E of Cockburnspath village. 

Linktown, a burgh of regality in Abbotshall parish, 
Fife. It forms part of the parliamentary burgh of 
Kirkcaldy, is a prolongation westward of Kirkcaldy 
proper, figures in all respects as a component part of 
the lang toon o' Kirkcaldy, and has been substantially 
noticed in our articles on Abbotshall and Kirkcaldy. 

Linlathen, a spacious mansion in Monifieth parish, 
Forfarshire, on the left bank of Dighty Water, 2{ miles 
N of Broughty-Ferry. Its owner, James Erskine Erskiue, 
Esq. (b. 1826), holds 1619 acres in the shire, valued at 
£4447 per annum. He succeeded his uncle, Thomas 
Erskine, LL.D. (1788-1870), who was author of some 
well-known religious works, and whose Memoir has 
been written by Principal Shairp. A large cairn, called 
Cairn-Greg, stands a little to the N, and is said to 
commemorate a famous chieftain of the name of Greg 
or Gregory, who fell in battle here. — Ord. Sur., sh. 49, 
1865. 

Linlithgow, a parish containing the royal burgh of 
the same name in the NW of the county of Linlithgow. 
It is bounded N by Carriden parish, NE by Abercorn, 
E by Ecclesmachan, SE by Uphall, S by a detached 
portion of Ecclesmachan and by Bathgate parish, SW 
by Torphichen, and NW by Stirlingshire and by 
Borrowstounness parish. The boundary with Stirling- 
shire is the river Avon, over a distance of 4J miles, and 
at the NE, SE, and part of the S sides, the line follows for 
some distance the Haugh and Niddry Burns ; elsewhere 
it is mostly artificial. The greatest length of the parish, 
from the river Avon west of Carribber on the W to near 
Binny on the E, is 6i miles ; the greatest breadth, from 
the road N of Bonside on the N to Silvermine on the S, is 
4 J miles ; and the area is 11,603 acres, of which 152^ are 
water. The surface is undulating, and the height above 
sea-level rises from 150 feet at Linlithgow Loch, north- 
wards to Bonnytoun Hill or Glower-o'er-'em (559) and 
southwards to the Eiccarton Hills (832), and Binny 
Craig (718). From Bonnytoun Hill, which is just on 
the northern border, there is a very extensive and 
charming view. The north-eastern and eastern districts 
are mainly level, while the central hollow rises south- 
ward with a long slope to the Eiccarton Hills. Binny 
Craig had at one time repute as a haunt of fairies. The 
soil in the S and SE is a strong stiff clay on a retentive 
subsoil, and is more suitable for pasture than for tillage ; 
in all the other districts it is mostly light, friable, 
easily cultivated, and yielding good returns. A con- 
siderable area in the parish is un9er wood, and the rest, 
except a very small proportion on the upper slopes or 
tops of the higher grounds is either regularly or occa- 

513 



LINLITHGOW 

sionally under tillage. The underlying rocks are sand- 
stone, limestone, basalt, and volcanic ash, of which the two 
first are worked in several places. There are large quarries 
at Kingscavil and Binny, the latter being particularly 
noted for the excellence of the sandstone and the large 
size of the blocks that may be obtained. Small patches 
of bitumen, capable of being manufactured into bright 
flaming candles, are sometimes found associated with 
the sandstone. There are at several places thin seams 
of coal and bitumen found, but not in sufficient quantity 
to be worked. Silver was once obtained in some 
quantity from lead ore mined and smelted at Silver- 
mine in the S, but the works have long been abandoned, 
except during a feeble attempt made for their revival 
some years ago. A mineral spring at Carribber is now 
neglected. The parish is drained on the W by the river 
Avon, and by the small streams that join it, the principal 
being Loch Burn, issuing from the W corner of, and 
carrying off the surplus water from, Linlithgow Loch. 
One or two small streams also enter the loch. In the 
N, NE, and centre, the rainfall is carried off by the 
Pardovan, Haugh, and Riccarton bums, which unite 
and run NE to the sea at Abeecorn ; and in the S aud 
SE by Mains and Niddry burns (the latter being on the 
boundary), which unite and flow eastward to the 
Almond. Besides the burgh of Linlithgow, the parish 
contains the village of Kingscavil, E of Linlithgow, and 
part of the village of Linlithgow Bridge to the W, both 
of which are separately noticed. The northern portion 
of the parish is traversed by roads from Edinburgh by 
South Queensferkt and by Kirkliston, which unite 
at Linlithgow and pass westward to Glasgow, and by 
Stirling to the north ; and there are also throughout 
the whole of it a large number of excellent district 
roads. The north is also traversed by the Union 
Canal, which, entering on the W at the Avon to the 
WSW of Woodcockdale, winds eastward for 5J miles, 
and passes into Abercorn parish near Easter Pardovan ; 
and by the North British railway system, which, enter- 
ing on the E J mile NE of Wester Pardovan, passes 
westwards 4J miles, and quits the parish at the Avon 
J mile S of Linlithgow Bridge. There is a station at 
the town of Linlithgow. The mansions are Avontoun, 
Charapfieurie House, Belsyde, Bonsyde, Preston House, 
and Woodcockdale. Besides the industries in connec- 
tion with the town, and the paper-mill at Linlithgow 
Bridge, there are sandstone and whinstone quarries, a 
paper-mill W of the outlet of Linlithgow Loch, and a 
large distillery ^ mile SW of the town. On the 
tract of ground E of the town still called Boroughmuir, 
Edward I. encamped on the night previous to the battle 
of Falkirk and the defeat of Wallace. On the same 
ground, in 1781, an earthen urn was found containing 
about 300 Roman coins. On Cocklerue Hill are traces 
of a hill fort, and on the top, which is, however, in 
Torphichen parish, is a hollow, associated, like so many 
others of the same sort, with the name of the great 
Scottish patriot, and known as Wallace's Cradle. 
There are traces of another hill fort in the SE, 3 fur- 
longs S of Wester Ochiltree. There is a tradition that 
a battle was fought between the natives and the 
Romans at Irongath, but Dr Skene thinks that though 
there really was a battle, it was post-Roman, and 
fought between native tribes, and the same authority 
fixes Carribber as, in 736, the place where the Cinel 
Loam branch of the Dalriadic Scots were defeated by 
the Picts. About a mile W of the town along the rail- 
way is the scene of the battle of Linlithgow Bridge, 
fought in Sept. 1526. The Earl of Lennox having 
assembled a considerable force at Stirling, advanced 
towards Linlithgow to try, at the young king's own 
expressed desire, to get James V. out of the keeping of 
the Douglases. The Earl of Arran barred the way by 
occupying the bridge and the steep banks between that 
and Manuel Priory, and with assistance from the Earl 
of Angus ultimately defeated the Lennox party. Len- 
nox himself, who had surrendered to the Laird of 
Pardovan, was deliberately shot by Sir James Hamilton 
of Finnart, and the spot where he fell, or possibly where 
514 



LINLITHGOW 

he was buried,* seems to have been marked by a heap 
of stones, and is still known as Lennox's Cairn. Many 
relics of the fight were recovered when the railway was 
being made, and a sword with the inscription pono leges 
virtute, which was then found, is now in the burgh 
museum at Linlithgow. Not far off there seems to 
have been a field used for knightly sports, and known 
as the joisting or jousting haugh. Nearer the town is a 
rising-ground, traditionally a law hill, the flat ground 
below having the name of Doomsdale. At Carribber 
are the ruins of an old mansion, know from the owner 
in the time of James V. as ' Rob Gib's Castle,' and 
there is an old tower at Ochiltree. Distinguished 
natives of the parish are Binny or Binnoch, Rob Gib, 
Stewart of Pardovan, and Sir Charles Wyville Thom- 
son. Binny figures prominently in connection with 
Bruce's capture of Linlithgow Peel, an exploit noticed 
in the following article. The Binnings of Wally- 
ford are said to have been descended from him, and 
in reference to their ancestors' deed, to have had for 
their arms a hay- wain with the motto ' Virtute doloque.' 
Rob or Robert Gib was stirrup-man to James V. and 
laird of Carribber, and is well known in connection 
with the proverb, ' Rob Gib's contract — stark love and 
kindness,' which arose from his having one day de- 
scribed the courtiers as ' a set of unmercifully greedy 
sycophants, who followed their worthy king only to see 
what they could make of him, ' while he himself served 
his master ' for stark love and kindness. ' Stewart of 
Pardovan represented the burgh of Linlithgow in the 
last Scottish parliament, and is also author of a work of 
considerable authority on the proceedings of Presby- 
terian church courts and the intricacies of Presbyterial 
law. Sir Charles Wyville Thomson (1830-82) was Pro- 
fessor of Natural History in the University of Edin- 
burgh, and had a world-wide reputation as the chief of 
the scientific staff engaged in the deep-sea investigations 
carried out by the expedition in H.M.S. Challenger in 
1872-76. 

The parish, which comprehends also the ancient 
parish of Binning, united to it after the Reformation, 
and which, prior to 15S8, had also the parishes of 
Ivinneil and Carriden attached to it, is the seat of a 
presbytery in the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; 
the living is worth £400 a year. The churches are 
noticed in the following article. The landward school- 
board has under its charge the public schools of 
Kingscavil and Linlithgow, and these, with accom- 
modation respectively for 61 and 314 pupils, had 
(1882) attendances of 48 and 275, and grants of 
£36, 6s. and £229, Is. Eleven proprietors hold each 
an annual value of £500 or upwards, and there are a 
considerable number holding smaller amounts. Valua- 
tion (1860) £21,318, (1881) £23,266, (1884) £19,469, 
plus £4226 for railway. Pop. (1801) 3596, (1831) 4874, 
(1861) 5784, (1871) 5554, (1881) 5619, of whom 3913 
were within the burgh. — Ord. Sur., shs. 31, 32, 
1867-57. 

The presbytery of Linlithgow, almost corresponding 
with the old rural deanery, includes the quoad civilia 
parishes of Abercorn, Bathgate, Borrowstounness, Mid- 
calder. West Calder, Carriden, Dalmeny, Ecclesmachan, 
Falkirk, Kirkliston, Linlithgow, Livingston, Muir- 
avonside, Polmont, Queensferry, Slamannan, Tor- 
phichen, Uphall, and Whitburn ; the quoad sacra 
parishes of Camelon, Fauldhouse, Grahamston, and 
Grangemouth ; and the mission stations of Armadale 
and Shielhill and Blaokbraes. Pop. (1871) 79,580, 
(1881) 90,507, of whom 10,709 were communicants of 
the Church of Scotland in 1878.— There is also a Free 
Church presbytery of Linlithgow, with churches at 
Armadale, Bainsford, Bathgate, Borrowstounness, West 

• Pitscottie says ' the king's servants came through the field 
and saw the lord Hamilton standing mourning beside the Earl of 
Lennox, saying, "The wisest man, the stoutest man, the hardiest 
man, that ever was bom in Scotland, was slain that day," and his 
cloke of scarlet cast upon him, and gart watchmen stand about 
him till the king's servants came and buried him ;' which seems 
to point to his being buried on the spot. 



LIKLITHGOW 

Calder, Crofthead, Falkirk, Grangemouth, Harthill, 
Kirkliston, Laurieston, Linlithgow, Livingston, Pol- 
mont, Slamannan, Torphichen, Uphall, and Whitburn, 
which 18 churches together had 4441 members in 
1383. 

Linlithgow (popularly Lithgow, formerly Linlithcu, 
Linlythku, Linliskeu, Linliscoth, Linlychku, and Lith- 
cow ; etymology uncertain), a royal and parliamentary 
burgh and the county town of Linlithgowshire, in the 
NW of the parish just described. It has a station on 
the Edinburgh and Glasgow branch of the North British 
railway system, and is by rail 17i miles, and by road 
16 miles, W of Edinburgh. In a straight line it is 3 
miles S of Borrowstounness, 7 N by E of Bathgate, and 
8 E of Falkirk. 

History and Situation. — What the exact antiquity of 
the town may be is doubtful, though it must be con- 
siderable. The name is probably British, and tradition 
has it that there was an ancient British village on the 
site now occupied by the town, while Sibbald has pre- 
served the story that the burgh was founded by King 
Achaius of doubtful memory, and that there was once a 
stone cross bearing the name of King Cay's stone, which 
was a corruption of King Achaius' stone. From 
similarity of name, but seemingly without any other 
evidence, Camden and his followers identified the place 
with the Lindura of Ptolemy, but this is unquestionably 
wrong, though it is highly probable that there was a 
station here, and when the wall of Antoninus was the 
northern limit of the Roman power, the site afterwards 
occupied by the peel seems to have been the site of a 
Koman fort or station. Before the accession of David 
I. a chapel appears to have been erected on the pro- 
montory now occupied by the church and the palace, and 
this king granted to the priory of St Andrews the church 
with its chapels and lands as well within the burgh as 
without, and there was also a royal castle as well as a 
grange or manor near, for to the abbot and canons of 
Holyrood was granted the skins of all the sheep or 
cattle used at the castle or on the lands of the demesne 
of Linlithgow. The castle seems to have been erected 
to overlook and protect the royal manor, but whether it 
stood on the site afterwards occupied by the peel cannot 
now be ascertained. The mention of the burgh shows 
at all events that there was even then a considerable 
town which was a king's town in demesne, and had 
therefore all the privileges which were afterwards 
formally given by charter to royal burghs. After the 
death of Alexander III., and before a charter had been 
obtained, the town was governed by two bailies, John 
Eaebuck and John de Mar, who, along with ten of the 
principal inhabitants, were compelled in 1296 to swear 
fealty to Edward I. The rents or ' firms ' of the town 
had been let by the king to the community, and after- 
wards mortgaged by Alexander to the King of Norway 
as security and in payment of interest of part of the 
dowry of his daughter Margaret, married to Eric of 
Norway, only half of which had been paid. In the 
unsettled times that followed the death of the Maid of 
Norway, the interest does not seem to have been paid 
very regularly, for at two dift'erent dates writs of Edward 
I. were addressed 'prepositis de Linlithgow,' requiring 
the payment of £59, 2s. Id. and of £7, 4s. lOd. respec- 
tively, as arrears due to the Norwegian King. In 1298 
Edward I. marched through the to\vn on his way to 
fight the battle of Falkirk, and in 1301 he took up his 
winter quarters here, and in that and the following 
year erected a new castle 'mekill and stark,' part of 
which still remains at the NE corner of the present 
palace. This remained till 1313 in the hands of the 
English ' stuffyt wele, ' as Ba/bour has it — 

* "With Inglis men, and wes reset 
To thaim that, with armuris or met, 
Fra Edynburgh wald to Strewelyn ga. 
And fra Strewelj'ng agane alsua ; 
That till the country did g^et ill.' 

In the summer of that year, however, a farmer in the 
neighbourhood named William Binnock or Bunnock, 



LINLITHGOW 

' a stout carle and a sture, and off him selff dour and 
hardy,' seeing how 

' Hard the countrtS stad 
Throw the gret force that it was then 
Gouernyt, and led with Inglis men ; ' 

determined to strike a blow for the freedom of his 
country. His opportunities were good, as he had been 
selected to supply the garrison with hay, and was fre- 
quently at the castle with his waggon. Having talked 
the matter over with as many of his friends as were 
willing to join in the enterprise, they determined that 
the attempt was to be made the next time hay was 
taken within the walls. A considerable number of men 
were placed in ambush near the gate the night before, 
and were to rush to his assistance as soon as they heard 
the shout of 'Call all. Call alL' On the top of the 
waggon itself, just covered with hay and nothing more, 
were concealed eight strong well armed men. He him- 
self drove the waggon, and one of the stoutest of those 
who aided him accompanied him with a sharp axe. On 
his approach to the castle early in the morning, the 
warder at the gate knowing that the forage was ex- 
pected, and seeing only the two men, apprehended no 
danger, and at once opened the gate. Just when the 
waggon was half through, the man with the hatchet 
cut the 'soyme' or yoke, and the cart and load being 
thus left standing, the gates could not be shut, nor 
could the portcullis be lowered. At the same moment 
Binnock struck down the porter and shouted, ' Call all, 
Call all,' whereupon the men who had been concealed 
among the hay jumped do^vn and attacked the guard, 
while his friends who had been posted in ambush rushed 
forward to his assistance, and in a very short time made 
themselves masters of the castle. King Robert rewarded 
Binnock ' worthely ' with a grant of land, and according 
to Barbour caused the castle itself to be destroyed, but 
probably the order extended only to the portions added 
by Edward, and consisting in all likelihood of a high 
outer wall with round towers at the corners. If it was 
entirely demolished, another must have been built very 
soon after, for in 1334 Edward Baliol transferred to 
Edward III. the constabulary, the town, and the castle 
of Linlithgow as part of the price paid for the assistance 
given him during his short lived usurpation. In 1366, 
possibly earlier, the burgh had a I'epresentative in the 
Scottish Parliament, while in 1368 it was determined 
that the Court of the Four Burghs — still existing as the 
Convention of Royal Burghs, though now sadly shorn of 
its former powers — which had formerly consisted of 
Edinburgh, Stirling, Berwick, and Roxburgh, should, so 
long as the two latter places remained in the hands of 
the English, consist of Edinburgh, Stirling, Linlithgow, 
and Lanark, which shows that the place had attained 
considerable size and importance. At this time too the 
town possessed the sole right of trade along the coast 
between the Cramond and the Avon, and the profit 
arising thence must have been considerable, for in 1369 
the customs yielded to the royal chamberlain no less 
than £1403 which was more than any of the other 
burghs except Edinburgh, Aberdeen being next with 
£1100. The first of the Scottish Kings who made Lin- 
lithgow a favourite residence was Robert II., who fre- 
quently lived at the castle, and whom we find in 1386 
granting to his son-in-law, Sir William Douglas, £300 
sterling out of the great customs of Linlithgow, Edin- 
burgh, Dundee, and Aberdeen, and also giving to other 
persons various pensions out of the burgh mails or great 
customs of Linlithgow. In 1388 he held a parliament 
here, and in 1389 he granted to the burgh the earliest 
charter now remaining in its archives, and by which the 
maUs hitherto drawn by the royal chamberlain were 
granted to the community at an annual rent of £5. 
From the reign of Robert II. down to that of James VI. 
the castle and palace were very frequently visited by the 
court, and formed one of the ordinary royal residences, 
and so became the scene of many important national 
events. Under the Regent Albany and James I. the 
town was twice burned, first in 1411 and again in 1424, 

51S 



LINLITHGOW 

in the latter of which years the castle also was injured, 
and in 1425 the earlier portions of the present palace 
were begun. James II. , at his marriage in 1449, settled 
on his bride, Mary of Gueldres, as her jointure, the 
lordship of Linlithgow and other lands, amounting in 
value to 10,000 crowns ; James III. also, at his mar- 
riage in 1468 to Margaret of Denmark, settled on her 
the palace of Linlithgow and the surrounding territory ; 
and James IV., on his marriage with Margaret of Eng- 
land in 1503, gave her in dower the whole lordship of 
Linlithgow with the palace and its jurisdiction and 
privileges. In 1517 Stirling and his followers who had 
attempted to assassinate Meldrum of Binns on the road 
to Leith, fled to Linlithgow, ' where they took the peel 
upon their heads to be their safeguard, thinking to 
defend themselves therein,' but they were speedily 
pursued by De la Bastie, lieutenant to the Begent 
Albany, and captured after a short siege. The 
battle of Linlithgow Bridge in 1526 has been already 
noticed in connection with the parish. Sir James 
Hamilton, who so foully murdered the Earl of Lennox, 
was rewarded by Angus with the captaincy of the 
palace, and having, unlike most of Angus' followers, 
afterwards become a favourite of James V., he showed 
still more the faithlessness and atrocity of his nature by 
attempts, both in the palace of Linlithgow and in that 
of Holyrood, to assassinate the King. 

In 1540 James V., by a special charter, empowered 
the town for the first time to add a provost to their 
magistracy ; and in the same year, while Mary of Guise 
was delighting herself with the beauties tand luxuries of 
Linlithgow Palace, Sir David Lindsay's satire of the 
three Estates was played before the king, queen, court, 
and townspeople, and was received with apparent satis- 
faction by all alike — a pretty sure sign as to how the 
wind was to blow in the coming Reformation storm. 
On 7 Dec. 1542, the unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots 
was born in the palace, and as James V. died at Falk- 
land on the 13th of the same month, and his infant 
daughter succeeded to the throne, the place became, for 
the period thereafter during which the queen dowager 
and her child remained there, the centre of all the many 
political intrigues of the time. In 1543 convocations 
met here on 1 Oct., and again on 1 and 19 Dec. ; and in 
1552 a provincial council of the clergy was held. In 
1559 the Earl of Argyll, Lord James Stewart, and John 
Knox, passed through Linlithgow on their celebrated 
march from Perth to Edinburgh, and demolished the 
monastic houses ; and almost ten years later, Stewart, 
now the Earl of Murray, and regent, was to return and 
end his all too brief term of power, for on 20 Jan. 1569- 
70, while passing through Linlithgow on his way from 
Stirling to Edinburgh, the regent was shot by Hamilton 
of Bothwellhaugh. The old story was, that it was an 
act of private revenge for injury of the most cruel kind 
done to Hamilton's wife by some of Murray's friends ; 
but that this is utterly false has been shown by Dr Hill 
Burton, and the well-planned scheme must be regarded 
as simply a political murder. Linlithgow was chosen 
because ' the Hamiltons had a strong feudal influence in 
the surrounding district, and could thus make their pre- 
parations among themselves. The structure of the old 
Scots towns favoured such a deed. They were generally 
laid out in one narrow street, with gardens radiating 
outwards on either side. These the enemy might destroy, 
but the backs of the houses formed a sort of wall, and 
protected the actual town from invasion. The arrange- 
ment was conducive to health as well as protection, but 
it afforded opportunities for mischief, and frequently 
those concerned in street brawls could escape through 
their own houses into the open country. A house, belong- 
ing, according to the concurring testimony of contem- 
poraries, to Archbishop Hamilton, was found to suit the 
purpose, as facing the principal street. Horses and all 
other means were ready for escape westward into the 
chief territory of the Hamiltons, where they were abso- 
lute. There was a balcony in front, with hangings on 
it. Perhaps the citizens did honour to the occasion by 
displaying their finery, and this house appeared to be 
516 



LINLITHGOW 

decorated like the others,' or it may he, as is told by an 
account parts of which at least are contemporary, that 
' upon the pavement of the said gallery [or balcony] he 
laid a feather-bed, and upon the window thereof he 
afiixed black cloths, that his shadow might not be seen 
nor his feet heard when he went to or fro.' It is more 
likely, however, not, as black cloth would certainly have 
attracted attention, and warnings of danger had pre- 
viously reached the regent, ' but he was not a man easily 
flustered or alarmed, and gave no further heed to what 
was said, save that he thought it prudent to pass rapidly 
forward. In this, however, he was impeded by the 
crowd. The murderer had to deal with the delays and 
difliculties of the clumsy hackbut of the day, but he did 
his work to perfection. The bullet passed through the 
body between the waist and the thigh, and retained 
impetus enough to kill a horse near the regent's side.' 
He was carried to the palace hard by, where after a few 
hours all was over, and the country stood once more face 
to face with anarchy. The Diurnal of Ocmrrents says 
that the house, which belonged to Bothwellhaugh's 
uncle. Archbishop Hamilton, ' incontinent thairefter 
wes all utterlie burnt with fyre.' Its site is now occu- 
pied by the county court buildings, in the wall of which 
a bronze tablet commemorative of the event was inserted 
in 1875. It was designed by Sir Noel Paton and exe- 
cuted by Mrs D. 0. Hill, and bears a medallion portrait 
of Murray, taken from a painting at Holyrood, with the 
inscription : ' On the street opposite this tablet James 
Stewart, Earl of Murray, Regent of Scotland, was shot 
by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, on 20 January 
1570. Erected in 1875.' The hackbut with which the 
murder was committed is still preserved at Hamilton 
Palace ; the assassin himself fled to France, and remained 
in voluntary exile. Some months after the deed, the 
English army, which entered Scotland to readjust the 
arrangements that the regent's death had unsettled, 
burnt the Duke of Chatelherault's house in Linlithgow, 
and threatened to desti-oy the whole town. It was also 
proposed during that distracted year to hold a parlia- 
ment at Linlithgow, but Regent Lennox marching 
thither in October prevented the intended meeting. 
In 1584 the rents both of money and victual of the 
lordship of Linlithgow were appropriated for supporting 
Blackness Castle, and in 1585 a parliament was held in 
the town. At the king's marriage in 1592 the barony 
lands and palace were, according to former usage, given 
in dowry to his bride, the Princess Anne of Denmark. 
In 1596, during a popular tumult in Edinburgh, the 
' faithful town of Linlithgow ' afl'orded refuge to Court, 
Privy Council, and Court of Session ; and in 1603 it 
shared in the grief that arose from James's abandonment 
of his native palaces on his accession to the English 
crown, and when the king first revisited Scotland in 
1617, and made his appearance at Linlithgow — the 
palace of which was then the residence of a Scottish 
sovereign for the last time — the inhabitants held high 
festival. James was met at the entrance to the town 
by James Wiseman, the burgh pedagogue, enclosed in 
a plaster figure resembling a lion, and was addressed 
by him in the following doggerel speech : 

' Thrice royal sir, here do I you beseech, 
AVho art a lion, to hear a lion's speech ; 
A miracle, for since the days of .^sop 
No lion, till those days, a voice dared raise up 
To such a majesty t Then, king of men. 
The king of beasts speaks to thee from his den. 
Who, though he now enclosed be in plaster, 
When he was free, was Lithgow's wise schoolmaster. 

Here in 1604 the trial of the leaders of the Aber- 
deen Assembly took place, and in 1606 and 1608 the 
Assemblies were held at which the modified episcopacy 
of this period was established. When Charles I. was 
at Edinburgh in 1633 ba intended to visit the town, 
and had the palace put in order for his reception, while 
the magistrates and council were quite in a fluster over 
preparations to do him honour. They ordered a 
thatched house in the Kirkgate to be slated, ' as it was 
unseemly, and a disgrace to the toun ; ' and also, ' con- 



LINLITHGOW 

sidering how undecent it is to weir plaidis and blew 
bannetis, . . . statuit and ordanit, That no person, 
athir in burgh or landwart, weir ony banneteis nor 

Elaidis during liis Majesties remaining in this his ancient 
ingdome ; And that none resort in the toune with 
bannettis or plaidis, under the paine of confiscation of 
thair plaidis and bannettis, and punichment of thair 
personne ; ' but something came in the way, and he 
never went, so that all their provisions, as well as their 
great care as to how the king's retinue was to be accom- 
modated, ' seeing the puir peipill hes not wharupon to 
sustain thame,' went for nought. During the troubles 
preceding the Covenant, the Privy Council and Law 
Courts again, in 1637, moved to Linlithgow, but either 
because they were still too near Edinburgh, or because 
they could get no suitable accommodation, they moved 
again almost at once to Stirling. In 1646, when the 
plague was raging in Edinburgh, the University classes 
were taught in Linlithgow church, and parliament sat 
in the hall of the palace for the last time. There was 
the usual outburst of somewhat dubious rejoicing over 
the Restoration ; and two years later, on the anniversary 
rejoicings, the Covenant was publicly burned, seemingly 
principally at the instigation of Ramsay the minister, 
afterwards Bishop of Dunblane, and R. Jlylne, then 
dean of guild — an act of which it is well to know that 
the commuuity were afterwards ashamed, for in 1696 
the council, after due search, declared that they could 
find in the minutes nothing ' appointing the same to be 
done,' and ' that the Toun had noe hand in burning the 
Covenant, and any aspersion put upon the Toun thair- 
anent to be false and calumnious. ' The matter is thus 
described in a contemporary account: 'At the Mercat 
Cross was erected a crowne standing on an arch on four 
pillars. On the one side of the arch was placed a statue 
in form of an old hag, having the Covenant in her hands, 
with this superscription, "A glorious reformation ; " and 
on the other side of the arch was placed another statue, 
in form of a Whigamuir, Laving the Remonstrance in his 
hand with this superscription, "No association with 
malignants ; " and on the other side was drawn a Com- 
mittee of Estates, with this superscription, " Ane act for 
delivering the king ; " and on the left side was drawn a 
Commission of the Kirk, with this superscription, "Ane 
act of the west-kirk ; " and on the top of the arch stood 
the Devil as ane angel, with this label in his mouth, 
"Stand to the cause ; " and in the middle hung a table 
with this litany: 

" From Covenanters with uplifted hands, 
From remonstrators with associate bands, 
From such committees as govern'd the nation, 
From kirli-commissions, and their protestation. 
Good Lord, deliver us." 

Over the pillar at the arch beneath the Covenant were 
drawn kirk-stools, rocks, and reels ; and over the pillar, 
beneath the Remonstrance, were drawn beechen cogs and 
spoons ; and on the back of the arch was drawn Rebellion 
in a religious habit, with turned-up eyes, in her right 
hand " Lex, Res," in her left a piece called " The causes 
of God's wrath ; " round about her was lying all Acts 
of Parliament, of Committees of Estates, of General 
Assemblies, and of the Commissioners of the Kirk, with 
their protestations and declarations during the 22 years' 
Rebellion ; above her was written this superscription, 
" Rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft." At the drink- 
ing his Majesties health, tire was put to the frame, it 
turned it into ashes, and there appeared suddenly a table 
supported by two angels, and on the otherside the dragon, 
the devil that fought with Michael the archangel, with 
this inscription : 

" Great Britain's monarch on this da}' was born 
And to his liingdonis hapily restor'd : 
The queen 's arriv'd, the mitre now is worn. 
Let us rejoice, this day is from the Lord. 
Fly hence, all traitors who did marr our peace ; 
Fly hence, schismatics who our church did rent ; 
Fly, covenantinjj, remonstrating race ; 
Let us rejoice that God this day hath sent," ' 

The town gave such sumptuous entertainment to the 
Duke of York, afterwards James II., when he was in 



LINLITHGOW 

Scotland, that it is said to have long felt the pressure 
of the debt incurred by its lavish expenditure on the 
occasion. Prince Charles Edward also was hospitably 
received on Sunday, 15 Sept. 1745, when the Palace 
Well was set a-running with wine ; and on 13 Sept. 1842, 
the Queen and Prince Albert, returning from Perthshire 
to Edinburgh, passed through but did not stop. 

Walter Slmson, in his History of the Gipsies (2d ed., 
New York, 1878), has an interesting chapter on the 
Linlithgow tribe. About the middle of last century 
their chieftain, 'Captain' M'Donald, was shot in an 
attempt at highway robbery. He was buried in the 
churchyard, and the ' funeral was very respectable, 
being attended by the magistrates of Linlithgow and a 
number of the most genteel persons in the neighbour- 
hood.' In 1770 his son and his son's brother-in-law 
were hanged at Linlithgow Bridge — the latest instance 
this where the ' fame of being Egyptians ' formed part of 
the indictment. 

The trade of Linlithgow, arising from its charter 
rights along the coast, was, as we have seen, at one time 
very considerable, and this remained so till the 16th 
century, when it was seriously interfered with by the 
troubles of Queen Mary's reign, and those of the early 
part of that of James VI. ; and still farther encroach- 
ment was made in the 17th century by the erection in 
1615 of the lands of Grange into a barony 

The town at one time possessed a considerable amount 
of property, including the common known as the Burgh- 
muir, which seems to have been enclosed about 1675. 
The lands are now sold, but the Magistrates still 
annually ' ride the marches ' on the Tuesday of June 
following the second Thursday. The custom dates 
from at least 1541, when reference is made to it in the 
Court Book; and in the Town Charter of 1593, the 
community are confirmed in their lands ' as they have 
enjoyed and perambulated them in time past.' For- 
merly the occasion was one of great splendour, each 
trade turning out with its banner, and every one who 
could command the loan of a horse appearing on 
horseback. The ' riding ' is now confined to a visit to 
Linlithgow Bridge, where the burgh mill stood at one 
time, aud then to Blackness, the former port of the 
burgh, where on the Castlehill a head court is held, 
and all the town's vassals summoned to appear, which, 
however, they never do. A Bailie of Blackness is also 
appointed, but that is now a 
nominal office. The Town's Arms 
were formally confirmed by a 
grant from the Lyon King of 
Arms in 1673, and are ' Azure the 
figure of the Archangell Michael 
with wings expanded, treading 
on the bellie of a Serpent lying 
with its tail fesswayes in base, all 
argent ; the head of which he is 
pearcing through with a Spear in 
his dexter hand, and grasping 
with his sinister ane Inescutcheon 
charged with the Royall Armes of Scotland, the Motto 
being Collocet in coelis nos omnes vis Michaelis. And upon 
the reverse of the seall of the said Burgh is insculped 
in a field or, a Greyhound bitch sable, chained to ane 
Oak tree vdthin ane loch proper.' The popular motto, 
however, is ' My fruit is fidelity to God and the King.' 
The burgh has a special tune known as ' Lord Lithgow's 
March,' or 'The Rock and the Wee Pickle Tow.' The 
first title is from the Livingstones, who were Earls of 
Linlithgow and Callendar, and latterly keepers of the 
Palace. The title is now extinct, James, the fifth and 
last Earl, having been attainted for taking part in the 
rebellion of 1715. As a Member of the Court of Four 
Burghs, and subsequently by an Act of Parliament 
passed in 1621, Linlithgow was entrusted with the 
keeping of the standard peck and firlot, the latter for 
oats and barley, containing 31 Scotch pints or 32054 
cubic inches, and for wheat and pease 21J pints or 
21971 cubic inches, the standard of the pint being 3 
Scotch pounds of water taken from the Water of Leith. 

617 




Seal of Linlithgow. 



LINLITHGOW 

After the Union an attempt was made to take away the 
privilege, but it was successfully resisted by the burgh, 
tliough since the introduction of the imperial measures, 
the matter has ceased to be of more than mere anti- 
quarian interest. The iron brand for the firlot is still 
to be seen in the council chamber, but the standard 
itself was unfortunately destroyed when the Town 
House was burned in 1847. 

Site and Public Bidldings. — None of the houses in 
the burgh can be older than the 15th century, but a 
number must date very nearly from that time, and 
though modern improvements are making great altera- 
tions here as elsewhere, the town has still an old- 
fashioned look. Its site is a hollow, the lowest part of 
which is occupied by Linlithgow Loch, which bounds 
the town on the N. The principal street extends from E 
to W for a little over 4 mile, and is fairly wide at the 
ends but narrow immediately to the W of the open 
space at the Cross. From the Cross a narrow street 
called the Eirkgate leads N to the church and palace, 
while at the E end High Street is continued to the NE 
by the Low Port, and eastwards by High East Port. 
At its W end is a portion known as West Port. The 
other streets are chiefly short lanes and narrow alleys, 
leading, in some instances, to straggling outskirts. At 
the different ports there were probably gates, but there 
was never any regular wall — the walls along tlie backs of 
the gardens, and then the backs of the houses themselves, 
being deemed sufficient for all ordinary defensive pur- 
poses. The Loch on the N is 150 feet above sea- 
level, and covers an extent of 102 acres, the extreme 
length being 6^ furlongs, and the width 2. It con- 
tains perch and eels, and may be fished by boat, on 
application to the representatives of the lessee, or from 
the banks free, or according to a decision given in the 
burgh court as early as 1552, 'The inhabitants within 
this burgh hes fishen the loueh past memory of men 
without stop soe fare as they might wade with ane 
guad." The greatest depth of the western half is 50 
feet, and of the eastern half about 10 feet. On the 
N side, rising 50 feet above the loch, is a promontory 
on which are the ruins of Linlithgow Palace. The 
early castles on the site have been already noticed down 
to the time of Robert Brace. Of that erected by 
Edward I., the only parts now remaining are por- 
tions of three towers at the NW corner — starting 
points for the flying buttresses by which the lofty 
E wall is here supported — and possibly part of the 
SW tower. The buildings as they now stand form 
a square of 168 feet from E to W, and 174 from 
N to S, while the court inside measures 91 feet from 
E to W, and 88 from N to S, and at each corner is 
a tower. The exterior looks heavy from the very 
large amount of dead wall and the small number of 
windows, but the fronts to the court are handsome and 
elegant, the ordinary appearance of the Scottish Baronial 
architecture being relieved by many features drawn 
from Continental sources. The whole structure, with 
the exception first noted, must be of later date than 
1425, for the old palace or castle where the monarchs 
lived, from David II. downwards, suffered damage in 
the fire of 1424, when James I. brought home his 
Queen from England. Preparations seem to have 
been at once made to rebuild the whole, and in the 
course of the next six years £2440, 10s. 74d. was 
expended, and work continued to be done throughout 
the rest of the reign of James I. and that of James II. 
The parts then erected seem to be about the SW corner, 
but they have since then probably undergone a good 
deal of alteration. The W side seems to have had, at 
one time, the wooden galleries in front which were 
characteristic of 15th century work. From 1451 to 
1467 operations were pretty much at a stand-still, but 
in the latter year, James III., who 'was much given 
to buildings and repairing of chappels, halls, and 
gardens,' brought his Queen here, and began to build 
again, and in the following year added considerably to 
the surrounding grounds. To his reign probably may 
be assigned the northern narts of the W side, and the 
518 



LINLITHGOW 

original N side, which was afterwards removed. One 
of the rooms on the NW is shown as the bedroom of 
James HI. , and on two of the bosses in the groining of a 
closet opening off it are carved a stag lying under a tree, 
with the motto Belle a vous leule, which has been sup- 
posed to be old French for 'Fair be your rising.' In 
the time of James IV., the treasurer's accounts contain 
notices of many sums spent on the palace, and to this 
period may be assigned alterations on the N side at the 
towers, and probably the erection of the turret on the 
top of that to the N"W, which is known as ' Queen 
Margaret's Bower,' though it must be considered as 
somewhat doubtful whether she ever actually in this 
particular bower 

* All lonely sat and wept the weary hour. ' 

The palace does not seem to have been very completely 
furnished, for the royal accounts contain entries of pay- 
ments for the conveyance of ' Arress claythes, ' or tapestry, 
from Edinburgh, and an organ was also carried back- 
wards and forwards. The floors were strewn with rushes, 
even on high occasions, for five shillings were paid ' for 
resschis to the Haw off Lythgow, the tyme of the Im- 
bassatouris. ' To James V., who was born here on 
10 April 1512, the present form of a large part of the 
buildings is, however, due. He constructed the fine 
fountain in the centre of the quadrangle, and the 
detached gateway to the S, which then led into an 
enclosed court ; altered the whole of the S side and the 
chapel very extensively ; and probably also made altera- 
tions on the S and W sides. All this seems to have 
been done in preparation for his marriage, and though 
his first queen was destined never to see it, his labours 
were rewarded by the declaration of Mary of Guise, ' that 
she had never seen a more princely palace ; ' and Sir 
David Lyndsay, in his Farewell of the Papingo, writes, 

*Adew Lith^ow, whose palyce of plesance 
Micht be ane pattern in Portugall or France.* 

It seems to have been a favourite residence with this 
monarch, and it was here that he was troubled by the 
vision which has been already noticed under Balweakie. 
In the time of James VI. several alterations were made 
on the W side, and the whole of the N side was rebuilt 
between 1617 and 1628. This was rendered necessary 
by the fall of the original buildings in 1607, but nothing 
seems to have been done till the king revisited Scotland 
in 1617. The style is well marked, and the design is 
often attributed to Inigo Jones, but as there was a royal 
master mason or architect for Scotland at this time — 
William Wallace, the designer of Heriot's Hospital in 
Edinburgh — the work is more probably his. The centre 
fountain seems to have been damaged by the fall, as one 
part of it must be referred to this date. The walls of 
this portion have again become very much twisted, so 
that there seems to be some fate attached to this side. 
From this time onward the palace became little more 
than the occasional residence of the Earls of Livingstone, 
its keepers, except between 1651 and 1659, when it 
was occupied by a small garrison of Cromwell's soldiers ; 
possibly even the great leader himself may have lived in 
it for a few days, as some of his letters are dated from 
Linlithgow. The eventful year 1745 found it in charge 
of a housekeeper, Mrs Glen Gordon, who seems to have 
been a stanch Jacobite, and to have given a cordial 
welcome to Prince Charles Edward. The next occupants 
were Hawley's dragoons, after their flight from Falkirk 
in 1746, and by them it was, either through carelessness 
or design, set on fire and completely ruined. Mrs Gordon 
went to the general to remonstrate as to the behaviom- 
of the soldiers, and finding her complaints treated ivith 
indifference, is said to have taken her leave with the 
sarcastic remark, ' A- weel, a-weel, I can rin frae fire as fast 
as ony General in the King's army.' Proposals to convert 
the buildings into a county courthouse and into a supple- 
mentary register house for Scotland were once made but 
abandoned, and the buildings and the park, which ex- 
tends to 15J acres, have been since 1848 cared for by 
the Commissioners of Woods and Forests. The present 



LINLITHGOW 

entrance is on the S side ; and on the ground-floor to the 
E of it are the guard-room, into wliich Regent Murray 
is said to have been at first carried, a bakehouse, and 
stables. In the E side are the old entrance, with guard- 
house and dungeons on one side and the kitchens on the 
other. One of the vaults beneath the guard-room is 
known as the Lion's Den, whether from its lying below 
the Great Hall, known as the Lyon Chamber, or from 
its having been the actual den of a lion kept by some of 
the kings is uncertain. On the W side are vaulted 
chambers, probably intended for servants. On the lirst 
floor to the E of the S entrance is the chapel, and the 
whole of the E side is occupied by the Lyon Chamber, or 
parliament hall, a fine room, measuring 98J feet long, 
30 wide, and 35 high at the side walls. On the W side 
are the so called bedroom of James III. and the room 
where Queen Mary was born. The fountain in the 
centre of the quadrangle is now very much destroyed. 
The E entrance seems to have been made by James V., 
and the now empty niches ' were filled with statues of 
the Pope, to represent the Church ; a knight to indicate 
the gentry ; and a labouring man to symbolise the 
commons, each having a scroll above his head, on which 
were inscribed a few words of legend, now irretrievably 
lost. ' The group on the S side represented the Saluta- 
tion of the Virgin, and these were originally brightly 
painted, and so late as 1629 payment was made for 
' painting and laying over with oyle cullour, and for 
gelting with gold the haill foir face ' of the N side, and 
for ' gelting and laying over with oyle cullour the Four 
Orderis above the utter yett ' — i.e., the outer gate on 
the S side. These four orders were carved panels, with 
the badges of the four orders of knighthood that James 
V. held, viz. : — St Michael, the Golden Fleece, the Gar- 
ter, and the Thistle. The sculptured panels at present 
occupying the upper part were placed there in 1848, 
and probably represent pretty nearly the original designs. 
The cannon in the palace grounds is a trophy of the 
Crimean war, and was brought from Bomarsund. 

To the S of the palace is the parish church, of which 
Billings saj's that it is ' assuredly the most important 
specimen of an ancient parochial church now existing in 
Scotland, both as to dimensions and real architectural 
interest. ' We have already seen that there was a church 
here dedicated to St Michael as early as the reign of 
David I., and in the time of Alexander II., in 1242, 
there is word of a new church having been erected, and 
probably some parts of this are incorporated witli the 
present building. In 13S4 Robert II. contributed 
26s. 8d. for the erection or repair of the church tower, 
and in 1424 the church was injured and considerably 
destroyed by the fire that reduced the town to ashes. 
A considerable portion of the present building, which is 
Scottish Decorated in style, probably dates from the 
time of James III., and the steeple at least seems to 
have been finished during his reign, for the open crown 
that once formed the finish at the top had a vane formed 
by a hen, with the points below marked by chickens, 
which is said to have been borrowed from a favourite 
device of James's — a hen with chickens under her wings, 
and the motto, Non dormit qui custodit ; but many 
alterations and additions were made in the time of 
James V., between 1528 and 1536. On 29 June 1559 
the Lords of the Congregation, on their march S from 
Perth, destroyed all the altars within the building, and 
all the images, except that of St Michael, which still 
remains. In 1646 the buUding was divided by partitions, 
by which chambers were formed for the accommodation 
of the university classes, moved from Edinburgh, as 
already noticed. In 1812 it was very extensively 
repaired, pews and galleries introduced, and a new roof 
and ceiling put in. The crown that formerly surmounted 
the tower, being thouglit so heavy as to endanger the 
entire structure, was taken down about 1821. 'The 
incorporated trades who, after the Reformation, had 
their dues to the altarages changed into the upholding 
of the church windows, claimed a sort of vested interest 
in the building, and the shoemakers held for a time the 
privilege of holding the annual meeting for the election 



LINLITHGOW 

of their deacon in the south transept, known as St 
Kathcrine's aisle.' The part used as in; parish church 
has more recently, in 1871, had the whitewash removed 
and repairs made, and a fine organ has been introduced. 
There are about 1100 sittings. The total length of the 
building is 185 feet, and the width 105 across the tran- 
septs, while the height is about 90 feet. Internally the 
length is 146 feet, not including the apse, and the 
breadth 62 feet, exclusive of the transepts. The steeple 
contains three bells, the largest of which has the inscrip- 
tion, Lynlithgw villa me fecit. Vocor alma Maria. 
Domini Jacohi quarli tempore magnijici. Anno milemo 
qtmdringeno nonageno, with the royal arms, a copy of 
the old town seal, and a curious monogram. The next 
bell, recast in 1773, has on it the names of the founders, 
and copies of both sides of the old town seal. The third 
bell, which was recast in 1718, seems to have borne the 
name of Meg Duncan for a long time, as it has the 
inscription, SinU quondam Meg Duncan. The windows 
are noticeable for the great variety of design. The S 
transept contained an altar dedicated to St Katherine, 
and was the place where James IV. sat when he saw the 
apparition that warned him against his fatal expedition 
to England, an incident minutely chronicled by Pit- 
scottie, and forming the basis of Sir David Lyndsay's 
tale in Marmion. 'There were in all twenty-four altar- 
ages, dedicated to different saints, but these were removed 
in 1559, and probably still further damage was done by 
Cromwell's dragoons, who used the church as a stable. 
The vestry contains a stone altarpiece, representing the 
betrayal and suSerings of Christ. The church anciently 
belonged to St Andrews priory, and was long served by 
perpetual vicars. John Laiug, one of its vicars, rose in 
1474 to be bishop of Glasgow, and George Crichton, 
another of them, became in 1500 abbot of Holyrood, 
and in 1522 bishop of Dunkeld. 

An ancient chapel, dedicated to St Ninian, stood in 
the western part of the town, and on the S side, on the 
eminence still called Friars' Brae, was a Carmelite Friary, 
erected in 1290, and the third of this order in Scotland. 
Though it was in existence at the Reformation, no part 
now remains, but a well not far off is known as the Friars' 
Well. To the E was a Dominican Friary, some traces 
of which existed down to 1843, or later, 'to the SE was 
a hospitium, which is noticed as early as 1335, and 
seems to have been an almshouse, possibly a leper- 
house. It was dedicated to St Mary Magdalene. It 
possessed considerable lands, which are said to have 
been in 1526 alienated by the then preceptor to Sir 
James Hamilton of Finnart. An almshouse existed, 
however, down to 1637. St Magdalene's cross, on the 
old fair ground, was where St Magdalene's distillery 
now stands. 

The Town-hall is in High Street, at the corner of 
the Kirkgate, and may nowadays be counted a some- 
what plain building. The original building was erected 
in 1668-70, after a design by John Mylne, the royal 
architect, with funds obtained by the charge of double 
customs, and from an additional fair, both privileges 
being granted after the Restoration, to compensate for 
losses sustained during the time of tlie Commonwealth. 
Great injury was done to it by fire in 1847, but it was 
restored in the following year, and the spire, originally 
added about 1678, renewed. A clock to replace the old 
one, destroyed by fire, was placed in position in 1857, 
funds being provided by public subscription. It was 
the first turret clock constructed in Scotland on the 
same principles as the Westminster clock, with a gravity 
escapement. Besides the town-hall proper, the building 
also contains the old sheriff-courtroom and the old 
prison. The council chamber contains a set of old 
Scottish weights and measures, and a portrait of Henry, 
the historian (1718-90), who bequeathed his library to 
the town. The county hall, behind the town-house, is 
a plain building with a large hall, containing portraits 
of the great Earl of Hopetoun (Raeburn), second in 
command under General Sir John Moore ; of his brother, 
General Sir Alexander Hope (Watson-Gordon), long M. P. 
for the county ; and of the late Earl of Rosebery. The 

619 



LINLITHGOW 

new county buildings and courthouse are on the opposite 
side of High Street, a little to the W, and, as already 
mentioned, partly occupy the site of the house whence 
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh fired his fatal shot. It is 
a plain building, erected in 1863-65, with ample accom- 
modation for the county offices, etc. On the SE is the 
county police office, and to the S is the prison. Lin- 
lithgow has long been celebrated for its wells, according 
to the old rhyme, which says — 

' Glasgow for bells, 
Lithg:ow for wells.' 

The most important of these is the Cross Well, close to 
the town-hall. When the first structure was raised 
here is uncertain, possibly about 1535, when the palace 
fountain was constructed. In 1628 it was repaired, 
having been at that time in decay, ' ane deid monu- 
ment.' It was again repaired in 1659, as it had been 
destroyed by Cromwell's soldiers, but fell once more to 
decay, and liad to be rebuilt again in 1807. The pre- 
sent structure is said to be a pretty exact imitation of 
the old one, and, according to tradition, was executed 
by a one-armed mason, who wielded a mallet fixed to 
the stump of his other arm. It has a number 
of curious figures, and the top is surmounted by 
a imicorn supporting the Scottish arms, perhaps in 
imitation of that which the town council in 1633, in 
anticipation of the expected visit of Charles I., ordered 
to be executed and placed on the tqp of the market 
cross by John Eitohie, the mason who had rebuilt the 
well in 1628. The water comes from a spring J mUe 
to the S, near Friars' Brae. Of the other wells, known 
as the Lion Well, the Dog AVell, and St Michael's Well, 
the latter, near the station, is the only one worthy of 
notice. It has a figure of St Michael, taken from one of 
the old Cross Wells, on the top, with the date 1720, and 
the inscription, 'St Michael is kinde to Strangers.' A 
building, with an old square tower, near the railway 
station, is said to have belonged to the Knight-Templars, 
and afterwards to the Knights of St John. It is said 
to have been used as a mint in the time of James I., 
and possibly by the Lords of the Congregation, who, 
while here in 1559, meant to ' set up a coin, saying 
they shall coyne a good part of their plate for main- 
tenance of the word of God and the wealth of 
Scotland.'* 

The old Free church has been converted into a school, 
under the landward school board, and in its place a good 
Gothic building, with a spire of 100 feet, was erected in 
1873-74 at a cost of about £2000. It contains 350 
sittings. The East United Presbyterian church was 
built in 1805 for an Anti-burgher congregation formed 
in 1773, and the West United Presbyterian church in 
183i for a Burgher congregation formed in 1772. They 
contain 480 and 546 sittings respectively. The Con- 
gregational church, built in 1840 at a cost of £700, 
contains 390 sittings. There is also a Roman Catholic 
church, St Joseph's (1876 ; 250 sittings). The Burgh 
School is heard of in 1187. Ninian Winzet, who 
wrote controversial tracts against John Knox, and who 
ultimately became Abbot of the Scots College at Ratisbon, 
was rector from 1551 to 1561. One of his successors, 
Kirkwood, who was rector at the Revolution, wrote a 
satirical pamphlet against the town council (TAc History 
of the Twenty -seven Gods of Linlithgow), who had unjustly 
deprived him of office. The Earl of Stair and Colonel 
Gardiner were pupils of his. 

Under the burgh school board are Linlithgow public 
and Douglas Cottage schools ; and these, with accom- 
modation for 330 and 48 pupils respectively, had in 
1882 attendances of 388 and 33, and grants of £344, 
9s. 8d. and £25, 3s. 6d. 

Municipality, etc. — The town has a head post ofiice, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, offices of the British Linen Company and Com- 

* In Cardonel's Numismata it is stated that the coins of James 
I. struck here bear the words Villa de Linlithe, and that this is 
the only occasion on which the name of Linlithgow appears on a 
coin. 

520 



LINLITHGOW 

mercial banks — the latter a good building, and agencies 
of 26 insurance offices. The miscellaneous institutions 
include a gas company, bowling, bicycle, and curling 
clubs, a company of volunteers, a masonic hall, a 
mechanics' institute, a working-men's club, and a work- 
men's hall. The poorhouse, at the E end of the town, is 
a Scottish Baronial building, with good grounds. It was 
erected in 1854, at a cost of £9000, for Linlithgow Com- 
bination, consisting of the parishes of Abercorn, Bath- 
gate, Borrowstounness, Carriden, Kirkliston, Linlith- 
gow, Muiravonside, and Whitburn, and with accom- 
modation for 230 paupers has an average of about 160 in- 
mates. The town, which used to be governed by a 
council of 27 — the Gods of Kirkwood's pamphlet — has 
had since 1832 a provost, 3 bailies, a dean of guild, a 
treasurer, and 9 councillors, who are also under the 
General Police and Improvement Act (1862) police com- 
missioners. The trade of Linlithgow, arising from its 
rights of commerce along the coast, was, as we have 
seen, at one time very considerable, and this remained so 
till the 16th centur}', when it was seriously interfered 
with by the troubles of Queen Mary's reign, and those 
of the early part of that of James VI. Still further 
encroachment was made in the 17th century by the 
erection, in 1615, of the lands of Grange into a barony, 
•ivith the privileges of a free port ; by the erection of 
QtJEENSPERRY iuto a royal burgh in 1636 ; and by the 
erection of Borrowstounness into a burgh of regality in 
1668. The council ofi'cred vigorous opposition to all 
these as encroachments on the town's privileges, and 
were so far successful, in the case of the first two, that 
freemen of Linlithgow were to have full use of the port 
of Grange without payment of custom, while all cargoes 
of merchandise were, on arrival, to be offered to the 
council and burgesses of Linlithgow at a certain fixed 
price, and on their refusal to buy were not to be off'ered 
to any one else for less ; while after 1641 Queensferry 
agreed to make compensation of 10 merks every year 
to Linlithgow, besides which all burgesses and guild 
brethren of Linlithgow were to have the same privileges 
as at home, and twenty-foiir hours' notice was to be 
given to Linlithgow before any foreign cargo was sold. 
Borrowstounness, backed by the influence of the Duke 
of Hamilton, was more fortunate, as it got a charter of 
regality in spite of the opposition, and very shortly 
afterwards parliament decreed that burghs of regality 
should have the same trade privileges as royal burghs. 
In the middle of the 18th century there was a consider- 
able linen manufacture, and Defoe, in the first edition 
of his Journey through Scotland, says that the whole 
town had ' a good face of business,' while in a subsequent 
edition he says, 'the People look here as if they were 
busy and had something to do ; whereas, in most Towns 
we pass'd through, they seemed as if they looked dis- 
consolate for want of employment. The whole green, 
fronting the Lough or Lake, was cover'd with Linnen- 
Cloth, it being the bleeching Season, and I believe a 
Thousand Women and Children and not less, tending 
and managing the bleaching Business.' The trade in 
lint and linen yarn, as well as those in damask, diaper, 
muslin, carpets, and stockings, are all now extinct. In 
the end of last century the staple industries were wool- 
combing, tanuing, and shoemaking. The latter trades 
were probably introduced during the occupation of the 
palace by Cromwell's garrison, between 1651 and 1659, 
and during the wars in the end of last, and the 
beginning of the present, century they had a period of 
considerable vigour, as large quantities of shoes were 
supplied to the army. Tanning, currying, and shoe- 
making may still be looked on as the staple industries, 
and in or near the town are two paper-mills, two dis- 
tilleries, a soap work, a glue work, and an agricultural 
implement work. 

'The sheriff courts for the county are held here every 
Tuesday and Friday during session, and a sheriff small 
debt courtisheld every Friday. Ajusticeofpeace small 
debt court is held on the first and third Tuesdays of 
every month, and quarter sessions on the first Tuesdays 
of March, May, and August, and the last Tuesday of 



LINLITHGOW BRIDGE 

October. Under an old charter, the jurisdiction of the 
magistrates extends for a mile along the roads all round, 
but it is only exercised within the burgh. Linlithgow 
unites with Falkirk, Airdrie, Hamilton, and Lanark 
in returning a member to serve in parliament. The 
weekly market is on Friday, and fairs are held on the 
Friday after the second Tuesday of January, the last 
Friday of February, the third Friday of April, the 
second Friday of June, the first Tuesday of August, and 
the first Friday of November. Valuation (1876) £8837, 
(1884) £12,186, of which £1351 was for the canal and 
railway. Pop. of parliamentary burgh (1811) 2557, 
(1831) 3187, (1861) 3843, (1871) 3690, (1881) 3913, of 
whom 1920 were males and 1993 females. Houses, 869. 

See also Collie's The Palace of Linlithgovi (Edinb. 
1840), G. D. Gibb's Life and Times of Boiert Gib, Lord 
of Carribee, Familiar and Master of the Stables to King 
James V. of Scotland, etc. (1874), and Waldie's History 
of the Town and Palace of Lvilithgow (Linlithgow, 1st 
ed., 1858; 3d ed., 1879). 

Lmlithgow Bridge, a village partly in Linlithgovc 
parish, Linlithgowshire, and partly in Muiravonside 
parish, Stirlingshire, at the bridge across the Avon, 
3 mile W of the town of Linlithgow. The bridge was 
built about 1650 by Alexander, Earl of Linlithgow, and 
the pontage was in 1677 granted by Charles II. to his 
descendant George, Earl of Linlithgow. The battle of 
Linlithgow Bridge has been noticed in the last article. 
A quarter of a mile fartlier up the Avon is the viaduct 
that carries the North British railway across the river, 
there being twenty-three arches, of which the centre 
ones are 90 feet high. Close to the village is a paper- 
mill, which affords employment to a large number of the 
inhabitants. Pop. of village (1861) 560, (1871) 503, 
(1881) 479, of whom 359 were in the Linlithgowshire 
portion. Houses 118, of which 87 were in the Linlith- 
gowshire portion. 

Linlithgowshire or West Lothian, a midland county 
of Scotland, on the southern edge of the upper reach of 
the Firth of Forth. It is bounded N by the Firth, SE 
by the county of Edinburgh, SW by Lanarkshire, and 
NW by Stirlingshire. In shape it is an irregular four- 
sided figure, running south-westward from the shore of 
the Firth. Along the northern side, from W to E, in a 
straight line, from the mouth of the Avon to the mouth 
of the Almond, is 14J miles ; the SE side, in a straight 
line from the mouth of the Almond to the point where 
the counties of Edinburgh, Lanark, and Linlithgow 
meet, at the junction of Fauldhouse Burn with the 
Almond, is 194 miles ; the SW side, from the point 
just indicated to the point on North Calder Water, 
between Black Loch and Hillend Reservoir (see Lanark- 
shire), where the counties of Stirling, Lanark, and Lin- 
lithgow meet, is 7 miles, but as this side is very irregular 
it is, following the curves, about double this ; and the N W 
side, from the point mentioned straight to the mouth 
of the Avon, is 10 miles. The boundaries are mostly 
natural. From the mouth of the Avon eastwards to 
the mouth of the Almond, the line follows the shore of 
the Firth ; it then turns SW along the course of the 
Almond for lOJ miles, till at Clapertonhall Burn it 
turns north-westward along its course and across to Caw 
Burn, up which it passes to the source. North of Moss- 
end it turns again back by the SW side of Howden 
grounds to the Almond, the course of which it then 
follows for 3 miles to the junction of the Briech. Here 
it takes to the course of that stream, and follows it up 
for 8 J miles to the mouth of Fauldhouse Burn, which is 
the extreme S point of the county. After following 
this burn to its source, the line passes across Fauld- 
house and Polkemmet moors, E of the village of Hart- 
hiU, to the How Burn, down which it passes to the 
junction with a burn from the N, whence it follows 
tlie course of the latter, till within f mile of its source. 
It then passes straight N by W to Barbauchlaw Burn, 
and up its course to a point 3 furlongs N by E of 
Forrestburn Mill, and thence in an irregular line to the 
sharp bend on North Calder Water between Black Loch 
and Hillend Reservoir E of the reservoir. It follows 



LINLITHGOWSHIRE 

up the course of this stream for | mile, and then cross- 
ing to the source of Drumtassie Burn, follows the burn 
4| miles to the Avon, and thence the course of the Avon, 
for 12J miles, to the sea. Along almost the whole 
course of these streams the scenery is soft and prettily 
wooded. The area of the county is 12674 square 
miles or 81,113^ acres, of which 3857J are foreshore 
and 456J are water. Of the land surface of 76,800 acres, 
59,575 were under cultivation in 1882, and 4899 under 
wood, an increase of about 1000 acres in the former case 
within the last thirty years, and in the latter case of 
1577 acres within the same period. About 6000 acres, 
mostly in the centre and SW, are heath, rocky ground, 
and rough pasture. The mean summer temperature is 
58', and the mean winter temperature 37°, while rain 
or snow falls on an average on two hundred days of the 
year, the mean depth being about 32 inches, though, of 
course, it varies considerably, and is higher in the 
upper districts than in the lower. Among the counties 
of Scotland, Linlithgow is thirty-first as regards area, 
the only smaller ones being Cromarty, Kinross, and 
Clackmannan, but eighteenth as regards population, 
and twenty-third as regards valuation. 

Surface, etc. — The coast-line is pretty regular, the 
principal projections being at Borrowstounness ; the 
head on which Blackness Castle stands, 3| miles to the 
E ; and Hound Point, on the E, within the groimds of 
Dalmeny House. In the bay, W of Borrowstounness, 
as well as at Drum Sands, E of Hound Point, a large 
amount of foreshore is exposed at low water, and at the 
mouth of the Avon at Kinneil Kerse or Carse an em- 
bankment has been made reclaiming a considerable 
amount of land. Along the coast there is a flat, and 
from this the ground rises in long rolling undulations 
or chains of heights trending in a general line from E 
to W, but very much broken up by cross hollows, and 
reaching towards the extreme S an average height of 
about 700 feet. Nowhere hardly does one see more 
hillocks, and these, while they give variety and pic- 
turesqueness to the landscape, here take but little from 
the value of the ground, for they are all available for 
wood or pasture, and are in some cases even capable of 
being ploughed. The highest summits lie between 
Linlithgow and Bathgate, the line to the N consisting 
of the Kipps, Riccarton and Binny hills ; the chief sum- 
mits, from W to E, being Bowden Hill (749 feet), Cock- 
lerue or Cuckold le Eoi (912), Riccarton Hills (832), and 
the sharp peak of Binny Craig (718). Nearer Bathgate 
are the Torphichen Hills (777 feet), Cairn-naple (1016), 
Knock (1000), and the sharp detached Dechmont Law 
(686). From these the ground slopes W to the valley 
of the Avon, S to the flat at Bathgate, and E towards 
Kirkliston and Blackburn, where there is a considerable 
space of level country. To the N of Linlithgow is 
Bonnytoun Hill or Glower-o'er-'em (559 feet), on which 
there is a monument to Brigadier-General Adrian Hope, 
who fell in the Indian Mutiny ; the NW slope is known 
as Irongarth ; and farther E are Mons Hill, Craigie Hill, 
and Dundas Hill, in Dalmeny ; and Craigton Hill and 
Binns Hill, in Abercorn ; the greatest height in the 
former case being 387 feet, and in the latter 372. All 
the heights command wide and pretty views of the 
Lothians and Stirling, with the Forth and its wooded 
banks in the middle distance against a background of 
hills. The whole of the northern part of the county is 
beautifully wooded. The drainage of the county is 
effected mainly by the streams already mentioned as 
flowing along its borders and by their tributaries. In 
the extreme's, about Whitburn and Blackburn, Cultrig 
or White Burn, Bickerton Burn, and Foulshiels Burn, 
with the smaller streams that join them, flow NE to the 
Almond ; to the NE about Livingston are the Lochshot, 
Dean, and Folly Bvirns ; and farther to the NE still, about 
Uphall, are Caw Burn, Beugh Burn, and Brox Burn, the 
whole five joining the Almond, as does also Niddry Burn, 
which passes eastward by Ecclesmachan and Niddry. In 
the part of the county to the W and S W of Bathgate tliere 
isasmall stream joining Drumtassie Burn ; and this latter, 
Barbauchlaw Burn, and Logic Water, all join the Avon, 

521 



LINLITHGOWSHIEE 

to which also flow Kipps Burn N of Torphichen, and a 
small bum W of Linlithgow, with a branch coining 
from Linlithgow Loch. To the N, flowing directly into 
the Firth of Forth, are the small Den or Dean and Gil 
Burns at Kinneil House on the W, Blackness Burn at 
the castle of the same name, the Haugh and Nethermill 
Burns uniting and reaching the sea at Abercorn, and 
Dolphington Burn passing through Dalmeny grounds 
and reaching the sea about the centre of Drum Sands. 
The only loch in the county is that at Linlithgow 
Palace, which was noticed in our article on the burgh. 
Other small lochs which once existed on Drumtassie 
Burn near Drumtassie, at Lochcote near Kipps, at Bal- 
bardie near Bathgate, at West Binny, and at Dundas 
Castle, are now drained. NE of Bathgate is a reservoir 
for the Bathgate water supply. Some of the streams at 
one time afforded good fishing, but refuse from oil and 
other works have now destroyed it, though the Almond, 
in consequence of legal proceedings, is again much purer 
and beginning once more to contain trout. There are 
mineral springs, but of no value, near Torphichen, 
Kipps, Caribber House, the church of Ecclesmachan, 
and Borrowstounness. 

Geology. — The solid rocks which enter into the 
geological structure of this county belong, with few 
exceptions, to the four great divisions of the Carboni- 
ferous system, viz., the Coal-measures, the Millstone 
Grit, the Carboniferous Limestone, and the Caloiferous 
Sandstones. From the official publications of the 
Geological Survey, and especially from the lucid de- 
scription of the geology of the neighbourhood of Edin- 
burgh by Dr Archibald Geikie, it is easy to grasp the 
order of succession and disposition of the strata through- 
out the county. Owing to the occurrence of oil-shales 
in the Calciferous Sandstone series and the presence of 
valuable coal seams in the Carboniferous Limestone 
group and in the Coal-measures, the geology of Linlith- 
gowshire is of special importance. But apart from the 
economic value of the strata, this county is attractive 
to the geologist from the remarkable development of 
contemporaneous volcanic rocks which are interstratified 
with the members of the Carboniferous Limestone series. 

Beginning with the oldest members of the system we 
find that they belong to the Cementstone group of the 
Calciferous Sandstone series. As developed in this 
county, they present those features which are commonly 
met with in the basin of the Forth. They may be 
described as consisting of white and yellow sandstones, 
black and blue shales, clay ironstones with bands of 
marine limestone, and an occasional seam of coal. Some- 
times the beds are crowded with plant remains such as 
Sphenopteris, sometimes they are charged with teeth of 
ganoid fishes and remains of Leperditia or other ostra- 
cods, while certain bands of shale and limestone yield 
typical marine forms. From the character of the 
organic remains it is evident that alternatively estuarine 
and marine conditions must have prevailed during the 
deposition of the beds. The members of this group 
occupy the area between the E margin of the county 
and the Bathgate Hills, but throughout this extensive 
tract they are in a great measure obscured by superficial 
deposits, and it is only in the stream courses or along 
the sea-shore that the relations of the rocks can be 
determined. There are two prominent zones, however, 
which are of great service in solving the geological 
structure of the district, viz. , the Queensferry Limestone 
and the Houston Coal. The former is regarded as the 
equivalent of the well-known Burdiehouse Limestone of 
Midlothian. The strata underlying the Queensferry 
Limestone are exposed on the shore to the W of the 
mouth of the Almond, from which point there is a 
regular ascending series to the outcrop of the limestone 
near Queensferry. Between this latter horizon and the 
interbedded volcanic rocks forming the base of the Car- 
boniferous Limestone series, there are two well-marked 
zones of sandstone which have been named by Dr 
Archibald Geikie ' the Binny Sandstone group.' Sepa- 
rating these two zones of sandstone we find a succession 
of clays, shales, and shaly sandstones, along with which 
522 



LINLITHGOWSHIRE 

occurs the seam of Houston Coal. The lower of these 
sandstone zones has been largely quarried at Binny near 
Ecclesmachan, and the upper at Kingscavel E of Lin- 
lithgow. The oil-shales which have proved of such 
great economic value occur at various horizons in the 
Cementstone group of Linlithgowshire. Some of these 
bands are so bituminous that they yield from 30 to 40 
gallons of oil to the ton of shale. The West Calder 
Fells and Raebum shales are the highest in the order 
of succession, and underneath these come the Broxburn 
shales, both groups being above the Raw Camps, Burdie- 
house, or Queensferry limestone. These are aU rich in 
oUs. A lower set has lately been proved to exist, which 
are likely to be extensively wrought, for, though they 
are poorer in oils than those above, they yield larger 
quantities of solid paraffin and ammonia. 

At intervals in the series there are layers of volcanic 
materials, clearly indicating that volcanic activity must 
have been intermittent during the deposition of the 
Cementstone group. Below the horizon of the Queens- 
ferry Limestone and in the sandstone series overlying it, 
sheets of felspathic tuff are associated with the sand- 
stone and shales. But when we ascend still further to 
the beds overlying the Houston Coal we find still more 
striking evidence of volcanic action. Indeed, from this 
horizon upwards to the coal-bearing series of the Car- 
boniferous Limestone, we have a remarkable develop- 
ment of ancient lavas and tuffs which are regularly 
interbedded with the sandstones, shales, and limestones. 
The lavas are wholly basaltic, varying considerably in 
texture, and presenting the typical slaggy characters on 
the upper and under surfaces of the flows. The volcanic 
materials reach their greatest development in the Bath- 
gate Hills, where their thickness is probably about 2000 
feet, and they gradually die out when followed S towards 
Blackburn and N towards Borrowstounness. One of 
these old lavas is of such a remarkable character that it 
deserves special notice. It occurs at Blackburn, where 
it has been quarried for the soles of ovens, and where it 
has been locally termed 'lakestone.' From the descrip- 
tion of the microscopic characters of this rock by Dr 
Archibald Geikie, it would seem that the rock varies 
considerably in the upper and lower portions of the 
mass. The lower portion mainly consists of serpentine. 
Here and there traces of olivine occur among the ser- 
pentine in such a way as to lead to the conclusion that 
this mineral originally formed the chief constituent of 
the rock. Large pale brown crystals also occur in the 
serpentine, which are probablj' augite. A few prisms of 
triclinio felspar and particles of titaniferous iron or 
magnetite are also met with. The upper part of the 
rock differs considerably in character from that just 
described. Fresh plagloclase felspar is the chief con- 
stituent, but in addition to the felspar, augite, altered 
olivine, and titaniferous iron are also observable, though 
far less abundantly developed than in the lower portion. 
To this rock the name of Plkrite has been applied. 

Some of the cones from which the volcanic materials 
were discharged are still preserved to us. One of these 
is now represented by the Binns Hill, which consists of 
a mass of fine green tuff, pierced by basalt ; the latter 
filling up the old vent or volcanic orifice. 

Owing to the enormous accumulation of volcanic 
materials in the Bathgate Hills, it is not easy to draw 
a definite boundary line for the base of the Carboniferous 
Limestone series. The lower portion of the contem- 
poraneous volcanic rocks probably belongs to the Cal- 
ciferous Sandstone series, while the upper portion must 
be grouped with the Carboniferous Limestone. In the 
official memoir descriptive of the geology of the district 
the massive limestone of Petershill is provisionally 
regarded as the base of the Carboniferous Limestone. 
To the S of the volcanic area of the Bathgate Hills, 
however, the boundary line is clearly defined, for in the 
river Almond near Blackburn, and in the Briech Water 
near Addiewell, the highest members of the Cement- 
stone group pass below the Hurlet Limestone and Coal, 
which are the lowest beds of the overlying series. As 
in other districts of central Scotland, the Carboniferous 



LINLirHGOWSHIEE 

Limestone of Linlithgowshire is clearly divisible into 
three sub-groups — (l.)a lower limestone series; (2.) a 
middle coal-bearing series; (3.) an upper limestone series. 
In the Bathgate Hills, as already indicated, the order of 
succession is complicated by the presence of the bedded 
lavas and tuffs, but notwithstanding this fact, the lime- 
stones and even the coal seams are traceable along the 
range. The general inclination of the strata is towards 
the W, and hence we have a steady ascending series as 
we cross the hills to Bathgate. The massive Petershill 
limestone which crops out about J mile E of Bathgate 
can be followed by a series of quarries N by Hillhouse 
towards Linlithgow. Though this limestone is about 
80 feet thick at Petershill, it thins out rapidly when 
traced in either direction from that locality. It is 
immediately succeeded by sandstones, shales, and iron- 
stones, which are capped in turn by sheets of basaltic 
lava. The AVardlaw Limestone which is highly charged 
with corals, and particularly with Lithostrotionirrcgulare, 
occupies a slightlj' higher horizon than the main lime- 
stone just described. It is evidently a lenticular band 
occurring in the midst of the bedded lavas, for it is 
traceable for no greater distance, and is rapidly suc- 
ceeded by a great development of volcanic rocks form- 
ing the most elevated ground of the Bathgate Hills. 
One of the most interesting points connected with these 
ancient lavas and tuffs is the manner in which they 
represent various members of the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone series which are typically developed at other 
localities in the county. In the neighbourhood of 
Kipps for example, the volcanic rocks take the place of 
a great part of the middle or coal-bearing group of the 
Carboniferous Limestone, which is well developed at 
Borrowstounness and Bathgate. Only the upper coal 
seams are to be found near the Kipps, which are rapidly 
succeeded by the Index Limestone which marks the base 
of the highest sub-group of the Carboniferous Limestone. 
But even to the W of the Kipps this band is overlaid 
by basaltic lavas, thus proving beyond doubt that the 
volcanic forces must have been active in that neigh- 
bourhood till near the close of the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone period. These volcanic rocks are overlaid by a 
set of strata in which there are two prominent beds of 
limestone locally termed the Dykeneuk and Craigen- 
buck seams. Along the shore from Blackness to the 
mouth of the river Avon the triple arrangement of this 
division of the Carboniferous system is clearly dis- 
tinguishable. The massive limestones at the base of 
the series are not conspicuously displayed on the shore 
section, but the middle or coal-bearing group is well 
represented between Carriden House and Borrowstoun- 
ness. This coalfield is intersected by an important 
development of lavas and tuffs forming the N prolonga- 
tion of the volcanic rocks of the Bathgate Hills. Un- 
derlying this volcanic zone we find the following seams 
in ascending order, — the Smithy Coal, the Easter Main 
Coal, the Foul Coal and Lower Ironstone, and the Ked 
Coal. In the heart of the volcanic zone at Borrowstoun- 
ness a lenticular coal seam was discovered, which is 
locally termed the West Main Coal, whOe between the 
horizon of the volcanic series and the Index Limestone 
there intervene the Upper Ironstone and the Splint 
Coal. The coal-bearing series of Bathgate occupies the 
same relative position as the Borrowstounness coalfield, 
that is to say, it belongs to the middle division of the 
Carboniferous Limestone series. In the Upper Lime- 
stone group to the AV of Borrowstounness there are 
three important horizons, which are here given in 
ascending order, viz. , the Index Limestone, the Dj'ke- 
neuk Limestone, and the Craigenbuck Limestone. Up- 
wards of 400 feet of strata intervene between the Index 
and Dykeneuk seams, while the latter is separated from 
the Craigenbuck limestone by 300 feet of strata. The 
highest of these, viz. , the Craigenbuck seam, is on the 
same horizon as the Castlecary and Levenseat limestone, 
while the Dykeneuk band occupies the same position as 
the Arden, Janet Peat, Calmy or Gair limestone. It is 
important to observe also that the Gair limestone, to 
which attention was dii'eoted in a pi-evious article [Ord. 



LINLITHGOWSHIRE 

Gaz., Vol. iv. , p. 460), though used provisionally as the 
upper limit of the Carboniferous Limestone series in the 
Carluke district, was so regarded because the Castle- 
cary or Levenseat limestone was either absent or had 
not been observed there. 

Overlying the Millstone Grit which is traceable as a 
nearly continuous belt from the mouth of the river 
Avon S to Whitburn we find the representatives of the 
true Coal-measures. Both at Armadale and Torbane- 
hill, and again at Fauldhouse, there are valuable 
mineral fields with seams of coal and ironstone. The 
strata represented in the Armadale and Torbanehill 
mineral fields belong to the lower section of the Coal- 
measures. At these localities the following seams occur, 
in ascending order, — the Boghead or Torbanehill Parrot 
Coal, the Colinburn Coal, the Main Coal, the Ball Coal, 
the Mill Coal, and the Upper Cannel or Shotts Gas Coal. 

Various intrusive masses of basalt and diabase rocks 
pierce the Carboniferous strata of this county. They 
occur on different horizons, and some of them doubtless 
belong to diflferent periods of eruption. Some of these 
sheets occur in the midst of the Cementstones in the 
E part of the county, another important mass has been 
intruded in the Carboniferous Limestone and Millstone 
Grit N of Torphichen, while still a third sheet is to be 
met with W of Armadale in the Coal-measures. But in 
addition to these, there are excellent examples of basalt 
dykes running in an E and W direction, and traversing 
alike the various subdivisions of the Carboniferous 
system in the county. These dykes are of a much later 
date however, being connected with the volcanic ejec- 
tions of Tertiary times. (See Geological Survey one-inch 
maps, 31 and 32, and memoirsdescriptiveof those sheets.) 

Soils and Agriculture. — The soil varies very much, 
but, consisting largely of decomposed volcanic rocks, is 
everywhere good and fertile, except in the moorish and 
rocky districts in the centre, S, and SW. In the low- 
lying portions there are 20,000 acres of excellent carse 
clay land, and 20,000 on the lower slopes and higher 
hollows are of harder clay on a cold subsoil, 9000 are 
good loam, 9000 are light gravel and sand, and the rest 
are either moorish, moss, or rocky. At an early period 
the greater part of the surface was covered with natural 
wood, part of which is said to remain near Kinneil 
House. The soil has been tilled from a very early 
period, and David I., one of the most energetic of 
monarchs, was a great farmer in West as well as in Mid 
Lothian, and no doubt the operations carried on at the 
royal grange near Linlithgow were profitable as well as 
interesting. The stimulus given by David to the agri- 
culture of the county lasted till the death of Alexander 
III., but, in the years that followed, ruin and devastation 
must have long settled down. Even so late as 1445, 
during the feud between Douglas and Crichton, the 
Chancellor ravaged the Earl's manor of Abercorn, and 
drove away his valuable Flanders mares ; and the agri- 
culture remained at a very low ebb till 1723, when im- 
provers began once more to make their appearance. One 
of the first signs of returning enterprise in this direction 
was in 1725, when a person of the name of Higgins, and 
his copartners at Cuffabouts, near Borrowstounness, sold 
some manure for Is. a bushel. In 1720, John, second 
Earl of Stair, having, notwithstanding brilliant services 
to his country, been sacrificed by Parliament on account 
of his indifl'erence to Law's financial schemes, retired to 
Newliston House, near Kirkliston, and devoted himself 
to the improvement of his estate by planting and other 
improvements. He introduced new maxims of hus- 
bandry and new modes of cultivation, sowed artifiieial 
grasses, and was the first to cultivate turnips, cabbages, 
and carrots in the open field. Charles, first Earl of 
Hopetoun, imitated and even excelled the Earl of Stair ; 
but after his death in 1742, and that of Stair in 1747, 
matters languished for thirty years till 1775, when both 
proprietors and tenant-farmers started on the course of 
vigorous improvement that has given such renown to the 
Lothians. From that time the improvement has been 
constant, and the farmers of West Lothian yield to none 
either for skill or enterprise. 

523 



LINLITHGOWSHIRE 

The areas under tlie various crops at different dates 
are given in the following tables : — 

Grain Crops. — Acees. 



Tear. 


Wheat. 


Barley or 
Bere. 


Oats. 


Total. 


1854 
1870 
1877 
1882 


2850 
2495 
1434 
1478 


4659 
6001 
6104 
4665 


12,884 
10,542 
10,739 
10,913 


20,393 
18,038 
17,277 
17,061 


Grass, Root Crops, Etc. — Acres. 


Year. 


Hay. Grass, 

and Permanent 

Pasture. 


Turnips. 


Potatoes. 


1834 
1870 
1877 

1882 


28,725 
29,788 
82,682 
34,274 


4857 
4645 
4442 
3900 


1627 
2523 
2580 
2280 



while there are about 1000 acres on an average annually 
under beans, rye, vetches, fallow, etc. The farms are 
worked mostly on the six-shift rotation, and the average 
yield of wheat is 32 bushels per acre ; of barley, 40 
bushels ; of oats, 40 bushels ; turnips, from 15 to 30 
tons ; and potatoes, about 5 tons ; but the last two are 
very variable. Here, as in so many of the other Scottish 
counties, there is a most marked decrease — nearly 50 per 
cent. — in thenumberof acres under wheat, and a marked 
increase in the number of acres under grass and per- 
manent pastures, showing that farmers are finding the 
profit from stock raising greater than that from the 
cultivation of cereals. 

The agricultural live stock in the county at different 
dates is shown in the following table : — 



Tear. 


Cattle. 


Horses. 


Sheep. 


Pigs. 


Total. 


1854 
1S70 
1876 

1882 


10,984 
10,770 
10,902 
10,324 


2223 
1961 
2140 
2080 


14,239 
15,664 
19,906 
16,000 


2093 
1552 
1858 
2428 


29,539 
29,947 
34,806 
30,832 



For dairy purposes Ayrshire cows are generally kept, 
whilethosekeptforfeedingaremostly crosses. Thesheep 
are Cheviot and blackfaced, with Border Leicesters and 
crosses ; and the horses are Clydesdales. Harvest in the 
lower and earlier district is from 1 to 14 Aug., and 
in the upper parts a fortnight later. The average 
extent of the farms is a little over 100 acres, while 40 
per cent, are under 50 acres, and only 6 per cent, over 
300 acres. Of those under 50 acres about two-thirds 
are between 15 and 50 acres, and there are none under 
5 acres. The steadings are good and well kept. Rents 
are very much the same as in the county of Edinburgh. 
In 1881 there were 342 farmers in the county employ- 
ing 563 men, 155 women, 315 boys, and 149 girls. 

Industries. — The principal industries of the county 
are connected with its mineral wealth. The distri- 
bution of the deposits has been already indicated 
in the section dealing with the geology, and here 
the economic value simply remains to be noticed. 
Coal-mining, now so important, is supposed to date 
from the time of the Romans, and the older pits about 
Borrowstounness extend under the bed of the Firth. 
The value of the deposit was certainly well known by 
the 12th century, and a charter granted to William 
Oldbridge of Carriden near the end of that period is the 
first document relating to coal pits in Scotland. In the 
beginning of the present century the output was about 
40,000 tons, but since 1847 the growth of the trade has 
been rapid, and in 1882 from 39 shafts 507,204 tons 
were raised, while it is calculated that there are 
122,000,000 tons still available. A peculiar coal, better 
known to science, as well as to law, as ' the Torbanehill 
mineral,' very rich in bitumen, and accompanied by 



LINLITHGOWSHIRE 

shales from which a large percentage of oil is obtained, 
began to be worked in 1849, and led to a long and ex- 
pensive lawsuit to settle the question whether it was 
really a coal or not. It is noticed in the article Bath- 
gate. Oil-bearing shales have since been found to 
exist throughout Bathgate, Whitburn, and Uphall 
parishes, anil the industry has largely developed, par- 
ticularly since 1860, extensive paraffin works having 
been established at Dalmeuy, Broxburn, Winchburgh, 
Uphall, Bathgate, and Armadale, as well as at Addie- 
well, in the vale of Breich in Edinburgh.shire, just out- 
side the SE border of this county. In 1882 from 16 
shafts 355,700 tons of shale were drawn, which amounted 
to over J of the whole produced in Scotland, and more 
than was produced by any other county except Edin- 
burgh. Ironstone occurs extensively in Borrowstoun- 
ness, Abercorn, Torphichen, and Bathgate parishes, and 
in 18S2 from 7 shafts 172,957 tons were obtained. At 
Kinneil near Borrowstounness there are extensive blast 
furnaces. Including workmen and their families, pro- 
bably about J of the total population of the county 
is dependent on the coal and shale pits and the in- 
dustries connected with them. Limestone and fireclay 
are worked at many places, and there are large quarries 
of excellent sandstone at Binny, near the centre of the 
county. Basalt is worked near Linlithgow for clinkers 
for street paving, and lead ore with a considerable ad- 
mixture of silver was at one time worked, but the mine 
has long been given up, and an effort to reopen it in 1871 
proved unremunerative. Besides these and agriculture, 
there are leather, glue, soap, shoemaking, and agricultural 
implement works about Linlithgow ; large distilleries at 
Kirkliston, Bathgate, Linlithgow, and Borrowstounness; 
a glass-work, a foundry, and a spade and waggon factory 
at Bathgate ; paper- works at Linlithgow Loch, Linlith- 
gow Bridge, on the Logic near Torphichen, and on the 
Almond near Blackburn ; chemical works at several 
places, and a pottery and iron-foundries at Borrowstoun- 
ness. There were at one time considerable saltworks, 
which have left the name Grangepans near Borrowstoun- 
ness. 

Communications, etc. — The commerce is principally 
centred at BoEROWSTorxxESS, but the county is well 
provided with roads and railways. Of the former the 
main lines are the three great roads between Edinburgh 
and Glasgow, — that by Kirkliston and Linlithgow pass- 
ing through the N ; that by Uphall and Bathgate to 
the S of the centre ; and that by Livingstone, Black- 
burn, and Whitburn through the S. Other important 
lines are the road from Edinburgh to Linlithgow by 
Queensferry, the road from Lanark to Linlithgow by 
Whitburn and Armadale, and the road from Linlithgow 
to Borrowstounness. There are also a large number 
of district roads. The North British railway from 
Edinburgh to Polmont enters the county IJ mile W of 
Ratho station, and passes first NW and then W by 
Winchburgh aud Linlithgow for 9f miles, entering 
Stirlingshire IJ mile W of Linlithgow station. At 
Ratho a branch quits this line and passes N by Kirklis- 
ton and Dalmeny to South Queensferry ; there is at 
present no great traffic over it, but by and by this will 
be changed, as it is the line that is to lead to the 
new Forth Bridge. Half a mile W of Ratho another 
branch passes ofi' W by S along the upper part of the 
county, 10 miles to Bathgate. From this, as a centre, 
one line passes NW by the valley of the Logie to the 
line between Slamannan and Borrowstounness, at Black- 
ston station, the distance to the Almond being 4 miles ; 
a second line passes westward direct to Airdrie, the 
length of two portions within the county being 6 miles; 
and a third line passes S and SW towards Wishaw, the 
distance within the county being 8 miles. From this 
a connecting branch crosses the Breich to Addiewell, 
where it joins the Caledonian section between Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow vid Cleland. Mineral loops pass 
off from several of the lines. The line between Slaman- 
nau and Borrowstounness passes through the NW 
comer of the county for 3J miles. The Union Canal 
connecting Edinburgh with the Forth and Clyde 




^^'^^ - - ■3/"''"""V lr„rn,,l„Ul\f. 




.Bi-itifik Miles. 



' l>. 



LINLITHGOWSHIRE 

Canal enters the county on the W by a lofty aqueduct 
over the Avon, IJ mile SW of Linlithgow Bridge, 
and, passing NW to near Linlithgow, follows the line 
of the first-mentioned railway to Niddry, J mile SE of 
Wincliburgh, whence it winds first to the SW, and then 
easterly, till it quits the county at the S of Clifton Hall 
grounds (Edinburgh) by a lofty aqueduct over the 
Almond, after a course of 13i miles. 

The royal burghs are Linlithgow and South Queens- 
ferry, while Armadale, Bathgate, and Borrowstounness 
(including Grangepans) are police burghs, and Broxburn 
and Fauldhouse (including Orofthead) are large enough 
to be denominated towns. The villages are East Benhar, 
Blackburn, Kinneil, Kirkliston, part of Linlithgow 
Bridge, which is shared with Stirlingshire ; Longridge, 
Newtown, Torphichen, Uphall (including Upper Up- 
hall), and Whitburn. Smaller villages and hamlets are 
Abercorn, Blackness, Bridgeness, Craigie, Cuffabouts, 
Dalmeny, Drumcross, Durhamtown, Eeclesmachan, Gate- 
side, Muirhouses, Riccarton, Philpstoun, and Winch- 
burgh. According to Miscellaneous Statistics of the 
United Kingdom (1879) 75,785 acres, with a total gross 
estimated rental of £248,594, were divided among 1536 
landowners, one holding 11,870 acres (rental £26,618), 
one 56S0 (£11,319), six together 17,358 (£42,514), nine 
12,006 (£16,576), nineteen 13,012 (£41,095), fifty-seven 
12,583 (£53,283), etc. The principal seats, most of which 
are separately noticed, are Almondell, Avontoun, Bal- 
bardie House, Ballencrietf House, Bangour, Belsyde, 
Binns, Blackburn House, Boghead House, Bonhard 
House, Bonsyde, Bridge House, Bridgecastle, Carlowrie 
Castle, Carriden House, Champfleurie House, Clarendon 
House, Craigiehall, Craigton House, Dalmeny Park and 
Barubougle Castle, Dechmont House, Dundas Castle, 
Foxhall, Grange House, Hopetoun House, Houston 
House, Kinneil House, Kirkhill House, Lochcote Castle, 
Newliston, Philpstoun House, Polkemmet, Preston 
House, Torbanehill House, Wallhouse, and Westwood. 

The civil county consists of the 12 entire quoad eivilia 
parishes of Abercorn, Bathgate, Borrowstounness, Carri- 
den, Dalmeny, Eeclesmachan, Linlithgow, Livingston, 
Queensferry, Torphichen, Uphall, and Whitburn, and 
portions of Cramond and Kirkliston, both of which it 
shares with Edinburghshire. The quoad sacra parish 
of Fauldhouse is also included, and there is a mission 
station at Armadale. These are all ecclesiastically in 
the presbytery of Linlithgow and the synod of Lothian 
and Tweeddale. Besides the 15 churches in connection 
with the Established Church, there are 11 places of wor- 
ship connected with the Free Church, 4 in connection 
with the United Presbyterian Church, 1 Congregational 
church, 1 Evangelical Union church, 1 Wesleyan 
Methodist church, 2 Episcopal churches and a mission 
station, and 4 Roman Catholic churches. In the year 
ending Sept. 1882 there were 42 schools (33 public), 
which, with accommodation for 8347 children, had S375 
on the rolls, and an average attendance of 6375. Their 
staff consisted of 81 certificated, 11 assistant, and 50 
pupil teachers. 

Linlithgowshire, with a constituency of 1333 in 1882- 
83, returns one member to serve in Parliament, but Lin- 
lithgow, as one of the Falkirk burghs, has a share of a 
second, and Queensferry, as one of the Stirling burghs, 
of a third. The county is governed by a lord-lieutenant 
and 16 deputy-lieutenants, besides justices of the peace. 
It is under the same sheriff-principal as Midlothian, but 
has a resident sheriff-substitute. Ordinary courts are held 
at Linlithgow every Tuesday and Friday during session, 
and sheriff small debt courts every Friday. There is a 
small debt circuit court at Bathgate for the parishes of 
Bathgate, Livingston, Uphall, Torphichen, and Whit- 
burn on the third Wednesday of January, April, July, 
and October. Quarter sessions are held on the first 
Tuesday of March, May, and August, and on the last 
Tuesday of October ; and justice of peace courts when 
required. There is a police force of 35 men (one to each 
1234 of the population) imder a chief constable, with a 
salary of £125 a year. In 1881 the number of persons 
tried at the instance of the police was 1017 ; convicted, 
71 



LINLITHGOWSHIRE 

917 ; committed for trial, 48 ; not dealt with, 394. The 
number of registered poor during the twelvemonth 
1882-83 was 808, and of casual poor 1300 ; whilst the 
expenditure for poor-law purposes amounted in the 
same period to £9138. All the parishes are assessed, 
and Abercorn, Bathgate, Borrowstounness, Carriden, 
Kirkliston, Linlithgow, and Whitburn, with the 
parish of Muiravonside in Stirlingshire, form Lin- 
lithgow Poor-Law Combination, with a poorhouse at 
Linlithgow. The proportion of illegitimate births 
averages about 8 per cent., and the average annual 
death-rate is 19 per thousand. Valuation (1647) £5073, 
(1815) £97,597, (1849) £122,242, (1866) £163,593, (1876) 
£186,531, (1884) £216,940, all exclusive of railways and 
canals, which in the latter year were valued at £36,395. 
Population of registration county, which takes in part 
of Kirkliston from Edinburgh, and gives off part of 
Cramond to the same county (1831) 23,760, (1841) 
27,466, (1851) 30,590, (1861) 39,045, (1871) 41,379, 
(1881) 44.005; of civU county (1801) 17,844, (1811) 
19,451, (1821) 22,685, (1831) 23,291, (1841) 26,872, 
(1851) 30,135, (1861) 38,645, (1871) 40,965, (1881) 
43,510, of whom 22,746 were males, and 20,764 females. 
The occupations of these in the registration county are 
shown in the following table : — 



Occupations. 


JIales. 


Females. 


Total. 


Professional, 

Domestic servants, . . 

Commercial, 

Agriculture and fishing, . 

Industrial, 

No stated occupation, . 


835 

241 

1,011 

1,710 

10,263 

8,929 


253 

1,183 

31 

639 

1,183 

17,727 


1,093 
1.429 
1,042 
2,349 
11,436 
26,656 



Of the 1710 males and 639 females in the fourth class, 
1637 males and 637 females were connected with farm- 
ing ; of those engaged in industrial occupations, 4635 
men and 214 women were engaged in industries con- 
nected with mineral substances ; and in the last class 
there were 8563 boj's and 8704 girls under fifteen years 
of age. It is a curious and very inexplicable circum- 
stance that Linlithgow is the only county in Scotland 
where the males are in excess of the females, and this 
has been the case at every census since 1841. In 
1881 the number of persons to each square mile was 
363, the county thus ranking fifth in the order of 
density of population. In the same year the number of 
families was 8911, occupying 8532 houses with 22,293 
rooms. 

A monastery is said to have existed at Abercorn as 
early as 675, but it was abandoned ten years after, and 
on the rise of the Roman Church the county became part 
of the diocese of Lindisfarne, and was subsequently com- 
prehended in that of St Andrews. The old archdeaconry 
had probably the same limits as the modern presbytery, 
including not only the whole county itself, except a part 
of Cramond, but several parishes in Stirlingshire and in 
Edinburghshire. The Bishop of St Andrews had a 
regality jurisdiction over all the lands in the see lying 
to the S of the Forth, and his court sat at Kirkliston. 
During the time of the short-lived Protestant bishopric 
of Edinburgh, Linlithgowshire lay within the limits of 
that see. Though the Knights of St John had their seat 
at Torphichen — which thus passed into the hands of the 
present proprietors, the first Lord Torphichen being the 
last preceptor, and Lord St John of Jerusalem in Scot- 
land — there were anciently in the county but few religious 
houses, two monasteries and a hospitium at Linlithgow 
and a Carmelite convent near Queensferry being the chief. 
The brass seal of the presbytery of Linlithgow dates from 
1583, and has the inscription Sigilluni presbyterii 
Linlitheu round the edge, while on the face is Verbum 
Dei nostri stabit in ceternum. At the dawn of the 
historic period we find the county within the limits 
usually given to the Otaleni or Otadeni or Gadeni ; 
but when the district was, in A.D. 81, brought by 
Agi-icola within the limits of the Roman power, the 
tribe that inhabited it are called the Damnonii, and 

525 



LINLITHGOWSHIRE 



LINTON 



from Carriden the great general himself set sail to the 
opposite shore to attack the Horestii. He probably 
began his chain of forts at the same place. When 
Antonine's Wall was constructed in 139, almost the 
whole of the shire fell within the limits of Roman 
government, for the wall passed through the extreme 
NW corner of the county, beginning at the E corner of 
Carriden grounds and running westward for 5 miles by 
Kinneil House to the bridge near Inveravon, where it 
crossed the Avon and passed into Stirlingshire. From 
the Roman station at Cramond a road passed along near 
the coast to the end of the Roman wall at Carriden. 
Traces of a reputed Roman camp exist to the E of Aber- 
corn ; Blackness is said to have been a Roman port ; and 
at Bridgeness there was found in 1868 one of the finest 
legionary tablets in the country. A facsimile of it has 
been placed on the spot, but the stone itself is in the 
Antiquarian Society's Museum at Edinburgh. It is 9 
feet long, 2 feet 11 inches wide, and 9 inches thick. On 
one side of a central inscription a Roman soldier is 
sculptured, riding triumphantly over conquered Britons ; 
on the other is the representation of a sacrificial ceremony. 
The inscription itself records that the Augustan Legion, 
after making 4652 paces of the wall, set up and dedicated 
the stone to the Emperor C^sar Titus Antoninus. It 
was at Kinneil that St Serf stood and threw his staff 
across the Firth, in order to find out where he was to 
settle (see Culross) ; and, according to Dr Skene, the 
twelfth of the great Arthurian battles was fought at 
Bowden HOI in 516. Edwin of Northumbria in 617 
extended his dominion over all the Lothians, and after- 
wards Kenneth Macalpine led the Scots to the concjuest 
of these provinces, and they finally became incorporated 
with the Scottish kingdom about 1020. Traces of cairns 
or tumuli of these and earlier periods exist on the Loch- 
cote Hills, on the Forth near Barnbougle, near Kirk- 
liston, and on the S bank of the Almond near Livingston ; 
and in the old bed of Lochcote there are the remains of 
a crannoge. There are standing-stones near Abercorn, 
near Bathgate, and nearTorphichen, while there are traces 
of hill forts at Cocklerue, Bowden Hill, Cairu-naple, and 
Einns. The county was probably a sheriffdom in the 
time of David I., and certainly was so in the reign of 
Malcolm IV., and thus it remained down to the time of 
Robert Bruce, though after William the Lyon's reign 
the rule of the sheriffs was nominal rather than real. 
By Robert I. the district was put under a constable, 
whose successors held office till the reign of James III., 
when we find it again under a sheriff. In 1600 the latter 
office was granted to James Hamilton, the eldest son of 
Claude, Lord Paisley, and to his heirs, and was again, 
soon after the Restoration, given hereditarily to John 
Hope of Hopetoun, the ancestor of the Earls of Hope- 
toun. At the abolition of the hereditary jurisdictions 
in 1747, the then earl claimed £10,500 as compensation 
for the sheriffdom of Linlithgow, the sheriffwick of 
Bathgate, the regality of St Andrews at Kirkliston, the 
bailiery of Crawfordmuir, and the regality of Kirkheugh, 
and obtained £4569. No county in the whole of Scot- 
land had probably so many independent petty jurisdic- 
tions of baronies, regalities, and bailieries. Kirkliston 
and other lands were a regality, with an attached 
bailiery ; Bathgate was long a barony, and afterwards 
became a separate sheriffwick ; Torphicheu was a regality 
first of the Knights of St John, and next of the Lords 
Torphichen. Other regalities were Kinneil, under the 
Duke of Hamilton; Philpstoun, under the monks of 
Culross, and afterwards under the Earls of Stair ; and 
Brighouse and Ogleface, under the Earl of Linlithgow. 
Linlithgow was an hereditary royal bailiery, belonging, 
like the last-named regality, to the Linlithgow family, 
while Abercorn, Barnbougle, Caribber, Dalmeny, Living- 
ston, and Strathbrock had baronial jurisdictions. The 
Sincipal antiquities dating from mediaeval times are 
almeny church, the peel of Linlithgow, the castles of 
Abercorn, Barnbougle, Blackness, Bridgehouse, Dundas, 
Mannerston, and Niddry, the towers of Binny, Ochil- 
tree, Midhope, and Torphichen, and the vestiges of a 
castle that afforded a retreat to Walter, Steward of 
&26 



Scotland, in a morass near Bathgate. Part of Dundas 
Castle is supposed to have stood since the beginning of 
the 11th century, and the family was the oldest in the 
county. 

See also Sir Robert Sibbald's History oj the Sheriffdoms 
of Linlithgow and Stirlingshire (Edinb. 1710) ; J. 
Trotter's General View of the Jgriculture of West 
Lothian (^iinh. 1794; 2d ed., 1810); John P. Wood's 
Ancient and Modern State of the Parish of Cramond 
(Edinb. 1794) ; John Penney's Historical Account of 
Linlithgowshire C&^mb. 1831); Mr Farrall's paper 'On 
the Agriculture of Edinburghshire and Linlithgowshire,' 
in Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc. (1877) ; John Small's 
Castles and Mctnsions of the Lothians (2 vols., Edinb. 
1883) ; and G. Waldie's Walks along the Northern 
Roman Wall (Linlithgow, 1883). 

Limnill, a village in Clackmannan parish, Clack- 
mannanshire, 2J miles E by N of Alloa. 

Linmill, a burn on the mutual boundary of Dalmeny 
and Abercorn parishes, Linlithgowshire, running to the 
Firth of Forth. It makes, near Springfield, a leap of 75 
feet over a trap rock precipice. — Ord. Snr., sh. 32, 1857. 

Linn, an estate, with a mansion, in Cathcart parish, 
Renfrewshire, adjacent to Lanarkshire and to White 
Cart Water, | mile S of Cathcart village. 

Linn, an estate, with a mansion, in Dairy parish, 
Ayrshire, 5 furlongs SSVi'" of the town. Its owner, 
John Crichton, Esq. (b. 1824 ; sue. 1832), holds 335 
acres in the shire, valued at £1139 per annum. Till 
about 1827 the ruins of a pre -Re formation chapel stood 
on the estate, which is believed to be the locality of a 
fine old ballad, The Heir of Lynne ; and four urns con- 
taining burned human bones have been exhumed on it. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Linnbum. See Linbuen. 

Linndean. See Lindean. 

Llnnhe, a beautiful sea-loch, mainly of Argyllshire, 
but partly also of Inverness-shire. Striking north-east- 
ward from the junction of the Firth of Lorn with the 
Sound of Mull, it extends 31 J miles, nearly in direct line 
with the former and at right angles to the latter ; has a 
maximum breadth of 8J miles, and at Corr.\n Narrows 
contracts to IJ furlongs ; contains Lismore, Shuna, and 
some other isles and islets ; separates Appin on the SE 
from Morvern and Ardgour on the NW ; sends oft' from 
its SE side Lochs Creran and Leven ; and forms part of 
the line of navigation from the Caledonian Canal to the 
western seas. The upper 9§ miles, from Corran Narrows 
to Fort William, are often known as Lower Loch 
EiL. On 20 Aug. 1847 the Queen steamed up Loch 
Linnhe, whose ' scenery is magnificent, such beautiful 
mountains r See also pp. 158-164 of Dorothy Words- 
worth's Toiir in Scotland (ed. by Princ. Shairp, 1874). — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 44, 45, 52, 53, 1876-84. 

Linnhouse Water. See Linhouse. 

Linnmill. See Linmill. 

Linshart. See Long.side. 

Lintalee, an estate, with a mansion, in Jedburgh 
parish, Roxburghshire, on the left bank of Jed Water, If 
mile S by W of Jedburgh town. It contains the famous 
camp formed by Douglas in the time of Robert Bruce for 
defence of the Borders, and described by Barbour. The 
camp was defended, partly by a deep ravine, partly by 
a precipitous bank of the Jed, partly by an artificial 
double rampart. Lintalee Cave, in the steep bank of 
the Jed, once used as a place of refuge, disappeared 
through a landslip in 1866. — Ord. Sur., sh. 17, 1864. 

Linthill, a modern mansion in Bowden parish, Rox- 
burghshire, on the left bank of Ale AVater, IJ mile 
NNE of Lilliesleaf Its owner, William Currie, Esq. 
(b. 1831 ; sue. 1858), holds 1020 acres in the shire, 
valued at £1389 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 
1865. 

Linthill House. See Eyemouth. 

Linton ( ' town on the lin or pool ' ) or West Linton, a 
village and a parish of NW Peeblesshire. The village, 
standing, 800 feet above sea-level, on the left bank of 
Lyne Water, by road is 16 miles SSW of Edinburgh, 11 
NNE of Biggar, and 14 NW of Peebles, whilst its 



LINTON 

station, Broomlee or West Linton (5 furl. SSE), on tlie 
Dolphinton branch of the North British railway, is 
24 miles SSW of Edinburgh and 144 ENE of Carstairs. 
The village is very irregularly built. Even in the main 
thoroughfare the houses are built on no iixed plan, and, 
ia consequence, show great variety of style, age, and 
appearance. West Linton possesses 3 places of worship 
— the parish church, built in 1781 and repaired in 1871 ; 
the United Presbyterian church, built in 1784 (at 
that date occupied by a Kelief congregation) ; and the 
Episcopal church of St Mungo. The parish church 
contains some beautiful wood-carving, the work of ladies. 
The carved work of the galleries and wiudows was done 
by Miss Fergusson, eldest daughter of the late Sir William 
Fergusson, surgeon to the Queen ; that of the pulpit by 
Mrs Woddrop, wife of the proprietor of Garvald. 
The Free church (erected in 1S45) is at Carlops. 
West Linton also possesses a public hall (built in 1881), 
a post office, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments, a branch of the Bank of Scot- 
land, two inns, gasworks, and a police station. On the 
Rutherford estate, which belongs to Mr Philip, there is 
a mineral spring called ' Heaven Aqua Well,' the taste 
of whose waters somewhat resemble that of the waters 
of the Tunbridge Spa. West Linton was once knowni as 
Linton Roderick or Linton Rutherick. The double 
name is foimd as early as the 12th century, and was 
probably derived from that of the chief man or family in 
the district. There is another Linton in Haddingtonshire 
— East Linton — from which that in Peeblesshire is dis- 
tinguished by the prefix West. According to Chambers 
(in his History of Peeblesshire, 1864), West Linton 
■was at one time a burgh of regality and centre of traffic. 
Quoting from Pennicuick, he says : — ' In the Regent 
Morton's time West Linton was a pendicle of Dalkeith, 
but was created a burgh of regality by John, the first 
Earl of Traquair, who derived from it his title of Lord 
Linton. . . . Linton is known to have had a resident 
bailie of regality, who was assisted in keeping order by 
a council, composed of portioners or small proprietors, 
known as the " Lairds of Linton.'" Sheep markets 
■were once held at West Linton four times a year, but 
their size and importance gradually dwindled until they 
ceased altogether. Now the business done in the village 
is almost entirely local, its chief frequenters being com- 
mercial travellers, anglers, and a few summer visitors. 

An interesting relic of antiquity is to be found in the 
statue of a woman, placed on the top of the vOlage 
pump. It represents the wife of James Gifl'ord, usually 
known as Laird GifFord, who flourished as a mason and 
stone carver in 1666. Another curiosity, according to 
Chambers, ' consisted in a marble tombstone in the 
parish churchyard, over the grave of James Oswald of 
"Spital" or Spittals.' During his lifetime it had 
served in some way at the social gatherings of 'which 
Oswald was fond, and at his death (1726) it was placed 
over his grave by his widow. It bore the follomng in- 
scription in Latin : — "To James Oswald of Spittal, her 
deserving husband, this monument was erected by 
Grizzel Russell, his sorrowing wife. This 'marble table, 
sitting at which I have often cultivated good living {lit. 
propitiated my tutelar genius), I have desired to be 
placed over me when dead. Stop, traveller, whoever 
thou art ; here thou mayest recline, and, if the means 
are at hand, mayest enjoy this table as I formerly did. 
If thou doest so in the right and proper way, thou wilt 
neither desecrate the monument nor offend my manes. 
Farewell.' This reUc was carried off about forty-six 
years ago, and sold for the value of the marble. The 
carving of gravestones was once largely engaged in at 
West Linton, suitable stone being found in the Deep- 
sykehead quarries. Handlooni weaving of cotton 
fabrics was also carried on by the ■villagers. Pop. of 
West Linton (1832) 395, (1861) 512, (1871) 514, (1881) 
434, of whom 202 were males. Houses (1881) inhabited, 
112 ; uninhabited, 11 ; building, 1. 

The parish, containing also Caklops village, is 
bounded NW and NE by the Edinburghshire parishes 
of West Calder, Midcalder, Kirkliston (detached), and 



LINTON 

Penicuik, SE by Newlands, S by Kirkurd, SW and W 
by Dolphinton and Dunsyre in Lanarkshire. Its utmost 
length, from N by E to S by W, is 9| miles ; its utmost 
breadth is 7§ miles ; and its area is 23, 420 J acres, of 
which 57 are water. Ltne Water, rising at an 
altitude of 1260 feet above sea-level, winds TJ miles 
south-south-eastward through the middle of the parish, 
then IJ mile south-by-westward along the Newlands 
boundary. The North EsK, fed by Carlops Burn, flows 
5 miles south -south -eastward and east-by -north ward 
along the Midlothian border, and Medwin Watek 4J 
miles along the W boundary. The drainage thus belongs 
mainly to the Tweed, but partly to the Clyde and partly 
to the Firth of Forth. Many small streams flow through 
the parish, which also contains Slipperfield Loch (IJ x J 
furl.), 9 furlongs SSW of the village. As a rule"the 
surface is hilly, with a northward ascent to the Pentland 
range, which lies on the northern border. In the SE, 
along Lyne Water, it declines to 700 feet above the sea; 
and chief elevations, from S to N, are Blyth Muir (1015), 
Mendick Hill (1480), King Seat (1521), Byrehope 
Mount (1752), Mount Maw (1753), and West Caien Hill 
(1844). The scenery is extremely pretty and atti'active, 
especially near Carlops and Haeeie's Ho^vve, which, in 
the summer time, are visited by picnic parties without 
number. The greater part of the land is occupied by sheep 
farms (the parish being noted for a famous breed) ; but, 
near the rivers, the ground is under tillage, and yields 
good crops. The soil is chiefly either clay on limestone 
or sandy loam upon a gravelly bottom. White freestone 
has been largely quarried at Deepsykehead and Spittal- 
haugh, and limestone calcined at Whitfield ; T\-hilst 
fuller's earth is found near the Lyne, blue marl at 
Carlops, and Scotch pebbles in the streams. Mansions, 
noticed separately, are Garvald, Med^wyn, and 
SPITT.ALHAUGH ; and the property is divided among ten. 
This parish is in the presbytery of Peebles and synod of 
Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is worth £414. The 
church of Linton Roderick was a vicarage under the 
monks of Kelso from the reign of David I. to the 
Reformation. In the 13th century a chaplaincy of the 
Virgin Mary existed at Ingliston, and a chapel, 
attached to a hospital, at Chapel on Lyne Water. 
Four schools — public (1874), Episcopalian, female, and 
Sommervail endowed (1852) — with respective accommo- 
dation for 72, 68, 58, and 96 children, had (1882) an 
average attendance of 58, 19, 24, and 60, and grants of 
£53, 3s., £18, 8s. 6d., £17, 15s., and £0, the last being 
not under Government inspection, but managed by a 
committee of the U.P. presbytery of Edinburgh. Valua- 
tion (1860) £9263, (1884) £12,161. Pop. of parish 
(1801) 1064, (1831) 1577, (1861) 1534, (1871) 1387, 
(1881) 1117.— Ord Sur., shs. 24, 32, 1864-57. 

Linton, a Border parish of NE Roxburghshire, whose 
church, within 3 furlongs of the southern boundary, 
stands \^ mile N of Morebattle, 4 miles WSW of Yet- 
holm, and 6i miles SSE of the post-town, Kelso. It 
is bounded NW by Sprouston, NE by Northumberland, 
E by Yetholm and Morebattle, S by Morebattle, and W 
by Eokford. Its utmost length, from NNE to SSW, is 
6| miles ; its breadth varies between 9J furlongs and 4 
miles ; and its area is 6428 acres, of which 34 j are water. 
Kale Water flows If mile westward along the southern 
boundary ; and one burn, running southward to it, 
traces all the boundary ■with Eckford ; ■whilst another, 
issuing from pretty Hoselaw Loch (3 x IJ furl. ; 640 
feet) in the north-eastern exti'emity of the parish, is a 
feeder of Bowmont Water. A second lake, Linton Loch, 
which lay to the SE of the parish church, and covered 
some 50 acres, has been drained. Along the southern 
and the western boundary the surface declines to less 
than 300 feet above sea-level, and thence it rises to 926 
feet at Linton Hill on the eastern border, 750 at the 
Kip and near Old Graden, and 715 at Hoselaw. The 
SW corner, a fertile level of about 300 acres, rises only 
a few inches above the level of Kale Water, and hence 
is subject to inundations. The rest of the parish is a 
mixture of hollows and rising-grounds, valleys and 
hills, and presents an appearance alike diversified 

S27 



LINTON, EAST 

and charming. The low grounds, excepting some 
largish patches of moss and about 75 acres under 
wood, are in a state of rich cultivation, and all the 
eminences, excepting the top of Linton Hill, are wholly 
arable. The rocks are partly eruptive, partly carboni- 
ferous. Rock crystal occurs in seams among the erupted 
rocks, sandstone has been quarried at Frogden, and coal 
is known to exist in thin seams. The soil of the plain 
at the SW corner is partly a strong retentive clay, and 
partly a deep loam incumbent on sand or gravel ; else- 
where it is variously or mixedly clay, loam, sand, and 
gravel. Linton Tower, the baronial fortalice of the 
noble family of Somerville, stood on an eminence near 
the parish church, and seems to have been a place of 
considerable strength. It figured prominently in the 
Wars of the Succession, and was first severely damaged, 
next utterly demolished, by the English in the time of 
Henry VIII. Another ancient fortalice, at Gi'aden, had 
a similar history to that of Linton Tower. The parish, 
both from its lying immediately on the Border, and 
from its forming part of the so-called 'dry marches,' 
which offered no natural hindrance to the movements 
of a hostile force, was peculiarly exposed to the turmoils 
and conflicts of Border warfare. A spot called ' the 
Tryst,' on Frogden Farm, once marked by several stand- 
ing stones, was a place of rendezvous for parties about to 
make a foray into England ; and a narrow pass between 
two heights, in the vicinity of the parish church, 
has been thought to bear marks of having been 
fortified, and may have been regarded as a suitable 
fastness for checking invasion or repelling pursuit. 
Remains of circular camps are on several eminences, 
and sepulchral tumuli are in various places. The 
poet, Thomas Pringle (1789-1834), was born at Blake- 
law Farm ; and Mr Dawson, a leading agricultural 
improver, tenanted Frogden Farm. Clifton Park, 
noticed separately, is the only mansion ; and its owner, 
R. H. Elliot, Esq., hokls nearly half the parish, 3 
other proprietors holding each an annual value of more, 
and 1 of less, than £500. Linton is in the presbytery of 
Kelso and the synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living 
is worth £374. The pretty little antique church crowns 
the top of a small round hill, and contains 160 sittings. 
The public school, with accommodation for 106 children, 
had (1882) an average attendance of 62, and a grant of 
£53, 19s. Valuation (1864) £7717, 12s. 3d., (1884) 
£8262, 15s. Pop. (ISOl) 403, (1831) 462, (1861) 608, 
(1871) 570, (1881) 543. — OrA Sur., sh. 26, 1864. 

Linton, East, a small police burgh in Prestonkirk 
parish, Haddingtonshire. It stands 80 feet above sea- 
level, 1| mile NNE of conical Traprain Law (700 feet), 
mostly on the left bank of the river Tyne, and has a 
station on the North British railway, 5J miles WSW 
of Dunbar, and 23J E by N of Edinburgh, whilst by 
road it is 5| miles ENE of Haddington, and 6i SSE of 
North Berwick. It took the name of Linton from a 
large, deep linn here in the river Tyne ; it gave that 
name to the parish from the earliest record down to the 
Reformation ; and it bears the prefix East to distinguish 
it from West Linton in Peeblesshire. A prosperous place, 
conducting a considerable amount of rural trade, it con- 
sists mainly of East Linton proper, immediately on the 
railway, and partly of the extraburghal suburb of 
Preston, 3 furlongs lower down the river, and it has a 
post ofiBce (Prestonkirk), with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of the 
National Bank, 3 inns, a gas company, curling, bowling, 
football, cricket, and golf clubs; horticultural, athletic, 
and ornithological societies ; Good Templars' ami 
Foresters' lodges ; a weekly Monday market, and cattle 
fairs on the second Mondays of March, May, and June, 
and on the Thursday before Falkirk October Tryst — the 
last of the most importance. A public hall, 60 feet 
long, 36^ broad, and 31 high, was erected in 1874-75 at 
a cost of £1000, and serves for volunteer drill, lectures, 
concerts, etc. A coffee-house, with reading-room and 
library, was built in 1880-81, at a cost of £1000, by 
Lady Baird of Newbyth ; and in 1881 a public school, 
■with accommodation for 464 children, was built at a 
/ £28 



LINVALE 

cost of £3000. The parish church, in Eeston subui-b,. 
was built in 1770, and, as enlarged in 1824, contains 
800 sittings. The Free church, improved and enlarged 
in 1879-80 at a cost of £1200, is a handsome Romanesque 
building, with tower and spire ; and the U.P. church 
is seated for 400 worshippers. The railway viaduct over 
the Tyne here is tlie finest on the North British, that of 
Dunglass only excepted. Robert Brown (1757-1831), 
an agricultural wi'iter, was a native. The municipal 
constituency numbered 229 in 1884, when the annual 
value of real property within the burgh amounted to 
£2951 ; its revenue, including assessments, being £235. 
Pop. (1831) 715, (1861) 835, (1871) 1037, (1881) 1042,. 
of whom 923 were within the police burgh.-^OrcJ. Sur., 
sh. 33, 1863. 

Linton, West. See Linton, Peeblesshire. 

Lintrathen (Gael, limu-tre-auin, 'falls in the river'), 
a hamlet and a parish in the Grampian district of W 
Forfarshire. The hamlet, Bridgend of Lintrathen, lies 
715 feet above sea-level, on Melgam Water, 5| miles 
NNE of Alyth station, and 7J W of Kirriemuir, under 
which it has a post office. 

The parish is bounded NE by Kirriemuir (detached), 
E by Kingoldrum, SE by Airlie, and SW and W by Glen- 
isla. Its utmost length, from NN W to SSE, is lOJ miles ; 
its utmost breadth is 5 J miles ; and its area is 22,872f 
acres, of which 24Sf are water. The river Isla, run- 
ning 7 miles south-eastward along the Glenisla boundary, 
here makes two beautiful falls, the Reekie Linn and 
the Slugs of AoHKANNiE, and for 4 miles is overhung 
by steep, rocky, wooded banks, which rise in places to 
more than 100 feet. Back or Melgam Water, rising in 
the northern extremity of the parish at an altitude of 
1970 feet above sea-level, winds 13j miles south-south- 
eastward through the interior, then 2 miles eastward, 
south-by-eastward, and west-south-westward, along the 
Kingoldrum and Airlie boundaries, till, after a total 
descent of 1600 feet, it falls into the Isla opposite Airlie 
Castle. The circular Locli of Lintrathen (5J x 5J furl.), 
I mile W of the village, is a picturesque sheet of water, 
and since 1875 has furnished the Dundee reservoirs 
with some 4,000,000 gallons per diem. In the extreme 
S the surface declines to less than 400 feet above sea- 
level, and chief elevations to the W of Melgam Water, 
as one goes up the glen, are the wooded Knock of 
Formal (1158 feet), Craiglea Hill (1272), *Hare Cairn 
(1692), and * Cairn Daunie (2066); to the E, Strone 
Hill (1074), Craig of Auldallan (1371), Creigh Hill 
(1630), *Cat Law (2196), Milldewan Hill (1677), and 
*High Tree (2001) — where asterisks mark those summits 
that culminate on the confines of the parish. The 
rocks to the N of the Loch of Lintrathen are metamor- 
phosed Silurian, but the southern district falls within 
the Old Red Sandstone area of Strathmore. Less than 
one-seventh of the entire area is arable, and even of this 
the soil is mostly moorish, whilst so late is the climate 
that oats were actually reaped on 30 Dec. 1881. Planta- 
tions cover some 1200 acres. The property is divided 
among four. Since 1879 giving off a portion to Kilry 
quoad sacra parish, Lintrathen is in the presbytery of 
Meigle and the synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living 
is worth £191. The parish church, built in 1802, con- 
tains 450 sittings. Three public schools — Backwater, 
Braes of CouU, and Lintrathen — with respective accom- 
modation for 26, 63, and 148 children, had (1882) an 
average attendance of 15, 35, and 62, and grants of 
£29, 18s. 6d., £50, lis. 6d., and £70, 6s. Valuation 
(1857) £4475, (1884) £13,610, 9s. Pop. (1801) 919, 
(1831) 998, (1861) 898, (1871) 756, (1881) 641, of 
whom 587 were in the ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 56, 1870. 

Lintrose, an estate, with a mansion, in Kettins parish, 
SW Forlarshire, 2 miles S by E of Coupar-Angus. Its 
owner, Mungo Murray, Esq. (b. 1802 ; sue. 1828), holds 
881 acres in the shire, valued at £1464 per annum. A 
cave, about 50 feetlong, andfrom 3 to8feethigh, was dis- 
covered on the estate in ISiO. — Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Linvale, a village in Lesmahagow parish, Lanarkshire, 
1| mile W of Lanark. 



LINWOOD 



LIVINGSTON 



Linwood, a village and a quoad sacra parish in Kil- 
liarchan parish, Renfrewshire. The village stands on 
the left bank of Black Cart Water (here spanned by a 
one-arch bridge), 1 J mile NE of Johnstone, and 3J miles 
"W of Paisley, under which it has a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments. 
It arose from a large cotton-mill, built in 1792, burned 
down in 1802, and rebuilt in 1805 ; was laid out on a 
regular plan ; is inhabited chiefly by the operatives of 
its cotton-mill, and by workers in neighbouring mines ; 
acquired, in 1872, a water supply by pipes from the 
Paisley waterworks ; and has an Established church, a 
public school, and a Roman Catholic chapel-school. 
The quoad sacra parish, constituted in 1880, is in the 
presbytery of Paisley and the synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr ; its minister's stipend is £220. Pop. of village 
(1831) 910, (1861) 1514, (1871) 1250, (1881)1393; of 
quoad sacra parish (1881) 2605. — Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 
1866. 

Lismore (Gael. ' great garden '), an island of Lorn 
district, Argyllshire, in the middle of the lower waters 
of Loch Linnhe, less than 1 furlongfrom the nearest point 
of the Argyllshire mainland, and 5 to 11 miles NNW 
and N of Oban. Its utmost length, from NE to 
SW, is lOJ miles ; its breadth is 1-| mile ; and its 
area is 6013| acres, of which 368 are foreshore and 
93 water. With a basis of limestone, it consists of 
an uneven rocky ridge ; and its rugged sm'face attains 
a ma.xinium altitude of 417 feet above sea-level at Barr 
Mor. Limestone rock crops everywhere up ; but the 
soil, though thin, is a fertile deep-coloured loam. A 
lighthouse at the south-western extremity, built in 
1833 at a cost of £11,229, shows a fixed light, 
visible at a distance of 16 nautical miles. 'The 
bishopric of, Lismore or Argyll in 1236 had its seat 
transferred from Muckairn on the S side of Loch Etive 
to the island of Lismore, where long before a Columban 
monastery had been founded by St Lughadh or Moluoc. 
The only remains of the Cathedral, once 137 by 29-5 
feet, are an aisleless Decorated choir, with ti-aees of a 
chapter-house and sacristy ; and as re-roofed in 1749, 
this choir now serves as a parish church. One of its 
deans. Sir James M'Gregor, between 1512 and 1540, 
compiled a commonplace-book, filled mainly with Gaelic 
heroic ballads, several of which are ascribed to the 
a,uthorship of Ossian or his kindred. This, the earliest 
specimen of Scottish Gaelic, strictly so called, was 
edited, wdth a translation and notes, by the Rev. T. 
M'Lauchlan and Dr Skene, in 1862. Achandxjin or 
AiJCHiNDOWN Castle, Castle Rachal, Castle Guylen 
(a Danish fort), and Tirefoor Castle make up the anti- 
quities with cairns and fortified camps. Lismore is the 
Epidium of Ptolemy, one of his five Ebudse. The pro- 
perty is divided among four. Pop. (1801) 1329, (1831) 
1790, (1861) 865, (1871) 720, (1881) 621, of whom 571 
were Gaelie-speakiug. — Orel. Szir., shs. 45, 44, 1876-84. 

Lismore and Appin, a united parish in Lorn district, 
N Argyllshire. It comprehends the ancient parishes 
of Appin and Lismoeb, with the whole of Ellan- 
MuNDE ; and includes the three great districts of 
Lismore proper, Kingairloch, and Appin, the first 
consisting of islands in Loch Linnhe, the second lying 
■between that loch and llorvem, the third lying on the 
SE side of Loch Linnhe, and extending from Loch 
Creran to Loch Leven. It is bounded N by Inverness- 
shire, E by Glenorchy and Ardchattan, S by Ard- 
chattan, Kilmore, and Torosay, and W by Morvern and 
Ardnamurchan. Its utmost length, from WNW to 
ESE, is 25 miles ; its utmost breadth is 20 miles ; and 
its area is 148f square miles or 95,1711 acres, of which 
16S3|- are foreshore, 829^- water, and 25J tidal water. 
Its districts and features, other than Lismore island, 
are noticed in our articles on AiRDS, Appin, Balla- 
CHULiSH, Castle-Meaknaig, Creran, Dueor, Glbn- 
coE, Glbnckeran, Kingairloch, Levkn, Musdale, 
Sheep-Island, and Shuna. At most, 4000 acres are 
in tillage ; nearly as many are under wood ; and all the 
rest of the land is moss, moor, hill-pasture, or barren 
mountain. Eleven proprietors hold each an annual 



value of £500 and upwards, seven of between £100 and 
£500, and five of from £20 to £50. Giving off the 
quoad sacra parishes of Appin and Duror, and includ- 
ing the chapelries of Glencoe and Kingairloch, Lismore 
is in the presbytery of Lorn and the synod of Argyll ; 
the living is worth £393. In the whole civil parish 
ten schools — three of them Episcopalian, the rest public — 
with total accommodation for 907 children, had (1882) 
an average attendance of 426, and grants amounting to 
£485, 15s. lOd. Valuation (1860) £15,065, (1884) 
£20,191, 5s. 9d. Pop. (1801) 3243, (1831) 4365, (1861) 
3595, (1871) 3535, (1881) 3433, of whom 2968 were 
Gaelic-speaking, and 2182 were in the ecclesiastical 
parish.— OrA Sur., shs. 45, 44, 53, 1876-84. 

Listen. See Kirkliston. 

Listonshiels. See Kirkliston. 

Little Colonsay, etc. See Colonsat, Little, etc. 

Littledean Tower, a ruined baronial fortalice in 
Maxton parish, Roxburghshire, on the right bank of 
the river Tweed, 1 J mile NE of Maxton village. Down 
to the first half of last century it was the seat of 
a branch of the Kers, and it now belongs to Lord 
Polwarth.— Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Little Dunkeld, etc. See Dunkeld, Little, etc. 

Little France, a hamlet in Liberton parish, Edin- 
burghshire, 3 furlongs S of Craigmillar Castle, and IJ 
mile N of Gilmerton. The French servants of Queen 
Mary resided here, when in attendance upon her at 
Craigmillar Castle. 

Little Loch Broom. See Broom and Lochbroom. 

Littlemill, a village in Old Kilpatrick parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, on the N bank of the Clyde, near Bowling, 
and 2 miles ESE of Dumbarton. It carries on ship- 
building, and has a distillery. 

Little Eoe, an islet (4f x3 furh) of Delting parish, 
Shetland, in Yell Sound, 7 furlongs from the northern 
coast of the mainland part of Delting. 

Little Ross, a small island of Borgue parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, at the W side of the mouth of the Dee's 
estuary, j mile E of the headland which separates the 
entrance of that estuary from the entrance of Wigtown 
Bay. Measuring 2^ furlongs by 1, it is crowned by a 
lighthouse, which rises 123 feet above sea-level, and 
commands a magnificent view of the waters and screens 
of the estuary, all northward to Kirkcudbright, whilst 
seaward it looks across the entire breadth of Wigtown 
Bay, and along the Solway Firth on to its mergence 
with the Irish Sea. The lighthouse, built in 1843 at a 
cost of £8478, shows a flashing light every five seconds, 
visible at the distance of 18 nautical miles, and guiding 
the navigation of the Solway ; and two towers, standing 
on a line with the lighthouse in a north-easterly direc- 
tion, serve to guide a vessel over the bar at the mouth 
of the Dee into the fair way of the estuary. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 5, 1857. 

Little Sorbie. See Sorbie. 

Littlewood, a pretty shooting-box in TuUynessle 
parish, Aberdeenshire, on the left bank of the Don, 5 
miles W by N of Alford. 

Little YaiTow. See Yarrow. 

Livet Water. See Glenlivet. 

Livingston (' Leving's town,' after a Fleming of that 
name who settled here about the time of Alexander I. ), 
a parish with a village of the same name near the middle 
of the SE border of the county of Linlithgow. It is 
bounded NE by Uphall parish, E and SE by the county 
of Edinburgh,"SW by Whitburn parish, and NW by 
the parishes of Bathgate and Ecclesmachan. On the 
SE the boundary follows the course of the river Almond 
from a point almost 1 mile due E of Livingston church, 
up to the junction with Breich Water, and then follows 
the course of the latter stream for SJ miles, till near 
Auchinhard the parish of Whitburn is reached. From 
this it passes 5 furlongs NNW to the SE branch of 
Foulshiels Burn, down which it passes to the Almond 
and up the Almond to a point 24 furlongs due W of 
Riddoch-hill. Elsewhere, except at the N corner where 
it touches Brox Burn, the boundary is purely artificial 
and very irregular, the general shape of the parish 

529 



LIVINGSTON 

showing two compact portions to the NE and SW, 
united by a narrow neck in the centre. The greatest 
length, from KNE at Dechmont Toll to SSW on the 
Breich above Auchinhard, is 5 j miles ; the breadth 
varies from 3 miles to 5 furlongs ; and the area is 5391 
acres, 28| being water, and 5362J land, of which 
about 400 acres are under wood, and the rest is either 
arable or good pasture. The average height of the land 
above sea-level is from 400 to 500 feet, the highest 
elevations being 525 feet to the N of Blackburn village, 
and Dechmont Law (686) in the NE, the latter, which 
is volcanic, rising very abruptly and commanding 
an extensive view. The soil varies very considerably, 
passing from strong clay and rich loam to poor, thin, 
clayey, and moorish ground, but is on the whole good. 
The underlying rocks are sandstone, limestone, volcanic 
rocks, and coal ; and all belong to the Carboniferous 
period. The beds of economic value — oil shale — are all 
worked along the SW and S ; and at Blackburn there 
is a bed of a particular kind of volcanic rock known 
as pikrite, or lakestone, or ovenstone, which has been 
found very suitable for the construction of ovens, and 
which has long been largely quarried ; the quarry is now 
partly in Whitbtjen parish. The drainage is carried off 
by the river Almond and by Breich Water, and the 
burns that ilow into them, the principal being the 
Foulshiels and Bickerton IJurns on the SW, Dean 
Burn to the W of Cousland, Lochshot Burn to the 
W and Folly Burn to the E of Livingston village. 
The total length of the course of the Almond through 
or along the border of the parish is 6 mUes. To the E 
of the village stood the peel of Linlithgow, which was a 
tower defended by an earthen rampart and a wide fosse, 
traces of which remained tiU the middle of last centm-y. 
It was deemed of sufficient importance to be garrisoned 
by Edward I. in 1302. A mansion, N of the village, 
was pulled down shortly after the late Earl of Eosebery 
acquired the estate in 1812. The garden of the old 
mansion-house contained, about the middle of the 17th 
century, a large typical collection of plants, forming a 
sort of botanic garden, and amounting to about 1000 
species — for those days a very large number. It was 
formed by Sir Patrick Murray of Livingston, one of 
the most promising men of science of his time, who 
died, while quite a young man, during a journey on the 
Continent, undertaken for the purpose of increasing his 
botanical knowledge. The plants were then removed 
to Edinburgh by "Sir Andrew Balfour, and formed a 
large proportion of those with which the first Botanic 
Garden of that city — the Old Physic Gardens — was 
stocked in 1670. A number of uncommon plants that 
had escaped from the garden are still to be found in the 
neighbourhood. One mile NNE of the village, at the 
farmhouse of Newyearfield, a square tower, said to have 
been one of the hunting seats of the Scottish kings, 
remained down till about the close of last century. 
There is a well close by, the water of which, sprinkled 
on patients with the sovereign's own hand before sun- 
rise on the first morning of a new year, was accounted 
a remedy for the king's evil. Of the Leving who 
bestowed his name on the pai'ish, nothing is known, 
but Thurstanus films Zevingi ■witnessed a charter of 
Robert, Bishop of St Andrews, confirming a grant of 
the church to the monks of Holyrood, made by David I. 
The district also gave the title of Baron to the Living- 
stones, Earls of Linlithgow. The earldom was given in 
1600 to Alexander, the seventh baron ; and tlie fifth and 
last earl was attainted for his share in the rebellion 
of 1715. The lady celebrated in song as ' the bonnie 
lass o' Livingstone,' is said to have kept an inn at the 
old village of Livingston, about a mile to the W of the 
present village, which was then the Kirkton. The 
principal mansions are Blackburn House, Dechmont 
House, and Westwood. The parish is traversed by two 
of the main lines of road from Edinburgh to Glasgow, 
one passing for 4| miles across the centre and S, from 
1 mile E of the village of Livingston to the Ijridge 
across the Almond at the village of Blackburn, and the 
other by Dechmont on the N to Bathgate : and also by 
530 



LOCHAEEE 

the Edinburgh and Bathgate branch of the INorth 
British railway system, which passes through the 
northern part for 2J miles. Livingston station, 4J 
miles ESE of Bathgate on this line, and Newpark and 
MiDCALDEK stations on the Caledonian system, which 
skirts the parish on the S, afford means of access, 
though they are from IJ to 4 miles distant from the 
village. A mineral loop of the Caledonian also passes 
through the S end. 

Besides the village of the same name the parish also 
contains the hamlet of Dechmont in the N, and part of 
the village of Blackburn on the SW. The village of 
Livingston itself, near the centre of the SE side of the 
parish, is merely the kirkton of the parish. It has a 
post office under Midcalder, and an inn. The parish 
church was rebuilt in 1732, and repaired in 1837, and 
contains 263 sittings : the silver communion cups have 
the inscription — ' Gifted by Sir Patrick Murray of 
Livingstoun, 1696.' The Free church, built in 1844, 
is at the E end of the village. The school board have 
imder their charge Livingston and Blackburn public 
schools, and these, with accommodation for,\116 and 180 
respectively, had in 1883 attendances of 130 and 80, and 
grants of £102, 7s. and £62, 15s. The parish, which is- 
in the presbytery of Linlithgow and the synod of 
Lothian and Tweeddale, was once a vicarage of Holy- 
rood, and prior to 1730 comprehended also the whole of 
Whitburn parish. The living is worth £234 a year. 
The industries are agriculture, mining, and a paper- 
mill at Blackburn, a cotton-mill at the same place 
having been burned down in 1876. The principal pro- 
prietor is the Earl of Rosebery. Valuation (1860) 
£6750, (1884) £11,909, 13s. 2d. Pop. (1801) 551, (1831) 
1035, (1861) 1366, (1871) 1727, (1881) 1484, of whom 
730 were males and 754 females. 'The decrease is mainly 
due to the burning of the cotton-mill at Blackburn. — 
Orel. Siir., shs. 32, 31, 1857-67. 

Livishy House, a mansion in Urquhart parish, Inver- 
ness-shire, near the left bank of the Moriston, 9 miles 
N by E of Fort Augustus. 

Loanhead, a small town in Lasswade parish, Edin- 
burghshire, 4 J furlongs from the North Esk's left bank, 
and 5 miles S by E of Edinburgh by road, but lOJ by 
the Koslin and Glencorse branch of the North British 
railway. With charming environs, including a very 
romantic reach of the North Esk's glen, it mainly con- 
sists of two streets, which join each other at an obtuse 
angle ; and it contains a number of good houses, which 
serve as a summer retreat for some of the Edinburgh 
townsfolk, though its own population consists in great 
measure of miners and papermill-workers. It com- 
municates with Edinburgh by public coach as well as 
by railway ; and has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, 
a branch of the British Linen Company's Bank, a water 
supply by pipes, a police station, a public school, and 
a subscription library. Places of worship are an Estab- 
lished quoad sacra church, a Free church, a Reformed 
Presbyterian church (rebuilt 1875), and St Margaret's 
Roman Catholic church (1878). In Feb. 1884 it was 
proposed to make Loanhead a police burgh. Pop. (1861) 
1310, (1871) 1759, (1881) 2493, of whom 1297 were males. 
Houses (1881) 465, 10 vacant, 14 building. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 32, 1857. 

Loanhead, a village in Monikie parish, Forfarshire, 
8 J miles NE of Dundee. 

Loanhead-Denny. See Desnt-Loanhead. 

Loaningfoot, a hamlet in Kirkbean parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire, 10 miles ESE of Dalbeattie. 

Loans, a village in Dundonald parish, Ayrshire, 2^ 
miles ENE of Troon. 

Lochaber, a territorial district in the S of the main- 
land of Inverness-shire, bounded by Perthshire, Argyll- 
shire, the Great Glen, and Badenoch. Its greatest 
length, from NE to SW, is 33 miles ; and its greatest 
breadth is 21 miles. The river Leven, Loch Leven, 
Loch Linnhe, Loch Eil, the river Lochy, Loch Lochy, 
and the foot of Loch Laggan, form the greater part of 
its boundaries ; lines of mountain watershed form parts 



LOCH-A-BHEALAICH 

of its boundaries with Perthshire and Badenoch ; the 
basin of the Spean, downward from the foot of Locli 
Laggan, forms about one-half of all the area ; the Ben 
Nevis group of mountains, with the deep glens which 
skirt or cut them, occupies most of the south-western 
district ; Glenspean, Glenroy, Glengloy, Glentreig, Loch 
Ossian, Loch Gulbin, Loch Treig, Glen Nevis, and Ben 
Nevis, are prominent features of the interior ; and the 
entire district is pre-eminently Highland, abounds in 
deep glens, broad moors, and lofty mountains, and is at 
once wnld, romantic, and grand. It seems to take its 
affix of ' aber, ' not as other places do from a confluence 
of streams, but from a girdling and intersecting of lochs. 
It belongs parochially to Kilmonivaig and Eilmallie, 
and has been noticed in detail in our articles on these 
parishes, and on its several lochs, glens, and prominent 
mountains. A wolf that was slain in it in 1680 by 
Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel is commonly stated to 
have been the last of its kind in Great Britain ; but, 
according to Chambers's Domestic Annals, one was 
killed in the forest of Darnaway, Elginshire, so late as 
1743. See the Rev. Alex. Stewart's Nether Lochaber 
(Ediub. 1883). 

Loch-a-Bhealaioh. See Glenshiel. 

Loch-Achall, etc. See Achall, etc. 

Lochalsh, a coast parish of SW Ross-shire, containing 
the village of Balmacara, which lies on the northern 
shore of Loch Alsh, 8 miles SW of Strome Ferry, 4 ENE 
of Kyle-Akin, 50 WNW of Invergarry, and 63 WSW of 
Beauly, and which has a branch of the Commercial Bank, 
an hotel, a steamboat landing-stage, and Lochalsh post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, and 
telegi'aph departments. Containing also the village and 
post office of Plockton (6J miles N by W of Balmacara) 
and the Stkome Ferry terminus of the Dingwall and 
Skye branch (1870) of the Highland railway (53 miles 
WSW of Dingwall), the parish is bounded NW by salt- 
water Loch Carron and LochcaiTon parish, NE by Urray 
(detached), E by Kilmorack in Inverness-shire, and S by 
Kintail and salt-water Lochs Long and Alsh. Its 
utmost length, from ENE to WSW, viz., from the head 
of Loch Monar to Kyle-Akin Ferry, is 28J miles ; its 
utmost breadth is 6 miles ; and its area is 80i sq^uare 
miles, or 51,513i acres, of which 1077| are water, 27J 
tidal water, and 877|- foreshore. Loch Alsh, like a land- 
locked lake, with an utmost width of 2i miles, strikes 
7 miles eastward from Kyle-Akin to the vicinity of 
EUandonan Castle, where it forks into Lochs Duich and 
Long, the latter of which curves 5 J miles north-eastward, 
though its average width is less than J mile. Issuing 
from Loch Cruashie (4 x 1^ furl. ; 850 feet), the river 
Ling or Long flows 11 miles west-south-westward along 
the Kintail boundary to the head of Loch Long. Other 
lakes are Loch MoNAR (4^ miles x 3| furl. ; 663 feet), at 
the Inverness-shire border ; Loch-an-Laoigh (1 x | mile; 
893 feet), on the Lochcarron boundary ; and Loch Calavie 
(9x3 furl. ; 1129 feet). Loch an Tachdaidh (5x3 furl. ; 
970 feet), and An Gead Loch (7x2 furl. ; 960 feet), in 
the eastern interior. The surface is everywhere hilly or 
grandly mountainous, rising east-north-eastward to Carn 
na h-Onaich (1100 feet), "Meall Euadh (1476), Beinn 
Dronaig (2612), *Lurg Mhor (3234), Beinn Bheag (2030), 
and *An Riabhachan (3696), where asterisks mark those 
summits that culminate on the confines of the parish. 
Some small vales and the slopes of the lower hills have 
a good arable soil, and the uplands are neither rocky nor 
heathy, but furnish excellent pasture. Not more, how- 
ever, than 1450 acres are in tillage ; some 2000 are under 
wood ; and the rest is either pastoral or waste. Bal- 
macara House is the only mansion ; and Sir Alexander 
Matheson of Lochalsh, Bart., M.P., is almost sole 
proprietor. (See Aedeoss. ) Lochalsh is in the pres- 
bytery of Lochcarron and the synod of Glenelg ; the 
living is worth £250. The parish church at Balmacara 
village was built in 1806, and contains 650 sittings. 
Other places of worship are a Government church at 
Plockton, and Lochalsh and Plockton Free churches ; and 
four public schools — Auchmore, Earbusaig, Lochalsh, 
and Plockton — with respective accommodation for 50, 



LOCHAR 

82, 90, and 130 children, had (1882) an average attend- 
ance of 30, 31, 53, and 79, and grants of £43, lis., 
£38, Os. 6d., £46, 9s., and £66, 12s. Valuation (1860) 
£4083, (1884) £5850, 16s. 9d. Pop. (1801) 1606, (1841) 
2597, (1861) 2413, (1871) 2319, (1881) 2050, of whom 
1840 were Gaelic-speaking.— OrA Sw., shs. 82, 72, 81, 
71, 1880-84. 

Loch Alvie, etc. See Alvie, etc. 

Lochan Balloch. See Monteith, Pokt of. 

Loch-an-Eilein, a beautiful lake in the Rothiemurchus 
portion of Duthil parish, Inverness-shire, at the SE 
base of Ordbain Hill (1250 feet), and 1| mile S of 
Inverdruie House. Lying 840 feet above sea-level, and 
having an utmost length and breadth of 7J and 4^ fur- 
longs, it is fringed with tall pines and weeping birches, 
remains of the ancient Forest of Rothiemurchus ; and 
contains an islet, crowned with the ruins of a fortaUce 
of the Wolfe of Badenoch.— Oj-c?. Sur., sh. 74, 1877. 

Lochanhead, a station at the mutual border of Tro- 
queer and Lochrutton parishes, near the meeting-point 
with Kirkgunzeon parish, Kirkcudbrightshh-e, on the 
Dumfries and Castle-Douglas railway, 6 miles SW of 
Dumfries. 

Lochans, a village of Inch parish, Wigtownshire, at 
the meeting-point with Portpatrick and Stonej'kirk 
parishes, 2| miles S by E of Stranraer. It has a post 
office and a public school. 

Lochar, a morass and a stream of S Dumfriesshire. 
Lochar Moss, which is distributed among the parishes 
of Caerlaveroct, RuthweD, Mouswald, Torthorwald, 
Dumfries, and Tinwald, extends 10 miles north-north- 
westward from the Solway Firth to Locharbriggs viUage, 
and varies in breadth between 2 and 3 miles. It is all 
but a dead flat, from 26 to 70 feet above sea-level, and 
seems at a comparatively recent period of the human 
epoch to have formed a navigable inlet of the sea, 
which, filling gradually with sUt and aquatic vegeta- 
tion, became successively a marshy forest and a bog. 
Most of it, to the depth of many feet, is soft, spongy, 
and quaking ; and in the days of Robert Bruce it was 
impassable by any large body of men ; but now it is 
traversed by four lines of good road, and by the Glas- 
gow and South-Western and the Dumfries and Lockerbie 
railways, and has been so extensively reclaimed that a 
large aggregate of it is arable, pastoral, or wooded, and 
more resembles a pleasant valley than a moi'ass. A ridgy 
tract in it, more than § mile long, and 35 acres in area, 
consists entirely of sea sand. Apparently the earliest 
portion won from the sea, it seems for some time to 
have formed an island, and still is called the Isle. A 
thick stratum of sea sand, which underlies all its moss, 
and here and there is mixed with shells and other 
marine deposits, has been found, by excavation, to con- 
tain canoes, fragments of vessels, several iron grapples, 
small anchors, and other relics of ancient navigation. 
Many large and seemingly aged trees — pine chiefly, but 
also oak, birch, and hazel — have been discovered in 
the portions of the moss immediately above the sea 
sand, and all lie with their tops towards the NE, seem- 
ing to have been overthrown by the continued action of 
impetuous tides and south-western blasts. Much of the 
morass has long served as turbary, for the supply of 
peat fuel; and parts of it were burned, in 1785 and 1826, 
by accidental fire. The villages of Locharbriggs, Roucan, 
Collin, Blackshaws, Bankend, and GreenmiU all lie 
on or near the margin of the morass ; and the village of 
Trench stands on one of the roads which traverse it. 

Lochar Water, rising, as Park Burn, at an altitude of 
480 feet above sea-level, flows 18^ miles south-south- 
eastward along the boundary between Kii-kmahoe, Dum- 
fries, and Caerlaverock on the right, and Tinwald, 
Torthorwald, Mouswald, and Ruthwell on the left, tiU 
it falls into the Solway Firth at a point 2J mUes E by 
N of Caerlaverock Castle. It traverses Lochar Moss 
from end to end, nearly through the middle, so as to 
cut it into pretty equal halves ; and here is so sluggish, 
or almost stagnant, as generally to look more Eke a 
ditch than a stream. At low tide it has 5J mUes 
further to wind across the sands, through a channel less 

531 



L0CHABBRI66S 

than 1 furlong broad, before it reaches the open waters 
of the firth. Its fishing is poor — some trout, roach, 
pike, and eels above, with sea-trout, herling, and occa- 
sional salmon below. — Orel. Sur., shs. 10, 6, 1864-63. 

Locharbriggs, a village in the N of Dumfries parish, 
Dumfriesshire, near the right bank of Lochar Water, 
with a station on the Dumfries and Lockerbie section of 
the Caledonian railway, 2| miles NNE of Dumfries. 
It adjoins a rising-ground, which superstition long 
regarded as a trysting-place of witches. Pop. (1881) 
306. 

Loch Arohaig, etc. See Archaic, etc. 

Lochawe, a station of the Callander and Oban railway 
(18S0), in Ardchattan parish, Argyllshire, at the SE 
base of Ben Cruachan, and on the NW shore of Loch 
Awe towards its foot, 22 miles E of Oban and 2i W of 
Dalmally, under which there is a post office. Here also 
are a steamboat pier, a fine hotel (1881) in the >Scottish 
Baronial style, and St Conan's Established chapel of 
ease (1883). —OrcZ. Sur., sh. 45, 1876. 

Loch Bay, a bay in Duirinish parish, Isle of Skye, 
Inverness-shire, deflecting from the E side of Loch 
Dunvegan, and striking 3 miles south-eastward into 
the middle part of Vaternish peninsula. It lies exposed 
to N"W winds, yet affords good anchorage in ordinary 
weather. 

Lochbroom, a coast parish of NW Ross and Cromarty, 
whose church stands at the head of salt-water Loch 
Broom, 6 miles SSE of Ullapool, 26 NW of Garve 
station, and SSJ NW by W of DingwaU, under which 
there is a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments. Containing also Ullapool 
village, it is bounded NE by Assynt in Sutherland, E 
by Kincardine and Contin, SE by Contiu, SW by Gair- 
loeh, and W by the North Minch. Its utmost length, 
from N to S, is 29J miles ; its utmost breadth, from E 
to W, is 20 J miles ; and its area is 41 3| square miles, or 
264,7951 acres, of which 10,425f are water, 69i tidal 
water, and 1832 foreshore. It thus is the third largest 
parish in Scotland, exceeded only by Kilmallie and 
Kilmonivaig, and larger than the whole county of Mid- 
lothian. The coast is much indented by Enard Bay, 
Loch Broom, Little Loch Broom, and Gkeinord Bay ; 
' projects the bold headlands of Eudha na Breige (302 
feet), Khu Coigach (263), Cailleach Head (370), and 
Stattic Point (607) ; and is fringed by Tanera, Isle 
Martin, Greinord, and other islands. On tlie Suther- 
land border lies Loch Veyatie (4 miles x 1 to 3J furl. ; 
390 feet), sending off the Uidh Fhearua 9 furlongs west- 
north-westward to Fewin or Fionn Loch (2 J miles x 3 
furl. ; 357 feet), out of which the Kirkais runs 3| miles 
west-north-westward to the sea. FiONN Loch (6| miles 
X I furl, to 1.^ mile ; 559 feet) sends oK the Little 
Greinord 5J miles north-by-eastward along the Gair- 
loch boundary to the head of Greinord Bay ; and Loch 
Droma (1| X J mile ; 905 feet) sends ofl' the Abhuinn 
Droma or Broom 10 miles north -north-westward to 
the head of Loch Broom. Other freshwater lakes are 
triangular Loch Gainmheich (7 x 6^ furl. ; 251 feet), 
isleted Loch Skinaskink (3 miles x 70 yards to 2^ miles; 
243 feet). Loch na Doire Seirbhe (IJ x J mile ; 222 
feet), the chain of Lochs Lurgain (3g mUes x 4J furl. ; 
173 feet). Bad a' Ghaill (2 miles x | mile), and Owskeich 
(If X i mile; 72 feet). Loch Achall (1| mile x 3 
furl. ; 265 feet), and Loch an Daimh (1| mile x IJ 
furl. ; 672 feet), all to the N of Loch Broom ; with Loch 
a' Bhraoin (2| miles x 2^ furl. ; 813 feet) and Loch na 
Sheallag (4| miles x 5 furl. ; 279 feet) to the S. From 
the latter the Meikle Greinord flows SJ miles north- 
north-westward to the western side of Greinord Bay ; 
and the Strathbeg river, rising at an altitude of 2240 
feet, winds 12-^ miles north -by-westward to the head of 
Little Loch Broom. Lesser streams and lakes there are 
without number, all, like the above, yielding capital 
fishing. The surface is everywhere hilly or wUdly 
mountainous, chief elevations from N to S being Cul 
Mhor (2786 feet), An Stac (2009), Cul Beag (2523), 
Besmore-Coigach (2438), Beinn Eilideach (1830), 
Meall Dubh (2105), Eididh nan Clach Geala (3039), 
532 



LOCHCAEEON 

*Ben Deaeg (3547), Sail Mhor (2508), An Teallach 
(3483), Sgurr Ban (3194), and *A' Chailleach (3276), 
where asterisks mark two summits that culminate on the 
Contin boundary. ' To a spectator placed on a central 
eminence the appearance is that of a wide and dreary 
waste of bleak and barren heath, as if a segment of the 
great ocean, agitated and tossed and tumbled, not 
by an ordinary storm, however violent, but by some 
frightful convulsion of nature, with here and there a 
rude and lofty peak of rugged rock towering to the 
skies, had been suddenly condensed and formed into a 
solid shapeless mass of unproductive desert, without one 
spot of green on which to rest the eye. ' But much of 
the vales, the seaboard, and the shores of the salt-water 
inlets exhibit delightful blendings of wood and water, 
fertile field, and green hill pasture, luxuriant lowland, 
and lofty romantic mountains, and is brilliantly pictur- 
esque. Metamorphic rocks, chiefl}' gneiss, but partly 
granite, partly quartzite, predominate in the mountains. 
Quartz is in places plentiful ; Old Red sandstone prevails 
in Coigach, in some other parts of the mainland, and in 
most of the islands ; limestone appears in Strathbeg ; 
bog iron ore occurs in great quantity on Scorrig Farm ; 
and mineral springs, chiefly of a chalybeate character, 
are numerous. The soil is exceedingly various, but on 
much of the arable land is light, sharp, gravelly loam. 
The adjoining estates of Braemore and Inverbroom were 
purchased in 1865-67 by the eminent engineer, John 
Fowler, Esq. (b. 1817), who holds 39,530 acres in Ross 
and 7618 in Inverness-shire, valued at £2995 and 
£760 per annum. At Braemore, 4 miles S by E 
of the parish church, he built a handsome mansion in 
1866-68, and he has planted 1200 acres along the river 
Broom with larch and Scotch firs, besides doing much in 
the way of draining, fencing, reclaiming, road and bridge 
making, etc. Another mansion, noticed separately, is 
DuNDONNELL ; and, in all, 5 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 3 of between £100 and 
£500, 1 of from £50 to £100, and 3 of from £20 to £50. 
Sir George Simson (1792-1860), governor of the Hudson's 
Bay Company's Territories, was a native. The only 
anticjuities are several round drystone buildings of the 
kind called ' duns.' Loch Broom gives name to one of 
the twenty-five fishery districts of Scotland. Within 
this district the number of boats at the beginning of 
1883 was 703, of fishermen 2337, of fishcurers 24, and of 
coopers 4, whilst the value of boats was £8844, of nets 
£15,240, and of lines £2191. The following is the 
number — of barrels of herrings cured or salted in different 
years (1854) 1328, (1874) 3070, (1878) 13,282, (1881) 
4418, (1882) 1126 ; of cod, ling, and hake taken (1854) 
117,194, (1874) 43,880, (1878) 70,388, (1882) 53,273. 
Since 1859, giving off the quoad sacra parish of Ulla- 
pool, Lochbroom is in the presbytery of Lochcarron and 
the synod of Glenelg ; the living is worth £468. The 
parish chm'ch, built in 1844, is amply commodious. 
Ten public schools, with total accommodation for 749 
children, had (1882) an average attendance of 417, and 
grants amounting to £508, lis. 6d. Valuation (1860) 
£9329, (1884) £15,250, 18s. 3d. Pop. (1801) 3533, 
(1831) 4615, (1861) 4862, (1871) 4406, (1881) 4191, of 
whom 3726 were Gaelic-speaking, and 1618 were in the 
ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., shs. 101, 92, 1882-81. 

Loch Brora, etc. See Brora, etc. 

Lochbuy, a hamlet in Torosay parish. Mull island, 
Argyllshire, at the head of salt-water Loch Buy, 12 
miles SW of Auchnacraig. It has a post office under 
Oban, with money order and savings' bank departments, 
an Episcopal church, St Kilda's (1876 ; 50 sittings), in 
13th century Gothic, and a pre-Reformation chapel, 
which, lately roofed in, now serves as the mausoleum of 
the Maclaines, possessors of the lands of Lochbuy for 
more than five hundred years. Their present repre- 
sentative, Murdoch Gillian Maclaine (b. 1845 ; sue. 
1863), is chief of the clan, and holds 26,843 acres, 
valued at £2067 per annum. His seat, Lochbuy House, 
is a spacious and handsome mansion, commanding a 
fine view. See Buy. 

Lochcarron, a coast parish of SW Ross-shire, con- 



LOCHCARRON 

taining the stations of Attadale, Stratlicarron, and 
Auclinashellach, on the Dingwall and Skj'e branch 
(1870) of the Highland railway, IS, 45f, and 40 miles 
WSW of Dingwall. Containing also the fishing village 
of Jeantown or Lochcarron, it is hounded N by 
Gairloch, E by Contin, SE by Urray (detached) and 
Lochalsh, S by Lochalsh and salt-water Loch Carron, and 
W by Applecross. Its utmost length, from NE to 
SW, is 20J miles ; its utmost breadth is lOg miles ; nd 
its area is ISO^v square miles, or 83, 656 J acres, of which 
1262g are water, 54^ tidal water, and 851J foreshore. 
The upper 8f miles of beautiful Loch Carron, J to If 
mile broad, belong to this parish, which takes its name 
therefrom, except that Strome Ferry terminus and the 
last 2i miles of the railway (closely skirting all the 
south-eastern shore) are in the parish of Lochalsh. 
The river Carron, issuing from Loch Scaven or Sgamhain 
(9 X 2J furl. ; 491 feet) on the Contin border, flows 14 
miles south-westward to the head of Loch Carron, and 
about midway in its course expands into Loch Doule or 
Dhughaill (11 x 3 furl. ; 100 feet). Lochs Coulin and 
Clair, together 2-J miles long, and from 50 to 600 yards 
troad, lie on the Gaielouh border at an altitude of 300 
feet, and send off a stream towards the head of Loch 
Maree ; Loch an Laoigh (1 x J mile ; 893 feet) lies on 
the Lochalsh border, and sends off a stream toAvards the 
head of Loch Long ; and elsewhere, either on the 
boundaries or dotteii over the interior, are fully thirty 
smaller lakes and lakelets. The surface is everywhere 
mountainous. Chief elevations to the N"W of loch and 
river, as one goes up Glencarron, are Bad a' Chreamha 
(1293 feet), GlasBheinn (2330), Torrnah-Iolaire (1383), 
Meall a' Chinn Deirg (3060), Fuar ThoU (2S68), Sgurr 
Euadh (3141), Beinn Liath Mhor (3034), and Cam 
Breac (2220) ; to the SE, Carn nan lomaireau (1523), 
Creag a' Chaoruinn Eagan (2260), Sgurr Choinnich 
(3260), and Moruisk (3026). The predominant rock is 
gneiss, conjoined with q^uartzite, clay-slate, and lime- 
stone ; Old Red sandstone occurs separately ; and the 
presence of iron is indicated by a few chalybeate springs. 
The soU is exceedingly various. A good deal has been 
done in the way of planting, fencing, reclaiming, and 
road-making on the Auchnashellach and Lochcarron 
estates ; but less than a twentieth of the entire area is 
in tillage or under wood. One of the twenty-five fishery 
districts of Scotland bears the designation of Loch 
Carron and Skye. "Within this district the number of 
boats at the beginning of 1883 was 743, of fishermen 
2152, of fishcurers 87, and of coopers 58, whilst the 
value of boats was £5738, of nets £18,074, and of lines 
.£2429. The following is the number — of barrels of her- 
rings cured or salted in different years (1854) 2056, (1874) 
17,932, (1878)6682, (1881)53,649*, (1882) 77,783 ; of cod, 
ling, and hake taken (1871) 30,552, (1874)15,180, (1879) 
44,945, and (1882) 22,160. The only antiquities are an 
old circular dun or fort behind Jeantown, and the remains 
of Strome Castle, once a stronghold of the Macdonalds 
of Glengarry. Two Gaelic poets of the early part of the 
18th century, "William and Alexander Mackenzie, were 
natives of Lochcarron. Courthill House, in a small de- 
tached fragment of the parish, at the head of Loch 
Eishorn, 5* miles W by N of Jeantown, is on the Loch- 
carron estate, which in 1882 was sold by Dugald Stuart, 
Esq., to C. J. Murray, Esq., M.P. Auchnashellach is 
a shooting lodge of Ivor-Bertie Guest, created Baron 
"Wimborne in 1880 ; and two other proprietors hold 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 1 of between 
£100 and £500, and 2 of from £20 to £50. Giving oflf 
a portion to Shieldaig parliamentary parish, Lochcarron 
is the seat of a presbytery in the synod of (jlenelg ; the 
living is worth £222. The parish church, 1^ mile NNE 
of Jeantown, was built in 1751, and contains upwards of 
300 sittings. There is also a Free church ; and four 
public schools — Attadale, Balnachra, Lochcarron, and 
Strome — with respective accommodation for 43, 50, 170, 
and 56 children, had (1883) an average attendance of 
31, 13, 71, and 27, and grants of £38, 6s. 6d., £24, 12s., 
£65, 16s. 6d., and £29, lis. 6d. Valuation (I860) 
£3271, (1884) £5699, 19s. 7d. Pop. (1801) 1178, (1831) 



LOCHEE 

2136, (1861) 1592, (1871) 1629, (1881) 1456, of whom 
1311 were Gaelic-speaking, and 1405 were in the ecclesi- 
astical parish. — Ord. Sar., shs. 82, 81, 18S2. 

The presbytery of Lochcarron comprises the quoad 
civilia parishes of Applecross, Gairloch, Glenelg, Glen- 
shiel, Kin tail, Loclialsb, Lochbroom, and Lochcarron, 
and the quoad sacra parishes of Knoydart, Plockton, 
Poolewe, Shieldaig, and Ullapool. Pop. (1871) 18,712, 
(1881) 17,243, of whom 297 were communicants of the 
Church of Scotland in 1878. — The Free Church also has 
a presbytery of Lochcarron, with churches at Apple- 
cross, Coigach, Gairloch, Glenelg, Glenshiel, Lochalsh, 
Lochbroom, Lochcarron, Plockton, Poolewe, and Shiel- 
daig, which 11 churches together had 5653 members 
and adherents in 1883. 

Loch Carroy, etc. See Carrot, etc. 

Lochoote House, a handsome mansion of 1843 in Tor- 
phichen parish, Linlithgowshire, 4^- miles N of Bath- 
gate. Its owner, William David Forbes, Esq. (b. 1876; 
sue. 1883), holds 1193 acres in the shire, valued at 
£1205 per annum. —OrfZ. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Loohdochart Lodge, a modern mansion in Eillin 
parish, "W Perthshire, on the northern shore of Loch 
lubhair near its foot, 3f miles ENE of Crianlarich 
station. Its owner, Edward Gordon Place, Esq. (b. 
1827), holds 10,500 acres in the shire, valued at £1130 
per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 46, 1872. 

Lochearnhead, a village in Balquhidder parish, Perth- 
shire, at the head of Loch Earn, IJ mUe NjSTE of Loch- 
earnhead station on the Callander and Oban railway, 
this being 12 miles NNW of Callander. It is a small 
and scattered place ; but it stands amid delightful 
scenery of lake, wood, glen, and mountain, and serves 
as a fine centre for tourists, communicating by public 
coach, during the summer months, wdth Crieif. At it 
are a post office, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments, two schools, and a good hotel. 
Here, on 10 Sept. 1842, the Queen changed horses on 
her way from Taymouth to Drummond Castle ; and at 
the hotel, on 6 Sept. 1869, she called on Sir Malcolm 
and Lady Helen Macgregor. — Ord. Sur., sh. 46, 1872. 

Lochee, a town on the E border of Liff and Benvie 
parish, Forfarshire, If mile by road NW of the centre 
of Dundee, but 6 miles by the jSTewtyle branch of the 
Caledonian railway. Forming part of the parliamentary 
and royal burgh of Dundee, it may be regarded as mainly 
a suburb thereof ; yet it has the history, the propor- 
tions, and, to some extent, the interests of a separate 
town. With scarcely one building a century old, it 
long presented, and partly still presents, an uncontinu- 
ous and dispersed appearance, as it was formed without 
any precise alignment, and with reference only to the 
narrownotions and the private conveniencesoftheoriginal 
and early feuars, so that it largely consists of mere lanes 
and incommodious thoroughfares. Still, it exhibits 
results of important improvements, tasteful renovations, 
and well-arranged extensions ; is traversed by a very 
creditable main street, with substantial houses and 
good shops ; shares the amenities of the fine public 
park of Balgay Hill, acquired in 1871 for the use of its 
inhabitants, and for those in the W end of Dundee ; 
and has a post office under Dundee, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, 
branches of the Royal and North of Scotland Banks, 
two chief inns, and a number of miscellaneous institu- 
tions. Of two Established churches, the first, Lochee 
(1150 sittings), was built in 1829-30. It was recently 
remodelled through the liberality of Mr Thomas H. Cox 
at a cost of £5000, and in 1880 was raised to quoad sacra 
status. The second, St Luke's (760 sittings), was 
formerly a U.P. church, which, becoming insuiEcient 
for the increasing congregation, was purchased for the 
Establishment in 1874 for £1500, and was made quoad 
sacra in the succeeding year. The U.P. church, suc- 
cessor to what is now St Luke's, was built in 1871 at a 
cost of £4000 ; and has a tower and spire rising to the 
height of 172 feet, and containing a iiue peal of bells, 
the automatic arrangement for the ringing of which is 
the onlv one of the kind in Scotland. It figures conspicu- 

533 



LOCH EIL 

onsly in the view from Balgay Park, and from a long 
reach of country to the W ; and contains 1000 sittings. 
The Free church was built in 1846, and the Baptist 
chapel in 1866. St Margaret's Episcopal church, built in 
1861, is a plain Middle Pointed ediiice, with nave and 
chancel, and 120 sittings. The Roman Catholic church 
of the Immaculate Conception was built in 1866, and 
contains 700 sittings ; whilst St Clement's (1857) is now 
the chapel of the Wellburn Asylum, conducted by the 
Little Sisters of the Poor, for 200 old and destitute men 
and women. Handloom weaving of coarse linen fabrics 
was long the principal occupation of the inhabitants, 
and towards the close of last century employed nearly 
300 looms, and produced goods to the value of £12,520 
a year. Bleaching was afterwards introduced, and con- 
tinued to increase till it occupied, in 1819 and pi-evious 
years, an area of not less than 25 acres. Factories for 
spinning, weaving, dyeing, bleaching, printing, and 
calendering were afterwards erected, and soon employed 
so many hands as to lead to a great and rapid extension 
of the town. The principal factory, the Camperdown 
Linen "Works of Messrs Cos Brothers, on the N side of 
the to'mi, occupies an area of 22 acres, and was erected 
in 1849-64. The largest jute factory in the world, it 
is a neat and regular suite of buildings, with an elegant 
clock-turret, a gigantic chimney-stalk, 282 feet high, 
which alone cost £6000, a half-time free school, etc. It 
employs 5000 persons mthin its own limits, besides 400 
who work in their own houses ; contains 820 power-looms 
engaged on flax or jute sackings, and 150 handlooms 
engaged on carpeting ; has steam-engines varying from 
3 to 120 horse-power, and aggregately equal to 2600 horse- 
power, and 34 boilers each 35 feet long, and 7 feet in 
diameter ; and turns out annually some 24, 000,000 yards 
of sacking, and 14,000,000 yards of other fabrics. An 
excellent sandstone has long been worked in several 
q^uarries contiguous to Lochee, and was a chief material 
in the construction of Dundee harbour. Pop. (1881) of 
Lochee quoad sacra parish, 2762 ; of St Luke's, 3716 : 
of Lochee registration district (1871) 11,076, (1881) 
12,370, ofwhom 5214 were males. Houses (1831) 2493 in- 
habited, 110 vacant, 1 building. —0?-d,S'itr.,sh. 48, 1868. 

Lochenbreck, an hotel and a spa in Balmaghie parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire, on the Woodhall estate, 4 miles S 
by W of New Galloway station. Near it is Lochenbreck 
Loch (2|x2 furl.; 650 feet), with remains of a cran- 
noge. — Orel. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Lochend, a small lake in South Leith parish, Edin- 
burghshire, on the burgh boundaries of both Leith and 
Edinburgh, 5 furlongs NW of Jocks Lodge. It lies on 
the margin of a plain, extending to Leith and to the base 
of Calton Hill ; has an utmost length and breadth of 390 
and 160 yards ; was formerly much more extensive than 
now ; and is believed to have been only one of a chain of 
lakes, occupying much of the south-western portion of 
the plain. It gave once water-supply to Leith for all uses, 
and still gives it for manufacturing uses ; and is over- 
hung, on one side, by a short range of low cliffy rocks, 
crowned with vestiges of the castle of Logan of Restalrig. 
A strijj of ground along its western margin, formerly 
covered with its water, but now left bare, was discovered 
in 1871 to contain what appears to have been part of a 
great wooden framework sustaining an ancient lake 
village.— Ore?. Sxir., sh. 32, 1857. 

Lochend, a place in Kirkgunzeon parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire, 4 mile SE of Killywhan station, and 7 miles 
SW of Dumfries. Here is the Free church of Lochend 
and Newabbey. Loch Arthur or Lochend Loch, imme- 
diately to the E, is noticed under Newabbey. 

Lochend, a post-olSce hamlet in Inverness parish, at 
the foot of Loch Ness, 5J miles SSW of the town. 

Lochend House, a seat of Sir George Warrender, Bart. , 
in Dunbar parish, Haddingtonshire, J mile S of Dunbar 
tovm. Its predecessor, a handsome Gothic ediiice, was 
reduced to ruins by fire in 1859. See Bruntsfield. — 
Orel. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Locher Water, a pretty rivulet of Picnfrewshire, rising 
at an altitude of S30 feet above sea-level, and winding 
8 miles east-north-eastward, chiefly within Kilbarchan 
534 



LOCHGILPHEAD 

parish, till, after a total descent of 805 feet, it falls into ' 
Gryfe Water, at a point If mile E of Houston village. 
A petrifying spring on its banks has yielded many 
beautiful specimens of dendritic carbonate of lime. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Loch Fannyside. See Fannysidb. 

Loch Feachan. See Feachan. 

Loch Fell, a mountain of N Dumfriesshire, at the 
meeting-point of Eskdalemuir, Hutton, Wamphray, and 
Moffat parishes, 5§ miles E of Mofi'at town. One of the 
Hartfell group, it rises to an altitude of 2256 feet above 
sea-level.— 07-rf. Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 

Lochfield, a hamlet in Annan parish, Dumfriesshire, 
1 mile E of the town. 

Loehfoot, a village in Lochrutton parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire, at the foot of Lochrutton Loch, 5J mUes 
WSW of Dumfries, under which it has a post office. 

Lochgair, a small sea-loch, a hamlet, and a mansion 
in Kilmichael-Glassary parish, ArgyEshire. The sea- 
loch, opening from the W side of Loch Eyne, penetrates 
the land 7 furlongs north-north-westward, and receives 
a streamlet IJ mile long from Loch Glashan. The 
hamlet, at the head of the sea-loch, 4J miles SSW of 
Minard, has a post office, a small mission church of 
the Church of Scotland, and a public school. Th& 
mansion, in the vicinity of the hamlet, succeeded an 
ancient baronial fortalice, which was long the seat of 
extensive clan-power. — Ord. Sur., sh. 37, 1876. 

Loch Garve. See Gakve. 

Lochgelly, a police burgh in Auchterderran parish, 
SW Fife. It stands 460 feet above sea-level, 5 furlongs 
NW of Loch Gelly, and f mile S by E of Lochgelly 
station on the Dunfermline branch of the North British 
railway, this being 7| miles WSW of Thornton Junc- 
tion and 7J ENE of Dunfermline. The headquarters 
till 1798 of a gang of notorious Gipsies, it dates mostly 
from modern times, and owes its rapid rise in prosperity 
and population to the extensive collieries and iron- 
works of the Lochgelly Coal and Iron Company (1850). 
It has a post office, mth money order, saviugs' bank, 
and railway telegraph departments, a branch of the 
Union Bank, 6 insurance agencies, an hotel, a police 
station, a public water supply (1880), a subscription 
Ubrary (1867), a floral and horticultural society (1871), 
a co-operative society (1866), a Good Templar's lodge 
(1871), a masonic lodge, a curling club (1831), and 
cattle fairs on the first Thursday of April o.s., the third 
Wednesdays of July and September, and the first Thurs- 
day of November. The Established church, built as a 
chapel of ease in 1855, in 1868 was raised to quoad sacra 
status. The Free church was built about 1860 ; the 
U.P. church, which was long the only place of worship 
in the town, contains 400 sittings ; and St Patrick's 
Roman Catholic church (1877) contains 250. Two 
public schools. East and West, with respective accom- 
modation for 390 and 310 children, had (1883) an 
average attendance of 367 and 294, and grants of £321, 
2s. 6d. and £257, 5s. Loch Gelly, lying chiefly in 
Auchterderran parish, but partly in Auchtertool, mea- 
sures 5| by 3i furlongs, and is wooded and beautiful on 
its northern bank, but elsewhere bleak and tame. 
Lochgelly House, a seat of the Earl of Minto, stands 
near the NW corner of the lake, and has pleasant 
grounds. The municipal voters numbered 300 in 1884, 
when the annual value of real property within the burgh 
amounted to £4290, whilst the revenue, including assess- 
ments, is £480. Pop. of q. s. parish (1881) 3190, of 
whom 605 were in Ballingry parish ; of police burgh 
(1831) 612, (1861) 1629, (1871) 2496, (1881) 2601, of 
whom 117 were in Ballingry, and 1242 were females. 
Houses (1881) 500 inhabited, 98 vacant, 4 building. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 
Loch Gilp. See Gilp. 

Lochgilphead, a small town in Kilmichael-Glassary 
parish, Argyllshire, round the northern end of Loch 
GUp, which opens from Loch Fyne, 125 miles W by N 
of Edinburgh, 80 WNW of Glasgow, 51 N by E of 
Campbeltown, 24J SSW of Inveraray, 13J N of Tarbert, 
and 2 NNE of Ardrishaig. By its nearness to the 



LOCHGOILHEAD 

Crinan Canal, which passes witliin J mile of the town, 
and to Ardrishaig where the canal joins Loch Fyne, 
Lochgilphead shares in the growing trade of the AVest 
Highlands, to which it owes its rise from a small fishing 
village to a prosperous well built town, lighted with 
gas and plentifully supplied with water. In the sum- 
mer it may be easily reached by the ' swift ' steamers, 
and in winter there is regular communication, daily 
with Glasgow and twice a week with Inverness, Skye, 
Oban, etc. The main road from CampbeltoAvn to Oban 
passes through it, and it is also on the route of the 
Loch Awe and Eilmartin coaches. Lochgilphead has a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, 
and telegraph departments, branches of the Clydesdale 
and Union Banks, offices or agencies of 13 insurance 
companies, and five good inns. The weaving of 
woollen cloth is carried on in two factories, and dyeing 
is also engaged in. There is a considerable fishing 
population. Horse markets are held on the third 
Thursday of March, and on the second Thursday after 
the fourth Thursday in November. A cattle market 
is held on the Wednesday fourteen days after the 
KOmichael fair on the last "Wednesday in May. Loch- 
gilphead contains the Argyll and Bute District Asylum 
for the Insane, and the Combination poorhouse for the 
parishes of Glassary, Eilmartin, Kilcalmonell, and North 
and South Knapdale. The former was erected in 1862-64. 
In 1SS3, the Lunacy Board for the counties of Argyll 
and Bute decided to obtain more accommodation by 
erecting a building apart from the Asylum, to be occu- 
pied mainly by industrial patients. The new building 
is 202 feet long and three stories high. It has accom- 
modation for 120, and its cost was £11,000. The 
fittings are of the most complete description, and the 
arrangement of rooms, dormitories, bath-rooms, etc., 
excellent. The poorhouse has accommodation for 72 
paupers. Places of worship are Lochgilphead parish 
church (1827-28), a Free church (1843), a Baptist church 
(1815), and Episcopal Christ Church, the last a Middle 
Pointed edifice, containing some fine stained glass. 
The government of Lochgilphead is carried on by a 
senior and 2 junior magistrates, and 9 commissioners of 
police. It is a police burgh. A sheriff court is held 
four times in the year, and justice of the peace courts 
each Wednesday after the first Sunday of every month. 
There is a good-sized court-house. Connected with the 
town may be mentioned the public reading-room, 
mutual improvement association, a division of the 
Argyll and Bute Volunteers, Artillery. The quoad 
sacra parish of Lochgilphead included at one time 
Ardrishaig, which is now a separate quiad sacra parish. 
It is in the presbytery of Inveraray and synod of Argyll. 
The following schools are in Lochgilpheid : Aird public, 
Ardrishaig public, Lochgilphead public, and Ardrishaig 
Episcopal, which, with respective accommodation for 50, 
170, 325, and 114 scholars, had (1883) an average attend- 
ance of 24, 126, 203, and 66, and grants of £38, 5s., 
£111, 3s., £185, 17s., and £56, 10s. Pop. of town (1861) 
1674, (1871) 1642, (1881) 1489, of whom 711 were males ; 
of quoad parish (1881) 2381, of whom 2271 were in Kil- 
michael-Glassary parish, and 110 in South Knapdale. — 
Ord. Siir., sh. 29, 1873. 

LochgoUhead, a village and a parish in Cowal dis- 
trict, Argyllshire. The village, at the head of salt-water 
LochGoiL (6 miles x 2 to 6-Jfurl.), is 12 J miles SW 
of Arrochar, by Glencroe ; Hi SE of Inveraray, by 
Hell's Glen and St Catherine's Ferry ; and 19J NNW of 
Greenock, by water. A peaceful little place, with its 
lovely surroundings of wood and water, mountain and 
glen, it communicates daily by coach with Inveraray, 
by steamer with Greenock, and has a post office imder 
Greenock, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, an hotel, a steamboat pier, and a 
good many villas and pretty cottages. 

The parish, containing also Cairxdow hamlet, com- 
prises the ancient parishes of LochgoUhead and Kil- 
morich, the former in the S, the latter in the N, and 
down to 1649 comprehended Strachur besides. It is 
bounded N by Glenorchy, H"E by Killin in Perthshire, 



LOCH INDAL 

E by Arrochar, SE by the upper lOJ miles of salt-water 
Loch Long (j mile broad), SW by Kilmun, W by 
Strachur, and NW by salt-water Loch Fyne and 
Inveraray. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 19- 
miles ; its breadth varies between 1 mile and 11 miles ; 
and its area is llO^V square miles or 70,460J- acres, of 
which 39,192J belong to the Loehgoilhead section, 191 
are water, 6 tidal water, and 5677- foreshore. The 
northern division, extending from the vicinity of Ben- 
loy to the mountains which screen the northern side of 
Glencroe, includes Ben Biri (3106 feet), Ben Ime (3318), 
Ben Aethur (2891), and Glenfyne. The southern 
division, extending 10 J miles down Loch Long and 5 
down Looh Fyne, is intersected by Loch Goil, and in- 
cludes Glencroe, Glenkinglas, Hell's Glen, Ben-an- 
LocHAiN (2955 feet), Ben Bheula (2557), Ben Donich 
(2774), Ben Loohain (2306), and Argyll'.s Bowling- 
Green. In all twenty-seven summits have a height of 
more than 2000 feet above sea-level, and the surface 
everj'where is wildly mountainous and very rugged, 
abounding in vast bare rocky masses, and in stupendous 
cliffs and precipices. Caves, grottos, and natural vaults 
are very numerous ; streams, rapid and romantic, but all 
of short length of course, run to the several sea lochs ; 
and four small lakes, well stored with trout, lie high up 
among the hills. Considerable pendicles of land on the 
coasts and in the glens are well cultivated and highly 
embellished ; and a large aggregate of natural wood 
clothes much of the upland tracts, especially on and 
near the coasts, and charmingly hides or relieves the 
savageness of the mountain wastes. Eruptive and 
metamorpliic rocks predominate ; limestone has been 
worked in several quarries ; at the head of Loch Fyne is 
a vein of lead ore, said to be very rich in silver ; and 
jasper, several kinds of spar, and some other interesting 
minerals are found. The soil in the bottoms of some of 
the glens is rich and fertile ; on patches of the coast 
lands is light, sharp, and sandy ; in the high glens is 
generally wet and spongy, partly a deep moss ; and on 
the pastoral uplands is mostly thin, dry, and firm to the 
tread of cattle. The chief antiquities, ARDKlNOL.iss, 
Carrick, andDuNDAEAVE Castles, are noticed separately, 
as also are the mansions of Ardgartan, Ardkinglass, 
and Drimstnie. Four proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards. Loehgoilhead is in the 
presbytery of Argyll and the sjmod of Dunoon ; the 
living is worth £280. The parish church, at Loeh- 
goilhead vUlage, is an old building, with 305 sittings ; 
a mission church, at Cairndow, has 258. There is also 
a Free Church preaching station of Loehgoilhead ; and 
two public schools, Kilmorich and Loehgoilhead, with 
respective accommodation for 44 and 72 children, had 

(1883) an average attendance of 34 and 73, and grants 
of £45, 19s. and £70, 7s. Valuation (1860) £6305, 

(1884) £10,963, 19s. 7d. Pop. (1801) 1145, (1831) 
1196, (1861) 702, (1871) 766, (1881) 870, of whom 419 
were Gaelic-speaking. — Ord. Sur., shs. 37, 38, 45, 46, 
1871-76. 

Lochinch Castle, the seat of the Earl of Stair, in Inch 
parish, Wigtownshire, on the W side of Castle-Kennedy 
Loch, 1§ mile N of Castle-Kennedy station, this being 
2| miles E by S of Stranraer. Completed in 1867, it is 
a stately Scottish Baronial edifice, with pepper-box 
turrets, corbie-stepped gables, terraced gardens of singular 
beauty, a splendid pinetum, etc. The present and tenth 
Earl, since 1703, is John Hamilton Dalrymple (b. 1819; 
sue. 1864) ; and the Stair famQy possesses 82,666 acres 
in Wigtownshire and 13,827 in Edinburghshire, valued 
at £43,510 and £10,782 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 3, 
1856. See also Castle- Kennedy, Oxenfoord, and 
Bargany. 

Lochindaal, a bay in Sleat parish, Isle of Skye, Inver- 
ness-shire. It opens from the Sound of Sleat, opposite 
the mouth of Loch Hourn ; washes most of the NE end 
of the Sleat peninsula ; and is separated by an isthmus 
of only i mile in breadth from the head of Loch Eishart. 

Loch Indal, a sea loch in Islay island, Argyllshire. 
Opening on the S between the Mull of Islay and the 
Point of Rhynns, and penetrating 12 miles north-north- 

535 



LOCHINDORB 

eastward to the centre of the island, it measures 8 miles 
across the entrance, and contracts gradually over the 
first 4| miles to a breadth of 6f miles. It then 
expands on the E side into Laggan Bay, then over 
the last 6 J miles has an average breadth of only about 2 
miles ; and, though all comparatively shallow, is much 
frequented by shipping, and abounds in fish. A light- 
house, designated of the Rhynns of Islay, stands on 
Oversay islet, adjacent to the W side of the loch's 
entrance, and shows a flashing light every 5 seconds, 
visible at the distance of 17 nautical miles ; and another 
lighthouse, designated of Loch Indal, stands on Dune 
Point, and shows a fixed white light from NE by £ to 
about N by E half E, a red light from about N by E 
half E to about W half N, and a white light from about 
W half N" to SW by AV three-quarters W, visible at the 
distance of 12 nautical miles. Dioptric prisms of a 
new form were introduced to the latter lighthouse in 
1869. 

Lochindorb (Gael, loch-an-doirhh, 'the lake of 
trouble '), a loch in the county of Elgin, partly in the 
parish of Ediskillie, hut mostly in the parish of 
Cp.ojidale, and just touched on the W side f mile from 
the N end by the county of Nairst. It is 2 miles in a 
straight line, or 3 miles by road, SW of Dava station 
on the Highland railway, and 6 miles in a straight line 
NNW of Grantown. It is 2| miles long from NNE to 
SSW, a little over § mile wide at the broadest part near 
the centre, and -^^ mile wide, farther to the SW, at the 
narrowest part, where the county of Nairn touches the 
edge, and 24 feet deep at the deepest part. At the 
SSW end.it receives the burns of Glentarroch and Feith 
a Mhor Fhir, and several other small burns flow into it 
at other points, while the surplus water is carried off by 
the DoEBOOK Burn, which flows out near the NWE and 
takes a northerly course to its junction with the DiviE, 
and so to the Findhoen. The boundary line between 
Edinkillie and Cromdale passes in a straight line from 
the point where the Dorbock leaves the loch, to the W 
side at the narrowest part, just opposite the projection 
below Lochindorb Lodge. The hills about it, though of 
considerable height, lose a good deal of their effect in 
consequence of the height of the surface of the loch 
itself, which is 969 feet above sea-level, and the effect 
therefore is pretty rather than grand, particularly 
as there is very little wood. On the W the hills rise 
gently to a height of over 1000 feet ; on the E a little 
more abruptly to Craig Tiribeg (1586) and Carn Ruigh 
na Caorach (1585) ; while to the NNE the Knock of Brae- 
nioray (1493) towers above the valley of the Dorbock. 
The loch is preserved, and the fishing is good, the trout 
weighing from J to | lb. Near the N" end was the old 
king's highway between Findhorn and Spey, which is 
mentioned as early as the time of Alexander II. in 
1236. The historical associations of the loch are impor- 
tant, and are connected with the castle, the ruins of 
which still remain on a small island of about an acre in 
extent, J mile from the NNE end of the lake, and 350 
yards distant from its E side. The water round it is 
about 20 feet deep, and the island rises steeply and has 
almost its entire area covered by the castle. It is said 
to be artificial, for, according to the Old Statistical Ac- 
count, ' great rafts or planks of oak, by the beating of 
the waters against the old walls, occasionally make their 
appearance ; ' and Mr James Brown, in his Round Tabic 
Club, says that an old gamekeeper in Elgin had once got 
his boat's anchor fixed among oak planks. The ruins at 
present consist of a wall about 21 feet high and 7 feet 8 
inches thick, which forms an irregular quadrangle, with 
round towers with sloping bases at the four corners. 
The length of the quadrangle within walls is 180 feet, 
and the width 126. Round this, inside the walls, there 
had been houses all round, but of these no traces now 
remain. On the S side the foundations of the chapel, 40 
leet long, 25 wide, and with walls 3 thick, may still be 
traced ; while to the E is the square keep. When the Okl 
Statistical Account was written in 1793, the whole of the 
towers were standing, though only one is now at all 
entire. There were then also traces of houses round the 
536 



LOCHINVAE 

inside of the walls, and the principal entrance — a pointed 
arch with a portcullis — is descrilied as very fine. The 
portcullis is said now to be at Cawdor Castle. The 
building is of the kind which, from the date of their 
erection, are known as 'Edwardian,' of which other 
examples still remain in Scotland, at Bothwell, Divleton, 
Kildrummy, and Caerlaverock. Tytler supposes that 
Edward I. merely added to the fortifications, but Taylor, 
in his Edward I. in the North of Scotland, probably 
rightly, thinks that the greater part of the building was 
erected by Edward's orders between 1303 and 1306. 
Prior to that, the castle, which was much smaller, and 
probably a mere hunting-seat, belonged to the Cumyns, 
Lords of Badenoch, to crush whose power Edward I. 
made his expedition to the N of Scotland in 1303. 
Edward arrived here on 25 Sept. , and took up his resi- 
dence in such castle as there then was, while his army 
encamped on the shore to the E. He remained here till 
5 Oct., received the homage of many of the northern 
nobles, and during his intervals of leisure enjoyed the 
pleasures of the chase in the surrounding district, which, 
bare as it now is, was at that time covered with the 
woods of the royal forests of Leanich and Drummynd. 
Walsingham and John of London mention that, ' when 
he had leisure from war, he indulged in the hunting 
alike of birds and beasts, and more particularly of stags ;' 
while Hardyng in his chronicle advises Edward IV. to 
take with him in the invasion of Scotland ' kennets and 
ratches, and seek out all the forests with hounds and 
horns, as King Edward with the Longshanks did.' After 
the fall of the English power, it seems to have remained 
a royal castle, probablj' in the keeping of the Earls of 
Moray, but during the minority of David II. it was held 
by the Earl of Athole for the English party, and after 
his defeat and death at Kilblane his wife and some other 
ladies fled hither for refuge in 1335. The castle was at 
once besieged by Sir Andrew Murray, the regent, who 
had already won all the other northern strongholds for 
King David. The siege was carried on for some time, 
and traces of the works are still to be seen on the point 
nearest the castle, on the E side ; but in 1336 Edward 
III. advanced with a large army, and compelled Murray 
to retreat. In 1342 we find the place used as a state 
prison, and in that year William Bulloch, a favourite 
of David II., and a deserter from the Baliol party, who 
was suspected of hankering after his old associates, 
was imprisoned here and died of cold and hunger. 
When John Dunbar was made Earl of Moray in 
1372, Badenoch was excepted from the grant of 
lands, and the castle became the stronghold of the 
king's son, the well-known Wolfe of Badenoch, and \Yas 
the place from which he made his descent on FoKRE.s 
and Elgin. When Archibald Douglas became Earl of 
Moray he strengthened the castle, and after his fall at 
Arkinholme in 1455, one of the reasons of his for- 
feiture, as set forth in the Act of Parliament, was ' pro 
munitione et fortificatione castrorum de Lochindorb et 
Tarnua contra Regem,' and when James II. passed 
north after this, he entrusted the Thane of Cawdor with 
the oversight of the destruction of the fortress, a work 
carried out at the expense of £24. After this time it 
again reverted to the Earls of Moray, who in 1606 sold 
it to an ancestor of the present Earl of Cawdor, and the 
Cawdor family about 1750 sold it to the Earl of Seafield, 
whose property it now is, though the Moray estate still 
reaches the banks of the loch. 

See also Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's Wolfe of Badenoch 
(Edinb. 1827), and his Account of the Great Moray Floods 
(Edinb. 1830); Tuylofs Edicard I. in the North of Scot- 
land (Elgin, 1858) ; and chap. xx. of James Brown's 
Round TaMc Chib (Elgin, 1873). 

Lochinvar, a lake in Dairy parish, N Kirkcudbright- 
shire, 6 miles NNE of New Galloway. Lying 770 feet 
above sea-level, it has an utmost length and breadth of 
4J and 2J furlongs ; sends off a burn south-south-west- 
ward to Ken AVater ; is stocked with very fine trout ; 
and contains an islet, with vestiges of the ancient 
baronial fortalice of the Gordons, Knights of Lochinvar, 
ancestors of the Viscounts Kenmure, and one of them 



LOCHINVER 



LOCHLEE 



the theme of Latly Heron's song in Marmion, ' Young 
Lochinvar. '—Ord. Sitr., sh. 9, 1S63. 

Lochinver. See Assynt. 

Lochlea. See Tarbolton. 

Lochlee (Gael, loch-lc, 'the smooth lake'), a parish in 
the N of Forfarshire. The district is sometimes knonii 
as Gleuesk. It is hounded N by Aberdeenshire, NE for 
a mile by Kincardineshire, E by Edzell, S by Lethnot 
and by Cortachy, S\V by Clova, and W by Aberdeen- 
shire. The boundary is entirely natural. Beginning at 
the NE corner, at the top of Mount Battock, the line 
passes down the course of the Burn of Turret to the North 
Esk, up the North Esk, IJ mile, to the Burn of Eeeny, 
and up the Burn of Eeeny, and then up the Burn of 
Deuchary to the highest point of the Hill of Wirren 
(2220 feet), and from that westward along the line of 
watershed between the basin of the North Esk and that of 
the Water of Saughs — the main stream of the "West Water 
— the principal summits being West Wirren (2060), 
West Knock (2273), two nameless tops to the W (2272) 
and (2246), Cruys (2424), East Caii-n (2518), Muckle 
Cairn (2699), and White Hill (2787). From this point 
onwards the line continues between the upper waters of 
the North Esk and the upper waters of the South Esk 
in Gleu Clova, the principal summits being Green Hill 
(2837 feet), Benty Roads (2753), Boustie Ley (2868), and 
Lair of Aldararie (2726), on the borders of Forfarshire 
and Aberdeenshire. From this the line follows the 
watershed between the basins of the North Esk on the 
S and the Dee on the N, first N by Black Hill of Mark 
(2497 feet) and Fasheilach (2362), and then E by a name- 
less summit(2170). Hair Cairn (2203), Mount Keen(3077), 
with its W shoulder (2436 and 2500), Braid Cairn (2907), 
Cock Cairn (2387), and the ridge between (2478), Hill 
of Cat (2435), Mudlee Bracks (2259), and a summit 
between (2363), Hill of Cammie (2028), and Mount 
Battock (2555). From Lair of Aldararie to midway 
between Hill of Cammie and Mount Battock the line 
coincides with the boundary between the counties of 
Aberdeen and Forfar, and from this on to the Burn of 
Turret with the boundary between the counties of 
Kincardine and Forfar. The greatest length, from ENE 
at Mount Battock to WSW near the Lair of Aldararie, is 
151 miles ; the greatest breadth, from N near Cock Cairn 
to S near West Knock, is 8 J miles ; and the area is 58,382 
acres. The surface, as might be expected from the 
vicinity of the parish to the Grampians, is very rough, 
and the average elevation is over 800 feet above sea-level. 
Besides the heights already mentioned, there are, between 
the Burn of Turret and the Burn of Tennet, Bennygray 
(1823 feet) and Craig Soales (1648) ; between Burn of 
Tennet and Water of Mark, Hill of Saughs (2141), HiU of 
Donne (2342), Craig Brawlin (1643), Ba'dalair (1133), and 
Hill of Migvie (1238) ; between Glen Mark and Glen Lee 
are Round Hill of Mark (2257), Wolf Craig (2343), and 
Monawee (2276) ; to the S of Glen Lee are East BaUoch 
(2731) and Craig Maskeldie (2224); between Loch Lee 
and Glen Effock is Cairn Caidloch (2117), and further to 
the E is Cowie Hill (1439). The heights are steep and 
rocky, or covered with heath and moss, and the heather 
extends even to the lower elevations. Of the whole 
area only about 2000 acres are arable, the rest is 
sheep-pasture or waste, and the W and SW is an 
extensive deer forest. The soil of the arable portion 
is thin and light with a gravelly subsoil, and the 
underlying rocks are primary, with beds of lime- 
stone. In the 16th century an iron mine at Dalbog was 
worked, and later lead ore was mined near Invermark, 
but the quantities are unremunerative. They were, 
however, noted in early times, and the last effort to 
work them was made by the South Sea Company in 
1728 at Craig Soales. The drainage of the parish is 
etlected by all the head-waters of the North Esk. The 
part to the W of Lochlee church, which is very near the 
centre of the parish, is drained by the Water of Mark 
(NW) and the Water of Lee (W). The former rises on 
the extreme W of the parish, and flows N, NE, and SE 
to its junction with the Lee, near Lochlee church, and 
receives on the N the burns of Fasheilach, Doune, 



Ladder, Easter, and Branny. The glen through whicb 
the Mark flows is in some places very wild and pictur- 
esque. The Water of Lee is joined by the Water of 
Unich, which itself receives from the S the burns of 
Longshank and Slidderies. To the NE of the church is 
the Water of Tarf, which receives from the W the bums 
of Adekimore, Ea.ster, and Kirny, and from the N and 
NE the burns of Cat, Kidloch, Clearach, and Tennet, 
with the burn of Crospit. The Tarf is noted for its 
sudden and dangerous freshets. Farther E, on the 
boundary-line, is the Burn of Turret. To the E of 
the church the North Esk is joined on the S by the 
Water of Effock with the Burn of Cochlie, the Burn of 
Dalbrack, and the Burns of Berryhill and Deuchary, 
which unite to form the Bum of Keeny, and besides 
all these there are a very large number of smaller 
burns. The lochs in the parish are Carlochy and Loch 
Lee. The former lies in the bottom of a great basin- 
shaped hollow on the SE flank of Craig Maskeldie, 
surrounded by precipices. It contains char, and the 
fishing is good. The latter, about IJ mile E by N, 
and 900 feet above sea-level, is on the course of the 
Water of Lee. It is IJ mile long, and 3 furlongs 
wide at the widest part. The fish, which, when full 
gro\vn, weigh from 1 to 3 lbs., are char and trout, 
and permission to fish is easily procured. The patron 
saint of the parish is St Drostan, Abbot of Donegal 
in Ireland, and of Holywood in Wigtownshire, who 
flourished in the end of the 16 th century. Where 
his cell was it is difficult to say, but probably the site 
is now occupied by the present manse at Droustie. 
This seems a mere corruption of the saint's name, and 
a spring close at hand is known as Droustie's Well, 
while on Tarfside is Droustie's Meadow, and at Neudos 
in EdzeU is St Drostan's Well. The whole district 
of Cairncross lying between the Tarf and the Turret 
belonged to St Drostan's Monastery, which was probably 
in this neighboirrhood, though Dr Joseph Robertson 
maintained that it was in Edzell. The old church, 
which is at the E end of the loch, is sometimes called 
the ' Kirk of Droustie ; ' and a deep pool in the Lee has 
the name of 'Monk's Pool,' derived, according to tradi- 
tion, from the light possessed by the monks to catch 
salmon in it during Lent. In 1384, the parish is men- 
tioned as being a chaplainry of Lethnot, and in 1558 
mention is made of a curate, but it was not till 1723 
that it became a separate charge. Of the olde.st church 
that is noticed, nothing is known but that it was burned 
in 1645 by the soldiers of the Marquis of Montrose. 
It probably was on the same site as the present old 
kirk, at the E end of the loch, in a very picturesque 
position. This buildiug was originally thatched, but 
was slated in 1784. The present parish church, which is 
a mile to the eastward, was built in 1803, and contains 
270 sittings. The Free church, built in 1843, is farther 
to the E, "and | mile NE of the village of Tarfside. It 
contains 250 sittings, and in 1881 was adorned with 
two stained-glass windows by Messrs Ballantine, to the 
memory of Lord Dalhousie and Dr Guthrie, the former 
of whom chiefly built the church, whilst the latter 
worshipped within its walls for upwards of twenty 
summers. The Episcopal church (St Drostane), at 
Tarfside, was built in 1878-79 by Lord Forbes, in 
memory of the late Rev. Alex. Forbes, Bishop of 
Brechin (1817-75). The church, which is First 
Pointed in style, was consecrated in 1880 ; it has 135 
sittings, and there are three stained-glass windows and 
a fine font. Tarfside, near the junction of the Tarf 
and N Esk, is now the only village in the parish, the 
older Glenlee or Kirkton being gone. It has a sub- 
post office under Brechin, the Episcopal church and 
parsonage, the public school, and a masonic lodge (St 
Andrew's). This body, on its institution in 1821, 
erected St Andrew's Tower on Modlach Hill, to afford 
a refuge to benighted travellers who might be caught 
in snowstorms. The cairn on the top of Migvie or 
Rowan Hill, to the W, was erected in 1866 by the 
late Earl of Dalhousie (1805-80) as a family memo- 
rial, the names of himself, his wife, his brothers, and 

537 



LOCHLEE 

liis sisters being engraved on a slab at the bottom. 
The only seat in the parish is Invermark Lodge (the 
Earl of Dalhousie— born 1S47 ; sue. 1880), W of the 
parish church ; and close by are the ruins of Invermark 
Castle, a fine square tower on a commanding site, close 
to the North Esk. It remained almost entire down to the 
erection of the present parish church, when all the out- 
buildings were pulled down, and the interior of the 
tower itself cleared out, in order that the materials 
might be used for that building. It has a curious old 
door made of iron, said to have been mined and smelted 
on the Farm of Tarfside. It seems to date from the 
earlier portion of the 16th century, and to have had a 
moat filled from the Mark, the mouth of which seems 
at one time to have been closer to it. It commands the 
important pass of Mount Keen to Deeside. Built by 
one of the Lindsays, it is now in the possession of the 
Earl of Dalhousie. The parish is traversed by a dis- 
trict road from Edzell up the basin of the North Esk, and 
there are a number of connecting roads to the E, the W 
being, as might be imagined, entirely destitute of any 
communication. A track leads from the church up 
Glen Mark and Ladder Burn by a winding path known 
as 'The Ladder, ' across Mount Keen and by Glen 
Tanner to Deeside. It was along this that the Queen 
and Prince Albert travelled 20 Sept. 1861, on their 
expedition to Fettercairn. The <Lochlee part is thus 
described in Leaves from the Journal of our Life in the 
Highlands (1868) : ' "We came in sight of a new country, 
and looked down a very fine glen — Glen Mark. We 
descended by a very steep but winding path, called 
The Ladder, very grand and wild ; the water running 
through it is called The Ladder Burn. It is very fine 
indeed, and very striking. There is a small forester's 
lodge at the very foot of it. The pass is quite a narrow 
one ; you wind along a very steep and rough path, but still 
it was quite easy to ride on it, as it zigzags along. We 
crossed the burn at the bottom, where a picturesque 
group of "shearers" were seated, chiefly women, the 
older ones smoking. They were returning from the south 
to the north, whence they came. We rode up to the little 
cottage ; and in a little room of a regular Highland 
cabin, with its usual "press bed," we had luncheon. 
This place is called invermarlc, and is 4J miles from 
Corrie Vruaeh. After luncheon, I sketched the fine 
view. The steep hUl we came down immediately 
opposite the keeper's lodge, is called Craig Boestoek, 
and a very fine isolated craggy hUl which rises to the 
left — over-topping a small and wild glen — is called the 
Hill of Down. We mounted our ponies a little after 
three and rode down Glen Mark, stopping to drink 
some water out of a very pure well, called The White 
Well; and crossing the Mark several times. As we 
approached the Manse of Loeh Lee the glen widened, 
and the old Castle of Invermark came out extremely 
well ; and, surrounded by woods and corn-fields, in 
which the people were "shearing," looked most pictur- 
esque. We turned to the right and rode up to the old 
ruined castle, which is half covered with ivy. We 
then rode up to Lord Dalhousie's shooting-lodge, where 
we dismounted. It is a new and very pretty house, 
built of granite, in a very fine position overlooking the 
glen, with wild hLUs at the back. . . . We passed 
through the dramng-room and went on a few yards to 
the end of a walk, whence you see Loch Lee, a wild but 
not large lake, closed in by mountains.' In com- 
memoration of the visit, the late Earl of Dalhousie 
erected a granite well at the White Well. It hears the 
inscription 'Her Majesty Queen Victoria and His Koyal 
Highness The Prince Consort visited this well and 
drank of its refreshing waters on the 20th September 
1861— the year of Her Majesty's great sorrow ; ' and 
round the basin is 

* Rest traveller, on this lonely green, 
And drink and pray for Scotland's Queen.' 

On 19 Sept. 1865, the Queen and Princess Helena 
' drank with sorrowing hearts from this very well where 
just four years ago I had drunk with my beloved Albert. 
538 



LOCHMABEN 

. . . We afterwards had some tea close by ; and this 
fine wide glen was seen at its best, lit up as it was by 
the evening sun, warm as on a summer's day, without 
a breath of air, the sky becoming pinker and pinker, 
the hills themselves, as you looked down the glen, 
assuming that beautifully glowing tinge which they do 
of an evening. The Highlanders and ponies grouped 
around the well had a most picturesque effect. And 
yet to me aU seemed strange, unnatural, and sad' 
{More Leaves from the Journal, 1884). On Migvie 
or Rowan HUl are a number of cairns traditionally 
but ivrongly asserted to be connected with an engage- 
ment between Bruce and Cumyn in 1307. 'There 
was certainly a' meeting between their forces ; but 
Cumyn either sued for peace or ran away without 
fighting. A stone with a rudely incised figure of a cross 
is pointed out as the position of Bruce's standard, but 
it is probably a boundary mark of church lands. Other 
objects worthy of notice are the standing stones at 
Colmeallie ; the Com-t Hill, S of Modlach Hill, probably 
an old law hill ; St Fillan's Well, beside the Burn of 
Gleneffbck ; Eagil's or Edzell's Loup, where the young 
laird of Edzell leaped across the Mark when pursued by 
the Earl of Crawford ; Bonnymune's Cave, near Cur- 
mand Hill, where the laird of Balnamoon resided for a 
time after the battle of Culloden ; Johnny Eidd's Hole 
(all these three are in Glenmark). At Gilfumman there 
was formerly a fine rocking-stone, but it has been thrown 
down. Near Carlochy is a small cave called Grj'p's 
Chamber, after a robber of that name who lived in it. 
In the churchyard at the old church is a memorial of 
Alexander Ross (1699-1784), the author of Selenore, or 
the Fortunate Shepherdess, and of other shorter pieces, 
who was long schoolmaster of Lochlee, and who died 
there. The monument was erected by public subscrip- 
tion, and was at first erected in the new churchyard, 
but the Earl of Dalhousie removed it in 1856, and placed 
it near Ross's grave. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Brechin and the 
sjTLod of Angus and Mearns, and the living is worth 
£230 a year. The only proprietor is the Earl of Dal- 
housie. Originally belonging to the Lindsays, the 
district passed to the Panmure familj', and on the Earl 
of Panmure's forfeiture in 1716 was sold to the York 
Buildings Company, but was afterwards recovered for 
its present possessors. Lochlee public school at Tarf- 
side, with accommodation for 91 pupils, had in 1882 an 
attendance of 30, and a grant of £34. Valuation (1857) 
£1473, (1884) £3941, 6s. Pop. (1801) 541, (1831) 553, 
(1861) 495, (1871) 424, (1881) 359.— OrcZ. Siir., shs. 66, 
65, 1871-70. See Andrew Jervise's Land of the Lindsays 
(Edinb. 1853 ; 2d ed. 1882). 

Lochlin or Lochslin, an ancient castle in the NE 
corner of Fearn parish, Ross-shire, on a little eminence 
3i furlongs ENE of Loch Eye, and 4| miles E by S of 
Tain. Said to be more than five centuries old, it com- 
prises two square towers, 20 and 38 feet broad, standing 
conjointly corner to corner, and 60 feet high. It has 
one large turret on the lesser square, and two others 
on the greater square ; and it figures consjiicuously in a 
wide extent of landscape. — Ord. Sur., sh. 94, 1878. 

Lochmaben, a town and parish of Annandale, Dum- 
friesshire. A royal, parliamentary, and police burgh, 
the town stands 183 feet above sea-level, amid a periect 
cordon of lakes, and within 9 furlongs of the right bank 
of the Annan. Its station, on a branch line of the 
Caledonian, is IQi miles NE of Dumfries, 4J WNW of 
Lockerbie, 52 SSE of Carstairs, 794 S by W of Edin- 
burgh, and 83J SSE of Glasgow ; whilst by road it is 15 
S of Mofi'at, 65 S by W of Edinburgh, 8 NE of Dumfries, 
and 13 NNW of Annan. ' Lochmaben,' says Mr 
Graham, ' is situated in the beautiful vale of the Annan, 
and, though an inland town, has much more of the 
aquatic than many seaports. There are no less than 
seven lochs around it, and the rivers Annan, Kinnel, 
and Ae are in the immediate vicinity. Viewed from the 
Pinnacle Hill or some other neighbouring height, it 
seems, like the city of Venice, to rise from the water. 
Nor are the beauties of hill and valley wanting. North- 



LOCHMABEN 

\varcl the view is only stopped by tlie MoiTat and 
Queensberry Hills ; the Beacon and Pinnacle Hills 
bound the western side of the valley, and Brunswark 
the eastern ; whilst to the S lies Annandale stretched 
to view, the eye at last resting on Skiddaw and Scafell. 
The town itself is regularly built. Its High Street, J 
mile long, is wide and spacious. At the S end stands 
the parish church, at the N end are the toNvn-hall 
and market-place. Until within the last few years 
most of the houses were thatched with straw, but 
now there is only one that has not been roofed with 
more stable materials. There are no buildings of 
much pretension, but two or three deserve a passing 
notice. ' 

The new town-hall, successor to one of 1723, is a 
handsome edifice in the Scottish Baronial style, erected 
in 1878 from designs by the late David Bryce, R.S.A., 
at a cost of over £2000. Since 1879 six of its win- 
dows have been filled with stained glass. In front, 
on the site of the ancient market-cross, is a freestone 
statue, S feet high, of Robert Bruce, by Mr John 
Hutchison, R.S.A., unveiled on 13 Sept. 1879, and 
surmounting a pedestal of Dalbeattie granite, 10 feet 
high. The parish church, built in 1818-20 at a cost 
of £3000, is a Gothic structure, with 1400 sittings, 
a bold square tower, and two good bells, one of which 
is said to have been the gift of the Pope to Robert 
Bruce. Its predecessor, at the W side of the town, 
on the shore of the Kirk Loch, was a Gothic edifice, 
with a large choir, dedicated to St Mary Magdalene. 
The Maxwells, after their defeat by the Johnstones in 
the battle of Dryfe Sands (Dec. 1593), having taken 
refuge in this cliurch, the Johnstones iu-ed it, and 
forced them to surrender. Near the site of it is St 
Magdalene's Well, enclosed with a stone and lime 
■wall, and roofed with freestone. The Free church, 
built in 1844 at a cost of £800, and greatly improved 
in 1867, contains 700 sittings ; and a U.P. church, 
on a rising-ground in the northern division of the 
town known as Barras, was built in 1818, and contains 
800 sittings. Lochmaben has a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, a 
branch of the National Bank, a local savings' bank, 
5 insurance agencies, 3 hotels, a gas company, a 
masonic lodge, 2 curling clubs, a reading and recrea- 
tion room, and a boating club. Monday is market- 
day ; fairs for the sale of pork are held on the 
first and third Mondays of Jan., Feb., and March, 
the fourth Monday of Nov., and the second and fourth 
Mondays of Dec. ; and one for pork and seeds is held 
on the fourth Monday of March. A considerable 
manufacture of coarse linen cloth, for sale unbleached 
in the English market, was at one time carried on, but 
has many years been extinct ; and the weaving of 
stockings and shirts is now the only industry. To-day 
the town, in many respects, is nothing better than 
many a village, but it looms large and important 
when seen through the haze of antiquity. Under the 
fosterage of the Bruces it must have sprung into 
vigour before the close of the 12th century, and probably 
soon acquired more consequence than any other town 
in the SW of Scotland. Like other Border towns, it 
suffered severely and lost its records from the incursions 
of the English ; but it is traditionally asserted to 
have been erected into a royal burgh soon after Bruce's 
accession to the throne. Its latest charter, granted 
in 1612 by James VI., confirms all the earlier charters. 
In 1463 the town was burned by the English, under 
the Earl of Warwick ; and in 1484 the recreant Earl 
of Douglas and the treacherous Duke of Albany attempted 
to plunder it on St Magdalene's fair day, but were 
repelled by the inhabitants. The corporation consists 
of a provost, a bailie, a dean of guild, a treasurer, 
and five councillors. I'hey once possessed considerable 
property, but so squandered and alienated it as to 
Become bankrupt ; and the corporation revenue now 
is only from £10 to £45. Lochmaben unites with 
DuMFKiES, Annan, Sanquhar, and Kirkcudbright in 
retui-ning a member to parliament. The municipal and 



LOCHMABEN 

the parliamentary constituency numbered 210 and 166 
in 1884, when the annual value of real property 
amounted to £2794 (£2257 in 1873). Pop. of royal 
burgh (1861) 1544, (1871) 1627, (1881) 1539 ; of par- 
liamentary and police burgh (1841) 1328, (1851) 1092, 
(1871) 1244, (1881) 1216, of whom 634 were females. 




Seal of Lochmaben. 

Houses in parliamentary bui'gh (1881) 299 inhabited, 13 
vacant, 4 building. 

Lochmaben Castle, the ancestral residence of the 
Bruce, stands 1 mile SSE of the burgh, on the extreme 
point of a heart-shaped peninsula which juts a con- 
siderable way into the S side of the Castle Loch. 
Across the isthmus at the entrance of the peninsula 
are vestiges of a deep fosse, which admitted at both 
ends the waters of the lake, and converted the site 
of the castle into an island, and over which a well- 
guarded drawbridge gave or refused ingress to the 
interior. Within this outer fosse, at brief intervals, 
are a second, a third, and a fourth, of similar character. 
The last, stretching from side to side of the penin- 
sula immediately at the entrance of the castle, was 
protected in front by a strong arched wall or ledge, 
behind which a besieged force could shield themselves 
while they galled, at a distance, an apiproaching foe, 
and midway was spanned by a drawbridge which led 
into the interior building, and was probably the last 
post an enemy required to force in order to master 
the fortress. Two archways at the north-eastern and 
south-western angles of the building, through which 
the water of the fosse was received or emptied, remain 
entire. But no idea can now be formed of the original 
beauty or polish either of this outwork or of the 
magnificent pile which it helped to defend. Vandal 
hands began generations ago to treat the castle of 
the Bruce as a convenient quarry ; and, for the sake 
of the stones, they have peeled away every foot of 
the ashlar work which lined the exterior and the in- 
terior of its walls. So far has barbarian rapacity 
been carried, that now only the heart or packing of 
some of the walls is left, exhibiting giant masses of 
small stones and lime, irregularly huddled together, 
and nodding to their fall. Many portions of the pile 
have tumbled from aloft, and lie strewed in heaps 
upon the gi-ound, the stone and the lime so firmly 
cemented that scarcely any effort of human power 
can disunite them. The castle, with its outworks, 
covered about 16 acres, and was the strongest fortress 
of the Border country, all but impregnable till the 
invention of gunpowder. But what remains can hardly 
suggest, even to fancy itself, the greatness of what 
that which Vandalism has stolen. Only one or two 
small apartments can be traced, and they stand in 
the remoter part of the castle, and excite but little 
interest. The enclosed space around is naturally 
barren, fitted only for the raising of wood ; and 
its present growth of trees harmonises well with 
the ruin. The view of the loch and of the cir- 
cumjacent scenery, from all points in the vicinity, 
is calmly beautiful. The date of the castle is un- 
certain, but probably was the latter part of the 
13th century — the period of the competition for the 
Crown. 

639 



LOCHMABEN 



LOCHMABEN 



Tradition, though unsupported hy documentary evi- 
dence, asserts this castle to have been not the original 
Lochraaben residence of the Bruces, but only a successor 
of enlarged dimensions and augmented strength. A 
little way S of the town, on the NW side of the loch, is 
a large rising-ground called Castle Hill, which is pointed 
out as the site of the original castle, and even as the 
alleged birthplace of the first royal Bruce. That a 
building of some description anciently crowned the 
eminence, is evident from the remains of an old wall 
an inch or two beneath the sui'face of the summit, and 
from the vestiges of a strong and deep intrenchment 
carried completely round the base. Tradition says that 
the stones of this edifice were transferred from the 
Castle Hill across the intervening part of the lake, to 
the point of the heart-shaped peninsula on the southern 
shore, as materials for the more recent erection ; and it 
adds, that a causeway was constructed, and still ezists, 
across the bed of the lake, to facilitate their conveyance. 
But here monuments, documents, and physical pro- 
babilities, concur in refusing corroborative evidence. 
The Castle Hill commands a fine view of the burgh, of 
the adjacent lakes, and of a considerable expanse of the 
Howe of Annandale. Near it is a lower hill or mount, 
the Gallows Hill, on which in ancient times stood a for- 
midable gallows, seldom seen during the Border wars 
without the dangling appendage of one or two reivers. 
The baronial courts of Lochmaben, and even occasional 
warden courts, were probably held on the summit of 
the Castle Hill, whence the judges beheld their sen- 
tences promptly carried into execution. 

Robert the Brus of Cleveland, a grandson of that 
noble knight of Normandy who came into England -ndth 
William the Conqueror, and first possessed the manor of 
Skelton, was a comrade in arms of our David I. while 
prince, and received from him, when he came to the 
throne in 1124, the lordship of Annandale, %vith a right 
to enjoy his castle there, and all the customs apper- 
taining to it. A charter, granted by William the Lyon 
to Robert, third Lord of Annandale, confirming to him 
the property held by his father in that district, is dated 
at Lochmaben. This is supposed to have been granted 
between 1165 and 1174. Robert, fourth Lord of Annan- 
dale, wedded Isobel, second daughter of David, Earl of 
Huntingdon, the younger brother of William the Lyon, 
thus laying the foundation of the royal house of Bruce. 
Their son, Robert, the competitor for the throne, and 
the grandfather of Robert I. , died at his castle of Loch- 
maben in 1295. In the j'ear preceding his death he 
granted a charter, dated thence, confirming a convention 
between the monks of Melrose and those of Holm- 
cultram. ' The old castle of Lochmaben,' says Chalmers 
in his Caledonia, ' continued the chief residence of this 
family during the 12th and 13th centuries. Robert de 
Bruce, the first Earl of Carrick, of this dynasty, 
probably repaired the castle at Annan.' As a stone 
from the ruins of Annan Castle bears his name, with 
the date 1300, the conjecture seems to be formed with 
great probability that the family had continued previ- 
ously to reside at Lochmaben. 

In July 1298 Edward took possession of Lochmaben 
Castle ; and in 1300 he strengthened it and the castle of 
Dumfries, placing adequate garrisons in them, with 
ample supplies, and appointing a governor for each. 
Hither fled Bruce in 1304, on his way from London, 
before erecting his royal standard. Having met, near 
the west marches, a traveller on foot, whose appearance 
aroused suspicion, he found, on examination, that he 
was the bearer of letters from Comyn to the English 
king, urging the death or immediate imprisonment of 
Bruce. He beheaded the messenger, and pressed 
forward to his castle of Lochmaben, where he arrived 
on the seventh day after his departure from London. 
Hence he proceeded to Dumfries, where the fatal inter- 
view between him and Comyn took place. 

At the accession of the Bruce to the Scottish throne, 

he conferred his paternal inheritance, with its chief seat, 

the castle of Lochmaben, on Randolph, Earl of Moray. 

When Edward III. obtained from Edward Baliol the 

540 



county of Dumfries as part of the price for helping him 
to a dependent throne, he appointed a variety of officers 
over Lochmaben Castle, and garrisoned the fortress 
in defence of the cause of England. In 1342 the 
Scots made a strenuous attempt to capture the castle, but 
were repulsed; and next year the forces of David II., 
whom he was leading into England, were stoutly re- 
sisted and harassed by its garrison. David, exasperated 
by the repeated disasters inflicted on him, in 1346 
vigorously assaulted the fortress, took it, and executed 
Selby its governor. But after the battle of Durham, 
which speedily followed, the castle changed both its 
proprietor and its tenants. John, Earl of Moray, fall- 
ing in that battle, the castle passed by inheritance to 
his sister, Agnes, the Countess of March, and from her 
was transmitted, through the reigns of Robert II. and 
Robert III., to her son. Earl George ; whilst David II. 
becoming the English king's prisoner, the castle once 
more opened its gates to an English garrison. Even 
after David II. 's restoration, Edward III. retained the 
district of Annandale, and kept the fortress well 
garrisoned to defend it ; but though connived at by the 
pusillanimity of the Scottish king, his dominion was 
pent up by the bravery of the people within the narrow 
limits of the castle. Sallies of the garrison provoked 
frequent retaliations, occasioned incursions into Eng- 
land, and led, in particular, to a hostile foray (1380) 
into Westmoreland, and the carrying away of great 
booty from the fair of Penrith. In 1384 the Earl o*" 
Douglas and Archibald Douglas, Lord of Galloway, 
whose territories had been infested by the garrison, 
marched in strong force against the castle, besieged and 
captured it, and, by effecting its reduction, expelled the 
English from Annandale. In 1409 the castle was re- 
signed by the Earl of March to the Regent Albany, and 
conferred, along with the lordship of Annandale, on the 
Earl of Douglas. In 1450, when the Earl of Orkney 
was sent to quell some outrages of the dependants of a 
Douglas, and, though acting by the king's authority, 
was opposed and defied, James II. marched an array 
into Annandale, and took and garrisoned Lochmaben 
Castle. In 1455, in common with the lordships of 
Annandale and Eskdale, the castle became the property 
of the Crown by the attainder of the Earl of Douglas. 
Till the union of the Crowns it was preserved as a 
Border strength, and belonged either to the kings per- 
sonally or to their sons ; anS it was maintained and 
managed by a special governor. 

From 1503 to 1506, James IV. made great repairs and 
improvements on the castle, and built within it a large 
hall. In 1604, during a public progress through the 
southern parts of his kingdom, he paid it a personal 
visit. In 1511 he committed the keeping of it for seven 
years, with many perquisites, to Robert Lauder of the 
Bass. During the minority of James T., Robert, Lord 
Maxwell, being a favoured counsellor of the queen- 
mother, was by her intrusted with the keeping of the 
castles of Lochmaben and Threave for nineteen years, 
with the usual privileges. In 1565, when Queen Mary 
chased into Dumfriesshire those who had broken into 
rebellion on account of her marriage with Darnley, she, 
accompanied by him, visited Lochmaben Castle, which 
was then in the keeping of Sir John MaxweU. In 1588, 
when James VI. , in the prosecution of his quarrel with. 
Lord Maxwell, summoned his various castles to sur- 
render, Lochmaben Castle offered some resistance, but, 
after two days' siege, was given up. In 1612 the 
governorship of the castle, together with the barony of 
Lochmaben, was granted to John Murray, ' grome of his 
Maiesties bedchalmer,' who was created Viscount of 
Annan and Lord Murray of Lochmaben, and afterwards 
Earl of Annandale. From him descended the noble 
family of Stormont, now merged in that of Mans- 
field. The title of constable and hereditary keeper 
of the palace of Lochmaben is borne by Mr Hope 
Johnstone of Annandale, as representative of the 
Annandale marquisate. The governor of the castle had 
a salary of £300 Scots, and the fishing of the lochs. 
He had also, for the maintenance of the garrison, from 



LOCHMABEN 



LOCHMABEN 



every parish of Annandale, what was called laird a 
mairt, or a lairduer mart cow, which, it was required, 
should be one of the fattest that could be produced, 
besides thirty-nine meadow geese and ' Fasten's e'en ' 
hens. So late as the first half of last century this tax 
was exacted. Although the rif;ht of fishing in all the 
lochs was granted, by a charter of James VI., to the 
burgh of Lochmaben, yet the proprietors of the castle 
enjoyed the exclusive privilege of fishing in the Castle 
and Mill Lochs with boats, nets, etc. — a privilege, 
however, disputed by the townsfolk, who now exercise 
the right of fishing in all the lochs. About the 
year 1730 the inhabitants of Annandale, galled by the 
exactions of the Marquis of Annandale, the governor, 
resisted payment of his wonted claims, stoutly litigated 
his rights, and obtained from the Court of Session a 
decree forbidding the future levying of his usual receipts. 
At the abolition of hereditary jurisdictions in 1747, the 
Marquis claimed £1000 as compensation for his governor- 
ship ; but was not allowed a farthing. 

The dilapidation of the castle was probably commenced 
not long after the place was abandoned as useless ; but 
it must have been mainly incited by the triumph of the 
people over pretensions based on the sinecure office of 
its noble governor. Our good old Bellenden, in his 
translation of Boece (1536), has given a very curious 
picture of the character of the ancient inhabitants of this 
district, and of the original reason of the erection of the 
castle. ' In Annandail is ane loch namit Lochmaben, 
fyue mylis of lenth, and foure of breid, full of uncouth 
fische. Besyde this loch is ane castell, vnder the same 
name, maid to dant the incursion of theuis. For nocht 
allanerlie in Annandail, hot in all the dalis afore rehersit, 
ar mony Strang and wekit theuis, inuading the cuntr^ 
with perpetuall thift, reif, & slauchter, quhen thay se 
on}' trublus tyme. Thir theuis (becaus thay haue Inglis- 
men thair perpetuall ennymes lyand dry marche upon 
thair nixt bordour) inuadis Ingland with continewal 
weris, or ellis with quiet thift ; and leiffis ay ane pure 
and miserabill lyfe. In the tyme of peace, thay are so 
accustomit with thift, that thay can nocht desist, hot 
inuadis the cuntre — with ithand heirschippis. This vail 
of Annand wes sum tyme namit Ordouitia, and the pepill 
namit Ordouices, quhais cruelteis wes sa gret, that thay 
abhorrit nocht to eit the flesche of yolding prisoneris. 
The wyuis vsit to slay thair husbandis, quhen thay wer 
found cowartis, or discomfist be thair ennymes, to give 
occasioun to otheris to be more bald & hardy quhen 
danger occurrit.' Whatever might be their character in 
that early period, they have in later ages showed, at 
least, a good deal of humour in their depredations. Of 
this we have an amusing proof in the ballad of the 
Loclimalen Haiyer, who, having been seized with a 
strong attachment to the Lord Warden's ' Wanton 
Brown, ' made his way to Carlisle Castle, blind though 
he was, and so enchanted the whole company, and even 
the minions, by the charms of his music, that he found 
means, not only to send off the warden's charger, but to 
persuade him, that while he was exerting himself to the 
utmost to gratify the company, some one had stolen his 
'gude gray mare,' and thus to secure far more than the 
value of all his pretended loss ; 

' " Allace ! allace ! " quo the cunning auld harper, 
" And ever allace that I cam here ! 
In Scotland 1 lost a braw cowt foal ; 
In England they've stown my gude gray mare ! " 
* Then aye he harped, and aye he carped ; 

Sae sweet were the harpingg he let them hear : 
He was paid for the foal he had never lost, 
And three times ower for his "gude gray mare.'" 

The parish of Lochmaben, containing also the villages 
of Templand, Hightae, Greenhill, Heck, and Small- 
holm, is bounded N by Johnstone, E by Applegarth and 
Dryfesdale, S by Dalton and Mouswald, W by Torthor- 
wald and Tinwald, and NW by Eirkmichael. Its 
utmost length, from N by W to S by E, is 9 miles ; its 
breadth varies between If furlong and i miles ; and its 
area is ll,367i acres, of which 555 are water. The 
Annan, in mazy folds, flows lOf miles south-by-east- 
72 



ward along or close to all the eastern border ; Kinnel 
Water winds 4| miles south-soutli-eastward through the 
northern interior, till it falls into the Annan at a point 
1§ mile NE of the town ; and the Kinnel itself is joined 
by the Water of Ae, flowing 1^ mile north-eastward 
along the Kirkmichael boundary and through the north- 
western interior. Six lakes, with their utmost length 
and breadth in furlongs, are Castle Loch (6 x 5J) and 
Hightae Loch (2| x IJ), to the S of the town ; Kirk 
Loch (SixlJ), to the SW ; Mill Loch (3 x IJ) and 
Upper Loch (l^xl), to the NW ; and Halleath or 
Broomhill Loch (4 x 2J), to the E. Under Castle 
Loch we have noticed the vendace, which is also taken 
in Mill Loch. Over most of the area the surface sinks 
little below 140, and little exceeds 230, feet above 
sea-level ; but in the SW it rises to 788 feet at Carthat 
Hill, 816 at the Mouswald boundary, and 803 at the 
Torthorwald boundary. Permian red sandstone, suit- 
able both for masonry and for roofing, has been largely 
quarried at Corncockle Moor, and there presents fossil 
reptilian footprints. The soil towards the W is light 
and gravelly, but elsewhere is uncommonly rich, con- 
sisting over a large area of the finest alluvial loam, 
occasionally 9 feet deep, and everywhere growing capital 
crops. The land is too valuable to admit more than 
some 90 acres of plantation ; but it is finely enclosed, and 
sheltered by rows of trees. Excepting three small 
mosses, which are of value for fuel, the whole parish is 
capable of cultivation, though a largish proportion is 
disposed in meadow-land and pasture. Overlooking the 
Mill Loch, J mile NW of the town, is a rising-ground 
called Woody or Dinwoody Castle. The summit shows 
no vestiges of building, but is surrounded with a very 
distinct trench. In a field SW of the town is the 
circular trace of a tower, which is called Cockle's Field, 
from one John Cock, or O'Cock, who resided in it, and 
was one of the most renowned freebooters of Annandale. 
An old ballad, still extant, details his feats of arms, 
dilates on his personal strength, and narrates the manner 
of his death. A party of the king's foresters, to whom 
he had been an intolerable pest, and whom he had 
relieved of many a fat deer, chancing one day to find 
him asleep in the forest, cautiously beset him, and were 
bent on his destruction. John suddenly awaking, and 
perceiving at once the snare into which he had fallen, 
and the hopelessness of escape, resolved to sell his life 
dearly, and ere they could overpower him, laid seven of 
their number dead at his feet. In the SW corner of the 
parish is a large and artificial mound of earth, per- 
fectly circular, quite entire, and terminating in a sharp 
tower. It is called both Rockhall Moat and the Beacon 
Hill, and possibly served both as a moat or seat of feudal 
justice, and as a beacon-post for descrying the move- 
ments of Border marauders, and giving the alarm. Its 
position is on the summit of a low but conspicuous ridge 
which divides Nithsdale, or rather the district of Lochar 
Moss, from Annandale, and commands a map-like and 
very brilliant view of a large part of the champaign 
country of Dumfriesshire, a portion of Galloway, and all 
the Solway Firth. The parish has remains of several 
Roman encampments ; and must have been traversed by 
Agricola, along a route easily traced, on his march 
from Brunswark Hill to Glota and Bodotria. On 
the lands of Rokele, or Rockhall, there anciently 
stood an endowed chapel, the pertinents of which, 
though seized by lay hands at the Reformation, now 
yield some proceeds to the parish minister. Some other 
pre-Reformation chapels existed in the parish, but cannot 
now be very distinctly traced. Spedlins Tower has been 
noticed under Jardine Hall. 

The four villages of Heck, Greenhill, Hightae, and 
Smallholm, with the lands around them, form the 
barony of Lochmaben, or the Fourtowns. The lands 
are a large and remarkably fertile tract of holm, extend- 
ing along the W side of the Annan, from the vicinity of 
Lochmaben Castle to the southern extremity of the 
parish. The inhabitants of the villages are proprietors 
of the lands, and hold them by a species of tenure, 
nowhere else known in Scotland except in the Orkney 

641 



Lo'cHMADDY 

Islands. From time immemorial they have been called 
' the King's kindly tenants, ' and occasionally the 
'rentallers' of the Crown. The lands originally be- 
longed to the kings of Scotland, or formed part of their 
proper patrimony, and were granted, as is generally 
believed, by Bruce, the Lord of Annandale, on his 
inheriting the throne, to his domestic servants or to 
the garrison of the castle. The rentaliers were bound 
to provision the royal fortress, and probably to carry 
arms in its defence. They have no charter or seisin, 
but hold their title by mere possession, yet can alienate 
their property by a deed of conveyance, and by procur- 
ing for the purchaser enrolment in the rental-book of the 
Earl of Mansfield. The new possessor pays a small fee, 
takes up his succession without service, and in his turn 
is proprietor simply by actual possession. The tenants 
were, in former times, so annoyed by the constables of 
the castle that they twice made appeals to the Crown, 
and on both occasions — in the reigns respectively of 
James VI, and Charles II. — they obtained orders, under 
the royal sign-manual, to be allowed undisturbed ■ and 
full possession of their singular rights. In more recent 
times, at three several dates, these rights were formally 
recognised bythe Scottish Courtof Session and theBritish 
House of Peers. A chief part of the lands existed till 
the latter half of last century in the form of a common ty, 
but it was then, by mutual agreement, divided ; and 
being provided, in its several parcels, with neat sub- 
stantial farm-houses, and brought fully into cultiva- 
tion, it soon became more valuable than the original 
allotments immediately adjacent to the villages. More 
than a moiety of the lands, however, has been purchased 
piecemeal by the proprietor of Rammerscales, whose 
mansion-house is in the vicinity, within the limits of 
Dalton parish. But such portions as remain unalienated 
exhibit, in the persons of their owners, a specimen of 
rustic and Lilliputian aristocracy unparalleled in the 
kingdom. If the possession of landed property in a 
regular line of ancestry for several generations is what 
confers the dignity of gentleman, that title may be 
justly claimed by a community whose fathers have 
owned and occupied their ridges and acres from the 
13th century. Their names run so in clusters that 
soubriquets are very generally in use. Richardson is 
commonest, then Eae, Kennedy, Nicholson, and Wright. 
These names were borne by companions of Wallace and 
Bruce in their struggles against the usurping Edward. 

Mansions, noticed separately, are Elshieshields 
Tower and Halleath ; and 8 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 11 of between £100 
and £500, U of from £50 to £100, and 49 of from £20 
to £50. Lochmabeu is the seat of a presbytery in the 
synod of Dumfries ; the living is worth £384. A Free 
church at Hightae, built for a Relief congregation in 
1796, and afterwards Reformed Presbyterian, was restored 
in 1883. Three public schools — Hightae, Lochmaben, 
and Templand — with respective accommodation for 152, 
425, and 94 children, had (1882) an average attendance 
of 72, 283, and 75, and grants of £51, 15s., £247, 12s., 
and £63, 3s. Valuation (1860) £10,502, (1884) £13,997, 
6s. 4d. Pop. (1801) 2053, (1831) 2795, (1861) 3087, 
(1871) 3085, (1881) 2816.— OrcZ. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

The presbytery of Lochmaben comprises the parishes 
of Applegarth, Dalton, Dryfesdale, Button, Johnstone, 
Kirkmichael, Kirkpatrick-Juxta, Lochmaben, Moffat, 
Mouswald, St Mungo, Tundergarth, and Wamphray. 
Pop. (1871) 16,177, (1881) 16,126, of whom 3876 were 
communicants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. The 
Free Church presbytery, comprising the parishes around 
Lochmaben, takes designation from Lockerbie. 

See AVilliam Graham, Lochmaben Five Hundred Years 
Ago (Edinb. 1865) ; and M. E. Gumming Bruce, Family 
Hecords of the Bruces and the Cumyns (Edinb. 1870). 

Lochmaddy, a village and a sea-loch in North Uist 
island. Outer Hebrides, luverness-sliire. The village, 
on the W shore of the sea-loch, 19^ miles W of Vaternish 
Point in Skye and 65 SW by S of Stornoway, com- 
municates regularly with Skye and the Scottish main- 
land by steamers, and is a centre of trade and commerce 
542 



LOCHNAW CASTLE 

for the middle and southern portions of the Outer 
Hebrides. It comprises some poor huts, an inn, a 
sheriff's residence, and a court-house and prison, at con- 
siderable distances one from another ; and has a post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, a branch of the Caledonian Bank, and a 
considerably frequented harbour. The sea-loch, opening 
on the E from the Little Minch, and expanding from 
an entrance only IJ mile wide to an interior width 
of 2| miles, penetrates the land to a length of a\ miles, 
and includes, not one harbour, but many harbours, safe, 
capacious, and wanting nothing but sufBcient trade to 
render them one of the finest groups of natural harbours 
in the world. About \ mile inward from the sea are 
two remarkable isolated rocks of columnar basalt, 100 
feet high, called Maddy-More and Maddy-Grisioch, 
which serve as marks to mariners. The country around 
is all low, flat, and peaty country ; and Loch Maddy itself 
is so beset with innumerable islets and intersected by 
multitudes of little peninsulas, as to present a perfect 
labyrinth of land and water. It does not cover more 
than 9 square miles with its waters, but its aggregate 
coast-line can hardly be less than 200 miles. 
Loch Maddy or Loch na Meide. See Mudale. 
Lochmalonie, an estate, with a mansion, in Kilmany 
parish, Fife, 4^ miles N by W of Cupar. 

Lochnagar, a finely-shaped mountain of Braemar dis- 
trict, SW Aberdeenshire, 6§ miles SE of Castletown and 
9| SW of Ballater as the crow flies, but lOi and 13 to 
walk. One of the frontier Grampians, it flanks the W 
side of the upper part of Glenmuick, and blocks the 
heads of Glengelder and Glengarrawalt ; and it rises so 
steeply and fitfully as to be scaleable on foot only with 
extreme fatigue, yet can be conveniently ascended on 
Highland ponies, as by the Queen and Prince Albert 
on 16 Sept. 1848. Far up its north-eastern side lies 
triangular Lochnagar or the ' Lake of the Hare' (2J x 2 
furl. ; 2575 feet), a gloomy tarn, overhung by precipices 
1200 feet high ; and it is gashed on other sides and on 
its shoulders by frightful corries. Some of its higher 
hollows retain deep snow-drifts throughout the summer 
months ; and the whole of it was white with snow all 
day on 4 June 1880. The predominant rock is granite, 
and topazes, beryls, and rock crystals are found. Rising 
to an altitude of 3786 feet above sea-level, Lochnagar 
commands, from its summit a very extensive and most 
magnificent view. Lord Byron pronounced it ' the most 
sublime and picturesque of the Caledonian Alps,' and 
celebrated it, as ' dark Lochnagar, ' in one of his best 
known and most beautiful minor poems. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 65, 1870. 

Loch-na-Eeal, a sea-loch penetrating the W side of 
Mull island, Argyllshire. Opening a little E of Staffa 
island, and extending eastward to the length of 14^ 
miles, it measures 12j miles across the entrance, and 
diminishes gradually to a width of onlj' 1 mile ; con- 
tains Gometra, Ulva, Little Colonsay, Eorsa, and Inch- 
kenneth islands ; is divided by Gometra and Ulva into 
two sections, slenderly connected with each other ; and, 
in the part to the N of Gometi'a and Ulva, bears the 
separate name of Loch Tuadh. 

Loch nan Cuinne. See Kildonan. 
Looh-na-Sheallag. See Lochbroom. 
Lochnaw Castle, a mansion in Leswalt parish, Wig- 
townshire, on the southern shore of the AVhite Loch, 
6f miles WNW of Stranraer. Its oldest part, a central 
square battlemented tower, five stories high, bears date 
1426 ; the modern portion, well harmonising with the 
old, was commenced in 1820. The garden and grounds 
are of great beauty, finely wooded with trees both 
native and exotic. The White Loch (3 x 2J furlongs) 
was drained in the early part of last century, but a 
hundred years after was restored to its original condi- 
tion. It contains abundance of capital trout ; and on 
its wooded islet are traces of the ancient King's Castle 
of Lochuaw. From 1330 to 1747 the Agnews of Loch- 
naw were hereditary sheriffs of Galloway ; and the pre- 
sent representative, Sir Andrew Agnew, eighth Bart, 
since 1629 (b. 1818 ; sue. 1849), Liberal M.P. for Wig- 



LOCHNELL 

townsliire 1856-68, holds 6777 acres in the shire, valued 
at £6997 per annum. See his Agnews of Lochnmo 
(Edinb. 1864).— Ord Sur., sh. 3, 1856. 

Lochnell, an estate, with a mansion, in Ardchattan 
parish, Argyllshire. The mansion, at the head of 
Ardmucknish Bay, 12 miles WNW of Taynuilt, was 
built by Sir Duncan Campbell, and enlarged, at a cost 
of more than £15,000, by his successor. General Camp- 
bell. A spacious and handsome edifice, it was destroyed 
by fire about 1859 ; and an observalfory, in the form of 
a tower, was reduced to a mere shell by fire in 1850, but 
continues to figure conspicuously in the view from the 
neighbouring waters. The pre*3nt proprietor, Archibald 
Argyll Lochnell Campbell, Esq. (b. 1849 ; sue. 1882), 
holds 39,000 acres in the shire, valued at £6801 per 
annum. — Orel. Sur., sh. 45, 1876. 

Lochore House, a mansion, with well-wooded grounds, 
in Ballingry parish, Fife, 3 miles NNW of Lochgelly, 
under which there is a post oflice of Lochore. Tlte lake, 
Loch Ore, which gave it name, was a considerable sheet 
of water, formed by expansion of the river Ore, and was 
drained, towards the close of last century, with the 
result of its bottom becoming very fertile corn land, but 
subject to floods in times of heavy rains. See Ballinguy. 
—Ord. Sm:, sh. 40, 1867. 

Loch Park. See Botriphnie. 

Loch Eanza, a small village, situated round the head 
of a baj' or loch of the same name, on the N coast of 
Arran, Buteshire. The loch, which opens from Kil- 
brannan Sound, pierces the land in a SSE direction, and 
has a length of 7 furlongs and a breadth of J mile. At 
its upper end, a grass-covered peninsula, terminating in 
a shingly spit, stretches almost across the loch, and 
leaves only a narrow opening for the water to pass into 
the inner harbour, formed by this natural breakwater. 
This harbour affords safer anchoring ground than the 
loch, which is much exposed to sudden squalls, and, in 
consequence, the fishermen prefer to lay their boats up 
in it. In the herring-season, however, the loch is often 
crowded with fishing-boats, as it is conveniently near 
Loch Fyne, Kilbrannan Sound, etc. Beyond the har- 
bour lies a stretch of marshy ground, through which 
the Eanza Burn flows by many channels to the sea. On 
both sides of the loch the hills rise to a considerable 
height, while the low ground behind the harbour is 
backed by the range of Caisteal Abhael (2735 feet), 
Meall Mor (1602), and Torr Nead an Eoin (1057), 
mountains which are separated by two glens. On the E 
is Glen Chalmadale, up which passes the carriage road 
to Corrie ; and on the W is Glen Easan Biarach, which 
contains some very grand scenery. Such are the natural 
surroundings that belong — 

' To the lone hamlet, which her inland bay 
And circlinG^ mountains sever from the world.' 

The village of Loch Eanza may be approached either 
by land from Brodick (15 miles S.SE) or direct by sea, 
the Campbeltown steamers "topping off' the mouth of 
the bay, and a large ferry-boat going out for goods and 
passengers. It contains a post-office under Greenock, 
an inn, a public school, two or three small shops, a line 
of cottages on the W side of the bay, and a few houses, 
irregularly dotted round the head and E side of the loch. 
The Free church is a neat, modern building of reddish 
sandstone. Service is held regularly in it, and it is the 
only church in the neighbourhood, the nearest Estab- 
lished church being at Brodick. Loch Eanza gives 
name to a registration district. Pop. (1861) 824, (1871) 
777, (1881) 7l4. 

Loch Eanza Castle stands upon the peninsula which 
sti-etches across the bay. All that now remains is a 
square tower with thick walls, which, combined with 
its situation, must have made the Castle almost im- 
pregnable. The building is now roofless. Although it 
is not known when the Castle was erected, it must be 
very old, since it is mentioned as ' a hunting-seat of the 
Scottish kings in 1380, when it was regarded as one of 
the royal castles.' Like many other places in Arran, 
Loch Eanza and its castle are associated with the name 



LOCHS 

of Robert the Bruce. Uo vestige now remains either ot 
the chapel, built by Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, or of 
the convent of St Bride. — Ord. Sur., sh. 21, 1870. 

Lochridge, an estate, with a mansion, in Stewarton 
parish, Ayrshire, 1 mile S of Stewarton town. 

Lochrutton, a parish of E Kirkcudbrightshire, con- 
tainiug at its south-eastern border the station of Loch- 
anhead, 6 miles SW of Dumfries, and ISJ NE of Castle- 
Douglas ; as also Lochfoot village. If mile NNW of that 
station, and 5J miles WSW of Dumfries, under which 
it has a post office. It is bounded NW and N by Kirk- 
patrick-Irongray, NE by Terregles and Troqueer, SE by 
Troqueer and Newabbey, and SW by Kirkgunzeon and 
Urr. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 5i miles; 
its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 3g miles ;'and its 
area is 7561 acres, of which 150 are water. Loch- 
rutton Loch (7 X 34 furl. ; 325 feet) extends south-by- 
westward from Lochfoot village, and contains the tiny 
islet of Dulton's Cairn and yfe larger Big Island, 
which, partly at least, is an artificial crannoge. Half-a- 
dozen rivulets flow eastward, north-eastward, or west- 
ward to this lake, which sends off Cargen Water 
towards the Nith. Kirkgunzeon or Dalbeattie Burn, 
a feeder of Urr Water, traces all the Newabbey boun- 
dary ; and Merkland Well, near the head of Lochrutton 
Loch, is a strong chalybeate spring, which was formerly 
very celebrated for the cure of agues and of dyspeptic 
and nervous disorders. The surface undulates, sinking 
along the northern and south-eastern boundaries to less 
than 300 feet above sea-level, and rising thence to 637 
feet near tlie manse, 550 near Carswadda, and 604 near 
Slack. The predominant rocks are eruptive and 
Silurian, and the soil is mostly a light shallow loam. 
Nearly six-sevenths of the entire area are in tillage or in 
meadow ; about 250 acres are under wood ; and the rest 
is either pastoral, moss, or waste. An ancient Cale- 
donian stone circle, called the 'Seven Grey Stones,' but 
really comprising nine, with a diameter of 70 feet, is on 
the eminence near the manse, which commands a very 
extensive and brilliant view. Old baronial fortalices, 
or peel towers, were in various places ; and the most 
perfect. Hills Tower, has been noticed separately. 
Henry Duncan, D.D. (1774-1846), the founder of 
savings' banks in Scotland, was the son of a former 
minister. Four proprietors hold each an annual value 
of £500 and upwards, S oTbetween £100 and £500, and 
6 of from £50 to £100. Lochrutton is in the presbytery 
and synod of Dumfries ; the living is worth £221. The 
church, 1 mile E by S of Lochfoot, was built in 1819, 
and contains upwards of 300 sittings. The public 
school, with accommodation for 119 children, had 
(1882) an average attendance of 6S, and a grant of £60. 
Valuation (1860) £5810, (1884) £9076, 17s. 6d. Pop. 
(1801) 514, (1831) 650, (1861) 677, (1871) 656, (1881) 
Gli.—Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Loch Ryan. See Rtan. 

Lochryan, a quoad sacra parish in Inch parish, Wig- 
townshire, around Cairnryan village, on the E side of 
Loch Ryan, 65 miles N of Stranraer. Lochryan House, 
'3 furlongs NNW of Cairnryan, is a plain substantial 
mansion, with finely-wooded grounds. Its owner. Sir 
William T. F. Agnew-Wallace, eighth Bart, since 1669 
(b. 1830 ; sue. 1857), holds 5785 acres in the shire, 
valued at £1373 per annum. The parish is in the 
presbytery of Stranraer and the synod of Galloway ; its 
minister's stipend is £120. The church was built ii 
1841 as a chapel of ease. Pop. (1871) 354, (ISSl) 292. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 3, 1856. 

Lochs, a parish of Lewis proper, Outer Hebrides, 
Eoss-shire, whose church stands on the northern shore 
of Loch Erisort, II4 miles SSW of the post town, 
Stornoway. Its main part, the south-eastern section of 
Lewis proper, is bounded N by Stornoway, E and SE 
by the North Minch, SW by Loch Seaforth and Harris, 
and W by Uig ; another part, the Carloway district, 
on the W coast, is bounded NW by the Atlantic, NE 
by Barvas, E by Stornoway, and S and SW by Uig ; 
and other parts are the Shiant Isles, 5 miles SE of the 
nearest point of the main body, with several islets lying 

543 



LOCHSIDE 



LOCHWINNOCH 



off the coast and within the sea-lochs. The utmost 
length of its main portion, from N to S, is 19J miles, 
its utmost breadth is 16|- miles ; the utmost length of 
the Carloway district, from NW to SE, is 9 miles, its 
utmost breadth is 6J miles ; and the area of the entire 
parish, including foreshore and water, is 225§ square 
miles, or 144,444 acres. A profusion of sea-lochs and 
of fresh-water lakes cuts all the main district into a 
labyrinth of land and water, and gave the parish its 
name of Lochs. Lochs Grimshadar, Luirbost, Erisort, 
Odhairn, Shell, Brolum, Claidh, and Seaforth, pene- 
trate from the sea to lengths of from 2\ to 10 miles ; 
Loch Seaforth, besides penetrating 8f miles inland, lies 
for 7 miles along the boundary with Harris ; fresh- 
water Loch Langavat, with a maximum breadth of 7 
furlongs, extends 8J miles north-north-eastward along 
the boundary with Uig ; innumerable other fresh- 
water lakes, both large aud small, lie scattered over the 
interior ; and several sea-lochs and fresh -water lochs 
also diversify the Carloway district. Kebock Head 
flanking the S side of Loch Odhairn, ITskeuish Point 
flanking the E side of Loch Brolum, and numerous 
smaller headlands jut out along the coast-line, which 
for the most part is very bold and rocky. Part of the 
interior, especially in the south-eastern district, called 
the Park or the Forest, is mountainous, and contains 
the summits of Crionaig (1500 feet) and Benmoee 
(1750) ; elsewhere the surface is mostly low, and either 
marshy or heathy. The Park district, forming a great 
peninsula between Lochs Erisort and Seaforth, and 
intersected by fully one-half of all the sea-lochs, con- 
nects with the south-western district by an isthmus, 
only If mile broad, was once a deer forest, protected by 
a very high wall across that isthmus, and exhibits a 
profusion of wild, grand, Highland scenery. Barely 
one-fiftieth of the entire area is regularly or occasionally 
in tillage ; and all the arable lands have more or less a 
mossy soil, generally of blackish colour, occasionally 
intermixed with gravel, and, to some extent, improved 
by cultivation. The inhabitants mostly reside in 
groups of 40 families or fewer ; and each group has its 
habitations in the form of a sort of village. Lochs has 
largely participated in the improvements effected by 
the late Sir James Matheson, and noticed in our articles 
Hebrides, Lewis, and Stornowat. A great dune is 
in Carlowaj' ; ruins or vestiges of other but smaller 
fortifications are in several other places ; and a ruined 
pre-Reformation church, surrounded by a burying- 
ground, is on Elian Collumkill in the mouth of Loch 
Erisort. Lady Matheson is sole proprietor. Lochs is 
in the presbytery of Lewis and the synod of Glenelg ; 
the living is worth £233. The parish church was built 
about 1830, and contains about 700 sittings. There are 
Free churches of Lochs, Park, Kinloch, and Carloway ; 
and 13 public schools, with total accommodation for 
1564 children, had (1882) an average attendance of 764, 
and grants amounting to £605, 8s. lOd. Valuation 
(1860) £2944, (1884) £4159, lis. 6d. Pop. (1801) 1875, 
(1831) 3067, (1861) 4904, (1871) 5880, (1881) 6284, of 
whom 6128 were Gaelic-speaking. — Ord. Sur., shs. 89, 
105, 1858. 

Lochside, an estate, with a mansion, in Lochwinnoch 
parish, Renfrewshire, 2 miles ESE of the town. 

IiOchton, an estate, with a mansion, in Longforgan 
parish, E Perthshire, 4 miles NNW of Inchture. Its 
owner, Andrew Brown, Esq. (b. 1829), holds 1100 acres 
in the shire, valued at £1122 per annum. — Ord. Sur., 
fih. 48, 1868. 

Lochtower, a quondam baronial fortalice of NE 
Roxburghshire, at the foot of Yetholm Loch, 2 miles W 
of Yetholm village. It belonged to a branch of the 
Ker familj' ; and its site and surrounding scenery were 
the prototype of those of Avenel Castle in Sir Walter 
Scott's Monastery. — Ord. Sur., sh. 26, 1864. 

Lochty, a rivulet, partly of Kinross-shire, but chiefly 
of Fife. Rising on Bennarty Hill, a little NW of 
Lochore House, it runs lOJ miles eastward through or 
along the boundaries of Ballingry, Portmoak, King- 
lassie, Dysart, and Markinch parishes, and falls into the 
544 



Ore 2| miles WSW of the Ore's confluence with the- 
Leven. A bleachfield of its own name is on it within- 
Markinch parish, in the vicinity of Thornton Junction. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Loch Wharral. See Whaeral. 

Loohwinnooh, a town and a parish of S Renfrewshire. 
The town stands on the left bank of the river Calder, at 
the SW end of Castle-Semple Loch, 1 mile NW of 
Lochwinnoch station on the Glasgow & South-Western 
railway, this being 6| miles NNE of Dairy Junction, 
8S SW of Paisley, and 15-2 WSW of Glasgow. Its 
name was written in nearly forty different ways before 
the present spelling was finally adopted; and while the 
first part of it manifestly refers to Castle-Semple Loch, 
the latter part may be either the genitive innich of the 
Celtic innis, 'an island,' refering to an islet in tho 
lake, or the name of a St Winnoc, to whom some old 
chapel on or near the town's site was dedicated. That 
site is a pleasant one, sheltered on all sides except the 
SE by rising-grounds or thick plantations. The older 
part of the town is mean and irregular ; but its modern 
portion comprises a main street, half a mile in length, 
with some streets diverging at right angles, and chiefly 
consists of slated two-story houses. Manufactures ot 
linen cloth, thread, leather, candles, and cotton were 
formerly carried on ; but a wool-mill, a bleachfield, and 
a steam-laundrj' are now the only industrial establish- 
ments. Lochwinnoch has a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, a 
branch of the National Bank, an inn, a gas company, 
reading and recreation rooms, an agricultural society, Sr 
public library, and cattle fairs on the second Tuesday of 
May and the first Tuesday of November, both old style. 
The parish church (1806 ; 1150 sittings) has the form of 
an irregular octagon, and is adorned with a columnar 
porch, surmounted by a neat short spire. The Free 
church was built soon after the Disruption ; and the 
U.P. church (1792 ; 503 sittings) is in the form of an 
octagon with a small front tower. Pop. (1841) 2681, 
(1861) 1190, (1871) 1683, (1881) 1192, of whom 659 were 
females. Houses (1881) 329 inhabited, 122 vacant. 

The parish of Lochwinnoch, containing also the- 
village of HowwooD, is bounded N by Kilmalcolm and 
Kilbarchan, E by Kilbarchan, Neilston, and Dunlop, 
and S and SW by the Ayrshire parishes of Beith, Kil- 
birnie, and Largs. Its utmost length, from WNW to- 
ESE, is 11 miles ; its utmost breadth is 6g miles ; and 
its area is 19, 877 J acres, of which 371 J are water. 
Castle-Semple Looh (If mile x 3 furl. ; 90 feet) ex- 
tends across the greater part of the interior, and divides 
the parish into two parts of about one-third on the SE, 
and two-thirds on the NW. Kilbirnie Loch (11| x 3^ 
furl. ; 105 feet) touches a projecting point on the 
southern border ; Queenside Loch (2J x 1 furl. ; 130O 
feet) lies among hills in the extreme NW ; and Walls 
Loch (4J X 3 furl. ; 560 feet) lies on the eastern boun- 
dary. Rowbank Dam is the Paisley reservoir. The 
Calder, rising in Largs parish at an altitude of 1400- 
feet above sea-level, flows 9^ miles east-south-eastward 
to the head of Castle-Semple Loch, out of which the 
Black Cart runs 2§ miles north-eastward along the 
Kilbarchan boundary. Auchenbathie Burn winds 4 
miles along the Beith boundary to the head of Castle- 
Semple Loch ; Dubbs Buru, running from Kilbirnie 
to Castle-Semple Loch, traces for IJ mUe further the 
boundary with Ayrshire ; and Maich Water, rising and 
running \\ mile near the western border, traces for 4 
miles a portion of the Ayrshire boundary south-south- 
eastward to Kilbirnie Loch. The surface of the south- 
eastern division of the parish nowhere exceeds 656 feet 
above sea-level ; but that of the north-western attains 
908 feet at Thornlybank Hill on the northern boundary, 
and of 1711 at the Hill of Stake on the south-western, 
the highest summit of the Mistylaw HiUs. The central 
district is mainly a low-lying valley along the banks of 
Dubbs Burn, Castle-Semple Loch, and the Black Cart, 
flanked with slopes, undulations, and rising-grounds up- 
to the base of the hills. It formerly contained a much 
larger expanse of Castle-Semple Loch than now, and an 



LOCHWOOD TOWER 



LOCKERBIE 



'entire other lake called Barr Loch ; and, having an 
elevation over great part of its area of not more than 
from 90 to 170 feet above sea-level, it possesses a wealth 
■of artificial embellishment in wood and culture, and 
presents a warm and beautiful appearance. Partly 
■eruptive and partly carboniferous, the rocks comprise 
■all varieties of trap, fused into one another in endless 
gradations. They include workable beds of limestone, 
sandstone, and coal ; and contain carbonate of copper, 
oxide of manganese, jasper, agate, very fine ivhite 
pi'ehnite, and other interesting minerals. The soil of 
the lower grounds is clay and loam ; and that of the 
higher grounds, exclusive of the moors, is of a light, 
dry qualitj'. ^Nearly half of the entire area is arable ; 
more than 700 acres is under wood, and the rest is 
either pastoral or waste. The chief antiquities are Barr 
Tower, Elliston Castle, foundations or sites of Castle- 
Tower and Beltrees, Cloak, and Lorabank Castles, re- 
mains of an ancient camp on Castlewalls farm, an 
ancient bridge at Bridgend, and various relics found 
in Castle-Semple Loch. Alexander Wilson (1766- 
1813), minor poet and American ornithologist, worked 
at Lochwinnoch as a journeyman weaver. Three estates, 
noticed separately, are Castle-Semple, Barr, and Auchen- 
bathie ; and 8 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
.£500 and upwards. Lochwinnoch is in the presbytery 
-of Paisley and the synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the 
living is worth £450. At Howwood is a chapel of ease ; 
and four public schools — Glenhead, Howwood, Loch- 
winnoch, and Macdowall — with respective accommoda- 
tion for 66, 140, 250, and 92 children, had (1882) an 
average attendance of 29, 114, 183, and 61, and grants 
■of £31, 7s. 6d., £103, 16s., £169, 7s., and £48, 12s. 6d. 
Valuation (1860) £17,965, (1884; £30,154, Is. Id. Pop. 
(1801) 2955, (1841) 4716, (1861) 3821, (1871) 3816, 
<1881) SS69.— Orel. Sur., shs. 30, 22, 1866-65. 

Lochwood Tower, a ruined baronial fortalice in John- 
stone parish, Dumfriesshire, 6 J miles S of Moifat. 
Standing upon a rising-ground amid a flat expanse that 
formerly was forest and morass, it was the seat, from 
the 14th century, of the Johnstones, who received the 
■titles of Lord Johnstone of Lochwood (1633), Earl of 
Hartfell (1643), Earl of Annandale and Hartfell 
(1661), and Marquis of Annandale (1701). It was 
burned by the Maxwells in 1593, but restored and 
again inhabited, till in 1724 it was finally abandoned. 
■Of great strength, seemingly at once in structure and 
from situation, it now is represented by only one angle, 
-with two vaulted rooms, and an outspread mass of 
rubbish. The ruins are embosomed in grand old trees, 
ithe finest of which, with their girth in feet at 5 feet 
from the ground, are two oaks (20 and 18f), a syca- 
more (13J), and an ash (17).— Ord Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Lochy, a stream of Glenorchy and luuishail parish, 
Argyllshire, issuing from Lochan Bhe (822 feet), 2 miles 
"WSrW of Tyndrum, and running 8| miles west-south- 
westward, till, after a descent of 676 feet, it falls into 
the Orchy at a point IJ mile above Dalmallv. It is 
-closely followed by the high road and by the Callander 
and Oban railway.— 0;-rf. &M-.,;shs. 46, 45, 1872-76. 

Loehy, a small river of Breadalbane district, W Perth- 
. shire, rising at an altitude of 2050 feet, and curving 17-J 
miles east-north-eastward, till, after a total descent of 
1690 feet, it falls, near Killin village, into the Dochart, 
J mile above the influx of the latter to Loch Tay. It 
forms, 2J mUes NW of Killin, a series of six cataracts 
in two groups, with a deep round pool between. Higher 
than this salmon cannot ascend ; but capital trout fishing 
may be had all up Glenlochy. — Orel. Sur., sh. 46, 1872. 

Lochy, a lake and a river of SW Inverness-shire. 
Lying 93 feet above sea-level. Loch Lochy is the south- 
westernmost of the chain of fresh-water lakes in the 
Great Glen, and forms part of the navigation of the 
•Caledonian Canal. It extends 9| miles south-west- 
■ward, and varies in width between 1 and 9| furlongs. 
It receives the Archaig on its north-western side, and 
the stream from Glenglof on its south-eastern ; has 
:steep shores and lofty continuous mountain screens, 
mostly of bare appearance, and here and there torn with 



gullies ; commands, to the SW, a magnificent vista, 
closed by Ben Nevis ; near its banks has Glenfintaig 
House, Glenfintaig Lodge, and Achnacarry House ; and 
adjoins, at its head, the scene of a sanguinary battle, 
fought in 1544 between the Frasers under the fifth Lord 
Lovat and the Macdonalds of Clanranald. On 12 Sept. 
1873 the Queen, who was staying at Inverlochy, sailed 
half way up Loch Lochy on the small screw steamer of 
Cameron of Lochiel, and by him was shown the scenes 
of Prince Charlie's wanderings — an excursion described 
on pp. 252-256 of More Leetves from' the Journal of a 
Life in the Highlands (1884), The river Lochy, 
issuing from the foot of the lake, winds 9g miles 
south-south-westward along the mutual border of Kil- 
mallie and Kilmonivaig parishes — for the last 5J miles 
dividing Inverness-shire from Argyllshire — till, near 
Fort William, it falls into the head of salt-water Loch 
Linnhe. It goes first for 3J furlongs in an artificial 
channel, cut for it at the formation of the Caledonian 
Canal, and then for 5 furlongs in the channel of its 
former tributary, the Spean, and it rushes with such 
force and raj)idity into Loch Eil as to preserve, for a 
considerable distance, distinctness of current and fresh- 
ness of water. One of its greatest spates, that of 22 
June 1880, swept away 350 sheep at Inverlochy. It is 
one of the best salmon streams in Scotland, and contains 
also plenty of sea and river trout. — Orel. Sur., shs. 63, 
62, 1873-75. 

Lochy, Bum of Brown or. See Kiekmichael, 
Banffshire. 

Lochyside, a hamlet in Kilmallie parish, Argyllshire, 
on the right bank of the Lochy, 3 miles NNE of Fort 
William. 

Lockerbie, a market town and police burgh in Dryfes- 
dale parish, Annandale, Dumfriesshire. It stands 244 
to 297 feet above sea-level, at the SW base of steep 
Whitewoollen Hill (733 feet), on a flat tract 2 miles E 
of the river Annan and 1 J mile W of the Water of Milk. 
Its station, on the main line of the Caledonian, is the 
junction for Dumfries and Portpatrick, by rail being 
25 J miles NW of Carlisle, 144 ENE of Dumfries, 47| 
SSE of Carstairs, and 75J S by W of Edinburgh ; and 
this station, on 15 May 1883, was the scene of a railway 
accident, in which 7 persons were killed and 25 wounded. 
The country around is one of the pleasautest parts of 
Annandale ; and the town itself, a neat and thriving 
place, stretches N and S, on the E being flanked by a 
beautiful rising-ground, called Lockerbie Hill (615 feet). 
Like most of the Border towns, it originated in the pro- 
tection and influence of a castle or fortalice. On a 
ridge, which was nearly surrounded by two lochlets, 
now drained, and one of them anciently traversed by 
the great Roman road up Annandale, stands an ancient 
cjuadrangular tower, the seat in bj'gone days of the 
Johnstones of Lockerbie. Around this tower grew up a 
hamlet, which gi-adually swelled into a village, and 
eventually, b}' the liberal policy of granting feus and 
long tacks, increased to the bulk of a small provincial 
town. But though the place is of remote origin, and 
the scene of some curious traditionary tales (the phrase, 
' a Lockerbie lick, ' dating back to the battle of Deyfe 
Sands, 1593), it comes mainly into notice as the seat of 
a vast lamb fair, and of considerable pastoral traffic. 
After the union of the Crowns, and the commencement 
of international friendly intercourse, English dealers 
here yearly met the Dumfriesshire sheep-farmers, to 
buy their surplus stock for the southern markets. The 
' tryst,' as the meeting was called, was held on the skiit 
of Lockerbie Hill ; but it grew with the growth of inter- 
course between the two nations, till it could no longer 
be held within the limits of its original arena. Some 
one, unknown to record and tradition, now granted, for 
the holding of the tryst, the whole hill in perpetuity as 
' a common ' to the town. This common — above 100 
acres in extent — was once, in some way or other, 
dependent on the city of Glasgow ; but, the right of 
superiority having been bought up by the Douglases of 
Lockerbie House, it is let out by auction to a person 
who exacts a small sum per score for the lambs shown 

545 



LOCKEEBIE HOUSE 

on it, and who, in some good years, pays £30 to the 
proprietor for a single day's collection. The lamb fair 
of Lockerbie is the largest in Scotland, no fewer than 
from 30,000 to 50,000 lambs being usually on the 
ground ; and the day for it is late in the season, being 
the 13th of August, old style, unless that be a Saturday, 
a Sunday, or a Monday, and in that case the Tuesday 
following. Thursday is market-day ; and fourteen other 
fairs — for pork, cattle, and sheep, or hiring — are held 
in the course of the year — on the second Thursdays of 
Jan., Feb., March, April, May, and Nov., on the third 
Thursdays of June, July, and Oct., and on the Thurs- 
day before Christmas (all ten according to old style), on 
the Thursdays before 19 April and 30 Sept., and on the 
Thursdays after the October Falkirk Tryst and the first 
November Doune Tryst. Lockerbie has a new post 
office (1883), with money order, savings' bank, insur- 
ance, and telegraph departments, branches of the Bank 
of Scotland and the Clydesdale, Commercial, and Koyal 
Banks, a local savings' bank (1824), 19 insurance 
agencies, 2 hotels, a gas company (1855), a drill-hall, 
and a Thursday Liberal paper — the Annandale Herald 
and Moffat Neios (1862). Nearly £1000 has been ex- 
pended by the police commissioners on the erection of 
water-works at the head of Bridge Street ; but the water 
supply, as also the drainage, is still very defective. A 
project started in 1873 to build a market-house from 
designs by the late David Bryce, R.S.A., has resulted 
only in the purchase of a site and the depositing in a 
bank of £900 subscribed. A mechanics' institute, 
originating in a bequest of Mr George Easton of Chester, 
was erected in 1866 at a cost of £1050. Scottish 
Baronial in style, it comprises a reading-room and a 
lecture-hall, with accommodation for more than 800 
persons. The minister of the parish, the U. P. minister, 
and the Provost of Dumfries are its trustees. Dryfes- 
dale public school is a handsome and commodious 
Gothic edifice, built in 1875 at a cost of £4500, 
exclusive of site, and having accommodation for 600 
children. Dryfesdale parish church was built in 1757, 
and contains 750 sittings ; the session-house and the 
ti-ont wall of the churchyard were rebuilt in 1883 at a 
cost of £350. There are also a conspicuous Free church 
(1872) and an Early English U.P. church, rebuilt in 
1874-75 at a cost of £2600, with 500 sittings and a 
spire 135 feet high. The municipal voters numbered 
445 in 1884, when the annual value of real property 
amounted to £6500, whilst the revenue, including 
assessments, is £325. Pop. (1831) 1414, (1851) 1569, 
(1861) 1709, (1871) 1960, (1881) 2029, of whom 1046 
were females. Houses (1881) 414 inhabited, 25 vacant, 
13 building.— Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

A Free Church presbytery of Lockerbie, in the synod 
of Dumfries, comprises the churches of Annan, Canon- 
bie, Ecclefechan, Eskdalemuir, Halfmorton, Johnstone, 
Kirkmichael, Eirkpatrick- Fleming, Langholm, Loch- 
maben, Lockerbie, and Moffat, which 12 churches to- 
gether had 2138 members in 1883. 

Lockerbie House, a mansion in Dryfesdale parish, 
Dumfriesshire, IJ mile N by E of Lockerbie town. Its 
owner, Arthur Henry Johnstone-Douglas, Esq. (b. 1846; 
sue. 1866), holds 2336 acres in the shire, valued at 
£3345 per annum.— Ori^. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Logan, an estate, with a Scottish Baronial mansion, 
enlarged (1872) from designs by David Bryce, E.S.A., 
in Kirkmaiden parish, SW Wigtownshire, 2:^ miles SSE 
of Ardwell. Its owner, James M'Douall, Esq. (b. 1840 ; 
sue. 1872), holds 16,290 acres in the shire, valued at 
£14,786 per annum, his ancestors having possessed the 
estate from time immemorial. See Port Logan. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 1, 1856. 

Logan or Glencorse Burn, a rivulet of Penicuik and 
Glencorse parishes, Edinburghshire, rising 1400 feet 
above sea-level, among the Pentland Hills, at a point 
44 miles W by N of Penicuik town, and running 7| 
miles north-eastward and east-south-eastward, till, after 
a total descent of SOO feet, it falls into the North Esk 
in the vicinity of Auchendinny. See Glencorse. — Ord. 
Swr., sh. 32, 1857. 
546 



LOGIE 

Loganbank, a mansion in Glencorse parish, Edin- 
burghshire, near the right bank of Glencorse Burn, 1^. 
mile N by W of Auchendinny station. Gradually 
enlarged under the superintendence of David Bryce, 
E.S.A., it at first was a small thatched house, built- 
in 1810 by the Eev. John Inglis, D.D. (1763-1834), 
minister of Old Greyfriars, Edin burgh, who died here. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Logan House, a mansion in Old Cumnock parish, Ayr- 
shire, near the left bank of Lugar Water, IJ mile E by 
N of Cumnock town. Its owner, William Allason 
Cuninghame, Esq. (b. 1805), holds 3783 acres in the 
shire, valued at £2836 per annum. The famous Ayr- 
shire wit, Hugh Logan, better known as the Laird of 
Logan, passed most of his life on the estate. — Ord. 
Sur. , sh. 14, 1863. 

Logan House, a mansion in Lesmahagow parish, 
Lanarkshire, on a head-stream of Logan Water, 7 miles 
SW of Abbeygreen. Logan Water, formed by four head- 
streams which rise close to the Ayrshire boundary, runs 
6 miles north-eastward and east-by-southward to the 
Nethan.— Or(Z. Sur., sh. 23, 1865. 

Logan House, an old mansion in Penicuik parish, 
Edinburghshire, on the left bank of Logan Burn, 6^ 
miles NW of the town. Its owner, Charles Cowan, Esq. 
(b. 1801), Liberal M.P. for Edinburgh 1847-59, holds 
5677 acres in the shire, valued at £1816 per annum. 
See Glencorse.— OrcZ. Sur., sh. 32. 1857. 

Loganlee, a hamlet in Glencorse parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, a little N of Greenlaw Barracks, and 2 miles NNE 
of Penicuik. 

Logie. See Crimond. 

Logie, a 17th century baronial mansion, with s- 
modern W wing, in Edinkillie parish, Elginshire, on 
the right bank of the Findhorn, 2J miles NNW of 
Duniphail station. Its owner. Miss Gumming (sue. 
1880), holds 1625 acres in the shire, valued at £529 
per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Logie, a mansion in Dunfermline parish, Fife, on th& 
PiTTENORiErF estate, 1 J mUe SW of Dunfermline town. 

Logie, a quoad sacra parish iu Liff and Benvie 
parish, Forfarshire, now incorporated with Liff and 
Benvie. Constituted in 1877, it is in the presbytery of 
Dundee and the synod of Angus and Mearns. Pop. 
(1881) 4270. 

Logie, a village and a parish of NE Fife. The village 
stands 3 miles NNW of Dairsie station, and 5 NNE of 
its post-town, Cupar. 

The parish, containing also the village of Lucklawhill 
Feus, was anciently called Logie-Murdoch. It is 
bounded N by Forgan, E by Leuchars, S by Dairsie, 
and W and NW by Kilmany. Its utmost length, from 
NE to SW, is 4| miles ; its breadth varies between f 
mile and 2^ miles ; and its area is 3599J acres. Motray 
Water traces the northern boundary, Moonzie Burn 
traces the southern ; and the surface, sinking along 
these two streams to 85 and 180 feet above sea-level, 
between them rises in several parallel ridges to 335 feet 
at Crumblie Hill, 626 at Lucklaw or Inchlaw Hill, and 
571 at Forret Hill. The predominant rocks are eruptive ; 
and the soil on the slopes of the hills is mostly a good 
fertile loam, on their shoulders and summits is thin and 
moorish. Nearly five-sixths of the entire area are in. 
tillage ; 290 acres are under wood ; and the rest of the 
land is pastoral or waste. The estate of Logie, on the 
S side of the parish, belonged in the time of Robert III. 
to Sir John Wemyss, ancestor of the Earls of Wemyss, 
and passed in the reign of James VI. to a younger 
branch of the Wemyss family. An incident in the life 
of one of its proprietors forms the theme of a ballad 
called the Laird of Logie, and published by Sir Walter 
Scott in his Minstrelsy of the SeoUish Border. Cruivie 
Castle, the chief antiquity, has been separately noticed. 
John West, author of a System of Mathematics, was the 
son of a minister of the parish, who lived about the 
middle of last century. Logie is in the presbytery of 
Cupar and synod of Fife ; the living is wortli £252. The 
parish church (1826) was restored in 1882, and contains 
280 sittings. There is also a Free church; and a public 



LOGIE 

scliool, \vith accommodation for 72 children, had (1882) 
an average attendance of 55, and a grant of £63, 18s. 
Valuation (1860) £4724, 10s. 5d., (1884) £6386, 7s. 
Pop. (1801) 339, (1831) 430, (1861) 410, (1871) 402, 
(1881) S90.— Orel. Sur., shs. 48, 49, 1868-65. 

Logie, a parish of Stirling, Clackmannan, and Perth 
shires, containing most of the post-town of Bridge of 
Allan, part of the royal burgh of Stirling, the villages 
of Catjsewayhead and Menstrie, and the hamlets of 
Blairlogie and Craigmill. The Stirlingshire portion 
is in two sections, detached from each other, and the 
smaller detached from all the rest of the county ; the 
larger Clackmannanshire section is likewise detached 
from the rest of Clackmannanshire by the intervention 
of the Perthshire portion ; yet all five sections lie 
mutually contiguous, and form a compact whole. The 
entire parish is bounded NW and N by Dunblane, E 
by Alva and Alloa, S by St Ninians and Stirling,^ and 
W by Lecropt. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 6J 
miles ; its utmost breadth, from E to W, is 5-J miles ; and 
its area is 12,079 acres, of which 53 are foreshore and 
212J- water, whilst 3095 belong to Stirlingshire, 598 to 
Perthshire, and 3811 to Clackmannanshire. Allan 
Water flows to the Forth 2J miles southward along or 
close to all the Lecropt boundary ; the Forth, in the 
serpentine winding of the 'Links of Forth,' meanders 
llj miles east-south-eastward along all the southern 
boundary, though the point where it iirst touches and 
that where it quits the parish are but 4| miles distant 
as the crow flies ; the Devon winds 2| miles west-south- 
westward along the upper part of the Alloa boundary ; 
and Wharry Burn runs 5J miles westward and south- 
westward along most of the Dunblane boundary on its 
way to the Allan. The surface all S of Blairlogie and 
Bridge of Allan is low, flat carseland, only 15 to 40 feet 
above sea-level ; but northward it rises to 362 feet at 
isolated Abbey Craig, 1375 at abrupt Dunmyat, 896 
at Pendriechmuir, 1240 at Myreton Hill, and 1832 at 
Colsnaur Hill. The southern district, thus, all onward 
from the Forth, to the extent of nearly one-third of 
the entire area is strong and beautiful carse land, unsur- 
passed in opulence by any land in the kingdom ; the 
eastern district is part of the beautiful vale of Strath- 
allan, with flanking braes rising eastward ; and all the 
rest is part of the grand masses, romantic intersections, 
and lofty shoulders and summits of the Ochil Hills. 
The entire landscape, both in itself and in views com- 
manded from it, is exquisitely picturesque ; and the south- 
ern front of the Oehils in particular, in one continuous 
chain from E to W, with soaring precipitous acclivity, 
parti}' clothed in verdure, partly rugged precipice and 
naked rock, both offer magnificent features in its own 
vast facade, and commands most gorgeous and extensive 
prospects from each of its many vantage grounds. Dun- 
myat, standing out boldly in the middle of that grand 
front, and Abbey Craig, rising isolatedly in advance of 
it, and crowned with the conspicuous Wallace Monu- 
ment, are specially prominent, both for their own pictur- 
esqueness and for the views which they command. The 
rocks of the plain are carboniferous ; those of the hills 
are eruptive. Coal does not seem to exist in any work- 
able thickness ; limestone of coarse quality occurs in 
thin beds, as also does shale or slate clay, containing 
balls of claj' ironstone ; whilst sandstone of various 
shades of white and red is plentiful. Greenstone and 
amygdaloid are the most common of the eruptive rocks ; 
and they contain iron ores, agates, rock crystals, calc 
spar, heavy spar, and other minerals. A mine of copper 
ore was for some time mined near Westerton, and seemed 
to have the promise of a very rich vein ; but it failed to 
repay the cost of working, and was abandoned in 1807. 
The famous mineral springs of Airthrey have been sepa- 
rately noticed. The soil of the carse lands is rich argilla- 
ceous alluvium ; of the hill slopes is mostly good loam ; 
and of the uplands is either sandy or moorish. About 
two-fifths of the entire area are arable ; one-tenth is 
under wood ; and one-half is either pastoral or waste. 
The Battle of Stirling (11 Sept. 1297), in which Wallace 
defeated the English under Surrey and Cressiugham, was 



LOGIE-EUCHAN 

fought to the W of the Abbey Craig. Antiquities are 
a Roman causeway across the Forth at Manor, faint 
traces of a Pictish fort on Castle Law, sites of a pre- 
Reformation chapel and hermitage, and the grand old 
tower of Cambuskenneth Abbey. Sir Ralph Aber- 
cromby, K.B. (1734-1801), the hero of Aboukir Bay, 
was born at Menstrie. Airthrey Castle is the principal 
mansion ; and 9 proprietors hold each an annual value 
of £600 and upwards, 28 of between £100 and £500. 
Giving off Bridge of Allan quoad sacra parish, Logie is 
in the presbytery of Dunblane and the synod of ]?erth 
and Stirling ; the living is worth £418. The parish 
church, 2 miles ESE of Bridge of Allan, is a plain edifice 
of 1806, containing 644 sittings. Its predecessor, a little 
way NNW, is a beautiful ivy-clad ruin, with a number 
of very old tombstones. Three public schools — Bridge 
of Allan, Causewayend, and Menstrie — with respective 
accommodation for 200, 120, and 250 children, had (1882) 
an average attendance of 160, 69, and 149, and grants 
of £132, 15s., £59, 9s., and £121, 12s. Valuation (1860) 
£21,409, (1884) £37,229, 2s. lid., of which £24,192, 
12s. 6d. was for Stirlingshire, £9481, 12s. 8d. for Clack- 
mannanshire, and £3554, 17s. 9d. for Perthshire. Pop. 
(1801) 2166, (1831) 1945, (1861) 3483, (1871) 4553, 
(1881) 4696, of whom 2986 were in Stirlingshire, 1438 
in Clackmannanshire, and 273 in Perthshire, whilst 2234 
were in the ecclesiastical parish. — Orel. Sur. , sh. 39, 1869. 

Logie, a mansion in Kirriemuir parish, Forfarshire, 
1| mile SSE of the town. Its owner. Col. John Grant- 
Kinloch (b. 1807 ; sue. 1824), holds 2059 acres in the 
shire, valued at £2732 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 56, 
1870. 

Logiealmond, a district in Monzie parish, central 
Perthshire, and a qiwael sacree parish, partly also in 
Fowlis-Wester, Methven, and Redgorton. The district 
lies on the N bank of the river Almond, 6 miles NW of 
Methven station ; and in 1702 was annexed quoeiel sacra to 
Moneydie. It contains the meeting-point of the three 
ancient dioceses of Dunblane, Dunkeld, and St Andrews, 
and according to tradition was a place of conference 
for the bishops of those three sees. (See Monzie.) 
The quoad sacra parish, constituted about 1852, is in 
the presbytery of Perth and the -synod of Perth and 
Stirling ; its minister's stipend is £120. An ancient 
church at Chapelhill, which had been in a ruinous state 
for upwards of a century, was refitted for public worship 
in 1834, and contains 285 sittings. There are also a 
Free church and a U.P. church (1811 ; 460 sittings); 
and a public school, with accommodation for 73 chil- 
dren, had (1882) an average attendance of 66, and a 
grant of £55, 13s. Pop. (1871) 646, (1881) 581, of whom 
117 were in Fowlis-Wester, 62 in Methven, 372 in Monzie, 
and 30 in Redgorton. —Ord. Sur., sh. 47, 1869. 

Logiebride. See Auchtergaven. 

Logie-Buchan, a parish of E Aberdeenshire, whose 
church stands on the right bank of the Ythan, 2 miles 
E by S of the station and post-town, Ellon. The parish 
is bounded N by Cruden, E by Slains, S by Foveran, 
SW by Udny, and W by Ellon. Its utmost length, 
from N to S, is 5| miles; its breadth varies between 
7J furlongs and 4| miles ; and its area is 69753*^ 
acres, of which 19SJ are foreshore, 3| water, and 90| 
tidal water. The river Ythan, here navigable at full 
tide for small sloops, winds 3| miles south-eastward 
across the interior and along the Ellon and Slains 
boundaries, dividing the parish into two pretty equal 
halves ; and its little affluents, the burns of Auchmacoy, 
Forvie, and Tarty, trace part of the western and all 
the eastern and southern boundaries. Precipices of 
gneiss rock flank the river on the western border, and 
in a calm evening give a very distinct echo to short sen- 
tences. The surface is comparatively flat, attaining a 
maximum altitude of 184 feet above sea-level to the S, 
and of 234 to the N", of the Ythan. The predominant 
rock is gneiss ; and the soil is generally loam of various 
quality, incumbent upon clay. Nearly nine-tenths of 
the entire area are in tillage, some 70 acres are under 
wood, and the rest of the land is either pastoral or waste. 
In 1597 the lands of Logie, Rieve, Allatham, and Boni- 

547 



LOGIE-COLDSTONE 

town were taken from Logie-Buchan to form part of 
TJdny. In 1644 the Royalists defeated a Covenanting 
force on the lands of Tarty, and gave occasion to that 
hasty rising of the Gordons which led to the flight of the 
Marquis of Huntly and the execution of Sir John Gordon. 
The Boat of Logic, a well-known tune, has reference to 
this parish ; but the still better known song of Logie o' 
Buchan relates to a gardener about the middle of last 
century, at Logic in tlie parish of Crimond. Alexander 
Arbuthnot (1538-83), first Protestant principal of King's 
College, Aberdeen, was minister from 1568 till his death. 
AucHMACOY, noticed separately, is the only mansion ; 
but 4 proprietors hold each an annual value of more, 4 
of less, than £500. Logic- Buchan is in the presbytery of 
Ellon and synod of Aberdeen ; the living is worth £293. 
The parish church, built in 1787, contains 300 sittings ; 
and two public schools, Artrochie and Tipperty, with 
respective accommodation for 76 and 81 children, had 
(1882) an average attendance of 72 and 77, and grants of 
£59 and £69, 12s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £4479, (1884) 
£5678, plus £161 for railway. Pop. (1801) 539, (1831) 
684, (1861) 762, (1871) 808, (1881) 761.— Ord. »tr., shs. 
87, 77, 1876-73. 

Logie-Coldstone, a parish of SW Aberdeenshire, 
whose church staiids 60S feet above sea-level, 4 miles W 
of Tarland, and 4i NNW of the station and post-town, 
Dinnet. Comprising siuce 1618 the ancient parishes of 
Logie-Mar and Coldstone, it is bounded N by Towie 
and two fragments of Tarland, E by Tarland and CouU, 
SE by Aboyne, S by Gleumuick, and W by Strathdon. 
Its utmost length, from E by N to W by S, is 7§ miles ; 
its breadth varies between 6J furlongs and 5| miles ; and 
its area is 13, 624-J acres, of which 23^ are water. Deskry 
Water flows 6^ miles north-north-eastward along the 
Strathdon boundary ; and other streams run to tri- 
angular Loch Daves (6 x 4 j furl. ; 480 feet) on the 
boundary with Glenmuiok, so that the drainage belongs 
partly to the Don but mainly to the Dee. The north- 
western district, drained by Deskry Water, is in Don- 
side ; and all the rest of the parish is in Cromar. A 
range of heights, extending north-eastward, divides the 
Donside from the Cromar district ; and a loftier range, 
extending thence south-south-westward to the meeting- 
point with Glenrauick and Strathdon parishes, culmi- 
nates in the lofty summit of Morven (2862 feet), cele- 
brated in a poem of Lord Byron, and commanding a 
view down Deeside as far as the eye can reach. Of the 
eastern division of the parish the highest summit is 
the Sockaugh (2032 feet), at the meeting-point with 
Leochel and Tarland. Great part of the parish appears 
to have anciently been occujjied by a large lake, or a 
chain of lakes, and now is a valley, diversified by 
risiug-grounds. The predominant rock is granite ; and 
the soil on the hill slopes is generally deep and fertile, 
on the low grounds is mostly shallow, and either sandy 
or peaty. About 3000 acres are in tillage, and 900 are 
•under wood. Mansions are Blelaok, Corrachree, 
and Deskry Shiel ; and 4 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of more, 4 of less, than £500. Logie-Coldstone is 
in the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and the synod of 
Aberdeen ; the living is worth £326. The parish church, 
erected in 1780, and almost rebuilt in 1876 at a cost 
of £900, contains 400 sittings. A public school, with 
accommodation for 155 children, had (1882) an average 
attendance of 74, and a grant of £55, 17s. Valuation 
(1860) £4041, (1884) £6368, 5s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 861, 
(1831) 910, (1861) 932, (1871) 900, (1881) 908.— 0)-d. 
Sur., shs. 75, 76, 1876-74. 
Logie-Crimond. See Logie and Logie-Buchan. 
Logie-Durns. See Chapel of Garioch. 
Logie-Easter, a parish of NE Ross and Cromarty, 
containing, near its eastern boundary, Nigg station, on 
the Highland railway, 7| miles NE of Invergorden and 
20 NE of Dingwall. It is bounded N by Tain, E by 
Fearn, SE by Nigg, S by Kilmuir-Easter, and W by 
Eddertouu. Its greatest length, from E to W, is 7f 
miles ; its breadth varies between j mile and 4| miles ; 
and its area is 10,532J acres, of which 479^ are foreshore 
and 75 water. Balnagown river flows 81 miles eastward 
548 



LOGIE-PERT 

and south-eastward alongall the Kilmuir-Easter boundary 
till it falls into Nigg Bay ; and eight tiny lochs are in 
the interior. Fine springs are numerous ; and the 
water of one of them was thought, when carried into 
the presence of a sick person, to change colour if he 
would die, and to remain clear if he would get well. 
The surface rises gently east- aorth-eastward to 208 feet 
near Logiehill, 351 near Lauiingtou, and 1238 near the 
western boundary. The predominant rock is Old Red 
sandstone ; and the soil, in places a strong deep clay, in 
others is either a rich black mould or a light earth on a 
sandy irretentive bottom. Several cairns on both sides 
of one of the burns are said to commemorate an ancient 
battle in which the Danes were routed by the Scotch. 
A gallows hill, towards the 7niddle of the parish, and a 
deep small pond hard by, called Poll a' hhaid (' pool for 
drowning'), were places of capital punishment in the 
old days of hereditary jurisdiction. Mansions are 
Shandwick and Calrossie ; and the property is divided 
among four. Logie-Easter is in the presbytery of Tain 
and the synod of Ross ; the living is worth £336. The 
parish church, 1§ mile W by S of Nigg station and IJ 
NNE of the post-town, Parkhill, is a neat modern 
edifice, containing 700 sittings. There is also a Free 
church ; and two public schools, Logie-Easter and 
Scotsburn, with respective accommodation for 102 and 
75 children, had (1882) an average attendance of 60 and 
26, and grants of £45, 14s. 6d. and £34, 3s. Valuation 
(1860) £3990, (1884) £5988, 3s. Pop. (1801) 1031, 
(1831) 934, (1861) 932, (1871) 912, (1881) 827.— Orrf. 
Sur., sh. 94, 1878. 

Logie-Elphinstone, a plain old mansion, with prettily 
wooded grounds, in Chapel of Garioch parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, on the left bank of the Ury, 5 miles NW of 
Inverurie, and 1 mile W by N of Pitcaple station. 
Within it are portraits of Bishop Elphinstone, Charles 
Lord Elphinstone, other members of the Elphinstone 
family, Viscount Dundee, Count Patrick Leslie, and Sir 
James Leslie. In 1754 Robert Dalrymple, Esq. of Horn 
and Westhall, a grandson of Sir Hew Dalrymple of 
North Berwick, married Mary, daughter and heiress of 
Sir James Elphinstone of Logie ; and their grandson. 
Sir James Dali-yrnple-Horn-Elphinstone, second Bart. 
since 1827 (b. 1805 ; sue. 1848), M.P. for Portsmouth 
1857-65 and 1868-80, holds 5524 acres in the shire, 
valued at £5107 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Logie-Mar. See Logie-Coldstone. 

Logie-Moatrose. See Logie-Pert. 

Logie -Murdoch. See Logie, Fife. 

Logie-Pert, a parish of NE Forfarshire, with a post- 
ofBee village of its own name, 2 miles W by S of Craigo 
station, and 4j NW of the post-town, Montrose. Con- 
taining also Craigo village and the post ofiice of North 
Water Bridge (under Laurencekirk), it comprises the 
ancient parishes of Logie-Montrose and Pert, united 
between 1610 and 1615, and constituting respectively its 
eastern and western divisions. It is bounded NW, N, 
NE, and E by Fettercairu, Marykirk, and St Cyrus in 
Kincardineshire, S by Montrose and Dun, and W by 
Stracathro. Its utmost length, from WNW to ESE, 
is 5 miles ; its utmost breadtli is 2| miles ; and its area 
is 5808 acres, of which 6Si are water. The river North 
EsK flows 6J mQes east-south-eastward along all the 
Kincardineshire border; and along it the surface de- 
clines to less than 100 feet above sea-level, thence rising 
to 306 feet at the Hill of Craigo, 366 near Ballochy, 
and 357 at the Brae of Pert — heights that command a 
magnificent view of great part of Strathmore, the 
Howe of Mearns, and the grand range of the frontier 
Grampians. There is a fine medicinal spring in Martin's 
Den ; but good springs are in several other places. 
Sandstone abounds, but is not much quarried ; and 
limestone was at one time calcined. The soil ranges 
from light gravelly loam to strong hard clay, a pretty 
large extent being good sharp medium loam on a mode- 
rately open subsoil. Fully three-fourths of the entire 
area are in tillage ; and plantations cover some 1200 
acres. The historian of British India, James Mill 
(1773-1836), was the son of a Logie-Pert shoemaker, 'a 



LOGIERAIT 

.:louce beiii body,' who followed his calling in a humble 
tliatched cottage at North Water Brig ; and John Stuart 
Mill about 1864 paid a visit to his father's birthplace. 
In the ruined ' Aukl Kirk of Pert ' close by, George 
Beattie makes John o' Arnha' see 'unco sights.' 
Nearly a mile to the W of Craigo House are three 
remarkable tumuli, the Laws of Craigo, two of which, 
being opeued, were found to contain five human skeletons 
of extraordinary size. Mansions, noticed separately, 
are Craigo and Gallery ; and the property is divided 
among three. Logie-Pert is in the presbytery of Brechin 
and tlie synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is worth 
£293. The old church of Logie, like that of Pert, still 
stands in ruins by the North Esk's bank. The present 
parish church was built in 1840, and contains 700 
sittings. There is also a Free church ; and two public 
schools, Craigo Works and Logie-Pert, with respective 
accommodation for 158 and 96 children, had (1882) an 
average attendance of 69 and 61, and grants of £48, 4s. 
and £51, 19s. Valuation (1857) £6292, (1884) £8353, 
.3s., pht3 £1517 for railway. Pop. (1801) 908, (1841) 
1560, (1861) 1483, (1871) 1251, (1881) Q95.--Ord. Siir., 
sh. 57, 1868. 

Logierait (Gael. Iciri-an-rath, ' hollow of the castle '), 
a village and a parish of N central Perthshire. The 
village is beautifully situated on the N bank of the Tay, 
5 furlongs above the influx of the Tummel, and J mile 
W of Ballixluig Junction, this being 8| miles E by N 
• of Aberfeldy and 8 N by W of Dunkeld. A neigh- 
bouring eminence was crowned by a castle of Robert IIL 
.(1390-1406), and now is the site of a conspicuous and 
richly-sculptured Celtic cross, erected in 1866 to the 
memory of the sixth Duke of Athole. Long the seat of 
the regality court of the lords of Athole, which wielded 
wide jurisdiction with almost absolute powers, the 
village then had its court-house, gaol, and Tom-na- 
croiche or 'gallows-knoll.' The court-hall is said to 
have been ' the noblest apartment in Perthshire, ' more 
than 70 feet long, with galleries at either end ; whilst 
Kob Roy escaped from the gaol (1717), and Prince 
Charles Edward confined within it 600 prisoners from 
Prestonpans. Almost the sole survivor of the past is 
the hollow 'Ash Tree of the Boat of Logierait,' which, 
•63 feet in height and 40 in girth at 3 feet from the 
ground, is said to have been ' the dool tree of the dis- 
trict, on which caitiffs and robbers were formerly 
■ executed, and their bodies left hanging till they dropped 
and lay around uuburied. ' The lower part of the trunk 
•is quite a shell, and has been formed into a summer- 
house or arbour, capable of accommodating a consider- 
able number of people. A chain-boat over the Tay was 
started in 1824 ; and Logierait also has a post oflice, an 
inn, and the Athole and Breadalbaue combination poor- 
house, erected in 1864, and accommodating 117 inmates. 
Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy dined at Logierait 
on 6 Sept. 1803. 

The parish comprises a main body and five detached 
sections, its total area being 61 J square miles or 39,253 
acres, of which 1493J are water, and 21,098§ belong to 
the main body. This, with Logierait village on its 
southern border, is bounded W by Dull, N by Dull and 
Moulin, NE by Kii-kmichael, SE by Clunie, and S by 
Dunkeld-Dowally, Little Dunkeld, and Dull. It all 
but surrounds the Dalcapon section of Duskeld and 
DowALLT, and has an utmost length from E to W of 
11 miles, whilst its width varies between IJ mile and 4J 
aaUes. The Tumiiel runs 6^ miles south-south-east" 
■ward, partly along the Moulin boundary, but mainly 
across the interior, till it falls into the Tav, which 
itself flows 6| miles east-by-south ward along the western 
half of the southern border. Much the largest of nine 
sheets of water are Loclian Oisinneach Mhor (4x3 furl. ) 
and Loch Beooji (5i x 2 furl.), which latter partly 
belongs to Moulin and Dalcapon. In the extreme S the 
surface sinks along the Tay to 185 feet above the sea ; 
-and chief elevations to the E of the Tummel are *Creg- 
.nam Mial (1842 feet), *Meall Reamhar (1741), and Tom 
■Bheithe (1192) ; to the W, *Carra Bea^ (1250), Creagan 
.an Feadaire (1318), and the *eastern shoulder (2000) of 



LOGIERAIT 

Beinn Eagach, where asterisks mark those heights that 
culminate on the confines of the parish. 

Two only of the detached sections are of any size. 
Of these the largest, containing Carie, 3 miles WSW of 
Kinloch Rannoch, on the N is bounded for 3i miles by 
Loch Rannoch, and on all other sides by Fortingall. 
It has an utmost length and width of 5 and 4g miles ; 
and its surface is mountainous, rising southward from 
668 feet to 3370 at Carn Gorm on the southern border. 
The second largest section, containing Lochgarry House, 
2^ miles E by N of Kinloch Rannoch, on the S is 
bounded for 3g miles by the winding Tummel, and on 
all other sides by Fortingall. It has an utmost length 
and width of 5J and 2J miles ; and the surface rises 
northward from 650 feet to Beiun a' Chuallaich (2925), 
from which again it declines to 1250 along a head- 
stream of Erichdie Water. The three other sections 
are all small — one containing Killieohassie House 
and a third of the town of Aberfeldy ; another border- 
ing on Loch Glassie ; and the third including the SW 
half of Loch Deroulich. 

The scenery of the parish, especially that of its main 
body, is eminently picturesque. ' The windings of the 
rivers, the rich vales, the sloping corn-fields and pas- 
tures, the hauging woodlands, and the awful mountains 
in the distance,' as seen from a rock about 1 mile dis- 
tant from Logierait village, ' form one of the noblest 
landscapes, for extent, variety, beauty, aud grandeur, 
that the eye can behold ; ' and the combinations of vale 
and hill, glen and mountain, wood and water, cliff and 
cascade, exquisite culture and sublime desolation, as 
seen from many standpoints, both in the main body 
and in the detached sections, are striking specimens of 
almost all the best kinds of Highland scenery. The 
rocks are very various. Several strata of limestone lie 
in different parts ; in oue place occurs a variety of talc ; 
and building stones of different kinds are occasionally 
raised on almost every estate. The soil of the low 
grounds is chiefly alluvium ; on the slopes of the hills 
is mostly deep and loamy ; on the higher grounds is 
cold and spouty ; and on the mountains is nearly every- 
where moorish. Less than one-fifth of the entire area is 
in tillage ; rather more than one-tenth is under wood ; 
and the rest is either pastoral or waste. Distilling is 
stiU carried on, though not to such an extent as for- 
merly. Antiquities are Caledonian standing-stones and 
cairns in several places, an ancient camp near Middle- 
haugh, a sculptured stoue in the parish churchyard, a 
ruined beacon-house on a rock 2 miles from Logierait 
village, and sites and burying-places of several pre- 
Reformation churches. Amongst natives of Logierait 
have been Adam Ferguson, LL.I). (1724-1816), the histo- 
rian ; Robert Bisset, LL.D. (1739-1805), the biographer 
of Burke ; Daniel Stewart (1741-1814), the founder of 
Stewart's Hospital in Edinburgh ; and General Sir Robert 
Dick of TuUymet, who fell at Sobraon (1846). Mansions, 
noticed separately, are Balleohin, Donavourd, Dun- 
fallandy, Eastertyre, Edradynate, Killieohassie, 
Lochgarry, Middlehaijgh, Pitnacree, and Tully- 
met ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, 15 of between £100 and £500, and 
22 of from £20 to £50. Giving off part to Kinloch 
Rannoch quoad sacra parish, Logierait is in the 
presbytery of Weem and the synod of Perth and 
Stirling ; the living is worth £364. The parish church, 
at Logierait village, was built in 1806, aud contains 
1000 sittings ; and a handsome mission-church was 
built at Aberfeldy in 1884. Logierait Free church 
dates from Disruption times ; and TuUymet Roman 
Catholic church, Our Lady of Good Aid, was built in 
1855. In Strathtay are Episcopal and Roman Catholic 
chapels ; and four schools — Aberfeldy public, Logierait 
public, Strathtay Stewart's free, and TuUoch of Pitna- 
cree — with respective accommodation for 310, 201, 129, 
and 68 children, had (1882) an average attendance of 
185, 128, 41, and 33, aud grants of £138, 5s. 6d., 
£120, 13s., £52, Os. 6d., and £36, 14s. Valuation 
(1866) £14,396, 17s. 8d., (1884) £19,118, Os. 6d. Pop. 
(1801) 2890, (1831) 3138, (1861) 2592, (1871) 2417, 

549 



LOGIERIEVE 

(1881) 2323, of which 1523 were Gaelic-speaking, and 
2220 were in the ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., shs. 
55, 56, 54, 1869-73. 

Logierieve, a station in TJdny parish, Aberdeenshire, 
on the Buchan and Formartine section of the Great 
North of Scotland railway, 16J miles N by W of 
Aberdeen. 

Logie-Wester, an ancient parish in Ross-shire, an- 
nexed about 1490 to Urquhart. 

Loing or Ling. See Long, Loch, Ross-shire. 

Loirston, a loch (3 x IJ furl.) in Nigg parish, Kin- 
cardineshire, IJ mile SSW of the parish church. 

Lomond (Gael. ? Laomain, the name of an old Celtic 
hero), a large lake, partly in Stirlingshire and partly in 
Dumljartonshire. To the IST both banks are in Dum- 
bartonshire as far as Inch Vow, whence to Ross Point 
the boundary line follows the middle of the loch ; there 
it curyes to the E of Inchlonaig back between Inchmoan 
and Inchruim, and between Torrinch and Inchcailloch 
to the mouth of Endrick Water. All to the E of this 
line is in Stirlingshire, all to the N, W, and S in Dum- 
bartonshire. Along the E side are the parishes of 
Arrochar and Buchanan ; to the S are Eilmaronock and 
Bonhill ; and to the W are Luss and Arrochar. From 
the N end at Glen Falloch to the extreme S end at the 
Leven river, at Balloch pier, is 20| miles in a straight 
line, or following windings, about 22 ; and along the 
course of the steamers that ply on the lake 24. The S end 
forms an irregular triangle, with its E corner at the bay 
S of the mouth of Endrick Water, the S angle at Balloch 
pier, and the N angle opposite Ross Point. Measured 
in straight lines the distances are — NE 6J miles, SE 5, 
and W 8J ; but the shores are very winding, and the 
distances by them would be fully ^ greater. From the 
E corner, in a straight line through Inchmurrin, W by 
S across the widest part of the loch, the distance is 5 
miles. To the N of Ross Point the basin becomes much 
narrower, the width being on an average about J mile, 
though at some places — as at Rowardennan Lodge, 
Tarbet, and Inversnaid — it widens to 1 mile. There 
are altogether thirty islands in the loch, but of these 
only six very small ones are to the N of Ross Point ; all 
the others, including the whole of the large ones, are 
in the triangular space just mentioned. The larger and 
more important, most of which are noticed separately, 
are Inchlonaig (120 feet),* Bucinch, Inchconnachan 
(200), Inchtavannach (200), Inchmoan (33), Inchruim 
(50), Inchfad (78), Inchcailloch (278), Clairinch, Tor- 
rinch (105), Creiuch (110), and Inchmurrin (291) ; the 
smaller islets are Inch or Eilan Vow with, near the 
N end, the ruins of a castle, once a stronghold of the 
Macfarlanes ; Inveruglas and Wallace's Islands, off Inver- 
snaid ; Tarbet Island, f mile SE of Tarbet pier : three 
islets off Rowardennan ; Ross Island, and another off 
Ross Point ; a group of small islets oif Luss ; an islet off 
Inchmoan ; Ceardach E of Bucinch ; and Aber Island at 
the E corner. The surface is 23 feet above sea-level, and 
a subsidence of less than 40 feet would again unite the 
waters with the sea across the narrow neck between 
Tarbet and Arrochar at the head of Loch Long. In the 
prehistoric period after the appearance of man, and 
when our remote ancestors were sailing their log canoes 
over the site of Glasgow, the loch was in this way pro- 
bably an arm of the sea. The hollow in which the lake 
lies is a true rock-basin due, to a considerable extent, to 
the scooping powers of the ice by which, during the 
glacial epoch, it must have been occupied. StriiE may 
still be detected along its shores, and traced over the 
neck at Arrochar down to Loch Long. The depth at 
the extreme S end slopes very gradually to 12 fathoms 
between Inchmurrin and Inchmoan, and by the time 
the narrow portion is reached at Ross Point the depth 
is 34 fathoms. From that point it shoals to 2 fathoms 
off Rowardennan, and again deepens northwards to 96 
fathoms due W of Ben Lomond, and to 105 fathoms 
oif Culness half-way between Tarbet and Inversnaid, 
which is the deepest part. At Eilan Vow the depth is 

* The figures denote the height of the highest points above 
sea-level. 

550 



LOMOND 

8 fathoms, and after sinking to 34 opposite Doune it 
finally shoals to the N end of the loch. The surface 
temperature varies with the season and the weather, 
but according to Sir Robert Christison, the lowest 
100 feet of water in the deeper parts has a con- 
stant temperature of 42° Fahr. The area is about 
21,000 acres; and sea-trout, lake- trout, pike, and 
perch are abundant ; while salmon are from time to 
time able to find their way up the river Leven. The 
sea-trout run up to 5 lbs., and the lake-trout to J 
lb. , while pike are of large size, there being a tradition 
of one caught many years ago which reached a weight 
of 79 lbs. The fishing is free, and boats may be had at 
any of the hotels along the banks. The loch lies com- 
pletely imbedded among different ranges of hills. To 
the SE are the Kilpatrick Hills (1313 feet) and the 
western spurs of the Campsie Fells, and in the flat 
between that and the border of the loch is the conical 
little Duncryne (462), which forms a well-marked 
feature in all the views of this end. To the NE rising 
almost directly from the water's edge are Conic Hill 
(1175 feet), Beinn Bhreac (1922), Beinn Uird (1957), 
Ben Lomond (3192) with its shoulders. Ptarmigan (2398) 
to theW, and Creag-a-Bhocain (1613) to theSW, Cruinn 
a' Bheinn (2077), Cruachan (1762), Stob-an-Fhainne 
2144), Beinn a' Choin (2524), Stob-nan-Eighrach (2011), 
Cruach (1678), and to the NW Beinn Chabhair (3053) ; 
these summits form the line of the watershed of Scot- 
land, the streams to the E running to the Forth, those 
to the W to the Clyde. Along the W side of the loch 
are Killeter (978 feet), Creachan Hill (1758), Beinn 
Ruisg (1939), Bein Dubh (2108), Beinn Bhreac (2500), 
Ben Reoch (2163), Cruach Tairbeirt (1364), and the 
double-topped Ben Voirlich (N, 3055 ; S, 3092), while 
behind farther inland are Balcnock (2092), Beinn Thar- 
suinn (2149), Beinn Chaorach (2338), Beinn Eich (2302), 
Doune Hill (2409), TuUich Hill (2705), Ben Arthur or 
the Cobbler (2891), Ben Ime (3318), and Ben Vane 
(3004), the last three being beyond Loch Long. From 
the slopes of these many streams rush down to the lake, 
the chief being the Falloch at the N end, Inveruglas 
Water (W) S of Ben Vorlich, Arklet Water (E) directly 
opposite at Inversnaid, Douglas Water (W) from Glen 
Douglas opposite Rowardennan, Luss Water (W) from 
Glen Luss at Luss, Endrick Water (E) with its tributary. 
Mar Burn, at the E corner ; and Fruin Water (W), from 
Glen Fruin opposite the S end of Inchmurrin. Besides 
these the loch receives, from the E, Culness Burn from 
the SW shoulder of Ben Lomond, Caol Ghlean Burn 
from Beinn Uird, and Cashell and Blair Burns from 
Beinn Bhreac ; from the W Finlas Water, between the 
Luss and the Fruin ; and many smaller burns on all the 
sides. The surplus water is carried oif by the Leven, 
which joins the Clyde at Dumbarton. 

It is said that the old name of the lake was Leven, as 
that of the river still is, and that the present name was 
taken from the name of the Ben so late as about the 
13th century. From the old name came that applied 
to the whole district, viz., Levenax, the modern 
Lennox. Traditionally, the waters of Loch Lomond 
have risen within the last 300 years, for Camden in his 
Atlas Britannica speaks of an island existing in his 
time called Camstraddan, situated between the lands of 
that name and Inchtavannach, on which he adds, were a 
house and an orchard. The island has now disappeared, 
but the people of the neighbourhood maintain that 
about 100 yards from the shore the ruins of houses are 
to be seen under the water. Such an accident may, 
however, have occurred without any increase in the 
waters of the lake, and indeed the valley of the Leven 
presents no appearance of such a rise being possible. 
Loch Lomond was at one time famed for three wonders: 
— ' Waves without wind, fish without fin, and a floating^ 
island. ' The first was the swell in the widest part of 
the loch after a storm, and the second vipers that swam 
from island to island. The writer in Blaeu's Atlas, in 
noticing it in 1653, says, 'the fish which they speak of 
as having no fins, and which they commonly call 
Paones, are a kind of snake, and are therefore no causfr 



LOMOND 

of wonder. Of the floating island various accounts 
have been given, one of them being that it was con- 
structed of large square beams of oak firmly mortised 
into one another by a Keith Macindoil, a contemporary 
of Finmacoul or Fingal, and this looks somewhat like a 
tradition pointing to the former existence of a crannoge 
in the lake. ' As for the floating island," says Camden, 
' I shall not call the truth of it in question, for what 
could hinder a body from swimming that is dry and 
hollow like a pinnace, and very light ? And so Pliny 
teUs us that certain green lands covered with rushes, 
float up and down on the lake of Vundimon. But I leave 
it to the neighbours who know the nature of this place 
to be judges, whether this old distich of our Neckham 
be true — 

" Ditatur fluviis Albania, saxea ligna 
Dat Lomund multa, frigiditate potens." ' 

of which Defoe has given the paraphrase— 

' With Rivers Scotland is enrich'd, 
And Lomond there a Lake, 
So cold of Nature is, that Sticks 
It quickly Stones doth make.' 

The whole country round is rich in historical associa- 
tions of various kinds. During Haco's great expedition 
to the "W (1263), his son-in-law, Magnus King of Man, 
sailed up Loch Long with a squadron of 60 ships, and 
on arriving at Arrochar, his men dragged some of the 
galleys across the narrow neck there — only If mile 
across — and launched them on Loch Lomond, ' where 
their sea-boats must have created as much astonishment 
among the agriculturists of the Lennox as if they had 
fallen from the clouds.' No doubt the pillage amply 
rewarded them for their exertions, as the ground was 
fresh, and not likely to be guarded ' against maurauders 
coming from so unlikely a direction.' In 1306, after 
the Battle of Dalree, Robert Bruce is said to have taken 
refuge in what is now Rob Roy's Cave, and at this time 
also to have planted many of the yew trees on Eilan Vow, 
while subsequently he is accredited with having caused 
many trees of the same kind to be planted on Inch- 
lonaig, to provide a supply of bows for his soldiers. A 
few still survive, but the others were accidentally burned 
down many years ago. Clairinch gave the Buchanans 
their slogan. InchcaQloch — the island of women or of 
nuns — had a nunnery, and this was followed on the 
same site by the parish church, which, in its turn, has 
been abandoned, and a new church built on the main- 
land at Buchanan ; and to the churchyard, as the bury- 
ing-ground of the Macgregors, reference is made in the 
Lady of the Lake, the Fiery Cross being made from 
yew grown here. To the WNW of the church is the 
Pass of Balmaha, another of Scott's localities in the 
same poem, while farther up the scenery figures in his 
novel of Eoh Roy. The whole of the district about Inver- 
snaid is all Rob Roy's country. On the opposite side, 
to the S, is the district that belonged to the Colquhouns ; 
and Glen Fruin — the glen of wailing — was in 1603 the 
scene of the great battle between the Macgregors and 
the Colquhouns, in which the latter were almost entirely 
destroyed, a matter that led to the proscription of the 
Macgregors. 

It was on Inchlonaig that the chief of the Colquhouns 
and Rob Roy made their agreement about the black- 
mail which Colquhoun paid. 

In the rebellion of 1715 the Macgi-egors took up arms 
in the Jacobite cause, and threatened the country to 
the S. In October they seized the whole of the boats 
on the loch, and took them to Rowardennan, so that 
they might be able to make forays anywhere along the 
shore, but no enemy could reach them except by pass- 
ing round the loch. The western Hanoverians were, 
however, not to be outdone, and accordingly some 500 
men assembled from Paisley and other towns in the "W, 
and having been joined by 100 men, 'well-hearted and 
well-armed,' from a man-of-war lying in the Clyde, they 
dragged armed boats up the Leven to the loch, and 
advanced to the attack both by land and by water. 



LOMOND 

The further proceedings are thus described in a con- 
temporary account of the expedition. 'When the 
pinnaces and boats, being once got in within the 
mouth of the loch, had spread their sails, and tlie men 
on shore had ranged themselves in order, marching 
along the side of the loch, for scouring the coast, they 
made altogether so very fine an appearance as had never 
been seen in that place before, and might have gratified 
even a curious person. The men on the shore marched 
with the greatest order and alacrity — the pinnaces on 
the water discharging their patteraroes, and the men 
their small arms, made so very dreadful a noise through 
the multiplied rebounding echoes of the vast mountains 
on both sides the loch, that perhaps there was never 
a more lively resemblance of thunder.' Having thus 
given sufficient warning of their approach, it is hardly 
to be wondered that when they reached Rowardennan 
they found no one, and though the ' Paisley men and 
their friends mounted the rocky bank of the lake, and 
forming as well as they could, beat their drums for an 
hour in noisy challenge,' there was no answer, and they 
went home, asserting that they had so frightened the 
Macgregors as to cause them to flee in panic to the 
camp at Strath FUlans. They accomplished the object 
of the expedition, however, for having, more by good 
fortune than good management, discovered the boats 
that had been carried off, by destroying some and 
taking away the rest they effectually prevented any 
renewal of the raids. Besides the Macgregors and the- 
Colquhouns the other clans on the shores were the 
Grsemes and the Macfarlanes, the former being still 
represented by the Duke of Montrose, while the posses- 
sions of the latter have passed to the Colquhouns. One 
of the last survivors of the Macfarlanes took up his 
residence in a vault of their old ruined castle on Eilan 
Vow, and gave Wordsworth a subject for his poem of The 
£)-(n/)»i(;'s&6'M in 1814, and again for the sonnet called The 
Brownie, written on his subsequent visit in 1831. Glen- 
finlas was a royal hunting forest. To the S is Bonhill 
associated with Smollett ; and to the E is Killearn where 
George Buchanan was born, and where there is now a 
monument to his-memory ; while Gartness House on the 
Endrick is associated with Napier's calculations about 
logarithms. Inchmurrin, on which are the ruins of 
Lennox Castle, is used as a deer park by the Duke of 
Montrose, and Inchlonaig is also a deer park belonging 
to the Luss estate. It was while Sir James Colquhoun 
of Luss was returning from shooting on this island that 
he was drowned along with two gamekeepers on 18 Dec. 
1873. Inchtavannach — the island of the monks' house 
— is so named, from being the site of a mouastery. On 
the S end of Inchmurrin are the ruins of Lennox Castle. 
It was at Inversnaid that Wordsworth, during his tour 
in 1803, saw the Highland Girl whose beauty he made 
famous in his poem of that name. Of history in late 
years the loch has none except that ever-increasing 
swarms of tourists resort to it every year. During the 
severe winter of 1880-81 the S end of the loch was frozen 
over from Balloch up to Luss, and on 22 Jan. 1881 it 
was calculated that some 15,000 skaters were on the ice. 
The Prince Consort visited the loch in 1847 and the 
Queen on 4 Sept. 1869. In More Leaves from the Journal 
of a Life in tlie Highlands (1884), Her Majesty's impres- 
sions are thus recorded : ' We steamed southward [from 
Inversnaid, where she had gone on board the steamer], 
and for the first half nothing could be finer or more truly 
Alpine, reminding me much of the Lake of Lucerne, 
only it is longer, Loch Lomond being twenty -two miles 
long. We kejrt close to the E shore, passing under Ben 
Lomond, with its variously called shoirlders — Cruachan, 
Craig a Bochan, and Ptarmigan — to Rowardennan pier, 
where there is a pretty little house, rented from the 
Duke of Montrose (to whom half Loch Lomond belongs) 
by a Mr Mair — a lovely spot from whence you can 
ascend Ben Lomond, which is 3192 feet high, and well 
wooded part of the way, with cornfields below. After 
you pass this, where there are fine mountains on either 
side, though on the W shore not so high, the lake widens 
out, but the shores become much flatter and tamer (in- 

551 



LOMOND 

deed, to the E and S completely so) ; but here are all the 
Ijeautifully- wooded islands, to the number of twenty-four. 
. . . To the left we passed some very pretty villas. 
. . . Then Tarhet, a small town, where dearest Albert 
landed in 1847 ; and here began tlie highest and finest 
mountains, with splendid passes, richly wooded, and 
the highest mountains rising behind. A glen leads 
across from Tarhet to A rrochar on Loeh Long, and here 
you see that most singularly-shaped hill called the 
Cobbler, and a little further on the splendid Alps of 
Arrochar. All this, and the way in which the hills run 
into the lake, reminded me so much of the Nasen on 
the Laie of Luccrjie. The head of the lake, with the 
very fine glen (Glen Falloch), along which you can drive 
to Oban, is magnificent. We (Louise and I) sketched as 
best we could. ' In 1875, on her way back from Inveraray, 
she drove along the bank of the loch from Tarhet to 
Balloch. ' The drive along Loch Lomond, which we 
came upon almost immediately after Tarbet, was per- 
fectly beautiful. We wound along under trees on both 
sides, with the most lovely glimpses of the head of the 
loch, and ever and anon of Loch Lomond itself below the 
road ; the hills which rose upon our right reminding me 
of Aberfoyle near Loch Ard, and of the lower part of the 
Pilatus. Such fine trees, numbers of hollies gi'owing 
down almost into the water, and such beautiful capes 
and little bays and promontories ! The loch was ex- 
tremely rough, and so fierce was the wind that the foam 
was blown like smoke along the deep blue of the water. 
The gale had broken some trees. The sun lit up the 
whole scene beautifully, but we had a few slight showers. 
It reminded me of Switzerland. I thought we saw every- 
thing so much better than we had formerly done from 
the steamer. As we proceeded, the hills became lower, 
the loch widened, and the many wooded islands appeared. 
We next changed horses at Luss, quite a small village 
— indeed, the little inn stands almost alone. . . 
From here we drove along past the openings of Glen Luss 
and Gle7i Finlas, which run up amongst the fine hills to 
the right, the loch being on our left, and the road much 
wooded. ' 

In consequence of its size and beautiful scenery Loch 
Lomond is often styled the ' Queen of Scottish lakes,' 
a title which it certainly deserves. At the S end the 
banks have none of that bleakness and wildness that 
characterise so many of the lakes of the Highlands of 
Scotland. 'I have seen,' says BxaoWfitt in Hiimphrey 
Clinker, ' the Lago di Gardi, Albano, De Vico, Bolsena, 
and Geneva, and on my honour I prefer Loch Lomond 
to them all ; a preference which is certainly owing to the 
verdant islands that seem to float on its surface, 
aff'ording the most enchanting objects of repose to the 
excursive view. Nor are the banks destitute of beauties 
which even partake of the sublime. On this side they 
display a sweet variety of woodland, cornfields, and 
pasture, with several agreeable villas emerging as it 
were out of the lake, till, at some distance, the prospect 
terminates in huge mountains, covered with heath, 
which, being in the bloom, affords a very rich covering 
of purple. Everything here is romantic beyond imagi- 
nation. This country is justly styled the Arcadia of 
Scotland ; and I don't doubt but it may vie with Arcadia 
in everything but climate : I am sure it excels in verdure, 
wood, and water. What say you to a natural basin of 
pure water nearly thirty miles long, and in some places 
seven miles broad, and in many above an hundred 
fathoms deep, having four-and-twenty habitable islands, 
some of them stocked with deer, and all of them covered 
with wood ; containing immense quantities of delicious 
fish, salmon, pike, trout, perch, flounders, eels, and 
powans, the last a delicate kind of fresh-water herring 
peculiar to this lake. ' He also adds that the powan 
never descends the Leven. These are probably the 
animals that the writer in Blaeu's Atlas calls paones, 
though he is incorrect in confusing them with vipers. 
They belong to the Salmonidae, and the species is 
scientifically known as Coregonus La Cefcdei (Parnell) 
or C. clupeoides (Lacepede). The level and well wooded 
ground at the S end of the loch and the number and 
552 



LOMOND 

beautifully wooded condition of the islands gives this 
part great softness, and it presents an appearance more 
akin to that of the Lakes of Killarney than any other 
sheet of water in Scotland. Above Luss, where the loch 
contracts and the hills rise more steeply from the water 
and at the same time lose somewhat of the green colour 
they have further to the S, the scenery becomes wilder, 
but by no means savage. Many parts of the lower 
skirts of the hills are still well wooded, and the slopes 
themselves have smooth rounded outlines, which the 
height, however, prevents from being tame. Every- 
where, too, Ben Lomond towers above the lake, and 
fills up or borders the view. 

Dr Johnson (who, however, visited it late in the year 
and during rain) expresses his opinion of the scenery 
in terms of great dissatisfaction ; but Boswell, ou 
the other hand, declares that the Doctor was very much 
pleased with the scene. Wordsworth, who visited 
Loch Lomond in his Scottish tours in 1803, 1814, and 
1S31, had all manner of faults to find with it. He 
tliought 'the proportion of diffused water was too 
great, ' and wished for ' a speedier termination of the 
long vista of blank water, ' and ' the interposition of 
green meadows, trees, and cottages, and a sparkling 
stream to run by his side. ' He thought that ' a notion 
of grandeur as connected with magnitude has seduced 
persons of taste into a general mistake upon this subject. 
It is much more desirable for the purposes of pleasure 
that lakes should be numerous and small or middle- 
sized, than large, not only for communication by walks 
and rides, but for variety and for recurrence of similar 
appearances. ' This may be true, but one hardly sees 
that the proposition that everything great is not mag- 
nificent also implies the opposite that everything mag- 
nificent is not great. Dorothy Wordsworth, his sister, 
who, along with Coleridge, accompanied him in 1803, 
was no more satisfied. The hills were not such as ' a 
Cumbrian would dignify with the name of mountains,' 
nor was Ben Lomond ' seen standing in such company 
as Helvellyn.' Everything was too good for them; it 
would not submit to be measured by the spirit of 
Ullswater, but doubtless things have changed for the 
better in many ways about the shores of the loch since 
then, for the Luss of that time, with ' not a single 
ornamented garden,' must have been a very different 
place from the Luss of to-day, in midsummer, bright 
with rhododendron bloom. Dissatisfied, however, as 
she was, she had to admit beauty. They crossed to 
Inchtavannach, from which the view is thus described : 
— ' We had not climbed far before we were stopped by a 
sudden burst of prospect so singular and beautifid that 
it was like a flash of images from another world. We 
stood with our backs to the hill of the island which we 
were ascending, and which shut out Ben Lomond 
entirely and all the upper part of the lake, and we 
looked towards the foot of the lake, scattered over with 
islands without beginning and without end. The sun 
shone, and the distant hills were visible, some through 
sunny mists, others in gloom, with patches of suushine ; 
the lake was lost under the low and distant hills, and 
the islands lost in the lake, which was all in motion 
with travelling fields of light or dark shadows under 
rainy clouds. There are many hrUs, but no commanding 
eminence at a distance to confine the prospect so that 
the land seemed endless as the water. What I had 
heard of Loch Lomond, or any other place in Great 
Britain, had given me no idea of anything like what we 
beheld : it was an outlandish scene — we might have 
believed ourselves in North America. The islands were 
of every possible variety of shape and surface — hilly and 
level, large and small, bare, rocky, pastoral, or covered 
with wood. . . . There were bays innumerable, 
straits or passages like calm rivers, land-locked lakes, 
and, to the main water, stormy promontories. ' Thescene 
' was throughout magical and enchanting — a new world 
in its great permanent outline and composition, and 
changing at every moment in every part of it by the 
efl'ect of sun and wind, and mist and shower and 
cloud, and the blending lights and deep shades which 



LOMOND 

tooli: place of each other, traversing the lake in every 
direction. The whole was indeed a strange mixture of 
soothing and restless images, of images inviting to rest 
and others hurrjing the fancy away into an activity more 
pleasing than repose. Yet, intricate and homeless, that 
is without lasting ahiding-place for the mind, as the 
prospect was there was no perplexit)' ; we had still a 
guide to lead us forward. Wherever we looked, it was a 
delightful feeling that there was something beyond. 
Meanwhile, the sense of quiet was never lost sight of. 
. . . The whole scene was a combination of natural 
wildness, loveliness, beauty, and barrenness, or rather 
bareness, yet not comfortless or cold, but the whole was 
beautiful. ' 

Professor Wilson, dealing with the remarks of 
Wordsworth already given, says, ' The " diffu.sion of 
water " is indeed great ; but in what a world it floats ! 
At first sight of it how our soul expands ! The sudden 
revelation of such majestic beauty, wide as it is and 
extending afar, inspires us with a power of comprehend- 
ing it all. Sea-like indeed it is, — a Mediterranean Sea, 
— enclosed with lofty hills and as lofty mountains, — 
and these indeed are the Fortunate Isles ! We shall 
not dwell on the feeling which all must have experi- 
enced on the first sight of such a vision — the feeling of 
a lovely and a mighty calm ; it is manifest that the 
spacious " diffusion of water" more than conspires with 
the other components of such a scene to produce the 
feeling ; that to it belongs the spell that makes our 
spirit serene, still, and bright, as its own. Nor when 
such feeling ceases so entirely to possess, and so deeply 
to affect us, does the softened and subdued charm of 
the scene before us depend less on the expanse of the 
"diffusion of water." The islands, that before had lain 
we knew not how — or we had only felt that they were 
all most lovely — begin to show themselves in the order 
of their relation to one another and to the shores. The 
eye rests on the largest, and with them the lesser com- 
bine ; or we look at one or two of the least, away by 
themselves, or remote from all a tufted rock ; and many 
as they are, they break not the breadth of the liquid 
plain, for it is ample as the sky. They show its ampli- 
tude ; as masses and sprinklings of clouds, and single 
clouds, show the amplitude of the cerulean vault. And 
then the long promontories — stretching out from oppo- 
site mainlands, and enclosing bays that in themselves 
are lakes — they too magnify the empire of water ; for 
long as they are, they seem so only as our eye attends 
them with their cliffs and woods from the retiring 
shores, and far distant are their shadows from the 
central light. Then what shores ! On one side where 
the lake is widest, low-lying they seem and therefore 
lovelier — undulating with fields and groves, where 
many a pleasant dwelling is embowered, into lines of 
hills that gradually soften away into another land. On 
the other side, sloping back, or overlianging, mounts 
beautiful in their bareness, for they are green as 
emerald ; others, scarcely more beautiful, studded with 
fair trees — some altogether woods. They soon form 
into mountains — and the mountains become more and 
more majestical, yet beauty never deserts them, and 
her spirit continues to tame that of the frowning cliffs. 
Far off as they are, Benlomond and Benvoirlich are 
seen to be giants ; magnificent is their retinue, but 
they two are supreme, each in his own dominion ; and 
clear as the day is here, they are diademed with clouds. 
It cannot be that the "proportion of diffused water is 
here too great ; " and is it then true that no one " ever 
travelled along the banks of Loch Lomond, variegated 
as the lower part is by islands, without feeling that a 
speedier termination to the long vista of blank water 
would be acceptable, and without wishing for an inter- 
position of green meadows, trees, and cottages, and a 
sparkling stream to run by his side?" We have 
travelled along them in all weathers and never felt such 
a wish. For there they all are — all but the "sparkling 
stream to run by our side, " and we see not how that 
well could be in nature. "Streams that sparkle as 
they run," cross our path on their own ; and brighter 



LOMOND 

never issued from the woods. Along the margin of the- 
water, as far as Luss — ay, and much farther — the varia- 
tions of the foreground are incessant. "Had it no 
other beauties," it has been truly said, "but those of 
its shores, it would still be an object of prime attrac- 
tion ; whether from the bright green meadows sprinkled 
with luxuriant ash trees, that sometimes skirt its 
margin, or its white pebbled shores on which its gentle 
billows murmur, like a miniature ocean, or its bold 
rocky promontories rising from the dark water rich in 
wild flowers and ferns, and tangled with wild roses and 
honeysuckles, or its retired bays where the waves dash, 
reflecting, like a mirror, the trees which hang over 
them, an inverted landscape." 

'The islands are for ever arranging themselves into 
new forms, every one more and more beautiful ; at least 
so they seem to be, perpetually occurring, yet always 
unexpected, and there is a pleasure even in such a 
series of slight surprises that enhances the delight of 
admiration. And alongside, or behind us, all the 
while, are the sylvan mountains, "laden with beautj';" 
and ever and anon open glens widen down upon us 
from chasms ; or forest glades lead our hearts away 
into the inner gloom — perhaps our feet ; and there, in 
a field that looks not as if it had been cleared by his 
own hands, but left clear by nature, a woodman's hut. 
Half-way between Luss and Tarbet the water narrows, 
but it is still wide ; the new road, we believe, winds 
round the point of Firkin, the old road boldly scaled' 
the height, as all old roads loved to do ; ascend it, and 
bid the many-isled vision, in all its greatest glory, 
farewell. Thence upwards prevails the spirit of the 
mountains. The lake is felt to belong to them — to be 
subjected to their will — and that is capricious ; for 
sometimes they suddenly blacken it when at its brightest, 
and sometimes when its gloom is like that of the grave, 
as if at their bidding, all is light. We cannot help 
attributing the "skiey influences" which occasion such 
wonderful effects on the water, to prodigious mountains ; 
for we cannot look on them without feeling that they 
reign over the solitude they compose ; the lights and 
shadows flung by the sun and the clouds imagination 
assuredly regards as put forth by the vast objects which 
they colour ; and we are inclined to think some such- 
belief is essential in the profound awe, often amounting 
to dread, with which we are inspired by the presences of 
mere material forms. But be this as it may, the upper 
portion of Loch Lomond is felt by all to be most sub- 
lime. Near the head, all the manifold impressions of 
the beautiful which for hours our mind had been 
receiving begin to fade ; if some gloomy change has 
taken place in the air, there is a total obliteration, and 
the mighty scene before us is felt to possess not the 
hour merely, but the day. Yet should sunshine come, 
and abide a while, beauty will glimpse upon us even 
here, for green pastures will smile vividly, high up- 
among the rocks ; the sylvan spirit is serene th& 
moment it is touched with light, and here there is not 
only many a fair tree by the water-side, but yon old 
oak wood will look joyful on the mountain, and the 
gloom become glimmer in the profound abyss. Words- 
worth says, that "it must be more desirable, for the 
purposes of pleasure, that lakes should be numerous, 
and small or middle-sized, than large, not only for com- 
munication by walks and rides, but for variety, and for 
recurrence of similar appearances." The Highlands 
have them of all sizes — and that surely is best. But 
here is one which, it has been truly said, is not only 
" incomparable in its beauty as in its dimensious, 
exceeding all others in variety as it does in extent and 
splendour, but unites in itself every style of scenery 
which is found in the other lakes of the Highlands." 
He who has studied and understood and felt all Loch 
Lomond, will be prepared at once to enjoy any other 
fine lake he looks on ; nor will he admire nor love it 
the less, though its chief character should consist in 
what forms but one part of that of the Wonder in 
which all kinds of beauty and sublimity are combined. ' 

Elsewhere he says again : ' Loch Lomond is a sea ! 

553 



LOMOND HILLS 

-Along its shores might you voyage in your swift 
schooner, with shifting breezes, all a summer's day, 
nor at sunset, when you dropped anchor, have seen half 
the beautiful wonders. It is many-isled, and some of 
them are in themselves little worlds, with woods and 
hills. . . . Ships might be sailing here, the largest 
ships of war ; and there is anchorage for fleets. But 
the clear course of the lovely Leven is rock-crossed 
and intercepted with gravelly shallows, and guards Loch 
Lomond from the white-winged reamers that from all 
seas come crowding into the Firth of Clyde, and carry 
their streaming flags above the woods of Ardgowan. 
. . . We should as soon think of penning a critique 
-on Milton's Paradise Lost as on Loch Lomond. People 
there are in the world, doubtless, who think them both 
too long ; but, to our minds, neither the one nor the 
other exceeds the due measure by a leaf or a league. You 
may, if it so pleaseth you, think it, in a mist, a Medi- 
terranean Sea. For then you behold many miles of 
tumbling waves, with no land beyond ; and were a ship 
to rise up in full sail, she would seem voyaging on to 
some distant shore. ' 

The loch may be reached by rail to Balloch Pier, and 
thence steamers ply to the piers at Balmaha (E), Luss 
(W), Rowardennan (E), Tarbet (W), Inversnaid (E), 
and Ardlui at the N end. In summer three runs daily 
are made each way. — Ord. Sur., shs. 38, 30, 1871-66. 

See also Dorothy Wordsworth's Torir in Scotland 
(Edinb. 1874) ; Alexander Smith's Summer in Skye 
(Edinb. 1865) ; William Eraser's Chiefs of Colqulioun 
and their Co^intry (Edinb. 1869) ; Irving's Book of 
Dimibartotishire (Edinb. 1879) ; Macleay's Historical 
Memoirs of Hoh Hoy (1st ed. 1819 ; 2d ed. 1881) ; A. H. 
Millar's History of Sob Moy (1883) ; and the notes to 
Scott's Rob Roy. 

Lomond Hills, an isolated ridge of hills on the borders 
of Kinross-shire and Fifeshire, NE of Loch Leven. 
From the E shore of Loch Leven the hills pass north- 
wards, north-eastwards, and eastwards for a distance of 
6J miles through Portmoak, Strathmiglo, and Falk- 
land parishes, and between the basins of the Eden and 
Leven. The W and N fronts are steep and rocky, the 
E and S smooth and gently sloping, while the top is a 
flat plateau, on an average about 1250 feet high. Of the 
section that trends eastward the principal tops are West 
Lomond (1713 feet). East Lomond (1471), and a point 
between, often called Mid Lomond, (1186). The section 
trending N and S is known as Bishop Hill, and has two 
tops (N, 1292 feet; S, 1492). This latter, though some- 
times counted not to belong to the Lomond chain proper, 
does so in reality, being onh^ separated from it by the 
deep and narrow glen that has been cut by the Glen 
Burn on its way to join the Eden. The hills form con- 
spicuous landmarks all over Fife, Forfarshire, and the 
Lothians, and command extensive and beautiful views. 
Sir David Wilkie, a Fifeshire man himself, used to 
admire the Lomonds very much, and talked of them as 
his ' own blue Lomonds. ' The ridge presents in some 
parts a face of regular columnar basalt, and elsewhere 
it is formed of sandstone, limestone, coal, and interbedded 
volcanic rocks. The NE and E portions are well wooded. 
Besides Glen Bm-n, Maspie Burn, rising between East 
and Mid Lomonds, and some other small bm'ns flow to 
the Eden ; and Arnot, Lothrie, and Conland Burns to the 
Leven. The boundary line between the counties of Fife 
and Kinross passes along the hollow between Bishop Hill 
and West Lomond. South of Mid Lomond is a .small 
lochan known as Miller's Loch. On the top of West 
Lomond there is a cairn, and on the edge of the Glen Burn, 
below Edge Head, on the SE shoulder, are the remains of a 
hill-fort. There are also hill-forts E by S of Mid Lomond 
and on the very top of East Lomond. Bishop Hill was in 
1852 the scene of extensive search for gold, particularly 
about the limestone quarry known as Clattering Well. 
Ovej'lying the limestone, which is richly fossiliferous, is a 
bed of ochre, in which round masses of iron pyrites occur, 
and these were eagerly carried oft' as lumps of the precious 
metal. East Lomond Hill was one of the great stations 
during the Ordnance Survey ; and Carlyle in Ms Eemini- 
554 



LONGFOEGAN 

scences (1881) thus describes a visit he and Edward Irving 
then paid to the top : 'Another time military tents were 
noticed on the Lomond Hills (on the eastern of the two). 
"Trigonometrical Survey," said we, " Ramsden's theo- 
dolite and what not ; let us go. " And on Saturday we 
went. Beautiful the airy prospect from that eastern 
Lomond far and wide. Five or six tents stood on the 
top ; one a black stained cooking one, with a heap of 
coals close by — the rest all closed and occupants gone, 
except one other, partly open at the eaves, through 
which you coidd look in and see a big circular mahogany 
box (which we took to be the theodolite), and a saucy- 
looking, cold, oflficial gentleman diligently walking for 
exercise, no observations being possible, though the day 
was so bright. No admittance, however. Plenty of 
fine country people had come up, to whom the ofBcial 
had been coldly monosyllabic, as to us also he was. 
Polite, with a shade of contempt, and unwilling to let 
himself into speech. Irving had great skill in these 
cases. He remarked — and led us into remarking — 
courteously this and that about the famous Ramsden 
and his instrument, about the famous Trigonometrical 
Survey, and so forth, till the official in a few minutes 
had to melt ; invited us exceptionally in for an actual 
inspection of his theodolite, which we reverently en- 
joyed, and saw through it the signal column — a great 
broad plank, he told us, on the top of Ben Lomond, 
sixty miles oS' — wavering and shivering like a bit of 
loose tape, so that no observation could be had. We 
descended the hill refactd.' — Ord. Stir., sh. 40, 1867. 

Lonaig. See Inchlonaig. 

Lonan, a rivulet of Muckairn and Kilmore parishes, 
Lorn, Argyllshire, rising at an altitude of 1230 feet above 
sea-level, and running 6J miles west-by-northward to the 
head of fresh- water Loch Nell (48 feet). — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 45, 1876. 

Loncarty. See Luncarty. 

Lonehead. See Loanhead. 

Lonfeam, a village in Kilmuir parish. Isle of Skye, 
Inveruess-shire. 

Longa, an islet off the E side of Skye, Inverness-shire, 
1 mile NE of Scalpa, S-J miles NNW of Pabbay, and 6 
WNW of Kyle-Akin. Measuring 1,^ mUe in circum- 
ference, and mainly consisting of red sandstone, it forms 
an uneven table-land, everywhere abrupt on the coast, 
and rising to a height of 200 feet above sea-level ; and is 
merely a pasture for sheep and a haunt of sea-fowl. 

Longa, a small island (IJ x J mile ; 229 feet high) 
of Gairloch parish, Ross-shire, within the N side of the 
mouth of Gair Loch, 8 miles WSW of Poolewe. — Ord. 
Siir.,sh. 91, 1882. 

Longannat. See Tulliallan. 

Longart, Loch. See Glaslettek. 

Long Calderwood. See Calderwood, Long. 

Longcastle. See Dowalton and Kirkinnek, 

Long Causeway. See Caitsewayhead. 

Longcroft, a village in Denny parish, Stirlingshire, 2J 
miles SSW of Denny town. It lies between Parkfoot 
and Haggs, and forms part of the long line of nearly 
continuous village from Denny-Loanhead to Haggs. 
Pop., with Parkfoot, (1871) 547, (1881) 606. 

Long Dalmahoy. See Dalmahot. 

Longfaugh. See Criohton. 

Longforgan, a village and a parish on the eastern 
border of Perthshire. The village, standing on a ridge 
135 feet high, is 1 mile NNW of Longforgan station on 
the Dundee and Perth section of the Caledonian, this 
being 5 J miles W by S of Dundee and 164 ENE of 
Perth. It commands a sj)lendid view over the Carse of 
Gowrie and the Firth of Tay ; consists of a straggling 
main street ; served long as an appanage of Castle- 
Huntly ; and in 1672 was created a burgh of barony, 
with many privileges ; but has fallen away from its 
former prosperity. It has a post office under Dundee, 
with money order and savings' bank departments. 
Pop. (1831) 451, (1861) 442, (1871) 363, (1881) 366. 

"The parish, containing also the villages of Kingoodie 
and Mylnefielt) Feus, is bounded NW by Kettins 
in Forfarshire, NE by Fowlis-Easter and by Liff and 



LONGFORMACUS 

Benvie in Forfarshire, SE by the Firth of Tay, and 
W by Inchture and Abernyte. Its utmost length, 
from NW to SE, is 7g miles ; its breadth varies 
between 7J furlongs and 4J miles; and its area is 
11,247J acres, of which 2687 are foreshore and 32 
■water. The streams are all small, and the largest, 
rising in the north-western extremity, runs 2i miles to 
the SW boundary, flows 3| miles along that boundary, 
and thence goes 2 miles eastward to the Firth at Burn- 
side Park. The foreshore, 3J miles long and IJ mile 
broad, bears the name of Dogbank. A triangular tract 
of seaboard, about If mile broad at the western 
boundary, and converging to a point in the vicinity of 
Kingoodie village, 1 mile from the eastern boundary, 
is carse land, almost as Hat as a bowling-green. A 
bold and rocky promontory projects at Kingoodie ; 
and a gently sloping bank or low ridge goes thence 
north-westward, bears on its summit Longforgan vil- 
lage, and ends somewhat abruptly at the Snabs of 
Drimmie (177 feet). A dingle lies immediately behind, 
and extends quite across the parish ; a gentle ascent 
flanks the NW side of the dingle ; and in the north- 
western corner of the parish, Ballo Hill, a summit of 
the Sidlaws, attains a maximum altitude of 1029 feet 
above sea-level. Sandstone of excellent quality is 
quarried at Kingoodie, and on a farm in the uplands ; 
coal was long believed to exist, but eluded extensive 
and frequent search ; and shell marl was dug and sold 
to a vast amount after the epoch of agricultural improve- 
ment. The soil on the carse land is rich argillaceous 
alluvium ; on the bank or ridge flanking the carse land, 
is mostly a deep black loam ; and elsewhere is mainly 
of a light dry character, well suited to the turnip hus- 
bandry ; but on two or three farms is wet and spongy, 
on a cold retentive bottom. Rather more than one-sixth 
of the entire land area is under wood ; about 180 acres 
are meadow or hill pasture ; and all the rest of the land 
is regularlj- or occasionally in tillage. Chief antiquities 
are a large tumulus on what was anciently Forgan Moor, 
traces of a fortification on Dron Hill, a ruined chapel 
and a cemetery in a dell among the high grounds of 
Dron, vestiges of a cemetery on the grounds of Jlonor- 
gan, and many ancient coins, chiefly Scottish and Eng- 
lish, found in various parts. Castle-Huntly, the 
most prominent edifice, has been separately noticed, as 
also are the mansions of Mtlnefield and Loohton. 
A fourth mansion was Dkimmie House, now represented 
by Eossie Priory, within the eastern border of Inchture. 
Six proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 3 of between £100 and £500, 2 of from £50 to 
£100, and 5 of from £20 to £50. Longforgan is in the 
presbytery of Dundee and the synod of Angus and 
Mearns ; the living is worth £375. The parish church, 
at Longforgan village, was built in 1795, and contains 
nearly 1000 sittings. The clock on its steeple was 
reconstructed in 1878 by an ingenious self-taught car- 
penter. There is also a Free church ; and two public 
schools, Longforgan and Mylnefield, with respective 
accommodation for 180 and 230 children, had (1882) an 
average attendance of 111 and 156, and grants of £114, 
14s. 6d. and £143, 13s. Valuation (1866) £13,998. Is., 
(1884) £15,282, 2s. lOd. Pop. (ISOl) 1569, (1831) 1638, 
(1861) 1823, (1871) 1753, (1881) 1854.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 
48, 1868. 

Longformacus, a small village and a parish in 
Lammermuir district, N Berwickshire. The vUlage 
stands, 690 feet above sea-level, on both sides of Dye 
"Water, 7 miles "VVISTW of its station and post-town, 
Duns. It has a post office, and is a resort of anglers, for 
whom there is good accommodation. 

The parish, consisting of a main body and a detached 
section, comprises the ancient parishes of Longformacus 
and Ellem, united in 1712. The main body is bounded 
N by Cranshaws and by Whittingham and Innerwick 
in Haddingtonshire, E by Abbey St Bathans, Duns, and 
Langton, SE by Polwarth, S by Greenlaw and Cran- 
shaws (detached), SW by Lauder, and NW by Garvald 
in Haddingtonshire. Its outline is remarkably irregvdar, 
being closely contracted by the two sections of Cran- 



LONGHOPE 

shaws, and making a great projection towards Greenlaw ; 
and its utmost length, from E to W, is lOg miles ; whilst 
its breadth varies between f mile and 7} miles. The 
detached or Blackek.stone section, lying 1^ mile E of 
the nearest point of the main body, is surrounded by 
Abbey St Bathans, Cockburnspath, Bunkle, and Dims, 
and has an utmost length and breadth of 2J miles and 
1 mile. The area of the whole is 19,604J acres, of which 
1149J belong to the detached section, and 72J are water. 
Dye Water, rising on the western confines of the 
parish at an altitude of 1600 feet above sea-level, winds 
13| miles eastward through the interior and along the 
southern boundary, till, after a total descent of 1000 
feet, it falls into the Whitadder, j mile WSW of Ellem 
Inn. The Whitadder itself curves 4J miles eastward 
through the interior and along the boundaries with 
Cranshaws and Abbey St Bathans, and lower down 
traces the western and southern boundary of the Blacker- 
stone section for 2J miles. Along the Whitadder the 
surface of the main body declines in the extreme E to 
510 feet above sea-level, thence rising to 1032 feet at 
Brown Law, 880 near Otterburn, 1309 at Dirrikgton 
Great Law, 1191 at Dirrington Little Law, 1194 at 
Wrink Law, 1299 at Black Hill, 1531 at Meikle Law, 
1625 at Hunt Law, and 1626 at Willies Law. The rocks 
are mainly Silurian, and various unsuccessful attempts 
have been made at copper-mining. The soil is fairly 
good for a hill district ; but less than one-ninth of 
the entire area is in tillage, wood covering some 330 
acres, and the rest being pastoral moorland. The chief 
antiquity, a cairn called the Mutiny Stones, is noticed 
under Btreoleugh. An ancient British camp, known 
locally as Eunklie — a corruption of Wrink Law — lies 
li mile above Longformacus, where the flanks of the 
hill drop abruptly down on Dye Water. On one side 
it is protected by precipitous slopes, on the other by 
walls and mounds. In recent times Runklie has been 
the site of a farm and a mill, the traces of which can be 
easily seen within the limits of the more ancient remains 
[Procs. BerwicJcshire Naturalists' Club, 1882). At the 
manse is a tall picturesque gable-end of a dwelling, sup- 
posed to be a mansion built for defence in the old Border 
times. In olden times the barony of Longformacus 
belonged successively to the Earls of Moray, the Earls 
of Dunbar, and the St Clairs of Roslin. Longformacus 
House stands a little way E of the village, on the 
opposite bank of the Dye, amidst large and well-wooded 
grounds. Its owner. Captain A. M. Brown, holds 2600 
acres in the parish, valued at £1620 per annum. The 
only other resident landowner is Andrew Smith, Esq. 
of A\Tiitchester, w'hose turreted mansion, standing on a 
hill between Ellemford and Longformacus, forms from all 
parts a most prominent feature in the landscape. Four 
other proprietors hold each an annual value of more, 
and 3 of less, than £500. Longformacus is in the 
presbytery of Duns and the synod of Merse and Teviot- 
dale ; the living averages nearly £300. The parish 
church, built about 1730, contains 200 sittings. There 
is also a Free church ; and a public school, with accom- 
modation for 66 children, had (1882) an average attend- 
ance of 42, and a grant of £53, Is. Valuation (1865) 
£6634, 9s., (1884) £7085, 6s. Pop. (1801) 406, (1831) 
425, (1861) 448, (1871) 452, (1881) 385.— Orrf. Sur., 
shs. 33, 34, 25, 1863-65. 

Longhaven, a modern mansion in Cruden parish, 
Aberdeenshire, 6 miles S by W of Peterhead. There 
is a post office of Longhaven under Ellon. 

Longhope, a hamlet and a sea-loch or long bay in 
Walls and Flotta parish. Hoy Island, Orkney. The 
hamlet, lying on the sea-loch, 18 miles SW of Kh-kwall, 
has a post office under Stromness, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments. The sea- 
loch, opening from the soutli-western extremity of Scapa 
Flow, opposite Flotta Island, is sheltered across the 
entrance, at the distance of about 1 mOe, by Flotta and 
Switha. Penetrating the southern district of Hoy 
Island, so as to cut that island into a large main body 
and a small peninsula, it extends 3J miles west-south- 
westward to within 3 furlom^t of the Pentland Fiith, 

555 



LONG ISLAND 



LONGSIDE 



and is separated, at its south-eastern extremity, by an 
isthmus ouly 200 feet broad from Aith Hope Bay. With 
a breadth of from 3 furlongs to IJ mile, it forms a 
splendid natural harbour, perfectly sheltered from every 
wind. 

Long Island, the Outer Hebrides, or largest group of 
the Western Islands, partly in Koss-shire, and chiefly 
in Inverness-shire. See Hebrides. 

Longleys, a village in Meigle parish, Perthshire, 2 
miles SW of Meigle village. 

Long Loch, a lake on the mutual border of Mearns and 
Neilston parishes, SE Renfrewshire, 3 miles S of Neilston 
town. Lying 790 feet above sea-level, it has an utmost 
length and breadth of 1 J and J mile, contains some perch 
and trout, and sends off the principal head-stream of the 
Levern.— OrfZ. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Long Loch. See Lundie. 

Long, Loch (the Sinus Leniannonma of Ptolemy), a salt- 
water inlet on the mutual border of Cowal, Dunoon, and 
Lochgoilhead parishes, in Argyllshire, and Roseneath, 
Row, and Arrochar parishes, Dumbartonshire. An arm 
of the Firth of Clyde, which, but for wanting the influx 
of the river Clyde or of some other considerable river, 
would claim to be regarded as the upper iirth, it opens 
on a line with the lower firth, immediately to the N of 
the mouth of Holy Loch, 5 miles WNW of Greenock, 
and extends 17J miles north-north-eastward, \Yith a 
varying width of 2 miles and 2J furlongs. It sends 
off from its western side the considerable inlet of Loch 
GoiL, and at Portincaple and Arrochar approaches to 
within 2 miles of the head of Gare Loch and If mile of 
Tarbet on Loch Lomond. Under Akdentinnt, Aegtll's 
Bowling Green, Glencrob, and the five parishes which 
skirt its shores, are noticed the leading features of Loch 
Long, which the Queen, who steamed up and down it on 
17 Aug. 1847, describes as 'indeed splendid, surrounded 
by grand hills, with such beautiful outlines, and very 
green, the loch winding along most beautifully, so as to 
seem closed at times.' Dorothy WordsM-orth writes, 
under date 29 Aug. 1803, that ' this was the first sea- 
loch we had seen. We came prepared for a new and 
great deliglit, and the first impression which William 
and I received, as we drove rapidly through the rain 
down the lawn of Arrochar, the objects dancing before 
•us, was even more delightful than we had expected. 
But, as I have said, wdien we looked through the 
window, as the mists disappeared and the objects were 
seen more distinctly, there was less of sheltered valley- 
comfort than we had fancied to ourselves, and the 
mountains were not so grand ; and now that we were near 
to the shore of the lake, and could see that it was not of 
fresh water, the wreck, the broken sea-shells, and 
scattered sea-weed gave somewhat of a dull and uncleanly 
look to the whole lake, and yet the water was clear, and 
might have appeared as beautiful as that of Loch Lomond, 
if with the same pure pebbl}' shore. Perhaps, had we 
been in a more cheerful mood of mind we might have 
seen everything -mth a difierent eye. The stillness of 
the mountains, the motion of the waves, the streaming 
torrents, the sea-birds, the fishing boats were all melan- 
choly ; yet still, occupied as my mind was with other 
things, I thought of the long windings through which 
the waters of the sea had come to this inland retreat, 
visiting the inner solitudes of the mountains, and I 
could liave wished to have mused out a summer's day on 
the shores of the lake. From the foot of these mountains 
whither might not a little barque carry one away ? 
Though so far inland, it is but a slip of the great ocean : 
seamen, fishermen, and shepherds here find a natural 
home. We did not travel far down the lake, but, turn- 
ing to the right through an opening of the mountains, 
entered Glen CroQ.'—Ord. Sur., shs. 29, 37, 38, 1871- 
76. 

Long, Loch, the north-eastern fork of salt-water Loch 
Alsh, on the mutual border of Lochalsh and Kintail 
parishes, SW Ross-shire. It curves 5J miles north-east- 
ward, though its average width is less than \ mile ; and 
at its head it receives the Elohaig and the Ling or Long, 
the latter of which issues from Loch Cruashie (850 feet), 
656 



and runs 11 miles west-south-westward along the boun- 
dary of the above-named parishes. It is crossed at the 
mouth by the line of communication from Kyle-Akin to- 
Inverness ; and on its Kintail shore are the fishing villages 
of Dornie and Bundalloch. — Ord. Sur., shs. 71, 72, 82, 
1880-84. 

Longmanhill, a village in Gamrie parish, Banffshire, 
3 miles ESE of Macduff. Founded about 1822 by the 
Earl of Fife, it chiefly consists of a regular assemblage 
of houses occupied by small crofters, and has a post 
office under Banff.— OrfZ. Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 

Longmom, a station in Elgin parish, Elginshire, on 
the Great North of Scotland railway, 3 miles S by E of 
Elgin. 

Longnewton, a quondam village and an ancient parish 
of NW Roxburghshire. The village lay near the left 
bank of Ale Water, 3 miles S of St Boswells, and was 
the birthplace of the famous shoemaker-fisherman, John 
Younger (1785-1860) of St Boswells. The parish, lying 
around the village, forms the north-western section of 
the present parish of Ancrum. Its church is repre- 
sented only by the burying-ground. — Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 
1865. 

Longnewton, a hamlet in Yester parish, Haddington- 
shire, at the foot of the Lammermuirs, 2i miles SW of 
Gifford. 

Longniddry, a village in Gladsmuir parish, Hadding- 
tonshire, with a post and railway telegraph office, and 
with a station on the North British railway, the junction 
for Haddington, 4| miles WSW of that town and 13J 
E by N of Edinburgh. Once a small town of some 
importance, with several streets, it covered a considerable 
extent of ground, which now is under the plough. To- 
day it exhibits a straggling, irregular, and decayed 
appearance ; although, in connection with the railway, 
it still is a place of some transit traffic. Longniddry 
House, the seat of the Douglases, who figured pro- 
minently in the movements of the Reformation, stood 
at the SW side of the village, and is now represented by 
only a circular mound and subterranean vaults. An 
ancient chapel, in which John Knox occasionally 
preached, and which came to be called John Knox's 
Kirk, stood a little to the E, and is now a ruin. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Longridge or Lanrig, a village in Whitburn parish, 
S W Linlithgowshire, 1 f mile N by W of Breich station, 
and IJ S by E of Whitburn town. Pop. (1861) 413, 
(1871) 436, (1881) ii2.— Ord. Sitr., sh. 31, 1867. 

Longriggend, a place in New Monkland parish, 
Lanarkshire, 5 miles NE by E of Coatbridge and 2| 
SW of Slamannan. It has a post office under Airdrie, 
a railway station, and a handsome Roman Catholic chapel 
school (1879).— Orrf. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Longside, a village and a parish in Buchan district, 
NE Aberdeenshire. The village lies at an altitude of 
from 66 to 107 feet above sea-level, near the right bank 
of South Ugie Water, 3 furlongs S of Longside station 
on the Peterhead branch of the Great North of Scotland 
railway, this being 6 miles W by N of Peterhead, 7J E 
of Maud Junction, and 38i N by E of Aberdeen. It 
stands on an eminence, sloping gently on every side, 
and was founded in 1801 by Mr Ferguson of Pitfour. 
Its growth was rapid till the stoppage of a woollen 
factory at Millbank in 1828, since which year very few- 
houses have been built ; but it presents a pleasant 
appearance, and has a post office under Aberdeen, with 
money order, savings' bank, and railway telegraph 
departments, a branch of the North of Scotland Bank, 
one of the oldest savings' banks (1815) in the north of 
Scotland, fairs on the Thursday after the third Tuesday 
of every month, and hiring fairs on the Tuesday after 
7 May and 7 Nov. The old parish church, on the 
summit of the eminence, was built in 1620, and down 
to 1801 was the only edifice on the site of the village, 
excepting a farm-house and an ale-house. Becoming 
too small for the greatly increased population, it was 
then abandoned, but still remains standing in the 
churchyard, the entrance to which is by an old lych- 
gate, one of the few in Scotland. The new parish 



LONG SPROUSTON 



LORDSCAIENIE 



church, beside the old one, was built in 1836, and is a 
plain but well-proportioned edifice, with a steeple and 
1350 sittings. The Free church, erected soon after the 
Disruption, has a tall slender spire ; and St John's 
Episcopal church, on Cairngall estate, to the E of the 
village, was built in 1853, after designs by W. Hay. 
First Pointed in style, it consists of nave, aisles, and 
chancel, with a central saddle-roofed tower 90 feet high. 
Burns's correspondent, the Rev. John Skinner (1721- 
1807), authorofan Ecclesiastical History of Scotlaml, and 
of Tidlochgorum, John o' Badcnyon, Eioie wi' tJie Crooked 
Horn, and other popular songs, for 64 years was Epis- 
copal minister of Longside. Liushart, his low thatched 
cottage, is still standing, where, after his church had 
been burned by the Hanoverians in 1746, he preached 
from the window to the little flock gathered outside. A 
handsome monument marks his grave in the parish 
churchyard ; and an interesting Life of him was pub- 
lished in 1883 by the Key. W. Walker. A monument, 
too, was erected in 1861 over the grave of Jamie Fleeman 
(1713-78), the ' Laird of Udny's fool,' who was born at 
Longside, and died at Kinmundy. Pop. (1831) 316, 
(1861) 447, (1871) 584, (1881) 474. 

The parish of Longside, containing also Mintlaw 
village, was disjoined from Peterhead parish in 1620. 
It is bounded NE by St Fergus, E by Peterhead, S by 
Cruden, W by Old Deer, and NW by Old Deer and 
Strichen. Its utmost length, from N by E to S by W, 
is 8^ miles ; its breadth varies between 3 and 5J miles ; 
and its area is 16,S94J acres, of which 58|- are water. 
North and South Ugie Waters wind 2| miles east-south- 
eastward and 4 j east-north-eastward, and unite in the 
Haughs of Eora to form the river Ugie, which itself 
has an east-north-easterly course of 2J miles, till it 
passes off from the parish. North Ugie Water used 
often to flood a considerable extent of adjacent land, 
but now is restrained within embankments. Several 
burns run to one or other of these streams ; and springs 
are abundant and generally pure. Two, 400 yards S of 
the village, though within 18 inches of each other, 
differ so remarkablj' that the one has very soft water, 
while the other is a strong chalybeate. The surface for 
the most part is either level or gently undulating, and 
rises to a low watershed at the Cruden boundary, 
attaining there a maximum altitude of 447 feet above 
sea-level, and at Eora Moss of 189, whilst along the 
Ugie it declines to close upon 40 feet. Granite of 
different colours and excellent quality is worked in the 
Cairngall and other quarries, both for ordinary building 
and for ornamental purposes. The soil is in most parts 
light, comparatively shallow, and incumbent on a 
ferruginous stratum or 'pan.' About one-fifth of the 
entire area is moss, pasture, or waste ; nearly 400 acres 
are under wood ; and all the rest of the land is in tillage. 
Estates, noticed separately, are Cairngall, Faichfibld, 
Inverquhomert, and Kinmundy ; and 7 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards. Giving 
off three portions to the quoad sacra parishes of Black- 
hill, ArdaUie, and Kinninmonth, Longside is in the 
presbytery of Deer and synod of Aberdeen ; the living 
is worth £389. In 1882 there were the following seven 
schools, with their accommodation, average attendance, 
and Government grant : — Kinmundy (130, 127, £109, 
14s.), Longside (135, 107, £93, 2s.), Longside girls' (120, 
96, £84), Mintlaw (84, 78, £72, 13s.),' Kora (75, 68, 
£57, 13s.), Mintlaw Mitchel (57, 36, £25, 4s.), and 
Eora Mitchel (40, 32, £15, 6s.). A^aluation (1860) 
£11,745, (1884) £17,288, p?i«s £1177 for railway. 
Pop. (1801) 1825, (1831) 2479, (1861) 3008, (1871)3321, 
(1881) 3222, of whom 2835 were in the ecclesiastical 
parish. — 07-d. Sur., sh. 87, 1876. 

Long Sprouston. See SpEOtrsTOX. 

Long Yester. See Yester. 

Lomnay, a parish in Buchan district, NE Aberdeen- 
shire, witli a station on the Formartine and Buchan 
section of the Great North of Scotland railway, 5^ miles 
S by E of Fraserburgh and 42 N by E of Aberdeen, 
under which there is a post office of Lonmay, -with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments. 
73 



Fairs are held near the station on the second Monday of 
every month. 

Containing also the fishing village of St Combs, 4i 
miles NNE of Lonmay station, the parish is bounded 
NE by the German Ocean, SE and E by Crimond, St 
Fergus, and Longside, S by Old Deer, W by Strichen 
and Rathen, and NW by Ratheu. With a very irregular 
outline, it has an utmost length from NNE to SSW 
of 8J miles, a varying width of 1;^ furlong and 4 miles, 
and an area of 12,000J acres, of which 528 are foreshore 
and 397 water. The coast, 4 miles in extent, has a 
sandy beach, bordered by low and bent-covered sand- 
hills. Bleak, shallow Loch Stuatiibeg, 2§ miles long, 
and from 2 to 4J furlongs broad, lies partly in Crimond 
but mainly in Lonmay, within j mile of the sea-shore. 
Formed by sand drifts blocking the outlet of a stream, 
it contains three islets, and is bounded on the N by a 
fine grassy extent of downs or links, affording pastur- 
age for cattle and sheep. Several burns run in difi'erent 
directions across the parish, and after making a con- 
fluence, pass into Loch Strathbeg ; whilst North Ugie 
Water, at two diS'erent points, traces IJ and ^ mile of 
the southern boundary. The highest point in the 
parish — 270 feet above sea-level — is near Kinninmonth 
church. One or two green braes skirt the links near the 
beach ; two or three unimportant ridges extend westward 
through the interior ; a plain, comprising the estates 
of Lonmay, Cairness, Craigellie, Blairraormond, Park, 
and parts of Inverallochy and Crimonmogate, constitutes 
the northern district ; and the southern consists of 
another plain, somewhat more elevated, broken by ris- 
ing-grounds, and containing two extensive peat mosses. 
Syenite and greenstone are the predominant rocks ; and 
limestone occurs on the northern border. The soil, in 
some parts clay, is elsewhere chiefly light, dry, and 
sandy. About one-fifth of the entire area is still moss 
or moor ; plantations cover some 400 acres ; and all the 
rest of the land is either cultivated or in pasture. Lon- 
may Castle, on the coast, 1-i mile SSE of St Combs 
village, is scarcely known to record, and has utterly 
disappeared. An ancient Caledonian stone circle, in 
pretty entire condition, is at Newark. The principal 
mansions are Cairness, Craigellie, and Crimon- 
mogate ; and 5 proprietors hold each an annual value 
of more, 6 of less, than £500. Since 1874 giving off 
its southern division to the quoad sacra parish of Kin- 
ninmonth, Lonmay is in the presbytery of Deer and 
the synod of Aberdeen ; the living is worth £375. The 
parish church, 2J miles NE of Lonmay station, is a 
neat edifice of 1787, containing 649 sittings. Near it 
is St Columba's Episcopal church (1797), which, as re- 
constructed in 1862, is seated for 160, and comprises 
nave, chancel, and organ-chamber. Three public schools 
— Blackhills, Lonmay, and St Combs — with respective 
accommodation for 70, 120, and 130 children, had (1882) 
an average attendance of 63, 87, and 119, and grants of 
£48, 18s., £77, 14s., and £94, 10s. Valuation (1860) 
£7892, (1884) £11,727, 14s. Id., plus £547 for railway. 
Pop. (1801)1607, (1831) 1798, (1861) 2142, (1871) 2245, 
(1881) 2393, of whom 1767 were in the ecclesiastical 
parish.— Orrf. Sur., shs. 97, 87, 1876. 

Lora. See Connel Ferry. 

Lordscaimie, a quondam lake in Moonzie parish, 
Fife, 3J miles NW of Cupar. Nearly 2 miles long, and 
in some parts J mile broad, it presented features which 
occasioned it to be sometimes called Lordscairnie Mire, 
and about the year 1803 was so drained as to be con- 
verted into arable ground. Lordscaii'nie Castle, on a 
slight eminence, once an islet surrounded by the lake, 
was built in the time of James II. by the third Earl of 
Crawford, popularly called Earl Beardie. Though it 
has suffered much demolition, in modern times, by being 
used as a quarry, it still partly stands to the length of 
54 feet, the breadth of 40 feet, and the height of four 
stories ; has walls nearly 6 feet thick, consisting of 
many kinds of stones, and very strongly cemented ; and 
is often popularly designated Earl Beardie's Castle. 
Lordscairnie estate, comprising the farms of Lords- 
cairnie, Moonzie, Torr, and Bridgend, belongs now to 

557 



LORETTO 

the Earl of Glasgow, and is sometimes called Moonzie 
estate.— Cj-iZ. Sur., sh. 48, 1068. 

Loretto. See Musselbuegh. 

Lorn, a district and a presbytery of Argyllsliire. The 
district is bounded, on the N\V, by Loch Linnhe, which 
divides it from Morvern ; on the N by Locli Leven, the 
river Leven, and the chain of lakelets drained by the 
Leven, -which divide it from Inverness-shire ; on the E by 
an arbitrary line across Rannoch Moor, and by the great 
central southward reach of the Grampians, which divide it 
from Perthshire ; on the S partly by brief arbitrary lines, 
and chiefly by Lochs Awe, Avich, and Melfort, which 
divide it from Cowal and Argyll ; on the W by the 
Firth of Lorn, which divides it from MulL It includes 
also the islands belonging to the parish of Lismore and 
Appin, and the islands of Eerrera, Easdale, and Shuna. 
Its length, from N to S, varies from 22 to 33 miles, and 
its breadth, from E to W, varies from 15 to 32 miles. 
The parishes comprised in it are Lismore and Appin, Ard- 
chattan and Muckairn, Kilmore and Kilbride, Glenorchy 
and Innishail, Kilbrandon and Kilchattan, Kilchrenan 
and Dalavich, Kilninver and Kilmelfort. The north- 
eastern portion of it, comprising Glencoe, Glenorchy, 
and the minor part of Rannoch Moor, belongs to it only 
in a loose and indefinite manner, whilst the rest of it, 
measuring 33 miles in extreme length, and about 9 miles 
in mean breadth, is strictly or emphatically Lorn, and 
is divided into Upper Lorn, lying N of Loch Etive, and 
including Appin and Airds ; Middle Lorn, lying im- 
mediately S of Loch Etive, and including Muckairn ; and 
Nether Lorn, separated from Middle Lorn by no natural 
boundary, and extending to Lochs Avich and Melfort. 
The district, in a general view, is grandly Highland ; 
displaj's great wealth and variety of mountain, glen, 
romantic seaboard, picturesque fresh-water lake and 
long-reaching sea-loch ; abounds in many kinds of 
interesting antiquities, both civil and ecclesiastical, 
from the ancient Caledonian to the late mediaeval ; has 
ancient historical associations connected with Dalriada, 
or the original Scottish liingdom ; and possesses three of 
the most renowned ancient castles in the Western 
Highlands — Dunstaffnage, DunoUy, and Kilchnrn. The 
Firth of Lorn extends southward from the junction of 
Loch Linnhe and the Sound of Mull ; washes all the AV 
coast of Lorn and all the SE coast of Mull ; has a length 
of 17 miles, and a breadth of from 5 to 15 miles ; cou- 
tains Kerrera island, most of the Slate islands, and some 
small islets ; has screens and intersections of remarkable 
force of character ; is traversed by all the steamers plying 
between the Clyde and the North of Scotland ; and, 
whether seen from many parts of its own bosom, or 
from numerous vantage-grounds on its shores, displays 
a variety and a magnificence of scenery unsurpassed 
by any in the kingdom. The district got its name 
from Loarn, one of the three brothers, sons of Ere, 
who, in the end of the 5th century, immigrated from 
the Irish Dalriada, and founded the Scottish monarchy ; 
and it gives the titles of Baron and Marquis, in the 
peerage of Scotland, to the Duke of Argyll — the former 
title created in 1470, the latter in 1701. The Duke 
of Argyll's eldest son bears, by courtesy, the title of 
Marquis of Lorn ; and the present Marquis, born in 
1845, married in 1871 Her Royal Highness Princess 
Louise-Caroline-Alberta. The presbytery of Lorn com- 
prehends the quoad cimlia parishes of Ardchattan, 
Glenorchy, Kilbrandon, Kilchrenan, Kilmore, Kil- 
ninver, and Lismore, the quoad sacra parishes of 
Appin, Duror, Muckairn, Oban, and St Columba 
(Oban), and the chapelries of Kingairloch, Glencoe, 
Lochawe, Dalavich, and Connel Ferry, and holds its 
meetings at Oban on the last Tuesday of March and 
November, and the first Tuesday of May and November. 
Pop. (1871) 12,956, (ISSl) 14,361, of whom 1128 were 
communicants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. — The 
Free Church also has a presbytery of Lorn, with churches 
at Appin, Ardchattan, Glenorchy, Kilbrandon, Kilnin- 
ver, JIuckairn, and Oban, and a preaching station at 
Kilchrenan, which 7 churches together had 1747 
members and adherents in 1883. 
558 



LOSSIEMOTJTH 

Lorn Furnace. See Bunawe. 

Lomty. See Bl.itegoweie. 

Lossie, a river of Elginshire, which rises in the parish 
of Dallas, near Carn Kitty (1711 feet), where the parishes 
of Dallas, Edinkillie, and Enockando meet, 14 mUes 
SW of the city of Elgin. Springing from the feeders of 
two small lochs — Trevie and Lossie — and receiving also 
near its source a bum from the loch marked on the 
Ordnance Survey map as Loch Nair, but which ought to 
be Loch-an-Iore, it flows in a very winding course, with 
a general N by E direction, to the Moeat Firth at 
LossiEMOtJTH, passing through or along the borders of 
the parishes of Dallas, Birnie, Elgin, Spynie, St Andrews- 
Lhanbryd, and Drainie. The distance from source to 
mouth is only 19 miles, but so numerous are the windings 
that the distance along the river itself is 31 miles. The 
upper part of its course is bleak and bare, but there are 
pretty parts from Dallas church downwards, particularly 
in the neighbourhood of the city of Elgin, where one of 
the banks is always well wooded, and sometimes both. 
At Kellas, a little below Dallas, there is a very fine series 
of river terraces at three different levels, and not sur- 
passed in the N of Scotland. Immediately further down 
there are narrow rocky gorges, through whicli the river 
flows in a succession of rapids. The lowest of these is 
the Dun Cow's Loup. Near Birnie a hollow known as 
Foths (? fosse, fossa) opens off. This is evidently an old 
course of the river, though the present channel, cutting 
backwards, is now at a much lower level. Below Birnie 
the flow, which is nowhere rapid, becomes more sluggish 
still, and the river along the gi-eater part of the rest of 
its course has to be bounded by strong embankments. 
Good examples of terraces may again be seen W of the 
bend at Haughland near Elgin. In 1829 the river, like 
all the others on the N side of the Moray Firth, came 
down in heavy flood, sweeping almost all the bridges 
before it, and inundating the whole of the low country 
along its banks, and breaking into the old bed of the 
Loch of Spynie, which had been drained about twenty 
years before. The streams that join it from the E 
are the Burn of Corrhatnich, the Lennoc Burn, the 
Burn of Shougle, the Muirton, Linkwood or Wauk- 
mill Burn, and the Burn of Lhanbryd. The Lennoc 
Burn flows through the deep Glenlatterich, and at one 
narrow rocky gorge called the Ess of Glenlatterach has a 
fall 50 feet high. The streams from the W are the 
Lochty or Black Burn and the Monaughty Canal. The 
river and its tributaries afford good trout fishing (only 
three salmon have been captured within the last twenty 
years) ; and though the fishings are let by the proprietor, 
the Earl of Moray, the tenant allows the public to fish. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 85, 95, 1876. 

Lossiemouth, a small coast town in Deainie parish, 
Elginshire, at the mouth of the river just described, 
and by rail 5J miles NNE of Elgin, of which, as well as 
of a considerable part of the district, it is the seaport. 
It consists of three different villages, Lossiemouth pro- 
per, Branderburgh, and Stotfield. There is a port of 
' Lossy, otherwise of Spynie,' mentioned in the Chartu- 
lary of Moray in 1383, but it was very probably farther 
up the river than the present site. It was then as now 
the port of Elgin, and the reason of the mention is a 
dispute as to the rights of the bishop and burgesses. 
The bishop seems to have prevailed, and the mouth of the 
river became a pertinent of the estate of Kinedder, and 
thus remained till near the end of the 17th century. 
In 1698 the town of Elgin feued from the then pro- 
prietor of Kinedder, Brodie of Brodie, about 80 acres of 
bare gravel and sand, at a yearly feu-duty of £2, Is. 7d., 
and a harbour was constructed ; and streets and cross 
lanes, all at right angles, were regularly laid out round 
a large central square, in which is the sadly dilapidated 
town's cross. The feus measure 120 by 180 feet, and are 
held at a very low rate. They were, so long as the old 
harbour remained, readily taken off, though since the 
erection of the new harbour many of tlie fishermen 
prefer Branderburgh, and the earlier village is now 
known, sometimes, as the Old Town. The original 
harbour was within the mouth of the river, and cost 



LOSSIEMOUTH 



LOTH 



£1?.00 previous to 1780, but the entrance was very in- 
convenient on account of a bad sand-bar, which could 
not be got rid of, notwithstanding the effort made to 
increase the scour of the river by the erection of another 
pier on the opposite side of the river in that year. As 
business by and by increased — particularly the herring 
fishing, which was first tried in 1819 — the accommoda- 
tion became very insufficient, and in 1834 a Stotfield 
and Lossiemouth Harbour Company was formed for the 
purpose of making a new harbour at Stotfield Point, 
away from the mouth of the river and the bar altogether. 
This was a rectangular basin, mainly cut in solid rock, 
and protected by a breakwater on the N. The work 
was carried out between 1837 and 1839, and the rubbish 
was flung on the shore. The stones thus thrown down 
have been gradually carried westward by a strong in- 
shore current that sets in that direction, and now extend 
along the shore for fully J mile, forming a ridge 40 feet 
wide at the base and about 10 feet high. The harbour 
was again enlarged, deepened to 16 feet at spring tides, 
and otherwise improved in 1852, when railway com- 
munication with Elgin was first opened, and during the 
next eight years trade again increased, and such large 
numbers of herring boats began to fish from the place, 
that the directors of the company — now the Elgin and 
Lossiemouth Harbour Company — extended the break- 
water to the SW, and,'at a cost of £18,000, formed a 
large new basin, intended entirely for boats. The 
herring having, however, gone off the coast, the number 
of boats frequenting it has fallen from 120 about 1868 
to some 30 at present, so that the operations have not 
been at all a financial success, and the curing stations 
are mostly deserted. The rising-ground W and SW of 
the harbour is known as the Coulai-d Hill (124 feet), and 
along the slopes of this since 1830 the village of Brander- 
burgh has spruug up, Colonel Brander of Pitgaven}', 
the late proprietor of the ground, having, in that year, 
built a house there for himself — the first, and for seven 
3'ears the only one erected — close to the present entrance 
to the boat basin at the harbour. The change of harbour 
favoured the rise of the new village, and within the next 
thirty years the number of inhabitants had become 
nearly 1000. This village is also regularly laid out, 
with the streets at right angles and a large central square. 
To the W and N of the square the houses belong to 
fishermen, and are substantial and mostly very tidy 
buildings. To the S there are a number of villas occupied 
by the business men connected with the place, or belong- 
ing to the inhabitants of Elgin, who make this a summer 
resort. Stotfield is along the coast to the SW, and con- 
tains a number of villas used as summer residences. It 
has a boat-building yard, and, close by, the rocks [See 
Elginshike] contain galena, efforts to work which to 
profit have been made on many occasions, from 1790 
downwards, but hitherto without success, though a shaft 
was sunk in 1876-77, and stamping mills subsequently 
set up. To the E of this is the Branderburgh Baths, 
containing a swimming bath and other accommodation, 
the water being pumped from the sea. Originally con- 
structed by a joint stock company in 1873-74, thej' have 
since been sold, and are now in private hands. The 
beach below Stotfield, in Stotfield Hythe, forms excellent 
bathing ground, and is much resorted to by visitors. 
The village was, on 25 Dec. 1806, the scene of a 
sudden and terrific gale, in which almost all the fisher- 
men belonging to the place were drowned within sight 
of the houses. There are fine views of the Sutherland- 
shire and Eoss-shire hUls, both from Stotfield and the 
Coulard Hill. The Established church at the W of the 
Old Town, with 300 sittings, was erected in 1848, and 
is a chapel of ease for the parish of Drainie, which in 
1792 was in what the writer of the Old Statistical Ac- 
count evidently thought the happy position of having ' no 
lawyer, writer, attorney, physician, surgeon, apothecary, 
negi'o, Jew, gipsy. Englishman, Irishman, foreigner of 
any description, nor family of any religious sect or de- 
nomination except the Established Church.' In the 
beginning of 1884 it was proposed to erect near the 
town a new church for the parish of Dr.AiNiE. The 



Free church (1844), with 500 sittings, is a short dis- 
tance to the N. The original U.P. church was further 
to the E, and was the oldest church in the village ; but 
a new one was erected in 1881. The Baptist church 
dates from 1870. Lossiemouth school, close to the Free 
church, was originally built as a General Assembly 
school, but on the passing of the Education Act was 
handed over to the school board of Drainie. Funds 
are being raised for the erection of a town-hall. The 
industries are mainly those connected with fishing and 
shipping, and there are quarries of good sandstone along 
the edge of Coulard Hill. From these large numbers of 
specimens of the reptiles found in the ' Elgin Sand- 
stones ' have been procured. They are noticed in the 
article on the county of Elgin. A lifeboat has been 
stationed here since 1866. The Police and General 
Improvement (Scotland) Act was adopted in 1865, and 
an excellent water supply was introduced in 1877 at a 
cost of £4340. The supply is taken from an excellent 
spring in a deep well to the E of Lossiemouth proper, 
from which it is pumped by steam to a circular iron 
reservoir, containing over 6000 gallons, on the top of the 
Coulard Hill, and thence distributed over the place. 
There is frequent railway communication with Elgin by 
the Morayshire railway, since 1881 a branch of the Great 
North of Scotland railway system. The principal imports 
are coal, salt, timber, pavement, and slates, and the prin- 
cipal export pit-props. Pop. (1831) 580, (1861) 2285, 
(1871) 2620, (1881) 3497, of whom 1831 were females, 
whilst 18S8 were in Branderburgh, 1129 in Lossiemouth, 
277 in Seatown, and 203 in Stotfield. Houses (1881) 
655 inhabited, 16 vacant, 4 building. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
95, 1876. 

Loth, a coast parish of E Sutherland, with a station 
of its own name on the Duke of Sutherland's railway 
(1871), 5| miles SW of Helmsdale. Containing also the 
fishing village of Portgower, 2 miles SW of Helmsdale, 
and much curtailed by the annexation of its Helmsdale 
portion to Kildonan prior to 1851, it is boimded N by 
Kildonan, SE by the Jiloray Firth, and SW by Clyne. 
Its utmost length, from K E to SW, is 1h miles ; its 
utmost breadth, from NW to SE, is 5| miles ; and its 
area is 2Si square miles or 18,042 acres, of which 430f 
are foreshore and 4J water. The coast-line, closely 
followed by the railway for 7f miles, is chiefly a low, 
level beach of sand, indented by several baylets, and 
projecting some low rocky headlands. The imjjetuous 
Loth, rising on Beinn na Meilich at an altitude of 1510 
feet, winds 5f miles southward to the sea near Loth 
station, 2f miles above its mouth being joined by 
Sletdale Burn, which rises on Meall an Liath Mor at an 
altitude of 1495 feet, and, thence curving l>\ miles east- 
by-southward, has a total descent of 1132 feet. Of 
seven other streamlets the chief is one running 4 miles 
south-south-eastward to the sea near Kintradwell. In 
1818 a new channel was cut for the Loth through a solid 
rock 20 feet high, whereby a largish swamp or loch — 
the river's expansion — was drained, and its bed con- 
verted into rich arable carse-land. The surface rises 
rapidly north-westward to 1000 feet at Cregan Jlor, 970 
at Cnoc na h-Iolaire, 1294 at Creag a Chrionaich, 1346 
at Creag a' Mheasgain, 1311 at Culgower Hill, 1767 at 
Beinn Choi, 1608 at Meallan Liath Mor, 1581 at Creag 
Mhor, 2068 at Beinn Dobhrain, 2046 at Beinn na 
h-Urrachd, and 1940 at Beinn na Meilich, the six last 
of wliich culminate on the confines of the parish. The 
rocks along the coast are oolitic, comprising limestone, 
conglomerate, variously-coloured shales, and white and 
red sandstone ; but the prevailing rock of the uplands is 
a species of large-grained porphyry, unusually frangible, 
and easily denudated by running water. At most one- 
seventh of the entire area is in tillage, but what arable 
land there is has a fertile soil, and the farm of Crakaig 
is one of the best in the county. Pennant describes an 
ancient flag-built 'hunting house' — one of three — in 
Glen Loth ; and near Kintradwell there still are remains 
of a Pictisli tower. The mansion of Kintradwell was 
burnt by the Jacobite Earl of Cromarty in 1746. Here- 
about stood a chapel dedicated to St Trullo ; and another 

559 



LOTHIAN 

pre-Reformation place of worship was standing at Garty 
towards the close of last century. The Duke of Suther- 
land is sole proprietor. Loth is in the presbytery of 
Dornoch and the synod of Sutherland and Caithness ; 
the living is worth £233. The parish church, I4 mile 
NE of Loth station, is a handsome edifice of 1838. The 
public school, with accommodation for 60 children, had 
(1882) an average attendance of 37, and a grant of £35, 
19s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £2223, (1884) £2681, 10s., 
plus £1^0 for railway. Pop. (1801) 1374, (1831) 2214, 
(1861) 610, (1871) 583, (1881) 584.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 103, 
1878. 

Lothian, a district on the S side of the Firth of Forth, 
extending from the Avon to the Lammermuirs. It is 
now regarded as commensurate with Linlithgow, Edin- 
burgh, and Haddington shires, which are called respec- 
tively West, Mid, and East Lothian ; but anciently it 
was sometimes taken to embrace all the country as far S 
as the Tweed. By the Saxons it was called Lotlieiie, by 
the Gael Lethead ; and Latin equivalents were Loidis and 
Lodonea. It gives the titles of Earl and Marquis in the 
peerage of Scotland to the noble family of Kerr — the 
former title created in 1606, the latter in 1701. The 
Marquis' chief seat is Newbattle Abbey, near Dalkeith. 

Lothian and Tweeddale, a synod of the Church of 
Scotland, comprehending the presbyteries of Edinburgh, 
Linlithgow, Biggar, Peebles, Dalkeith, Haddington, 
and Dunbar, and holding its meetings at Edinburgh on 
the first Tuesday of May and November. Pop. (1871) 
452,836, (1881) 526,485, of whom 70,838 were com- 
municants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. — A Free 
Church synod also bears the name of Lothian and 
Tweeddale ; comprehends presbyteries of Edinburgh, 
Linlithgow, Biggar and Peebles, Dalkeith, and Had- 
dington and Dunbar ; and holds its meetings at Edin- 
burgh on the Tuesday after the last Sunday of April and 
October. 

Lothian-Bridge. See CE.iNSTON'. 

Lothrie Bum, a rivulet of Kinross-shire and Fife, 
rising on Bishop Hill, at a point 9 furlongs NE of 
Kinuesswood, and running 4s miles east-south-eastward, 
till it falls into the river Leven at the E end of Leslie. — 
Ord. Su7\, sh. 40, 1867. 

Lotus, an estate, ^vith a mansion, in Kirkgunzeon 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, at the head of Loch Arthur, 
7 miles NNE of Dalbeattie. 

Loudoun, a parish in the SE corner of Cunninghame 
district, Ayrshire, containing the post-town and station 
of Newmilns (74 miles E'by S of Kilmarnock), the 
villages of Dakvel and Alton, and part of the town of 
Galston. It is bounded N by Eaglesham in Renfrew- 
shire, E by East Kilbride and Avondale in Lanarkshire, S 
by Galston, and NW by Kilmarnock and Fenwick. Its 
utmost length, from E to ^Y, is 6 miles ; its breadth 
increases eastward from 8 J furlongs to 5| miles ; and its 
area is 15,543| acres, of which 57J are water. The river 
Ikvine, rising on the Lanarkshire border at an altitude 
of 810 feet above sea-level, flows 10| miles west-by- 
southward along or close to all the Avondale and Galston 
boundary ; and Glen Water, coming in from Renfrew- 
shire, runs 5J miles south-b}'-westward across the 
interior till, just above Darvel, it falls into the Irvine, 
another of whose aflluents, Polbaith Burn, runs 5 J miles 
south-westward along the Fenwick and Kilmarnock 
boundary. Along the Irvine the surface declines to 135 
feet above sea-level, thence rising to 750 feet near High 
Bowhill, 577 near East Heads, 835 near Hapten, 1089 
at Quarry Hill, and 839 at Loudoun Hill. The last, a 
conspicuous conical summit, formed of columnar trap, 
is situated in the SE corner of the parisli, and figures as 
a remarkable feature in a very extensive landscape. It 
belongs to the class which the Scoto-Irish called 'dun,' 
the Scoto-Saxons ' law ;' and by a singular triplicate of 
honours, it wears as its designation not only both these 
■words, but also the modern ' hill '—Law-dun-hill, or 
Loudoun-hill, 'the hill, tlie hill, the hill.' The rest of 
the parish, notwithstanding its lying so near the water- 
shed with Lanarkshire, has neither an elevated nor a 
rough appearance, but is champaign, and only gently 



LOUDOUN 

sloping. Much of it near the centre, and especially 
along the E, is moor and moss. The soil of the arable 
grounds is here and there light and gravelly, but is 
mostly a rich deep loam, greatly improved by lime. 
John, Earl of Loudoun, who succeeded to the earldom 
in 1731, was the first agricultural improver. He com- 
menced his operations in 1733, by making roads through 
the parish ; he next had an excellent bridge built over 
the Irvine ; and he got made thence, and from his own 
house to Newmilns, a road, which was the first con- 
structed by statute-work in the county. These measures, 
the prelude to his becoming the father of agriculture in 
the district, he adopted apparently from his recollecting 
a time when carts or waggons belonging to his father 
and his father's factor were the only ones in the parish ; 
but he also plied vigorously the work of planting and 
enclosing. He is said to have planted more than a 
million trees, chiefly elm, ash, and oak ; and, in general, 
he bequeathed to his estate a pervading character of 
rich cultivation and sylvan beauty. The rocks are 
mainly carboniferous, with disturbing protrusions of 
trap. Limestone of excellent quality is very abundant, 
and has been largely worked. Coal in some parts 
is too much broken up by trap to be mined, but else- 
where forms rich, extensive, workable fields, with 
an aggregate thickness of 27 feet in the seams. Clay 
ironstone, also, is plentiful. Nearly four-sevenths 
of the entire area are in tillage ; about 750 acres are 
under wood ; and the rest is either pastoral or waste. 
At Loudoun Hill Skene places Vandogara, a town of 
the Damnonii, which, under the form Vanduara, by 
Chalmers was identified with Paisley. But ' the best 
editions give Vandogara as the form of the name, which 
obviously connects it with Vindogara or the Bay of 
Ayr ; and Ptolemy's position coiTesponds very closely 
with Loudoun Hill on the river Irvine, where there is a 
Roman camp. What confirms this identity is, that the 
towns in the territory of the Damnonii appear afterwards 
to have all been connected with Roman roads ; and there 
are the remains of a Roman road leading from this camp 
to Carstairs ' (Celtic Scotland, i. 73, 1876). At Loudoun 
Hill, on 10 May 1307, Robert Bruce, with only 600 
followers, defeated 3000 English under the Earl of 
Pembroke. He intrenched himself strongly, and, fol- 
lowing up the tactic of Wallace, defended his position 
by spearmen drawn up in square against the charge of 
heavy-armed cavalry. Loudoun Hill, too, sometimes 
gives name to the Battle of Deumclog. Cairns and 
tumuli once were numerous, and Roman vessels have 
been dug from a moss upon Braidlee Farm. In Alton 
and near Darvel are ruins still called castles, but more 
like Danish forts ; and the lands of Darvel were 
held by the Knights Templars. In the village of 
Newmilns is a very small and very old castle belonging 
to the Campbells of Loudoun. On the summit of a 
rising-ground, by the side of a brook, J mile E of the 
present mansion, are the ruins of an ancient castle which 
belonged to the same family, and which is said to have 
been destroyed towards the close of the 15th century by 
the Clan Kennedy, under the Earl of Cassillis. The 
present sumptuous pile stands embowered by wood, in 
the SW part of the parish, 5 miles E of Kilmarnock, 
and 14 mile NNE of Galston. It singularly combines 
the attractions of massive antiquity with the light 
gracefulness of modern architecture. A square battle- 
mented tower, of unknown antiquity, was destroyed in 
a siege by General Monk, when the castle was defended 
by Lady Loudoun, who obtained honourable terms of 
capitulation. The old part of the house consists now of 
one large square tower, battlemented and turreted, 
which, probably built in the 15th century, lifts its 
solemn and imposing form above a surrounding mass of 
modern building. The modern part, sufficient in itself 
to constitute it one of the largest and noblest edifices in 
the AVest of Scotland, was completed only in the year 
1811. The library contains over 11,000 volumes. The 
noble proprietors of the castle, whose title of earl is 
taken from the parish, are a branch of the great family 
of Campbell, being descendants of Donald, who was 



LOUISBUEGH 

second son of Sir Colin Campbell of Locliow (see Invek- 
ARAy), and who married Susanna Crauford, the heiress 
of Loudoun, in the reign of Robert I. In 1601 Sir 
Hugh Campbell of Loudoun, Sheriff of Ayr, was raised 
to the peerage as Baron Loudoun ; and in 1633 his 
granddaughter's husband. Sir John Campbell of Lawers, 
was created Earl of Loudoun. A zealous Covenanter, 
he became High Chancellor of Scotland in 1641, and 
played a conspicuous part in the stirring events of the 
times. His great-great-granddaughter, Flora Mure 
Campbell (1780-1840), married the first Marquess of 
Hastings, a title wliich became extinct at the death of 
their younger grandson in 1868, when that however of 
Countess of Loudoun devolved on their granddaughter, 
Edith-Maud (1833-74), who married the first Lord 
Donington. Her eldest son, Charles-Edward Mure- 
Eawdon-Abney-Hastings, the present Earl (b. 1855), 
holds 18,638 acres in the shire, valued at £17,543 per 
annum. (See Fenwick and Kilmarnock.) 'Loudoun's 
bonny woods and braes ' are the theme of one of Tanna- 
hill's best-known songs. The Earl of Loudoun is much 
the largest proprietor, 1 other holding an annual value of 
more than £500, 10 each of between £100 and £500, 16 
of from £50 to £100, and 57 of from £20 to £50. 
Loudoun is in the presbytery of Irvine and the synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £368. The 
ancient church, at tlie SW corner of the parish, was 
dependeut upon Kilwinning Abbey, and now is repre- 
sented only by its choir, which serves as a mausoleum of 
the Loudoun family. Norman Macleod, D.D. (1812-72), 
was minister from 1838 till 1843, and the account of the 
parish in the New Statistical was written by him. 
Modern places of worship are noticed under Newmilns 
and Darvel ; and 3 schools — Daivel public, Newmilns 
public, and Lady Flora's — with respective accommoda- 
tion for 250, 300, and 280 children, had (1882) an 
average attendance of 151, 309, and 125, and grants of 
£138, 7s. 6d., £253, 19s., and £109. 17s. Valuation 
(1860) £15,499, (1884) £25,052, 10s. Pop. (1801) 
2503, (1831) 3959, (1861) 4S40, (1S71) 5525, (1881) 
5289.— Orrf. Sur., sh, 22, 1865. 

Louisburgh. See Wick. 

Loup of Fintry. See Fintrt. 

Lour, a mansion in Forfar parish, Forfarshire, 4 miles 
SSE of the town. It was built by one of the Earls of 
Northesk, whose descendant, Captain Patrick Alexander 
Watson Carnegy of Lour and Turin (b. 1836 ; sue. 1838), 
holds 4206 acres in the shire, valued at £5025 per annum. 
A lake was once on the estate, but has been completely 
drained ; and a moor on it, within Inverarity parish, has 
remains of a Roman camp. — Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Louther. See Lowther. 

Lovat, a place in Kirkhill parish, Inverness-shire, on 
the right bank of the river Beauly, opposite Beauly 
town, and IJ mile W by S of Clunes station. Here 
stood the baronial fortalice of Lovat, founded in 1230 by 
the Bissets, and conferred by James I. on Hugh Eraser, 
first Lord Lovat — a title attainted in 1747 and restored 
in 1857. (See Beatjfort Castle.) Lovat Bridge, across 
the river Beauly, IJ mile WSW, was erected in 1810 at 
a cost of nearly £10,000, and is a fine arched structure, 
with a waterway of 240 feet— Orrf. Silt., sh. 83, 1881. 

Low Banton. See Banton. 

Lowes, Loch of the, a lake in the extreme NW of 
Ettrick parish, Selkirkshire. Lying 815 feet above sea- 
level, it measures 6 j furlongs in length from S by W to 
N by E, If furlong in extreme breadth, and 11 or 12 
fathoms in depth. At the foot it is separated by only a 
narrow neck of land from the head of St Mary's Loch, 
into which it discharges, through an aggregate descent 
of only 15 inches, the nascent drain-like stream of Yar- 
row Water ; and it seems to have been originally one lake 
with St Mary's Loch, tiU gradually separated from it by 
deposits at the mouths of Oxcleugh and Crosscleugh 
Bm-ns. In consequence, probably, of its becoming a 
separate lake, but certainly not on account of any pre- 
eminence in either extent or picturesqueness, it is popu- 
larly called the Loch of the Lowes, signifying ' the lake 
ofthe lakes. '—Orrf. Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 



LUBNAIG, LOCH 

Lows, Loch of the, a lake in Caputh parish, Perthshire, 
1\ mile NE of Dunkeld. The largest of a chain of five 
lakes, expansions of Lunan Burn, it measures 1 by J 
mile ; presents exquisite features of contour and embel- 
lishment ; and contains pike, perch, and fine but very 
shy trout. The Queen drove round by here both in 
1865 and 1866, and describes the loch as ' surrounded by 
trees and woods, of which there is no end, and very 
pretty.'— OrA Sur., shs. 48, 56, 1868-70. 

Lowther, Green, a mountain (2403 feet) in Crawford 
parish, Lanarkshire, IJ mile ESE of Wanlockhead and 
8i miles ENE of Sanquhar. Lowther Hill (2377 feet) 
rises 1 mile to the SW, at the meeting point with the 
Dumfriesshire parishes of Sanquhar and Durisdeer ; and 
these two summits, occupying a chief place among the 
central masses of the Southern Highlands, give the 
name of Lowthers, as a general or comprehensive name, 
to the great range extending eastward across the S of 
Lanarkshire and the N of Dumfriesshire, to the southern 
borders of Peebles and Selkirk shires. Dr John Brown, 
in his Enterkin, has finely pictured their ' vast expanse 
covered with thick, short, tawny grass and moss,' and 
the graves of the suicides who used to be buried here. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 15, 1864. 

Lowthertown, a village in Dornock parish, Dumfries- 
shire, Sh miles E of Annan. 

Lowtis or Lotus Hill, an eminence (1050 feet) on the 
mutual border of New Abbey and Kirkgunzeon parishes, 
Kirkcudbrightshire, 2f miles ENE of Kirkgunzeon vil- 
lage. It projects from the NW side of the Crillel moun- 
tains, audoverhangsLoch Arthur. — Orel. Stir. , sh. 5, 1857. 

Low Waters, a village in Hamilton parish, Lanark- 
shire, 1 mile SSW of the town. 

Loyal or Laoghal, Loch, a wood-fringed lake on the 
mutual border of Tongue and Farr parishes, Sutherland, 
5 miles SSE of Tongue village. Lying 369 feet above 
sea-level, it extends 4| miles northward, has a maximum 
width of 7 furlongs, contains three islets, and is over- 
hung to the W by Ben Loyal (2504 feet), to the E by 
Bexstomino (1728). It contains magnificent ti-out and 
salmo-ferox, is frequented by waterfowl, is fed by sixteen 
rivulets, and from its foot sends off the river BoRGlE, 
lOf miles north-north-eastward to Torrisdale Bay. See 
Craggie.— Orrf. Sur., shs. 102, 108, 1880-81. 

Lubnaig, Loch, a lake of Balquhidder and Callander 
parishes, SW Perthshire, 1 mile S of Strathyre station 
and 3J miles NW of the town of Callander. Lying 405 
feet above sea-level, it extends 3J miles south-south- 
eastward, has a maximum width of 3 furlongs, and is 
traversed by the northern head-stream of the Teith. Its 
western shore, closely skirted by the Callander and Oban 
railway, is overhung by Ben Vane (2685 feet) and Ben 
Ledi (2875) ; whilst from its eastern shore, traversed by 
the highroad to Killin, rises Beinn Bhreac'(2250). Its 
waters contain salmon, trout, and char; and boats may 
be hired. ' We next, ' writes Dorothy Wordsworth, under 
date 10 Sept. 1803, 'came to a lake called Loch Lubnaig, 
a name which signifies "winding." In shape it some- 
what resembles Ulswater, but is much narrower and 
shorter. The character of this lake is simple and grand. 
On the side opposite to where we were is a range of steep 
craggy mountains, one of which — like Place Fell — en- 
croaching upon the bed of the lake, forces it to make 
a considerable bending. I have forgotten the name of 
this precipice: it is a very remarkable one, being almost 
perpendicular, and very rugged. We, on the eastern 
side, travelled under steep and rocky hills which were 
often covered with low woods to a considerable height ; 
there were one or two farm-houses, and a few cottages. 
A neat white dwelling — Ardchullakie — on the side of 
the hill over against the bold steep of which I have 
spoken, had been the residence of the famous traveller 
Bruce, who, all his travels ended, had arranged the 
history of them in that solitude — as deep as any 
Abyssinian one — among the mountains of his native 
country, where he passed several years. The house 
stands sweetly, surrounded by coppice-woods and green 
fields. On the other side, I believe, were no houses tOI 
we came near to the outlet, where a few low huts looked 

561 



LUCE 

very beautiful, with tlieir dark brown roofs near a stream 
which hurried down the mountain, and after its turbulent 
course travelled a short way over a level green, and was 
lost in the lake. ' At Loch Lubnaig the tourist again is 
among the scenery of the Lady of the Lake. It was up 
the Pass of Leny that the cross of fire was carried by 
young Angus of Dun-Craggan, who had just been obliged 
to leave liis father's funeral in order to speed the signal 
on its way. 

' Ben Ledi saw the cross of fire ; 
It glanced like lig-htning up Stratliyre ; 
O'er dale and hill the summons flew, 
Nor rest, nor peace, young Angus knew; 
The tear that gathered in his eye, 
He left the mountain breeze to dry ; 
Until where Teith's young waters roll. 
Betwixt him and a wooded knoll, 
Tliat graced the sable strath with green, 
The chapel of Saint Bride was seen.' 

Here the messenger delivers up the signal to Iforman of 
Armandave, who was about to pledge his troth at the 
altar to Mary of Tombea ; and the bridegroom, leaving 
his unwedded bride, starts off with the cross along the 
shores of Loch Lubnaig, and away towards the distant 
district of Balquhidder. The chapel of Saint Bride stood 
on a small and romantic knoll between the opening of 
the Pass of Leny and Loch Lubnaig. Armandave is on 
the W side of the loch ; and Tombea, the residence of 
Norman's bride, is also in the neighbourhood. — Orel. 
Siir., sh. 38, 1871. 
Luce. See Hoddam. 

Luce, a river partly of Ayrshire but chiefly of Wigtown- 
shire. Rising at an altitude of 1300 feet above sea-level 
on the southern slope of Beneraid (1435 feet), it first 
runs 3J miles south-south-eastward through Ballantrae 
parish to the boundary between Ayrshire and Wigtown- 
shire, and then winds 15J miles south-south-eastward 
till it falls into the head of Luce Baj'. During the first 
12 miles it bears the name of the Main Water of Luce, 
which at New Luce village, where it receives the Cross 
Water, it exchanges for that of the Water of Luce. From 
a point a little way above New Luce village it is followed 
pretty closely by the Girvan and Portpatrick railway. 
Its waters yield capital salmon and sea-trout fishing — 
the best in AVigtownshire, though not so good as 
formerly. 

Luce Bay {Alravannus Sinus of Ptolemy), a large 
bay indenting the southernmost land in Scotland, and 
converting the southern half of Wigtownshire into two 
peninsulas — a long and narrow one between this bay 
and the North Channel, and a broad one between it and 
Wigtown Bay. Its entrance is between the Mull of 
Galloway on the W, and Borough Head on the E. 
Measured in a straight line, direct from point to point, 
this entrance is ISj miles wide ; and the length of the 
bay, measured^in a line at right angles with that chord 
to the commencement of the little estuary of the Water 
of Luce, is 16 miles. Its area is about 160 square miles. 
Over a distance of 3| miles from the commencement of 
the estuary at its head, it expands, chiefly on the W 
side, to a width of 6| miles ; and thence to the entrance, 
its coast-line, on the W, runs, in general, due S, or a 
little E of S ; whilst that on the opposite side trends 
almost regidarly due SE. At its head the seaboard is 
low, and at the efHux of the tide displays a sandy beach 
of J mile in mean breadth ; but elsewhere it is all, with 
small exceptions, bold and rocky, occasionally torn 
with fissures and perforated with caverns. The bay 
contains various little recesses and tiny embayments, 
some of which are capable of being converted into con- 
venient harbours. It also offers to a seaman, acquainted 
with it, anchoring-gi'ounds, in' which he may safely let 
his vessel ride in almost any wind. In hazy weather 
vessels sometimes mistake the bay for the Irish Channel, 
and when steering a north-westerly course suddenly 
take the ground on the W coast. The mistake, when 
it happens, is almost certain destruction ; for the tide 
no sooner leaves a struck ship than she settles down 
upon quicksands, so that subsequent tides serve only to 
dash her to pieces. But since the erection (1830) of the 
562 



LUCE, OLD 

lighthouse on the Mull of Galloway, errors have become 
comparatively infrequent, and navigation proportionally 
safe. Two rocks, called the Big and the Little Scare, 
lie 1^ mile and 2i miles within the strait between the 
Mull of Galloway and Borough Head, the former 5| NE 
by E of the Mull, and the latter f mile further. — Orel. 
Svr., shs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 1856-57. 

Luce, New, a village and a parish of N Wigtownshire. 
The village, standing 195 feet above sea-level, on the 
left bank of the Water of Luce, at the influx of Cross 
Water, has a station on the Girvan and Portpatrick 
railway (1876), 5 miles NNW of Glenluce, under which 
there is a post office. 

The parish consists of the northern part of the ancient 
parish of Glenluce, which was divided into the parishes 
of New and Old Luce in 1647. It is bounded NW and 
N by Ballantrae and Colmonell in Ayrshire, E by Kirk- 
cowan, S by Old Luce, and Wby Inch. Itsutmostlength, 
from N to S, is 9§ miles ; its breadth, from E to W, varies 
between 3g and 6| miles ; and its area is 45^ square 
miles or 28,929J acres, of which 53| are water. The 
Main Water of Luce, entering from Ballantrae, runs 83 
miles south-south-eastward along the Ayrshire and Inch 
border till at New Luce village it is joined by the 
Cross Water of Luce, also rising in Ballantrae, and 
winding llf miles southward — for the first 1^ mile 
along the Colmonell border, and then through the 
interior of New Luce parish. As the Water of Luce, 
their united stream flows 2J miles south-by-eastward, 
mainly along the boundaries with Inch and Old Luce, 
till, at Gabsnout, it passes off into the latter parish. A 
number of rivulets flow to one or other of these streams, 
or else to Taef Water, which runs 9J miles south- 
south-eastward along all the eastern boundary, and 
which, at the SE corner of the parish, is joined by 
Drumpail Burn, running 4 miles southward through 
the interior, then 2J miles north-eastward along the 
eastern part of the southern boundary. At Gabsnout 
the surface declines to 100 feet above sea-level ; and 
thence it rises northward to 531 feet at Gleniron Fell, 
607 at Bught Fell, 807 at Balmurrie Fell, 888 near 
Artfleld, 834 at Quarter Fell, 725 at the Stab Hill, 900 
at Murdonochee, and 970 at Miltonish. ' The scenery 
around the village, indeed of th^ parish generally, is 
not remarkable for beauty. There are plantings on 
both the Main Water and Cross Water, which give 
their banks a sylvan aspect ; but generally the land- 
scapes are bare and monotonous. Still, a ramble in the 
Moors in summer weather is never without pleasure, and 
a visit to the " auld grey cairns " is always interesting.' 
The predominant rocks are Silurian ; and lead was 
mined on Knockibae farm in the latter half of last 
century. The soil, for the most part naturally poor, 
has been somewhat improved by draining. Chief atten- 
tion is paid to the rearing of sheep and black cattle. 
The 'prophet,' Alexander Pedeu (1626-86), was minister 
for three years prior to his ejection in 1662, when, at 
the end of his farewell sermon, he closed the pulpit 
door, and, knocking thrice upon it with his Bible, 
thrice repeated : ' I arrest thee in my Master's name, 
that none ever enter thee but such as come in by the 
door as I have done' — a prediction indeed fulfilled, as 
no man preached there till after the Revolution. New 
Luce is in the presbytery of Stranraer and the synod of 
Galloway ; the living is worth £208. The parish 
church, built about 1821, contains 400 sittings. A 
neat Free Church station is of recent creation ; and two 
public schools, Glenwhilly and New Luce, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 32 and 101 children, had (1882) 
an average attendance of 12 and 74, and grants of £23, 
lis. and £61. Valuation (1860) £3900, (1884) £5608. 
Pop. (1801) 368, (1831) 628, (1861) 731, (1871) 661, 
(1881) 706.— Ord. Sur., shs. 3, 4, 7, 8, 1856-63. 

Luce, Old, a coast parish of Wigtownshire, containing 
the post-office village of Glenluce, with a station on 
the Portpatrick branch of the Caledonian, 8f miles E by 
S of Stranraer and 14| WSW of Newton-Stewart. It 
is bounded N by New Luce, NE and E by Kirkcowan, 
SE by Mochrum, S by Luce Bay, SW by Stoneykirk, and 



LTTCHIE HOUSE 

W by Inch. Its greatest length, from E to W, is 10 
miles ; its breadth, from N to S, varies between 2g and 
74 miles ; and its area is 33,798J acres, of which 1995J 
are foreshore and 206j water. Drumpail Burn runs 2J- 
miles north-eastward along the eastern part of the 
northern boundary to Tarf Water, which itself winds 
6J miles south-eastward along all the north-eastern 
boundary. The Water of Luce first runs 7 furlongs ou 
the boundary with New Luce, and then goes 3§ miles 
south-south-eastward across the interior to the head of 
Luce Bay ; and Piltanton Burn runs 4J miles eastward 
along the Inch border and through the south-western 
interior. White Loch (4§xlj furl.) and Dernaglar 
Loch (3 J X 2 J furl.) are the largest of five small feature- 
less lakes in the eastern half of the parish, since Castle 
Loch (IJ X i mile) falls just within the Mochrum 
boundary. Springs are numerous — perenn ial, limpid, an d 
extremely cold. The coast, 11 J miles in extent, is mostly 
fringed by a sandy beach, J mile in mean breadth ; hut 
at Synniuess (Scand. ' Sueno's headland ') it rises steeply 
to 231 feet above the sea. Some level lands lie ad- 
jacent to that beach and to Luce Water, and the rest 
of the surface is all tumulated, irregular, or hilly, its 
chief elevations being Challoch Hill (484 feet), Barlock- 
hart Fell (411), Knock Fell (513), and Craig Fell (538). 
Greywacke, the predominant rock, lias been quarried ; 
and the soil of the seaboard is sand, gravel, or clay, of 
other low tracts is clay, loam, or moss, and on the 
higher grounds is mostly light, dry, and stony. Nearly 
tlu-ee-fourths of the entire area are in tillage ; rather 
more than 300 acres are under wood ; and the rest is 
either pastoral or waste. Antiquities, other than those 
noticed under Glbnltjoe, Carseoreugh, Park Place, 
and Synkikess, are remains of cairns and of a crannoge 
in Barlockhart Loch, and the sites of two pre-Pveformation 
chapels. Our Lady's and Kirk Christ. Mansions, each 
with a separate article, are BALK.iiL, Craigenveooh, 
Dhnraoit, and Genoch ; and 4 proprietors hold each 
an annual value of £500 and upwards, 2 of between £100 
and £500, and 12 of from £20 to £50. Old Luce is in 
the presbytery of Stranraer and the synod of Galloway ; 
the living is worth £213. Three churches are at Glen- 
luce ; and three public schools — Drochduil, Glenluce 
Academy, and Glen of Luce — with respective accommo- 
dation for 120, 280, and 100 children, had (1882) an 
average attendance of 56, 153, and 50, and grants of 
£49, £148, Os. 6d., and £60, 5s. Valuation (1860) 
£12,934, (1884) £18,933, 8s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 1221, 
(1831) 2180, (1861) 2800, (1871) 2449, (1881) 2447.— 
Ord. Sur., shs. 4, 3, 1857-56. 

Luchie House. See Berwick, North. 

Luckieslap, a viDage in the S of Forfarshire, 8 miles 
NE of Dundee. 

Lucklaw. See Balmullo and Inohlaw. 

Lude. See Blair Athole. 

Luffness, a mansion in Aberlady parish, Haddington- 
shire, on the left side of Peffer Burn, near its influx to 
Aberlady Bay, J mile NE of Aberlady village, and 3i 
miles WNW of Drem Junction. An old irregular build'^ 
ing, with thick walls, tall chimneys, and crow-stepped 
gables, it was once surrounded by a rampart and a ditch, 
w-hich have left distinct remains, and was greatly im- 
proved by the grandfather of the present proprietor, 
Henry Walter Hope, Esq. (b. 1839 ; sue. 1863), who 
holds 3201 acres in the shire, valued at £6908 per an- 
num, and whose great-great-grandfather, the first Earl 
of Hopetoun, bought the estate in 1739 for £8350. 
Aberlady Bay long bore the name of Luffness Bay, and 
figures under that name in old records as the port of 
Haddington. The rampart and the ditch around Luff- 
ness mansion were part of a fortification, constructed in 
1549, to straiten the English garrison in Haddington, 
by preventing it from receiving supplies by sea. — Ord. 
Sar., sh. 33, 1863. See John Small's Castles and Mem- 
sions of the Lothiaiis (Edinb. 1883). 

Lugar, a village in Anchinleck parish, Kyle district, 
Ayrshire, on the right bank of Lugar Water, near the 
Muirkirk branch of the Glasgow and South-Western 
railway, IJ mile ENE of Cumnock and 16 J miles SE of 



LUICHART, LOCH 

Kilmarnock. It was built chiefly for the accommodation 
of the workers in its iron-works, which date from about 
1845, and which have 4 blast furnaces. At it are a 
post oflice under Cumnock, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, a railway station, a 
chapel of ease, and a school. Pop. (1861) 753, (1871) 
1374, (1881) 1353. 

Lugar Water, formed just above the towm by the con- 
fluence of Gass and Glenmore Waters, winds 12| miles 
westward and north-westward, past Cumnock town, 
Dumfries House, Ochiltree village, and Anchinleck 
House, and traces the boundary between Anchinleck 
and ilauchline parishes on the right, and Old Cumnock, 
Ochiltree, and Stair parishes on the left, till it falls into 
the river Ayr at a point 1 J mile S by W of Mauchline 
town. It exhibits great diversity and force of jjictur- 
esqueness on its banks — sometimes deep ravines, wooded 
to the top ; sometimes high mural precipices of rock, or 
naked, overhanging, menacing crags ; sometimes gentle 
slopes or undulating declivities, embellished with trees 
and culture ; and sometimes a series of little green pen- 
insulas. Between Lugar village and Cumnock town it 
washes an almost isleted round hillock, called the Moat, 
which commands an exquisite view of long reaches of its 
picturesque and romantic banks ; and it is crossed, in 
the same vicinity, by a viaduct of the Glasgow and 
South-Western railway, 756 feet long and 150 high, 
with 9 arches of 50 and 5 of 30 feet in span. At its 
influx to the Ayr, in the eastern vicinity of the magni- 
ficent grounds of Barskimming, it seems to have a 
volume of water equal to that of the Ayr, so as to have 
been designated by the poet Burns ' the stately Lugar ; ' 
and it once contained great abundance of yellow trout 
and salmon, but is now a very indiff'erent angling stream. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Luggate Water, a rivulet of Stow parish, Edinburgh. 
Formed by two small head-streams, which rise close to 
the Peeblesshire border, it runs 4f miles south-eastward 
to Gala Water, at a point 1 mile SS W of Stow village. It 
is a cold hill stream, fed by many rills, subject to sudden 
freshets, and containing great store of trout. Two old 
castles stood on its banks, on spots | and If mile from 
its influx to Gala Water ; and both of them have left 
some remains. — Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Luggie Water, a rivulet of Lanarkshire and the de- 
tached district of Dumbartonshire, flowing lOJ miles 
westward and west-north-westward along the boundaries 
or through the interior of Cumbernauld, New Monkland, 
Cadder, and Kirkintilloch parishes, till it falls into 
Kelvin Water at Kirkintilloch town. Except for a brief 
distance in Kirkintilloch parish, where it possesses some 
features of beauty, itisaduU, sluggish, ditch -like stream. 
A local poet, however, has deemed it at once cheerful 
and romantic, and has sung its supposed beauties in the 
pretty \yxic oi Luggie-Side. — Ord. Stir,, sh. 31, 1867. 

Lugton, a village in Dalkeith parish, Edinburghshire, 
on the left bank of the North Esk, 'ih furlongs W by N 
of the centre of Dalkeith town. Lugton barony, which 
was annexed to Dalkeith parish so late as 1633, had 
anciently a baronial fortalice, and belonged to a branch 
of the family of Douglas, but was possessed in 1693 by 
Anne, Duchess of Buccleuch. — Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Lugton Junction. See Dunlop. 

Lugton Water, a rivulet, partly of Renfrewshire, but 
chiefly of Ayrshire. Issuing from Loch Libo (395 feet 
above sea-level), it flows 14 J miles south-south-westward 
along the boundaries of or through the parishes of Neil- 
ston, Beith, Dunlop, Stewarton, and Kilwinning, till, 
after traversing Eglinton Park, it falls into the Garnock 
at a point 2J miles N by W of Irvine town. It once 
abounded with fresh-water trout and sea-trout, and was 
occasionally ascended by salmon, but now yields good 
sport only over the last 5 miles. — Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Luib, a station in Glendochart, Killin parish, Perth- 
shire, on the Callander and Oban railway, 5| miles W of 
Killin station. Here is a post and railway telegraph 
office ; and 1 mile to the E is Luib Hotel. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 46, 1872. 

Luichaxt, Loch, a lake in Contin parish, Ross-shire, 

563 



LUINA 

with Lochluichart station near its head, on the Dingwall 
and Skye railway, 17 miles W by N of Dingwall. Tra- 
versed by the river Conan, and lying 270 feet above sea- 
level, it curves 4| miles south-eastward, and decreases 
in breadth from 6J furlongs to 100 yards. Its northern 
shore, towards the head, is finely wooded ; and here is 
a handsome shooting-lodge belonging to the Dowager 
Lady Ashburton, who holds 28,556 acres in the shire, 
valued at £1885 per annum. Its waters contain great 
plenty of excellent trout, with occasional grOse. — Ord. 
Sur., shs. 93, 83, 1881. 

Luina. See AvicH. 

Luine or Loyne, a stream of Eoss and Inverness shires, 
rising at an altitude of 1100 feet above sea-level, and 
flowing 13J miles east-north-eastward — for 7J miles 
along the boundary between the two counties — till, after 
a total descent of 620 feet, it falls into the Moriston at 
a point 1 mile SW of Ceanacroc shooting-lodge and 13 W 
of Fort Augustus. Its marshy expansion. Loch Luine, 
3 miles N of Tomdonn inn, is 4| miles long, but only 50 
yards to 3 furlongs wide.— Ord. Sur., sh. 72, 1880. 

Luing, an island of Kilbrandon and Kilohattan parish, 
Argyllshire, separated on the N from Sell Island by a 
strait scarcely 300 yards wide, and on the E from Torsa 
and Shuna Islands, also by narrow straits. Lying 1 mile 
to 3J miles W of the coast of Nether Lorn and the 
entrance of Loch Mel fort, it extends 6 miles in a direction 
nearly due N and S, nowhere exceeds 1 J mile in breadth, 
and has an area of 3797J acres, of which 291 are fore- 
shore and 12f water. As grouped with the several 
islands near, it exhibits an extensive range of picturesque 
and pleasing scenery. The sm'face in the N rises into 
rocky cliffs and eminences, approximates the form of two 
distinct ranges of heights, and attains an extreme altitude 
of 650 feet ; but in all other parts, and generally round 
the coast, it is mostly low, though nowhere absolutely 
flat. Clay slate of fissile character is the predominant 
rock, and has been largely quarried for roofing. The 
land is chiefly under sheep at present ; but during this 
century several hundred acres have been reclaimed from 
a comparatively waste condition ; and one farm has a 
remarkably fine suite of dwellings and ofSces. Lord 
Breadalbane is sole proprietor. Pop. (1861) 521, (1871) 
582, (1881) 527, of whom 488 were Gaelic-speaking. 

Luirbost. See Leurbost. 

Lui Water, a mountain rivulet of Braemar district, 
SW Aberdeenshire, rising, at an altitude of 3400 feet, on 
the eastern shoulder of Ben Macdhui, and running 9J 
miles south-eastward, till, after a total descent of 3232 
feet, it falls into the river Dee at a point j mile below 
the Linn of Dee. Its upper 5| miles, above the Derry's 
confluence, bear the name of Luibeg Burn. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 64, 65, 1874-70. 

Lumphanan, a hamlet and a parish in Kincardine 
O'Neil district, S Aberdeenshire. The hamlet has a 
station on the Deeside section of the Great North of 
Scotland railway, 27 miles W by S of Aberdeen ; a post 
and railway telegraph office ; a branch of the North of 
Scotland Bank ; an hotel ; and fairs on the second Thurs- 
day of January, February, March, April, May, Septem- 
ber, and December. 

The parish is bounded N by Leoohel and Tough, E 
by Kincardine O'Neil, S by Kincardine O'Neil and 
Aboyne, and W and NW by CouU. Its utmost length, 
from N by E to S by W, is 5 J miles ; its utmost breadth 
is 5J miles ; and its area is 87574 acres, of which 3f are 
■water. The drainage is carried partly northward to the 
Don by Leochel Burn, but mainly southward to the 
Dee by the Burns of Beltie and Dess, along the latter 
of which the surface declines to 420 feet above sea-level, 
thence rising to 923 feet at Stot Hill, 1250 at Mill 
Maud, and 1563 at Craiglich on the Coull boundary. 
The drainage of a good-sizsd loch in 1860 has been 
noticed under Auchlossan. The predominant rock is 
granite ; and the soil varies from a deep loam on the 
low grounds to a thin sand on the higher. About 3500 
acres are in tillage ; 625 acres are under wood ; and the 
rest of the land is either pastoral or waste. On the 
Perk Hill, 1 mile N by W of the parish church, is 
564 



LUNAN 

Macbeth's Cairn, which in 1793 was described as '40 
yards in circumference, and pretty high up in the 
middle.' Here, on 15 Aug. 1057, Macbeth, pursued 
across the great range of the Mounth, was slain by 
Malcolm Ceannmor, the son of Duncan. In Lumphanan 
another king, Edward I. of England, on 21 July 1296, 
received the submission of Sir John De Malevill — pro- 
bably at the Peel Bog, a moated, round earthen mound, 
46 yards in diameter, and 12 feet high, in a marshy 
hollow, a little SW of the church. Till 1782 it was 
crowned by remains of a stone building, called Haa-ton 
House. Another strength was the Houif, on the lands 
of Auchinhove ; and two earthen ramparts, 230 yards 
long, extended along the base of the Hills of Corse and 
Mill Maud. Estates are Auchinhove, Burnside, Camp- 
hiU, FiNDRACK, Glenmillan, and Pitmurchie; and 
Mr Farquharson of Finzean owns three-fourths of the 
parish, 1 other proprietor holding an annual value of 
more, 7 of less, than £500. Lumphanan is in the pres- 
bytery of Kincardine O'Neil and the synod of Aberdeen ; 
the living is worth £217. The parish church, built in 
1762, and enlarged in 1851, contains 600 sittings. Its 
ancient predecessor was dedicated to St Finan (Lum- 
phaimn being a corruption of Zlanffinan) ; and this 
dedication, according to Dr Skene, 'must have pro- 
ceeded from a Welsh source.' According, however, to 
the present minister, the church in pre-Reformation 
times was dedicated to St Vincent, and Lumphanan 
means ' bare little valley.' There is a Free church ; and 
a pubUo school, with accommodation for 200 children, 
had (1882) an average attendance of 130, and a grant 
of £114, 16s. Valuation (1860) £4126, (1884) £5676, 
plus £985 for railway. Pop. (1801) 614, (1831) 957, 
(1861) 1251, (1871) 1239, {18S1)U30.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
76, 1874. 

Lumphinnans, a mining village in the S of Ballingry 
parish, Fife, 1^ mile WSW of Lochgelly. Pop. (1871) 
404, (1881) no.— Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Lumsden, a village in Auchindoir and Kearn parish, 
Aberdeenshire, 4 miles SSW of Rhynie, 9| NW by N 
of Alford, and 8 SSW of Gartly station, with which it 
communicates by public coach. Founded about the year 
1825 on what was then a barren moor, it crowns a rising- 
ground, 745 feet above sea-level, amid a fertile district, 
and commands a picturesque view to the W, with the 
Buck of Cabrach in the background. Besides a number 
of excellent houses, it has a post office under Aberdeen, 
a branch of the North of Scotland Bank, an hotel, a 
Free church (1843), a U.P. church (1803), a public 
school, and fairs on the first Monday of January, Feb- 
ruary, March, April, and December, the last Tuesday of 
April and May o. s. , and the third Tuesday of August 
0. s. It carries on a considerable amount of provincial 
business ; and it is the polling-place for the 6th district 
of West Aberdeenshire. Pop. (1840) 243, (1861) 478, 
(1871) 487, (1881) 519.— Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Liman, a coast parish of E Forfarshire, with a station, 
Lunan Bay, on the Arbroath and Montrose section 
(1879-83) of the North British, 5 miles SSW of Montrose, 
and 84 NNE of Arbroath. It is bounded N by Craig 
and Maryton (detached), E by the German Ocean, SE 
and SW by Inverkeilor, and W by Kinnell. Its utmost 
length, from ENE to WSW, is 2| miles ; its breadth 
varies between 3A furlongs and 2| miles ; and its area 
is 1981J acres, of which 63f are foreshore, 3J water, and 
4 tidal water. The coast, extending f mile along 
Lunan Bat, is a low sandy beach, stre'wn here and 
there with small boulders, and flanked by bent-covered 
knolls, bej'ond which the surface rises somewhat rapidly 
till at Cothill it attains an altitude of 319 feet above 
sea-level, and thence commands an extensive prospect of 
country, seaboard, and sea. Lunan Water winds 
2| miles north-eastward along the Inverkeilor boundary ; 
and Buckie Den Burn, traversing a romantic dell, 
and forming a number of pretty waterfalls, traces 
the northern border. Trap and sandstone are the 
prevailing rocks ; and the former has been quarried 
for building. The soil is sandy for a short way 
inland, deep and rich on the lower declivities, and 



LUNAN WATER 

frequently shallow on the higher grounds. Three- 
fourths of the entire area are in tillage ; less than 20 
acres are under wood ; and the rest is either pastoral or 
waste. The chief antiquities are vestiges or sites of 
structures connected with Red Castle. Walter Mill 
(1476-1558), burned at St Andrews, the last of Scotland's 
Eeformation martyrs, was priest of Lunan for forty 
years ; and Alexander Peddle, its Episcopalian minister, 
was suffered, after the re-establishment of Presby- 
terianism, to retain his charge till his death in 1713. 
Lunan House is the seat of William Thomas Taylor 
Blair-Imrie, Esq. (b. 1833 ; sue. 1849), who holds 297 
acres in the shire, valued at £747 per annum. The 
Earl of Northesk is chief proprietor, and Arbikie 
belongs to a third. Lunan is in the presbytery of 
Arbroath and the synod of Angus and Jlearns ; the 
living is worth £223. The church, rebuilt in 1844, 
contains 130 sittings ; and a public school, with accom- 
modation for 83 children, had (1882) an average attend- 
ance of 80, and a grant of £75, lis. Valuation (1857) 
£2513, (1884) £3034, Ss., plus £1202 for railway. Pop. 
(1801) 318, (1831) 298, (1861) 259, (1871) 248, (1881) 
2iS.— Orel. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Lunan Water, issuing from Eescobie Loch (196 
feet above sea-level), and, { mile lower down, traversing 
Balgavies Loch (4xlJ furl.), flows 125 miles eastward 
through or along the boundaries of Piescobie, Kirkden, 
Guthrie, Kinnell, Inverkeilor, and Lunan parishes, till 
it falls into Lunan Bay. Its chief tributary is the Vinny ; 
and its waters are limpid, and contain good sea-trout 
and excellent trout, with a few salmon. 

Lunan Bay, lying open to the E, extends from Boddin 
Point in Craig parish to the Lang Craig in Inverkeilor; 
measures 3 miles across the entrance, and 1| mile from 
the entrance line to the head ; has an approximately 
semicircular outline ; is flanked for about 1 mile at each 
end by bold rocky heights, rising to altitudes of more 
than 100 feet above sea-level, and partly consisting of 
columnar or pyramidal cliffs ; has, around its head, a 
low sandy beach, slightly strewn with small boulders, 
and regularly flanked with bent-covered knolls ; and, 
during westerly or south-westerly winds, affords safe 
anchorage. Its bottom is fine sand, and its strand 
furnishes beautiful varieties of sea-shell, and occasionally 
some jasper and onyx gems. 

Lunan Bum, a rivulet of Stormont district, Perthshire, 
rising at an altitude of 1400 feet, and winding 14 J miles 
east-south-eastward, through or along the borders of 
Dowally, Caputh, Clunie, Kinloch, Lethendy, and Blair- 
gowrie parishes, till, after a total descent of 1270 feet, 
it falls into the Isla at a point 2 miles W by S of Coupar- 
Angus. During the middle 7 miles of its course it tra- 
verses a chain of five lakes — Craiglush Loch (4x2 furl. ; 
380 feet), the Loch of the Lows (8x4 furl.), Butterstone 
Loch (41 X 3 J furl.), the Loch of Clunie (5x5 furl.), and 
Drumellie Loch (8 x 3J furl. ; 190 feet) — all five of which 
are noticed separately. A deep, sluggish, ditch-like 
sti'eam, it contains some capital trout of 2 or 3 lbs. 
weight— Ord. Sur., shs. 56, 48, 1870-68. 

Lunasting, an ancient parish of Shetland, now united 
to Nesting, and lying 25 miles N of Lerwick. Its church 
still stands, and ranks as a chapel of ease. Pop. of 
Lunasting registration district (1861) 880, (1871) 822, 
(1881) 783. 

Lunoarty, a suppressed parish and a village in the 
Strathmore district of Perthshire. The parish was 
anciently a rectory, and is now incorporated with Eed- 
gorton, forming the NE division of its main body. The 
village, near the right bank of the Tay, has a station on 
the Caledonian railway, 4 miles NNW of Perth. Lun- 
carty bleachfield has long been reputed one of the largest 
in Britain. Its grounds cover upwards of 130 acres. 
The water-power by which the works are driven includes 
the whole volume of Ordie and Shochie Burns, carried 
along an artificial canal, and also a considerable volume 
led out from the Tay by means of a dam run nearly 
across the river. 

According to Hector Boece, but to no earlier historian, 
Luncarty in 990 was the scene of a decisive overthrow 



LUNDIE 

of the Danes by Kenneth III., aided by the peasant- 
ancestor of the noble family of Hay. The Danes, strong 
in numbers and fiery in resolve, had landed on the coast 
of Angus, razed the town and castle of Montrose, and 
moved across Angus and along Strathmore, strewing 
their path with desolation, and menacing Scotland with 
bondage. Kenneth the King heard at Stirling of their 
descent, and hastened to take post on Moncrietf Hill, in 
the peninsula of the Earn and the Tay ; but while there 
organising the raw troops, whom he had swept together, 
and waiting the arrival of forces suited to his exigency, 
he learned that Perth was already besieged. Arraying 
what soldiery he had, and making a detour so as to get 
to northward of the enemy, he marched to Luncarty, 
saw the Danes posted on an eminence to the S, and 
next day taunted and provoked them to a trial of 
strength on the intervening level ground. The rush of 
the Danes was dreadful ; but three puissant ploughmen, 
father and sons, of the name of Hay, or Haya, who 
were at work in a field on the opposite side of the river, 
were bold enough to attempt to infuse their own courage 
into the faltering troops. Seizing the yoke of the plough 
and whatever similar tools were at hand, they forded 
the Tay, and arriving just at a crisis when the wings 
had given way and the centre was wavering, they 
shouted shame and death against the recreant who 
should flee, and threw themselves with such fury on the 
foremost of the Danes as to gain the Scots a moment for 
rallying at a spot still known as Turn-again Hillock. 
Hay, the father, as if he had been superhuman, had no 
difficulty in drawing some clans to follow in his wake ; 
and plunging with these down a deep ravine, while the 
battle was renewed on ground at a little distance from 
the original scene of action, he rushed upon the Danes 
in flank and real', and threw them into confusion. A 
band of peasants, who were lurking near or drawn 
together from curiositj', now raised a loud shout of 
triumph, and were taken by the Danes for a new army. 
The invaders instantly ceased to fight ; they became a 
mingled mass of routed men ; and, not excepting their 
leaders and king himself, they either were hewn down 
by the sword or perished in the river. An assembly of 
the states, held next day at Scone, decreed to give the 
peasant-conqueror the choice of the hound's course or 
the falcon's flight of land, in reward of his bravery. 
Hay having chosen the latter, the falcon was let off 
from a hill overlooking Perth, and flew eastward to a 
point a mile south of the house of Errol, alighting there 
on a stone which is still called the ' Hawk's Stane.' All 
the intervening lands were given in property to Hay's 
family ; but they have since been either alienated, or 
parcelled out among various lines of descendants. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 48, 1S68. 

Lunderston Bay. See Innerkip. 

Lundie, a village and a parish of SW Forfarshire. 
The village stands 3 miles WSW of Auchterhouse 
station, 6 ESE of Coupar-Angus, and 9 NW by W of 
Dundee, under which it has a post office. 

The parish is bounded N by Newtyle, E by Auchter- 
house, S by Fowlis-Easter in Perthshire, and W by 
Kettins. Its utmost length, from W by N to E by S, 
is 4 miles ; its utmost breadth is 3 miles ; and its area is 
4296J acres, of which 107| are water. Of seven lakes, 
which send off head-streams of Dichty Watek, much 
the largest is Long Loch (5| x 2 furl. ; 722 feet) in the 
N, Lundie Loch having been reduced by drainage about 
the year 1810 to less than a twelfth of its former size. 
A range of the Sidlaw Hills extends along part of the 
N and all the W of the parish, whose surface, nowhere 
sinking much below 500 feet above sea-level, attains 
1063 feet near Smithston and 1088 at Keillor Hill on 
the Kettins boundary. The range divides the head of 
Strathdighty from the neighbouring part of Strathmore, 
and gives to all the interior of the parish a sheltered and 
sequestered aspect. The predominant rocks are trap and 
common grey sandstone ; and the soil is for the most 
part light, sharp loam. Since 1850 great improvements 
have been effected in the way of reclaiming, draining, 
fencing, and building. The Duncans of Lundie, now 

565 



LUBTDIE, LOCH 

Earls of Camperdown, have held nearly all the pro- 
perty from 1678 and earlier ; and Lundie churchyard is 
still their burying-place. This parish, since 1618, has 
formed one charge with the contiguous parish of FowLis- 
Easter in Perthshire. It is in the presbytery of 
Dundee and the synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living 
is worth £238. A building of considerable antiquity, 
Lundie church was well repaired about the year 1847, 
and contains 300 sittings. A public school, with accom- 
modation for 108 children, had (1882) an average attend- 
ance of 57, and a grant of £43, 6s. Valuation (1857) 
£3005, (1884) £4311, 19s. Pop. (1831) 456, (1861) 442, 
(1871) 400, (1881) 317 ; of united parish (1801) 693, (1831) 
778, (1871) 691, (1881) 628.— Orel. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Lundie, Loch, a lake in Golspie parish, Sutherland, 
2^ miles W of Golspie village. Lying 556 feet above 
sea-level, it has an utmost length and breadth of 7 and 
IJ furlongs, sends off Culmailie Burn to the sea, and on 
the N is overhung by Ben Lundie (1464 feet). — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 103, 1876. 

Lundin and Lundin Mill. See Laego. 

Lundin Links, a railway station on the S coast of Fife, 
1 mile WSW of Lower Largo. 

Lunga, an island of Jura parish, Argyllshire, on the 
"\V side of Scarba Sound. It extends li mile from N to 
S ; has a maximum breadth of 1 mile ; is separated by 
a very narrow strait at its S end from Scarba island ; 
and consists of an irregular hilly ridge, rising mostly to 
a height of loss than 500 feet above sea-level, but lifting 
summits to a height of nearly 1000 feet. Everywhere 
uneven, and mostly rocky and bare, with patches of bog 
and heath, it is scarcely anywhere capable of even spade 
culture ; trends down, on most of its W side, in steep 
naked declivities ; consists of quartzite, clay slate, and 
other schistose rocks, traversed by numerous trap veins ; 
and commands, from many points on its shoulders and 
summits, extensive, impressive, and diversified views. 
The narrow strait separating it from Scarba is obstructed 
on the E by a rocky islet, and has a tumbling, impetuous, 
tidal current, quite as violent and grandly scenic as that 
of the far more celebrated Corrievrechan between Scarba 
and Jura. Pop. (1871) 5, (1881) 17. 

Lunna, a coast village in the Lunasting portion of Nest- 
ing parish, Shetland, 9 miles NE of Voe and 25 N of Ler- 
wick. The headland of Lunna Ness terminates 5 miles to 
the NE ; and J mile further is the little islet of Lunna 
Holm. Lunna Firth, washing the W side of the head- 
land, penetrates 7 J miles southward and south-westward 
in three ramifications, sej)arates the headland and the 
adjacent parts of the mainland from the S coast of Yell 
island, strikes north-westward into junction with Yell 
Sound, contains numerous islands and islets, and is ex- 
cellent fishing-ground. 

Limnasting. See Lunasting. 

Lurgain, Loch. See Lochbroom. 

Lurgie Craigs. See Hume. 

Luscar House, a handsome Tudor mansion {circa 
1839) in Carnock parish, Fife, 3J miles WNW of Dun- 
fermline. Its owner, Mrs Hastie, holds 1590 acres in 
the shire, valued at £2501 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
40, 1867. 

Luss, a village and a parish of Dumbartonshire. The 
village stands just S of the mouth of Glonluss, on the 
western shore of Loch Lomond, at the SE base of Bendhu 
(2108 feet), 8 mUes SSE of Tarbet, 9 NNE of Helens- 
burgh, and 12J NNW of Dumbarton. Occupj'ing a 
charming site in front of three of the finest islands in 
Loch Lomond, it mainly consisted, thirty years since, of 
miserable huts, but then was mostly rebuilt ivith neat 
cottages on a regular plan. It communicates with the 
Loch Lomond steamers in their passages up and down 
the lake ; is much frequented by anglers and by tourists ; 
and has a post and telegraph ofiice, an hotel, a small 
public library, and a fair on the third Tuesday of August. 
Coleridge, Wordsworth, and his sister Dorothy passed 
the night of 24 Aug. 1803 at the inn here ; and here on 
29 Sept. 1875 the Queen changed horses, as she drove 
from Inveraray to Balloch. 

The parish had anciently other and much more 
566 



Ltrss 

extensive limits than now. The ' forty-pound lands ' 
of Buchanan, on the E side of Loch Lomond, were 
detached from it in 1621, and annexed to Inchcailloch 
(now Buchanan) ; the lands of four proprietors at the S 
end of the lake were detached from it in 1659, and 
annexed to Bonhill ; all the extensive territory along 
the W side of the lake, to the N of Glendouglas and 
around the head of the lake, now constituting the parish 
of Arrochar, was detached from it in 1658 ; and, on the 
other hand, the lands of Caldannach, Prestelloch, and 
Conglens, which belonged to Inchcailloch parish, were 
united to it in modern times. It now is bounded N by 
Arrochar, E by a sinuous line among the islands of Loch 
Lomond, separating it from Stirlingshire and Kilmaro- 
nock, SE by Bonhill, S by Cardross and Row, and W 
by Row and (for 3 furlongs) Loch Long. Its utmost 
length, from NNW to SSiS, is 12^ miles ; its breadth 
varies between 2 J and 5§ miles ; and its area is 28, 844 J 
acres, of which IJ are foreshore and 4637 water. Inch- 
lonaig, Inchoonnaohan, Inchtavannaoh, Inohgal- 
BRAiTii, and two other islands of Loch Lomond, belong 
to Luss, and are separately noticed. To Loch Lomond 
Sow Douglas Water, formed by two head-streams 
within J mile of Loch Long, and running 4| miles east- 
by-southward to Inverbeg Inn, mainly along the Arrochar 
border ; Luss Water, rising at an altitude of 1100 feet, 
and curving 7J miles east-by-southward to Luss village ; 
EiNLAS Water, rising at an altitude of 1800 feet, and 
running 4 j miles south-eastward, eastward, and north- 
by-eastward, to Rossdhu House ; and Fr.uiN Water, 
winding 5^ miles eastward to the N of Arden House, 
along the Row boundary and through the southern 
interior. Nine-tenths of the parish are mountainous, 
and offer such saliences of feature, such diversities of 
contour, such labyrinths of glen, and such outlooks on 
Loch Lomond, as to abound in grand and romantic 
scenery. Chief elevations from S to N are *Benuchara 
Muir (1028 feet), *Balcnock (2092), *Ben Tharsuinn 
(2149), *Ben Ruisg (1939), Cruach Dubh (1154), *Ben 
CH.iORACH (2338), *Ben Mhanarch (2328), Ben Eich 
(2302), Bendhu (2108), and Doune HOI (2409), where 
asterisks mark those summits that culminate on the con- 
fines of the parish. The uplands, all the way between 
the mouth of Glendouglas and the mouth of Glenluss — 
a distance of 3 miles — press close on Loch Lomond ; and 
thence to the southern boundary — a distance of 5h miles 
— they recede somewhat gradually from the shore till 
they leave a lowland tract of about 2J miles from E to 
W along the course of Fruin Water. The low grounds, 
all southward from Luss village, lie contiguous to Loch 
Lomond ; consist partly of dead levels, partly of gentle 
undulations, partly of braes or hill slopes ; are inter- 
locked on one side with bays of the lake, on the other 
side with spurs and recesses of the mountains ; display 
vast profusion of wood and culture ; include Sir James 
Colquhoun's mansion and park of Rossdhu ; and com- 
bine, with their magnificent surroundings, to form a 
series of exquisite landscapes. The predominant rock 
of the mountains is clay slate, of the low grounds is Old 
Red sandstone ; and both are quarried. The soil on the 
mountains is mostly heathy or moorish ; in some hollows 
or low tracts is moss ; on parts of the,low grounds ad- 
jacent to Loch Lomond is either sand or gravel ; and on 
other parts is fertile loam. The chief antiquities are a 
large cairn IJ mile S of the village, traces of an ancient 
fortification on Dunifin Hill, and sites of ancient chapels 
at Rossdhu and in Glenluss. Haco of Norway, during 
his invasion in 1263, worked great havoc in the parish. 
Sir John Colquhouu, who became Lord High Chamber- 
lain of Scotland in 1474, was a native, as also was his 
descendant, the Rev. John Colquhouu, D.D. (1748-1827); 
and the Rev. John Stuart, D.D. (1743-1821), translator 
of the Scriptures into Gaelic, was minister. Rossdhu, 
noticed separately, is the only mansion ; and Sir James 
Colquhoun of that Ilk and Luss, Bart. , is the sole pro- 
prietor. Luss is in the presbytery of Dumbarton and the 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £318. 
The parish church, built in 1771, contains 500 sittings. 
There is also a Free church ; and Luss public and Muir- 



LUTHERMTTIR 



LYNEDOCH COTTAGE 



land Christian Knowledge Society's school, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 87 and 75 children, had (1882) 
an average attendance of 47 and 26, and grants of £49, 
12s. and £34, 13s. Valuation (1860) £4906, (1884) 
£6591, lis. Pop. (1801) 953, (1831) 1181, (1861) 831, 
(1871) 730, (1881) 719, of whom 54 were Gaelic-spealv- 
ing.—Oni. Siir., shs. 38, 30, 1871-76. See Dr William 
Fraser's Chiefs of Colqulioun and their Country (2 vols., 
Edinb. 1869) ; and pp. 64-77 of Dorothy Wordsworth's 
Tour in Scotland (Edinb. 1874). 

Luthermuir, a village, with a public school, in Mary- 
kirk parish, Kincardineshire, near the right bank of 
Luther Water, 3| miles S by E of Fettercairn and 5 SW 
of Laurencekirk, under which it has a post office. 
Founded towards the close of last century on a moor 
so barren as to be reckoned worthless, it figured, for a 
time, as little else than a resort of destitute and aban- 
doned persons from many surrounding parishes, but 
forty years ago was mainly occupied by handloom 
weavers. Pop. (1841) 967, (1861) 868, (1871) 654, 
(1881) 2S3. —Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 186S. 

Luther Water, a troutful rivulet of Kincardineshire, 
rising at au altitude of 1300 feet among the frontier 
Grampians, and curving 13J miles south-south-eastward 
and soutli-soutli-westward through Fordoun, Laurence- 
kirk, and Marykirk parishes, till, after a total descent 
of 1205 feet, it falls into the North Esk at the boundary 
with Forfarshire, If mile WNW of Marykirk village. — 
Ord. Sur., slis. 66, 57, 1871-68. 

Luthrie, a village on the E side of Creich parish, 
Fife, 2i miles S of the Firth of Tay, and 5i NW of 
Cupar, under which it has a post office. 

Lybster, a coast village of Latheron parish, Caith- 
ness, 13g miles SW by S of Wick. It has a post office 
under Wick, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments, branches of the Commercial and 
the Aberdeen Town and County Banks, two hotels, a 
police station, a good boat harbour, a chapel of ease 
(1836 ; 805 sittings), a Free church, a public school, 
and fairs on the Thursday in July after HUl of Wick 
and the second Tuesday of November. Lybster is the 
headquarters of one of the twenty-six fishery districts of 
Scotland, comprising the fishing villages of Latheron- 
wheel, Forse, Lybster, and Clyth. Within this district 
the number of lioats at the beginning of 18S3 was 260, 
of fishermen and boys 1272, of fishcurers 22, and of 
coopers 56, whilst the value of boats was £10,635, of 
nets £16,776, and of liuos £991. The following was the 
number in different j-ears — of barrels of herrings salted 
or cured (1866) 15,806, (1873) 28,350, (1878) 10,417, 
(1881) 20,764, (1882) 3458 ; of cod, ling, and hake taken 
(1873) 16,979, (ISSl) 1205, (1882) 6200. Pop. (1861) 
745, (1S71) 833, (1881) 831.— 0;-d Sur., sh. 110, 1877. 

Lydoch or Laidon, Loch, a lake on the mutual border 
of Fortingall parish, Perthshire, and Glenorchy parish, 
Argyllshire, 6 miles E of Kingshouse Inn. It lies 924 
feet above sea-level, amid the dismal expanse of Ran- 
noch Muir ; extends 5-J- miles north-eastward ; has a 
maximum breadth of h mile ; is all engirt with bog and 
heath and rock, presenting a surpassing scene of wild- 
ness and desolation, yet possesses within itself many 
attractions ; contains abundance of trout, some of them 
running up to 8 lbs. in weight ; is gemmed with nearly 
a dozen islets, the haunts of the red deer and the eagle ; 
and sends oflF, from a point near its head, the rivulet 
Gauir, 7 miles eastward to the head of Loch Rannoch 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 54, 1873. 

Lymekilns. See Limekilns. 

Lymphoy. See Lennox C.a.stle, Edinburghshire. 

Lyne and Megget, a united parish of Peeblesshire, 
consisting of two widely separate portions — Lyne, near 
the centre of the county ; and Megget, 13 miles to the 
S, on the southern border. Lyne, whose church is 4J 
miles AV of Peebles and IJ mile WNW of Lyne station 
in Stobo parish, is hounded NE by Eddleston, E by 
Peebles, S and SW by Stobo, aud NW by Newlands. 
Its utmost length, from N to S, is^2J miles ; its utmost 
breadth, from E to W, is 2| miles ; and its area is 2793 
acres. Ltne Water flows 3| mUes south-eastward and 



oastwardalong all the Stobo boundary to apoint 3furlong3 
above its influx to the Tweed, and here receives four 
rivulets, one of them tracing all the eastern border. 
The surface sinks at the SE corner to 565 feet above 
sea-level, thence rising to 701 feet at the Roman camp, 
1261 at Hamildean liill, 1334 at Black Meldon, and 
1516 near the NW boundary. 

Megget, whose chapel of ease is 19 J miles WSW of 
Selkirk, is bounded N by Manor, NE by Yarrow in 
Selkirkshire, E for 7 furlongs by St Mary's Loch, SE by 
Ettrick in Selkirkshire, SW by Moffat in Dumfriesshire, 
W by Tweedsmuir, and NW by Drummelzier. Its 
utmost length, from NNE to SSW, is 7| miles; its 
utmost breadth is 6§ miles ; aud its area is 14,500 acres. 
Megget Water, rising at an altitude of 1500 feet, winds 
7^ miles east-north-eastward to St Maet's Loch, on the 
way being joined by Cramalt, Glengaber, and sixteen 
other burns, which all, like itself, afford capital trout- 
fishing. Along St Mary's Loch the surface declines to 
close on 800 feet above sea-level, and chief elevations to 
the S of Megget Water as one goes up the valley are 
Bridgend Hill {1594 feet), Craigdilly (1923), aud *Loch- 
craig Head (2625) ; to the N, Broomy Law (1750), *Deer 
Law (2065), *Black Law (2285), Clockmore (2100), 
*Norman Law (2408), and *Broad Law (2723), where 
asterisks mark those summits that culminate on the 
confines of the parish. ' The high-lying ground here — 
brown, heathy, and pastoral — is perhaps the wildest in 
the South of Scotland, visited only by shepherds and 
sportsmen. ' 

The predominant rocks are Silurian. Barely one- 
seventeenth of the entire area is in tillage, the rest 
being pastoral or waste ; but such arable land as 
there is has a gravelly soil of fair fertility, with a 
southern exposure in Lyne. AVhere now there is scarce 
a tree, of old was forest, Meggetland or ' Rodonna ' 
having formed part of the royal Forest of Etteick 
down to Queen Mary's reign. A ruined tower at 
Cramalt is said to have been a royal hunting-seat ; 
and lower domi the dale, on Henderlasd farm, stood 
Cockburn's Castle, scene of the ' Border Widow's 
Lament.' A large British fort is on Hamildean Hill ; 
and just to the W of L3me church are remains of a 
Roman camp. ' Randal's Walls ' it was called at the 
beginning of last century ; and, as depicted in Roy's 
Military Antiquities (1795), it has an extreme length 
and breadth of 850 and 750 feet, its four environing 
ramparts, 4 to 5 feet high, being pierced by four 
entrances. Since then, however, the plough has greatly 
destroyed it. The Earl of Wemyss is almost sole pro- 
prietor. Lyne is in the presbytery of Peebles and the 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is worth 
£215. Crowning a grassy mound, above the left bank 
of Lyne Water, the parish church is a pretty, antique 
structure, rebuilt or renovated in 1644 by John, Lord 
Hay of Yester, and containing 80 sittings. Megget 
chapel dates from the beginning of this century. Lyne 
and Megget public schools, with respective accommoda- 
tion for 47 .and 29 children, had (1882) an average 
attendance of 39 and 11, and grants of £47, 9s. and £24 
15s. 6d. Valuation (1863) £4497, 10s., (1884) £4852, 
12s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 167, (1831) 156,(1861) 134, (1871) 
174, (1881) 204, of whom 90 were in Megget. —0)-(?. 
Sur., shs. 24, 16, 1864. 

Lyne Burn, a rivulet of Dunfermline parish, SW 
Fife, rising uear Crossgates in the NE corner of the 
parish, and running 7 miles south-westward and south- 
ward through the interior and along the Torryburn 
border, till it falls into the Firth of Forth immediately 
to the W of Charlestown. It is often called Spital 
Burn, properly Hospital Burn, from its washing the 
site of the ancient Hospital of St Leonard's at the S 
side of Dunfermline town ; and it receives, a little 
SW of that site, a tributary coming 2i miles southward 
from Lochhead.— Orf?. Sur., shs. 40, 32, 1867-57. 

Lynedoch Cottage or House, a mansion in Methven 
parish, Perthshire, standing, amid beautiful grounds, 
on the left bank of the river Almond, 2 miles NNE of 
Methven village] and 7 WNW of Perth. The estate 

567 



LYNE WATER 

belonged to General Thomas Graham (1750-1843), one 
of the heroes of the Peninsular War, and the victor 
of Barossa, and it gave him the title of Baron on his 
elevation to the peerage in 1814. See Deonach, and 
Murray Graham's Memoir of Lord Lynedoch (2d ed. 
1877). 

Lyne Water, a stream of NW Peeblesshire, rising 
among the Pentlauds at an altitude of 1250 feet above 
sea-level, within 4 mile of the Midlothian border, and 
■winding 18j miles south-south-eastward through or 
along the boundaries of Linton, Newlands, Stobo, Lyne, 
and Peebles parishes, till, after a total descent of nearly 
700 feet, it falls into the Tweed near Lyne station, 3 
miles W by S of Peebles town. It is joined by Baddins- 
gill Burn, West Water, Cairn Burn, Dead Burn, 
Flemington Burn, and Tarth Water ; its pleasant 
meadowy vale is here and there prettily wooded, espe- 
cially opposite Drochil Castle ; and its amber-coloured 
waters, which are open to the public, contain good store 
of trout.— Or(«. Sur., shs. 32, 24, 1857-64. 

Lynn House. See Linn. 

Lynturk, a small mansion, with pretty grounds, in 
Leochel parish, central Aberdeenshire, 2J miles SW of 
Whitehoiise station. The estate belonged anciently to 
the Strachans, passed to successively the Irvines and 
the Gordons, and in 1816 was sold to Peter M'Combie, 
whose nephew, William M'Combie, Esq. (b. 1802; sue. 
1832), holds 2179 acres in the shire, valued at £1993 
per annum. — Ord. Sitr., sh. 76, 1874. 

Lynwilg, an hotel in Alvie parish, Inverness-shire, 
near the E shore of Loch Alvie, 2^ miles SSW of Avie- 



LYTH 

more, under which there is a post ofBce of Lynwilg. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 74, 1877. 

Lyon, a river of Breadalbane district, Perthshire. 
Rising among alpine mountains, close to the Argyllshire 
border, at an altitude of 2400 feet above sea-level, and 
5 miles NNE of Tyndrum, it first runs 4 miles north- 
ward, under the name of Abhainn Ghlas or Avonglass, 
to the head of Loch Lyon (If x J mile ; 1100 feet), after 
issuing from which it proceeds 30J miles east-north- 
eastward, along Glenlton, and mainly through or 
along the confines of Foetingall parish, tUl, after a 
total descent of 2090 feet, it falls into the Tay at a 
point 9 furlongs NNE of Taymouth Castle, and 2f miles 
below the Tay's own efflux from Loch Tay. Its tribu- 
taries are very numerous, but most of them are mere 
impetuous torrents of only a few furlongs to 3 miles in 
length of course. The chief are the AUt Conait, 
running 8J miles east-by-southward, through Lochs 
Dhamh and Girre, and entering its N side 1| mile SW 
of Meggernie Castle ; and Keltney Btjen, running SJ 
miles east-by-northward and south-south-eastward to a 
point IJ mile above the Lyon's confluence with the 
Tay. Its waters make two considerable cascades ; and 
they contain valuable pearl mussels and plenty of 
capital trout, besides salmon, grilse, and sea-trout. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 46, 54, 55, 1869-73. 

Lyon, Castle. See Boekowstottnness and Castle- 

HUNTLY. 

Lyth, a village in the E of Bower parish, Caithness, 
84 miles NNW of Wick. It has a fair on the third 
Tuesday of October. 



568 



ORDNANCE GAZETTEER 



OF 



SCOTLAND. 



M' 



'AAM-RAT AGAIN, a mountain-pass (1072 feet) 
on the mutual border of Inverness and Ross 
shires, leading from Glenshiel to Glenelg, SJ 
miles WNW of Shiel Inn. A zigzag road, 
formed in 1815 over tlie pass, commands from the 
highest point a very grand view. — Ord. Sur., sh. 72, 
1880. 

Maam-Suil or Mam-Sodhail, a mountain on the 
mutual border of Kintail parish, Ross-shire, and Kil- 
morack parish, Inverness-shire, 2| miles NNW of the 
head of Loch Affric. It rises to an altitude of 3862 feet 
above sea-level ; has remarkably numerous species of 
plants ; is believed to retain more perennial snow than 
any other mountain in Great Britain ; and commands 
an extensive and very impressive view. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
72, 1880. 

Maar or Park Bum, a rivulet of Durisdeer parish, 
Dumfriesshire, running 54 miles southward and east- 
south-eastward — for the last 2 miles along the Penpont 
boundary — tOl it falls into the river ITith at a point 2 
miles NNW of Thoruhill. It traverses the beautiful 
grounds of Drumlanrig Castle ; and the diversion of its 
course, at the time that the castle was built, forms the 
theme of an old-world rhyme. — Ord. Sur., shs. 15, 9, 
1864-63. 

Maberry, Loch, a lake on the mutual border of Col- 
mouell parish, Ayrshire, and Penninghame and Kirk- 
cowan parishes, Wigtownshire, 5J miles SSE of Barrhill 
station. Lying 405 feet above sea-level, it extends IJ 
mile south-south-eastward; has a maximum width of 
3 furlongs ; is gemmed by eight little islets, one of them 
with vestiges of a castle ; contains large pike and trout ; 
and sends off the Bladexoch to Wigtown Bay. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 8, 1863. 

Mabie, an estate, with a mansion , in Troqueer parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire, 4J miles SSW of Dumfries. Its 
owner, Robert Kirkpatrick Howat, Esq., holds 2566 
acres in the shire, valued at £2140 per annum. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Macallan. See Kxockando. 

Macarthur's Head, a headland on the E coast of Islay 
island, Argj'Ushire, flanking the W side of the S end or 
entrance of the Sound of Islay. A lighthouse on it 
shows a fixed white light up the Soimd of Islay to about 
N half E, a fixed red light from N half E to about E, 
and a fixed white light to the S of E as far as the land 
allows, visible at a distance of 17 nautical mUes. 

Macbeth's Castle. See Cairnbeddie, Duxsinane, 
and Manor. 

Macbie Hill, an old but modernised mansion, with a 
■well-wooded park and a small lake, in Newlands parish, 
Peeblesshire, 3 miles E by S of West Linton, and 9 fur- 
longs S of Macbie Hill station on the Dolphinton branch 
of the North British, this being 21J miles S by W of 
Edinburgh. Its owner, the Very Rev. John Maunsell- 
Massy-Beresford (b. 1823 ; sue. 1871), holds 3875 acres 
in the shire, valued at £3079 per annum. — Ord. Sur. , 
sh. 24, 1864. 
73 a 



Macduff, a seaport town and a quoad sacra parish in 
the quoad ariiiVt parish of Gamme, Banffshire, 1 J mile E 
of Banff. It is the terminus of the Turriff and Macduff 
branch of the Great North of Scotland Railway 
system, thestation being 49i miles NNW of Aberdeen and 
29J N by W of Inveramsay Junctiou, where the branch 
leaves themainline. Thetown, which consists of a number 
of well planned streets with good houses, and has one of 
the best harbours along the Moray Firth, is situated on 
an irregular rising-ground sloping northward and north- 
westward towards the sea-shore. Previous to 1732 it 
was but a small fishing hamlet, and owes its great pro- 
gress since to the fostering care of successive Earls of 
Fife, and to its situation. The hamlet was known as 
Down or Douue, but in 1783 James, second Earl of Fife, 
chauged it to Macduff (the family name being Duff) and 
obtained for the place a charter of dc novo dariius from 
George III., by which it was erected into a 'free and 
independent burgh-of-barony.' The lower harbour rates 
and the better position of the harbour diverted a con- 
siderable amount of traffic from Banff, and the growth 
of trade has been .still more rapid and important since 
the opening of railway communication in 1860. The 
station was then at the SW side of the town, and was also 
intended for the partial accommodation of Banff, but in 
1872 a prolongation of | mile took place, bringing the 
station into a central position, while accommodation is 
still provided for Banff, from this side, by the Banff 
Bridge station. The climate is good, and as the beach 
affords excellent bathing ground, the place is frequented 
during the summer months by visitors. There were 
great rejoicings on the occasion of the arrival of the 
Prince of Wales on a visit to the Earl of Fife on 13 
Nov. 1883, when the town was gaily decorated ; the 
trades, fishermen, and various public bodies walked in 
procession to Duff House ; and an address was pre- 
sented to His Royal Highness. The harbour was 
constructed by, and belongs to, the Earl of Fife, and 
the formation of an outer harbour was attempted so 
long ago as 1821-22, but the works then constructed 
were ahnost at once shattered by stor.ais. It was greatly 
enlarged and improved in 1877. The trade consists 
chiefly of exports of grain and cured herrings and other 
fish, and the imports are coal, and bone and other 
manures. Over a hundred fishing boats, of which about 
three-fourths are first-class boats (J. c. , with keels of 30 feet 
or upwards), belong to the port, but many of them 
prosecute the fishing at other stations, and during 1883 
only 83 fished from Macduff, these having a total catch 
of 9754 crans. The Established church, a large building 
on an eminence at one end of the town, was erected at 
the expense of the third Earl of Fife. The Free 
church was built soon after the Disruption. A new 
Congregational church was erected in 1881 at a cost of 
£1250 ; and a Salvation Army Hall, with 700 sittings, 
in 1883. Murray's Institution was founded in 1849 by 
Mr Murray of London, a canvas manufacturer, and a 
native of the burgh, for the education of poor children, 

1 



MACHANY WATER 

and has accommodation for 100, whilst the public 
school accommodates 700. By the Reform Bill, Macduff 
was, for parliamentary purposes, included within the 
boundaries of the burgh of Banff, but its municipality 
remained distinct, and municipal matters are managed 
by a provost, 2 bailies, a dean of guild , a treasurer, and 
4 councillors ; while police matters are attended to by 
a board of six commissioners of police. The weekly 
market is on Tuesday. "Water was introduced in 1883. 
There is a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, branches of the 
Union and North of Scotland Banks, a branch of 
the National Security Savings' Bank, and agencies 
of 11 insurance companies. There are also a town- 
house, meal and saw mills, baths, a hall, a gas 
company, a masonic lodge (St James, No. 653), a 
lodge of Oddfellows, a club, two ladies' schools, and a 
number of the usual charitable, etc. institutions. The 
bridge across the Deveron to the W, on the road to Banff, 
was designed by Smeaton. The quoad sacra parish, 
which extends beyond the town, is in the presbytery of 
Turriff and synod of Aberdeen. Pop. of parish (1871) 
3912, (1881) 4104 ; of burgh (1831) 1819, (1861) 3067, 
(1871) 3410, (1881) 3650, of whom 1992 were females. 
Houses (1881) 728 inhabited, 25 vacant, 4 building. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 

Machany Water, a troutful stream of Muthill and 
Blackford parishes, Perthshire, flowing 13 J miles east- 
ward till it falls into the Earn at a point 2| miles NNW 
of Auchterarder.— Or(Z. Sur., sh. 47, 1869. 

Machar, New, a parish of SE Aberdeenshire, to the 
N containing Summerhill village, which stands, 310 
feet above sea-level, 5 furlongs SSW of New Machar 
station on the Formartine and Buchan section of the 
Great North of Scotland railway, this being 5J miles N 
of Dyce Junction and 11 J NNW of Aberdeen. Summer- 
hill has a post office under Aberdeen, with money order 
and savings' bank departments ; and close to the station 
is New Machar Inn, where cattle and horse fairs are 
held on the third Thursday of January, March, May, 
and November, and the second Thursday of July. 

Containing also Parkhill station. 4 miles S of that of 
New Machar, the parish is bounded NW and NE by 
Udny, E by Belhelvie, SE and S by Old Machar, SW 
by Dyce, and W by Fintray. Till 1621 it formed part 
of Old Machar parish, and, after being disjoined, was 
known successively as the Upper Parochine of St 
Machar, Upper Machar, and, finally. New Machar. Its 
utmost length, from N by W to S by E, is 5J miles ; 
its utmost breadth, from E to W, is 3J miles ; and its 
area is 9047 acres, of which 45 are water, and 2088J 
belong to the Straloch or north-western detached 
portion (2| x IJ mile), separated from the main body by 
a strip of Udny, 300 yards wide at the narrowest, and 
also bounded by Kinkell and Fintray. This Straloch 
portion belongs politically to Banffshire (detached), but 
ecclesiastically ranks as part of New Machar, and for 
rating and other purposes is treated as part of Aberdeen- 
shire. The Don flows IJ mile south-south-eastward 
along all the Dyce border ; and Elrick Burn, rising in 
the Straloch section, runs 7 J miles south-south-eastward, 
partly along the Fintray border, but mainly through 
the interior, till it falls into the Don at a point 2§ fur- 
longs SW of ParkhOl station. Corby Loch (2S x 2 furl. ; 
251 feet) lies mostly beyond the south-eastern boundary, 
near which are Lily Loch (1 x | furl. ) and Bishop's 
Loch (2 x f furl.). At the Bridge of Dyce the surface 
declines to 128 feet above sea-level ; and thence it rises 
gently to 299 feet at Highlands, 400 at Eosemount, 600 
at Upper Rannieshill, 620 at Changehill, and 543 at the 
Hill of Clyne. Granite abounds in the southern dis- 
trict, and limestone is found on the estate of North 
Kinmundy. The soil of the southern district, near the 
Don, is a gravelly loam ; of the middle district, is a 
good loam ; and of the northern district, is very various, 
and much of it poor. About two-thirds of the entire 
area are in tillage ; nearly one-tenth is under wood ; 
and the rest is either pastoral or waste. Antiquities, 
other than those noticed under Bishop's Loch, are 
2 



MACHABS 

remains of three pre-Eeformation chapels — St Colm's at 
Monykebbock, St Mary's at Clubsgoval, and St Mary's 
at Straloch — the first of which is mentioned as early as 
1256, and still is represented by a fine old burying, 
ground. At Parkhill, in 1864, was found a silver chain 
of double rings, 17^ inches in length and 44 oz. in 
weight, with a penannular terminal ring, engraved 
with one of the symbols of the sculptured stones. It is 
now in the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum. A moor 
within the parish was the scene, in 1647, of a defeat of 
the Royalists by the Covenanters. Robert Gordon of 
Straloch (1580-1661), the distinguished geographer and 
antiquary, was born at Kinmundy ; and Dr Thomas 
Reid (1710-96), the eminent moral philosopher, was 
minister from 1737 till 1752. Mansions, noticed sepa- 
rately, are Elrick, Pakkhill, and Stkaloch ; and 6 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 2 of between £100 and £500, and 3 of from 
£20 to £50. New Machar is in the presbytery and 
synod of Aberdeen ; the living is worth £335. The 
parish church at Summerhill was buUt in 1791, and 
contains 650 sittings. There is also a Free church ; and 
three public schools— Parkhill girls', Summerhill boys', 
and Whiterashes — with respective accommodation for 
95, 205, and 90 children, had (1883) an average attend- 
ance of 51, 146, and 76, and grants of £47, 5s, 6d., 
£115, 10s., and £71, 13s. Valuation (I860) £6963, 
(1884) £10,752, of which £1928 was for the Straloch 
portion, and £1227 for the railway. Pop. (1801) 925, 
(1831) 1246, (1861) 1511, (1871) 1483, (1881) 1505, of 
whom 238 were in the Straloch or Banffshire section. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 77, 1873. 

Machar, Old, a parish of SE Aberdeenshire, contain- 
ing great part of Aberdeen city, with all Old Aber- 
deen, Woodside, and other suburbs. Down to the 17th 
century it comprehended the present parishes of New 
Machar and Newhills ; and now it is bounded NAV by 
New Machar, N by Belhelvie, E by the German Ocean, 
S by St Nicholas and Nigg, SW by Banchory-Devenick, 
and W by Newhills and Dyce. Its utmost length, from 
N by W to S by E, is 7J miles ; its utmost breadth is 
4| miles ; and its area is 12,595J acres, of which 285 
are foreshore and 1674 water, whilst 5283J fall within 
the parliamentary burgh of Aberdeen. The Don, after 
flowing 3J miles south-south-eastward along the Dyce 
and Newhills boundary, winds 3J miles eastward across 
the interior to the sea ; and the Dee, in a run of ly'x 
mile, traces the southern boundary. The district 
between the two rivers, comprising two-fifths of the 
entire area, is described in our article on Aberdeen ; 
and, as to the district N of the Don, it need only be 
said that the surface rises gradually from the shore to a 
summit altitude of 318 feet at Perwinnes Hill, ^ mile 
N of which, at the New Machar boundary, is Corby 
Loch (2| x 2 furl. ; 251 feet). The predominant rock is 
granite ; and the soil ranges from fertile loam to barren 
peat-earth. In the presbytery and synod of Aberdeen, 
this parish is divided ecclesiastically into Old Machar, 
Ferry HUl, Gilcomston, Holburn, Eosemount, Rubislaw, 
and Woodside, with part of John Knox. Old Machar 
itself is a collegiate charge, the stipend of the first 
minister being £386, of the second £340. Eight schools, 
all public but one, with total accommodation for 2220 
children, had (1883) an average attendance of 2224, and 
grants amounting to £2002, 19s. 2d. Landward valua- 
tion (1873) £12,099, Os. 6d., (1884) £14,352, 2s. Pop. 
ofentire parish (1801) 9911, (1831) 25,107, (1861)33,236, 
(1871) 42,477, (1881) 56,002, of whom 8388 were in the 
ecclesiastical parish of Old Machar, and 1451 in the 
landward portion of the parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 77, 1873. 

Machars (Celt, macliair, ' a plain '), one of the three 
districts of Wigtownshire, being the broad-based, tri- 
angular peninsula between Wigtown and Luce Bays. It 
has ill-defined boundaries, but it may be viewed either 
as comprehending the parishes of Whithorn, Glasserton, 
Sorbie, Kirkinner, and most of Mochrum, amounting to 
100 square miles, or as comprehending also the rest of 
Mochrum and parts of Old Luce, Kirkcowan, and Pen- 
ninghame, amounting, with these additions, to nearly 



BIACHERMOBE CASTLE 

150 square miles. Its surface, as implied in its name, 
is prevailingly low and flat, yet has considerable diversi- 
ties, and will be noticed in our article on Wigtown- 

SHIKE. 

Machennore Castle, an old square tower in Minnigaff 
parish, W Kirkcudbrightshire, near the left bank of the 
Cree, 14 mile SE of Ne'wton-Stewart. Its owner, Robert 
Lennox Nugent-Dunbar, Esq. (b. 1864 ; sue. 1866), 
holds 1013 acres in the shire, valued at £1353 per an- 
num.— Ord. Sur., sh. 4, 1857. 

Machline. See Matjchline. 

Machrihanish Bay, a bay on the W coast of Kintyre, 
Argyllshire. It is flanked on the N by Glenacardoch 
Point, 5 miles SSE of Cara island, on the S by Earadale 
Point, 6f miles N of the Mull of Kintyre ; and the dis- 
tance between these points is 13§ miles. It nowhere, 
however, penetrates the land to an extent of more than 
2J miles from the entrance line, and that at the mouth 
of Machrihanish Water, 4| miles AV of Campbeltown ; 
so that it lies all open to the W, and has an unindented 
and unsheltered coast. ' The long crescent of Machri- 
hanish,' to quote from the Idfe of Norman Macleod 
(1876), ' girdled by sands wind-tossed into fantastic 
hillocks, receives the full weight of the Atlantic. Woe 
to the luckless vessel caught within those relentless 
jaws,' etc.— Or(«. Sur., shs. 20, 12, 1876-72. 

Maohry. See Mauchky. 

Mackinnon's Cave, a cavern on the W coast of Mull 
island, Argyllshire, in Gribon promontory, 8 miles NE 
of lona. Opening from the shore, and obstructed by 
fragments of rock, it penetrates to an unknown extent — 
the common people say quite across the island. It got 
its name, or is said to have got it, from the disappear- 
ance within its depths of a gentleman called Mackinnon, 
who went in to explore it, and never was heard of more. 
Its accessible parts, which were long a retreat of the 
clansmen, at once for safety and for strategy, are for 
some way inward invaded by the tide and encumbered 
with stones ; but it opens afterwards into an arched 
chamber 45 feet wide and 30 high, where is a square 
stone called Fingal's Table, on which the clansmen 
frequenting it are said to have taken their meals. On 
19 Oct. 1773 it was explored, to the extent of about 480 
feet, by Dr Johnson and Boswell, the former of whom 
pronoxmced it ' the greatest natural curiosity he had 
ever seen. ' Once it competed with Staffa for attracting 
tourists ; but, except for its vastness and its associations, 
it possesses little real interest. 

Mackinon's Cave. See Staita. 

Mackiston. See Maxton. 

Maclellan's Castle. See Kirkcudbright. 

Macleod's Castle, an ancient fortress in Stornoway 
parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides, Eoss-shire, at the entrance 
of Stornoway Bay. Built by the ancient proprietors of 
Lewis to protect the bay, and dismantled by the troops 
of Oliver Cromwell, it is now represented by only a 
fragment of wall 12 feet high and 4 thick. 

Macleod's Maidens, three insulated basaltic pillars of 
Duirinish parish. Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire, a few 
hundred yards W of Idrigill Point. Rising vertically 
from the sea, one of them to a height of 200, and the 
other two to a height of 100, feet, they are called, by the 
country people, 'the mother and her two daughters,' 
and by Sir Walter Scott were compared to the Nor- 
wegian riders of the storm. Indeed, from a distance 
they are not unlike gigantic women clad in cloaks and 
hoods ; and they have been described as ' three spires of 
rock rising sheer out of the sea, shaped like women, 
around whose feet the foaming wreaths are continually 
forming, floating, and disappearing. '^ A fourth pillar 
once stood adjacent to them, but was overwhelmed by 
the storms and waves. See Dunvegan. 

Macleod's Tables. See Duirinish. 

Macmerry, a village, with a post office and iron-worts 
(now stopped), in Gladsmuir parish, Haddingtonshire, 
at the terminus of a branch line of the North British, 
2 miles E by S of Tranent. Pop. (1871) 330, (1881) 
352.— Ord Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Madderty, a parish in Stratheam district, Perthshire, 



MAGUS MUIR 

with a station on the Perth, Methveu, and Crieff sec- 
tion of the Caledonian railway, llj miles W by S of 
Perth and 6i E by N of Crieff', under which it has 
a post and telegi'aph office. Containing also Aber- 
CAIRNEY station, St David's village, and the hamlet 
of Bellycloan, it is bounded N by^Fowlis-Wester, NE 
by Methven, SE by Cask, S by Trinity Gask, SW by 
Monzie (detached), and NW by Crieff. Its utmost 
length, from ENE to WSW, is 5 J miles ; its utmost 
breadth is 2f miles ; and its area is 4863|: acres, of 
which 2J are water. The surface is all a portion of the 
low flat lands of the vaUey of the Earn, sinking Uttle 
below 200 and little exceeding 300 feet above sea-level. 
All the northern and north-western boundary is traced 
by sluggish Pow Water, which traverses an artificial 
cut 6 feet deep and 4 feet wide, and which formerly 
flooded the adjacent lands, but is now restrained by 
embankments ; and all the south-eastern boundary is 
traced by Cowgask Burn, another tributary of the river 
Earn. The prevailing rock is Old Red sandstone ; and 
the soil is partly alluvial, partly loamy. About one- 
eighth of the entire area is under plantation, and 
nearly all the remainder is in tillage. James Burgh 
(1714-75), a voluminous but forgotten writer, was a 
native. Inchaffr.4.y Abbey is noticed separately, as 
likewise are the mansions of Woodend and Dollerie. 
The landed property is divided among 8. Madderty is 
in the presbytery of Auchterarder and the synod of 
Perth and Stirling ; the living is worth £317. The 
parish church, 5 furlongs SW of Madderty station, is 
modern and amply commodious. There is also a Free 
church ; and a public school, with accommodation for 70 
children, had (1883) an average attendance of 58, and a 
grantof £57, 10s. Valuation (1860) £5754, (1884)£6421, 
17s. lid. Pop. (1801) 560, (1831) 713, (1861) 536, (1871) 
523, (1881) 527.— Ord. Sur., sh. 47, 1869. 

Maddiston, a village in Muiravonside parish, Stirling- 
shire, IJ mile SE of Folmont Junction. It has a post 
office under Linlithgow. 

Maddy. See Lochmaddy and Dollar. 

Maeshowe or Maiden's Mound, a tumulus in Stenness 
parish, Orkney, near the head of the Loch of Harray, 9 
miles WNW of Kirkwall and 5f NE of Stromness. 
Conical in shape, it rises to the height of 36 feet above 
the level of the circumjacent plain, and is engirt at a 
distance of 80 feet from its base by a moat of consider- 
able breadth. On the W side it is entered by a narrow 
passage, 62 feet long and from 2J to 4^ feet high, the 
whole being mostly constructed of huge blocks of stone. 
It was first opened in 1861, and was then found to con- 
tain a central chamber, 15 feet square, converging to a 
vaulted roof originally 20 feet high. Three little cham- 
bers branch off from the one in the middle ; and on the 
stones are a series of Runic inscriptions, supposed to 
date from the middle of the 12th century, and thus 
affording no clue to the origin of the tumulus itself. 
See James Fergusson's Mude Stone Monuments (1872) ; 
and vol. 1, pp. 101-104, of Dr Hill Burton's ffisfory o/ 
Scotland (ed. 1876). 

MagbieMll. See Maobib Hill. 

Magus Muir, a tract, reclaimed and cultivated now, 
but formerly bleak and wild, in St Andrews parish, Fife, 
3J miles WSW of the city. A spot on it, marked now 
by the Bishop's Wood, was the scene, on the night of 3 
May, of the murder of Archbishop Sharp (1618-79) by 
twelve Fife Cameronians. He was travelling from Edin- 
burgh with his daughter, and, after a halt at Ceres to 
smoke a pipe with the parson, was driving on again, 
when a horseman, spurring towards them, fired right 
into the carriage. Others rode up, and shot after shot 
was fired, but never one took effect, and ' Judas, come 
forth ! ' was their cry. So they dragged the old man 
out of the lumbering coach, and hacked him to death 
on the heath. ' Upon the opening of his tobacco-box, 
a living humming-bee flew out. 'This either Hackston 
of Rathillet or Balfour of Burley called his "familiar ;" 
and, some in the company not understanding the term, 
they explained it to be " a devil." ' Guillan, a weaver 
lad, one of the murderers, was, four years later, hung in 

3 



MAHAICH 

chains on the spot, as also were five of the prisoners 
from the battle of Bothwell Brig. The broken head- 
stone to Guillan's memory bore inscription : 

' A faithful! martyr here doth lye, 
A witnesse against perjurie, 
Who cruelly was put to death 
To gratify proud prelate's wrath ; 
They cut his hands ere he was dead, 
And after that strucic off his head ; 
To Magus Muir then did hira bring, 
His body on a pole did hing ; 
His blood under the altar cries 
For vengeance on Christ's enemies.' 

See vol. vii., pp. 207-221, of Dr Hill Burton's History 
ofScotlaivJ. (ed. l?,16).—0rd. Sur., sh. 49, 1865. 

Mahaich or Maghaig, Loch. See Kilmadock. 

Maich Water, a rivulet of Lochwinnoch parish, Een- 
frew.shire, rising on Misty Law Muir at an altitude of 
1250 feet, and running 5J miles south-south-eastward — 
for the last 4 miles along the boundary with Kilbirnie 
parish, Ayrshire — till, after a total descent of 1145 feet, 
it falls into the N end of Kilbirnie Loch. It is mostly 
a moorland stream, traversing a deep channel, but occa- 
sionallv fringed with copeswood. — Ord. Sur., shs. 30, 22, 
1866-65. 

Maidenkirk. See Kirkmaidbn. 

Maiden-Paps. See Cavees. 

Maidens, a village in Eirkoswald parish, Ayrshire, 6J 
miles WSW of Maybole. 

Maiden's Leap. See Huntingtower. 

Maines, a mansion of 1835 in Chirnside parish, Ber- 
wickshire, 1 mile E by N of the village. 

Mainhill, a solitary, low, white-washed cottage in 
Hoddam parish, Dumfriesshire, 3 miles NW of Eccle- 
fechan. From 1814 to 1826 it was the home of Thomas 
Carlyle (1795-1881). Here he ' first learned German, 
studied Faust in a dry ditch, and completed his trans- 
lation of Wilhclni Meister. . . . The situation is high, 
utterly bleak, and swept by all the winds. Not a tree 
shelters the premises. . . . The view alone redeems the 
dreariness,' — Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. See chap. iii. of 
Fronde's Life of CarlyU (1882). 

Mainhouse, an estate, with a mansion, in Eckford 
parish, Roxburghshire, 4 miles SSE of Kelso. 

Mainland. See Pomona and Shetland. 

Mains and Strathmartine, a parish of S Forfarshire. 
The two ancient parishes of whicli it consists were united 
in 1799, but still are separate registration districts. 
Mains, the eastern portion, is said to be so called from 
the Mains of Fintry, now belonging to the proprietor of 
Linlathen. The largest village is Downfield, 2 miles 
N by W of the post-town, Dundee ; and large popu- 
lations are also concentrated at Dundee Bleachworks 
(Parkhead), Claverhouse, Trottich, Baldovan, Strath- 
martine, RosemUl, and Fallows. There are two stations 
on the Dundee and Newtyle railway within the parish 
— Baldovan (at Downfield) and Baldragon. The parish 
is bounded N by Tealing, NE by Murroes, E, SE, 
and S by Dundee, SW by Liff and Benvie, and W by 
Auchterhouse. Its greatest length, from "VVNW to 
ESE, is 5^ miles ; its breadth varies between J mile and 
3J miles ; and its area is 6321 acres, of which 20 are 
water. Fithie Water, for a distance of 3 miles, traces 
the northern boundary ; and DiOHTY Water, running 
east-south-eastward, goes from end to end of the in- 
terior. In the SE the surface sinks to 120 feet above 
sea-level ; and thence it rises to 536 near Hilltown of 
Balmuir, 526 near Strathmartine Castle, and 533 at 
Clatto Moor. A beautiful strath extends along the 
course of the Dichty, on the sides of which extensive 
woods pleasantly alternate with cultivated fields. The 
hogs and marshes, which formerly occupied some hol- 
lows, have all been drained. A very copious spring of 
excellent water, called Stnavey, rises perennially from 
a crevice in a perpendicular rock at Fintry Castle. Trap 
and Old Red sandstone are the prevailing rocks ; and 
the latter has been largely quarried. The soil in some 
parts adjacent to the Dichty is alluvial, and on numerous 
ridges near the stream is gravel or sand ; almost every- 
where else it is a black loam, incumbent on clay, gravel. 



MAKERSTOUN 

or rock. Nearly 400 acres are under wood ; about 130 
are moorland or rocky hillock ; and all the rest of the 
land is in tillage. Baldovan Imbecile Asylum and Or- 
phanage was founded by Sir John OgUvy, Bart., in 
1854 ; and the Baldovan Institution, or Boys' Industrial 
School of Dundee, was opened in 1878. 'Two obelisks 
and some vestiges of a Roman camp are the only extant 
antiquities. Fintry Castle and Clavekhouse are 
noticed separately, as also is the present mansion of 
Baldovan. Eight proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 7 of between £100 and 
£500, 3 of from £50 to £100, and 8 of from £20 to £50. 
Mains and Strathmartine is in the presbytery of Dundee 
and the synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is worth 
£325. 'The parish church was built in 1800, and con- 
tains 800 sittings. There is also a Free church ; and 
three public schools — Downfield, Mains, and Strath- 
martine — with respective accommodation for 148, 109, 
and 150 children, had (1883) an average attendance of 
107, 87, and 93, and grants of £89, 16s. 6d., £72, 18s. 
6d., and £74, 3s. Valuation (1857) £13,982, (1884> 
£25,730, 9s. , plus £1787 for railway. Pop. (1801) 1442, 
(1831) 2011, (1861) 2181, (1871) 2749, (1881) 3490.— 
Ord. Sur., shs. 48, 49, 1868-65. 

Mains Castle. See Kilbride, East. 

Mains House, a mansion in New Kilpatrick parish, 
Dumbartonshire, IJ mile WNW of Milugavie. Its 
owner, Archibald Campbell Douglas, Esq. (b. 1841 ; sue. 
1857), holds 1581 acres in Dumbarton and Stirling 
shires, valued at £2226 per annum, his ancestors having 
possessed the estate since 1373. — Ord. Stir., sh. 30, 1867. 

Mainsriddle, a village on the mutual border of Kirk- 
bean and Colvend parishes, Kirkcudbrightshire, 10 miles 
ESE of Dalbeattie. It has a U.P. church. 

Main Water of Luce. See Luce. 

Makerstoun, a rural parish on the N border of Rox- 
burghshire, whose church stands 6 miles S by W of 
Kelso, under which there is a post ofiice. It is bounded 
N by Smailholm, E by Kelso, S by Roxburgh and 
Maxton, and W by Mertoun. Its utmost length, from 
ENE to WSW, is 3 miles ; its utmost breadth is 2 miles ; 
and its area is 2913 acres, of which 48 are water, and 
80 are under wood. The Tweed flows 3J miles east- 
north-eastward along all the southern boundary ; and, 
where it quits the parish, the surface declines to 185 
feet above sea-level, thence rising gently to 459 feet at 
a point 3J furlongs W by N of the church. The soil is, 
generally speaking, rich and well-cultivated, and the 
prevailing rock is Old Red sandstone. 'The chief 
natural feature in the parish are the Trow Crags. 
These are a series of projecting rocks, rising from 
the bed of the Tweed ' like the sides of a man's 
hands. ' At one time, they were so close together, that, 
when the river was low, it was possible to pass by means 
of them from one bank to the other. An accident, how- 
ever, occurred, and in consequence, the middle rock was 
blown up to prevent the recurrence of a like mishap. 
When the river comes down in flood, its waters break 
over the rocks with very fine effect. It is said that the 
best salmon -fishing in all the Tweed is to be had in this 
reach of the river. The two proprietors are the Duke 
of Roxburghe, who possesses one large farm, and Miss 
Scott-Makdougall of Makerstoun, to whom the rest of 
the parish belongs. Her residence, Makerstoun House, 
is a square three-storied building, situated on the N 
bank of the Tweed, and standing in grounds that are 
extensive and well-wooded. The park contains about 
100 acres. An observatory, erected by General Sir 
Thomas Brisbane (1773-1860) in the park at Makers- 
toun, was demolished after his death. He was the 
husband of the eldest daughter of Sir Henry Hay Mak- 
dougall, so that the estate came to him through his wife. 
The interesting ruin of what was first a Roman Catholic 
chapel and then a Protestant church is stiU used by the 
Makdougall family as a place of interment, and stands 
a little way from the house, entirely shut in by trees. 
The estate of Makerstoun will eventually pass to the 
Scotts of Gala. This parish is in the presbytery of 
Kelso and the synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the 



MALLENT 

living is worth £372. The parish church is a plain 
building, erected in 1807, and liaving accommodation 
for 150 people. A Free church, with 250 sittings, was 
built by tlie late Miss Elizabeth Makdougall, who also 
left £1500 towards its endowment, and built, at her 
own expense, an excellent manse. The public school, 
with accommodation for 103 children, had (1883) an 
average attendance of 76, and a grant of £48, lis. 
Valuation (1864) £5001, Is., (1884) £6809, 9s. Pop. 
(1801) 248, (1831) 326, (1861)380,(1871)361,(1881) 
3Sl.—0rd. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Malleny, an estate, with a mansion, in Currie parish, 
Edinburghshire, close to Balerno village and station. 
The house is old and ivy-mantled, with Dutch gardens, 
and tine old yews and plane-trees. The estate from the 
middle of the 17th century was held by a branch of the 
Scotts of Murdieston, one of whose members was General 
Thomas Scott (1745-1841). By his gi-and-nephew. Col. 
Francis Cunningham Scott, C.B., it was sold in 1882 
for £125,000 to the Earl of Eosebery. "With a rental of 
£4351 it comprises 2972 acres, of which 2127 are arable, 
630 hill-pasture, and 190 woodland and plantations. — 
Orel. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. See Dalmeny, and John 
Small's Castles and Mansions of the Lothians (Ediub. 
1883). 

Maltan Walls. See Anckum. 

Mam-Eatagain. See Maam-Ratagain. 

Mam-Suil. See Maam-Suil. 

Manar, a commodious mansion, with finely-wooded 
grounds, in Inverurie parish, Aberdeenshire, near the 
left bank of the Don, 3J miles WSW of Inverurie town. 
Its o^vner, Henry Gordon, Esq. (b. 1848 ; sue. 1874), 
holds 2260 acres in the shire, valued at £2115 per an- 
num. — Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Manderston, a fine modern mansion in Duns parish, 
Berwickshire, lij mUe EbyNofDuns town. Its owner, 
Sir William Miller, Bart. (b. 1809; ere. 1874), was 
Liberal M.P. for Leith 1859-68, and for Berwickshire 
1878-74. He holds 961 acres in Berwick and 172 in 
Haddington shires, valued at £2970 and £923 per annum. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 34, 1864. 

Manner. See JIanoe.- 

Mannofield, a village at the boundary between Old 
Machar and Banchory-Devenick parishes, Aberdeen- 
shire, 2 miles SW of Aberdeen, under which it has a 
post ofBce. Its Established church was raised to qiioud 
sacra status in 1882. 

Manor, Aberdeenshire. See Manae. 

Manor(in 1186 Maineure; Cymric maenawr, ' a manor 
or district enclosed in a stone boundary ; ' maen, ' stone '), 
a parish of Pi-oblesshire, whose church stands on the lei't 
bank of Manor Water, 3 miles SW of the post-town, 
Peebles. It is bounded NW by Stobo, N and E by 
Peebles, SE by Yarrow in Selkirkshire, S by the Megget 
section of Lyne, and W by Drummelzier and Stobo. Its 
utmost length, from N to S, is 11 miles ; its utmost breadth 
is 4i miles ; and its area is 1 6, 67 1 g acres, of which nearly 
50 are water. Manor Water, rising in the extreme S 
at an altitude of 2000 feet above sea-level, runs lOf 
mUes north-by -eastward — for the last 5J furlongs along 
the Peebles boundary — till, after a total descent of 1400 
feet, it falls into the Tweed at a point If mile WSW of 
Peebles, and 1 furlong below one-arch Manorfoot Bridge 
(1702). It is joined by Glenrath Buen and nearly 
a dozen more little affluents, most of which, like itself, 
afford capital trout-fishing. The Tweed curves 2| 
miles east-by-northward along all the north-western 
and northern boundary, and just above Manorfoot is 
spanned by a handsome five-arch stone bridge, 260 feet 
long, erected in 1881-83 at a cost of £3000. At the 
influx of Manor Water to the Tweed the surface 
declines to 600 feet above sea-level ; and chief eleva- 
tions to the W of the Manor, as one goes up the 
vale, are Whitelaw Hill (1521 feet), the *Scrape (2347), 
Posso Craigs (1817), *Pykestone Hill (2414), *Dollae 
Law (2680), and *Norman Law (2408); to the E, 
Canada Hill (1716), *Hundleshope Heights (2249), 
Glenrath Hill (2049), *Blackhoube Heights (2213), 
•Black Law (2285), and *Shielhope Head (2110), where 
74 



MANUEL HOUSE 

asterisks mark those summits that culminate on the 
confines of the parish. The great green hills, their 
summits clothed with heather, have mostly a rapid 
ascent ; beyond Posso they closely approach, and grow 
wild and towering. The rocks are Lower Silurian, and 
the soil is generally light. At an early period cultiva- 
tion was carried far up the vale, perhaps to its very 
head ; but later tillage was abandoned, especially in the 
upper reaches, which may account for the old rhyme — 

• There stand three mills on Manor Water, 
A fourth at Posso Cleugh ; 
Gin heather-bells were corn and here. 
They wad get grist eneugh.' 

In the lower half of the parish the cultivation of cereals 
and green crops, always more or less followed, is now 
the principal industry. The parish is rich in antiqui- 
ties and objects of interest, comprising hill-forts, of 
which there are several well defined ; peel-towers, that 
of Castlehill being the most prominent, and that of 
Baens (1498) the best preserved ; the site of ' Macbeth's 
Castle ; ' the site of St Gordian's Kirk, far up the vale, 
in Kirkhope, marked by a granite runic cross, with the 
old font stone at its base ; the Ship Stone, under Posso 
Craigs ; a tumulus known as the ' Giant's Grave, ' in Glen- 
rath Hope ; a cup-marked fallen monolith, near Bellan- 
ridge (an old woman, 'tis said, whom the devil turned into 
stone) ; and traces of the old ' Thief s Road, ' or freebooters' 
mountain bridle-way. One and all are surpassed in 
interest by the lowly cottage (1802) of the 'Black 
Dwarf," ' Bowed Davie ' Ritchie (1740-1811), near AVood- 
house farm, 1 mile SW of the Kirkton. Here in 1797 
he received a visit from Sir Walter Scott, who was stay- 
ing at Hallyards with Professor Ferguson. His chair, 
scarce as high as a hassock, is still kept at Woodhouse ; 
and a tombstone in the churchyard, erected by Messrs 
Chambers in 1845, marks the spot where they laid him 
to rest. A rest soon broken, for his legs no longer tlian 
a two-year child's, and his ape-like arms, so marvellously 
strong, proved too strong a temptation to resun-ee- 
tionists, as one learns from Dr John Brown's HorcB 
Subscciva;. Mansions, are Baen,s, Glenternie, and 
Hallyaed.? ; and 5 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of more, 2 of less, than £500. Manor is in 
the presbytery of Peebles and the synod of Lothian 
and "rweeddale ; the living is worth £309. The parish 
church is a handsome Gothic edifice of 1873-74, mth 
188 sittings and two memorial windows. Within the 
vestry is a table made of oak that had been used for 
church building purposes not later than the 13th 
century ; and a bell in the belfry bears the Latin in- 
scription, 'In honore Sanct. Gordiani, mcccolxxviii.' 
The public school, with accommodation for 59 children, 
had (1883) an average attendance of 46, and a grant of 
£60, lis. Valuation (1860) £4201, (1884) £6109, Is. 9d. 
Pop. (1801) 308, (1831) 254, (1861) 247, (1871) 271, 
(1881) 217.— Ord. Sur., shs. 24, 16, 1864. 

Mansfield House, a mansion in New Cumnock parish, 
AjTshire, 1^ mile E by N of New Cumnock village. 
It is the seat of Sir James Stuart-Menteth, third 
Bart, since 1838 (b. 1841 ; sue. 1870), who holds 2846 
acres in the shire, valued at £1898 per annum, 
and whose grandfather. Sir Charles G. Stuart-Menteth, 
Bart, of Closeburn (1760-1847), a distinguished agri- 
cultural improver, acquired the estate by purchase. 
It is rich in coal and limestone ; and, after coming into 
Sir Charles's possession, it underwent vast improve- 
ment at once in agriculture, in mining operations, and 
in the opening up of railway transit. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
15, 1864. 

Manuel House, a mansion in Muiravonside parish, 
Stirlingshire, near the left bank of the Avon, 2J miles 
WSW of Linlithgow. Manuel Junction, on the North 
British railway, at the intersection of the Edinburgh 
and Glasgow with the Slamannan and Bo'ness lines, is 
2 miles W of Linlithgow. Manuel or Emmanuel Priory, 
near the mansion, was founded for Cistercian nuns in 
1156 by Malcolm IV., and received considerable endow- 
ments and donations, at different periods, from various 

5 



MAE 

distingiiislied persons. It was dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary, and seems to have been in the First Pointed 
style. The chapel was fairly entire in 1739 ; bnt in 
1788 a spate of the Avon swept away part of the walls ; 
and now it is represented by only the western gable, 
thickly clothed with ivv. Edward I. was here in 1301. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Mar, an ancient district of SW Aberdeenshire, sub- 
divided into Braemar, Midmar, and Croniar. A Mor- 
maer of Mar was present at the battle of Clontarff 
(1014) ; and Ruadri or Rothri, Mormaer of Mar, figures 
in the foundation charter of Scone priory (1115) as 
' comes ' or earl. The male line of the Celtic Earls of 
Mar expired in 1377 with Thomas, thirteenth Earl, whose 
sister, Slargaret, married William, first Earl of Douglas ; 
and their daughter, Isabel, in 1404 married Alexander 
Stewart, the ' Wolfe of Badenoch,' who, after her death 
in 1419, was designated Earl of Mar. The earldom by 
rights should have gone to Janet Keith, great-grand- 
daughter of the eleventh Celtic Earl, and wife to Sir 
Thomas Erskine ; but it was not till 1565 that it was 
restored, per modwni justitice, to their sixth descendant, 
John, fifth Lord Erskine. Into the present vexed 
question of this peerage, it is not possible here to enter; 
enough, that there are now two bearers of the title — 
Walter Henry Erskine, Earl of Mar and Kellie, whose 
seat is Alloa Park ; and Francis Erskine Goodeve- 
Erskine, whose seat is Wilton Hall, in Herefordshire. 
The former is Earl de facto, according to judgment of 
the House of Lords (1875) ; but the latter is Earl de 
jure, according to the late Earl of Crawford's Earldom 
of Mar in SunsJiine and Shade during Five Hwndred 
Years (2 vols., Edinb. 1882). 

Mar. See Mar Lodge. 

March, Berwickshire. See Meese. 

Marchfield. See Gramond. 

Marchmont House, a mansion in Polwarth parish, 
Berwickshire, f mile SW of Marchmont station on the 
Berwickshire loop-line of the North British, this being 
3i miles NE of Greenlaw and 3| SW of the post-town 
Duns. It is the seat of Sir Hugh Hume-Campbell, 
seventh Bart, since 1665 (b. 1812; sue. 1833), who 
holds 20,180 acres in the shire, valued at £17,977 per 
annum. His father. Sir William Purves, inherited the 
property from his great-uncle, the third and last Earl 
of Marchmont (1708-94), whose ancestors, the Humes, 
possessed the lands of Polwarth for three centuries. 
The most famous of them, Sir Patrick Hume (1641- 
1724), distinguished as a patriot and statesman, was 
created Lord Polwarth in 1690 and Earl of Marchmont 
in 1697. (See Harden.) The mansion was built about 
1754 by the last Earl to supersede Bedbraes Castle, 
situated 200 yards to the E. A semi-Palladian edifice, 
from designs by the celebrated Robert Adam, it stands 
in a large and finely-wooded park, whose trees, how- 
ever, suffered great damage from the gale of 14 Oct. 
1881, when the majestic beech avenue, nearly 1 mile 
long and 100 yards broad, was wrecked. — Ord. Sur., 
sh."25, 1S65. 

Maree, Loch, a magnificent fresh-water lake of Gair- 
loch parish, W Ross-shire. Commencing at a point 
11§ miles WK"W of Auchnasheen station, and lying 32 
feet above sea-level, it extends 12| miles north-west- 
ward, with a varying breadth of from 3 furlongs to 2| 
miles, a general depth of 360 feet, and an area of 11 
square miles or 7090| acres. On all sides it is over- 
looked by mountains of great height and beautiful 
contour, so that its shores present an inexhaustible 
variety of the most romantic and interesting scenery. 
The loftiest are Ben" Sleoch (3217 feet) to the NE, and 
Ben Eay or Eighe (3309) to the SW. From the 
former of these the Lewis, with the town and bay of 
Stornoway, can be distinctly seen. The effect of this 
superb mountain, seen at once from its base to its 
summit, is, perhaps, more striking than that of any 
other mountain in the Highlands. At the western 
extremity, Ben Lair (2817 feet) is a principal feature 
in the landscape — graceful, solid, broad ; and where its 
skirts descend steep into the water, the scenes are 
6 



MAEKINCH 

peculiarly original and grand. The northern margin of 
Loch Maree presents a great variety of scenery, consist- 
ing of rocky and wooded bays, and creeks rising into 
noble overhanging cliffs and mountains ; here also are 
displayed some of the finest general views of the lake. 
But there is one portion of the margin of the lake so 
peculiar as to deserve the most minute description, and 
that of Dr M'CuUoch is so vivid and so true, that we 
cannot refrain from extracting it : 'In one place in 
particular, the remains of a fir forest, in a situation 
almost incredible, produce a style of landscape that 
might be expected in the Alps, but not among the more 
confined scope and tamer arrangements ot Scottish 
mountains. Immediately from the water's edge, a 
lofty range of gray cliffs rise to a great height, so steep 
as almost to seem perpendicular, but varied by fissures 
and by projections covered with grass and wild plants. 
Wherever it is possible for a tree to take root, there firs 
of ancient and noble growth, and of the most wild and 
beautiful forms, are seen rising above each other, so 
that the top of one often covers the root of the succeed- 
ing, or else is thrown out horizontally in various fan- 
tastic and picturesque modes. Now and then some 
one more wild and strange than the others, or some 
shivered trunk or fallen tree, serves to vary the aspect 
of this strange forest, marking also the lapse of ages, 
and the force of the winter storms which they have so 
long braved.' 

■The bosom of Loch Maree is gemmed with islands of 
varied size and appearance. They are 27 in number, 
and lie chiefly in a cluster on the middle of the lake, 
w'here it is broadest. The chief of these, all noticed 
separately, are Ellan-Subhainn, Ellan-JIaree, and 
Ellan-Rokymore or Ruaiiidh-Mor. The lake is sup- 
posed at one time to have had a much lower level than 
it now has, and to have been raised to its present level 
by the accumulation of sand and gravel at the lower 
end, by which the water was dammed in. Indeed 
there is reason to think, that Lochs Maree and Ewe 
originally formed one lake, under the name of Loch 
Ewe, as the village near the head of Loch Maree is 
named Kinlochewe or ' li ead of Loch Ewe. ' Loch Maree 
contains salmon, sea-trout, yellow trout, and char, 
though the first are very seldom caught ; and the river 
Ewe, flowing from it, is almost the best angling water 
on the W coast of Scotland, abounding with salmon of 
princely size and quality. A steamer was launched on 
the lake in 1883. The Talladale or Lochmaree Hotel, 
on the SW shore of the lake, opposite the group of 
islands, and 9 miles NW of Kinlochewe, is an excellent 
establishment, erected in 1S72, and honoured from the 
12th to the 18th of September 1877 by a visit from 
Queen Victoria and the Princess Beatrice. A rock of 
pale red granite bears a Gaelic inscription recording 
this visit, which is fully described in More Leaves from 
the Journal of a Life in the Highlands (1884). There 
is a post and telegraph office of Lochmaree under Ding- 
wall.— Oi-d Sur., shs. 92, 91, 1881-82. 

Margaretsfield, a village in Euthwell parish, Dum- 
friesshire, 8 miles W by N of Annan. 

Markinch [inarTc-inch, ' the forest island '), a small 
town and a parish in the Kirkcaldy district of Fife. 
The town has a station (the junction for Leslie) on the 
Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee section of the North 
British, 22i miles N by E of Edinburgh, 11* SSW 
of Cupar, "ih. N by E of Kirkcaldy, and 4J E of 
Leslie. It is built on the top and sides of a low 
ridge, which, according to tradition, was once an 
island in a lake. This is supposed to explain the 
derivation of the name Markinch. The height of this 
ridge is greater at its northern and southern ex- 
tremities than at the centre. The northern was at 
one time occupied by a Culdee cell ; and the southern, 
known as Markinch Hill, has six terraces, each 
20 feet broad, and rising one above the other, cut out 
from it. By some, these terraces have been ascribed 
to the Romans, while others have thought it probable 
hat th ey were intended for an amphitheatre, from which 
games, etc., engaged in below, might easily be viewed. 



MAEKINCH 

It is now hardly possible to make out the terraces, 
owing to the ridge being overgrown with trees, planted 
by the late General Balfour. When the parish church 
was built is unknown ; it was, however, enlarged and 
repaired in 1806, and has now 1050 sittings. The Free 
church was renovated, and two stained-glass windows 
were inserted, in 1883 ; and there is also aU.P. church. 
Markinch has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of the 
Commercial Bank of Scotland, agencies of 10 insurance 
companies, a town-hall (1857), a subscription library, 
2 hotels, a gas company, a water company, bowling 
and curling clubs, and a cottage gardeners' society. 
Fairs are held on the second Tuesday of February, on 
the last Tuesday of March, on the second Tuesday of 
May, on the second Friday of October, and on the third 
Tuesday of December. The town contains a number of 
good shops, which draw their custom from the surround- 
ing district, in which are situated the mills and bleach- 
fields which give employment to the inhabitants (see 
under the parish). Population of JIarkinch town (1861) 
1230, (1871) 1237, (1881) 1273, of whom 686 were 
females. Houses (1881) 300 inhabited, 13 vacant, 2 
building. 

Markinch parish is bounded NW by Falkland, N by 
Kettle, E by Kennoway and Scoonie, SE by "Wemyss, 
SW by Dysart, and W by Kinglassie and Leslie. With 
a verj- irregular outline, it has an utmost length from 
N to S of 5i miles, a varying width from E to W of J 
mile and 5| miles, and an area of 9876 j acres, of which 
48| are foreshore and 74 water. The parish consists 
of two separate parts, the larger of which approaches 
near Cameron to within 7 furlongs of the Firth of Forth ; 
while the smaller, -svith a land area of only 67i acres, 
lies along the Firth and the right bank of the river 
Leven, between AVemyss and Scoonie. ' The general 
aspect of the parish, ' says one writer, ' is varied and 
picturesque. From the Lomond Hills as a background 
on the N, it slopes gently towards the S and E. The 
parish is intersected by four fertile valleys, watered by 
as man}' streams, which unite towards the eastern 
extremity. The valleys are separated by corresponding 
low ridges, each rising gradually above the other in the 
direction of the summit level' — 516 feet at Kirkforthar, 
close to the northern boundary. The chief streams in 
the parish are the river Leven, Lochty Burn, and the 
Ore. The first divides the inland section into two 
pretty equal parts. Lochty Burn runs 7J furlongs east- 
ward to the Ore, which itself flows 4| miles north-east- 
ward to the Leven, partly along the Dysart boundary, 
but mainly through the south-eastern interior ; and the 
Leven goes 6i miles eastward, partly along the Leslie 
and Wemyss bouudaries, but chiefly across the middle of 
the parish. The rocks are mainly of the Carboniferous 
formation, and mining has been long carried on on a 
large scale. Ironstone is also found in abundance. At 
first it was smelted on the spot, but was afterwards 
exported to the Tyne to be smelted there. In the 
northern part of the parish the soil is either clay, loam, 
or gravel ; in the district between the Lochty and the 
Ore, it is claj', loam, or sand of a wet character ; and 
in the southern part it is wet clay, loam, or sand. A 
considerable portion is imder wood, and there are about 
100 acres of bog-land. The parish is traversed by a 
section of the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee railway, 
■which has a junction station at Thornton, where the 
Leven and East of Fife, and the Buckhaven lines break 
off, and at Markinch where the Leslie branch separates 
from the main line. 

Besides the small town of Markinch, the parish con- 
tains the following villages and hamlets, Milton of 
Balgonie, Coaltown, Windygates, Woodside, Inverleven, 
Balcurrie, Haughmill, Burns, Eothes, Auchmuty, Bal- 
birnie, Gateside, Kirkforthar, Scythrum, Cameron- 
Bridge. In these, and in the country round about them, 
are conducted the various mills, bleachfields, etc. , which 
form the industries of the parish. At Cameron-Bridge 
there is a very large distillery ; and at Eothes, Balbirnie, 
and Auchmuty there are paper-mills. The parish also 



MARKINCH 

contains 4 bleachfields at Rothes, Lochty, Balgonie, 
and Haugh, 3 collieries, and 2 flaxspinning mills. 
The chief resident lando^vners, with their estates, 
are: — Balfour of Balbirnie, Admiral Bethune, C.B., of 
Balfour, Landalo of Woodbank, Lawson of Corriston, 
Simpson of Brunton, Grcig of Balcurrie, Mrs Grant of 
Durie Vale, Inglis of BaUinkirk. The following are 
non-resident: — The Countess of Rothes, Balfour of 
Balgonie, Wemyss of Wemyss, Ramsay of Balcurrie, 
Christie of Durie. The United College of St Andrews 
also holds property in the parish. Markinch contains 
several objects of antiquarian interest. The House 
of Orr (Balfour House) may be noticed, because in it 
was born Cardinal Beatoun (or Bethune), who played 
so large a part in Scottish history of the 16th century. 
The old House of Orr was situated at the junction of 
the Orr with the Leven, but the present house is near 
the Milton of Balgonie. An interesting portrait of 
the cardinal may be seen in the gallery of Balfour 
House, which also contains a portrait of James Bethune, 
Archbishop of Glasgow (b. 1517), a nephew of the 
cardinal, and another of Mary Beatoun (b. 1566), well 
known as one of the 'Queen's Maries,' and mentioned 
in the old song, supposed to be sung by the hapless 
Mary on the eve of her execution : — 

' Yestreen the Queen had four Maries, 
The nicht she'll hae but three ; 
There was Mar.y Beatoun and Mary Seaton, 
And Mary Carmichael and me.' 

Balgonie Castle, IJ mile ESE of Markinch, stands on 
the summit of a bank, which rises from the Leven. 
' The Old Red sandstone keep of Balgonie was both a 
palace and a prison.' It is about 80 feet high, with a 
battlement at the top, and is 45 feet in length and 36 
in breadth over the walls. The walls of the two lower 
stories, which are arched with stone, are 8 feet thick. 
Balgonie belonged originally to the Sibbalds, a weU- 
known Fifeshire famOy, from whom it passed to the 
Lundins. The famous Scottish general. Sir Alexander 
Leslie — ' Crook-back ' Leslie, as he was called — acquired 
it from them about 1640. There he spent the closing 
}-ears of his life, and there he died in 1661, as Lament 
relates: — 'Old Generall Leslie in Fyfi'e, the Earle of 
Leven, depairted out of this life at his own house in 
Balgonie, and was interred at Markinshe church in his 
own iyle, the 19 of Apr(il), in the evening.' Another 
account says that his remains were borne to the vault at 
midnight, by torch-light. 

The ruined tower of Bandon, in the western part of 
the parish, was one of Beatoun's many possessions. 
Other antiquities are the ruined church of Kirkforthar, 
the tower of Markinch parish church, and an old cross, 
7 feet high, erected to the N of Markinch, near the 
garden entrance to Balbirnie. What remains of it is now 
merely a broad slab, either quite plain at first, or so 
weather-beaten in the course of years, as to have lost all 
traces of carviug upon it. Stone coffins and other 
remains of an antiquarian nature have also been found 
in the parish. 

Men of note, who have been connected with Markinch, 
are :^Dr Drew, who became Principal of St Leonard's 
College, St Andrews, in 1708, after having been minister 
of Markinch parish church ; Mr Tullidolph, minister of 
JIarkinch, who was appointed Professor of Divinity in 
St Mary's College, St Andrews, in 1734 ; Dr Sievewright, 
who was first minister of the parish church, and after- 
wards of the Free church of Markinch. When he left 
the Established Chm-ch, most of his ' people ' ' came 
out ' with him. He was Moderator of the Free Church 
General Assembly in 1846, and died in 1852. 

This parish is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and the 
synod of Fife. The stipend is 20 chalders, and the 
living is worth from £300 to £400. Besides the parish 
church there are also quoad sacra parish churches at 
Milton of Balgonie and Thornton. The former has 
accommodation for 650 and the latter for 400 persons. 
There is a Free church at Markinch, and 2 U. P. churches, 
one at Markinch and the other at Inverleven. No special 



MABLEE LOCH 

interest, of an ecclesiastical nature, is attaclied to tlie 
church of Markinch. In the 10th century it was con- 
veyed by Maldrumus, Bishop of St Andrews, to the 
Culdees of Lochleven. The men of Markinch, it has 
been shown from the Kirk Session Records, were warmly 
attached to the Covenanting cause, in defence of which 
they spent ' lives, land, and gear.' Seven public schools, 
with total accommodation for 1061 children, had (1883) 
an average attendance of 856, and grants amounting 
to £736, 3s. 7d. Valuation (1860) £23,047, (1884) 
£30,206, 5s. 5d. Pop. (1801) 3130, (1831) 4967, (1861) 
5375, (1871) 5413, (1881)5863.— Ort?. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Majlee Loch. See Deumellie. 

Marlefield. See Eckfoed. 

Mar Lodge, a deer-stalking lodge of the Earl of Fife, 
in Crathie and Braemar parish, SW Aberdeenshire, 
near the S bank of the Dee, 3 miles WSW of Castleton. 
It is picturesquely seated on the steep wooded side of 
the Eagle's Craig, 1250 feet above sea-level, and is the 
highest inhabited gentleman's seat in Great Britain. A 
rambling sti'ucture, between a Swiss chalet and an 
Indian bungalow, it once was simply a keeper's lodge, 
but has been added to from time to time, till now the 
series of buildings can hold above 100 visitors and 
retainers. In Sept. 1881 the princely hospitality of the 
Earl entertained that number to do honour to the 
Prince of Wales ; and on 10 Sept. 1852 the Queen and 
Pi'ince Albert were present here at an open-air torch- 
light ball. See Duff House.— Ord. Sur., sh. 65, 1870. 

Mamoch, a parish of NE Banffshire, with a post 
office (Bridge of Marnoch), 8 J miles NNE of its post- 
town, Huntly, and 2 SSW of Aeerohikdee. Contain- 
ing also that thriving village, it is bounded N by 
Boyndie and Banff, NE by Alvah, E by Forglen, SE by 
Turriff in Aberdeenshire, S by Inverkeithny and Rothie- 
may, W by Rothiemay and Grange, and NW by Ordi- 
quhill. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 6J miles ; 
its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 5J miles ; and its 
area is 14,954 acres. The Deveeox, here spanned by 
the two-arch Bridge of Marnoch (1806), winds 9g miles 
eastward along all the southern and south-eastern 
boundary, though the point where it first touches and 
that where it quits the parish are only 5J miles distant ; 
and Crombie, Auchintoul, and other burns rise in the 
N, and flow to it southward across the interior. Along 
the Deveron the surface declines to 190 feet above sea- 
level ; and thence it rises to 600 feet at Clunie Hill, 851 
at Catstone Hill, 767 at *MeikIe Brown Hill, 890 at 
*Wether Hill, and 740 at Gallow Hill, where asterisks 
mark those summits that culminate on the western and 
north-western confines of the parish. Granite is the 
predominant I'ock, and has been largely quarried. Lime- 
stone also occurs, and was at one time worked. The 
soil is variously alluvium, rich loam, clay, moss, and 
humid moor. Kinairdt and Crombie Castles have been 
noticed separately. Mansions are Ardmellie, Auchin- 
toul, Cluny, Culvie, and Netherdale ; and 8 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 7 of 
between £100 and £500. Giving off a portion to Ord 
quoad sacra parish, Marnoch is in the presbytery of 
Strathbogie and the synod of Moray ; the living is 
worth £351. The parish church, on a rising-ground 
near the left bank of the Deveron, a little NW of the 
Bridge of Marnoch, was built in 1792, and is a plain 
barn-like edifice, containing 837 sittings. It stood in 
the midst of a Caledonian stone-circle, two large stones 
only of which remain ; and in the churchyard are a por- 
tion of its ancient predecessor and the finely-sculptured 
monument of George Meldrum of Crombie (1616-92), 
Episcopal minister of Glass. The successive presenta- 
tion of Mr J. Edwards in 1837 and of Mr D. Henry in 
183S gave rise to one of the stiffest Disruption contests 
under the Veto Act ; and led to the erection at Aber- 
chirder of New Marnoch Free church, which, costing 
over £2000, contains 1000 sittings. Other places of 
worship are noticed under Abeechirder ; and Aber- 
chirder Episcopal and four public schools — Aberchirder, 
Blacklaw, Marnoch, and Netherdale — with respective 
accommodation for 75, 400, 78, 120, and 60 children, 
8 



MARYCULTER 

had (1883) an average attendance of 75, 210, 73, 124, 
and 42, and grants of £59, 8s., £183, 15s., £67, 17s. 6d., 
£110, 19s., and £39, 19s. Valuation (1865) £10,101, 
(1882) £18,350. Pop. (1801) 1687, (1831) 2426, (1861) 
3289, (1871) 3294, (1881) 3230, of whom 3141 were in 
the ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Marnook. See Ixohiiarnook. 

Maronnan. See Kilmaronook. 

Marr. See Mar. 

Marr or Mar Bum, Dumfriesshire. See Maar. 

Marrel. See Helmsdale. 

Marshadder, a village in the NW of the Isle of Skye, 
Inverness - shire. Its post - town is Kilmuir, under 
Portree. 

Mar's Hill. See Alloa. 

Martin. See Isle-Martik, 

Martnaham, Loch, a lake on the mutual border of 
Coylton and Dalrymple parishes, Ayrshire, 4| mUes SE 
of Ayr. Lying 290 feet above sea-level, it has an 
utmost length and breadth of 1^^ and J mile ; contains 
a wooded islet, with ivy-clad ruins of an ancient manor- 
house ; abounds in pike and perch, with a few trout ; 
is frequented by wild geese, wild ducks, teals, and 
widgeons ; receives two streamlets, one of them from 
Lochs Fergus and Snipe to the NW ; and sends off a 
third 3 miles south-westward to the river Doon near 
Dabymple church. — Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Marwick Head. See Birsay. 

Maryburgh, a small village in Cleish parish, Kinross- 
shire, 4 miles S by E of Kinross. 

Maryburgh, a village on the mutual border of Fod- 
derty and Dingwall parishes, Ross-shire, on the left bank 
of the river Conon, where it opens into the Cromarty 
Firth, IJ mile S by W of Dingwall town, and IJ N of 
Conon station. It is a modern place, inhabited chiefly 
by crofters and mechanics ; and has a post ofiice under 
Dingwall, a Free church, and a public school. Pop. 
(1841) 403, (1861) 503, (18S1) 420, of whom 7 were in 
Dingwall parish.— 0;t?. Sur., sh. 83, 1881. 

Maryburgh. See AVilliam, Fort. 

Maryculter, a parish, with a hamlet of the same name, 
in the NW of Kincardineshire, bordering on the Dee. 
It is bounded E by Banchory-Devenick parish, S by 
Fetteresso parish, SW by Durris parish, and NW by 
Aberdeenshire. Except for ^ mile upward from the mouth, 
of the Crynoch Burn, where the parish of Peterculter 
crosses to the S bank of the river, and for g mile below 
the mouth of the burn, where Maryculter crosses to the 
N side — the line in both eases following an old channel 
— the boundary along the whole of the NW side is 
formed by the Dee, which has here a course, inclusive 
of these portions, of 6 miles. Elsewhere the line is 
artificial. The greatest length of the parish, from the Dee 
at Ardo House (Bauchory-Devenick) on the extreme NE, 
to the SW corner, 5 furlongs beyond Muirskie, is 5| 
miles ; the average width about 2J miles, and the area 
7923-356 acres, of which 142-603 are water. The 
surface slopes upwards from the Dee, reaching a height 
of 545 feet near the SE corner, and 558 at Berry Top, 
near the centre of the S side. Some small haughs lie 
along the banks of the river, but the rest of the surface 
is uneven and rocky. The soil on the side of the river 
is naturally thin and sandy, but in the central districts 
it becomes deeper, and is in many cases a good black 
loam on a clay bottom. On the S and SE there is much 
damp pasture and moss lying on a subsoil of clay. The 
imderlying rocks are granite and gneiss. Of the land 
area about half is under tillage, and some 900 acres are 
under wood, while the rest is pasture land or waste. 
The drainage of the parish is effected by three burns, in 
the E, centre, and AV of the parish, all flowing to the 
Dee ; the chief is Crynoch or Maryculter Burn, in the 
centre. The Dee did great damage during a flood in 
1768, and again in the more famous one of 1829, when 
the river rose from 13 to 16 feet above its ordinary 
level. The parish takes its name from its having been 
a chapelry in the lands of Culter (Gael. Oul-tir, ' the 
back-lying land ') dedicated to St Mary, and dependent 
on the church of St Peter Culter, now Peterculter. The 



MARYCULTER 

old churchyard is near the mansion-honse of Culter, near 
the river Dee. Of the old church almost nothing now 
remains but the foundations, which show that it was 
ahout 82 feet long, 28 wide, and had walls about 3 feet 
thick. It seems to date from about the sixteenth 
century, and contained a number of curious wood 
carvings, which were all dispersed, and most of them 
lost or destroyed, when the new church was built, a mile 
to the S, in 1782. Carved effigies of a knight and his 
lady are supposed to be those of Thomas Menzies of Mary- 
culter and his wife Marion Keid, heiress of Pitfoddles, 
who lived in the first half of the 16th century. The 
Menzies family acquired the estate of Maryculter early 
in the 14th century ; and the last of the family was Mr 
John Menzies, the founder of Blaiks College. The 
family burial ground was at St Nicholas in Aberdeen, 
and these figures are supposed to have been brought here 
for safety when the West Kirk of Aberdeen was rebuilt 
in 1751-55. The late Mr Irvine-Boswell of Kingcaussie 
(1785-1860), who did so much for the improvement of 
the agriculture of the parish, is also buried here. The 
Irvines of Kingcaussie are a branch of the Irvines of 
Drum ; and the line ended in an heiress who married the 
well-known Lord Balmuto. Their son was the Mr 
Irvine-Boswell just mentioned. The mansions, besides 
Maryculter House and Kingcaussie House, are Altries 
House, Auchlunies House, and Heathcot, the last of 
which has been converted into a hydropathic establish- 
ment. The clock tower of Maryculter House is old, and 
is said to have been used by the Menzies family as an 
oratory, but the rest of the house is modern. Near the 
mansion-house is an oval hollow, measuring some 80 
yards across, and about 30 feet deep, which bears the 
name of ' The Thunder Hole.' AVithin the last SO years 
the depth has been considerably reduced. Traditionally 
it was formed by the fall of a thunderbolt, and the spot 
was reckoned not exactly ' canny.' The church and most 
of the lands of the parish were in the possession of the 
Knights Templars, and on their downfall passed under 
the control of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, who 
held them in regality. In 1540 we find Sir Walter 
Lyndesay, the Preceptor of Torphichen, granting the 
lands of Essintully (now Ashentilly), 'jacentes in baronia 
nostra de Maricultir,' to his beloved 'germano frati-i 
Alexandre Lyndesay ; ' and in 1545 he leased to him 
also the Mains of Maryculter, part of the rent to be 
paid being ' thre barrell of salmont yeirl-ie for the Weill 
Watter anentis Kurd,' where salmon-fishing is still 
carried on. In 1547 Sir James Sandilands, Lord St 
John and Preceptor of Torphichen, leased the 'teynd 
schawls' of Easter Essintully and the Mains of Mary- 
culter, ' lyand within the barony of the samyn,' to the 
same Alexander Lyndesay ; and in 1548 the Lords 
of Council and Session found, in an action raised 
by the preceptor, that ' the haill landis and barony 
at Maricultir ' belonged ' to his sayd pi'eceptorie in 
fre regalite,' having been 'in tjTnes by past replegit 
fra the Schiref of Kincardin and his deputis to the 
fredome and privelege of the sayd regalite and baillies 
courttis thairof.' 

The portion of the parish bordering the Dee is traversed 
by a fine road formed about 1836-37, and leading from 
Abekdeek to Banchory by the S side of the river. 
From this, near ilaryculter House, a road passes south- 
ward to a bridle-path across the Grampians to near 
Drumlithie, and so to the coast road. Bailw.ay com- 
munication is afforded by Milltimber and Culter stations, 
on the Deeside section of the Great North of Scotland 
railway system. These are, however, on the N bank of 
the Dee, outside the parish, and each about If mile from 
its centre. The hamlet is beside the church, and is 
merely the Kirktown. It is by road 7 miles WSW of 
Aberdeen, under which it has a sub-post office. The 
parish of Maryculter is in the presbytery and synod 
of Aberdeen. The parish church, built in 1782, and 
repaired when an organ was introduced in 1881, con- 
tains 460 sittings. There is a Free church ; and the 
Roman Catholic College and chapel at Bi.aies are 
separately noticed. Three public schools — the boys' 



MAEYKIRK 

and the East and West girls' and infants' — with respec- 
tive accommodation for 75, 60, and 60 children, had 

(1883) an average attendance of 36, 30, and 42, and 
grants of £35, Is., £28, 16s., and £34, 14s. The 
principal landowner is Mr Kinloch of Park. Valuation 
(1856) £4879, (1884) £7691, 6s. 7d. Pop. (1801) 710, 
(1831) 960, (1861) 1055, (1871) 1110, (1881) 1072.— 
Ord. Sur., shs. 77, 67, 1873-71. 

Marydale, a place in Kilmorack parish, Inverness- 
shire, on the left bank of the Glass, near Inver- 
cannich and the Glenaffric Hotel, 20 miles SW of 
Beauly. Its Roman Catholic church of Our Lady 
and St Bean was built in 1868, and contains 400 
sittings. 

MaryhiU, a police burgh in Barony parish, NW 
Lanarkshire, on the left bank of the river Kelvin, 3^ 
miles NNW of the centre of Glasgow, with which it is 
connected by tramway and by the Glasgow and Helens- 
burgh section of the North British railway. It occupies 
a brae descending to the picturesque and romantic dell 
of the Kelvin, which dell is spanned by the four-arch 
viaduct, 83 feet high and 400 long, of the Fokth and 
Clyde Canal. MaryhiU possesses in itself and in its 
environs such strong attractions of scenery as draw many 
visitors from Glasgow, and exhibits for the most part a 
well-built, pleasant appearance. It has a post office 
under Glasgow, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments, branches of the Royal and Union 
Banks, an hotel, 3 Established churches, 2 Free churches, 
a U.P. church, a Roman Catholic church, 4 public and 2 
Roman Catholic schools, iron, bleach, glass, and print 
works, etc. Under Gla.sgow are noticed the MaryhiU 
Barracks and the Dawsholm gasworks. The burgh is 
governed by a senior and 2 junior magistrates and 9 
otier police commissioners. Valuation (1876) £30,939, 

(1884) £65,637. Pop. of quoad sacra parish (1881) 
39,980; of town (1841) 2552, (1861) 3717, (1871) 5842, 
(1881) 12,884, of whom 6525 were males. Houses in 
town (1881) 2240 inhabited, 691 vacant, 5 buUding.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1S66. 

Marykirk, a village and a parish of S Kincardineshire. 
The village, in the SE corner of the parish, is beautifully 
situated near the left bank of the river North Esk (here 
spanned by a four-arch bridge of 1813), 7 furlongs N by 
W of Craigo station, IJ mile S of Marykirk station, 
and 6 miles NNW of Montrose, under which it has a 
post office. 

The parish, containing also Luthermuir village, 
till at least 1721 was known as Aberluthnott (Gael. 
' meeting of the waters where the stream is swift '). It 
is bounded N by Fordoun, NE by Laurencekirk, E by 
Garvock, SE by St Cyrus, S by Logic-Pert in Forfarshire, 
and W by Fettercairn. Its utmost length, from NNE to 
SSAV, is 5J miles ; its breadth varies between 2§ and 4J 
miles ; and its area is 9912 acres, of which 72 are water. 
The North Esk flows 4 miles east-by-southward along 
all the Forfarshire boundary, and opposite the village is 
spanned by a thirteen-areh viaduct, of fine appearance 
and erected at great cost ; Luther AVater runs 44 
miles south-south-westward through the middle of the 
interior to the North Esk ; and Black and Dourie Burns, 
Luthnot and Balmaleedy Burns, drain the side dis- 
tricts into the larger streams. The surface, comprising 
nmcli of the SW extremity of the Howe of Mearns, 
declines along the North Esk to 80 feet above sea-level, 
and W of the railway at no point exceeds 264 feet ; but 
to the E it attains 555 at KirktonhiU Tower and 700 at 
the meeting-point with Garvock and St Cyrus. Eruptive 
rocks occur in the hills ; but Old Red sandstone pre- 
vails throughout the low grounds, and is quarried ; 
whilst limestone also is plentiful, and was formerly 
worked. The soil is much of it good sound fertile loam, 
incumbent on decomposed red sandstone. About 615 
acres are in pasture ; plantations, chiefly of Scotch fir, 
cover rather more than 1600 acres ; and the rest of the 
land is in tillage. Mansions, noticed separately, are 
BALJIAKEW.4.N, Hatton (Viscount Arbuthnott), Ixglis- 
MALDIE (Earl of Kintore), Kirktonhill, and Thornton 
Castle ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual value of 

9 



MARYPARK 

£500 and upwar(1s, 2 of from £50 to £500, and 4 of from 
£20 to £50. Marykirk, dedicated to the Virgin, is in 
the presbytery of Fordoun and the synod of Angus and 
Mearns ; the living is worth £370. The parish church, 
at the village, was built in 1806, and contains 638 sit- 
tings. There are also a Free church of Marykirk and 
a U.P. church at Muirton (182i ; 430 sittings). Two 
public schools, Luthermuir and Marykirk, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 155 and 180 children, had (1883) 
an average attendance of 54 and 119, and grants of £56, 
15s. and £111, 13s. 6d. Valuation (1856) £8577, (1884) 
£11,450, plus £2177 for railway. Pop. (1801) 1530, 
(1841) 2387, (1861) 2068, (1871) 1771, (1881) 1461.— 
Ord. Sur., shs. 57, 66, 1868-71. 

Marypark, a post office in Inveraven parish, Banff- 
shire, 3 miles NE of Ballindalloch. 

Mary's Loch or Loch Morie, a pretty, troutful lake 
in the upper part of Alness parish, Ross-shire, 9J miles 
WNW of Alness village. Lying 622 feet above sea-level, 
it has an utmost length and breadth of 2 miles and 4| 
furlongs ; is flanked to the SW by Meall Mor (2419 
feet) ; took its name from an ancient chapel at its head, 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary; is very deep, and has 
never been known to freeze further than a few yards 
from its banks ; receives at its head the Abhuinn nan 
Glas; and from its foot sends off the river Alness, 11 J 
miles east-south-eastward to the Cromarty Firth. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 93, 1881. 

Maryton, a parish in Forfarshire, bounded on the N 
by the river South Esk, parish of Dun, and the Montrose 
Basin, E by Craig, S by the German Ocean and Lunan, 
and W by Farnell. It consists of three detached por- 
tions — Maryton proper, Dysart, which is separated by 
a part of Craig, and Grahamsfirth, which lies to the 
"W of Farnell. Its extreme length, from N to S, includ- 
ing the interjecting part of Craig, is about 4 miles ; and 
its breadth, exclusive of Grahamsfirth, about 2 miles ; 
the area is 3687 acres, of which 41 are water and 84 
foreshore. The soil partakes of all the varieties of 
strong clay, rich loam, and land of a lighter character. 
The rocks along the sea-coast are precipitous and pic- 
turesque ; and intersecting the parish is a ridge of hills 
extending from E to W, the highest of which is Maryton 
Law (335 feet), believed to have been formerly a site for 
the administration of justice, from which there is a mag- 
nificent view of the district. The land is well adapted 
for all the usual crops, and, as a rule, a system of high 
farming prevails. Tliis is especially the case on Old 
Montrose in the hands of Mr Charles Lyall, whose 
ancestors for many generations have been among the 
most distinguished agriculturists of Forfarshire, and 
who is himself one of the best known and most enter- 
prising farmers in Scotland. The landed proprietors 
are the Earl of Southesk, who owns the whole of 
Maryton proper, and the Misses Carnegy of Craigo, 
who are in possession of the Dysart estate, excepting a 
small part held in feu by the joint proprietors of the 
neighbouring estate of Dunninald. 

The ancient divisions of the parish were, about the 
13th century, the lands of Old Montrose, which were 
erected into a barony in 1451, and into an earldom in 
1505 ; the lands oi JBonniton oi: Bonnington, erected into 
a barony in 1666; the lands of Aiianic ; the lands of 
Fullerton ; the Ahthen of St Mary's, consisting of the 
lands of Over and Nether Maryton ; the lauds of Drum, 
and of Balnanon. These lands formed the parish of 
Maryton proper. Dyserth, including Over and Nether 
Dysart, constituted a separate parish which was first 
annexed to Brechin and afterwards disjoined in 1649 
and added to Maryton. A romantic account has been 
given of the annexation of Orahamsfirtli, there being 
a legend that it was given as pin-money to the Hon. 
Magdalene Carnegie when espoused to the Earl (after- 
wards Marquis) of Montrose, but it is more likely to 
have come into the possession of the Grahams as their 
share in the division of Monrommon Muir, of which 
it forms a part. There is a tradition that Hospital 
Sliiells, a farm in Marykirk, belonged to Maryton 
parish, having probably been gifted to St Mary's of 
10 



MARYTON 

Old Montrose. The name of Ananie, unfortunately, 
is lost to the parish, though it lingered until the 
present century in the Den of Ananise, by which name 
the pretty Den of Fullerton was known. The lands 
to which the name applied had centuries before been 
added at different times to Bonniton, FuUerton, and 
Old Montrose. 

The most distinguished of the families connected with 
the parish have been the Grahams of Old Montrose (1325- 
1668). The several titles of the family were derived 
from Old Montrose, and not from the tovra of Montrose, 
with which the estate had not the slightest connection, 
the identity of name (Alt Munross) being purely acci- 
dental. Sir David Graham, a devoted follower of 
Robert the Bruce, received from the King the lands of 
Old Montrose in exchange for those of Cardross. James, 
fifth Earl of Montrose, who is best known as the Great 
Marquis, was born at Old Montrose, and there remains 
a fragment of the house in which the birth took place. 
The next family in point of fame is that of the MelviUes 
of Dysart. The first whose name is found in connection 
with the parish is Sir Robert Melweill of Dysert, who 
perished at Harlaw in 1411. The last mention of the 
family is also in the case of a Robert Melville, whose 
name appears in a retour of the dominical lands of the 
Mains of Meikle Dysart in the barony of Dysart. Their 
interest in the parish soon afterwards ceased. The 
Woods of Bonniton were a notable famUy, connected 
with the pari.sh from 1493 to the beginning of the 18th 
century. There were several knights in the family, and 
its representative was created a baronet in 1666, for 
service rendered to Charles II. The famous Earl of 
Middleton succeeded the last Marquis of Montrose in 
possession of the estate, and it was forfeited along with 
the titles when the second Earl was outlawed in 1695. 
The first Fullerton of that ilk was Geoffrey, falconer to 
Robert Bruce, wliose name appears in connection with 
the estate (Fowler-town) in 1327. It was held in the 
family for at least 120 years, after which they trans- 
ferred themselves and their name to the lands in Meigle 
parish still called Fullerton. Other noted families 
having an interest in the parish were the Cranes and 
Schakloks of Annauie, Arrats of Balnanon, Inverpeffers 
and TuUochs of Bonniton, Crawmounts and Durhams of 
Fullerton (the latter being of the Durhams of Grange), 
Wisharts of Drum, Lyells, Guthries, and Mills of 
Dysart ; Mills of Bonniton, and Hays (Dupplin) ; 
Stratons, MiUs, and Stirling of Old Montrose. The 
Abthen seems to have continued mainly in the hands of 
the ecclesiastics. There is evidence, indeed, that the 
FuUertons more than once obtained some interest in it, 
but the right was held of 'tholance' of the bishop. 
After the Reformation, Bishop Alexander Campbell 
made over the whole lands of Maryton to his kinsman 
and chief, the Earl of Argyll. They were transferred 
eventually to the owner of Old Montrose, and have since 
continued to be a portion of that estate. By-and-by 
portions of Ananie and Fullerton were added, the re- 
mainder being annexed to what became the barony of 
Bonniton. 'Towards the end of the 18th century the 
two estates were purchased by Sir David Carnegie, and 
have been included since in the fertile domain of the 
lords of Einnaird. 

The ecclesiastical history of the parish is interest- 
ing. The church of Dyserth, belonging to the priory 
of Rostinoth, is mentioned in early charters, but there 
is no trace of where it stood. Until 1649 the in- 
habitants communicated at the kirk of Brechin ' quilk 
was thair paroche kirk.' At their own request they 
were transferred by Act of Assembly to the kirk of 
Maryton. 

The kirk of Marinton was a vicarage of the cathedral 
of Brechin, and it was gifted (1178-98) to the abbey of 
Arbroath. It was dedicated to the Virgin, and named 
St Mary's of Old Montrose. There is a St Mary's Well 
in the parish, but on the western border. "The first 
Protestant minister was Richard Melville, who was also 
laird of Baldovie. His father, younger son of Melville 
of Dysart and laird of Baldovie, had fallen at Pinkie, 



MARYWELL 

leaving a large family, of which Richard was the eldest, 
and Andrew Melville, the distinguished Keforiner, was 
the youngest. James Melville was the younger son of 
Eichard. In the 17th century two of his descendants 
by the elder sou were successive lairds of Baldovie and 
ministers of Maryton, viz., Richard (1613-1639) and 
Andrew (1639-41). The brother of the latter, Patrick, 
was probably the last laird ; he was served heir in 1642 ; 
and he was one of the followers who accompanied the 
Marquis of Montrose in his exile. The next parish 
minister was John Lammie (1642-1673), who was tutor 
and servitor of the Marquis of Montrose. When the 
house of Old Montrose was searched for ' wreitis ' to 
serve as evidence, ' they took to Edinburgh with thame 
also the erllis secretar, callit Lamby (the minister), to 
try what he kend.' The bell of the church is dated 
1642, and that is understood to be the date of the 
erection of the previous church. An aisle of the old 
church was the burying-place of the "Wood family, and 
the church contained a monument, which has been 
transferred to the present one, to David Lindsay (1673- 
1706), minister of the parish. The present church, 
built in 1792, is a plain but neat structure, the walls 
covered with ivy, and a well-kept graveyard surrounding 
it. It has been renewed in the internal arrangements 
more than once, the last occasion being 18S3, when the 
area was fitted with handsome and substantial pews. 
Stipend, £205 ; manse, £25 ; and glebe, £24. There is 
a Free church at Barnhead, a handsome building with a 
fine exposure, which serves for the parishes of Maryton, 
Dun, and Farnell. Stipend, £198 ; and manse, £25. 
The public school is a commodious building, with a 
handsome and convenient schoolmaster's house in im- 
mediate proximity. The average number of scholars 
on the roll is 75, and in actual attendance 60. For a 
series of years the average Government grant has 
amounted to £64. The valuation in 1857 was £5245 ; 
in 1881, £6079 ; and in 1884, £5800, plus £899 for 
railway. Pop. (1755) 633, (1801) 596, (1831) 419, 
(1861) 417, (1871) 396, (1881) 339. See Maryton 
Bccords of the Past, by Eev. William R. Fraser, M.A. 
(Montrose, 1877). 

Marywell, a village in St Vigeans parish, Forfarshire, 
2 miles N" of Arbroath. 

Mashie Water, a rivulet of Laggan parish, Inverness- 
shire, rising at an altitude of 2650 feet, within 1 mile 
of the NW shore of Loch Ericht, and running 9| miles 
north-by-eastward, till, after a total descent of 1825 
feet, it falls into the Spey at a point 74 furlongs above 
Laggan Bridge. On 28 Aug. 1847 the Queen and 
Prince Albert drove from Ardverikie to the small farm 
of Strathmashie, where Col. Macpherson was then living. 
~Ord. Siir., sh. 63, 1873. 

MasonhaU, a viUage of NW Fife, 4 miles WSW of 
Strathmiglo. 

Masterton, a village in Dunfermline parish, Fife, 2 J 
mUes N!SW of Inverkeithing. Standing high, it coin"^ 
mands a fine view over the waters and screens of the 
Firth of Forth, and has a hospital for poor widows, 
foimded and endowed in 1676 by Sir Henry Wardlaw of 
Pitreavie. 

Mattocks, a village in Monifieth parish, Forfarshire, 
6J mUes XE of Dundee. 

Mauchline (anciently MacMein, MacTiletie. or Ifagh- 
line, Gael. magh-linTic, ' plain with the pool '), a town 
and a parish nearly in the centre of Kyle district, Ayr- 
shire. The to^^'Tl stands, 460 feet above sea-level, on 
the Glasgow and Dumfries high-road, 1| mUe N of the 
river Ayr and J mile N of Mauchline Junction on the 
Glasgow and South-Western railway, this being 6 J miles 
NW of Cumnock, llj ENE of Ayr, 9| SSE of KUmar- 
nock, and 33J S by W of Glasgow. Mauchline is built 
on a southward slope, in the midst of a highly cultivated 
country, which, abounding in springs, must at one time 
have presented the appearance indicated in its name. It 
has a neat and pleasant appearance, and looks busy and 
prosperous in proportion to the number of its inhabitants. 
There are no principal buildings in the usual sense of the 
term. The barn-like edifice which served as the church 



BIAUCHLINE 

in Burns's time was replaced in 1829 by the present 
building. This, occupying a site in the centre of the 
town, rises from the churchyard, round which crowd 
many old houses, and it is considered to be one of the 
handsomest churches in Ayrshire. Mainly Gothic in 
style, it is built of red sandstone, and has at its eastern 
end a tower, 90 feet high, surmounted with turrets. It 
has sittings for about 1100 persons ; and an organ was 
introduced in 1882. Its predecessor, well known as the 
scene of Burns's Holy Fan; stood for six centuries on 
the same site. In May 1884 both the Free church and 
the United Presbyterian church were about to be rebuUt. 
The schools under the school board are noted in connec- 
tion with the parish. The New Educational Institirtion, 
founded and endowed in 1847 by the late James Stewart, 
Esq., is not under the board. Of its scholars 60 are 
educated gratis, and the remainder pay fees. It is con- 
ducted by two masters, with salaries respectively of £40 
and £20, and one female teacher with a salary of £20. 
A monument, placed in 1830 on the public green at the 
town-head of Mauchline, marks tlie spot where five 
Covenanters were executed and buried in 1685, during 
the reign of James VII. The folloOTUg lines were trans- 
ferred to it from the original tombstone which it re- 
placed : — 

' Bloody Dumbarton, Douglas, and Dundee, 
Moved by the devil, and the Laird of Lee, 
Dragged" these five men to death with gun and sword. 
Not suffering tliem to pray nor read God's word ; 
Ott-ning the worlv of God was all tiieir crime. 
The Eighty-five was a saint-kiUing time.' 

A fine new cemetery has recently been opened near the 
scene of the brush between Middleton's troopers and the 
Clydesdale yeomen in 1648. The town has a post ofiice, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a public library, an office of the Commercial Bank, 
agencies of 5 insurance companies, a gas-light company, 
2 hotels, a temperance hall, and various other institutions 
and associations. It carries on extensive manufactures 
of wooden snuff-boxes, cigar-cases, card-cases, orna- 
ments, and knick-knacks of various kinds in white 
varnished or tartan-painted wood. The trade began 
at Cumnock with the fine hinge of the snuff-box, but it 
was afterwards much extended and developed by the 
introduction of the painting, and it now occupies three 
firms at Mauchline, carrying on a large and far-reaching 
trade. This town has for a very long period been noted 
as a market for cattle and horses. Fairs formerly 
were held for cows, horses, and hiring, on the first 
Thursday after 4 Feb. ; for general business and races, 
on the second Thursday of April ; for cows and horses, 
on the first Wednesday after 18 May, the fourth 
Wednesday of June, the first Thursday after 4 Nov., 
and the fourth Wednesday of December ; for cows, horses, 
and shearers, on the first Wednesday of August ; and for 
cows, horses, ewes, and lambs, on 26 Sept. and the first 
Thursday thereafter. An omnibus plies to Catrine (2 
niUes) twice daily, except Sunday. A carrier goes to 
Glasgow and back on Tuesday and Friday ; to Kilmar- 
nock and Catrine on the same days ; and to Catrine 
and Ayr on Tuesday. 

JIauchline was created a free burgh of barony by 
charter of James IV. in 1510, and so remained till after 
the Reformation. In 1606, along with other lands and 
lordships, it passed bj' Act of Parliament into the hands 
of Hugh, Lord of Loudoun, on which occasion Mauchline 
received another charter creating it a free burgh of 
barony, with a weekly market and two fairs yearly. 
This, however, was unfortunately lost in the conflagra- 
tion of the Register Ofiice at Edinburgh towards the 
beginning of the ISth century ; and the village has not 
reacquired power to elect its own magistrates. Its 
affairs are managed by justices of the peace. Pop. of 
the village (1831) 1364, (1861) 1414, (1871) 1574, (1881) 
1616, of whom 751 were males. Houses (1881), occupied 
372, vacant 16, building 5. 

The civil history of Mauchline has been carried so far 
back as 681, when an invasion of Cruithne from Ireland 

11 



MAUCHLINE 

is said to have been repulsed at the town, or on its site. 
In 1544 the celebrated reformer and martyr, George 
"Wishart, was invited to preach in the church of Mauch- 
line ; but on his arrival he found the place guarded by 
a party of soldiers, under the sheriff of Ayr. Wishart 
restrained his adherents from violence, and induceid them 
to follow him to Mauchline Moor, where he preached to 
them for three hours. The parish was situated in the 
very heart of the Covenanting district of Ayrshire, and 
much of its history is interwoven with that of the west- 
ern Covenanters. In 1661 Mauchline Moor was the 
halting-place of western Covenanters, previous to their 
march, which ended in the battle of the Pentlands. The 
more modern historical interest of Mauchline centres 
wholly in its connection with Robert Burns (1759-96) 
during one of the most prolific periods of liis poetic 
genius. The farm of Mossgiel, on which the poet lived 
from 1784 to 1788, and which he subleased from Mr 
Gavin Hamilton, a writer in Mauchline, lies 1 J mile NW 
of the town. Mr Hamilton's residence, an old relic of 
the former priory, and known as Mauchline Castle, con- 
tains the room in which Burns wrote his parody-sermon 
called The Calf, and that in which he is said to have 
married his ' Bonny Jean.' The cottage or change-house 
of ' Poosie Nancy ' or Agnes Gibson, the scene of the piece 
called The Jolly Beggars, stands nearly opposite the 
church-yard gate. ' It was,' says Allan Cunningham, 
' the favourite resort of lame sailors, maimed soldiers, 
wandering tinkers, travelling ballad-singers, and all such 
loose companions as hang about the skirts of society ; ' 
but, though Burns had visited it, it was by no means one 
of his haunts. Separated from the gable of this house 
by an intervening lane, called the Cowgate, stood ' The 
Whitefoord Arms,' a plain thatched building of two 
stories, a favourite resort of Burns, and kept by John 
Dow or Dove, upon whom the poet wrote the absurd 
epitaph, beginning, ' Here lies Johnnie Pigeon.' It was 
along the Cowgate that ' Common Sense ' or the poet's 
correspondent, Dr Mackenzie, escaped, when a certain 
minister approached the tent in The Holy Fair. In 
the Cowgate also stood the house in which Jean Armour 
lived before she was married to Burns. It was separated 
from the Whitefoord Arms by a narrow cross street, and 
is now replaced by a two-story building. Beside the 
churchyard was the house of Nance Tinnock. We have 
already adverted to the church as the scene of The Holy 
Fair, In the grave-yard are to be seen, besides the 
graves of two of Burns's children, those of the Eev. Mr 
Auld, Nance Tinnock, etc. ' Holy AVillie,' renowned 
for the prayer which Burns puts into his mouth, was a 
member of Mauchline Kirk-Session. The Belles of 
Mauchline celebrates six young ladies of the town, 
with whom Burns was acquainted. There are numerous 
allusions to persons and events connected with Mauch- 
line in Burns's other poems ; and the scenes of some 
of his most exquisite lyrics are laid on the banks of the 
river Ayr. 

The parish is bounded N by Riccarton (detached; and 
Galston, E by Sorn and Auchinleck, S by Auchinleck, 
SW by Ochiltree and Stair, and W by "Tarbolton and 
Craigie. Its greatest length, from N!iS W to SSE, is 6j 
miles ; its breadth varies between ^ mile and 3| miles ; 
and its area is 8907 acres, of which over 70 are water. 
The river Ate winds 5 J miles west-by-southward, mainly 
along the southern and south-western boundaries, but 
for 1| mile across the southern interior ; Ltjgar Water, 
its affluent, curves 2J miles north -north- westward along 
the Ochiltree and Stair boundaries ; and Cessnock 
Water, a tributary of the Irvine, meanders 4^ miles 
north-north-westward through the interior, then 2f 
miles west-north-westward along the northern boundary. 
The surface undulates gently, sinking along the Ayr to 
190, along Cessnock AVater to 220, feet above sea-level ; 
and rising thence to 524 feet near Mossgiel, 606 near Grass- 
yards, 426 at Friendlesshead, and 580 near North Auchen- 
brain. A large tract of land, formerly called Mauchline 
Moor, exhibits now no trace of its ancient condition, but 
shows the generally well-cultivated, arable nature of by 
far the greater part of the parish. The soil near the town 
12 



MAUCHLINE 

is light and sandy ; in a few places it is a rich loam ; but 
in general it is clayey. Thin strata of coal, ironstone, 
and limestone are found, but not worked ; but both 
white and red sandstone is quarried within the parish. 
The river Ayr flows between steep red sandstone cliffs, 
40 or 50 feet high, and beautifully overhung with wood. 
A cave cut out of the rocks on the banks of the Lugar 
is called Peden's Cave, and is said to have been a 
hiding-place of the celebrated Alexander Peden dur- 
ing the persecutions. Barskimming Bridge, across 
the Ayr, with a span of 100 and a height of 90 feet, 
was built towards the close of last century by Sir 
Thomas Miller, Lord President of the Court of 
Session ; a railway viaduct, near Howford Bridge, 
across the Ayr has a span of 175 and a height of 180 
feet. The only lake in the parish was Loch Brown, 
called Duveloch in old charters, which formerly covered 
60 acres ; but this has been drained for many years, and 
its bed is occupied by cultivated fields, and traversed 
by the railway. 

Besides the town of Mauchline, the parish contains 
the village of Haugh. It is traversed by the Glas- 
gow and South-Western railway between Glasgow 
and Carlisle ; by the high roads between Glasgow 
and Dumfries, and between Edinburgh and Ayr, 
which intersect at the town ; and by other thorough- 
fares. The principal mansions are Netherplace, Bal- 
lochmyle, Rodinghead, Viewfield, and Beechgrove. 
Mossgiel Farm deserves mention also. The chief pro- 
prietors are Alexander of Ballochmyle, the Duke of 
Portland, Boswell of Auchinleck, and Campbell of 
Netherplace. 

Mauchline parish is in the presbytery of Ayr and 
the synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is £280, 
including manse and glebe. The public schools of 
Crosshands and Mauchline and the New Educational 
Institute, with respective accommodation for 83, 250, 
and 211 children, had (1883) an average attendance 
of 30, 174, and 179, and grants of £41, 17s., £209, 
17s. 4d., and £215, 3s. 4d. Valuation (1860) £9717, 
(1884) £12,875, Us. lid., plus £4502 for railways. 
Pop. of both civil and ecclesiastical parish (1801) 1746, 
(1831) 2232, (1861) 2303, (1871) 2435, (1881) 2504, of 
whom 1186 were males and 3 Gaelic-speaking. Houses 
(1881) occupied 527, vacant 24, building 5. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 14, 22, 1863-65. 

The parochial records go hack only to 1670. The 
ancient parish of Mauchline comprehended also the 
territory now forming the parishes of Sorn and Muir- 
kirk. Chalmers, in his Caledonia, says, that in 1165, 
during William's reign, Walter, son of Alan, granted to 
the monks of Melrose the lands of Mauchline, with cer- 
tain privileges. The monks established a priory of their 
own order at Mauchline, which remained a cell of Mel- 
rose till the Reformation. An old tower, already men- 
tioned, is the sole relic of this building. The power 
and property of the monks gradually expanded about 
the nucleus of Mauchline; and 'they conti'ibuted gi'eatly 
to the settlement and cultivation of the district.' Their 
estates of Mauchline, Kylesmure, and Barmure were 
afterwards formed into a regality, whose court met 
at Mauchline village, erected into a free burgh of 
barony in 1510 by James IV. After the Reforma- 
tion the ecclesiastical lands, etc., about JIauchline 
were formed into a temporal lordship in favour of 
Hugh, Lord Loudoun, whose original grant was dated 
1606. The town of Mauchline was at the same time 
made a burgh of barony. In 1631 what is now 
Muirkirk, and in 1636 what is now Sorn, were detached 
from Mauchline parish, which was ' thus reduced to 
less than a fifth of its former magnitude.' Before the 
Reformation there had been a chapel on each of these 
portions. One was on Greenock AVater ; the other 
on the Ayr, dedicated to St Cuthbert, stood E of the 
present village of Catrine, on a field known as St Cuth- 
bert's Holm. 

Besides the relics of the priory in the town, the oW 
tower of Kingancleugh may be mentioned among the 
antiquities. The Braes o' Ballochmyle, and indeed the 



MAUD 

whole course of Ayr, is classic ground in Scottish poetry, 
from its connection with Burns. 

Maud or New Maud, a village on the mutual border 
of New and Old Deer parishes, Aberdeenshire, with a 
junction on the Great North of Scotland railway (1861- 
65), 16 miles SSW of Fraserburgh, 13 W of Peterhead, 
and 31J N by \V of Aberdeen. Of recent erection, it 
has a post and telegraph office under Aberdeen, a branch 
of the North of Scotland Bank, an hotel, a Gothic 
Established chapel of ease (1S76 ; 420 sittings), the 
Buchan Combination Poorhouse (with accommodation 
for 138 inmates), and cattle-markets on the last Monday 
of every month. — Ord. Sur., sh. 87, 1876. 

Maudiston. See M.vddiston. 

Mauldslie Castle, a mansion in Carluke parish, Lanark- 
shire, near the right bank of the Clyde, 3 miles W of 
Carluke town. Built for the fifth Earl of Hyndford in 
1793, after designs by Adam, it is a large two-story 
edifice, with round flanking towers, and stands in an 
extensive, richly-wooded park. Its owner, AVilliam 
Wallace Hozier, Esq. (b. 1825 ; sue. 1878), holds 517 
acres in the shire, valued at £1909 per annum. The 
barony of Mauldslie, a royal forest once, was held by 
the Danyelstowns from the middle of the 14th century 
till 1402, by the Maxwells from 1402 till the first half 
of the 17th century, and from 1649 till 1817 by the 
Carmichaels, its two last holders being fifth and sixth 
Earls of Hyndford.— Oni Sur., sh. 23, 1863. 

Maulesden, a mansion in Brechin parish, Forfarshire, 
near the South Esk's left bank, 2 miles AV by S of the 
town. A Scottish Baronial mansion, built in 1853 for 
the Hon. W. Maule from designs by the late David 
Bryce. R.S.A., it is now the seat of Thomas Hunter 
Cox, Esq. (b. 1818), who holds 97 acres in the shire, 
valued at £461 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Maulside, a mansion in Dairy parish, Ayrshire, 2 
miles SSW of Beith. 

Mauricewood, a mansion in Glencorse parish, Edin- 
burghshire, IJ mile N by W of Penicuik. 

Mavis-Grove, a mansion in Troqueer parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire, near the right bank of the Nith, 2J miles S 
of Dumfries. 

Maw, a hamlet in Markinch parish, Fife, 1 mile SSW 
of AVindygates. 

Mawcarse, a station on the Fife and Kinross section 
of the North British railway, 3| miles NE by N of 
Kinross. 

Maxton (anc. Maccus-tmi), a village and a parish on 
the N border of Roxburghshire. The village, which 
consists of a short double line of houses, built on either 
side of the Kelso road, is situated in the W part of the 
parish within J mile of the S bank of the Tweed, Ij 
ESE of Newtown St Boswells, and J NW of Maxton 
station on the North British line from Newtown 
St Boswells to Kelso, this being 3 miles ESE of 
Newtown St BosweUs, 84 WSW of Kelso, 12| NNW 
of Jedburgh, and 434 SE of Edinburgh. Although 
the village is at a little distance from the Tweed, 
the church, manse, and burying-ground are close 
beside the river. Maxton church was dedicated 
in the 12th century to St Cuthbert, and eventually 
became the property of the monks of Dryburgh, 
who held it until the Reformation, when it was placed 
under the charge of a minister, along with Mer- 
toun, St Boswells, and Smailholm, and had a 'reader' 
attached to it with a stipend of £20 Scots. In 1792 the 
church was thatched ; but in 1812 and 1866 it was 
restored and enlarged, and is now as neat and well-built 
a country church as any in the district. Beneath 
it is the burial-place of the Kers of Littledean. A 
memorial-tablet to Lieutenant-General Ker, interred 
there in 1833, was recently placed in the church by a 
descendant. The old shaft of the village cross stUl 
remains to point out the spot 'where 1000 men of the 
barony were wont to assemble for war.' It was restored 
in 1882 by Sir W. R. Fairfax at considerable expense. 

Maxton parish is bounded N by Mertoun in Berwick- 
shire, NE by Makerstoun, E and SE by Roxburgh, SW 
by Ancrum, and W by St Boswells Its utmost length, 



MAXWELLTOWN 

from E by N to W by S, is 4§ miles ; its breadth varies 
between 1 mile and 25 miles ; and its area is 4494:f acres, 
of which 724 are water. Besides the village of Maxton, 
it contains the railway station of Rutherford, 24 miles 
from Maxton. The Tweed curves 4§ miles east-north- 
eastward along all the northern boundary through very 
fine scenery. Beside it the surface sinks to close on 200 
feet above sea-level ; and thence it rises to 579 feet at 
Muirhouselaw and 563 at Lilliard's Edge, on the 
Ancrdm border. The ground is generally productive, 
especially near the Tweed, where it is a rich clay loam. 
A considerable part of the ground is under wood, a 
small portion is bog land, and the rest is almost entirely 
in tillage. 

The most interesting ruin in the parish is Littledean 
Tower, which stands on a lofty crag overlooking the 
Tweed, I4 mile NE of the village. From the re- 
mains of the circular tower, the extreme tliickness 
of the walls that still remain, and the vestiges of other 
wal Is, it is plain that Littledean was an important strong- 
hold, the ' Keep ' of the noted family of Ker of Little- 
dean. The parish is partly traversed by a Roman road, 
and there are vestiges of a Roman camp on Muirhouse- 
law. The chief landowners in Maxton parish are the 
Dukeof Roxburghe, Lord Pohvarth, Sir Edmund Antrobus 
of Paitherford, Sir William Ramsay Fairfax, and C. J. 
Cunningham, Esq. of Muirhouselaw. None of them are 
resident. Maxton is in the presbytery of Selkii'k and 
the synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living is worth 
£421. The public school, with accommodation for 92 
children, had (1883) an average attendance of 67, and a 
grant of £48, 9s. 6d. Valuation (1864) £5431, 4s., 
(1884) £6560, 2s. Pop. (1801) 368, (1831) 462, (1861) 
497, (1871) 481, (1881) 456.— Ord Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Maxwell. See Kelso. 

Maxwellheugh. See Kelso. 

Maxwell's Cross. See Coldstream. 

Maxwell Thorns. See Dryfe. 

MaxwelltowD, a burgh of barony in the parish of 
Troqueer, Kirkcudbrightshire. It stands on the right 
bank of the curving Nith, at the eastern verge of Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, directly opposite Dumfries, and is in- 
cluded within the parliamentary boundaries of that 
burgh. Its site is a bank or low ridge circling along 
the margin of the river, and it is connected with Dum- 
fries by three bridges. The older parts of the burgh 
are poorly built and badly aligned ; but the new are 
pleasant, neat, and airy. A narrow street or alley, 
immediately on the Nith, N of the uppermost bridge, 
inhabited mainly by families of the working classes, 
leads out to the ruins of Lincluden, and bears the name 
of College Street. A street parallel to this brings down 
the Glasgow and Dumfries turnpike, is straight and 
spacious, has several good houses, and, near the middle, 
on its W side, exhibits a small court-house of neat 
exterior. A street at right angles with these, and on a 
line with the bridge, carries westward the Dumfries and 
Portpatrick road, is also straight and spacious, and at 
its W end passes off into the country in a series of viUa- 
like houses. A wide brief street forking into two 
between the bridges, a street somewhat parallel to it on 
the W, and one or two other thoroughfares are in 
general of mixed or poor appearance, but sliglitly 
relieved of their plain, low, dingy aspect by a sprinkling 
or occasional series of tolerable houses. Corbelly HUl, 
swelling up at the S end but a brief distance from the 
brink of the river, bears aloft the fine convent and 
church (1881-84) of the Immaculate Conception, whilst 
a little lower down is a picturesque building, which, 
originally a windmill, since 1838 has served the 
double purpose of an observatory and a museum. 
Along the face of this fine rising-ground, fronting Dum- 
fries, stands a range of elegant houses. On the brink 
of the stream, with but a narrow belt of plain interven- 
ing from the base of the hill, stands a complete suite of 
large grain mills, each mill supplied with water-power 
in one of several parallel dams, extending from a strong 
high-water weir built diagonally across the whole breadth 
of the river. The entire town, exclusive of its burgh 

13 



MAXWELTON 

roods, is about two-thirds of a mile in length, and 
nearly the same in breadth. Maxwelltown has a station 
on the line to Castle-Douglas, the large Troqueer tweed 
mills (1866-70), a dye work, 2 saw-mills, nursery- 
grounds, etc. ; and it shares considerably in the trade 
and commerce of Dumfries. The Established church of 
Maxwelltown quoad sacra parish is a Gothic edifice, with 
a spire and 800 sittings, built at a cost of £2000 in lieu 
of a previous chapel of ease, which was burned on 28 
Sept. 1842. A handsome Free church was built in 
1866, and a public school in 1876, the latter costing 
£2200, and accommodating 359 children. The town 
originally bore the name of Bridgend, and was such a 
disorderly village, that, according to the byword, ' You 
might trace a rogue all over the kingdom, but were sure 
to lose him at the Bridgend of Dumfries.' But in 1810 
it was erected into a free burgh of barony, under the 
name of Maxwelltown, in honour of Mr Maxwell of 
Nithsdale, its superior, and was placed under the 
government of a provost, 2 bailies, and 4 councillors ; 
and it speedily underwent great improvement, as to at 
once its police, its trade, the condition of its houses, and 
the manners of its people. The general police act has 
also been adopted with good effect ; and the manage- 
ment of this is reposed in 12 commissioners, 3 of whom 
are police magistrates. Sheriff circuit small debt courts 
are held on the second Tuesday of January and June, 
the third Tuesday of March, and the fourth Tuesday of 
September, and justice of peace small debt courts on the 
first Thursday of every month. Valuation (1884) 
£15,142. Pop. (1831) 3230, (1861) 3599, (1871) 4198, 
(1881) 4455, of whom 2425 were females, and 2070 were 
in the quoad sacra parish. Houses (1881) 965 inhabited, 
64 vacant, 5 building. — Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. See 
also Dumfries and Troqdeek. 

Maxwelton, a village in East Kilbride parish, Lanark- 
shire, h mile E by N of East Kilbride town. 

Maxwelton, a mansion in Glen cairn parish, Dumfries- 
shire, near the left bank of Cairn Water, 3J miles ESE of 
Moniaive. The estate — 1810 acres, of £1531 annual 
value — has long been held by the Laurie family, one of 
whom was the ' Annie Laurie ' of song. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
9, 1863. 

Maybole, a town and a coast parish of Carrick, Ayr- 
shire. The town, lying 3| miles inland, and 200 to 
350 feet above sea-level, has a station on the Ayr and 
Girvan section (1857-60) of the Glasgow and South- 
Western railway, 9 miles S by W of Ayr, 49i SSW of 
Glasgow, 87 SW of Edinburgh, and 67i NNE" of Port- 
patrick. It stands on the slope and partly along the 
skirts of a broad-based, flattened hill, with south-east- 
ward exposure, the summit of the hill intervening 
between it and the Firth of the Clyde ; but it com- 
mands a pleasant and somewhat extensive view over 
one-half of the points of the compass into the interior 
of Carrick. An old rhyme, using one of several obsolete 
variations of the town's ancient name, says — 

* Minnibole '3 a dirty hole. 
It sits aboon a mire.' 

The notion conveyed by these words, of the town being 
situated on miry ground, is now, and probably was 
always, incorrect. A broad belt of deep green meadow, 
nearly as flat as a bowling-green, stretches along the 
base of the hill, and anciently seems to have been a 
marsh ; but it could not have been a marsh of a miry 
kind, or otherwise than green and meadowy ; nor does 
it, even at present, form the site of more than a very 
small and entirely modern part of the town. The 
ancient site is everywhere declivitous, abounding with 
copious springs of pure water ; and not improbably was 
clothed in its natural state with heath. Two sets of 
names, both very various in their orthography, but 
represented by the forms Maiboil and Minnybole, were 
anciently given to the town. They have greatly per- 
plexed etymologists ; but, according to Col. Robertson, are 
derived from the Gaelic magh-baile, ' town of the plain 
or field.' The lower streets of the town, called Kirk- 
lands, Newyards, and Ballony, are not within the limits 
14 



MAYEOLE 

of the burgh of barony, and consist almost wholly of 
artisans' houses and workshops, tidier and better than 
similar buildings in many other towns. The main street 
runs nearly due NE, and — with exception of a short 
thoroughfare striking off westward at right anglesfrom its 
middle — occupies the highest ground within the burgh. 
A considerable space, sloping between it and the low- 
lying suburbs, is disposed to a small extent in the 
ancient burying-ground with the relics of the collegiate 
church ; to a greater extent in four or five incompact 
and irregularly arranged streets ; and to a yet greater 
extent in fields and gardens which give all the intersect- 
ing thoroughfares a straggling or detached appearance, 
and impart to the whole town a rural, airy, and health- 
ful aspect. 

The only parts of the town which draw the attention 
of strangers are Main Street and what is called Kirk 
Wynd. These are narrow and of varying width, quite 
destitute of every modern adornment, and guiltless of 
all the ordinary graces of a fine town ; yet they possess 
many features of antique stateliness, decayed and 
venerable magnificence, which strongly image the aristo- 
cratic parts of Edinburgh during the feudal age. As 
capital of Carrick, the place anciently wielded more 
influence over its province than the modern metropolis 
does over Scotland, and contained the winter residences 
of a large proportion of the Carrick barons. As seat, 
too, of the courts of justice of Carrick bailiary — the place 
where all cases of importance in a roistering and liti- 
gating age were tried — it derived not a little outward 
respectability from the numbers and wealth of the legal 
practitioners who made it their home. In connection, 
too, with its collegiate church and its near vicinity to 
Crossraguel Abbey, it borrowed great consequence from 
the presence of influential churchmen, who, in a dark 
age, possessed more resources of power and opulence than 
most of the nobility. No fewer than 28 baronial man- 
sions, statelj', turreted, and strong, are said to have 
stood within its limits. Out of several of these which 
still remain, two figure in association with such inte- 
resting history that they deserve to be specially noticed. 

The chief is the ancient residence of the Ailsa or 
Cassillis family, the principal branch of the Kennedys. 
This, standing near the middle of the town, bears the 
name of the Castle par excellence, and is a lofty, well- 
buUt, imposing pile, one of the strongest and finest of 
its class. It is said to have been the place of confine- 
ment for life of the Countess of Cassillis, who eloped 
with the Gipsy chieftain, Johnny Faa. (See Cassillis.) 
The Earls of Cassillis, directly and through collateral 
branches of their family, wielded such power over the 
province that they were known as the ' Kings of Carrick ;' 
and they used the castle of Maybole as the metropolitan 
palace of their 'kingdom,' whose limits were thus defined 
in an old-world rhyme : — 

• 'Twixt Wigtown and tlie town o' Ayr, 
Portpatrick and the Cruives o' Cree, 
You sliall not get a lodging there 
Except ye court a Kennedy.' 

Gilbert, fourth Earl, who lived in the unsettled period 
succeeding the commencement of the Reformation, 
pushed his power into Galloway, and in 1575 acquired 
the large possessions of the Abbey of Glenluoe, just 
five years after his roasting of Allan Stewart, the com- 
mendator of Ckossraguel. A feud, arising from or 
aggravated by that crime, between the Earls of CassUlis 
and the Lairds of Bargany, issued at last in very 
tragical events. In Dec. 1601 the Earl of Cassillis rode 
out from Maybole Castle at the head of 200 armed fol- 
lowers to waylay the Laird of Bargany as he rode from 
Ayr to his house on the Water of Girvan ; and on the 
farm of West Enoch, near the town, he forced on the 
Laird a wholly unequal conflict. The Laird, mortally 
wounded, was carried from the scene of the onset to 
Maybole, that there, should he show any sign of re- 
covery, he might be despatched by the Earl as ' Judge 
Ordinar ' of the country ; and thence he was removed to 
Ayr, where he died in a few hours. Flagrant though 
the deed was, it not only — througu bribery and state 



MAYBOLE 

influence — passed unpunished, but was fonnally noted 
ty an act of council as good service doue to the King. 
The Laird of Auchendrane, son-in-law of the slain baron, 
was one of the few adherents who bravely but vainly 
attempted to parry the onslaught ; and he received some 
severe wounds in the encounter. Thirsting for revenge, 
and learning that Sir Thomas Kennedy of Colzean in- 
tended to make a journey to Edinburgh, he so secretly 
instigated a party to waylay and kill him, that no wit- 
ness existed of his connection with them except a poor 
student of the name of Dalrymple, who had been the 
bearer of the intelligence which suggested and guided 
the crime (1602). Dalrymple now became the object of 
his fears ; and, after having been confined at Auchen- 
drane and in the Isle of Arran, and expatriated for five 
or six years as a soldier, he returned home, and was 
doomed to destruction. Mure, the Laird, having got a 
vassal, called James Banuatyne, to entice him to his 
house, situated at Chapeldonan, a lonely place on the 
GiRVAN shore, murdered him there at midnight, and 
buried his body in the sand. The corpse, unearthed by 
the tide, was next by the murderers taken out to sea at 
a time when a strong wind blew from the shore, but 
was soon brought back by the waves, and cast up on the 
very scene of the murder. Mure and his son, who had 
aided him in this horrid transaction, fell under general 
suspicion, and now endeavoured to make away with 
Banuatyne, the witness and accomplice of their guilt ; 
but he making fuU confession to the civil authorities, 
they were brought to the bar, pronounced guUty, and 
put to an ignominious death (1611). These dismal 
transactions form the ground-work of Sir "Walter Scott's 
dramatic sketch, Auchendrane, or the Ayrshire Tragedy. 

The house lately occupied as the Red Lion Inn was 
anciently the mansion of the provost, and is notable as 
the scene of a set debate between John Knox, the 
Eeformer, and Quentin Kennedy, Abbot of Crossraguel, 
28 Sept. 1561. An account of the controversy, written 
by Knox himself, was republished in 1812 by Sir Alex- 
ander Boswell, from a copy — the only one extant — in 
his library at Auchinleck. Occasioned by a challenge 
from the abbot in the church of Kirkoswald, the debate 
was conducted in a panelled apartment, in the presence 
of eighty persons, equally selected by the antagonists, 
and including several nobles and influential gentlemen. 
It lasted three days, and was then broken off through 
want of suitable accommodation for the persons and 
retinues of the auditors ; but it did good service in 
arousing pubUe attention to the doctrines of the Reforma- 
tion. The members of a 'Knox Club,' instituted in 
1824 to commemorate the event, and consisting of all 
classes of Protestants, used to hold a festival to demon- 
strate their warm sense of the religious and civil liberties 
which have accrued from the overthrow of the Papal 
domination. 

Other noteworthy buildings are the ancient town- 
residences of the Kennedys of Knockdow, Colzean, 
and Ballimore ; of the abbots of Crossraguel (called the 
Garden of Eden), etc., and the Town Hall, a cumbrous 
old pile with a low, heavy tower, situated at the Cross. 
Though the town has not one modern public civil 
building, it abounds in commodious and comfortable 
dwelling-houses, greatly superior, for every domiciliary 
use, to even the best of its remaining baronial mansions. 
In 1371 Sir John Kennedy of Dunure, founding a 
chapel for one clerk and three chaplains, dedicated it to 
the Blessed Virgin, and endowed it with the five-mark 
lands of Barrycloych and Barrelach, the six-mark lands 
of Treuchan, and various other sources of revenue. 
This collegiate chapel seems to have been the earliest of 
its kind in Scotland ; and afterwards, when similar 
ones arose, it was called a collegiate church, and its 
ofiicials were styled the provost and prebendaries. The 
ground on which the town is built belonged to this 
church, which now is the burying-place of the Ailaa and 
other families, whose ancestors stayed its impending 
ruin. On 19 May 1563 Mass was last sung within its 
walls to 200 Kennedys, armed with jacks, spears, guns, 
and other weapons. The present parish chvurch, at the 



MAYBOLE 

NE end of the town, is a plain edifice of 1808, with 1192 
sittings. The West quoad sacra church, at the SW end, 
was built as a chapel of ease about 1840 at the cost of 
Sir C. D. Fergusson, Bart. The Free church dates from 
Disruption times ; and a new Gothic U. P. church, with 
spire and largo stained-glass window, was built in 1880, 
as successor to one of 1797. An Episcopal mission is 
worked in connection with Girvan ; and the fine Roman 
Catholic church of Our Lady and St Cuthbert was 
erected in 1876-79 at a cost of £3000, which was mainly 
defrayed by D. Hunter- Blair, Esq. Second Pointed in 
style it is closely modelled on the ruined church of 
Crossraguel Abbey, and consists of a nave, with a semi- 
octagonal apse, stained-glass windows, richly sculptured 
bosses, etc. The public school, whose cost exceeded 
£5000, is a handsome two-story structure of recent 
erection ; and a Roman Catholic school was built in 
1882 at the cost of the Marquis of Bute and Mr Blair. 

Maybole, besides, has a post oflice, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments ; 
branches of the Royal and Union Banks ; oflSces or 
agencies of 15 insurance companies, 3 hotels, a mechanics' 
institution, a working men's club, a combination poor- 
house for six of the Carrick parishes, farmers' and 
horticultural societies, water and gas companies, etc. 
Thursday is market day ; and fairs are held on the third 
Thursday of April and October. Handloom weaving has 
declined ; and boot and shoe making and the manufac- 
ture of agricultural implements are now the staple 
industries. Five large shoe factories turn out 200,000 
pairs per annum, representing a value of nearly £90,000. 
Immigrants from Ireland and their offspring have long 
been so numerous as almost to outnumber the native 
inhabitants, and to give law to the place. As a burgh 
of barony since 1516, the town is governed by a senior 
and a junior magistrate ; whilst as a police burgh it is 
governed by a provost, 2 magistrates, and 9 commis- 
sioners. The police force is a detachment of the county 
police. The burgh court sits on the first Thursday, and 
a justice of peace court on the first Wednesday, of every 
month. Pop. (1851) 3862, (1861) 4115, (1871) 3797, 
(1881) 4494, of whom 2284 were females. Houses (1881) 
602 inhabited, 26 vacant, 3 building. 

The parish of Maybole, containing also the villages or 
hamlets of Culroy, Dunure, Fisherton, and MiNi- 
SHAST, comprises the ancient parishes of Maybole 
and Kirkbride, the former to the S, the latter to the N. 
It is bounded W and N\V by the Firth of Clyde, 
KE by Ayr, E by Dalrymple and Kirkmichael, SE 
by Kirkmichael, and S and SW by Kirkoswald. Its 
utmost length, from N to S, is S| miles ; its 
utmost breadth, from E to W, is 5g miles ; and its 
area is 35J square miles or 22,720| acres, of which 
613J are foreshore and H4J water, 'i'he ' bouny DooN ' 
winds 65 miles north-north-westward to the firth along 
the Dalrymple and Ayr borders ; the Water of Gikvan 
flows 1| mile south-south-westward along the south- 
eastern boundary ; several rivulets rise in the interior, 
and run to one or other of these two streams ; and half- 
a-dozen others go direct to the firth. Of four or five 
tiny lochlets, the only noticeable one is Heart Loch, 
whose outline is exactly designated by its name, and 
whose appearance in a wooded hollow is softly beauti- 
ful. Perennial springs of excellent water are numerous, 
especially on the site and in the vicinity of the town ; 
and one of them, called the Well-Trees' Spout, emits a 
stream powerful enough to drive a mill wheel, or between 
160 and 170 imperial gallons per minute. Of various 
mineral springs, once of medicinal repute, but all 
neglected now, St Helen's Well, 2J miles N of the 
town on the high road to Ayr, was anciently reputed 
to have the power on May Day of healing sick or 
delicate infants. The coast-line, 8J miles in extent, 
towards the mouth of the Doon is low and flat, but 
elsewhere is mostly bold, though but little diversified 
with either headland or bay. At the Head of Atb 
it rises rapidly to 258 feet above sea -level. The 
eastern and south-eastern districts are an undulating 
plain, very diversified in surface, never subsiding long 

15 



MAYEOLE 

into a level, nor ever rising into decided upland. 
The other districts are a sea of heights, partly arable 
and partly pastoral, so pleasingly diversified in super- 
ficial outline as to want nothing but interspersion of 
wood to render them delightful rambling-ground to a 
lover of fine scenery. Along the middle of the hill 
district, parallel with the firth, and 1| mile distant from 
it, stretches a range of summits nearly 4 miles long, 
attaining a maximum altitude of 940 feet above sea- 
level, and bearing the name of Brown Cakeick Hill. 
This range, though heathy in itself, and rising like a 
screen to intercept a view of the fu-th and its frame- 
work from the interior, commands one of the finest 
prospects in Scotland. On the SE and S the surgy 
surface of Carrick stretches away in alternations of green 
height and bold bro^vn upland till it becomes lost among 
the blue peaks of the Southern Highlands ; on the SW 
and W are the broad waters of the Firth of Clyde, with 
many a sail like a sea-bird skimming the surface, and 
Ailsa Craig riding like an ark on the wave, whUe behind 
are the serrated mountains of Arran veiled in mist or 
curtained with clouds of every form and hue ; on the 
N, immediately under the eye, extends the deep sylvan 
furrow of the Doon, with the Burns' Monument glittering 
like a gem on its margin ; and away thence stretches 
the great luxuriant plain of Kyle and Cunninghame, 
pressed inward in a long sweeping segment by the firth, 
dotted with towns which look like cities in the distance, 
chequered also with a profusion of mansions and demesnes, 
and gliding dimly away in the perspective into the 
gentle heights of Renfrewshire, overlooked in the far 
horizon by the blue summit of Ben Lomond. The same 
prospect, in much of its extent and most of its elements, 
is seen from a thousand vantage-grounds of this land of 
beauty ; but nowhere are its scope so unbroken, its 
groupings so superb, and its effect so striking. Should 
any one wonder that Burns grew up on the threshold of 
this home of romance, and for many years might daily 
have gazed upon its gorgeous visions, and yet has made 
no allusion to it in his writings, he must remember that 
the bard, though possessing a keen eye for the beauties 
of nature, was the painter rather of manners than of 
landscape — the type in poetry not of Salvator Kosa, but 
of Hogarth and the limners of Holland. 

The geological structure of the coast presents an 
interesting correspondence in its strata with those of 
the confronting coast of Arran. The predominant rocks 
of the interior are Old Red sandstone and trap. The 
sandstone, in a quarry at St Murray's, often affords 
beautiful specimens of arborescence, from the presence 
of the black oxide of manganese, and is traversed by 
veins of lead ore. The soil of the arable lands is partly 
light, and partly of a strong, clayey character. Three- 
fourths of the entire area are in tillage ; nearly 1000 
acres are under plantation ; and the rest is meadow, 
hill-pasture, or moorland. In feudal times there were 
within the parish at least fifteen towers or castles, the 
residences of brawling chiefs. Of these, Dunuke and 
Greenajs' have been noticed separately. The castles of 
Newark and Kilhenzie have undergone renovation or 
repair ; but all the others — Auchendrane, Smithstown, 
Beoch, Craigskean, Garryhorne, Doonside, Dalduff, 
Glenayas, Sauchrie, and Brochlock — are much dilapi- 
dated, or have left but a few vestiges. Numerous 
camps occur, so small and of such rude construction, as 
evidently to have been thro-\vn up by small invading 
bodies of those Irish who subdued the Romanised 
British tribes. Tumuli, the burying-places of a field of 
carnage, are frequent. Kirkbride church is still repre- 
sented by ruins, ^ mUe E of Dunure ; another pre- 
Reformation place of worship stood on the lands of 
Auchendrane ; and traces of several others were extant 
towards the close of the 17th century. Twelve proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 11 of 
between £100 and £500, 14 of from £50 to £100, and 49 
of from £20 to £50. In the presbytery of Ayr and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr, the civil parish includes 
nearly half of Alloway quoad sacra parish, a small part of 
Crossbill, all Fisherton, all Maybole proper, and nearly 
16 



MAY, ISLE OF 

all "West Church q^load sacra parish ; the livings of the 
two last being worth £435 and £224. Three public schools 
— Fisherton, Maybole, and Minishant — with respective 
accommodation for 100, 650, and 90 children, had 
(1883) an average attendance of 94, 640, and 84, and 
grants of £82, £600, 6s., and £58, 3s. 8d. Valuation 
(1860) £29,023, (1884) £35,470, 17s. 6d., ijlus £5848 
for railway. Pop. (1801) 3162, (1841) 7027, (1861) 
6713, (1871) 5900, (1881) 6628, of whom 2935 were in 
Maybole ecclesiastical parish, 2625 in West Church, 
609 in Fisherton, 421 in Alloway, and 38 in Crossbill. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Mayen House, a mansion in Rothiemay parish, Banff- 
shire, near the left bank of the winding Deveron, 5 
miles ENE of Rothiemay station. Its owner, Adam 
Hay-Gordon, Esq. (b. 1846), holds 2171 acres in the 
shire, valued at £1529 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
86, 1876. 

May, Isle of, an extra-parochial island of Fife, in the 
mouth of the Firth of Forth, 5J mUes SSE of Crail and 
10| NE by N of North Berwick. Its utmost length, 
from NW to SE, is 1 mile ; its utmost breadth is 2J 
furlongs; and its area is 146J acres, of which 14J are 
foreshore. The prevailing rock is greenstone ; and the 
shores are precipitous and rocky, the highest point in 
the island attaining 150 feet above sea-level. On the 
NW the coast presents some semi-columnar cliffs over 
100 feet high ; and at the SE it sinks into a low ridge 
or reef. There are a spring of excellent water and a 
small lake ; and there is good pasturage for sheep. 
Several kinds of sea-fowl build on the island. The 
May contains the ruins of a 13th century chapel, nearly 
32 feet long, which was cleared of rubbish and repointed 
in 1868. It was dedicated to St Adrian, who, with 
6006 other Hungarians, is said to have been killed by 
the Danes about 870 and buried here. St Monan, one 
of his alleged followers, by Skene is identified with 
Moinenn, Bishop of Clonfert in the 6th century, whose 
relics were probably brought from Ireland to Fife by a 
body of clerics and laymen expelled by the Danes 
(Celtic Scotland, ii. 3"ll-317, 1877). St Adrian's 
shrine was formerly resorted to in cases of barrenness. 
David I. founded a monastery here before the middle of 
the 12th century, and granted it to the Benedictine 
abbey of Reading in Berkshire on condition that they 
should place and maintain twelve priests therein, to say 
mass for himself and his predecessors and successors. 
In 1318 all the rights to the Priory of May were trans- 
ferred to the canons of St Andrews, when a priory at 
PiTTENWEEM appears to have been substituted for that 
on the islaud. After the Reformation the island came 
into the possession of the Balfours of Montquhandie, 
and afterwards of Allan Lamond, who sold it to Cun- 
ningham of Barns. Alexander Cunningham obtained 
from Charles I. a charter of the island, with liberty to 
build a lighthouse, for which a tax was imposed on all 
ships passing up the Firth. In 1635 he erected a tower 
40 feet high, on the top of which a fire of coals was con- 
stantly kept burning. With the estate of Barns, the Isle 
of May passed to Scot of Scotstarvet by purchase, and 
came to General Scott of Balcomie, by whose daughter, 
the Duchess of Portland, it was sold for £60,000 to the 
Commissioners of Northern Lights. In 1815-16 they 
rebuUt the tower. The present lighthouse, 240 feet 
high, shows two fixed lights, visible respectively at dis- 
tances of 22 and 16 nautical miles ; the leading light 
being 130 feet below the other. Formerly about 15 
fishermen with their families lived on the island ; and 
at the end of the fishing season the fishermen of the 
Fifeshire coast used annually to hold a merry-making 
on the May. But the wreck and total loss of a boat 
full of women, on its passage to the island for this pur- 
pose, threw a cloud over this custom, and it has now 
become obsolete. There are three houses on the island ; 
one used as a pilot station, the others connected with 
the lighthouse. Pop. (1861) 17, (1871) 17, (1881) 22, 
of whom 4 were females. — Ord. Sur., sh. 41, 1857. See 
John Jack's Key of the Forth (1858) ; an article in Good 
Words (1864) ; Dr Jn. Stuart's Records of tlie Priory of 



MAYVILLE 



HEABNS 



the Isle of May (1S68) ; and an article in vol. vii of 
Procs. Soc. Ants. Scott. (1870). 

Mayville, an estate, witli a mansion, in Stevenston 
parish, Ayrshire, 5 furlongs NW of the town. 

May, Water of, a small river of the Ochil and Strath- 
earn districts of Perthshire. Kising on John's Hill, at 
an altitude of 1250 feet, and near the meeting-point of 
Auchterarder, Dunning, Glendevon, and Fossoway 
parishes, it runs llj miles east-north-eastward and 
north-north-westward through or along the boundaries 
of Dunning, Forgandenny, and Forteviot parishes, 
till, after a total descent of 1217 feet, it falls into the 
Earn at a point 5 furlongs S by W of Forteviot church. 
It receives numerous small tributaries from among 
the Ochils ; traverses a wooded glen, rich in picturesijue 
close scenes ; makes two beautiful falls called Muckersie 
Linn and the Humble Bumble ; passes the ' Birks of 
Invermay,' celebrated in song ; and is a first-rate trout- 
stream, but very strictly preserved. — Ord. Sur., shs. 
39, 40, 48, 1867-69. 

Meadowbank House, a mansion in Kirknewton parisli, 
Edinburghshire, 7 furlongs SE of Midcalder Junction. 
A plain edifice of the close of the 17th century, it has 
been thrice enlarged since 1795, and stands in a finely- 
wooded park of 200 acres. Possessed by his ancestors 
for nearly 200 years, the estate now is owned by Allan 
Alexander Maconochie Welwood, Esq. (b. 1806 ; sue. 
1861), who holds 1583 acres in Edinburghshire and 724 in 
Fife, valued at £1777 and £1688 per annum. — Ord. Sm:, 
sh. 32, 1857. See Kirknewton, and John Small's 
Cantlcs and Mansions of the Lothians (Edinb. 1883). 

Mealfourvounie (Gael. Meall-fuar-mhoTiaidh, ' moun- 
tain of the cold moor '), a mountain in Urquhart parish, 
Inverness-shire, 11 miles NNE of Fort Augustus. 
Situated at the foot of Glen-Urquhart and Glen- 
Moriston, and forming a conspicuous feature on the 
NW flank of Loch Ness, it is broad-based and round- 
backed, and sends up from a stage at two-thirds of its 
whole elevation a dome-sliaped peak, which attains an 
altitude of 2284 feet above sea-level. The great mass of 
the mountain, from the summit downward, consists of 
coarse conglomerate, whose abraded portions are gneiss, 
granite, quartz, mica-schist, and sandstone, cohering 
with extremely little cement ; and its lower declivities, 
including seemingly the entire base, consist of a hard 
compact splintery rock, which has usually been described 
as primary red quartz, but which may be stratified sand- 
stone completely indurated, and in great measure divested 
of its stratification by the sulgacency of granite, and 
which is so hard and crystalliue as to be quarried and 
regularly used for causewaying the streets of Inverness. 
The upper stage or peak of the mountain is very steep 
on the W, and almost mural on the N and S ; 
and it is connected with the rest of the mountain, on 
the E, by a long tapering ridge. On the western side, 
at the bottom of the peak, is Loch nam Breac Dearga 
(6xl-ifurl. ; 1500 feet), whence a streamlet runs 4i 
miles south-south-westward and eastward to Loch Ness, 
tumbling along a broken channel down the face of a 
frontlet of rock, overshadowed by trees in its lower 
course, and forming two beautiful waterfalls amidst 
foliage of the richest tints. On the W side of this 
riU, near its source, is a rocking-stone 20 feet in circum- 
ference, which is moveable by two persons. The view 
from the summit of Mealfourvounie is grand and exten- 
sive, and comprehends the whole of the Glenmore-nan- 
Albin, from Fort George on tlie NE to Fort William on 
the SW, a distance of more than 70 miles. On the N 
the eye wanders over various scenery away to the moun- 
tains of Ross and Caithness ; and on the S it takes in the 
whole of Stratherrick and the country watered by the 
head-streams of the Spey. Right below is Loch Ness, 
like a narrow ditch, sunk deeply within steep banks ; 
and at 3 miles' distance the Fall of Foyers glitters in its 
belt of shining spray between sheets of dark-brown 
mountain, like a glint of sky struggling throun-h a 
vertical fissure in the cliffs. Mealfourvounie is noted 
for being the first landmark seen by mariners after they 
pass the Moray Firth round Kinnaird Head, or from the 



S, and for guiding their navigation over most of that 
vast guU.—Ord. Sur., sh. 73, 1878. 

Mealiata or Eilean Mhealaatadh, an uninhabited 
island of Uig parish. Outer Hebrides, Ross-shire, on the 
N side of the mouth of Loch Reasort, and J mile from 
the W coast of Lewis. With an utmost length and 
breadth of 7J and 6 furlongs, it rises to a height of 200 
feet above sea-level. — Ord. Sur., sh. 98, 1858. 

Meall Horn. See Dukness. 

Meall Meadhonach. See Durness. 

Meamaig. See Castle-MeaRvNAIg. 

Mearns, a village and a parish of SE Renfrewshire. 
The village, called Newtou-Mearns (a name as old at 
least as 1306), is pleasantly situated on a rising ground, 
410 feet above sea-level, 3J miles WSW of Busby and 
7 SSW of Glasgow. A burgh of barony, with the right 
of holding a weekly market and two annual fairs, it 
chiefly consists of a single street on the Glasgow and 
Kilmarnock highroad, and has a post office under Glas- 
gow, a branch of the Union Bank, gas-works, and an hotel. 
Pop. (1841) 629, (1861) 718, (1871) 776, (1881) 900. 

The parish, containing also three-fourths of the town 
of Busby, is bounded N by Neilston, Eastwood, and 
Cathcart, E by East Kilbride and Cathcart in Lanark- 
shire, SE by Eaglesham, S by Fenwick and Stewarton 
in Ayrshire, and NW by Neilston. Its utmost length, 
from NE to SW, is 7J miles ; its utmost breadth is 31 
miles ; and its area is 10,607 acres, of which 325J are 
water. Earn Water runs 6 miles north-eastward along 
the south-eastern boundary to the White Cart, which 
itself flows 7J furlongs along all the Lanarkshire border, 
and several more of whose little tributaries take a north- 
north-easterly course through the interior. On the 
Neilston boundary lie Long Loch, Harelaw Dam, 
Walton Dam, Glanderston Dam, Balgray Reservoir, 
Eyat Linn Reservoir, and Waulkmill Glen Reservoir ; 
and in the interior are Black Loch, Little Loch, Brother 
Loch, and South Hillend Reservoir. The surface sinks 
at the northern boundary to 280 feet above sea-level, and 
rises thence south-westward to 783 feet at Barrance Hill, 
895 at Dod Hill, and 928 at James Hill, moorland occupy- 
ing a good deal of the south-western district. Trap 
rock, chiefly an early disintegi'able greenstone, prevails 
throughout nearly all the area, but gives place to rocks 
of the Carboniferous formation about the boundary with 
Eastwood. The soil in patches of the lower district is 
stiffish, and lies on a clay bottom, but elsewhere is 
mostly light, dry, and sharp, incumbent on porous, 
fractured, rapidly decomposing trap. Mearns has always 
been distinguished for its fine pasture, and even in the 
present times of extended cultivation it is very largely 
devoted to sheep and dairy farming. The earliest name 
on record in connection with this parish is that of 
Roland of Mearns, who is mentioned as a witness to the 
donation which Eschina, wife of Walter the Steward, 
gave to the monastery of Paisley in the year 1177. 
Robert of Mearns appears in the same capacity in a 
grant made to that establishment in 1250. In the 13th 
century, the barony of Mearns came by marriage to the 
jMaxwells of Caerlaverock, afterwards Lords Maxwell and 
Earls of Nithsdale. About the year 1648 it was sold 
by the Earl of Nithsdale to Sir George Maxwell of 
Nether Pollock, from whom it was soon afterwards 
acqtiired by Sir Archibald Stewart of Blackball, with 
whose descendants it has since remained. (See Ard- 
GOWAN.) The castle of Mearns is a large square tower 
situated on a rock}' eminence, 1 mile E by S of the 
village of Newton-Mearns. It is surrounded by a strong 
wall, and seems to have been secured by a drawbridge. 
It has long been uninhabited. Caplerig was anciently 
a seat of the Knights Templars. Professor John Wilson 
(1785-1854) received his early education in the manse of 
Mearns, and so often in his writings does he allude to 
these scenes of his boyhood that the ' dear parish of 
Mearns ' is nearly as much associated with his great 
name as if it had been the place of his nativity. Thus 
opens one of his many apostrophes to Mearns : ' Art 
thou beautiful, as of old, O wild, moorland, sylvan, and 
iiastoral Parish ! the Paradise in which our spirit dwelt 

17 



MEARNS, THE 

beneath tlie glorious dawning of life — can it be, beloved 
world of boyhood, that thou art indeed beautiful as of 
old ? Though round and round thy boundaries in half 
an hour could fly the flapping dove — though the martins, 
wheeling to and fro that ivied and wall-flowered ruin of 
a Castle, central in its own domain, seem in their more 
distant flight to glance their crescent wings over a vale 
rejoicing apart in another kirk-spire, yet how rich in 
streams, and rivulets, and rills, each with its own pe- 
culiar murmur — art thou with thy bold bleak exposure, 
sloping upwards in ever lustrous undulations to the 
portals of the East ! How endless the interchange of 
woods and meadows, glens, dells, and broomy nooks, 
without number, among thy banks and braes ! And 
then of human dwellings — how rises the smoke, ever 
and anon, into the sky, all neighbouring on each other, 
so that the cock-crow is heard from homestead to home- 
stead ; while as you wander onwards, each roof still 
rises unexpectedly — and as solitary as if it had been far 
remote. Fairest of Scotland's thousand parishes — neither 
Highland, nor Lowland — but undulating — let us again 
use the descriptive word — like the sea in sunset after a 
day of storms — yes. Heaven's blessing be upon thee ! 
Thou art indeed beautiful as of old ! ' Pollok Castle, 
noticed separately, is the principal mansion ; and Sir 
Hew Crawl'urd-PoUok, Bart., is the largest proprietor, 9 
others holding each an annual value of £500 and 
npwards, .31 of between £100 and £500, 20 of from £50 
to £100, and 24 of from £20 to £50. Mearns is in the 
presbytery of Paisley and the synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; 
the living is worth £479. The parish church, f mile 
SE of Newton-Mearns, is a very old building, altered 
and enlarged in 1813, with 730 sittings, clock-tower, 
and spire. A neat U.P. church, rebuilt about 1840, 
and containing 490 sittings, is at Newton-Mearns ; and 
three other places of worship are noticed under Busby. 
Two public schools. Busby and Mearns, with respective 
accommodation for 640 and 288 children, had (1883) an 
average attendance of 240 and 215, and grants of £227, 7s. 
and £209, 2s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £18,665, (1884) 
£25,248, 17s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 1714, (1831) 2814, (1851) 
3704, (1871) 3543, (1881) 3965, of whom 1535 were in 
Bnshy.— Orel. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. SeetheKev. Dr Ross's 
Bushy and its Neighhoiirhood (Glasgow, 1883) ; and chap. 
i. of Mrs Gordon's Memoir of Christopher JVorth (new ed. 
1879). 

Mearns, The. See Eincardineshike. 

Meathie. See Inveeaeity. 

Medwin, a troutful rivulet of the Middle Ward of 
Lanarkshire, formed by the confluence of the North 
Medwin and the South Medwin at a point IJ mile 
SSE of Carnwath village, and winding If mile west- 
ward along the boundary between Carnwath and Lib- 
berton parishes to the Clyde. The North Medwin, 
formed by the confluence of Dry and Greenfield Burns, 
runs 6i miles south-south-westward, chiefly within Carn- 
wath parish, but partly along the Dunsyre boundary. 
The South Medwin, rising at an altitude of 1230 feet, 
runs 13| miles south -by-eastward and west-south-west- 
ward, chiefly along the boundary between Dun.syre 
and Carnwath parishes on the right, and Linton, 
Dolphinton, Walston, and Libberton parishes on the 
left— Ord. Sur., shs. 24, 23, 1864-63. 

Medwyn, an estate, with a mansion, in Linton parish, 
NW Peeblesshire, on the right bank of Lyne Water, i 
mile NW of West Linton. Purchased in three lots 
since 1812 for upwards of £25,000, it is the property of 
William Forbes, Esq. (b. 1803 ; sue. 1854), who holds 
2600 acres in the shire, valued at £2022 per annum. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 24, 1864. 

Meethill, a conical eminence (181 feet) in Peterhead 
parish, Aberdeenshire, IJ mile SSW of the town. It 
seems to be partly artificial, and in feudal times was 
probably a seat of justice ; but in digging the foundation 
of a tower, which was built upon it to celebrate the pass- 
ing of the Reform Bill of 1832, a stone crypt was found 
on its summit, containing a funeral urn. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 87, 1876. 

Meggemie Castle, a mansion in Fortingall parish, 
18 



jVIEIGLE 

Perthshire, on the left bank of the river Lyon, near the 
head of the inhabited part of Glenlyon, 22 miles W by 
S of Aberfeldy. Approached by a stately lime-tree 
avenue, the finest in Scotland, it comprises, with later 
additions, a lofty square baronial tower of the 15th 
century, with high-peaked roof, four corner bartizans, 
and walls 5 feet in thickness. The estate, with a rental 
of £4500, extends over 32,000 acres— all hill-grazing, 
with fine grouse moors, and 13,000 acres of'it deer 
forest. In Sept. 1883 it was sold by W. G. Steuart- 
Menzies, Esq. of Culdares, for £103,000 to John Bul- 
lough, Esq. of Accrington. — Ord. Sur., sh. 54, 1873. 
See a long article in TJie Times for 27 Sept. 1883. 

Megget. See Lyne and Megget. 

Megget Water, a troutful rivulet of Westerkirk parish, 
NE Dumfriesshire, rising, close to the Roxburghshire 
boundary, at an altitude of 1200 feet, and running 7^ 
miles south-by-westward, till, after a total descent of 
nearly 800 feet, it falls into the Esk at a point 7 miles 
NW of Langholm.— Orf?. Sur., shs. 16, 10, 1864. 

Megginch Castle, a mansion in Errol parish, Perth- 
shire, 6J furlongs WNW of Errol station, this being llj 
miles E of Perth. Built by Peter Hay in 1575, it is the 
seat of John Murray Drummond, Esq. (b. 1803 ; sue. 
1849), who holds 1000 acres in the shire, valued at 
£2041 per annum.— Or-tZ. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Meigle (Gael, maigh-dhail, ' field of the plain '), a 
village and a parish of E Perthshire. The village, 
lying within | mile of the left bank of the Isla, has 
a station on the Alyth branch (1861) of the Caledonian 
railway, IJ mile NNW of Alyth Junction, this being 
20J miles NE of Perth and 17i NW of Dundee. 
A seat once of considerable trade, with a weekly market, 
it still has fairs on the second Wednesday of Jan. , Feb. , 
March, April, and Dec, the second Monday of May, 
and the last Wednesday of June and Oct., as also a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, branches of the Commercial and 
Royal Banks, and an hotel. The parish church, gutted 
by fire in 1869, has since been well restored, and con- 
tains 600 sittings. A very remarkable group of sculp- 
tured stones — the largest of them 8 feet high, and 3 J 
broad — was said to mark the sepulchre of Wander, 
Vanora, or Guinevere, King Arthur's unfaithful queen, 
who, according to tradition, was imprisoned on Barry 
Hill in Alyth parish. With the exception of two, 
which retain their original position in the churchyard, 
they were all removed in 1882 into the old parochial 
school, itself now included in the churchyard. They are 
fully described in Mr Anderson's Scotland in Early 
Christian Times (2d series, 1881). There are also a Free 
church and an Episcopal church, St Margaret's (1852). 

The parish is bounded W by Coupar-Angus, NW by 
A lyth, and on all other sides by Forfarshire, viz. , N by 
Airlie, E by Eassie, and SE by Eassie and Newtyle. 
Its utmost length, from NE to SW, is 5| miles ; its 
breadth varies between 2 J furlongs and 2| miles : and 
its area is 401 SJ acres, of which 33 are water. Sluggish 
Dean AVater meanders 5j miles west-south-westward 
— only 34 miles in a direct line — along the Airlie 
border, till, at a point | mile NNW of the village, it 
falls into the Isla, which itself winds 2f miles west- 
south-westward along the Airlie boundary. The sur- 
face, all in the very heart of Steathmoeb, is almost a 
dead level, at no point sinking to 100, or much exceed- 
ing 200, feet above the sea. Old Red sandstone, suit- 
able for building, has been worked in two quarries ; and 
marl, covered with peat earth, was dug in great abund- 
ance at a place near the southern border. The soil, in 
some places sandy, in others clayey, is mostly a rich 
dark loam. Some 200 acres are under wood, 130 are 
in pasture, and the rest of the land is in tillage. A 
tumulus and a large boulder in Belmont Park are 
traditionally associated with the death of Macbeth, 
who really was slain at Lumphanan ; and Meigle in 
pre-Reformation days was an occasional residence of the 
Bishops of Dunkeld. The late Sir George Kinloch of 
KiNLooH, Bart. (1800-81), bought the fine estate of 
Meigle from the Earl of Strathmore for £73,000. Other 



MEIGLE HILL 

estates, noticed separately, are Belmont (whose mansion, 
Belmont Castle, was burned on 21 April 1884) and Drum- 
KILBO ; and i proprietors hold each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards. Including ecclesiastically the Kin- 
loch portion of Coupar-Angus parish, Meigle is the seat 
of a presbj'tery in the synod of Angus and Mearns ; the 
living is wortli £314. At Ardler or Washington village, 
a handsome Established mission church was erected in 
1883 by Peter Carmichael, Esq. of Arthurston. Two 
public schools, Meigle and Washington, with respective 
accommodation for 200 and 110 children, had (1883) 
an average attendance of 164 and 69, and gi'ants of 
£170, 7s. and £60, 7s. 6d. Valuation (1865) £7953, 8s. 
2d., (18S4) £10,111, 5s. 3d. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 
946, (1831) 873, (1861) S35, (1871) 745, (1881) 696 ; of 
ecclesiastical parish (1871) 1003, (1881) 966.— Orrf. 
Sur., shs. 56, 48, 1870-68. 

The presbytery of Meigle comprises the quoad civilia 
parishes of Airlie, Alyth, Bendochy, Blairgowrie, Coupar- 
Angus, Eassie and Nevay, Glenisla, Eettins, King- 
oldrum, Lintrathen, Meigle, Newtyle, and Ruthven, and 
the quoad sacra parishes of KUry, Persie, and St Mary's 
(Blairgowrie). Pop. (1871) 18,564, (1881) 18,269, of 
whom 4821 were commnnicauts of the Church of Scot- 
land in 1878. — The Free Church also has a presbytery 
of Meigle, with 2 churches in Blairgowrie, and 8 in 
Airlie, Alyth, Coupar-Angus, Cray, Glenisla, Meigle, 
Newtyle, and Rattray, which 10 churches together liad 
2624 communicants in 1883. 

Meigle Hill. See Galashiels. 

Meikle Bin, a hill (1870 feet) in the SE of Fintry 
parish, Stirlingshire, adjacent to the meeting-point 
with Campsie and Kilsyth. A central summit of the 
Lennox Hills, it occupies such a position as to unite the 
Fintry, Campsie, and Kilsyth sections of these hills ; is 
adjoined on the NE by Little Bin (1446 feet) ; sends off, 
from its SW side, a torrent called Bin Burn, running 
northward as a head-stream of the river Carron ; is seen 
from a great distance in the direction of Lanark ; and 
forms a conspicuous landmark from the Firth of Forth. 
—Orel. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Meikle-Eamock. See Earnock, Meikle. 

Meikle-Feny. See Dokkooh, Firth or. 

MeiklefoUa. See Fyvie. 

Meikle Greinord. See Greinord. 

Meikle Law. See Loxgformacus. 

Meikleour House, a mansion in Caputh parish, Perth- 
shire, near the left bank of the river Tay, f mile above 
the Isla's influx, 2 miles NNW of Cargill station, and 
4 S by W of Blairgowrie. As greatly enlarged in 1869 
from designs by the late David Bryce, R. S. A. , it is a 
stately cMteau-like building, with extensive vineries 
and finely wooded grounds, its great beech hedge (1746) 
being 80 feet high and J mile long. It is the seat of the 
Dowager Marchioness of Lansdowne (b. 1819 ; sue. 
1867), who in 1874, as sixth descendant of the first 
Lord Nairne (ere. 1681), was declared heir to the title 
of Baroness Nairne. She holds 9070 acres in the shire, 
valued at £8026 per annum. (See Auohtergaven. ) 
Meikleour village, 5 furlongs N by E of the mansion, 
has a post office under Perth, an inn, a 'tron and 
jougs,' a cross (1698), and fairs on the fourth Friday 
of June, the third Friday of August, and the fourth 
Friday of October.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. See 
chap. xxxi. of Thos. Hunter's Woods and Estates of 
Fcrtlishire (Perth, 1883). 

Meikle Roe, an island of Delting parish, Shetland, in 
St Magnus Bay, 27 miles NNW of Lerwick. Separated 
from the mainland by Roe Sound (200 yards wide at 
the narrowest), it has a somewhat circular outline, with 
a diameter of Z\ miles. It contains eighteen little fresh- 
water lochs, and rises in South Ward at the centre to 
557 feet above sea-level Pop. (1851) 290, (1871) 216, 
(1881) 230. 

Meikle Warthill or Wartle, a vOlage in Rayne parish, 
Aberdeenshire, 3J furlongs N by W of Wartle station. 
Cattle and horse fairs are held here on the Thursdays 
before 26 May and 22 Nov.— Ord Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Meiklewood House, a handsome modem mansion in 



MELDRUM 

Gargnnnock parish, Stirlingshire, on the right bank of 
the winding Forth, H mile NE of Gargunnock station. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

MeikUe, Loch, a lake in Urquhart parish, Inverness- 
shire, 6 miles W of Druninadrochit. An expansion of 
the river Enrick, it lies at an altitude of 372 feet ; has 
an utmost length and breadth of 9 and 3 furlongs ; con- 
tains salmon, trout, and big pike ; has, on its banks, 
the mansions and pleasure-grounds of Lochletter and 
Lakefield ; and is so flanked with picturesque mountains 
as to form one of the most captivating scenes in the 
Highlands.— Ord Sur., sh. 73, 1878. 

Mein Water, an impetuous rivulet of Annandale, 
Dumfriesshire, rising at an altitude of 780 feet on the 
northern border of Middlebie parish, and running 8J 
miles south-south-westward through that and Hoddam 
parish, past the town of Ecclefechan, till, after a total 
descent of 690 feet, it falls into the Annan at a point li 
mile SSW of Ecclefechan. -Orti. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Melby, a mansion in Walls parish, Shetland, on the 
W coast, nearSaudness, and 32 miles WNW of Lerwick. 

Meldrum (Gael, meall-droma, ' hill of the ridge '), a 
vOlage and a parish of Garioch district, central Aber- 
deenshire. The village of Old Meldrum stands, 378 feet 
above sea-level, near the southern boundary of the parish, 
at the terminus of a branch line (1856) of the Great 
Korth of Scotland railway, by rail being 5| miles NNE 
of Inverurie Junction and 22 (by road 19) NNW of 
Aberdeen. Erected into a burgh of barony in 1672, it 
offers a very irregular aligument, but contains some 
good houses, and has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments, branches of 
the North of Scotland and the Aberdeen Town and 
County Banks, 9 insurance agencies, 4 hotels, a gas 
company, a water supply, a new public hall (1877), 
horticultural, Bible, and clothing societies, a young 
men's Christian association, a brewery, a distillery, and 
cattle markets on every third Tuesday throughout the 
year. The antique parish church of 1684 was enlarged 
in 1767, and, as reseated in 1810, contains 674 sittings. 
Other places of worship are a Free church, a U. P. church 
(1822 ; 312 sittings), and St Matthew's Episcopal church 
(1863), the last an Early Decorated edifice, with nave, 
chancel, organ chamber, vestry, and spire. Pop. (1841) 
1102, (1861) 1553, (1871) 1535, (1881) 1494, of whom 
817 were females. Houses (1881) 309 inhabited, 14 
vacant, 2 building. 

The parish, called Bethelnie till 1684, is bounded NE 
and E by Tarves, SE and S by Bourtie, W by Daviot 
and Fyvie, and N by Fj'vie. Its utmost length, from 
NW to SE, is 6§ miles ; its breadth vai'ies between i\ 
furlongs and Similes; and its area is SlllJ acres, of 
which 9 are water. Streams there are none of any size, 
but the drainage is carried mainly to the Ury and partly 
to the Ythan. Along the southern boundary the sur- 
face sinks to 270 feet above sea-level ; and thence it 
rises in easy gradient to 564 feet near Chapelhouse, 567 
near Bethelnie, and 804 at Core Hill in the NW corner 
of the parish. The central district presents a diversity 
of rich well-cultivated table-land, sloping southward, 
eastward, and westward, and commanding from many 
standjjoints extensive views, on the one hand over 
Formartine and Buchan, on the other over Garioch to 
Bennochie. Hornblende rock of a quality that admits 
of its taking a polish like marble occurs in large detached 
masses ; rock crystal is found on the Core Hill of 
Bethelnie ; limestone occurs on the NE border, and was 
for some time worlced ; and eruptive rocks are predomi- 
nant. The soil of the northern district is mossy, heathy, 
and nowhere deep or fertile ; but elsewhere, especially 
on the south-westward and southward slopes, is a deep 
loam. Nearly three-fourths of the entire area are in 
tillage ; more than 500 acres are under wood ; and the 
rest is either pastoral or waste. A small so-called 
' Roman camp ' on Bethelnie farm has been erased by 
the plough ; a graveyard, around the site of the ancient 
parish church, St Nathalin's, is at Bethelnie ; and 
another graveyard, with foundations of a small pre- 
Eeformatiou chapel, is at Chapelhouse, J mile from 

19 



MELFOET 

which some ancient sepulchral remains were exhumed in 
1837. William Forsyth (1737-1804), the arboriculturist, 
was a native. Meldrum House, 1 mile N by E of the 
village, is a large modern Grecian mansion, with finely 
wooded policies. From the Setons the property passed 
by marriage in 1610 to the Urquharts ; and its present 
owner, Beauchamp Colclough Urquhart, Esq. (b. 1830 ; 
sue. 1861), holds .5837 acres in the shire, valued at £6707 
per annum. Another mansion is Tulloch Cottage ; and, 
in all, 4 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 5 of between £100 and £500, 8 of from 
£50 to £100, and 40 of from £20 to £50. Since 1875 
giving off a jiortion to the quoad sacra parish of Barthol 
Chapel, Meldrum is in the presbytery of Garioch and 
the synod of Aberdeen ; the living is worth £335. 
Three public schools — Commercial Road, Kirk Street 
infant, and Tulloch — with respective accommodation 
for 446, 126, and 70 children, had (1883) an average 
attendance of 234, 89, and 42, and grants of £212, 14s., 
£61, 16s., and £33, 16s. Valuation (1860) £8528, (1884) 
£11,710, 6s. 3d., plus £303 for railway. Pop. (1801) 
1584, (1831) 1790, (1861) 2343, (1871) 2330, (1881) 
2254, of whom 2136 were in the ecclesiastical parish. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 76, 77, 86, 87, 1873-76. 

Melfort, a sea-loch of Kilninver and Kilmelfort parish, 
Argyllshire, opening between Points Degnish and 
Ashnish, opposite the middle of Luing island. AVith a 
width of IJ mile at the entrance, it penetrates the land 
3J miles east-north-eastward ; is sprinkled with islets ; 
and takes its name from Gaelic words signifying ' the 
lake of the strong eminence,' and alluding to the hill- 
ranges that flank its shores. It is fed by streams 
flowing from fresh-water lakes at distances of from 2 or 
3 to 7 miles ; has on its N side, at a secluded spot amid 
thick environments of wood, a cave, traditionally said 
to have been inhabited for a time by the first settlers in 
Lorn ; is overlooked, at the head, by Melfort House ; 
and gives the titles of Viscount and Earl in the peerage 
of Scotland, and that of Duke in the peerage of France, 
to the Earl of Perth. 

Melgam Water, a rivulet of Lintrathen parish, W 
Forfarshire. Rising as the Back Water, at an altitude 
of 1970 feet, in the northern extremity of the parish, 
it winds 15 miles south-by-eastward — for the last 2 
miles along the Kingoldrum and Airlie boundary — 
till, after a total descent of 1600 feet, it falls into the 
Isla opposite Airlie Castle. It abounds in trout ; and 
salmon ascend it for 2 miles, as far as the Loups of 
Kenny.— Orfi. Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 

Melgund, an ruined castle in Aberlemno parish, 
Forfarshire, 3J miles N by E of Auldbar station. Built 
according to tradition by Cardinal Beaton, it appears to 
have been a strong and su]ierb edifice of great extent, 
with a magnificent banqueting hall. It is still repre- 
sented by large and interesting remains ; and it gives 
to the Earl of Minto the title of Viscount (ere. 1813), 
the first Earl's father. Sir Gilbert Elliot, having married 
Agnes Murray Kynynmound, heiress of Melgund. — Orel. 
Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Melista. See JIealista. 

Mellerstain, a seat of the Earl of Haddington in the 
E of Earlston parish, Berwickshire, on a rising-ground 
near the right bank of the lake-like Eden, 7 miles NW 
of Eelso. It is a fine mansion, with beautifully wooded 
grounds. About 1719 Rachel, daughter and heiress of 
George Baillie of Jerviswood and Mellerstain, married 
Charles, Lord Binning, eldest son of the sixth Earl of 
Haddington. Their second son took the name of Baillie 
on inheriting the estates of his maternal grandfather ; 
and his grandson in 1858 succeeded his cousin as tenth 
Earl of Haddington.— Or(«. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. See 
Tyninghame. 

Melloncharles, a village in Gairloch parish, Ross- 
shire. Pop. (1871) 313. 

Blelmont or Molmont. See Galston". 

Melness, a hamlet in Tongue parish, Sutherland. 
The hamlet lies on the W side of Tongue Bay, 34 miles 
N by W of Lairg station. It has a Free church. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 114, 1880. 
20 



MELROSE 

Melrose (Brit. Mell-Rhos, 'the projection of the 
meadow'), a parish, containing a post-town of the same 
name, at the extreme northern corner of Roxburghshire. 
It is bounded N and E by Berwickshire, SE corner by 
St Boswells parish, S by Bowden parish, at the SW 
corner by the part of Galashiels parish in Roxburgh- 
shire, on the rest of the SW side by Selkirkshire, 
and W by Edinburghshire. The boundary is largely 
natural. Starting at the point at the NW comer where 
the counties of Edinburgh, Berwick, and Roxburgh 
meet, it follows the watershed between Leader Water 
and Allan Water, until it reaches the upper part of 
Lauder Burn, whence it passes irregularly first NE and 
tlien SE, till it reaches the Leader near the Bluecaim 
Burn. It passes up the latter to the road westward from 
Bluecairn Farm, and follows this road to a small bum 
that flows past Kedslie, which it follows downward for 
about ^ mile, and then strikes irregularly ESE to the 
Leader Water N of Leadervale House, and foUows the 
course of that stream for i\ miles to its junction with the 
Tweed, and thereafter the course of the Tweed downward 
for 3f miles. Along the S side the line foUows an 
irregular course westward over the top of the centre peak 
of the Eildons (1385 feet), along the S side of Cauldshiels 
Loch, till it joins the Tweed at Abbotsford Ferry station. 
It follows the course of the river downward IJ mile to 
the junction of Gala Water, whence it follows, in the 
main, the course of the latter stream to tlie point where 
the counties of Selkirk, Edinburgh, and Roxburgh meet, 
and then strikes along the high ground E of Gala Water 
to the starting-point. The greatest length of the parish, 
from NW at the point where Edinburghshire, Berwick- 
shire, and Roxburghshire meet, to the lowest point on 
the Tweed that the parish reaches, is 11 miles ; the 
average breadth is about 5 miles ; and the area is 
26,058J acres, of which 264 J are water. From the 
mouth of Gala Water to the mouth of Leader Water, 
the Tweed flows 4| miles across the paiish, dividing it 
into two very unequal portions, that to the S of the river 
being only about J of the whole. In both portions the 
surface is hilly, and rises for the most part rapidly 
from the bed of the river Tweed, which is a little 
under 300 feet above sea-level. On the S the height 
rises, in the course of i mile, to 508 feet near Huntly- 
burn House, 540 W of Viewbank, and 510 E of Oaken- 
dean House. From the first point the rise is continued 
south-westward to 876 feet above Cauldshiels Loch ; 
and from the other two more rapidly southward to 
the summit of the Eildok Hills, of the three tops of 
which the E (1327 feet) and the centre (1385) are in this 
parish. To the N of the Tweed the ground again rises 
rapidly to an elevation of over 700 feet, and then passes 
northwards in two ranges of heights, of which that to 
the E, between the valleys of the Leader and Allan, is 
876 feet high near Avenel plantation, 929 between 
Housebyres and Mosshouses, 979 near Jeanfield, 829 
near the border W of Blainslie, and 1057 farther to the 
W between Newhouses and Threepwood ; that to the W, 
between the valleys of the Allan and Gala, is 1018 feet 
(S) and 1031 (N) at Langlee, 1064 at Buckholm Hill, 
1315 at William Law, 1219 at Hawkshawhead, and 
1126 at Allanshaws. The lower districts are cultivated, 
and the upper afford excellent pasture, while planta- 
tions and belting of trees are to be found all over the 
parish, and cover about 3000 acres. The soil in the 
southern district is chiefly a strong clay, well adapted 
for wheat. Along the valley of the Tweed — where there 
seems to have been at one time a gi'eat lake, and 
where, even within the last two centuries, the river 
course has evidently in places been changed ; since a 
fine rich haugh, now on the S side of the river, is called 
Gattonside Haugh, and its feudal tenures show that it 
once actually formed a part of the Gattonside lands, 
which are on the N side of the river — it is a rich alluvial 
earth ; while the northern district varies from light loam 
mixed with sand on a gravelly bottom, to strong wet 
clay full of springs, and moss which sometimes overlies 
marl. The underlying rocks are Lower Silurian, above 
which, in the S and SE. are sandstones of later age. 



MELBOSE 

These are quarried for building purposes, but the rock 
is of inferior quality, and most of the building-stone 
used is brought from adjoining parishes. The drainage 
of the parish is effected on the W by the Gala and the 
burns flowing into it, of which the Halk Burn is the 
chief ; in the centre by Allan Water, which, rising at 
the NW corner at Blinkbonnie, flows southward for 9 
miles to the Tweed, a short distance above Pavilion, li 
mile above Melrose. It receives a number of smaller 
burns, of which the chief is Threepwood Burn. The 
lower part of its course is prettily wooded, and the 
valley is the prototype of the ' Glendearg ' of Sir Walter 
Scott's Monastery. The drainage on the E is carried off 
by the Leader and the various burns entering it, of 
which the Clackmae and Packmans Burns are the chief 
In the portion of the parish to the S of the Tweed are 
Huntly Burn, entering the Tweed opposite Gattonsidb ; 
Malthouse or Dingle Burn, flowing past the town of 
Melrose ; Bogle Burn, rising on the SE side of the 
Eildon Hills, and entering the Tweed at Old Melrose ; a 
burn joining the Tweed near Langlands ; and the lower 
part of the course of Bowden Burn. Huntly Burn is 
closely associated with Thomas the Rhymer (see Eakls- 
ton), and one finely-wooded hollow on its course — a 
favourite resort of Sir Walter Scott — is known as The 
Ehj'mer's Glen. Bogle Burn also is said to take its 
name from the Bogles or Goblins with whom Thomas 
was so familiar. The parish is traversed by the main 
inland road from Edinburgh to Berwick, which winds 
along the N side of the Gala, crosses the Tweed by a good 
stone bridge W of Darnlee, passes through the town of 
Melrose, and then south-eastward by Newtown till it 
joins the road from Selkirk to Kelso, and thence to Ber- 
wick. From N to S, on the E border, along the valley 
of the Leader, is a main road, leaving the south coast- 
road at Musselburgh, traversing Lauderdale, crossing the 
Tweed close to the mouth of the Leader, and joining the 
first main road f mile N of Newtown. The main section 
of the North British railway, worked in connection with 
the Midland railway, and known as the Waverley route, 
passes through the parish, keeping closely to the line of 
the first-mentioned main road ; while 2 miles beyond 
Melrose station it is joined by the Berwick and Duns 
branch of the same system, which crosses tlie Tweed at 
Leaderfoot, and follows the line of the second road for 
2J miles to the northward, till crossing the Leader it 
enters Berwickshire. Half-a-mile SE of the mouth of 
the Leader, and 2i miles E of the modern town of 
Melrose, is a promontory formed by a loop of the Tweed, 
and measuring 4 furlongs by 2, which is known as Old 
Melrose, and which is the ' projection ' from which the 
name of the parish is said to come. The banks of the river 
all round are lofty, wooded, and rocky, and from them the 
ground rises in a smooth grassy ascent to a small plateau 
occupied by the modern mansion of Old Melrose. Old 
Melrose was the site of one of the earliest Columban 
establishments on the mainland of Scotland. It owed 
its foundation to St Aidan, who, with a number of 
brethren from lona, had, about 635, on the invitation 
of Oswald, King of Northumbria, established a monas- 
tery at Liudisfarne for the purpose of instructing the 
Saxons in Christianity. Aidan seems to have chosen 
twelve Saxon youths to be trained and sent out to 
preach and teach, and one of these, Eata, became, 
about the middle of the 7th century, the first abbot 
of the Columban monastery of Melrose. The prior 
during part of the time, and subsequently his successor, 
was that St Boisil or Boswell who has given name to 
the adjoining parish, and he in turn was succeeded by 
his pupil St Cuthbert. In 839 the monastery was 
burned by Kenneth, King of Scots, but reappears again 
rebuilt, and the temporary resting-place of the body of 
St Cuthbert, which had been removed from Lindisfarne 
on account of the invasion of the Danes. It seems to 
have declined about the same time as the parent 
monastery in lona, and to have become, in the latter 
part of the 11th century, ruined and deserted, for when 
between 1073 and 1075 Aldwin, Turgot — afterwards 
Bishop of St Andrews and confessor to St Margaret the 
75 



MELROSE 

queen of Malcolm III.— and other monks came from 
' Girwy to what was formerly the monastery of Mailros ' 
they found it ' then a solitude,' and they, being per- 
secuted on account of their opinions and threatened 
with excommunication if they remained, had also soon 
to withdraw. From this time onward the place was 
never again the site of a monastery, but there was a 
chapel dedicated to St Cuthbert, and, till between 1126 
and 1136, when David I. exchanged it for the church at 
Berwick, dependent on the priory of Durham, as the 
foi-mer church had been dependent on the abbey of 
Lindisfarne. This chapel seems to have been held in 
great esteem, for when it was burned by the English in 
the reign of Robert Bruce, in 1321, Symon, Bishop of 
Galloway, describing the chapel as recently burned by 
the English, grants ' a relaxation of forty days' penance 
to all truly penitent and confessed who should, with 
consent of their diocesan, devoutly visit the chapel of 
Saint Cuthbert of Old Melros, where that saint lived a 
monastic life and was celebrated for his miracles ; or 
should contribute of their goods' ; while between 1417 
and 1431 we find Pope Martin V., at the instance of 
John, dean of Cavertoun, one of the monks of Melrose, 
granting to all who should make pilgrimage to, or con- 
tribution to, the same chapel ' a remission of penance for 
seven years and seven Lents on all the festivals of St 
Cuthbert and on certain other holidays.' The place 
where the chapel stood continues to be called Chapel- 
knowe, and adjacent portions of the Tweed still bear the 
names of Monk-ford and Haly-wheel — the holy whirl- 
pool or eddy. Pilgrims from the north approached by a 
road known as the Girthgate, which led from SouTRA 
hospice by Colmslie, near the centre of the northern 
portion of the parish and across the Tweed to the bend, 
it seems to have had the privilege of sanctuary. It 
crossed the river at Bridgend, about 1 mile W of Dar- 
nick, where a bridge with stone piers and wooden beams 
seems afterwards to have been built. Considerable re- 
mains of the latter are mentioned by Pennant in 1772 
as having been standing when he visited the place. The 
early monastery seems to have been protected by a wall 
running across the neck of the peninsula, traces of 
which remained in 1743, when Milne published his 
account of Melrose. There are traditions of an abbey 
called the Red Abbey having stood near the village of 
Newstead, midway between Old and modern Melrose. 
In the district N of the Tweed there were chapels at 
Chieldhelles, at Blainslie on the extreme NE, and, 
according to Milne, also at Colmslie on Allan Water — 
said to take its name from the patron, St Columba — 
and at Gattonside. The present name of the parish 
seems to have been assumed from the old Culdee settle- 
ment, by the monks, when the modern abbey was founded, 
and applied by them to the whole district occupied by 
their early possessions, the boundaries of which corre- 
spond pretty nearly with the present limits of the 
parish. At the Reformation, and for a considerable time 
afterwards, down to about 1584, Melrose, Bowden, 
Lilliesleaf, and Langnewtoun were under the charge of 
one minister, with a reader at Melrose. In the year 
just mentioned it is noticed as a separate charge, and 
that state of matters continued. The earliest mini- 
ster was John Knox, whose tombstone still remains 
in the abbey churchyard, and who was a nephew and 
namesake of the great Reformer. He died in 1623, and, 
under the modified Episcopacy of the time, was succeeded 
by Thomas Forrester, a poet, who was bold enough to 
introduce into the litany the special prayer, ' From all 
the knock-down race of Knoxes, good Lord, deliver us. ' 
Besides this he also declared that the Reformation had 
done incalculable harm to Christianity ; that the liturgy 
was better than sermon ; and that bringing corn in from 
the fields on the Sabbath was a work of necessity — the 
last of which propositions he practically exemplified. 
For these and other delinquencies he was deposed by the 
Glasgow Assembly of 1638. 

The principal antiquities, besides those already men- 
tioned and those noticed in the following article, ana 
in the account of the Eildon Hills, are remains of 

21 



MELROSE 

camps between Kittyfield and Leaderfoot ; IT of Kaeside, 
near Abbotsford ; and at Mars Lee Wood ; and border 
peels at Bnckholm on the Gala, in the valley of the 
Allan, and at Darnick. The principal mansions, most 
of whioh are separately noticed, are Abbotsford, AUerly, 
ChiefsTvood — once the residence of Lockhart, Scott's son- 
in-law — Drygrange, Eildon Hall, Huntly-burn House — 
once the residence of Scott's friends, the Fergussons, 
and the name itself of Sir "Walter's choosing — Gatton- 
side House, Ladhope House, Langhaugh, Lowood, 
Abbey Park, The Pavilion, The Priory, Prior Wood 
formerly Prior Bank — once the residence of the well- 
known Edinburgh publisher, Tait, the founder of Taits 
Magazine, which was established to oppose Blackwood's 
Magazine — Eavenswood, Sunnyside, Threepwood, White- 
lee, Wester Langlee, and Wooplaw. Besides the town of 
Melrose, which is noticed in the following article, the 
parish contains also the villages of Blainslie (NE), Dak- 
uicK (S), Gattonside (S), Newstead (SE), Nbwtowk 
(extreme SE), and part of the town of Galashibis — all 
of which are separately noticed — and the hamlet of 
Eildon. Except in Galashiels there are no industries, 
and the population of the parish are mostly engaged in 
agriculture. In suitable spots there are excellent 
orchards — legacies of the monks — some of which are 
very productive, those in the Gattonside district 
being said to produce more fruit than all the others 
in the vale of Tweed. About J mile WSW of 
the town of Melrose, on Bowden Moor, is the 
district lunatic asjdum for the counties of Pioxburgh, 
Selkirk, and Berwick, which with its grounds covers a 
space of 25 acres. The buildings occupy three sides of 
a rectangle ; the principal front to the SW being 377 
feet long, and the wings each 148 feet. They are 
mostly two stories in height, and two towers are 100 
feet high. The asylum was erected in 1870-72, after 
designs by Messrs Brown & Wardrop of Edinburgh, at 
a, cost, inclusive of site, of £46,600, and there is accom- 
modation for about 150 patients. "To the N of Darnick, 
and about 1 mile W of the town of Melrose, is a rising- 
gi'ound, called Skinners or Skirmish Hill, the name 
being taken from the last great battle among the 
borderers proper in 1526. In that year, James V., 
tired of the dominion of the Douglases, sent word, 
privately, to Scott of Buccleuch to come to his rescue. 
This Scott did, but the forces of Angus, Home, and the 
Kerrs proved too strong for him, and his men fled. 
Pitscottie tells the story at length. The place is now 
the site of the Waverley Hydropathic Establishment. 
Erected in 1871, and enlarged in 1876, this is a fine 
edifice, with accommodation for 150 visitors. Its din- 
ing and drawing rooms each are 84 feet long ; and there 
are also a news-room, library, two billiard rooms, etc., 
besides every variety of bath. The grounds, 40 acres in 
extent, are tastefully laid out ; and the view around is 
of singular beauty. 

In common with the whole district, the parish suffered 
severely from the ravages of the English during Here- 
ford's invasions in 1544-45, and at a later date, Oliver 
Cromwell gets the credit of having pounded the ruins 
of the abbey from the heights above Gattonside. Besides 
the churches in the town, which are noticed in the 
following article, there are also Established and Free 
churches in Galashiels, on the Melrose side of the Gala 
(Ladhope), and there is a U.P. church at Newtown. 
The civil parish contains the quoad sacra parish of Lad- 
hope, which includes part of Galashiels. Ecclesiastically 
the parish is in the presbytery of Selkirk and the synod 
of Merse and Teviotdale, and the living is worth £482 
a year. In 1883 the following were the schools — all 
public but the last — under Melrose school-board, with 
their accommodation, average attendance, and Govern- 
ment grant : — Blainslie (110, 64, £50, 17s.), Gattonside 
(87, 46, £37, 19s.), Glendinning Terrace (300, 342, £316, 
13s.), Langshaw (51, 35, £40), Melrose (300, 177, £165, 
Os. 6d.), and Newstead Subscription (86, 68, £46, 6s). 
Valuation (1864) £42,344, 8s. 2d., (1882) £43,757, 
16s. 8d., (1884) £39,900, 12s. 5d. Pop. (1801) 2654, 
(1831) 4339, (1861) 7654, (1871) 9432, (1881) 11,131, of 
22 



mELBOSE 

whom 4555 were in the ecclesiastical parish, and 6576 
in Ladhope quoad sacra parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 
1865. 

The U.P. Church has a presbytery of Melrose, whioh 
holds it meetings in the town, and includes 2 churches 
at Earlston, 3 at Galashiels, 3 at Hawick, 2 at Selkirk, 
and those at Innerleithen, Lauder, Lilliesleaf, Melrose, 
Newtown, and Stow. 

Melrose, a post town and burgh of barony, in the 
southern section of the parish just described, between 
the Tweed and the northern base of the Eildon Hills. 
The station, on the Waverley section of the North 
British railway system, is 3| miles ESE of Galashiels, 
15-J N by E of Hawick, and 37i SE by S of Edinburgh. 
By road, the place is 7 miles NE by N of Selkirk, 11 
NW of Jedburgh, and 35 SE by S of Edinburgh. The 
situation and surroundings are very beautiful. Looked 
at from about the town, the heights that border the 
Tweed seem to close in at either end, so that the place 
nestles in the long hill girt hollow known as the Vale 
of Melrose. The town, which dates from very ancient 
times, was originally a small village called Fordel, and 
the present name was transferred to it from Old Melrose 
at or shortly after the foundation of the abbey in 1136. 
It shared largely and constantly in the fortunes of the 
monks. During Hertford's invasion, in 1544-45, it was 
twice plundered and destroyed; and though, after the 
Reformation it struggled on for a time as the seat of a 
small trade, it ultimately fell into poverty and decay, a 
state of matters that lasted well into the present century. 
Then the revival of the taste for Gothic architecture 
brought the ruins of the abbey into prominence, and 
this, and the associations of the district with Sir Walter 
Scott, made it a tourist centre. The tourists were 
followed by people of independent means, who were 
led by the beauty and amenity of the neighbourhood to 
take up here their occasional or permanent residence, 
and all these causes combined have given Melrose a 
fresh start in prosperity. The town proper, which is 
the Kennaquhair of the Ahhot and the Monastery, con- 
sists of 3 streets, branching ofl^ from the corners of an 
open triangular space, known as the market place, close 
to the station. The street leading northward to Gatton- 
side, and that passing southward by Dingleton, are both 
narrow and old, but High Street, which leads north- 
westwards towards Galashiels, has been widened and 
improved as new buildings have replaced old. The 
suburbs are principally lines and groups of villas, ex- 
tending about a mile westward from the end of High 
Street, by Weirhill and High Cross. Many of the older 
houses of the town show, amid the general plainness of 
their walls, stones whose carvings prove that they have 
come from the ruins of the abbey, at a time when its 
walls were deemed of so little importance as to he 
practically a quarry for whosoever chose. In the centre 
of the market place, supported by five courses of steps, 
stands the market cross, bearing the date of 1642, and 
surmounted by the unicorn of the Scottish arms with 
mallet and rose. It seems to have replaced an older cross 
of some sanctity, which was destroyed in 1604. A 
patch of land, called 'the Corse Rig,' in a field near the 
town, is held by the proprietor on the condition of his 
keeping the cross in repair. Another cross, which 
anciently stood on a spot about J mile to the W, bore 
the name of the High Cross, which it has bequeathed 
to the modern suburb around its site. The so-called jail 
has long ceased to be used for that purpose, and the lower 
part is now a store for the victual feu-duties payable by 
the Duke of Bucclengh's vassals, while the upper is occa- 
sionally used as a public hall. It stands on the site of an 
older jail, on a stone of which, that is still preserved, 
there is sculptured one of those anagrams that were from 
two to thi'ee centuries ago somewhat common, viz. : — a 
mason's 'mell' anda 'rose,'representing thenameof the 
place. In an old gabled house, bearing the date of 1635, 
which projected into the street opposite the King's Arms 
Hotel, but which is now demolished. General Leslie 
slept on the night before the battle of Philiphaugh. A 
suspension bridge (1826) for foot-passengers crosses the 



MELROSE 

Tweed to the N of the town, behind and a little below the 
AVeirhill, and connects Melrose with Gattonside. Tlic 
jiai-ish church, a plain and indeed somewhat ugly build- 
ing, with a spire and clock, was erected in 1810, and 
stands on a rising ground — the Weirhill proper, the 
Weir being behind it — in the WeirhiU suburb. The 
Free church, which stands on the same eminence, is a 
Jiandsome building in the Early English style, mth a 
Avell proportioned spire, and containing 550 sittings. 
The IJ. P. and Congregational churches C£ul for no special 
notice. The former, which was built at High Cross in 
1S72 to replace a small barn-like structure in the town, 
contains 600 sittings ; the latter contains 250 sittings. 
Trinity Episcopal church, in the western part of WeirhDl, 
was built in 1849 after designs by Sir George Gilbert 
Scott. It is a tasteful building in the Early English style, 
■with a good eastern window and a stone pulpit. It con- 
tains 175 sittings. The cemetery is to the S of the 
Free church. The Corn Exchange, in the market 
place, was erected in 1862-63, after designs by Cousin, 
at a cost of about £3000, and is a large handsome struc- 
ture, serving not only for sales and similar purposes, 
but also for lectures, concerts, and public meetings. 
The hall has accommodation for 500 people. The public 
schools have been already noticed under the parish. The 
■water-works belong to a joint-stock company (1838), and 
the water, which is very pure, is obtained from springs 
on the Eildon Hills. The reservoir has a capacity of 
about 35, 000 gallons. Gas is also supplied by a joint-stock 
company (1836) ; and the drainage system, which is by no 
means complete, and does not include the whole of the 
town, was carried out by voluntary assessment. There are 
now no industries, but the place was long famous for the 
manufacture of a fabric called Melrose-land linen, for 
which there was a demand in London as well as in 
foreign countries. So early as 1668 the weavers were 
incorporated under a seal-of-cause from John, Earl of 
Haddington, the superior of the burgh, and for a con- 
siderable period preceding 1766 the quantity of linen 
stamped averaged annually between 23,000 and 2i,000 
j'ards, valued at upwards of £2500. i'owards the end 
of last century, however, the manufacture rapidly de- 
clined, and long ago became quite extinct. Cotton- 
weaving for the manufacturers of Glasgow which followed 
had a short period of success, but soon also became 
extinct. A bleachfield for linen, which still gives name 
to a spot on the W slope of the Weir Hill, was also tried 
but failed, and even the woollen trade, so singularl}' 
prosperous in some of the other Border townsj though 
tried, proved also a failure. 

Melrose, under the abbey, was a burgh of regality ; 
but in 1609, when the Abbey and lands were erected 
into a temporal lordship, it was made a burgh of barony, 
which status it still retains. There is a baron-baUie 
appointed by the present superior, the Duke of 
Buccleuch, but there are no burgh courts and no burgh 
property, income, or expenditure. An ancient fair, 
held in spring, called Kier or Scarce-Thursday fair, was 
long a famous carnival season ; but afterwards became 
merely a business market, and then died out altogether. 
The weekly corn and general market is on Monday : 
fairs for hiring are held, for hinds on the first Monday 
of March, for young men and women on the first Mon- 
day of May and the first Monday of November, and for 
harvest hands on the first Monday of August ; for cattle 
and horses on the first Wednesday of June and 22 
Nov., unless that day fall on Saturday, Sunday, 
or Monday, and then on the Tuesday following ; for 
iambs — the largest fair in the Border counties — on 
12 Aug., unless that day be a Saturday, Sunday, or 
Monday, and then on the Tuesdaj' following ; and for 
ewes and other stock on the Saturday after the first 
Tuesday of October. These markets have now, how- 
ever, almost disappeared, owing to the establishment of 
weekly cattle sales at Newtown St Boswells. 

The town has a head post ofiice, ■with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments ; 
branches of the British Linen Company and Royal 
banks, agencies of 15 insurance companies, and 6 hotels. 



MELROSE 

A justice of peace court is held on the first Wednesday 
of every month, and sheriff small debt courts on the 
Saturdays after the second Monday of February and 
May, after the first Monday of September, and after 
the second Monday of December. Among the miscel- 
laneous institutions are two boarding schools for 
young ladies, a masonic hall, a public library, 
bowling, curling, and cricket clubs, a company of rifle 
volunteers, a horticultural and floral society, a branch 
of the Bible Society, and a branch of the Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The 
members of the masonic lodge (St John's — not, however, 
in connection with the Grand Lodge) have, every year, on 
St John's Eve, a torchlight procession round the abbey, 
and on Fastern's E'en a football match between the 
married and unmarried men of the to^wn is kept up 
along the main street from early afternoon till evening. 
Pop. of town (1841) 893, (1861) 1141, (1871) 1405, 
(1881) 1550, of whom 913 were females. Houses (1881) 
321 inhabited, 15 vacant, 7 building. 

The Abbey of Melrose, which is the great centre of 
attraction in the town, stands on low level ground to 
the E, almost midway between the Eildons and the 
Tweed. Coming in succession to the Columban establish- 
ment already noticed, but moved to a better site, it was 
founded by David I. in 1136, the monks, who were of 
the Cistercian order, ha^ving been brought from Rievale 
in Yorkshire. To them, and ' to their successors, for a 
perpetual possession,' David granted 'the lands of 
Melros, and the whole land of Eldune, and the whole 
land of Dernwic ... all the fruits, ^and pasture, 
and timber in my land, and in the forest of Selkirk and 
Traquhair, and between Gala and Leadir Water, besides 
both the fishery on the Tweed everywhere, on their side 
of the river as on mine, and ... in addition, the 
whole land and pasture of Galtuneside. ' The original 
buildings were not finished till 1146, in which year, on 
28 July, the church was, with great solemnity, con- 
secrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Malcolm 
IV. confirmed the grants of his predecessor, and added 
fresh lands, as also did William the Lyon, in whose 
reign the monastic possessions increased greatly by gifts 
from the king, from Alan, his steward, and from the 
powerful family of De Moreville ; and Laurence, Abbot 
of Melrose, was one of those who, along with the king, 
swore fealty to Henry II. at York in 1175. Standing 
near the border, the Abbey could hardly fail to figure 
in many of the historical transactions of this troublous 
time. It was in its chapter-house that the Yorkshire 
barons, united against King John, swore fealty to 
Alexander II. in 1215. In 1295 Edward I. gave formal 
protection to its monks, and in 1296, while resting at 
Berwick, after the apparent general submission of Scot- 
land to his usurpation, he issued a writ ordering a 
restitution to them of all the property they had lost in 
the preceding struggle. In 1321 or 1322 the original 
structure was burned by the English under Edward II., 
and probably reduced to a state of entire ruin, while 
William de Peebles, the abbot, and a number of the 
monks were killed. This led to a grant from King 
Robert I., in 1326, of £2000, to be obtained from his 
wards, reliefs, maritages, escheats, fines, etc., in the 
sheriffdom of Roxburgh, and to be applied to the re- 
building of the church. The sum was a large one for 
that time, and the whole amount was not realised till 
long after. In 1329, a few months before his death, 
Robert wrote a letter to his son David, requesting that 
his heart should be buried at Melrose, and commending 
the monastery and the church to his successor's especial 
favour — favour which was certainly given, for so late as 
1369 we find David rene\ving his father's gift. It is to 
this grant that we owe a considerable part of the present 
building. The community, too, enjoyed the favour of 
some of the English kings, no less than that of its own 
native monarchs, for in 1328 Edward III. ordered the 
restoration to the abbey of pensions and lands which it 
had held in England, and which had been seized by 
Edward II. In 1334 the same monarch granted a pro- 
tection to Melrose in common ■with the other abbeys of 

23 



MELBOSE 

the Scottish border ; in 1341 he came here from New- 
castle to spend Christmas ; and in 1348 he issued a writ, 
'deterris liberandis abbati de Meaurose,' ordering the 
giving-up of certain lands to the abbot. In 1378, 
Richard II., following the example of Edward, again 
renewed the protection, but his fruitless expedition into 
Scotland in 1385 so exasperated him, that, in that year, 
after spending a night in the Abbey, he caused it to be 
burned. His conscience would, however, seem to have 
troubled him on the subject, for four years afterwards 
the monks were indemnified for the damage he did 
them by the grant of two shillings on each of 1000 
sacks of wool exported by them from Berwick — a privi- 
lege revoked, however, in 1390, in consequence of an 
effort to export 200 sacks more than the fixed number. 
Notwithstanding these many disasters the place in- 
creased in wealth and architectural splendour, and it 
was not till the more severe damage and dUapidations 
that befel it during the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward 
VI. , and Elizabeth, that ruin began finally to impend. In 
1544 the English penetrated to Melrose, destroyed a 
great part of the Abbey, and defaced the tombs of the 
Douglases ; and in 1545 they again, under the leader- 
ship of Lord Evers and Sir Brian Latoun, returned 
to the work of pillage, and on their retreat the 
Earl of Angus and Scott of Buccleuch avenged 
the ravaged country and the defaced tombs at the battle 
of Anorum Moor. The Reformation was rapidly 
approaching, and though donations were given by 
various individuals for rebuilding, the Abbey never 
recovered the damage then suffered. In 1541 James V. 
obtained from the Pope the Abbeys of Melrose and 
Kelso to be held in commendam by his illegitimate son 
James, who died in 1558. In 1560 all the 'abbacie' 
was annexed to the Crown without power of alienation, 
but this was altered by subsequent Acts of Parliament, 
and in 1566 Queen Mary granted the lands to James, 
Earl of Bothwell. On his forfeiture in 1568 tliey again 
reverted to the Crown, and were, by James VI., at the 
instigation of the Earl of Morton, bestowed in com- 
menclam on James Douglas, second son of William 
Douglas of Loch Leven. Douglas took down part of 
the walls to build for himself the house which still 
stands to the N of the cloisters, and which bears the 
date 1590 ; but in 1606 the commendator resigned the 
monastery, with all its pertinents, into the hands of the 
king, to be erected into a temporal lordship, in favour 
of William, Earl of Morton. In 1608 the resignation 
was repeated, but without qualification, the property to 
be disposed of as 'his hienes sail think expedient,' and 
so, in 1609, the lands were, with some exceptions, erected 
into a lordship in favour of Sir John Ramsay, who had 
assisted King James at the time of the Gowrie con- 
.spiracy, and who had already, in 1606, been rewarded 
with the title of Viscount Haddington. He died, 
without issue, in 1625, and the estates reverted to the 
Crown. Sir Thomas Hamilton, a celebrated lawyer, 
familiarly known as Tam o' the Cowgate, who had, in 
1619, been created Earl of Melrose, and who afterwards 
changed that title for that of Earl of Haddington, 
eventually obtained the Abbey and the greater part of 
its domains, and, in more recent times, he has been 
succeeded in the splendid heritage by the family of 
Buccleuch. 

The monks of this abbey were the first Cistercians who 
obtained footing in Scotland, and they always held the 
foremost place among their order throughout the king- 
dom. In their earlier days they seem to have been frugal 
and industrious, careful of their rights in opposition to 
the neighbouring barons,* diligent in the cultivation of 

* Many accounts have been preserved of their quarrels with their 
neighbours. So long and pertinacious was the contest between 
them and the people in the vale of Gala Water— then called Wedale 
—about pannage and pastur.iKe, that in 1184 a formal settlement, 
known as ' the Peace of Wedale," was made by William the Lyon, 
assisted by his bishops and barons ; and even this does not seem 
to have been finally successful, tor in 1269 we again find that John 
of Edenham, the abbot, and many of the brethren were excom- 
municated for violating the Peace of Wedale, attacking some houses 
of the Bishop of St Andrews, and slaying one ecclesiastic and 
wounding others, 
24 



MELROSE 

their land, in their attention to the building of the 
church and monastery, and in the promotion of such 
arts as were known at the time. How they had fallem 
off before the period of the Reformation is seen in the- 
efforts made for their reform during the 15th century 
by Innocent VIII., and in the 16th century by the 
general chapter at Cisteaux, even if we do not accept as 
necessarily true the declaration of the old words of 
Galashiels : — 

' The monks of Melrose made gude kail. 
On Fridays when they fasted ; 
They wanted neither beef nor ale 
As long as their neighbours' lasted.' 

The regard in which they were held by Bruce and his- 
successors was probably due to the fact that, althou^ 
exempted by charters and by custom from rendering 
military service to the Crown, yet they fought under 
James the Steward of Scotland during the war of the 
Succession, and again under Walter the Steward, in 
strenuous support of the infant prince David Bruce. 
Thus during the invasion of Edward II. in 1322, when 
Douglas and his band were in the neighbouring forest, 
watching for an opportunity to molest the English, he 
was, with a picked body of men, admitted within the 
precinct of Melrose, whence, according to Barbour, 

'A rycht sturdy frer he sent 
With out the yate thair come to se.' 

And the friar, 'all stout, derff, and hardy,' set forth 
accordingly in somewhat warlike array, for although 
' hys mekill hud helyt haly ' was all ' the armur that h& 
on him had,' yet 

'Apon a stalwart horss he rad, 
And in his hand he had a sper.' 

When the scout gave the signal, Douglas rushing out 
beat back this English advanced guard, and Barbour 
makes the English return home again ; but Fordoun 
says that it was in revenge for this that Edward burned 
the abbey in 1322, slew many of the monks, and pro- 
fanely carried off the silver pix. Declarations were 
afterwards made by both Stewards, and subsequently 
confirmed by the Duke of Albany on the day of the 
Feast of James the Apostle in 1403, that the military 
service of the monks, having been rendered by the 
special grace of the abbot and convent, and not in terms 
of any duty they owed to the Crown, should not be 
regarded as any precedent for their future conduct. 

The only part of the buildings that now remains is 
the ruin of the church, which, though it wants the 
dignity of Elgin Cathedral, is yet, from its richness 
and symmetry, one of the finest pieces of architecture in 
Scotland. ' In some buildings,' says Dr Hill Burton, 
writing in Billings' Baronial and Ecclesiastical Anti- 
quities of Scotlatid, ' the plan is massive, and the decora- 
tions, as if in contrast to it, light and rich ; in others a 
building comparatively meagre is enriched by the massive- 
ness of the decorations, but here the art both of the 
designer and the decorator — whether the same person or 
different — has been employed to the utmost in divesting 
the material of its natural character of ponderosity, and 
rearing high overhead a fane such as aerial beings might 
be supposed to create with the most ductile and delicate 
material ; ' and he goes on to oompare some of the archi- 
tectural features with those of the cathedrals at Strasbourg 
and Antwerp. The style is generally given as Perpen- 
dicular, but, as the same writer points out, after the war 
of Independence, Scottish art agrees with Continental and 
not with English types, and in no ecclesiastical building 
in Scotland will the depressed four centre arch, charac- 
teristic of the true Perpendicular, be found. The 
ogee canopy or hood, which is its counterpart, is 
to be found at Melrose, but the arch it surmounts 
is purely Pointed. How carefully and with what con- 
scientious regard for the dignity and worth of labour the 
craftsmen toiled, is shown by the beauties only discover- 
able on close examination, and by finding details high 
up in air as well finished as if they were where they 
could be constantly looked at. The monastery buildings 
stood to the N and NW of the church, but they are 



MELROSE 

■entirely gone, and nothing can now be ascertained as to 
their extent. A large portion of them must have been 
removed to provide materials for the house that Com- 
mendator Douglas erected in 1590, and subsequently the 
-walls were, no doubt, used pretty much as a quarry for 
■whosoever chose. The stones of the vaulted roof con- 
structed over part of the nave in 1618 were obtained from 
the same source, as were also those of the old town jail, 
and materials for repairs at the mills and sluices — and in- 
deed there is an old tradition that there is not a house in 
the village but has in it stones taken from the monastery. 
The author of the Monastic Annals of TeviotdaU speaks 
of a lofty building of excellent masonry that was taken 
down in 1695, and says it was supposed to have been 
the bakehouse, as ' it contained several well-constructed 
ovens, one over another in the different stories.' He 
also mentions as having then been laid bare, ' a vaulted 
passage or drain, of such dimensions that two or three 
persons might easily walk in it abreast,' and passing 
underground from this place to several other parts of the 
convent. Milne, who was parish minister, and whose 
Account of Melrose, was published in 1743, says that the 
whole buildings were enclosed by a high wall about a 
mile in circuit, and describes bases of pillars and other 
traces of a building to the NE of the church. This was 
probably the chapterhouse. 

The present ruins of the church are evidently, in the 
main, those of the building erected in 1322, though there 
have been many subsequent alterations, and indeed the 
"windows and upper walls to the E are probably sub- 
sequent to the English devastation in 1385, while portions 
may date even as late as 1505. We have already seen 
that the building suffered great damage during Hertford's 
invasions, and the Reformation happening very shortly 
thereafter, there was no opportunity for the monks to 
repair it before they had to quit altogether. Far from 
a centre of population, no actual harm seems to have 
been done to it, as to some of the other buildings of the 
Old Church, in the actual progress of the Reformation ; 
but after its desertion by its inmates, and its partial 
■destruction, wind and weather probably did still more 
injury. In 1618, when part of the nave came to be used 
:as a parish church, the roof had to be closed up by the 
unsightly vault of modern masonry that extends from 
the crossing some 60 feet westward. * A great number 
of the stone images of saints which filled the numerous 
niches that adorn the walls, were left untouched till 
1649, when they were almost all thrown down and 
destroyed, why or by whose order is not known. 

The church is cruciform, and stands E and W, the 
total length in that direction being 258 feet while the 
breadth is 79 feet. The transepts measure 130 feet 
from N to S, and are 44 feet wide, while the one wall of 
the square central tower that is still standing is 84 feet 
high. The nave has had an aisle on each side, and to the 
S of the south aisle there are eight small chapels separated 
one from another by walls. 'The line of the pillars sup- 
porting the arches dividing the nave from the aisles has 
been continued by other two columns on each side, along 
the sides of the choir, to the chancel and lady chapel. 
Of these the two to the W, of which only the bases now 
remain, supported the E wall of the centre tower, and 
in a line with these a row of pillars has run along from 
N to S, separating the transepts from, E of the S tran- 
sept, the chapel of St Bridget, and, E of the N" transept, 
the chapel of St Stephen. Square projections from 
these, at the NE and SE angles of the choir, have also 
formed chapels. Except at the corner of that to the 
JNE, the walls of the transepts, chancel, and chapels are 
still pretty entire, and several of the slender flying 
buttresses remain. Of the pillars between the aisle and 
nave only the four next the nave now remain, and along 
these the elaborate groining of the roof over the S aisle 
is intact. On the N side of the nave the bases of three 

* When the present parish church was built in 1810, it waa in- 
"tended that this vaulting should be removed, as well as the modern 
Aral! at the W end of it ; but as this wotUd have given increased 
,play to wind, it was thought better, in the interests of the delicate 
tracery of the E and S windows, to allow it to remain. 



MELROSE 

pillars farther W are visible, while the nave itself is 
covered over by the unsightly 17th century arching 
already noticed. A small doorway, opening off the N 
aisle, is the 'steel-clenched postern door' by which Scott 
in the Lay of the Last Minstrel makes the old monk 
introduce William of Deloraine to the church. It leads 
out into the space where the cloisters have been, where, 
on the walls, there are a number of false Gothic arches 
of great beauty. The carving of the ornaments of these 
is particularly well preserved and beautiful. ' There is 
one cloister in particular,' says Lockhart, 'along the 
whole length of which there runs a cornice of flowers 
and plants, entirely unrivalled, to my mind, by any- 
thing elsewhere extant. I do not say in Gothic archi- 
tecture merely, but in any architecture whatever. Roses 
and lilies, and thistles, and ferns, and heaths, in all 
their varieties, and oak leaves and ash leaves, and a 
thousand beautiful shapes besides, are chiselled with 
such inimitable truth and such grace of nature, that 
the finest botanist in the world could not desire a better 
hortus siccus, so far as they go.' The roof is quite gone, 
but there are holes along the walls for the beams. The 
carving of the doorway itself that leads into the cloister 
is particularly worthy of notice for its exquisite under- 
cutting. Over the chancel and lady chapel the beauti- 
ful groining remains, and in the wall, above the site of 
the high altar, are the remains of the tracery — still 
pretty entire — of the beautiful E window where Scott 
has described the moon as shining 

' Tlarough slender shafts of shapely stone. 

By foliaged tracery combined ; 
Thou would'st have thought some fairy's hand, 
'Twi.xt poplars straight, the osier wand, 

In many a freakish knot, had twined ; 
Then framed a spell, when the work was done, 
And chaut^ed the willow -wreaths to stone.' t 

This window, which is 36 feet high and 16 wide, has 
five mullions each 8 inches wide, with transoms, and 
interwoven towards the top with very light and elegant 
tracery. With this window is here associated the legend 
connected in most of the other old ecclesiastical build- 
ings with some of the pillars (see Roslin). Immediately 
beneath the site of the high altar is the resting-place of 
the heart of Robert Bruce, and to the S of it is a dark- 
coloured slab of polished encrinital limestone, said to 
mark the grave of Alexander II., who was buried near 
the high altar in 1249. Other authorities, however, 
maintain that it marks the burial-place of St Waltheof J 
or Waldeve, who was the second abbot of the monastery 
founded by King David, and that it is the slab placed 
here by Ingram, Bishop of Glasgow (1164-74) who came 
to Melrose, according to the Chronica de Mailros, to 
open the grave after Waltheof had been buried for 
twelve years, and found the body in perfect preservation. 
Scott makes the old monk and William of Deloraine 
seat themselves on it while waiting till the exact moment 
for opening the tomb of Michael Scott should arrive. 

t The description of Melrose by moonlight, with which the 
second canto of the Lay of the Last Minstrel commences, is now 
generally admitted to have been purely imaginary. Some of the 
details, if real, could only have been described by one who had 
been actually about the building at night, and this in Scott's case 
does not seem to have been so. Old John Bower who was so long 
the keeper of the abbey always stoutly maintained that Scott 
never got the key from him at night, and so could never possibly 
have been about the ruin by moonlight, and the 'great wizard' 
is said himself to have once appended to the lines the additional 
ones — somewhat apocryphal : — 

* Then go and muse with deepest awe 

On what the writer never saw. 
Who x^-ould not wander 'neath tlie moon 

To see what he could see at noon.' 
Moore indeed maintained that Scott was much too practical a man 
to go poking about the ruins by moonlight. Bower himself is 
said in dark nights to have accommodated poetry-struck -risitors 
by means of a lantern set on the end of a pole. Latterly he even 
preferred his double tallow-candle to the moon itself. ' It does na 
hcht up a' the Abbey at aince, to be sure,' he would say, ' but 
then you can shift it aboot, and show the auld ruin bit hy bit, 
whiles the moon only shines on one side.' 

J St Waltheof was a son of the "wife of David I. by her first 
husband, Simon, Earl of Huntingdon, and so the grandson ot 
Siward Saxon Coimt of Northumberland. 

25 



MELBOSE 

The chancel was also the burial-place of the Douglases, 
and tombs are pointed out said to be those of William 
Douglas, the Dark Knight of Liddesdale — whose murder 
of Sir Alexander Ramsay (see Hermitage) and subse- 
quent death in Ettrick Forest at the hands of his own 
chief, William, Earl of Douglas, are well known — and of 
James, second Earl of Douglas, theheroofOtterburn. The 
Douglas tombs were all defaced by Sir Kalph, afterwards 
Lord, Evers in 1544, and after the battle of Ancrum, 
Evers himself was buried here, his tomb being pointed 
out in the corner chapel just outside the chancel. Here 
also is a slab covering the grave pointed out by John 
Bower the elder as the place that Scott had in mind 
when describing the burial-place of the 'wondrous 
Michael Scott. ' It is doubtful, however, whether Scott 
had any particular grave in view, and it is of course un- 
necessary to point out that the tomb here can have no 
connection whatever with the real Sir Michael, whose 
introduction into the Lay at that date is merely a piece 
of poetical licence (see Balwearie). At the northern 
end of the N transept a small doorway leads into the 
sacristy in which is the tombstone of Johanna, Queen 
of Alexander 11., with the \ns,a:v^iioTi Hie jacet Johanna 
d. Soss. Higher up is a door which has been reached 
by a flight of steps, and which has probably led to the 
dormitory. The threshold of this doorway is formed 
by a part of a very old tombstone : the steps were 
removed in 1730. Higher up in the wall still is a small 
circular window, said to represent a crown of thorns. 
The arches here seem to be those from which the 
description in the Lay has been taken : — 

' Tlie darken'd roof rose high aloof 
On pillars lofty, and light and small ; 
The key-stone that locked each ribbed aisle 
Was a fleur-de-lys, or a quatre-feuille ; 
The corbells were carved grotesque and grim. 
And the pillars, with clustered shafts so trim, 
With base and capital flourish'd around, 
Seem'd bundles of lances which garlands had bound.* 

On the W side, in elevated niches, are statues repre- 
senting St Peter wdth his book and keys, and St Paul 
with a sword. In the S transept part of the groined 
roof still remains. In the W wall is a small door giving 
access to the triforium passages. Over the centre is a 
shield bearing a pair of compasses and fleurs-de-lis in 
reference to the profession and native country of the 
designer. Beside it is the inscription in old English 
letter : — 

' Sa gays ye corapas evyil about 
sa truth and laute do, but doute, 
behaulde to ye hende q Johne Morvo.' 

Higher up to the left is also the following in similar 
characters : — 

* John Morow sum tym callit 
was I and born in Parysse 
certainly and had in kepyng 
al mason werk of Santan- 
drays ye bye kirk of Glas- 
g\v Melros and Paslay of 
Nyddsdayll and of Galway. 
I pray to God and Marl bath 
and sweet Sanct John keep this halj- kirk 
fra skaith.' 

This is the division of lines as given on the stone. A 
slight alteration converts the inscription into the rude 
rhyme Avhich no doubt it was meant to be. The upper 
part of the S wall is occupied by a very fine window, 
24 feet high and 16 wide, with five lights and ela- 
borate wheel tracery over ; beneath the window is a 
doorway. On the outside the window is surmounted by 
nine niches, of which the centre one, which is highly 
wrought, is said to have contained an image of Christ. 
The eight others and four more on the side buttresses 
held figures of the Apostles. Over the doorway is a 
figure supposed to be that of John the Baptist, so placed 
that the eye is directed upwards as if to the figure of 
Christ above, and bearing a scroll with the inscription, 
Eccefilius Dr.i. Beneath this is a shield with the royal 
arms of Scotland. The pedestals and canopies of the 
niches on the buttresses are richly carved. One of the 
pedestals on the W is supported by a monk bearing a 
26 



MELEOSE 

scroll with the inscription. En venit Jes. seq. cessabit 
umbra, and one on the E by a monk having a scroll in- 
scribed Passus e. q. ipse voluit. Over the E window there 
are also niches, some of which contain broken statuettes. 
That over the centre of the window has two sitting 
figures with open cro^vns, said to represent David I. and 
his queen Matilda. There are many more of these 
niches on the S side, and in connection with a fine one, 
containing a statue of the Virgin holding the infant 
Jesus in her arms, Milne relates a tradition, how, when 
the person employed to destroy the statues in 1649 
struck at this one his first blow knocked off the head of 
the infant, which, in its fall, struck his arm and per- 
manently disabled him, so that neither he nor any one 
else cared to recommence the work of destruction.* 
Some of the gargoyles are curious, and one — a pig. 
playing on the bagpipe, close to the niche just men- 
tioned — has acquired some celebrity. 

Of the eight chapels to the S of the south aisle the five 
farthest to the E are roofed ; the others are now open. 
Each of them is lit by a finely traceried window, and in. 
the wall of each is a piscina. In the one next the transept 
is a stone inscribed ' Orate pro anima frat. Petre aerarii.' 
In the third is a monument to David Fletcher, minister 
of Melrose, who, on the establishment of Episcopacy, 
was made ]3ishop of Argyll. The others have long been, 
used as the burial-places of the Pringles of Whitebank 
and Galashiels. Another branch of the Pringle family 
had their burying-place, near the cloister door, marked 
by the simple inscription ' Heir lyis the race of the hous- 
of Zair.' Few of the stones in the churchyard round 
the church call for particular notice. That of John, 
Knox, minister of Melrose, has been already noticed. 
Sir David Brewster (1781-1868), who died at Allerly, in 
the parish of Melrose, is buried under the fifth window 
counting from the W end of the nave. Near the SE 
corner of the churchyard is the stone erected by Scott — 
with an inscription written by himself — over the grave 
of Tom Purdie, long his forester, favourite, and general 
manager at Abbotsford. On a small red tombstone in. 
the SE, mthout date but evidently more than 200 years- 
old, is the inscription : — 

' The earth goeth 
on the earth 
glistring like 

gold; 
The earth goes to 
the earth sooner 
then it wold ; 
The earth builds 
on the earth cast- 
leg and towers : 
The earth says to 
the earth all shall 

be ours. 

This was, in 1853, published in Notes and Queries as an 
epigram by Sir Walter Scott, but this was soon contra- 
dicted. Inscriptions differing but little from it are. 
found in several English churchyards, and the original, 
lines probably date from the time of Edward III. (see- 
Wheler's History and Antiquities of Slratford-tiimn- 
Avon). 

The ruins were repaired in 1822 at the expense of the- 
Duke of Buccleuch, and under the superintendence of 
Sir Walter Scott. Washington Irving has charged the 
latter with having carried off ' morsels from the ruins 
of Melrose Abbey ' to be incorporated in Abbotsford ;. 
but in reality what Irving saw was probably a number 
of the plaster casts of various ornaments that were made 
at this time. The proprietor cares diligently for the 
ruins, and makes repairs whenever necessary. The 
abbey has been painted or drawn by almost every 
eminent British landscape painter from Turner down- 
wards, and has been and is every year visited by a- 
very large number of visitors. Burns, who came here. 

* This * miracle ' is said to have been talked of at Rome, with the- 
additional marvel that the man — known as ' Stumpy Thomson ' — 
was dragged ignoniiniously to bis grave at a horse's heels. This> 
last circumstance is so far true that, the individual in questioa 
having died during a severe snowstorm, his coffin was dragged to 
the churchyard on a horse sledge. 



MELEOSE 

in 1787 during liis Border tour, a little before his time in 
admiration of Gothic architecture as in so many other 
things, calls it 'that far-famed glorious ruin,' and yet 
he must have seen part of it wlien it was by no means 
at its best. 'On opening the door,' says Grose, or 
rather Mr Hutchinson for him, ' it is not to be ex- 
pressed the disagreeable scene which presents itself ; the 
place is filled with stalls, in the disposition of which 
irregularity alone seems to have been studied ; some are 
raised on upright beams, as scaffolds, tier above tier ; 
others supported against the walls and pillars ; ne two 
are alike in form, height, or magnitude ; the same con- 
fusion of little and great, high and low, covers the floor 
with pews ; the lights are so obstructed that the place 
is as dark as a vault ; the floor is nothing but the damp 
earth ; nastiness and irregularity possess the whole 
scene.' Dorothy Wordsworth, who visited Melrose 
with her brother during their Scottish tour of 1803, 
when they were guided over the ruins by Scott himself, 
makes similar reference to the want of neatness about 
the church, and indeed she seems to have thought the 
ruin overrated. It ' is of considerable extent, but 
unfortunately it is almost surrounded by insignificant 
houses, so that when you are close to it you see it 
entirely separated i'rom many rural objects ; and even 
when viewed from a distance the situation does not 
seem to be particularly happy, for the vale is broken 
and disturbed and the abbey at a distance from the 
river, so that you do not look upon them as companions 
to each other.' This is somewhat captious, but it is 
probably a vague expression of the disappointment felt 
by most on a first visit to the place. This disappoint- 
ment is an undoubted fact, though why it should exist 
it is more diflicult to say. Possibly it may partly arise 
from too great expectations, but probably more from 
the surroundings and the heavy and ungainly 17th 
century vaulting of the nave. It is only by closer study 
and familiarity with all the beautiful details — quite lost 
in a general first view — that the feeling is removed. 

The Queen visited the Abbey in 1867, during her 
stay with the Duke of Roxburghe at Floors Castle. 
The visit is thus described in More Lmves from the 
Jourivxl of a Life in the Highlands ; — ' We went by the 
side of the Eildon Hills, past an immense railway 
viaduct, and nothing could be prettier than the road. 
The position of Melrose is most picturesque, surrounded 
by woods and hills. The little village, or rather town, 
oi Newstead, which we passed through just before coming 
to Melrose, is very narrow and steep. We drove straight 
up to the Abbey through the grounds of the Duke of 
Buccleuch's agent, and got out and walked about the 
ruins, which are indeed very fine, and some of the 
architecture and carving in beautiful preservation. 
David I., who is described as a "sair Saint," originally 
built it, but the Abbey, the ruins of which are now 
standing, was built in the fifteenth century. We saw 
where, under the high altar, Robert Bruce's heart is 
supposed to be buried ; also the tomb of Alexander II., 
and of the celebrated wizard, Michael Scott. Reference 
is made to the former in some lines of Sir Walter Scott's, 
in the Lay of the Last Minstrel, which describes this 
Border country : — 

" They sat them down on a marble stone ; 
A Scottish monarch slept helow." 

And then when Deloraine takes the book from the dead 
wizard's hand, it says — 

"He thought, as het;ook: it, the dead man frowned." 
Most truly does Walter Scott say — 

"If thou wouldst view fair Melrose aright. 
Go visit it by the pale moonhght." 

It looks very ghostlike, and reminds me a little of 
Holyrood Chapel. We walked in the churchyard to 
look at the exterior of the Abbey, and then re-entered 
our carriages. ' 

See also Milne's Description of the Parish of Melrose 
(1743) ; Grose's Antiquities of Scotland (1791) ; Bower's 
Description of the AVbeys of Melrose (Kelso, 1813) ; Mor- 



MEMSIE 

ton's Monastic Annals of Teviotdale (1832); Chronica 
de Mailros (Bannatyne Club, 1835) ; Liber Sanete Marie 
de Metros (Bannatyne Club, 1837) ; Scott's Lay of the 
Last Minstrel, Monastery, and Abbot; Washington Irving's 
Ahbotsford and Newstcad Abbey; Mrs H. B. Stowe's 
Sunny Memories of Many Lands ; Billings' Baronial and 
Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland (Edinb. 1852); J. 
D. Wade's History of St Mary's Abbey, Melrose, etc. 
(Edinb. 1861); and F. Pinches' The Abbey Church of 
Melrose, Scotland (Lond. 1879). 

Melsetter, a mansion in Walls parish, Hoy island, 
Orkney, at the head of Longhope Bay, 18 miles SW of 
Kirkwall. Its owner, John George Moodie-Heddle, 
Esq. (b. 1844 ; sue. 1869), holds 50,410 acres, valued at 
£3527 per annum. 

Melvich, a scattered village in Eeayparish, Sutherland, 
on the left side of the mouth of the Halladale, near the 
head of a small bay, 17 miles W by S of Thurso. It 
has a post and telegraph office under Thurso, a good 
inn, and a public school. Immediately NNW is the 
fishing-village of Portskerra. Pop. of the two villages 
(1871) 414, (1881) 646, of whom 259 were in Melvich.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 115, 1878. 

Melville Castle, the seat of Viscount Melville, in 
Lasswade parish, Edinburghshire, on the North Esk's 
left bank, 1 mile NNE of Lasswade village and 1^- W by 
N of Eskbank station near Dalkeith. Built in 1786 from 
designs by John Playfair, it is a castellated three-story 
edifice of fair white stone, with round corner towers and 
two-story wings. The grounds are of great beauty. 
' Melville's beechy grove ' is celebrated in Sir Walter 
Scott's Grey Brother; and 11 of its beeches, 9 of its oaks, 
are described in Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc. for 1881 as 
among the ' old and remarkable trees of Scotland. ' Mel- 
ville barony, originally called Male-ville, from Male, an 
Anglo-Norman baron, who was governor of Edinburgh 
Castle in the reign of Malcolm IV., remained in posses- 
sion of his family till the time of Robert II., when it 
passed by marriage to Sir John Ross of Hawkhead. 
With his descendants, the Lords Ross, it continued till 
1705 ; and, being afterwards purchased by David Kennie, 
it passed, by his daughter's marriage, to the eminent 
statesman Henry Dundas (1742-1811), who was created 
Viscount Melville in 1802. His grandson, Robert Dun- 
das, fourth Viscount (b. 1803 ; sue. 1876), holds 1158 
acres in Midlothian, valued at £3618 per annum. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 32, 1857. See Lasswade, and John Small's 
Castles and Mansions of the Loth.ians (Edinb. 1883). 

Melville House, a four-story mansion of 1692, with ex- 
tensive and beautiful grounds, in Monimail parish, Fife, 
3 miles N by W of Ladybank. It contains portraits 
of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, and Sir Alex- 
ander Leslie, General of the Covenanters, Field-Marshal 
of Sweden, and first Earl of Leven. Sir Robert Mel- 
ville (1527-1621), a distinguished diplomatist in the 
reigns of Mary and James VI., in 1616 was raised to the 
peerage as Lord Melville of Monimail ; and George, 
fourth Lord Melville, who played an active part in the 
Revolution times, in 1690 was created Earl of Melville 
— a title conjoined with that of Leven since 1713. At 
the death in 1860 of the eighth Earl of Leven, the estate 
— 2157 acres, of £3090 annual value — went to his eldest 
daughter, Lady Elizabeth Jane Leslie-Melville, who in 
1858 had married Thomas Cartwright, Esq. An ancient 
standing stone, \ mile SW of the house, rises upwards of 
9 feet from the ground, and measures 6 feet in circum- 
ference.— Orci. Siir., shs. 48, 40, 1868-67. 

Memsle, an estate, with a 17th centui-y mansion (a 
farmhouse now), in Rathen parish, NE Aberdeenshire, 4 
miles SSW of Fraserburgh. The estate, which belonged 
for more than three centuries to the Eraser family, was 
sold in the early part of the present century to Lord 
Saltoun. Three cairns stood on Memsie Moor, to the N 
of the mansion. One of them, now removed, had a con- 
siderable extent of vitrified base ; another, also removed, 
contained a peculiarly shaped funereal urn and a short 
iron-handled sword ; whilst the third, still standing, 
rises to a height of 15 feet, and measures 60 feet in cir- 
cumference au the base. — Ord. Sur., sh. 97, 1876. 

27 



iiEivins 



MEBTONHALL 



Memus, a place, with a Free church, in Tannadice 
parish, Forfarshire, 5J miles NE of Kirriemuir. 

Menmuir, a hamlet and a parish of NE Forfarshire. 
The hamlet lies 5 miles WNW of Brechin, under which 
it has a post office. 

The parish is bounded NW by Lethnot, NE by 
Stracathro, S by Brechin and Careston, and W by 
Fearn. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 6J miles ; 
its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 3J miles ; and its 
area is 10,11 OJ acres, of which 10 are water. Paphrie 
Burn, coming in from Fearn, first crosses a narrow wing 
of the interior, and then runs 2§ miles east-north-east- 
ward along the Lethnot boundary to West Water, 
which itself goes 9 furlongs along the rest of the northern 
boundary ; Ckuiok Water, coming in from the SAV, 
winds 6| miles east-by-northward near to or along the 
southern boundary ; and Menmuir Burn, rising IJ 
mile NW of Menmuir hamlet, runs 4J miles east-by- 
southward to Cruick AVater. Along the last-named 
stream the surface declines to 200 feet above sea-level ; 
and thence it rises to 978 feet at White Cateethun, 
943 at Brown Caterthun, 880 at the Hill of Menmuir, 
1009 at Mansworn Rig, and 1579 at Peat Hill. The 
district S of the hills, comprising about one-half of the 
entire area, and forming part of Strathmore, lay mostly, 
till a comparatively recent period, in a marshy condition ; 
and, though retaining some patches of marshy ground, is 
now nearly all of it well-reclaimed arable plain. The 
predominant rocks are greywacke and Old Pied sand- 
stone. A neglected chalybeate spring on Balhall Farm 
was once in much repute. The soil of the lands adjacent 
to Cruick Water is sharp and gravelly, on the parts of 
the plain further N is loamy, and on the hill-slopes is 
deep sandy clay. The chief antiquities are described in 
our article on the White and Brown Caterthun. 
Balnamoon, noticed separately, is the only mansion ; 
but 4 proprietors hold each an annual value of more, 2 
of less, than £500. Menmuir is in the jjresbytery of 
Brechin and the synod of Angus and Mearns ; the 
living is worth £208. The parish church was erected 
in 1842. There is also a Free church ; and a public 
school, with accommodation for 118 children, had (1883) 
an average attendance of 89, and a grant of £93, Os. 6d. 
Valuation (1857) £5833, (1884) £7993, 18s. Pop. (1801) 
949, (1831) 871, (1861) 796, (1871) 761, (1881) 765.— 
Ord,. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Menock Water. See Minniok. 

Menstrie, a village in the Clackmannanshire portion 
of Logie parish, 2| miles W of Alva, 4 NW by N of 
Alloa, and 4| NE of Stirling. It stands, 75 feet above 
sea-level, on the left bank of Menstrie Burn, at the 
southern base of the Ochils, with Dunmyat (1375 feet) 
to the NW, and Myreton Hill (1240) to the NE. Power- 
looms, for weaving Scotch blankets and other woollen 
goods, were introduced early in the present century ; and 
to the factory of Messrs Archibald the larger Elmbank 
Mill was added in 1864, which is worked by a steam- 
engine of 90 horse-power, and yearly consumes raw wool 
material to the value of £33,000. The Dolls or Glbn- 
OCHIL Distillery (1760) stands 1 mile ESE ; and Menstrie 
besides has a post and telegraph office, a station on the 
Alva branch (1863) of the North British, gasworks, an 
Established chapel of ease (1880), and a handsome pub- 
lic school (1875). A quaint old house in the village is 
pointed out as the birthplace of the poet Sir William 
Alexander (1580-1640), first Earl of Stirling, and also of 
Sir Ealph Abercromby (1734-1801), the hero of Aboukir 
Bay. The beauty of the landscape is celebrated in the 
old-world rhyme, ascribed to a miller's wUe, whom the 
fairies had sprited away — 

' Oh ! Alva woods are bonny, 
Tillycoultry hills are fair; 
But wlieu I thinli o' the bonny braes o' Menstrie, 
It maka my heart aye sair.' 

Pop. (1841) 518, (1861) 455, (1871) 658, (1881) 918, of 
whom 462 were females. Houses (1881) 185 inhabited, 
9 vacant, 1 building. — Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Wentaith. See Monteith. 

Menzies. See Castle-Menzies. 
28 



Menzion Bum, a rivulet of Tweedsmuir parish, SW 
Peeblesshire, running 4 miles north-westward to the 
Tweed, at a point 7 furlongs SSW of Tweedsmuir church. 

Merchiston. See Edinburgh. 

Merchiston Hall, a mansion in Falkirk parish, Stir- 
lingshire, 1 mile WNW of the town. It was the birth- 
place of Admiral Sir Charles Napier (1786-1860), the 
hero of St Jean d'Acre.— Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Merchiston House, a mansion in Kilbarohan parish, 
Renfrewshire, 1 J mile NNW of Johnstone. 

Merkinch. See Inverness. 

Merkland Cross, an old monument in Kirkpatrick- 
Fleming parish, SE Dumfriesshire, 2| miles WNW of 
Kirkpatrick village. It comprises a base or socket 2J 
feet high, and a slightly tapering octagonal pillar 9 feet 
high, and is supposed to commemorate a Master of Max- 
well, Warden of the Marches, who, after a victorious 
skirmish with the Duke of Albany and the Earl of Doug- 
las, was here assassinated in 1484. — Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 
1864. 

Merkland, Loch, a lake on the mutual border of Ed- 
drachillis and Lairg parishes, Sutherland, 4J miles NNW 
of Overscaig Inn on Loch Shin, and 21f NW of Lairg 
station. Lying 367 feet above sea-level, it extends 2J 
miles south-south-eastward ; has a maximum width of 
2J furlongs ; sends off its superfluence southward to 
Loch Griam, and through that to the head of Loch 
Shin ; and contains fine large red-fleshed trout. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 108, 1880. 

Merrick, a mountain near the northern border of 
Minnigaff parish, NW Kirkcudbrightshire, 18 mUes N 
by W of Newton-Stewart. Rising to an altitude of 2764 
feet above sea-level, it is the highest summit in southern 
Scotland, ' while in the grandeur and desolation of its 
scenery, in its crags and precipices and deeply-scored 
gullies, it almost approaches the mountains of the 
North.'— Orrf. Sur., sh. 8, 1863. 

Merryston, West, a village in Old Monkland parish, 
Lanarkshire, close to Easterhouse station, and 3| mUes 
W of Coatbridge. Pop. (1861) 627, (1871) 541, (1881) 
534. 

Merse, a district on the eastern part of the Scottish 
Border. In modern territorial arrangement it is the 
largest and most southerly of the three divisions of 
Berwickshire, and has been computed to comprise 
129,600 acres; in loose popular phraseology it is the 
whole of Berwickshire, including both the Lammer- 
muir and Lauderdale districts ; in proper topogra- 
phical nomenclature, based on strict reference to 
geographical feature, it is all the low country be- 
tween the Lammermuirs and the river Tweed, and 
includes all the Merse district of Berwickshire, with all 
the parts of Roxburghshire northward of the Tweed ; 
and in ancient political designation it was the entire 
champaign country between the Lammermuirs and the 
Cheviots, included all the lowlands of Teviotdale, and 
was regarded as having Roxburgh town and castle for 
its capital. It forms, in any view, the eastern part of 
what were formerly termed ' the marches ; ' was anciently 
called March, as being the most important part of the 
marches ; and gives the title of Earl of March to the 
Earl of Wemyss. The champaign portion of it, whether 
understood in the widest sense or restricted to Ber- 
wickshire, is the largest and richest tract of low 
country in Scotland ; admits some comparison with the 
champaign of the Lothians, but claims superiority in 
consequence of that champaign being intersected by the 
Garleton, Edinburgh, and Pentland Hills ; and, as seen 
from any of multitudes of high vantage grounds, looks 
to be a continuous expanse of parks and arable farms, 
yet is much diversified by gentle undulations and by a 
few considerable isolated heights. 

The synod of Merse and Teviotdale ranks as second 
in the General Assembly's list ; comprehends the 
presbyteries of Duns, Chirnside, Kelso, Jedburgh, 
Earlston, and Selkirk ; and holds its meetings at Kelso 
on the second Tuesday of October, and at Melrose on 
the second Tuesday of April. 

Mertonhall, a fine old house, with a large and well- 



UERTOUN 

■wooded park, in Penningliame parish, Wigtownshire, 3 
miles WSW of Newton-Stewart. Its owner, Campbell 
Boyd, Esq. (b. 1S42 ; sue. 1882), holds 1524 acres in the 
shire, valued at £814 per annum. His uncle, Mark 
Boyd, Esq. (1805-79), was author of two amusingautobio- 
graphical works. An ancient military road traverses 
the estate ; and a ' Roman ' spear-head, 9 inches long, 
was exhumed on it in 1813. — Ord. Sur., sh. 4, 1857. 

Mertoun, a Tweedside parish in the e.xtreme SW of 
Berwickshire, containing Clintmains hamlet, li mile E 
by N of St Boswells, under which it has a post office. 
It is bounded N b}' Earlston, and on all other sides by 
Roxburghshire, viz., NE by Smailholm, E by Maker- 
stoun, S by Maxwell, SW by St Boswells, and W by 
Melrose. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 4f miles ; 
its breadth varies between lOJ furlongs and 4J miles ; 
and its area is 6536i acres, of which 16]f are water. 
The Tweed — from the influx of Leader Water to Dal- 
cove Ferry — meanders 10| miles south-south-eastward 
and eastward along all the boundary with Melrose, St 
Boswells, and Maxton, though the point where it first 
touches and that where it quits the parish are only 5J 
miles distant as the crow flies. This part of its course 
is very winding, the river making several large sweeps, 
especially at Old Melrose, at Dryburgh, and between 
Mertoun Mill and the new Suspension Bridge (erected 
by Lord Polwarth in 1880). The Mertoun bank, which 
is generally high, steep, and well wooded, furnishes some 
fine bits of clitf sceneiy. Along the Tweed the surface 
declines to 190 feet above sea-level, and rises thence to 
425 feet near Dalcove Mains, 542 near Clinthill, 588 
near Bejiersyde House, 747 near Gladswood, and 871 
near Brotherstone. Bemersyde Loch, situated in the N W 
part of Mertoun, is almost dry in summer, but in winter 
it affords fair wild-fowl shooting. The soil is mainly a 
stiff, reddish clay, and, although difficult to work, is 
productive and highly cultivated. Eed sandstone 
abounds along the Tweed, and was formerly quarried. 
Mertoun is a well-wooded parish, especially in the S 
part, which contains the Hexsides beech-wood and Mer- 
toun woods. Dktburgh Abbey and Bemersy'DE have 
been noticed separately. Mertoun House, a seat of 
Lord Polwarth, stands close to the Tweed's left hank, 2 
miles E of St Boswells. It was built in 1702 from 
designs by the celebrated architect. Sir William Bruce. 
(See Harden.) Gladswood, in the NW of the parish, 
3 miles E of Melrose, is the seat of Miss Meiklam (sue. 
1882), who holds 258 acres in the shire, valued at £426 
per annum. The Queen stopped here on 22d August 
1867 as she was driving from Melrose to Floors Castle. 
In all, there are five landowners. Mertoun is in the 
presbytery of Earlston and the synod of Merse and 
Teviotdale ; the living is worth £377. Its church, 
built in 1658 and restored in 1820, stands in a wood 
near Mertoun House, J mile SSE of Clintmains. It has 
accommodation for 200 people ; and a pair of ' jougs ' 
hang beside the main entrance. The public school, built 
in 1839, and enlarged in 1872, with accommodation for 
121 children, had (1883) an average attendance of 64, and 
a grant of £69, Is. Valuation (1860) £8768, 5s. 8d., 
(1884)£10,200,Ss. 6d. Pop.(1801) 535,(1831) 664, (1861) 
729, (1871) 734, (1881) 682.— Ord Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 
Meshie Water. See Mashie. 

Methil, a seaport village in Wemyss parish, Fife, on 
the Firth of Forth, 1 mile SW of Leven, and IJ NE 
of Buekhaven. Constituted a burgh of barony in 1662 
by the Bishop of St Andrews, it has long possessed 
commercial importance, in consequence of its harbour 
being one of the best on the S coast of Fife. The E 
pier was gi-eatly injured by a storm in 1803, with the 
effect of choking the entrance to the harbour, but was 
restored in 1838 at a cost of more than £6100 ; and anew 
wet dock, principally for facilitating the shipping of 
«oals, was constructed in 1875. An Established church, 
built in 1837-38 at a cost of £1030, and containing up- 
wards of 800 sittings, in 1875 was raised to quoad sacra 
status. Pop. of village (1836) 508, (1861)522, (1871) 
€48, (1881) 754; of q. s. parish (1881) 2342, of whom 
501 were in Markinch.— Or^?. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 



METHVEN 

MetMl Hill, a village in AVemyss parish, Fife, 1 mile 
WNW of Methil. Pop. (1871) 480, (1881) 466. 

Methlick, a village and a parish of Aberdeenshire. 
The village stands, 87 feet above sea-level, on the right 
bank of the river Ythan, 5 miles W by N of Arnage 
station, 6| E by S of Fyvie, and 84 NW of Ellon. It 
has a post and telegraph office under Aberdeen, branches 
of the North of Scotland and the Aberdeen To\vn and 
County Banks, a Temperance Institute, with reading 
and recreation rooms, and fairs on the Thursday after 
11 May and the Wednesday after 18 Nov. 

The parish is bounded N and NE by New Deer, E and 
S by Tarves, and W by Fyvie and Monquhitter. Its 
utmost length, from N to S, is 7J miles ; its utmost 
breadth, from E to W, is 4f miles ; and its area is 
14,912J acres, of which 704 are water, and 881J 
belong to a small triangular detached portion sur- 
rounded by Ellon and Tarves. In the main body of 
the parish the Ythan flows 2-| miles east-north-east- 
ward along the Fyvie boundary, 3J miles south-east- 
ward through the interior, and l| mile south-east- 
ward along the Tarves boundary ; 1 4 furlong lower 
down it continues 2 miles south-eastward along all the 
south-western border of the detached portion, whose 
eastern boundary is traced by Ebrie Burn. At the 
Ebrie's and Ythan's confluence the surface declines to 38 
feet above sea-level, and thence it rises gently to 409 
near Cairn in the south-western division of the main body, 
and in the north-eastern to 485 at Skillmanae HOI and 
579 at Belnagoak. The tract along the Ythan is mostly 
clothed with wood ; the south-eastern corner of the main 
body is occupied by the extensive and beautiful policies 
of Haddo House ; other portions are low country finely 
diversified with undulations ; but much of the north- 
eastern division is reclaimed moor. Gneiss and syenite 
are the predominant rocks, and limestone occurs in 
the detached portion, and was formerly worked. The 
soil on the lands within IJ mile of either bank of the 
\''than is a yellow loam incumbent on gravel or rock ; but 
further back becomes poorer, being chiefly a light black 
mould or moorband pan ; and over a considerable aggre- 
gate area is peat moss. About 2500 acres, formerly waste, 
have been brought into cultivation since the commence- 
ment of the present century ; and nearly as many acres 
have been planted with Scotch fir and larch. A pre- 
Reformation chapel stood at a place still known as 
Chapelton ; and another at Andet, dedicated to St Ninian, 
has bequeathed the name of Chapel Park to a neighbour- 
ing farmhouse. Dr George Cheyne (1671-1742), author 
of a treatise on the Philosophical Prinaplcs of Natural 
Religion, and Dr Charles Maitland (1668-1748), the intro- 
ducer of vaccine innoculation into Britain, were natives 
of Methlick. Haddo House, noticed separately, is the 
only mansion ; and the Earl of Aberdeen is sole pro- 
prietor. In 1875 a small portion was given off to the quoad 
sacra parish of Barthol Chapel, Methlick is in the pres- 
bytery of Ellon and the synod of Aberdeen ; the living is 
worth £342. The parish church at Methlick village was 
originally dedicated to St Devenick, and, as last rebuilt 
in 1866, is a handsome Gothic edifice, containing 894 
sittings. There is also a Free church ; and three public 
schools — Cairnorrie, Inverebrie, and Methlick — with 
respective accommodation for 129, 68, and 210 children, 
had (1883) an average attendance of 120, 66, and 157, 
and grants of £99, "7s., £53, 15s., and £144, Is. 6d. 
Valuation (1860) £5818, (1884) £10,759, 7s. 4d. Pop. 
(1801) 1215, (1831) 1439, (1861) 2157, (1871) 2084, 
(1881) 2162, of whom 2127 were in the ecclesiastical 
parish.— Orrf. Sur., shs. 87, 86, 1876. 

Methven, a village and parish of Perthshire. The 
village, standing 300 feet above sea-level, has a station 
on the Almond Valley section (1858) of the Caledonian, 
IJ mile N by W of Methven Junction, this being 6J 
miles WNW of Perth and llj ENE of Crieff. A pleasant, 
neatly built place, it consists of houses held partly on 
feus, partly on long leases from the lordship of Methven, 
and has a post office under Perth, with money order, 
savings' bank, and jrailway telegraph departments, a 
local savings' bank (1815), a gas company, a subscription 

29 



METHVEN 

library (1790), curling and bowling clubs, and a jute and 
linen factory. In 1433 a collegiate church, for a provost 
and five prebendaries, was founded at Methven by Walter 
Stewart, Earl of Athole, who four years later was tor- 
tured to death at Edinburgh for the murder of his 
nephew, James I. An estant aisle, now the burying- 
place of the Smythes of Methven, is thought to have 
been added in the early part of the succeeding century, 
by Margaret, queen-dowager of James IV. , as one of its 
stones is sculptured with the royal lion of Scotland, sur- 
mounted by a crown. The present parish church is a 
plain building of 1783, enlarged in 1825, and containing 
1000 sittings. In the churchyard is the tomb of General 
Sir Thomas Graham, Lord Ltnedooh (1730-1843), the 
hero of Barossa, who was born at Balgowan. There are 
also Free and U.P. churches. Pop. of village (1861) 
960, (1871) 867, (1881) 751. 

The parisli, containing also the villages of Almond- 
bank and SoKOGGiEHiLL, is bounded N by Monzie 
(detached), NE by Moneydie and Kedgorton, SE by 
Tibbermore, S by Tibbermore, Gask, and Madderty, 
and W by Fowlis-Wester. Its utmost length, from E 
by N to W by S, is 6 J miles ; its breadth varies between 
1 mile and 3| miles ; and its area is 12,983f acres, of 
which 724 are water, and 2823i belong to the Tully- 
beagles or detached section (4J x 1| miles), which, lying 
6 miles N of Methven village and 3 W of Bankfoot, is 
bounded NW by Little Dunkeld, and on all other sides 
by Auchtergaven. The Almond winds 3| miles east- 
ward along all the northern boundary, next 1 J mile east- 
south-eastward across a north-eastern wing (the Lyne- 
doch propertj'), and lastly 2| miles south-eastward along 
the Redgorton border. Its rapid course between bold, 
rocky banks, here bare, there wooded, offers many 
beautiful views. Pow Water rises in two head-streams 
which unite at the SW corner of the main body, and 
pass away towards the Earn ; whilst another stream, 
rising near the sources of the Pow, meanders 4J miles 
eastward through the interior past Slethven village, and 
then goes 3 miles east-north-eastward along the southern 
boundary to the Almond. Methven Loch (1 J x | furl. ) 
lies to the W of Almondbank village. The surface of the 
main body of the parish is agreeably diversified with hol- 
lows and wooded slopes, sinking in the extreme E to close 
on 100 feet above sea-level, and rising thence west-north- 
westward to 431 feet near Drumcairn, 483 near Wester 
Carsehill, and 653 near Monabuie. The hilly detached 
district, which by Ordie and Garry Burns is drained to 
the river Tay, has likewise a west-north-westward ascent, 
from 290 feet above sea-level to 1263 at Craig Gibbon 
and 1399 at Creag Liath. Trap and Old Red sand- 
stone are the predominant rocks. A greenstone variety 
of the trap, well suited for road metal, and a iiue- 
grained pale grey variety of the sandstone, adapted for 
building, have both been quarried. The soil of the 
lower grounds, for the most part argillaceous, is 
elsewhere either loam or gravel ; that on some of the 
high grounds of the main body, and on those of the 
detached district, is moorish. About four-fifths of the 
entire area are regularly or occasionally in tillage ; nearly 
one-sixth is under wood ; and the rest is either pastoral 
or waste. Of many fine old trees the ' Pepperwell Oak ' 
in front of Methven Castle is the finest, its height being 
82 feet, and its girth 23 at 1 foot from the ground. 
Prior to 1323, the lands of Methven belonged to the 
Mowbrays, whose ancestor, Roger Mowbray, a Norman, 
accompanied William the Conqueror to England. ' A 
branch of this family,' says the Old Statistical Account, 
'afterwards established itself in Scotland, and became 
very flourishing. To Sir Roger Mowbray belonged the 
baronies of Kelly, Eekford, Dalmeny, and Methven, lying 
in the shires of Forfar, Roxburgh, Linlithgow, and Perth; 
but, for adhering to the Baliol and English interest, his 
lands were confiscated by Robert I., who bestowed Eek- 
ford, Kelly, and Methven on his son-in-law, Walter, the 
eighth hereditary lord-high-steward of Scotland, whose 
son succeeded to the crown in 1371, as Robert II., in 
right of his mother, Marjory Bruce, daughter of Robert 
I. The lordship of Methven was granted by him to 
30 



MEYRICK 

Walter Stewart, Earl of Athole, his second son, by 
Euphemia Ross, his second wife ; and after his forfeiture 
(1437), remained in the Crown a considerable time. It 
became part of the dowry lands usually appropriated for 
the maintenance of the queen-dowager of Scotland, to- 
gether with the lordship and castle of Stirling, and the 
lands of Balquhidder, etc., all of which were settled on 
Margaret, queen-dowager of James IV., who, in the year 
1525, having divorced her second husband, Archibald, 
Earl of Angus, married Henry Stewart, second son of 
Andrew Lord Evandale, afterward Ochiltree, a descend- 
ant of Robert, Duke of Albany, son of King Robert II. 
Margaret was the eldest daughter of Henry VII. of 
England, in whose right James VI. of Scotland, her 
great-grandson, succeeded to that crown on the death of 
Queen Elizabeth. She procured for her third husband a- 
peerage from her son, James V., under the title of Lord 
Methven, anno 1528 ; and, on this occasion, the barony 
of Methven was dissolved from the Crown, and erected 
into a lordship, in favour of Henry Stewart and his 
heirs male, on the Queen's resigning her jointure of the 
lordship of Stirling. By Lord Methven she had a 
daughter, who died in infancy, before herself. The 
queen died at the castle of Methven in 1540, and was 
buried at Perth, beside the body of James I. Lord 
Methven afterwards married Janet Stewart, daughter of 
the Earl of Athole, by whom he had a son, Henry, who 
married Jean, daughter of Patrick, Lord Ruthven, and 
was killed at Broughton by a cannon-ball from th& 
castle of Edinburgh, in 1572, leaving a son, Henry, 
who died without issue, when the lands reverted to 
the Crown. This third Lord Methven is mentioned 
on the authority of Stewart's Genealogical Accownt 
of the House of Stewart. In 1584 the lordship of Meth- 
ven and Balquhidder was conferred on Ludowick, Duke 
of Lennox, in whose Olustrious family it continued tiU. 
it was purchased from the last Duke, in 1664, by Patrick 
Smythe of Braco.' His great-grandson, David (1746- 
1806), assumed the title of Lord Methven on his eleva- 
tion to the bench ; and his son, William (b. 1803 ; sue. 
1847), holds 5128 acres in the shire, valued at £6470 
per annum. His seat, Methven Castle, on a bold acclivi- 
tous rising-ground, 1| mile E of Methven village, is a 
stately baronial pile of 1680, with extensive modern 
additions. Not far from the manse, on 19 June 1306, was 
fought the Battle of Methven, in which a small band, 
under Robert Bruce, was surprised and scattered by 
Pembroke, the English regent. Baloowan, Lynedooh, 
and Dronach Haugh — the last with the grave of ' Bessie- 
Bell and Mary Gray' — are noticed separately. Five 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 3 of between £100 and £500, 3 of from £50 to 
£100, and 15 of from £20 to £50. Giving off its 
detached section to Logiealmond quoad sacra parish, 
but taking in part of Monzie, this parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Perth, and the synod of Perth and Stirling -^ 
the living is worth £361. Almondbank public, Methven 
public, and Methven female industrial schools, with, 
respective accommodation for 152, 134, and 119 children, 
had (1883) an average attendance of 72, 61, and 56, and 
grants of £69, 4s., £59, 16s., and £41, 16s. Valuation. 
(1860) £12,165, 5s. 2d., (1884) £13,335, 2s. Pop. 
of civil parish (1801) 2073, (1831) 2714, (1861) 2347, 
(1871) 2115, (1881) 1910 ; of ecclesiastical parish (1881) 
Wil.—Ord. Sur., shs. 48, 47, 1868-69. 

Mey, a hamlet in Canisbay parish, Caithness, on th& 
coast road from Thurso to Huna and Wick, 13 miles 
E by N of Thurso, and 23 NNW of Wick, under which 
it has a post office. Mey Head, a small promontory 
on the coast, terminating 2 miles SW of Stroma island, 
was the site of the ancient chapel of Mey ; and, in 
consequence of that chapel having been dedicated to St 
John, is sometimes called St John's Point. The Men of 
Mey are jagged rocky islets, in a dangerous sweep of sea, 
immediately off Mey Head, and lie submerged at full 
and half tide. The shallow Loch of Mey (4 x 2g furl. ; 
43 feet) lies on the mutual border of Dunnet and 
Canisbay parishes. —Or A Sur., shs. 116, 117, 1878-84. 

Meyriok. See Merkick. 



MHOEGAY 

Mhorgay, a small island of North Uist parisli, Outer 
Hebrides, Inverness-shire. Pop. (1871) 8, (1881) 6. 

Miavaig, a hamlet in Harris parish, Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-shire, on the N coast of West Loch Tarbert, 32 
miles SW by S of Stornoway, under which it has a post 
office, with money order and savings' bank departments. 

Midbrake, an estate, with a modern mansion, in the 
northern section of Yell island, Shetland, 2 miles from 
Cullivoe. 

IHidcalder. See Calder, Mid. 

Mid Clyth, a hamlet in Latheron parish, Caithness, 
near the coast, SJ miles NE of Lybster. It has a post 
office under Wick. 

Middlebie, a parish of SE Dumfriesshire, at its 
southern boundary containing Kiktle-Beibge village, 
with a station on the Caledonian railway, 54 miles NNE of 
Annan, 16J NW of Carlisle, and 3i ESE of Ecclefeohan, 
nnder which it has a post and telegraph office. Con- 
taining also Eaglesfield and Waterbeck villages, 7 
furlongs and 3 miles NNE of Kirtle-Bridge station, and 
each with a post office under Ecclefechan, it comprises 
the ancient parishes of Middlebie, Pennersax, and 
Carruthers, united in 1609 ; was the seat of a presbytery 
from a period some time after the Reformation till 1743; 
and took its name, signifying the 'middle dwelling,' or 
'middle station,' from a Eoman camp, 5 furlongs SSE 
of the parish church, and midway between Netherbie in 
Cumberland and Overbie in Eskdalemuir, each about 10 
miles distant. It is bounded NW by "Tundergarth, E 
by Langholm and Canonbie, S by Half-Morton, Kirk- 
patrick- Fleming, and Annan, and W by Hoddam. Its 
utmost length, from E to W, is 7J miles ; its breadth, 
from N to S, varies between 7 furlongs and 5f mQes ; and 
its area is 17,592 acres, of which 46 J are water. Formed 
by two head-streams at an altitude of 570 feet, Kirtle 
Water flows 24 miles southward through the interior, 
and then winds 5J miles south-south-westward along 
the Kirkpatrick-Fleming boundary ; whilst Mein 
Water, rising at an altitude of 780 feet, meanders 7 
miles south-south-westward till it passes off into Hoddam 
on its way to join the Annan. Several burns, also 
rising on the northern border, run to either Kirtle or 
Mein Water ; and Woodside or All-for-nought Burn, 
which traces the Half-Morton boundary, is one of the 
head-streams of the river Saek. Along Mein Water the 
surface declines to a little below 100, along Kirtle Water 
to a little below 200, feet above sea-level ; and thence it 
rises, first gently, then more steeply, to 320 feet at the 
parish church, 809 at Howats Hill, 904 at Risp Hill, 
1029 at Muckle Snab, and 1412 at Haggy HOI, whose 
summit, however, is 300 yards beyond the NE corner of 
Middlebie. The land thus, along the S and SW, is low 
and undulating ; in the centre has considerable rising- 
grounds ; and along the N and E is wild and hilly, 
terminating in lofty watersheds with Tundergarth and 
Langholm, and forming a transition tract between the 
agricultural valley of Lower Annandale and the pastoral 
heights of Upper Eskdale. The rocks include sandstone 
and great abundance of limestone, and were long sup- 
posed to include coal. The soil of the lower grounds is 
mostly clayey, but partly loamy or gravelly, and partly 
of many kinds in close proximity to one another ; that 
of the higher grounds is chiefly of qualities best adapted 
for sheep pasture. Less than one-fourth of the entu'e 
area is in tillage ; about 280 acres are under wood ; and 
the rest of the land is either pastoral or waste. The 
Roman camp, which has given name to the parish, is at 
Birrens, 3 miles SE of the famous Roman station on 
Bkunswark Hill ; and it has left distinct remains of 
its fossae, aggeres, and prfetorium. In the Edinburgh 
Antiquarian Museum are five Roman altars, a sculptured 
figure of the goddess Brigantia, and three other Roman 
relics, found at Birrens ; as well as three circular mediaeval 
silver brooches, discovered in 1849 in the ruins of the 
old church of Middlebie. Several peel-houses stood 
within the parish ; and one of them, Blacket House, 
still stands, in a ruinous condition, with the date 1404 
and the initials W[illiam] B[ell] above its outer door- 
way. Families of the name of Bell long predominated 



MIDMAR 

in the population of the parish, insomuch that the ' BelLg 
of Middlebie ' was a current phrase throughout Dumfries- 
shire, and one of the Bells of Blacket House figured in 
the tragical story of 'Fair Helen of Kirkconnel Lee,' 
noticed in our article on Kirkconnel. Burns's biographer, 
James Currie, M.D. (1756-1805), of Liverpool, received 
the rudiments of education at the parish school of 
Middlebie. Seven proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 13 of between £100 and 
£500, 4 of from £50 to £100, and 7 of from £20 to £50. 
Middlebie is in the presbytery of Annan and the synod 
of Dumfries ; the living is worth £283. The parish 
church, 15 mile NNW of Kirtle-Bridge station and If 
NE of Ecclefechan, was buUt in 1821, and contains 700 
sittings. At Waterbeck is a U.P. church (1792 ; 490 
sittings) ; and Hottsbridge public, Middlebie public, 
Waterbeck female public, and Eaglesfield General 
Assembly's schools, with respective accommodation for 
64, 63, 71, and 155 children, had (1883) an average 
attendance of 50, 37, 26, and 88, and grants of £47, 18s.,. 
£44, 9s., £21, 14s., and £67, 7s. Valuation (1860) 
£10,047, (1884) £15,258, 19s. 7d. Pop. (1801) 1507, 
(1841) 2150, (1861) 2004, (1871) 2000, (1881) 1927.— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Middle-Bridge, a small village in Blair Athole parish, 
Perthshire, 1 J mile N by E of Blair Athole village. 

Middledean, a hamlet in Dunfermline parish, Fife, 
If mile N by W of Inverkeithing. 

Middleton, a small village in Orwell parish, Kinross- 
shire, 14 mile N by E of Milnathort. 

Middleton, Kincardineshire. See Fetteroaien. 

Middleton Hall, a mansion of 1707 in TJphall parish, 
Linlithgowshire, near the right bank of the Brox Burn, 
i mile SSE of Uphall village. 

Middleton House, a mansion in Borthwick parish, 
Edinburghshire, 3^ miles SE by S of Gorebridge. Stand- 
ing 770 feet above sea-level, in a well-wooded park of 
100 acres, it comprises a square central block of 1710, 
with later projecting wings, and fine gardens. The 
estate, which was bought by his father in 1842, is held 
now by William Ritchie, Esq. (b. 1842 ; sue. 1856), 
owner of 2652 acres, of £3137 value per annum. 
Middleton Inn, a dwelling-house now, on the old road 
from Edinburgh to Galashiels, 1 J mile 15 by S of Middle- 
ton House, was formerly a somewhat important coach- 
stage — the occasional meeting place of Scott and Lord- 
Cockburn. Old Middleton village, 3 furlongs SW of 
Middleton House, was once a chief seat of the Tinklers 
or Gipsies.— Orrf. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Middleton House, a mansion in Kirkden parish, For- 
farshire, IJ mile SSW of Friockheim. Its owner, 
Thomas Macpherson Bruce-Gardyne, Esq. (b. 1831 ; 
sue. 1846), holds 1395 acres in the shire, valued at 
£2131 per annum. —Ore?. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Midholm. See Midlem. 

Midhope Tower, a well-preserved ancient castle in 
Abercorn parish, Linlithgowshire, near the left bank of 
Midhope or Pardovan Burn, 4 miles W of South Queens- 
ferry. The residence of the Earls of Linlithgow, it 
consists of a square turreted tower, with an unsightly 
addition on its E side ; and over the doorway is a coronet, 
with the initials J. L[ivingstone]. — Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 
1857. 

Midlem or Midholm, a village in Bowden parish, Rox- 
burghshire, 44 miles E by S of Selkirk. It has an Original 
Secession church with 100 sittings, and a public school. 

Midlook Water, a burn of Crawford parish, Lanark- 
shire, rising, at an altitude of 1480 feet, close to the 
Peeblesshire boundary, and running 5 J miles west-north- 
westward, till, after a total descent of 600 feet, it falls- 
into the Clyde, opposite Crawford village. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 16, 15, 1864. 

Midlothian. See Edinburohshire and Lothian. 

Midmar, a parish of S Aberdeenshire, whose church 
stands 615 feet above sea-level, 5 miles S by E of Mony- 
musk station, 3 W by N of Echt, and 15 W of Aberdeen, 
under which there is a post ofBce of Midmar. It is 
bounded N by Cluny, E and SE by Echt, S by Banchory- 
Ternan, and W by Kincardine O'Neil and Cluny (de» 

31 



MIDSANNOX 

tacLed). Its utmost length, from E to W, is 7J miles ; 
its utmost breadth is 4f miles ; and its area is 10,872| 
acres, of which 4^ are water. Streams there are none 
of any size ; but the drainage is carried partly to the Dee 
and partly to the Don. In the SE the surface declines 
to 303, in the N to 333, feet above sea-level ; and thence 
it rises to 1607 at Green Hill on the Cluny boundary in 
the NW, to 773 a little way N of the church, and to 1332 
at Craigour near the southern boundary, this last being 
one of the summits of the broad-based Hill of Fake, 
whose highest point (1545 feet) is just 3 furlongs beyond 
the SW corner of the parish. Granite and trap are the 
predominant rocks, the former of beautiful texture and 
capable of taking a fine polish. The soil on the slopes 
of the hills is sandy loamy, or clayey, in much of the 
hollows is reclaimed peat-earth. Eather less than one- 
ialf of the entire area is in tillage ; nearly one-twelfth is 
under plantation ; and the rest is either pastoral or 
waste. On Sunhoney farm is a large stone circle, 
quite entire ; and a smaller one stands close to the E 
of the church ; whilst near the old church is the 
' Coningar,' an entrenched artificial mound 30 feet high. 
Midmar Castle stands on the N side of the Hill of Fare, 
1 mile SSE of the parish church ; is said by tradi- 
tion to have been founded by Sir William Wallace ; 
and seems indeed to date from times comparatively 
remote. It was inhabited till the middle of the present 
century, and is the seat of the most extensive estate in 
the parish ; and commands an extensive and very 
beautiful view to the N and the NE. Dalherrick Muir 
is said to have been the scene of a battle between Sir 
William Wallace and the Comjms ; and Douglas Burn, 
which traverses the Muir, is said to have got its name 
in commemoration of a hero who fell in the battle. 
William Meston (1688-1745), the burlesque poet, was a 
native, the son of a Midmar blacksmith. The property 
is mostly divided between two. Midmar is in the 
presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and the synod of Aber- 
deen ; the living is worth £281. The parish church was 
built in 1787, and contains 428 sittings. Its ancient 
predecessor was dedicated to St Nidan, a dedication 
that must have proceeded from a Welsh source. A 
Free church stands close to the western, a U.P. church 
to the north-eastern, boundary ; and Midmar public 
school, with accommodation for 173 children, had (1883) 
an average attendance of 103, and a grant of £96, 5s. 6d. 
Valuation (1860) £5716, (1884) £7063. Pop. (1801) 
803, (1831) 1056, (1851) 1166, (1871) 1127, (1881) 1041. 
—Ord. Siir., sh. 76, 1874. 

Midsaimox. See Sannox. 

Migdale, Loch, a pretty lake in Creich parish, Suther- 
land, 1 mile E of Bonar-Bridge. Lying 115 feet above 
sea-level, it has an utmost length and breadth of IJ 
mile and 3J furlongs ; and contains good trout, with 
great abundance of pike. — Ord. Sxir., sh. 102, 1881. 

Migvie. See Taelakd. 

Milbura. See Millbtjrn. 

Milesmark, a village on the mutual border of Dun- 
fermline parish and Inverkeithing (detached), Fife, If 
mile WNW of Dunfermline town. It stands conjoint 
with Parknook or Blackburn village, and adjoins the 
Elgin Colliery. Pop. of the two villages (1861) 755, 
<1871) 668, (1881) 439, of whom 194 were in Inverkeith- 
ing.— OrtJ. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Milfield. See Millfibld. 

Milheugh. See Millheugh. 

Milhouse. See Millhouse. 

Milk, Water of, a rivulet of Annandale, Dumfries- 
shire, rising in Westerkirk parish, at an altitude of 780 
feet, and winding 17f miles south-south-westward, 
chiefly along the boundary between Tundergarth on the 
left, and Hutton, Dryfesdale, and St Mungo on the 
right, till, after a total descent of 640 feet, it falls into 
the Annan near Hoddam Castle, 3| miles WSW of 
Ecclefechan. It is fed by Corrie Water and a score of 
lesser burns ; in its upper reaches traverses an upland 
vale, abounding in picturesque close scenes ; and in its 
lower ones shares largely in the mild and gentle beauties 
«f the Howe of Annandale. — Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 
32 



MILL LOCH 

Millarston. See Millerston. 

Mill Bay, a bay on the E side of Stronsay island, 
Orkney. Opening from the ENE, between Grice Ness 
and Odin Ness, it measures If mile across the entrance ; 
penetrates the land IJ mile west-south-westward ; is 
separated by an isthmus J mile broad from St Catherine's 
Bay on the W side of the island ; makes a derai-semi- 
circular sweep around its head ; is belted with sandy 
beaches and benty links ; and presents a beautiful 
appearance. 

Millbrex, a post-office village in Fyvie parish, Aber- 
deenshire, 6 J miles NE of Fyvie station. The quoad sacra 
parish of Millbres is in the presbytery of Turriff and the 
synod of Aberdeen ; the minister's stipend is £120. 
Its church was built in 1833 and enlarged in 1836, and 
contains 500 sittings. Pop. (1871) 1484, (1881) 1406, 
of whom 320 were in Monquhitter parish. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 86, 1876. 

Millbuie. See Ardmeanaoh. 

Millburnbank, a hamlet in Colvend parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire, 8 miles ESE of Dalbeattie. 

Millbum House, a mansion in Dalserf parish, Lanark- 
shire, immediately S of Dalserf village. 

Millbum Tower, a mansion, with extensive wooded 
grounds, in Eatho parish, Edinburghshire, i mile 
NNW of Gogar station and 54 miles WSW of Edin- 
burgh. A castellated tower, with a long range of lower 
building attached, it was built by the Eight Hon. Sir 
Eobert Listen, G. C. B., who lived here from 1821 to 1836. 
His grandniece married Sir AVUliam Foulis, Bart, of 
Woodhall ; and their son. Sir James Listen Foulis, 
ninth Bart, since 1634 (b. 1847 ; sue. 1858), holds 
2804 acres in the shire, valued at £2164 per annum. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. See John Small's Castles and 
Mansions of the Lothiajis (Edinb. 1883). 

Milleame House, a handsome modern mansion, with 
fine grounds, in Trinity-Gask parish, Perthshire, near 
the left bank of the river Earn, 3i miles NNW of Auoh- 
tei-arder.— Ord. Sur., sh. 47, 1869. 

Millerhill. See Newton, Edinburghshire. 

Millerston, a village at the mutual border of Shettle- 
ston and Springburn parishes, Lanarkshire, near the 
Caledonian railway, 3^ miles ENE of Glasgow. It 
stands, conjoint with Hogganfield village, on the NW 
shore of Hogganfield Loch ; and has a post office under 
Glasgow, a chapel of ease, and a Free church. Pop. of 
Millerston and Hogganfield (1861) 532, (1871) 633, 
(1881) 625, of whom 75 were in Springburn.— Ort^. Sur., 
sh. 31, 1867. 

Millfield, a mansion in Polmont parish, Stirlingshire, 
J mile SW of the village. 

Millguy. See Milngavie. 

Millhead or Milnhead, an estate, with a mansion, in 
Kirkraahoe parish, Dumfriesshire, 4 miles N of Dum- 
fries. 

Millheugh, a mansion in Blantjrre parish, Lanark- 
shire, on the left bank of the Eotten Calder, J mile N 
by W of High Blantyre. 

Millhouse, a hamlet in Kilfinan parish, Argyllshire, 
3 miles SSW of Tighnabruaich. It has a post office 
under Greenock. 

Milliken, a mansion in KUbarchan parish, Eenfrew- 
shire, IJ mile WNW of Johnstone. Built in 1829, it is 
a handsome edifice in the Grecian style, with extensive 
and beautiful grounds. The estate, which formed part 
of the ancient barony of Johnstone, belonging to a 
branch of the Houstoun family, was purchased in 1733 
hy James Milliken, Esq. , whose daughter and heiress 
married Gen. William Napier, a lineal descendant of the 
inventor of logarithms ; and their great-grandsou. Sir 
Eobert John Milliken-Napier, ninth Bart, since 1627 
(b.l818; sue. 1852), holds 1280 acres in the shire, valued 
at £4386 per annum.— Ord Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Millikeupark, a village, with a railway station, at the 
mutual border of Kilbarchan and Abbey-Paisley parishes, 
Eenfrevvshire, on Black Cart Water and the Glasgow 
and South-Western railway, 14 mile WSW of Johnstons 
station, and 4i W by S of Paisley. 

Mill Loch. See Lochmaeen. 



MILLNAIN 

MillBam, a village in FotUlerty parish, SE Ross-shire, 
8 miles W by N of Dingwall. 

Mill-of-Conveth. See Laukencekirk. 

Millport, a watering-place on the island of Big CuM- 
BEAE, Buteshire. It stretches round a pleasantly shel- 
tered crescent-shajied bay at the S end of the island, and 
partly overlooks the Little Cumbrae, partly commands 
the opening through Fairlie Roads to the Bay of Ayr, 
on the E side of the Firth of Clyde. By water it is 
2J miles NW of the nearest point of the Ayrshire coast, 
5i SSW of Largs, 13 SE of Rothesay, and 24 SSW of 
Greenock. Built in a crescent following the curve of 
the bay, and ascending the low heights, the town con- 
sists chiefly of neat two-storied whitewashed houses, 
among which are numerous excellent shops, and some 
ornamental public buildings. Were the environs only 
a little less bare of trees, Millport would be one of the 
prettiest spots on the Clyde. As it is, it commands a 
lovely panorama over the Clyde and the adjacent shores 
of Buteshire, Ayrshire, and Argyllshire ; while its 
sheltered bay and beach help to make it one of the 
favourite West Coast watering-places. 

In the middle of the curve, fronting the shore, is 
the Garrison, the beautiful marine pavilion of the Earl 
of Glasgow, who owns two-thirds of the entire island, 
the remainder belonging to the Marquis of Bute. The 
parish church, a handsome building surmounted by a 
low square tower, is situated on the rising ground behind 
the town. Built in 1837, it has upwards of 750 sit- 
tings. There are Free, U. P., and Baptist churches, and 
a Scottish Episcopal church, St Andrew's (1848). But 
the finest and most conspicuous edifice in Millport is the 
Episcopal Cathedral and College, founded and endowed 
by the Earl of Glasgow. The cathedral, dedicated to 
the Holy Spirit, was built in 1849-51 from plans by 
Butterfield ; and in 1876 it was declared the Cathedral 
of Argyll and the Isles. In the Gothic style of the 
13th century, it consists of a nave and chancel, divided 
by an open stone screen, and has an organ, gootl stained 
glass, 150 sittings, a graceful spire, three bells, etc. 
Immediately adjoining, and built of the same light- 
coloured freestone of the island, are a chapter-house and 
college. The whole range of buildings is situated in 
beautifully laid-out grounds. According to The Scottish 
Church and University Almanac for 1884, 'The chief 
objects for which this church and college are founded 
are : to place at the bishop's disposal a certain number 
of clergy who shall minister in places where a resident 
pastor cannot be supported ; to afford a retreat to a 
small number of aged and infirm clergymen ; to afford 
education and maintenance to two or three students of 
divinity ; and to assist in their studies a certain number 
of young men before and during their university course, 
and to such as desire to read in the college in prepara- 
tion for holy orders.' 

Millport has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of the 
Union Bank, 5 insurance agencies, a public hall (1S72), 
a town-hall (1879), a public library, a reading-room, a 
gas company, a harbour company, 5 hotels, including 
3 temperance hotels, public and Episcopalian schools, 
an academy, and various other institutions. The har- 
bour is a creek under Greenock, and is of small 
capacity. The stone pier, built chiefly at the expense 
of the Marquis of Bute, stands in 6 feet water at ebb, 
and 14 feet water at flood, tide. It has' been largely 
superseded by an iron pier, built in 1871-72 by the 
Earl of Glasgow, on piles driven 5 or 6 feet into the 
ground. This pier is 275 feet long by 18 broad, and 
has a T-shaped head SO feet by 25. Close by is good 
anchorage, fully protected by two small rocky islets 
known as the Allans. Steamer communication is main- 
tained regularly with Wemyss Bay and Largs all the 
year round, and with other places on the Clyde less 
regularly, and chiefly in summer. The prosperity of 
the town depends chiefly on the summer visitors, 
several thousand of whom visit it annually during 
the season. Some of the inhabitants carry on fishing 
and a few minor industries. Millport, ranking as a 



MILNGAVIE 

police burgh since 1864, is governed by a senior and 2 
junior magistrates and 6 police commissioners. SherifT 
small debt courts are held in the town in March and Sep- 
tember. The municipal constituency numbered 720 in 
1884, when the annual value of real property was£14,616, 
whilst the revenue including assessments, amounts to 
£659. Pop. (1839) 932, (1861) 1104, (1871) 1523, (1881) 
1749, of whom 758 were males. Houses (1881) occupied 
344, vacant 67, building 5.— Ord Sur., sh. 21, 1870. 

Millseat, a hamlet in King Edward parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, 6 miles NE of Turriff. It has a Congregational 
chapel built in 1831, and containing 210 sittings. 

Milltimber, a station in Peterculter parish, Aberdeen- 
shire, on the Deeside railway, 6^ miles WSW of Aber- 
deen. 

MilltowiL See Milton. 

Milnathort, a little market town in Orwell parish, 
Kinross-shire, lying 400 feet above sea-level, near the 
left bank of North Queich AVater, and within 1 mile of 
the NW corner of Loch Leven. Its station on the North 
British railway is Ig- mile N by E of Kinross station, and 
13| miles WSW of Ladyhank Junction. It stands amid 
a fine tract of country, screened by the Lomond Hills on 
the E, and by the Ochils on the N and W ; and com- 
prises fine well-built streets, which are lighted with gas 
from the Kinross and Milnathort gas-works (1835). 
There are a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments, a branch of the Clydesdale 
Bank, 3 hotels, a town-hall, 2 schools, a library (1797), 
etc. A handsome bridge across the Queich was built 
about 1850, in place of a crazy, shabby, old structure. 
Orwell parish church, on a neighbouring eminence, was 
built in 1729, and completely renovated a few years ago, 
being now all that can be desired as regards accommo- 
dation and comfort. It has two large and very hand- 
some stained-glass windows. There are also a Free 
church and a IJ.P. church, the latter of which, erected 
in 1869 at a cost of £3000, is a fine Gothic building 
with 700 sittings and a spire 125 feet high. The poet 
Walter Chalmers Smith, D.D., LL.D., was Free Church 
minister from 1853 till 1858. Wednesday is market- 
day ; and four old cattle fairs have been superseded by 
weekly and monthly live-stock sales, which are largely 
attended, as the only sale of the kind in the county. 
Cotton-weaving was long carried on, but went into de- 
cline ; but the manufacture of tartan shawls and plaids, 
introduced in 1838, has always continued to prosper, 
and was extended about 1867 by the erection of a large 
factory. Pop. (1801) 959, (1831) 1772, (1861) 1476, 
(1871) 1312, (1881) 1269, of whom 733 were females. 
Houses (1881) 344 inhabited, 25 vacant, 2 building. — 
Orel. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Milneam. See Milleakxe. 

Milnefield. See Mylnefield. 

Milne-Graden, a modern mansion, with extensive 
grounds, in Coldstream parish, Berwickshire, on the 
'left bank of the river Tweed, 3i miles NNE of Cold- 
stream town. Anciently held by the Gradens, and after- 
wards by the Kers, the estate now belongs to David 
Milne-Home, Esq., LL.D. (b. 1805 ; sue. 1845), who 
holds 843 acres in the shire, valued at £1716 per 
annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 26, 1864. See Paxton. 

Milngavle (popularly ilillguy), a small town in the 
Stirlingshire section of New Kirkpatrick parish. It 
stands, 190 feet above sea-level, on Allander Water, at 
the terminus of the Glasgow and Milngavie branch (1863) 
of the North British railway, by road being 5J miles 
ENE of Duntocher, 4i N by W of Maryhill, and 7 (9^ 
by rail) NNW of Glasgow. It presents an irregular 
and somewhat straggling, yet cheerful and prosperous 
aspect ; consists chiefly of plain, two-story houses, many 
of them whitewashed ; contains more respectable shops 
than are found in most towns of its size ; carries on ex- 
tensive and vigorous industry in a print-work, a paper- 
mill, two bleach-fields, etc. ; and has a post office under 
Glasgow, with money order, savings' bank, and telegrapli 
departments, an hotel, gas-works, a mechanics' institu- 
tion, a public library, etc. A. B. Stirling (1811-81), 
the self-taught uaturaUst, was a native. An Established 

33 



MILNHEAD 

•cliurch, built as a chapel ot ease about 1840 at a cost of 
£1500, in 1873 was raised to quoad sacra status. There 
are also a U.P. church (1799; 517 sittings) and St 
Joseph's Roman Catholic church (1872 ; 300 sittings). A 
public and a Roman Catholic school, with respective 
accommodation for 400 and 102 children, had (1882) an 
average attendance of 319 and 65, and grants of £290, 
7s. 6d. and £51, 18s. Milngavie is a police burgh under 
the General Police and Improvement Act (Scot.) of 1862. 
Its municipal constituency numbered 436 in 1884, when 
the annual value of real property was £6804, and the 
revenue (including assessments) amounted to £394. Pop. 
<if town (1831)1162, (1861) 1895, (1871) 2044, (1881) 
2636, in 518 houses; of quoad sacra parish (1881) 2927, 
of whom 167 were in Dumbartonshire. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
30, 1866. 

Milnhead. See Millhead. 

Milaholm Cross. See Castleton, Roxburghshire. 

Milntown or Milton of New Taxbat, a village in KU- 
muLr-Easter parish, NE Ross-shire, 3 furlongs SSE of 
Kildary or Parkhill station. It has fairs on the first 
Tuesday of January, the second Tuesday of March, the 
second Tuesday of Slay, and the last Tuesday of October, 
all old style.— Or^e. Sur., sh. 94, 1878. 

Milrig, an estate, with a mansion, in Riccarton parish, 
Ayrshire, 2J miles S of Galston. Its owner, John Sprot 
Tait, Esq. (b. 1843 ; sue. 1881), holds 183 acres in the 
shire, valued at £266per annum. — Ord. Sur. , sh. 22, 1865. 

Milton, a village in OH Eilpa trick parish, Dumbar- 
tonshire, adjacent to the SE side of Duntocher. It has 
a large cotton-factory, built in 1821 on the site of the 
Dalnotter ii'on-works ; and it shares generally in the 
business of Duntocher. Pop. (1861) 366, (1871) 420, 
(1881) 499. 

Milton, a village, with print-works, in Old Kilpatrick 
parish, Dumbartonshire, at the E base of Dumbuck 
Hill, 2 miles E by S of Dumbarton. 

Milton or Milton of Campsie, a village in Campsie 
parish, S Stirlingshire, on the banks of the Glazert, with 
a station on the Campsie and Blane Valley section of the 
North British railway, IJ mile N of Kirkintilloch, 2 
miles ESE of Lennostown, and 94 NNE of Glasgow. It 
is in the near vicinity of two print-works, Kincaid (1785) 
and Lillyburn (1831); shares in the iudustryof a populous 
and productive district ; and has a post office under Glas- 
gow, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments. Pop. (1861) 562, (1871) 714, (1881) 555. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Milton, a fishing village in St Cyrus parish, Kin- 
cardineshire, IJ mile SW of Johnshaven. It once was 
a place of some importance, but since about 1790 has 
suffered much injury from encroachment of the sea and 
other causes, and now is both small and ruinous. A 
strong chalybeate spring in its vicinitj' enjoyed, for 
some time, considerable medicinal repute. 

Milton, a hamlet in Fowlis-AVester parish, Perthshire, 
3 miles ENE of Crieff. 

Milton, a village in Urr parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 7 
miles N by E of Dalbeattie. Milton Loch, 3 furlongs 
"VVNW, lies at an altitude of 420 feet ; is | mile long, 
-and varies in breadth between IJ and 3J furlongs ; 
abounds with pike and perch ; and sends off a streamlet 
southward into confluence with Kirkgunzeon or Dal- 
beattie Burn.— Ord. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 

Milton, an estate, with a hamlet, in Carmyllie parish, 
Forfarshire, 6 miles W by IST of Arbroath. It forms 
part of a district which was disjoined from St Vigeans 
in 1606. 

Milton-Bridge, a hamlet in Glencorse parish, Edin- 
burghshire, 2 miles NNE of Penicuik. It has a post 
office, with money order and savings' bank departments. 

Milton-Bridge. See Milton-Lookhart. 

Milton-Brodie, a quadrangular mansion, sheltered by 
tall trees, in Alves parish, NW Elginshire, If mUe NE 
of Kinloss station and 5J miles SSW of Burghead. Its 
owner, the Rev. John Brodie-Innes (b. 1816 ; sue. 1861), 
holds 1237 acres in the shire, valued at £1755 per 
annnm.— Ord. Sur., sh. 95, 1876. 

Milton-Lockhart, a mansion in Carluke parish, Lan- 
34 



MINGARY CASTLE 

arkshire, near the right bank of the winding river Clyde, 
3 miles WSW of Carluke town. A modern edifice, in the 
old Scottish Baronial style, after designs by W. Bum, 
it has gi'ounds of singular beauty, backed by deep ravines 
and wooded hiUs. The estate, which belonged to the 
Whitefords in the 16th and 17th centuries, is held now 
by Major-Gen. David Blair Lockbart (b. 1829 ; sue. 
1876), owner of 1059 acres in the shire, valued at £2582 
per annum. MUton Bridge, over the Clyde, is a three- 
arch structure, on the model of the old bridge of Both- 
well, and was erected early in the present century. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 23, 1865. 

Milton, New, a hamlet in Glencorse parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, 1 J mile NNE of Auchendinny station. 

Milton of Balgonie. See Balgonib. 

Milton of Dunipaee. See Dunipace. 

Milton, Whins of, a village in St Finians parish, Stir- 
lingshire, 2 miles S of Stirling. Pop. (1871) 481, (1881) 
487. 

Minard Castle, a mansion, with picturesque grounds, 
in Kilmichael-Glassary parish, Argyllshire, on the W 
side of Loch Fyne, 8 miles NE of Lochgilphead and 13| 
SSW of Inveraray. There are a post office of Minard, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a Free church, and a large and elegant public 
school, erected in 1871 by the late proprietor, John 
Pender, Esq., M.P. The estate— 5285 acres, of £1475 
annual value — now is owned by Thomas Lloyd, Esq. 
(b. 1S35).— Ord. Sur., sh. 37, 1876. 

Minch or North Minch, the belt of sea between the 
mainland of Scotland and the northern portion of the 
Outer Hebrides. Extending in a north-north-easterly 
direction, and forming a continuation of the Little 
Minch outward to the North Sea, it connects at the 
SE corner with the channels between the mainland and 
Skye ; has a width of from 23 to 45 miles ; and is 
flanked, on all the E side, by the mainland parts of 
Ross-shire and Sutherland, on all the W side by Lewis 
island, inclusive of the northern part of Harris. Its 
name signifies ' the stormy sea ; ' its currents are regular 
and very rapid ; its depths are mostly great, and gene- 
rally so variable as to indicate a very rugged bottom ; 
anil its water is exceedingly salt. 

Minch, Little, the belt of sea between Skye island 
and the middle portion of the Outer Hebrides. It 
opens from the expanse of the Atlantic between the 
mainland of Scotland and the southern portion of the 
Outer Hebrides ; extends north-north-eastward into 
junction with the Minch ; has a breadth of from 14 to 
20 niUes ; and is flanked, on the W side, by Benbecula, 
North Uist, and the southern part of Harris. 

Minchmoor, a broad-based, heather-clad mountain on 
the mutual border of Traquair parish, Peeblesshire, and 
Kirkhope parish, Selkirkshire, 2 miles SE of Traquair 
village. It rises to a height of 1856 feet above sea- 
level, and forms part of the watershed between the 
Tweed and the Yarrow. By the wild old road across it, 
from Selkirk to Peebles — long traversed by the mail — 
Monti'ose's cavaliers fled helter-skelter from PhUip- 
haugh ; and near the top, on the Tweed side, is the 
famous Cheese Well, where every passer-by of old was 
wont to drop in bits of his provisions as votive offerings 
to the fairies who made this their favourite haunt. The 
view from the top and its many associations form the 
theme of the late Dr John Brown's delightful Minch- 
moor (Edinb. \BU).—Ord. Sur., sh. 24, 1864. 

Mindork Castle. See Kikkoowan. 

Mingala, an island of Barra parish, Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-shire, f mile NNW of Bernera, 1| mOe SSW 
of Pabba, and 9 miles SSW of the nearest point of Barra 
island. It extends 2-^ miles north-north-eastward ; 
measures If mile in extreme breadth ; rises, along the 
AV side, in almost mural cliffs, the retreat of innumer- 
able sea-fowl, to an altitude of 900 feet above sea-level ; 
and is mostly pastoral, but contains some arable land. 
Pop. (1861) 139, (1871) 141, (1881) 150, of whom 146 
were Gaelic-speaking. 

Mingary Castle, an ancient fortalice in Ardnamur- 
chan parish, Argyllshire, on the S shore of the Ardna- 



MINGINISH 

mnrchan peninsula, at the moutli of Loch Sunart, 
looking along the Sound of Mull, and confronting the 
north-western extremity of Mull island, 6 miles N by 
W of Tobermory and 20 WSW of Salen. Crowning a 
scarped rock, which rises 24 feet niurally from the 
sea, it measures more than 200 feet in circumference ; 
and has an irregular hexagonal outline, adapted to the 
configuration of the ground, being broadest on the land- 
ward side, where it is defended by a dry ditch. Its high, 
strong, battlemented, outer wall is seemingly of ancient 
construction, little fitted to resist artillery; but a 
three-story house and some offices are said to have been 
erected so late as the beginning of last century. An- 
ciently the seat of the Maclans, a clan of Macdonalds, 
descended from an early Lord of the Isles, it twice was oc- 
cupied by James IV. — first in 1493, when he issued a 
charter hence ; next in 1495, when he received the sub- 
mission of the chieftains of the Isles. It was, partly at 
least, demolished, in 1517, by the Knight of Lochalsh ; 
sustained a siege, in 1588, by the Macleans, but was re- 
lieved by a Governmeut force ; and was captured, in 
1644, by Colkitto, who made it the prison of a small 
body of Covenanters, including three ministers. Now, 
though strictly a ruin, it is still in a state of tolerable 
preservation. 

Minginish. See Braoadale. 

Minishant, a hamlet in Maybole parish, Ayrshire, 3J 
miles NNE of Maybole town, under which it has a post 
office. 

Minnick Water, a rivulet of Sanquhar parish, 
Dumfriesshire, rising at an altitude of 1740 feet, on 
the north-western slope of Lowther Hill, close to the 
Lanarkshire boundary, and 9 furlongs SSE of Wanlock- 
lead. Thence it runs 6J miles west-south-westward, 
receiving in its progress three tributaries, each nearly 
equal to itself in volume, and falls into the Nith, just 
below Minnock-Bridge village, 2 mUes SE of Sanquhar. 
■Some wildly romantic spots, interesting both for their 
■own scenery and for association with traditions of the 
■Covenanters, are on its banks ; and a road goes up all 
its vale to Wanlockhead, leading thence to Leadhills 
'and Upper Strathclyde. — Ord. Sur., sh. 15, 1864. 

Minnick, Water of. See Minnoch. 

Minniehive. See Moniaive. 

Minnigaff (Gael, monadh-dubh, ' dark mountainous 
region '), a hamlet and a parish in the extreme W of 
■Kirkcudbrightshire. The hamlet stands on a low piece 
of ground at the influx of Penkill Burn to the Cree, f 
mile N of the post-town, Newton-Stewart. Before that 
town had come into existence this was a place of some 
importance, for Symson describes it in 1684 as having ' a 
very considerable market every Saturday, frequented by 
the moormen of Carrick, Monnygaife, and other moor 
places, who buy there great quantities of meal and malt.' 

The parish, containing also Blaokckaig village and 
the Creebridoe suburb of Newton-Stewart, is bounded 
NW and N by Barr in Ayrshire, NE by Carsphairn and 
Kells, SE by Girthon and Kirkmabreck, and SW by 
Penninghame in Wigtownshire. Its utmost length, 
from N to S, is 16| miles ; its utmost breadth, from E 
to W, is 13g miles ; and its area is 139| square miles 
or 89,451J acres, of which 1312 are water. Issuing 
from Loch Moan (CJ x 3 furl. ; 675 feet), the Cree 
■winds 30J miles south-westward and south-south-east- 
ward along the Ayrshire and Wigtownshire border to 
"within 2J miles of the head of Wigtown Bay. During 
this course it is joined by the Water of Minnooh, 
entering from Ayrshire, and running lOJ miles south- 
ward ; Penkill Burn, rising at an altitude of 1970 feet, 
and running S| miles south-south-westward ; and Pal- 
nure Burn, rising at an altitude of 612 feet, and running 
llj miles south-south-westward (for the last 1§ mile 
along the Kirkmabreck boundary). The Water of Trooi, 
flows If mile west-south-westward from wooded Loch 
Trool (If mile x If furl. ; 250 feet) to the Water of 
Minnoch ; and the Dee, issuing from lone Loch Dee 
{7x4 furl. ; 750 feet), runs first J mUe north-eastward 
through the interior, then 6| miles east-south-eastward 
along the boundary with Kells. Lakes, other than 



MINNIGATF 

those already noticed, are Loch Grennoch (2 miles x 3 
furl. ; 680 feet) at the Girthon boundary. Loch Enoch 
(64 X 4J furl. ; 1650 feet) at the Ayrshire boundary, the 
three Lochs of the Dungeon, Loch Neldricken, Loch 
VaUey, etc. ; and streams and lakes alike afford capital 
angling. The surface is everywhere hilly or mountainous, 
chief elevations from S to N being Cairnsmore of 
Fleet (2331 feet), Larg Hill (2216), Laraaehan Hill 
(2349), Benyellary (2360), Merrick (2764), and Kirrie- 
reoch Hill (2562), of which Merrick is the loftiest 
summit S of the Grampians. The general landscape is 
described by Dr A. Geikie as 'one wild expanse of 
mountain and moorland, roughened with thousands of 
heaps of glacial detritus, and dotted with lakes enclosed 
among these rubbish mounds.' Indeed, with the excep- 
tion of a warm nook of about 6 square miles in the 
extreme S, and of some narrow strips of carse-land along 
the principal streams in the W, the whole region is one 
vast sheep-walk, where 'heath and moss, rocks and 
stones without end, and jagged hills, with here and 
there bright verdant patches on their rugged sides, 
form 'the chief features of the scenery.' Large part of 
this wild district at one time formed part of the far- 
reaching Forest of Buchan — a name preserved in that 
of Buchan farm, the house of which stands on the N 
bank of Loch "Trool, and which to the shepherds is 
known as the ' Four Nines, ' from its erroneously esti- 
mated area of 9999 acres. The prevailing rocks are 
clay slate and grejTvacke, of Upper Silurian age, with 
intrusive masses and boulders of granite ; and nowhere 
in the South of Scotland are the traces of glaciation to 
be witnessed on a grander scale than in the Merrick 
uplands. Veins of lead ore, from 2 to 5 feet thick, 
occur on the estates of Machermore and Kirroughtree ; 
and at East Blackcraig, on the former property, lead 
and zinc still are mined, though in much less quantity 
than formerly. The soil of the low grounds along the 
Cree and Palnure Burn is mostly a tenacious clay, inter- 
spersed with patches of moss ; on the other low grounds 
is dry and gravelly, abounding with stones ; and else- 
where is very various. Little more than one-fifteenth 
of the entire area is in tillage ; some 600 acres are under 
wood ; and the rest of the land is pastoral or waste. 
The chief antiquities are Garlies Castle, three mote 
hills, several sepulchral tumuli, a standing stone, and 
some cairns. In 1806 Robert Bruce, with 300 followers, 
is said to have routed 1500 English under the Earl of 
Pembroke near the head of Loch Trool, at whose foot a 
small party of Covenanters were surprised and slain by 
a troop of dragoons on a winter Sabbath morning of 
1685. Alexander Murray, D.D. (1775-1813), the self- 
taught Orientalist, was the son of a Minnigaff shepherd ; 
Lieut. -Gen. the Hon. Sir William Stewart, who served 
in seventeen campaigns under Nelson and Wellington, 
and died in 1827, resided for several years at Cumloden, 
and is buried in the churchyard, along with John 
Mackie, Esq. of Bargaly, and James, his son, both 
Liberal M. P. 's for the county; and Lieut. -Col. Patrick 
Stewart, C.B. (1832-65), was born at Cairnsmore. 
Mansions, all noticed separately, are Bargaly, Cairns- 
more, Cumloden, Kirroughtree, and Machermore ; 
and the Earl of Galloway owns more than half of 
the parish, 4 other proprietors holding each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 2 of between £100 and 
£500, 3 of from £50 to £100, and 9 of from £20 to 
£50. Giving off a portion to Bargrennan quoad sacra 
parish, Minnigaff is in the presbytery of Wigtown 
and the synod of Galloway ; the living is worth £351. 
The parish church, on a lovely spot overlooking Minni- 
gaff hamlet, the town of Newton-Stewart, and the con- 
fluence of the Cree and the Water of Minnoch, is a 
good Gothic edifice of 1836, with tower, organ, three 
fine memorial stained-glass windows, and 850 sittings. 
Creebridge aud Stronord public schools, with respec 
tive accommodation for 116 and 100 children, had 
(1883) an average attendance of 76 and 65, and grants 
of £72, 18s. and £69, 15s. 6d. Valuation (1860) 
£12,097, (1884) £18,174, 5s. 7d. Pop. (1801) 1609, 
(1S31) 1855, (1861) 1804, (1871) 1529, (1881) 1587, of 

35 



MINNISHANT 

■whom 425 were in Creebridge, and 1384 in the 
ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., shs. 4, 8, 1857-63. 

Minnishant. See Minishant. 

Minnoch, Loch, See Kells. 

Minnoch, Water of, a troutful rivulet of Ayr and 
Kirkcudbright shires, rising, at an altitude of 1980 feet, 
on the western slope of Shalloch of Minnoch (2520 feet), 
and running 14f miles south-by-westward through Barr 
and Minnigaff parishes, till, after a total descent of 1850 
feet, it falls into the Cree at a point 7J miles NNW of 
Newton-Stewart. Its course, except near the end, lies 
through a moorish upland country. — Ord. Stir., ah. 8, 
1863. 

Minnock Water. See Minnick. 

Minnyhive. See Moniaive. 

Kinsh. See Minch. 

Mintlaw, a village near the western border of Long- 
side parish, Aberdeenshire, f mile E by S of Mintla%v 
station on the Peterhead branch of the Great North of 
Scotland railway, this being 9 miles "W by N of Peter- 
head, 4 E by N of Maud Junction, and 35J N by 
E of Aberdeen. Founded during the first quarter of the 
present century, it has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and railway telegraph departments, a 
branch of the Aberdeen Town and County Bank, two 
hotels, two schools, and a market on the second Tuesday 
in every month. Pop. (1831) 222, (1861) 240, <1871) 
413, (1881) 435. — Ord. Sur., sh. 87, 1876. 

Minto (Cym. maen-tal, ' the high stone '), a village 
and a parish of Roxburghshire. The village lies 1 J mile 
N by W of Denholm, the birthplace of the poet Leyden, 
and If mile E of Hassendean station, on the ' Waverley 
route ' of the North British, this being 4J miles NNE 
of the post-town, Hawick. The parish church here, 
built in 1831 from designs by William Playfair, is a 
handsome Gothic building, with 360 sittings, a square 
tower, and an harmonium presented in 1880 by the late 
Countess of Minto. The manse, 1 mile SSW, was built 
at the same time as the church, from designs specially 
prepared to suit the taste of the then holder of the living 
— Dr Aitken. It is in the Italian or Tuscan villa style. 

Minto parish is bounded N by Lilliesleaf, NE by 
Ancrum, SE by Cavers, and SW by Wilton. Its utmost 
length, from E to W, is 4§ miles ; its utmost breadth 
is 3J miles ; and its area is 5620J acres, of which 19^ 
are water. It embraces a considerable portion of the 
suppressed parish of Hassendean. The river Teviot 
flows 4J miles north-eastward along or close to the 
Cavers boundary, and from Minto is joined by Hassen- 
dean and Grindin Burns. Along the riverside extends 
a strip of haugh, from 1 to IJ ftirlong in breadth, and 
less than 300 feet above sea-level. It is flanked by 
a steep bank, behind which the ground slowly rises to 
the northern boundary. Towards the western extremity 
of the parish is Hassendean Glen, near the foot of 
which is a fine petrifying spring. It also contains the 
spacious and recently enlarged mansion-house of Colonel 
Dickson of Hassendeanburn and Chatto. Towards 
the eastern part of the parish there is another dell 
— Minto Glen — of great and attractive beauty. It is 
intersected throughout its entire length by well-kept 
walks, and contains many larch trees of so great a size, 
that they are only rivalled by those in the Duke of 
Athole's plantations at Dunkeld. These larches were 
among the first imported into Scotland. At the head 
of Minto Glen, an artificial lake was formed in 1735, and 
upon a bank rising from its margin, Minto House is 
situated. Opposite the mansion-house stood the old 
parish churcli and churchyard ; but when the present 
church was built, the burial-ground was converted into 
a flower-garden, which is yearly admired by visitors 
who come from all parts to view the beauties of Minto. 

To the W of Minto House rise the Hills of Minto, 
'as modest and shapely and smooth as Clytie's should- 
ers.' They are 905 and 836 feet high, and, owing to 
their position, are easily seen from almost every point. 
Minto Crags, which form the chief natural feature of 
the parish, lie E of the Minto Hills. They are a large 
mass of trap rock, rising from a fairly level piece of 



MINTO 

ground, and attaining a height of 729 feet. The top is' 
most irregular in outline, while the face, overgrown 
with ivy, grass, and wild-flowers, is formed of shelving 
projections, one above the other. Huge blocks, de- 
tached from the cliS's above, lie scattered along the 
bottom of the Crags. Clumps of trees grow, both at 
the top and foot of the cliff', as well as on the face, 
wherever they can obtain root-hold. ' The view from, 
the Crags is highly diversified and beautiful. The wind- 
ings of "the silver Teviot," through a pleasing vale, can 
be traced for many a mile, the prospect on one side 
being terminated by the fine outline of the Liddesdale 
hills, along with those on the confines of Dumfriesshire, 
and in the opposite direction by the smoother and more 
rounded forms of the Cheviots. Ruberslaw rises imme- 
diately in front, with Denholmdean on the right, and 
the narrow bed of the Rule on the left ; while behind, to 
the N, are distinctly seen the Eildon Hills, the Black 
Hill, Cowdenknowes, Smailholm Tower, Hume Castle, 
and the Lammermuirs. ' The summit of the Crags is 
crowned by a ruin, called Fatlips Castle, which is supposed 
to have been the stronghold of TurnbuU of Barnhills, a 
well-known Border freebooter. A small platform, a 
little way below the top, is called Barnhill's Bed. It 
was used, in all probability, as a point of outlook. Sir 
Walter Scott alludes to it in the following lines from 
The Lay of the Last Minstrel : 

* On Minto Crags the moonbeams glint 
Where Bamhill hewed his bed of flint ; 
Who flunsr his outlawed limits to rest 
Where falcons hang their giddy nest 
'Mid cliffs from whence his eagle eye 
For many a league his prey could spy ; 
Cliffs, doubling, on their eclioes borne 
The terrors of the robber's horn.' 

Nearly two-thirds of the parish are in tillage, the 
other one-third being pasture land. In the E part of 
Minto are many plantations, the property of the Earl of 
Minto. Near the Teviot the soil is light loam ; to- 
wards the N it is clay. The Crags are formed of erup- 
tive rocks, and in Hassendean Glen is coarse red sand- 
stone conglomerate. The North British railway traverses- 
the parish for 3J miles, and has a station at Hassendean. 

The chief landowners are the Earl of Minto, to whom 
belong two-thirds of the parish ; the Duke of Buccleuch, 
Heron Maxwell of Teviothank, and Colonel Dickson of 
Hassendeanburn. The principal residences are Minto- 
House, Teviothank, and Hassendeanburn. The first of 
these is the seat of Lord Minto, to whom this property 
gives the title of Baron and Earl in the peerage of the 
United Kingdom. Some time before his elevation to 
the bench as Lord Minto in 1705, Gilbert or 'Gibbie' 
Elliot (1651-1718), a grandson of Gilbert Elliot of Stobs, 
purchased the Minto estate. He had been created a 
baronet in 1700. The second Sir Gilbert (1693-1766), 
lord justice-clerk, was an accomplished Italian scholar, 
and formed a large library at Minto House. The third 
Sir Gilbert (1722-77) sat as member of Parliament, 
first for Selkirkshire and then for Roxburghshire. He 
was a poet of some merit ; and his sister, Jean Elliot 
(1727-1805), was author of that immortal lyric. The 
Mowers of the Forest. The fourth Sir GUbert (1751- 
1814) held several political and diplomatic posts, and, 
on account of his services, was raised to the peerage as 
Baron Minto in 1797, and as Earl of Minto and Viscount 
Melgund in 1813. William -Hugh Elliot - Murray- 
Kynynmound, present and third Earl (b. 1814 ; sue. 
1859), from 1857-59 acted as Chairman of the General 
Board of Lunacy for Scotland, and in 1870 was created 
a Knight of the Thistle. His countess, Emma- Eleanor- 
Elizabeth Hislop (1824-82), was author o{ Memoirs of the 
Right Hon. Sugh Elliot ; Life and Letters of Sir Gilbert 
Elliot, first Earl of Minto ; Lord Minto in India ; Border 
Sketches, etc. The Earl owns 16,041 acres, valued at 
£15,857, Is. per annum, viz., 8633 acres in Roxburgh- 
shire (£6884, 4s.), 1032 in Selkirkshire (£264, 5s.), 2930 
in Fife (£5400, 10s. ), and 3446 in Forfarshire (£3308, 
2a. ). See Lochgellt and Melgund. 

Minto House, ^ mile NE of the village, is a handsome 



MISTYLAW HILLS 

four-storied building, erected in 1814 from designs by 
Archibald Elliot, Esq., architect. It contains a valu- 
able library and an interesting museum. One of its 
chief attractions is the beauty of its site ; another, the 
wide and magnificent view which it commands, especi- 
ally from its upper winilows. 

The earliest notices of the barony of Minto occur in 
the 14th century, at which time it was in the possession 
of the ancient and powerful family of the Turnbulls. 
It passed from them to the Stewarts, and at length was 
sold to Sir Gilbert Elliot, the great ancestor of the 
present family of Minto. A curious circumstance re- 
garding the church of Minto is, that in 1374 it belonged 
to the diocese of Lincoln. Jlinto is in the presbytery 
of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the 
living is worth £469. The public school, with accommo- 
dation for 69 children, had (1883) an average attendance 
of 29, and a grant of £17, 7s. Valuation (1864) £4667, 
13s. 8d., (1884) £5716, 5s. lid. Pop. (1801) 477, (1831) 
481, (1861) 430, (1871) 431, (1881) m.—Ord. Sur. ,s\i. 
17, 1864. 

Mistylaw Hills. See Lociiwinnooh. 

Miulie, Loch, or Loch a' Mhuilinn, a small lake in Kil- 
morack parish, Glenstrathfarrar, NW Inverness-shire, 
15 miles WSW of Beauly. An expansion of the river 
Farear, it lies at an altitude of 416 feet, has an utmost 
length and breadth of 7 and 3 furlongs, affords good 
trout-fishing, and has near its foot a shooting-lodge of 
Lord Lovat. To an islet in it the old Lord Lovat is said 
to have retired after the Battle of CuUoden, and from a 
neighbouring mountain to have surveyed the conflagra- 
tion of his mansion and the houses of his clansmen. — 
Ord. Sur., shs. 82, 83, 1882-81. 

Moan, Loch, a lake on the mutual border of Barr 
parish, Ayrshire, and Minnigatf parish, Kirkcudbright- 
shire, 72 miles ENE of Barrhill station. Lying 675 feet 
above sea-level, it has an utmost length and breadth of 
6J and 3 furlongs ; is deeply indented in outline and 
studded with four islets ; contains large pike ; and sends 
off the river Ceee to the head of Wigtown Bay. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 8, 1863. 

Mochrum (Gael, magh-dhruim, ' ridge of the plain '), 
a village and a coast parish in Machers district, SE 
Wigtownshire. The village, 2 miles NNE of Port- 
William and 8 SW of Wigtown, is a pleasant little 
place, with two inns, a post office, the manse and 
parish church, a good school, and a row of some twenty 
houses. 

The parish, containing also Port-William and Eldrig 
villages, is bounded NW by Old Luce, N by Kirkcowan, 
E by Kirkinner, SE by Glasserton, and SW by Luce 
Bay. Its utmost length, from NNW to SSE, is llj 
miles ; its utmost breadth is 5J miles ; and its area is 
40 square miles or 25,601 acres, of which 863 J are fore- 
shore and 666| water. The coast-line, 9| miles long, 
over the first mile from the Glasserton boundary rises 
steeply to a height of 100 feet sheer out of the water, 
but elsewhere is fringed by an old sea-margin of flat 
smooth gravel, 50 j'ards broad, with high grassy braes 
beyond. A number of burns rising in the interior run 
south-south-westward to Luce Bay ; but the drainage is 
parth' carried eastward to the Bladenoch by head-streams 
of the Water of Malzie. Of eleven lakes and lakelets, 
mostly in the N and NW, the principal are White Loch 
(4| X If furl. ), Eldrig Loch (4x1 furl.), Mochrum Loch 
(l| mile X 3 furl. ), and Castle Loch (1 J x J mile). The 
two last, 65 and 8 miles NNW of Port- William, contain 
a number of islets, with which, and its wooded head- 
lands, Mochrum Loch has no common beauty. The 
surface is everywhere hilly, chief elevations from N to 
S being Craigeach Fell (426 feet), the Doon of May 
(457), Mochrum Fell (646), Bennan HUl (500), Eldrig 
Fell (432), Milton Fell (418), and East Bar (450)— 
heights that command a far-away view to the Isle of 
Man and the mountains of Ireland and Cumberland. 
Thus, with but small aggregate of level land, Mochrum 
comprises large tracts of rocky eminence and mossy 
swamp, bleak and barren in aspect, and thinly inter- 
spersed with patches of good dry arable land. The 
76 



MOFFAT 

predominant rocks are Silurian, and the soil along much 
of the seaboard is very fertile loam, either light or strong 
and deep ; on the lands towards the centre is thin and 
stony; and on the higher grounds is moorish. Some 200 
acres are under wood ; and a large extent of moorland has 
been brought into cultivation. In 1832 a bone-crushing 
mill was opened at Eldrig village, and from that date the 
' Old Mill of Mochrum ' has been quite an institution in 
the county. The lands of Mochrum were given in 1368 
to Thomas Dunbar, second son of Patrick, Earl of March. 
The Dnnbars, his descendants, who took title from 
Mochrum, and had their scat at the Old Place of 
Mochrum, were a somewhat distinguished famUy. 
Cadets of the house founded the families of Dunbar 
of Clugston and Dunbar of Baldoon, the latter now 
represented by the Earl of Selkirk. Gavin Dunbar, son 
of Sir John Dunbar of Mochrum, became prior of 
Whithorn about the year 1504, was afterwards made 
preceptor to James V., and became in 1524 Archbishop 
of Glasgow, in 1528 Lord-Chancellor of Scotland, and 
in 1536 one of the Lords of Regency during the king's 
visit to France. The family was raised to the baronetcy 
in 1694, and is now represented by Sir William Dunbar, 
seventh Bart. (b. 1812; sue. 1841), Liberal M.P. for 
Wigtown 1857-65. Since the close, however, of the 
17th. century, the Old Place and the estate of Mochrum 
have been held by the Earls of Dumfrie.s and Marquises 
of Bute. Engirt with ash-trees, and standing near the 
NE end of Mochrum Loch, the Old Place consists of 
two square four-story towers, and dates from the last 
quarter of the 15th century. Since 1873 it has been 
carefully restored by the present Marquis. On an islet 
in Castle Loch are remains of an older castle ; and the 
ruins of Myrtoun Castle, the seat of the M'Cidlochs, 
crown a mote-hill near the shore of the White Loch. 
Other antiquities are a large double-dyked fort on 
Barsalloch Brae, the Mote of Boghouse near Mochrum 
village, the Carlin Stone near Eldrig Loch, a vitrified 
fort on the Doon of May, remains of Chapel Finian 
(by the country people called ' Chipper-Finnan ' or ' the 
Well of Finnan ') on the shore 54 miles NW of Port- 
William, Cairn Buy still further NW, etc. Monreith, 
noticed separately, is the principal mansion ; and Sir 
H. E. Maxwell, Bart. , M. P. , divides most of the parish 
with the Marquis of Bute, 2 lesser proprietors holding 
each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 5 of between 
£100 and £500, 1 of from £50 to £100, and 16 of from 
£20 to £50. Mochrum is in the presbytery of Wig- 
town and the synod of Galloway ; the living is worth 
£216. The parish church is a plain edifice of 1794, 
and, as enlarged in 1832 and 1878, contains 800 
sittings. Free and U.P. churches are at Port- 
William ; and four public schools — Culshabbin, Eldrig, 
Mochrum, and Port-William — mth respective accom- 
modation for 60, 80, 119, and 220 children, had 
(1883) an average attendance of 31, 54, 56, and 122, 
and grants of £41, 15s., £39, 12s., £40, 12s., and 
£102, 16s. Valuation (1860) £12,250, (1884) £16,003, 
19s. 4d. Pop. (1801) 1113, (1831) 2105, (1861) 
2694, (1871) 2450, (1881) 2315.— Ord. Sur., shs. 4, 2, 
1857-56. 

Mochrum Loch. See Kikkoswald. 

Mofifat (Gaelic oua-vat, 'along, deep, mountain hollow,' 
or Irish mai-fad, ' a long plain '), a town in the N of the 
Annandale district of Dumfriesshire, and a parish, partly 
in Dumfriesshire and partly in Lanarkshire. The town 
is situated at the southern base of the Gallow Hill 
(832 feet) * on the left bank of the river Annan, 2 miles 
NNW of the point at which Moffat and Evan Waters 
flow into that river. It is distant 51 miles by road, but 
63 J by rail, SSW of Edinburgh ; 54 by road, but 66§ by 
rail, SE of Glasgow; 21 by road, but 30 J by rail, NNE 
of Dumfries ; ISJ by road N by W of Lockerbie, and 2 
NNE of Beattock station on the main line (1848) 
of the Caledonian. A railway line, If mile long, 

* Prof. George Sinclair of Glasgow, who died in 1696, ascertained 
the height of this hill by means of the barometer — the earUest 
instance probably of its application in Great Britain to this pur- 
pose. 

37 



MOFFAT 

vthieh was opened in April 1883, connects Moffat with 
Beattock. The company has a capital of £16,000 in 
£10 shares. The new line, wliich is worked by the 
Caledonian Railway Company, has proved a great boon 
to Moffat, as it has made it much easier of access than 
it was when the nearest station was at Beattock. 
Omnibuses run between the hotels and the mineral well, 
and a coach goes thrice a week in the season to the 
famous Grey Mare's Tail and St Mary's Loch. 

The town is built upon a gentle slope, which rises 
slowly northward from 340 to 400 feet alaove sea-level. 
The High Street is the chief street, or rather 'place,' 
being 300 yards long and 50 broad. It is thus described 
in the Beauties of Scotland (1805): 'The street is wide and 
spacious, Iiandsomely formed and gravelled, exceedingly 
smooth, clean, and dr_y in an hour after the heaviest rains, 
and is a most agreeable walk to the inhabitants, and to 
the company that comes for goats' whey or the mineral 
waters.' Since that time the High Street has been 
modernised by the erection of new, and the remodelling 
of old, buildings. It contains the principal public 
edifices, hotels, etc., and at one time, with the closes 
branching from it, composed the town of Moffat. Of 
late years, however, owing to the number of people 
visiting Moffat annually, the building of villas has been 
greatly encouraged, and several new streets have sprung 
up. Such are Well Road, Old Well Road, Beechgrove, 
Havelock Crescent, Academy Road, Hopetoun Place, 
Ballplay Road, etc. A number of villas have also been 
erected at the foot of the Gallow Hill. 

There are in the town four places of worship belong- 
ing to the Established, Free, United Presbyterian, and 
Episcopal Churches. The parish church, situated in the 
S part of the town, was built in 1790, and contains 1000 
sittings. It is surrounded by fine old trees, and has a 
handsome spire, surmounted by the 'Flying Spur,' the 
crest of the Johnstones of Annaudale. The Free church, 
erected in 1843, is a large but unadorned edifice, 
not far from the parish church. A small spire, added 
later on, greatly improved its appearance. The U. P. 
church, in Old Well Road, was erected in 1863, and cost 
£3000. It is in the Decorated English or Second 
Pointed style, consists of nave and aisles, and has a lofty 
tower and spire. From its position it may be seen from 
almost every point of view. The Episcopal church, 
situated upon the Kiln Knowes, Millburnside, was 
built in 1872 at the expense of J. Toulmin Laurence, 
Esq. of Liverpool, who resided at that time in Craigie- 
burn House. It is an iron church, but, in spite of that, 
is not devoid of style. Its main attraction is a beauti- 
ful stained-glass E window, erected to the memory of 
the Piev. W. B. Mackenzie, who was wont frequently to 
conduct service in the chapel. 

Moffat is well supplied with schools. The Academy 
arose out of the union (1834) of the parish school with 
the old grammar school, which was founded by Dr 
Robert Johnstone (1557-1639), George Heriot's brother- 
in-law. The building, which may lay claim to some 
beauty, is situated at the foot of the Gallow Hill. 
With accommodation for 286 children, it had (1883) 
an average attendance of 173, and a grant of £165, 
18s. 6d. The Academy furnishes a good classical edu- 
cation. Morison's Endowed school, in Well Road, 
is a simple yet pleasing building. William Morison 
(1796-1837), a native of Moffat and afterwards a Cal- 
cutta merchant, left £2000 to be spent in building and 
endowing a school, in which, in return for a nominal 
fee, a substantial English education might be had. 
It has accommodation for 88 children, an average 
attendance of 52, and a grant of £26, 19s. Annan 
Water and Moffat Water public schools, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 44 and 53 children, had (1883) 
an average attendance of 40 and 24, and grants of £44, 
9s. and £32, 2s. There are also an industrial school 
and a private school. 

For its size Moffat possesses a fair proportion of public 

buildings. The court-house, at the corner of High Street 

and Well Street, dates from 1772 ; but the bell in the 

turret has inscribed upon it the date 1660, along with 

38 



MOFFAT 

the Johnstone arms and an earl's coronet. Some time 
ago the ground-floor of the court-house was turned into 
shops, but the upper rooms are still used by the Town 
Commissioners for holding courts and discharging other 
business in. Moffat House, beside the baths, was 
erected by the second Earl of Hopetoun in 1751. As 
the third Earl died in 1817 without heirs male, the 
house passed into the possession of Lady Anne John- 
stone, his eldest daughter, and great-grandmother of the 
present holder of the house and property — Mr Hope 
Johnstone. (SeeR/VEHiLLS.) Itwas in Moffat House that 
Macpherson was residing (1759) when he entered on that 
literary forgery which made so great a stir in the latter 
half of the 18th century — the fabrication of the 
Ossianic epics. A fine public fountain, in the upper 
part of the High Street, was erected by Mr Colvin 
of Craigiclands in 1875 at a cost of £500. The 
design is somewhat pastoral. Upon a pedestal of rough- 
hcAvn Corncockle red sandstone blocks, 16 feet in height, 
stands a ram in bronze, designed by the late William 
Brodie, R.S. A. Round the base are 4 basins of polished 
granite. Other buildings, which improve the appear- 
ance of the town, are the chief hotels and the banks. 
The baths, on the W side of High Street, beside the 
Annandale Arms Hotel, were erected in 1827. The 
front part of the building is taken up with assembly, 
reading, and billiard rooms, while the rear part contains 
the baths, which are of various descriptions — vapour, 
mineral, etc. The entrance to the baths is through a 
Doric portico. The Beechgrove grounds, laid out in 
1870 at a cost of £600, comprise bowling, croquet, and 
lawn -tennis grounds, with an excellent pavilion. Per- 
haps the most striking building in Moffat is the Hydro- 
pathic Establishment, erected in the Renaissance style 
by Messrs Pilkington & Bell, of Edinburgh, in 1875- 
77, at a cost of "fully £40,000. It is of immense size, 
comprising a centre and two wings, the former having 
tm'rets at either end. There are 5 floors, including the 
basement, and 300 bedrooms. The dining-hall can 
accommodate comfortably 300 guests, and the drawing- 
room, recreation-room, etc., are all on an equally large 
scale. The baths are of a very perfect description, 
embracing Turkish, vapour, etc., and the grounds, 25 
acres in extent, are beautifully laid out. There are 
lawns for tennis and croquet, as well as a bowling-green. 
Moffat has a head post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments ; 
branches of the Bank of Scotland, the Union Bank, and 
the British Linen Company's Bank, offices or agencies of 
14 insurance companies, 3 chief hotels, numerous lodging- 
houses of all classes, a subscription library, with over 
4000 volumes, and a Saturday newspaper — TTie Moffat 
Times (1857). During the season concerts, lectures, etc., 
are given in the Baths Assembly Hall, which is also 
used for public meetings and by the band of the Upper 
Annandale Rifle Volunteers. The building which 
served as the Episcopal chapel before the new chapel 
was built in 1872 is now used as an Oddfellows' Hall, 
and there is also a Mechanics' Hall in Well Street. A 
weekly market is held at Moffat every Friday ; a lamb 
fair is held on the Friday of July after Langholm fair ; 
a fair for sheep and cattle, held on the Friday of Sep- 
tember after Falkirk Tryst, is knovm as the Tup Fair ; 
and hiring fairs are held on the third Friday of March 
old style, and the Friday after 19 Oct. Shows of 
sheep, cattle, flowers, etc., are connected with the Tup 
Fair, and draw many to Moffat owing to the high 
class of the exhibits. The great annual sale of Cheviot 
rams, at the Beattock Bridge Hotel, on the day 
before the Moffat tup fair, may also be mentioned. 
The shops in Moffat are, as a rule, of a superior 
class, the shopkeepers being induced to deal in luxuries 
as well as necessaries to meet the wants of visitors. 
The wells in the neighbourhood of Moffat are three 
in number^Garpol Spa, 3 miles SW ; Hartfell Spa, 
5 miles NNE ; and Moffat Well, IJ mile NNE of the 
town of Moffat. The first two are separately described. 
According to the commonly received story, Moffat Well 
was found in 1633 by Miss Rachel Whiteford, only 



MOFFAT 

daughter of Dr Whiteford, bishop of Brecliin, who held 
a considerable amount of property in the parishes of 
Moffat and Kirkpatrick-Juxta. But, in a work entitled 
Foils Moffetensis, scu, Bescriptio Topographico-Spagynca 
Fontium Mincralium Moffctcnsium in Annandia, pub- 
lished in 1659, the author, Matthew Mackaile, asserts 
that the wells were first discovered in 1653 by a ' vale- 
tudinary rustic. ' The mineral qualities of the well were 
also noted by Sir Robert Sibbald in 1683 ; by George 
Milligan and Andrew Pluramer, M.D., professor of 
medicine. University of Edinburgh, in 1747 ; by Dr 
Garnett in 1800 ; by J. Erskine Gibson in 1827 ; by Dr 
Thomas Thomson, of Glasgow, in 1828 ; by Dr John 
Macadam, of Glasgow, in 1854 ; by Mr William John- 
stone, of Edinburgh, in 1874 ; and by others. 

The following analysis is that of Dr Murray Thomson, 
which is among the latest and most trustworthy :^ 

' 1*37 cubic inches of sulphuretted hydrogen 2:a9. 
4'46 „ carbonic acid gas. 

96 "16 grains of solid residue on evaporation. 



4-60 


, carbonate of lime. 


7-70 


, chloride of calcium. 


6-41 


, chloride of magnesium 


69-00 


, chloride of sodium. 


2-55 


silica. 


6-80 


organic matter. 



96 06 

Traces also exist of carbonate of iron, alumina, 
^chloride of magnesia, sulphuret of sodium. 

35 cubic inch of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, 

traces of carbonic acid gas. 
60 grains of solid residue on evaporation. 



64-1 

S 
1 
^34 
3 
1 
4 



32 „ chloride of calcium. 

46 ,, chloride of magnesium. 

11 ,, chloride of sodium. 

56 ,, sulphate of soda. 

SI „ sUica. 

70 „ organic matter. 



53 '96 

, Traces also exist of oxide of iron and oxide of copper. 

The temperature of the Moffat mineral water is very 
steady, as was proved by experiments made in 1852-53. 
From these it appeared that the temperature at all 
seasons of the year, and under all changes of the atmo- 
sphere, is 49i° Fahr. With regard to the smell, taste, 
and appearance of the water opinions vary. One writer 
describes the smell and taste as resembling 'bilge- water, 
or the scourings of a foul gun . . . like sulphureous 
water of Harrowgate, but not quite so stroug.' Another 
compares them to the smell and taste of a 'slightly 
putrescent egg.' The taste is almost invariably dis- 
agreeable at first, though, it is said, some grow to like 
it after a time. The appeai-ance is described in one 
account as ' sparkling beautifully, especially when first 
taken from the spring ; ' in another as 'like champagne ; ' 
and a third says, 'the water is never decidedly sparkling. 
It does assume a certain degree of cloudiness from the 
uniform diffusion through it of very minute gaseous 
globules.' The Moffat water has been pronounced by 
doctors a powerful remedy in diseases of the skin, on 
account of the sulphur and salts held in solution in it. 
It is also valuable as a means of cure in affections of 
the lungs, in gravel, rheumatism, dyspepsia, bilious- 
ness, etc. 

The MoSat AVell has enjoyed a growing popularity as 
is shown by the number of people who visit the town 
annually ' to drink the waters.' The favourite time for 
doing so is between seven and nine o'clock in the morning, 
when the road between the toivn and the spa is covered 
with people on foot, in carriages, and omnibuses. It is 
almost the invariable custom to partake of the waters 
at the well itself, since the gases, with which they are 
impregnated are of so volatile a nature that even the 
most careful corking is unable to retain them. The 
well is situated on the slope of one side of a small 
valley, down which flows the Well Burn, a small stream, 
so named from the well beside it. It consists of two 
springs, an upper and a lower, the latter of which, more 
strongly impregnated with sulphur and salts, is used for 



MOFFAT 

drinking purposes, while the water of the former, con- 
veyed to the town in pipes, is employed in the mineral 
baths, recommended in certain cases. The well is 
covered by a small stone building, near which are the 
cottage of the keeper, a building in which balls and 
public breakfasts used to be held, and a wooden erection 
with a verandah, built for the convenience of visitors. 
The appearance of the well is thus described by TurnbuU 
in his Sistory of Moffat : — ' On reaching the well, many 
circumstances strongly indicate the sulphureous nature 
of the water. The water itself has the characteristic 
odour of such waters, while the metal stop-cock attached 
to the pipe, which delivers the supply, is coated with a 
black shining sulphuret. . . . The small openings 
in the rock, from which the water of the upper well 
issues, are alone visible ; those of the lower being built 
over with a fixed pipe, communicator, and stop-cock, to 
draw off the water at pleasure. The upper apertures 
are encrusted with a yellowish-white substance, which, 
when ignited, yields a blue flame, and has the same 
smell as burning sulphur.' The water oozes out of a 
rock of greywacke, containing pyrites. It was thought 
at one time that the taste of sulphur was so far due to a 
bog in the neighbourhood, but the fact that the bog has 
disappeared and the sulphur taste still remains, is 
sufficient to discredit that theory. The presence of 
sulphur, in the form of iron pyrites, in the rocks that 
surrounded the well, as also in that form which the 
mineral spring flows, is enough to account for the way 
and the extent to which the water is impregnated. 

Moffat became a burgh of barony and regality in 1635. 
There is still in existence a burgh charter, dated 1662, 
by which the barony and regality of Moffat, and of the 
burgh which stood within it, are transferred to James, 
Earl of Annandale. This charter was ratified by an 
Act of Parliament in 1669. When the rights of lords 
of regalities were done away with, some supposed 
that Moffat ceased to enjoy those rights which, as a 
burgh, it had possessed. This was a mistake, however, 
as was shown .by the proprietors of the Mo fat Times 
and others (1857), and, as a result, the boundaries of 
the burgh, as well as its common lands, were marked 
on the Ordnance Map. Moffat adopted the General 
Police and Improvement Act in 1864, and, under it, is 
governed by a senior magistrate, 2 junior magistrates, 
and 6 commissioners. The burgh court sits on the first 
Saturday of every month, and sheriff small debt courts 
are held on the first Friday of April, August, and 
December. Pop. (1841) 1413, (1861) 1463, (1871) 1730, 
(1881) 2161, of whom 1231 were females. Houses (1881) 
471 inhabited, 32 vacant, 11 building. 

When Moffat was founded is not known, but it must 
have been at a somewhat early date, as mention is made 
of the town in the 11th and 12th centuries. From one 
notice, it would appear that the present town was pre- 
ceded by another, called Auldtoun, but this is doubtful. 
The town is named, however, in a charter granted by 
Piobert I. (1306-29) to Adae Barbitonsorie, and in 
another granted by David II. (1329-71) to Robert Lage. 
In Dec. 1332, the army of Edward Baliol, who had been 
crowned Eing of Scotland about two months before, 
encamped at 'Moffat. Baliol remained there for a time, 
attempting to win over the lords of that district of 
Annandale. From Moffat he passed with his army to 
Annan Moor, and was attacked by night, surprised, and 
defeated by Sir Archibald Douglas, who had gathered 
1000 horsemen at Moffat, and had come suddenly down 
upon his encampment. Many Scottish knights and 
nobles were slain ; Baliol's army was dispersed in all 
directions ; and he himself was compelled to flee to 
England. The well-known ' Three Stan'in' Stanes ' on 
the Beattock road, 1 mile S by W of Moffat, have been 
supposed to indicate either the place where the battle 
took place, or the spot where three officers fell. Both 
suppositions are improbable, and it is more likely that 
they are of Druidic origin. In 1448, while William, 
seventh Earl of Douglas, warden of the West Marches, 
was absent, the burgh of Dumfries was burned. As a 
consequence, he convened ' a meeting of the whole lords, 

39 



MOFFAT 

freeholders, and heads of Border families within the 
Wardency,' in order that steps might be taken to pre- 
vent a surprise occurring again. One way, proposed and 
carried out, was that ' balefires ' should be kindled on 
suitable hills in Annandale and Nithsdale. The Gal- 
low Hill at Moffat was chosen as one of these hills, as 
is recorded in the Acts of the Scottish Parliament, vol. 
i., 'Ane baill sail be brynt on Gallowhill in Moffat 
Parochin.' In this connection, the war-cry of the 
inhabitants of Moffat— 'Aye ready, aye ready '—may be 
mentioned. 

Moffat again appears in the history of Scotland in the 
time of the Covenanters. The distiict round about it is 
full of memories of that period and of those who lived 
in it. Claverhouse, afterwards Viscount Dundee, sent 
a report from Moffat, dated 28 Dec. 1678, to the Earl 
of Linlithgow, Commander-in-chief of His Majesty's 
Forces, in which he described that town as among ' the 
most convenient places for quartering dragoons. . . . 
whereby the wliole country may be kept in awe.' In 
the mountains and valle}'s in the neighbourhood of 
Moffat the Covenanters were accustomed to lie hid, to 
hold conventicles, and to elude the pursuit of their 
enemies. In quieter times, and with the growing popu- 
larity of the Wells, Moffat made rapid advances. In 
1704 it is spoken of as 'a small straggling town ' to 
which people come to drink the waters. The writer, 
however, goes on to say — ' But what sort of people they 
are, or where they get lodgings, I can't tell, for I did 
not like their lodgings well enough to go to bed, but 
got such as I could to refresh me, and so came away.' 
In 1745 it must have contained better accommodation, 
as it was then the favourite summer resort of two well- 
known Edinburgh physicians, who visited it in turn 
yearly, and, by their presence, attracted many of their 
patients to the town. The names of these doctors were 
Dr Sinclair and Dr John Clerk. 

In the latter half of the 18th century, however, 
Moffat became more conspicuous. It was visited by 
men like John Home, author of the play of Douglas; 
David Hume, philosopher, historian, and agnostic ; 
James Macpherson, the fabricator of Ossian's poems ; 
Dr Alexander Carlyle, of Inveresk ; James Boswell, the 
famous biographer ; Joseph Black, the well-known pro- 
fessor of chemistry in Edinburgh University ; Dr Black- 
lock, the blind poet ; Hugh Blair, the divine ; and 
many others, whose presence and whose name were 
sufficient to draw others to the place where they 
happened to be. An interesting event connected with 
the visit to Moffat of Home and Macpherson is narrated 
in the Account of the Life and iVritings of John So-me, 
by Henry Mackenzie (Edinb. 1822). Mackenzie's work 
contains a letter of Dr Adam Ferguson, which tells how 
that Home and Macpherson met at the bowling-green, 
and soon became intimate. The subject of traditionary 
poetry in the Highlands was discussed, and Macpherson 
promised to translate some fragments which were in his 
possession. These, according to the letter, ' were after- 
wards printed in a pamphlet, and drew that public 
attention which gave rise to the further proceeding on 
the subject.' The name of Burns is also connected with 
the town. He visited it frequently, and in it he wrote 
the famous song — • 

' O, Willie brewed a peck o' maut 
And Rab anb Allan cam' to pree, 
Three blither hearts that lee-Ian; night 
Ye wadna find in Christendee.' 

And here he composed, in addition to many other 
poems, &c., the epigram called An Apology for Scrimpit 
Naiure. 

Since the 19th century began, the progress of Moffat 
has been both rapid and continuous. New buildings 
have been erected ; fine streets have been laid out ; a 
water supply of 288,000 gallons per diem was brought 
in to the town at a cost of £5000 in 1867 ; a new system 
of sewerage was then also carried out ; a cemetery, 3 acres 
in extent, and f mile NW of the town, was beautifully 
laid out in 1872 at a cost of £700 ; and the town has 
been lighted with gas. These and other improvements 
40 



MOFFAT 

have tended to make Moffat very popular, and have 
given it almost a right to the names which have been 
applied to it of the Cheltenham or Baden of Scotland. ''' 
A proof of the healthiness of Moffat may be found in the 
fact that, when Asiatic cholera was raging at Dumfries 
(only 21 miles distant), Moffat was practically entirely 
spared. 

Moffat has been the place of birth and of residence of 
some distinguished Scotchmen. Among those born 
there, the following may be mentioned : — Sir Archibald 
Johnstone, Lord Warriston (1610-6-3), is described by 
M 'Crie as 'a profound and accomplished lawyer, an 
eloquent speaker, and a man of the most active habits,' 
who ' took a prominent share in the proceedings of the 
Covenanters, and was among the chief leaders in pro- 
moting the league between Scotland and England.' He 
was created Lord Advocate (1646), Lord Register (1649), 
and one of Cromwell's peers ; at the Restoration took 
refuge in France ; but was brought back to Edinburgh 
and executed. William Dickson, LL.D. (1749-1821), 
actively assisted Wilberforce in his attempt to do away 
with slavery. Dickson was the translator of Carnot's 
Treatise on the Calculus (ISOl), and the editor of a 
reprint of Garuett's Observations on the Moffat Waters 
(1820). He died in London, and left a collection of 
scientific works to the Moffat Library. David Welsh, 
D.D. (1793-1S45), was Professor of Church History in 
Edinburgh University (1831). He wrote the Life of Dr 
Thomas Brown and An Lntroduetion to the Elements of 
Church History. Walter Boyd (1760-1842) was the chief 
partner of the firm of Boyd, Benfield, & Co., bankers, 
London and Paris. He sat as M.P. for Shaftesbury in 
the first Imperial Parliament. 

Among those connected with Moffat by residence we 
may note the following: — John Rogerson, M.D. (1741- 
1823), a famous physician, who acted as first medical 
adviser to the Empress and court of Russia, purchased 
in 1805 the estate of Dumcrieff, and resided upon it 
from 1816 till his death. John Loudon Macadam (1756- 
1836), the inventor of that process of road-making, 
known as 'macadamising,' resided at Dumcrieff for some 
time, and after a life of hard work, died at Moffat, and 
was buried in its churchyard. John Fiulay (1782-1810), 
author of Wallace, or the Vale of Ellcrslic, Historical 
aiul Romantic Ballads (1808), etc., was a poet of great 
promise, whose life was cut short by a sudden illness at 
Moffat, where he lies buried. John AValker, D.D., 
known, owing to his eccentricities, as the ' mad minister 
of Moffat,' was a churchman of some note in his day. 
He was presented to Moffat parish in 1762, was trans- 
lated to Coliuton parish in 1783, and died in 1803. Dr 
Walker wrote several books, his favourite subject being 
natural history. 

The parish of Moffat is bounded N by Tweedsmuir in 
Peeblesshire, NE by Lyne and Megget in Peeblesshire 
and Ettrick in Selkirkshire, E by Ettrick and Eskdale- 
muir, SE by Wamphray, SW by Kirkpatrick-Juxta, and 
W and NW by Crawford in Lanarkshire. Its utmost 
length, from ENE to WSW, is 14| miles ; its utmost 
breadth is 8 J miles; and its area is 43,170 acres, of 
which 3119 are in Lanarkshire and 40,051 in Dumfries- 
shire, whilst 205 are water. The parish is traversed by 
three roads, leading respectively to Edinburgh, Glas- 
gow, Selkirk, and by a section of the C^aledonian rail- 
way, as well as by part of the Beattock and Moffat 
branch. Moffat is rich in features of natural beauty. 
River, loch, mountain, valley, combine to render it one 
of the most picturesque parishes in the South of Scotland. 

* WiUiam Black, in big Strange Adventures of a Phaeton (1S72), 
obgerves that, ' if Moffat is to be likened to Baden-Baden, it forms 
an exceedingly Scotch and respectable Baden-Baden. The build- 
ing in which the mineral waters are drunk looks somewh.at like 
an educational institution, with its prim white iron railings. 
Inside, instead of the splendid saloon of the Conversationshaus, 
we foimd a long and sober-looking reading-room. Moffat itself is 
a white, clean, wide-streeted place, and the hills around it are 
smooth and green ; but it is very far removed from Baden-Baden. 
It is a good deal more proper, and a great deal more dull. Per- 
haps we did not visit it in the height of the season, if it has got a 
season ; but wc were at all events not very sorry to get away from 
it again, and out into the hilly country beyond.' 



MOFFAT 

The Annan, rising at an altitude of 1270 feet on the 
northern border, near the meeting-point of Peebles, 
Lanark, and Dumfries shires, and not far from sources 
of the Tweed and Clyde, flows 8§ miles south-south- 
eastward — for 3J miles through the north-western in- 
terior, and then along or close to the boundary with 
Kirkpatrick-Juxta. It is fed by several small streams 
— Birnock Water, Frenchland Burn, etc., and is joined, 
2 miles below Moffat, by Moffat Water on the E and 
Evan Water on the W. Moflat AVater, rising at an 
altitude of 1800 feet in the nortli-eastern corner of the 
parish, close to the Selkirkshire boundary, flows 12J 
miles south-westward through the parish. It is fed by 
the following streams : — on the right bank. Tail Burn, 
flowing from Loch Skene, and Carrifran, Blackhope, 
and Craigie Burns ; on the left bank, Bodesbeck, Sailfoot, 
Selcoth, Crofthead, and Cornal Burns. Evan Water, 
which rises in Lanarkshire, flows for 3J miles south- 
south-eastward through the western wing of Moffat, and 
then passes off into Kirkpatrick-Juxta. Garpol Water, 
too, flows 2J miles eastward on the boundary with Kirk- 
patrick-Juxta. The only lake in the parish is ' dark 
Loch Skene' (6 x Ig furl. ; 1700 feet), 11 J miles NNE 
of Moff'at. 

Moffat parish is very mountainous. The chief moun- 
tains are — on the Peeblesshire boundarv. Great Hill 
(1527 feet). Spout Craig (1842), Barry Grain Rig (2012), 
Habtfbll (2651), Hartfell Rig (2422), Raven Craig 
(2246), Lochcraig Head (2625); on the Selkirkshire 
boundary, Andrewhinney Hill (2220), Ben Craig (2046), 
Bodesbeck Law (2173), Capel Fell (2223), Wind Fell 
(2180) ; on the boundaries with Eskdalemuir, AVam- 
phray, and Kirkpatrick-Juxta parishes. Loch Fell (2256), 
Crofthead (2085), Gateshaw Rig (1853) ; on the Lanark- 
shire boundary, Mosshope Fell (1567), Beld Knowe 
(1661), Campland Hill (1571), Black Fell (1528). The 
parish of Moff'at is thus girdled with mountains of 
higher or lower elevation. The interior of the parish, 
especially in the N, is, however, almost as mountainous 
as are the parts bordering on other parishes. Carrifran 
(2452 feet), Saddle Yoke (2412), Arthur's Seat (2398), 
Swatte Fell (2388), and White Coomb (2695), may be 
cited as among the loftiest. The Southern Alps, as the 
mountains in jloffat parish and the surrounding dis- 
trict are sometimes called, differ from the Highland 
mountains in being, as a rule, covered with grass up to 
the very summit. This naturallj' gives them the 
appearance of being less rugged and bare than the 
ranges in the north of Scotland. The valleys through 
which the Annan and Jloffat \aud Evan Waters flow 
are very narrow, especially in their upper parts. In 
some places there is barely room for the roads to 
pass along the bottom of the valleys. As might be 
expected, they are extremely picturesque. To quote 
once more from the Strange Adventures of a Phaeton, 
Mr William Black gives a fine description of the vale of 
the Annan above the town. 'That was a pretty drive 
up through Annandale. As you leave Moff'at the road 
gradually ascends into the region of the hills ; and down 
below you lies a great vaUey, with the river Annan 
running through it, and the town of Moffat itself 
getting smaller in the distance. You catch a glimmer 
of the blue peaks of Westmoreland lying far away iu the 
south, half hid amid silver haze. The hills around you 
increase in size, and you would not recognise the bulk 
of the great round slopes but for those minute dots that 
you can make out to be sheep, and for an occasional 
wasp-Uke creature that you suppose to be a horse. The 
evening draws in. The yellow light on the slopes of 
green becomes warmer. You arrive at a great circular 
chasm which is called by the country-folks the Devil's 
or Marquis of Annandale's Beef-tub — a mighty hol- 
low, the western sides of which are steeped in a soft 
purple shadow, while the eastern slopes burn yellow in 
the sunlight. There is no house, not even a farmhouse 
near ; and all traces of Moffat and its neighbourhood 
have long been left out of sight. But what is the 
solitude of this place to the wild and lofty region you 
enter, when you reach the summits of the hills ? ' etc. 



MONAR, LOCH 

In MoflTat parish the soil in the valleys is mainly 
alluvial ; on the lower slopes of the hills it is light, dry 
gravel. A considerable part of the land is in tillage ; 
but the main part is pasture land. There are a few 
woods of some extent — the Craigieburn, Bellcraig, and 
Dumcrieff' woods may he mentioned. In the uplands the 
rocks are Silurian ; greywacke, containing quartz, sand- 
stone, and gypsum are found ; but coal, copper, and 
limestone, though sought for, have not been discovered. 

The parish contains several objects of antiquarian 
interest. There is an old British fort, 2J miles I'rom 
Moffat, on the top of Beattock Hill, and two other 
forts, not far distant from the town. Cornal Tower, 
the ' keep ' of the Pocornal estate, is a small ruin. 
Blacklaw Tower is a good example of a border peel- 
house. Portions of the walls remain, and attest to the 
strength of the building. In addition to these, the 
parish also contains other border towers of a like 
character. Places, noted for their beauty or wildness, 
are the glen of Bell Craig, in which many rare ferns 
grow ; the Basin of Blackshope, the Deil's Beef-tub, or, 
as it is sometimes called, the Marquis of Aunandale's 
Beef-Stand ; the famous waterfall, called the Grey 
Mare's Tail ; Loch Skene, Erickstane, etc. 

Mansions, noticed separately, are Ckaigiebuen and 
DuMCBiEFF ; and Mr Hope Johnstone is chief pro- 
prietor. Moffat is in the presbytery of Lochmaben 
and synod of Dumfries ; the living is worth £460. 
Tlie ancient church of Moffat was transferred in 1174 
by Robert de Bruce to the bishop of Glasgow, and 
was afterwards constituted one of the prebends of the 
see. A chapel once existed between the Annan and the 
Evan, at the place still called Chapel. Valuation (1860) 
£13,251, (1884) £30,071, 5s. lOd. Pop. (1801) 1610, 
(1831) 2221, (1861) 2232, (1871) 2543, (1881) 2930, of 
whom 21 were in Lanarkshire. — Orel. Sur.,s\i. 16, 1864. 

SeeW. R. TurnbuU's HiMory of Moffat (Edinb. 1871); 
Black's GuiAe to Moffeit (4th ed. 1882) ; and Fairfoul's 
Gtiide to Moffed (Moffat, 1877). 

Moll. See Mobebattle. 

MoUance, an estate, with a mansion, in Crossmichael 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 2J miles NNE of Castle- 
Douglas. 

Mollart. See Navee. 

Mollinbum, a village in the NE corner of Cadder 
parish, Lanarkshire, 6 miles NNW of Airdrie. 

Molmont. See Galston. 

Monach, a group of islets in North Uist parish, 
Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire, 6 miles SSW of the 
western extremity of North Uist island, and 9i WNW 
of the north-western extremity of Benbecula. A 
lighthouse on Shillay, the most western islet of the 
group, shows a white light, flashing every ten seconds, 
and visible all round the horizon at a distance of 18 
nautical miles. Pop. (1871) 11, (1881) 13. 

Monadhliath (Gael, 'grey hills'), a c'hain of mountains 
in Inverness-shii'e, extending north-eastward between 
Glenmore and Strathspey, and culminating in Cam 
Mairg (3087 feet), 16^- miles E by S of Fort Augustus. 
Heavy, rounded, and barren, its mountains exhibit no 
grandeur of form. They chiefly consist of granite and 
quartzite, and rest on an elevated base or plateau of 
desolate heathy moor. Great herds of black cattle feed 
amongst their glens, and large flocks of sheep are 
pastured on their slopes ; but their irksome solitudes, 
their vast and dreary wastes, are abandoned to the 
grouse, the ptarmigan, the roe, and the red deer. — Ord, 
Sur., shs. 73, 74, f878-77. 

Monaeburgh. See Kilsyth. 

Monaltrie House, a commodious mansion in Glen- 
muick parish, Aberdeenshire, 1 mile N by E of Ballater. 
It was formerly called Ballater House, and belongs to 
Mr Farquharson of Inveecauld. 

Monar, Loch, an alpine lake on the mutual border of 
Inverness and Ross shires, 25 miles WSW of Beauly. 
Lying at an altitude of 663 feet above sea-level, it 
extends 4J miles east-by-northward, has an utmost 
breadth of 3J furlongs, and from its foot sends off the 
river Faeeee. It occupies a wild hollow, overhung to 

41 



MONBODDO HOUSE 

the S by peaked Sgurr na Lapaich (3773 feet) ; con- 
tains good trout and pike ; and at its E end has Monar 
shooting-lodge.— Oj-cZ. Sur., sh. 82, 1882. 

Monboddo House, an old mansion, amid pleasant 
plantations, in Fordoun parish, Kincardineshire, IJ mile 
E by S of Auchinblae, and 2J miles NNW of Fordoun 
station. It was the birthplace of the judge, James 
Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714-99), who anticipated 
Darwin in an evolution theory — of monkeys whose tails 
wore off with constant sitting. His descendant, James 
Cumioe Burnett, Esq., holds 3000 acres in the shire, 
valued at £2540 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 66, 1871. 

Moncreiffe House, a mansion in Dunbarny parish, 
Perthshire, at the southern base of Moncreiffe Hill, on 
the left side of the river Earn, 1 mile NNE of Bridge-of- 
Earn, and SJ miles SSE of Perth. It is a fine old edifice, 
built in 1679 from designs by the celebrated architect. Sir 
William Bruce of Kinross ; and its grounds are beauti- 
fully wooded, the older trees appearing to have been 
mostly planted about the time of the erection of the 
house. There is a grand beech avenue, more than 600 
yards long, with a small stone-circle in the middle ; and 
one horse-chestnut, girthing 20J feet at 1 foot from the 
ground, is supposed to be the largest of its kind in 
Scotland, if not indeed in Britain. A roofless chapel 
(30 X 18 feet), with a N aisle and a small E belfry, stands 
300 yards SE of the mansion, thickly embosomed in 
wood ; and since 1357 or earlier has .served as the 
burying-place of the Moncreiffe family. Moncreiffe or 
Moredun Hill, at the meeting-point of Dunbarny, 
Khynd, and East Perth parishes, 3 miles SSE of Perth 
city, occupies much of the peninsula between the Earn 
and the Tay, and forms the connecting link between the 
Ochils and the Sidlaws, except as isolated from them 
by those two rivers. It chiefly consists of greenstone, 
displaying on the S side a steep, high precipice of 
columnar formation ; and attains an altitude of 725 feet 
above sea-level. Its slopes are clothed with many- 
tinted trees, planted mostly during the last hundred 
years ; and its summit and E shoulder command one of 
the noblest prospects in Britain — pronounced by Pen- 
nant 'the glory of Scotland.' The high-road from 
Edinburgh to Perth passes at a height of 182 feet over 
its W shoulder, which is pierced by the conjoint tunnel 
(990 yards long) of the Caledonian and North British 
railway systems. The Roman legionaries, when they 
gained the top, cried out ' Behold the Tiber, behold the 
Field of Mars ! ' and Queen Victoria, driving from 
Dupplin Castle to Perth on her first progress to the 
Highlands (6 Sept. 1842), made a halt to gaze on the 
sunset-illumined scene. Not far from the flagstaff on 
the summit is a Pictish hill-fort, whose circular fosse, 
16 yards in diameter, is still traceable. From 1248 and 
earlier the lands of Moncreiffe have been held by the 
Moncreiffe family ; but in 1663 Sir John Moncreitt' — 
represented by Lord Moncreiff of Tullieeole — was 
forced to sell the estate to his cousin, Thomas Mon- 
creiffe, who in 1685 was created a baronet. Sir Robert 
Drummond Moncreiffe, present and eighth Bart. (b. 
1856 ; sue. 1879), owns 4673 acres in Perthshire, valued 
at £6758 per annum.— Ocd. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. See 
chap. X. of Thomas Hunter's Woods and Estates of 
Perthshire (Perth, 1883). 

Moncur Castle, a mined fortalice in Inchture parish, 
Perthshire, embosomed in wood, within the grounds of 
Rossie Priory, 5 furlongs NNE of Inchture village. It 
is said to have been destroyed by fire about the begin- 
ning of last century. 

Mondynes (anc. Monachedin), a farm in Fordoun 
parish, Kincardineshire, IJ mile SSW of Drumlithie 
station. A monolith here, 6 or 8 feet high, and called 
the Court-stane or King-stone, perhaps commemorates 
the murder of Duncan II. in 1094. 

Moneam. See Cairnmonearn, 

Moness Bum, a stream of detached portions of Dull 
and Fortingall parishes, Perthshire, rising at an altitude 
of 1970 feet, and running 5^ miles north-by-eastward, 
till, after a total descent of nearly 1600 feet, it fclls 
into the Tay at a point 3 furlongs N by W of Aberfeldy. 



MONIFIETH 

It traverses, in the lower part of its course, a deep, 
narro\n, wooded ravine ; and makes there two romantic 
waterfalls, which are celebrated in Burns's Birks o' 
Aberfeldy; whilst Pennant characterised them as 'an 
epitome of everything that can be admired in waterfalls. ' 
The upper cascade occurs IJ mile above Aberfeldy, and 
consists of a sheer leap of 50 feet ; the second, a short 
way lower down, consists of a series of leaps to the 
aggregate of at least 100 feet ; and the third, at the 
influx of a tributary, is more picturesque than either 
of the others, and consists of brilliant rushing cateracts. 
A rustic bridge crosses the ravine ; traces of a Roman 
redoubt are in its mouth ; and Moness House adjoins 
it in the vicinity of Aberfeldy. — Ord. Sur., sh. 55, 1869. 

Moneydie, a parish of Perthshire, whose church 
stands on the right bank of Shochie Burn, 2 miles W of 
Luncarty station and 6 NNW of the post-town, Perth. 
It is bounded NW by Auchtergaven, NE by Auchter- 
gaven and Redgorton, SE and S by Redgorton, SW by 
Methven, and W by Monzie (detached). Its utmost 
length, from WNW to ESE, is 4^ miles ; its utmost 
breadth is 3 miles ; and its area is 4464 acres, of which 
25 lie detached, and 25J are water. Shochie Bum 
winds 5f mUes east-south-eastward and north-eastward, 
partly along the Monzie and Redgorton boundaries, but 
mainly through the interior, and passes off from the 
parish at a point | mile from the Tay ; whilst Ordie 
Burn, its afBuent, runs 2§ miles south-eastward along or 
close to the north-eastern border. Sinking in the 
extreme E to close upon 170 feet above sea-level, the 
surface thence rises gently to 236 feet near Coldrochie, 
237 near Tophead, 452 near MUlhole, and 482 near 
Ardgaith. A very fine grey freestone has been quarried. 
The soil of the low flat lands is partly a light loam, 
partly of gravelly character resting on dry, hard, deep 
gravel ; of the lower slopes is a rich loam, incumbent 
on strong deep clay ; and of the highest grounds is a 
cold wet till, naturally moorish, but now mostly 
drained and cultivated. A small portion of the entire 
area is pastoral ; 400 acres or so are under wood ; and 
the rest of the land is in tillage. Alexander Myln, who 
died in 1542, and wrote the lives of the Bishops of Dun- 
keld, was priest of Moneydie. The Duke of Athole and 
the Earl of Mansfield are chief proprietors, 3 others hold- 
ing each an annual value of between £100 and £500. 
Moneydie is in the presbytery of Perth and the synod 
of Perth and Stirling ; the living is worth £278. The 
parish church, built in 1813, is a handsome edifice, 
containing 460 sittings. The public school, with accom- 
modation for 61 children, had (1883) an average attend- 
ance of 52, and a grant of £73, 2s. Valuation (1860) 
£4330, 16s., (1884) £4471, Os. 6d. Pop. (1841) 315, 
(1861) 252, (1871) 244, (1881) 2Z3.— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 
1868. 

Moneypool Bum. See Kirkmaereck. 

Moniabrugh. See Kilsyth. 

Moniaive, a viUage in Glencairn parish, W Dumfries- 
shire. A burgh of barony under charter of Charles I., 
it stands, 350 feet above sea-level, between confluent 
Dalwhat and Craigdarroch Waters, 7J miles WSW of 
Thornhill and 16 J NW of Dumfries. AVith pretty sur- 
roundings and a good many neat houses, it has a post 
office under Thornhill, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments, a branch of the Union Bank, 

2 hotels, gas-works, a library, a market-cross (1638), a 
bowling green, Free and U.P. churches, 2 public schools, 
and fairs on 25 June o. s. (if a Tuesday, if not, on the 
Tuesday after), on the Friday in August before Lockerbie 
(lambs), and on the Saturday in September before 
Lockerbie (lambs, cattle, hiring, etc.). Pop. (1841) 
667, (1861) 817, (1871) 767, (1881) 699, of whom 389 
were females. Houses (1881) 184 inhabited, 17 vacant, 

3 building.— Ore?. Sur., sh. 9, 1863. 
Monich. See Monaoh. 

Monifieth (Gael, moimdhfeidh, ' hill of the deer '), a 
village and a coast parish of S Forfarshire. The village, 
built along a southward brae, within 300 yards of the 
Firth of Tay, has a station on the Dundee and Arbroath 
Joint line, 11 miles WSW of Arbroath, 2J ENE ot 



MONIFIETH 

Brouglity Ferry, and 5J ENE of Dundee, under wliicli 
there is a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments. It is a thriving place, with 
a good many very fine villas, a large jute mill, two 
machine works, an inn, a cemetery, etc. The parish 
church, rebuilt in 1813, is a plain but conspicuous build- 
ing, with 1100 sittings ; and the gi'aveyard around it 
contains some beautifully sculptured antique tomb- 
stones, more tasteful than are usually found in a country 
cemetery. One of two Free churches, standing 2^ 
miles NW of the village, was erected soon after the 
Disruption, and is a plain structure ; the other, in the 
village, was founded with much ceremony in Novem- 
ber 1871, owed much of its origin to the munificence 
of the eleventh Earl of Dalhousie, and is a neat edifice 
in the Gothic style, with 400 sittings. In the month 
of Feb. 1882 the congregation connected with the parish 
church commenced the erection of a Sunday school 
hall, built and fitted after the best models now in use 
in America. This building was finished and opened on 
Saturday, 23 Dec. 18S2, and has since been used, not 
only for Sunday school instruction, but also for lectures, 
public meetings, and purposes of general utility. It is 
seated, when used as a lecture-room, for 600 persons, 
and has two class-rooms, one of which is used as a 
library ; a keeper's house is also attached. This build- 
ing is the first, or one of the first, of the kind which has 
been built in Scotland, and several other halls on the 
same plan have since been built, or are in the course of 
building. The idea of the hall was suggested by the 
Eev. Dr Young, minister of the parish, who had been 
for upwards of twenty years Convener of the General 
Assembly's Committee on Sabbath Schools, at a congre- 
gational meeting held on the occasion of the twenty -first 
anniversary of his ministry, and the idea was realised 
by the cordial and generous contributions of the congre- 
gation. The total cost was £2100. Pop. of the vUlage 
(1861) 558, (1871) 919, (1881) 1564. 

The parish, containing also the villages of Drum- 
sturdy and Barxhill, with four-fifths of the town of 
Broughtv Ferrt, is bounded N and NE by Monikie, 
E by Monikie and Barry, SE and S by the Firth of Tay, 
and W by Dundee and Murroes. Its greatest length, 
from N by E to S by W, is 4 J miles ; its breadth increases 
southward from 9 furlongs to 3 J miles ; and its area is 
6767b- acres, of which 780 are foreshore and IS/-^ water. 
DiCHTY Water, coming in from the W, winds 2f miles 
east-by-southward to the Firth at Milton ; Murroes 
Burn runs If mile south-by-westward along the western 
boundary to the Dichty ; and Buddon Burn first runs 2-| 
miles east-south-eastward across the northern interior 
and along the Murroes and Monikie boundaries, and then, 
after a divergence into Monikie, flows 3 furlongs along 
all the Barry boundary to the Firth of Tay. The coast, 
3| miles in extent, consists chiefly of low sandy ground, 
■with considerable extent of light downs or links, and 
long has suffered gradual encroachment by the sea. An 
almost level plain extends behind the links in the sec- 
tion E of the Dichty ; and an elongated swell or low 
ridge, bold on the S but gently sloping on the N, 
extends behind the links in the section W of the Dichty. 
The rest of the land has mostly a southward exposure, 
attaining 320 feet near Balraossie, 431 at Laws Hill, 357 
near Mattocks, and 500 at the north-eastern boundary — 
eminences that command an extensive and charming 
view. The sedimentary rock, yielding what is known 
as ' Arbroath pavement, ' has been quarried in the N ; 
and eruptive rocks occur in the S. The soil on 
the seaboard is partly light and sandy, partly a 
rich black loam, and generally very fertile ; of the 
central tracts is mostly an excellent black loam, highly 
cultivated, and bearing heavy crops ; but towards the 
N is tUly and moorish. About 545 acres are under 
wood ; 910 are pasture (chiefly links) ; and the rest of 
the land is in tillage. Antiquities other than those 
noticed under Broughty Ferry and Laws, are Cairn 
Greg, the Gallow Hill of Ethiebeaton, a stone circle 
known as 'St Bride's Ring,' and sites or vestiges of 
Uve pre-Eeformation places of worship, at Monifieth 



MONIKIE 

village, Chapel-Dockie, Eglisraonichty, Kingcunie, and 
Broughty Ferry. David Doig, LL.D. (1719-1800), a 
writer in the Encyclopmdia Britannica and rector of 
Stirling grammar school, was a native. Estates, noticed 
separately, are Grange, Laws, and Lixlathen ; and 
10 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 35 of between £100 and £500, 46 of from £50 
to £100, and 137 of from £20 to £50. Giving otf the 
whole of Broughty Ferry quoad sacra parish and part 
of that of St Stephen, Monifieth is in the presljytery of 
Dundee and the synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living 
is worth £382. Two public schools. Mattocks and 
Monifieth, with respective accommodation for 100 and 
507 children, had (1883) an average attendance of 52 
and 218, and grants of £45, 17s. and £202, 8s. Valua- 
tion (1857)£18,332, (1884) £52,423, lis., yZits £6100 for 
railways. Pop. (1801) 1407, (1831) 2635, (1861) 5052, 
(1871) 7252, (1881) 9521, of whom 3608 were in the 
ecclesiastical parish of Monifieth, 5559 in that of 
Broughty Ferry, and 354 in St Stephen's. — Ord. Sar., 
sh. 49, 1865. 

Monigaff. See Minnigaff. 

Monikie, a hamlet and a parish of S Forfarshire. The 
hamlet stands near a station of its own name on the 
Dundee and Forfar Direct section of the Caledonian, 
111 miles NE of Dundee. 

The parish, containing also the villages of Craigton' 
(with a post oflSce under Carnoustie), Guildy, and New- 
BiGGiNG (with a post ofBce under Dundee), is bounded 
N by the Kirkbuddo section of Guthrie, NE by Car- 
myllie, E by Paubride, SE by Barry, SW by Monifieth, 
W by Murroes, and NW by Inverarity. Its utmost 
length, from NNW to SSE, is 61 miles ; its utmost 
breadth is 5 miles ; and its area is 9027J acres, of which 
106 are water. By Buddon, Pitairlie, Monikie, and 
other burns the drainage is can'ied south-south-east- 
ward or east-south-eastward to the Firth of Tay or the 
German Ocean ; and the surface has a general north- 
north-westerly ascent, attaining 118 feet at Mains, 204 
near Templehall, 500 at Cambustane, 800 at the Inver- 
arity boundary, and 693 at Gallow Hill. Two ranges 
of hills, which cross the parish from E to W, divide it 
into three districts of three different characters. The 
southern, containing in the extreme S a small tract of 
sandy downs, approaches within 3 furlongs of the Firth 
of Tay, and rising thence to the first range, called 
Downie or Cur Hills, presents a warm and pleasant 
appearance. The middle district, which forms a valley 
between the two ranges, at an elevation of about 300 
feet above sea-level, produces inferior crops in every- 
thing but oats, and during great part of the year has a 
cold and damp climate. The northern district is chiefly 
swampy and moorish, and, though partially reclaimed, 
continues to be better for pasture than tillage. A fine 
trap rock, admirably suited both for building and for 
road metal, forms the greater part of the Downie Hills, 
at whose western extremity is an excellent sandstone, 
well suited for masonry ; whilst the rock yielding what 
is known as 'Arbroath pavement,' abounds in the N ; 
and all three have been quarried. Beautiful specimens 
of agate, jasper, and spar are found in the trap of the 
Downie Hdls. The soil of the southern district is rich, 
sharp, and productive ; of the middle district is chiefly 
a thin black loam, incumbent on cold wet till ; and of 
the northern district is either reclaimed or unreclaimed 
moss. Denfind, a deep and winding ravine, bisecting 
the Downie Hills, is traversed by Pitairlie Burn, and 
spanned by a massive one-arched bridge. To the N 
are reservoirs of the Dundee waterworks, forming 
artificial lakes of considerable extent and beauty. 
Rather more than half of the entire area is in regular 
cultivation, and some 500 acres are under wood. Cam- 
bustane, with the 'Live and Let Live Testimonial,' 
and Affleck Castle are noticed separately ; other 
antiquities being vestiges of Hynd Castle and the Hair 
Cairn on the western border, only survivor of several 
cairns which appear to have been raised there as monu- 
ments of some ancient battle. The property is divided 
among five. Monikie is in the presbytery of Dundee 

43 



MONIMAIL 

and tlie synod of An^ns and Mearns ; the living 
is worth £400. The parish church, at the hamlet, 
was built in 1812, and contains 921 sittings. There 
are also a Free church of Monikie and a U. P. church 
of Newbigging ; and Bankhead public, Monikie public, 
and Monikie female Free Church schools, with re- 
spective accommodation for 65, 100, and 79 children, 
had (1883) an average attendance of 48, 71, and 82, and 
grants of £49, £55, i7s., and£70, 16s. Valuation (1857) 
£8411, (1884) £19,524, 9s., plus £2884 for railways. 
Pop. (1801) 1236, (1831) 1322, (1861) 1460, (1871) 1397, 
(1881) 1412.— OjyZ. Sur., sh. 49, 1865. 

Monimail (Gael, monadh-maol, ' bare hill '), a village 
and a parish of Fife. The village is 9 furlongs NE of 
Collessie station, 5 j miles "W by S of Cupar, and 4 N by 
W of the post-town, Ladybank. 

The parish, containing also the post offices of Letham 
(under Ladybank) and Bow of Fife (under Cupar), is 
bounded N by Dunbog, Creich, and Moonzie, E by 
Cupar, S by Cults and Collessie, and \V by Abdie. Its 
utmost length, from E to W, is 4g miles ; its utmost 
breadth, from N to S, is 3J miles ; and its area is 6554 
acres. Streams there are none of any size, but the 
drainage is carried eastward to the Eden. The southern 
portion of the parish is tolerably level, nowhere sinking 
below 140 or exceeding 287 feet above the sea ; but the 
northern is hillier, attaining 649 feet near Gowdie and 
600 at Mount Hill. In the N" the soil is mainly com- 
posed of clayey loam and decomposed trap, while in the 
S it is a light, thin alluvium, resting upon gravel. The 
parish is fairly well-wooded, containing, among others, 
the Connoquhie and Springfield woods. The Mount 
was the site of the house of the famous satirical poet. 
Sir David Lindsay (1490-1555), whom the late David 
Laing, however, considered to have most likely been 
born at Garmylton or Garleton near Haddington. The 
house stood ou the S side of the hill, and its place is 
still marked by some old trees. 'Sir David's Walk,' 
where, it is said, he was wont to pace up and down 
while composing his satires, is still pointed out on the 
top of the hill, which is crowned by the Hopetoun 
Monument, a Doric column 92 feet high, with a capital 
of 15 feet, erected to the memory of John, fourth Earl 
of Hopetoun (1766-1823), the Peninsular hero. A spiral 
staircase leads to its summit, which commands a very 
fine view. The following well-known Scotsmen have 
been connected with Monimail, all but the first being 
natives : — Sir Robert Sibbald (1641-1712), physician, 
naturalist, and antiquary, who resided at Upper Ran- 
keillour; Gen. Robert Melville, LL.D. (1723-1809), 
an eminent military antiquary ; David Molyson (1789- 
1834), a minor poet ; and the two brothers, both 
'literary peasants,' Alexander Bethune (1804-43) and 
John (1802-39). An ancient castle is said to have stood 
at Balgarvie, but no vestige of it now remains. With re- 
ference to it. Sir Robert Sibbald writes : ' It is said that 
there was here a strong castle, which was taken and 
levelled by Sir John Pettsworth, as he was marching 
with the English forces to the siege of the castle of Cupar 
in the reign of King Robert I.' The lands of Monimail 
anciently belonged to the Archbishop of St Andrews, 
who had a castle here, which stood to the N" of Melville 
House. It was originally built by Bishop William 
Lamberton who died in June 1328, and appears to have 
been enlarged and improved by Cardinal Beaton, as a 
head with a cardinal's cap was carved on different parts 
of the walls. Archbishop Hamilton resided at the 
castle of Monimail during a severe iUness, when he was 
attended and cured by the famous Italian physician, 
Cardan. Fernie Castle is noticed separately, as also are 
the mansions of Balgarvie, Melville, and Rankeillour. 
Monimail is in the presbytery of Cupar and the synod 
of Fife ; stipend and communion elements have a value 
of £320. The parish church is a handsome edifice of 
1796, with a tower and 600 sittings. There is also a 
Free church ; and two public schools, Easter Fernie 
and Letham, with respective accommodation for 54 and 
75 children, had (1883) an average attendance of 27 
and 48, and grants of £21, 6s. and £37, 6s. Valuation 

a 



MONKLAND 

(1805) £11,480, 18s., (1884) £11,564, 4s. lOd. Pop. 
(1801) 1066, (1831) 1230, (1861) 1054, (1871) 918, (1881) 
m.—Ord. Stir., shs. 48, 40, 1868-67. 

Monkland, an ancient barony in the Middle Ward of 
Lanarkshire. It long constituted one district or parish ; 
but in 1640 it was divided into the two parishes of Old 
or West Monkland and New or East Monkland. The 
name of Monkland was obtained from the district having 
been the property in early times of the monks of New- 
battle. In the early part of the reign of Malcolm IV. 
(1153-65), that monarch granted to these monks a large 
tract of territory, which extended from the boundaries 
of Lothian on the E to the Clyde on the W, and which 
constituted a hundred pounds lands of the ancient 
extent, the monks having ample jurisdiction over all of 
it. Excepting the lands and manor-place of Lochwood, 
which belonged to the Bishops of Glasgow, the monks 
of Newbattle possessed every acre of territory in what 
are now Old and New Monkland, a considerable part of 
which they held in their own hands for cultivation, 
letting out the remainder in lease. From documents 
still extant it appears that they obtained permission 
from the landed proprietors of the west of Scotland, as 
well as those in the Lothians, for free passage for them- 
selves, their servants, cattle, and goods, from their 
monastery of Newbattle to their domains in Clydesdale ; 
and from King Alexander II. they obtained similar 
grants of free passage by the usual ways, with permis- 
sion to depasture their cattle for one night, on every 
part of the route, excepting upon the meadows and 
growing corn. The rectorial revenues of Monkland were 
joined to those of Cadder in forming a rich prebend, 
which was held as the appropriate benefice of the sub- 
dean of Glasgow ; and, although the period of this 
arrangement is not known, it continued till the Refor- 
mation. Previous to this era a chapel was erected at 
Kipps, on the borders of the present district of New 
Monkland, which was the property of the Newbattle 
monks ; and the abbots are said to have held annual 
courts at it, when they levied their rents and feu-duties, 
and transacted the other business pertaining to their 
barony of Monkland. This chapel was destroyed at the 
stormy period of the Reformation, and its site can 
scarcely now be pointed out. About the same time the 
monastery of Newbattle was overthrown, and all the 
fair domains which had so long remained in the posses- 
sion of the monks were wrested from them. 

In 1587 the barony of Monkland was granted in fee 
to Mark Ker, the commendator of the abbey, who four 
years later was created Lord Newbattle ; but afterwards 
the barony was divided, and parcelled out into various 
hands. A portion called Jledrocs fell to the share of 
Lord Boyd ; but a still larger share of the barony was 
acquired by the wily and hoarding Sir Thomas Hamilton 
of Binning, King's advocate under James VI. He ob- 
tained a charter for it from that monarch in 1602, and 
at the same time a grant of the patronage of the churches 
of Cadder and Monkland. Sir Thomas subsequently 
sold the barony to Sir James Cleland, whose son and 
heir, Ludovick, disposed of it to James, Marquis of 
Hamilton. In 1639 the Marquis secured his purchase 
by a charter from the King, granting him the lands and 
barony of Monkland, with the right of patronage of the 
churches of Cadder and Monkland, to be held of the 
King in fee for the yearly payment of a trifling sum in 
the name of bleach -ferm. In the reign of Charles II., 
the College of Glasgow purchased from the Duchess of 
Hamilton the patronage and tithes of the sub-deanery 
of Glasgow, as well as of the churches of Cadder and 
Monkland ; and for this a charter was also obtained from 
the King, which was ratified by act of parliament in 
1672. Subsequently to this period the heritors of the 
parishes of New and Old Monkland purchased the right 
of presentation to both these parishes from the College, 
under authority of the act 1690 respecting the purchase 
of church-patronage. 

Monkland is famous for its abundance of coal, iron, 
and other valuable minerals. Its coal has long been 
worked, and continues to be worked increasingly ; bnfc 



MONKLAND 

iron-mining, its staple industry, is loss than a century 
old. The increase in mining since the iron began to be 
worked has been almost magical, changing the face of 
the whole district, chequering it everywhere with towns 
and villages, rendering it all a teeming scene of popula- 
tion and industry, drawing through it a network of 
communications in road aud railway and canal, and 
giving it, through its iron furnaces aud coal-pits, a con- 
spicuous or almost distinctive character for streams of 
flame and clouds of smoke. Its population rose from 
8619 in ISOl to 65,139 in 1881. Its economic condition 
has, in consequence, become peculiar ; presenting a 
medium character between that of an open country and 
that of a manufacturing city. The following official 
report upon it, drawn up in 1S50, is still interesting : — 
' The large mining villages now no longer exhibit the 
aspect of extreme filth and neglect for which they were 
formerly conspicuous. It requires time to bring a 
population, not yet accustomed to habits of cleanliness, 
to regard it for its own sake ; the masters are, therefore, 
obliged to employ men and carts expressly to keep the 
spaces about the houses free from accumulations of 
refuse, and to look to the drainage, etc. The eifect 
has been salutarj' in many respects. The agents also 
occasionally inspect the houses themselves, prevent 
over-crowding, and fine or dismiss dirty and disorderly 
families. In many places proper drains have been 
made, either covered or laid with stone or brick, and 
hard and dry road-ways have taken the place of the 
natural soil, which in wet weather was often deep with 
mud. Much, therefore, has been done towards placing 
the population in circumstances in which the decencies 
and comforts of domestic life are possible ; though the 
original arrangement of the majority of the mining 
villages in large squares or long unbroken rows must 
still remain an obstacle ; and it has been so far recog- 
nised as such, that in most of the more recent works it 
has been abandoned, and the cottages have been built 
fewer together, larger, and with more rooms, and with 
garden-ground and all proper conveniences nearest hand. 
The number of schools, formerly so inadequate, is now 
increasing yearlj', and there is every disposition to make 
them efficient, by appointing and paying well-qualified 
masters and mistresses. The Messrs Baird of Gart- 
sherrie, who began these salutary measures some years 
ago, for their own immediate neighbourhood, by build- 
ing a church and a magnificent establishment for all the 
branches of elementary education, have followed it up 
by opening other schools in some of the mining villages ; 
and they speak with satisfaction of the good effects pro- 
duced upon the habits of the population, and especially 
of the children, by the frequent supervision, advice, and 
instruction of resident clergymen and able teachers. Mr 
Wilson of Dundy van also has entered very cordiallj' into 
the improvement of the education at the four schools he 
has now established in connection with his extensive 
works ; lending-libraries likewise are to be set on foot ; 
and much has been done in the neighbourhood, and at 
his works especially, by the zeal of the minister of the 
Episcopal chapel at Coatbridge, to diminish excessive 
drinking. The excellent schools at the works of Mr 
Murray, Mr Stewart, and elsewhere, are increasing in 
numbers. A haudsome [school, with a master's house 
attached, is now being built at Airdrie by Mr Alexander, 
the proprietor of a large portion of the mineral dues of the 
district. An act of parliament was obtained two years ago 
for establishing a rural police in the mining portion of 
the county, the effect of which has been to produce much 
more general quiet and order and respect for the law in the 
mining villages. The administration of justice has been 
rendered more complete by the appointment of the proper 
staff of law officers to reside and hold their courts iu the dis- 
trict. A water-company, which procured an act of parlia- 
ment last year, has made good progress with their arrange- 
ments for supplying the town of Airdrie with water, the 
deficiency of which was great, and in all probability it 
will, before long, extend its supply to some of the large 
villages around, and to the great collections of houses 
near the principal works.' — Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 



MONKLAND CANAL 

Monkland Canal, an artificial navigable communica- 
tion between the city of Glasgow and the district of 
Monkland in Lanarkshire. It commences in the northern 
suburbs of Glasgow, or rather is prolonged westward 
there into junction at Port-Dundas w-ith the Glasgow 
branch of the Forth and Clyde Canal ; and it proceeds 
east-south-eastward, through the Barony parish of Glas- 
gow, and the parish of Old Monkland, to North 
Calder Water, at the boundary with Bothwell parish. 
It sends ofi' four branches, one about a mile in length, to 
Calder Ironworks, near Airdrie, in the parish of New 
Monkland ; one, about a mile in length, to Gartsherrie 
Ironworks ; one, about J mile in length, to Dundyvan 
Ironworks ; and one, also about J mile in length, to 
Langloan Ironworks — the three last all in the parish of 
Old Monkland. 

The project of the Monkland Canal was suggested in 
1769, as a measure for securing to the inhabitants of 
Glasgow, at all times, a plentiful supply of coals. The 
corporation of the citj' immediately adopted the project, 
employed the celebrated James Watt to survey the 
ground, obtained an Act of Parliament for carrying out 
the measure, and subscribed a number of shares to the 
stock. The work was begun in 1761 ; and the opera- 
tions were carried on till about 10 miles of the canal 
were formed. The first 2 of these miles, extending from 
the basin to the bottom of Blackhill, are upon the level 
of the upper reach of the Forth and Clyde Canal ; the 
other 8 miles, beginning at the top of the Blackhill, are 
upon a level 96 feet higher. The communication between 
these levels was at that early time carried on by means 
of an inclined plane, upon which the coals were lowered 
down in boxes, and re-shipped on the lower level. The 
capital which had been declared necessary to complete 
the undertaking was £10,000, divided into 100 shares ; 
but this sum was found to be altogether insufficient ; 
for, in addition to expending it, a debt of some amount 
was contracted in executing the above part only of the 
operations. The concern, in this unfinished state, pro- 
duced no revenue, and the creditors naturally became 
pressing. A number of the stockholders, too, refused to 
make advances either for the liquidation of the debt, or 
for the completion of the plan. Tlie whole stock of the 
company was consequently brought to sale, and pur- 
chased, in 1789, by Messrs William Stirling &. Sons of 
Glasgow. These gentlemen, immediately after acquiring 
the property, proceeded to complete the canal ; and, in 
1790, having, in conjunction with the proprietors of the 
Forth and Clyde Canal, procured a second Act of Par- 
liament, empowering the latter to make a junction 
between the navigations, by a cut from their basin at 
Port-Dundas in Glasgow to the Monkland Canal basin, 
they built locks at Blackhill, and extended the Monk- 
land Canal to the river Calder. On these operations 
the Messrs Stirling are understood to have expended 
£100,000. 

The Monkland Canal is 35 feet broad at the top and 
24 at the bottom. The depth of water upon the lock- 
sills is 5J feet. To connect the upper and lower levels, 
at Blackhill, there are two sets of four double locks of 
two chambers. Each chamber is 71 feet long from the 
gates to the sill, and 14 feet broad ; the ascent in each 
being 12 feet. The level at the top of the Blackhill is 
continued to Sheepford, 8 miles, where there are two 
single locks of llj feet each, after which the canal goes 
on upon the level it has then gained to the river Calder. 
The supplies of water for it are derived from the con- 
tiguous streams, from the river Calder, and from the 
reservoir at Hillend, beyond Airdrie, which covers 
300 acres of ground near the source of that river, and 
was formed at the expense of the proprietors of the 
Forth and Clyde navigation. From the advantage 
which the canal offers of easy communication with both 
the eastern and western seas, and from its unlimited 
command of coal, the vicinity of it has always been con- 
sidered favourable for the establishment of manu- 
factures, especially of a bulky nature. For a long series 
of years the revenue of the canal was wholly absorbed 
by the expenses of its extension and improvement. In 

45 



MONKLAND, NEW 

1807, when a dividend first began to be made, the gross 
revenue amounted to £4725 ; and in 1814 it was £5087, 
although the navigation during this year was stopped 
for eleven weeks, principally by the severe frost, but 
partly on account of necessary repairs. From 1814 or 
1815 up to the year 1825 the traffic continued without 
much variation, but about the last-mentioned date a 
great impulse was given to it by the establishment of 
ironworks in the district of Monkland. When the 
project of opening up that district by railways to Glas- 
gow and Kirkintilloch was first started, it created much 
alarm in the Canal Company, lest the traffic should 
be entirely diverted from their navigation to the new 
channels. The alarm was not unfounded, but it only 
induced the company to reduce their dues to about one- 
third of the rate which had been charged up till that 
time, and also to expend large sums in making such 
improvements on the canal, and on things connected with 
it, as seemed fitted to facilitate its traffic. One of these 
improvements was the making of additional reservoirs 
in the parish of Shotts, all uniting in the river Calder, 
which flows into the canal at Woodhall, near Holytown, 
thereby insuring an increased supply of water. Anotlier 
improvement was the forming of extensive loading basins 
and wharves at Gartsherrie and Dundyvan, for the 
reception of traffic from the mineral railways in the 
vicinity. A third improvement was the making of new 
locks at Blackhill, near Glasgow, of such character as 
to excel all works of their class in Great Britain. These 
locks now comprise two entire sets of four double locks 
each, either set being worked independently of the other ; 
and they were formed at an expense of upwards of 
£30,000. In 1850 the increase of trafBc still going on, 
the supplies of water had again fallen short, and even 
the new locks at Blackhill could not pass the boats 
without undue delay. An inclined plane with rails was 
now formed at these locks, 1040 feet in length, and 96 
feet in total ascent, at an expense of £13,500, by which 
empty boats are taken up at a saving of five-sixths of 
water, and about nine-tenths of time. Each boat is con- 
veyed afloat in a caisson, and the traction is done by 
steam-power and rope-rolls. The plan is unique, was 
contrived by Messrs Leslie & Bateman, and has answered 
admirably. In 1846, under parliamentary sanction, the 
Monkland Canal became one concern with the Forth and 
Clyde Canal. The purchase price of it to Messrs Stirling 
and Sons in 1789 is said to have been only £5 per share ; 
but the purchase price to the Forth and Clyde Company 
in 1846 was £3400 per share. As part of the Forth 
AND Clyde navigation, the Monkland Canal was taken 
over by the Caledonian Railway Company in 1867. — Ord. 
Stir., sh. 31, 1867. 

Monkland, New, a village and a parish of the Middle 
"Ward, NE Lanarkshire. The village stands IJ mile 
NNW of the post-town, Airdrie, adjoining Glenuiavis, 
and is the seat of the parish church (1777 ; 1200 sittings) 
and a public school. Pop., with Glenmavis, (1871) 339, 
(1881) 369. 

The parish contains also the town of Airdme and 
the villages of Avonhead, East Langrigg, Greengairs, 
Longriggend, Plains, Eiggend, Eoughrigg, Wattston, 
West Langrigg, Clarkston, and Glenhoig, with one- 
eighth of Coatdyke. It is bounded N by Kirkintil- 
loch and Cumbernauld in Dumbartonshire (detached), 
E by Slamannau in Stirlingshire and Torphichen 
in Linlithgowshii-e, SE by Shotts, SAV by Old Jlonk- 
land, and W by Old Monkland and Cadder. Its 
utmost length, from E to W, is 9 J miles; its utmost 
breadth, from N to S, is 5i miles; and its area is 31 1 
square miles or 20,117 acres, of which 232 are water. 
Black Loch (^ x 4 mile) lies right on the Stirlingshire 
border ; and, issuing from it. North Calder Water 
winds 2| miles south-westward along the Slamannan, 
Torphichen, and Shotts boundary, till it expands into 
HiLLEND Reservoir (10Jx4| furl.), after which it 
meanders 5J miles south-westward along all the rest of 
the Shotts boundary, and at Monkland House passes 
off from this parish on its way to the river Clyde. 
LiTGGiE Watek, a feeder of the Kelvin, flows 6J miles 
46 



MONKLAND, NEW 

westward along the Dumbartonshire border ; but some 
little head-streams of the river Aven drain the north- 
eastern comer of New Monkland towards the Firth of 
Forth. Along both the Calder and Luggie the surface 
declines to less than 300 feet above sea-level ; and thence 
it rises very gradually to 577 feet near Gartlee, 672 at 
Knowehead, 678 at the Hill of Drumgray, 763 near Little 
Drumbreck, and 771 at Lochend. Though much of the 
parish lies more than 600 feet above the sea, yet the dorsal 
ridge that runs through it from end to end ascends'.from 
so broad a base, so gently and continuously, as nowhere 
to form any height which, properly speaking, can be 
termed a hill. JIuch of the highest grounds is covered 
with moss, and could not be reclaimed except at great 
expense ; but the lower tracts, on the banks of the 
streams and along the western border, present an agree- 
able diversity of vale and gently-rising ground, and are 
in a high state of cultivation. The soil of the arable 
lands in the eastern and central parts is mossy and late ; 
but that of the northern and western divisions is partly 
of a dry character, partly a strong clay. The parish, for 
a long period, particularly during the Continental war, 
was famous for its culture of flax. In some years as 
much as 800 acres were under this species of crop ; but 
the welcome advent of peace, and still more the 
cheapness and universal introduction of cotton, rendered 
flax-cultivation here, as elsewhere at that time, unprofit- 
able. The present agriculture of the parish has no 
peculiar features. Its mining industry, however, as 
noticed in our articles Airdrie and Monkland, is 
pre-eminently great, or almost distinctive. The rocks 
are partly eruptive, partly carboniferous ; and so far 
back as the writing of the Old Statistical Account, it is 
stated that ' coal and ironstone are, or may be, found on 
almost every farm.' Since then, the working of these 
minerals has been most extensive, and is still in the 
course of rapid increase. The quality is only equalled 
by the abundance of the coal, which in many places is 
found in seams from 9 to 10 feet thick. The ironstone 
is found both in balls and in seams ; and much of it is 
of the valuable kind called blackband, which is so abun- 
dantly mixed with coal as to require little addition of 
fuel in the burning. Many of the extensive ironworks 
in the neighbourhood, or even at a distance, particularly 
those of Calder, Chapelhall, Gartsherrie, Clyde, and 
Carron, are supplied with ironstone from New Monk- 
land. Limestone also is worked, particularly in the 
northern district, but not to a great extent. Several 
mineral springs, too, exist, chiefly of the chalybeate 
kind. The Monkland Well, near Airdrie, is the most 
famous, and at one time enjoyed so high a repute for its 
efficacy in the cure of scorbutic and other cutaneous 
diseases, as well as for complaints in the stomach and 
eyes, as to be a favourite resort even for the wealthy and 
fashionable citizens of Glasgow and its neighbour- 
hood ; but its character as a watering-place has long 
departed from it, both from a falling off — undeserved, 
it may he — in the reputation of the springs, and from 
the lack of features of rural beauty, which have been 
borne down by a network of railways and by the onward 
march of a mining and manufacturing population. Alex- 
ander Macdonald, M.P. (1821-81), the miners' advocate, 
was born at Dalmacouther farm. Mansions, noticed 
separately, are AncHiNGRAY and Rochsoles ; and 16 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards, 65 of between £100 and £500. Including the 
quoad sacra parishes of Airdkie and Flowerhill, 
with most of Clarkston, New Monkland is in the 
presbytery of Hamilton and the synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr ; the living is worth £525. The parish poorhouse 
accommodates 155 inmates ; a hospital was built in 
1881-82 at a cost of £1200; and seven public and two 
Roman Catholic schools, with total accommodation for 
1700 children, had (1883) an average attendance of 1158, 
and grants amounting to £SS3, 7s. 4d. Valuation (1860) 
£49,743, (1884) £88,454. Pop. (1801) 4613, (1831) 
9867, (1841) 20,515, (1861) 20,654, (1871) 22,752, (1881) 
27,816, of whom 14,367 were males, and 8284 were in 
the ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 



I 



MONKLAND, OLD 

Monkland, Old, a jiarisli of tho Middle Ward, N 
Lanarkshii-e. It contains the towns of Baillieston, Coat- 
bridge, and Whifflet and Rosehall, with two-thirds of 
Calder, seven-eightlis of Coatdyke, and one-seventli of 
ToUcross, as also the villages of 13argeddie and Dyke- 
head, Braehead, Broomhouse, Calderbank, Carmylo, 
Clyde Iron-works, Faskine, Mount Vernon, Swinton, 
West Maryston, etc. In shape resembling a rude 
triangle with northward apex, it is bounded NW by 
Shettleston, Cadder, and New Monkland, NE by New 
Monkland, and S by Bothwell, Blantyre, Cambuslang, 
and Eutherglen. Its utmost length, from E by N to 
W by S, is 9i miles ; its utmost breadth is 4g miles ; 
and its area is 17§ square miles or 11,281J acres, of 
which 345| are water. From Monkland House, North 
Caldek Water meanders 10 miles west-south-westward 
along all the Bothwell boundary, till at Daldowie it 
falls into the Clyde, which itself curves 4 miles west- 
ward along all the boundary with Blantyre, Cambus- 
lang, and Rutherglen. Lochend Loch (3^x14 furl.) 
communicates with Woodend Loch (i x i mile), and 
this again with Bishop Loch {Ixi mile), which lies on 
the Cadder boundary, and is one of the principal reser- 
voirs of the Forth and Clyde Canal. The banks of all 
three are tame, with little or no beauty ; but their waters 
contain some large pike. The surface of the parish is 
generally flat or gently undulating. Along the Clyde, 
in the extreme SW, it sinks to 32 feet above sea-level ; 
and thence it rises gradually to 207 feet near Mount 
Vernon House, 356 near Westerhouse, 321 at Shaw- 
head, 345 near Gartsherrie House, and 360 at Castles- 
pails. Whether the fertility of its superficies, or the 
wealth of its mineral treasures be considered. Old 
Monkland is one of the most important and wealthy 
parishes in Lanarkshire. To quote the writer of the 
Old Statistical Account: — 'A stranger is struck with 
the view of this parish. It has the appearance of an 
immense garden.' This account, penned nearly a 
century since, is still generally true, if we except the 
fact that improved culture has vastly increased the pro- 
duction of the soil, and that the rapid advance of 
population, the enormous progress of the mineral trade, 
and a perfect network of railways, have sadly marred 
those features of rural loveliness for which the district 
was formerly celebrated. Withal, there are few dis- 
tricts which combine so much of the attributes of 
country-life with the bustle and stir of manufactures ; 
for the soil of Old Monkland is dotted at every little 
distance with the villas of the aristocracy of the western 
capital, \vitli the blazing furnaces and tall chimneys of 
the iron and coal works, with belts of thriving planta- 
tion and clumps of old wood, with orchards, grassy 
holms, or waving grain, and with the homely farm- 
steading or lowly dwelling of the cottar. From the 
facilities of obtaining lime and manure, both by canal 
and railway, a soil — which is naturally fertile — has 
been improved to the highest degree ; and the yearly 
value of the agricultural produce of the arable lands of 
the parish is superior to that of an equal extent of 
arable lands in most other parts of Scotland. The soil 
here, on the whole, is much more fertile than the soil 
above the coal measures in other parts of the country. 
The arable soil is of three kinds. That along the 
Calder and the Clyde is a strong clay, changed by 
cultivation into a good loam ; that of the middle districts 
is a light sand, very fruitful in oats and potatoes ; and 
that towards the N is mainly reclaimed bog or other- 
wise mossy. In the northern district, the coal crops 
out, and there are some 1500 acres of peat-moss. In 
Old, as in New, Monkland, flax used to be largely 
cultivated, some of the farmers having each as much as 
from 20 to 30 acres annually under that crop ; but the 
system of agriculture now pursued on the best farms is 
a four-year rotation of potatoes or turnips, wheat, hay, 
and oats, with sometimes one year or two of pasture be- 
tween the hay and the oats. 

The parish, however, is chiefly remarkable for its 
working of coal and iron. In an account of it pub- 
lished before the beginning of the present century, one 



MONKLAND, OLD 

reads : ' This parish abounds with coal ; and what a 
benefit it is for Glasgow and its environs to be so amply 
provided with this necessary article ! There are com- 
puted to be a greater number of colliers here than in 
any other parish in Scotland.' The progress in the 
coal-trade, since the period alluded to, has been almost 
magical ; and as scarce a year passes without new pits 
being sunk, while the old ones continue in vigorous 
operation, it would seem that scarcely any limits can 
be set to the vast aggregate production. The pits have 
a depth of from 30 to 100 fathoms ; and the principal 
working seams, according to the New Statistical Accoimt, 
are as follow : ' 1. The Upper coal ; coarse, and seldom 
workable ; its average distance above the Ell-coal from 
14 to 16 fathoms. 2. The Ell or Mossdale coal ; 3 to 4 
feet thick, of inferior estimation in this parish, and 
generally too thin to work ; but in places a thick coal, 
and of excellent quality. 3. The Pyotshaw, or Eough- 
ell ; from 3 to 5 feet thick, and from 7 to 10 fathoms 
below the Ell-coal. 4. The Main coal. It often unites 
with the above, and forms one seam, as at Drumpellier 
in this parish. These two seams are thus sometimes in 
actual contact, and in other instances separated by a 
wide interval of 6 or 7 fathoms. 5. Humph coal ; 
seldom thick enough to bo workable in this parish, and 
generally interlaid with fragments of freestone, about 
10 fathoms below the main coal. 6. Splint-coal ; about 
4 fathoms below the Humph, and of very superior 
quality. It varies from 2 to 5 feet in thickness, and is 
mostly used for smelting iron. This seam, when of 
any considerable thickness, is justly esteemed, when 
got by the proprietors here, a great prize. 7. Little 
coal ; always below splint, the distance varying from 3 
fathoms to 6 feet. It is from 3 to 3J feet in thickness, 
and is a free, sulphury coal of inferior quality. 8. The 
Vh'tue-weU or Sour-milk coal, from 2 to 4 feet thick, 
occurs from 26 to 28 fathoms below the splint. 9. The 
Eiltongue coal lies 22 fathoms below the Virtue-well, 
and, like it, is from 2 to 4 feet in thickness. 10. The 
Drumgray coal lies 6 fathoms below the Eiltongue, and 
perhaps from 60 to 100 fathoms above the first or upper 
band of limestone. It is seldom more than 18 or 20 
inches thick. There are, besides these 10 seams, about 
23 smaller seams between them, none of which are of 
workable thickness. The total thickness of the coal- 
measures above the lime may be about 775 feet.' The 
same account adds : ' This large and important coal- 
field is much intersected with dikes, and a knowledge 
of these is a knowledge of the strata, and of the manner 
in which they are affected by them. ' 

Still more than to its coal, however, is the parish of 
Old Monkland, in recent times, indebted to its iron- 
stone and iron-works ; although it is proper to mention 
that the ore for the supply of the latter is, to a great 
extent, drawn from New Monkland. The introduction 
of the hot air blast (1828), the increasing demand for 
iron for railway and other purposes, but, above all, the 
abundant possession of the most valuable of all the iron 
metals — the blackband — which contains so much coal 
as nearly to burn itself — are the main causes which have 
contributed to the almost unparalleled advance of Old 
Monkland in population and prosperity. To the burn- 
ing of ironstone were added, in 1830 and the following 
years, works and machinery for the manufacture of 
malleable iron ; and these have already risen to compare 
with the pig-ironworks, in the proportion of about 30 
to 100 in the yearly value of their produce. Everywhere 
are heard the brattling of machinery, the sonorous 
stroke of mighty hammers, and the hissing and clank- 
ing of the steam-engine ; and the flames which per- 
petually belch from the craters of its numerous furnaces, 
and for miles around light np the country on the darkest 
nights, have not inappropriately earned for Old Monk- 
land the title of the ' Land of Fire.' Fortunes have here 
been realised in the iron trade with a rapidity only 
equalled by the sudden and princely gains of the adven- 
turers who sailed with Pizarro to Peru. It is understood, 
for example, that the profits of a single establishment 
in this line during the year 1840, were nearly £60,000; 

47 



MONKLAND WELL 

while little more than twenty years before the co-partners 
of this company were earning their bread by the sweat 
of their brow, in following the agricultural vocation of 
their fathers. The principal iron-works in the parish, 
or immediately adjacent to it, are those of Gartsherrie, 
Dundyvan, Monkland, Calder, Clyde, Summerlee, Carn- 
broe, and Langloan. The ironstone strata in Old and 
New Monkland — the strata from which the Monkland 
furnaces have their supply — are described in the Neiv 
Statistical as follows : ' 1. The Upper blackband. It lies 
about 24 fathoms above the Ell-coal, as indicated in the 
succession of strata given above. It is of very local 
occurrence, like all the ironstones, and has only been 
found worth working at Palacecraig. It is of inferior 
quality, and only about 18 inches thick. 2. The black - 
band, also called Mushet's blackband, from the name of 
its discoverer, Robert Mushet (1805). This is the great 
staple commodity for the supply of the iron-market, and 
when found to any extent is a certain source of wealth 
to the proprietor. Its average depth below the splint 
is about 15 or 16 fathoms ; and it varies in thickness 
from 14 to 18 inches, and occupies an area of from 8 to 
10 square miles. 3. Airdriehill blackband. In this 
property, which is in New Monkland, there is a band of 
ironstone, varying from 2 to 4 feet in thickness, lying 
about 3 feet below the blackband. It is found only in 
part of the lands of Airdriehill, and is by far the most 
local of all the ironstones. ' 

Several kinds of sandstone, and several varieties of 
trap, within the parish, are in great request for local 
building purposes, and have been largely quarried. The 
facilities of communication by road, railway, and canal, 
are remarkably great, having been multiplied and rami- 
fied in proportion to the large and rapidly increasing 
demands of the district for heavy trafEc. The principal 
of them will be found described or indicated in our 
articles Caledonian Railway, Monkland Canal, 
and North British Railway ; whilst fuller informa- 
tion as to the various industries is furnished under 
Baillieston, Coatbridge, Gartsherrie, Gaeturk, 
etc. 

Giving off the quoad sacra parishes of Baillieston, Bar- 
geddie. Coats, Gartsherrie, and Garturk, Old Monkland 
is in the presbytery of Hamilton and the synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £500. The parish 
church, IJ mile SSW of Coatbridge, was built in 1790 
at a cost of only £500, and, as since enlarged, contains 
902 sittings. A chapel of ease to it stands at Calder- 
bank. The parish poorhouse accommodates 276 inmates ; 
and 18 schools, with total accommodation for 6237 chil- 
dren, had (1883) an average attendance of 4917, and 
grants amounting to £4448, 13s. 9d. Valuation (1860) 
£195,857, (1881) £160,013, lis. 8d., (1884) £167,683, 
2s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 4006, (1831) 9580, (1841) 19,675, 
(1861) 29,543, (1871) 34,073, (1881) 37,323, of whom 
20,202 were males, and 13,471 were in the ecclesiastical 
parish. — Orel. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. See Andrew Miller's 
Mise and Progress of Coatbridge and the Surrounding 
NeigKbourhood (Glasg. 1864). 

Monkland Well. See Monkland, New. 

Monklaw. See Jedburgh. 

Monk Mjre, a lake (4x1 furl.) in Bendochy parish, 
Perthshire, 2| miles SE of Blairgowrie. Originally a 
shallow reedy pool, covering a bed of rich marl, it was 
deepened into a lake by extensive digging for removal of 
the marl. 

Monkrigg, an estate, with an elegant modern mansion, 
in Haddington parish, Haddingtonshire, IJ mile SSE of 
the town. 

Monks Bum, a brook in Penicuik parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, rising among the Pentland Hills at an altitude of 
1480 feet, and running 2g miles south-by-eastward, till, 
after a total descent ot 770 feet, it falls into the North 
Esk near Newhall, at the boundary with Peeblesshire, 
4J miles SW by W of Penicuik town. It enters the 
glen of the Esk in several considerable falls, amidst land- 
scape of much beauty; is overlooked at its mouth, 
from the opposite side of the Esk, by a height called 
the Steel, said to have been so called from a skirmish on 
48 



MONKTON 

it with a straggling detachment of General Monk's 
army ; and seems to have got its own name from some 
association with General Monk. — Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Monks Island. See Inohtavannaoh and Muck. 

Monkstadt, an old mansion in Eilmuir parish. Isle of 
Skye, Inverness-shire, near Columbkill Lake, 2J mUes 
S of Duntulm Castle. It was the seat of the Mac- 
donalds, subsequent to their removal from Duntulm 
Castle ; was occupied by Sir Alexander Macdonald at 
the time of Prince Charles Edward's disasters after the 
battle of CuUoden ; and was the place to which Flora 
Macdonald conducted the Prince, in the disguise of a 
maidservant, from the Outer Hebrides. 

Monkton, a mansion in Inveresk parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, 2 miles SSW of Musselburgh. Its oldest part, now 
used as offices, is said to have been built by General 
Monk, who made it his favourite Scottish residence. 

Monkton, a village and a coast parish of Kyle district, 
Ayrshire. The village stands 1 mile inland, and J mile 
E by N of Monkton station on the Glasgow and South- 
western railway, this being 4| miles N of Ayr, under 
which there is a post office. Pop. (1861) 403, (1871) 
467, (1881) 354. 

The parish, containing also the watering-place of Prest- 
wicK and half of the village of New Prestv^ick, since the 
close of the 16th or the beginning of the 17th century 
has comprehended the ancient parish of Prestwic Mona- 
chorum or Monkton, part of the ancient parish of Prestwic 
de Burgo, and the ancient chapelry of Crosby. Monkton 
proper lies in the middle, Prestwick in the S, and Crosby 
in the N ; and the first got its name from its belonging 
to the monks of Paisley Abbey, the second from its 
being the ' habitation of a priest,' and the third from its 
having 'a dwelling at a cross.' The united parish of 
Monkton and Prestwick is bounded NW by Dundonald, 
NE by Symington, E by Craigie, SE by Tarbolton and 
St Quivox, SW by Newton-upon-Ayr, and W by the 
Firth of Clyde. Its utmost length, from N by E to S 
by W, is i\ miles ; its utmost breadth is 3 miles ; and 
its area is 3971| acres, of which 182 are foreshore and 
20 J water. Rumbling Burn flows south-south-westward 
to the sea along all the Dundonald boundary, and a 
little above its mouth is joined by Pow Burn, which, 
after tracing part of the St Quivox boundary, strikes 
north-westward across the interior. The coast, 2| miles 
in extent, consists of low flat sands, diversified only 
with sandy bent-covered knolls. The interior rises 
gently from the shore to 200 feet at the eastern boundary, 
but looks to the eye to be almost a dead level. Coal 
has not been worked for forty or fifty years ; and sand- 
stone is no longer quarried. The soil on the coast and 
over a considerable part of the southern district is light 
sand incapable of tillage ; of the central district is deep 
rich loam ; and of the N and NE is strong earthy clay. 
Nearly one-fourth of the entire area is pastoral or waste ; 
some 65 acres are under wood ; and the rest of the lands 
is in tillage. The roofless old church of Monkton, St 
Cuthbert's, is a structure of high antiquity, with walls 
nearly 4 feet thick, and is said to have been the building 
near which Sir William Wallace had the singular dream 
recorded by Blind Harry ; the old church of Prestwick, 
St Nicholas, as ancient probably as that of Monkton, has 
stone buttresses at the E end, and serves as a landmark to 
sailors. St Ninian's leper hospital, at Kingcase, between 
Prestwick and New Prestwick, was founded by King 
Robert Bruce ; but only a well remains to mark its site. 
Mansions are Adamton, Fairfield, Ladykirk, and Orange- 
field ; and 4 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 7 of between £100 and £500, 6 of from £50 
to £100, and 26 of from £20 to £50. Monkton and Prest- 
wick is in the presbytery of Ayr and the synod of Glas- 
gow and Ayr ; the living is worth £441. The parish 
church, midway between Monkton and Prestwick 
villages, was built in 1837, and then superseded the 
two old churches. One of the earliest efi'orts of the late 
David Bryce, R.S.A., it is a very handsome and con- 
spicuous edifice, containing 825 sittings. Other places of 
worship are Monkton and Prestwick Free churches and 
Prestwick U. P. church (1884). Two public schools. Monk- 



MONKTONHALL 

ton and Prestwick, with respective accommodation for 160 
and 320 children, had (1883) an average attendance of 
88 and 159, and grants of £64, lis. and £120, 9s. 
Valuation (1860) £6985, 3s. 3d., (1S84) £14,267, 8s. 4d., 
plus £2157 for railway. Pop. (1801) 986, (1831) 1S18, 
(1861) 1973, (1871) 1744, (1881) 2121.— Orrf. Sur., shs. 
14, 22, 1863-65. 

Monktonhall, a hamlet in Inveresk parish, Edinbui't;h- 
shire, near the left hank of the river Esk, 1 mile SSW 
of Musselburgh. 

Monkwood, a modern mansion in Maybole parish, 
Ayrshire, on the left bank of the Doon, 4J miles NNE 
of Maybole town. 

Monquhitter, a parish of N Aberdeenshire, containing 
the villages of Cuminestown and Garmond, 6 miles 
E by N and 7 ENE of Turriff, under which the former 
has a post office. It is bounded N by King- Edward, E 
by New Deer and Methlick, S by Fyvie, and W by 
Turriff, from which last it was disjoined in 1649. Its 
length, from NNW to SSE, varies between 25 and 9g 
miles ; its utmost width is 5J miles ; and its area is 
17,455| acres, of which 22J are water. Entering from 
King-Edward, the Burn of llonqnhitter or Idoch Water 
flows 5A miles south-westward till it passes off into 
Turriff on its way to the Deveron ; whilst Asleed or 
Little Water runs 7| miles southward along the eastern 
boundary on its way to the Ythan. Along Idoch Water 
the surface declines to 158 feet above sea-level ; and 
thence it rises northward to 577 feet at the Hill of 
Cotburn, eastward to 586 at Waggle Hill, from which it 
again sinks south-south-eastward to 180 feet along 
Asleed Water. Much of Monquhitter is hilly, bleak, 
and barren of aspect, and even the rest presents a 
monotonous appearance, though culture and reclamation 
have done their best to render it pleasing and produc- 
tive. Moors, bogs, and morasses were formerly very 
extensive, but have been greatly curtailed, and, with 
the excejition of the deeper and firmer bogs, are fast 
approaching exhaustion as a source of fuel. Eed 
sandstone abounds, and has been largely quarried, but 
does not form a good building material. The soils of 
the arable lands are a reddish loam and a deep black 
mould, both incumbent on boulder clay. But a small 
proportion of the parish is under wood, which does 
not thrive in any part of Buchan. Lendrum, in the 
SW corner, is the traditionary scene of a three-days' 
battle between Donald of the Isles and the 'Thane' or 
Mormaer of Buchan in the latter Iialf of the 11th century, 
when the Comyns are said to have won the victory. 
Down to at least 1793 it was firmly believed that corn 
growing on the ' bloody butts of Lendrum ' could never 
be reaped without strife and bloodshed among the 
reapers. At Finlay's Mire some Covenanters were cut 
off by the Ogilvies. Tillymaud and Northburn, with a 
rental of £1013, were vested in trustees by the late 
Messrs Chalmers for charitable purposes in Monquhitter 
and the city of Aberdeen. Auohry House (1767) is the 
chief mansion; and 4 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £1000 and upwards, 6 of between £500 and 
£1000, 8 of between £100 and £500, and 3 of from £45 
to £70. Giving off a portion to Millbres q\ioad sacra 
parish, Monquhitter is in the presbytery of Turriff 
and the synod of Aberdeen ; the living is worth 
£315 (21 chaklers). Previous to the Anti-patronage 
Act coming into operation, the Earl of Fife was patron 
of the church and parish ; and Monquhitter was the 
last parish in which the right of presentation was 
exercised, on 29 Dec. 1S74. The parish church, a plain 
edifice of 1868, stands on a slope to the N of Cumines- 
town, and contains 1050 sittings. A Free church 
(358 sittings) stands in a hollow to the S of Cumines- 
town, near whose centre is St Luke's Episcopal church 
(1844 ; 130 sittings). Three public schools— Garmond 
female, Greeness, and Monquhitter — and Ealquhindachy 
proprietary school, with respective accommodation for 
66, 120, 2"06, and 68 children, had (1883) an average 
attendance of 62, 82, 192, and 27, and grants of £54, \s., 
£75, 4s. 8d., £181, 15s., and £18, 9s. 6d. Valuation 
(1860) £6185, (1884) £12,903, 2s. lOd. Pop. (1801) 1710, 



MONTEITH, LAKE OF 

(1S31) 2004, (1861) 2580, (1871) 2949, (1881) 2794, of 
whom 2474 were in the ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 86, 87, 1876. 

Monreith, an elegant modem mansion in Mochrum 
parish, SE Wigtown'shire, 1 J mile ESE of Port- William. 
White Loch (45xl§ furl.) lies within the large and 
finely wooded park ; and a 16th century cross, 7 feet 
high, has been placed in front of the house. Held by a 
younger branch of the Maxwells of Caerlaverock since 
1481, Monreith is now the property of Sir Herbert 
Eustace Maxwell, seventh Bart, since 1681 (b. 1845 ; sue. 
1877), who has sat as Conservative member for Wigtown- 
shire since 1880, and who owns 16,877 acres in the 
county, valued at £15,290 per annum. The small village 
of Monreith is in Glasserton parish, at the head of little 
Monreith Bay, 2J miles SSE of Port-William and 5^ 
W of Whithorn.— Ord Sur., shs. 4, 2, 1857-56. 

Mons. See Dalmeny. 

Montagu's Walk. See Kinnoull. 

Montblalry, an estate, with a mansion, in Alvah 
parish, Baulishire. The mansion, on the left bank of 
the Deveron, 4J miles NNW of Turriff, was built in 
1791 and enlarged in 1825. A handsome three-story 
edifice, it contains some interesting portraits, and has 
well-wooded grounds sloping down to the Deveron. The 
estate, which belonged in remote times to the Earls of 
Buchan and Mar, was sold by Major-General Andrew 
Hay (1762-1814) to the uncle of the late proprietor, 
Alexander Morisou, Esq. (1802-79), who held 4154 acres 
in Banff and Aberdeen shires, valued at £3002 per 
annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 86, 1876. 

Montcoffer, a seat of the Earl of Fife in the detached 
section of King-Edward parish, Aberdeenshire, on the 
right bank of the Deveron, 3 miles S of Banff. A fine 
old residence, it stands on the southern declivity of 
wooded Montcofler Hill (346 feet).— Ord. Sur., sh. 96, 
1876. See Duff House. 

Monteith, a district of SW Perthshire. Excepting 
Balquhidder parish, which anciently belonged to the 
stewartry of Strathearn, the district of Monteith com- 
prises all the lands W of the Ochils in Perthshire, whose 
waters discharge themselves into the Forth. The vale 
of the Teith, whence the name is derived, occupies the 
central and larger part, but is flanked on the one side by 
the Perthshire section of the upper vale of the Forth, 
and on the other side by the lower part of the vale of 
Allan Water. The entire district measures about 28 miles 
in leugth from E to W, and 15 in extreme breadth ; and 
includes the wdiole of the parishes of Callander, Aber- 
foyle. Port of Monteith, Kilmadock, Kincardine, and 
Lecropt, with part of the parishes of Kippen, Dunblane, 
and Logic. Large tracts of it are eminently rich in the 
finest elements of landscape. Previous to the abolition 
of hereditary jurisdictions, Monteith \Yas a separate or 
independent stewartry. Forming with Strathearn the 
ancient province of Fortrenn, Monteith was the seat of 
an old Celtic earldom, whose first earl, Gilchrist, appears 
in the reign of Malcolm IV. (1153-65), and which, about 
the middle of the 13th century, passed by marriage to 
Walter Comyn, second son of the great Earl of Buchan. 
He was one of the regents of the kingdom at the time 
of his death in 1258, when the earldom was obtained by 
his brother-in-law, Walter Stewart, third son of the 
third High Steward of Scotland. Walter's great-great- 
granddaughter, Margaret, conveyed the earldom by 
marriage to Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and Regent 
of Scotland, whose son and successor, Murdoch, was 
beheaded at Stirling in 1425. Two years later the 
earldom of Monteith was granted to Malise Graham, 
formerly Earl of Strathearn. His seventh descendant, 
William, for nearly two years was styled Earl of Strath- 
earn and Monteith ; but, on being deprived of those titles, 
in 1633 was created Earl of Airth and Monteith — a title 
dormant since 1694, but claimed by the Barclay- Allardice 
family. See Dr Wm. Eraser's Eed Boole of Monteith (2 
vols., Edinb. 1880). 

Monteith, Lake of, a placid sheet of water in the 
middle of Port of Monteith parish, SW Perthshire. 
Lying 55 feet above sea-level, it has an utmost length 

49 



MONTEITH, PORT OF 

from E to W of IJ mile, an utmost breadth from N 
to S of 1 mile, and a depth in places of 80 feet ; 
and it sends off Goodie Water 8| miles east-south- 
eastward to the Forth. Its shores display none of the 
rude magnificence and grandeur that is characteristic 
of Highland scenery ; but, on the other hand, they 
present an aspect of soft pastoral beauty which soothes 
the soul, and fills the contemplative mind with thoughts 
calm and quiet as its own transparent waters. The 
northern shore is beautifully adorned with oak, Spanish 
chestnut, and plane trees of ancient growth — survivors 
of those which adorned the park of the Earls of Mon- 
teith. On the same side, the manse and church of 
Port of Monteith, mth the elegant mausoleum of the 
Gartmore family, seated close on the margin of the lake, 
increase the interest of the scene. The lake contains 
three islands, two of which, from the noble wood that 
adorns them, add greatly to the beauty of its expanse ; 
whilst a long, narrow, wooded promontory running far 
into the water diversifies the southern shore. The 
largest island, called Inchmahome, has been noticed 
separately ; that immediately to the W bears the name 
of Inch talla or Earl's Isle. Here, from 1427, the Earls 
of Monteith had their feudal stronghold, the ruins of 
which still exist, comprising an ancient tower and some 
domiciliary buildings. The smallest island is called the 
Dog Isle, where the earls had their dog-kennel • while 
the stables were situated on the western shore of the 
lake. Twice in Sept. 1869 Queen Victoria drove 
here from Invertrossachs. The trout-fishing is ruined 
by the pike.— Or(^. Sur., sh. 38, 1S71. See P. Dun's 
Summer at tlie Lake of Monteith (Glasg. 1866); chap, 
xxv. of Thos. Hunter's Woods and Estates of Perth- 
shire (Edinb. 1883) ; and other works cited under 
Inchmahome. 

Monteith, Port of, a hamlet and a parish of SW 
Perthshire. The hamlet lies on the NE shore of the 
Lake of Monteith, 6 miles SSW of Callander, 4* E by 
N of Aberfoyle, and 4 NNW of Port of Monteith station, 
in Kippen parish, on the Forth and Clyde junction 
section of the North British railway, this being 13 
miles W by N of Stirling, and 17i NE of Balloch. 
Erected into a burgh of barony by James III. in 1467, 
it long was called simply Port, as being the land- 
ing-place from Inch Talla and Inchmahome ; * and 
has a little pier, a good hotel, and a post oflSce under 
Stirling. 

The parish, containing also the village and station of 
Gartmore, since 1615 has comprehended the ancient 
parish of Port and a portion of that of Lany. It is 
bounded N by Callander, NE by Callander and Kil- 
madock, E by Kincardine (detached), S by Kippen and 
Drymen in Stirlingshire, SW by Drymen, and W by 
Aberfoyle. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 7J 
miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 5 miles ; and 
its area is 36J miles or 23,599J acres, of which 1S61J 
are water. The Forth has here a winding course of 13 J 
miles — viz., 7 furlongs southward along the western 
border, 2| miles south-eastward across the south-western 
interior, and lOJ miles eastward along all the southern 
border — though the point which it first touches and 
that where it quits the parj.sh are but 7§ miles distant 
as the crow flies. Kelty Water flows 2J miles east-by- 
northward along part of Ihe Drymen boundary to the 
Forth, another of whose affluents. Goodie Water, goes 
4 miles eastward from the Lake of Monteith (IJ x 1 mile ; 
55 feet) till it passes off into Kincardine. Loch Deunkie 
(9 X 7J furl. ; 450 feet) lies on the boundary with Aber- 
foyle, and Loch Venxaohae (3| miles x 5 furl. ; 270 
feet) on that -nith Callander ; whUst in the NE interior 
are Loch Ruskie (2 x 2f furl. ; 400 feet) and Lochan 
Balloch (2J x 1 furl. ; 1180 feet). The surface of the 
southern district is low and flat, sinking to 45, and 
rarely much exceeding 100, feet above sea-level ; but N 
of the Lake of Monteith rise the Monteith Hills (1289 
feet), Ben Dearg (1401), Ben GuUipen (1344), and Meall 

* Tlie present minister, however, inclines to refer Port to the 
Latin poHu, 'a gate, pass, or de&le,' this parish being indeed a 
gate of the Higlilands. 
50 



MONTEVIOT 

nan Gohhar (812). This upland dLstrict, comprising 
one-third of the whole area of the parish, consists of a 
congeries of rocky and mountainous elevations, chiefly 
covered with heath, and admitting cultivation only in 
some confined hollows and along some narrow skirts. 
The SE corner comprises part of Flanders Moss, in all 
respects similar in character to the famous one of Kin- 
cardine. The rest of the parish, including the district 
along the Forth, consists of rich carse land towards the 
river, of ' dryfield ' towards the hills, and presents an 
appearance of much fertility and high culture. The 
trausition from the uplands to the lowlands of the parish 
is sudden and perfect. In the mountains is limestone of 
the quality of marble, having a blue ground streaked 
with white, which, when calcined, affords a quicklime 
of the purest white. A bluish grey sandstone occurs in 
the champaign district, close in texture, and very suit- 
able for pavements and staircases. The soU of the carse 
lands is rich argillaceous alluvium ; on most other lands 
of the champaign district is either a very fertile shallow 
loam, a stiff, intractable, tilly clay, a ferruginous and 
comparatively barren gravel, or a more or less fertile 
reclaimed swamp or meadow ; on Flanders Moss and on 
two other smaller tracts is moss ; and on the cultivable 
part of the uplands is chiefly reclaimed moor. An 
island in Loch Ruskie is the traditional site of a castle 
belonging to Sir John Menteith, Wallace's gaoler at 
Dumbarton. Other antiquities are traces of a Roman 
road, deflecting from the great Roman road to Brechin ; 
vestiges of a Roman castellum at the north-western 
extremity of Flanders Moss ; traces of an ancient 
military post on Keirhead, 1 mile NE of the castellum ; 
and the ecclesiastical and baronial ruins on the islands 
in the Lake of Monteith. Tuliimoss, to the NW of 
the Lake of Monteith, was the scene of a skirmish in 
1489 between James IV. and the Earl of Lennox ; and 
a spot called Suir, near Gartmore House, was the place 
where Rob Roy is said to have taken from the factor of 
the Duke of Montrose his collection of rents. From 1 
to 10 Sept. 1869, the Queen, with the Princesses Louise 
and Beatrice, stayed at Invertrossachs, ' the recollection 
of the ten days at which — quiet and cozy — and of the 
beautiful country and scenery I saw in the neighbour- 
hood, wUl ever be a very plea.sant one ' (pp. 116-147 of 
More Leaves from the Journal of a Life in the High- 
lands, 1884). Mansions are Blairhoyle, Caedeoss, 
Gaetmoee, Inveeteossachs, Lochend (1715), and 
Rednock ; and 6 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards, 8 of between £100 and 
£500, 1 of from £50 to £100, and 5 of from £20 to £50. 
Giving off portions to the quoad sacra parishes of Gart- 
more, Norriston, and Trossachs, this parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Dunblane and the synod of Perth and Stirling ; 
the stipend and communion elements have a value of £330. 
The parish church, at Port of Monteith hamlet, was built 
in 1878 in the Gothic style of the 13th century, and has 
a stained E window. Three public schools — Dykehead, 
I'ort of Monteith, and Ruskie — with respective accom- 
modation for 66, 47, and 66 children, had (1883) an 
average attendance of 20, 26, and 33, and grants of 
£25, 17s., £32, 4s., and £38, 2s. 6d. Valuation (1860) 
£10,906, (1884) £12,649, 3s. 6d. Pop. (1801) 1569, 
(1831) 1664, (1861) 1375, (1871) 1243, (1881) 1175, of 
whom 60 were Gaelic-speaking, and 654 were in the 
ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., shs. 38, 39, 1871- 
69. 

Monteviot, a seat of the Marquis of Lothian, in Crail- 
ing parish, Roxburghshire, 2 miles E by N of Ancrum 
and 3 N by W of Jedburgh. It stands near the left 
bank of the winding Tweed, at the southern base of 
Peniel Heugh (774 feet), in a park of singular beauty, 
and is itself an imposing Gothic edifice, rebuilt in the 
course of the present century. At Monteviot died Miss 
Jean Elliot (1727-1805), author of the Flowers of the 
Forest, it then being occupied by her brother. Admiral 
Elliot. At Harestanes, within the park but in Ancrum 
parish, were remains of a stone circle till towards the 
close of last century ; and a neighbouring ' serpent- 
mound,' being explored by Mr J. S. Phene, F.S.A., in 



MONTGOMEEIE 

1872, was found to entomb two skeletons. See New- 
BATTLE and Ckaimng. — Ord. Sur., sh. 17, 1864. 

Montgomerie. See Coilsfield. 

Montgreenan, an estate, with a mansion and a rail- 
way station, in Kilwinning parish, Ayrshire, 3^ miles 
ENE of Kilwinning town. Its owner, Robert Bruce 
Eobertson-Glasgow, Esq. (b. 1842 ; sue. 1860), holds 
2645 acres in the shire, valued at £2576 per annum. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Mont-Quhanie. See Mount- Quhanie. 

Montrave, a mansion of 1836 in Scoonie parish, Fife, 
4 miles N of Leven. Its owner, John Gilmour, Esq., 
jun., of Lundinand Montrave, holds 2728 acres in the 
shire, valued at £5244 per annum. In 1877 a metal 
pot was found on the estate, containing 9615 silver 
coins — 8675 of them English, of Edward I. and III. 
See Laego.— Or(i. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Montrose, a parish containing a royal burgh of the 
same name, on the coast, at the NE corner of Forfar- 
shire. It is bounded N by Logie-Pert parish and by 
Kincardineshire, E by the North Sea, S by Craig 
parish, and SW by Dun parish. The boundary with 
Kincardineshire has evidently followed the course of the 
North Esk river, but now, both above and below the 
bridge by which the coast road from Dundee to Aber- 
deen crosses the river, the line follows an old channel, 
in the former case to the S, and in the latter to the N, 
of the modern one. The boundary on the S is the river 
South Esk, and on the S"W the eastern foreshore of the 
Montrose Basin, along the track of Tayock Burn, which 
enters it W of Newmanswalls House, and then it follows 
the course of this stream for almost a mile to a point E 
of Newbigging. Elsewhere it is artificial. In shape 
the parish is, roughly speaking, a triangle mth blunted 
corners, the sides being on the N, E, and SW. The 
greatest breadth across the N end, from the point on 
the "W where Dun, Logie-Pert, and Montrose parishes 
meet to that on the E at the old mouth of the North 
Esk river, is 3J miles ; the breadth, from the North Esk 
opposite Stone of Morphie (Kincardineshire) on the N 
to the South Esk at Montrose harbour on the S, is 3| 
miles; and the area is 4722'415 acres, of which 95'855 
are water, 492 '172 foreshore, and the rest land. All 
along the coast, between the rivers, a flat sandy beach 
is bounded by a line of sandhills from 20 to 30 feet high, 
covered with bent. Immediately within these is a belt 
of sandy undulating ground, with close short herbage, 
known to the N as Charleton and Kinnaber Links, and 
to the S as Montrose Links. From this the ground rises, 
at first gradually, but afterwards more steeply, to the W, 
the greatest height (317 feet) being reached near the W 
corner, to the W of Hillhead of Hedderwick. From 
this rising ground, sometimes known as Montrose Hill, 
along the lower slopes of which are the numerous villas 
and houses forming the village of Hillside, there is an 
excellent view of the Forfarshire and Kincardineshire 
Grampians ; of the end of the vale of Strathmore, with 
its mansions and woodland ; of the round tower and 
spires of Brechin, and the windings of the South Esk, 
down past the basin and on to the mouth below the 
town of Montrose. In the N, along part of the course 
of the North Esk, there are high wooded banks, while 
thriving plantations extend along the AV side of the 
Links of Charleton and Kinnaber The soil all over the 
links is sandy, and the shells show that the deposit is a 
modern one, so that within the recent period Montrose 
Basin must have been a bay. On the W side of the links 
is a raised beach of shingle, and to the W of this the soil 
is very fertile, being a strong clayey loam. A stiff 
underlying clay of marine origin, and containing remains 
of starfishes, is worked for the manufacture of bricks and 
tiles at Dryleys and Puggieston. The imderlying rocks 
belong to the Lower Old Eed sandstone formation. The 
drainage of the parish is carried off by the North Esk 
and the South Esk. The north-western part of the 
parish is traversed for over 2J mUes by the Perth and 
Aberdeen section of the Caledonian railway system, 
and from Dubton Junction station a branch line, 3 
miles in length, communicates with the town of Montrose 



MONTROSE 

through the STV part of the parish. The Montrose and 
Arbroath section of the North British system, crossing 
the South Esk by a viaduct over J mile long, passes 
by the NW side of the town, and, after a course of 2^ 
miles, unites with the Caledonian system at Kinnaber 
Junction to the N. From this the Jlontrose and Bervie 
railway, also belonging to the North British system, 
bi'anches off and runs parallel to the coast along the 
W edge of Montrose and Kinnaber Links, for a distance 
of 2 mUes, till it crosses the North Esk. The parish is 
also traversed by the main road along the coast from 
Dundee to Aberdeen, which, entering at the SW corner 
of Montrose, passes through the town, and then along 
the W edge of Montrose and Kinnaber Links, parallel to 
the Montrose and Bervie railway, till it reaches Kin- 
cardineshire at the North Esk, which it crosses by a 
good .<;tone bridge erected in 1775-80. There are also a 
number of good district roads, of which the principal are 
those to Brechin and to Fettercairn. Near the centre of 
the N border of the parish, 2 mUes NNW of the town of 
Montrose, is Sunnyside Lunatic Asylum, erected at a 
cost of over £20,000, and subsequently enlarged, and 
with accommodation for over 400 patients. This institu- 
tion originated with a Mrs Carnegie of Charleton, and 
the original building on the links, near the town, was 
erected in 1780-82. A royal charter of incorporation 
was obtained in 1810, and the present building was 
erected in 1860. It is supported by endowments and by 
fees received for patients, of whom the average number is 
about 470, about f being pauper lunatics. The asylum, 
which is managed by a medical superintendent, a medical 
assistant, a steward, a matron, and a lady superinten- 
dent, is considered one of the best establishments of the 
kind in the country. Kinnaber, in the NE of the parish, 
is associated with the story of George Beattie, author 
of John o' Arnlia [see St Cyrus]. The industries are 
mostly connected with the town, but there is a bleach- 
work and mills on the North Esk, and brickworks at 
Dryleys and Puggieston. Besides the town of Mon- 
trose the parish has also, close to Dubton station, on 
the NW, the village of Hillside, which is mainly com- 
posed of villas. The mansions are Charleton House, 
Newmanswalls House, and Rosemount House. Ten 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 or 
upivards, 49 hold each between £500 and £100, 99 hold 
each between £100 and £50, and there are a large 
number of smaller amount. The parish is in the 
presbytery of Brechin, in the synod of Angus and 
Mearns. The charge is collegiate, with two ministers ; 
and the living is worth £530 a-year. The civil parish 
includes also the quoad sacra parishes of Melville (in the 
town of Montrose) and Hillside. Besides the church at 
the latter place, and those mentioned in connection with 
the burgh, the Free church of Logie-Pert is also just 
within the border of the parish, on the N. The land- 
ward school-board has under its charge Loanhead 
public school, which, with accommodation for 210 
pupils, had (1883) an average attendance of 116, 
and a grant of £91, 15s. Landward valuation (1857) 
£5853, (1884) £9151, 13s., plus £3521 for railways. 
Pop. of parish (1755) 4150, (1801) 7974, (1831) 12,055, 
(1861) 15,668, (1871) 15,783, (1881)16,303, of whom 
7352 were males and 8951 females. Of the total 
population in the civil parish in the latter year 
11,746 were in the ecclesiastical parish, whUe 3077 
were in the Melville quoad sacra parish, and 1480 were 
in Hillside quoad sacra parish. ^Or(i. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 
Montrose (Gael. Alt-moinc-ros, ' the burn of the mossy 
point '), a seat of manufacture, a seaport, and a royal 
burgh in the parish just mentioned, at the mouth of the 
South Esk. It is, by the Caledonian railway, 9f mUes 
E of Brechin, 21A NNE of Arbroath, 88 NE of Dundee, 
42i SSW of Aberdeen, 53i ENE of Perth, 1161 ENE 
of Glasgow, and 123 NNE of Edinburgh vid Stirling. 
By the North British railway it is 13f miles from 
Arbroath, 30| from Dundee, and 76 from Edinburgh 
vid Broughty Ferry and Burntisland. It is the terminus 
of the Caledonian branch line from Dubton, and of the 
Montrose and Bervie line as well as a main station on 

51 



MONTROSE 

the Montrose and Arbroath railway. The site of the 
to\m is a peninsula jutting southwards, bounded ou the 
E by the sea, and on the S and W by the waters of the 
South Esk. Except for the low sand-bank along the 
edge of the links, the ground is almost entirely level. 
To the W of the town the river expands into a broad 
tidal loch known as the Montrose Basin and measuring 
2 miles by 1 j mile. At high water the whole area is 
covered, but at low water by far the greater portion 
becomes an unsightly expanse of mud. As the channel 
to the NE of the town is only from 115 to 130 yards 
wide, the tidal current sets up and down with great 
swiftness — often from 6 to 8 miles an hour; but this 
rush of water is beneficial, as its force clears off deposits 
from the town, and prevents the formation of any con- 
siderable bar across the mouth of the river. In 1670, 
by running a dyke from near the Forthill along the 
bank of the South Esk towards Dun, an attempt was 
made to drain and add to that estate some 2000 acres, 
but the bulwark — known as the 'Drainer's dike' — 
had hardly been completed when it was breached and 
destroyed by a violent storm, traditionally said to have 
been raised by Meggie Cowie, one of the last local 
witches. A small portion of the area has, within the last 
five years, been reclaimed by the Montrose and Arbroath 
railway company. The basin is frequented by wild 
geese, ducks, and other aquatic birds. Although com- 
plaints of damp sometimes arise, neither the flatness of 
the site nor the large expanse of water around seem to 
have an injurious effect on the health of the inhabitants. 
The almost insular situation makes the climate very 
mild ; and the basin at high water adds materially to 
the beauty of the neighbourhood. 

History. — The origin of the name of Montrose has 
given rise to many conjectures — Mons Eosarum, the 
French Mons-trois ('three hills '), the British ManUrrose 
(' the mouth of the stream '), the Gaelic Mon-ross {' the 
promontory hiU '), Moin-ross ('the promontory of the 
moss'), and Meadh-an-ross ('the field or plain of the 
moss '), have all been brought forward, but the most 
likely seems to be that at the beginning of the article, 
which connects the name first with Old Montrose and 
so with Montrose, and seems also to account for the 
tradition (certainly unfounded), that the town at first 
stood at the former place. According to Boece the 
original name of the town was Celurca, but this seems 
rather to have been a contiguous place, as both Montrose 
and Salork are mentioned in a charter in the time of 
Malcolm IV., and again in the time of William the 
Lyon. All trace of the latter is now gone, but it was 
possibly higher up the basin than Montrose. Of the 
origin of the town nothing is known, but it has a high 
anti(]uity, for as early as the 10th century, when the 
Danes found the estuary a convenient anchorage, there 
was, according to Boece, a town here, and in 980 the 
inhabitants were massacred by a band of these sea- 
rovers. In the 12th century, under Malcolm IV., we 
find that mills and saltpans had been established, and 
his successor, William the Lyon, lived in the castle 
from time to time between 1178 and 1198. In 1244 the 
town was burned, and at that time it seems to have been 
one of the considerable places of the kingdom. When it 
obtained burghal privileges is not known, but probably 
in the time of David I. At any rate, burgesses of 
Montrose are mentioned in 1261-62, and in 1296 twelve 
burgesses went to Berwick, and in presence of Edward I. 
took the oath of allegiance on behalf of themselves and 
the burgh. Edward himself was in Montrose the same 
year, from the 7th till the 12th July, when he lived at 
the castle which then stood on the Forthill. According 
to Wyntoun, Blind Harry, and Balfour, it was here that 
John Baliol ' did render quietly the realme of Scotland 
as he that had done amis.' 



' This John the Ealiol, on purpos 
He tuk and browcht hym til Munr09, 
And in the castell of tliat town, 
That then was famous in renown, 
This John the Baliol dj'spoyled he 
Oi all his robys of ryaltie.' 



MONTROSE 

But this is a mistake, for, though the ceremony took 
place while Edward was here, the scene was at Stra- 
cathro, whither Edward went for the purpose, returning 
the same day. The castle was captured by Wallace in 
the following year, and seems to have been completely 
destroyed, for there is no more word of it.* Wallace 
landed here on his return from France : — 

* Eaith Forth and Tay thai left and passyt by 
On the north cost [gud] Guthre was thar jjy. 
In Munross hawyn thai brocht hj'm to the land; * 

and, according to Froissart, Montrose was the port 
whence Lord James Douglas, at the head of a brilliant 
retinue, embarked in the spring of 13.30 to fulfil the last 
charge of King Robert Bruce to carry his heart to Jeru- 
salem and deposit it in the holy sepulchre. This, how- 
ever, is against the testimony of the Scottish historians, 
particularly Barbour, who says Douglas sailed from 
Berwick. In the rolls of the parliament, held in Edin- 
burgh in 1357 to arrange the ransom of David II., 
Montrose occupies the central position among the royal 
burghs, eight preceding and eight following it, and 
would therefore appear to have, at that period, at- 
tained considerable consequence. Subsequently, in 
the same year, John Clark, one of the magistrates, was 
among those who became hostages for the payment of 
the ransom. In 1369, David himself visited the town ; 
and when the truce made between France and England 
in 1379 was renewed in 1383, with the stipulation that 
Scotland should be included if that country wished, aband 
of thirty distinguished French knights, who came to Scot- 
land in the hope of the war going on, landed at Montrose 
and passed S by Perth to Edinburgh. During the 15th 
century the inhabitants had a bitter feud against the 
Erskines of Dun, seemingly on account of oppression 
endured at their hands, but this was changed by the 
well-known laird who figured among the Ketormers, and 
who possessed great influence in the town, and estab- 
lished there a school where the Greek language was 
taught for the first time in Scotland by Pierre de 
Marsiliers, who had been brought by Dun from France 
in 1534. In 1548 the English fleet, which was sailing 
along the coast doing whatever mischief was possible, 
made a night attack, but the landing parties were, after 
a stiff struggle, beaten back by the inhabitants with 
Erskine at their head. Influenced, no doubt, by such 
a leader, and probably also prepared for the reception of 
the new views by their trading intercourse with the 
Continent, and particularly with Holland, the people 
early embraced the doctrines set forth by the Reformers. 
The spread of these must have been greatly aided by the 
teaching of George Wishart, who seems to have been 
first a pupil of, and then assistant to, Marsiliers, and 
who taught and circulated the Greek Testament so 
extensively among his pupils, that in 1538 the Bishop 
of Brechin summoned him to appear on a charge of 
heresy, and he had to flee to England. He returned 
in 1543, and for a time preached and taught openly 
' in Montrois within a private house next unto the 
chm'ch except one.' Wfien lie had again to flee, the 
people, determined to have what they wished, got 
another preacher named Paul Methven, originally a 
baker in Dundee, who, we are told, having administered 
the sacrament ' to several of the lieges in a manner far 
different from the Divine and laudable use of the faith- 
ful Catholic church, was denounced rebel and put to the 
horn as fugitive ' in 1559, while the inhabitants were 
ordered to conform to the old state of things and to 
attend mass. Andrew Melvil, who was born at Bal- 
dowie in the adjoining parish of Craig, was one of 
Marsiliers' later pupils, and his nephew James Melvil, 
who has in his Diary left an interesting account of his 

* The castle seems to have been the royal residence when 
William the Lyon was at Montrose, and Edward I. lived there, 
but there is no record as to where David II. resided. In 148S the 
;,'rant by James III. to David Lindsay, Earl of Crawford, of 'the 
loftier title ' of Duke of Montrose, mentions no castle but only 
the ' Castlested,' which would seem to imply that the castle was a 
ruin, or had altogether disappeared. The site was at the Forthill, 
near where the infirmary now stands. 



MONTEOSE 

studies, was also educated here, but the teacher then 
(1569) was Jlr Andrew Milne. The first minister, after 
the Reformation, was ' Mr Thomas Andersone, a man of 
mean gifts bot of singular guid Ij'ff ; ' and the second 
was John Durie, M'ho would seem to have been one of 
the stirring men of the time, for his future son-in-law, 
James Melvil, describes him on the occasion of their 
first meeting, when Durie was minister of Leith, as ' for 
stoutness and zeall in the guid cause mikle renouned 
and talked of. For the gown was na sooner af, and the 
Byble out of hand fra the kirk, when on ged the corslet 
and fangit was the hagbot and to the fields ! ' Before 
his death, too, in 1600, he had received in favour of 
himself, his wife, and his son, or the longest liver of 
them, a pension in consideration of ' the greit lang and 
ernest travellis and labouris sustenit in the trew preach- 
ing of Goddis word, besydes the greit charges and 
expenses, maid be him thir mony zeiris bygane in 
advancing the publick affayres of the kirk — thairwithall 
remembriiig the greit househald and faraelie of bairnis 
quhairwith he is burdynit. ' His death took place just 
immediately before the meeting of the General Assembly 
of 1600, which was held at Montrose in March in pre- 
sence of the king, who was busy trying to force on his 
scheme of Episcopacy. One of the great struggles was 
about the sitting of the bishops in parliament, but on 
this and other points the Episcopal party were worsted, 
chiefly by the influence of Andrew Melvil, who ' re- 
meanit in the town all the whyll, and furnisit arguments 
to the Breithring, and mightelie strynthned and in- 
curagit tham.' When reproached by the king for 
coming, he, ' eftir the auld maner dischargit his con- 
science,' and said, ' Sir, tak yow this head, and gar cut 
it af, gif yie will ; yie sail sooner get it, or I betray the 
cause af Chryst. ' 

The great Marquis of Montrose was born at Old 
Montrose in JI.\ryton parish ; but some of his dealings 
with the neighbouring town of Montrose were of doubt- 
ful advantage thereto. In 1644, while he held Aberdeen 
for the king, a party of his men, headed by Alexander 
Irvine, younger of Drum, 'passit all over Die, intending 
onlie to go to Montroiss and to tak the tua brassin cartowis 
lying thair, if thay war not impedit ; . . . and 
upone Wednisday the 24th of Aprile, be tua houris in 
the morning, with sound of trumpet thay cam to the 
toun, who had set on fyres upon thair stepill to walkin 
the countrie, and wes in armes thame selffis, and rang 
the commoun bell, bot all for nocht. Thay boldlie 
enterit Montross, dang the tonne's people fra the calsey 
to thair houssis, and out of the foirstaires thay schot 
desperately, bot thay war forssit to yeild by many feirfull 
schotes schot aganes thame ; quhair unliappelie Alex- 
ander Peirsone, ane of thair balleis, wes slayne, sum sayes 
by Nathaniell Gordoun, utheris holdis by ane hieland 
man, whom the said baillie also slew. Thairefter, it 
wes said, thay intendit to schip thir cartowis in ane 
schip lying in Montroiss water, pertening to Alexander 
Burnet, elder in Abirdene, be consent of Alexander 
Burnet, his sone, who hapnit to be thair, and had pro- 
mesit no less, being ane antecovenanter. Bot, by this 
Burnetis knouledge, James Scot, now prouest of Mont- 
ross, with certane of his neightbouris, had quietly con- 
voyit thame selffis with thair best goodis into the said 
schip. When scho began to fleit, scho drawis uar the 
schoir, quhair young Drum and his men war thinking 
to schip tliair cartowis, according to Alexander Burnetis 
promeiss foirsaid, and to haue had thame about be sea 
to Abirdene. Bot, for by thair expectatioun, this schip 
schot fyve or six peice of ordinans disperatlie amongis 
thame, with about fourtie musoattis, quhair, by the 
gryte providens of God, thair wes bot onlie tuo men 
killit and sum hurt. Drum seeing this, thay returnit 
thame selffis, brak the quheillis of the cartowis, for moir 
thay culd not do, nor brak them thay micht not, and 
threw thame over the schoir, to mak them unservice- 
able. Drum returnis to the tonne, and beginis to brak 
wpmerchand boothis, plunder, and cruellie spolzie ritche 
merchandice, clothis, silkis, velvotis, and uther costlie 
wair, silver, gold and silver wark, armes, and all uther 
77 



MONTEOSE 

thing, quhairat the hieland men wes not slow. Thay 
brak wp a pype of Spanish wyne and drank harttullie. 
Thay took Patrik Lichtoun, lait prouest, and Androw 
Gray, prissoneris. Thay left Montroiss in woful cace, 
about tuo efternone. . . . Thair wes takin 32 
hieland men — sum sayis 52 — who had unwy.slie biddin 
behind the rest, plundering the Montross goodis, and is 
takin, schaklit, and sent to Edinbrugh to pay for thair 
faultis. It is heir to be nottit that, notwithstanding of 
tlic many schotis schot within the toune and out of the 
scliip, yit it pleissit God that few wes killit to Drumis 
syde, except tua or thrie persones, mervallous to sie ! 
and als few to the other syde, except Alexander Peir- 
sone, bailie, who wes schot be Nathaniell Gordoun. 
Thair intentioun wes to haue schippit thir cartowis 
within the foirsaid schip, to have brocht about when 
scho cam with hir ladning to Abirdene ; bot thay gat 
ane cruell assault, as ye have befoir, and wes michtellie 
disapoyntit. The Tutor of Struan, with sum hieland men, 
did brave service with thair schort gunis. It is said that 
Drum causit raiss fyre tua severall tymes in Montross, 
yit Major Gordoun still quenshit and pat out the samen.' 
Again, in 1645, while the marquis and Bailie were keep- 
ing one another, so to speak, in sight, the royalist cavalry 
were ordered to Montrose, ' with charge to tak thair inter- 
tynnement, bot no moir. Thay took the same, and wyne 
aneuche, but did no moir harme to the toun. ' 

James Melvil mentions ' a pest quhilk the Lord, for 
sinne and contempt of his Gospell, sent upon Montros ' 
in 1566 ; and from May 1648 till February 1649 the 
plague again desolated the town, driving crowds to the 
country in panic, and making such fearful havoc among 
those who remained, that a large tumulus is pointed out 
on the links, immediately NE of the town, as the place 
where many victims to it were interred. In spite of all 
these misfortunes, the place continued to prosper ; the 
enumeration of the articles in the merchants' booths 
plundered by Montrose's men, and mentioned above, 
would indicate a considerable trade ; and a long, con- 
temporar}' account of it, in the 17th century, describes it 
as ' a very handsome well-built toune, of considerable 
trade in all places abroad ; good houses, all of stone, 
excellent large streets, a good tolbuith and church, good 
shipping of their own, a good shore at the toune, a myle 
within the river South Esk. . . . It is a very cheap 
place of all things necessary except house-rent, which is 
dear, by reason of the great distance they are from 
stones, and makes their buildings very dear.' There 
were then on the outslvirts ' malthouses and kilns and 
granaries for cornes, of three storeys high, and some 
more, and are increased to such a number that in a 
short time it is thought they will equall if not exceed 
the toune in greatness. . . . They have a good 
public revenue, two wind-milnes, ane hospitall with 
some mortifications belonging to it ; they are mighty 
fyne burgesses and delicate and painfull merchants. 
There have been men of great substance in that toune 
of a long time, and yet are, who have and are purchas- 
ing good estates in the countrey. Tlie generalitie of the 
burgesses and merchants do very far exceed these in any 
other toune in the shire.'* About this time, too, the 
neighbourhood was highly esteemed for its beauty, which 
was celebrated in Latin verse by John and Arthur 
Johnston ; while Franek, in his Northern Memoirs 
(165S), declares (he must surely have found the fishing 
in the neighbourhood very good) that it is 'a beauty 
that lies concealed as it were in the bosom of Scotland, 
most delicately dressed up and adorned with excellent 
buildings, whose foundations are laid with polished 
stone, and her ports all washed with silver streams that 
trickle down from the famous Ask.' 

* The 'wind-milnes' must have been deemed of some impor- 
tance, for in the beginning of the 18th century one of the citizens 
named John Young was sent by the magistrates to Holland to learn 
the best knowTi methods of constructing and working windmills ; 
and after his return he was the only person to be found in Scotland 
who understood the management of pumps in coalworks. In an 
IStli century print a windmill standing to the S of the Steeple, pro- 
bably about the site of the present Infirmary, forms a prominent 
feature. 

53 



MONTROSE 

The church became a collegiate charge shortly before 
the Revolution, the inhabitants agreeing to tax them- 
selves for a stipend to the second minister. This was 
during the time of the last Episcopal clergyman, David 
Lyell, who had been a presbyterian, but had conformed. 
He does not seem to have found his conscience quite easy 
under the change, or at any rate must have harped 
uncomfortably over it, for, ' some days before his death, 
as he was walking in the links about the twilight, at a 
pretty distance from the town, he espyed, as it wer, a 
woman all in white standing not far from him, who 
immediately disappeared, and he, coming up presently 
to the place, saw nae person there, though the links be 
very plain. Only casting his eye on the place where 
shee stood, he saw tuo words drawn or written, as it 
had been with a staff upon the sand, "Sentenced and 
condemned ; " upon which he came home pensive and 
melancholy, and in a little sickens and dyes.' 

On 21 Dec. 1715 the vessel in which the Chevalier had 
sailed from France made its appearance off Montrose, 
where probably a landing would have been made had it 
not been for the appearance of a ship which was sus- 
pected to be a man-of-war. On this account sail was 
made to the northward, and the actual disembarkation 
took place at Petekhead. In the following year, how- 
ever, when all hope of success had vanished from the 
minds of the Jacobites, their forces in the retreat from 
Perth reached Montrose, where previous arrangements 
had been made for James to escape to France. Though 
the matter was kept a profound secret, a rumour of it 
had got spread abroad among the soldiers, and in order 
to allay suspicion, the royal baggage had to be sent 
forward with the main body of the army during a night 
march towards Aberdeen. James himself had his usual 
guard paraded before the door of the house where he 
was, as if for his departure, but slipping quietly out by 
a back door, he joined the Earl of Mar, and both passed 
through the gardens to the water's edge, where a boat 
was ready to carry them on board ship. The house 
where he had spent the day — and which is said to have 
been the same as that in which the Marquis of Montrose 
was born — has long been gone. It was the town house 
of the Duke of Montrose, and stood behind Peel's 
monument at the S end of High Street. It was 
here that James wrote to the Duke of Argyll expressing 
his regret at the misery caused by some of his 
operations, and teUing how he had left a sum of 
money to make good the losses sustained. 'Among 
the manifold mortifications I have had in this uu- 
fortunat expedition, that of being forced to burn 
several villages, etc. as the only expedient left me for 
the publick security was not the smallest. It was 
indeed forced upon me by the violence with which my 
rebellious subjects acted against me, and what the}', as 
the first authors of it, must be answerable for, not I ; 
however, as I cannot think of leaving this country 
without making some provision to repair that loss, I 

have therefore consigned to the Magistrats of the 

sum of desiring and requiring of you, if not as an 

obedient subject, at least as a lover of j'our country, to 
take care that it be employ d to the design d use, that I 
may at least have the satisfaction of having been the 
destruction and ruin of none, at a time I came to free 
all.' The letter was given to the officer left in command 
of the army, General Gordon, with instructions to fill 
up the blanks with the name of the town and the sum, 
before forwarding it to the Duke of Argyll, the money 
being the amount left over after providing for the sub- 
sistence of the army. 

For a short time in 1745 the Royalists had their 
quarters here, but they were driven out by the Jacobites, 
whose influence in the neighbourhood seems then to have 
been considerable. The 'Hazard,' a sloop-of-war of 16 
guns and 80 men, was then sent to regain the position, 
and entering the basin commanded the town vnth her 
guns, so that the anti-Government party were compelled 
to retire. Captain David Ferrier of Brechin, the 
Jacobite deputy-governor, was not, however, so easily 
dispossessed of his prize, for entering the town at night 
54 



MONTROSE 

he took possession of the island of Inchbrayock, and 
erected an earthwork to protect his men. The same 
afternoon a French vessel, which was coming in with 
troops, was run on shore out of reach of the ' Hazard's' 
guns, her cannon were dragged to land and mounted at 
the island, and the fire opened from these at last com- 
pelled the government ship to surrender. The 'Hazard' 
proved for a time serviceable to Prince Charles Edward, 
but early in the following year she was driven ashore at 
the Bay of Tongue and lost to the Jacobites, as was also 
a large sum of money then on board. Admiral Byng 
came to avenge her capture, but had to confine himself 
to sinking the long boat of a French vessel that was 
lying off the coast. In 1746 the Duke of Cumberland 
passed through the town — the site of the house 
where he slept being now occupied by the National 
Bank — and a garrison was posted at the place, not- 
withstanding which, on 10 June (the anniversary of 
the old Chevalier's birthday), the Jacobite ladies showed 
their constancy by wearing white gowns, while the boys 
made bonfires along the streets. The officer in com- 
mand of the station overlooked the matter, as he had 
no wish to punish ladies and children, but Cumberland 
with his usual vindictive cruelty had him deprived of 
his commission, and threatened to cause the children to 
be whipped at the cross to frighten them from their 
bonfires, a threat which he is actually said to have had 
carried into execution in some cases, it being alleged 
that one of the culprits so treated was Coutts, afterwards 
the great London banker. 

In 1773 Montrose was visited by Dr Johnson and 
Boswell on their way from Edinburgh to the Hebrides. 
'We found,' says Boswell, 'a sorry inn where I myself 
saw another waiter put a lump of sugar with his fingers 
into Dr Johnson's lemonade for which he called him 
" Rascal ! " It put me in great glee that our landlord 
was an Englishman. I rallied the Doctor upon this, 
and he grew quiet. . . . Before breakfast [the next 
morning] we went and saw the town-hall, wliere is a 
good dancing-room and other rooms for tea-drinking. 
The appearance of the town from it is very well ; but 
many of the houses are built with their ends to the 
street, which looks awkward. When we came down 
from it I met Mr Gleig, a merchant here. He went 
with us to see the English chapel. It is situated on a 
pretty dry spot, and there is a fine walk to it. It is 
really an elegant building, both within and without. 
The organ is adorned mth green and gold. Dr John- 
son gave a shilling extraordinary to the clerk, saj'ing, 
"He belongs to an honest Church." I put him in 
mind that Episcopals were but dissenters here ; they 
were only tolerated. "Sir," said he, "we are here as 
Christians in Turkey.'" The Doctor himself records his 
impression briefly. 'We travelled on to Montrose 
which we surveyed in the morning, and found it well 
built, airy, and clean. The town-house is a handsome 
fabric with a portico. We then went to view the 
English chapel, and found a small church, clean to a 
degree unknown in any other part of Scotland, with 
commodious galleries ; and what was yet less expected, 
with an organ.' The town in those days seems to have 
had a number of beggars, for in the passage immediately 
following, Johnson remarks that when he had proceeded 
thus far he had opportunities of observing what he had 
never heard, 'that there are many beggars in Scotland,' 
though, to their credit be it said, that they solicited 
'silently or very modestl}'.' The English Episcopal 
Church that is mentioned is St Peter's, which was 
founded in 1722, but was unfortunately bm'ned down 
in 1857, just after it had been repaired. 

Except a visit from Burns in 1787, and another from 
the Queen, who took train to Perth from a temporary 
station near the present Victoria Bridge, on her return 
from Balmoral in 1848, the town may be said to have 
no later history. Although since the latter part of last 
century it has had less increase of population and less 
growth of trade and industry than most towns of its 
class and in its position, it has yet thriven in a steady 
way that is perhaps better than sudden bursts of pro- 



MONTROSE 

sperity would have been, and there is but little sign of 
the fulfilment of the old rhyme : — 

* Bonnie Munross will bo a moss: 
Dundee will be dung doun : 
Forfar will be Forfar still : 
And Brechin a braw burgh toun.' 

The town was tlie birthplace of Robert Brown (1773- 
1858), the eminent botanist; Joseph Hume (1777-1855), 
politician and reformer; Sir Alexander Burnes (1805-41), 
Asiatic scholar and traveller ; Sir James Burnes, his elder 
brother, who also distinguished himself in India ; Sir 
James Duke (1792-1873), Lord Mayor of London in 
1848-49 ; Sir William Burnett, the inventor of the 
process known as ' Burnettising ' for deodorising bilge 
Avater and preserving timber from rotting ; and George 
Paul Chalmers, R.S.A. (1836-78). Alexander and 
James Burnes were sons of a cousin of Robert Burns, 
and the former was killed at Cabul, where he was 
political resident. Old Montrose has given to the 
family of Graham the successive titles of Earl (1505), 
Marquess (1644), and Duke (1707) in the peerage of 
Scotland. This family can be traced back to 1128, 
when William de Graham witnessed a charter of King 
David I. to the monks of Holyrood. The early members 
of the race were all distinguished for their bravery. 
The first of them connected with Forfarshire was Sir 
David Graham, who obtained a grant of Old Montrose 
from Robert I. The first Earl was killed at Flodden, 
and the third was appointed Viceroy of Scotland in 
1604. The first Marquess was James, who figures so 
prominently in the time of Charles I. His son and 
successor, who was restored to the title and the estates 
in 1660, was known as the 'Good Marquiss.' Viscount 
Dundee was sprung from a branch of the same family. 
The dukedom was conferred on the fourth Marquess as 
a reward for his steady support of the Union. The 
family has long ceased to have any connection of 
interest with either the town or neighbourhood. Their 
present seat is Buchanan Castle, Stirlingshire. 

Streets and PiMic Buildings. — The town has two 
principal lines of street running in a general direction 
from N to S. That to the W is the principal, and from 
N to S has the names of Northesk Road, The Mall, 
Murray Street, and High Street ; that to the E is 
inown to the N" as Mill Street, and to the S as Baltic 
Street and Apple Wynd, and is mostly very irregular 
and narrow. On the W side of High Street a fine wide 
street — Hume Street — was formed in 1880 to give access 
to the new station of the Montrose and Arbroath section 
of the North British railway system. High Street is 
•continued westwards to the river by Castle Street and 
"Upper Fishergate, much improved in recent years, but 
still of unequal width, narrow, and winding. To the W 
■of this, branching off also from High Street, is the wide 
modern Bridge Street. Along the side of the river is 
Wharf Street, eastward of which, towards the old station 
and harbour, are Hill Street, Commerce Street, Ferry 
Street, and River Street. Eastwards of Baltic Street and 
Mill Street is an open space, partly laid out as 
public gardens, which is known as The Middle Links, 
about which are a number of excellent houses. The 
chief cross streets from E to W are Broomfield Road at 
the extreme N end of the town, Rosehill Road at The 
Mall, and John Street off Higli Street and continued 
across the Middle Links by Union Street. The line by 
Bridge Street or Castle Street, High Street, Murray 
Street, The Mall, and Northesk Road lies along the 
main coast road from Dundee to Aberdeen. 

Till near the end of last century the traffic was 
conveyed across the South Esk by ferry-boats crossing 
the river between Ferktden and the harbour, but the 
road was then diverted to the westward, and bridges 
constructed between Montrose and Inohbrayook,* and 
across the south channel between Inchbrayock and the S 
bank of the river. The bridge over the south channel 
was a substantial stone structure and still remains, 
that over the main channel was a heavy timber bridge, 
erected in 1793-96, and deemed a wonderful structure. 
* So named from an old chuixh dedicated to St Braoch. 



MONTROSE 

One of the openings was moved like a drawbridge, in 
order to allow of the passage of ships up the river. In 
consequence, however, of an ill-advised narrowing of the 
channel at its site, the rapid current soon carried away 
the old bed of the river, and threatened to sweep away 
the foundations of the bridge ; and after various expe- 
dients had been tried to prevent its destruction, it 
eventually became a piece of mere shaking patchwork, 
and was condemned. In its place it was determined to 
erect a suspension-bridge, and this, designed by Sir 
Samuel Brown, E.N., and founded in Sept. 1828, 
was finished in Dec. 1829 at a cost of £23,000. The 
distance between the points of suspension is 432 feet, 
and the total length, including approaches, is about 800 
feet. The towers are 23J feet high from foundation to 
roadway, and 71 feet high altogether ; 39 J feet wide at 
the roadway ; and each is pierced by an archway 18 feet 
high and 16 wide. At a distance of 115 feet from the 
towers are the chambers where the ends of the chains 
are secured. The chains themselves, which are double, 
and 1 foot apart, are made of the best cable iron, with 
bars 8 feet 10 inches from centre to centre, and the 
joints of the upper main chains over the middle of the 
bar in the lower. The suspending rods are 5 feet apart. 
In 1838, on the occasion of a boat-race in the river, a 
large crowd on the bridge rushed from one side to the 
other, and the sudden strain, owing to some imperfection 
in one of the saddles on the top of the north tower, 
causing the upper chain on one side to give way, it 
fell on the lower chain, killing several people. Had not 
the under chain proved sufficiently strong to support 
the sudden strain, the whole crowd would have been 
precipitated into the water. The bridge was speedily 
repaired, but in October the same year a violent south- 
westerly gale produced such violent vibrations as to tear 
up, destroy, and throw into the river about two-thirds 
of the roadway. The main chains, however, remained 
uninjured, but repairs were necessary to the amount of 
£3000. Hitherto the lateral oscillation in the centre had 
been as much as from 3 to 4 feet, but now, by the intro- 
duction of new supports, designed by J. M. Rendal, Lon- 
don, this was reduced so as not to exceed 3 or 4 inches. 
A portion of the roadway at each side, reserved for foot- 
passengers, is railed off from the carriageway by longi- 
tudinal timber traverses, which so abut upon the towers, 
and extend above and below the roadway, as to thoroughly 
stiffen the whole structure. When this bridge was first 
erected, the centre span of the stone one, across the 
south channel, was taken down and replaced by a draw- 
bridge to allow vessels to pass up to Old Montrose, but 
it is hardly ever used. Financially the suspension- 
bridge has always been in difliculties, for, notwithstand- 
ing the pontage income, there still in 1871 remained a 
debt of more than £18,000, and as the revenue derived 
from tolls was then threatened with a great reduction, 
should the proposed formation of a direct Montrose and 
Arbroath railway be proceeded with, the company pro- 
moting that line became bound to pay annually £983, 6s. 
in perpetuity as compensation for the anticipated loss. 
When the Koads and Bridges Act came into operation 
in 1883 the pontage was finally abolished. Whilst the 
foundations of the northern towers were being dug, a 
large number of human bones were found in the small 
eminence close by, on which the castle stood, and which 
is known as the Castlehill or Forthill. A short distance 
up the river from the suspension-bridge is the viaduct 
by which the Arbroath and Montrose railway crosses 
the South Esk. It was designed by Mr W. E. Galbraith, 
and is 475 yards long. There are 16 spans, the one at 
the S side being 63 feet wide, the two at the N side 
respectively 54 feet and 57 feet 6 inches, and the others 
96 feet. The girders are supported on double cylindrical 
piers sunk in the bed of the river to an average depth 
of 18 feet, 7 feet 6 inches in diameter up to low water, 
and thence 5 feet in diameter. It was erected in 1882- 
83 to replace the original viaduct constructed in 1878-80, 
somewhat on the same plan as the Tay Bridge ; but after 
the disaster to that structure, although it was used for 
goods traffic, the Board of Trade refused to grant it tha 

55 



MONTBOSE 

necessary certificate for passenger traffic, and it was 
removed. Across the soutli channel there is a brick 
viaduct of 16 arches. 

The infirmary, near the N end of the suspension-bridge, 
was originally connected with the old lunatic asylum 
noticed in the account of the parish. It afterwards be- 
came separate, and the present building, erected in 1837 
at a cost of £2500 and enlarged in 1865, includes a fever 
ward, a small-pox ward, and a dispensary. It is under 
the charge of the same directors as the lunatic asylum, 
and the average annual number of patients is over 400. 

High Street was, till 1748, divided along the centre 
into two streets by a row of houses called Kotten Kow, 
but it is now a wide handsome open thoroughfare. Many 
of the houses still present their gables to the street, but 
these older features are slowly disappearing. Projecting 
into the street towards the S end is the town-hall, 
erected in 1763, and with an upper story added 
in 1819, a plain building, with arcaded basement 
and a pediment containing an illuminated clock. It 
contains a council-room, a guild-hall, a court-room, 
a coffee-room, a reading-room, and a large apartment 
used as a public library (founded in 1785 ; annual 
subscription one guinea). There is an extensive 
collection of books amounting to over 19,000 volumes. 
Besides this there is a trades' or mechanics' library 
with 7000 volumes (founded 1819 ; annual subscrip- 
tion 4s. 4d. ) and a grammar school library, founded in 
1686, and containing many old and rare books. The 
old Trades' Hall on the E side of High Street, a short 
distance N ot the town-hall, is now known as the Albert 
Hall. The statues close by are those of Sir Robert 
Peel, erected in 1855; and of Joseph Hume, M.P. — a 
native and for some years member for the Montrose 
district of burghs — erected in 1859. The prison to the 
S of the town-hall superseded a disgraceful old jail in 
the Steeple with only two or three miserable cells. 
BuUt in 1832, it has become almost useless in conse- 
quence of the transference of all long-sentence prisoners 
to the prison of Dundee, though those with sentences of 
not more than 14 days are still kept here, and part of 
it is used as a police court-room. 

There seems to have been a parish church as early as 
the 13th century, but the present building, which is 
immediately E of the to^\Ti-han, was erected in 1791 on 
the site of an older church, and measures 98 bj' 65 feet. 
It is one of the largest in Scotland, the double tier of 
galleries and area containing 2500 sittings. The square 
steeple of the older church with its octagonal spiie 
formed a prominent feature in old views of the town. 
The spire was of later date, having been added in 1094 — 
the date on the vane now in the museum. It was in it 
that Thomas Forster, a priest, met his death at the hands 
of John Erskine of Dun, a circumstance that led to the 
young laird's retirement to the Continent for a season, 
and thus to his adherence to the doctrines of the Refor- 
mation ; and on it ' a fyre of joy ' burned in June 1566 
on the reception of the news of the birth of James VI. 
The steeple having become somewhat rickety was taken 
down in 1831, and the present one, 200 feet high, 
erected in 1832-34 after designs by Gillespie Graham at 
a cost of £3500, the gable of the church being altered 
and improved at the same time. There is a fine brass 
chandelier which belonged to the old church. Round 
the building is the old burial ground, which contains 
the grave of Maitland the historian. There is a new 
cemetery at Rosehill Road on the NE of the town. 
Melville Established church, built in 1854 as a chapel 
of ease, is now a quoad sacra parish church. It has 
800 sittings. St John's Free church, in John Street, a 
Grecian building, was erected in 1829 as a chapel of ease 
at a cost of £3969, and contains 1370 sittings. St 
George's Free church, built soon after the Disruption, 
contains 1300 sittings ; and St Paul's Free church, a 
plain Gothic building with a spire (1860), has 520 
sittings. Mill Street U.P. church, built in 1830 for a 
congregation formed in 1750, contains 500 sittings ; 
John Street U.P. church, built in 1824 for a con- 
gregation formed in 1787, has accommodation for 750 
56 



MONTEOSE 

persons ; and Knox U. P. church, in Castle Street,, 
built in 1860, for 300. The Independent church, in 
Baltic Street, was built in 1844 in place of a previous- 
chapel, and contains 700 sittings. The Evangelical 
Union church (1849) has accommodation for 400 ; and 
the Wesleyan church at the foot of New Wynd, built in. 
1873 in room of an older church dating from 1814, 
accommodation for 330. The Scottish Episcopal church 
(St Mary), in Panmure Place, was built in 1844, partly 
with a donation of £1000 from H. Scott, Esq. of 
Brotherton, and, as restored and enlarged in 1878, is a 
good Early English edifice, with organ, fine stained- 
glass windows, and 350 sittings. The English Episcopal 
church (St Peter), whose early history has been already 
referred to, was rebuilt in 1859, and contains 500 sittings.. 
Within garden ground on the W side of Murray Street 
there were, till the beginning of the present century, 
remains of a Dominican monastery. The original build- 
ing, ' biggit and foundit ' and dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary in 1230 by Allan the Durward, last male repre- 
sentative of the De Lundins, seems to have stood on the- 
portion of the links known as St Mary's, near Victoria 
Bridge, but in 1516 the monks removed to new buildings 
in the position first mentioned. Almost nothing more 
is known of their history except that they found them- 
selves disturbed in their new abode by the noises in the 
streets, and were, in 1524, allowed to return to their 
first dwelling. 

Montrose Academy stands on the Links, and was, as- 
we have already seen, in existence as early as the middle 
of the 16th century at least. Its early fame and its 
connection with Wishart and the Mel-vils has been 
already noticed. One of the teachers in the 17th 
century was David Lyndsay, a cadet of the Edzell 
family, who became Bishop of Brechin, and was after- 
wards Bishop of Edinburgh when Jenny Geddes threw her 
stool at Dr Hanna's head. ' The bischop of Edinbrugh, 
named Mr David Lyndsay, cuming to preiche, heiring 
of this tumult cam nevertheles to Sanct Geillis kirk and 
teichit, but inquietatioun. Sermon endit and he going 
out of the kirk dur, these rascall wemen cryit out aganist 
bischopis, reddie to stane him to the death, but being a 
corpulent man wes haistellie put in the Erll of Eox- 
brughe coache, standing hard besyd, and was careit to- 
his lodging ; the samen rascallis still following him and 
throwing stones at the coache, so that he escaipit 
narrowlie with his lyf ' Among the later pupils were- 
Joseph Hume and Sir James and Sir Alexander Burnes. 
The present building, which is surmounted by a low 
dome, was erected in 1820, and contains accommodation' 
for over 700 pupils. The average attendance is about 
300, and the work, embracing the usual secondary 
subjects, is carried on by a rector, six masters, and' 
three assistants. There is a very small endowment, 
so that the income is to a large extent dependent on fees. 
From funds bequeathed by Mr John Erskine, of Jamaica, 
in 1786, education is provided at this school for eight 
poor boys, and a salary of £50 is paid to one of the- 
assistant masters. Dorward's Seminary — near the 
Academy, erected in 1833 partly at the expense of the- 
Incorporated Trades and partly by subscription, and 
afterwards transferred to the management of Dorward's- 
Trustees — gives instruction in English, writing, arith- 
metic, navigation, Latin, and French, and the work is 
carried on by a master and mistress. In 1883 thirteen, 
schools, with accommodation, average attendance, and 
Government grant, were: — Erskine Street (152, 135, 
£114, 13s. 4d.), High Street (73, 119, £100, 10s. 6d.), 
Lochside (120, 74, £57, 4s.), Montrose (381, 291, 
£232, 6s.), Townhead junior (180, 109, £80, Os. 6d.), 
Townhead senior (207, 206, £193, 14s.), White's Place- 
(204, 191, £88, 17s. 6d.), White's Place infant (163, 
154, £114, 18s.), Castle Street mission (242, 193, 
£115, 18s. 9d.), Dorward's Seminary (136, 61, £42, 15s.), 
Dorward's Lower Seminary (123, 60, £27, 3s. 7d.), St 
John's Free Church (320, 179, £106, 3s.), and Union- 
Street Works (83, 32, £29, 14s.). 

Dorward's House of Refuge, at the N end of the- 
Middle Links, was erected in 1839, and is endowed from. 



MONTEOSE 



MONTROSE 



n fund of £29,600 bequeathed by William Donvard, 
siiercliant in ilontrose. It is a neat Elizabethan building, 
att'ording accommodation for 150 inmates, but lias gene- 
rally only about 80. In 1882 these were 23 men, 15 
women, 25 boys, and 15 girls. It is managed by 
trustees from various public bodies. The Museum of 
the Natural History and Antiquarian Society is a neat 
tuilding in Panmure Place, erected in 1837. It con- 
.tains valuable collections of natural history objects, and 
a fine collection of coins and other antiquities. On 
Saturday it is accessible for the verj' small charge of one 
■penny. The Barracks, to the NE of the harbour, were 
origiually the buildings of the lunatic asylum, which 
were transferred to Government in 1860 to be con- 
verted into a dep6t for the Angus and Mearns militia, 
officially the 5th Brigade Scottish division R.M. 
Artillei'y. 

Commerce and Trade, etc. — The manufacture of linen 
yarn and thread was introduced at a comparatively 
■early period, and has been vigorously carried on. An 
annual market for these products was held in the early 
years of last century, and drew to it manufacturers from 
all parts of Forfarshire and Kincardineshire and from 
some parts of Aberdeenshire, to dispose of their goods. 
The making of sailcloth was begun in 1745 ; but after a 
short burst of prosperity it fell off, so as almost to become 
■extinct. It has, however, now again revived and become 
very extensive. The manufacture of sailcloth, fine linen, 
Ja^wns, and cambric was so prominent at Pennant's visit 
to the town in 1776, as to draw from him a eulogy on 
the skill and industry employed, as well as the beauty 
of many of the fabrics produced. Flax-spinning, with 
newly-invented machinery worked by one of Boulton 
and Watt's engines, was commenced in Ford's Mill, 
a factory built for this in 1805 ; and in 1805-6 the 
engineman who had charge of the machinery of this 
work was the great inventor of the locomotive engine, 
■George Stephenson. An engineman's wages in tliose 
days could not have been large, but during the 
year Stephenson was in Montrose he saved a sum 
of no less than £28. Flax-spinning is now the 
principal industry, and gives employment to a large 
number of hands, both in the town and in its neigh- 
liourhood, as does also the weaving of part of the yarn 
into floor-cloths, ducks, sheetings, dowlas, canvas, and 
other fabrics, and the bleaching operations therewith 
■connected. There are also extensive rope-works, tan- 
works, mills, machine-making establishments, breweries, 
starch-works — dating from 1798 — soap-works, and an 
artificial manure and chemical work. Shipbuilding was 
■once extensively carried on, but is now extinct, though 
there is still a good deal of boatbuilding. The 
registration or custom-house port used formerly to 
•comprehend the whole coast from Buddon Ness on 
the S to Bervie-brow or Todhead on the N, and in- 
cluded Westhaven, Easthaven, Arbroath, Johnshaven, 
and Gourdon ; but it is now restricted to the reach 
from Redhead to Todhead, and therefore includes now 
■only Johnshaven and Gourdon. The number of vessels 
■within the smaller range, with their tonnage, has been 
■at various dates as follows : 



Year. 


Sailing 
Ships. 


Tons. 


Steamers. 


TO-- l^^^l 


Total 
Tons. 


1868 
1875 
1882 
1883 


112 
78 
50 
44 


17,320 
13,529 
9,287 
8,256 


2 
4 
7 
8 


40 
1156 
2053 
1840 


114 
82 
67 
62 


17,360 
14,685 
11,340 
10,096 



By far the greater part of the ships belong to Montrose 
:itsclf. 

The harbour comprises the whole reach of the South 
Esk from the bridge to the sea, but is occupied prin- 
■ripally in the upper part of that reach. It is naturally 
very good, and has been well cared for. The entrance 
lis somewhat narrow, and cannot easily be taken, with the 
-wind from certain points ; but the depth over the bar is 



18 feet at low water of spring tides, and it is therefore 
accessible at all hours to vessels of large draught. To 
the N of the fairway is a dangerous bank called the Annet 
Sands. There are leading lights, and on the promontory 
at the S side of the mouth of the river is Montroseness or 
Scurdyness lighthouse (1870), with — since 1881 — a double 
intermittent or occulting light, its periods of light being 
always four seconds, and its periods of darkness 
two seconds and eight seconds alternately. The light 
is visible at a distance of 17 nautical miles. The quays 
are well constructed and commodious. A wet dock, 
measuring 450 by 300 feet, with a depth of 19 feet at 
spring tides and 15 at neaps, and capable of accom- 
modating 6000 tons of shipping, vjiia formed in 1840 at 
a cost of £43,000. There is a patent slip, capable of 
raising vessels of 400 tons. Tramways connect tho 
harbour with both the Caledonian and North British 
railway stations. The present trustees are 5 elected 
by the county, the sheriff of the county, the provost 
and senior bailie of Montrose, 2 members elected by 
the town council, 9 chosen by the municipal electors, 
and 4 elected by the town council of Brechin. It was 
acquired by this body from the town council in 1837, 
under act of parliament, by which a payment of £600 a 
year in perpetuity is to be made to the latter body. The 
following table shows the tonnage of vessels that entered 
from and to foreign ports and coastwise, with cargoes 
and ballast, at various dates ; — 



Year. 


Entered. 


CleAEED. 


British. 


Foreign. 1 Total. 


British. 


Foreign. 


Total. 


1860 
1874 
1S81 
18S2 


48,882 
66,915 
71,319 
65,998 


17,638 
25,414 
21,426 
28,041 


66,520 
92,329 
92,746 
94,039 


33,790 
66,002 
68,122 
07,450 


17.066 
22,479 
20,947 
26,214 


50,856 
89,381 
89,069 
93,664 



The foreign trade is chiefly with the Baltic and 
Canada. The chief exports are grain, manufactured 
goods, and fish, and the chief imports are timber, coal, 
flax, hemp, and wheat. The trade in wood is second 
only to that on the Clyde, and more unmanufactured 
tobacco is imported here than is brought into any other 
port in Scotland except Glasgow and Leith. The amount 
of customs in 1866 was £3i54, in 1874 £1787, in 1881 
£1305, and in 1882 £1093. Montrose fishery district 
embraces the coast from Broughty Ferry to Gourdon, 
and on 1 Jan. 1883 had a total of 182 first class boats, 
244 second class boats, and 193 third class boats, with a 
total tonnage of 4954, and 1180 resident fishermen and 
boys. Of these, however, only 1 first class boat, 4 third 
class boats, and 8 men and boys belonged to Montrose 
itself. In the year before the value of the boats was 
£37,012, of the nets £25,500, and of the lines £7624. 
The total persons employed in connection with them 
were 2882, the number of barrels of herrings salted or 
cured 39,199, and the number of cod, ling, or hake 
taken 110,392. Of the whole number of boats, about a 
quarter belongs to the small fishing-village of Ferry- 
den, on the opposite side of the South Esk from Mont- 
rose. But few of the boats fish at home, the number in 
1883 being 174, which had a total catch of 15,344 
crans. 

Slunicipality, etc. — As already noticed it is uncertain 
when Montrose became a royal burgh, but in the charters 
of confirmation and renovation granted by Da-vid II. in 
1352, and by Robert II. in 1385, there is a rescript of a 
charter believed to have been granted by David I. Sub- 
sequent extension of privileges was granted by James 
IV. Municipal matters are attended to by a provost, 
3 bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, a hospital master, 
and 12 councillors, and this corporation is probably the 
only one in Scotland that can boast of ever having had 
female burgesses, since in 1751 the ladies Jean, Mary, 
and Margaret Falconer, daughters of Lord Falconer of 
Halkerstone, were raised to that dignity. The council 
acts also as the police commission, and the police force 
consists of 12 men (one to every 1247 of the population) 

S7 




Seal of Montrose. 



MONTROSE 

with a superintendent, whose salary is £150. The 
number of persons tried at the instance of the police in 
1883 was 237, the number of those convicted was 234, 
the number committed for further proceedings 5, and 
the number not dealt with 21. The corporation pro- 
perty is valued at about £72,000, and the liabilities to 
be charged against it to about £38,000. The annual 
revenue is about £2900. Gas is supplied by a company 
formed in 1827, whose works are in Lower Hall Street. 
"Water was brought first from Glenskenno in 1741 at a 
cost of £1300 ; and the present supply, which comes from 
the North Esk above Einnaber, was introduced in 1857 
at a cost of about £8800. A thorough scheme of 
drainage was carried out subsequent to 1873. The in- 
corporated trades are blacksmiths, wrights, shoemakers, 
weavers, masons, and tailors. 
Under various trustees there 
are 23 charitable funds be- 
queathed between 1744 and 
1882 with capitals varying 
from £50 to £4000, the inte- 
rests being chiefly applied to 
the assistance of indigent per- 
sons not paupers. The hospital 
fund granted by King James 
VI. in 1587 gives assistance 
to about 150 persons, who 
receive quarterly allowances 
from it. The burgh arms are, 
On a shield argent, a rose 
seeded and barbed proper : the 
supporters are two mermaids proper ; the crest a hand 
sinister issuing from clouds, and holding a branch of 
laurel, with the motto, Mare ditat, rosa decorat. 

The to'vvn has a head post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, 
and offices of the Bank of Scotland, British Linen Com- 
pany, Clydesdale, Commercial, National, North of Scot- 
land, Eoyal, and Town and County Banks. There is 
also a National Security Savings' Bank, agencies of 49 
insurance companies, and 8 hotels. The newspapers are 
the Liberal Montrose Revieio (1811) and the Conservative 
Montrose Standard (1837), and are both published on 
Friday. There are three Masonic lodges — Kilwinning, St 
Peter's (No. 120), and Incorporated Kilwinning (No. 182). 
Among the miscellaneous institutions may be noticed 
the Kossie Pleasure-Grounds (to the S of the town, laid 
out in 1868-70, and open to the public), the Eossie 
Boys' Reformatory (1857) — with about 65 inmates — in 
Craig parish , a public coffee house and reading-room ( 1 880) 
in Castle Street, a model lodging-house in South Esk 
Street, the Temperance Hall in Market Street, the 
Assembly Hall in High Street, the Lifeboat station, the 
Natural History and Antiquarian Society, the Scientific 
and Field Club, a Young Men's Christian Association, a 
branch of the Bible Society, a Town Mission, a Society 
for Improving the Condition of the Poor, a Destitute 
Sick Society, a Ladies Clothing Society, a Temperance 
Society, six Good Templar Lodges, a Court of Foresters, 
two Lodges of Oddfellows, two Lodges of Free Gardeners, 
a St Crispin Lodge, a United Society of Seamen, a 
branch of the Shipwrecked Fishermen and Mariners' 
Eoyal Benevolent Society, a Horticultural Society, an 
Orchestral Society, a Harmonic Union, a Tonic Sol-fa 
Association, sis golf clubs — the links affording one of 
the best golfing greens in Scotland — a curling club, two 
bowling clubs, three cricket clubs, and five football 
clubs. The volunteer hall was opened in 1883 ; and 
there are an artillery and two rifle volunteer corps, 
in connection with which the Angus and Mearns 
Rifle Association (1860) holds a meeting on Montrose 
Links annually in August. SheriS' small debt courts for 
the parishes of Craig, Dun, Logie-Pert, Lunan, Maryton, 
and Montrose are held on the third Friday of January, 
March, May, July, September, and November; and there 
is a justice of peace small debt court on the first Monday 
of every month. The weekly market is on Friday, and 
there was formerly an annual fair — which figures in 
John o' Arnlia — on 3 May, Rood Day, whence the name 
58 



MONYMUSK 

Ruid or Rood Fair. This aud another old fair held in 
July, and lasting four days, are now abolished, and fairs 
are held on the Fridays after "Whitsunday and Martinmas- 
{o.s.). 

Montrose unites with Arbroath, Brechin, Forfar, and 
Bervie in returning a member to parliament (always a 
Liberal since 1837), and is the returning burgh. Parlia- 
mentary constituency (1883-84) 2050, municipal con- 
stituency 2412. "Valuation (1876) £51,144, (1883-84) 
£57,142, 13s. 6d., including £4399 for railways. Pop. of 
parliamentary burgh (1831) 12,055, (1841)13,811, (1851) 
15,238, (1861) 14,563, (1871) 14,548, (1881) 14,973, of 
whom 6705 were males and 8268 females. Houses 
(1881) 2777 inhabited, 66 vacant, 6 building. Of the 
total population at last census 3023 men and 1908 
women were engaged in connection with industrial 
handicrafts or dealing in manufactured substances, 
while 2522 were boys and 2394 were girls under 15 
years of age. 

See also Jervise's Memorials of Angus and Mearna 
(Edinb. 1861) ; and Mitchell's History of Montrose 
(Montrose, 1866). 

Montrose, Old. See Maryton. 

Monymusk, a village and a parish of central Aberdeen- 
shire. The village stands, 302 feet above sea-level, 
within 3 furlongs of the Don's S bank, and f mile N by 
AV of Monymusk station on the Alford branch of the 
Great North of Scotland railway, this being 8i miles E 
by S of Alford, 74 "WSW of Kintore Junction, and 20| (19 
by road) WNW of Aberdeen. A place of high antiquity, 
it was almost entirely rebuilt about 1840, and now 
forms a neat square, with some fine old trees in the 
centre. It has a post and railway telegraph office and 
an hotel. 

The parish is bounded N by Oyne, NE by Chapel-of- 
Garioch, E by Kemnay, S by Cluny, and W by Tough 
and Keig. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 5 miles ;, 
its breadth increases westward from J mile to 4J miles ; 
and its area is 10,816 acres, of which 87J are water. 
The Don winds 10 miles east-south-eastward, partly 
along the Keig, Oyne, and Kemnay boundaries, but 
mainly through the north-eastern interior ; and Ton 
Burn, its affluent, traces all the southern and south- 
eastern boundary. Sinking along the Don to 250 feet 
above sea-level, the surface thence rises westward to- 
1244 feet at Pitfichie Hill, 1469 at Cairn "William, and. 
1306 at Green HiU. Granite is the predominant rock 
in the hills, and is largelj' quarried. Felspathic rock, 
of quality suitable for pottery purposes, also occurs, and 
was for some time worked by an agent of one of the 
Staffordshire potteries. Iron ore, containing 65 per 
cent, of iron, has long been known to exist, but has not 
been worked on account of the dearth of fuel. The soil 
of the arable lands is partly clayey, but principally a 
light loam. About three-sevenths of the entire area ar& 
in tillage ; nearly one-third is under wood ; and the 
rest is either pastoral or waste. The proportion under 
wood, it will be noticed, is very large, the planting of 
larches, spruces, Scotch firs, and hardwood trees having 
been begun in 1716, and carried on constantly to the 
present time. A field beside the Don, 4 ™il^ E of 
Monymusk House, is said to have been the camping- 
ground of Robert Bruce's army before the Battle of 
Barra (1308), and bears the name of Campfield. An- 
tiquities are vestiges of two ancient Caledonian stone 
circles, a sculptured standing-stone and Latin cross, the 
roofiess ruin of Pitfichie Castle, and vestiges of a chapel, 
which was one of the earliest seats of the Culdee mis- 
sionaries in the North of Scotland. Malcolm Ceannmor 
in 1078, proceeding on a military expedition against 
the rebels of Moray, arrived at Monj'musk ; and, finding 
that its barony belonged to the Crown, he vowed it to 
St Andrew, in order to gain the victory, and is said to 
have marked out the base of the church tower with his 
spear. In 1170 we hear of the Keledei or Culdees of 
'Munimusc, ' for whom thirty years later Gilchrist, 
Earl of Mar, appears to have built a priory, whilst 
enforcing on them the canonical rule. Disputes arose 
between them and the Bishops of St Andrews, and! 



MONYNUT WATER 

hy 1245 the Culdees had quite given place to 'the 
prior and convent of Munimusc, of the order of St 
Augustine' (Sl-cene's Celtic Scotland, ii. 389-392, 1877). 
The very foundations of the priory were dug up about 
1726. Alexander Nicoll, D.C.L. (1793-1828), an eminent 
Orientalist and Regius Professor of Hebrew in the 
Universitv of Oxford, was a native. Monymusk House, 
on the left bank of the Don, 3 furlongs NE of the 
village, is a large old building, with a valuable library 
and a good collection of paintings. In 1712 the 
estate was purchased from Sir William Forbes, Bart., 
of the Pitsligo family, for £116,000 by Sir Francis 
Grant, Bart. (1660-1726), who, on his elevation to the 
bench in 1709, had assumed the title of Lord Cullen. 
His fifth descendant. Sir Archibald Grant, seventh Bart, 
since 1705 (b. 1828 ; sue. 1863), holds 14,881 acres in 
the shire, valued at £7698 per annum. Monymusk is in 
the presbytery of Garioch and the synod of Aberdeen ; 
the living is worth £254. The parish church, St Mary's, 
on the E side of the village square, is a very old building, 
parts of it being doubtless coeval with the priory. Com- 
prising the Norman basement of a W tower (17J x 15tj 
feet; 50 high), a nave (48§x 201^5 feet), and a choir (16g 
X 141 feet), with a later polygonal apse, it was enlarged 
by a N aisle, reroofed, and reseated for 580 worshippers 
in 1822, when the spire was also renewed. Its two pure 
Norman arches of Queen Margaret's time are objects of 
much interest. An Episcopal church, containing 130 
sittings, was converted from secular purposes in 1801 ; 
and the public school, with accommodation for 164 
children, had (1883) an average attendance of 107, and 
a grant of £92, 2s. Valuation (1860) £5472, (1884) 
£6989, 15s. 5d,, 2}lus £1288 for railway. Pop. (1801) 
900, (1831) 1011, (1861) 988, (1871) 996, (1881) 1155. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Monjmut Water, a rivulet of Haddington and Berwick 
shires. Rising among the Lammermuir Hills at an 
altitude of 1112 feet, and running 7i miles south-south- 
eastward, through or along the borders of Innerwick, 
Oldhamstocks, and Abbey St Bathans parishes, it falls 
into Whitadder AVater at Abbey St Bathans hamlet. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Monzie, a hamlet and a parish of central Perthshire. 
The hamlet stands on the left bank of Shaggie Burn, 3 
miles NNE of the post-town, Crieff. 

The civil parish consists of a main body (containing 
the hamlet) and of three detached portions — the Inner- 
pelTray, Auchnafree, and Logiealmond sections. Its 
total area is 33f square miles or 21,592J acres, of which 
104f are water, and 3849J belong to the main body. 
This, with an utmost length from NNW to SSE of 4} 
miles, and an utmost breadth of 2 miles, is bounded 
NE and E by Fowlis-Wester, and S, W, and N by 
Crieff. Sh.\ggie Burn, rising on the NE border at an 
altitude of 2050 feet, runs 5 J miles south -south-eastward 
and south-south-westward, mainly along the north- 
eastern and southern boundaries, but for 1|- mile across 
the interior, till it passes off into Crieff, | mile above its 
influx to Turret Burn ; and Keltie Burn, rising at an 
altitude of 2200 feet, runs 4J miles south-south-eastward 
along the western border, till it falls into Shaggie Burn 
at the SW corner of the parish. The surface sinks here 
to 250 feet above sea-level, and rises to 700 feet on the 
*northern slope of the Knock of Crieff (911), 1153 at 
*Milquhanzie Hill, 1461 at Cnoo Beithe, and 2255 at 
*Mealneveron, where asterisks mark those heights that 
lie upon the boundaries. 

Of the three detached sections, the smallest (l-|xl| 
mile) contains the ruins of Innerpeffray Castle, 4 
miles SE of Crieff, and is bounded NE by Madderty, 
E and SE by Trinity-Gask, SW by Muthill, and W and 
NW by Crieff. The Earn flows IJ mile south-eastward 
along all the Muthill boundary ; and the surface sinks 
nowhere much below, and nowhere much exceeds, 100 
feet above sea-level. Of the two Glenalmond sections, 
the upper (4 J x 4J miles) contains Auchnafree Lodge, 7 
miles WSW of Amulree, and is bounded SE by Crieff, 
S by Mouzievaird and Comrie, W and NW by Kenmore, 
and N and E by detached portions of Dull, Weem, 



MONZIEVAIRD AND STROWAN 

Kenmore, and Fowlis-Wester. The new-liorn Almont> 
has here an easterly course of 4 miles ; and along it the 
surface declines to 880 feet, chief elevations being Ben 
CnoNZiE (3048 feet) at the SW corner, and a nameless 
summit (2838) on the northern boundary. The Logie- 
almond section (5f x 45 miles) in its SE corner contains 
Glenalmond College, 9J miles NE of Crieff and llf 
WNW of Perth, under which there is the post office of 
Heriotfield. It is bounded NE by detached portions 
of Methven and Redgorton, E by Auchtergavon and 
Moneydie, S by Methven and Fowlis-Wester, W by 
Fowlis-Wester, and NW by Little Dunkeld. The 
Almond winds' 6 miles eastward, mainly along the 
southern border ; Milton Burn runs to it 4 J miles south- 
south-eastward along the western border ; and Shochie 
Burn, another of its affluents, runs 2J miles south-east- 
ward along the Auchtergaven and Moneydie boundary. 
The surface sinks to 450 feet along the Almond, and 
rises to 654 feet near Saddlebank, 773 near Montreal, 
and 1913 at Meikle Crochan on the Little Dunkeld 
boundary. 

Such are the general features of this large and 
scattered parish, whose rocks include excellent slate, 
red sandstone compact and durable, and limestone of 
indifferent quality. The soil of most of the arable lands 
is light, dry, and fertile. There are several hundred 
acres of thriving plantation ; but full}' two-thirds of the 
entire area are desolate upland, partly green, mostly 
heathy, and good only for the grazing of Highland or 
blackfaced sheep. ' Weenis, ' or subterranean dwellings, 
have been discovered in Jlonzie Park, where also are 
remains of several stone circles. Monzie Castle, 5 fur- 
longs SSW of Monzie hamlet, bears date 1634, and is a 
square, three-story, battlemented pile, with a western 
two-story wing, and round towers flanking the angles. 
In its beautiful grounds are four out of five larches, 
coeval with those of Dunkeld (1738), and one of them 
18 feet in girth at 3 feet from the ground. The estate 
belongs to George Johnstone, Esq. of Lathrisk, his 
father having purchased it from Alex. Cameron-Camp- 
bell, Esq., who died in 1869, and who from 1S41 
to 1843 was Conservative member for Argyllshire. 
(See Inverawe. ) Another estate, with a mansion, is 
the C.AIRNIES in Logiealmond ; and altogether 5 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of more than £500, 
and 3 of less than £100. Ecclesiastically, the parish, 
as redistributed at various periods between 1702 and 
1871, takes in part of Fowlis-Wester, and gives off its 
owm detached sections to Muthill, Amulree, Methven, 
and Logiealmond. Monzie itself is in the presbytery 
of Auchterarder and the synod of Perth and Stirling ; 
the living is worth £200. The parish church, at the 
hamlet, was built in 1831, and contains 512 sittings. 
There is also a Free church of Monzie; and Monzie 
public school, with accommodation for 133 children, 
had (1883) an average attendance of 50, and a grant 
of £58, 10s. Valuation (1860) £7753, (1884) £8868, 
Is. Id. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 1157, (1841) 
1261, (1861) 972, (1871) 803, (1881) 753; of ecclesi- 
astical parish (1871) 324, (1881) 304, of whom 208 
were in Fowlis-Wester. — Ord. Sur., shs. 47, 48, 
1869-68. 

Monzievaird and Strowan, a parish of Upper Strath- 
earn, central Perthshire, whose church, J mile from the 
Earn's N bank, is 3| miles ENE of Comrie and 3i 
WNW of the post-town, Crieff. It comprises the 
ancient parishes of Monzievaird and Strowan, united 
prior to 1662, and consists of a main body and three 
detached sections, the area of the whole being 26,493| 
acres, of which 5988 belong to those sections, and 400J 
are water. The main body is bounded N by Monzie 
(detached), NE and E by Crieff, S by Muthill, and W 
by Comrie. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 7| 
miles ; its utmost width, from E to W, is 5g miles ; and 
its area is 20, 505 J acres. From Comrie village to near 
Crieff town the Earn flows 5| miles east-by-southward, 
partly along the Comrie boundary, but mainly across 
the interior ; Turret Burn, rising on the eastern side 
of Ben Chonzie at an altitude of 2000 feet, runs 8J miles 

59 



MONZIEVAIRD AND STROWAN 

soutli-eastward and southward — for the last 2 miles 
along the Crieff boundary, till, after a descent of 1900 
feet, it falls into the Earn at a point ^ mile W of the 
town of Crieif ; and the Lednook, over the last 3f 
miles of its course, runs south-south-eastward along the 
Comrie boundary to the Earn at Comrie village. The 
largest sheets of water are Lochan Uaine (IxJ furl. ; 
1523 feet) and Loch Turret (1 mile x 2f furl. ; 1127 
feet) towards the head of Glenturret ; Ochtertyre Lake 
(4i X li furl.); and St Serf's Water (IJ x J furl.). 
Aloug the Earn the surface declines to close on 100 
feet above sea-level ; and thence it rises southward 
to wooded *Torlum (1291 feet), northward to Toma- 
chaistel (434), Drumachargan (512), Creag Each (988), 
Creag Chaisean (1809), Carn Chois (2571), *Auchnafree 
Hill (2565), and *Ben Chonzir (3048), where asterisks 
mark those summits that culminate on the confines of 
the parish. 

Of the three detached sections, all lying in Glen- 
AETNET, the largest, containing Auchnashelloch and 
Findhuglen farms, 6J miles SW of Comrie, is bounded 
NW and N by Comrie, E by Muthill, SE by Dunblane, 
S by Kilmadock, and SW by Callander. Its utmost 
length, from NE to SW, is 3| miles ; its utmost breadth 
is 3| miles ; and its area is 4570^ acres. The Water of 
RiTCHiLL flows 2 miles north-eastward along all the 
north-western boundary, and Findhu Glen descends to 
it for 2| miles in a north-westerly direction. In the 
extreme N the surface declines to 600 feet above sea- 
level, thence rising southward to 'Uamh Bheag (2179 
feet). The nest largest section (1352 acres), containing 
Meiggars farm, 3 miles S of Comrie, is bounded E by 
Muthill, and on all other sides by Comrie. The Water 
of Euchill flows 5 furlongs along the north-western 
boundary ; and the surface rises from 400 to 1250 feet. 
The smallest section (64§ acres), 2J miles S by W of 
Comrie, is bounded or traversed for J mile by the Water 
of Ruchill. 

The line of junction between the clay slate and the 
Old Red sandstone passes north-eastward from Glen- 
artney to Glenturret; and both slate and sandstone 
have been quarried. The soil of the low grounds is 
light, gravelly, and fertile ; that of the hills is much of 
it moorish. Barely 3500 acres are in tillage ; about 
2400 are under wood ; and the rest of the parish is 
pastoral or waste. Much of the woodland is natural 
forest ; and, as an old song tells, the oak is a favourite 
tree : — 

' By Auchert^Te there grows the aik.' 

The remains of Castle Cluggy, comprising a tower 18 
feet square within the walls, stand on a gentle rising- 
ground, which runs into the middle of Ochtertyre Lake, 
and must anciently have been an island, or nearly so, 
accessible only in one place by a drawbridge. Formerly 
of much greater extent than now, the castle is tradi- 
tionally said to have belonged to the Red Comyn, the 
rival of Bruce, who here, about 1306, besieged Malise, 
Earl of Strathearn. It is called ' an ancient fortalice ' 
in a charter of the year 1467 ; and it was inhabited for 
some time about the middle of the 17th century bjf Sir 
William Murray, first baronet of Ochtertyre. Towards 
the head of the lake is an artificial crannoge. An 
ancient castle of the Earls of Strathearn stood on the 
summit of Tomachaistel, a beautiful eminence 3 miles 
W of Crieff, commanding very romantic prospects, and 
possessing the greatest capabilities of military defence 
in days before the invention of gunpowder. The foun- 
dations of this castle were still visible in 1832, when 
they were removed to give place to a monument in 
memory of General Sir David Baird of Feen-Towek 
(1757-1829), the hero of Seringapatam. This monument 
still is a conspicuous feature in the general landscape of 
Upper Strathearn, thougli the damage caused by a 
thunderbolt in 1878 has not yet been restored. It is 
an obelisk 82 feet high, an exact imitation of Cleopatra's 
Needle, and is formed of blocks of Aberdeen granite, 
some of them weighing 5 tons each. In 1511 eight 
score of the Murrays, with their wives and children, 
60 



MOONZIE 

were massacred by a body of Drummonds and Campbells, 
the former having taken refuge in the heather-thatched 
church of Monzievaird, while the latter, who were at 
feud with them, set fire to the church, and prevented 
their escape from the flames. The mausoleum of the 
Murrays of Ochtertyre now stands on the site of the 
church, and is a Gothic building of 1809, with stained- 
glass windows. On the estate of Ochtertyre are vestiges 
of two Roman posts of observation, commanding views 
of the camps at Dalginross and on the Moor of Orchil. 
Many sepulchral cairns near the Earn have been 
removed as material for stone fences ; but a very large 
one, called Cairn Chainichin, * the monumental heap of 
Kenneth,' still exists, and is supposed to have been 
raised to the memory of Kenneth, King of Alban, who 
was slain at ' Moeghavard ' in 1004. Vestiges of a pre- 
Reformation chapel exist to the S of Lawers House ; and 
an ancient cross, bearing the sacred initials I. N. E. I., 
stands a little to the SW of Strowan, on a spot where 
markets used to be held. Among distinguished natives 
may be mentioned the two Colonels Campbell of Lawers, 
who figured in the 16th and 17tli centuries ; Colonel 
Alex. Dow (d. 1779), author of a History of Hindostan ; 
Sir Patrick Murray (1771-1837), judge and statesman ; 
and Sir George Murray (1772-1846), quarter-master- 
general to the British army throughout the Peninsular 
War, and afterwards statesman and cabinet minister. 
Mansions, noticed separately, are Clathiok, Lawees, 
OoHTEETYEE, and Steowan. Giving off portions to 
Comrie and West Church (Crieff), this parish is in the 
presbytery of Auchterarder and the synod of Perth and 
Stirling ; the living is worth £265. The old church of 
Monzievaird (Gael. monadh-a-Niaird, 'the bard's hill ') 
was dedicated to St Serf, and that of Strowan to St 
Ronan or Rowan, whence the name Strowan itself. 
Both were in use on alternate Sundays till 1804, when 
the present church was built, containing 400 sittings. 
The public school, with accommodation for 134 chil- 
dren, had (1883) an average attendance of 68, and a 
grant of £81, 12s. Valuation (1865) £10,502, (1884) 
£11,613, Is. 2d. Pop. (1801) 1033, (1831) 926, 
(1861) 782, (1871) 744, (1881) 700, of whom 547 were 
in the ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., shs. 47, 39, 
1869. 

Moodiesburn, a village in Cadder parish, Lanarkshire, 
6^ miles ENE of Glasgow, and 1^ mile NE of Garnkirk 
station. 

Moonzie, a very small parish of N Fife, whose church 
stands 3 mUes NW of the post-town, Cupar. It is 
Ijounded W and NW by Creich, NE by Kilmany, SE 
by Cupar, and SW by Monimail. Its utmost length, 
from NNW to SSE, is 2 miles ; its utmost breadth is Ij 
mile ; and its area is 1257| acres. Sinking to less than 
200 feet above sea-level along tlie boundaries, and rising 
to 453 feet near the church and 430 at Colluthie Hill, 
the surface presents a pleasing diversity of hill and dale. 
A considerable loch or marsh on Lordscairnie farm was 
drained about the beginning of the century ; and 
Moonzie Burn, issuing from what was once its bed, runs 
eastward to the river Eden's estuary. Trap tufa is the 
])redomiuant rock. A few acres on the top of CoUuthie 
Hill are under plantation ; about 36 acres on Lordscairnie 
farm are reclaimed moss, under the plough ; and all the 
rest of the parish has excellent soil, partly a strong clay, 
chiefly a black loam, and is in a state of high cultiva- 
tion. An interesting antiquity is Lordscairnie or 'Earl 
Beardie's ' Castle. This is said to have been built about 
the middle of the 15th century by Alexander, fourth 
Earl of Crawford, commonly called ' Earl Beardie ' from 
his great beard, or the ' Tiger Earl ' from the fierceness 
of his disposition. All that remains of it is the keep 
or donjon, and a round tower which formed a defence 
for the wall that surrounded the courtyard. This ruin 
is four stories high, and appears to have lost nothing of 
its original height, with the exception of the bartizans. 
It is 53 feet long and 42 broad without the walls. The 
walls are strongly built, and between five and six feea 
thick. The ground-floor — as is common in such struc- 
tures — appears to have been wholly occupied by cellars 



MOOBBECK 



MORAY FIRTH 



liaving arched stone roofs. The second floor was 
occupied entirely with the great hall, wliich is 40 feet 
long and over 20 feet broad. The defence of the castle 
and its outworks was anciently strengthened by a broad 
morass, which appears to have entirely surrounded the 
slight rising ground on which they were situated. 
CoLLUTHiE, noticed separately, is the only mansion ; 
and the Earl of Glasgow divides the parisli with two 
lesser proprietors. Moonzie is in the presbytery of 
Cupar and the synod of Fife ; the living is worth £225. 
The church, which from its elevated position serves as a 
landmark to mariners entering the Firth of Tay, is a 
small old building, containing 171 sittings, and greatly 
improved by extensive repairs in 1 SS2. Although it were 
impossible to ascertain the exact date of the present 
structure, there can be no doubt as to its great antiquity. 
The church and teinds of the parish of Moonzie were 
gifted in 12.38 by Bishop Malvoisin to a religious frater- 
nity at Scotlandwell in Kinross-shii'e. About 1564 
Moonzie was conjoined with Cupar, but this arrange- 
ment lasted only a few years, after which it was again 
made a separate parish. After the Eevolution, we find 
it stated in the Kirk Session records, that, when the 
minister was 'outed,' the great hall of Earl Beardie's 
castle was fitted up as a meeting-place for him and his 
adherents ; and in 1693 'the Session appoynts that the 
seats now standing in the meeting-house at [Lords-] 
Cairnie be transported with all con veniency to the Kirk. ' 
The public school, with accommodation for 54 children, 
had (1883) an average attendance of 40, and a grant of 
£49, 5s. Valuation (1866) £2338, 4s. 3d., (1884) £2614, 
7s. Pop. (1801) 201, (1831) 188, (1861) 179, (1871) 154, 
<1S81) lis.— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Moorbeck, a hamlet on the coast of Cummertrees 
parish, Dumfriesshire, 2f miles SW of Annan. 

Moorfoot, a double range of moorish hills, chiefly on 
the eastern part of the southern border of Edinburgh- 
shire, and partly on the mutual border of Edinburgh and 
Peebles shires. Commencing on the W side of the head 
of the vale of Gala Water, and hindered only by that 
vale from being continuous with the Lammermuirs, it 
extends south-westward in two mutually divergent lines 
to the E flank of the vale of Eddleston. With a 
roughly triangular outline, about 10 miles in length 
and 6 in mean breadth, it comprises masses and sum- 
mits, generally rounded, sometimes isolated, and no- 
where linked into continuous ridge ; culminates in 
Blaokhope Scar (2136 feet) ; consists of Lower Silurian 
rocks ; and has mostly a bleak and pastoral character. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 32, 24, 1857-64. 

Moorhouse. See Eaglesham. 

Moorkirk. See Muirkirk. 

Moor of Ord, etc. See Okd, etc. 

Moral Fall. See Enrick. 

Morange. See Inveeaven. 

Moranside. See Muiravonside. 

Morar, a territorial district and a lake of W Inverness- 
shire. The district is bounded N by Loch Nevis, E 
by the district of Lochiel, S by Arasaig, and W by the 
Sound of Sleat. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 19 
mUes ; and its breadth varies between 4 and 9. Loch 
Morar bisects a great part of it lengthwise, and divides 
it into two nearly equal sections, which are called re- 
spectively North and South Morar. The lake, which is 
llf miles long and from 5 furlongs to If mile broad, is 
overhung nearly all round, and, at a very brief distance, 
by water-shedding Highland heights. Its foot is 'very 
prettily wooded — a pleasant contrast to the wildeV 
scenery of the upper end. The shore here is much 
indented ; and there are two or three pictm-esque 
islands, on the largest of which, in the hollow of a 
tree, Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, found a hiding-place 
in June 1746.' On the E Loch Morar is fed by 
streamlets coming from the lochlets Beoraich and 
Anamack ; and it discharges its superfluence on the W 
by a stream of only a few furlongs in length into a small 
bay. Its waters contain good store of salmon, sea-trout, 
and loch trout. North Morar belongs to the parish of 
Glenelg, South Morar to that of Ardnamurchan ; and 



both are included, in a large sense, in the comprehensive 
district of Lochaber. Morar is mainly peopled by 
Roman Catholics ; and in 1837 was provided, by volun- 
tary subscription, with a new Roman Catholic chapel at 
Bracara. Morar, 43 miles WNW of Fort William, is tlie 
seat of Eneas Ronald Macdouell, Esq. (b. 1822), who 
holds 3000 acres in Inverness-shire, valued at £671 per 
annum. See an article by Capt. T. P. White on p. 
634 of Good Words (1874). 

Moray Firth, the largest and most regular arm of the 
sea indenting the coast of Scotland, and the largest 
opening on the E coast of Great Britain. Taking it 
in its widest sense it may be roughly described as a 
triangle with one angle at Dunoansbay Head in 
Caithness ; another at Cairnbulg Point, 3 miles E of 
Kinnaied's Head, in Aberdeenshire ; and the third at 
the mouth of the Beauly river. From Duncansbay 
Head to Cairnbulg Point across the mouth of the Firth 
the distance in a straight line is 78J miles, while, in a 
straight line, the distance from Duncansbay Head to the 
mouth of the Beauly is 96 miles, and from the mouth of 
the Beauly to Cairnbulg Point 95 miles. The coast-line 
along the NW side — which is bounded by the counties 
of Caithness, Sutherland, and Ross — is considerably 
broken, first by Sinclair Bay N of Wick, next by the 
Dornoch Firth, and again by the Cromarty Firth. 
The coast-line on the S — which is formed by the 
counties of Inverness, Nairn, Elgin, Banff, and Aber- 
deen — is much evener, the largest breaks being at 
Burghead Bay and Spey Bay. The principal rivers 
flowing directly into the firth are the Wick and Beeeie- 
DALE from Caithness, the Heljisdale and Brora from 
Sutherland, the Beauly and Ness from Inverness-shire, 
the Nairn from Nairnshire, the Findhorn, Lossie, and 
Spey from Elginshire, and the Deveron from Banfi'shire. 
The depth near the mouth is about 60 fathoms at the 
deepest part. All along the bottom of the firth near 
the centre is a deep trough or channel known among the 
fishermen as the 'Trink' — i.e., Trench. Its width and 
depth vary, but where the bottom is not rocky the 
hollow is about J mile wide and sinks to a depth ol 
some 15 fathoms below the ordinary bottom level. 
Where it passes through rocks the sides become more or 
less perpendicular and the channel narrower. It marks 
the former course of a large river, which must — in the 
pleistocene period of British history when the country 
was united to the Continent — have had its main source 
in the Beauly, and which, after receiving all the 
present rivers of the firth as tributaries, flowed NW to 
join an enormous stream which, formed by the joint 
waters of all the rivers that now flow into the North 
Sea, poured its mighty volume into the Atlantic Ocean 
to the NE of the Shetland Islands. At the bottom of 
the Trink there is a thick deposit of mud, and in some 
places it is a favourite habitat for skate and ling. The 
waters of the firth abound with fish, and the coasts are 
studded with small fishing villages, while Wick, Helms- 
dale, Banfi' and Macdutfj and Fraserburgh are four of 
the chief stations in the north for the prosecution of the 
herring-fishing by first-class boats. Of the 26 fishery 
districts into which Scotland is divided the Moray Firth 
has the 6 entire districts of Banff', Buckie, Findhorn, 
Cromarty, Helmsdale, and Lybster, and portions of 
Fraserburgh and Wick. As regards general fishing, in 
1882 out of a total of 5101 first-class, 4423 second-class, 
and 5449 third-class boats, or a total of 14,973 boats in 
all the fishery districts of Scotland, 2305 first-class, 487 
second-class, and 717 third-class boats, or a total of 3509 
belonged to Moray Firth ports ; Avhile of a total of 
99,396 persons employed in connection therewith, 29,171 
were employed among the Moray Firth villages ; and 
the value of the boats, nets, and lines was calculated at 
respectively £230,732, £261,082, and £37,254, out of 
totals for all Scotland of £646,883, £711,039, and 
£114,278. The large increase, proportionally, in the 
value is due to the fact that by far the larger number of 
the Moray Firth boats are of the first-class, the total being 
2305 out of 5101 for all Scotland. Of 1,282,9734 barrels 
of herring caught and cured in Scotland in the same year, 

61 



MORAY. PROVINCE OF 

289,292 barrels were brought into Moray Firth ports, 
the smaller proportion being explained bj' the number 
of boats that leave the district to fish at other stations. 
Of 3,666,596 cod, ling, and hake caught in 1882— of 
■which, however, 2,039,174 are from Shetland alone — 
262,303 were brought into ports along this coast. 

The description and limits already given applies to the 
firth in its widest extent, but the name is sometimes 
more particularly confined to that portion which lies to 
the SW of a line drawn from Tarbetness in Ross-shire 
to Stotfield Head near Lossiemouth in Elginshire. This 
inner portion of the firth measures 21 miles along the 
line just mentioned, and 89 miles in a straight line 
thence to the mouth of the Beauly river. It consists 
of three portions, the outer running up as far as the 
projecting points of Chanonry (Ross) and Ardersier 
(Inverness), and forming a triangle 21 miles across the 
mouth, 23 in a straight line along the Ross-shire 
side, and 32 in a straight line along the Inverness-shire, 
Nairnshire, and Elginshire side. The points just men- 
tioned project about IJ mile beyond the general 
line of the coast on each side and overlap one another, 
but so as to leave a passage at right angles to the main 
line of the firth and f mile wide. This strait gives 
admission to the much shallower portion known as the 
Inner Moray Firth or Firth of Inverness, extending 
from Fort George 8 miles south-westward to the mouth 
of the Ness, with an average breadth of from 2J to 3 
miles, with Munloehy Bay running oif on the NW side 
and Petty Bay on the SE side. Immediately to the W 
of the mouth of the Ness the waters of the firth are 
narrowed by the projecting point at Kessock to 650 
yards, but they broaden out again into the Beauly 
Firth, which extends westward for 64 miles, with a 
breadth of from IJ to 2 miles. This portion of the 
firth is very shallow, and nearly the half of its whole 
area is laid bare at low water. The fishing in the Inver- 
ness and Beauly basins is very poor except as regards 
the capture of garvies or sprats, which are found there 
in immense numbers, about 10,000 crans being sent to 
the south markets every year. The three portions of 
the firth just described correspond to the ^stuariwm 
Vararis of the ancient geographers. 

The coast-line along the firth varies considerably. 
From Duncansbay Head to Helmsdale, on both sides of 
the Cromarty Firth, between Burghead and Lossie- 
mouth, between Buckie and Banff, and along a con- 
siderable portion of the Aberdeenshire coast, it is rocky, 
but elsewhere low. It is well cultivated, and the reaches 
to the W of Fort George are finely wooded. 

Moray, Province of, an extensive district lying to the 
S of the inner portion of the firth just described. It is 
almost co-extensive with one of the seven provinces into 
which, during the Celtic period, we find the whole of 
modern Scotland divided. The northern boundary was 
the Moray Firth and the river Beault as far as KiL- 
MOEACK ; from this point the line passed to the S along 
the watershed between Glen Farrar and the streams 
flowing to Loch Ness. After rounding the upper end of 
Glen Clunie it turned eastward along the watershed 
between Glen Loyne and Glen Garry, and between the 
river Garry and the streams flowing to the river Oich ; 
then SE by the lower end of Loch Lochy, as far as the 
SW end of Loch Laggan, aud on to Beinn Chumbann, 
whence it followed the line between the modern counties 
of Inveeness and Perth, by Loch Ericht, the Athole 
Sow, and Carn-na-Caim, to Cairn Ealar. From that hill 
it followed the boundary of Inveeness-shike and Banff- 
shire, along the Cairngorms, and down the Water of 
Ailnack. Here, however, it left the county boundaries 
and followed this stream to the Aven above Tomintoul, 
and then followed the course of the Aven to the Spey, 
and the latter river back to the Moray Firth. The 
province thus included within its limit the whole of the 
counties of Elgin and Nairn, the greater part of the 
mainland division of the county of Inverness, and a 
portion of the county of Banfil'. In later times the 
signification has sometimes been considered as rather 
co-extensive with the sway of the Bishop of Moray, and 
62 



MORAY, PROVINCE OF 

so with the jurisdiction of the modern synod, but this 
must hold true as applying more to ecclesiastical 
authority than to territorial limits. At one time the 
province must have stretched across the island from sea 
to sea, for, in one of the statutes of William the Lyon, 
Ergadia, i.e., Arregaithel, or the whole district W of 
the watershed between the German Ocean and the 
Atlantic Ocean, and extending from Loch Broom on the 
N to Cantyre on the S, is divided into ' Ergadia, which 
belongs to Scotia, ' and ' Ergadia which belongs to 
Moravia. ' This part afterwards fell into the hands of 
the Earls of Ross. The Highland line, marking the 
division between the Highlands and the Lowlands, 
passed across the province in a general north-westerly 
direction from the junction of the Aven and Spey to the 
mouth of the river Nairn ; the part to the NE of this 
line being peopled with Lowlanders, who suffered con- 
tinually from thepeculiar ideas entertained by their High- 
land neighbours regarding meum and tuum. Peopled 
by an alien race, whose introduction will be noticed 
afterwards, greatly more peaceable, and less acquainted 
with the use of arms than the inhabitants of the High- 
land districts, the rich and fertile plain of Moray was 
regarded by the Highland Caterans as open and ever 
available spoilage ground, where every marauder might, 
at his convenience, seek his prey. So late in fact as the 
time of Charles I., the Highlanders continually made 
forays on the country, and seem to have encountered 
marvellously little resistance. In 1645 we find Cameron 
of Lochiel apologising to the laird of Grant for having 
carried off cattle from the tenant of Moyness, and giving 
the reasons that he 'knew not that Moyness was ane 
Graunt, but thocht that he was ane Moray man,' and 
that the spoilers did not intend to hurt the laird of 
Grant's friends but to take booty from 'Morray land 
quhare all men take their prey.' The Moray people, it 
has been remarked, appear to have resembled the quiet 
saturnine Dutch settlers of North America who, when 
plundered by the Pied Indians, were too fat either to 
resist or to pursue, and considered only how they might 
repair their losses ; and the Celts, looking on the Low- 
landers as strangers and intruders, thought them quite 
fair game, and could never comprehend how there could 
be any crime in robbing a ' Moray man. ' So late as 
1565, as appears from the rental of the church-lands in 
that year, the inhabitants of the ' laich ' remained 
entirely a distinct people from the Highlanders, and all 
bore names of purely lowland origin. Nearly all the 
interest of Moray as a province, and often all the 
associations of the name are connected with its lowlands 
in the N. These have long been famed for mildness- 
and dryness of climate, though the rivers that wind 
through them, having their sources among mountains 
high enough to arrest the moisture brought in from the 
Atlantic by the south-west winds, are sometimes liable 
to sudden freshets. The great floods of 1829, so admir- 
ably recorded in Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's The Moraij 
Floods, form an extreme example. Probably no part of 
Scotland, not even East Lothian, can compete with 
Moray in regard to the number of spontaneous testi- 
monies which have been borne to the richness of its 
soil. An old and common saying asserts that Moray 
has, according to some versions, 15, according to others, 
40 days more of summer than most other parts of Scot- 
land. Holinshed (practically an Anglicised form of 
Bellenden's translation of Boece's Chronicle) says, ' In 
Murrey land also is not onelie great plentie of wheat, 
barlie, otes, and suchlike graine, besides nuts and 
apples, but likewise of all kinds of fish, and especially 
of salmon.' George Buchanan extols the province as 
superior to any other district in the kingdom in the 
mildness of its climate and the richness of its pastures. 
' So abundant, ' he says, ' is this district in corn and 
pasturage, and so much beautified as well as enriched 
by fruit trees, that it may truly be pronounced the 
first county in Scotland.' Whitelock, in Cromwell's 
time, says, 'Ashfield's I'egiment was marched into 
Murray-land, which is the most fruitful country in 
Scotland.' William Lithgow (1583-1645), after glancing 



MOEAT, PROVINCE OF 

at Clydcstlale and tlio Carse of Gowric, says, ' The third 
most beautiful soil is the delectable plain of Moray, 
whose comely gardens, enriched with comes, plantings, 
pasturage, stately dwellings, overfaced with a generous 
Octavian gentry, and toped with a noble Earl, its chief 
patron, may be called a second Lombardy, or pleasant 
meadow of the north.' Sir Robert Gordon of Straloch, 
describing the province in 1640, says, ' In salubrity of 
climate, Moray is not inferior to any, and in richness and 
fertility of soil it much exceeds our other northern pro- 
vinces. The air is so temperate, that when all around 
is bound up in the rigour of winter, there are neither 
lasting snows nor such frosts as damage fruits or trees. 
Thereis no product of this kingdom which does not thrive 
there perfectly, or, if any fail, it is to be attributed to the 
sloth of the inhabitants, not to the fault of the soil or 
climate. Corn, the earth pours forth in wonderful and 
never-failing abundance. Fruits of all sorts, herbs, 
flowers, pulse are in the greatest plenty, and all early. 
While harvest has scarcely begun in surrounding dis- 
tricts, there all is ripe and cut down, and carried into 
open barnyards, as is the custom of the country ; and, 
in comparison with other districts, winter is hardly felt. 
The earth is almost always open, the sea navigable, and 
the roads never stopped. So much of the soO is occupied 
by crops of corn, however, that pasture is scarce ; for 
this whole district is devoted to corn and tillage. But 
pasture is found at no great distance, and is abundant 
in the upland country, and a few miles inland ; and 
thither the oxen are sent to graze in summer when the 
labour of the season is over. Nowhere is there better 
meat nor cheaper corn, not from scarcity of money but 
from the abundance of the soil.' Notwithstanding, 
however, this fertility, years of comparative scarcity 
were by no means infrequent. During the summer of 
1743, 'the dear year,' so memorable all over Scotland, 
thousands of the people of Moray wandered among the 
fields devouring sorrel, the leaves and stems of unfilled 
pulse, and whatever could mitigate the pangs of hunger, 
while many died of actual starvation or diseases brought 
on by want of food. Even so late as 1782, the noted 
year of the 'frosty har'st,' or harvest, the province 
sufiered severely from famine. When the era of agri- 
cultural improvement set in, and many districts, becom- 
ing aware of their poverty, made a sudden and strenuous 
movement towards wealth, Moray was content to live on 
its fame, and so soon lost its pre-eminence, which it has, 
however, since regained, as may be seen from the notices 
of the agricultural condition of the counties of Elgin, 
Nairn, and Inverness. Some portions were long rendered 
barren by a curious layer known as ' Moray Coast ' or 
'Pan.' This was a thin stratum of sand and gravel 
which, by the infiltration of black oxide of iron, had 
become a hard compact mass, capable of damaging 
ploughs when brought into contact with it. It at the 
same time occurs at the distance of about a foot from 
the surface, and offers unconquerable resistance to the 
attempts of trees or shrubs to penetrate it with their 
roots. The only method of dealing with it is to lay it 
bare, break it up with a pickaxe, and expose the frag- 
ments to the slow influence of the weather. The 
physical characteristics and present condition of the 
province are discussed in the articles on the counties of 
Inverness, Elgin, Nairn, and Banff, and it remains here 
to notice historical details connected rather with the 
district as a whole than with the individual counties 
into which it has been broken up. 

At the beginning of the Christian era we find the 
eastern part of Moray inliabited by the Vacomagi, to 
the W of whom were the Caledonii with, according to 
Ptolemy, a town called Banatia, on the E side of the 
river Ness ; another called Ptoroton, on the promon- 
tory where Burghead now stands ; and a third called 
Tuessis, on the bank of the Spey : and subsequently we 
find the district included in Northern Pictavia, of 
which the capital was situated somewhere near Inver- 
ness. The Pictish nation seems to have been formed 
by a union of various Celtic tribes or ticatlis which 
united to form mortuaths or confederations, and these 



MORAY, PROVINCE OF 

mortuaths again to form a larger confederation embrac- 
ing the whole realm. The mortuaths were governed by 
Mormaers, and seem to have corresponded to the dis- 
tricts that afterwards became the provinces governed by 
the original great territorial Earls of Scotland. That 
the country N of the Firths of Forth and Clyde was, 
during the Celtic period of its history, divided into 
seven provinces is certain, and there are, in the older 
records, accounts of them by name. One dating from 
the 12th century teUs us that the region formerly known 
as Alban, was divided by seven brothers into seven 
parts. ' The principal part was Engus and Moerne, so- 
called from Engus, the eldest of the brothers. The 
second part was Adtheodhle and Gouerin. The third 
Strathdeern and Meneted. The fourth Fif and Fothreve. 
The fifth Mar and Buchen. The sixth Muref and Ros. 
The seventh Cathanesia Cismontane and Ultramontane.' 
The seven brothers were the seven kings of these dis- 
tricts, and are regarded by Dr Skene as the Eponymi of 
the people of the seven provinces. The tuaths them- 
selves seem to have corresponded with the smaller 
divisions that appear as thanages, and so we may identify 
the localities of some of them by the thanedoms of Dyke, 
Brodie, Moyness, and Cawdor, along the shore of the 
Moray Firth between the river Nairn and the Burn of 
Lethen ; the great district of Moravia proper between 
the Lethen and the Lossie ; and along the Lossie farther 
E was Kilmalemnock, the greater part of which now 
forms the parish of St Andrews-Lhanbryd and Essy. 
Cromdale and Rothiemurchus seem also to have been 
thanedoms. The Mormaers were also styled Ri or 
King, and one, termed the Ardri, always held a loose 
sway over all. The succession was tanistic, that is, 
hereditary in a family but elective as to the person, the 
senior male capable of ruling being chosen in preference 
to the direct descendant ; and it seems even to have 
been regulated by that particular form where the 
supreme power passed alternately from one to the other 
of two branches of a family. It will be seen from what 
has been said already, that at this early date Moray 
and Ross were united and formed but one province. 
The oldest form of the name seems Moreb or Muireb, 
and Morovia and Moravia also occur. 

In the latter jiart of the 9th century Harald Harfager 
having swept the northern seas of the Vikings, made 
offer of the Jarldom of Orkney to one of his most noted 
warriors Rognvald, who, however, preferring to return 
to Norway, obtained Harald's consent to making over 
the dignity and dominion to his brother Sigurd. Though 
the tenure of the Jarldom was conditional on his sup- 
pression of Viking plundering, this ruler seems to have 
had somewhat elastic notions as to how far this was 
binding in the case of raids made on other countries 
than Norway, and cons