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18 8 5. 





hath now of late built in Pettie called Castell Stuart, 
they drive away his servants from thence, and doe 
possess themselves of all the Earl of Moray his rents in 
Pettie.' This date is also borne out by the style of the 
building, a large high-roofed structure of several stories, 
with the great hall and principal rooms in the upper 
part. In front there is a square projecting tower at each 
end. That to the W, which contains the main staircase, 
seems somewhat older than the rest of the building. 
Formerly the castle was surrounded by a fine park and 
an orchard noted for its greens ; but the trees were all 
cut down about 1835, the park ploughed up, and the 
roof of the building removed, so that had not the pro- 
prietor's attention been called to it the whole would soon 
have been a ruin. It was then repaired, and is now 
used as a shooting-box. Lying close to the clan grounds 
and in possession of the Earls of Moray, whom the 
Highlanders looked on as foes, Petty was much exposed 
to inroads for plunder. One such attack has been 
already noticed, and other two that occurred early in 
the 16th century are known as the ' Herschips of Petty.' 
The first was in 1502, when Sir James Dunbar of Cum- 
nock, and his brother, David Dunbar of Durris, 'and 
thar complicis spulyet the landis of Petty and Geddes,' 
as well as of ' Halhill, the Fischertone and Hurlehurst,' 
though for what reason does not seem certain. Eliza- 
beth, the daughter of Sir James Dunbar, was married to 
John Ogilvie of Strathnairn, who resided at Halhill 
Castle (which is by some supposed to have stood on the 
site of the present Castle Stuart, but by others is placed, 
with more probability, on the rising ground near the 
centre of the sea coast of the parish, at the school), which 
was, in 1513, the scene of the second herschip of Petty, 
the leaders of the plunderers on this occasion being the 
captain of Clan Mackintosh and Rose of Kilravock. 
Behind Castle Stuart is the church of Petty, and on the 
bank to the W of it are two large tumuli or moat hills. 
In the churchyard many of the chiefs of Mackintosh lie 
buried, and the procession at the funeral of Lachlan 
Mackintosh, who died in 1731, reached from Dalcross 
Castle to the churchyard, a distance by road of about 
4 miles. In the Bay of Petty close at hand is the 
famous boulder known as 'the travelled stone of Petty. ' 
It is from 6 to 7 feet long, from 5 to 6 feet wide, and 
about 6 feet high, and with a projecting ledge all round 
it near the lower side. It originally served as a march 
stone between the properties of the Earl of Moray and 
Forbes of Culloden, but was, during the month of Febru- 
ary 1799, moved about 260 yards to the WNW. A 
severe frost during that month had caused an accumu- 
lation of about 18 inches of ice over most of the bay, 
and this, during the night of the 19th, was capable of 
lifting the mass of stone so as to allow it to be floated by 
the tide, aided by a powerful gale of wind, to its present 
position. (See a paper by Sir Thomas Dick Lauder 
in the Memoirs of the JVernerian Society, vol. iii. ) 
Anciently in the possession of the powerful northern 
family of De Moravia, the barony of Petty passed into 
the possession of the Earls of Moray till Archibald 
Douglas was forfeited in 1455, when it fell into the 
hands of the Crown. It was granted to Ogilvie of 
Findlater, who again disponed his interest to the Earl 
of Moray. The parish is traversed by the main road 
from Inverness to Nairn with a branch passing off at 
Newton near the SW end, and leading through the 
village of Campbeltown to the ferry at Fort George. 
The cross road from the SW end of Flemington Loch 
to Fort George is a portion of one of General "Wade's 
military roads, and there are a number of good district 
roads. Railway communication is obtained by the 
Forres and Inverness section of the Highland Railway 
system which passes through the centre of the parish 
from NE to SW with stations at Dalcross (6 J miles 
from Inverness) and at Fort George (9J miles from 
Inverness and 3 from the Fort itself). 

The parish contains a village of the same name near 

the church, and two small hamlets. Petty is in the 

presbytery of Inverness and synod of Moray, and is 

formed of the old parishes of Petyn and Bracholy, which 



were united after the Reformation, and the original 
church was dedicated to St Columba, and is said to 
have occupied the site of a Culdee cell. The present 
church, built in 1839, includes a portion of a previous 
church. The living is worth £384. The Free church 
is on the side of the road from Inverness to Forres, If 
mile E by N of the parish church. Two new public 
schools, East and West, with respective accommodation 
for 140 and 150 children, had (1884) an average attend- 
ance of 86 and 63, and grants of £61, 2s. and £30, 
12s. 4d. The Earl of Moray is the largest proprietor, 
and three others hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, one holds between £500 and £100, and 
one between £50 and £20. Valuation (1884) for the 
Inverness-shire section, £8164, 4s. 6d., and for the 
Nairnshire section £202, 12s. The reach of the High- 
land railway in the former is valued at £2026, and 
in the latter at £89. Pop. (1755) 1643, (1801) 1585, 
(1831) 1826, (1861) 1602, (1871) 1496, (1881) 1531, 
of whom 794 were females, and 807 Gaelic-speaking ; 
while 14S8 were in Inverness-shire, and 43 in Nairn- 
shire.— Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Pettycur. See Einghoen. 

Phantassie, an estate, with a mansion, in Prestonkirk 
parish, Haddingtonshire, i mile E by N of East Linton. 
It was the birthplace of George Rennie (1749-1828), the 
eminent agriculturist, and also of his brother John 
(1761-1821), the celebrated engineer. Its present 
owner, Thomas Shairp Mitchell-Innes, Esq. (b. 1813), 
holds 749 acres in the shire, valued at £2483 per 
annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Pharay, North, an island of Stronsay and Eday 
parish, Orkney, 7 furlongs W of Eday island, from 
which it is separated by the Sound of Pharay. It has 
an utmost length, from N by W to S by E, of 1J mile ; 
and an utmost breadth of J mile. A pastoral islet, the 
Holm of Pharay (6£ x 2 furl.), J mile to the N, is sepa- 
rated from it by Lavey Sound. Pop. (1841) 67, (1861) 
82, (1871) S3, (1881) 72. 

Pharay, South, an island of Walls and Flotta parish, 
Orkney, 4J furlongs E of Hoy, Z\ NW of Flotta, and 
8J S of Cava. It has an utmost length from NNW to 
SSE of lg mile, an utmost width of 74 furlongs, and a 
maximum altitude of 139 feet above sea-level. Pop. 
(1841) 55, (1861) 45, (1871) 53, (1881) 68. 

Philiphaugh, a mansion in Selkirk parish, Selkirk- 
shire, near the left bank of Yarrow Water, a little above 
its influx to the Ettrick, 3 miles WSW of Selkirk 
town. In 1528 Patrick Murray of Falahill, the grand- 
son of the 'Outlaw Murray,' obtained a charter of the 
lands of Philiphaugh ; and his descendant, Sir John 
Forbes Pringle Murray, seventh Bart, since 1704 (b. 
1S42 ; sue. 18S2), holds 2799 acres, valued at £2335 
per annum. The flat diluvial plain between the house 
and the town is celebrated as the scene of Montrose's 
defeat by Leslie, on the morning of 13 Sept. 1645. 
Ettrick Water, just after the Yarrow's confluence, 
makes a gentle curve to the right, and, stealing along 
the base of a lofty bank on whose summit, at one point, 
stands the town of Selkirk, leaves on its left bank a 
beautiful haugh, 400 to 500 feet above sea-level, which 
extends north-eastward from a copse-clad eminence 
called Harehead Hill (1046 feet), to some high ground 
on the margin of the stream, a little below Selkirk. 
This plain is Philiphaugh ; it is about 1J mile in length, 
and J mile in mean breadth ; and being defended, on 
the one side, by the river with its bulwark -fashioned 
bank, and overhung, on the other, by a stretch of bold 
uplands, which intervene between the Yarrow and the 
Tweed, it possesses, naturally, and on a grand scale, 
many of the securities and conveniences which were 
desiderated by the Romans in their' camps. Montrose, 
after he had won six splendid victories over the Cove- 
nanters, was on his march southward to pour his 
conquering troops upon England, when Philiphaugh 
invited him to repose, and wooed him to destruction. 
Observing the advantageousness of the ground, he 
strengthened it with some trenches, and posted upon it 
his infantry, amounting to 1000 men ; and, seeing how 



near it stood to the town of Selkirk, he there quartered 
his 500 horse, and courted a night's freedom from a 
soldier's care. General Leslie, with his sturdy and high- 
spirited Covenanters, arrived at Melrose on the evening 
of Montrose's bivouac ; and, favoured next morning by 
a thick mist, he reached Philiphaugh, and was in 
position for the onslaught, before being descried by a 
single scout. Montrose was apprised of danger only by 
the yell which followed the tiger's leaping upon his 
prey ; he knew nothing of Leslie's vicinity till the 
rattle of musketry announced his activity in the encamp- 
ment ; and when he reached the scene of conflict, he 
beheld his army dispersed and fleeing in irretrievable 
panic and confusion. After making a bold stand, a 
desperate but unavailing attempt to recover his lost 
fortunes of the hour, he cut his way through a body of 
Leslie's troops, fled up Yarrow and over the wild and 
lofty mountain-path of Minehrnoor, and stopped not till 
he arrived at Traquair, 16 miles from the scene of action. 
His defeat produced at once conclusive advantages to 
the Covenanters, and ruin to the hapless cause of 
Charles I. in Scotland. Upwards of a mile SW of the 
present farm-stead of Philiphaugh, and overhanging the 
Yarrow immediately above its confluence with the 
Ettrick, there are still traces of an entrenchment thrown 
up by Montrose. Two miles farther up the Yarrow, 
close to the ruin of Newark Castle, is a field called 
Slain-man's-lee, in which tradition says the Covenanters, 
a day or two after the fight, put many of their prisoners 
to death. In Selkirk the house is still standing which 
was occupied by Montrose on the night of his ill-judged 
security. And in the centre of the battlefield is a small 
obelisk, inscribed, ' To the memory of the Covenanters 
who fought and fell on the field of Philiphaugh, and 
won the battle there, 1645.'— Ord. Sicr., sh. 25, 1865. 

Philipstoun, a village in the W of Abercorn parish, 
Linlithgowshire, 3 miles E by N of Linlithgow. To 
the NE of it is Philipstoun House, the residence of 
Lieut. -Col. James Hare of Calder Hall (b. 1836 ; sue. 
1878), the Earl of Hopetoun's factor, who holds 2373 
acres in Midlothian, valued at £4181 per annum. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Philorth, a mansion in Fraserburgh parish, NE Aber- 
deenshire, 2 miles S by E of the town. What looks to 
be the oldest part of it bears date 1666 ; but additions 
and alterations have been made from time to time, the 
latest in 1874. There are some fine old hardwood trees 
around the house, and extensive plantations have been 
formed in the course of the last hundred years. The 
estate has belonged to the Frasers since the latter half 
of the 14th century ; and a prophecy, falsely ascribed 
to Thomas the Rhymer, predicts that — 

' As lang as there '3 a Cock o' the North, 
There '11 he a Fraser in Philorth.' 

In 1669 Sir Alexander Fraser of Philorth succeeded his 
cousin, Alexander Abernethy, as tenth Lord Saltoun ; 
and his descendant, Alexander Fraser, present and 
seventeenth Baron Saltoun since 1445 (b. 1820 ; sue. 
1853), holds 10,082 acres in the shire, valued at 
£10,967 per annum. See Fraserburgh and Salton. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 97, 1876. 

Phladda. See Fladda. 

Physgill, a good old mansion, with fine plantations 
and some grand old trees, in Glasserton parish, SE 
"Wigtownshire, 2 miles SSW of Whithorn. 

Picts' Work Ditch. See Catrail. 

Piehills, a village in Ruthwell parish, Dumfriesshire, 
SI miles WNW of Annan. 

Pierceton. See Perceton. 

Piershill Barracks. See Jock's Lodge. 

Pike Fell. See Ewes. 

Piltanton Burn. See Leswalt. 

Pinkie, an estate, with a mansion, in Inveresk parish, 
Edinburghshire, at the E end of the town of Mussel- 
burgh. Forming two sides of a quadrangle, Pinkie 
House is a chateau-like building of various dates. Its 
older part, a massive square tower, with picturesque 
corner turrets, was originally a country seat of the Abbots 


of Dunfermline ; and, so passing to Alexander Seton, 
first Earl of Dunfermline, by him was enlarged, repaired, 
and decorated in 1613. One may notice its noble 
' Painted Gallery, ' 96 feet long, whose roof is adorned 
with heraldic and mythological emblems in blue and 
red and gold ; the so-called ' King's Room ; ' and a lofty 
chamber, its roof decorated with pendants, which is 
said to have been occupied by Prince Charles Edward 
on the night after Prestonpans. Among numerous por- 
traits is one by Jameson of Sir Thomas Hope of Craig- 
hall. In front of the house is a lofty stone fountain of 
fine and elaborate architecture ; and around it are 
beautiful old-fashioned gardens. The Princes Henry 
and Charles are said to have spent three years of their 
boyhood at Pinkie House. On the death of the fourth 
and last Earl of Dunfermline (1694), the estate passed 
to the first Marquess of Tweeddale, and by the sixth 
Marquess was sold in 1778 to Sir Archibald Hope of 
Craighall, Bart., whose descendant, Sir John David 
Hope, thirteenth Bart, since 1628 (b. 1809 ; sue. 1883), 
holds 961 acres in the shire, valued at £3437 per 
annum. See vol. iv. of Billings' Baronial Antiquities 
of Scotland (1 852 )> and vol. ii. of Small's Castles and 
Mansions of the Lothians (1883). 

The battle of Pinkie arose out of an invasion of Scot- 
land, in 1547, during the infancy of Queen Mary, by 
the Protector Somerset. News having arrived that an 
English army of 12,000 foot and 2000 horse was at 
Newcastle on its march to Scotland, a Scottish army of 
30,000 men was hastily mustered to take post on 
Edmonston Edge, 2| miles SW of Musselburgh, to stop 
the invaders and protect the capital. Somerset, on 
coming up, was supported by a fleet of 30 ships of war, 
and 30 transports laden with ammunition and pro- 
visions, lying in the firth opposite the mouth of the 
Esk ; and, drawing up his army on Falside Brae, 1£ 
mile E of Musselburgh, he extended his right over the 
grounds of Walliford and Drummore towards the sea. 
The Scottish position being too strong to admit of his 
assailing it, he firmly maintained his post, and awaited 
an attack. A body of the Scotch horse, 1500 strong, 
rushed down upon him on the 9th of September, at 
Edgebucklin Brae, at the E end of Musselburgh links, 
and threw away a great part of their strength in a use- 
less skirmish ; and all the rest of the Scottish army, 
under delusive notions on the part of their leaders, left 
their strong position next day, and denied along the 
old bridge of Musselburgh, to close with the English on 
the E bank of the Esk. As they passed the bridge, and 
marched up the hill of Inveresk on the W side of the 
church, they were galled by cannon-shot from the 
English galleys in the bay, and lost the Master of 
Graham, eldest son of the first Earl of Montrose, and 
many of his followers. Descending eastward down a 
slope, they began to be sheltered from the shot, and, 
passing through the How Mire, which lies at the foot 
of the slope, and was then a morass, though now drained 
and cultivated, they saw the English army and the 
battlefield immediately before them, on a gently hang- 
ing plain which recedes from the How to the base of 
Carberry HiU and Falside Brae. The conflict which 
followed was tremendous, but had too many details, and 
is too well-known, to admit or to need minute narration. 
After four hours' sternly debated and general conflict, 
during which the Scots won achievements, but could 
not profit by them for want of sufficient horse, and the 
English could make no impression with their cavalry 
on the hedges of pointed spears which enclosed the 
antagonist foot battalions, the van of the Scots was 
somewhat driven in by a concentrated attack, and a 
body of Highlanders, who had forgotten their duty to 
plunder the bodies of the slain, mistook the retrograde 
movement for flight, flung down their arms, took to 
their heels, infected the Lowlanders with their panic, 
and drew the whole army after them in an indiscriminate 
race. The Scots ran towards the coast, towards Dal- 
keith, and towards Edinburgh ; and in each direction 
they were hotly pursued by the English, antl hewn 
down in vast numbers. ' With blode and slaughter ot 


ye imemie,' says Patten, 'this chase was continued v 
miles in length westward fro the place of their stand- 
inge, which was in ye fallow feldes of Undreske, untille 
Edinborowe parke, and well nigh to the gates of the 
toune itself, and unto Lyeth ; and in breadth nie nil 
mile from the fryth sandes up unto Daketh south warde: 
in nil whiche space the dead bodies lay as thik as a man 
may meette cattell grasing in a full plenished pasture. 
They ryvere ran al red with blode ; soo that in the 
same chase wear counted, as well by sum of our men 
that sumwhat diligently did maike it, as by sum of 
them take prisoners that very much did lament it, to 
have been slayne above xin thousande. In all thys 
cumpos of grounde, what with weapons, amies, handes, 
legges, heddes, blode, and dead bodyes, their flight 
mought have easily been tracted to every of their in 
refuges. ' Anotheraccount — quite sufficiently exaggerated 
— states the loss of the Scots in killed at 10,000, and 
that of the English at not 200.— Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 

Pinmore, a mansion in Colmonell parish, Ayrshire, 6 
miles NE of Colmonell village, and near Pinmore station 
on the Girvan and Portpatrick railway (1876), this being 
5 miles S by E of Girvan. Seated on a rising-ground, 
at one of the loveliest bends of the river Stinchar, and 
surrounded by beautifully wooded hills, it was a Scottish 
Baronial edifice of the 16th and 17th centuries ; and, 
destroyed by fire in 1876, it was next year restored in a 
similar style of architecture. Its owner, Hugh Hamil- 
ton, Esq. (b. 1828 ; sue. 1836), holds 8441 acres in the 
shire, valued at £3833 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 7, 
1863. See A. H. Millar's Castles and Mansions of Ayr- 
shire (Edinb. 1885). 

Pinwherry. See Colmonell. 

Piper's Grave. See Dewar. 

Piper's Heugh. See Stevenston. 

Pirn, an estate, with a mansion, in Stow parish, 
Edinburghshire, on the right bank of Gala Water, 3 
miles NNW of Stow village. Remains of a Roman 
eanip are at Pirntaiton, 2 miles further NNW, near 
Fountainhall station. — Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Pitbladdo, an estate, with a mansion, in Cupar parish, 
Fife, 2 miles NNW of the town. 

Pitcairlie, an estate, with a mansion, in Newburgh 
parish, Fife, 2J miles N of Auchtermuchty. Its owner, 
.Robert Cathcart, Esq. (b. 1833 ; sue. 1857), holds 1050 
■icres in the shire, valued at £1643 per annum. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Pitcaixn (Gael, pitht-a-chaim, ' hollow of the cairn ') 
or Pitcairngreen, a village in Redgorton parish, Perth- 
shire, near the left bank of the Almond, 1J mile N of 
Almondbank station, and 4J miles by road N W of Perth, 
bounded towards the close of last century on the estate 
of Lord Lynedoch, and advantageously situated for 
neater power, it was predicted, in a poem by Mrs 
(3owley, to become a rival to Manchester, but has long 
•ceased, except for being associated with places near it 
in the works of a factory and two bleaching greens, to 
^ive promise of reaching any high destiny. Piteairn- 
f.eld, Bridgeton of Pitcairn, Cromwell Park, and Wood- 
end are villages near it ; and Pitcairnfield has bleaching 
•v.-orks, Cromwell Park has bleaching works and a factory, 
Dridgeton of Pitcairn has a U.P. church, and Pitcairn- 
green itself has a Free church and a public school. The 
tf.P. church was built in 1797, and contains 450 sit-' 
fengs. Pop. (1861) 345, (1871) 339, (1881) 301.— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Pitcairns, an estate, with a modern mansion, in Dun- 
ning parish, Perthshire, 5 furlongs ESE of Dunning 

Pitcaithly, a place, with mineral wells, in Dunharny 
parish, Perthshire, amid pleasant scenery, 1 mile SW of 
Bridge of Earn, and 4J miles S of Perth. The wells 
have been known for their medicinal properties from 
time immemorial, but were not scientifically noticed till 
li v 72. Five in number, they bear the name of the East, 
the AVest, the Spout, the Dunbarny, and the Southpark, 
arid have all the same properties, differing from one 
another only in the quantity or proportions of their saline 


ingredients. They are esteemed useful in scrofulous, 
herpetic, and scorbutic complaints, and in cases of 
dyspepsia and general debility. A gallon of the water of 
one of them, according to analysis by Professor Thomson 
of Glasgow, contains 155'28 grains of chloride of calcium, 
90'12 grains of common salt, 3"44 grains of chloride of 
magnesium, and 1213 grains of sulphate of lime; while 
a gallon of another contains 168 - 58 grains of chloride of 
calcium, 117 '84 grains of common salt, 4 '16 grains of 
chloride of magnesium, and 25 '92 grains of sulphate of 
lime. A large lodging-house, for the accommodation 
of visitors, stands beside the wells ; but Bridge of Earn 
is the favourite lodging place of visitors, and is daily 
supplied with water from the wells for their use. — Ord. 
Stir., sh. 48, 1868. 

Pitcaple, a village and a mansion in Chapel-of- 
Garioch parish, Aberdeenshire. The village standing 
near the right bank of the Ury, has a station on the 
Great North of Scotland railway, % mile WNW of 
Inveramsay Junction, 5 miles NW of Inverurie, and 
21 \ NW of Aberdeen, under which it has a post office, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments. The mansion, Pitcaple Castle, stands in the 
vicinity of the village between the railway and the Ury, 
and is partly an ancient edifice, which was in ruins a 
hundred years ago, but was restored from designs by W. 
Burn about 1830, and again underwent extensive repairs 
in 1873. It is notable for the detention in it of the 
Marquis of Montrose on his way as a prisoner to Edin- 
burgh, and for visits to it by James IV., Queen Mary, 
and Charles II. Its owner, Henry Lumsden, Esq. (b. 
1825 ; sue. 1859), holds 1410 acres in the shire, valued 
at £1681 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Pitcastle, a modern mansion in Logierait parish, 
Perthshire, near the left bank of the Tay, 5% miles W 
by N of Ballinluig Junction. 

Pitcorthie, a mansion in Carnbee parish, E Fife, 1£ 
mile ENE of Colinsburgh. 

Piteruvie. See Balcrtjvie. 

Pitcullo, an estate, with a mansion, in Leuchars parish, 
Fife, 4£ miles NNE of Cupar. 

Pitcur, an estate, with a village and a ruined castle, 
in Kettins parish, Forfarshire. The village stands at 
the foot of the Sidlaw Hills, near the boundary with 
Perthshire, 3 miles SE of Coupar-Angus, and is some- 
times called Ford of Pitcur. The ruined castle was 
the ancient baronial seat of the Hallyburtons, who 
acquired the barony of Pitcur in 1432 ; and the estate 
was sold in 1880 for £235,000 to the late Graham 
Menzies, Esq., of the Caledonian Distillery, Edinburgh. 
See Hallybukton House. — Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Piteadie Castle. See Kinghorn. 

Pitempton, a village in Mains and Strathmartine 
parish, Forfarshire, 3 miles NNW of Dundee. 

Pitferrane. See Pitfirrane. 

Pitfichie Castle, a roofless ruin in Monymusk parish, 
Aberdeenshire, If mile NNW of Monymusk station. 
It belonged, with a small estate around it, to the family 
of General Hurry, who figured in the times of the Cove- 
nanters ; and it passed to the Forbes family, proprietors 
of the Monymusk estate: 

Pitfirrane, a mansion in Dunfermline parish, Fife, 
amid a fine park, 2£ miles WSW of Dunfermline town. 
The estate belonged to the Halketts from 1399 to 1877, 
when Sir Peter Arthur Halkett, eighth Bart, since 1697, 
soldit, with Keavil, for £132,500 to Lawrence Dalgleish, 
Esq.— Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Pitfour, an estate, with a mansion, in Old Deee 
parish, Aberdeenshire, 2 miles W by N of Mintlaw. 
The mansion is a large square building, and the park 
and policies are of great beauty, £80,000 having been 
spent on improvements by the late Admiral Ferguson, 
whose son, George Arthur Ferguson, Esq. (b. 1835 ; sue. 
1867), holds 12,305 acres in the shire, valued at £10,492 
per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 87, 1876. 

Pitfour Castle, a mansion in St Madoes parish, Perth- 
shire, 7 furlongs S by E of Glencarse station, this being 
6 miles E by S of Perth. Built by the present pro- 
prietor's great-grandfather, and enlarged by his father, 



it is a spacious quadrangular structure, standing on an 
artificial terrace, and surrounded by beautiful grounds. 
Its owner, Sir Jas. Thos. Stewart-Richardson, fourteenth 
Bart, since 1630 (b. 1840 ; sue. 1881), holds 1147 acres 
in the shire, valued at £4817 per annum. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 48, 1868. 

Pitheavlis. See Pitthbavlis. 

Pitlochrie, a prosperous village in Moulin parish, 
Perthshire, is situated on the left bank of the river 
Tummel, and has a station on the Highland railway, 
6J miles SE of Blair Athole and 12| NNW of Dunkeld. 
Partly from its position, in the midst of and near most 
romantic and pieturesqne spots in Highland scenery, 
and partly from its healthy situation and salubrious 
climate, the village annually attracts a large number of 
tourists, visitors, and invalids. Its development, 
which, as the census returns show, has been considerable, 
is entirely due to its two qualifications of picturesque 
situation and healthy climate. In the immediate 
vicinity are Ben Veackie (2757 feet), the pretty little 
waterfall, known as the Black Spout, the village and 
castle of Moulin, the Falls of Tummel, the junction 
of the Tummel and the Garry, the Bridge of Cluny, and 
the Pass of Killieceankie ; while only a few miles off 
are Blaie Athole, Falls of Beuae, Loch Tummel, 
Kiekmichael, Abeefeldt, and Dunkeld, and other 
celebrated spots. A considerable number of houses for 
letting purposes have been built of late years, and 
Pitlochrie has long ranked as a favourite summer resort. 
The most important provision for visitors was the erec- 
tion of the hydropathic establishment. 

The village consists mainly of one street, bivilt along 
either side of General "Wade's highroad between Dunkeld 
and Blair Athole, but at the little bridge which spans a 
small burn tributary to the Tummel near the centre of 
the village, another road leads uphill to one or two 
newer and shorter rows of houses. Till lately, Pitlochrie 
had no Established church nearer than Moulin, though 
services were conducted in the public school. But in 
September 1883, there was laid the foundation-stone of 
a new Norman Gothic church, which is estimated to 
cost £2000, and will accommodate 468 persons. A 
special feature in its interior arrangement is the posi- 
tion, in the tower, and immediately behind the pulpit, 
of a class-room, which, by the removal of a screen, will 
afford in summer, additional accommodation for 40 
persons. The neat Free church, on the slope overlook- 
ing the main street, was built to supersede the older 
structure, raised at the Disruption in 1843, about a 
mile to the N, and afterwards used as a school. At the 
SW end of the village is the Gothic Episcopal church 
of the Holy Trinity (1858 ; 125 sittings), surrounded 
with a neatly laid-out garden. A Baptist church, with 
300 sittings, was erected in 1884. The Athole hydro- 
pathic establishment is a very large and striking build- 
ing, and occupies an elevated site to the S of the town, 
commanding a lovely and extensive view. It was built 
in 1875 at a cost of £50,000 or £60,000, and it is sur- 
rounded with tastefully laid-out grounds, extending to 
between 30 and 40 acres, and access is obtained to it 
by au avenue which gradually ascends from the lodge 
on the level of the public road. The public school 
occupies a building formerly belonging to the Estab- 
lished church. 

Pitlochrie has a post office, with money order, sav- 
ings' bank, and telegraph departments, branches of the 
Commercial and Union banks, the Bank of Scotland, 
and the National Security Savings' Bank, 17 insur- 
ance agencies, two hotels, besides a temperance lodging 
house. The railway station is both handsome and com- 
modious ; lawn tennis courts were opened in 1883 ; and 
a pretty fountain has been erected in the town to the 
memory of Colonel Butter, yr. of Faskally, who died in 

Though at one time spoken &f as a centre of trade for 
Perthshire, N of Strathtay, Pitlochrie has but little 
commerce ; though the almanacs still record that there 
are fairs for cattle and horses on the Saturday before 
the first Wednesday of May, and on the third Wednes- 


day (o.s. ) of October ; and for sheep on the third Tuesday 
of August. There are two small factories, — one of tweeds 
and one of chemicals ; and there is some distillation 
of whisky, while the ordinary shops are numerous 
enough and fairly good. The village enjoys a supply 
of water through pipes, and is lighted by gas. Pop. 
(1841) 291, (1861) 334, (1871) 510, (1881) 777, of wh<m 
410 were females and 255 Gaelic-speaking. Houses 
(1881) inhabited 151, vacant 15, building 6. 

Though now possessing comfortable and elegant 
houses, Pitlochrie at no distant period was a mere ruc.e- 
Highland village, with only some two or three slated 
houses. Prince Charlie, on his way to Culloden, is said 
to have occupied what was at the time the mansion- 
house of the Pitlochrie property. The parochial 
registers, whose first entry is dated 1707, mention that 
owing to the presence of the rebel army in 1745-46, 
public worship was suspended for several Sundays. 
The modern prosperity of the place dates from about 
1845, when the Queen visited Blair Castle. Sir James 
Clarke, the royal physician, was struck by the character 
of the air and climate of the place, and began to pre- 
scribe to his patients a residence at Pitlochrie. It is 
related that on one occasion one of the neighbouring 
landowners went to London to consult Sir James 
Clarke, and was assured of a cure if he spent some 
time at Pitlochrie or its neighbourhood ! Sir James 
Simpson, of Edinburgh, was also convinced of the 
wholesomeness of the air of Pitlochrie. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
55, 1869. 

Pitlour House, a mansion in Strathmiglo parish, Fife, 
1J mile N by W of the village. Its owner, "William 
Baillie Skene, Esq. (b. 1838 ; sue. 1866), holds 2878 
acres in the shire, valued at £4219 per annum. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 40, 1S67. 

Pitmedden House, a modern mansion, with a square 
corner tower, in Dyce parish, Aberdeenshire, 2 miles 
NNW of Dyce Junction. Its owner, George Thompson, 
Esq. (b. 1804), Provost of Aberdeen 1847-50, and 
Liberal M.P. for that city 1852-57, holds 1308 acres in 
the shire, valued at £1671 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
77, 1873. 

Pitmedden House, a commodious mansion of recent 
erection in Udny parish, Aberdeenshire, 3 miles NNW 
of Udny station. Its owner, Sir William Samuel Seton, 
ninth Bart, since 1684 (b. 1837 ; sue. 1884), holds 662 
acres in the shire, valued at £997 per annum. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 77, 1873. 

Pitmiddle, a village in Kinnaird parish, SE Perth- 
shire, 3 miles WNW of Inchture. 

Pitmilly, an estate, with a mansion, in Fangsbarns 
parish, Fife, 4^ miles NNW of Crail. Its owner, 
Lieut. -Col. Jas. Rt. Blackwell Monypenny (b. 1835 ; 
sue. 1881), holds 2034 acres in the shire, valued at 
£5699 per annum. —Ord. Sur., sh. 49, 1865. 

Pitmuies, a mansion in Kirkden parish, Forfarshire, 
J mile S of Guthrie station. Its owner, Leonard Lyell, 
Esq. of Kinnordy, succeeded to the estate in 1876. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Pitnacree, an estate, with a mansion, in Logierait 
parish, Perthshire, near the left bank of the Tay, 4 
miles W by N of Ballinluig Junction. 

Pitreavie, an estate, with a mansion, in Dunfermline 
parish, Fife, 2f miles SE of Dunfermline town. It. 
was acquired about 1615 by Sir Henry Wardlaw, cham- 
berlain to Queen Anne of Denmark, whose son wa^ 
created a Baronet in 1631. Sis grandson, Sir HenryJ 
Wardlaw, in 1696 married Lady Elizabeth Halketti 
(1677-1727), author of the pseudo-archaic ballad of 
Sardyhncte, and, according to Dr Robert Chambers, 
of most of the historical Scottish ballads. Th(. 
battle of Pitreavie or Inverkeithing was fought or. 
the level ground to the S of Pitreavie House, Sunday^ 
20 July 1651. In it 6000 Cromwellians, under Overton 
and Lambert, defeated 4000 adherents of Charles II. , 
under Brown and Holburn, the loss on the royalist side 
being 1600 killed and 1200 taken prisoners. — Ord. Sur. L 
sh. 32, 1857. 

Pitrichie. See Pitteiohie 


Pitrodie. See Kilspindie and Erkol. 

Pitscandly, an estate, with an old mansion, in Res- 
cobie parish, Forfarshire, 2 miles NE of Forfar. 

Pitscottie, a hamlet in Ceres parish, Fife, on the 
right bank of Ceres Burn, 1 J mile NE of Ceres village 
and 3 miles ESE of Cupar. It takes its name, signify- 
ing the ' little hollow, ' from its position between two 
confronting rising-grounds at the entrance to Dura 
Den ; and two flax spinning-mills were erected at it in 
1827. A ' countrie hous covered with strae and ried,' 
which stood on a small adjoining plateau, now occupied 
by the modern farmstead of Pitscottie, was the residence 
of Robert Lindsay, author of the quaint Clironicles of 
Scotland from 1436 to 1565. Pitscottie Moor, in the 
immediate neighbourhood, was a frequent meeting- 
place of the Covenanters for field preachings ; and is 
named in a decree of 1671 against certain ousted 
ministers. — Oral. Bur., sh. 41, 1857. 

Pitsligo, a coast parish of Buchan, N Aberdeenshire, 
containing the fishing villages of Roseheakty and 
Pitullie, or Sandhaven, 4J and 2f miles W by N of 
Fraserburgh. It is bounded N by the Moray Firth, E 
by Fraserburgh, S by Tyrie, and SW and W by Aber- 
dour. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 3J miles ; its 
utmost breadth, from N to S, is likewise 3J miles ; and 
its area is 4891^ acres, of which 247f are foreshore, 
and 3 j water. The coast, 4J miles in extent, to the E 
of Rosehearty is partly sandy, partly low shelving 
rocks ; but westward rises boldly from the firth to a 
height at Braco Park of 151 feet above sea-level. Inland 
the surface attains 130 feet at Hillhead, 215 near the 
parish church, and 259 near the Mains of Ardlaw at the 
SW boundary. The principal rocks are sandstone, clay- 
slate, and limestone ; and the soil, for the most part 
light, is very diversified, and ranges on almost every 
farm from clay or loam to light mould or reclaimed 
moss. Less than 20 acres are under wood ; and the 
rest of the parish, with small exception, is all in tillage. 
The fine old ruin of Pitsligo Castle stands J mile SSE of 
Rosehearty village. Its oldest portion, the S tower or 
keep, was built in 1424, and measuring SO by 36 feet, 
with walls 9 feet in thickness, was 114 feet high. Later 
parts of the building, which formed a hollow quadrangle, 
bear the dates 1577, 1663, and 1666. The extensive 
gardens still yield very fine apples. In 1633 Alexander 
Forbes was created Baron Forbes of Pitsligo — a title 
forfeited by his great-grandson, Alexander (1678-1762), 
for his share in the '45, and now claimed by the eldest 
son of Lord Clinton (see Fettercairn) and two others. 
Pitullie Castle, J mile to the E, is also a ruin, bearing 
the dates 1651, 1674, and 1727. It was probably built 
by the Saltouns, and enlarged by the Cumines. A 
number of cairns have all but disappeared. Disjoined 
from Aberdour in 1633, Pitsligo had for its first minister 
the celebrated Covenanter, Andrew Cant (1584-1663), 
who soon, however, was transferred to Newbattle. It 
is in the presbytery of Deer and the synod of Aberdeen ; 
the living is worth £252. The parish church, 1 mile S 
by E of Rosehearty, from its conspicuous position is 
sometimes called the ' Visible Kirk.' It was built by 
the first Lord Pitsligo in 1630-34, and, as repaired in 
1836, contains 504 sittings. The belfry and the carved 
woodwork of the Forbes aisle, both of Dutch workman- 
ship according to tradition, are much admired. There 
are also Sandhaven Established mission church (1882), 
Pitsligo Free church (1844) at Rosehearty, Sandhaven 
Free mission church (1881), and Rosehearty U.P. 
church (1799). Three public schools— Pitsligo, Pitullie, 
and Rosehearty — with respective accommodation for 
186, 85, and 257 children, had (1884) an average 
attendance of 148, 74, and 227, and grants of £122, 
2s., £53, 19s., and £19S, 12s. 6d. Three proprietors 
hold each an annual value of more, and three of less, 
than £500. "Valuation (1860) £5664, (18S5) £8674, 
3s. Id. Pop. (1801) 1256, (1831) 1439, (1861) 1890, 
(1871) 2218, (1881) 2582.— Orel. Sur., sh. 97, 1876. 

Pitsligo, New, a town and a qicoad sclera parish in 
Buchan district, N Aberdeenshire. The town, in the SW 
of Tyrie parish, stands, 459 feet above sea-level, on the 


eastern slope of Turlundie Hill (651 feet), 4J miles W 
by N of Strichen station, 4| NW of Brucklay station, 
and 11 SW of Fraserburgh. Founded in 1787 by Sir 
William Forbes, Bart, of Pitsligo, on the site of the 
rural hamlet of Caik or Cavoch, it was inhabited about 
the beginning of the present century almost entirely 
by illicit distillers, and then presented a mean and 
most miserable appearance. It has, however, under- 
gone such improvement and renovation, as now to con- 
sist almost wholly of substantial and comfortable houses, 
with neatly kept gardens, and to comprise two parallel 
streets, nearly a mile in length. Its outskirts and 
environs are flanked with wood, and of pleasant aspect ; 
and near it are extensive granite quarries. It for some 
time carried on a considerable linen trade, but the hand 
manufacture of bobbin-lace is now the staple industry ; 
and it has a post office, with money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of the 
Union Bank, a National Security Savings' Bank 
(1841), 9 insurance agencies, 2 hotels, a public library, 
a horticultural society (1837), gas-works, and fairs on 
the Wednesday after 26 February, the Wednesday after 
25 May, the Thursday after 13 August, and the Wed- 
nesday after 5 October. The parish church, standing 
near the top of the hill, and forming the most con- 
spicuous object in the town, was built in 1798 and 
renovated in 1853. It has triplet lancet windows, 
ornate surmounting crosses, a beautiful belfry, and 
about 1000 sittings. Other places of worship are a 
plain Free church, a Congregational chapel, and the 
Episcopal church of St John the Evangelist (1871 ; 468 
sittings), an Early English structure, erected at a cost 
of £3000. The quoad sacra parish, comprising portions 
of Tyrie, Aberdour, New Deer, and Strichen parishes, 
measures 6 miles in length and 5 in extreme breadth ; 
was originally constituted for only its Tyrie section 
by the General Assembly in 1799 ; and was recon- 
stituted for its present extent, first by the General 
Assembly in 1835, and next by the Court of Teinds in 
1853. It is in the presbytery of Deer and the synod 
of Aberdeen; the minister's stipend is £120. Glasslaw 
public, New Pitsligo public, and St John's Episcopalian 
schools, with respective accommodation for 70, 380, 
and 316 children, had (1884) an average attendance of 
37, 345, and 134, and grants of £42, 7s. 6d., £301, 
17s. 6d., and £104, 19s. Pop. of q. s. parish (1871) 
3090, (1881) 2964, of whom 193 were in Aberdour, 209 
in New Deer, 42 in Strichen, and 2520 in Tyrie. Pop. 
of town (1841) 1262, (1861) 1773, (1871) 2094, (1881) 
2056, of whom 1150 were females. Houses (1881) 471 
inhabited, 34 vacant, 2 building. — Ord. Sur., sh. 87, 

Pittairthie Castle. See Dunino. 

Pittarrow. See Fordoun. 

Pitteadie Castle. See Einghorn. 

Pittenane. See Pettinain. 

Pittencrieff, a mansion in Dunfermline parish, Fife, 
in the south-western vicinity of the town. Built about 
1610, and enlarged in 1740, with stones from the 
Palace ruins, it is the seat of James Hunt, Esq., who 
owns 945 acres in the shire, valued at £2588 per annum, 
the Pittencrieff estate having been sold in 1762 for 
£11,000, in 17S7 for £17,600, and lastly in 1800 for 
£31,500. See Dunfermline. — Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 

Pittendrieeh, the seat of Sir George Deas, the judge 
Lord Deas, in the vicinity of Lasswade village, Edin- 

Pittenweem (Celt., ? Pet-an-weem, 'the town of the 
cave '), a small parish containing a town of the same 
name in the SE of the county of Fife, on the shore of 
the Firth of Forth. The parish is bounded N by the 
parish of Anstruther- Wester (landward), E by Anstruther- 
Wester (burghal), S by the Firth of Forth, W by the 
parish of St Monans or Abercrombie, and at the NW 
corner by the parish of Carnbee. The boundary line on 
the E and W is artificial, but on the N it is formed by 
the Dreel Burn. The greatest length from E to W is If 
mile, the average breadth about f mile, and the area 



772-488 acres, including 109738 foreshore and 2-294 
detached. The coast is rocky, and the surface rises 
steeply from the shore to a height of from 50 to 60 feet, 
but does not rise much thereafter, the extreme height 
being 82 feet. The whole surface is cultivated, the soil 
being mostly a very fertile black loam. The underlying 
rocks are carboniferous, with limestone and some small 
seams of coal. The parish is traversed throughout its 
entire length by the coast road from Elie to Crail, and 
also by a stretch of the Thornton and Anstruther section 
of the North British railway system ; is in the presbytery 
of St Andrews and the synod of Fife ; and the living is 
worth £276. It was after the Reformation united with 
St Monans, Anstruther, and Kilrenny under the charge 
of one minister ; but James Melvil (nephew of the famous 
Andrew), who succeeded the first minister, Mr "William 
Clark, in 1586, ' finding the four congregationes a 
burding intolerable and importable, with a guid 
conscience, . . . sett himself cairfullie for the 
separating and severall planting of the said congrega- 
tiounes, resolving to tak himself to Kilrynnie alean ; 
and delt with Pittenweim, and causit thame prepeare 
ane auditorie and kirk within thair awin town, in the 
quhilk he teachit to thame, bathe on the Sabothe and 
week dayes, nocht intermitting his ordinarie doctrines 
in the uther kirkis, vmtill Pittenweim was provydit and 
plantit with a minister of thair awin, and that without 
hurt or impearing of the stipend of the kirk of 
Anstruther Waster ; ' and the parish became independent 
about 1588. The churches are noticed in connection 
with the burgh. The proprietors, inclusive of those in 
the town, are 2 holding each an annual value of £500 or 
upwards, 4 holding each between £500 and £100, 7 
holding each between £100 and £50, and 45 holding 
each between £50 and £20. Landward valuation 
(1856) £647, lis., (1875) £904, 19s. 8d., (1885) £658, 
with £150 for the railway. Pop. (1801) 1072, (1831) 
1317, (1861) 1710, (1871) 1S03, (1881) 2119, of whom 
1019 were males and 1100 were females; while 2116 were 
within the boundaries of the royal burgh. 

The Town of Pittenweem, near the E end of the 
parish just described, is a seaport and a royal burgh, 
and has a station on the Thornton and Anstruther section 
of the North British railway. By rail it is 9 miles E of 
Largo, 174 E of Thornton Junction, and 1J mile W of 
Anstruther. By road it is 5J miles SE of Crail, and 11 
S by W of St Andrews. Like so many of the Fife 
fishing towns, it is a place of considerable antiquity, and 
probably dates back to the 13th century. It belonged 
originally to the priory afterwards mentioned, and was 
by James III. created a burgh of barony. In 1542 
James V. granted a further charter constituting the 
town a royal burgh, and in 1547 the prior and convent 
executed two charters granting to the ' provost, bailies, 
council, community, burgesses, and inhabitants, the 
burgh as the same was builded or to be builded, and the 
harbour thereof, and all moors, mosses, and waste 
ground, common ways, and other commonties, liberties, 
customs, anchorages, etc., belonging thereto.' In 1593 
James VI. farther increased the property of the town by 
granting to it the ' great house or lodging of the 
monastery of Pittenweem,' and all these charters were 
confirmed by Act of Parliament in 1633. Nor were the 
inhabitants unmindful of their royal benefactor, for 
when James passed through the burgh on his way 
to Anstruther House, where he spent a night, he was 
received by the magistrates, councillors, and minister 
' in their best apparel, ' and accompanied by a guard of 
twenty-four of the stoutest men of the place also in their 
' best apparel ' and armed with partisans ; and besides 
these there were 'other twenty-four with muskets.' 
Substantial provision was also made for the royal 
appetite at a table spread at ' Robert Smith's yeet, ' 
where, for the entertainment of the King and his train, 
there were provided ' sundrie great bunns of fine flour 
and other wheat bread of the best order, baken with 
sugar, cannell, and other spices fitting, as also ton 
gallons of ale, with canary, sack, Rhenish wine, Tent, 
white and claret wines ;' and when his Majesty departed 


there was a salute of 'thirty-six cannon, all shot at 
once.' It was at Pittenweem that the customs collector 
of Fife was, in 1736, robbed by Wilson and Robertson — 
an incident which, though of little local importance, 
resulted in the Porteons riots in Edinburgh, and thus 
aided in the invention of the plot of Scott's Heart of 
Midlothian. The house in which the robbery took place 
was on the N side of the street to the N of the church. 
In 1799 the squadron of Paul Jones lay for some time 
off the harbour, but otherwise the 18th and 19th century 
history of the place has been of a most uneventful nature. 
The town has three main streets with cross intersecting 
lanes. Of these one follows the line of the coast along the 
low ground at the harbour ; a second, High Street, runs 
parallel to this on the top of the slope ; and a third, still 
farther N, is along the Elie and Crail road : the second 
is the principal thoroughfare. Near its E end is the 
parish church, originally a structure of the first half of 
the 17th century, but extensively remodelled and altered 
in 1882. The old tower at the W end still remains with 
the old clock and bells. It has a balustraded top and 
a spire, and in the base is a small chamber, with door 
and grated window looking to the street, which has 
evidently been used as the tolbooth. Fixed to the W 
wall of the steeple is the town cross, a simple pillar with 
the town arms in the middle and the date 1754 on the 
top. Down the slope to the S is the Cove Wynd, in 
which the plain town-hall (1821-22) occupies the site of 
the refectory of the priory. Farther down the lane on 
the E side is the entrance to the cave or weem from 
which the name of the town is said to be derived. It is 
a long cave with two branches, in one of which is a 
small hollow supplied with good water from crevices in 
the rock, and both well and cave are associated with the 
name of St Fillan. From one corner a staircase, now 
destroyed, has led to the grounds of the priory above, 
where it is said to have been connected with a secret 
underground passage. The priory buildings and grounds 
covered a space of from 2 to 3 acres to the E of Cove 
Wynd and the church. The northern gateway was 
removed in 1805 to make room for the Episcopal church. 
The chief entrance was on the E side, and not far off is 
the Great House of the priory, and to the S what is 
termed the Prior's Hall. The priory dates from about 
1114, but the buildings that remain are of much later 
date. One of the later priors was John Rowle, who was 
a lord of Session in 1544, and accompanied the Regent 
Moray to France in 1550. In 1583 William Stewart, a 
captain in the King's guard, descended from Alan 
Stewart of Darnley, obtained a charter of the priory and 
lands of Pittenweem, and in 1606 his son, Frederick 
Stewart, got them erected into a temporal lordship with 
the title of Baron Pittenweem ; but he disponed the 
superiority to the Earl of Kellie, and dying without 
issue, the title became extinct. The superiority was 
afterwards surrendered by the Earl of Kellie to the 
Crown. The Great House is intimately associated with 
David Low (1768-1855), the well-known Episcopalian 
Bishop of Ross and Argyll. Behind the eastern entrance 
is the 'witch corner,' where the Pittenweem witches 
were buried. The town seems to have been very much 
troubled with witches at various times, and the last of 
them caused a great commotion in 1705, when several, 
poor women were, at the instigation of a hysterical boy, 
imprisoned and placed at the mercy of a guard of 
' drunken fellows, who, by pinching and pricking some 
of them with pins and elsions, kept them from sleep for 
several days and nights together.' Under this gentle 
treatment some of them became ' so wise as acknowledge 
every question that was ask'd them.' One of them, 
Janet Corphat, was put in the prison under the steeple 
— probably the cell that still remains — but escaped by 
the low window, and got away to Leuchars. Sent back 
by the minister of that parish, she was set on by a rabble, 
' who fell upon the poor creature and beat her unmerci- 
fully, tying her so hard with a rope that she was almost 
strangl'd ; they dragg'd her through the streets and 
alongst the shoar by the heels ' till they were disturbed 
by one of the magistrates. Gathering again, however, 


they ' streach'd a rope betwixt a ship and the shoar to a 
great height, to which they ty'd her fast ; after which 
they swing'd her to and fro from one side to another, in 
the meantime throwing stones at her from all corners 
until they were weary. Then they loos'd her, and with 
a mighty swing threw her upon the hard sands, all 
about being ready in the meantime to receive her with 
stones and staves, with which they beat her most 
cruelly. . . . They laid a heavy door upon her, 
with which they prest her so sore that she cried out to 
let her up for Christ's sake and she would tell the truth. 
But when they did let her up, what she said could not 
satisfy them, and therefore they again laid on her the 
door, and with a heavy weight of stones on it prest her 
to death ; and to be sure it was so they called a man 
with a horse and a sledge, and made him drive over her 
corps backward and forward several times. ' These and 
other particulars of similar brutal behaviour may be 
read in the pamphlets published at the time in connec- 
tion with the case, which excited a great deal of atten- 
tion, and led to legal proceedings against the magistrates, 
which must have led some of them at least to wish for 
no more witches in the neighbourhood. 

No fewer than thirty breweries are said to have been 
once in operation about the town, but they have long 
since vanished, and the present industries are connected 
with the harbour, which is a creek under Kirkcaldy. 
Greatly improved in 1855, it has an outer and inner 
basin, and is safe and commodious, but suffers from its 
small depth of water. The imports are of the. usual 
description for such a place, and the exports are princi- 
pally grain and potatoes. A large number of the 
inhabitants are fishermen, and in 1882 the port, which 
is for fishery purposes included in the Anstruther 
district, had 67 first-class fishing boats, 18 second-class 
boats, and 6 third-class boats ; in connection with which 
290 resident fishermen and boys found employment. 
Few of the boats prosecute the fishing from the port 
itself. Besides the Established church already noticed, 
there is on the N side of the town a IT. P. church erected 
in 1846, and an Episcopal church erected in 1805-7 on 
the NE. Two public schools, the East and the South, 
with respective accommodation for 326 and 219 pupils, 
had (18S4) an average attendance of 229 and 153, and 
grants of £215, 16s. lid. and £123, 12s. A distinguished 
native was John Douglas (1721-1807), Bishop of Salis- 
bury, eminent for his literary abilities as well as for his 
ecclesiastical position. 

A burgh of barony under the priors, and after 1542 a 
royal burgh, Pittenweem is now, under the General 
Police and Improvement Act of 1862, governed by a 

Seal of Pittenweem. 

provost, two bailies, a treasurer, and 8 councillors, and 
unites with Eilrenny, Crail, Anstruther-Easter, An- 
struther-Wester, Cupar, and St Andeews in sending a 
member to parliament. Parliamentary constituency 
(1884) 302, municipal constituency 358, including 56 
females. The corporation revenue is, on an average, 


about £700 per annum. There is a post oifice, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 
branch offices of the Clydesdale and National banks, a 
National Security Savings' bank, and a gaswork. 
Valuation (1856) £3890, 9s. Id., (1885) £6216, 19s. lid. 
Pop. (1831) 1309, (1861) 1617, (1871) 1760, (1881) 2116, 
of whom 1016 were males and 1110 females. The 
parliamentary burgh, which is slightly smaller than 
the royal burgh, had at the same time 2090 inhabitants, 
of whom 1003 were males and 1087 females. In the 
royal burgh there were 451 houses, and in the parlia- 
mentary burgh 443 ; while 22 were uninhabited, and 1 
was being built. — Orel, Sur., sh. 41, 1857. 

Pittheavlis, an estate, with a mansion, in East Perth 
parish, Perthshire, 1 mile SW of the city. It is the 
property of Lord Elibank, who holds 994 acres in Perth- 
shire, valued at £1871 per annum. See Dabnhall. — 
Orel. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Pittodrie, an old mansion in Chapel of Garioch parish, 
Aberdeenshire, on the north-eastern slope of Bennaehie, 

I mile SW of Pitcaple station. Its owner, Hy. Wm. 
Knight Erskine, Esq. (b. 1858 ; sue. 1870), holds 
3270 acres in the shire, valued at £4250 per annum. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Pittrichie, a plain commodious mansion of 1819 in 
Udny parish, Aberdeenshire, 3 miles W by N of Udny 

Pitullie or Sandhaven, a fishing village in Pitsligo 
parish, N Aberdeenshire, on the Moray Firth, 2f miles 
W by N of Fraserburgh, under which there is a post 
office of Sandhaven. The harbour, formed in 1840, 
possesses 46 fishing boats. Pop. (1871) 399, (1881) 585. 
—Orel. Sur., sh. 97, 1876. 

Pladda, an island of Kilmorie parish, Buteshire, in 
the Firth of Clyde, 5| furlongs S of the south-eastern 
extremity of Arran. Measuring 3J by 14 furlongs, it 
is low and green ; and has a lighthouse, erected 
partly in 1790, partly in 1826, and showing two fixed 
lights, the one above the other, at elevations of 
77 and 130 feet above high-water level, and visible 
at the distance of 14 and 17 nautical miles. The 
Sound of Pladda, between the island and Arran, has a 
chain of rock nearly right across, with depths of from 
only 2 to 4 feet of water, so that it is unnavigable by 
any sea-borne vessels. — Ord. Sur., sh. 13, 1870. 

Pladda. See Fladda. 

Plaidy. See Tueeiff. 

Plean, a village and a quoad sacra parish in St 
Ninians parish, Stirlingshire. The village, lying 3 
miles SSE of Bannockburn, has a post office under 
Stirling, a public school, and an asylum or hospital for 
30 old men, founded by Col. Francis Simpson, who died 
in 1831. Plean House is in the western vicinity of the 
village. The quoad sacra parish, constituted in 1878, 
is in the presbytery of Stirling and the synod of Perth 
and Stirling ; the living is worth £2S9. Pop. (1881) of 
village, 369 ; of q. s. parish, 1037.— Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 

Pleasance, a village in Auchtermuchty parish, Fife, 

I I mile NNW of the town. 

Pleasance, a village near the centre of Dumfriesshire, 
8 \ miles NNE of Dumfries. 

Plockton, a village in Lochalsh parish, Ross-shire, on 
the S side of the lower part of Loch Carron, 4 miles 
W by S of the Strome Ferry terminus of the Dingwall 
and Skye railway, and 6-| NNW of Balmacara. It 
ranks as a burgh of regality, engages extensively in 
fishing, and has a post office, a Government church, 
a Free church, and a public school. The Government 
church has the status of a quoad sacra parochial church, 
but has not assigned to it any definite territory. Pop. 
(1861) 539, (1871) 516, (1881) 440. 

Plotcock, a collier village in Hamilton parish, Lanark- 
shire, 5 miles SSE of the town of Hamilton. 

Pluscarden (old forms Ploschardin and Pluscardyn, 
locally often Pluscarty), a district measuring about 4 
miles by 2, and forming the south-western portion of 
the parish of Elgin. It is a long valley of no great 
width, with the drainage along the whole length carried 



off by the Black Burn, a tributary of the river Lossie. 
The low ground is from 170 to 200 feet above sea-level, 
and on the NW side the Eildon or Heldun Hill rises 
very steeply to a height of 767 feet, and on the SE side 
the Hill of the Wangie rises with a less rapid slope to 
a height of 1020 feet. At the extreme SW end the 
valley is contracted into a narrow glen. There is a 
post office under Elgin, a Free church, and a public 
school. Though the glen is pretty in itself, the 
chief interest lies in the well-preserved ruins of a Cis- 
tercian priory on a beautiful haugh near its centre, and 
6 miles SW of Elgin. This, one of the three monasteries 
of the Cistercian Order in Scotland, the others being 
Beauly and Ardohattan, was founded by Alexander 
II. in 1230. Before the foundation of the priory there 
seems to have been an older church on a different site, 
and the valley was known as the Vale of St Andrew, a 
name which was retained in the new foundation, the 
dedication of Pluscarden — or Pluscardine, as the name 
of the priory is often given — being to the Virgin Mary, 
John the Baptist, and St Andrew. Although the monks, 
who were of the Valliscaulian branch of the order, 
found but few friends after Alexander's death, the 
community was a very wealthy one, and in Bajimont's 
Boll in 1274 the monastery is taxed at £533, while 
Beauly and Ardchattan are entered at £200. Under 
the protection of the Bishops of Moray, whose authority 
was fully recognised in 1345, the Cistercians held pos- 
session till 1454, when Benedictines were introduced 
from Urquhart, though there seems to be no truth in 
the assertion that this was rendered necessary by the 
corrupt life of the older monks. The last of the Bene- 
dictine priors was Alexander Dunbar, who died in 1560 ; 
and the first of the lay priors was Lord Alexander Seton 
— a son of the Lord George who was so faithful a ser- 
vant to Queen Mary — who in 1577 was succeeded by 
James Douglas, an illegitimate son of Begent Morton ; 
but on Morton's fall and death in 15S1 Seton again re- 
sumed possession, parliament expressly declaring ' the 
pretended gift to James Douglas, son natural to late 
James Earl of Morton, of nane avail in all times com- 
ing. ' The monks do not seem to have been disturbed 
in their possession of the priory itself, and they gradually 
died out, only one remaining in 1586. In 1595, Seton, 
then Lord Urquhart, sold Pluscarden to Kenneth Mac- 
kenzie of Kintail, from whose descendants it passed in 
1649 (probably in connection with the rebellion raised 
in that year by Thomas Mackenzie of Pluscarden) to Sir 
George Mackenzie of Tarbat. In 1662 the then Sir 
George sold the priory and lands to the Earl of Caith- 
ness, Major George Beatman and Joan Fraser, his wife ; 
and in 1664 the Earl resigned his share to the other 
owners, from whom, in 1687, the property was pur- 
chased by Brodie of Lethen for his grandson, James 
Grant of Grant, who, in 1710, sold it to Duff of 
Dipple, and through him it has descended to the 
present possessor, the Earl of Fife. A considerable 
portion of the ruins of the priory still remains, and the 
grey ivy-clad walls, the soft deep green turf, the old 
trees that must date from the early times of the 
monastery, and the heights in the background covered 
with thriving wood, all combine to form a very pleasant 
picture. The buildings have been partly in the First 
and partly in the Second Pointed styles. The church 
lay to the N, and the nave seems never to have been 
built. To the S of the south transept was a narrow 
chapel dedicated to St Mary, and farther S still the 
chapter-house and calefactory. Over the last three 
buildings were the dormitories. West of the calefactory 
was the refectory, to the N of which was the cloister 
court. To the SSE of these buildings are traces of walls 
where the prior's house is said to have stood. The pre- 
cinct is still marked out by the high and massive wall 
with the principal gateway on the E, and in the N wall 
are recesses where the fathers had kept their bee-hives. 
The church has consisted of a choir and two transepts, 
the latter with aisles on their E sides ; at the intersec- 
tion is a square tower. From the S transept a stone 
stair leads to the dormitories. In the outside angle, 


between the choir and the north transept, is what is called 
the Dunbar Vestr}', with a good groined ceiling, on the 
central boss of which are the Dunbar arms. It was 
probably erected by the last Benedictine prior. The lintel 
of the window into the choir is formed by a slab of stone, 
with a finely incised cross, dating probably from the 13th 
century. St Mary's aisle, to the S of the south transept, 
used probably as the sacristry, has a curious portion cut 
off in one of the corners, with a peculiar slit in the wall 
near the door. It has possibly been used as a confes- 
sional. The chapter-house is square, and has a vaulted 
roof, with groins passing from the side walls to a central 
pillar. The walls of the choir, the transepts with their 
side aisles, the pretty little vestry, St Mary's aisle, the 
square chapter-house, the calefactory, the dormitories, 
and the central tower, are still almost entire. On the 
arch over the entrance from the crossing to the choir, 
and also on an arch in St Mary's aisle, there are traces 
of fresco painting. The former is described by Cordiner, 
in 1788, as having been very perfect in his time. 
' There,' he says, ' St John, about to write in an attitude 
expressive of attention to the objects before him, is 
seated under a canopy, and, accompanied by his well- 
known eagle, lifts his eyes to the concave of the arch 
above, where the glowing colour's of that splendid bow 
which is seen in the cloud in the day of rain attracts 
our notice. ' The sitting figure and the rainbow are still 
visible, but they are sadly weathered and destroyed. 
According to the same author, there were still more 
wonderful frescoes in St Mary's aisle, but no trace of 
these, except the ornament on the arch mentioned, 
now remains. The buildings that now exist are of various 
dates from the middle of the 13th to the middle of the 
16th century. The first structure had become ruinous 
by 1398, but how far this was due to slenderness of 
proportion, and how far to injury by fire, is uncertain. 
Both the causes mentioned may indeed have operated, 
for the first is quite apparent from the numerous altera- 
tions made for the purpose of giving additional strength 
— e.g., windows lessened in size, archways partly built 
up, etc. — and the walls in many places show traces of 
fire. Probably to injury from the latter cause may be 
ascribed the curious casing of later masonry by which 
the pillars supporting the central tower have been 
strengthened. The calefactory has a vaulted roof sup- 
ported by two pillars, and is now used as a church for 
the district, a purpose for which it was fitted up in 
1821 by the then Earl of Fife.* At the same time the 
dormitories were re-roofed, and that part'of the building 
is now used as a ball-room for the district ! The church 
was at first a chapel of ease under Elgin, but at the 
Disruption, the minister and most of the people joining 
the Free Church, the Earl of Fife made over the use of 
the room to the majority. The pulpit is the one pro- 
cured in 1680 for Old St Giles' Church in Elgin, and 
sold to the Earl of Fife's factor for £5 when that church 
was pulled down in 1826 [see Elgin]. It has a rim for 
the baptismal font, and a stand for an hour-glass, both 
made of characteristic twisted iron work. The old 
monastery grounds are now used as nursery grounds for 
young trees to be used in plantations on the Fife estates 
in the neighbourhood; but a number of old trees, dating 
from monastic times, still remain, particularly a fine 
pear tree which yields large crops of excellent fruit. 
The Book of Pluscarden is an early history of Scotland 
based on Bower, and supposed to have been written in 
the priory, about 1461, by a monk named Maurice 
Buchanan. It was published in the Historians of Scot- 
land series in 1877. See also the works referred to under 
Elgin ; E. Chisholm Batten's Clmrters of the Priory of 
Beauly (Grampian Club, Lond. 1877) ; and S. B. Mac- 
phail's History of the Religious House of Pluscardyn, 
(Edinb. 1881). 

Polkemmet, a two-story Scottish Baronial mansion in 
Whitburn parish, Linlithgowshire, 1^ mile W of Whit- 
burn town. A large addition was made in 1822 ; but 

* This occupation was at first intended to be only temporary till 
the choir should be fitted up for use in public worship, but various 
delays and changes led to things being left as they were. 


the older part is known to be of earlier date than 1620, 
when the estate was sold by the Shaws to the Baillies. 
Its present proprietor, Sir William Baillie, second Bart, 
since 1823 (b. 1816 ; sue. 1854), was Protectionist M.P. 
for the county 1845-47, and holds in it 4320 acres, 
valued at £6382 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 
1867. See John Small's Castles and Mansions of the 
Lothians (Edinb. 1883). 

Polla. See Durness. 

Pollewe. See Poolewb. 

Pollok Castle, a mansion in Mearns parish, Renfrew- 
shire, 2J miles SE of Barrhead. Crowning a rising 
ground, among fine old trees, and commanding an ex- 
tensive view, it was a chateau-like four-storied edifice, 
erected in the latter half of the 17th century, and twice 
enlarged, on the last occasion in 1856 ; but on the 
night of 31 July 1882 it was wholly destroyed by fire, 
the damage being estimated at £30,000. Its owner, 
Sir Hew Crawfurd-Pollok, ninth Bart, since 1638 (b. 1843 ; 
sue. 1867), represents the ancient families of Pollok of 
Pollok and Crawfurd of Kilbirnie and Jordanhill, 
both dating from the 12th century, his great grand- 
mother, Robina Pollok, having married Sir Hew Craw- 
furd of Jordanhill soon after the middle of last century. 
He holds 2855 acres in the shire, valued at £3399 per 
annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Pollok House, a mansion in Eastwood parish, Ren- 
frewshire, near the right bank of the White Cart, li 
mile WNW of Pollokshaws. Erected in 1747-52, it is 
a plain quadrangular four-storied building, with beauti- 
ful grounds, and on 15 Aug. 1859 was honoured 
by a visit from the Prince of Wales. Pollok formed 
part of the broad estates that were granted by David I. 
to Walter the High Steward about the year 1124. 
The superiority was acquired by Rolland de Mearns, 
and afterwards by the Maxwells of Caerlaverock ; 
and about 1270 the lower division of Pollok, commonly 
called Nether Pollok, was given by Sir Aymer Maxwell 
of Maxwell, Caerlaverock, and Mearns, to his younger 
son, Sir John Maxwell, the first of the Maxwells of 
Pollok. Among his descendants, who by marriage 
were allied to royalty, were the brave young Sir John, 
who earned his spurs well at Otterburn (1388) ; Sir 
John, who fell at the Battle of Dryfe Sands (1593) ; Sir 
George, for bewitching whom, in 1677, five persons were 
strangled and burnt ; Sir John, created a baronet in 
1682 ; and Sir John, the eighth Bart. (1791-1865), at 
whose death the estate and the baronetcy devolved on 
his nephew, William Stirling, Esq. of Keir. From 
him, the late Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, the estate of 
Pollok passed in 1878 to his younger son, Archibald (b. 
1S67). —Ord. Sur., ah. 30, 1866. See Eastwood, Keir, 
Crookston, Darnley, Haggs Castle ; Dr Win. 
Fraser's Memoirs of the Maxwells of Keir (2 vols., 
Edinb., 1865); and his Cartulary of Pollok-Maxwell 
(Edinb. 1875). 

Pollokshaws, a town and a quoad sacra parish in the 
civil parish of Eastwood, Renfrewshire. The town, 
popularly known as the Shaws, is on the White Cart, 
where it is joined by Auldhouse Burn, and has a station 
on the Glasgow, Barrhead, and Kilmarnock railway, 3 
miles SSW of Glasgow. With a pleasant situation in 
the midst of an undulating and fertile tract of country, 
it is a seat of manufacturing industry. A print- 
field, one of the earliest in Scotland, was established in 
1742, and bleaching and handloom weaving, which 
were introduced soon after, were long extensively car- 
ried on. A tannery for the manufacture of chamois 
leather, which was begun in 1782, and was the earliest 
in Scotland, did not prosper. A cotton mill, erected 
about the end of last century, was the first in Scotland 
lighted with gas. Calico printing, which was long car- 
ried on, having declined, turkey-red dyeing took its 
place, and was vigorously carried on till 1837, when it 
was given up, and since then the staple industries have 
been cotton-spinning, power-loom weaving, bleachfields, 
print-works, paper-mills, and iron-foundries. The bridge 
over the Cart dates from 1654, but it has since been 
■widened and repaired. The town-house, with its spire, 


and the trades' hall, do not call for particular notice. 
The quoad sacra parish church, originally Auldfield 
chapel of ease, in King Street, was built in 1840. East- 
wood parish church, on the SW, built in 1862-63 at a 
cost of £3500, is a good Early English structure with 
1050 sittings, nave and transepts, and a tower and 
spire 130 feet high at the W end. It superseded an 
older church of 1781, and was reopened in March 1877, 
after improvements, including a three-light stained 
window, new choir seats, etc. There are also two Free 
churches in King Street and Rosendale Road, aU.P. 
church, an Original Secession church, and the Roman 
Catholic church of St Mary Immaculate (1865 ; 800 
sittings; redecorated 1884), but none of them call for 
particular notice. Four schools — the Academy, public, 
infant, and Roman Catholic — with respective accom- 
modation for 700, 471, 150, and 327 pupils, had (1884) 
an average attendance of 352, 362, 123, and 269, and 
grants of £355, 19s. , £299, 3s. , £87, 8s. , and £233, 17s. 6d. 
The town was erected into a burgh of barony by Crown 
charter in 1814, the council consisting of a provost, a 
bailie, and six councillors, being elected by all inhabitants 
paying £4 of rent and upwards ; but the municipal govern- 
ment is now carried on by the commissioners appointed 
under the General Police and Improvement Act. Water 
is supplied from the Glasgow waterworks ; and gas is pro- 
vided from works carried on by a joint-stock company. 
There is a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments, under Glasgow, branch offices 
of the Clydesdale and Commercial Banks, agencies of 
8 insurance companies, a public library, established in 
1844, an abstainers' hall, a young men's literary and 
mutual improvement association, a trades' friendly 
society, a district Sabbath School Union, a tract society, 
a destitute sick society, and some other institutions. A 
sheriff small debt court is held on the second Friday of 
every month, and a justice of peace court on the first 
Tuesday of every month. Pop. of town (1831) 4627, 
(1861) 7648, (1871) 8921, (1881) 9363, of whom 5056 
were females, and 6402 were in Pollokshaws quoad sacra 
parish. Houses (1881) 2058 inhabited, 170 vacant, 9 
building.— Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1S66. 

Pollokshields. See Govan. 

Polmaily House, a mansion in Urquhart parish, 
Inverness-shire, near the left bank of the Enrick, 2 
miles W by N of Drumnadrochit. 

Polmaise Castle, a mansion in St Ninians parish, 
Stirlingshire, near the right bank of the meandering 
Forth, 3 miles ESE of Stirling. About 1568, William 
Murray of Touehadam married a daughter and co-heiress 
of James Cuninghame of Polmaise ; and their descendant, 
Lieut. -Col. John Murray (b. 1831 ; sue. 1862), holds 
6813 acres in the shire, valued at £9894 per annum. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Polmont (Gael, jpoll-monaidh, 'pool of the hill'), a 
village and a parish of E Stirlingshire. The village stands 
f mile NNE of Polmont Junction on the North British 
railway, this being 4| miles W by N of Linlithgow, 22£ 
W by N of Edinburgh, 3 E by S of Falkirk, and 25 ENE 
of Glasgow. It has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments. Pop. (1861) 
429, (1871) 455, (1881) 519. 

The parish, containing also a small portion of Grange- 
mouth, and the villages of Craigs, Redding, East 
Shieldhill, and Wallacestone, was disjoined from Fal- 
kirk in 1724. It is bounded NE by the Firth of Forth 
and Borrowstounness in Linlithgowshire, SE by Muir- 
avonside, and SW and NW by Falkirk. Its utmost 
length, from NE to SW, is 6J miles ; its breadth varies 
between 2J furlongs and 3J miles ; and its area is 7289J 
acres, of which 1697S are foreshore and 79J water. The 
Firth of Forth, which washes the parish for a dis- 
tance of 2 miles, from the mouth of the Carron to that 
of the Avon, is fringed at low water by an expanse of 
foreshore, 7 furlongs to 2 miles broad. The Avon 
winds 5J miles west-north-westward and north-eastward 
along all the Linlithgowshire border ; Grange or West- 
quarter Burn flows 3J miles north-north-westward, 
mainly along the Falkirk boundary, to the mouth of the 



Carron ; and the Union Canal traverses the parish for 
2| miles, from E to W, immediately S of the railway. 
The coast is low and flat ; a broad tract inward thence is 
carse land, rising only 14 feet above sea-level, protected on 
the coast side by a strong embankment, and all too valu- 
able to bear anything butgrain ; a tract southward thence, 
forming the middle district, hasanundulatingsurface, and 
rises to altitudes of 253 and 263 feet ; and the south- 
western extremity is partly undulating, partly moorish, 
and rises gradually to an eventual altitude of 552 feet. 
Much of the landscape is embellished and beautiful ; and 
many standpoints command extensive and brilliant views. 
The rocks belong chiefly to the Carboniferous formation, 
and include valuable strata of sandstone, coal, and 
ironstone, all of which have been largely worked. 
Excellent clay, too, abounds, and is used in two tile 
and brick works. Mineral springs, strongly impreg- 
nated with iron, are in several places. The soil of the 
carse lands is deep fine clay, quite free from stones, but 
abounding in marine shells ; that of the other districts 
is partly clayey, partly mossy, but chiefly gravelly or 
sandy. About 120 acres are under wood ; 650 are 
pastoral or waste ; and all the rest of the land is in 
tillage. The principal mansions are Westquarter, Pol- 
mont Park, Polmont House, Polmont Bank, Parkhill, 
Clarkston, and Millfield ; and the chief antiquity is 
part of the line of Antoninus' Wall, now destitute of 
every vestige of masonry or mound. The Duke of 
Hamilton takes from this parish the title of Baron 
Polmont (ere. 1643). Eight proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 17 of between £100 
and £500. Giving off a portion to Grangemouth quoad 
sacra parish, Polmont is in the presbytery of Linlithgow 
and the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is 
worth £427. The old kirk, built in 1731, stands, an 
ivy-clad ruin, in the midst of the churchyard, its 
interior planted with roses, yews, and rhododendrons. 
The new parish church is a handsome Gothic edifice of 
1844, and was adorned in 1876 with two stained 
memorial windows. Robert Henry, D.D. (1718-90), 
the historian of England, is buried in the churchyard. 
There is also a Free church at Polmont village. Six 
schools, with total accommodation for 861 children, 
had (1884) an average attendance of 666, and grants 
amounting to £552, lis. Valuation (1860) £14,501, 
(1884) £27,781, lis. 6d. Pop. (1801) 2197, (1831) 
3210, (1861) 4111, (1871) 3910, (1881) 3955, of whom 
3861 were in the ecclesiastical parish. — Oral. Sur., sh. 
31, 1867. 

Polmood Burn. See Tweedsmuie. 

Polnoon Castle, an ancient castle in Eaglesham parish, 
Renfrewshire, near a head-stream of White Cart Water, 
5 miles S by E of Busby. It was built with the 
ransom of Harry Hotspur, whom Sir John Montgomerie 
had taken prisoner at Otterburn (1388) ; and it long 
was a chief seat of the Eglinton family ; but it is now 
represented by only a few smooth mounds of rubbish. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Poltalloch, the ancient seat of the Malcolm family, in 
Kilmartin parish, Argyllshire, on the eastern shore of 
Loch Craignish, 10 miles NNW of Lochgilphead. Its 
present proprietor, John Malcolm, Esq. (b. 1805 ; sue. 
1857), holds 82,579 acres in the shire, valued at £18,200 
per annum. 

Poltanton Burn. See Leswalt. 

Polton, a group of places in Lasswade parish, Edin- 
burghshire, adjacent to the North Esk river, and within 
\\ mile SSW of Lasswade village. It contains the 
terminus of the Eskbank, Lasswade, and Polton line, 
10J miles by rail SSE of Edinburgh ; the papermills 
of Messrs Annandale & Son ; Polton Colliery ; Polton 
House (Rt. Dundas, Esq. of Arniston), etc. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 32, 1857. 

Poltonhall, a village in Cockpen parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, | mile SSW of Bonnyrigg, and li- mile S by W of 
Lasswade. Pop. with Dalhousie Colliery (1871) 312, 
(1881) 595. 

Polwarth, a village and a parish of central Berwick- 
shire. The village, an ancient place, stands near the 


northern border of the parish, on ground originally 
swampy, but now drained, 3 miles NNE of Greenlaw, 
and 4 SW of the post-town Duns. Two old thorn trees 
formerly stood in the centre of the village green ; and a 
custom prevailed for upwards of 300 years down to the 
commencement of the present century, of dancing at 
every marriage round these trees — a custom celebrated 
in several songs, particularly one by Allan Ramsay, set 
to the tune of ' Polwarth on the Green.' 

The parish, containing also Marchmont station at 
the south-eastern border, is bounded NW by Long- 
formacus, N by Langton, SE by Fogo, and SW and W 
by Greenlaw. Its utmost length, from E by N to W by 
S, is 4^ miles ; its utmost breadth is 2J miles ; and its 
area is 3013 acres, of which 13£ are water. A small 
lake (If xl furl.) lies near the western border; and 
the drainage is carried eastward towards Blackadder 
Water by the Kirk Burn and other rivulets. The 
surface, on the mutual border of the Merse and the 
Lammermuir district, declines in the extreme E to 370 
feet above sea-level, and rises westward till it attains a 
maximum altitude of 933 feet at Eyles Hill. The pre- 
dominant rocks are various kinds of sandstone ; but 
Kyles Hill consists of a hard reddish porphyry. The soil 
of the uplands is moorish, and elsewhere is mainly 
argillaceous, but here and there is sand or gravel. 
Nearly 400 acres are under wood ; rather less than half 
of the entire area is in tillage ; and nearly all the 
remainder is pasture, moor, or moss. Makchmont 
House, noticed separately, is the only mansion ; and 
Sir Hugh Hume-Campbell, Bart., is sole proprietor. 
Polwarth is in the presbytery of Duns and the synod of 
Merse and Teviotdale ; the living is worth £332. The 
parish church, f mile SSE of the village, crowns the 
edge of a beautiful glade in the gronnds of Marchmont, 
and was rebuilt by Patrick Home, first Earl of March- 
mont, in 1703. According to a Latin inscription of 
that date, its predecessor was consecrated prior to 900, 
and restored in 1378. In 1684 the patriot, Patrick 
Home, concealed himself in the family burial vault be- 
neath the church, where he remained for several weeks, 
supplied every night with food by his celebrated 
daughter Grizel, afterwards Lady Grizel Baillie, then 
only twelve years of age. The public school, with 
accommodation for 55 children, had (1884) an average 
attendance of 35, and a grant of £34, 2s. 6d. Valuation 
(1865) £2624, 2s., (1884) £2563, 3s., plus £1212 for 1\ 
miles of railway. Pop. (1801) 291, (1831) 288, (1861) 
251, (1871) 249, (1881) 227.— Ord. Sur., shs. 25, 26, 

Pomathoni, a station in the S of Lasswade parish, 
Edinburghshire, on the Peebles railway, near Howgate 
village, 2J miles NE of Leadburn, and 15 S of Edin- 

Pomona or Mainland, the chief and much the largest 
of the Orkney islands. It lies southward of the centre 
of the Orkney archipelago ; is washed, on the W and 
the N, by the Atlantic Ocean ; is separated, on the NE, 
by narrow sounds from Rousay, Gairsay, Shapinshay, 
and some smaller adjacent islands, and by Westray Firth 
and Stronsay Firth from the entire group of the North 
Isles ; is washed, on the E, with exception of two or three 
intervening islets, by the German Ocean ; and is separated, 
on the S, by Holm Sound, Scapa Flow, and Hoy Sound 
from Burray, South Ronaldshay, Flotta, Hoy, and some 
smaller islands. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 
24J miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 16J miles ; 
and its area, in consequence of great and numerous in- 
dentations on its outline, is probably not more than 
150 square miles. Its western district, to the extent of 
about 16 miles by 11, is fairly compact, and has a 
somewhat ellipsoidal outline ; but its eastern district is 
mostly cut by intersections of the sea into a series of 
peninsulas and isthmuses, and ranges in breadth from a 
maximum of 8$ miles to a minimum of 2 or 3 fur- 
longs. Safe harbourage and pjlaces of anchorage occur 
at brief intervals on all the north-eastern, the eastern, 
and the southern coasts ; and are particularly good at 
Kirkwall Bay, Deer Sound, Holm Sound, and Stromness. 


Several fresh-water lakes — Stenness, Kirbister, Skaill, 
Boardhouse, Hundland, Swannay, and others — lie in the 
interior; abound in various kinds of trout; and emit 
considerable water power ; but there are no streams 
larger or longer than mere burns ; and salmon waters of 
any kind are entirely wanting. No spot is further than 
4J miles from the sea ; and by far the larger part of the 
area is not more than 2 miles. The western coasts, in 
general, are bold and precipitous, and often rise in mural 
cliffs, pierced with caves and natural arches, or torn and 
shattered into detached masses and isolated pinnacles ; 
the western district, though nowhere mountainous or 
wildly upland, comprises a considerable extent of hill 
and moor ; and the other districts, though all compara- 
tively low, likewise include many breadths and patches 
of moorish land ; but some large fertile valleys, possess- 
ing the double advantage of a sheltered position and a 
loamy soil, lie among the hills ; and an extensive 
aggregate of good arable land lies round the moors or 
along the shores. The parishes into which Pomona is 
divided are Birsay, Sandwick, Stromness, Evie, Ken- 
dall, Harray, Firth, Stenness, Orphir, Kirkwall, St 
Andrews, Deerness, and Holm ; but Birsay and Harray, 
Evie and Eendall, Firth and Stenness, and St Andrews 
and Deerness, are each pair mutually united. Pop. 
(1801) 13,929, (1831) 15,787, (1861) 17,240, (1871) 
16,541, (1881) 17,165. See Orkney. 

Ponfeigh, a collier village in Carmichael parish, 
Lanarkshire, with a station on the Lanark and Douglas 
branch of the Caledonian railway, near the right bank of 
Douglas Water, 4J miles S of Lanark. 

Poniel Water. See Douglas. 

Pool. See Muckhart. 

Poolewe, a village and a quoad sacra parish in Gair- 
loch parish, Ross-shire. The village stands at the 
head of Loch Ewe, and at one of the western ter- 
minations of the military road from Dingwall through 
the centre of Ross-shire, 2 miles NNW of the foot 
of Loch Maree, 6 NNW of Gairloch village, 7 S by 
W of Aultbea, 27J AYNW of Auchnasheen station, 
and 55J W by N of Dingwall. A chief point of com- 
munication across the Minch with the Outer Hebrides, 
it serves as a conjoint centre with Gairloch village and 
Kinlochewe for visiting the superb scenery of Loch 
Maree ; and has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments, an inn, an 
Established church, a Free church, and a public school. 
The Established church was built in 182S, and contains 
350 sittings. The quoad sacra parish, constituted by 
ecclesiastical authority in 1838, and reconstituted by 
civil authority in 1851, is in the presbytery of Loch - 
carron and synod of Glenelg. The minister's stipend 
is £138. Pop. of q. s. parish (1871) 2623, (1881) 2317, 
of whom 2198 were Gaelic-speaking. — Ord. Sur., sh. 91, 

Port. See Monteith, Port of. 

Port-Appin, a village in Lismore and Appin parish, 
Argyllshire, on the E shore of Loch Linnhe, opposite the 
NE end of Lismore island, and 3J miles SSW of Appin 
village. It has a temperance hotel, and is a ferry 

Port-Askaig. See Askaig, Port. 

Port-Bannatyne. See Kamesburgh. 

Portcarren, a village on the SE shore of Lismore 
island, Argyllshire, 5J miles NNW of Oban. 

Port-Charlotte, a village in Kilchoman parish, Islay 
island, Argyllshire, on the W coast of Loch Indal, 
opposite Laggan Point, 7J miles SW of Bridgend, and 

16 SW of Port-Askaig. It has a post office under 
Greenock, an inn, a distillery, and a public school. 
Pop. (1861) 562, (1871) 484, (1881) 502. 

Port-Crinan. See Crinan. 

Porteasie. See Portessie. 

Port-Edgar. See Queensferry. 

Port-Ellen, a seaport village in Kildalton parish, 
Islay island, Argyllshire, at the head of a small bay, 6 
miles NNE of the Mull of Oa, llf SSE of Bowmore, and 

17 W by S of Gigha. Founded in 1824, and named 
in compliment to Lady Ellinor Campbell of Islay, 


it rose rapidly into importance as a place of local com- 
merce ; and on a rocky promontory near the middle of 
its bay is a commodious quay, constructed in 1826 and 
improved in 1832. It has also safe anchorage ground, 
and a lighthouse ; is visited by the steamers which ply 
between Islay and Glasgow ; carries on a considerable 
amount of fishing ; and has a post office under 
Greenock, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, a branch of the Royal Bank, two 
inns, and a public school. Pop. (1841) 904, (1861) 
1007, (1871) 979, (1881) 989. 

Port-Elphinstone, a southern suburb of Inverurie, 
in Kintore parish, Aberdeenshire, on the right bank of 
the river Don. It took its name, and during 1807-54 
derived its importance, from being situated at the NW 
end of the quondam Aberdeen Canal ; it now contains an 
extensive goods station of the Great North of Scotland 
railway, and is still a convenient centre of trade ; and 
it has a post office under Inverurie, extensive grain 
mills, paper-mills, two saw-mills, a brewery, a nursery, 
a public school, and a public library. Pop. (1861) 421, 
(1871) 435, (1881) 473, of whom 356 were within Inver- 
urie burgh. — Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Port-Errol or Ward-of-Cruden, a coast village in 
Cruden parish, Aberdeenshire, at the mouth of the 
Water of Cruden, 11J miles NE of Ellon, under which 
it has a post and telegraph office. A promising station 
of the herring fishing, it has a lifeboat and rocket 
apparatus, an hotel, 68 boats, and a recent harbour,, 
whose inner basin is 300 feet long and 150 to 175 feet 
wide. The Aberdeen Lime Co. here ships corn, and im- 
ports coal, manures, etc. , doing a large business. Pop. 
(1881) 493.— Ord. Sur., sh. 87, 1876. 

Portessie, a fishing village in Rathven parish, Banff- 
shire, 1J mile ENE of Buckie. In 1727 it consisted of 
only five houses, but it has made such progress as now to 
possess 145 fishing boats, employing 290 men and boys ; 
and it has a Wesleyan Methodist chapel. Pop. (1793) 
178, (1841) 411, (1861) 575, (1871) 877, (1881) 1061.— 
Ord. Sur., shs. 95, 96, 1876. 

Port-Float. See Float Bay. 

Port-Gill. See Gill. 

Port-Glasgow, a parish, with a parliamentary burgh of 
the same name, on the N coast of the Lower Ward of Ren- 
frewshire. It is bounded-N by the Clyde, E arid S by 
Kilmalcolm, and W by Greenock. The boundary on 
the E and S is artificial, but on the N it is formed by 
the Clyde, and on the W by Devol Burn to a point 
about ^ mile above Wallace's Loup. The greatest length 
of the parish, from the corner of the West Harbour on 
the N to the extreme southern point, is fully 1J mile ; 
the greatest width, from Laigh Auchinleck on the E to 
Wallace's Loup on the W, is barely 1J mile ; and the 
area is 1031772 acres, of which 39 - 381 are foreshore 
and 48 - 524 water. There is a flat strip along the Clyde 
on the N side from 13 to 20 feet above sea-level, and 
from this the ground slopes rapidly up to the 200-feet 
line which lies immediately to the S of the burgh, and 
still more rapidly to the 500-feet line farther to the S. 
From this the rise to 600 feet is more gradual, and the 
highest points are 700 feet on the SW and 656 near the 
extreme S. The soil of the fiat tract along the Clyde is 
a very fertile loam, but that along the higher ground is 
cold and poor. The underlying rocks are mostly vol- 
canic. The drainage of the parish is effected by Devol 
Burn on the W — along the course of which there are 
several small waterfalls — and some smaller burns all flow- 
ing to the Clyde. In the SW is Douglehill Dam or 
Reservoir (2x1 furl.). The only object of interest 
beyond the town is Newark Castle in the NE, which is 
separately noticed. A line across the Clyde from 
Newark Castle to Cardross is the lower limit of the 
jurisdiction of the Clyde Trustees ; while below this the 
care of the channel and estuary is under the Clyde 
Lighthouse Trusti The parish is traversed from E to 
W by the main line of road from Glasgow along the 
edge of the river and Firth, and by the Glasgow, 
Paisley, and Greenock branches of both the Caledonian 
and Glasgow and South-Western railways. From the 



former the Wemyss Bay branch strikes off close to the 
western boundary of the parish. 

Civilly, the parish was, prior to 1695, in the parish 
of Kilmalcolm, and ecclesiastically, it is divided into 
the parishes of Port-Glasgow and Newark, the latter 
originally established in 1774 as a chapel of ease, but 
constituted as a quoad sacra charge in 1855. Both are 
in the presbytery of Greenock in the synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr, and the living of Port-Glasgow is worth £250. 
The churches are noticed in the following article, and 
the landward school board is united with that of East 
Greenock. The industries are noticed under the town. 
The principal landowner is Sir Michael Shaw-Stewart, 
Bart, of Greenock and Blackhall, and 12 others hold 
each an annual value of £500 or upwards, 54 hold each 
between £500 and £100, 45 hold each between £100 
and £50, and there are a number of smaller amount. 
Valuation, exclusive of burgh, (1884) £771, 13s. 
Pop. of entire parish (1801) 3865, (1831) 5192, (1861) 
7204, (1871) 9912, (1881) 10.913, of whom 5568 were 
males and 5345 females. Of the whole population 
10,802 were at that time within the parliamentary 
boundary, and 7626 were in the ecclesiastical parish. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Port-Glasgow, a seaport and parliamentary burgh on 
the Firth of Clyde, occupying the whole of the northern 
portion of the parish just described. It has a station 
on the Glasgow, Greenock, and Weniyss Bay section of 
the Caledonian railway, 19| miles WNW of Glasgow. 
The site is a belt of flat alluvial ground 13 to 20 feet 
above sea-level, lying along the shore of the Clyde, 
and as the ground to the S rises by two successive 
stretches of hill rising to over 500 feet, the appearance 
from the river is picturesque. The town itself is well 
built ; the principal streets following the line of the 
bay occupied by the docks, and the minor ones running 
parallel to these or striking off at right angles. The 
districts to the W and S are occupied by villas. Founded 
in the middle of the 17th century, it has none of the 
ancient historical associations belonging to many of the 
other burghs along the Clyde. The earlier seaports 
connected with the trade of Glasgow were situated on 
the Ayrshire coast, but between 1650 and 1660 the 
commerce of the great city of the west had so much in- 
creased that the distant harbours were found expensive 
and inconvenient, and the community resolved to have 
a harbour of their own. The deepening of the bed of 
the Clyde was as yet unthought of, and after unsuccess- 
ful efforts to acquire ground at Troon and at Dumbar- 
ton, a deputation of the council reported on 4 Jan. 
1668 that they had had ' ane meiting yeasternight with 
the lairds, elder and younger, of Newark, and that they 
had spoke with them anent the taking of ane piece of 
land of theirs in feu, for loadning and livering of their 
ships there, anchoring and building ane harbor there, 
and that the said lairds had subscryvit a contract of 
feu this morning : quhilt was all allowed and approvine 
be said magestratis and counsell, and efter this the twa 
fen contracts made between the saidis lairdis of Newark, 
elder and yor., and the towne were red and subscryvit, 
being that the saids Newark, elder and yor., had set 
ane merk land, as a pairt of their lands of Newark to 
the towne, in feu for payment yeirlie of four merks feu 
dewtie, and relieving them of the king's taxatioune 
effeirand to a merk land. ' On the 13 acres thus acquired 
the town soon began to grow, as the erection of a pier 
and docks was set about at once, and the place under 
the name of Newport Glasgow was by Crown charter 
constituted a free port and a burgh of barony. From 
this time until its trade received a very severe check 
from the deepening of the Clyde and the consequent 
transference of the greater portion of the commerce to 
Glasgow, the port prospered steadily. In 1710 it was 
constituted the principal custom-house port of the Clyde, 
and soon afterwards the town extended its original limits 
so greatly that it came in contact with, and practically 
absorbed the village of Newark — a burgh of barony be- 
longing to Hamilton of Wishaw. Port-Glasgow thus 
.became two burghs of barony subject to two different 


superiors, a state of matters that was found so incon- 
venient that an act of parliament was obtained in 1775 
erecting them into a separate municipality under council- 
lors called trustees. Besides other provisions, power 
was given to bring in water ; to pave, clean, and watch 
the streets ; to erect public markets ; and to repair the 
quays. Harbour matters have all along been diligently 
attended to, and the original graving dock, built in 
1762, and subsequently improved at great expense, was 
the first graving dock in Scotland. It was in 1873-74 
superseded by a new one of improved construction. 
The length of its floor is 310 feet, the width at the 
entrance 45 feet, the depth of water on the cill at low 
water is 6 feet, at high water of neap tides 14 feet, and 
at high water of spring tides 16 feet. The original har- 
bour occupied the position now covered by the West 
and East Harbours, the wet dock to the E, which is 
capable of floating very large vessels, having been 
formed, in 1S34 and subsequent years, in a bay called 
Newark Bay. It covers an area of 12 acres, and cost 
about £40,000. Farther E still are ponds and enclosures 
for the storage of timber. All the basins are well shel- 
tered, easy of access, and lie in a convenient position 
with regard to the fairway of the Clyde, which is at this 
point somewhat narrowed by shoals, but is clearly and 
carefully marked out by buoys and beacons. Harbour 
affairs are managed by a body of trustees, comprising 
the provost, magistrates, and town councillors of the 
place, the lord provost and senior bailie of Glasgow, and 
four members elected by the shipowners and ratepayers. 
Port-Glasgow is an independent port, having jurisdic- 
tion on the S side of the Clyde from the Greenock whale- 
fishery buildings eastward to Blantyre near Bishopton 
House, and on the N side of the Clyde from the point 
of Ardmore eastward to the W end of Dumbuck Hill. 
It includes the navigation of the Leven to Dumbarton. 
The number of vessels registered in the port with their 
tonnage has been, at various dates, as follows : — 


No. of Vessels. 






















The great falling off owing to almost the whole 
of the coasting trade being removed to Glasgow, in 
consequence of the deepening of the Clyde, and the 
subsequent improvement due to the natural growth of 
the port itself, is clearly shown. In 1868, 29 ships, 
with a tonnage of 8851 tons, were sailing vessels, while 
10 with 820 tons were steamers. In 1884, 18 ships 
of 8570 tons were sailing vessels, while 16 with 2751 
tons were steamers. The following table shows the 
tonnage of vessels that entered and cleared from and to 
foreign and colonial ports and coastwise, with cargoes 
and ballast, at various dates : — 

















The amount of customs in 1864 was £106,925; 1871, 
£18,330 ; 1873, £8008 ; 1874, £1183 ; 1883, not given. 
Part of the enormous falling off is due to the reduction 
in the duties on sugar. The principal trade is with 
British North America, and the next with the West 
Indies, these two branches of commerce employing about 


three-quarters of the tonnage entering the port. Trade 
is also carried on with the United States, the Mediter- 
ranean, and the East Indies. The North American 
import trade is chiefly in timber. The principal exports 
are iron, steel, soft goods, machinery, and coal, the last 
to the extent of about 20,000 tons annually. 

The industries connected with the town are ship- 
building, saw mills, iron and brass foundries, sail-cloth 
factories, and establishments for the manufacture of 
sails, blocks, and rivets. 

Public Buildings, Municipality, etc. — The railway 
line runs nearly parallel to the shore through the 
middle of the town, and the station is near the centre. 
The principal streets are Fore Street, fronting the East 
and West Harbours ; Bay Street, fronting the Wet Dock ; 
and King Street and Princes Street parallel to Fore 
Street. The townhouse is a good Doric building, with 
tetrastyle portico, erected in 1815 at a cost £12,000, 
and containing council chambers, town offices, court 
house, and police station. The clock-spire is 150 feet 
high. The Public Hall, in Princes Street, was erected 
in 1873. The parish church, erected in 1823 at a cost 
of £3000, is a plain quadrangular building with 1200 
sittings. Newark church, to the SW, is a plain build- 
ing of 1774, with 1500 sittings. The first Free church 
dates from the Disruption, and contains 950 sittings ; 
the second, formerly a church connected with the 
Reformed Presbyterians, has 300 sittings ; and the 
third, erected in the west end, was opened in 1876, and 
contains 500 sittings. The two U.P. churches call 
for no particular notice. St Mary's Episcopal church, 
at the E end of the town, was built in 1856-57, by Miss 
Stewart, at a cost of £4000, and endowed by her with 
a fund of £10,000. It contains 340 sittings. St 
John's Roman Catholic church, with 600 sittings, was 
erected in 1854, and superseded a previous building. 
The following are the schools, with their accommodation, 
average attendance, and grants in 1883-S4 : — Academy 
Place (337, 234, £180, 7s.), Bouverie Terrace (176, 185, 
£99, 18s. 8d.), Chapelton (450, 293, £258, 2s.), King 
Street (217, 230, £127, 7s.), Princes Street ( „ , 12, 
£4, 6s.), Beaton's Free (181, 153, £113, 6s.), Episcopal 
(106, 97, £82, 2s. 6d.), and Roman Catholic (378, 403, 
£277, 5s.). 

As has been already noticed, the burgh acquired 
municipal government in 1775, and the powers of the 
then corporation were enlarged by a subsequent act in 
1803, when provision was made for the erection of a 
new court house, a jail, and other public buildings. It 
was constituted a parliamentary burgh in 1832, and by 
the burgh reform act of 1833 the number of the 
councillors was reduced from 13 to 9. Since that time, 

part of the general 
police act has been 
adopted, and there 
are now a provost, 3 
bailies, and 5 coun- 
cillors. The corpora- 
tion revenue, in 1833, 
was £1889 ; in 1865, 
£4150 ; in 1883, in- 
clusive of gas-work, 
£13,999. The police 
force consists of 9 
men (1 to every 
1473 of the popula- 
tion), and the yearly 
pay of the superin- 
tendent is £143. The 
town has a head post 
office, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, and 
telegraph departments; branch offices of the Bank of 
Scotland, Clydesdale, Royal, and Union Banks ; agencies 
of 31 insurance companies ; and several good hotels. 
There is a Liberal newspaper, The Port-Glasgow Observer 
(1875), published every Saturday. Among the miscel- 
laneous institutions may be noticed a Volunteer Drill 
Hall, an Oddfellows Hall, a Public Library and Reading 
Room, and the usual benevolent societies. There is a 

Seal of Port-Glasgow. 


weekly market on Friday, and a three days' fair on ther 
Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday before the first 
Thursday of July. There is a burgh court every Thurs- 
day ; ordinary justice of peace courts are held on 
alternate Mondays ; and justice of peace small debt 
courts on the first Monday of every month. 

Port-Glasgowunites with Dumbarton, Renfrew, Ruther- 
glen, and Kilmarnock in sending a member to serve 
in parliament. Parliamentary constituency (1885) 1387 ; 
municipal 1847. Valuation (1876) £36,983, (1885) 
£54,040. Pop. (1841) 6938, (1861) 7214, (1871) 9851, 
(1881) 10,802, of whom 5482 were males and 5320 
females. Houses (1881) 2166 inhabited, 188 unin- 
habited, and 1 building. The population of the police 
burgh, of which the boundary extends farther W and 
includes part of the parish of Easter Greenock, was, in 
1881, 13,224. 

Port-Gordon, a fishing village in Rathven parish, 
Banffshire, 2£ miles SW of Buckie, 3J E by S of the 
mouth of the Spey, and 5J NE of Fochabers. Founded 
in 1797 by the fourth Duke of Gordon, it ranks as a 
creek of the port of Banff, and does some trade in 
exporting grain and importing salt and coals. Its 99 
fishing-boats employ 200 men and boys ; and its arti- 
ficial harbour, having fallen into decay in spite of 
repeated renewals and enlargements, has been super- 
seded by a new harbour, which, formed in 1870-74 
at a cost of £15,000 by the Duke of Richmond, com- 
prises two breakwaters, two piers, a quay berthage of 
1400 feet, and a basin 3 acres in area. A good water 
supply was introduced in 1884. Pop. (1841) 457, 
(1861) 630, (1871) 970, (1881) 737.— Ord. Sur., sh. 95, 

Portgower. See Loth. 

Portincross Castle. See Kilbride, West. 

Port-Kingston. See Kingston. 

Portknockie, a fishing village in Rathven quoad civilia 
parish, but in Cullen quoad sacra parish, Banffshire, on 
the coast, adjacent to Scar Nose, If mile NW of Cullen 
town, and 4J miles NE of Buckie. Founded in 1677, 
it carries on fishing in 99 large boats and 42 smaller 
ones ; and has a police station, a chapel of ease, a Free 
church, and a public school. Seafield chapel of ease, 
which was built by subscription about the year 1840, 
and which contains 450 sittings, in 1884 had a district 
assigned to it as a quoad sacra parochial church. Pop. 
(1793) 243, (1837) 750, (1861) 1159, (1871) 1235, (1S81) 
1102.— Ord. Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 

Portlethen, a fishing village and a quoad sacra parish 
in Banchory-Devenick parish, Kincardineshire. The 
village stands on the coast, 7 furlongs E by S of Port- 
lethen station on the North-Eastern section of the 
Caledonian railway, this being 8 miles S by W of Aber- 
deen. The quoad sacra parish, constituted by the court 
of teinds in 1856, is in the presbytery and synod of 
Aberdeen. The church contains 460 sittings. Pop. of 
village (1861) 265, (1871) 315, (1881) 315 ; of q. s. 
parish (1871) 1789, (1SS1) 1610.— Ord. Sur., sh. 67, 

Port-Logan, a seaport village on the W coast of Kirk- 
maiden parish, Wigtownshire, at the head of Portnessock 
Bay, 14 miles S by E of Stranraer. It has a post and 
telegraph office, a public school, and a jetty. A circular 
tidal fish-pond, 10 yards in diameter, has been excavated 
in the cliffs to the N of the bay, and contains many 
tame cod and a few ' blockans ' or coal fish. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 1, 1856. 

Portmahomaek, a fishing village in Tarbat parish, 
NE Ross and Cromarty, on the SE side of the entrance 
to Dornoch Firth, 3 miles SSW of Tarbat Ness, and 9f 
ENE of Tain. It has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 25 fishing 
boats, and a pier 420 feet long, erected at a cost of 
£3168. Pop. (1861) 4S9, (1871) 458, (1881) 301.— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 94, 1878. 

Portmary, an estate, with a mansion, on the coast of 
Rerrick parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, ~i\ miles SE of 
Kirkcudbright, and 1 A mile S by E of Dundrennan Abbey. 
The name is said to be modern ; but the rock is shown 



' from which Queen Mary embarked on her flight to 
England. See Dundrennan and Terregler. 

Portmoak, a parish of E Kinross-shire, containing 
Scotlandwell village, 5 miles W of Leslie, and 6J (only 
4§ as the crow flies) E by S of Kinross, under which it 
has a post office. It is bounded SW by Cleish, W by 
Kinross, Loch Leven, and Orwell, and on all other sides 
by Fife, viz., N by Strathmiglo, NE by Falkland, E by 
Leslie and Kinglassie, and S by Auchterarder and 
Ballingry. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 5 miles ; 
its breadth, from E to W, varies between 7 furlongs 
and 4§ miles ; and its area is 9957 acres, of which 124 
belong to a detached farm near Strathendry, surrounded 
by Kinglassie and Leslie. Loch Leven, to the extent of 
5 miles along its eastern and its southern shore, margins 
the parish ; the river Leven, flowing in an artificial cut 
from Loch Leven, goes lj mile east-north-eastward 
across the interior ; and Gairney "Water, running 
north-north-eastward into Loch Leven, forms for 1 mile 
the southern part of the boundary with Kinross. From 
the shore of Loch Leven (353 feet above sea-level) the 
surface rises southward to flat-topped BenartyHill (1167 
feet) on the Ballingry border, and eastward to Bishop 
Hill, which culminates near Kinnesswood village in 
White Craigs (1492 feet), lg mile ENE of the nearest 
point of the loch. (See Lomond Hills.) All the parts 
of the parish not occupied by the two hill ridges and 
their skirts are narrow hanging plains ; and the whole 
is a rich landscape of fine meadows, fertile fields, thriv- 
ing plantations, beautiful braes, romantic crags, and 
picturesque sky-lines, exquisitely mirrored in Loch 
Leven. Copious springs of pure water are numerous in 
the north ; and three within 400 yards of one another, 
in the neighbourhood of Scotlandwell, emit as much 
water as, with a suitable fall, would drive a mill. 
Eruptive rocks are in the hills, and have been worked ; 
sandstone abounds, but is not quarried ; limestone is 
plentiful, and has been calcined to the amount of 4000 
tons of carbonate in the year ; and ironstone and coal, 
the former of excellent quality, were mined a number of 
years ago. The soil of most of the arable grounds is 
light, early, and exceedingly fertile. About 350 acres 
are under wood ; three-fourths of the entire area are in 
tillage ; and the rest of the land is nearly all pasture. 
Kirkness, noticed separately, is the principal residence ; 
and the ruin of an old chapel at Scotlandwell is the only 
antiquity. Andrew Wyntoun {flo. 1400), the chronicler; 
John Douglas (d. 1574), the first' tulchan' Archbishop of 
St Andrews ; and Michael Bruce (1746-67), the poet, were 
natives of Portmoak ; whilst the Rev. Ebenezer Erskiue 
(1680-1754) was its minister from 1703 till in 1733 he 
founded the Secession at Gairney Bridge, where a 
monument was erected to celebrate the event in 1884. 
Five proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 19 of between £100 and £500. Portmoak is 
in the presbytery of Kinross and the synod of Fife ; the 
living is worth £350. The parish church, at Scotland- 
well, was built in 1S39, and contains 730 sittings. 
Other places of worship are Portmoak Free church and 
Balgedie HP. church. The public school, with accom- 
modation for 162 children, had (1884) an average 
attendance of 134, and a grant of £113, 5s. Valuation 
(1860) £10,357, (1882) £11,189. Pop. (1801) 1151, 
(1831) 1554, (1861) 1450, (1871) 1193, (1881) 1042.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Port-Monteith. See Monteith, Port of. 

Port-Montgomery. See Portpatrick. 

Portmore, an estate, with a mansion, in Eddleston 
parish, Peeblesshire, 1$ mile NNE of Eddleston station. 
Originally part of the Blackbarony estate, it was 
acquired in the early part of the 18th century by the 
Earl of Portmore (a title extinct since 1835), and in 
1798 was sold to Alex. Mackenzie, W.S., whose grand- 
son, William Forbes Mackenzie (1801-62), represented 
Peeblesshire for sixteen years, and carried through 
Parliament the Public House Act of 1852 that bears 
his name. His son, Colin James Mackenzie, Esq. 
(b. 1835 ; sue. 1862), holds 9403 acres in the shire, 
valued at £4282 per annum. The mansion, a Scottish 


Baronial edifice, erected in 1850 from designs by the 
late David Bryee, R.S.A., was destroyed by fire in 
April 1883, but has since been restored. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 24, 1864. 

Portnacraig, a village in Logierait parish, Perth- 
shire, on the right bank of the Tummel, opposite 

Portnacroish, a village in Appin district, Argyllshire, 
on the E side of Loch Linnhe, 14 miles NNE of Oban. 
Its plain Episcopalian church, St Cross, containing 230 
sittings, was built about 1809, and repaired in 1878. 

Portnahaven, a village and a quoad, sacra parish in 
Kilchoman parish, Islay island, Argyllshire. The 
village stands at the south-western extremity of Islay, 
adjacent to the islet and lighthouse of Oversay, at 
Rhynns Point, 10J miles NW by W of the Mull of Oa, 
15 J SW of Bridgend,' and 24 SW of Port-Askaig. It 
occupies a picturesque, sheltered, rocky nook, on a 
shore often lashed with tempestuous billows ; and has a 
post office under Greenock, an Established church built 
at the expense of Government, a Free church, and a 
new public school. The quoad sacra parish was consti- 
tuted first by the ecclesiastical courts, next in 1849 by 
the court of teinds, and is in the presbytery of Islay 
and Jura and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend 
is £150. Pop. of village (1871) 411, (1881) 361 ; of 
q. s. parish (1871) 979, (1881) 860. 

Portnessock Bay, a bay on the W side of Kirkmaiden 
parish, Wigtownshire, measuring 10J furlongs across 
the entrance, and 6J thence to its inmost recess. See 

Portnockie. See Portknockie. 

Portobello, a town and a quoad sacra parish in Dud- 
dingston and South Leith parishes, Edinburghshire. A 
favourite watering-place and a parliamentary burgh, the 
town stands on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth, 
3 miles E of Edinburgh, 3 SE of Leith, and 2J WNW 
of Musselburgh. With Leith it is connected with a 
branch of the North British ; and with Edinburgh by 
the main line (1846) of that railway, by the Edinburgh 
Suburban railway (1884), and by a tramway 3J miles 
long, opened in 1875, and doubled in 1881. Prior to 
1762 its site and the lands around it were a moorish 
furzy waste, called the Figgate Whins, of no value 
whatever for agricultural purposes, and differing from a 
desert only in the presence of one human dwelling. 
But in that year they were let to a tenant at a rent 
equal to £11, 2s. 2|d. sterling, and a few months after- 
wards sold to Baron Muir for £1500. Parts of them 
now began to be feued out at £3 per acre ; and so early 
as 1804 some portions were sub-fened at a perpetual 
rent of £40 per acre. Even the solitary hut, which was 
destined to give its name to the town, was built no 
earlier than 1742. A humble thatched cottage, it stood 
till 1862 on the SW side of the High Street, on the 
site now occupied by the old town-hall, an object of 
interest to the townspeople and of curiosity to strangers. 
It was long used as a hostelry for travellers on a road 
which led out from the Fishwives' Causeway, across the 
whins, towards Musselburgh ; and, according to tradi- 
tion, it was built by a sailor, or marine, who had served 
under Admiral Vernon in the expedition of 1739, and 
was called by him Porto-Bello, in memory of his hav- 
ing acted a part in the capture of the town of that 
name on the Isthmus of Panama. The Figgate Whins 
bore an evil reputation as a haunt of smugglers and 
robbers. Scott makes Effie Deans embark here on the 
smuggling lugger (1736) ; and in 1753 we find one 
' George Hamilton in Portobello ' advertising in the 
Edinburgh Courant that he would pay a reward of 
£3 to any one who should discover the author of a 
scandalous report representing him as having har- 
boured robbers in his house. In 1765 Mr William 
Jamieson, the feuar under Baron Muir, discovered near 
the Figgate Burn a valuable bed of clay ; and he erected 
on the banks of the stream, first a brick and tile work, 
and afterwards an earthenware manufactory. These 
public works gave rise to a small village, and co-operated 
with other and subsequent works to swell the village 


into a small town. About the beginning of the century 
the beauty of the beach, the fineness of its sands, and 
its general eligibility as a bathing-place, began to draw 
the attention of the citizens of Edinburgh ; and thence- 
forth many neat dwelling-houses and numerous villas 
arose for the accommodation of summer visitors, con- 
verting the town into a fashionable watering-place. 
Great as has been the growth of Portobello, that growth 
is by no means complete, the wide projected extensions 
of 1876 to the E of Joppa and the S of the railway being 
still only partly finished, going on, or not even yet 
begun. In its existing or compact condition the town 
forms a belt along the firth 7 furlongs in length by from 
250 yards to i mile in breadth. The principal street 
extends from NW to SE along the Edinburgh and 
Berwick highroad, and bears over its NW half the name 
of High Street. The Figgate Burn intersects the town near 
its north-western end ; the only parts of the burgh on the 
Leith side of the stream being mainly occupied by brick 
and bottle works. The High Street sends off at brief 
intervals, and generally at right angles, 12 or 13 alleys 
and streets to the beach. Those to the NW" are narrow, 
and belong to the early periods of the town's existence ; 
but those in the middle district, and towards the SE, 
increase in elegance as the distance recedes from the 
burn. The principal — mentioning them in regular 
order — bear the names of Tower, Bath, Regent, Welling- 
ton, Melville, Pitt, John, James, and Hamilton Streets. 
The centre of the town, or what in old times would have 
been called the Cross, is a point at which Bath Street 
goes 330 yards north-eastward to the sea, and a spacious 
beautiful street, called Brighton Place, 400 yards south- 
westward to the station — Brighton Place being flanked 
by Brighton and Lee Crescents. So formidable an array 
of street lines, disposed over so great a space, would 
seem to indicate no small magnitude of town, and a very 
considerable amount of population. But much of its 
area is open ground, much is occupied by garden-plots 
or villa enclosures, and much is rather a sprinkling of 
houses separately produced by individual taste or caprice, 
than a collection of edifices upon any preconcerted plan. 
Yet most of the newer parts are comparatively regular 
both in their street lines and in their houses, and pro- 
mise to combine with future extensions to render Porto- 
bello one of the neatest, or even one of'the most elegant 
of second-rate provincial towns in Great Britain. The 
extensive brick-work which figured so prominently in 
the origination of the town has contributed much to 
disfigure it by tempting the construction of many of the 
houses with brick. But, over by much the greater 
part of the area, the building material is the same 
beautiful light-coloured sandstone which gives so per- 
vading a charm to the architecture of the metropolis ; 
and, as the brick edifices decay, it will probably be used 
for the houses which succeed them, and be allowed the 
universal adoption it deserves. 

The curious Tower which overlooks the beach at the foot 
of Tower Street is a fantastic pile, built by the eccentric 
Mr Cunningham, who was one of the earliest subfeuars 
under Mr Jamieson. Antique carved stones appear in 
the cornices and the windows, and are alleged to have 
belonged partly to the Cross of Edinburgh, and partly 
to the dilapidated ecclesiastical piles of St Andrews. 
An excellent suite of hot and cold salt-water baths was 
erected in 1S06 at a cost of £4000, between the foot 
of Bath Street and that of Regent Street. An edifice at 
the head of Bath Street was once an assembly-room, but 
is now an inn. A neat town-hall, in a mixed style of 
French and Flemish, was built in 1862-63 by a limited 
liability company at a cost of £3000, on the S side of 
the High Street, to the E of Brighton Place. To the 
W, on the opposite side of the High Street, are the fine 
new Municipal Buildings, Scottish Baronial in style, 
erected in 1878 at a cost of £7000, from designs by 
Messrs R. Paterson & Son. A principal feature is a 
three-dialled clock tower, surmounted by a flagstaff ; and 
the town-hall also has its public clock. The fine level 
sands, 230 yards broad at low-water, on a Saturday 
afternoon of summer present an animated scene, with 


the ponies and donkeys, the pleasure boats and bathing- 
coaches, the throng of holiday-makers, and what not 
else besides. They are skirted by a smooth esplanade 
(1860), 1420 yards long, or a little over J mile, midway on 
which, at the foot of Wellington Street, is the Prince 
of Wales's Drinking Fountain. In 1870-71 a promenade 
pier was constructed by a joint-stock company near the 
foot of Bath Street, at a cost of £7000. It extends 
1250 feet into the sea, and is 22 feet broad, or 60 at the 
head, which is sin-mounted by a restaurant and an obser- 
vatory. The pier is a calling place for excursion steamers, 
and serves not only for promenade concerts, but also for 
boating and (up to 9 a. m. ) for swimming. 

The view from the pier-head is one of singular beauty 
and interest — Inchkeith to the N, and the winding 
shores of Fife ; to the NE, North Berwick Law and a 
peep of the Bass ; to the E, Aberlady Bay, Prestonpans, 
Musselburgh, and the spire of Inveresk ; to the S, the 
woods of Niddrie, Craigmillar Castle, and the Pentland 
Hills ; and to the W, Arthur's Seat and a glimpse of 
Edinburgh. See these burnished by setting sun, or 
silvered by summer moon, and think of their many 
memories — the Pentlands, or ' lands of the Picts, ' and 
Rullion Green ; Inveresk, with its Roman remains ; 
Arthur's Seat, named after the ' Blameless King, ' and 
Edinburgh, after Eadwiue of Northumbria ; Kinghorn 
yonder, where King Alexander met his doom ; Wilkie's 
' ain blue Lomonds ; ' the battlefields of Pinkie and 
Prestonpans ; Craigmillar, where Queen Mary wept ; 
and Carterry Hill, where she resigned her crown. Nay, 
on these very sands Prince Charlie arrayed his forces on 
the eve of the march to Derby ; George IV. held a grand 
review; and Scott composed the Flodden canto of 
Marmion, walking his black horse within the beating 
of the surge, or going off as if at the charge, with the 
spray dashing about him.* At Shrub Mount, Porto- 
bello, Hugh 'Miller (1S02-56) died by his own hand; 
and Portobello has been the birthplace or residence of 
two or three other men of mark — David Laing, LL. D. 
(1790-1878), antiquary ; Prof. Robert Jameson (1774- 
1854), mineralogist; and Samuel Brown, M.D. (1817-57), 
chemist and author. 

The quoad sacra parish church, in Melville Street, is 
a plain edifice, with a clock cupola, erected in 1810 as a 
chapel of ease at a cost of £2650, enlarged in 1815 and 
1878, and containing 966 sittings. The parish was con- 
stituted by the General Assembly in 1834. The Free 
church, in Hamilton Terrace, Joppa, was built in 1875- 
77, at a cost of £9000, from designs by Mr John Honey- 
man, and is a really striking edifice in the Early Deco- 
rated style of the close of the 13th century, its only 
defect being a certain thinness. It consists of an aisled 
nave, with 660 sittings and traceried stained-glass win- 
dows, and of a tower and spire 170 feet high, with a 
deep-toned bell of 36 cwt. The Windsor Place U.P. 
church, built in 1879-80, at a cost of £8500, from de- 
signs by Messrs Stewart & Menzies, is a less successful 
Gothic structure, consisting of nave and transepts, with 
760 sittings and a NW tower and spire 130 feet high. 
The Regent Street U.P. church is a very plain but 
commodious building, reconstructed in 1880 from a pre- 
vious church. St Mark's Episcopal Church, consecrated 
in 1828, is an ugly unecclesiastical building, with a heavy 
Grecian portico, a stained-glass window, and 400 sit- 
tings. St John's Roman Catholic church (1835 ; enlarged 
1878 ; 400 sittings), in Brighton Place, is plain but neat ; 
and the same may be said of the Congregational church 
in Wellington Street. An Established congregation 
also worships in the old Town-hall. A beautiful ceme- 
tery, nearly 1 J mile SE of the centre of the town, and 4 
acres in extent, was laid out in 1 876-77. The new Board 
School, on the Niddrie road, a little beyond the station, 

* On one occasion Sir Archibald Allison, while a member of the 
Yeomanry Cavalry, after a six hours' drill on Portobello sands, 
dined, drove 21 miles to a ball, danced ail night, drove back, 
bathed in the sea, and went to another six hours' drill, ' without 
either being in bed or experiencing the least fatigue.' His right- 
hand man in the front rank during this mimic war was Lockhart, 
Sir Walter's son-in-law. 


Seal of Portobello. 


■was built in 1875-76 at a cost of £7000, and is a good 
one-story edifice, semi-collegiate in style, with four 
classrooms and a central mixed school hall, 54 feet 
square and 27 high. 

The town besides has a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, 
branches of the Clydesdale, National, and Royal Banks, 
2 hotels, a gas-light company, a drainage system which 
cost £11,000, a good water supply 
from the Edinburgh waterworks, a 
second railway station at Joppa, a 
literary institute (1881), a young 
men's literary society (1859), Liberal 
and Conservative associations, a 
choral society, boating, curling, and 
swimming clubs, masonic and other 
lodges, etc. It is governed by a 
provost, 2 bailies, and 6 councillors, 
who also act as police commissioners 
under the Act of 1862. By the Re- 
form Act of 1833 Portobello returns 
one member to parliament, con- 
jointly with Leith and Musselburgh. Its parliamentary 
and its municipal constituency number 998 and 1368 in 
1885. Valuation (1856) £16,843, (1866) £25,196, (1876) 
£37,861, (1885) £46,075. Pop. (1841) 3587, (1851) 3527, 
(1861) 4366, (1871) 5551, (1881) 6926, of whom 3863 
were females, 6794 were in the parliamentary burgh, 111 
were in South Leith parish, and 4504 were in Portobello 
quoad sacra parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 
Port of Monteith. See Monteith, Port of. 
Portpatrick, a Wigtownshire village and parish, on 
the W coast of the Rhinns of Galloway. The village by 
sea is 21^- miles NE of Donaghadee in Ireland, whilst, 
as terminus of the Portpatrick section (1861) of the 
Caledonian railway, it is 7f miles SW of Stranraer, 61 
Wby S of Castle-Douglas, 80i WSW of Dumfries, 170J 
SW of Edinburgh, and 66J SSW of Ayr. It lies snugly 
sheltered in a small triangular opening in the rock- 
bound coast, the base of the triangle being formed by 
the sea, and the other two sides by towering cliffs, which 
in places rise sheer to 130 feet, and behind recede into 
hills 300 to 400 feet high. The declivities of the 
amphitheatre at the sides of the little bay are steep 
and impracticable ; and, even behind the town, except 
where a streamlet has cleft them into a cleugh and 
ploughed down a path for the highroad and rail- 
way, they are sufficiently rapid to give the whole 
enclosed space the appearance of a vast quarry, or the 
half of a huge bowl. Neither by land, nor north- 
ward or southward by sea, is the town seen until it is 
almost entered ; and from either position, especially 
from the sea, it wears an aspect of remarkable seclusion. 
Yet, though the nest in which it sits is almost as bare 
of embellishment as the bald head of a hill of the 
hardest primitive rock, Portpatrick basks in a south- 
westerly exposure, and during high winds from most 
points of the compass is enviably snug, so that of late 
years many patients have been recommended by the 
faculty to seek a shelter here from the keen east winds of 
spring and early summer. Most of the houses are of 
recent date ; and all are built of native greywacke. The 
newest and principal street, about 350 yards long, com- 
mences near the centre of the basin at the harbour, and, 
running up towards the gorge or incision in the hill- 
screen, carries out the road to Stranraer. The street next 
in importance is bisected by the former nearly in the 
middle, has a slight curvature in its direction, and over- 
looks the harbour. Behind are some smaller streets. 

The harbour of Portpatrick lies open to winds which 
blow about eight months in the year, and is exposed to 
a swell, which sometimes rolls into it with great 
violence. It was long a mere natural inlet, without 
any projecting elbow or sheltered recess ; and the 
vessels which frequented it required to be flat-bottomed, 
and were drawn aground and re-launched at every 
voyage. But a pier of a kind then thought to be one 
of the finest in Britain, was built at it in 1774 ; and a 
reflecting lighthouse was erected to correspond with one 


on the opposite coast at Donaghadee. In 1821 an artificial 
harbour on a grand scale was commenced from designs 
by Rennie. Its form is nearly that of a horse-shoe ; the 
sides running our into piers, which at the entrance 
approach within 250 feet of each other. On the S side 
of the enclosed basin the old pier of 1774 projects in- 
ward on a line nearer the land than the centre of the 
basin ; and on the other side is a large rock or skerry 
rising above the surface of the water, and partially pro- 
tecting the space within from the wind and swell at the 
entrance. The harbour is thus divided into an outer 
and an inner harbour ; and the passage from the former 
to the latter, between the old pier and the skerry, has 
a width of 105 feet. The dimensions of the entire 
harbour, outer and inner, are 710 by 495 feet. The 
depth of the outer harbour is from 4 to 20 feet at low 
water spring tides ; and that of the inner harbour is on 
the average 6£ feet ; but that over a bank in the pas- 
sage between them is only 2J feet at low water spring 
tides. The parapets of the new piers are formed of 
large blocks of grey limestone from Wales ; and that of 
the southern one terminates in a semicircular sweep, 
within which rose a handsome lighthouse of the same- 
material, and 46 feet high. Portpatrick, both as a sea- 
port and as a town, owed nearly all its former importance 
to its commanding the shortest communication from 
Britain to Ireland. A weekly mail across the channel 
was established at it in 1662 ; and a considerable trade 
with Ireland resulted from the formation of the pier in 
1774 ; so that the importation of cattle and horses rose 
from 17,275 in 1790 to 20,000 in 1812, to sink again to 
1080 in 1837. Four good-sized vessels were also built 
here, the last in 1790. A great increase of business was 
expected to arise from the construction of the new 
harbour and the employment of two steam mail- packets, 
which transmitted from 8000 to 10,000 letters per diem 
in 1838, and which in the twelve preceding years con- 
veyed an annual average of 12,000 passengers, besides 
linens and lime from Ireland, coals from Ayrshire, and 
cotton goods from Glasgow and Manchester. There was 
a large custom-house ; and troops were often shipped 
here for Ireland. But the establishment of communica- 
tion between Glasgow and Belfast, between Holyhead 
and Dublin, and later, between Stranraer and Belfast, 
did Portpatrick severe damage, reducing it suddenly to 
insignificance. The mail ceased to run in 1849 ; the 
lighthouse was removed in 1869 ; and the massive 
harbour-works, which cost the country £500,000, are 
lapsing fast to a state of utter ruin. A submarine 
telegraph cable, from Portpatrick to Donaghadee, was 
laid on 23 May 1853. 

Portpatrick derives its name from the great Apostle of 
Ireland, who once, according to legend, here crossed the 
channel at a single stride, and left a de,ep footprint on a 
rock that was removed in the formation of the harbour. 
On another occasion, the savages of Glenapp had cut off 
his head ; but, picking it up, the Saint quietly walked 
to Portpatrick, plunged into the sea, and, holding his 
liead in his teeth, swam safely to the opposite shore. 
A chalybeate spring bears the name of St Patrick's 
Well ; whilst a pre-Reformation chapel, called Chapel 
Patrick, stood on or near the site of the old parish 
church. The babe, St Cuthbert, too, with Sabina, his 
mother, is said to have crossed from Ireland on a stone 
currach, and landed ' in Galweia, in that region called 
Rennii, in the harbour of Rintsnoc,' which Skene 
identifies with Portpatrick. The barony of Portree, 
within which were the village and haven of Portpatrick, 
belonged anciently to the family of Adair of Kilhilt, 
from whom, about 1608, it passed to Sir Hew Mont- 
gomery (afterwards Viscount Airds, in the county of 
Down). It remained in his family for three genera- 
tions, and he speedily obtained the erection of the 
village into a burgh-of-barony, and imposed on it the 
name of Port Montgomery — a name, however, that 
never came much into vogue. Hitherto all the lands 
which constitute the present parish had belonged to the 
parish of Inch, and were called the Black Quarter of 
Inch. But in 1628 a charter, granted by Charles I., 


detached them— Portree, Kilhilt, and Sorbies — from 
Inch, erected them into a separate parish, ordained that 
a church which was then building should be the parish 
church, and constituted it a rectory under the patronage 
of the lord of the manor. Another charter, which was 
dated two years later, and which suppressed the abbey 
of Saulseat, granted as endowment for the new parish 
the unappropriated revenues of the parish churches of 
Saulseat and Kirkmaiden, w-hich had belonged to the 
abbey. The ruinous old parish church, built in 1628-29, 
was a cruciform structure, with a circular central tower, 
suggestive of defensive purposes. In the churchyard 
lie 60 of the persons lost in the wreck of the Orion, 
a Glasgow and Liverpool steamer, which occurred 
in fine weather, J mile N of the ' Port,' 18 June 1850. 
Portpatrick was long the Gretna Green for Ireland ; and 
the marriages of 19S gentlemen, 15 officers, and 13 
noblemen are registered in the kirk-session records for 
the 50 years prior to 1S26, in which year the church 
courts interfered with the practice. The lowest fee then 
was £10 to the minister and £1 to the session clerk. 
The present parish church, built in 1842, is a handsome 
edifice, with S00 sittings, and a square embattled tower. 
The plain Free church was built soon after the Dis- 
ruption. Portpatrick has a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, a com- 
fortable hotel, and good sea-bathing. Pop. of village 
(1831) 1205, (1841) 996, (1861) 1206, (1871) 6S5, (1881) 
591, of whom 358 were females. Houses (1881) 125 
inhabited, 14 vacant. 

The parish is bounded NW and N by Leswalt, NE 
by Inch, E and SE by Stoneykirk, and SW by the 
Irish Channel. Its utmost length, from NE to SW, is 
4f miles ; its utmost breadth is 4 miles ; and its area is 
9145J acres, of which 43 are foreshore and 8 water. 
The coast, 4f miles in extent, has a general south-south- 
easterly trend. Over its whole extent it is bold, rocky, 
and dangerous to navigation, presenting a line of natural 
rampart, interrupted only by four or five little bays, 
and comprising a series of cliffs and shelving rocks 
pierced with caves, torn with fissures, or notched with 
protuberances, and rising, in many instances, to an 
altitude of from 100 to 200 feet. The little bays have 
the capacity, of mere creeks, yet possess pleasant 
features, and, in a certain degree, or in given winds, 
afford safe entrance and shelter to vessels. Killan- 
tringan Bay touches, or partly forms, the northern 
boundary ; Port Kale and Port Mora, the next bay and 
a twin one, are 1J mile to the SSE ; and Portpatrick 
and Castle Bays are respectively If and 1 mile from the 
southern boundary. Port Mora, though separated from 
Port Kale by ouly a slender promontory, has a beach 
entirely different, its composition being of the fine soft 
sand of freestone, while that of the other's beach is the 
grit and small boulders of primitive rock. A glen which 
comes down to the head of Port Mora, and brings to 
the sea the silvery waters of a brook, is pronounced by 
the writer of the New Statistical Account ' the most 
picturesque in Galloway ; ' its stream making ' a very 
pretty wild waterfall, ' and its sides being traversed by 
walks which are ' very tastefully cut, and connect the 
two bays with the present mansion-house of Dunskey, 
situated about a mile distant on the height.' The in- 
terior of the parish is all elevated, and attains its 
greatest altitude about 3£ miles from the coast. The 
surface is either hilly or irregularly undulated, exhibit- 
ing scarcely any level ground except in a few small 
tracts of peat moss. Most of the slopes are gradual, but 
a few are too steep to permit the traction of the plough, 
and many, especially the loftier ones, are flecked or 
jagged with bare rock. Most of the hills are tabular, 
but a few are cupolar or conical. The loftier ones are 
called the fells of the farms to which they severally 
belong ; and the loftiest of all, Caiknpat (593 feet), is 
the highest ground in the Rhinns of Galloway, and 
commands a very extensive and diversified prospect. 
The prevailing rocks are grey wacke, greywacke slate, and 
alum slate, the first of which is quarried as building 
material. The soil is almost everywhere moorish or 


mossy ; and where cultivated, it has become a brown 
mould or a blackish moss, streaked or interworked with 
a marly clay, taken up by the plough from the subsoil. 
Mosses abound, and, even on the hill tops, are fre- 
quently 6 or 7 feet deep. Nearly three-fourths of the 
entire area are regularly or occasionally arable ; rather 
less than one-third is waste or pastoral ; and about 310 
acres are under plantation. The chief antiquity and 
the chief mansion are noticed under Dunskey. Three 
proprietors hold each an annual value of more than 
£500. Portpatrick is in the presbytery of Stranraer 
and the synod of Galloway ; the living is worth £188. 
The public school, with accommodation for 277 children, 
had (18S4) an average attendance of 129, and a grant of 
£106, 9s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £4745, (1885) £6587, 
5s. Id. Pop. (1801) 1090, (1831) 2239, (1861) 2189, 
(1871) 1492, (1881) 1285.— Ord. Sur., sh. 3, 1856. 

Portract, an estate, with a mansion, in Holywood 
parish, Dumfriesshire, near the right bank of the Nith, 
3J miles SSE of Auldgirth. 

Portramsay, a village and a harbour on the NW side 
of Lismore island, Argyllshire, near its NE end, 10 
miles N by E of Oban. The harbour, large and com- 
modious, and affording one of the best anchorages on 
the Argyllshire coast, is protected by several islets in 
the offing, and may be entered by any of three different 
straits between the islets. Strangers, however, must 
be careful of some neighbouring rocks, scarcely visible 
at low water, and entirely covered when the tide is up. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 45, 1876. 

Portree (anciently Kiltaragleann, from Celt. Kit, ' a 
chapel ;' tar, ' the bottom ;' and glcann, ' a glen,' meaning 
the chapel at the bottom of the glen), a parish with a 
town of the same name in the Skye district of Inver- 
ness-shire, and comprehending the central part of 
the E coast of the island of Skye, as well as the 
adjacent islands of Baasay and South Kona, which 
are separately noticed. The portion in the island of 
Skye is bounded N by the parish of Snizort, E by the 
Sound of Baasay, S by the parish of Strath, and W by 
the parishes of Bracadale and Snizort. The total length, 
from the mouth of Bearreraig river on the N to the 
source of a small stream rising between Marsco and 
Beinn Dearg and flowing to the river Sligachan, is 16| 
miles, and from the extremity of Bona south-south- 
westward to the same point on the S is 23 miles ; the 
greatest width of the mainland portion, from the river 
Snizort on the W due eastward along the head of Portree 
Loch, is 6J miles, and to the E side of Raasay in the 
same line 10J miles ; while the total area is 5S,974'628 
acres, including 336734 acres of water, 1663-997 of 
foreshore, and 34'92S of tidal water. Of the total area 
15, 704 '384 acres are in Baasay and 2564 '905 in Rona. 
The coast is mostly rocky, and rises pretty steeply from 
the sea, while at various points there are lines of cliff. 
Near the N end is the small Holm Island, and there 
are several skerries between Portree Harbour and the 
Narrows of Baasay. The coast-line is indented by 
several bays, rendering the outline along the E highly 
irregular. Five miles from the N end is Portree Bay 
and Loch, 1^ mile wide at the mouth, and extending 2 
miles inland ; 2J miles farther S is the small Tianavaig 
Bay ; and at the narrows of Baasay a promontory juts 
out with Camas a' Mhor-bheoil on the N and Balmeanach 
Bay on the S. Opposite Kj-le More between the S end 
of Raasay and Scalpay, is Loch Sligachan, 3 furlongs 
wide at the mouth and 3 miles deep ; while opposite the 
middle of Scalpay is Loch Ainort, § mile wide at the 
mouth and 1 J mile deep. Only the NW side of Loch 
Ainort is in Portree parish, and from the head of the 
loch the parish boundary line strikes up the burn at 
Kinloch Ainort, twists southward to the source of a burn 
that rises between Marsco and Beinn Dearg, and follows 
that stream to the river Sligachan, down which it passes 
to the top of Loch Sligachan. From the top of Loch 
Sligachan it strikes up the AUt Dubh across the road to 
Portree, and follows the course of the stream to the 
bend before it again crosses the road, and passes 
irregularly to the NW, till it reaches the river Snizort at 





Aehaleathan. It follows the course of the Snizort to 
Hornisco Burn, and thence turns eastward to the small 
Loch nam Learg, and then irregularly N and NNE to 
the middle of Lake Leathan, and thence down Bearreraig 
river to the sea, the southern two-thirds of Loch Leathan 
being within the parish. The surface is irregular. In 
the portion to the N of Portree Harbour it rises from 
the sea by a steep slope terminating in a bold line of 
cliff, rising at Sithean Bhealaieh Chumhaing to a height 
of 1286 feet, and again sloping from this inland to a 
hollow from 250 to 450 feet above sea-level. To the 
NW of this there is another line of cliff, which, on the 
border of the parish, reaches a height of 1087 feet at 
Bealach Mor. In the portion between Portree Loch and 
Tianavaig Bay it again rises steeply from the shore, and 
then by a line of clitfto the ridge of Ben Tianavaig (1352 
feet) whence it slopes north-westward to Portree Bay and 
Loch. Round the W and SW sides of Portree Loch it 
slopes from the loch up to heights of 1367 feet at Beinn 
na Greine, 1288 at Skriag, and 1300 at Stroc-bheinn, 
and from these again falls away to the basin of the river 
Snizort. Between these heights and the lower slopes of 
Ben Tianavaig is the basin of the Varragill river, and 
between Glen Varragill and the Narrows of Eaasay the 
ground reaches a height of over 700 feet, and between 
Glen Varragill and Loch Sligachan heights of 1456 at 
Ben Lee and 1099 at Meall Odhar Beag. In the W of 
the peninsula, between Loch Sligachan and Loch Ainort, 
is Ben Glamaig(2537feet) and Beinn Dearg Mheadhonaeh 
(2094). From these the ground slopes eastward to 
Gleann Torra-michaig, the upper end of which is 429 
feet above sea-level, and then rises again to 922 feet 
above Moll. Speaking generally, there may be said to 
be a chain of hills along the coast broken by the sea 
lochs and another chain inland, the two lines being 
separated from N to S by the hollows occupied by Lochs 
Leathan and Fada, Glen Varragill and Gleann Torra- 
michaig. In the extreme N the drainage finds its way 
by small streams to Loch Fada and Loch Leathan, and 
thence by Bearreraig river to the sea. On this river 
there is a pretty waterfall, as there are indeed on several 
of the other streams. Between Loch Fada and Portree 
Harbour the drainage is carried off by the Chracaig and 
the Leasgeary, which flow into the harbour E and W 
of the town respectively. In the portion between 
Portree Harbour and Loch Sligachan the drainage of the 
portion farthest to the W passes by Glenmore river to 
the Snizort, that of the centre by the Varragill and its 
tributaries, to the sea at Portree Loch, or by smaller 
streams directly into the loch and harbour ; that of the 
district along the coast by a number of small streams 
direct to the sea, and that of the peninsula between 
Loch Sligachan and Loch Ainort by small streams to 
the river Sligachan or direct to the sea. There are a 
number of small lochs and lochans, but the only ones 
that need be mentioned are Loch Fada (454 feet ; 6 
x 2 furl.) and Loch Leathan (438; 6x4 furl.) in 
the N ; and Loch Conardan (4 x J furl. ), | mile SW 
of Tianavaig Bay. Both lochs and streams afford excel- 
lent trout fishing. South of Loch Sligachan, about Ben 
Glamaig, is a deer forest of about 10,000 acres belonging 
to Lord Macdonald. Particulars about Raasay and Rona 
are given in separate notices, and what follows applies 
to the mainland part of the parish. The soil includes 
patches of sand, gravel, and clay, but is princi- 
pally very wet gravel or moss, almost everywhere 
cold, unkindly, and barren, so that the arable part bears 
but a very pitiful proportion to the pasture and waste 
moorland. Ground under coppice or plantation is hardly 
to be seen except about the town of Portree, as trees will 
not thrive. The little that is under cultivation is in the 
hands of crofters, who have a hard struggle for life, and 
have generally to eke out their scanty means of sub- 
sistence by taking part as ' hired-men ' in the east coast 
herring fishing. The townships between Loch Sligachan 
and Tianavaig Bay are known as The Braes, and the 
inhabitants of them have, during the last three years 
(1881-84), earned a somewhat unenviable notoriety 
for their lawless proceedings in connection with 


alleged land grievances. The other principal crofter 
districts are at Sconser, on the S side of Loch 
Sligachan ; at Glenmore, near the centre of the parish 
on the W side ; and Drumuie, 1\ miles NW of Portree. 
The greater part of the parish is under sheep. The 
underlying rocks are mostly volcanic, the tract of 
country between Loch Sligachan and Loch Ainort being 
occupied by syenite, and that N of Loch Sligachan by 
greenstone. On the S shore of Loch Sligachan near the 
centre is a patch of rock of oolitic age, and similar 
deposits exist on both sides of Portree Bay, and extend 
in a belt northward from the head of Loch Sligachan, 
and also northward from Portree Bay. They consist of 
beds of limestone, shale, and sandstone, and are in many 
places richly fossiliferous. In the early part of the 
present century Lord Macdonald tried, but unsuccess- 
fully, to work some veins of lignite. A cave, 3 miles N 
of the entrance to Portree Bay, and about 5 miles from the 
town of Portree, bears the name of Prince Charles' Cave, 
and here, according to the guide books, the prince spent 
some time in concealment after Culloden ; but it is more 
than doubtful whether he was ever at the place at all, 
for, according to Flora Macdonald's account, he passed 
straight from Kingsburgh to Portree, and, after visiting 
the inn, embarked almost at once for Raasay. On 
a stream a little to the S of this cave are two small 
waterfalls. There are some other caves along the coast, 
but none of importance. The Skte Union Poorhouse 
is in this parish about \ mile W of the town of Portree. 
The principal residences are Portree House and View- 
field House at the town, Lord Macdonald's shooting-box 
at Loch Sligachan, and Raasay House. The only 
industry is a small woollen manufactory, started during 
the destitution in the district about 1850, and the only 
result as yet of the many proposals to bring the manu- 
facture into the district where the raw material is pro- 
duced. The fabrics woven are excellent tweeds, plaids, 
and winceys. The antiquities are confined to a few 
tumuli, and in 1884 a valuable find of silver coins of the 
latter part of the 16th and the early part of the 17th 
centuries took place at Hillside of Woodend. The coins 
belonged mostly to the reign of James VI., with a few 
of Elizabeth, and one of Henry of Navarre. 

The parish, which was anciently included in Snizort 
and Kilmuir, was disjoined in 1726. It is in the 
presbytery of Skye and the synod of Glenelg, and the 
living is worth £273 a year. The churches are noticed in 
connection with the town. Under the school board the 
schools of Braes, Glens, Portree, Raasay, Rona, Sconser, 
and Torran, with respective accommodation for 90, 27, 
180, 30, 30, 50, and 60 pupils, had (1884) an average 
attendance of 32, 20, 123, 36, 26, 25, and 23, and grants 
of £14, 17s., £23, Is. 3d., £110, 6s. 6d., £36, 16s., 
£25, 10s. 10d., £ „ , and £27, 16s. In the Braes 
district there is a school built and endowed with part of 
a fund of £2050, given by Mr Donald Macdiarmid, of 
South Carolina, in 1831, for the purpose of erecting 
and endowing schools at Borve, in Snizort, and Braes, in 
Portree. The fund belonging to the Braes school is 
£800, and it is proposed under the Endowed Schools 
Act to hand the management over to the school board. 
In the same district there is a mission church, built 
partly by public subscription and partly by a grant from 
the funds of the Baird Trust. Lord Macdonald holds 
almost the whole of the mainland part of the parish, 
1 other holds between £500 and £100, 2 hold between 
£100 and £50, and there are a few of smaller amount. 
Valuation (1860) £4607, (1884) £8406. Pop. of whole 
parish (1801) 2246, (1831) 3441, (1861) 3159, (1871) 
2928, (1881) 3191, of whom 1485 were males and 1706 
females. Of these 2448 (1103 males and 1345 females) 
were in the mainland portion, including the town of 

Portkee Bay opens off the Sound of Eaasay almost 
opposite the middle of the island of Raasay, and is \\ 
mile wide at the mouth. From this it extends westward 
about 2 miles to the town of Portree, and then turns off 
at right angles southward for over a mile in the portion 
known as Portree Loch. The shape resembles a stumpy 


leg and foot, the foot being formed by the loch. From 
the N side of the bay a point projects, terminating at 
Sgeir Mh6r, and from the S side Vriskaig Point stands 
out a little farther to the W. The portion of the bay to 
the W of a line drawn between these two points is 
Portree Harbour, a fine land-locked piece of water, 
spacious enough to accommodate a large number of 
vessels, with a depth of from 5 to 6 fathoms, and the 
bottom, being strong clay, affords excellent holding 
ground for ships at anchor. At the corner where the 
bay turns southward there is another point, on which 
the Established church and part of the town of Portree 
stands. The upper part — the Loch — is nearly dry at low 
water. On both sides of the portion running E and W 
there are picturesque cliffs of volcanic rocks. One reach 
on the N side somewhat resembles Salisbury Crags on 
Arthur's Seat at Edinburgh, and those on the S side 
are pierced at several points of their base by caverns, 
and at other places recede so as to leave a steep grassy 
talus between them and the shore. Suidh Fhinn or 
Fingal's Seat, to the W of Portree Loch, commands from 
its summit a magnificent view of almost the whole of the 
western coast of Ross-shire, and of nearly the whole of 
the Skye and Long Island portions of the Hebrides. The 
Town of Portree, a post-town and seaport, stands at the 
point where Portree Bay bends round to the southward, 
and, though of no great size, gains importance from being 
the largest seat of population and the chief business 
centre for Skye and the neighbouring islands, as well as 
the headquarters of the ever-increasing number of 
tourists who visit the district every year. Vid Ding- 
wall and Strome, the town is 103£ miles W of Inverness, 
and 32 miles WSW of Strome Ferry ; by steamer it is 
120 miles NNW of Oban, and 60 miles S by E of Stor- 
noway ; and by road 24£ NWof Broadford, 14 SE of Uig, 
and 23 J E of Dunvegan. The name is a corruption of 
Port-an-righ, the king's harbour, a title which was given 
when the royal fleet, commanded by King James v. in 
person, anchored in the harbour on the occasion of the 
great expedition to the Western Isles in 1540. Other 
authorities, however, refer the origin of the name, not 
to the visit of King James, but to that of Haco, King of 
Norway, when on his Largs expedition. There seems 
to have been a Oolumban church in the neighbour- 
hood, for the bay NW of the town was formerly called 
Loch Columkille ; and an islet, with traces of graves 
and of a small building standing E and W, is called 
Eilean Columkille. This is possibly the church from 
which the old name of the district was taken. The 
site is along a steep acclivity at the north-western corner 
of the bay, and the description given by Alexander Smith 
in his Slimmer in Skye (1865) is as applicable then as 
now : — ' Portree folds two irregular ranges of white 
houses, the one range rising steeply above the other, 
around a noble bay, the entrance to which is guarded 
by rocky precipices. At a little distance the houses are 
white as shells, and as in summer they are all set in 
the greenness of foliage, the effect is strikingly pretty ; 
and if the sense of prettiness departs to a considerable 
extent on a closer acquaintance, there is yet enough left 
to gratify you as long as you remain there, and to make 
it a pleasant place to think about when you are gone. 
The lower range of houses consists mainly of ware- 
houses and fish stores ; the upper, of the main hotel, 
the two banks, the courthouse, and the shops. A pier 
runs out into the bay, and here, when the state of the 
tide permits, comes the steamer on its way to or from 
Stornoway, and unlades. Should the tide be low the 
steamer lies to in the bay, and her cargo and passengers 
come to shore by means of boats. She usually arrives 
at night ; and at low tide the burning of coloured lights 
at the mast-heads, the flitting hither and thither of busy 
lanterns, the pie? boats coming and going with illumi- 
nated wakes and ghostly fires on the oar blades, the 
clatter of chains and the shock of the crank hoisting the 
cargo out of the hold, the general hubbub and storm 
of Gaelic shouts and imprecations, make the arrival at 
once picturesque and impressive. In the bay the yacht 
of the tourist is continually lying ; and at the 


hotel door his dogcart is continually departing or 
arriving. In the hotel parties arrange to visit Quirang 
or the Storr, and on the evenings of market-days, in 
the large public rooms, farmers and cattle-dealers sit 
over tumblers of smoking punch and discuss noisily the 
prices and the qualities of stock. Besides the hotel and 
the pier, the banks and the courthouse already mentioned, 
there are other objects of interest in the little island 
town — three churches, a post office, a poorhouse, and a 
cloth manufactory. And it has more than meets the 
eye— one of the Jameses landed here on a visitation of 
the isles ; Prince Charles was here on his way to Raasay ; 
Dr Johnson and Boswell were here ; and somewhere on 
the green hill on which the pretty church stands, a 
murderer is buried — the precise spot of burial is un- 
known, and so the entire hill gets the credit that of 
right belongs only to a single yard of it. In Portree 
the tourist seldom abides long ; he passes through it as, 
a fortnight before, he passed through Oban It does 
not seem to the visitor a specially remarkable place, 
but everything is relative in this world. It is an event 
for the Islesman at Dunvegan or the Point of Sleat to 
go to Portree, just as it is an event for a Yorkshireman 
to go to London.' Whatever may have been the case 
when King James was here, however, it is certain that 
in Prince Charles' time, and even later, when Dr 
Johnson and Boswell were here, there was no village, 
but only an inn, and perhaps a clachan or kirkton, for 
Boswell says, in 1773, ' Sir James Macdonald intended 
to have built a village here, which would have done 
great good ;' but though Sir James did not carry ont 
the plan, the village made its appearance in due time 
under Sir James' successor. To the S of the town a 
craggy wooded promontory projects into the harbour, 
and is crowned by an octagonal tower erected by Dr 
Alexander Macleod in 1834, and commanding a good 
view. Portree House, belonging to Lord Macdonald, is 
to the W of the town ; and farther W still is the woollen 
manufactory already alluded to. The quay was erected 
in 1S19, but there is no great depth of water at low tide. 
The Established church on the promontory already 
noticed was built in 1825, and contains 800 sittings. 
There are also Free, U.P., and Episcopal churches, of 
which the last, St Columba's, is a good Gothic edifice, 
after designs by Mr Boss of Inverness, erected in 
1884 as a memorial to the late Bishop Mackarness. 
None of the others call for special notice. Skye being 
one of the judicial divisions of Inverness-shire there is a 
courthouse, erected in 1867, where the resident sheriff- 
substitute holds his courts. The district prison, 
legalised in 1848, was formerly used for prisoners whose 
sentences did not exceed 60 days, but since the passing 
of the Prisons Act it has been licensed only for prisoners 
whose sentence does not exceed 14 days. Instead of 
the one hotel mentioned by Alexander Smith there 
are now three, and there are also a post office, with 
money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph 
departments, under Dingwall, branches of the Cale- 
donian, National, and North of Scotland Banks, a 
National Security Savings' Bank, and agencies of 11 
insurance companies. Portree is one of the polling 
stations for Inverness-shire. The sheriff court is held 
for both ordinary and small debt cases every Thursday 
during session. There are cattle fairs on the last 
Tuesday of May and the third Tuesday of August. 
Communication is maintained with the mainland by the 
Highland Railway Company's steamer between Portree 
and Strome Ferry every day during the summer months, 
and in winter three times a week, while the Glasgow 
and Stornoway steamers call thrice a week both summer 
and winter. The principal imports are miscellaneous 
goods ; and the principal exports are sheep, cattle, wool, 
salt herring, salmon, and cod and ling salted and dried. 
Pop. of town (1861) 679, (1871) 731, (1881) 893, of 
whom 396 were males and 497 females. Houses, 111 
inhabited, 5 uninhabited, and 1 building. 

Port-Seton. See Cockenzie. 

Portskerra. See Melvtch. 

Port-Sonachan. See Kilchrenan. 



Portsoy, a seaport and burgh of barony in Fordyce 
parish, Banffshire. It was formerly the terminus of the 
Grange and Portsoy branch of the Great North of Scot- 
land railway system, but is now one of the chief stations 
on the loop line of the same system, which was con- 
structed in 1883-85, and which passes from Keith by 
Portsoy, Cullen, and Buckie to Elgin. By rail it is 8i 
miles W of Banff, 13| NE of Grange, 17| NE of Keith, 
and when the new line is finished it will be about 5J 
miles E of Cullen, 11 E of Buckie, and 24| E by N of 
Elgin. By road it is 18 miles ENE of Fochabers. It 
stands on a point of land on the W side of the little 
estuary of the Soy Burn, which carries off the surplus 
water from the Loch of Soy — now sadly encroached on 
by the railway— and from which the place takes its name. 
On the SE side the Burn of Durn enters the sea at the 
Back Green. The town is of some antiquity, and was in 
1550 constituted by Queen Mary a burgh of barony hold- 
ing of Sir Walter Ogilvie of Boyne, and with all the usual 
privileges, and the charter was ratified by Act of Parlia- 
ment in 1581. The present superior is the Earl of 
Seafield. As might be expected from its age the town 
is very irregularly built, and many parts of it have a 
very quaint appearance. There seems to have been a 
castle at one time, but there is no record of it, and its 
existence is only inferred from the place once known as 
the ' Castle Brae. ' Of an ancient church dedicated to 
St Columba, which stood at the Aird, ' hard by the 
toune where now [1724] is a large meeting-house lately 
buildit,'no trace now remains, though the Aird still 
exists ; and even where the meeting-house was is not 
exactly known, though it is supposed to have been the 
Episcopal church which was destroyed by Cumberland's 
soldiers in 1746, and seems to have stood between the 
house and mill of Durn. There is a well still known as 
St Colme's or St Comb's Well. The district was con- 
stituted a preaching station in connection with the 
Established Church in 1741 ; and a chapel of ease was 
constituted in 1836, and became a quaacl sacra charge in 
1871. The church, which was built in 1815, was greatly 
improved in 1881, a clock tower having been previously 
erected by public subscription in 1876. The clock and 
bells in this were the gift of Mr F. P. Wilson, a native 
of the town, who had made a considerable fortune by 
his commercial enterprise abroad. The original church 
bell, now at the school, bears the inscription, ' For the 
use of the Presbyterian Church, Portsoj\ John Spicht, 
Rotterdam, 1746.' The bell which succeeded it is lying 
unused in the present clock tower. The Free church, 
built soon after the Disruption, and rebuilt with a 
handsome spire in 1869, has 456 sittings. The U.P. 
church, built in 1866, has 400 sittings. The Episcopal 
church (St John the Baptist), built in 1841, lias 150 
sittings. The sacramental plate belonged to the old 
church already mentioned as burnt in 1746. The 
Roman Catholic church of the Annunciation, erected in 
1829, has 150 sittings. None of them call for more 
particular notice. Under the school board of Fordyce, 
the public, female public, and female industrial schools, 
with respective accommodation for 360, 157, and 90 
pupils, had (1884) an average attendance of 295, 84, 
and 57, and grants of £281, 16s. 6d., £74, 13s., and 
£41, 13s. The cemetery on the sloping ground SE of 
the town was originally opened about 172S, and was 
extended in 1874. It contains a monument to Miss 
Bond, a native of Fortrose, who in 1814 published a 
book called Letters of a Village Governess, giving some 
curious pictures of life in a country village at the 
beginning of the present century. She died at Portsoy 
in 1839. The serpentine and associated minerals for 
which the place was long famous have been noticed under 
Fordyce. An excellent harbour was formed by the 
Earl of Seafield in 1825-28, but was destroyed by storms 
in January 1839. During the present year (1884) the 
old channel has been cleared out, and the works then 
constructed restored at a cost of about £12,000, concrete 
being used instead of stone. There is now accommoda- 
tion for 12 vessels of 100 tons, and a depth of 11 feet 
at high water of stream tides and of 9 feet at neap tides, 


the basin being tidal. Portsoy ranks as a creek under 
Banff, and the few ships belonging to the port have an 
average tonnage of under 100 tons. The chief imports 
are coals coastwise and bones from the Baltic, and the 
principal exports grain, herring, and potatoes. There 
were belonging to the port in 1882, 32 first-class herring 
fishing boats, 4 second-class boats, and 20 third-class 
boats, employing 108 resident fisher men and boys. On 
an average from 40 to 50 boats prosecute the fishing 
from Portsoy harbour, and 52 thus engaged in 1883 had 
a total catch of 5720 crans. The other industries in the 
town are a small ropework and a bone mill, and in the 
neighbourhood there are a wool mill, and Glenglassaugh 
distillery, where there are extensive buildings, erected 
in 1873-75 at a cost, including fittings, of about £10,000. 
Trade has considerably increased since the railway was 
originally opened, and will probably be developed still 
more by the new line and the improved harbour accom- 
modation. There is a coastguard station, a post office, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, under Banff, branch offices of the North of 
Scotland and Union Banks, agencies of 10 insurance 
companies, two hotels, a Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation with a library, a reading and news room, and 
a newspaper, the Independent Banffshire Reporter 
(1856), published on Saturday. In the neighbourhood 
is Durn House, associated with the early days of 
Ferguson the astronomer. The only distinguished 
native is the Rev. Peter Thomson, Free Church minister 
of St Fergus, who died in 1880 at the beginning of what 
promised to be a very brilliant career. The story of his 
life has been told in A Scotch Student (Edinb. 1881). 
Pop. of town (1841) 1720, (1861) 1903, (1871) 1822, 
(1881) 2090, of whom 916 were males and 1174 were 
females. Houses 504 inhabited, 13 uninhabited, and 4 
building. The quoad sacra parish is in the presbytery 
of Fordyce and synod of Aberdeen. Pop. (1881) 2313. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 96, 1876. 

Port-Wemyss, a village on the coast of Kilchoman 
parish, Islay island, Argyllshire, 14J miles SW of 

Port-William, a small seaport in Mochrum parish, 
SE Wigtownshire, on the E side of Luce Bay, 7 miles 
WNW of Whithorn, 6| SW of Whauphill station, 11 
SW of Wigtown, and 24 SE of Stranraer. Founded 
about 1770, by Sir William Maxwell of Monreith, in 
honour of whom it is named, it chiefly consists of a ter- 
race-line of cottages, well built, slated, and fronting the 
sea, and has a neat appearance. In 178S a small bar- 
rack-house was erected for the accommodation of 
military, and of custom-house officers occasionally sent 
for the suppression of smuggling. The harbour, though 
small, is safe, and sufficiently commodious. On all 
sides but the S, it is well-sheltered by the land ; on the 
S, it is defended by a artificial rampart or strong wall ; 
and it easily admits vessels of 200 tons burden. The 
principal trade consists in the exportation of agricul- 
tural produce to England. The village has a post office, 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a branch bank of the British Linen Co., 4 hotels, 
excellent sea-bathing, a good bowling-green, a masonic 
lodge, a Free church, a U.P. church, and a public school 
of recent erection. Pop. (1792) 210, (1841) 634, (1861) 
884, (1871) 829, (1881) 755.— Ord. Sur., sh. 4, 1857. 

Possil House, a quondam mansion in Maryhill 
parish, Lanarkshire, 2 miles N of the centre of Glasgow. 
It was a large but plain edifice, whose finely wooded 
grounds had a quiet secluded aspect, but about 1872 
they were laid out as the site of a new Glasgow suburb 
called Possil Park. Possil was for many years the 
home of the historian, Sir Archibald Alison (1792-1867). 
Here he died, and here in 1848 he received a two days' 
visit from Charles Dickens. See his Autoliography 
(1882).— Ord Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Posso. See Manor. 

Potarch. See Birse and Kincardine O' Neil. 

Pot of Gartness. See Gartness. 

Poundland. a village in Colmonell parish, Ayrshire, 
on the right bank of the Stinchar, 8 miles S of Girvan. 


Pow, any one of numerous sluggish rivulets or stag- 
nant burns in marshy or alluvial districts of Scotland. 
The name is an Anglicised or softened form of the 
Gaelic Poll, and the Cymric Pwl, signifying ' a pool, 
a ditch, a stagnating stream, or a marshy place ; ' and 
it correctly describes nearly all the streams to which 
it is applied. — A pow, called the Pow of Cummertrees, 
traverses the western side of the Howe of Annan- 
dale, from near the northern extremity of Dalton, 
through that parish and the parishes of Ruthwell 
and Cummertrees to the Solway Firth, 2| miles W of 
the mouth of the river Annan ; is joined, on its left 
bank, 4J miles from its source, by an overflow or 
feeder from the river Annan ; seems, from the junction 
of that overflow onward to its mouth, to run in the 
ancient channel of the Annan ; and has a total course, 
chiefly in a south-south-easterly direction, of 8 miles. 
— A pow in Forfarshire is formed by numerous head- 
streams in Monreathmont Moor, principally within 
Guthrie parish ; drains the parishes of Guthrie, Kinnell, 
and Farnell, 7J miles north-eastward to the South Esk, 
lh mile above Montrose Basin ; aspires to be called Pow 
Water; and imposes names, such as Pow-side, Pow-mill, 
and Pow-bridge, on various objects on its banks. — A 
pow in Perthsliire rises in some mosses below Methven ; 
runs mainly along a ditch or artificial canal, formed to 
drain off its stagnant and marsh-making waters ; 
pursues a sluggish course of 11 miles to the Earn, 
near Innerpeffray ; and is noted in some doggerel song 
well known in the country around it. — A pow in Kirk- 
cudbrightshire rises, under the name of Glaisters Burn, 
in Kirkgunzeon parish ; circles round the N end of the 
Criffel range of hills ; traverses one lake, and receives 
the superfluent waters of another ; goes eastward through 
Newabbey parish, assuming there the name of Newabbey 
Pow ; has a total course of 15 miles ; glides into the 
estuary of the Nith 8 miles S of Dumfries ; and is 
navigable for a short way by small vessels. — A pow in 
the Carse of Stirling rises near Bannockburn House in 
St Ninians parish ; goes 8 miles eastward to the Forth, 
at a point l| mile E of Airth village ; and, like the For- 
farshire Pow, gives name to various seats and other 
objects on its banks. — A pow in the Upper Carse of the 
Forth drains part of Kippen parish, and is distinctively 
called the Pow of Glinns. — A pow in the low grounds 
of Kyle, in Ayrshire, is formed by three or four head- 
streams, and goes to the Firth of Clyde at a point 3| 
miles N of the mouth of the river Ayr. — An eighth 
pow, in Edinburghshire, has been noticed as the 
Jordan ; and there are several others too unimportant 
to require special mention. 

Powfoot or Queensberry, a small watering-place in 
Cummertrees parish, Dumfriesshire, on the Solway Firth, 
at the mouth of Pow Water, 4 miles WSW of Annan. 

Powfowlis House, a modern mansion in Airth parish, 
Stirlingshire, near the shore of the Firth of Forth, 6| 
miles NNE of Falkirk. 

Powmillon Burn, a rivulet of East Kilbride, Glass- 
ford, and Avondale parishes, Lanarkshire. It rises near 
Greenside, and runs 7 miles north-eastward and south- 
eastward, till, after passing through Strathaven, it falls 
into Avon Water, 1 mile E by S of that town. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 23, 1865. 

Powrie, an estate, with an old castle, in Murroes 
parish, Forfarshire, 3 miles NNE of Dundee. The 
castle was long the residence of the ancient family of 
Fotheingham, who acquired the lands of Wester 
PowTie in the reign of Robert III. (1390-1406). 

Powsail Burn. See Drummelzier. 

Powtrail Water, a head-stream of the river Clyde in 
Crawford parish, Lanarkshire. It rises on the northern 
side of Scawd Law (2166 feet) at an altitude of 1900 
feet, close to the Dumfriesshire boundary ; runs 7 miles 
north-north-eastward to a confluence (970 feet) with Daer 
Water, at a point 2| miles S of Elvanfoot station ; and 
hrings down the Roman or ' Wellpath ' road from 
Nithsdale to Clydesdale.— Orel. Sur., sh. 15, 1864. 

Poyntzfield House, a mansion in Eesolis parish, 
Cromartyshire, 3| miles S of Invergordon, under which 


there is a post office of Poyntzfield. Its owner, George 
Mackenzie Gun Munro, Esq. (b. 1862 ; sue. 1869), 
holds 1776 acres in the shire, valued at £1371 per 
annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 94, 1878. 

Premnay, a parish in Garioch district, Aberdeenshire, 
containing, close to the northern boundary, Insch 
station on the Great North of Scotland railway, 13J 
miles SE of Huntly and 27J NW of Aberdeen. Con- 
taining also Rothney and Auchleven villages, it is 
bounded NW and N by Insch, NE and E by Oyne, S 
by Keig, and W by Leslie. Its utmost length, from N 
to S, is 31 miles ; its utmost width, from E to W, is 3| 
miles ; and its area is 5432J acres, of which 1 j are water. 
The drainage is carried eastward towards the Ury by 
Gadie Burn, traversing the interior, and the Shevock, 
tracing the northern boundary. Along Gadie Burn the 
surface declines to 400 feet above sea-level ; and thence 
it rises westward and southward to 754 feet at Westfield, 
747 at Waukmill Hill, 834 at Tillymuick, 999 near Hill- 
head, 927 at Brackla Hill, 1412 at Black Hill, 1564 at 
Hermit Seat, and 1619 at the Watch Craig at the SE 
corner of the parish. The three last heights all culminate 
right on the southern boundary, and the last is a summit 
of broad-based Bennoohie. Red or pink granite, of a 
kind easily worked and well suited for all sorts of build- 
ing purposes, abounds to the S of Gadie Burn, and clay- 
slate to the N ; whilst serpentine forms a bed 200 yards 
W of the parish church. The soil on the banks of 
Gadie Burn is various, but on the left bank is generally 
sharp and good ; whilst along the foot of Bennochie is 
wet and cold. A few acres are under small plantations ; 
rather more than 3000 acres are arable ; and nearly all 
the rest of the land is pastoral or waste. There are 
Druidical remains at Druidstone, and a circular camp 
at Tillymuick. Lickleyhead Castle (1629) was restored 
about 1876, and is let to a shooting tenant ; but the 
former mansion of Overhall is still a farmhouse. Auch- 
leven has a small woollen factory. The property is 
divided among four. Premnay is in the presbytery 
of Garioch and the synod of Aberdeen ; the living is 
worth £1S0. The parish church, 2 miles SSE of 
Insch station, was built in 1792, and, as enlarged in 
1S28, contains 360 sittings. Leslie and Premnay Free 
church stands 2§ miles to the W, close to the Leslie 
boundary. The public school, with accommodation 
for 120 children, had (1884) an average attendance 
of 69, and a grant of £48, lis. Valuation (1865) 
£3572, (1885) £4438, 8s. 4d., plus £588 for railway. 
Pop. (1S01) 486, (1831) 625, (1861) 916, (1871) 997, 
(1881) 930.— Ord. Sur., sh. 76, 1874. 

Preshome. See Rathven. 

Pressmennan, Loch. See Stenton". 

Preston, a village in Prestonpans parish, Haddington- 
shire, \ mile S by E of the town of Prestonpans, and 
near Prestonpans station on the North British railway. 
It got its name from being a priests' town of the monks 
of Holyrood and of Newbattle, both of which frater- 
nities had lands adjoining it ; and, with Prestonpans, 
it figures prominently in traditional tales respecting 
their character and mercantile achievements. Both 
its relation to the monks, and its position on the 
great road of a former period, occasioned it to be fre- 
quently visited by the Scottish princes. It was for- 
merly noted also for a fair, held on the second Thurs- 
day of October, and called St Jerome's Fair. The chap- 
men or travelling merchants of the Lothians had, at a 
period when their craft was one of no small importance 
to the country, formed themselves into a regular guild ; 
and they annually attended this fair to elect their office- 
bearers for the following year. In a garden at the side 
of the road, near the E end of the village, stands, in 
the centre of what till last century formed a large open 
square, an elegant cross (1617), to the privilege of hold- 
ing their annual meetings at which they laid claim — a 
stone pillar about 15 feet high, surmounting a small 
octagonal erection 9 feet in height. Till a comparatively 
recent date a social fraternity, styled the Chapmen of 
the Lothians, and chiefly composed of Edinburgh 
citizens, has been in the way of annually giving an 



imaginary report of their extensive transactions ; and 
more than once has the present minister of Prestonpans, 
since his election as their honorary chaplain! forty 
years ago, heard this report with facetious accompani- 
ments given from the cross hy one of the magistrates or 
other civic dignitary of the metropolis. 

N of the village stands, in a ruinous condition, a 
venerable tower which Sir Walter Scott supposed to 
have been originally a fortalice of the Earls of Home, 
when they bore an almost princely sway over the SE of 
Scotland, and which, for a long time after the close of 
the 14th century, when the circumjacent barony came 
by marriage into the possession of the Hamiltons of 
Fingalton and Ross, was the seat of that family, the 
principal one of their name, and afterwards called the 
Hamiltons of Preston. The seat or castle, of which the 
ruined tower is but a vestige, was burned by the Earl 
of Hertford in 1544, by Cromwell in 1650, and by 
accident in 1663, and was then abandoned. The 
Hamiltons are represented by Sir William Hamilton, 
Bart, whose father, Sir William (1791-1856), the 
learned Professor of Logic, reacquired the ruined tower 
and the garden around it in the early part of the pre- 
sent century. Figuring in history as staunch parti- 
sans of the cause of civil and religious liberty, they 
afforded marked protection to Mr John Davidson, 
the eminent confessor and ' Scottish worthy ; ' and, in 
the stirring times of the ecclesiastico-civil war, Robert 
Hamilton, the brother of Sir William of Preston, led 
the Presbyterians in the actions of Drumclog and Both- 
well Bridge. 

To the E of the cross, and within the enclosure sur- 
rounding what was, till lately, Dr Schaw's (now Miss 
Murray's) Hospital, are the remains of the ancient 
manorial residence of Lord Grange, whose wife, by his 
connivance, was carried off and clandestinely confined 
for years in the island of St Kilda. This, ' Preston 
House,' was built after the Hamiltons had abandoned 
the ' venerable tower,' and was never occupied by any 
of them. What remained of the estate of Preston after 
the Revolution was, owing to the representative of the 
Hamilton family declining to take the oaths to the 
Revolution sovereigns, transferred to a nephew of 
Hamilton, under a private arrangement for redemption 
should a covenanted sovereign come to the throne. It 
was for this nephew, Sir James Oswald, Lord Provost 
of Edinburgh, or his son who shortly thereafter 
succeeded him as laird, that Preston House was erected. 
The estate, however, being heavily burdened, the whole 
was, shortly after the beginning of the 18th century, 
disposed of, and coming before 1715 into Lord Grange's 
hand he made up titles to it on purchasing the various 
bonds, and he occupied the house in that year, when his 
elder brother, the Earl of Mar, was heading the rebellion. 
After Lord Grange's time it had a succession of owners, 
till acquired by Dr James Schaw before 1780, and 
occupied by him till his death, when by his will it was 
destined for the accommodation, maintenance, and 
education of poor boys. It was thus used till 1832, when 
a new and commodious house, in the old English style, 
was built, at a cost of nearly £3000, within the park 
near by. And this again, the Schaw funds being other- 
wise appropriated in 1881 under the Endowed Hospitals 
Act, has been recently rented by Miss Murray's trustees 
for the charitable upbringing and training of girls for 
domestic service, of whom there are already 40 in the 
institution.— Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Preston or Prestonmill, a village in Kirkbean parish, 
SE Kirkcudbrightshire, 14 miles S of Dumfries, under 
which it has a post office. See Kirkbean. 

Preston. See Bunkle. 

Prestonfield, a mansion in Duddingston parish, 
Edinburghshire, at the southern base of Arthur's Seat, 
\ mile SW of Duddingston Loch, and 2 miles SE of Edin- 
burgh Post Office. It was built in 1687, from designs 
by the celebrated Sir William Bruce of Kinross, on the 
site of the former mansion of ' Priestfield,' which had 
been burnt by the Edinburgh students in the No 
Popery riot of 11 Jan. 1681, its owner, Sir James Dick, 


Bart., being then Lord Provost. A grandson of Sir 
William Dick of Braid (see Craig House), he had 
purchased the estate from Sir Thomas Hamilton, and at 
his death, in 1728, was succeeded by his daughter 
Janet, the wife of Sir William Cunyngham, Bart, of 
Caprington. Her son, Sir Alexander Dick, third 
Bart. (1703-85), was an eminent physician, and an 
intimate friend of Dr Samuel Johnson, who visited 
Prestonfield in 1773 ; and his son, Sir William 
(1762-96), is mentioned in Lord Cockburn's Memorials 
as 'a great sportsman, handsome, good-natured, and a 
first-rate skater. We were the only boys at liberty to 
play in his grounds, and to use his nice boat. . . . 
All between Duddingston Loch and the house was a 
sort of Dutch garden, admirably kept. ... A very 
curious place.' Sir Robert Keith Dick, seventh Bart., 
in 1829 succeeded his cousin-german, Sir AVilliam 
Cunyngham, in the Caprington baronetcy ; and his 
grandson, Sir Robert Keith Alexander Dick-Cunyngham 
(b. 1836 ; sue. 1871), is thus ninth and seventh Bart, 
since 1707 and 1669. He holds 228 acres in Midlothian, 
valued at £1759 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 
See John Small's Castles and Mansions of the Loihians 
(Edinb. 1883). 

Prestongrange, a Scottish Baronial mansion in 
Prestonpans parish, Haddingtonshire, near the coast, 
and 1| mile SW of the town. Part of it dates from the 
16th century ; but large additions, including a massive 
tower, were made in 1830 and subsequently. Robert de 
Quincey, Earl of Winchester, in 1 1 84 bequeathed the estate 
to Newbattle Abbey ; and, after the death of the first 
Earl of Lothian in 1609, it was disposed of to John 
Morison, whose son, Sir Alexander Morison, Knt., as a 
Lord of Session assumed the title of Lord Preston- 
grange (1626-31). So did the Lord Advocate, William 
Grant, who purchased the property in 1746, and 
whose second daughter married Sir George Suttie of 
Balgone. Her great-great-grandson, Sir George Grant- 
Suttie, seventh Bart, since 1702 (b. 1870 ; sue. 1878), 
holds 8788 acres in the shire, valued at £10,958 per 
annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. See John Small's 
Castles and Mansions of the Lothians (Edinb. 1883). 

Preston Hall, a mansion in Cranston parish, E Edin- 
burghshire, near the right bank of Tyne Water, 1 J mile 
N by E of Ford, and 4J miles E by S of Dalkeith. A 
splendid classical structure, it consists of a centre and 
two wings, connected by lower buildings, and was 
erected towards the close of last century by W. Adam 
for General Lord Adam Gordon, whose mother, the 
Dowager Duchess of Gordon, had purchased the estate 
in 1738 for £8877. The present proprietor, Henry 
Callander, Esq. (b. 1862; sue. 1865), holds 4869 acres 
in the shire, valued at £6865 per annum. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 33, 1863. See John Small's Castles and Mansions of 
the Lothians (Edinb. 1883). 

Prestonhall, a mansion in Cupar parish, Fife, near 
the left bank of the Eden, 1 mile ENE of the town. 

Prestonhaugh. See Prestonkirk. 

Prestonholm, a village in Cockpen parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, on the South Esk river, 3J miles SSE of Lasswade. 

Preston House, a mansion in Linlithgow parish, Lin- 
lithgowshire, 1J mile S of the town. 

Prestonkirk, a parish of Haddingtonshire, containing 
the town and station of East Linton, 5J miles WSW 
of Dunbar, and 23£ E by N of Edinburgh. Called the 
Halch, Hauch, or Haugh in the time of Gawin Douglas, 
since the Reformation it received the name, first of Pres- 
tonhaugh, then of Prestonkirk, and in legal documents is 
still designated ' Prestonhaugh, otherwise called Preston- 
kirk;' whilst its popular name is often briefly Linton. 
It is bounded N by North Berwick, NE by Whitekirk, 
E by Whitekirk and Dunbar, SE by Stenton, S by 
Whittingham, SW by Morham and Haddington, and 
W by Athelstaneford. With a somewhat irregular out- 
line, it has an utmost length from NNW to SSE of 4| 
miles, a varying breadth of 3 furlongs and 4J miles, 
and an area of 7088J acres, of which 13| are water. The 
Tyne has here an east-north-easterly course of 4$ miles, 
for the first 7 furlongs along the Haddington boundary ; 


and the East Peefee Burn flows cast-north-eastward 
across the northern interior and along the Athelstane- 
ford and Whitekirk horders. In the E where the Tyne 
passes off from the parish, the surface declines to 75 
feet ahove sea-level ; and N of the river it nowhere 
exceeds 281 feet ; but in the S is conical Tkapeain Law 
(700 feet), which figures conspicuously over a wide ex- 
tent of landscape. The predominant rocks are clay- 
stone, clinkstone, and limestone, and the first is often 
porphyritic, abounds in crystals of felspar, and contains 
in places veins of yellow jasper, and of heavy spar. The 
soil near the Tyne is mostly sandy and gravelly ; in the 
N is argillaceous, partly very stiff; and in the S is 
calcareous. But a small proportion of land is under 
wood ; about 200 acres are pasture ; and nearly all the 
rest of the parish is in tillage. The chief antiquities 
are noticed under Hailes Castle and Teapeain Law. 
Sever stone coffins have been turned up by the plough ; 
a standing stone is said to mark the grave of a Saxon 
commander ; the site is pointed out of the ancient 
parish church, dedicated to St Baldred, and mentioned 
in record of the 9th century ; and ruins exist of an 
ancient monastery on Markle farm. St Balthere or 
Baldred, who died in 756, and who was the patron 
saint of the parish, is said to have dwelt here, and to 
have founded the earliest church. He is commemorated 
in the name of an excellent spring, St Baldred's Well, 
and in the name of an eddy in the Tyne, St Baldred's 
Whirl. Gawin Douglas (1474-1522), the translator of 
Virgil, was ' parson of Hauch ' (not Hawick), previous 
to becoming Bishop of Dunkeld in 1516. Mansions 
noticed separat"' j ».<; Smeaton House and Phantassie ; 
and 8 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 2 of between £100 and £500. Prestonkirk is 
in the presbytery of Dunbar and synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale ; the living is worth £395. The churches 
and the public school have been described under East 
Linton. That school, with accommodation for 464 
children, had (1884) an average attendance of 231, and 
agrantof£212, 13s. 6d. Valuation (1S60) £15, 550, (1885) 
£16,850, 0s. Pop. (1801) 1741, (1831) 1765, (1861) 
1960, (1871) 1931, (1881) 1929.— Ord. Stir., sh. 33, 1863. 
Prestonmill. See Peeston, Kirkcudbrightshire. 
Prestonpans, a coast town and parish of W Hadding- 
tonshire. The town, extending J mile south-westward 
along the shore of the Firth of Forth, is 2J miles ENE 
of Musselburgh, 8 E of Edinburgh, 1| Nff of Tranent, 
9| W of Haddington, and f NHW of Prestonpans and 
Tranent station on the North British railway. It is 
supposed to have become a seat of population for the 
manufacture of salt so early as the 12th century. The 
monks of Newbattle, who pushed their trading enter- 
prises in all directions from their property of Peeston- 
geange, appear to have adopted and cherished Preston- 
pans as the scene of their salt-making operations ; and 
theyprobablysecuredfor itarudebut abundant prosperity 
so long as it was under their influence. Even for gene- 
rations after the Reformation it continued to thrive, 
and to be a flourishing seat of various sorts of the 
hardier orders of industry. But chiefly in consequence 
of the repeal of the salt duty in 1825, the town lost its 
ancient sources of support, and fell into decay. Its 
deserted salt-works, some of them contiguous to it, 
others along the coast, form a rueful feature in the 
landscape. The masonry in these buildings looks as 
if it had withstood the buffetings of ages ; the wood- 
work is comparatively fresh and uninjured ; and yet the 
whole aspect is ruinous and forlorn. Numbers of the 
doors still show brass excise padlocks, bearing the now 
almost forgotten initials 'G. R.' The town itself, too, 
has a somewhat decayed appearance. It consists 
principally of a single street following the line of the 
beach. A rill runs across the roadway, cutting off from 
the W end of the street an ugly suburb called Cuittle 
or Cuthill. The houses have a blackened, time-worn 
appearance ; scarcely any two of them stand in a line ; 
and the whole town, which was so built for defensive 
purposes, has been described as ' zig-zag at both ends 
and crooked in the middle.' The parish church stands 


on a rising-ground above the town, and, dating from 
1595, was partially rebuilt and reseated, with double 
galleries, in 1774. Within the churchyard there are 
several interesting memorial stones or tablets over the 
remains of Lords Cullen, Prestongrange, and Drummore ; 
Captain Stewart of Physgill, who fell in the battle of 
Prestonpans ; a brother of General Roy's ; and others. A 
new Free church was built in 1878 ; and a new public 
school in 1881, at a cost of £3000. A monument to Dr 
Thomas Alexander, C.B., the director-general of the 
medical department of the British army, was erected in 
1862, and consists of a stone statue 8J feet high, on a 
square pedestal 6J feet high, within an enclosure im- 
mediately N of the church. 

Prestonpans and the neighbouring villages used to 
supply all the east of Scotland with salt. This part of 
the coast, owing to the absence of large rivers, is favour- 
ably situated for the production of salt ; and being in 
the immediate vicinity of very extensive coal-fields, it 
possessed great facilities for carrying on a large and 
lucrative salt-trade. Ten salt-pans belonged to the 
town, and were capable of producing between 800 and 900 
bushels of salt per week ; and there were others in the 
neighbourhood of similar extent. In the five years pre- 
ceding 1792, the annual average amount of salt delivered 
in the Prestonpans collection was 83,471 bushels, about 
half of which was produced by the town's own pans, 
while the rest was produced by pans in the vicinity. 
A race of females known as salt-wives, and second in 
notoriety only to the fishwives of Fisherrow and New- 
haven, used to carry the salt in creels for sale in Edin- 
burgh and other towns. A manufactory of sulphate of 
soda, and of sulphuric, nitric, and muriatic acids, once 
employed upwards of 50 men, but has long since been 
abandoned. Extensive potteries, commenced about the 
middle of last century, employed about 40 men and 
upwards of 50 boys ; but after the close of the first 
quarter of the present century, they degenerated into a 
small manufactory of brown and white ware. Two brick 
and tile works long sent forth a steady produce of 
roofing-tiles over the country ; but they have been, 
to a considerable extent, superseded by the works of the 
Prestongrange Coal and Iron Co., for bricks, tiles, and 
every description of fireclay goods. The large brewery 
of Messrs John Fowler & Co. has been long at work, 
and has enjoyed extensive fame for the good quality of 
its ales. A soap-work is among the most recent of 
the town's considerable manufactories ; but for years 
a chief employment and traffic of the town has been 
the fishing and exportation of oysters. The largest 
and fattest of the oysters were formerly taken nearest 
the shore, and have long been in high esteem 
as Pan-door or Pandore oysters — a name whimsically 
given them from the oyster-bed lying off the doors of 
the salt-pans. The oyster-beds of Prestonpans, or 
' scalps ' as they are called, extend about 6 miles into 
the firth, and rather more than 3 miles from E to W ; 
and in the latter part of last century, they yielded a 
daily produce to dredgers of from 400 to 600 oysters in 
the day, which were sent not only to Scottish markets, 
but to Newcastle, Hull, and London. Now, however, 
they appear to be much less prolific than then. As the 
oysters spawn in May, and are in a sickly state till 
August, the proper dredging season begins on the first 
day of September and ends on the last day of April, 
continuing, as it is said, ' during the months in which 
there is an R.' The fishermen, while employed in dredg- 
ing them, sing a peculiar air, which is said to be of 
Scandinavian origin, and has a very peculiar and strik- 
ing effect when borne over the waters by fitful gusts of 
wind. At the E end of the town, close to the beach, is 
situated the colliery of Preston Links ; which, after 
half a century's successful working by the Messrs Grieve, 
was discontinued towards the close of 1884, as being no 
longer profitable. The commerce of the town, through 
its port of Moeison's Haven, a little way W of Cut- 
hill, was great in the days of its manufacturing pros- 
perity. The harbour, formed under a charter from 
the monks of Newbattle in 1526, and styled Aeheson's 



Haven, from the name of its original owner, Alexander 
Aeheson, ancester of the Earl of Gosford in the Irish 
peerage, was once a custom-house port, whose range in- 
cluded all creeks and landing-places between the mouth 
of the Figgate Burn at Portohello and the mouth of 
the Tyne near Dunbar ; and it had the right of levying 
customs and the various sorts of dues to the same extent 
as those exigible at Leith. All the western portions of 
Preston and Prestonpans towns and the adjacent hamlets 
are included within the barony of Prestongrange ; and all 
the eastern portions of these towns and the adjacent 
villas and ancient mansions are within the barony of 
Preston, whose ancient cross, bearing date 1617, is still 
a conspicuous central object of interest. The town of 
Prestonpans is now a police burgh under the General 
Police and Improvement Act (Scotland) of 1862. It 
has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and railway telegraph departments, a branch of the 
Royal Bank, an hotel, and a gas company. Pop. of 
town (1841) 1659, (1851) 1640, (1861), 1577, (1871) 
1790, (1881) 2265, of whom 1069 were females, and 
1610 were in the police burgh. Houses (1881) 486 
inhabited, 75 vacant. 

In 1591 John Fian or Cunningham, schoolmaster at 
Prestonpans, was tried as one of the North Berwick 
warlocks, and after suffering the cruelest tortures, was 
condemned and burnt ; in 1661, another schoolmaster 
here, Andrew Rutherford, was appointed commissioner 
for trying certain persons accused of witchcraft. 

As a boy, Sir Walter Scott resided for some time, 
in 1777, at Prestonpans, and must have acquired then 
his minute knowledge of the localities which he after- 
wards turned to so good account in Wavcrley. 

The battle which was fought on 21 Sept. 1745, be- 
tween the Jacobite forces under Prince Charles Edward 
and the Hanoverian forces under Sir John Cope, oc- 
curred principally within the parish of Tranent, and is 
sometimes called the battle of' Preston, sometimes the 
battle of Gladsmuie, but oftener the battle of Preston- 
pans. Sir John Cope landed his troops and stores at 
Dunbar on the 16th, 17th, and 18th of September; and, 
desirous of making all speed to engage the rebels, who were 
then in possession of Edinburgh, he marched from Dunbar 
on the 19th, and took post in battle order on the 20th 
in the eastern vicinity of Preston, his right extend- 
ing towards the sea at Port-Seaton, and his left towards 
a morass SE of Preston. Scarcely had he made his dis- 
positions when the whole of the Highland army ap- 
peared descending the heights in the direction of 
Tranent. On approaching Tranent, the Highlanders 
were received by the King's troops with a vehement 
shout of defiance, which the Highlanders answered in a 
similar strain. About two o'clock in the afternoon the 
Highland army halted on an eminence called Birsley- 
Brae, about £ mile to the W of Tranent, and formed in 
order of battle about 1 mile from the royal forces. In 
the expectation that the Highlanders were advancing by 
the usual route through Musselburgh and Preston, Cope 
had taken up the position we have described, with his front 
to the W ; but as soon as he observed the Highlanders 
on the heights upon his left, he changed his front to 
the S. This change of position, while it secured Cope 
better from attack, in the case of defeat was not so well 
calculated for safety as the first position. On his right 
was the E wall of a park belonging to Erskine of Grange, 
which extended a considerable way from N to S, and 
still farther to the right was the village of Preston. 
The village of Seaton was on his left, and the village of 
Cockenzie and the sea in his rear. Almost immediately 
in front was a deep ditch filled with water, and a strong 
thick hedge. Farther removed from the front, and 
between the two armies, was a morass, the ends of 
which had been drained, and were intersected by 
numerous cuts ; and on the more firm ground at the 
ends were several small enclosures, with hedges, dry 
stone-walls, and willow trees. As the Highlanders 
were in excellent spirits, and eager to close immediately 
with the enemy, Charles felt very desirous to comply 
with their wishes ; but he soon ascertained that the 


passage across the morass would be extremely dangerous, 
if not altogether impracticable. 

While his lieutenant-general was, in consequence 
of this information, planning a different mode of 
attack, the Prince himself was moving with a great 
part of his army further off towards Dolphingston on 
Cope's right. Halting and turning towards Preston 
Tower, he seemed to threaten that flank of the 
English general, who, thereupon, returned to his 
original position with his front to Preston, and his 
right towards the sea. Lord George Murray, con- 
sidering that the only practicable mode of attacking 
Cope was by advancing from the E, now led off part of 
the army through the village of Tranent, and sent 
notice to the Prince to follow him with the remainder 
as quickly as possible. After the Highland army had 
halted on the fields to the E of Tranent, a council of 
war was held, at which it was resolved to attack the 
enemy at break of day. A few piquets were placed 
around the bivouac, and the Highlanders, having 
wrapped themselves up in their plaids, lay down on the 
ground to repose for the night. When Cope observed 
Charles returning towards Tranent, he resumed his 
former position with his front to the S ; and thus, in 
a few hours, he was obliged, by the unrestrained evolu- 
tions of the Highlanders, to shift his ground no fewer 
than four times. He now began to perceive that his 
situation was not so favourable as he had imagined, and 
that while the insurgents could move about at discre- 
tion, select their ground, and choose their time and 
mode of attack, he was cramped in his own movements 
and could act only on the defensive. To secure his 
army from surprise during the night, he placed advanced 
piquets of horse and foot along the side of the morass, 
extending nearly as far E as the village of Seaton. He, 
at the same time, sent his baggage and military chest 
down to Cockenzie ; and as the night — that of Friday 
the 20th of September — was very cold, he ordered fires 
to be kindled along the front of his line, to keep his 
men warm. 

In point of numbers, the army of Cope was rather 
inferior to that of Charles ; but many of the Highlanders 
were badly armed, and some had no arms at all. The 
royal forces amounted altogether to about 2300 men ; 
but the number in the field was diminished to 2100 by 
the despatch of the baggage-guard to Cockenzie. The 
order of battle finally formed by Cope along the N side 
of the morass was as follows : He drew up his foot in 
one line, in the centre of which were eight companies of 
Lascelles' regiment, and two of Guise's. On the right 
were five companies of Lee's regiment, and on the left 
the regiment of Murray, with a number of recruits for 
different regiments at home and abroad. Two squadrons 
of Gardiner's dragoons formed the right wing, and a 
similar number of Hamilton's composed the left. The 
remaining squadron of each regiment was placed in the 
rear of its companions as a reserve. On the left of the 
army, near the waggon-road from Tranent to Cockenzie, 
were placed the artillery, consisting of six or seven 
pieces of cannon and four cohorns under the orders of 
Lieut. -Colonel Whiteford, and guarded by a company 
of Lee's regiment, commanded by Captain Cochrane. 
Besides the regular troops there were some volunteers, 
consisting principally of small parties of the neighbour- 
ing tenantry, headed by their respective landlords. 

The Highland army commenced its movement in 
the morning of the 21st, early enough to allow the 
whole of it to pass the eastern outlet from the 
morass before the dawn. It was divided into two 
successive columns, with an interval between. The 
Duke of Perth led the first column ; and two 
persons intimately acquainted with the morass went 
before him to show the way. A little in advance of the 
van, too, was a select party of 60 men doubly armed, 
under the command of Macdonald of Glenalladale, 
major of the regiment of Clanranald, whose appointed 
duty it was to seize the enemy's baggage. The army 
proceeded in an easterly direction till near the farm of 
Ringan-head ; and then, turning to the left, they 


marched in a northerly direction through a small valley 
which intersects the farm. During the march the 
strictest silence was kept, not even a whisper was 
heard ; and lest the trampling of horses might discover 
their advance, the few that were in the army were left 
behind. The ford or path across the morass was so 
narrow that the column — which marched three men 
abreast — had scarcely sufficient standing room ; and the 
ground along it was so soft that many of the men at 
almost every step were up to the knees in mud. The 
path in question — which was about 200 paces to the W 
of the stone bridge afterwards built across Seaton mill- 
dam— led to a small wooden bridge thrown over the 
large ditch which ran through the morass from W to E. 
This bridge, and the continuation of the path on the N 
of it, were a little to the E of Cope's left. From ignor- 
ance of the existence of this bridge — from oversight, or 
from a supposition that the marsh was not passable in 
that quarter — Cope had placed no guards in that direc- 
tion ; so that the Highland army, whose march across 
could here have been effectually stopped by a handful 
of men, passed the bridge and cleared the marsh without 

Hitherto the darkness had concealed the march of the 
Highlanders ; but the morning was now about to dawn, 
and at the time the order to halt was given, some of 
Cope's piquets, stationed on his left, for the first time 
heard the tramp of the Highlanders. The Highlanders 
plainly heard these advanced guards challenge them, 
' Who is there ? ' No answer having been returned, the 
piquets gave the alarm, and the cry of ' Cannons, 
cannons ! Get ready the cannons, cannoniers ! ' re- 
sounded through Cope's left wing. Charles instantly 
gave directions for attacking Cope before he should have 
time to change his position by opposing his front to 
that of the Highland army. As arranged at the council 
of war on the preceding evening, the army was drawn 
up in two lines. The first comprised a right wing, 
commanded by the Duke of Perth, and consisting of 
the regiments of Clanranald, Eeppoch, Glengarry, and 
Glencoe, under their respective chiefs, and a left wing 
commanded by Lord George Murray, and consisting of 
the Camerons of Lochiel under their own chief, and the 
Stewarts of Appin under Stewart of Ardshiel. The 
second line, which was to serve as a reserve, consisted 
of the Athole men, the Robertsons of Strowan, and the 
Maclauchlans. This body was under the command of 
Lord Nairne. As soon as Cope received intelligence of 
the advance of the Highlanders, he gave orders to 
change his front to the E. Some confusion took place 
in carrying these orders into execution, from the ad- 
vanced guards not being able to find out their regiments, 
and so stationing themselves on the right of Lee's five 
companies, as to prevent the two squadrons of Gardiner's 
dragoons, which had been posted on the right of the 
line, from forming properly. For want of room, the 
squadron under Colonel Gardiner drew up behind that 
commanded by Lieut. -Colonel Whitney. In all other 
respects the disposition of each regiment was the same ; 
but the artillery, which before the change had been on 
the left, and close to that wing, was now on the right 
somewhat farther from the line, and in front of 
Whitney's squadron. 

There was now nothing to prevent the armies from 
coming into collision ; and if Cope had had the choice, 
he could not have selected ground more favourable for 
the operations of cavalry than that which lay between 
the two armies. It was a level cultivated field of con- 
siderable extent, without bush or tree, and had just 
been cleared of its crop of grain. But the celerity with 
which the Highlanders commenced the attack prevented 
Cope from availing himself of this local advantage. 
The beams of the rising sun were just beginning to 
illuminate the horizon; but the mist which still 
hovered over the cornfields prevented the two armies 
from seeing each other. As the Highlanders had ad- 
vanced considerably beyond the main ditch, Lord 
George Murray was apprehensive that Cope might turn 
the left flank ; and to guard against such a contingency, 


he desired Lochiel, who was on the extreme left, to 
order his men in advancing to incline to the left. Lord 
George then ordered the left wing to advance, and sent 
an aide-de-camp to the Duke of Perth to request him to 
put the right in motion. The Highlanders moved with 
such rapidity that their ranks broke ; to recover which, 
they halted once or twice before closing with the enemy. 
When Cope, at day-break, observed the first line of the 
Highland army formed in order of battle, at the distance 
of 200 paces from his position, he mistook it for bushes ; 
but before it had advanced half-way, the rays of the 
rising sun bursting through the retiring mist showed 
the armies to each other. 

As the right wing of the Highlanders marched 
straight forward without attending to the oblique 
movement of the Camerons to the left, a gap took place 
in the centre of the line. An attempt was made to fill 
it up with a second line, which was about fifty paces 
behind the first ; but before this could be accomplished, 
the left wing, being the first to move, had advanced 
beyond the right of the line, and was now engaged with 
the enemy. By inclining to the left, the Camerons 
gained half the ground originally between them and the 
main ditch ; but this movement brought them up 
directly opposite to Cope's cannon. On approaching 
the cannon the Highlanders fired a few shots at the 
artillery guard, which alarmed the gunners to such a 
degree that they fled, carrying the powder flasks along 
with them. To check the advance of the Highlanders, 
Colonel Whiteford fired off five of the field-pieces with 
his own hand ; but though their left seemed to recoil, 
they instantly resumed the rapid pace they had set out 
with. The artillery guard next fired a volley with as 
little effect. Observing the squadron of dragoons under 
Whitney advancing to the charge, the Camerons set up 
a loud shout, rushed past the cannon, and, after firing 
a few shots at the dragoons, which killed several men, 
and wounded the lieutenant-colonel, flew on them sword 
in hand. When assailed, the squadron was reeling to 
and fro from the fire ; and the Highlanders following 
an order they had received, to strike at the noses of the 
horses without minding the riders, completed the dis- 
order. In a moment the dragoons wheeled about, rode 
over the artillery guard, and fled followed by the guard. 
The Highlanders continuing to push forward without 
stopping to take prisoners, Colonel Gardiner was ordered 
to advance with his squadron, and charge the enemy. 
He accordingly went forward, encouraging his men to 
stand firm ; but this squadron, before it had advanced 
many paces, experienced a similar reception, and 
followed the example which the other had just set. 
After the flight of the dragoons, the Highlanders ad- 
vanced upon the infantry, who opened a fire from right 
to left, which went down the line as far as Murray's 
regiment. They received this volley with a loud huzza, 
and throwing away their muskets, drew their claymores 
and rushed upon the foot before they had time to reload 
their pieces. Confounded by the flight of the dragoons, 
and the furious onset of the Highlanders, the astonished 
infantry threw down their arms and took to their heels. 
Hamilton's dragoons, who were stationed on Cope's left, 
displayed even greater pusillanimity than their com- 
panions ; for no sooner did they observe the squadrons 
on the right give way, than they turned their backs and 
fled without firing a single shot or drawing a sword. 
Murray's regiment being thus left alone on the field, 
fired upon the Macdonalds who were advancing, and 
also fled. Thus, within a very few minutes after the 
action had commenced, the whole army of Cope was put 
to flight. With the exception of their fire, not the 
slightest resistance was made by horse or foot, and not 
a single baj T onet was stained with blood. Such were 
the impetuosity and rapidity with which the first line 
of the Highlanders broke through Cope's ranks, that 
they left numbers of his men in their rear, who 
attempted to rally behind them, but, seeing the second 
line coming up, endeavoured to make their escape. 
Though the second line was not more than 50 paces 
behind the first, and was always running as fast as it 



could to overtake the first line, and near enough never 
to lose sight of it, yet such was the rapidity with which 
the battle was gained, that, according to the Chevalier 
Johnstone, who stood by the side of the Prince in the 
second line, he could see no other enemy on the field of 
battle than those who were lying on the ground killed 
and wounded. 

Unfortunately for the royal infantry, the walls of Lord 
Grange's park enclosures about the village of Preston, 
which, from the position taken up on the preceding even- 
ing, formed their great security on their right, now that 
these park walls were in their rear, operated as a barrier to 
their flight. Having disencumbered themselves of their 
arms to facilitate their escape, they had deprived them- 
selves of their only means of defence ; and, driven as they 
were upon the walls of the enclosures, they would have 
all perished under the swords of the Highlanders, had 
not Charles and his officers strenuously exerted them- 
selves to preserve the lives of their discomfited foes. 
The impetuosity of the attack, however, and the sudden 
flight of the royal army, allowed little leisure for the 
exercise of humanity ; and before the carnage ceased 
several hundreds had fallen under the claymores of the 
Highlanders, and the ruthless scythes of the Macgregors. 
Armed with these deadly weapons, which were sharpened 
and fixed to poles from 7 to 8 feet long, to supply the 
place of other arms, this party mowed down the 
affrighted enemy, cut off the legs of the horses, and 
severed, it is said, the bodies of their riders in twain. 
Of the infantry of the royal army, only about 170 
escaped. From a report made by their own sergeants 
and corporals, by order of Lord George Murray, between 
1600 and 1700 prisoners, foot and cavalry, fell into the 
hands of the Highlanders, including about 70 officers. 
In this number were comprehended the baggage guard 
stationed at Cockenzie, amounting to 300 men, who, on 
learning the fate of the main body and the loss of their 
cannon, surrendered to the Camerons. The cannon and 
all the baggage of the royal army, together with the 
military chest, containing £4000, fell into the hands of 
the victors. The greater part of the dragoons escaped 
by the two roads at the extremities of the park wall, 
one of which passed by Colonel Gardiner's house in the 
rear of their right, and the other on their left, to the K 
of Preston House. In retiring towards these outlets, 
the dragoons, at the entreaties of their officers, halted 
once or twice, and faced about to meet the enemy ; but 
as soon as the Highlanders came up and fired at them, 
they wheeled about and fled. Cope, who was by no 
means deficient in personal courage, assisted by the 
Earls of Home and Loudon, collected about 450 of the 
panic-struck dragoons on the W side of the village of 
Preston, and attempted to lead them back to the charge ; 
but no entreaties could induce these cowards to advance, 
and the whistling of a few bullets, discharged by some 
Highlanders near the village, so alarmed them that 
they instantly scampered off in a southerly direction, 
screening their heads behind their horses' necks to avoid 
the bullets of the Highlanders. The general had no 
alternative but to gallop off with his men. He that 
night reached Coldstream, a town about 40 miles from 
the field of battle, and entered Berwick next day. 

Among six of Cope's officers who were killed was 
Colonel James Gardiner (1688-1745), a veteran soldier 
who served under the Duke of Marlborough, and whose 
character combined a strong religious feeling with the 
most undaunted courage. He had been decidedly 
opposed to the defensive system of Cope on the preced- 
ing evening, and had counselled the general not to lose 
a moment in attacking the Highlanders ; but his advice 
was disregarded. Anticipating the fate which awaited 
him, he spent the greater part of the night in devotion, 
and resolved at all hazards to perform his duty. He 
was wounded at the first onset at the head of his 
dragoons ; but disdaining to follow them in their 
retreat, he joined a small body of foot, which attempted 
to rally not far from the wall of his own garden, and while 
fighting at their head was cut down by the murderous 
Lochaber axe of a Macgregor. He was carried to the 


manse of Tranent in almost a lifeless state, where he ex- 
pired within a few hours, and was interred in the NW 
corner of the church of Tranent. Captain Brymer, of Lee's 
regiment, who appears to have participated in Gardiner's 
opinion as to attacking the Highlanders, met a similar 
fate, as did also Captain Stewart of Physgill, over whose 
grave in Prestonpans kirkyard there is still visible, 
though partially weather-worn, an interesting memorial 
tablet. The loss on the side of the Highlanders was 
trifling. Four officers, and between 30 and 40 privates, 
were killed ; and 5 or 6 officers, and between 70 and 80 
privates, wounded. After the termination of the fight, 
the field of battle presented an appalling spectacle, 
rarely exhibited in the most bloody conflicts. As 
almost all the slain were cut down by the broadsword 
and the scythe, the ground was strewed with legs, arms, 
hands, noses, and mutilated bodies, while, from the deep 
gashes inflicted by these dreadful weapons, the ground 
was literally soaked with gore. See, besides works 
cited under Culloden, Mr P. M'Neill's Tranent and 
its Surroundings (2d ed., Edinb. 1884) and the Autobio- 
graphy of Alexander Carlyle, D.D. (1722-1805), who 
was a son of the minister of Prestonpans, beheld the 
Jacobite victory from the top of the church steeple, and 
himself for 57 years was minister of Inveresk. 

The small but populous parish of Prestonpans, contain- 
ing also the villages of Peeston and Dolphingston, is 
bounded E and SE by Tranent, SW by Tranent and by 
Inveresk in Edinburghshire, N"W by the Firth of Forth. 
Its utmost length, from NE to SW, is 2§ miles ; its breadth 
varies between 3 furlongs and 1J mile ; and its area is 
14294 acres, of which 135| are foreshore. The surface 
rises gently from the shore, attaining 100 feet above sea- 
level at the railway station, and 200 at the Tranent 
border. The beach is low and sandy, with a bulwark 
of low reefs, much shattered and water-worn along its 
margin ; and it commands a picturesque prospect of the 
Firth of Forth and the southern parts of Fife. Ravens- 
haugh Burn runs along the boundary with Edinburgh- 
shire. The rocks belong mainly to the Carboniferous 
Limestone series ; and coal was wrought in this parish 
as early perhaps as in any district in Scotland, and 
continues still to be largely worked, the recent growth 
of the population being due to an increase in mining 
activity. Ironstone and fireclay also occur, and are 
turned to profitable account in connection with the 
mining operations. The prevailing soil is loam, partly 
heavy on a clay bottom, partly light on a sandy or 
gravelly bottom. Upwards of 1000 acres are under 
cultivation. The chief mansions, both noticed separ- 
ately, are Peestongbange and Detjmoee ; and 4 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of more than £500, 
4 of between £100 and £500. Prestonpans is in the 
presbytery of Haddington and the synod of Lothian 
and Tweeddale ; the living was, in 1873, estimated to be 
worth £543. The original name of a hamlet near by was 
Aldhammer ; but this early gave way to Priestistoun 
or Prieststown, which was gradually abbreviated into 
Preston ; and that (which was the name under which the 
district was erected into a parish by act of parliament 
in 1606) was, in its turn, superseded by successively 
Salt-Preston and Prestonpans. An ancient chapel, 
which was situated at Preston, and which was 
a vicarage of the monks of Holyrood, in 1544 was 
burned, in common with the town and castle of Preston, 
by the Earl of Hertford, and never afterwards repaired. 
Another ancient chapel, situated within what is now 
the West Kirkyard, towards the W end of the town of 
Prestonpans, was in pre-Reformation times supplied by 
the monks of Newbattle, who were then the owners of 
most of the property in that quarter, but, excepting old 
stones built into the walls, no trace of it remains. 
The inhabitants of the two baronies, the eastern and 
western, or Preston and Prestongrange, into which the 
parish was distributed, seem, for a time after the 
monastic services were discontinued, to have tacitly 
attached themselves to Tranent ; but were quite unduly 
provided for, and could obtain but limited access to the 
interior of the church. Mr John Davidson (1550-1604), 


who was minister for the last eight years of his life, at 
length built, largely at his own expense, a church and a 
manse in the village of Prestonpans, to which a glebe, 
garden, and stipend were attached by George Hamilton 
of Preston ; and he also founded here a school for the 
teaching of the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, 
and endowed it with all his property, free, movable, 
and heritable. The grammarian, Alexander Hume, 
was its first master from 1606 till 1616. In 1595 the 
General Assembly declared Prestonpans to be a parish 
quoad sacra, and in 1606 the parliament of Perth 
' erected the said newly -built kirk into a parish kirk, 
which was to be called the parish kirk of Preston.' 
The public school, erected under the Education Act of 
1873, with accommodation for 400 children, had (1884) 
an average attendance of 341, and a grant of £298, 
7s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £8194, (1885) £11,798, 14s. 
Pop. (1801) 1964, (1831) 2322, (1861) 2080, (1871) 2069, 
(1881) 2573.— Oral. Stir., shs. 33, 32, 1863-57. 

Preston Tower. See Preston, Prestonpans. 

Prestwick, a small town in Monkton and Prestwick 
parish, Kyle district, Ayrshire, within 3 furlongs of the 
sea-shore, and 2| miles N by E of Ayr. Its age, and 
especially its constitution as a burgh of barony, are 
remarkable, and strongly resemble those of the curious 
neighbouring burgh of Newton-upon-Ayr. A charter, 
confirming and renewing its privileges, was granted by 
James VI. as administrator-in-law for his eldest son, 
then a minor, Henry, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Kyle, 
Carrick, and Cunninghame, Lord of the Isles, and Prince 
Stewart of Scotland. The charter is dated 19 June 
1600, and expressly says that Prestwick was known to 
have been a free burgh of barony beyond the memory of 
man, for the space of 617 years before the date of 
renewal. The burgh has power to elect every two years 
a provost, 2 bailies, and councillors, to grant franchises 
for several trades, and to hold a market weekly, and a 
fair on the feast of St Nicholas, 6 December. The free- 
men, or barons as they are called, are 36 in number. 
The burgh lands belonging to them as an incorporation 
extend in a broad strip along the Pow Burn to a line 1J 
mile nearer Ayr, and comprehend about 800 acres. 
The lands used to be distributed in lots among the free- 
men, and did not remain in perpetuity, but were drawn 
for every 19 years. Part of them long existed as a 
common, on which each of the freemen had a right of 
pasturing a certain number of sheep and cattle ; but 
this, many years ago, was divided and appropriated in 
the same way as the rest of the barony. Freemen could 
not sell their lots or shares, or the baronial rights 
which belong to them, without the consent of the cor- 
poration ; and females succeeded equally with males to 
the inheritance of the freeholds. A freeman might, for 
an offence, be sent to prison, but not locked up ; and, 
if he came out without being liberated by the judicial 
sentence of the magistrates, he forfeited all his corpora- 
tion privileges and property. In 1850, however, all 
restrictions were abolished, and the land is now held in 
the same way as other heritable land in Scotland. 
Within the last few years Prestwick has become the 
headquarters of golfing in the West of Scotland, and at 


the same time a favourite watering-place, so that in 
summer it is crowded with visitors. It has a post office 
under Ayr, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, a station on the Ayr branch (1838- 
40) of the Glasgow and South-Western railway, an ancient 
market cross, a town-hall, a cemetery, Free and U.P. 
churches, and a public school. The town-hall, built 
about 1837, is a handsome edifice, with a Gothic spire. 
The Free church, built in 1874 at a cost of £1600, 
contains 450 sittings. The U.P. church was opened 
in 1884 ; and the public school, accommodating 320 
children, in 1882. Pop. (1793) 260, (1837) 758, (1861) 
851, (1871) 750, (1881) 1064, of whom 596 were females. 
Houses (1881) 231 inhabited, 99 vacant, 13 building.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. See Monkton, and John 
Fullarton's Records of the Burgh of Prestwick from 1470 
to 17S2 (Glasg., Maitland Club, 1834). 

Prestwick Toll or New Prestwick, a village in Monk- 
ton and Newton-upon-Ayr parishes, Ayrshire, 1 mile S 
by W of Prestwick. Pop. (1871) 468, (1881) 734, of 
whom 337 were in Newton-upon-Ayr parish. 

Priesthill. See Muirkirk. 

Primside Mill, a village in Morebattle parish, Rox- 
burghshire, 1 mile SSW of Yetholm. 

Prinlaws. See Leslie. 

Prior Bank, a seat in Melrose parish, Roxburghshire, 
in the immediate vicinity of Melrose town. For the last 
eighteen years of his life it was the favourite residence 
of the Edinburgh publisher, William Tait (1792-1864), 
who welcomed Kossuth here in 1851 ; and at his death 
it passed to his brother-in-law, Adam Black (1784-1874), 
lord provost of Edinburgh 1843-48, and Liberal M.P. 
for that city 1856-65.— Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Priorhill, a village in Canonbie parish, Dumfries- 
shire, close to Canonbie station. 

Prosen Water, a troutful stream of NW Forfarshire, 
rising at an altitude of 2750 feet on the western slope 
of Mayar (3043 feet), and running 18 miles south-east- 
ward through the northern section of Kirriemuir parish, 
and along the borders of Cortachy, Kingoldrum, and 
Kirriemuir proper, till, after a total descent of nearly 
2400 feet, it falls into the South Esk at a point 1J mile 
SE of Cortachy Castle. It receives, in its progress, 
Farchal, Cramie, Glenlogie, Inchmill, Glenuig, Glen- 
cally, and Corogie Burns ; traverses, till near its mouth, 
a deep mountain glen, called from it Glenprosen ; and 
on the Shawfield estate threads a narrow wooded gorge, 
the 'Loup,' where a fugitive of the '45 is said to have 
leapt the channel from rock to rock. — Ord. Sur., shs. 
65, 56, 1S70. 

Protstownhill, a village in Gamrie parish, Banffshire, 
If mile E of Gardenstown. 

Provanhall, a village in Shettleston parish, Lanark- 
shire, 2 miles NNW of Baillieston station. 

Pulteneytown. See Wick. 

Purves Hall, a mansion in Eccles parish, Berwickshire, 
3J miles E by S of Greenlaw. Its owner, Charles 
Hyde Home-Purves, Esq. (b. 1850 ; sue. 1S67), is heir 
to the Marohmont estate, and himself holds 750 acres 
in the shire, valued at £1236 per annum. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 25, 1865. 


QUAICH. See Quoich and Glenquaich. 
Quair Water, a troutful stream of Traquair 
parish, Peeblesshire, rising on the E side of Dun 
Big at an altitude of 2100 feet, close to the Sel- 
kirkshire boundary, and running 6J miles north-east- 
ward, till, after a descent of 1650 feet, it falls into the 
Tweed at a point 5 furlongs S of Innerleithen. It is 
fed by Newhall, Curly, and Fingland Burns, each 
nearly equal to itself in length and volume ; and it 
has been celebrated in several lyrics, of which that by 
Nicol begins, 'Where Quair rins sweet amang the 
flowers. '—Ord. S^lr., sh. 24, 1864. 

Quanteraess. See Kirkwall. 

Quarff, an ancient quoad civilia parish and a modern 
quoad sacra parish in the S of Shetland. The ancient 
quoad civilia parish, forming a narrow part of the 
mainland, 6 miles SSW of Lerwick, extends 1J mile 
from sea to sea, between the East and West Voes of 
Quarff. It chiefly consists of an inhabited valley If 
mile long and £ mile broad, with pastoral hill flanks ; 
and, together with the ancient quoad civilia parish of 
Burra, is united to Bressay. The modern quoad sacra 
parish comprises the ancient parishes of Quarff and 
Burra ; was constituted by the General Assembly in 



1833, and reconstituted by the Court of Teinds prior 
to 1856 ; and is in the presbytery of Lerwick and synod 
of Shetland. Its church is a Government one, and con- 
tains 360 sittings. Pop. of q. s. parish (1871) 952, (1881) 

Quarrelton, a collier village in the SW of Abbey 
parish, Renfrewshire, $ mile S of Johnstone. 

Quarrelwood, a hamlet in Kirkmahoe parish, Dum- 
friesshire, 3J miles N by W of Dumfries. 

Quarter, a mansion in Largs parish, Ayrshire, near 
the shore of the Firth of Clyde, 2J miles NNW of Largs 

Quarter, an estate, with a mansion, in Dunipace 
parish, Stirlingshire, 1 1 mile N by W of Denny. 

Quarter, an estate in Broughton parish, Peeblesshire, 
on Holms Water, 2£ miles SSW of Broughton station. 
It was sold in 1741 to Thomas Tweedie, a cadet of the 
Tweedies of Oliver. See Rachan House. 

Quarter Ironworks and Darngaber, a conjoint village 
in Hamilton parish, Lanarkshire, 3 miles S of Hamilton 
town and J mile ENE of Quarter Road station on the 
Strathaven branch of the Caledonian railway. It has a 
post office (Quarter) under Hamilton, an Established 
chapel of ease, a public school, and iron-works with five 
blast furnaces. The chapel of ease is an Early Decorated 
edifice of 1884, containing 430 sittings. Pop. (1871) 
544, (1881) 886.— Ord. Sur., sh. 23, 1865. 

Quarter, West. See Westquarter. 

Queensberry, a mountain (2285 feet) in Closeburn 
parish, N Dumfriesshire, If mile SE of the nearest point 
of Lanarkshire, 1J N by E of Wee Queensberry (1675 
feet), 7 miles WSW of Moffat, and 7|— but 12 to walk 
— ENE of Thornhill. Sending down its eastern base 
into the parish of Kirkpatrick-Juxta, and lifting its 
summit but a brief way from the extreme angle of the 
deep indentation made by Lanarkshire into Dumfries- 
shire, it forms, with its fine, bold, sombre mass, a strik- 
ing feature in many rich scenic landscapes. Its suffix 
is the Anglo-Saxon berg, 'a hill,' softened into berry; 
and, situated amid a congeries of noble heights, but 
queening it over them all like a sovereign among her 
courtiers, it is truly the ' queen hill ' of a rich and 
superb district. About 1802 Hogg, the Ettrick Shep- 
herd, was tending his master's ewes on the slopes of 
Queensberry, when he received a visit from James and 
Allan Cunningham. See Drumlanrig. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 16, 10, 1864. 

Queen's Cairn. See Stitchell. 

Queensferry or South Queensferry, a small town and 
yet smaller parish of Linlithgowshire. The town is a 
royal and parliamentary burgh, the royal comprising all 
the parish of Queensferry, and the parliamentary ex- 
tending into Dalmeny. It stands on the southern shore 
of the Firth of Forth, here only 1J mile broad, and has 
a station on a branch line of the North British, 5| miles 
N by W of Ratio Junction and 13| WNW of Edin- 
burgh, from which by road it is 9 miles distant. Its 
site is a belt of low ground at a point opposite the 
peninsula of North Queensferry, and the intermediate 
island of Inchgarvie, where the firth is suddenly and 
briefly, but very greatly, contracted in breadth. The 

f round behind the town rises abruptly ; and inime- 
iately at the summit, or even on the slope of the steep 
bank, becomes open agricultural country. The town 
comes first into notice as the station at which St Mar- 
garet, the queen of Malcolm Ceannmor, passed the 
Forth in her numerous excursions between Edinburgh 
and Dunfermline during 1068 and 1093 ; and it received 
in honour of her, both its present name, and some early 
Latin designations of similar import, e.g., Portus Regince 
(1164) and Passagium. Regime (1182). Malcolm IV., 
the great-grandson of Margaret, made the monks of 
Dunfermline a grant of the right of ferry at the place, 
and of a small piece of ground within the limits of the 
present royalty, — a grant which probably led almost 
immediately to the erection of the town ; and, in 1164, 
he granted also to the monks of Scone a free passage 
here for the abbot, the monks, and their men. In 1294 
Pope Gregory confirmed to the abbey of Dunfermline 


' dimidium Passagii Sanctse Margarita? Reginse ; ' and in 
a charter (1363) of general confirmation of regality juris- 
dictions by David II. to the monks of Dunfermline, 
' Passagium ' figures as a burgh of regality along with 
' Dunfermlyne, Kirkcaldy, and Muskilbnrgh. ' The 
place, as a burgh of regality, was again granted to the 
monks by Robert I., regranted by Robert III., and con- 
firmed in 1450 by James IV. A new charter was 
granted, in 1636, by Charles I., confirming the preced- 
ing royal grants, but at the same time confirming a 
charter by Robert, commendator of Dunfermline. As 
this is the latest extant charter, and the record of the 
Great Seal for the period is defective, no evidence exists 
as to the precise year when the town was erected into a 
royal burgh. Yet proof is decisive that the erection 
took place before 1641, as the Scots Act of 1641 ratifies 
and approves of the charter of erection into ' ane free 
Bnrgh Royall and in ane free Port, Haven, and Harbour, 
with the haill liberties, privileges, and immunities per- 
taining to ane free Burgh Royall.' In 1639 a com- 
missioner from it appears for the first time to have 
sat in parliament ; and in the parliament of the 
following year he recorded a protest that he had 
produced his commission for Queensferry as a royal 
burgh, and that ' he had ridden, sitten, and voyced in 
this parliament as the rest of commissioners of burghs. ' 
He was confronted by a counter-protest on the part of 
the burgh of Linlithgow, that he ' had neither riddin, 
sittin, nor voyced in parliament for the Queensferry ; ' 
but in 1641, the same Act of Parliament which erected 
the place into a separate parish, freed it from the gall- 
ing opposition of Linlithgow, and definitely recognised 
it as a royal burgh. 

Queensferry, in spite of its antiquity and historical 
importance, has always been small ; nor has it ever been 
enriched by much commerce, or dignified by great events. 
Its principal street varies in width, but is generally nar- 
row, and wends irregularly to a total length of 650 
yards, partly along the shore and partly into the in- 
terior. A street of 200 yards goes off from this at right 
angles, with a terrace along the road leading to Kirk- 
liston. Three short alleys lead down to the harbour, 
and a fourth leads to the parish school-house. These 
streets and lanes compose the whole town. Only a 
square tower, with E and S wings, remains of a Carmelite 
friary, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and built and 
endowed by Sir George Dundasof Dundas as early as 1332. 
In 1884 the present Mr Dundas of Inchgarvie announced 
his intention of converting this fragment into a public 
reading-room. The plain parish church, built in 1633 
and refitted in 1821, contains 400 sittings, and has an 
excellent bell, bearing date 1635. Queensferry besides 
has a U. P. church, a post office, with money order, 
savings' bank, and telegraph departments, a branch of 
the Clydesdale Bank, a water supply (1819), gasworks, 
a town-hall, a pleasure fair on the second Friday of 
August, and four hotels, of which that at Newhalls is 
the ' Hawes Inn ' of Scott's Antiquary. The harbour 
and ferry works of North and South Queensferry, New- 
halls, and Port-Edgar were greatly improved in 1809-18, 
from designs by Rennie, at a cost of £33,825 ; and in 
1877-78 the North British Railway Co. expended a 
further sum of £30,000 on the construction of a timber 
landing jetty, 900 feet long, a whinstone breakwater, 
1300 feet long, a new railway station, etc. A ferry 
steamboat, the ' Queen Margaret, ' was placed on the 
passage in 1821 ; but the opening of the Granton and 
Burntisland ferry has greatly diminished the number of 
passengers, who in 1811 numbered 228 to 447 a day. 
It remains to be seen what will be the effects of the 
completion, about 1888, of the great Forth Bridge (see 
Forth and North British Railway), whose construc- 
tion in the summer of 1884 was employing 1200 men, of 
whom 1000 were resident either in South or in North 
Queensferry ; but there can be little or no doubt that 
its completion will be highly beneficial to the place. 
In the 17th century, about 20 vessels, most of them 
large brigs, belonged to Queensferry, and some trade 
in ship-building was carried on. But now no vessel be- 


longs to the port, nor are any built at it ; and the com- 
merce of the place consists principally of a coasting 
trade in coals, manures, and barley inward, and in 
stones and potatoes outward. Herring fishing is a chief 
emplo3 r ment during the winter months ; and there are 
connected with it a dozen boats belonging to the town. 
George IV. embarked at Port-Edgar, 15 Aug. 1822, on 
his return to England ; on 5 Sept. 1842, the Queen 
and Prince Albert drove from Dalkeith to South Queens- 
ferry, embarked on the 'William Adam,' and, after a 
short cruise up the Forth, landed at North Queensferry, 
whence they drove on to Scone ; on 23 Aug. 18S4 
the Prince and Princess of Wales, after visiting the 
Forth Bridge Works, drove through the town on 
their way from Dalmeny to Hopetoun ; and shortly 
afterwards the Forth Bridge Works were visited by 
Mr Gladstone and Sir Stafford Northcote. The parish, 
formed out of Dalmeny in 1636, is in the presbytery 
of Linlithgow and the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; 
the living is worth £355. The town is governed 

by a provost (which 
office has been held 
by the Earls of Hope- 
toun and Rosebery), 
2 bailies, and 6 coun- 
cillors, and they, 
in 1882, adopted 
in part the General 
Police Act. The 
magistrates have 
jurisdiction not only 
within the royalty 
but also in the par- 
liamentary bounds, 
which include the 
Forth Bridge ; and 
in olden times they 
were in the habit 
of exercising juris- 
diction much beyond 
this. Queensferry 
unites with Stir- 

Seal of Queensferry. 

ling, Inverkeithing, Dunfermline, and Culross in send- 
ing a member to parliament. The burgh became 
bankrupt in 1881, but obtained its discharge on a 
composition of 12s. 6d. per £ in 1882, and in 1883 
and 1884 it had a corporation revenue of £120, ex- 
clusive of assessments. The municipal and the parlia- 
mentary constituency numbered 243 and 204 in 1885, 
when the annual value of real property within the 
parliamentary burgh amounted to £6978, 5s. (£3127 
in 1875). Pop. (1841) 1233, (1851) 1195, (1861) 
1230, (1871) 1521, (1881) 1966, of whom 1136 were 
males, 290 belonged to the ' Royal Warden ' training 
ship, and 1676 were in the parliamentary burgh, 1064 
in the royal burgh or parish of Queensferry. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 32, 1S57. See W. W. Fyfe's Summer Life 
on Land and Water at South Queensferry (Edinb. 

Queensferry, North, a village of Fife in the detached 
section of the civil parish of Dunfermline, but (since 
1855) in the ecclesiastical parish of Inverkeithing, at the 
extremity of Ferryhill peninsula, on the N coast of the 
Firth of Forth, directly opposite Queensferry, and 1 j 
mile S of Inverkeithing. William, Bishop of St 
Andrews, in 1323 gave its chapel of St James to the 
abbey of Dunfermline ; in 1781, after the visit of Paul 
Jones to the firth, it acquired a battery, long ago dis- 
mantled. A favourite summer resort for sea-bathing, 
it has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments, a railway station, a coast- 
guard station, a Free church, and a public school. 
Pop. (1831) 434, (1861) 369, (1871) 382, (1881) 360.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 


Queensferry, South. See Queensferry. 

Queenshill, a mansion in Tongland parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, 2 miles N of Tarff station. It was the 
residence and death-place of James Beaumont Neilson, 
C.B. (1792-1863), inventor of the famous hot-blast, to 
whose memory a pyramid, 35 feet high, was erected in 
1883. His son, Walter Montgomerie Neilson, Esq. (b. 
1819), holds 1822 acres in the shire, valued at £1559 per 
annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Queich. See Glenquaich. 

Queich, North, a rivulet of Kinross-shire, rising 
among the Ochil Hills, adjacent to the boundary with 
Perthshire, and running 6| miles east-by-southward, 
chiefly within Orwell parish, but for 2 miles along or 
close to the boundary with Kinross, till it falls into the 
NW corner of Loch Leven, 1 mile SE of Milnathort. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Queich, South, a rivulet, party of Perthshire, but 
chiefly of Kinross-shire. It rises among the Ochils, 
within the Perthshire border, 1J mile WNW of the 
source of the North Queich ; begins, a little below its 
source, to trace for nearly 4 miles the boundary between 
the two counties ; then runs 4J miles east-by-south- 
ward through Kinross parish ; and falls into Loch 
Leven at the S end of Kinross town. — Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 

Quendale Bay, a bay towards the southern extremity 
of Dunrossness parish, Shetland. Opening from the 
SW, it is flanked by Fitful Head and Scatness (the latter 
1J mile W by N of Sumburgh Head) ; and it measures 
3§ miles across the entrance, and 2^ miles thence to 
its inmost recess. It is esteemed a good natural 
harbour. Quendale House, at its head, 23 miles SSW 
of Lerwick, is the seat of Andrew John Grierson, Esq. 
(b. 1832 ; sue. 1863), who holds 22,006 acres, valued at 
£1132 per annum. 

Quinag. See Assynt. 

Quiraing, a mountain (1779 feet) in Kilmuir parish, 
Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire, 2 miles WNW of Sten- 
scholl, 6 NE of Uig, and 20 N by W of Portree. Con- 
sisting of amygdaloidal trap, and apparently formed by 
volcanic eruption, it ascends very steeply, almost 
murally on the NE side ; and is capped with a kind of 
crater, from which it takes its name (Gael, cuith-fliir- 
Fhinn, ' pit of the men of Fingal '). The rim around 
the summit resembles a strong, rough, lofty rampart, 
with only three or four gaps or fissures affording access 
to the interior. The principal gap is a steep narrow 
passage, obstructed by debris, and overhung by a tall, 
tapering, isolated pinnacle, the ' Needle ; ' and the 
rampart all round, except at the gaps, shows distinct 
basaltic formation in columnar, pyramidal, and other 
forms. Through the gaps one gains picturesque 
glimpses of sea and land ; and the hollow itself could 
shield 4000 head of black cattle, and indeed was pro- 
bably used in olden times as a place of retreat and 
concealment from invasion. From the bottom of it rises 
an oblong tabular mass or truncated rocky hill, the flat 
and turf-covered ' Table,' which measures 300 feet long 
and 180 broad. Such is this 'nightmare of nature,' 
this huge ' basaltic cathedral,' which in 1872 was 
ascended on foot by the Empress Eugenie and the 
Prince Imperial. See chaps, vii. and xi. of Alex. 
Smith's Summer in SJcye (1865). 

Quivox, St. See St Qt/ivox. 

Quoich Water, a stream of Crathie and Braemar 
parish, Aberdeenshire, formed by two head-streams on 
the eastern side of Benabourd at an altitude of 2273 
feet, and winding 8J miles south-by-eastward, till it 
falls into the Dee at a point If mile WSW of Castleton. 
It forms, 1 mile above its mouth, a beautiful waterfall, 
the Linn of Quoich, its steep ravine being fringed with 
birch and pine. — Ord. Sur., sh. 65, 1870. 

Quothquan. See Libberton. 




RAASAY (Scand. Baa, 'a roe deer,' and ey, 'an 
island '), an island in Portree parish, Inverness- 
shire, and lying between the centre of the E 
coast of Skye and the Applecross district of Ross- 
shire. From the former it is separated by the Sound of 
Raasay, 5J miles wide at the N end of the island, 2J at 
the centre, and 1 mile opposite Raasay House, at the 
Narrows of Raasay. From Applecross it is separated 
by the Inner Sound, 5| miles wide at the N end, 8| 
opposite Applecross Bay, and 6| at the S end. At the 
N end is the small Eilean Tigh, which is practically 
part of Raasay, and this is separated from South Rona 
by Kyle Rona, £ mile wide. One and one-eighth mile 
SSW of Eilean Tigh is Eilean Fladday, from which 
Raasay is separated by Kyle Fladda, which is dry from 
half-tide to half-tide. On the S the island is separated 
from the peninsula of Skye which stands out between 
Loch Sligachan and Loch Ainort, by a strait 1 mile 
wide, and from Scalpay on the SE by Kyle More, f mile 
wide. Raasay Sound has a depth varying from 78 to 
87 fathoms, and the Inner Sound is 77 fathoms at the 
S end, 130 off Brochel Bay, and 138 (the greatest 
depth) opposite the S end of Rona. The deepest parts 
are in the centre, where they form depressions consider- 
ably below the bottom of the sea in the neighbourhood 
of Skye. These depressions unite at the N end of Rona, 
and form a basin running northward into the Minch to 
nearly a line drawn from the mouth of Loch Ewe to 
Stornoway, but gradually widening and becoming more 
shallow as it passes N. The whole basin may be taken 
as bounded by the 50-fathom line, and Professor James 
Geikie attributes its formation to the action of ice. The 
tidal current in the Sound, particularly in the narrow 
part S of Portree Bay, is very strong. At the SE end 
of Kyle Rona is the island of Garbh Eilean and the 
smaller Eilean -an-Fhraoieh. Between Eilean Tigh and 
Eilean Fladday is Loch a Sguirr, 1J mile wide between 
the islands, and a mile deep. To the S of Eilean 
Fladday is the long point of Ard-an-Torrain, immediately 
to the S of which is Loch Arnish, 1 mile wide across 
the mouth, and 1 mile deep. The point to the S of 
this is Manish Point, and close to it is Manish Island. 
Five miles farther S is Holoman Island, with Holoman 
Bay beyond and Oskaig Point at the S side. Half-a- 
mile NNW of this point are the rocks known as Sgeir 
Chnapach, and 1 mile SW in the middle of the 
channel is M'Millan's Rock. On the NE side of the 
Narrows of Raasay is Churchton Bay, which is the last 
indentation on the W side of the island. The E side is 
but little indented, but near the centre is the sweep 
sometimes known as Brochel Bay. The total length of 
the island, inclusive of Eilean Tigh, is 13 miles, and 
the width 1J mile opposite the middle of Kyle Fladda, 
2| miles in centre, and 3J miles at the widest part 
at Raasay House. The total area, inclusive of the fore- 
shore, is 15,704 - 384 acres. From the N end down to 
opposite Loch Arnish, the rocks are Laurentian, and 
from that to the centre of the island, they are Cambrian. 
To the S of this the deposits are estuarine beds of oolitic 
age, overlaid uncomformably by a thick series of vol- 
canic rocks belonging to the Tertiary period. The oolitic 
beds are exposed all across the island near the centre, 
and also down the eastern coast from this to the extreme 
S end of the island. The surface is irregular, but may 
be described generally as one long ridge broken by 
transverse hollows with a long slope towards the low 
shores on the W, and a steep slope bounded by a long 
range of cliffs on the E. Speaking of the latter, Dr 
Macculloch says that ' On this side, scenes of consider- 
able grandeur occur, generally marked by great breadth 
and simplicity of manner, and by powerful effect ; at 
times, however, verging to an artificial character, in the 
architectural regularity of the flat sandstone cliffs, which 
are frequently split into columnar and conical forms, 
rising like towers above the deep, dark sea that washes 

their bases. The houses perched on these summits 
seem more like the retreats of the birds that hover round 
them than the habitations of human beings ; the eye 
from below scarcely distinguishing them, far less their 
inhabitants. The grandeur of these long-extended walls 
of rocks is often varied by the enormous fractures and 
dislocations which have at different times taken place ; 
masses of immense bulk having been occasionally sepa- 
rated so as to form a second ridge below them ; while, 
in other places, huge piles of ruin cover their slopes with 
fragments advancing far into the sea, and strewing the 
shore with rocks.' More than a third of the whole 
island is over 500 feet above sea-level, the highest points 
being Beinn na h-Iolaire (826) in the part N of Loch 
Arnish, Beinn a Chapuill (1211) S of Brochel Castle, 
and the flat-topped Dun Caan (1456) — on the summit 
of which Boswell danced merrily — the highest point of 
the island. From the last there is a very fine and ex- 
tensive view of the Hebrides, the western coast of Ross, 
and the north-western portions of Inverness-shire. The 
greater part of the surface of Raasay is barren and 
heathy, but on the strip of secondary rocks on the E 
side along the top of the cliffs the soil can be tilled to 
advantage, as well as in the flat portion about the 
mansion-house at the extreme SW of the island. There 
is but little wood, a considerable amount of natural 
wood and coppice that once existed having been almost 
entirely cut down for fuel in the wet seasons of 1836 
and 1837, when the peats were too wet to burn. Except 
the cliffs on the E, the wooded part about the mansion- 
house and the shores of Loch Arnish, with their birch 
coppice and bold cliffs, there is but little of what may 
be called scenery in the island. The drainage is effected 
by a large number of small streams flowing mostly to 
the Sound of Raasay. Of these the largest from N to 
S are Manishmore Burn, Glam Burn, Storab Burn, and 
Inverarish Burn, the latter entering the sea near the 
mansion-house. In a hut in the glen of the Glam, Prince 
Charles Edward found a brief refuge after leaving Flora 
Macdonald, Storab Burn rises from Loch-na-Meilich 
high up Dun Caan, and the Inverarish from Loch-na- 
Mna a little to the SSE. Of the latter Boswell tells a 
curious legend. Raasay and the adjacent islands be- 
longed for about 500 years to the Maeleods of Raasay, 
cadets of the Macleods of Lewis, often known as 
M'Gilliecallum of Raasay, and it was by one of this 
family that Dr Johnson and Boswell were so hospitably 
entertained in 1773. Raasay was, however, among the 
many proprietors ruined in the destitution crisis of 1846, 
and the estate passed into the hands of Mr Rainy, who 
cleared a considerable portion of the crofter population 
in order to lay out sheep farms. His son, who succeeded, 
made an early and interesting experiment on the crofter 
question. He established himself as a resident pro- 
prietor, interested himself in the welfare of the people — 
who then included 104 crofters, with an average rent of 
less than £5, and 65 cottars — and provided work for 
them in fencing, draining, trenching, etc., and at the 
end of four years found he had been spending over £400 
a year more than his rental, while the condition of the 
people was in no way improved. On his death the 
estate was sold in 1872 to Mr G. G. M'Kay. The mania 
for highland sport having sprung up, it was resold, in 
1874, to a Mr Armitage for about £60,000, to be par- 
tially converted into a deer forest ; and again, in 1876, 
to the present proprietor, Mr E. fl. Wood, who keeps 
more than half the island in his own hands for sporting 
purposes, the rest being in the hands of crofters, lotters, 
and cottars. The present proprietor has made a large 
number of improvements since the property passed into 
his possession, and the only complaints his tenants had 
to make before the recent Crofters' Commission was about 
damagedone bygame, and bad land — the latter a grievance 
which, unfortunately, no Act of Parliament can remedy. 
The mansion-house is pleasantly situated near the shore 


of Church Bay on the S\V ; and here is also the Free 
church of the island, the clachan, and the post office, 
which is under Portree. The railway steamer calls here 
on the voyage between Strome Ferry and Portree, both 
going and coming. The distance from the former place 
is, in a straight line, 19J miles, and by the steamer 
route about 25. The interesting ruin of Brochel Castle 
on the E coast is separately noticed. Pop. (1841) 647, 
(1861) 388, (1871) 389, (18S1) 478, of whom 241 were 
males and 237 females. — Ord. Sur., shs. 81, 71, 

Babbit Islands, three islets of Tongue parish, 
Sutherland, in the mouth of Tongue Bay. The two 
largest rise to a height of 100 feet, and all three have 
a sandy soil covered with verdure. They take their 
name from being occupied by swarms of rabbits, but 
they were anciently designated Eilean-na-Gaeil, signify- 
ing the island of strangers ; and they are said to have 
got that name from having been a landing place of 
the Danes. They enclose good anchorage for ships of 
any burden.— Ord. Sur., sh. 114, 1S80. 

Bachan House, a mansion in Beoughton parish, 
Peeblesshire, near the left bank of Holms Water, 9 
furlongs SSE of Broughton station, and 6J miles ESE of 
Biggar, under which there is a post office of Rachan Mill. 
A modern two-story building in the style of an Italian 
villa, it has beautiful well-wooded grounds. Its owner, 
James Tweedie, Esq. of Quarter and Kachan (b. 1831 ; 
sue. 1855), holds 11,151 acres in the shire, valued at 
£4059 per annum. During 183S-60 he and his father 
spent £SO,000 on the purchase of Kachan and other 
properties ; and Rachan, from at least 1406 till 1752, 
belonged to the Geddeses, of whom James Geddes 
(1710-48) was author of An Essay on the Composition 
of the Ancients. — Ord. Sur., sh. 24, 1864. 

Backs, a village in Torthorwald parish, Dumfries- 
shire, near the left bank of Lochar Water, with a 
station on the Glasgow and South-Western railway, 3| 
miles ESE of Dumfries. 

Eackwick, Bow of. See Noop. 

Eaddery House, a mansion in Rosemarkie parish, 
Ross-shire, 4 miles NNW of Fortrose. 

Eadernie. See Cameron. 

Eaeberry, a stronghold of the Maclellans on the 
coast of Kirkcudbright parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 6J 
miles SSE of the town. It stood on the crest of a terrific 
precipice overhanging the Solway Firth ; was defended, 
on the landward side, by a strong wall and a deep fosse, 
the latter spanned by a huge drawbridge ; suffered 
demolition of its main buildings about the middle of 
the 16th, of its defensive wall and drawbridge about the 
middle of the 18th, century ; and is now represented by 
only the site and the fosse. It was hence that Sir 
Patrick Maelellan was carried prisoner to Theeave. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Eaehills, a mansion in Johnstone parish, Dumfries- 
shire, near the right bank of Kinnel Water, 10 miles 
NNW of Lockerbie. A noble castellated edifice in the 
Tudor style, with very beautiful grounds, it was built 
in 1786 by James, third Earl of Hopetoun, and received 
a large edition in 1834. The Earl of Hopetoun in 
1792 inherited the estates of his grand-uncle, George, 
third Marquess of Annandale ; and Anne, his daughter, 
and the heiress to those estates, married her kinsman, 
Admiral Sir William Johnstone-Hope, G.C.B. Their 
great-grandson, John James Hope-Johnstone, Esq. of 
Annandale (b. 1842; sue. 1876), lays claim to the 
Annandale marquessate, was Conservative member for 
Dumfriesshire from 1874 to 1880, and holds 64,079 
acres in the shire, valued at £27,884 per annum. See 
Annandale, Lochwood, and Lochmaben. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 10, 1S64. 

Eaemoir, a mansion in Banehory-Ternan parish, Kin- 
cardineshire, 3 miles N of Banchory. Its owner, Alex- 
ander Innes, Esq. (b. 1846 ; sue. 1883), holds 4750 
acres in the shire, valued at £2847 per annum. — Ord. 
Sur., shs. 76, 66, 1874-71. 

Eafford, a parish, containing a village of the same 
name, in the NW of Elginshire. It is bounded N by 


Kinloss parish, ESE by the parishes of Alves and Elgin, 
SE by the parish of Dallas, S and SW by the parish of 
Edinkillie, and W by the parish of Forres. The 
boundary on the SE and part of the S is formed by the 
Lochty or Black Burn and the Loch of Romach for a 
distance of over f>J miles to the source of the burn. 
The Burn of Altyre also forms the boundary on the S 
border for about i mile, and the Findhorn for about f 
mile at the extreme W corner above the point where the 
parishes of Rafford, Edinkillie, and Forres meet in the 
centre of the river. Elsewhere the line is artificial. 
The shape of the parish is highly irregular, a long horn- 
like projection of the parish of Forres indenting the 
western side to a depth of 3J miles, and almost separat- 
ing a northern triangular portion from the rest. This 
triangular portion, comprising about a third of the 
whole area, is united to the more compact southern 
portion by a neck, f mile wide, to the N of Bognie. The 
northern part is 3 miles from NNW to SSE, and 3 miles 
wide along the northern border ; the southern part 
measures 3$ miles from N to S through the village of 
Kafford, and fully 6J miles from the point where the 
parishes of Rafford, Edinkillie, and Forres meet on the 
Findhorn E by N to the point where the parishes of 
Elgin, Dallas, and Rafford meet on the Lochty. The 
total area is 12,504106 acres, of which 47 '971 acres are 
water. The northern border is low, flat, and fertile, the 
centre undulating, and the S a rough upland reaching 
a height of 533 feet on the E side at the northern end 
of the road running NNW of Bognie, 731 at the 
middle of the same road, 833 at the top of Burgie Hill, 
and over 900, on the shoulder of Romach Hill on 
the southern border, at the source of the Lochty. The 
upper districts have fine views of the ' laich of Moray,' 
the Moray Firth, and the hills to the N of it. About 
4000 acres in the centre and SW are under wood, and 
about as many under tillage, while the rest is mostly 
hill pasture or moorland. The soil along the N and 
centre is good strong clay or black mould ; elsewhere it 
is clay, shallow black mould, sand, rough gravel on an 
almost impenetrable subsoil, or reclaimed moss. The 
underlying rocks are Silurian (S) and Old Red Sandstone 
(centre and N). A coarse grey slate in the former was 
once quarried, and a gritty sandstone in the latter is 
occasionally worked. The drainage in the N goes to a 
small stream that flows through Alves parish to Burg- 
head Bay ; in the SE it is carried off by the Lochty, 
and in the W by the streams flowing into the Altyre 
Burn, and that burn itself, which flows past Forres and 
into Findhorn Bay. On the southern border the whole 
of Romach Loch (-J mile long by 100 yards wide) is in 
the parish, as is also part of Loch of Blairs (3x2 
furl.), the rest being in Forres. Both contain good 
trout, especially Loch of Blairs, where the fish weigh 
from J to f lb., and are red-fleshed, but they are pre- 
served. The parish is an old one, the church having 
been the prebend of the sub-chanter of the diocese of 
Moray ; but the boundaries were altered in 1657, when 
a small portion was given off for the new parish of 
Kinloss, and again in 1659, when the pre-Reformation 
parish of Altyre was disjoined from Dallas and added 
to Rafford. Near the northern border the parish is 
traversed for 2| miles by the main road from Aberdeen 
to Inverness, and near the W side for 3 miles by the 
Forres and Perth section of the Highland Eailway 
system, and by the road from Forres to Grantown. 
There are also a large number of good district roads. 
The principal residences are Altyre House and Burgie 
House, both of which are separately noticed. The 
whole district about Altyre House is beautifully wooded. 
The antiquities are Sueno's Stone in the extreme NW 
of the parish, which has been noticed under Forres, and 
Burgie and Blervie Towers, which are separately noticed. 
Blervie is identified with the Ulern or Vlern, where, 
according to some of the chroniclers, Malcolm I. was 
slain in 954. The old name was Blare. Near the 
castle are the remains of a stone circle. The site of 
Altyre church is on the banks of Altyre Burn, £ mile 
N of Altyre House. The only distinguished native 



was Dr Alexander Adam (1741-1809), a famous classical 
scholar and long rector of the High School of Edin- 
burgh. The village is by road 2J miles SE of Forres, 
which is the nearest railway station. There is a post 
office under Forres, and a cattle market is held on the 
second Wednesday of November. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Forres and the 
synod of Moray, and the living is worth £315 a year. 
The parish church, at the village, was built in 1826 after 
designs by Gillespie Graham, and is a good Gothic 
building containing 600 sittings. There is also a Free 
church. Under the school board are Rafford, Burgie, 
and Rafford female schools, which, with accommoda- 
tion for 81, 50, and 61 pupils respectively, had in 1883 
attendances of 38, 42, and 57, and grants of £32, 6s., 
£31, 15s., and £47, 15s. 6d. There are four landed 
proprietors — the lairds of Altyre, Blervie, and Burgie, 
and the Earl of Moray. Valuation (1860) £5543, (1884) 
£6786. Pop. (1801) 1030, (1831) 992, (1861) 1005, 
(1881) 1052.— Ord. Sur., shs. 85, 84, 1876. 

Raigmore, an estate, with a mansion, in Inverness 
parish, Inverness-shire, 1 mile distant from the town. 
Its owner, iEneas William Mackintosh, Esq. (b. 1819), 
Liberal M.P. for Inverness 1868-74, holds 6556 acres in 
the shire, valued at £4368 per annum. 

Rain. See Rayne. 

Rait. See Kilspindie. 

Rait Castle. See Nairn. 

Raith, a mansion in Abbotshall parish, Fife, 2J 
miles W of Kirkcaldy. Standing on the eastern face of 
a hill, and originally built in 1694, it has received the 
addition of two wings and a fine Ionic portico ; and is 
surrounded by extensive and beautifully -wooded grounds, 
containing a picturesque artificial lake (1812) of 21 acres. 
Near the summit of the hill, behind the mansion, 400 
feet above sea-level, stands square Raith Tower, 54 feet 
high, whose top commands a magnificent view of four- 
teen or sixteen counties. Sir John de Melville of Raith 
swore fealty to Edward I. in 1296 ; and among his 
descendants were Sir John Melville, beheaded for 
treason in 1549 ; Sir Robert Melville of Murdocairnie 
(1527-1621), created Baron Melville of Monimail in 
1616 ; his younger brother, Sir James Melville of Hall- 
hill (1530-1607), well known by his curious Memoirs; 
and George, fourth Lord Melville, created Earl of 
Melville in 1690. (See Melville House.) After his 
death in 1707, the estate was purchased by Robert 
Ferguson (1690-1781) ; and Raith House was the birth- 
place of the Peninsular hero, Gen. Sir Ronald Craufurd 
Ferguson, M.P. (1773-1841), whose grandson, Ronald 
Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, Esq. (b. 1860 ; sue. 186S), 
holds 7135 acres in Fife, 3350 in Elginshire, and 14,582 
in Ross-shire, valued at £13,919, £2529, and £3603 per 
annum, his father having succeeded to the estates of 
Muirton and Novar in 1864. His grand-uncle and 
father represented the Kirkcaldy burghs from 1831 to 
1861 ; and he himself was elected Liberal M.P. for 
Ross-shire in 1884. A quoad sacra parish of Raith, 
formed out of Abbotshall in 1883, is in the presbytery 
of Kirkcaldy and the synod of Fife. Its church is the 
former Free church of Abbotshall, acquired by the 
Establishment in 1875, and reopened after reconstruc- 
tion at a cost of over £5000 on 9 Sept. 1883. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 40, 1867. 

Ralston, an estate in Abbey parish, Renfrewshire, 
If mile E of Paisley From an early period down 
to the beginning of the 18th century it belonged to 
a family of its own name, originally called Ralphston 
from their ancestor Ralph ; and in 1800, with some 
exception, it was acquired by William Orr, Esq., who 
had previously purchased from the Earl of Glasgow a 
part of the adjacent estate of Ingliston, and who erected 
there a handsome mansion called Ralston House. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Rammerscales, a modern mansion in Dalton parish, 
Dumfriesshire, 3J miles S of Lochmaben. Standing on 
a high eastward slope of the Torthorwald Hills, and 
surrounded with a fine expanse of hanging wood, it 
commands a view of the greater part of Annandale. 


Its owner, William Bell Macdonald, Esq. (b. 1845 ; 
sue. 1862), holds 1050 acres in the shire, valued at 
£1188 per ann urn. —Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

Ramornie, a mansion in Kettle parish, Fife, 7 fur- 
longs E of Ladybank Junction. Its owner, Andrew 
Agnew Maitland-Heriot, Esq. (b. 1851 ; sue. 1881), 
holds 1050 acres in the shire, valued at £2115 per 
annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 40, 1867. 

Ramoth, a village in Kilmadock parish, Perthshire, 
3 miles ESE of Thornhill. 

Ramsaycleugh, a hamlet in Ettrick parish, Selkirk- 
shire, on the left bank of Ettrick Water, 18 miles SW 
of Selkirk, under which it has a post office. 

Ranfurly Castle. See Kilbarchan. 

Rangag, Loch. See Latheron. 

Range Castle. See Almagill. 

Rankeillour, Nether, an estate, with a mansion, in 
Collessie parish, Fife, 2 miles NE of Ladybank. It was 
sold to Mr B. Nairn, of Kirkcaldy, in 1876 for £43,550. 

Rankeillour, Over or Upper, a fine mansion in Moni- 
mail parish, Fife, 3 miles W by S of Cupar. It was 
built by General John Hope, afterwards fourth Earl of 
Hopetoun ; and has splendidly wooded grounds. The 
estate, which belonged originally to a family of the name 
of Rankeillour, at an early period went to a branch of 
the Sibbalds of Balgonie ; and, passing in the time of 
Charles II. to Sir Archibald Hope, grandson of the 
celebrated Sir Thomas Hope of Craighall, is now the 
property of H. W. Hope, Esq. of Litffness. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 40, 1867. 

Rankle Burn, a stream of Ettrick parish, Selkirkshire, 
rising at an altitude of 1350 feet, within 5 mile of 
Moodlaw Loch, at the meeting-point of Selkirk, Dum- 
fries, and Roxburgh shires, and winding 9g miles north- 
ward — for 2f miles along the Roberton, and for f mile 
along the Kirkhope, boundary — till, after a total descent 
of 635 feet, it falls into Ettrick Water opposite Tushie- 
law Tower. It traverses first a wildly moorish tract, 
afterwards a deeply sequestered pastoral glen ; is sung 
in the ballad of the Maid of the Rankle Burn; and 
abounds in small trout. — Ord. Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 

Rannoch, Loch, a lake of Fortingall parish, NW 
Perthshire. Extending 9f miles eastward to within 
300 yards of Kinloch-Rannoch (21 miles W by N of 
Pitlochry), and lying at an altitude of 668 feet above 
sea-level, it has a width near its head of only \ mile, 
but lower down broadens to from 5^ to 9 furlongs. 
Throughout its greater part, especially towards the foot, 
its depth is from 60 to 85 fathoms ; and it freezes so 
well in hard frost at the W end that persons can cross 
there on the ice, though the whole surface is not frozen 
over oftener, on an average, than once in 30 or 40 
years. It abounds in small trout and large salmo- 
ferox ; receives at its head the Gauir coming from 
Loch Lydoch, at a point 7 furlongs from its head on the 
N side the Ericht coming from Loch Ericht, at other 
parts of its sides Killichouan, Aulich, Slocna-Creadha, 
Dall, and Bogair Burns ; discharges all its superfluence 
at the foot in the river Tummel ; and contains near 
its head an artificial crannoge, on which is a modernised 
keep. Flanked along both its sides by ranges of 
upland receding from brae and hill to lofty mountain, 
it is sky-lined in the distant W by the peaks of 
Buachaille-Etive and Glencoe, and nearly overhung in 
the near SE by the vast isolated mass of Schiehallion. 
Cornfields and birch woods adorn the skirts and lower 
braes of its northern flank ; and a great pine forest, 
the Black Wood of Rannoch, runs far up all its southern 
acclivities, so that, viewed in connection with the basins 
of its contributary waters, and with the diversities and 
the distances of the horizon lines, it makes a vast and 
imposing display of magnificent scenery. At its head, 
12 miles by road W by S of Kinloch-Rannoch, is Ran- 
noch Lodge (Sir Robert Menzie's, Bart, of Castle- 
Menzies) ; and J mile to the SW is Rannoch Barracks 
(Struan-Robertson).— Ord. Sur., shs. 54, 55, 1873-69. 

The district of Rannoch is bounded NW by Lochaber, 
N by Badenoch, E by Blair Athole, S by the Fortin- 
gall and Glenlyon sections of Breadalbane, and W by 


Glenorchy and Appin. Its greatest length, from E to 
W, is 28 miles ; its greatest breadth is 15 miles ; and its 
area is about 290 square miles. The central part, from 
the eastern boundary to the extent of 22 miles westward, 
exhibits the picturesqueness of the glen and screens of 
Loch Rannoch ; the northern part, excepting a small 
section on its northern border occupied by a portion of 
wild Loch Ericht, consists entirely of bare, lofty, in- 
domitable masses of the Central Grampians, variously 
peaked with soaring summits, expanded into plateaux of 
moor and loch, and cloven in their lower declivities with 
narrow glens ; the southern part, all comparatively of 
small breadth, consists of the northern declivities and 
spurs of the hills and mountains flanking the N side of 
Fortingall and Glenlyon ; and the western part is Ran- 
noch Muir, the largest and dreariest moor in Scotland, 
lying at a mean elevation of 1000 feet above sea-level, 
all an open, monotonous, silent, black expanse of desert, 
a vast and dismal mixture of bog, morass, heath, and 
rock, streaked in the centre with long dreary Loch 
Lydoch ; diversified elsewhere with only a few marshy 
pools, and some ditchy naked lines of dark water-course ; 
and environed in the distance by rough, bleak, dark 
mountains, in rueful keeping of aspect with its own 
sable sea of moss. 

' Amid this vast tremendous solitude, 

Where nought is heard except the wild wind's sigh> 

Or savage raven's deep and hollow cry, 
With awful thought the spirit is imbued ! 
Around, around, for many a weary mile, 

The alpine masses stretch ; the heavy cloud 

Cleaves round their brows, concealing with its shroud 
Bleak, barren rocks, unthawed by summer's smile. 
Nought but the desert mountains and lone sky 

Are here ; birds siDg not, and the wandering bee 

Searches for flowers in vain ; nor shrub, nor tree, 
Nor human habitation greets the eye 
Of heart-struck pilgrim ; while around him lie 

Silence and desolation, what is he ! ' 

Ranza. See Lochranza and Glenranza. 

Raploch, a village in Stirling parish, Stirlingshire, 
adjacent to the Forth and Clyde railway, immediately 
under the NW side of Stirling Castle, f mile W of 
Stirling Bridge, and within the parliamentary burgh. 
It was the birthplace of Dugald Graham (1724-79), the 
author of a rhyming History of the Rebellion. See 
Glasgow, p. 144. 

Rasay. See Raasay and Blackwater. 

Ratagan. Ses Maam-Ratagain. 

Rathen (? Gael. Bath-aan, ' the fort on the river '), a 
parish containing a hamlet of the same name on the 
NE coast of the Buchan district of Aberdeenshire. It 
is bounded N by Fraserburgh parish, NE by the 
German Ocean, SE by the parish of Lonmay, SW by 
the parish of Strichen, W by a detached portion of the 
parish of Fraserburgh, and NW by the parish of Tyrie. 
The boundary with Fraserburgh is formed for 2J miles 
by the Rathen or Philorth Burn to its mouth, 2 miles 
SE of the town of Fraserburgh, and then extends along 
the sea-shore for 2| miles. Elsewhere the line is 
artificial. On the coast is Cairnbulg Point, flanking 
the E side of Fraserburgh Bay. The greatest length of 
the parish, from NE to SW, is 6§ miles ; the greatest 
breadth, 3 J miles; and the area, 9789758 acres, of 
which 177 '581 are foreshore and 24 '971 water. The 
coast is partly flat and sandy, and partly formed by low 
rocks ; and the surface adjoining both coast and burn is 
flat and well cultivated. In the SW the ground sweeps 
up to the ridge culminating in Mormond Hill (769 feet), 
on the I borders of the parishes of Rathen, Strichen, 
and Fraserburgh, and here the appearance is bleak and 
barren. Of the land area of 9587 acres, about 200 are 
planted, about 1800 are rough pasture, and the re- 
mainder is under cultivation. The soil varies from a 
strong alluvium to a poor moorish earth. The under- 
lying rocks are Silurian, and the beds of limestone are 
worked. The drainage is mostly carried off by the 
Rathen Bum, which has a course of 3 miles through 
the parish, and 2 J along the border, and the smaller 
streams that flow into it. As might be expected from 


its vicinity to Deer, Rathen has associated with it the 
names of two of the early Culdee missionaries — St 
Ethernan, who is said to have had his hermitage in St 
Ethernan's Den, on the E side of Mormond Hill ; while 
a hillock and well, about 4 mile from the church, are 
associated with the name of St Oyne or Eyen. The old 
church is one of the most ancient in Aberdeenshire, and 
consisted of a nave with an aisle to the S, the latter 
erected by the Frasers of Memsie * in 1646. The belfry 
bears date 1782, and L. A. S., for Lord Abernethy and 
Saltoun ; and the bell has the inscription, ' Peter 
Jansen, 1643.' The year after the manufacture of the 
bell, the church was the scene of one of the many 
' omens that were seene in diverse parts of the king- 
dome,' during the great struggle between Argyll and 
Montrose. 'At Rethine in Buchan,' says Patrick 
Gordon, the author of A Shorte Abridgement of Britain's 
Distemper, 'there was about the tyme of morneing 
prayer for diverse dayes togithir, hard in the church a 
queire of musicke, both of woces, organes, and other 
instruementes, and with such a ravisheing sweetnes 
that they ware transported which, in numbers, resorted 
to heire it with unspeakable pleasure and never wiried 
delight. The preacher on day being much takin with 
the harmonie, went with diverse of his parisheners in to 
the church, to try if there eyes could beare witnes to 
what there eares had hard, but they ware no sooner 
entred when, lo, the musicke ceassed with a long not, 
or stroke of a wioll dc gambo ; and the sound came from 
ane upper lofte where the people used to heare service, 
but they could sie nothing.' It underwent repair in 
1767, but was finally replaced in 1870 by a new church, 
a Gothic building with a spire, erected to the E of the 
old site. The ancient parish comprehended also part of 
Fraserburgh and the greater part of Strichen. The 
church was given by Marjory, Countess of Buchan, to 
the Abbey of Arbroath ; and in 1328, Robert Bruce 
granted the benefice to the college and canons of Old 
Machar. The chief residence is Mormond House ; 
Memsie House being now used as a farm-house. Both 
are separately noticed, as are also the Memsie Cairns 
and Cairnbulg and Inverallochy Castles. Trefor Hill, 
SE of the church, had, until some years ago, trenches 
and walls of earth and stone on it, so that it seems to 
have been a place of strength, and possibly the rath 
from which the parish takes its name. According to 
Peter Buchan, in his Gleanings of Scarce Old Ballads, 
the Jacobite songs of Whirry, Wliigs awcC Man, and 
Logic o' Buchan, were written by George Hacket, school- 
master of Rathen, ' in the years 1736 and 7 ; ' and it is 
added that he also wrote a Dialogue between George II. 
and the Devil, which was so obnoxious that the Duke 
of Cumberland offered a reward of £100 for the dis- 
covery of the author. Hacket was schoolmaster, not in 
1736-37, but from 1714 to 1725, when he was deposed 
from office as having ' come to that hight of impudence 
as to deny all the faults he stands guilty of, and will 
not be convinced or made sensible of his miscarriages, 
and he having relapsed again and again, and no reforma- 
tione of heart or of ways to be found in him.' He 
seems subsequently to have taught adventure schools 
at Cairnbulg, Memsie, and Tyrie. There is no evidence 
for or against the reputed authorship, which rests 
entirely on Buchan's assertion. The parish is tra- 
versed by the main roads from Ellon and Peterhead 
to Fraserburgh and also by the Formartine and Buchan 
section of the Great North of Scotland railway, on the 
Fraserburgh branch of which there is a station of 
Rathen, ii\ miles N of Aberdeen, and 2J S of 
Fraserburgh. Besides the hamlet, which is | mile W of 
the station, the parish contains also the villages of 
Inverallochy, Cairnbulg, and Charleston, all of which 
are separately noticed. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Deer and synod of 
Aberdeen, and the living is worth £223 a year. It 
gives off the quoad sacra parish of Inverallochy. 
The parish church has been already noticed. There is 

* The Frasers of Memsie were cadets of Fraser of Philorth, from 
which family they branched off in 1482. 



also a Free church, 2£ miles SSW of Inverallochy. 
Under the school board, Eathen and Inverallochy 
public schools, with accommodation for 230 and 300 
pupils respectively, had (1884) an average attendance of 
93 and 223, and grants of £86, 3s. 6d. and £166, 5s. 
Six proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 4 hold each between £500 and £100, and 
there are 2 of smaller amount. Valuation (1860) 
£8071, (1885) £11,033, 2s. 7d., including £909 for 
railway. Pop. (1801) 1588, (1831) 2100, (1861) 
2554, (1871) 2850, (1881) 2825, of whom 1372 were 
males and 1453 females, while 1248 were in the 
ecclesiastical parish. — Orel. Sur., sh. 97, 1876. 

Eathillet, a small village, with a UP. church, in 
Kilmany parish, Fife, 4$ miles ST by W of Cupar. The 
estate of Kathillet belonged for ages, till about 1772, to 
the family of Halkerstone or Hackston, of whom David 
Hackston was one of the murderers of Archbishop Sharp 
on Magus Muir. — Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

Eathmuriel. See Christ's Kirk. 

Eatho, a village and a parish of Edinburghshire. The 
village stands 1250 to 320 feet above sea-level, near the 
S bank of the Union Canal, 1|- mile S by E of Eatho 
station on the North British railway, this being 8J 
miles WSW of Edinburgh, and 9J ESE of Linlithgow. 
Its sight is the slope or eastern declivity of gentle up- 
lands ; and it consists of a single street, coming down 
the declivity from W to E, and bending northward, 
near the end, to terminate on the canal. Most of its 
houses are neat whinstone cottages, lintelled with sand- 
stone, and roofed with either tiles or slate. Anciently 
a place of considerable note, Eatho fell into great decay, 
but has in modern times been revived, extended, and 
much improved. In a poem by Joseph Mitchell, who 
published two large octavo volumes of miscellaneous 
poetry in 1724, and who is known as ' the poet of 
Eatho,' it figures as having at one time risen to 
splendour, and then at another time sunk to desolation, 
till ' Eatho looked like Troy a field of corn.' It has now 
a post office, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments, a police station, and gas works. 
Pop. (1838) 539, (1861) 658, (1871) 717, (1881) 713. 

The parish is bounded W and NW by Kirkliston, N 
by Kirkliston and Corstorphine, SE by Currie, and SW 
by Kirknewton. Sending off a long, narrow, south-south- 
westward projection, it has an utmost length from NNE 
to SSW of 5J miles, a varying width of 5 furlongs and 
5 miles, and an area of 6168} acres, of which 21J are 
water. Almost the only stream, and that a tiny one, 
is Gogar Burn ; but the Union Canal (1822) goes 3| 
miles north-westward and westward across the interior. 
With a gentle southerly rise from 132 to 350 feet above 
sea-level, the surface of the main body in its eastern 
half is a slightly variegated level ; in its western is a 
congeries of broad-based hillocks or low table-land, with 
gentle swells. As the position is midway between the 
Pentland Hills and the Firth of Forth, and about 8 or 
9 miles W of Edinburgh, magnificent views are obtained 
from the little heights of the scenery of the Lothians, 
the Forth, Fifeshire, the Ochils, and the frontier 
Grampians. The surface of the southern or projecting 
district rises slowly from a low line of connection with 
the main body to near the southern boundary ; and it 
there shoots abruptly up in the two bold isolated 
heights of Dalmahoy and Kaimes Hills, each 800 feet 
above sea-level. These form a conspicuous and pictur- 
esque feature of the general Lothian landscape ; and, 
like Salisbury Craigs, the rocks of Edinburgh and 
Stirling Castles, and various eminences at the NE 
end of the Lennox Hills, they break down in cliffs, or 
stoop precipitously to the W. The general aspect of 
the parish, from the diversity of its contour and the 
richness of its embellishments, possesses much beauty, 
and presents many fine close scenes. Nearly six- 
sevenths of the entire area are either in tillage or in an 
arable condition ; and the remaining seventh is distri- 
buted, in not very unequal parts, into plantations and 
pasture. The soil is, in general, a light loam, with a 
preponderance of sand ; but, towards the eastern border, 


it passes, in a great degree, into clay. Except for in- 
trusions of diorite in the W, and of basalt in the 
southern hills, the rocks belong to the Calciferous 
Sandstone series. The basalt and sandstone have both 
been quarried ; whilst claystone, or ' calmstone, ' was 
formerly worked upon the property of Eatho Hall. Coal 
is said to have been mined long ago at Bonnington, but 
cannot now be found. The only noticeable antiquities 
are vestiges of two camps, both probably Danish, the 
one on Kaimes HilL the other on South Piatt Hill, a com- 
manding little summit on the W. In 1315 the barony 
and patronage of Eatho were, along with much other 
property, granted by Eobert I. to the Steward of Scot- 
land, as the dowry of the Princess Marjory ; and on the 
accession of Eobert II. to the throne in 1371, they 
became part of the property of the king's eldest son as 
prince of Scotland, for whom, in 1404, they and the 
other estates were erected into a principality with regal 
jurisdiction. Among eminent persons connected with 
the parish were William Wilkie, D.D. (1721-72), 'the 
Scottish Homer,' who was for six years minister ; Sir 
Eobert Liston, G.C.B. (1742-1836), British ambassador 
at seven courts, who spent his last years at Millburn ; and 
Sir William Fettes (1750-1836), another resident and 
heritor, whose vast property was bequeathed for the 
founding at Edinburgh of the great Fettes College. 
Eatho Park, f mile E by N of the village, is a good 
modern Grecian building, with beautiful grounds. 
Other mansions, noticed separately, are Ashley, Dal- 
mahoy, Hatton, Millburn Tower, and Norton ; 
and 12 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 5 of between £100 and £500. Eatho is 
in the presbytery of Edinburgh and the synod of 
Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is worth £422. 
Standing near the village, on the opposite side of the 
canal, and embowered by ancient trees, the church is a 
somewhat cruciform structure, part oid, part modern, 
its Dalmahoy aisle bearing date 1683. It contains 750 
sittings. There is a Free church designated of Eatho 
and Kirknewton ; a pretty little Eoman Catholic church, 
St Mary's, with 100 sittings, was opened in 1883 ; and 
1 mile S8E of the village is St Mary's Episcopal church 
of Dalmahoy. Three schools — Eatho public, Eatho 
female, and Dalmahoy Episcopalian — with respective 
accommodation for 167, 82, and 119 children, had (1884) 
an average attendance of 93, 58, and 104, and grants 
of £84, 3s., £49, 16s., and £96, 18s. Valuation (I860) 
£12,764, (1885) £16,486, plus £4978 for railway. Pop. 
(1801) 987, (1831) 1313, (1861) 1659, (1871) 1744, (1881) 
1815.— Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Eathven, a coast parish of NW Banffshire, containing 
the town of Buckie, part of the royal burgh of Cullen, 
and the four fishing villages of Portknockie, Fin- 
doohty, Portessie, and Port Gordon, all of which 
are noticed separately. A fifth, the pretty little village 
of Ianston, between Buckie and Portessie, has risen up 
since 1879, and, owing to its situation, will become 
an important place. The parish is bounded NW by 
the Moray Firth, NE by Cullen Bay, E by Cullen, SE 
by Deskford and Keith, and W by Bellie. Its utmost 
length, from ENE to AVSW, is 8i miles ; its breadth 
diminishes eastward from 5| to 3 miles ; and its area is 
36f square miles or 23,551 acres, of which 40 J are 
water and 345 foreshore. The coast-line, 9J miles in 
extent, is little indented by bay or headland, but rises 
steeply from the sea to 87 feet near Port Gordon, 75 at 
Buckie Newtown, 116 at the Law Hillock, and 177 near 
Portknockie. Three caverns of unknown extent bear 
the name of Farskane's, Janet Corstair's, and Cross 
Caves. The Burn of Tynet runs 5J miles north-by- 
westward along most of the western, and the Burn of 
Deskford, 2| miles north-north-westward along all the 
eastern, boundary ; whilst several rapid rivulets drain 
the interior to the Moray Firth. That part of the 
parish between the shore and the road from Cullen to 
Fochabers attains a maximum altitude of only 271 feet 
at a point 7 furlongs SSE of Findochty ; but the rest of 
the surface is very hilly, from E to W attaining 802 
feet at the Little Bin, 1050 at the wooded, cairn- 


crowned Bin Hill of Cullen, 900 at the Hill of Maud, 
893 at Addie Hill, 948 at the hill of Stonyslacks, and 
987 at Millstone Hill. A very pure quartzy rock is 
found in the Bin ; metamorphie rocks, including gneiss, 
mica slate, clay slate, and other schists, prevail along 
the coast ; greywacke alternates in some parts with the 
mica slate and the clay slate ; Old Red sandstone occurs 
in the NE, and goes into conjunction with greywacke ; 
limestone has been worked at Nether Buckie ; and a 
beautiful whitish sand, said to be almost equal to the 
finest found in Holland, is plentiful near Litchieston. 
Medicinal springs, formerly held in high repute, are in 
three places ; and springs of pure water are numerous, 
copious, and perennial. The soil, in one corner a 
light and extremely rich loam incumbent on clay, in 
another corner a thin yet fertile loam on a soft red 
subsoil, elsewhere alternates between a light sand and a 
stiffish clay ; and almost everywhere, except in the 
sandy places, is profusely strewn and intermixed with 
small boulders. Less than one-third of the entire area 
is in tillage ; rather more than 4000 acres are under 
wood ; about 400 are meadow and grass land ; and the 
rest of the parish is either pastoral or waste. Antiqui- 
ties are a number of cairns on the heights of Corriedown ; 
many tumuli on the field of the Battle of the Bauds ; * 
a portion of Findochty Castle on Mains of Findochty 
farm ; the ruins of Green and Trouach Castles near Port- 
knockie ; and remains of a pre-Reformation chapel near 
Farskane. Two wings still standing of the old mansion 
of Rannas are occupied by a farmer. The Rev. Alexander 
Geddes, LL.D. (1737-1802), an eccentric Roman Catholic 
divine, was born of crofter parents at Pathhead, which 
was also the birthplace of Alexander Paterson (1766- 
1S31), Roman Catholic Bishop of Edinburgh. The 
parish is traversed by a branch of the Highland railway 
from Keith to Buckie, and by one of the Great North 
of Scotland railway from Elgin to Portsoy — both com- 
menced in 1883. At Inchgower, 1J mile from Buckie, 
is the large distillery of J. Wilson & Co. Mansions, 
noticed separately, are Letterfourie, Cairnfield, and 
Tannachy ; and 5 proprietors hold each an annual 
value of £500 and upwards. Including all Buckie and 
Seafield quoad sacra parishes and most of Enzie, this 
parish is in the presbytery of Fordyce and the synod of 
Aberdeen ; the victual stipend is 22 chalders, with a 
glebe worth £14. The parish church, f mile SSE of 
Portessie, was built in 1794, and contains 1000 sittings. 
At Preshome, 3 miles SSE of Port-Gordon, is St 
Gregory's Roman Catholic church (1789 ; 450 sittings) ; 
and other places of worship are noticed under Buckie, 
Enzie, and Portknockie. Besides the three schools 
at Buckie, five public schools — Arradoul female, Fin- 
dochty infant, Portknockie, Rathven, and Shielburn — 
with respective accommodation for 71, 100, 250, 300, 
and 60 children, had (1884) an average attendance of 
48, 68, 187, 284, and 43, and grants of £46, 17s., £56, 
18s., £157, 13s. 6d., £274, 8s. 10d., and £52, 12s. 6d. 
Valuation (1860) £13,159, (1884) £28,646. Pop. (1S01) 
3901, (1831) 6484, (1861) 8240, (1871) 10,199, (1881) 
11,180, of whom 3229 were in the ecclesiastical parish 
of Rathven.— Oral. Sur., shs. 95, 96, 85, 86, 1876. See 
the Rev. Dr J. F. S. Gordon's Book of the Chronicles of 
Keith, Rathven, etc. (Glasg. 1880). 

Ratter, a hamlet in Dunnet parish, Caithness, near 
the coast, 7 miles NE of Castletown. 

Rattray, a town and a parish in Strathmore district, E 
Perthshire. The town stands on the left side of the river 
Ericht, opposite Blairgowrie, of which it is virtually 
a suburb, and with which it is connected by a four-arch 
bridge, repaired and widened in 1871. It comprises the 
villages of Old Rattray and New Rattray, the latter (not 
yet a century old) lying close to the river, the former 
J mile to the NE ; and it is a burgh under the General 
Police and Improvement (Scotland) Act of 1862. Flax 
and jute spinning is the staple industry ; and there are 

* The ' Battle of the Bauds ' is said to have been fought in 962 
between the Norwegians and Indulph, King of Alban, who, after 
gaining a complete victory, himself was slain at ' Inverculen ; ' 
but Dr Skene is inclined to believe that Indulph retired to the 
monastery of Kilr^ mont or St Andrews. 


two post offices under Blairgowrie (Old and Now Ratt- 
ray), two inns, a curling club, a fair on the Tuesday 
after 11 Feb., the parish church (1820 ; 620 sittings), a 
Free church, and a U.P. church. Pop. (1871) 2161, 
(1881) 2533, of whom 1501 were females. Houses (1881) 
402 inhabited, 19 vacant, 3 building. 

The parish is bounded N by the Drimmie section of 
Bendochy and by Alyth, E by the Creuchies section of 
Blairgowrie and by Bendochy proper, and S, SW, and 
W by Blairgowrie proper. Its utmost length, from N 
by W to S by E, is 5i miles ; its breadth increases 
southward from 1§ furlong to 2| miles ; and its area 
is 5457 acres, of which 75J are water, and 848 belong 
to its Bleaton or detached portion (If x 1 J mile), which, 
lying 3J miles NNW of the nearest point of the main 
body, and 11J N by AV of Blairgowrie, is bounded NE, 
SE, and S by Alyth, W by Caputh (detached), and 
NW by Kirkmichael. The Black Water for 2J miles 
traces all the north-western and western boundary of 
this detached portion ; whilst the Ericht, which is 
formed 3J miles lower down by the confluence of the 
Black Water and the Ardle, winds 7J miles south-by- 
eastward and eastward along all the western, south- 
western, and southern boundary of the main body. 
Over most of this course the Ericht is a romantic stream, 
overhung with copsewood, chiefly small oaks ; and above 
Craighall its banks are sheer precipices of rock, upwards 
of 200 feet high, crowned with plantation, and parapeted 
with wall, to keep cattle and strangers from falling over. 
In the extreme S the surface declines to 190 feet above 
sea-level, and thence it rises gradually northward until, 
at the boundary with the Creuchies section of Blair- 
gowrie, it attains a maximum altitude of 909 feet above 
sea-level. Thus the main body, for 1J mile from the 
southern boundary, is flat, or very gently ascending ; 
and, over the rest of the area, consists of the lowest and 
slowly graduated heights which, several miles beyond 
the northern boundary, attain a Grampian elevation. 
The fine southern exposure, combined with the bield 
afforded by the vast mountain-rampart in the compara- 
tively near distance, renders the situation pleasant and 
the climate very healthy. The lands in the S have a 
dry and pretty fertile soil, and are all arable ; those in 
the N are disposed chiefly in pasture. The Bleaton or 
detached portion, which rises eastward from 795 to 1247 
feet, forms part of the ascending ranges of the frontier 
Grampians. The rocks are variously igneous, Devonian, 
and Silurian. On an oblong mound called the Castle 
Hill, 1 J mile E by S of Old Rattray, are vestiges of the 
ancient castle of Rattray, a very large building, the 
original residence of the Rattray or De Rattrieff family. 
On the farm of Standingstanes, which hence received 
its name, are remains of a stone circle. Mansions, 
noticed separately, are Craighall and Glenericht. 
A third, Parkhill, | mile N of Old Rattray, is the seat 
of Charles Hill-Whitson, Esq. (b. 1840 ; sue. 1881), who 
owns 998 acres in the shire, valued at £1389 per annum. 
In all, 4 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 13 of between £100 and £500. Giving 
off its detached portion to Persie quoad sacra parish, 
Rattray is in the presbytery of Dunkeld and the synod 
of Perth and Stirling ; the living is worth £257. Two 
public schools — Craig Mill and Rattray — with respective 
accommodation for 95 and 243 children, had (1S84) an 
average attendance of 62 and 262, and grants of £42, 
10s and £220, 3s. Valuation (1866) £9104, 16s. 9d., 
(1884) £13,182, 0s. 2d. Pop. (1S01) 880, (1831) 1362, 
(1861) 2161, (1871) 2610, (1881) 3051, of whom 3018 
were in the ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 56, 

Rattray, a commodious mansion in Crimond parish, 
NE Aberdeenshire, 7| miles NNW of Peterhead, and 4 
ESE of Lonmay station. Its owner, James Cumine, 
Esq. (b. 1810; sue. 1841), holds 1696 acres in the shire, 
valued at £1293 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 87, 1876. 

Ravelrig, an estate, with a mansion, in Currie parish, 
Edinburghshire, near the left bank of the Water of Leith, 
1 j mile SW of Currie village. 

Ravelston, a mansion in Corstorphine parish, Edin- 



burghshire, near the E skirt of Corstorphine Hill, 1^ 
mile WNW of Murrayfield station, and 2£ miles W of 
the centre of Edinburgh. The estate belonged about 
1600 to George Foulis, whose son was created a baronet 
in 1661. Sir Archibald, second Bart, executed at Car- 
lisle for his share in the '45, took the name of Primrose 
about 1700 on succeeding to the estate of Dunipace, and 
sold Eavelston in 1726 to Alexander Keith, W.S., asoi- 
disant descendant of the third Earl Marischal. His 
son, Alexander (1705-92), built the present mansion, and 
here was often visited by his kinsman, Sir Walter Scott, 
who took from the formal old-fashioned gardens some 
of the features of ' Tully-Veolan ' in Waverley. His 
son received a baronetcy in 1822, when he acted as 
Knight Marischal to George IV.'; and after his death 
in 1832 Eavelston went to his son-in-law, Sir William 
Keith Murray, Bart, of Ochteetyee, whose son, Sir 
Patrick, sold it in 1872 to his uncle, John Murray-Gart- 
shore, Esq. (b. 1804). The latter has made a handsome 
addition to the house, and holds 294 acres in Midlothian, 
valued at £1388 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 
See Jn. Small's Castles and Mansions of tlie Lothians 
(Edinb. 1883). 

Eavenscraig or Eavensheugh Castle, a ruin in Dysart 
parish, Fife, on a sea-cliff 1 mile SW of Dysart town. 
It was given, with circumjacent lands, by James III., 
to William Sinclair, third Earl of Orkney, in 1470 ; 
was long the seat of the Lords Sinclair ; continued to 
be inhabited in the time of Oliver Cromwell ; and now 
is interesting mainly for its associations. — Ord. Sur., 
sh. 40, 1867. 

Eavenscraig, a station in Innerkip parish, Renfrew- 
shire, on the Wemyss Bay railway, 2 miles SW of Upper 
Greenock station. 

Eavenscraig Castle. See Peteeheat). 

Eavenshall, a hamlet on the N border of Falkland 
parish, Fife, 1 J mile N by W of Falkland town. 

Eavenshall Point, a small headland in Kirkmabreck 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, on the E side of the estuary 
of Cree Water or upper part of Wigtown Bay, 6J miles 
SW of Gatehouse-of-Fleet. The coast around it is 
pierced with curious caves, and contests, with the shores 
of the Nith's estuary, the claim of being the scene of Sir 
Walter Scott's Guy Mannering. — Ord. Sur., sh. 4, 1857. 

Eavensheugh. See Ravensceaig, Fife. 

Eavensnook Castle, an old baronial fortalice in Peni- 
cuik parish, Edinburghshire, on the right bank of the 
North Esk, opposite Penicuik House. It belonged to 
Oliver Sinclair, commander-in-chief of the forces in the 
time of James V. , and it is now reduced to fragmentary 

Eavenstone, a fine old mansion, with well-wooded 
policies, in Glasserton parish, SE Wigtownshire, on 
rising ground, 5 miles NW of Whithorn. It is the 
Scotch seat of Lord Boethwick. — Ord. Sur., sh. 4, 

Eavenstruther, a village in Carstairs parish, Lanark- 
shire, 2j miles ENE of Lanark, under which it has a 
post office. 

Eavenswood, a mansion in Melrose parish, Roxburgh- 
shire, on the right bank of the Tweed, opposite the 
influx of Leader Water, 2 miles E of Melrose town. It 
was built in 1827, and enlarged in 1860 and 1866.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Eawyards. See Aiedeie. 

Eayne (formerly Sane, Maine, Rain, and Eayn ; Gaelic 
raon, ' a field of good ground '), a parish of central 
Aberdeenshire, containing at its SW border the village 
of Old Rayne, 1§ mile NNE of Oyne station, and 3J 
miles E by N of Insch, under which it has a post office. 
Here is a granite market-cross, nearly 12 feet high, 
erected probably towards the close of the 17th century, 
when John Horn of Westhall, superior of Old Rayne, 
was empowered to constitute it a burgh of barony ; and 
Lawrence Fair, a large horse market, is still held here 
on the Wednesday after the first Tuesday of August, 
o. s. Containing also Meikle-Waethill village, the 
parish is bounded N by Auchterless, NE by Fyvie, E 
by Daviot, SE by Chapel of Garioch, S and SW by 


Oyne, and W by Culsalmond. Its utmost length, from 
N to S, is 5 miles ; its breadth varies between \ mile 
and 4| miles ; and its area is 7890 j acres, of which 
5| are water. The drainage goes mostly to the river 
Uey, which flows 2J miles south-eastward along the 
south-western border ; but the Black Burn, an affluent 
of the Ythan, traces the Auchterless boundary. In the 
extreme S, on the Ury, the surface declines to 270 feet 
above sea-level ; and thence it steadily rises to 486 feet 
on the highest ground to the S of Drum's Cairn, to 491 
at the parish church, and to 854 on the top of Roth- 
maise Hill. This last, near the northern border, is now 
all cultivated, except a piece around the summit, which 
has been planted. To the S there used to be a stretch 
of moss, extending from E to W ; but it has now been 
nearly all brought under tillage. The NE corner of the 
parish, along the Fyvie border, is occupied by a con- 
siderable tract known as the Warthill Moss, but the 
peat is being gradually exhausted, and at no distant 
time the ground will doubtless become ploughed land. 
The prevailing rocks are greenstone or whinstone in the 
southern and central parts of the parish ; and in the 
northern, claystone, with a schistose tendency on ex- 
posure. These are used for building purposes. There 
is no granite, though it abounds in the parishes to the 
S of the Ury. The soil of the arable lands is either a 
rich loam incumbent on clay, or a shallower and more 
gravelly loam incumbent on till or rock ; and it is 
generally of good fair quality, but wants lime. About 
four-fifths of the area are in tillage, and upwards of 350 
acres are under wood. Agriculture is in an advanced 
state, and is carried on by an intelligent, industrious, 
and well-behaved people. The farms are all of moderate 
size, with a considerable number of crofts. The farm- 
houses and steadings on the larger holdings are generally 
good, but the crofters' and cottars' houses are in some 
districts very indifferent, and sorely need improvement. 
There are or were a number of cairns in the parish, near 
all of which sepulchral remains have been found. 
Drum's Cairn, now almost vanished, on the moors of 
Rayne, owes its name to a tradition that Irvine, the 
laird of Drum, was slain there while in pursuit of 
Donald of the Isles after the battle of Harlaw ; and 
Tullidaff 's Cairn, in the NE corner of the Stobcors Wood, 
is so called from its being the reputed scene of the 
slaughter of the last of the Tullidaffs of that ilk, in 
revenge of the supposed murder of the first Leslie of 
Warthill in Lowran Fair. About \ mile SE of Old 
Rayne, on the Candle Hill, is a Druidical or stone circle, 
and on the E side of Rothmaise there are traces of 
another ; where, also, are to be seen the Crichton and 
Federate Stones, said to point out the spot where certain 
members of these families had a fatal encounter. The 
Bowman Stone, a little to the W of the church, points 
to the place where the parishioners used to meet to 
practise archery. The great Roman road from the Dee 
at Peterculter to the camp at Glenmailen on the Ythan, 
crossing the Ury a little above Pitcaple Castle, would 
pass right through Rayne ; and at Freefield there is a 
grassy mound, 60 yards in circumference, and formerly 
of considerable height, called the Spy Hill, and conjec- 
tured with much probability to have been originally one 
of its signal stations. It is on the probable line, and 
traces of the road are found in the vicinity. The whole 
parish from very early times belonged to the Bishops 
of Aberdeen, and at Old Rayne they had a residence 
situated on a small moated eminence where the new 
public school now is, in digging the foundations of 
which traces of former buildings and certain remains 
were found. John Barbour, the father of Scottish 
poetry and author of TJw Bnds, was parson of Rayne in 
the latter half of the 14th century ; and he seems to have 
been almost immediately succeeded in the same office 
by the famous priest Lundy, chaplain to Douglas, and 
one of the heroes of Otterburn. Mr John Middleton, 
minister of Rayne during the supremacy of the Covenant, 
and one of the chaplains to General Middleton's forces 
in the north, died in 1653, and his memory is per- 
petuated in the following curious epitaph on a slab of 


Fcradland slate close to the S wail, but outside the 

church — 

' Whereas I stood in pulpit round. 
And now I ly alow the ground ; 
When as you cors my corps so cold, 
Remember the word that I you told.' 

William Leslie (1657-1727), a son of a laird of Warthill, 
rose, from being schoolmaster of Chapel of Garioch, to 
be Bishop of Laibach and metropolitan of Carniola and 
a prince of the Holy Roman empire. Mansions, noticed 
separately, are Freefield and Warthill ; and the 
landed property is divided among eight. Rayne is in 
the presbytery of Garioch and the synod of Aberdeen ; 
the living is worth £275. The parish church stands 
2| miles NE of Old Rayne, aud 1 mile W of Warthill 
station, this being 3f miles NNW of Inveramsay 
Junction. It was built in 1789, and contains 544 
sittings. The belfry belonged to the previous church, 
and has on it the initials M. W. A. (Mr Walter Aber- 
crombie, then minister of Rayne), and the date 1619. 
The church occupies a prominent position on the table- 
land, and has long been known as 'the white kirk of 
Rayne.' The old part of the manse has the date 1627 
on one of the skewstones, but it has been from time to 
time repaired, enlarged, and altered. It is a fair house 
of its kind. The old parish school was in the Kirktown, 
but it was discontinued and sold, and the North public 
school and residences (cost over £2000), situated 1 mile 
N of the church at the cross roads at Cockmuir, were 
opened in 1877. A new public school and residence 
(cost over £700) was erected at Old Rayne, and opened 
in 1880. The former school has accommodation for 150 
and the latter for 76 children, and they had (1883) re- 
spectively an average attendance of 91 and 77, and 
grants of £89, 2s. 6d. and £73, 14s. There has long 
been a side school at Meikle-Warthill, not under public 
management. Valuation (1860) £7122, (1885) £8711, 
13s. 6d., plus £470 for rail way. Pop. (1801) 1228, (1831) 
1484, (1851) 1550, (1871) 1409, (1881) 1284.— Ord. Sur., 
sirs. 86, 76, 1876-74. 

Reasort, Loch. See Resart. 

Reawiek, an estate, with a mansion and a Congrega- 
tional chapel, in Sandsting parish, Shetland, on the W 
side of Scalloway Bay, 6 miles WNW of Scalloway. 

Reay, a village of NW Caithness and a parish also of 
NE Sutherland. The village stands near the head of 
Sandside Bay, 10| miles WSW of Thurso, under which 
it has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments. It consists of an inn, a 
school, the parish church, and a few houses. An older 
town, whose ruins were uncovered by a waterspout in 
1751, is said to have been a burgh of regality, with two 
free fairs and a free port, granted by James VI. when 
he knighted Donald Mackay in 1616. This Donald 
Mackay was the first of the Lords Reay, an account of 
whom is given under Tongue. A market cross at the 
present village claims to have belonged to the tradition- 
ary burgh. Sandside Bay, measuring 6 furlongs across 
the entrance, and 5 thence to its inmost recess, is 
fringed with fine sandy links. A harbour was formed 
here nearly 50 years ago by Major Innes at a cost of 
over £3000. 

The parish contains also the adjoining villages of 
Melvioh and Portskerra, 6-i miles W of Reay ; and, in 
the S, the station of Forsinard, 28J miles SW of 
Thurso. It is bounded N by the North Sea, E by 
Thurso and Halkirk, SE by Thurso (detached) and 
Halkirk, SW by Kildonan, and W by Farr. Its utmost 
length, from N to S, is 19J miles ; its utmost breadth, 
from E to W, is 14J miles ; and its area is 184§ square 
miles or 118.169J acres, of which 46,326| belong to 
Caithness and 71,842) to Sutherland, whilst 2391J are 
water, U2\ foreshore, and 34 tidal water. The "bold 
and rocky sea-coast, which measures 15J miles along all 
its ins and outs, is indented by the Bay of Bighouse 
(6x5 furl. ) near Portskerra, by Sandside Bay, and by 
triangular Crosskirk Bay (2|x3 furl.) at the eastern 
boundary. It rises rapidly from the sea to 91 feet near 
Portskerra, 314 at Cnoc Geodh Stoir, 152 at Fresgoe or 


Sandside Head, and 172 at the Hill of Lybster. Caverns 
are not infrequent ; and near Borrowston a turf-clad 
natural arch spans a tide-washed chasm, nearly 50 feet 
deep. The river Halladale, rising close to the 
southern boundary at an altitude of 1200 feet above sea- 
level, runs 22J miles north-north-westward and north- 
ward to the Bay of Bighouse, and is fed by Dyke Water 
(running 8J miles north-north-eastward) and a number 
of lesser streams. Sandside, Reay, and Achvarasdal 
Burns flow northward to Sandside Bay ; and Forss 
Water, issuing from Loch Shurrery (1 J mile x 2J furl. ; 
321 feet), winds 12J miles northward, mainly along the 
eastern boundary, to Crosskirk Bay. Of sixty-eight 
other lakes and lakelets, the largest are Loch Calder 
(2§ miles x 7\ furl. ; 205 feet), on the eastern border ; 
Loch Cailam or Chaluim (5x4 furl. ; 435 feet), on the 
south-eastern border ; and Loch na Seilge (5x4 furl. ; 
398 feet), 5 miles SSW of Reay. The surface is hilly 
but hardly mountainous, chief elevations being Ben 
Ratha (795 feet) and Ben nam Bad Mhor (952) in the 
Caithness portion, Ben Ruadh (837) on the western 
border, Ben Griam Bheag (1903) on the southern 
border, and the Knockfin Heights (1442) at the meeting- 
point of Reay, Kildonan, and Halkirk parishes. The 
rocks on the seaboard are Devonian sandstone, paving 
flag, and limestone ; whilst those of the hills include 
granite, syenite, gneiss, hornblende, and quartzite. 
The sandstone and limestone have been largely quarried ; 
shell-marl has been dug in large quantities at Dounreay 
aud Brawlbin ; iron ore is found in various places ; and 
a vein of lead ore occurs near Reay village, but not 
under conditions to encourage mining. A mineral 
spring at Helshetter claims to be little inferior to 
the Strathpeffer wells. The soil on the seaboard about 
Borrowston and Dounreay is clayey and very tenacious 
of moisture, around Sandside Bay is sandy, and in the 
low parts of Strath-Halladale is a dark earth mixed 
with silicious sand. Little more than 3000 acres is in 
tillage ; and a very trivial aggregate is under wood. 
The fine sheep-farm of Bighouse, comprising most of 
the Sutherland division of the parish, belongs to the 
Duke of Sutherland ; the Sandside estate to the Duke 
of Portland ; and the estate of Dounreay, 16,464 acres 
in extent, to Sir R. C. Sinclair of Stevenston, Bart. 
The great improvements carried out on the last-named 
property since 1859, in the way of building, draining, 
fencing, road-making, etc., are fully described in Trans. 
Highl. and Ag. Soc. for 1866 and 1875. Antiquities 
are a rude but extensive fortification on Ben Freiceadain 
near Loch Shurrery ; remains of several circular towers 
in Strath-Halladale ; numerous Picts' houses ; and a 
ruined pre-Reformation chapel, St Mary's, at Lybster — 
' one of the most remarkable and ancient churches in 
the north of Scotland.' Its nave measures 17 feet by 
12, and its chancel is 10 feet square ; whilst a door at 
the W end and another in the chancel have inclined 
jambs, and are less than 4 feet high (T. S. Muir's Old 
Church Architecture, 1861). Reay is in the presbytery 
of Caithness and the synod of Sutherland and Caithness ; 
the living is worth £300. The parish church was built 
in 1739, and contains 432 sittings. Other places of 
worship are Shurrery mission chapel, Reay Free church, 
and Strath-Halladale Free Church mission chapel ; and 
five public schools — Brubster, Dalhalvaig, Dounreay, 
Melvich, and Eeay — with respective accommodation for 
64, 72, 100, 150, and 143 children, had (1884) an average 
attendance of 22, 30, 38, 40, and 66, and grants of £42, 
16s. 3d., £30, 10s., £37, 16s. 3d., £17, 6s. 8d., and £52, 
16s. lid. Valuation (1881) £10,421, (1885) £11,662, 
of which £8752, 8s. was for the Caithness division. Pop. 
(1801) 2406, (1831) 2881, (1861) 2476, (1871) 2331, (1881) 
2191, of whom 1197 were in Caithness, and 1301 were 
Gaelic-speaking. — Ord. Sur., shs. 115, 109, 1878. 

Reay's Country, Lord. See Tongue. 

Redcastle, an ancient but modernised mansion in 
Killearnan parish, Koss-shire, on the N shore of Beauly 
Firth, 3| miles E by S of Muir of Ord station, and 6| 
(via Kessock Ferry) WNW of Inverness. It claims to be 
the oldest inhabited castle in Scotland, having been 



built in 1179 by David, brother to William the Lyon ; 
was visited by Queen Mary in 1562 ; and is now the 
seat of the Right Hon. Henry James Baillie (b. 1804 ; 
sue. 1866), Conservative M.P. for Inverness-shire 1840- 
68, who holds 6512 acres in Ross and Inverness shires, 
valued at £6276 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 83, 

Redcastle, an ancient castellated structure on the 
coast of lnverkeilor parish, Forfarshire, at the S side 
of the influx of Lunan Water to Lunan Bay, 4J miles 
SSW of Montrose. Said to have been built by William 
the Lyon, perhaps to prevent invasion by the Danes, 
and to have been a royal hunting-seat, it seems to have 
been a place of considerable strength ; and is now a 
ruin, with thick compact walls and a strong surround- 
ing rampart. — Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Redden, a farmhouse in Sprouston parish, Roxburgh- 
shire, near the right bank of the Tweed, within 1 mile 
of the. English Border, and 4 miles NE of Kelso. Redden 
made some figure in feuds and negotiations connected 
with the old Border strife ; and a neighbouring alluvial 
tract bears the name of Redden Haughs, and is notable 
for fertility.— Ord. Sur., sh. 26, 1864. 

Redding, a collier village, with a post office, in Pol- 
mont parish, Stirlingshire, 1J mile W by N of Polmont 
Junction, and 2J miles ESE of Falkirk. An extensive 
tract, called Redding Moor, to the SW, remained till 
1830 in a state of commonage ; and began then, under 
permission of its proprietor, the Duke of Hamilton, to 
be enclosed and cultivated by the colliers at their spare 
hours. Pop. (1861) 642, (1871) 599, (1881) 520.— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Redford, a village in Canny Hie parish, Forfarshire, 7 
miles WNW of Arbroath. 

Redford, a village, with flax works, at the NW 
border of Dysart parish, Fife, on the left bank of the Ore, 
2| miles W by S of Thornton Junction, and 3| N by W of 

Redford, a quaint old mansion in Colinton parish, 
Edinburghshire, in a pretty wooded dell on the left 
bank of Braid or Redford Burn, 5 furlongs E by S of 
Colinton village. The judge, Sir James Foulis, assumed 
from it the title of Lord Redford (1674) ; and it was the 
birthplace of John Allen (1771-1843), the political and 
historical writer. Redford now belongs to R. A. Macfie, 
Esq. of Dreghorn Castle. — Orel. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 
See John Small's Castles and Mansions of the Lothians 
(Edinb. 1883). 

Redford House, a mansion in Muiravonside parish, 
Stirlingshire, near the left bank of the Avon, 4 miles 
SW of Linlithgow. 

Redgorton, a parish of Perthshire, containing the 
village and station of Luncarty, 4 miles NNff of 
Perth, under which there is a post office of Redgorton. 
Containing also the villages of Bridgeton, Cromwell- 
Park, and Pitcairngreen, with part of Stanley, it 
comprises the three ancient parishes of Redgorton, Lun- 
carty, and St Serffs, united some time prior to 1619, 
and consists of a main body and a detached north- 
western portion, the barony of Mullion. The main 
body is bounded NW and N by Auchtergaven, E by St 
Martins and Scone, S by Tibbermore, SW by Methven, 
and W by Methven and Moneydie. Its utmost length, 
from N to S, is 5J miles ; its breadth, increasing south- 
ward, varies between 4J furlongs and 3J miles ; and the 
area of the whole parish is 6168 acres, of which 160J are 
water, and 1261 belong to the detached portion. This, 
bounded NE by Auchtergaven, and on all other sides 
by the Logiealmond section of Monzie, lies 12 miles 
NW of Perth, and lg mile NW of the nearest point of 
the main body. With a rudely triangular outline, it 
has an utmost length from WNW to ESE of 3| miles 
and an utmost width of 7J furlongs. The Tay, here a 
splendid salmon river, curves 4$ miles south-by-west- 
ward along all the eastern border of the main division ; 
and the Almond, its affluent, winds 5J miles south- 
eastward and east-north-eastward along most of the 
Methven and all the Tibbermore boundary. Shochie 
Burn runs lg mile north-eastward, Ordie Burn 9 fur- 


longs south-south-eastward — both mainly along the 
Moneydie boundary ; and their united stream continues 
£ mile south-eastward across the interior, and falls into 
the Tay near Luncarty. The gently undulating surface 
declines at the mouth of the Almond to less than 50 
feet above sea-level, and thence rises westward to 335 
feet near Cotterton, northward to 245 near Burnside. 
Around these higher grounds spreads one of those 
panoramas for which the county is famous — on the E, 
the palace and park and pleasant lands of Scone ; on 
the SE, the fertile strath of the Tay, its majestic stream 
now seen amid openings of wood, and now hid by its 
bodyguard of forest ; in the same direction, the bridge 
and city of Perth, and a semicircular sweep of the Sid- 
law and Ochil Hills, cloven down at Kinnoull and Mon- 
creiffe, and overlooked by the distant Lomonds of Fife. 
From a point not far below its source, Shochie Burn 
runs 3g miles east-south-eastward along all the Auchter- 
gaven boundary of the detached section, whose surface 
— part of the frontier Grampians — rises west-by-north- 
ward, from 580 to 1540 feet above sea-level. Loch 
Mullion was greatly reduced by draining in 1836, but 
is still of considerable depth. The rocks are variously 
metamorphic, Silurian, and Devonian, and include clay- 
slate, chlorite slate, greywacke, coarse conglomerate, 
grey sandstone, argillaceous red sandstone, rock marl, 
and thin veins of satin spar. The soil, in most parts 
light and fertile, is here and there a mixture of clay and 
black earth. About three-fourths of the entire area are 
in tillage ; rather more than one-ninth is under wood ; 
and the rest of the parish is pasture, roads, waste, etc. 
Vestiges of an ancient Caledonian camp at Pitcairn, 
the site of Bertha or old Perth, adjacent to the con- 
fluence of the Tay and the Almond, and the legendary 
battle of Luncarty, are all treated in separate articles. 
Robert Fraser, F.R.S. (1 760-1831), an eminent statistical 
writer, was born in the old manse. Mr Maxtone- 
Graham of Cultoquhey and Redgorton is chief pro- 
prietor, 5 others holding each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards, and 3 of between £100 and £500. 
Giving off its northern portion to Stanley q. s. parish, 
and its detached section to Logiealmond q. s. parish, 
Kedgorton is in the presbytery of Perth and the 
synod of Perth and Stirling ; the living is worth 
£243. The parish church, 7 furlongs SSW of Lun- 
carty station, was probably built about 1690, and 
was repaired in 1766. An addition was made to it 
in 1841 ; and the whole was most tastefully repaired 
and cleaned in 1871. The number of sittings is 450. 
The manse, one of the finest in the Church of Scot- 
land, was built in 1866-67. There is a Free church 
of Pitcairngreen and a U. P. church of Pitcairn ; and 
two public schools, Pitcairngreen and Redgorton, with 
respective accommodation for 84 and 111 children, had 
(1884) an average attendance of 51 and 77, and grants 
of £40, 10s. and £72, 9s. Valuation (1860) £8615, lis., 
(1884) £9309, 5s. lid. Pop. (1801) 2009, (1811) 2216, 
(1821) 1589, (1841) 1926, (1861) 1671, (1871) 1461, (1881) 
1452, of whom 1100 were in the ecclesiastical parish. — 
Ord. Stir., shs. 48, 47, 1868-69. 

Redhall, a mansion in Colinton parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, on the right bank of the Water of Leith, in the 
southern vicinity of Slateford, and 3J miles SW of the 
centre of Edinburgh. In 1650 the neighbouring castle 
of Redhall was besieged and all but demolished by 
Cromwell, who took prisoners the garrison, 60 in num- 
ber, and stripped them naked. The estate, held suc- 
cessively by Cunninghams, Otterburns, Hamiltons, etc., 
was purchased in 1755 by George Inglis ; and its present 
proprietor, John Inglis, Esq. (b. 1830; sue. 1847), holds 
712 acres in the shire, valued at £1938 per annum. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Redhall Tower, a quondam baronial fortalice in Kirk- 
patrick-Fleming parish, Dumfriesshire, on the left bank 
of Kirtle Water, 3J miles ESE of Ecclefechan. A seat 
of the family of Fleming, it sustained a close three days' 
siege by an English force towards the end of Baliol's 
reign, and was eventually set on fire, when the thirty 
men who formed its garrison chose rather to perish in 


the flames than to surrender. It was entirely demolished 
about the beginning of last century. 

Bedhead. See Inverkeilor. 

Eedhouse, a village in Kincardine parish, Perthshire, 
2J miles S of Doune. 

"Eedhouse Castle. See Aberlady. 

Bedkirk. See Gretna. 

Eednock, a modern mansion, with finely wooded 
policies, in Port of Monteith parish, Perthshire, 7 fur- 
longs E by N of the Lake of Monteith, and 4£ miles N 
of Port of Monteith station. 

Eedpath, a hamlet in Earlston parish, Berwickshire, 
on the left bank of Leader Water, 2 miles S of Earlston 

Eedrow, a village in Newton parish, Edinburghshire, 
£ mile WNW of Millerhill station. 

Eedswire. See Southdean. 

Beekie Linn, a cataract of the river Isla, on the 
mutual border of Glenisla and Lintrathen parishes, W 
Forfarshire, 3J miles N of Alyth. The Isla, here 
traversing a gorge between cliffs 120 feet high, makes 
two falls of 60 and 20 feet ; occasions a reverberation 
which echoes loudly up the flanking cliffs ; and sends 
up from the abyss such clouds of spray as hang over 
it in almost perpetual smoke-like vapour. Fine masses 
of wood crown the cliffs ; and a rustic tower, on the 
right side, commands a full view of the cataract. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 

Eegland, Loch. See Dalry, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

Eeichip House, a mansion on the Duke of Athole's 
property, at the mutual border of Caputh and Clunie 
parishes, Perthshire, 6 miles NE of Dunkeld. The 
picturesque dell of Eeichip abounds in some rare plants, 
and contains a well formerly held in superstitious 
veneration, with the site of a pre-Reformation chapel. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 

Eeidswire. See Southdean. 

Eeiss, a village in Wick parish, Caithness, near Sin- 
clair Bay, 4 miles NNW of Wick town, under which it 
has a post office. 

Belugas, a mansion in Edinkillie parish, Elginshire, 
on an eminence between the confluent Divie and 
Findhorn, 3£ miles NNW of Dunphail station, this 
being 8J miles S by W of Forres, under which there 
is a post office of Relugas. Occupying a romantic 
site, and surrounded by pleasure-grounds of singular 
beauty, it is a picturesque, irregular edifice, in the 
cottage ornee style. Its oldest part bears date 1785, 
and a large addition was made about 1828. The 
estate belonged for two centuries to the Cumins, 
whose heiress, Miss Charles Anne Cumin, in 1808 
married her third cousin, Sir Thomas Dick-Lauder, 
Bart. (1784-1848), author of the Moray Floods, etc. It 
was sold in 1847 to W. M'Killigin, Esq., and again in 
1852 to G. E. Smith, Esq., whose daughter-in-law, Mrs 
Smith, holds 1034 acres in the shire, valued at £486 
per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Eemilton, a village in Abdie parish, NW Fife, 7 fur- 
longs ESE of Newburgh. 

Eendall. See Evie. 

Eenfield. See Blythswood. 

Benfrew (Br. Bhyn, ' a point of land, ' and frew, 'the 
flowing of water'), a parish containing a town of the 
same name lying along and intersected by the Clyde in 
the NE of Renfrewshire and in the Upper Ward of that 
coimty. It is bounded N by Dumbartonshire, E by 
Lanarkshire, S by Abbey parish, Paisley, W by Kil- 
barehan, and SW by Inchinnan. On the N and E 
the parish and county boundaries coincide. Starting 
from the centre of the Clyde at the mouth of the Black 
Cart, the line passes up the centre of the former river 
till at Yoker Burn it strikes to the N, and follows the 
course of the burn for about 1 mile. It then strikes 
across to Yokermains Burn, and follows it up to beyond 
Scaterig, whence it turns southward and south-westward 
to the Clyde, which it reaches at the old position of 
Marline Ford. Crossing the Clyde the line continues 
near the E and S of the grounds of Elderslie House to 
Pudzeoch Burn, which it follows to Millburn Bridge, 


whence it follows the Mill Burn to the N end of the 
reservoir, and then proceeds irregularly to the corner of 
Hillington Wood. There it quits the county boundary 
and takes first a south-westerly direction to a point a 
little E of the 5-mile post on the Glasgow and Paisley 
joint railway, and afterwards a north-westerly direction 
to a point on the road midway between Newmains and 
Bogside. From this the course is up a small burn to 
Arkleston Print-Works, and then westward to a point 
on the White Cart, opposite the mouth of Abbotsburn, 
up which it proceeds by Wester Walkinshaw to the 
Black Cart, the centre of which it follows back to the 
Clyde. The greatest length, from the WNW at the 
junction of the Gryfe and the Black Cart to the ESE 
at Hillington Wood, is 4 miles ; the greatest width, 
from the N at the mouth of the Black Cart to the 
S at Arkleston, is 2| miles ; and the area is 4488 '488 
acres, of which 18 '557 are foreshore and 159 -017 
are water. The Clyde divides the parish into two 
unequal portions, about one-third of the whole area 
lying to the N of the river. In the northern section, 
which is the only part of Renfrewshire lying N of the 
Clyde, the ground is flat along the edge of the river, 
but thereafter rises rapidly to 50 and then to 100 feet, 
and reaches, towards the NE, in the grounds of Jordan- 
hill House, an extreme height of 149 feet. On the S 
side of the Clyde the ground is flat, rising in the SW 
to only from 17 to 20 feet above sea-level ; in the SE to 
from 28 to 30 feet ; and in the extreme S, at Cockle and 
Knock Hills, to over 50, the latter (85 feet) being the 
highest point of the southern section. On the extreme 
S the parish includes a portion of the municipal and 
parliamentary burgh of Paisley. Both sections are well- 
wooded and highly cultivated, the soil being a rich and 
fertile alluvium, with a subsoil of sand or strong clay. 
The underlying rocks are carboniferous, and both coal 
and ironstone are worked. Some of the clays in the 
NE and elsewhere are extensively used in the manufac- 
ture of bricks, and several of them contain arctic and 
recent shells. The drainage is effected by the streams 
and rivers mentioned in describing the boundaries. The 
ground between the policies of Elderslie House on the 
SW and the river Clyde is known as the King's Inch, 
and was, down to the middle of the 17th century or 
later, an island — a narrow branch of the Clyde having 
struck off from the main river at Marline Ford and 
passed between it and the burgh. Somerled, Lord of 
the Isles, who had risen in rebellion against King 
Malcolm IV., was defeated and slain at Renfrew in 
1164 ; and a mound with a stone on the top is noticed 
by Pennant as, traditionally, the memorial of the place 
of his defeat, but no trace of it now remains. 

The parish of Renfrew is distinguished for its connec- 
tion with the ancient house of Stewart, the lands of 
Renfrew being the first mentioned of the estates specified 
in the charter granted by King Malcolm IV. in 1157 in 
favour of Walter, ' son of Alan,' and confirming a grant 
previously made by King David I. The office of King's 
High Steward being also conferred on Walter and his 
descendants, they took thence the surname of Stewart, 
and so this corner of the land became the cradle of the 
illustrious race destined to ascend in succession the 
thrones of Scotland and England. Knock Hill on the 
S is still shown as the traditional spot where Marjory 
Bruce, wife of a succeeding Walter, High Steward of 
Scotland, was thrown from her horse and killed while 
hunting in 1316. She was far advanced in pregnancy 
at the time, and the Cesarean operation was resorted to 
in order to save the life of the child, who afterwards 
became Robert II. The tradition adds that an injury 
caused to his eyes during the operation was the occasion 
of the affection that procured him his popular name of 
' Bleary.' The spot was marked till somewhere between 
1779 and 1782 by an octagonal pillar placed on an 
eight-sided base, and known, by some confusion of 
names, as Queen Bleary's Cross. The monument was 
then destroyed by a rustic vandal, who occupied the 
neighbouring farm, and who used the pillar as a door 
lintel, and the stones of the supporting steps to repair 




a fence. Its site was to the ESE of Knock Farm, and 
a little farther to the ESE there was formerly a mound 
called Kempe Knowe. It was a circular mound of 
earth about 20 yards across, and surrounded by a moat 
about 5 yards wide, but no trace of it now remains. 
According to tradition it was constructed to be the place 
of contest between the last Sir John Ross of Hawkhead 
and a noted English wrestler, whose match the English 
king of the period had challenged the Scotch king to 
produce. Ross disabled his adversary in a way that 
procured him the name of 'Palm-mine-arms,' and was 
rewarded by the king with the lands and royal castle at 
' the Inch ;' and the older inhabitants always referred 
to his monument, which is placed in a burial vault 
constructed for it by the Earl of Glasgow on the SE of 
the new church, as 'Palm-mine-arms.' Semple, in his 
continuation of Crawfurd's History, mentions that an urn 
had been dug up at the Knock Hill in 1746, and another 
in 1782, so that in all probability the mound had 
been a barrow much older than Sir John Ross's time. 
The lower part of the hill is called the ' Butts,' and was 
probably the place where the burghers of Renfrew 
practised archery. At the side of the road from Ren- 
frew to Inchinnan, near the bridge across the White and 
Black Carts, and within the policies of Blythswood 
House, is a large block of sandstone known as the 
Argyll Stone, and marking the spot where the Earl of 
Argyll was wounded and captured after the failure of 
his ill-conducted enterprise in 1685. After the disper- 
sion of his forces in Dumbartonshire he crossed the river 
Clyde, and was attempting to make his escape in dis- 
guise when he was stopped by a party of militia who 
were guarding the ford where the bridge now stands. 
Some reddish veins in the stone, long pointed out as the 
stains made by his blood as he leant wounded against 
the rock, are no longer visible. Besides the burgh of 
Renfrew the parish also includes, on the N, the town of 
Yoker, and on the extreme NE the small mining village 
of Scaterig. The portion to the N of the Clyde is 
traversed by the road from Glasgow along the N bank 
of the river ; while the high road from Glasgow to 
Greenock passes through the southern portion. A road 
from N to S passes from Paisley through the burgh of 
Renfrew to the Clyde, where a ferry, with large ferry 
boats for horses and carts, provides communication with 
the opposite side at Yoker. To the W of this road is a 
branch railway line from Paisley to Renfrew. The 
mansions are Blythswood, Elderslie, Jordanhill, Scots- 
toun, and Walkingshaw. Besides agriculture and the 
industries connected with the burgh, there are pits, 
brick aud tile works, and a distillery at Yoker. Eleven 
landowners hold each an annual value of £500 and 
upwards, 19 hold each between £500 and £100, 41 hold 
each between £100 and £50, and there are a consider- 
able number of smaller amount. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Paisley and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr, and the living is worth £648 a 
year. The churches are noticed in connection with the 
burgh. The landward school board has under its 
management the Oswald, Scotstoun, and Yoker schools ; 
and these, with accommodation for 201, 120, and 150 
pupils respectively, had in 1883 attendances of 160, 139, 
and 148, and grants of £126, 5s., £73, 18s., and £135, 
6s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £20,902, (1884) £27,976, 
18s. Id., exclusive of the burgh and of £1896 for the 
railway. Pop. (1801) 2031, (1821) 2646, (1841) 3076, 
(1861) 4664, (1871) 5938, (1881) 7439, of whom 3859 
were males and 3580 females, while 5115 were in the 
burgh.— Orel. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Renfrew, a market town, port, and royal burgh, and 
the county town of Renfrewshire, is in the E of the 
parish just described, and close to the S bank of the 
river Clyde. It is by rail 3 miles N by E of Paisley, 
and 6 W of Glasgow. The burgh is of considerable 
antiquity, for in the charter granted by Walter, the 
High Steward, when he founded the Abbey of Paisley 
in 1160, it is spoken of as ' burgo meo de Reinfru ' and 
' oppidum meuni de Reinfru, ' so that it must even then 
have made some progress. The burgh, at first one of 

barony, became in the reign of Robert III. a royal 
burgh, having received a charter from that monarch in 
1396, and subsequent confirmatory charters were granted 
by James VI. in 1575 and 1614 — the former making an 
additional grant of all the religious houses and altarages 
connected with the burgh, and the latter making pro- 
vision, among other things, for the better maintenance 
of the grammar school ; and again by Queen Anne in 
1703. The burgh and district gave in 1404 the title of 
Baron Renfrew to the heir apparent to the Scottish 
throne, and the connection of the place with ' the 
ancient Stewart line ' is still maintained by the retention 
of the title among those borne by the Prince of Wales. 
At the date of the charter of 1614 the burgh seems to 
have been the principal port on the Clyde, and as is 
mentioned in the article on Paisley, it had some bitter 
struggles with that place at earlier dates as to its 
privileges of trade. Its old prosperity has now, how- 
ever, suffered decline, and it has been completely 
eclipsed by its younger and more vigorous rivals, though 
why it is a little hard to say. Probably when the pinch 
came it relied more on the dignity of its long descent 
and ancient origin than on its energy. The town now 
consists of a main body — the original town — about J 
mile distant from the present channel of the Clyde, and 
a more modern extension reaching down to the Clyde 
itself. From the Cross near the centre of the main body 
of the town High Street passes to the E along the road 
to Glasgow, with Queen Street branching off it, while 
Fulbar Street continues the line to the W. Southward, 
along the Paisley Road, is Hairst Street ; and north- 
ward are Canal Street and Ferry Road, with Orchard 
Street branching off to the westward. The older build- 
ings have for the most part a humble and very unpre- 
tending appearance, but the outskirts have many villas 
and cottages. The old town was washed along the N 
by the old channel of the Clyde, which cut off the King's 
Inch, as noticed in the last article ; but this has long 
been closed up, though a portion of its course is occu- 
pied by the harbour at the mouth of Pudzeoch Burn and 
the course connecting that with the Clyde. These were 
constructed originally about 1785, and a stone wharf 
added in 1835 at a cost of about £800. During the 
year 1884 fresh operations were undertaken at a cost 
of £3000 for the purpose of giving greater accom- 
modation and affording increased facility in loading 
and unloading vessels. After the improvements are 
completed the depth will be 6 feet at low water, and 
16 feet at high water of ordinary spring tides, while 
in the former case the water area will be 1'169 acre, 
and in the latter l'S62 acre. Along the Clyde 
is a wharf, which is a place of call for steamers. 
The original castle of the Stewards probably stood on 
the Inch, but their later one was on a slightly ele- 
vated piece of ground on the W side of the road 
leading from the town to the ferry, and although all 
trace of the building has long been gone the site is 
still called Castlehill, and traces of the fosse remained 
till about 1775. Adjacent lands are known as the 
Orchard, the King's Meadow, and the Dog Row, and the 
Castlehill and Orchard are excluded from the burgh 
royalty, though they are almost in its centre. The 
foundation of the Abbey of Paisley seems to have been 
preceded by the establishment of a number of monks at 
Renfrew, as in one of the grants to the Benedictines of 
Paisley mention is made of ' molendinum de Renfru et 
terram ubi monachi prius habitaverunt ;' but whether 
the buildings they occupied were on the Inch or near 
Mill Burn House has been a matter of dispute. 

Public Buildings, etc. — The old town-hall, with its 
diminutive spire, was built in 1670, and remained on 
the W side of the Cross till 1871, when it was removed, 
and a new town-hall erected in 1871-73 at a cost of 
£7500. The original structure was partially destroyed 
by fire on 6 March 1878, but was immediately after 
renovated. The style is a somewhat mixed French 
Gothic, and at the E end is a massive square tower, 
rising to a height of 105 feet, with corbelled turrets 
and ornamented cresting and finials. The design is 





poor, and some of the ornamentation very tawdry. The 
buildings contain a public hall with accommodation for 
800 persons, a council chamber measuring 39 feet by 24, 
business offices, and a police office and cells. The 
Athenaeum, with a public library, dates from 1853. The 
parish church, to the S of High Street, was erected in 
1861, and is an excellent building in the Early English 
style, with an aisle to the SE over the burial place of 
the family of Ross of Hillhead, now represented by Lord 
Glasgow, and containing the old effigy of Sir John Ross, 
commonly known as Palm-mine-arms. It replaced a 
very old church which had been repaired till it would 
repair no longer. There is a good spire about 130 feet 
high. The Free church, NW of the town-hall, which 
was built immediately after the Disruption, was replaced 
in 18S2-83 by a new plain Gothic building on the same 
site. It has a squat square tower with pinnacles. The 
U.P. church, in Hairst Place, is a plain Gothic building 
with a corner turret. The Roman Catholic church (St 
James), erected in 1877, has 250 sittings. The Blyths- 
wood Testimonial, to theW, is a classic building, erected 
by subscription in 1842 in honour of Mr Campbell of 
Blythswood. Used as the burgh grammar school, it was 
vested in the town council on condition of their main- 
taining it as a school and contributing £100 a year to 
its support ; and in 1873 was, under the Education Act, 
handed over to the burgh school board. There was a 
grammar school from an early date, and under the 
charter of 1614 revenues derived from the old ehapelries 
and altarages were specially set aside for its better sup- 
port. The Blythswood Testimonial, Lady A. Speirs, 
Manse Street Infant, and Mrs Campbell's and St James' 
(R.C.) schools, with respective accommodation for 514, 
70, 76, 112, and 152 pupils, had (1884) attendances of 
416, 92, 79, 112, and 103, and grants of £389, 8s., £50, 
2s. 9d., £52, 4s., £98, and £70, 9s. 

Municipality, etc. — The old royalty of the burgh was 
very extensive, covering an area of nearly 5 square miles, 
but the boundaries of the municipal and parliamentary 
burgh are much more confined. The latter line starts 
from the Clyde and passes up Pudzeoch Burn to Mill 
Burn Bridge, thence in a straight line S, taking in part 
of Govan parish, to the Mill Burn about £ mile farther 
up. From this it strikes straight north-westward to a 
point on the road near Longcroft Cottage, and then N 
by E straight back to the Clyde. Municipal affairs are 

managed by a provost, 
2 bailies, a dean of 
guild, a treasurer, and 
7 councillors ; and 
the corporation pro- 
perty is, considering 
the size of the burgh, 
large and valuable, 
comprising farms, pas- 
ture land, house pro- 
perty, the ferry across 
the Clyde, and the har- 
bour dues. The annual 
value, which was £1448 
in 1833, is now nearly 
£5000. Extensive 
rights of salmon fish- 
ing in the Clyde belong 
to the town, but they 
have long ceased to be exercised in consequence of the 
changed condition of the river, and a yearly sum of 
upwards of £200 is paid to the town by the Clyde 
Trustees as compensation. The town council acts 
as the police commission, and has under its charge a 
force of 5 men and a superintendent (one to every 917 
of the population), the latter with a salary of £120 a 
year. The number of persons tried at the instance of 
the police in 1883 was 399 ; the number of those con- 
victed, 369 ; the number who forfeited pledges, 253 ; 
and the number not dealt with, 43. There is a gas 
company with works to the N of the burgh. The 
burgh arms are a vessel with the sun over the prow 
and the moon over the stern with two crosses, one fore 

Seal of Renfrew. 


and another aft. At the top of the mast of the ship is 
a flag with a St Andrew's cross, and from the yard hang 
two shields, one bearing a lion rampant and the other 
the arms of the Stewarts ; motto, Deus gubernat navem. 
The Prince and Princess of Wales were here in 1876, 
and the Duke of Albany in 1875 and 1882. The in- 
dustries are connected with two shipbuilding yards, a 
chemical work, a forge, a dyework, and weaving. 

The town has a post office, with money order, savings' 
hank, and telegraph departments, under Paisley, an 
office of the Union Bank, and agencies of 10 insurance 
companies. A burgh court is held every Monday ; and 
quarter sessions meet here on the first Tuesday of 
March, May, and August, and the last Tuesday of 
October. The weekly market is on Saturday ; and cattle 
fairs are held on the third Tuesday of May and the last 
Friday of June. Renfrew unites with Rutherglen, 
Dumbarton, Port-Glasgow, and Kilmarnock in sending 
a member to parliament. Parliamentary constituency 
(1885) 772, municipal constituency, 898. Valuation 
(1874) £9417, (1885) £13,884. Pop. of parliamentary 
burgh (1841) 2013, (1861) 3228, (1871) 4163, (1881) 
4825, of whom 2472 were males and 2353 females. 
Houses (1881) 989 inhabited, 126 uninhabited, 8 build- 
ing. In 1S81 the population of the royal burgh was 
5115, and of the municipal burgh 5502. 

Renfrewshire, anciently Strathgryfe, is a maritime 
county on the W coast of Scotland. Although only 
twenty-seventh among the Scottish counties as regards 
area, its industrial importance is so great that it 
ranks sixth in the order of valuation and fifth 
in the order of population, while it contests with 
Edinburgh the distinction of being the most densely 
populated county in Scotland, each of them having 
1075 inhabitants to the square mile. The county is 
bounded N by the river Clyde and Dumbartonshire, NE, 
about Glasgow, and E by Lanarkshire, SSW by the 
Cunningham district of Ayrshire, and W by the Firth 
of Clyde. The shape is an irregular oblong. The greatest 
length, from Cloch Point on the Nff to near Laird's 
Seat on the SE, is 30J miles ; the greatest breadth near 
the centre, from the grounds of Erskine House on the 
Clyde on the N to a point on Dubbs Burn near Beith 
Station on the SSW, is 13 miles ; and the area is 253 "793 
square miles, or 162,427-958 acres, of which 2021179 
are foreshore and 3621 - 342 water. Of the land area of 
156, 785 '437 acres, nearly two-thirds is cultivated, there 
being 95,353 acres in 1884 under crop, bare fallow, and 
grass, while 5424 were under wood, the rest being 
occupied by buildings and roads, etc., or by rough hill 
grazings and waste ground. 

Commencing at the NW corner at Kempock Point 
the boundary line follows the river Clyde for 17f miles 
to the mouth of Yoker Burn, up which it passes, follow- 
ing it nearly to its source. Thereafter it strikes across 
to Yokermains Burn, which it follows up till beyond 
Scaterig, whence it returns by the E side of Jordanhill 
and Scotstoun House grounds to the Clyde at the old 
line of the Marline Ford. Crossing the river it pro- 
ceeds by an old channel of the Clyde along the western 
and south-western boundaries of the parish of Govan to 
the line of railway now occupying the old course of the 
Glasgow and Paisley Canal. It passes thence north- 
eastward by Ibroxhill and the W side of Pollokshields, 
and entering Olasgow crosses Kinning Park to the E of 
Lambhill Street, turns eastward for a short distance 
along Paisley Road, again northwards between Main 
Street and Rutland Crescent and along Rutland Place, 
Greenlaw Place, and Kinning Place, till, nearly opposite 
Pollock Street, it passes northward to the Clyde, which 
it reaches close to Hyde Park Ferry. Leaving the river 
150 yards farther up about the centre of Springfield 
Quay, the line follows a very involved and zig-zag course 
through Kingston, up the centre of the gas-works, along 
the E side of East Pollokshields, to the N of Strath- 
bungo, between Govanhill and Crosshill, and to the N 
of Polmadie House, where it reaches Polmadie Burn. 
It passes up the Burn to the junction of Malls Mire 
Burn and West Burn, whence it follows the course of 



the former to its source. From this it bends southward 
and eastward to the White Cart, and follows the course 
of that stream for 5j miles to the junction with Threep- 
land Burn, which it follows for J mile, and then winds 
southward and south-westward to a point midway be- 
tween Quarry Hill and Muir Hill. Here it turns to 
the WSW in a very winding course, always near but 
seldom actually on the line of watershed between the 
streams that flow south-westward to the Garnock, 
Annick, and Irvine, and so to the Firth of Clyde ; and 
those that flow north-eastward to the Gryfe, Black and 
White Carts, and so to the river Clyde. The line is 
therefore mostly artificial, but to the E of Beith station 
it follows the course of Roebank Burn, and to the W of 
the station the courses of Dubbs Burn and Maich Water, 
and passing between Misty Law Moor and Ladyland 
Moor, reaches the watershed at Misty Law (1663 feet). 
It follows the watershed by East Girt Hill (1673 feet) and 
Hill of Stake (1711), to the E shoulder of Burnt Hill 
(1572), whence it takes the line of Calder Water for 1J 
mile, crosses to the upper waters of the North Rotten 
Burn, follows this down to about 4 mile from Loch Thom, 
and then striking across to Kelly Dam follows Kelly 
Water down to the pier at Wemyss Bay. From this 
back northward to Kempock Point, the Firth of Clyde 
is again the boundary. 

Districts and Surface, etc. — The county is divided 
into an Upper and a Lower Ward, the former with 
Paisley, and the latter with Greenock, as the chief 
town. The surface varies considerably, but may be 
considered as falling into three divisions — hilly, gently 
rising, and flat. The first lies along the southern border, 
and extends to the centre on the SE and along the W. 
It comprises most of the parishes of Eaglesham and 
Mearns, great part of the parishes of Neilston and 
Lochwinnoch, and most of the parishes of Kilmalcolm, 
Port Glasgow, Greenock, and Innerkip, and reaches an 
altitude of 1093 feet in Eaglesham, 871 in Mearns, 900 
in Neilston, 1711 in Lochwinnoch, 1446 in Kilmalcolm, 
661 in Port Glasgow, 995 in Greenock, and 936 in 
Innerkip. It is generally a somewhat bleak moorland, 
but some of the heights command good and extensive 
views. The gently rising district which lies immediately 
to the N of the hilly one commences at the boundary 
with Lanarkshire on the E, and extends WNW to the 
neighbourhood of Langbank and Kilmalcolm. It compre- 
hends the parishes of Cathcart and Eastwood, and parts 
of the parishes of Neilston, Paisley, Renfrew, and 
Inchinnan, Kilbarchan, Houston, and Erskine. Many 
of the heights are well wooded, and the scenery is 
picturesque. The flat district, known locally as the 
• laich lands, ' lies along the N border, forming a level 
tract by the side of the Clyde, and extending along the 
narrow flat valley of the Black Cart and Castle Semple 
Loch. It extends from the eastern boundary of Ren- 
frew parish to the Erskine Hills, and thence south-west- 
ward as already indicated, comprehending most of the 
parish of Renfrew, and parts of the parishes of Paisley, 
Inchinnan, Houston, Erskine, Kilbarchan, and Loch- 
winnoch. It appears to have been, at a comparatively 
recent geological period, covered by the waters of the 
inlet noticed in the article on Glasgow. The physical 
characteristics of the small portion of the county to the 
N of the Clyde have been already noticed in the article 
on the parish of Renfrew. 

The drainage is carried off by the White Cart, the 
Black Cart, and the Gryfe, all of which unite and flow 
into the Clyde 1 mile NW of Renfrew Ferry, and by 
the Clyde itself. The courses of these rivers are sepa- 
rately described, and it remains here merely to notice 
the drainage basins. The whole of the eastern and 
south-eastern portions of the county are drained by the 
White Cart and the streams flowing into it, of which 
the principal are, beginning at the SE corner, Threepland 
Burn, Ardoch and Holchall Burns, Earn Water, New- 
field Burn, Brock Burn, Levern Water, and Cowden 
Burn, and some smaller streams in the neighbourhood 
of Paisley. A small district in the centre is drained by 
the Black Cart, the river Calder, Patrick Water, and 


the other burns flowing into it, none of which are of 
any great size or importance. The western part of the 
county is drained by the Gryfe and its tributaries, of 
which the chief are, from the source downwards, North 
Rotten Burn, Green Water, Burnbank Water, Blacketty 
Water, Mill Burn, Gotter Water, Locher Water, all on 
the S side, and Barochan and Dargavel Burns on the 
N. Besides these a number of smaller streams, of which 
the chief are Dubbs Burn and Maich Water, flow into the 
Ayrshire drainage basin, and others again in the W and 
N flow direct to the Clyde. Of the latter the chief are 
Kelty Burn, entering the Firth of Clyde at Wemyss 
Bay ; the Kipp, which enters at Innerkip ; and Shaw's 
Water at Greenock. In the SE in the basin of the 
White Cart, there are a number of lochs, of which the 
most important are Loch Goin or Blackwoodhill Dam 
(8x3 furl.), on the border of the county, and which, 
through Loch Burn and Craufurdland Water, is one of 
the main sources of Irvine Water ; Dunwan Dam (5x2 
furl.), the source of Holchall Burn; some small lochs 
SW of Eaglesham, Binend Loch (4x2 furl.), and 
Black Loch on the head-streams of the Earn ; Brother 
Loch (3x3 furl.), on Capelrig or Thornliebank Burn; 
Glen Reservoir (3 x 1J furl. ) and Balgray Reservoir 
(5x3 furl.), on the course of Brook Burn ; Glanderston 
Dam, Walton Dam, and Harelaw Dam (5x2 furl.), 
Long Loch (8x2 furl.), from which issues one of the 
head-streams of Annick Water (Ayrshire) ; a small loch 
a mile WNW of Barrhead, and Stanley and Glenburn 
Reservoirs S of Paisley. Between the basins of the 
White and Black Carts is the small but picturesque 
Loch Libo, whence flows the Lugton (Ayrshire). In the 
basin of the Black Cart are Broadfield Dam, on a tribu- 
tary of Patrick Water, and Castle Semple Loch (12 x 
3 furl.), from which flows the Black Cart itself. At its 
upper end is the area formerly occupied by Barr Loch 
(8 x 4 furl.), which is now drained. On Calder Water 
are Calder Dam and Queenside Loch. In the valley of 
the Gryfe there are two small lochs near Bridge of Weir, 
and at the source are the Gryfe Reservoir and the Com- 
pensation Reservoir (together 12x2 furl.), connected 
with the Greenock waterworks ; and immediately to 
the W of these is Loch Thom (12 x 3 furl.). The fish- 
ing in most of the lochs and streams where the water is 
not poisoned by industrial operations, is fair. 

Geology. — The geology of Renfrewshire claims special 
attention, on account of the remarkable development of 
volcanic rocks belonging to the Lower Carboniferous 
period, and the important series of coal-fields situated 
to the N of the volcanic area between Houston and the 
E border of the county at Rutherglen. 

The various subdivisions of the Carboniferous system 
are represented within the limits of the county. Be- 
ginning with the red sandstones lying at the base of 
this formation, which are the oldest strata in Renfrew- 
shire, they occupy a belt of ground along the coast in 
the neighbourhood of Innerkip. They are merely the 
prolongation towards the N of similar red sandstones 
fringing the Ayrshire coast between Ardrossan and 
Largs. Consisting mainly of red sandstones and corn- 
stones with bands of breccia and conglomerate, there 
is little variety in the character of the strata. They 
stretch inland, from the shores of the Firth of Clyde 
at Innerkip to the hills near Loch Thom, where they 
are thrown into a gentle anticlinal fold, succeeded by 
the overlying Cement-stone series, of which, however, 
there is but a limited development. Throughout Ren- 
frewshire the Cement-stone series is almost wholly 
represented by a prodigious succession of contem- 
poraneous volcanic rocks, which are the continuation 
of the great volcanic belt on the N side of the Clyde, 
forming the Kilpatrick Hills. There can be little doubt 
of the precise geological position of these volcanic rocks 
in this county, because, to the W of Loch Thom, they 
rest conformably on the white sandstones and Cement- 
stones, and where no faults intervene they graduate 
upwards into the Carboniferous Limestone series. They 
form a belt of hilly ground stretching across the county 
in a NW and SE direction, from the hills S of Greenock, 


by the Gleniffer Braes, to the high grounds round 
Eaglesham. In the E portion, the volcanic rocks form 
a low anticlinal arch, the axis of which coincides 
generally with the trend of the chain, the overlying strata 
being inclined towards the SW and NE. Throughout 
this extensive area the igneous rocks consist of basalts, 
melaphyres, and porphyrites, with intercalations of 
tuffs and coarse volcanic breccias. The upper and 
under surfaces of the lava flows are extremely slaggy 
and scoriaceous, and the cavities are filled with agates 
and various zeolites. The discharge of lavas and tuffs 
was so persistent that there are but few traces of sedimen- 
tary deposits in the volcanic series. In the neighbour- 
hood of Eaglesham, however, sandstones, dark shales, 
and sometimes impure fossiliferous limestones are as- 
sociated with the tuffs. An interesting feature con- 
nected with this remarkable volcanic area is the existence 
of numerous vents, from which the igneous materials 
were discharged. They are now filled with basalt, 
porphyrite, or volcanic agglomerate. The best example 
of one of these ancient cones is to be found on the hills 
between Queenside Muir and Misty Law, where there 
is a great development of coarse agglomerate pierced by 
dykes and bosses of felstone and basalt. This agglome- 
rate pierces the stratified volcanic rocks of the district. 

As already indicated, there is a perfect passage from 
the contemporaneous volcanic rocks into the overlying 
Carboniferous Limestone series. The junction between 
the two, however, is usually a faulted one, and hence the 
regular succession is visible only at few localities. "Where 
no faults intervene, the strata immediately overlying 
the ancient lavas consist of ashy sandstones, grits, and 
conglomerates, which are replaced at intervals by white 
sandstones and clay ironstones. Occasionally they are 
associated with bands of tuff. From the ashy character 
of the strata one might infer that the sedimentary 
materials were mainly derived from the denudation of 
the underlying volcanic rocks, while the bands of tuff 
indicate spasmodic outbursts of volcanic activity. The 
ashy strata just described are succeeded by the lowest 
members of the Carboniferous Limestone series. In Ren- 
frewshire this important series of strata is divisible into 
three groups, in common with other areas in the midland 
counties, viz., a lower limestone group, a middle coal- 
bearing group, and an upper limestone group. 

Along the N border of the volcanic area, between the 
White Cart Water at Busby and the banks of the 
Clyde near Erskine House, the members of the Carboni- 
ferous Limestone series are everywhere brought into 
contact with the ancient lavas and ashes by faults. A 
glance at the Geological Survey maps (sheets 30 and 
22 of the 1-inch map of Scotland) shows the irregular 
nature of the boundary line due to the peculiar 
system _ of faulting. In one remarkable case the 
Carboniferous Limestone series stretches almost con- 
tinuously across the volcanic belt, from Johnstone and 
Howwood to Lochwinnoch. This hollow is flanked by 
two powerful faults, throwing down the lowest members 
of the overlying series. 

If we except some small patches of Millstone Grit to 
the E of Barrhead and near Pollokshields, and the 
limited development of the true Coal-measures on the 
border of the county at Rutherglen, the whole of the 
area lying to the N of the volcanic rocks belongs to 
the Carboniferous Limestone series. The strata are 
traversed by numerous faults which repeat the 
valuable seams of coal and ironstone. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Johnstone and Linwood they are arranged 
generally in the form of a synclinal fold. Along 
the W margin of this basin, near Bridge of Weir, 
we find the Hurlet Coal and Limestone dipping to the 
E and SE being rapidly followed by the Lillies Oil-Shale, 
the Hosie Limestone, and the Johnstone Clayband Iron- 
stone. In the neighbourhood of Linwood the deepest 
part of the basin is reached, the Lower Garscaddeu Clay- 
band Ironstone being succeeded by various coal seams 
belonging to the middle coal-bearing group. To the S 
of Johnstone there is a remarkable development of in- 
trusive sheets of basalt occurring near the base of the 


Carboniferous Limestone series. The largest of these 
masses occurs in the neighbourhood of Quarrelton, 
measuring 1J mile from N to S, and consisting of 
dolerite. It is underlaid by the thick Quarrelton Coal, 
which rests on a basement of volcanic tuff reposing on 
white sandstones intervening between the Quarrelton 
Coal and the volcanic rocks of the Cement-stone group. 
Near Howwood, the intrusive sheet just referred to, and 
the associated strata, form an anticlinal arch, from which 
the Hurlet Coal and Limestone dip away towards the E 
and W. Similar intrusive sheets of basalt rock occur 
about 1 mile to the NE of Paisley, where they occupy 
a similar geological horizon. 

Passing E to that portion of the basin extending from 
Hurlet to Shawlands and Crossmyloof, there is a splendid, 
development of the middle coal-bearing and upper lime- 
stone groups. A traverse from Hurlet E to Cowglen 
shows, if we exclude minor faults, a general ascending 
section from the outcrop of the Hurlet Coal and Lime- 
stone, through the Lillies Oil-Shale, Hosie Limestone, 
and the various ironstones and coals of the middle coal- 
bearing group, to the Cowglen Limestone. The latter 
bed forms the base of the upper limestone group, thus 
occupying a similar position with the Index Limestone 
in the Lanarkshire basin. The valuable coals and iron- 
stones of the middle group also occur to the N of Shaw- 
lands and Crossmyloof, where they are abruptly truncated 
by a fault throwing down to the NE the Millstone Grit 
and the Coal-measures. Near Crossmyloof the coal seams 
of the middle group of the Carboniferous Limestone series 
are actually brought into conjunction with the numerous 
coals and ironstones of the true Coal-measures. 

Advancing S from Crossmyloof, where the coal seams 
of the middle group have a general dip to the S, 
there is a general ascending series through the upper 
limestone group to the overlying Millstone Grit. The 
observer crosses in succession the Cowglen or Index 
Limestone, the white Giffnock sandstones, the Orchard 
Limestone, which is underlaid by a thin seam of coal ; 
while at the top he finds the Arden Limestone, also 
underlaid by a seam of coal. In this district the Arden 
Limestone is regarded as marking the boundary between 
the Carboniferous Limestone series and the overlying 
Millstone Grit. The limestones of the upper group are 
by no means very fossiliferous, but there is a bed of 
shale at Orchard teeming with fossils which has become 
famous among the geologists of the west of Scotland. 
From this band alone Messrs Young and Armstrong 
have chronicled upwards of 120 species of univalve and 
bivalve shells, together with Foraminifera and Ento- 

To the E of Barrhead there is a small outlier of thick 
yellow sandstones, representing the Millstone Grit, 
resting on the Arden Limestone which rises from under- 
neath the sandstones on every side save the E, where 
the basin is truncated by a NE and SW fault. 
Another little outlier of Millstone Grit resting on the 
Arden Limestone occurs about a mile to the SE of 
Thornliebank. Sandstones of the same age also occur 
at Pollokshields on the E side of the great fault already 
referred to, where they pass conformably below the 
true Coal-measures, forming the W termination of the 
great Lanarkshire basin. A line drawn from the 
county boundary near Dellevine House, NW by Cross- 
myloof to Ibroxholm, marks the course of the great 
fault which brings the Coal-measures into conjunction 
with the Carboniferous Limestone series. In this part 
of the basin the Kiltongue, Virtuewell, Splint, Hump, 
Rough Main, Rough Ell, and the Mossdale coal seams 
are represented. 

Throughout the county there are numerous basalt 
dykes of Tertiary age, piercing alike the Lower Car- 
boniferous volcanic rocks and the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone series. Perhaps the best examples occur in the 
volcanic area to the NW of Lochwinnoch, where some 
of the dykes run parallel with each other for a distance 
of several miles. 

The proofs of glaciation in the county are abundant. 
Numerous instances of striations are met with, especially 



in the volcanic area between Lochwinnoch and Port 
Glasgow. Throughout that district the general trend 
of the ice-markings is SE, due to the movement of the 
great ice sheet radiating from the Highland mountains. 
This SE trend continues as far as Eilbarchan and Loch- 
winnoch, but to the E of these localities the striae 
gradually swing round to the SW. This change in the 
direction of the ice movement has been adequately 
explained by Professor James Geikie, who contends 
that during the great extension of the ice the glaciers 
from the Highland mountains moved in an E direction 
along the valley of the Clyde till they coalesced with 
those radiating from the Southern Uplands. Eventually 
the combined ice sheets moved in a SW direction across 
the volcanic chain in the E of Renfrewshire towards 
the Firth of Clyde. The glacial deposits which are 
splendidly developed in the county, and especially along 
the basin of the Clyde, will be described in the general 
article on the geology of Scotland. 

Economic Minerals. — Copper ore occurs in grey sand- 
stone near Gourock, and several copper mines have 
been worked in the volcanic rocks near Lochwinnoch, 
one of which has only recently been discontinued. 
Agates occur in great abundance in the amygdaloidal 
volcanic rocks. The various ironstones and coal seams 
already enumerated, both in the true Coal-measures and 
in the coal-bearing group of the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, have been extensively wrought. The Arden 
Limestone has been largely quarried near Barrhead and 
Thornliebank, where it reaches a thickness of about 10 
feet. The Orchard Limestone, though comparatively 
thin, has been highly prized as a cement limestone, 
owing to the valuable feature which it possesses of 
' setting ' under water. Alum has been largely manu- 
factured from the shale at Hurlet and at the Nitshill 
chemical works ; copperas is obtained from the iron 
pyrites in the shale. As already indicated the great 
Oil-shale series of Midlothian is represented in this 
county by contemporaneous volcanic rocks, but there is 
a band of oil shale underneath the Hosie Limestone at 
various localities between Houston and the E border of 
the county. The volcanic rocks supply excellent road 
metal ; and the Giffnock sandstones, as well as some of 
the beds of limestone, supply excellent building material. 
See Geological Survey Maps (1 inch) of Scotland, sheets 
22 and 30, and the explanation to sheet 22. 

Soils and Agriculture. — The soil of the hill districts 
is principally a light earth, overlying gravel or dis- 
integrated volcanic rock, and is in some parts covered 
with excellent pasture, and elsewhere with heath or 
deep moss. The soil of the gently rising district, 
though in some places thin and poor, is mostly a fairly 
good earth, overlying gravel or stiff clay, and passing 
in the haughs along streams into a good deep loam. 
Along the flat district the soil is a rich alluvium, vary- 
ing in depth from a few inches to several feet, and in 
many places displaying all the excellences of rich carse 
land. The processes of husbandry differ in no respect 
from those employed in the neighbouring counties, and 
already noticed. Westerly and south-westerly winds pre- 
vail on an average for two-thirds of the year, and as they 
come directly from the Atlantic, they are loaded with 
vapour, and the result of their contact with the colder 
land is heavy rains. The western part of the county is, 
indeed, one of the wettest parts of the W coast of the 
Scottish mainland, the annual rainfall being about 60 
inches. The mean temperature is about 48 degrees. 

The areas under the various crops at different dates 
are given in the following tables : — 

Grass, Root Crops, etc. — Acres. 

Grain Crops. - 




Barley or 









Hay and Grass 
in Rotation. 










while there are about 1300 acres annually under 
beans, rye, vetches, fallow, etc. The figures for 1854, 
as is so often the case with the returns for that year, 
seem unduly high. The acres under sown crop, ex- 
elusive of hay and grass, amount as given in that year 
to 30,268 ; but in 1866, the number was only 26,297 ; 
in 1874, 25,261; and in 1884, 24,185; but the whole 
area under crop, including hay and grass, and permanent 
pasture, has risen from about 90,000 acres in 1874, to 
95,353 in 1884. The yield of the different crops is about 
average. The agricultural live stock in the county at 
different periods is shown in the following table : — 
















The falling off in the area under crop, and the in- 
crease in that appropriated for grazing purposes, since 
1854, is probably entirely due to the large towns in the 
neighbourhood, which afford a ready market for stock 
and for dairy produce. In 1881, there were in the 
county 20 holdings under 15 acres, 79 between 15 and 
50, 216 between 50 and 100, 307 between 100 and 500, 
and 20 over 500. According to Miscellaneous Statistics 
of the United Kingdom (1ST 9), 155,321 acres, with a total 
gross estimatedrental of £990, 898, are divided among5735 
proprietors, one holding 24,951 acres (rental £14,801), 
two together 27,775 (£27,059), one 6500 (£5562), 
thirteen 44,625 (£65,977), eight 12,128 (£28,963), 
seven 4793 (£17,972), ninety 19,651 (£174,018), etc. 
Excluding the villa residences in the neighbourhood of 
the large towns, the principal mansions are Ardgowan, 
Arthurlie House, Upper Arthurlie House, Auchneagh 
House, Barochan House, Barshaw House, Bishopton 
House, Blackstone House, Blythswood House, Broad- 
field House, Broom House, Capelrig House, Carruth 
House, Castle Semple, Castle Wemyss, Cathcart House, 
Craigends House, Crookston House, Cumnock House, 
Dargavel House, Duchall House, Eaglesham House, 
Eastbank House, Eastwoodpark House, Elderslie House, 
Erskine House, Ferguslie House, Finlayston House, 
Garthland, Glentyan House, Gourock House, Gryfe 
Castle, Hazelden House, Hawkhead, Househill, Houston 
House, Johnstone Castle, Jordanhill House, Kirkton 
House, Kelly House, Langhouse, Leven House, Linn 
House, Lochside House, Merchiston House, Milliken 
House, Muirshiels House, North Barr House, South 
Barr House, Park House, Pollok Castle, Pollok House, 
Ralston, Scotstoun House, Southfield House, and 
Walkinshaw House. 

Industries, Communications, etc. — The industries of 
Renfrewshire are more extensive and diversified than 
those of any other county in Scotland, except Lanark- 
shire, and with those of the latter county they are, 
indeed, very intimately connected. Weaving, at one 
time the staple everywhere, is still extensively carried 
on, as well as the cognate trades of bleaching and dye- 
ing. From 1740 to 1828, the principal fabrics were 
linens, but since then cotton has obtained the upper 
hand. Large numbers of the population are also 
engaged in the working of minerals, the manufacture 
of chemicals, the refining of sugar, the making of 
machinery, foundry-work, shipbuilding, and rope mak- 
ing, and for more minute details in connection with all 
the industries, reference may be made to Glasgow, 
Greenock, Paisley, Port Glasgow, Renfrew, and 



several of the parishes. At Greenock and Port Glasgow 
the commerce is also important. 

The county is intersected by a number of main lines 
of road, all starting at Glasgow. Of these, the first 
passes westward through Govan and Renfrew, along the 

5 bank of the Clyde to Greenock, and round the coast 
until it enters Ayrshire. A second strikes WSW by 
Kinning Park and Ibrox to Paisley, and, passing up the 
valley of the Black Cart, enters Ayrshire near Beith. 
The third and fourth pass to the W of the Queen's Park 
[see Glasgow] and separate at Shawlands, one branch 
leading by Pollokshaws and Barrhead down the valley 
of Lugton Water to Irvine, while the other passes also to 
Irvine by Newton Mearns and Stewarton through the 
valley of Annick Water. The main line of road from 
Hamilton to Kilmarnock passes through the SE corner 
of the county by Eaglesham, and there is an important 
road from Paisley by Johnstone, Kilbarchan, and Kil- 
malcolm to Greenock, which is joined at Kilmalcolm by 
another road from Lochwinnoch. There are also a large 
number of cross and district roads. Railway communica- 
tion is provided by both the Caledonian and Glasgow 
and South-Western railways. Of the former, one of the 
lines leaves Glasgow on the SW, and follows the line of 
the road by Barrhead and Neilston into Ayrshire, and 
on to Kilmarnock, while the other passes westward and 
then NW and W by Bishopton and Port Glasgow to 
Greenock and Wemyss Bay. A branch leaves the first- 
mentioned line near Pollokshaws, and passes SE by Busby 
into Lanarkshire. The Glasgow and South-Western line 
to Paisley is the same as that of the Caledonian as far as 
Paisley, but it then strikes south-westward along the 
valley of the Black Cart into Ayrshire. At Johnstone 
a branch goes off by Bridge of Weir and Kilmalcolm to 
Greenock, and a short branch strikes off E of Paisley 
for Renfrew. The bed of the old Glasgow and Paisley 
Canal has now also been converted into a railway. 

The royal burgh is Renfrew ; the parliamentary 
burghs are Paisley, Greenock, and Port Glasgow. 
The police burghs are Crossbill, Kinning Park, Pollok- 
shields, East Pollokshields, Pollokshaws, Gourock, and 
Johnstone. Places of over 2000 inhabitants are, Barr- 
head, Busby, Kilbarchan, and Thornliebank ; villages 
and places with populations between 100 and 2000 are 
Anniesland, Blackstoun, Bishopton, Bridge of Weir, 
Cathcart, Clarkston, Clippens, Crofthead, Crossmyloof, 
Crosslee, Eaglesham, Elderslie, Gateside, Houston, 
Howood, Hurlet, Inkerman, Innerkip, Kilmalcolm, 
Langside, Linwood, Langbank, Lochwinnoch, Mount 
Florida, Neilston, Newton, Newton-Mearns, New Cath- 
cart, Nitshill, Scotstoun, Shawlands, Strathbungo, 
Thorn and Overton, Wemyss Bay and Yoker. 

The county has 15 entire quoad civilia parishes and 
portions of other four. These, with reference to the 
wards, are : — Upper Ward— Abbey Paisley, Kilbarchan, 
Houston, Erskine, Inchinnan, Renfrew, Neilston, part 
of Dunlop, part of Beith, Lochwinnoch, Eastwood, 
Mearns, Eaglesham, part of Cathcart, and part of 
Govan. Lower Ward — Innerkip, Greenock, Port Glas- 
gow, and Kilmalcolm. The divisions of Paisley (4) 
and Greenock (3) and the quoad sacra parishes of Barr- 
head, Linwood, those connected with Cathcart, Pollok- 
shaws, those connected with Gourock, Langbank, and 
Newark, are also included. All the parishes in the 
Lower Ward and Erskine are in the presbytery of 
Greenock and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; and all the 
others — with the exception of Cathcart and Eaglesham, 
which are in the presbytery of Glasgow — are in the 
presbytery of Paisley in the same synod. Including 
mission churches, there are 48 places of worship in 
connection with the Established Church, 40 in con- 
nection with the Free Church, 34 in connection with 
the United Presbyterian Church, 1 in connection with 
the United Original Seceders, 4 in connection with the 
Congregational Church, 3 in connection with the Evan- 
gelical Union, 4 in connection with the Baptist Church, 

6 in connection with the Episcopal Church, and 12 in 
connection with the Roman Catholic Church. In the 
year ending September 1883 there were in the county 


117 schools, of which 97 were public, with accommoda- 
tion for 42,205 children. These had 39,233 on the 
rolls, and an average attendance of 29,349. The staff 
consisted of 346 certificated, 70 assistant, and 251 
pupil teachers. The parliamentary constituency for 
1883-84 was 7036. The county is governed by a 
lord-lieutenant, a vice-lieutenant, 23 deputy-lieutenants, 
and 250 justices of the peace. The sheriff-principal is 
shared with Bute, and there is a sheriff-substitute for 
each ward. The sheriff court for the Upper Ward is 
held at Paisley every Tuesday and Thursday during 
session, and for the Lower Ward at Greenock every 
Wednesday and Friday. Sheriff small debt courts are 
held weekly at Paisley on Thursday, and at Greenock 
weekly on AVednesday. Justice of peace small debt 
courts are held at Paisley every Friday, at Greenock 
every Thursday, at Port Glasgow on the first Monday 
of every month, at Pollokshaws on the first Tuesday 
of every month, at Barrhead on the first Monday of 
each month, at Johnstone on the third Monday of each 
month, and at Lochwinnoch on the first Saturday of 
each month ; while quarter sessions are held at Renfrew 
on the first Tuesday of March, May, and August, and 
the last Tuesday of October. The police force, exclu- 
sive of the burghs of Greenock, Johnstone, Paisley, 
Port Glasgow, and Renfrew, which have separate forces, 
consists of 89 men (1 to every 1172 of the population), 
under a chief constable, with a salary of £300 a year. 
In 1883 the number of persons tried at the instance of 
the police was 1967 ; convicted, 1877 ; committed for 
trial, 241 ; not dealt with, 111 ; forfeited pledges, 613 ; 
whilst 1726 besides were tried at justice of peace courts, 
including the burgh courts of Kinning Park and Cross- 
hill. Of the total convictions 537 were within the 
burgh of Kinning Park. In 1883 the average number 
of registered poor was 2897, with 1833 dependants, and 
130 casual poor with 140 dependants, while the total 
expenditure for parochial board purposes amounted to 
£47,587. All the parishes are assessed, and there are 
poorhouses at Govan and Paisley. The proportion 
of illegitimate births averages about 6 per cent., and 
the average death-rate is about 20. Connected with 
the county is the 4th battalion of the Princess Louise's 
Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (formerly the Royal 
Renfrew Militia), with headquarters at Paisley ; a 
battalion of artillery volunteers, with headquarters at 
Greenock ; and three battalions of rifle volunteers, with 
their headquarters at Greenock, Paisley, and Pollok- 
shaws. The county returns one member to serve in 
parliament ; one is returned for Greenock, another for 
Paisley ; and Port Glasgow and Renfrew have a share in 
a third. Valuation, inclusive of railways, but exclusive 
of burghs (1674) £5764, (1815) £265,534, (1843) 
£474,568, (1876) £583,741, (1884) £781,195. Pop. 
of registration county, which takes in part of Cathcart 
parish from Lanarkshire, and gives off parts of Beith 
and Dunlop to Ayrshire, and parts of Gorbals and 
Govan to Lanarkshire (1831) 182,812, (1841) 154,160, 
(1851) 157,950, (1861) 168,746, (1871) 195,305, (1881) 
225,611 ; civil county, (1801) 78,501, (1811) 93,172, 
(1821) 112,175, (1831) 133,443, (1841) 155,072, (1851) 
161,091, (1861) 177,561,(1871) 216,947,(1881) 263,374, 
of whom 126,743 were males and 136,631 were females. 
These were distributed into 54,622 families, occupying 
52,703 houses with 145,568 rooms, an average of 1 - 81 
persons to each room. Of the 263,374 inhabitants 
3319 males and 1371 females were connected with the 
civil or military services or professions, 1141 men and 
7623 women were domestic servants, 9958 men and 294 
women were connected with commerce, 3572 men and 
934 women were connected with agriculture and fishing, 
and 49,681 men and 21,734 women were engaged in 
industrial handicrafts or were dealers in manufactured 
substances, while there were 39,345 boys and 38,900 
girls of school age. Of those engaged in industrial 
handicrafts 7741 men and 15,547 women were connected 
with the manufacture of textile fabrics, and 7986 men 
and 172 women were connected with the working of 
mineral substances. Of those connected with farming 



and fishing 3284 men and 920 women were connected 
with farming alone, and 813 farmers employed 865 
men, 393 women, 118 boys, and 290 girls. 

History. — The territory now forming Renfrewshire 
belonged to the ancient Caledonian Damnii, and after- 
wards formed part of the kingdom of Strathclyde. [See 
Dumbarton.] The western portion bore the name of 
Strathgryfe, and was by that title granted to Walter, 
the first High Steward of Scotland, by David I. Prior 
to 1404 it seems to have been included in the county of 
Lanark, but to have then become a separate county 
when King Robert III. granted to his son and heir 
James this barony and the other portions of his ancient 
patrimonial inheritance. Since that time the eldest son 
of the reigning monarch has, besides his other titles, 
been styled Prince and Steward of Scotland and Baron 
of Renfrew. When their is no heir-apparent these 
titles are merged in the Crown. Traces of Roman 
remains and of the Roman occupation are noticed under 
Paisley. The county is associated with the defeat and 
death of Somerled, Lord of the Isles, in 1164, when we 
are told by the Chronicler of Melrose, that after landing 
at Renfrew, that prince was overtaken by Divine 
vengeance, 'and was there slain with his son and an 
immense number of his followers by a few of the people 
of the surrounding district. ' In a very curious Latin 
poem printed in the appendix to Dr Skene's edition of 
Fordun (1871), the 'honour and praise' of the victory 
is given to the exertions of St Kentigern in return for 
devastations which Somerled had committed in the Glas- 
gow district several years before, and which the bishop of 
Glasgow had prayed very hard that the Saint might 
piously rebuke. During one of the many fruitless in- 
vasions of Scotland in the early years of Edward II. , 
the English army in 1310 penetrated as far as Renfrew- 
shire before returning. In 1489 the county was the 
scene of operations carried on by James IV. against 
some of the nobles that had adhered to his father's 
party, and in 1565 the Earl of Moray and the discon- 
tented barons assembled at Paisley, but marched into 
Lanarkshire almost immediately. Other historical 
events and antiquities will be found noticed particularly 
under the various parishes and places with which they 
are more immediately connected. Like most of the 
Scottish counties, Renfrewshire was seriously troubled 
with witches in the 17th century, and the case of the 
'Witches of Renfrew' in 1697 became very famous. 
The person bewitched was Christian Shaw, a girl of 
eleven years of age, daughter of John Shaw, laird of 
Bargarran, who, 'having had a quarrel with one of the 
maid-servants, pretended to be bewitched by her, and 
forthwith began, according to the common practice in 
such cases, to vomit all manner of trash ; to be blind 
and deaf on occasion ; to fall into convulsions ; and to 
talk a world of nonsense, which the hearers received as 
the quintessence of afflicted piety. By degrees a great 
many persons were implicated in the guilt of the maid- 
servant, and no less than twenty were condemned, and 
five suffered death on the Gallow Green of Paisley, 
while one strangled himself in prison, or, as report went, 
was strangled by the devil, lest he should make a con- 
fession to the detriment of the service.' 

See also Crawfurd's Description of the Shire of Renfrew 
(1710), with continuations by Semple (Paisley, 1782) 
and by Robertson (Paisley, 1818) ; Wilson's General 
View of the Agriculture of 'Renfrewshire (1812) ; Hamil- 
ton of Wishaw's Description of the Sheriffdom of Lanark 
and Renfrew (Maitland Club, 1831) ; Ramsay's Views in 
Renfrewshire (1839) ; Hector's Selections from tlie Judi- 
cial Records of Renfrewshire (1876-78) ; the works cited 
under Paisley, and for the witches Narrative of the 
Sufferings and Relief of a Young Girl in the West 
(Edinb. 1698) ; Sadivcismus Debellatus (London, 1698) ; 
A History of the Witches of Renfrewshire (Paisley, 1809 ; 
and a new edition 1877) ; and an attack on the execu- 
tions, Witchcraft Proven, Arraigned, and Condcmn'd 
(Glasgow, 1697).— Ord. Sw., sis. 29, 80, 31, 22, 1865-73. 

Rennyhill, an estate, with a mansion, in Kilrenny 
parish, Fife, 1£ mile NNE of Anstruther. 


Renton, a town and a quoad sacra parish in Cardross 
parish, Dumbartonshire. The town, standing on the 
right bank of the river Leven, has a station on the Vale 
of Leven railway, 1£ mile S of Alexandria, and 2J miles 
N by W of Dumbarton. It was founded in 1782 by 
Mrs Smollett of Bonhill, and named in honour of her 
daughter-in-law, one of the Rentons of Lammerton ; 
grew and flourished in connection with the special in- 
dustries of the Vale of Leven ; has charming environs, 
enriched with the parks of Strathleven and Bonhill ; 
carries on extensive industry in calico-printing, bleach- 
ing, and dyeing establishments ; and has a post office 
with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph depart- 
ments, a quoad sacra parochial church, three Free 
churches (one of them Gaelic, and one Reformed Presby- 
terian till 1876), a public school, a public hall (1882), 
etc. The novelist, Tobias Smollett (1721-71), was born 
in the old house of Dalquhurn ; and at Renton, within 
£ mile of his birthplace, his cousin erected a monument 
to his memory in 1774. It is a round Tuscan column, 
60 feet high, springing from a square base ; and it bears 
a long Latin inscription by Prof. Geo. Stuart of Edin- 
burgh, John Ramsay of Ochtertyre, and Dr Samuel 
Johnson. The quoad sacra parish, constituted in 1870, 
is in the presbytery of Dumbarton and the synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr ; the minister's stipend is £120. Its 
church, which was built as a chapel of ease at a cost of 
£700, underwent great improvements in 1869. Pop. of 
q. s. parish (1881) 4387 ; of town (1831) 1860, (1841) 
2472, (1861) 2891, (1871) 3087, (1881) 4319, of whom 
2414 were females. Houses (1881) 813 inhabited, 5 
vacant.— Ord. Sur., sh. 30, 1866. 

Rentonhall, an estate, with a mansion, in Morham 
parish, Haddingtonshire, 2| miles SE of Haddington. 

Renton House, a mansion in the W of Coldingham 
parish, Berwickshire, near the left bank of Eye Water, 
1 J mile ESE of Grant's House station. Its owner, Miss 
Stirling (sue. 1861), holds 2674 acres in the shire, 
valued at £2987 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 34, 1864. 

Repentance, Tower of. See Hoddam. 

Rerigonium. See Beregonium and Innermessan. 

Rerrick or Rerwick, a coast parish of S Kirkcud- 
brightshire, containing the villages of Dundrennan and 
Auchenoairn, 5 miles ESE and 10 E by N of Kirk- 
cudbright. Its ancient name was Dundrennan ; and 
letters are still received by the minister, addressed Dun- 
drennan, Old Abbey, and Monkland. It is bounded 
NW and N by Kelton, E by Buittle, SE and S by the 
Solway Firth, and W by Kirkcudbright. Its utmost 
length, from N to S, is 7\ miles ; its utmost breadth, 
from E to W, is 6J miles ; and its area is 21,724f 
acres, of which 1692| are foreshore. The coast, extend- 
ing from Balcary Point, at the western side of the 
mouth of Auchcucairn Bay, 9 miles west-south-west- 
ward to the mouth of Dunrod Burn, is mostly bold 
and iron-bound, and exhibits a series of abrupt head- 
lands, 100 to 352 feet high, slightly intersected by the 
baylets of Rascarrel, Barlocco, Orroland, Portmary, 
Burnfoot, and Mullock. It abounds in craigs, fissures, 
tortuous ravines, and other features of romantic scenery ; 
is believed to have conti'ibuted much of its landscape 
to Sir Walter Scott's descriptions of coast scenery 
in Guy Mannering ; and commands, from nearly all 
its summits and salient points, very brilliant views, 
both inland and towards the sea. The Balcary 
lifeboat was launched, 18 Dec. 1884. The interior is 
variously champaign, undulated, rolling, and hilly ; 
declines to vale and plain in the E, around and above 
Auchencairn Bay ; contains vales or hollows in the 
centre, formerly mossy or otherwise waste, but now 
charmingly luxuriant ; and is nearly filled throughout 
the N, to the extent of about one-fourth of its entire 
area, by hills that almost attain the dignity of moun- 
tains. Chief elevations, from S to N, are Walls Hill 
(352 feet), Brown Hill (515), a nameless summit to the 
NE of the parish church (535), the Heughs of Airds 
(335), Newlaw Hill (595), Suie Hill (790), Bentuther 
Hill (900), and Bengairn or Bencairn (12S0). The 
drainage, with slight exception, is all carried southward 


or south-south-eastward by indigenous brooks, chiefly 
Troudale, Collin, Rascarrel, Henmuir, and Abbey Burns. 
Granitic rocks prevail in the uplands, and Devonian 
rocks on the low grounds and the coast. Sandstone, 
of excellent quality for building, is found on the coast ; 
iron and copper ore have been mined in considerable 
quantities ; barytes mines were worked extensively at 
Barlocco some years ago ; jasper of fine quality occurs 
in coves of the coast ; and rock-crystal, of a pale 
purple colour and of perfect prismatic form, abounds 
in a burn on Screel Hill. The soil in most parts is 
naturally wet and spongy, but has been worked by 
draining and cultivation into a good fertile mould. 
Nearly two-thirds of the entire area have been sub- 
jected to the plough, about 550 acres are under wood, 
and the rest of the parish is either pastoral or waste. 
The chief antiquities are a great barrow on the summit 
of Bengairn, remains of two Caledonian stone circles, 
vestiges of twelve camps, variously Roman, Danish, 
and Saxon, and the ruins of Dundrennan Abbey. Man- 
sions, noticed separately, are Attchencairn House, Bal- 
cary, Collin, Hazlefield, Netherlaw, Orchard- 
ton, and Portmart ; and 8 proprietors hold each an 
annual value of £500 and upwards, 14 of between £100 
and £500. In the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and the 
synod of Galloway, this parish is divided ecclesiastically 
into Kerrick proper and Auchenoairn quoad sacra 
parish, the former a living worth £434 (22 chalders, 
with £8, 6s. 8d. for communion elements). Part of 
the old parish church of Eerrick may still be seen, 
9 furlongs SE of Dundrennan village ; and a stone of it 
bears the inscription — ' This Church, originally a Chapel, 
was enlarged in 1743, taken down in 1865.' The present 
parish church, in the centre of Dundrennan village, is a 
Gothic edifice of 1865-66, with a beautiful rose window, 
a tower and spire 68 feet high, and about 400 sittings. 
Two public schools, Auchencairn and Dundrennan, with 
respective accommodation for 260 and 190 children, had 
(1884) an average attendance of 151 and 92, and grants 
of £158, 19s. 6d. and £95, 7s. Valuation (1860) £12, 603, 
(1884) £19,230. Pop. (1801) 1166, (1831) 1635, (1861) 
1738, (1871) 1911, (1881) 1807, of whom 770 were in 
Rerriek ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

Resart, Loch, a sea-loch at the mutual border of Uig 
parish, Ross-shire, and Harris parish, Inverness-shire, 
on the W side of Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides. Open- 
ing from the W, and penetrating "t\ miles eastward, it 
measures 2 miles across the entrance, and contracts 
gradually to a point. Scarp island protects its entrance ; 
and a salmon -stream of its own name flows 5 miles 
northward to its head from Harris. 

Rescobie, a parish of central Forfarshire, whose church 
stands on the northern shore of Rescobie Loch, 7 fur- 
longs E by N of Clocksbrigqs station, this being 2i 
miles ENE of the post-town, Forfar. It is bounded N 
by Oathlaw, Aberlemno, and Guthrie ; E by Eirkden ; 
S by Kirkden, Dunnichen, and Forfar; and W by Kirrie- 
muir. Its utmost length, from WNW to ESE, is 7| 
miles ; its breadth varies between 5 furlongs and 2g 
miles ; and its area is 6724 acres, of which 165 are 
water. Rescobie Loch, 2 to 20 feet deep, and lying 
at an altitude of 196 feet above sea-level, extends l| 
mile east-south-eastward, and varies in width from 200 
to 550 yards. Lunan Water, issuing from its foot, 
flows 2| miles east-south-eastward along the Aberlemno 
and Guthrie boundary, and early in this course expands 
into Balgavies Loch (4 x 1 J furl. ). From the shores of 
Rescobie Loch the surface rises southward to Dunnichen 
Hill (764 feet) on the Dunnichen boundary, and north- 
ward to Turin Hill (814) on the Aberlemno boundary. 
The face of the latter eminence presents a mural range 
of rock not unlike that of the Salisbury Craigs at Edin- 
burgh ; and its summit commands a very extensive and 
brilliant view of both land and sea. Devonian rocks, 
mainly grey paving-stone and Old Red sandstone con- 
glomerate, are predominant; display, in some places, 
curioas interstratification ; and have long been worked 
in large quarries of remarkable appearance. The soil is 
much of it a dark brown loam, with good 'body,' but 


elsewhere is thin and moorish, sharp and gravelly, or 
clayey ; and sometimes varies much within one and the 
same field. Nearly one-eleventh of the entire area is 
under wood ; rather more than one-tenth is in permanent 
pasture ; and nearly all the rest of the land is in tillage. 
In 1099 Donald Ban, the 'usurper,' taken prisoner and 
blinded by Eadgar, his nephew, was condemned to per- 
petual imprisonment at Roscolpin or Rescobie, where 
he died. There were formerly two fortalices of con- 
siderable importance, called the castles of Rescobie and 
Weems, but they have entirely disappeared. An ancient 
stronghold on the summit of Turin Hill is believed to 
have been one of the oldest stone forts in Scotland. It 
comprised a circular citadel of 685 square yards in area, 
and an extensive range of contiguous buildings. Parts 
of the citadel still remain, with walls 13 or 14 feet 
thick ; and they popularly bear the name of Kemp or 
Camp Castle. Mansions are Burnside, Carse-Gray, 
Ochterlony, Pitscandly, and Reswallie ; and 5 pro- 
prietors hold each an annual value of more, 3 of less, 
than £500. Rescobie is in the presbytery of Forfar and 
the synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is worth 
£327. The parish church was built in 1820, and con- 
tains 560 sittings. The public school with accommo- 
dation for 62 children, had (1884) an average attendance 
of 32, and a grant of £35, 15s. Valuation (1857) £6579, 
(1885) £8465, 7s., plus £1841 for railway. Pop. (1801) 
870, (1831) 808, (1861) 747, (1871) 748, (1881) 685.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Resolis. See Kirkmichael, Ross-shire. 

Resort, Loch. See Resart. 

Restalrig, a decayed village in South Leith parish, 
Edinburghshire, in the northern vicinity of Jock's 
Lodge, and north-eastern vicinity of St Margaret's 
railway depdt, 2 miles E by N of the General Post 
Office, Edinburgh. In pre-Reformation days, Restalrig 
was the capital of the parish in which it stands, and 
the site of the parish church. According to tradition, 
St Triduana, a noble virgin of Achaia, who came to Scot- 
land in the 8th century in company with St Rule, died 
at Restalrig ; and down to Sir David Lyndsay's time 
many pilgrims, afflicted with eye-diseases, resorted 
hither to Sanct Tredwall's shrine. At the death of 
William the Lyon (1214), the district of Restalrig — or, 
as it was anciently called, Lestalric — was possessed by 
the De Lestalric family. In 1291 Adam of St Ed- 
mund's, parson of Lestalric, obtained a writ to the 
sheriff of Edinburgh to deliver him his lands and 
rights ; and, in 1296, in the ancient church here, he 
swore fealty to Edward I. During the reign of Robert 
Bruce, or the early part of the 14th eentmy, the barony 
passed by marriage into the possession of the Logans, 
with whom it continued till they incurred forfeiture for 
participation in the Gowrie Conspiracy. In 1435 the 
patronage of the church was confirmed to Thomas 
Logan, by William, Bishop of St Andrews. A col- 
legiate establishment, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, 
the Virgin, and St Margaret, was established at Restal- 
rig by James III. in 1487, enlarged by James IV. in 
1512, and completed by James V. in 1515, the founda- 
tion comprising a dean, 9 prebendaries, 3 chaplains, 
and 2 singing boys. The parsonage, however, remained 
entire till the Reformation. In 1560 the first General 
Assembly ordained that the church, ' as a monument 
of idolatrie, be raysit, and utterlie casten downe and 
destroyed ; ' and that the parishioners should in future 
adopt as their parish church, St Mary's chapel in Leith. 
In 1609 the legal rights of the church and parish of 
Restalrig, with all their revenues and pertinents, were 
formerly alienated from them by parliament, and con- 
ferred upon that chapel, then legally declared to be the 
parish church of South Leith. Robert Logan of Restal- 
rig, the Gowrie conspirator, who died a bankrupt in 
1606, had sold in 1596 his estate of Nether Gogar to 
Andrew Logan of Coalfield, in 1602 his lands of Fast 
Castle to Archibald Douglas, and in 1604 his barony 
of Restalrig to Lord Balmerino. The Lords Balmerino 
held the lands of Restalrig till their forfeiture in 1746 ; 
and during the whole period of their possession appro- 



priated the vaults of the forsaken and dilapidated church 
as the burying-place of themselves and their kinsfolk. 
Lady Balmerino, the wife of Arthur, the sixth and 
attainted Lord, resided in the village during the years 
of her widowhood, and died there in 1765. The Earls 
of Moray, who purchased the forfeited lands, now claim 
as their mausoleum an octagonal chapter-house to the S 
of the church, whose groined roof springs from a single 
central pillar, and which is said to have been built 
about 1435 by Sir Eobert Logan. The Episcopalians 
have always, from the Revolution downward, had a 
strong attachment to Restalrig. They were for years 
prohibited from performing their funeral service in any 
of the city or suburban burying-grounds ; so they 
adopted Restalrig as their cemetery, and here in 1720 
interred the body of Alexander Rose, the last legal or 
more than titular bishop of Edinburgh. Here, too, is 
the grave of Lord Brougham's father, as well as of many 
a gallant soldier. The Second Pointed, three-bayed 
choir consisted of little more than the E wall and part 
of the side walls in 1836, when it was restored from 
designs by Mr W. Burn, and made a chapel of ease 
or mission chapel, subordinate to South Leith church. 
Under the verge of St Margaret's depot was a famous 
spring, called St Margaret's Well ; and some fine old 
Gothic stone-work over this was removed in 1860 to a 
runnel at the N foot of Salisbury Craigs. Restalrig 
House, to the N of the village, is a plain substantial 
mansion, in a well-wooded park of 15 acres. It was 
built in 1815-17, and enlarged a few years afterwards. 
The ancient mansion on the barony was a castellated 
structure, opposite the W end of the church, and is now 
represented by the lower walls of a plain modern house 
in the village.— Ord. Bar., sh. 32, 1857. 

Rest-and-be-Thankful. See Coestoephine and 

Kestennet, an ancient parish of central Forfarshire, 
now forming the northern district of Forfar parish, 
which hence is legally known as Forfar-Restennet. A 
sheet of water, called Restennet Loch, on the Rescobie 
boundary, was drained at great expense, in the latter 
part of last century, for the sake of obtaining a rich 
supply of shell-marl in its bed. A peninsula, project- 
ing into the lake from a very narrow isthmus, rose into 
an eminence, which was crowned by a priory, \\ mile 
ENE of Forfar. At Restennet St Bonifacius is said to 
have baptized the Pietish king, Nectan, in 710, and to 
have dedicated a church to St Peter (see Rosemakkie) ; 
and on the site of this church David I. founded an 
Augustinian priory, which Malcolm IV. made a cell of 
the Abbey of Jedburgh. The roofless priory church, 
repaired during 1863-66, is First Pointed in style, and 
has a NW broach spire 70 feet high. It served as the 
parish church of Forfar till 1591, and was afterwards 
the burying-place of the families of Dempster and 
Hunter. Traces remain, too, of a cloister-garth 60 feet 
square. — Ord. Sxir., sh. 57, 1868. 

Reston, a village in Coldingham parish, Berwick- 
shire, near the right bank of Eye Water, with a station 
on the North British railway at the junction of the 
Berwickshire branch, 8f miles NE of Duns, 11£ NW 
of Berwick, and 46-| ESE of Edinburgh. It has a post 
and telegraph office under Ayton, an inn, a market 
cross, a public school, and a Free church (1880 ; 260 
sittings), erected at a cost of £1150. Pop. (1881) 321. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 34, 1864. 

Reswallie, an estate, with a mansion, in Rescobie 
parish, Forfarshire, 3 miles ENE of Forfar. 

Rhea. See Kyle-Rhea. 

Rhiconich, an inn in Eddrachillis parish, W Suther- 
land, at the head of salt-water Loch lnchard, 41 J miles 
NW of Lairg. 

Rhind. See Rhynd. 

Rhinna (Gael, roinn, ' a point or promontory '), a 
peninsula in the SW of Islay island, Argyllshire, extend- 
ing between the German Ocean and Loch Indal, com- 
municating with the main body of the island by an 
isthmus, between the head of Loch Gruinnard and the 
upper part of Loch Indal, and terminating in a headland 


called Rhinns Point. Its length, south-westward, is 17 
miles ; and its greatest breadth is 7 miles. Its terminat- 
ing point is not a headland proper, but the islet Oesay. 

Rhinns, the western one of the three districts of Wig- 
townshire. Known to the Romans as Chersonesus' 
Novantum, it takes its present name, like the Rhinns 
of Islay, from the Celtic roinn, 'a point or promontory ;' 
and it forms a double peninsula, washed on the W side 
by the Irish Channel, and on most of the E side by 
Loch Ryan and Luce Bay. With the rest of the county 
it is connected by an isthmus, 5| miles wide at the 
narrowest, between the head of Loch Ryan and the 
head of Luce Bay ; and it measures 28J miles in length 
from N by W to S by E, 5£ miles in extreme breadth, 
and about 120 square miles in area. It begins on the N 
at Corsewall Point, and terminates at the S in the Mull 
of Galloway, each of them crowned by a lighthouse ; it 
attains a maximum altitude of 593 feet in Caienpat, 
and mostly consists of lowland, which, at a comparatively 
recent geological period, was clearly under marine water ; 
and probably, after becoming dry, it was for some time 
an island or a series of islands. The parishes comprised 
within it are Kirkcolm, Leswalt, Portpatrick, and Kirk- 
maiden, most of Stoneykirk, and a small part of Inch. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 7, 3, 1, 1856-63. 

Rhives, a modern mansion in Kilmuir-Easter parish, 
Ross-shire, 7 furlongs N of Delny station. Its late 
owner, George Ross, Esq. of Pitcalnie (1803-84), held 
10,618 acres in the shire, valued at £1270 per annum. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 94, 1878. 

Rhonehouse. See Kelton Hill. 

Rhu-Stoer or Point of Stoer, a bold rocky headland 
in Assynt parish, Sutherland, terminating the peninsula 
in the extreme W of the parish, and presenting to the 
sea, 9J miles NW of Lochinver village, a detached mass 
of sandstone, rising to the height of 530 feet. A stack, 
or insulated towering sea-rock, confronting it, rises to a 
height of about 250 feet, and has such a curious outline 
as to seem at a distance like a large ship under stud- 
ding sails.— Ord. Sur., sh. 107, 1881. 

Rhu-Vaal or Rudha Mhail, a headland at the northern 
extremity of Islay island, Argyllshire, flanking the W side 
of the northern entrance to the Sound of Islay, 7 miles 
N by W of Port Askaig. A lighthouse, erected on it in 
1859 at a cost of £7437, shows a fixed red light in a 
westerly direction, between the bearings of about SSW J 
W and about E by S, and a white light in every other 
direction, both visible at the distance of 17 nautical miles. 

Rhymer's Glen aud Tower. See Huntly, Roxburgh- 
shire ; and Eaelston. 

Rhynd (Gael, roinn, ' point ' or ' peninsula '), a Perth- 
shire parish, whose church stands 3f miles NE of 
Bridge of Earn, and i\ SE of Perth, under which there 
is a post office of Rhynd. It is bounded NW by Kin- 
fauns, NE by Kinfauns, the Inchyra section of Kinnoull, 
and St Madoes, S by Abernethy and Dunbarny, and W 
by Perth. Its utmost length, from WNW to ESE, is 
4 miles ; its utmost breadth is If mile ; and its area is 
2893 acres, of which 175J are foreshore and 260f water. 
The Tay, here 1 to 3 furlongs broad, curves 4J miles 
north-eastward and south-eastward along alltheboundary 
with Kinfauns, Kinnoull, and St Madoes ; and Sleepless 
Inch and Balhepbum Island belong to Rhynd. The 
river Eaen winds 3J miles east-by-northward to the 
Tay along all the Abernethy border, though the point 
where it first touches the parish and that where it 
enters the Tay are only 1| mile distant as the crow flies. 
E of Fingask the surface is low and flat, at no point 50 
feet above sea-level ; but westward it rises to a maxi- 
mum altitude of 725 feet on the summit of wooded Mosr- 
okeiffe Hill at the meeting-point of Rhynd, Perth, 
and Dunbarny parishes. Monereiffe Hill mainly con- 
sists of greenstone ; but elsewhere the principal rock is 
Old Red sandstone. The soil in the NW is sharp and 
gravelly, in the SE is chiefly clay, intermixed here and 
there with very fine black loam. About 100 acres are 
under wood ; and nearly all the rest oi the parish is in 
a state of high cultivation. At Grange of Elcho, near 
the western border, David Lindsay of Glenesk founded, 


some time in the 13th century, a Cistercian nunnery, 
where, in 1346, the Earl of Ross assassinated Reginald 
of the Isles. Elcho Castle, noticed separately, is the chief 
antiquity ; and the Earl of Wemyss is chief proprietor, 
1 other holding an annual value of more, and 2 of less, 
than £500. Rhynd is in the presbytery of Perth and 
the synod of Perth and Stirling ; the living is worth 
£350. In the early part of the 12th century and on to 
the Reformation the parish was a dependency of the 
monastery of St Adrian, Isle of May ; and a stone in 
the E gable of the old church marks the grave of one of 
the priors. The original church has entirely disappeared, 
but probably stood on the site of a wretched church, 
dating from the time of the Reformation, and incon- 
veniently situated 2 miles to the SE of the present 
church, which was built in 1S42. The public school, 
with accommodation for 96 children, had (1884) an 
average attendance of 60, and a grant of £68, 18s. 
Valuation (1865) £7700, 3s. 3d., (1884) £6176, 10s. 9d. 
Pop. (1801) 403, (1841) 402, (1861) 297, (1871) 327, 
(1881) 297.— Orel. Swr., sh. 48, 1S68. 

Rhynie, a parish on the western border of Aberdeen- 
shire, in the SE containing the post-office village of 
Muir of Rhynie, 4 miles SSW of Gartly station and 
13| NW of Alford. It comprises the ancient parishes 
of Rhynie and Essie ; and is bounded N by Gartly, E 
by Kennethmont, SE by Clatt and Auchindoir, and W 
by Cabrach. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 7J 
miles ; its breadth varies between 1§ and 4 J miles ; and 
its area is 20 J square miles or 12,883f acres, of which 
44 are water. The drainage all goes to the little 
Water of Bogie, which flows 6J miles north-north-east- 
ward along all the south-eastern and eastern boundary. 
Where it quits the parish, the surface declines to 524 
feet above sea-level ; and thence it rises to 1500 feet at 
the Hill of Noth, 1S51 at the Tap 0' Noth, 1059 at 
Quarry Hill, 139S at Clayshot Hill, and 1669 at the 
Mound of Haddoch, just within Cabrach parish. The 
rocks include granite.sandstone, greenstone, and syenite ; 
and the soil is a loamy clay along the valley of the Bogie, 
clay and gravel towards the Tap o' Noth, and loamy or 
mossy over most of the western division. Antiquities, 
other than Lesmoee Castle, are cairns, tumuli, several 
standing-stones (four of them sculptured, and very good 
of their kind), and remains of a large vitrified fort on the 
Tap 0' Noth, with walls more than 10 feet thick. The 
Duke of Richmond and Gordon is almost sole proprietor. 
Rhynie is in the presbytery of Strathbogie and the synod 
of Moray ; the living is worth £205. The parish church, 
a Free church, and a Congregational chapel, all stand at 
Muir of Rhynie ; and Lesmore public, Rhynie public, 
and Duff's girls' schools, with respective accommodation 
for 5S, 240, and 42 children, had (18S4) an average 
attendance of 40, 136, and 39, and grants of £32, £113, 
5s., and £42, Ss. Valuation (1860) £3311, (1885)£472S, 
18s. 9d., plus £17 for railway. Pop. (1801) 676, (1831) 
1013, (1861) 1061, (1871)1195, (1881) 1126.— Ord, Swr., 
shs. 76, 86, 75, 85, 1874-76. 

Rhynns. See Rhinns. 

Ricawr, Loch, a troutful lake in Straiton parish, 
Ayrshire, S miles SSE of Straiton village. Lying 960 
feet above sea-level, it has an utmost length and 
breadth of 6 and 5 furlongs, and sends off a streamlet 
3 miles east-north-eastward to the head of Loch Doon. — 
Orel. Swr. , sh. 8, 1863. 

Riccarton, a parish on the northern border of Kyle 
district, Ayrshire, containing a southern suburb of 
Kilmarnock and the greater part of the town of 
Huklford. It is bounded N by Kilmarnock, E by 
Galston, S by Craigie, SW by Symington, and W by 
Dundonald. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 4| 
miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 2| miles ; 
and its area is 7598J acres, of which 4S| are water, and 
1259J belong to a detached south-eastern portion (2J x 
1J miles), which, approaching to within \ mile of the 
main body, is bounded S by Mauchline, and on all 
other sides by Galston. The river Irvine winds 7 J miles 
west-south-westward along all the northern border, 
though the point where it first touches and that where 


it quits the parish are only 4J miles distant as the crow 
flies. At the NE corner of the parish it is joined by 
Cessnock Water, which winds 5 miles north-by-east- 
ward, viz., 14 mile along the Galston boundary, 1J mile 
across the eastern interior, and \% mile again along the 
Galston boundary. Higher up, Cessnock Water runs 
1 § mile westward along all the southern border of the 
detached portion. In the extreme W the surface 
declines along the Irvine to close upon 70 feet above 
sea-level ; and thence it rises to 186 at Whalriggs, 
448 at the Craigie border, and 442 near Hillhouse in the 
detached section. The parish, on the whole, is gently 
undulating, but rises gradually towards the S and SE, 
till it terminates in a low ridge of hills, whose highest 
points command an extensive and brilliant view to the 
N and W. The banks of Cessnock Water are pictur- 
esque, but those of the Irvine are very tame. The 
rocks are chiefly of the Carboniferous formation. Coal, 
which exists in great abundance, and which seems to 
have been worked from a very early period, has been 
increasingly mined since the formation of the railways. 
Much anthracite or blind coal is likewise raised, and 
limestone has been quarried both for mortar and for 
manure ; whilst iron working is carried on at Hurlibrd. 
The soil, in most parts, is strongly argillaceous. Nearly 
500 acres are under wood, and most of the remainder is 
either arable or pasture, 700 acres of moss having in 
great measure been reclaimed in the course of the last 
half century. Riccarton was anciently a chapelry, 
subordinate to the parish church of Dundonald ; and it 
followed the fortunes of that church in annexation, 
from 1229 till 1238, to the short-lived convent of 
Dalmulin, and in subsequent annexation to the mona- 
stery of Paisley. At some period of the Paisley monks' 
possession, it was made a parish church, and treated by 
them as a vicarage. After the Reformation, it was 
incorporated with Craigie ; but, in 1648, it was dis- 
united from that parish, and made independent. The 
name Riccarton was originally Richardstown or Ricard- 
ston, and seems to have been derived from a Richard 
Wallace, whom tradition declares to have been the 
uncle of the celebrated Sir William, the patriot, but 
who probably lived too early to claim that honour. In 
the 13th and 14th centuries the lands of Ricardston 
belonged to a family of the name of Wallace, or, as the 
word was anciently written, Waleys. During the reign 
of Alexander II., and under the second Walter the 
Steward, Richard Waleys held considerable estates in 
other parts of Kyle-Stewart, and appears to have been 
one of the most considerable of the Steward's vassals ; 
and he very probably was the ancestor of the Ricardston 
Wallaces, the first holder of their property, and the 
person from whom it derived its manorial designation. 
A seat of Sir Ronald Crawford, the maternal uncle of 
Sir William Wallace, stood on the site of Yardside 
farmhouse, and is closely associated, in traditionary 
story, with early exploits of the Scottish patriot. Sir 
John Cunninghame of Caprington (d. 1684), a very 
eminent lawyer in the time of Charles II. ; and Sir- 
James Shaw (1764-1843), Lord Mayor of London and a 
distinguished benefactor of Kilmarnock, were natives of 
Riccarton. Mansions, noticed separately, are Bell- 
field, Caprington Castle, Dollars, Milkig, Shaw- 
hill, and Treeseank. The Duke of Portland is chief 
proprietor, 11 others holding each an annual value of 
£500 and upwards. Giving off since 1874 the greater 
part of Hurlford quoad sacra parish, Riccarton is in the 
presbytery of Ayr and the synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; 
the living is worth £480. The parish church surmounts 
a mound in the southern suburb of Kilmarnock, partly 
natural and partly artificial, and formerly known as the 
'Seat of Justice.' Built in 1823, and containing 1192 
sittings, it is a large edifice with a lofty spire, which 
forms a conspicuous object in a wide circumjacent land- 
scape. Five schools — Crossroads public, Hurlford 
public, Riccarton public, Barleith, and Caprington 
infant — with respective accommodation for 76, 499, 147, 
235, and 100 children, had (1884) an average attendance 
of 59, 319, 139, 151, and 92, and grants of £46, lis., 



£257, 4s., £90, 14s., £128, Is., and £74, lis. Land- 
ward valuation (1880) £27,432, 19s. 8d., (1885) £24, 835 
15s. 5d.,^i«£6185forrailway. Pop. (1801) 1364, (1831) 
2499, (1861) 5629, (1871) 5845, (1881) 7112, of whom 
1940 were in the parliamentary burgh of Kilmarnock, and 
3728 in the town and quoad sacra parish of Hurlford. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Riccarton, a station in Castleton parish, S Roxburgh- 
shire, on the Waverley route (1862) of the North British 
railway, at the junction of the Border Counties line 
towards Hexham and Newcastle, 62| miles WNW of 
Newcastle, 32 J NNE of Carlisle, and 13 S by E of 
Hawick, under which it has a post and telegraph office. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 17, 1864. 

Riccarton, a mansion, with a fine park, in Currie 
parish, Edinburghshire, 1J mile NNWof Currie village, 
and 6 miles SW of Edinburgh. Its oldest part, a square 
tower at the W end, is supposed to have been given by 
King Robert Bruce as part of the dowry of his daughter, 
Marjory, on her marriage to Walter, High Steward of 
Scotland ; but the main body of the house was built in 
1621 ; and a large addition in the Elizabethan style was 
completed in 1827. Sir Thomas Craig of Riccarton 
(1548-1608) was a distinguished writer on the feudal 
law ; and the estate remained with his descendants till 
1823, when it passed to a kinsman, James Gibson, W.S. 
(1765-1850), who in 1831 was created a baronet as Sir 
James Gibson-Craig of Riccarton. He was a Liberal 
in politics, as likewise was his son, the Rt. Hon. Sir 
William Gibson-Craig, M.P. (1797-1878), whose son, 
Sir James Henry, third Bart. (b. 1841), holds 1882 
acres in Midlothian, valued at £6037 per annum. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 32, 1857. See John Small's Castles and Man- 
sions of the Lothians (Edinb. 1883). 

Rickarton, a quoad sacra parish in Fetteresso parish, 
Kincardineshire, 5 miles NW by W of Stonehaven, 
under which it has a post office. Constituted in 
1872, it is in the presbytery of Fordoun and the 
synod of Angus and Mearns ; the minister's stipend 
is £186. The church sprang from a bequest of £3278 
by the late Rev. George Thomson, minister of Fetter- 
esso ; and was built, in 1870-71, at a cost of £1400. 
Rickarton House is a good modern mansion on the N 
bank of Cowie Water, 3 miles NW of Stonehaven ; and 
the estate, long held by the Hepburns, belongs now to 
Alex. Baird, Esq. of Ukie. Pop. of q. s. parish (1881) 
473, of whom 10 were in Glenbervie parish. — Ord. Sur., 
shs. 67, 66, 1871. 

Riddell. See Lilliesleaf. 

Riddon, Loch, a sea-loch on the mutual border of Kil- 
modan and Inverchaolain parishes, Argyllshire. Open- 
ing from the most northerly part of the Kyles of Bute, 
and penetrating 3| miles northward to the mouth of 
Glendaruel, it has a maximum breadth of 6 J furlongs, 
and in scenery is not unlike the most picturesque reaches 
of the Kyles themselves. It contains, in its mouth, a 
group of islets including Elian Dheirrig ; has, on its 
left side, the steamboat pier of Ormidale ; and leads, 
through fine reaches of Highland scenery, towards Holy 
Loch, Strachur, and Otter Ferry. — Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 

Riecawr, Loch. See Ricawr, Loch. 

Rigg. See Gretna. 

Riggend, a village in New Monkland parish, Lanark- 
shire, 3J miles N of Airdrie. 

Rigside. See Douglas. 

Ringans, St. See St Ninians. 

Eingford. See Tongland. 

Rinnes. See Ben Rinnes. 

Rinns. See Rhinns. 

Ristol or Isle Ristol, an island of Lochbroom parish, 
Ross-shire, lying off the entrance of Loch Broom, 14J 
miles NW of Ullapool. Separated from the mainland 
by a channel only 1 furlong broad, and dry at low water, 
it has an utmost kngth and breadth of 8J and 8 fur- 
longs, and rises to a height of 234 feet. Pop. (1861) 
26, (1871) 27, (1881) O.—Ord. Sur., sh. 101, 1882. 

Rives. See Rhives. 

Roadmeetings, a village in Carluke parish, Lanark - 


shire, 1J mile E by S of the town. Pop,, with Yield- 
shields, (1881) 432. 

Roag, Loch, an intricate sea-loch of Uig parish, on 
the W side of Lewis, Outer Hebrides, Ross-shire. Open- 
ing from the Atlantic, it has a width of 7J miles at the 
entrance ; penetrates the land south-eastward to the 
extent of about 10 miles ; is sectioned lengthwise, by a 
series of islands, into two main channels, called Loch 
Roag proper and Loch Bernera or West Loch Roag ; 
measures 6 miles in mean breadth, over a length of 6 j 
miles from its entrance, but is bisected, over all that 
length, by Bernera island and some adjacent islets ; 
forks, in its upper part, into two separate, widely 
detached, narrow reaches, Loch Ceann Thulabhig and 
Little Loch Roag ; contains, all round from entrance to 
head, as many as 38 islands and islets ; and is rendered 
so intricate by islands, islets, headlands, bays, and wind- 
ing passages, as to demand no ordinary degree of atten- 
tion and skill for its navigation, while the entrance of 
Loch Roag proper is so obscure that it might escape 
the observation of a boat's crew passing within a hundred 
yards distance. All the land of the islands, and of the 
immediate coasts, is either low and tame, or terminates 
in such cliffs of gneiss as have little elevation, much 
ruggedness, and no beauty. Several salmon streamlets 
run to the heads and sides of the lochs ; and three of 
them have a run of respectively 6, 7, and 8 miles. — 
Ord. Sicr., shs. 105, 104, 1858. 

Roan. See Ellan-nan-Ron. 

Robertland, an estate, with a mansion and the site 
of an old castle, in Stewartou parish, Ayrshire, 2 miles 
NE of the town. 

Roberton, a village and an ancient parish in the 
Upper Ward of Lanarkshire. The village, standing near 
the left bank of the river Clyde, 3 miles SSE of Lam- 
ington station, has a U.P. church, rebuilt in 1873. 
The ancient parish, lying around the village, was united 
to Wiston in 1772.— Ord. Sur., sh. 23, 1865. 

Roberton, a parish of Roxburgh and Selkirk shires, 
containing the hamlet of Deanburnhaugh, on the Dean 
Burn near its junction with Borthwick Water, 7f miles 
WSW of Hawick, under which it has a post office. At 
no distant date this hamlet contained above 100 in- 
habitants ; now its population is under 20. The parish 
is bounded NE by Ashkirk and Wilton, SE by Hawick 
and Teviothead, SW by Eskdalemuir in Dumfries- 
shire, and NW by Ettrick, Kirkhope, and Selkirk 
(detached). Its utmost length, from NE to SW, is 
12f miles ; its utmost breadth is h\ miles ; and its 
area is 46 J square miles or 29, 666 J acres, of which 
247 are water, and 18,03Si belong to Koxburgh- 
shire, 11,628£ to Selkirkshire. Borthwick Water, 
rising close to the Dumfriesshire border at an altitude 
of 1400 feet, winds 14$- miles north-eastward and east- 
ward, until it passes off from the parish 1J mile above 
its influx to the Teviot ; and during this course it is 
fed by a score of burns. Rankle Burn runs 2| miles 
north-eastward along the Ettrick boundary ; and Ale 
Water, rising near Henwoodie, at an altitude of 1100 
feet, runs 8 miles north-eastward, at one point travers- 
ing Alemuir Loch (J x J mile), and, lower down, 
tracing for 2| miles the Ashkirk boundary. Ringside 
Loch (2J x 1| furl.) on the Ettrick boundary has been 
drained ; but other lakes, still existing, are Hellmuir 
Loch (3^ x 2i furl. ) on the Kirkhope boundary, Crooked 
Loch (2x1 furl. ) at the meeting-point with Kirkhope 
and Ettrick, and smaller Windylaw, Philhope, Broadlee, 
and Bog Lochs in the interior. Where Borthwick Water 
quits the parish, the surface declines to close on 500 feet 
above the sea ; and chief elevations to the NW of the 
stream, as one goes up the glen, are *Borthaugh Hill (880 
feet), Highchesters Hill (848), Smasha Hill (1092), Hang- 
ingshaw Hill (1044), Firestane Edge (1155), Mid Hill 
(1207), *Coutlair Knowe (1371), Crib Law (1389), Long 
Tae (1438), and *Craik Cross Hill (1482) ; to the SE, 
Todshaw Hill (938), *High Seat (1140), *Calfshaw Head 
(1320), *Pike Hill (1369), and *Stock Hill (1561), where 
asterisks mark those summits that culminate on the 
confines of the parish. Thus Roberton, though not far 


distant from the centre of the southern Highlands, and 
though walled in by one of the middle stretches of their 
watersheds, is not strictly mountainous, and possesses 
both lowness of surface and softness of feature compared 
with either Ettrick on its one side, or Liddesdale on its 
other. The two vales which, to a certain extent, 
traverse it lengthwise, are narrow along the bottom, or 
are the merest glens ; but they have gently sloping 
screens, and, except where beautified with wood, are in 
a state of cultivation. The hills are as rich in all the 
common kinds of game as the waters are in fish, so that 
the district is an attractive one to the sportsman. 
Though heath stretches out in patches, and almost 
every farm has its particular moss, the lands of the 
parish may, in general, be viewed as an assemblage of 
green hills, pleasantly and richly pastoral. The rocks 
are mainly Silurian, but include a seam of excellent 
ironstone. The soil in the bottom of Borthwick vale 
is of good quality ; on the skirts and lower parts of the 
hills is gravelly, shallow, and dry ; and on their sum- 
mits is wet and boggy. Barely 2000 acres are either 
regularly or occasionally in tillage ; about 500 are under 
wood ; and the rest of the parish, not covered with moss, 
is principally cattle pasture or sheep-walk. The antiqui- 
ties include a reach of the Catrail and six or seveu 
camps, some Caledonian and some Boman, but all 
locally known as Picts' works. Mansions, all noticed 
separately, are Borthwickbrae, Borthwick-Shiels, 
Chisholm, Harden, and Hoscote ; and 6 proprietors 
hold each an annual value of more, 3 of less, than £500. 
Roberton is in the presbytery of Selkirk and the synod 
of Merse and Teviotdale ; the living is worth £353. 
The old parish church, 3 furlongs from the left bank of 
Borthwick Water, and 5 miles W of Hawick, was pro- 
bably built in 1659 (the date upon it), to supersede the 
older kirk of Hassendean. The new parish church, 
nearer the public road, was built in 1863 at a cost of 
£2000, and is a good Gothic edifice, containing 328 sit- 
tings. Two public schools, Howpasley and Roberton, 
with respective accommodation for 36 and 122 children, 
had (1884) an average attendance of 13 and 79, and 
grants of £26, 17s. 6d. and £77, 14s. 6d. Valuation 
(1864) £9806, 16s. 7d., (18S5) £10,068, 3s. 10d., of 
which £6212, 19s. Id. was for the Roxburghshire por- 
tion. Pop. (1801) 618, (1841) 757, (1861) 640, (1871) 
593, (1881) 567, of whom 317 were in Roxburghshire. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 17, 16, 1864. 

Robgill Tower, an old baronial mansion in the 
detached portion of Dornock parish, Dumfriesshire, 
near the right bank of Kirtle Water, 2J miles SE of 
Kirtlebridge station. It belonged formerly to Gen. Sir 
.ffimilius Irving, Bart. (1751-1828).— Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 

Rob Roy's Cave. See Craigroyston. 

Robroyston, an estate, with a modern mansion, in 
Cadder parish, Lanarkshire, 4 miles NE of Glasgow. A 
cottage on it, standing till 1826, is said to have been 
the place where Sir William Wallace was betrayed to 
the English ; and a neighbouring lake, which figures in 
the history of the patriot's betrayal, has been nearly 
all drained, and is now represented by a gloomy ex- 
panse, partially engirt with pine trees. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
31, 1867. 

Rochsoles, an estate, with a mansion, in New Monk- 
land parish, Lanarkshire, 2 miles NNW of Airdrie. Its 
owner, Lieut. -Col. Montagu Gilbert Gerard, C.B. (b. 
1843 ; sue. 1880), holds 1141 acres in the shire, valued 
at £4163 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 31, 1867. 

Rockcliff, a hamlet in Colvend parish, Kirkcudbright- 
shire, 7 miles SE of Dalbeattie. 

Rockfield, a fishing village on the E coast of Tarbat 
parish, NE Ross-shire, If mile SSE of Portmahomack. 
It has a small pier and 18 boats. 

Rockhall, a mansion in Mouswald parish, Dumfries- 
shire, 6 miles E of Dumfries. Its owner, Sir Alexander 
Davidson Grierson of Lag, eighth Bart, since 1685 (b. 
1858 ; sue. 1879), holds 3514 acres in the shire, valued 
at £3084 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. See 


Rodono, a commodious hotel in Ettrick parish, Sel- 
kirkshire, on the W shore of St Mary's Loch, J mile 
from its head, and 14 miles SSW of Innerleithen. It 
was built as a gentleman's seat in 1866 ; and its archi- 
tecture and grounds contribute highly to the scenery 
of the lake. The name is a revival of Rodonna, an 
ancient barony comprising the vale of Megget Water, 
and granted by Alexander II. in 1236 to the monks of 
Melrose.— Ord. Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 

Roe, Meikle. Seo Meikle Roe. 

Rogart, a parish of SE Sutherland, containing a post 
and telegraph office of its own name, and also a station 
on the Sutherland railway (1S68), 7J miles W by N of 
Golspie, 10 E by N of Lairg, and 19 NE of Bonar- 
Bridge. It is bounded NW by Farr, NE and E by 
Clyne, SE by Golspie and Dornoch (detached), S by 
Dornoch, SW by Creich, and W by Lairg. Its utmost 
length, from N to S, is 15| miles ; its utmost width, 
from E to W, is 9| miles ; and its area is 105 square 
miles or 67,174^ acres, of which 907J are water. The 
river Brora, formed in the NW corner of the parish, 
at 783 feet above sea-level, by head-streams that rise at 
altitudes of from 1500 to 1600 feet, runs 14J miles 
south-by-westward, south-eastward, and east-north- 
eastward — for the last If mile along the Clyne boundary 
— until it passes away into Clyne. The river Fleet, 
entering from Lairg 9J furlongs below its source, flows 
10 miles east-south-eastward, till it quits the parish at 
its SE corner ; and is followed pretty closely by the 
railway, which, | mile above the station, crosses the 
river by a stone arch viaduct of 55 feet span. Of thirty- 
three lochs and lochlets the largest are Loch Bute 
(li x J mile ; 527 feet) at the meeting-point with 
Creich and Dornoch parishes ; Loch Cracail Mor (6 x 1 J 
furl. ; 620 feet) at the meeting-point with Creich and 
Lairg parishes ; Loch Craggie or Creagach (1 mile x 
24 furl. ; 525 feet) on the Lairg boundary ; Loch 
Beannaichte (7 x 24. furl. ; 970 feet) and Glas-Loch Mor 
(54 x 2J furl. ; 1190 feet) in the northern interior ; Loch 
Bad an Aon-Tighe (6 x If furl. ; 620 feet) and Loch 
Beannach (44. x 3 furl. ; 785 feet) on the Clyne boundary ; 
and Loch an t-Salachaidh (5 x 1J furl. ; 552 feet) on 
the Golspie boundary. The surface is everywhere hilly, 
but hardly mountainous, and sinks in the SE along the 
Fleet to 17, in the E along the Brora to 290, feet above 
sea-level. Chief elevations are Meall Mor (900 feet), 
Creagan Glas (1028), and An Stocbheinn (1104), to the 
S of the Fleet ; Cnoc Ard an Tionail (876) and Cnoc na 
Sguaibe (1056), between the Fleet and the Brora ; Cnoc 
Liath-bhaid (937), Meallan Liath Mor (1516), and Meall 
an Fhuarain (1645), to the N of the Fleet. In both 
Strathfleet and Strathbrora there are several good 
patches of haugh-land, some being of medium loam ; 
but peat-earth covers fully nine-tenths of the entire 
area, and there are many broad swamps of deep moss. 
Gneiss, veined with quartz and containing a large pro- 
portion of mica, is the predominant rock ; and granite 
is fairly plentiful, partly in situ, but chiefly in surface 
or embedded boulders. Not more than 1200 acres are 
regularly or occasionally in tillage ; and the rest of the 
parish, mosses and waste ground excepted, is chiefly 
disposed in sheep pasture. Though some of them are 
too small, the greater number of the crofter holdings 
in Bogart are superior to many in other parts of the 
county, and very much better than the majority of 
crofts in the Western Isles. Some remains of an ancient 
stone circle are at Come ; and vestiges of tumuli, Scan- 
dinavian buildings, and ancient camps, with memorials 
of ancient battles, are in many places ; and eleven silver 
brooches were discovered during the construction of the 
railway. In April 1650 the Marquis of Montrose's force, 
on their way to the battlefield of Invercharron, passed 
unmolested through Strathfleet, and halted for a night 
at Rhin. (See Kincardine.) Lady Matheson of the 
Lews holds 3 per cent, of the entire rental, and the 
Duke of Sutherland holds nearly all the remainder. 
Rogart is in the presbytery of Dornoch and the synod of 
Sutherland and Caithness ; the living is worth £192. 
The parish church, nearly 2 miles NNE of the station, 



was built in 1777, and commands an extensive and 
beautiful view. A new and handsome manse was built 
in 1884, quite close to the church, and nearer the public 
road than the old manse, which occupied an unusually 
high site. The Free church stands If mile NNW of 
the station. Two public schools, Rhilochan and 
Eogart, with respective accommodation for 50 and SO 
children, had (1884) an average attendance of 27 and 
35, and grants of £25 and £29, 12s. A third, Blarich, 
accommodating 100 pupils, was opened in Oct. 1884 ; 
and a side school at West Langwell is attended by 
about a dozen children. Valuation (1860) £2497, (1884) 
£4947, 10s. Pop. (1801) 2022, (1831) 1805, (1361) 
1439, (1871) 1341, (1881) 1227, of whom 1063 were 
Gaelic-speaking.— Ord. Sur., shs. 103, 102, 108, 109, 

Romach, Loch, a lake on the mutual border of Rafford 
and Edinkillie parishes, Elginshire, 3 miles S by E of 
Rafford church. Lying 515 feet above sea-level, it 
extends f mile eastward, is only 100 yards wide, has 
very precipitous banks, contains small trout, and sends 
off the Black Burn towards the valley of Pluscarden. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 85, 1876. 

Romanno Bridge, a hamlet in Newlauds parish, 
Peeblesshire, on Lyne Water, 3i miles SSE of West 
Linton, 4| SW of Lamancha station, and 19f SSW of 
Edinburgh. A favourite angler's haunt, it has a mill, 
Newlands public school (1870), and a steep narrow 
bridge, from which it takes its name. Romanno House, 

5 furlongs to the NE, is a plain two-story mansion of 
the era seemingly of George I. The estate of Romanno 
belonged to the Hurrays from 1513 till 1676, when 
Margaret Murray married Dr Alexander Pennicuik of 
Newhall (1652-1722), author of the Description of 
Tweeddale. On 1 Oct. 1677 Romanno was the scene of 
a ' memorable polymachy ' betwixt two clans of Gypsies, 
the Faws and Shaws, who had come from Haddington 
fair ; and in 1683 Dr Pennicuik inscribed on the lintel 
of a dove-cot : — 

' The field of Gipsie blood, which here you see, 
A shelter for the harmless dove shall be.' 

In 1720 the property was disposed of to George Kennedy, 
W.S., whose descendant, Major George Kennedy (b. 1819; 
sue. 1842), holds 595 acres in the shire, valued at £697 
per annum. The ' Romanno Terraces,' on the face of a 
hill above Newlands church, are fourteen in number, and 

6 to 12 feet broad. The late Dr Chambers believed that 
' they were designed for horticultural or agricultural 
operations, and probably existed from an early British 
period.'— Ord. Sur., sh. 24, 1864. 

Rona, a small triangular island of Barvas parish, Outer 
Hebrides, Ross-shire, 45 miles NNE of the Butt of Lewis, 
in lat. 59° 7' N and long. 5° 50' W. It has an utmost 
length and breadth of 7 and 6 furlongs, and rises at 
its south-eastern corner to a height of 355 feet above sea- 
level. It was formerly inhabited by several families, 
who maintained themselves partly by agriculture, partly 
by fishing ; and about 1850 it was offered gratis by the 
late Sir James Matheson to Government for a new penal 
settlement. It contains remains of a very ancient oratory 
built of uncemented stone, and the ruinous shells of five 
or six huts. — Ord. Sur., sh. 113, 1882. 

Eona, an island of Portree parish, Inverness-shire, in 
the belt of sea between the Isle of Skye and the main- 
land of Ross-shire, J mile N by E of Raasay, 8£ miles 
NW of Applecross village, and 11J NNE of Portree 
Extending 4| miles north-by-eastward, and nowhere 
more than 1J mile broad, it forms a ridge nearly in a 
line with Raasay ; rises to an extreme altitude of 404 
feet above sea-level ; is separated, by deep irregular 
vales, into a series of rocky hills ; presents an appearance 
prevailingly tame and cheerless ; is appropriated chiefly 
to the rearing of black cattle ; contains a scattered 
village and some arable ground at the head of a small 
bay ; has a tolerably good harbour, called Acairseid 
Haven ; and is crowned with a lighthouse, built in 
1857 at a cost of £5063, and showing a flashing white 
light every 12 seconds, visible at the distance of 20 


nautical miles. Pop. (1841) 165, (1861) 147, (1S71) 
157, (1881) 159.— Ord. Sur., sh. 81, 1882. 

Ronaldshay, North, an island and a quoad sacra 
parish in Cross and Burness parish, Orkney. The island 
is the most northerly of the North Isles of Orkney, lying 
2J miles N of Tafts Ness in Sanday, and 15 E of Papa 
Westray. Divided from Sanday by North Ronaldshay 
Firth, very dangerous to navigation, it measures 3 miles 
in extreme length from N by E to S by W, and 2 miles in 
extreme breadth. Its outline is diversified by five head- 
lands — Dennis Head in the NE, Brides Ness in the 
SE, Strom Ness in the S, Twinyas Ness in the SW, 
and Tor Ness in the NW. The seaweed-covered shores 
are flat and rocky ; and the interior is much of it low 
and flat, but rises gently towards the middle of the 
island, which contains three small lakes, and consists 
partly of coarse slate rock. The soil is sandy but 
fertile, mixed in some places with clay, and mostly in a 
state of cultivation. Antiquities are several tumuli and 
vestiges of Burrian Castle, near which, on the southern 
headland, is a lighthouse built in 1854 at a cost of 
£12,927, whose flashing light attains its brightest state 
every ten seconds, and is visible at a distance of 17 
nautical miles. Dr Traill of Woodwick is sole pro- 
prietor. The quoad sacra parish is identical with the 
island, and was constituted by the General Assembly 
in 1831, reconstituted by the Court of Teinds subsequent 
to 1843. It is in the presbytery of North Isles and the 
synod of Orkney ; the minister's stipend is £120. The 
parish church is a parliamentary one, and there is also 
a Free church. Pop. (1811) 384, (1831), 522, (1861) 
532, (1871) 539, (1881) 547. 

Ronaldshay, South, an island of Orkney. Most 
southerly of the Orkneys with exception of the Pentland 
Skerries, it occupies the SE corner of the archipelago, 
and is washed on the N by Water Sound, about i mile 
broad, dividing it from Burray ; on the E by the German 
Ocean ; on the S by the eastern entrance of the Pentland 
Firth, 6 J miles wide, dividing it from Duncansbay Head ; 
on the W by the northern expansion of the Pentland 
Firth, or the entrance of Scalpa Flow, dividing it from 
Swona, South Walls, and Flotta. It measures 7| miles 
in extreme length from N by E to S by W ; whilst its 
breadth varies between 1£ and 6J miles. It has 
mainly an oblong outline, diversified with headlands 
and bays ; is mostly low and flat, attaining a maximum 
altitude of 3S9 feet in the Ward Hill ; and, in the 
aggregate of both coast and interior, presents a much 
richer and more generally cultivated appearance than 
perhaps any equal extent of Orcadian territory. Grim 
Ness. Stews Head, and Old Head project on the eastern 
coast at such distances from one another as to divide 
the entire length of that coast into three fairly equal 
sections ; Brough Head projects in the extreme S, and 
confronts Duncansbay Head in Caithness ; the Wing 
and Barth Head project slightly in the SW, opposite 
Swona ; Herston Head and Hoxa Head terminate con- 
siderable peninsulas in the NW, opposite Flotta ; and 
three of the headlands — two in the E and one in the W 
— present bold rocky fronts to the ocean, each with an 
elevation of over 200 feet above sea-level. Sandwick 
Bay, on the W, is a slender incurvature about 3J miles 
long, between Barth Head and Herston Head ; Wide- 
wall Bay, in the W, between the peninsulas terminating 
in Herston Head and Hoxa Head, opens in an entrance 
little more than J mile wide, penetrates the land north- 
eastward and south-eastward to an extent of 2J miles, 
ramifies into baylets at the head, and affords safe 
anchorage to vessels of 600 tons burden ; and St 
Margaret's Hope, in the NW, is a comparatively small 
bay, but forms one of the safest and best harbours in 
Scotland for small craft. The rocks throughout the 
island are either sandstone or dark blue slate ; and the 
sandstone is quarried in ordinary blocks for building 
purposes, while the blue slate has the character of flag, 
and is raised, at Herston and Hoxa, in slabs of from 6 
to 8 feet in diameter. Agriculture is practised in the 
same way as in other prime parts of the Orkneys ; and 
the fishing of cod and herrings is very extensively pro- 


secuted. Remains of Picts' houses are numerous and 
extensive ; some large standing-stones, supposed to be 
of pre-Scandinavian origin, are near the manse ; and 
ruins of pre-Reformation chapels are in seven places. 
The parish of South Ronaldshay includes the inhabited 
islands of South Ronaldshay, Burray, Swona, Hunda, 
and Pentland Skerries, and comprehends the ancient 
parishes of St Mary or the South Church (consisting of 
Swona, the Pentland Skerries, and more than one-third 
of South Ronaldshay), St Peter or the North Church 
(consisting of the rest of South Ronaldshay), and 
Burray (consisting of Burray, Hunda, and the unin- 
habited island of Glimsholm). Its total land area is 
15,062 acres. It is in the presbytery of Kirkwall and 
the synod of Orkney ; the living is worth £250. The 
parish church of South Ronaldshay, St Peter's, stands 
on the eastern shore of the island, was built in the 13th 
century, and contains 273 sittings. The church of St 
Mary, on the south-western shore, contains 413 sittings, 
and was raised to quoad sacra status in 1875. Its 
minister's stipend is £148. Other places of worship are 
Burray chapel of ease, South Ronaldshay Free church, 
and the U. P. churches of Burray and South Ronaldshay. 
Five schools — Burray, Grimness, Hope, Widewall, and 
Tomisen's — the first four public and of recent erection, 
with respective accommodation for 130, 60, 140, 110, 
and 218 children, had (1884) an average attendance of 
114, 47, 117, 61, and 85, and grants of £107, Is., £38, 
5s. 6d., £127, 10s. 6d., £78, 18s. 6d., and £83, 8s. 6d. 
Valuation of parish (1884) £4406, 4s. 7d. Pop. of South 
Ronaldshay island (1821) 1949, (1861) 2551, (1881) 2557 ; 
of the parish (1801) 1881. (1831) 2711, (1861) 3282, (1871) 
3228, (1881) 3314, of whom 695 were in St Mary's quoad 
sacra parish. 

Ronay, an island of North Uist parish, Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-shire, 1 mile S of the south-eastern extremity 
of North Uist island, and 2 miles NE of Benbecula, It 
measures 2J miles in length, and 1J mile in extreme 
breadth ; is much indented by the sea ; has a belt of low 
productive land around its coast-line ; and rises to a 
height of 600 feet above sea-level, presenting a rocky 
aspect in its higher grounds, and a broken surface down 
its eastern declivity. At one time it was regarded as of 
little or no value, but it has been improved by culture, 
so as now to be considered one of the best grazing 
grounds in North Uist parish. Pop. (1871) 6, (1881) 6. 

Rosa. See Glenrosie. 

Roscobie, a place, with extensive lime works, in Dun- 
fermline parish, Fife, 4^ miles N of Dunfermline town. 

Rosebank, a village in Dalserf parish, Lanarkshire, on 
the left bank of the river Clyde, nearly opposite Maulds- 
lie Castle, 3J miles SE of Larkhall. 

Rosebank, a mansion in the parish and near the town 
of Wick, Caithness. 

Rosebank, a mansion in Kelso parish, Roxburghshire, 
near the left bank of the Tweed, a little way E of the 
town. It was, for some time, the residence of Sir 
Walter Scott. 

Rosebery, an estate, with a small mansion, in 
Temple parish, Edinburghshire, on the left side of the 
river South Esk, 4 miles SW of Gorebridge. The ancient 
barony of Nicolson, in the quondam parish of Clerking- 
ton, it was purchased in 1695 by Archibald Primrose, 
M.P., and erected into the new barony of Rosebery — a 
title assumed by him on his elevation to the peerage of 
Scotland as Viscount in 1700, and Earl in 1703. He 
sold it in 1712 ; but the fourth Earl repurchased it 
in 1821. Its large and ancient mansion-house was 
demolished in 1805-12. See Daiment.— Ord. Sur., sh. 
32, 1857. 

Rosehall. See Whifflet. 

Rosehall, an estate, with a mansion, in Creich parish, 
S Sutherland, 7£ miles SW of Lairg, under which there 
is a post office of Rosehall. The mansion stands near 
the left bank of Cassley Water, 3 furlongs above its 
influx to the OikelL and has beautiful, well-wooded 
grounds. Rosehall gives designation to an Established 
mission chapel (1808; 260 sittings), a Free church, and 
a public school.— Ord. Sur., sh. 102, 1881. 


Rosehaugh, an estate in Avoch parish, Ross-shire, 4 
miles WSW of Fortrose. In 1864 it was purchased for 
£145,000 from Sir James Mackenzie, Bart, of Scatwell, 
by James Fletcher, Esq. (b. 1810), who has built a fine 
new mansion in the Renaissance style, besides effecting 
vast agricultural improvements, and who holds 11,095 
acres in the shire, valued at £8545 per annum. See 
Letham Grange and pp. 104-107 of Trans. Hiyhl. and 
Ag. Soc. (1877).— Ord. Sur., sh. 84, 1876. 

Rosehearty, a fishing village in Pitsligo parish, Aber- 
deenshire, on the coast of the Moray Firth, 4J miles W 
of Fraserburgh, and 16 E by N of Banff. It is said to 
date from the 14th century, and to have originated partly 
with a few crofters, partly with a small body of ship- 
wrecked Danes ; and in 1681 it was constituted a burgh 
of barony, being governed now by a baron-bailie, a 
treasurer, and six councillors, under the superiority of 
Fordyce of Brucklay. The 'Lodging House,' on the 
S side of its square, was built in 1753 for a Dowager 
Lady Pitsligo ; and another old house, the 'Jam,' bears 
date 1573. Rosehearty has a post office under Fraser- 
burgh, with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph 
departments, a branch of the Union Bank, a good inn, 
a disused tolbooth, a Free church (1844), a U. P. church 
(1799), a public school, a weekly Saturday market, a 
horticultural society, and a harbour. The herring 
fishery, lasting from the middle of July till the end of 
August, employs 88 boats, manned by 186 fisher men 
and boys ; and the commerce chiefly consists in the 
exporting of fish, grain, and potatoes, and the import- 
ing of coal, salt, lime, and timber. The harbour has a 
depth of 9 feet in neap tides and 14 in spring tides ; 
is so situated on an exposed part of the coast as to 
possess much relative importance ; and, being the 
property, not of the superior of the burgh, but of the 
feuars, has been a principal occasion of the town's pro- 
sperity. Pop. (1841) 750, (1861) 90S, (1871) 1206, (1881) 
1404.— Ord. Sur., sh. 97, 1876. 

Roseisle, College of, a hamlet in Duffus parish, Elgin- 
shire, 2| miles SSE of Burghead. 

Rosemarkie, a parish containing a town of the same 
name on the Moray Firth coast of Ross-shire. The 
parish is bounded N by Cromarty, SE by the Moray 
Firth, S by Avoch, and W and NW by Kirkmichael. 
The boundary on the N is the Burn of Ethie. The ex- 
treme length of the parish from NE to SW is about 6 
miles, the average breadth about 2, and the area 
6980 '382 acres, including 298 '551 acres of foreshore, 
0130 of tidal water, and 6 '584 of water. The coast 
lies along the upper part of the Moray Firth, the mouth 
of the Burn of Ethie being 1 J mile SW of the entrance 
to the Cromarty Firth ; and at the SW end the pro- 
montory of Chanonry Ness projects 1$ mile into the 
Moray Firth, and from the point, on which there is a 
lighthouse, a ferry-boat crosses the Firth to Fort George 
(1 mile). To the N of the point is the fine sweep of the 
Bay of Eosemarkie, with its sandy beach, affording 
excellent facilities for bathing. To the NE of this the 
coast is bold, rocky, and romantic, and from the sea- 
board the surface rises, in some places slowly, in others 
more abruptly, to the NW, till, along the boundary, it 
merges in the lower slopes of the long broad table-land 
noticed under Ardmeanach. From the high ground 
(242 feet) to the N of Rosemarkie Bay a very fine view 
is to be obtained of the upper reaches and S coast of the 
Moray Firth. The soil on the low grounds adjacent to 
the coast is mostly a fine black mould overlying gravel, 
and in most places, particularly on the beautiful fiat 
about the town of Rosemarkie, is in a state of high 
cultivation ; on the higher ground the quality is poorer 
and the subsoil is clay. The rocks of the sea-cliffs are 
principally gneiss, and those of the interior all the way 
to the north-western boundary are Old Red Sandstone. 
Along the shore, on the NE, there is a patch of richly 
fossiliferous shale, clay and limestone of Jurassic age, 
■which was one of Hugh Miller's favourite haunts. The 
drainage in the N is carried off by Ethie Burn, and in 
the S by the Burn of Rosemarkie and the smaller 
streams that flow to it. The Burn of Ethie has 



two small cascades, and the lower part of its course is 
through a deep, rocky, and singularly picturesque 
ravine, which has been admirably described by Hugh 
Miller in his Old Red Sandstone. The course of the 
Burn of Eosemarkie is noted for the sections of the 
boulder clay. ' Rosemarkie,' says Hugh Miller in his 
Rambles of a Geologist, ' with its long narrow valley and 
its red abrupt scaurs, is chiefly interesting to the 
geologist for its vast beds of the boulder clay. I am 
acquainted with no other locality in the kingdom where 
this deposit is hollowed into ravines so profound, or 
presents precipices so imposing and lofty.' One of the 
most interesting sections is the ' Kaes Craig,' imme- 
diately behind the town. The fame of the ' wondrous 
wizard Michael Scott ' must have penetrated even thus 
far north, for we find his name associated by tradition 
with the curious points which, jutting out here from 
both sides of the firth at Chanonry Ness and Ardersier 
Point, would, were they not a mile awry, completely 
cut off the upper reaches of the Moray Firth from the 
sea. ' Michael had called up the hosts of Faery to erect 
the cathedral of Elgin and the chanonry kirk of Fort- 
rose, which they completed from foundation to ridge, 
each in a single night — committing, in their hurry, 
merely the slight mistake of locating the building 
intended for Elgin in Fortrose, and that intended for 
Fortrose in Elgin ; but, their work over and done, and 
when the magician had no further use for them, they 
absolutely refused to be laid ; and, like a posse of Irish 
labourers thrown out of a job, came thronging round 
him clamouring for more employment. Fearing lest 
he should be torn in pieces — a catastrophe which has 
not unfrequently happened in such circumstances in 
the olden time, and of which those recent philanthro- 
pists who engage themselves in finding work for the 
unemployed, may have perhaps entertained some little 
dread in our own days — he got rid of them for the time 
by setting them off in a body to run a mound across the 
Moray Firth from Fortrose to Ardersier. Toiling hard 
in the evening of a moonlight night, they had proceeded 
greatly more than two-thirds towards the completion of 
the undertaking, when a luckless Highlander passing 
by bade God-speed the work, and, by thus breaking the 
charm, arrested at once and for ever the construction of 
the mound, and saved the navigation of Inverness.' 
Such at least is the Ross-shire form of the legend : the 
one obtaining on the southern shore of the firth is some- 
what different. The latter tells how the Moray fairies, 
envious of the magnificent Chanonry Kirk originally 
built at Fortrose, and desiring to have it in their 
own district, formed one evening a road across the firth, 
and taking up Fortrose cathedral, transported it, with- 
out displacing one stone from another, to Elgin, and 
carried Elgin cathedral to Fortrose — all before morning, 
so that by daybreak the only traces of their night's 
work were the causeways of stones and sand jutting out 
into the firth where the road had been constructed, and 
the portions of this still remaining form the points. 
Chanonry Ness was, however, the scene of an act of 
pious zeal which must be considered as entirely compen- 
sating for anything ' uncanny ' that may exist in con- 
nection with its origin. Episcopacy seems to have had 
a considerable hold in the neighbourhood, and the 
service-book which the Bishop of Ross had introduced 
about 1636 had been used ' peaceably ' within the 
cathedral at Fortrose until the 11th of March 1638. On 
that day, however, ' about the ringing of the first bell, 
but before the last bell was rung, 'a party of schoolboys, 
rushing into the church, carried off all the service-books, 
and, having procured materials for kindling a fire, pro- 
ceeded to the Ness, intending to make a bonfire of the 
whole spoil. A sudden shower having, however, 
extinguished the flames, they tore the books all in 
pieces and threw the fragments into the sea. The 
Bishop preached, but he seems to have been much 
startled at the proceeding, for Spalding, who tells the 
story, says that ' He wes not longsum but schort at 
sermon, and thairefter haistellie gois to horss and spak 
with the bischop of Morray, syne spak with the Marques 


of Huntlie, and privately disgyssit he rode south, and 
to the King gois he directlie ; ane veray bussie man 
thocht to be in bringing in thir service bookis, and 
thairfoir durst not for feir of his lyf returne to Scotland 
agane.' The old name of Rosemarkie was Rosemarkyne, 
the original Celtic form seeming to have been Rosmbair- 
cind, and a monasteryof Columban monks appears to have 
been established here about the middle of the 6th century 
under Lughaidh (Lugadius) or Moluoc, bishop of Lismore, 
who died, according to the Ckronicon Hyense, in 592. 
A well near the seashore to the N is also associated with 
the name of St Kennet. About the 8th century 
Curitan, better known as Albanus Kiritinus or Curitan, 
or Bonifaeius, who seems to have been a bishop of the 
Irish branch of the Celtic church which had conformed 
to Rome, came to Scotland, and is said to have founded 
a church at Rosemarkie about 716, a circumstance which 
led David I. , when he founded the bishoprick of Ross 
in 1124, to make this the seat of the see, and hence, 
subsequently, the cathedral was built at Fortrose. 
The old building of Bonifaeius is said to have been 
about the ground now occupied by the parish church. A 
sculptured stone found on the site of the present church 
is now carefully set up at the end of the church. It 
was found in 1821, but as it long lay uncared for, one 
side has been slightly worn by passing feet. The 
symbols are of the usual elaborate character, and there 
are some cup-shaped ornaments that are not very 
common. The chief residences are Flowerburn House 
and Raddery House. The parish contains Rosemarkie 
and Chanonry, which, though each possessing a sepa- 
rate charter, conjointly form the burgh of Fortrose, 
which has been separately noticed. Rosemarkie has 
a post office of its own under Inverness. The Black 
Isle combination poorhouse is on the shore of Rose- 
markie Bay, half-way out Chanonry Ness. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Chanonry and 
synod of Ross, and the living is worth £356 a year. 
Three incumbents of the name of Wood — father, son, 
and grandson — were ministers of the parish for over 
150 years previous to the appointment of the present 
clergyman, the last of them dying in 1874. The parish 
church was erected in 1821-22, and contains 800 sittings. 
The other churches are noticed under Fortrose. Under 
the school board, Rosemarkie public school, with accom- 
modation for 130 pupils, had, in 1884, an average 
attendance of 58, and a grant of £32. The parish is 
traversed by the main coast road from Inverness north- 
wards. Two proprietors hold each an annual value of 
more than £1000, and 2 of between £750 and £1000. 
Valuation (1881) £4561, 3s. 9d., (1885) £4452, 17s. lid. 
Pop. of civil parish (1755) 1140, (1793) 1262, (1831) 1799, 
(1861) 1545, (1871) 1441, (1881) 1357, of whom 643 
were males and 714 females. Of this total 865 were in 
the ecclesiastical parish, S69 in the parliamentary burgh 
of Fortrose, 986 in the royal burgh, and 366 in the 
Rosemarkie portion, as against 314 in the Rosemarkie 
part in 1821.— Ord. Sur., shs. 84, 94, 1876-78. 

Rosemount, a mansion in Symington parish, Ayr- 
shire, 2 miles NE of Monkton station. A large two- 
story edifice, it was rebuilt by Dr William Fullartoun 
about 1770, and has since undergone little alteration. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. See A. H. Millar's Castles 
and Mansions of Ayrshire (Edinb. 1885). 

Rosemount, an estate, with a mansion, in Montrose 
parish, Forfarshire, 1 mile NNW of Dubton station. 

Roseneath. See Rosneath. 

Rosetta, a mansion in Peebles parish, Peeblesshire, 1 
mile NNW of Peebles town. It was built by Thomas 
Young, M.D., who changed its former name, Acrefield, to 
Rosetta, in remembrance of his service in Egypt under 
Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1801.— Ord. Sur., sh. 24, 1864. 

Rosewell, a village in Lasswade parish, Edinburgh- 
shire, 5 furlongs S of Hawthornden station, and 4 miles 
SW of Dalkeith. It is largely inhabited by colliers 
employed in neighbouring coal mines ; and it has a post 
office, with money order and savings' bank departments, 
an Established church, and a public school. The church 
(1872 ; 350 sittings) is a handsome edifice, and was raised 


to quoad sacra status in 1874. Pop. of village (1SC1) 
390, (1871) 790, (1881) 1394 ; of q. s. parish (1881) 
2129.— Ord. Stir., sh. 32, 1857. 

Eoshk, Loch. See Rosqtje. 

Eosie. See Gleneosie. 

Koslin (Brit, ross, 'a point,' and lynn, 'a waterfall,' 
the name often and perhaps more correctly spelled 
Kosslyn), a quoad sacra parish containing a village, 
chapel, and castle of the same name, in the civil parish 
of Lasswade, in the county of Edinburgh. The village, 
which stands on high ground near the NW bank of the 
river North Esk, has in its neighbourhood three railway 
stations on different sections of the North British rail- 
way system, and each of them distant about 10 miles 
from Edinburgh. The nearest, Roslin, on the Edinburgh 
and Glencorse branch, is close to the village. Eosslyu 
Castle, on the Edinburgh and Penicuik branch, is 
distant about 1J mile, and Rosslynlee, on the Edinburgh 
and Peebles line, about If mile. By road the village is 
about 6 J miles S of Edinburgh ; and from Pol ton station, 
7 miles SSE of Edinburgh, a public footpath winds 
through the beautifully wooded glen * of the North Esk 
to the village, the distance being about 2J miles. About 
1440, under the fostering protection of William St Clair, 
Prince of Orkney, Duke of Oldenburg, and having a 
string of other titles that it would weary even a Spaniard 
to repeat, the place is said to have stood third in Scot- 
land for importance. In 1456 it received from James 
II. a charter, erecting it into a burgh of barony, with 
right to a market cross, a weekly market, and an annual 
fair, and in 1622 its rights were confirmed by James 
VI., and again by Xing Charles I. It afterwards 
declined and became merely a small rural village, a 
condition from which the attractions of the chapel, the 
beauty of the surrounding district, and the establish- 
ment of industries in the neighbourhood have again 
raised it. It has a post office under Edinburgh, two 
hotels, a police station, a quoad sacra parish church, 
a Free church, and a public school, and Episcopal 
services are held in the old chapel. In the neighbour- 
hood are a gunpowder manufactory, where an explosion, 
causing loss of life, occurred in 1872 ; a bleachfield, and 
paper-mills. The parochial church was built in 1827 
as a chapel of ease, and has 444 sittings. The Free 
church, to the S of the village, was built in 18S0-81 at 
a cost of £1600, and contains over 500 sittings. One 
of the inns dates from 1660, and is that where Dr John- 
son and Boswell ' dined and drank tea ' on their way to 
Penicuik House. The bridge over the North Esk, to 
the SW of the village, with malleable iron lattice girders 
in two spans each 64 feet wide, was constructed in 1871. 
To the WSW of the chapel is an old burying-ground, 
and near it a well, called St Matthew's Well. There 
seems to have been in this churchyard a chapel dedi- 
cated to St Matthew, and of older date than the present 
chapel. The old water supply having been found con- 
taminated, a water and drainage district was formed in 
1883, and a new supply got from the Moorfoot pipe of 
the Edinburgh Water Trust near Rosslynlee station. 
The total cost of operations was about £1600, and the 
maximum supply is 20,000 gallons per day. Roslin 
gives name to one of the battles of the Scottish War of 
Independence, in which, 24 Feb. 1303, an English army 
under Sir Ralph de Manton encamped on the moor of 
Roslin, to the N, in three divisions, was surprised and 
defeated by a Scottish force mustered in the uplands of 
Peebles and Lanark. Fordun tells how John Comyn 
and Simon Fraser 'with their abettors came briskly 
through from Biggar to Roslyn in one night with some 
chosen men, who chose rather death before unworthy 
subjection to the English nation,' and defeated the first 
line, but that while they were dividing the spoil, 'another 
line straightway appeared in battle array ; so the Scots, 
on seeing it, slaughtered their prisoners and armed their 
own vassals with the spoils of the slain ; then putting 
away their jaded horses, and taking stronger ones, they 

* The scenery in the den is very pretty. ' I never,' says Dorothy 
Wordsworth, ' passed through a more delicious dell than the Glen 
of Roslin, though the water of the stream is dingy and muddy.' 


fearlessly hastened to the fray,' and overcame the new 
force. Hardly, however, had this been done when 
' there appeared a third, mightier than the former, and 
more choice in their harness. The Scots were thunder- 
struck at the sight of them ; and being both fagged out 
in manifold ways — by the fatigues of travelling, watch- 
ing, and want of food — and also sore distressed by the 
endless toil of fighting, began to be weary and to quail 
in spirit,' but plucking up courage, and cheered by the 
patriotic words of their leaders, they killed their fresh 
prisoners, and ' by the power not of man but of God 
subdued their foes, and gained a happy and gladsome 
victory.' How far the great slaughter of prisoners is 
true may be doubted, but the English chroniclers admit 
the battle, and that a disaster befel the English arms. 
Pop. of village (1861) 467, (1S71) 511, (1881) 611, of 
whom 307 were males. Houses (1881) 121. The quoad 
sacra parish, comprising the district round the village, 
and originally constituted in 1835, is in the presbytery 
of Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. Pop. 
(1871) 1571, (1881) 1476. 

The place gives the title of Earl of Eosslyn (1801) in the 
peerage of the United Kingdom to the family of St Clair- 
Erskine, and the present and fourth Earl succeeded 
in 1866. He has his seat at Dysaet House, in Fife ; 
and he holds in Midlothian only 99 acres, of £737 annual 
value. AVilliam de St Clair, son of Waldernus, Count de 
St Clair, came to England with William the Conqueror, 
and either he or one of his descendants is said to have 
settled here as early as 1100, but though this is doubt- 
ful, certainly a AVilliam de St Clair possessed the barony 
of Rosslyn in the time of David I. , and his descendants 
added Cousland, Pentland, Cardaine, and other lands 
to their original domains, and in the 13th century stood 
at the head of the baronage of Midlothian. By the 
marriage of the eighth baron from King David's time, 
with Isabel, one of the daughters and co-heiresses of 
Malise, Earl of Stratherne, Caithness, and Orkney, his 
son Henry became Earl of Orkney, and in 1379 
obtained a recognition of his title from Hakon VI., 
King of Norway. The connection of the family with 
the Orkney Islands has been noticed in the article deal- 
ing with them. The third Earl of Orkney, as has been 
there noticed, was created Earl of Caithness in 1455, 
and resigned the title of Orkney in 1470. He had 
three sons, of whom William, the eldest, by his first wife 
— Lady Margaret Douglas, eldest daughter of Archibald, 
fourth Earl of Douglas — inherited the title of Baron 
Sinclair, and was, through an heiress who in 1659 
married John Sinclair of Herdmanston, in Haddington- 
shire, the ancestor of the St Clairs, Lords Sinclair of 
Herdmanston. In favour of the second son — the 
eldest by a second marriage, in 1476, with Marjory, 
daughter of Alexander Sutherland of Dunbeath — his 
father resigned the title of Earl of Caithness ; and the 
third, Oliver, continued the line of the St Clairs of 
Roslin. Sir Oliver's right was disputed by the eldest 
son, Sir William, who, however, resigned all claim to 
Roslin in 1482, on receiving Cousland, Ravenscraig 
Castle, Dubbo, Carberry, and Wilston. The last heir 
male of the Roslin branch died in 1778, but he had 
previously, in 1736, sold the estate to the Hon. James 
St Clair — better known as General St Clair — second son 
of Lord St Clair of Herdmanston. The General was 
succeeded by his nephew, Colonel James Paterson, on 
whose deatli without issue, in 1789, the property 
devolved on Sir James Erskine, Bart., second Earl of 
Rosslyn, grandson of the Hon. Catherine St Clair, 
General St Clair's second eldest sister, who married 
Sir John Erskine, Bart, of Alva. The present title 
was granted in 1801 to Alexander Wedderburn, Baron 
Loughborough of Loughborough (1795), Lord Chan- 
cellor from 1793 to 1801 ; and on his death in 1S05, 
without issue, the titles passed to his nephew, Sir 
James St Clair-Erskine, who represented a collateral 
branch of the old family, and founded the present line. 
The third Earl of Orkney had conferred on him by 
King James II., in 1455, the office of Grand Master 
Mason of Scotland, which remained hereditary in the 



family till the appointment was surrendered to trie 
craft by the last heir male of line in 1736. Of the Sir 
William who lived in Bruce's time, a legend is told 
that he added Pentland to his lands by the fleetness of 
two hounds. A white deer had often on the Pentland 
Hills baulked the royal hounds, and on the king's ask- 
ing one day whether any of his nobles had swifter dogs 
than his own, Sir William St Clair offered to wager 
his head that his two dogs, Help and Hold, would kill 
the deer before it could cross a certain burn. Bruce 
promised at once to give the forest of Pentland to the 
knight if he kept his promise. The deer was killed 
exactly at the burn, and so Sir William acquired 
the lands of Logan House, Kirkton, and Carncraig, and 
as, at a critical moment in the chase, he had invoked 
the aid of St Katherine, he erected the chapel of St 
Katherine in the Hopes on the Pentland Hills, now 
buried beneath the waters of the Compensation Pond. 
In connection with the event the rhyme addressed by 
Douglas to his dogs has been preserved : — 

' Help ! Hold ! gin ye may, 
Or Rosslyn tynes his head this day. 

The seat here was the Castle of Eoslin, which 
occupies an almost isolated rock to the SSE of the 
village, and in a most romantic position, overhanging a 
beautiful reach of the glen. The site is completely 
cut off from the bank behind by a deep transverse gully, 
across which a narrow single arch bridge affords the only 
access to the castle. The situation, though pleasant, 
seems but ill chosen for a place of strengh, for it is 
commanded by heights which press closely upon it, and 
look almost right down upon the tops of its chimneys. 
At what time the original castle was built is not 
known. An early castle seems to have been on a 
different site, near the present chapel ; but probably the 
oldest part of the present building, a peel tower to the 
SE of the entrance, was erected by the Sir William St 
Clair who was one of the band of knights who set out 
with Bruce's heart to Palestine, and who fell righting 
against the Moors in 1330. The great SW or donjon 
tower was added about 60 years later by Henry, 
the second Earl of Orkney, and large additions, show- 
ing French features, were made by his successor, the 
third Earl, who kept his semi-regal court here, and was, 
according to Father Hay, ' royally served at his own 
table, in vessels of gold and silver ; Lord Dirleton 
being his master-household, Lord Borthwick his cup- 
bearer, and Lord Fleming his carver. He had his halls 
and other apartments richly adorned with embroidered 
hangings. His princess, Elizabeth Douglas, was served 
by 75 gentlewomen, whereof 53 were daughters of 
noblemen, all clothed in velvet and silks, with their 
chains of gold and other ornaments, and was attended 
by 200 riding gentlemen in all journies, and if it 
happened to be dark when she went to Edinburgh, 
where her lodgings were at the foot of Black Fryar's 
Wynd, 80 lighted torches were carried before her.' 
For such magnificence, a magnificent dwelling must 
have been needed, but as the Father did not write till 
nearly 250 years after these events, he may have drawn 
somewhat on his imagination. Indeed, with all her 
grandeur, the princess does not seem to have been at all 
particular on some points, for we find that she kept 
dogs, of which she was very fond, in her bedroom, and 
even allowed them to whelp there, a circumstance that 
indirectly led to the destruction by fire of the greater 
part of the castle about 1452. It must have been repaired 
again very rapidly, for in 1455 we find it selected as the 
prison of Sir William Hamilton, who had been con- 
cerned in the Douglas rebellion. In 1544 it was almost 
totally destroyed by the English, during Hertford's 
invasion, and after being partially restored after 1580, 
was again injured in 1650 by General Monk, who 
plundered it after battering down the NW side. It was 
restored about 1682, but was again damaged by a mob 
in 1688 ; and Cardonell's pieture a century later, and 
Grose's in 1790, show it utterly dilapidated — a mere 
rueful apology for the once grand fabric, whose name of 


Roslin Castle is so intimately associated with ballad 
and song. The more modern portion to the SE is still 
inhabited. Over the fire-place of the great hall are the 
arms of Sir William Sinclair, who carried out the 
restorations at the end of the 16th century, and those 
of his wife, while his son's initials and the date 1622 
are on the lintel of the door leading to the great stair- 
case. The ceiling of the dining-room is also richly 
ornamented, and has the Rosslyn arms in the centre 
and the date 1622. The oldest portion of the old 
building is the triple tier of vaulted chambers on the 
KW, partly cut out of the rock. Some of them have 
been dungeons, others sleeping rooms for retainers, and 
one has evidently been the kitchen. Below is a garden, 
now noted for the excellence of its strawberries. 

In the 16th, and the beginning of the 17th, century, 
Roslin was a favourite haunt of the Gypsies, whose 
introduction into the neighbourhood is attributed to Sir 
William St Clair, Lord Justice General, who in 1559, 
' returning from Edinburgh to Roslin, delivered once an 
Egyptian from the gibbet on the burghmuir ; upon 
which account the whole body of Gypsies were of old 
accustomed to gather in the stanks* of Roslin every 
year, where they acted several plays during the months 
of May and June. There are two towers which were 
allowed them for their residence, the one called Robin 
Hood, the other Little John.' A body of them 
seem subsequently to have settled down in the neigh- 
bourhood, for in 1628 the privy council ordered the 
Gypsies to be expelled from Roslin, ' where they have a 
peaceable abode, as if they were lawful subjects.' 

Roslin Chapel stands to the SE of the village, on 
the brow of the high ground overlooking the glen of 
the North Esk. The eminence which it occupies is 
called College Hill. The name chapel which is^ popu- 
larly given to it is incorrect, for the building is 
simply all that was ever constructed — the chancel and 
Lady chapel— of what was intended to be the collegiate 
church of Rosslyn, erected on a cruciform plan after the 
usual manner of such buildings. Although the founda- 
tions of the whole seem to have been laid — those of the 
nave being dug up about the beginning of the present 
century — yet the portion actually built never got 
beyond the chancel and the eastern walls of the 
transepts. This part is 69 feet 8 inches long, 35 
feet broad, and 41 feet 9 inches high to the top 
of the arched roof. The central aisle with clerestory 
is 15 feet wide, and on either side of it are aisles 
of five bays. At the E end is the Lady chapel, 
much lower in height than the rest of the building — 
the arched roof being only 15 feet from the pavement — 
and separated from it by a double row of three pillars. 
The floor is one step higher than in the other parts of 
the building, and the four altars seem to have been 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary, St Matthew, St Andrew, 
and St Peter. Reached by a flight of stairs in the SE 
corner, and stretching away to the E, is what is known 
as the crypt, and which 'has been a subject of sad 
puzzling to antiquarian brains. Was it a chapel, as 
generally asserted? Under the eastern window there 
was the stone altar ; there is the piscina and the aumbry 
for the sacramental plate — but what else ? A fire-place 
(which has its chimney), a goodly array of closets, a 
doorway, once communicating with the outside, and a 
second door, leading to an inner room or rooms. Its 
domestic appurtenances clearly show it to have been 
the house of the priestly custodier of the chapel, and 
the ecclesiastical types first named were for his private 
meditations ; and thus the puzzle ceases,' so at least says 
Dr Hill Burton, though there are certain difficulties in 
the way still, as the crypt is contemporaneous with the 
design for a complete church. Though used as a sacristy 
afterwards, it seems more probable that it was originally 
a chapel with a small vestry on the NE and an entrance 
apartment on the SE. It is 15 feet high, 14 wide, and 
36 long, and has a barrel roof. It is partly subterranean, 

* Stank generally means a pool or a ditch, but in this and other 
places the meaning must be flat, perhaps even marshy, ground 
near a stream. 


but owing to the slope of the ground on which the chapel 
stands, the E end is above the surface, and has a window. 
The whole building is remarkable for the peculiarities 
of its style, and — except the crypt, which is plain — for 
the richness of its ornament. It is often, from the 
unique nature of the design, considered to have been 
built by foreign masons, but it has been pointed out by 
Dr Daniel Wilson that ' many of the most remarkable 
features of Roslin Chapel are derived from the prevail- 
ing models of the period [when it was erected], though 
carried to an exuberant excess. The circular doorway 
and segmental porch, the dark vaulted roof, and much 
of the window tracery are all common to the style. 
Even the singular arrangement of its retro-choir, with a 
clustered pillar terminating the vista of the central 
aisle, is nearly a repetition of that of the Cathedral of 
St Mungo at Glasgow. Various portions of other 
edifices will also be found to furnish examples of 
arrangement and details corresponding with those of 
Roslin, as in the doorway of the south porch and other 
features of St Michael's, Linlithgow, and also in some 
parts of the beautiful ruined church of St Bridget, 
Douglas. It is altogether a mistake to regard the 
singularly interesting church at Roslin, which even the 
critic enjoys while he condemns, as an exotic produced 
by foreign skill. Its counterparts will be more easily 
found in Scotland than in any other part of Europe.' 
Both in tracery and arches, forms abandoned more than 
100 years before re-appear, and where contemporary 
forms are found, the architect seems to have preferred 
the baronial to the ordinary ecclesiastical style. ' Its 
squat stumpy outline,' says Dr Hill Burton, ' is a great 
contrast to the slender gracefulness of its rival at 
Melrose. All the beauties of Rosslyn are superinduced 
on the design in the shape of mouldings and. incrusta- 
tions, and there is little to gratify the eye in its purely 
structural feature, unless it be the effect of aerial lofti- 
ness imparted to the central vaulting — a character to 
which its rich clusters of starry incrustations so well 
adapt themselves.' Another contrast to Melrose is the 
character of the workmanship, which has here no refer- 
ence to the unseen, all fine works being in conspicuous 
positions, and the ornament stopping whenever it turns 
into an out-of-the-way corner. Dorothy "Wordsworth 
had, for a wonder, no fault to find with Roslin, and even 
thought the architecture 'exquisitely beautiful,' while 
her brother has recorded his feelings in the sonnet, 
Composed in Roslin Chapel. On each side there are five 
aisle and clerestory windows, with seven buttresses, 
surmounted by crocketed pinnacles, aud having niches 
for statues, but whether these were ever filled is doubt- 
ful — probably not, in spite of the many images shown 
in the views of Slezer and Father Hay. From the 
buttresses graceful and richly carved flying arches 
pass up to the clerestory wall, and there is a door on 
each side near the W end. In the interior the centre 
aisle is cut off from the side aisles by fourteen clustered 
pillars disposed in two rows, and though only 8 feet 
high, exquisitely rich in workmanship, and with 
capitals adorned with foliage and curiously wrought 
figures, among which may be mentioned thirteen figures 
of angels playing various musical instruments, includ- 
ing the bagpipes (!), Samson slaying the lion, the prodigal 
son feeding swine, and the crucifixion. The carvings 
on many of the brackets are also highly interesting. 
Notwithstanding the number of figure sculptures, they 
are far surpassed by the many representations of plants, 
including the harts-tongue fern, the curly-kail, oak 
leaves, etc., and almost the only ornament which is 
repeated more than once is the rose, probably with 
some idea of connection with the name of the place. 
The vaulted roof of the centre aisle is divided into five 
compartments, each with different flowers sculptured on 
them in check fashion. From the pillars flat arches — 
to use a very absurd expression — pass to the side walls, 
and these the guide, and even more weighty authorities, 
delight to point out as marvels of strength from their 
ability to support the weight of the roof above. The 
truth is, however, that there is a low-crowned arch over 


each, and that all the level part has to support is its 
own weight. All these are richly carved, one of the 
designs being a fox carrying off a goose, which a pursu- 
ing farmer endeavours to rescue ; another, Samson 
pulling down the house of the Philistines ; another, 
the Dance of Death, with figures of a king, a courtier, 
a cardinal, a bishop, a lady looking into a mirror, an 
abbess, an abbot, a farmer, a husband and wife, a child, 
a sportsman, a gardener, a carpenter, and a ploughman ; 
another, a bishop in full pontificals ; another, the seven 
deadly sins, represented by the proud pharisee, the 
drunkard, the careless shepherd, the rich fool, the 
miser, and the sinful lovers, while the devil in the 
dragon's mouth stretches out his claws for his prey ; 
another, the cardinal virtues — clothing the naked, lead- 
ing the blind, visiting the sick, feeding the hungry, 
comforting the fatherless, visiting the prisoner, and 
burying the dead ; another, the inscription in Lom- 
bardic letters, ' Forte est vinum, fortior est rex, 
fortiores sunt mulieres ; super omnia vincet Veritas,' a 
quotation from Esdras. Letters on the N clerestory 
wall give the initial letters of ' William Lord Sinclair, 
fundit yis College ye zeir of God mococl.' The decora- 
tion of the Lady chapel is very rich ; the roof is 
groined, and from the keystones of the arches prominent 
and beautifully carved bosses project. In the SE 
corner is the finely sculptured Prentice Pillar. The 
ornaments upon the capital are Abraham offering up 
Isaac and a figure playing a bagpipe. From the top 
four spirals of flowers and foliage wind down the 
clustered shaft, while on the base are a number of 
dragons twisted together and cut in very high relief. 
The story whence the pillar takes its name is the well- 
known myth of the apprentice who proved a better 
workman than his master. The latter being unable to 
execute the design of this pillar from the plans furnished 
to him, had to go to Rome to examine a similar one 
there, and on his return found that his apprentice had, 
in his absence, overcome all difficulties and finished the 
work. Instead of being delighted at having trained 
such a workman, he was so overcome by jealousy, that 
he immediately killed the apprentice with a blow of his 
hammer, and thereafter paid the penalty of his own 
misdeed. Three heads, supposed to represent those of 
the apprentice, his weeping mother, and his wicked 
master, were long pointed out in the SW part of the 
chapel ; and, to emphasise matters, the wound in the 
head of the first was marked with red paint. In connec- 
tion with the story, and perhaps even its recent origin, it 
is noteworthy that Slezer, writing about 1693, calls it the 
Prince's pillar, as if named in honour of the founder of 
the chapel ; and Defoe, writing in 1723, terms it the 
Princess's pillar. The western wall of the chapel is 
disfigured by a recently erected baptistry and organ 
gallery, such a method of dealing with an old building 
being in very bad taste. Some of the windows are filled 
with stained glass. 

The burial-place of the St Clair family is in a vault 
underneath the chapel, the entrance being under a large 
flagstone between the N wall and the third and fourth 
pillars. Here ten barons of the line were buried in 
full armour, that being always the mode of interment 
prior to 1650, when the Sir William St Clair of the 
time was, on his death, buried in a coffin ' against the 
sentiments of the Duke of York,' afterwards James VII., 
' who was then in Scotland, and several other persons 
well versed in antiquity, to whom,' however, his wife, 
' Jean Spottiswoode, grandniece of Archbishop Spottis- 
woode, would not hearken, thinking it beggarly to be 
buried in that manner.' The vastness of the sum of 
money which she threw away upon the obsequies of her 
husband was the cause of the sumptuary act for 're- 
straining the exorbitant expenses of marriages, baptisms, 
and burials ' which was passed by the following parlia- 
ment in 1681. The burial of the barons in full armour, 
and the belief that on the night before the death of any 
of them the chapel has the appearance of being in 
flames, have been finely used by Sir Walter Scott in his 
ballad oiRosabelle ; and, in Billings' Baronial and Eccle- 



siastical Antiquities of Scotland, Dr Hill Burton gives 
a graphic account of such a phenomenon as once seen 
here by himself. A monument of early date is said to 
be that of the founder, or, according to others, that of 
the Sir William who was contemporary with Bruce, and 
whose hunting exploit has been already noticed. If the 
latter be the case, it must have been brought here from 
some older burying-ground, but it is more probable 
that it is the memorial of the Earl of Caithness who 
was killed at Flodden. Another monument is in 
memory of George, Earl of Caithness, who died in 1582. 
The church was founded in 1450* by Sir William St 
Clair, the seventh of his name, baron of Roslin and 
Earl or Prince of Orkney. It was dedicated to St 
Matthew, and founded for a provost, six prebendaries, 
and two choristers. ' His adge creeping on him,' says 
Father Hay, ' to the end that he might not seem 
nltogither unthankfull to God for the benefices he re- 
ceaved from him, it came in his mind to build a house 
for God's service, of most curious worke ; the which 
that it might be done with greater glory and splendor, 
he caused artificers to be brought from other regions 
and forraigne kingdomes, and caused dayly to be abund- 
ance of all kinde of workemen present : as masons, 
carpenters, smiths, barrowmen, and quarriers, with 
others. The foundation of this rare worke he caused 
to be laid in the year of our Lord 1446 ; and to the end 
the worke might be the more rare : first he caused the 
draughts to be drawn upon Eastland boords, and made 
the carpenters to carve them according to the draughts 
thereon, and then gave them for patterns to the masons 
that they might thereby cut the like in stone.' There 
is a tradition that he procured the designs from Rome, 
but this, as has been already indicated, does not seem 
to be the case, and he was probably himself the source 
of the whole design, while the pains he took to procure 
good workmen — giving to each mason ten pounds a 
year, to each master-mason twenty pounds, to both an 
extent of land proportionate to the ability they dis- 
played, and to other artificers a commensurate extent of 
compensation and encouragement — attracted to the 
place all the best workmen in Scotland as well as from 
parts of the Continent. If he was mainly his own 
architect, the preference for baronial types is explained 
by the experience acquired in connection with the 
castle, and his architectural taste is said to have been 
the cause of his advancement by James II. to the 
dignity of Grand Master Mason. He held also other 
high offices, having been in 1436 Admiral of the Fleet — 
in which capacity he conveyed the Princess Margaret to 
France — and from 1454 to 145S chancellor of the king- 
dom. The crypt was founded by the earl's first wife, 
the daughter of the Earl of Douglas. Earl William 
endowed the new church with a considerable amount of 
land and various revenues, and spent large sums on the 
building, but in spite of his great efforts and vast 
expenditure, even the small portion now remaining 
seems to have been left unfinished, and to have been 
carried on and completed by the founder's third son, 
Sir Oliver St Clair. Many of the succeeding barons 
made additions to the endowment, and in a grant by 
Sir William St Clair, in 1523, of some lands in the 
vicinity for dwelling-houses, gardens, and other accom- 
modation for the provost and prebendaries, mention is 
made of the four altars already noticed. At the 
Reformation the lands and revenues belonging to the 
church were virtually taken away, and, in 1572, they 
were relinquished by a formal deed of resignation. The 
chapel does not, however, seem to have suffered much 
violence till 1688, when a mob did a good deal of mis- 
chief. It remained uncared for, and gradually becoming 
ruinous, till, in the middle of last century, General St 
Clair glazed the windows, relaid the floor, renewed 
the roof, and built the wall round about. Further 
repairs were executed by the first Earl of Rosslyn, and 
again by the third Earl, who expended £3000 principally 

* The date commonly given is 1446, but if Mr Kerr's reading of 
the above-given inscription on the clerestory wall is right, the 
correct year must be 1450. 


in renewing and retouching the carvings of the Lady 
chapel, a work said to have been suggested by the 
Queen who visited the chapel 14 Sept. 1842. Since 
1862, services in connection with the Scottish Epis- 
copal Church have been held in it every Sunday. 

See also the notes to Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel ; 
Father Hay's Genealogie of the Saint Claires of Eosslyn, 
including the Ghartellary of Eosslyn (Edinb. 1835, edited 
by James Maidment) ; T. S. Muir's Descriptive Notices of 
the Ancient Churches of Scotland (Edinb. 1848); Billings' 
Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland (Edinb. 
1852); To Roslin from the Far West (Edinb. 1872); and 
Papers by Mr A. Kerr in the Proceedings of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland for 1876-78. 

Rosneath, a village and a parish of W Dumbarton- 
shire. The village lies near the western shore of the 
Gare Loch, where a small triangular promontory pro- 
jects to within 3 furlongs of the opposite point of Row, 
5f miles S by E of Garelochhead, 2§ W by N of Helens- 
burgh, and 5 NNW of Greenock. A little place, serv- 
ing rather as a centre of communication to the sprink- 
ling of residences over miles in the neighbourhood, than 
as a seat of trade or of any considerable population, it 
adjoins a convenient quay, where steamers call many 
times a day ; and it has an inn and a post office under 
Helensburgh, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments. 

The parish, containing also the police burgh of Cove 
and Kilckeggan and the hamlet of Coulpokt, forms a 
peninsula, bounded N by Row, E by the Gare Loch, S 
by the Firth of Clyde, and W and NW by Loch Long. 
Its utmost length, from N to S, is 7 miles ; its breadth 
varies between 1J and 3J miles ; and its area is 13* 
square miles or 8829J acres, of which 321 are foreshore, 
and 37£ water. The main part of its surface is a con- 
tinuous ridge, which, rising immediately from the shores 
of the Gare Loch and Loch Long, and extending from 
the isthmus to within 1 mile of the Firth of Clyde, 
attains 717 feet at Tamnahara or Cnoc na h-Airidhe, 
645 to the E of Peaton, 651 at Clach Mackenny, and 
414 at the Gallowhill. The greater part of the ridge is 
a tableland, waste or pastoral, with swells commanding 
gorgeous views of the hill-flanks of the Clyde, together 
with the northern screen of the Gare Loch and the Duke 
of Argyll's Bowling Green. The southern extremity of 
the parish is on the whole low, but beautifully variegated, 
comprising a dingle from side to side, some fine swells 
and level fields, and the richly wooded grounds of Ros- 
neath Castle, and terminating in a beautiful small point 
which projects south-eastward into the Firth of Clyde. 
The coast is partly sandy, partly rocky. The skirts of 
the slopes along the Gare Loch, and the parts which look 
southward down the Clyde, are so studded with villas 
and cottages ornies, as to wear a brilliant and embellished 
aspect. Numerous brooks run down the sides of the 
ridge, swollen in rainy weather into impetuous torrents, 
and showing in the lower parts of their course many fine 
cascades. Campsail or Rosneath Bay in the lower part 
of the Gare Loch has very beautiful shores, and affords 
one of the best-sheltered anchorages on the W coast of 
Scotland. Clay, passing sometimes into chlorite slate 
or mica slate, is the prevailing rock ; but Old Red Sand- 
stone or its conglomerate occurs in the SE. The soil 
had long a factitious fame for fatality to rats. Nearly 
2500 acres are arable ground or artificial pasture ; some 
1600 acres are under natural or planted wood; and most 
of the rest is uncultivated moorland. An ancient castle 
stood near the shore of Campsail Bay, and seems to have 
served for centuries merely as a place of strength, but 
was fitted up about the year 1630 by the Marquis of 
Argyll as a subsidiary residence to the castle of In- 
veraray. It underwent great changes, and was even- 
tually destroyed by fire in 1802. A new mansion, on a 
spot at a little distance from the old site, was erected in 
1803-5 according to a splendid design by J. Bononi of 
London. This is the present ducal palace of Rosneath, 
and forms along with its park a conspicuous feature of 
the parish, or rather of the general landscape in which the 
southern part of the parish lies. The edifice, which has 


never been finished, is in the modern Italian style, with 
combinations of Greek. One principal front looks to the 
N, and is adorned with a magnificent portico, which re- 
sembles in its style the Roman Ionic, and projects so far 
as to admit of a carriage-way within it. Another principal 
front looks to the S, but is less marked in feature. A 
circular tower rises in the centre of the edifice, and is 
crowned by a balustrade, which commands a brilliant 
panoramic view. Blind Harry and tradition associate 
the name of the patriot Wallace with Rosneath, but in 
tales too legendary to admit of discrimination between 
fact and fiction. A precipitous rock to the N of Ros- 
neath Castle bears the name of Wallace's Leap. Many 
of the persecuted Covenanters, in the days of the Stuarts, 
found shelter in the parish under the protection of the 
friendly Argyll. Respecting even the noted Balfour of 
Burley, the late Mr Story writes in the New Statistical 
Account that ' there are strong presumptions that he 
found an asylum in the same peninsula, and that, hav- 
ing assumed the name of Salter, his descendants con- 
tinued here for several generations.' Among the 
ministers of Rosneath have been the mathematician, 
Prof. Matthew Stewart (1717-84), the father of Dugald 
Stewart; Robert Story (1790-1859); and his son, Robert 
Herbert Story, D.D. (b. 1835), a leader of the Moderate 
party. John Anderson, F.R.S. (1726-96), the founder 
of Anderson's College, Glasgow, was the son of another 
minister. It may also be noted that the ' picturesque 
island of Rosneath ' is the scene of the closing chapters 
of the Heart of Midlothian. Much has been written as 
to the etymology of the name Rosneath, or Rosnevyth 
according to the old orthography. The first part is 
clearly the Celtic ros, ' a promontory ; ' and, as to the 
second, Dr Skene opines that it probably preserves the 
name of Nevydd, an early bishop in the North, who 
was slain by the Saxons and Picts. The ancient parish 
comprehended, besides the peninsula, all the territory 
which now constitutes Row, the latter having been dis- 
joined in 1635. In the 12th century its church, St 
Modan's, was a free parsonage, under the patronage of 
the Earl of Lennox ; but, in 1225, it was given, with 
its pertinents, in perpetual alms to the monks of Paisley ; 
and it continued to be maintained by them as a curacy 
till the Reformation. The peninsula and the adjacent 
but disjoined district of the ancient parish, together 
with a portion of land beyond, formed the country of 
Nevydd, which was granted at a very early date to the 
noble family of Lennox, and continued in their posses- 
sion till the latter part of the 15th century. Part of 
Nevydd, including most of the peninsula, was, in 1489, 
bestowed as a royal gift upon Colin, the first Earl of 
Argyll, and introduced his powerful family by territorial 
connection to an influence on the western Lowlands. 
The Duke of Argyll is the chief of 3 heritors. Giving 
off all the quoad sacra parish of Craigrownie and a por- 
tion of that of Garelochhead, Rosneath is in the presby- 
tery of Dumbarton and the synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the 
living, including the value of manse and glebe, is worth 
about £330. The parish church, built in 1853, is a good 
Gothic edifice, with nave, chancel, porch, and bell-cote. 
There is also a Free church of Rosneath ; and two 
public schools, Kilcreggan and Rosneath, with respec- 
tive accommodation for 176 and 153 children, had (1884) 
an average attendance of 109 and 90, and grants of 
£125, 17s. 6d. and £85, Is. Valuation (1860) £12,221, 
(1885) £22,044, 17s. 4d. Pop. (1801) 632, (1831) 825, 
(1861) 1626, (1871) 1780, (1881) 1994, of whom 775 
were in the ecclesiastical parish.— Ord. Sur., shs. 30, 
29, 37, 38, 1866-76. 

Rosque, Loch, or Loch a Chroisg, a beautiful lake of 
Contm parish, Ross-shire, at the boundary with Gair- 
loch parish, 1 mile W by S of Auchnasheen station on 
the Dmgwall and Skye railway, this being 27| miles W 
by S of Dingwall. Lying 508 feet above sea-level, and 
overhung to the N by Meall a Chaoruinn (2313 feet), it 
extends 3§ miles east-by-northward ; has a maximum 
breadth of 3| furlongs ; sends off the Bran towards the 
Conon ; and contains some char and many fine trout. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 82, 1882. 


Ross. See Burnmouth and Mordington. 

Ross, an estate, with a mansion, in Hamilton parish 
Lanarkshire, between the confluent Avon and Clyde, 
1J mile E by N of the town of Hamilton. Held from 
the time of Alexander II. till about 1339 by the monks 
of Kelso, and afterwards by a branch of the Hamiltons, 
it now belongs to Hugh Henry Robertson-Aikman, Esq. 
(b. 1819 ; sue. 1879), who owns 1020 acres in the shire, 
valued at £1386 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 23, 1865. 

Ross, a peninsula in the SW of Mull island, Argyll- 
shire, forming the Kilvickeon section of Kilfinichen 
parish, and projecting 17J miles west-by-southward 
from the main body of the island. It commences in an 
isthmus 4J miles wide, between Loch Buy on the S and 
the head of Loch Scridain on the N ; terminates in a 
promontory 5| miles broad, overhanging the Sound of 
lona ; is pierced, immediately E of the N side of that 
promontory, by Loch Laithaich ; contains the village 
of Bonessan ; and exhibits, in two places, very remark- 
able cliff coast scenery, noticed in our articles on Ardtun 
and Carsaig. 

Ross. See Borgde. 

Ross or Dingwall Castle. See Dingwall. 

Ross. See Ross-shire. 

Rossdhu (Gael, ros-dubh, 'dark headland'), the seat 
of Sir James Colquhoun, Bart, in Luss parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, on a small promontory of its own name, on 
the W side of Loch Lomond, 3J miles S of Luss village. 
A handsome edifice, built about 1774, it stands near 
remains of an older tower, and a roofless chapel used 
as the family burying-place ; and has beautiful wooded 
grounds, partly extending along the lake's shore, partly 
ascending Creachan Hill and Tom-na-Cona, and partly 
including islands in the lake. On 29 Sept. 1875 the 
Queen 'drove up to the house, and, without getting 
out of the carriage, received a nosegay from Sir J. 
Colquhoun's little girl and a basket of fruit.' The estate 
belonged anciently to the Earls of Lennox ; was given, 
about the beginning of the 12th century, to the Dean 
of Lennox ; and went by marriage, in the reign of 
Robert Bruce, or the early part of the 14th century, 
to Sir Robert de Colquhoun, whose nineteenth lineal 
descendant, Sir James Colquhoun, twelfth Bart, since 
1625 (b. 1844; sue. 1873), holds 67,041 acres in the 
shire, valued at £12,846 per annum. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
38, 1871. See also Inchmitrrin ; Fruin Water ; 
Lomond, Loch ; and Dr Wm. Fraser's The Chiefs of 
Colquhoun and their Country (2 vols., Edinb. 1869). 

Rossend Castle. See Burntisland. 

Rossie, a plain oblong mansion, with a large old- 
fashioned garden and well-wooded policies, in Forgan- 
denny parish, Perthshire, immediately W of Forgan- 
denny village, and 3J miles W of Bridge of Earn. The 
estate of Rossie Hill or Rossie Ochil, 4J miles due S, 
was purchased from Andrew Blair in 15S3 by William 
Oliphant of Newtoun, whose descendant, Robert, in 
1727 added part of the charter lands of Forgandenny ; 
and the present proprietor, Thomas Truman Oliphant, 
Esq. (b. 1839 ; sue. 1872), holds 1800 acres in the shire, 
valued at £1742 per annum. — Ord. Sur., shs. 48, 40, 
1868-67. See chap. xiv. of Thos. Hunter's Woods and 
Estates of Perthshire (Perth, 1883). 

Rossie Castle, a mansion of 1S00 in Craig parish, 
Forfarshire, 1J mile SSW of Montrose. It belongs to 
Mr Macdonald of St Martins. See Inchbratogk. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

Rossie House, a mansion in the W of Collessie parish, 
Fife, If mile E by N of Auchtermuchty. Rossie Loch, 
once the largest sheet of water in the county, abounding 
in perch and pike, was partially drained in 1740, but 
only so as to be marshy in summer and almost covered 
with water in the winter. In 1805-6, however, it was 
better drained, by means of deepened and extended ducts 
toward the Eden, at a cost of £3000 ; and it then left 250 
acres capable of productive tillage, and 40 more so far 
marshy as to yield natural hay. — Ord. Sur. , sh. 40, 1867. 

Rossie Priory, the princely seat of Lord Kinnaird in 
Inchtt/re parish, E Perthshire, 3§ miles N of Inchture 
station, this being 7J miles WSW of Dundee. Stand- 



ing 132 feet above sea-level, on the south-eastern slope 
of Rossie Hill (567 feet), it commands an extensive and 
very brilliant view ; succeeded a previous mansion, 
called Dbimmib House, within the limits of Long- 
forgan parish; and was erected in 1807-17, from designs 
by Mr Atkinson, by the eighth Lord Kinnaird. It is 
a superb monastic-looking pile, spacious and elegant 
within, and of imposing aspect without ; contains a 
valuable collection of antiquities, chiefly Roman ; and 
has pleasure-grounds, gardens, and policies of great 
extent and singular beauty. The barony of Kinnaird 
in the Gowrie district was conferred in 1170 on Radul- 
phus Rufus, whose descendant, Reginald de Kinnaird, 
in 1399 acquired the lands of Inchture through marriage 
with Marjory, daughter and heiress of Sir John Kirk- 
aldy. Their descendant, George-Patrick Kinnaird, for 
his loyalty to the house of Stuart was knighted by 
Charles II. in 1661, and raised to the Scottish peerage 
in 1682 as Baron Kinnaird of Inchture. The Hon. 
Douglas James AVilliam Kinnaird (1788-1830) was an 
eminent banker, the friend of Byron and Sheridan. 
Arthur Fitzgerald Kinnaird, present and tenth Lord (b. 
1814 ; sue. 1878), was Liberal M.P. for Perth 1837-39 
and 1852-78. He holds 7579 acres in the shire, valued 
at £15,460 per annum.— Ord. Stir., sh. 48, 1868. 

Rossie, Wester, a small village on the western verge of 
Collessie parish, Fife, 1 J mile ENE of Auchtermuchty. 

Rosskeen (Gael, ros-ctann, 'promontory of the head'), 
a coast parish of NE Ross-shire, containing the seaport 
and station of Invergordon, 12f miles NE of Dingwall 
and 12| SSW of Tain. It also contains the Bridgend 
portion and the station of Alness village, 2f miles W 
by N of Invergordon. Washed on the SE for 5f miles 
by the Cromarty Firth, it is bounded by Kincardine 
around its north-western extremity, and along its 
north-eastern side by Edderton and Kilmuir-Easter, 
along its south-western side by Alness. Its utmost 
length, from NW to SE, is 17f miles ; its breadth 
varies between 1J and 6§ miles ; and its area is 55J 
square miles or 34,3S4£ acres, of which 501g are fore- 
shore, 152§ water, and 5 tidal water. From a point 3| 
miles below its efflux from Loch Morie, the river 
Alness flows 8J miles south-south-eastward to the 
Cromarty Firth along the Alness boundary ; and at 
that point, 495 feet above sea-level, it is joined by the 
Black Water, which, rising at an altitude of 1700 feet, 
runs 9J miles south-eastward down Strath Rusdale 
through the north-western interior. Lochan Chairn 
(3J x If furl. ; 1329 feet) and Loch Chuinneag (2| x 1^ 
furl. ; 1680 feet), in the north-western extremity of the 
parish, near the source of the Black Water, send off 
their superfluence north-north-westward to the river 
Carron ; and the Strathrory or Balnagowan river, 
rising on Beinn Tharsuinn at an altitude of 19S0 feet, 
runs 4J miles south-eastward through Rosskeen till it 
passes off into Kilmuir-Easter. Loch Achnadoich 
(2x1 furl. ; 395 feet), 4$ miles N by E of Alness 
village, is a beautiful little lake. The shore is low ; 
and S of the highroad the surface nowhere exceeds 72 
feet above sea-level. Beyond, it rises to 700 feet at 
Cnoc Navie, 1301 at *Cnoc Corr Guinig, 1000 at Cnoc 
Strathy, 2158 at Cnoc an t-Sithein Mor, 2259 at Beinn 
Tharsuinn, 1978 at *Carn nan Gabhar, 1744 at *Meall 
Bhenneit, and 2114 at Cam an Lochan, where asterisks 
mark those summits that culminate on the confines of 
the parish. Old Red Sandstone, the prevailing rock of 
the lowlands of the parish, has been quarried for build- 
ing purposes. The soil of the coast district is partly 
gravelly and light, partly loam, and partly a deep 
strong clay ; in the middle district, or higher arable 
land, it was formerly light and spongy, but has been 
worked into a rich deep loam. Little more than one- 
ninth of the entire area is in tillage ; about one-twelfth 
is under wood, the middle district being finely wooded ; 
and nearly all the remainder is pastoral or waste. A 
standing-stone near the church and a number of cairns 
are the chief antiquities. William Macintosh (1738- 
1809), the Eastern traveller, was born at Newmore, as 
also was George, his younger brother, who introduced 


Turkey-red dyeing to Scotland, and whose son, Charles, 
F.R.S. (1766-1843), invented 'macintosh' waterproofs. 
Mansions, noticed separately, are Ardross Castle, 
Invergordon Castle, and Newmore ; and of 4 pro- 
prietors, 2 hold each an annual value of more than 
£3350. Rosskeen is in the presbytery of Tain and the 
synod of Ross; the living is worth £385. The churches, 
Established and Free, are described under Invergor- 
don. Five public schools — Ardross, Bridgend, Inver- 
gordon, Newmore, and Saltburn — with respective ac- 
commodation for 111, 205, 205, 107, and 90 children, 
had (1884) an average attendance of 60, » , 165, 58, 
and 42, and grants of £41, 13s. 4d., £ „ , £138, 
£38, 10s., and £26, 14s. 2d. Valuation (1S60) £10,171, 
(1885) £15,353, 6s. lid. plus £1754 for railway. 
Pop. (1801) 2074, (1831) 2916, (1861) 3766, (1871) 
3S08, (1881) 3773, of whom 1119 were in Invergordon 
and 718 in Bridgend, whilst 1272 were Gaelic-speaking. 
— Ord. Sur., shs. 94, 93, 1878-81. 

Ross, Little. See Little Ross. 

Rosslyn. See Roslin. 

Ross of MulL See Ross. 

Ross Priory, a mansion in Kilmaronock parish, Dum- 
bartonshire, on the SE shore of Loch Lomond, 4^ miles 
NNE of Balloch station. Considerably enlarged about 
the year 1810, it has beautifully wooded grounds, and 
was much frequented by Sir Walter Scott in 1817 while 
he was writing Sob Roy. The estate — 1778 acres of 
£1416 annual value — has come, through his mother, to 
Sir George Hector Lei th- Buchanan, Bart. See Dry- 
grange. — Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Ross-shire, a great northern Highland county extend- 
ing across Scotland from the E coast along the upper 
reaches of the Moray Firth, to the Atlantic on the W 
coast, beyond the island of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides. 
The mainland portion of the county includes the whole 
of the sections of the scattered county of Cromarty, 
which may indeed be treated as but an integral part of 
it, and also the detached Ferintosh district of Nairn- 
shire. The island portion consists of the whole of the 
N part of the island of Lewis, and a number of smaller 
islets on the coast of Lewis, as well as on the coast of 
the mainland portion of the county. The boundary 
line is treated as taking in all the portions of Cromarty, 
and the particular positions of the larger sections of 
the smaller county are subsequently described with 
more minuteness. Ross-shire is bounded N by E 
by Sutherlandshire and the Dornoch Firth, E by the 
Moray Firth, SE and S by Inverness-shire, and W 
by the Atlantic Ocean. The shape is irregular, but 
the outline of the mainland portion is roughly fan- 
shaped, and the part of Lewis is somewhat like the head 
and snout of a great sea-monster of which the rest of 
the Outer Hebrides form the shattered remnants of the 
body. The extreme breadth of the mainland portion 
from Rudh' Re — at the NW corner of the peninsula, 
between Gair Loch and Loch Ewe — E by N to the ex- 
treme point of Tarbet Ness at the entrance to the 
Dornoch Firth, is 74| miles ; and the length, from the 
source of the Oykell on the N to the S side of the upper 
end of Glen Shiel on the S, is 66J miles. From the 
island part the mainland is separated by the Minch, 24 
miles across the narrowest part, and from the W coast 
of Lewis, ESE to Tarbet Ness, is 125 miles ; while from 
the Butt of Lewis, SSE to the upper end of Glen Shiel, 
is 106 miles. It is the third largest county in Scotland, 
the total land area, inclusive of Cromarty, being 3129 '8 
square miles or 2,003,065 acres. Exclusive of Cromarty 
the area of Ross proper is 1,861,571 '699 acres, of which 
1,768,559-853 are land, 64,406'345 are water, 27,454-091 
are foreshore, and 1151-410 are tidal water. Of this 
area there are in the islands 437,221 -438 acres, of which 
402,166-473 acres are land, 26,862-856 are water, and 
14,641-792 are foreshore, while 417,458 acres, including 
foreshore and water, are in the part in the Hebrides. 
Of the enormous total of 2,003,065 acres, however, only 
134,298 — or 6 '7 per cent. — acres were in 1883 under 
crop, bare fallow, and grass, and 43,201 — slightly over 
2 per cent. — under planted wood, the rest being natural 


wood, rough hill grazing, heath, peat, or stony waste. 
The county is the third least densely populated in Scot- 
land, there being only 25 persons to the square mile. 
There are 11 inhabited islands, with a population of 
25,712. Third of the counties of Scotland as regards 
area, Ross is eleventh as regards population, and 
seventeenth as regards valuation. 

Starting at the extreme NW corner of the mainland 
portion at Loch Kirkaig between Loch Inver and Enard 
Bay, the boundary line passes up the river Kirkaig to 
Fionn Loch (357 feet) ; up the centre of this, along the 
connecting stream, to Loch Veyatie (366); and up the 
stream flowing into the upper end of this as far as the 
bend above the small Lochan Fhionnlaidh, where it 
takes to the ridge of the Cromalt Hills, along the 
watershed of which it runs by Meall Coir an Lochain 
(1692) and Meall a Bhuirich (1500) to Meall a Bhuirich 
Rapaig (1500). From this it turns northward by Meall 
Chaomuinn (1491 feet) and Cnoe nan Imirean to the SE 
end of Loch Borrolan (460), at the mouth of Allt an 
Loin Dhuibh, thence across the loch to the mouth of 
the burn that enters the N side near Aultnacallagach 
Inn, up this burn to Lochan Sgeireach, curves irregu- 
larly to Luban Croma, and follows to the source the 
stream that rises in the hollow between the highest top 
of Breabag (2670) and Sgonnan Mor (2028), whence it 
strikes up Breabag, passes to the E of the summit near 
the 2500 contour, and then passes along the N shoulder 
of the hill (2338), until, in the hollow between Breabag 
and Ben More Assynt, it reaches the source of the 
Oykell, and from this point it turns to the S and then 
to the E, following the river all the way to the Dor- 
noch Firth at Bonar-Bridge, and at Loch Alsh (498) 
and Kyle of Sutherland passing through the centres of 
these sheets of water. At the mouth of Glen Einig at 
Oykell Bridge the line is only 8 miles E of the top of 
Meall a Bhuirich Rapaig, where it turns to the N, 
though between the points following the boundary the 
distance is 24 miles round the long narrow finger-like 
portion that projects up to Ben More Assynt. From 
Bonar-Bridge the line passes eastward along the S 
shore of the Dornoch Firth, then south-westward along 
the NW shore of the Moray Firth, and thereafter 
westward along the N shore of the Beauly Firth, till, 
2 miles below Beauly, it once more takes to the land 
on the N side of the river Beauly. From this it curves 
north-westward to Muir of Ord station, then, by an 
irregular zig-zag, back to Tomich, midway between 
Beauly and Muir of Ord stations, whence it passes 
irregularly westward till it reaches the Allt Goibhre — a 
tributary of the Orrin — up which it passes through 
Glen Gowrie to An Gorm-loch (1774 feet), and thence 
southward to the summit of Cam nam Pollan (2778). 
It then strikes south-westward and then westward by 
the Allt na Cliche back to the Orrin, which it follows 
upward for over 3 miles before it quits it again and 
turns southward by Sgurr na Cairbhe to the summit of 
Sgurr Ruadh (3254 feet). Here it turns westward along 
the top of the ridge by Sgorr a' choir ghlais (3552 feet) 
to Sgurr Fhuar-Thuill (3439), thence westward by 
Sgurr na Muice (2915) and Beinn na Muice (2272), till, 
1 mile below Loch Monar (663), it reaches the Garbh 
nisge, up which it proceeds, and then up the loch till, 
somewhat over a mile from the W end, it strikes south- 
ward along a burn to the "W of Aultfearn, and then by 
Meall an Buidhe (1819) to the eastern shoulder of An 
Riabhachan (3898), thence eastward along the ridge to 
the top of Sgurr na Lapaich, south-eastward down to 
the N end of Loch Tuill Bhearnach, which lies here in 
a eorry, and thence down the glen to Loch Mullardoch 
(705), near the centre of the northern shore. Crossing 
the loch in a south-westerly direction for § mile, it 
reaches the southern shore, and, striking up the hollow 
between Tuill Creagach (3452 feet, Inverness) and Tom a 
Choinich (3646), passes up to the summit of the latter, 
and thence along the ridge to the top of Cam Eige 
(3877), and then to Mam Soul (3S62), and from this con- 
tinues south-westward along the watershed between the 
upper end of Glen Affrick and Glen Clunie by Sgurr nan 


Ceathreamhnan (3771), Ben Attow (3383), Sgurr a 
BhealaichDheirg (3378), Cam Fuaralach(3241), andCiste 
Dhubh(321S), reaches Garbh Leac (3673), just beyond 
which the watershed begins between Glen Affrick and 
Glen Morriston. The line crosses this watershed to the 
top of Sgurr nan Conbhairean (3632 feet), and thence by 
Cam Ghluasaid to Loch Clunie (606), the northern shore 
of which is reached 1 h mile from the W end. Crossing 
Loch Clunie at right angles, and then the highest 
point of Druim nan Cnaimh and so down to lower Loch 
Loyne (700 feet) — which it reaches about J mile from the 
upper end — it passes up Loch Loyne and the intervening 
river to upper Loch Loyne, and then up the river Loyne 
till near the source, where it turns off first N and then 
W to the summit of Aonachair Chrith (3342), and from 
this follows the watershed westward, first between Glen 
Clunie and Glen Quoich, then between Glen Shiel and 
Loch Hourn, and then between Loch Duich and Loch 
Alsh, and Glenelg for a distance of 22 miles along a 
ridge with an average height of about 3000 feet, and 
reaches the sea at Kyle Rhea, J mile from the northern 
end. From this it passes across the opening of Loch 
Alsh, through Kyleakin, between Longay and the 
Crowlin islands, up the Inner Sound between Raasay 
and the mainland ; strikes north-westward across the 
Minch and up Loch Seaforth (Lewis) ; curves across 
Lewis and Harris to Loch Resort, and thence round the 
W and N of Lewis, and back across the Minch to the 
starting point at Kirkaig. The island district is 
separately treated under Lewis, and except for statistics 
what follows is chiefly confined to the mainland part 
of the county. 

Districts and Surface. — The Moray Firth coast from 
Tarbet Ness to Craigton Point near Kessock measures 
in a straight line about 30 miles. Fourteen miles from 
Tarbet Ness it is indented by the Cromarty Firth, 
and 11J miles farther to the SW by Munlochy Bay, 
while along the S coast the Beauly Firth extends for 7 
miles W of Craigton Point. Along the curve of the W 
coast the distance is probably about 75 miles, but if 
the windings of the coast be followed the length will 
be about 400 miles, so much is the line broken up by 
sea-lochs, some of them of large size. The chief in order 
from the N end, most of which are separately noticed, 
are Enard Bay, Loch Broom, Little Loch Broom, 
Gruinard Bay, Loch Ewe, Gair Loch, Loch Torridon 
branching off into Upper Loch Torridon and Loch 
Shieldaig, Loch Canon branching off into Loch 
Kishorn and Upper Loch Carron, and Loch Alsh 
branching off into Loch Long and Loch Duich. 
The county may roughly be divided into three great 
divisions, Easter Ross, Mid Ross, and Wester Ross. 
The first is one of the finest agricultural districts in 
Scotland, and may be taken as including all the low 
ground on the E coast lying between the Dornoch and 
Cromarty Firths. Mid Ross includes all the land lying 
between the Cromarty, Moray, and Beauly Firths, and 
known as Ardmeanach or the Black Isle ; and the 
adjoining parishes of Urray, Contin, Dingwall, Fod- 
derty, Kiltearn, and Alness, and these embrace the 
minor district of Strathpeffer and the lower parts of 
Strath Conan and Glen Orrin. "Wester Ross, including 
by far the greater portion of the county, occupies all 
the districts to the W of this, and contains the minor 
divisions of Strath Oykell in the N, with Glen Einig 
opening off it, and the lesser hollows of Strath Carron, 
Strath Chuilionaich, and Gleann Mor near by ; Coigach 
in the extreme NW of the county N of the outer part 
of Loch Broom ; Loch Broom, with Strath Kanaird and 
Glen Achallt opening off from the loch, and, at its 
upper end, Strath More, which passes SE into Dirrie 
More, leading across to Strath Garve ; Gruinard all 
round the head of Gruinard Bay between Little Loch 
Broom and Loch Maree and the lesser district of Rudha 
Mor to the W of Gruinard Bay ; Gairloch, between 
Loch Maree, Gair Loch, and Loch Torridon ; Applecross 
— the triangular peninsula between Lochs Torridon and 
Shieldaig and Lochs Carron and Kishorn ; the Aird, 
between Loch Kishorn and Upper Loch Carron ; Glen 



Carron, upwards from Upper Loch Carron ; Loehalsh, 
between Loch Carron and Loch Alsh, and at the upper 
end of the latter, Glen Ling and Glen Elchaig ; Kin- 
tail, ESE of Loch Alsh ; Glen Shiel, up from the top of 
Loch Duich and passing over the watershed into the 
hollow of Glen Clunie, which passes downwards into 
Glen Morriston (Inverness-shire) ; the upper parts of 
Glen Orrin and Strath Conan. Near the centre of the 
N side of Strath Conan the hollow occupied by Loch 
Luichart branches off to the NW to Strath Bran, which 
continues westward to Auchnasheen, where it forks, one 
branch passing south-westward to Glen Carron, and 
the other westward and south-westward by the hollow 
of Loch a Chroisg (Rosque) and Glen Docherty, to 
Kinlochewe and Loch Maree. From the NW end of 
Loch Luichart the hollow of Strath Bran is continued 
eastward towards Strathpeffer, and from the N side 
Strath Garve passes off and is continued northward by 
Strath Vaich to Gleann Mor, and so to Strath Oykell ; 
and north-westward by Dirrie More to Strath More and 
Loch Broom. Easter Ross is almost entirely lowland 
in its character, consisting nearly altogether of a fertile 
and well-cultivated plain, but rising along the coast of 
the Moray Firth into a ridge with lofty cliffs facing the 
sea. Mid Ross is also mostly well cultivated, but con- 
sists of a greater portion of uplands, and rises along the 
shore of the Moray Firth into the long ridge of Akd- 
meanach. The western division has a very unequal 
surface, its ruggedness being scarcely surpassed even by 
Inverness-shire, £ of the whole area being over 1000 feet 
above sea-level. The mountain tops rising above this 
can hardly be said to form distinct chains or ranges, 
but occur as single isolated summits or in groups. 
In Coigach, between Loch Veyatie and the outer part 
of Loch Broom, are Cul Mor (27S6 feet), Cul Beag 
(2523), An Stac (2009), Beinn Eun (1973, Sgorr Deas), 
and Ben More Coigach (243S). The summits in the 
Cromalt Hills N of the upper part of Strath Kan- 
aird have been noticed in connection with the boundary, 
except Meall an Fhuarain (1895 feet) ; between Glen 
Oykell and Strath Carron are Beinn Ulamhie (1616), 
Meall Deargaidh (1659), and Breac Bheinn (1520) ; 
and between Strath Eanaird and Glen Achallt are Na 
Dromannan (1337), Cnoc a Choilich (1336), Meall Liath 
Choire (1798), Cnoc an Daimh (1500). Between Glen 
Einig and Gleann Mor are the hills in Freevater Forest, 
of which the highest point is Sean a Bhraigh (3000 feet) 
— between the upper waters of the Douchary, which flows 
down Glen Douchary to Glen Achallt, and the upper 
waters of Corriemulzie Burn, which flows by Strath 
Mulzie to Glen Einig — and from this a spur passes off to 
the NW with Meall nam Bradhan (2221). To the E of 
Sean a Bhraigh is Cam Ban (2762 feet), and NE of that 
Bodach Mor (2689) and Bodach Beag (2500) ; and a 
shoulder runs away to the eastward with the highest 
points at An Socach (2424) and Srongun Aran (2138), 
4 miles N of which is Cam a Choin Deirg (2302) over- 
looking Strath Chuilionaich. To the SW of Cam Ban 
is Cam Loch Sruban Mora (2406 feet), overlooking 
Gleann Beag, a continuation westward of Gleann 
Mor. To the SW of Sean a Bhraigh is a great mass 
of hills occupying the district between Glen Ach- 
allt on the N, Upper Loch Broom and Strath More on 
the WSW, Dirrie More and Glascarnoch river (Upper 
Strath Garve) on the S, and Strath Vaich and the upper 
ends of Gleann Beag and Glen Douchary on the 
ENE. Of these the highest points, SSW from Sean 
a Bhraigh, are Eididh nan Clach Geala (3039 feet) 
and Beinn Dearg (3547), and from Eididh nan 
Clach Geala a ridge is sent off NW towards Ullapool, 
where Glen Acnallt opens on to Loch Broom, the 
highest points being Cam Mor (2122), Meall Dubh 
(2105), and Beinn Eilideach (1830) overlooking Ulla- 
pool. To the WSW of Beinn Dearg and E of the upper 
end of Strath More are Beinn Aonaclair (2915 feet) and 
Meall Doire Faid (2390), while to the E the highest 
point of the lumpy mountain that overlooks Strath 
Vaich is 3120 feet, and it slopes towards Glascarnoch 
river by Tom Ban Mor (2433) and Meall an Torcain 


(1735). In the great lozenge-shaped district bounded 
on the N by the sea ; on the NE by the line of Loch 
Broom, Strath More, Dirrie More, Glascarnoch river, 
and Strath Garve ; on the S by Strath Bran and the 
hollow of Loch a Chroisg (Rosque) ; and on the SW by 
Glen Docherty, Loch Maree, and Loch Ewe, — the hills 
may be grouped roughly into three divisions, of which 
the second and third may be regarded as forming some- 
what broken ranges. The first division is bounded by 
Loch Broom and Strathmore on the NE side, by Gleann 
Mor (a branch of Strath More passing to the SW) and 
the hollow of Loch a Bhraoin (Vruin) on the SE, and 
the upper part of Strath na Sheallag and the valley of 
Loch na Sheallag and Gruinard river to Gruinard Bay 
on the SW. The NW end is indented by the long, 
narrow Little Loch Broom. The whole mass is some- 
what like a lobster's pincer, Little Loch Broom being 
the opening of the claw. Beginning to the S of Annat 
Bay on the point stretching out between Loch Broom 
and Little Loch Broom, there is the isolated mass with 
the tops of Beinn Ghobhlach (Goleach ; 2082 feet) and 
Cnoc a Bhaid-rallaich (1780) ; farther to the SE is Cnoc 
an Droighinn (1327), Creag Chorcurrach (1193), Carn a 
Bhibrain (1665), and Carn Bhreabadair (1573) — the last 
three round the end of Strath Beg at the head of Little 
Loch Broom. Between Strath Beg and Loch na Sheal- 
lag is the lumpy mass of An Teallach, with a northern 
spur, Mac us Mathair (2298 feet), a central summit 
(3483), and Sgurr Ruadh (2493), and Sgurr Fiona (3474) 
overlooking Loch na Sheallag. To the NW of this are 
Sail Mhor (2508 feet) and Carn nam Buailtean (1283), 
while to the SE are Meall a Bhainne (1503) and Carn 
nam Feithean (1820)— to the NE and SW of the upper 
hollow of Strathbeg river — Carn Breac Beag (1267) over- 
looking the top of Strath More, and in a triangular pro- 
jection to the SW between the hollow of Loch a Bhraoin 
and the southward prolongation of Strath na Sheallag, 
Meall an V Sithe (1871), and Creag Ralnich (2646). The 
second division begins to the S of Loch na Sheallag, and 
extends south-eastward till opposite Creag Ralnich, 
where it becomes very narrow, and then turning to the 
E stretches eastward to the valley of Strath Garve, 
attaining its greatest breadth (over 7 miles) and greatest 
height between Glen More on the N and Loch Fannich 
on the S. The hollow on the SW is occupied by the 
basins of Fionn Loch and Lochan Fada, and on the S 
by that of Loch Fannich. Beginning at the NW end, 
the highest summits are Beinn a Chaisgein Beag (2234 
feet), Beinn a' Chaisgein Mor (2802) — above Fionn Loch 
—Beinn Dearg Beag(2500), and Beinn Dearg Mhor(2974) 
S of Loch na Sheallag ; Beinn a' Chlaidheimh (2750), 
Sgurr Ban (3194), Mullach Coire Mhic Fhearchair (3250), 
and Beinn Tharsuinn (2750) between Strath na Sheallag 
and Lochan Fada. To the S of Creag Ralnich are Beinn 
Besg (2000 feet) and An Groban (2424) at the narrowest 
part of the range, which here turns to the E. In this 
eastward portion the summits are A' Chailleach (3276 
feet), Sgurr Bhreac (3000), Beinn nan Ramh (2333), 
Sgurr nan Clach Geala (3500), Meall a' Chrasgaidh 
(3062), Cam na Criche (3000), Sgurr M6r (3637), Beinn 
Liath Mhor Fannaich (3000), Beinn Liath Beag (2175), 
Meall an Rairigidh (3109), An Coileachan (3015), Beinn 
Liath Mhor a Ghinbhais Li (2484), Beinn Dearg (2230), 
Beinn Liath Beag (1967), Meall Mhic-Iomhair (1984), 
Beinn a Bhric (1441), Beinn nan Cabag (1544), Carn na 
dubh Choille (1570), and Creagan an Eich Ghlais (1086), 
the last two on the W side of Strath Garve. The third 
range begins at the N end of the NE side of Loch 
Maree, extends up the whole of that side and up the 
NE side of Glen Docherty, at the top of which it turns 
eastward, extending as far as the glen by which the 
river Fannich flows to the Bran. Beginning at the 
NW end the principal summits are Beinn Airidh a' Char 
(2593 feet), Meall Mheinnidh (2000), Beinn Lair (2817), 
Beinn Slioch (3217) and its eastern shoulder Sgurr 
an Tuill Bhain (3058), Beinn a Mhuinidh (2231), Carn 
a Ghlinne (1770) overlooking Glen Docherty, Fionn 
Bheinn (3060) with a south-western shoulder Meall a' 
Chaoruinn (2313), a southern shoulder Creagan nan 


Laoigh (2101), and a south-eastern shoulder Dos 
Mhucarain (1358), Cam Daraith (1521), An Cabar (1831), 
and Cam na Beiste (1661), the last on the SW of the river 
Fannich. At the SE end of Loch Maree, between Bon 
Slioch and Beinn a' Mhuinidh, the range is deeply cut 
by Gleann Bianasdail, through which the Fhasaigh 
Water flows from Lochan Fada to Loch Maree, and 
again opposite the lower end of Glen Docherty by the 
hollow of the Bruachaig Water, the central portion of 
which is only 239 feet above sea-level. The portion to 
the E of this is, from the central summit, often spoken 
of as the Fionn Bheinn range. 

The promontory between Loch Ewe and Gair Loch is 
occupied by a low undulating ridge, which nowhere rises 
above 1000 feet, the highest points being An Cuaidh 
(971 feet) and Cnoc Breac (962). The portion between 
the head of Gair Loch and the NW end of Loch Maree 
rises higher, reaching at many places a height of over 
1200 feet ; 1357 at Meall an Spardain, 1381 at Meall 
an Doirein, and 1256 at An Groban, E of Gairloch. In 
the district between Loch Maree, the hollow SW of 
Kinlochewe, Glen Torridon, Upper Loch Torridon, and 
Loch Torridon is a curious circular group spreading out 
from the central Beinn Dearg, the surrounding summits 
being cut off by hollows radiating out from that hill 
like the spokes of a wheel. Beinn Dearg itself is 2995 
feet ; NNE is Beinn a' Chearcail (2576), with a northern 
shoulder Coinneachadh Beag (1830); E is Beinn Eighe, 
with a north-western point Ruadh-stac Mhor (3309), a 
western summit Sail Mhor (3217), an eastern summit 
Sgurr Ban (31SS), and a northern shoulder (2882) ; S is 
Liathach, overlooking Glen Torridon and the head of 
Upper Loch Torridon, and with a central summit Mullach 
an Rathain (3358), an eastern shoulder Spidean an a' 
Choire Liath (3456), and a western shoulder Sgorr a 
Chadail (2287) ; W is Beinn Alligin with a northern top 
(3232), a southern (3021), a western shoulder An Ruadh- 
mheallan (2196), and a north-western shoulder Beinn 
Bhreac (2031) ; NW is Busbheinn (2869); and NNW is 
Beinn an Eoin (2S01). In the triangular projection be- 
tween ^Loch Torridon, Loch Shieldaig, Glen Shieldaig, 
Glen Kishorn, Loch Kishorn, Loch Carron, and the Inner 
Sound, the summits to the NW of the glen that extends 
north-eastward from Applecross Bay are An Garbh- 
mheall(1615 feet), Croic-bheinn(1618), Meall nah-Uaidne 
(1701), and Meall an Fhireachan (2051). To the SE of the 
glen is the straggling Beinn Bhan (2936 feet), with Cam 
Dearg (2119) to the W, and Creag Ghorm (1945), Sgorr 
na Caorach (2539), and Meall Gorm (2325). To the 
NE is An Staonach (1682 feet), overlooking Glen 
Shieldaig ; and to the N, on the opposite side of the 
glen, is the ridge of Ben Shieldaig (1500). To the E 
of- this an irregular and much broken range stretches 
eastward to the upper end of Strath Bran, at the E end 
of Loch a Chroisg. The summits from W to E, begin- 
ning at Loch Damh to the E of Ben Shieldaig, are Creag 
Sgorach (2251 feet), Beinn Damh (2958), Meall na 
Saobhaidhe (1207), Beinn na h-Eaglaise (2410), Sgurr 
Dubh (2566), Beinn Liath Mhor (3034), Sgurr Ruadh 
(3141), Fuar ThoU (2968)— the last four between the 
upper part of Glen Torridon and Auchnashellach in Glen 
Carron— Carn Breac (2220), Beinn na Feusaige (2000), 
Cam Beag (1806), and the eastern shoulder of the range 
(1561). To the SW of Sgurr Ruadh an outlying spur 
of this range passes away down to the promontory be- 
tween Loch Kishorn and Loch Carron, the highest points 
being, from NE to SW, Meall a Chinn Deirg (3060 feet), 
An Ruadh Stac (2919), Sgorr a Gharaidh (2396), Glas 
Bhemn (2330), An Sgorr (1282), and Bad a Chreamba 
(1293), the last two being N of Strome Castle. 

To the SE of these, beyond the line of Glen Carron 
and Strath Bran, are a series of broken ranges extending 
from NE to SW or from E to W. Following first the 
line to the SE of the two great hollows just mentioned : 
to the W of Strome Ferry is Creag Mhaol (600 feet) ; 
between Strome Ferry and Loch Alsh are Beinn Raimh 
(1466) and Eirkton Hill (1481) ; and along the NW 
shore of Loch Long are Creag an Earbaill (1273) and 
farther E (1484) and Carn nan Onaich (1100). To the 


N of these towards Loch Carron are Carn nan Iomairean 
(1590feet)and Cam AlltnaBradh (1085); and following 
the line of heights east-north-eastward the summits are 
Meall Ruadh (1476), Carn Geur-aodainn (1950), Craig 
a' Chaoruinn Eagan (2200), Sgurr na Fiantaig (2830)— 
SE of Auchnashellach — Sgurr na Ceannaichean (2750), 
Moruisg (3026), with eastern shoulders Carn Gorm 
(2866) and Cam Liath (2813) ; Cnoc an t' Sithein (1218), 
Carn Mhartuinn (1765), Leanuidh (1841), Creag Ghlas 
(1895), Meall na Faochaig (2231), Sgurr a Mhuilinn 
(Vuillin ; 2750), with Sgurr a Ghlas Leathaid (2778) 
and Carn na Feith-rabhain (1437) to the NW, and Creag 
Ruadh (2388) to the SE ; Carn na Cre (1514), Meall 
Bhad Ghaineamhaich (1650), Creag Loch nan Dearcag 
(1760), and Sgurr Mairc Suidhe (1899) SW of Loch 
Luichart. On the opposite side of Loch Luichart, 
opposite Garve station, is Cnoc na h-Iolaire (1153 feet), 
and farther S Carn Faire nan Con (1210) and Creag a 
Chaoruinn (1078). From Moruisg eastward the southern 
boundary of this range is marked first by Glen Fhiodhaig 
(Evaig) and then by the valley of the river Meig and 
the upper part of Strath Conan. From Sgurr na Fian- 
taig a branch goes off to the S of Glen Fhiodhaig, and 
dividing at the top of Glen Orrin sends offshoots down 
each side of that glen, the principal summits being 
Sgurr Choinnich (3260 feet), Sgurr a' Chaoruinn (3452), 
Bidean an Eoin Deirg (3430), Maoile Lunndaidh (3294), 
Creag Dhubh Mhor Maoile Choillmas (1653), overlooking 
Loch Monar, and An Sithean (2661), where the range 
divides. The tops N of Glen Orrin are Sgurr Coire nan 
Eun (2581 feet), Bacan Eich (2791), Beinn Mheadhoin 
(Vane ; 2098), Meall Guibhais (2171), Creag Ghaineam- 
hach (1902), Carn Uilleim (2208), Meall nan Damh 
(2199), Cam na Cloiche Moire (1936), Carn Sgolbaidh 
(1342), Sron nan Saobhaidh (1339), and Beinn an Rudha 
Riabhaich (1497) ; to the S of Glen Orrin is Carn 
Eiteige (2891) and the summits about Sgurr Fbuar 
Thuill already mentioned in describing the boundaries ; 
while farther E in the same range is Sgurr a Chlaisean 
(2383), a northern shoulder of Cam nam Pollan. To 
the S of Sgurr na Lapaich on the boundary N of the 
top of Glen Cannich are Braigh a Choire Bhig (3303 feet) 
and Mullach a Ghlas Thuill (2591) ; to the W of the 
same hill is An Riabhachan, with two tops (3896 E ; 
3526 W), and An Cruachan (2312) and Beinn Bbeag 
(2030) to the N ; and farther W still to the N of Glen 
Elchaig are An Creachal Beag (2S54), Aonach Buidhe 
(2949), Am Fitheach (2847), Sguman Coinntich (2S81), 
and Ben Killilan (2466). From Am Fitheach the 
heights of Carn na Sean-luibe (1903 feet), Beinn 
Dronnaig (2612), Lurg Mhor (3234), Bidein a Choire 
Sheasgaich (3000), and Beinn Tharsuinn (2807) lead 
northward, and connect this group with Sgurr 
Choinnich. The heights to the S of Glen Shiel and 
Glen Clunie have been already noticed in dealing with 
the boundary. To the N of Loch Duich and Glen Shiel 
are Creag Reidh Raineach (1654 feet), Sgurr an Airgid 
(2757) — N of Eintail church — Sgurr na Moraich 
(2870) — at the head of Loch Duich — and Beinn Mhor, 
with the two tops Sgurr Fhuaran (Ouran ; 3505 NW) 
and Sgurr na Ciste Duibhe (3370 SE), the latter being 
connected 'with Sgurr a' Bhealaich Deirg already men- 
tioned on the boundary. Between Loch Dhuich and 
Glen Elchaig, NE of Creag Reidh Raineach, are Boc 
More (2064 feet), Carn Bad a Chreamha (2073), and 
Carn Loch nan Eun (1946). To the WNW of the last is 
Beinn a Mheadhoin (1351 feet), and to the SE Carn 
an Cruineachd. To the N of Ben Attow on the 
boundary is A'Ghlas-bheinn (3006 feet), and N of Carn 
Eige is Beinn Fhionnlaidh (3294). In the rest of the 
county the principal heights are simply scattered about 
without much regard to grouping, except to the E of 
Strath Garve, between which and the upper reaches of 
the Cromarty Firth is the huge bulk of Ben Wyvis 
(3429 feet) and the subsidiary heights around An 
Socach (3295 E), An Cabar (3106 S), and Little Wyvis 
(2497 W). From Ben Wyvis an undulating series of 
heights of from 1000 to 2800 feet leads away northward 
to Strath Oykell, a few of the principal hills being 




Creachan nan Sgadan (2147 feet), Beinn nan Eun 
(2436), Creag Ruadh (2194), Beinn a' Chaisteil (2500), 
Beinn Tharsuinn (2330), Cam Feur-lochain (2243), and 
Dun an Liath (2246) — the last four being ranged along 
the upper part of Strath Vaich and Gleann Mor. To 
the N E of Ben Wy vis another series of heights passes 
off, the hollows being occupied by the streams flowing 
SE to the Cromarty Firth. The principal tops between 
the Glass which reaches the Firth below Evanton, and 
the Alness which reaches it below Alness, are Meall Beag 
(2121 feet) and Meall Mor (2419), Meall an Tuirc (2049), 
Beinn na Diollaidhe (1851), and Caishlan(1715) ; between 
the upper part of the valley of the Alness, called Strath 
Rusdale, and the upper part of the valley of the Balna- 
gowan Burn, called Strath Rory, are Beinn Tharsuinn 
(2270) and Doire Leathan (2089). To the N of Strath 
Rory is Cnoc an t-Sabhail (1116 feet). 

Rivers and Lochs. — There are a considerable number 
of rivers throughout the county, and the small streams 
are simply innumerable. On the NE the drainage is 
carried to the Dornoch Firth by the Oykell, of which 
the principal tributary from the Ross-shire side is the 
river Einig, and by the river Carron, the head-stream of 
which is the AbhuinnaGhlinne Mhoir in GleannMor, and 
the principal tributary the Black Water (NW). Farther 
down the firth are the Wester Fearn Burn, the Balblair 
Burn, the Edderton Burn, and the Aldie Water. On the 
extreme NW is the river Kirkaig, and Enard Bay receives 
the river Polly and the Abhuinn Owskeich. On the N 
side of the outer part of Loch Broom is the river Kanaird 
in the strath of the same name, and in the inner portion 
the Ullapool from Glen Achallt and the Lael and Broom 
at the head of the loch, the latter being formed by the 
junction of the Droma from Dirrie More (SE), and the 
Cuileig from Gleann Mor* (SAY). Little Loch Broom 
receives the Strathbeg river at the top, and into Gruin- 
ard Bay flow the Gruinard river from Strath na Sheal- 
lag on the SE, and Little Gruinard river from Fionn 
Loch in the centre. The surplus water from Loch Maree 
reaches Loch Ewe by the river Ewe, and Loch Maree 
itself receives the Fhasaigh from Lochan Fada on the 
NE side near the head ; Kinlochewe river at the head — 
the principal streams of this being the Bruachaig (E) 
and the Ghairbhe (SW) — and on the SW side the rivers 
Grudie and Lungard. The principal stream flowing 
into Gair Loch is the Kerry, and Upper Loch Torridon 
receives the river Torridon at the head, and the Balgay 
from Loch Damh on the N side, while Loch Shieldaig 
receives the Shieldaig from Glen Shieldaig at the upper 
end, and the Abhuinn Dubh from Loch Lundie on the 
SW. In the rest of the Applecross peninsula a number 
of fair sized streams flow direct to the Inner Sound, the 
chief being the river Applecross flowing into Applecross 
Bay, a little to the S of the centre. Loch Kishorn 
receives the Kishorn, Loch Carron the river Carron, 
Loch Alsh a fair sized stream from Gleann Udalain, 
Loch Long the Ling (NE) and the Elchaig (ESE), and 
Loch Duich at the upper end the Croe (NE) and the 
Shiel (SE). At the top of Glen Shiel the watershed is 
crossed, and the Clunie flows eastward to Loch Clunie 
at the head of Glen Morriston. To the NE of Glen 
Elchaig are streams flowing to the upper end of Loch 
Monar, and so away down Strath Farrar, and farther to 
the NE still is the river Orrin and the small streams 
flowing to it. To the N of Glen Orrin is Strath 
Conan, with the river Conan issuing from Loch 
Luichart, and receiving about 1J mile from the Loch 
the Meig (W), which flows through a long narrow wind- 
ing glen, extending westwards to Moruisg. Flowing 
into Loch Luichart is the Bran, which issues from 
Loch a Chroisg and flows down Strath Bran, passing 
through the lochs of Achanalt and Chuilinn near the 
lower end, and between the latter loch and Loch 
Luichart receiving the Fannich from Loch Fannich 
on the N. To the E of Loch Luichart is Loch Garve, 
which receives from Strath Garve the Black Water, 
which is formed by the union of streams from Strath 
Rannoch (N), Strath Vaich (N), and the Glascarnoch 
* Not to be confounded with the Gleann Mor of Strath Carron. 

river (NW). Below Loch Garve the stream is still 
known as the Black Water, and it flows into the Conan 
14 mile below Contin church. The principal streams 
flowing into the Moray Firth are the Avoch, Rose- 
markie, and Ethie Burns ; and the Cromarty Firth 
receives Newhall Burn (S) at Udale Bay, the Conan 
from Strath Conan and the Peffery from Strathpeffer, 
both at the upper end ; the Skiack and Glass passing to 
the S and N respectively of Evanton village, both rising 
on Ben Wy vis, and the latter passing through Loch Glass ; 
the Alness flowing through Alness village ; and the Bal- 
nagowan Burn flowing into the head of Nigg Bay. 

There are about 80 loehs of fair size, and an immense 
number of smaller lochs and lochans. Of these the 
principal only can be mentioned here, the figures show- 
ing the height of the surface above sea-level. Other 
information about all the leading ones will be found in 
separate articles dealing with them. On the Kirkaig 
are Fionn Loch (357 feet) and Loch Veyatie (366) ; on 
the Polly, Loch Skinaskink (243) and Lochan Gainm- 
heich (251), and connected with it farther S is Loch 
na Doire Seirbhe (222) ; on the Owskeich are Loch 
Owskeich (72) and Loch Bad a' Ghaill and Loch 
Lurgan, both 173 ; and in Glen Achallt is Loch Achallt 
(265). At the summit level of the pass of Dirrie More 
is Loch Droma (about 900 feet) ; and on the other 
branch of the Broom river — the Cuileig — is Loch a 
Bhraoin (813), while to the SE in a corrie of Sgurr 
Mir is the lofty Loch a Mhadaidh (1831). In the 
course of the Gruinard river is Loch na Sheallag (279 
feet), and stretching south-eastward from Loch Ewe is the 
celebrated Loch Maree (32). To the N of Loch Sheal- 
lag are Lochan Gaineamhaich, Loch Mor Bad, and 
Lochan Eich Dhuibh (737 feet) ; to the E of the centre of 
Loch Ewe are Loch a Bhaid-luachraich (311) and Loch 
Fada (498). To the NE of Loch Maree and distant from 
it 3 miles, across the mountain ridge, are Fionn Loch 
(559 feet) and Lochan Fada (1000) — the former having a 
number of smaller lochans connected with it ; among 
the hills between this and Loch Sheallag are Loch 
Ghiubhsachain, Loch Toll a Mhadaidh, Lochan na 
Bearta, Lochan Feith, and Fuar Loch Mor ; and farther 
N between Little Gruinard river and Gruinard river is 
Loch a Mhadaidh Mor. Connected with the river Ewe 
and the NW end of Loch Maree are Loch Tollie (W, 388 
feet) and Loch Kernsary (E) ; and connected with the 
upper part of it are Loch Garbhaig (1000) N of Ben 
Slioch ; Loch Clair and Loch Coulin (WNW) on the 
course of the Ghairbhe and about 280 feet above sea- 
level ; and the small Lochan Coire Mhic Fhearchair at a 
height of about 1900 feet on Beinn Eighe. On the course 
of the Kerry are Loch Bad an Sgalaig (353 feet), Dubh 
Loch close beside it, and at the source Loch na h'Oidhche 
(1250) between Busbheinn and Beinn an Eoin. On the 
opposite side of Busbheinn are Loch a Ghobhainn and 
Loch a Bhealaich (both 1000 feet), the source of the 
Horrisdale Water, farther down which are Loch Gain- 
eamhaich (900) and Loch Braigh Horrisdale (302) ; the 
stream flows N to Gair Loch. To the E of Loch 
Diabaig, in the SE of outer Loch Torridon, is Loch 
Mhullaich (443 feet) ; to the S of Upper Loch Torridon 
is Loch Damh (129), and farther up the same hollow 
Loch Coultrie, and on the Amhainn Dubh flowing into 
Loch Shieldaig is Loch Lundie (753). On the river 
Carron are Loch Dhughaill (168 feet), and high up near 
the sources Loch Sgamhain (Seaven, 491) ; at the source 
of the northern branch of the river Ling is Loch an 
Laoigh (S77) ; and on the Elchaig are Loch na Leitrach 
(281), and at the source Loch Muirichinn (1500) ; while 
in Glen Clunie is the upper half of Loch Clunie (606), 
and on the course of the river Loyne part of Loch Loyne 
(700). At the top of Glen Cannich — which is mostly 
in Inverness-shire — is Loch Lungard (761 feet) and 
about half of Loch Mullardoch (705) ; at the top of Glen 
Strath Farrar — also mostly in Inverness-shire — is about 
I of Loch Monar (663), and farther W An Gead Loch, 
Loch an Tacbdaidh, and Loch Calavie (1129) ; near the 
source of the Orrin are Am Fiar Loch (1000) and Loch 
na Caoidhe ; in Strath Conan are Loch Beannachan 


R E 

msm^m mmm b 

British Miles 


(465), Loch Luichart (280), and Loch Achilty (170) ; 
and in Strath Bran Loch a Chuilinn (350), Loch Aehan- 
alt (365), Loch a Chroisg (508), and, SW of Auchnasheen, 
Loch Gown (543) ; while in the tributary hollow of the 
river Fannich is Loch Fannich (822). In the valley of 
the Black Water is Loch Garve (220 feet), with the small 
Loch na Croic at the lower end ; and at the top of 
Strath Vaich are Loch Toll a' Mhic and Gorm Loch ; 
while near the source of Glascarnoch river is Loch a 
Gharbh Raoin and Loch Coire Lair. In the lower basin 
of the Conan is Loch Ussie (419 feet) ; NE of Ben Wyvis 
are Loch Glass (715) and Loch Morie (622), the latter 
sending off a tributary to the Alness ; 1 mile N by 
E of Fearn station is Loch Eye (51) ; on the upper 
waters of the Carron (Dornoch Firth) is Loch Crom 
(1730) between Beinn a' Chaisteil and Beinn Tharsuinn; 
and in Strath Oykell are the Kyle of Sutherland (tidal) 
near the mouth and part of Loch Ailsh (498) ; while on 
Corriemulzie Burn, a tributary of the Einig, is Loch a 
Choire Mhoir, and on Abhuinn Poiblidh, a tributary of 
Rappach Water, the main source of the Eiuig, is Loch 
na Daimh (672), and NW from it the small Lochan 
Eilean and Clar Lochan. The whole of the principal 
rivers and lakes abound with fish of various kinds, 
and furnish capital sport, but most of them are pre- 
served, being let with the adjacent shootings. 

On the W coast there are a large number of islands, 
but most of them are of small size. The chief are : — 
in Enard Bay, Eilean Mor (4 x 2 furl.) ; in outer Loch 
Broom, Ristal (8J x 8 furl.), Tanera More (lg x 1§ mile), 
Tanera Beag (6^ x 4 furl. ), and Horse Island (8x3 furl. ) ; 
farther up at Strath Kanaird, Isle Martin (1 x | 
mile) ; in Gruinard Bay, Grninard Island (10 x 5 furl.) ; 
in Loch Ewe, the Isle of Ewe (2 x | miles) ; at the 
mouth of Gair Loch, Longa (1 x A mile), and farther 
in, Eilean Horrisdale (3x3 furl.) ;~at the SW point of 
Applecross, the Crowlins, of which Eilean Mor is 1J x § 
mile, and Eilean Meadhonach (8x2 furl.); at the en- 
trance to Loch Kishorn, Eishorn Island (2 x H furl.); 
and near the entrance to Loch Alsh, Eilean nan Gillean 
(2x1 furl.). Of these the ones that are or have been 
inhabited within the last twenty years with their popu- 
lations in 1871 and 1881 respectively are : — Crowlin 
(26, 9), Ewe (50, 43), Gillean (10, 6), Gruinard (0, 6), 
Horrisdale (37, 0), Kishorn (6, 0), Isle Martin (42, 42), 
Ristal (27, 0), and Tanera (114, 119). The county of 
Cromarty is scattered all over Ross-shire in twenty 
different pieces, of which a great many are along the 
peninsula of Tarbet, to the S of the Dornoch firth. 
They cannot all be particularly mentioned here, but the 
four largest are the portion to the S of the entrance to 
the Cromarty Firth, extending 12 miles along the shore 
of the firth, with an average breadth of 3 miles ; a 
portion in Coigach, in the extreme NW, extending 20 
miles from Enard Bay to Corriemulzie Bum, and with 
an average breadth of about 10 miles ; a portion extend- 
ing from the top of Ben Wyvis to Loch Ussie, 8 miles, 
and with an average breadth of 2J miles ; and a portion 
N of Loch Fannich, measuring 5 miles from N to S, and 
7 from E to W, and including all the high ground round 
Sgurr Mor. For a detached portion of the county of 
Nairn, at the top of the Cromarty Firth, reference may 
be made to Nairnshire. 

As might be expected the scenery of Ross-shire is 
extremely varied. The western part of the county 
shows little but a sea of hills with brown undulating 
expanses of moorland and bare rock, intersected by 
hollows occupied by streams and lochs, and the whole 
in most places dull and dismal, except when the heather 
is in bloom. Many of the hollows, however, contain 
fertile haughs, though except in Mid and Easter Ross 
there is but little wood. Natural forests appear to have 
anciently covered almost the entire county, but they 
are now represented by straggling copses of oak, birch. 
and Scotch pine. In the early part of last century Lord 
Seaforth set the example of extensive planting, and 
subsequently many of the other proprietors followed 
suit, and extensive plantations now exist, principally, 
however, along the shores of the Beauly, Cromarty, and 


Dornoch Firths, and especially about Brahan, Redcastle, 
Tulloch, Novar, and Balnagowan. The greater part of 
the land along the firths is also fertile and highly cul- 

Geology. — The striking physical features which arrest 
the attention of the observer in the W part of the 
county are due to the remarkable geological formations 
in the NW of Scotland. In this county as well as in 
Sutherlandshire there is a considerable development of 
those Archaean rocks which formed the floor of the suc- 
ceeding Cambrian deposits. They are the oldest rocks 
of which we have any record in Scotland, and whatever 
may have been their origin, there can be no doubt that 
as a whole they are now highly crystalline. Consisting 
mainly of micaceous and hornblendic gneiss with bands 
of mica schist and numerous veins of granite and peg- 
matite, they have generally a persistent strike towards 
the WNW or NW. Nowhere are the characteristic 
features of these ancient rocks more strikingly developed 
than on the shores of Loch Maree, between the mouth 
of the loch and Letterewe, where they form irregular 
lumpy hills or bosses, retaining the rounded outline im- 
parted to them by the ice-sheet. An interesting feature 
connected with the series in that district is the occur- 
rence of a crystalline limestone on the shores of Loch 
Maree above the house of Letterewe. It has been 
quarried on both sides of the Fuolish, where it is 
associated with dark grey gneiss and schist intersected 
with quartz veins. From the S bank of Loch Maree 
the Archaean gneiss can be traced SW to Gair Loch, while 
at Shieldaig on Loch Torridon it reappears from under- 
neath the great pile of Cambrian Sandstones. At these 
localities it possesses the same NW strike, and presents 
the same crystalline characters. 

To these crystalline rocks succeed a prodigious 
development of red sandstones, grits, and conglomerates, 
regarded by Murchison as the equivalents of the Cam- 
brian rocks of Wales. They are grandly developed in 
the mountains of Applecross, on the colossal heights N 
of Loch Torridon, and again on the shores of Loch 
Maree. Owing to the comparatively low angles of in- 
clination of the beds, the successive outcrops form a 
series of terraces in marked contrast with the Archaean 
rocks, on which they rest uneonformably. The uncon- 
formable junction is admirably seen on the shores of 
Loch Maree, Loch Torridon, and Gair Loch. Where 
the gneiss passes underneath the overlying grits, it 
presents a rounded contour analogous to that produced 
By glacial action : indeed the suggestion has been made 
by Dr A. Geikie that these rounded outlines may be 
due to such an agency acting in pre-Cambrian time. 
At the base there is usually a coarse breccia composed 
mainly of subangular fragments of the underlying 
crystalline rocks. Behind the hotel at Gair Loch this 
basal breccia is admirably exposed, and is remarkably 
coarse ; some of the included blocks of schist measur- 
ing 5 feet in length. Indeed, this deposit has been 
compared to moraine matter on account of the angular 
earthy character of the material. This breccia is suc- 
ceeded by alternations of brecciated sandstones, fine 
conglomerates and grits, eventually graduating upwards 
into fine grained red sandstones. 

The series just described is overlaid uneonformably 
by quartzites, fucoid beds, and limestones, which, from 
evidence obtained in Sutherlandshire, are regarded as 
of Lower Silurian age. The various subdivisions of 
these Silurian rocks as worked out in the recent Geologi- 
cal Survey of Sutherland will be given in the general 
article on the geology of Scotland. At present it will 
be sufficient to state that the same zones, varying from 
the basal quartzites to the lowest subdivision of the 
limestone, are also to be found in Ross-shire. With the 
aid of these zones it will be possible to unravel the com- 
plicated structure of the ground extending along the 
line of junction between the Silurian rocks and the 
eastern schists. One of the most remarkable features 
in the W of Ross-shire is the striking appearance pre- 
sented by certain lofty mountains of Cambrian Sand- 
stone, the tops of which are capped with a thin cake of 



white quartzite. In some instances, as on Ben Leagach, 
the basal quartzites have been isolated by denudation, 
and hence in the far distance they resemble a thin 
capping of snow on the sombre-tinted sandstones. 

In Eoss-shire there is the clearest evidence in proof of 
those great terrestrial displacements which intervened 
between the Lower Silurian period and the Old Red 
Sandstone (see general article on Geology of Scotland, 
vol. iii., Orel. Gaz.). Not only do the eastern schists 
overlie the Silurian rocks, but at certain localities the 
comparatively unaltered Archsean gneiss is made to rest 
transgressively on various members of the Silurian series. 
The latter phenomenon is well seen in Glen Logan, N 
of Kinloehewe, and on the hill slope on the right bank 
of the stream. This section is of the highest import- 
ance, as showing that the remarkable geological structure 
which prevails in Eriboll is also to be met with in Ross- 
shire. To Professor Bonney belongs the credit of having 
been the first to point out that the coarsely crystalline 
gneiss in Glen Logan is merely a portion of the Archaean 
gneiss, which has been brought up by a great fault, and 
made to overlie the quartzites and limestones. On the 
right bank of the stream the quartzites, fucoid beds, 
serpulite grit, and limestone follow each other in regular 
order, till they are abruptly truncated by a massive 
crystalline rock resembling the Archaean gneiss, which 
occurs in the bed of the stream, and can be followed up 
the hill slope to the W. Though it presents in places 
a highly crushed appearance, still the NW strike is 
retained throughout a great part of the mass. Veins of 
granite, pegmatite, and lenticular bosses of hornblende 
rock occur in the midst of the gneiss. Indeed, the pre- 
sence of these veins in the foliated rock has, in a great 
measure, given rise to the controversy regarding the true 
nature of this crystalline mass. On the E side of the 
valley the upper great reversed fault, or thrust plane, 
is met with, which ushers in the eastern schists. At 
that locality they consist of fine grey and blue flaggy 
schists, which at the first blush one would be apt to 
regard as slightly altered Silurian flagstones ; but the 
microscopic examination plainly shows that the con- 
stituents have undergone considerable alteration. These 
rocks are well developed in Glen Docherty, and they are 
traceable for a long distance across the county above 
' the upper thrust plane.' Inclined at a gentle angle to 
the SE, they are eventually overlain towards the E by 
more highly crystalline garnetiferous schists exposed 
on Ben Fyn. These are followed by flaggy mica schists 
and gneiss, which are repeated by a series of folds to the 
E border of the county, where they are covered by the 
Old Red Sandstone. There is one remarkable zone in 
the eastern schists deserving of notice, as it possesses 
peculiar lithological characters. It is admirably seen in 
Strath Garve near Innisbae, both in the stream section 
and on the ground by the roadside, where it consists 
of a coarse porphyritic gneiss, with large crystals of 
felspar, the loug axes of which run parallel with the 
lines of foliation. The plates of mica envelop the 
felspar crystals, and the peculiar arrangement of the 
latter relatively to the other ingredients is identical with 
that occurring in the aitgen gneiss of German petro- 
graphers. Another remarkable band, found between 
Garve and Dingwall, is the famous garnet rock, which 
has become celebrated for the size and beauty of the 
garnets obtained from it. Finally, reference ought to 
be made to the occurrence of that rare mineral, zoisite, 
in the neighbourhood of Garve, as recently described by 
Mr W. Bell. 

Along the E border of the county the metamorphic 
crystalline rocks are covered unconformably by the 
representatives of the Old Red Sandstone. The boun- 
dary between these two formations forms a sinuous line 
which can be traced from the neighbourhood of Beauly, 
N by Strathpeffer and the Ault Graat, to Edderton on 
the Dornoch Firth. At the base of the series there 
is generally a coarse breccia or conglomerate forming 
rounded hills ; the pebbles being composed of the 
underlying crystalline rocks. These coarse conglomer- 
ates graduate upwards into red or chocolate sandstones 


and flags, with grey bituminous flags and shales, which 
are seen in Strathpeffer, in the Ault Graat, and in the 
Alness river. On this horizon the Rev. Dr Joass of 
Golspie obtained a series of ichthyolites from calcareous 
nodules embedded in red clays closely resembling the 
well-known fish bed on the S side of the Moray Firth. 
These ichthyolitie flagstones are overlaid by an upper 
band of conglomerate of considerable thickness, through 
which the famous gorge of the Ault Graat has been 
excavated. To this zone succeeds reddish sandstones 
and shales which apparently form a great synclinal fold 
in the basin of the Cromarty Firth, rising with a steep 
inclination on the E side of the basin. Along the Black- 
Isle from Munlochy to the Sutors of Cromarty, there is 
a great anticlinal fold revealing the ancient crystalline 
rocks, and the conglomerates marking the base of the 
series. In the calcareous nodules embedded in the clays 
overlying these conglomerates at Cromarty, Hugh 
Miller obtained a fine series of fish remains — a locality 
which has since become famous through his classic 
descriptions. The same anticlinal fold is traceable in 
the ridge to the N of the entrance to the Cromarty 
Firth, where similar basal beds occur. From the 
investigations of the Rev. Dr Joass, it would appear 
that fossils are to be met with in the flaggy strata 
at Geanies. In the cliff at the W boundary of 
Geanies there are several bands of calcareous shale rest- 
ing on red sandstones which have a general inclina- 
tion to the NW. These beds are traceable along the 
shore as far as the site of the old Mill of Tarrel, where 
they have yielded an entire specimen of Coccostcus and 
other ichthyolites. It is highly probable, therefore, 
that this series of calcareous flagstones occupies the same 
horizon as the flaggy strata on Culloden Moor. Beyond 
Geanies the strata just described are followed by reddish, 
grey, and yellow sandstones resembling the Upper Old 
Red Sandstone on the S side of the Moray Firth, which 
are specially interesting on account of the curious rep- 
tilian tracks found in them. 

In connection with the Old Red bituminous flags in 
Strathpeffer, reference ought to be made to the occur- 
rence of the mineral Albertite in veins up to two inches 
thick. From the descriptions of these veins recently 
given by Mr Morrison, Dingwall, it appears that in all 
cases they are vertical or nearly so, and. that they trend 
E and W, irrespective of the geological formation in 
which they are found. They occur both in the gneiss 
at the head of the valley and in the micaceous sandstone 
farther down the strath. The mineral is found even in 
the E and W fissures in the Conglomerate overlying 
these sandstones, but, strange to say, not in the cracks 
with a different trend. 

At the base of the cliff formed by the Palaeozoic strata 
of the Black Isle and the N Sutor, there are certain 
patches of Oolitic rocks which, notwithstanding their 
limited development, are of great interest. They occur 
on the beach beneath high-water mark at Eathie, and 
again at Port-an-Righ and Cadh-an-Righ near Sand- 
wick. The great fault traversing the great glen is pro- 
longed towards the NE, skirting the base of the Old 
Red Sandstone cliff of the Black Isle, and by means of 
this dislocation these patches of Jurassic strata have 
been brought into conjunction with the Palaeozoic rocks. 
Near the village of Sandwick, the strata are composed 
of hardened shales with bands of argillaceous lime- 
stone which are traversed by numerous transverse faults 
shifting the outcrops of the beds. From the researches 
of Professor Judd it appears that the patches at Port- 
an-Righ and Cadh-an-Righ belong to the Lower and 
Middle Oolite, while that at Eathie pertains to the 
Upper Oolite. The section at Cadh-an-Righ shows 
the following order of succession : next the talus at 
the base of the cliff covering the position of the 
fault, there are estuarine sandstones and blue clays 
followed by sandstones, clays, and limestones, with 
fresh-water fossils. These are succeeded by shelly bands 
and clays yielding both fresh-water and marine shells, 
overlain by a thin coal seam. According to the classi- 
fication adopted by Professor Judd, these zones represent 


the Lower Oolite, the thin coal seam being the equi- 
valent of the Main coal at the top of the Lower Oolites 
of Sutherland. Here, however, it has thinned away to 
a few inches, but its position is clearly denned by the 
'roof-bed,' consisting of sandy clay merging into hard 
sandstone, becoming in places calcareous from the 
abundance of shells. A remarkable feature connected 
with the ' roof-bed ' at this locality is the number and 
size of the belemnites found in the upper part of the 
band, but otherwise the fossils agree with those obtained 
from the same horizon in Sutherland. This zone is 
followed by sandstone, sandy clays, and dark blue clays, 
with marine fossils belonging to the Middle Oolite. 
At Port-an-Righ certain dark blue shales, with bands 
of sandy argillaceous limestone, are met with, which 
are regarded by Professor Judd as the equivalents of 
the Coralline Oolite of England. They have yielded, 
among other forms, Belemnites sulcatiis, B. abhreviatus, 
Ammonites vertebralis, A. cordatus, A. cxcavatus, Gry- 
phcca dilatata, Pcetcn demissus. The small patches at 
Eathie, which have also become widely known through 
the publications of Hugh Miller, consist of Upper 
Oolite shales and limestones, which have been thrown 
into a series of sharp folds, and display a crushed 
appearance close to the fault. A remarkable feature 
connected with these patches at Eathie is the occurrence 
of pseudo-dykes traversing the shales and limestones 
usually in the direction of the axes of the anticlinal 
folds. Instead of being composed of igneous materials, 
these dykes consist of ordinary sediment ; indeed, an 
oolitic shell was found by Hugh Miller in one of the 
veins. It is evident that the fissures must have 
been filled from above with the sediment, and that this 
must have taken place subsequent to the faulting and 
folding of the strata. They have generally been con- 
sidered as belonging to the Lias, but on palfeontological 
grounds Professor Judd classifies them with the Upper 
Oolites of Sutherland. The peculiar species of ammo- 
nites and belemnites, the abundance of Lima concentrica, 
Ostrea Pocmeri, with the remains of Conifers, Cycads, 
and Ferns, seem to indicate close affinities with the 
types of fossils obtained from the Upper Oolites of 
Sutherland. In the S patch at Eathie Bay the strata 
exhibit certain lithological differences from their 
Sutherland equivalents, as they consist of finely lami- 
nated shales with bands of limestone ; but in the N 
patch the intercalation of grits and sandstones in the 
black shales points to physical conditions resembling 
those which prevailed during part of this period in 
Sutherland. The presence of thin bands with plant 
remains led to unsuccessful attempts in search of coal 
at this locality. The following fossils have been ob- 
tained from these beds : Belemnites spicularis, B. obeliscus, 
Ammonites mutabilis, A. flexuosus, A. biplex, Lima 
concentrica, Avicula sp. , Nucula sp., Pecten sp. , etc. 
In addition to these fossils numerous fish remains have 
been found, consisting of hones, teeth, scales, etc., and 
with these are associated the vertebrae of Ichthyosaurus. 
From these references it is apparent that, though the 
patches of Secondary strata at the base of the Ross- 
shire cliff are very fragmentary, they are of great 
interest as affording means of comparison with their 
representatives in Sutherland. 

The glacial phenomena of Ross-shire are in many 
respects remarkable, though only a brief allusion can 
here be made to them. On the W seaboard the general 
trend of the ice-markings is towards the NW or the 
AVNW. On the area occupied by the Archrean gneiss 
on the shores of Loch Maree the rounded contour in- 
dicating intense abrasion by the ice-sheet is everywhere 
apparent, the prevailing direction of the strise being 
parallel with the long axis of the loch. Round Gair 
Loch and Loch Torridon the trend of the striae is WNW. 
Perhaps the most remarkable examples of the effects 
produced by the ice-sheet in polishing and striating 
rock surfaces are to be found in the areas occupied by 
the quartzites. At the head of Little Loch Broom, at 
Corryhourachan, there is a magnificently glaciated slope 
of quartzite, where the striae are as fresh as if the ice 


had but recently produced them. On the E side of the 
watershed the geueral direction of the ice-markings is 
towards the Moray Firth. 

In the lower parts of the valleys bordering the Moray 
Firth there is a considerable development of boulder 
clay, and on both sides of the great watershed the 
moraines belonging to the later glaciation cover ex- 
tensive areas. Indeed, there is no more striking 
feature in the glacial phenomena of the W part of Ross- 
shire than the great extent and size of the moraines. 
Most of the main valleys and the tributary streams 
possess great groups of moraines. Further, we find on 
the shores of the Beauly, Dornoch, and Cromarty Firths 
a considerable development of gravels which probably 
belong in part to the 100-feet sea beach. This high-level 
terrace is very imperfectly preserved compared with the 
25-feet beach which forms a belt of flat land round the 
fiords on the W coast and the firths on the E seaboard. 

Soils and Agriculture. — The soil varies very much, 
the western hill districts having it mostly very poor 
and had, while the other parts of the county include 
some of the best agricultural land in Scotland. All the 
arable land lies on the E coast or in the glens and 
haughs of the streams, the rest of the surface being 
pastoral or under game. In the Black Isle the soil 
varies considerably, being light and gravelly along the 
centre of the ridge, while all along the coast it is rich 
black loam, and good clay with a subsoil of sand, gravel, 
and clay. Deposits of Moray-coast or pan (see Elgin- 
shire) have been mostly broken up and removed. The 
clay subsoil is in some places on the Cromarty Firth 
side of great depth. On the SW it is a light but fertile 
loam. Round Dingwall the soil varies from a good 
clayey loam, which produces excellent crops of wheat, 
to light rich friable mould, and through this to moun- 
tain clay, sand, and gravel, and poor mossy mould. 
Along the upper part of the Cromarty Firth, on the N" 
side, the land is, on the low ground, heavy loam over- 
lying clay, and, on the higher ground, a gravelly loam, 
but farther to the NE it becomes lighter. In the fiat 
between the Cromarty and Dornoch Firths it varies 
from loam to clay or to sand, but the loam is the pre- 
vailing soil, and is in some places very deep, and yields 
excellent crops. The E coast is much drier than the 
W coast, the rainfall along the former averaging about 
50 inches, and in the E about 24, the difference being 
accounted for by the prevailing wind, which, being 
westerly and south-westerly, comes in from the Atlantic 
laden with vapour. Between Loch Carron and Loch 
Alsh, where no outlying islands protect the mainland, 
the rainfall is sometimes excessive, and has been know : n 
to exceed 70 inches in a single year. The average mean 
annual temperature is about 46°, the greater summer 
heat on the E coast being counterbalanced by the milder 
winters on the W. Complaints were once common that 
the seasons were becoming gradually colder and harvests 
later, but this seems now to have ceased to be the case. 

Up till the end of last century farming was in a very 
backward state, but in 1798 the farm of Meikle Tarrel, 
in the parish of Tarbat, ' was taken on a nineteen years' 
lease by a farmer [Mr George Mackenzie] who had 
studied the most approved mode of agriculture in East 
Lothian. The farm, which then consisted of about 250 
acres of arable land, was occupied by several small 
tenants, whose lands were in a state of wretchedness, 
and their house afforded accommodation for neither man 
nor beast. This farmer brought with him horses and 
implements of husbandry of the very best description 
from the south, as also farm servants of his own training. 
This was the first introduction of modern husbandry 
into this part of the country, from which the introducer 
obtained the name of Farmer George. In bringing his 
system into practice he had at first to contend with 
many deep-rooted prejudices. Even the proprietor 
could not then understand how his interests were to be 
forwarded by encouraging his tenants. In the first 
place a dwelling-house was to be built, as also a set of 
suitable offices, houses, and a thrashing-mill and garden, 
etc., enclosed. All this was done at the farmer's own 



expense, without any assistance from the proprietor, and 
at an outlay of £1500. The soil being good, and the 
new system bringing it into favourable operation, the 
farmer soon began to reap the reward of his expense and 
labours, and in the seventh year after his entry he had 
the satisfaction of obtaining for his wheat and oats the 
highest price in Mark Lane — circumstances which dissi- 
pated the opposition of prejudice and raised up a spirit 
of imitation.' He was soon followed by others, and 
' during the first fifty years of the present century, ' 
says Mr James Macdonald in his paper ' On the Agri- 
culture of the Counties of Ross and Cromarty,' in the 
Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society 
for 1877, ' it is not too much to say that the agricultural 
and social customs of Ross and Cromarty were com- 
pletely revolutionised. Large tracts of land were 
reclaimed, draining and fencing were executed exten- 
sively, new dwelling-houses and farm-steadings were 
built, roads were made, improved farm implements 
were introduced, threshing-mills brought into the 
country, a regular and systematic course of cropping 
was adopted, artificial manures introduced ; the barley, 
oats, and potatoes of the olden times supplemented by 
wheat, turnips, and clover ; better horses, better cattle, 
and better sheep were bred ; and, in short, almost every 
trace of the primitive simplicity and rude barbarities of 
the feudalistic time were abolished for ever.' In the 
latter part of the century the changes have been equally 
great, fencing, draining, squaring fields, and reconstruc- 
tion of buildings having been extensively carried on ; 
the introduction of artificial manures and further im- 
provements on the system of cropping have made great 
changes for the better ; and the communication estab- 
lished by the construction of the Highland railway has 
given a great impetus to the breeding and rearing of 
stock for the market. Since 1850 over 51,000 acres of 
land have been reclaimed, and the rental in some 
districts has increased over 100 per cent., and on an 
average probably over 40 per cent, everywhere. The 
principal reclamations have been carried on by Mr 
Fletcher of Rosehaugh, the Hon. H. J. Baillie of Red- 
castle, Mr Mackenzie of Ord, Mr Davidson of Tulloch, 
Sir Alexander Matheson of Ardross, and the late Mr 
Kenneth Murray of Geanies, and Mr John Fowler of 
Braemore. In 1854 the whole area under crop of all 
kinds, including hay, grass, and permanent pasture, was 
about 87,919 acres, and in 1876 this had risen to 
124,826 acres; while in 1884 it was 134,187 acres, a 
percentage of arable land to whole area of only 67, that 
for all Scotland being 24-2, and for Fife 74-8. The 
areas under the various crops at different dates are given 
in the following tables : — 


Crops. —Acres. 



Barley or 


Total of 
All Grains. 









Grass, Root Crops, etc. — Acres. 


Hay, Grass, and 
Permanent Pasture. 








while there are about 1500 acres annually under other 
root crops or lying fallow. Harvest in Easter Ross 
begins usually about the second or third week of Aug- 
ust. The farms are worked mostly on the five-shift 
rotation, but for some of the lighter lands the six-shift 
is adopted, and on a few of the very rich soils the four- 
shift. The average yield of wheat is from 28 to 36 


bushels, but on some of the richer soils from 40 to 56 
bushels are produced ; barley, 32 to 48 bushels ; oats, 
32 to 48 bushels ; turnips, 20 to 35 tons ; and potatoes, 
from 4 to 8 tons. The last are very variable, and the 
figures given are too high for the product of the poorer 
class of crofts. The great decrease of the area under 
wheat within the last 10 years is as well marked here as 
elsewhere, and is the more noteworthy as Ross was 
formerly the fifth wheat county in Scotland, and in 
point of quality and amount produced per acre ranks 
even higher. It is to be accounted for partly by the 
effect of recent wet seasons on the rich land on which it 
is grown, but still more by the great decline in the 
price of wheat. 

The agricultural live-stock in the county at different 
dates is shown in the following table : — 



Cattle. Horses. 










The number of cattle bred is small, but the number fed 
is very large. The animals are mostly Highland or 
crosses, and at Udale is a herd of shorthorns. From 
the table it is seen that in 30 years the number of 
cattle has been trebled, but the figures by no means 
represent the actual number of cattle fed in the county, 
as cattle bought in autumn are fattened during the 
winter and sold off in spring before the Board of Trade 
returns have been collected. The farm horses were 
formerly broad low-set 'garrons,' and though now 
greatly improved by the introduction of good Clydes- 
dale stallions, they still want bone and substance, 
and among the smaller farmers and crofters ponies are 
common. The area in Wester Ross under sheep is 
enormous, and, indeed, Wester Ross is almost as 
celebrated for its sheep farms as Easter Ross for its 
arable land. Systematic sheep-farming was introduced 
into the county about 1764 by Sir J. L. Ross of Balna- 
gowan, who, taking one of the sheep farms on his 
estate into his own hands, replaced the native small- 
growing Kerry breed of sheep with black-faces, and 
for 7 years — the only sheep farmer north of Aberdeen- 
shire — he, in spite of all opposition, stubbornly stuck 
to his purpose of introducing a better breed of sheep. 
By and by, however, others joined him, and the begin- 
ning of the present century saw sheep-farming firmly 
established in Ross-shire. In the first 10 years of the 
present century Leicester tups were introduced, and 
about 1815, Cheviots. Half-bred sheep from Leicester 
tups and Cheviot ewes are now common, as well as 
grey-faces bred from Leicester tups and black-faced 
ewes. Sheep-farming reached its point of greatest 
prosperity about 1860-70, but since then it has begun 
to decline, owing partly to the low price of wool brought 
about by the large quantities now imported from abroad, 
and also to many of the grazings having, under sheep 
entirely, deteriorated, so that they will no longer carry 
the same number of animals. The total decrease since 
1869 has been about 11 per cent. Ewe lambs and ewes 
are sold at Inverness Wool Fair, or in autumn at Muir 
of Ord, while wethers are generally sold at the Wool 
Fair. The young sheep are generally sent to winter in 
the lowlands, as far sometimes as Aberdeenshire, but 
from the higher and bleaker districts both young and 
old sheep have alike to be removed during the winter 
months. The best land rents at 40s. an acre, the 
medium at about 22s., and the poor at 10s. ; and the 
rents of sheep farms are on an average about 4s. per head. 
Almost 93 per cent, of the holdings are under 50 acres, 
87 per cent, under 20 acres, and 69 per cent, under 5 
acres, and of the remainder two-thirds are over 100 
acres. The county has double the number of holdings 
of under 5 acres of any other county in Scotland, and 
the only county that exceeds it in the total number of 
holdings is Aberdeenshire. In 1876 there were 4510 


holdings of under 5 acres, 1189 between 5 and 
20 acres, 355 between 20 and 50 acres, 175 between 
50 and 100 acres, and 286 above 100 acres, some 
of the latter being, of course, enormously large sheep 

The area of the county may be estimated as follows : — 
Arable land under crops and permanent pasture, 134,298 
acres ; under deer, 719,305 ; underwood, 43,201 ; lakes, 
rivers, and foreshore, 93,012 ; under sheep alone, about 
500,000 ; and waste heath and grouse moor, about 
600,000. The whole district under heath amounts 
probably to about 1,000,000 acres, but over a large part 
of the county this is mixed with fine pasture. The 
deer forests given up to deer alone number 39, and some 
of them are very extensive. Their area is 719,305 acres, 
and the rental £45,628, while in addition there are 
forests where sheep and deer graze together. There are 
also a number of excellent grouse moors and all the 
usual high and low country game. The largest pro- 
prietors are the Duchess of Sutherland, Lord Middleton, 
Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, Sir Alexander Matheson, Sir 
A. G. R. Mackenzie, Sir C. W. A. Ross, Mr R. C. M. 
Fergusson, Mr Bankes, Mr D. H. C. R. Davidson, Mr 
A. J. Balfour, Mr John Fowler, and Mr H. Mackenzie. 
According to the Miscellaneous Statistics of tlw United 
Kingdom (1879), 1,971,682 acres, with a total gross 
estimated rental of £269,342, were divided among 
2044 landowners, five together holding 1,051,507 acres, 
(rental £70,210), four 268,913 (£11,088), twelve 366,063 
(£37,738), twelve 154,704 (£34,145), seven 47,163 
(£27,410), fifteen 47,733 (£19,081), etc. ; and of these 
2044 landed proprietors about 85 percent, hold less than 
one acre. The principal mansions, etc. , most of which 
are separately noticed, are Allangrange House, Amat 
Lodge, Applecross House, Ardross Castle, Ardullie 
House, Avoch House, Balconie House, Balnagowan 
House, Bayfield House, Belmaduthy House, Birchfield 
House, Brahan Castle, Calrossie House, Castle Leod, 
Conan House, Corriemoillie Lodge, Coul House, Crom- 
arty House, Dalbreac Lodge, Duncraig House, Dun- 
donnell House, Flowerdale House, Foulis Castle, Geanies 
House, Highfield House, Inverbroom Lodge, Inver- 
gordon Lodge, Inverlael Lodge, Kerrisdale House, Kil- 
dary House, Kinbeachie House, Kindcace Houce, Leck- 
melm House, Ledgown Lodge, Letterewe, Loch Luichart 
Lodge, Loch Rosque Lodge, Morangie, Mountgerald, 
Newhall House, Newmore House, Novar House, Ord 
House, Pitcalnie, Poyntzfield House, Raddery House, 
Redeastle, Rockfield House, Rosehall House, Rosehaugh 
House, Shandwick House, Stornoway Castle, Strath- 
more Lodge, Teaninich House, Tarbat House, Tarlogie 
Lodge, Tarradale House, Tulloch Castle, and Westfield 

Industries and Communications. — Except the distilla- 
tion of whisky at Dalmore, Teaninich, Ord, Dingwall, 
Glenmorangie, and Balblair distilleries, there are no 
manufactures. The salmon fisheries, however, in the 
rivers and estuaries are extensive and valuable, and 
there are also large sea-fisheries. Of the 26 fishery 
districts into which Scotland is divided, Ross-shire con- 
tains Cromarty on the E coast, and on the W coast 
Stornoway, and Loch Broom and part of Loch Carron. 
In 1883 there were employed in these districts (taking 
half Loch Carron as belonging to Ross-shire), 415 first- 
class, 700 second-class, and 1332 third-class boats, or 
8*1, 15'8, and 24 - 4 per cent, of the boats in their re- 
spective classes in the whole of Scotland. In the same 
year these gave employment to 8970 fisher men and boys, 
107 fish curers, 116 coopers, and 8162 other persons ; 
the value of the boats employed — a large proportion of 
which do not, however, belong to the county — was 
£43,719 ; of nets, £67,274 ; and of lines, £14,272. The 
number of barrels of herring cured was 74,249, and the 
number of cod, ling, or hake taken was 445,253. Com- 
merce enjoys considerable physical advantages from the 
many bays and inlets, and with many of those on the 
W coast communication is regularly maintained by 
lines of steamers from the Clyde. The principal articles 
of export are cattle, sheep, wool, grain, and fish. The 


fairs, markets, and trysts for cattle and sheep, some 
established by act of parliament, others by custom, are 
numerous, and are held at convenient places. Regular 
communication was established with the S in 1839, 
when the steamer Duke of Sutherland began to trade 
between Leith, Inverness, and Invergordon, and subse- 
quently two steamers were put on the passage. These 
were, however, superseded by the Highland railway ; 
which was opened in 1862 as far as Dingwall, in 1863 
to Invergordon, and in 1866 to Tain and Bonar-Bridge, 
and the line from Dingwall to Strome Ferry in 
1S65-68. The portion of the system within Ross-shire 
enters the county on the SE at Muir of Ord station, 
passes N by the valley of the lower Conan to Dingwall, 
and from that skirts the N shore of the Cromarty Firth 
as far as Logie-Easter. There it sweeps inland by Fearn, 
and reaching the Dornoch Firth near Tain skirts its 
southern shore all the way to Invershin at the upper 
end of the Kyle of Sutherland, where it passes into 
Sutherlandshire. The Dingwall and Skye section strikes 
westward by the valley of Strathpeffer and the valley 
of the Black "Water to the mouth of Strath Garve, and 
to Loch Luichart ; thence up Strath Bran, and then 
south-westward across the watershed, down Glen Car- 
ron, and along the SE side of the loch to the terminus 
at the narrows at Strome. The whole railway system 
follows the line of the old main roads, and, besides these, 
district roads run up almost all the glens that have 
been mentioned, and provide the necessary communi- 
cation for the different parts of the low country, or be- 
tween one part and another. The opening of the rail- 
way system has been of the utmost advantage to the 
county, both from the opening up of trade, and from 
the great influx of summer tourist traffic brought about 
by its means. 

The royal burghs are Dingwall (the county town), 
Tain, and Fortrose including Rosemarkie ; the only 
parliamentary burgh is Cromarty ; the only town of over 
2000 inhabitants is Stornoway — which is a police burgh ; 
and smaller towns and villages are Alness, Avoch, Back, 
Ballallan, Ballintore, Barvas, Lower Bayble, Upper 
Bayble, Bragar, Breascleat, Carloway, Coll, Conan 
Bridge, Evanton, Twelvepenny Borve, Garrabost, 
Gruver, Hilton of Cadboll, Inver, Invergordon — which 
is a police burgh — Jeantown, Knockard, Laxdale, Leur- 
bost, Maryburgh, Melloncharles, Plockton, Portma- 
homaek, Rarnish, Saltburn, Shandwick, Shawbost, 
Swainbost, Swordle, Tolsta, Tong, Ullapool, Valtos, and 

The civil county contains the thirty-one entire quoad 
civilia parishes of Alness, Applecross, Avoch, Barvas, 
Contin, Cromarty, Dingwall, Edderton, Fearn, Fodderty, 
Gairloch, Glenshiel, Killearnan, Kilmuir-Easter, Kil- 
tearn, Kincardine, Kintail, Knockbain, Lochalsh, Loch- 
broom, Lochcarron, Lochs, Logie-Easter, Nigg, Resolis, 
Rosemarkie, Rosskeen, Stornoway, Tain, Tarbat, and 
Uig, two parts of parishes, viz. , Urquhart and Urray ; 
and includes also the quoad sacra parishes of Carnoch 
(Contin, Fodderty, and Urray), Croiek (Kincardine), 
Cross (Barvas), Fortrose (Rosemarkie), Kinlochluichart 
(Contin, Fodderty, and Urray), Knock (Stornoway), 
Poolewe (Gairloch), Shieldaig (Applecross and Loch- 
carron), and Ullapool (Lochbroom). These are included 
ecclesiastically in the presbyteries of Chanonry, Ding- 
wall, and Tain in the synod of Ross, and the presbj'teries 
of Lochcarron and Lewis in the synod of Glenelg. 
Except in Avoch, Cromarty (which has a Gaelic chapel), 
Fortrose, Rosemarkie, and Alness, the services are con- 
ducted in Gaelic. There are also 43 places of worship 
connected with the Free Church, 3 in connection with 
the United Presbyterian Church, 1 in connection with 
the Congregational Church, 5 in connection with the 
Episcopal Church, 2 in connection with the Roman 
Catholic Church. In the year ending September 1883 
there were in the county 126 schools, of which 121 were 
public, with accommodation for 16,137 children, 11,828 
on the rolls, and an average attendance of 8495. The 
staff consisted of 151 certificated, 9 assistant, and 74 
pupil teachers. Ross-shire, with (1884-85) a consti- 



tuency of 1746, returns one member to parliament ; 
while Fortrose, Cromarty, Dingwall, and Tain have 
shares in other two. Ross and Cromarty are each 
governed by a lord-lieutenant and a vioe-lieutenant, 
and the former has 56 deputy-lieutenants and about 230 
justices of the peace. The sheriffdom is Ross, Cromarty, 
and Sutherland, with resident sheriff-substitutes for 
Ross and Cromarty at Dingwall and Stornoway. Ordi- 
nary and small debt courts are held at Dingwall every 
Friday during session for the parishes of Alness, Apple- 
cross, Avoeh, Contin, Dingwall, Fodderty, Gairloch, 
Glenshiel, Eillearnan, Eiltearn, Kintail, Enoekbain, 
Lochalsh, Lochbroom, Lochcarron, Resolis (partly in 
Ross, the rest being in Cromarty), Rosemarkie, Urquhart, 
and Urray ; at Stornoway every Tuesday during session 
for the parishes of Barvas, Lochs, Stornoway, and Uig ; 
and at Tain every Tuesday during session for the 
parishes of Edderton, Fearn, Eilmuir-Easter, Eincar- 
dine, Logie-Easter, Nigg, Rosskeen, Tain, and Tarbat. 
Small debt courts are also held quarterly at Inver- 
gordon and Fortrose in January, April, July, and 
October ; at Ullapool and Jeantown half-yearly in 
April and October ; and at Cromarty as required. The 
police force consists of 40 men (1 to each 2120 of the 
population), under a chief constable, with a salary of 
£310 a year. In 1883 the police dealt with 391 cases, 
in 273 of which convictions were secured, in 61 pro- 
ceedings were subsequently dropped, and 3 were dis- 
posed of otherwise than at the police court. Of the 
whole cases 230 were in Wester Ross and 93 in Easter 
Ross. In the former division, with a population of 
34,830, there are 89 licensed houses ; and in the latter, 
with a population of 16,027, 48 licensed houses. The 
number of registered poor in 1882 was 2819 ; of depend- 
ants on these, 1068 ; of casual poor, 69 ; of dependants 
on these, 62. The expenditure for poor law purposes was 
£34,328. All the parishes are assessed, and seven of 
them form the Black Isle Poor Law Combination, with 
a poorhouse near Rosemarkie ; while ten form the Easter 
Ross combination, with a poorhouse near Tain. The 
proportion of illegitimate births averages about 4 '6 per 
cent., and the average death-rate about 16 per 1000. 
Connected with the county are the 3d (militia) battalion 
Seaforth Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs, the Duke of 
Albany's), with their headquarters at Dingwall ; Ross' 
shire Artillery Volunteers, with companies at Stor 
noway and Lochcarron ; and Ross-shire Rifle Volunteers, 
with companies at Tain, Dingwall, Fortrose, Munlochy. 
Ullapool, Invergordon, Evanton, Brahan, and Gairloch, 
Valuation (1674) £76S3, (1815) £121,557, (1850) 
£160,565, (1866) £210,991, (1876) £262,817, (1885) 
£266,601, plus £28,623 for railways. Pop. of registra- 
tion county, which takes in part of Urray parish from 
Inverness-shire and of Urquhart and Logie-Wester 
parish from Nairnshire, (1871)82,093, (1881)79,467; 
civil county (1801) 56,318, (1811) 60,853, (1821) 68,762, 
(1831) 74,820, (1841) 78,685, (1851) 82,707, (1S61) 
81,406, (1871) 80,955, (1881) 78,547, of whom 37,027 
were males and 41,520 females. In 1881 the number of 
families was 17,524, of houses 15,665, and of rooms 
51,475. Of the total population 1431 males and 629 
females were connected with the civil or military 
services or with professions, 441 men and 2938 women 
were domestic servants, 1090 men and 13 women were 
connected with commerce, 14,600 men and 4882 women 
were connected with agriculture and fishing, and 5741 
men and 1048 women were engaged in industrial handi- 
crafts or were dealers in manufactured substances ; 
while there were 13,200 boys and 12,576 girls of school 
age. Of those connected with farming and fishing 9445 
men and 4436 women were concerned in farming alone, 
and 5219 farmers employed 1706 men, 325 boys, 621 
women, and 448 girls. 

The Synod of Ross, wdiich meets at Dingwall on the 
third Tuesday of April, contains the presbyteries of 
Chanonry, Dingwall, and Tain, all of which are 
separately noticed. There is also a Free Church synod 
of Pioss, containing three presbyteries, with the same 
names as those of the Established Church. The 


Episcopal Church bishopric of Moray, Ross, and Caith- 
ness is noticed under Moray. 

The territory now forming the mainland districts of 
the combined counties belonged to the ancient Caledonii 
or Dicaledonae, and afterwards to the same tribes under 
the name of the Northern Picts. The eastern territory 
formed one of the mortuaths (see Moray), but of its 
mormaers there is no account, though Macbeth, mormaer 
of Moray, seems to have held sway in Ross as well. 
The eastern portion between the watershed and the 
Beauly, Moray, and Dornoch Firths was the Eoss proper 
of this early period, while the portion W of the water- 
shed was included in the province of Aregaithel or 
Ergadia. The history of the island division is traced 
under Hebrides. After the middle of the 12th century 
the district seems to have been annexed to the Crown, 
for Malcolm IV. granted it to that Malcolm Macheth 
whose career is noticed in the article Moray, and who 
held it till 1179, when, after his rebellion, he was 
driven out by William the Lyon, who, in order to 
secure his authority, erected forts at Dunscaith, to the 
N of the entrance to the Cromarty Firth ; and at the 
site of the modern Redcastle. William had hardly 
quitted the district when a fresh insurrection broke out 
in favour of Donald Ban MacWilliam, who was defeated 
in 1187, and the province along with Moray again 
annexed to the Crown. Nominally the earldom had 
been granted to the Count of Holland, but we find him 
complaining that he had been deprived of all real 
power though he had not been forfeited, and in reality, 
probably the whole district remained in a very turbulent 
state. Alexander II. granted the earldom to Ferchard 
Macintaggart, the heir of a line of lay abbots of Apple- 
cross, and thus the eastern and western portions of 
Ross were united, and the foundation of the present 
county formed. Subsequently an heiress carried the 
earldom to Walter de Lesly, and afterwards to Alex- 
ander Stewart, Earl of Buchan (see Harlaw), but it 
reverted thereafter by another heiress to the Celtic 
Lords of the Isles, by whom, in the person of John of 
Isla, it was in 1476 resigned to the Crown. Both before 
and after this the shire was constantly disturbed by the 
turbulence of the Lords of the Isles and the clans who 
inhabited it. Notices of some of the conflicts and dis- 
turbances will be found under Inverness and the 
various parishes. The present county was constituted 
in 1661. The bishopric was founded prior to 1128, as 
a charter granted by Eing David in or about that year 
is witnessed by, among others, Makbeth, bishop of 
Rosemarkie. The defeat of the Marquis of Montrose in 
more recent times is noticed under Kincardine. For 
the Celtic and Scandinavian remains, reference may be 
made to the articles on the various parishes. 

During the clan period the greater part of the county 
was in the possession of the powerful sept of the Mac- 
kenzies ; the Munroes occupied a district round, Fowlis 
Castle and Alness, measuring about 8 miles square ; 
the Rosses or Clan Ghillanders, possibly representing 
one of the older tribes, held the district between the 
lower parts of the Cromarty and Dornoch Firths, and 
extending north-westward as far as the Einig ; a branch of 
the Macleods of Lewis held the territory bounded NE 
by the line of Loch Ewe and Loch Maree, and on the S 
by a curved line, extending from the southern end of 
Loch Maree to Loch Diabaig on outer Loch Torridon ; 
and the Glengarry Macdonalds held two small patches 
— one all round Little Loch Broom, and bounded east- 
ward by Loch Broom and Abhuinn Cuileig, and west- 
ward by the line of Strath na Sheallag and the Gruinard 
river ; and the other, in the point between Loch 
Kishorn and Upper Loch Carron, and along all the SW 
side of the latter loch. The common language in 
Wester Ross is still Gaelic, and many of the inhabitants 
speak no English, but the number of these is rapidly 
diminishing. In Easter Ross, Gaelic is confined to the 
labouring classes. As has been already noticed, the 
county contains a large number of small holdings, and 
these are scattered everywhere, occupying the poorer 
soils in the eastern division, the ridge of the Black Isle, 


and most of the seaward glens and straths in the W. 
The crofters on the E coast are fairly well oil', but on 
the W coast the poverty is extreme,* the holdings being 
too small to maintain a large family, and the system of 
cultivation miserable — indeed the cultivation is mostly 
marked by an absence of system, grain-crop following 
grain-crop, or potatoes, potatoes, without any break 
or rest. In such a poor life superstitious beliefs and 
observances still linger, and witch-doctors are by no 
means rare, though outsiders can find them out with 
difficulty, as they generally keep out of the way of 
those who are thought to come to scoff. Illicit distilla- 
tion seems also to be still extensively carried on in the 
more inaccessible regions all along the western sea- 
board, and within the last three years (1881-S4) a num- 
ber of the ' sua' stills ' have been found and destroyed 
by the inland revenue officers. 

Ross, The. See Ross, Lanarkshire. 

Rosyth Castle, a ruin on the coast of Inverkeithing 
parish, Fife, If mile NW of North Queensferry. It 
stands on a small sea-rock, connected by a causeway 
with the mainland, but surrounded at high water by 
the tide ; and is a square, thick-walled tower of con- 
siderable height, somewhat resembling a Norman keep. 
Over its main entrance on the N side is the date 1561, 
with the initials M. R. (Maria Regina). A large mul- 
lioned window on the E side is dated 1655, when the 
damage was repaired of Cromwell's men four years 
before. And on the S side is this quaint inscription : — 

1 In (lev tym dra yis cord ye bel to clink 
Qvais ruery voce warnis to mete and drink.' 

Rosyth Castle is said to have been the birthplace of 
Oliver Cromwell's mother, a tradition noticed by the 
Queen under date 6 Sept. 1842 ; and it figures in Scott's 
novel of The Abbot. The barony of Rosyth was pur- 
chased by Sir David Stewart about 1435, and remained 
with his descendants till about the beginning of last 
centiuy. It was then sold to the Earl of Rosebery, but 
belongs now to the Earl of Hopetoun. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
32, 1857. See vol. ii. of Grose's Antiquities of Scotland, 

Rothes. See Maekinoh. 

Rothes, a parish containing a small police burgh of 
the same name, near the centre of the SE boundary of 
the county of Elgin, in which the greater portion of it 
lies, while a part is also across the Spey on the Banff- 
shire side. It is bounded N by the parishes of St 
Andrews-Lhanbryd and Speymouth, for J mile at the 
NE corner by Bellie, E and SE by Boharm parish and 
Banffshire, SSW by Knockando, for § mile at the W 
corner by Dallas, and NW by the parishes of Birnie and 
Elgin. The greater part of the eastern and south- 
eastern boundaries are natural, lying along the river 
Spey, except near the centre, where from Sheriffhaugh 
about 1 mile above Boat of Bridge upwards to the bend 
immediately to the E of the village of Rothes, the parish 
occupies both the Elginshire and Banffshire sides of the 
river for a distance of about 2j miles ; and for a small 
portion where, at Haughs of Amdilly to the S of the 
burgh of Rothes, both parish and county boundaries 
take to the W side of the Spey for about f mile, follow- 
ing, however, apparently an old course of the river. 
Along the other sides the boundary is artificial. The 
greatest length of the parish, from where Speymouth, 
Bellie, and Rothes parishes meet on the NE south-west- 
ward to the boundary with Knockando parish, is 9 
miles ; the greatest width, along the south-western 
border, from Craigellachie Bridge on the E west-north- 
westward to the point where the parishes of Knockando, 
Dallas, and Rothes meet, is 6 j miles ; and the total area 
is 20,133785 acres, of which 317'784 acres are water, 
while 899-332 acres, including 48'00S of water, are in 
Banffshire. The surface is irregular, but slopes gradu- 
ally from E to W. The whole of the ground on the E 
along the Spey is low and level, particularly at the 
fertile haughs of Orton, Dundurcas, Rothes, and Dan- 

* Ix the period of distress, in the beginning of 1883, the propor- 
tior of paupers to population in eight of the western parishes was 
1 in 17, and in Lochbrocaj parish it was as high as 1 in 13. 


daleith, two of which figure in the old rhyme which 
declares that 

1 Dipple, Dundurcas, Dandaleith, and Dalvey 
Are the four bonniest haughs on the banks of the Spey.' 

The haughs are separated from one another by hill 
spurs, which run westward into rounded eminences 
which skirt the low land and pass into wild uplands 
along the western border, reaching a height of 639 feet 
near Whiteriggs (NE), 925 above Netherglen (N), 887 
above Pitcraigie (centre), 1065 at Brylach (NW), 1165 
at Brauch Hill (W), 1104 W of The Kettles, and 1114 
E of The Kettles (S W). The surface declined to less than 
160 feet above sea-level in the NE corner of the parish, 
and the height of the road at the S end of the burgh of 
Rothes is 228 feet. The low ground is highly cultivated, 
and as the encircling heights are covered with thriving 
woods, the scenery is at many points very pretty. The 
drainage in the NE is carried off by the Inchberry and 
Sourden Burns, in the centre by the Auchinroath and 
Back Burns, and in the S and SW by the Burn of 
Rothes, the last three all uniting to the NE of the 
burgh of Rothes before they flow into the Spey. None 
of the streams are of any great size, but in the great 
flood of 1829, all of them, as well as the Spey, did a 
great amount of mischief. At the flat at Dandaleith 
26 acres of excellent land were carried away, and 50 
more covered with sand and gravel to a depth of 3 feet, 
and the stacks of corn in the farmyard were swept 
away. The Burn of Rothes and the Back Burn rose 
very high and overflowed the whole of the centre and 
the north-eastern end of the burgh of Rothes. Those of 
the inhabitants ' who were themselves in safety flew to 
succour their friends and neighbours who were in peril. 
Then were the stout and active of both sexes seen wad- 
ing in at the risk of being carried away by the stream, 
and dragging the young, the aged, and the infirm, some 
of whom had not for years been from under a roof, out 
of their windows or doors as they best could, and carry- 
ing them, some on their backs, some in their arms, 
through the deep and powerful currents. Peats in black 
masses, firewood, poultry, and pigs were seen tumbling 
along ; and every now and then the young fellows were 
dashing in and hauling out huge hogs by the hind legs, 
or plunging to the middle after some other live or dead 
object. Fortunate it was that all this confusion 
occurred during the light of day, and that the whole of 
the people were placed in safety before nightfall ; but, 
as the burn increased and the bridge in the centre of 
the village gave way, darkness brought with it a night 
of dreadful suspense. There was a partial subsidence 
here as elsewhere ; but after 12 o'clock next day, the 
flood again rose and to a still greater height, and either 
totally demolished or partially destroyed 15 dwelling 
houses of as good and substantial masonry as could 
possibly be built.' Many of the houses were filled with 
gravel and mud to a depth of 5 feet ; from 70 to 80 acres 
of haugh land were carried away ; and in the whole 
parish there were 107 families rendered destitute. At 
the rock of Sourden the Spey was 20 feet 10 inches 
above its ordinaiy level. There is excellent salmon and 
trout fishing in the Spey, and the larger burns con- 
tain trout. The soil of the low flat grounds is mostly 
a very fertile alluvium with patches of clay, sand, and 
gravel ; that along the skirts of the hills is a sharp 
gravelly mould ; and that on the higher arable grounds 
is principally a mossy earth with patches of clay. Fully 
one-third of the total area is pastoral or waste ; about 
1000 acres are under wood ; and the rest is under culti- 
vation. The underlying rocks are Silurian schists, 
granite, and quartzite ; one mass of the last at Conerock 
to the S of the burgh of Rothes being particularly note- 
worthy for its finely-veined structure. In the course of the 
Sourden Bum there is a vein of heavy spar. Many large 
erratic blocks are to be found on the uplands, and a bed 
of finely laminated clay in the course of the Back Burn 
is worthy of notice. The haugh of Rothes seems to 
have been formed in a large lake by the dammed back 
waters of the Spey, ere the rocky barrier at Sourden 
was cut down to its present level. The parish is 



traversed from end to end along the eastern border by 
the great line of road following the left bank of the Spey, 
and at the burgh of Rothes another main line of road 
branches off to the NW and passes by the great hollow, 
known as the Glen of Rothes, to Elgin. Following the 
same course as this line of road is the Morayshire section 
of the Great North of Scotland railway system, which 
has a course of 7 miles in the parish from the point 
where it enters on the NW near Netherglen, till it quits 
it on the SE at Craigellaehie viaduct. A branch line 
passing from Rothes station down the valley of the 
Spey to Orton station on the Highland railway system 
has not been worked since 1866. Auchinroath (J. C. 
Robertson, Esq.) is a plain two-story house, 1-4 mile 
NNW of Rothes station. Glen Rothes (Dunbar of Sea 
Park), 3 miles NNW of Rothes, is a plain summer 
residence, built in 1871. Orton House is separately 
noticed. The chief antiquities are the remains of Rothes 
Castle, and the ruins of Dundurcas church. The Castle 
of Rothes stands on a steep rounded hillock to the SW 
of the burgh, and only a very small fragment of it now 
remains, though it appears to have been a place of con- 
siderable size and strength. It seems to occupy the 
same site as, but to be of later date than, the castle or 
manor-house of Rothes, where Edward I. stayed on 
29 and 30 July 1296, when he was on his way back 
from his first visit to the N of Scotland. The barony 
of Rothes belonged, in the 12th century, to a family 
called Pollock, and by the marriage of the heiress 
Muriel de Pollock, passed to the family of Murthac, and 
again by subsequent heiresses, first to Watsons and 
then to the Leslies, who in 1457 became Earls of 
Rothes. They sold their estates in this quarter about 
1700 to Grant of Elchies, from whom Rothes was, in 
1708, acquired by the Earl of Findlater, and along with 
his estates passed to the family of Grant of Grant, Earl 
of Seafield, in whose possession the property still 
remains. Rothes gives title to the Leslie family, but 
their seat is now Leslie House, in Fife. Dundurcas is 
separately noticed, as is also the hamlet of Inchberry 
in the NE of the parish. The parish of Rothes, which 
was enlarged in 1782 by the addition of part of the 
suppressed parish of Dundurcas (the rest being given to 
Boharm), is in the presbytery of Aberlour and synod of 
Moray, and the living is worth £216 a year. The church 
is noticed below. Under the school board the Rothes 
and Inchberry schools, with accommodation for 350 and 
79 pupils respectively, had, in 1883, attendances of 194 
and 52, and grants of £194, 18s. 5d. and £43, 15s. 
Valuation (1884-85) £13,322, 9s., of which £12,949, 10s. 
was in Elginshire and £372, 10s. in Banffshire, while 
£2813 was for the railway. The principal landowner 
is the Dowager Countess of Seafield, who holds 10,758 
acres, valued at £4370 per annum ; 10 other proprietors 
hold each an annual value of £500 or upwards, 3 hold 
each between £500 and £100, 5 hold between £100 and 
£50, and there are a number of others of smaller amount. 
Pop. (1801) 1521, (1831) 1709, (1861) 2407, (1871) 
2148, (1881) 2201, of whom 1063 were males and 1138 
females, while 19 were in Banffshire. Houses, 476 in- 
habited, 30 uninhabited, and 2 being built. 

The Town of Rothes was constituted a police burgh 
in 1884. It stands in the SE of the parish just 
described, and has a station on the Morayshire section 
of the Great North of Scotland railway system. It is 
by rail 3 miles N of Craigellaehie, 7 NNW of Dufftown, 
and 11 SSE of Elgin. Founded in 1766, it was long a 
mere township of crofters ; but has now come to be the 
centre of some local trade. The original feus were given 
off along the road which runs from N to S, the portion 
to the S being now known as Old Street, which is con- 
tinued to the N as New Street. Intersecting the line 
of these at an acute angle are Green Street and Burnside 
Street, and Breich Street and Land Street run parallel 
respectively to New Street and Green Street. The 
original houses, which were merely one-story thatched 
tenements, have now to a large extent been replaced by 
more pretentious structures. The Established church, 
near the centre of the town, is a plain building with 


800 sittings. It was repaired in 1868, and a clock 
tower added by public subscription in 1870. A Free 
Church congregation was formed at the Disruption, but 
the church was not built till 1858. The Free Church 
school adjoining is now disused, and has been sold. 
The public school, on the E side of the town, is a hand- 
some building, erected in 1875-76 at a cost of £2500. To 
the W of the town are the Glen Grant, Glen Rothes, 
and Glen Spey distilleries, the first erected in 1840 and 
since greatly enlarged, the second erected in 1878, and 
the last in 1883-84. The Glen Grant distillery can 
produce about 4000 gallons of whisky per week, and the 
others about 3000 gallons each. On the Burn of Rothes 
there is also a meal mill. A system of drainage is to be 
introduced, half of the expense being borne by the 
superior. Gas was introduced in 1850, and water in 
1870, the supply being taken from a spring below the 
farmhouse of Blackhall. An additional supply is 
shortly to be introduced, but the source is not yet settled. 
Municipal matters are, under the Lindsay Act, managed 
by a senior magistrate, 2 junior magistrates, and 6 
commissioners. Municipal constituency (1884) 456. 
There is a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments, under Elgin, branch offices 
of the Caledonian and North of Scotland banks, a 
National Security Savings' Bank, agencies of 15 insur- 
ance companies, a police station, a masonic lodge (St 
John's, No. 193). There are fairs on the Thursday 
before the third Fridays of March and April, the Mon- 
day before the first Tuesday of June, the Monday before 
the third Tuesdays of July and October, and the Tuesday 
before the third Wednesday of December ; but, except 
that in July, which is a large harvest feeing market, 
they are practically extinct. Sheriff small debt courts 
are held four times a year for the parishes of Rothes and 
Knockando, and police courts as required. Pop. of the 
village (1861) 1465, (1871) 1319, (1881) 1382, of whom 
666 were males and 716 females. Houses (1881) 327 
inhabited, 24 uninhabited, and 2 being built. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 85, 1876. 

Rothesay (perhaps from Gaelic Rcogh-siudh, ' King's 
seat'), a post and market town, sea-port, and royal 
burgh, is the chief town of Buteshire, and stands at the 
head of Rothesay Bay, on the E side of the island of 
Bute, 9 miles W'NW of Largs, 11 NW of Millport, 22 
NNE of Brodick, 19 SSW of Greenock, and 40 W by 
N of Glasgow. The situation of the town is both 
beautiful and sheltered. The bay enters between Ardbeg 
Point on the W and Bogany Point on the E, which 
lie 1J mile apart ; and from the middle of a straight line 
joining these two points, it stretches inland for about 
a mile. Its shape resembles what mathematicians call 
a semi-ellipsoid. All round it is screened by a gentle 
and varying slope, rising in the E to Ardencraig (433 
feet) and in the SW to Barone Hill (530) ; while 
from the town and harbour there stretches on either 
side, round the entire circuit of the bay, a curving line 
of elegant villas, picturesquely set with their gardeus 
and shrubberies against a background of trees or sloping- 
ground, and only interrupted on the W side of the 
bay, where Skeoch Wood borders the road for some 
distance. At some parts, though beyond Rothesay 
proper, this line of houses is doubled ; and within the 
limits of the burgh the steep slope in the SE of the 
town is occupied by houses that rise above each other 
in terraces. As the old song has it — 

* The gTeat black hills, like sleepin' kings, 
Sit grand roun' Rothesay Bay ; ' 

and the views commanded from points upon its shores 
are singularly fine. The stretch of water outward from 
the bay has been described by ' Delta ' as ' fairer than 
that of which Naples makes her boast.' The coast of 
Cowal, immediately opposite, is adorned with the man- 
sion and pleasure-grounds of Castle-Toward, and is over- 
hung in the distance by lofty mountain masses, stretch- 
ing away to the rugged peaks of the Duke of Argyll's 
Bowling-Green ; to the NE are seen the pleasant hills 
of Renfrewshire ; and northward one looks into the stern 
Highland recess of Loch Striven. 'Sweet Rothesay Bay ' 


itself is beautiful. In any weather and under any cir- 
cumstances it would attract the eye, but it looks its best 
under a bright summer sun, with its blue waters dotted 
with skiffs and white-sailed yachts, and ploughed by 
the keels of gaily-crowded steamers. 

The town, as seen from the bay, is picturesque, the 
villas especially adding to the ornamental appearance. 
The commercial and business parts of the burgh are 
chiefly congregated at the head of the bay, immedi- 
ately behind the harbour and quay, or along the line 
of the High Street, which, contrary to the usual 
precedent, does not extend along the shore, but directly 
inland. An open space between the inner harbour and 
the coast end of High Street is known as Guildford 
Square. Thence towards the W bay runs Victoria 
Street, and to the E bay Albert Place and East Princes 
Street ; while the bulk of the best of the town lies to the 
W of High Street and S of Victoria Street. The build- 
ings in Guildford Square and in the principal streets are 
fairly handsome ; but the less important streets are 
remarkable neither for fine building nor for breadth of 
roadway. The cleanliness of the streets is, however, 
commendable ; and considerable improvements have 
lately been effected in relieving the more closely built 
parts of the town. About £30,000 has been spent 
within about 40 years in these improvements ; and 
Russell Street, formerly the Old Vennel, bears the name 
of one of the most active promoters of the scheme, Mr 
Thomas Russell of Ascog. The outskirts are open and 
cheerful ; and the villas and houses there are both neat 
and comfortable. The houses are built for the most 
part of greenstone, which lacks the lightness and polish 
of sandstone ; but their regularity and tidiness com- 
pensate this failing. To the N of the harbour a 
space of rough foreshore of about 4 acres was, in 1869- 
70, at a cost of £5000, converted into a broad esplanade, 
laid out with ornamental gardens and gravel walks of 
from 50 to 15 feet in breadth. An octagonal band-stand 
in the centre, with iron columns and a dome, measures 
18 feet in diameter, and 30 high ; and was presented 
to the town in 1873 by Mr Russell of Ascog. Esplan- 
ades have also been constructed along the shore on both 
sides of the bay. There is a public park in High Street, 
leased from the Marquess of Bute, it makes no attempt 
to be ornamental. Athletic sports are annually held in 
it ; and the Highland Games Committee have erected a 
grand stand at a cost of £300. From Guildford Square 
to Kamesburgh or Port Bannatyne, 2J miles to the 
NNW, a tramway line, with frequent cars, was opened 
in 1882. 

The chief modern public edifice is the County Build- 
ings, occupying a conspicuous site with its chief front 
to Castle Street. This ornamental erection is in the 
castellated style, and contains accommodation for the 
town and county officials, a court-room, and a prison — 
the last, however, closed in 1883. The court-room con- 
tains a fine portrait of the late Marquess of Bute, painted 
by Graham Gilbert, and presented by public subscription 
to the corporation. The edifice was originally built in 
1832 at a cost of £4000 ; was enlarged in 1865-67 ; and 
now represents a total cost of about £12,000. The new 
Public Halls form a handsome pile fronting Princes Pier, 
and were built in 1879 by ex-Provost C. Duncan at a 
cost of £20,000. The largest hall can seat 1350 persons, 
and there are various small chambers and committee- 
rooms. Other halls in the town are the Victoria Hall 
in Store Lane, with accommodation for 500 ; the Music 
Hall in Watergate Street, which can hold 400 ; the 
West End Hall in Bridge Street, and the Good Templars' 
Hall in Bridgend Street, each capable of containing 
300. On the summit of Chapelhill— so called from its 
having been the site of a chapel of St Bride, the last 
remains of which fell in 1860— is a castellated building 
containing the museum of the Archaeological and Physical 
Society, opened in 1873. The building was erected by 
the corporation originally as refreshment rooms. The 
Royal Aquarium, erected in 1875-76 on the site of the 
former battery at the E end of the town, is the property of 
a joint-stock company, and cost £15,000, the site being 


presented by the Marquess of Bute. Designed by Mr 
J. R. Thomson of Rothesay, the building consists of two 
one-story wings, stretching from a low dome-covered 
tower, the whole having a ' rustic ' base, and the 
entrance being by a broad flight of steps. The frontage 
is 102 feet, and the height 22 feet. It contains a 
promenade hall measuring 45 by 48 feet, a main corridor 
90 by 15 feet, various side rooms, a camera obscura, and 
a seal -house. The tanks are chiefly in the corridor ; 
and the rock-work about them is supposed to represent 
the geology of Bute. Half a mile S of the town is the 
Robertson Stewart college hospital, built in 1873 for 
£1500 by Mr R. Stewart, a native of Bute, and 
merchant in Glasgow, and enlarged subsequently by 
his sons. Other public buildings are the churches and 
schools noted below. Rothesay has several fountains, 
viz., the Albert Memorial erected by public sub- 
scription in East Princes Street in 1863 ; the Ballard 
Fountain on the Esplanade, presented by Mr Ballard of 
Brighton ; the Ewiug Fountain in Guildford Square, 
erected by bequest of Mrs Catherine Ewing in 1862 ; and 
the Thomson Memorial (1867), at the junction of Ard- 
beg Road and Marine Place. In July 1884 a statue was 
unveiled on the Esplanade to the late Mr A. B. Stewart, 
convener of the county, and merchant in Glasgow, who 
has conferred many benefits on the neighbourhood. 

The old parish church, in High Street, is a plain 
building erected in 1796, and contains 955 sittings. 
New Rothesay church, at the W side of the bay, was 
originally erected in 1800 as a chapel of ease at a cost of 
£1300, and contains 830 sittings. It now is a hand- 
some Gothic edifice, with a fine spire. The Established 
Gaelic church is a chapel of ease, erected for about £600. 
The Free parish or East Free church and the West Free 
church are both elegant buildings with conspicuous 
spires. The Free Gaelic church is on Chapelhill. The 
U.P. church, at Bridgend, was built about 1840, and con- 
tains 647 sittings. A new iron church for the Craig- 
more U. P. congregation was erected in Crichton Road 
in 1884. St Paul's Episcopal church, in Victoria Street, 
has 434 sittings, the Baptist chapel (1855) in Ardbeg 
Road 400, and St Andrew's Roman Catholic church 
(1866) in Columshill Street 200. The burgh is well pro- 
vided with schools. The Rothesay Academy and Thom- 
son Institute occupies a fine Gothic pile with an orna- 
mental tower, designed by Mr J. R. Thomson. It was 
erected in 1869, and partly endowed by the trustees of 
the late Mr Duncan Thomson, as a first-class secondary 
school. Originally the property of the East and West 
Free churches, it was handed over in 1873 to the burgh 
school board. It is conducted by a head classical 
master, and has an English and a mathematical master, 
besides assistants. The public, former parochial, school 
in High Street is a handsome building erected by the 
school board, and having accommodation for 769 boys 
and girls. Bute Industrial school gives elementary 
education and industrial training to 120 boys and girls 
from all parts of Bute ; it is managed by a committee 
of ladies and gentlemen. Bellevue, in Barone Road, 
in 1882 was converted by Lady Bute into a Roman 
Catholic orphanage for 16 girls, under the charge of the 
Sisters, ' Servants of the Sacred Heart.' There are also 
private adventure schools. 

Rothesay hns a head post office with the usual depart- 
ments, offices of the Clydesdale Bank, Royal Bank, Bank 
of Scotland, and National Security Savings' Bank, and 
offices or agencies of 28 insurance companies. The chief 
hotels are the Bute Arms, Victoria, Queen's, Lome, 
Eagle, and Argyle Arms, besides 7 temperance houses. 
Glenburn Hydropathic Establishment, occupying a lofty 
site on the E side of the bay, was the first institution of 
the kind in Scotland, having been opened in 1843 by 
the late W. Paterson, Esq., M.D., who had studied the 
water-treatment at Grafenberg in Silesia, under Priess- 
nitz, the father of hydropathy. It contains provision 
for the accommodation and amusement of 130 persons, 
together with a very complete system of baths. The 
salt-water Swimming Baths, built in 1882 at a cost of 
£1500, and presented to the town by Mr A. B. Stewart, 




are situated on the shore, immediately opposite the 
aquarium. On the opposite side of the bay, in front 
of Skeoch "Wood, are the ladies' and gentlemen's bath- 
ing places erected by the burgh. They have dressing- 
rooms, with attendants, and are screened from view by 
stone walls. Among the miscellaneous institutions of 
Rothesay are the horticultural, farmers', and archaeo- 
logical societies, and the Working Men's Club. The 
Royal Northern Yacht Club has its club-house at Rothe- 
say, built in 1877 adjacent to the Queen's Hotel ; and 
the Royal Rothesay Aquatic Club has its club-house 
at Skeoch Wood. Both clubs hold annual regattas. 
There are also bowling-greens in the burgh, and tennis 
courts at Craigmore. Rothesay has three weekly news- 
papers — the Liberal Buteman (1854) and the Independent 
Rothesay Chronicle (1863) and Botliesay Express (1877), 
the first two published on Saturday, the last on Wed- 
nesday ; and The Visitors' List is published every Friday 
during the four summer months. 

Rothesay is by no means an industrial town. The 
manufacture of linen was introduced into it about 1750, 
but it did not flourish. A cotton factory — claimed to 
be the first in Scotland — was started here in 1779 
by an English company ; passed later into the pos- 
session of the celebrated David Dale ; and at one time 
employed 800 hands. For three-quarters of a century 
the industry flourished, and it came to employ 4 mills, 
with 1000 looms and 50,000 spindles ; but gradually it 
began to decline, and at present only one mill is working, 
the only other existing having stopped in 1880 or 1881. 
Tanning similarly has lost its importance in the burgh, 
only one tannery existing where formerly there were 
three. Boatbuilding, once carried on in two yards, is 
now extinct, though for 30 years the industry was 
maintained in a yard with a patent slip belonging to 
the burgh. Its trade and commerce is equally insig- 
nificant. In early times it enjoyed a considerable 
shipping trade, but about 1700 it was superseded by the 
growth of Campbeltown. About 1765, when act of 
parliament made it compulsory that all colonial produce 
intended for Ireland should first be landed in Great 
Britain, Rothesay was made a custom-house station for 
the purposes of the Irish colonial trade. But the first 
thing to bring prosperity to the burgh was the develop- 
ment of the herring fishery, encouraged by a Govern- 
ment bounty which had for its real object the obtaining 
of naval reserve recruits. Rothesay became a centre of 
the west coast herring fishery and of the curing industry, 
and quite a brisk trade sprang up, employing vessels of 
considerable size. In 1855 the fishery in the district 
employed 557 boats of an aggregate tonnage of 2590, 
1654 fisher men and boys, and 1102 other persons 
indirectly ; produced 5074 barrels of cured herrings, 
besides those sold uncured ; and the value of the boats, 
nets, and lines employed was £18,842. But as it began 
to be more profitable to have the larger curing stations 
nearer the great fishing centres, the industry began to 
decline in Bute, and now has quite left Rothesay. 

In 1822 an excellent harbour was made at a cost of 
£600; in 1840 a slip and building dock were added ; 
and in 1863 a large extension of the harbour was made 
at a cost of £3800. It now consists of two basins — an 
outer and an inner— with substantially built walls, and 
protected on the seaward side by a commodious 
quay, 650 feet long by 80 broad. The quay and 
harbour walls together cost £25,000. In July 1884 
a very handsome suite of waiting-rooms and offices, 
surrounded with a verandah, was opened at a total cost 
of nearly £2000. But about £200 is received in the 
shape of rent annually. The quay is one of the busiest 
on the Clyde. Nineteen separate passenger steamers 
touch at Rothesay daily during summer, some of them 
several times a day ; and on the arrival of the large 
tourist steamers the quay presents a very gay and 
bustling appearance during 'the season.' Only some 
ten small vessels of from 36 tons downwards belong to 
the port ; these, with others registered elsewhere, are 
engaged mainly in importing coals, slates, and building 
materials, and in exporting turnips, potatoes, and farm 

produce. The steamers perform most of the other 
carrying trade connected with the place. For the year 
ending in September 1883 the harbour revenue was 
£2397, of which £1994 were paid as dues by the steam- 
boats alone. The expenditure was £1530. The harbour 
trust is vested in the magistrates and town council and 
4 representatives of the shipowners. 

Rothesay depends for its prosperity almost entirely 
upon its character as a watering place and as a centre 
for visiting the places of interest on the Clyde. The 
neighbouring seaside resorts of Craigmore, Port-Banna- 
tyne, etc. , attract many hundreds of summer visitors, 
and these draw most of their supplies from Rothesay. 
The climate of the burgh is eminently suited to the 
delicate, and has earned for Bute the title of the 
Madeira of Scotland. The temperature in winter is 13 
degrees above the average of Scotland, and in summer 5 
degrees cooler ; and several eminent physicians have 
recommended Rothesay as an abode for those suffering 
from pulmonary complaints. The bathing facilities 
have already been noted. Boating is safe and con- 
venient, and the letting of small boats is quite an 
important industry. Yachts find good anchorage in the 
bay ; while those who desire to visit the various places 
of interest on the Clyde by steamer will find Rothesay 
the most convenient centre on the firth. 

Rothesay was a burgh of barony from an early period, 
and became a royal burgh in 1400 by charter from 
Robert III., who also conferred grants of landed pro- 
perty and various privileges. In 1584, a charter of 
confirmation and novodamus was given by James VI. 
The ancestors of the Marquess of Bute used frequently to 
hold the office of provost ; and from 178S till 1839, the 
office was held 
exclusively by 
members of that 
family. The 
burgh is govern- 
ed by a provost, 
3 bailies, and 
12 councillors. 
The magistrates 
and council are 
also police com- 
missioners, and 
form, with 4 
shipowners, the 
harbour trust. 
Prior to 1S20, 
they claimed the 
right to exercise 
maritime juris- 
diction over all 
the coasts of Buteshire and the adjacent arms of the 
Clyde, but since a decision in the court of session at that 
date, have given up the claim. The burgh revenue in 
1883-84, including harbour, gas, water, etc., was 
£17,651. The municipal constituency numbered 1711 
in 1885. In 1884 the police force consisted of 
7 men, and a superintendent, with a salary of £120. 
Sheriff courts are held every Tuesday and Friday in 
session ; and justice of peace courts on the first Monday 
of every month. Gas works were erected in 1840, and are 
the property of the corporation. The water supply for the 
houses on the lower levels is obtained from Loch Ascog, 
for those on the terraces from Dhu Loch — the two 
schemes together costing the burgh £36,000. The 
drainage of the town is carried by means of a brick con- 
duit into deep water in front of the quay. From the 
union until 1832, Rothesay had a representative in 
parliament, but since the Reform Bill, it has been 
included in Buteshire. Annual valuation of burgh 
(1875) £37,251, (1885) £55,266. Pop. (1821) 4107, 
(1841) 5789, (1861), 7122, (1871) 7800, (1881) 8329, of 
whom 4741 were females, and 618 Gaelic-speaking. 
Houses (1881) 1968 inhabited, 363 vacant, 6 building. 

The chief antiquity of Rothesay and its most interest- 
ing object is its ruined castle, standing near the middle 
of°the S part of the town. The original portion, 

Seal of Rothesay. 


believed to have been built by Magnus Barefoot about 
109S, consists of a circular building, 138 feet in 
diameter, with walls 9 feet thick and 26 high, and 
flanked by 4 round towers, 3 of which were 28 feet in 
diameter, while the fourth and only remaining one is 
33. Within the court are seen the walls of the ancient 
chapel of St Michael, 45 feet long by 23 broad, built 
in the Decorated style, and traces of the foundations 
of other buildings, supposed to have been the residence 
of the townspeople during sieges. The older part 
seems to have been built of pink stone from Ascog ; the 
newer part is different in material and style, and is 
built on to the entrance-front of the original hold. It 
is believed to have been erected by Robert III., and is 
called 'the Palace.' The entrance to the castle faces 
the N, and is surmounted by a shield, bearing a much 
defaced royal coat of arms. Since 1874, this gateway 
has been made once more the entrance, access to which 
is obtained by a drawbridge across a moat, which 
occupies the basin of the original moat. The restora- 
tion of the gateway, drawbridge, and moat, and the 
removal of contiguous tenements from the castle, were 
carried through by the Marquis of Bute, hereditary 
keeper of Rothesay Castle, at a cost of £SO0O. Among 
the apartments within the castle are a vaulted hall (43 
x 11 feet), a dungeon below the floor, and a grand 
hall above, to which there is access by a staircase. Still 
higher, there were sleeping apartments, now disap- 
peared, among which was the small chamber in which 
Robert III. died in 1406. The walls of the castle are 
in many places overshadowed by trees, which have 
taken root in the crevices, and they are picturesquely 
covered with ivy ; while the grounds surrounding it — 
about 2 acres — have been prettily laid out with shrub- 
beries and flowers. 

Rothesay Castle, though not unknown in history as a 
fort and as a royal residence, presents neither a beauti- 
ful nor a highly interesting appearance. As a fortifica- 
tion it was even on the ancient principles very deficient; 
' even the gate is neither flanked nor machicolated, and 
it might have been mined or assaulted at almost any 
point.' As a royal palace, also, it seems to have lacked 
even an average amount of comfort and commodious- 
ness. Built, as we have said, about 1098, it is said to 
have belonged, before the time of Alexander III. , to a 
family of the name of MacRoderick. It underwent 
extension and improvement at various periods to serve 
as a fortified palace for the Lord High Stewards of 
Scotland, and for their successors the Royal Stewarts. 
It first comes into historical notice in 1228, when it 
was attacked by Olave, King of Man, and Husbac, King 
of the Southern Hebrides, with 80 ships, and after a 
siege was carried by assault with a loss of 390 men. In 
1263 it was captured by Haco of Norway, and after the 
battle of Largs was retaken by the Scots. Under John 
Baliol it was occupied by the English, but in 1311 it sub- 
mitted to Robert Bruce. In 1334 it was again seized and 
fortified in the English interest, but was once more re- 
captured. Robert II. visited the castle in 1376 and 1381 ; 
and Robert III. died broken-hearted within its walls April 
13, 1406. Oliver Cromwell's troops destroyed part of its 
walls in 1650 ; and in 1685 the brother of the Earl of 
Argyll burned it and reduced it to utter ruin, either in 
revenge for a raid into his country, or for some action 
on the part of the burghers. For long years the castle 
was left to decay and destruction ; it became overgrown 
with weeds and trees, and environed and hidden by 
more modern tenements. About 1815, however, the 
hereditary keeper instituted clearances and restitution, 
which revealed the terraces, towers, and chapel, with 
various apartments. Renewed and more extensive 
clearances and renovations in 1871-77 have brought it 
to its present well-kept condition. Another interesting 
antiquity is the ruined choir of the abbey church of St 
Mary, in the present cemetery, lying rather more than 
i mile from the town. It contains a recumbent 
figure of Stuart of Bute who fell at Falkirk. The 
tomb of the family of Bute is a plain Gothic building, 
painted white, in the old part of the churchyard. 


Among the old tombstones, that of the Wallaces of 
Bush, reputed descendants of the great Wallace, is one 
of the most interesting. There is also a fragment of 
the monument to the Jamiesons of Kilmorie, hereditary 
coroners of Bute, which was brought hence from Kil- 
morie castle, when the family property was transferred 
to the present Bute family. 

The town of Rothesay was originally a village in con- 
nection with the castle, and its earlier history is directly 
associated with the story of that fortress, already nar- 
rated. Its later history is merely the account of the rise, 
progress, and decline of its commerce, and its arrival 
at its present position as a favourite watering-place 
and tourist-centre. The Queen and Prince Albert spent 
the night of August 17, 1847, in Rothesay Bay ; and 
Rothesay she describes in her Journal as ' a pretty little 
town, built round a fine bay, with hills in the distance, 
and a fine harbour. The people cheered the " Duke of 
Rothesay " very much, and also called for a cheer for the 
"Princess of Great Britain." When we went on deck 
after dinner, we found the whole town brilliantly illu- 
minated, with every window lit up, which had a very 
pretty effect.' In 1874 the Princess Louise and the 
Marquess of Lome, and in 1S76 Prince Leopold, visited 
the ruins of the castle. 

The castle of Rothesay gave title to the first dukedom 
which existed in the Scottish peerage, and continues 
the title to the British sovereign's eldest son as a col- 
lateral for Scotland to that of Prince of Wales for 
England. The dukedom of Rothesay was created in a 
solemn council held at Scone in 1398, and conferred on 
David, Earl of Carrick, Prince and Steward of Scotland, 
and eldest son of Robert III. ; and when David, in 
1402, fell a victim to the ambition of his uncle, the 
Duke of Albany, it was transferred to his brother 
James, afterwards James I. of Scotland. An Act of 
Parliament, passed in 1409, declared ' that the lordship 
of Bute with the castle of Rothesay, the lordship of 
Cowal with the castle of Dunoon, the earldom of 
Carrick, the lands of Dundonald with the castle of the 
same, the barony of Renfrew with the lands and tenan- 
dries of the same, the lordship of Stewarton, the lord- 
ship of Kilmarnock with the castle of the same, the 
lordship of Dairy, the lands of Nodisdale, Kilbryde, 
Narristoun, and Cairtouu, also the lands of Frarynzan, 
Drumcall, Trebrauch with the fortalice of the same, 
' ' principibus primogenitis Regum Scotias successorum 
nostrorum, perpetuis futuris temporibus, uniantur, 
incorporentur, et annexantur. " ' Since that period, 
the dukedom of Rothesay, in common with the princi- 
pality and stewartry of Scotland, the earldom of 
Carrick, the lordship of the Isles, and the barony of 
Renfrew, has been vested in the eldest son and heir- 
apparent of the sovereign. In the event of the first- 
born dying without an heir, the right passes to the 
sovereign's eldest surviving son ; and when the sovereign 
has no son or heir-apparent, it reverts to the sovereign 
in person as the representative of an expected prince. 

The parish of Rothesay, which included till 1846 
the parish of North Bute, now occupies the centre of 
the island, between the parishes of North Bute and 
Kingarth, and extends in a narrow strip right across 
Bute from Rothesay to St Ninian's Bay. Its greatest 
length, from NE to SW, is 6 miles ; its greatest breadth 
is 2J miles ; and its total area is 6083 acres. It includes 
the royal burgh of Rothesay. The natural features have 
been already described in our article on Bute. The 
chief proprietor is the Marquess of Bute. The parish is 
in the presbytery of Dunoon and the synod of Argyll ; 
the living is worth £440. Landward valuation (1885) 
£2414. Total pop. (1861) 7438, (1871) 8027, (1881) 
8538, of whom 636 were Gaelic-speaking, whilst eccle- 
siastically 5626 were in Rothesay and 2912 in New 
Rothesay parish. — Ord. Sur., sh. 29, 1873. See J, 
Wilson's Account of Rothesay and the Island of Bute 
(Roth. 1S48) ; J. Roger's Notices of Ancient Monuments 
in the Church of St Mary, Rothesay (1848) ; J. Thorns' 
Rothesay Castle (Roth. 1870); and the ' Buteman' 
G-uide to Rothesay (Roth. 1881). 



Rothie or Rothie-Norman. See Fyvie. 

Eothiemay, a village and a parish of E Banffshire. 
The village of Rothiemay or Milltown stands, 290 feet 
above sea-level, on the left bank of the river Deveron, 
2J miles NNE of Rothiemay station in Cairnie parish 
on the Great North of Scotland railway, this being 3J 
miles SSE of Grange Junction, 45J NW of Aberdeen, 
and 5 N of Huntly, under which there is a post and 
railway telegraph office of Rothiemay. Towards the 
close of 1880 the sewage works of the village were 
extended and greatly improved, and its water supply 
was taken from a new source, all at the expense of the 
Earl of Fife. Fairs are held here on the third Tuesday 
of May o. s. and the Friday after the first Thursday of 
October o. s. 

The parish is bounded NE by Marnoch, SE by Inver- 
keithny and by Forgue in Aberdeenshire, S and SW 
by Huntly and Cairnie in Aberdeenshire, and NW 
by Grange. Its utmost length, from E to W, is 6J 
miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 5g miles ; 
and its area is 9368§ acres, of which 103J are water. 
Shiel Burn runs 4$ miles south-westward along all the 
Grange boundary to the Isla ; the Isla flows 3J miles 
south-eastward along all the Cairnie boundary to the 
Deveron ; and the Deveron winds 8-f miles east-north- 
eastward — for 1| and for 1\ mile across the southern 
and the south-eastern interior, elsewhere along the 
Huntly, Forgue, and Marnoch boundaries. In the 
extreme E the surface declines along the Deveron to 
195 feet above sea-level ; and thence it rises to 871 feet 
at the Cairns of Geith, 500 at Mossiehead, and 767 at 
Meikle Brown Hill on the north-eastern border. The 
northern district, a tolerably level plateau, includes an 
extensive moss, affording supplies of peat fuel to a wide 
extent of country, and is elsewhere disposed variously 
in arable and pasture ground and fine plantations. 
The southern district is partly a gentle declivity of 
more than 1 mile in breadth to the Isla and the 
Deveron, and partly a luxuriant valley, highly em- 
bellished with culture and wood. Much land that was 
formerly in a waste condition has been brought under 
the plough ; and a very extensive aggregate area is 
under plantations. Granite is the predominant rock ; 
and the soil of the arable lands is mostly rich and fer- 
tile. An ancient Caledonian stone circle stands a little 
way N of the village ; and an ancient road, supposed 
to be a Roman iter, traverses the western district. The 
self-taught astronomer, James Ferguson, F.R.S. (1710- 
76), was born at the Core of Mayen, in a cottage whose 
ruins were removed about 1848. Rothiemay House, to 
the E of the village, is a building of some antiquity, tra- 
ditionally said to have given a night's lodging to Queen 
Mary in 1562. Another mansion, Mayen House, is 
noticed separately ; and the property is divided between 
the Earl of Fife and Mr Hay-Gordon. Rothiemay is in the 
presbytery of Strathbogie and the synod of Moray ; the 
living is worth £285. Places of worship are the parish 
church (1807 ; 500 sittings) and a Free church ; and 
three public schools — Mannoch Hill, Rothiemay, and 
Ternemny — with respective accommodation for 78, 200, 
and 128 children, had (1884) an average attendance 
of 64, 70, and 85, and grants of £56, £59, 12s. 6d., and 
£74, 7s. 6d. Valuation (1860) £4240, (1885) £5060. 
Pop. (1801) 1061, (1831) 1228, (1861) 1414, (1871) 1370, 
(1881) 1363.— Ord. Swr., sh. 86, 1876. 

Rothiemurchus. See Duthil. 

Rothie-Norman or Rothie. See Fyvie. 

Rothmaise Hill. See Rayne. 

Rothney, a village in Premnay parish, Aberdeenshire, 
close to Insch station. 

Rottearns House, a mansion in Ardoch parish, Perth- 
shire, 1J mile E of Greenloaning station. 

Rotten Calder. See Calder, Rotten. 

Roucan, a village in Tortherwald parish, Dumfries- 
shire, 3^ miles ENE of Dumfries. 

Roughrigg, a village near the eastern border of New 
Monkland parish, Lanarkshire, 2J miles SW of Slaman- 
nan. Pop., with Westfield and Peesweep Row, (1871) 
365, (1881) 689. 


Rousay, an island of Orkney, 7 furlongs N by E of 
the nearest point of Evie parish in Pomona, 4| miles 
SSW of Westray, and 11 N by W of Kirkwall, 
under which it has a post office, with money order and 
savings' bank departments. Its utmost length, from E 
to W, is b\ miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 
4J miles ; and, but for Saviskaill Bay (2J miles x 1 mile) 
on the N side, its outline would be nearly circular. 
The north-western coast is rocky and precipitous, rising 
rapidly to a height of 399 feet above sea-level ; but 
elsewhere the shore is lower and more sloping, with 
several safe though small harbours. Of six fresh-water 
lakes much the largest is the Muckle Water (1 J x \ 
mile ; 322 feet), which sends off Suso Burn east-north- 
eastward to Rousay Sound ; but Loch Saviskaill or 
Wasbister yields far better trout-fishing. On every side 
the surface rises in hilly acclivity, and forms an upland 
mass in the general shape of a flattened cone, which, 
measuring several miles around the shoulder, presents 
an imposing aspect. The ascent for the most part is 
steep, and is marked at intervals with abrupt ridges and 
terraces, apparently former sea-margins. A strip of 
fertile arable land fringes much of the seaboard, 
between the beach and the base of the uplands. The 
latter are suitable for black-faced sheep, for Highland 
cattle, and for game, Rousay being the best grouse 
island in Orkney. The rocks belong to the Old Red 
Sandstone formation. A group of five sepulchral 
mounds, known as Manzie's or Magnus', on Corquoy 
farm, were carefully trenched in 1880, and yielded a 
curious oval urn, of a somewhat metallic appearance. 
Trumland House, near the southern shore, was erected 
in 1872 from designs by the late David Bryce, R.S.A., 
and is the seat of Lieut. -Gen. Frederick William Traill- 
Burroughs, C.B. (b. 1831), who holds 6693 acres in 
Orkney, valued at £2116 per annum. The parish of 
Rousay and Eagleshay comprises also the inhabited 
islands of Eagleshay or Egilshay and Weir or Viera, 
both of which are noticed separately ; and has a land 
area of 13,754 acres. It is in the presbytery of North 
Isles and the synod of Orkney ; the living is worth £207. 
Rousay and Eagleshay have each an Established church, 
and there are also Free and U. P. churches of Rousay ; 
whilst an Episcopalian cemetery, near Rousay parish 
church, was consecrated in 1881. Five public schools 
— Eagleshay, Frotoft, Sourin, Viera, and Wasbister — 
with respective accommodation for 50, 60, 90, 25, and 
65 children, had (18S4) an average attendance of 18, 30, 
41, 17, and 38, and grants of £29, 8s., £45, 13s., £35, 
10s. 6d., £18, 14s. 4d., and £47, 2s. Valuation of 
parish (1884) £3879, 9s. 4d. Pop. of Rousay island (1811) 
795, (1831) 921, (1851) 937, (1871) S60, (1881) 873; of 
parish (1801) 1061, (1841) 1294, (1871) 1101, (1881) 1118. 

Routenburn House, a mansion in Largs parish, Ayr- 
shire, near the shore of the Firth of Clyde, 2 miles N 
by W of Largs town. 

Routing-Bridge. See Kirkpatrick-Irongray. 

Row (Gael, rud/ia, 'a promontory '), a village and a 
parish in the W of Dumbartonshire. The village lies 
on the E side of the Gare Loch, immediately SE of the 
small, low, triangular promontory that gives the parish 
name, and 2 miles NW of Helensburgh, under which it 
has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, and 
telegraph departments. Charmingly situated on a small 
bight nearly opposite Roseneath village, it has delightful 
environs of slopes and braes, profusely sprinkled with 
elegant villas, and richly embellished with gardens, 
shrubberies, and groves. It is not a seat of any trade, 
and presents a rural retired appearance, yet serves as a 
point of thoroughfare for very many neighbouring resi- 
dents, and for crowds of summer tourists ; enjoys 
frequent daily communication by steamers with Gare- 
lochhead, Helensburgh, and Greenock ; and has a good 
small steamboat quay. Pop. (1871) 242, (1881) 527, 
plus 401 on board the Cumberland training-ship. 

The parish, containing also the town of Helens- 
burgh and most of the village of Garelochhead, was 
formed out of Roseneath and Cardross in 1643-48. It 
is bounded NE and E by Luss, SE by Cardross, SW by 


the Gave Loch and Rosneath, and NW by Loch Long. 
Its utmost length, from NNW to SSE, is 94 miles ; its 
breadth varies between 2 and 4f miles or 6 $ along Loch 
Long ; and its area is 32 square miles or 20,530J acres, 
of which 358J are foreshore and 46 water. The road 
from Helensburgh to Garelochhead and Arrochar runs 
7J miles north-north-eastward along the E shore of the 
Gare Loch, 2J miles northward across the neck of the 
Rosneath peninsula, and then 3f miles north-north- 
eastward along the E shore of Loch Long, till it leaves 
Row parish near Gorten. Fruin Water, rising at an 
altitude of 1500 feet above sea-level, winds 8§ miles 
south-south-eastward — for the last 1£ mile along the 
Luss boundary — till it passes off into Luss parish on its 
way to Loch Lomond. The surface is everywhere hilly 
or mountainous, chief elevations from N to S being 
Creagan Hill (928 feet), Tom Buidhe (936), *Ben 
Mhanarch (2328), Maol an Fheidh (1934), *Ben 
Chaorach (2338), *Ben Tharsuinn (2149), the Strone 
(1683), Auchinvennal Hill (1680), *Balcnock (2092), 
*Craperoch (1500), and Tom na h-Airidhe (1185), where 
asterisks mark those summits that culminate on the 
Luss boundary. Row, on the side of Glenfruin, is 
naked and heathy ; but on the Gare Loch side it has in 
great part been worked by art into a state of productive- 
ness or of high embellishment. At its SE end, for 1J 
mile inward from the boundary with Cardross, it de- 
clines into very gentle upland, and is nearly all under 
cultivation. The skirts and lower declivities of it, from 
its eastern extremity to the head of the Gare Loch, are 
thickly studded with mansions, villas, and cottages 
omees, embosomed among gardens and woods, and pre- 
senting a lovely series of close landscapes ; while nearly 
all of it, from the beach to the summit, commands 
magnificent views of the Gare Loch and the Clyde, the 
Cowal mountains, the peninsula of Rosneath, and the 
hills of Renfrewshire. The rocks are variously meta- 
morphic, Silurian, and Devonian ; transition limestone 
and clay-slate have been worked, but are both of inferior 
quality ; and some useless searches have been made for 
coal. The soil of the arable grounds is, for the most 
part, light and fertile. In the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the village of Row, a large trade in illicit dis- 
tillation of whisky was carried on about fifty years ago. 
Most of the stills were in Aklownick Glen, a deep ravine 
J mile from the church. In the Heart of Midlothian, 
Sir Walter Scott alludes to the smugglers here, and to 
this gorge under the name of the Whistlers Glen, so 
called probably from the fact that those on the outlook 
gave warning of the approach of a stranger by imitating 
the whistle of the curlew. When George IV. visited 
Scotland, he expressed a desire to taste real smuggled 
whisky ; and the Duke of Argyll procured a barrel from 
a still at the mouth of this glen for his consumption ; 
though the bargain was a difficult one to make, the 
Duke having to meet the smugglers personally at the 
end of Row Point. The conflict of Glenfruin is described 
under Fruin Water. Ardincaple Castle, the prin- 
cipal mansion, is noticed separately, as also is the 
Shandon Hydropathic. Sir James Colquhoun of 
Luss, Bart., is sole proprietor. The present Duke of 
Argyll was born at Ardincaple Castle, 30 April 1823. 
Including all the quoad sacra parish of Helensburgh and 
most of that of Garelochhead, Row itself is a parish in 
the presbytery of Dumbarton and the synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr ; the living is worth £350. The parish church, 
on the shore of the Gare Loch at the village of Row, was 
built in 1850, and is a commodious Gothic edifice. 
An organ was placed in it in 1880, and a clock and 
chimes in 1881. Its tower, 110 feet high, was par- 
tially destroyed by the storm of Dec. 18S3, but has 
been since restored. John M'Leod Campbell, D.D. 
(1800-71), was minister from 1825 till his deposition 
for heresy in 1831. A monument in memory of 
Henry Bell was erected in front of the parish church 
by Robert Napier, Esq. of West Shandon. (See 
Helensburgh. ) Besides four schools noticed under 
Helensburgh, the three public schools of Garelochhead, 
Glenfruin, and Row, with respective accommodation 


for 137, 75, and 200 children, had (1884) an average 
attendance of 60, 13, and 117, and grants of £57, 10s., 
£28, 12s. 6d., and £104, 13s. 6d. Valuation (I860) 
£32,701, (1885) £79,460, 10s. 8d. Pop. (1801) 970, 
(1831) 1759, (1861) 6334, (1871) 8439, (1881) 10,097, of 
whom 1736 were in Row ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. 
Sur., shs. 30, 38, 37, 1866-76. 

Rowadill. See Harris. 

Rowallan Castle. See Kilmarnock. 

Rowanburn, a village in Canonbie parish, SE Dum- 
friesshire, near the right bank of Liddel Water, If mile 
ESE of Canonbie village. Pop. (1871) 434, (1881) 407. 

Rowardennan, an hotel in Buchanan parish, Stirling- 
shire, on the E shore of Loch Lomond, opposite Inver- 
uglas ferry, 4 miles S of the summit of Ben Lomond, 
and 9J N of Balloch. It adjoins a steamboat pier ; is 
the best starting-place for the ascent of Ben Lomond ; 
and furnishes guides and well-trained ponies for parties 
making the ascent. — Ord. Sur., sh. 38, 1871. 

Rowcan. See Rot/can. 

Rowchester, an estate, with a fine modern mansion, in 
Greenlaw parish, Berwickshire, 3 miles SE of the town. 
It was purchased in 1858 by Rt. Hy. Broughton, Esq. 
(b. 1829), who holds 926 acres in the shire, valued at 
£1890 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Rowdill. See Harris. 

Roxburgh, a village and a parish of N Roxburghshire. 
The village, near the left bank of the Teviot, has a 
station, Roxburgh Junction, on the North British rail- 
way, 7J miles NNE of Jedburgh, 8A E by S of St Bos- 
wells, and 3 SW of Kelso. It is an ancient but decayed 
place, with a post office, having money order, savings' 
bank, and railway telegraph departments. 

The parish, containing also Heiton village, is bounded 
N and E by Kelso, S by Eckford and Crailing, SW 
by Ancrum, W by Maxton, and NW by Makerstoun. 
Projecting a long, narrow south-western wing, it has an 
utmost length from NE to SW of 7| miles, a varying 
width of 3 furlongs and 3§ miles, and an area of 7924§ 
acres, of which 143| are water. The Tweed, here a 
splendid salmon river, curves 4| miles north-eastward 
along all the north-western and northern border ; and 
the Teviot, entering from Eckford, flows 4 miles north- 
north-eastward — for the last If mile along the Kelso 
boundary — until, J mile above its influx to the Tweed, 
it passes off into Kelso parish. Near the village it is 
spanned by a lofty railway viaduct of fourteen arches. 
In the NE extremity of the parish the surface declines 
to 100 feet above sea-level ; and thence it rises to 212 
at Roxburgh Castle, 368 at Ladyrig, 550 at the Eckford 
boundary, 383 near Moorhouse, and 663 at Down, Doune, 
or Dunse Law. The western and southern borders, at 
one time moorish, have for many years been brought 
under the plough. In almost every corner the eye is 
presented with objects which nature and art seem vying 
how best to adorn. Hedgerow enclosures, rows of trees, 
clumps and groves upon knolls and rocky hillocks, and 
curvatures of slope, render the landscape rich and beauti- 
ful. A tourist travelling eastward along the highway, 
a little W of the ancient castle, moves along the summit 
of a precipice lined with trees, and sees, immediately on 
his left, through the little vistas of the wood, the 
majestic Tweed rolling far below him, ' dark, drumlie, 
and deep ; ' and, at a little distance on the right, the 
Teviot, forced aside by a rocky wooded bank, and 
meandering round a spacious plain. Advancing a brief 
space, he loses sight of both rivers, and is ingulfed 
among wood in a hollow of the way. Speedily emerging 
from the gloom, he looks upon one of the fairest prospects 
in the world — the ducal castle and park of Floors, the 
splendid mansion and grounds of Springwood Park, the 
Tweed and the Teviot, each spanned by an elegant 
bridge, and, right before him, Kelso and its immediate 
environs in all their glory. From a spot in the village 
of Roxburgh, you look, on the one hand, along a valley 
8 or 10 miles long, apparently all of it covered with 
trees, or but thinly diversified with glade and dwelling ; 
whilst, on the other hand, is an open and very diversified 
prospect of double the distance, away to the summits of 



the Cheviot Hills, 
southern houndary, the Teviot, after moving awhile 
in concealment behind overshadowing banks, rolls 
romantically into view, and instantly passes again into 
concealment. The summit of Dunse Law, anciently a 
station of strength, commands by far the most extensive 
and interesting of the local prospects — one so large, so 
rich, so crowded with objects, including all the elements 
of rural landscape, three renowned castles, and a peep 
at the German Ocean, as to defy succinct description. 
Caves of considerable extent and of curious forms, once 
used as places of concealment, occur on the banks of the 
Teviot. An immense natural dam, called the Trow 
Craigs, consisting of trap rock, lies across the Tweed, 
but has been worn by the river into four slits, which, 
when there is no flood, admit in separated currents the 
entire volume of water. Two of these slits are 34 feet 
deep, and so narrow that a person may bestride them;; 
and they and the other gullets have a length of 450 and 
a descent of 16 feet. They form eddies and rapids, and 
offer to the current alternate accelerations and obstruc- 
tions, which at all seasons occasion a loud noise, and, 
at the breaking up of the ice, create a tremendous roar, 
resembling the cry of the tempest-lashed sea. The 
principal rocks are traps and sandstones, little suited 
for building purposes. Two springs near the Tweed 
have a remarkable petrifying power. Much of the 
peninsula between the Tweed and the Teviot is so stony 
as to have given rise to a tradition, that it was once all 
covered with town. The soil of the parish is in some 
parts a mossy mould, iu some a gravelly or sandy 
alluvium, in some a fine fertile loam. About 1750 acres 
are in pasture ; nearly 230 acres are under wood ; and 
almost all the remainder is in tillage. The great Eoman 
road, called Watling Street, runs 1^ mile along all the 
Ancrum boundary, and was used here till comparatively 
recent times as a drove road for cattle. The strongly- 
vaulted basement-story of a fortalice, variously called 
Roxburgh, Sunlaws, and Wallace Tower, the subject of 
many legends, and seemingly one of a chain of strengths 
between Roxburgh Castle and Upper Teviotdale, stands 
between the village of Roxburgh and the Teviot. 
Vestiges of camps and trenches appear in several 
localities ; and traces of villages and malt steeps, with 
other memorials of inhabitation, indicate the population 
to have formerly been very considerable. Mansions are 
Sunlaws and Fairnington ; and there are five proprietors 
besides the Duke of Roxburghe, who holds fully one- 
half of the entire rental. Roxburgh is in the presby- 
tery of Kelso and the synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; 
the living is worth £370. The parish church, at the 
village, was built in 1752, and contains 400 sittings. 
In the churchyard is the grave of Andrew Gemmels, 
the 'Blue gown, Edie Ochiltree,' of Sir Walter Scott's 
Antiquary, who 'died at Roxburgh Newtown in 1793, 
aged 106 years.' Three public schools — Fairnington, 
Heiton, and Rsxburgh — with respective accommodation 
for 83, 78, and 123 children.had (1884) an average attend- 
ance of 26, 60, and 73, and grants of £27, 17s., £47, 7s., 
and £52, lis. Valuation (1864) £10,441, 3s. 8d., (1885) 
£13,364, 3s. 8d., plus £2948 for railway. Pop. (1801) 
949, (1831) 962, (1861) 1178, (1871) 1053, (1881) 1012.— 
Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Old Roxburgh stood over against Kelso, on a rising- 
ground at the W end of the low fertile peninsula be- 
tween the Teviot and the Tweed, 2 miles NNE of the 
village of Roxburgh, from which one approaches it 
by a beautiful walk by the side of the Teviot. It is 
now quite extinct. Brief and obscure notices by various 
historians indicate that it was a place of considerable 
note long before the 12th century ; but they fail to 
throw light on its condition, and do not furnish any 
certain facts in its history. While David I., who 
mounted the throne in 1124, was yet only Earl of North- 
umberland, the town, as well as the castle, belonged 
to him as an appanage of his earldom, and appears to 
have been so flourishing that it could not accommodate 
the crowds who pressed into it to enrol themselves its 
citizens. An overflow of its population was the occasion 


of the erection of the new town, the original of the 
present village. Whether the new town was founded 
by David or at a period even more remote is uncertain ; 
but the fact of its being so early an offshoot strikingly 
evinces how great a seat of population was the district 
at the mouth of the Teviot in even rude and semi-bar- 
barous times. Among other elements of the old town's 
importance in the first half of the 12th century, it pos- 
sessed an encincturing fortification of wall and ditch, 
and had its three churches and schools, which David 
gave to the monks of Kelso Abbey. When he ascended 
the throne, it became, as a matter of course, a royal 
burgh — one of those ' Four Burghs ' (the others being 
Edinburgh, Berwick, and Stirling) whose burghal par- 
liament still exists as the Convention of Royal Burghs. 
But its main feature was its ancient castle, supposed to 
have been built by the Saxons while they held their 
sovereignty of the Northumbrian kingdom, and long a 
most important fortress, a royal residence, a centre of 
strife, an eyesore to every great party who had not pos- 
session of it, and at once the political glory and the 
social bane of Teviotdale. Only a few fragments of 
some of its outer walls remain — on a tabular rock which 
rises about 40 feet perpendicular from the level of the 
plain ; but these distinctly indicate it to have been a 
place of great strength. It was for ages a focus of 
intrigue and pomp and battle ; it witnessed a profusion 
of the vicissitudes of siege and strife, of pillage and fire 
and slaughter ; but now — 

' Roxburgh ! how fallen, since first, in Gothic pride, 
Thy frowning battlements the war defied, 
Called the bold chief to grace thy blazoned halls, 
And bade the rivers gird thy solid walls ! 
Fallen are thy towers ; and where the palace stood, 
In gloomy grandeur waves yon hanging wood. 
Crushed are thy halls, save where the peasant sees 
One moss-clad ruin rise betweeu the trees, — 
The still green trees, whose mournful branches wave, 
In solemn cadence o'er the hapless grave. 
Proud castle ! fancy still beholds thee stand, 
The curb, the guardian, of this Border land, 
As when the signal flame that blazed afar, 
And bloody flag, proclaimed impending war, 
While in the lion's place the leopard frowned, 
And marshall'd armies hemmed thy bulwarks round.' 

Old Roxburgh was governed by a provost and bailies ; 
it had a burgh or city seal ; and it was the seat of a 
royal mint, at least in the reigns of William the Lyon 
and James II. It also very early had a weekly market 
and an annual fair— the latter the original of the great 
fair of St James which continues to be held on its site, 
and now belongs to Kelso. In 1368 it was subject to 
Edward III. of England, and received from that monarch 
a confirmation of its privileges as a burgh ; and in 1460, 
having again come under the power of the Scottish 
crown, it was, in punishment of its disloyalty, denuded 
of its honours, and struck from the list of Scottish 
burghs. It was, as a town, more or less affected by 
nearly all the vicissitudes which befell its castle ; and 
at many periods, particularly in the years 1369 and 
1460, it was burned by hostile armies. It is said to 
have been, for some time, the fourth town in Scotland 
in both population and general importance. Near it, 
on the Teviot side, at a place which still bears the name 
of Friars, is the site of a convent of Franciscan monks. 
In the vicinity stood also a Maison Dieu or hospital, for 
the reception of pilgrims, and of the diseased and the 
indigent. David I. spent much time at the town and 
castle of Roxburgh, partly in the way of ordinary resid- 
ence, and partly iu the way of conducting hostilities 
with England. AVilliam the Lyon, under the misfor- 
tunes of war, delivered up the castle of Roxburgh to 
Henry II. of England (1174), but received it back from 
Richard I. ; and he afterwards held his court here, and 
sent forth forces hence to quell insurrections among his 
subjects so far N as the province of Moray. Alexander 
II. resided much at Roxburgh, and was married here in 
1239. Alexander III. was born at Roxburgh two years 
later, and afterwards, at two periods, was shut up in it 
by turbulences amongst his nobles; and here in 1255 
he welcomed his father-in-law, Henry III. of England. 


Roxburgh Castle was affected by the first movements of 
Edward I. against Scotland, and continued to figure 
prominently in most of the leading events throughout 
the Wars of the Succession. During the interregnum, 
the public writings and records had been transmitted 
from Edinburgh to Roxburgh, where the auditors 
appointed for Scottish affairs by Edward I. held 
their assemblies. In 1295 John Baliol consented that 
Roxburgh, with Berwick and Jedburgh, should be de- 
livered to the Bishop of Carlisle, as a pledge of adher- 
ence to the interests of Edward. In September 1292 
Edward himself resided at Roxburgh ; and four years 
afterwards, in punishment of some resistance to his 
claims, he took formal military possession of the castle. 
In 1297 an unsuccessful attempt was made by the Scots 
to retake it; but on Sh rove-Tuesday 1313, the castle was 
surprised and captured by Sir James Douglas, while the 
garrison were indulging in riot. In 1332 Edward 
Baliol got possession of the castle of Roxburgh, and 
here acknowledged Edward III. of England as his liege 
lord, surrendering to him the independence of Scotland, 
and alienating the town, castle, and county of Roxburgh 
as an annexation to the crown of England. Edward III. 
spent some time in Roxburgh Castle, and twice cele- 
brated his birthday here. On Easter Day, 1342, Sir 
Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie took the castle by 
escalade (see Hermitage Castle) ; but in 1346 the 
English regained possession of it after the battle of Hex- 
ham. In 1355 Edward III. of England again resided 
here ; and Edward Baliol, who attended him as a vassal, 
made here a formal and more absolute surrender to him 
than before of the crown rights of Scotland, degrading 
himself so far as, in token of submission, to present 
him with the Scottish crown and with a portion 
of the Scottish soil. In 139S, during a truce, the Earl 
of Douglas' son, with Sir William Stewart and others, 
taking advantage of the critical situation of Richard II. , 
broke down the bridge at Roxburgh, plundered the 
town, and ravaged the adjacent lands. In 1411 Doug- 
las of Drumlanrig and Gavin Dunbar adopted the same 
course of hostility ; for they broke down the bridge of 
Roxburgh, and set fire to the town. James I.'s vain 
attempt to recover this fortress in 1435 is naively de- 
scribed by Bellenden : — 'The king past with an army 
to sege the castell of Marchmond, that is to say Rox- 
burgh. The Scottis war nowmerit in this army to 
II. CM. men, by [besides] futmen and caragemen. At 
last quhen the kyng had lyne at the sege foresaid xv. 
dayis and waistit all his munitioun and powder, he 
returnit haim, but [without] ony mair felicite succeed- 
ing to his army.' In 1460 James II. — perhaps from the 
thought of its shaming the Scottish crown, that Ber- 
wick and Roxburgh should continue so long under 
English dominion — laid siege to the latter, with a 
numerous army, well-furnished with artillery and war- 
like machinery. He had taken the town, and levelled 
it to the ground ; but on 3 Aug., during the siege of the 
castle, while he was watching the discharge of a cannon, 
of so great a calibre, that it was called the 'Lion,' it 
burst, and the king was almost instantaneously struck 
dead. A yew tree, planted by the late Duke of Rox- 
burghe, marks the spot where he fell. On receiving 
the mournful tidings the Queen, Mary of Gueldres, 
hurried to the camp with her eldest son, a boy of eight 
years of age. She conducted herself with such heroism 
as to inspire the troops with redoubled energy ; and the 
garrison, finding themselves reduced to extremities, sur- 
rendered the fortress. 'That the place,' says Ridpath, 
' which the English had held for more than a hundred 
years, might thenceforth cease to be a centre of rapine 
and violence, or a cause of future strife between the 
nations, the victors reduced it to a heap of ruins.' In 
this dismantled state did it remain till the English 
arm}', in 1547, under the Protector Somerset, encamped 
on the plain between the ruins of Roxburgh Castle and 
the confluence of Tweed and Teviot. Observing the 
strength and convenience of the situation, he resolved 
to make the fortress tenable. This he did, and left in 
it a garrison of 300 soldiers and 200 pioneers, under Sir 


Ralph Bulmer. While the English were at Roxburgh, 
a great number of the Scottish gentry in this district 
came into the camp, and made their submission to 
Somerset, swearing fealty to the King of England. In 
1499 Walter Ker of Cessford obtained from James IV. 
a grant of the site of the ruined town and castle. 
Robert, his fifth descendant, received the title of Baron 
Roxburghe in 1600, and of Earl of Roxburghe in 1616 ; 
and in 1707 the fifth Earl was created Duke of Rox- 
burghe. See Floors Castle, Kelso, and works cited 
under the latter article. 

Roxburghshire, an inland county in the middle of 
the Scottish marches, and perhaps the most character- 
istically Border county of all, lies between 55° 6' 40" 
and 55° 42' 52" N lat., and between 2° 11' and 3° 7' 50" 
W long. It is bounded on the N by Berwickshire, E 
and SE by England, SW by Dumfriesshire, and W by 
Selkirkshire and a southerly projection from Edin- 
burghshire. Its greatest length, from the point where 
the Tweed issues from the county in the N to the 
extreme SW, is 42 miles ; its greatest breadth, from E to 
W, is 30 miles ; and its total area is 669 5 square miles 
or 428,493 acres, of which 2836 are water. Roxburgh- 
shire is the thirteenth county of Scotland in point of 
size, and the seventeenth in point of population. Its 
outline is irregular ; but its shape may be described as a 
rough rectangle, 17 or 18 miles by 35 to 40, lying from 
NE to SW along the English border, with a narrow 
peninsula, 10 or 12 miles long, protruding from its 
northern side. The boundary line runs from the Tweed 
at Carham Burn southwards to the Cheviot Hills on 
the English border ; thence turns to the SW along a 
series of watersheds between the two countries, past 
Carter Fell and Peel Fell, to Kershope Water, which 
carries it on to the SW extremity at Liddlebank. 
Thence the line turns almost due N along the E border 
of Dumfriesshire ; but at Tudhope Fell bends suddenly 
westwards, and after a circuit trends NW in an ex- 
ceedingly irregular and arbitrary course to the sources 
of the Elwyn, which marks the N limit of the county. 
Thence turning eastward for a few miles, it strikes the 
course of the Leader, and with one indentation follows 
it southwards to the Tweed at Makerstoun. From this 
point it follows along the course of the Tweed, making, 
however, two considerable loops northwards, to include 
Smailholm and Makerstoun, and Ednam and Stitchel, 
before it once more reaches Carham Burn. This line 
throughout most of its circuit, entirely disregards all 
geographical and natural boundaries, and its irregular- 
ities and divergences are perplexingly capricious. Three 
districts of the county are geographically separated from 
its main body. The first of these lies N of the Tweed, 
between the rivers Gala and Leader, and belongs 
naturally to Lauderdale. It contains only part, though 
the larger part, of the parish of Melrose. The second 
district also lies N of the Tweed, from a line about 3 
miles E of the Leader to the NE boundary; and 
belongs naturally to the Merse. It embraces the 
parishes of Smailholm, Makerstoun, Stitchel, Ednam, 
and part of Kelso. The third district consists of the 
triangular projection in the extreme SE, and is separ- 
ated from the main body by a continuous mountain 
watershed. It is drained by the river Liddel, whence 
it receives the name of Liddesdale, and comprises the 
large parish of Castleton. The main body of Roxburgh- 
shire amounts to 14 or 15-20ths of the whole area, and 
consists chiefly of the basin of the Teviot. It bears 
the general name of Teviotdale, which, indeed, is some- 
times used as synonymous with Roxburghshire. This 
district surrounds a small isolated portion of Selkirk- 
shire, and gives off to the main body of that county 
some little districts drained by tributaries of the Teviot ; 
while it includes a western district on the Tweed, send- 
ing no affluent to the Teviot, with two or three eastern 
pendicles drained by Bowmont Water and other streams 
into Northumberland. 

Surface. — The surface of the two divisions N of the 
Tweed and of the whole northern part of Teviotdale, is, 
as compared with the rest of the county, decidedly 



champaign — undulating and even boldly variegated, but 
in no place rising into heights, except in the Eildon 
Hills behind Melrose, the Penielheugh, the Dunian, the 
Minto, and the Ruberslaw Hills. The Merse district is 
almost level ; while on the S bank of the Tweed there 
extends a sort of rolling plain. Everywhere, but 
especially near the Tweed, this region is highly farmed 
and extensively adorned with trees. The county S of 
this united district is, in a general view, all hilly, and 
over a great extent mountainous. The vales and hang- 
ing plains within the basin of the Teviot follow the 
course of that stream or its tributaries, and whether 
they have narrow bottoms or sloping braes, are either 
under tillage or covered with sheep, or profusely adorned 
with wood. The heights are all beautiful and rounded 
in aspect, though those which overhang the upper 
Teviot and Liddesdale valleys are more boldly moun- 
tainous, and in some instances moorish, barren, and bleak. 

Mountains. — The chief mountains of Roxburghshire 
are those of the Cheviot range, which extends along the 
S border from Yetholm parish to Craik Hill, near the 
source of the Borthwick border. The highest summits 
in this range within the county, from E to W, are the 
Schel (1978 feet), Auchopecairn (2382), Hounam Law 
(1464), Grindstone Law (1535), Arks Edge (1469), 
Carter Fell (1899), Peel Fell (1964), and Larriston Fells 
(1677). A projection of the Cheviots strikes westward 
from a point about 20 miles SW of Auchopecairn, and 
forms the mutual boundary between Teviotdale and 
Liddesdale, and thence extends NW across the south- 
western border of Teviotdale into junction with the 
southern Highlands, which extend across Scotland from 
the coast of Berwickshire to the coast of Ayrshire. On 
the watershed between Teviotdale and Liddesdale the 
chief summits are AVheelrig Head (1465 feet), Oarlin- 
tooth (1801), Needslaw (1457), Fanna Hill (1643), Win- 
burgh (1662), Leap Steel (1544), Maiden Paps (1677), 
and Skelfhill Fell (1749) ; while on the Dumfriesshire 
border rise Watch Hill (1642), Roan Fell (1839), Din 
Fell (1735), Tudhope Hill (1961), Wisp Hill (1951), 
Whitehope Edge (1506), and Craik Cross Hill (1481). 
Other summits and hills within the county are Rubers- 
law (1392 feet) between the Teviot and Rule, with 
Miuto Crags (700) on the opposite bank of the former 
river, while to the NW rise the two rounded summits 
of Minto (905). East of the Rule, and between the 
Teviot and Jed, rises the Dunian (1095 feet), overhanging 
Jedburgh ; and immediately N of the point where these 
two rivers join stands Penielheugh (700). Dunlavv 
(663 feet), near the scene of the battle of Ancruni Moor, 
is surmounted by the ruins of an observatory built by 
Baron Rutherford of Fairnington, and now locally 
known as 'the baron's folly. ' Near Melrose rise the 
three Eildons (respectively 1385, 1327, and 1216 feet), 
commanding a lovely and extensive view. In the range 
of hills that extends westwards from this point towards 
Selkirk, the chief summits in Roxburghshire are Bowden 
Moor (933 feet), Cauldshiels Hill (1076), and Whitlaw 
Kip (1059). In the small peninsula part of the shire N 
of the Tweed and between the Gala and the Leader the 
chief hills are Buckholm Hill (1064 feet), William Law 
(1315), and Sell Moor (1388). Other hills, worthy of 
notice from their associations if not from their size, are 
Skelfhill Pen, Pencrestpen, Pencrest, and Burgh Hill, 
in the W part of Cavers parish ; Nine Stane Rig in 
Castleton, where one of the Soulis family is said to have 
been boiled alive by the men of Teviotdale on account of 
his cruelty ; the Hermitage Hills, with the castle of the 
same name ; Billhope Braes, famous for ' bucks and 
raes ;' Carby Hill, between the Liddel and Kershope 
Waters ; and the Chesters in Southdean parish. 

Streams. — Roxburghshire is perhaps only excelled by 
Perthshire among the counties of Scotland for the 
number and picturesque beauty of its streams ; but the 
rivers of the southern county are even more celebrated 
in song than those of the northern. The ehief stream, 
both in bulk and in beauty, is the Tweed, which enters 
the county from Selkirkshire about 2 miles below the 
burgh of Selkirk, and leaves it after a beautiful course 


of 30 miles at the influx of Carham Burn on the 
NE border. The course of this river in the county 
is towards the NE across the northern part of the shire, 
and for a considerable distance it forms the boundary 
with Berwickshire. All the other main streams of 
Roxburghshire flow directly or ultimately into the 
Tweed. The chief affluents of that river in the county 
on the left or northern bank are the Gala, which forms 
part of the western border of the shire ; Allan Water ; 
the Leader, which separates Roxburghshire from part of 
Berwickshire ; and not far from the point where it leaves 
the district, Eden Water. On the right or S bank 
the main tributaries of the Tweed are the Ettrick, 
which touches the county only for a mile or two on the 
western border ; and the Teviot, which joins the Tweed 
at Kelso. The Teviot is the second river in Roxburgh- 
shire, and its whole course lies within the county limits. 
It rises in the Fanhill, one of the hills which separate 
P.oxburghshire from Dumfriesshire in the SE, and 
thence it flows NW in a line parallel to the main axis 
of the shire for about 40 miles, until it falls into the 
Tweed at Kelso. On its left bank it receives the 
Borthwick and Ale Waters ; and on its right bank the 
Allan, Slitrig, Rule, Jed, Oxnam, and Kale. Borthwick 
Water is formed by the junction of the Craik Hope, 
Howpasley, and Wolfcleugh Burns, and has a course of 
16 miles. The Ale flows for 24 miles in a winding 
course before it joins the Teviot. The Allan has a 
short course of only 5 miles ; it supplies the town of 
Hawick with water. The Slitrig, which joins the 
Teviot at Hawick, is an impetuous stream subject to 
floods. The Rule is formed by the junction of the 
Wauchope, Harwood, and Catlee Burns, and has a 
course of 9J miles, for the most part through a narrow 
wooded glen. The ' crystal Jed ' rises on the Liddesdale 
border, and receives on its course of 21 f miles the Black, 
Carlee, AVhite, Shaw, Edgerston, and Pier Burns. The 
Oxnam flows 9| miles before entering the main stream ; 
and Kale Water falls into the Teviot at Kalemouth, after a 
sinuous course of 20 J miles, during which it is joined by 
Cessford Burn and other small affluents. The Liddel, re- 
ceiving on its right bank the Hermitage and Tinnis, and 
on the left the Black Burn, Larriston Burn, and the Kers- 
hope, crosses the Scottish border, and after a course of 
26| miles joins the Esk below Canonbie. In the E of the 
shire the Bowmont Water runs northwards, and crosses 
the border in Yetholm parish to join the Till in England. 

The lakes of the county are both few and small. Prim- 
side or Yetholm Loch, in Morebattle parish, is about 1J 
mile in circumference ; it is thought to have been con- 
nected with theformer Linton Loch, nowdrained, closeby. 
Hoselaw Loch is in Linton parish. Cauldshiels Loch, 
about a mile in circumference, is situated on the Abbots- 
ford property, and is surrounded by trees planted by 
Sir Walter Scott. Huntly Burn flows from this lakelet 
through the Rhymer's Glen, a favourite haunt of Thomas 
the Rhymer. Petrifying streams occur in the parishes 
of Roxburgh, Minto, and Carleton ; mineral springs in 
Jedburgh, Oxnam, Crailing, St Boswells, and Castleton ; 
and ' consecrated ' wells, as St Helen's, St Robert's, and 
St Dunstan's, in the neighbourhood of Melrose. 

Geology. — The geological history of Roxburghshire pre- 
sents several features of special interest to the geologist, 
partly from the remarkable development of the older 
Palseozoic rocks and partly from the relations of the 
Calciferous Sandstones along the border to the Carboni- 
ferous system in the N of England. The various for- 
mations represented in this county are given in the 
following table : — 

/ Peat and alluvium. 
Eecent and I Glacial gravels. 
Pleistocene. ) Kames. _ 

( Boulder-clay with inter-glacia beds. 

Carboniferous. Calciferous Sandstone series. 

/ ( Conglomerates and sandstones 

Upper. | ^jj flsh remain3 . 

Old Red ( Intercalations of sandstones and 

Sandstone. 1 r ow „ J conglomerates with the contem- 
low er. ■< p 0rane0 us volcanic rocks of the 
( Cheviots. 





( Upper. WeDlock beda. 

/ Queensberry Grits. 
J. T f Caradoc. ) Moffat Black Shale 

] Lower Ulandeilo.-) Group. 
^ ( Ardwell Group. 


Igneous Rocks. 

/Torphyrites, tuffg, etc., of Lower Carboni- 
ferous age. 
) Porphyrites, tuffs, etc., of Upper Old Red 
\ Sandstorift age. 

1 Porphyrites, tuffs, etc., of Lower Old Red 
^ Sandstone age. 

^Basalt dykes of Tertiary age. 
1 Diabase, Basalt, Porphyrite, and volcanic 
Intrusive. •{ necks of Carboniferous age. 

I Minette and Granite, Post Upper Silurian 
V. and Lower Old Red Sandstone age. 

Beginning with the Lower Silurian rocks, which are the 
oldest sedimentary strata in the county, we find that 
they cover an extensive area lying to the W of a line 
drawn from Old Melrose, S by Kirkton, to the sources 
of the Teviot. According to the classification adopted 
by the Geological Survey, the strata forming the Ard- 
well Group, consisting of yellow and brown tinted grey- 
wackes and shales, are regarded as the oldest members 
of the Lower Silurian formation in the S of Scotland. 
Though probably of no great thickness, yet by reason 
of innumerable folds they extend from the sources of 
the Teviot N to near Abbotsford, where they are suc- 
ceeded by the representatives of the Moffat black shales. 
Disregarding minor folds, the members of this group 
are arranged in a gentle arch the axis of which runs 
more or less parallel with the Teviot along a line about 
1 mile to the N of that stream. The overlying black 
shales are admirably exposed in ' the Rhymer's Glen ' 
near Melrose, whence they can be traced in a SW direc- 
tion to the bridge spanning the Ettrick at its point of 
junction with the Tweed. At the former locality there 
is evidence of excessive crumpling and crushing of the 
beds, but, nevertheless, it is apparent that the zones 
present considerable variations compared with their 
development in the typical Moffat area. Indeed, some 
of the fossiliferous bauds have disappeared, and it is 
also observable that the black shales which do occur, 
are associated with greywackes and shales — a feature 
common to the Selkirkshire area (see article on geology 
of Selkirkshire, same vol., p. 333). To the N of the 
line indicated as the outcrop of the Moffat black shales, 
there succeeds a belt of flaggy greywackes and shales 
— the equivalents of the Grieston beds, and these 
are overlain in turn by the strong grit bands of the 
Queensberry series on the Meigle Hill near Galashiels in 

The Upper Silurian rocks occupy several detached 
areas, the largest of which lies immediately to the S of 
the tract covered by the Ardwell beds, extending from 
the county boundary at Wisp Hill E by Stobs Castle, till 
they are overlapped by the Upper Old Red Sandstone. 
Other masses occur in the heart of the Old Red Sand- 
stone and Carboniferous areas, and of these, the most 
important is traceable from near Riccarton NE to 
near Hobkirk — a distance of 14 miles. Throughout 
these areas, the strata are as much folded and contorted 
as the Lower Silurian rocks, and hence there is a 
constant repetition of the same beds. Along the N 
limit of the tract bounding the Ardwell Group, about 
3 miles S of Hawick, the lowest beds consist of grits, 
which are rapidly succeeded by shales containing a thin 
band crowded with graptolites and orthoceratites. These 
are followed by greenish-grey greywackes and shales 
forming the dominant members of the series, occasion- 
ally containing a band of fossiliferous shales similar to 
that just indicated. Zones of pebbly grit and con- 
glomerate, yielding casts of shells, encrinites, etc., are 
frequently met with. Excellent sections of the highest 
beds of the series are exposed in the railway cuttings 
near Riccarton. 

The representatives of the Lower Old Red Sandstone 
consist almost wholly of contemporaneous volcanic 


rocks, and cover an area of about 80 square miles on 
the Cheviots. Before the outburst of volcanic activity 
during this period, the Silurian rocks had been plicated 
and subjected to a vast amount of denudation. Wher- 
ever the unconformable junction is exposed, the lavas 
and tuffs rest on the upturned edges of the Silurian 
strata, so that a long interval of time must have elapsed 
between the close of the Upper Silurian period and the 
earliest volcanic eruptions of the Lower Old Red Sand- 
stone in this region. The oldest member of the volcanic 
series in Roxburghshire consists of a coarse agglomerate 
or tuff exposed on the hill slopes E of Hindhope at the 
head of Kale Water, where it rests on the Upper Silurian 
greywackes and shales. Sheet after sheet of porphyrite 
succeeds this basal tuff, the whole series being inclined 
at a gentle angle to the SE. Few intercalations of tuff 
are associated with these ancient lavas, but occasionally 
thin seams of chocolate-coloured sandstone are met with, 
thereby indicating that the area had subsided beneath 
the waters of the Old Red Sandstone lake. An excel- 
lent example of the alternation of sandstones and lavas 
occurs on the Kale Water, about 4 miles S of the village 
of Hounara. Some of the bands still retain their original 
glassy matrix, as, for example, at Cocklanfoot in the 
neighbourhood of the Big Cheviot and near Morebattle 
on Kale Water. A few volcanic necks pierce these 
porphyrite lavas, occurring chiefly round the Big 

That the volcanic series just described was highly 
denuded before the deposition of the Upper Old Red 
Sandstone is evident from an examination of the boun- 
dary line between the two formations, and also from the 
character of the conglomerate at the base of the Upper 
Old Red strata. The latter fills up bays and hollows 
cut out of the ancient lavas, while the included pebbles 
of the basal conglomerate, where it flanks the volcanic 
area, are composed mainly of trappean fragments. Ear 
to the W, even, where no Lower Old Red lavas or tuffs 
are now to be found, as, for instance, S of Hawick, there 
is a larger number of blocks of Cheviot porphyrites in 
the conglomerates than Silurian fragments. 

Nearly one-third of the county is made up of Upper 
Old Red strata. A line drawn from Newtown St Boswells 
to Kirkton, thence to Edgerton, Kelso, and back to St 
Boswells, encloses the largest mass of this formation. 
To the SW of this area long tongues of Upper Old Red 
Sandstone fill old valleys carved out of the older rocks, 
while another narrow belt skirting the Cheviot volcanic 
rocks extends from Crailing to the English border on the 
S side of the Tweed. The oldest member of this for- 
mation consists of a coarse conglomerate resembling a 
boulder clay, filling up old hollows and river courses in 
the older rocks. The greatest development of this 
deposit occurs in Lauderdale, where, owing to the 
smoothed edges of the included blocks and their irregu- 
lar arrangement, it is sometimes difficult to tell the 
boundary line between it and the overlying boulder 
clay. Overlying this conglomerate we find a great 
development of marls and sandstones forming the 
prominent beds of this formation. They are admirably 
exposed in the Tweed from St Boswells to Rutherford, 
in the Ale Water near Ancrum, and in the Jed Water 
near Kelso. From the sandstone bands in these sections, 
fish remains have been obtained, comprising Holop- 
tychius nobilissiimcs and PtericWiys major. In Belses 
quarry near Ancrum, Palceopteris Hibernica is said to 
have been found. 

Along the N border of the county the Upper Old Red 
Sandstone attains its greatest development ; and near 
the upper limits of the formation near Smailholm, a 
thin band of porphyrite lava is intercalated with the 
red sandstones — evidently the first indication of the 
Kelso volcanic rocks. The latter form an important 
horizon between the Upper Old Red Sandstone and the 
overlying Calciferous Sandstones in Roxburghshire. 
From the N border of the county near Stitchel, where 
they pass into Berwickshire, these ancient lavas, com- 
posed of diabase-porphyrites, can be traced W to Smail- 
holm, thence across the Tweed to Makerstoun, causing 



the gorge known as 'the Makerstoun trows' (troughs). 
From this point the volcanic belt can be followed E 
along the S side of the Tweed as far as the county 
boundary. This volcanic zone, represented by a few 
bands of slaggy diabase with an overlying bed of tuff, 
occurs in the neighbourhood of Riccarton, coming to the 
surface wherever this horizon is exposed. Between this 
point and Kelso the volcanic rocks are absent, the Calci- 
ferous Sandstones resting directly on the Upper Old Red 
Sandstone. It reappears, however, in the Dinley Burn, 
a tributary of the Hermitage Water, and can be traced 
across the watershed to the Tarras Water. 

An interesting feature connected with this develop- 
ment of volcanic activity at the base of the Calciferous 
Sandstones, is the number of necks or volcanic orifices 
throughout the county. Some of these undoubtedly 
supplied the volcanic rocks belonging to this horizon, 
while others probably acted as blowholes for the dis- 
charge of triturated materials. An excellent example 
occurs at Melrose, and in the quarry near the station 
there is a capital section of the material filling the vent. 
A glance at the Geological Survey maps of the county 
(sheets 11, 25, 26 of the 1-inch map) will show the dis- 
tribution of these old centres of eruption. Black Law, 
Down Law, Dunian Hill, Rubers Law, the Maiden Paps, 
are all examples of the cores of Lower Carboniferous 

There are two areas of Carboniferous rocks in the 
county — one in the extreme NE part, extending from 
near Kelso to the Merse of Berwickshire ; the other, 
and larger area of the two, runs along the English 
border from a point where the road crosses from Jed- 
burgh to Redesdale, to near the junction of the Liddel 
with the Esk. The latter covers the greater part of 
Liddesdale and the surrounding heights, culminating in 
the Peel, Carter, and Larriston Fells. In the former 
area, the strata form the rim of the Carboniferous basin 
of the Merse of Berwickshire. As already indicated, 
they overlie the volcanic belt at Kelso, and consist of 
blue, red, and green clays, white and blue cement-stones, 
flaggy sandstones, and occasional bands of calcareous 
conglomeratic sandstone, dipping away at gentle angles 
from the ancient lavas. It is evident, therefore, that 
they resemble the type of the Cement-stone series as 
developed in Midlothian. 

The relations of the Carboniferous rocks of Liddesdale 
to those in the N of England will be discussed in the 
general article on the geology of Scotland. Even in 
this limited area there are considerable variations in the 
order of succession of the strata when traced along the 
strike. Beginning with the section in Lower Liddesdale 
we find that the beds overlying the volcanic zone at the 
base of the Calciferous Sandstones consist of sandstones, 
well seen on the Whita Hill above Langholm, followed 
by cement-stones consisting of blue and green clays, 
shales, and calcareous sandstones. Near Newcastleton 
there is a volcanic zone occupying the horizon of the 
famous scorpion bed at Langholm. (See article on 
geology of Dumfriesshire, Orel. Gaz., vol. ii., p. 398.) A 
second horizon of slaggy basalt occurs a little higher up 
in the series, just above the lowest beds of the Fell 
Sandstones, which form the next subdivision of the 
Calciferous Sandstones of Liddesdale. In the lower 
districts the base of this group is represented by a coarse 
sandstone seen at Kershope Foot, thickening out towards 
the E, and forming the Kidd's Linn Sandstone of Upper 
Liddesdale. The basalt zone of Caerby Hill comes next 
in order, followed by strata resembling the underlying 
Cement-stone group, with a band of fine tuff and some 
thin coal seams, the whole series being overlain by the 
Larriston Fell Sandstones — the highest beds in this 
part of the county. Along this horizon, however, 
to the W there is a gradual increase in the number 
of bands of marine limestone, the equivalents of the 
Penton Limestone group, and perhaps the lower part 
of the Canonbie Coalfield. The upper part of the latter 
coalfield is probably on the same horizon as the 
Plashetts Coalfield, which is high up in the Fell Sand- 
stone group. 


In Upper Liddesdale the succession is not so varied. 
The white sandstones at the base are replaced by 
cement-stones and clays, the whole of the upper part of 
the valley being carved out of these strata, and they 
are also traceable high up on the flanks of Peel Fell. 
Thick beds of sandstone alternate with the upper part 
of the series, and these are overlain by the great group 
of the Fell Sandstones. Underneath the latter there is 
a thin seam of coal, the outcrop of which can be followed 
for some distance. 

Between Hawick and Selkirk some dykes of minette 
and mica trap occur, having a NNE and SSW trend, 
which are only found in the Silurian rocks. As they do 
not pierce any rocks later than the Upper Silurian, they 
are supposed to have been intruded either during Lud- 
low or Lower Old Red Sandstone time. Pink felsite is 
found in dykes, and also in the form of sheets, as in 
the Eildons and the Black Hill of Earlston. As these 
sheets penetrate the Silurian and Upper Old Red Sand- 
stone, they are probably associated, with the volcanic 
activity in the Lower Carboniferous period. Sheets and 
masses of intrusive basalt belonging to the same period 
occur, and bosses of porphyrite are also associated with 
the volcanic orifices. Basalt dykes of Tertiary age are 
met with, one of which crosses the county from E to W, 
passing through Hawick, where it is known as ' the 
Yethan dyke ' (i. e. , Cast Iron dyke). 

The glacial phenomena of the Border county will be 
discussed in the general article on the geology of Scotland. 

Economic Minerals.— The calcareous bands in the 
Calciferous Sandstone series have been wrought for lime 
in Liddesdale, as, for instance, at Tholieshope. Some of 
them yield an excellent marine cement, but those at 
present quarried are used for mortar and for agricultural 
purposes. The white sandstones at the base of the 
series in Lower Liddesdale form an excellent building 
stone. The coarse sandstone at Kershope Foot has also 
been worked. One of the thick beds of sandstone in 
the Cement-stones of the upper part of the basin has 
been worked at the Dead Water, and has been exten- 
sively used for building purposes in the Border towns. 
In the E part of the county the harder bands of the 
Upper Old Red formation, as well as the grits in the 
Silurian series, are used for similar purposes. 

Soil. — The soil of the arable lands is partly light and 
partly heavy. The former consists of rich loam, or of 
mixtures of sand and loam, gravel and loam, or sand, 
gravel, and claj', on various subsoils, and occurs 
generally on low or level lands in the vales of the 
streams. In some cases it is also found on eminences 
of considerable height, especially in the parishes of 
Linton, Eckford, Crailing, Ancrum, Maxton, and 
Melrose. The heavy soil consists chiefly of clay or clay 
mixtures lying upon till or other retentive subsoils. It 
occurs mostly on the high arable lands ; it rarely 
appears in the valleys except on a dry bottom or 
alternating with light soil. It forms a considerable 
aggregate in the parishes on both sides of Tweed 
around Kelso ; it covers an area 10 miles by 4, com- 
prising nearly all Bowden, Lilliesleaf, and Minto 
parishes, and parts of the parishes on the northern 
border of these. Over one-half of that area it is deep 
and fertile ; bnt over the other it is cold and shallow 
and uncertain in production, and is therefore largely 
devoted to plantation. The pastoral lands have either 
dry, wet, or heathy soils. The first prevails all east- 
ward of the Jed, is interspersed with some small 
patches of heath and a few small drained marshes, and 
in general has a thick sward of rich sweet grass. Wet 
soil prevails from the SW skirts of Ruberslaw to the 
confines of Liddesdale, and consists there of stubborn 
clay upon impenetrable till. Within Liddesdale it is 
extensively intermixed with heath ; and in all the 
region SW of the Jed, or from the SW skirts of 
Ruberslaw to the SW extremity of Liddesdale, it is 
prevailingly so wet as to render the land almost entirely 
pastoral. At the same time it isolates a considerable 
aggregate proportion of dry land, and includes spongy 
fields susceptible of great improvement by draining. 


Climate. — The climate is temperate, but the eastern 
border is in winter exposed to violent snowstorms. The 
most copious rainfall in the county oceurs in the moun- 
tains towards the SW and S. Very cold winds from 
the N and E prevail at certain seasons of the year. 

Industries. — Besides the manufacturing industries 
which centre wholly in the towns and larger villages, 
according to the returns of 1881, 4793 of the male 
population were engaged in agriculture ; 8347 in 
industrial employments ; 815 in commerce ; 9669 un- 
productive ; and the rest variously employed. Rox- 
burghshire carries on arable and pastoral farming, 
which indeed is the sole county industry. In early 
times the monks of the great abbeys were the chief 
cultivators of the soil in the county, and these con- 
tributed not a little to its civilisation and enrichment. 
Modern agricultural improvements began in Roxburgh- 
shire about the same time as in the other southern 
counties of Scotland. Before 1743, the practice of 
draining, enclosing, and fallowing, and of raising 
cabbages, flax, hemp, rape, and grass seeds, were 
generally introduced. In 1747, the practice of sowing 
turnips in the fields was introduced by Dr John 
Rutherford of Melrose ; and by 1753 the culture was 
reduced to a regular system of cropping by Mr Dawson 
at Frogden. Potatoes were introduced as a field-crop 
in 1754 ; and next year lime and marl began to be used 
as manures, after the example of Mr Dawson and Sir 
Gilbert Elliot. Thenceforward the progress was rapid. 
Mr Wight, who made two agricultural surveys of the 
county, respectively in 1773 and 1780, declared, at the 
latter date, that 'he was amazed at the advances all 
had made since his former survey, as every field had 
assumed a better aspect from an improving hand.' In 
the 20 years, 1774-1794, the lands in the county 
became doubled in value, almost solely in consecpaence 
of ameliorations in husbandry. In the present century 
the shire has not lagged ; and in certain districts the 
farmers of Roxburghshire are little behind those of the 
Lothians.^ According to the returns of 1881, there were 
71 farms in the county of 1000 acres and upwards ; 82 
between 500 and 1000 ; 217 between 100 and 500 ; 
35 between 50 and 100 ; and 60 below 50, of which 18 
were below 10. The arable farms are mostly between 
400 and 600 acres ; those of larger extent being in most 
cases wholly or chiefly pastoral. 

The following table exhibits the principal crops, and 
the acreage under each at various dates :— 





Wheat, .... 
Barley, ..." 


Potatoes, \ 

Cabbage, etc., . 
Other Green Crops, . , 
Bare or Fallow, 
Grasses in Rotation, 
Permanent Pasture, 







































The above figures are exclusive of heath or mountain 
pasture. In 1884, 47 acres were in orchards; 47 in 
market-gardens ; 53 in nursery grounds ; and 14,679 in 
plantations and coppices, exclusive of garden shrubberies, 
ine following table exhibits the quantity of live stock 
in the county at different dates :— 





















Among the other resources of the county, the valuable 
salmon-fisheries on the Tweed must not be overlooked. 
According to the Sportsman's, Tourists, and General 
Guide for Oct. 1SS4, the annual value of fishings let in 


Roxburghshire was £2290 ; while the value of grouse 
and other shootings let was £2829. Very many of the 
other streams also contain excellent trout and other 
fresh-water fish ; and perch and pike abound in the 
lochs. The main imports into the shire are lime, coal, 
foreign wool for manufacturing purposes, and articles 
for domestic consumption ; and the exports are chiefly 
the manufactured products of the textile factories, and 
cattle and sheep, largely sent to England. 

Roads and Railways. — Previous to 1764 the county 
was miserably provided with roads and bridges, and 
possessed but few reaches of roadway suitable for 
wheeled traffic. There were then only two good bridges 
across the Tweed, viz., at Melrose and. Kelso ; and only 
two across the Teviot, viz., at Hawick and Ancrum. 
But, between 1764 and 1797, no less than 153 miles of 
excellent road were formed ; 2 bridges were rebuilt ; 
25 new stone bridges erected over the principal streams, 
besides large numbers of smaller erections over the 
minor streams and hollows. Within the present century 
a similar activity has prevailed ; and now the county, 
except in its more mountainous parts, is amply pro- 
vided with the means of interior communication. The 
Waverley Route of the North British railway, from 
Edinburgh to Carlisle, runs southwards for about 50 
miles through the county, with stations at Galashiels, 
Melrose, St Boswells, Belses, Hassendean, Hawick, 
Stobs, Shankend, Riecarton, Steele Road, Newcastleton, 
and Kershope Foot. From Galashiels a branch extends 
to Selkirk, with stations at Abbotsford Ferry and Lin- 
dean ; and another branch runs to Peebles, with stations 
in Roxburghshire at Clovenfords, Thornilee, and Walker- 
burn. From Newtown St Boswells Junction, one 
branch, known as the Berwickshire railway, runs with 
no Roxburghshire stations to Berwick ; and another 
proceeds thither also, by the Tweed valley, with 
stations at Maxton, Rutherford, Roxburgh, Kelso, 
Sprouston, Carham, and Sunilaws, and sending off at 
Roxburgh Junction a short branch southwards to Jed- 
burgh, with stations at Kirkbank, Nesbit, and Jedfoot 
Bridge. From Riecarton Junction on the main line a 
branch starts off westwards, passes the station of Saugh- 
tree before leaving the county, and leads vid Hexham 
to Newcastle. 

Towns and Villages. — The only royal burgh in Rox- 
burghshire is Jedburgh (3402); Hawick (16,184) and 
Galashiels (12,435), which is partly in Selkirkshire, are 
parliamentary burghs ; and the only other towns are 
Melrose (1550) and Kelso (5235). The villages with more 
than 300 inhabitants in 1881 were Ancrum, Darnick, 
Denholm, Gattonside, Lessudden, Lilliesleaf, Morebattle, 
Newcastleton, Newstead, Newtown St Boswells, Sprous- 
ton, and Yetholm. Other villages are Appletreehall, 
Ashkirk, Bedrule, Bonjedward, Bowden, Caverton, 
Cessford, Chesters, Crailing, Dean, Deanburnhaugh, 
Eckford, Ednam, Eildon, Heiton, Hownam, Lanton, 
Lempitlaw, Linton, Makerstoun, Maxton, Maxwell- 
haugh, Midlem, Minto, Nisbet (East and West), Rew- 
castle, Riecarton, Roxburgh, Rutherford, Smailholm, 
and Ulston. 

Mansions. — Among the principal mansions and seats 
in the county are Floors Castle (Duke of Roxburghe), 
Branxholm (Duke of Buccleuch), Eildon Hall, Mount 
Teviot (Marquis of Lothian), Minto House (Earl of 
Minto), Hartrigge House, Mount Ulston(Lord Stratheden 
and Campbell), Harden (Lord Polwarth), The Pavilion, 
Stobs Castle, Wells, and Hallrule (Sir William Eliott, 
Bart.), Abbotrule, Abbotsford, Allerly, Ancrum House, 
Ashkirk House, Bonrig, Bonjedward House, Borthwick- 
brae, Borthwickshiels, Briery Yards, Brigend House, 
Broomlands, Bucklands House, Cavers, Cherrytrees, 
Chesters, Chisholm, Cotfield, Crailing House, Dry- 
grange, Edenbank, Edenside, Edgerston House, Ednam 
House, Elliston House, Fairnington, Gattonside House, 
Hassendeanburn, Hendersyde, Holmes, Hoscote, Huntly- 
burn House, Jedbank, Jedfoot House, Kirkbank, Kirk- 
lands, Knowesouth, Ladhope House, Langlee, Langraw, 
Larriston, Lessudden House, Liddell Bank, Lintalee, 
Linthill, Lochside, Lowood, Makerstoun House, Max- 



He, Menslaws, Newton House, Orchard, Ormiston 
House, Otterburn House, Pinnacle-hill, Priory, Red- 
heugh, Riddell House, St Boswell's Bank, Saraieston, 
Scaurs, Sillerbit Hall, Sinton House, Springside Park, 
Stirches, Stitchell House, Sunlaws, Sunnyside, Syden- 
ham House, Teviotbank, Tweedbank, Wauchope, "Weens, 
"Wester Langlee, "Whiterigg, "Wilton Lodge, Wolfelee, 
"Woll House, "Woodside, and "Wooplaw. According to 
Miscellaneous Statistics of tlie United Kingdom (1879), 
423,463 acres, with a total gross estimated rental of 
£456,883, were divided among 2455 proprietors, the 
Duke of Buccleuch holding 104,461 acres (rental 
£39,458), the Duke of Roxburghe 50,459 (£43,820), one 
other 25,380 (£7995), two together 36,215 (£32,618), 
five 37,002 (£30,197), twenty-seven 85,139 (£74,992), 
thirty 42,903 (£48,780), thirty-two 23,396 (£56,704), 

Roxburghshire is governed by a lord-lieutenant, a 
vice-lieutenant, 2 deputy-lieutenants, a sheriff, a sheriff- 
substitute, 3 assistant sheriff-substitutes, and about 150 
justices of the peace. Sheriff and other courts are held 
at Jedburgh periodically, as detailed in our article on 
that town ; and at Kelso, Hawick, and Melrose. The 
county police force in 1884, exclusive of the forces at 
Hawick and Galashiels, comprised 40 men, and a superin- 
tendent with a salary of £300. The county prison is at 
Jedburgh. Hawick and Galashiels unite with Selkirk 
in sending a member to parliament ; Jedburgh unites 
with Haddington, Dunbar, North Berwick, and Lauder 
for a similar purpose ; and the rest of the county elects 
a member for itself, and had in 1884-85 a parliamentary 
constituency of 2018. The valuation of the county 
was (1674) £26,222, (1815) £254,180, (1855) £316,131, 
(1876) £420,161, and (1884-85) £421,520, inclusive of 

According to the census of 1881, Roxburgh had 80 
inhabitants to the square mile, 19 counties being more 
densely populated ; and the average for all Scotland 
being 125 per square mile. Pop. (1801) 33,721, (1811) 
37,230, (1821) 40,892, (1831) 43,663, (1841) 46,025, 
(1851) 51,642, (1861) 54,119, (1871) 49,407, and (1881) 
53,442, of whom 28,006 were females, and 25 Gaelic- 
speaking. Houses (1881) occupied 10,339, vacant 483, 
building 76. 

The civil county contains 31 entire quoad civilia 
parishes, viz. : — Ancrum, Bedrule, Bowden, Castleton, 
Cavers, Crailing, Eckford, Ednam, Hawick, Hobkirk, 
Hownam, Jedburgh, Kelso, Kirkton, Lilliesleaf, Lin- 
ton, Makerstoun, Maxton, Melrose, Minto, Morebattle, 
Oxnam, Roxburgh, St Boswells, Southdean, Sprouston, 
Stitchel, Teviothead, "Wilton, and Yetholm ; and parts 
of Galashiels, Selkirk, Ashkirk, and Roberton. Ecclesi- 
astically, the county is distributed among 34 entire 
quoad sacra parishes, and parts of 5 others, all, except 
Castleton, in the presbyteries of Jedburgh, Kelso, Sel- 
kirk, and Earlston, all in the synod of Merse and Teviot- 
dale. Castleton is in the presbytery of Langholm and the 
synod of Dumfries. There are in the shire 78 elementary 
day-schools (69 of them public), which, with total accom- 
modation for 10,657 children, had (1883) 9229 on the 
registers, aud an average attendance of 7231. All the 
parishes are assessed for the poor. In 1882-83 the regis- 
tered poor numbered 875, and the casual poor 1172, on 
whom was spent a total of £12,494. There are combina- 
tion poorhouses at Hawick, Jedburgh, and Kelso. There 
is no public hospital in the county. The Roxburgh, 
Berwick, and Selkirk district asylum for the insane is 
situated at Melrose ; a house of refuge at Hawick ; a 
model lodging-house at Jedburgh ; and an orphan home 
at St Boswells. The percentage of illegitimate births 
was (1871) 11-5, (1873) 11-4, (1876) 11 "4, (1880) 11-0 
and (1883) 10 '2. The registration county gives off 
part to Selkirk, and receives part of Ashkirk parish 
from that county ; its population is 52,592. 

Antiquities.- — The antiquities of Roxburghshire are 
tolerably numerous, and quite as interesting as those of 
any other of the southern counties. The tumuli, 
standing-stones, camps, and hill-forts of the ancient 
Caledonians, the military works and other remains of 


the Romanised Britons, and the peel-towers and baronial 
fortalices of the Middle Ages, are too numerous for 
separate mention, except in our articles on the various 
parishes. Among the chief British remains are the 
very large cairn near Tinnis Hill in Liddesdale, the 
stones at Ninestanerigg, a circle at Plenderleath, stand- 
ing-stones at Hownam, Yetholm, Kale Water, etc., and 
the moat-hill at Hawick. There are remains of forts 
on the summits of many, if not most, of the highest 
hills, as on Caerby and Tinnis Hills in Liddesdale ; on 
Blackburn, Cocklaw, the Dunian, Penielheugh, Gatton- 
side Hill, and one of the Eildons. There are caves in 
the cliffs on the Jed, at Grahamslaw on the Kail, on the 
Teviot near Roxburgh, and other places. Perhaps the 
principal relic of the ancient inhabitants is a reach of 
the Catkail, which passes through the county. The 
Romans have left traces of their presence in Roxburgh- 
shire in part of the Watling Street, and in the 
"Wheel Causeway, another road which seems to have 
deflected from the "Watling Street to traverse Upper 
Teviotdale. Traces of this second road are to be found 
in the NE of Liddesdale, and its junction with the 
Maiden Road, in the N of England, has been made out. 
The Saxons have left most direct vestiges of their 
occupation of the county in the local names. The 
mediaeval peels and fortalices, excluding the minor ones, 
amounted at one time to about 40, but for the most 
part have now sunk into rains or absolutely vanished. 
Among the most famous of these were the castles of 
Roxburgh, Jedburgh, Cessford, Hermitage, Home, and 
Fernieherst ; and the towers of Branxholm, Goldielands, 
Harden, Smailholm, Clintwood, Glassford, Littledean, 
Lintalee, Habbiedean, and Delphiston. Fastnesses of 
the time of the Border feuds lined the strong banks of 
the Oxnam "Water and some of the Cheviot valleys, and 
served both as defences against the English inroads and 
as rally-points for the Scottish forays. These, as they 
comprehensively bore the name of Henwood, gave rise 
to the Scottish Border war-cry of ' A' Henwoody ! A' 
Henwoody ! ' Splendid remains exist of the abbeys of 
Jedburgh, Kelso, Dryburgh, and Melrose ; and interest- 
ing associations remain in connection with the Culdean 
establishment of Old Melrose, and of the neighbouring 
successor to it, called Red Abbey. Ancient crosses, 
more or less in good repair, still stand at Ancram, 
Bowden, Maxton, Melrose, and Milnholm, and probably 
other spots. Among historical crosses, now disappeared, 
were Lyliot's Cross, probably on the site of the memorial 
stone on the summit of Lilliard's Edge ; Heap Cross 
at a place called Heap, near Hawick ; William's Cross, 
near Philiphaugh, traditionally said to mark the spot 
where one of the Douglases was murdered ; and Tait's 
Cross, on the summit of Kershope Hill. 

History. — What is now known as Roxburghshire was 
at the period of the Roman invasion part of the territory 
of the tribes Gadeni and Ottadini. The Romans marched 
through the district and made themselves so far masters 
of it ; and after their departure it eventually became 
part of the Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Subject 
to the varying fortunes of that kingdom, Roxburghshire 
passed under the dominion of the Scottish crown in 
1020, when large part of Northumbria was ceded to 
Malcolm Ceannmor. In 1107, when Alexander ascended 
the throne, Roxburghshire, with other lands in the 
south and west of Scotland, passed to Earl David, the 
king's brother, as an appanage. David ruled it through- 
out the period of his earldom almost in the manner of 
a sovereign lord ; and on his accession to the throne, 
treated it as part of his kingdom. He made it a chief 
scene of his administration ; founded and richly en- 
dowed the abbeys of Melrose, Kelso, and Jedburgh, and 
made profuse grants of its lands to his barons ; and in 
consequence almost revolutionised the condition of the 
county. The Morvilles, Soulises, Corbetts, Percys, 
Berkeleys, and "Vesseys, all followers of David from Eng- 
land, were established in Roxburghshire in this reign. 
The ambitions of the nobles, and the power and wealth 
of the rich abbeys, speedily made the county a place of 
importance, while they assisted in its development. 


Numerous events of both national and local importance 
occurred in the county in reigns subsequent to that of 
David ; but they have been already treated in our 
articles on the chief towns of the shire. 

So early as the commencement of the Scoto-Saxon 
period, and up to the death of the Maid of Norway, 
Roxburgh was a sheriffdom. Edward I. seems to have 
considered this frontier county as his own ; and, when 
he settled the affairs of the kingdom, he appointed a 
custodier of the castles of Roxburgh and Jedburgh to 
act as military governor of the whole shire. Under 
Bruce Roxburghshire began to enjoy for a short period its 
ancient policy of peaceful times ; but after his death it 
was claimed in sovereignty by the English kings, and 
suffered no little anarchy from their collisions with the 
Scottish crown. In 1334 a sheriff was set over it by 
Edward III., and soon after an antagonist sheriff was 
appointed by David II. ; and, during the revolutions of 
that age, sheriffs continued to be conflictingly or 
alternately appointed by the respective monarchs 
according to the fluctuations of their power. During 
all the period of David's captivity, Edward III. 
nominated sheriffs, and governed as he pleased. As 
the shire, with the exception of Roxburgh Castle, was 
freed from the English yoke, chiefly by the exertions of 
the Douglases, it afterwards, as to its sheriffship or 
administration, generally followed their fortunes. In 
1398 the sheriffship of the county and the lands of 
Cavers were granted to George, Earl of Angus, who died 
in 1402 ; and having passed to Isobel, Countess of Mar, 
they were, without the consent of the king, transferred 
by her to the Earl of Douglas. Robert III., conceiving 
that they had become escheated by being disposed of 
without his consent, conferred them, in 1405, on Sir 
David Fleming of Biggar. But James Douglas of 
Balveny, the second son of the Earl Douglas, soon 
after assassinated the new sheriff, and paved the way, 
amidst the afflictions of the king and the subsecpuent 
misrule of the Duke of Albany, for the Douglases to 
domineer over the county with the utmost freedom 
from control. The sheriffship of the county was now, 
with the lands of Cavers, transferred to Archibald, a 
bastard son of James, the second Earl of Douglas ; and 
it continued in his family, though probably with some 
interruptions, till the date of the abolition of here- 
ditary jurisdictions. Archibald Douglas, brother of 
Douglas of Cavers, claimed in 1747 a compensation 
of £10,000 for the sheriffship, and was allowed £1666, 
13s. 4d. 

In early times the major part of Roxburghshire, then 
included in North urnbria, belonged to the diocese of 
Lindisfarne. From the reign of David I. till the 
Reformation, all of it S of the Tweed belonged to the 
bishopric of Glasgow ; and from 1238 this large section 
formed the archdeaconry of Teviotdale, and was ruled 
by its own archdeacon under the superintendence of the 

Famous Natives. — Among the natives of this county 
who have risen to more or less fame, the following 
may be noted : — William Turnbull (died 1454), Bishop 
successively of Dunkeld and Glasgow, and founder in 
1451 of Glasgow College ; Alexander Cairncross of Cum- 
besley (d. 1701), Archbishop of Glasgow ; John Ruther- 
ford (d. 1577), scholastic philosopher and author of 
The Art of Reasoning on Aristotelian Principles; Mark 
Duncan, Principal of Saumur University (d. 1648) ; 
Samuel Rutherford (d. 1661) ; James Thomson (1700-48), 
the author of The Seasons, etc. ; Gilbert Elliot 
(1722-77), poet ; and his sister Jane Elliot (1727-1805), 
who wrote the Flowers of the Forest ; John Armstrong 
(1709-79), physician and poet ; James Brown (1709-8S), 
linguist and traveller, and author of a Persian grammar 
and dictionary ; Robert Riccaltoun (d. 1765), divine ; 
William Turnbull (1729-96), London physician ; John 
Buehan (d. 1805), physician, author of the Domestic 
Medicine ; John Clark (1744-1805), surgeon ; John 
Leyden (1775-1811), poet; Robert Hall (1763-1824), 
surgeon ; Rev. Dr Thomas Somerville (1741-1830), 
author of a History of the Feign of Queen Anne; 


his niece and daughter-in-law, Mrs Mary Somerville 
(1780-1872), of mathematical fame ; James Bell (1769- 
1833), weaver and editor of geographical works ; Robert 
Edmonstone (1794-1834), painter; Thomas Pringle 
(1789-1834), poet ; Andrew Scott (1757-1839), poet ; 
Robert Balmer (1787-1844), divine ; Kobert Davidson 
(d. 1855), poet; John Younger (d. 1860), prose essayist; 
James Telfer (1800-62), author ; and Thomas Aird 
(1802-76), poet. 

See Aiex. Jeffrey's History of Foxhurghshire (1836 ; 
new ed., 4 vols., 1857-64) ; Robert Bruce Armstrong's 
History of Liddesdale (1884) ; and other works cited 
under Abbotsford, Castlbton, Hawick, Jedburgh, 
Kelso, Melrose, Tweed, and Yetholm. 

Roy. See Glenroy. 

Roy's Cairn. See Knockando. 

Rozelle, a fine mansion, with beautifully wooded 
grounds, in Ayr parish, Ayrshire, 2 miles S of Ayr 
town. Its late owner, Alexander Hamilton, Esq. 
(1815-81), held 1805 acres in the shire, valued at 
£2691 per annum.— Ord. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

Ruberslaw, an elongated, rugged, peaked hill on 
the mutual border of Hobkirk and Cavers parishes, 
Roxburghshire, 2 miles SSE of Denholm and 5 E by N 
of Hawick. Eising 1392 feet above sea-level and pro- 
jecting boldly from the northern frontier masses of the 
Cheviots, it steeply flanks the left side of the vale of 
Rule Water, and broadly overhangs the reach of the 
valley of the Teviot opposite Minto Hills. It looks 
along a great extent of the Teviot's valley, and forms 
a conspicuous feature in one-half or more of all the 
picturesque landscapes of Teviotdale ; presents a bleak 
stern aspect with more traces of volcanic action than 
probably any other hill in the eastern Border counties ; 
contrasts strongly in peaked summit, ragged sky-line, 
sharp saliencies of contour, and rockiness or heathi- 
ness of surface with the green, smooth, neighbouring 
Cheviots ; attracts electricity and heavy rain-clouds 
with such force as often to occasion a deep drenching 
or flooding of the tract adjacent to it while the 
neighbouring country remains dry ; and is noted for 
having afforded, among the rocky recesses of its skirts, 
facilities for hill-meetings of the persecuted Covenanters, 
and for containing there a place where Peden preached 
to a large congregation. The dwellers in Teviotdale 
within view of its summit are well accustomed 

' To see, with strange delight, the snow-clouds form, 
When Ruberslaw conceives the mountain storm — 
Dark Ruberslaw, that lifts his head sublime, 
Rugged and hoary with the wrecks of time ; 
On his broad misty front the giant wears 
The horrid furrows of ten thousand years.' 

Rubislaw. See Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire. 

Ruchill, Water of, a stream of Cornrie parish, SW 
Perthshire, rising on the skirts of Ben Vorlich, and 
running first 3 miles east-south-eastward, next 7J miles 
north-eastward along Glenartney, till it falls into the 
river Earn at Dalginross, opposite Comrie town. It 
receives numerous tributaries, chiefly mountain torrents; 
flows mostly on a rugged channel beset with boulders 
and fragments of rock ; and is in high repute among 
anglers for abundance of common trout and sea trout. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 39, 47, 1869. 

Ruchlaw, an ancient mansion in Whittingham parish, 
Haddingtonshire, on the left bank of Souchet Water, 
3j miles SE of East Linton. Its owner, Thomas 
Buehan Sydserff, Esq. (b. 1822 ; sue. 1839), holds 2200 
acres in the shire, valued at £1701 per annum. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 33, 1863. 

Rueval, the sound between North Uist and Benbecula 
islands, Outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire. Measuring 9 
miles in length from E to W, and about 3 in mean 
breadth, it is strewn throughout its eastern part with 
such a multitude of islands and islets — Grimsa, Flodda, 
Bent, Broad, Rona, Flotamore, Flotabeg, and others 
whose names are scarcely known — as to be there a 
maze of land and water ; is reduced to two straits 
at the W end by the intervention of Baleshare island ; 
has nevertheless free communication at both ends with 



the sea ; and is commonly, but improperly, called Loch 

Ruglen. See Rutherglen. 

Rule Water, a troutful stream of Teviotdale, Rox- 
burghshire, formed by several burns that descend from 
the watershed with Liddesdale, and running 9£ miles 
northward, partly within Hobkirk parish, and partly 
on the boundary between Hobkirk and Cavers on the 
left and Bedrule on the right, till it falls into the 
Teviot, 2J miles NNE of Den'holm. 

'Between red ezlar banks that frightful scowl, 
Fringed with grey hazel roars the mining Rowll,' 

whose deep rocky ravine is overhung to the right by 
Bonchester Hill, to the left by Ruberslaw. In tradition 
or song Rule Water is associated with the old roistering 
clan of the Turnbulls, and with Sir Walter Scott's 
'jovial harper, rattling roaring Willie. ' — Orel. Sur., sh. 
17, 1864. 

Rullion Green, a place in Glencorse parish, Edin- 
burghshire, on the eastern slope of the Pentland Hills, 
1J mile NNW of Penicuik. On the evening of 28 
Nov. 1666, it was the scene of the defeat of 900 
Covenanters, under Col. Wallace, by Sir Thomas 
Dalyell of Binns ; and a monument is supposed to 
mark the site of the battle. Dr Hill Burton, however, 
remarks that ' neither the spot itself, nor any part of 
the Pentlands close to it, corresponds with the descrip- 
tion of the ground taken by Wallace — a ridge running 
N and S, and rising abruptly on the N end.' — Orel. 
Sur., sh. 32, 1857. 

Rum, an island of the Inner Hebrides in the county 
of Argyll, and in the parish of Small Isles. It is 
separated from Skye on the N and NE by Cuillin 
Sound, across which the coast of Rum is 6J miles N of 
Rudh 'an Dunain or Dunain Point, at the entrance to 
Loch Brittle, 6 S by W of the southerly point of 
Soay, 9 SW of Strathaird Point between Loch Scavaig 
and Loch Eishart, and 8J W of the Point of Sleat. 
The coast is also 4J miles NW of the nearest part of 
the island of Eigg, 7 N by W of Muck, and 15 N 
by W of Ardnamurchan. On the NW it is separated 
from Canna by the Sound of Canna, 3f miles wide to 
the island of Canna, and 2 to the adjacent island of 
Sanday. The lonely Hyskeir or Oigh-sgeir Islands are 
11 miles W of the mouth of Glen Harris. In shape Rum 
is somewhat like a dumpy pear, with the long diameter 
N and S. The extreme length in this direction is 8£ 
miles, and the extreme width from E to W is 8 miles! 
There are some small bays at the mouth of Kilmory 
Glen on the N, at the mouth of Glen Harris on the 
SW, and elsewhere ; but the only indentation of any size 
is on the E side at the broadest part, where Loch Scresort 
opens inland with a length of 1J mile, and a breadth of 
1J mile at the mouth ; and forms a safe and convenient 
harbour. From this loch to Guirdil on the NW side 
the coast consists of low rocks or cliffs, with here and 
there small strips of beach, but round the greater part 
of the rest of the island there is a series of cliffs rising 
at many points to heights of over 300 feet above sea- 
level, and in many places sinking sheer into the sea, 
though occasionally there are strips of foreshore. The 
whole surface is very rough and hilly, and of the total 
area of 30,000 acres little more than one-twentieth is 
under cultivation. A narrow valley runs westward 
from Loch Scresort along Kinloch river, and passes 
across the watershed into the low ground that opens to 
the sea at Seilisdeir and Guirdil, but the rest of the island 
may almost be described as a wild sea of hills. The lowest 
portion is that to the N of the transverse hollows, where 
a height of 635 feet is reached N of Loch Scresort 
at Meall a Ghoirtein, and 902 at Sagorishal at the W 
side of Kilmory Glen. To the S of the central hollows 
a line of high ground begins at Mam Tuach (988 feet), 
and extends westward along Monadh Mhiltich at a height 
of over 800 feet, farther W still of over 1100, and rising 
between this and the western part of the SW coast of the 
island into a lofty cliff-edged plateau, the highest 
points of which are 1869 and 1641 feet above sea-level. 


To the NW near the most westerly point of the island 
there is the lower plateau of Sgor Mor, the highest 
point of which, to the N, is 1272 feet high. The wildest 
and roughest part of the island is, however, to the S 
and SE, where, to the N of Glen Harris, is An Dornabac 
(858 feet), and higher up Bhaire-mheall (1924). Across 
the top of the glen is a narrow sharp-pointed ridge run- 
ning from N to S with the northern shoulder 1770 feet 
high, and the highest points at Ailbe-meall (2368) and 
Aisge-mheall (2659)* — the highest point in the island ; 
and SW of this is the wider ridge of which the 
summits are Ais-mheall (2552), Beinn More (2505), and 
Sgor nan Gillean (2503). From the last a cliff-edged 
plateau runs westward at a height of about 1500 feet, 
the highest part being 1607. ' The geology of the 
island of Rum, ' says Hugh Miller, ' is simple but curious. 
Let the reader take, if he can, from twelve to fifteen 
trap-hills, varying from 1000 to 2300 feet in height ; 
let him pack them closely and squarely together, like 
rum-bottles in a case-basket ; let him surround them 
with a frame of Old Red Sandstone, measuring rather 
more than seven miles on the side in the way the basket 
surrounds the bottles ; then let him set them down in 
the sea a dozen miles off the land, and he shall have 
produced a second island of Rum, similar in structure 
to the existing one. In the actual island, however, 
there is a defect in the inclosing basket of sandstone ; 
the basket, complete on three of its sides, wants the 
fourth ; and the side opposite to the gap which the 
fourth would have occupied is thicker than the two 
other sides put together.' The sandstones are not, 
however, of Old Red age, but are probably Cambrian, 
and these, with some masses of Lower Silurian rocks, 
occupy the NW, NE, and SE sides of the island, while 
the interior and W consist of great masses of eruptive 
crystalline rocks which have burst through the older 
strata, the latter being everywhere violently upheaved 
and contorted, and extensively metamorphosed, as they 
approach the great central mass. The volcanic rocks 
form wild and rugged peaks, and are the remains of a 
great volcanic mountain that at one time occupied the 
centre and S of the island. Sg6r Mor on the W is 
famous for its minerals, including pitchstone, helio- 
tropes, and beautiful agates. The hills of Mull being 
the first land between Mull and Skye to meet the clouds 
coming in from the Atlantic, the climate is very wet, 
and there is a large number of streams, the largest being 
Kinloch river, flowing through Kinloch River Glen, 
W of Loch Scresort; Kilmory river, flowing through Kil- 
mory Glen in the N ; Abhuinn Duibhal and Abhuinn 
Fiadhinnish on either side of Glen Harris, and Abhuinn 
Ehangail in Glen Harris, all near the centre of the 
south-western side ; Dibidil river, in Glen Dibidil, to the 
E of Ben More ; and about 40 smaller streams. In the 
centre of the island is Loch Sgathaig ; SSE of it Loch 
Gainmhich ; in the NW, Loch Sgaorishal ; on Abhuinn 
Fiadhinnish, Loch Fiadhinnis ; NE of Aisge-mheall, 
Loch Coire nan Grund— none of them covering more 
than 1 9 acres — and there are a number of smaller lochans. 
In the Description of the Western Isles of Scotland, by 
Donald Monro, Dean of the Isles, who visited the 
Hebrides in 1549, the name is given as Eonin, and the 
island is described as abounding with ' litle deire ' and 
wild fowl, but there seem to have been few inhabitants, 
for he says that ' the fowls lies few to start them except 
deir.' Prior to 1826 the crofters and their families 
numbered at least 400, but in that year all, save one 
family, were cleared off to America, and the whole 
island was converted into a single sheep-farm, so that 
at the end of 1828 the sole inhabitants were the sheep 
farmer and his shepherds. A year or two after some 
families from Skye were allowed to settle at Loch 
Scresort. In 1845 Rum was sold to be converted into a 
deer-forest, and to deer and sheep it is still mostly given 
up. Pop. (1831) 134, (1861) 73, (1871) 81, (1SS1) 89, of 
whom 45 were males and 44 females. Houses (1881), 83 
inhabited, 1 uninhabited, and 1 building. 

* Perhaps more familiar under the forms of Halival and 



Rumbling-Bridge, a place in Little Dunkeld parish, 
Perthshire, on the river Bran, 2§ miles WSW of Dun- 
keld. The impetuous Bran, whose chasm is spanned 
here by a one-arched bridge, thunders in a sheer leap 
of 80 feet into a dark caldron, and is so flanked and 
barred by rugged rocks, and so mantled with gloom, as 
to present a solemnly imposing scene. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
47, 1869. 

Rumbling-Bridge, a station on the Devon Valley 
railway, in Fossoway parish, at the mutual boundary 
of Perth and Kinross shires, 4J miles ENE of Dollar. 
It takes its name from a bridge-spanned cataract of 
the river Devon, which, forming part of what are 
called the Falls of Devon, commences at the Devil's 
Mill, 350 yards higher up ; traverses thence, till 
past the Rumbling-Bridge, a narrow gloomy chasm, 
over blocks and clefts and rugged shelves of rock, 
between tangled craggy steeps ; and emits a hollow 
rumbling sound, like that produced by heavy-laden 
waggons on a rough road between reverberating heights. 
The chasm has a mean depth of not more than 100 feet, 
but is so shagged with brushwood, so overshadowed by 
crags, as to look like an abyss ; and, as seen from certain 
points of view, has the appearance of a sharp continuous 
fissure, formed by a vertical earthquake. Two bridges 
span it in the vicinity of the hotel — the one 80 feet above 
the bed of the stream, and constructed in 1713 ; the 
other 120 feet high, and constructed in 1816 — and both 
command a grandly impressive view. — Ord. Sur., sh. 
40, 1S67. 

Rumford, a village on the northern verge of Muir- 
avonside parish, Stirlingshire, contiguous to Craigs 
village in Polmont parish, 7 furlongs SSE of Polmont 
Junction. Pop. (1871) 352, (1881) 314, of whom 169 
were in Craigs. 

Rusco Castle. See Anwoth. 

Ruskie, Loch. See Monteith, Port of. 

Rutherford, a decayed village in Maxton parish, Rox- 
burghshire, 7 furlongs SW of Rutherford station on the 
Kelso branch of the North British railway, this being 
6 miles WSW of Kelso. An absurd tradition makes its 
name originally to have been either Rue-the-ford or 
Rue-their-ford, from the defeat of an English army, 
after crossing and re-crossing a neighbouring ford on 
the Tweed. The ancient parish of Rutherford, long 
united to Maxton, contained the hospice of St Mary 
Magdalene, which Robert I. granted to the canons of 
Jedburgh. The Rutherford estate belongs to Sir 
Edmund Antrobus, Bart.— Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

Rutherglen (popularly Ruglen— old form, Rutheglen), 
a parish containing a town of the same name in the 
Lower Ward of Lanarkshire, and near the extreme NW 
of the county. It is bounded N by the river Clyde, 
Calton parish, and Shettleston parish, E by the parishes 
of Cambuslang and Old Monkland, S by the parish of 
Carmunnock, SW by part of the parish of Cathcart, 
and W by Govan parish and Renfrewshire. On the N 
the boundary is traced by the Clyde for 4J miles, and 
on the W it is formed by the Polmadie and Malls Mire 
Burns as far as West House ; elsewhere it is practically 
artificial. The greatest length of the parish, from near 
Rosebank House on the E to the point where the 
boundary line quits Malls Mire Burn on the W, is 2g 
miles ; the greatest width, from N to S, is barely 2J 
miles; and the area is 2219-918 acres, of which 0-647 
acres are foreshore, and 67 -877 are water. The portion 
along the Clyde is from 30 to 40 feet above sea-level, 
and the surface rises at the burgh to from 50 to 100 
feet, and thereafter southwards till, near the extreme S, 
a height of 303 feet is reached. The soil on the low 
ground is a fertile alluvium, and the whole parish is 
arable. The surface in the centre is undulating, and 
on the S there is an ascent towards the Cathkin Hills. 
Coal and iron are extensively worked. The principal 
estates are Shawfield, Farme, Rosebank, Gallowfiat, 
Scotstown, Stonelaw, and Bankhead. The parish is 
traversed by the main road from Glasgow to Hamilton, 
which passes eastward from the S side of Glasgow, and 
a branch road connecting this with the Bridgeton 

suburb of Glasgow crosses the Clyde by Rutherglen 
Bridge, which was erected in 1776 at a cost of about 
£1800, of which the burgesses of Rutherglen contributed 
more than half. Prior to this the only means of com- 
munication had been by a ford, or by going round by 
Glasgow Bridge. There is now at Farme, farther to the 
E, a wooden bridge called Dalmarnock Bridge, and 
there is also a railway bridge between the two. The 
parish is also traversed by two branches of the Cale- 
donian railway system. Farme, which is separately 
noticed, is an old royal domain, and belonged thereafter 
to the Stewarts, the Douglases, and the Hamiltons. A 
tumulus which stood at Drumlaw was destroyed many 
years ago, and another at Farme also met with the same 
fate. In the latter, in 1768, a stone coffin was found. 
Of a third tumulus at Gallowfiat, which was surrounded 
by a moat, some traces still remain. An ancient cross, 
10 feet high and 3J wide, with a sculptured repre- 
sentation of Christ entering Jerusalem riding on an ass, 
stood on the top of the 'Cross Hill,' about J mile 
WSW of the burgh, till the latter half of last century. 
The parish, which was in the time of the early Scottish 
kings a royal demesne, is in the presbytery of Glasgow 
and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and is divided eccle- 
siastically into Rutherglen and Rutherglen West parishes, 
the latter being a quoad sacra charge. The living is 
worth £463 a year. The churches are noticed under 
the burgh, and there is also a mission station at East- 
field. Under the landward school board the Eastfield 
public school, with accommodation for 217 pupils, had 
in 1884 an attendance of 181, and a grant of £135, 16s. 
Twelve proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
or upwards, 39 hold each between £500 and £100, 45 
hold each between £100 and £50, and 68 hold each 
between £50 and £20. Landward valuation (1880) 
£20,400, lis. 6d., (1885) £25,414, 17s. 9d. Pop. 
of parish (1801) 2437, (1831) 5503, (1861) 9335, 
(1S71) 10,766, (1881) 13,801, of whom 6666 were 
males and 7135 females. Houses (1881) 2799 in- 
habited, 308 uninhabited, and 10 building. Of 
the total population 2901 were in the quoad sacra 
parish of Rutherglen West, and 1368 were in the land- 
ward part of the parish. 

Rutherglen, a royal and parliamentary burgh on the 
N side of the parish just described, and adjoining the 
Clyde. It has a station on the Caledonian railway, 2 
miles SE of Glasgow. The burgh is of considerable 
antiquity, and tradition carries its origin back to a 
mythical Caledonian chief (Reuther) who lived and 
ruled here some two centuries before the Christian era. 
Though we may decline to believe in this ruler, whether 
in his own proper person or even in the identification 
of him with that Reuda, under whose leadership, 
according to Bede, the Scots crossed from Ireland, and 
who lived about 350 years after the birth of Christ, yet 
it is certain that there was a seat of some population 
here at a pretty early date. As has been already noticed, 
the parish was a royal demesne, and, in a supplication 
presented to the Scottish Parliament in 1661, David I. 
is said to have constituted the demesne village a royal 
burgh in 1126 ; while in the oldest extant charter, 
granted by King Robert the Bruce in 1324, a con- 
firming charter of William the Lyon is quoted, and 
the date assigned to it is 1189. The latter monarch 
also granted the church to the Abbey of Paisley, and 
Bishop Joceline of Glasgow (1175-99) confirmed the 
grant. The original royalty bounds were so extensive 
as to include part, if not the whole, of Glasgow ; and 
we find Bishop Walter, of Glasgow (1207-32), engaged 
in a dispute with both Rutherglen and Dumbarton in 
regard to payment of toll and custom ; and though he 
prevailed altogether against Dumbarton, he was only 
able to push the boundaries of Rutherglen a short 
distance to the E, King Alexander II. having decided 
that the privileges of the burgh should extend as 
far as the cross of Shettleston at the E end of modern 
Glasgow. Then, and long after, it was the chief trading 
and commercial town in the lower part of the Clyde, 
and even in 1402, when Lanarkshire was divided into 



two wards, Rutlierglen was declared the bead burgli of 
the Lower Ward. Much of this early importance was no 
doubt due to the royal castle which stood at the town 
and occupied a site in King Street nearly at the point 
where that thoroughfare is intersected by Castle Street. 
It must latterly have been a stronghold of some import- 
ance, as it was one of the places strongly garrisoned by 
the English during the wars of independence. During 
the early part of Bruce's career he is said to have 
besieged it several times without success ; but it was 
eventually captured by his brother Edward about 1313. 
Barbour, in his account of the strengths that were then 
taken, says :— 

' In this tyme, that thir jupertysa 
Off thir castellis, that I dewiss, 
War eschewyt sa hardely, 
Schir Edward the Bruce the hardy, 
Had all Galloway and Nydysdale 
Wonnyn till his liking all haile ; 
And dongyn doun the castellis halle 
Rycht in the dyk, bath tour and wall. 
He hard then say, ang kuew it Weill, 
That in Ruglyne wes a pele. 
Thiddir he went, with his menye, 
And wonnyn it in schort tyme has he.' 

Unlike so many of the other castles then taken, it 
was not destroyed, and it remained in good order till 
after the battle of Langside, when the Regent Murray, 
in laying waste the possessions of the Hamiltons, burnt 
it. The great tower was subsequently repaired, and 
became the seat of the Hamiltons of Ellistoun, lairds of 
Shawfield. Shortly after the beginning of last century, 
this portion and the new buildings that had been added 
were abandoned as a residence, and being allowed to 
become ruinous, the stones were carried off by the 
inhabitants of the town, and the walls were soon 
levelled to the ground. The walls of the tower were 
very thick, and so large were the stones used in the 
foundation that they remained some 30 years after all 
the rest of the building had disappeared. Queen Mary, 
in her flight from the held of Langside, passed close to 
the S side of the town, and at a lane, called Din's 
Dykes, about 150 yards S of Main Street, two rustics, 
who were cutting grass there at the time, attempted to 
stop her by threatening her with their scythes. Shortly 
after the Reformation, Rutherglen seems to have been 
considered by the presbytery of Glasgow as a place 
needing special care and attention, and we find that in 
1590 they instructed the teacher of the school of 
Rutherglen to desist from reading prayers, and at the 
same time denounced the use of sacramental wine mixed 
with water. In 1593 they had again to interfere with the 
playing of pipes and the indulging in games on Sunday, 
both of which were forbidden between sunrise and sun- 
set, on pain of excommunication. Though this pro- 
clamation was ordered to be read in all churches, and 
especially in the church of Rutherglen, it does not 
seem to have had altogether the desired effect — in spirit 
at all events — for in 1595 the presbytery had to trans- 
mit letters to the bailie of the burgh, enjoining him to 
stop the profane plays introduced on the Lord's Day, 
' as they fear the eternal God, and will be answerable to 
His kirk ; ' and they also made complaint as to the 
practice of fishing for salmon on Sunday, and of the 
colliers selecting the same time for the settlement of 
their accounts. During the Covenanting times, Ruther- 
glen was the scene of an event which was the prelude to 
the armed rising which ended at Bothwell Bridge. 
In 1697, the irreconcilables of the Presbyterian party 
had determined to publish a ' Declaration and Testi- 
mony of the true Presbyterian Party in Scotland,' and a 
body of 80 horsemen, under the command of Robert 
Hamilton, brother of the laird of Preston, set off for 
Glasgow, with the intention of there publicly proclaim- 
ing their doctrine ; but finding that that town was 
occupied by a strong garrison of royalist troops, they 
turned aside to Rutherglen. The day chosen was the 
29th of May, the anniversary of the birthday of Charles 
II., and also of the day on which he entered London at 
the Restoration, and the whole town was accordingly 


lit up with bonfires in honour of the occasion. These 
the Covenanters immediately extinguished,* and having 
lit a bonfire of their own, they therein burnt all the 
acts of parliament and proclamations directed against 
themselves and their cause, and then having read their 
testimony at the burgh cross, to which they also fixed a 
copy, they retired to Evandale and Newmilns. Claver- 
house and his dragoons arrived on the 31st to investi- 
gate the matter, but none of the inhabitants seem to 
have been implicated, and he passed on to Loudon Hill 
(see Dkumclog), where his force was defeated by the 
armed Covenanters, and thereafter came the battle of 
the Gallowgate in Glasgow, and of Bothwell Bridge. 
Rutherglen espoused the cause of electoral reform at a 
very early date, for in 1671 a new set was fixed whereby 
the practice of the council's electing their successors 
was abolished, and the right of election given to the 
Incorporated Trades and the burgesses generally. 
Shortly afterwards they anticipated the compulsory 
clauses of the Education Act of two centuries after- 
wards, by ordaining, in 1675, that all the inhabitants 
of the burgh should send their children betwixt 6 and 
12 years of age 'to the comune Schoole to be educat 
yrat with certification that whaever neglects there 
dewtye herein shall be compelled to pay the quarter 
waidges as if there children were at the Schoole,' and the 
fees were to be recoverable by poinding and imprisonment. 
As Glasgow rose in importance Rutherglen diminished, 
and in 1695 it was reckoned as one of the least of the 
royal burghs, the monthly cess being fixed at £1 ster- 
ling, while thereafter it became practically a quiet 
country village ; and, though it has again become of 
more importance, this has arisen rather from its having 
become a manufacturing suburb of Glasgow than from 
any power existing within itself. Some old customs 
survived to a comparatively recent period, one of them, 
entirely peculiar to the place, being a ceremonious 
baking, on St Luke's eve, of excessively thin sour cakes, 
which were given to strangers visiting St Luke's Fair. 
A peculiar kind of sour cream was also long manu- 
factured for sale, not only in the town itself, but in the 
surrounding district, but this has now also entirely 

The modern town is somewhat mean in appearance, 
and consists of a very wide and spacious Main Street — 
extending along the road from Glasgow to Hamilton — 
with narrow lanes and streets branching off from it, the 
chief being Farm Loan Road (N) and Hamilton Road 
(S), both at the E end ; Castle Street (N), near the 
centre ; and Mill Street on the opposite side farther S. 
At the W end the principal street divides into two 
narrow branches, of which that to the N retains at first 
the name of Main Street, and then becomes Chapel 
Street, while the branch to the S is Cathcart Road. 
Parallel to Main Street on the N is the long narrow 
King Street. There are several other straggling streets, 
and on the low rich flat to the N and NW, beyond the 
railway, are the principal manufactories. The build- 
ings, even in the main street, are very poor and 
irregular, many of them being very old houses, with 
low walls and thatched roofs. The old town-hall is a 
poor structure, projecting into Main Street on the N 
side, but the modern town-hall, erected in 1861-62 at a 
cost of £7000, farther AV, and subsequently added to 
on the E, is a very handsome building which would do 
honour to many a much larger town. Late Baronial in 
style, it has a street frontage of 120 feet, and near the 
centre a square tower with turrets, with ogee roofs, 
rising to a height of 110 feet. The portion to the W, 
which was the first erected, contains a burgh court- 
room, a council chamber, various retiring rooms, and a 
public hall, measuring 75 by 40 feet, and with accom- 

* The fifth article of their own testimony was 'against that 
presumptuous Act for imposing ane holy anniversary-day as they 
call it, to be kept yearly upon the 29th of May as a day of rejoic- 
ing and thanksgiving for the king's birth and restoration : whereby 
the appointers have intruded upon the Lord's prerogative and the 
observers have given the glory to the creature that is due to our 
Lord Redeemer, and rejoiced over the setting up of an usurping 
power to the destroying the interest of Christ in the land.' 


modation for about 800 persons. The eastern addition 
contains the various burgh offices. The ancient parish 
church was immediately to the W of the burgh hall, 
and was a building of some note, for, according to Blind 
Harry, it was in it that in 1297 a truce was agreed on 
between Scotland and England. 

' Erll of Staniffurd, was chanslar of Ingland, 
With Schyr Amar this trawaill tuk on hand 
A saiff condyt thai purchest off Wallace. 
In Ruglen Kyrk the tryst than haiff thai set.* 

and after telling how ' The gret chanslar and Amar 
thidder past,' and giving an account of the debate 
between the parties, he tells how 

' Wallace said ; " Schyr, we jangill hot in wayne. 
My consell gyffis, I will na fabill mak, 
As for a yer a flnaill pess to tak. 
Nocht for myself, that I bynd to your seill 
I can nocht trow that euir ye will be leill ; 
Eot for pur folk grethye has beyne supprisyt, 
I will tak peess, quhill forthir we be awisit." 
Than band thai thus ; thar suld be no debait, 
Castell and towne suld stand in that ilk stait, 
Fra that day furth, quhill a yer war at an end : 
Sellyt this pess, and tuk thar leyff to wend.' 

and according to the same authority, it was here, too, 
that Sir John Menteith agreed to betray Wallace to the 
English : 

1 Schyr Jhon Menteth Wallace his gossop was, 
A messynger Schyr Amar has gert pass 
On to Schyr Jhon, and sone a tryst has set, 
At Ruglyn Kyrk thir twa togydder met.' 

Of the church which was dedicated to the Virgin, and 
had altars of the Holy Trinity and St Nicholas, the 
only part now remaining is the quaint low tower with 
its curious spire, the rest having been demolished in 
1794 when the present hideous structure about 30 yards 
farther W was constructed. It is somewhat curious 
that the dedication of the church was to the Virgin, 
while the chief fair was held on St Luke's day in 
October. The modern church has 8S0 sittings, and is 
surrounded by a churchyard. The West Church, on the 
S side of Chapel Street, was built in 1836 as a chapel of 
ease, and stood unused for some time after the Disrup- 
tion, but it was constituted a quoad sacra charge in 
1868. It contains 8S0 sittings. In 1883 the Estab- 
lished Church also purchased the former Congregational 
church. The First Free church on the NW, in Glasgow 
Eoad, erected soon after the Disruption, is a plain 
Gothic building with 820 sittings and a square pinnacled 
tower. The Second Free church, in Farm Loan Road to 
the E, was erected in 1871-72, at a cost of £3000, as a 
Reformed Presbyterian church, but passed into possession 
of the Free Church when the two denominations were 
united in 1876. It is a good Early English building, 
with 750 sittings and a SW tower and spire rising to a 
height of 128 feet. The U. P. church, a very plain 
building of 1836, in King Street, contains 950 sittings. 
The Roman Catholic church (St Andrew), on the S side 
of Main Street, is a plain building of 1853, with 600 
sittings. There are also a Wesleyan Methodist congre- 
gation meeting in a building in Cathcart Road, a Free 
Church mission in King Street, and a Congregational 
church (1881) at Wardlawhill, whilst an Evangelistic 
hall is at present in course of erection. St John's 
Masonic Hall is a poor building erected in Cathcart 
Road, in 1875, at a cost of £1500. Under the burgh 
school board are the Burgh, Farie Street, and Mac- 
donald's schools, which, with accommodation for respec- 
tively 250, 400, and 259 pupils, had, in 1884, attend- 
ances of 216, 442, and 280, and grants of £184, 17s., 
£383, 7s., and £211, 14s. A Free Church school has 
been closed, but there is also a Roman Catholic school 
with accommodation for 405 pupils, and an attendance 
of over 250. The Macdonald school was erected 
originally by subscription and partly endowed with the 
interest of £500 bequeathed by Lieutenant-Colonel Mac- 
donald for the education of Protestant children in the 
town and parish of Rutherglen. Under the Educa- 
tional Endowments Act it is proposed to spend the 
interest of this money in bursaries. 

Municipal matters are attended to by a provost, 2 

Seal of Rutherglen. 


bailies, a treasurer, a dean of guild, and 13 councillors. 
The corporation revenue is about £1900. The police 
force is united with that 
of the county. There 
is a gas company with 
works on the SW of 
the town. Rutherglen 
has a post office, with 
money order, savings' 
bank, and telegraph de- 
partments, under Glas- 
gow, offices of the Com- 
mercial and National j 
banks, agencies of 9 
insurance companies, 
and a newspaper, The 
Reformer (L., 1875), 
published on Saturday. 
Among the miscellane- 
ous institutions may 
be noticed a public 
library and reading 
room, a masonic lodge 
(St John's, 347), a young men's Christian association, and 
other local societies. There are fairs on the first Friday 
after 11 March, the first Friday after 4 May, the 
first Tuesday after 4 June, the first Friday after 25 
July, the first Friday after 25 August, the Wednesday 
before the first Friday of November, the first Friday 
of November, and the Friday after 25 November. 
Several of these, particularly the one in May called 
Beltane Fair, and that in November called St Luke's 
Fair, are famous for the sale of horses and cattle, and 
for the large number of buyers and sellers who attend 
them. The inhabitants of the town and district are 
employed in the coal pits, quarries, and brick-works in 
the neighbourhood, or in the industrial works connected 
with the burgh, these latter being factories, chemical 
works, dye works, a paper mill, a pottery, tube works, 
a small boat building yard, rope and twine works, and 
spindle works. Rutherglen unites with Dumbarton, 
Kilmarnock, Port Glasgow, and Renfrew in returning 
a member to serve in Parliament. Parliamentary con- 
stituency (1S85) 1609 ; municipal 1633. Valuation 
of parliamentary burgh (1875) £30,659, (1885) £34,556. 
Pop. of royal burgh (1831) 4741, (1S61) 8071, (1871) 
9239, (1881) 11,473, of whom 5502 were males and 5971 
females; of parliamentary burgh (1861) 8062, (1871)9453, 
(1881) 11, 265, of whom 5435 were males and 5830 females. 
Houses (1881) 2343 inhabited, 243 uninhabited, and 7 
building. Of the whole population in the same year, 
2784 males and 1369 females were connected with in- 
dustrial handicrafts, or are dealers in manufactured 
substances, and of these 1295 men and 37 women were 
connected with mineral substances alone ; while there 
were 2064 boys and 2068 girls of school age. See also 
Ure's History of Rutherglen and East Eilbryde (Glasg. 
1793).— Ord. Sur., shs. 30, 31, 1866-67. 

Ruthven, a village in Cairnie parish, Aberdeenshire, 
2J miles WNW of Rothiemay station and 6 NNW of 
Huntly, under which it has a post office. 

Ruthven, a small parish of W Forfarshire, 3 miles E 
of Alyth and 4J N by E of Meigle, under which 
it has a post office. It is bounded NE, E, and SE 
by Airlie, SW, W, and NW by Alyth in Perth- 
shire. Its utmost length, from E by N to S by W, 
is 2J miles ; its utmost breadth is 2| miles ; and its 
area is 2087f acres, of which 38| are water. The 
river Isla has here a winding course of 3| miles ; viz., 
1J mile west-south-westward along the north-western 
border, 2J miles south-south-eastward through the 
interior, and 3 furlongs south-westward along the south- 
eastern border — though the point where it first touches 
and that where it quits the parish are only 2J miles dis- 
tant as the crow flies. With rocky bed, and bold, well- 
wooded banks, it offers many pretty bits of scenery. The 
surface, a gentle southerly slope, on the northern side 
of Strathmore, is diversified by some swells and knolls, 
and attains a maximum altitude of 325 feet, whilst 



sinking southward to 165. The rocks are sandstone beds 
of the Old Red formation, and masses of dibris from the 
Grampians. The sandstone is a good building material ; 
and the gravels of the dibris have been much used for 
roads. The soil, in general, is a light loam on a gravelly 
bottom. About two-thirds of the entire area are in 
tillage j 450 acres are underwood ; and 170 are pasture. 
Much of the wood is oak coppice, both profitable and 
ornamental ; and the rest is chiefly planted larch and 
Scotch firs on naturally poor land. Euthven Castle, an 
ancient baronial residence, belonging at one time to the 
Earls of Crawford, stood in the SE of the parish near the 
left bank of the Isla, but, falling into ruin, was long 
ago removed. A knoll in the neighbourhood still bears 
the name of Gallows Hill, from being the place where 
the old feudal barons of Ruthven erected their gibbet ; 
and a small field adjoining it is known by the name 
of the Hangman's Acres. Euthven House, near the 
site of the castle, 3 miles NNE of Meigle, is the seat of 
Thomas Wedderburn-Ogilvy, Esq. (b. 1814 ; sue. 1853), 
who holds 6336 acres in the shire, valued at £5735 
per annum. He is sole proprietor, his maternal great- 
grandfather having purchased the estate (long held by 
the Crichtons) in 1744. Euthven is in the presbytery 
of Meigle and the synod of Angus and Mearns ; the 
living is worth £226. The parish church, on the right 
bank of the Isla, near Inverqueich, was built in 1859, and 
contains 150 sittings. Adjacent to it is the manse, rebuilt 
in 1874. Euthven in the 12th century was a vicarage 
of the abbey of Arbroath, dedicated to St Maluack, and 
specially confirmed by Pope Honorius III. in 1219. The 
public school, with accommodation for 64 children, had 
(1884) an average attendance of 50, and a grant of £40, 
16s. 9d. Valuation (1857) £1865, (1885) £2195, 2s. ,plus 
£136 for railway. Pop. (1801) 211, (1841) 471, (1861) 
265, (1871) 247, (1881) 195.— Ord. Sur., sh. 56, 1870. 
See a work by the minister, Dr M'Pherson, F.E.S.E., 
on The Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Strathmore (1885). 

Ruthven Barracks. See Kingussie. 

Ruthven Castle. See Huntingtower. 

Ruthven, Loch, a pretty birch-fringed lake on the 
mutual border of Dores and Daviot parishes, Inverness- 
shire, 11J miles S by W of Inverness. Lying 700 feet 
above sea- level, it curves 2J miles west-south-westward, 
varies in breadth between 1 and 4J furlongs, sends off a 
rivulet | mile west-by-southward to the Farigaig, and 
is perhaps the best trouting loch in the district. — Ord. 
Sur., sh. 73, 1878. 

Ruthven Water. See Atjchteearder. 

Ruthwell, a village and a coast parish of Dumfries- 
shire. The village stands 1 mile inland and If SSE of 
Euthwell station on the Glasgow and South-Western 
railway, this being 8J miles ESE of Dumfries and 7 
WNW of the post-town, Annan. In 1509 it was erected 
into a burgh of barony, in favour of Sir John Murray of 
Cockpool, with the right of holding fairs and markets ; 
but it has long forgotten all its burghal honours, and is 
a place of neither trade nor manufacture. 

The parish, containing also the post-office village of 
Claeencefield and the small decayed watering-place 
of Brow Well, is bounded N by Mouswald and Dalton, 
E by Cummertrees, S by the Solway Firth, and SW and 
W by Caerlaverock. Its utmost length, from E to W, 
is 61 miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 3 J miles ; 
and its area is 11, 321J acres, of which 2549 are foreshore 
and 78j water. Lochak Water winds 5 miles south- 
eastward along all the Caerlaverock boundary, and then, 
at low water, must still go 5J miles further across the 
broad, clayey sands, having Blackrhaw Bank to the 
right and Priestside Bank to the left. The coast-line, 
3| miles in extent, is low, at no point exceeding 29 feet 
above sea-level. The interior, too, in the W forming 
part of Lochak Moss, is low and flat, and attains a 
maximum altitude of only 154 feet near Kirkstyle in 
the NE. The principal rock is a coarse limestone, 
which, towards the close of last century, was worked to 
a considerable extent ; and about the same time search 
was made, but in vain, for a workable seam of coal on 
Belridding farm. The soil for the most part is a strong 


gravel, intermixed with vegetable mould ; and the tract 
of moss in the W is partly waste, partly pastoral, and 
partly used for the supply of peat-fuel. Nearly five- 
sevenths of the entire area are regularly or occasionally 
in tillage ; and about 535 acres are under wood. Com- 
longon and Cockpool Castles have been noticed sepa- 
rately. In the manse grounds stands the famous Euth- 
well Cross, a sandstone Runic monument 17| feet high, 
2 J feet to 8 j inches broad (3 feet across the arms* of the 
cross), and 1§ to § foot thick. Of its four faces, the 
side ones are carved with graceful vines and curious 
animals of the type familiar in other sculptured stones ; 
whilst on their margins are Eunic verses from Csdmon's 
lay of The Holy Rood — unquestionably the oldest extant 
fragment of English literature. The other two faces, in 
front and behind, contain representations of the Cruci- 
fixion (almost defaced), the Annunciation, Christ healing 
the Blind, etc., with corresponding Latin inscriptions 
in Roman character. The discoveries of Kemble (1842), 
Haigh (1856), and Stephens (1865) have demolished the 
theory that these faces, in front and behind, are of later 
workmanship than the cross as a whole, which cross is 
said to have originally been set up, as early likely as 680 
A.D., at Priestside near the sea, and thence to have been 
drawn by a team of oxen to the parish church, where it re- 
mained long after the Reformation. In 1642, however, it 
was cast down and broken into several pieces, one of which 
was recovered from a grave towards the close of last cen- 
tury. The other fragments were lying within the church 
in 1772, but soon after were removed to the churchyard, 
and left to decay, until in 1802 this priceless relic of 
antiquity was re-erected in the manse garden t by the 
Eev. Henry Duncan, D.D. (1774-1846), who was minister 
from 1799 till the Disruption. He it was who in 1810 
established at Euthwell the earliest savings' bank in Scot- 
land ; and he, too, was first to discover reptilian footprints 
in red sandstone from Corncockle Moor. These were in- 
serted in the wall of his summerhouse, into which there 
were also built two rudely sculptured stones, without any 
inscription, said to have been removed to the churchyard 
from a small chapel or preceptory of the Knights of St 
John at Kirkstyle, but afterwards by Dr Duncan built 
into the wall of his Free church in Mouswald parish. The 
Earl of Mansfield is chief proprietor, four others holding 
each an annual value of between £100 and £500. Ruth- 
well is in the presbytery of Annan and the synod 
of Dumfries ; the living is worth £337. The parish 
church, J mile N of Euthwell village, is a patchwork 
edifice of various dates, and contains 420 sittings. The 
Free church, at the Mouswald boundary, If mile NW 
of Ruthwell station, was founded by Dr Duncan ; and 
near it is a pyramidal monument to his memory, 40 
feet high. A public and a female industrial school, 
with respective accommodation for 132 and 56 children, 
had (1884) an average attendance of 80 and 43, and grants 
of £78, 5s. and £42, Is. 6d. Valuation (1860) £5271, (1S85) 
£7108, 0s. 5d. Pop. (1801) 996, (1831) 1216, (1861) 1046, 
(1871) 972, (1881) 868.— Ord. Sur., shs. 6, 10, 1863-64. 
See articles by Dr Duncan in Trans. Royal Soc. of Edinb. 
(1828), Trans. Soc. Ants. Scotl. (1832), and the New Statis- 
tical Account (1845); Dr John Stuart's Sculptured Stones 
of Scotland (2 vols., 1856-67); and Joseph Anderson's 
Scotland in Early Christian Times (2d series, 1881). 

Ruvail. See Ehtj Vaal. 

Ryan, Loch (the Rcrigonius Sinus of Ptolemy), a sea- 
loch striking from the S side of the entrance of the Firth 
of Clyde, nearly opposite the Mull of Kintyre. It pro- 
jects partly between Ayrshire and Wigtownshire, but 
chiefly into the interior of the latter county, forming the 
eastern boundary of the northern part of the Ehinns of 
Galloway. It extends 8J miles nearly due south-by- 
eastward ; and, measuring from If mile to 2J miles in 
breadth, is narrowest immediately within the entrance, 
widest within 2J miles of the head, being narrower over 
all the lower half than in the mean of the upper half. 

* These are a restoration by Dr Duncan in 1823. 

t The weather is telling sadly on the Runic character ; and in 
Jan. 1835 it was proposed to have the monument protected in an 
apse adjoining the church. 


A sandbank called the Scar runs 2§ miles diagonally or 
south-south-eastward from the middle of its W side ; 
and it is indented on the E side, opposite the lower end 
of the Scar, by Cairn Point projecting from a neigh- 
bouring eminence 640 feet high. It is overlooked on 
the E side of the entrance by rocky shores, and at two 
parts of its W side by eminences 324 and 314 feet high ; 
has almost everywhere, except at these places and at 
Cairn Point, low, flat, sandy shores ; is left dry, at low 
water, over most of the Scar, over a belt nearly J mile 
broad around its head, and over a slender belt round 
most of its upper half; contains excellent anchoring 
ground over most of its extent, but especially in the 
south-eastern vicinity of Cairn Point, at Portmore, and 
in the baylets of Wig, Soleburn, and Dalmennock ; 
forms, on the whole, a safe, commodious, natural 
harbour, of easy access, and so capacious as to afford 
ample anchorage for the largest fleets ; is adjoined in 
the western part of its head by the town, seaport, and 


railway station of Stranraer ; and serves, from that 
place, as the line of the most facile communication by 
steamers between Scotland and the N of Ireland. Loch 
Ryan lighthouse, erected on Cairn Point in 1847 at a 
cost of £4241, shows a fixed light visible at a distance 
of 12 nautical miles. The Queen has passed four nights 
on board the royal yacht in Loch Ryan in 1847 and 
1849 ; and she describes it as ' very fine, the hills and 
glens lovely, the loch very large, and the hills very high 
and wooded.'— Ord. Sur., shs. 7, 3, 1863-56. 

Ryedale, an estate, with a mansion, in Troqueer 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, near the right bank of the 
Kith, in the southern vicinity of Maxwelltown. 

Ryefield. See Ferintosh. 

Rye Water, a rivulet of Dairy parish, Cunninghame 
district, Ayrshire, running 7 miles south-south-eastward, 
chiefly through a hilly country, and falling into the Gar- 
nock in the north-eastern vicinity of Dairy town. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

SADDELL AND SKIPNESS, a parish on the E side 
of Kintyre peninsula, Argyllshire, formed from 
the parishes of Killean and Kilcalmonell in 1753. 
It contains the village of Carradale, 13 miles 
K by E of Campbeltown and 22 S by E of Tarbert, 
with a post and telegraph office and an hotel ; other 
villages being Saddell, 4 miles S by W, and Skip- 
ness, 15| K by E, of Carradale. It is bounded 
KE by the lower waters of Loch Fyne, E by Kil- 
brannan Sound, SW by Campbeltown, W by Killean 
and Kilcalmonell, and KW by Kilcalmonell. Its ut- 
most length, from KKE to SSW, is 24J miles ; its 
breadth varies between If and 5 miles, whilst tapering 
northward and southward to a point ; and its area is 
74J square miles or 47,663f acres, of which 300g are 
water, 480g foreshore, and 10J tidal water. The coast, 
extending 6 J miles south-south-eastward and southward 
along Loch Fyne to Skipness Point, and thence 24£ 
miles south-south-westward along Kilbrannan Sound, is 
indented by only one good sized inlet, Cakradale 
Bay ; projects but one considerable headland, Carra- 
dale Point (133 feet high) ; and mostly rises steeply 
from the sea to a height of over 100 feet. Of seventeen 
streams that run to Kilbrannan Sound much the largest 
is Carradale Water, others being Skipness, Claonaig, 
and Saddell Waters ; -whilst of fifteen small fresh-water 
lakes the chief are Lochs Romain (4x1 furl. ; 542 feet) 
and Tana (2| x 1 furl. ; 605 feet). The surface is hilly 
everywhere, in places mountainous, the principal sum- 
mits from N to S being Cruach Doire Leithe (1236 feet), 
Coire nan Capull (1095), Fuar Larach (886), Creag 
Mhor (741), Cnoc an Samhlaidh (S66), Deucharan Hill 
(10S1), Cnoc nan Gabhar (753), Beinn Bhreac (1398), 
Meall Donn (1138), Ben an Tuirc (1491), Cnocma- 
lavilach (853), and Bord Mor (1338). Of these, Ben an 
Tuirc, whose height in many works is wrongly given as 
2170 feet, commands a magnificent view of seven 
Scottish and two Irish counties, from Corsill Point in 
Wigtownshire to Ben More in Mull and Ben Lomond 
in Stirlingshire. The hills are neither steep, barren, 
nor rocky, but generally covered with an intermixture 
of grass and heath ; and, rising regularly and with easy 
ascent from the shore, they have flat summits, or 
stretch away into small tablelands. The glens, all 
running from NW to SE, usually open, at their lower 
ends, upon beautiful little bays; and they enjoy so 
great a degree of heat, and such happy visitations of 
fertilising showers, as are highly favourable to agricul- 
ture. A stranger traversing the parish lengthwise 
along the road is presented with a great variety of land 
and sea views, and alternately moves along a delightful 
bank overlooking the sea and Buteshire, and suddenly 
descends into pleasant woods and valleys. Mica slate, 

intersected with quartzite and basaltic veins, is the 
predominant rock ; and granite occurs in large boulders. 
The soil in the bottom of the glens is a fine alluvium; 
that of the higher arable lands is light and sandy. At 
Saddell village, near the right bank of Saddell Water, 
stand the tree-embowered ruins of Saddell Abbey. Its 
cruciform minster measured 136 by 24 feet, or 78 across 
the transept ; and the cloister-garth to the S was 58 
feet square ; but little remains save portions of the 
choir wall and the K transept. In the churchyard are 
some most interesting sculptured effigies ; and hard by 
is a holy well. The abbey of ' Saghadul ' or Saddell 
was founded for Cistercian monks by Ragnall or Regi- 
nald, the second son of Somerled, who himself is styled 
King of the Isles and Argyll, and who died in 1207. 
It made peace with Haco of Korway in 1263, and in 
1507 was, with all its possessions, annexed by James IV. 
to the bishopric of Argyll. Saddell Castle, 3 furlongs 
SSE, at the head of Saddell Bay, is a large square 
battlemented tower. Hither Ragnall's great-grandson, 
Angus Og, is said to have welcomed Robert Bruce in 
1306, after the defeats of Methven and Dairy. Other 
antiquities, besides those noticed under Carradale 
and Skipness, are several cairns, tumuli, and hill- 
forts. Opposite Saddell Castle stands Saddell or Glen- 
saddell House, the seat of John Neil Macleod, Esq. of 
Kintarbert (sue. 1883), who holds 12,805 acres in 
the shire, valued at £2935 per annum. Other man- 
sions, noticed separately, are Carradale House, Cour, 
Skipness Castle, and Torrisdale Castle ; and four 
proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and up- 
wards. In the presbytery of Kintyre and the synod ot 
Argyll, this parish since 1871 has been ecclesiastically 
divided into Saddell and Skipness, the former a living 
worth £200. Saddell parish church, at Carradale 
village, was built about 1771, and contains 354 sittings. 
There is a Free Church mission station of Carradale and 
Skipness ; and four public schools — Carradale, Saddell, 
Skipness, and Sperasaig — with respective accommoda- 
tion for 63, 48, 60, and 30 children, had (1884) an 
average attendance of 56, 21, 34, and 13, and grants of 
£62, Is., £31, 8s., £46, 9s., and £24, 4s. 6d. Valua- 
tion (1860) £6621, (1885) £8586, 17s. 9d. Pop. (1801) 
1767, (1S31) 2152, (1861) 1227, (1871) 1153, (1881) 1163, 
of whom 789 were Gaelic-speaking, and 686 were in 
Saddell ecclesiastical parish. — Ord. Sur., shs. 20, 21, 
29, 12, 1870-76. 

Saddle Yoke. See Moffat. 

St Abb's Head. See Abb's Head. 

St Andrews, a parish containing a royal burgh of the 
same name on the E coast of the county of Fife, 
between the entrance to the Firth of Tay and Fife 
Kess. It surrounds part of the parish of St Leonards,. 



which is separately noticed. It is bounded N by the 
parish of Leuchars, NNE by St Andrews Bay, SSE by 
the parish of Kingsbarns, S by the parishes of St 
Leonards, Dunino, Cameron, and Ceres, W by the 
parish of Kernback, and NW by the parish of Leuchars. 
On the N and NW the boundary is formed by the river 
Eden from the mouth to Nydie Mill, a distance of 6J 
miles ; on the SSE it follows Kenly Burn for about 3 
miles, though there are divergences ; elsewhere, except 
on the sea-coast and for 2 miles near Wester Balry- 
month along a small stream flowing to Kinness Burn, 
the line is almost entirely artificial. The extreme 
length of the parish, from Nydie Mill on the W east- 
south-eastward to the mouth of Kenly Burn, is 9| 
miles ; the average breadth at right angles to this is 
about 2J miles; and the area is 13,312'163 acres, of 
which 105 '344 are water and 1724 '813 foreshore. The 
coast, from the Eden to the burgh of St Andrews, is a 
fiat, firm, sandy beach, skirted by the links ; and from 
the burgh to Kenly Burn an expanse of rough shelving 
rocks skirted by low cliffs from 30 to 40 feet in height. 
Among these are several caves, but Kinkell Cave, a mile 
to the E of the burgh, with a length of about 75 feet 
and a height of from 10 to 25 feet, is the only one of 
importance. The Maiden Rock to the N of the burgh, 
the Kock and Spindle to the E of Kinkell Ness, and 
Buddo Rock near Boarhills, also present curious features, 
especially the Eock and Spindle, which shows a peculiar 
radial arrangement of basaltic columns. The surface is 
generally flat along the seaboard, and rises from this 
slowly towards the interior boundary, heights of 360, 
375, and 547 feet being reached at East Balrymonth 
Hill, West Balrymonth Hill, and Clatto Hill respec- 
tively. The soil is fertile, and there are over 11,000 
acres under tillage, the woodland being mostly con- 
fined to the policies of the mansions. The underlying 
rocks are carboniferous, consisting of beds of sandstone, 
with thin seams of coal, clay, and clay-ironstone. 
Many of the beds are fossiliferous, and there are also 
volcanic rocks. Basalt for road metal and paving-setts 
is quarried in several places, and sandstone of excellent 
quality for building is worked at Knock Hill and Strath- 
kinness. The drainage is carried off by the river Eden 
and Kenly Burn on the borders, and in the centre by 
Kinness Burn, which enters the sea to the E of St 
Andrews, one branch rising on the W at Knock Hill, 
and another on the S border at Priory Bank. At the 
mouth of the Eden — up which the tide flows for 4 miles 
— there is a shallow sandy bay abounding in flat fish and 
shells, and along the lower part of the river salmon and 
sea-trout may be caught. Magus Muir, on the SW, 
where Archbishop Sharpe was assassinated, is separately 
noticed. The north-eastern part of the parish is 
traversed by the great coast road from Burntisland by 
the East Neuk of Fife to St Andrews and thence to 
Dundee, and by the road from St Andrews westward to 
Cupar-Fife, as well as by a large number of good district 
roads. The St Andrews branch of the North British 
railway system enters the parish at the river Eden at 
Guard Bridge, and runs east-south-eastward 3J miles to 
the W end of the town of St Andrews. It was opened 
in 1852, and the Anstruther and St Andrews section of 
the North British system was opened to Boarhills in 
1883. Besides the town of St Andrews the parish con- 
tains also the villages of Strathkinness (W) and Boar- 
hills (E) and the hamlet of Kincaple (N), with part of 
the hamlet of Denhead (S), the first three of which 
are separately noticed ; as is also the old bridge at 
Guard Bridge. The mansions are Broomhills, Bal- 
mungo, Clatto, Denbrae, Kenly Green, Kincaple, Kin- 
gask, and Strathtyrum, all of which are separately 
noticed ; as is also Mount Melville, part of the 
policies of which are in this parish, though the man- 
sion-house is in the parish of Cameron. The parish 
is in the presbytery of St Andrews and synod of Fife, 
and the charge is collegiate ; the living of the first 
minister being worth £800 a year, and that of the 
second £203. It gives off the quoad sacra parish of 
Strathkinness, and there is a mission station at Boarhills. 


The churches are noticed in the following article, and 
there is also a Free church at Strathkinness. Under the 
landward school board of the parishes of St Andrews and 
St Leonards, the Boarhills, North Strathkinness, and 
South Strathkinness schools, with accommodation for 
117, 160, and 142 pupils respectively, had in 1883 
attendances of 72, 74, and 95, and grants of £56, lis., 
£55, 12s., and £77, Is. The principal landowner is J. 
H. Balfour of Strathkinness, and 16 others hold each an 
annual value of £500 or upwards, 47 hold each between 
£500 and £100, 82 hold each between £100 and £50, 
and 169 hold each between £50 and £20. Landward 
valuation (1856) £21,736, (1875)£26,834, (1885) £23,752. 
Pop. (1801) 4203, (1831)5621, (1861) 7092, (1871) 7851, 
(1881) 7835, of whom 3531 were males and 4304 females, 
while 6458 were in the town and 1120 were in the quoad 
sacra parish of Strathkinness. 

The Bay of St Andrews, which may be taken as 
bounded on the N by the Red Head, and on the S by 
Fife Ness, measures 24 miles along the line between 
these points, 10 miles along a line at right angles to 
this westward to the head of the bay. It is dangerous 
and stormy ; and vessels driven in by easterly winds 
and embayed between Fife Ness and the Red Head, are 
compelled to run for the entrance to the Tay, with its 
dangerous and intricate sand banks. 

The Established Church has a Presbytery of St 
Andrews, which is in the synod of Fife, and com- 
prehends the parishes of St Andrews, Abercrombie, 
Anstruther-Easter, Anstruther- Wester, Cameron, Carn- 
bee, Crail, Dunino, Elie, Ferry Port on Craig, 
Forgan, Kemback, Kilconquhar, Kilrenny, Kingsbarns, 
Largo, Leuchars, Newburn, Pittenweem, and St Leonards, 
and the quoad sacra parishes of Largoward, Newport, 
and Strathkinness. The Free Church has also a presby- 
tery of St Andrews, with congregations at Anstruther, 
Carnbee, Crail, Elie, Ferry Port on Craig, Largo, 
Leuchars, Newport (Forgan), St Andrews, St Monance, 
and Strathkinness. The Episcopal Church has a united 
diocese of St Andrews, Dunkeld, and Dunblane, with 
churches at Alyth, Blairgowrie, Bridge of Allan, 
Burntisland, Callander, Coupar-Angus, Crieff, Culross, 
Cupar-Fife, Dollar, Doune, Dunblane, Dunfermline, 
Dunkeld, Dunning, Forfar, Glamis, Kenmore, Killin, 
Kinloch-Rannoch, Kinross, Kirkcaldy, Kirriemuir, 
Leven, Meigle, Muthill, Perth (3), Pitlochrie, Pitten- 
weem, St Andrews, Strathtay, and Weem ; and the 
Roman Catholic Church has an archbishopric of St 
Andrews and Edinburgh, with churches in Edinburgh 
(4), Bathgate, Broxburn, Dalkeith, Davidson's Mains, 
Denny, Dunbar, Dunfermline, Falkirk, Fauldhouse, 
Galashiels, Haddington, Hawick, Innerleithen, Jed- 
burgh, Kelso, Kilsyth, Kirkcaldy, Leith, Lennoxtown, 
Linlithgow, Loanhead, North Berwick, Oakley, Peebles, 
Ratho, Selkirk, Stirling, and West Calder. 

St Andrews, a royal burgh, market, and university 
town, and a seaport on St Andrews Bay, near the 
middle of the sea-coast of the parish just described. It 
was long the ecclesiastical metropolis of Scotland, and 
is still the seat of a presbytery. The station, on a 
branch line of the North British system leaving the 
main line at Leuchars, is by rail 12 miles E of Cupar, 
15 SE of Dundee, and 45 NE of Edinburgh. The 
country round is low and flat, and the environs are 
somewhat tame, though from various points of view, 
particularly from the W and N, the town itself, with 
its spires and venerable towers and ruined buildings, 
looks well. The site of the town is a tabular rocky 
eminence, some 50 feet above sea-level, and about 1 
mile long and | broad, falling to the sea on the E and 
N by steep rocky declivities, and dipping on the land- 
ward side into a narrow vale traversed by the Kinness 
Burn. The situation is somewhat exposed, but the 
climate is healthy and bracing. 

Lilies of Street, etc, — The cathedral, a short distance 
W of the harbour, marks the point from which the 
town grew, and so we find that the three principal streets 
run westward from this point, diverging somewhat 
from one another in their course. The chief of the three 


is South Street, which is the one farthest S ; in the 
centre is Market Street, and farther N is North Street. 
The first and last are wide airy streets, measuring 70 
feet from side to side, and all well built and well paved. 
Market Street is broad and spacious in the middle and 
W end, but the E end is still narrow. They are inter- 
sected by a number of cross streets from N to S. From 
the E end of South Street, Pends Lane passes eastward, 
farther W are Castle Street (N) and Abbey Street (S) 
— the latter being continued westward by Abbey Walk 
— Union Street and College Street — both between 
Market Street and North Street — Church Street, a con- 
tinuation of College Street to South Street, North Bell 
Street and South Bell Street — from North Street to 
South Street — and at the extreme W are Golf Place, 
Hope Street, City Road, and Bridge Street. Between 
North Street and the shore there is another thorough- 
fare called at one time Swallow Street, the line of 
which is now occupied by the walk called The Scores. 
Southward from the centre of South Street is Queen 
Street, and on the NW of the town is a winding path, 
called Lead Braes Walk. The railway station is at the 
E end of North Street. The extreme length of the 
town is about a mile — counting from the harbour west- 
ward, and the greatest width at the W end is under 
half a mile. A rough map of the town, made in 1530, 
shows that since that time no change has taken place 
in the plan of the main streets. The most of 
the older houses seem to have been of wood, and one 
specimen of a dwelling of this sort remained till com- 
paratively recent years on the N side of North Street, 
near the E end. Subsequent to the Reformation the 
wooden houses were replaced by more substantial 
structures, many of them built with stones taken from 
the castle, the cathedral, or some of the other 
ecclesiastical buildings that had been wrecked at the 
time. The Reformation, however, ruined the prosperity 
of the town, and the rough and inconvenient state of 
the streets that had obtained in the end of the 16th 
century, was but little improved till well into the 
present century. Prior to 1840, 'there was not afoot 
of side pavement in any of the streets ; filth and squalor 
abounded unchecked ; cows and pigs grazed in front of 
the colleges ; the venerable ruins were fast going, by 
neglect, to decay, and were littered with rubbish ; the 
lines of the public streets were continually broken 
by awkward abutments of ungainly houses ; there were 
few visitors of any distinction, even to the splendid 
links, which lay with all its vast capabilities almost 
untrodden ; and, generally, St Andrews, considering 
the prestige of its antiquity as an ecclesiastical capital, 
and its rank as a seat of learning, was at the lowest 
pitch of miserable neglect and decay.' The St Andrews 
of to-day, with its wide well-paved streets, handsome 
public buildings and houses, and its gay season of 
summer visitors, had still to be created ; but in 1842 
the hour came, and the man, in the person of Major 
H. L. Playfair (1786-1861), son of Principal Playfair 
(1799-1819) of the United College. Major, afterwards 
Sir Hugh Playfair, quitted the service of the Hon- 
ourable East India Company — in which he held high 
command in the artillery — in 1834, and retired to St 
Andrews, where he spent the rest of his life. He was 
elected provost in 1842, and at once set to work on 
the new reformation, on which his heart was set. The 
old streets were widened, levelled, causewayed, and 
provided with side paths, a new quay built, barriers 
erected to prevent the encroachments of the sea on the 
links — one achievement being the completion of the 
Dane's Work on the NE, an unfinished bulwark of 
rough stones, commenced by one of the priors in 1507, 
and afterwards abandoned— the formation of The Scores 
and other walks, the erection of new university and 
municipal buildings, and of a club-house at the links. 
The town had a number of ports or gates, but seems 
never to have had a regular wall, the fences at the 
backs of the houses being probably deemed sufficient. 
One of the gates was at the N end of Castle Street, 
another at the Harbour Hill, a third at the W end of 


Market Street, one at the shore on the road to Crail, 
and one still remains at the W end of South Street. 

History. — Like so many of the older Scottish burghs, 
St Andrews owes its origin and early importance to its 
connection with the Church. About the 7th century 
the whole district seems to have been a wild expanse of 
moorland and forest, forming a hunting-ground for the 
Pictish kings, and known as Muckross, from the Celtic 
Muic, ' a pig or boar,' and ross, ' a promontory.' In 
the grant of this tract to the Bishop by Alexander I., 
the name appears as Cursus Apri, or boar chase, and 
the village of Boarhills seems still to keep up the remem- 
brance of the old title, as do also the city arms, the 
shield bearing a boar tied to a tree. Hector Boece says 
it was 'so called from a boar of wondrous size, which, 
after having made prodigious havoc among men and 
cattle, and having often been unsuccessfully attacked 
by the huntsmen at the imminent danger of their lives, 
was at last set upon by the whole of the inhabitants of 
the district, and killed while endeavouring to make his 
escape across this tract of ground.' Thehistorian further 
adds that in his time manifest proofs of the existence of 
this huge beast were extant in the shape of two tusks, 
each 16 inches long and 4 thick, which were preserved 
in the cathedral. Tradition claims for the first religious 
house at St Andrews, the date of 347 a.d. The full 
account, as ultimately elaborated, is, that when in 345 
Constantine the Great invaded Patras with a large 
army in order to avenge the martyrdom of St Andrew, 
an angel appeared to Regulus the bishop and ordered 
him to remove and hide some of the relics of the saint. 
In obedience to this command Regulus concealed three 
fingers of the saint's right hand, a part of one of his 
arms, the pan of one of his knees, and one of his teeth ; 
and after Constantine had carried off the rest of the re- 
mains to Constantinople, the bishop, again visited by 
the angel in a dream, was enjoined to sail northwards 
with his relics, and to found and dedicate a church to 
St Andrew wherever his ship should be wrecked. Mean- 
while the saint himself had appeared in a vision to 
Hungus, son of Fergus, king of the Picts, who was at 
the time at war with Athelstan, King of the Saxons, 
with whom he was about to fight an important battle, 
and after promising him the victory, warned him also 
as to the approach of the relics and the honour and fame 
which would gather round the place where they were 
landed. The Picts vowed to revere St Andrew for ever 
if they should gain the victory, and as their cause was 
successful and Athelstan was killed, they were quite 
prepared to extend a warm welcome to Regulus, who, 
after sailing about for a year and a half, was at last 
wrecked in St Andrews Bay somewhere near the present 
harbour. Regulus, weary with his long voyage, rested 
for seven days, and then leaving part of his company 
at the place where he had landed, he set out with the 
relics for Forteviot, where he was kindly received by 
Hungus' three sons, ' who, being anxious as to the life 
of their father, then on an expedition in the region of 
Argathelia, gave a tenth part of Forteviot to God and 
St Andrew.' The king returned safe, and farther grants 
of land were made to the clerics, Hungus himself going 
with them to Muckeross or Chilrymont, where they had 
been wrecked, and ' making a circuit round a great part 
of that place immolated it to God and St Andrew for 
the erection of churches and oratories, . . . with waters, 
meadows, fields, pastures, moors, and woods as a gift for 
ever, and granted the place with such liberty that its 
inhabitants should be free and for ever relieved from the 
burden of hosting and building castles and bridges, and 
all secular exactions.' Such is the completed legend, 
the older forms of which make, however, no mention of 
Regulus at all ; in a subsequent form he is introduced as 
a monk and abbot ; and in the latest form he is a bishop. 
Dr Skene, who has compared and analysed all the stories, 
is of opinion that the early part of the legend belongs 
entirely to the relics, and was tacked on to the latter 
part of the story in order to give the dedication to St 
Andrew a fictitious date, so that the foundation might 
seem to have a greater antiquity than that of Iona. 



The Hungus or Angus, son of Fergus, referred to, seems 
to be the Angus who ruled over the Piets from 731 to 
761, and the adoption of St Andrew as the national 
saint must lie somewhere between those dates. It must 
have been subsequent to 731, for when Bede finished 
his Ecclesiastical History, in that year the national saint 
was St Peter, to whom Nectan had dedicated the land 
of the Picts in 710, and it must have been prior to 747, 
for in that year Ticjhernac records the death of Tuath- 
alan, abbot of Kilrymont. Under the date of 736 the 
same annalist records that Angus devastated Dalriada, 
so that the latter year is probably that of the foundation 
of the see and of the mediaeval prosperity and importance 
of the town. The dedication to St Andrew and the 
great veneration in which he was thereafter held seems 
to have been borrowed from the Saxons of Northumbria, 
where Wilfred, Bishop of York, who was the leader 
of the Roman party in the Northumbrian Church, had 
erected a church dedicated to this saint, at Hexham, in 
674 ; and there is a vague tradition that Acca, Bishop 
of Hexham, who was driven from his Northumbrian 
bishopric in 732, founded a see among the Picts. 
Whether St Regulus or St Rule is to be connected with 
the earlier or later portion of the legend is doubtful, and 
in all probability there is a confusion of two different 
persons, viz., St Regulus the first Bishop of Senlis in 
Gaul, and St Riaguil of Muicinsi in Ireland ; for while 
the ordinary day assigned in Scotland for the com- 
memoration of St Rule is the 17th October, the day of 
the Irish saint is the 16th, and the Aberdeen Breviary 
has a St Rule commemorated on the 30th March. It 
is also highly probable that the mystification may be 
intentional so as to take in an older church dedicated 
to the Irish St Rule who was a contemporary of St 
Columba, and erected in the end of the 6th century 
during the mission to St Cainich — one of the com- 
panions of St Columba — who is said to have had a 
church at Eilrymont, although it is possible that the 
word in the particular passage where this is mentioned 
may refer rather to the district generally than to the 
position of the modern town. 

In those early days of St Andrews the primacy was 
at Abernethy, but it must have been removed to St 
Andrews during the next century and a half, whether 
by Kenneth II. or Grig cannot now be settled, for in 
908 Bishop Cellach of St Andrews appears as the lead- 
ing churchman in the great council held by King Con- 
stantine at the Mote Hill of Scone. Cellach was the 
first bishop, and he was succeeded by ten Culdee bishops, 
the last being the second Fothad or Modath, who per- 
formed the ecclesiastical rites at the marriage of Malcolm 
Ceannmor and Margaret. The next three bishops all 
died before consecration, and for about 16 years after 
the death of Malcolm the bishopric appears to have been 
vacant. The thirteenth bishop was Turgot, Queen Mar- 
garet's confessor, who ruled fisom 1109 to 1115 — the first 
bishop not of native birth — during whose episcopate the 
Culdee influence began to decline. At some period prior 
to 1107 the Culdee community had split up into two 
sections, each of which carried with it a portion of the 
spiritualities and temporalities which we may reason- 
ably conceive had been originally combined. On the 
one side were a prior and twelve brethren representing the 
old foundation, and as clerical vicars performing divine 
service, and holding part of the estates as well as receiv- 
ing the minor dues ; the other party consisted of the 
bishop and the representatives of the abbot and other 
greater officers, secularised, yet enjoying another por- 
tion of the estates and the greater ecclesiastical dues. 
The appropriation of church revenues by secular officials 
began early in the 12th century to be regarded as a 
scandal, and a further blow was dealt at the practice in 
the time of the seventeenth bishop, Robert (1121-59), 
by the establishment in 1144 of a body of canons 
regular, to whom was granted the hospital as well as 
a large amount of other ecclesiastical property, and thus 
' there were now two rival ecclesiastical bodies in exist- 
ence at St Andrews — one, the old corporation of secular 
priests, who were completely thrown into the shade, 


and shorn of many of their privileges and possessions ; 
and the other, that of the regular canons, who virtually 
represented the secularised portion of the old institu- 
tion, and entered on the enjoyment of their estates. 
But this rivalry or co-existence was very distasteful to 
the chief authorities, both lay and ecclesiastical, as soon 
became manifest. ' Immediately upon the foundation of 
St Andrews, King David, as he did also in the case 
of Lochleven, made an ordinance that the prior and 
canons should receive into incorporation with them 
the Keledei of Kilriniont, who were to become canons 
provided they would conform to canonical rule. If 
they refused they were to be merely liferented in their 
possessions, and as they died out regular canons were 
to be appointed in their room. The influence of 
the Culdees was, however, strong, for, notwithstanding 
this edict, Malcolm IV. confirmed them in their posses- 
sions in 1160, and though every pope from 1147 to 1248 
issued an injunction that from the time of his edict 
vacant places should be filled by regular canons, it 
seems never to have been possible to enforce the order. 
In 1199 they had a quarrel with the regular prior, and 
compromised matters by giving up their rights as to 
dues, while they were allowed to hold the tithes of then- 
own lands. They clung to their prescriptive right to 
take part in the election of a bishop, down to 1273, when 
they were excluded under protest, and in 1332 they 
were absolutely excluded, and seem to have abandoned 
their claim. They, however, retained possession of 
their lands in the Cursus Apri, and although the name 
of Culdee does not appear after the early part of the 
14th century, the institution remained under the names 
of ' Praepositura ecclesise beata; Marise civitatis Sancti 
Andreaa,' the 'ecclesia beata? Marise de Rupe,' and 'the 
Provostry of Kirkheugh ' till the Reformation, when 
the provostry became vested in the Crown, and in 1616 
it was annexed to the see of St Andrews (see Dr Reeves' 
Culdees). What was the size of the bishopric as origin- 
ally established is not known, but in the time of Mal- 
colm IV. it embraced the counties of Fife, Kinross, and 
Clackmannan, the three Lothians, Berwickshire, Rox- 
burghshire, and parts of Perthshire, Forfarshire, and 
Kincardineshire, and though it was afterwards lessened 
by the erection of new sees, the extent and importance 
of St Andrews always remained very great, and at the 
Reformation the archbishop held the patronage of 131 
beneficies, and administered the affairs of 245 parishes, 
the diocese being divided into 2 archdeaconries and 9 
rural deaneries. The benefactions of some of the 
bishops are subsequently noticed. The last bishop was 
James Kennedy (1440-66) — the thirty-sixth from Cel- 
lach — his successor, Patrick Graham (1466-78), having 
obtained from Pope Sixtus IV. a bull erecting the see 
into an archbishopric. The document is lost, and the 
exact date is not known, but it seems to have been 
issued in 1471 or 1472. The bishop of York had origin- 
ally the supervision of the portion of the kingdom of 
Northumbria, along the S side of the Firth of Forth, 
and, after the introduction of the line of bishops of 
English birth beginning with Turgot, he repeatedly 
claimed the bishop of St Andrews as his suffragan, 
and though the claim was always indignantly set 
aside by the Scottish authorities, it was revived from 
time to time down to this period, when St Andrews be- 
came the metropolitan see of Scotland, the suffragans 
being the bishops of Dunkeld, Dunblane, Brechin, Aber- 
deen, Moray, Ross, Caithness, and Orkney. Poor 
Graham did not, however, long enjoy his new dignity, 
for the jealousies and quarrels in which his elevation 
involved him seem to have driven him mad, and after a 
formal trial in 1477 he was early in 1478 deposed by a 
bull of Pope Sixtus IV. and imprisoned first at Inch- 
colm and afterwards in the priory at Lochleven. In- 
cluding Graham there were eight Roman Catholic 
archbishops — the most famous being James Beaton ( 1 522- 
39) and his nephew Cardinal Beaton (1539-46), and the 
last John Hamilton who was executed on a charge 
of treason in 1571. The bishops and archbishops were 
lords of regality and ultimate heirs of all confiscated 


property within their domains ; they levied customs ; 
and they seem also to have had, at times at all events, 
the power of coining money. The archbishops also pre- 
sided at synods, controlled the appointment of abbots 
and priors, were included with the king in the oath of 
allegiance, and took precedence next after the royal 
family, and before all Scottish noblemen whatever. 
After the Reformation there were three Tulchan bishops, 
the last of whom, George Gladstanes, had also from 
1610 till his death in 1615 some real ecclesiastical 
functions. He was succeeded by the well-known John 
Spotiswoode (1615-39), after whose time there was no 
archbishop till James Sharpe (1661-79), who was assas- 
sinated at Magus Muir, and who was succeeded by 
Alexander Burnet (1679-84). Burnet was succeeded by 
Arthur Ross (16S4-SS), who was the last of the arch- 
bishops till the re-establishment of the titular dignity 
by the Roman Catholic Church in 1878. The modern 
bishopric in connection with the Episcopal Church was 
originally constituted in 1720 as a bishopric of Dnnkeld, 
Dunblane, and Fife, but this title was, at the synod 
held at Aberdeen in 1844, exchanged for that of Bishop 
of St Andrews, Dunkeld, and Dunblane. This see has 
been already noticed. 

The town, which has been the scene of some of the 
most memorable events recorded in Scottish history, is 
of great antiquity, and must indeed have originated 
soon after the first settlement of the churchmen. The 
great creator of royal burghs, David I., granted it a 
charter about 1140, the first provost being a Fleming 
called Maynard ; but the oldest charter existing is a con- 
firmation by Malcolm IV. 'to the burgesses of the 
bishop of St Andrews of all the liberties and privileges 
which my burgesses have in common over the whole of 
my dominions, and at whatever parts they may land.' 
This grant of free trade led in 1369 and the following 
years to a long dispute with the burgesses of Cupar- 
Fife, who had just obtained a charter from David II., 
and who wished to prevent the citizens of St Andrews 
from trading within the bounds of Cupar without pay- 
ment of customs, but the dispute was settled by parlia- 
ment in favour of St Andrews. In 1408 John Reseby, 
an Englishman, was burned alive on a charge of heresy, 
his chief offence seemingly being his upholding the 
doctrines set forth by Wyclif ; and here also perished 
in 1432 Paul Crawar or Craw, a German physician, 
accused of propagating the doctrines preached by Huss 
and Jerome of Prague ; and in 1527 Patrick Hamilton, 
lay Abbot of Feahn, suffered the same fate. He was a 
young man of great accomplishments and of powerful 
family, as he was the son of Sir Patrick Hamilton of Kin- 
cavel, and Catherine, daughter of the Duke of Albany, 
and a nephew of the Earl of Arran ; but this did not 
save him from Archbishop James Beaton and his court, 
who, having 'founde the same Mr Patrike many wayes in- 
famed wyth heresie, disputing, holding and niaintaynvng 
divers heresies of Martin Luther and hys folowers, repug- 
nant to our fayth,' therefore declared 'the sayde Mr Pat- 
rick Hameltone, for his affirniyng, confessing, and main- 
tayning of the foresayd heresies, and his pertinacitie 
(they being condemned already by the Church, general 
Councels, ^ and most famous Universities), to be an 
hereticke/ and so handed him over to the secular power 
to be punished, and he was burned in the open space 
in front of St Salvator's Church. Within a few years 
this execution was followed by that of a young Bene- 
dictine named Henry Forrest, who, for the heresy of 
declaring that Patrick Hamilton had been put to death 
unjustly, was burned 'at the North Church stile of the 
Abbey Church of St Andrews, to the intent that all the 
people of Angus might see the fire, and so might be the 
more feared from falling into the like doctrine.' 

In 153S King James V. came here to receive Mary of 
Guise, who, says Pitscottie, ' landed in Scotland, at the 
place called Fyfeness, near Balcomy, where she re- 
mained till horse came to her. But the king was in St 
Andrews, with many of his nobility, waiting upon her 
home-coming. Then he, seeing that she was landed in 
such a part, rode forth himself to meet her, with the 


whole lords, spiritual and temporal, with many barons, 
lairds, and gentlemen, who were convened for the time 
at St Andrews in their best array ; and received the 
queen with great honours and plays made to her. And 
first, she was received at the new Abbey-gate, upon the 
east side whereof there was made to her a triumphant 
arch, by Sir David Lindsay of the Mont, lyon-herald, 
which caused a great cloud come out of the heavens 
above the gate, and open instantly ; and there appeared 
a fair lady most like an angel, having the keys of Scot- 
land in her hands, and delivered them to the queen, in 
sign and token that all the hearts of Scotland were 
open to receive her grace ; with certain orations and ex- 
hortations made by the said Sir David Lindsay to the 
queen, instructing her to serve her God, obey her hus- 
band, and keep her body clean, according to God's will 
and commandments. This being done, the queen was 
received unto her palace, which was called The New 
Inns, which was well decored against her coming. 
Also the bishops, abbots, priors, monks, friers, and 
canons regular, made great solemnity in the kirk, with 
masses, songs, and playing of the organs. The king 
received the queen in his palace to dinner, where was 
great mirth all day till time of supper. On the morn, 
the queen past through the town, she saw the Black- 
friers, the Gray-friers, the old college and the new 
college, and St Leonards ; she saw the provost of the 
town and honest burgesses : But when the queen came 
to her palace, and met with the king, she confessed unto 
him, she never saw in France, nor no other country, so 
many good faces in so little room, as she saw tb.p.t day in 
Scotland : For she said it was shewn unto her in France, 
that Scotland was but a barbarous country, destitute 
and void of all good commodities that used to be in other 
countries ; but now she confessed she saw the contrary : 
For she never saw so many fair personages of men, 
women, young babes and children, as she saw that 
day ; ' and so ' the king remained in St Andrews the 
space of forty days, with great merriness and game, as 
justing, running at the lists, archery, hunting, hawk- 
ing, with singing and dancing in maskery, and playing, 
and all other princely game, according to a king and a 

After the appointment of Cardinal Beaton to the 
archbishopric the city was in 1545 the scene of the 
martyrdom of George Wishart, who was burned in front 
of the Castle for heresy, an execution that led to the 
speedy death of the Cardinal himself in the following 
year, when he was murdered by a number of Wishart's 
friends. Norman Leslie, eldest son of the Earl of 
Rothes, his uncle John Leslie, Kircaldy of Grange, and 
others, having, with a small body of followers, obtained 
admission to the Castle early in the morning, when the 
drawbridge was lowered to admit some workmen, made 
themselves quietly and in a very short time masters of 
the building, and having succeeded afterwards in forc- 
ing their way into the Cardinal's chamber, they put 
him to death with their swords and daggers, one of their 
number telling him, ere he stabbed him, that the blow 
he was about to deal was not the mercenary one ' of a 
hired assassin, but the just vengeance which hath fallen 
on an obstinate and cruel enemy of Christ and the holy 
Gospel.' The workmen and servants who had been 
driven out of the Castle had meanwhile raised the 
alarm in the town, and ' the provest assembles the eom- 
munitie, and cumis to the fowseis syd, crying, ' ' What 
have ye done with my lord cardinall ? Whare is my 
lord cardinall ? Have ye slayne my lord cardinall ? 
Lett us see my lord cardinall ! " Thei that war within 
answered gentilye — "Best it war unto yow to returne 
to your awin houssis ; for the man ye call the cardinall 
has receaved his reward, and in his awin persone will 
truble the warld no more." But then more enraigedlye 
thei cry, " We shall never departe till that we see him." 
And so was he brought to the east blokhouse head and 
schawen dead ower the wall to the faythless multitude, 
which wold not believe befoir it saw : How miserably 
lay David Betoun, cairfull cardinall. And so thei 
departed, without Requiem cetemam, and Mequiescat in 



pace song for his saule.' The hody lay for a time, 
as is noticed under the Castle, at the bottom of a vault 
in the sea-tower, but was ultimately buried either at 
Kilrenny or in the churchyard of the Blackfriars 
monastery. The band of conspirators numbered at first 
only sixteen, but others soon gathered to them, and so 
strong was their position, that they held out for four- 
teen months against the royal forces, but were at last 
compelled to surrender by a French force which as- 
sailed the Castle by land and sea, and battered it with 
cannon placed on the tops of the town steeples ; and 
so ' at last they concluded that they would give it 
over to the King of France's will, as they did. Then 
the Frenchmen entered the castle, and spoiled very 
rigorously, where they got both gold, silver, clothing, 
bedding, meat and drink, with all weapons, artillery, 
and victuals, and all other plenishing, pertaining to the 
said castle, and left nothing behind them that they 
might get carried away in their galleys ; and took all 
the captains and keepers of the said castle as prisoners, 
and had them away to the king of France.' In April 
1558 Walter Mill, parish priest of Lunan, a decrepit old 
man of over 80 years of age, was burnt for heresy in front 
of the main gate of the Priory, but so strongly was the 
popular resentment expressed on the occasion, that he 
was the last of the Reformation martyrs. One of the 
garrison that had defended the Castle was John Knox, 
who was carried off to France with the others and con- 
demned to service in the galleys, but who was destined 
to return in triumph in 1559, when, meeting the Earl of 
Argyll and Lord James Stewart, by appointment, at St 
Andrews, he preached there in spite of the threats of 
the bishop, who had sent word ' to him that if he 
appeared in the pulpit he would give orders to the 
soldiers to fire upon him.' His sermons, at this 
time, on the 14th of June and the three following 
days, led up to the popular outbreaks that made the 
Lords of the Congregation masters of the whole king- 
dom. Queen Mary was at St Andrews in 1563 and in 
1564, and it was on the former occasion that Chatelar 
was here tried and executed for the crime of forcing his 
way into the queen's apartment while she was resting 
at Burntisland for a night. In 1583 James VI. having 
obtained permission from the Earls of Mar, Gowrie, Glen- 
cairn, and others, into whose hands he had fallen at the 
Raid of Ruthven, to visit his uncle the Earl of March, 
who was living at the Priory of St Andrews, entered the 
Castle and caused the governor immediately to shut the 
gates and refuse admission to the adherents of Gowrie, 
who had accompanied him from Falkland. When he 
had thus gained his liberty he soon gathered a body of 
nobles about him and issued a proclamation ' command- 
ing all the lieges to remain quiet, and discharging any 
noblemen or gentlemen from coming to court accom- 
panied by more than the following number of attend- 
ants : viz., fifteen for an earl, fifteen for a bishop, ten 
for a lord, ten for an abbot or prior, and six for a baron, 
and these to come peaceably under the highest penalties. ' 
Whether it was from this circumstance or from its being 
a seat of learning, certain it is that James retained a 
strong liking for St Andrews, and visited it often while 
he remained in Scotland ; and when, in 1617, he revisited 
his native country with ' a salmon-like instinct to see 
the place of his breeding,' he convened an assembly of 
the clergy at St Andrews, and addressed them in a speech 
of considerable length, in which he proposed the intro- 
duction of Episcopacy, and upbraided them with what 
he called ' having mutinously assembled themselves and 
formed a protestation to cross his just desires.' In 
1586 and again in 1605 there was a violent outbreak of 
plague in the city, and in 1609 it was the scene of the 
trial of Lord Balmerinoch, one of the Secretaries of 
State, who, being found guilty of having surreptitiously 
procured the king's signature to a letter addressed to the 
pope, was sentenced to have his hands and feet cut off, 
and his lands and titles forfeited, but the first part of 
the sentence was remitted. In 1650 Charles II. visited 
St Andrews, and was received at the West Port by the 
provost and magistrates, who presented him with silver 


keys ; and afterwards Dr Samuel Rutherford made him 
a long address in front of St Mary's College. During- 
the subsequent troubles the importance of the town 
rapidly diminished, and its affairs had become so bad by 
1655, that in that year the council humbly represented 
to General Monk, Commander-in-chief in Scotland, that 
in consequence of the total failure of trade the town was 
utterly unable to pay the assessment of £43 imposed by 
him. So far had this process of decay gone in 1697 
that a proposal was made to remove the university to 
Perth, some of the reasons given being that the 'place 
being now only a village, where most part farmers dwell, 
the whole streets are filled with dunghills, which are 
exceedingly noisome and ready to infect the air, especi- 
ally at this season (September) when the herring guts 
are exposed in them, or rather in all corners of the town 
by themselves ; and the season of the year apt to breed 
infection, which partly may be said to have been the 
occasion of last year's dysentire, and which from its be- 
ginning here, raged through most part of the kingdom.' 

From this time its deserted condition became still 
worse, till by 1830 it had become, as has been already 
described, little more than a country village, with but 
the spacious streets and fine ruins to serve as marks 
of its former grandeur, a state from which it was 
revived by the vigorous exertions of Sir Hugh Lyon 
Playfair. It was then quite neglected by tourists, 
and deemed too secluded and bleak to be thought of 
as a watering-place, but by 1855 there was such a 
change, that on the 1st January of that year Provost 
Playfair was able to tell the citizens that ' In conse- 
quence of the cleanliness of the streets and the taste 
displayed in ornamenting the houses, the fame of St 
Andrews has spread abroad. This well-deserved celebrity 
is rapidly extending. Strangers from every quarter are 
induced to reside amongst us. ' This progress was greatly 
aided by the opening of the railway in 1853, and now 
what Lord Teignmouth desiderated, viz., that it should 
be visited by strangers in some due proportion to ' its 
own picturesque situation, the extent, diversity, and 
grandeur of the remains of its ancient secular, and 
ecclesiastical establishments, the importance of the 
events which they attest, and the celebrity which it has 
derived from the records of historians, and the descrip- 
tions of topographical writers ' — has more than come to 
pass, and though the ancient university is not in such a 
flourishing state as might be wished, the town has 
become one of the most fashionable summer resorts on 
the E coast of Scotland, ' the season ' lasting from June 
to October. The great summer amusement is golf, the 
practice of which has been much encouraged everywhere 
by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, 
established in 1754 by a body of 22 gentlemen, headed 
by the Earls of Elgin and Wemyss. The club holds 
two great meetings annually, one in May and the other 
in October, at which various medals are competed for, 
among them being the highest honour of the year — the 
gold medal presented by King William IV. in 1S37 — 
the contest for which takes place in October. The 
captain for the year wears a gold medal gifted by Queen 
Adelaide in 1838. 

Antiquities, etc. — The ruins of the cathedral are close 
to the shore, at the E end of the town, between the 
point where the three main streets branch off westward 
and the harbour. The first building was begun by 
Bishop Arnold (1159-62) in 1159, but was not finished 
till the time of Bishop Lamberton (1297-1328) in 1318, 
the work having been earned on by eleven successive 
bishops. During its progress in 1276 the eastern end 
was greatly injured during a violent tempest, and in 
1378, only sixty years after completion, the roofs of the 
choir, east aisle, and transepts, and part of the great 
central tower, were much damaged or totally destroyed 
by an accidental fire said to have been caused by a jack 
daw carrying a lighted brand to its nest about the roof 
of the cathedral. The restoration was begun at once by 
Bishop William Landel (1341-85), and completed in the 
time of Bishop Henry Wardlaw (1404-40), who in 1430 
greatly improved the interior by laying fine pavements 


in the choir, transepts, and nave, and also filled in the 
windows of the nave with stained glass, and formed a 
large window in the eastern gable. From about 1440 
the building remained in all its grandeur till 1559, 
when it was destroyed by a ' rascal multitude ' of 
Reformers, who had been urged on to their work of 
destruction by four successive days of the fiery eloquence 
of John Knox in those famous sermons against idolatry, 
wherein he ' did intreet [treat of] the ejectioune of the 
buyers and the sellers furthe of the temple of Jerusalem, 
as it is written in the evangelists Matthew and John ; 
and so applied the corruptioune that was then to the 
corruptioune in the papistrie ; and Christ's fact to the 
devote [duty] of thois to quhome God giveth the power 
and zeill thereto, that as weill the magistrates, the 
proveist and baillies, as the commonalty, did agree to 
remove all monuments of idolatrie, quhilk also they did 
with expeditioune, ' with such expedition indeed that in 
a single day the magnificent building which had cost so 
many years of labour and so much toil and thought 
was utterly ruined amid 

' Steir, strabush and strife 

Whan, bickerin' frae the towns o' Fife, 
Great bangs of bodies, thick and rife 

Gaed to Sanct Androis town, 
And, \vi' John Cahin i' their heads, 
And hammers i' their hands, and spades, 
Enrag'd at idols, mass, and beads, 

Dang the Cathedral down.' 

From this time the ruins were used as a convenient 
storehouse of building materials, whence every man 
' carried away stones who imagined he had need of 
them,' down till 1826, when the Barons of the Ex- 
chequer took possession of what remained, and clearing 
away the debris exposed the bases of the pillars, and did 
whatever else they could to conserve the ruins. The 
total length inside has been 350 feet, the width across 
the nave and choir 62 feet, and the width across the 
transepts 160 feet. The nave and choir had lateral aisles, 
and the transept an aisle on the E side, while at the 
extreme E end was a projecting lady chapel about 33 
feet square. ' All that remains of the edifice is the east 
gable part of the west front, the wall on the south side 
of the nave, and that of the west side of the south tran- 
sept. In this last may still be seen the remains of some 
interlaced arches, and the ruins of the steps by which 
the canons descended from the dormitory to the church 
to perform their midnight services. The standing walls 
contain thirteen windows, of which the six nearest the 
west have pointed arches with single mullions, and the 
remaining seven semi-circular arches. This transition 
from the latter style to the former took place in the 
13th century, just at the time when we know the church 
was about one-half completed. The great central tower 
was built on four massive piers, the bases of which may 
still he seen at the intersection of the nave with the 
transepts, though of the precise form of the tower we 
have no account. The bases of a few of the pillars also 
exist ; those of the nave being oblong, unequally-sided 
octagons seven feet by six, while those in the choir are 
circular and beautifully clustered, five feet and three- 
fourths in diameter. The east gable consists of three 
very ancient oblong windows, with semicircular arches 
and a large window above them. These are situated 
between two turrets which terminate in octagonal pin- 
nacles. In these turrets are yet seen the terminations 
of the three rows of galleries, one above the other, 
which, when entire, ran round the whole clerestory, 
passing in some places within the thickness of the walls, 
and in other places opening by arcades into the interior 
of the church. The west front consists of a pointed 
arched gateway, ornamented with rich mouldings. Im- 
mediately above it were two windows, of which only one 
is entire ; and above these again there appear to have 
been two arches of somewhat larger dimensions. Only 
one of the turrets of the west front is standing ; it is of 
delicate and elegant workmanship, and terminates in 
an octagonal lantern pinnacle. There is no appearance 
of buttresses in any part of the ruins except at the 


north-east angle of the Lady Chapel, where there is tho 
base of a very substantial one. There was, doubtless, 
another at the corresponding south-east angle.' The 
wall near the S transept, with a number of stone seats, 
formed part of the chapter-house. At the opening 
between the cloister and the chapter-house is a richly- 
carved gateway. The bells from the various turrets are 
said to have been sent away by sea to be sold, but the 
ship on board which they were sank in St Andrews Bay. 
The architecture is partly Norman, partly Early Eng- 
lish. Near the site of the high altar is a large, flat, 
blue stone, probably marking the burial-place of one or 
more of the bishops. In the churchyard around are a 
number of interesting tombstones. On that of the 
celebrated Dr Samuel Rutherford the following verses 
are added after the epitaph : — 

' What tongue, what pen or skill of men 
Can famous Rutherfoord commend, 
His learning justly raised his fame, 
True godliness adorned his name. 
He did converse with things above. 
Acquainted with Emanuel's love ; 
Most orthodox he was and sound. 
And many errors did confound, 
For Zion's King and Zion's cause, 
And Scotland's covenanted laws 
Most constantly he did commend, 
Untill his time was at an end, 
Then he wan to the full fruition 
Of that which he had seen in vision.' 

On an old tablet on which is a rude carving of two 
figures with joined hands, and an inscription in 
memory of ' Christiane Bryd, spous to James Car- 
stairs, Baillie of St Andrews, ' is a line with the curious 
play upon words 'Yet rede my name, for Christ-ane 
Bry de am I. ' Among more recent monuments may be 
noticed a finely executed female figure looking up to a 
cross. It was designed and cut by Mr Hutchison, 
R.S.A., in 1881. 

About 120 feet SE of the E end of the cathedral is the 
unique little Romanesque church of St Regulus or St 
Rule, with its lofty square tower. It probably occupies 
the site of the older Culdee cell, and was used by the 
Roman party as the church before the erection of the 
cathedral. The greater portion of it has in some 
mysterious way been preserved from the destruction 
that has befallen the surrounding buildings. What 
now remains consists of a square tower 112 feet high 
and 20 feet 8 inches broad at the base. The choir is 31 
feet 8 inches long and 25 feet broad ; the height from 
the floor to the top of the side walls is 29 feet 7 inches, 
and to the apex of the original high-pointed roof, as 
shown by the mark on the tower wall, is 55 feet 5 inches. 
Marks of three successive roofs may be seen on the tower 
wall. The arches are round-headed and very plain, the 
tops of the narrow windows being carved out of one 
slab. The chancel arch, and indeed all the proportions 
of the building are highly remarkable for the great 
height in proportion to width. Whether there ever 
was a nave is doubtful, as no remains of one have ever 
been discovered, but on the other hand, some of the 
early seals represent a church — sometimes presumed to 
be this one — with a central square tower and nave and 
choir. The masonry is good and substantial, and the 
stone of such excellent quality that the walls do not 
look so much weatherworn as those of the cathedral, 
though they must be much older. The exact date of 
the structure can be only vaguely assigned to the 10th, 
11th, or 12th centuries, most probably the beginning of 
the latter, if we are to identify it with the church 
erected by Bishop Robert (1126-58) in 1144. It is just 
possible, however, that the tower may he older, and be 
akin to the round towers of Abernethy and Brechin, and 
like them intended as a place of security. If this be so, 
it was probably erected by the devotees of the Celtic 
Church, but Bishop Robert, finding it suited for his 
purpose, added to it the little church he erected here 
on the introduction of the canons-regular in 1144, after 
cutting openings in the E and W walls to provide access 
to the nave and choir. The St Andrews sculptured 
stones and the famous sarcophagus were found near this 



tower. There was originally no stair or trace of stair in 
it, but the present one was introduced in 1789 when the 
rubbish about the building was cleared away and the 
walls repaired at the expense of the Exchequer. Further 
repairs were executed in 1841. There is an excellent 
view from the top of the tower. St Rule's cave is 
subsequently noticed, and both cave and church were 
long much resorted to by pilgrims as sung by Scott in 
Marmion — 

1 But I have solemn vows to pay, 
And may not linger by the way, 

To fair St Andrews bound, 
Within the ocean-cave to pray, 
Where good Saint Rule his holy lay, 
From midnight to the dawn of day 

Sung to the billows' sound.' 

A very old chapel, possibly the first one erected by 
the Culdees, and known as the Church of St Mary on 
the Rock, is said to have stood on the Lady's Craig, a 
reef near the pier, but no trace of it now remains. 
Another chapel, also dedicated to the Virgin, stood 
on the Kirk Heugh, immediately W of the harbour, and 
was known as the Chapel of the King of Scotland on the 
Hill, whence, according to some, the early name of the 
place — Kilrimonth. All traces of it were for a long time 
lost, but in 1860 the foundations were discovered, and 
show it to have been, in its later form at anyrate, a 
cruciform structure 99 feet long, 20 feet wide across the 
nave, and 84 feet wide across the transepts. 

The Priory or Augustinian Monastery, to the S of 
the cathedral, founded by Bishop Robert (1126-58) in 
1144, and one of the finest structures of the class in 
Europe, has now almost disappeared. The precinct, 
comprising about 20 acres, was enclosed about 1516 by 
Prior John Hepburn (1482-1522), by a magnificent 
wall, which, starting at the NE corner of the cathedral, 
passed round by the harbour and along behind the 
houses, till it joined the walls of St Leonard's College 
on the SW. This, about a mile in extent, is all that 
now remains, but it must at one time have passed back 
from the college to the cathedral. The wall is 20 feet 
high and 4 thick, and has 13 turrets, each of them 
with canopied niches for an image. The portion 
towards the shore has a parapet on each side, as if 
designed for a walk. There were 3 gateways, of the chief 
of which, now called the Pends, on the SW, con- 
siderable ruins still remain. These consist of walls 77 
feet long by 16 broad, with a pointed arch at each end, 
and marks of 3 intermediate groins. One of the other 
gateways is near the harbour, and the third on the S 
side. Martine, the secretary of Archbishop Sharpe, 
who wrote in 1683, though his account was not 
published till 1797, mentions in his Ecliquice Divi Andrew 
that in his time 14 buildings were discernible besides 
the cathedral and St Rule's Chapel. Among these the 
chief were the Prior's House or the Old Inn, to the 
SE of the cathedral, of which only a few vaults now 
remain ; the cloisters, W of this house, now the garden 
of a private house, in the quadrangle of which the 
Senzie Fair used to be held, beginning in the second 
week of Easter, and continuing for 15 days ; the Senzie 
House or house of the sub-prior, subsequently used as 
an inn, but now pulled down and the site occupied by a 
private house ; the refectory, on the S side of the 
cloister, which has now disappeared ; the dormitory, 
between the prior's house and the cloister, from which, 
as Fordun relates, Edward I. carried off all the lead to 
supply his battering machines at the siege of Stirling, 
now also gone ; the Guest Hall, within the precinct of 
St Leonard's College, SW of Pends Lane ; the Tiends' 
Barn, Abbey Mill, and Granary, all to the SW ; and the 
New Inn, the latest of all the buildings of the 
monastery, erected for the reception of Magdalene, the 
first wife of James V. The young queen, who was of 
delicate constitution, was advised by her physicians to 
reside here, and the New Inn was built for her accom- 
modation in, it is said, a single month. The queen, 
however, did not live to occupy the house, as she 
died on the 7th of July 1537, six weeks after her arrival 


in Scotland. It was, however, for a short time the 
residence of Mary of Guise, when she first arrived in 
Scotland, and after the priory was annexed to the 
archbishopric in 1635, the building became the residence 
of the later archbishops. The prior had superiority 
over the priories of Pittenweem, Lochleven, Monymusk, 
and the Isle of May, and was also a lord of regality. 
As a baron, he took precedence in parliament of all 
priors, and he, his sub-prior, and his canons formed 
the chapter of the cathedral. From 1144 to 1535 there 
were 25 priors ; from 1535 to 1586 the lands were in 
possession of the Earl of Murray and Robert Stewart, 
the latter entirely and the former most of the time 
being merely lay commendators ; from 1586 to 1606 
they were held by the Crown ; from 1606 to 1635 by 
the Duke of Lennox ; from 1635 to 1639 by the 
Archbishop of St Andrews ; from 1639 till 1661 by the 
University ; from 1661 till 1688 by the archbishops 
again ; and from 1688 by the Crown. The part within 
the abbey wall was sold by the Commissioners of Woods 
and Forests to the United College for £2600, the inten- 
tion being to convert them into a botanical garden, but 
the design has never been carried out. 

A Dominican Monastery, which stood on the S side 
of South Street, near the West Port, was founded in 
1274, by Bishop Wishart (1273-79), and was governed 
by a prior, who was not subject to the Episcopal con- 
trol. The site and the adjacent ground passed at the 
Reformation to Lord Seton, and was subsequently made 
over to the town council as a site for a grammar school, 
and passed thereafter into the hands of Dr Bell's 
trustees. The ruin of the N transept of the chapel 
still stands on the street line, in front of Madras 
College. An Observantine or Greyfriars' Monastery, 
which stood immediately N of the West Port, at the 
W end of Market Street, was founded about 1450 by 
Bishop Kennedy (1440-66), and was completed in 1478 
by Archbishop Graham (1466-78). It was governed by 
a warden, but the buildings, partially destroyed at the 
Reformation, have entirely disappeared. The grounds 
belonging to it were granted to the town council by 
Queen Mary. 

The ruins of the Castle stand on a rocky promontory 
overhanging the sea, NNW of the cathedral. The 
original building is said, on the authority of Martine, 
to have been erected by Bishop Roger (1188-1202) as an 
Episcopal residence, the bishops having previously 
lived in the Culdee monastery at Kirkheugh, or in the 
Priory. From the first it seems to have been a place of 
military importance, and when in 1332 the discon- 
tented Scottish barons, with Edward Baliol at their 
head, landed in Fife, the Castle fell into their hands, and 
was held by them till 1336, when it was recovered for 
David II. by Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell, who dis- 
mantled it. About 1390 a new building was erected 
by Bishop Trail (1385-1401), and in 1402 the Duke of 
Rothesay set out to make an attempt to seize it, but 
was stopped by Albany at Strathtyrum and carried off 
to die at Falkland. It is sometimes stated that he was 
confined here for a short time, but there seems to be no 
foundation for the assertion. James III. seems to 
have been born here, for in the ' Golden Charter ' 
James II. speaks of the ' birth of his first-born 
son in the chief mansion of the city of the blessed 
Andrew.' In 1514, during a dispute about the 
succession to the archbishopric vacant by the death 
of Archbishop Stewart (1509-13), the Douglases seized, 
and for a short time held, the Castle on behalf 
of Bishop Gavin Douglas, who was one of the candidates, 
but they were driven out by Prior John Hepburn as 
vicar-general for the time. In 1526 Archbishop James 
Beaton (1522-39) sided with the Lennox faction against 
the Douglases, and so after the battle of Manuel, in 
which the latter party were victorious, they visited Fife 
and plundered the Castle, ' but he was, ' says Pitscottie, 
'keeping sheep in Balgrumo with shepherd's clothes 
on him like as he had been a shepherd himself. ' As, how- 
ever, he was ' a great man and had many casualties of 
tacks and tithes to be gotten at his hand,' the Douglases 


soon came to terms with him, and he returned to his see. 
He became involved in other plots later, and was for a 
short time, in 1533, imprisoned in his own castle, as 
was also his nephew and successor, Cardinal David 
Beaton (1539-46), in 1543 by Arran when regent ; 
though it is doubtful how far this latter imprison- 
ment was real. In 1546 the Cardinal was murdered 
here, as has been already noticed, by a party of 
the Reformers, who held the Castle till the following 
year, when it was captured by a body of French 
troops, an expedition sent by Henry VIII. to their 
assistance having arrived too late. Many of the 
defenders, John Knox among others, were carried off to 
France and sent to the galleys. There is a very pic- 
turesque account of the siege in Pitscottie's History. 
The Castle, which had been much injured, was 
repaired by Archbishop Hamilton (1549-71), and in 
1583 afforded refuge to James VI. till he freed 
himself from the power of the lords who had seized 
on his person in the Raid of Ruthven. In 1606 
the Castle was gifted to the Earl of Dunbar, but 
was restored to the archbishop (Gladstanes, 1610-15) 
about 1612, for in the following year, during a meeting 
of the bishops at St Andrews, they were entertained by 
Gladstanes in the Castle. After the battle of Philip- 
haugh a number of the prisoners were confined here, 
among others being Gordon of Haddo, Ogilvie of Inver- 
quharity, and Sir Robert Spotiswood, the first and last 
of whom, as well as some others of smaller note, were 
executed. After this time the building passed into the 
possession of the town council, who proved but sorry 
guardians, for in 1654 they ordered its ' sleatts and tim- 
mer ' to be used for the repair of the pier. The small por- 
tion that remains is now cared for by the Commissioners 
of Woods and Forests. The encroachments of the sea in 
its neighbourhood have been considerable, for Martine 
says that in his time there were people still living who 
remembered seeing bowls played on fiat ground to the 
E and N of the Castle where now there is none, and in 
1S01 a considerable portion of the seaward walls of the 
building itself were undermined and fell. In the centre 
of the grass-grown court-yard is a rock-cut well about 
50 feet deep, but the chief point of interest is the old 
bottle-shaped dungeon at the NW corner beneath the 
sea-tower. It is cut out of the solid rock, and is 7 feet 
in diameter at the top and 16 at the bottom, the depth 
being 18 feet. Many of the early Reformers with whose 
names St Andrews is associated are said — whether truly 
or not, none can tell — to have been confined in its dismal 
depths. It was also the original burial-place of Cardinal 
David Beaton after his murder in 1546. ' Now because 
the weather was hot,' says Knox, ' and his funerals could 
not suddenly be prepared, it was thought best ... to 
give him great salt enough, a cope of lead, and a nuke 
in the bottom of the Sea-Tower, a place where many of 
God's children had been imprisoned before, to await 
what exsequies his brethren the bishops would prepare 
for him.' The open ground in front of the Castle was 
the scene of George Wishart's martyrdom in 1546. 

Public Buildings, etc.— The town-house and tolbooth 
were long in the centre of Market Street, but they have, 
since 1S58-62, been superseded by the New Town Hall 
on the S side of South Street, at the corner of Queen 
Street. It is Scottish in style, and contains a council 
room, a police station, and public hall, with retiring 
rooms. The great hall is 75 feet long, 35 wide, and 24 
high, and has accommodation for 600 persons. The 
Town Church, or properly the Church of the Holy 
Trinity, on the N side of South Street, near the centre, 
was originally built in 1112 by Bishop Turgot, and sub- 
sequently by Bishop Bernham dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity. It had, in the palmy days of the Roman 
Catholic Church, thirty altarages, each with a separate 
priest and fifteen choristers ; and it was here that John 
Knox preached the sermon that led to the destruction 
of the Cathedral and the monastic buildings, as is after- 
wards noticed. The original building was a beautiful 
structure, partly Norman in style and partly First 
Pointed, but in the end of last century it underwent 


vigorous restoration of the only kind then known. The 
groined roofs were removed from the side aisles, and the 
outer walls raised nearly to the height of the original 
clerestory walls, the space so gained being utilised in 
the provision of galleries by which the church, which is 
162 feet long and 63 wide, was made capable of accom- 
modating 2500 people, and, architecturally, ruined for 
ever. In it is preserved a fine specimen of the old 
Scottish branks, usually called the Bishop's Branks, and 
said to have been fixed on the heads of Patrick Hamilton 
and others of the earlier Scottish martyrs when they 
were put to death. This tradition seems, however, to 
be untrue, and its present name may be traced to the 
fact that Archbishop Sharpe made use of it for silencing 
a woman who had promulgated scandal about him 
openly before the congregation. From the top of the 
steeple there is a good view. The pulpit was not occu- 
pied by an Episcopalian clergyman from the time of 
the Revolution in 1688 till 16 March 1884, when the 
Bishop of St Andrews (Dr Wordsworth) preached on 
behalf of the University Missionary Society. In the 
interior, to the right of the main entrance, is a monu- 
ment of black and white marble, erected in memory of 
Archbishop Sharpe, by his son, Sir William Sharpe of 
Scotscraig and Strathtyrum. Executed in Holland, it 
shows an angel about to place the crown of martyrdom 
on the archbishop's head. ; above is a bas-relief repre- 
senting him as propping up a falling church, while 
below another represents the murder. On an urn is a 
long Latin inscription of a most extravagant description, 
which describes the archbishop as 'a most pious prelate, 
a most prudent senator, and a most holy martyr,' and 
declares that Scotland 'saw, acknowledged, and ad- 
mired ' him ' as a chief minister of both her civil and 
ecclesiastical affairs ; ' Britain ' as the adviser of the 
restoration of Charles II. and of monarchy ; ' and the 
Christian world ' as the restorer of Episcopacy and good 
order in Scotland.' ' Whom all good and faithful sub- 
jects perceived to be a pattern of piety, an angel of 
peace, an oracle of wisdom, an example of dignity ; and 
all the enemies of God, of the King, and of the Church 
found the implacable foe of impiety, of treason, 
and of schism.' Sir William also gave a sum of 
money to be applied to the relief of the poor on con- 
dition that this monument was kept in good repair in 
all time coming, and in 1849-50 the parochial board 
expended about £130 in restoring it to good condition. 
At this time the vault was opened, but no remains of 
the archbishop could be found. His skull and bones were 
probably removed, either when the church was altered in 
1798, or in 1725 when the town council offered a reward 
of £10 sterling for the discovery of the person or per- 
sons who had entered the church and injured the monu- 
ment. Some of the communion plate was presented to 
the church by Archbishop Sharpe. St Mary's Church, 
near the W end of Market Street, built in 1840, and 
greatly improved in 1870, contains 560 sittings. It has a 
fine oak pulpit and several stained-glass windows, two of 
them having been introduced in memory of the Rev. Dr 
Robert Haldane, by whose exertions the church was 
erected, and who was its first minister. A previous 
church of St Mary, of ancient date, and sometimes called 
the Kirkheugh Church, has been already noticed. St 
Leonard's or College Church, afterwards noticed, contains 
396 sittings. A tall square tower somewhat resembling 
that at the cross of Glasgow rises at the W end of the 
church, and is surmounted by a stumpy octagonal spire. 
The Free church (Martyrs), on the opposite side of North 
Street, built in 1844, has a good front ; it contains 864 
sittings. The original U.P. church, built in North 
Street in 1S26, had 380 sittings, but the present build- 
ing with a spire in Market Street, built in 1865, has 
accommodation for 700. The Congregational chureh 
was originally a small building in Market Street, with 
320 sittings, but the present place of worship, with 360 
sittings, was erected in South Bell Street in 1856-58. 
The Baptist church in South Street, built in 1842, has 
250 sittings. The original Episcopal church (St 
Andrew), in North Street, to the E of the College Church, 



was erected in 1825 at a cost of £1400, and enlarged 
in 1853 so as to have 180 sittings, but it was superseded 
by the present building, erected in 1867-69, consecrated 
in 1878, and containing 530 sittings and a fine organ. 
Dr Kowand Anderson was the architect, and the style 
is that of the 13th century. Funds are now being 
raised for the completion of the tower and spire, whose 
height is to be 160 feet. The Gibson Memorial 
Hospital, founded and endowed by the late Mr William 
Gibson of Duloch, for the sick, aged, and infirm poor of 
the city and parish of St Andrews and of the parish of 
St Leonards, was erected in 1882-84 at a cost of £4000. 
The Recreation Hall with tennis courts, constructed at a 
cost of £2000 in 1883-84, contains the largest public 
hall in Fife, the room measuring 100 by 50 feet, and 
being about 30 feet high. In Market Street is a hand- 
some fountain, erected in 1880 in memory of Major 
Whyte Melville, the well-known novelist, and one of 
the four memorials of him instituted by his friends after 
his death, the others being a tombstone at Tetbury 
where he died, a monument in the Guards' Chapel, 
Wellington Barracks, London, and a sum forming the 
nucleus of an annuity fund in connection with the Hunt 
Servants' Benevolent Society. The fountain here, which 
cost about £800, is of red sandstone from Dumfriesshire, 
with steps, columns, and copings of Dalbeattie granite. 
The diameter is 14 feet, and the total height about the 
same. It rises in a series of three basins, and on the 
second, which is very elaborately carved, are four white 
marble medallions, one showing a bas-relief bust of 
Major Whyte Melville, executed by J. C. Boehm ; 
other two respectively, the family arms and the arms of 
the Coldstream Guards ; and the fourth the following 
inscription : — 

' This fountain is erected by many friends, rich and poor, to 
the beloved memory of George John Whyte Melville of Mount 
Melville, Bennochy, and Strathkinness ; born 19th July 1821 ; 
died 5th December 1S78, from an accident in the hunting-field 
near Tetbury, Gloucestershire. His writings delighted ; his con- 
versation charmed and instructed ; his life was an example to all 
who enjoyed his friendship, and who now mourn his uutimely 

Immediately to the W of the Castle is the ladies' 
bathing place, and about 150 yards farther W is the 
cave, or rather rock chamber, formerly known as St 
Rule's Cave, but now as Lady Buchan's, from having 
been fitted up by that eccentric person (the mother of 
Lord Chancellor Erskine), at the close of last century, 
for tea parties. It is much worn away. A hundred 
yards NW of the Castle are the public baths, and 
farther W still are the Witch Lake and the Witch Hill, 
where, if the witch escaped death by the water ordeal at 
the former, she suffered worse doom at the stake on the 
latter. St Andrews was long troubled with witches, 
and we find it stated that even such a grave man as the 
Earl of Murray repaired to St Andrews in 1569, ' quhair 
a notabill sorceres callit Nicniven was condemmit to 
the death and burnt.' Some have been inclined to 
believe that she is the same witch mentioned* in Law's 
Memorials as having been burnt in 1572, and that the 
regent of the time would therefore be Morton. The 
author of the Historic of King James the Sext, who tells 
the story, also adds that ' a Frenchman callit Paris, 
quia was ane of the designeris of the King's [Darnley's] 
death, was hangit in St Andro, and with him William 
Steward, lyoun king of armes, for divers pointes of 
witchcraft and necromancie ;' and again in 1588 Alison 
Pearson, in Byrehills, was convicted and burnt on her 
own confession. She seems to have been a ' wise 
woman,' and to have by means of her prescriptions 
cured Archbishop Adamson of an illness, which she was 
alleged to have transferred to a white pony, which died 
in consequence. Here, as elsewhere, a horrible form of 
death seemed to have no effect, for reputed witches 
continued to be found in Fife till the end of the 17th 

* She seems to have been a very bad specimen, for she is de- 
clared to have said openly that she cared not whether she went to 
heaven or hell ; but on a white cloth ' like a collore craig with 
stringis whairon was mony knottis,' being taken from her person, 
she gave way to despair, and exclaimed, ' Now I have no hoip of 



or the beginning of the 18th century, when the last 
one — a woman named Young, who lived in North Street 
— was burnt at the Witch Hill. Their fame, too, 
seems to have sometimes spread abroad, for in 1643 we 
find Spalding breaking off an account of the ' annoyans ' 
of the king's subjects over the Solemn League and 
Covenant to record that ' about this tyme many witches 
are takin inAnstruther, Dysert, Culross, Sanctandroiss, 
and sindrie uther pairtis in the cost syde of Fyf. Thay 
maid strange confessionis, and war brynt to the death. ' 
The bay, between the Witch Hill and the point called 
The Step, is now the gentlemen's bathing-place. To 
the W of this is the Bow Butts, a sort of natural 
amphitheatre, where the citizens used anciently to 
practice archery, and where, from 1681 to 1751, the 
members of an archers' club competed annually for the 
right of affixing a medal with the name of the best shot 
to a silver arrow. The practice of archery was revived 
in 1833, but did not prosper ; but now the pastime is 
carried on by many of the lady visitors. Immediately 
S of the Bow Butte is the Martyrs' Monument, erected 
in 1842-43 to commemorate the martyrs of the Scottish 
Reformation who suffered at St Andrews. It is an 
obelisk on a graduated base, and rises to a height of 45 
feet. Farther W is the Golf Club House, a plain 
square building of 1854, containing a principal room, a 
billiard room, a reading-room, dressing-rooms, and 
stewards' apartments ; and from the club-house the 
famous links extend north-north-westward to the mouth 
of the river Eden, a stretch of 1$ mile. They are 
simply sandy plains covered with coarse herbage and 
interspersed with bunkers and bent hills, but their now 
classic connection with the game of golf has been the 
making of modern St Andrews. They belong to the 
estate of Strathtyrum, but the community have the 
privilege in perpetuity of playing golf over them within 
certain marks, and they are kept in order by the Royal 
and Ancient Golf Club. There are nine holes out and 
nine in, the whole round being almost 3§ miles. The 
average number of strokes for very good players is from 
87 to 97. 

Uchicational Institutions. — The University of St 
Andrews is the oldest in Scotland, St Mary's College 
having been founded by Bishop Wardlaw (1403-40) in 
1411, and in 1413 a series of 6 Bulls were obtained 
from Pope Benedict XIII. sanctioning the foundation 
and constituting a Studium Generate or University, 
where instruction was to be given in theology, canon 
and civil law, medicine, and the liberal arts, and power 
was also granted to confer degrees. The classes, which 
were under the care of 21 doctors or lecturers, were at 
first scattered throughout the city, each teacher being 
in a separate room, but the bishop soon provided 
accommodation for them in a building called the 
Pedagogy, in South Street. Under the royal patronage 
of James I., who confirmed all the charters in 1432, the 
young seat of learning prospered ; and in the time of 
James II., in 1455, Bishop Kennedy (1440-66) founded 
and endowed a second college, which he dedicated to 
Christ, under the name of St Salvator. The foundation 
was confirmed by Pope Nicholas V. , and subsequently 
fresh privileges were granted to the college by Pope 
Pius II. in 1458, and Pope Paul II. in 1468, the latter 
granting power to confer degrees in theologv and arts. 
In 1512, Prior John Hepburn (1482-1522), in conjunc- 
tion with Archbishop Alexander Stewart (1506-13), 
founded St Leonard's College, and endowed it with the 
revenue of an hospital, originally founded for the 
maintenance of poor pilgrims who had come to visit the 
shrine of St Andrew ; and in 1537, Archbishop James 
Beaton (1523-39), with the approval of Pope Paul III., 
added to the endowments of the original Pedagogy, and 
erecting new buildings, dedicated the college to the 
Virgin Mary ; while, in 1553, Archbishop John Hamil- 
ton (1546-71) granted additional endowments and 
obtained a fresh Bull of confirmation from Pope Julius 
III. In 1580 Andrew Melvil was transferred from 
Glasgow to St Andrews as principal, and the whole 
arrangements of the colleges were remodelled, St Mary's 


being entirely set apart for the teaching of theology. ! 
The troubles of this and the following century greatly 
injured the university, and in 1697 a proposal was made 
that its seat should be transferred to Perth, some 
of the reasons given being that, at St Andrews, ' the 
climate is very severe ; that the town is out of the way ; 
that provisions are dear ; that the streets are foul and full 
of noisome pestilence ; that endemics and epidemics are 
common ; and finally that the town's-folk do not look 
favourably upon learning, and frequently mob the 
students.' The scheme was abandoned, but a suspicion, 
in 1718, that both students and professors were 
tainted with Jacobitism and leanings towards Episcopacy 
led to a visitation by royal commission, and made 
matters still worse. By 1747 the revenues of the 
colleges of St Leonard and St Salvator were so much 
diminished that in that year an act of parliament was 
obtained, providing for the union of the two institu- 
tions, and the restriction of their teaching to arts and 
medicine, while in St Mary's, theology alone was to be 
taught. This arrangement still holds good, and the 
University consists of the two corporations of the United 
College of St Salvator and St Leonard, with a principal 
aud 9 professors, distributed into a Faculty of Arts and 
a Faculty of Medicine ; and St Mary's College with a 
principal and 3 professors, forming a Faculty of 
Theology. In the Faculty of Arts the chairs, with the 
dates of foundation and patrons, are : — Greek (instituted 
at foundation of colleges ; University Court) ; Humanity 
(1620 ; Scot of Scotstarvit, Duke of Portland) ; Logic and 
Metaphysics (instituted at the foundation of the colleges ; 
University Court) ; Moral Philosophy (instituted at the 
foundation of the colleges ; University Court) ; Natural 
Philosophy (instituted at the foundation of the colleges ; 
University Court) ; Mathematics (1668 ; Crown). In the 
Faculties of Arts and Medicine both, is the Chair of Civil 
and Natural History, originally founded in 1747 as a 
chair of civil history only, but by an ordinance of the 
University Commission of 185S, the professorship is 
now practically devoted to Natural History, and falls 
under the Faculty of Medicine. The patron is the 
Marquess of Ailsa. In the Faculty of Medicine are the 
Chair's of Medicine and Anatomy (1721 ; University 
Court) ; Chemistry (1808, but no professor appointed 
till 1840, as the endowment did not become available 
till then ; the Earl of Leven). There is also a principal 
appointed, by the Crown, and apart from either faculty 
is the Chair of Education, founded by the Bell Trustees 
in 1876. In St Mary's, in the Faculty of Theology, are 
the Chairs of Systematic Theology (instituted at the 
foundation of the college, and held always by the 
principal ; the Crown) ; Divinity and Biblical Criticism 
(instituted at the foundation of the college ; the Crown) ; 
Divinity and Ecclesiastical History (suppressed for some 
time for want of funds, hut revived and endowed in 
1707 ; the Crown) ; Hebrew and Oriental Languages 
(suppressed for some time for want of funds, but revived 
in 1668, aud received additional endowment from 
William III. in 1693 ; the Crown). There is a parlia- 
mentary grant in aid of the professorial salaries of about 
£2200, but, beyond this and the class fees, the incomes 
are mostly dependant on land, and as the value of the 
college lands has been seriously affected by the present 
agricultural depression, the United College has for 
several years been labouring under monetary diffi- 
culties which have seriously affected the amount paid 
to the occupants of the several chairs. Connected with 
the University there are bursaries and fellowships worth 
nearly £4000 per annum, of which about £1300 are or 
may be shared with other Scottish universities. Of 
what belongs to St Andrews alone, £450 belongs to 8 
scholarships, all connected with the Faculty of Arts, and 
the rest is divided among 93 bursaries attached to the 
United College, varying in value from £5 to £50 per 
annum ; 22 bursaries shared partly with St Mary's 
College, varying in value from £14 to £30 ; and '19 
bursaries belonging to St Mary's alone, varying in 
value from £6 to £30. There are also a number of 
important prizes in books or money open to students 


in the different classes. The University corporation 
consists of the chancellor, rector, two principals, the 
professors, the graduates, and the matriculated students, 
the government being vested in the University Court 
and the Senatus Academicus. The officials of the 
University are the chancellor (appointed for life by the 
General Council), the rector (appointed for three years 
by the matriculated students), the two principals, and 
the professors in the three faculties. The senior princi- 
pal for the time being is principal of the University. 
The University Court consists of the rector, the senior 
principal, an assessor nominated by the chancellor, an 
assessor nominated by the rector, an assessor elected by 
the General Council, and an assessor elected by the 
Senatus Academicus. It acts as a court of appeal and 
supervision for the senatus, and appoints to some of the 
chairs. The General Council consists of the chancellor, 
the members of the University Court, the professors, 
and all graduates who have been registered ; and since 
1881 this registration has been compulsory. The 
Senatus Academicus consists of the principals "and pro- 
fessors who manage the affairs of the University and 
confer degrees. The session of the United College 
begins in the first week of November and closes in the 
end of April, and that of St Mary's College begins about 
10 days later, and closes in the end of March. The 
students of the United College wear red frieze gowns 
with crimson velvet collars, those of St Mary's have 
no distinctive dress. The number of matriculated 
students averages about 160, of whom from 130 to 140 
are in the Faculty of Arts and the rest in that of 
Divinity. In session 1S83-84, in arts 19 took the 
degree of M. A. , and 1 that of B. Sc. ; and in medicine 
10 took the degree of M.D. The University has the 
privilege of granting the degree of M. D. to ' any 
registered Medical Practitioner above the age of 40 
years, whose professional position and experience are 
such as, in the estimation of the University, to entitle 
him to that degree, and who shall, on examination, 
satisfy the Medical Examiners of the sufficiency of his 
professional knowledge. ' Formerly the number of such 
degrees that could be granted was unlimited, but it is 
now restricted to 10 every year, and the fee for the 
degree is fifty guineas. The General Council for 18S3-84 
contained 1519 members. It meets twice a year on the 
last Thursday of March and the last Friday of Novem- 
ber. Under the Reform Act of 1867 St Andrews 
University unites with that of Edinburgh in returning 
a member to serve in parliament, the electorate con- 
sisting of the members of General Council. Among the 
distinguished rectors since 1859 have been Sir William 
Stirling-Maxwell, J. S. Mill, J. A. Froude, Lord Neaves, 
Dean Stanley, and Sir Theodore Martin ; while con- 
nected with the University, either as professors or 
students, have been John Major, George Buchanan, 
John Enox, Andrew Melvil, James Melvil, Napier of 
Merchiston, the Admirable Crichton, Sir Richard Mait- 
land of Lethiugton, Robert Rollock, the Marquis of 
Montrose, Samuel Rutherford, James Gregory (the in- 
ventor of the Gregorian telescope), Alexander Pitcairn, 
John Hunter, William Tennant (the author of Aiister 
Fair), Thomas Chalmers, Sir David Brewster, James 
D. Forbes, John Tulloch, William Spalding, J. F. 
Ferrier, John Veitch, J. C. Shairp, Lewis Campbell, 
R. Flint, M. Forster Heddle, and H. A. Nicholson. 
Besides these the bishops and archbishops, from 1411 
downwards, are all intimately associated with the 
history of the University. 

The buildings of the United College stand near the 
centre of the N side of North Street, where they occupy 
three sides of a large quadrangle, 230 feet by 180. The 
site was originally that of St Salvator's College, the 
church of which occupied the S side of the quadrangle, 
while on the other three sides were the common hall, 
library, classrooms, and students' apartments. The 
church still remains, though greatly altered ; but the 
other buildings having become ruinous were removed 
after the report of the University Commission of 1827, 
and the present classrooms on the N and E sides of the 




quadrangle were erected between that date and 1847 at 
a cost of £18,600, the money being granted by Govern- 
ment. The entrance to the quadrangle is underneath a 
lofty tower at the W corner of the S side. It is a tall 
square structure, with a stumpy octagonal spire, the 
whole rising to a height of 156 feet. The College of St 
Leonard's church, immediately to the E, is now looked 
on as the parish church of St Leonards, its use for that 
purpose dating from the early part of last century. It 
contains a very elaborate monument to Bishop Kennedy, 
the founder of the college (d. 1466), said to have cost a 
sum equal to £10,000 sterling. It was greatly injured 
by the fall of the stone roof of the church about the 
middle of last century. The tomb was opened in 1683, 
when six silver maces were found in it, of which three 
were presented to the other Scottish Universities and 
the remaining three were retained by the University of 
St Andrews. One of these last, which was made in 
Paris by Bishop Kennedy's orders in 1461, is very fine. 
In the vestibule of the church is a flat stone marking 
the grave of Dr Hugh Spens, principal of the College 
1505-29 ; and on the N wall is a marble monument 
erected by his brother officers to the memory of the 
eldest son of the late Provost Playfair — Lieutenant W. 
D. Playfair, who fell at Sobraon in 1846. There is a 
good museum ; and in the hall are portraits of John 
Hunter, Sir David Brewster, James D. Forbes, all of 
whom were principals ; of Professors Ferrier and Mac- 
donald, and others. At the union of the colleges of St 
Leonard and St Salvator in 1747 the buildings of the 
former, which were in South Street, near the E end, 
were sold, and now the ruined walls of the chapel 
alone remain. When Dr Johnson and Boswell were 
so hospitably entertained by the St Andrews pro- 
fessors this building was used as a 'kind of green- 
house,' and, adds the Doctor, ' to what use it will 
next be put I have no pleasure in conjecturing ; ' but, 
as he had always been hindered by some excuse from 
entering it, he admits that it was ' something that its 
present state is at least not ostentatiously displayed. 
Where there is yet shame there may in time be virtue.' 
It was afterwards used as an outhouse, but the virtue 
came in 1838, when it was cleared out, and since then 
the ruin has been properly cared for. It contains a fine 
monument to Robert Stuart, Earl of March, who died in 
1611, and another in memory of Robert Wilkie, prin- 
cipal of the college (1589-1611). The official residence 
of George Buchanan when he was principal here (1566-70), 
a short distance S of the chapel, was the property and 
residence of Sir David Brewster when he was principal 
of the United College (1838-59). St Mary's College 
occupies the site of the old Pedagogy on the S side of 
South Street, the college buildings and University 
library forming two blocks at right angles, the library 
and the principal's residence being on the N, and the 
lecture rooms and old dining-hall on the W. The 
library, a plain structure, built at the expense of the 
University in 1764, and since greatly improved in 1829, 
superseded an older building which had been used as 
a provincial meeting-place for the Scottish parliament. 
It is divided into four large halls, the principal one 
76 feet long, 28 wide, and 28 high. There are portraits 
of Cardinal David Beaton, George Buchanan, John Knox, 
Adam Ferguson, Bruce of Grangehill and Falkland (pro- 
fessor of logic at Edinburgh), Archbishop Spottiswoode, 
George Wishart, and several of the chancellors. The 
nucleus of the present library was established in 1610 
by the union of the libraries of the three colleges, and 
James VI., under whose auspices this took place, 
made a valuable gift of books to the new institution. 
Subsequent benefactors have been numerous, and there 
are now about 100,000 printed volumes and 150 MSS. 
Among the rarities may be specially mentioned a copy 
of the Koran that belonged to Tippoo Saib, a copy of 
Quinctilian (1465), a Latin translation of the Iliad (1497), 
and the Phrases of Stephanus, both of which belonged 
to George Buchanan, and contain notes in his hand- 
writing ; a copy of the Canons of the Council of Trent 
that belonged to James Melvil, a fine MS. of the works 

of St Augustine, a MS. of Wyntouu's Cronykil, writteu 
in the latter part of the reign of James IV. ; and the 
original copy of the Solemn League and Covenant, sub- 
scribed at St Andrews in 1643, and containing upwards 
of 1600 signatures. To the S of the buildings are the 
college gardens. St Andrews College Hall, to the SSW 
of the Cathedral, opened in 1861, and belonging to a 
joint-stock company with a capital of £5000, serves as 
a residence for young gentlemen attending the Univer- 
sity. It has accommodation for about 30 students, and 
is conducted by a warden, a tutor, and such other 
teachers as may be required. 

The Madras College, off the S side of South Street 
near the W end, was opened in October 1833, and 
superseded the old grammar and burgh schools. It was 
founded in terms of a bequest by Dr Bell, who was the 
first to introduce the monitorial or Madras system of 
school management. Dr Bell, who was the son of a 
hairdresser in St Andrews, and was educated at the 
University here, became, after various vicissitudes of 
fortune, superintendent of a male orphan asylum at 
Madras under the Honourable East India Company, and 
there originated his monitorial system. At his death he 
left a very large fortune, £120,000 of which was to be 
spent in the erection and maintenance of schools on his 
favourite system, and of this sum £60,000 was set apart 
for St Andrews, while the sums of £52 and £25 paid 
by the town as salaries to the masters of the former 
grammar and burgh schools has, since the opening of the 
new institution, been paid over to its funds. At first 
there were only two masters, but now there are masters 
of English, classics, arithmetic and bookkeeping, mathe- 
matics, modern languages, writing, drawing, and gym- 
nastics ; second masters in English and classics, and a 
teacher of sewing. The grounds cover a space of about 
4 acres, and the school buildings are ranged round a 
quadrangle near the centre. A detached building to- 
the W, built subsequently, contains 3 additional class- 
rooms, and accommodation is provided altogether for 
1540 scholars. At the two front corners of the ground 
adjoining South Street are houses for the English and 
classical masters, which provide accommodation for a 
considerable number of boarders. The trustees of the 
institution are the provost, the ministers of the first and 
second charges, and the sheriff of Fife. Connected with 
it is the Madras College Club, founded in 1871. Under 
the burgh school board the East End and Infant schools, 
with accommodation for 250 pupils each, had in 1883 
attendances of 204 and 174 respectively, and grants of 
£164, 3s. and £135, 15s. There are also 5 private 
boarding and day schools for boys, and 3 private schools 
for girls. 

Trade, etc. — During the 15th and 16th centuries St 
Andrews was one of the most important seaports to the 
N of the Forth, and was resorted to by merchant vessels 
from Holland, Flanders, France, and all the trading 
districts in Europe. The number of vessels in port at 
the time of the great annual local fair called the Senzie 
Market — held in the priory grounds in April — is even 
said to have been from 200 to 300, but if this be so they 
must have been of small tonnage, and probably not 
larger than a fair-sized herring boat. The trade, how- 
ever, seems to have departed during the Reformation 
troubles, and in 1656 Tucker, one of Cromwell's Com- 
missioners of Customs — who described the town as 'a 
pretty neat thing which hath formerly been bigger, 
and although sufficiently humbled in the time of the 
intestine troubles, continues still proud in the ruines of 
her former magnificence' — mentions that there was 
only 1 vessel of 20 tons burden belonging to the port, 
while upwards of a century later we find that there 
were only 2 small vessels. By 1838 these had 
increased to 14 vessels of, aggregately, 680 tons, and 
bonded warehouses having been subsequently fitted up, 
the place became a head port and yielded a customs 
revenue of about £700 a year. A great trade also 
sprung up in the export to iron-works on the Tyne of 
calcined ironstone from workings near Strathkinness, 
but this did not last, and the port sank again to the 


position of a sub-port, and the shipping trade, parti- 
cularly since the opening of the railway, has become 
very small, and is confined to export of grain and 
potatoes ; and import of coal, timber, guano, salt, and 
slates. The harbour, formed along the small natural 
creek at the mouth of the Kinness Burn, has a pier 
extending eastward for about 420 feet from high-water 
mark, and outer and inner basins. At low water it is 
dry except for the stream flowing through it, and even 
at high water there is not sufficient depth of water to 
admit fully-laden vessels of more than 100 tons, and the 
entrance, which is narrow, and is exposed to the roll of 
the sea when the wind is easterly, is dangerous. Two 
guiding lights — the one a red light at the end of the 
pier, and the other a bright white light on a turret of 
the cathedral north wall — when brought into Hue 
indicate a vessel's course for the harbour. There were 
belonging to the port, in 1882, 33 first-class, 16 second- 
class, and 5 third-class boats, engaged in the herring 
fishing, and connected with them were 145 resident 
fisher men and boys. 

Municipality, etc. — Created a royal burgh in 1140, St 
Andrews is now governed by a provost, 4 bailies, a 

Seal of St Andrews. 

dean of guild, a treasurer, and 22 councillors, who also 
under the General Police and Improvement Act are 
police commissioners, but the police force itself forms 
part of that of the county. The corporation revenue is 
about £1500 per annum. The burgh boundaries were 
extended in 1S60, and a thorough system of drainage 
was introduced in 1864-65. The old water supply has 
recently proved insufficient, and the question of a new 
supply is at present agitating the minds of the 
inhabitants. Gas is supplied by a private company, 
with works near the harbour. The town has a head 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, 
and telegraph departments, branch offices of the Bank 
of Scotland, Clydesdale Bank, Commercial Bank, and 
Royal Bank, a National Security Savings' Bank, 
agencies of 30 insurance companies, and several excellent 
hotels. A newspaper— the St Andrews Citizen, and 
life News (1871)— issued on Saturday, is printed at 
Cupar-Fife. The public reading-room and library was 
established in 1845, and acquired in 1847 the books 
belonging to the old subscription library. In 1867, the 
books of the St Andrews subscription library were 
acquired by purchase, and subsequently in return for a 
sum of money voted by the town council from the Bell 
Jund, for the purpose of clearing off debt, the whole 
library was declared public property. Other institu- 
tions and associations are a branch of the Royal 
National Lifeboat Institution, with a lifeboat ; a 
volunteer life brigade, with a rocket apparatus : a troop 
of the Fife Volunteer Light Horse, a battery of 


artillery volunteers, a company of rifle volunteers, a 
drill hall, baths, a cottage hospital, a literary and 
philosophical society (1838), 2 masonic lodges, a young 
men's Christian association, a horticultural society, an 
amateur choral society, an archery club, a curling club, 
the St Andrews Golf Club (the Mechanics from 1843 to 
1851), the St Andrews Thistle Golf Club (1865), and 
the Royal and Ancient Golf Club already noticed. 
There is a weekly corn market on Monday, a fair on the 
second Monday of April, and feeing markets on the 
second Tuesday of August and the Monday after the 
10th November. Sheriff small debt courts for the 
parishes of St Andrews, St Leonards, Kingsbarns, 
Dunino, Cameron, Forgan, Ferry Port on Craig, and 
Leuchars, are held on the third Mondays of January, 
April, July, and October. Justice of peace courts for 
granting licences for the sale of exciseable liquors for 
the county are held on the third Tuesday of April and 
the last Tuesday of October ; and burgh licensing courts 
are held on the second Tuesday of April and the third 
Tuesday of October. The burgh unites with Cupar, 
Easter and Wester Anstruther, Crail, Eilrenny, and 
Pittenweem in sending a member to parliament (always 
a Liberal since 1837), and is the returning burgh. 
Parliamentary constituency (1S85) 842 ; municipal con- 
stituency (1884) 1105. Valuation (1856) £15,404, lis. 
lid., (1885) £36,083, 4s. 6d. Pop. of royal burgh 
(1801) 3263, (1831) 4462, (1881) 6406 ; of the municipal 
burgh, with enlarged boundary (1861) 5141, (1871) 
6244, (1881) 6458, of whom 3636 were females, and 
6452 were in the parliamentary burgh. Houses (1881) 
1235 inhabited, 73 uninhabited, and 7 being built. See 
also Martine's History and Antiquities of St Mule's Chapel 
(St Andrews, 1787), and his Beliquicc Divi Andrew (St 
Andrews, 1797); Grierson's Delineations of St Andrews 
(1807 ; 3d ed. 1838) ; Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancte 
Andree (Bannatyne Club, 1841) ; C. J. Lyon's History 
of St Andrews (1843) ; C. Roger's History of St Andrews 
(1849) ; a paper on the 'Early Ecclesiastical Settlements 
of St Andrews,' by Dr Skene, published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland for 
1860-62 ; Walter Wood's East NcuJc of Fife (Edinb. 
1862) ; Ballingall's Slwrcs of Fife (Edinb. 1872) ; and 
J. M. Anderson's University of St Andrevjs (Cupar, 

St Andrews, a parish in the SE of the Mainland of 
Orkney, whose church stands near the W shore of Deer 
Sound, 6 miles ESE of the post-town, Kirkwall, whilst 
Deerness church on the E coast is 12 miles ESE of Kirk- 
wall by road, though only 9J as the crow flies. It is 
bounded NW by Kirkwall parish and Inganess Bay, N 
by Shapinsay Sound, NE, E, and SE by the North Sea, 
and SW by Holm parish ; and it is deeply indented by 
Deer Sound, which, penetrating the land for 5J miles 
south-westward and south-south-eastward, alternately 
broadens and contracts, from 3§ miles to 1 mile, from 
1J mile to 5 furlongs, and from 2 miles to 2J furlongs. 
The parish thus consists of two natural divisions, con- 
nected by a sandy isthmus only 250 yards broad — 
St Andrews proper to the W and Deerness to the E. 
The former has an extreme length from NW to SE of 
5| miles, and a varying width of 4 mile and 5| miles ; 
the latter, in outline rudely resembling a topsy-turvy 
kite, has an extreme length from SSW to NNE of 4J 
miles, and an extreme breadth of 3f miles ; and the 
area of the whole is 12,830 acres. The coast is in places 
sandy, in places rocky, and sometimes precipitous ; and 
the interior rises in St Andrews to 1S3, in Deerness at 
the Ward Hill to 285, feet above sea-level. The shallow 
fresh-water Loch of Tankerness (7 x 4J furl. ; 13 feet 
above the sea) lies 5 furlongs N of St Andrews church. 
The predominant rock is Old Red Sandstone, with in- 
teresting dykes of trap ; and the soil is capable of much 
improvement. A curious cavern, the Glout, has been 
noticed separately. Tankerness Hall, near the NW 
shore of Deer Sound, is the chief residence. In the 
presbytery of Kirkwall and synod of Orkney, the civil 
parish since 1845 has been ecclesiastically divided into 
St Andrews and Deekxess, the former a living worth 



£308. St Andrews church was built in 1801, and con- 
tains 400 sittings. There is also a Free church of St 
Andrews ; and three new public schools — Deerness, St 
Andrews, and Tankerness — with respective accommo- 
dation for 155, 55, and 80 children, had (1884) an average 
attendance of 99, 44, and 41, and grants of £91, 9s. 6d., 
£42, 16s., and £40, 2s. 6d. Valuation (1884) of St 
Andrews, £2094, 9s. ; of Deerness, £2178, lis. Pop. 
of entire parish (1821) 1548, (1861) 1681, (1871) 1733, 
(1881) 1695, of whom 828 were in St Andrews and 867 
in Deerness. 

St Andrews -Lhanbryd, a parish containing the village 
of Lhanbryd in the NE of the county of Elgin and im- 
mediately E of the burgh of Elgin. It is bounded N 
by the parish of Drainie, SE by the parish of Urquhart, 
E by the parish of Speymouth, S by the parish of Kothes, 
SWby the parish of Elgin, and W by the parishes of Elgin 
and Spynie. At the centre of the W side the boundary 
is formed by the river Lossie for 1§ mile below the bend 
at Roy's Pot ; at the NW corner for g mile by the 
Spynie Canal ; and near the SE corner for 2 mile by 
one of the head-streams of the Red Burn ; elsewhere the 
line is artificial. The shape of the parish is highly 
irregular. There is a compact northern portion measur- 
ing fully 5-J miles from the point where the parishes of 
Drainie, Urquhart, and St Andrews meet on the N to 
Mains of Cotts on the S, and with an average breadth 
of about 2 miles. From the SE corner of this a long 
straggling projection passes southward by Cranloch, 
and after narrowing to about 200 yards at Oldshields, 
broadens out again into the triangular portion of Teind- 
land about 2 by 1J miles. The extreme length of the 
parish, from the point already mentioned on the N, 
south-south-westward to the extreme southerly point at 
the topof Findlay Seat (861 feet), is 8£ miles ; and the total 
area is 9359 '544 acres, of which 162~983 are water. The 
surface is flat in the N, undulating in the centre — many 
of the hillocks being covered with thriving plantations 
— and the southern prolongation is a rough moorland, 
the highest point of the parish being over 1000 feet, at 
the SW corner of this projection. The drainage is 
carried off by the river Lossie, which, entering near the 
centre of the W side, flows first eastward and then north- 
ward through the parish in a course of about 5 miles ; by 
the Lhanbryd or Longhill Burn, which flows along the 
centre, and by the Red Burn in the extreme S. In the 
N end of the parish is all thatremains of the old Loch 
of Spynie, now reduced to a portion 5 furlongs in 
length by 1 J in breadth ; and at the point where the 
southern prolongation is given off is Loch-na-bo (4 x 
1J furl.), and two smaller lochans beside it. The 
soil is a sandy loam, which is, however, fertile. About 
4000 acres are under tillage, about 700 under wood, and 
much of the rest is waste ground. The underlying rock 
is mostly an impure limestone, and masses of rocks of 
Jurassic age are found scattered through the soil and 
subsoil. On the west side, N of Elgin, at Linksfield, a 
curious patch of rock, supposed to be of Rhsetic age, was 
once laid bare, but the section is no longer visible. The 
parish is traversed across the centre for 3J miles by 
the great main road from Inverness to Aberdeen, and 
the Forres and Keith section of the Highland railway 
is a little to the S of this road. Two sections of the 
Great North of Scotland railway system also pass 
through the northern and western portions of the parish. 
To the SE of Lhanbryd station are the remains of a 
stone circle, and many fine flint and stone weapons have 
been found at several places. The portion of the parish 
to the N was the chapelry of Inchbroom, that to the 
E was the chapelry of Lhanbryd — the church of St 
Bridget— and that to the W the chapelry of Kilma- 
lemnoc, the last two dating from Culdee times. On the 
rising ground on the centre of the W side, on the road 
from Inverness to Aberdeen, formerly stood a stone cross 
marking the point where Elgin Cathedral first became 
visible. The adjoining farm is still called Stonecross- 
hill. The old churches of Lhanbryd and St Andrews 
are gone, but the churchyards remain, the former at 
the village and the latter at a bend of the Lossie near 


Kirkhill. The tower of Coxton is separately noticed. 
Besides the village of Lhanbryd lying along the road 
from Inverness to Aberdeen near the E side of the 
parish, St Andrews contains also part of the burgh of 
Elgin. The village, which has a station on the High- 
land railway, 3J miles E of Elgin, has a number of well- 
built houses, the whole place having been re-arranged 
and laid out in 1854 under the direction of the trustees 
of James, second Earl of Fife. There is a post office under 
Elgin. The churchyard near the centre of the village 
contains one or two old monuments. There is a wool 
mill, and besides the industries connected with the 
Elgin portion — comprising an iron-foundry, large wool 
mills, and a saw and flour mill — there is a distillery at 
Linkwood on the SW, which was greatly enlarged and 
extended in 1875. The residences are Pitgaveny 
House in the N and Dunkinty House on the SW. The 
former — the locality of which is identified by Dr Skene 
with the Bothgouanan where King Duncan was killed 
— is a four-story edifice, ' after a Portuguese model ; ' 
and the latter is a good building with Scottish baronial 
features, erected in 1876-78. 

The principal landowner is the Earl of Fife, and 4 
others hold each an annual value of £500 or upwards, 
3 hold each between £500 and £100, 3 hold each be- 
tween £100 and £50, and there are a few of smaller 
amount. The parishes of St Andrews and Lhanbryd 
were united in 1780, and the conjoint parish is in the 
presbytery of Elgin and. the synod of Moray. The 
church is near the centre of the parish, and the living 
is worth £364 a year. Under the school board St 
Andrews-Lhanbryd and Cranloch schools, with accom- 
modation for 175 and 100 pupils respectively, had, in 
1884, attendances of 134 and 49, and grants of £152, 0s. 
4d. and £45, 8s. lOd. The latter is a combination 
school for the parishes of Elgin and St Andrews-Lhan- 
bryd. Valuation (1860) £6654, fl884) £7894. Pop. 
(1801) 799, (1831) 10S7, (1861) 1402, (1871) 1346, (1881) 
1396, of whom 675 were males and 721 females. Houses 
(1881) 269 inhabited, 6 uninhabited, and 1 being built. 
— Orel. Sur., shs. 95, 85, 1876. 

St Boswells, a village and a parish of NW Roxburgh- 
shire. The village of Lessudden or St Boswells stands 
near the right bank of the river Tweed, If mile ESE of 
St Boswells or Newtown station (in Melrose parish), 
and 4 miles SE of Melrose. A place of high antiquity, 
it is thought to have got its original name, Lessedwin 
('manor-place of Edwin'), either from Eadwine of 
Northumbria (586-633) or from some yet earlier prince. 
It contained sixteen strong bastel houses in 1544, when 
it was burned by the English ; and now it consists of 
one long street, extending north-eastward from St Bos- 
wells Green. This common, about 40 acres in extent, is 
the scene of a handball match on 12 March, and of a 
fair on 18 July, or the following Monday if the ISth 
falls on a Sunday. At the close of last and the begin- 
ning of the present century, St Boswells fair was the 
greatest in the South of Scotland for lambs, cattle, 
horses, wool, and general business ; and from £8000 to 
£10,000 changed hands in the course of the day. It 
was largely attended by the Tinklers and Potters of the 
Border Counties. In his History of the Gipsies (2d. ed., 
New York, 1878) Mr Simson describes their encamp- 
ment ; and states that on one occasion ' there were up- 
wards of 300 Gipsies in the place. Part of them formed 
their carts, laden with earthenware, into two lines, 
leaving a space between them like a street. In the rear 
of the carts were a few tents, in which were Gipsies, 
sleeping in the midst of the noise and bustle of the 
market ; and numbers of children, horses, asses, and 
dogs, hanging around them. . . . Any one desirous 
of viewing an Asiatic encampment in Scotland, should 
visit St Boswells Green, a day or two after the fair. ' 
There is one good inn, the Buecleuch Arms ; and 
at the end of the Green are the kennels of the 
Buecleuch Foxhounds (56 couples), erected by the 
late Duke of Buecleuch about 1830. Braeheads, a 
ridge to the N of the village, commands a most ex- 
quisite view of the ruins of Dryburgh, the winding 


Tweed, and the triple Eildons. Pop. of Lessudden (1S31) 
433, (1861) 447, (1871) 556, (1881) 555. 

The parish is bounded NE by Mertoun in Berwick- 
shire, SE by Maxton and Ancrum, SW by Bowden, and 
NW by Bowden and Melrose. Its utmost length, from 
NE to SW, is 3 -| miles ; its utmost breadth is 2 miles ; 
and its area is 31984 acres, of which 43J are water. The 
Tweed curves 3 miles south-eastward, north-eastward, 
and south-by-eastward along all the Berwickshire bor- 
der, though the point where it first touches and that 
where it quits the parish are but 1^ mile distant as the 
crow flies. It is spanned here by two suspension bridges, 
one erected by Lord Polwarth in 1880 ; and its bank 
on the St Boswells side is steep and wooded. The sur- 
face sinks to 200 feet above sea-level along the Tweed, 
and rises gently thence to 268 feet at Benrig, 326 at 
Hiltonshill, and 538 near Maxpoffle, thus everywhere 
being dominated by the Eildon Hills (1385 feet) in 
the neighbouring parish of Bowden. Red sandstone, of 
good building quality, is the predominant rock ; and 
the soil is variously alluvium, black loam, and stiff clay. 
Rather less than 200 acres are under wood ; and most 
of the remainder is in tillage. The parish is named 
after Boisil, who from about 650 to 661 was successively 
prior and abbot of the Columban monastery of Old 
Melrose, and the fame of whose sanctity attracted 
thither the youthful St Cuthbert. Not a vestige re- 
mains of the ancient village of St Boswells, which stood 
near the parish church, 7 furlongs SE of Lessudden. 
This parish was the lifelong residence of, and has given 
designation to, John Younger (1785-1860), the shoe- 
maker-fisherman-poet, who was born at Longnewton, 
and whose interesting Autobiography was published at 
Kelso in 1882. Near the village is Lessudden House, 
'the small but still venerable and stately abode of 
the lairds of Raeburn.' Other mansions are Benrig, 
Elliston, Maxpoffle, Maxton Cottage, and The Holmes ; 
but only one out of seventeen proprietors holds an 
annual value of more than £500. St Boswells is in 
the presbytery of Selkirk and the synod of Merse and 
Teviotdale ; the living is worth £375. The parish 
church is an old building, and, as enlarged in 1824, con- 
tains over 300 sittings. There is also a Free church ; and 
the public school, with accommodation for 125 children, 
had (1884) an average attendance of 112, and a grant of 
£95, 3s. Valuation (1864) £6403, 12s. 8d., (1884) 
£9029, 4s. lid. Pop. (1801) 497, (1831) 701, (1861) 
865, (1871) 973, (1881) 959.— Ord. Sur., sh. 25, 1865. 

St Catherines. See Catherines. 

St Cuthberts. See Edin'Bukgh. 

St Cyrus, formerly Ecclesgreig, a parish, with a 
village of the same name, in the extreme S of the 
county of Kincardine. It is bounded NE by the 
parish of Benholm, SE by the North Sea, SW by 
Forfarshire, and NW by the parishes of Marykirk and 
Garvock. Along the sea-coast the boundary is natural, 
as it is also at the S corner and along the SW, where, 
as noticed in the article on the parish of Montrose, it 
follows for 4 miles partly the present and partly an old 
course of the river North Esk. For 2J miles on the 
NW side it follows the course of the stream running 
along the Den of Canterland, and elsewhere it is artificial. 
The shape of the parish is a rectangle with irregular 
sides, the greatest length, from NE to SW, being 5J 
miles ; and the average width, north-westward from the 
sea-coast, 2J miles. The area is S718-608 acres, of 
which 390-561 are foreshore and 78-698 water. The 
surface lies on the slope from the hill of Gakvock to 
the sea, and is broken up into a series of undulations 
running from NE to SW, attaining 4S6 feet at the Hill 
of Morphie, and 600 near Maryland in the NW corner 
of the parish. Almost the whole of the surface is under 
cultivation or woodland. The soil is everywhere a good 
sound loam, strong in some parts and light in others, 
but very fertile. It lies on a subsoil of decomposed red 
sandstone or volcanic rock, varying from clay to gravel. 
The underlying rocks are Old Red Sandstone — which is 
quarried at Lauriston — or interbedded volcanic strata, 
which at Denfinella and elsewhere contain very fine 


agates and other minerals. In the Den of Canterland 
fish remains are found in the shales constituting the 
upper fish bed of the Old Red Sandstone of Forfar and 
Kincardine. There are also, at several places, bands 
of limestone which are not now worked, though former 
quarrying operations in connection with them led, at 
the E corner of the sea-coast, to rather disastrous results. 
' On the Kincardineshire coast,' says Sir Charles Lyell, 
' an illustration was afforded, at the close of the last 
century, of the effect of promontories in protecting a 
line of low shore. The village of Mathers, 2 miles 
S of Johnshaven, was built on an ancient shingle beach, 
protected by a projecting ledge of limestone rock. This 
was quarried for lime to such an extent that the sea 
broke through, and in 1795 carried away the whole 
village in one night, and penetrated 150 yards inland, 
where it has maintained its ground ever since, the new 
village having been built farther inland on the new 
shore ;' and this new hamlet had to be protected by a 
stone bulwark. In the SW the drainage is carried off 
by the North Esk and the burns of Canterland, Morphie, 
Dannies Den, and Comrnieston, which flow into it. To 
the E of the village is the small burn of Woodston, and 
in the NE end of the parish are the burns of Lauris- 
ton and Denfinella, all flowing direct to the sea. The 
Esk and all the other streams flow through deep and 
romantic dells, the gorges of the burns of Lauriston and 
Denfinella being particularly fine and well-wooded. The 
latter, in which there is a high waterfall, and which is 
spanned by a very lofty viaduct of the Montrose and 
Bervie railway, is separately noticed. On the North 
Esk is a pool known as the Ponage or Pontage Pool, 
which was, in the days when bridges were not, long the 
abode of a water-kelpie. On one occasion the monster 
having appeared as a horse, was caught and bridled — 
presumably with a witch bridle — and kept in captivity 
for a considerable time, during which he was employed 
in drawing stones to Morphie for a castle that was then 
being erected, but of which only the site now remains. 
A servant having, however, incautiously removed the 
bridle to allow him to get some food, the kelpie imme- 
diately vanished through the wall laughing with joy, 
and calling out — 

' Sair back and sair banes, 
Carrying the laird o' Morphie's stanes. 
The laird o' Morphie canna thrive 
As lang's the kelpie is alive.' 

a rhyme which he used often afterwards to repeat as he 
showed himself in the pool, a circumstance that has been 
turned to advantage in the local poem of John o' Amha. 
The coast is mostly low and sandy, though at several 
points there are rocky promontories. From the centre 
of the coast-line south-westward to the mouth of the 
North Esk there is a stretch of sandhills, bounded on 
the NW by an old line of cliff, in some places from 150 
to 200 feet high, but gradually becoming lower as it 
approaches the North Esk. The view from this across 
towards the Red Head and away beyond by the Isle of 
May towards the Firth of Forth is very fine. In 1858 
a cave of considerable size, with many bones and 
heaps of edible shells lying along the floor, was dis- 
covered in these cliffs about half a mile from the North 
Esk, but was shortly afterwards rendered inaccessible 
by a fall of rock at the mouth. Near the river, in the 
stackyard of the farm of Stone of Morphie, is a solitary 
standing-stone, but nothing is known as to its history. 
It is traditionally connected with the Danes, and said 
to have been erected to mark the grave of one of their 
leaders — Camus — who was killed here, and whose 
memory is also preserved in the name of the neighbouring 
farm of Comrnieston, while the Danes themselves give 
name to Dannies(Dane's)Den. Several stone coffins have 
been found in the neighbourhood, but defeated armies 
have seldom time to bury their dead in stone coffins, 
much less erect memorial stones. Amid the sandhills, 
near the centre of the base of the line of inland cliff 
already described, is the small parish burying-ground 
known as the Nether Kirkyard. It was probably the 
site of the old Culdee church from which the parish 



derives its name, Ecclesgreig being ' the church of Grig. ' 
This Grig or Giric or Curig, whom Chalmers describes 
as Mormaer of the tract of country between the Dee and 
Spey, but who in reality was associated in the govern- 
ment of the kingdom of Scone with Eocha, who was the 
grandson of Kenneth mac Alpin, reigned from 878 
to 889. As guardian to a king whose succession was 
disputed, and who was a Briton of Strathclyde, he seems 
to have tried to win over the clergy of the Scottish 
Church by freeing them from all secular exactions and 
services. In the Pictish Chronicle his name appears as 
Ciricius, and as he seems to have been named after St 
Cyr or Ciricus, a martyr of Tarsus, the church was 
dedicated in honour of that saint, and hence the name 
St Cyrus. The church of ' Saint Ciricus of Eglesgirg ' 
was given to the priory of St Andrews by Bishop Richard 
(1163-77), and the grant was confirmed by King William 
the Lyon. The adjacent estate is still called Kirkside. 
and the old name is preserved in connection with 
Ecclesgreig House, the former name of which was 
Mount Cyrus. The church remained that of the parish 
till 1632, when a new one was erected on the site of the 
present building. A dependent chapel dedicated to St 
Laurence was at Chapelfield, J mile N of Lauriston 
House. At the point of Milton Ness, 1J mile E of the 
village, are the remains of an old castle called the Kaini 
of Mathers, said to have been built by Barclay of 
Mathers as a place of refuge from the vengeance of the 
law, by which he was threatened for his share in the 
slaughter of Sir John Melville. (See Gabvock.) In 
October 1715 a band of Jacobites from Farnell and Kin- 
naird placed an Episcopal clergyman in possession of the 
church and refused the minister admission, nor did he 
preach again till the 5th February 1716, when 'the 
rebels having all passed -by this church,' he ' repossest 
himself of his pulpit ; but on this and the two following 
Sundays he had but a small congregation, the people 
not being able to leave their houses for fear of finding 
them plundered before their return by the Swiss and 
Dutch soldiers who were in the neighbourhood.' The 
principal mansions are Lauriston and Ecclesgreig. The 
former is separately noticed, and the latter is the 
residence of F. G. Forsyth-Grant, Esq. Lauriston was 
long in possession of the family of Straton, one of whom 
was ' the stalwart laird of Lawriestoun ' who ' was slain 
into his armour scheen ' at the battle of Harlaw. A later 
laird, George Straton, was one of the early Reformers. 
His brother David was burnt for heresy at Greenside in 
Edinburgh in 1534, and his son, Sir Alexander, was 
moderator of the General Assembly held at Aberdeen in 
1605. The last of the family was Sir Joseph M. Straton 
of Kirkside, K.C.B., a Peninsular and Waterloo hero, 
who died in 1846, and is buried in the Nether Kirkyard. 
In the SE corner of the same burying-ground is also 
interred George Beattie (1786-1823), a lawyer in Mon- 
trose, and the author of John o' Arnha and other poems 
of some local celebrity, who was a native of the parish. 
In a fit of despair at being jilted by a Miss Gibson, 
daughter of the then farmer at Stone of Morphie, he com- 
mitted suicide close to the spot where now stands the 
tombstone erected to his memory ' by the friends who 
loved him in life and lamented him in death. ' Another 
distinguished native is David Herd (1732-1810), editor 
of the first classical collection of Scottish songs and 
ballads — Ancient and Modern Scottish Songs and Heroic 
Ballads (Edinb. 1769-74). The Eev. Alexander Keith, 
D.D. (1791-1880), the writer on prophecy, was minister 
from 1816 till 1840. The village stands on high 
ground overlooking the sea near the middle of the 
coast of the parish. It has a post office under Mon- 
trose, and near it is the battery in connection with the 
St Cyrus company of the Forfar and Kincardine 
Artillery Volunteers. The parish is traversed near 
the coast by the main line of road from Dundee by 
Montrose to Aberdeen, which crosses the North Esk by 
a good stone bridge erected in 1775-80 ; and parallel to 
this road and between it and the sea is the Montrose 
and Bervie section of the North British railway system, 
with stations at the North Esk, at the village of St 


Cyrus, and at Lauriston, 3J, 5|, and 6J miles respec- 
tively N of Montrose. There are also a large number 
of very good district roads. The only industries are 
farming, and operations connected with the quarry 
already mentioned and with the valuable salmon fishings 
along the coast and in the North Esk. 

St Cyrus is in the presbytery of Fordoun and synod 
of Angus and Mearns, and the living is worth £357 a 
year. The parish church, at the village, built in 
1853-54, is a good building with a tall spire, and con- 
tains 530 sittings. There is also a Free church with 
500 sittings, built in 1844. Under the school board 
the St Cyrus and Shortside schools, with accommodation 
for 222 and 39 pupils respectively, had in 1884 attend- 
ances of 154 and 38, and grants of £139, 10s. and 
£30, 3s. The principal landowners are D. S. Porteous 
of Lauriston, and F. G. Forsyth-Grant of Ecclesgreig, 
and there are several other proprietors. Valuation (1856) 
£12,809, (1885) £17,614, 13s. Id., plus £2801 for the 
railway. Pop. (1755) 1271, (1801) 1622, (1831) 1598, 
(1861) 1552, (1871) 1585, (1881) 1487, of whom 728 
were males and 759 females. Houses (1881) 330 in- 
habited and 33 uninhabited. — Ord. Sur., sh. 57, 1868. 

St Fergus, a village and a coast parish of Buehan, be- 
longing still in certain respects to Banffshire (detached), 
but locally situate in NE Aberdeenshire. The village- 
lies 1 mile inland, and 5 miles NNW of Peterhead, 
under which it has a post office. 

The parish is bounded NW and N by Crimond, E 
by the German Ocean, S by Peterhead, and SW by 
Longside and Lonmay. Its utmost length, from NNW 
to SSE, is 6g miles ; its breadth varies between 3 fur- 
longs and 4 miles ; and its area is 9180J acres, of which 
285 are foreshore and 39J water. The low flat shore, 
6J miles in extent, is bordered landward by a natural 
rampart of clay and sand hills, which, rising in places 
to 50 feet above sea-level, and thickly covered with 
bent-grass, protect the interior from encroachments of 
drifting sand. Extending along the coast for several 
miles, but of unequal breadth, within this ridge, is 
ground called the Links of St Fergus, constituting, pro- 
bably, one of the pleasantest plains in Scotland, and 
producing — from its wild thyme, white clover, and 
short grass, it is thought — mutton of peculiar delicacy 
and fineness of flavour. Along the shore is an 
inexhaustible quantity of shells, which have been 
advantageously used as manure. The river Ugie winds 
4 miles east-south-eastward along all the Peterhead 
boundary to its mouth in the German Ocean ; and its 
feeder, the Burn of Ednie, runs 3g miles south-south- 
eastward along all the south-western border. A canal, 
which was cut near the Ugie towards the close of last 
century, has long been entirely useless except for supply- 
ing water to a few farms. The surface exhibits a beauti- 
ful succession of rising grounds and valleys ; but there 
is no hill, the highest point (164 feet) being 2 miles 
WNW of the village. The rocks comprise granite, 
gneiss, trap, quartz, and crystalline limestone. The 
soil of the seaboard district is sandy loam and moss, of 
the middle district a strong adhesive clay, and of the 
western'district reclaimed moor and moss. Fully four- 
fifths of the entire laud area are in tillage ; barely 30 
acres are under wood ; and the rest is pasture, links, 
moss, etc. Invektjgie Castle, which is noticed, 
separately, was the birth-place of the great Field- 
Marshal Keith (1696-1758). See Peterhead. The 
name of the parish was Inverugie, or, occasionally, 
Langley, till 1616, when it was changed to St Fergus, 
most likely after the ancient patron saint, an Irish 
bishop of the Roman party, who built a basilica 
here in the first half of the 8th century. St Fergus 
is in the presbytery of Deer and the synod of Aber- 
deen ; the living is worth £325. The parish church, 
built in 1869, contains 658 sittings. There are also a 
Free church and a Baptist chapel (1810) ; and 3 public 
schools — the Central(male), the Central (female), and the 
North — with respective accommodation for 120, 75, and 
85 children, had (1884) an average attendance of „ , 
60, and 65, and grants of £0, £44, 14s., and £58, 17s. 


Valuation (1860) £7082, (1885) £8701, 16s., of which 
nearly six-sevenths belonged to Mr Ferguson of Pitfour. 
Pop. (1801) 1270, (1831) 1334, (1861) 1608, (1871) 
1633, (1881) 1527.— Orel. Sur., sh. 87, 1876. 

St Fillans. See Fillans. 

St Germains, a plain mansion in Tranent parish, 
Haddingtonshire, 2 miles NE of Tranent town and 2£ 
SW of Longniddry station. It was built towards the 
close of last century by David Anderson, Esq., at one 
time secretary to Warren Hastings ; and by his de- 
scendant it was sold a few years ago to the trustees of 
the late Chs. Stewart Parker Tennent, Esq. of Well- 
park, Glasgow. The Knights Hospitallers here had an 
establishment, founded in the 12th century. — Orel. Sur., 
sh. 33, 1863. See Jn. Small's Castles and Mansions of 
the Lothians (Edinb. 1883). 

St Kilda, called anciently and by the natives Hirta 
or Hirt (Gael. Iorta), is the chief islet of a rocky group 
included among the Hebrides, though lying far out in 
the Atlantic, and quite detached from these islands. 
Situated in N lat. 57° 48' 35", and W long. 8° 35' 30", 
St Kilda is nominally included in the parish of Harris 
in Inverness-shire. It lies 40 miles almost due W of 
Griminish Point, the NW extremity of North Uist, 
and about 76 nautical miles RW of Dunvegan in Skye. 
It measures 3 miles from E to W, 2 from N to S, and 
about 7 in circumference ; and its area has been 
estimated at from 3000 to 4000 acres. In shape it 
resembles a roughly formed stunted letter H, sloping 
NW and SE ; and its coasts are faced with lofty 
precipitous cliffs, rising sheer out of deep water, at 
nearly all points except the landing place in the SE, or 
village bay. In the KW bay also, the cliffs are lower, 
and in favourable weather a landing may sometimes be 
effected there. The other islets of the group are 
uninhabited ; but serve as grazing ground for the St 
Kildans' sheep, and a breeding place for myriads of sea- 
fowl. They are the following — The Dune, a precipitous 
and jagged peaked islet forming the southern horn of 
the village bay, and only separated from St Kilda by a 
narrow passage of sea ; Soa, or the Sheep Island (1031 
feet), divided from the NW extremity of St Kilda by a 
strait 400 yards across, in which rise 3 lofty needle 
rocks, or 'stacks;' Borrera (1072 feet) between Stack- 
an-Armin and Stack Lii, 3J miles towards the N ; and 
Levenish (200 feet), a small rocky islet, 1J mile SE of 
the Dune. The prevailing feature of all these islands is 
the precipitous nature of the cliffs of which they are 
composed ; but apart from their picturesque aspect, 
they are entirely subsidiary to .the inhabited island in 
interest. Between the bays at either end of St Kilda 
rises a high rocky ridge, forming the main body of the 
island, and rising into the 4 principal summits or 
'tops' of Conagher (1220 feet), Mullach-sceal, Mullack- 
geal, and Mullach-osterveal or oshival. The sides of 
these descend sheer into deep water ; and the precipice of 
Conagher is said to be the deepest perpendicular precipice 
in Great Britain. There are several small streamlets 
flowing from the high lands ; and among the wells and 
springs are St Kilda's Well and the Well of Virtues. 

The climate is on the whole mild, as might be inferred 
from its situation, though sometimes damp mists, severe 
frosts, heavy snowstorms, and tempestuous winds fall 
upon the little community. No trees or shrubs grow on 
the island ; but the grass is plentiful and nutritious as 
pasture. The only wild animal is the mouse ; but 
the islets swarm with myriads of sea-fowl— fulmar, 
puffins, guillemots, razor-bills, and solan geese,— which 
annually supply the islanders with great part of their 
wealth. The last-named birds do not breed on St 
Kilda but only on the smaller islets, and chiefly on the 
detached 'stacks' near Borrera. The geologic forma- 
tion of St Kilda has not been scientifically determined, 
but Mr Sands says that the hills for several hundred 
feet are formed of sandstone, above which cliffs of 
igneous rock, trap, granite, etc., are found. The 
cultivated soil, though black, yields now a somewhat 
poor return to the labour spent upon it by the 
industrious natives ; but visitors are generally impressed 


with the brilliant verdure of the pastures and hills» 
The husbandry was long of the most primitive descrip- 
tion, the caschrom or spade-plough being used up till 
1830 ; but more modern implements have now been 
introduced into the island, and the people show much 
industry in fencing their fields and preparing the soil. 
In 1758 about 80 acres were estimated to be under 
tillage, and barley was the chief crop. Now only about 
half that area is in cultivation ; and the chief crops are 
potatoes, oats, and bere. A few turnips and cabbages 
are also grown. A curious agricultural feature on the 
islands is formed by the cleits or claetyan, little 
pyramidal huts of dry-stone, 8 to 10 feet in diameter, 
and 4 to 5 high, used formerly to dry the sea-birds 
before salt was introduced, but now to protect the crops 
when cut. These are very numerous ; though the 
estimate of 5000 supplied to one visitor is certainly 
exaggerated. The pasturage is sufficient and good in 
summer ; but the sheep receive little attention from 
their owners. At the end of the 17th century there 
were about 2000 sheep on the group, in 1841 about the 
same, in 1861 about 1500, and in 1877 between 1000 
and 1200, though the islanders are averse to revealing 
the true number, as they pay a rent to the proprietor of 
the island proportioned to the size of their flocks. The 
sheep were for a long time a peculiar breed, but have 
been improved by crossing. The mutton is good ; and 
the wool, which is plucked from the sheep, not shorn, is 
generally of a light dun colour. There are about 50 
cows of the West Highland breed on the island. The 
young cattle are annually purchased by the landlord, 
who removes them from the island. There are now no 
horses on St Kilda, though in 1697 there were 18, and 
in 1841, 3 or 4. They are said to have been shipped 
away by a former lessee of the island, on the ground 
that they injured the grass. There is an imported 
breed of mongrel collie dogs, used in catching puffins ; 
every house possesses a cat ; but a recent visitor to the 
island affirms that there were only 2 hens upon it. In 
1877, 16 families, as crofters, paid each £2 per annum 
for their holdings, while the rest of the inhabitants 
ranked as cottars. In 1815 the rental of the island was 
worth about £40 ; in 1841, £60 ; and from £90 to £100 
is the present estimated return. The rents are paid in 
kind ; feathers, oil, cloth, cheese, cattle, tallow, and 
ling being the chief articles exported. Although the 
surrounding seas abound with fish, fishing is rather 
neglected by the St Kildans. They are shy of fish-diet, 
asserting that it produces an eruption on the skin. 
The capture of sea-fowl is the chief occupation of the 
islanders. The men are bold and expert cragsmen ; 
suspended only by slender ropes, they fearlessly explore 
the perpendicular cliffs of their island. The fulmars 
are captured for the sake of the oil the young birds have 
in their stomachs ; and the other gulls are taken for 
their feathers. The women employ themselves in 
catching puffins on the adjacent islands in the season ; 
and immense numbers of birds are annually killed, 
without causing any appreciable lessening of the 
numbers that hover about the islands. The only manu- 
facture is that of coarse tweed and blanketing from the 
wool of the sheep. The women spin the thread and dye 
it ; while the men weave it into cloth ; and, moreover, 
make all the garments required of it, both for them- 
selves and for the women. Mr Sands gives the follow- 
ing as the exports from St Kilda for 1875, and the price 
paid to the inhabitants, showing a total value of £250. 

Cloth, . 


Fulmar Oil, . 


Black Feathers, . 

Grey Feathers, . 


Fish, . 

1 Year Old Cattle, 

227 j r ards of 47 inches and thumb, 
403 yards of 47 inches and thumb, 

56(J gallons, 

414 lbs. 

1494 lbs., 

1179 lbs., 

646 lbs., 

1OS0 marketable, . . . . 
20 head 

£ s. 


25 10 


45 6 

6 12 

26 5 

17 10 

11 9 

31 10 


There is but one village on St Kilda, situated at the 



head of the E bay, on comparatively level ground at the 
foot of steep and lofty hills. It contains a church, a 
manse, a factor's house, a store, 14 zinc-roofed and 2 
thatched cottages arranged in a crescent, and standing 
from 15 to 20 yards apart from each other. The zinc- 
roofed cottages were built in 1861-62 by the late pro- 
prietor after a severe storm had unroofed the former 
primitive hovels, many of which still stand, and are 
used as byres or cellars. The church, a plain and sub- 
stantial building with four windows, a slated roof, but 
an earthen floor, cost £600. The manse, the factor's 
house (used only for about 3 days in the year), and the 
storehouse are all slated houses. The little burial-place 
behind the village is walled, and the gate is kept closed ; 
but the interior is as neglected as most Highland 
cemeteries. The St Eildans are exceedingly primitive 
in their habits ; but they are more intelligent than 
their isolation seems to promise. They are for the most 
part fair-complexioned, but some are swarthy ; and 
though inclined to be stout, they are active and hardy. 
The women are comely ; some are said to be beautiful. 
The average height of the male inhabitants is 5 feet 6 
inches. They are a very prolific race, but the new-born 
infants are peculiarly liable to be fatally seized with 
tetanus infantum, from a cause never satisfactorily ex- 
plained. It is said that 8, and even 9 out of 10, infants 
born on the island die from this disease. "When once 
past the dangerous age the children are healthy and 
strong. Both the juvenile and adult inhabitants are 
liable to a feverish cold, which they call 'the boat-cold,' 
because they believe it attacks the island whenever a 
boat from the outer world touches on their shores. 
Imbecility is almost unknown. Though nearly all can 
read the Gaelic Testament, only a few can write in 
the vernacular ; and none can speak English, except of 
course the minister. The St Kilda music was formerly 
famous among the Hebrides ; but the inhabitants are 
not now specially musical. Their morality is good ; 
crime is unknown ; and they adhere to the somewhat 
rigid piety of two generations ago. The entire popula- 
tion belongs to the Free Church, whose minister on the 
island receives a stipend of £80 ; and acts as the sub- 
stitute for the schoolmaster. The dress of the in- 
habitants is made of the native cloth ; and resembles 
the ordinary lowland costume in Scotland ; the kilt is 
not worn even by children. The food is chiefly sea- 
fowl, mutton, milk, and eggs. Besides the name of the 
minister there are only five surnames now known on the 
island, viz., Gillies, Macdonald, Ferguson, Mackinnon, 
and Macqueen. The population in 1697 was said to be 
180 ; in 1758, 88 ; in 1795, 85 ; in 1815, 103 ; and in 
1841, 105. The first government census took place 
only in 1851, and returned the population at 110 ; in 
1861 it was 78 ; in 1871, 71 ; and in 1881, 77, of whom 
44 were females. In 1856, 36 inhabitants emigrated to 
Australia ; and in 1864, 8 were drowned by a boating 

St Eilda is the property of MacLeod of MacLeod, who 
purchased it for £3000 about 1872. It has, however, 
been for centuries in the MacLeod family. Lord 
Dunmore, proprietor of South Harris, is the feudal 
superior of the island, and is entitled to receive an 
annual feu-duty of one shilling. The intercourse of St 
Eilda with the outer world is maintained by means of 
the factor's boat, which visits it once a year, and the 
chance visits of yachts in summer. 

The old name of the island appears in the forms Hirt, 
Hirth, Hirta, and Hyrtha, and is referred to the Gaelic 
h-Iar-tir, 'the west country.' The inhabitants have a 
proverb, ' Hirst to Perst ' (Perth), indicating their dis- 
tance from the centre of the kingdom. The name St 
Eilda is probably connected with the Culdees, as the 
shadowy chronicler Gildas does not usually figure as a 
saint, and no more authentic representative of the name 
is found in history. Hirt appears in a charter of the 
14th century by which the island and other lands are 
granted by John, Lord of the Isles, to his son Reginald. 
It is confirmed by Robert II. The island next passed 
to Macdonald of Sleat, and later to the MacLeods of 


Dunvegan, who have held it for three centuries. James 
Boswell at one time thought of buying St Eilda. In 
1615 it was invaded and ravaged by 'Colkitto;' in 
1724 it was depopulated by smallpox, only 4 adults 
being left alive to support 26 children ; from 1734 to 
1742 Lady Grange was confined to the island by her 
cruel and powerful husband Lord Grange ; and tales of 
her sojourn still linger among the people. 

In 1697 three chapels are said to have existed on the 
island, and were dedicated to Christ, Columba, and St 
Brendan. The only relic of these is a stone, marked 
with a cross, built into one of the houses. In the Glen 
Mhor or Amazon's Valley, at the head of the N bay, 
there stood a pyramidal stone hut called the Female 
Warrior's house — a lady who is said to have hunted 
from St Eilda to Harris, at a time when the sea did not 
flow between them. On Borrera is a dome-roofed hut 
called the Stallir House, and related to have been the 
abode of a hermit ; and on the Dune are the remains of 
an ancient fort. Subterranean dwellings, stone imple- 
ments, and pottery have also been found. 

The unique and romantic situation of St Eilda have, 
from comparatively early times, attracted a good deal of 
interest to the lonely little island. Sir "Walter Scott 
notices it in his Lord of the Isles (Canto i., st. 8) ; and 
David Mallet makes it the scene of his poem Amyntor 
and Theodora; or, The Hermit. Lord Brougham visited 
the island in 1799. 

Notices of the island occur in Fordun, Boethius, 
Buchanan, Camden, Sir Robert Murray, and others. 
Books on the subject are Martin's Late Voyage to St 
Kilda, 1698, and his Description of the Western Islands 
of Scotland, 1703 ; Buchan's Description of St Kilda, 
1741 and 1773 ; Rev. Eenneth Macaulay's Voyage to 
and History of St Kilda, 1764 ; Rev. John Lane 
Buchanan's Travels in the Western Hebrides, 1793 ; Dr 
John Macculloch's Description of the Western Islands of 
Scotland, 1819, and his Highlands and Western Islands, 
4 vols., 1S24 ; L. MacLean's Sketches of the Island of St 
Kilda, 1S38; J. Sands' Out of tJic World; or, Life in 
St Kilda, 1876 and 1S77 ; MacDiarmid's ' St Eilda and 
its Inhabitants ' in Trans. Highl. and Ag. Soc., 1878; 
and finally Geo. Seton's St Kilda, Past and Present, 
1878, to which we are indebted for much of the preced- 
ing article. Besides these a large number of magazine 
articles, etc., on the subject are detailed in Poole's Index 
to Periodical Literature. 

St Leonards, the seat of Thomas Nelson, Esq., pub- 
lisher, in the SE vicinity of Edinburgh, near the south- 
western base of Arthur's Seat, and 1 J mile SSE of the 
General Post Office. Surrounded by grounds 12 acres 
in extent, it is a lofty Scottish Baronial edifice, erected 
in 1869-70 from designs by Mr John Lessels. 

St Leonards, a small parish in the E of Fife, and 
forming practically part of the parish of St Andrews, 
though it is civilly and ecclesiastically distinct. It 
consists of a main portion near the centre of the S 
border of St Andrews parish and several detached 
portions in and about the town. The main part, which 
lies to the S of Boarhills, is bounded "W and N by the 
parish of St Andrews, E by the parish of Eingsbarns, S 
by the parish of Crail, and SW by the parish of Dunino ; 
its extreme length and breadth are If mile. The 
physical characteristics are the same as in St Andrews, 
and the height above sea-level rises towards the S till 
317 feet is reached near the corner of Balcaithly "Wood. 
The drainage is carried off by Eenly Burn, which has, 
along the boundary or through this part of the parish, 
a course of fully 1 J mile. Another portion immediately 
SW of the town of St Andrews measures 4 by 2 furlongs, 
and there are smaller sections at the E end of the town. 
The land area is 820 acres ; and the whole parish, which 
was originally the property of the Priory of St Andrews 
and afterwards of St Leonard's College, now belongs to 
the United College of St Salvator and St Leonard at St 
Andrews. Although the principal of St Leonard's did 
not always officiate as the minister of the parish, and in 
the case of George Buchanan (1566-70) was not even a 
clergyman, it is certain that for some time before the 


Revolution the two offices were held by the same per- 
son ; and from that time till 1836, first the principal of 
St Leonard's, and thereafter of the United College, was 
always a clergyman and minister of this parish. St 
Leonards is in the presbytery of St Andrews and the 
synod of Fife, and the living is worth £315 a year. 
The chapel of St Salvator's College has been used as the 
parish church for more than a century, and was legally 
annexed to the parish in 1843. Valuation (1856) £859, 
7s., (1875) £1660, 16s. 3d., (1885) £1377, 10s. lid. 
Pop. (1801) 363, (1831) 482, (1861) 513, (1871) 741, (1881) 
769, of whom 436 were females. — Ord. Stir., shs. 49, 41, 

St Madoes, a small parish at the W end of the Carse 
of Gowrie, Perthshire, adjoining, at its north-western 
boundary, Glbnoaese station on the Caledonian rail- 
way, 15J miles WSW of Dundee and 6 E by S of the 
post-town, Perth. It is bounded NW by Kinfauns, NE 
by Errol, S by the Firth of Tay, and "W by the Inchyra 
section of Kinnoull. Its utmost length, from N to S, 
is 1 J mile ; its utmost breadth, from E to "W, is 1§ mile ; 
and its area is 1417J acres, of which 153J are foreshore 
and 104J water. The Firth of Tay, which curves along 
the southern border for If mile, broadens eastward from 
J to 1 mile, but at its widest is divided by Mugdrum 
island into the North and the South Deep. The shore 
is fringed by three old sea-margins, 3, 9, and 14 feet 
above the level of the Tay ; and, beyond, the surface 
rises gently to a maximum altitude of 71 feet nearDum- 
green. Old Red Sandstone is the predominant rock, 
and has been quarried at Cottown. The soil, a deep 
strong clay near the Tay, on the higher grounds is a 
rich brown loam. Excepting about 30 acres of planta- 
tion, 76 of permanent pasture, and 68 in the policy of 
Pitfour Castle, the entire area is constantly in tillage. 
A large brickwork employs about 60 people. Near the 
eastern boundary is the ' Hawk's Stane ' referred to 
under Luncakty ; in the Pitfour policy are remains of 
a stone circle, with cup-markings ; and in the church- 
yard is an elaborately sculptured stone, 7 feet long, and 
3 to 2J feet broad. Alexander Lindsay, Bishop of 
Dunkeld, was minister from 1591 till his death in 
1639. Pitfouk Castle, noticed separately, is the only 
mansion ; and Sir J. T. Stewart-Richardson, Bart. , is 
almost the sole proprietor. St Madoes is in the pres- 
bytery of Perth and the synod of Perth and Stirling ; 
the living is worth £247, i with a manse and a glebe of 
£80 value per annum. The parish church, near Glen- 
carse station, was built in 1798, and contains 410 sittings. 
The public school, with accommodation for 114 children, 
had (1884) an average attendance of 85, and a grant of 
£74, Is. lOd. Valuation (1860) £3980, 8s. 10d., (1885) 
£5297, 13s. lOd. Pop. (1801) 295, (1831) 327, (1861) 
280, (1871) 290, (1881) 316.— Ord Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

St Magnus Bay, a spacious bay on the W coast of the 
mainland of Shetland. It measures 12§ miles across 
the entrance, expands to 14 miles, and indents the land 
to a depth of 13g miles. It enters between the head- 
lands of Esha Ness on the N and the Ness of Melby on 
the S ; but has in its mouth, 1 mile from the latter, 
the island of Papa-Stour ; so that it is reduced at the 
entrance to an open channel only 9J miles broad. 
Around its inner verge are the islets of Vemantry, 
Meikle Roe, Papa Little, and Linga, besides various 
holms and skerries ; and projecting from it into the 
land are various bays or voes, which contain safe and 
excellent anchorage for any number of vessels of any 
burthen— particularly Ura Firth, Olna Firth Voe, Gon 
Firth, and Aith Voe. 

St Margaret's Hope, a harbour and a post-office 
village in the island of South Ronaldshay, Orkney. 
The harbour is a small bay, projecting into the middle 
of the N coast of the island, and opening into the sound 
which separates South Ronaldshay from Burray. It is 
one of the safest and best harbours for small vessels in 
the kingdom. A fishery here, which drew regular visits 
from London lobster smacks, and engaged the capital of 
different English companies, was, for many years, the 
only regular fishery in Orkney. The village, standing 


at the head of the harbour, 13 miles S of Kirkwall, is 
the seat of an industrious population, chiefly engaged in 
fisheries. It has a post office under Kirkwall, with 
money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments, 
a branch of the Union Bank, and a good inn. Pop. 
(1861) 260, (1871) 363, (1881) 412. 

St Martins, a parish in the Strathmore district of 
Perthshire, containing Guildtown village, 6 miles N by 
E of Perth, under which it has a post office. Since the 
close of the 17th century it has comprised the ancient 
parish of Cambusmichael ; and it is bounded N by 
Cargill, NE by Collace and the Bandirran section of 
Kettins in Forfarshire (detached), SE by Kilspindie 
and the Balbeggie section of Kinnoull, S by Scone, W 
by Redgorton, and NW by Auchtergaven. Its utmost 
length, from W by N to E by S, is 5f miles ; its utmost 
breadth is 3f miles ; and its area is 6565 acres. 
The Tay, here a splendid salmon river, curves 2j 
miles south-south-westward along all the Auchtergaven 
and Redgorton boundary, and past the village of Stanley. 
Beside it the surface declines to less than 200 feet above 
sea-level ; and thence it rises to 239 feet near Guild- 
town, 453 near Newlands, 413 near Cairnbeddie, 397 
near Rosemount, and 424 near East Melginch. Thus, 
although neither flat nor hilly, it rises considerably 
above the Tay, and is much diversified by depressions 
and rising grounds. Plantations are extensive enough 
to give a warm appearance to the interior ; and copse- 
woods fringe the margin of the river. The soil in 
general is a black mould, incumbent on till, and much 
improved by art ; whilst towards the river it is naturally 
good and fertile. Freestone abounds, and has been 
largely quarried. Limestone and rock-marl also occur. 
One still may trace a Roman road leading north-north- 
eastward from the ancient Bertha towards the parish of 
Cargill. There are vestiges of several stone-circles ; and 
one most interesting antiquity has been noticed in our 
article Cairnbeddie. The church of St Martins 
anciently lay within the diocese of Dunkeld, and was a 
mensal church of the abbey of Holyrood. The church of 
Cambusmichael — still indicated by its ruins beside the 
Tay, on a low plain of the class which Gaelic calls 
cambus — was included in the diocese of St Andrews, and 
belonged to the abbacy of Scone. The principal mansion, 
St Martins Abbey, 5 miles NNE of Perth, is the seat of 
the chief proprietor, "William Macdonald Macdonald, 
Esq. (b. 1822 ; sue. his cousin, 1841), the only son of 
Gen. Farquharson, who holds 22,600 acres in Perthshire 
and 2801 in Forfarshire, valued at £9192 and £5617 
per aunum, and who claims the chieftainship of the 
Colquhouns. The estate, originally called the Kirk- 
lands, was purchased by Wm. Macdonald, "W.S., of 
Eanachan (1732-1814), a founder of the Highland and 
Agricultural Society ; and by him the mansion was 
erected towards the close of last century. A massive 
and commodious building, it has been greatly enlarged 
and adorned by the present proprietor ; and its beauti- 
ful grounds and policies were planned and laid out 
about 1858 by Mr Craiggie-Halket, the celebrated land- 
scape gardener. In Sept. 1884 Mr Gladstone visited 
Sir Andrew Clark, Bart., M.D., at St Martins Abbey. 
(See chap. xlii. of T. Hunter's Woods and Estates of 
Perthshire, Perth, 1883.) St Martins is in the presby- 
tery of Perth and the synod of Perth and Stirling ; the 
living is worth £259. The parish church is a handsome 
and commodious edifice of 1842. Guildtown public 
school, with accommodation for 125 children, had (18S4) 
an average attendance of 62, and a grant of £42, 18s. 7d. 
Valuation (1860) £7296, 5s. 3d., (1885) £8754, 13s. 5d. 
Pop. (1801) 1136, (1831) 1135, (1861) 904, (1871) 735, 
(1881) 741.— Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

St Mary's. See Ronaldshay, South. 

St Mary's Holm, a place on the S coast of Holm 
parish, Orkney, 7 miles S by E of Kirkwall, under which 
it has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, 
and telegraph departments. 

St Mary's Isle, the seat of the Earl of Selkirk, in 
Kirkcudbright parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, 1J mile SSW 
of the town, from which it is approached by a long lime- 



tree avenue. It stands on a finely-wooded peninsula, 
projecting 1J mile south-south-westward into the head 
of Kirkcudbright Bay, and 1 to 3 furlongs broad. The 
retreat of the sea, so noticeable along the whole coast of 
Kirkcudbrightshire, is peculiarly observable in this 
peninsula. The sea, in former times, made the place 
literally an isle, and covered at every tide at least one- 
half of its present cultivated surface. The W side is 
high ground, defended by a border of rocks ; but the E 
side visibly discloses from end to end, in large shell- 
banks, the former line of high water. The house, a 
rambling, old-fashioned building, with grounds of 
singular beauty, occupies the site of a priory, founded 
about 1129 by Fergus, Lord of Galloway. The original 
name of the island was Trahil or Trayl, and the priory 
was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, whence we find it 
designated ' Prioratus Sancte Marire de Trayl. ' It was the 
seat of canons-regular of the order of St Augustine, and, 
being given by its founder to the abbey of Holyrood, 
became a dependent cell of that establishment. The 
prior was a lord of parliament. The priory was sur- 
rounded with high walls, which enclosed an extensive 
area. The outer gate was distant at least i mile from 
the priory, and stood at a place still called the Great 
Cross. The inner gate led immediately to a group of 
cells, the habitations of the monks, and was called the 
Little Cross. All the buildings were swept away to- 
wards the close of the 17th century, to give full scope 
for beautifying the ground as a noble demesne. A 
hundred years since, while the Earl of Selkirk was ex- 
tending his garden, 14 human skeletons were discovered 
by the workmen, placed regularly alongside of one 
another with their feet to the E, occupying a spot quite 
different from the burying-ground of the monks, and 
all the remains possibly of persons interred previous to 
the existence of the priory. David Panther, or Paniter, 
was prior of St Mary's Isle, and afterwards commenda- 
tor of Cambuskenneth. He was one of the most 
eminent literary men of his day, and wrote letters, 
published by Ruddiman in 1772, which afford a model 
of classical latinity. According, however, to Buchanan, 
he was a profane man, and instigated persons at court 
to all manner of impurities ; whilst Knox says that 
' eating and drinking was the pastyme of his lyif. ' He 
died at Stirling on 1 Oct. 155S. Robert Richardson, 
descended from a line of respectable citizens of Edin- 
burgh, and previously promoted to the offices of lord- 
treasurer and general of the mint, was made eommen- 
dator of St Mary's Isle in 1558 ; and he was so adroit 
as to hold all his lucrative situations under both Mary 
and her son. Large estates were purchased by him ; 
and at his death, in 1571, were left to his two sons, Sir 
James Richardson of Smeaton, and Sir Robert Richard- 
son of Pencaitland. On 22 April 1778 the famous 
Paul Jones made a descent on St Mary's Isle, with the 
view of seizing the Earl of Selkirk as a hostage during 
the war with America. His lordship being from home, 
all the silver plate in his mansion was seized and carried 
away ; but it was returned uninjured and without cost 
seven years after the depredation. Lord William Doug- 
las (1634-94), eldest son, by a second marriage, of the 
first Marquess of Douglas, was created Earl of Selkirk 
in 1646. He married Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, 
and in 1660 obtained the title of third Duke of Hamil- 
ton, at the same time resigning the earldom of Selkirk, 
which, however, by a new patent of 1688 was conferred 
on his second son. Dunbar James Douglas, present 
and sixth Earl (b. 1809 ; sue. 1820), holds 20,283 acres 
in Kirkcudbrightshire, valued at £19,770 per annum. — 
Ord. Sur., sh. 5, 1857. 

St Mary's Loch, a beautiful lake on the mutual 
border of Selkirk and Peebles shires, 15i miles WSW of 
Selkirk, 14 SSW of Innerleithen, and 15J NE of Moffat. 
Lying 814 feet above sea-level, and 80 to 90 feet deep, 
itextends 3 miles north-by-eastward andnorth-eastward, 
and has a maximum breadth of exactly i, mile. At its 
head is the smaller Loch of the Lowes ; Megget Water 
and Kirkstead Burn are the chief of eight streams that 
enter it ; and Yarrow Water issues from its foot. On 


either side the smooth green hills rise steeply — to the 
SE, Bowerhope Law (1570 feet), the Wiss (1932), and 
Peat Law (1737) ; to the NW, Watch Hill (1710), 
Bridgend Hill (1594), Copper Law (1690), Henderland 
Hill (1740), and Deer Law (2065). Its waters are 
well stocked with trout, of i, lb. each on an average ; 
and pike and perch are also taken, with an occasional 
salmon and bull-trout. Scott, in his introduction to 
canto second of Marmion, has drawn a perfect picture 
of the scenery : — 

' Oft in my mind such thoughts awake 
By lone St Mary's silent lake. 
Thou know'st it well, — nor fen, nor sedge, 
Pollute the pure lake's crystal edge; 
Abrupt and sheer, the mountains sink 
At once upon the level brink ; 
And just a trace of silver sand 
Marks where the water meets the land. 
Far in the mirror, bright and blue, 
Each hills huge outline you may view, 
Shaggy with heath, but lonely, bare, 
Nor tree, nor bush, nor brake is there, 
Save where, of land, yon slender line 
Bears thwart the lake the scattered pine. 
Nor thicket, dell, nor copse you spy 
Where living thing concealed might lie ; 
Nor point, retiring, hides a dell, 
Where swain, or woodman lone, might dwell ; 
There's nothing left to Fancy's guess, — 
You see that all is loneliness : 
And silence aids,— though the steep hills 
Send to the lake a thousand rills ; 
In summer -tide so soft they weep, 
The sound but lulls the ear asleep ; 
Your horse's hoof-tread sounds too rude — 
So stilly is the solitude.' 

Yet, as in Wordsworth's day — 

' The swan on still St Mary's Lake 
Float double, swan and shadow ; ' 

and yet, like Wordsworth, we may fancy that — 

1 Throughout her depths, St Mary's Lake 
Is visibly delighted ; 
For not a feature of those hills 
Is in the mirror slighted.' 

The road from Peebles and Innerleithen to St Mary's 
Loch passes through a wild mountain defile, which 
opens on the vale of the Yarrow about 3 miles from the 
lake. On emerging from this, the lonely Yarrow bursts 
all at once on the traveller's view ; and he looks on the 
mountains dotted with sheep, and Altrive, the cottage 
of Hogg, the Ettrick shepherd, which stands a little 
way E of the lake, and which, more than any other 
feature in the landscape, makes St Mary's Loch an 
object of interest to lovers of poetry. Almost every 
mountain and stream in ' fair Ettrick Forest ' have been 
hallowed by the genius of the bard, who 

' Found in youth a harp among the hills, 
Dropt by the Elfin-people ; and whilst the moon 
Entranced hung o'er still St Mary's Loch, 
Harp'd by that charmed water, so that the swan 
Came floating onwards through the water-blue,— 
A dream-like creature listening to a dream ; 
And the Queen of the Fairies rising silently 
Through the pure mist, stood at the shepherd's feet, 
And half-forgot her own green paradise, 
Far in the bosom of the hill, — so wild ! 
So sweet ! so sad ! flowed forth that shepherd's lay. 1 

1 My beloved Shepherd,' said Christopher North in 1824, 
' some half century hence your effigy will be seen on 
some bonny green knowe in the forest, with its honest 
face looking across St Mary's Loch, and up towards the 
Grey Mare's Tail ; while by moonlight all your own 
fairies will weave a dance round its pedestal.' And his 
prediction has been almost exactly verified by the 
erection in 1860 of a monument on a grassy esplanade 
at the head of the loch. It consists of a square pedestal 
and a statue, 94 and 8 J feet high, of Denholm freestone, 
by Andrew Currie, F.S.A., himself a native of 'the 
Forest.' The Shepherd, with plaid around him, is 
seated on an oak-root ; at his feet lies Hector, his 
favourite dog ; his right hand rests on a staff ; and his 
left holds a scroll inscribed with the last line of the 
Queen's Wake — 

' He taught the wandering winds to sing.' 
Opposite, on the -wooded patch of holm between the 


'lochs, 19 miles WSW of Selkirk, is St Margaret's 
Cottage or 'Tibbie Sheils,' long kept by Mrs Richard- 
son (1781-1878), and the scene of one of the Nodes. 
The Rodono Hotel has been noticed separately, as also 
are Binram's Cross, Blackhouse, Chapelhope, 
Coppercleuch, Douglas Burn, Dryhope, Hender- 
land, and Mount Benger. On the NW shore of the 
loch, 7 furlongs from its head, is the site of St Mary's 
kirk, with its ancient graveyard. This, too, the poet's 
pen has rendered a classic spot. In this lonely place 
the bones of many an outlaw mingle with the dust ; 
and here the shepherd of the present century still finds 
his last resting-place. 

' For though in feudal strife a foe 
Hath laid our Lady's chapel low, 
Yet still beneath the hallowed soil, 
The peasant rests him from his toil : 
And, dying, bids his bones be laid 
"Where erst his simple fathers prayed.' 

This ancient chapel is the subject of many traditions, 
and of numerous ballads and poems of ancient and 
modern date. 

' St Mary's Loch lies shimmering still. 

But St Mary's kirk-bell's lang dune ringing ! 
There's naething now but the grave-stane hill 
To tell o' a' their loud psalm-singing ! ' 

Among the ballads, that of Tlie Douglas Tragedy has 
been rendered widely familiar by the Border Minstrelsy. 
Another ancient and very popular tradition furnished 
the ground-work of Hogg's ballad of Mess John ; and 
the chapel is the scene of the principal incident in his 
ballad of Mary Scott. Here the daughter of stern 
Tushilaw is supposed, by the poet, to have been brought 
to be buried; here she awoke from that sleep which 
seemed to all the sleep that knows no waking ; and here 
she was married to her lover, Pringle, Lord of Tor- 
woodlee. —Ord. Sur., sh. 16, 1864. 

St Mary's Tower, the Scottish seat of the Right Hon. 
Lord John Manners, in Little Dunkeld parish, Perth- 
shire, near the right bank of the Tay, a little way E of 
Birnam. It is a large and stately Scottish Baronial 
edifice, of modern erection, with very beautiful grounds. 
—Ord. Sur., sh. 48, 1868. 

St Monance. See Abeecrombie. 

St Mungo, a parish of Annandale, Dumfriesshire, 
whose church stands near the right bank of the Water 
of Milk, 3 miles S by E of the post-town, Lockerbie. 
It is bounded NE by Tundergarth, E by Hoddam, S by 
Cummertrees, SW by Dalton, and W, NW, and N by 
Dryfesdale. Its utmost length, from N by E to S by 
W, is 5| miles ; its breadth varies between \ mile and 
3J miles ; and its area is 4932£ acres, of which 35g are 
water. The river Annan winds 3| miles south-eastward 
along all the Dalton and Cummertrees boundary ; and 
the Water of Milk 6 miles south-by-westward — 
mainly through the interior, but for the first 1| mile 
along the boundary with Tundergarth, and for the last 
5f furlongs along or near to that with Hoddam— until 
it falls into the Annan at the SE corner of the parish. 
Springs of the purest water, welling up from the rocks, 
and maintaining, in some cases, an equable temperature 
all the year round, are both many and copious. The 
general surface is slightly uneven, sinking little below 
130, and little exceeding 300, feet above sea-level ; but 
in a wing of the parish to the E of the Caledonian 
railway it attains near Cowdens a maximum altitude of 
603 feet. Seen from distant heights which command a 
maplike view of it, the parish looks almost flat ; but, 
though not strictly hilly, it has such swells and 
eminences as, with aid of Brunswark Hill in the neigh- 
touring parish of Hoddam, and the wooded rising 
grounds of Kirkwood in Dalton, present on nearer in- 
spection a gracefully, varied, and pleasing landscape. 
Silurian and Devonian rocks predominate ; limestone 
has been quarried on the north-eastern border; sand- 
stone and shale, belonging to the Carboniferous for- 
mation, are at the head of the glebe ; porphyritic 
amygdaloid forms the main mass of Nutholm Hill ; 
and galena, jasper, and chalcedony are found in various 


parts. The soil on about 280 acres of holm-land 
adjacent to the Annan and the Milk is a rich, deep 
alluvium, and elsewhere varies considerably. Nearly 
nine-tenths of the entire area are in tillage ; and somo 
300 acres are under wood. A sepulchral tumulus was 
removed half a century since from Sorrysikemuir ; an 
ancient Caledonian camp was formerly near the site of 
that tumulus ; and on Cowdens farm is the spot where 
Ralph Erskine's tent was pitched at the introduction of 
Secession principles to Annandale. Mansions, noticed 
separately, are Castlemilk and Muerayeield ; and 
R. Jardine, Esq., M.P., is chief proprietor, 1 other 
holding an annual value of more than £500, and 8 of 
between £100 and £500. St Mungo is in the presby- 
tery of Lochmaben and the synod of Dumfries ; the 
living is worth £310, 5s. 5d. The original parish church, 
which was dedicated to St Mungo or Kentigern, stood 
on the left bank of the river Annan, 1J mile SW of the 
present one, and was a cruciform First Pointed edifice, 
partly rebuilt in 1754 and 1805. This church was con- 
firmed by Robert de Bruce in 1174 to the episcopate of 
Glasgow, and became a mensal church of that see till 
the Reformation. The bishops of Glasgow are con- 
jectured — chiefly from some remains visible at the end 
of last century of an ancient village, and of an extensive 
garden with a fish-pond — to have had a residence here. 
In 1116 the parish bore the name of Abermilk ('con- 
fluence of the Milk ') — a name exchanged for Castle- 
milk by 1170, and afterwards for St Mungo. For a 
short period succeeding 1609 the parish was annexed to 
Tundergarth. The present church, on a picturesque 
site 200 yards to the SE of its predecessor of 1842, is a 
handsome edifice erected in 1875-77 at a cost of £5000, 
the whole defrayed by Mr Jardine of Castlemilk. Scot- 
tish Gothic in style, from designs by the late David 
Bryce, R.S.A., it is built of light grey freestone, and has 
350 sittings, stained-glass windows, and a massive 
NE tower, 19 feet square and 70 high. The public 
school, with accommodation for 115 children, had (1884) 
an average attendance of 114, and a grant of £109. 
Valuation (1860) £4699, (1885) £6529, 7s. 4d. Pop. 
(1801) 644, (1831) 791, (1861) 686, (1871) 658, (1881) 
653.— Ord. Sur., sh. 10, 1864. 

St Ninians or St Ringans, a large parish containing 
a post-town of the same name in the NE of the county 
of Stirling. It is bounded N by Perthshire, by portions 
of the parishes of Lecropt and Logie in Stirlingshire, by 
the parish of Stirling, and by Clackmannanshire, E by 
the parish of Airth, S by the parishes of Dunipace, 
Denny, and Kilsyth, W by the parish of Fintray, and 
WNW by the parish of Gargunnock. There is a small 
detached portion NE of the town of Stirling in the loop 
of the river Forth N and S of Queenshaugh. The 
boundary is largely natural. From the NW corner the 
line follows the N side of the Forth from the mouth of 
the West Carse Burn downwards to the junction with 
the Teith, and then the middle of the river downwards 
to the mouth of East Mains Burn, except for 1J mile 
N of the town of Stirling, where the parish of Stirling 
comes in, the whole distance traced by the Forth being 
19J miles following the windings of the river. On the 
E the line largely follows the courses of the East 
Mains, Darnbog, and Tor Burns ; on the S those of 
Tor Burn and the river Carron, which forms the 
boundary for 6J miles ; and on the W those of Endrick 
Water and Burnfoot Burn. The greatest length of the 
parish, from the junction of the Darnbog and Tor Burns 
to form the Pow Burn on the E, to the junction of Burn- 
foot Burn with Endrick Water on the W, is 12| miles ; 
the greatest breadth, from the junction of the rivers 
Forth and Teith on the N, to the junction of Buckie 
Burn with the river Carron on the S, is 7 miles ; and 
the land area is 38,012 acres. The height above sea- 
level rises from 26 feet near the Forth in the NE corner 
and 35 near the Forth at the NW corner, towards the 
S and W borders. The central portion of the parish is on 
an average from 200 to 300 feet high ; and at Gillies 
Hill the height is 500 feet, at Great Hill W of Sauchie 
House S31, above Barr Wood SW of Auchenbowie 



House 503. The highest ground forming the eastern 
extremity of the Lennox Hills is, in the W and SW, 
at Scout Head (705 feet), Earl's Hill (1443), Hart 
Hill (1428), Cringate Law (1300) — including the moor- 
lands of Touch Muir, Toucliadam Muir, The Fell, and 
Cringate Muir — Cairnoch Hill (1354), Craigannet Hill 
(1171), Craigengelt Hill (1000), and Dundaff Hill (1157). 
The ground is divided into what is locally known as 
carse, dryfield, and moorland. The first — which occupies 
the southern and eastern districts — was, before the march 
of modern agricultural improvement began, a flat stretch 
of morass, but is now highly cultivated, and produces 
heavy crops. The part of it along the edge of the Forth 
has to be protected by strong embankments against the 
overflow of the river during floods. The dryfield— the 
most extensive of the three — is the higher ground be- 
hind the carse, with an undulating surface sloping 
chiefly to the N and E. It is highly cultivated, and 
has numerous hedgerows and plantations. The moor- 
land, lying in the W and SW among the heights already 
mentioned, comprises about J of the whole area. The 
northern part is heathy, but the southern abounds in 
excellent pasture, and there is some good and well- 
cultivated haughland along the river Carron. The soil 
of the carse is an alluvium 8 to 20 feet deep, and below 
this lie successively layers of moss, drift, and sand. 
The whole of it has been, within a comparatively recent 
period — certainly subsequent to the appearance of 
man — beneath the level of the sea, but there must have 
been a land surface previous to the formation of the 
upper alluvial deposits, as the layer of moss beneath these 
contains bark and branches of hazel. At the time of the 
battle of Bannockburn the carse seems to have been an 
impassable morass. The underlying rocks are carbonifer- 
ous, those to the E belonging to the Coal-measures, 
those in the centre to the Carboniferous Limestone 
series, while on the W throughout the moorland district 
are interbedded basalts. There are collieries at Auehen- 
bowie, Bannockburn, Cowie, Greenyards, and Plean, 
and the other beds are quarried at different places. 
The drainage of a small portion of the parish in 
the extreme W goes to the great Clyde basin, being 
carried off by Endkick Water and Burnfoot Burn and 
the smaller streams flowing to it : the surplus rainfall 
elsewhere goes to the Forth. Along the N it is carried 
off by the river Forth itself, which receives in the NW 
corner the Baston and Touch Burns — the latter receiv- 
ing the Craigbrock Burn — and elsewhere along the N 
a number of smaller streams. Flowing through the 
centre and NE of the parish is the Bannock Burn, which, 
rising at Earl's Hill, has a course of 14 miles north-east- 
ward to the Forth, receiving Dear the middle of its 
length Sauchie Burn. Besides the streams already 
mentioned on the E and S borders, there are also in 
the SE Small Burn, uniting with some other streams to 
form Sauchinford Burn flowing to Tor Burn, and Plean 
Burn also flowing to Tor Burn ; in the centre of the 
S side Auchenbowie Burn, which passes through the 
parish of Dunipace to the Carron ; and in the SW 
Buckie Burn and Earl's Burn, both flowing to the 
Carron. On Touch Burn is a waterfall called Gilmour's 
Linn, and on the river Carron another called Auchen- 
tillin's Spout. Neither are of any great height. The 
only lake is Loch Coulter near the middle of the S side, 
which is separately noticed. 

There are a number of tumuli, and at that at Ghosts' 
Knowe, on the Buckie Burn, near the centre of the S side 
of theparish, a sepulchral chamber was opened in 1839, but 
the valuable find of implements, etc., was scattered by 
the ignorant workmen employed. The Roman road from 
Camelon northwards entered the parish about % mile 
W of Carbrook House (Dunipace), and ran in a straight 
line north-westward to Snabhead, SW of Bannockburn 
House, where it turned NNW and ran parallel to the 
modern road through the town of St Ninians to Stir- 
ling and to the W of it. A few traces of it are still 
to be seen, as well as of some of the stations. The 
old pronunciation and often the spelling of the name 
was St Ringans, which is still in common local use, 


though it is now beginning to be superseded by St 
Ninians, which has been the spelling since the end of 
last century. There must have been a church here 
from a very early date, and the dedication was to St 
Ninian, who flourished in the end of the 4th and the 
beginning of the 5th centuries, and who converted the 
southern Picts to Christianity. (See Whithokn. ) This 
church was probably near the well called St Ninian's 
Well, on the S side of Stirling. In the reign of David I. 
Robert, Bishop of St Andrews (1126-58), granted to the 
newly founded Cambuskenneth Abbey ' the church of 
Egglis St Ninians, with its chapels of Dunipace and 
Lithbert, and all its other chapels and oratories, and 
all other pertinents ;' but whether this church was on 
the site of the early one or occupied the same position 
as the present church cannot now be determined. 
Another church at Eirk-o'-muir, 7J miles SW of the 
present parish church, is said to have been one of the 
earliest churches in Scotland where the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper was dispensed by the Reformers in Scot- 
land. It figures in the Commissary's list as the church 
of a distinct parish apart from St Ninians, but no 
traces of the building are now to be seen, though the 
churchyard remains. There was also a chapel at 
Cambusbarron, and another dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary at Skeoch, J mile NE of Bannockburn. In the 
extreme SW of the parish are the ruins of a castle, 
once the stronghold of Sir John Graham, the companion 
of Wallace ; and near it are the lands of Dundaff, from 
which the Duke of Montrose, who is sprung from an 
elder branch of the same family of Graham, takes his 
title of Viscount of Dundaff. There are also ruins of 
old castles at Sauchie and Carnock, which are separately 
noticed. Traversed by the great main road from Edin- 
burgh to Stirling and the north, the parish has been 
the scene of many of the events connected with the 
national history of Scotland. To the SW of the town 
of St Ninians is the Bore-stone marking the place 
where Bruce's standard was planted during the battle of 
Bannockburn. The battle itself is separately noticed, 
as are also the battles of Sauchieburn and Stirling 
Bridge, the latter under Stirling. The town of St 
Ninians was the limit of the pursuit of the surprise 
party from Edinburgh which in 1571 attacked Stirling 
and attempted to carry off the Regent Lennox, who 
was slain in the skirmish that followed. The exact 
spot where the Regent fell was formerly pointed out at 
Newhouse between Stirling and the town of St Ninians ; 
but, considering the whole circumstances, the place 
where he received his mortal wound was probably nearer 
Stirling. A heap of stones raised to mark the spot was 
removed when the road was widened in 1758. In 1745 
Prince Charles Edward Stewart, on his march to the 
south, spent a night at Bannockburn House ; and in 
January 1746, when on his return to the north, he 
made that house his headquarters. While lodging 
there he was shot at, and the mark made by the bullet 
is still shown in one of the rooms. On the morning of 
the 17th January he drew up his army on Plean Moor 
preparatory to their march to the battlefield of Falkirk ; 
and on the 1st of February, just as the retreat north- 
ward was begun before the approaching forces of the 
Duke of Cumberland, the parish church, which had 
been used by the Highland army as a powder magazine, 
was blown up, whether purposely or accidentally is not 
known. The steeple remained entire, and, as the new 
church was built at some distance from it the tower still 
stands a lonely witness to the rebellion of 1745. The 
parishioners here suffered so much from a case of intru- 
sion in 1734, and from another in 1773, that they adopted 
towards the end of the century a very effective method 
of dealing with the patronage question by buying up the 
rights of the patron in 1788 at a cost of between £600 
and £700, which they raised by voluntary contributions 
among themselves. In the immediate neighbourhood 
of Plean quoad sacra church is an asylum founded and 
endowed by the late Francis Simpson, Esq. of East 
Plean, for the residence and support of indigent old 
men, preference being given to those who have served 


in the army or navy. It has usually about 30 inmates. 
Distinguished natives of the parish are Dr Henry, the 
historian (1718-90), who was born at Muirton ; Sir 
George Harvey, P.R.S.A. (1805-76); and Dr Robert 
Buchanan, Free Church leader (1802-75) ; and Miss 
Hamilton (1758-1816), author of the Cottagers of Glen- 
burnic, resided at Crook while composing that work. The 
parish is traversed by main roads from Stirling to Airth, 
Edinburgh by Falkirk, Denny, Glasgow, and Balfron ; 
and there are also a large number of good district roads. 
A reach of the Scottish Central railway (North British 
and Caledonian jointly) from Edinburgh and Glasgow, 
which passes across the SE and centre for 5J miles, has 
a station at Bannockburn, 33 J miles NW of Edinburgh, 
27 NE of Glasgow, and 2J SSE of Stirling ; and access 
is also readily obtained from Stirling station. In the 
E end of the parish the South Alloa (Caledonian) branch 
of the Scottish Central has a course of 2J miles before 
it passes into Airth parish close to Dunmore pottery. 
A reach of the Forth and Clyde railway passes for 5 
miles along the northern border from Stirling westward. 
The industries other than farming are noticed in con- 
nection with the villages. An important annual market 
for cattle and horses is held at Bannockburn on the third 
Tuesday of June. The principal mansions, most of 
which are separately noticed, are Auchenbowie House, 
Bannockburn House, Carnock House, Craigforth, Gartur, 
Laurelhill, Easter and Wester Livilands, Plean House, 
Polmaise, Sauchie House, Seton Lodge, and Touch House. 

St Ninians is in the presbytery of Stirling and synod 
of Perth and Stirling, and the living is worth £400 a 
year. The parish church at the town was built in 1750, 
and contains 1500 sittings ; and there are quoad sacra 
churches at Bannockburn and Plean, the former dating 
from 1838 and the latter from 1839. There are also 
Free and U. P. churches at Bannockburn and the town 
of St Ninians, and a Free church at Cambusbarron. 
The first Relief congregation, that at the town, was 
formed after the forcible induction of a parish minister 
in 1773, and that at Bannockburn in 1797. Under the 
schoolboard are Bannockburn, Cambusbarron, EastPlean, 
Fallin, Milton, Muirland, and "West Plean public schools, 
which, with accommodation for 270, 270, 150, 60, 150, 
40, and 100 pupils respectively, had in 1884 attendances 
of 203, 145, 112, 20, 91, 20, and 52, and grants of £187, 
17s. 6d., £122, 7s., £100, 3s., £32, lis., £73, 2s. lid., 
£35, 18s., and £35, lis. At Bannockburn there is also 
the endowed Wilson Academy, founded and endowed 
in 1848 by Sir James Wilson, and further endowed by his 
sister in 1849 and 1859. It is proposed under the 
Educational Endowment Act to hand over the building 
to the school board along with one-third of the revenue, 
to devote about three-eighths of the revenue to the 
assistance of technical education in Stirling, and the 
rest of the income to the foundation of six bursaries to 
enable children of merit resident in the village of Ban- 
nockburn to attend Stirling High School. The prin- 
cipal proprietors are the Duke of Montrose, the Earl of 
Dunmore, Sir James R. Gibsou-Maitland of Sauchie, 
and Colonel John Murray of Touchadam and Polmaise, 
and there are over 120 other proprietors, but some of 
their holdings are very small. Valuation (I860) £41, 980, 
(1885) £55,167. Pop. of parish (1801) 6849, (1831) 9552, 
(1861) 8946, (1871) 10,146, (1881) 10,423, of whom 5141 
were males and 5282 were females, while 6105 were in 
the ecclesiastical parish. Houses (1881) 2125 inhabited, 
251 uninhabited, and 12 being built. The population 
of the landward portion of the parish in 1881 was 5029,- 
of whom 2552 were males and 2477 females.— Oral. Sur., 
shs. 39, 31, 1869-67. 

Besides the post-town of the same name, the parish 
contains also the post-towns of Bannockburn and Cam- 
busbarron and the villages or hamlets of Auchenbowie, 
Belfield, Chartershall, Muirton, Newhouse, Plean, Tor- 
brex, and Whins of Melton, most of which are separately 
noticed. The Town of St Ninians stands in the N of 
the parish, close to the S side of Stirling. Up to 1724 
it was simply the Kirkton, but has since then been 
known as St Ringans or St Ninians. Although 


nominally 1J mile S of Stirling, it is in reality a 
straggling appendage to that town, with which it is 
connected by the villages of Newhouse and Belfield, 
and within the parliamentary boundaries of which it is 
included. It consists mainly of one long narrow street 
along the great south road from Stirling, just to the N 
of the point where it forks iuto the roads leading to 
Glasgow and Edinburgh. The houses are curious and 
old-fashioned, and many of them bear rude sculpturings 
of dates, initials, and sometimes of the tools of the 
tradesmen to whom they originally belonged. St 
Ninians has a share in the woollen industries connected 
with Stirling, Bannockburn, and Cambusbarron, and 
has besides a manufacture of nails and screw-bolts of its 
own as well as tan-works of considerable size. Pop. of 
town (1861) 1334, (1881) 1647, of whom 788 were males 
and 859 females. Houses in the same year 371 occupied 
and 64 unoccupied. 

St Quivox, a parish of Kyle, Ayrshire, containing 
Whitlbtts village and the Wallacetown suburb of 
Atr. It is bounded N by Monkton, NE and E by 
Tarbolton, SE by Coylton, S by Ayr, and W by New- 
ton-upon-Ayr and Monkton. Its utmost length, from 
ENE to WSW, is 4| miles ; its breadth varies between 
| mile and 2J miles ; and its area is 4930J acres, of 
which 54| are water. The beautiful river Aye curves 
5J miles west-south -westward along all the south-eastern 
and southern boundary, its banks in places being steep 
and wooded. The surface rises north-eastward to 228 
feet above the sea at Brocklehill ; but the southern and 
western districts are low and level, at no point much 
exceeding 60 feet. The rocks are carboniferous ; and 
coal and excellent sandstone have both been worked. 
The soil is sandy in the W, in the centre is light and 
gravelly on an irretentive sirbsoil, and on the eastern 
border is a stiffish clay. Nearly 250 acres are under 
wood ; and almost all the remainder is arable. Mansions, 
noticed separately, are At/chenceotve and Craigie ; 
and 3 proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 
and upwards, 2 of between £100 and £500. Giving off 
since 1874 the quoad sacra parish of Wallacetown, St 
Quivox is in the presbytery of Ayr and the synod of 
Glasgow and Ayr ; the living is worth £394. The 
ancient parish church was originally, and for centuries, 
called Sanchar, the antique form of the modernised 
Sanquhar, from the Gaelic scan, 'old,' and cathair or 
caer, ' a fort.' In 1212 it was a rectory ; between 1229 
and 1238 it belonged to the short-lived Gilbertine con- 
vent, which the second Walter, the Stewart, established 
at Dalmulin; and from 1238 till the Reformation it 
belonged to the monks of Paisley. Though Sanchar 
continued to be the name of the several estates which 
were portions of the ancient territory or manor, the 
church, at the Reformation, appears under the designa- 
tion of St Eevoc. This name is commonly supposed to 
be derived from Eevoca, a holy virgin of Kyle, who lived 
in the first half of the 11th century ; but Bishop Forbes, 
in his Ealendar of Scottish Saints (1872), refers it to the 
Irish saint, Caemhan or Pulcherius, the affectionate form 
of whose name is Mo-chacmhoc, pronounced Mo-fceevoc. 
The present parish church, near Auchencruive station, is 
of pre-Reformation date, and, as enlarged about 1825, con- 
tains nearly 500 sittings. Two public schools, St Quivox 
and Whitletts, with respective accommodation for 94 and 
180 children, had (1884) an average attendance of 64 and 
106, and grants of £49, 16s. and £71, lis. Valuation 
(1880) £11,416, 16s. 2d., (1885) £12,076, 9s. 8d., plus 
£2354 for railway. Pop. (1801) 2070, (1831) 5289, (1861) 
7097, (1871) 6069, (18S1) 7352, of whom 1429 were in the 
ecclesiastical parish. — Or A. Sur., sh. 14, 1863. 

St Ringans. See St Ninians. 

St Vigeans, a village and a coast parish of Forfarshire. 
The village, though small, is ancient ; and is said to 
derive its name either from a hermit and confessor who 
died at Grange of Conon in the neighbourhood about 
the year 1012, or from the Irish ecclesiastic Fechin, 
abbot of Fobhar, who died in 664. It stands on the 
Brothock, 1| mile N of Arbroath. 

The parish of St Vigeans, one of the oldest in the 



country, consists of a main body and two detached por- 
tions. The main section, containing great part of the 
town of Arbroath, is bounded N by Inverkeilor, E and 
SE by the North Sea, S by Arbroath and Arbirlot, and 
W and NW by Carmyllie. It measures 7| miles from E 
to W ; and varies in breadth between If and 4| miles. 
The smaller of the detached portions lies J mile SW 
of the main body, from which it is separated by the 
burgh roods of Arbroath. It is 5 furlongs long by 
3 broad, and hears the name of Hospitalheld, from 
having been the site of the hospital of Arbroath Abbey. 
The other section is If mile long by 1-f mile broad, 
and lies 3 miles SW of Arbroath. It bears the name 
of Inverpeffer, and before being purchased in the 17th 
century by the Panmure family, belonged to the 
Fletchers, afterwards of Salton. The area of the entire 
parish is 13,413 '521 acres, of which 1055 744 belong to 
the detached portions, whilst 393 '362 are foreshore 
and 19 '337 water. Up till about 1560 the parish of 
St Vigeans included the entire town of Arbroath with 
its abbey, and was sometimes called Aberbrothock. 
From the boundary with Inverkeilor to within a mile of 
Arbroath, the coast of the parish is a range of almost 
perpendicular cliffs, with a maximum height of 157 feet. 
In nearly their whole extent their base is covered with 
water at full tide, so that for the most part access to 
the large and interesting caves, crevices, and arches 
which are numerous along the seaward face, is possible 
only at low water or by boat. The chief of these 
spacious and romantic caverns are the Gaylet Pot, the 
Mason's Cave, and the Maiden Castle Cave. The cliffs 
figure in Sir Walter Scott's Antiquary as the scene of the 
dangerous adventure of Sir Arthur and Miss Wardour. 
The surface of the main portion of the parish is mainly 
occupied by three different declivities or ridges ; while 
the streamlet Brothock, flowing SSE, divides it into 
two tolerably equal parts. The chief eminences are 
Dichmont Law (323 feet), about 1 \ mile from the coast, 
and Cairn Conan (597), in the W, 7J miles from the 
sea, and commanding a beautiful and extensive view. 
Eruptive rock occurs in St Vigeans, but is not pro- 
minent ; Old Red Sandstone is found tolerably general, 
and is extensively quarried at Whittingness, and has been 
a good deal used for building in Arbroath ; and a softer 
variety, containing vegetable fossils, is quarried at Drum- 
yellow and Brax. Diluvial ridges, consisting of boulders, 
gravel, sand, and clay strata, several of them 1 mile 
long, lie along the sides of the Brothock, and have a 
maximum altitude of about 40 feet. Several rocky 
heights of sandstone also occur near the lower course of 
the Brothock. One of them affords a convenient and 
conspicuous site for the parish church ; and another 
very similar in appearance, 180 yards distant, is famous 
for an echo of four syllables. The soil varies in character 
throughout the parish, but is prevailingly fertile. In 
1744, with the exception of garden ground, not more 
than 40 acres were enclosed within the parish. Now 
rather more than 800 acres are under wood, and 
nearly all the remainder is in tillage. The industries 
of the parish include, besides agriculture, a part of 
the textile industry in Arbroath, with fishing at 
Auchmithie, spinning in an extensive establishment 
at Inchmill, originally erected in 1808, and in smaller 
mills at Colliston and North Tarrey. The roads of 
the parish are good ; and a section of the Arbroath 
and Forfar branch of the Scottish North-Eastern railway 
crosses it. Besides the village of the same name, St 
Vigeans parish includes the villages of Auchmithie, 
Colliston, Marywell, and Gowanbank, and part of 
the post-town of Arbroath. The chief modern mansions 
are Letham, Seaton, Abbethune, Springfield, Parkhill, 
Newton, Millbank, Woodlands, Almeriecloss, Beechwood, 
and Hospitalfield. The old mansion of Colliston is said 
to have been built by Cardinal Beatoun for his son-in-law. 
St Vigeans itself is in the presbytery of Arbroath 
and the synod of Angus and Mearns ; the living is 
worth £359. The parish is divided ecclesiastically 
into St Vigeans proper and the quoad sacra parishes 
of Colliston and Inveebrothock, with parts of 


the quoad sacra parishes of Ladyloan and Abbey 
Arbroath. There is also a chapel of ease at Auch- 
mithie. The parish church was originally erected not 
later than the beginning of the 11th century, but 
it was considerably enlarged before 1242, and repaired 
in 1485. Alterations or repairs took place during 
the 18th century, and some enlargements in 1822 
and 1827, in course of which the church lost much 
of its original Saxon or Norman character. In 1872, 
however, it was restored at a cost of fully £3000, 
to a plain uniform 15th century Gothic style ; and it 
now comprises a nave, aisles, pentagonal chancel, with 
a square tower and spire ; while the interior is adorned 
with a carved oaken pulpit, an octagonal baptismal 
font, and beautiful stained-glass windows. It contains 
about 900 sittings. Both the ancient church and the 
surrounding burying-ground were noted for sculptured 
sepulchral stones ; and several ancient crosses and finely 
executed mouldings have been found. A chapel, dedi- 
cated to St Ninian, formerly stood near the sea ; and 
the adjacent St Ninian's Well was believed to possess 
great curative powers. Two public schools, Colliston 
and St Vigeans, with respective accommodation for 171 
and 150 children, had (1884) an average attendance of 
103 and 113, and government grants of £79, 8s. and 
£75, 15s. 6d. Valuation (1857) £16, 691, (1885)£20,970, 
plus £5351 for railway. Pop. of civil parish (1801) 
4243, (1831) 7135, (1861) 10,537, (1871) 12,805, (1881) 
14,982, of whom 1821 were in the ecclesiastical parish. 
—Ord. Sur., shs. 57, 49, 1868-65. 

Salachie, Loch, or Lochan t-Salachaidh. See Golspie. 

Salen, a quoad sacra parish in the NE of Mull island, 
Argyllshire, on the Sound of Mull, containing Aros 
post office, an Established church (circa 1783), a Free 
church (1883), St Columba's Episcopal church (1874), 
and a new public school. Pop. (1871) 605, (1881) 600, 
of whom 387 were in Torosay parish and 213 in Kil- 
ninian and Kilmore. 

Salen, a place in Ardnamurchan parish, Argyllshire, 
on the N shore of Loch Sunart, 10 miles WNW of 
Strontian. It has an inn and a post office, with money 
order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments. 

Saline, a village and a parish of SW Fife. The 
village, standing 405 feet above sea-level, at the SW 
base of Saline Hill, is 2^ miles N by W of Oakley 
station, and 5^ NW of Dunfermline, under which it 
has a post office, with money order and savings' bank 
departments. It is a pleasant little place, clean and 
picturesque in appearance, the houses neatly built and 
whitewashed, and all with small gardens attached. 
Pop. (1871) 396, (1881) 369. 

The parish is bounded N by Fossoway in Perthshire 
and Torryburn (detached), E by Dunfermline, SE by 
Carnock, SW by Culross in Perthshire (detached), and 
W by Clackmannan. Its utmost length, from E to W, 
is 5 j miles ; its utmost breadth, from N to S, is 3£ 
miles ; and the area is 8188J acres, of which 1154J be- 
long to a detached portion lying 2J furlongs S of the 
nearest point of the main body, surrounded by Carnock, 
Torryburn, and Culross, and containing Oakley station. 
The drainage is mainly carried west-south-westward 
towards the Forth by the Black Devon ; and in the 
extreme W the surface declines to 200 feet above sea- 
level, thence rising eastward to 340 feet near Stand 
Alane, 700 near Bandrum, 627 near Miry Hall, and 
1178 at Saline Hill. Coal, limestone, and ironstone 
have been largely worked ; and the' soil of the low 
tracts is mostly a mixture of clay and loam incumbent 
on till, generally somewhat shallow, but in places ex- 
tremely fertile. The uplands are chiefly pastoral, and 
partly marshy, yet include some good arable tracts. 
Peat moss abounds in the marshy parts, and affords ex- 
cellent peat fuel. The antiquities are some cairns, two 
Roman camps, and two old towers ; and mansions, 
noticed separately, are Balgonar, Bandrum, Kined- 
der, and Inzievar, the last in the detached portion. 
Including ecclesiastically the detached portion of Torry- 
burn, Saline is in the presbytery of Dunfermline and 
the synod of Fife ; the living is worth £207. The 


•parish church occupies a conspicuous site, and is a 
handsome Gothic edifice. There is also a Free church ; 
and the public school, with accommodation for 150 
children, had (1884) an average attendance of 110, and 
a grant of £91, 16s. Valuation (1856) £11,156, 15s., 
(1885) £7936, 16s. 3d. Pop. of ecclesiastical parish 
(1881) 1038 ; of civil parish (1801) 945, (1831) 1139, 
(1861) 1610, (1871) 1259, (1881) 954— a decrease due to 
the stoppage of the Forth Ironworks. — Ord. Sur., shs. 
40, 39, 1869-67. 

Salisbury Craigs. See Arthur's Seat and Edin- 

Salloch. See Glensalloch. 

Salsburgh or Salysburgh, a village, with a post office, 
in Shotts parish, Lanarkshire, 3J miles NW of Shotts 
station, and 4i ENE of Holytown. Pop. (1861) 325, 
(1871) 553, (1881) 576. 

Saltburn, a village, with a public school, in Rosskeen 
parish, NE Ross-shire, on the shore of the Cromarty 
Firth, 1J mile NE of Invergordon. 

Saltcoats, a watering-place of Cunninghame district, 
Ayrshire, in the parishes of Ardrossan and Stevenston. 
Lying about the middle of the northern side of the Bay 
of Ayr, 1 J mile ESE of the town of Ardrossan, it has a 
station on a branch-line of the Glasgow and South- 
Western railway, 4 miles WSW of Kilwinning Junction, 
and 29J- SW of Glasgow. Its site is low level ground 
in the vicinity of sandy bluffs and flat expanses, but is 
relieved from dulness by the vicinity of a range of high 
ground to the N, and by the prospect, across the waters, 
of the splendid mountains of Arran. Great improve- 
ments have been effected in recent years ; some of the 
churches, one or two other public buildings, and a 
handsome spire on the town-house (1825), have claims 
to architectural beauty ; the near neighbourhood of 
Ardrossan also is not a little pleasant ; and the accom- 
modations of Saltcoats itself, together with the character 
of its sea-beach, are such as to draw to it many families 
for summer sea-bathing. Places of worship within it 
are Ardrossan parish church (1774), the North church, 
the Free church, the Gaelic Free church, the East and 
West U.P. churches, the Congregational church (1863), 
-and the Roman Catholic church of Our Lady, Star of 
the Sea (1856). The last is a good Early English edifice, 
built at a cost of £2200. A new public school, French 
Gothic in style, with accommodation for 500 children, 
and with a bell-tower 60 feet high, was erected in 1876 ; 
and in 1882 a new Academy, for 280 pupils, was built 
midway between Ardrossan and Saltcoats. The town 
has a post office, with money order, savings' bank, in- 
surance, and telegraph departments, branches of the 
Bank of Scotland and Royal Bank, agencies of 19 insur- 
ance companies, an hotel, sea-baths, a gas company, an 
admirable drainage system, a cemetery, a horticultural 
society, a mission coast home, etc. Saltcoats was made 
a burgh of barony by a charter of 1528 ; but it soon 
lost its burghal character, and almost sank into 
extinction. It was originally a collection of clay-built 
cots, inhabited by poor persons who manufactured salt 
in small pans and kettles ; and it thence obtained the 
name of Saltcotes. But it possessed only a fitful pro- 
sperity ; and, about the year 1660, it had dwindled away 
to only four houses. In 1686, however, Robert Cuning- 
hame, whose uncle, Sir Robert, had purchased the 
barony of Stevenston in 1656, built several large salt- 
pjans at Saltcoats, placed the manufacture of salt on an 
entirely new and advantageous footing, constructed a 
harbour on a scale which the circumstances of the case 
rendered large and enterprising, and opened various 
coal-pits in the vicinity on a plan to render the new 
harbour a place of large export for coal. The decayed 
hamlet grew suddenly into a considerable village ; and 
the village thenceforth enlarged into a small town. The 
salt manufacture, engaging seven large saltpans, con- 
tinued to flourish till the repeal of the salt duty in 1827, 
and is not yet quite extinct. A magnesia work, started 
in connection with the saltpans in 1802, was the earliest 
establishment of its kind in Scotland. Ship-building 
has, at various periods, been vigorously conducted, but 


has been so fitful as alternately to rise into prominence 
and to sink into extinction. Rope-making, also, has 
been a fluctuating trade. The commerce of the port has 
ceased for a good many years, having been absorbed by 
Ardrossan. It consisted chiefly in the export of coals 
to Ireland, and was of such extent that the amount of 
local dues yielded by it was about £120 a year. The 
harbour is a creek of the port of Irvine. A fair for 
cattle, pigs, and hiring is held on the last Thursday of 
Maj T ; and a justice of peace court sits on the first 
Friday of every month. Pop. (1821) 3413, (1841) 4238, 
(1861) 4780, (1871) 4624, (1881) 5096 of whom 2760 
were females, and 3329 were in Ardrossan parish. 
Houses (1881) 1169 inhabited, 121 vacant, 11 building. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 22, 1865. 

Salthouse Head. See Peterhead. 

Salton, a parish of W Haddingtonshire, whose church 
stands at East Salton village, in the centre of the parish, 
6± miles SSW of Haddington, 5| SE of Tranent, and 
2| ESE of the post-town, Pencaitland. Containing also 
West Salton village (1 mile WSW), with a post office, 
it is bounded N by Gladsmuir, NE by Haddington, E and 
SE by Bolton, S and SW by Humbie, and W and NW 
by Pencaitland. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 3£ 
miles ; its utmost width is 2| miles ; and its area is 3811 J 
acres. The Tyne winds 2| miles north-eastward along 
or near to all the north-western and northern boundary; 
and its affluent, Salton or Birns Water, over the last 
3f miles of its course, roughly traces all the southern, 
south-western, and western boundary. The surface has 
a general southward ascent — from a little below 200 feet 
at the northern border to a little over 500 at broad- 
based Skimmer Hill. On the SE and E this high 
ground is, in a certain degree, continued by low uplands ; 
but on all other sides the surface falls gradually off to 
the boundaries, and becomes lost in levels of very 
humble altitude. A wood, which covers nearly 1 square 
mile, and is continuous with a forest of similar size in 
Humbie, occupies most of the hanging plain on the SW. 
The rocks are carboniferous ; and limestone has been 
largely worked, whilst coal is believed to lie under the 
strata of limestone. The soil is very various, chiefly a 
deep rich clay, but also a clayey or friable loam and a 
light sand. Except the area under wood, and about 
150 acres in permanent pasture, the entire parish is 
arable. Salton is noted for having been the first place 
in Scotland in which pot-barley was manufactured, and 
the first in Britain in which the weaving of hollands 
was established — both these industries having been in- 
troduced from the Netherlands by the lady of Henry 
Fletcher of Salton in or soon after 1710. It was also 
the first place in which a bleachfield of the British 
Linen Company was formed (in 1750), and one of the 
earliest in which a paper-mill and a starch-work were 
set up. It is further associated with the invention and 
improvement of some agricultural machines ; but all its 
manufactures have long been things of the past. The 
parish is traversed by the road from Edinburgh, across 
the Lammermuirs, to Duns. In the 12th and the first 
half of the 13th century the manor of Salton belonged 
to the De Morvilles, lords high-constables of Scotland, 
and their successors the Lords of Galloway ; but about 
1260 the greater part of it seems to have been possessed 
by Sir William de Abernethy, whose descendant, 
Laurence, in 1445 was created Baron Saltoun (see 
Philorth). In 1643 the ninth Lord Saltoun sold the 
estate to Sir Andrew Fletcher, a judge-of -session, with 
the title of Lord Innerpeffer, among whose descendants 
have been Andrew Fletcher (1653-1716), the patriot and 
political writer, and Andrew Fletcher, Lord Milton 
(1692-1766), a distinguished judge. The present owner, 
John Fletcher, Esq. (b. 1827 ; sue. 1879), holds 3928 
acres in the shire, valued at £6457 per annum. His 
seat, Salton Hall, on the right bank of Salton Water, 
1J mile WNW of East Salton, was formerly a fortified 
place of some strength, but, as modernised and improved 
in recent years, is now a fine Elizabethan structure, with 
a great square tower, a valuable library (formed by the 
patriot, Andrew Fletcher), and a large and well-wooded 



park (Jn. Small's Castles and, Mansions of the Lothians, 
1883). Another mansion, noticed separately, is Herd- 
manston. Gilbert Burnet, D.D. (1643-1715), historian 
and Bishop of Salisbury, was minister from 1665 to 1669, 
and at his death bequeathed 20,000 merks for the benefit 
of the parish, to be applied in building a schoolhouse, 
clothing and educating 30 poor children, improving a 
library for the use of the minister, etc. Patrick Scougal, 
"D.D. (1608-82), was minister from 1659 to 1664, when 
he was raised to the bishopric of Aberdeen ; and his son 
Henry (1650-78), author of Life of God in the Soul of 
Man, has been claimed — wrongly it would seem — as a 
native. Salton is in the presbytery of Haddington and 
the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the living is 
worth £414. The church, which was held by Dryburgh 
Abbey from its foundation till the dissolution, was an- 
nexed in 1633 to the short-lived see of Edinburgh. As 
almost rebuilt in 1805, it is a cruciform Gothic edifice, 
with 400 sittings, a tower and spire 90 feet high, and 
the family vault of the Fletchers. A Free church for 
Salton and Bolton is situated in the latter parish, 1J 
mile NNE of East Salton. Salton public school, 
with accommodation for 129 children, had (1884) an 
average attendance of 95, and a grant of £85, 16s. 
Valuation (1860) £5070, (1885) £6011, 9s. Pop. (1801) 
786, (1831) 786, (1861) 712, (1871) 647, (1881) 575.— 
Ord. Stir., sh. 33, 1863. 

Samphrey, an uninhabited island of Delting parish, 
Shetland, in the SE entrance of Yell Sound, f mile S 
by W of the south-western extremity of Yell island. It 
has an utmost length and breadth of 7J and i\ furlongs, 
and attains a maximum altitude of 99 feet. 

Samson's Kibs. See Arthur's Seat. 

Sanda, a small island, belonging to the parish of 
Southend, Argyllshire. It lies at the W side of the 
entrance of the Firth of Clyde, If mile SSE of the 
nearest part of the peninsula of Kintyre, 6| miles ESE 
of the Mull of Kintyre, and 10 S by E of Campbeltown. 
It has an utmost length and breadth of \\ and f mile ; 
it consists of sandstone rock ; and has a tumulated sur- 
face, with an extreme altitude of 405 feet above sea- 
level. Moderately high cliffs form part of its shores ; 
and one of these is pierced with a very large natural 
arch, and forms a very picturesque object. The island 
is covered with good grass, and is all disposed in sheep- 
walk, in the tenancy of one farmer. Two islets, called 
Sheep Isle and Glunimore, lie off its NE side, and 
are also clothed in good grass. A small, good, natural 
harbour lies between it and these islets, and is a place 
of shelter and rendezvous for the smaller sort of vessels 
which navigate the Clyde. This harbour was a com- 
mon station of the Scandinavian fleets during the con- 
tests for the possession of Kintyre and the Hebrides. 
The island, in this connection, was then called Avona 
Porticosa — a name which it still retains, in the abbre- 
viated form of Aven, among the Highlanders ; but it 
figures, under its more proper name of Sanda, in the 
more ancient record of Adamnan's life of Columba. 
There are remains on it of an ancient chapel which was 
dedicated to Columba, and of a circumjacent cemetery 
which appears to have long possessed some superstitious 
celebrity. A dangerous rock, above a mile in circum- 
ference, and bearing the name of Paterson's Kock, lies 
1 mile E by N of Sanda ; and, being always covered by 
flood tide, has endangered many a vessel. A lighthouse, 
erected on Sanda in 1S50 at a cost of £11,931, shows an 
occulting light in a SW direction, from NW £ W round 
to SE by E J E, visible at the distance of 17 nautical 
miles. Pop. (1841) 11, (1861) 36, (1871) 57, (1881) 14. 
— Ord. Sur., sh. 12, 1872. 

Sanday, a small island in the Hebridean parish of 
Small Isles, Argyllshire, lying on the S side of the 
eastern extremity of Canna, of which it may be viewed 
as constituting a portion, the two being united at low 
water by a beach of shell sand. It extends If mile 
east-by-southward, has a maximum breadth of 5 fur- 
longs and an area of 577§ acres, and is distant 2J miles 
from Rum. Its surface is low at the side towards Canna, 
but rises at its south-western extremity to 192 and at 


its eastern to 131 feet above sea-level, terminating in 
abrupt cliffs, which are skirted with detached high 
masses of rock. See Dttn-na-Fetjlan. Pop. (1871) 58. 
(1881) 62. 

Sanday, one of the most considerable of the North 
Isles of Orkney. It contains a post office station of 
its own name. It lies 2J miles N of Stronsay, If 
mile E of Eday, 7 miles E of Westray, and 2£ 
S of North Ronaldshay. Its form is exceedingly 
irregular, and may, in a general view, be regarded as 
three large peninsulas and two small ones radiating from 
a common centre. Its length, from NE to SW, is 13J 
miles ; and its breadth varies between J mile and 5 
miles. Excepting a hillocky ridge of 116 to 173 feet 
in altitude on its W side, the island is extremely flat. 
Its soil is everywhere light and sandy, and, when well 
manured with seaweed, produces as good crops as any 
which are raised in Orkney. The principal harbours 
are Kettletoft on the SE side of the island, and Otters- 
wick Bat on the NE, both commodious and pretty 
safe. Eleven small lakes, the largest about 1\ miles in 
circumference, and two or three others not much inferior 
to this, occur in various parts of the island, particularly 
in the N. On the promontory of Els Ness, which projects 
to the S, and commands an extensive sea view, are 
upwards of twenty vitrified cairns, supposed by Dr 
Hibbert to have been signal stations of the Norsemen 
for communicating with their fleets in the sound. The 
other antiquities of the island are the ruins of one or 
two ancient chapels, and of some considerable Picts' 
houses. Sanday is ecclesiastically divided into Lady 
parish on the E, and the united parish of Cross and 
Burness on the W. Five public schools — Burness, 
Cross, Lady, North Ronaldshay, and Sellibister — with 
respective accommodation for 80, 60, 140, 96, and 132 
children, had (1884) an average attendance of 56, 49, 
85, 55, and 79, and grants of £49, 18s., £52, 4s. 6d., 
£81, 7s. 6d., £36, Is., and £90, 19s. 6d. Pop. (1831) 
1S39, (1861) 2145, (1871) 2053, (1881) 2082, of whom 
1137 were in Cross and Burness, and 945 in Lady. 

Sandbank and Ardnadam, a watering-place in 
Dunoon parish, Argyllshire, on the S side of Holy 
Loch, opposite Kilmun, and 2f miles NNW of Dunoon 
town. Of recent origin, it forms the upper end of the 
long line of summer sea-bathing resort extending 
through Hunter's Quay and Kirn to the southern 
extremity of Dunoon ; occupies a similar site and enjoys 
similar amenities and advantages to those of Kilmun 
and Hunter's Quay; commands ready access to the 
romantic glens at the head of Holy Loch ; enjoys com- 
munication with Greenock and Glasgow by means of 
the Kilmun steamers ; and has a post office under 
Greenock, with money order, savings bank, and tele- 
graph departments, an hotel, a pier 200 feet long, a 
club-hall, a bowling-green, a coffee-house, a good water 
supply, a quoad sacra church, a Free church, a public 
school, and two newspapers— the Saturday Argyllshire 
Standard (1871) and the Wednesday Cowal Watchman, 
(1876). The Established church, built as a chapel of 
ease at a cost of £840, has a stained-glass window and 
an harmonium, and was made] quoad sacra in 1876. 
Pop. of village and parish (1871) 620, (1881) 570.— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 29, 1873. 

Sandend, a fishing village in Fordyce parish, Banffshire, 
to the SE of Crathie Point, and 2J miles W by N of 

Sanderay, an island in the Hebridean parish of Barra, 
Inverness-shire. It lies 34 miles S of the island of 
Barra, 2-J miles NE of Pabbay, and j mile SSE of 
Vatersay, being separated from the last by a strait called 
the Sound of Sanderay. Though indented in outline, it 
is not far from being circular, with a diameter of 1J 
mile ; and it consists of a single hill of gneiss, which 
attains an elevation of 800 feet. To a certain extent 
it is sheltered from the western swell by the islets 
Fladda and Linga, but it is so covered with drifted 
calcareous sand as to present the appearance, at some 
distance, of being sheeted with snow. A very large 
Danish dun is on its E coast. Pop. (1871) 7, (1881) 10. 


Sandford. See Storehouse. 
Sandford Bay. See Peterhead. 
Sandhaven. See Pitullie and Pitsligo. 

Saiulhead, a village in Stoneykirk parish, Wigtown- 
shire, on Luce Bay, 7 miles S by E of Stranraer. It 
has a post and telegraph office, an inn, a public school, 
and a natural harbour consisting of a small bay, and 
affording anchorage for lime and coal sloops. — Orel. 
Sur., sh. 3, 1856. 

Sands, a mansion in Tulliallan parish, Perthshire 
(detached), near the shore of the Firth of Forth, 1$ 
mile SE of Kincardine. Its owner, Laurence Johnston, 
Esq. (b. 1856), holds 987 acres in the shire, valued at 
£1079 per annum.— Orel. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Sandside Bay. See Reay. 

Sandsound Voe, an elongated narrow bay or sea-loch in 
Sandsting parish, Shetland. It opens at the extremity 
of the N side of Scalloway Bay, strikes 5J miles north- 
north-westward, and is all narrow and winding. 

Sandsting and Aithsting, a united parish in the 
middle of the mainland of Shetland, 13 miles and up- 
wards NW of Lerwick, under which there are post 
offices at Tresta and Garderhouse. It comprises the 
islands of Vementry and Papa Little, with a number 
of smaller islets, and is bounded NE by Delting, E by 
Tingwall, \V by Walls, and on all other sides by the 
sea. Its utmost length, from N to S, is 13J miles ; 
its utmost breadth, from E to W, is SJ miles ; and its 
land area is 62£ square miles, or 39,870 acres. The 
coast, which in places is bold and rocky, is deeply in- 
dented by Gruting, Skeld, Seli, and Sandsound Voes on 
the S, and by West Burra Firth, Brindister Voe, and 
Aith Voe on the N. The surface is everywhere hillocky, 
and, at no point reaching any noticeable elevation or 
admitting any considerable extent of plain, attains 297 
feet in Vementry, 348 at the Ward of Scollan, 457 near 
the eastern border, 436 at Sand Field, 355 at the Giant's 
Grave, and 393 at the Ward of Culswick. A perfect 
network of fresh-water lochs is scattered over the interior, 
their number being estimated at no fewer than 140 in 
the New Statistical Account. Among the larger are 
Clousta, Vaara, Hulma, Gossa, Sulma, and Vaxterby 
Lochs, the last of which lies on the Walls boundary. 
The rocks include red granite in the W, quartzose 
gneiss, quartzite, hornblende slate, felspar porphyry, 
syenitic greenstone, etc. The soil, in a few places sandy, 
in some clay, and in others a light brown mould, is 
mostly a deep black moss. The arable land lies mostly 
along the shore. Antiquities are several standing-stones 
and sepulchral barrows, three or four Scandinavian 
brochs, and five pre - Reformation burying-grounds. 
Reawick is the chief mansion ; and 6 proprietors hold 
each an annual value of between £100 and £500. Sand- 
sting is in the presbytery of Olnafirth and the synod of 
Shetland ; the living is worth £185. The parish church, 
built in 1780, contains 437 sittings. There are also 
Baptist and Congregational chapels ; and 7 new public 
schools, with total accommodation for 442 children, had 
(1884) an average attendance of 284, and grants amount- 
ing to £290, 8s. Valuation (1860) £1617, (1884) £267S, 
5s. 3d. Pop. (1S01) 1493, (1831) 2194, (1S61) 2670, 
(1871) 2806, (1881) 2702, of whom 1640 were females. 

Sandwick, an Orkney parish on the W coast of 
Pomona, whose church stands 100 yards from the NE 
shore of the Bay of Skaill, and 5 miles N by W of 
Stromness, under which there is a post office. It is 
bounded N and NE by Birsay, E by Harray and the 
Loch of Harray, SE by Stenness and the Loch of Sten- 
ness, S by Stromness, and W by the Atlantic Ocean. 
Its utmost length, from N to S, is 5| miles ; its utmost 
width is 4J miles ; and its land area is 184 square miles 
or 11,827 acres. The coast, 1\ miles in extent, is 
everywhere precipitous, except at the Bay of Skaill, 
which measures 6 furlongs across the entrance and 4J 
thence to its inmost recess, and S of which the Ward 
Hill rises steeply to a height of 194 feet above sea-level. 
The western district is somewhat hilly, in the S 
attaining 342 feet at Crua Breck, 252 at Gyran, and 206 
3,t Linga Field, in the N 305 at Vestra Field ; whilst 


the eastern district slopes gently towards the Lochs of 
Harray and Stenness. The Loch of Skaill (7x4 furl. ) 
is the largest of seven small fresh-water lakes scattered 
over the interior. The rocks include granite, flagstone, 
sandstone, and trap ; bog-iron, clay, and marl are 
plentiful ; and moss yields abundance of peat-fuel. To 
abridge from a recent article by Mr Pringle, ' The 
parish of Sandwick presents a more fertile aspect than 
that of Stromness, and a more advanced state of agri- 
cultural industry. The manse has a singularly cosy 
look for an Orkney dwelling owing to the thriving 
plantation which is growing in front of it. There are 
about 70 heritors, and the valuation of many of these 
lairds does not exceed £15 to £20 per annum, whilst 
some are valued as low as £5 per annum. They are the 
relics of the old Norse udallers, a class of freeholders 
once very common in Orkney, but now existing only in 
some parts of the West Mainland. Hitherto this class 
has not done much in improving their lands, and their 
houses and habits are those of the lowest rank of 
peasantry. If they make a shilling they put it past, 
and no inducement is sufficient to cause them to part 
with it. The improved appearance of the parish is 
owing chiefly to the operations carried by the late W. 
W. G. Watt, Esq. of Breckness, who owned fully two- 
thirds of the parish. Mr Watt's father for many years 
farmed a large portion of his property, and had effected 
great improvements on it fifty years ago, and the work 
so begun was carried out on a still more extensive scale 
by his son. The farms of Skaill and Kierfiold are as 
highly improved and well cultivated as if they had been 
situated in East Lothian, instead of on the N side of 
the Pentland Firth. These farms are contiguous, but 
are worked separately. A considerable part of Skaill 
has been long under cultivation, whereas but little 
more than thirty years ago Kierfiold was a rabbit warren 
and commonty, from which state it was reclaimed by 
the late proprietor. The soil of both farms varies from 
pure sand to a stiff clay loam, and their extent alto- 
gether is upwards of 700 acres.' Near the coast are 
remains of a large building, the ' Castle of Snusgar ; ' 
and other antiquities are standing-stones, vitrified 
cairns, a cromlech, Scandinavian brochs, a great 
number of sepulchral barrows, and ruins of a small old 
church. A large collection of ornaments, ingots, coins, 
etc. (more than 16 lbs. in weight), was found in 185S 
in a sandhill near the N side of the Bay of Skaill, and 
is now in the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum. This 
deposit, which was probably the concealed hoard of 
some of the Scandinavian Vikings of the 10th century, 
consists of five large penannular ring brooches, having 
bulbous extremities shaped like thistle-heads, and orna- 
mented with dragonesque tracery on one side and 
prickly-like ornament on the other ; four penannular 
ring brooches, with flattened extremities and thistle- 
headed acus ; thirteen wreathed neck-rings of silver 
wires, spirally twisted together, and with recurved ends 
or hook and eyelet fastenings ; an arm-ring, 3| inches 
inner diameter, of spirally twisted plaits of silver wire, 
welded into solid ends, which terminate in dragonesque 
heads ; a flat arm-band of thin metal ; an armlet or 
anklet, penannular in form and triangular in section ; 
twenty -five plain rings of the same form ; a quan- 
tity of ingots of silver ; a quantity of fragments 
of brooches, rings, etc., which have been purposely 
chopped into small pieces ; seven Cufic coins of 
the Samanian, and two of the Abhasside Caliphs, 
dating from A.D. SS7 to 945 ; a coin of iEthelstan, 925, 
struck at Leicester ; and a Peter's Penny, struck at 
York. The Rev. Charles Clouston, LL.D., eminent as 
a meteorologist, naturalist, and antiquary, was minister 
from 1833 till his death in 1884. Sandwick is in the 
presbytery of Cairston and the synod of Orkney ; the 
living is worth £181. The parish church, buDt in 1836, 
contains 564 sittings. There are a U.P. church of 
Sandwick (1828) and a Free church of Harray and Sand- 
wick ; and the North and South public schools, both of 
recent erection, with respective accommodation for 75 
and 60 children, had (1884) an average attendance of 54 



and 51, and grants of £46, 12s. and £36, 16s. 6d. Valua- 
tion (1860) £2070, (1884) £3660, lis. Id. Pop. (1801) 
970, (1831) 973, (1861) 1225, (1871) 1153, (1881) 1198. 

Sandwick, a hamlet, an ancient parish, and a quoad 
sacra parish in the S of Shetland. The hamlet lies on 
the E coast of Mainland, 13 miles SSW of Lerwick, 
under which it has a post and telegraph office. The 
ancient parish lies around the hamlet, and is now 
annexed, quoad civilia, to Dnnrossness. The quoad 
sacra parish, comprehending the ancient parishes of 
Sandwick and Conningsburgh, is in the presbytery of 
Lerwick and synod of Shetland. Stipend £130. The 
church was built in 1807 at the expense of government, 
and contains 564 sittings. A Free church is in Connings- 
burgh ; and a Congregational chapel, a public school, 
and a parochial library are in Sandwick. Pop. of q. s. 
parish (1871) 2326, (1881) 2308. 

Sandwick, a village in Stornoway parish, Lewis, Ross- 
shire, 1J mile E by S of the town. Pop. (1871) 445, 
(1881) 525. 

Sandy Knowe. See Smailholm. 

Sannox. See Glensannox. 

Sanquhar, a small town and a parish of Upper Niths- 
dale, Dumfriesshire. A royal and parliamentary burgh, 
the town stands 440 feet above sea-level, within 3 fur- 
longs of the Nith's left bank. By road it is 32 miles 
ESE of Ayr, 18| SW of Abington station, and 56 SW 
of Edinburgh ; whilst its own station on the Glasgow 
and South-Western railway (1850) is 26£ miles NNW 
of Dumfries and 16j ESE of Cumnock. The main street 
runs 5 furlongs south-eastward along the Glasgow and 
Dumfries highroad (1777) ; and on a rising-ground, at 
its upper end, stands the parish church (1824 ; 960 sit- 
tings), a handsome edifice with a square tower. This 
succeeded a building which was remarkable for its size 
and disproportion, and which, from some sculptured 
stones in its walls, was supposed to be of great antiquity. 
At an expansion of the High Street, a short way from 
its head, is the town-hall, built at the expense of the 
last Duke of Queensberry, and having a tower and clock. 
On a steep bank, overlooking the With, about 1 furlong 
from the foot of the town, stands the picturesque ruin 
of Sanquhar Castle. This seems to have been a strong 
quadrangular structure, with towers at the angles. On 
the N side was a deep fosse with a drawbridge ; on the 
W were gardens, whose site retains traces of a fish 
pond ; on another side was a spacious deer park ; and a 
little way to the SE is the ancient mote of Ryehill. 
Either the castle, or some fortified predecessor on its 
site, seems to have given origin, as it certainly gave 
name, to the town ; for ' Sanquhar, ' originally and for 
centuries spelt ' Sancher ' or ' Sanchar, ' is simply the 
Celtic seann-caer, ' an old fort. ' The earliest proprietors 
of the castle and circumjacent lands, or Lords of San- 
quhar, were the Koos, Roose, or Ross family, cadets of 
the Earls of Ross, Lords of the Isles. Isabel de Ross, 
daughter and heiress of Robert de Ross, the last of the 
line, married William de Crichton, who died in 1360 ; 
and Sir Robert de Crichton, their great-grandson, was, 
in 1485, created Lord Crichton of Sanquhar. The sixth 
Lord, Robert, was hanged at Westminster in 1612 for 
the murder of a fencing master ; and his kinsman and 
successor, William, first Earl of Dumfries, who in 1617 
welcomed James VI. to the 'Peel' of Sanquhar, in 1630 
disposed of lands, lordship, and castle to William 
Douglas, Viscount of Drumlanrig. The castle be- 
came now the seat of the proud Drumlanrig Douglases. 
Even after William, first Duke of Queensberry (1637- 
95), had built the magnificent palace of Drumlanrig, he 
spent but one night within its walls, and retired for the 
remainder of his clays to Sanquhar Castle. The old 
pile was forsaken, however, by the second Duke, and 
abandoned to utter neglect. Plunderers speedily 
thronged upon it, first to divest it of its leaden roof, next 
to use it as a quarry, until they left not a vestige of its 
ancient magnificence except its gaunt but venerable 
ruin. Excavations carried out in 1876 brought to light 
several human skeletons and a very deep well with a 
bucket suspended in it. 


Sanquhar rose into considerable prosperity under the 
fostering care of the third Duke of Queensberry, who, 
at a cost of £1500, formed for at least 21 miles across 
his estate, the great line of road which passes through 
the burgh between Dumfries and the West of Scotland. 
He also cut, at an expense of £600, a cross road run- 
ning up Minnick Water to Wanlockhead, and at a cost 
of £300, a road in the neighbouring parish of Eirkcon- 
nel, leading up to a lime-work at Whitecleugh ; whilst, 
jointly with the trustees for the encouragement of manu- 
factures, he gave £40 a year to be distributed among 
stocking-makers and other manufacturing artificers in 
the town and its vicinity. The knitting of stockings 
and mittens, mostly parti- coloured and very various in 
pattern , long formed a staple manufacture, and afforded 
a large number of the lower classes a comfortable sup- 
port ; but this industry was extinguished by the out- 
break of the American War in 1775, the principal 
market having till then been Virginia. The weaving 
of carpets has also greatly declined ; and brick and tile 
making, coal-mining, and the manufacture of shovels 
now constitute the leading industries. Sanquhar has a 
post office, with money order, savings' bank, and tele- 
graph departments, branches of the British Linen Co. 
and Royal Banks, a local savings' bank (1819), 10 in- 
surance agencies, 2 hotels, gas and water companies, a 
public library, a bowling green (1871), a curling club 
(1774), and fairs on the first Fridays of February, May, 
August, and November (all old style), and on 17 July 
if a Friday, otherwise on the first Friday following. 
Places of worship, besides the parish church, are a Free 
church (1845; 500 sittings), the North U.P. church 
(1849 ; 550 sittings), of which the Rev. Robert Simpson, 
D.D. (1792-1867), author of Traditions of the Cove- 
nanters, etc. , was 48 years minister ; the South U. P. 
church (1742 ; 500 sittings), an Evangelical Union 
church (1864 ; 300 sittings), and a small Baptist chapel. 

The 'Corda' of Ptolemy, a town of the Selgovae, San- 
quhar was a burgh of barony from time immemorial, and 
was re-erected in 1484. 
In 1598, at the instance 
of Robert, sixth Lord 
Crichton of Sanquhar, 
it was, by charter of 
James VI., constituted 
a royal burgh. The 
town council consists 
of a provost, 2 bailies, 
a dean of guild, a 
treasurer, and 4 coun- 
cillors. A grey granite 
monument, erected in 
1860, marks the site of 
the old town cross, to 
which were affixed the 
two famous Sanquhar 
' Declarations '—the first on 22 June 16S0 by Richard 
Cameron, disowning allegiance to Charles II. ; the 
second on 29 May 1685 by the Rev. James Renwick, 
witnessing against the usurpation of the government by 
James VII. Sanquhar unites with Dumfries, Annan, 
Kirkcudbright, and Lochmaben in returning a member 
to parliament. Parliamentary constituency (1885) 210 ; 
municipal, 217. Corporation revenue (1832) £66, (1865) 
£354, (1884) £280. Valuation (1855) £2163, (1885) 
£4120. Pop. (1831) 1527, (1841) 1719, (1851) 2381, 
(1861) 1754, (1871) 1324, (1881) 1339, of whom 715 
were females, and 1299 were in the royal burgh. Houses 
(1881) 350 inhabited, 31 vacant. 

The parish, containing also the village of Wanlock- 
head and part of Crawick Mill, since 1727 has com- 
prehended great part of the ancient parish of Kilbride 
or Kirkbride. It is bounded NW by Kirkconnel, NE 
and E by Crawfordjohn and Crawford in Lanarkshire, 
SE by Durisdeer, S by Penpont and by Dairy in Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, and W by New Cumnock in Ayrshire. 
Its utmost length, from ENE to WSW, is 15| miles ; 
its utmost breadth is 7£ miles ; and its area is 64£ square 
miles or 41,0773 acres, of which 231J are water. The: 

Seal of Sanquhar. 


Nith flows 2 miles east-south-eastward along the Kirk- 
connel border, then 5J miles through the interior : and 
amongst its numerous affluents the chief are Kello 
Water, running 8g miles north-eastward along the New 
Cumnock and Kirkconnel boundary ; Crawick Water, 
running 8 miles south-south-westward along the Kirk- 
connel boundary ; Euohan Water, running 9£ miles 
cast-north-eastward through the south-western interior ; 
and Minnick Water, running 6J miles west-south-west- 
ward through the north-eastern interior. Declining 
along the Nith, at the point where it quits the parish, 
to 347 feet above the sea, the surface is everywhere 
hilly or mountainous. Chief elevations to the NE of 
the Nith are Dalpedder Hill (1291 feet), *Cairn Hill 
(1471), *Threehope Height (1802), Brown Hill (1544), 
Willowgrain Hill (1686), *Lowthee Hill (2377), Stood 
Hill (1925), *Wanlock Dod (1808), and Conrig Hill 
(1591) ; to the SW *Heathery Hill (1669), Whiteside 
Hill (1695), Mid Hill (1695), *Corse Hill (1902), and 
*Blacklarg Hill (2231), where asterisks mark those 
summits that culminate on or close to the confines of 
the parish. The vale of the Nith is here a mimic strath 
of considerable beauty, flanked by hill-screens which are 
cleft by little transverse vales, each bringing down its 
tribute rivulet to the Nith. The rest of the surface is 
hilly, partly green and partly heathy, exhibiting great 
diversity of upland character and mountain contour. 
The rocks of the uplands are nearly all of Silurian for- 
mation. A coalfield, extending along the Nith, is sup- 
posed to be a wing of the great field of Ayrshire. Ex- 
tensive lead mines are worked at Wanlockhead ; and 
coal mines, as also quarries of sandstone and limestone, 
are worked in the carboniferous region. The soil in 
the vale of the Nith, and in the lower parts of some of 
the lateral vales, is in general dry and gravelly, and in 
some places loamy ; but that in the other districts is 
for the most part clayey or mossy, much of it very wet, 
yet generally deep and well adapted for grazing. Rather 
less than one-seventh of the entire area is in tillage ; 
nearly 800 acres are under wood ; and almost all the 
rest is pastoral or waste. Castle-Gilmour stood near 
the right bank of Minnick Water, Kemps Castle on the 
left bank of Euchan Water ; and other antiquities are 
part of the Deil's Dyke running S of the Nith, a cran- 
noge in Black or Sanquhar Loch, and remains of barrows, 
stene circles, etc. The glens and moors were the fre- 
quent retreat of the persecuted Covenanters. The Kev. 
Andrew Thomson, D.D. (1779-1831), an eminent Edin- 
burgh minister, was horn in the former manse ; and a 
yet more DIustrious native, the ' Admirable ' Crichton 
(1560-83), was born in Elliock House. The Duke of 
Buccleuch holds more than five-sixths of the entire 
rental, Mr Veitch about one-ninth, and the rest is mostly 
divided among three. Since 1861 giving off the quoad 
sacra parish of Wanlockhead, Sanquhar is in the pres- 
bytery of Penpont and the synod of Dumfries ; the 
living is worth £490. Four schools— Sanquhar public, 
the Crichton (founded 1821), Minnick Bridge, and 
Wanlockhead — with respective accommodation for 258, 
160, 66, and 136 children, had (1884) an average attend- 
ance of 130, 147, 29, and 144, and grants of £106, 6s., 
£130, 7s., £25, 0s. 6d., and £120, lis. Valuation (1860) 
£14,135, (1885) £15,044. Pop. (1801) 2350, (1831) 
3268, (1851) 4071, (1861) 3569, (1871) 3038, (1881) 3109, 
of whom 2255 were in the ecclesiastical parish.— Ord. 
Sur., sh. 15, 1864. See the Rev. Dr J. Moir Porteous' 
God's Treasure-House in Scotland (Lond. 1876). 

Sanquhar House. See Forres. 

Sarclet, a small fishing village in Wick parish, Caith- 
ness, 5 miles S of Wick town. 

Sark, a small river in the extreme SE of Dumfries- 
shire. It is formed by the confluence of Woodside or 
All-for-nought Burn, tracing the northern boundary of 
Half-Morton, and Hall Burn, out of Canonbie ; and it 
winds 11 J miles in a southerly and a south-south-westerly 
direction to the head of the Solway Firth. For the first 
3| miles it divides Half-Morton from Canonbie ; and 
aiterwards, over a distance of 7J miles, it divides Half- 
Morton and Gretna from Cumberland. Its sources lie 


among the lower declivities of the Eskdale Hills ; but by 
far the greater part of its course is across either a low and 
beautiful plain or along the skirts of the Solway Moss. 
It yields lair trout-fishing ; but during a comparatively 
dry summer it almost ceases to exist. — Ord. Sur., shs. 
10, 6, 1864-63. 

Sark, The Black, a rivulet of SE Dumfriesshire, 
rising at Burnfoot Hill, near Sarkshiels, in the parish 
of Kirkpatrick-Fleming, and flowing south-eastward 
through that parish, and through Half-Morton and 
Gretna, to the Sark, f mile above Springfield. 

Sauchie, an estate, with a mansion and a ruined 
fortalice, in St Ninians parish, Stirlingshire, 3 miles 
SSW of Stirling. At the death of his cousin, Mr Ram- 
say, in 1865, it passed, with Barnton, to Sir Alex- 
ander Charles Gibson-Maitland, Bart., of Clifton Hall, 
whose great-grandfather, the Hon. Gen. Alexander 
Maitland, received the baronetcy in 1818, and was the 
fifth son of Charles, sixth Earl of Lauderdale. Accord- 
ingly his son, Sir James Ramsay-Gibson -Maitland, 
present and fourth Bart. (b. 184S ; sue. 1876), is a 
claimant, since August 1884, to the earldom of Lauder- 
dale. (See Thirlestane Castle.) He holds 6023 
acres in Stirling and 4505 in Edinburgh shire, valued 
at £5809 and £14,246 per annum. 

The Battle of Sauchie, called also the Battle of 
Sauchieburn or Stirling, was fought on 11 June 1488, 
between James III. and his insurgent nobles. The two 
armies met on a tract of ground, now called Little 
Canglar, on the E side of the streamlet of Sauchie Burn, 
about 1J mile from the field of Bannockburn. The 
malcontent army was 18,000 strong, and was ranged in 
three divisions, commanded respectively by Lords Home 
and Hailes, by Lord Gray, and by officers acting as 
prompters to the Prince of Scotland, a youth of 15. 
The King's army is variously stated in strength, and 
was also disposed in three divisions, commanded, we are 
not told under what arrangement, by the Earls of Men- 
teith and Crawford, the Lords Erskine, Graham, Ruth- 
ven, and Maxwell, and the second Lord Lyndsay of the 
Byres. The King was armed cap-a-pU, and mounted on 
a spirited grey charger, which Lord Lyndsay had given 
him that very day, with the assurance that he might at 
any moment trust his safety to its swiftness and sure- 
footedness, provided only he could keep his seat. The 
malcontents saw their first line driven back at the 
onset ; but, the second speedily giving support, all 
became firm and composed ; and they soon not only 
recovered their ground, but pushed the first and the 
second lines of the royalists back to the third. The 
King, who was not noted for courage, soon lost the 
little he possessed ; and — previous to the striking of 
any decisive blow — put spurs to his horse, and galloped 
off, with the view, it is thought, of saving himself on 
one of Sir Andrew Wood's two ships, which lay in the 
Forth near Alloa. After the King's flight, his troops 
continued to fight with great bravery ; but, eventually 
finding themselves unable to stand their ground, and 
disheartened by a flying rumour of the King's death, 
they began to retreat towards Stirling, and were allowed 
to retire without much pursuit. The victorious army 
lay all night upon the field, and next day marched to 
Linlithgow. The number of slain on both sides must 
have been great, as the action was of several hours' 
duration, and stubbornly maintained ; and, on the 
royalists' side, it included the Earl of Glencairn, and 
some other persons of high rank. James himself, in 
his flight, was on the point of crossing the Bannock 
Burn at the village of Milton, when his horse started at 
a pitcher which a woman, in the act of drawing water, 
dropped at the sight of the furious rider. The King 
was thrown to the ground, and sustained such damage 
from his fall and the weight of his armour, that he 
fainted away. He was removed, by the miller and his 
wife, into a mill in the immediate vicinity, and treated 
by them, though ignorant of his rank, with every 
possible care. When he had somewhat recovered, he 
told them who he was ; and, supposing himself dying, 
called for a priest. The miller's wife flew in search of 



a ghostly adviser, and, meeting a party of the malcon- 
tents who had observed the King's flight, and were 
tracking his steps, entreated that, if there were a priest 
among them, he would stop and 'shrive his majesty.' 
' I, ' said one of them, whose name is not certainly 
known, ' I am a priest : lead me to him.' Being intro- 
duced, he approached on his knees under pretence of 
reverence, treacherously ascertained that the King 
thought he would recover if he had the aid of a sur- 
geon, and then stabbed him again and again to the 
heart. 'Beaton's Mill,' a small old house, with crow- 
stepped gables, but a mill no longer, is pointed out as 
the scene of this tragedy. The King was buried in 
Cambuskenneth Abbey. — Orel. Sur., sh. 39, 1869. 

Sauchie, a village in the detached portion of Clack- 
mannan parish, with a station on the Devon Valley 
railway, 1J mile N by E of Alloa, under which it has 
a post office. A church here, built as a chapel of ease 
in 1841-42, was raised to quoad sacra status in 1877. 
Pop. of q. s. parish (1881) 2935, of whom 1252 were in 
Alloa parish and 1683 in Clackmannan. — Orel. Sur., 
sh. 39, 1869. 

Sauchieburn. See Satjchie. 

Saughs, Water of. See West Water. 

Saughton, New, or Cammo, a mansion of 1693, with 
finely wooded grounds, in Cramond parish, Midlothian, 
5 furlongs SSW of Cramond Bridge, and 2h. miles WSW 
of Davidsons Mains. 

Saulseat or Soulseat, an ancient parish and an abbey 
of Wigtownshire. The parish was a vicarage under 
the monks of the abbey ; and, about the middle of 
the 17th century it was incorporated with Inch. Its 
ecclesiastical revenues are divided between the minister 
of Inch and the minister of Portpatrick. The abbey 
stood on a peninsula of Saulseat Loch (4 x J to 2J furl.), 
in the vicinity of the present manse (1838) of Inch, 3 
miles ESE of Stranraer. The building was in ruins in 
1684, when Symson wrote his Description of Galloway; 
and it is now commemorated only by some grassy 
mounds. Its burying-ground contains some curious 
gravestones, one