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Full text of "The ordnance manual for the use of the officers of the Confederate States Army"



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I 



THE 



ORDNANCE MANUAL 



THE USE OF THE OFFICERS 



CONFEDERATE STATES ARMY. 



PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF COL. J. GORGAS, CHIEF OF ORDNANCE, AND 
APPROVED BY THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 



FIRST EDITION, 



CHARLESTON : 

EVANS A COGSWELL, NO. 3 BROAD STREET. 
1863. 



Ktamb t Cogswell, PujfTnu, 

No. S TtWOAlt 8TBUT, ClARUSTMt. 8. C. 



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PREFACE. 



Tliis Manual ik adopted, with some necessary changes, omissions, and 
alterations, from the Ordnance Manual of the United States service of 
1861, prepared under the immediate direction of Major Laidi.ky. The 
material of the two 8erA*ices is. of course, nearly identical, differing only 
in the shape of the new Columbiads and the Rifle (inns, and the addi- 
tion to our service of the Mountain Rifle of 2.25 inch. 

It may be added that the labor of Ordnance ofiicers now in the ser- 
vice of the Confederate States, has contributed to this new edition of 
the United States Manual. 

Ordnance Office, 

Richmond, Va., 1862. 
i 



# 



^43859 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 
in 2010 witii funding from 
Duke University Libraries 



littp://www.arcliive.org/details/ordnancemanualfoOOconf 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAOB 

Chapter I. — Orpnance 9 

II. — Shot and Shells 29 

III. — Artillery Carriages 38 

IV. — Machines, etc., FOR Sieob and Garrison Service 104 

V. — Implements and Equipments 121 

VI. — Artillery Harness and Cavalry Equipments 136 

VII. — Paints, Lackers, etc 162 

VIII. — Small Arms, Swords, and Accoutrements 170 

IX.— Gunpowder 223 

X. — Ammunition and Fireworks 242 

XI. — Equipment op Batteries for Field, Sieob and Garrison 

Service 316 

XII. — Mechanical Manceuvres 358 

XIII. — Artillery Practice 367 

XIV.— Materials 389 

XV. — Miscellaneous Information 428 



* 



:^43859 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATB 

OUNS 1 

Field Gcn-carriaoe 2 

Caisson and Limber 3 

Travelling Forge 4 

Battery-wagon 5 

Moi'NTAiN Artillery 6 

Siege QuN-rARRiAGE « 7 

Mortar-wagon 8 

Barbette Ghn-carriage (wooden) 9 

Casemate Gin-carrtage " 10 

Casemate Gin-carriage for 24-pdr. Howitzer (wooden) 11 

Parts of Garrison and Sea-coast Carriages (iron) 12 

Barbette Carriages, Front-pintle (iron) 13 

Barbette Carriages, Centre-pintle " 14 

Casemate Carriages (iron) 15 

Field Gin Ifi 

Casemate Gin 17 

Sling-cart 18 

Machines 19 

Artillery Saddles 20 

Artillery Harness 21 

Parts of Cavalry Equipments 22 

Cavalry Equipments 23 

Parts of Muskets 24 

25 

Small Arms 2fi 

Packing Small Arms 27 

Swords and Sabres 28 

Apparatus for Proving Gunpowder 29 

Lightning Conductors 30 

Ammunition 31 

Ammunition Chests 32 

Knots 33 



ERRATA AND REMARKS. 

Page 20. FirKt paragraph — No iteel guns have yet boon made in the Coofederat« 
StatcB. 

" 30. Third line from bottom, for "wj^ich" read "with." 

" 149. Not« — The uao of the "Jenifer" tree ia discontinued. 

" 170. The calibre .677 baa been adopted for all infantry arms of the C. 8. ser- 
vice. 

" 171. Third line from bottom — The Manaal of 1891 is simply a republication 
of the r. S. Manual of 1S50. 

" 176. Twelfth lino— Fill up blank with "204." 

" 217. Tbc cavalry Fubrc belt, and all other designs involving the xxfe of the 
eagle, coiiiipiruously. arc fi>r the present omitted. 

" 265. For •'23-pdr." read " 32-pdr." 

" 285. Fifth lino from bottom — read "scoured" for "secured." 

" 368. First paragraph, la«t line — " Heavy Artillery" of the U. S. serrioe. 



ORDNANCE MANUAL 



Chapter First. 



ORDNANCE. 

All ordnance for the land acrvice is made by private contractors, under the direc- 
tion of artillery officers on ordnance duty. The kinds and calibres used are as fol- 
lows : 



KIND OF ORDNANCE. 



Guns. 



Mountain Rifle 
Field , 



Siege and garrison. 
Sea-coast 



Columbiads 



' Mountaih . 
Field 



Howitzers 



Mortars 



Garrison and siege. 

Sea-coast 

Siege 

I Sea-coast 

[ Coehorn 



2.25-in 

3-inch (rifled).. 

6-pounder 

12-pounder 

12-pounder 

4.62-inch (rifled). 

12-pounder 

18 " 

24 " 

32 " 

42 " 

8-inch 



10 " 

10 " 

15 " 

12-pounder. 
12 " 
12 " 
24 " 
24-pounder. 
8-inch . . . . 



10 " 

S-inch . . . . 

10 " 

10 " 

13 " 

24-pounder. 



MATERIAL. 



Bronze . . 
Cast-iron 
Bronze . . 



Cast-iron 



Bronze . . 

Iron 

Bronze .. 

Cast-iron 



Bronze. 



MODEL. 



1862 
1861 
1841 
1841 
Napoleon. 
1862 
1839 
1839 
1839 
1841 
1841 
1844 
1861 
1844 
1861 
1862 
1841 
1862 
1841 
1844 
1841 
1841 
1841 
1841 
1841 
1841 
1844 
1841 
1841 



There are, in some of the forts, guns of an older model than the above. The 
42-pounder gun, and the 8 and 10-inch sea-coast howitzers, are suppressed by order 
of February 9, 1861. 



10 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Some of the R and 10-inch columbiRilo hare been riflp<l : the fir»t to a (•■lihre r>f 
6.8 inch; the second, 6.4 inch. Their fre(|uent bnrsting hag caused thiw clans of 
rifle gun to be discontinoed. A few of the 8-inch siege h«wit»ers were alto rifled, 
for experiment, with a bore of 4.ft2 inch. 

Tlic formn of the several pieces of ordnance are shown in the Plates 1, 2. «, 7, », 
10, 11 and 14. 

Ounx and howitzers take their denominations from the weights of their solid shot 
in round numbers, including the 42-pnundcr ; larger pieces, rifle gvns, and mortars, 
from the diameter of the bure. 

DEFINITIONS. 

Cateable. — The knob on the end of the breech of a gun ; it is composed of the 
Arno6 and the ncc A'; sometimes the_^//ff. 

Breech. — The mass of solid metal behind the bottom of the bore, extending to 
the cascable. 

lime of the hrrech. — The rear surface of the breech. 

Base-line. — A line triwcd around the pun in rear of the rent. 

Bate-riiKj. — A projecting liand of metal adjoining the base of the breech, and 
connected with the body of the gun by a concave moulding. 

Reinforce. — The thickest part of the body of thi- gun, in front of the base-ring 
or lino: if there is more than one reinforce, that which if next to the base-ring i« 
called the /ir«t reinforce ; the other, the second reinforce. 

Reinforcc-hand. — A band at the junction of the fir-'t and second reinforces. 

Chute. — The conical part of the gun in front of the reinforce. 

Aitraijal and filletJi. — The moulding at the front end of the chase. 

Chaic-riny. — A band at the front end of the chase. 

Neck. — The smallest part of the piece, in front of the chase, 

Sicell of the muzzle. — The largest part of the gun, in front of the neck. 

Muzzle-hand. — A band which takes the place of the swell of the muzzle in some 
guns. 

Fact of the piece. — The plane terminating the gnn at the mnizle. 

Trunnions. — Two cylinders, near the centre of gravity of the gun, by which it is 
supported on its carriage. The axes of the trunnions are in a line perpendicular to 
the axis of the bore, and, in our guns, in the same plane with that axis. 

Rimhase. — The shoulder at the base of the trunnion. 

Bore. — All the part bored out, including the chamber, and the junction of the 
bore with the chamber. 

Chamber. — The small part of some bores; it contains the charge of powder. 

Gomer chamber. — A conical chamber which is joined to the cylinder of the bora 
by a portion of a spherical surface. 

True icindage. — The difference lietween the true diameters of the bore and of the 
ball. 

Lock-piece. — A block of metal at the outer opening of the vent, to facilitate 
attaching a lock to the gun. 



NOMENCLATURE. H 

Kntural lin' of tight. — A line drawn in a vertical plane through the axis of the 
piece, from the highest point of the bape-ring to the highect point of the swell of 
the musszle, or to the top o'f the sight, if there be one. 

NnturnI angle of sight. — The angle which the natural line of sight makes with the 
axis of the piece. 

Di^jiftrt.— The difference of the semidiameters of the base-ring and the swell of 
the mnz/.le, or the muzzle-band. It is, therefore, the tangent of the natural angle of 
sight, to a railius equal to the distance from the rear of the base-ring to the highest 
point of the swell of the muzzle, the sight, or the front of the muzKle-band, as the 
case may be. 

Preponderance. — The excess of weight of the part in rear of the trunnions over 
that in front: it is measured by the weight which the breech bears on a balance, 
the point of support resting at the rear of the base-ring, at the base-line, or at 
the bottom of the ratchet, the gun being suspended freely on the axis of the 
trunnions. 

HaniUet. — Flat rings cast on some bronze pieces: they are placed with their 
centres over the centre of gravity of the piece. 

Ear. — A lug of metal cast on some mortars: it is attached to a clevis by a bolt, 
and constitutes a handle. 

NOMENCLATURE. 

Guns of the Model of 1861. 

PartK. — The bore, a cylinder terminated by curved surfaces, the chamber. The 
breech: the caacable, the knob, the neck. The body of the gnu: the reinforce, the 
chase, the muzzle, the face, the trunnions, the rimbases. 

3foiildings. — None. 

CoLUMBiADS. — Add to the above the ratchet ; the sight-jyiece. 

The vent is in the vertical plane of the axis, perpendicular to it, and enters the 
bore at the termination of the cylinder of the bore, or in front of it. 

Guns of the Model of 1841 and 1844. 

The same as for guns of model of 1861, with the following exceptions: 

Parts. — The bore is terminated by a plane perpendicular to the axis, united with 
the sides (in profile) by an arc of a circle, the radius of which is one-fourth of the 
diameter of the bore at the bottom. The vent is in the vertical plane passing 
through the axis, and makes an angle of 80° with it. It enters the bore at a dis- 
tance from the bottom equal to one-fourth the diameter of the bore. 

Add the second reinforce, the swell of the muzzle. 

Mouldings, — Add the filet of the cascable, the base-ring, the lock-piece, the chatte- 
ring, the muzzle-mould tugs, ttvo echinus. The rimbases are cylindrical. 

Field Guns. — The same as above, except as follcws: Omit the se-ond reinfone, 
lock-piece, chase-ring, two echinus, and add vent-p>ifC€, wrought-coppur, screwed in, 
for bronze guns. The astragal, the fillets, the lip, the fillet, the handles for ti.c 
12-pounders. 



12 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



CoLUMBiADS. — Same as guns of the model of 1841 and 1844, except as follows: 
Bore, add the chomber cylindrical, terminated by a hemisphere ; the junction of tht 
bore with chamber conical; add the ratchet, the tight-piece ; omit the lock-piece. 

Sea-coA8T HowiTZEua. — Same as guns of model of 1844, except as follows: 
Bore, add the chamber cylindrical, ih^ junction of the bore with chamber conical. 

Moulding!. — Add the reinforce^hand. 

SiKQK Howitzers. — Same as sea-coast howitzers, except as follows: for the^rtt 
reinforce, substitute the recesi; the base of breech is the frustum of a cone ; omit 
the chase-rinff, the »trell of the muzzle; add the muzzle-band, the fillet. 

FiKLD Howitzers. — Same as sea-coast howitzers, except as follows: Bate of 
breech, a frustum of a cone; omit lock-piece, reinforce -band, itotU of muzzle; add 
muzzle-blind, JxUet, handlen, except for the 12-pounder, which has none; vent-piece, 
wrought-coppcr. screwed in. 

Mountain Howitzers. — Same as field 12-pounder, except for reinforce read 
recent. 

Sea-coast Mortars. — The bore, the chamber conical, terminated by a hemii- 
phcrc ; the junction of the bore with chamber (in profile), the arc of a circle. The 
body of the mortar, the breech, portion of a sphere; the fruniiion*, at the end of the 
breech ; the rimbases, the muzzle, the face, the muzzle-band, the ear. Vent at right 
angles to the a.rit of the bore, in the vertical plane through it. 

Siege Mortars. — Same as the sea-coast, except the rhamhtr, which is " Oomer," 
terminuted at the bottom by a plane, the angles rounded by arcs of circles. Add 
tnuzzle-Jillel ; no ear. 

Guns of the Model of 1839. 

Same as those of 1841, except the muzzle-mouldingi, which consist of an erhtnut, 
& fillet, and a cavctto. 

Grooves of the Rifled Guns. 



Number of grooves 

Width 

Depth " 

Twist " 

Width of lands 



I 



62-inch rifled guns 7 



3 

4.62 
3 
62 



4.62 
3 



" 0.5 inch. 

" 0.4 " 

" A.. 0.1 " 

" 0.07 " 

" 1 turn in 19 feeC 

" 1 " 14 " 

" 1.87 inch. 

" 1.5 " 



to designate a piece of ordnamck. 
State the kind, the calibre (in inches if it be foreign ordnance), the material, the 
weight, the inspector's initials, the number, the country in which it was made, the 
date, the place of fabrication, the founder's name, the name inscribed on it, iti 
condition for service, the kind of chamber, if any : whether it has a vent-piece, a 
lock-piece, handles; the ornaments, and any particular marks which may serve to 
identify it. 



PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS OF GUNS. 



13 



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ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



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C0LUMBIAD8 AND HOWITZERS. 



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16 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



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MATERIALS FOR ORDNANCE. 17 

MATERIALS FOR ORDNANCE. 

Bronze. 

Bronze for cannon (commonly called brass), consists of 90 parts of copper and 
10 of tin, allowing a variation of one part of tin, more or less. It is more fusible 
than copper, much less so than tin, more sonorous, harder, and less susceptible of 
oxidation, and much less ductile tlian either of its components. When the mixture 
is well made, the metal is homogeneous : the fracture is of a> uniform yellow color, 
with an even grain. The specific gravity of bronze is about 8.700, being greater 
than the mean of the specific gravities of copper and tin. 

Pure cojtper is of a red color, inclining to yellow ; it has a fine metallic lustre. 
The fracture of cast-copper is even grained ; that of a forged bar exhibits a short, 
even, close grain, of a silky appearance; it is strong, very ductile ami very mal- 
leable. The greater the purity of copper, the more malleable it is, and the finer 
the grain. Specific gravity, from 8. COO to 9.000. The copper of commerce is 
impure, freijucntly containing oxygen, silver, iron, lead, tin, zinc, antimony and 
arsenic. It should be rejected, for the manufacture of guns, if it contain sulphur 
in an appreciable (luantity ; more than one-thousandth of arsenic and antimony 
united; more than about three-thousandths of lead, iron, or oxygen ; if it contain 
more than about five-thousandths of foreign substances altogether; or if, near these 
limits, it give bad results when subjected to the mechanical tests of hammering, 
rolling and wire-drawinj^. 

Pure tiv is of a white color, a little darker than silver: it is very malleable, and 
susceptible of being rolled into thin sheets; it is not very ductile; it is soft, and 
when in rods or bars is bent backward and forward, it gives a peculiar crackling 
sound, the distinctness of which is in proportion to the purity of the tin. Specific 
gravity, 7.290 to 7..320. 

Tin, for gun-metal, should be rejected, if, when run into elongated drops, it have 
not a smooth and reflecting surface, without any considerable sign of rough spots; 
if, when analyzed, it contain more than about one-thousandth of arsenic and anti- 
mony united; more than about three-thousandths of lead or iron; or more than 
four-thousandths of foreign substances. 

All bronze ought to be rejected which contains sulphur in an appreciable amount; 
which contains more than about one-thous.andth of arsenic and antimony united ; 
more than about three-thousandths of lead, iron or zinc; or, in all, more than 
about five-thousandths of foreign substance^. 

Notice should bo taken of the appearance of the fracture of specimens : it some- 
times gives indications sufficient to authorize the rejection of certain bronzes full 
of sulphur or oxides. 

Analysis of Bronze. 

Tin. — Nitric acid dissolves the copper, and converts the tin into an insoluble per- 
oxide. Put into a small glass matrass 10 parts (say 100 grains) of bronze, in small 



18 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

parlieleg, and 80 parts of very pure nitric a«id, at 22° Beaumo's hydrometer (spo- 
cific gravity, 1.180); beat it gradually to cl>\il!itiou, and continue that heat »intil 
red vaporB ceaso to come over. Let it settle ; jiour off the lif|uor, and add to the 
oxide of tin 20 parts of nitric acid; let it boil ten minutes; decant the liquor 
again, and repeat the same operation ; dilute the first portion decanted with 2 ui- 3 
time? its volume of water, and pass it through a filter ; do the same with the second 
and third portions. Then throw the oxide of tin on a double filter, tlie two parts 
of which are equal ; wash the precipitate on the filter until the water that comea off 
no longer gives a blue color when heated with ammonia, and due* nut change the 
color of litmus paper. Sproad the filt .r on paper, and dry it perfectly in a stove or 
a sand-bath. Weigh it, adding the exterior filter to the weights, in order to ascer- 
tain the quantity of peroxide of tin which remains on the upper filter; 127 parts 
of peroxide give 100 parts of pure tin. 

CopPEn. — Collect the nitric acid solutions obtained in the process described 
above: evaporate them to dryness; calcine and weigh the black rcsi<luum ; it is 
the oxido of topper; 100 grains of oxide of copper contains 79.82 gr.<. of copper. 
Or, dissolve in a large matrass with a narrow neck, about 1.1 gr. of bronze in pure 
aqua regia, adding to it about 0.1 gr. of lead. Pour ii\to the solution an excess of 
ammonia; then, keeping the liquid constantly boiling, pour into it from a gradu- 
ated vessel a solution of monosulphuret of sodium, until the liquid becomes entirely 
colorless. From the volume of sulphuret used, the amount of copjier in the liquid 
can be determined. 

SuLPHTR. — In boiling bronze in nitric acid or aqua regia, a jiart of the sulphur 
is converted into sulphuric acid, whic'h remains in the solution : the rest collects on 
the surface in yellow globules. These globules are collected and weighed. 

The sulphuric acid is precipitated as a sulphate of baryta by the chloride of 
barium, and is weighed after being washed and dried: 100 grains of the sulphate 
of baryta contains 13.797 grs. of sulphur. 



Mechanical Tests. 

Chemical analysis is not sufficient to give a correct estimate of the qualities of 
all bronzes. In other words, good bronzes according to the results of analysis may 
be very inferior, deficient in strength, on account of oxides interspersed between 
the molecules, or want of homogeneitjt 

Bronzes should be subjected to fusion in a close crucible ; to hammering into 
thin plates, and to wire-drawing, both before and after fusion ; if it improves in 
these particulars by the fusion, a comparison with the analysis will show whether 
the improvement is due to the volatilization of certain metals or to the decomposi- 
tion of oxides. The results obtained by hammering and wire-draning, should be 
compared with those made on bronze known to be- of tLe best quality. 



MATERIALS FOR ORDNANCE. 19 

Cast-iron. 

(See also Chapter XIV.) 

Iron for making cannon should be smelted with the greatest possible care, with 
charcoal, and a blast of a constant temperature of 125° to 300°, depending upon 
the ore used. All the materials which enter the smelting furnace should be of the 
be.'rt and purest quality, should be kept drj', be supplied at regular intervals of 
time, be regularly and uniformly mixed together in the sraelting-furnaee, and, as 
far as practicable, rendered independent of the vicissitudes of the weatlier, that the 
gi"catest possible uniformity in the iron produced from day to day may bo obtained. 

The most important quality of gun-iron, after a medium strength of 25,000 to 
30,000 pounds per square inch, is loiiformity, without which, no two guns can bt 
made alike or any idea formed of what kind of guns are being made. 

The quality of iron in the pig is generally judged of by its strength, and by the 
appearance and feel of the freshly-fractured surface. It should be soft, j'ielding 
easily to the file or chisel ; its fracture should present a rough, jagged surface, of 
uniform appearance, a dark gray color, a brilliant aspect, and crystals under 
medium size, angular, and sharp to the touch. 

But iron for making guns requires to be still further tested before it can be 
known, even by the most practiced eye and judgment, to possess all of the essential 
qualities of a good gun-iron. These qualities are tenacity, elasticity, extensibility 
and incompressibility : that iron will be the best which has them all to the greatest 
degree, and the absence of any one will render the iron unfit for guns. The exist- 
ence of these qualities is best determined by actual experiment on specimens cut 
from castings of the size of the gun to be made. 

The density is indicative, to some extent, of the tenacity, elasticity and incom- 
pi-essibility of the iron ; but the density will increase after the tenacity and exten- 
sibility have reached their maximum. 

When cast into cannon, iron should be above medium in hardness, but yielding 
readily to the file or chisel, and offering no groat difficulty in turning and boring. 
Its color should be a bright, lively gray, showing incipient mottle in small guns, 
and becoming more marked as the size of the gun, and time of cooling, increase. 
The structure should be uniform, close and compact; crystals small, with acute 
angles, and sharp to the touch; the fractured surface uneven, rough and jagged, 
with many fragments strongly adhering. 

Before making guns from an iron which has never been tried for this purpose, a 
sample-gun of the calibre of the gun to be made should first endure a satisfactory 
proof with service charges. 

The mean specific gravity of gun-iron is about 7.248, and the average tenacity 
about 30,000 per square inch. 



20 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Wroxight-iron and Steel. 

Experimental guns have been made of wrought-iron and steel, giving satisfactory 
results, and an order has been given for guns, to be made of the former material. 
The superior strength of these materials, and the evenness, smoothness and hard- 
ness of surface of which they arc susceptible, render it probable that these are the 
materials of which our field rifle guns will soon be made, exclusively. 

INSPECTION OF ORDNANCE. 

Instruments. 

1 &'l<ir-yau</e. — This is an instrument for measuring the diameter of the bore of a 
gun, at any part. 

The head is of brass, with four steel sockets for the measuring-points. Two of 
the sockets are soldered fast into ^the head ; the other two are movable. The 
uiMvable sockets and points are pushed out by moans of two inclined cylinders, 
which are fastened to a stem, forming a conical slider. This slider tapers 0..35 
inches in a length of 2.2 inches ; so that by pushing the slider the 35th part of this 
length (about .06 inches), the distance between* the movable points is incrcai>od 
.01 inches. 

The slider is connected with a square steel rod, consisting of three parts, which 
arc screwed together, according to the length of bore to be measured. This rod 
slides through a brass tube, which is also made in three pieces. 

The tube is graduated, m inches and quarters, commencing at the measuring- 
points, so as to indicate the distance of the latter from the muzzle of the gun. 

The handle is of wood, attached to a brass cylinder, or socket, through which the 
sliding-rod passes. In the tube of the handle there is a slit, on the side of which a 
scale is marked, to indicate the movements of the measuring-points. Each joint of 
the long tube has a mark, made on a small plate of silver, which shows the place of 
the zero on the scale when the measuring-points are adjusted to the true diameter 
of the bore. In this position the handle is fixed on the sliding-rod by means of a 
screw-clamp. 

A riiig-i/aiige, for each calibre, is used for adjusting the instrument for use. 

A >•(-»«, in the form of a T, is placed in the mouth of the gun, to keep the instru- 
ment in the axis of the bore. This rest has three slides, which can be adjusted to 
the diSFerent sizes of bore; the upright branch is movable, for convenience of 
pa^^king. 

The star-gauge, its points and rest, are packed in one box, and the ring-ganges in 
another. 

2. The cyJinder-stnff. — This is a round staflF, made of mahogany-, or other hard 
wood. It is in two parts, which are joined together by brass sockets and screws; 
each part has also a brass socket and screw at the outer end, to receive the cylinder- 
gauge, guide-plate, and measuring-point. The staff is graduated, in inches and 
tenths, on a strip of brass let into it, on one side. These graduations are arranged 



INSPECTION OF ORDNANCE. 21 

to read the distances from the extremity of the measuring-point, when it is screwed 
on the staff. 

The cylinder-staff is supported, at the muzzle of the piece, by a hulf tompion of 
wood, having in the centre a groove of the size of the staff. The rent for the star- 
gauge may be used also for this purpose. 

3. The cylinder-yawje is a hollow cylinder of wrought or cast-iron, turned to the 
exact minimum (or true) diameter of the bore. The length of the cylinder is equal 
to its diameter. It has cross-heads, at right angles to each other: one with a smooth 
hole of the same diameter as the cylinder-staff; the other tapped for the screw of 
the staff-socket. Weight for 8 in., 27 lbs. ; for 10 in., 40 lbs. 

4. The guide-plate is a circular iron plate 0.2 inch thick, and of the minimum 
diameter of the bore; it has a hole in the centre, with a thread by which it is 
screwed to the cylinder-staff j it serves to direct the measuring-point to the centre 
of the bottom of the bore. 

6. The nteaaurinij-pi)int is screwed on the end of the cylinder-staff, over the guide- 
plate, to measure the depth of the bore : it is of iron, cylindrical in shape, so far 
as it screws on the end of the staff, and tapering down to the diameter of 0.75 inch. 

6. The trnnnion-iinnije is an iron ring of the diameter of the trunnions, which 
must pass over them and fit closely. The exterior diameter of this gauge serves to 
verify that of the rimbases. 

7. The tnninioii-nqurtre is a double square of wood, the distance between whose 
branches is the same as that between the rimbases of the gun; in the centre is a 
pointed slidiug plate, with a thumb-screw to fasten it; the lower edges of the 
branches, which are shod with iron, are in the same plane, parallel to the upper 
edge of the connecting piece, so that when the square is placed with its l)ranches 
resting on the truuuions. the upper edge of the connecting piece is parallel to their 
axis. Each branch has also an iron plate projecting perpendicularly from one side to 
rest on the top of the trunnions. It is used to ascertain the position of the trun- 
nion^B in relation to the axis of the bore and to each other. 

8. The trunnion-rule, for measuring the distance from the rear of the base-ring to 
the rear of the trunnions. 

9. Callipers, to measure diameters. 

10. A standard scale, for verifying other instruments. 

11. A wooden rule, to measure exterior lengths. 

12. The vent-gauges are two pointed pieces of steel wire, 0.005 in. greater and less 
than the true diameter of the vent. 

\?>. The veiit-scarchcr is a hooked steel wire, about half the diamctur of tht 
vent. 

14. A rammer-head, shaped to the form of the bottom of the bore, and furnished 
with a staff, is used to ascertain the interior position of the vent. 

15. A mirror; siyerni candles ; beeswax. 

16. Rammer, sponge, and priming-unre. 

17. Figure and letter stumps, to affix the required marks. 



22 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Inspection of Ordnance. 

Cannon proscntud for inspection and proof are placed on skills for the conve- 
nience of turning and moving tlicni easily. They are first examined carefully on 
tlio exterior, to ascertain whether there be any flaws or cracks in the metal, wlictlier 
thoy be finished as prescribed, and to judge, as well as practicable, of thc()unlity of 
the metal. They must not be covered with paint, lacker, or any other composition, 
ir it be HHcertained that an attempt has been made to conceal any flaws or cavities 
'j.V plugging, or filling them with cement or any substance, the gun is rejected with- 
out further e.xamination. After this preliminary examination, the inspector pro- 
coeds to verify the dimensions of the piece. The interior of the hare is first 
examined by reflecting the sun's rays into it from the mirror; or, if the sun bo 
obscured, by a lighted candle or a lamp placed on the end of a rod and inserted into 
the bore. The cylinder-gntigc, screwed on the stafl", is then jtushed gently to the 
bottom of the cylindrical part of the bore and withdrawn; it must go to the bottom, 
or the bore is too small. 

The hnre of the piece is then measured with the star-gauge. The measurements 
should bo made at intervals of I inch in the part of the bore occupied by the shot; 
at intervals of 1 inch in the rest of the bore in rear of the trunnions, and of about 
1 calibre from the trunnions to the muzzle. 

The position of the triitinioiig, with regard to the axis of the bore and to each 
other, is next ascertained. 

To verify the poeition of the axis of the trunnions. — Set the trunnion-square on the 
trunnions, and see that the lower edges of its branches touch them throughout their 
whole length ; push the slide down till it touches the surface of the piece, ami secure 
it in that position bj- the thumb-screw: turn the gun over, and apply the trunnion- 
square to the opposite side, and if, when the point of the slide touches the surface of 
the piece, the lower edges of the branches rest on the trunnions, the axis of the 
trunnions is in the same plane with the axis of the bore; if they do not touch the 
trunnions, their axis is above the axis of the bore by half the space between ; and if 
the edges touch the trunnions, and the point of the glide does not touch the surface 
of the piece, their axis is below the axis of the bore. ' If the nlii/nment of the trun- 
nions be accurate, the edges of the trunnion-square will fit on them when applied to 
different parts of their surface: their diameter and cylindrical form, and the diam- 
oier of the rimbases, are verified with the trunnion-gauge. 

To ascertain the length of the bore. — Screw the gnide-plute and weaturimj-point on 
the cylinder-staff, and push them to the bottom of the bore : jilace a half tompion in 
the muzzle, and rest the staff in its groove; apply a straight-edge to the face of the 
muzzle, and read the length of the bore on the staff. The exterior lengths are 
measured by the rule, or by a profile, the accuracy of which is first verified. The 
exterior diameters are measured with the callipers and graduated rule. The position 
of the interior orifice of th^ rent is found from the mark made on the rammer-head 



INSPECTION OF ORDNANCE. 23 

by the veiit-gauf/e inserted in the vent, \7hile the rammer-head is held against the 
bottom of the bore ; two impressions are taken. The position of the exterior orifice 
of the vent is also verified. The rent is examined with gauges, and with the vent- 
Hcarcher, to ascertain if there arc any cavities in it. 

All bronze ordnance should be bored under size from .04 to .06 inch, and after 
proof, reamed out to jthe exact calibre. Whitish ipntx show a separation of the tin 
from the copper, and, if extensive, should condemn the piece. A great variation 
from the true weight, which the dimensions do not account for, shows a defect 
in the alloy. 

In mortars, the dimensions of the chambers, and the form of the breech, may be 
verified with patterns made of plate-iron. 

After the powder proof, the bore is washed and wiped clean, and the bore and 
vent are again examined, .and the bore remeasured. The results of each of the 
measurements and examinations are noted on the inspection report against the 
number of the gun. 

A proper discretion must be exercised in the inspection of ordnance ; such slight 
imperfections as do not injure a piece for service may be disregarded, whilst the 
instructions should be strictly enforced with regard to defects which may impair 
its utility. 



34 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Variations allowed in the Dimensions of Ordnance. 



In the bork 



More than the pre?cribeil dijiraeter 

Less than the preserilicd diameter 

T r Where turned, more or lc!>s 

In exterior J (more 

DIAMETERS. ... 1 Where not turned. . j , .".'.''..'.*"..'...!!! 

f Of the bore, more or less 

From rear of base-line to face of muzzle, morel 

or less I 

Of the breech, including cascable, more or less. ' 

In THE LENGTH . ■{ Of the base-ring, more or less | 

Of the reinforce, more or less j 

Of the chase, including the muzzle, more or less] 

From rear of trunnions to base-line, more or less, i 

in different pieces | 

I Above the axis of the bore 

OF THE AXIS OF j g^j^^ ^^^ ^^j^ ^f ^^^ l,^^^ , 

THE TRUNNIONS (, 

_ f more ' 

In THE LENGTH OF THE TRUNNIONS.. < . i 

Diameter of trunnions, less ! 

In the distance between the rimbases, less I 



In the position 



In the same gun, no variation is allowed in the position or in the 
alignment of the trunnions. 



In the VENT. . 



Depth 

TIES. 



Diameter. . ^ , 
,' ( let-6 

j Position of exterior orifice, more or less. 

[ Position of interior orifice, more or less. 

f In the bore or vent 

I On the exterior surface 



■{ On the trunnions, within one inch of the rim- 
bases 

[ On the trunnions elsewhere 



Inches 
0,02 
.00 
.04 
.10 
.05 
.10 

.10 
.15 
.05 
.10 
.10 

.10 

.(10 
.20 

.10 
.05 
.03 
.05 



.00; 

.00 
.05 
.20 
.00 
.20 

.10 
.20 



GAR- 
RISON, 
ETC. 



Inches 
0.03 
.00 
.05 
.20 
.05 
.20 

.25 
.20 
.05 
.20 
.15 

.20 

.00 
.20 

.10 
.05 
.04 
.05 



.005 

.00 

.05 

.20 

.00 

.25 

.10 
.25 



The whole exterior surfaces of guns, except mortars, are turned in the lathe, or' 
dressed smooth in the parts which cannot be turned. 



PROOF OF ORDNANCE. 
Gunpowder for proving ordnance should be of the best quality, giving not less 
than the standard Initial velocity ; it should be proved immediately before being 
used, unless it shall have been proved within one year previously, and there be no 
reason to suspect that it has become deteriorated. 



PROOF OF ORDNANCE — MARKS. 25 

The caitridf/e-haija are made of cotton or paper, the full diameter of the bore or 
chamber. They arc filled by weight; and, if not filled at the place where the 
guns are proved, each bag should be enveloped in a paper cylinder and cap, 
marked with the weight of powder and its proof qualities. 

The shot must be smooth; free from seams and other inequalities that might 
injure the bore of the piece, and they must be of Uie true diameter given in the 
tables. 

Guns and howitzers are laid with the muzzle resting on a block of wood, and the 
breech on the ground, or on a thick plank, giving the bore a small elevation. 

Jironze pieces are mounted on appropriate carriages or beds. 

J/oit((r8 are mounted on strong wooden frames or iron beds, at an elevation of 
45°, supported by the trunnions. 

In proving iron ordnance, after pricking the cartridge, prime with powder, or a 
tube, and place over the vent a piece of port-fire, set in clay or putty, long enough 
to permit the man who fires it to reach a place of safety before the charge ex- 



Each piece shall be fired three rounds with the following 

Proof -charges. 

15-iiicl) colunibiad 50 lbs. of powder and 1 slioll. 

10 " " IS •' " " Ishot. 

8 " •' 12 " •' " 1 " 

32-pdr. gun 9 " " " 1 " 

24 •• •• .< 8 •' '• '• 1 '• 

18 " " 6 •' '• •• 1 " 

12 '• •' 4 " " " 1 " 

8-iiicli siogo howitzer 4 " " '• ] " 

24-pdr. howitzer (iron) 3 •■ ' '• '• 1 " strapped. 

All field fiiins (bronze) '^ weight of shot •' 1 " " 

24-pdr. howitzer, " 2.5 lbs. of powder " 1 " '• 

12 '• •• " 1.25 " •' '• 1 " " 

12 " " mountain (bronze) 0.25 '• •' " 1 '■ •' 

Cochorn mortar (bronze) 0.5 " " ■■ 1 shell. 

13-iuch S. C. mortar (ironj 20 " '' " 1 "1 

10 " '■ " '• 10 " " '• 1 •' I Filled 

10 " " " "lTi„i,t (5 •■ „ u 1 "f with sand. 

8 '• " " j^'SM 1 2.5 " '• " 1 "J 

4.62" rifled siege gun 4.5 " '• " 1 shot of 36 lbs. 

3 ■' " tield '• 1.5 "• " " 1 •' of 11 " 

214" niountain rifle 6 oz. " " 1 " of 2]!/^ " 

Should any of the guns proved at one time fail to sustain the above proof, the 
rem.ainder shall be rejected if made of the same metal treated in the same manner. 

The bore, vent, and the exterior surface of every piece which is approved should 
be well covered with sperm oil immediately after the inspection. 

MARKS. 

All guns arc required to be weighed, and to bo marked as follows, viz: the num- 
ber of the </nn, the initials 0/ the inspector's name and that of the foundry, the year of 
fabrication, and the weiyht of the piece in pounds, on the face of the piece, in a 
circle concentric with the bore, in letters and figures at least one inch long ; the 



26 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

numbers in a separate series for each kind and calibre at each foundry ; the foun- 
dry number, in smiiU figures, ou the end of t!ie right rimbase, above the trunnion; 
the letters C. S., in large characters, on tho upper surface of the piece, iu rear, but 
near the trunnions. * 

The highost point of metal at the base-line and at the mu7.7,le, when the axis of 
the trunnions is horizontal, .should be marked, with a fine line cut into the metal, 
whilst the piece is in tho trunnion-lathe. 

Guns rejected on inspection are marked X C, on the face of tho muzzle; if con- 
demned for erroneous dimen.sions, which cannot be remedied, aild XI); if by 
powder proof, X P. 

INJURIES CAUSED BY SERVICE. 

Bronze guns are little subject to external injury, except from the bending of the 
trunnions sometimes, after long service or heavy charges. 

Internal injuries arc caused by the action of tho gases developed in the combus- 
tion of the ptiwrlcr, or by tho action of tho shot in passing out of the bore. These 
elTects generally increase with tho calibre of tho piece. 

Of the first kind, the principal one is the cutting away of the metal of the upper 
surface of the bore over the scat of the shot. 

Those of the second kin<l arc : tkf lodijmmt »/ the ihoi, a compression of the 
metal on the lower side of the bore, at the scat of the shot, caused by the prcsenre 
of the gas in escaping over tho top of the shot. There is a corresponding burr in 
front of the lodgment, and the motion thereby given to the shot cuuses it to strike 
alternately on the top and bottom of the bore, pruducing other rulai-gvment*, gen- 
erally three in number; it is chiefly from this cuui^) that bronze guns bocoLi^o unser- 
viceable. Scratehcn caused by the fragments of a broken chot, or the roughness of 
an imperfect one. 

Tke durahiUty of bronze guns may be much increased by careful use, and by the 
precautions of increanhig the length of the cirtri'dge, or that of the tabot, or using a 
tcad over the cartridge, in order to change the place of the shot; by irrnjiping the 
shot in trootleu or other cloth, or in paper, go as to diminish the windage and the 
bounding of the shot in the bore. In lield g>in>, both bronze and iron, the paper 
cap, which is taken off from the cartridge, should always be put over the shot. 

Iron ijun» are subject "to tho above defects in a less degree than bronie, except the 
corrosion of the metal. The principal cause of injury to iron guns is the rutting of 
the metal, producing a roughness and enlargement of the bore. 

The service to which an iron gun has been subjected may generally be deter- 
mined by the appearance of the vent. After about 500 rounds the vent becomei 
enlarged to .3 inch, and should not be longer used. 

In rifled guns, the wear of the vent is about twice as great as in smooth-bored 
guns. 

Replacing vent*. — In bronze field pieces, the vent-piece is taken out and a new 
one is screwed in. In other guns, the vent is filled up by pouring in melted rinc, 



SPIKING AND UNSPIKTNG GUNS. 27 

the vent being closed on the interior by means of clay placed on the head of a 
rammer and pressed against the upper surface of the bore, and a now vent is bored 
at a distance of two or three inches from the first. 

Spilling and unspiking guns, and rendering them unserviceable. 

To fpiJce u piece, or to render it unserviceable. — Drive into the vent a jagged and 
hardened steel spiko with a soft point, or a nail without a head ; break it off flush 
with the outer surface, and clinch the point inside by means of the rammer. 
AVcdge a shot in the bottom of the bore by wrapping it with felt, or by means of 
iron wedges, using the rammer or a bar of iron to drive them in ; a wooden wedge 
would be easily burnt by means of a charcoal fire, lighted with the aid of a bel- 
lows. Cause shells to burst in the bore of bronze guns, or fire broken shot from 
them with high charges. Fill a piece with sand over the charge to burst it. Fire 
a piece against another, muzzle to muzzle, or the muzzle of one to the chaSe of the 
other. Light a firo under the chase of a bronze gun, and strike on it with a sledge 
to bend it. Break off the trunnions of iron guns; or burst them by firing them 
with heavy charges and full of shot, at a high elevation. 

When guns are to be spiked temporarily, and are likely to be retaken, a spring 
spike is used, having a shoulder to prevent its being too easily extracted. 

7'o unspike a piece. — If the spike is not screwed in or clinched, and the bore is 
not impeded, put in a charge of powder of J the weight of the shot, and ram junk 
wads over it with a handspike, laying on the bottom of the bore a strip of wood, 
with a groove on the under side containing a strand of quick-match by which fire 
is communicated to the charge : in a bronze gun, take out some of the metal at the 
upper orifice of the vent, and pour sulphuric acid into the groove for some hours 
before firing. If this method, several times repeated, is not successful, unsci'ew 
the vent-piece, if it be a bronze gun, and if an iron one, drill out the spike, or 
drill a new vent. 

To drive out a shot wedyed in the bore. — Unscrew the vent-piece, if there be one, 
and drive in wedges so as to start the shot forward, then ram it back again in order 
to seize the wedge with a hook; or pour in powder and fire it, after replacing the 
vent-piece. In the last resort, bore a hole in the bottom of the breech, drive out 
the shot, and stop the hole with a screw. 

To use a piece which has been spiked. — Insert one end of a piece of quick-match 
in the cartridge, allowing the other to project out of the muzzle of the gun. Apply 
the fire to the quick-match, and get out of the way. 

When quick-match of sufficient length is not at hand, insert one end in the cart- 
ridge, the other projecting in front of the shot, and, after ramming the cartridge 
home, throw two or three pinches of powder into the bore. Place another piece of 
match in the muzzle, the end projecting out. The piece may bo fired in this way 
without danger. Quick-match in the cartridge may be dispensed with by piercing 
three or four holes in the cartridge-bag. In this manner the gun may be fired with 
great rapidity. 



28 ORDNANCK MANUAL. 



PRESERVATION OF ORDNANCE. 

Cannon Fhould be placed together, according to kind and caliliro, on skids of 
stone, ircjn or wood, laid on hard ground, well rammed, and covered with a layer of 
cinders or of some other material to prevent vegetation. 

Guim and bnnj howitzers. — The pieces should rest on the gki<l.« in front of the base- 
ring and in rear of the astragal; the axis inclined at an angle of 4 or b degrees 
with the horizon, the muzzle lowest; the trunnions touching each other; or, if 
space be wanting for that arrangement, the trunnion of one piece maj rest on the 
adjoining piece, so that the axis of the trunnions is inclined about 45° with a hori- 
zontal lino; the muzzle closed with a tompion or a plug of dry wood, well saturated 
with oil or grease ; the vent down, stopped with a greased wooden plug, or with 
]>utty or tallow. If circumstances require it, the pieces may be piled iu two tiers, 
with skidding placed between them, exactly over those which rest on the ground; 
the muzzles of both tiers in the same direction and their axes preserving the same 
inclination. 

i)/ii>ri howiJzcra and moriarn. — On thick planks, standing on their muzzles, the 
trunnions touching, the vcuts stopped. 

Iron ordnance should be covered on the exterior with a hickcr impervious to 
water (see Chap. VII); the bore and the vent should be greased with a mixture of 
oil and talluir, or of tiillotc and beemnix melted togclher, and boiled to expel the 
water. The lacker should be renewed as often as required, and the grease at least 
once every year. 

The lacker and grease should be applied iu hot weather. 

The cannon should be frequently inspected, to see that moisture dues out collect 
in the bore. 



SHOT AND SHF.LLS. 



29 



Chapter Second 



SHOT AND SHELLS. 



NOMENCLATURE. DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS. 

Shot, shells, grape and canister shot, take the name of the gnn or howitzer in which 
they are used. The size of grape and canister shot is so regulated that a certain 
number shall chamber in the bore. 

The ears of a shell are holes for the points of the shell-hooks, 0.5 inch in diame- 
ter, bored on opposite sides of the fuze-hole, their axes perpendicular to the axis of 
the fuze-hole. The metal is cut out above them at the distance indicated in the 
table, in a direction perpendicular to the axes of the holes, which must remain 
0.25 inch deep, with a thickness of 0.25 inch of metal above them, at the thinnest 
part. 

Shot. 



Diameter in. 

Weight lbs. 



13-in. 


12-in. 


10-in. 


8-in. 

7.88 
65 


42 

( 

6.84 
42.5 


32 

6.25 
32.4 


24 

5.68 
24.3 


18 

5.17 
18.3 


12 


9 

4.10 
9.14 


6 

3.58 
6.1 


4 

3.12 
4.07 


3 

2.84 
3.05 


12.87 

282.84 


11.87 
222 


9.87 
127.5 


4.62 
12.25 



1.95 
1 



Shells. 



Di.ameter 

Tliicknessof CTnie 

sides and < Greatest ... 

bottom. (Least 

Thickness at fuze-hole 

Diameter of f Exterior 

fuze-hole. '( Interior 

Distance between ears.... 

Weight lbs, 



1 

For Colum- 


biarisaudS.C. 


Howitzers. 


10-in. 


8-in. 


In. 


In. 


9.87 


7.88 


2. 


1.5 


2.1 


1.58 


1.9 


1.42 


3. 


2.25 


1.45 


1.338 


1. 


1. 


6. 


5. 


101.67 


49.75 



13-in. 


10-iu. 


In. 


In. 


12.87 


9.87 


2.1 


1.6 


2.25 


1.7 


1.95 


1.5 


2.1 


1.6 


1.8 


1.75 


1.485 


1.51 


7. 


6. 


197.3 


88.42 



8-in. 



In. 

7.88 

1.25 

1.33 

1.17 

1.25 

1.3 

1.113 

6. 

44.12 



For Guns and Howitzers. 



42 


32 


24 


18 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


6.S4 


6.25 


5.68 


5.17 


1.2 


1. 


0.9 


0.9 


1.25 


1.05 


0.95 


0.94 


1.15 


0.95 


0.85 


0.S6 


1.8 


1.35 


l..'5o 


1.35 


1. 


0.9 


0.9 


0.9 


0.73 


0.698 


0.698 


0.698 


31.3 


22.5 


16.8 


13.45 



In. 

4.52 

0.7 

0.74 

0.66 

1.05 

0.9 

0.743 

8.34 



The 8-inch mortar-shell is used for the siege howitzer. The 15-inch shell is 14.85 
in. diameter. It has two ears at the extremities of the diameter at right angles to 
the axis of the fuze-hole. Thickness of shell, 2.5 inch. Thickness of the 13-inch 
shell, 2.5 in. 



30 



ORDNANCE MANUAL 



Spherical-cnse Shot. 






• — 

















8-In. 


42 


32 


2« 


18 


12 


6 


In. 


In. 


In. 


III. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


".S8 


U.84 


0.26 


6.6K 


5.17 


4.52 


3.68 


0.7 


0.05 


0.00 


0.65 


0.5 


0.45 


0.36 


0.725 


0.676 


0.626 


0.575 


0.52.') 


0.475 


0.386 


0.676 


0.635 


0.675 


0625 


0.475 


0.426 


0.!J36 


1.5 


1.25 


1.26 


1.1 


1.1 


0.9 


0.9 


.4 


.4 


.4 


.4 


.4 


.4 


.4 


1.62 


1.62 


1.62 


1.62 


1.62 


1.62 


1.62 


.75 


.76 


.75 


.75 


.75 


.76 


.76 


30^ 


ao.7s 


16.13 


12.32 


0.27 


6.22 


3.22 



Diainotor 

I True 

Tliickiii«R iif metal at the sides -^ Oi<«te«t 

TliirknoNN of nietnl at the fuze hole 

Uejitli of rcce*8 fur fii/.o 

_. , , , u 1 f Kxtorlor 

Diameter of fuze-hole. | ,,„^rior 

llMtn weight > Itw 



The tliicknoss of inctul at the fiicc-hole is »u|(|>ogcd to be mcugurvl in tbo axil of 
tlie fuf.c-holc, between the spherical «urf»ee« of the obeli and of the reiiif'ircc. 

Sphcricul-ca8c shot of the old pattern miy be used with the Bormunn fuzos. 

The fuze-boles of shells and »plicrical-oa»c shot for the fuie-i)lug taper 0.13 Inch 
to 1 inch. 

Diameter of Gauges for Shot and Shells. 





134n. 


12-in. 

In. 
11.90 
11. S4 


10-in. 


Ma. 


42 

It. 


3S 

I.. 


S4 

1., 


18 

1.. 


12 

1.. 


9 

III 


• 


4 


8 

In 


1 




In. 

11! 90 
12.K4 
12.80 


In. 

9.90 
tf.K4 
0.80 


f .. 


In 


'^-"-ir;:::: 


■- 











• The gauges for 8 Inch $olid thf>( are T.85 and 7.80 incIiM re»pectiToly. 
For the manner of using ibe^c };auget>, »ee page 33. 



Ciise Shot for Rifled Guns. 



DIMENSION'S. 


4.63- 


Dcb. 


3-incb. 


HEMARU. 






Iron. 


Copper 
Wac. 


Iron. 


Copper 




Diameter in. 

Len^h in. 

ThickneiiS of metal at sides... in. 

'•'•'• bottom. ..in. 

*««*«* fose-bolcin. 


4.57 

10.90 

.776 

1. 

1.6 


4i7 
.836 


7.16 
.6 
.6 


2.95 
.63 


Leriptl] <.f ; 
thirkn.-^ • 
dish. >^Mti r 
of 4.8 incliee (ji i. 
of 2.5 inches. 


- 


ZJ 


.25 


rtt-iiua 









:r'L 



SHOT — LEAD BALLS. 



31 



Grenades. 

Six-pounder spherical-case shot may be used for hand c/i-euades, and shells of 
any ciilibrc for rampart grenades. 

Grape Shot. 





8-in. 

In. 

3.60 

3.54 

6.1 


42 


32 

In. 

2.90 

2.86 

3.15 


24 


18 


12 


Diameter of large gauge 

Diameter of small gauge 

Mean weight Ihs. 


In. 

3.17 
3.13 

4.2 


In. 

2.64 
2.60 

2.4 


In. 

2.40 
2. 36 

1.8 


In. 

2.06 

2.02 

1.14 



Canister Shot. 





NATURE OF ORDNANCE. 




c 

5 
c 

In. 


c 

0- 

to 




c 


uco.-t: 
1-11 


i 

c 




12-pdr. how- 
itzer. 




Field. 


Moun- 
tain. 




In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


niaincter of large giugo 


2.26 


2.06 


1.87 


1.70 


1.49 


1.35 


1.17 


1.08 


.69 


Diameter of small gauge 


2.22 


2.02 


1.S4 


1.67 


1.46 


1.32 


1.14 


1.05 


Musket 


Mean weight lbs 


1.5 


1.14 


0.86 


0.64 


0.43 


0.32 


0.21 


0.16 


ball. 



Lead Balls. 

DIAMETERS OF LKAD BALLS FKOM 1 TO 32 TO THE POtTND. 





u 




s^ 




u 




^^ 


No. of 


3 


No. of 




No. of 




No. of 




balls to 


B 


balls to 




balls to 


a 


ball.'* to 


a 


1 lb. 




lib. 


a 


1 lb. 


OS 


1 lb. 


cj 




ft 




P, 


/ 


ft 




o 




In. 




In. 




In. 


/ 


In. 


1 


l.f.70 


9 


0.803 


17 


0.650 


25 


0.571 


2 


l.;526 


10 


.775 


18 


. 638 


26 


.564 


3 


1.157 


11 


.751 


19 


.626 


27 


.557 


4 


l.O.H 


12 


.730 


20 


.615 


28 


.550 


5 


.977 


13 


.710 


21 


.605 


29 


.544 


6 


.919 


14 


.693 


22 


.596 


30 


.637 


7 


.873 


15 


.670 


23 


.687 


31 


.531 


8 


.835 


16 


.663 


24 


.579 


32 


.626 



For the mode of fabrication of lead balls, see Chapter X. 



32 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

niAMETRRS OP CA8T-IR0X BALLS FROM i POOWn TO 50 PODNnS WRIGHT. 



Weight 


Diamoter. 


Weight. 


Diameter. 

1 


Weight. 


Diameter. 


Weight. 


Dittinetcr. 


LbK. 


07,. 


In. 


Lbs. 


1 
In. 


Lbs. 


In. 


Lbs. 


In. 




4 


1.231 


9 


4.065 


23 


5.531 


37 


6..M2 




6 


1.403 


10 


4.211 


24 


5.631) 


38 


6.570 




8 


1.551 


11 


4.310 


25 


5.714 


39 


6.627 




10 


1.665 


12 


4.474 


26 


5.789 


40 


«.«84 




12 


1.701 


13 


4.595 


27 


5.862 


41 


fi.73S 




14 


1.S65 


1 ^* 


4.710 


28 


5.930 


42 


6.793 


1 




1.9i4 


15 


4.819 


29 


6.004 


43 


0.S46 


2 




2.462 


16 


4.924 


30 


6.06S 


44 


6.S9S 


3 




2.819 


17 


5.025 


31 


6.140 1 


45 


6.951 


4 




3.104 


18 


5.121 , 


32 


6.205 1 


46 


7.002 


5 




3.341 


10 


5.215 1 


33 


6.268 


47 


7.052 







3.551 


! 20 


b.ZOi 


34 


6.330 I 


48 


7.101 


7 




3.7.38 


21 


5.393 1 


85 


6.393 j 


49 


7.145 


8 




S.tfOS 


22 


6. 476 

i 


3« 


6.442 1 


50 


7.198 



The specific gravity of shot is 7,000 ; sbells, 7.1. 

To find the treight iif n cfft-iron tjk«f or ihell : 

Multiply tlic cul)0 of the diameter <if the shot in inches by .1326^, and the iliffer 
cncc of the cubes of the exterior au>l interior diauictcrs of the 8hcll by O.I.J 158, for 
the weight in pound.". 

For /«■«</ Ixll; the multiplier is 0.2142, for a density of 11.301. 

7*0 fiiiii the dinmi-trr of a rn*t-ir,iu ihni <>/ a yi'tn irtiijhl : » 

Divide the weight in pounds by 0.134, and the cube root of the quotient will be 
the diameter in inches. 

To find the (/Krtwfify tif putrdfi- trkick a ihell trill contnin : 

Multiply the cube of the interior diameter of the shell in inches by 0.01741, for 
the weight of powder in pounds. 

General directions in the fabrication of shot and shells. 

All shot and shells, except canifiter shot for mountain howitiers, are made of 
cast-iron. It should be gray or mottled iron, of good quality. (PeoChap. XIV. 
Catt-iroH.) They must be cast in sand, and not in iron moulds : the shot from the 
latter are generally not spherical in form, nor uniform in sue : they are also full of 
cavities, and arc cracked by being heated. 

Sp)iericnl-cn»e "hot must be made with peculiar care, of the best quality of iron, 
in order that they may not be liable U> break in the gun. 

Grnpe and eaninier »hui should be made of a soft. ;:ray iron : it ought to be vary 
fluid. They are smooth, and polished by rolling in a barrel for that purj.ose. 

A sample bar, 1.5 inch square and S inches long, with a head 4 inches long, is 
cast, on end, from the same meul th.it sh<a and shells are made of, to be tested as 
to its strength and the character of the metal. 



i 



INSPECTION OF SHOT AND SHELLS. 33 

INSPECTION OF SHOT AND SHELLS. 

Shot. 

Inspecting Instruments. — One large and one small gauge, and one cylinder- 
gauge, for each calibre : the cylinder-gauge has the same diameter as the large 
gauge ; it is made of cast-iron, and is 5 calibres long. The gauges should be veri- 
fied from time to time, and when they have become .008 larger than their true 
diameter, they should no longer be used. One Aammer, weighing half a pound, and 
having a flat face and a conical point. Steel punches. 

One searcher, of steel wire, No. 20, with a handle. 

The shot should be inspected before they become rusty ; after being well cleaned, 
each shot is placed on a table and examined by the eye to see that its surface is 
smooth, that the metal is sound and free from seams, flaws, and blisters. If cavi- 
ties or small holes appear on the surface, strike the point of the hammer or punch 
into them, and ascertain their depth witli the searcher; if the depth of the cavity 
exceed 0.2 inch, the shot is rejected ; and also if it appear that an attempt has been 
made to conceal such defects by filling up the holes with nails, cement, etc. 

The shot must pass in everj' direction through the large guage, and not at all 
through the small one ; the founder should endeavor to bring the shot up as near 
as po.ssible to the large gauge or to the true diameter. 

After having been thus examined, the shot are passed through the ci/linder-gauge, 
which is placed at an inclination of about 2 inches between the two ends, and sup- 
ported on blocks of wood in such a manner as to be easily turned, from time to 
time, to prevent its being worn in furrows. Shot which slide or stick in the cylin- 
der are rejected : the latter must be pushed out from the lower end with a wooden 
rammer. 

Shi)t are proved by dropping them, from a height of 20 feet, on a block of iron, or 
rolling them down an inclined plane of that height, against another shot at the 
bottom of the plane. 

The average weight of the shot is deduced from that of three parcels of 20 to 50 
each, taken indiscriminately from the pile : some of those which appear to be the 
smallest should be also weighed, and they are rejected if they fall short of the 
weight expressed by their calibre more than one thirty-second part. They almost 
invariably exceed that weight. 

Grape and Canister Shot. 

The dimensions are verified by means of a large and a small gauge attached to 
the same handle. The surface of the shot should be smooth, and free from seams. 

Shells and Hollow Shot. 

Inspecting Instruments. — A large and small gauge for each calibre, and a 
cylinder-gauge for shells of 8 inches and under. 

Callipers for measuring the thickness of the metal at the sides of the shell. 
3 



34 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Cnllipern f^ measure the thirUmsH al the '^ ■ 'm of the shell. 
• (laiitffii for the diincnsioDc of the fuzc-holc, ;i..'l for the ihickncfs of metal at the 
fiir,e-h<ile. 

A pair of hand-heUowii ; a wooden plug to 6t the fuze-bolc, aiid bored through to 
receive the rauKzlc of the bcUowa. 

A hiimiiifr ; a trnrchrr ; a colii-rhiirl ; utrel punrhcu. 

The furfHoe of the fhell and it8 exterior dimeii!ioni< are examined as in the case 
of f<hot, particuiar attention bein;; ]>uid to tin' hemisphere rippfiiiiie the fuxe-hole. 
CavilieH and imjierfeelionei in casting are generally fouml about '.U\° from the top of 
the dholl, when in the position in which it waj cast. KhelU lihould l>c rejected for 
rough casting, projecting seami!, sand-flaws, a collection of dross, cavities or honey- 
combs of more than two-tenths of an inch in depth, whatever their diameter, or a 
number of small holes giving the projectile a apongy appearance. 

The shell is next struck with the hummer, t4i judge by the hound whether it be 
free from cracks; the position and dimensioni of the cars arc verified : the thick- 
ness of metal is then measured at several points on the great circle iterpcndicular to 
the axis of the fur.e-hole, and at the bottom, and at the fute-hole. The diameter of 
the fnnc-holc, which shouUI be accurately reumed. is then verified, and the sound- 
ness of the metal about the inside of the hole is ascertained by inserting the 
finger. 

The shell is iinw ]daced on a trivet, in a tub containing water deep enough to 
cover it nearly to the fute-hole: the bellows and plug are inserted into the fucc-hole 
and the air forced into the shell ; if there be any holes in the shell, the air will rise 
in bubbles through the water. This test also gives another indication of the sound- 
ness of the metal, as the parlK containing cavities will dry more slowly thas^fc* 
other parts. 

The mean weight of shells is ascertained in the same manner as that of sliot. 

Shot and shells rejected in the inspection are marked with an X, made with the 
cold-chisel : on shut near the gate, and on shells near the futc-hole. 



PRESERVATION AND PILING OF BALLS. 

Balls should be carefully lackered as soon as possible after th«y ure received. 
The ncir 8-iiirA eiilid '■hot are painted red, to distinguish them from the old, which 
will not answer for hot-shot firing. All tpkerieal-aitr »hot are also painted red. 
Other projectiles arc lackered hl<uk. For the composition of lacker and the manner 
of apjilying it^ see Chap. VII. 

When it becomes necessary to renew the lacker, the old lacker should be remored 
by rolling or scraping the balls, which should never be heated for that purpose. 

Balls are piled according to kind and calibre, under cover if practicable, in a 
place where there is a free circulation of air. to facilitate which, the pile' should be 
made narrow if the locality permits; the width of the bottom tier may be from 12 
to 14 balls, according to the calibre. 



PTLING OF RALLS. 35 

Prepare the grour-l '■ r the base of the pile by raising it above the surrounding 
ground so as* to throw oil' the water ; level it, ram it well, and cover it with a layer ' 
of screened sand. Make the bottom of the pile with a tier of unserviceable balls, 
buried about two-thirds of their diameter in the sand; this base may be made per- 
manent: clean the base well and form the pile, putting the fuze-holes of shells 
downward, in the intervals, and not resting on the shells below. Each pile is 
marked with the number of serviceable balls it contains. 

The base may be made of bricks, concrete, stone, or with borders and braces of 
iron. Good and imperfect b.alls should not be used in the same base : and, to avoid 
confusion, the unserviceable should be left unpainted, or painted of a different 
color from the serviceable. 

Grape and canister shot should be oiled or lackered, put in piles or in strong 
boxes, on the ground-floor or in dry cellars, each parcel marked with its kind, 
calibre and number. 

To find the number of balls in a pile. 

Multiply the sum of thv three parallel edges hy one-third of the number of halls in a 
triangular face. 

In a square pile, one of the parallel edges contains but one ball ; in a triangular 
pile, two of the edges have but one ball in each. 

The number of balls in a triangular face is ^-~~^; n being the number in the 
bottom row. 

The sum of the three parallel edges in a triangular pile is n -f-2; in a square 
pile, 2 »( -f 1 : in an oblong pile, 3 TV-f 2 n — 2 ; iV being the length of the top row, 
and n the width of the bottom tier: or, 3 »i — h + 1 ; m being the length and n the 
width of the bottom tier. 

If a pile consist of two piles joined at a right angle, calculate the contents of one 
as a common oblong pile and of the other as a pile of which the three parallel 
edges are equal. 

To find the length of a jnle ivhich shall hold a given number of 
balls, the width of the base being fixed. 

■ A = the number of balls to be piled. 

n = the number in the width of the base of the pile. 

m = the number of balls in the length of the base of the pile; then 

_ 6.1 +n(»-f l)(n + l) ^ 
"'"" 3«(n + l) 

In the following Table of the number of balls in a pile, the second line shows the 
number iu a triangular pile, the base of which is the corresponding number in the 
first line. 

The other numbers show the contents of square and oblong piles; the length aud 
width of the base being in the upper line and in the left-hand column respectively 



36 



ORDNANCE MANUAL 



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38 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



C 11 A 1' T K » Till U It 



ARTlLLEin' (A i: HI A(i KS 



NOMKNCLATURi:. 

The nomcnclnluro nnd the tiiblcs of wcijjhti' aiul (iiintMiHiniiii givin in iliis t'!in|itcr 
apply to the latest patterni: a(lo|iti-d. 

The parts aro ciiuiiuTiiteil ^'cncrally in Iho order in wiiich thoy iirc put together. 

The wheels lire dosignuteil )iy iuinil«w» referring to special description given after 
•he carriages. 

The nxle-treei!, watshers, linchpinc, navc-hoxes, bolts, nuU, ete., are designated 
by letl«re and uunibers which refer to the forms and dimensions luid down in the 
tables. 

Fiel'l (iun-carruiges. (Plate 2.) 

There are fonr gun-carriageii for field service, tIi : 

One for the 6-pounder gun and I2-pounder howilter. Jt^ 

One for the 2-1-pounder howitzer. ^^P 

One for the 12-pounder gun, NH]>oleon. 

One for the 12-pouuder gun and the 32-poundcr howitzer. 

The parts of tbo!>c carriages' nre all similar, differing only in their dimensions. 
The parts which are common to all arc marked with an asteri'k (•). 

The carriages for the 24-pounder howitzer ami 12-poundcr Napoleon gun, differ 
chiefly in the length of the eheeks and the position of the elerating-scrcw. 

Wood. — 1 itock in two pieces, assembled with 2 dotceU ; 2 ehrt-kt ; 1 <iJ-lf-bo<iif. 

Iron.—* 2 trail-handles, fastened by 2 hnlu No. .1 A, and 2 uuii. 

1 lock-rhain (page 62); 1 lork-chain boll A ; 1 irniher ; I ntil. 

1 liitieitt for the trail: the under side of the front part of the circumference ia 
plated with steel. 

1 Irail-plotf, plate-iron No. 6. fixed to the lunette by 2 rireu No. 3 B. The lunette 
is fastened to the stock by 6 nniU No. 2 C, and the trail-plate by (5 natU No. 2 C. and' 
both by the pointing-ring bolt«. 

1 laty pointitiff-riny and plat r : the plate is fastened to the trail by 2 Imltt No. 3 
H, and 2 nnti, octagonal. 

1 tmall pointing-rittg ; 2 bolt* No. 3 H, and 2 nnU, octagonal. 



LIMBER. 39 

* 2 wheel-ffunrd p/atrs, fastened to the sides of the stock by 10 nails No. 2 C. 

* 2 proloii(/c-lioo/,-s, fastened on the top of the stock by 8 nails No. 2 C. 

1 sto]) for rammer head, fastened to the under side of the stock by 4 iiailn 
No. 1 C. 

*1 ear-plate for worm, fastened to the under side of stock by 2 naih No. 2 C. 
*1 ear-plate key and chain of 6 links No. 1, and 2 rintjs No. 1 B, attached to the 
stock by 1 eye-pin No. 1. 

2 chains and hasps for sponges and rammers, united to 1 eye-plate, which is fast- 
ened to the under side of stock by 2 screws No. 20, 3-in. 

*2 turubnc/clcs (brass), riveted on the studs of 2 stud-plates, which are fastened 
to the sides of the stock by 4 nails No. 2 C. 

2 trunnion-jtlates, fastened to the cheeks by 6 cheek-holts A, 4 washers, 6 nuts ; by 
2 chin-bolts, 2 hevel-irashers, 2 nuts ; by 2 key-holts, 2 nuts, and by 28 nnils (16 No. 2 
D and 12 No. 2 C) for the 12-poundcr carriage, and by 20 nails (12 No. 2 D and 8 
No. 2 C) for the others. 

2 cap-squares; 2 eye-pins No. 1, riveted into the cap-squares ; 2 cap-square chains, 
each consisting of 5 links No. 2 and 2 rings No. 2 B. 

2 eye-pins No. 2, screwed into the outside of the cheeks; 2 cap-square keys; 2 
key-chains, each 5 ^ihA-» No. 1 and 2 r/ni/* No. 1 B; 2 eye-pins No. 1 for key-chains, 
screwed into the outside of the cheeks. 

*2 D-rtmjs for handspikes, fastened near the head of the cheeks by 4 staples. 
6 rondellen (east-iron), placed between the cheeks and stock. 

3 assewblinij-holts, for the cheeks and stock; 3 washers; 3 nuts, 1 of them 
octagonal. 

*l washer-hook for lock-chain, under the head of middle assembling-bolt on the 
right cheek. 

2 washer-hooks for handspikes, held by the rear assembling-bolt. 

1 axle-tree No. 1. (See page 61.) 

2 understraps : the front ends hold the implement-hooks. 

1 axle-strap has an eye for the sponge-bucket, 3 bolts No. 4 B, 3 nuts; 1 bevel- 
washer for the 6-pounder. 

2 axle-bands on the end of the axle-body, fastened by 6 nails No. 1 C. 
*1 box for eleratinff-screw (brass): 2 bolts No. 3 C; 2 washers; 2 nuts. 

* 1 elevating-screio. 

*2 shoulder-washers No. 1, shrunk on the axle-tree; *2 linch-washers No. 1; *2 
linchpins No. 1. 

2 wheels: No. 1 for the 6-pounder; No. 2 for the other carriages. (See page 60.) 

Limber. 

The same limber is used for all the tield carriages, including caisson, forge and 
battery-wagon. 

Wood. — \ axle-body ; 2 hounds ; \ fork ; 1 splinter-bar; A foot-boo rd brackets; 
2 foot-boards ; 1 pole; \ p<>le-proj>. 



40 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Iron. — 8 trrewK for foot-buard brackets No. 16; 20 nnlh for foot-boardn No. 1 C. 

4 ricetK No. 2 B, 4 burrt, one at each end of the hound. 

4 tpa»hfr-plnlet for stay-pinfi. let in and fastened on upper and under side of 
boundi< by 8 iiaiV* No. 1 C. 

1 tij-l'-trre No. 1 (see page CI): 2 nhoulder-waiiherit No 1 ; 2 linrh-imiiheni No. 1 ; 
2 h'lirhping No. 1. 

I pinlli-hook : the inside of the cylindrical part is plated with steel ; 3 Ixdtn No. 4 
C ; 2 trathrri; 3 nuts No. 4. 

1 Htny. plait for ammiiuition-cbcst, fastened on the under Fide of the fork with 2 
naiU No. 2 C. and held by the pintle-hook bolt. 

1 pinth-l-py, attached to the rear of the axle-body by 1 kcy-chfiiu of 8 link* No. 3, 
and 2 rings No. 2 A, and 1 eye-pin No. 3. 

1 tar-liiiekft hook, fastened to the front of the axle-body by 2 iiaiV* No. 1 C. 

2 liollH No. 3 E ; 2 wanhrm ; 2 tiuff No. 3, to connect the axle-body and hounds. 
2 undiiKlropg ; A holln No. W U ; 4 nult. 

2 arle-brtndg, shrunk on the ends of the axle-body, and fa.''tcnc<l by uaiU 
No. 1 C. 

2 end bands for splinter-bar, having 2 trace-hooks, fastened by 4 ricels No. 2 
(wire) ; 2 bolts No. 3 D for bounds and cplinter-bar ; 4 icnthers ; 2 nuti. 

1 eyc-pliitc for pole-prop socket, let in the under side of cplinter-bar. 

2 middle bands for splinter-bar, baring 2 trace-hook*. 

1 fork-Mfrap. 

2 bolts No. 3 D for dpiintor-bar and fork ; 2 nuts Now 3. 

I pole-prop socket, hooked in the eye-plate; 1 rivet No. 2. 

1 pole-prop ferrnle ; 1 riret No. 2. 

2 stay-pins for ammunition-chest ; 2 Avy*; 2 key-chains, 5 /i;iA:« No. 1 and 2 riWt 
No. 1 B; 2 eye-pins No. 1. 

1 mW No. 3 B and 1 burr, for largo end of the pole; 1 poU-bolt No. 3 D; 2 
Hfoshers ; 1 nut. 
1 pole-pad bolt. 

1 pole-yoke, composed of 1 tniiff; 1 co//ar, in 2 parts : 2 branches; 2 slidinj-rings ; 
2 6o/f« No. 3 for collar ; 1 crasher for muff; 1 A-«y. 

2 .rAfc^ No. 1. 

Leatber. — 1 pole-prop strap, with 1 buckle No. 10, held by 3 serctri 1-inch, 
No. 12. 

1 Ammukition-chest. 

Caisson. (Plate 3.) 

Wood.— 1 middle rail ; 2 side rails; 1 cross-bar, framed into the rails ; 1 boUttr 
for front foot-board; \ front foot -board ; 1 rear foot -board ; \ ajcle-body ; \ stock. 

Ibon. — 1 middle assembling -bar, fa«t«ned to the rails by 2 bolts No. 3 A; 2 
feathers; 2 nuts. 

1 carriage-hook, let in on the under side of the middle rail. 



CAISSON. 41 

1 renv aHsemhling-hnr, fastened to the side rails by 2 hoJu No. 3 D; 2 washers; 
2 nntH. 

1 bridle for rear of middle rail, fastened to .sides by 4 i}aih No. 1 C. 

1 «2>arr.-ir>heel axle, consists of 1 hody ; 1 washer ; 2 ribs, fastened to the body by 3 
rieets ; 1 chain and toggle ; 2 stays ; 2 nuts. 

1 stay-bolt No. 3 D : \ foot-bolt No. 3 D ; 1 niit. 

i foot-board bolts No. 3 D; 2 washers ; 4 nuts ; 2 nails No. 1 C, fastening the front 
foot-board to the side rails ; 6 nails No. 1 C for the rear foot-board. 

2 loih-rhain bridles, fastened under the front end of the side rails by the four 
foot-board bolts. 

2 lock-chains (sec page 62). 

2 lock-chain hooks, fastened to the outside of the side rails by 4 nails No. 1 C. 

1 a.rlc-trce No. 1 ; 2 shoulder-icanhcrs No. 1 ; 2 linch-washcrs No. 1 ; 2 linchpins 
No. 1. 

2 understraps ; 4 bolts No. 3 B ; 4 nuts. 

2 axle-bands, fastened on the ends of the axle-body by 6 nails No. 1 C. 
2 rivets and 2 burrs No. 3 B for the stock. 

1 lunette: the lower side of the ej'e is plated with steel. The plates are fastened 
to the stock by 2 bolts No. 3 D ; 2 nuts; 12 naj7» No. 2 C. 

1 key-plate for spare pole, fastened to the under side of the lunette by the front 
lunette-bolt ; 1 key for the same, attached to the left side of the stock by 1 key-chain 
of 11 links No. 1 and 2 rings No. 1 A, and 1 eye-pin No. 1. 

2 tnheel-guard plates, fastened to the stock by 10 nails No. 2 C. 

1 stock-stirrup, held by 2 bolts No. 3 I), which pass through the front foot-board ; 
2 washers ; 2 nuts. 

1 axle-strap, fastened to the middle rail by 3 bolls — one, No. 3 D, and two, No. 3 
B ; 3 nuts. 

1 spare-pole ring, held by the axle-strap, in rear of the axle-tree. 

4 stay-pins, like those for the limber, except in length ; 8 washer-p)lates for same, 
let in the top and bottom of side rails, and fastened by 16 nails No. 1 C j 4 keys for 
stay-pins ; 4 chains ; 4 eye-pins, the same as for the limber. 

1 ring-bolt for spare handspike, on the right side of the middle rail ; 2 washers; 

1 JIM*. 

1 key-plate for spare handspike, fastened on the right side of the middle rail by 2 
nails No. 1 C : 1 key ; 1 key-chain ; 1 eye-pin, same as those for ammuuition-chest 
stay-pins. 

1 key-plate for the shovel handle, fastened on the inside of the right side rails by 

2 nails 'No. 1 C: 1 key ; 1 key-chain; 1 eye-pin, the same as for spare handspike. 

2 staples for tool handles, driven into the top of the axle-body. 
2 wheels No. 1. 

Leathf.r. — 1 pole-prop strap, with one buckle No. 10, held by 3 screws, 1-inch 
No. 12. 

2 ammunition-chests, like the one on the limber. (See page 46.) 



42 ORHNANCK MANIAL. 

TrnveUing Forge. (Plate 4.) 

DUDY Alin BKM.0W8 H0I'8K. 

Woot). — 2 KiVr milt; 1 front rront-biir, fuftfiicd t<i the jiclc rail* by 2 irnodtn 
pin» ; 2 uiiddlf crimt-hnri, faxtcncd to llic Hide fuils by 6 irondrn pint ; 1 rrnr rroti- 
hnr, riif<tco(<l li> the oifle rail* ]>y 2 imutim pint ; 1 middh mil, the euJn rutcncd to 
the middle rr'iKg-lmr by 4 trmm No. 14 ; 1 nj-lt-hndy ; 1 »u,rh. 

4 fliiur-hiiitrdii. Tautened Ifl Ibo middle cronH-barc by Ifi irmct N<j. 14. 

4 corner ttudt, joined hy Icnono to the iiiile raiU, anil Tautened by 8 piHM. 

1 front rnd board, morlivcd into front Htuds, and fa«t4.-ned by 'J pin: 

2 tide ttiidt, fuslcned to side rail* and platv* with tenons and 4 pint. 
2 plnlet, framed on the upper coda of the atudi. 

\ front end »tud, mortii<ed into the front end buarda. 

2 rnd bonrdm for roof, fai«tcned to the pliitt-n and corni-r -tii i- n_v i. .. r. u- .\o. 12 
and 4 temn No. 14. 

2 roof-linirt, fattened to the platei by 4 trreirt No. 14. 

2 tide /ininijt for iron room, fastt-ned to the (tud« by 12 nniU, 8-peuny. 

1 rear end for iron room, dorelailed into the aide liningg. 

2 groor«-rhiiit for cover of iron room, fa^t^ned to the stud* by 6 trmrt No, 14. 

1 tlidinij rorrr for iron room, ronaiala of 6 boardt, faatened to 2 huticnt by 36 uaiU 
wrought). 

2 braret for the bidlowa-arma, framed into, and faatened Xa>, the corner aide ituda 

by 6 tcreVt No. 14. 

1 enp for coal-bojr, let in and faatcned to the rear end board of roof by b tertwt 
No. 14. 

10 boardt for hidea of bellowa-houae, lit into rabbetn in the corner ttuda, ride raila 
and platen, to which they arc fa^tcDcd by 4-peDny nailg. 

7 bonrdt for tke roof, faatoDed t«i the rouf-bowi and eud board by 4 -penny 
cut-naila. 

I prop for the ctoelc. lilce the pole-prop for the limber. 

1 bellotrt-polr (hicl(ory, oali, or a»h). 

Ibon. — I axle-tret, the aame mt for the ((-pounder gun-carriage. 

5 ojcle-bandt. fastened oD the cndi> of the axle-body by 6 nailt No. 1 C. 

2 underttritpt, fastened to the »ido raila by 4 holu No. 3 D, 4 icatkert, and 4 Hula. 
2 rireti. 2 bnrrt for the front end of Ituelc. 

1 Inmettr, like that for the caiaaon, except the aite of the rear bole, and 1 addi- 
tional b«ilt-hole: 1 middle bolt No. 3 D; 1 prup-boli No. 3: 1 viie-boU No. 3; 3 
n\it* ; 12 nailt No. 2 C. 

1 pole-prop tocLrt ; 1 ferrule. 

1 ttock-itirrup, fastened to the front croaa-bar by 2 boltt No. 3 B ; 2 nutt. 

1 boll No. 3 B for the middle cri'-'i^-bar aod atock ; 1 tratker ; 1 nut. 

1 axle-ttrap, fa«t«ued to the mi<ldk- rail by 2 buUt No. 3 B ; 2 nuft. 

2 Kkeel-yuard plalet, like those for the caiaaon, faateoed by 10 nai7« No. 2 C. 



TRAVELLING FOIKJK. 43 

2 atiid-pldtcs for coal-box. let in the rear corner studs, and fastened by 2 screen 
No. 16 and 2 n'refi No. 2 I?. 

2 kei/s ; 2 key-chnim ; 4 ^nii;* No. 1 and 2 /■iH^<t No. 1 B: 2 cy>:-pins No. 1, 
screwed into the two rear corner studs. 

2 lock-cliniii h«nJ:8, fastened to the side rails by 4 iiaiVo No. 1 C. 

1 bellowg-pole hook, like the lock-chain book, fastened on the right of the front 
corner stud by 2 nails No. 1 C. 

1 alaple for bellows-pole, driven into the rear corner stud, to carry the bellows- 
pole when travelling. 

2 front Htny-platcH for bcllnws-arms, fastened to the braces by 6 xcrorx No. 14. 

2 rear stay-p/atpn for bellows-arms, fastened to the braces by 4 bults No. 1 D ; 4 
thumh-niitK. 

I front for bellows-house (sheet-iron No. 24), fastened to the front studs and roof- 
boards with 12-('2. larks (iron). 

1 sheet-iron cover for cross-bar (sheet-iron No. 24), fastened to the cross-bar with 
\2-oz. iron turks. 

1 (jnard for stock (sheet-iron No. 24), bent over the top, and fastened on the sides 
of the stock by 18 iron tackn (12-oz). 

1 stay and stud for bellows-pole, fastened to the front roof-board and to the front 
middle cross-bar by 4 screira No. 14. 

1 cover for roof (sheet-copper No. 24), fastened to the edge of the roof-boards by 
315 copper taeks (12-oz). * 

1 fireplace : consists of 1 back plate, made of 2 pieces ; 2 side plates; 1 front plate, 
placed parallel to the back plate ; I bottom plate, resting on flanges formed by the 
2 side plates and the back and front plates. The upper back plate is No. 11, the 
others No. 8. The plates are riveted together where they lap by 59 rirets (0..3 inch), 

1 air-back (east-iron) : consists of 1 box and back plate, ]om&^ air-tight by 4 bolts 
No. 2 E : the air-back is fastened to the back plate of the fireplace by 5 holts No. 2 
E ; 5 nuts, octagonal. 

1 hook for forge-bucket, like the lock-chain hook, riveted to the back of the fire- 
place by 2 rivets No. 2. 

3 plates for side rails and cross-bar, bent down on the inside of the rails and 
cross-bar, and riveted to the sides and front of the fireplace; the plates arc fastened 
to the side rails and cross-bar by 10 bolts No. 2 D : 8 uashers and 10 nuts. 

2 lock-chain bridles, like that for the caisson, except size of the holes, fastened by 
the 4 front bolts in the side rails. 

2 lock-chains. (Sec page 62.) 

1 brace for fireplace, fastened to the back of the fireplace and the front end board 
of roof by 2 rivets No. 2 ; 2 rivets No. 2 B. 

1 bellows-jwle strap, fastened to the pole by 2 i-irets No. 2 and 3 screws No. 14. 

1 bellows-jjole chain : 2 links, one of which is fastened in the hook. 

2 wheels No. 1. 



44 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bellows. 

Wood. — 3 lf!!iiir»-p1nnk», each miulc of 2 picocs joined by a tongue of huril wood. 

2 rro*»-hrtidii, fastened to the middle plank by 12 tcreim Xo. 20. 

2 riht: each consigtR of 2 auleji, 1 emi, 1 i-ro»»-h»r, glued and fa9t<!ned by 16 cloiit- 
uiiils. 

2 ralre* ; 2 ballrtm, fastened by 10 tiiiiU. 

4 rifiil* for the bellowe-arms. fastened to the middle plunk by 16 »i-rric» No. 14. 

Ikon. — bun-hingm ( wrought-iron), let into the upper and lower bcllowa-pluiki 
and croes-hcads, and fastened by .'iO trmrt No. 14. 

2 armt, fuBtc-nod to the middle plank by 4 riVrf* No. 2 B and 8 gcreirt No. 1-i. 

1 hook, fastened to the lower |)lank by .'{ rirrtt No. 2 B and 4 mrnrt No. 14. 

1 teintlpijir : conBiHts of I tlhuir (bra(ii<) screwed into the wind-hole of the bel- 
lows; 1 collar (hrass) screwed to the elbow; I joini-pipt (hrAea); 1 It nt pipe ((beat- 
copper No. IS), riveted and soldered to ibc joint-pipe. 

Leatukk. — 4 hingri for the ribs. 

2 hingci for the valves (bag-leather or deer-skin with the hair on). 
2 valrr-itrapn. 

392 copptr i»cl» for hinges. 

1 hrltoic»-hiitli<r for the sides, fastened to the adgw of the planks with bellow*' 
tinilt and to the ribs with cl.>ut-naiU. 

617 brIlotrt-tiaiU : tii/e* U> go under the heads of the nails. 

To put ihe bfllijiri in ill pliirt ; Remove the ooal-box from the back of the bel- 
lowii-huuse ; take out the two stay-plates at the lower ends of the rabbets in tho 
braces : put the projecting ends of the upper bellows-arm in the rabbets, and slide 
them up until the ends of the lower arm come into their places; put on the tUkj- 
platcs, and fasten them down with the thumb-nut4. Screw tho brass elbow-pip« 
into its place, through the hole iu the sheet-iron front of the bellows-house; put io 
the copper pipe, and si-rcw up the collar which connects it wilb the elbow-pipe. 

C(Mil-l/ojc. 

Wood. — 2 i!dc», 2 tnJ», and 1 bottom, rabbeted t<'^ciher and fastened with fjO cul- 
fiaiU (6-penny). 

1 top piece, fastened by 7 tcretr* No. 14. 

I lid ; 2 clampn, framed on eat'h end. 

Iron. — 4 comer platt$ (sheet-iron No. 13), fastened by 60 »ereirt No. 12. 

1 end ttrapi. fastened to the ends of the box by 2 riret* and 4 terete*. 

2 kandlen, fastened inside of the box by 2 tcfuhert and 2 nut*. 

1 itvd-plnte for turnbuckle, fa«teued to the front of the box ; 2 rirtU No. 2 B. 
1 tHmbuckle (brassl. riveted on the stud. 

1 hn*p and itrap, fastened on the inside of the lid by 1 riret No. 2 B and 3 icreict 
No. 14. 



BATTERY-WAGON. 46 

1 cover (sheet-copper No. 24) in 2 piece?, fastened on the top of the box and lid 
by 185 copper tacks (12-07,j. 

2 hinges, fastened on the outside of the copper covering by 4 rivets No. 2 B and 16 
screws No. 14. 

Battery-ivagon. (Plate 5.) 

The battery-wagon carries tools, spare parts of carriages, spare harness, and 
other stores required for the service of the battery in the field and for repairs. 

WAGON-BODV. 

Y^'ooD. 2 lower side rails; 5 cross-bars, fastened to the side rails with tenons and 

10 wooden pins; 3 floor-hoards, fastened to the cross-bars by 36 nails No. 1 C; 1 
axlc-hurhj ; 2 ujiper side rails ; 2 sides ; 2 ends ; 1 stoekti 2 cleats, 1 bottom, and 1 
side for till ; the cleats are fastened to the ends of the body by 6 screws No. 14 ; the 
side is fastened to the edge of the bottom by 11 cut-nails (8-penny) ; I foraije-rack, 
composed of 2 «i'rfe« and 3 bars, fast«ncd to the sides by 6 u-ooden pins. 

Iron.— 2 rivets No. 3 B ; 2 burrs, through the rear end of the lower rails. 

8 side studs, fastened to the sides by 14 rivets No. 3 D. 

2 chains, for the forage-rack, each consisting of 1 rintj, 32 links, and 1 lioidc welded 
in an eye in the rear studs. 

1 spare stock-hook, fastened to the roar stud, on the right side, by the assembling- 
bolt and groove-bolt. 

1 button for spare stock, fastened by the middle groove-bolt. 

1 spare stock-stirrup, fastened to the front stud by the two lower groove-bolts. 

4 grooves for wagon-ends (sheet-iron No. 7), fastened to the sides by 12 bolts No. 1 
C ; 12 nuts. 

2 assembling-holts for lower side rails, pass through the end cross-bars : 2 nuts. 

3 bolts for middle side studs ; 3 washers; 3 )ii(««. 

1 turnbuckle-bolt ; 1 turnbuckle (brass), riveted on the head of the bolt; 1 imsher ; 

1 nut. 

1 hook for cover-prop ; 1 burr : passes through top of forward middle stud. 

1 eye-pin for cover-hasp ; 1 burr : passes through the top of the rear middle stuil. 

2 stays for the upper rails, fastened by 4 screu-s No. 14. 

2 end studs, fastened to the ends of the body by 6 rivets; 1 bolt No. 3 B ; 1 nut 
for the front stud, and 1 nut and 1 washer for the rear stud. 

1 mortise-plate, fastened to the front of axle-body by 8 screws No. 14. 

1 axle-tree like that for 6-pounder carriage; 2 shoulder-washers ; 2 linch-u^ashcrs ; 

2 linchpins. 

2 understraps ; 4 bolts No. 4 B ; 4 nuts. 

1 holt for front end of right side rail; 2 washers ; 1 nut. 

2 lock-chain bridles, like those of the caisson, at the front end of the side rails; 
2 bolts No. 3 D and No. 3 B ; 1 washer; 2 nuts; 2 lock-chains. (See page 62.) 

2 lock-chain hooks, fastened to the side rails by 4 nails No. 1 C. 



40 o[n)NANCK MANUAL. 

2 rirrtt No. 3 B ; 2 hurr' for front end of Ft^ick. 

1 lunette, like that for caiHiion : 2 hoU» No. .3 1> : 2 nuti ; \2 nnil* No. 2 C. 

2 icheel-tfuard platen, like tbo^o of the caision, fastened by 10 nniU No. 2 C. 

1 itorle-»tirniji ; 2 fc»i/M No.*4 B: 2 nr/f*. 

2 hoUn No. 1 B for dock and erocis-bar ; 2 uut» ; 2 iranhm. 
2 tratfier-jihitri for side rail*, fastened by 4 irrrtr* No. 14. 

2 foragr-rnck hiindt, faFtcned to the raek by 2 rtrr»» No. 2 and 22 tcrrtrt No. 14. 
4 trnnher-phitr* for fornjte-rark, sideji fai>len<-d by 4 riret* No. 2 I). 
2/'>rn;frrark holf No. 4 ; 2 irn»Arr» ; 2 iiiif*. 
2 irhctln No. 1. 

WAOOX-COVKR. 

Wood. — 2 «iVr rnt7« .■ 2 r>ii/ rnih, dovclailcd into the lide rails : 2 rM</ *tu<i; fast- 
ened to the end rails by i tr<,n<lrn pin$, and t4i Ihc end boards l)y 4 r!rtit. 

2 enii huoriiii, fastened to the side and end rails by 8 icmr* No. 12, and to the and 
."tuil by 6 «crr»r«r No. 12 : 1 riilyr-pule ; corer-bonrd; fastened to the end boardf by 
'.',(\ iiin'lt (i-\Hsan\), and (o the end bow* by 3A rirrf* No. 1 II, and to the middle 
bows by .36 teretci No. 12. 

luos. — I cortirr »^ti<i;r«, fastened on the inside of the frame by Ifl trmrt No. 14. 

2 end Itiiirt. 

4 joiiit-liitlti for eorer-frami-. pa-^s through the rails and end bowe : -i nut* No. 1. 

2 middit hoirt. fast4.'ned in mortiset in the rails by 4 rirrU No. 3 B. 

2 pI'itrK niid finpirt for covi-r-|ir<p|i and hasp, fattened to the left eover-rail bjr 3 
lirrtu No. 3 B and 2 rcmet No. 12; 1 curer-prop, fastened in the front itaple; 1 Aa4tp, 
faslened in the rear staple. 

^ hinijm, fastened to the rail by rirrtt No. 3 B, and to the body-rail by 6 6oto 
No. 1 B ; 6 II Mf*. 

The roof is covered with xiron;; linen oaorasa, which is fastened by 264 copp«r 
nnilt (I2-or..). with ^trips of U,ahtr under tb«ir heada. 

Am m unition-rhest. 

The same ammunition-chest is adapted to the limbers of the different field gan- 
cnrria;;es and to their eaii^fons. The interior diricions rary with the different kindt 
of ammunition. (Sec Chap. XI.; 

Wood. — 2 mdt, 2 tidet, dovetailed and fastened by 16 evt-maiU (S. penny); 
1 principal ftartitiuH ; 1 bottom, fastened by If* eul-naili ((*-penny) and 4 icrew0 
No. 16. 

1 cor«r, consisting of 1 /ram* of 4 pieces, 1 panel, and 1 lininy fastened by 60 
copper taeki. 

Iron. — t romcr plntet for ends and sides — 2 corner plate* for ends and bot- 
toms — 1 corner plat r for side and bottom — sheet-iron No. 13, faateoed by V6 sereiM 
No. IS. 

I tuiemhling-hoU No. 2 ; 1 turnhmclcle (brass), attached to the aesembling-bolt. 

1 Kotker-plate for assembling-bolt, fastened by 2 tcreir* No. 12. 



PRAIRIE CARRIAGE. 47 

1 bacJc-stni/, fastened to the hack and bottom by 6 "crews No. 14. 

2 /ronf-8t(ii/s, fastened to the front and bottom by 4 n'refg No. 2 B and 8 scrcw.t 
No. 14. 

2 hinges, 4 rivets No. 2 B, 20 screws No. 14; 2 hiiige-plafcs, fastened on the back 
edge of the cover by 4 screirs No. 14. 

1 hasp, fastened to the cover by 1 rivet No. 2 B and 5 screws No. 14:1 hasp-plate : 
2 screws No. 14. 

2 hmidUs; 8 »v"rei!8 No. 3 B. 

14 coj>2)cr washers (sheet-copper No. 24), to cover heads of rivets: 56 copper 
tacks. 

1 eot-cr (sheet-copper No. 24). fastened to the edges of the wooden cover by 216 
copper tacl-s. 

2 leather straps for the tarpaulin, 5 inches long, with 2 buckles No. 6, fastened to 
the edges of the cover of the limber-chest by 4 screws No. 14. 

2 leather straps for the tarpaulin, 29 ftichee long, fastened to the hasp side of the 
cover of the limber-chest by 4 screws No. 14 ; 4 copper washers. 

Limber-chest for the Travelling Forge and Battery-wagon. 

This chest differs from the ammunition-chest in the following points, viz : 

It has no principal partition; and, instead of the assembling-bolt, with the 

washer-plate and turnbucklc, it has a hasp-staple and plate, fastened by 2 rivets. 

The backstay is fastened by 1 rivet and 6 screws. The heads of the rivets are not 

covered with copper washers. 

For the interior arrangement of the chest, see Chapter XI. 

Prairie Carriage for the Vl-ponnder Mountain Howitzer and Moun- 
tain Rifle. 

Woon. — 1 stoci- in 2 pieces, put together with 2 doivels. The stock is hollowed 
out on top at the head, leaving the sides to project and form the cheeks. 1 
axle-body. 

Iron. — 2 usscmhUng-bvlt'i No. 4 D ; 2 washers ; 2 washer-hooks for the front bolt; 
2 nuts. 

2 trail-handles ; 2 bolts No. 2 A ; 2 nnfs. 

1 lunette: the under part of the ring is plated with steel; 1 trail-plate (plate-iron 
No. 8) is riveted to the lunette by 2 rivets No. 2 B. The lunette is fastened to the 
stock by 6 nails No. 2 C, and the trail-plate by 6 nails No. 1 C, and both by the 
pointing-ring holts. 

1 large pointing-ring and plate ; the plate is fastened to the stock by 2 holts No. 2 
H ; 2 nuts, octagonal. 

1 small pointing-ring ; 2 bolts No. 2 H; 2 nuts, octagonal. 



48 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

2 prolongr-honk; fast'.'ned over the middle line of the Btock hy 8 m<ii7« No. 1 C. 

1 keji for bmndvpike; 1 rhain ; 1 rge-pin. 

2 trherl-ijiinrJ )>lt$lr; fit!<tcni'd to the Ctock l).V 10 iiniV* No. 1 C. 

2 trunnum-filaUi, fiulcDed to the utock hy 2 chin-bolu and 2 kry-hulli No.>4 A, 2 
Iriinnion-pliitr hullt No. 4 D: A nut* ; G uaiU No. 2 C. 

2 cnp'tifuarrt ; 2 tyt-ptH*, rivetpd to the cap-»quarct : 2 ekain», 5 link* No. 1. 

2 rj/r.fiint, iiervwed into the fiilo* of the nlork: 2 rap-tquart tey» ; 2 chain*, .T 
liiiki Nu. 1 ; 2 rge-pitu, ncrcwcd into the tidcp of the ttook. 

2 impUmrnt'kuok; »crcwe<l into the top i(f the axlo-hody. 

2 impUmenl-ka»k», rucrewed into the *idei of the rturk near the trail. 

1 oj-lr-lrcf No. .'J; 2 tktiuliirr-fifkm; 2 liitck-tnitkrr* ; 2 tinrhpin*. 

2 uudcr*lrap», faatcnod by the rhin and kry bull*. 

1 ipongc-bucket hool ; paaaea lbruui;b the axlv-body from the front ; 1 wifkrr^ 
1 nor. 

2 axU-ban<it, put on (h« axle-body kui, aad fa«ten*d by 8 »niU No. I C. 

I hiix ftir tUviiiing'tcrtw (ca«t-bra««) ; 2 ln'li* No. 2 C; S ttamkert ; 2 mml*. 
1 rlrrutimf-trrrtr, 

Limbrr. 

Wood. — 1 ajrlt-body : 2 knumdt : \ fork ; I 0plimt*r-hitr ; i /oot-bonrd hrnrktU ; 2 
/<n>l-b<Mtrdt ; I pulr ; 1 polr-prop. 

Irom. — I *frett0 No. Ifl; 4 trrrtrt No. 14 for bracket*; JO naiU for foot-board ; 4 
f 1 1<«/« No. 2 B : 4 hurrt for end* of hoand*. 

I nxir-trre No. .t : 2 »hi>utder-trnahtr» ; } limek'tt^ttkrn ; S limrkpim*. 
1 pintli-kuok : 3 6'</r« No. 3 C; 3 traikm ; i ■•>« ; 1 pimtU-kry ; I rAai'n, 9 fial-* 
No. 2 and 2 riny* No. 1 A : I rye-pio No. I, fa«trned to the roar of tlie azl«.--)M<dy. 

1 lar-burkri ko»k, fajilened )>y 3 nm/* Nu. I C. 

2 frofff No. 2 E to ouonect the axie-bwdv bu.I houu.lk : 'J K.i'At-/-* ,■ 2 nut. 

3 nndrritrapt ; 4 (*off« No. 2 B: 4 •■■/• 
2 ajtU-bands ; 6 Nai7« No. I C. 

2 end hatidt for »pliul«r-bar ; 3 tract-kook* ; 4 rw*ta No. 3 vir«. 

2 middlt band* for vplintcrbar; 3 /ra<«-&ooA« ; 9 ^oUa No. 3 D; 3 ■»(*. 

1 /ork-tirap : guppurtf the tonjnte. and U bald kj tha bolt* of the middle baada. 

2 bolt* No. 2 D for fplinter-bari and hoaad*: 4 »m»ktr» ; 2 ■■/«. 

I poU-prop tockti ; I ftrmU ; I poU-prvp ttmd driraa into the •pliutcr-bar. 
1 eyf-pin, riveted; 1 burr, 

4 utttjf'pin* : 4 it<it7« No. 1 C : 4 k*y ; 4 <-i««a« of & /»a^ No. 1 and 2 rtnyi No. 1 A, 
earh. 

4 eyf-pins Np. 1 ; 1 »tny-ptnlr ; 4 r^rrrrr. 

1 ri'rrl in large end of |>ole : 1 y ? D ; 3 iraxftrrt ,- I an/. 

\/trru1t ; 1 hnrklt, fastened uu ; .d of the pole by I rtrel. 

1 fn'U-yi'ke, composed of 1 M«y. 1 cuUar in two parta, 2 krauckf, 2 »Udimfr4m§H 
3 ^o<r« for collar ; 1 «<««A«r for mulT : 1 kry. 



GUN-CARRIAGE FOR MOUNTAIN HOWITZER. 49 

1 pole-prop strap (leather), fastened to the splinter-bar by 3 scretoa No. 12; 1 buckle 
No. 10. 

2 ammunition-chcslg ; 2 wheels No. 3. 

Amviunition-chests. 

Wood. — 2 fnth ; 2 sides, dovetailed and glued to the ends. 

1 bottom, rabbeted into the sides and ends, and fastened with 30 cut-nails 
(C-penny). 

1 cover, made of I panel and 2 end clamps, mortised, glued, and fastened with 4 
pins. 

4 bolsters ; 8 cleats, fastened — the first to the bottom, the second to the sides on 
the inside — by 48 copper nails (4-penny). 

Iron. — 1 brace, fastened on the inside to the back by 1 screw, and to the front by 
the stud-plate rivet. 

1 turnbuckle (brass) ; 1 stud ; 1 stud-plate, fastened to the front by 1 rivet No. 2 B 
and 1 screw No. 9. 

4 corner plates (sheet iron No. 17): 40 screws No. 9. 

1 back stay ; \ front stay ; 6 scretos No. 9; 3 rivets No. 2 B. 

2 hinges, fastened to the under side of the cover by 8 screws No. 12, and to the 
back and bottom by 9 screws No. 12 and 2 rivets No. 2 B. 

2 handler, fastened to the bottom and end by 1 rivet and 4 screws No. 12. 
1 hasp: the strap let into the under side of the cover, and fastened with 5 screwt 
No. 12 and 1 rivet No. 2 B. 

1 canvass cover, secured to the edges of wooden cover by 12 copper tacks. 
1 tarpaulin to cover the carriage. 

Pra irie Am mv n if ion -en ri. 

This is a two-whccled cart, with shafts, carrying four ammunition-chests and on« 
implement-chest like those used for the mountain howitzer ammunition. 

The chests are held in place by stays and a bar fastened with a spring catch 
behind, so that they may be easily detached. 

The wheels are like those of the gun-carriage, and have the same track. 

The shafts have hooks at their front ends for the purpose of attaching another 
horse if necessary, though one horse is sufficient for the ordinary draught. 

Gun-carriage for the Mountain Howitzer and Mountain Rifle. 

(Plate 6.) 

The gun-carriage is adapted to transportation on a pack-mule; but for occasional 
draught, when the roads permit, it is furnished with a thill, which is used with the 
same saddle that carries the pack. 
4 



50 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Wood. — 1 0tork in 2 pieces, put together with 2 doireh. The stock is hollowed 
oat on top, forming the check from the sides of the stock. 

1 nrle-trrr, in 2 pieces bolted and riveted topetlier with an iron skcnn Itetwoon. 
Irox. — 3 ntfemhling-hnltn No. 4 D for the stork : 2 trnnher-hookn for the front bolt; 

4 wniiherii ; 3 nutt. 

2 trunn\on-plate» ; 2 chin-holt» No. 4 : 2 key-holln No. 4; 2 tninuion-plntr holtn No. 
4 D: 6 natV* No. 1 C. 

2 eap-»quare» ; 2 eye-pinn, riveted to the cap'-'juareR ; 2 ehnino, 5 ^'mJI-it No. 1 and 
2 r»n«7« No. 1 B, each; 2 i'^-y* .• 2 kry-rhuiim, .3 /i"nA-» No. 1, 2 riiig», Nu. 1 B ; 4 rye- 
/>»n« No. 1, screwed into the sides of the stock. 

2 hnndxpike-honkii, screwed into the sides of the stock near the head. 

2 tiaplei for handspike-straps. 

1 luiirtte, fastened to the stock by fi nntU No. 2 C. 

1 trail-plate, fastened to the stock by 6 nniU No. 1 C, and to the luncttp-plate by 
2 rirrlH No. .3 C. 

1 handfpike-ftnplr, driven into the stock through holes in the trail-plate. 

2 friction-platra for shaft: 4 »iai7« No. 1 C. ^ 

1 box /or rltvatirxj-trrtir ; 2 bolts No. 1 C; 2 ttnshfri ; 2 nntU ; 1 rlrrati'ntf-teretc, 

1 ajrle-gkcan ; 1 /.o/f No. 2 D : 2 trathrrt ; 1 fiuf ; 2 riVff* No. 3 B ; 4 f;irr». 
2/errulei, fastened to the end of the axle-tre« by 2 rirrtt No. 2; 2 linrhpifu. 

2 arle-haud', put on hot; 4 iini7* No. 1 C. 

2 undemtrapn, fastened by the ohin, k«y and trunnion-plate bolta. 
2 fchtfU No. 4. 

8RAPTR. 

Wood. — 2 shaft* ; 1 ero$»-bar, Joined to the shafts by t«non and mortise. 
Iron. — 1 cros$-bar platr, fastened to the shafts by 2 bolt* No. 2 D, 4 riret* No. 2 
B, 4 tcrews No. 14, and 2 nti(« ,■ and to the cross-bar by 7 screw No. 14. 

1 supporting-bar ; I kry ; 1 chain of 8 Zinit* No. 1, 2 riii</f No. 1 A ; 1 ryr-pin No. 
1, riveted to the cross-bar plate. 

2 staples for the shafl« : 4 burrs for same. 

In attaching the shafts to the gun-carriage, the snpporting-bar is laid on the 
trail-plato, near the handspike-staple, and the knee in rear of the lunette rests on 
the cross-bar plate, the holes for the key in these two pieces corresponding with 
aach other. 

Ammunition-chests. 

Wood. — 2 endf ,• 2 »irf*«, dovetailed and glued to the ends ; 1 bottom, let into the 
sides and ends, and nailed : 1 corer, made of 1 panel and 2 clarnpn, joined by tenons, 
glued and fastened with pins; 2 brackets for handles, fastened with 4 *<~r»-if» No. 12 
and 4 fcretrs No. 14: 16 cleats, glued and fastened by 8 tcreuis No. 7; 48 nails 
(3-penny). 

Iron. — 1 brace, fastened on the inside to the back by 1 «creie No. 12, to the front 
by the stud-plate rivet. 



TOOL-CHESTS. 51 

1 tiirnhwHc (brass): ! '•)"J ; 1 stitd-jyfnte. let into the front and fastened by 1 riwet 
No. 2 and 1 scretc No. 9. 

4 corner plates (shcot-iron No. 18) ; 40 sercws No. 7. 

2 fiinr/m, let into the under ?ide of the cover, and pass under the bottom : 26 
nrrewe No. 9. 

2 laxhiiig-chains, 4 ^//iZ-s each; 1 bridle, held by 4 n'tv^g No. 2 B passing through 
the hinge-strap. 

1 hasp, let into the under side of the cover; 4 tcrewn No. 9. 

1 covering of stout linen, painted ; 1 leather strip ; 160 copper tacks. 

2 handles of l-i»icA rope. 

Portable Forge. 

Iron. — 1 frame, made of 3 pieces welded together. 

I fireplace (sheet-iron No. 13), composed of ,1 bottom, bent into a hollow form and 
riveted to the frame; 1 back plate, in 2 pieces, the lower piece bent under the bot- 
tom and riveted to it; the 2 plates are joined by 2 brass Jiinges, \f\uch are riveted to 
each plate by 4 screirs. 

1 border, bent round the back and riveted to it and to the frame. 

2 reinforces to the back plate, riveted to the edges of both pieces. 

1 air-back (sheet-iron No. 7), made into a convex shape when hot : is riveted to 
the upper back plate. 

1 button ; 1 stud, riveted to the outside of the upper back plate : is used to fasten 
ilown the back plate in packing. 

1 iron pipe, attached to the rear of the lower back plate by means of 1 bridle. 
which is fastened by 2 bolts j 2 nuts. 

1 front leg, forked ; 2 eye-pieces, riveted to the sides of the frame : the leg is 
joined to the eye-pieces by 2 bolts ; 2 nuts. 

2 rear legs; 1 cross-bar, fastened to the rear legs by 2 nuts; 2 bolts, to join the 
rear legs to the frame. 

1 bellows handle : a bent bar of iron with a wooden head is fastened to the handle- 
fork by 1 rivet; 1 sliding-catch ; 1 ihiimb-ficrcw on the lower end. 
1 handle-fork fits in a square hole in the cross-bar. 

BELLOWS. 

Wood. — The same parts as the bellows for the field forge. 

Iron. — 1 nozzle (sheet-iron), inserted into the cross-head. 

I journal-rod, fastened to the middle plank. 

1 fop plate, fastened to the upper plank by 9 screws. 

1 handle, attached to the plate by 3 staples riveted under the plate. 

1 bellows-weight (lead, 1 pound weight), fastened on the inside of the lower plank. 

1 bellows-leather, fastened by bellows-nails. 

Tool-chests. 

' Two chests are used to pack the forge and smiths' tools. They are alike except in 
their interior divisions and the socket-plates, which are attached only to theforgc- 
ehest. For contents^ sec Chapter XI. 



52 ORDNANCK MANUAL. 

Wood. — 2 rn<1« ; 2 »iV«», dovetaileil nml glued to the eii'l." ; 1 holtom, let into the 
«nd8 and sidec, and fastened l>y .S2 nnili (6-ponny): 1 cover, made of 1 pnml and 2 
end clnnipt, morticed, glued and factened liy 4 pinn. 

Iron. — 4 corner plntei (f>heot-iron No. 18); 18 icreirt No. 7. 

2 handler, turned under the l)ott<im of clvcgt, and fastened by 2 riiets and S 

2 liiufjcK, fastened to the inside of the cover with 2 n'rrtK and fi ncretoM, and to the 
bottiim and back with 6 rivcln and 22 terete* ; 2 hridlcK for lai^hing-cbaina, held by 
the hinge-rivets. 

1 lidHp, let into the inside of the cover: 4 »rretr». 

1 himp-itnple and plate : the staple ip riveted to the plate, which is fastened to tiie 
c.bcst by 2 rivelt. 

3 «oc/.-cf-/>/nfc«, with holes in them to receive the legs of the frame, fastened to the 
dack of the forge-chest by 12 tcretn. 

1 liucn corering, like that of the ammunition-chest. 

SIEUE CARRIAGES. 
Gun-carriage. (Plate 7.) 

There are three gun-earriagee for sicfjc artillery, vir. : 

One for the 12-pounder gun ; 

One for the 18-poundcr gun ; 

One for the 24-pounder gun and the 8-inch howitzer. 

These carriages are constructed in the same manner, differing only in their dimcn- 
iiions. 

When the S-inch howiticr is mounted on the 24-pounder carriage, a, quoin is used, 
instead of the elevating-screw, the howitter being too short to rest on the screw. 

Wood. — 1 atock in 2 pieces, put together with 2 duteeli ; 2 cheek* ; 1 axir-body ; 1 
hreech-hohter. 

Iron. — 1 a»*cmbling-boll for the stock No. 7 A; 2 irat/im ; 1 nut. 

1 manacuvring-bolt No. 7 ; 2 etdlari ; 4 %rn»\*T» ; 2 hu/* No. 5. 

6 rondellci (cast-iron I: 2 (utembling-boltt No. 7 A ; 4 wathert ; 2 nutt. 

\ asgeuiblintj et/e-bolt for the lock-chain No. 9: the ring of the lock-chain is 
welded in the eye of the bolt, which is on the left side of the carriage; I teanher 
No. 9 ; 1 teacher and 1 nut No. 7. 

1 loci-chain (See page 62); 1 ikoe ; 1 icy for the shoe, to keep the wheel from 
slipping off. 

2 trunnioH-platt* ; 2' chin-lolH No. 7; 2 berel-teasheri ; 2 niiti ; 2 key-boll* No. 7 ; 2 
tnU* ; 4 cheek-bolt* No. 7 A ; 4 tca*her* ; 4 nut*. 

2 trunnion-plate bolt* No. 3 E: 2 nut* ; 2 travelling trunnion-bolt* ; 2 ica*hert ; 2 
mmt*. 

2 eap-tquarc* ; 2 cap-tquare chain*, 6 link* No. 3 and 2 ring* No. 2 A, each; 4 eye- 
pin* No. 3 — 2 riveted into the cap-squares and 2 screwed into the sides of the 



LIMBER. 53 

cheeks; 2 cap-square keys ; 2 key-chains, each 5 links No. 2 and 2 rintjs No. 2 B ; 2 
eye-pitis No. 2 for key-chains. 

1 axle-tree No. 5; 2 shoulder-washers ; 2 linch-washers ; 2 linchpins. 

2 nndcrstraps, held by the eye, chin and trunnion-plate bolts. 

1 axle-strap, held by 2 toZfs No. 5 B, connecting the stock and axle-body; 2 mtt». 

2 axle-hnnds, put on hot, and fastened to the axle-body by 3 nails No. 1 C. 

1 lock-chain hook, passes through the axle-body on the right side ; 2 washers ; 1 
nut. 

I hook for the shoe, screwed into the right side of the cheek. 
1 check-plate, to protect the cheek from the friction of the shoe in travelling. 
1 box for the elevating-screw (brass) ; 2 bolts No. 4 C; 2 washers ; 2 «uM. 
1 elevating-screw ; 4 handles, screwed into the head of screw. 

1 strap-staple, driven into the middle of the stock on the under side. 

2 wheel-f/tiard plates, fastened to the stock by 12 nails No. 2 C. 

1 lunette, reinforced at the pintle-hole by 1 rondeUe, fastened to the upper side of 
the lunette-plate by 3 rivets No. 3 C ; 2 holts No. 4 C ; 2 washers ; 2 nuts. 

1 trail-plate, reinforced by 1 guard-plate fastened to the trail-plate by 6 rivets No. 

3 C ; 29 nails No. 3 C. 

2 bolster-bolts No. 4 B, the heads hollowed out; 2 washers ; 2 nuts. 
2 wheels No. 5. 

Limber. 

Wood. — I fork; 2 hounds; 1 splinter-bar ; 1 pole ; 1 leading-bar. 

Iron. — 1 fork-bolt No. 4 D; 2 washers; 1 nut. 

1 axle-tree No. 5 ; 2 shnulder-icashcrs ; 2 linch-washers ; 2 linchpins. 

1 pintle-plate, fastened to the fork by 7 7)ails No. 3 C and by 2 of the axle-strap 
bolts. 

1 sweep-bar : the ends are fastened to the hounds by 2 bolts No. 4 C; 2 washers, 
2 nuts. 

1 axle-strap, fastened to the fork by 6 bolts — 4 No. 4 C and 2 No. 4 D. Two pass 
through the pintle-plate, two through the sweep-bar, and two through the fork. 2 
washers ; 6 nuts. 

1 lashing-ch(iln of 4 rings and 1 hook : the first ring is welded into the eye of the 
axle-strap. 

2 undcrstrapis, fastening the hounds to the axle-tree; 2 holts No. 4 D; 2 bolts No. 

4 C ; 2 iciashers ; 4 tints. 

1 pintle, fitted accuratelj- in the mortises of the pintle-plate and fork ; 1 nut. 

2 end bands; 2 trace-hooks, put on the end of the splinter-bar with 4 rivets No. 2. 
2 middle hands ; 2 trace-hook", fastened by the bolts connecting the splinter-bar 

and fork. 

1 bridle for the front end of the fork, fastened b}' the bolts connecting the fork 
and splinter-bar. 

2 bolts No. 4 D for the splinter-bar aud fork ; 2 nuts. 

2 bolts for the splinter-bar and hounds, No. 4 D ; 4 washers ; 2 nuts. 



54» ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

1 bridle for the middle of the fork, fastened to the fork by 1 uniU No. 2 C. 
1 riVff for the rear end of the ixde; 1 burr. 

1 fye-platc for the front end of the pole ; 2 bnltt No. 2 U ; .3 maihert ; 2 nul«. 

2 poh-chnini, each 9 liu/eii No. Ci. 1 co-link-, mid 1 riim. woIiIcmI into a hole in tin' 
eyo-plate. 

1 frrruU for the end of the poU'. 

1 pnle-olaap, fastened hy the eye-plnle bolt and-l bolt No. 2, hexagonal head. 

2 Ao/rit for the pole and fork, No. 4 D ; 4 imKhfru ; 2 »"/«. 

1 iin'dillr band for the leading-bar, fa8t«ned by 2 rivetn No. 2 : 1 Aoo/.- ; 1 douhir 
tracr-hook, " 

2 eiirf bnndit and Inire-honk-n fir leading-bar, like tho.«f for the uplintcr-bar ; 2 
riiM'f* No. 2. 

2 tr/iefi» No. 5. 

Morfnr-icngon. 

This wagon is designed for the transportation of siege mortars anil their beds, or 
of guns, or large shot and shells. 

The limber and the wheels arc the same as those of the gun-carriage. 

Wood. — 2 middle raiU; \ front traHtom, fastened between the middle rails by 2 

doweli ; I middle transom botwecn the middle rails; 1 rmr Irnnnnm between the 

middle rails; 2 »ide rail*; 1 rear rro»»-Aar, let into the middle and side rails; 6 

middle cro»ii-btir* between the middle and side rails, and let into both ; 2 /rout erof- 

ban, let into the middle and side rails ; 2 bottom planks, fastened to the middle oroM- 

» 
bars by 12 uniU No. 2; 1 ajcle-bodg ; 1 vindlams ; 1 muxxU-buUler ; 6 ntuhit; 2 katid- 

spikri for working the windlass. When used for carrying bulls. 1 friiine, made uf 4 

planks dovetailed together and strengthened by iron corner plates. 

Iron. — 1 uiiembling-bar, passes through the middle rails into the side rails. 

2 handipike-hoiikt, fahtened to the outside of the middle rails by 4 iiai7« No. 2 C. 

1 atteviblinij-bolt No. 4 A : 2 trathrrs ; 1 ntU. 

1 cye-phite for the laishing-chain, placed between the middle rails. 

2 boltt No. 4 A, for the front ends of the middle rails; 4 irnthert; 2 nuts. 
2 maufpiirrin^-staples, driven into the under side of the middle rails. 

2 crong-bar plates, fastened to the front and rear cross-bars by 12 iollt No. 4 C ; V 
ttmskers ; 12 nuts. 

1 lock-chain and nhoe — 1 kry : 1 bridh. fasit^ined under the left side rail: 1 bolt No. 
4 B ; 1 n%tt — like those on the gun-carriage. 

1 trail-plate, fastened under the front end of the middle rails by 11 nai7« No. 3 C. 

1 lunette ; 1 reinforce, fastened to the lunette by 4 rirrtt No. .3 C ; 1 bridle ; 3 bnUt 
No. 4 C ; 3 nut*. 

2 tcheel-guard plates, fastened t^i the middle rails by 12 nails No. 2 C. 

1 axle-tree No. 5. 

2 underntrapt, fastened to the side rails by, 4 thtUs N<). 4 B : 4 nu/«. 

2 axle-*trap», fastened to the middle rail.« by 4 bolts No. 4 B ; 4 nut*. 



4 



BARBETTE CARRIAGES. 55 

1 breech-hiirter, \e^^ into the middle rails and fastened by 4 naiis No. 2 C. 

6 stake-socketK, bolted on the outside of the side rails by 10 bolts No. 3 D ; 10 
washers ; 10 nuts. 

2 lock-chain hooks take the place of 2 stake-socket bolts on the left side; 2 
washers ; 2 nuts. 

1 tar-bucket hook, fastened on the outside of the left side rail by 2 naila No. 1 C. 
4 roller-plates, fastened on the S(iuarc part of the windlass by 32 »iai7« No. 1 C. 
4 roller-bands, let into the ends of the roller, and fastened by 6 nails No. 1 C. 

2 Journal-boxes (brass), let into the ends of the windlass. 

2 Jonrnals'ioT the windlass, riveted at one end into 2 Journal-plates, which are fast- 
ened to the inside of the rails by 4 bolts No. 3 C; 4 nuts. 

2 circular Journal-plates, fastened by the bolts last mentioned and by 4 nails No. 1 
C. 

2 roller-hooks, driven into the windlass 5.5 inches from the middle. 

2 handspike-straps, fastened to the small end of the handspike by 2 rivets No. 2. 

2 shoulder-washers for the axle-tree, 



2 linch-xoashers, 
2 linchpins, 
2 wheels No. 5, 



like those for the gun-carriage. 



GARRISON AND SEA-COAST CARRIAGES.* 

The garrison and sea-coast carriages are all made of wrought-iron. They are o 
four different kinds, viz : 

1. The Barbette, front-pintle, carriage. 

2. The Barbette, centre-pintle, carriage. 

3. The Casemate carriage. 

4. The Flank-casemate carriage. 

Each carriage is composed of a chassis and top carriage. 

The inclination of the chassis-rails is the same in all the carriages — 3°. The 
trough-beam braces, transoms and angle-iron sub-braces vary only in length, the 
flank-casemate carriage excepted. The thickness of the cheek-plates is the same in 
all. The barbette rails diflor both in length and depth from the casemate, which arc 
also diflferent from the flank-casemate. 

BARBETTE CARRIAGES. 

Barbette carriages are divided into front-pintle carriages and centre-pintle car- 
riages. The top carriage is the same for both kinds. 

Of the front-pintle class there are three carriages, which are similar to each 
other : one for the 10-inch columbiad, one for the 8-inch columbiad and 42-pounder 



* Some carriages bavo already been made of wrought-iron, but in consequence of tlie scarcity 
of labor and material, the carriages for garrison and sea-coast service will bo of wood, as pre- 
scribed farther on. 



56 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

ffun, and ono for the 32 and 24-pfiiiniicr guns : the latter two difler only in the 
lenjithp of the transoms and axle-tncH. 

Of the centri'-jiintlc claKO there are two carriages : one fur the 10-inch columbiad, 
And one for the 8-inch columbiad. 

Top Carriage. 

The parts marked with an asterisk (*) are common to all carria;re.«. 

2 rhrrk-ptntt*. 

2/rnHl hrnrfo — 2 middle brarrt — 2 rrar brneri, fastened to the chock-platcs, each 
by 4 IiiUk No. 4 E and 4 nutu, 

2 front tuh-brarft, faftonod to the check-platos by 4 bollt No. 4 E and 4 nut*. 

2 rrar iiib-bracm, fastened to the cheek-platen by 6 holtn No. 4 E and C iiii(». 

2 thnrn, each fastened to the front brace by 1 bolt No. 4 E and 1 nut, to the rear 
brace by 1 b»li No. 4 E and 1 nut, to the front sub-brace by 2 bolts No. 4 H and 2 
nnl«, and to the rear ."ub-brace by .3 bolti No. 4 H and .3 iiuis. 

2 trunnion-plalei, fastened to the front braces by 2 boll* No. 4 E and 2 tintt, and 
to the rear l>raco by 2 bolt» No. 4 E and 2 nut*. 

♦2 axle-hoxin (brass), held in place by *2 ojrU-box ttankfrB (cast-iron), fastened 
to the cheek-plates each by 4 boliM No. 4 E and 4 ntiU. 

•1 handspikr-fulcrum, fastened to the U/t rear brace by 2 rirrtt No. 5 C. *2 arc 
tupports, fastened to the right rear brace by 2 bolls No. 1 D and 2 rirru No. 3 D. 

•1 lanyard-rolUr, brass, fastened to the right rear-brace by 1 nut, .375 in. 

2 tran*omi, fastened to the front brace by the 4 bolts which hold the braces to 
the cheek-plate. 

1 rear trannom, composed of 2 pieces, 5-inch trough-beams, with pieces welded 
in the ends; each piece fastened to the cheek-plat«a by 4 boUt No. 4 E and 4 nutt. 

2 brace-4raii*omt, fastened to the middle brace by the 4 bolts which hold the 
braces to the cheek -plates. 

2 diagonal bracet, fastened to the shoes by 4 bolu, which bold the shoes and 
sub-braces, and to each other by 1 boll No. 4 E and 1 nut. 

1 axle-tree; *2 linrhpins: *2 truck teheeds. 

1 elcraling-bed, fastened to the rear transom by 4 b"ln No. 4 E and 4 nutt; 1 
elevating-tcreic: *1 elrrating-iereie box (brass), fastened to the rear transom by 4 
bolts No. 4 E and 4 nuts; *1 bcrel-vherl and nut, fitting on elevatin>.'-screw ; •! 
brass pinion, mounted on •! eUvatiag-seretr arbor; •! arbor-box (brasf), fastened 
to the cheek-plate by 2 bolls No. 1 E and 2 nuts. .375 inch (hexagonal): 1 nrbor- 
kandle; *l nut, .375 inch; 1 patcl ; 1 patel-porl ; 1 elerating-arc (brass;. 

The carriages for the 42-pounder and smaller guns hare no elevating-bed. pawl, 
or pawl-port. The rear transom is made of a single piece of 5-inch trough-beam. 
The S-inch carriage answers for the 42-pounder gun by adding 2 trunnion-platM, 
removing the elevating-bed, and adding a longer elevatiog-ecrew. The S^-poondar 
carriage answers for smaller guns, by the addition of trunnion-plates. 



I 



CHASSIS — CENTRE-PINTLE. 67 

' Chassis — Front-pintle. 

2 rath (I-shape), 15 inches deep. 

1 hurter-bar, fastened to the rails by 4 bolts No. 4 E and 4 ttuta. 

2 couuter-hurters, fastened to the rails by 8 rivets No. 5 D, countersunk on top. 

1 front transom, composed of 1 transom-plate and 2 cant-iron transom-holsters: 
the transom is fastened to the rails by 16 bolts No. 4 E, which pass through the 
bolsters and keep them in place; 16 >ii(^«; 4 bevel-washers. 

transoms, fastened to the rails by 12 bolts No. 4 E and 12 nuts — 2 of them 
having hook heads. 

2 dia<jonal braces, fastened to the front transom by 4 holts No. 4 H and 4 nuts, 
and to the rails by 4 bolts No. 4 E and 4 nuts. 

2 side steps, fastened to the rails by 4 bolts No. 4 E and 4 nuts. 

2 rear steps, fastened to the rear transom by 4 bolts No. 4 E and 4 nuts. 

2 rear traverse wheel-fork^, fastened to the rails by 16 bolts No. 4 E, 16 nuts; 2 
traverse-wheels; 2 travcrse-vhecl bolts 1.75 inch, 2 nuts. 

4 implement-hooks, fastened to the rails by 4 nuts No. 4; 1 key in the pintle. 

Wood. — 15 planks, 6 inches wide, li inches thick, placed across the chassis, on 
the lower flange. 

Note. — The ends of the front transom must have a firm support on an iron 
friction-bar, resting on the masonry around the pintle; and the transom must be 
held down, and be prevented from rising oflF the pintle, by a key passing through 
it, or by a nut screwed on the top. 

Chassis — Centre-pintle. 

2 rails, I-shaped. 

1 hurter-bar, fastened to the rails by 4 bolts No. 4 E; 4 nuts. 

2 countor-hurters, fastened to the rails by 8 rivets No. 5 D, countersunk on top. 

4 transo7ns, fastened to the rails by 16 bolts No. 4 E — 6 of them have hook heads; 
16 nuts. 

1 middle transom, fastened to the rails by 16 bolls No. 4 E; 16 nuts: this transom 
is composed of 1 transotn-plate and 2 transom-bolsters, fastened together by 16 bolts 
No. 4 H; 16 nuts: the transom-bolster is made of 2 pieces, fastened together by 4 
rivets No. 4 D. 

4 diagonal braces, fastened to the middle transom by 8 bolls No. 4 II (8 nuts), and 
to the lower flange of the rail by 8 bolls No. 4 E ; 8 nuts. 

2 transom and rail braces, fastened to the rails by 2 bolts No. 4 E, 2 nuls, and to 
the bolster of the middle transom by 2 bolls No. 4 E ; 2 mits. 

2 front traverse-wheel forks and 2 rear traverse-wheel forks, fastened to the rails 
by 32 bolts No. 4 E; 32 nuts; 2 front traverse-wheels (cast-iron); 2 rear traverse- 
wheels (cast-iron); 2 front traverse-wheel bolts (2-ineh); 2 nuts; 2 rear traverse- 
wheel-bolts (1.75 inch) ; 2 nuts. 

2 implement-hooks, fastened to rails by 2 bolts No. 4. 



58 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Wdiii). — \h },l<iiikK,^ inches wide, l.j inch thick, iiliiLod across the chassis, resting 
on the lower flanj;c. 

The railc of the centre-pintle carriages for the platforms ii««- laid are 9 iuchos 
in depth : for new platforms not yet laid, the depth of rails will bo 15 inuhos. 
The iiintle-plii.tc of now platforms is to be raised 2\ inches, which will obviat« 
tli« noccsfity of bolsterM to the middle trunsomfl : simple wedges will replace them. 

I)II*I.EMKNT8. — 2 manoeuvriuy-bam ; 2 jitnch'hari ; 2offiet-irrtitche» ; I mauiravrimj 
hiDiilKfiil.r. 

1 pointhig-hnr for columbiads. 

CASKMATE CARRIAGES. 

There are two carriages, one for the .S-inch and 42-poundcr guns, the .ti,. i i'«r llm 
.12 and 24 -pounders. 

Top Carriage. 

2 ekeek-pliilm. 

2 /rnHl lir<tcc» ; 2 ,iiidille htacf* ; 2 rrar hraeej, the rear ends filled up by a piece 
welded in each brace; each fastened to the cbttck-plato by 4 L<ilt» No. 4 K and 
4 null. 

2 front luh-bracei, fastened to the cheek-plate by 4 bollt No. 4 K; 4 nuli. 

2 rear lub-bracei, fastiincd to the chcek-plutcs by 6 bull* No. 4 E ; 6 nut: 

2 thoti, each fastened to the front brace by 1 boh No. 4 E and 1 f|Ht ; to the rear 
brace by 1 boll No. 4 E and 1 nut; to the f^unt ■ub-braco by 2 bulls No. 4 H and 2 
nuit ; and to the rear ^^ub-bra<.•e by 2 btUit No. 4 II and 2 nul: 

2 tiuniiioii-jjlairt, fastened to the front brace by 2 bulit No. 4 E ; 2 nuU ; and to 
the rear brace by 2 bulu No. 4 E : 2 n«(«. 

2 tijcU-bcxti (brasB). held in place bj 2 axlt-box teathrrt, each £MU:aed to the 
cheek-plate by 4 bulla No. 4 E ; 4 tut: 

1 hnndftike-fulcrum, fastened to the left reax brace by 2 liveU No. 5 C ; 2 urc- 
»i'liport$, fastened to the right rear brao« by 2 bolu No. 1 D, 2 nut* and 2 rirtit 
No. 3 D. 

1 lanyard-ruUfi-, bra.-^s, fastened to the right rear brace by 1 nut .37i inch. 

2 trantuiiit, fastened to the front br*ccs by the 4 &i///« whieh bold the bracee lo the 
cheek-plates. 

1 rear iningom, 5-inch trough-beam, with a piece welded in each end, fasteDcd U> 
the cheek-plate by 4 bult$ No. 4 E : 4 nutt. 

2 brace-iraiifioiiit. fastened to the middle brace by the 4 bolts which hold the 
braces to the cheek-plates. 

2 dia^viinl bracm, fastened to the shoes by 4 bolts, which hold the shoe aud sub- 
brace, and to each other by 1 bolt No. 4 £ ; 1 mtO, 

1 axle-tree; 2 linckpin* ; 2 truck-uheeU. 

1 elepating-tcrtic box, brass, fastened to the rear transom by 2 boll* No. 4 E, 2 
Muf»; 1 elfvallng-tcretc: 1 btnl-ickfel and nut, fitting on elerating-screw ; I brats 
pinion, mounted on I eUrating-»cretc arbor; 1 arbor-hox (brass), fastened to the 
cheek-plate by 2 bidu No. 1 £, 2 nuU ; 1 arbor kandlr ; 1 iiur; 1 eUratiiig-nr>: i brass). 



BEDS FOR SEA-COAST MORTARS. t)» 

Chassis. 

2 rails, I-shaped, 9-inch. 

1 hurtcr-bnr, fa.stened to the rails by 4 bolts No. 4 E and 4 nuts. 

2 connter-hurters, fastened to the rails by 8 rivets No. 5 D, countersunk on top. 
1 front transom, fastened to the rails by 8 holts No. 4 E and 8 nuts. 

.3 transorns, fastened to the rails each by 4 bolts No. 4 E and 4 niits—i of them 
hook heads. 

1 tongue, fastened to the front transom by I bolls No. 4 E and 4 nuts. 

2 front traverse-wheel forks (each in 2 pieces), fastened to the rails by 12 holts No. 
4 E and 12 nuts, and by 4 bolts, which hold the front transom. 

2 rear trnverse-uhecl forks (each in 2 pieces), fastened by 16 bolts No. 4 E, 

16 ?I«Y8. 

2 front trarcrse-ieheels ; 2 front traverse-whctl bolts (1.75 inch), 2 nuts; 2 rear trar- 
erse-whcels ; 2 rear travcrsc-wheel holts (1.75 inch) and 2 nnts. 

2 diagonal braces, fastened to the under side of the rail by 4 bolts No. 4 E, 4 wits, 
and to the front transom by the 4 bolts which hold the tongue. 

The carriage assembled for the 8-inch gun answers for the 42-pounder by the 
addition of 2 trunnion-plates. The carriage assembled for the 32-pounder answers, 
in the same way, for the smaller guns. 

24-poun(Icr Howitzer-carriage for Flank-casemates. 

The details of this carriage have not been suflBciently arranged for insertion here. 

The embrasures of the now flank-casemates have been changed from the plan 
formerly used, by pl.icing the pintle-hole 24 inches farther to the front. This 
requires the addition of an iron tongue, with a pintle-hole, to the wooden chassis. 
Other flank-embrasures are made without a tongue-hole; for these, the iron tongue 
is placed above the upper pintle-plate, and held by the same 3 bolts, which are made 
stronger. 

Beds for 8-inch and lO-iiich Siege Mortars. 

Wood. — 1 bolster for the quoin, fastened to the front transom by 2 bolts and 
2 nuts. 

Iron. — 2 checks : 1 middle transom, I front transom, in one piece (cast-iron). 

4 manoeuvrinij-holts, wrought-iron, cast in place. 

2 cap-squares, fastened to the cheeks by 4 straps, held by iiboUs and 4 keys. 

Beds for 10-inch and IS-inch Sea-coast Mortars. 

Wood. — \ front transom ; 1 rear transom. 

Iron. — 2 c/teei-s (cast-iron); I middle transom {hmss). 

2 manauvriny-bolls No. 10 ; 4 nuts No. 9. 

G assemblinij-bolts 'No. 10 ; & nnts. 

4 transom-strajis ,• 16 screws. , 

1 elevating-screw bed, fastened to the front transom by 2 bolts No. 5 A ; 2 nut*. 

1 elevating-screw box (brass) ; 1 elevating-screw. 



60 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



COEHORN MORTAR. 
Woon. — 1 hitl, in 1 or 2 piccci!. 

Ill0!». — '2 a*»rmUin<i-holli No. .H A : 4 trnahm ; 2 HMt». 
2 I itp-»<ffinrri, fajtenoil to the bed by 4 fxilln No. 2 B anil 4 iiiif*. 
1 hiindlii, fiu<tono<l to the RidcK by 4 hnlu No. 3 A and 4 >iuf«. 

I'RESERVATION OF CARRIAiJES. 

WixxliMi rurriafft-a arc ])rc*i'crTcd in woll-vcotil«l«d Rtorobouset, protected from 
the weather. If the timber be not purfectly dry. and the exijfcnrieii of the iervico 
will ixrmil, they arc left unpainted: Uic ironx are tirxt coat«d with lin»C4^'d oil, and 
painted oDe coat. 

Iron carriages require especial rare to pre«erre them from oxidation. When tb« 
parti of a carria>;c are comi>lctcd and n-aily to be aiiKombled, all ruxt that iniiy have 
formed is ncraped olT. and tlic part* are placed in a kettle eontaininf; liuaecd oil, 
which ia raided to its boiling-point. When the iron ha« become ar warm as the oil, 
it is tAken out and placed on the side of the vessel to drip. When dry, the carriafe 
is asKemblod and painte<l with two coats of iron paint. 

The carriages arc pretterved in dry buildings, on the ground-floor, tAkeu to pieoea 
and pileil nway. PieoeH <if the same kind arc put in a pile by them»elve«. 

Carriagei) that are mounted xliould hare the paint renewed from time to time, aa 
it is worn oflf; and if rust sbuuld arrumulate, it must be removed, and a roat of oil 
first applied and the carriage then painted. 



No. 1. 



Naves 

Spokes 

Fellies 

l>owel« 

Wedge* f">r spokes. . 
12 brow-bands. . .in. 

2 end bands in. 

Nails for banda . . . . 

{ Tire in. 

Tire-bolt.<, nuts and 

washers 

NaT*-box 



I 
14 

7 
14 

1 ;^x.?«> 



14 
1 5SX.15 
• 25 
1 C. 
...A. .824 



No. S. 


No. 4. 


No. 5. 


1 
11' 


1 


I 
14 


G 

12 
1X15 

MX •'. 

12 N . I C. 

2.0X.5 


u 

.75X.18 

1X.2 

12 Xo. 1 C. 

2X.38 


7 

14 

1.5X.S8 

l.riX..'58 

12 No. 1 C. 

4X.75 



7 No.2 
I 



7 No. J U. « No. 2 H. « No. 1 H. 

I I I I 1 



7 No. 4 H. 
1 



Wheel No. 1. for the 6-pdr. gun-carriage, caiaaon, forge, battery-wagon, and the 
limbers of all field carriages. 

No. 2, for the 24 and 32-pdr. howitzers, and the 12-{>dr. gun-carriAges only. 

No. S. for the prairie carriage. 

No. 4, for the mountain howitier. 

No. 5. for all siege carriages and their limben. 



AXLE-TREKS — NAVE-BOXES. 

Dimensions and Weights of Axle-trees. 



61 



' tlifi body on the under side 

tlio middle piece of body 

Length of-! tlio arm to the linch-wtisher 

the round end. including the hole , 

1 Total ; 

( -11- • lit fat the middle 

I ^"'"' tat the shoulder 

■)_,,. , fat the middle 

Diameter Jat the shoulder 

ofthearm (at the linch-washor , 



Tlie body. 



Weight lbs. 116. 



No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


No. 5. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


45.5 


45.5 


34.35 


18.68 


42. 


15.5 


22. 








13.85 


1.3.85 


8.55 


7.55 


16.1 


2.07 


2.07 


1.275 


2.15 


2.3 


78.84 


78.84 


54. 


38.3 


81.8 


2.5 


3.5 


2. 


4.32 


3.5 


3. 


3. 


2. 


4..32 


3.5 


1.5 


3. 


2. 


3.54 


3.5 


3. 


3. 


2. 


3.94 


3.5 


3. 


3. 


2. 


3.5 


3.5 


2.005 


2.005 




2.64 


2.5 


116. 


122. 




... 


232. 



2.8 
3.0 
2.8 
3.0 
2.9 
2.9 



No. 1, for 6-pdr. gun-carriages, caissons, forge and battery-wagons. 

No. 2, for 12-pdr. gun-carriages, 24-pdr. and 32-pdr. howitzer-carriages. 

No. 3, for prairie carriages. 

No. 4, for mountain howitzer-carriages. 

No. 5, for siege carriages. 

No. 6, for iron carriages. 

Nave-Boxes. 



f the whole 

Length of i cylindrical part . . . . . 

(grease-chamber 

f r i • f large end 

Interior. < ",, , 

T»:»^«*„_ small end 

Diameter, -l \ , , 

-ci 4 • I large end 

tixterior. < '^,, , 

[ ( small end 

Depth of grease-chamber 

f Length of 

Flange •• • I Width of, at base. . . 

( Projection of 



No. L 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 
In. 


No. 4. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


13.75 


8.0 


8.26 


16.5 


2.0 


.... 


.... 


2.0 


4.59 


3.0 


3.26 


5.6 


3.05 


2.0 


3.55 


3.55 


2.05 


1.5 


2.6 


2.55 


3.85 


2,5 


4.05 


4.4 


2.85 


2.0 


3.1 


3.4 


.125 


.1 


.1 


.15 


13.75 


8.0 


1.0 


16.5 


.45 


.45 


.25 


.4 


.4 


.4 


.25 


.4 



No. 5. 



In. 

3.0 
2.1 

3.0 
3.0 

5.0 
5.0 



...\ 



No. 1, for field a.xle-trees. 

No. 2, " prairie " 

No. 3, " mountain howitzer axle-trees. 

No. 4, " siege axle-trees. 

No. 5, " iron carriage axle-trees. 

Nos. 3, 4 and 5 of bra.?s ; the rest iron, cast. 



62 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Linchpins. 



Stem 



Head . -I 



j Length 

( Diameter 

Length 

Breadth at toji 

" iit bottom . . 

Thickness at toii 

•' at liottoni. . 

" under chin. 



WciRbt, 



No.l. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


.•i.86 


2.35 


4. 


4.2 


.62 


.5 


.5 


.7 


1.75 


1.4 


1.37 


1.8 


.8 


.5 


.6 


.9 


1.4 


.... 


1.1 


1.7 


.8 


.85 


.8 


1.0 


.75 


.... 


.5 


8.5 


.«5 


.55 


.45 


.5 


11.68 


4.62 


8.01 


14.26 



In. 
3.9 

.5 
1.75 

.75 
1.36 

.8 

.4 

.4 

5.24 



No. 1, for field axle-trees. 

No. 2, " prairie " 

No. 3, " mountain howitzer axle-tree?. 

No. -1, " siege axle-trees. 

No. 5, " iron carriage axlo-trecs. 



Washers. 





Shouldcr-waflherfi. 


Linch-wuhen. 




No.l. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


No.l. 

In. 
4. 

2.05 
.375 

15.00 


No. J. 

In. 
3.25 
1.6 
.35 

15.54 


No. 3. 




In. 
5.5 
3.05 
.375 

28.97 


In. 
4. 
2. 
.25 

12.15 


In. 
6. 
3.5 
.5 

40.32 


In. 
6. 
6. 
2. 

544. 


In. 
5. 




2.55 




.5 


Weight oz. 


55.22 



No. 1, for field carriages, axle-trees, No. 1 and 2. 
No. 2, for prairie carriages, axle-tree, No. 3. 
No. 3, for siege carriages. 
No. 4, for iron carriages. 

Lock-chains for Field Carriages. 

The lock-chain is the same for all field carriages, except in the number of the 
links. It consists of 1 toggle, 7.7 in. long, 1 link, 1 long link, 4.9 in. long, With 1 



LOCK CHAINS. 



63 



htnuc 7-iiifj, 1.5 in. diam., — number of links, 1 ruif/, 2.56 in. diam., with 1 loose n'nc/ 
of same size, and — number of links to the eye-plate. The links are all No. 5. 



Number of links from the long link to the ring., 
" " " " '• ring to tho eye-plate ., 



c ? 


S ^ s 








Sjj: m 


c 












c. " 


cJi-). " 


aiss 


3 


>-l c^ 


o 


16 


16 


18 


13 


6 


7 


' 


' 



These chains should be made of a new kind of chain, known as the. loop-link 
chain, which is stronger for the same weight. 

For Siege Carriages. 

Tho lock-chain consists of a chain of 4 links, No. 7, and 1 toggle, 't.lb in. long, 
with 1 loose ring, 3 in. diameter on the first link, which is attached to the ring in 
the lock-chain bolt by 1 ring, 3i in. diam.; of a second chain of the same sized 
links, to which the shoe is attached, composed of 14 liukB for the gun-carriage, and 
18 links for the mortar-tvagon, and 1 ring 3 J diam., which is joined to the ring in 
the lock-chain bolt by 15 links, No. 5. 
■ These chains are to be made of the loop-link chain. 



64 



ORDNANCK MANUAL. 



6 


B 
M 


1.5 

3.25 

3.75 

3.' 


^ • 


e<i >o M 1- 


lU -). -H O 

O « C^ CC CC 

CO 1-1 ■* -N eo 


•n 

.<0 1(0 ifl C4 
t^ M CS 1— 

■* * ' ' 


CO 

6 


S 
l-l 


CO .« . 1- . 


. 


-1< 1- lO 

M n 1^ t~ 


40 -)< 
ifl t- ■<t l~ 'O 

t- M CO >» e< in 
M -^ ' « -^ es 


I- «0 O M 

CO M N ^ 


rH M ec e> 


-- 


1-1 e^ 


-* 


o 


d 




o> • 


M M O 00 


■o — -t «o 

O N CO O O O 
C^ w' ' « .- M 


•n CO M 

M M j-N 


1-1 M CO M 




^ M 


-* 


to 
6 




M ■« lO 
rH iTJ t~ . M . 


00 . 


•rs 
oo c4 m 

M ^ M 00 


•O 94 00 CO 

6» .- M — O ■»!" 

ei ,4 ' -i ^ ^ 


•n ^ ^ ^ 


^ M M M 




— M 


eo 


6 

I2i 


HH 


n >ri to 


•n 




• O CO ^5 

M CC -yj o 


.(0 o» to 


1-1 M M i-H M 




1-1 M 


CO 


6 


a 

M 


t~ «^ oo e^ o . 


to -T 


— i- •r> o 


•A » c< a> 

o t» »- — «o •« 


•o o» to 

•» '-< ^ rH 

pi ' * ' 


O r^ rH .-. ^ 




" 


CQ 

d 


d 


O 

O -# O O CS • 




to M .O 
— «C W CC 


•fl M « t^ to 1- 
CJ O — 1- O «■« 


CI e4 te 

— — o 

ci ' * * 


='--'-- 




'- 


6 

in 


a 

1— 1 


•n 

O — C-J OO -fl 






M — eo .o 

•O F^ •« .^ ,H 


lO 


O 1-1 r-< O •- •- 


o 




6 


d 

1— ( 


ec 00 r>. 1- .-1 




^ w t» ec 


•a 04 

t- M F- O so O 

— ■ o 


•A 
•AN <0 
ej i-« rHO 

« o 


o — o .- 


o 





1=1 : - 



_: < = i: K 

5 - -:--^ 






o o 






S a 
a 5 

-■3 



.22' = 



RIVETS — CHAINS. 



65 



In the preceding table the number indicates the size of the bolt, and the letter 
the form of the head, as follows : 

A. Bolt with round (cylindrical) head, chamfered ; square under the head. 

B. Round head, not chamfered ; to be let into wood ; square under the head. 

C. Countersunk head ; bolt square under the head. 

D. Convex, or rose head j square under the head. 

B. Square head, chamfered ; round under the head ; nut let into wood. 

F. Round head, chamfered ; applied to wood ; round under the head. 

G. Round head, not chamfered ; to be let into wood; round under the head. 
H. Countersunk head ; bolt round under the head. 

Rivets. 



Diameter of body. 



B 



Diameter of head ■{ C D 

H 

B 

Thickness of head -| C D 

n 

f Diameter 

T, Thickness 

Burrs. • s t^ . • ,• , r ^ ■ i 

Exterior diameter of countersink. 

[ Depth of countersink 



No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. No.5. 



In. 
0.2 



.75 



.125 

.75 

.125 

.3 

.1 



In. 

0.25 
.75 
.5 

.2 
.2 



In. 

0.375 
1.125 



.25 
.25 

1.125 

.25 

.6 

.17 



In. 
0.5 
1.5 

.875 

.375 
.3 



.5 

.375 

.7 

.25 



In. 

0.625 
1.875 
1.0 

0.5 

.375 

1.875 
.5 
.87 
.375 



B. Head not chamfered ; to let into wood. 

C. Countersunk head; to let into iron. 



D. Rose head; resting on iron. 
H. Rose head ; resting on wood. 



Chains. 





Thick- 
ness of 
iron. 




LINKS. 




Proof 
weight. 


Remarks. 


No. 


Kind. 


Length. 


Width. 




In. 




In. 


In. 


Lbs. 




1 


0.15 


] ' f 


1.1 


0.6 


400 


All chains arc welded. 


2 


.2 




1.25 


.75 


800 




3 


.25 


i ^ i 


1.(5 


1.1 


1,200 




4 
5 

6 

7 


.25 
.375 
.5 
.625 


Straight. 


2. 
3. 
3. 
3.4 


1. 
1.5 
1.75 
2.25 


1,500 
2,500 
5,000 
6,500 





66 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Eye-Pinr. . 





No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 




Id. 

0.3 

.25 


In. 
0..375 

.3 


In. 

0.5 




.375 







Mings. 



Designation. 


Thickness 

of 

wire. 


Exterior 

diameter of 

ring. 


Remarks. 


No.ii^: 

No.2{^; 


In. 

0.2 

.2 

.25 
.25 


In. 
, 1.4 
1. 

1.5 
1.25 


n l!i 1 These are the rinjrs most com- 
Coldshut. ^ monly used in fkkl and siege 
Wplfipd carriages, with the chains 
Coldshut.J Nos. I,2and3. 



Wrought-Nails. 



Body; diameter or thickness . , 
Diameter 



Heads CD. 



Thiclsness 



In. 

.25 



No. 2. 



In. 
.3 



.6 
.25 



In. 

.375 



.7 
.25 



In. 
.5 



.875 
.3 



C. Square nail, with coun- 
tersunk head. 

D. Ptound nail, with rose 
head. 



Cut-Nails. 



Length 

Number in 1 lb. . 



2d. 
In. 


2d. 


id. 


6d. 


8d. 


lOd. 


12d. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


1 


1.25 


1.5 


2 


2.5 


3 


3.5 


550 


450 


340 


150 


100 


60 


40 



20d. 



In. 

4 

25 



S2nkes are large nails, torovght or tut: the size is designated by the length in 
inches. 

Bellows-nails and chtit-nails are short wrought-nails, with large heads, slightly 
convex; they are used chiefly for nailing leather, canvas, etc., on wood. 

Bellows-nails are 1.13 inch long, 0.1 inch thick, with heads .75 inch to 1 inch in 
diameter ; should weigh about 120 to 1 lb. 



DIMENSIONS OF F1ET,T) rAURIAdES AND L1.M15KRS. 



67 



Principal Bimmx^nna and Wt^iyhts of Field Gun-carriages and 

Limbers. 



Distance between the inside of tlio tninuion-plalofi 

Diameter of the trunnion-holes 

' Di'ptli of the centre of trunniou-liole below the upper face 

of t)ie trunnion-plate 

Distance of axis of trunnions in rear of axis of axle-tree. 

the piece being in battery on horizontal grounil 

Distance from axis of trunnions to axis of axle-tree 

Height of axis of tniniiions above the ground 

Vertical field f*^"''" ♦'"^i^'rizontai Hue. {fj^':^^:^-;;;:-;;;;;;; 

"*" ^''^ (below the horizontal line. | HXit'zer'"".'.'.'.'.".'.' 

Distance between the points of contact of trail and wheels 
with the ground line 

Distance from front of wheels to oiid of trail, the piece 
being in battery ; 

Distance of the muzzle of] Oun. in front of wheels ■... 

the piece in batterv from > „ ,^:,„„,. f front of wheels 
the front of the wheels, j ""W"'*-' ■- \ rear of wheels.. 

Length of gun-carriage without wheels 

Length of limber without wheels 

liCngth of limber without wheels or pole 

Length of limber with wheels and pole „ 

Distance between the centres of the axle-trees of gun-car- 
riage and limber 

Length of the carriage limbered up 

Distance from the muzzle of the piece, (Gun 

when limbered, to the front of pole. (Howitzer 

Whole length of the axle-tree 

Track of the wheels* 

Height of wheel 

Dish of finished wheel 



OW 



Inches. Inches. Inche 



11.65 
4.25 



WEIGHTS. 



tiun-c.arriage, without wheels 

Limber, without wheels or ammunition-chest 

Ammunition-chest, without divisions 

^"-heehj^-;:;;;!';';:^-;;;;;::;:;::::::::;:::::;;::;;- 

(lUn carriage complete, withoJit implements 

Limber complete, without implenicnts 

(iun-carriage and limber, without implements 



1.09 
104.4 
161.2 
52.85 
173.08 



209.08 

279.1 

272.1 

78.84 

60. 

57. 
1.5 

Lbs. 

540 
.335 
165 
180 
180 
900 
860 
1,760 



Lbs. 

736 
335 
165 
196 
ISO 

1,12S 
860 

1,988 




c'l t 



70.8 



113,5 
101.2 
52.85 
173.08 



78.84 


54.0 


60. 


42.5 


57, 


42.0 


1,5 


1.0 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


783 


257 


335 


163 


165 




190 


69 


180 


69 


1.175 


363 


860 


343 


2,035 


72(f 



Inches. 



7. 
2.75 



3.46 
10.4 
30.5 

8045' 

4° 

48.0 

83.0 

7.0 

68.0 
141.0 

37.5 
152.0 

64.0 
216.0 



Note. — The 12-pounder Napoleon gun is mounted on the same carriage as the 24-pounder how^ 
itzer. The cheeks are a little shortened, and the elevating-scrow brought forward. The distance 
of axis of trunnions in rear of axle-tree, 0,2.'i in. Weight of trail on ground. 210 i>ound8. The 
G-pounder carriage is also used for the .3-in. rifle. 



68 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Dimensions and Weights of Gun-Carriage anl Equipment for 
I'l-pounder Mountain Hoicitzer. 

DIMENSI0X8. llirhi'K. 

Distance between the inside of trunnion-plates 7. 

Diani'tter of fninnion-lioles '*-75 

Depth of axiH of tniiinions below upper face of trunnion-plate 0.02 

DiBt.iTii e of iixis of trunnions in rear of axis of axle-tree, the piece beinR in biitterv. on 

horizontal groiind 2.6 

Distance from axi.s of trunnions to axis of axle-tree "•» 

Hoiglitof axis of trunnions above tlu^Kronnd 27. 

,, '. ,«,,,« ( above the liorizontalline r 

Vertical field of fire. -J ,^^,,,,^,, „,^. i,.,,.!,.^,,,,,^! n,,,. 7» 

Distance between the points of contact of wheels and trail with the ground line 43.7 

Distance from front of wheels to end of trail the piece lieing in battery 71.8 

Distance of the muzzle of the piece, in battery, in rear of wheels 4.8 

Lennth of ):un-uarriage, without wheels M. 

LoMgtli of thill 73. 

Whole lenf^th of the axle-tree 38.26 

Trivck of the wheels 80.2 

Height of wheel M- 

Dish of (inislied wheel 2. 

Ammunition-cliest, ("Interior length „ 82.S 

or < ■■ width 4.76 

Oirriage-malcer's Tool-chest. I •■ depth W.36 

Forge-chest, f Interior length 32.8 

or ■<. " width 7.H 

Smith's Tool-chest. ( " depth 16.1 

WEIGHTS. I'ound*. 

Howitzer *14 

Oun-carriage, without wheels 157 

One wheel 00 

Handspike 6 

Sponge and rammer 3 

Onn-carriage complete, with implements 2H7 

Thill 30 

Bridle 3 

Halter 3.5 

Pack-saddle and harness 47 

Livsliinir-girth and rope 3 

Ainmnnitiou-chest, or carriage-maker's tool-chest, empty 20 

Forge-cliest or smith's tool-chest, empty 42 

Amumiiit ion-chest, packed 112 

I'orge-che-st. packed 116 

SniitliV tool-chest, packed 117 

Goal sack. fiUed with charcoal >. 26 

f A 48 

B 45 



Carriage-maker's tool-chests.. 



Dimensions and Weights of Prairie Ammunition- Cart. 

Inchea. 

Whole length of cart 127. 

Length of implement-chest 31 i 

Width '• '• : 6.0 

Depth " •• in front 7.25 

'• '■ •• in rear 9. 

Pouadii. 

Weight of cart, empty, without wheels 296 

'• •' packed with ammunition 802 

•' two wheels 138 



DIMENSIONS OF SIEGE CARRIAGES AND LIMBERS. 



69 



Principal Diw.ensions and Weights of Siege Gnn-Carriages and 

Limbers. 



mMF.NSIOXS. 



Distance bctwi'pii the inside of the trunnion-plates 

Diameter of the trunnion-holes ; , 

Depth of centre of trunnion-hole below the upper face of trunnion- 
plate 



Distance of axis of trunnions in rear of axis of axle-tree, the piece 

being in battery on horizontal ground 

Distance from axis of trunnions to axis of axle-tree.... 
Height of axis of trunnions above tlie ground 

Vertical field f"*^^^'^ *''" ''"n'-ontal line. {fiXitzer 

(below the horizontal line 



e /0"n 

(Howitzer 

Distance between the points of contact of the wheels and trail with 

the ground line 

Distance from the front of the wheels to the end of the trail, the 

piece being in battery 

Distance of the muzzle of the ■) ,, • , ^ ^ ', , 

piece in battery from the ^ t>un.m front of the wheels 

front of the wheels j """'t^er, in rear of wheels 

I-ensfh of gun-carriage, without wheels 

Leii.i;th of limber, without wheels 

Length of limber, witho\it wheels or pole 

Length of limber, with wheels and jiole 

Distance between the centres of the axle-trees of gun-carriage and 

limber 

Length of the carriage, hmbered up 

Distance from the muzzle of the gun, in its travelling position, to 

front end of pole 

Whole length of the a.\le-tree !.....!.!.! 

Track of the wheels } !.........! 

Height of wheels , ..!.!..!!!..!...'!! 

Dish of finished wheels 



14.95 
4.65 

1.1 

3. 
22.45 
52.2 
13° 



4° 



100. 

141. 
30.74 



(inn-carriage, without wheels 

Limber, without wheels 

One wheel 

Oun-carriage, complete, without implements.... 

Limber, complete 

<iun-carriage and limber, without implements , 



1.30. 
176.65 
59.8 
184.9 

94. 
27S.9 

285.15 
S1.8 
60. 
60. 



Inches. 

16.95 
5.35 

1.2 

2.5 
22.85 
52.6 
12° 



4° 



142. 
35.35 



1.440 


1.542 


5S5 


685 


404 


404 


2.24S 


2.0.50 


1,393 


1.393 


3,641 


3,743 



133. 

176.05 

59.8 

184.9 

96. 

280.9 

291 .4'2 
81.8 
60. 
60. 



*Thi8 carriage is also used for the 4.62 in. rifle. 



70 



OR D.N ANT i: MAMAIi. 



Field and iSu-gt: IVayons. 



DIMBNSI0.N8 AND WBI0HT8. 



mMKNSIOXS. 



CaiBBOD. Forge. 



Battery- 



Mortar- 
Wogon. 



111. 
125.5 



Lcn lith ] 

Dist.uioe l)etwitn tbc axlc-trous of cnrriup" 

anil iimljcr : 92. 

Wh'.le longth. when limbtrcd up i 271.7 

Height, above the ground I 58.75 

WKKiHTS. I Lb«. 

I 

Oarria^c-body, without wlieelc , •132 

Limber, withoutwheels orchcst ' 335 

One wheel 18«l 

Oarriage and limber, eoinjdeto without iuiplu- 

nieiits or .s[iare part^ l,fl!'2 



Id. 


In. 


lu. 


130. 


154. 


i43.e 


97.8 
270. 
70.5 


n2.U3 

393.13 

^ 73.55 


102M)5 

287.86 
60. 


Lb«. 


Lhi.. 


hhn. 


»97 • 

335 

1X0 


itIO 
3.! 5 
ISO 


984 
58& 
404 


2,117 


2.iap 


8,18ft 



INTERIOR niMEKSIONS. 



Length. I Widlii. 



Ammiinition or limbor-chcst, with^m aivi.-- 

i>ns 40. 

m 11 • <• * Iron room 4U. 

Travellint' forire... i ^ , , 7 

'^ " ( Coal-box :; 1 . 

Battery-wagon, body i)s> 

Mortar-wagon, floor A3. 85 



lu. 

IS. 
S2. 
13. 
36. 
40. 



Depth. 



In. 



Weight. 



Lbi. 



I U.75 I 165 
7.5 
17. 
22. 



100 



SJegc. 



MOnXARBEDS. 



8-inch. lO-ineb. 



Coehom. 



In. 
l-ength 4J_ 

Exterior width, including manoeurring-bolts.' 34. 

Weight pounds ; 920 



Id. 

51.S 

1,830 



In. 

31. 

15. 
132 



DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS OF BARBETTE CARRIAGES. 



71 







•« 


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trunnions 
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piece, in 




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72 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



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DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS OF CASEMATE CARRIAGES. 



73 



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74 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



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DIMENSIONS OF COLU.MBIAI) IJARBKTTE CARRIAOKS. 



(N ec (M (X 

rtl CQ <X> _. 

n <o if c^ 



• -«MO 

^ooor:e2t-'oooTj'-^35-fir5'0«o-+i— i-#csiM-«c^esi 
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55 



p^ a> o a) 3j 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 






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c-i o C •" ■"■ 



BILLS OF TIMBER. 

Bills of Timber for Field Carriages. 



NAMES OF PARTS. 



GlIN-CAIiniAnES. 

For C)-p<lr. r/iin ( Stock 

tiixl -'i Cheeks. . . . 

\2-]nlr. howitzer. (Axle-body. 

For \2-pdr. <jun, ("Stock .... 

24-p<h-. and < Cheeks . . . 

o2-p(/r. howitzers. ( Axle-body 



WHEELS, Nos. 1 and 2. 

Nave 

Spokes 

Fcllius 

LIMBER. ' 

Axlc-bodv 

Hounds.". 

Fork 

Splinter-bar 

Brackets 

Fron t foot-board 

Rear foot-board 

Pole.. J Larf^eeud | 

( Small end j 

Pole-prop 

AMMUNITION-CHEST. 

Ends 

Sides 

Principal partition 

r, r ( Sides 

Cover-frame . . ^ -r, j 

( Ends 

Bottom 

Panel for cover 

Cover lininff 



nONGH DIMENSIONS 
OF EACH PIECE. 



Long. 



In. 

100 
40 
60 



108 
50 
50 



50 
56 
40 
72 
9 
46 
46 

132 

30 



22 
44 
22 

69 

44 
42 
42 



Wide. 



In. 



9.25 
1.3.5 



14. 
3.5 

7. 



Thick. 



Each 
piece. 



In. ISup.ft. 



4.5 
3.5 

6. 



5.75 



Round 

2. 

3.5 



9. 6. 
4.5 3.25 
9.25 4. 
4.25 3.5 
2.3 1.6 
8.75 1.13 
5. |l.l3 
4.5 4.5 
3.2513.25 
2.25:2.25 



17. 
17. 
17. 

3.75 

20. 
17.5 

20. 



1.31 

1.31 
1.31 



1.31 

2. 

0.5 



28.90 
13.12 
14.58 



47.44 
22.22 
17.01 



17.09 
1.55 
4.59 



18.75 
5.6S 

10.27 
7.43 

3.14 

1.86 

14.11 
1.05 



3.40 
6.80 
3.40 

3.59 

8.00 

10.21 

5.83 



Total. 



Sup.ft. 

57.80 
26.24 
14.58 



98.62 



94.88 
44.44 
17.01 



156.33 



17.09 
21.70 
32.13 



70.92 



18.75 

11.36 

10.27 

7.43 

3.14 
1.86 

14.11 

1.05 



67.97 



6.80 

13.60 

3.40 

7.18 

8.00 
10.21 

5.83 

55.02 



Kind of 
wood. 



Oak. 



Cuttings. 
Oak. 



Oak or ash. 
Hickory. 



Walnut. 



Oak. 
Poplar. 



OUDNANn-: MANUAL. 

/?///.< nf Tiiiih-r fnr Field Carriaifc^. 



IK rcii I'ntKNsroNS 

OK KACII PIKCK. 



Long. Wide. Thick. 



coxti;nt.s. 



Each 
pioco. 



TuUL 



Kin.l of 
wood. 



CAISSON. 

Mi<ldli- mil j 1 

Side rail.s } 2 

Stoeli 



Axlu-body 

('ro.«s-bar 

Foot-bonrd lii*li>tci 
Front foot-board. 
Hcarf..ot-l.o!ir.l.. 



■ IIOK. — Il'-i/i/. 



Shk- mils 

Middle rail I 1 

Stoc-k 1 

Axlc'-body j 1 

Front cross-bar 1 

lli'iir middle cross-biir 1 

Front middle cross-bur 1 

Rear cTo.-is-bar 1 

Fl(i(ir-boards j 4 

Ro.'f-bows 2 

Corner studs I 4 

Side studs 2 

Plates I 2 

Front end stud [ 1 

Front of iron \\>um j 1 

Roar of iron room I 1 

Lining of iron roimi | 2 

2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
10 



rrooves 



Cleats for 

Braces 

Front end of roof 
Rear end of roof. 
Cap for coal-box. 
Boards for sides . 

Boards for roof j 7 

Boards for sliding-cover .... 6 

Prop for stock 1 

Bellows-pole 1 



In. 

76 
78 
84 
50 
40 
14 
42 
42 



96 
50 
90 
50 
40 
40 
40 
40 
48 
42 
36 
36 
46 
22 
40 
36 
44 
44 
48 
42 
42 
36 
42 
46 
36 
30 
57 



In. 



5.75 

5. 

6. 

6. 

I. 

4. 



4.7 
4.7 
6. 
7.2 
3.5 
3.5 
10. 
3. 
8. 
9. 
3.5 
3. 
3. 
6. 
9.5 
3. 
8.5 



4. 
10. 
12. 

2.5 

7. 

7. 

8. 

2.25 

2. 



In. 

4.75 
3.25 
4.75 
6. 

1.25 
2.13 
1.25 



3.75 

4.25 

4.75 

6. 

3.5 

5 

5 



3 

3 

3 

1 

1 

2 

2 

2 

J 

1 

1 

1. 

1. 

2. 

1.75 

1.75 

1.25 

0.75 
.75 
.75 

2.25 

2. 



Sup.n.jpup.ft. 



14.41 

8.791 

10.02 

12.5tl; 

3.331 

.481 

4.65 

1.821 

I. 



Onk. 



11.8 

7.0li 
17. SI 
la.lOl 
3.40 
3. 40 1 
9.72{ 
2.50 
3. 33 1 
3.281 
2.19| 
1.88 

2.m 

1.14 

3.301 

0.94 

2.59 

0.61 

2.67 

5.10 

6.13 

0.78 

2.04 

2.23 

2.00 

1.05 

1.58 



71.30 



23.74 Oak. 

7.01 .. 

17.8]' .. 

15.10 1 « 

3.4U{ •• 

3.40 .. 

'.*.72 

2.. 0(1 .. 

13.32 I .. 

0.66 I .. 

H.7J. •. 

3.75| •. 

4.78J .. 

1.14 I <• 

3.30 ! .. 
.94 

5.1s .. 

1.21' .. 

5.34; " 

^•ll'jWalDUt. 

6.13| - 

.78; I u 

20.40'!whitepine. 

15. CI 

12.00 

l-»4l|Hickorv. 

1.581 " ' 




BILLS OF TIMBER. 



79 



Bills of Timber for Field Carriages. 



NAMKS OF PARTS. 



Force. — Bcl/oim. 

Upper and lower planks. . . 

Middlo plauk 

Cross-licads 

f Sides 

Ilibs. < Ends , 

( Cross-bars 

Cleats 

Valves 

Battens for valves 

Coal-bo.r, 

Sides and top piece , 

Ends 

Lid 

Clamps for lid 

Bottom 

Batteuv- Wagon. — Hofljij 

Lower side rails 

Upper side rails 

Stock 

A,\lc-body 

Front cross-bar 

PVont middle cross-bars . . . 

Rear middle cross-bar 

Hear cross-bar 

Floor-boards 

Sides of body 

Side of till 

Bottom of till 

Cleats for till 

Ends of body 

Forage-rack sides 

Forage-rack bars 

Cfn-er. 

Side rails 

Ridge-pole 

End rails 

End studs 

End boards 

Roof-boards 



V 

o 

o 

"S. 

"o 
6 


ROUGH DlMEN.SlftNS 
OF EACH PIECE. 


CONTENTS. 


Kind of 


1 

1 Long. 


Wide. 


Thick. 


Each L , 
i piece, j Total. 


wood. 




In. 


In. 


In. 


Sup.ft. 


Sup.ft. 


i 


34 


15. 


2. 


7.08 


28.32 iPoplar. 


2 


44 


15. 


2. 


9.17 


18.34i " 


2 


.32 


3.5 


3. 


2.33 


4.66 


4 


36 


3. 


1. 


0.75 


3.00 


2 


32 


3. 


1. 


0.67 


1.34 


" 


2 


32 


2.25 


1. 


0.50 


1.00 


a 


4 
2 


7 
9 


2.75 
9. 


.75 

.75 






Cuttings. 
Walnut. 


0.55 


1.11 


2 


9 


4.5 


.75 


0.27 


.55 
T8T32 


« 


2 


36 


24. 


1.38 


8.28 


le.'^a 


Walnut. 


2 


16 


24. 


1.38 


3.68 


7.36 


" 


1 


36 


14. 


1.25 


4.37 


4.37 


" 


o 


14 


2.5 


1.25 


.30 


.60 


« 


1 


36 


15. 


1.31 


4.91 


4.91 

"siiTso 


Oak. 


2 


116 


6.0 


4. 


20.94 


41.88 


Oak. 


L' 


lOS 


3. 


3. 


6.75 


13.50 


" 


1 


108 


6. 


6. 


27.00 


27.00 


" 


1 


50 


6.25 


6.25 


13.00 


13.56 


« 


1 


40 


5.5 


5. 


7.64 


7.61, " 


2 


40 


4.25 


4. 


4.72 


9.44; « 


I 


38 


4. 


2.5 


2.64 


2.64 


<( 


] 


40 


4. 


3.5 


3.88 


3.88 


" 


3 


106 


11.5 


1.25 


10.58 


.•!1.74 


White pine. 


2 


108 


21.5 


1.38 


22.25 


44.50 


" 


1 


104 


11.5 


1.25 


10.38 


10.38 


" 


1 


104 


in. 


1.25 


9.02 


9.02 


ii 


2 


10 


1.25 


1. 






Cuttings. 


2 


40 


24. 


1.38 


9.20 


18.40 


Walnut. . 


2 


36 


5.5 


2. 


2.75 


5.50 


Oak. 


3 


46 


3.5 


1. 


1.03 


1.03 
240TTl 




2 


108 


3. 


3. 


0.75 


13.5 


Oak. 


1 


108 


3. 


3. 


6.75 


6.75 


" 


2 


42 


3. 


3. 


2.63 


5.25 


(( 


2 


18 


2.5 


1.5 


0.47 


.94! 


<i 


2 


42 


13.5 


1.25 


4.91 


9. 82|| Walnut. 


9 


108 


7. 


0.75 


5.25 


47.25| White pine. 
T3T5I 



80 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bill of Timber for Mountain Howitzer-Carriage, etc. 





a 
o 
.£ 

'£. 

o 
6 


DIMENSIONS OF EACH 

PIECE (rough). 


CONTENTS. 


Kind of 




Length 


Width 


Thick- 
ness. 


Each 
piece. 


Total. 


wood. 


(lUii-rarriaijc Ixxly. 
Stock 


2 
2 

2 
24 
12 

2 
1 

2 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

1 


In. 

66 
U 

11 
20 
21 

72 
23 

44 
36 
66 

50 
20 
14 
42 
20 

50 


In. 

9. 
5. 

9. 

2.5 

5.5 

3. 
3.5. 

11. 

7. 
8. 

12. 
12. 

6. 
12. 

1.5 

2.5 


In. 

7. 
3. 

Round 
1.5 
2.5 

1 

2.25 ' 
2.25 i 

1. 
1. 
1. 

1.25; 

1.75 I 
1.25 1 
0.75 
1.5 

2.5 

i 


28.84 
4.56 

4.86 

.52 

2.0' 

3.37 
l.SO 

3.. 36 
1.05 
3.67 

5.21 
2.«0 

.72 
3.5 

.31 

2.1J 


57.68 

9.12 

66780 


Oak. 

Younj;, 
touj;h 
hifkorv. 


A.\le-treo 








Niivc 


9.72 
12.48 
24.0 


Oak. 


Spokes 


Fdlics. 








One tInU. 


46.20 










Shafts 


6.75 
1.80 


Ash. 


Cross-biir 






One (iminuiiilioii-clic»t. 


8.55 










iSiilcs and ends 


6.72 
1.05 
3.67 


Poplar. 


Bottom 


("over and partitions 


« 




11.44 










5.21 
2.9(1 

.72 
3.5 

.62 


Ash, or 
be««h. 


Transoms 


Cross-bar 


Side bars 




Round bars 


Hickorr. 




One Imndiipihe. .... 


12.95 
2.15 


Uickoiy. 



BILLS OF TIMBER. 

Bills of Timber for Siege-Carriages. 



81 



NAMES OF PARTS. 



ROUaH DIMENSIONS 
OF EACH PIECE. 



Long. 



Thick. 



Total. 



GUN-CARRIAGES. 

Stock 



I2-PDR. 



* Cheeks 

i A.\le-body 



Bolster. 



18-PDR. 



Stock . . . . 
Cheeks. . . 
Axle-body 
Bolster. . . 



Stock 

„. I Checks... 

24-rDR -( . , , , 

Axle-body 

Bolster.. . 

ONE WHEEL. 

Nave 

Spokes 

Fellies 

LIMBER. 

Fork 

Hounds 

Splinter-bar 

Pole.... P'^'"S<' ^°'' 

\ small end 

Leading-bar 

MORTAR-WAGON. 

Middle rails 

Front transom 

Middle transom 

Rear transom 

Side rails 

Rear cross-bar 

Middle cross-bars 

Front cross-bars 

Bottom planks 

Axle-body 

Windlass 

Muzzle-bolster 

Stakes 

Handspikes ; • . . 





In. 


In. 


In. 


Sup. ft. 


Sup.ft. 


2 


130. 


11.5 


*7. 


72.67 


145.34 


2 


55. 


19.5 


5.5 


40.96 


81.92 


1 


48. 


9.5 


8.5 


26.92 


26.92 


I 


14. 


6.5 


6.5 


4.11 


4.11 


2 


132. 


11.5 


8. 


84.33 


258.29 


168.66 


2 


60. 


20. 


5.75 


47.92 


95.84 


1 


48. 


9.5 


8.5 


26.92 


26.92 


1 


14. 


6.5 


6.5 


4.11 


4.11 
295.63 


2 


132. 


11.5 


8.75 


92.24 


184.48 


2 


60. 


20.5 


6.25 


53.39 


106.78 


1 


48. 


9.5 


8.5 


26.92 


26.92 


1 


16. 


6.5 


6.5 


4.70 


4.70 
322.88 


1 


19. 


16. 


Round 


26.53 


26.53 


14 


32. 


4.25 


2.5 


2.36 


33.04 


7 


28. 


8. 


4.5 


7. 


49.00 


1 


60. 


11. 


7.25 


33.23 


108.57 


33.23 


2 


60. 


6. 


3.75 


6.51 


13.02 


1 


70. 


4. 


3.75 


7.29 


7.29 


V 

1 


142. 


(5.5 

|4. 

4. 


5.5 

4. 

3.75 


22.25 


22.25 


70. 


7.29 


7.29 


2 


142. 


8. 


5.75 


45.36 


83.08 


90.72 


1 


28. 


7. 


3.75 


5.10 


5.10 


\ 


4 


4. 


3.12 




.. . . ) 


\ 


4 


6.7 

7.5 


5.9 




I 


2 


92. 


5. 


23.96 


47.92 


1 


42. 


4.5 


3. 


3.94 


3.94 


6 


16. 


4.5 


3. 


1.5 


9.00 


2 


14. 


4.5 


2.5 


1.09 


2.18 


2 


78. 


8. 


2. 


8.67 


17.34 


1 


48. 


9.5 


8.5 


26.92 


26.92 


1 


36. 


6.5 


6.5 


10.56 


10.56 


1 


12. 


6.5 


6.5 


3.52 


3.62 


fi 


20. 


3.5 


3.25 


1.58 


9.48 


2 


56. 


4. 


4. 


6.22 


12.44 
239.12 



82 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bills of Iron for Field Carriages. 



Kind of carriage. 



6-PDR. Gun- 
Carriage. 



Width. 


Thick- 
ness. 


Length. 


Weight. 


In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 


0.15 


Round. 


2.81 


0.18 


0.2 


Round. 


8.50 


.90 


0.25 


Round. 


1.1 


.18 


0.375 


Round. 


18. 


6.62 


0.5 


Round. 


7.2 


4.70 


0.625 


Round. 


4.10 


4.18 


0.75 


Round. 


10.86 


15.96 


0.875 


Round. 


0.65 


1.30 


1. 


Round. 


2.58 


6.73 


1.5 


Round. 


2.17 


12.78 


2. 


Round. 


1.46 


15.28 


0.25 


0.25 


2.21 


.46 


0.3 


0.3 


7.87 


2.36 


0.75 


0.375 


1.33 


1.25 


1.0 


0.375 


0.23 


.29 


1.0 


0.5 


1.5 


2.52 


1.0 


1.0 


0.68 


1.94 


1.25 


0.5 


2.16 


4.53 


1.25 


0.625 


0.84 


2.20 


1.25 


0.75 


0.7 


2.20 


1.375 


0.05 


3.0 


.70 


1.375 


0.25 


0.33 


.38 


1.5 


0.25 


3.75 


4.72 


1.5 


0.375 


.46 


.86 


1.5 


0.5 


1.16 


2.92 


1.5 


0.625 


1.66 


5.22 


1.5 


0.75 


3.3 


12.47 


1.5 


1.5 


.59 


4.46 


1.75 


0.25 


.93 


1.36 


2.0 


0.125 


.33 


.27 


2.0 


0.75 


.93 


4.68 


2.0 


1. 


.5 


3.36 


2.0 


1.25 


.38 


3.19 


2.5 


0.188 


1.66 


2.60 


2.5 


0.875 


.33 


2.42 


2.5 


1.25 


1.5 


15.75 


2.5 


1.5 


1.66 


20.91 


2.5 


1.75 


.5 


7.35 


2.75 


0.5 


10.23 


47.26 


3.25 


0.375 


0.39 


1.23 


3.75- 


0.15 


.5 


.95 


3.75 


0.2 


.44 


1.11 


3.75 


0.25 


0.38 


1.19 


5. 


0.25 


.83 


3.48 



Remarks. 



For chains No. 1. 

2.3 feet for chains No. 2. 



Hammered. 
Hammered. 

Hammered. 



Hammered. 
Hammered. 
Hammered. 
Hammered. 



Hammered. 
Hammered. 



[Hammered; or 2 drafts for cap- 
I squares. 

I Hammered; or 2 drafts for trun- 
I nion-plates. 
Hammered. 



BILLS OF IRON. 



88 



Bills of Iron for Field Carriages. — Continued. 



1 

Kind of carriage. 


1 
Width. 


Thick- 
ness. 


Length. 


Weight. 


Remarks. 




In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 




t)-PDR. GUN- 


5.5 


0.2 


1.5 


5.53 




Cakriage. 








136.00 


2 drafts for axle-tree. 


Continued. 


1.0 


0.375 


0.21 


28.00 


1 draft for lunette. 




404.93 






.26 


Steel for lunette. 




17.00 


4 small rondelles, ] 

2 large rondelles, J cast-iron. 










13.00 




30.00 






8.00 


Brass box of elevating-screw. 










.42 


Brass for turnbuckles. 




8.42 




•24-PDB. How- 


0.15 


Round. 


2.81 


0.18 


For chain No. 1. 


itzer. 


0.2 


Round. 


9.80 


1.03 


2.3 feet for chain No. 2. 




0.25 


Round. 


1.08 


.18 






0.375 


Round. 


19.6 


7.21 






0.5 


Round. 


7.54 


4.93 






0.625 


Round. 


4.50 


4.59 






0.75 


Round. 


1.42 


2.08 






0.875 


Round. 


0.65 


1.30 






1.0 


Round. 


15.83 


41.32 






1.5 


Round. 


0.5 


2.94 






2.0 


Round. 


3.58 


37.48 


Hanamered. 




0.25 


0.25 


2.21 


.46 






0.3 


0.3 


7.88 


2.36 






0.75 


0.375 


1.33 


1.25 


Hammered. 




1.0 


0.375 


0.23 


.29 






1.0 


0.5 


1.5 


2.52 






1.0 


1.0 


0.58 


1.94 






1.25 


0.5 


2.16 


4.53 






1.25 


0.625 


0.84 


2.20 


Hammered. 




1.25 


0.75 


0.71 


2.23 






1.375 


0.05 


4.0 


.92 






1.375 


0.25 


0.33 


.37 






1.5 


0.25 


4.0 


6.04 






1.5 


0.5 


1.08 


2.72 


Hammered. 




1.5 


0.625 


1.66 


5.22 


Hammered. 




1.5 


0.75 


0.37 


1.39 


Hammered. 




1.5 


1.5 


0.59 


4.46 


Hammered. 



84 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Bills of Iron for Field Carriages. — Continued. 



Kind of ctirriago. 


W"^t»»- ™t" ^^"e*»'- 


Weight 


Remarks. 






In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 


t 




24-i'i>n. HowiT- 


1.75 


0.26 


0.93 


. 1.36 






7,br-Carriage. 


1.75 


0.375 


3.5 


7.70'i 




Continued. 


2.0 


0.125 


0..33 


.28' Hammered. 






2.0 


0.75 


0.92 


4.63 






2.0 


1.0 


4.0 


26.88 Hammered. 






2.0 


1.25 


0..38 


3.19 Hammered. 






2.5 


1.75 


0.5 


7.35 Hammered. 






2.75 


1. 


0..33 


3.04 1 






3.0 


0.5 


11.23 


56.59 I 






3.0 


1.25 


1.84 


23.18 [Hammered; or 2 draft* for cap 














squares. 






3.0 


1.5 


2.33 


35.22 


Hammered; or 2 drafts for trun- 
nion-plates. 






3.25 


0.188 


2.57 


5.24 








3.25 


0.375 


0.30 


1.22 








3.75 


0.15 


0.5 


.94 








3.75 


0.2 


0.57 


1.43 








3.75 


0.25 


0.38 


1.19 








5.0 


0.25 


0.83 


3.48 








6.0 


0.2 


1.5 


6.04 














200. Draft for axle-tree. 






1.0 


0.375 


0.21 


37. j 


Draft for lunette. 






567.10 


Steel for lunette. 

4 small rondelles, . . 
2 large rondeUes, [ <'*«»-"°''- 

Brass for box of elevating-screw. 






0.26 






17. 1 












13. 






30. 






8. 












.421 


Brass for 2 turubuckles. 






8.42 
0.18, 


For chains No. 1. 




12-PDR. (jrUN- 


0.15 


Round 


2.81 




O.VRniAGE. 


0.2 


Round 


9.80 


1.03' 2.3 feet for chains No. 2. 






0.25 


Round 


1.08 


.18 








0.375 


Round 


19.60 


7.2ll 








0.5 


Round 


7.54 


4.93I 








0.625 


Round 


4.73 


4.82! 








0.75 


Round 


1.42 


2.081 








0.875 


Round 


0.65 


I.30I 


• 





BILLS OF IRON. 



85 



Bills of Iron for Field Carriages. — Continued. 



Kind of carriage. 


Width. 


Thick- 
ness. 


Length. 


Weight 


Remarks. 




In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 






12-PI)R. GUN- 


1.0 


Round 


15.83 


41.32 






Carriage. 


1.5 


Round 


0.5 


2.94 






Continued. 


2.0 


Round 


3.58 


37.48 


Hammered. 






0.25 


0.25 


2.21 


.46 








0.3 


0.3 


7.88 


2.. 36 








0.75 


0.375 


1.33 


1.25 


Hammered. 






1.0 


0.375 


.23 


.29 








1.0 


0.5 


1.5 


2.52 








1.0 


1.0 


.58 


1.04 








1.25 


0.5 


2.16 


4.53 








1.25 


0.625 


0.84 


2.20 


Hammered. 






1.25 


0.75 


0.71 


2.23 








1.375 


0.05 


4.00 


.92 








1.375 


0.25 


0.33 


.37 








1.5 


0.25 


4.00 


5.04 








1.5 


0.5 


1.08 


2.72 iHammered. 






1.5 


0.625 


1.66 


5.22 


Hammered. 






1.5 


0.75 


.37 


1.39 


Hammered. 






1.5 


1.5 


.59 


4.46 


Hammered. 






1.75 


0.25 


.93 


1.36 








1.75 


0.375 


.5 


1.10 








2.0 


0.125 


.33 


.28 


Hammered. 






2.0 


0.75 


0.92 


4.63 








2.0 


1.0 


4.00 


26.88 


Hammered. 






2.0 


1.25 


0.38 


3.19 


Hammered. 






2.5 


1.75 


0.5 


7.35 


Hammered. 






2.75 


1.0 


0.33 


3.04 








3.25 


1.25 


1.84 


26.12 


Hammered; or 2 drafts for cap- 
squares. 






3.25 


1.5 


2.33 


38.16 


Hammered; or 2 drafts for trun- 
nion-plates. 






3.25 


0.5 


7.23 


39.47 








3.25 


0.188 


2.17 


4.42 








3.25 


0.375 


0.30 


1.22 








3.25 


0.5 


5.00 


27.30 








3.75 


0.15 


0.5 


.94 








3.75 


0.2 


0.57 


1.43 








3.75 


0.25 


0.38 


1.19 








5.0 


b.25 


0.83 


3.48 








6.5 


0.2 


1.5 


6.54 
200. 


Draft for axle-tree. 






1.0 


0.375 


.21 


42. 


Draft for lunette. 
Steel for lunette. 






574.08 






0.26 





S6 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bills of Iron for Field Carriages. — Continued. 


Kind of carriage. 


Width. 


Tliick- 
nesB. 


Length. 


Weight 


Romarkii. 




In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 




I2-PDR. QXJS- 








17. 


4 small rondellcs, ) . . 
2 large rondellc«, ) c"**'""- 


Carkiaoe. 








U. 


C\nntini\(^^ 












v>wu btuuvu. 








30. 






8. 


Brass for box of elevating-aorew. 










.42 


Brass for 2 turiibuckles. 




8.42 




Wheel No. 1. 


0.5 


Round 


2.93 


1.91 






0.25 


0.25 


1.63 


0.34 






1.0 


0.5 


0.58 


0.97 






1.25 


0.25 


5.83 


6.12 






1.5 


0.25 


4.67 


5.88 






1.625 


0.125 


1.00 


0.68 






2.75 


0.5 


15.00 


69.30 


In one piece ; for tire. 




85.20 






15.5 


Cast-iron for nave-box. 


Wheel No. 2. 


0.6 


Round 


3.15 


2.06 






0.25 


0.25 


1.63 


0.34 






1.0 


0.5 


0.58 


0.97 






1.25 


0.25 


6.29 


6.60 






1.5 


0.25 


5.33 


6.72 






1.625 


0.125 


1.00 


0.68 






2.75 


0.625 


15.00 


86.55 


In one piece ; for tire. 




103.92 






15.5 


Cast-iron for nave-box. 


LlUBER. 


0.15 


Round 


2.08 


0.13 


For chains No. 1. 




0.2 


Round 


3.67 


.38 


2.3 feet for chains No. 2. 




0.25 


Round 


4.95 


.80 


2.33 feet for chains No. 3. 




0.5 


Round 


1.30 


.85 






0.625 


Round 


1.80 


1.83 






0.75 


Round 


4.75 


6.98 






0.875 Round 


0.30 


.60 






1.0 Round 


2.69 


7.02 






1.25 Round 


1.08 


4.41 






1.625 Round 


0.75 


5.18 






0.25 


0.25 


2.3 


.48 

1 





BILLS OF IRON. 



87 



Bills of Iron for Field Carriages. — Continued. 



Kiud of carriage. 


Width. 


Thick- 
ness. 


Length. 


Weight 


Remarks. 




In. 


In. 


Feet, 


Lbs. 




. 


Limber. 


0.3 


0.3 


1.19 


.35 






Continued. 


0.5 


0.25 


0.17 


.07 








0.5 


0.5 


0.95 


.80 








I.O 


0.25 


0.93 


.78 








1.0 


0.5 


3.33 


5.59 


Hammered. 






1.0 


1.0 


0.5 


1.68 


Hammered. 






1.25 


0.25 


4.19 


4.40 


Hammered. 






1.25 


0.5 


2.67 


5.60 








1.25 


0.625 


1.15 


3.01 








1.25 


0.75 


0.71 


2.23 


Hammered. 






1.25 


1.25 


1.0 


5.25 








1.5 


0.125 


1.0 


.63 








1.5 


0.5 


2.17 


5.46 


Hammered. 






1.5 


0.625 


2,12 


6.67 


Hammered. 






1.5 


0.75 


.38 


1.43 








1.75 


0.375 


1.0 


2.20 








1.75 


0.5 


0.5 


1.47 








2.0 


0.125 


1.33 


i.n 








2.5 


0.188 


0.54 


.85 








2.5 


0.5 


3.84 


16.12 








2.75 


0.5 


0.54 


2.49 








3.0 


0.625 


0.5 


3.15 








3.5 


2.5 


0.84 


24.69 


Hammered ; middle piece 


for axle-trcf 




4.25 


0.25 


0.75 


2.67 
120. 


2 drafts for axle-tree. 






1.0 


0.375 


0.21 


25. 


Draft for pintle-hook. 
Steel for pintle-hook. 






272.36 






0.26 




Ammunition- 


0.375 


Round 


1.5 


0.55 




Chest. 


0.5 


Round 


3.16 


2.06 








0.75 


Round 


4.13 


6.07 








1.0 


Round 


0.25 


.65 








1.0 


0.5 


0.08 


.13 








1.0 


1.0 


2.00 


6.72 








1.5 


0.375 


1.73 


3.26 








1.5 


0.75 


4.58 


17.31 








1.5 


1.0 


0.2 


1.00 








1.5 


1.5 


1.0 


7.56 








1.75 


0.75 


0.33 


1.45 








15.5 


0.1 


4.0 


20.50 
67.26 







s« 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bills of Iron for Field Carriages. — Continued. 



Kind of carriage. 


Width. 


Thick- 

DeSH. 


Length. 


Weight. 


Remarks. 




In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 






Ammcnition- 


25.0 


No. 24. 


4. 


9.50 


Sheet-copper for cover. 




Chkst. 















Continued. 








0.21 


Brass for turnbucklc. 
For chains No. 1. 




Caisson. 


0.15 


Round 


8.53 


0.50 






0.2 


Kound 


4.08 


0.43 








0.25 


Round 


0.71 


.11 








0..375 


Round 


15.04 


5.53 








0.5 


Round 


0.63 


.41 








0.875 


Round 


1.02 


2.04 








1.0 


Round 


4.49 


11.71 








1.25 


Round 


2.61 


10.67 








0.25 


0.25 


2.92 


.61 








0.3 


0.3 


6.23 


1.87 








1.0 


0.25 


1.75 


1.47 








1.0 


0.5 


1.5 


2.52 








1.0 


1.0 


2.79 


9.37 


Hammered. 






1.125 


0.25 


0.19 


.18 








1.25 


0.5 


3.18 


6.68 








1.25 


0.625 


3.1 


8.12i 


Hammered. 






1.25 


0.75 


0.70 


2.20|lIIammorcd. 


. 




1.5 


0.125 


2.0 


1.26 








1.5 


0.25 


3.0 


3.78 








1.5 


0.5 


0..33 


.83 








1.5 


0.625 


.83 


2.61 


Hammered. 






1.5 


0.75 


1.33 


5.02 


Hammered. 






1.5 


1.5 


1.33 


10.05 








2.0 


0.125 


1.67 


1.40 








2.0 


0.5 


0.75 


2.52 








2.31 


0.25 


0.69 


1.33 








2.6 


0.5 


7.0 


29.40 








3.0 


0.5 


6.46 


32.55 








3.5 


0.25 


0.5 


1.47 








3.5 


1.0 


3.17 


37.27 


Hammered ; or 2 drafts 


for lunette. 




4.0 


0.25 


0.84 


2.82 








4.25 


1.25 


1.5 


26.77 








5.75 


0.5 


0.48 


4.63 








6.00 


0.5 


0.5 


5.04 
136. 


2 drafts for axle-tree. 
For chain No. 1. 






369.17 




Forge. 


0.15 


Round 


1.5 


0.09' 






0.2 


Round 


3.75 


.38 


2.3 feet for chain No. 2. 





BILLS OF IRON. 



89 



BiUs of Iron for Field Carriages. — Continued. 



Kind of carriage. 


Width. 


Thick- L ., 
nc88. \^<^^St'ii. 


Weight 


1 Remarks. 

1 






In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 






Forge. 


0.25 


Round 


0.57 


.93 






Continued. 


0.375 


Round 


19.48 


7.17 








0.625 


Round 


0.24 


.24 








0.5 


Round 


.3.51 


2.29 








0.75 


Round 


4.58 


6.73 








0.875 


Round 


0.58 


1.16 








1.0 


Round 


1.88 


4.90 








1.25 


Round 


■3.48 


14.23 








1.5 


Round 


0.3 


1.76 








2.5 


Round 


0.67 


10.96 








0.25 


0.25 


1.32 


.28 








0.3 


0.3 


6.23 


1.88 








0.5 


0.25 


.17 


.07 








0.625 


0.375 


.79 


1.89 








0.75 


0.75 


1.0 


.63 








1.0 


0.25 


1.25 


1.05 








1.0 


0.375 


0.84 


1.06 








1.0 


0.5 


2.75 


4.62 








1.25 


0.25 


0.5 


.52 








1.25 


0.375 


0.88 


1.38 








1.25 


0.5 


4.31 


9.05 






' 


1.25 


0.625 


1.56 


4.08 


Hammered. 






1.25 


0.75 


0.7 


2.20 








1.25 


1.0 


1.0 


4.20 


Hammered. 






1.25 


1.25 


0.5 


2.62 








1.5 


0.25 


3.17 


4.00 


Hammered. 






1.5 


0.375 


1.88 


3.55 








1.5 


0.5 


5.66 


14.26 








1.5 


0.75 


2.42 


9.14 


Hammered. 






1.5 


1.0 


0.66 


3.32 


Hammered. 






1.625 


0.125 


1.25 


.85 








1.75 


0.75 


0.33 


1.45 


Hammered. 






2.0 


0.125 


1.17 


.98 








2.0 


0.15 


0.84 


.84 








2.0 


0.25 


0.67 


1.12 








2.0 


0.5 


1.5 


5.04 








2.0 


1.0 


0.83 


5.58 


Hammered. 






2.0 


1.375 


2.17 


20.03 


Hammered. 






2.25 


0.15 


0.33 


.37 








2.5 


0.5 


7.5 


31.50 








2.625 


0.25 


1.0 


2.20 








3.0 


0.625 


0.5 


3.15 


Hammered. 






3.5 


1.0 


3.17 


37.27 


Hammered ; or 2 drafts for 


lunette. 




4.0 


0.25 


0.84 


2.82 








10. 


No. 12. 


3.4 


12.5 


Sheet-iron. 





90 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bills of Iron for Field Carriages. — Continued. 



Kind of carriage. 


Width. 


Thick- 
ness. 


Length. 


Weight 


Remark!. 




In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 




Forge. 


1.3.25 


No. 11 


2.58 


14.25 


Sheet-iron. 


Continued. 


27. 


No. 8 


7.5 


122.00, jSheet-iron. 




28. 


No. 24 


5. 


11.85 !, Russia sheet-iron. 




0.75 


0.5 


0.67 


136. 


2 drafts for axle-tree. 




530.44 






0.84 


Cast-steel. 




1.0 


0.25 


0.33 


.271 

1 


Spring-steel. 
Cast-iron air-back. 
Brass for windpipe. 




36.5 i 

1 




6. i 




22.5 


No. 24 


7.33 


15.75 1 Sheet-copper; in 2 sheeU 44 iaekM 












long. 




18.5 


No. 24 


3.04 


5.25 


Sheet-copper. 




20. 


No. 18 


0.50 


1.90 

1 


Sheet-copper. 




22.901 




Battery- 


0.25 


Round 


26.08 


4.25 


24.7 feet for chains No. 4 


Wagon. 


0.375 


Round 


20.3 


7.47 






0.5 


Round 


6.92 


4.52 






0.625 


Round 


1.92 


1.95 






0.75 


Round 


6.22 


9.14 






1.0 


Round 


1.38 


3.60 






1.25 


Round 


2.60 


10.63 






1.5 


Round 


3.11 


18.31 






0.25 


0.25 


0.44 


.09 






0.3 


0.3 


6.23 


1.88 






0.75 


0.375 


1.38 


1.29 






1.0 


0.125 


6.25 


2.62 






1.0 


0.25 


8.41 


7.06 






1.0 


0.375 


5.92 


7.46 






1.0 


0.5 


1.5 


2.52 






1.0 


1.0 


2.84 


9.54 


Hammered. 




1.125 


0.25 


1.12 


2.11 






1.25 


0.25 


0.38 


.40 






1.25 


0.375 


1.71 


2.68 






1.25 


0.5 


2.18 


4.58 






1.25 


0.625 


0.73 


1.91 IHammered. 




1.25 


0.75 


0.71 


2.23 1 Hammered. 




1.5 


0.25 


11.25 


14.17 1 




1.5 


0.375 


1.5 


2.83 




1.5 


0.5 


0.33 


.83 



BILLS OF IRON. 9% 

Bills of Iron for Field Carriages. — Continued. 



Kind of carriage. 


Width. 


Thick- 
ness. 


Length. 


Weight 


Remarks. 




In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 




Batterv- 


1.5 


0.75 


2.47 


9.32 


Hammered. 


Wagon. 


1..5 


I.O 


0.93 


4.18 




Continued. 


1.625 


0.5 


16.67 


45.50 






2.0 


0.125 


0.83 


.70 






2.0 


0.75 


0.5 


2.52 






2.5 


0.188 


1.67 


2.62 






2.5 


0.5 


5.33 


22.38 






3.5 


1.0 


3.17 


37.27 


Hammered ; or 2 drafts for lunette. 




3.75 


0.15 


8.48 


16.02 






4.0 


0.25 


0.83 


2.79 






5.26 


0.25 


0.65 


2.87 






5.5 


0.375 


1.66 


IL.'jO 
136.00 


2 drafts for axle-tree. 




417.74 






0.21 


Cast-brass for turnbucklc. 




In. 


In. 


In. 


Lbs. 




Mountain 


0.15 


Round 


25. 


0.13 


Cap-square and key-chains No. 1. 


Howitzer- 


.25 


Round 


54. 


0.73 


Rivets No. 2, nails No. 1, and staples. 


Carriage. 


.3 


Round 


18. 


0.36 


Nails No. 2. 




.375 


Round 


44. 


L35 


Handspike-staple, bolts No. 1, and 
rivets No. 3. 




.625 


Round 


11. 


0.94 


Implement-hooks, and bolt No. 3. 




.75 


Round 


84. 


10.30 


Bolts No. 4. 




.875 


Round 


7. 


1.16 


Eye-pins No. 1. 




1.75 


Round 


11. 


7.34 


Elevating-screw. 




0.75 


0.375 


1.6 


0.12 


Nuts No. 1. 




1. 


0.5 


16. 


2.24 


Handspike-strap and linchpins. 




1.25 


0.125 


2.5 


0.11 


Washers No. 1. 




1.25 


0.2 


34. 


2.38 


Axle-bands. 




1.25 


0.25 


3. 


0.26 


Cap-square keys. 




1.25 


0.625 


1.25 


0.27 


Nut No. 3. 




1.25 


0.75 


16. 


4.20 


Heads of key and chin-bolts. 




1.5 


0.75 


11. 


3.47 


Nuts No. 4. 




2. 


0.25 


15. 


2.10 


Ferrules for axle-tree. 




2. 


0.375 


8. 


1.68 


Washer-hooks. 




2. 


0.5 


36. 


10.08 


Understraps. 




2. 


1.25 


5. 


3.50 


Handles for elevating-screw. 




2.25 


1. 


42. 


26.46 


Trunnion-plates and cap-squares. 



92 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bills of Iron for Field Carriages. — Continued. 



Kind of carriage. Width, ''^'ck- Length. Weight 



Remarks. 





In. 


In. 


In. 


Lbs. 


• 


Mountain 


2.5 


0.188 


10. 


1.31 


Washers No. 4. 


HOWITZEU- 


2.5 


1. 


4. 


2.80 


Kuee of lunette. 


Caukiage. 


4. 


0.2 


12.5 


2.80 


Trail-plate. 


Continued. 


4. 


0.375 


38. 


15.9fi 


Axle-skean. 




4. 


0.5 


18. 


10.08 


Lunette. 




112.13 




Two toheel-g. 


3.0 
0.65 


Box for elevating-screw. 
Band-nails No. 1. 




0.25 


Round 


•is!"' 




0.375 


Round 


42. 


1.29 Tire-bolts No. 1. 




■ 0.15 


0.125 


96. 


2.o0 Brow-hands. 




0.75 


0.375 


10. 


0.78 


Nuts No. 1. 




1. 


0.2 


82. 


4.59 


End bands. 




1.26 


0.125 


15. 


0.65 


Washers No. 1. 




2.00 


0.375 


240. 


50.40 


Tires. 




60.86 




Thill. 


10.0 
0.06 


Navc-boxcs. 




0.15 


Round 


12." 


Key-chain No. 1. 




0.25 


Round 


12. 


0.16 Rivets No. 2. 




0.375 


Round 


26. 


0.80: Staples. 




0.5 


Round 


7. 


0.3JS 


Bolts No. 2. 




0.75 


Round 


4. 


0.49i 


Key. 




1. 


0.5 


48. 


6.72 


Supporting-bar. 




2.75 
0.25 


0.25 
Round 


30. 
43. 


5.78 


Cross-bar plate. 




14.39 




Ammunition- 


0.60 


Chains, and rivets No. 2. 


chest. 


1. 


0.375 


.38. 


4.00 


Hinges and hasp-strap. 


• 


1. 


0.5 


4. 


0.56 


Bridles and brace. 




1. 


0.625 


3.5 


0.61 


Hasp. 




1.5 


0.1 


3.5 


0.15| 


Turn'.uikle-plate. 




2.4 


No. 18. 


40. 


1.35 
7 27 


Cornci plates. 


I ixcJc-Bciddle. 








1 .*( 

0.10 
0.16 


Turnbuckle. 




0.25 


Round 


12. 


Staples and rivets. 




0.375 


Round 


37. 


1.13 


Bolts. 




0.75 


0.375 


1.25 


0.10 


Nuts. 




1.25 


0.2 


36. 


2.52 


Arc-plates. 




3.91 





BILLS OF IRON. 



Bills of Iron for Siege Gun- Carriages. 



Thick- 
ness. 



12-pounder. 



18-pounder. 



24-pounder. 



Remarks. 



In. 


Feet- 


Lbs. 


• 
Feet. 


Lbs. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 


Round 


2.29 


0.24 


2.29 


0.24 


2.29 


0.24 


Round 


5.17 


.84 


5.17 


.84 


5.17 


.84 


Round 


9.03 


3.32 


9.03 


3.32 


9.03 


3.32 


Round 


.62 


.40 


.62 


.40 


.62 


.40 


Round 


1.3.05 


13.31 


13.05 


13.31 


13.05 


13.31 


Round 


1 7.40 


10.88 


7.46 


10.96 


7.62 


11.05 


Round 


3. 


7.83 


3. 


7.83 


3. 


7.83 


Round 


" 2.17 


7.18 


2.17 


7.18 


2.17 


7.18 


Round 


18.57 


75.95 


17.12 


70.01 


18.11 


74.07 


Round 


2.18 


12.84 


4.64 


27.33 


4.91 


28.92 


Round 


.5 


5.23 


.5 


5.23 


.5 


5.23 


Round 


1.58 


23.32 


1.58 


23.32 


1.58 


23..32 


Round 


2.04 


33.37 


2.04 


33.37 


2.04 


33.37 


Round 


.33 


7.77 


.33 


7.77 


.33 


7.77 


1 0.25 


1.33 


.28 


1..33 


.28 


1..33 


.28 


0.3 


3.17 


.95 


3.17 


.95 


3.17 


.95 


0..375 


8.75 


4.11 


8.75 


4.11 


8.75 


4.11 


0.5 


.38 


.64 


.38 


.64 


.38 


, .64 


0.625 


.21 


.55 


.21 


.55 


.21 


.55 


1.25 


1.67 


8.77 


1.71 


8.97 


1.73 


9.08 


0.125 


.5 


.31 


.5 


.31 


.5 


.31 


0.375 


5.0 


9.45 


.5.0 


9.45 


5.0 


9.45 


0.625 


2.42 


7.62 


2.42 


7.62 


2.42 


7.62 


0.75 


1.71 


6.46 


1.71 


6.46 


1.71 


6.46 


0.5 


.58 


1.70 


.58 


1.70 


.58 


1.70 


0.75 


.68 


2.92 


.58 


2.92 


.58 


2.92 


1.0 


.67 


4.50 


.67 


4.50 


.67 


4.50 


0.188 


1.67 


2.62 


1.67 


2.62 


1.67 


2.62 


1.25 


5.33 


55.95 


4.42 


46.41 


4.42 


46.41 


1.5 
0.625 






.93 
.93 


12.89 
5.86 


.93 
.93 


12.89 
5.86 


"'.93' 


5.86 


0.25 


.58 


1.70 


.58 


1.70 


.58 


1.70 


0.375 


.58 


2.56 


..58 


2.56 


.58 


2.56 


0.625 


.96 


7.04 


.96 


7.04 


.96 


7.04 


2. 


.29 


6.82 


.29 


6.82 


.29 


6.82 


2. 


.38 


9.57 


.38 


9.57 


.38 


9.57 


0.25 


4.33 


14.54 


4.33 


14..54 


4.33 


14.54 


0.5 


1.23 


8.26 


1.23 


8.26 


1.23 


8.26 


0.625 
0.75 


6.34 
6.12 


53.25 
61.69 


















0.625 
0.75 






7.00 
6.26 


61.76 
67.04 














0.25 


".40' 


1.60 


.40 


1.60 


.40 


"l'.6o' 


0.625 

0.75 

0.625 










3.38 

6.26 

.42 


33.70 

74.92 

4.41 










* .42 


4.41 

1 


.42 


4.41 



For chains No. 2. 

3 feet 6 inches for 

chains No. 3. 



Hammered. 



Hammered. 
Hammered. 



In one piece. 
In one piece. 
In one piece. 
In one piece. 
In one piece. 
In one piece. 
In one piece. 



94 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bills of Iron for Siege Gun-Carriages. — Continued. 



Width. 


Thick- 
nesB. 


12-pounder. 


IS-ponnder. 


24-pounder. 


Remark*. 


lu. 

5.75 
6.5 
9.0 
5.75 


In. 

0.5 
0.25 
0.5 
0.375 


Feet. 

.75 
1.08 
3.25 
0.79 


Lbs. 

7.24 

5.89 

49.14 

26.3 
16. 
222. 
16.6 
21.5 

793.71 


Feet. 

.75 
1.08 
3.25 
0.79 


1 
Lbs. 

7.24 

5.89 

49.14 

29.2 
17.7 
222. 1 
16.5 
21.6 


• 
Feet. 

.75 
1.08 
3.25 
0.79 


Lbs. 

7.24 

5.89' 
49.14 

1 

36.14 

20.45 
252. 
16.5 
21.5 


In one piece. 
Steel for shoe. 


Drafts 


2 trunnion-platM. 
2 cap-f(|uarc». 
1 axle-tree. 
1 lunette. 
1 shoe. 








817.4 




839.72 




Cast-iron.. • 




43.5 
52.5 




43.5 
52.6 




43.5 
52.5 


2 rondclles. 
4 rundelles. 


. 




96. 
15.37 




96. 




96. 




Cast-brass . . . 






16.37 




16.37 

i 


Box for screw. 



Bill of Iron for one Siege Carriage Wheel. 



Width. 


Thickness. 


Length. 


Wei^t. 


Rmnark*. 


In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 






0.75 


Round 


4.. 13 


6.36 j 






0.25 


0.25 


2.12 


.44 






1.6 


0.375 


7.66 


14.48 






1.6 


0.75 


.87 


3. '29 






1.75 


0.375 


6.08 


13.37 






2.5 


0.188 


1.46 


2.29 






4. 


0.75 


15.5 


156.24 


Tire : in one 
Nave-box. 


piece. 




196.47 1 
24. 




Cast-bras 















BILLS OF IRON. 



95 



Bill of Iron for one Siege Carriage Limber 



Width. 


Thickness. 


Length. 


1 Weight. 

1 


Remarks. 


In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 




0.25 


Round 


2.92 


0.47 




0.5 


Round 


14.83 


9.70 




0.75 


Round 


15.58 


22.90 




1.0 


Round 


1.5 


3.91 




1.25 


Round 


2.71 


11.08 




0.3 


0.3 


1.04 


.31 




0.375 


0.375 


1.83 


.86 




1.0 


0.5 


.17 


.28 




1.125 


0.25 


.09 


.08 




1.5 


0.5 


0.5 


1.26 




1.5 


0.625 


2.42 


7.62 




1.5 


0.75 


3.21 


12.13 




1.75 


0.5 


1.33 


3.91 




2. 


0.2 


.83 


1.11 




2. 


0.5 


1..S3 


4.46 




2.5 


0.188 


3.33 


5.23 




2.5 


0.5 


.83 


3.48 


Hammered. 


2.5 


0.625 


6.08 


31.92 


Hammered. 


2.5 


1.25 


.21 


2.20 


* 


2.5 


2.5 


.96 


20.16 


Hammered. 


2.75 


0.625 


5.33 


30.75 




3.0 


0.625 


3. 


18.90 




3.5 


0.625 


.96 


7.05 


Hammered. 


4.0 


0.75 


4. 


40.32 




5.5 


1. 


.83 


15.34 

222.00 

36.50 


Draft for axle-tree. 
Draft for pintle-plate. 




513.93 





90 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Bill of Iron for one Mortar- Wagon. 



Width. 


Thickness. 


Length. 


Weight. 


Remark*. 


In. 


In. 


Feet. 


Lbs. 




0.25 


Round 


42 


0.06 




0.375 


Round 


8.79 


3.23 




0.5 


Round 


.62 


.40 




0.625 


Round 


17.46 


17.81 




0.75 


Round 


17.87 


26.27 




1. 


Round 


2.92 


7.62 




1.25 


Round 


.83 


3.39 




15 


Round 


2.75 


16.20 




1.625 


Round 


1.08 


7.46 




0.25 


0.25 


8.03 


1.68 




0.3 


0.3 


8.40 


2.53 




0.375 


0.375 


3..32 


1.56 




1. 


0.25 


.42 


.35 




1. 


0.5 


.37 


.62 




1.25 


0.2 


2.89 


2.43 




1.25 


0.625 


1.67 


4.37 




1.5 


0.375 


1.08 


2.04 




1.5 


0.5 


.58 


1.46 




1.5 


0.625 


2.42 


7.62 




1.5 


0.75 


4.21 


15.91 




2. 


0.125 


2. 


1.68 ! 


1 

1 


2. 


0.75 


.58 


292 


t 


2. 


2. 


.50 


672 




2.5 


0.188 


3.12 


4.90 


j 


2.5 


0.375 


6. 


18.90 


! 


2.5 


0.5 


1.07 


7.01 


1 


2.5 


0.625 


.60 


2.02 


Ilatninered. 


2.75 


0.5 


5.17 


23. S8 


1 


3. 


1.5 


.29 


4.38 




3.375 


0.5 


7.33 


41.56 




3.5 


0.625 


.92 


0.56 




.3.75 


0.75 


3.21 


30.33 




4. 


0.75 


.42 


4.23 




5. 


0.3 


.92 


4.63 




5.5 


0.3 


3.58 


19.83 




6. 


0.3 


1. 


6.04 




6. 


0.75 


.75 


11.34 




6.5, 
6.5 


0.25 


l.OS 


5.89 




0.3 


.60 


3.93 • 




8. 


0.5 


.80 


10.75 

222.00 

21.50 


Draft for axle-tree. 








Draft for shoe. 




584.61 
5.72 




5.75 


0.375 


0.79 


Steel for shoe. 


• 






3.5 


Brass for two journal-boxes. 



BILLS OF IRON. 



97 



Bilh of Iron for one S-inch Barbette Carriage. 



TOP CARRIAGE. 



No. of 
pieces. 



NAMES OF PARTS, 



Cheek-plates (see drawings) . . 

Front braces 

Middle do 

Rear do 

J front 
I rear • 

Ends for rear brace 

Diagonal braces. 



Sub-braces, angle-iron 



Shoes shapes, or ] 

Fulcrum for handspike 

Transoms 



Brace-transoms 

Rear transoms (.5-in. trough-beams). 

Rear transom cuds 

Trunnion-plates 

Axle, hammered shapes, or 

Axle-stops 

Linchpins 

Axle-boxes (brass : see drawing) . . 
Axle-box washers (cast-iron : see draw- 
ing) 

Arc-supports 

Elevating-arc (brass!) 

" bed (cast-iron) 

" screw, stem 

r body , 

Pawl. . < collar and handle 

(pin • 

Pawl-port (oast-iron) 

Elevating-screw box (brass) 

"' " arbor 

Arbor-box (brass) 

" handle 

Wheel and pinion (brass) 

Bolts for axle-box 



sub-braco and shoe 



Dimensions of each piece. 
In. In. In. 



74.0 

.38.8 

39.75 

65.25 

20.0 

42.8 

6.0 
48.5 
32.0 
47.0 

6.0 
38.0 
40.0 
10.0 
29.5 

6.0 
34.0 
38.0 

4.25 

3.5 



6.0 
30. 

12.0 

10.0 

10.0 

4.5 



18.0 

6.0 
24.0 

4.0 
3.5 
2.5 
1.75 



37.5 
6.0 
6.0 
6.0 
3.25 
3.25 
3.0 
3.5 
3.5 
3.25 
2.5 
4.5 
4.5 
5.5 
6.5 
3.25 
3.25 
3.125 
1.0 
1.25 



1.75 



2.625 
3.0 
1.25 
.75 



1.5 

2.5 

.75 

.75 

.875 
.75 



.4 
2,75 
2.75 
2.75 
2.75 
2.75 
0.5 

.6 
2.25 
1.0 
1.5 

.75 

.75 

.75 
5.0 
1.5 

.75 
Round 
Round 

.6 



.2 

Round 

2.5 
Round 
Round 



Round 



875 
Round 

Round 
Round 
Round 
.875 Round 



Total 
length. 



• 10.46 

1.0 
8.01 
5.33 
7.83 
0.5 
6.33 
6.66 
1.66 
4.91 
1.0 
5.66 
3.16 
.70 
.59 



1.0 



1.0 

.83 
.8;! 
.37 



1.5 



0.5 
2.0 



2.66 
1.25 



Total 
weight. 

Lbs. 
468.00 
432.00 

93.26 

5.04 

47.09 

1.38.86 

85.40 

6.30 
71.78 
76.52 
23.00 
lo8,71 
16.38 
46.35 
80 77 

1.83 

1.24 



2.20 



18.03 

20.92 

3.39 

.54 



.83 



3.67 
2.94 



3.91 
1.84 



98 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bills of Iron for one H-inch Barhdte Carriage. — Continued. 

TOP CARRIAGE. 



No. of 
pieces. 



4 
1« 



2 

2 

75 

3 



NAME8 OF PARTS. 



Bolts for diagonal lirucc and shoe . . 

" front lirace and shoe 

" rear brace and shoe 

" trunnion-]da(cg 

" tnuKioinc 

" brace and cheuk-platcs ... 

" diufconal brace 

" e1o\ utiii^-bod 

" I'lfviitinfT-ccrew bfix 

" arbor-liox 

" arc-8Ui'portp 

Rivets for arc-!iU|)]>orts 

" fulcrum 

Nut« (hexapcmal, .75-in.) 

" (hexagonal, .376) . 

Truck wheels (cast-iron) 12-in. dia. 



Dtmenaions of each piece. 


Total 
length. 


Total 
wei(ht. 


In. 


In. ! In. 


Feet. 


LiM. 


3.0 


.75 


Round 


1.0 


1.47 


2.0 


.875 


Round 






2.6 


1.5 


1.5 


.42 


s.ir 


2.5 


.75 


Round 


.42 


«.or 


1.76 


.875 


Round 






2.25 


1.5 


1.5 


.75 


6.67 


2.75 


1.5 


1.6 


3.06 


27.67 


2.25 


1.5 


1.5 


4.8t 


36.82 


2.0 


1.5 


1.5 


.10 


1.21 


2.25 


1.5 


1.5 


.76 


6.07 


2.75 


1.5 


1.5 


.*% 


S.48 


2.5 


.375 


Round 


.41 


0.1» 


3.5 


.5 


Round 


0.69 


.ts 


3.5 


.5 


Round 


.58 


.M 


1.6 


.625 


Round' 


.26 


.36 


1.6 


1.5 


.75 1 


8.1 


80.03 


.75 


.75 


.375 


.36 


.3S 




1941.01 






Ca«t-ir 
C&itbr 








aaj . . . 





BILLS OF IRON. 



99 



Bills 'if [ran for one S-inch Barbette Carriage. 



CHASSIS, CENTRE-PINTLE. 



4 
2 

2 

16 
8 
8 

16 
2 
2 

32 
6 



NAMES OF PARTS. 



Rails (9-inch I-beams). 

Hurter-bar 

Counter-hurters 



rivets . 



Transoms 

Middle transom . . . 

Bolsters (2 pieces). 



Diagonal braces 

Forks for front traverse- wheels 

(shapes) or 

Forks for rear traverse-wheels (shapes) 



Bolts for transoms 

" diagonal brace 



middle transom 

front traverse-wheels . 
rear traverse-wheels . . 

traverse-forks 

hooks for handspikes. 



Nuts (hexagonal, .75-in.).., 

" for fork-bolts 

Front traverse-wheels (cast-iron). 
Rear traverse-wheels (cast-iron). . 

Manoeuvring-bars 



"I 



Dimensions of each piece, 



Elevating-bar . 
Pair wrenches. 

Amount. .. . 



In. 



171. 
36.0 
7.0 

3.0 

40.0 
43.25 

18.0 

62.0 

46.0 

64.0 
2.76 
3.25 
2.5 
2.0 
6.5 
6.5 
3.0 
4.0 
4.0 
2.0 
1.6 
2.75 



4.6 

9.0 

42.9 

9.0 

21.0 

18.0 



In. 



6.375 

6.0 

5.25 
.876 
or .75 

5.5 
18.0 
15.5 
14.6 

4.0 

5.6 

6.6 
1.5 

.75 
1.5 

.75 



1.6 

3.26 

1.5 

2.5 

2.26 

1.0 



In. 



9.0 
1.0 
1.0 

Round 

.75 
0.5 

0.5 

.625 

1.25 

1.25 

1.6 
Round 

1.5 
Round 
Round 
Round 

1.5 
Round 

0.5 
Round 
.75 
.75 



Round 
1.25 

Round 
1.0 
1.0 

Round 



Total 
length. 



Feet. 



28.5 
3.00 
1.16 

2.0 

13.33 
3.60 

6.0 

17.33 

7.66 

9.0 

3.66 

2.16 

1.66 

2.66 

1.08 

1.08 

8.0 

2.0 



10.75 
.91 



Total 
weight. 



Lbe. 

1412.00 
60.48 
20.46 

4.00 

184.75 
108.86 

151.20 

145.57 

176.95 

207.90 
27.67 

3.17 
12.55 

3.91 
21.37 
17.67 
60.48 

8.18 



40.63 
5.15 



45.12 
20.47 
20.61 

6.3 
13.23 

3.91 

2723.59 



100 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bills of Iron for one H-inch Barbette Carriage. 



CHASSIS, FBOST-PINTLK. 



NAMES OF PARTS. 



Rail.'* (l.')-inch I-beamc). 

Hurter-bar 

Couiitcr-burtiTw 



rivet." 



Front traimoni 

" " collar 

'• '• bolsttTS (cast-iron). . 

Transoms 

Diagonal braces — one 58 in., the other 

C4 in. long 

Traver.si'-wbcf'l forks (("hapes) ..... 

Side steps 



Rear stoi)? 

Bolts Tor transoms. 



" hook-heaiis 
front transoms . . . . 



" '• " and diagonal 

brace 

'* diagonal brace 

" hurter-bar 

" traverse-forks 

" traverse-wheels 

" steps 

" front transom and rails. . 
Hooks for handspikes 



Nuts (hexagonal) , 

Nuts for traverse-wheel bolts 
Traverse-wht.'.< ^^east-iron). . 

Manoeuvring-bars 

Elevatinj:-bar 



Pair wrenches — 1 single, 14 in. long; 
1 double, 18 in 

Amount 



Dimenaions of each pl«c«. 



In. 



171. 
36. 

7. 

3. 

or3 

36. 

7. 



In. 





i 5.25 



6.375 
6.0 



40.0 



0.875 
.75 
18.0 
7.0 

5.5 

5.5 
5.5 
1.5 
6.0 
2.0 
2.0 
3.5 
1.5 
1.25 
1.5 
.76 

1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
1.5 
2.5 
1.5 



In. 



9. 

1.0 

1.0 
Round 
Round 

0.6 
.75 

.75 

.75 

1.5 
.76 
.25 
• 75 
.75 
.25 

1.5 
Round 

1.5 
Round 

1.5 

1.5 

1.5 

1.5 
Round 

1.5 

1.25 
Round 

0.5 
Round 
.75 



Round 
1.25 

Round 
1.0 
1.0 

Round 



Total 
length. 



Keet. 



28.5 
XO 
1.16 

2.0 

3.05 
1.58 

10.0 

10.19 
8.0 
4.6 
1.75 
7.?« 
4.5 
2.66 
2.3 
0.8 
1.5 
1.75 

0.64 

1.37 

1.0 

4.0 

0.92 

0.83 

3.33 

1.33 



9.6 
0.4« 

7.M 

1.5 
3.5 
.75 
1.75 
1.6 



BILLS OF IRON. 101 

Bill of Iron for one 10-inch Barbette Carriage. 



TOP CARRIAGE. 



No. of 
pieces. 



NAMES OF PiRTS. 



Cheek-plates (see drawings) 

Front braces 

Middle braces 

Rear braces 

c. , <. / • \ f front 

Sub (ang.iron). j^^^^ 

Ends for rear brace 

Diagonal braces 

Shoes (shai)es) or \ 

Fulcrum for handspike 

Transoms 



Rrace transoms. 



Rear transoms, 5-in. trough-beams. 

Rear transom ends 

Trunnion-plates 

Axle, hammered (shapes) or 



DimensioDS of each piece. 



In. 

74.0 

41.25 

39.25 

65.0 

21.0 

41.75 

6.0 
54.75 
16.0 
69.0 

6.0 
44.0 
40.75 
10.0 
35.5 

6.0 
33.0 
44.0 



In. 



39.6 
6.0 
6.0 
6.0 
3.25 
3.25 
3.0 
3.5 
3.75 
4.25 
2.5 
4.5 
4.5 
5.5 
6.0 
3.25 
3.25 
3.125 



In. 



.4 

2.76 

2.75 

2.75 

2.75 

2.75 

,5 

.5 

2.25 

1.0 

1.5 

.75 

.75 

.75 

2.75 

.5 

.75 

Round 



Total 
length. 

Feet. 



24.25 



Total 
weight. 



LI.B. 



472.00 
436.60 



10.46! 93.26 

1.0 5.04 

9.12 53.62 

2.66{ 75.41 

11.5 164.22 

.5 6.30 



7.33 


82.97 


6.8 


76.97 


1.66 


22.01 


5.91 


191.70 


1.0 


16.38 


5.5 


45.04 



3.66; 93.56 



The remainder of the bill the same as for the 8-ineh columbiad. 

CHASSIS. 

The samfe as S-inch, except as follows : 

The length of the hurter-har is 43.25 in. ; of the 4 transoms, 46.00 in. 

A'1-pounder Barbette Carriage. 

The .same as the 8-inch, with the addition of 2 pieces, 12 in. long, 4.875. wide, S) 
in. thick ; omit one piece of the rear transom of top carriage. 

'S'2-pounder Barbette Carriage. 

The same as the S-inch. e-\cept as follows : 

TOP CAKKIAGE. 

The length of the 2 transoms is 33 inches ; of the rtar trannom, 24. •'i inches (omit 
<ine piece) ; of the axle, 33 inches, 

CHASSI.S. 

The length of the linrter-hur is 31 inches; of the front transom, 31.6 inches: of 
the 3 tra)i8<)ms, 35 inches. 

'lA-pounder Barbette Carriage. 

Add to the bill of iron for a 32-pounder, 2 pieces. 12 inches long, 3.25 inches 
wide, 1.25 inches thick. 



102 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bills of Iron for one S-inch Casemate Carriage. 



TOP CARRIAGB. 



NAMES OF PARTS. 



Dimensions of each piece. 



Total 
length. 



In. 



Feet. 



Total 
weight. 



LbH. 



Cheek-i)lates . 
Front braces, 

Middle braces, ^1 | beams 

Rear braces, 

Sub-braces (anRle-iron).. •! 

^ " ' \ rear . . . ■ 

Ends for rear brace 

Diagonal braces 

Sbues sba)ic8, or j 

Fulcrum for baDd.'<pike 

Transoms 

Brace transoms \ 



Rear tran.«om (5-in. truugh-beam). 

" ends 

Trunnion-plates 

Axle (hammered) shapes, or 

" stops 

Linchpins 

Axle-boxes (brass: see drawing)... 

" washers (cast-iron) .... 

Arc-supports 

£lerating-arc (brass) 

'* screw 

" " box (brass) 



64.0 


32.0 


0.4 


33.5 


6.0 


2.75 


32.5 


6.0 


2.75 


54.75 


6. 


2.75 


16.5 


3.25 


2.75 


36.5 


3.25 


2.75 


6.0 


3.0 


0.5 


42.0 


3.5 


0.5 


32.0 


3.5 


2.25 


38.0 


3.25 


1.0 


6.0 


2.5 


1.5 


38.0 


4.5 


.75 


S8.0 


4.5 


.75 


10.0 


5.5 


.75 


30.5 


6.0 


5.0 


6.0 


3.25 


1.5 


34.0 


S.25 


.75 


38.0 


3.125 


Round 


4.25 


1.0 


Round 1 


3.5 


1.25 


.5 


6.0 


1.75 


.375 


.30.0 


.... 


.2 


13.0 


2.375 


Round 



20.12 



8.83 

1.0 
7.0 
5.33 
6.3.3 

.5 
6.33 
6.33 
0.83 
2.54 
1.0 
5.66 
3.16 
0.71 
0.58 



1.0 
1.08 



Total.. 
Cast-iron 
Cast-brass 



\363.00 
362.25 

78.76 

5.04 

11.16 

1.30.03 

69.12 

0.30 
71.65 
71.65 
11.50 
82.35 
16.38 
46.. 3» 
80.77 

1.83 

1.24 

2.20 
15.54 



1585.70 



The rest of the bill is the same as for the 8-iuch barbette, omitting 4 transom- 
bolts, 4 elevating-bed bolts, and 8 nuts. 

-i'Z-pdr Casemate Carriage. 

The same us the 8-inch, with the addition of 2 pieces, 12 inches long, 4.875 wide, 
and 0.5 thick. 

H2-pdr. Casemate Carriage. 

The same as the S-inch. except the lengths of the following pieces: 

TOP CARniAGE. 

2 transoms, 33 inches: 1 rear transom, 25.5 inches; 1 axle, 33.0 inches*. 



BILLS OF IRON. 



103 



Bills of Iron for one S-i7ich Casemate Carriage. 



NAMES OF PARTS. 



Dimensions of each piece. 



Total 
length. 



Total 
weight. 



In. 



Feet. 



Lbs. 



1 
12 

8 
4 

4 

4 

28 

4 



68 
4 
2 



Rails 9-inch H beams. 

Hurtcr-bar 

Counter-hurters 

" " rivets. 



Front transom 

Transoms 

Diagonal braces 

Front traverse-wheel forks, shapes. . 

or 
Rear traverse- wheel forks, shapes.. 

or 

Tongue shape, or 

Bolts for transoms 

" " front transom 

" " diagonal brace 

" " hurter-bar 

" " tongue and tran.«om 

" " traverse-fork 

" " traverse-wheel 

Hooks for handspikes 

or ] 

Nuts (hcxagonjil) 

Nuts for traverse-wheel bolts 

Front traverse-wheels (cast-iron) .. 
Rear traverse-wheels (east-iron) .. 

Manocuvring-bars ] 



Pair wrenches. 



162.0 


5.375 


9. 


36.0 


4.0 


I.O 


7.0 


5.25 


1.0 


3.0 


.875 


Round 


3.0 


.75 


Round 


36.0 


6.0 


1.0 


40.0 


5.5 


.75 


57.0 


4.0 


.625 


11.5 


5.5 


1.5 


16.0 


5.5 


1.25 


38.0 


5.5 


1.25 


65.0 


6.5 


1.0 


2.75 


1.5 


1.5 


3.25 


1.5 


1.5 


2.5 


1.5 


1.5 


3.0 


1.5 


1.5 


3.25 


1.5 


1.5 


3.0 


1.5 


1.5 


5.5 


2.5 


Round 


4.0 


1.25 


Round 


4.0 


1.75 


.75 


2.0 


.75 


.75 


1.5 


1.5 


.5 


2.75 


2.25 


Round 


46.0 


1.5 


Round 


9.0 


3.25 


1.25 


21.0 


2.25 


1.0 


18.0 


1.0 


Round 



27.0 
3.0 
1.16 
2.0 

3.0 
lO.O 
9.5 
1.91 
2.66 

6.33 
5.41 
2.75 
2.16 

.83 
1.0 
l.OS 
7.0 
1.83 
2.66 



8.5 
0.46 



1.5 

1.75. 

1.5 



1338.00 

13.44 

20.46 

4.00 

20.16 
138.60 
79.80 
52.94 
61.45 

145.22 

118.15 

20.79 

16.33 

6.27 

7.56 

8.16 

52.92 

29.94 

10.88 



32.13 
2.60 



45.12 

20.47 

13.23 

3.91 



Amount, 2262.53 



o2-pdr. Casemate Carriage. 

The same as the 8-inch, except the lengths of the following pieces : 

CHASSIS. 

1 hurter-bar, 31 inches; 1 front transom, 31 inches; 3 transoms, 35 inches. 

2-i-pdr. Casemate Carriage. 

The same as the 32-pdr., with the aJdition of 2 pieces, 12 inches long, 3.25 wide, 
1.25 thick. 



104 ORDNANCJi MANUAL. 



Chapter P^ o u r t h . 



MACHINES, ETC., FOR SIEGE AND GARRISON SERVICE. 



Field and Siege Gin. (Plate 10.) 

Woon. — 2 Jcijn ; 1 pry-j)ole ; .3 hracm ; 6 aimriiihling-piiis ; 1 icimllaiis ; 5 hand- 
»pike8. 

Iron. — C rireti and burm No. 2 B, for the tenons of the braces. 

1 tongue, fastened to the head of the left leg by 3 rirels. 

2 hetid-stiaps, fastened over the head of tlic legs by t i-irets No. 3, 8 ncrewi 2-iDcb 
No. 14. 

1 nssemb/hiff-bolt No. 4 A, for the head of the legs; 2 washers, fastened on the 
outside; that on the left leg by the tongue-rivets: that on the right by 2 screws IJ- 
inch No. 14. 

2 sAfarra (cast-brass); 1 Khiacc-bolt ; 1 kei/ ; '2 uval washers, fantened to the lege 
by 4 srrews IJ-inch No. 14. 

1 ket/-bolt for pry-pole; 1 rhain, 8 litiks No. 2 ; 2 rtngs No. 2 A. 

1 eyc-piti No. 2, screwed in the right side of the right leg. 

2jourual-boxcs (brass): 4 bultv No. 4 A; 2 scretcs 2i inches; 2 pawls, held by th« 
upper journal-box bolt ; 4 washers : i nuts. 

2 gudfftuna, let in the ends of the windlass, fastened by 2 iron pins. 
2 bands for windlass, fastened by 6 screirs. 

2 haudspHe-suckets (brass) ; 2 pawls ; 2 springs, held in place by 2 plates fastened 
to the socket by 6 screws. The socket turns freely on the gudgeons. 
2 ratchet-wheels, fastened to the gudgeons by 2 keys. 

2 bands for the foot of the legs: 4 n«i7« No. 1 C. 

3 bands for the pry-pole — I on the foot, 2 on the head; 6 noi7« No. 1 C. 
3 points, driven into the lower ends of the legs and pr^-pole. 

1 handle for the pry-pole; 2 washers, let in and held by 6 screws 1^ inches No. 14. 
1 tongue for the pry-pole, fixed in the head by 2 rivets and burrs No. 3 B. 

Single Pulley arid Block. 

1 sheave; 2 straps ; 1 cross-head ; 1 hook, connected by 2 bolts No. 4 A, and J 
bolt No. 6 A; 3 nuts. 



SLINC-CART. 105 

Garrison Gin. 

AVooD. — 2 leys; 1 prrj-ptih ; 11 cleats for pry-pole, fastened by 22 naila No. 2 C ; 

1 windlaKs. 

Iron. — G handu, one for each end of the legs and prv-pole, fastened by IS nails 
No. .3 C. 

2 braces, fastened to the legs by 4 bolts No. 5, and 4 k-ei/s ; 8 wuxhcrs, fastened to 
the legs by 32 nails ; 4 key-chains, each of 4 linlis No. 1, and 2 jv'ii^s No. 1 B. 

4 eye-pine No. 1, screwed into the legs above the bolt-holes. 

1 cleris ; 1 clevis-bolt No. 10, fastened to the head of the pry -pole by 1 iron pin ; 

2 keys ; 2 chains ; 12 links No. 1, and 2 /-inj;* No. 1 B each ; 2 eye-pins No. 1. 

2 journal-boxes (brass), let into the legs and fastened by 2 bolts No. 4 A, and 2 
holts No. 4i A; 4 washers ; 4 n«;» y 4 screws 2\ inches. 

2 pawls, hold by the upper journal-box bolts. 

2 (jnd(/eons, let into the ends of the windlass ; 2 iron jjnis. 

2 bands for"windlass ; 6 screws, , 

2 handspike-sockefs, ] ct xi. r ^i c i j • 

'^ ' \ Same as those for the field gin. 

2 ratchet-tvheels, J 

Z points, driven into the lower ends of the legs and pry-pole. 

1 handle for the pry-pole ; 2 washers, let in the pry-pole and held by 8 screw* li- 
ineh No. 14. 

Pulley-Blocks. 

They are made with one, two, three, or four sheaves. 
Iron. — 2 straps ,• the ends are bent over the cross-hemls. 

2 cross-heads ; 2 eyes, riveted in the cross-heads : the ends of the cross-heads are 
cut with a screw-thread; 4 nuts. 

1 hook, welded into the eye of one of the cross-heads. 

The partition has two tenons on each end, which are lot into the cross-heads. 

The shcares, of cast-brass. 

1 sheave-bolt No. 5 A; 1 nut. 

Casemate Gin. (Plate 17.) 

It is made like the garrison gin, ditfcring from it only in the dimensions of some 
parts. Tho pry-pole has but 6 cleats for steps. The handspike-socket, ratchet- 
wheel, pawl-bolt, and prj'-pole handle are the same as those of tho ;/arrison gin. 

Sling-Cart. (Plate 18.) 

Wood. — 1 axle-tree; I bolster ; I pole ; 2 hounds ; I pole-prop. 
lR<ftf. — 1 lower axlc-skean ; 2 tipper axlc-ekeans, let into the a.\le-tree and axle- 
arms, and fastened by 6 rivets No. 3, and 2 bands on the ends of tho axle-arms. 

2 washer-plates for axle-hooks, let into the rear of the axle-tree, and fastened by 8 



lOG , ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

>i«i7« No. 3 C, 2i inches: 2 n.rlc-hoo/cn pass tbrougli the axle-lroe from the rear; 2 
nutt ; 2 tcnsliers. 

2 wnnhcr-phiirt for bolctcr-liooks, let into the front of the bolster and fastened by 
8 »iai7» No. 'A C. 2 inches; 2 holntfr-hookn* pass through the bolster from the front ; 
2 HHi» and 2 wnnhcn. 

2 Htirnipi, let in the bolster and a.xle-trcc, which they hold logi-tlier by 2 hn'dlet 
and 4 niitx No. 4. 

1 bi:d-pl<He for the screw (cast-iron), let into the top of the bolster and held by 2 
bolu No. 4 C ; 2 nuU. 

1 hointiiiij-tcrew : the lower end is square, and has 2 hooks. 

1 nut for the screw (brass), round, with 2 square feathers on opposite sides. 

1 hitndlc for the screw, fits on the nut, and has 2 round hranchcu. 

2 riveU and burrs No. 3 U, for the small end of the pole. 

1 pole-e(r(tjt, fastened to the en<l of the pole by 12 nai7» No. 3 C, 2 inches, and .') 
bolts No. 2 A; 3 nut*. The strap forms an eye for attaching the pole to a limber. 

2 lolls No. 5 B, for connecting the hounds with the bolster and axle-tree; 2 unts. 

3 bands for the hounds aud pole, fastened bj 18 fiai7« No. 3 C, 2} inches. 
2 bolts No. 4 A, for the houn<ls and pole ; 4 leathers; 2 nuts. 

1 pole-staple passes through the pole fr«)m the under side, and is held by 2 nuts 
No. 7; 2 washers ; and, at its middle, by 1 eye-bolt No. 4; 1 nut. 

1 cascable-chain ; 16 /iiiA-« No. 5; 1 ring ; 1 hook: the ring traverses on the bar 
of pole-staple. 

1 eyc-piii for pole-prop socket, passes through the pole from the under side, and 
held by 1 tcasher and 1 nut No. 3; 1 pole-prop socket ; 1 J'errulr, fastened to the 
jirop by 2 rivets No. 2. 

1 poie-prop chain ; IC linkn No. 1 ; 1 rln<j No. 1 A; 1 tnij<jl-- ; 1 >i/tpin No. 1, 
screwed into the pule. 

2 shoulder-iranhers for iixle-trce. 
2 liftch-iFashers, with drag-hooks. 
2 linchpins. 

1 sling-chain ; 2 trunniun-chniits. 

Sling-Cart Wheel. (Plate 18.). 

Wood. — 1 nave ; 16 spokes ; 8 fellies ; 8 dowels. 

Iron. — 4 nave-bands, fastened by 12 nails No. 3 C, 2 inches long. 

1 tire, made in one hoop ; 8 tire-bolts No. 4 C; 8 xcashers ; 8 nut*. 

2 nave-boxes (cast-iron). 

The sling-cart is capable of transporting a 10-inch colambiad. It is used with a 
field limber. 
t 

* The axle and bolster-hooks serve for fastening the laHking<baina or ropea to relieve the 

(train on the screw when the weight is slung. 



HAND SLI NO-CART. 107 



Trunnion-Chains. (Plate 18.) 



The trunnion-chains are three in number, for light or heavy weights. They are 
made of the patent looped-link chain. A pair is required to carry a gun. One is 
passed under each trunnion and hooked on the head uf the screw of the sling-cart. 

No. I. Composed of 1 chain .59 inches long, the ends joined by 1 ring. 

No. 2. Composed of 2 chains, each 59 inches long, the ends joined by 1 ring. 

No. 3. Composed of 2 chains, each 47 inches long, the ends joined by i ring, 
having 3 branches : two for the ends of the chains composing the pair, and the third 
for the hook of the screw. 

Thickness of the iron composing the link. .5 inch. 

Length of iron for the connecting-ring, 23 inches for No. 1, 24 inches for Nos. 
2 and 3. 

Size of iron for connecting-ring, 1.375 inch, round. 

AVeights.— No. 1, 27 lbs. ; No. 2, 53 lbs.; No. 3, 61 lbs. 

Sli7ig- Chain. 

The sling-chain is composed of 69 links, I ring at one end, and 1 hook at the 
other. The links are made of .75-iuch round iron, and are 5 inches long. The 
ring is of 1-inch iron, and 6 inches diameter (exterior). Whole length of chain, 
256.25 inches. 

Hand Sling-Cart. 

This cart is convenient for the transportation of light weights to short distances. 
It should not be used habitually for weights of more than 4,000 lbs.; but a 24-pdr. 
or 32-pdr. gun may occasionally be transported a short distance. It is made 
entirely of iron, except the pole, which is of oak. 

BODi'. 

1 axle-tree; 1 vp^ter pole-straj), welded to the middle of the axle-tree. 

1 understrap for the pole, fastened to the axle-tree by 1 bolt No. 2 E 

3 bolts No. 3 D, for connecting the pole with the upper and lower strap; 3 nuts. 

2 rivets No. 3 B, for the rear end of the pole. 

1 pole-strap and cyr,* fastened to the small end of the pole by 6 rivets No. 3. 

1 handle, held in place in the hole by a shoulder on one side and 1 key on the 
other. 

2 braces, fastened to the pole by 1 holt No. 2 A and 1 nnt. and to the axle-tree by 
2 nuts No. 3. 

1 hook, fastened to an eye in the axle-tree by 1 bolt No. 4 A ; 1 nut. 

2 shoulder-rvashcrs ; 2 linch-icashers ; 2 linchpins. 

*The eye is used for connpcting tho sling-cart occasionnlly with a limber, or for attaching a 
Uorse to it, whilst the pole is hold up by hand. 



108 ORDNANCK MANUAL. 

WRKEI,. 

1 iiavf; (cact-irou) : 10 spukm, with a mund tcnun for the iiavc, and a flat bearing 
'.''IT the tin-. 

1 i:,>. cliriiiik liii thf ( iiiU '.f the .>.|.okc.s and fastened l>y |i> rl.-.-u No. .■•. 

( 'ascmate Truck. 

'l"he cahcmato truck ia dc-8i);ned for truDHportiiif; guns in (•a.^ematc gjillcrici" ">r 
lhr(iu)(li puslerns. 

AVooD. — 'i rn\l» ; 3 trnumimii, framed to llic ruili* b_v tenons and luortincii. 1 
hit mile. 

Ihon. — I rear Irautnm-plaU and ring fur drag-ropci:, let into the nnilur side of the 
trnneiou and raiU, and foKluncd by 4 na(7« No. 2 C, .3J-in. 

1 /riittt Irantom-ptnte und ring for drag-ropeg, fiutcne^ by ti naih No. '2 V, 3i-in. 
A ball* for the rails and Iransoinfi, No. 4 H ; A iiulg. 

'2 rrnr fitrk-platet, futitoned to the under side of the raili* by 4 »iiii7» No. "2 <', SJ-ii). 

2 forka ; 2 lioltt for rear wlieelc; barbette chasMim travcrsc-whecl forks. 
1 furk-iockei for front wheel ; is rouud, and let in tbe front tranfum. 

\ fork ; 1 holt for front wheel, the same as for"the rear whccic, the up]»or \mT\ of 
tho stem made eonieal. 

I furk-pltilr for front wheel : it hu." an eye to connect it to the tongue. 

1 tongue ; 1 luiigiic-bnlt No. 4 A; 1 nut. 

'.\ truck frheeU : the traverse-whocls of the barbette cha.-si?. 

JIand-Cart. 

It is ufed for the transportation of lig'it stores to short dirtaneec 
Wood. — I luhter for axle-tree; 2 I'licrr tide rails: ^ cront-bari, framed into the 
•side rails : the front bar iii round, and serves for a handle ; 2 upper tide rail* ; 2 rtnl 
ruilH, halved into the side rails and fastened by 4 trrcic*; tldt: ttiidt; 6 end itada, 
framed into the rails and cross-bars, und fastened by wooden plus; board* fvr 
bottom, sides and ends. 

luON. — 18 gcreirs, No. 14, IJ-inch, to fasten tl'C "I'.ttom boards to bolst4;r Mid 
cross-bars: 48 *c/-<-(r« to fasten the side and ends to tuo tituds. 

1 axle-tree, fastened to the bolster by 2 lolt» No. 2 B ; 2 itutt. 
Q props, fastened to the side rails by 4 holts No. 1 D; 4 nuts. 

2 sfioiddir-icashers, let into the ends of the naves. 
2 lineh-tcaihers ; 2 linchpins. 

WHEEL. 

Wooi>. — 1 iKirf/ 12 spokes ; 6 fellies. 

luoN. — 2 nnre-baudt, fastened by 6 nail*. 

1 tire, held by 6 tire-bolts No. 1 C: 6 urathtrrs ; 6 nuts. 

1 nave-bojr, wrougbt-iron, welded. 



HYDRAULIC JACK. 109 

>SYore Truck. 

This fnick i= used for moving boxes iu storehouses and in embarking ami dis- 
embarking stores. 

Wood. — 2 raih, rounded at the end.s for bandies. 

4 cross-barn, framed into the rails and fastened by iroodeii pinn. 

2 bolsters, nailed to the under side of the rails. 

Iron. — 1 shoe, fastened to the upper side of the rails by 4 bolts No. 1 C; 1 
washers ; 4c nuts. 

1 axle-tree, fastened to the rails by 2 bolts No. 1 C; 2 nuts. 

2 guard-plates, let into the rails under the shoe and held by the axle-tvce bolts. 
2 truck wheels (cast-iron). 

2 shoulder-washers. 

2 Ihich-washers. 

2 screws with square heads for the ends of the axle-tree, to hold the wheels on. 

2 props, fastened to the rails by 4 bolls No. 1 B ; 4 uptn. 

Lifting-Jack. 

The lifting-jack is a geared screw with a projecting foot at its lower end, for lift- 
ing heavy weights. 

Wood. — 1 bed; 1 handle. 

Iron. — 2 rivet-bolts No. 2 A, to strengthen the bed; 4 washers; 2 nuts. 

2 eye-plates for the braces, let into the ends of the bed, and fastened by 4 ncreirs, 
2-inch, and 1 screw, 1-inch, No. 16. 

1 stand (cast-iron) : 4 steadying-points, screwed into the bottom of the stand. 

2 brneex, listened to the stand, at the upper end, by 2 bolts No. 2. 

I screw, same size and pitch as the elevating-screw for casemate carriage; 1 foot ; 
1 plate, fastened to the foot by .'5 screws, IJ-ineh, No. 14. 

1 tint ; 1 pinion for the hoisting-.screw (brass), like those for the casemate elevat- 
ing-screw. 

1 shaft for pinion : is kept in place by 1 screw-pin, let in the stand. 

1 crank, held to the shaft by 1 nut No. 4; 1 woodmi handle, fastened by t waither ; 
1 nnt No. 2. 

1 cap-plate, let into the head of the stand one-eighth of an inch, and fastened by 
4 bolt-screws No. 1. 

Hydraulic Jack. 

The hydraulic jack is used for the same purposes as the lifting-jack, and maj' 
replace it to great advantage, being much more powerful, more portable, and more 
convenient in use. Being a patented invention, it is procured ready-made. The 
most convenient size is that of 7 tons capacity, of which the following are the 

Dimensions: Height, 25.5 inches; lift, 10 inches; largest diameter, 9 inches 
length of foot, 4 inches ; length of lever, 26.5 inches. 

Weight of jack, without lever 112.-5 pounds. 

" lever 4.75 " 



no ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Lever .Lirl;. 

Tho Icrer jack is an adju8tAl>lc fulcrum, with a long lever. 

Wood. — 1 aland; coDsists of 2 iiprii/htii framed into 1 li<<l, and fastened by 2 
wooden pin K ; 1 t ran nam ; 1 long lerer, 15 feet long. 

InON. — 1 triinnom-bull No. 4 A cc.nnccts the transom and upright*; '2 imthert ; 1 
uul. 

1 fulcrum -pin, inserted in holes in the uprights at any rei|uiri'<l height. 

1 rhain, 15 liukt No. 4 and 3 ringt No. 2 A : 1 eye-pin No. 1 fantens the fulcrum- 
pin to the stand. 

2 Iricr-plitiei (cMt-braM), fastened to the large end of the lever l>y 6 irrewi No. 
16, 2J-inoh, to jircvent the lever from slipping on the fulfrum-j«in. 

Platform for Siege Mortars. 

Wood. — 6 *lerper$ ; lb deck-plank$ held together by 72 doirelt. There arc 4 
dowels in one edge of each plank, fitting into 4 holes in the edge of the next plank. 
The dowels are held fast hy /ox-iredye*. 

IfiQjt. — 12 ryr-bnlii fit into holes in the front and rear planks, pasiting through 
the sleepers, to prevent the planks from slipping on the sleepers. 

Platform for Siege Guns. 

Wood. — 12 tlcrpv ; 36 dvrk-plank; held together by 174 doicrU; I )turUr ; 
fi ttakei. 

Iron. — 12 eye-bolu fit into holes in the front and rear plunks, ]>a86ing through the 
sleepers, to prevent the planks from slipping on the sleepers. 

Hand-Barroic. 

\7ooD. — 2 tide rail* : the ends are rounded and form the handles. 
Rope neltiny joins the side rails, passing through holes in the side rails. 

Pintle-cross, for Temporary Batteries. 

Wood. — 2 croti-picre*, halved into each other in their middle at right angles to 
each other; 1 pintlc-buUter, fastened to the cross by 4 octagonal pint, 1 inch thick. 

Iron. — 1 boUter-plate (cast-iron), fastened to the bolster by 4 bolti ; 4 irathrrt ; 4 
nutf ; 1 pintle. 

A circular platform of planks is required for the wheels of the chassis to trav- 
erse on. 

Pent-Houses for Barbette Carriages. 

The pent-house is a covering of thin boards, framed together, to protect the 
wooden barbetto carriages from the weather. 

It is made in several separate pieces, which can be readily put together or taken 
apart. 



PENT-HOUSES. HI 

The pent-houses for the columbiad barbette carriages are similar to each other, 
differing only in their dimensions. Those for the other barbette carriages are of a 
different pattern, but similar to each other. 

Pent-Houses for the Columbiad Carriages. 

Woon.— 1 body, composed of 2 aiUs, 2 i^ides, 1 roof, 1 rear and \ front end. 
1 front chassis-cover and 1 rear chassis-cotter, each in one piece. 
Iron. — 8 eye-pins ; 8 eye-pin washers; 8 keys; 8 chains; 8 luire stajiles ; 4 lony 
hooks; 14 Aoo/-« (short); Z6 staples; 4 handles for ends. 

Pent- Houses for the other Barbette Carriages. 

Wood. — 1 body, composed as for the columbiad barbette. 
1 chassis-cover ; 1 tongue-cover. 

Iron. — 4 long hooks; 2 short hooks ; 12 stnjyhs ; 8 rye-pins; 8 eye-pin washers; 8 
chains; 8 keys ; ?> wire staples ; 4 handles {ot ends. 

TO PUT ON THE rENT-HOUSE. 

On the columhiad-carriage. — Place the gun over the pintle; depress the muzzle 
about five degrees, so that the chase shall fit in the circular cut made in the front 
end and roof. Lay the sills across the chassis in front and in rear of the top car- 
riage ; place the tenons of the sides in the mortises of the sills ; put on the roof and 
hook it to the sides : place the ends and key them ; put on the chassis-covers and 
hook them. 

On the other barbette carriages. — Run the gun "in battery ;" remove the wheels; 
place them upon the chassis in rear of the axle and resting against the top carriage ; 
chock them with their linchpin and washer, and proceed to put on the body as on 
the columbiad-carriage. 



112 



ORDNANCB MANUAL. 



PIUXCII'AL DIMKNSIONS AM) WKIOHTS OF MAf'iirNKS. KTC. FOH 
SIKiJK OR GARRISON SERVICE. 



Sliiuj-Carts and Trucks. 



li 


?l 


i 


c 


— £ 


Xc 


§ 


ll 


K 


a. 


- 


® 



Length from rear of wheel to front end of 

p«)lc in. 

L(>n|;th of axle-tree in. 

Ilciifhl (if whreln in. 

I>isl!iiicu lii'twocn thv whocU on the ground, in. 

one wheel ll>». 

budv Iba. 

eirri'W lbs. 

handluf lbs. 

Weight of •! ciirt roniplet«\ without nling- 
ebiiini> lbs. 



trtinnion-chAin and rings 
sliDg-chain 



lbs. 
lbs. 



242.4 
92. 
«6. 
62.75 
714 
700 
98 
77 

2,302 

i «» 

I 63 

84 



ir.o.7.'i 

75.60| 
72.0 
60.4 
440 , 
240 I 



1,115 
27 



•74.76 


•141.5 


45.5 


t42.5 


.10.5 


15.0 


;{6..15 


29.6 


34. 




113 




181 


800 



H 



•66.5 
24.15 
12.0 
19.75 
18.6 
4S. 



80 



* WhoU- IpnprtI' of Uuily KiiJ hanilte 



i WMth of hi^f. 



Gin/t. 



Sic^e. 



Length uf Xeps 

(1 iir 

1 pry-poll- 
1 windlass 
braces.. . . 



oak 



Weight of -J pin, complete 11 

1 sinjrle block 

1 double block lbs 

1 triple block lbs. 

[IfaU lbs, 



in. 


175.5 


lbs. 


148. 


lbs. 


71. 


lbs. 


187. 


II..-.. 


.33. 


lbs. 


615 


lbs. 


35 


lbs. 





32 



256 


•^ 1 


172 


280. 


272.1 


213< 


293.' 


292. 


208 


310.1 


310. 


M4 


104. 1 


104. 


83 


1267. 


1250. 


979 


Ash 


Pine 





72 

90 

*110 



• 120 feet. 5-incb henip rope. 



t83 



tWfoet 



DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS OF PLATFORMS. 

Tiifting-Jack and Lever Jack. 



113 



UFTINO-JACK. 



LEVER JACK. 



Lever. 



Length inches. 

Breadth " 

Hei£;ht " 

Weight lbs. 



20. 


24 


12. 


U 


29.2 


30 


60. 


100 



180, 
5.5 



150. 



DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS OF PLATFORMS. 

For Guns and Hoxoitzers. 





SIEQE. 


RICOCHET. 


NAMES OF PIECES. 


00 

'5. 
o 
d 


i 

c 

3 


-3 


1 
H 


2 


'5. 

O 

c 


.c 

Mi 
c 
o 
h9 


j. 




5 
is 




1 
12 
36 


In. 

108 
108 
108 


In. 
5.0 
5.0 
5.0 


In. 
3.5 
3.5 
3.6 


Lbs. 

61 

tt08 

1854 


1 

3 

2 

1 

1 

18 

4 


In. 
96 
108 

128 
84 
30 
48 
32 


In. 

8. 

5.5 

13. 

13. 

13. 
1.25 
2.0 


In. 

8. 
5.5 

2.25 
2.25 
2.25 
1.2. 
1.0 


Lbs. 
174 




147 






Planks 


166 


Plank 












60 














21 


Stakes (securing) 

Stakes (implements) ... 


6 
4 
4 


4S 
32 
14 


3.5 
2.0 
0.75 


2.0 

1.0 

Round 


70 
10 
8.5 
2601.5 


32 
10 




600 























For Mortars. 



NAMES OF PIECES. 







SIEOE. 




! 






RAIL. 




(r 








1 


m 












































o 






X 




c 








a. 


^ 




3J 


^ 


O. 


^ 




a 


<_• 


^ 


J3 




^ 


v. 


^ 


-S 


















d 


3 


-3 


H 


^ 


d 


C 


•:3 

is 


2 



Sleepers 

Deck-planks , 

Rails 

Stakes (securing) .... 
St.^ke8 (pointing) .^. 

Eye-bolts 

Platform, comjilete.. 





In. 


In. 


In. 


Lb.s. 




In. 


In. 


In. 


6 


96 


5.0 


3.5 


230 


3 


60 


11.5 


.86 


18 


108 


5.0 


3.5 


927 


2 
14 


84 
48 


10.0 
3.5 


10.0 
3.0 


6 


48 


3.5 


2.0 


70 


4 
,12 


48 
11 


1.0 
0.75 


1.0 
Round 




4 


48 


1.0 


1.0 





Wooden platform for columbiad-carriages weighs 3,904 lbs. 



114 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Traverse- Circles. 



no. or 

PICCE8 
IM THI 



BIZB OP PIECE. 



WEIOIITH OP 



OCTER OR j IKWEK OB 
REAR. PROMT. 






For Imrliotle riirriacr, I , „ 

ccnlrc-pliitlp f I 

Kor bnrlM'ltP rAiTia((«, I 
front-plntU- f •" 

For caaeniAl« cmtUko i S 



In. 
2.25 



•« %t -t as 



LtM.'Lbc.'LlM. 

I 

No. 4 II. \bi &47 23. 722. 
I 
... 146 i«.6 161.5 
»7 Ui U. IM. 



Dimensions and Weights of Blocks, Rollers, etc., for Manoeuvres. 



No. Lenftli. Width 



Thlck- 
noM. 



^•-•^"^ /e",St 



Remaiiu. 



LonfT roller 

Short roller .. . . 

Half roller 

Block 

Half bK.ck 

Quarter lilock.. . 
Guu-ehocks 

Wheel-chocks • .. 

Roller-chocks . . . 
Skid 

Shifting-plank . . 

Trace-rope 

Trunnion-loops . . 



In. 

42. 
12. 



46. 
20. 
20. 
20. 
S.6 



7. 
72. 

67. 

360. 
18. 



Id. 


In. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


6. 


Round 
Round 


25.0 
12.0 


50.0 
36.0 


6. 

8. 
8. 
8. 
2.75 


6. 
8. 
4. 
2. 
2.5 


31.0 
2j5.0 
13.0 

6.5 

0.375 


62.0 
416.0 
78.0 
13.0 , 

2.25 1 

1 


«. 


3. 


2.25 


13.5 


5. 

8. 


i. 

8. 


1.0 
97. 


6.0 
194. 


1 12. 


2.25 


48. 


48. 


' 2.25 
1.5 


Round 
Round 


7.5 


7.5 



j A groove .25 in. 
•' dcfp in the 
( middle. 

Top rounded 3 in. 



Wedjfe chaped. 
f Section a triangle. 
<. Top rounded 
( 1 in. 



(Ends bevelled on 
opposite sidec 



End spliced. 



BILLS OF TIMBER. 

Bills of Timber for Gins and Sling-Cart. 



115 



KAUES OF PARTS. 



i 

■p, 

6 


BOCOH DIMERfilONS OF 
EACH PIECE. 


CONTENTS. 


Long. 


Wide. 


Thick. 


Each 
piece. 


Total. 



Kind of wood. 



FIELD AND SIEGE GIN. 



I^egs 

Pry-pole ■ 

Windlass 

( Upper. . 
Braces < Middle . 

( Lower. . 



GARRISON GIN. 

Legs and J Large end 
pry-pole | Small end. 
Two bevel-blocks . . . . 

Windlass 

Cleats 



CASEMATE GIN. 

T f Large end ) 

I^'^eM Small end j"-' 

Pry-pole I ^'''f, ^"^l ] 
•' ^ { Small end j 



In. 



2 


180 




180 




68 




48 




72 




102 



Windlass 
Cleats ■ 



SLING-CAUT. 



Axle-tree 
Bolster . . 
Hounds. . 



Tongue ji"''"g^«° J } 
'' { Small end J 



rp ( Naves . 

Two „ , 
wheels i Spokes 
wneeis j^j^eHigg. 



264 

40 

104 

12 



180 

180 

101 
12 

102 
66 
80 

198 

21 

48 
.39 



In. 

6.5 

5.5 

9. 

4.75 

4.75 

4.75 



6.5 

10. 
11. 
4.25 



9.0 
6.5 
9. 
6.5 
11. 
4.25 



11. 

9. 

9. 

7.5 

5. 
19. 

5.25 

9. 



In. 

5.5 

5.5 

9. 

2.75 

2.75 

2.75 



9. 
6.5 
9. 
11. 
3. 



9.0 
6.5 
9. ' 
6.5 
IL 
3. 



9. 
5. 
6. 
5. 

Round 
2.75 
5.5 



Sup.ft. 

44.69 

37.81 

38.25 

4.35 

6.53 

9.25 



113.21 

25. 
87..39 
1.06 



100.33 

77.03 

84.88 
1.06 



70.13 
37.13 
25. 

48.13 

41.34 
4.81 
13.4 



Sup.ft. 

89.38 

37.81 

38.25 

4.35 

6.53 

9.25 

185.57 



I Spruce or 
j ash. 

Oak. 

Oak plank. 



339.63 Spruce 

25.00 
87.39 
11.66 



463.68 



Oak. 

Oak plank. 



200.66 

77.03 

84.88 
6.36 



368.93 



70.13 
37.13 
50. 

48.13 

82.68 
153.92 
214.4 



656.39 



> Spruce. 

Oak. 

Oak plank. 



Oak. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Oak plank. 



Bills of Lumber for Platform for Siege Guns and Mortar. 

For one siege gun or howitzer, yellow pine or oak : 

49 pieces, 114 in. long, 6 in. wide, 4 in. thick, 19 ft. each 931 ft. 

For one siege mortar, yellow pine or oak : 

6 pieces, 102 in. long, 6 in. wide, 4 in. thick, 17 ft. each 102 ft. 

18 " 114 " 6 " 4 " 19 ft. " 342 ft 



Total... 444ft. 



116 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bill of Iron for Field and Siege Giji. 



Length, 



Weight. 



Chain, No. 2 

Rivets and nails 

Bolts, No. 3, and keys for 

gudgeons 

Key-bolt 

Bolts, No. 5, eye-pin, and 

handle 

Sheave-bolt 

Bolts for pulley-block . . . . 
Cross-head for pulley-block. 

Nuts, No. 3 

Bands 

Nuts, No. 4 

Hook for pulley -block- .. . 

Washers, No. 3 

Bevel washer 

Gudgeons and points 

Oval washers 

Head-straps 

Straps for pulley-block... 

Pry-pole tongue 

Journal-boxes - 

Tongue-plate 

Journals 

Bands for windlass 

Pry -polo handle 

Pawls 

Batchets 



Three sheaves for pulleys. 



In. 

0.2 
.375 

.625 
.76 

1. 

1.25 

1.5 

2.5 

1.25 

1.5 

1.5 

1.75 

2. 

2. 

2. 

2.5 

2.5 

2.5 

3.5 

3.5 

5.5 

3.0 

4.0 

1.125 

1.25 

8.0 



In. 

Round 
Round 

Round 
Round 

Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
.625 
.25 
.75 
1.75 
0.125 
.625 
2. 

0.125 
.31 
.5 
1. 

1.75 
0.5 
Round 
0.375 
Round 
1.25 
1.25 



In. 

42. 
129. 

71. 
10. 

27. 
16. 

8. 

3., 

10. 

212. 

5. 
12. 
18. 

3. 
14. 
13. 
32. 
30. 
12. 
24. 
16. 
18. 
64. 
22. 
24. 
16. 



Lbs. 

0.36 
3.95 

6.03 
1.22 

5.87 

5.45 

3.92 

4.77 

2.18 

22.26 

1.57 

10.29 

1.26 

1.05 

15.68 

1.14 

7. 

10.50 

11.76 

41.16 

12.32 

35.34 

26.88 

6.07 

10.50 

44.80 



24. 



Hammered. 



Hammered. 
Hammered. 



Or 2 round shapes, ham- 
mered. 
Brass. 



BILL OF IRON. 



117 



Bill of Iron for one Garrison or Casemate Gin. 



Thick- 
ness. 



Length. Weight. 



Remarks. 



Key-chains, No. 1 

King!: 

Rivct-bolt,«i, No. 1 

Pin for clevis-bolt 

Eye-pins 

Bolts, No. 5 

Bolts, No. %, for pawls. . . . 

Braces and clevis 

Clevis-bolt ,. 

Bolt-heads.No. 5, and points 

for legs 

Nails, No. 3 

Nuts, No. 1 

Kevs for braces 

Nuts, No. 3 

Eyes for pulley-blocks and 

pawls 

Keys for clevis-bolt 

Nuts, No. 4 

Hooks for blocks 

Washers. No. 3 

Collars for points 

.Fournals 

Washers for handle 

Washers. No. 5 

Bands for windlass 

Lower bands for lejjs 

Cross-beads for blocks.... 

Upper bands for legs 

Partitions for blocks 

Straps for blocks 

Pry-pole handle 

Two ratchets 



In. 

0.15 

0.2 

0.5 

0.75 

0.875 

1. 

1.25 

1.5 

1.75 

2. 

0.375 

1. 

1.25 

1.25 

1.25 

1.5 

1.5 

1.75 

2. 

2. 

3. 

3. 

3 

4 

4 

4 

6 



1.125 

8.0 



25 



Two journal-boxes. 
Five sheaves 



In. 

Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 

Round 

0.375 
0.5 
0.125 
0.625 

1.25 

0.125 

0.75 

1.75 

0.125 

1. 

Round 
0.188 
0.188 
0.375 
0.25 
1 . 25 
0.25 
0.25 
0.37 

Round 
1.25 



Feet. 

7.5 
2.5 
1.66 
0.41 
0.83 
3.33 
0.70 
22.5 
2.25 

4. 

9.41 

0.16 

1.16 

2.54 

4. 

1.16 

0.75 

1.83 

0.33 

2. 

1.5 

0.5 

2.16 

5.33 

5.08 

2.33 

4.12 

2.75 

5. 

1.8 

1.33 



Lbs. 

0.52 
0.27 
1.08 
0.60 
1.66 
8. 
2.86 
132.. 52 
18.02 

41.88 
4.42 
0.26 
0.60 
6.65 

21.0 

0.73 

2.83 

18.83 

0.27 

13.44 

35.34 

0.94 

4.40 

26.86 

17.06 

39.14 

20.76 

18.48 

.50.40 

5.96 

44.80 



541.37 
13. 
60. 

73. 



This bill includes the ma- 
terials for one double 
and one triple pulley- 
block. 



Hammered. 



Hammered. 



Or 2 round shapes, ham- 
mered. 



Cast-brass. 



118 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Bill of Iron for one Sling-Cart. 



Width. 



Thick- 
ness. 



Length Weight. 



Kemarka. 



Pole-prop chain, No. 1 

Rings, No. 1 

Rivete, No. 2 

Chain, No. 5, and rivets, No. .3 

Pole-rivct9 

Bolts, No. 4 

Eye-pin, No. 1 

Bolts, Nos. 2 and 5, and rings 

Pole-staple 

Bolt-heads, No. 4, and eye-pin* .. . . 

Screw-hundlc 

Bolt-heads, No. 6 

Nails. No. .3 

Toggle for pole-proj) chain 

Axle-washers, u]iper skcans, nuts, 

No. 2, and chain-hook 

Burrs for i)ole-ri vets 

Nuts, No. 3 

Bolster-hooks 

Axle-bands 

Nuts. No. 4 

Hook for .sliug-chain 

Axle-hooks 

Pole-prop ferrule 

Linchpins 

Washers. No. .3 

Bands for hounds and pole 

Brow-bands for naves 

Lower skean and stirrups (in part). ■ 

Bridles 

Stirrups and pole-straps 

Nuts, No. 5 

Upper skcans 

Nuts, No. 7 

Washers, No. 4 

End bands for naves 

Lower axle-skean — body 

Hoisting-screw (in one piece) 

Washers, No. 5 

Pole-prop socket > 

Socket of screw-handle ■ 

Washers, No. 7 

Washers for axle and bolster-hooks , 

Two wheel-tires 

Lower axle-skean — middle part. . . . ■ 



Bed-plate for screw 

N»Te-boxe8 for two wheels , 



Nut for hoisting-screw 



In. 
0.15 
0.2 
0.25 
0.375 
0.5 
0.75 
0.875 
1. 

1.25 
1.5 
1.75 
2. 

0.375 
0.5 

1. 

1.125 
1.25 
1.25 



In. 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
Round 
0.375 
0.25 

0.5 

0.25 

0.625 

1.25 

0.2 

0.75 

1. 

1.5 

0.375 

0.625 

0.125 

0.25 

0.375 

0.5 

0.625 

0.75 

1. 

0.5 

1.25 

0.188 

0.375 

0.5 

3. 

0.188 

0.625 

2.25 

0.25 

0.375 

0.875 

0.5 



Feet. 
3.75 
0.31 
0.50 
9.06 
0.50 
4.42 
0.14 
9.91 
4.5 
1. 

5.33 

0.50 

12.04 

0.16 

11.25 



0.33 

10. 

16.33 

10. 
1.58 
4.83 
0.66 
0.66 
0.37 
4.58 

13.82 
3.41 
3.83 
0.54 
1.25 
1. 

0.66 
2.33 

50. 
1. 



Lbs. 
0.26 
0.03 
0.08 
3.. 33 
0.32 
6.50 
0.28 
25.86 
18.41 
5.86 
42.69 
6.23 
5.66 
0.06 

18.90 
0.17 
0.26 

12.23 
2.17 

12.28 
6.70 

18.90 
1.45 
3.04 
0.27 

16.80 

41.00 

33.60 
6.63 

24.34 
4.43 
2.49 
3.49 
7.19 

43.52 

17.18 

115.81 

1.10 

9.18 

25.88 
2.21 

13.18 
661.00 

10.08 



1230.04 



42. 
_60. 
"1027 

~ii7 



*Pole-prop. 



Hammered. 



Hammered. 
Hammered. 
In 4 piecet. 



Cast-iron. 
ICast-iron. 



Cast-brass. 



BILL OF LUMBER. 



119 



Bill of Lwnber for one B2-pdr. Gun or S-in. Sea-coast Howitzer 

Pent-House. 



NAMES OF PARTS. 



ROUGH DIMENSIONS OF 
EACH PIECE. 



Long. Wide. Thick. 



Each 
piece. 



Kind of wood. 



MAIN nOUSE. 



Sides 

Roof 

Front door 

Rear door 

Side and roof strips. . . . 

Door strips 

Rafters 

Roof front piece 

Roof back piece 

Fascias 

Axle-poeket sides 

" " fronts 

" " caps 

Sills 

Front posts 

Back and middle posts. 



HEAR HOUSE. 



Sides 

Roof 

Back 

Roof strips 

Back strips and braces 

Front rafter 

Rear rafter 



TONGUE-COVEU. 



Sides 

Side strips . 

Roof 

Rafters . . 
Back , 



74 
25 
68 
49 
87 
62 
39 
42 
39 
86 
26 
24 
11 
62 
78 
60 



57 
34 
66 
56 
120 
61 
62 



50 
120 
51 
14 
19 



In. 

6. 
6. 



6. 

3. 

3. 

7. 
18. 

6. 

7. 

6. 
10. 

8. 

3. 

3. 

3. 



9.5 

17. 



In. 

.75 
.75 
.75 
.75 

1.5 

1.25 

1.5 

1.25 

1. 

1. 

1. 

1. 

1. 

4. 

3. 

3. 



.75 
.75 
.75 
1.25 
1.25 
1.25 
1.25 



.75 
1.25 
1. 

1.25 
1.25 



Sup. ft, 

3.08 
1.04 
2.83 
2.04 
2.72 
1.61 
2.84 
6.56 
1.67 
4.18 
1.08 
1.66 
.61 
5.17 
4.87 
3.75 



2.37 
1.41 
2.75 
1.94 
3.12 
4.76 
8.61 



2.08 
3.12 
.^19 
1.15' 

2.80 



Snp.ft. 

98.56 

33.28 

33.96 

20.40 

24.46 

6.46 

8.53 

6.56 

1.67 

8.36 

4.33 

3.33 

1.22 

10..34 

9.75 

15. 



286.21 



23.70 
31.02 
13.75 

7.77 
(i.24 
4.76 
8.61 



95.85 



16.64 
3.12 
6.37 
2.31 
2.80 

31.24 



White pine 
or cy|)ress. 



Yellow 
pine,chest- 
nut, or oak. 



White piiie 
or cypress. 



[ White pine 
I or cypress. 



120 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Bill of Lumber for one 8-m. Columbiad Barbette Pent-House. 



RAMES OP PARTS. 



MAIX HOfSE. 

Sidc!) 

Roof 

Doors 

Side (itrips 

Roof stri]>8 

Door strips 

Rafttrs 

Fronts 

Fascias 

Sills 

End posli' 

Middle posts 

FRONT ASn UKAIl IIOLSES 

Sides 

Roofs 

Ends 

Roof strips 

End strips 

Side strips 

Braces 

Front roof rafters 

Back roof rafters and ends 



RODdH DIHEKSIONS 
OF BACH PIECE. 



iong 


Wide 


In. 


In. 


75 


6 


31 


6 


49 


6 


86 


3 


86 


4 1 


62 


3 ' 


62 


9 ' 


54 


12 ' 


86 


7 


66 


3 


62 


3 



80 


3 


28 


6 


37 


6 


70 


6 


45 


4 


32 


3 


28 


3 


45 


3 


72 


3 


66 


17 


66 


12 



In. 

.75 
.75 
.75 

1.5 

1.25 

1.25 

1.25 

1. 

1. 

4. 

3. 

3. 



.75 
.75 
.75 
1.25 
1.25 
1.25 
1.25 
1.25 
1.25 
1.25 



CONTESTS. 


Each 




piece. 


Total. 


Sup.ft. 


Sup.ft. 


3.12 


99.84 


1.29 


41.28 


2.04 


48.96 


2.69 


16.13' 


2.99 


11.94 


1.61 


5.45, 


4.06 


12.18 


4.5 


9. 


4.18 


8.36 


5.5 


11. 


3.875 


15.5 1 


5.05 


10.10 




289.74 


1.17 


42.12 


1.54 


55.44' 


2.91 


.34.92 


1.53 


12.23, 


1.10 


2.20 


.94 


11.25!, 


1.56 


6.25, 


2.50 


5. : 


9.74 


19.47: 


6.87 


41.25 


2.30.13! 



Kin.1 of 
wood. 



White pine or 
cypress. 



S Yellow pine, 
> chestnut, or 
J oak. 



I White pine or 
I cypress. 



NoTK. — An allowance of J should be made for waste, and | for small bills. 

BUI of Iron for one Barbette Pent-Mouse. 



SIZE OF IROK. 


















Number 
of 


Len^h 

of each 


Total 

LeiiKtb 


Weight. 


Remarks. 










Wide. 


Thick. 


pieces. 


piece. 


required. 








In. 


In. 




In. 


In. 


Lbs. 






1.25 


..375 


8 


4.5 


36 


4.71 


Eye-bolts. 




2. 


.125 


8 


•> 


16 


1.12 


Eye-bolt plates. 




.625 


Round. 


8 


7.25 


58 


4.92 


Door handles. 




.375 


« 


6 


7. 


42 


1.29 


Long hooks.* 




.375 


" 


2 


5. 


10 


.31 


Short hooks. 




.25 


« 


16 


4. 


64 


.92 


Staples.! 





* 8 additional pieces for columbiad-carriages. f 1^ additional pieces for columbiad carriage*. 



ARTILLERY IMPLEMENTS AND EQUIPMENTS. 121 



Chapter Fifth 



AETILLERY IMPLEMENTS AND EQUIPMENTS. 



NOMENCLATURE, DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS. 

Rammer-Heads. 

Rammkr-heads are made of ash, maple, birch, beech, elm, gnm, or other tough 
woods ; the head is bored S of its length with a hole 0.25 inch less than the diame- 
ter of the staff, which enters with a tenon. The staff is driven into the head and 
fastened with a, pin of hard wood 0.3 inch diameter: the neck has a copper band 0.5 
inch wide and 0.05 inch thick, fastened with 3 copper nails. For dimensions, see 
page 132. 

Sponge-Heads. 

Sponge-heads are made of elm or poplar, etc. The head is bored 5 of its length 
with a hole 0.25 inch less than the body of the staff, which is inserted in a tenon and 
fastened by 2 hard wood pinit 0.3 inch diameter. 

Rammer, ladle, and sponge-heads should be saturated, when new, with linseed oil, 
to prevent splitting from alternate wetting and drying in service. 

For the woven woollen sponge the diameter of the head is 1 inch less than the 
calibre of the piece. 

Sponges. 

Sponges are made of coarse, well-twisted woollen yarn, woven into a warp of 
strong hemp or flax thread, after the manner of Brussels carpet; the loops are 0.75 
iuch long. 

They are woven in webs with selvages between them, which being cut, the 
sponges are sewed to fit formers of the same dimensions as the sponge-heads. One 
end of the sponge is drawn together with strong twine, and a tuft of woollen yarn is 
inserted at the centre of the gather or folds; a circular piece of strong canvas is 
stitched inside of the bottom; the other end, after receiving the sponge-head, is 
nailed to it around the staff with 6 copijer nails, 1 inch long; 3 copper nails should 
also be driven into the bottom of the sponge, to secure it to the head. 



122 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Similar sponges are made by working the yarn with needles into canvas bags ; 
but the wove sponges are equally good, and less expensive. 

Sponges are likewise made of sheep-skin alum-dressed, with the wool on ; but 
they arc inferior to those made of yarn. 

For dimensions of sponges, see Table of spouge-heads, page 132. 

Sponge- Covers. 

They are made of Russia duck. 

The interior diameter is equal to the calibre of the piece. A hem 0.5 inch wide 
around the top, receives a cord 0.2 inch diameter, by which the mouth is drawn 
together and tied aroun<l the sponge-staff: a loop of canvas 0.75 inch wide is sewed 
on the end of the cover, to draw it off by. 

The covers are marked in black with the calibre of the gun. 

Ladle- Heads. 

Ladle-heads are made of the same kinds of wood, and arc fastened to the staves 
in the same manner as rammer-heads. 

Ladles. 

Ladles are used for siege, garrison, and sea-coast guns only. They are made of 
sheet-copper No. 18. 

Toward the mouth of the ladle, the copper is spread a little, so as to increase the 
diameter of the ladl* 0.,3 inch : the corners are rounded with a radius of from '2 
inches to 3.5 inches. To stiffen the ladle, the copper is planinhed after being bent 
and brazed. The ladle is attached to the head by 6 to 10 copper nuiU, 1 inch long, 
driven in two rows around the l^ody, about 1 inch apart. 

Worms. 

There are two sizes of worms, one for siege or garrison guns, and the other for 
field guns. They are fastened to their staff by 2 iron riiets, .25 inch in diameter. 

Staves. 

Staves for implements are made of tough ash. 

The diameter of the tenon is 0.25 inch less than that of the staff; its length, 5 of 
that of the head into which it is inserted. For worms it is pointed to fit the conical 
form of the socket. 

For field guns, field, siege and mountain howitzers, and mortars, the rammer 
and sponge heads are on the same staff; for other pieces, on separate staves. 

For the Coehorn mortar, the body of the staff forms the rammer and sponge-head. 

For lengths of staves, see page 132. 

For other cannon than those of the patterns described in Chapter I, staves may 



IMPLEJ4ENTS AND EQUIPMENTS. 123 

be made of such a length that the finished implement shall bo 18 inches longer than 
the bore of the piece. 

Anvil-block, for portable forge, is of tough oak or other hard wood: it has I band, 
8 inches wide around the top ; 1 iron pin fastens the anvil to the block : 2 r»ii^» 
fastened by 2 stajilrs serve for handles. Dimensions, 19 inches high, 4.4 inches 
diameter at top; 10.5 inches by 7.5 inches at bottom. Weight, 19 lbs. 

Axe, felling : — blade with steel edge, length 7.25 inches ; width of top 3.5 inches, 
of edge 4.75 inches; thickness at top 0.75 inch, at the eye 1.25 inch ; size of the 
eye 2.25 inches by 0.75 inch ; handle (hickory) 27 inches long. Weight, 6 lbs. 

Basket, for mortar-implements ; of strong wicker-work, 18 inches in diameter, 12 
inches deep. Weight, 4 lbs. 

Breech-sight : the base is a plate of brass 4.5 inches long, 0.6 inch wide, curved 
to fit the base-ring; the scale and slider are similar to those of the pendulum- 
hausse, except that a hole .05 inch diameter is made in the plate instead of a notch 
to sight through; the brass is .1 inch thick when finished, made of No. 10 or 11 
sheet-brass; the sights are graduated for no dispartn, n, front sight equal in height to 
the dispart being screwed into the swell of the muzzle ; in columbiads, into the seats 
provided for the purpose between the trunnions ; the scales are computed for the 
patterns of guns having a base-ring; in the 24, 32, and 42-pdrs. mounted in case- 
mate (a muzzle-sight being inadmissible) the scale is computed for a sight placed 
at the front end of the second reinforce. Weight, 0.3 lb. 

Bill-hook (iron, with steel edges) ; blade, whole length, S.25 inches ; width in the 
middle, 3 inches, near the shank, 2.7 inches; thickness, 0.25 inch; hook, 1 inch 
long; shank, 8 inches long; handle (hickory), 7.5 inches long. Weight, 2 lbs. 

Broom, for mortar batteries (hickory or birch). Weight, 3.75 lbs. 

Budge-barrel, for use in forts and batteries; staves (oak), 0.4 inch thick; bottom 
(oak), in 1 or 2 pieces, 0.4 inch thick ; 4 hoojps (sheet-copper No. 18), 48 inches long, 
1.1 inch wide, and confined to the barrel each by 5 rivets 0.2 inch diameter; they 
are joined by 2 rivets, or brazed together; height of barrel, 20 inches; exterior 
diameter — at ends, 13 inches, at bilge, 15 inches ; cover (bag leather), 18 inches high 
and 40 inches wide, secured to the barrel under the upper hoop by 5 nails and by 
the 5 rivets through the hoop; 2 cords 0.6 inch diameter, 6 feet long, passing 
through holes in the cover at 1.5 inch from the top, to draw the mouth together; 
the ends of the cords pass through a cap or hood 9 inches deep, sliding on the 
cords. Weight, 15.5 lbs. 

Coal-sack, for portable forge, is made of strong leather; it is closed at the top by 
a leather strap passing through slits in the sack; diameter 14 inches, height 18 
inches. 

Chock, for casemate carriage; small wedge, with a handle on one side. Weight, 
1.4 lb. 

Brag-ro2)e: 4-inch rope, 2S feet long, with a thimble worked in a loop at one end, 
and a thimble and hook at the other end; 6 handles, wood, 12 inches long, 1.5 inch 
in diameter, fastened in the rope at the distance of 4 feet apart, and at the same 
distance from the ends of the rope. Weight, 16.5 lbs. 



191 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Forge-huckit, for the portable forge, is of sheet-iron stiffened at top by 1 band .5 
inch wide: it is furnished with 1 handle fastened into 2 ears 1.6 inch long ; 7 inches 
high, 6.8 inches diameter. 

Fuze-cutter : a steel chisel, with wooden handle, for cutting the Bormann fuze. 

Fuze-extractor : the inner screw and its Ktem arc made of steel, and riveted into 
the handle, which is of iron ; the stem is contained in a ho/low tcrew of steel, which 
is worked up and down by means of an iron )ih< with 2 hiindlen — the screw being 
prevented from turning by a slot and & /rather in the frame; the nut is kept in 
place by 4 iron set-nrrcirg, the points of which enter into a groove in the nut; the 
frame is of cast-brass. Weight, .'',.5.3 lbs. 

In using this fuze-c.xtractor. the inner stem is screwed into the fuf-e or jdug to he 
extracted, by means of the upper handle, and it is lifted out by turning the nut of 
the hollow screw. 

Fuzc-settcr {hmas) : the handle, upper end slightly rounded; the cup 2.1 inches 
diameter; depth 0.3 inch; whole length 5 to 6 inches. Weight, 2.GG lbs. 

Fuze-mallet (dogwood or oak), jn one piece; hfad 5.5 inches long, 4 inches 
diameter; handle 7.5 inches long, 1.25 inch diameter. Weight, 2.75 lbs. 

.f'iize-«(i»/' (tenon-saw) : 10-inch blade. Weight, 0.75 lb. ' 

Funnel, for filling shells (copper or tin) : diameter of funnel 3.3 inches : diameter 
of pipe 0.7 inch ; length of jjipe 2 inches. Weight, 0.32 lb. 

Ounner'g gimlet: iron wire, 0.175 inch diameter, formed with a ring 2 inches 
diameter at the head ; the other end terminating in a gimlet point. Weight, 
0.08 lb. 

Gunner's callipers : made of Wjcet-braas, with steel points; the graduations show 
the diameters of guns and of shot, linear inches, degrees of the circle, etc. Weight, 
0.5 lb. 

Gunner's hatersack (bag leather) : 2 tides 13 inches high, 13 inches wide at bot- 
tom, 14 inches at top of flap: end and bottom gussets 5 inches wide: /lap 8 inches 
deep, with a strap 7 inches long passing through a buckle sewed to the front side ; 
shoulder-bdt 1.5 inch wide, one part 12 inches long, with a buckle No. 4 and loup ; 
the other 36 inches long. Weight. 1.S6 lb. 

Gunner's perpendicular : this is made of eheet-brass ; the lower part is out in the 
form of a crescent, the points of which are made of steel; a small spin -level is 
fastened to one side of the plate, parallel to the line joining the p.i.ms of the 
crescent, and a slider is fastened to the same side of the plate, perpendicular to tbo 
axis of the level. The instrument is useful in marking the points of sight on siege 
guns and mortars, when the platform is not perfectly leTel. Weight, 0.6 lb. 

Gunner's pincers: made of iron, with steel jaws 1 inch wide; whole length 10.5 
inches. Weight, 0.S5 lb. 

(runner'* quadrant (wood): a graduated quadrant of 6 inches radius, attached to 
a rule 23.5 inches long ; it has a plumb-line and bob, which are carried, when not 
in use, in a hole in the end of the rule, covered by a brass plate. Weight, 84 lb. 

Gunner'* quadrant (brass): a graduated quadrant, 6 inches radius, attached to a 



IMPLEMENTS AND EQUIPMENTS. 125 

rule 22 inches long; it has an nrm carrying n npirtt-Ieiel at its middle, and a vernier 
at its movable end ; the other end is secured to the centre of the quadrant by a rivet, 
around which the arm moves. Weight, 2.25 lbs. 

Gunner's sleeve, for mortars (serge or flannel). Weight, 0.25 lb. 

Lanyard : the lanyard, for pulling oflF the primers, is a piece of strong cod-liuo 
(about .2 inch diameter), 12 feet long; to one end is attached a small iron hook, 
with an eye for tjie line, and to the other end a wooden toggle .75 inch diameter, 
and 4 inches long. Weight, 0.1 lb. 

Maul, for driving pickets; head (elm or hickory) C inches diameter, 8 inches long; 
handle (ash) IJ inch diameter, 24 inches long, with an iron band on each end, 1 inch 
wide, i inch thick. Weight, 10 lbs. 

Men's harness: 4-inch rope, 18 feet long, with thimbles and a hook like the drag- 
rope; instead of handles, 10 loops made of strips of bag leather 5 feet long, 2 75 
inches wide, are fastened to the rope in pairs, each pair being secured in place by 
two knots worked on the rope; the first pair of loops at 3 feet frum the hook, the 
others at a distance of 3i feet apart. Weight, 23 lbs. 

Pass-box (white pine 0.75 inch thick) : interior dimensions 7 inches square by 14 
inches long; one side turns on 2 hinges, and is fastened with a brass hook, and 
staple; a wooden handle is set diagonall}' on one end. Weight, 7 lbs. 

Pickaxe: iron, pointed at both ends with steel; length of each blade G.5 inches; 
width of edge of axe 3 inches ; handle (hickorj-) about 1.5 inch by 1.25 inch, and 30 
inches long. AVeight, G.5 lbs. 

Peiiduliim-hitufse. 

The scale is made of sheet-brass No. 13. At the lower end is a brass bulb, filled 
with lead. The slider is of thin brass, and is retained in any desired position on 
the scale by means of a brass set-screw with a milled head. The scale is passed 
through a slit in a piece of steel, with which it is connected by a brass screw, form- 
ing a pivot on which the scale can vibrate .laterally ; this slit is made long enough 
to allow the scale to take a vertical position in any ordinary cases of inequalit}' of 
the ground on which the wheels of the carriage may stand. The enels of this piece 
of steel form two journals, by means of which the scale is supported on the seat 
attached to the gun, and is at liberty to vibrate in the direction of the a.vis of the 
piece. 

The seat is of iron or brass, and is fastened to the base of the breech by ?> screws 
in such a manner that the centres of the two journal-notches shall be at a distance 
from the axis equal to the radius of the base-ring. 

A muzzle-sight, of iron, is screwed into the swell of the muzzle of £,inis, or into 
the middle of the muzzle-ring of howitzers. The height of this siglit is equal to 
the dispart of the piece, so that a line from the top of the muzzle-sight to the pivot 
of the haussc is parallel to the axis of the piece; consequently, the veitii'al piano 
of sight passing through the centre lino of the scale and the top of the muzzle-sight 
will be also parallel to the axis, in any position (jf the piece; the haus.se will, there- 
fore, alw.ays indicate correctly the angle which the line of sight makes with the 
axis. 



126 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



The seat for puspending the hausse on the gun is adapted to each pieee, accord- 
ing to the varying inclination of the liase of the breech to the axis. The hausso, 
the seat, and the niuzz.le-sight, are marked for the kind of gun to which they 
belong. The huussc, when not in use, is carric<l in a leather pouch suspended to a 
shoulder strap. 

The graduations on the scale are the sines of each quarter of a degree, to a 
radius equal to the distance between the muzzle-sight and the centre of the journal- 
notches, which are, in all ca.sc8, one inch in rear of the base-ring. Weight of 
haussc and case, .65 lb. 

Graduations. 



roR nowinnu. 



12-Pdr, 



12-Pdr.| 

M.xlcl I 12-Pdr. 

1K57. I 



24-IMr. 



12-Pdr. 
Moun- 
t«in. 



I In. 

Radius of base-ring. . ■ 5.15 

Height of muzzle-sight J 1.025 

Distance between the muzzle- ') I 

sight and the centre of the > 59.7 

journal-notches j 

1° 1.042 

2° 2.0S4 

3° .1.124 

4° 4.164 

5° 5.203 



In. 

«.5 
1.33 

77.S 



In. 

5.5 
1.25 

80.0 



1.340 
2.098 
4.046 
5..392 
6.737 



1.152 
2.31 3 
3.454 
4.6«4 
5.752 



In. 



5.0 
O.U 



53.35 



In, 



6.0 
1.125 



85.2 



0.931 1 
1.802' 
2.792' 
3.722 
4.650! 



1.138 
2.276 
3.412 

4.548 
5.683 



Id. 

6.9 
1.3 

75.05 



In. 

3.8 
0.35 

33.41 



1.310 
2.619 
3.928 
5.235 
6.541 



0.583 
1.188 
1.753 
2.331 
2.912 



Primiiig-trire : iron wire 0.175 inch diameter, formed with a ring 2 inchei diame- 
ter at the head, and ]>ointed ; length of stem, for siege and garrison gum, 14 
inches; length for field guns, 8 inches. Weight, 0.08 lb. for garrison guns. 

Poicder-meaturei : they are made of sheet-copper, from No. 16 to No. 20. The 
bottom is made with a flanch .1 inch deep, turned downward, and it is brazed or 
Boldered to the sides. 



IMPLEMENTS AND EQUIPMENTS. 



127 



Interior Dimensions. 



Contents. 


Diameter 
and hciglit. 


Weight. 


Contents. 


Diameter, 
and height. 


Weight. 


Lbs. oz. 


In. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. oz. 


In. 


Lbs. 


1 


1.337 


, ^ 


2 


4.240 




2 


1.685 




2 8 


4.571 




4 


2.122 


0.3 


3 


4.857 


1.6 


8 


2.673 


0.5 


4 


5.346 




1 


3.368 


0.75 


4 8 


5.560 




1 4 


3.628 




6 


6.120 




1 8 


3.855 


•• 


8 


6.736 





Prolonge: 3.5-inch hemp rope of 4 strands; on one end, a toggle and 3 round 
links in a thimble; on the other end, a ring-link and thimhle ; whole length of rope 
18 feet; the toggle of round iron 0.75 inch diameter, 7.5 inches long, with an eye 
in the centre; toggle-rings of 0.5-ineh round iron; the ring that enters the thimble 
is 3 inches, the other two 3.1 inches exterior diameter; thimbles 1.1 inch interior 
diameter ; prolonge-rings of 0.6-inch round iron, 4.5 exterior diameter ; the link 3 
inches exterior diameter; the iron for link is 0.5 inch diameter. AVeight, 12.5 lbs. 

Plummet, for mortars ; line and boh. Weight, 1 lb. 

Pointing-trire, for mortars (iron wire No. 7) 20 inches long. Weight, .08 lb. 

Quoin, for siege mortars (oak) : length, 19.5 inches; height, 7.85 inches; handle, 6 
inches long. Weight, 7 lbs. 

Scraper, for siege mortars (iron): handle, 0.5 inch by 0.3 inch square, 27 inches 
long; one end formed like a spoon; the other, a scraper. Weight, 2.3 lbs. 

Spatula, for mortars (a.sh or hickory): handle 16.5 inches long; blade 6 inches ; 
square end 3 inches long. Weight, 0.75 lb. 

Shell-hooks (iron): 2 branches 0.5 inch diameter, in shape of an S, joined by a 
rivet; upper end of the branches connected by 2 small rings, 1.25 inch diameter, 
and 1 large ring 3.4 inches diameter; straight points, to insert into the ears of the 
shell, 0.5 inch diameter, 0.75 inch long; whole length of branches, 12.48 inches. 
Weight, 2 lbs. 

Screw jack, for field service: the stand (cast-iron); the hoisting-screto : the nut; 
2 handles: the cap-plate, fastened on the top of the stand by 4 screws ; height of 
the stand, 19 inches; length of screw, 15 inches; handles 7.25 inches each. Weight, 
25 lbs. 

Shovel: blade sheet-iron, pointed with steel; length, 12 inches; width, 10.5 
inches; handle (ash) 1.5 inch thick at bottom, and 1.25 inch at top; length, 45 
inches; ring 1.5 inch diameter, secured by a strap to the handle at 9 inches from 
the upper end. Weight, 4.75 lbs. 

Sponge-bucket, for field gun-carriages ; it is made of sheet-iron No. 13 ; the top 



128 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

and bottom arc turned over the sides and fastened each l>y 4 rivetK ; diiimctcr, 7.8 
inches; height, 9 inches. 

The floni is of wood, fastened by 2 rucf« to a cross-bar; it is put in before the top 
is fastened on : the hnndir of the float is fastened to it with 2 rivetn, and it is con- 
nected with the bail of the bucket by a rhnin; the bail is fastened to the bucket bj 
2 Mm, each held by 3 rivet d ; a togijle, which is fastened to the bail by 2 links and a 
urivcl, serves to attach the bucket to the eyo of the axle-strap on the gun-carriage. 
Weight, 10 lbs. 

Tar-lmrhft ; the bucket is made of sheet-iron No. 13, like the sponge-bucket; the 
eorcr is fastened to the top by % rivet on which it turns, and it is kept closed bj 
shutting over a stud riveted into the top; the ear* are fastened to the bucket each 
by 3 riretn ; a riny, for suspending the bucket on its hook, is connected with the 
ears by 2 oAniiic .• diameter of bucket, 7.2 inches; height, 8 inches. Weight, 7 lbs. 
TarpnuliHH are made of cotton duck, not painted; they are of three sizes; large, 
15 feet by 12 feet : small, 6 feel by 10 feet, and 5 feet square. Weight, 35.7.^ lbs., 
and 12.2.') lbs., and O.J.'i lbs., respectively. 

Tompious, for S-inch siege howiticrs and mortars, and 10-iiicli mortar. 
Tliiiiiibiliill (buck-skin) ; luiliioii, stuffed with hair, 2..'j inches long, 1 inch thick ; 
the Ktnip 3 inches long : the tlrin;/ 12 inche.s. Weight, .003 lb. 

Totc-hoiik (iron): hiimUn 0.4 inch diameter, 13 inches lo:ig: hunk 1 inch; the 
other end forms a hammer 0.6 inch diameter, 2 inches long. Weight, 0.6 lb. Used 
for unpacking iimmuuitioii-ehests. 

Tufie-pouch : the sides 4.25 inches high, 7 25 inches long: '2 endi 0.9 inch wide 
at bottom, 2 inches at top; the inner rover; the jlap, 8 inches deep, with its ilrap, 
and brass buitmi attached to the bottom of the pouch : 2 loupt for the belt to pass 
through ; the belt 1.37 inch wide and 42 inches long, with a buckle No. 6 and loop at 
one end: the priming-wire aud gunner's gimlet are carried with the tube-pouch in 
the loops, attached by a twine, or in small loops on the inside of the flap. Weight, 
0.95 lb. 

Vent-cover, for field-pieces without locks (leather) ; 6 inches long, 4 inches wide, 
with Acnpper pin riveted to it, 0.175 inch diameter, and 2inche8 long; 2 *trap$ 1 inch 
wide, with buckh* : the length of the strap varies with the size of the piece; in per- 
manent batteries sheet-lead may be used for vent-covers. Weight, 0.6 lb. 

Vtnt-pMuch: the fcoi/y (steel wire) 0.175 inch diameter, 4.3 inches long: head 
0.175 inch thick, 1 inch ocUgonal, with a hole 0.2 inch diameter in the middle. 
Weight. O.OS lb. 

Watering bucket, for field service, made of sole-leather; the bottom is of two 
thicknesses, fastened to each other with 25 copper rivets, and to the sides with 61 
rirett; the side seams fastened with 2^ riVef», all 0.5 inch long; a rim of sheet-copper 
No. 24, is fastened on the upper edge with 14 copper rivets; 2 ears for the bail, 
fastened each with 4 rivets 0.62 inch long ; the bail is of round iron 0.5 inch thick; 
interior diameter of the bucket at top 12 inches, at bottom 10 inches; height, 9 
imches. Weight, 8 lbs. 



HANDSPIKES. 



tk 



Wnttr-hiic/.-ct, for the travelling forge; the stavea and the hottom are of\»ak; there 
are Iti staves, aud the bottom is made of not more than 2 pieces; 3 huopi, made of 
hoop-iron No. 16; each hoop is joined together with 2 n'rets No. 1, and fastened to 
the bucket with 2 rirets ; 2 earn let into the sides, and fastened each by 1 rivet ; the 
bail has a linl,- connected with it by a swivel; diameter at top 11 inches, bottom, 
10.2-') inches ; height, U inches Weight, 10 lbs. 

Water-biieh-ei, for garrison service : it is made in a similar manner with the pre- 
ceding, except that the bail has no link and swivel attached to it; diameter at top 
10.25 inches, bottom 13.5 inches; height, 11 inches. Weight, 10 lbs. 

Wi}Hr, for the chambers of mortars; tow cloth, 1 yard square. 

Handspikes. 

Handspikes should be made of the best hickory, or, where it cannot be had, of 
the toughest j-oung oak ; it should be free from knots. 

Trail handxpike. — [roii^ : 1 slop, passing through the lower end, clinched and 
filed down smooth — it projects 0.3 inch ; 1 Kirap, carrying 1 ring No. 2 A, fastened 
near the small end by 1 rirct. 

Shod handsjiikc. — Irons : 1 shoe, fastened to the lower end by 3 rivets. It is par- 
ticularly useful in the service of mortars. 

Mnnopuvriuff handn2)ike is used for garrison and sea-coast carriages. For me- 
chanical manoeuvres it is 84 inches long, and weighs 12 lbs. 

Gin handspike is used in the service of gins. The large end is round, and fits 
into the socket of the windlass. 

For Mountain howitzer. — Irons: 1 stop, like that for field carriages; 1 strap, fast- 
ened at the small end by 2 rivets, forms a loop on the end; 1 loop of rope, 15 inches 
long, passing through 2 holes in ^he middle of the handspike, is useful in placing 
the gun on the pack-saddle. 
9 



130 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Handspikes. 



SnCEIfSIONS. 



For I For Mount 

Field Prairie How- 

Carr'ge jCarr'gc iUer. 



Shod. 



Lcnpth of 



whole 

8(|tiarc part 

ronii-al ]iart 

Distance of fnrtlK-ft .'•ido of stop from 

Ibf largi- etui 

Distance of middle uf strap from the 

small end 

I upper cn<l 

_.. . lower end 

Diainotcr ■ , , 

lar^i'st 

I lower end of round 

SiJio of lower end of nquare part . . . . 

Site of upper end of square part 

Weijrht lbs. 



In. 


In. 


in. 


i *"• 


In. ' 


?!■.. 


36. 


45.58 


66. 
19. 


62. 
9.7.') , 


9.6 


.... 


.... 


' 35. 


38.25 


9.0 





8.9 






9.0 






I 




1 1.5 


1.3 


1.65 n 1.8 


1.75 


2.2 


.... 


1.65 


1 . . . . 




3.0 


1.8 


2.0 
.... 1 


3.0 
1 2.36 
3.0 


2.5* " 
3X2.5 
SX2.5 


7.25 


2.25 


5.0 , 


8.25 


12.0 



In. 

66. 

IS. 



1.0 

2.78 

8.S9 



IIJS 



Bars. 



DIIIE!(»IO.<IS. 



I .1, f f whole 

Length of ^ ^^^^^^ j,^^j 

... . , ( small end 

Diameter of ■ . ,,„ „„. 

I larf;c end 

Width at larpe end 

Thickness at large end . . 

Length of heel 



For Iron CmrrUgcs. 



rnng. 



In. 

58.5 

12. 

1. 



1. 
1.25 



Weight lbs. 30.75 



In. 

63. 

12. 

1. 

!9 
1.5 



19. 



In. 

54. 
6. 
1.25 

1.25 

2.0 

3.5 

27.5 



>»• atd 



KleratiDg. Pinch. I' Truck. Roller. 



In. 
42. 



1.1 
l.I 



18.5 



In. 
S4. 



0.85 
1. 



*tefl|te*,«M' f »> ' ' S,.,i ! *( ' t t * -. 



132 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Dimensions and Weights of Implements. 



KIND or IMPLEMENT. 



OOLDMBUM. 



10-ln. 



8-ill. 



llliplcllK-lltN. 



Ppoiigo mill Htad... 
llniiiiiKT mill HtafT 



( lotiRth In. 

'( Wfilfllt II>H. 

I lcii|;tb in. 

'{ weiglit Iba. 



I^iillc mill xtanr 

Wiirni an 
Planiotor. 



LfiiK'Mi fiT. 



( IniKtli in. 

I wfiKlit IIm. 

1 . #r li-nntli in. 

in. 

nininirr in. 

ii|Ming« in. 



luilll'l... 

1 worm 



Rammer- ( '-"P'h .- 
headH. i UiMnii-tcr. 



(' 



in. 



I body 

"■■ I nwk in. 

_ , , ( IriiiClli In. 

BponKO-beadH |,luuiiet«r ...._ in. 

Spongra, wivullcn. weight Il». 

„ < leuKth Jn. 

SpimK*.<-oven. , ^^l^j,,, H^ 

Duck. 30 inclimi wide, requimd for HiO coverm. yds. 

I Wliole Icngtli in. 

. ., , . ( iilxivr iihoulder in. 

l^dle Lead*. , dj„„^.,„ l,,,„^ Hhouldcr -Jn. 

I (nwk Jn. 

I Wliiili- l«?ii)rlli in. 

, ., I Ix-nirtb of band. devcUtliol in. 

''*"'*■ "I Wi.lib of .c^Kip. d.-v,-lo|K-,l in. 

I Width uf band iiuclud><d in whole length) iu. 



Height of fr-m si;;lit in. 

{ Kail.iiM of baM^-ring in. 

Breecb-eiKlii lln^lit forU° - in- 

•• 1° In. 



118. 
12. 
128. 

9.76 



128. 
11. 



1.75 1.7.'i 
\2i.W 12&.H6 
116.331 126.33 



7. 

6.13 

3. 

8. 

9. 



for giinit of 
model of-; S- 
1841 and 
18U. 



6°. 



lO-in. 

3. 
16. 
1.75 
0.91 

2.73 

' 4^ 



8>in. 

3. 
18. 

1.78 
0.86 

2.6 

4.33 



118. 
10.25 
128. 

M 



1.75 
126.80 
U6J3 



9A 
6.6 

a. 

8. 
7. 



128. 
10. 



1.75 
126.80 
126 .S3 



8. 



O— emate. 
32-pr. 



42-pr. 

S.8 

12.2 

1.85 



2^ 
4.81 



3.5 
11.7 
L16 
0.9«j 0.94 



4.71 



DIMENSIONS AND AVEIOHTS OP IMPLEMENTS. 133 

« 

Dimensions and Weights of Implements. — Continued. 



HOWITZERS. 



FIEI.I> GUNS AND 
HOWITZERS. 





C 

a 

c 

1 


c 
S 


1 

i 


s 


•c 

B 
C 
C 
B. 


d 
c 


c 

5 


5 


£ 

u 

c 
4 


§1 


i 

3° 

©a 


11 




128. 
10.25 
128. 

9.75 

128. 
1.3.75 
128. 
7.5 
1.75 
125.6fi 
125.3.T 

111.66 
123. 

7. 

6.13 

3. 

8. 

6.0 

0.7 
12. 

0.28 
35. 

7. 

6.7 

6.6 

3. 
16.5 
20.75 
14. 

25 


128. 

10. 

128. 

8.4 

128. 
13.15 

128. 
7.5 
1.75 

125.86 

125.33 

113.01 
123. 

6.4 
6.6 
3. 
8. 
5.4 
0.65 
12. 

"32."" 
6.4 
6.1 
6. 
3. 

15..35 
18.85 
12.8 

9.<i 


128. 

9.66 
128. 

8.15 

128. 
12.4 

128. 
7.5 
1.75 

126.07 

125.:J3 

113.47 
123. 

5.8 
5.1 
3. 
8. 
4.8 
0.5 
12. 

""5.8" 

5.5 

5.4 

3. 

14.1 

16.95 

11.6 

2.5 

24-pr. 

2.9 
10.7 

1.94 

5.82 

9.71 


128. 

8.7 
128. 

8. 

128. 
10. 

128. 
7.5 
1.75 

126.23 

125.33 

115.43 
123. 

5.3 
4.64 
3. 
8 

4.3 
0.4 
11. 

""5.3" 
5. 
4.9 
3. 

13.1 

15.4 

10.6 

2.5 

18-pr. 

2.94 
9.88 

1.95 

5.85 

e.76 


128. 


128. 


128. 

8.5 
128. 

7.0 


1 .5.-: 


80. 
6. 


■J 




49.0 




7.8 ; 10.25 
128. 12s. 










I 96. 
83.6 
J 5.8t 


77. 
4.5 






7. .35 

128. 
7.8 

128. 
7.5 
1.75 

126.17 

126.5 

117.36 
123. 

5.6 
4. 
2.5 
7.5 
3.6 
0.35 
11. 

""4.6" 
4.3 
4.2 
2.5 
11.2 
13.2 
9.2 
2.0 

10-in. 

S.C.H. 

3.125 

13.25 



1.91 

5.74 

9.68 


9.75 










































87. 

4.26 

1.5 
(91.67 
178.17: 


72. 
3.6 
1.6 

73.17 






"'i".75 
126.66 
125.33 


1.75 
106.86 
105.33 


1 61.67 


""I'b 
75.67 






1 65 








40.0 
















.82.5 
69.+ 
5.5* 
4.* 
2.5* 
7.6* 
3.6* 
0.36 
11. 

""zi,"" 


67.5 

"i'.f" 

3.24t 
2.6t 
7.5- 
2.7- ■ 
0.26 
9. 

0.14 
20. 






7. 

6.13 

3. 

8. 
6. 


6.4 

5.6 

3. 

8. 

5.4 


5.5 

4. 

2.5 

7.5 

3.6 


5.5 

4. 

2.5 

7.5 

3.6 


4 




.3?4 




2 6 




6 




2 6 
























































































































































Barbette. 


8-in. 

S.C.II. 

2.86 

11.1 



1.61 

5.03 

8.4 


8-in.S. 

0.9 
9.125 


0.886 

2.64 

4.44 


24-p<ir. 
liow'r. 

1.06 

6.9 


1.07 

3.21 
5.35 


12-pr. 

1.33 

6.5 




6-p(lr. 

1.025 

5.15 




12-pr. 
how. 

0.9 

6.0 





24-pr. 

46 
10.7 
2.7 
93 


42-pr. 

3.8 

12.2 



2.0 

6.02 

10.06 


32-pr. 

3.5 

11.7 



1.96 

5.87 
9.8 




2.8 

4.68 


4.046 
6.737 


3.124 

6.203 


2.792 
4.65 





*Tlio Bauic for 13-in. and 10-in. mortars, heavy, 
f The same for 10-in. and 8-in. mortars, light. 
J For the 12-pdr. gun, model 1857. 



134 ^■TjfVl.t^DBDNANCE MANUAL. 

r 

Worms. 



i>Tl«l»i 



*iH^^i*' 



DIMEHSIONB. 



Siege and 
QarriRon. 



Field. 



In. 

Lcnpth of gDckot and neck ' 5.5 

Li-ujrth of ono liranch from neck to point (developed) j 16. 

Depth of («>ckct 4.5 

Ext<Ti(>r diunietcr of socket at top j 1-75 

DinnioUr of neck I O-** 

Thickniss of tlii' iron of the f<ookct 0.125 

l>ianiitir of brunches ut the nock (tapering to a point) | 0.6 

l.i'H^lh of socket and worm, comi)lcte i 9.5 

Diaiucter of worm, comiilcto (exterior circle) j 4. 

f Li-njcth i 7. 

Siio of iron for worms . . < Width 3. 

(Xbicknesi 0.5 

Weight of worm lb»| 1.76 



In. 

5.5 
13. 
4.6 
1.5 
0.7 
0.125 
0.6 
0. 
S. 
8. 
3. 
0.6 
l.ft 



Spo7iges for Mortars. 



d9 


a 

2 


^1 


•o 
c 


•o >> 


m 


s; 


a 


Sa 


2 



Length of finished sponge »nd rammer inches 

Wcijrlit " ••l'"' 

Length of staff, including tenon inches 

Diameter of staff inches 



|44. 


34. 


3.2 


2. 


39.67 


30.17 


i 1.5 


1.5 



18. 

0.8 
18. 

l.S 



Preservation and Arrangement in Store. 

Implementi collected together according to kind and calibre, in a dry pl««e 
arranged on shelves or rackt<, in bundles or bunches, or in boxes, according to their 
n.iture. with marks and labels showing the kind and number of the articles. 

Sponge*, ramtnert, l,idUi and irurmt, complete, placed on pins in a vertical frame, 
or suspended vertically or horisontally. by racks or hooks, from the joisu, sup- 
ported so as not lo bend. When in separate parts, the hr'jdt piled on shelves or on 
the floor, and the ttave* tied up in bundles, according U> kind and calibre. 

The woollen tpoH^e* should be preserved from moths by means of camphor, pep- 
per, etc., or by being sealed up in strong paper bags. 

Hank*pike$ in square piles, beads and poinU alternating. 



TIMBER FOR IMPLEMENTS. 



135 



Leather equipmentu, hung on pins or hooks, in dry and cool rooms. 

All wood jiaintcd, except tool-handles ; iron either painted or oiled. See Chapter 



VII. 



Bills of Timber for 100 Implement-Heads. 





RAMMER HEADS. 


8P0NOE-HEADS. 


LADLE-HEADS. 


KIND. 


a 
c 
CO 


a 


O 

2 

a 

3 




s 
o 


c 
"a 

8 


i 


ji 
to 

B 


1 
1 




In. 


Feet. 


Sup. ft. 


In. 


Feet. 


Sup. ft.! 


In. 


Feet. 


Sup. ft. 


42-pounder.. . . 


6.625 


66 


241.40 


6.5 


72 


253.5 


7.25 


66 


289.09 


32-pounder. . • • 


6.125 


60 


187.58 


6. 


72 


216.0 


6.5 


60 


211.25 


24-pounder. . . . 


5.75 


53 


146.02 


5.25 


72 


165.37 


6. 


53 


159.0 


18-pounder. . . . 


5.125 


50 


109.44 


4.75 


72 


135.37 


5.5 


50 


126.04 


12-pounder. . . . 


4.5 


60 


84.37 


4.125 


68 


96. J 2 


4.75 


50 


94.01 


6-pounder. . . . 


3.75 


40 


46.87 


3.25 


68 


59.85 









Plank for 100 Implement- Staves. 



■D a 



DIMENSIONS. 



Width. 



Length 



Each 
plank. 



Siege and garrison • 

Field . I 12-pounder 

( 6-poundcr 





In. 


In. 


In. 


1 
Sup. ft. 


17 


14. 


9 


132 


25.66 


17 


12.5 


1.75 


102 


15.49 


17 


12.5 


1.75 


84 


12.76 



Sup. ft. 

436.22 
263.33 
216.92 



136 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 





( ' II A 1' T E u Sixth. 



ARTILLERY HARNESS AND CAVALRY EQUIPMENTS.* 



ARTILLERY IIARXKSS. (Plate 21.) 

The poni'truption of tho field carrisfteii re(|uiroB u harnoii(i difforpnt, in jnine 
roKpeftfi, frmn liiat <»f ronimoii wa;r<>iii). The liiDlier havint; no Hwecp-har, the pole 
ill «up|)orte(l directly hy the wherl-horseii, liy nic&ni< of a chain which connectj) the 
haineK with the pole-yoke of the limber; and, in order to diminish the weight at the 
end of tho pole, the leadrn;;-bnrr are dispensed with, the truceii of tho leaders being 
attached to those of the wlieel-horscs. 

The Fame harnes!< ii" perfectly adapted also to the ^icgc carriages; hut, aa theae 
arc arranpol for driMi;;ht in the ordinary manner, eouuion wugou harness may be 
used with them if necesfiary. 

Leather. 

Leather i^ generally <lirided into two kinds: let, that which is tanned an<l under- 
gftpg no further ]ircparation : and. 2d. that which io tanned and is afterward curried- 
The former iudiides all made from the heavier skins of the larger animuU. m buf- 
faloes, oxen, and cows, into thick, strong §i>le-lr<tlher, and the latter that made from 
the thinner skins of horfcf. cows, calres, sheep, etc.. into liuriift, bri(iU,up/>rr,h4tg, 
or punch leather, which differ fr..in each other only in thickncsc, the first being the 
thickest. There arc other kinds besides these, designated from the mode of prepa- 
ration, as ffur»(/ leather, such aa white kid or sheep-skin, prepared with alum and 
salt: huck-nklH and bujT leather, so called from the fact that the buffalo and deer- 
skins were first most commonly dressed in this way: pntent Uather, that which bM 
been varnished. It is sometimes distinguished by its color, as Hack.fnir. or rtutet 
le.ither. Leather which ha,« been a long time in tanning is to be preferred to that 
wbich has been produced more rapidly. The quality is judged of by its appear- 
ance : a cross-section should be glistening and marbled, without any white streak* 
in the middle. It should be firm, compact, and pliant. 

The actual strength of leather depends more on its quality than on its thickneas. 
That made from bulls' hides should be rejected: it is thick and supple, but. like 



• TUU style of barncM will be conformed to aa toon as pro|ier Mddle-treec cao be obtained. 



,«|* HEAD-OEAR. 13T 

that made from the legs and flanks of other skins, it is spongy, without strength or 
endurance, and, if only slightly rumpled, the hair side presents a shrivelled appear- 
ance, which it retains. 

The different parts of harness, except straps and the like, are cut out by means 
of patterns. The seams arc made with strong waxed thread, in double stitch, with 
about eight stitches to the inch : those along an edge are from 0.1.''i to 0.2 inch from 
the edge. The ends of the threail should be securely fastened before they are cut 
off. The awl used should be small for the thread. 

Buckles, Loops, etc. 

The buckles of the bridle and stirrup leather, and the loops for the cloak and 
valise-straps on the driver's and valise-saddles, arc cast-brass, with rollers; and 
the book and loop on the pommel of the valise-saddle is brass-plated. They are 
designated by numbers. (See table, page 157j. All other buckles, loops, and 
staples are of wrought-iron, japanned (black). The iron buckles are all made with 
rollers; the tongues are the same size as the sides of the buckles. 

Straps, or other pieces which have buckles or iron loops attached to them, aro 
doubled on a length generally equal to twice their width, to receive the buckle or 
loop, which is fastened by two seams. The double end is shaved down. 

Standing-loops are placed close to the buckles. Their ends arc shaved down, 
brought together, and fastened between the two parts of the strap, if it is doubled, 
by the same seam. These loops arc usually of the same leather as the strap. 

The tongue-holes for buckles are made with a punch corresponding to the size of 
the tongue. Their distance apart is generally equal to the width of the strap, and 
the first hole is at double that distance from the end of the strap. This end is 
shaved down and reduced in width, to facilitate its entrance into the buckle. 

Note. — A laucr is a piece of leather sewed upon another piece, to strengthen it. 

A chiijie is a piece used to fasten a buckle or loop to a strap or other piece of 
leather. 

A billet is a strap which enters a buckle. 

A «rt/c is a piece of leather placed under a buckle, etc., to prevent it from chafing. 

Composition. — A complete set of artillery harness is composed as follows: 

Head-gear. Driver's saddles, the same for all the near horses. Valise-saddles 
and valise, common for all the off horses. Draitf/hl harness, differing according as 
it is intended for the wheel or lead-horses. One ivhij) is allowed to each driver, and 
one leg-guard to each driver of wheel-horses. 

Head-Gear. 

The head-gear is made of strong, black bridle leather, not less than 0.1 inch thick. 
The buckles of the bridle are brass-plated or cast-brass ; of the halter, iron. 

Bkidle of the near house. — It is composed of the headstall, hit and pair of 
reins. 



138 ORDNANCK MANUAL. 

V 

IIeaiistai.l. — Our rrntrn-picce : the ends split form 2 hiUrti for the liucklos of the 
cheek -gtrapi! ami 'i billru for the buckles of the throat-lanh. 

1 btiiir-linnil : the cixls, doubled mid hpwcmI, furin 1o<i|ib for the orowii-picco to 
j>a8« (hr(iu)(h : 2 nrnamenti (brasf), circles l.S inch in diameter, raised in the centre, 
on a circle of leather 2.25 inches in diameter, fojtcnod on the loop of the brow-b&nd 
by puHfinf; the end of the brow-bnnd, before beinj^ oewcd, throuf^h an iron wire 
loop Foldered to the ornament, the iron loop pa«sin;{ l>olwecn the two billets of the 
crown-piiTc. 

1 ihroiit-lanh, with 1 liwlU No. Iti H, and I n<inilin^-liii,p at each end. 2 rheet- 
atrajtt : each has 1 biirkir No. 8 H and 1 hHIrt newod to the lower end, flesh side to 
flesh side, with 2 «r<iiii/iHf/-/<>o/>«, to att«cb it to the bit; at the upper end 1 bncklt 
No. 8 IS, with one ^tninling uiid one rlidiug-loop to fasten it to the crown-jiiecu. 

Bit (iron forged uiul brass-plate<i). — 2 cheek-ijiref, curved in sha|>c of S, and 
pierced at top with an ri/r, lo receive the chock-billet and a Imte for the curb-chain : 
lit itN lower end an ryr for the reins, and near the mouth-piece a irix/, through 
which is inccrlcd a rhnj No. 2 for the rein*; 1 uKiulh-pi>cr : its ends (lans through 
the check-pieces, and are rivoteil and roundc<l : 1 eroti-bnr, riveted lo the choek- 
piecet: : 1 rurb-rhnin (iron. tioDcd), uf 1.3 li>iL», diminishing in site from the middle 
toward the end ; it is attached to the right ehock-piece by an CO-culdshut, and to 
the left cheek -piece b_v a kixik. 

Bits arc made of three sites, in the width between the ehifk-jiieccs — vli., H 
inches, 5 inches, and i>i inches : about three-fifths being of the medium site. 

Rki.<(8. — 2 reiHi : each reiu has a bucktr No. ^ B and a bHUt sewed to one end, 
flesh side to flesh side, with 2 ttundiny-l»up; fur attaching it to the bit; the reina 
are united by a bucklr No. S B, with I ttandituj and 1 iUdtHtj-loup on the short rain, 
to receive the billet of the other : the near rein is shorter by 12 inches than the oflT 
one. 

Bridle run the ovv iiouse. — The same aj the bridle for the near horse, with the 
addition of 1 r,»i]il\H<j-itrap. which ha« 1 billn and 1 burLU No. 8 B sewed on each 
end. with 1 riaiidinij-loop at one end and 2 iinndiny-ltMjpi at the other ; it is a t t e c li > d 
to the ofl' riug'of the bit, :iud pasfrcs ibruugli the near ring. 

IIalteii. — 1 croicM-pirrr, having a billet at each end for the buckles of the cheek- 
straps; 2 cheeL--»lrajn — each ha« 1 buet/e No. 6; 1 ttauding and 1 ttidiifj-l'top at 
one end, the other cud i» hewed to 1 iron loop No. 3 ; 1 bruvt-bund, the ends doubled 
and ."-ewcd, form loops for the eruwu-ijiecc and throat-lash to pass through ; 1 !!«•«• 
laud, the ends sewed to the same lui-ps as the cheek-straps ; 2 ckiH-»trup» : each ia 
made of one piece doubled and sewed together with two seams the whole length : it 
holds in the fold at one end the square iron loop of the cheek-strap, and at the other, 
the rear. 1 tifnarr iron Imip No. 3: 1 thrtiat-»liap, made of one piece doubled and 
sewed together with two seams the whule length, forming at the upper end a loop 
!i) receive the ihroat-la»h, and holds in the fold at the other end the square iron 
loop of the chin-straps : 1 tkronl-la*h ; 1 bncUr No. 8 ; 1 Handing and 1 tliding- 
Ivop at the end, on the near side: it passes through the loops in the brow-band aud 
throat-strap. 



DRIVER S SADDLE. 



Wv 



1 hitching-itrap, 6i feet long; 1 buckle No. 6; 1 standing-loop; 1 billet, sewed to 
the buckle end by the same seam which holds the buckle. 

Driver's Saddle. 

It is composed of 1 saddle-tree; 1 seat; different parts of leather, etc., of the body 
of the saddle; 2 saddle-skirts; 2 stirrups; 1 girth. 

Saddle-tree — Wood (beech or ash). — The saddle-tree consists of 1 pommel, 
made of two pieces, notched or halved together at the top of the hollow of the 
pommel, and glued; 1 cantle, formed of two pieces in the same manner; 2 side 
bars, with notches to receive the pommel and cantle, to which they are nailed with 
8 nails, each, 4-penny. 

Before the irons are put on the tree, it is entirely covered with raw hide, applied 
green, sewed on with thongs of the same, and through the side bars near their 
junction with the pommel and cantle, in front and rear of each. 

Grooves are made in the under side of the side bars to receive the thongs, that 
they may not project and chafe the horse's back. 

Iron. — 2 stirrup-bors, the front end riveted to the pommel and the rear end to 
the side bar; 2 iron staples No. 1, driven through, one from the front of the pom- 
mel, and the other from the rear of the cantle, and clenched. 

Seat. — 1 girth-webbing, the middle of its length nailed double on the pommel 
over the hollow: the two ends separated and stretched strongly, and nailed on the 
front of the cantle. 1 caiivas (strong hemp), to cover the webbing, stretched 
across the girth-webbing, the ends nailed on the side bars and on the edge of the 
pommel and cantle; 1 cotton drilling, drawn over the canvas and nailed in the 
same way; cotton batting, stuffed between the linen and the cotton drilling; 1 
leather lining, pasted underneath the webbing and canvas. 

Parts in leather, etc., of the body of the saddle. — The front of pommel 
and rear of cantle are covered with leather, glued to the wood and nailed close to 
the side bars. The ends of the side bars are covered with harness leather, which 
is fastened by nails close to the pommel and cantle, and by two finishing nails on 
each end of side bar, driven through from the upper side; 1 seat of goat-skin 
morocco, lined with sheep-skin, stuffed with cotton, quilted, and bound round the 
edges with light morocco, fastened to the side bars by three finishing nails on each 
side; 1 pommel-cover (bridle leather), sewed to the front of the scat, tacked to the 
lower part of the pommel, glued on the upper part, and sewed to the leather on the 
front of pommel by a seam along the top edge of pommel ; 1 cautle-cover, sewed to 
the rear end of the seat, the lower part tacked to the side bars, the upper part 
glued to the cantle and sewed to the leather, on the rear part of the cantle, by a 
seam around the edge of the cantle; 1 pommel moulding (brass), covering the seam, 
fastened by 2 iron and 2 brass nails; 1 cantle ornaraent (brass), shape of a shield, 
fastened by 3 brass nails; 1 pommel ornament (brass), shape of a shield, fastened 
by 3 brass nails; 2 loops No. 7 B, for cloak-straps, driven through the side bars in 



14® ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

rear of the cantle, and riveted ; 2 hilhii for trace-loop puss through the gkirtg, and 
arc nailed to the upper side of the side hars: 1 rollnr-ntrnp billet, fovied to the loop 
on the front of (lie ponimcl. 

6KIIIT8. — 2 »kirt» (thick harness leather), fastened to the under side of the side 
bars with glue; the ujiper end is turned over (he side liars, and sewed at frmt and 
rear to the covering of ends of side bars. 

Stiiibii's. — 2 »tirrii])» (cast-lirass) ; 2 »tirniji-i>trii]>* p8J<s over the slirrui)-bHrs; 1 
hurkie No. 4, with 3 itnnditifi-loopK, sewed to the thin end of the strap, which ii 
doubled and stitched on a length of 8 inches, where it passes through the eve of 
the stirrup 

(liitTHH. — 1 ijirth (light bridle leather I. made in two parts of unc<|ual lengths: 
each part is made of doul)le thickness by fidding the leatlier in the"diric»ion of 
its length, bringing the two edges together in the middle, and fastening them with 
a seam the wh<dc length. The long part has a burle/r No. 4, and rhn/.r, with 8 
»lini</iii</-l(>(ij>H; it i»asses through the skirt from nnderneath. and is nailed to the 
upper side of the side bars, on the off side. The short part has a billet ^ewed to 
it; it is nailed, in the same luunner as the long part, on the near side. 

Valise-Saddle. 

The ralise-Ba<ldle, placed on the off horse, is used to carry the driver's rallte, 
but in coso of emergency can be used to ride upon. It is composed of 1 »nddU- 
Iff*: 1 teal; different part* of Italker, rie., of the body of the taddU ; 2 iiiddU- 
ikirli; 1 (firth. 

Sapdi-k-trkk. — Woop. — The sanu- uf that of the driver's sadtlle, exceiit in the 
dimensions. 

Iron. — 1 himh for the reins ( br as o- plated), with loop for billet of the collar-strap 
attached, is driven through the ]jommel from the front, and clenched ; 1 iron ttapU 
No. 1. for the crupper-strap, driven in the cantle from the rear, and clenched. 

4 hriitii htopg No. 7 IJ, for valise-straps, driven one iu each end of the side ban, 
and riveted. 

Srat. — 1 leather tent, stretched an<l nailed to the pommel, cantle, and ^ide ban; 
1 cotton drUliuij, drawn over the leather seat and nailed in the same w.iy ; eottoii 
fxiiiiiiif, stuffed between the cotton drilling and leather seat. 

Parts in i.rathkk, etc., of the body op thk saddle. — The same as for the 
driver's sadille. with the addition of 2 rnH»>-ittrnp; each has 1 hurkie No. 8, 1 
ttiiiidiiirf and 1 tlidiiiff-lunp .- ] cmpper-ttrap, made of two thicknesses, stitched, 
embracing in the fold at one end the iron loop on the cantle, and at the other end 
an iron loop Xo. T), with roller for the back strap of the crujiper. The same crupper 
answers for either saddle. 

Ski«ts. — The same, except in dimensions, as those for the driver's saddle. 

Girths. — 1 ^inh (leather), has 1 buckle No. 6, and .3 ttandiwf-loopt, fastened te 
a lajfer ; the girth is sewed to the near skirt of the saddle ; 1 billet sewed to the off 
skirt. 




DRAUGHT HARNESS. 141 

Valise. 

The valise is cylindrical, IS inches long, with a flat bottom. 

Valise (thick bridle leather). — 1 hodif ; 1 hndy lining (cotton ticking), pasted to 
the body: 2 rndu, made of 2 thicknesses of leather, sewed together with one seam 
near the outer edge; 2 cud lininr/n (cotton ticking), pasted to the ends; 1 initrr flap, 
with 6 slits for wire staples sewed to the body, covering the mouth of valise ; 1 
Htrap, 1 chnpe and buckle No. 9, sewed to the opj)ositc ends of body ; the strap passes 
through the iron staples and holds down the inner flap; 6 iron wire Htnplen No. 3 
pass through the body, are bent and held in place by a strip of leather sewed 
over their ends; 3 chapen and bitcHcg No. 9, and 3 standiiig-loopn, sewed to 
the body for the billets on the cover; 2 handles (leather, rounded), sewed into the 
ends between the two thicknesses; 2 loops, 1 inch wide, sewed to the bottom of the 
body, for the valiso-straps to pass through; 1 cover ; 1 carer lininrj, larger than the 
cover, sewed to it around its outer edge, forming a pocket : it has an opening in the 
middle, which is closed with strings: 1 bindinij, thin leather, sewed around the 
edge of cover; 3 biUetx, sewed to the cover to fasten it down. 

Draught Harness. 

The Coli.au. — Collars are made of two sizes — 17 inches and 20 inches; the 
measure taken on the inside of the breast. 

1 rim (bridle leather), sewed to the bell,v, stuffed with uncut straw. 1 belly (upper- 
leather), made in two pieces, which lap and arc sewed together at bottom, stuffed 
with straw -cut into pieces not more than \ of an inch long; 2 chapex and buckles No. 
8, 2 billets, .sowed to the open ends of the collar and used only to vary the size of 
the collar; ] pad (black sheep-skin), stuffed with deer's hair, to protect the horse's 
nock from being chafed by the collar-straps ; 3 loops, sewed to the pad ; two pass 
over the ends of the collar, and the collar-strap passes through the other. 

The Hames, iron (painted black). — Two branches, curved; 2 double-joint loops 
for trace-tugs, attached to the branches by means of a bolt passing through a stud 
forged on the branch: they turn freely on the bolt, and also admit free motion in 
the opposite direction; 2 links, for holding up the breast-strap, welded into the eyes 
of the joint-loop bolts; 2 rings No. 3, for trussing-straps, welded into the rect- 
angular eyes at the upper ends of the branches ; 1 claup, made fust to the off 
branch, connects the branches at their lower ends ; 1 chain and toggle (3 links No. 
4), welded into the eye of the clasp, connects the pole-yoke to the hames; 2 loop- 
rings, 1.75 inches diameter, sewed in the trace-tugs, for the trace-chains to pass 
through. 

Leather. — Tico safes, sewed round the branches under the joint-loops, to protect 
the collar from being chafed by the trace-tugs; 2 trace-tugs, 0.C3 inch thick, made 
of four thicknesses of leather stitched together with three seams, embracing in the 
fold the joint-loop at one end and the loop-ring at the other. ^ . ., , . ,., 



142 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Tiro frumting-itrapt, each with 1 buckle No. 8, 1 standing and 1 tliding-loop. 
They pass through the rings in the rectangular cjes of the branches to truss up the 
harness. 

1 hamci-itrap, with 1 buckle No. 6 and 2 ttauding-loop$, connects the two branches 
at the top ; 1 cullar-itrap, having 1 buckle No. 6 and 1 ttanding-loop, pacscs round 
the liames-strap and is buckled to the billet on the pommel of the caddie, to keep 
the ciillar in place. 

Traces. 

Traces arc composed of a leather trace with a chain and toggle attached to each 
end. They differ only in the length of the leather trace. 

Leather trace, 0.63 inch thick, made of three thicknesses of leather sewed together 
their whole length, with two scams; 2 iron loopt riveted to the ends of the leather 
trace with 3 rtiet$, each 0.25 inch diameter. Front traee-ehaiit made of iron .3 inch 
diameter, 6 liukt and 1 toggle, attached to the leather trace by the iron loop. 

Jiear trace-chain. — Thirteen tinki, /our riiigi (oval), and one toggle, of the aamo 
•ir.cd iron and attached in the same manner as the front trace-chain. 

Bei.i.v-banh. — Tiro trace-loops, made by doubling the leather and sewing the 
branches together near one end; 1 buckle No. 6 and 1 ttanding-loop embraced in the 
Stitched end of the trace-loop; 1 iron loop No. 5, embraced and playing loose on 
the bottom of the trace-loop; 1 belly-itrap with 1 b%iekle No. 6 and 1 standing-loop, 
sewed to the iron loop of trace-loop on the off side; 1 belli/strap billet sewed to 
the iron loop of trace-loop on the near side and buckling to the belly-strap; 1 /o»i»- 
ttrap, each end passes into the buckle <jf the trace-loop to hold up the traces. The 
loin-strap for the wheel-horse has 1 layer sewed under its middle, forming a loop 
through which passes the back-fctrap of the crupper: it is shortvr than the loin-strap 
for the lead-horse ; 2 trace-loops with 1 buckU No. 6 and 1 standing-loop, formed M 
above described. 

Cruim'kr. — 1 dock, formed of a tingle piece 3.5 inches wide and 14 inches long, 
doubled lengthwise and made round, not stuffed: it has 1 buckle No. 9 and 1 stand- 
ing-loop sewed to each end; 1 body, the rear end is split into 2 bilUu for the buckles 
of the dock, the other end is sewed to the end of the back-strap; 1 layer 10 inckta 
long, 1 buckle No. 6, and 4 standing-loops sewed on the front end of the body, learinf 
an opening in rear of the back-strap for the hip-strap to pass through : 1 short layeTp 
inserted under the long layer and in rear of the opening for the hip-strap; 1 bach' 
ttrap, sewed in between the body and the long layer, passes through the loop of loio- 
strap of wheel-harness, through the iron loop on the saddle, and returns to the 
buckle on the body of the crupper; 1 sliding-loop holds the two parte of the back- 
strap together near the saddle. 

Breeching. 

1 hreeck-ttrap (thick harness leather): 1 layer, thick leather, sewed to the breech- 
W^tp it? whole length with 2 seams : 1 buekU No. 3 and 3 standing-loops at each end 



NOSE-BAG. 148 

sewed in the fold of the breech-strap and layer; 2 iron loops No. 5 and chapes sewed 
to upper side of breech-strap ; 4 Utgs for hip-straps, made of two thicknesses of 
leather, sewed together with 2 seams : each has 1 buckle No. 6 and 3 standing-loops, 
and embraces in the fold at the other end the buckle orloops of the breech -strap; 4 
safes sewed on the inside of the tugs; 1 hip-strop, split at each end into two billets, 
which buckle into the tugs of the breech-strap; 1 breast-strap, 0.63 inch thick in the 
middle, S) inch at the ends, made of three thicknesses, sewed togct*her with 3 seams: 
it passes through the iron links on the hamcs and the trace loops attached to the 
saddle, and buckles to the brecch-strap ; 1 pole-strap, 0.5 inch thick, made of three 
thicknesses of leather sewed together with two seams ; 1 buckle No. 3, and 3 stand- 
inrj-loops, sewed in the folds at one end. 

Pole-Pad. 

It is placed on the end of the pole to prevent the lead-horses from being injured 
by the pole. 

Iron. — 1 ring, 2..3 inches diameter, 1 inch wide, 0.2 inch thick, with 2 holes for 
feolt; 1 bolt with small hole for key. 

Leather. — 1 cylindrical body, 1 end, circular, with hole for pole sewed to the 
body; 1 end, pressed convex, sewed to the other end of body after it is stuffed; 1 
t;i)ier cylinder, the open end sewed in the hole of the circular end; 1 timer cylinder 
end, 1 reinforce cylinder and cud sewed together and slipped over the closed end of 
inner cylinder; 2 stay-straps, sewed to the body, near the bolt-hole, and nailed over 
the end of inner cylinder; hair stuffed in between the inner cylinder and body. The 
body is pressed in against the iron ring where the bolt passes through it. 

The pole-pad should be taken off from the pole and placed under cover, when the 
carriage is not in use. 

Whip. 

1 stock (raw hide,) about 30 inches long. The raw hide is first covered with 
India-rubber cloth ; 1 leather cover, sewed over the India-rubber covering, with a 
loop in the end well secured ; 1 lash (thread), tied to the leather cover ; 1 loop for 
the hand, nailed to the butt of whip with 2 tacks. 

Leg- Guard. 

1 body (strong kip leather); 2 layers, sewed to the upper and lower part of the body 
with four seams; 4 leg-straps, 4 buckles No. 10 and 4 standing-loops, sewed to the 
body: the billet-ends pass through slits in the body; 1 foot-strap, sewed to the bot- 
tom of the body, at both ends; 1 plate (iron), 0.1 inch thick, riveted to the body 
with five rivets. 

Nose-Bag. 

1 body (strong linen or cotton duck); 1 bottom (harness leather), 6 inches diam- 
eter, 4 inches deep, pressed in a mould, sewed to the body; 1 head-strap, with 1 



t4t ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

biicile \o. 8 and 1 Ktandiiig-loop, sewed to top of the bottom, and fastened by 2 cop- 
per ritet* No. 1 ; sewed to the top of the body and to an inside leather washer by 
the same seam, and fastened by 1 mpper rivet No. 1 ; 1 heud-^lrup liillct, sewed to 
the top of the bottom, and fastened by 2 copper rivets No. 1 ; sewed to the top of the 
body and to an inside leather washer by the same scam, and fastened by 1 copper 
rivet No. 1. Width of bag at top, 15 inches ; whole height, 15 inches. 

PACK-SADDLE AND HARNESS FOR MOUNTAIN ARTILLERY. 

The mountain howitzer ami its carriage are either carried on puck-mules, or the 
gun is mounted on the carriage and drawn by ipules harnessed to it. 

The ammunition, forge and tool chests arc carried on pack-uiulcs; or, when the 
roads are good, may be carried in common carts. 

The equipment is the same whether the gun and carriage are packed or drawn, 
except that the liishing-girth and lashing-repc are not required for draught. 

Composition. — The harness complete is eomi>osed of the hcod-ijenr, the pnck- 
taddle — which is common for packing the gun-carriage or chests — the crupper, the 
breechiiKj, the breanl-gtrajt, and the hmhiittj-ijirlfi and rope. 

Head- Gear. 

The head-gear is made of black bridle leather. The buckles and loops are iron, 
japanned (black). 

BniDi.K. — 1 crotru-picee : one end is split into 2 hiUct*, and the other into 1 lltlet 
Bnd 1 buclkle-ittrnp, for the cheek-pieces and throat-lash; 1 bnc/clr No. 10, and 1 
ttandimj-ltuip, sewed to the throat-lash; 1 buckle No. 10 and 1 Dinudiuij-loop, sewed 
to the top of the crown-piece for the billets of the winker-straps. 

1 brotr-biiiid : the ends, doubled and sewed, form looj)* for the crown-piece to pass 
through. 

2 chcek-»triip» : each has 2 bucklet No. 8, and S ttanding-luopn ; one end buckles to 
the billet of the crown-piece, and the other to the bit. 

2 icitikert, made of two thicknesses of leather, sewed together by a seam around 
the edge; 2 iriiiker-stnipn, sewed to the top of the winkers, and fastened to the 
buckle on top of the crown-piece. 

1 lcodiii;/-rilii : made of a single strap: one end is sewed to the ring on the right 
end of the bit. the other end passes through the left ring, and has 1 trooden toggU, 
sewed in a loop at its extremity, and 1 leather tcather on the inside of the toggle. 

The Bit. — It consists of 1 bar and 2 rinyi, 2.25 inches, made of wrought-iron, 
and tinued. 

Halter.— The halter is the same as that used for field artillery (page 138). 

Pack-SMi<Ile. 

It is composed of the tree, the parts of Uather, etc., of the body, the pad and girth*. 
SAorLC-TREE. — WooD (ash, oiled). — 2 arc*, each made of three pieces, haired 



145 

into each otlier. jjliuJ and fastened together with 6 screws, No. 14, 1-inch, in the 
front arc, and 8 screws No. 1-4, 1-inch, in the rc.ir arc : a circular notch is cut in the 
top of the arcs, for tlie gun ; 2 transoms, fastened to the arcs by bolts, which pass 
through their entire length : each transom has a circular notch cut in it for the 
trunnions of the gun ; 1 cross-bar, let into the transoms, and fastened to them by 2 
screws No. 16, 2i-inch, in each end: a circular notch is cut on top of the cross-bar, 
for the gun ; 2 inner side bars, let in flush with the inside of the arcs, and fastened 
by 3 screirs No. 14, IJ-inch, in each end, 2 outer side bars, mortised into the arcs, 
2 round bars : a round tenon on each end passes through the lower end of the arcs, 
and is fastened by 1 screw No. 1(5, 2J-inch, which also strengthens the bearing- 
notcli for the ammunition-chests. 

IiiON. — 1 front arc-plate, with hooks on the ends, fastened to the front of the 
front arc b,y the assembling-bolts and by 2 rirets No. 2 B; 1 staple, riveted to the 
middle of the front arc-plate; 1 rear arc-plate, with hooks on the ends, fastened to 
the rear of the rear arc by the assembling-bolts and by 2 rivets No. 2 B; 1 staple, 
riveted to the middle of the rear arc-plate; 2 assemblintj-bolts No. 1, octagonal head's 
and nuts, connect the front and rear arcs: 4 staples for tashing-straps, fastened to 
the arcs by 2 rivets, each No. 2 wire. 

Parts of leather, etc., op the body. — 2 pieces of hemp webbing, 2J) inches 
wide, stretched from the front to the rear arcs at the top of the hollow, and nailed 
to the inside of the arcs with tacks; I cover (black bridle leather), stretched over 
the hemp webbing, the inner side bars and round bars, and nailed to the inner side 
of the arcs: a strip of thin leather is put under the heads of the tacks j 2 /laps, 
(harness leather), folded round the round bars, and sewed to the lower ends of the 
cover and arc-lining; 2 arc-liuiiigs (harness leather), nailed to the side of the front 
and rear arcs, the lower end sewed to the flaps; 4 lining-straps, nailed to the inner 
side bars and round bars; 2 thill-straps, with 1 buckle No. 6 and 1 standing-loop, pass 
over the round bars and form loops for the shafts of the gun-carriage. 

6 girth-billets, sewed to the inside of the flaps : three on each flap ; they pass 
through slits in the flap to the outside; 4 iron-loops No. 4, for breeching and breast- 
straps, embraced in the leather loops, sewed to the inside of the flaps and passing to 
the outside through slits ; 4 lashing-straps, with I buckle No. 8, and 1 standing-loop, 
fastened to the inside of the lower end of the arc by 1 screw No. 14, 1-inch, 4 billets 
for lashing-straps, fastened to the outside of the arcs, near the top, by 1 screw No. 
14, 1-inch, and 1 staple, each; 2 shoidder-strap tugs, with 1 buckle No. 6 and 1 sliding- 
loop each, fastened to the front of the front arc by 1 screw No. 14, 1-inch, and 2 
nails, 10-oz.; 1 loop and toggle, fastened with 1 leather thong to the iron loop on the 
front arc-plate; 2 safes, nailed to the outside of the outer side bars. 

Pad. — 1 top (sheep-skin); 1 side and end (sheep-skin), sewed to the top and lining; 
1 lining (strong canvas), stuffed with straw and hair, and quilted. It is fastened to 
the arc-lining and flaps, with 10 leather thongs. 

Girth (hemp webbing), 7i inches wide. — 6 buckles No. 8, and 6 standing-loops, 
embraced in the,ends of leather loops, sewed to the girths. 
10 



14(3 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Crufper. 

1 dork with 1 hurhh No. 10, and 1 ninnding-loop, sewed to each end: it is made 
of a single piece of Icatber, rounded ; 1 body, split at one end into 2 hilU-tn for the 
dock ; 1 bark-ntrap, scwcd to the body at one end, wilh 2 9eam!<, leaving an open 
space for the jiai'snge of the loin-strap : the other end passes through the .itaple on 
the rear arc-plate, to 1 buckle No. 6, and 3 ttandhnj-loopH, sewed in between the 
body and back-strap ; 1 gltdiny-loop on the back-strap, near the saddle. 

1 lotii-Dlrdp passes between the body of the crupper and the back-strap, to the 
buckle of the tugs on the brccch-strap. 

Breeching. 

1 hrcrrh-ntrap ; 2 lidf-ftrapn, Bcwcd at one end to the breech-strap, the other rnd 
passes through iron loops on the pack-saddle, or through the staples on the shafts 
when the harness is used for draught, into 1 buckle No. 4, and 4 niaiid-limji^, sewed 
between the brccch-strap and side-strap; 2 tiigt, for l<jin-strap.i: each tug has 1 
buckle No. 6, and 3 glnndiiiij-liiopn, sewed to one end — the other end embraces 1 iron 
loop No. 5, which is fastened to the breech-strap by 1 chape; 2 ta/et, sewed to the 
under side of the tugs, with 2 seams, the length of the tug. 

Breast-Strap. 

I /rout strap; 2 side straps, one end sewed to the front strap: the other endv^osses 
through the iron loop on the flap of the pack-saddle, or through the staples on the 
shafts, when the harness is used for' draught, back to 1 buckle No. 4, and 3 standing- 
loops, sewed between the front strap and side strap ; 2 shoulder-straps, sewed at one 
end tu the front strap, the other end passes to the tugs on the front arc. 

Lashing-Girth and Rope. 

1 girth (thick Icatber), the ends folded and sewed with 3 seams ; 2 iron hooks, the 
bar embraced in the loop formed at the end of the girth. 

1 lashing-rope (2i-inch rope), 10 feet long: it is used in connection with the girth, 
to secure the pack to the saddle : weight, 1.06 lb. 

Packing the Mountain Howitzer. 

The howitzer is placed on the pack-saddle, the muzzle to the front, in the 
recesses cut in the bows and transoms: it is lashed with the lashing-rope. The 
shafts are placed upside down on the same pack-saddle, the cross-bar on the neck 
of the cascable: the shafts are lashed with the bow-straps. 

The carriage is placed on the pack-saddle, the axle-tree against the front face of 
the front bow : it is fastened by the lashing-rope. The wheels are placed on the 
some pack with the carriage, one on each side, the small end of the care against the 



PACKING THE MOUNTAIN HOWITZER. 147 

pack between the bows, one of the spokes resting on the arm of the axle-tree : they 
are lashed with the bow-straps. 

The ammunition-chests are suspended with chains, on hooks, on each side of the 
pack, and lashed with lashing-ropes. 

TO PLACE THE HOWITZER ON THE SADDLE. 

Three men load the howitzer on the mule. Introduce the rammer-head into the 
bore; place the loop of the hankspike over the cascable ; carry the piece to the sad- 
dle, approaching by the croup ; raise it and place it in its bed. Three men load 
the carriage, taking hold of it by the arms of the axle-tree and by the end of the 
trail. 

Four men load 2 ammunition-chests, and hook the 4 chains at the same time. 

The load ought to be fastened securely, so as to form, as it were, a part of the 
animal, and should be raised as little as possible above the mule's back. 



148 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



HORSE EC^UIPMENTS FOR THE C'AVALIIY SERVICE. 

A cnmplcio !<ct of burse equipment'' for cavalry troops consist* of 1 bridle, 1 
walerini/'brtdle, 1 haltev, 1 Kiiiillr, 1 pnir of »addlt-hn'f», 1 tnddle-hfnnket, 1 mr> 
rfiiy/r, 1 fiitir of fpiiri, 1 riirry-ciimb, 1 horie-bniiih, 1 pirkrt-pin, and 1 tiiriat (1 li^le 
and 1 uotr-hiiij, when specially required.) 

Jlead-Gear. 

All the leutlicr is black bridle leather, not lesis than H.l inch tlii<'k. iiinl ilir 
buckles arc uiullcublc iron flat bar-buckles, blued. 

BRIDLK. 

Il if composed of 1 hend»tall, 1 bil, 1 pair uf rriim. 

Hk ADSTAi.i.. — I critirn-pirrr, the ends Split, forming 1 chrrk-tliap and I ikmai- 
lanh billrt on one side, and on the other 1 cheek-*ir<ip and 1 ikruut-lntk, with I 
buckle No. 11 A: 2 rhnprn, and 2 bncklft No. 10 A, xewed to the end* of cheek 
piece.-* to attach the bit; 1 brow-band : the ends, d<iubled and sewed, form 2 luopii 
ou each cml, through which the cheek-straps, throat-la»h, and thruat-lasb billet 
pa«s. 

Bit (shear steel, blued). — 2 lironchn, g-shaped, pierced at toj) witii an ry for 
the chcck-slrap billet, and with a small bole near the eye for the curb-chain, lurmi- 
natcd at the boitum by 2 buUmtii, into which are welded 2 rimjt No. .') for tbo reins. 
The lower curve of the branch is tangent to the line through the axis of the mouth- 
piece and the centre uf the eye. 1 muuth-piece, curved in the middle: its end> pass 
through the brunches, and are riveted to them; I crom-bar, riveted to the braoches 
near the lower ends : 2 bumr* (cast-brass) bearing the number and letter of the 
regiment and the letter of the company, riveted to the branches with 4 rireli ; 1 
eurb-chaiii hovk. Steel wire No. ]U, fastened to the tirar branch: 1 eurb-rhain, steel 
wire No. 11, curb-chain links O.T inch wide, with 1 looir ring in the middle, fast 
ened to the ojf branch by an S-bouk, coldsbut ; I curb-ntrap (leather) faatcned to 
the curb-chain by 2 niaiidiug-luopt. 

1 curb-n'ny for bit No. 1 replaces the curb-chain and curb-strap. Tbey ara of 2 
sites: No. 1, interior diameter 4 inches; No. 2, 3.70 inches — the number marked 
on the outside of the swell. Three-fourths of the bits of this kind to hare the 
large ring, one-fourth the small ring. 

There are j'uur varieties of bits : Ihcy are all alike below the mouth-piece. 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. Ko 4 

Height of arch 2.25 2. 1.5 0.5 

Opening of arch I'. 8 1.1 

Distance of eye from axis of mouth-pioce 1.5 2.25 2.25 2.25 

Diameter of mouth-piece at shoulder 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.65 

Distance from axis of mouth-piece t« axis of cross-bar, 5 inches. 

Distance from centre uf button to the axi£ of cross-bar, 0.5 inch. 



SADDLE. 149 

Length of moutli-piccc in all bits, 4.5 inche?: square tenon of mouth-piece, .35 
inch. 

At centre of arch, .325 inch vertical thickness, 0.45 inch horizontal. Thickness 
of branch at mouth-piece, 0.2*25 inch. 

t Rbins. — 2 reina, sewed together at one end — the other ends sewed to the rings of 
the bit. 

■WATERING -BRIDLK. 

The watering-bridle is composed of 1 hit.and 1 pair of rcinn. 

Bit (wrought-iron, blued). — 2 mouth-piece sides, united in the middle by a loop- 
hinge : their ends are pierced with 2 holes to receive 2 riiic/s No. 1 for the reins ; 2 
flinins and toggles, 3 links, each 1 inchX.55 inch, welded into the rein-rings. 

Reins. — 2 reins, sewed together at one end — the other sewed to the rings of the 
bit. 

HALTER. 

2 cheek-pieces, sewed, one end to 2 square-loops No. 2 A, and the other to 2 cheek- 
rings No. 1 A ; 2 standing-loops for the toggles of the watering-bridle, sewed to the 
cheek-pieces near to the square-loops; 1 crown-piece, sewed to the off cheek-ring: 
1 buckle No. 7 A and chape, sewed to the near cheek-ring; 1 nose-hand, the ends 
sewed to the square loops ; 1 chin-strap, the ends sewed to the square loops, and 
passing loose through the hitcbing-strap ring; 1 throat-strap, folded on itself, 
making two thicknesses, and forming at top a loop for the tbroat-band to pass 
through, and embracing in the fold at the other end 1 bolt, which holds 1 hitching- 
strap ring; 1 throat-hand passes loose through the loop in the throat-strap, and 
sewed to the cheek-rings; 1 hitching-straj), 6-} feet long ; 1 buckle No. 6 A, and 1 
"tanding-loop ; 1 billet, sewed to the buckle end by the same seam which hold.s the 
buckle. 

Saddle* 

All the leather is black bridle or harne.=s leather, and the buckles are malleable 
iron, blued. 

The Saddle is composed of 1 tree, 2 saddle-skirts, 2 stirrups, 2 stirrup-leathers, 1 
girth and girth-strap, 1 s^ircinglc, 1 crupper. 

Saddle-tree. — Wood (beech). — 1 pommel, made of 2 pieces framed together at 
top and glued; 1 entitle, formed of 2 pieces, like the pommel ; 2 side bars (poplar), 
each made of 3 pieces glued together: they are glued to the pommel and cantle, 
and fastened by 2 rivets No. 1, 2 burrs, and 4 nails — the burrs let in on the other 
side ; 1 strap-mortise in the pommel ; 3 strap-mortises in the cantle. 

There are three sizes of trees, varying in the length of the scat: 
No. 1, 11 inches length of seat, 1 -'^ per cent., ") 
AT 2 11^ " "' '• ""O " '- *'° ^'^ m.arked on the pommel orna- 

No. i \2 " " " 35 " j ™°"*- 



♦The sadillc used will conform to that known as .Tenifor's saddle. 



150 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Iron. — I pommel-arc, .1 inch Ibirk, with three small holes on top. fastened to the 
side Itars by 4 rivetK No. J ; 1 pommil-plnte, .1 inch thick, scini-circulnr, fiiFtenod to 
the front of iho ]>otunicl hy 4 riveU No. 1 ; 1 cantlc-arc, .1 inch thick, with '6 Hmull 
holed on lop fanl^nud t,o the side burs by 4 rirett No. 1 ; 1 caiitle-plale, .1 inch thick, 
faaleued to the rear of the cautle by 4 riictn No. 1 ; li itirrup-luopt, hinged in 2 iron 
ttrnpn, which arc fa^tencd to tiic siilc bars by 6 riirtu No. 1. 

The tree is ]juiutcd with one coat of while lead. It is covered with raw hide, put 
on wet and sewed with thongs of the same, and held in place by stitches through the 
wood along the junction of the pounx^ and cantlc with the side bars. The se*uia 
are made on the udgcs of the sidu bars, where they will not chafe the horse Dor 
rider. 

y ri'(i_f;« held by staples driven into the front ends of side bars ; '2 /uot-ilnph» for 
roat-siraps, fastened to the front of the pommel by 4 briin-»cre\ei No. 6, } inch; '2 
crxijiprr-riiiijK (japanned black), fastened by staples driven into the rear ends of side 
bars; 2 /oui-»lnj)lc», fastened to the rear of cuntle by 4 brant crrir* No. 6, j inch; 1 
rjvard-philf ; 1 pommel urnamriit, shield-shaped (shect-brass), fastened to the pom- 
mel, each by ',i ItraMt tcrrir-pint ; 6 yiiard-ptnlei, faftcncd to the cantlc by 12 icreie- 
pin* ; 2 foot-»taph-», fastened on the back strap by 4 tr(i»»-«cmrt No. 6, j-inch; I 
$itddlc-baij Hind, fastened on the back strap to the cantle-arc by 2 copper rip«t» No. 

iC. , ■ 

2 SADDLK-SKiiiTS (thick humess leather), fastened to the side bars by 38 bra— 
icreirs No. 6, j-inch ; 2 ita^-loupt for the saddle-bag straps, sewed to the rear edge 
of the skirts. 

2 STiRKcrs (hickory or oaic), made of one piece bent, the ends separated by 1 
trautum and fastened by 2 iron rirelt No. 2 B, 4 bum each ; 2 leather hood* (thick 
harness leather), fastened ih the stirrups by 12 copper rirtti No. ^ and bum—du- 
tauce of hood from nar of stirrup, 6 inches; 2 etiri-vp-itrapt — 2 bud-let No. 5 A; 2 
tUdiiiy-loopt — pass through ihc ^(i^^up-loops and through a hole cut in the skirt; 2 
Mirrttp-leiUhert (thick harness leather); 2 ttaHdiny-luop*. 

(iiUTU. — 2 girth-ttrapt pass over the pommel and cantlc-arcs, to which they are 
fattened by 4 copper rirett No. ^ C and 4 burr*: they are fastened to the side bars 
by 4 train terete* No. 6, j-iuch : the ends are sewed into 2 V-riuyt No. 1 A; 2 girtk- 
hiUett, sewed to the straight side of the U-riogs; 1 girth, 4.S inches (blue woolleD 
webbing); 1 chape, 1 buckie No. 2 A, 1 itanding-loop, and 1 *a/e on the off end, and 
1 chape, 1 bnckle No. 4 A, 1 D-ri'ii^ No. 1 A, 1 itand tug-loop, and 1 lo/t on the near 
aad : 1 *to tiding -lt><>p, on the middle. 

6 coAT-STRAi-s, 6 buvkUii No. 11 A, 6 tiop*: they pass through the mortisea in tbe 
pommel and cantle and the foot-stuples. 

Cakbink-thimdlij:. — 1 ttrap ; 1 l.uvkle No. 10 A, sewed to the socket: the tbimUe 
is buckled to the D-ring on the off side of the saddle. 

SiBCixGLE, 3.25 inches (blue woollen webbing;. — 1 chape, 1 buckle No. 4 A, and 1 
ttandiug-loop on one end, and 1 billet on the other; 1 billet-lining, sewed over the 
end of webbing to the billet ; 2 itattdiHg-loop* near the buckle end. 



SADDLE-BLANKET. 1*51 

Crupper. — 1 dock, made of a single piece and stuffed with hair, the ends sewed to 
the bodj' of the crupper; 1 body, split at one end, has sewed to it 1 chaj^e and 1 ring 
No. 3 A; '2 back afrapx : each has 1 biirkle No. 10 A and 2 sliduirj-hnpa : they pass 
through the rings of the side bars and the ring on the body of the crupper. 

Saddle- Bags. 

The saddle-bags are composed of 2 pouches and 1 grat, the ends of the scat sewed 
to the pouches. Each pouch has 1 bark, sj wed to the gusset and upper part of inner 
front with a welt; 1 gKsset, sewed to the back and to 1 outer and 1 inner front with a 
welt; 1 jJttp, sewed to the top of the back and to the seat by 2 senms ; 1 flapt-billet, 
sewed to the point of the flap; 1 chupc and 1 buckle No. 11 A, sewed to the outer 
front; 1 hillet and 1 buckle No. 11 A, sewed to the chape. The scat is sewed to the 
pouch by the same seams which join the flap to the back of the pouch. It has 2 
holes for the foot-staples, and 1 hole for the saddle-bag stud ; 2 key-strnps, sewed to 
the seat near its ends ; 4 lacing-thongs for the pouches. 

Saddle- Blanket. 

To be of pure wool, close woven, of stout yarns of a dark gray color, with a red 
border .3 inches wide, 3 inches from the edge. The letters C. S., 6 inches high, of 
orftnge color, in the centre of the blanket. Dimensions, 75 inches long, 67 inches 
wide. Weight, 3.1S75 lbs.; allowance in weight, 0.1S75 lb. 

Spurs (brass).— 2 spurs; 2 rowels; 2 rivets; 2 spur-slrops, 19 inches long; 2 
roller-buckles No. 11 B; 2 standing-loops. 

Length of heel— for No. 1, 3i inches; for No. 2, 3i inches, 1 . . , 
Width of heel " l,3i " " 2,3 « j '°«><i« 'measure. 

Length of shank to centre of rowel, 1 inch. 
Diameter of rowel, 0.85 inch. 
Weight of pair of spurs and straps, .57 lb. 

Horse-brush.— 1 body (ma]>le); Russia bristles; 1 cover, glued and fastened to 
the body by 8 screws No. 3; 1 hand-strap (fair leather), fastened to the sides of the 
body by 6 screws No. 5; 2 leather washers under the heads of screws. 

Bimeu'iions.— Body, 9.25 inches long, 4 inches wide, .5 inch thick ; cover, 0.1 
inch thick : bristles project .9 inch ; hand-strap, 2 inches wide. Weight, .57 lb. 

Currycomb (iron, japanned black).— 1 body (sheet- iron, 0.4), the top and bottom 
edges turned at right angles, forming 2 rows of teeth ; 3 double rows of teeth riveted 
to the body by 6 rivets; 1 c»-o«8-6rtr,. riveted across the top by 2 rivets; 1 handle- 
shank, riveted to the body 'by 3 rivets; 1 handle (wood), turned and painted, 
passes over the shank, and is held by the riveted end of the shank; \ ferrule, sheet- 
iron. 

Z»iweMs/ows.— Length, 4 inches: width, 4.75 inches; thickness, .75 inch; length 
of handle, 4 inches. Weight, .75 lb. 



163 ORDNAXCK MANUAL. 

PicKKT-PiN (iron, pnioted black). — The parts arc; the hodi/, the neck, the head, the 
ttccll, the point, 1 Inriui-riuij around the neck, 8-Fhapeti, the larj^cr ojiening for the 
lariat, 

Dimentiun: — Length, 14 inches; diameter at ewcll. 4 inches from point, .75 
inch ; at ni>ck, Sy inch ; at heacl, 1 inch. Lariat-ring, .yinch wire, welded. Interior 
diameter, 1 inch. Weight of piii, 1.25 pounds. 

Lahiat. — Best hemp li-inch rope, 30 feet long, of 4 strands, an eye splicod in 
one end, the other end whipped with small twine. Weight, 2.3n lbs. 

Link. — 1 nlmp, embracing in the fold at one end 1 spring-hook, and at the other 
1 buckle No. 10 A and 1 billet. Weight, .2 lb. • 

Nose-bag, same as that described page 143. 

Inspection of Harness and Horse Equipments. 

The inspection is made before the parts arc assembled. For the conrenicnce of 
the inspector, the diflTorenl parts are arranged in 8e]>arate piles. 

Materials. — The quality of the materials is first examined. 

The leather should he firm, elaitic and plinhlr, and should be smcoth and shaved 
to a firm surface on the flesh side. If it feel hard and horny to the hand, or, being 
bent, it cracks in the grain, or, when cut, it exhibits a hard an<l i-hining texture, it 
is an indication that the leather ha« not been tanned sufficiently, and it should ^le 
rejected. Leather which bos been tanned with hemlock should not be received. 
The traces, the breast-straj) and pole-strap, and straps generally, should be made of 
tho strongest leather, and the saddle-skirls of the thi<'kest leather. 

The nialltahlf iron parts should be tested by taking some jiieees and bending them 
back and. forth to see that they have the requisite toughness. 

WoiiKMANsnii'. — Tho saddle-trees should be inspected before they are covered, 
that it may be seen that the proper kind and quality of wood has been used, that 
the framing of the parts is well done and secured, that the surface ie smooth, the 
angels rounUcd, and that the irons arc properly fastened. 

No old or brash wood should be used. 

Examine tho edges of the different parU of leather, that they are well blacked 
and rubbed smooth ; that the seams are at the proper distances from the edges, 
according to the width of the parts: that the splices and laps are. of the proper 
length: that the stitching is neatly done with a uniform length of stitch : that the 
thread is well waied, and the ends, whenever they occur, secured with a double 
knot. 

Examine the collars, that they are stuffed compactly. Especial care is to be 
taken to see that no lumps or irregularities occur on tne belly, or part which comes 
against the shoulders of the horse. 

See that the billets pass freely through the loops, that the holes are punched at 
the proper distance from each other in the central line of the billet, and that they 
just admit the tongue of the buckle with ease and no more. 



IIORSESUOES AND NAILS. 153 

Observe the rollers of such buckles as have them, that they work freely, and are 
sufficiently stiff not to be flattened. 

See that the seams of the raw hide covering the tree are well made and will not 
chafe the horse or rider; that the skirts arc thinned down where they are fastened 
to the trees, the screw-heads are well sunk, and there is as little unevenness at this 
place as possible : that the stirrups are well riveted at top, and the wood is not split 
by the rivet. 

Examine the bits, that tbey are ma<le of the proper materials: that the mouth- 
pieces are forged solid ; that they and the cross-bars are firmly fitted to the chcek- 
j)ieces; that the curb-rings work freely and are properlj' shouldered to keep them 
in place; that the watering-bits are free from cracks or ilaws at the joint of the 
mouth-piece. 

Sec that the blueing is, in all cases, of a uniform dark blue color, free from any 
yeHow tinge. 

The general characteristics of all the work should be neatness and strength. 

All the parts are fiuallj' measured and verified, to see that they conform in shape 
and dimensions to the established patterns. 

Preservation of Harness in Store. 

The storehouses should be well ventilated, not too dry, but free from dampness. 
The different articles should be arranged according to kind and class, separated or 
in bundles according to their nature, so placed as to touch each other and the walls 
as little as possible, having a free circulation of air about them : — saddles on trestles 
or bars — collars hung on pins — hames witb'their straps, and traces with chains and 
hooks, hung up; the traces hanging vertically — side pipes and lielly-hands piled on 
the floor or on shelves — surcingles and brenst-strapa stretched on racks — halters, 
bridleSf reins, etc., hung up in bundles of five or ten — hames-sfraps, collar-strains, etc., 
hung up in bundles of ten or twenty — bits, curb-chains, trace-hooks, in boxes. 

All these articles should be examined and cleaned at least fpur times a year. 

The leather articles are brushed and greased with neat's-foot oil, as often as their 
condition requires : if they have a reddish hue, mix a little lampblack with the oil. 
First brush the leather carefully, then pass over it a sponge wet with lukewarm 
water; grease it slightly on the hair-side, applying the oil with a soft brush before 
the leather is quite dry. In general, new leather is not greased until it has been 
in store three years, unless it should be found to require it. Iron parts which are 
not japanned or tinned, or from which the coating is rubbed off, are greased with 
tallow. 

Horseshoes and Nails. 

The principal parts of the shoes are the two fuces ; the two edges, the inner and 
outer; the toe, the front part; the quarters uniting the too with the heels — the ful- 
lering, the crease in which the nail-holes are made: there are generally eight holes; 
the calls, projections at the extremities of the heels on the lower face: they serve 



154 OUDNANCK MANUAL. 

principally to prevent the horse from slipping: they ghonid be used with osntion ; 
the rlip, A kind of olaw on the outer C(l>;o of the shoe, gt-ncrnlly on the toe of the 
hind fool, HometinieK on the outer quarter, in which case a pmiill one is made on the 
inner one: they are used to keep the shoo in place and to guard the hoof; thr bevrl, 
the concavity of the upi)er face, that the iron may in no case rest on the arch of the 
sole of the foot. 

The hind shoes are generally a liitle thicker and broader at the toe than the front 
shoes. The front shoes are punchcil nearer the toe, the hind shoes nearer, the 
heels. 

The principal parts of the nail arc the hcod, the body, and the poini. The heaik 
onght to fit into the fullering: the blade near the head should not be too thin: it 
hu a slight curve near the point, that it may turn out instead of going into the 
foot Reject those nails that are split or have flaws. 

Soft iron is best adapted for horseshoes. 

Horseshoes made by machinery are gonerally furnished to the artillery. There 
ure four niies, viz : 

Dimcntioii' ■••••I Wi iijhti uf Uor»c»hort. 

In. In. Lbs. 

fNo. 1. lAiigth, i.75 Width, 4.5 Weight, 0.S76 

,, , , 2. " 6 " 4.75 •' 1.0 

Iront sLoc j 3 .. j 35 " 5.75 " 1.1«75 

[ A. " 6.6 " 5.1 " 1.4:175 

I 1. " 5.25 " 4.0 " 0.875 

,,. , , 2. " 5.5 " 4.2 " 1.0 

"'"^ *''"^" I 3. " 6.5 " 4.25 " 1.1 K75 

( 4. " 6.1 " 5.75 " 1.4376 

_ . ., (2. 112 naiU • 1.0 

Horseshoe nails < „ ..„ „ ."10 

General Directions for Shoeing Horses. 

The shoe should be forged to fit the form of the foot: it should project on the 
outside at the end of the heel about its thickness, beginning at the lart bole; should 
be flush with the hoof at the toe and on the inside; the heels generally short and 
thin. The holes in the outer quarter should be farther from the edge, and in the 
inner quarter nearer the edge; in the front shoe nearer the toe, and in the hind 
shoe nearer the heel. Make the lower face of the shoe perfectly flat, and try it on 
an iron table. The shoe should bear equally all around on the wall of the foot, and 
not at all on the sole. 

A judicious preparation of the foot for the shoe is 01 the greatest importance, 
strict attention being paid to its peculiarities. 

Cut away the wall no mure than is necessary to make the eh<je fit; pare the sol* 
and the frog ^ery sparingly; in using the buttress, place it flat on the fuot, and cut 
oflT the hoof evenly. The whole thickness of the wall should be left perfectly flat 



SHOEING HORSES. 155 

or the bearing of the shoe, which should never rest on the sole. The bars should 
nevQr be pared except in cases of contracted feet, and then with judgment. 

Do not apply the shoe to the foot when too warm; keep it there but for a short 
time. Drive the nails in the sound hoof and rivet them solidly, all at the same 
height. 

In rasping the rivets, do not touch the wall of the foot : it weakens the foot. 
When a nail binds, draw it out and take another. If the horse suddenly jerks his 
foot after a blow of the hammer, withdraw the nail immediately. 

Shoes .should not be allowed to remain on more than five weeks, when they should 
be removed, the useless hoof pared off and the shoe replaced if it be still good. 
This should be regulated by the length of the hoof rather than by the wear of the 
shoe. In removing shoes, take caro to raise the clenches first, that the crust may 
not be torn or portions of the nail left in the hoof. It is better to remove the shoes 
one at a time as the new shoe is ready to be put on. 

Rough shoeing differs from ordinary shoeing only in the form of the nails, the 
heads being longer and more pointed. 

The shoe used in all other services is to be preferred to that in use in ours. It 
has no fullering, but each hole is countersunk to receive the head of the nail, which 
is less apt to be broken off, as it is well supported on all sides : the shoe is not 
weakened by fullering. 



1 r.fi 



ORDNANCE MA N HAL. 



Harness required for each Morse. 



i 


1 

WUEKUSa. 


1 




New 

Sido. 


Off 
Bide. 



NMir 
Side. 



Pair of traoos. 



lliilt«r 

ItridK- 

('"iiplinp-strap 

I*rivcr"c Huchlle 

Viitiffp-taddic 

VHlidc 

("'illiir iinil collarntrai) 

Humes and 8lra[> iiml 2 (urninf^-straps. . 

( Whoi-l 

( Lcitilin^ 

Trace-loops and bcllv-l'aiiil 

, . . 1 . I < Wheel .. 

Loin-strapi' and trace loctpi". • , ,. _ 
' ' ( Leading.. 

Crupper 

nrocohinj; iind hip-ftrnp 

I<rcai<l-Rtra)> 

l.ejf -jjuard 

Whip 

N iiKi'-liap 

r<ile-8trHp (on the carriapc-pole) 

I'olc-pad " " 



Weight 



■{ 



For each horse 
Set for 2 horsei. 



Lbi. 

59.82 



Lbs. 

.'.4.0 



113.82 



Off 
Bide. 



L 

60 47, 

»9..17 



(Wtiikt. 



Lbt. 

8.0 

S.0 

0.» 

16.2ft 

T.rs 

4.S 

4.25 

9.75 
lL7ft 
1. 

0.7ft 
0.87ft 
0.7S 
3.6 
4.76 
2.00 
O.Sft 
1.12 
2. 
1.0 



HARNESS. 

Buckles, Loops, Rings, and Staples. 



157 



DE8IGSATI0S. 



INTERIOR 
DIMENSIONS. 



THE FRAME. 



Widtli. Length.! Width. 



Thick- \- .2i 



Buckles.. 



No. 


1 B 


No. 


2 A 


No. 


a 


No. 


4 


No. 


4A 


No. 


4U 


No. 


6A 


No. 


6 


No. 


7 A 


No. 


8 


No. 


8B 


No. 


9 


X(i. 


10 


N... 


10 A 


No. 


10 B 


No. 


11 A 


No. 


HB 



Loops. 



D-riugs 



No. IB 

No. 2 A 

No. 3 

No. 4 

No. 4 B 

No. 5 

No. 6 B 

No. 7 B 



(No. lA 
••\No. 2B 



fNo. 1 

No. 1 A 

I No. 2 

Rings ■; No. 3 

I No. 3 A 

No. 4 

No. 5 



Staples.... J 



No. 1 



No. 2 A 
No. 3 • 



Halter-bolt 

Saddle-bag stud 
Link-hook 



Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


2.5 


1.3 


.4 






2.0 


1.1 


.25 


Round. 


"".'25" 


1.75 


2.5 


.4 


Round. 




1.5 


0.9 


.2 


Round. 




1.5 


1.0 


.25 


Round. 


.25 


1.5 


1.6 


.3 


.18 


.24 


1.375 


2.0 


.325 


.175 


.25 


1.25 


.8 


.2 


Round. 




1.125 


2.0 


.3 


.175 


.25 


1.0 


.8 


.16 


Round. 




1.0 


1.2 


.25 


.125 


.2 


.88 


.7 


.10 


Round. 




.75 


.6 


.15 


Round. 




.75 


1.35 


.225 


.125 


.2 


.75 


.9 


.2 


.r. 


.14 


.625 


1.15 


.2 


.125 


.175 


.625 

( 1.9 1 

1 1.6 f 

1.6 




.185 






1.4 


Round. 




1.2 


.3 


.25 




1.5 


1.25 


.25 


Round. 




1.4 


0.9 


.175 


Round. 




1.4 


1.1 


.185 


Round. 




1.25 


.8 


.2 


Round. 




1.126 


.5 


.185 


Round. 




1.0 
1.85 


.45 

1.85 


.2 
.325 


Round. 
.25 






1.125 


.8 


.185 


Round. 




1.7 


Round. 


2 


Round. 




1.7 


Round. 


!25 


Round. 




1.3 
1.25 


Round. 
Round. 


.15 
.13 


Round. 
Round. 






1.25 


Round. 


.2 


Ronud. 




1.1 


Round. 


.18 






1.0 


Round. 


.21 






1.25 


2.3 


.2 


Round. 


Diam'r 
of Foot. 


.9 


.3 


.2 




.4 


.88 


.6 


.1 




Diam'r 
of Head. 


1.2 




.25 


Round. 


.4 
Diam'r 




Foot. 








of Knob. 


0.4 


1. 


.225 


Round. 


.4 


Eye. 










1.1 


.2 


.4 


1.75 







For the oarbino-sling. 
With roller. 

Those marked A are made of 
malleable iron; B, made 
of brass. 

Size of round for strap, .3 .\ .2 
inch. 



With roller. 



Cast with a shank. 



Plated with brass. 



Foot-staples, held by screws. 



Made of iron wire doubled. 



158 



("UKNANCE MAM AL. 



/tintrnsions of the Principal Leather Parts of ArtHlrrif Unrnrsa. 
irifh the \umher and Size of Burkles. 



' rrown-pi<«<»«« I 



II M r I II 



i( ^irii|> 



Thr<>at-liu<b. 



ItHini.R. 



rr<>wn-i>irro 

Tlirout larli 

]tri>«r.l<iiii<l 

( heck -Ftrap* 

Uilli-t* f<ir rb(«k-»trap»< 

I ^ll<>rt 

Hillcl* for rcinii 

Cou|ilinf:-i>lr«pt 

Billelj for do l'""K' 



io. j '""«• 
{ fbfirl 



Dritkk'i 
Saddlk. 



Skiru 

Billrt for rollar-ttrap 

Ptirrup-lcBtlicri 

{ Tr»cfl.M.|. I.il|pi» 

I ifirtb-bilUl 



Girth. .' f*^"^' P*''- 
I ( long pari . 



Valisk- 

8 A ••LB. 



f SkiiU 

Oirth 

<;•-' ' " • 

■I 

h 

Cruppcr-Mrap 
ValiM-rtrapt . 



■trap 



fBodv , 

Ends 

Inner flap 

Vauss. •{ Strmp fur flap , 

I Cover 
Buckle-ftrapt 
BiU*U for buckle-atrapt , 



Cat. 



riii- 



n*. 



WlMk. 



In. 

I.S& 

1.2.'. 
1 . 1'.'. 
1.2i 
1.2& 
1.16 
1. 

i.n 

.T6 

1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 

14. 
1.S5 
l.h 
l.tb 
1.& 

i.9 

S.8 

i: 
1. 

1. 

1.2S 
l.li 
I.U 
1. 

18. 
«.U 
4. 

.88 
10. 

.86 
.88 



In. 

30. 
12. i 
21. 
IX. & 
12. 
13. & 
44. 

26. 

23. 

23. 

12. & 

10. 

68. 

46. 

11. 



26. 1 


M. 


10. 


10. 


24. 


24. 


14. 


12. 


66. 


&6. 


18. 


18. 


22. ) 
20. 


38. 


38. 


88. 



21. 

30. 

20. 

16. 

14. 

10.5 

48. 

26. 

r.i& 

16. 
18. 
20.3 

4. 

7.5 



la. 

.to. 

8. 

16. 

14. 
6.26 
6.36 

42. 

26. 
IV. 6 
16. 
8.6 
10. 
64. 
44. 
11. 



16. 
12. 
4.6 
46. 



18. 



la. 



1.26 



1. • 



.74 

I. 

1. 
I. 

1. 



1.6 



1.6 



1 1.26 



u 



HARNESS. 



169 



Dimensions of Leather Parts of Artillery Harness. — Continued. 



i 



Cut. 



No. Width. 



Leg-Giahd. 



Body 

Foot-strap . 
Leg-straps. 



f Collar-billets . . • 

r, I Tracc-luffs 

Collar and ~ . * . 
Hames. Truss.ng-.straps 

ilarness-strayp. . 
;^ Collar-strap ... 



Traces 

AND 

Straps. 



f Wheel-traces. . . 
Leading-traces. 
Trace-loops. . . . 

Bellj'-band 



Loin-straps 



f wheel. . 
leading. 



I 



' I layer 



loops 



Crupper. 



f Dock 

] Body 

I Layer for body. 
[ Back-strap . . . . 



Breeching. - 



Breech-?trap 

Layer for breech-strap. 

Tugs 

Safes 

I Hip-strap 

[ Breast-strap 





In. 


In. 


In. 




1 


17. 


20.5 






1 


.88 


14. 


14. 




4 


.75 


26. 


24. 


4 


2 


•1. 


11. 


11. 


2 


2 


1.75 


17. 


7. 




2 


1. 


34. 


32. 


2 


1 


1.25 


21. 


18. 


1 


1 


1.25 


15. 


9. 


1 


2 


J. 75 


^0. 


50. 




2 


1.75 


96. 


96. 




2 


1.25 


21. 


9. 


2 


fl 


1.25 


31. 


25. 


1 


M 


1.25 


16. 


13. 






1.25 


4«. 


48. 






1.25 


60. 


60. 






1.25 


6. 


6. 






1.25 


23. 


10. 


2 




3.5 


14. 


14. 


2 




1.75 


20. 


20. 


1 




1.25 


10. 


10. 






1.25 


31. 


31. 






2.5 


48. 


42. 


2 




1.75 


50. 


42. 






1.25 


13. 


6. 


4 




2.25 


6. 


6. 






2.5 


48. 


48. 






1.75 









In. 

0.75 

1. 

1. 

1.25 

1.25 



1.25 
1.25 



1.25 

.88 
1.25 



1.75 
1.25 



Leather, etc., required for 1 set of Wheel and 1 set of Leading 
Harness, for 2 Horses each. 



Harness leather 7 sides. 

Bridle " 4 " 

Collar " 2 " 

Goat (morocco) skins 1 

Sheep-skins, russet 2 

" black 1 

Hemp webbing 3 yds. 

Cotton ticking 3 " 

" drilling 2 " 



Tow linen 1 ydl 

Cotton batting 2 lbs. 

Deers' hair i " 

Rye straw 24 " 

Tacks, assorted 4 M. 

Finishing nails h gross. 

Shoe thread 2 lbs. 

One side of collar leather 

makes 14 whips. 



IGO 



OKDNANCE MANUAL. 









n 

SB 



n 



1^ 



■}ac oao 
JO Jaqinil)( 



lli^ 



•<•< 

O" 






16 



ji 

i. 



1 13 I * 

Ik! 



K 









Ok -4 C2^<^e'vf'*'e'Ae4ieW«^eJ<rf« 



* ?t ic •« 4 ti 



3S 






S: ^,5£ 



» if-=-^ = 






* ! ! 






2 :i^ 



I- — 2 t t - 



C sisCC^- C C^ <K- y Pss-aSx -xxxl w 5 






DIMENSIONS OF PARTS OF CAVALRY EQUIPMENTS. 



161 






e E. 



•J9S 3UO 

.loj sj.iiid 
JO .laqiunj^ 



5 



•^ 00 c« to ■^' irj O C^ i-^ O W CO W "C t-^ -jJ irj CO CC CC M -t X O CJ C^ I- ci I* »o O r4 to c^ 
-; ^ ,-1 rt CO i-< in CO i-H d —ir-lrl 



<C^(M(N<NC^lMe'>C^C^(N« 




^ 3 IB » « *j ^ 




11 



162 ORDNANCE MANUAL. !>r»n\v 



C 5 A p T E R Seventh 



PAINTS, L A C Iv i: R S , ETC 



COMPOSITION AND PREPARATION. 

The proportions arc given for 100 parts by weijrht of prepared colors, etc., when 
not otherwise designated. 

A gallon of linseed oil weighs 7.6 

" spirits of turpentine 7.25 

" Japan varnish 7. 

" sperm oil 7.12 

" ncat's-foot oil , . . . . 7.43 

Boiled Oil. 

Raw linseed oil 103. 

Copperas '• 3.15 

Litharge 8.3 

Pat the copperas and litharge in a cloth bag and suspend it in the middle of the 
kettle. Boil the oil 4^ hours, with a slow, even fire, so that it may nut be burned; 
then let it stand and deposit the sediment. 
• 

Dryings. 

Mixture of copperas and*litharge taken from the boiled oil 60 

Spirita of turpentine 56 

Boiled oil 2 

The mixture taken from the boiled oil to be ground, and mixed with the turpea- 
tine and oil. 

Putly. 

{For fiUintj craclcM in toood.) 

Spanish whiting, pnlrerited Sl.tf 

Boiled oil 20.4 

Made into a stiff paste. If not intended for immediate use, raw oil should be ( 

aa the puttj made with boiled oil hardeos quick Ij. 



OLIVE PASTE. 163 

Aiiofher kind of piitli/ for the same piir;ii.s\' is made by mixing fine sifteil oak saw- 
dust with linseed oil which has been boilod until it assumes a glutinous consistency. 

White Paint. 

For inside work. For outside work. 

White lead, ground in oil 80 80 

Boiled oil 14.5 9 

Haw oil 9 

Spirits of turpentine 8 4 

Grind the white lead in the oil, and add the spirits of turpentine. 

New wood work requires about 1 lb. to the square yard for three coats. 

Lead Color. 

White lead, ground in oil '...75. 

Lampblack 1. 

Boiled linseed oil 2?>. 

Litharge 0.5 

Japan varnish 0.5 

Spirits of turpentine 2.5 

The lampblack and the litharge arc ground separatclj' upon the stone, in oil, then 
stirred into the white lead and the oil; the turpentine and varnish are added as the 
paint is required for use, or when it is packed in kegs for transportation. 

• • Black Paint. 

Lampblack ., 28 

Litharge 1 

Japan varnish 1 

Linseed oil, boiled 73 

Spirits of turpentine 1 

Grind the lampblack in oil; mix it with the oil, then grind the litharge in oil and 

add it, stirring it well with the mixture. The varnish and turpentine are added last. 

The paint is used for the iron work of carriages. 

Olive Paste. 

Yellow ochre, pulverized 68. 

Lampblack 1.1 

Boiled oil 37. 

Spirits of turpentine 0.4 

Make a thick paste with the ochre and oil, in a paint pot, and with the lampblack 
and oil in another; grind them together in small portions, and keep the mixture in 
a tin vessel. 



164 ORDNANCE MANUAT-. 

Liquiff Olive Color. 

OHre pa!<f« 61.5 

H..il.d ..il 29.5 

RpirilK of turponlinc 5.5 

DryinK* ^-^ 

Japan varnish 2. 

Slirrod together in a paint pot. 

Liquid Olive Color. 

Yellow ochre (French) <". 

Boiled oil (raw, 45) 40. 

LithHrRo 5 

Lampblack J 

Spirit!" of turjiontinc 5 

Jnpiin viirninh 1 

liroirn Paint for Iron Carritigis. 

Iron paint. 

Ppirit.s of turjicntino. 

Jirainard's Paint. 

Diitgolrc 10 lbi>. of rhrllac in 10 f^a. of boilinj; water, addinf; SO oi. of tal vrmtiu. 
Mix thix solution with an e<|ual quanlitj of paint prepared in the utnal maonvr. 
This paint is ecuuuuiical and durable. 

Paint for WindoiQ^Glass. 

Add .25 01. of beot ehromt grren to 1 lb. tngnr «/ Uad, ground fine, in sufficient 
linseed oil to moisten it : mix \o the coofiitency of common paint, and apply it with 
a soft brush. No drying material is required. The glass should be well cleaned 
before the paint is applied. 

The above quantity is sufficient for about 200 feet of glass. 

Whiting and Pru.^sian blue may be used for the same purpose. 

Gray or Stone Color for Buildings. 

Ist coat. 2d coat 

White lead, in oil 7S 1 00. 

Boiled oU 9.5 20. 

Raw oil 9.5 2«. 

Spirits of turpentine 3. 

Turkey umber 0.5 

Lampblack 0.25 0.25 

Yellow ochre 3. 

Mixed like the lead color. 



LACKER FOR IRON ORDNANCE. 165 

A aquaro yard of new brick work requires, for two coats, 1.1 lb. ; for three coats, 
]..^lb. 

Cream Color for Buildings. 

Ist coat. 2d coat. 

White lead, in oil 66.66 70. 

French yellow 3. ."•.''> 3. .33 

Japan varnish 1.33 1.33 

Raw oil 2S 24.5 

Spirits of turpentine 2.25 2.25 

A square yard of new brick work requires, for first coat, 0.75 ; for ,«econd coat, 
0.3 lb. 

Yellow- Wash for Buildings. 

Dissolve 1 lb. of pulverized copperas in 8 gals, of water ; let it stand twenty-four 
hours, stirring it two or three times from the bottom; use this for .slaking the lime, 
and thinning it to the consistency of ordinary whitewash; add h3'draulic cement 
equal in quantity to the lime used, and of clean sand i gal. to 15 gals, of wash. Stir 
it frequently, to prevent the sand from settling. 

The walls should be first well cleaned of dust and thoroughly wet from the rose 
of a watering pot, and the w.ish applied immediately after, beginning at the top, 
laying on the coat horizontall}' and finishing it vertically. 

Before leaving the work, at any time, finish the course to a joint in the wall, to 
prevent making a mark in the color where the two courses join. 

This wash has been known to last for fifteen years without requiring renewal. 

For a, gray or stone color, add lampblack previously deadened with whiskey. 

Lacker for Iron Ordnance. 

1. — Black lead, pulverized 12 

Red lead 12 

Litharge 5 

Lampblack 5 

Linseed oil 66 

Boil it gentlj' about twenty minutes, during which time it must be constantly 
stirred. 

2. — Umber, ground 3.75 

Gum shellac, pulverized 3.75 

Ivory-black 3.75 

Litharge 3.75 

Linseed oil 78. 

Spirits of turpentine 7.25 

The oil must be first boiled half an hour. The mixture is then boiled 24 hours, 
poured oflF from the sediment, and put in jugs, corked. 



166 OUDNANCE MANUAL. 

3. — Toal t«r (of good quality) 2 fiJ«. 

SpirilH lurpt'iiiinc 1 pint. 

Tho liirpcntiiic to he added iu small ijuantitics during tbc apfdication of the 
lacker. 

Ill npplyinj; lacker, the Riirfacc of the iron nni»t he first elenncd with a aerapor 
and a wire l)rui<li, if iieppuxary, and the lacker a]i)>lied hid, in two thin coat), wkb a 
puint briisb. It in bci<t done in utimincr, when the metal in heated by the inn'p 
rays, with gloves made of vheep-skin, the wool turned outward, cut .4 inch long, 
tho thumb alone being free. 

Old lacker should be removed with a scraper, or by scouring, and not by heating 
tho guns or balls, by which the metal is injured. 

About 5 gallons of lacker are reipiircd for 100 field guns and 1,000 shot; about 
1 quart for a sea-coast gun. 

Lacker for Iron Ordnance (iiHod in tlio Hritinh service). 

Anti-corrosiun 40 lbs. 

Grant's black, ground in oil 4 " 

Ucd lead, a» a dryer 3 '• 

Lini<ccd oil 4 gals. 

Spirits uf tur]>cDtino 1 pint. 

This mixture, when well stirred and incorporultd. will be fit for use; but as br 

long keeping in this stale it becomes hard, no more should b« mixed than uay b« 

required for immediulo use. 

A Hti-corroiitin. — Slag from iron foundries, pounded 12 

(' lialk 12 

Soot, eommoo • 1 

Lacker for Small Anns, or for Water-proof Paper. 

Beeswax 13 lbs. 

Spirits turpentine 13 galls. 

Boiled linseed oil 1 gall. 

.\ll the ingredients thould be pore and of the best quality. Heat them together 
iu a cupper or eurlheu vessel, over a gentle fire, in a water-bath, until they arc well 
mixed. 

Lacker for bright Iron Work. 

Linseed oil, boiled M.5 

Litharge 5.5 

While lead, ground in oil 11.25 

Rosin, pulverised 2.75 

.\dd tho lithar;;c t<> the oil: let it simaaer over a slow fire 3 hoars : strain it, aa^ 



VARNISH FOR HOLSTERS, SCABBARDS, ETC. 167 

add the rosin and white lead; keep it gently warmed, and stir it until the rosin is 
dissolved. Apply it with a paint brush. 

Planto7i's Composition for Wood or Iron. 

Rosin, pulverized • 48 

Shellac, " 2 

Charcoal or cannel coal, pulverized 16 

Spirits turpentine 1 

The shellac may be replaced by double the quantity of beeswax. The rosin and 
shellac are melted in an iron vessel over the fire; the charcoal is then added and 
stirred briskly until the whole is well inttrmixed, after which the turpentine is 
added and stirred until it is well incorporated with the other ingredients. 

Black Stain for Wood. 

Copperas ] lb. 

Nutgalls 1 " 

Sal ammoniac 0.25 lb. 

Vinegar 1 gall. 

Stir it occasionally, and it will bo ready for use in a few hours. 
Clean and make smooth the surface, filling the cracks with black putty, which 
should be allowed to harden. Apply the stain two or three times, and leave it a 
day or two to dry; then rub it with boiled oil until it is polished. 
The stain will be of a bluish color till the oil is applied. 
This forms a cheap and durable preservative for wood. 

Varnish for Holsters, Scabbards, etc. (or Patent Leather). 

{For first and second coats.) 

Prussian blue, in lumps 4. 

Sugar of lead 0.7 

Aqua fortis 0.7 

Linseed oif, boiled 70. 

Spirits turpentine 24.6 

The ingredients, except the turpentine, are boiled together in an iron kettle eight' 
hours, when the mixture will assume a brilliant black color. When the varnish is 
nearly cool, stir in the turpentine. The kettle in which the varnish is made should 
be of a capacity to hold double the quantity of varnish to be boiled. 

{For the third or fnlshing coat — CoPAL Varnish.) 

Gum copal (in clean lumps) 26.5 

Boiled linseed oil 42.5 

Spirits turpentine 31. 

This varnish is made in a cop2)cr vessel, smallest at top, in the form of a still. 



yn ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Put the copal in Iho vessel, set it on a rbarcoal fire for one hour, in which time it 
will melt, and all the watery particles will evaporate. Add the oil while the eupal 
ii warm, hut not boiling hot. When nearly cool, add the turpcntiuc, which will 
giro it a proper cuoiiiKleDry for Uf>e. 

For f) Ihn. copal and the jiroper proportions of oil antl turpcntiuc, the vessel 

should hol.i n gallons. 

■Jiipan Varnish. 

Lithar(;e 4 

Boiled oil »7 

Spirits turpentine 2 

Rod lead 8 

V mbcr 1 

Gum shellac H 

Sugar of lead 2 

White vitriol ' 1 

Japan varnish is genaraily |iurcba«ed from the paint pellem. It is made by boil- 
ing over a slow charcoal fire, for fiva hours, all the ingredients, except the turpen- 
tine and a small purlinn of the oil; the latter is added ax rc<|iiired, to check the 
ebullition and allay the froth which rises to the surface. It must bo continually 
•tirred with a wooden spatula, and great cure is necessary to prevent it from taking 
fire. 

The turpentine is added after the varnish is nearly cool, and it is litirrcd well in. 
The vurniiih uiu^t bo ]>ut in demijohns, or close cane, and kept tightly corked. 

Dye for Blacking Belts. 

Extract of logwood 2 Iba. 

Broken nutgalls 0.5 lb. 

Pyrolignate of iron 0.5 pint. 

Soft water 1 gall. 

The logwood and nutgalls are boiled in the wak«r till the logwood is dissolved. 
When cold, add the pyrolignate of iron. Stir it well and let it settle. When clear, 
decant it free from sediment and keep it well corke^^ 

The pyrolignate of iron is made by dissolving iron filings in pyroligneoas acid — 
as much as the acid will take up. 

The addition of the logwood is not essential. 

A solution of copperas may replace the pyrolignate of iron, but it is not so good. 

Kit. 

Compotition. — 9 rosin, 6 pitch, 6 beeswax, 1 tallow. To be melted together and 
poured into water; then worked with the hands until it becomes soft and pliable. 



QUANTITY OF PAINT FOR A CARRIAGE. 



169 



Pitch Cement. > 

Lbs. Oz. 

Bee?wax - 3 

Pitch 2 

Rosin 1 

Turpentine 1 

Brick dust 9 

The materials for the cement are melted successively over a slow fire, and the 
brick dust is stirred in last. 

Grease for Carriage ^Vheels. 

Iloffii' lard, softened (if fresh) by working it. 

If this cannot be procured, tallow or other grease may be used ; if hard, it should 
be melted with fish oil. 

About 1 lb. of grease is required for four wheels. 

Booth's Patent Grease for Railway Axles. 

Water 1 gall. 

Clean tallow 3 lbs. 

Palm oil 6 " 

Common soda i lb. 

Or, Tallow 8 lbs. 

Palm oil 10 " 

To be heated to about 210°, and to be well stirred until it cools down to 70°. 

Quantity of Paint required for a Carriage. 



KIKD OF CARRIAGE. 



Lead 
color. 



Olive. 



Black. 



Field gun-carriage and limber, with implements- 
Caisson, with limber and implements, etc 

Forge, with limber 

Battery-wagon, with limber 

Casemate carriage and chassis, wooden 

Barbette carriage and chassis, wooden 



Lbs. 


Lbs. 


6 


10 


8 


15 


6 


10 


7 


13 


7 


14 


6 


11 



Lbs. 

0.75 

0.8 

1. 

0.9 

0.75 

1. 



A priming of lead color and two coats of olive color are applied to new wood 
work, and 1 coat of load color and 1 of black, to the iron work. 



170 ORDNANCE MANUAL. HTf.fc'iv' 



C II A P T K R E I G II T II . 



SMALL ARMS, SWORDS, SABRES & ACCOUTREMENTS. 



SMALL ARMS. 

The i-mnll arms addjitoil for ccrvice are : 
Thf rifle musket, model 185.0. 
The rifle musket, model 1842. 
The rifle, model 1&.')5. 

The Rifle, model 1S42, reamed out to .5S inch. 

No model has yet been adopted for a carbine for the cavalry service; screral 
different patterns are now in the hands of the troops. 
A rtpeating pittol is issued to th« cavalry. 

Rijie Musket, model 1855. (Plates 24, 25, 2G.) 

NOMENCLATURE.* 

Barrel. — Mutzle; l)ai/<>iirl-$fiid ami front tight, breech, flats, bevels and OTal, 
cone-seat, vent, vent-screw, cone-screw thread, vent-screw thread, rear-^ight mor- 
tise, rear-side screw-hole, bore, grooves, lands. The exterior phape of this barrel 
tapers with a gentle re-ciilcring curve from the breech to the muztle. That portion 
of the flat in rear of the cor.e-seat is parallel to the axis of the bore. 

Breccli-gcreir. — Plug with threads (16 to the inch;, tenon, shoulders, tang, tang- 
screw hole, bevel. 

Itenr eiijht (steel). — liatr ; fence, offsets, ears, screw-hole, joint, groove for barrel, 
steady-pin ; 1st lenf: body, cars, screw-holes, sight-notch, graduation-mark ; 2d 
leaf: body, tenon, screw-hole, sight-notches, graduation-marks; joint-icrew : item 
head, slit, and thread. 

Bane-screw. — Stem, head, holes, thread. 

Tanif'tcreir. — Shoulder. 

Cotie (steel). — Screw-thread, shoulder, square, nipple, vent. 

Bai/unct. — Blade (steel): point, face flute, back flutes, edges of back and blade, 
bevels, elbow, neck ; socket (iron) : muzzle end, bridge end, bridge, mortise, shoulder 
for clasp, stop-pin ; clatp (iron) : body, stads, bridge, groove, stop, clasp-screw. 

• The Maynard primer having been abandoned, all that relates to the magazine is intended to 
be omitted. 



RIFLE MUSKET. 171 

Lock. — Lnck-plate ; front and rear ends, sides, cone-seat notch, bolster, main- 
spring notch, chamfer, bevel, 5 holes for the jiivots of the main spring and bridle, 
arbor of the tumbler, 7 screw-holes, mortise for sear-spring stud; hammer: body, 
crook, heail, comb, checking, countersink, cutter, slit, tumbler-hole; tttmh/cr (steel) : 
body, friction-shoulder, arbor, square, pivot, swivel-arm, swivel-slot and pin-holes, 
half-cock notch, cock notch, screw-hole ; bridle : body, eye, pivot, 3 holes for tum- 
bler-pivot, sear-scrCw, and bridle-screw : Iridle-scrcw ; Bear (steel) : body, eye, nose, 
tang, screw-hole ; scar-screw; sear-spring (steel): blade (upper and lower branch 
and elbow), eye, stud-screw hole; sear-sprinij screw; main spring (steel): blade, 
upper and lower branch and elbow, hook, pivot, tang; swirel (steel): body, axis, 2 
holes for tumbler-pin and finger-pivot; tumbler and swivel-pin. 

2 side screws. 

In all the screws the parts are: the stem, the head, the slit, and the thread. 

The bottom of the slit of the larger screws is concave; the base-screw of the rear 
sight has 2 holes in the head, instead of a slot, in order that it may not be removed 
by the ordinary screw-driver. 

Monntimjs. — Upper and lower bands: body, creases, letter TJ to designate the 
upper from the lower edge; middle band: body, creases, letter U, stud, hole for 
swivel-rivet; middle band swivel: wire, eyes, rivet; band-springs (steel): stem, 
wire, shoulder; aide-screw washers: counter-sink, hole for screw; guard; guard- 
plate : body, bolsters, trigger-stud, 2 holes for guard-bow, 2 for wood-screws, and 1 
for trigger-screw ; guard-bow : bodj% pillars, stems with their screw-threads, swivel- 
stud, piece and hole, 2 nuts for stems, swivel, and rivet; trigger: blade, tang or 
finger-piece, hole for screw; trigger-screw : 2 icood-screws for guard-plate ; butt-plate : 
body, toe, heel, hollow, corners, tang and screw holes ; 2 wood-screws for butt-plate ; 
box-plate: the lid and the strap joined hy a, hinge and rivet ; screics : 3 box-plate 
and 1 for spring; 3 springs; 1 for box-plate; catch: 1 for box-plate; rivets: 2 for 
catch. 

Ramrod (steel). — Stem, swell, head, cup. screw; stop (iron): for rod. 

Stock (black walnut). — Butt: comb, handle, head, facings, first and second rein- 
force, chase, shoulders for bands and tip; grooves for barrel and ramrod; beds for 
tang and tenon, lock, washers, guard-plate, nuts for guard-bow and trigger-stud, 
butt-plate, and band-springs and tip; mortises for the trigger, and stop; rod-holes 
for the rod, the side screws, tang-screws, guard-screws, butt-plate screws, band- 
springs, and tip-rivet. 

Tip (malleable iron). — Recess for stock, groove for rod, rivet-hole, and shoulder. 

Ihe patch-box was added July 9, 1S59. 

The muskets made at this time have not the self-priming lock nor the patch-box. 

Rijle Musket, model 1842. (Plate 26.) 

(For nomenclature see Ordnance Manual, ISfil.) 

This arm differs from the original model in the following particulars: — The boro 
is grooved ; it has a rear sight similar to that for the new musket. 



172 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Rifie, model 1855. (Plate 26.) 

Harrfl. — Muzzle : bai/onet-itud, front »i<jlit (brass), breech, flats, bevels auJ oral, 
conc-Bcat, vcut, vent-screw, cone-screw thread, vent-screw thread, rear sight mortise, 
rear sight screw-hole, bore, grooves, bands. The exterior of the barrel has a uni- 
form taper from the breech to the muz/.lc. That portion of the flat in rear of the 
cone-seut is parallel to the axis of the bore. 

lirccrh-dcreic. — Plug with threads (16 to the inch), tenon, shoulders, tang, tang- 
screw hole, bevel. 

Jiear nujht. — Similar to that of the rifle musket, IS-OG. 

Tantj-»rrev. — Shoulder. 

four. — Same as for rifle musket. 

SwoHi) iiAYo.NKT. — Jiliide (stcel), shoulder, back, edge, bevel, ji'/mt, curvature, 
gr< ove — laiiff, rivet-hole, rivet. 

Hil( (brass). — Gripe: ridges, back, beak, slot for stud, slot for guide, hole for 
finger-piece, hole for spring-screw, hole for rivet (tang), mortise for tang. Fingrr- 
picre: head, notch. Fiti<jer-picce utrimj : blade, screw-hole, bofs. Fimjrr-pieet 
ipriuij-icrew. Gunrd-riret, yiiard : long and short branch, knobs, muzzle-socket. 

Luclc. — The same as the rifle musket, lS5.j. (Maynard primer omitted.) 

ilonntingi. — Similar to those of a rifle musket, ISOS. 

Uamrod. — Similar to that of the rifle musket, lh55. 

Stock and tip. — Similar to that of the rifle musket, 1&55, except the 'Jd reinforce 
of stock. 

Ei4e, model of 1842. 

(For nomcnclat'irc see Ordnance Manual, 1S61.) 

To Make the Barrel. 

The barrel is made from a short, flat bar of iron, which is first formetl into a hol- 
low cylinder, and then welded and drawn out to the required size, length and 
taper, by passing it through a series of rolls for that purpose. 

Matkiuals. — Best refined iron, free from slag and other, impurities, of uniform 
texture, without hard spots: in plates 14 inches long, 5^ inches wide, .oG25 inch 
(hick; the edges are so bevelled that they shall form a close joint when the plate iii 
formed into a cylinder. English iron. Marshall brand, is generally used. Best 
bitumitwHt coal for the reverberating furnace (Cumberland, Broad top.) Best 
anthracite coal for the forgo (Hazleton, lump). Pure tand for the bottom of the 
furnace. 

Utensils. — 1 pair of rolh for bending the plates into cylinders. They have b 
grooves, of different sizes ; 3 of them have tongues, 2 are open. 

1 pair of rollt for welding and shaping the barrel. They have 9 grooves, of dif- 
ferent sizes. 2 of them parallel and 7 taper : it has an iron frame to hold the end of 
the mandrel. The rolls make 36 revolutions per minute. 



RIFLE. 173 

2 «cM of gteel mandrels, of 8 each set, with an egg-shaped bulb on each end, vary- 
ing in size from .71 inch to .46 inch in diameter. 

1 aynall mandrel, 3 feet long, 1 mandrel, 6 inches long. 

1 straightening table, iron. 1 straightening machine, with 2 dies the length and 
the shape of the barrel, worked by an eccentric which opens the dies i inch, and 
makes 60 revolutions per minute. 

2 trip-hammers, with dies. 

To form the cylinder. — The plates are put into the furnace and raised to a white 
heat, and then passed through the rolls, each groove in succession. The first groove 
forms the plate into a trough shape ; the second and third grooves contract it gra- 
dually : the fourth turns the two edges inward, and the fifth completes the cylinder. 
The operation is performed at one heat. 

A day's work. — 3 men can form 450 cylinders in 10 hours. 

To weld and shape the barrel. — The fireman places two cylinders in the furnace, 
and brings them to a welding heat; the foreman thrusts the largest mandrel 
through one of them while yet in the furnace, and, taking it to the rolls, puts the 
mandrel through the frame, introduces the end into the first groove, and the cylinder 
is drawn over the bulb of the mandrel, which is held by the collar. 

The first assistant, standing on the opposite side of the rolls, catches the barrel 
as it passes through, with a pair of tongs, and hands it to the second assistant, who 
stands on the same side as the foreman, and receives it with a small, short mandrel, 
which he thrusts into the barrel, and straightens it by striking it twp or three times 
on the flat table. lie then replaces it in the furnace, and it is raised to a welding 
heata second time. The foreman takes out the other cylinder, and proceeds with 
it in the manner just described. When the barrel is brought to a welding beat the 
second time, the foreman takes it with the next smaller mandrel and passes it 
through the second groove, b}" which the barrel is reduced in diameter and length- 
ened : it is straightened as before, and returned to the furnace. 

The third and remaining grooves taper so as to give the barrel the shape of a 
frustum of a cone, each succeeding groove reducing the size of the barrel and mak- 
ing it longer. The rolls are of such size that a single revolution takes the barrel 
through ; as they continue to revolve without stopping, it requires caro and dex- 
terity on the part of the foreman to insert the barrel in the groove at the proper 
time, bringing the end against the shoulder in the large part of the groove. 

The barrel is so much chilled by passing over the mandrel, that it is necessary it 
should be straightened and reheated before passing it through the next groove : a 
high red heat is required. 

After the barrel has been passed through the first eight grooves with their corres- 
ponding mandrels, it is taken with tongs and passed twice through the last groove, 
for the purpose of making it round and smooth. 

To straighten the barrel. — The foreman inserts the muzzle end of the barrel in the 
dies and turns it around gradually, when the dies are open, pushing it farther into 
the dies until its whole length is embraced by them. The barrel then receives the 
pressure of the dies from ten to fifteen times, when it will bo found to be straight. 



174 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



To attach the roiip-«e«f.— The cone-seat is swaged to the proper shnpc under the 
Irip-hiiinincr, and then welilcd to the barrel : the dies of the trip-liaininer and the 
short mandrel in the end of the Itarrel preserving the form of the liarrel and the 
cone-seat. 

A day'H work. — 4 men can form an<l »vcld from 75 to 80 barrels in 10 hours. 

The barrel is next bored, turned, Htruightened and proved. 

The Ktock is turned, the lock and fruard-bow are let in, and the grooves for tire 
rammer and barrel are cut by machinery, and made ready for the other mountingii. 

Principal Dimensiotis, Wtighfs, etc., of Small Arms. 



KIFLB MCSKETS. 



18J5. 



1842. 



1855. 



1842. 



DIMBM8I0.18. 



HiRREL.. 



Diameter of boro 

Viiriiitiiin ulliiweJ, nmri' 

Diaiiietcr iit niiizzle , 

UiumetiT at bii-ccli between flilta... 

Length willioiit brtn-cli-icrew 

Batonet— Leniitli >'f blade 

KamkoI) — LeiiKtb 

Stock, with tmtl iilate ami tip— Lcng^lli. , 

iictli without lin.vnuet 

xeii 



Arm. 
complete 



( bi'iictli without 

■} Witli ba.vonet tij 

■ (Witli lull t piece. 



N umbel 
i Twist, uniform. 1 turn in . 

Grooves ..■{ Width 

I Depth at inuyzle 

(^ Depth lit breech 



R.ARREL. without breccb-screw. 

Lock, with siJe-screws 

Bayonet 

HlTT-l'LATK 

I AVithout bayonet . 

■I With bayouet 

^Witli butt-piece... 



Arm 
complete.. 



In. 


In. 


In. 


0.68 


0.09 


0..'i8 


0.0025 


0.015 


0.0025 


0.78 


0.85 


0.90 


l.U 


1.26 


1.14 


40. 


42. 


33. 


18. 


18. 


21.7 


38.«0 


41.70 


33.00 


52.85 






55.85 


57.80 


49.3 


73.85 


75.80 


71.8 


3. 


3. 


3. 


Oft. 


eft. 


Oft. 


o.:io 


0.36 


o.;«) 


.005 


.005 


.005 


.015 


.015 


.ou 


Lbs, 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


4.28 


4.19 


4.8 


.81 


95. 


.81 


.72 


0.64 


2.15 


.375 






9.18 


9.51 


9.93 


9.90 


10.15 


12.08 



In. 

0.58 

0.0036 

0.90 

1.16 
33. 
21.7 
33.00 

48.8 
71J 

0. 
flft. 

o.ao 

.006 
.018 



Lbs. 

4.8 
.66 
2.15 

9.68 
11.83 



INSPECTION OF S.MALL ARMS. 

All the materials used in the manufacture of arra< must be of the best quality, 
and they should be tested by the inspectors, according to the methods indicated in 
Chapter XIV. 

The wood for gun-stocks should be seasoned at lea=t three years, and kept in a 
dry place two years before being worked ; it mui^t be free from knrts and sap, and 
no woiid which is brash, or light, or wnrm-eaten. or in any degree decayed, or which 
is cut across the grain at the handle of the stock. '>r which is kiln-dried, should b« 
used or received. 



INSPECTION OF BARRELS. 



175 



The following rules for inspection apply to all small arms,, whether made at the 
national armories, or by contract at private establishments. 

The attention of the inspecting officers should be directed as much as possible to 
the o])erations of the workmen in the course of the fabrication of arms. 

Each component part is first inspected by itself, and afterward the arm in a 
tinishcd state. 

The materials and the forms and dimensions of all the parts must conform strictly 
to those of the established patterns; the workmanship and finish must be equal to 
those of the model arms, and the several parts must be browned, l)lued, ease-hard- 
ened, or polished as in the standard model. 

The forms and dimensions of the parts are verified by means of the standard 
gauges. (See p. .) 

Inspectioti of Barrels. » 

The Jii-Kt inspection of the barrel is made in the forged or cone-seated stage; the 
second in the 3d bored stage ; the third in the <jround stage ; thd fourth in the proved 
stage; the fi/lh in the fled stage; the si'jrth in the 6th bored stage; the acicnth iu the 
rifed stage ; and the eir/hth in the breeched stage. 

In these inspections, the inspector will vcrifj' the barrel with proper gauges for 
each stage; he will see that the thread for the breech-screw in the barrel is well cut, 
and the bayonet-stud firmly brazed on ; that the exterior and interior dimensions of 
the barrel arc correct; that there are no interior hammer-marks, ring-bores, cinder- 
holes, flaws, cracks, or other defects which will not disappear in the finishing; and 
that the thread of the breech-screw is accurately cut. 

The barrels rejected for defects that cannot be remedied will be stamped on the 
upper side, in a line with the vent, with the mark of condemnation, which will be 
in all cases the letter €. If the defect is of such a nature as not to prevent the use 
of the barrel for a shorter arm when cut off, the mark will be made on the defective 
part. 

Proof. — The barrels which pass this inspection will then be proved by being fired 
twice, with the following charges : 



KIND OF BARREL. 



1st charge. 


2d charge. 


SIZE OF BALL. 


SIZE OF 
WAD. 
















U 




« 












S 


4.3 






^ 




is 


.2 


■? 


_WJ 


s 


3 


& 


n 


pf 


^ 


m 


^ 


^ 


5 


Ki 



Rifle musket, model 
1855 



Kiflc, model 1855 . 



Grs. 


No. 


No. 


Grs. 


No. 


No. 


Grs. 


In. 


In. 


280 


1 


2 


250 


1 


2 


600 


0.57 


32. 


280 


1 


2 


'250 


1 


2 


557U 
278^ 


0.57 


32. 



176 > ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

One wad is placed oo the powder and the other on the ball, and the charj^e is well 
rammed with a copper rod. The wad occupies, when rammed, altout J inch in the 
length of the barrel. 

The barrels arc closed for proof with proving -phir/n having vents in them. 

Musket powder will be used for proving the barrelfi of muskets ; tho powder must 
be of the bcft i|Uftlit\-, giving not less than the standard initial velocity: it must 
Iw proved inimediutoly before being used, unless it shall have been proved within 
one year, and the inspector has no reason to suppose that it has become deterior- 
ated. 

The measures for the proof-charges should bo of a conical form, with tho mouth 
aa Biuall as may bo convenient, in order that there may be less variation in the 
quantity of powder. 

Before commencing the proof of barrels, tho inspector will satisfy himself as to 
tho quality and proof of the powder, the siie of the balls and of the wads. 

The inspector will observe the greatest caution in having the bnrreli properly 
loaded; for which purpose, after they arc placed on the proving-bcd, he will i)ass a 
ramrod into each barrel, to verify the accuracy of the charge. 

After the discharge he will again pass tho ramrod into each barrel, and those 
which have missed fire will be pricked and primed and discharged, before proceed- 
ing to tho second proof-charge. 

After the second proof-charge, the inspector will examine the barrels which have 
burst, and note the cause of defect, whether in the materials or workmanship. 

He will then examine those which have not burst, and lie will mark, as cod- 
dcmned. any which are evidently <lefective; tho others will rcciivc the proof-stamp. 
Til: V for viewed, P for proved, with the eagle's head under them, placed on the 
loft square of the barrel, opposite the cono-seat. The barrels will be immediately 
washed clean, in hot water, and dried, after which they will be again carefully 
examined. 

They will now be insjiected in the interior and on the exterior; the inspector 
will reject such as arc ton large in the bore, and such a« have holes, cross-cracks, 
scales, seams, or ring-bores; he will examine the braiing of the bayonet-stud, and 
see that the barrel is not mitched too deep, or indented inside. 

The barrels, having been reduce<i to their ultimate dimensions, straightened, and 
oomplelely finished, are again strictly inspected, to verify the straightnesi of the 
bore, the exterior and interior diameters, their weight (which should not Tary 
more than 1 ounce from the standard weight), the taps for the breech-screw and 
cone, the sire, position, and direction of the vent. 

The siraightness of the barrel may be ascertained by holding it up to the light 
and reflecting a straight-edge on the different parts of the bore, by which means an 
experienced eye readily detects any inaccuracy in the bore. The small or ninndard 
plug should pass freely through the whole length of the barrel, including the 
threads for the breech-screw, and the bore should not admit the large or limit plug. 



LOCKS. 177 

The (jroiweit shnuM be carefully examined to sue that they arc formed according 
to the pattern, and that they are even and uniform throughout. 

The breec'i-screws will be examined to sec that they are of the proper dimensions, 
are sound in every part, and have good threads ; they are case-hardened. The 
screw must be tried in the barrel, to see that it occupies all the threads in the tap 
of the barrel, and that it is not loose after entering three threads. 

The vent should enter the bore of the barrel clear of the end of the breech-screw. 

JInrlcs. — Barrels condemned for defects detected after proof or at any time in the 
course of inspection, arc marked with the letter C, struck in deeply; those finally 
received are stamped, in addition to the proof-mark, with the year of fabrication on 
the top of the barrel, in the direction of the axis of the barrel, ending at .25 inch 
from the breech. 

Cones. 

Verify the dimensions, exterior and interior, and the thread of the screw. See 
that the upper part of the cone is properly hardened and free from cracks or flaws. 

Locks. 

Examine all the limbs, to sec that they are soundj well filed, and of the proper 
form. 

Httmmcrn. — Verify the dimensions and form carefully with the proper gauges; 
see that they are properly case-hardened, especially in the head, knife edge, and 
cup for the cone. 

Tumblers must be verified separately, with great care, and their hardness tested. 

Sprinija. — The strength of the lock-springs, as indicated by the weights they 
require to bend them up to the cock-notch without causing them to belly or bend 
beyond a straight line, is as follows: 

Alain-spring of riffe musket, 1S.55 7f) to 75 pounds. 

Sear-spring of each, about 20 " 

Sprinff-pronf, No. 1. — Shows when the main-springs- are evenly tempered, and 
will weigh from 70 to 75 pounds without bending beyond a straight line-, setting, or 
breaking, by bringing them to the standard mark. 

Spring-proof, No. 2. — The main-springs are all required to stand in the position 
of full cock, in a spring-proof which holds 35 at one time, in the same position as 
they are held in the lock, for twelve hours, to test their strength and soundness. 

Scrcicn. — Examine the forms of the stems and heads of all screws and the cutting 
of the threads, and gauge them ; see that they are properly hardened. 

Lock-jilntes. — Verify with the proper gauges the form and dimensions, the 
accuracy of the position of the holes, and the threads of those which are tapped; 
see that the plate is sound and free from cracks and flaws, especially about, the 
tumbler-hole, and that it is well hardened. 

Fiuuhcd loci-ii. — The locks having been put together, gee — 

1. That they are clean in the inside. 
12 



178 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

2. That the scar works freely when the scar-screw is driven ns far as it will g*| 
ami that, the nuse is sufficientlj' strong and falls properly into the notches of the 
tumbler. 

3. That the bridle has no cracks or flaws about the holes for the tuiublcr-pivot 
and screws. 

4. That tiic springs are well bent and of good proportions, that the fixeil branches 
fit close to the loek-platc, and that the moveable branches swing clear of it, without 
having too much play. 

6. That the slits of the screw-heads are not defective. 

6. That the arbor and pivot of the tumbler fit accurately in their holes. 

7. That the hook of the tumbler does not fall below the edge of the lock -plate 
when the cock is down. 

8. That the notches of the tumbler are sound and smooth, ami that tlio tumbler 
fits and turns well. 

9. That the main-spring swivel is sound, by snapping the hammer several times 
on the bare cone. 

10. That the hammer fits well on the scjuare of the tumbkr, and that it does not 
rest on the lock-plate when screwed up tight, and that it has the proper set in rela- 
tion to the cone. 

11. That all the i>arts work well together. 

Marks. — The place and j'car of fabrication are stamped on tiic face of the lock- 
platc — the year in rear of the hammer, and the name of the place in front. 

Finished arm. — The initials of the finish inspector and of the master armorer 
arc stamped on the rear end of the face of the stock, opposite the lock, with italic 
letters. 

Mountings. 

The forms and dimensions are verified with the appropriate gauges and patterns. 
The trigger should be well fitted to the guard-plate, with as little lateral play as is 
consistent with its free movement. The form, size, and threads of the screws 
should be carefully examined. The letters C. S. are marked on the tang of the 
butt-plate. 

Ramrods. 

The temper of the rod is tested by springing it in four directions, with the point 
resting on the floor. The musket ramrod should bend 6 inches from a right line 
joining the ends: the rod should spring back perfectlj- straight, without setting. 
Its soundness and freedom from flaws and cross-cracks are ascertained by the sound 
it gives when suspended by one end and gently struck with a piece of metal, and by 
passing it over the edge of a block of wood or the closed jaws of a vice, pressing 
down the ends at the same time aad turning the rod. so as to present every side 
successively to inspection. Rifle and pistol rods are subjected to the last tests only. 
The diameter of the rod and the tap of the screw for the wiper are rerilied with the 
proper gauges. The length is also verified. 



STOCKS. 179 

Baijonets, 

The form and dimensions of the baj'onet'are verified with the proper gauges; the 
temper is tried by springing the bayonet attached to the barrel, the point resting on 
the floor. In case of doubt, the temper of the bayonet is definitely proved in the 
following manner : 

Two iron staples arc fixed in a piece of oak plank on a workbench, 16§ inches 
apart; one of them serves as a bridge, and has notches to receive the blade — the 
other serves as a staple fpr holding the point of the bayonet close to the plank : the 
bayonet is fixed on a barrel, to the butt of which is fastened a brass ball weighing 6 
pounds : so that, by inserting the point of the blade in the staples, the face and 
back resting alternately on the bridge, the blade sustains a weight of 9 pounds, 
which springs it about § of an inch. In this situation the blade is also examined 
to detect flaws and croas-cracks. It should not remain bent after this trial. 

The inspector then seizes the blade near the point and strikes the elbow smartly 
on the workbench, to ascertain that the welding is sound. 

If the proof shows no defects, he verifies the dimensions and bore of the socket 
and the accuracy of tho channels. He examines the dimensions of the clasp, to 
see that it fits well to the shoulder ; that it turns evenly, without binding in any 
part ; that the stop is well placed and firmly set; that the clasp-screw and its thread 
in the stud of the clasp are well cut; that the elbow has the proper form and 
dimensions. 

Marks. — Bayonets are marked on the face of the blade, near the neck, with the 
letters C. S.; those rejected for defects that cannot be remedied arc marked with 
the stamp of condemnation. 

Stocks. 

■ The examination of the stock will be directed — 

1. To the quality of the wood: that it has good, straight grain, is well seasoned, 
and free from sap and worm-holes. 

The degree of seasoning is indicated by the smell of the wood at a fresh-cut 
place; by the appearance of the lock and barrel, etc., when removed from the 
stock; they will be rusted by unseasoned wood; by rolling a thin shaving between 
the fingers : it will crumble if the wood be well seasoned, otherwise it will be tough 
and will bend. 

The medium weight of a well-seasoned musket-stock is 2 pounds ; a stock made 
of good walnut will not weigh less than 1 pound 13 ounces. 

2. To the workmanship: that it is free from splits, especially about the barrel- 
groove and heading ; that it has not been split and glued up; that the grooves and 
beds are of the proper forms and dimensions; that the roundings for the bands are 
smooth and accurate; that the handle and comb are of the proper size and form; 
that tho stock has the proper fall or crook, and is of the right length ; that tho 
holes arc well drilled, and that those for the wood-screws have good threads. 

In examining the bed of the lock, see — 

1. That all the edges are sharp and smooth. 



180 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

2. Tliiit tlic beds of the scar-screw ami seiir-spring screw arc not bored down to 
the friRger or to the breech-screw. 

3. Tliut tlio beds of the niuin-sprin;; and main-spring screw do not penetrate to 
the barrel. 

4. Tliat the hole for the tang of the sear is as small as possible, so that the soar 
shall not be wood-bound. 

f). That the wires fit well in their holes, 

Mitrkii. — That the stocks inspected arc marked on the left .«idc with the stamp of 
approval (the initials of the inspector's name) or of condemnation, as tho coao 
may bo. 

Appendages. 

litiU-iirrfwii and viprrn are examined by screwing them on a piece of runirod 
furnished with a handle, to verify the accuracy of the screw-thread; the temj>er of 
tho branches is tested by prc.';^:ing the points on a piece of hard wood, in which 
proof they should spring back to their proper form. 

Scrrw-drircm, by inserting the blades in a vice, or in a slit made for the purpose, 
and twisting them with the hand. Test the strength and size of the cone-wrench 
by putting it on a square socket and wrenching it by hand. 

Other implements are examined by applying the appropriate patterns, etc.. and 
their soundness may be further tested by striking them a smart blow with a ham- 
mer. 

Finished Arms. 

Finished arms offered for inspection must bo taken entirely to piecei, and each 
part must bo examined ns above directed; if the parts have been previously in- 
spected, see that they have suffered no suljsequent injury. This being d'>ne, the 
arms will be put together and examined in their complete ^tate. Some of the arms 
in every lot should be put together by the inspector himself. 

The inspector will examine the finished arms on every side, to see that the parts 
are well fitted together: he will verify the principal dimensions and forms by 
means of the appropriate gauges and patterns. 

Jiarrel. — The diameter of the bore must be verified with the standard and limit 
gauges. Tho barrel should enter the groove of the stock to the depth of half its 
diameter, and should bear well in the whole length of the groove, particularly at 
tho breech. The vent should be accurate in its dimensions, position, and direction, 
and a wire should be passed into the vent through the cone and cone-seat, to see 
that they are free. The cone should be examined, to see that it is sound. The 
shoulders of the breeeh-screw should fit close to the end of the barrel, and it must 
be free from cracks or flaws about the tang-screw hole : the tang-screw should be 
perpendicular to tho tang. The bore of the barrel should be clean and bright. 

Ramrod. — The fitting of the groove is ascertained by drawing and returning the 
rod smartly several times, to see that it holds well and does not stick too tight ; 



FINISHED ARMS. IgJ 

the pistol-carbine ramrod should hold more firmlv than that of the musket • the 
ramrod must bear on the rod-stop, and in that position its head should not project 
beyond the end of the barrel : it should fill the groove well ; the open part of the 
groove should be in the centre of the stock, the covered part in the middle of 
the thickness of the stock, between the outside and the bottom of the barrel-groove 
and the rod should not interfere with the front side screw. ' 

f{aj,onct.-The socket of the bavonct should be a little below the muzzle of the 
barrel at the upper end. Work the clasp, to see that the ramrod does not interfere 
with ,t, that it bears well on the shoulders, that the clasp-screw holds well, that the 
stock ,s firmlv fixed, and that the clasp moves evenly, without binding: the blade 
of the bayonet should set outward a little toward the point. To try the strength 
and temper of the bayonet when fixed, spring it smartly in four directions, toward 
the back and face and each edge, resting the point on the floor, and grasping the 
butt of the stock with the right hand and the middle of the barrel with the left 
Examine the fitting of the bayonet to the barrel, and see that the inside of the 
socket IS clean and free from rust, and that the bayonet-stud is well bra/.cd and of 
tlie right dimensions. 

/.oc/..-Examine carefully the action of the lock: snap the hammer on the cone, 
to see that it fits well. Let the hammer down several times, to judge of the working 
of the lock. See, also— 

1. That the interior parts are not wood-bound. 

2. That the hammer stands ofl!' (0.02 inch) from the lock. 

^ 3. That it does not go ofl^ at half-(*)ck when the trigger is.pulled hard. 
^ 4. That it goes neither too hard nor too easily when cocked. 
.. 5. That it docs not stop at half-cock. 

6. that the trigger is steady at cock and half-cock, and free when the hammer is 
down. 

7. Th-it the fall of the hammer is not stopped by the heel of the tumbler before 
It touches the cone. 

8. That the hammer has sufficient sweep : that it falls evenly, without a jerk, and 
that the knife edge passes freely over the plate. 

Exjimine the soundness of the hammer at the tumbler-hole. 

In examining a finished lock by itself, observe the rules laid down above; see 
that the lock-plate fits accurately in its bed, and that the wood around it is full and 
sound. 

Mount{ny.,.-The front part of the trigger at half-cock should be nearly perpen- 
dicular to the surface of the guard-plate; the slit for the trigger should be of the 
exact width, so that the trigger shall have no lateral motion. 

It is important that the guard-plate should bear firmly on the wood in every 
part; as, otherwise, by driving the tang-screw too hard, the trigger might be 
brought too close to the sear and the action of the lock be thus interfered with. 

The butt-plate should be well fitted in the centre of the stock. 

The bands should fit sm..othly at (he shoulders and closelv to the stock and 



182 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

barrel, but not no tight as to require a great effort to remove them. The band- 
ipringR should not l>e too deeply .set : they should spring hack freely when prcoKcd 
down ; the holes lor the wires ishoiiid not interfere with the liarrel or ramrod 
jfTooveg. 

All the mountings should fit smoothly to tho stock. The stock should hare the 
proper fall or crook, which is ascertained by applying tho |)attcrn and by trying 
the piece in the position of ainiins:. 

By sighting along the barrel, i: will be seen whether it is well stocked, wlietbar 
the bands, the front and rear sights and the bayonet are well set. 

Hit. also, InnpeetiitH of arm it in lerri're. 

General Directions. 

The inspector is not restricted to the particular examinations above mentioned; 
be will make any other examinations which he may deem necessary to ascertain the 
quality of any |iart of the arms and their confirrmity to the standard models ; if be 
discover or suspect any attempts on the part of the workmen to cover or ccmcea) 
serious defects, he will subject the arms to the most severe scrutiny, in order to 
detect such defects. 

In tho inspection of contract arms, the inspector will judge of the quality of 
materials and workmanship by the rules which govern in like cases at tho national 
armories; that is, he will reject such arms or parts of arms as would be condemned 
at the national armories, and ho will recoire such as would be approred at the 
national armories — without exacting, in any case, more rigid conditions than are 
enforced at thoi^c establishments. 

The ordnance officer charged with tho inspection of arms, or the master armorer 
at a national armory, will cause at least one in ttrmiy of each lot of arms passed by 
a 8ub-in8pect<ir to be taken to pieces in his presence, anil he will examine them 
strictly, agreeably to the foregoing directions, before affixing his stamp of approral 
on the finished arms, all of which must be examined by him. 

Mnrkt. — As a general rule, every part condemned on inspection will be indelibly 
marked with the letter (', and every principal part ajiproved will be marked with 
the initials of the inspector's name. C.ire must be taken that the marks of approval 
arc not stamped so deep as to be injurious. 

Finished arms approved in inspection will be marked on the left face of the stock 
with the initials of the name of the principal inspector, and the year of inspection. 

Report of Inspection of Barrels. 

After the inspection of each lot of barrels, the inspector will make a slaicmeDt, 
showing — 

1. The number of barrels offered for proof. ^ 

2. The number rejected before proof. •^ 
i. The number burst in proof. 



BROWNED ARMS. 183 

4. The mimber rejected after proof, for flaws, cross-crack?, or other defects. 
6. The number received after the proof and inspections. 
6. The number rejected on inspection of the fisished arm. 

These statements furnish the materials for the reports of inspection required by 
the Ordnance Regulations. 

Broinied Arms. 

The barrels of rifles are browned at the armories before being received fof the 
service; the locis, ramrods, hraid-Dpriiiys, trir/r/erg and semes are not browned. 
The parts of these arms should be thoroughly inspected before browning, and the 
finished arm after being browned. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR BROWNING ARMS. 
Materials for Browning Mixture, 

li oz. spirits of wine. 
IJ oz. tincture of steel. y 
i oz. corrosive sublimate, 
li oz. sweet spirits of nitre. 
1 oz. blue vitriol. 
3 oz. nitric acid. 
To be mixed and dissolved in 1 quart of soft water; the mixture to be kept in 
glass bottles, and not in earthen jugs. 

Previous to commencing the operation of browning, it is necessary that the 
barrel or other part should be made quite bright with emery or a fine, smooth file 
(but not burnished), after which it must be carefully cleaned from all greasiness; a 
small quantity of pounded lime rubbed well over every part of the barrel is the best 
for this purpose. Plugs of wood are then to be put into the muzzle of the barrel 
and into the vent, and the mixture applied to every part with a clean sponge or rag. 
The barrel is then to be exposed to the air for twenty-four hours ; after which time 
it is to be well rubbed over with a steel scrateh-eard or scratch-brush, until the rust 
is entirely removed; the mixture may then be applied again, as before, and in a 
few hours the barrel will be sufficiently corroded for the operation of scratch-brush- 
ing to be repeated. The same process of scratching off the rust and applying the 
mixture is to be repeated twice or three times a day for four or five days, by which 
time the barrel will be of a very dark brown color. 

When the barrel is sufficiently brown and the rust has been carefully removed i 
from every part, about a quart of boiling water should he poured ov«r every part 
of the barrel, in order that the action of the acid mixture upon the barrel may be 
destroyed and the rust thereby prevented from rising again. 

The barrel, when cold, should afterward be rubbed over with linseed oil or 
sperm oil. It is particularly directed that the steel scratch-card or scratch-brush., 
be used in the place of a hard hair-brush, otherwise the browning will not be 
durable nor have a good appearance. 



184 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

The browning mixture is applied to other parts <>{ anns in the same manner ai 
to the ImrreU. 

About fi <|iiurti< of browning mixture arc required for l,(Mi(i liarrvlg. 

Varnish for Broicned Iron. 

Phellao 1 «>». 

Dra(;nns' blood 0.1 S76 oi. 

Alcohol 1 quiirt. 

Tn rrmnir old liroirniiKj : Pluj; tlie vent and the mur.r.le of the barrel*; immerse 
Ibo browned parts for one hour in boilinf; lime-water or lye, to remove tlio Tarnish 
or grease ; wipe them, and put them in rinegar, in a wooden trough, for half aa 
hour or an hour, when the browning may be rubbed off with a rag. 

PACKIXtJ P.MALL ARMS. 

Box for 20 Jiifte Muskets. (Plate 27.) 

I 

The box !!• made of well Maioned yellow pine, or eypress boards 1 inrh thick; 
the sides and bottoms lap over the ends. 4 corner piece* (yellow pine), 7.2b inches 
wide, 1.25 inch thick: the width of the corner piece is placed a):aiosl tho end of the 
box; a rabbet is rut in each piece to receive the ends of a board •I.S inches wide 
and .125 inch thick, which forms the inner lining of the implement-pocket. 2 enit 
liningr, between the corner pieces, 8.75 inches deep, leaving vacant spaces above 
ibem, between the corner pii*cc«, 4.5 inches deep, for the implements. They arc 
fastened to the ends, each with two nails. 

Interior dimen$i»nt »/ the l>or. — Length between the end linings, 59.25 inches; 
width, If) inches: depth, 13.25 inches. 

The end* are fastened with nine 8-{>enny nails in two rows, in each corner pie««P 
Bach fide is fastened with five 12-pcnny nails in each end, three 10-penny nails, and 
one 2-inch screw No. 14 (above tho nails j, in each corner piece. The boit.m is 
fastened to each end and lining with twelve 10-penny nails, and to each side with 
ten 10-penny nails and two 2-inch screws. The top is fastened with two 2-inch 
screws to each end and four to each side. Two holes are bored iu each en<l. H inches 
apart and 8 iuchcs from the bottom, to receive rope becket*, .5 iuch thick and 18 
inches long, which are inserted and fastened by a knot couute:i-unk iu the end, 
before the linings are nailed on. 

4 bayoHet clamp; each 1 inch thick : two of them are 1 inch deep : the others, 1.5 
inch. They have each ten notches on the under side to receive the blades of tb« 
bayonets, and they are fastened to the bottom of the box each with 2 screws, except 
when the box is lined with tin. The small clamps are placed 6 inches apart, in 
the clear; the large ones, 12.5 inches apart for the model of 1855, and 5 inches 
apart for the model of 1$42. 

4 mutxlt elampt, I inch thick and 2.25 inches wide, 16 inches long; each clamp 
has 5 holes for the muxLles of the barrels and 5 for the beadc of the ramrods. 



PACKING-BOX FOR RIFLES. 185 

4 btitl clamp/', each 1.&5 inch thick and 2.20 inches wide: each clamp h:is f) 
sloping notches, 1 inch deep. 1. .').'') inch wide at the top, and 1.8 inch at the bottom 
for the model of 1&J2, and 1.4.') inch wide and 1.7 inch at the bottom for the model 
of IS.'J.'), to receive the butts of the muskets. 

On the back of the upper corner a rabbet, .^.O inch deep and .4.') inch wide, is cut 
to receive a corresponding projection or tongue on the middle clamp: this serves 
to hold the pieces together, and thereby save the nccessily of grooves on the sides 
of the box. 

2 middle clampg, each 1.S5 inch thick, 1.13 inch wide in front; a projecting 
square lip, .'if) inch deep by .4.') inch wide, on the lower rear corner, to fit into the 
rabbet of the butt clamp. 

2 top rlampx, each 1.85 inch thick and 3 inches wide: the cover of the box 
presses on them and keeps the muskets tight in place. A lip is made on these 
clamps to fit into the butt clamps, as described in the butt clamps. 

Note.— The rifle musket (model lb-').')) is l.b5 inch shorter than that of 1842. 
For this reason an extra end piece, 1 inch thick, with cleats nailed upon each end, 
2 inches wide, .8.') inch thick, is placed in one end of the box previous to putting 
in the muskets. Tbis forms a pocket for the tompions. 

To Pack a box of Jfuskets. 

Unfix the bjiyoncts and let down the hammers. 

The sm.all bayonet clamps being fastened down, place the points of the bayonets 
in their notches, the bayonets lying on the edge of the bhade; then put in the large 
clamps and screw them down. 

Place the lower tier of ten muskets ; the muzzles and ramrods in the holes in the 
lower end clamps, the butts resting on the opposite clamp ; put two lower butt 
clamps in over the butts of the lower tier of muskets, and over them the two 
middle clamps. Place the upper muzzle clamps in ; insert the upper tier of mus- 
kets like the lower : put in the upper butt clamps .and the top clamps. 

Put the implements in the pockets provided for them, and screw on the cover. 

Packing-Box for twenty Rifles. (Plate 27.) 

Rifles are packed in the same manner as muskets, the box being made like the 
musket box, except in its dimensions, .and ch.anging the botjonet clamps, and adding 
2 end cleats and 2 xteel springs; 1 rabbet in each side. 

Interior dimensions of rifle 60a:.— Length between the end linings, 50.2 inches; 
width, 16.5 inches ; depth, 13.5 inches. 

When small .arms are to be sent on a long sea voyage, the packing-boxes are pro- 
vided with tin linings securely soldered, so as to exclude all dampness. 

The clam]}s for the bayonets are held down by tin loops soldered to the sides of 
the tin lining, and bent over the clamps and screwed to them after the bayonets arc 
in place. 



186 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Two strips of wood, l.>5 inch wide and I inch thick, are placed on each side of 
the V)ox, their ends resting in notches cut in the ends of the top clamps. 

A tin cover is then placed upon these pieces, and the edges of the lining are bent 
over it and soldered. 

To open the box, a soldering-iron and thin knife are rccjiiircd to open the sol- 
dered joint, and the cover is removed. 

Weights of boxes of Arms pached. 

20 muskets and appendages, model ISo."), 286 lbs. 

20 " •' " " for sea voyage, 301 lbs. 

20 " ■ " " 1842, 285 lbs. 

20 " " " " for sea voyage, 300 lbs. 

20 rifles " " 1855, 321 lbs. 

Packing Arins with Straw. 

In the field, or under other circumstances, when the proper arm chests arc not 
on baud, it may sometimes be necessary to pack arms in this manner. 

The interior dimensions of a box for 20 muskets may be the same as for the regu- 
lar packing-box. 

The straw should be long, perfectly dry, and free from dust ; rye straw is the 
best; hay should not be used: about 25 pounds of straw are required to a box. 

To prepare the miiakit for packiiiff. — Oil it; let down the hammer, pass the bay- 
onet up to the socket into the guard-bow, on the right side, in front of the trigger. 
MaJ{c a rope of about 40 straws, slightly twisted, and 40 inches long ; wrap it 
about the musket, commencing on top of the hammer, going round the bayonet 
below, again over the hammer and round the piece in front of the guard, then over 
the socket of the bayonet near the neck, and wrapping the rest around the handle 
of the stock. 

Lay a bed of straw 2 inches thick in the bottom of the box : in the middle and 
lit 6 inches from the ends, place three cushions of straw (J inches thick and 12 
inches wide. Put in a tier of 10 muskets crossing each other, the butts resting 
alternately against the ends of the box, the guards uppermost, and the hammers 
bearing on the cushions. Put small trusses of straw under the upper and middle 
bands, by raising the muskets at one end and then pressing them down between 
the others. Pack, between the butts, wads of straw 8 inches long, made of a hand- 
ful of straws folded in three ; cover the guards and guard-bows with the ends of 
the straw that form these wads, which will be still about 12 inches long. Put in 
another tier of 10 muskets in the same manner, making the cushions four inches 
thick. Pack the implements in straw in the vacant spaces. Fill the box with 
straw, so that the cover shall require strong pressure to keep it down. Put two 
hoops around the box, at IS inches from the ends. 

Other arm^, swords, etc., are packed in a similar manner. 



PRESERVATION OF ARMS. 187 

Arms should not he wrapped in paper, unless it bo oiled, as it attracts moisture 
more readily than straw does. 

PRESERVATION OF ARMS IN STORE. 

Arrangement and Manner of Storing Ar7ns. 

Arms are kept at the arsenals either in the boxes in which they arc received from 
the armories, or in racks. 

Those of each kind are kept separate, and they are arranged according to 
the model, the place and j-ear of fabrication, and the time when they were last 
cleaned. 

New arms are kept distinct from those which have been repaired. 

Each parcel should have a label, indicating the kind, number, model, date of 
their receipt in store and of their being last cleaned. 

The manner of keeping arms at the arsenals is determined by the chief of the 
Ordnance bureau, according to the peculiar circumstances of each case, and racks 
are constructed for them only in pursuance of special authority from the Ordnance 
oflBoe; without such authority, they are kept in boxes. The form and arrangement 
of the racks vary with those of the room in which they are placed, so as to use the 
space to the best advantage and give light and air to every part of the room. The 
usual arrangement of racks for muskets is to establish two rows of double racks, 
two tiers high, perpendicular to the length of the room, leaving alleys around the 
room next to the walls, and in the centre, if necessary. The bayonets are passed 
through the middle band swivel, the socket covering the top of the ramrod. Other 
racks of a similar kind may be made for rifles, carbines, etc. Pistols are suspended 
by the guard-bows, on hooks driven into the faces of the musket racks, or iuto the 
joists, or into strips attached to the walls of the building. 

When there are neither racks nor boxes prepared, the arras are stored in dry 
rooms, arranged in rows apart from the walls, standing on their muzzles and sup- 
ported by frames to prevent them from pressing too much on each other. The 
bayonet should be unfixed and passed through the swivel. They should be covered 
with tarpaulins or cloths, if necessary, to protect them from dust. 

Arms of peculiar kinds, and arms to be repaired, are kept separate from others ; 
as also arms unserviceable or condemned to be broken up. 

Limbs and spare parts intended for repairs of arms should be kept in store by 
themselves, in a dry place, classed according to the kind of arms and to the model 
and year of fabrication, and labelled accordingly. 

Musket and rifle barrels and other long barrels, standing on their muzzles ; the 
piles covered from the dust with tarpaulins supported so as not to touch the barrels. 
Pistol barrels, bayonets, and other small jjarts, in drawers or boxes, properly labelled. 
Stocks, in square piles, in the attic or upper story of the building. 



m 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Care of Ar7ns iii Store. 

Arms when received at an arsenal should be unpacked and carefully examined, 
to detect anj' damage suffered in transportation ; they should be cleaned and oiled, 
if they require it. Those arms which are not to be placed in racks should be 
returned to the boxes, laid in looseh' but safely, and the cover slightly fastened 
down, so that they can be readily examined. 

All arms in store should be freijuently examined, to see that they do not become 
rusty. Those which are found to be rusted should be immediately cleaned and 
again oiled. Browned arms, if affected with specks of rust, should be rubbed hard 
with linseed oil; and if the appearance of the browning indicate that the acid is 
not neutralized, care should be taken to examine the arms a;:ain within a short 
time, as it maj' be found necessary to remove and renew the browning: but this 
operation should not be performed without special authority from the chief of the 
Ordnance bureau, on the report of a duly authorized inspector. 

Arms which are to be repaired should be oiled and taken caro of in the same 
manner as serviceable arms. Irreparable arms, the parts of which can be used 
for repairs, should be oiled. Similar remarks apply to spare parts for repair of 
arms. 

Sjirrm oil should be used for greasing arms. 

Empty boxes, from which iln- arms in racks arc taJicn, should be kept, with all 
the parts belonging to them, in the attics or other dry situations. 

The storehouse for arms should be aired in clear, dry weather. 

Issuing Arms. 

The Ordnance regulations prescribe the manner of issuing arms to the troops 
under the various circumstances of service, and to the slates, for arming the 
militia. 

All arms issued from an arsenal should be carefully examined before delivery, 
cleaned, and put in good order; if intended for transportation, the.v should be 
oiled, if necessarj', after cleaning, and carefully packed. 

PRESERVATION OF ARMS IN SERVICE. 

The officers, non-commissioned oflScers, and soldiers should be instructed and 
practised in the nomenclature of the arms, the manner of dismounting and mounting 
them, and the precautions and care required for their preservation. 

Each soldier should have a screw-driver and a wiper, and each squad of ten a 
band-spring and tumbler punch, and a spring-^ce. No other implements should be 
used in taking arms apart or in setting them up. 

In the inspection of arms, officers should attend to the qualities essential to ser- 
vice, rather than to a bright polish on the exterior of the arms. The arms should 
be inspected in the quarters at least once a month, with the barrel and lock separated 
from the stock. 



TAKING ARMS TO PIECES. 189 

Taking Arms to Pieces. 

To taJce apart the rijie jnusJcet, model 1855 — 

1. Unfix the bayonet. 

2. Put the totnpion iu the muzzle of the barrel. 

3. Draw the ramrod. 

4. Turn the tang-screw. 

5. Take off the lock : to do this, first put the hammer at half-cock, then unscrew 
partially the side screws, and, with a slight tap on the head of each screw with a 
wooden instrument, loosen the lock from its bed in the stock; then turn out the side 
screws, and remove the lock with the left hand. 

6. Remove the side screws, taking care not to disturb the washers. 

7. Take otf the upper band. 

8. Take off the middle band. 

9. Take off the lower band. 

10. Take out the barrel. 

In doing this, turn the musket horizontally, with the barrel downward, holding 
the barrel loosely with the left hand below the rear sight, the right hand grasping 
the stock by the handle; and if it does not leave the stock, tap the tompion in the 
muzzle gently against the ground or floor, which will loosen the breech end from the 
stock. This is preferable to lifting the barrel out by the muzzle, because if the tang 
of the breech-screw should bind in the wood, the head of the stock would be liable 
to be split by raising the muzzle first. 

The foregoing parts of the rifle musket are all that should usually be taken off or 
dismounted. 

The soldier should never dismount the baiid-sj)r!ncfs, fjuard, side screw, washers, 
hult-plate, rear sight, cone, and cone-seat screw, except when an otPicer considers it 
necessary. The breech-screw should be taken out only by an armorer, and never in 
ordinary cleaning. The lock should not bo taken apart, nor the bayonet-clasp taken 
off, except wlicn absolutely necessary iu the opinion of an officer. If proper and 
regular care he taken of the arm, this will he very seldom necessari/. 

The parts which are specially assigned to be dismounted by an experienced 
armorer will be stated in their regular order following No. 10, viz: 

11. Unscrew the cone, keeping the wrench well down on the square of the cone, 
to prevent the corners from being injured. 

12. T.ake out the cone-seat screw. 

13. Take out the upper, middle, and lower band-springs, using a wire punch of 
proper size. 

14. Take out the side screws.* 

*The guard, butt-plate, and side-screw heads have concave slits, for which the screw-driver is 
adapted: this lessens tiie danger of the stock being marred by accident or carelessness in letting 
the screw-driver slip out while in the act of turning the screw. Great care should be observed to 
prevent injury iu this particular. 



100 ORDNANCB MANUAL. 

\f). Take 'lilt the jfuird, ukidj; care to prevent injiirin;; the wood at ea<'h end of 
the Knard-jilnte. 

IPi. Tiikc out the hidi'-fcrcw wiislicri" with a drift-punch. 

17. Take out the hutl-platc scri-ws with the largest hladc of the Hrrcw-clrivcr, and 
remove the hutt-plat'e. 

18. Keinove tlie rear oijjht by turning out tlie leaf-f>pring screw, which will release 
the Bight from the barrel. 

19. Turn out the hrceeh-screw by means of a " brcecli-ser''w wrench" ruitcd to 
the tenon of the breech-Hcrew. No other wrench should ever be uned for this pur- 
poHc, and llu' barrel hliould be held in clamps fitting neatly the breech. 

onnKH IN WIIK II TIIR LOCK 18 TAKKN APAUT. 

1, Cock the piece, and jiut the spring-vice on the main spring; give the thumb- 
screw a turn ^'ufiIcient to liberate the spring from the swivel and main-ipring notch. 
Remove the cjiring. 

2. The s-ear-sjiring screw, lleforc turning this screw entirely out, strike the elbow 
of the spring with tho scn-w-driver, so as to disengage the pivot from its mortiie; 
then remove the screw and spring. 

'^. The sear- screw and sear. 

4. The bridle-screw and bridle. 

5. The tumbler-screw. 

6. The tumbler. This is driven out with a punch inserted in the screw-bole, which 
at the same time liberates the hammer. 

7. Detach the main-spring swivel from the tumbler with a drift-punch. 

Assembling Arms. 

The lock and the mu^kel are put together in the inverse order of taking them 
apart. 

THK LOCK. 

1. The main-spring swivel. 2. The tumbler and hammer. 3. The tumbler- 
screw, i. Bridle and screw, i. Sear and screw, ti. Sear-spring and screw. 
7. Main spring. 

Before replacing the screws, oil them slightly with good sperm oil, putting a 
drop on the point of the screw; also, on the arbor and pivot of the tumbler; 
between the movable branches of the springs and the lock-jdatc : on the hook and 
Botches of the tumbler. After the lock is put together, avoid turning the screws in 
so bard as to make the limbs bind : to insure this, try the motion of each limb 
before and after its spring is mounted, and see that it moves without friction. 

THE MrSKET. 

1. The barrel. Drop the barrel into its place in the stock, and squeeze it down 
with the band ; give the butt of the stock a gentle tap against the floor, to settle 
the breech end of the barrel against the head of the stock. 



CLEANING AND CARE OF ARMS. 191 

2. Put on the lower band with the letter U upward, being careful not to mar the 
stock or barrel in sliding it into its place ; apply the thumb to the band-spring, to 
see that it plays freely. 

.3. Put on the middle band ; and, 

4. The upper band, in the same manner. 

5. The lock. Half-cock the hammer ; take the lock in the right hand, with the 
main spring and sear toward you, holding the stock with the left hand by the .'swell, 
with the butt between the knees. Enter the lock fairly into the lock-bed, taking 
care to keep the arm of the sear clear 'of the trigger: press the plate well down 
into the wood, and then turn the musket over, holding the lock and stock together 
/with the left hand. 

6. With the right hand, turu in the side screws, after having touched their screw- 
threads with oil. Observe that the point of the rear screw is flat, and should not 
project beyond the plate, to interfere with the hammer. The front screw has a 
round point. 

7. Turn in the tang-scrcw, after having oiled the screw-thread. Be careful to sec 
that each of these screws are turned firmly home, but not forced. Observe that the 
lock plays freely, without friction, and that no limb is bound by the wood. 

8. Return the ramrod. 

9. Kcfi.x the bayonet, after having oiled the clasp and socket to prevent chafing. 

10. Replace the tompion. Oil the stock well with sperm or linseed oil ; let it 
stand a few hours, and then rub it with a woollen rag until the wood is perfectly 
dry. Repeat this from time to time, and it will produce a polish which moisture 
will not affect. 

Linseed oil is the best for this purpose, and it should be used while the arm is 
dismounted. 

Cleaning and Care of Anns. 

TO CLEAN THE BAHKEL. 

1. Stop the hole in the cone with a peg of soft wood ; pour a gill of water (warm, 
if it can be had) into the muzzle ; let it stand a short time, to soften the deposit of 
the powder ; put a plug of soft wood into the muzzle, and shake the water up and 
down the barrel well; pour this out and repeat the washing until the water comes 
out clear ; take out the peg from the cone, and stand the barrel, muzzle downward, 
to drain for a few moments. 

2. Screw the wiper on to the end of the ramrod, and put a piece of dry cloth or 
toic round it, sufficient to prevent it from chafing the grooves of the barrel ; wipe 
the barrel quite dry, changing or drying the cloth two or three times. 

3. Put no oil into the vent, as it will clog the passage, and cause the first cap to 
miss fire ; but, with a slightly oiled rag on the wiper, rub the bore of the barrel and 
the face of the breech-screw and immediately insert the tompion into the muzzle. 

4. To clean the exterior of the barrel, lay it flat on a bench or board, to avoid 
bending it. The practice of supporting the barrel at each end and rubbing it with 



198 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

a strap or buff-ctick, or with the ramrod or any other instrument, lo hunn't'h it, In 
pernicious, and should be strictly forbidden. 

5. After firinj;, the barrel Hhould always bo washed as goon as practicable; when 
the water comes olT clear, wipe the barrel dry, and pass into it a rag moistened with 
oil. 

Ah rust and dirt are produced by e.\|)loding caps or primeri^, ulthnu^^h no charge 
be fired, the parts of the barrel and cone exposed should be carefully wiped and 
oiled after such practice. 

Fine Jlour »/ emery cloth is the best article to clean the exterior of the barrel. 

TO CLKAN TllK I.OCK. 

Wipe every part with a moist rag, and then a dry one; if any part of the interior 
shows rust, put a drop of uil on the ])oint or end of a piece of soft woud dipped into 
flour of emery ; rub out the rust clean and wipe the surf;ice dry ; then rub every 
part with a slightly oiled rag. 

When a lock has, from any cause, become gummed with oil and dirt, it may be 
eleane<l by being boiled in soap-suds or in pearlasb or soda water, to luusen Ibe 
thick oil : but heat should never be a]iplied to any part of it in any other way. 

TO CI-KAN THE MOfNTINGS. 

For the mountings, and all of the iron and steel parts, use fine flour of emery 
moistened with <jil, or flour of emery cloth. 

For brafs, use rotlen-st6ne moistened with vinegar or water, and keep free from 
oil or grease. I'se a har<l brush, or a piece of soft pine, cedar, or crocus cloth. 

Remove dirt from the screw-holes by screwing a piece of soft wood into them. 

Wipe clean with a linen rag, and leave the parts slightly oiled. 

In cleaning the arms, great care should be observed to prcunie the ifualiliei etten^ 
tial to territr, rather than to obtain a bright polish. 

BurniihiHtf the barrel (or other parts) should be strictly avoided, ai it tends ta 
orook the barrel, and also to destroy the uniformity of the exterior finish of the 
arm. 

It is not essential for the musket to be dismounted every time that it is cleaned ; 
for, after firing it in fine weather, or when there has been no chance for the wet to 
get between the barrel and the stock, it can be perfectly cleaned in the following 
manner — 

Put a piece of rag or soft leather on the t«p of the cone, and let the hammer 
down upon it ; pour a gill of water into the muzzle, carefully, so that it does not 
run down the outside: put a plug of wood into the muzzle, and shake the gun op 
and down, changing the water rei'catedly until it comes out clear. When clear, 
withdraw the leather, and stand the musket on the muzzle for a few moments ; then 
wipe out the barrel (as given in the second rule for cleaning), and also wipe the 



CLEANING AND CARE OF ARMS. 193 

extcri..r of the lock and the outside of the barrel around the cone and cone-seat 
first with a damp ra-, and then with a dry one, and lastly with a rag that has been 
slightly o.led. In this way, all the dirt due to the firing may be removed without 
taking out a screw. 

If. however, the hammer be observed to work stiff, or to grate upon the tumbler 

the look must immediately be taken off and the parts cleaned and touched with oil 

To change the co„e, when it is broken or worn out.— After removing the old cone 

enter the new one carefully with the fingers, before using the wrench, in order to 

avoid bruising the thread in the barrel. 

It is very important to use no other implenwnts than those before mentioned 
By using nails to drive out the wires, their holes are enlarged. The main spring 
should never be heated for the purpose of either raising or lowering its temper 
this destroys the elasticity of the spring, and the lock no longer gives fire. 

The notches of the tumbler, the main .spring, swivel, and in°general, all the joints 
of the lock should be frequently oiled, after first wiping off the hard grease and the 
dust. 

Broiccd arms are cleaned by rubbing them hard with an oiled rag until the oil 
is well incorporated with the browning, or by rubbing them with beeswax on a rae 
or cork. ° 

Rifled arms should not have the ramrod spr,u,g in the bore with unnecessary 
force. It batters the head of the rod, and wears injuriously the grooves. The 
soldier should let the rod slide down gently, supported by the thumb and finger • 
and the inspecting ofiicer can satisfy himself of the condition of the bottom of the 
bore l,y gently tapping with the rod. The faca of the breech can be polished after 
^washing, by means of a cork fixed on the wiper or ball-screw ; the polished surface 
can be seen if the muzzle is turned to the light. 

Besides all the precautions in dismounting, remounting and cleaning, which have 
been pointed out in the foregoing pages, habitual care in handling the arms is 
necessary to keep them in good and serviceable condition. 

In ordering arms on parade, let the butt be brought gently to the ground, espe- 
cially when the exercises take place on pavements or hard roads. This will save 
the mechanism of the lock from shocks, which are very injurious to it, and which 
tend to loosen and mar the screws and split the wood-work. 

In sfac/nng arms, care should be taken not to injure the bayonets by forcibly 
straining the edges against each other. The stack can be as well secured without 
such force being used. 

No cutting, marking, or scraping in any way the wood or iron should be allowed : 
and no part of the gun should be touched with a file. Take every possible care to 
prevent water from getting in between the lock, or barrel and stock. If any should 
get there, dismount the gun as soon as possible, clean and oil the parts as directed, 
and see that they are perfectly dry before reassembling them. 
13 



194 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

INSPECTION OF ARMS IN SERVICE. OR WHICH H Wr BEEN IN 

SERVICE. 

fmjilrniciitii. — Standard and limit-gauges for the bore, lirnit-guagcx for the exterior 
of the barrel, and a gprcw-platc with taps for the holes of the lock-plate. 

The following are the principal points to be aUcmUd to in the inspection of 
arms — 

The arms being taken to pieces and cleaned. 

HAnitKI.. — DffrcU fur ichtrh tht barrel mtitt br eondeiniird a* nnjtt /or trrriee. Tho 
large pnacc entering the whole length of the barrel. The email or standard gauge 
not entering, unless the diminution of the bore be caused by the liarrel being in- 
dented or bent — defects which may be remedied. A diminution of the exterior 
diameter at the hreech or at the muzzle, so as to enter the'small receiving guagu : 
this diminution is 0.1 inch at the breech; O.O.'l inch at the muzzle for arms with 
bayonets, and 0.(t40 inch for arms without bayonets. A diminution of more than 
0.25 in the length of a pistol barrel, or 0.5 inch in the length of other barreli. 
Splits, cross-cracks, and other serious defects, caused either by bad workmanship or 
by use. 

Examine the barrel carefully, to see if it have any of the above defects, and, if 
■o, mark them with a file, when not very apparunL See if the bayonet-stud be broken 
or too much worn, if the cone-seat be perfect, and its thread in good order and the 
▼ent unobstructed. If the breech-screw be not tight after entering 5 or C threads, 
or if it can be screwed down by hand without the use of a wrench, if the thrcada be 
not sharp and sound, if the plug *j not fill up the whole Ixix of the female screw, 
if the tang bo broken or cracked at the screw-hole, or if, when the breech-screw u 
in, the tang bo not even with the upper surface of the barrel, a new breech-screw is 
required. 

Conk. — Examine the chamfered end of the cone, to sec that it be not broken or 
bruised ; examine abo the thread and the rent. 

Bayonkt. — A bayonet is considered unserviceable if the blade be I inch too short. 
Bee if it bo sound and perfect in all its parts, and if it fit the barrel ; also, if the 
elasp be in good order and turn freely. 

Lock. — See if the fixed branches of the gpriuga fit close to the ]«ck-plate, if the 
movable branches be clear of it, and if any of tht parts be wood-bound. 

Have the springs and the bridle of the tumbler renewed when their pivots are 
hroken. There should be an equal space between the lock-plate and the scar, the 
tumbler and the hammer. 

If the »car rub on the plate, have it adjusted. The friction of the tumbUr may be 
eansed by the bridle being badly pierced, in which case renew the bridle. If the 
hammer rub on one side only, have it adjusted: if it rub everywhere, the arbor of 
the tumbler does not project suflSciently, and the tumbler should be renewed. If the 
not(htt di' the tumbler be broken, or the edges too blunt, have them dressed; if the 
hook of the tumbler project beyond the edge of the lock-plate when the hammer is 



REPAIRS OF ARMS AT ARSENALS. 105 

let down, the tumbler should be renewed. The arbor and the pivot of the tumbler 
should fit well in their holes. Examine ihc star closely, and have it renewed when 
the nose is too thin or is worn on the side next the lock-plate, although it may be 
perfect on the exterior. If the hammer be not steady, the tumbler should be renewed. 
Try the action of the hammer, to see that it explodes the cap with certainty. 

Renew the Inck-plaie when the holes arc too much worn to be dressed over. Renew 
every limb that is broken or cracked, the screws which arc too much worn, or of 
which the stems are bent or the slits too much enlarged. 

Mountings. — See if the parts be complete and sound. 

If the tantj-KcrcxB do not fit tight in the screw-hole of the guard-plate, renew 
whichever part is defective. 

Ramrod. — See if it be sound and have a good thread and be of the proper length; 
otherwise, replace it. 

Stock. — Examine carefully the bed of the lock, and the holes for the band-springs. 
Press the thumb against the /uciiKjn, to see if they be split at the holes for the side 
screws, and renew the stock if it be split there or at any other part to an injurious 
extent. 

The a7'm8 complete. 

Are inspected according to the rules before laid down for the inspection of finished 
arms ; due allowance being made for the necessary wear in service. 

REPAIRS OF ARMS AT ARSENALS. 

When arms which have been in the hands of the troops are turned into store at an 
arsenal, they should be inspected by a master armorer, under the supervision of an 
oflBcer, and classed as follows — 

1. Serviceable arms. 

2. Anna requiring repairs. 

3. Irreparable arms. 

Arms requiring repairs arc classified according to their kinds and models and 
to the extent of the repairs required. Each arm should be marked with a number, 
and the requisite repairs should be noted on the register of in.spettion, to guide the 
workmen and to govern the is.sue of spare parts required for repairs. 

Repairs prohibited.— Tho following repairs beiug always imperfect, the parts 
requiring them should be replaced: Cutting oflf a barrel; brazing a patch on a 
barrel; brazing a tang on the breech-scrcw ; brazing a bolster on a lock-plate; 
reaming out the hole for the arbor of the tumbler; brazing a piece for a tumbler- 
hole or a shoulder on the hammer; hammering iu the edge of the hole to make it 
fit tighten the square of the tumbler; putting a pivot to a tumbler; twisting the 
square of the tumbler to increase the sweep of the hammer; straightening the 
arbor; brazing a ramrod; splicing a stock. 

The spare parts furnished from the armories are iu soQ^:ra,\ filed, jiniehed, hard- 
ened and tempered, including the breech-screw. 



196 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Filtinp fifir part*. — To adjust n icir lock, the flat of the barrel should not 
bo filed, but the bolsters of the lock-plutc should be ground. 

The hnrrcl should not be touched with a file when it has been injured by rust. 
fn rejilaring the hayonrt-ntnd, avoid cutting too deep into the barrel and proclucing a 
j)rojcctiim inside; try the small gauge iu the barrel after the operation. In fitting 
a new bayonet, dress out the groove of the socket and ream out the socket if 
necessary. 

lirnzc iiijhKi and bayonet -itudi only, and no other pieces; the solder is comjtosed 
of two parts of brass and one of zinc, without any tin. 

Irreparable Arms. 

Arms arc considered irreparable when both the barrel and stock arc until for 
service; or when the arms require very extensive repairs anil the part!« can be made 
useful for repairs of other arms. They can be broken up only by special authority ; 
and they should, therefore, be oiled and preserved, in order to be submitted to an 
inspector, as prescribed in the Ordnance regulations. 

When arms are broken up, the parts are classed either as lervieenble, reparnblr., 
or \in$erv\e.eable ; those of the last class should be turned into store as tcrap iron or 
tieel, etc. 

STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF MUSKET BARRELS. 

To test the strength of musket barrels, model 1855, they have been fired with an 
increasing number of cartridges, until the force of the explosion of the first two 
cartridges was unable to drive out the other charge.*, and the gas escaped through 
the veut, leaving the barrel uninjured. 

The strength of the barrel, therefore, furnishes every requisite" security against 
the accidents of service and the want of care on the part of the soldier. 

E.xpcricnce has shown that a musket barrel may be fired 'JG.OOO times without 
becoming unserviceable. 

Barrcl.s which are condemned in service are almost always the result of accident, 
very rarely from enlargement of the bore or from the diminution of the exterior 
dimensions. 

The following trials of the strength and durability of the French musket barrel 
are taken from the Aide-Memoire. They refer to the smooth bure musket : It is to 
be observed that the charge of the French musket was formerly 1(32 grams Troy, 
priming included (or 146 grains, exclusive of priming), and is, therefore, consid- 
erjibly greater than our present service charge. 

In experimeuts made in 1S06, barrels reduced 0.13 inch at the breech bore a 
double and triple charge with one ball, or 2 cartridges placed one over the other. 

Other trials were made in 1S29, at the manufactory of Mutzig, on arms sent 
there for repairs^ which had been a greater or less time in the hands of the troops. 
They furnished the following results — 



STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF MUSKET BARRELS. 197 

Ist. When a musket barrel is charged with a single cartridge, placed in any part 
of it, or with 2 or even with 3 cartridges, inserted regularly, without any interval 
between them, there is no danger of bursting ; with 4 cartridges inserted regularly 
over each other, or with 2 or even 3 cartridges placed over each other with slugged 
balls (or balls driven in, as in a rifle), there is danger only in case of some defect 
of fabrication, or some deterioration in the barrel ; with more than 4 cartridges 
inserted regularly one over another, or with 2, 3 aud 4 cartridges with intervals 
between them, it is not safe to firev 

2d. No danger of bursting is occasioned by leaving a ball-screw in the barrel. 
There may be danger from a plug of wood driven tight into the muzzle, whun the 
barrel has been loaded with 2 cartridges; or from a cork rammed into the barrel to 
a certain distance from the charge, with another cartridge over it. 

Snow, clay and sand, which may be accidentally introduced into the barrel, 
are not dangerous, if they lie close to the charge; but they are so when there is a 
space between thcni aud the charge ; in this case sand is the most dangerous, then 
clay and snow. 

Balls or pieces of iron inserted over the charge were not attended with danger 
when placed close to the charge, even when their weight amounted to 11 lb.; but 
there is danger from a piece of iron, 0.0 inch square, weighiug i lb., if placed 20 
inches or more from the breech. 

3d. A barrel with a defect which might have escaped the inspector at the armory, 
bore the explosion of 3 cartridges, regularly inserted. After mutilation, which 
may have caused a reduction of metal in some parts, it may still bo used with- 
out danger. 

Finally, the diminutions of exterior diameter which may be produced in ordinary 
service are never sufficient to be dangerous. In these trials, barrels oiiginally 0.272 
inch thick at the breech did not burst when loaded with 2 cartridges, until the 
thickness was reduced to 0.169 inch, and with 1 cartridge to 0.091 inch. 



m 



OUDNANCE MANUAL. 



Spare Parts required for the repai 
one year in 



r of 1,U00 Rifie. Muskets, du 
the field. 



ring 



Tip for stocks 

Tip-rivets 

Hamrod-tttupH . . . . . 
6to(k8 

nUtl-plutC8 

liutt-pliitu .Mfruws . 

Guard-plali'S 

QunriM)o\ts 

Quard-bow swivels 



riveta 

DUtH . . 



TrlgRcrs 

TriRger-porews. . . . 
Quaril-.«crL'ws . . . . 

Higlit-bascs 

Sigb (-leaves 

Sigbt-leuf gpriiif^.s 



Bight-joint piuD . . 

Sight-slides 

" spring's 
" rivets . • 

Leaf sigiit basu . . 

First leaf 

Second leaf 

Joint-seiow 

Baso-sorow 

Front sif^bls 

Breech-screws . . . . 

Cones 

Vent-screws 

Barrels 

Tang-screws 

Upper bands . . . . 



Nm. 
10 
2U 
10 
50 
5 
25 
10 
10 
75 

IflO 
00 

a.') 

•23 
7') 
100 
100 
100 
100 
l.')0 
100 
150 
300 
50 

r>o 

50 
50 

100 

25 

20 

\ 75 

125 

2 

50 

50 



Middle banils 

Lower bunds 

Upper band sprinf^s 

Middle band springs 

Lower band .•i])rinps 

Miiidle band swivels 

" " " rivets 

Lock-platci' 

Main-spring swivels 

" " rivets .... 

Uanimcrs 

Tumblers 

Tumbler-screws 

Bridles 

Bridle-screws 

Sears 

Sear-screws 

Scar-springs 

" screws 

Main springs 

Side screw washers 

Side screws 

Ramrods 

Bayonets 

Bayonet-clasps 

'• screws 

APPKNDAGE8. 

Wipers 

Screw-drivers 

Ball-screws 

Spring-vices 

Tumpions 

Band-spring and tumbler-punch 



— rr 
Mas. 

30 

30 

30 

30 

^0 

75 

100 

8 

20 

SO 

75 

75 

IV.'S 

25 

125 

40 

125 

129 

125 

125 

60 

200 

100 

75 

100 

100 



75 

25 
25 
25 
100 
25 



SPARE PARTS OF RIFLES. 



199 



Spare Parts for 1,0U0 Bijles {Model 1855) one year in the field. 



Barrels 

Vent-screws 

Rear- sights 

Breech-screws 

Tang " 

Cones 

Locks 

Lock-plates 

Hammers 

Tumblers 

" screws 

Bridles 

" screws 

Sears 

" screws 

Sear-springs 

•' screws 

Main springs 

" swivels 

" " rivets . . 

Side screws 

Upper bands with swivels. . . . 

" band swivels and rivets 

" band springs 

Lower bands 

" band springs 

Side screw washers 

Guard-plates 



2 

30 
20 
10 
30 
50 
2 
5 
25 
20 

100 
20 
50 
20 
50 
50 
50 
50 
40 
40 

100 
10 
50 
30 
10 
20 
30 
10 



Guard-bows 

" nuts . .' 

" " swivels and rivets 
Triggers 

" screws 

Guard-plate screws 

Butt-plates 

" screws 

Box-plates with catches 

" screws 

" springs 

" " screws 

Ramrods 

" stops 

Stocks 

Screw-drivers 

Wipers 

Ball-screws 

Spring- vices 

Tumbler and wire punches 

Bullet-moulds 

Swages for balls 

Sword bayonets 

Tompions 

Sword-bayonet lock-pins 

" " springs.. 

" " spring 

screws 



20 
40 
50 
10 
10 
50 

2 
20 

5 
10 
10 
10 
50 
10 
30 
50 
50 
10 
10 
10 

5 

5 
30 
20 
25 
55 

50 



200 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Numhrr and hind f>f Armorers' Tools required for any nuinher of 
workmen, from 1 to 12, at an Armory or Arsenal for Repairs, etc. 



Nt'MBtll UV U'UKKMKN. 



1 


1 
2 3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 



Awls', ftockcru' I 3 

Axes, liiuxl I 1 

Au|;crf>, urinurcrs' fl 

AdviIh 1 

Bending toolo I 2 

BalanccH 1 

Bayonet-i>ro<)f!! j 1 

Bevels 

Bifk-ironi' 

Bit.s, assorted 

" auffir 

" Ktocktr;'' 

BraiH'i", iron 

Braces and bits 

Brnii.l8. C. S... 

Brushes, dust 

tool 

Buff, sticks 

Burrs 



Cutter, boxes 

•■ dies 

" juin|>ers 

Cutters, .>-'niiths' 

" griuluuteil, maohinialg' 

Callipers 

Charters 

Chisels, turning metal | ^ 

*' ■' wood 4 

" cold 3 

'• stockers' 6 

" smiths' 2 



Clamps, iron.. . . 
Comlis, screw . . . 
Comb, grinders'. 
Couulersiuks . . . 
Chucks, scroll. . . 
Cutting-off tools 

Crucibles 

Cone-boxes 

Cans, tin 



3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


6 


6 


A 


« 


8 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






1 


6 
1 


6 
1 


6 

1 


6 
I 


6 

1 


6 

1 


1 


I 


8 

1 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


I 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


I 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


4 


4 


6 




20 


20 


24 


24 


24 


28 


28 


28 


30 


30 


SO 


6 


« 


6 


6 


6 


6 


fl 


6 


8 


12 


IS 


18 


13 


18 


18 


18 


20 


20 


20 


24 


24 


24 


1 


1 


I 


1 


1 






1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






1 


1 


1 




1 


2 


3 


3 


4 






5 


« 


8 




1 


2 


2 


3 


3 






4 


5 


5 




3 


3 


6 


6 


12 


12 


24 


24 


24 


24 


24 


6 


6 


8 





6 


fi 


6 


6 


8 


8 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 


<) 


2 


•> 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 








1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 










1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 










2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 










1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 










6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


« 


8 










4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 






6 


9 


12 


15 


18 


21 


24 


27 


30 


33 


38 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


8 


8 






2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 






6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


« 


6 


8 






6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


fi 






6 


6 


6 


6 




6 


6 


6 


8 
















8 
1 

1 
2 
1 
1 


8 

1 
1 
2 
I 
1 


8 
1 
1 

2 

1 

I 


14 
I 

1 
2 

1 
1 


14 


16 



ARMORERS TOOLS. 



201 



Number and kind of Armorers' Tools, etc. — Continued. 



NUMBER OF WORKMEN. 



1 2 


3 


4 5 6 


7 


8 


9 1 10 


11 



TOOLS. 

Dies, screw-cutting. . . 

" milling 

" triinming 

" shaving 

" tilt-hammer.... 

Drilling-collars 

Drill-presses, portable 

Drill-stocks 

Drills, pivot 

" assorted 

Dividers 

Dogs, turning 

Files, assorted 

Formers, forgers' . . . . 

Flatters, forgers' 

Floats, stockers' 

Fullers and sets 

Furnaces, portable . . . 

Gauges, scrcw-cuttiug 

" graduating . . 

" sliding 

" assorted 

" wire 

Glue-pots 

Gouges, stockers' . . . . 

Grindstones, small . . . 

" large . . . 

Gravers 

Hammers, set 

" copper . . . . 

" hand 

Heading tools 

Hods, iron 

Jumper boxes 

" dies 

Jigs, drilling 

" filing . 

" tapping 

" milling 

*' shaving 

Knives, drawing 

" stocking 

Ladles, iron 

Levellers, iron 



13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


12 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


46 


46 


46 


46 


46 


46 


46 


46 


46 


46 


46 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


12 


24 


36 


48 


60 


72 


84 


96 


108 


120 


132 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


200 


200 


200 


200 


200 


200 


200 


200 


200 


200 


200 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


24 


24 


24 


24 


24 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


] 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


16 


16 


16 


16 


16 


16 


16 


16 


16 


16 


16 


31 


31 


31 


31 


31 


31 


31 


31 


31 


31 


31 


50 


60 


50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


60 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 



203 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Number and kind of Armorers' Tools, etc. — Continued. 



NUMUKIt OK WOIIKMEN. 



9 10 I 11 12 



Measures, lapc 

" tin 

Mills 

Mandrels, for;^cr8' 

" assorlcil. 

" l)<«ring 

" band 

Moulds, grind- wheel 

" bullet 

Oil cans 

Oilers 

Oil cups 

Oil-stones 

Pans, copjier vitrioling 

" tin 

" anncalin;; 

" sheet-iron 

Pincers 

Pliers . .* 

Planes, stookers' 

Powder, can istor 

Plugs, calibre 

" proving 

Punches, assorted 

hiUldlcd 

" spring 

Pails, wood 

" iron washing 

Pots, water 

Rods, wiping 

" riding 

Riflers 

Reamers 

Rules, carpcn ters' 

Rests, filers' 

Racks, movable 

Stands, straightening barrels. 
Scales, graduated 

" standard • 

Scales and weights 

Saws, hand 

" niotal circular 

'• hack 

" Blockers' 

" whip 



24 



28 



24 



24 



28 



28 



1 
1 
244 
3 
8 
1 
6 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
7 
1 
5 
1 
4 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
28 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 



1 
1 
244 
3 
8 
1 
6 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
7 
1 
5 
1 
4 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
28 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 



1 
1 
244 
3 
8 
1 
S 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
14 
1 
6 
2 
4 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
4 
28 



1 
1 
244 
3 
8 
1 
6 
1 
2 
1 
3 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 

14 
1 
5 
2 
4 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
4 
28 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 



1 


1 


1 


1 


244 


244 


3 


3 


8 


8 


1 


1 


6 


A 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 


1 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2! 2 


14 


14 


1 




5 




2 




4 




2 


2 


1 


] 


2 




1 




1 





1 
1 

244 
3 
8 
1 
6 
1 
2 
1 
3 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
14 
1 
5 
2 
4 
2 
I 
2 



I 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


4 


8 


28 


1 


1 


3 


8 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


8 


« 


1 


1 


1 


1 



1 
1 

244 
3 
8 
1 
8 
1 
1 
1 
8 
8 
S 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
t 

14 
1 
5 
2 
4 
3 
1 
t 
1 
1 
2 
t 
4 

28 
1 
8 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
6 
1 
1 



armorers' tools. 203 

number and kind of Armorers' Tools, etc. — Concluded. 



NUMBER OF WORKMEN. 



10 11 12 



Shovels, smiths'. . . 

" steel 

Screw-drivers 

Screw-plates 

Screw-stocks 

Scribora 

Sets, assorted 

Saw-sets 

Shears, band 

" bench .... 

Sledges 

Sows, cast-iron . . . 
Soldcring-copper. . 

Spoke-shaves 

Spring-proofs 

Squares, 2-fcet . . . 

" assorted . 

" trying . . . 

Stakes, iron 

" lead 

Stamps, letters . . . 

" figures . . . 

" eagles . . . , 

Straight-edges .... 

Swages , 

Swage-boxes 

" dies 

" jumpers ... 

" bullet , 

Trimmers 

Taps, metal 

Tongs, grinders' ... 

" smiths' .... 
Trowels, masons'.., 

Tunnels, tin 

Trucks, hand , 

Tool-cases 

Target, iron 

Vices, barrel , 

" bench 

" hand , 

" foot 

Wheels, polishing . . 

Wrenches, patent . . 

" assorted . 



1 

1 

6 

7 

1 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

2 

24 

10 

1 

1 

56 

15 

59 

59 

2 

2 

37 

2 

30 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 
1 
5 
6 
1 
6 



1 

1 

8 

7 

1 

4 

4 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

] 

1 

2 

1 

4 

4 

24 

10 

1 

1 

56 

15 

59 

59 

2 

2 

37 

2 

30 



204 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

List of Verifying Gauges for the Rifle Musket, model of 1855. 

Kach net of gauges ih distinguished by the term. "Riki.k Musket, C. S.,'" iind the 
nuniher to c(irr<nj)ond with those contained in the following list, with deacrip- 
tionB : 

POK DAIIREI.S. 
No. 1. Calibre (tiitit/e ; 

Measures the size of the burc, .58 inch diameter. 
No. 2. Groove Gnuyf, \o. 1 : 

Meusureff the depth of the groove at the uiuzzle, .."iSS inch. 
No. 'A. Groiive Gauge, A'o. 2 : 

Measures the depth of the groove at the breech, .5V6 inch. 
No. 4. Dimenaiun Gauge, ^Vo. 1 : 

Shows the dislance between flats, vertical diameter, position of top, loft- 
hand bevel and oval, site of tenon at shoulder, ends of the two flats, and 
one bevel. 
.No. b. Dimrntion Gauge, A'o. 2: 

Shows the exterior diameter of the burrel at the butt, at 1.5 inch, 2.S 
inches, 5.5 inches, 9.S75 inches, '21..') inches, 3.32^ inches, from roar cod 
of barrel, an<l at top and bottom of bayonet-socket, and the length of 
the bayonet socket. 

No. 5 J. Caltiptr Qaug* : 

Corresponding with No. 5. 

No. 5J. Jlarrel Holder: 

Holds barrel and marks the above points for measurement. 
No. 6. Iteceivinij Gatige : 

Shows dimeut^ions of barrel at butt, position and form of cone-seat, direc- 
tion and position of tap for cone-screw, position of vent-screw, shape of 
tang, and position of tang-screw hole. 
No. 6^. Rear-tight .Vortite Gauge : 

Shows the position, depth, width, and bevel of mortise, and the position, 
site, and depth of rear-sight screw-hole. 
No. 7. Gauge for Counterbore of Barrel : 

Shows length and diameter of the counterbore. 
No. 7J. Tap Gauge for Barrel Thread : 

Shows length, depth, and width of thread. 
No. 8. Bayonet Stud and Barrel ifutzle: 

Shows the height of stud, distance of stud from muzzle, and diameter of 
barrel at 3.03 inches from the muzzle. 
No. 8. Pront-*igki Gauge: 

Shows height, length, and form of sight 



VERIFYING GAUGES. 205 

No. 10. Barrel, Sight, and Rod Gavrje : 

Shows pcsition and morti?c, screw-hole for rear sight, length of barrel, 
position of front sight, length of ramrod. 
No. n. Die Gaiige for Breech Scrcic : 

Shows size and commencement of thread, length of body, diapicter of the 
body. 
No. llj. Limit Gavije/or Brr.ech Screw: 

Shows maximum size of thread, limit of entrance of pin, diameter and 
length of stem. 

FOR LOCKS. 

No. 12. Bereivinfj Gauge for Lock-phtte : 

Shows the form of the lock plate, and thickness. 
No. 13. Lotik-plntc Gauge : 

Shows thickness of plate and bevel, thickness of plate, notch for main 
spring, thickness of bolster and plate, height of bolster body, and height 
at notch. 
No. 14. Tumbler Gauge : 

Has a receiving cavity to show the form of tumbler, diameter of arbor and 
square, thickness of body, length of arbor and square, taper of square, 
size of pivot, position of swivel-pin hole and swivel-slot. 
No. 141. Tumbler Gauge, No. 2 : 

Tests the thread in the tumbler. 
No. 15. Bridle Gauge: 

Shows the form of the bridle, position of the pivot and stud, thickness of 
body, and thickness at eye. 
No. 16. Sear Gauge : 

Receiving cavity shows form of sear, height and form of tang, freeing of 
scar, thickness of tang, width of nose, and width at eye. 
No. 17. Hammer Gauge: 

Shows form of hammer and position of hole for square of tumbler, with 
a draft for size of tumhler-hole, and form of knife edge. 
No. IS. Dimensiou Gauge : 

Shows the thickness of body at tumbler-hole and bevel, thickness of body, 
profile of comb, width of comb and shape of back, curve of front of 
comb at start of body, thickness and curve of head, curve of top of 
comb, depth and size of countersink, crook of body. 
No. 19. Lock Screw-hole Gauge : 

Shows po.sition of all holes on the inside of the lock-plate. 
No. 20. Mdin-npriug Gauije : 

Shows the curve of long branch, freeing of spring, sha])e of spring at 
hook, position of pivot and relative position and thickness of the two 
branches, length of short branch, shape of tang, width of hook, width 



206 ORPNANCE MANUAL. 

cpf long l>riincli njipositc extremity of short branch. wMth of ImhIv. curve 
of bend, form of slot for swivel. 
No. 21. Maiii-npring (iaugr. No. 2: 

6bow» the tbickne(8 of ion); branch close to the book, oppoiitc the end of 
fbort branch, dure to stud, thickness of short branch cloi>e to tang, 
opposite lo stud, iind at centre of tang, and height above top of taag- 
•loi>c. 
No. 22. Srar-Kpritig (laiigr : 

Shows Kpreud of spring, length of nrin. size of stud and freeing of iomU 
brunch, position of stud and pin-holes, thickness of tnetal at eyv, width 
at small end, widih of metal at body, width of body a<lj<>iuing rye. 
No. 23. T>i)t (lauge fur l.<nk-»rrtic», Triijgfr, Vctil, and ffnifoHel-ela*p Serttrt; 
Bhows the length, diameter, and thread of each. 

I-KAK-SIGDT, M0D1;L OP iN.'i'J. 

No. 1. (Inuge for Haic, \<>. 1 : 

Shows the profile of side of base, thickness of fence and dislaarc bctWflMl 
fences, length of base inside, width and form of curve at rear end, lenipth 
of curve and position of screw-hole and stcady-piu on under side, thick- 
ness of head, body, and diameter of the screw, length of screw. 
No. 2. (inuijf far Itate, Su. 2; 

Shows the position of the screw and steady-pin holes and «lu|, for the tenon, 
as in the barrel. 
No. 3. Guii'jefur Fimt Lmf : 

Shows the length, width, and thickness, thickness of ears, dutaoee bstfPMft 
ears, and position as assembled. ^^ 

No. 4. Oaui/r for Stcoini Ltuf: 

Shows the form of the side of the lOO-yard range, form of the ride of 300- 
yurd range, width of leaf, thickness, width of joint, an<i p<l^itioo •> 
assembled: showing the form and position of notcbca, and the utigle of 
inside and outside of leaf. 
No. r>. Gouge fur Joint Scrac: 

Shows the length, diameter and thickness of head, diameter of body, ■•4 
size of thnaii. 

MOUNTINGS. KTC. 
No. 30. UvU-plnte Gauge, So. 1 : 

Receives the plate and shows its form, position of screw-holes, position and 
site of notch for patch box. 
No. 31. liutt-plate Gaugr. A'o. 2 : 

Shows thickness of heel, thickness of toe, thickness at comers, tbicknefi 
of body, lateral curve across body, lateral curve across tang, longitudinal 
curvature of b<:>ttom of plate. 



VERIFYING OUAGES. 207 

No. 32. Tiiilt-jdate and Gunrd-tcrcw Gauge : 

Shows form of head and reinforce, diameter and length of stem, the shape 
of thread. 
No. 3.3. Band Gaiiffe : 

Shows width and thickness of body, width and thickness of swivel-stud for 
middle band and guard-bow stud, round of stud, thickness of swivel and 
stud, size of swivel-wire. 
No. 34. Jiand-maudrel Gauge, No. 1 : 

Shows interior of upper band. 
No. 35. Iland-mandrel Gauge, No. 2 : 

Shows interior form of middle band. 
No. 36. Band-mandrel Gauge, No. 3 : 

Shows interior form of lower band. 
No. 37. Guard-plate Gauge: 

Receives the plate and shows its form, position of stud for trigger and slot, 
position of screw-holes, position of guard-bow holes and tang-screw 
hole. 
No. 38. Guard-plate and Bow Gauge: 

Shows diameter of trigger-stud, thickness of plate at bolsters, thickness of 
^ body, shape of exterior, profile across bolsters, position and size of trigger- 

slot, width and shape of upper and lower sides of bow, taken at the 
middle, width of swivel-joint, diameter of collar, diameter of stem, thick- 
ness at middle of bow, diameter between collar and swivel-stud, diameter 
of nut, thickness of nut, relative position of swivel-stud, collar, stem, 
and screw, screw-thread. 
No. 39. Trigger Gauge: 

Receiving-slot, showing thickness and shape of blade, curve of finger-piece, 
position and size of pivot-hole, curve of under side of finger-piece, and 
thickness of metal at finger end. 
No. 40. Band-spriug Gauge : 

Receiving-slot, showing size, form, and set of spring and position of wire 
and shoulder, three gauges for lengths of wire, thickness at shoulder, 
thickness of stem, width of stem, and diameter of wire. 
No. 41. Washer Gauge: 

Shows countersink for screw-head, size of the hole for screw, diameter of 
washer, thickness of washer, and depth of countersink. 
No. 42. Side and Tang-screw Gauge: 

Shows diameter of head of side screw, diameter of stem, diameter of thread, 
length of both side screws, countersink for the shoulder of tang-screw, 
diameter of head, of stem, of thread, and length of screw. 
No. 43. Rod-stop Gauge: 

An iron pattern, complete. 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

BAYONET. 
No. 44. Jt'riririnrf (I'nuifr : 

Shnwii length, width and set of blade. 

No. 4.'). Sock- f I dntigr, So. 1 : * 

Showii exterior diftinctcr of socket below bead, and diameter of bead. 

No. 4C. Surkrt (inugr, No. 2 : 

Show* exterior diameter of socket at top and bottom. 
No. 47. Mfifdrrt (iangr : 

Shows form of socket at lower end, siie of cut for Ktud, length of socket, 
sice of grooves, position of claop. 
No. 4S. niniie Gnugt: 

Shows curve of front flute, the thickness of metal at commcnoemanl of 
front flute, at 7^ inches and 14} inches from widest point of bla<le. 

No. A9. Dimrntiiin (imii/r : 

(To be applied before the clasp is put on.) 

Jflhown position and size of socket at clasp-stud, position and siie of claap- 
ctud, relative position of bridj,'C-bead and cliijp-."tud, distance from top 
of slot to top of socket. 
No. r)0. .\rrk Gauge: 

(To be applied before the clasp is put on.) 

Shows lower curve of neck, upper curve of neck, diameter of neck, and 
relative position of neck, bo<id and bridge. 
No. .'>0i. .\eck- Uniigf, So. 2: 

Shows curves of junction of neck and socket. 
No. fll. Itla<ir Gauge : 

Shows profile of back of blade at the commencement of back flutea, at 
termination of bevel, at middle of blade, and 1 inch from point of blade, 
and the width of blade at the above-mentioned points. 

KAMnOD. 

No. 52. Rod Gauge : 

Shows profile of head, neck and swell for 6^ inches, diameter of bead, 
diameter at 2.5 inches, diameter at 5 inches, diameter of bodj at T 
inches, IS 5 inches, 30 inches from large end, diameter at start of th r —d, 
and. form of cup: the thread same as in model of 1840; length, 39.62$ 
inches. 
No. 52i. Hod Holder : 

Marks points at '2..') inches. 5, 7, IS. 5 and 30 inches from large end, at start 
of thread, and gives true length of rod. 



No. 53. Profile Gauge : 

Shows the curve or shape, length, position of bands, tip and shape of bnti. 



VERIFYING GAUGES. 209 

No. .')4. fiift/onrl-rltinj) Mandrel Gauge : 

Shows exterior and interior size of clasp when the screw is in its place. 
No. 55. (Jlusp-dimcniion Gauge : 

Shows thickness of body, thickness at bridge, width of stud, width of body 
at notch, position of screw-hole, round of stud, receiving tool for form 
and size of finished clasp, with position of bridge and notch. 
No. 56. Tip Gauge : 

Shows circular cut for barrel, cross-section of base of tip, with cut for rod- 
groove, profile of under side and barrel at end. 
No. 56i. Tip Gauge, No. 2 : 

Shows inside of tip. 
No. 57. Cone Gauge : 

Shows size and thickness of collar, thread for screw, size of body, size of 
bottom of cone, size of tip, profile, size of top, throat and lower part of 
vent-hole, upper surface, square and diameter of collar. 
No. 58. Screw-driver Gauge : 

Long branch : shows form of edge, form of end, width across centre below 
rivet, size of wrench, thickness of head, of body, of wrench, of end of 
blade. 
Short branch: shows thickness of body, width of body, width of end. 
thickness of end, size of rivet-hole. 
No. 59. Wiper : 

Shows the diameter of branches, thickness of head, form of head, size of 
thread. 
No. 60. Ball Screw: 

Shows length and form of screw, diameter of collar, diameter of body, 
size of thread for rod. 
No. 65. Barrel Gauge : 

Shows the number of threads and length of body for breech-screw, to be 
applied in the barrel. 
No. 66. Tip-screw Gauge : 

Shows the length, size of head, body, thickness of head and thread. 
No. 67. Stock Gauge: 

Shows thickness across end of centre of butt and bed of lock-plate, at the 
bands and tip, at flats near tang, and at end of box-mortise. 
No. 68. Receiving Gauge: 

Shows the form, size and length of the stock, the shoulders for the butt 
end of the barrel, the bands and the tip. 

Gauges for Rifle, Model of 1855. 

Nos. 1 to 4, 6, 7, 11 to 27, 30 to 33, 35, 37 to 43, and 57 are the same as for the 
rifle musket. 
14 



210 OEOMANCE MANUAL. 

No. JJ. Tiarrtl (inn ye : 

Sbowo the diftinetcr of tho barrel at tlio mur./.le and otlK-r |)<>ii)t8 indi(>ate<l 
»..V Nc. 05. 
No. 8. Ihni<i:,r(.»tu<l Gauge : 

Sli'iwi" lonj^lli of (<tud, dictuiice from muzzle to lower cjid of «tud, thick- 
necc and form of stud. 
No. 9. Frnnt-'iijht Gaugr : 

Sh'iwn height and form of front night. 
No. 10. Sight (inu'jf, Sn. '2: 

Phowd the pouiiion of the front sight ami of the mortice and screw-hole for 
the rear sight. 
No. .H4. Itanii-maiidrrl (Inugr, No. 1 : 

Shows interior or upper band. 
No. 36. linnd-mnndrel (laugr, Xo. .3: 

Shows interior of lower band. 
No. •'>2. Romrnd (iangr : 

Shows profile of head, neck and swell. an<l diameter of head, neck, swell 
and bo<iy. 
No. 03. /'rojile-ttort Uaugr : 

Shows length and curve of stock, and position of bands and tip. 
No. M. Tip Gauge: 

Shows length of tip and exterior form at upper and lower end. 
No. 61. Hux-npriiiij Gniigr : 

Shows length, width and thickness of spring, and poaition of rivet and 
8crew-holc8. 
No. C)'2. Box-eorer Gauge : 

Shows profile of cover and position of scrcw-bole^ aii<i rivet-hole for spriof. 
No. 6.1. Ror-eorer Gauge, A'o. 2: 

Shows curve of top and thickness of cover. 
No. 64. Jiamrud Holder: 

Shows gauging-points for ramrod. 

No. 05. Barrel Holder: 

Shows gauging-points of barrel. 

BWORD BAYO.NET. 

No. 66. Shows profile of back of blade and back of hilt. 

No. 67. Shows width and thickness of blade. 

No. 63. Shows width and thickness of hilt. 

No. 69. Shows profile of back and front of hilt and guard. 

No. 70. Shows position and depth of slot in hilt. 

No. 71. Finger-piece Gauge: 

Shows the diameter and length of body, diameter, length and form of bead, 
and thickness and length of finger-piece spring. 
No. T2, Tompion Gauge: 

Shows length of head and body, diameter of bead, neck, collar and body. 



SWORDS AND SABRES. 

SWORDS AX I) SABRES. 

NOMENCLATURE. 

Cavalry Sabre. (Plate 28.) 

BLADE.-Shoulder, back, edge, be^el, point, curvature, large groove small 
groove; tang, riveting. 

*u"uf'~'^'""""' ^^'■*''^' '"'^''^ ^"^ ^^'^ S""''- ''"'''• '•ivet-eap, hole for the tang of 
the blade; ^jHpe, wooden body (birch or maple), leather covering (calfskin 
blackened), wires (brass), notch for the guard, ridges, shoulder, hole for the tan^ 
of the blade. ° 

GvAUr^.-Front branch, hook ; hark branch; middle branch ; plate, mortise for the 
tang, flange, bead, lip. 

ScABBAUD (sheet-steel).-/?c.</y, back, front, sides, holes for the rivets; month- 
prece nm, springs, rivet-holes; 2 rivets; 2 band,, knob, eye for the ring; 2 rina, ■ 
tip, front branch, back branch. 

Light Cavalry Sabre. 

The nomenclature the same as the cavalry sabre. 

This sabre differs from that above in being shorter and lighter. 

Light Artillery Sabre. (Plate 28.) 

The nomenclature is the same as the cavalry sabre, with the following ex 
ceptions — " 

Blade. — Has but one groove. 

UiLT.-Guard, one branch terminating in a scroll; the plate has 2 counter 
sinks— one for the gripe, the other for the scabbard. 

Scabbard.— ^S^jrui^, fastened to the back by 1 rivet. 

Foot Artillery Sword. (Plate 28.) 

BLADE.-Straight, two-edged, narrower near the hilt than in the middle- body 
(or blade proper), shoulder, shoulder-rounding, ridges, point, bevels, edges, tano it, 
rounding and riveting, three holes for the gripe-rivets. 

Hilt (brass, in one piece).-Cross, knob and panel of the cross, mortise for the 
tang, gnpe, fillet, necks, swell, knob with an eagle on each side, bolster and hole for 
the tang-nvet, grooves and ridges, three holes and bolsters for the gripe-rivets- 
3 rivets (iron). ' 

Scabbard (harness leather, jacked, blackened and varnished).-i?o^y ed-es 
inner and outer sides; monntings (brass); ferrule, stud, bead, cap; safes (buff- 
leather) ; 4 nails for the ferrule and safes ; tip, bead, knob; 4 nails for the tip 



212 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Non-commissioned Officer's Sword. (Plate 28.) 

Blade (straight, cut and thrust). — I^itk, edge, groove, bevel, point. 

H,i,x. — Pommel (brass), notch for the hook of the guard, rivet-cap, shoulder for 
the ferrule, hole for the tang; 2 ferrules; gri})e, wooden body, hole for the tang: 
covering (sheet-brass), grooves and ridges. 

Guard (in one piece). — /?rancA, hook and its shoulder; j^late, flange, bead; knol. 

Scabbard (leather). — Ferrule and hook (brass); tip (brass), body, front branch, 
back branch. 

This sword is for the non-commissioned officers of foot troopt. 

Musiciati's Sword. 

The same as the non-commissioned officer's sword, without the guard-plaU; and 
with a blade six inches shorter. 

Sabre for Staff and Field Officers. (Plate 28.) 

Blade. Shoulder, back rounded, edge, bevel, point, tapering nearly equal from 

edge and back, curvature slight; large groove, small groove; tang, riveting; 
etched vine on back ; letters " C. S.," guns, drums, colors, and rays on left side ; 
eagle, guns, colors, and rays on right side. 

Hilt. Pommel (brass, gilded), notch for guard, scrolled back, rivet-cap, hole for 

the tang of the blade ; gripe, wooden body (birch or maple), seal-skin covering 
(blackened) wire, (fine brass, richly gilded), notch for guard, ridges, shoulder, hole 
for the tang of the blade. 

GOARD. Front branch, hook; back branch ; middle branch ; letters " C. S.," and 

open scroll-work between branches; plate (brass, gilded), bead, flange, scroll, lip. 
mortised for tang of blade and for strap of sword-knot. 

Scabbard (sheet-steel, browned). — Interior lining well-seasoned bass wood : 
hody, back, front, sides, holes for screws; mouth-piece (brass, gilded), rim; 2 
bands (brass, gilded), knob, eye for the ring, screws, and screw-holes ; 2 ringn 
(gilded) ; tip (gilded), screw, screw-hole, front and back branch. 

Sword for Officers of the Staff and Staff Corps. (Plate 28.) 

Bladb. — Straight, two edges, with an arris in the middle between the edges: 
etched scrolls, colors, and shield on the left side; eagle, guns, colors, and scrolls 
on the right side ; tang, riveting. 

Hilt (brass, chased and gilded). — Pommel, an inverted frustum of a cone, with 
an eagle chased on one side. 

Guard. Principal branch, chased, mortise for the sword-knot, shoulder for the 

lower ferrule ; fixed shell, bearing an eagle and flags, chased; movable shell, plain : 
button for the spring; cross-bar. Gripe (black horn) wrapped spirally with gold 
cord ; 2 /errule«, chased. Weight of sword, 1.2 lb. 



PROOF AND INSPECTION OF SWORDS AND SABRES. 



213 



Scabbard (steel or leather). — The steel scabbard has 2 brass bands and ringg, 
gilded and chased; tfp ; mouth-piece (brass). The leather scabbard has brass fer- 
rtile and hook-tip. Weight of steel scabbard, 0.69 lb. 

Sword for Foot Officers. (Plate 28.) 

The nomenclature is the same as for the staff officer's sword, except as follows : 

Blade. — Etched, guns, colors, and rays on the left side; shield, colors, and rays 
(in the right side. 

GtJARD. — It has no middle branch nor letters. 

Scabbard (sole-leather, jacked, fluted, blackened, and varnished). — fiodi/, back, 
front, sides, holes for screws ; mouth-piece and top band united (brass, gilded), rim, 
band, knob, eye for ring, screw, and screw-hole; bund (brass, gilded), knob, eye for 
ring, screw, and screw-hole ; 2 rings (gilded); tip (brass, gilded), flut€d, screw and 
screw-hole, front and back branches. 

Sabre for Cavalry Officers. 

The same as the cavalry sabre, or light cavalry sabre, with gilt mountings. 

Principal Dimensions and Weights of S^vords and Sabres. 



1^ 


11 ^ 






iit 


* t. 


ia'i- «j 


^a» 


" 1- DC 




l§» 


-1^ 



DIMENSIONS. 

Whole length of the sword or 
sabre in its sc.abbanl | 4'.'25 

Length of the blade proper 

Length of the scabbard 

Widtli of the l.lailo in the middle.. 

Versed sine of the curvature of the 
blade in the niiddk- 

Versed sine in tlie curvature of the 
blade in proof 



Weight of sword or sabre complete 
Weight of the finished blade 



Weight of the scabbard. 



In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


«.25 
36. 
37.25 
1.1 


42.35 

34.80 

3b.05 

1. 


38.6 
32. 
33. 
1.06 


26. 
19. 
20. 
1.8 


38.75 
32.0 

32.8 
0.72 


32.75 
26.0 
29.0 
0.72 


39.4 

32.4 

32.2 

1.1 


1.5 


1.42 


2.32 








0.4 


7.5 


7.20 


6.5 




6.5 






Ibs.oz. 


Ibs.oz. 


Ibs.oz. 


Ibs.oz. 


Ibs.oz. 


Ibs.oz. 


lbs. oz. 


4 8 

1 5 

2 2 


3 7 
1 6 

1 4 


4 1^ 


3 3 
1 9 

10 


2 6 




3 WA 










1 9\i 









^B^ 



37.85 

32.2 

313^433 

0.4 



lbs. oz. 

3 0?^ 

2 15^ 

fl 0^ 

(1 0^ 



Proof and Inspection of Swords and Sabres. 

1st. The dimensions and form of the blade are verified by comparing it with the 
model, and by applying the appropriate gauges and patterns, for the length, width, 
and thickness at several points, and the curvature, if any. 



214 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

2(1. The hladf is then proved, as follows: I.«f. The point is confined by a staple, 
and the blade is bent on each of the flat sides over a cylindrical block, the curva- 
ture of which is that of a circle 35 inches diameter, the curvature of the part next 
the tand bcinji reduced by inserting a wedjje 0.7 inch thick at the head and 14 
inches long. 2d. It is struck twice, on each of the flat sides, on a block of oak 
wood, the curvature of which is the same as the above. 3d. It is struck twice on 
the edge and twice on the back across an oak block 1 foot in dianu-tor. 4th. The 
point is placed on the floor and the blade bent until it describes an arc having the 
versed sine indicated in the above table. After these trials, the blade i.-< examined 
to Bee that it is free from flaws, cracks, or other imperfections, and that it is not 
««/ — that is to say, does not remain bent. 

The blade of the nrtilleri/ nword is proved by striking each of the sides and 
edges twice on a flat block of hard oak wood. 

The stamj) of approval or condemnatioti is placed on the side of the blade, 
below the tang. 

3d. The form, dimeUiSions, and workmanship of the mnuutingi are examined and 
compared with the model. After the blade is mounted, the sword is again exam- 
ined, and it is struck four times on a hard block of wood, to test the strength of 
the mountings. The quality of the brass mountings may be tested by breaking a 
certain number, not more than 4 in each hundred, which should be taken from th* 
pieces rejected for erroneous dimensions. 

4tb. The form, workmanship, and finish of the scnliLardii are examined and com- 
pared with the model, and their titting to the blades tested. The sewing of leather 
scabbards, and the fastening of the ferrules and tii)S, will be jiarticularly examined. 
Steel scabbards are proved by letting fall on them, from a height of 18 inches, 
an iron weight of two pounds, 1 inch square at the base: Ist, on one side, just 
above the upper band; 2d, on the same side, 6 inches from the tip: 3d, on the 
opposite side, just above the lower band. In this proof the scabbard should not 
remain indented. The nature of the material (whether iron or steel) may be tested, 
if there be any doubt, by using nitric acid, which will leave a black spot on the 
steel but not on the iron. 

Packing Swords and Sabres. 

Packing-boxes for swords and sabres are made ou the same principles as those for 
muskets and other small arms, being furnished with packing-boards, or partitions, 
made with grooves to receive the scabbards near the hilt and near the point; the 
swords are placed in their scabbards, with the hilts and points alternately toward 
each end of the box — except the artillery swords, two of which are jilaced in the 
length of the box, their points resting on a packing-board in the middle. 

\iimber ]iacked in ti box. 
30 cavalry sabres. 50 artillery swords. 

50 artillery sabres. 50 infantry swords. 



INFANTRY ACCOUTREMENTS. 



215 



Cleaning Sivords and Sabres. 

The iron and brass parts of swords and sabre.-* are cleaned in the same manner as 
those of muskets. When the oil on the blade of a sword is dried up, it will leave 
a spot which may be removed by covering it with oil and rubbing it smartly, after 
a short time, with a linen rag. When a leather scabbard has become wet, draw the 
blade, and dry the scabbard slowly without heating it; wipe the blade dry, and 
pass an oiled rag over it and the scabbard before returning the blade. Oil the 
blades of arms in store, and also the scabbards, especially on the seams. 



Spare Parts required for Repairs of 1,000 Swords or Sabres for 
one year in the field. • 



Cavalry 
Sabre. 



Light 


Non 


-coni.Officer'p 


Artillery 


or 


Musician's 


Sabre. 




Sword. 


50 




50 


50 




50 


60 




50 
100 



Gripes 

Gripes and ferrules 

Heads , 

Guards , 

Bodies for leather scabbards 
Mouth-pieces and springs. . . 
Ferrules and stud-hooks ... 
Upper bands and rings . . . . , 

Tips , 

Lower bands and rings .... 



100 



ACCOUTREMENTS. 

Infantry Accoxitrements. 

Cartridge-box,* for .5S-inch ball (black bridle leather), inner cover (light 
upper-leather), with end pieces sewed to it to cover the ends of the box ; JJo}), with 
a button-hole strap sewed near the bottom ; hraxe button, riveted to the bottom of the 
box; iii>2)lement-poc]cei (light upper-leather), sewed to the front of the box, with a 
flap, strap and loop ; 2 loops on the back of the box, near the top, for the shonldt-r- 
belt to pass through : 2 iiprit/ht loops for the waist-belt to pass through, sewed and 
riveted with 1 copper rivet No. 8 at each end ; 2 roller-buckles No. 9 (japanned 
black), for the shoulder-belt, sewed to the bottom of the box; 2 /m«, each with 1 
lower dii'ision, open in front, to contain 1 bundle of 10 cartridges, and 2 upp^i 
divisions, one to contain 6 and the other 4 cartridges. The edges of the tin are 



* New boxes have been ordered to bo made, with a view of substituting two small bo«e8 for 
tbe one largo ono. 



216 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

turned over and soldered down to prevent them from cutting the cartridges. All 
the tin linings should be made to slide freely in the boxes. 

CAJiTninoE-BOX for .69-inch ball. It is like the above, except iu dimensions, for 
which sec page 219. 

Cartkihok-box for .69-inch round ball. The same as the above, except in 
dimensions. 

CAKTninr.K-nox pi.atb (brass). — Oval, 3.5 inches by 2.2 inches, with the letters 
C. S. stamped on it: 2 cycn of iron wire, for fastening the plate to the flap of the 
box. 

CAnTniDOK-nox bki.t (black bufT-leathcr). — Width, 2.25 inches ; length, 55.5 
inches, clear of the 2 bUletn for buckles, which are each 4.25 inches long and 0.b75 
inch wide. 

Cautridge-box bklt-i'late (brass). — Circular, 2.5 inches diameter, .stamped 
with an eaylc ; 2 eyeii of iron wire. 

Cap-I'OUCH (black bridle-leather). — Length and depth, .3 inches; width. 1.25 
inch ; inner cover, with end pieces : _fl"P> made of the same piece a.» the back, with a 
button-hole strap at the bottom; brant button, riveted under the bottom of .the 
pouch; 2 loopt, sewed to the back, 2.25 inches long, to admit a waist-belt (*f 2 
inches; lining, a strip of sheep-skin, with the wool on, 1.5 inch wide, glued with 
fish glue, and sewed to the back, at the mouth of the pouch. 

Cone-pick (steel wire No. 18). — 1.5 inch long, with a ring handle 0.5 inch 
diameter; it is carried in a loop in the inner left-hand corner of the cap-pouch. 

Bayonet-scabbard (black bridle leather). — Length, including the ferrule and 
tip, for the bayonets of the model of 1S55 and 1840, 19.5 inches ; for model WH), 18 
inches; ferrule and tip, brass; frog (black buff-leather), sewed and riveted with 2 
copper rivets No. 8 to a socket of black leather which is fastened to the top of the 
scabbard ; the frog slides on the waist-belt. 

Waist-belt (black buff-leather). — Width, 1.9 inch; length, 38.5 inches; a loop 
at one end. 

Waist-belt i-late (brass). — Oval. 3.5 inches long by 2.25 inches wide, stamped 
with the letters C. S.; 2 etud» and 1 hook (brass). 

Gi'N-SLiNG (russet bag leather). — Width, 1.25 inch : length, 46 inches ; 1 utanding 
and 1 sliding loop; hook (brass), fastened to the sling with 2 brans riveti No. 15 
wire. 

Swoud shoildeu-belt, for non-commissioned oflBicers (black buff-leather). — 
Width. 2.3 inches; length of short branch, 17 inches: long branch, 40 inches; J 
^landing loop on long branch : frog for sword. 

Shoclder-belt plate. — Like the cartridge-box belt-plate, except in having 3 
hooks, instead of eyes. 

Sergeant's and mcsician's waist-belt (black buff-leather). — Length, 36 to 40 
inches; width, 1.9 inch; 1 bras* hook on one end, fastened with 3 brass trire riret* 
No. 15; 1 bra*$ loop sewed to the other end, to connect with the plate. 

Sergeant's waist-belt plate. — The same as the tabre-belt plate. 



CAVALRY ACCOUTREMENTS. 217 

Scabbard fou non-commissioned officer's sword (light bridle leather), jacked, 
blacked and varnished.— 1 ferrule (brass), with 1 hooh (cast-brass) riveted to it by 
2 hrma wire rivets No. 15, fastened to the scabbard with glue and 4 brass wire rivets 
No. 15; 1 tip (brass), fastened to the scabbard with glue and 4 brass wire rivets 
No. IT). 

Scabbard for the mcsician's sword.— The same as that for the non-commis- 
sioned oflScer's sword, except in length. 

Jtijie Accoutrements. 

The same as for the infantry accoutrements, except the waist-belt for the sword- 
bnyonet and the sword-bayonet scabbard. 

Waist-belt for sword-bayonet (shoe leather, dressed on the flesh side). — 
Length, 42.5 inches ; width, 2.4 inches: 1 hillet, .9 inch wide, sewed on the inside 
at each end to hold the clasps in place; 1 pair clasps, 2 parts (brass), to slide on 
the belt; 2 loops, with eyes (brass), to slide on the belt; frog for sword-bayonet 
scabbard, with 1 hillet ; 1 brass buckle No. 10, and 1 standing loop. 

SwoED-BAYONBT SCABBARD (black bridle leather).— Length, including ferrule 
and tip, 23 inches: 1 ferrule and 1 tip (brass), 1 loop (brass), on the ferrule for the 
frog-billet to pass through. 

^^ • Cavalry Accoutrements. 

Cartridge-box for carbine. — Like the infantry cartridge-box, except in dimen- 
sions. 2 loops are placed upright on the back of the box, to receive a 2-inch waist- 
belt. Special boxes are made for the carbines now on trial in the hands of troops. 

Cap-pouoh. I _^j^g g^jjjg ^g f^^ jjjg infantry. 

CONE-PICK. \ 

Sabre-belt (buflf-lcather).— ll'oisf-Ac/?, length .36 to 40 inches, width 1.9 inch; 1 
square loop No. 46, 2 D-rings No. 2 B (brass), for attaching the slings and the 
shoulder-strap; 1 hook (brass), riveted on one end by 3 brass wire rivets No. IT); 1 
loop (cast-brass), sewed on the other end to connect with the plate; 1 shoulder-strap, 
41 inches long. 1.125 inch wide, with 2 hooks (brass) ; 2 sabre-slings 1.125 inch wide; 
front sling 17 inches long, rear sling 34 inches ; 4 studs (brass) for slings ; 1 sabre- 
hook (brass wire No. 7). 

Sabre-belt plate (cast-brass).— Rectangular, 3.5 inches long, 2.2 inches wide, 
with an eagle surrounded by a ureath (German silver); 1 slot at one end, to receive 
the belt. 

Sword-knot (buff-lcatbcr).— ,S'<;-07j 1 inch wide, 36 inches long ; one end of the 
strap is fastened to a tassel 3 inches long ; the other end is passed through the tassel 
after going round the guard of the sabre, and is fastened by one of the tags of the 
tassel ; 1 sUding-loop>. 

Carbine-sling (buflf-leather).— Length 5G inches, width 2.5 inches ; 1 buckle and 
1 tip (brass), sicivel and D with roller, bright iron, 2.62 inches wide; link and hook, 
iron ; guard-spring, steel. 



218 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Artillery Accoutrements. 

FOR LIGHT AUTILLERY. 

Sabue-bklt (l)lack liuff-leather). — Length ;{6 to 40 inches, width 1.9 inch; 2 
leather chapen sewed on the outside of the belt for attaching 2 bniHH loops No. 6, for 
the slings : 2 nabrc-glimji and 4 brng» Hud», like those for the cavalry cabrc-belt ; 1 
nabi-c-hook (brass wire No. 7) ; 1 loop (cast-brass) sewed on one end to connect with 
the plates : 1 hook (brass) riveted to the other end with 3 brasn irire rivetn No. 15. 

SaDUE-BELT 1'I.ATE. 



V — Like the 



, „ .jose for the cavalry. 

t?WORI)-KNOT. ' 



FOR FOOT ARTILLERY. 



Sword-belt (buff-lciither), made in three pieces, 1.9 inch wide, connected 
together by 2 lonpn (brass) No. 1 B. Lonr) branch 2\ inches long ; />o«/-;jf'efe 4.5 
inches; short branch 4 inches: \ frotj, 3.5 inches deep, 2.5 inches wide at top, and 
2.3 inches at bottom, sus])ended to the loops by 2 diutjH 1.3 inch wi<k' and 3.5 inches 
long; 1 loop (cast-brass), sewed on one end to connect with the plate; 1 hook 
(brass), riveted to the other end with 3 brass wire rivets No. 15. 

Sword-belt plate. — Like that for the cavalry sabre-belt. 

Foot artillery sword-scabbard (light bridle leather), jacked, blackened and 
varni.shed. Length, including the ferrule and tip, 20 inches; width, 2 inches: 
ferrule (brass) has 1 stvd riveted to it, and is fastened to the scabbard by 4 bran' 
wire rivets No. 15; 1 tip (brass) fastened to the scabbard by 4 brass iciie rivet* No. 
15; 2 »n/<« (black buff-leather) placed on the sides of the mouth <pf the scabbard.^ 

Inspection of Accoutrements. 

Examine the materials of which they are made. 

The bridle, .shoe, sole, calf, and russet leather should be tunned witii oak bark: 
reject all that has been tanned with hemlock, as such leather ."oon moulds, and the 
blacking turns of a reddish color. 

The leather s^hould be of the best quality, uniform in thickness, and free from 
cuts and fly-holes. Flesh split-leather is not admitted. The buff-leather should be 
soft and flexible, free from defects. When freshly cut, it should present a bright 
yellow surface ; a brownish yellow color indicates that the hide has been burned by 
the lime in tanning. It should be firm without being horny, and not spongy. 

See that the hooks of cast-brass are free from flaws, and that the eves are firmly 
fastened. 



SPARE PARTS FOR ACCOUTREMENTS. 



219 



Dimensions of Cartridge- Boxes. 



For .58- For .65 
balls. balls. 



For .69 
round. 



Carbine 



r Length , 

Interior of box < Widtli 

( Depth in front. . 

Inner cover Width 

Width at top 

Width at bottom . 



Flap. 



f Wi( 
I Wic 



Implement-pocket \ -^ ^, 

r Lower {Length 

I ^^^^^ I Width . 

Depth . 

jength 

idth . 

Length 



Tins, -i I c n f Len 

- Upper.] ^'^'^'l--- I Wic 

I Width 

..Weight lbs 



I 



Bo.x, complete 



Large 



In. 

6.8 
1.4 
5.2 
3.8 
8.0 
8.3 



In. 


In. 


7.8 


7.2 


1.6 


1.6 


4.7 


5.8 


4.0 


4.0 


9.0 


8.0 


9.4 


8.5 


7.0 


6.0 


3.7 


3.5 


3.8 


3.3 


2.7 


3.0 


1.9 


2.7 


2.2 


1.35 


1.5 


1.35 


1.5 


2.0 


1.5 


1.35 


1.76 


1.76 



In. 

7.2 
1.6 

5.0 



3.3 
2.8 
2.8 



Copper Rivets. 



Diameter. Thickness. | Length. Diameter. 



No. 8., 
No. 12. 




In. 
.15 



Spare Parts for Accoutrements for one year in the field. 

For 1,000 infantry accoutrcmentg. 
25 cartridge-box plates. 100 wai.st-belt plates. 

60 " " belt-plate?. 100 cone-picks. 

For 1,000 cai;alr\j carbinc-glings. 
150 swivels. 150 swivel-springs. 



220 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



19 
34 
34 
26 
200 
15 
15 
20 
20 
20 
70 



MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR MAKING ACCOUTREMENTS. 

Leather. 

Infantry cartridge-box belts. ^ 

Waist-belts 1.9 iu. wide. I 

Ntm-oninmissionotl officers' sword-belts. | 

Shduldcr sword-belts. | 

Bajonet-scabbard frogs. 

Waist-belts for sword-bayonet. 

Cavalry sabre-belts. 

Liglit artillery sabrc-belts. 

Foot artillery sword-belts. 

Carbine-slings. 

Sabre-knots. 

Cavalry sabre-belts. 

Waist-belts for sword bayonet. 

Carbine-slings. 

Gun-slings — out of one butt hide of bag leath 

Infantry cartridge-bo.-ces, e.\cept pockets and 

heavy bridle leather. 
Bayonet-scabbards. ") 

Sword-bayonet scabbards. 
Non-commissioned officers' sword-scabbards. ■ 
Musicians' sword-scabbards. 
Foot artillerj' sword-scabbards. 
Pockets for infantry cartridge-boxes. 
Inner covers for do. 

Tops for cap-pouches. 
Inner covers for cap-pouches. 



Either of these can be cut out of 
one hide of buff-leather. 



Either of these can be cut out of 
one side of heavy up)ier shoe 
leather dressed on flesh side. 



inner covers, out of one side of 



Either of these can Ite cut out of 
one side of light bridle leather. 



Either of these can be cut from 
one side of light uppcr-lcathcr. 



Thread. 

100 Infantry cartridge-boxes 1.25 

100 Gun-slings 13 

100 Cap-pouches 5 

100 Bayonet-scabbards 3 

100 Sword-bayonet scabbards 2 

100 Non-comuiissioned officers' sword-scabbards .3 
100 Musicians' or foot artillery do. .2 

100 Carbine-slings 08 

100 Non-couimissioned officers' waist-belts 08 

100 Cavalry sabre-belts 4 

100 Light artillery sword-belts 3 

100 Foot artillery sword-belts 8 

100 Sword-bayonet waist-belts 7 

100 Non-commissioned officers' sword-belts 33 

100 Waist-belts 08 

100 Bayonet-scabbard frogs 3 



lb. 1 



b.l 



No. 3. White shoe 
thread, waxed with 
rosin wax. 



No. 3. Bh»k 
thread, waxed 
rosin wax. 



shoe 
with 



lb. 



No. 3. Black shoe 
thread, waxed with 
beeswax. 



■r 



METALS. 



Metals. 

For 100 nct8 of cavalry sabrc-hcU mountings. 

100 Sabre-honks 4.5 lbs. brass wire No. 7. 

100 Loops 4.65 " " " 7. 

200 Rings 6.8 " " " 6. 

100 Large hooks 7. "sheet-brass "11. 

200 Small hooks 5- " " "14. 

700 Rivets 48 " brass wire "15. 

400 Studs 22.5 " cast-brass. 

100 Belt-plates and loops (See below.) 

For 100 infantry cartridge-boxes. 

For tins. 125 sheets single tin, 1 lb. soft solder. 

For buttons, 4.9 lbs. cast-brass. For burrs, .33 lb. .sheet-bras.<, 400 copper rivett*. 

For 100 cavalry belt-platen. 
25. lbs. cast-brass. 

.2 " German silver No. 33. 
.5 " soft solder. 

For 100 infantry waint-belt plates. 

4.5 lbs. sheet-brass No. 31, for plates. 
8. " " " No. 14, for hooks. 
.22 " brass wire No. 14, for rivets. 
16. " soft solder. 

For 100 infantry cartridiji -box plates. 

4.2 lbs. sheet-brass No. 31, for plates. 
.8 " iron wire No. 15, for loops. 
14. " soft solder. 

For 100 ferrides for bayonet-scabbards, 

3.5 lbs. sheet-brass No. 25, for tips. 
6. " cast-brass for knobs. 

.14 " copper wire No. 16, for rivets. 
200 copper rivets and burrs (i No. 8) to attach the frog. 

.2 lb. spelter. 

.3 " soft solder. 

For 100 sets hooks and rivets for yun-siings. 

2.8 lbs. sheet-brass No. 14. 
.18 " brass wire No. 15. 



222 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

For 100 neU of mountings of irnht-helt for strord -bayonet. 

100 iiiiir,« rlasps. pact-brass, 21.25 lbs. 

200 loojip for clasps, sheet-brass No. 14, 3.75 lbs. 

200 sliders, cast-brass, 14.8 lbs. 

Speller, .4 lb. 

For 100 iitttonii and cone-pickt fur rap-ponrfif. 

u- 
3.2 lbs. cast-brass, for buttons. 

.65 " sheet-brass No. 19. for burrs. 4 3f 

.2 " st«el wire No. 18, for cone-picks. ' 

For 100 KrtH mountings for ttrorj-dayonrt srafihiird. 

29 lbs. sbcct-brass No. 24. for ferrules and tips. 
1.75 lbs. cast-brass, for loops for ferrules. 
6.25 " " for knobs for tips. 

1.4 " copjjcr wirt' No. 12, for 800 rivets. 

.4 " spi'lt<-r. 

.3 " soft solder. 

WEKJHT OF ACCOUTREMENTS. 

100 Infantry cartridge-boxes and plates for .69-in. ball 176 lbs. 

100 Infantry cartridge-boxes and plates for .58-in. ball 167 

100 Infantry cartrid-^e-box belts and plates 63 

100 Cap-poucbes and cone-picks 13 

100 Ihiyonet-scabbards and frogs 31 

100 Wuist-bclts and plates, 1.9 inch wide 50 

100 (Jun-sliugs IS 

100 Non-commissioned officers' waist-belts and plates 49 

100 Non-commissioned officers' sword-belts and plates (shoulder) 60 

100 Rifle cartridge-boxes and plates for .54-in. ball 118 

100 Rifle waist-belts and plates, for bayonet-scabbard 59 

100 Rifle sword-bayonet scabbards 49 

100 Rifle pouches 43 

100 Rifle flasks 81 

100 Rifle flask and pouch-belts 27 

100 Cavalry sabre-belts and plates 120 

100 Carbine-slings and swivels 110 

100 Light artillery sabre-belts and plates 96 

100 Foot artillery sword-belts and plates 81 



SALTPETRE. 



Chapter Ninth. 



GUNPOWDER. 



Gunpowder for the military service is distinguished as mnnkci, cannon, and mam- 
moth powder. Thoy arc all made in the same manner, of the same proportions of 
materials, and differ only in the size of the grain. 

MATERIALS. 

The materials required are saltpetre, charcoal, and sulphur. They should be of 
the greatest possible purity, both for the quality of the powder and the prevention 
of disastrous accidents in the manufacture. 

Saltpetre. 

Saltpetre (nitre, nitrate of potassa) is a transparent, white, crystalized salt, 
inodorous, anhydrous, of a cooling, pungent, and slightly bitter taste. It generally 
crystallizes in six-sided prisms terminated by six-sided pyramids, or in needles 
deeply striated, and sometimes contains mother-water in fissures in the longer axis 
of large crystals. It is composed of 53.45 nitric acid and 46.55 potassa. Specific 
gravity, 2.099 to 2.1. Unalterable, in common air, it becomes deliquescent in an 
atmosphere nearly saturated with moisture. It melts at about GB2° into a limpid, 
oily-looking liquid, and may be cast into moulds, forming a white, compact mass. 
It begins to decompose at about 716°, giving up its oxygen: at a white heat the 
decomposition is incomplete, peroxide of potassium remaining. If thrown upon 
burning coals, it melts and deflagrates violently. It is insoluble in absolute alcohol 
and oils; soluble in water — more in warm than in cold: in dissolving it causes a fall 
in temperature; it raises the boiling point of water, and increases its density by 
about 0.0077 for each part of saltpetre contained in 100 parts of water. 

100 parts of water at 32° dissolve 13.3'2 saltpetre, and tlie solution boils at about 213. S°. 

" " 21y.fi°. 

" " 219.2°. 

" " " 222.8°. 

" " " 228.2°. 

« « " 236.4°. 

" " " 2iU.S°. 

A saturated hot solution will consequently lose, in cooling, the greatest part of 
the salt dissolved. 



68 


31.75 


104 


63.80 


140 


110.70 


176 " 


170.80 


212 " 


246.60 


240.8 •• 


335.00 



224 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

.Saltpetre occure naturally in great quantities, as au efflorescence on the surface 
of the earth, in man}' of the warm countries, particularly in India, where there is 
suflScieut to supply the wants of the whole world. It also occurs as a saline crust 
in caverns in some parts of the globe; and in the vicinity of Monclova, Mexico, it 
is found in great purity in veins or mines. 

It exists in certain plants, and is formed spontaneouslj' by the decomposition of 
animal and vegetable substances when mi.xeil with substances containing potash 
and kept at an even temi>erature in moist situations. On this principle artificial 
nitre becls are made, from which large quantities of nitre are obtained, in France, 
(Jermaiiy, Sweden. Hungary, etc. Saltpetre obtained from any of these sources 
may be separated from the greater part of the foreign salts and earthy matter by 
lixiviation with wood ashes and evaporation. The nitrous earth of India yields 
about one-fifth of its weight of nitre ; that of the nitre caves, from one to ton 
pounds of nitre to the bushel. The best artificial nitre bed? afford annually about 
a quarter of a pound of nitre to a bushel of earth. Saltpetre, for the manufacture 
of gunpowder, is chiefly obtained from India, whence it is imported in a cryst-al- 
iaed state, called crude taltpetre containing generally from 15 to lb per cent, of 
foreign salts, earths, and water. 

TKST OK cm DE S.il-TPKTRE. 

Crude saltpetre was formerly tested by washing it with water saturated with 
saltpetre, which dissolved the other soluble foreign 6alI^' without ilissolving any of 
the saltpetre itself; the loss in weight by washing was taken as the weight of the 
impurities contained. This process was found to occasion serious error, from the 
fact that when water saturated with saltpetre has dissolved a portion of sea salt, it 
acquires the property of dissolving an additional amount of saltpetre ; besides, 
this mode of testing fails when there is present — as there is almost always — the 
chloride of potassium. The process of testing now used in this country, as well 
as in Knglaud and India, is that of analysis. The chlorides that the crude salt- 
petre contains are precipitated in the form of the chloride of silver by adding the 
nitrate of silver to the solution of a given weight of the sample to be tested. The 
sulphates are precipitated in the form of the sulphate of baryta by adding the 
nitrate of baryta to the solution of a given weight of the sample : the amount of 
these impurities can now be calculated. 

UEFI.VING SALTPETRE. 

The purity of saltpetre used in making gunpowder i? of the greatest importance, 
not only on account of the quality of the powder, but more particularly a« dimia- 
ishing the chances of explosion in the powder mills. 

Wash the crude saltpetre in a large shallow pan with about 40 per cent, of cold 
water, stirring it well with rakes. At the end of 12 hours, withdraw the water, 
which takes away with it a portion of the chlorides. To free the saltpetre from 
•arthy matters and the chloride of sodium, dissolve it by means of heat, in the 



TEST OF SALTPETRE. 225' 

least possible anvmiit of water, in a large copper kettle. When ft is entirely dis- 
solvta, clarify the liquid by pouring in the solution of glue in the proportion, of 
1-lOth per cent, of glue dissolved in five times its weight of water. The glue is added 
at two different times; and the liquid should be well stir?ed, and the scum removed 
as it forms on the surface. When the scum has nearly ceased forming, check the 
boiling by adding cold water saturated with saltpetre, to precipitate the chloride of 
sodium, which is removed as it falls to the bottom. When the scum has ceased 
forming and the chloride of sodium is no longer precipitated, the liquid becomes 
limpid, and it is permitted to remain several hours, keeping up sufficient beat to 
prevent it from crystalizing in the kettle. 

Remove the liquid gently, while at a temperature of about 230°, to the crystaliz- 
ing pans, and stir it continually with wooden scrai)ers to prevent tho formation of 
large crystals. The scrapers in large establishments are moved by machinery. 
Draw the saltpetre, as it forms, to the sides of the paas, and when the liquid falls 
to a temperature of about 70" draw it off into other vessels; it will then have 
given up nearly all its salti>etrc. Take the saltpetru from th€ crystalizing. pans to. 
the washitig ttouglw, and wash it twice from the rose of a watering pot with 50 per 
cent, of cold water saturated with pure saltpeire, the water being permitted to 
remain on the salt each time about two hours, and then drawn off: sprinkl&it with 
50 per cent, of pure water, which merely drains through and is carried off. 

The saltpetre, after remaining in the washing troughs three or four days, i.<= 
taken to the drying reservoirs, where it is dried, and stirred from time to time with 
wooden shovels. It is then passed through a brass %ieve, to separate any small 
lumps or foreign particles, and is ready for packing. It is now like fine sand, and 
as white as snow. 

A 100-lbs. powder cask will hold about 132 lbs. of saltpetre. The scum, mother- 
water, washings, etc.,. are collected, and the saltpetre extracted from them. 

TEST 0-r REFINED SALTPETRE. 

In order to be used in the manufacture of gunpowder, saltpetre should not con- 
tain more than l-3000th of chlorides. To test this, dissolve 200 grains of saltpetre 
in the least possible quantity (say 1,000 grains) of tepid distilled water; pour on it 
20 grains of a solution of nitrate of silver containing 10 grains of the mitrate to 
1,033 grains of water, that being the quantity required to decompose 200-3000ths 
of a grain of muriate of soda; filter the liquid, and divide it into two portions: to 
one portion add a few drops of the solution of nitrate of silver; if it remain clear, 
the saltpetre does not contain more than l-3000th of muriate of soda; to the other 
portion add a small quantity of solution of muriate of soda; if it become clouded, 
the saltpetre contains less than l-3000th. By using the test-liquor in very small 
quantities, the exact proportion of muriate of soda may be ascertained. The salt- 
petre used in our best powder does not contain more than 1-lSOOOth of chlorides ; 
and that used in the best sporting powder is refined a second time,, and contains 
not more than l-60U00th part. 
15 



--U ORItNANCE MANUAL. 

Charcoal. 

(Tor gpncrni remnrkfi on charcoal, see Chapter X.) 

or fho three cuinpoBcnt materials of gunpowder, the charcoal has the gp-ntcpi 
elTocl iippn it!< qualify^ "''^•Sf? •» "'« great difference in it, due to the kind of wood 
from wljich it is madb, and to the mode of its preparation. Light, friable and 
porouH charcoal, which h>irn» rapidly and leaves the iciist anhes, is the beft adapted 
for milking gunpowder. Charcoal from willow and black alder — chiefly the former — 
obtained by liislillation in cast-iron cylinders, is used for powder for the military 
service. 

The wood is cut in the y)iring, when the sap is running freely. Branches arc 
selected of three In four year's growth, not more than thrce-f|uart«rs of un inch in 
dinniVler, ptrippod of its bark as soon as cut, and piled in dry and airy places. 
The larger l>ranches are split lengthwise. All dead wood is rejected. 

The dried wood is put in ujiright cast-iron cylinders, which are then closely 
luted. The heat is applied to the outside of the cylinder, and care is taken to 
prevent them from getting too hot. The gaseous and li()uid [iroducts escape by an 
opening near one end. The progress of distillation is judged of by the color of the 
flanc and smoke, and ^om^imcs by tett »ttcke which are introduced through tubes 
prepared for the purpose. When the distillation is complete, the charcoal it 
reuioved into sheet -iron tubs. 

About 35 per cent, of brown coal is produced, by this process, to 100 parts of 
dried wood. 

Charcoal should be made only as it is required for immediate use, as it absorbs 
moisture reailily from the air. 

Wheu freshly prepared, it absorbs and condenses gaaes: it heats and, if in a heap 
of 30 lbs. or more, takes fire spontanconsly. 

The specific gravity of freshly-burned charcoal is about .380 ; when triturated in 
a moist state for a long time under heavy rollers, its specific gravity Le increased to 
1.100 and 1.400. 

Sulphur. 

Sulphur is found i» abundance, in the native state, in the neighborhood of vol- 
canoes, mixed merely with earthy matters. It may also be obtained from the 
sulphurets of iron ond copper, and from other sources, but is not so jiure in this 
case as the volcanic sulphur. The specific gravity of native sulphur is 2.072 : that 
of sulphur which has be«n fused. 1.99 — which is still further diminished by tritura- 
tion. Sulphur melts at i'M° into a transparent and nearly colorless liquid which it 
Hn-htcr than the solid sulphur. As tkc temperature is increased, the sulphar 
beciancs more yellow and loss fluid : ot 482° it is of a dark brown color, and ao 
thick a* to flow with difficulty. From .'■)00° to its boiling point, 7S8°, it IweoMM 
more flaid. 6ulpfaar takes fire at a temperature of bHO°, and bums wit* a Mil 
blue flame and eufibcating fumes. It is soluble in oiJ of turpentine, and inaolaUa 
in w.itcr and alcohoL 



MANUFACTURE OF GUXTOWDER. 22t 

The supply of sulphur for this country i? lirouglit principally from Sicily, in the 
crude state. It contains about 8 per cent, of earthy matter. 

It is refined by distilling it in cast-iron retorts, and collecting the vapors in a 
large chamber, where they are condensed. The temperature of this chamber is kept 
at about 248°, and the liquiil sulphur is drawn off, through iron pipe? iu the side of 
the chamber, into wooden moulds. 

If the temperature of the cliamber be kept as low as 180°, the vapors are con- 
densed in a light dust, called flowers of sulphur : in this state the sulphur always 
contains sulphurous and sulphuric a<;ids. 

Pure sulphur should bo of a beautiful citmn yellow color, slightl}' transparent, 
should show no acid reaction on test pajtcr, and should burn without any residuum, 

Sulphur may be refined, but not so thoroughly, by being melted, skimmed and 
decanted. • 

Manufacture of Gunpowder. 

The buildings in which the different operations arc carried on are separated from 
each other, and protected by trees or traverses as far as practicable. 

There is great diversity in the mauipulations of manufacture, not only in different 
countries, but even in different powder mills of the same country — each having 
some particular mode of its own, which is preferred to the rest. The principal 
operations consist in pulverizing the materials ver}' finely, thoroughly incorporating 
them, pressing them into a cake, reducing the cake into grains, glazing the grains, 
drying and dusting the powder. 

Pulverizing. — The saltpetre is usually pulverized sufficiently when it comes from 
the refinery. The charcoal is placed in large cast-iron barrels with twice its weight 
of bronze balls. The barrel has several ledges on the interior, and is made to 
revolve from 20 to '.^5 times in a minute. It is pulverized in '2 or 3 hours. The 
sulphur is placed in barrels made of thick leather stretched over a wooden frame, 
with twice its weight of bronze balls from .3 to .■) inch in diameter, and the barrel 
made to revolve about 20 times per minute. 

The sulphur is pulverized in four to eight hours. 

Pnqtortions of materials. — All powder for the military service must be composed 
of the following proportions by weight, viz: 

76 parts of saltpetre, 14 of charcoal, and 10 of suliilmr: 
or, 75 parts " 15 " 10 " 

Incorporating. — The ingredients having been weighed out in tlic proportions 
above given, the charcoal and sulphur are put together in a rolling barrel similar 
to that in which the sulphur is pulverized, and rolled for one hour. The saltpetre 
is then added, and rolled for three hours longer. In some mills this operation is 
omitted. It is now taken to the cylinder, or rol/iii;/ mill. This consists of two 
cast-iron cylinders rolling round a horizontal axis in a circular trough ul' about 
9 iteet diameter, with a cast-iron bottom. The cylinders are G feet in diameler, IS 
inches thick on the face, and weigh about 8 tons each. They are followed by a 
wooden scrai)er, which keeps the composition in the centre of the trough. 



228 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

A cbnrpe of 75 lbs. in some mill", and 150 His. in others, is then spread in the 
trough <>f the rolling mill, and raoisteiud witli 2 to 3 per cent, of water, aceordinjj 
to the hy;.'roinctric state of the atmos]iluTC. 

It is rolled slowly at first, and afterward from 8 to 10 revolutions of the roller 
per minute-, for 1 hour for 50 lbs. and .3 hours for 150 lbs. of composition. A little 
water is adiled, as the process advances, if the composition pets very dry — which in 
judged of by its color. 

When the materials are thoroughly incorporated, tlu- cake is of a uniform, lively, 
brownish red color. In this stale it is called mill cukr. 

The quality of the power depends much on the thorough incorporation of the 
materials, and burns more rapidly as this operation is more thoroughly performed. 

The mill cake is next taken to ^he press house, to be pressed into a hard cake. 

Pfeisinij. — Tlie mill cake is sjirinkled with about 3 per cent, of water, and 
arranged in a series of layers about '2 inches thick, separated by brass jdates. \ 
powerful preseurc is brought to bear on the layers, which are subject t<> the ma.xi- 
nuini pressure for about 10 to 15 minutes, when it is removed. Koch layer is thus 
formed into a hard cake about an inch thick. 

(irantilaiiiig. — The cake is broken into pieces by means of bronse toothed roller^ 
revolving in opposite directions, their a.\es being parallel and the distance between 
them regulated as required. I'lnted rollers are sometimes used. The pieces are 
passed through a succession of rollers, each series being closer together, by which 
the pieces are broken into others still smaller, which pass over a sieve to another 
roller, the small grains passing through the sieve into a receiver below, until the 
whole is reduceil to the required size. The various sized grains are separated by 
the sieves between the different rollers. 

Glazing. — Several hundred pounds of the grained powder, containing from 3 to 4 
per cent, of water, are placed in the glazing barrel, which is made to revolve from 
9 to 10 times per minute, and in some mills from 25 to 30 times per minute. 
Usually from 10 to 12 hours are required to give the required glazing. In thii" 
operation the sharp angles are broken off, therebj- diminishing the dust produced 
in transportation, and the surface of the grain receives a bright polish. 

Dri/ing. — The powder is spread out on sheets stretched upon frames in a rooui 
raised to a temperature of 140° to 160° by steam pipes or by a furnace. The tejnper- 
ature should be raised gradually, and should not exceed 160°, ventilation being 
kept up. 

Dusting. — The powder is finally sifted through fine sieves, to remove all dust and 
fine grains. The dust obtained in this and previous operations may be worked 
over to make other powders. 

Packing. 

Government powder is packed in barrels of lOfl lbs. each. Powder barrels are 
made of well-seasoned white oak, and hooped with hickor)- or cedar hoops, which 
should be deprived of their bark : the cedar is not so liable as hickory or white o«k 



DIMENSIONS OF POWDER BARRELS. 229 

to be attacked by worms, and it should, tberefoi-c, be used in preference; or llic 
hoops may be prepared by immersion in a solution of corrosive sublimate. Tlie 
hoops should cover two-thirds of the barrel. Instead of a bung on the side, a 
screw-hole 1.5 inch in diameter is made in the head of the barrel, for mortar and 
musket powder: it is closed by a wood screw with an octagonal head which must 
not project beyond the ends of the staves; under the head of the screw is a washer 
of thin leather steeped in a solution of beeswax in spirits of turpentine. Tins 
screw-plug renders it unnecessary to take out the head of the barrel, and the l[i>ops 
may, therefore, bo secured with copper nails; for transportation, a piece of doih 
should be glued over the head of the plug. Some barrels have been made with 6 
copper hoops, and others with 4 copper and 8 or 10 cedar hoops : the copper hoops 
are 1 inch wide and J of an inch thick, fastened with 2 rivets, and nailed each with 
3 copper nails O.Ci2r) inch long. Average weight of a hoop, 2J lbs. 

Powder barrels made of strong sheet-iron, corrugated, the heads put in by folding 
tlicm over with the metal forming the body, have been made, and are now on trinl, 
with prospects of their answering a good purpo.«e. 

It has been found that lining powder barrels with india-rubber cloth has an 
injurious effect on the powder, in consequence of the affinity of the caoutchouc for 
sulphur. 

The heads of powder barrels are painted hhteh; in order to show the marl-ii more 
jilainlj' in dark magazines. 

Diincitfioiis of Powder Ihirrels. 

Whole length '2*1.5 inches. 

Length, interior, in the clear IS " 

Interior diameter at the head '• II " 

Interior diameter at the bilge 1'') " 

Thickness of the staves and beads <)..') inch. 

Weight of the barrel with cedar hoops S."") lbs. 

The barrels have generally I'i hoops, 14 to IG staves, and 2 or 3 pieces in each 
head. The above dimensions are calculated so that with 100 lbs. of powder there 
shall be a vacant space in the barrel, allowing the powder tp shake, in order to 
prevent its caking. The barrel would contain about 120 lbs. of powder settled by 
shaking. 

Round towdeu, for immediate use, may be made in an expeditious manner, as 
follows : Fix a powder barrel on a shaft passing through its two heads, the barrel 
having ledges on the inside ; to prevent leakage, cover it with close canvas glued 
<in, and put the hoops over the canvas. Put into the barrel 10 lbs. of sulphur in 
lumps, and 1.5 lbs. of charcoal, with 60 lbs. of zinc balls, or of small shot (down to 
No. 4, 0.014 inch in diameter nearly). Turn it by hand, or otherwise, 30 revolutions 
in a minute. To 10 lbs. of this mixture thus pulverized add 30 lbs. of saltpetre, 
and work it two hours with the balls; water the 40 lbs. of composition with 2 
quarts of water, mixing it equally with the hands ; granulate with the graining 



2^)0 ORKXANCF. :\IANUAL. 

sieve. The RraiiiH tli'ua inadf, not being pressed, are too soft. To mako tbem 
harder, put tlicin into a barrel having T) or 6 ledges, projecting about 0.4 inch, 
inside : give it iit first 8 revoliitinni-- in a minute, increasing gradually to 20. The 
cuuiiiros.siun will be pniportionale to tlic charge in the barrel, which should not, 
however, bo more than half full. Continue this operation until the density is such 
that II cubic foot of the powilcr ."hall weigh ^■''>5 ounces — the mean dcn.-'ily of ru«ind 
powder: strike on the staves of tiie barrel fri>ra time to lime, to jjrcvent the adhe 
eion of the pow<lcr. 

Sift the grains and dry the ]>owder as u.-ual : that which is too fine or too coarse 
is returned to the pulverizing barrel. 

Thi.< powder is round. an<l the grain is sufficiently hard on the surface; but the 
interior is soft, which makes it unfit for kee])ing, and may cause it to burn slowly. 
This defect may be remedied by making the grains at first very small, and by roll- 
ing Ibcm on a sheet or in a barrel, watering them from time to time, anil adding 
the pulverized composition in small portions ; iu this way. the grains will be formed 
by successive layers; they are then separated according to size, glazed, and dried. 

It aii])ears from experiments that the simple incorjioration of the materials makes 
a powder which gives nearly as high ranges with field-pieces as grained powder; 
the ineorpiirated dust from the rolliug barrel may therefore be used in case of neces- 
sity. (Junjiowdcr burns at the temperature of 57.0° to fii)0° Fahrenheit. 

Inspection and Proof of Powder. 

Uefnre powder for the military service is received from the manufacturer, it is 
inspected and proved. For this purpose, at least 50 barrels are thoroughly mixed 
together. One liarrel of this is provtd by firing three rounds from a musket, with 
service charge, if it be musket p<iwder ; if cannon or mammoth powder, from an 
8-inch C(dumbiad, with 10 lbs. and a solid shot of H.j lbs. weight and 7.88 inches iu 
diameter; if it be mortar powder, from an 8-inch mortar, with 1.25 lb. and a shell 
7.88 inches in diameter, weighing 47. lbs. The general character of the grain, and 
il« freedom from dust, are noted. 

(jkxeuai. yrAi.iTiKs. — liunpowder should be of an even sized grain, angular and 
irregular in form, without sharp comers, and very hard. When new, it should 
leave no trace of dust when poured on the back of the hand, and when flashed in, 
quantities of IU grains on a copper plate, it should leave no bead or foulness. It 
should give the required initial velocity to the ball, and not more than the maxi- 
mum pressure on the guu, and should absorb but little moisture from the air. 

SuK OK UHA1X. — The size of the grain is tested by standard sieves made of sbevt- 
brass pierced with round'holes. Two, sieves are used for each kind of powder. Nos. 
1 and 2 for musket, 2 and 3 for mortar, 4 and for cannon, and 6 and 7 for mam- 
moth powder. 

Diameter of holes for musket powder : No. 1. 0.03 in. ; No. 2, 0.06 in. 

'• cannon " No. 4, 0.25 in. ; No. 5, 0.35 in. 

mammoth " No. G, 0.6 in. ; No. 7, 0.9 in. 



INSPECTION AND TROOF OF TOWDER. 231 

Jfuiikct powder.— in ODC should pass through sieve No. 1 ; all tlirough No. 2. 

Cannon powder. — None should pass through sixive No. 4; idll through No. 5. 

Gravimetric density. — Is the weight of a given measured quantity. It is 
usually expressed by the weight of a cubic foot in ounces. 

Tliis cannot be relied upon for the true density when accuracj' is desired, as the 
shape of the grain may make the denser po*dcr seem the lighter. 

Specific Gravity. — The specific gravity of gunpowder piust be not less than 
1.75. It is important that it should be determined with accuracy. Alcohol and 
water saturated with saltpetre have been used for this pwrpose; but they do not 
furnish accurate results. Mercury, only, is to be relied upon. , 

Mercury Densimeter. — This apparatus was invented by Colonel Mallet, of the 
French army, and M. Bianchi, and consists of an open vessel containing mercury, 
a frame supporting a glass globe communicating by a tube with the mercury in the 
open vessel, and joined at top to a graduated glass tube, which communicates by a 
flexible tube with an ordinary air pump. Stop-cocks are inserted in the tubes 
above and below the glass globe, and a diaphragm of chamois-skin is placed over 
the orifice at the bottom of the globe, and one of wire cloth over the upper orifice. 

The operation consists as follows: Fill the globe with mercury, to any mark of 
the graduated tube, by means of the air-pump ; close the stop-cocks ; detach the 
globe, full of mercury, and weigh it; empty and clean the globe; introduce into it 
a given weight of gunpowder; attach the globe to the tubes ; exhaust the air till 
the mercury fills the globe and rises to the same height as before; shut the stop- 
cocks ; take oflf the globe and weigh it as before. If we represent by a the weight 
of the powder in the globe, by P the weight of the globe full of mercury, by J" the 
weight of the globe containing the powder and mercury, and by D the specific 
gravity of the mercury, the specific gravitj' of the gunpowder will be expressed by 

a D 

the formula d = — ■ 

P—P'+a. 

A mean of two or three results will give the true specific gravity. 

The density of some samples of powder has been brought up to 1.831. 

Initial velocity. — The initial velocity is determined by means of the Ballistic 
Pendulum, or by Captain Benton's Electro-Ballistic Pendulum. For the method 
of using this machine, see page 237. 

Musket powder should give an initial velocity of not less than feet. 

Cannon powder should give an initial velocity of not less than feet. 

Strain upon the gun. — This is determined by Captain Rodman's Pressure 
Piston. For the method of using this instrument, see page 238. 

Cannon powder should not give a greater pressure than pounds on the square 

inch. 

Hyguometbic qualities. — If the powder bo made of pure materials and have 
the required density, its hygroraetric quality follows as a matter of course. It may 
be determined by exposing the powder to air saturated with moisture. For this 
purpose, samples of about 1,500 grains weight may be' placed in a shallow tin pan, 9 



1>3'2 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

inches by 6 inches, eet in a tub the bottom of which i? covered with water. The 
pan of powder should be placed about one inch above the ."urfacc of the water, and 
the tub covered over. In this manner any sample of powder may bo compared with 
another of knows good quality. Good powder, made of pure materials, will not 
absorb more than 2J per cent, of moisture in 24 hours. 

Insi'Kction nKi'OUT. — The report of inspection should chow the pliin- and date 
of fabrication and of proof, the kind of powder and its general qualities, as the num- 
ber of >;rains in 100 grs.. whether hard or soft, round or angular, of uniform or 
irregular cize, whether free from dust or not: the initial velocities obtained in each 
fire: the amount of moisture absorbed: and, finally, the height of the barometer 
and hygrometer at the time of proof. 

Marks ok the barrels. — Each barrel is marked on both heads (in white oil- 
colors, tl»€ head painted black) with the number of the barrel, the name of the 
Manufacturer, year of fabrication, and the kind of powder — cannon, mortnr or 
m««A-W— the mean initial velocity and tbe pressure per square inch on the prcssur* 
piston. Kaeh time the powder is proved, the initial Telocity is marked below the 
former proofs, and the date of the trial opposite it. 

Analysis of Gunpowder. 

Whatever may be the mode of proof adopted, it is essential, in judging of the 
qualities of gunpowder, to know the mode of fabrication and tb« proportions and 
degree of purity of the materials. Tbe latter point m.iy be asoertained by analysis. 
* In the first place, determine the quantity of water that the powder contains, by 
subjecting it to a temperature of 212=", in a stove er in a tube with a current of 
warm air passing over it, until it na longer loses in weight. The difference in 
weight, iHifore and after drying, giv^s the amount of moisture contained in tho 
powder. 

To (Icteroiin, the quoMtity of Saltpetre— In a vessel of tinned copper, like a com- 
mon coffee-pot. dissolve 1.000 grains «f powder, well dried before weighing, in 2,000 
grains of distilled water, and heat it until it boils; let it stand a moment, and then 
.decant it on a piece of filtering paper, doubled exactly in the middle ; repeat this 
operation four times; at the fourth time, instead of decanting, pour the whole con- 
tents of the vessel on the filter; drain the filter, and wash it several times with 
2,000 grains of water heated in the vessel, using in all these operations 10,000 
grains of water. After passing through the filters, this water contains in solution 
all the saltpetre, the quantity of which is ascertained by evaporating to dryneis. 
Dry the double filter with the mixture of coal and sulphur, and take the weight of 
this composition by ut^ing the exterior filter to ascerUin the weight of that on 
which the composition remains: this weight serves to verify that of the saltpetre 
and to estimate the loss in the process. 

To determine the qunntiti/ of Charcoal dtreetly. — To separate the sulphar from the 
chmrooal, subject the powder, either directly or after the saltpetre has been dissolved 



PRESERVATION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION. 23;) 

out, to the action of a boiling solution of the sulphide of potassium or sodium, 
which dissolves the sulphur aud leaves the charcoal, the weight of which may bo 
easily determined. 

It is important that the sulphides of potassium and sodium used in dissolving the 
sulpliur should contain no free potassa or soda; for each of these alkalies would 
dissolve a part of the carbon — particularly of the brown coal. 

Tiic sulphide of carbon also dissolves the sulphur contained in powder, and may 
be used to determine the weight of charcoal which it contains. 

The charcoal, separated from the saltpetre and sulphur, is dried with care and 
weighed, and should then be submitted to analysis in an apparatus used for burning 
organic matters. The composition of the charcoal may be judged of by comparing 
it with the results obtained in the analysis of charcoal of known quality used in 
the manufacture of powder. 

To determine the quantity of Sulphur directly. — Mix and beat in a mortar 10 grains 
of dry powder, 10 of subcarbonate of potash, 10 of saltpetre, and 40 of chloride of 
sodium ; put this mixture in a vessel (capsule) of platinum or glass, on live coals, 
and, when the combination of the materials is completed and the mass is white, dis- 
solve it in distilled water, and saturate the solution with nitric acid; decompose the 
sulphate which has been formed, by adding a solution of chloride of barium, in 
which the exact proportions of the water and the chloride are known. According 
to the atomic proportions, the quantity of sulphur will bo to that of the chloride of 
barium used as 20.12 to 152.44. 

Restoring Unserviceable Poivder. ♦ 

When powder has been damaged by being stored in damp places, it loses its 
.strength, and requires to be worked over. If the quantity of moisture absorbed do 
not exceed 7 per cent., it is suflBcicnt to dry it to restore it for service. This is done 
by exposing it to the sun. 

When powder has absorbed more than 7 per cent, of water, it is sent to the powder 
mills to be worked over. 

When it has been damaged with salt water, or become mixed with foreign matters 
which cannot be separated by sifting, the saltpetre is dissolved out from the other 
materials and collected by evaporation. 

Preservation, Storage, and Transportation. 

In the powder magazines the barrels are generally placed on the sides, three tiers 
high, or four tiers, if necessary. Small skids should be placed on the floor and 
between the several tiers of barrels, in order to steady them, and chocks should bo 
placed at intervals on the lower skid, to prevent the rolling of the barrels. The 
powder should be separated according to its kind, the place and date of fabrication, 
and the proof range. Fixed ammunition, especially for cannon, should not be put 
in the same magazine with powder in barrels, if it can be avoided. FireWoAr 
should never be stored in powder magazines. 



234 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

In a room 13 or 14 feet wide, the barrels may be arranged in a double row in the 
centre, two alleys 2J feet wide, and 2 gingle rows to ]2 inches from the walls; iii 
this way, the marks of each barrel may be seen, and any barrel can be easily 
reached. In a room 12 feet wide, an equal number of barrels may be place<l in two 
double rows, with a central alley of 3 feet, and J side alleys, next the walls, of about 
10 inches each. There should be an unincumbered space of 6 or 8 feet at the door 
or dciors of the magaz.ine. 

Should it be necessary to jiile the barrels more than 1 tiers high, the upper tiers 
should be supported by a frame resting on the floor: or the barrels may be placed 
on their heads, with boards between the tiers. 

.Besides being recorded in the magazine book, each i)arcel of powder should be 
inscribed on a ticket attached to the pile, showing the entries and the issues. 

For the jircscrvation of the powder and of the floors and lining of the magacine. 
it is of the greatest im])ortance to preserve unob-slructed the circulation of air, under 
the flooring as well as above. The magazine should be opened and aired in clear, 
dry weather, irAen the tempcrutnre of the air outaiilr in loirvr than that iu»i<le thv muija- 
zi'ne. It should not be opened in damp weather if it can be avoided. The ventilators 
mnst be kept free; no shrubbery or trees should be allowed to grow so near as to 
protect the building from the sun. The magazine yard should be paved and well 
drained. The moisture of a magazine may be absorbed by chloride of lime sus- 
pended iu an open box under the arch, and renewed from time to time; quicklime i* 
dangerous, and should not be used. 

The sentinel or guard at a magazine, when it is open, should have no fire-arms. 
%nd every one who enters the magazine shoubl take ofl" his shoes, or put socks over 
them ; no sword, or cane, or anything which might occasion sparks, should be 
carried in. . 

The windows should have inside shutters of cojiper-wire cloth. Fire should never 
be kindled near the magazine for the repair of the roof or lightning-rod. 

Barrels of jjowder should not be rolled for transportation : they should be carried 
in hand-barrows, or slings made of rope or leather. In moving ])owder in, the mag9^ 
zine, a dolh or carpet should be spread: all implements used there should be of 
wood or copper, and the barrels should never be repaired in the magazine. When it 
is necessary to roll the powder for its better preservation and to prevent its caking, 
this should be done, with a small quantity at a time, on boards, in the magazine 
yard. 

In the spring an inspection of the barrels should be made, and the hoops swept 
with a brush wherever they can be got at, t-o remove the insects which deposit their 
eggs at this season. 

In wagons, barrels of powder must be packed in straw, secured in such a manner 
as not to rub against each other, and the load covered with thick canvas. 

In transportation by railroad, each barrel should be carefully boxed, and packed 
so as to avoid all friction. The barrels should have a thick tarpaulin under them. 
Tht cars should have springs similar to those of passenger cars. 



FRENCH GUNPOWDKR. 235 

English Gunpowder. 

En;.;li.«h gunpovvtler — particularly their sporting powder — has long been noted for 
its excellence, which is due to the care taken in selecting the best materials, and 
the skill in combining them. 

The woods used for making charcoal for gunpowder are the black dogwood, the 
alder, and the Dutch white willow. 

The coal is made bj' distillation in iron cylinders. 

The ingredients arc separately reduced to an impalpable powder and passed 
through silk cloths or bolting machines, then mi.xcd in a tub in charges of 42 lbs. 
Oach, moistened with 2 or 3 pints of water, and incorporated in the cylinder mill 
for 31 hours. The iron cylinders of the cylinder mill are 6 feet in diameter, weigh 
a'ljout 3 tons each, and make about 8 revolutions in a minute in a circular iron 
trough 7 feet in diameter. The incorporated material is subjected to a pressure of 
76 tons to the square foot by means of a hydrostatic press, forming it into pressed 
cake, which is broken by toothed rollers and formed into grains as above described. 
It is glazed by rolling in a canvas cylinder, or large cask, making 40 revolutions 
per minute, for U hours. It i.>< dried in a temperature of 140° to 150°, raised by 
means of steam. 

French Gunpowder. 

The charcoal used by the French in making gunpowder is obtained bj' the com- 
bustion of hlack ahhr in the open air in iron pots. 

At the powder mills at Saint Chamas, the charcoal is made by distillation, effected 
by passing a current of steam raised to a temperature of 540° to 600° into the ir'bn 
cylinder containing the wood. Charcoal of an excellent quality is said to be 
obtained in this way. 

The materials are pulverized separately in leathern barrels by means of bronze 
balls, and passed through a sieve to separate any foreign matters which may have 
accidentally fallen in and might cause explosions in trituration. 
, Two and three-fourths pounds of sulphur and the same of charcoal arc weighed 
into a tub, moistened with 1^ quart of water, and mixed by hand for 5 minutes. It 
is then transferred to the composition tray, 16^ lbs. of saltpetre are added, and the 
tray taken to the pounding mill. The contents are emptied into a mortar and well 
mixed with the hand for several minutes, without further addition of water. 

A pounding mill contains usually from 16 to 24 mortars and pestles, arranged in 
two parallel rows. The mortars are hollowed out of a piece of oals, with bottoms 
made of a harder wood. The pestle is made of beech, and has on its lower end a 
bronze shoe with its angles well rounded. It weighs about 88 lbs., and falls through 
a height of 16 inches. 

Each pestle gives in the beginning of the pounding from 30 to 40 blows per 
minute, and after 10 minutes tlje number of blows is increased to 55 or 60 per 
minute. The pounding is continued in this way for labours, including the stop- 
pages for shifting the charges from one mortar to the next — which is done every 
hour. These changes are made to mix the materials more thoroughly, and to break 



236 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

the cakes which form at the bottom of the mortars. From the 6th to the 8tb 
• bange, about 1 pint of water is added, or as much as may be necessary to give to 
the composition from 7 to 8 per cent, of moisture. During the last 2 hours no 
changes are made, so as not to interrui)t the formation of cake. The composition 
is taken out of the mortar and dried from 1 to ,3 days, till it contains only about 6 
per cent, of moisture. It is then taken to the house for granulation. This o]iera- 
tion is jicrformcd in a barrel made by stretching two pieces of wire cloth over a 
wooden frame. The pieces of wire cloth are placed one over the other — the outer 
one fastened on by cords so as to be removed at pleasure, and rejdaced by another 
of different sized meshes, the meshes being of the size of the grain required, i)f 
musket or cannon powder. The distance between the wires of the inner cloth is 
.28 inch. Halls of hard wood 2 inches in diameter, and 50 or fiO in number, are 
jilaced, with the composition to be grained, in the barrel, which is made to revolve 
about .SO times in a minute. The caked composition is broken by the balls, and, 
passing through the wire cloths, falls into a tub beneath. 

The contents of the tub are sifted in sieves which permit the small grains and 
dust to pass through. 

The powder is moderately glazed by rolling it, while still containing from 6 to 
per cent, of moisture, in a barrel from 10 to 30 minutes — depending upon the kind 
of powder and the amount of moisture it contains. It is so comlucted that the 
jwwdcr, when dry, should have a gravimetric density of between h20 and 860 
ounces. 

The powder is theu passed through a standard sieve of parchment, and is dried 
either in the open air, spread out on sheets, on tables, or in a drying room, spread 
on sheets stretched over the top of boxes, into the lower part of which heated air is 
forced and escapes by passing through the powder. 

After dryiug, the powder is again sifted, to remove all dust. 

Proportions of Ingredients. 

Saltpotrt'. Cliarcoiil. .«iil|ihur. 

By the atomic theory 74.04 i:{.5I 11. S5 

In the CoxFEnERATE States : 

(76 14 10 

75 15 10 

f 78 12 10 

V^ 10 

In England : For the military service 75 15 10 

For sporting | "^ ^^ * 

(lb 17 « 

In France: For the military service 75 12.5 12.5 

For sporting 78 12 1(1 

For blasting 62 18 20 

In PRrssiA : For the military service 75 1.3.5 11.5 

In Spain: For the military service 76.5 12.7 10. 8 



For the military service j 

For sporting .• < 

I 77 



ELECTRO-BALLISTIC PENDULUM. 237 



Captain Benton's Electro-Ballistic Pendulum. (Plate 29.) 

Detcnption. — This instrument consists of a vertical arc of brass graduated into 
degrees *nd fifths, supported by a tripod with a thumb-screw at each foot. Levels 
arc attached to the arc, that it may be kept in a vertical position. Two pendulums, 
with their axis in the same lino passing through the centre, and perpendicular to 
the plane of the arc, swing freely in front of and near to the arc. To the lower 
extremity of each is attached a piece of soft iron. The bob of the outer pendulum 
is adjustable. An electro magnet is attached to each end of the horizontal limb of 
the are, and holds the pendulums horizontal, or at 90° from the 0° or lowest point 
of the arc, when the soft iron of the pendulum is brought in contact with the mag- 
net. The inner pendulum has at its lower extremity a movable point projecting 
toward the arc, the head of which is struck by a blunt steel point on the outer 
pendulum when the two pass each other, leaving a mark on the paper which is 
clamped to the arc for that purpose. AVire conductors lead from the magnet to the 
clamp-screws secured to the upright limb, where they are readily joined to the 
wires leading to the batteries and targets. 

The adjustments. — 1st. Level the instrument by means of the thumb-screws. 

2d. See that the magnets are in such a position that each pendulum, when 
brought up against them, is exactly 90° from the lowest point of the arc. The 
magnets are held by clamp-screws to admit of this adjustment. 

3d. Move the bob of the outer pendulum till the times of vibration of the two 
are the same. This is done by connecting the wire of the magnet to the poles of 
the battery, including the disjunctor in the circuit. Bring the two batteries to the 
same strength. Break the currents by means of the disjunctor, and see if the two 
pendulums meet exactly at the zero mark. The two batteries are known to be of 
equal strength when the pendulums meet at the zero point, irrespective of the par- 
ticular battery that works them. 

The disjunctor is an instrument used to test the working of the batteries, and 
tell when they are operating with equal activity. There are several forms of this 
instrument, the essential point being to break the currents exactly at the same 
time. It is so arranged that by setting the trigger the currents are formed, and by 
pressing it they are broken. It should give the same point of meeting of the pen- 
dulums in six or eight trials made in quick succession. 

To use the pendulum. — Establish the wires as shown in Plate 29. Insert a piece 
of drawing paper under the arc, and clamp it. Set the trigger of the disjunctor: 
raise the pendulums against their magnets; press the trigger; if the point of meet- 
ing is very near the 0°, set the trigger again : give the caution, " Ready;" raise the 
pendulum, and "fire." Read o(f the angle, which must bo corrected, if the pendu- 
lum on the trial did not meet at the 0°, by addinfj the angle between the 0° and 
mark, if it be on the right, and by subtracting it if it bo on the left. The angle thus 
corrected must be doubled for the time of passage of the projectile between the two 
targets. 



231? ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

To dil<:rinine the iuitial rclocilt/.—het I be the length of the equivalent simple 
jiondulum, and t the time of passing over any one degree beginning at an angle .r 

from 0: then t= — 



360 y 2glcos.x. 

By substituting for x different values, we get the times of passing over the differ- 
ent degrees, supposing the velocity to be uniform for the time of passing. In this 
way a table is formed which should give the times for the different degrees and 
tenths of degrees, and the sums of the times to each degree. 

The value of / is determined by supporting the inner pendulum on the knife 
edges, and noting the time required to make 500 or 1,000 vibrations. The length 
of the c((uivalent simple pendulum is obtained from the relation l=^('V', t' being 
the time of a single vibration as just determined, and /' being the length of the 
8im])le second pendulum at the place of experiment. 

The machine is placed on a solid foundation, about 100 yards from the cannon. 
(5 rove's or Bunscn's batteries are best; Smcc's has been used with good results. 
The power of the battery must be regulated according to the length and size of the 
wire. Copper wire No. 10 is about the size required. If the wire be small and 
long, the battery must be stronger. 

The first target is placed about 20 feet from the muzzle of the gun, and the 
second from 70 to 120, according to the velocity of the ]irojectile. The siie of the 
target is no greater than is necessary to insure its being struck every shot, and the 
distance between its wires is regulated in the same manner. For small arms a 
much finer wire is used to form the target. 

Captain Rodman's Pressure Piston. (Plate 21».)* 

This iustrumenl is used to determine the pressure of the gas on the sides of the 
bore of a gun. It consists of a hoiminy of wrought-iron, with a cylindrical nhank 
at one end, chased with the threads of a screw, by which it is attached to the gun. 
This shank has a cylindrical hole through its axis, .37 inch in diameter, into which 
the piston fits tlosely. The head of the piston is terminated by a cutter, which is 
forced bj' the explosion of the charge into a piece of wroughi-coppcr, leaving a cut 
or indentation of greater or less length, according to the greater or less pressure on 
the sides of the bore. 

The cutter is made broad and thin, so as to make a loug cut compared with its 
breadth and depth, that pressures which vary but slightly may be distinguished 
more readily. 

A strong «creic, at the opposite end of the housing to the shank, holds the disk of 
copper on the cutter. 

A ijns-check, made of thin copper, is set tip, by a die and punch, in the shape of a 
hollow, shallow cup. It is placed against the lower end of the piston, the open eiui 
toward the charge of powder. , 

* Ciit)t&in4 Benton ami Kodman art bold officers of the U. S. Ordnance Dejiartment. 



LIGHTNING CONDUCTORS. 239' 

A hole, .4 inch in diameter, is drilled into the bore of the gun at the seat of the 
charge ; the outer part is counlcr-borcd and tapped so as to receive the housing. 

To use the pfessiirc piston. — Clean and oil the piston and the hole in the housing 
into which it works ; insert the piston in the housing ; put in the gas-check, press- 
ing it down on the piston ; place a thin copper washer in the hole in the gun, and 
screw the housing down firmly on it; place a disk of copper on the cutter; inter- 
pose between this and the head of the screw a second disk, and press it down hard 
on the cutter. 

After each discharge, unscrew the housing, take out the gas-check, clean the hole 
in the gun, the piston and the hole in which it works ; renew the gas-check as often 
as required; see that the copper disk is pressed hard on the cutter. 

The actual pressure in pounds is determined by placing the cutter in the dynamo- 
meter, and applying a pressure until a cut is made of the same length in a similar 
piece of copper. 

LIGHTNING CONDUCTOES. 

(Condensed from a "Circular Jleniorandum" issued by General Burgoync, In- 
spector-General of Fortifications, British army, from the researches of Sir Wm. 
Snow Harris, F. R. S., 1858.) 

It appears to bo established — 

That metal in a building, whether disposed in the form of a conductor or other- 
wise, never attracts lightning. 

That, provided the surfaces of metals are not interrupted by bodies possessing a 
less conducting power, a building entirely of metal will be the safest of all, and 
that such buildings require no further lightning conductors than connections with 
the earth, over the masonry foundations on which they are often laid. 

,That, with regard to a building of brick or stone, the object must be to establish 
asufiScicnt number of lines of electrical conductors, extending from its most ele- 
vated and prominent points to the ground, and further bring the building into a 
condition similar to that of a metal building, by means of other conductors gen- 
erally attached to more prominent lines of the building itself, such as the ridges, 
angles and eaves. 

There is no advantage, but the contrary, in endeavoring to insulate the con- 
ductors from the building. 

The best material for conductors is copper, either in tubes IJ to 2 inches 
diameter, and .125 inch thick, or in plates 3.5 inches wide and .125 inch to .2 
inch thick. 

All metal surfaces, whether lead, copper, or iron, on ridges, roofs, gutters, or 
coverings to doors or windows, to be connected by plates of copper with the con- 
ducting system. Lead, on account of its low conducting power, cannot bo alto- 
gether depended upon. 

One or more solid copper rods, to project freely into the air, about 5 feet above 



•Ho 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



fhf highest points of the building to which the main conductors are applied. Thi- 
rumtnit of the rod to be pointed; but gold, gilt, or platinum tops are unnecessary. 

The termination of the conductors below to l>c led into damp or porous soil, when 
the building happens to stand upon it; but, when the soil is dry, two or three 
trenches to be cut, radiating from the foot of the conductor, to a depth of IS 
inches or 2 feet, and 30 feet in length, and either the conductor carried along 
the bottom of the, trenches, or old iron chain laid in thera; carefully connected 
with the foot of the conductor. The trenches to be then fillcil up to one loot in 
depth with coal ashes, or other carbonaceous 8ub.stanco, and afterward with earth 
or gravel. 

If it be possible, in regulating the surface driunage, to lead a flow of water, 
during the rain which generally accompanies thunder-storm.", oyer the sites of the 
trenches, it will be an additional precaution. 

Tanks arc ui«;les.<, except where the water flows freely into them fmm th« sur- 
rounding soil ; and even then the}* arc .><uperUuous us appendages lo the conductors. 

The conductors for a brick or stone magazine with slate roof should consist of a 
sheet-copper strip 4 inches wide and .125 inch thick, covering the ridge and 
securely fixed to it by wrought-coppcr nails. At each end of the ridge a solid 
copper rod, .0 inch in diameter, is fixed to the conductor on the rid);c, and projects 
about 6 feet above the highest point (jf the building : its upper end i» pointed. 

Copjier strips, 3 inches wide, or copper tubes, 1 inch in diameter, paw down the 
augles of the hip, and are firmly secured to the copper eaves gutter. 

The descending w^j^ pipes, made also of copper, anil fastened to the face of the 
buildiug by copper boldfasts, arc connected at their lower end to the uodergronud 
conductor b}- a piece of copper, 3 inches wide, wrapped around the lower end of 
the water ]iipcs and riveted to the underground conductor. 

The underground conductor runs out from the building 4 feet, and then branchen 
into two parts, each 8 feet long, 2 inches wi<le, and .12.') inch thick. These conduc- 
tors are about 2.5 feet from the surface of the ground at the lower end, and are 
covered with coal ashes and earth. 

The copper shcathings on the doors and windows are connected with the lower 
end of the water pipes by flat copper strips, 2 inches wide, fixed to the water table 
by copper nails driven into wood plugs about 10 feet apart. 

AVhen tubular conductors cannot be bad of sufficient length in one piece, they, 
are connected by a union joint, and strengthened by a small pipe or femiU, about 
4 inches long, inside the tube, and riveted to each end. 

Buildings which have the eaves gutters and down-pipes made of tin or sine 
should have a main conductor communicating directly with the ground : it should 
also be connected with the eaves gutter, and the down-pipe should connect by a 
metallic communication with the ground, running out some distance from the 
building. 

In case of buildings situate on a dry or rocky soil, especial pains must be taken 
to lay down old chains or other conductors in various directions, to a distance of 10 



LIGHTNING CONDUCTORS. 2-il 

to 15 yards, and from 1 foot to 1.5 foot below the surface of the ground; and, if 
possible, lead a flow of rain over the surface of the ground about or near the con- 
ductor. Let the conductor terminate in a large surface of moist earth whenever it 
can be effected. 

If copper be not used for conductors, zinc is the next best material of which they 
can be made. If iron be used, it should be in the shape of galvanized wroun-ht- 
iron pipe, not less than 2 inches in diameter, firmly screwed together in joints of 
extra thickness. ' 

Copper tube, of a thickness of from .125 to .2 inch, is always to be preferred : it 
has more than five times the capacity for conducting electricity that iron has, and 
more than three times that of zinc. 
16 



^ 



t«nm- 



242 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Chapter Tenth 



AMMUNITION AND MILITARY FIREWORKS. 



BUILDINGS. 

In a liirfjc CBtabliahmonl for the preparation of ammunition and fircwurkb, four 
•oparatc biiildingti arc required. 

Nil. 1 nhuuld have a porch, and contain at Icaiit four roomfl, viz : 

Ctiriiidijt room, for making pajter ami flannel cartrid^ros of all kind^. 

Fillinij room, for filliiiR cartri<lKes for cannon anil sidhII armK. 

Packitxj room, for puttiag up ammunition for tran.-portation or Htura;;e. 

Storeroom, for materials and tools. 

No. '2. FtiR.NArK OK SMITH SHOP should have three roums — two entirely out off 
from the third hj n partition wall: 

Driving room, for driviu;; rockets, fuzes, etc. 

MfiriiKj room, for mising compositions. 

Funnier room, for oMting fuzes or bullets, and making compositions requiring the 
use of fire. The floors are laid with brick or flagging. 

No. .'j. Carprntku's snoi'. 

No. 4. MAOAfiNE, for powder, fixed ammunition, etc. 

All these buildings should be at a distance from inhabited buildings, apart from 
each other, and protected by trees or traverses of earth placed between them. 

The size of the rooms must be regulated by the number of artificers to be accoin- 
modated. In small establishments the number of rooms may be reduced, as the 
•ame room may be used, at difi°erent times, for difl'ereDt purposes. 

Fixtures and Furniture. 

1. Cartridge room*. — A table for making cartridges for small arms, 12 feel loof 
and 2} feet wide, for twelve men or boys to work at, and the length in that propor- 
tion for any greater number; tables for cutting paper and flannel, and for rolling 
oases on ; choker for rocket cases ; press for rocket and portfire cases ; benches for 
cartridge tables ; Btools. Closets should be partitioned oS from these rooms, and 
furnished with cases, drawers, racks and shelves for materials and tools. 

2. Filling room. — A shelf, 2 feet wide, for weighing on ; other shelves, with 
closets under them ; tables with raised borders, for filling, folding, etc.; budge- 



FURNACES. 248 

barrcils, or powder barrels with copper hoops and covers; stools for seats; foott 
spools; a step-ladder; stands and gutters for cmptj-iiig powder barrels. 

3. J\ic':iiig 7-(i(>,:i. — Tables, benches, and stools; |>latform balance. 

4. Storeroom. — Shelf for weighing on; shelves, drawers, and closets: tables, scales,, 
stools, seats, step-ladder. 

5. Driving room. — Blocks set in the ground or pavement; benches and stools. 

In favorable weather, a porch attached to the building, or a tent, may bo usedifor 
a driving room. 

6. Mixin(j room. — Tables with raised edges; sieves, etc. 

7. Fnnincr room. — Furnaces; workbenches; platform balance, or large scales ; a 
tinner's bi'neh and tools, with a vice, an anvil, and a chest for tools; a smith's forgo, 
shovel and poker; stools, etc. 

8. Carpenter's shop. — Turning-lathe and tools; carpenters' benches and tools. 

9. Magazine. — Shelves and frames for boxes and barrels. 

Furnaces. 

Two kinds of furnaces are used in a laboratory ; in tho first, the flame circulates 
around both the bottom and sides of the kettle; in the second, it comes in contact 
only with the bottom : the latter are used for compositions of which gunpowder forms 
a part. 

Furnaces are built of bricks. The kettle is of cast-iron, about 2 feet in diameter 
at the top, having a rounded bottom and a flange about 4 inches wide around the 
top, or else strong handles, to set it by. The bottom is 0.75 inch thick and the sides 
0.5'inch. By setting it in an iron plate pierced with holes, encircling the bottom, 
a furnace of tho first kind may be converted into one of the second kind by stopping 
the holes. 

Furnace for rcdncinri the oxide of lead, or dronx. — This furnace is built in the open 
air, on a stone or brick foundation. It is composed of a cjiindcr of sheet-iron, 16 
inches by 30 inches, lined with refractory clay from 2 to 3 inches thick. 

The interior has tho form of an inverted frustum of a cone, terminating below in 
a basin, the bottom of which is inclined toward a tap-hole. The firo is made in the 
furnace, and the draught supplied by a bellows, tho nozzle of which enters at tho 
top of the reservoir. Tho dross, and the charcoal intended for its reduction, are 
thrown on the fire from the top of the furnace. The metal, as it is reduced, flows 
into the basin, and escapes through the tap-hole into an iron vessel, and is cast into 
bars or pigs as desired. 

In the (ielil, furnaces maybe built with sods or sunk in the earth, if bricks cannot 
be readily procured. 

Fvrnace built n-ith «of^«.— Let the kettle rest on a trivet, the feet of which may 
stand on iiny piece of Hat iron, such as the bottom of a shot canister or stand for 
grape, tlic bottom of the kettle about 1 foot from the ground; build round it with 
sods. Tho door of the furnace is 10 inches square; the flue of tho chimney, oppo- 
site to the door, 6 inches square, and commencing about 6 inches from the ground ; 



244 ORDNANCE MANUAL. , 

the first part of the flue inclined at an angle of about IT)" — the rcf* T.rtieal. and 
plaocil, If circuiDBtanpes permit, against a wall; the top of the door ii'.nl of the flue 
may he iiup|)orlcd hy omall bars of iron. 

Fitriiiire milk in llir rnrth. — The edge of the kettle shouhl be about 1 inch above 
the groMinl, and the bottom 12 to 15 inches above the hearth of the furnace; the 
earth is dug down vertically 1 foot from the kettle for the front of the furnace, and 
the door is cut out ten inches square. The earth is removed and sloped out, so as 
to give accotis to the door; the flue is bored out on the opposite side with a crowbar: 
it ctinimenccs 6 inches above the hearth and comes out of the ground 18 inches 
from the furnace, whence it is carried horizontally about 13 feel. 

In furnaces of the second kind mentioned above, the trivet may be omitted, and 
the kettle may rest on the sod or earth for about 1 inch all round, and the earth 
rammed in against the sides of the kettle. 

Precautions against Accidents. 

Avoid, a« much as possible, the use of iron in the construction of the buildings, 
fixture.>i, tables, benches, boxes, etc., of the laboratory ; sink the heads of iron nails 
■if u.-ied, and fill over them «i;h putty, or paste several thicknesses of pajier over 
them. Hefore the men go to work, cover the floor with cariiets cir tarpaulins, which 
are taken up carefully after the men leave, and curried al least .'0 yards from the 
building, and there shaken thoroughly and swept. I>uring the work, have the 
carpets frequently swept. 

Place the stores in cloth bags in the windows exposed t<i the sun. Prevent persons 
from entering with sabres, swords, or canes, etc., or with matches about their persons. 
Direct all who work where there is powder to wear moccasins or socks, and to lake 
them off when they leave. Direct the men not to drag their feet in walking. 

Make the doors and windows to open and close easily, without friction ; keep them 
open whenever the weather permits. 

Never keep in the laboratory more powder than is necessary, and have the ammu- 
nition and other work taken to the magazine as fast as it is finished. 

Let powder barrels be carried in hand-barrows made with leather, or with slings 
of rope or canvas, and the ammunition in boxes. Let everything that is to be 
moved be lifted, and not dragged or rolled on the floor. 

Never drive rockets, portfires, etc., or strap shot or shells, in a room where there 
is any powder or composition, except that used at the time. 

Loading and unloading shells, driving rockets, pulverizing materials, the prepa- 
ration of compositions requiring the use of fire and in which the components of 
gunpowder ent«r, ought to be done in all cases, when possible, in the open air or 
under a tent, far from the laboratory and magazine. 

Never enter the laboratory at night, unless it is indispensable, and then use a 
close lantern, with a wax or oil light carefully trimmed. Allow no smoking of 
tobacco near the laboratory. 



MATERIALS. 245 

In melting lead, be sure that it contains no moisture; put the pigs in carefully, 
and do not use more than will fill the pot two-thirds full. 
Use the same precautions iu melting fatty substances. 

Applications for Burns. 

Exclude the air by applying to the burn frenh lard ; or bathe the part burned, 
and cover it with linen soaked in a mixture of 8 parts of sweet oil and 1 of harts- 
horn, well beaten together. 

MATERIALS. 

Saltpetre. 

For use in the laboratory, saltpetre should be freed from all foreign substances 
arid be reduced to a fine powder, or else to very minute crystnls. It is best pulver- 
ized in the rolling barrels at the powder mills; but it may be pulverized by hand in 
the laboratory, as follows: Put into a rolUmj hnrrel 50 lbs. of 'dry refined saltpetre 
and 100 lbs. of bronze balls; turn the barrel for two hours and a half, at 30 revolu- 
tions a minute, striking it, at the same time, with a mallet, to prevent the saltpetre 
from adhering to the sides. Separate the balls by means of a brass-wire screen, 
and the foreign substances with a hair sieve. 

Saltpetre may also be pulverized by pounding it in a brass mortar, or by solution, 
as follows; Put 14 lbs. of refined nitre, with 5 pints of clear water, in a broad and 
shallow copper pan, over a slow fire, and, as the nitre dissolves, skim off the impu- 
rities; stir the solution with a wooden spatula until the water is all evaporated, 
when the nitre will be very white and fine. Should it boil too much, the pan must 
be lifted from the fire and set upon wet sand or earth, and the saltpetre should be 
stirred until it dries, to prevent it from adhering to the pan. 

Charcoal 

Is the residuum of the incomplete combustion or of the distillation of wood. Its 
composition and properties vary with the kind of wood from which it is made, and 
with the mode of carbonization used. 

It is as much more dense and compact as the wood from which it is mnde is 
harder and of a closer texture; its density is nearly proportional to that of the 
wood, and its combustibility seems to be as much greater as its density is less. 

The best charcoal for fireworks is that which is most inflammable and which 
leaves the least ashes, such as coals from black alder, willow, poplar, hazel tree, 
hemp stalks, etc. Hard woods, generally, give coals containing more ashes than 
light, soft ones; old trees more than young; dead trees more than living; in the 
same tree, the bark more than the sap wood — next the trunk, the roots, and, least 
of all, the branches. 

In some cases, where long trains of fire are desired, charcoal from hard woods. 



OUPNANCE MANUAL. 

«nch as oak, nuiplo, or beech, is used. Charcoal for fireworks is be<<t made in cl'><ied 
TesselH. Tlio "liffcrentlirocesBcs of carbonization are only more or lusa rapid disiil- 
latioDS of the vcKctablo substance carried to a greater or less extent. The volatile 
matters wliii-h are disengaged, and the fixed substances which remain, vary at each 
moment, but in such a manner that the character of the former indicates that uf the 
latter. 

In a slow distillation by a jirostrc^isiv'c heat not exceeding .070°, bluish vapors are 
8rst di)<er,gaged, then carbonic and acetic acids, cmpyrcumatic oil, and soot in dark 
olouds burning with a red flame. Carbonic oxide replaces, by degrees, the carbonic 
aoid, the .smoke becomes clearer, and the flame takes a viulct lint. Afterward, 
earburelled hydrogen is disonga\;ed; the smoke becomes translucent; the Uamo 
passes from a violet to a yellow, then to a more and more shining white. Finallj, 
the smoke disapjtears, and the flame grows shorter and goes uuu 

If the operation bo sto]>ped when the flame of the gus becomes violet, about 40 
per cent, of charcoal will be obtained. If the operation bo continued till the (lame 
becomes yellow, there will be had not more than 30 per cent, of coal. Finally, not 
more than la per cent, will remain after the flame goes out. In all of these rases, 
with slow diiitillutiiin the carbonization is uniform frum the surface to the interior 
of each piece of wood, and requires a longer time in proportion as tho temperature 
ia lower. 

In a rapid di.stillalion with a very strong heat, the gaseous products are disen- 
gaged simultaneously; the distillation on tho surface of a piece of wood is finished 
before it is har<lly begun on tho interior. To obtain uniform results by thift mctbud, 
the distillation must be protracted till from 15 to 2U per cent, of coal only is 
obtained. liy the rapid distillation a part of the incombustible matter is carried 
off, and the coal remaining contains less asbos. The carbonization in boilers, pota, 
pits, or heaps, is nothing more than a rapid distillation. 

Charcoal obtained by stojiping the carbonization when the violet flame appears 
has a brown ch,)eolate shade; its fracture is bri^'ht and even: it is flexible, in thin 
pieces; reduced to a powder, it has a greasj* feeling and a velvety appearance; it 
bnrn.s with a yellowish blue flame, bright and without smoke: it gives out a heavy 
sound when broken, and dissolves almost entirely in potassa. Heated in a close 
vessel, it yields tar, pyroligueous acid, and 40 per cent, of gas. It is composed of 
earbon 0.7:55, hydrogen 0.28S, and ashes 0.007. 

Charcoal obtained from a protracted distillation, when only 1.0 per cent, is had, 
from dry wood, has a bluish black color, is hard and coarse; it breaks easily, gives 
ont a clear sound, burns without flame, and is with difficulty reduced to a powder : 
it is then dry to the touch, and docs not easily form a cake by pressure : it if 
insoluble in caustic potassa. It is composed of carbon .906, hydrogen, .076, and 
ashes OIS. 

AH ch:ircoals are embraced within the two preceding kinds, and approach more 
or less one or the other. Coal which ha« not reached the brown chocolate shade 
bams with smoke : it is called smokv coal : it is not yet charcoal. Charcoal 



MATERIALS. 247 

fire at about 460°. Black charcoal, highly calcined, takes fire quickly, but is 
easily cxiinguished ; red charcoal is longer in taking fire, but it keeps fire and 
burns up rapidly. This combustibility is as much greater as the charcoal is lighter. 
Charcoal at a red heat decomposes water to combine with its oxygen. Its absolute 
density is at least 1.5; the apparent density is very variable. 

Charcoal does not become a conductor of heat and electricity unless it has been 
highl3' calcined at a white heat. 

It absorbs moisture rapidly from the atmosphere — particularly when in a state of 
fine powder. When freshly prepared and pulverized, it absorbs and condenses 
gases; it grows warm ; and, if in a mass of more than about 30 lbs., it takes fire 
spontaneously. Black charcoal, highly calcined, may be set on fire, when in pieces, 
by a strong blow, or by friction. 

To make a comparison between charcoals as to their action in compositions, make 
an intimate mixture of 5 parts of saltpetre and 1 of the ch.arcoal to bo tried, both well 
pulverized; drive a fuze with the composition, or press it in a metal tube of about 
one-quarter of an inch bore ; take its weight and height, and determine the time of 
burning by a watch or pendulum. The rapidity of combustion, or the length of 
composition which burns in a second, measures the combustibility of the charcoal. 
Note also the weight of the residuum. 

The rapidity of combustion is independent of the diameter of the tube and of the 
materials of which it is made: it varies very little with the greater or less com- 
pression of the composition, but varies much with the degree of trituration of the 
materials: it is, therefore, important, in comparing different coals, to mix the com- 
positions precisely in the same way. 

SuLPnnn. — When melted sulphur is to be used, care must be taken that it does 
not become thick — which t.akcs place at about 320°. It is pulverized by being 
rolled four hours in a rolling barrel with twice its weight of balls, or by being 
pounded in a mortar and sifted. Roll brimstone is used for melting, and flowers of 
sulphur m.ay be used instead of roll sulphur pulverized, but is not so good. 

GuNPOWDEU. — For compositions, gunpowder is mealed, cither by rolling it for two 
hours with once and a half its weight of balls, or by beating it an equal length of 
time in a leather bag, or by grinding it with a mnller on a mealing table. 

Mealed powder, and pulverized saltpetre, charcoal and sulphur, are generally 
obtained from the powder mills. 

SuLPHURET OP ANTIMONY is a gray solid, with a fibrous texture, very fusible, very 
Tolatile, and easily reduced to a powder. Density, 4.6"2. 

It is found in the natural state, and can likewise bo prepared by melting in a 
crucible equal parts, by weight, of antimony and sulphur pulverized and mixed. It 
is purchased in the state of a powder. Its purity is tested by treating a small 
sample (l-'iO grs.) with concentrated warm hydrochloric acid. The residuum which 
is not dissolved ought not to exceed the sulphuret used, by 12 per cent. 

Chi-oratb op potassa is a white salt, crystalizcd in white scales, anhydrous, not 
altered by exposure to the air. Soluble in water: more in warm than in cold; 



248 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

insoluble in alcohol. Density, 1.989. Fusiible at about 6()2° ; it is tlecoini>osfJ at 
about 720° into oxypen and chloride of potassium. 

Thif chU if one of the most energetic of oxidizinp bodies, because it jiarts with 
its oxyf^on readily, of which it contains a great quantity (..■191.') of its weight). 
Thrown on burning coals, it melts quickly. It ex]>lodes by simple contact with 
Bulphuric acid: mixed with a combustible body, the mixture may be exploded by 
friction or by a blow. It should be purchasc<l crystaliz.ed, and should not contain 
more than one-lhousandth of its weight of chloride of sodium or potassium. lU 
purity is lesteil by means of the nitrate of silver dissidved in distillcl water — 73J 
grs. in oiie-(|uartor of a pint. Dissolve 77 grs. of the chlorate in ;iOU grs. of warm 
water, and let the solution get cold: the chlorate will be precipitated in crystals. 
Add to the licpiiil about two drops of the solution of the nitrate of eilver. After 
filtering, the liquid ought not to give a precipitate by the addition of more nitrate of 
•ilrer. 

Fi'LMiNATE oi" MKiiciitv is a white salt,crystali7.ed in fine, silky needles. Soluble 
in water: more so in warm than in cold water. 

The elements of this salt are held together so feebly that the least shock or 
friction causes its decomposition with au ex]dogion. (For manner of making, see 
page 285.) 

Fi'LMiN'ATiNO Powi»KR8 are compositions that detonate with great force by 
friction or by a blow. They are generally made of fulminate of mercury or s 
mixture of chlorate of potassa and sulphurct of antimony. The preparation and 
manipulation of these powders are very dangerous, and ought to be matie, with the 
greatest precautions, far from the laboratory and magazines. The powder of 
chlorate of potassa and sulphuret of antimony cannot be manipulated without 
danger if it have not at least '20 per cent, of water with it. In this stale a blow or 
friction explodes only the part struck or rubbed; the rest is dispersed without being 
set on fire. 

The fulminate of mercury, with 30 per cent, of water, cx]ilodes partially when 
ground on marble with a wooden muller ; but the explosion is not communicated 
to the rest. It should always be manipulated moistened with this amount uf 
water. 

Leap is a bluish white metal, bright, but tarnishes quickly in the air. Specific 
gravity, when pure, II. ■lb : melts at 600°, and volatilizes at u red heat. 

The purity of lead is judged of by its specific gravity. To determine this, aflor 
ha> ing weighed the i)ig. suspend it with a wire in a vessel of water, so that it shall 
be completely immersed, without touching the sides, and weigh it again. The 
weight in the air, divided by the difference between the weight in air and water, 
will give the specific gravity — which ought to be 11.35 for lead of commerce. 

Lead melted in contact with air is soon covered by a coat of gray oxide, which 
rapidly increases in thickness. The formation of this oxide, or dross, is prevented 
by covering the lead with powdered charcoal or rosin. 

To reduce tin oxide of lead. — Put in a kettle about 50 lbs. of lead, with 1-lOth of 



MATERIALS. 249 

its weight of powdered charcoal or grease; cover the kettle, and raise to a red heat; 
stir the mass, and add {gradually more coal, as it assumes a yellow color, using in 
all i of the weight of oxide; dip out the lead with an iron ladle, and pour it into 
iron moulds or pans. After having obtained in this way two-thirds of the weight 
of oxide, in lead, throw the dross into a tub of water, and wash it, to separate the 
ashes and coal ; dry the remaining oxide and grains of lead, and put them in a 
ladle with l-20th of their weight of rosin ; raise it to a red heat, set fire to the rosin, 
shake the ladle, and pour off the lead. A further addition of rosin will produce 
more lead; 1-1 4th of the weight of dross is generally used. Tallow may be used in 
place of rosin. 

AVhen the quantity of dross is considerable, it may be reduced, in a similar man- 
ner, in a small cupola furnace. 

Acetate op lead (Surjnr of Lead) is a white, efiBoreseent salt, of a sweetish 
taste, soluble in three or four times its weight of cold water. Specific gravity, 
2.345. It may be made by heating a mixture of litharge and vinegar. The solu- 
tion being concentrated and set aside to cool, the salt crystalizes in white, brilliant 
needles. 

Plumbers' solder is an alloy of lead and tin, in the proportion of 2 parts of the 
former to 1 of the latter. 

Antimony {Rcgulufi of Antimony) is a grayish white metal, very brilliant, with a 
highly lamellatcd structure. Specific gravity, 6.7; melting point, 809°. It is 
easily reduced to powder, and by its combustion with sulphur produces a strong 
light and heat, with a blue or white flame. Antimony is never found pure in the 
shops ; that which is sold under the name of reffiiliis of aiilimony always contains a 
little sulphuret of antimony, arsenic, and sometimes sulphuret of iron. 

Copper is a red, brilliant metal, possessing great tenacity, ductility and mallea- 
bility. Specific gravity, 8.9; fusible at about 1980°. 

Copper, being but slightly acted on by saltpetre, is employed for powder 
measures, utensils for refining saltpetre, etc. Copper vessels should not be exposed 
to a great heat, or used for heating compositions containing sulphur, as the copper 
would be rapidly oxidized. 

In fireworks, copper filings are used to give reddish sparks and a greenish blue 
flame. 

Bronze is used in the laboratory for utensils and implements which receive 
Wows, or act by percussion, and replaces steel and iron wherever there is danger of 
an explosion from a blow or from friction. 

Brass is an alloy of about 2 parts of copper and 1 of zinc. Brass wire is used 
for ligatures, for screens and sieves. 

Acetate of copper ( V< rdigris) is a green salt, used sometimes to make slow- 
match, which burns with a strong coal and with a slightly green flame. 

Zinc is a bluish white metal; usually brittle, and its fracture shows a crystalline 

structure. Specific gravity, 6.9; melts at 680°, is volatilized at a red heat and takes 

^ fire in the air, burning with a white flame. At 400° it is easily reduced to a pow- 



250 ORItNANCK MANUAL. 

der in a murfiir. (ininulated zinc is iisod to jjrodurc a blni,«h flame. An alloy of 
nine an<l aiiliinony pulverized p;iv(;s bi-autiful blue drops. The oxide of zinc 
(Jlowerx oj zinc) produces the appearance called fjold rain. It ouf^ht to be pur- 
chased in scales, not in a powder, as in this latter case it may be mixed >¥ith foreign 
oubstanccs. 

TnoN. — Filings and thin chips give very brilliant ."sparks and stars, the effects of 
which dijiciid on (he size of the particles used; the filin(;s must be made when 
wantc'l, or be very enrcfully preserved from rust. 

SnKKT-inoN. — Select the softest and most pliable. M'hen it is substituted for 
tin, in strajtpin}; projectiles, it should be first annealed, by heating it to a dull red 
heat, and letting it cool grailually under warm ashes, not exposed to the air. 

Cast-iron. — Pulverized, it gives very large white sparks, in fireworks (Chinese 
Are). Select the white cast-iron, or take the pieces of utensils with thin sides. To 
pulverize it more easily, heat it to a red heift and throw it into cold water. \ 

Stkkl. — In fireworks, filings and small pieces give the most brilliant sparks. 

Pai'kh. — Mniikct-cartridgf paper should bo homogeneous and without any trace 
of stalks, well sized, even, pliable, with a good body without bt ing loo thick, free 
from folds or rents. 

The sheet, when moistened, ought to present a uniform hue, without spots or 
marblings. Taken out of the water and suspended a moment by the extremiiic* 
of the short sides, it ought not to tear from its own weight. The sheet crumpled 
in the hand or pinched with the nails ought not to t«ar in the f<dd8, and when torn 
the rent should be fibrous. 

A strip of paper 4 inches wide ought not to break under a weight of 40 pounds, 
in the direction of its least strength. 

In testing the strength of pa]>er, the two ends are held >iy two vices of hard 
wood. Each vice is comjiosed of 2 rectangular jaws, which can be brought against 
each other and held firmly by means of screws, or bj- tenons on one jaw passing 
through the other and keyed firmly to it. A strip of paper 4 inehes wide is cat 
and iu.scrted in the vices, so that the length between them shall be exactly 12 
inches. The jaws arc dosed tightly, and one vice is suspended from a fixed point 
by means of a cord or hook, and to the other is made fast the pan of a bn!:ince. 
It is loivdcd gradually, with care, until the paper gives way. The strij'-* r'lould 
not be taken from the edges of the sheets only, but from all parts, and 'roui the 
length and breadth successively, for in these two directions the strength is very 
different. 

Five sheets are generally Uikcn from each ream, in which only one sheet cai 
have one-tenth less strength than that allowed. If this condition be not fnlfillod. 
the ream is rejected. 

Paper may be made by hand or by machine. 

The other papers are tested in the same way, and should possess the same gen- 
eral characteristics. 



MATERIALS. 251 

^izfi and Weiqht of Paver. 

No- ■ 

, _ ut. of bundle. Proof wt. 

1. For musket cartridges IT xlOiin 40 i^g. 

^' " " " wrappers ...IS X20 •• :?(;11,«., loi '>' 

3. Blank cartridges 15 x20 " nO '• ' .' " 67.' " 

4. Portfires and rockets 19 ^o.S " fi5 .. ^<^^^ u 

5. Fi.\ed ammunition 2:].JX24 " GO " '"'yf 

6. Cannon e.irtridge.s 10X2.T " 70 - 315 << 

7. Fireworks ,3 ^iCi- 20 "'.'.'.'.','.'.'' 85 •• 

The .several kinds to be packed in bundles: Nos. 1, 2, 3, in bundles of 1,000 

sheets each, the others in bundles of 500 sheets; all without folding. The dimen 
s.ons given above arc such as the sheets are required to have when (rimmed for use 
Tow should be entirely of hemp or flax, clean, dry, sound, free from .talks and 
lorcign substances. 

Merino ou s,:ugk, for eartridge-bags. .should be made entirely of wool; it should 
be strong, closely woven, twilled, and not frayed ; the width should be even in the 
same piece ; that 3 yard wide i^ convenient and the most common. The colors are 
to be preferred in the following order: green, gray, yellow, blue, red, white ; re- 
ject black, which is almost alway.-< burnt and weak. 

CANVAS.-Takc the strongest and clo.sest woven; u.sed for sacks for fire-balls. 

Twin..; should be strong, smooth, and well twis(cd-0.03 inch thick for bundlin<r 
cartridges, etc.. and for sewing fire-balls; from 0.06 inch to 0.08 inch for fixing 
ammunition, etc. 

TnuKAn.-For infantry cartridges, of unbleached flax, two strands, strong and 



even. 



Ron.: should bo even and well twiste.l; that most commonly used in the labora- 
tory IS wmte hemp rope from 1 inch to 1..5 inch in girth 

Thread and rope ought to be pliant, without being soft, made of hemp of good 
quality, water rotted, and entireiy freed from stalks; of a silvery color, pearl Ly 
green or yellow, not too deep, too black, nor stained with brown. Its siz.e should 
be uniform throughout its whole length. 

Gum ARABIC should be transparent, yellowish white, brittle, insipid, inodorous, 
oluble in water and vinegar, insoluble in alcohol. It is used in solution to give 
body and tenacity to compositions, or to make them burn more slowly. It should 
be prepared as required, for when in solution it undergoes a decomposition. 

GiUE should be bar,!, dry, transparent, of a brownish red color, and free from 
smell. 

WnisKRY ou Ai.conoi. is used in moistening compositions into which saltpetre 
enters, as it docs not dissolve saltpetre. It should be stron-. 

To prevent its being drunk, mix a little assafc«tida with U. When whiskey can- 
not be had, vinegar may be used. 



252 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

To prepare Pastes and Glue. 

Flour Ptmir. — Sift the flour, and mix it with 8i times its weight of water ; heat 
it geutly, stir it, and let it boil for three-quarters of an hour; when it I)ecome8 
ropy, pour it into bowls, and pass it through a sieve before it is quite cold. The 
flour yields 7 times its weight of paste. Time reejuired to make it, one hour and a 
half. It is best made of rye flour. 

Starch PiiMe. — Mix wheat starch with twice its weight of water: pour it grad- 
ually into 6i times its weight of boiling water, and let it boil for ten miuutcs, 
stirring it all the time; then i)roceed as before. Starch yields 8 times its weight of 
paste. Time required, 1 Imur. 

PaHtf for I'antrboard. — Mix the flour or starch with 12 times its weight of water: 
this yields 9 times the weight of flour, and 11 times the weight of starch. 

PoHte mixed trith (ilite. — The addition of 1-1 Oth of glue makes the paste fit for past- 
ing sheets of parchment together, or for pasting jiapcr on wood. Dissolve the glue 
separately, and pour it into the cold water with which the flour or starch is mixed. 

Cliemc I'uHif is made of fresh white cheese ftOd quicklime. Pound the cheese in % 
mortar with boiling water: let it stand, and decant it: repeat this operatinn three 
or foUY times. Pound together 3 parts of tliis cheese thus prepared and 1 jjart of 
quicklime, moistening it with pure water till the paste ro]ies like honey. Prepare 
only a little at a time. It is used in pasting parchment and parchment paper. 

These different kinds of paste should be used cold. A sujiply for not more than 
2 or 3 days should be made at one time; but it may be preserved longer by adding 
alum in the proportion of 1-lOth of the weight of flour. The depredations of rati 
may be prevented by dissolving a like proportion of colocyuth in the water with 
which the paste is made. 

Ulur is dissolved in its own weight of boiling water A glue pot with a water 
b&th should be used, to aroid burning the glue. Kemove the pot from the fire M 
soon as the glue is entirely dissolved. 

Trituration of Materials. 

Materials intended for the preparation of fireworks are reduced to a powder by 
rolling them in a leathern barrel with bronze balls ; or, if the barrel be not on hand, 
leather sacks, or mortars and pestles, may be used, attaching the pestle to an elastic 
rtd. 

During the trituration with the barrel, strike the bars of the barrel from time to 
time with a small mallet, to deta-h the materials which may adhere to the sides. 

The materials taken from the barrel are first passed through a brass screen, to 
separate the balls, and then through a sieve. For certain purposes, as for signal 
rockets, the charcoal should not be an impalpable powder. The trituration is then 
made in a leather sack. 

The sack is filled and closed up: one man holds it by the mouth, lays it on an 
even block, and turns it frequently, whilst another strikes it with a billet of wood. 



BALL CARTRIDGES. 253 

After five minutes, the charcoal is taken ont and passed over a silk screen, to get rid 
of the dust: what remains is then separated into three numbers — 

No. 1. That which passes through the screen No. 1 ; 

No. 2. That which passes through the screen No. 2; 

No. .3. That which passes through the screen No. 3. 

AMMUNITION FOR SMALL ARMS. 

There arc two kinds of cartridges used in service — the ball cartridge, made with 
a single elongated ball, and the buckshot cartridge, made with fifteen buckshot. 

Ball Cartridges* 

Making balls. — Lead balls are made by compression, by means of machines for 
that purpose. Balls thus made are more uniform in size and weight, smoother, more 
solid, .and give more accurate results, than cast balls. 

The lead is first east into round cylindrical bars, .58 and .6.3 inch in diameter for 
the calibres .•'')8 and .69 inch respectively, and 21 inches long, and then rolled to .46 
* and .56 inch in diameter for the same calibres respectively : length, 25 inches. These 
bars are fed to the machine, which cuts off a part sufficient for one ball and transfers 
it to a die, in which the ball is formed, with cavity and rings, the surplus metal being 
forced out in a thin belt around the ball in the direction of its axis. The balls are 
trimmed by hand, with a knife, and are then passed through a cylinder gauge of the 
proper size. 

A (lay's work. — One man can m.ike with the macliine .30,000 balls in ten hours, 
the bars of lead being prepared for him. One man can cast \,-)0() bars in 10 hours, 
and can trim and roll 2,000 bars in ten hours. A boy can trim and gauge 5,000 in 
10 hours. 

Bullet moulds are provided to cast l)alls, where the pressed balls cannot be had. 

The mould is so constructed as to trim the balls by a single operation before they 
are taken from the mould. 

Buckshot are compressed by machines in a similar manner to balls. They are also 
readily obtained from private shot works. 

To GREASE THE BALLS. — Placc them on their bases on a tin frame capable of 
holding about 50 balls, and immerse it in a melted mixture of 1 part of tallow and 8 
of beeswax, kept warm, until the cylindrical part of the ball is covered. Remove 
the frame, and let it stand until the grease hardens. 

Three frames arc required for each boy. 

TO CUT THE PAPER. 
• WOUKMAN. — 1 cxitter. 

Materials. — Paper and pencil. 

Impleme.vts. — 1 cutting-board, 30 inches square; 1 iron rider, 33 inches long; 1 

lever, 1 cord, 1 large knife, 1 sandstone, 1 trapezoid of hard wood or iron. 

* A metUod of attaching the paper cartridge directly to the ball has recently been invented by 
F. J. Gardner, iind is used in the Confederate Liiboriitoiy at Kidiniond. 



254 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Cut the paper first into strips of a width e'|ual to the Icnjrth of a trapcxoid, and 
then into tnipezoids, using the pattern as a gui<ie. 

The paper and ruler are kept from moving by means of a lever, one end of which 
is fixed and the other is moved by the foot by means of a cord and treadle. 

The knife is held in both hands. 

From C to 8 rcam.s may be cut at a time in lliis way. 

A cutting machine, like that used by bookbinders, facilitates the operation when 
many hands arc employed. 

When only a knife and ruler are used, about 12 sheets arc cut at a time. 

TO MAKK TIIK CAUTItlDGK. 

WoRKMKN. — 1 mnslcr, 10 boi/i. 

Imi'I.kmknts /or each boy. — 2 Itoxen to ludd cylinders, 20 inches long, 8 inches 
wide, and 4 inches high, in the clear, made of i-inch boards, without a cover: they 
are placed on their sides, their backs ineliueJ against the partition in the middle 
of the cartridgB table, the front resting ou clcuts nailed to the table ; 1 former, 
eyliudricul, of hard woimI, of the same diameter as the ball, 6 tu 7 inches long, one 
end pointed, almost as much as the ball, and marked with a shallow groove 4.0 
inches from the end ; I aabot or frame, lacked to the table, to hold balls, placed at 
the left hand of the boy; 1 »pool of thread, turning on a vertical spindle fixed in 
the table near the balls ; I choking-ntriiKj, made of 4 or '> -carlridgc threads twisted 
together, about St inches long, with a wooden toggle at ihc onJ — fastened to the 
edge of the table, at the right hand of the boy; 1 knif^ bludr, \\ ineh long, hooked, 
driven into the 'front of the table below and near the chcike-string. 

To KOUM THK cvLi.NOEn. — Lay the trapezoids on the table with the side perpen- 
dicular to the bases toward the workman, the broad end to the left. 

Take the former in the right hand and lay it on a trapezoid, the groove in the 
former against the right edge of the paper, bringing the pointed end J imh from 
the broad end of the paper; envelop the former with the paper; then, with the 
fingers of the left hand laid flat upon the paper, turn the former and roll all the 
paper upon it : hold it with the left hand, and, wiib the ehoking-atring in the right, 
take one turn around the cylinder at about J inch from the end; h<dd the former 
firmly in the K-ft baud, and draw gently upon the chokiiig-string, pressing at the 
same time with the left forefinger upon the projecting end of the eyliudcr, thus 
folding it neatly down upon the end of the ball. Having choked the cylinder 
close, carry it to the right side, and, with the thread in the right hand, take two 
half-hitches firmly around the part that has been choked; cut the thread on the 
knife blade, and press the choke in a cavity in the table; place the former, with a 
cylinder ou it, on a second trapezoid ; put a ball over the end of t! c former; roll 
the paper on the former and the ball; hold the cylinder in the left hand and choke 
and tic it as just described for the inner cylinder; withdraw the former, pressing 
the eyliudcr with the left band, and i)lacc it in the box. 
A di't/'g Hork. — A boy can make 800 cylinders in 10 hours. 



BALL CARTRIDGES. 



255 



TO FILL THE CYLINDEn. 

iMPr .,,r.NTS -1 charter, made of a cylinder of wood or brass pierced with two 

ono end of the cyhndcr, and a discharge pipe to the other. The holes in the 
cyluider are made to communicate and shut off, alternately, from the funnel holding 

liven'T: r' "r T , ^''■f ''''^ ^^ ^''^ '^^^^ ^"^' ^^ ^ --Procatlog motion 
given to the cylinder by the hands. 

Fill the funnel with powder; in.sort the dischar.^e pipe in a cartridge, holding 
he charger .n both hands, and turn the cylinder; the charge of powder i! deposited 
m th cartridge : .nsert the pipe in the next, and turn the cylinder in ,he opposite 
direction ; and continue in the same way for all the rest 

Cartridges may be tilled with a copper charger made' to hold the cact charge 
pouring the powder by means of a small funnel which is inserted in the cartrid-^e ' 

To PINCH THP. CAnrniDGK.-Take the cartridge in the right hand, strike it liglit'ly 
on the table to settle the powder; flatten the empty part of the cylinder, and bend 
t ush with the top of the powder, at right angles to the cartridge, the obli.ue Zl 
of he trapezoid on top, the cartridge .standing vortical on the table; tild th 
flattened part in the direction of its length with two folds from the exterior, meetin. 

letus ' '"'''' '"' '•"' "° '"''' '^^^ ^^"'^'^ '' - '^^ »=^'''« to sel 

TO KixDLK CAnrnincKS. 

th7b.!irb?7/ '"" "''^'""^ '■"'^■^ "'■ '"P= -id,he,,„al to 5 times the diameter of 
th ball height equal to twice that diameter, and length that of the cartridge It 
.s tacked to the table, the sides parallel to and near the edge of the table 

Put a wrapper in the box, the long side perpendicular to the edge of' the table 

.Two tie t' '''"; " '''' ""''"'^ "' ^"^ ^^"^ ^ P'^^<^' ^«™"«' to ?he sides o 
th7 n ne. "h r "' ' ""'' ^'^ ''^"^ "^^'^^"'^^'"^ ■' ^-'" the short ends of 

he paper together. ..nd fold them twice close down on the cartridges; insert a 
Package of caps lu the end of the bundle next to the ends of the lower tier ; fold 

ZnuTZ T':' '"' ''° ''^ '""'"''' «'-^' '" ^^^ ^"-tion of the length 

then Its breadth, with the twine fastened in a single bow-knot. The wrappers ar 
of ditrerent colors, to distinguish the cartridges for the diflerent arms 

Casks l-oh PKRCus.sioN-CAPs.-These are rolled on a former, .-04 inch in dia 
meter, choked at one end -ind Ho,) t,., i . 

, I one ena anrt tied. Twelve caps arc put in, and the case is closed 

by twisting the open end of the case. 

FiveT;'%?"7"""'-~^'^'''''''^°^ nro packed in boxes containing 1.000 each. 
Five tiers of bundles are laid flat in a single row along one side of the box ; the rest 
ai-e placed on edge, the caps alternately up and down.' m.nk .ar„,,,.. ar pL ked 
. W. eonuining 2.000 each; the bundles are pla. ed on end, the ca^ altcLtely 

to.Ctf "'''"*'r""~J'" ''"•"'' "■"" '""^^'^ "^ "'^"^ P'"° ^"»"^^^- dovetniled a.d nailed 
to^ethc, and arc furnished with wooden brackets or handles nailed to the ends 



256 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

with wrought nails, rlcnclicd on the iuside; the lids fastened with six 1.75-iQch 
screws. They are painted difTcrent colors, to indicate the kind of cartridges. The 
boxes shiiuld be lined with strong ])apcr, and the bundles of cartridges must be 
packed cloi'ely, so as not to shake in transportation. Each box should be marked, 
on each end, with the number and kind of cartridges, and on the in.xide of the cover 
with the jilace and date of fabrication. 

t 

Blank Cartridges. ^ 

Matkhial.s. — Xo. 2 pnj)€r ; pante ; powder. 

Cut the paper into trapezoids as foe ball cartridges; roll the trapezoid on the 
former, one turn : fold down this much of the paper on tlic head t»f the former with 
the left hand; roll the rest of thepai)er; fold down the rest of the paper; touch 
the fold with a little jjaste on the finger; press the eml of the former on a ball 
imbedded in the table for the purpose ; remove the cylinder from the former; place 
it in a box to dry. 

Fill the cylinders as described for ball cartridges. 

A diijf'a work. — One boy can make 2,000 cylinders in 10 hours. - 

Packing Musket Balls. '* 

Balls are packed in boxes with tow or saw-dust, to prevent their bruising. The 
boxe.'' are made of 1-iuch boards, and contain 1,000 balls. 

They are marked on both ends with the number au.i kind of balls, and on the 
inside of the cover with the place and date of fabrication. The cover is fastened 
with six 2-inch screws, and the boxes must be hooped with iron for transportation. 
They are not painted. 



1 

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CARTRIDGES FOR SMALL ARMS. 






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258 ORDNANf'K MANUAL. 

AMMUNITION FOR FIELD AND MOUNTAIN SERVICE.* 

The iiiiirimnition for field and mountain service consists of — 

Shitl for tiie 6 and 12-pdr. guns. 

HhfllH for t ho 12-jjdr. guns, an<l 12. 24, and 152-pdr. howit/.cr and mountain howitzer. 

Sjilieriml-rttiie ulioi for the 6 and 12-pdr. guns, and 12, 21, and .32-pdr. howitzer 
and mountain howitzer. ' 

('(iiiiKlrrii for the f) and 12-pdr. guns, au^^ 12, 2'1, and .'?2-|)dr. howitzer ami moun- 
tain howitzer. 

The projiclilo is attached by strajts of tin to a wooden »<il>ot. to whicli is also 
fastened the vnytiiiiijc-bnij containing the charge, for the gunc, the 12-pdr. howitzer, 
and the mountain howitzer, making to;^ether <t round of fixed nmmunition. The 
oartrid;;c for the 24 and .'<2-])dr. howit/.cr.s is not attached to the sabot, but to a 
tarlridijc-btock, and is separate from the projectile. 

Cartridge-bags. 

The cartridge-bag is a cylindrical bag with a circular bottom, made of merino or 
nergo. The material should be composed entirely uf wool, free from any mixture 
of thread or cotton, and of suflSeiently close texture to prevent the powder from 
sifting through: that wiiich is twilled is preferred. Flannel is used when the other 
Ulaterialc cannot be conveniently uhtained. 

TO Ct'T THE CLOTH. k 

Implicmknts. — 2 lablcH ; jinttcrnn, of hard, well-scasoncd wood, or of sheet-iron 
or tin, for the rectangles and bottoms: shfari ; chalk or colored crnyont. 

A marker and assistant spread out the cloth on the table in two thicknesses, and 
make it fast at each end of the table on three or four hooks driven in the ends of 
the tabic, or by means of weights, drawing it suflBciently to lake out the folds, and 
uo more. 

They murk out the rectangles and bottoms with the patterns and ruler, so dispos- 
ing and c<imbiuing them as to cut the clotii to the licsl aJvaiitag"-. 

The length of the rectangle (development of the tylindtr) should be taken in the 
direction of the length of the stuff, as it does not stretch in that direction. The 
Bolvagc, if there be any, ought to be at the mouth of the bag. The cutter takes 
a piece thus marked to another table and cuts out the rectangles and bottoms with 
a pair of .*liears. The l)ottoms may be cut out with a hollow punch of the proper size. 

Skwing. — Marks for the seam are traced on the rectangles and bottoms, by mi'ans 
of patterns of the proper size. The seam should be at least a half inch from the 
edge. The bag is sewed with woollen yarn, with a backstitch, 12 to the inch. The 
edges are turned down on the same side of the seam and basted, to prevent the 
powder from sifting through; the edges of the bottom are basted down upon the 
sides. Bags may be sewed advantageously by the sewing machine. Bags fur fixed 

* The ammiwition for rifle guns is nut ^ct fully Uecideii uo, and is, tlicrefore, uButted. 



SABOTS AND CARTRIDGE-BLOCKS. 259 

ammunition are gewed to within .'5 inches of t'l • mouth for 12-pihs.; to within 2.75 
inches for 6-pclrs. ; all others, up to the mouth. A bag is given as a model to .sew by. 

Cartridge-hags, when filled, should pass through the small shot-guage of their 
calibre; those used for patterns should he thus verified. The empty bags should 
be measured by laying tiic bag, flattened cut, between two marks ou a table, show- 
ing the width of the pattern-bag; a variation of 0.1 inch, greater or less, is allowed. 
Reject those sewed with too Inrge stitches. 

Bags for practice or for blank cartridges may be formed i>y sewing together two 
rectangular pieces with semicircular ends; the cloth is marked, for cutting and 
sewing, with stamps made of 1-inch boards of the dimensions of the cutting slamp, 
with a strip of tin or copper fastoned to the edge of the board, and projecting about 
i inch perpendicular to the side; another strip parallel to the first is inserted in a 
groove i inch from it: the edges of these strips are made rough, to retain chalk or 
paint used in marking. A handle is placed in the middle of the face opposite to 
the marking strips. Width of cutting stamp for ]2-pdr., 7.0 inches; for 6-pdr., 6 
inches. Length, including semicircular ends, for 12-pdr., 10.5 inches; for O-jxlr., 
8.5 inches. 

Packing. — Cartridge-bags are preserved from mnths by being packed with 
pounded camphor and black pepper, or dipped in water with arsenic dissolved in 
it, or a solution of sulphate of copper, I lb. of sulphate to 26 lbs. of water. Oj^- 
they may be sealed up, in bundles of 50, in cases made of cartridge paper, carefully 
closed with strips of thin paper pasted over the seams. Each bundle is marked 
with the number and kind of bags. 

Tliey may be preserved from moisture bj' being enveloped in water-proof paper. 

Sabots and Cartridge-blocks. 

Subot» and Caitridge-hhukg are made of poplar, basswood, or othdir light, close 
grained wood: it must be well seasoned, and should be clear of knots and splits. 

The assistant saws the scantling to the proper length for a sabot, roughs it out, 
and marks its centre. 

The turner puts it in the lathe, and turns, first the exterior and grooves, and then 
the cavity for the projectile. 

The holes for the handles .are bored with a bit, and countersunk on the inside to 
receive the kuot on the end of the cord. Distance between them for shells is 1.5 
inch; for canisters, 2.3 inches. Length of cord for handles, for shells, 12 inches; 
for canisters, 20 inches. Diameter of cord, .15 inch. 

The cartridge-blocks and sabots for shot and spherical-case shot for guns have 
one groove. Sabots for gun canisters and for the 12-pdr. howitzer or mountain 
howitzer shells, spherical-case shot and canisters have two grooves. All the 
grooves are .3 inch wide and .15 inch deep. They are .8 inch apart, from centre 
to centre, for guns, and ,5 inch for howitzers. The corners and bottoms of the 
grooves are slightly rounded. 



260 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

The dimensions of finished sabots and Mocks are verified with appropriate 
gauges. For dimensions, cee page 2()0. 

A dny'» wurk. — One man can make 3j0 sabots for 6 or 12-pdr. gun, 

or 300 " " field howitzers, 
or 600 cartridge-blocks, small charge, tn 

or 700 cartridge-blocks, large charge. -"^ik 

Straps. 

Straps are made of sheet-tin. For nhot there arc two straps crossing at riirht 
angles, one passing through a slit in the middle of the other. For nhrlh there are 
four straps factcncd to a ring of sheet-tin, picrce<l with 4 slits, thr<iugli wliicb the 
ends of tiic straps are i^nssed and foldeil down on the under side. 

The sheet of tin is first cut to a length equal to that of the stra]>s. and if the 
straps are for shot, a line is drawn, dividing it into two e(|iial parts, to mark the 
place for the slit. The straps are cut with circular shears. If such be not at band, 
the width of the strap is marked on the sheet, is cut with tinners" shearc, and 
straightened on a bench with a mallet. 

The slits arc made with a cold-chi.-'el on a bluck of Icail, and a str«|» not slit is 
passed through, and .^et flat by a blow of the hammer. 

Ring Si. 

liivijH arc cut from sheet-tin by means of two punches: the first having the 
diameter of the exterior and the other that of the interior of the ring. The slits are 
made with a cold-chisel, and the required concavit}' to fit the ball is given by ham- 
mering on a block of lead having a concave surface. The ends of the straps are 
passed through the slits, folded down, and set flat. Dimeiition* of rings: exterior 
diameter, 3. 'J5 ; interior diameter, 1.70. 

Strapping Shot and Shells. 

Impi.kments. — 1 hrtich ; '2 pani, containing natU O.-O.*) inch long, with f-troug, flat 
beads 0.2 inch diameter; buxt and barrels, for straps and sabots: 4 /mmmrr*, for 
strapping; 1 common hnmmrr ; A piinrhn ; ahot-gawjet, of each calibre; 1 g'lH'jf for 
each calibre. 0.04 inch greater than the largest shot-gauge, through which the shot 
should pass aft*r it is strapped; tine or ragt, for wi[iing balls; 1 trheelbarrote ; 1 
tarpaulin, if the shop have not a plank floor. 

A helper knocks ofl" the scales from the balls with a hammer, cleans and dries the 
interior of the shells, if requisite, wipes the balls, and gauges them both before and 
after they are strapped. 

The workman, sitting astride the bench, places the shot or shell in the cavity of 
the sabot, the roughest part of the shot down, the fuie-hole of the shell tm top, ia 
th« axis of the sabot. The ball should rest on the bottom of the cavity (it can b« 
told from the sound, by striking on the bottom of the sabot with a hammer) ; if it da 



SPHERICAL-CASE SHOT. 261 

not, the sabot is rejected. The workman places the junction of the straps in the 
axis of the sabot, or the ring concentric with the fuze-hole of the shell ; beginning 
with the strap which is not slit, he forces the end of it into the groove of the sabot 
with the back of the hammer, punches it, and nails it; he then draws the other end 
tight, punches it, and nails it, in the same manner. He disposes the other strap 
perpendicular to the first, nails it to the sabot as he did the first, cuts off the super- 
fluous length, and with the hammer and side of the cold-chisel sets the straps in 
close to the ball at the top of the sabot. 

The sabots for 32 and 24-pounder field howitzers having no groove, each strap is 
fastened by 1 nail on the side and 2 under the bottom of (he sabot. 

A day's tnirk. — Two men can strap, in 10 hours, 130 shot, or Tf) shells, cutting the 
tin from the sheet. 

Thk boxkr mode. — Uore a hole, .2 inch in diameter, .\-'> inch deep, in the shot; 
enlarge the hole at bottom. Take a copper rivet .2 inch diameter, hollow out the 
end, leaving the length of the rivet .25 inch greater than the least thickness of the 
sabot; bore a hole in the centre of the sabot for the rivet, with a countersink for the 
head; place the shot in the sabot, the hole down; insert the rivet in the sabot, 
making it enter the hole in the shot; strike the head of the rivet a blow with 
a hammer to upset the end of the rivet and fasten the sabot. 

Another mode. — If tin or sheet-iron cannot be procured, straps may be made of 
ttroiig cauvtif, 1 inch wide, sewed at the point of crossing. The part of the ball 
which is to be inserted in the sabot is dipped in glue; the straps are also glued to 
the ball ; the ends are doubled into the groove and secured by 2 nails in each end. 
Another method is to wrap round the ball a band of canvas 1 inch wide, one half of 
which is glued to the ball, the other to the sabot; or the shot may be kept in place 
by merely tying the cartridge-bag over the top of it. 

Charging Shells. 

Matertai.s. — Ri'fe or mttuket powder ; pliigx ; fuzes; chnlk. 

Imi'Lkmk.nts. — 1/iiniiel; powder measure, to hold the required charges : 1 wooden 
sfrai(/lil-edi/e ; lurcfe howl ; fuze-wrench. 

The shells, having been properly cleaned, dried, tapped to receive the plug and 
the fuze, and attached to the sabots, are placed in two rows. The workman fills the 
measure with powder, strikes it level with the straight-edge, and pours it in the 
shell ; the assistant holds the funnel, and marks the shell with chalk when filled, to 
prevent mistakes. The assistant screws in the plug. The workman puts a little 
white lead on the threads of the fuze, punches 4 or ii small holes in the tin disk, and 
screws the fuze firmly into the shell, the assistnnt holding the shell to prevent it 
from turning. 

Spherical-case Shot. 

The shot leaving been cleaned and inspeete<l. the upper part of the fuze-hole is 
tapped to receive the fuze; the small hole is tapped to receive the plug. 



20:i ORDNANCK MANUAL. 

TO FILL THE SHKLI,. 

Matkrials. — Sphcn'ral, leaden balls, calibre .59 inch; nnlphiir ; Unbred oil. 

Utknsils. — 1 kettle ; 1 ladle ; 1 iron funnel, the neck chiiseil with the threads of 
jt screw, to fit the smiill part of the fuze-hole. 

F'li.LiNf) THK siiKLL. — Corcf the lead halls with linseed oil, and fill the shell with 
them, pushinp (he upper halls aside with the fingers or .a A'wV, to get in as many aa 
poBsihle. Warm the shell gently, and screw the neck of the funnel into the fu«o- 
hole : jioiir in the niclted sulphur, filling the shell. 

To MAKK THP, CHAMBF.R KoR THK cnAKGE. — Chuck the shot in a lathe; screw tho 
funnel into the fuze-hole, to protect the threads from being injured hy the auger, and 
with a common screw auger bore a hole in the axis of the shell to tho bottom. 
Diameter of the auger, .7.') inch. 

Lacker the shot and strap it; paint the ring around the fuze-hcde red. 

To cnAnoK tiik shot. — Fill the chamber with musket powder, ramming it slightly 
with a wooden drift and light mallet: screw in the iron jdug, leaving its tf)p flush 
with the bottom of the large portion of the fuze-hole, and lay over it a thin leather 
washer with a hole in the centre; fill the lude in the j>hig and washer wiih rifle 
powder; punch 4 or •') small holes in the tin disk in the bottom of the fuze; put a 
little white lead on the threads of the fuze, and screw tho fuze firmly into the shell. 

Fix the spherical-case shot the same as round shot. 

Canisters. (Plate 31.) 

A canioler for jield serrice consists of a tin cj'lindcr attached to a sabot and filled 
with CHst-iron shot. For the dimensions of CaniKter Shot, see Chapter II. 

Canisters fir the mountain howitzer are filled with lead balls. 

Mateiuals. — Sheets of tin, 0.02 inch to .025 inch thick (double tin); soft solder; 
rosin; culots of rolled iron, .2!) inch thick; carers of sheet-iron, 0.07 inch thick for 
the guns and 12-pdr. howitzers, and .1 inch thick for the 24 and 32-pdr. howitzers; 
sabots; tncks. 

Uten'SILS. — Paltcrun ; tracinij point; shears; e</linder of hard wood; mallet / 
gain/es; furnace; solderintj iron; hammer ; pnnch. 

To MAKE THE CYLINDER. — The Workman marks out the rectangle on tjje sheet with 
the ]iattern ; cuts it, aud traces the line for the lap : he draws a line parallel to the 
long side of the rectangle, .4 to .5 inch from it, for the length of the slits. It ia 
then bent round the /«rme*-, the edge brought to the line of the lap, clamjied and 
soldered. 

If lumps of solder be left, they arc filed down. The cylinder is made round, and 
gauged on the exterior with the large shot-gauge of the calibre, and the interior with 
a cylinder of a diameter 0.02 inch less than that given in the table, which should 
enter the canister: if it be not of the right size, it is unsoldered and soldered over again. 

The slits arc made, and the sabot inserted and nailed with 6 to 8 nails. 

Before filling the canister, dip the tin cj'linder into a lacker of beeswax dissolved 
in spirits of turpentine, to prevent it from rusting. Coat the balls and the plates 
with paint or coal tar. 



FIXING AMMUNITION. 263 

Filling canisters. — The workman, sitting astride the bench, places the canister 
upright in front of him, inserts the iron bottom and places it flat on the .sabot, puts 
in a tier of balls, fills the interstices with dry, sifted saw-dust, packs it with a, pointed 
stick so that the balls will hold by themselves, and throws out the loose saw-dust; 
he places another tier of balls, each ball lying in the interval between two ball.s of 
the lower tier, and proceeds in the same manner until the canister is filled; covers 
the upper tier with saw-dust; puts on the cover, places on it one of the iron Ixittoms 
furnished with a handle, and strikes it with a small mallet in order to compress the 
saw-dust; then removes this bottom, and turns down the slit pieces of the canister 
over the cover, with a hammer. In the canisters for the 6 and 12-pdr. guns the 
centre ball of the last tier is omitted. When the canister is finished, verify it^« 
diameter with the large shot-gauge of the same calibre. 

' Cylinders and Caps. 

For the greater security of field annnunitiou, the cartridges are covered with paper 
cylinders and caps. The cap is drawn oflT at the moment of loading the piece, and 
in using solid shot it may be placed over the shot, to diininisTi the windage. A 
cylinder and a cap are formed together by folding the paper over & formn-, which 
allows a lap of about 0.7.') inch for pasting. The requisite length for the cylinder i.s 
cut off from the smaller end; the rest forms the cap, which is choked, at the end 
from which the cylinder is cut, on a njlindrical former which has a groove around 
it marking the length from the rounded end for cutting the cap. The former should 
be bored throug^i the a.xis with a .5 inch hole to facilitate drawing off the cap. 

The caps for shells are stained black ; for spherical-case shot, red ; for shot, not 
colored. 

Fixing Ammunition. 

Imtlements. — /)'rt)-ci/j,- for jiowdcr ; 1 fiiinirl ; 1 set of powder measures; 1 
straiyhtedye, to strike the measures with; barrels; ttibn, foi mod of barrels sawed 
in two, or ioares for the cartridge-bags ; 2 trtrpaiillns ; 2 benches; }2 choking sticks, 
6 with holes in them and G slit; 6 kiiiccs; 6 hand-barrows, with four legs and a 
box, and tarpaulinis to cover them; calibre-gauf/es, for the cartridge-bags and for 
fi.\e<l ammunition (they may be made of wool); 6 stools; 1 whcvlbarroic ; 1 mallet; 
1 copper chixcl ; 1 copper drift, or a wrench, to open powder barrels. 

Fixing shot, or sphkuical-cask, for field guns. — The bags should be filled 
in the small magazine or filling room. The assistant holds the pipe of the funnel 
in the mouth of the bag with both hands, the bag pressed close against the pipe. 
The gauger heaps up the measui'c with powder, strikes it level with the straight- 
edge, and pours it into the funnel. M'^hcu about '25 bags are filled, the gauger 
takes a filled bag with one hand, squeezing the bag upon the powder ; he gives it a 
blow with the other hand on the top and bottom of the bag, twisting the month of 
the bag down upon the powder at the samn time ; ho then trios it with the amlVU 
gauge, through which it should pass with not more than ().2.'J inc^h play; should it 
not do this, the bag is emptied and rejected. These bags, filled and gauged, are 



2(54 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

placed uprijrhf in a tub or box, and earrii-d by the araujjers into the finishinj^ room, 
where the men iiro placed in pairs, sitting; astride on a bench, fai'in;j each other. 
One of thctn opens a hag and level? the ])o\vilcr, the other inserts the cabof of a 
strapped shot S'liiure upon the powder and draws up the end of the bag over the 
shot; the first man parses about four feet of twine through the pierced stick, and 
maken two turns and a double hitch with the end at the top of the sabot ; he makes 
»knot ill the en<l of the twine, inserts it into the slit in the other choking stick, 
and tightens the double hitch by rolling the twine on the sticks and bearing upon 
the sabot : he then takes out the end of the twine from the slit, ties it in a hard 
knot, which he tightens with the assistance of the choking stick, and cuts the 
twine off near the knot. The second man turns down the muutb of the bag over 
the sabiit, and the first makes a similar tic in the groove ; be makes another tie 
below the sabot, the twine being lodged between it and the powder, to prevent the 
latter from sifting in between the bag and the sabot ; he then runs the paper 
cjlinder over the cartridge and sabot, leaving about two inches of the end of the 
cartridge uncovered, and he makes a tie, similar to the others, in the groove of 
the sabot. He now liolds the shot in the left hand and examines it, striking the 
sabot with the right hand, if necessary, to bring it straight; if the shot be properly 
fixed, the sabot and the bag will have the same axis ; the seams should be between 
two straps, and the knots should be neither on the seams nor on the straps. 

The assistants pass the cartridges through the large gauge, which is O.Ot inch 
larger than the large gauge for the shot. If the size be correct, they put on the 
paper cap, lay the cartri<lges on their sides in the box of the bnnd-barrow, and 
carry them to the magazine. Those which will not |iass through the gauge are 
banded back to the fixers, who cut the strings and put them up anew. 

Can intent /or Fiilil Ouim are fixed in the same manner as shot, except that the 
llrst tie is made in the upper groove of the sabot ; the cylinder is tied in the lower ' 
groove. The caps must be cut somewhat shorter than those for short cartridges. 

For the \2-pilr. Field Hoiritzer. — The shells. Spherical-case, and canisters are 
fixed in the same manner as the gun canisters. 

For the Mountain Howitzer. — The sabots having but one groove, the first tie is 
omitted, and the cartridge is covered with a cap only. 

For the 3'2-pt/r. and 2i-p(ir. Hnwitzem. — The cartridge is not attached to the pro- 
jectile. The cartridge-block is inserted with the grooved end next to the powder, 
and a tie made in the groove ; the mouth of the bag is then turned down, and 
another tie is made between the cartridge-block and the powder : the superfluoua 
part of the bag is cut off, and the cartridge is covered with its cylinder and cap, a« 
in other cases. 

When the shot is attached to the sabot by a single band <>f canvas, or when if is 
placed in the sabot without any strap, the cartridge-bag is drawn over it and tied 
on'top; for this purpose, the bag should have ap additional length of from 2i to 3 
inches. 

When sabots cannot be obtained, place upon the powder a layer of tjw about 0.8 Jfe*' 



PACKING AMMTTXITION-BOXES. 200 

inch thick, forming a hcd for the shot : tic the hag over the shot and around the 
tow; the bag requires to he 1 inch longer than for strapped shot. 

Pdc/iiiKj Field Ammnnition. 

Packing-Boxen for fiehl aninmnition are made of well seasoned stuff (generally 
white pine), 1 25 inch thick, dovetailed, with the tenon on the ends. The top of 
the box is fastened wilh six :2-inch screws; the l>ox has two handles of l^-inch 
rope, attached to brackets at the ends. 

The bo.xes are painted on the outside different colors, to indicate the contents of 
the box. Those containing shot are painted olive; shells, black; spherical-case 
shot, red ; and canisters, a litjhl di-uh. The kind of ammunition is marked on each 
end, in large white letters. The place and date of fabrication are marked on the 
inside of the cover. 

Manner of Packing Ammunition- Boxes. 

For Gi'NS. — Shot, Spherical -case, and VauiHters, Ji.red. — Laid in- two tiers across 
the box, the shot or canisters alternating with the cartridges at each side. The shot 
or canisters of the upper tier rest on those of the lower, and not on the cartridges. 

Fob 2.'?-pdr. Ano 24-1'1)I{. nowirzERS. — Shells and Spherical-cane »S7tof. ^Placed 
upright, the balls down, resting on strips of wood about .25 inch thick, placed 
lengthwise of the box and nailed to the bottom, so as to prevent the fuzes from bear- 
ing on the bottom of the box. Tbe balls are held down by small strips of wood 
tacked with sprigs to the sides of the box, over the sabots. Tbe cartridges are laid 
on the top of the sabots. 

CnnititcrK arc packed in the same manner, omitting the strips of wood in the bot- 
tom of the box. ^ 

For 12-PnR. FIELD and sroUNTAl.V howitzers. — Shells and Spherical-case Shot, 
fixed. — Placed upright, the balls down, resting on strips of wood, as for the other 
howitzers. 

Canisters are packed in the same manner, resting on the bottom of the box. 

For RiKi.En guns. — Case Shot, fjred. — Placed upright, the balls down, resting 
on strips of wood, as for the howitzers. The iron part of the balls rests against 
strips of wood 4 inches wide and .2.5 inch thick, nailed to the side and ends of the 
box at the bottom, and similar strips placed between the rows of the balls, to prevent 
the soft metal cujis from bearing against the box or against each other and being 
bruised. 

Canisters, ji.ved, are packed in the same manner as the case shot, omitting the 
strips of wood on the bottom of the box. 

In all the boxes, the small stores are placed in the vacant spaces on top of the 
ammnnition. 

A layer of tow is placed in the bottom of each box, and the whole coBtents are 
well packed in tow, filling the box so as to be pressed down by the cover. About 3 
lbs. of tow are required for a box. 



Ammunition for Field 



Cbamk or POWDER \ jy«.'K»'* '!"'• 

t livlKllt III. 



('AaTitincK 



lyOAMNO flHKLLR AND 
HI-HKHICAL-CASR... 



Kadot 



n.\o -i " 1 wKltli ... 

(itottoiii. ilmnn'tcr .... 
, ( Wi-iKht .. 
■{ •• <.l 
■■■ (^Numl>er i 

I whole 

< roiiinil pari 
I rylilKlrit-ul 



WiMKht of jMiwdcrt <>'• 

-j •• of Kiil|iliiir " 

(Numl>er uf balU 

in 

part " 

" part '• 

KrcalcNt '• 

Ht lioltoni " 

of cylindpr " 

[ liott'otn of colli' » " 

Ciivlly for I dcplli " 

liiill ( rniliuH " 

[ Didt. fr. mid. lowur uroo^-o of snii. to l»ot. " 

( IltiKlil " 



H.iKlit of 



Diameter . 



, / I-<>n(tth . 
'••tWi<ltli 
( 



( From middle groove to bot... 



Straps 

Kl^(a.o ... -' Diamrtpr. 



( exterior 

( interior 

Woifflit of Ballot. HirnpH. riiipt. naiU or.. 

Weight of Kliut or hIuOI. rt-ady for fixiiiK etc,.... lbs. 
( leii;;lli. including lap., in 

Cylinder .*■; heiuht " 

( fnli-rior diameter '* 

Dianii-ter of top ami iHiltoni plate .. " 

Canihtkrs. { Tliirlineii* of hIii-cI iron rover " 

v..~i . f ' shot in each tie" 

^"■"l"'^"^! whole of Khot ..., 

Whole height, inrlnding shot in. 

Meicht. tiiiidhed. - " lbs. 

Diameter of pauftesi for fixed animanition #. in. 

I'apkr fur a cylinder ( LeTitrtli developed " 

AND CAI" 'l Height " 

Height of cylinder. Impe charge " 

" small " " 

( Lenifth handle excluded... " 

Formers forctlin- I Width at larjie end " 

DKRs AND CAPS ... | "' Small end " 

(Thickness " 

CrLIXDRlCAL rORMRII ( Length " 

FOR CHOKING CAPS..') Diamrtur '" 

Distance from end of f -rrner to proove " 

fWliole height raj* includ'd " 

PlXCD AMMUNITION-' Hei;rlil of charge. •' 

(WeiKht of whole lbs. 

... ,. Cleneth Id. 

Tnteru.r .i-' i.,„, .. 

n>ensK.ns... ^j,.|,„, .. 

p*«.Ko-.ox:..^ Weight .{ ;Xd:.::.-.v.v::: '^" 

Contents of Juiinilter of rounds ... 

each bux... (friction-primers 

Color 




• One inch allowe.l f t the penm in length of rectangle and diameter of bottum: haif an loch 

21 oniic-« tlie L!l-i.oiiii.lir. 1'" .>uiiccs: and the \i pounder, 8 oflnces. * One port-fire 

, Six small and one large cartridges. 



and Mountain Service. 



HOWITZERS. 



3.25 
C.25 



l-pounder, 



.■>.■':' 

6.2.1 
14.2 
10.0 

5.25 
1.4 
22. 
245 



24 pounder. 



2.4 

2.4 



.'i.li 
4 5 


4.5 
1.5 
3.12 



2. or 0.75 

4.15 

0.4 or 3.75 

10.5 

.6 

3.25 

1.7S 

10. 

24.64 I 32.72 



G.31 

14 4 

12. 
5.25 
5. 

15. 
6.71 
6.6 
0.15 

10. 
4.3 
6.5 




6.25 
27.7 
12.75 
12.75 
12. 
23. 
136. 

6 
blaqk 



6.25 
35.82 
12.75 
12.75 
12. 
23. 
168. 

4 

6 
red 



5.0 
31.6 
12.75 
12.75 
15.5 
25. 
158. 



drab 



5.0 


5. 


21.5 


27. 


17.25 


17.25 


n.5 


11.5 


11.5 


11.5 


25. 


25. 


155. 


190. 


6 


6 


9 


9 


black 


rod 



4. 

23.6 
17.25 
11.5 
14.75 
2f). 
170. 



drab 



12-ponndcr. 
■| cHsc. ter. 



1. 

3.25' 



1.25 1 

4.0 
11.4 

7.25 

4.37 

1. 
10.6 

82 



3.2 
2. 



4.27 
3.2 



3.(i 
1.3 
2.26 
0.4 



7.5 
.45 
3.26 
1.75 



1.0 
3.25 



4.45 

2.75 
.5 
4..52 
3.2 
4.47 
3.6 



0.4 



12.5 
, 10.8 
.1 14.4 
6.2 
4.45 
4.40 
.07 
12 
48 
8.75 
10.8 



4..57 
11.0 

s. 

3. 

3. 
13. 

5.25 

5.17 

0.15 
10. 

3.3 

4. 



10. 


10.5 


3.25 


4.0 


10.5 


13.65 


22.5 


22.5 


9.25 


9.26 


10.5 


11. 


27. 


27.5 


133. 


165. 


12 


12 


18 


18 


black 


red 



12.3 

3.25 
11.85 
22.5 

9.25 
12 5 
28.5 
148. 

12 

18 
drab 



13-pdr.. inciuntniu. 

Sliell iSpber.lCanig- 
"" ■ case. ter. 

I 0.5 ' 

2.25 

10.42 

5.0 

4.0 

7. I 1. 

10.5 

82 



2.7 
2. 



4.2 
2.8 



3.24 
1.3 

2.20 
0.55 



7.5 
.45 
3.25 
1.75 
5.5 
9..35 j 12.2 



4.67 
10. 

4.55 
none, 
none. 

6. 

4.5 

4.45 

0.15 

9. 

2.9 



3.75 
2.65 
.5 
4.52 
2.8 
4.47 
3.24 



9.5 
11.2 
14.4 
4. 

4.47 
4.42 
.07 
37 
148 
6.85 
11.2 



8.17 


8.17 


2.25 


2.25 


9.9 


12.0 


27.5 


27.5 


9.25 


9.25 


8.6 


8.5 


31. 


31.4 


154. 


184. 


1 i 


12 


V 


18 


black 


red 



9.4 
2.25 

11.8 

27.5 
9.25 
9.5 

32. 

175. 

12 

18 

dnib 



allowed for the scam in Iiciglit. 

and half" a yard of slow-match in oach box. 



t Powder required to fill flic 32-ponnder sliell is 
^ Four small and one large cartridges. 



2()S ORDNANCK MANUAL. 

\ 

AMMUNITION FOR SIFXt?] AND GARRISON SERVICE. 

Ammunition for sicKC and parrison service consists of carlrtdf^cn, of sizes v;iry- 
ing accoflitij; to circumstances, and the following projectiles, viz : 

S/iol for 10 iind 8-incli columl.iads (model 1861), -12, 32, '2i. IS and "S-pdr. fruns. 

Mhrl/x for 1(5 and S-inch cihiniVdads. 4'i, 32. '2\. IS and IJ-pdr. guns. l.'J, 10 and 
S-incli morinrs. h-inch siege and S and 10-inch sea-coast liowit/.ers. 

.V/''"'' "•"/-'■'""■ »*"' and cuntHter for 10 and 8-inch ccdumiiiads, 42, 32, 24, lb and 
12-pdr. guns. 8 and 10-inch sea-coast and 8-inch siege howitzers. 

The slielU and spherical-case shot (except for the 8-inch siege honitz.er) and the 
S-inch siege and 8ca-coast howitzer canisters are attached to the sabota; the other 
projectiles are not strapped. 

Cartridges. 

Tlie cliarge of pow<lcr for siege and garrison guns is cnclosod in a cartridge-bag 
made of merino, serge, cotton, or paper, or of j)aper with woollen liottoms. Dags 
made of wocdlen materials are i)referalik', as they are not so liable to leave fire in 
the guns, and are more durable ; but they arc much more costly. 

Merino or cotton bay are cut in two pieces in the form of a rectangle with semi- 
circular ends, and sewed together to form the bag, as described in making bags for 
field service. .See jiage 2i8 for the manner of making anti preserving them. 

Paper botjK. — The paper is cut into rectangles to form the cylindrical part of the 
bag — (be length of the rectangle being the development of the cylinder, allowing 
.5 inch <in each si<le for the lap — and into circles for the bottoms. The sides of the 
rectangle are lapped and sewed with woollen yarn ; one end of the bag is slit with 
longitudinal cuts, I inch long, U.75 inch apart, and these strips are pasted on the 
paper bottom over a cylindrical former: or a circular piece of merino is sewed in 
the end of the paper bag, forming the bottom. 

To close a juiper bag after being filled, the open end is foldeil d<<wn al>out .76 
inch wide, and this fold is rolled on itself down to the powder, and the part which 
projects beyimd the cylinder is turned in on the top of it. Two turns are taken 
with strong twine around the cartridge in the direction of its length, \iii° apart, 
and then tied. , 

For mortnri. cartridge-bags may be made in the same manner as for guns, their 
dimensions corresponding to those of the chamber of the mortar. But, as the 
charge is generally poured loose into the chamber, the bag being used only tor car- 
rying it to the mortar, a gun cartridge-bag of any convenient size may he used for 
mortar service. 

For firing hot ihot, cartridge-bags are made double, by putting one bag within 
another: care must be taken that the bags are free from holes. 

For ricochet jiring. or other occasions when very small charges are required, a 
cartridge-bag for a piece of an inferior calibre may be used. Or else, after the charge 
is poured into the bag, place on it another bag filled with Lay, pressing it with the 



CANISTERS. 



^M 



hands to reduce the diameter; after having shaken this bag down and rolled and 
flattened the empty part of the two bags, tie them with woollen j'arn, like a bundle 
of musket cartridges, placing the knot on top. 

For proving ordnance, cartridge- bags are made of cotton cloth. They should be 
of the full diameter of the bore or chamber. 

Sabots. 

Snbotii are required for the 8-inch canisters, for siege and sea-coast howitzers, and 
all shells and spherical-case shot, except for S-inch siege howitzers. For canisters 
and the smaller guns the sabots are turned in a lathe; for the larger calibres they 
are sawed from thick pine or poplar planks, and the cavity cut in a lathe, or the 
cavity is first cut by a tool of the proper curvature attached to the shaft of the 
Daniel's planer, and the sabot afterward sawed out with a circular saw. 

A dai/'s work. — One man can make 3.50 sabots for a 4'2 or 32-pdr. gun, or 10-ineh 
columbiad, in 10 hours; or 400 sabots for a 24 or 18-pdr. gun or 8-ineh columbiad. 

Cartridge-Blocks. 

Cartridge-blocks are required for the columbiads, model 1844, and the sea-coast 
howitzers, when firing with reduced chargei. They are made as prescribed for field 
service (see page 259) — their length being such as always to make the cartridge fill 
the chamber. The length of the block for any charge is easily deduced from the 
length occupied by 1 lb. of powder, as given in the table. (See page 274.) 

Strapping Shells. 

The straps are cut and made as prescribed for nhot for field service, changing their 
dimensions. Two rings or loops of tin, 0.38 inch diameter, are attached securely to 
the slit strap of the howitzer and columbiad shells, for the purpose of attaching a 
handle made of cord 0.1.') to 0.2.'i inch thick. A slit is made in the strap, through 
which the ends of the tin loop are passed and soldered on the under side of the strap. 
For the handle, pass a piece of marline through both loops and tie the two ends 
together, leaving such length that the hand can embrace both branches. 

The shells are placed in the sabot, and the straps put on in such a manner that the 
fuze-hole may fall in one of the angles, between two straps, and that the axis of the 
fuze-hole may stand at an angle of about 45° with that of the sabot. The eyes of 
the shell should not be covered by the straps. The straps are fastened at each end 
with 2 nniln in the side and 2 in the bottom of the sabot. 

In loading the piece, care must be taken to place the fuze-hole in the upper part 
of the bore. 

Canisters. 

They are made and filled like canisters for field service, except their dimensions, 
and, instead of being attached to a sabot, the lower end of the cylinder is slit with 



270 ORPNAXCK MANUAL. 

longitudinal cuts .■'i inch long and from .2^1 to .38 inch apart, aorordin;j: to tho 
calibre: (he nfrips thus formed are turned down over a cast-in.n boitum plate li..'> 
inch thifk. 

The cover Tir these eanintern is of aheet-iron. .1 inch thick : it has a hiiiidle n.7.'i 
inches lonfr hy 1.7.'i inch wide, made of iron wire No. 9. fastened to the cover by a 
Ktrap of sheet-iron. 2 inches long, 1.7') inch wide, secured hy V! rivets O.!.') inch thick. 

C'lni'trrH for H-inrli mrf/i; ii)id Heaconut howitzem are attachol to sabots, the furmer 
with 11 li: mi-}dierical bottom to fit the bottom of the bore. 

Grape. 

A nt.inri ../grape consists of 9 shot, put together by uieans of "2 eait-i >ni lUitm, 
•2 rinij» and 1 holt and nut. (See Plate 31.) 

The sfjuare of the nut is 2 diameters of the bolt; it' thickness, 1 diameter. The 
head of the bolt is countersink flush with the bottom of the lower plate, which has 
a tint to prevent the bolt from turning when the nut is screwed on. Each plate has 
.on the inside 3 beds for the shot, of a depth c<iual to half the thickness of the plate; 
they are made in the form of a spherical segment, the curvature of which is the same 
as that of the shot; their centres are ou equidistant radii, midway between the edge 
of the bolt-hole and that of the plate. In the ui.j.er jdate are 2 holes n.2r) inch 
diameter, placed opposite to each other at 0..') inch from the edge of the plate, to 
receive a rope haudle. 

For llie 8-i/ic/i »ea-coasl howitzer the stand of grape mu.<t be attached to a conical 
gabot. The sabot is 4.2.') inches long, 7.S.'3 inches diameter at the large ond, and 6.4 
inches at the small eud. The sabot may be fastened to the lower pUtc with .•screws, 
or the boll may be uiade long enough to pass through it, or else ihe sabot may be 
iutfei ted iuto the piece separately from the stand of grape. 

Filling Shells. 

WonKMEN. — 1 nion to fill ; 1 helper. 

MateiuALS. — Powder; cylinders of rork-fire ; londed fitzet; fnte-pl'irj* ; tow. 

Imi'LEMKSTS. — 1 pnir of nhell -hooks ; 1 handspike; 2 hnnd-hamniers ; 2 tempera 
(pieces of sword blade); 2 tuw hooks ; 2 pairs of pincers; rags ; 1 cAi'«e/and 1 m'lUet, 
to clean the shells and break up any hard substance that may be found in the inte- 
rior : 2 searchers, for sounding cavities ; shell-tjauges ; 1 grate, to dry the Bhella on ; 
\ fiite-saw ; 1 gimlet ; a ring of rope, or a hollow block ; \ funnel ; powder measnre* ; 
1 fut, or vessel for powder: 2 baskets, for the composition and fuzes ; 1 rasp ; 1 fuze- 
setter ; \ mallet ; \ fuze-reamer. 

The shells are cleaned inside and out, gauged and examined that they have 

no defects that would cause their rejection; that the fuze-hole is not defaced; 

if there be water in the cavity, the shell is dried by a gentle heat and cooled slowly. 

To FitL SHELLS FOR GUNS OR HOWiTZEKS. — The helper places the shell on tbe 

block or ring of rope, the fuze-hole uppermoet, inserts the fuze-plug and drives it in 



WADS. 271 

till the top is flush with the surface <if the .shell : (he firincipal reams out the hole lo 
its proper size, the helper holding the shell to prevent it from turning. The helper 
inserts the pipe of the funnel in the fuze-plug, and the principal pours in the 
powder and closes the hole with a wad of dry tow rammed in securely, leaving a 
portion of it projecting out. 

When cylinders of rock-fire or other combustibles arc used, they arc inserted before 
the fuze plug is driven. 

To Kitr, MOiiTAR SHRi.i.s. — Shells arc generally- filled and the fu7,cs driven in the 
battery magazines, as they are required. 

The helper places the shell on a ring of rope ami inserts the pipe of the funnel in 
the fuzc-hoIe; the principal pours in the bursting charge, introduces the cylinders 
of rock-fire, and pushes them aside with a small stick, that they may not be in the 
way of the fuze when driven in. He then inserts the fuze, which should enter to 
within half an inch of the top, and with a mallet and fuze-setter drives it so that the 
end of the fuze shall project not more than 0.2 incli. 

To OUT THE FUZK. — The fuze is cut to the proper length, according to the range, 
before it is driven into the shell, by resting it in a groove made in a block to receive 
it and hold it steady, the saw running in a cut made for it; or the fuze may be bored 
through to the composition witli a gimlet, at the i>roper length. 

To fire 6 or Vl-pdr. Shells fr on} Mortars of largf calibre. 

This kind of fire is intended only for short distances, as in the defence of <a breach, 
and supersedes tho use of the stone-mortar. 

Take a strong tub or half barrel, provided with two strong rope handles, and add 
a. second bottom on the outside, bringing it flush with the ends of the staves to 
which it is nailed. 

To this bottom nail another, made of a single piece of wide 'i-iuch plank, of 
suflicient length to support the ends of the staves. A block of light, dry wood, of 
the diameter and length of the bore, is attached to the bottom of the barrel or tub 
by nails, and the lower end of the block which goes next to the charge is covered 
with sheet-iron. 

Tho fuzes of the shells are cut, driven, uncapped, and the shells placed in the 
barrel, the fuzes turned down. When the boU<im tier is finished, a second one is 
laid; and so on to" the last, which is covered over with hay which is rammed in to 
keep the projectiles in place. 

Tho charge of powder is put in the mortar, the proper elevation and direction arc 
given, and the barrel or tub, loaded, is raised by the handles, the block wiped clean 
and introduced into the bore and set home. 

Wads. 

Wads are used in firing hot shot, and to prevent the ball fmm rolling out in 
firing at a depression. 

Matkriai.S. — Jrmk or hny. marline. 



272 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Imtlemexts. — 1 wad-mould, with two holes for each calibre, innile of c&st-irun 
cylinders set in oak, or of two strong piece? of oak strjippcd wilii iron and joined by 
a binge ; 1 dri/l for ditto ; 1 maul. 

To MAKB WAns. — The bay or junk, after buviiig been picked, i* coinpresiJcd by 
being beaten in the umaller mould until it nssumes the rel)ui^ite dimenNioDH ; it ir 
then taken out, by raising the upper part of the mould, and wrapped clonely with 
ropc-jarn pacwed over it in the direction of the axis <>f the cylinder and factcucd by 
a few turns round the middle of the wad ; after which it is placed in the large 
mould and again beaten with the maul an<l drift: the diameter of the wad when 
finished is verified with a wooden gauge corre.-poncling to the large gauge of 
the i<hot. 

lu firing hot shut, a «lry wad is put next to the powder, and then a wad wbieh 
has been tioaked in water for a quarter of an hour and has been permitted t<> drip 
for several minutes, is placed between the dry wad and the ball : or the wet wad 
may be replaced by one of clay. It should be made one calibre in length, of olajr 
free from snnd or gravel, slightly moistened and kneaded. 

Riug-inidn or grommrit are to 1,10 preferred where the object of a wad in merely to 
retain the ball in its place. They consist of a ring of rope-yarn, about 0.7 inch 
thick, with two pieces of strong twine tied ai-ro»s it at right angles with each 
other. The size of the ring is the full diameter of the bore, in onler that it may fli 
tight. These wa4s may be attached with twine to the utraps, or to the ball*; or 
they may be inserled. like other wads, after the bull. These wads may be made of 
straw formed into rings of the proper site, and wrapped with twine and tied to 
the ball. 

Sabots of Shavings. 

In positions where the pieces of sabots might prove dangerous to our own troopa, 
as in firing over their beads when making an attack, sabots made of thi< k shavings 
of soft wood or pasteboard are used. For this purpose select black walnut, pine, 
or fir, not too dry. and as free as possible from knots. 

Pieces of the proper length and width are dressed out, and by means of a coarK 
plane shavings are cut .06 inch in thickness. Each shaving is rtdled in a circle on 
a cylinder of iron in which a longitudinal groove is cut. One end is thinned down, 
moistened, and inserted in the groove, and the shaving is rolled on the cylin<ler, the 
smooth side turned outward: one man turns the cylinder by a crank making three 
revolutions, the other holds the shaving so as t<» roll it evenly on itself, pulling it 
tight. 

The different turns are then tacked together, the tacks being riveted on the inside 
against the iron cylinder: the end is thinned down with a rasp, and the sabot taken 
from the cylinder is immersed in a warm bath of thin glue. Pasteboard rn«y be 
used instead of shavings of wood. The sabot is attached to the shell by means of 
four pieces of tape 1 inch wide. Each piece is folded around the sabot, and the 
ends sewed together: the seam is turned on the inside of the sabot and is made Cm( 



FUZE-PLUGS. 



ff% 



to it by tacks, the four pieces of tape beinfr ;ii;.iclied to the sabot at the extremities 
of two diameters perpendicular to each other. The sabot is laid down on the table 
and the shell placed in it, the fu7,e-hole down ; the ends of the tape arc then drawn 
together and tied on top of the shell with a piece of strong twine. 

Fuze-Plugs. 

Fuze-plugs are made of brass, or of close grained wood, well seasoned. They 
are turned to a size a little larger than the fuze-hole, but of the same taper, 2.5 
inches long; a hole is bored through its axis and reamed out to receive the paper 
fuze, and the large end is couuterbored to receive the wat«r-cap. The plug is 
reamed out after it is driven, and the recess for the water-cap is tapped with 12 
threads to the inch. 

If wooden plugs be used, a short hollow c_vlinder of brass, .5 inch long, .15 inch 
thi'^k, is inserted in the recess before the plug is driven, and afterward tapped to 
receive the water-cap. 

The water-cap is a brass plug, .5 inch long, .6 inch in diameter, chased with 12 
threads to the inch: one end has a shallow recess cut in it, .1 inch deep, larger at 
bottom than at top: a hole, .1 inch in diameter, is bored through the middle of the 
cap, and a hole is bored from either end into this transverse hole, but meeting it at 
points .26 inch or more apart: those and the recess at the end arc filled with mealed 
powder paste. 

Dimensions. — Diameter of hole at bottom of recess, .53 in.: at small end, .4 in. 
18 



274 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Ammunition for Siege, Garrison, 



COLUMBUDB. 



10-in. 
1844. 



8-in. 
1844. 



10-in. 
18«1. 



OataOl OP POWDER, ORDINAIIT SERVICE.. ■! Jljlj'^l,t )„ 

liongth of 1 III. in cnrtridgc in 

DitttiK'ter of rartriiigo in 

f KwtanKle with circular ( lonKth in 

Cartudor- j cud* (width in 

BAQii (mf'rinoi I Dlampt(>r of ryllndriral former in 

[ .Maturial (1.26'yd. widv) for lUU biigii..ydii 

' „_,„i., j whole in 

Height., j ^f rylitider in 

' greatoat in 



Sabot. < 



Oaniutbrs. 



Finished caniitcr.. 



Diamotor..'j Bt bottom in 

^of cylinder in 

.., ... I II I depth in 

Ov.ty for I..II j ^j^^ .„ 

Diameter of cylinder to roll un in 

8rBA..., . lor oach.) lc;{l^::;:;:;:::;::::::;;;;:;;;•::::::;:::::ls 

ilx-ngth, including cap in 
Heiglit in 
Interior diaaiet«r in 
pUlLNI 

i tier* of dhot , 

Number of< (hot in a tier 

( whole Bitot 

\ height in 

') wei);ht lbs 

Charge of |>owder for firing 

to fill shell lbs 

to buret shell lbs 

to blow out fuze-plug* lbs 

ordinary charge lbs 

Rock-fire, No. of cylinder! in 

*^'"®'" I thickness _ in 

„. ( interior diameter in 

"^^^ ••■"( diameter of iron in 

„ „ (length in 

"^ ••• \ diameter ~ in 

Height of. from outside of plates in 

Weight of plates Jbs 

bolt, nut and rings lbs 

"' stand complete lbs 

Diameter and height in 

Rht lbs 

for 100 Jbs 

Diameter, large bole. in 

" small hole in 

Thickness of upper block in 

lower block in 

Width of block in 

Cylindrical drift. If '^!.'*' i" 

■^ (length jn 



PiLUNO SnEU.8.' 



Stand of grape 



Powder 



( Diamet 

J Weight 

(junk. 1 



Wai>8. 



]|Oi;i.DS FOB WADS.. 



U. 

6.82 
M 

7.6 
20. 
12.7 

7.5 

30 

2. 



8.41 
7.75 



1. 

4.03 
9.3 
29. 
1. 



3.25 
1.38 
.62 
3. 
6. 



9.7 
16.5 
165. 

9.75 

9.4 
10. 

5. 
17. 

8.5 
24. 



8. 

7.84 

.08 

B.O 

Irt. 

10.36 

«.0 

23 

2. 



6.70 
0.16 



1. 

3.03 
7.3 
23.6 
.76 



1.76 
1. 
.6 

1.8 

6. 

7.86 
.« 

6.56 
.6 
14.7 
.6 

9.85 
13.6 

4.75 
75.5 

7.8 

8.5 
850. 

7.8 

7.6 

8. 

4. 
15. 

7.3 
24. 



16. 

6.90 
.42 

0. 
10. 
16.7 

0. 

47 

2. 

S. 

0.76 

1. 

4.03 
9Ji 
29. 
1. 



8.26 
1.38 
.62 
3. 
0. 



0.76 
16.6 
165.0 

0.76 

9.4 
10. 

5. 
17. 

8.5 
24. 



*Wheu a wooden fuze-plug is need. 



AMMUNITION. 



275 



and Sea-coast Service. 







r.uNS. 




1 1 HOWITZERS. 




42-pdr. 


32-pdr. 


24-pdr. 


18-pdr. 


12-pdr. Siege, 8-in. 


Sea-coast. 
















10-in. 


8-in. 


9. 


8. 


7. 


6. 


4. 


4. 


12. 


8. 


882 


9.28 


10.15 


8.75 


8.0 


6. 


9.»6 


7.84 


.98 


1.16 


1.45 


1.75 


2.0 


2. 


0.83 


0.98 


6. 


6.5 


5. 


4.6 


4.3 


4.2 


6.6 


6.0 


16.5 


18. 


16.5 


15.25 


14. 


14. 


18. 


15. 


10.35 


9.55 


8.76 


8.15 


7.6 


7.6 


11.16 


10.35 


e. 


6.5 


6. 


4.6 


4.3 


4.2 


6.5 


6.0 


24 


25 


19 


17 


14 


14 


31 


20 


2. 


1.5 


1.5 


1.6 


1.6 





4.68J 


2. 


2. 


5.01 


2. 


1.5 


1.5 


1.6 


1.5 




.75 

7.H5 






.75 
7.85 




7.75 


6.79 


fl.58 


6.0 


5.43 


4.92 


4.35 


J 


fheiuis- 
( pliere. 


1 6.75 


6.15 


64 






1. 

3.42 

6.4 


0.75 
3.12 
6.8 


0.75 
2.84 
5.2 


0.75 
2.58 
4.7 


1. 

2.26 

4. 




7.8 






7 8 




1. 

4.93 

9.3 




1 




3 13 


7.3 


7.3 


21. 
.65 

21.5 
9.6 
6.78 
6.73 
4 
7 

27 
8.7 

48. 

1.5 


19. 
.6 

20. 
9. 

6.19 
6.14 

4 

7 
27 

8.1 
37. 

1.31 


17.5 
.55 
18.3 

8.25 

6.63 

5.58 

4 

7 

27 

7.35 
29. 

1.0 


16. 
.5 

16.7 
7.7 
6.12 
6.07 

i 
27 
6.8 
23. 

.69 


14. 
.45 

14.4 
6.75 
4.47 
4.42 

27 

6. 

15. 

.6 




29. 
1. 


23 5 




75 


25.1 

8.6 

7.8 

7.75 

4 
12 
48 

12.03 
63.5 

2.56t 


25.1 




8.6 




7.8 








4 




12 




48 




12.35 




64 5 


5.t 


2.56t 


.76 


.69 


.5 


.44 


.31 


1. 


2. 


1. 


.38 


.12 


.12 


.09 


.06 


• .26 


.31 


.25 


1.25 


1. 


.75 


.02 


.44 


1.75 


3. 


1.75 


6. 










g 


6. 


6. 
7.85 


6.83 
.6 

5.73 

.5 

9.25 

.5 

8.75 

10.2 

2.8 

51.25 

6.8 


6.24 
.5 

5.16 
.6 

8.7 
.6 

8.2 

8. 

2.5 
.%.75 

6.2 


5.68 
.5 

4.75 
.38 

7.88 
.38 

7.5 

6.76 

1.81 
30.61 

5.65 


5.17 
.4 

4.26 
.38 

7.18 
.38 

6.8 

4.56 

1.12 
22.15 

5.12 


4.52 

.4 
3.8 

.32 
6.12 

.32 
5.8 
3.44 

.69 
14.84 
4.48 








.6 






6.55 






6 






14.7 












9.85 






13.6 






4.75 


FOR 6-POUNDER. 

3.5 




75 5 




7.8 


5.62 
562. 
6.8 


4.38 
438. 
6.2 


3. 
300. 
5.65 


2.38 
238. 
5.12 


1.5 
150. 
4.48 


.82 
82. 
3.65 




8.5 




850. 


9.75 


7.S 


6.5 


6.9 


63 


4.8 


4.1 


3.2 


9.4 


7.5 


7. 


6.4 


5.8 


5.3 


4.6 


3.7 


10. 


8. 


4. 


4. 


4. 


4. 


4. 


4. 


5. 


4. 


13. 


12. 


11.5 


11. 


10. 


9. 


17. 


15. 


6.2 


5.6 


6. 


4.5 


3.8 


2.9 


85 


7.3 


24. 


24. 


24. 


24. 


24. 


24. 


24. 


24. 



+ Mortar shells: 13-inch shell holds 11 Ib.i. piwdor; service charge, 7 lbs.; to burst shell. 6 lbs. 
J For canisters. 



276 ORDNANCE MANTTAL. 

MATC'IIES, FUZES, AND PRIMERS. 

Slow-Match. 

Slow-matrli IK prpfiarcii rope, which is used to keep nn<l cnrry fire : it burns 
■lowlj, with a firm, hard coal, and is not easily extin);uii<hed. 

Matkriai.h. — Urmp or /fax rupf of .3 Strands, slightly twisted, about 25 yards 
long, and of a uniform diameter of .6 inch ; aretnte nf Und (sugar of lead) ; iraier. 

Utknkii.S. — 1 kcttir ; 1 tub; 2 woodtH upatulat ; lerert ; twiiliHg-irinrh ; mate, or 
hnir clolh. 

Mrtboii with acrtate or LRAD. — Boil the rope for 10 minutes in water holding 
in solution l-20th of its weight of acetate of lend: remove it with spatulas into the 
tub, or let it remain in the cold solution until it is thoroughly saturated. First 
twist it over the kettle, and then, by attaching one end to the hook of a twisting- 
winch, twist it hard, keeping it stretched by means of a stick passed through a loop 
at the other end, at the same time rubbing it smartly, always in the same direction, 
from the honk, with co«rse mats, hair cloth, or cnttings of buff-leather, until th« 
diameter of the match is reduced 0.1 inch and it \\a» a uniform twiKt ami hardness. 
Stretch it on jioles or on a fence to dry. and put it up in neat coils, well secured. 

Match thus prepared burns 4 inches in an hoi^r. 

Mktiioi> dv lkaciiikc. — If sugar of lead cannot be procured, the rope may be 
simply leached. For this purpose, it is put into u leach tub and steeped in pure 
water for 1'2 hours : this water is then drawn off and rejdaced by lye prepared in a 
boiler, with a ((uuntity of ashes equal to half the weight uf the rope, to which 5 
per cent, of quicklime is added. This lye. with the ashes, is put. after being 
warmed, into the hopper of the tub. and when it has run through and remained 
some time in the tub it is drawn off, heated again, and poured back en the ashes. 
This operation is repeated several times in the course of 24 hours, which is the time 
required for the rope to be well leached. After being taken out and twisted with 
sticks, it is steeped for 5 minutes in hot water, beihg stirred at the same time, and 
the operation is finijihed as b»fore. Match prepared in this manner burns 5 inches 
in an hour. 

Cotton rope, well twisted, forms a good match without any preparation. 

A slow-match may be made of strong paper by immersing it in a warm solution 
of nitre, of about 1 pound to 2 gallons of water. When dry, roll each sheet sepa- 
rately, pressing it firmly, and pasting the last turn. 

A half sheet thus prepared will keep fire for threr hourt. 

Slow-match weighs from 3 to 5 ounces to the yard. 

Packing. — Slow-match is packed in tight casks or boxes. A cask iO inches 
high, 24 inches diameter (weighing 60 pounds), contains 150 pounds of match. 
The casks and boxes should be marked with the kind and quantity of match, place 
and date of fabrication. 

Dimensions of a box to hold 200 pounds hemp or 220 pounds cotton match — 14 



QUICK-MATCH. 277 

inches long, 2S inches wide, 18 inches deep; weight, 87 pounds. It is made of 
bo<ard3 1 inch thick, ends li inch, and has corner-pieces of hard wood, 2.25 inches 
square. 

Quick- Match. 

Quick-match is cotton yarn, of several strands, saturated and covered over with 
an intlammable composition ; it is used for communicating fire from point to point 
in fireworks, etc. 

Matkkials. — Mealed powder ; cotton yarn, wound in loose balls of convenient 
size (say 1 pound, which will measure about 1,000 yards), such as is used for 
candlewick; when doubled and slightly twisted in the fingers, it should be about 
.07 inch in diameter. Gummed brandy or tchiskey, in the proportion of 1 ounce of 
gum to i gallon of spirits: the gum is first dissolved in the smallest quantity of hot 
water or vinegar, and afterward mixed with the whiskey. Strips of paper ; thread. 

1,000 yards of quick-match require 1 pound of cotton yarn, 8 pounds of mealed 
powder, IJ gallon of spirits, and 2i ounces of gum arable. Weight, when dried, 9 
pounds. 

Utensils. — Wooden or copper honh ; 1 quart measure ; funnel or frame ; reel. 

Preparation. — Steep the balls of yarn in the gummed whiskey until they are 
thoroughly saturated. 

Make a paste of mealed powder, by mixing 1 quart of gummed whiskey to 2 
pounds of powder, and put a layer of it about i inch deep in the bowl ; on this 
spread a coil of the cotton by unrolling the ball and distributing it equally on the 
surface of the paste until there are 5 or 6 yams over one another ; put another 
layer of the paste ; and proceed in this manner until the bowl is full, taking care 
not to entangle the strands : the last layer of paste should be a little deeper than 
the others. After the cotton has been 3 or 4 hours in the bowl, wind it on a reel, 
or stretch it on nails 40 or .50 feet apart, making it pass through a funnel, or the 
hand, filled with the paste, and taking care that the several turns of yarn do not 
touch each other. Before it is dry, dredge it with mealed powder ; lot it dry slow- 
ly, then cut it off from the reel or nails and put it in bundles. 

During the winter, quick-match shoulil be made in a warm room. 

Match thus prepared should be hard and stiff, and the composition should hold 
firmly on. 1 yard burns, in the open air, 13 seconds. 

By using vinet/ar, a match is made which burns less rapidly, in the proportion of 
4 to .5; and with pure water, in the ratio of 4 to fi. Alcohol makes a quicker 
match ; but it cannot be gummed, and the composition does not stick. 

A slow kind of match is made by adding, sulphur to the mealed powder; with 
one-sixth of sulphur, 1 yard of match burns 22 seconds ; with one-fifth, 33 seconds ; 
with one-third, r)3 seconds; with one-half, 162 seconds. 

Quick-match enclosed in tubes burns more rapidly than in the open air, and 
more so in proportion as the tubes are smaller. To communicate fire very rapidly, 
it is enclosed in paper tubes called leaden. 



278 onnNANCE manual. 

Port-Fires. 

The port-flre ponsistn of a cylindrioal pajiA" case filled with a composition that 
burns kIkwIv. It i* used for firing rocket?, etc., and, in ca^es of necessity, for 
discharging cannon. 

TO MAKE Tllfc CASES. 

MatkiiiAI-S. — So. 4 pnprr ; pn»te. 

lU-quircd for 100 cases — .^O sheets. 13 pounds of jinper. 

Utknrii.s. — Formrm, steel, turned smooth, 22 inches long, 0..*) inch diameter; a 
hole 0.2 inch diameter is made through one end, to withdraw it from the case; 
knnd roUint/ bonrd ; rulrm ; kniret. 

To MAKK THK rA8F. — Cul the paper into rectangles 1*? inches long, an<l from 
10 to 11 inches wide, according to the thickness of the paper, to make the exterior 
diameter of the finishe<l case O.t').') inch. Roll the rectangle on the former, pasting 
it after the first turn; i>ress the case firmly by rolling it on a table with a hand 
rolling board ; withdraw the former, and place the cases in a box to dry. 

TO nniVE POUT PIHP.S. 

MATEniAi.s. — Cn»eii ; componitioii for 100 r<i»r» (13 pounds uitrc, •1..') poundi 
sulphur, and 2..'J pounds mealed jiowder) ; »crap paptr. 

Utensils. — Purt-Jire muuldn, nia<lc of brass, in two parts, which arc held together 
by a socket at bottom and by 4 strong bunds. The moulds arc 1^ inchet long, I 
inch exterior diameter at top, U inch at bottom, with a bore of O.tV'j inch diamct«r. 
3 drift; steel, .4 inch diameter. 22, 1.5, and 10 inches long, with braw tips, ..') inch 
long, upon the lower end: 4 ipiral groorrt. making one-half of a turn in 22 inehei, 
are cut upon the surface of the drifts ; the handles of the drifts are 6 inchea long, 
and .75 inch diameter, with a head 1.25 inch diameU-r. MalUit, turned, of hard 
wood, weighing 1 pound; JuntirU; ladle». 

DniviKG. — Put the case in the mould, and drive on the rings ; insert a piece of 
paper, and push it to the bottom of the case with the long drifl ; insert a small 
funnel in the top of the case ; pa»8 the long drift through the funnel to the bottom 
of the mould: fill the funnel with composition, and strike the drift about three 
blows every second, raising the drift about half an inch, with the fingers of the 
left hand, between the blows. In this way the composition finds iU way aronnd 
the sides and through the grooves of the drift to the bottom, and is uniformly and 
compactly driven. The shorter drifts are used as the ca«e is filled. 

Port-fires should not be primed with mealed powder: after they are driven, the top 
of the case should be turned in and beaten down : thus both ends of the composition 
are secured. 

Port-fires made as above described burn 10 minutes each, or IJ inch per minute. 

A dny$ tcork.—A man can drive 120 port-fires in ten hours. 

Packiso. — Port-fires arc packed in boxes containing 100 or 200 port-fires. The 



FUZES FOR MORTAR SHELLS. 279 

contents of the box should be marked in white letters on each end, and the place and 
date of fabrication on the inside of the cover. 

Fuzes for Mortar Shells. 

The hard, close grained woods are best adapted for making fuzes: beech or ash 
is generally used. It should be dry, sound, free from sap, knots, worm-holes, or 
shakes. 

To TURN TiTE FUZE.— The helper saws the plank into lengths equal to that of the 
fuze, and then into prisms, taking off the edges, and centring it on each end. The 
turner puts the fuze thus roughed out in the lathe, turns its exterior, and graduates 
it, by means of a steel gauge, into inches and tenths of an inch, commencing at the 
bottom of the cup. When a number have been turned, the turner puts each fuze 
into a chuck, bores it, and makes the cup, with a tool for that purpose. 

The fuzes should be carefully inspected, and verified with gauges, and tho.oe 
rejected which have splits, knots, or worm-holes, or which have not the proper 
dimensions. 

A day's work. — One turner can turn 500 fuzes, or turn and bore S-'jO, in ten hours. 

TO DRIVE FUZES. 

Materials. — empti/ fuzes ,- fuze composition, dry; mealed powder, dry; pastel- 
paper. • 

VTEtiSiLfi.—Driviiifjf-hlocIcs with holes of the size of the fuze; benches: mallets— 
for the 13-inch, 10-inch, and 8-inch fuzes weighing 1 lb., for smaller fuzes, weighing 
i to j lb. ; steel drifts shod with copper, the shortest with a mark 0.2 inch from the 
end; copper ladles to contain suiBcient composition to make a height, when driven, 
equal to 1 diameter of the bore; copper pant ; brushes. 

Preparation of the composition.— The composition for 8 and 10-inch light 
mortar fuzes is 2 parts of nitre, 1 of sulphur, and 3 of mealed powder; for 10 and 
13-inch heavy mortars, 2 of nitre, 1 of sulphur, and 2^ of mealed powder. The 
composition must be thoroughly ground and mixed with a muUer, or in a leathern 
barrel with brass balls. The time of burning will vary according to the quality of 
the materials used (especially of the mealed powder) and the degree of their 
admixture. Trials should be made with each composition by driving several fuzes 
and getting their time of burning. There should not be any great variation in the 
times of burning of the different fuzes, of the same composition. Fuze composition 
should be prepared only a short time before being used, and should be preserved in 
close vessels in a dry place. 

Driving.— The workman is seated, his driving-block in front of him, .and a bench 
to hold a pan of composition at his right hand. He takes a fuze, cleans it of all 
foreign matter, inserting the drift to the bottom of the bore: he then drops the fuze 
into the driving-hole, takes a ladleful of composition, passing tlie drift along the 
edguK of the ladle to strike off the surplus ; pours the composition into the fuze, 



280 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Rtrikes it two gentle blow? with the mallet, inserts the drift, prepsinR it down on the 
corapogition, piving the fuz.c tw(i sliglit blows to settle the compojition. The work- 
man strikes the drift 2\ blows in volleys of 3, raising the mallet about 1 foot each 
blow, and moving the drift after each volley. He puts in another ladleful and con- 
tinues as for the first. Care should be taken to put in equal charges of composition 
each time, and to giro to each la<lleful the same number of blows, and with the samu 
force. 

Fuf.en may be driven by pressure in a screw press. 

Pkiminu. — Fur.es are all driven to the same height by means of a mark on the 
short drift, or the composition is bored out with a gouge to the same dejith. They 
are j)rimed with meiiled p<iwder for about O.'i inch driven with the same force as a 
ladleful of composition. The cup is filled with a jiastc of mealed p.iwder and spirits 
of wine or strong whiskey, and laid aside to dry: it is then covered with a email 
piece of paper, over which is pasted a cap of strong water-proof paper, marked with 
the number of seconds the fuco burns to the inch. 



Fuzes for Jleavy Guns. 

The fuze consists of a paper ente charged with fuxe composition ; it is inserted, at 
the time of loading the gun, into a brass or wooden plug previously driven into the 
fuze-hole of the shell. 

TO MAKK THE CASES. 

Materials. — Lng paper, or thin drawing paper: itinglaai. 

Utensils. — pnttmi of wood, in the form of a rectangle joined to a trapesoid ; iron 
former 0.3.') inch diameter ; kui/e, ylue put, brutliet. 

Making the case. — The paper is ?ut to the proper size by means of the pattern. 
The wh(de length of the strip must be determined by trial, for each kind of paper, to 
give the case the proper diameter. The strip is rolled hard on the former, beginning 
with the large end, and is glued after the first turn. 

When the case is dry. it is smoothed with a fine file or sand-paper. 

Preparation or the composition. — There are three different compositions used, 
one inch burning 10 seconds, 14 seconds aud 20 seconds, respectively. 

The following are about the proportions required to make these compositions; but 
as their time of burning is subject to considerable variation, according to the quality 
ot the ingredients aud the manipulation in mixing them, the exact proportions must 
bo determined by experiment : 

Xo. 1. — 26 nitre. 9 sulphur, 14 mealed powder. 
No. 2.— 26 " 9 ♦• 12 " 

No. 3.-26 " 9 " 10 

The composition is carefully mixed, as deiiribed on page 27y, and several fuies 
are fir.*t driven aud their times of burning determined, and the proportions varied, 
if necessary, to produce the required result. 



FUZES FOR FIELD GUNS AND MOUNTAIN HOWITZERS. 281 

TO DRIVE THE FUZE. 

Materials. — Empti/ cases; fuze camjiosition. 

2 lbs. of composition are required for 100 fuzes. 

Utensils.— 'i?rass moulds in two parts, which are held together by a wedge or 
cam : the moulds have holes for 4 or 5 fuzes ; steel drifts, 0.35 inch diameter : knt'/e; 
mallet, weighing J lb. 

Driving. — The mould is put together and secured ; the empty cases arc inserted 
and driven gently in; their upper ends projecting above the mould are slit with a 
knife into 4 parts. The composition is put in and driven as described on page 279, 
giving 15 blows to each ladleful, which will make 0.25 inch in length of the fuze. 

Cutting. — The fuze is inserted in an iron gauge, the bore of which is of the same 
size and taper as the fuze, and its width is the true length of the fuze, 2 inches. 
The projecting ends of the fuze are first sawed off with a fine saw and then trimmed 
with a knife. 

The fuze is stained the proper color according to the composition used — fuzes of 
No. I composition being yellow ; No. 2, green ; and No. 3, blue— and the number of 
seconds that each inch will burn is marked on each fuze. 

Packing. — Fuzes are put up in bundles of 10 each ; fuzes of the same color being 
put in the same bundle, which is labelled with the kind of fuze and its rate of 
burning. 

Fuzes for Field Guns and Mountain Howitzers. 

The fuze for shells and spherical-case shot for field and mountain service is that 
known as the "Bormaun fuze." It consists of a circular disk of soft metal con- 
taining an annular space charged with mealed powder. The outer circumference of 
the disk is chased with the threads of a screw to secure it in the shell. The annular 
space for the composition is concentric with the outer circumference, and connects 
at one end by a hole with a small magazine in the centre of the disk, filled with 
rifle powder and closed on the under surface by a thin disk of tin. The fuze is 
charged from the under side, by pressure, and a ring of the same metal is pressed 
firmly on the composition. 

The composition is thus securely protected from accidents, and the fuze is 
screwed into the shell in the laboratory ; the metal covering the composition on 
top, being left thin, is easily cut with a knife or cutter, at the moment of loading, 
and the composition exposed at the required point to the action of the flame. The 
graduations into seconds and quarter seconds are marked on the upper surface of 
the disk. The time of burning of the whole length of fuze is 5 seconds. 

TO CAST THE FUZE. 

Materials. — Tin and lead in equal parts; roain; tallow. 

Utensils. — Moulds for the fuze, moulds for the ring, hac/csair, nijypers, mallet, 
kettle, ladle. 

Casting.— Melt the lead and tin together: heat the moulds so as not to chill the 



282 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

metal in casting. Fill the mould with the melted metal, and tap it gently with the 
mallet to make the metal fill the small parts. Cut off the gate with the saw, and the 
ends of the ring with the nippers. 

It ha-8 been found convenient in opening and closing the moulds to attach the two 
parts of the mould for the fuze and also for the ring to the jaws of a bench-vice, so 
that both moulds arc opened and closed by the same movement of the screw. Tho 
fuze-mould is kept hot by means of iron disks which are heated and hung on tho 
arbor which supports the moulds. 

A mould of more approved pattern has been devised, by which the casting is 
expedited. 

TO CHARGE THE rUZE. 

Matp.riai.S. — }ffnhd powder ; muskfl powder ; rifle powder ; dink* of tin. 

Vtknsii.s. — A strong tcrew presi, annular charger the size of the ring, annular 
drift, fidl drift, round drift. 

Take the mould in which the fuze was cast: place tho fuze in the parts of the 
mould containing the screw and tho upper or graduated side, and secure the mould 
by a ring driven on it. 

Draw up the piston, and fill the charger by pressing it into the mealed powder 
contained in a shallow pan. Place the charger over the groove, and force down tho 
piston, transferring the powder into the fuze. Insert the buttun in the magazine 
and the pin in the priming-hole, to preserve their shapes: place the ring on tho 
powder, and with the annular drift force it down by means of a strong si-rew [tress, 
bringing the ring flush with the surface of the fuze; rivet the ring in it« place with 
another drift. Withdraw the button and pin: charge the priming-hole with rifle 
powder and till the magazine with musket power: cover the magazine with a disk 
of tin, and rivet it in place by means of first a flat drift and then a round one, which 
turn down a part of the metal of the fuze over the disk. 

Remove the fuze from the mould, place it in a screw-chuck made to fit it, and 
turn off in a lathe the lower surface smooth and to the proper thickness. 

The powder of the fuze is now perfectly sealed up from tho air. The fuze may 
b« varnished. 



FRICTION PRIMERS. 

Fuzes. 



283 



DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS. 



WOODEN FUZES. 



f AVhole length in. 

Fuze. } , . f "'^ *"'' " 

I Diameter . < at bottom " 

L ( of bore '< 

First cone . ( If.''"^^ "■;', ' " 

( Diameter at lower end " 

C Depth " 

Cup..-^^. . f at top " 

Diameter . ^ . , ' 
(, I at bottom " 

Thickness of wood at bottom of fuze " 

Length of composition " 

f Diainctor " 

Drifts . I Lcnctb, exclusive | 1st " 

( ofhaiulle j 2d " 

Weight I ^^ (^(>m\H>»itiou for 100 fuzes lbs. 

( Of 100 fuzes complete " 

Whole length in. 

Paper for the case ^ J'f."-,"' f "^'^''^^^'f^^ • • • • " 

\V Kith of rectangle " 

Width of small end .... " 



Bonnann Fuze. 

Diameter of fuze, including threads 1.65 in. 

Thickness 45 Jq^ 

Number of threads to the inch 12 

Diameter of plug, including threads 1.07 in. 

Thickness for field guns 3 in. 

Number of threads to the inch 12 

Packing-boxes for Port-Fires. 

Lcns'tb. 

For 100 port-fires 18 

" 200 " 18 



13-in. 


10-iu. 


8-in. 


10.8 


9.4 


6.3 


1.85 


1.7 


1.25 


1.25 


1.0 


0.9 


.4 


.3 


.3 


2.8 


2.25 


1.25 


1.65 


1.55 


1.15 


.6 


0.5 


0.4 


1.25 


1.0 


0.75 


0.9 


0.8 


0.6 


1.2 


0.9 


0.9 


9.0 


8.0 


5.0 


.36 


.27 


.27 


9. 


8. 


8. 


4.5 


4. 


4. 


8. 


4. 


2.5 


54. 


33. 


16. 



























•Width. 


Depth. 


Weight 


9.1 


5.1 


38 


9.1 


10.1 


70 



PAPER 

FUZES. 



.63 

.4 

.35 



2.0 
.3 



2. 

19. 
6. 

2.25 
0.4 



Friction Primers for Cannon. 

The friction primer for cannon is a small brass tube filled with gunpowder, which 
is ignited by drawing a rough wire briskly through friction composition, contained 
in a smaller tube inserted into the first, near the top, and soldered at right angles 
to it. A lanyard, with a hook attached, is used to ignite the primer. 



284 OUDNANCE MANUAL. 

The fricli'on primrr is cuiu])0sc<l of 1 larye tube: 1 uhurt tube; 1 trlre rubber; fric- 
tion euwpoiition ; mutkrt powder ; wax. 

The lottff lube is mndo from a circular disk of No. 19 8hcct-brii.»!<, 0.02 inch in 
diameter, by means of a scrie« of 5 punches and dies, grudually dimininhinfj^ in 
8i7,e to the last, which i« of the required size of the tube. The brass must be an- 
nealed before each punchin;^. 

The lube is cut to the prescribed length, measuring from the closed end, by 
means of a circular saw, and the holes for the short tube and wire rubber are 
drilled, and the burrs removed. Length of the long tube, 1.76 inch; exterior 
diameter, .10 inch; interior diameter, .176 inch; diameter uf holes, .16 inch and 
.00 inch. 

The thort tube is formed from the long one by using two additional punches and 
dies, reducing the site each time. It is cut to the proper length by circular saws 
placed at the required distance apart, and the burr removed by rolling in a barrel. 
Length of the short tube, 0.44 inch; exterior diameter, 0.16 inch; interior diame- 
ter, .133 inch. 

One end of the short tube is dipped into a solution of chloride of zinc, inserted 
in the hole drilled in the long tube, heated to redness in' the flame of a spirit lamp, 
and soldered with soft solder; it is then washed and dried. 

The wire rubber is ma^le of \o. 16 bra.ss wire, annealed, cut to the proper length, 
and pressed flat at one end by a machine for that purpose. The flat end is trimmed 
by a punch and die with dentated edges, and the tip is anneale<l in the flame of a 
spirit lamp. Length of wire, 3.4 inclies; length of flattened end, O.lj inch. 

The frirtiou compotitiou is made of 2 parti of the tulphurel uf antimun^ and 1 
part of the chlomte of putatia, moistened with yumnird iroltr — 60 grains of gum 
arabic in 2 ounces of water to 1 pound of composition. 

The materials are first pulverized separately, mixed together dry, moistened with 
the gum water, and ground in an iron mill, such as is used for grinding [taint. 

CuAiiGixG AND VAK.MSHiNG. — The small tube is charged by pressing the open 
end in the friction composition spread on a flat piece of iron and brought to the 
consistency of soft putty, the long tube being closed its whole length with a 
wooden or metal plug. 

A conical hole is made iu tho composition, while yet moi?t, with a conical drift, 
and the surplus composition removed; the wire rubber is passed through the short 
tube and through the small hole in the long tube, the round end first, leaving the 
annealed tip projecting out of the open end, which is then closed by pressing 
the top and bottom together firmly with pincers, and bending the tip against the 
bottom. 

The cud of the wire rubber is doubled on itself and twisted, leaving a loop 0.2 
inch diameter, and then bent alongside the long tube for packing. 

The head of the long tube, including the short tube and the joint, is dipped into 
shella<> varnish colored with lampblack. 

When dry, the long tube is filled with musket powder and closed with beeswax, 
mixed with J its weight of pitch. 



PERCUSSION-CAPS FOR SMALL ARMS. 285 

Both ends arc touched with varnish and the tube thoroughly dried. 

Packing — The tubes are first put up in bundles of 10 each, wrapped in water- 
proof paper; 10 bundles are packed in a tin box. painted or japanned: 100 tin 
boxes are packed in a box made of 1-inch white pine boards, dovetailed. 

The contents of the tin box, place and year of fabrication, are stamped on the 
lid, and the number of the box marked on the front side. The contents of the 
wooden box, are marked on each end. 

Dimensions of the tin box: Length, 4.5 in.; width, 2.35 in.; depth, 2.35 in. 
" (interior) wooden box : " 20.5 " " 12.0 " " 9.5 " 

Weight of tin box containing 100 primers, .8347 lb. 

Weight of wooden box " 10,000 " 105. " 

MATERIALS REQriREP FOR 10,000 FRICTION PRIMERS. 

66 Ihs. sheet-brass No. 19. "I ., . „-, ,, » i . 

V About 36^ lbs. are returned in scraps. 
20 " brass wire No. 16. J 

1.2.T lbs. solder. 

2.33 " chlorate of potassa. 

2.66 " sulphuret of antimony. 

.65 " beeswax and pitch. 

11.0 " musket powder. 

1.25 quart varnish (0.75 lb. shellac, 1 qt, alcohol, 0.25 oz. lampblack). 44 sheets 

of common tin are required for 100 tin boxes. 

Percussion-Caps for Small Ar7ns. 

The cap for small arms is made of copper. It is very slightly conical, with a 
rim or (lanch at the open end; it has four slits, extending about half the height of 
the cap. 

The cap is charged with fulminate of mercury, mixed with half its weight of 
nitre : the object of the nitre being to render the fulminate less explosive and to 
give body to the flame. To protect the percussion powder from moisture, and also 
to secure it from falling out, it is covered over, in each cap, with a drop of pure 
shellac varnish. 

The copper ft)/- making the caps is obtained in sheets 48 inches long and 14 inches 
wide, weighing 3 lbs.: a variation of 4 ounces, more or less, is allowed. The cop- 
per should be pure, free from seams, holes, or blisters, well annealed, and as evenly 
rolled as possible, with straight and smooth edges. 

The copper is cleaned by immersion in a pickle made of 1 part (by measure) of 
sulphuric acid and 40 p<arts of water; it is secured with fine sand and a hand- 
brush, and washed clean in running water — after which it is well dried in clean 
saw-dust and rubbed over with a cloth slightly oiled: it is then ready for the ma- 
chine. 

To PREPARE THE FULMINATE OP MERCURY. — Dissolve, in a glass retort capable of 



286 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

holding aV)out a half gallon, 10 oz. of pure mercury in 5 lbs. of nitric acid of the 
specific gravity of 1.40. The solution is made by placing the retort in a water or 
sand-buth of about 120° or exposed to the sun's rays on a warm day. The vapors 
which como over arc very deleterious, and should not be inlialed. 

When the solution is complete, pour the liquor into a widc-mouthc<l glass vessel 
capaltle of holding 8 to 10 gallons, into which 5. 675 lbs. of alcohol (abi)ut CJ pints) 
of the spocifio gravity of 0.85 have been previously poured. Care must be taken 
U) pour the nitrate of mercury on the alcohol, as the reverse mode of mixing is dan- 
gerous. Great heat is evolved during the effervescence which ensues from the 
mixture, and the glass vessels used should be well annealed and of a form to bear 
a high heat without breaking. Carboys of thin flint glass, without mouth-rings or 
any alinipt change in thickness, are best. The operation should be performed at a 
safe di.-<tancc from the fire, as the vapors of ether disengaged are highly inflamma- 
ble. When reddish fumes begin to appear, they must be reduced by adding alcohol 
in small ()nantities. 

The proportion of alcohol used in the whole operation varies according to the 
strength of the acid and alcohol, and also with the state of the weather. The 
proper quantity is that which is just suflBcicnt to keep down the reddish fumes, and 
is determined by trial with the materials used. 

When the elfcrvescence has ceased, the fulminate of mercury is found at the 
bottom of the vessel as a brownish precipitate. A small ijuantity of water is 
poured in, ami the contents transferred to the washing tub, where it is repeatedly 
washed in soft water, until tlie water no lunger reddens litmus paper. 

The fulminate is in the form of very small crystals, of a light gray color and 
brilliant surface. If the operation be well performed, no metallic mercury will be 
reproduced. The weight of the fulminate, when dried, is about 14 per cent, greater 
than that of the mercury used. 

If the proper proportions be not used (or if the materials be not of good quality), 
the product will be, instead of fulminate, an impalpable, yellow powder, which is 
incombustible. When this is observed, the result may generally bo corrected by 
varying the proportion of alcohol in the mixture. 

The fulminate of mercury is kept under water, in stone jars, which should be pre- 
served from frost. 

A day's icork. — In a warm, clear day, 1 master and 2 assistants can make, and 
partially wash, 100 lbs. of fulminate in 10 hours. 

To PREPARE THE PERCi'SsiON POWDER. — Take aboat 2 lbs. of the wet fulminate 
in an earthen dish ; drain the water from it, and spread it on sheets of blotting 
paper until it is sufficiently dry to assume the granular form and retains only 20 
per cent, of moisture. In this state add to it bO per cent, of its weight of refined 
pulverized nitre, and thoroughly mix the ingredients, on a wooden table, with the 
hand and a wooden spatula, and pass it several times through an iron sieve Xo. 3: 
spread it on sheets ot paper in quantities of ^ lb. each, and dry it in the sun or in a 
room warmed by flues. When quite dry, pass the i lb. parcels through a fine hair 



PERCUSSION-CAPS FOR SMALL ARMS. 287 

sjeve, by rubbing it with the hand, and put each parcel in a separate box, made of 
paper, varnished on the inside and outside with shellac varnish and having a loose- 
ly-fitting cover. The boxes should bo kept in a small magazine standing apart 
from other buildings, upon shelves covered with cloth, to prevent friction in 
moving, and be issued one at a, time to the person having charge of the cap 
machine. 

Making and fillikg the caps. — Both of these operations are performed by 
the same machine. The sheet of copper is adjusted on the table of the machine. 
The hopper is filled with the percussion powder, and the machine put in motion. 
The star or blank is cut by a punch and transferred to a die, where it is formed 
into a cap by a second punch. The cap is caught in the notches of the revolving 
horizontal plate, and carried, first under the hopper containing the percussion pow- 
der, where it receives its charge of i grain, and then under a punch, which presses 
the charge firmly into the cap, and lastly to the drop-hole, where it falls into the 
receiving drawer. 

The hopper is supplied from time to time from the i lb. box, while the machine 
is at rest, using a small copper scoop for the purpose, and the bo.\ returned to its 
special closet, at least one yard from the machine and above its level, before the 
machine is put in motion. 

As a cap is occasionally exploded under the punch in charging, all dust of per- 
cussion powder should be frequently removed, and only a small quantity of percus- 
Bion powder kept in the hopper. The receiving drawer should be emptied after 
each sheet of copper is completed : 2,314 caps are made from each sheet 48 inches 
long and 14 wide. 

A day's work. — The average work of ten hours, including all necessary stoppa- 
ges, is 31,000 caps for each machine. 

To PREPAnE THE VARNISH. — Dissolve 1 lb. of the best gum shellac in 1 qt. of 
rectified alcohol containing 95 per cent, of pure spirit. The solution is made most 
readily at a te"mperature of about 120°. It must be stirred frequently until all the 
gum is dissolved. It is made and fit for use in 4 hours. 

The varnish is best made and kept in glass vessels. 1 qt. of alcohol and 1 lb. of 
shellac make 1.4(5 qt. of varnish. A small quantity of alcohol is occasionally 
added to thin the varnish when it is used. i 

Eighteen quarts of varnish are required for 1,000,000 caps. Two quarts of alco- 
hol are required for thinning the varnish. 

To VARNISH THE CAPS. — The caps are put into holes in counting-plates made of 
sheet-brass, 15 inches by 12 inches, .05 inch thick, held in a frame of brass rods .35 
inch square. This is quickly done by taking a parcel of caps on the plate and 
shaking it sideways: the caps settle themselves in the holes. When the plate is filled, 
the defective caps and those which have lost their charge are easily detected by the 
eye, and are replaced by perfect ones. The plate is placed in its bed in the varnish- 
ing machine, which is worked by hand, and each row of caps is brought in turn under 
a row of wires, Avhich are alternately dipped into a pan of varnish and then into the 
caps, leaving in each a drop of varnish. 



288 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

The quantity of varnish placed in each cap can be rcpulafed by the sifo of the 
wires, or by the depth tu which they cuter the varnish. The ru)i8 remain in tho plate 
30 to 40 minutei<, when the varnigh ie sufficiently net to allow of their beiiip turned 
into a tray for dryinp. Thefo trays are of wood, 18 inches long, 12 inches wide, and 
1 inch deep, and contain 2,500 caps. Tho caps remain in the tray* fur .'J days* in a 
room lieated to about 100°. They arc then put into bnpf, and kept at the same 
temperature for 10 days longer, before they arc packed in boxes. 

A diiy'i tcork. — One boy can count and varniish 7,000 caps per hour. 

Packing. — Tho caps are put into bags of strong cotton duck, 10,000 in a bag, and 
ten bags are packed in a woodeu box. The box is lined with thick paper, tho bags 
are packed in tow, and the cover is fastened with six 2-inch wood screws. 

Uaoh anh i-A( king-boxes. — Tho bags are 6 inches in diameter and 13.5 inchei 
deep. They arc made with circular bottoms, like cartridge-bags for field service. 

They are marked with the number of the bap, the content", the place and date of 
fabrication. 

Tht piirking-hnsct are made of 1-inch white pine, dovetailed ; they have brackets 
for rope handles on the ends, are painted olive color, and marked on tho ends with 
the number aud kind of contents, and on tho inside of the covor with the place and 
date of fabrication. 

Interior ih'inentiuiii. — Length, 28.75 inches; width, 12 inches: depth, S.S iochM. 
I»ri(//i»«.— Of 1.000,000 caps, «44 lbs. 

Of bag with 10.000 caps, 9.625 lbs. 

Of packing-box, 26 lbs. 

Of box packed with 100,000 cap?, 127 lbs. 

matkrials required for 1,000,000 caps. 

For the Ctipn. — 1,300 lbs. sheet-copper, of which about one-third is returned in 
scraps. 

For the Poictirr. — 42 lbs. mercury. 

336 lbs. nitric acid. 
382 lbs. alcohoL 
24 lbs. nitre. 
For the Varnith. — 10 lbs. gum shellac. 

12 qts. alcohol. 
For Bag*. — 31 yards of cotton duck, .76 yard wide. 
For Jioxet. — 150 feet white pine boards. 

Note. — Experience has shown that it is not safe to try to wash the percussion 
powder from partly filled caps. A lot of unvarnished caps, imperfectly filled, being 
soaked in water for several days, became coated with' a substance much more explo- 
sive than the origiual fulminate. 

The percussion powder must be burned out, and the cap polished by roiling in a 
dust barrel. 



PITCHED FASCINES. 289 

iNCEXDiA i;y compositions, lights and signals. 

Rock-Fire. 

Rock-fire is a composition which burns slowly, is difficult to extinguish, and is used 
to set fire to buildings, ships, etc. That which is put into shells is cast in cylindrical 
cases of paper hnving a priming in their axes. 

Materials. — Roiin, ^ parts ; sulphur, 4; uitre, 10'; rcguhts of antimony, 1 ; mutton 
tallow, 1; turpentine, 1. 

Utensils. — A furnace of second kind (page 24.'?), or large kettle in the open air- 
tpatulas ; ladle with long handle; balance and weights; sieves. 

Preparation op the composition. — Pulverize the sulphur, nitre and antimony 
separately; mix them with the hands, and pass them through sieve No. 2; melt the 
tallow first, then the rosin, stirring the mixture with spatulas; add the turpentine 
and next the other materials, in small (luanlitics at a time, stirring the whole con- 
stantly with large spatulas. 

Let one portion of the composition be melted before more is added, and work with 
great precaution to prevent it from taking fire. When the composition becomes of 
a brown color, and white vapors are disengaged, the firo is permitted to go down • 
and when the composition is sufficiently fluid, the cases are filled with the ladle not 
more than three-fourths full. 

Paper cases and phiming-tubes. — The cases are made ofrocket paper, in the 
manner described for port-fire cases. The priming-tubes are made of cartridge paper 
pasted after the first turn, and rolled hard. 

Filling the cases. — The cases are arranged in a frame, the lower end of each 
inserted iu a socket, in the centre of which is a spindle to support the priming tube. 

The upper ends of the cases are held in place by short cylindrical spouts attached 
to the lower side of a reservoir which rests on the top of the frame. The composition 
is poured into the reservoir, and tlie frame is gently shaken to settle the composition 
in the cases until they are filled. 

When the composition has become solid, the cylinders are taken out of the frame 
and trimmed; the priming-tubes are charged with composition No. 1 for mortar 
fuzes, driven the same as mortar fuzes ; the ends of the cylinders are last dipped in 
mealed powder. 

When rock-fire cannot be had to put into shells, the p.aper cases may be filled with 
port-fire composition, driven as usual; or pieces of port-fire may be inserted in the 
shells. 

Pitched Fascines. 

Pitched fascines arc fagots of dry twigs covered over with an incendiary compo- 
sition, and used to set fire to buildings or to lightup at work. 
19 



290 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



TO MAKE riTf-flEr) FASCINES. 



MATF.niAL. — Di-)! hrnnchm, about 0.5 inch diameter, or other light, combustibftj 
wood: I/-OII irire, about 5 ineh diameter. 

Utensils. — 4 pickrts, 40 inches long and li inch diameter ; ryliudrt'cnl tiirl-n, 20 
inches long, 11 inch diameter; 2 tracc-rope» ; 1 mpc for a cap-^tan ; 2 lever* ; I $maU 
cord; I flat puiirh ; 1 miv) OX hill-hook ; 1 block. 

To MAK.K THE KAS<iNE. — Form 2 crotchets, 1 foot apart, with the -lO-inch pickets; 
cut the liranchcs 20 inches long, and tie them in the middle of their length, and about 
2 inches from their ends, with annealed wire, and |dace in the axis a cylindrical stick, 
intcndcil to preserve a vacant space: draw the branches tightly together, that they 
may bold the composition better, and cut off tho end» square. 

TO riTCn THE KASCl.VES. 

MATKniAI.R. — I'it'h ; tar; miilton (tilloir ; liiincxl oil, in a bowl; »nir.ilii»t, in A 
barrel ; rock-fire for priming. 

Utensils. — 2 potn in a furnace of tho first kiml ; 2 Kjintiilii* : 1 ln<ll' with a long 
handle: 1 rnnnll iron fork, with a long wooden hanalc; 2 tiib» ; plank: 

The fascines receive two coats of composition. 

Firnt root. — Melt 20 parts of pitch and 1 of tallow in the pots, filling them not more 
than half full. Having first well oiled the cylindrical slick, plunge the fascine into 
the liiiuiil with the fork, first one end, then the other, each time pouring on the upper 
end two ladlefuls of the composition. Let the composition harden, holding the 
fascine over the pot, turning it slowly, and then immerse it in the tub of water. 

The assistant, with his hands covered with oil, fashions the fascine, rolling it on 
the bottom of the tub, and places it on the planks. 

Second coat is put on 24 hours after the first; it is composed of e<iual parts of 
pitch and rosin, melted and mixed together in the pot. The cylindrical stick ii 
taken out, and the fascine immersed in the composition, as with the first coat: it is 
permitted to drip, and is then laid in saw-dust and powdered all over with it. A 
fascine requires about 1.1 lb. of each composition. Fascines should be primed only 
& short time before being used. For this purpose dip each end, for a distance of » 
half inch, into a kettle holding melted rock-fire. 

When used for incendiary purposes, fascines are placed in piles, and pieces of 
quick-match and port-fire scattered over them to make the whole mass take fire at 
once. 

Torches. 

Torches are made of a number of strands of twine slightly twisted, or old rope, 
covered with a composition to give light. 

Materials. — Hemp ttritie, slightly twisted, about 0.08 inch diameter; cartridge 
thread ; mutton talloie : j/ellow wax; roitin ; glue; quicklime. 

Utensils. — I pot ; 2 upatulai ; 1 ladle; glue pot and bath; knife; 1 mould. 



'm 



FIRE-BALLS. 291 

PuEPARATiON. — Melt in the pot 1 part of t.i'li<\v, 2 of yellow wax. and 8 of rosin, 
stirring it with spatulas. The twine is formed in hanks of about 40 threads, 3 feet 
long, cut at one end, and tied with twine, forming a handle, at the other. 

The hanks are immersed for ten minutes in the composition, and then drawn 
through a mould of the proper size. They are suspended by the handle in a shady 
place to harden ; 24 hours after, they are painted over with a warm solution of 
a half pound of quicklime and J of an ounce of glue to a quart of water. 

With old rope. — Boil the rope, well beaten and untwisted, in a solution of equal 
parts of nitre and water ; when dry, cut it iu pieces 4 feet long ; tie 3 or 4 of these 
pieces around a piece of i)ine wood, 2 inches in diameter and 4 feet long; cover the 
whole with a mixture of equal parts of sulphur and mealed powder, moistened with 
brandy; fill the intervals between the cords with a paste of 3 parts of sulphur and 
1 of quicklime. When it is dry, cover the whole torch with the following compo- 
sition : 

Pitch, 3 parts ; Venice turpentine, 3 parts ; turpentine, i part. 

Tarred Links. 

Tarred links are made of old rope, covered over with a composition to give light. 

Matkrials. — Old nlow-match or rope ; cartridge thread ; endn of rope. One link 
requires i lb. of tow and 1 to li lb. of composition. 

Utensils. — Mallet; knife. 

To MAKE THE LINKS. — The old rope is well beaten with mallets: the short ends 
are tied together with cartridge thread. The links are formed by coiliug the soft 
rope around the hand, in coils of 3 inches interior and 6 inches exterior diameter. 
loosely tied with thread. 

To TAR THE LINKS.— The links are covered with composition as described for 
fascines. 

Tarred links burn one hour in calm weather, half an hour in a high wind, and 
are not extinguished in the rain. Two of them are put in a rampart grate on a 
bed of shavings. The grates are placed about 250 feet apart. 

Fire-Balls. 

Fire-balls arc projectiles of an oval shape, formed of sacks of canvas filled with 
combustible composition. They are used to light up the enemy's work, and are 
loaded with shells to prevent them from being approached. 

Materials.— »S'(roH<7, clo^e canvas (sail-cloth) ; rope; cartridge thread; red chalk; 
slow-match; loaded shells ; pitch. A composition of 8 parts of saltpetre as it comes 
from the refinery, 2 of pulverized sulphur, and 1 of antimony, passed through 
sieve No. 2. These materials are mixed in the hands, passed through sieve No. 4, 
moistened with l-30th their weight of water, and passed again through the same 
sieve. 



292 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Utenbils. — The necessary utensils for prinding and preparing tbo composition : 
Wooden pnltrrn, red chalk, 1 pair xherirn, < ,llar neidles, ninlUt, Hmall goiKje of the 
calibre of the fire-balls, troop, Uinvd links, 1 wooden mould, 2 wooden drift*, 20 
inches long, one of them U inch and the other 2J to 4 inches in diamctur; 2 
wooden pint, 4i inches long, the small end the size of a pa])er fuze. 

To MARK TiiK SACK. — Miirk out the pieces by means of the imttcrn, and cut 
them with the shears; baste two or three thicknesses together, according t) the 
strength of the canvas; sew three or more together, enough to make the sack; 
leave one end open, forming a mouth for charging; turn the bag to bring the seams 
on the inside. The mouth may be made fast to un iron hoop, large enough to 
admit the shell, with which the fire-ball is loaded. 

To riiKPAUK THK shf.ll. — Charge the shell with j)owdcr and put in a slow fuze. 
Dip the tarred link into the melted rosin, pitch and tallow, and fasten it with twine 
to the shell around the fuz-e-hole. 

To oiiAUGK TIIK SACK. — Placc the sack in the mould and secure the mouth to it. 
Put the shell with the tarred link in the bottom of the sack, the fu/.c-holo down- 
ward, and fasten the shell down with twine passed through the sides of the sack, 
or with a piece of canvas secured to the sides ; put in the composition with a scoop 
and ram it, first with the small drift, and, when it is half the height of the projec- 
tile, with the large drift, driving it with the mallet. Continue in this way till the 
sack is Oiled to the top. Close the mouth of the sack, sewing the pieces together. 

TuK luoN BOTTOM. — Thc ball is furnished with an iron bottom, to prevent it from 
being broken by the force of the charge in thc mortar. To make the bottom, thc 
iron, .'2 inch thick, is cut in a circular form, healed and partly shaped with a set 
hammer, in a concave wooden former: it is again heated, and finished in an iron 
former. It is then put into a lathe, where thc outer edge is trimmed and chamfered 
to thc thickness of i inch. 

The iron bottom is attached to the ball witli the cement (page 16^); the bottom is 
filled about one-third full with the cement, and the loaded end of the fire-ball i» 
inserted in it and left to cool. 

The ball is next covered aad strengthened with a net-work made of span-yarn or 
cord, from O.'io to 0.5 inch thick, according to the size of the ball. This net-work is 
oommeuccd at the bottom of the sack, and terminates at the ti^]! in a strong loop, 
which forms a handle for carrying the baU. Fire-balls are dipped in a composition 
of equal parts of pitch and rosin, made warm. The ball, when finished, should pass 
through the large shell-gauge. 

To PRIME THE BALLS. — Make 4 holes, about 3 inches below the top, by driving in 
the greased wooden pins 2 inches deep. When the ball is to be primed, lake out 
these pins and fill the holes with fuzes, and with two strands of quick-match, held 
fast by the composition: leave room in the priming-hole for coiling the quick-matob 
and cover it with a piece of canvas fastened with 4 nails. 

The balls are not primed until they are to be fired. 



SIGNAL ROCKETS. 293 

Light-Balls. ^—-rfh 

Light-balls are made in the same manner as fire-balls, except that there is no 
shell in them, as they are use! for lighting up our own works. 

Blue-Lights. 

Materials. — For 100 Iff/htn — Saltpetre, 9 lbs. 10 oz. ; mlphnr, 2 lbs. 6i oz.; red 
orpimetit, 11 oz. The materials should be pure, well pulverized, and thoroughly- 
incorporated, rubbing them in the hands and passing them several times through a 
fine hair sieve. Hemiiipherirnl ctipa of well-seasoned wood (beech, linden, etc.) with 
a handle 10 inches long, IJ inch diameter; quirk-uialeh, paper, paste. 

Utensils. — The necessary utensils for pulverizing and mixing the composition. 

PiiEPAiiATiON. — Fill the cup with composition and press it firmly in; prime the 
cup with quick-match, and cover the whole with cartridge paper pasted to the 
bottom of the cup. 

The brilliancy of the light depends on the purity and thorough incorporation of 
the materials. 

Signal Rockets. 

Rockets for signals are composed of a paper case charged with composition, ajoot 
filled with ornaments, and a light ulick to give direction. 

Rockets are denominated by the interior diameter of the case. The most common 
sizes are the .75-inch, 1-inch and 1.5-inch. 

TO MAKE THE CASE. 

Mateuials. — No. 4 paper ; pasfe ; stroiirj twiue. 

Implements. — Aivl; ruler; knife; sdndstone ; rolling bench; press and crank; 
choking machine; gauge for the case ; paste brush. 

To CUT THE PAPER. — Lay off the paper into rectangles, their width equal to the 
length of the case, pricking with the awl the four corners on several sheets at once; 
cut them with the knife. 

A sheet of No. 4 paper makes two rectangles for a .75-inch or for an inch rocket, 
by cutting it parallel to the short or the long side, respectively. 

To ROLL THE CASE. — Roll tho rectangle smoothly on the former, pasting the paper 
after the first turn ; put the case and former in one of the grooves of the press, and, 
by means of tho crank slipped on the square end of the former, turn it; the top" of 
the press bearing on it slightly at first Paste tho second rectangle, introduce one 
end under the last rectangle, and roll it as at first. Gauge the case, to sec that it is 
the size of the mould. 

If there be no rocket press at hand, a long hand rolling board may bo used 
instead. 

To CHOKE THE CASE. — Wrap a piece of strong paper around the end of the case 



204 ORDNANCE MANUAL. ' 

to ltd choked, to prcvcDt the cor'I from chafing it ; take a turn around it with the 
ohokiDK-cord, and ])r<-i<H on the treadle, turning the case at the same time, and draw- 
injt out the small imrt of the former as the jjaper contracts; make the choke fa«t by 
wrapping it i^tveral times with strcmj; twine, drawing it firmly, and tie it in a hard 
knot: |ilace the eases uwaj tu dry in the shade. 

TO nBIVK THK ROCKKT. 
MaTRRIALS. — Empty rimm ; coinjjo'ition ; cliiy or pltnlrr of Parit. 

The cum]>ositioD is composed of 26 parts of nitre, .'>} of sulphur, and 19 of 
oharooal, which arc mixed hj ruhbing them io the hand, and passing them three 
times through the sieve No. 2; the charcoal is added, and mixed with the hands. If 
antimony or steel filings be used, they should be added after the charcoal. 

When beginning with a new compobition or new materials, it is necessary to try 
the composition by firing two or three rockets made of it, ami regulate the height 
of the milt'd. If the rockets do not ascend sufficiently high, increase the quantity 
of nitre, and diminish it if the rockets burst or blow out the head. 

When rockets are well made, they ascend rapidly to a great height, an<I throw 
(At their ornaments at the highest point of the curve, after all the composition baa 
burned out. 

Utensils. — 1 mow/i/and fjiimilr; 1 Uock <»/iror»rf, settled in the ground; 3 koltoie 
drift*, bored to admit the spindle; I tolid drift ; m<illeti; kuive* ; §and*lunea ; 1 thnrg- 
ing Indlr of such size thai its contents, when driven in the case, shall be a diamet«.-r 
in height. 

To iMT TDK TASK IX THK Moi i.ii. — In the first jdace, cut off the choke<l end of the 
ease square, and to such a length that when the case is settled down on the s[dndle 
the choke should fit closely over the nipple, and the end of the case rest on the base 
of the 8i>indle. 

Place the case on the spindle, the choked end down ; settle it with two or three 
blows of the mallet : set the mould over the case and key it down. 

Driving the rocket. — Take a ladleful of composition, strike off the surplus and 
pour it into the ease. Use first the longest hollow drift, and give each lailleful 25 or 
SO blows with the mallet, keeping the drift down on the composition. As the eaae 
fills, use the shorter drifts until the composition reaches the top of the spindle; then 
drive 1 diameter in height with the solid drift, cover this with a patch of stiff paper 
cut to fit the case, and over this patch drive a wad i diameter high, of clay, or of 
piaster of Paris slightly moistened with water. 

Rockets are sometimes driven solid throughout, and afterward bored and reamed 
OBt with a reamer of the form of the spindle. 

The mnMldf fi>r driving are not indispensable. Rockets are oft«n driven without 
them. For this purpose, screw the spindle vertically into the top of a block of wood 
firmly imbedded in the ground. To the opposite sides of this block attach two 
upright strips of plnuk. and fasten to them a cross-piece which has near its centre* 
hole to fit the rocket-case and keep it steady on the spindle in driving. 



SIGNAL ROCKETS. 295 

To guard nffnivst arcidrnft, drive rockets in an empty rotim ; particularly, let no 
powder be in the room, or composition, except that used at the time, and let no filled 
rocket-cases be lying about. In fair weather use a tent for a driving room. 

To PRIME THK ROCKET. — Insert in the bore of the rocket one end of a piece of 
quick-match, 2 feet long, a small piece of paper attached, and push it in securely; 
coil the rest of the match in the bore and bottom of the case. To secure it from 
dampness, paste over the end of the case a circular cap of strong paper. 

TO MAKE THE POTS. 

Materials. — No. 4 paper, pnntc. 

IJTENSrLS. — Knife, former, rolling hoard, hotel for pdste, hiushra. 

Making the pot, — Cut the rectangle and roll it on the former as described for 
port-tire cases. 

To attach the pot. — Paste the pot on the inside the di.«tance of one-half of a 
diameter, and also the out-^idc? of the case, at the end containing the clay, for the 
same length ; slip the pot on the pasted end, leaving the length of the pot above the 
top of the case t)ne and a half diameter. 

To secure the pot in place and give a neat tinisb, cover the rocket-case and pot, 
when dry, with thin paper pasted on. 

TO MAKE THE CONES. 

Matehials. — iVo. A: jiaper, paste, thin paper. 

Utensils. — Compnsse», knife, scissors, conical former, howl for paste, hriishes. 

Making cones. — Mark out the No. 4 paper by describing with the compasses 
circles with a radius equal to the length of the cone required. Cut them out with 
the scissors, and cut each circle into semicircles. Paste each semicircle and roll it 
sep.arately on the former; press it firmly, and put it away to dry. Cut the cones to 
such length that their bases shall bo of the same diameter as t'lo pot. Make in the 
same way a similar cone of thin paper one inch longer, and paste it on the first; cut 
the part of the cone formed of one thickness of paper into longitudinal slips \ inch 
wide. 

To LOAD THE POT AND FIX THE CONE. — Put in the bursting charge of 150 to 300 
grains of powder in the bottom of the pot, and fill it with the decorations, placing the 
serpents and streamers on end, the primed ends down. Fill the cone with tow, and 
paste the strips of the cone; place the cone on the pot, and press the strips on the 
side of the pot; paste a narrow baud of paper around the rocket close to the base of 
the cone. 

The axes of the rocket-case, of the pot, and of the cone, should be in the same line. 

To ATTACH THE STICK.— Tie the stick to the rocket, with strong twine or annealed 
iron wire from .04 to .08 inch in diameter, at two places : first at the choke of the 
case and the second notch in the stick, crossing the ends of the twine under the 
stick to prevent its moving to the right or left; the second, in the notch at the end 
of the stick and near the pot; tic the twine in a hard knot, and cut the ends close. 



296 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

If wire be used, twi»t the ends together with plicrF, jiiid flatten the end« into the 
notch. 

After the stick is attachp<i, the centre of jfravify of tiie rocket should bo from .8 
inch to 2 imhes from the end of the case. aecordinK to the kind of dceorutionc used. 
For tiiin inirpouc, if necei<Kary, reduce the size of tlic slick at the end. 

DKCOR.\TIONS FOR ROCKETS. 

Stars. 

Materiai.r.— Roe table, pa^e .311. 

Utrn8IL8. — The necessary utensils for weighing and grinding the matnriali ; 
a efflindrirnl mould with a pin in the axio . and a piston for pushing out the stars. 

To PRKi'AUK TiiK I'OM I'OSiTios. — Reduce the materials to the finest powder; mix 
them with the hands; pass them three times throti;;h the sieve, mixin;; them each 
time with the hand. 

Moisten the composition with whiskey in which gum has been dissolred,* so that 
the composition sliall retain its form when pressecl in the hand. 

To MOfi-n TIIK STARS. — Fill the mould by pressing it in the composition spread 
oat in a wooden bowl ; push out the star with the piston, letting it full lightly on 
a sheet of paper dusted over with mcalcil powder. 

Colnrrd glum arc made in the same manner as white ones, using the compositiont 
indicated in the tabic, pa;:e 311. 

Serin'nt.s. 

Serpents are very small rocket-cases charged with com]>osition. 

MatkkiaLS. — ^V«. 4 paper, thread, paste, eloi/. 

Utensils. — R'lii/e ; former. 0.4 incli in diameter; hmrl for past«, brtuffi, tntuden 
mould, uipplt , drift, mallrl, chanjer, hand roUimj board. 

To MAKK TUB CASK. — The case is made by rolling a rectangle of paper. No. 4, with 
a hand rolling bnard, and choking it at one end. 

The cases are driven j their length, giving each ladlcful of composition .'J blows 
with the mallet. 

The case is choked over the composition, and the remainder of it is nearly filled 
with mealed powder, upon which a small paper wad is placed ; a clay bead is ibeo 
driven on it, and the end of the case turned down, to secure it; the other end is 
primed with priming paste, or a small strand of quick-match. 

Streamers. 

Streamor.s are small paper cases from .2 to .4 inch diameter and from 2 to 4 



•nie ua* of the gam is to give consistency to the stars, so that the ezploeioo of the pot inaj' 
•ok break Umb to piaoee and thereby destroy the eflTecL 



DECORATIONS FOR ROCKETS. 



297 



inches long, made of four turns of No. 7 paper. One end is closed, and the case is 
cbarL'cd and primed liite that of a lance. 

A number of streamers produce the effect known as rain of fire. 

Gold Rain. 

(lold rain is made of small stars, all of the same Mze. The stars are cubes, the 
length of whose sides is .r) inch. 

Jfarrons. 

Marrons are small cubic boxes, made of p.isteboard. filled with powder, and 
wrapped with strong twine. They arc used to give a loud report, or the effect of 
cannonading. 

lli.KTV:\u^^.v,.— Pasteboard, rartridijc paper, strong twine or marline, paste, quick- 
match, powder. 

Utensils. — Knife, ruler, pencil, pnneh. 

To MAKE THR MARRONS.— Cut the pasteboard into rectangles whose sides shall bo 
3 and 5 times, respectively, the length of the side of the marron required. Divide 
the rectangle into 15 equal squares; cut out the squares forming the four corners of 
the rectangle, and divide the three remaining squares on the long side from each 
other by a cut the length of their side and perpendicular to the long side of the 
rectangle. 

Form a small cubic box with the pasteboard thus cut out; paste the squares 
togfethcr which cover each other, and paste a band of paper around the box, leaving 
the cover open. When dry, fill the box with powder, paste down the cover, and 
envelop it with two or three layers of strong twine. Cover the marron with glue 
or kit, and prime it with quick-match inserted in a hole punched into the powder at 
the middle of one of the faces. 



8W ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

DivieMions and Weights of Rockets and their Orunm- nfs 



tnp.. 



Nipri-K 



Ditii 



Dkiviro 

Mai.lbt 

Cbarokr . 

Height of 
Compositi- 
Clay in hi' 



Langlb of cyliodrical 
pari 



Conical 
cavity. 



Pot 



Conk . • . . 

Stick . . . 



l»l drift 

2d " " 

3d " " 

4th '• •* 

Diameter f Ist drift " 

at buitom ■ 2d " " 

or liiu«c. . ( .3d " " 

CuuiiioD diumvter at toji. . . " 

r l«t drift " 

Length of .^ 2d " 

(••'-> " " 

Weight pouods 

Length <if ^ainllo inchca 

I I»i*iuctvrt " 

. •' Li'nglh «>f oyliuder " 

(Whole length " 

the rulid '' 

>ii fnr 1(10 rocket* l>oundg 

a<l ounce!! 

f length inches 

( height " 

I Former, diameter '* 

I ( stars ounce; 

I Weight of pot . i serpents 

(gold rain " 

( Bur:^ting charge " 

(^ ,r (height inches 

Conical former. i ,. * . . v, «i 

< { diameter at base .... " 

( Length of finii-hed cone " 

( Length " 

< Thickness of large end " 

( " small end " 



Rectangle. 



Intarior diaiu'r of Ilucketa. 



Ileiglil of rectangle for canei inches 

Length of the finished case* " 

Interior diiinu-tcr of tlie choke " i 

Kxterior dintiM-tcr of the case " 

I lli-ifrht 

6piniii.k . . ' IMnineter at 

IMamcter 

H<-ighl 

Diameter of cjlindcr and part of nipple 

diameter 



.7Mo. 


Uu. 


1.6-ln. 


10. 


11. 


13.0 


9.25 


10.60 


13.60 


.25 


.42 


.M 


1..15 


1.60 


3.0 


0.25 


6.75 


I.O 


.25 


.42 


.M 


.13 


.31 


.33 


.75 


1.0 


1.4« 


.05 


.7 


1.0 


.75 


1.0 


1.48 


.72 


.87 


1.47 


».S5 


10. 


13.U 


7.25 


0. 


10. 


4.5 


5.35 


r.M 


2.5 


S.O 


«.• 


.27 


.44 


.n 


.24 


.it 


.64 


.21 


.ss 


.M 


• H 


.23 


.33 


6.75 


7.5 


8.M 


4.25 


6.0 


6,t 


3. 


S. 


4. 


1.15 


1.4 


S.O 


H. 


8. 


8. 


2.25 


3.75 


i.s 


2.5 


3.30 


S.M 


7. 


7.76 


9M 


1.5 


2.0 


t^ 


30. 


50. 


135. 


.75 


i. 


1.35 


12.5 


7. 36 


15.0 


3.10 


3.25 


5. 


1.35 


1.60 


2.25 


1. 


1.6 


3. 


1. 


1.4 


S. 


1. 


1.75 


3.5 


.5 


1. 


1.35 


3.25 


3.74 


4. 


1.5 


3.0 


3.80 


1.75 


4. 


4.35 


80. 


84. 


00. 


.« 


.66 


.8 


.35 


.4 


.5 



• Without the pot.^ 

fits consents, when driren, should be half a diameter in height. 



WAR ROCKETS. 



299 



.75-in. Rocket. 



Stars 

Gold rain. 
Streamers 
Serpents . 



10 
10 



Number. I Weight. 



Grains. 
490 

490 

685 

525 



l-in. Rocket. 



fjnmber. ' Weight. 



15 
15 
12 

4 



Grains. 
700 

700 

1,025 

850 



1.5-in. Rocket. 



Number. 



20 
20 

18 

8 



Weight. 

Grains. 
890 

870 

1,575 

1..3.50 



WAE POCKETS. 

The war rocket used in the military service is made after H.ale's patent. It 
consists, 1st. Of a sheet-iron case lined with paper and charged with rocket com- 
position. 2d. Of a cast-iron cyliudro-conoidal head, with a small ^cavity commu- 
nicating with the bore of the rocket, and pierced with (hree holes, oblique to the 
surface, for the escape of gas. 3d. Of a wrought-iron plug welded into the rear 
end of the case, and having a hole in its axis for the escape of gas. 

The rocket is driven forward by the escape of gas through the hole in the rear 
end, and a motion of rotation around its axis is given to it by the esc.-ipe of gas 
through the holes in the head, whereby its direction is preserved without the use of 
a directing stick. 

The composition is pressed solid in the case by means of a powerful press, and 
the bore of the rocket is drilled and reamed out to the proper size. 

The sizes of rockets are indicated by the interior diameter of thp cases. 

The two sizes used are the two-inch and three-inch. 

To MAKE THE 3-INCH CASE. — Select the best lap-welded sheet-iron tubing. Cut 
it into lengths of 14.4 inches, and weld into one end a ring made of bar-iron 0.625 
inch by .25 inch, leaving a hole in the centre of .75 inch diameter. Swage the 
ring into a conical shape, the small end 1.6 inch diameter; cut off the ends of the 
case square, and ream out the hole to .95 inch diameter. 

Ream out the hole in the base of the head to .875 inch, turn and fit the head into 
the case, and bore three holes, equidistant from each other, .45 inch diameter, 
through the lap of the case and head into the cavity of the latter, the holes in a 
plane perpendicular to the axis, but the holes not passing through the axis. Bore 
nine holes .18 inch in diameter through the case into the head, for riveting on the 
head. 

TO DRIVE THE ROCKET. 

Composition. — Nitre, 10 parts; sulphnr, 2; charcoal, 3. Place the case in the 
mould, put in the case about 3^ oz. of composition, and press it with a pressure of 
about 20 tons; continue in the same waj' until the composition is about 1.2 inch 



800 OUDNANCK MANUAL. 

fVom «ho tnp ; put in n. layer of potterp' clnj' .25 inch thiok when prcusioW ; h spajse 
of .95 inrh in left vii'iint for a pastelioanl washor ami the ca.«t iron head. 

To uoiiK TiiK norKKT.— Remove the rocket to tlic boring-room ; drill a hole .If) 
inch (lianioCer lliroujrh Us entire length ; ream out the hole to .p.") inch at the tail 
and .7rj inch nt the head; bore the bole in the clay .b7.'» inch diameter. 

To FA8TKN ON Till'. iiKAP.— I'ut a washcr of pasteboard on the clay, in«ert the 
bead aii<l rivet it on, cork np the holes, and cover the rocket with a coat of paint. 

l)imtn»v>n». — Whole Icnf^th of the rocket Kl.U inches. 

Len;;th of the finiHhcd ease 1 1.2 " 

Exterior diameter of case .^.25 " 

I nt«ri<ir diameter of case 3.00 *' 

Wei;;ht of rocket, complete 14.00 pounds. 

KocketH are mrefully packed in tow, in buxco cimtainiii); 8 rocketn each. 
The content* c)(' boxc« to bo marked on each end. 

/>MN«Nci'on« «./ I'ltrking-hoxe*. — Length, interior 17. inches. 

Width, interior 125 " 

Depth fl.5 

Weight of box, empty 20. pounds. 

Wei.'ht of box. j.aeked 1.16.5 " 

These riicl;.-t> are fired from open tubes formed of rods i^f iron bent spirally and 
mounted on a porlAble stand. 

Petard. 

Tlie pttani i;* a liox of woi>d filled with powder, ur^cd to blow down doors, gatM, 
burierK, etc. 

The box fihould be made of dry wood, and have [taper pasted over the joints t4 
prevent the powder from sifting out. A fuze, by which the petard is fired, is 
sorowod into the box, reaching to the powder. 

The box should contain at lea«t 20 lbs. of powder. 

The effects of petard.-* are nearly proportioned to the square of the rhar^jcs of 
powder they eoiiUiiu, and their effects are considerably increased if loaded with 
WBd-bags. 

A 10 or 8 inch shell filled with powder, and provided with a long fuie, ni»v b« 
used for a petard. 

STORAtJE AND PRESERVATION OF AMMUNITION AND FIREW0HK8. 

Storehouses and magazines should be kept in the neatest possible order, tb* 
stores arranged as much as possible by classes, kinds and calibres, and labelled. 
They should be ventilated from time to time, in the middle of the day. in fine 
we&ther — particularly those which contain ammunition and fireworks which are 
iignred by moisture. 

Provide cloth blinds for all windows exposed to the sun. 

Leaden BalU are generally kept in cellars, on account of their weight: the boxes 



PRESERVATION OF AMMUNITION AND FIREWORKS. 301 

should be kept as dry asi possible, and so piled as to admit tbe circulation of air 
about them. 

Cartridges for small arms are kept in magazines, the barrels or boxes being 
piled 3 or 4 tiers high at most. 

Fixed Ammunition for Cannon. — If not in boxes, it should be placed in piles 
formed of two parallel rows of cartridges, with the sabots together — in 4 tiers for 
12-pdr., and 5 for 6-pdr. ; chock the lower tier with strips of wood fastened with 
small nails ; put a layer of tow 2 inches thick between the shot ; let the piles rest 
on planks, if there be no floor, and cover them with tarpaulins ; have the place 
swept, and the cartridge-bags brushed off. Leave a passage of 18 inches between 
the double rows, and keep them 2 feet from the walls. 

Fixed ammunition should not be put into powder magazines, if it can be avoided; 
it should be kept in a dry place, above the ground floor if practicable; the store- 
rooms should be always aired in fine weather; the piles should be taken down and 
made up again every six months at most, the bags examined and repaired, and the 
damaged cartridges broken up. A ti<!ket on each pile should show the number and 
kind of cartridges, the additions to the pile, and the issues. 

Caniiters. — Piled up like fixed ammunition, in 4 tiers for 24's and IS's ; and 5 
for 12's and 6's. Empty caniriters in 10 or 12 tiers; the bottoms and covers separ- 
ately. 

Cartridfje-hafjK filled. — Like fixed ammunition ; or packed in boxes or barrels. 

Cartridge-hags empty. — In bundles of 50, sealed up in paper cases, carefully 
closed with strips of thin paper pasted over the #eams. 

Paper Cartridge-hngs. — In bundles, packed in boxes or on shelves, in a dry 
place, with pounded camphor and black pepper, or tobacco: the flannel bottom 
dipped in a solutiun of the sulphate of copper. 

Loaded Shells should never be put into magazines, except from absolute neces- 
sity ; powder is not well preserved in them. They should be piled on the ground 
floor of a secure building — on planks, if the floor be not boarded; in 6 tiers at 
most; the fuzes of the lower tier in the vacant spaces between the shells ; those of 
the other tiers turned downward, like the fuze-holes of empty shells; the pile 
should be covered with a tarpaulin. 

Use the same precautions against moisture and accidents as in a powder maga- 
zine. 

Canister Shot. — Keep them, the different kinds together, in bins or boxes. 

Slow-match.— In a dry place, such as a garret, in boxes or barrels, or piled on the 
floor. 

Quick-match. — If not in boxes, it may be hung up in bundles, on ropes or pins, 
and covered with paper. 

Friction Primers. — In tin bo.\es. 

Port-fires. — Bundles of 10 are placed in boxes or in barrels, on end, in safe and 
dry situations. 

Fuzes. — Packed in boxes — fuzes of the same kind, as much as possible, in the same 
box — in very dry and well ventilated stores. * 



802 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

f'i/Ilnilrr» of Rnrk-firr. — In hoxeo or barrels, like fuzcp. - '~"" 

firr-lirilf: — In cool but dry an<l niry plnoc?, fiifiiciKlc-il l.y the linndle, the bottom 
rectinp on a board or floor, that they may not become deformoil. Each ball should 
bo labcllid. clMtinR its calibre, weight, and year of fabrication. 

Si'/ii'il Itiirl'tn. — Packed in boxen, the sticks tied to;r<'ther. Each box shouM con- 
tain rr)ckctK of but one calibre, and chould be marked with the ^if.e and the kind of 
decoration. If the sticko be attached, they are tied in bundlei' of .'). according to the 
kind of decoration. 

W'lr Knrkrit. — Prcnerved in dry place.", with the name jirecuntionK »f loaded fhclle. 

Tiirii'i l.t'tik'. — Strung on a rope and hung up. For transportation they are 
packed in burnlx. with straw between the tier.". 

f',(«riiif« .III'/ Tcrrhei. — Packed like the preceding. 

nUEAKIXiJ UP UNSERVrCEAI5LE STtlRES. 

CAHTlunOKS KOK SMALL AUIIS. — I box; 1 reetn>i;fuliir tcreen, of brui wire, which 
fits in the box : 1 huord, with 4 rtipprr honln, placed acroea the middle of the ncruen; 
hoxf for balls and caps; tmrrrli for powder; 1 pa/trt prrit ; 1 tiere ,• ilo»U. 

Put the bundlec of cartridges on the screen, as they are re<{uire<l, and open thcB 
there near the wire gaure: put the pieces of twine on the hook», the papers on ibe 
board, and the bundles of caps in the boxes; the powder, passing through the icreon. 
falls iu the box, and the balls, remaining on the screen, are washed, if necessary, and 
bdxed. The unserviceable paperstire thrown into water, or burned ; the others arc 
put under the press for 1'2 hours, and then placed in barrels or boxes. The bundles 
of caps are put in boxes without being broken up, unless the caps are damaged ; th« 
caiis arc then put iu bags by themselves. The powder is dried and sifted, Ui 
Kparate the dust and the caked powder, which are laid by to be reworked, or to be 
melted for the saltpetre. 

FiXKI) AMii'MTloN KOK CAXSox. — 1 tarpaulin; 1 hnj- ; 2 barrtU ; 1 kni/t ; 9 
hrnthri : 1 pnnrh ; 1 hammer ; 1 icruper (piece u{ mrunl hUtdr) ; luir ; a tub half full 
of wat4.>r. t4) clean the balls ; •(»«/•. 

■ One man holds the cartridge over the box. whilst another cuts the twine near the 
knot, takes off the strapped shot, brushes it, and eUnds it on the tarpaulin, on Us 
■abut: the tirst man pours the good powder into a barrel, the caked powder into 
another, turns the bag wrong side out, and cleans it. The strapped shot are uken 
to the door of the laboratory, where the shot which still require cleaning are sep- 
arated from their sabois and immersed in the tub of water: after standing some time, 
they are washed and cleaned. The others remain strapped. The serviceable, 
reparable, aad unserviceable cartridge-bags are se[.arated from each other; the U«t 
are immersed in water, and used for rags. The pieces of twine are tied up in bundle. 
The shells are put aside to be unloaded and cleaned in like manner. 

The breaking up of fixed ammunition requires many precautions, and should neT«r 
be done in the magatine, bot m much as possible in the open air. Never have hot 
little powder and a few cartridges in the shop at one time. 



ORNAMENTAL FIREWORKS. 303 

Canisters. — Turn up the slit ends of the canisters, by means of a small chisel; 
take off the cover, and pull out the balls and saw-dust into a bo.\ by means of a hook; 
take out the bottom plate, and straighten the cylinder with a mallet on an anvil. 

PoRT-FiitES. — Split the paper: take out the composition, and pulverize it by 
rolling for two hours. It may be made to burn more or less quickly by adding 
mealed powder or sulphur. 

Unloading Shells. 

This is necessary in order to save room in the storehouses, and to prevent acci- 
dents and the deterioration of the powder. It should be performed with great care, 
and at a distance from the magazines, storehouses, or dwelling-houses, employing 
no more men than are absolutely necessary. 

Separate the workmen from each other; jilace them near a ditch or deep hole, into 
which they may threw a shell, should it take fire, and thus shelter the men from the 
fragments. 

Remove the powder frequently as it is taken from the projectiles. 

Workmen. — 1 artificer; 1 helper. 

Implements. — 1 fuzc-wrruch ; awh; a coil o/ rope, or a block, to place the shell 
on ; 1 brace, with bits of the size of the bore of the fuzes ; 1 copper chinel; 1 wooden 
drift ; 1 mallet ; 1 copper hook, and rncis, to get out the powder and clean the interior 
of the shell; 1 Icnife ; a tub and a basket for the powder and fuzes: a tarpaulin ; a 
bucket of water. 

For large shelh, in addition to the above: I fiizc-e.rtractor, for mortar shells ; a 
pair of shell-hooks and a handspike ; 2 trestles and & frame, to rest the shells on after 
extracting the fuze, for the purpose of emptying the shells over the tub. 

The helper places the shell on the coil of rope, and holds it firmly in both hands : 
the artificer unscrews the fuze with the fuze-wrench. If the shell have a paper 
fuze, the artificer thrusts the sharp point of the awl between the fuze and the plugs, 
and pries the fuze out; a second awl may be used opposite the first; or cut out the 
composition ..3 or .4 inch with a knife, and screw into the pivper case a screw fitting 
it closely ; draw out the fuze by means of the screw. 

If it be a mortar shell, bore out the composition with a brace and bit, keeping 
the composition constantly wet with water ; drive in the bore of the fuze a plug of 
hard wood ; screw in the fuze-extractor and draw the fuze. 

ORNAMENTAL FIREWORKS. 

Ijances. 

Lances are small paper cases, .2 to .4 inch diameter, filled with one or more com- 
positions, each burning with a fiaine of a particular color. They are used to mark 
the outlines of figures, and are attached to light frames of wood, or sticks of 
bamboo. 

To MAKE THE CASES. — Cut the paper into rectangles, of a length equal to the 



o04 ORDNANCB MANUAL. 

required length of the case, and of such width us to mukc the case throe thick- 
nesses of No. 7 |ia|icr. The leu;;th of the case is poncrally ahout t(;n times its 
exterior <liaiiu'ti-r, <ii'pi'iHliup on the composition with wliich it is to be fiUud. and 
the time it is rcMjuircd to burn. 

Paste the rectangle, and roll it on an iron former with tlic liuml. When the cases 
are dry. cut them to their projtcr length. 

To iiiiivK TUB LANCK. — Place the cases in holes bored in a block of liar<l wood, 
the holes .02 inch larger than the case, and their depth .26 inch less than the length 
of the cHsc. 

Drive in the bottom of each case a ladleful of clnv. Insert in the top of the 
case a small funnel; pass the drift through the funnel into flio rase: fill the funnel 
with composition ; raise the drift I inch above the to)) of the cast; press it to the 
bottom, and give it three light blows with a rocket-drift ; coctinuo in the same 
way, raising the drift above the top of the case between carh rollry, until the caM 
is filled to .25 inch of the t«p. 

Prime the lance with mealed pi'wd»r moistened with gummed water, and dip the 
end while moist in rifle powder. 

When the cose is to be filled with two different rompusilions, drive the case with 
the first composition till it is about .2 inch above the rci{uired height; remove the 
Rurplus (o the exact height with a gauge, and proceed with the second composition 
as with the first. 

To FASTKN THE LANCKS TO THE KRAMB. — Hore bolcs .02 inch Inrger than the 
lances, and .6 inch deep, from 2 to 4 inches apart, according to the size of lance. 
The holes should be bored so that the lance shall bo horizontal when the frame is 
in position. Dip the end of the lance in glue, and ]iress it firmly in the bole, 
arranging the lauces parallel to each other. Or they may be fastened to the frame 
by means of sharp nails or tacks driven into the frame and projecting about .4 inch. 
The end of the lance is pierced with an awl, di]>ped in glue and thrust on the point 
of the nail, arranging them {>erpeudicular to the frame. 

Sun-Ciises. 

• 

Sun-cases arc strong cases made like those for rockets, and filled with ft eonip»> 
sition which burns more slowly than rocket composition. They are attached to 
wooden frames, to give long rays of sparkling light. The choke is sometimes 
made by driving clay in the end of the case, and boring a hole through it for the 
escape of the flame ; or the clay is driven on a short nipple, forming the choke. 

Sun-coses are generally ma<le from .75 inch to 1.6 inch interior diameter; their 
exterior diameter about double that of the interior. The length of the ease may 
Tary according to the time they are required to bum. 

The diameter of the choke is about i the interior diameter. 

To MAKE TUB CASES. — The cascs are made like rocket-cases. 

To DRIVE THE CASE. — Set the case on the nipple and place it in a wooden moald; 



ROCKETS. 305 

pour in a ladlcful of compoeition, and give it tea blows with the mallet; continue 
in the same way till the case is filled to the required height: put in a charge of 
rifle powder, and over it drive a ladleful of clay. 

When the cases are filled, prime them by inserting in the choke a strand of 
quick-match, doubled in the middle and secured by driving a little composition on 
it with a lance-drift. 

Paste on each end of the case a strip of paper 5 inches wide, projectino' 3 inches 
over the end of the ease and forming an envelope to enclose the leaders. 

Sun-cases are fastened to the frames in the plane of the frame, by means of iron 
wire, or with strong twiue. 

Lights. 

Lights are made by pressing lance or similar composition in shallow vessels, or 
in cases of large diameter. The b'urning surface being large, the light attains a 
great intensity. 

Shallow earthen, wooden, or metal vases, or paper cases, are used. The vase or 
case is filled with dry composition, slighty pressed in ; or composition moistened 
with gummed water may be used and pressed in the case more compactly. It is 
primed by powdering the surface first with a mixture of equal parts of the compo- 
sition and mealed powder, and then with powder alone. Cover the top over with 
paper, pasted on the sides of the case. Through the centre of the cover pass sev- 
eral strands of quick-match, spreading them over the surface and uniting them on 
the exterior in a single strand. 

When the light is made with dry composition, the case must be placed in a ver- 
tical position. It may be placed horizontally if moistened composition be used 
and firmly packed. 

Torch-lirjhts for funeral ceremonies are made by impregnating large strands of 
cotton with a thin alcoholic pap, the whole arranged in vases like an oil lamp, the 
pap replacing the oil. 

Petards. 

Petards are small paper cases filled with powder. One end is entirely closed, 
and the other has only a small hole left for a piece of quick-match, to communicate 
fire to the powder. Petards are placed at the bottom of lances ; they are also used 
to imitate the fire of musketry. 

Rockets. 

Rockets are made and driven as described for signal rockets (see page 293), 
except that diflferent compositions are used, giving a more brilliant train of fire. 

Rockets may be made of all sizes : their general dimensions may be deduced 
from those given. 

Generally, in proportion as the size of the rocket is increased, the thickness of 
the case must be increased, and the bore of the rocket diminished, or the qujckness 
of the composition, or both of them. 
20 



806 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

The (itifk should he from cipht to nine titncn the lonjfth of the cn«c. iim<1 of laoh 
thickncM an Ut tlimw the centre of prnvitv al»itit 1.26 inch from the ond of the 
«M«. 

Tourbillon. 

The tuirbillon i« a paper eimo filled with composition, with the hole* for tb« 
escape of the i^h-r ho dipponed as to cau.«c tlio ca«o to rise rcrtically in the air at the 
■amo time thnt it revolves horizontally around its mid<llc point. It hax light winga 
attached tu it, to direct it« mutioq. 

Shells. 

Shells arc made of lij^ht wood or paper, and filled with ornaments of diflereat 
kinds. They are thrown nearly vertionlly from a mortar, and, when at their 
highest point, explode and throw out their urn)imenti<, set on Ore by the bursting 
charge. 

To MAKR TUB KHRLL. — Turn in a lathe, from well seasoned poplar or pine, two 
bemi^pheres of the sire and thickness re<|uired. leaving a rabbet to unite the two. 
Cover the slull thun formed with len« chaped pieceK of No. 2 paper, pasted on 
•mootlily, two ..r three thicknei^ses : or form the shell on a ball the sixe of the earlty 
of the shell, by paoting on it strips of pajier of lens sha[>e until it is .2 inch tbiek. 
Cot the shell into two e<(ual parts and take out the eore ; place ihr two halvw 
together, and continue to parte on pieces of paper, permittinit them to dry perfectly, 
until the shell is of the required thickness. This inMlc requires much lime, aa IIm 
■bells dry slowly, and each successive layer mut>l be thoroughly dry before olb«r 
pieces are |iasicd on. 

To CIIAHOK THK SHELL. — Introduce the staro, scri>enl», ete., through the AiM« 
hole, and then the bursting charge ; cover the fuse where it cornea iu contact with 
the shell witL glue, and drive it in place. 

To insure the fute taking fire, tic arouml the shell two |>iec«s of (|uiek-ou(ah, 
crossing over the fuxc. 

Cover the fure with several strips of pai)er pasted to th« shell at their ends. 
These are removetl before the shell is fired. 

Stars. 

The stars for shells are made as described pa^^e 296. Those made of composition 
which burn with difficulty mu^t have a hole in their axes, like those uaed for Roman 
oandles. 

Wheel -Cases. 

Wheel-caaes are made and driven like sun-cases. They are used to give • rotary 
motion to pieces mounted on an axis, and to produce at the same time a brilliant 
fire. They are attached to the end of the spoke of the wheel which they are to lurn 
hj means of iron wire, or strong twine, and they are inclined to the spoke from 2U^ 
to 30° to give a larger circle of fire. 



PREPARATION OF COLORED FIRES. 307 

Boman CmuJIes. 

The Koman candle is a long and strong tube charged with stars, which are thrown 
out successively by a charge of powder placed under each star. 

The ends of gun barrels, 20 inches long, are used for cases. When pajier cases 
are used, make them about .65 to .7 interior diameter and 1 inch exterior diameter: 
roll them like port-fire cases. 

Three drifts, of different lengths, are used; they are made of hickory' or other 
hard wood, with brass tips on the lower ends. 

To CHARGE THE CASE. — Put in the case a ladlcful of clay, and drive it w^ith ten 
blows of the mallet; then a ladleful of composition, which is driven in the same 
way; next a charger of powder and a star, which iy gently pressed down; then 
another ladleful of composition, a second charger of powder, and another star — 
driving the composition and pressing down the star gently; continue until the ten 
stars arc in, and add a half ladleful of composition. 

Prime the candle with a strand of quick-match 6 inches long, held in place 
against the side of the case b3' a little composition driven in on its ends. Cover 
the end of the candle with a strip of paper pasted on. 

Roman candles are inserted in holes bored in frames, or tied with wire or twine 
in the direction in which they are to throw their stars. The stars used for Roman 
candles have a hole through their axes, communicating the fire to the charge below, 
which throws it out. 

Leaders. 

Leaders are long paper tubes of small diameter, enclosing a strand of quick- 
match. They are used to communicate fire rapidly from one point to another. 

The velocity of combustion is from 1 to 2 yards per second, depending upon the 
size of the tube, being more rapid as the tube is smaller. 

Leaders are made by rolling a strip of thin paper, 2.5 inches wide, as obliquely 
as possible, on a ramrod: or cut the paper into trapezoids, 4 inches wide at one 
base and 21 at the other: paste the edges of the strips .25 inch, and roll them on a 
ramrod so that one end shall be enlarged, funnel-shape. When dry, pass a strand 
of quick-match through, and let it project about an inch at each end. 

To unite them into a long line, insert the end of one into another a distance of 
.75 inch, and tie them with a thread. 

If the line be long, first stretch a piece of twine, and attach the leader to it 
every few feet. 

Preparation of Colored Fires. 

The materials for colored fires should be as pure a,s can be obtained : those which 
crystallize should be procured in the crystalline state. They should be generally 
first dried, ground fine, weighed out and mixed. The composition is then moist- 
ened and pressed into shape. Some of the materials, such as the flowers of sulphur 
and lampblack, ought to be first well washed in warm water. Antimony, glass and 
copper filings ought, as well as other materials, to be passed through sieve No. 1. 



809' ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

DnriMO. — All materials fIiouM he perfectly dry. Those which contain water of 
crystiilliiafmn, b." the iiitriile of Imrvfn. iiilr.ite of strontia, and sulphate of copper 
■hoiiM have it <lrivcn off. For thi.' purposo, place the suit in a hrouil, dhallow vesael 
ill a waler-hiilh or on a moderate Cro and stir it till it bo perfectly dry, takinj; it off 
the fire gome minutcD before. 

An the tiiili>hntc of copper is easily' ilccomposed in this operation, and as the sul- 
phuric aci<l set free mi^^ht occasion a spontaneous explosion when the sulphate of 
copper was liroiight in contact with the chlorates, two parts of li(|uid ammonia arc 
(lourtil by de;;rcc8 on the sulphate of copper powdered and yet hot. (The ain> 
uioiiia iiculraliics the acid, and, instead of injuring the color, it heigliteoa it. The 
same proccus should be adopted with other decomposable metallic salts.) A thick 
li>|iiid of an indigo blue color is obtained: place it od the fire, and warm it gentlj 
until it becomes a thick pa^te: then, leaving only a few coals under it, stir it with k 
spatula and crush it into a powder. 

GiiiNDiN'O. — The materials are ground in a mortar with a pestle, or on a lier* 
with copper balls 0.4 inch in diameter, of equal weight with the composition to b« 
ground. All the utensils shi>uld be kept perfectly clean. 

To ])ulverize antimony, melt it and pour it into a cast-iron mortar preriuuily 
warmed: when the metal is on the point of congealing, stir it briskly with the 
]iest]o: it is thu!< reduced to fine grains, which are then pulvcriicd with a pestle. 
Zinc aud other similar metals arc treated in the same way. 

To obtain shidlac in the slate of a fine powder, it is first broken into pieces and 
melted with its weiglit of saltpetre The mass is then ground as usual, and the 
powiler thus obtaiiie<l is washed in pure water till all the saltj>ctre is removed. 

The resins and other substance." insoluble in water and difficult to pulverize In 
their pure state are treated in the same manner. 

All materials when pulvcriicd should be passctl through hair sieve No. 1. They 
ought, if possible, to be sifted when warm, and placed away immediately in well 
stopped bottles to preserve them from moisture. 

The chlorates should be pulverized in a marble mortar with a hard wood pestle. 
The mortar, pestle and sieve should be used only for a single chlorate, and the 
whole operation be performed in a jdnce apart, to avoid accidents. The chlorate 
can be ground and manipulated by itself without danger; but when it is mixed 
with sulphur, charcoal, etc.. it explodes very readily. 

Wki«bin6. — Each material should bo weighed accurately by itself, according to 
the proportions laid down in the table. 

Mixing. — The materials after being weighed out are poured on a sheet of paste- 
board and mixed as well as possible with the hand: they are then passed three 
times through sieve No. 2, keeping the sieve stationary, and stirring the materiala 
with the hand. 

If a chlorate enter into the composition, begin by mixing all the materials, on a 
pasteboard, except the sulphur, charcoal, lampblack, sugar, tallow aud shellac 
Whou they are well mixed, add the combustible materials separately, mix 
thoroughly, and theu add the chlorate.' 



SIEVES. 309 

Pass the composition three times through sieve No. 2, using a feather for the 
purpose. 

All these manipulations with compositions into which a chlorate enters should be 
pcrformetl in a place aside, and with a small quantity at a time. 

Compositions thus prepared should be preserved in well stopped bottles, carefully 
labelled. Those containing chlorates should be placed away from the rest and 
apart from each other. 

Dampening. — Compositions are dampened by pouring the pure or gummed liquid 
on them, a little at a time, and mixing it well with the hand or a wooden knife. 
Compositions should not be dampened until just before they are to be moulded. 

Moulding. — All compositions may be firmlj^ comjiressed. provided care be taken 
to avoid friction and blows with those containing chlorates. 

However great the care taken in the choice of materials, their proportions and 
manipulations, it is difficult always to get uniform results. It is necessary, there- 
fore, to try the mixtures and modify the proportions as may be required. 

In every composition there are certain substances which are used to furnish 
oxygen for the consumption of the rest : the nitrates and chlorates are such. There 
are other substances, as sulphur, charcoal and vegetable matters, which are burned ; 
and others which are only used to give c(jlor to the flame, as antimony, lead, cop- 
per, strontia, etc. 

The same substance may furnish oxygen and color the flame at the same time. 
Certain materials are used onlj' to heighten the color — as the protochloride of mer- 
cury and the hydrochlorate of ammonia : the action of the latter is weaker than 
that of the former. 

When a composition burns too slowly, there is an excess of coloring matter or of 
that which is to be burned, or some other substanqe (as water, for example) — very 
rarely of that which furnishes oxygen. When the composition burns too fast, it is 
necessary to add coloring matter, or such substances as sugar, rosin or tallow, 
which operate by separating the substances supplying the oxygen from those which 
are burned, and at the same time keeping up the combustion. 

Generally, the quicker the combustion the more will the flame approach to white- 
ness, whatever may be the coloring principle, and the slower the combustion the 
more certainty there will be of obtaining the desired color. 

Sieves. 

Sieves are made of brass wire, hair or silk, and may be square or round in shape. 

I^No 1 \^^ meshes in 1 inch, or 2,500 in a square inch, 
I ■ ■ I a single hair in one direction, 2 in the other. 
Hair sieves I No. 2 I ^^ incsbes in 1 inch, or 625 in a square inch, 2 

'"•" -j • "• I hairs side by side in each direction, 

mixing compositions. ^^^^ ^ | 12.5 meshes in 1 inch, or 156 in 1 square inch, 3 
[ hairs side by side in each direction. 
_ No. 4. 180 meshes in a square inch, brass wire. 
The silk sieve is made like No. 1, and often replaces it. Brass sieves ought to bo 
used only for dry materials. 



rm 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Dimensions and Weights of Paper or Pojilar Shells. 















ORKAIUKTS. 




Tliick- 


Wciglit of 


WelKht of 


















ueMS uf 1 


Cliargu, 






Weight of 


Number of 






1 




K 
B 


i 
I 










■ 






J. 


1 




= 1 _. 1 




S 


t 




i 


1 


1 




i 


1 

e 
>•* 




"o 


c 
1 


1 





St 


1 


i 


1 

1 





S 

K 
t 


8 


la. 


In. 


In. 


lta.M. 


lbt.OB. 


(H. 


Ob. 


In. 


See. 


0». 


Or. 




Or. 










k,* 


.5 


.92 1 .105 


2.10 


3.5 


A 


1.4 


3. 


.5 


40 


1 210' 1 60 


170 


32 


14 


A 


A 


Al 1.10 


7.8 


5. 


.5 


1.4 


3. 


.6 


40 


■•!i" : !*» 


nmi 


44) 00 


10 


U 


.1 •a:1!> 


11.14 


5. 


1. 


1.4 


3. .5 


40 


-Jio ' nn 


SiW 


zn 130 


u. 


1.35 


1.5 14.14 


S6. 


12. 


2. 


1^^ 


3. I .5 


40 


1 210,1 BOO 3400 


7<W|4ao 



Dimensions for Sun and Wheel- Cases. 



WHUIL-CAUa. 



Interior diameter in. 

p ( Exterii>r diameter in. 

twe.... I Luugth in. 

r _,. , ( at bottom. . .in. 
«, . ., 1 Diameter \ , , ^ :_ 

Spindle . -( ( ut tup in. 

( Length in. 



0.75 1.0 


1.6 ! 0.76 


1.0 


1.2 


1.6 


2.0 1 1.20 


1.6 


11. 


10.60 


12.5 |l 8.75 


8.75 


.28 


.55 


.65 1 .28 


.65 


.18 


.38 


.40 .18 
.80j .86 


.38 


.36 


.75 


.76 



Hate of Burning of Compositions. 



i.i 



2.0 

8.76 
.65 
.40 
.80 



WHEEL-mU. 



BTAinnXO PIEM. 



DIMKNSIOXt. 



Com- 



L«ngtb of case in.' 8.75 

Interior diameter in.i .75 

Weight of composition oz.^ 3.5 

Time of burning, per in sec. 17. 



White. Chinece. ; Sun. 



8.75 I 8.76 

.75 ; .76 

3.5 4. 

17. 21. 



11. 



.75 



5. 
22. 



Star. 



.T6 



4. 

20. 



Romaa 



19. 



.76 



6. 

45. 



COMPOSITIONS FOR FIREWORKS. 



311 



Rate of Burning of Compositions — Continued. 



»■ 




i 




o 


o 


JS 


3 




^ 


5 


>H 



l^ 



Leiipth of case in. 

Interior diameter... in. 

Weight of coinposltion gr. 

Time of burning sec. 



4. 4. 
.3'2 .32 



5. 
.32 
150 
90 



4. 

..32 
150 

90 



4. 1 3. 

.32 II. 

160 547 

90 ! eo 



3. 3. 

1. 1. 

546 545 
45 65 



.75 
250 
60 



Compositions for Fireworks. 



The partt are, by weight: 

White. — 16 nitre: 8 sulphur: 4 mealed powder. 
Yellov}. — 1 charcoal; 1 sulphur: fi nitrate of soda. 
Red. — 5 ehlor. of pota.ssa : 20 nit. of strontia; 4 gum dainmar. 
Stars .. \ Blue. — 8 chlor. of potassa; 4 sulph. of copper: 4 Rinn dammar. 

Green. — 96 chlorate of potaesa; 192 nitrate of baryta; 64 sulphur; 8 

lampblack. 
Fivc-pointrd — 7 sulphur: 10 mealed powder. 
l' White. — 26 nitre; 9 sulphur: 5 raealeil powder. 
Yellow. — 16 nit. of soda; 4 sulph.; 4 mealed powder; 2 lampblack. 
Lances. -{ Jted.—^O nit. of strontia; 16 nitre; 10 sulph.: 7i mealed powder. 
I Blue. — 8 nitre: 2 sulphur; 4 sulphate of copper. 
[ Oreen. — 96 nitre; 64 sulph.; 8 lampblack : 192 nitr.ito of barj'ta. 
White. — 16 nitre; 8 sulphur; 4 mealed powder. 
Yellow. — 2 nitre; 4 sulphur; 20 nitrate of soda; 1 lampblack. 
Lights . l ^^'^' — ^ °itre: 6 sulphur: 20 nitrate of strontia; 1 lampl)lack. 
■ ' ' Blue. — 8 nitre; 2 sulphur; 4 sulphate of copper. 

Gieeu. — 24 nitre; 16 sulph.: 48 nitrate of baryta: 1 lampblack. 
Bencjal. — 2 antimony; 4 suljdi.: 4 mealed powder; 16 nit. of soda. 
(Commo)i. — 6 nitre; 1 sulphur; 16 mealed powder ; 6 charcoal. 
Wiii;i;i,- Ih-iUitiut. — 1 nitre : 1 sul]ihur: 16 mealed powder; 7 steel filings. 
FIRES. "1 Chinese. — 1 nitre: 1 sulph.; 16 mealed powder; 7 cast-iron filings. 
[ White. — 6 nitre; 7 sulphur; 16 mealed powder. 
Sun-fires — Chinene. — 1 nitre; 1 sulphur: 16 mealed powder; 7 cast-iron filings. 
Streamers.' — 2 nitre; 1 sulphur; 16 mealed powder; 4 charcoal. 
Serpents. — 2 charcoal; 16 mealed powder. 

Roman Candles.— 6 nitre; 2 sulphur: 16 mealed powder: 6 charcoal. 
Gold Rain. — 16 nitre; 10 sulphur; 4 mealed powder; 3 lampblack; 1 flowers of 
zinc; 1 gum arabic. 
The nitrate of soda may be replaced by the bicarbonate of soda or the oxalate of 
soda. The sulphate of copper is ammoniated. 



812 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Tools and Imphtnrnts. 

Tho following list of laboratory tools and implements shows (he kinds B\^d pro- 
portions which may be required for a large laboratory and for a park of artillery: 



Lubnni- 
tory. 



Awli.bmd 

Adco, copper, weifrhing 5 lbs 

Bench, for driiwin^' llie loads of shells 

Bench- flake 

Biek-iron 

Bill-hook 

I for driving fu7.es of different oaliliren •• 
1 for driving signal rockets and port-fires 

' 1 for piiucheii 

I for cult ing on 

Bottles, with groun<l glass stoppers 

Boxes, for 12 workmen making cartri<lgcs — 3 to ea<-b.. 

-, , ( Wooden, various bires 

"°*"' learthcn, glared, large 

Braces and bits 

Brubhus, of various kin<ls 

Buckets 



Blocks 



t 

•! 

I 
1 



Callipers, various sizes . 
( for fu7.e.> 



20 
4 

i 

1 

4 

S« 
IS 

6 
2 

18 
« 
3 
10 
2 
ft 
4 
ft 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
1 
ft 
3 
8 

Dredging boxes • 8 

of iron, pointed with copper or brass, for driring 

port -fires. 2 

for driving fuies for 13-inch ami 10-inch shells ; long 

I and short | 24 

Drifts -[ for driving fuies for 8-ineh shells and bowitters; long 

and short 24 

for driving signal rockets, sets for 1-inch 1 

" '• .75-incb 3 

[for driring serpents, iron ft 



Chargers, I for jiort-fires 

copjier. • • • 1 for signal rockets 

[ for cartridges for small arms (revolving). 

< brass, for unloading sh.'lls 

Chisels J. cold 

( joiners' 

f, I common 

Compasses .. { 

* I spring 

Coopers' drivers, copper and wood 

Crowbar 

Cutting boards 

Cylinders for gauging balls 

Dippe 



TOOLS AND IMPLEMENTS. 313 

Tools and Implements. — Continued. 



Laljora-i 
tory. 



Drills, assorted 

f half-round 



Files. 



saw 

rat -tail 

, large 

of iron or wood for port-fire ca.«cs 

for rocket-cases — sets for each calibre 

for serpents 

for leaders 

for small arm cartridges, of each calibre, 1 to each 
Formers . . -i workman 

for cylinders and caps, for each calibre 

for pot for rockets, " " 

for cutting pots on, " " 

for cones for rockets, " " 

for wads, " " 

Fork, iron, for dipj)ing pitched fascines 

Funnels, of copper and tin, various kinds ■ 

Fuze-cutters 

Fuze-setters 

Fuze-extractors 

steel, for shot and shells, for each calibre 

double, for grape and canister, " " 

" for cartridge formers, " " 

Gauges "• \ of sheet-iron, for sabots, " " 

I " for canister bottoms, " " 

I " for canisters, " " 

[ of copper or wood, for cannon cartridges 

Grimlets ■ 

Gimlets, for priming rockets 

Glue pot and brush 

Gunners' callipers 

Gunners' pincers 

Hammers. | '■■""• 1"^"^' ^^^ strapping shot, etc 

I copper 

Hand-barrows, with rope bottoms, for powder barrels 

Ilateliet 

Hooks for iHipacking ammunition-boxes 

Implements for making paper fuzes — sets 

' iron, for melting lead 

iron, for rock-fire, etc 

iron, for pitch 

copper, for paste 

for cutting paper, large and small 

block 



Kettles 



Knives 



20 



314 



ORDXANCK MANUAL. 



Tools and Implements — Continued. 



Labora- 
tory. 



f iron, for lead, pitch, etc. 

I 



Mallets . 



Measuroo. 



Muul.Ii. 



Planes 

Pliers, flat, for twistinK wire 

Plugs, i>(Uiiteil, for londiDg gpliorical-case 

Pre?.e. for paper and pactoboard 

Profilos, of sheot-iron, for sabots — for each calibre. 
Punches 



C for piercing shot straps 
Punches . . • centre 



( for fu7.c-faps, for 13, 10, and 8-iuch — 2 each 

Rasps, for wood 

Reels, or frames, for quick-match 

Rocket-stand 

Rolling-boards, for port-fire cases, etc 



T, , < carpenters 

Kuies • .j.^^_ for cuttins h\ 



Sandstones, for sharpening knives 

Saws 

Scale, of 1 foot (diagonal), divided into inches and lOOths. 



Ladlca. • • • ■, <. i. . , 

j copper, f<»r saltpetre, etc. 

LanlcrnH 

Letter punches (utencils) — set 

C for drivint; fuzes and port-fires 

^. for driving rockets 

( carpenters' 

( for powder, from 8 pounds to 4 ounces. 

I gallon, (|uart, pint, half pint, and gill- 
Mori ar and p<-stle, bronto 

Mortar, marble, with )>estlc of hard wood 

I fur balls and buckshot — sets 

I for inccmiiary-balls, different calibres. 

I brass, for jiort-fires 

I for rockets, of each calibre 

Mullers, Wooden 

Needles, tif various kinds ' 1 ' 

„. ( for cutting wire 

Nippers •.•'-. , • • I II 

' ' I uir trimming balls 

Palms, for sewing canvas 

Paste brushes • 

I for cartridge papers, for small arms • 

„ I tin, of each kind and calibre, for paper cartridges .. 

f attorns.. .. .. ., for flannel cartridges. , 

[ " " '' for canisters 

Pans, co]))ier, various sites 

Pitchers, stone 



TOOLS AND IMPLEMENTS. 

Tools and Implements — Continued. 



815 



Shovels 

Skimmer, copper, for ."altpetre 

Soldering furnaces aud irons 

Socks, pairs 

( steel, for saltpetre, etc 

Spatulas .... i for rock-fire 

( for packing ammunition-boxes 

Spoke-shave 

Sponges 

Spools, for twine 

Squares .... j ^^oo-^cn 



Stamps for flannel cartridges— for each calibre. 

Tar[)nulins • 

Thimbles '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'. 

Tinners' creaser 

Tinners' shears .,'.'.', 

Trestles, pairs .... 



Tub.s 



Trivets, iron 

for the demolition of cartridges for small arms 
common 

_, . ,. , *^°'' "inking slow-match, etc. (casks sawed in t 

Twisting machine, fur slow-match, etc 

Watering pots 

Weights— sets for each balance or pair of 'scales.' .' '. ........ 

Whetstones 



Wrenches . 
Yard-stick 



screw, 
fuze . . 



Labora- 
tory. 



Scales, copper, large, small and medium 5 

Scissors and shears, of different sizes '" 

Scoops, copper, for taking up materials \ 

Screw-drivers * " 

Scril)crs 

Shell-hooks _ * 

Shell-plug screws ' 

Sieves f hair, Nos. 1, 2, ?,, and 4, with frames 

I bolting-cloth 

Screens, for demolition of cartridges for small arms .'.'.'.' 



GO 




Park. 



2 
12 
4 
2 
2 

2 
4 
2 



310 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



C H A r T K R E L E ^' F. N T II 



EQUIPMENT OF BATTERIES FOR FIFLD, SIEGE, AND 
GAlUtlSON SERVICE. 



EQUIPMENT OF FIELD BATTERIES. 

Interior Arrangement of Ammunition-Chests for Field Guns and 
Howitzers. (Plato IS.) 

The princi]inl ilivisiun; of a cbost are designated as the riyht An// and the lr/( half, 
to a person facing; the fnmt of the chest. 

The Finnlier dirisions in each half, ])erpcailiculnr to the fiidcs, arc deiignntod >■ 
fint, tecuiitt, third, etc., from the principal partition, each wnj; the dirisiuni parallel 
to the pides arc desijtnatcd a* the /"roll^ mi<ldh-, and renr iliritioni. 

The kind of atnniiinition contained in the ^mall divisions is marked on the tnsido 
of the cover, over each division. 

Ammunition-Cliest for the G-pounder Gun. ^ifi^ 

Eiffht i>nrtiii'<>iiM (pojilar). four in each half, perpendicular to the »iide? of the clieii. 
The partitions are supported by tiro $lrip* of wood at each end, forming a jcroore in 
which the partition slides: each strip is fastened to the side of the chest witii /tfur 
copper H»n7«, 3-penny, 1.13-inch. 

In the first fi^ur divisions of the right half are lim lohter*, to each division, for 
spherical-case shot — one fastened to the principal partition by 3 icreirt No. 14, the 
others fastened to the movable partitions each by 3 tcreirt. 

Onf trny for holdinj: e»iuipments, rests on the partitions in the left half of the chest. 
The tray has ttco tiiict. tiro tmh, and one bottom (poplar or white pine). The side* 
and ends are dovetailed together and fastened by 12 miih ; the bottom is fastened to 
the ends and sides by 14 lira»i screic* No. 12. Three finger-boles are bored in the 
inside of the ends, to lift the tray by : and a hole is bored through the middle of the 
bottom, to let the air enter when the tray is lifted out. 



AMMUNITION-CHESTS. 317 

Ammunition- Chest for the Vl-pounder Gun. 

Six pnrfitioiis, three in each half, perpendicular to the sides of the chest, supported 
as in the 6-pounder chest. 

Four bolsters, for spherical-case shot — one of them fastened to the priucipal parti- 
tion with .3 screws No. 14, two fastened to the first partition in the right half with 

3 screws No. 14, and one to the left side of the second partition, right half, with 3 
screws No. 14. 

The second and third jiartitions in the right half arc made higher than the others, 
to suit the height of the canisters fixed. 

One tray, for equipments, in the left half — made like that for the 6-pdr. chest. 

For the (jiui of model 1857, there arc 8 bolsters for shells and spherical-case shot, 
fastened as above. '^ 

Ammunition- Chest for the Vl-pounder Howitzer. 

Six partitions, three in each half, supported like those of the 6-pdr. chests. 

Twenty-one bolsters for the lower tier of shells and spherical-case shot. They are 
cupped out to receive the balls, and have holes bored through the bottom for the 
fuzes to lie in. They are placed in the bottom of the chest, three in each division, 
except the first division in the right half; they are fastened to the bottom each by 

4 sprigs. 

Twenty-eight props, for the upper tier of shells and spherical-case. Four of the 
props are placed in each division, except the first one in the right half. Two of 
them are fastened to each end of the chest, two to the left side of the priucipal 
partition, aud two to the right side of the first partition in the right half, each by 6 
copper nails, 3-penny. 

The rest of the props are fastened in pairs to the movable partitions each by 6 
copper nails, 3-peuuy. 

Six pro2)s for canisters (oak), in the first division of the right half; three fastened 
to the principal partition, three to the movable partition, each with 3 screws No. 14. 

- Amniunition-Chest for the 'Z-k-poumkr Howitzer. 

Eight linings, two in each of the front and rear divisions, fastened to the endi of 
the chest and to the principal partition each \)y 6 copper nails, 3-penny. 

Four long partitions, two in each half, parallel to the sides of the chest; they are 
supported by the end linings and by two npriyht strips, fa&tcued to the ends and 
principal partition each by 4 copper nails, 3-penny. 

Two short partitions for canisters, in the rear division of the right half; each of 
them is supported by 4 strips, fastened to the back of the chest and to the long 
partition each by 3 copper nails, 3-penny. 

Seven short jjartitions, for shells and spherical-case shot; two in each of the front 
divisions, two in the rear division of the left half, and oue in the middle division of 



318 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

the loft half. These partitions slide into grooves made each by two uprirjht utrip*, 
which arc fastened t<i tlic sides and to the Ion;; jmrtitions each by 4 cupper uaili, 
3-pcnny; each purtition is formed of two pieces, which slip into the grooves, ono 
over the other. 

Thtity-thrcr holntm for shells and 8]dierical-case. Seven of thcni arc fa.-'tcncd, at 
the bottom of the chest, to the end linings of the two front divisions and the left rear 
division, and to the principal psirtitiou in the right middle division, each by 2 ncreir* 
No. 14. Twenty-four of the bolsters are fastened in pairs on each side of the short 
partitions of the two front divisions and the left rear divisions; twelve to the lower 
half and twelve to the upper half of the i)arlitions; each pair fastened by 3 •'•r«if» 
No. 14, which pass through the bolsters and the partition. Two bolsters arc fastened 
U> the left side of the middle partition iu the right half, one to the lower and one to 
the upper part of the partition, each by 2 »crc<r* No. 14. 

Ammunition- Chest for the Zl-poxindtr Howitzer. 

Six lourj pnrtitiiin*, three in each half — one parallel to the ends and two parallel 
to the sides of the chest ; each partition is supported by 4 itript fastened to the sidoi 
and ends of the chest, or to the other partitions, each by 5 <^(>pptr nnil*, .'{-penny. 

Four thort partition*, one in the front and rear division of each half, made in two 
pieces, and fastened in the same manner as those of the 24-poundcr howitzer chest. 

Ticinty-onc buUtert for shells and spherical-case. Seven of them are futcned, ftt 
the bottom of the chest, to the ends and cross partitions each by 2 trreir* No. 14. 
Twelve bolsters are fastt-ned iu pairs, us in the 24-pouudLT howitzer cheit, to the 
short partitions in the left half, and iu the rear division of the right half. Two 
bolsters are fastened, in like mnnner, on the right side of the short partition iu the 
right front division. 

A)nmunition-Chcst for the Mountain Jlouitzer. 

Eight lony elentt, for supporting the ammunition : they are glued to the side*, 
opposite to each other, and fastened by 32 copper tiallt, 3-pcnny. Kitjht short cleat; 
fastened to the sides by 8 tcrcim No. 14, and 16 copper iiaih, 3-penny. 

Ammunition-Chest for the Prairie Carriage. 

* 

The same as for the mountain howitzer. 



AMMUNITION CARRIED IN EACH CHEST. 319 

Ammunition carried in each Chest. 



No. Weight. 



FOR 6-POUNDEB-GUN. 

Shot, fixed 

Sphcrical-casc, fixed 

Canisters, fixed^ 

Spare eartridcjes, 1.} lb 

Friction primers < . . 

Slow-mateli .yard. 

Port-fires 

Total number of rounds. ..... 

FOU 12-POUNDEH GDN. 

Shot, fixed 

Spherical-case, fixed 

Canisters, fixed 

Spare cartridjrcs, 2^ lbs 

Friction primers 

Slow-match yard. 

Port-fires 

Total number of rounds 

FOR 12-pnn. GUN (1857). 

Shot, fixed 

Spherical-case 

Shells. ._. 

Canisters 

Sparc cartrid^^es, 2.5 lbs 

Friction primers 

Slow-match 3'ard. 

Port-fires .' 

Total number of rounds 

FOR 12-PDR. HOWITZER. 

Shells, fixed 

Spherical-case, fixed 

Canisters, fixed 

Friction primers 

Slow-match yards. 

Port-fires ."..... 

Total number of rounds 



25 


190. 


20 


140. 


5 


42. 


2 


2.6 


76 


.97 


2 


.38 
.57 


2 


50 






376.52 



20 



Lbs. 



308. 



8 


117.6 


4 


G7.64 


2 


5.12 


48 


.62 


1.5 


.28) 


2 


.57 J 


32 






499.83 


12 


184.8 


12 


176.4 


4 


48.68 


4 


67.64 


2 


6.12 


48 


.62 


1.5 


.28) 
.67J 


3 


V> 






484.11 



157.5 

273. 
47.4 
.75 

.38 
.57 

479.6 



In the left half. 

In the 1st four divisions of right half. 

In 5th division, right half. 

On the spherical-case. 

In a tin box, in the tray. 

On the ammunition in right half. 



In left half, and in 4th division of 

right half. 
In 1st and 2d divisions, right half. 
In 3d division, right half. 
On the spherical-case. 
In a tin box, in the tray. 

On the ammunition in right half. 



In 1st, 2d, and 3d divisions, left half. 
In 1st, 2d, and 3d divisions, right 

half. 
In 4th division, right half. 
In 4th division, left half. 
On the shells. 
In a tin box, in the tray. 

On the ammunition in right lialf. 



In 2d, 3d and 4th divisions, right 

half. 
In left half. 

In 1st division, right half. 
In a tin box on the canisters. 

On the canisters. 



320 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Arnmunition carried in each Chest — Continued. 



No. Weight. 



FOR 24-PDR. HOWITZER. 

Sbcllx. 8trn|ipi-(l 

Spherical -ca«L', strapped .... 

Canigtcrs ■ 

Ismail charge . . . 
Largo charge... 

Friction primers ■ 

Slow-matcii yard 

I'ort-liresi 

Tolnl iniinl.cTdf ruuuds 



POR 32-PnR. HOWITZER. 

ShelU, !-trapped ■ 

Spherical-case, strapped ....^ 

Canister 

p . . _ ( Small charge . . . 
^ ■ ( Larjfc charge . . . 

Friction primers 

Slow-wntcli yard 

Port-liro> !.... 

Total number of ruuuds 



FOR MOl'NTAIS HOWITZER. 

Shells, tixed 

Spherical-case, fixed 

Canisters, fixed 

Friction primers 

Slow-match yard, 

Port-fires 

Total number of rounds 



12 



Lbs. 



225. 
2U. 



63.75 
53.82 



5.40 
.44 



.19| 
.671 



564.69 



196.80 
216.00 

28.50 

46.50 ) 

3.88 I 

.28 

.09 1 

.28 I 



492.33 



9.9 

75.6 
11.8 
.15 
.09 

.28 



In left half. 

In front and middle dirisioni of right 

half. * 

In rear divisions of right half. 
12 in mi(fdlo division, left half; 9 in 

miildle division, right half: 2 on 

the canisters. 
On canisters. 
In a tin bi>x on the canisters. 

On the canisters. 



Front and rear divisions of left half. 
Kcar divisions and right front divi- 

sion of right half. 
Left front divisii^u, right half. 

I St division in each half. 

In a tin box in the middle dirision. 

In the midille division. 



97.82 



In left end. 

In middle. 

In right end. 

In water-proof paper. 



For pkaikie howitzer. — The same as for the mountain howitzer. 



IMPLEMENTS AND EQUIPMENTS. 321 

Implements and Equipments for Field Carriages^ 



FOR A GUN OR HOWITZER- 
CARRIAGE. 



Sponges and rammers 

Sponge covers 

Worm and staff 

Handspikes 

Sponge bucket 

Prolonge 

Vent cover 

Tar bucket 

Water bucket (leather) 

Gunners' haversacks 

Tube-pouch 

Vent-punch 

Gunners' pincers 

Tow-hook 

Hausse 

Thumb-stalls 

Priming-wire 

Lanyard for friction primers 

Gunners' gimlet 

Fuze-cutter 

Tarpaulin, largo , 



FOR A CAISSON. 



Felling axe 

Shovel, long handle 

Pickaxe 

Spare handspike . . . 

Sparc pole 

Spare wheel 

Tow-hooks , 



Tar bucket 

Watering bucket (leather). 
Tarpau liu, large 



No. Weight. 



On the gun-carriage. 

On the gun. 
I On the limber. 



In the implement trays, or in other 
vacant spaces in the ammunitioD- 
chest. 



In the tube-pouch. 

In the tube-pouch. 
Strapped on the ammunition-chest. 



In the places provided for them on 
I the caisson body. 



One in the limber-chest, and one in 
caisson-chest. 

\ On the limber. 

Strapped on the limber-chest. 



21 



322 



OEDNANCE MANUAL. 



ImplcmmlR and Equipments for Prairir Carri'Tiex. 



Weight. 



Sponf^rrw And rammers 2 

Bpon^i- ciiviTr , 2 

Haiulfpiki' 1 

Vent rover I 1 

IlavT^iirk I 1 

Tulir |.(Hi.li 2 

Prim inj; wire I 1 

TbumliKiullo i 2 

tiunnerx' );imlut ! 1 

Lanyiiril for frirtion primers. I 2 

Fufp-riiltor I 

GutUHTH' |iin<-i<ri> 1 

Tsrpiiiilin. rt X 1" fo«'t 1 

Water l.ii.-k.t 1 

Prulon^o 1 

T&r bucket i 1 



ion 



the cftrriaRO. 



On the K""- 

In ammunition-chests. 



In the lube-pouch. 



In tool-ohect A. 

On tlie ammunition-che«U 

On tlic limber. 

On the );un-rarriage. 

On ihe limber. 



Implements and Equipments for the Mountain Howitzer-Carriage. 



No. 



Weight. 



Handspike 

SpoufTC and rammer 

Bponpe cover 

Vent ooviT 

Haver.-iuk 

Tube-jiouch 

Priming-wire 

Gunners' gimlet 

LanvHrd for friction primers. 

Fuzc-<Mittt'r 

Gunners' pincers 

Tarpaulin, 5 X & feet 



Lbs. 
5.0 
3.0 
.11 
0.18 
1.86 
1.80 
0.08 
0.08 
0.2 
0.2 
0.85 
5.25 



r On the carriage. 

On the sponge. 
On the gun. 

) Ou the pack with the ommunitioD- 

I chests. 

In the tube-poach. 

In ammunition-chest. 
In tool-chest A. 

On the pack with the ammunition- 
chest. 



FOUOE FOR A FIELD BATTERY. 



^ 



EQUIPMENT OF TRAVELLING FOIIGKS AND BATTERY-WAGONS. 

One forge and one battery-wagon accompany each field battery. They are fur- 
nished with the tools and materials required for shoeing horses and for ordinary 
repairs and preservation of carriages and harness. 

Other forges and battery-wagons, equipped for the general service of the army, 
accompany the field park which contains the general supplies of ordnance stores. 
The forge for the field battery is designated by the letter A. 
The forg* for the field park " " " B. 

The hattery-Mugon for the field battery " " " C. 

The battcry-tcagon for the field 2)ark " " " D. 

EQUIPMENT OF A FORGE FOR A FIELD BATTERY. 

Limber-Chest. 

The chest is marked Forge A. The stores and tools are carried in 6 boxes and 1 
oil can. 

Interior arrangement. — 2 copper clamjiK for iron square, fastened on the 
inside of the cover by 11 screici. 

Boxes for tool* and stores (white pine, .75 inch thick). The sides and ends 
are dovetailed together and fastened by 8-penny naif": the covers are made with 
clamps on the ends, and are loose: they have 2-inch holes bored in each end to lift 
them by. Two handles of leather, doubled, are nailed on the inside of the ends of 
the boxes, so as not to interfere with the covers. 

The boxes are marked, respectively, A Nos. 1, 2, .3, 4, 5. 

Exterior Dimensions of the Boxes. 



DIMENSIONS. 


A Nos. 1, 3, 6. 


A No. 2. 


A No. 4. 


A No. 6. 


Shoeing Box 


Length in. 

Width in. 

Depth in. 

Weight lbs. 


17.8 
13.25 
7.5 
8.25 


17.8 
13.25 
7.5 
9.75 


23.5 

8. 

6.5 

8. 


39.8 
9.8 
6.5 

14.6 


16.5 

8. 

6.6 

4.7 



Nos. 2 and 4 have each a partition; No. 2 at 4.5 inches from one end, and No. 4 
at 6.25 inches. 

One oil can, made of tin, to hold one quart : it has a neck for a cork near one 
corner. It is marked A, Sperm oil. 

Dimensions of can. — Length, 5 inches; width, 5 inches; height, 4 inches; diame- 
ter of neck, 1 inch; height of neck, 0.5 inch; weight of can, 0.9 lb. 



d24 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Contents of the Limber-Chest of Forge A. 



»• TwU »iid .Sl<.rc-». N<i. Weight SinitliH' T-xiU and Storet. No. Wolnht 



Box A I, containing: 

lIorscHhuci Not*. 'J und 3. . • • 

Box A 2. 0'>ntainin({: 

Ilori<c(<li(>e nnilit No«. U and 3 
WanhcTH Hiid nul8 No. 2.... 
Wa!iburi< und nutx No. 3 . . . . 
WavtuTs and nut« Nn. 4 . . . . 

NailK N... 1 C 

Nails No. 2 C 

Tire boltH 

Key* for ammunition-choBt« 

Linch- washers 

LinclipiiiH 

(MlHill^ NiiN. 1 and 2 ft. 

Colddhul .S'-linkx, Nu. 3 

Coltinlnil .S'-link«. No. 5 

Total coutuini'd in \i«\ A 2.. 

Hox A .^, rutilttininf; : 

llorsciilioe!* Nox. 2 and '.i . . . . 

Box A 4. oontaiiiin'; 

Hand culd-cbiKols 

Uardie 

Kilos, n.-ssortcd, with handles 

Buttress 

Hand jmni'lics, round and 

square 

Screw-wrench 

Hand ccrcw-driver 

Hand vice 

Smiths' i-iUlii>ers pair 

Taps I Nos. 1 

Dies, pairs ) .'{ an 
Wood screws, I 



) Nos. 1.2. ( 

j ;i and 4. I 



1-in. No. 14 ) 



gros 



Quart can of sperm oil. 



Total contained in Box A 4 



»0 



yo 



Lbs. 



,25 



Box A 5, containing:. 

iFirc-shovel 

|P..kcr 

Split hrociin 

llitiid hiiuinuT 

Riveting haninicr 

Nailing huniinor 

Slod^^c hntuincr • 

Chi.-'els fur hoi iron 

C'liisois fnr ciild ircn . . • • 

•Smiths' ton^s 

Fiirc-iiuncli 



01. Ill 



8.26 
100. 



FulKr 

Nail-claw 

Round piin<-h 

Tap- wrench 

Dic-8t<ick 

Nave-bands, cK-vclopcd 

Tirc-bamts, developed 

Total contained in Box A 6.. 



28.52 



iSboeini; box. containing:. ... 

Shoeing huuuier i 

Pincers P^i*' 

Rasps (12 inches) ' 

Shoeing knife 

iToe-knife i 

Pritchel ( 

Nail-punch 

Clinching iron I 

Oil-stone 

Leather aprons j 

Total contained in sboeing- 
I box 

Iron square, in clamps on the< 

t inside of cover ' 

jPadlock, OD chest 

Tow. used in packing 

Tar bucket, on its hook... 

' Total 



Lbs. 

14.5 
.3.05 
1.90 
1.25 
.■U50 
1.05 
l.KO 

10.50 
.H.OtI 
3.00 

15.00 
1.00 
1.00 
2.40 
5.00 

Mo 
3.75 
«.2:. 
11.75 
2.75 

HO. OS 

4.7 
0.8S 



3.00 



12.75 

2.00 
0.50 
5.00 
7.00 

480738 



Boxes Nos. 1, 2 and 3 are placed in the bottom of the cbest: No. 1 »f»iast the 
left hand; No. 2 in the middle. 

No. 4 is placed on top of Nos. 1 and 2. again.^t the left end and the back of the 
ehoat ; the division for the oil can on the left hand. 



BATTERY AVAGON FOR A FIELD BATTERY. 



325 



No. 5 is placed on top of Nos. 1, 2 and 3. against the front of the chest. 

The shoeing box is placed on No. 3, against the right end and the back of the 
chest. 

The tools and stores in all the boxes, and in the forges and hattcry-wagons, are 
securely packed with tow. 

Contents of Forge Body A. 



TOOLS AND 8T0RI8. 



No. 



Weight. 



Square iron, ^ in. and f inch '. . . , 

Flat iron, 1.} in. X S in., 1 in. X 4 in., and' 

U in. X 4 in 

Hound iron, g in , 

Cast-steel, I in. square , 

English blister-steel : . . . , 

Box A 6, containing : '.... 

Horseshoes 100 

Water bucket, wood i 1 

Anvil ! 1 

Vice 1 



Watering bucket, leather. 

Bituminous coal 

Coal shovel 

Padlock 

Tow 



Total, exclusive of vice 



Lbs. 
100.00 

50.00 

60.00 

5.00 

5.00 

8.25 

108.25 

10.00 

100.00 

29.00 

8.00 
250.00 
4.75 
0.50 
2.00 

693.50 



In the iron room. 
The bars not more 
than 3 feet long; 
the s(|uare iron in 
2 bundles. 



In the iron room. 

On its hook. 

On the fireplace. 

Fixed on the stock of the 

carriage. 
On the vice. 

[ In the coal-box. 

On coal-box. 



To put the box in the iron room or take it out, loosen the thumb-nuts and raise 
the rear of the bellows an inch. 

EQUIPMENT OF A BATTERY-WAGON FOR A FIELD BATTERY. 

The battery-wagon for a field battery is designated by the letter C. 



lAmber- Chest. 

The chest is marked on the front side Battery-wagon C 

The tools and stores are carried in 4 boxes and 1 oil can. 

Interior arrangement.— 4 li-ackett, fastened to the inside of the cover by 10 
»cretos. 

Boxes for tools and stores (white pine, 0.75 inch thick). The sides and ends 
are dovetailed together and fastened by 8-penny nails; the covers are loose, like 
those of the limber-chest of Forgo A, as are also the handles. 

The boxes are marked, respectively, C Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4. 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 
Exterior Dimeniiont of the BoxM, 



C No. 1. C No. 2. C No. 3. C No. 4. 



R«inarlM. 



LciikIIi in. 

Widll in. 

Depth in. 

Weight lbs. 



17.8 


26.5 


39.8 


39.8 


13.25 


17.8 


9.8 


8.0 


7.5 


7.5 


6.25 


6.25 


8.25 


17.5 


12.5 


11.0 



The covers of Nos. 1 and 2 
are .75 inch thick, and 
thoRO of 3 and 4 are .5 
inch thick. 



Vo. S has a partition, at 5.25 inches from one end, for the oil can. 

No. 4 has two partitions perpendicular to the fides, making three divisions, 
raipectirely, 15.8 inches, 10 inches, and 11 inches lonj;. 

The oil can is like that for the limber-chest '>r Forfje A, and is marked C, 
Spkhm oil. 



Contents of Limber-Chest for Battery- Watjon 



C. 



TOOLS AHV ITOBSS. 



No. Weight 



CAnniAOE MAKKnS TOOLS. 

Iland-satvs, *) ■ ■ ■ r 

_ (on inside of 

Tenon-saw > 

,, , . , I cover. 

Box C 1, containin)^ : 

Jack plane 

Smoothing plane 

Brace, with 24 bits 

Spoke-shave 

Gauf^ 

Plane-irons 

Saw-set 

Rule (2 feet) 

G imlets 

Compasses pair 

Chalk-line 

Brad-awls 

Scriber 

Saw-files (44-in.) 

Wood-files (lO-in.) 

Wood-rasp (10-in.) 

Tryinii-sijuare (S-in.) 

Hand screw-driver 

Box C 2, containing : 

Oil-stone 



{ Lbs. 
2 I 4.00 



1 , 1.50 



TOOU An BIOKIi. 



Mtt. Weight 



17.20 



CARRIAGE makers' TOOLS. 



■Couli 



,J. 



Box C 2 

Broadaxe 

Hand-axe 

Claw-hatchet 

Clnw-hamuier 

Pincers (small) pair 

Table-vice 

Framing chisels (1-in. and 

2-in.) 

Firmer-chisels (j-in. and 1)- 

in.) 

Framing gouges (1-in. and 

14-in.) 

Augers and handles (i-in., 

|-in. and j-in 

Screws-wrench 



Box C 3, containing: . . . 

Felling axe ) ... , ., 
. J " I with handles 

.Adze j 

Frame-saw 



{Quart can of sperm oil. 



SADDLERS TOOLS AND STORES. 



Mallet 
iClamp 



Lbs. 

6.00 
5.00 
2.00 
I.&O 
1. 00 
8.80 

3.00 

1.00 

2.00 

2.35 
2.42 

32.23 

12.0 
0.00 
S.M 
4.00 

2.70 



WAGON BODY C. 32T 

Contents of Limber- Chest for Battery- Wagon C— Continued. 



TOOLS AND STORES. 



.pair 



Box C 4, containing 

Hammer 

Shoe-knife 

Half-round knife 

Shears 

Sandstone 

Rule (2 feet) 

Needles 

Awls and handles 

Punches 

Pincers pair 

Pliers pair 

Claw-tool 

Greaser 

Thimbles 

Strap-awl 

Beeswax lbs. 




TOOLS ASD STORES. 



No. Weight 



'Black wax lbs. 

Bristles oz. 

Shoe thread lbs. 

Patent thread lbs. 

IBuckies (assorted, .75-in. to 

1 1.5-in) doz. 

Tncks M. 

Ounners' callipers 

Shoe-knives 

Scissors pairs 



Padlock, on the chest.. 
Tar bucket, on its hook 
Tow, for packing 



Total 



Lbs. 
3.00 
0.50 
5.00 
2.00 

1.00 

0.75 
0.50 
0.18 
0.20 

20.66 
0.50 
7.00 
7.00 

1162.59 



Boxes Nos. 1 and 2 occupy the bottom of the chest; No. 1 against the left end. 
Nos. 3 and 4 are placed on top of Nos. 1 and 2 : No. 3 against the rear of the 
chest. 

Wagon Body C. 

The large stores are piled loosely in the body and in the till ; the small store* 
and tools are packed in five boxen. 

Interior arrangement.— A till, 9 inches wide and <l.5 inches deep, as described 
page 45. 

An fi.vc rack extends along the whole length of the body, on the left side, 11 
inches from the bottom : it is 2 inches deep and 1.5 inch wide, and is fastened to 
the side by the middle rivets of the side studs, and by 5 wood-sn-ews. The rack has 
notches, to hold .3 axes, 3 hatchets, and 3 blll-hool-H. 



Exterior Dimensions of the Boxes. 



Length .•... in 

Width ..!.'. in. 

Depth [j,,; 

Weight lbs. 



C Nos. 5 & 6. 



C No. 7. 



C No. 8. 



Candle Box. 



23. 
18.5 
11.25 
17.5 



23.5 

20.25 

14. 

28. 



1.3. 
13. 

5. 

6. 



11. 

0.5 
,5.5 
2.85 



328 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



No8. 1 and 8 hare no cover ; No. 7 has a loose cover ; No. 8 is divided into 4 
equal parts: No. 8 and camlle box arc of white pine. fl.fi25 inch thick, with cover 
hinf^es and locks; Nos. 5 and fi are of hard wood. 0.7o inch thick. 

The boxes arc marked, res])ectivcly, C N<(s. 5, 6, 7, 8, luid candle box C. 

Dtmenaioiit of Cana and Keg*. 



Capacity 

Diameter in. 

Diauielcrof the bilge. . . .in. 

Hoif^hl in. 

Weight lbs. 



2 gal. 

8. 

11.5 
2.2 



NeatVfoot Turpentine Olive i,i-..v i>.i.> o ir-_ 
Oil. ALiiUeodOil Paint. B>*ck Paint. 2 Keg*. 



1 gal. 



10. 
1.37 



25 lbs. 
9.75 



10.25 
3. 



5 lbs. 
7. 



8.5 
1.5 



60lbi. 

».7i 
10.6 
12.6 

5. 



The first two cutis have nxindetl tops and nocks for curks; the other two hare 
flat tops, und the opening covered by a piece of tin s<ddered on. 

There are urmi cans — iiru marked C, Nkat's-foot Oil : <iur marked r, Linsekd 
Oil.; viie marked (', TriU'KNTiSK: tico marked (', Oi.ivk Pai.^it ; «m« marked C, 
Black Pai.nt. 

Contents of Wmjon Body C 



TOOLS AXB STOEU. 



No Weight 



TOOLS AlTD 8T0KU. 



No. Weight 



Box C 5, containing in 5! 

cans : i . . 

Linseed oil gal. 1 

Spirits turpentine gi^l. 1 

Olive paint lbs. 50 

Black paint lbs., 5 



Total in Box C 5 , 



Box C 7, containing in 2 

cans and 2 kegs 

Neat's-foot oil gals- 

Grease lbs. 



Box C 8, containing: 

Nails (4. 6, S. and 10 pen- 
ny) lbs. 

Felling axes, in axe rack. . • • 



Lbs. 

17.5 
9.17 
8.77 

56. 
6.5 



80.44 



28. 

32.80 

60. 



92.80 
6. 



'flaw-hatchet, ] . . f 

II 1 I 11 • 'n axe rack < 

Hand-bills, j ( 



Box C 6, containing: .. 

Paint brushes 12 

iSperm or wax candles. .. .lbs. I 5 

'Rammer-beads 4 

Sponge-heads ; 4 

Sponges 12 

Priming-wires 3 

Gunners' gimlets 3 

Lanj'ards for friction jirimers 4 

Cannon s])ikes 6 

Dark-lanterns 3 

Common lanterns. 4 

Total in Box C 6 I .. 



LlM. 

2. 

4. 



17.5 
3.00 
7.85 
2.90 
.{.20 
3.00 
0.24 
0,24 
0.40 
0.30 
3.00 
4.60 



28.73 



CONTENTS OF WAGON BODY C. 



329 



Contents of Wagon Body C — Continued. 



TOOLS AND STORES. 



Weight. 



Rcinarks. 



Caisson-stock 



Splinter-bar 

Rammers ami sponges. 
SpolvBS 



Fellies 

Grindstone 14 in.X4 in. 
Arbor and crank for <lo. 
Screw jacks 



Wheel-traces 

Leadini^-traces 

Collars 

Girths 

Whips 

Bridles 

Hal ters 

Halter-chains 

Ilame-straps 

Spare nose-baj;s 

Sash-cord pieces 

Slow-match yards 

Elevating-screw 

Pole-yoke 

Harness leather side 

Bridle leather sides 

Prolonge 

Scythes 

Scythe-stones 

Spades 

Pickaxes and h.andles 

Corn-sacks 

Tarpaulins, 5 feet square. . . 
Reaping hooks 



Scythe snaths 

Spare stock for battery- 
wagon 

Padlock 

Watering bucket 

Forage 

Boxes 

Tow 



Total 



Lbs. 
35. 

1.5. 

n. 

72. 



160. 

50. 

6. 

75. 

47. 
57. 
27. 
11. 

8. 
IS. 
21. 
15. 

4. 

i;i. 

10. 

0. 
15. 
12. 
25. 
22. 
12. 

9. 

6. 
.30. 
U. 
20. 
IS. 



.85 



12. 

90. 
0. 

8. 



69. 
24. 



1292.57 



Under the till, against the side and rear 
of the wagiin. 

On the caisson-stock, against rear end. 
On the bottom: piled lengthwise against 

the front end. 
On the spokes, crosswise. 
) On the fellies,* against the left side of 
I the wagou. 
On the fellies, against the front and the 

till. 
1 

In a pile occnpying ."^O inches at the 

rear cn<l of the wagon, between the 

j- left side and tlie caisson-stock, and 

up to the top of the till; the collar* 

piled on each other, from the bottom. 

J 

[ On the harness. 

On box No. 7, to the left of No. 8. 
On the pile of harness. 

Under the till, in front of the pile of 
j harness, against the caisson-stock. 
On box No. 7, in front of No. 8. 
In the till, againsi the front end. 
In the curve of the scythes. 
In the till ; the bits against rear end. 
Between the spade handles. 
On the scythes. 

On the corn-sacks, against front end. 
Fastened to the ridge-pole with a wooden 

clamp and a leather strap. 
Fastened to the ridge-polo with two 

leather straps and buckles. 
In the spare stock-stirrup. 

Tied to the forage rack. 
In the forage rack. 



Exclusive of forage. 



ORDNANCK MANUAL. 



Box C Xo. 5 is placed on the bottom of the wagon, next to the pile of harness which 
occupies the rear i)art of the body. Box No. 6 is on top of No. 5; No. 7 on the 
boltoni iif the wagon, in front of No. 5 ; No. 8 on top of No. 7. The candle box in 
No. 0. 

EQUIPMENT OF A FORCiE FOR THE FIEhl) PARK. 
Limber-Chest. 

The Chost is marked Forok B. 

The stores and tools uru packcil in 5 hoxei and 1 oil <<tn. 

iNTKUion ARiiANUKHKNT. — 3 copper clmiipi for iron sqii.irc, factoncd on the inside 
of the cover by 1 1 nerrxm. 

BdXi-s roll TOOLS AND STOKKS. — Made like those for Forgo A. 

Exterior Bimentiont. 



DIMINSIONS. 


Box B Nos. 1. 
5,6. 


Box B No. 2. 


B..X B No. 3. 


Box B No. 4. 


ShoeinK BuZ B. 


Length . ..in. 

Width in. 

Depth . . . .in. 
Weight.. lbs. 


17.8 
13.25 
7.5 
8.25 


26.5 

17.8 

7.5 

17.5 


23.5 

8. 

6.5 

8. 


39.8 
9.8 
6.5 

14.5 


16. ft 

8. 

6.5 

4.7 



No. 3 has a partition for oil can, •'j.°2() inches from one end. 
The boxes are marked, respectively, B Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

The oil can is like that for Forge A. 



Contents of Limber- Chest of Forge B. 



TOOLS AND STORES. 



No. Weight 



TOOLS AND STORES. 



No. Weight 



Box B 1. containing: 

Nuts and washers No. 5 

Nuts and washers No. 4 

Nuta and washers No. 3 

Nu's and washers No. 2 

Nails. Nos. 1 and 2, C lbs 

Tire-bolts 

Rivets for amm'n-chests. . .lb 

Washers Nos. 3 and 4 

Keys for ammunition-chests. 
Pole-prop socket and ferrule 

Linch-wnshcrs 

Shoulder-washers 



Lbs. 
8.25 
5.00 
;-{.22 
3.20 



.88 

.00 

.00 

.00 

.50 

1.80 

1.30 

7.00 

7.00 



I Box B 1 — continued. 

Linchpins ' 12 

Chain No. 2 feet 2 

Pintle-hook j 1 

Cap-square I 1 

Tire bands (clips) developed. ' 2 

! Total in Box B 1 .. 



Lbi. 

8.00 
0.75 
20.00 
5.O0 
2.75 



'83.40 



j Box B 2. containing: iI7.5 

Heading tools, for bolls 2 J12.00 

Heading tool, for nails ] I 4.00 

Tire-punches, w. handles....' 2 I 3.00 



CONTENTS OF LIMBER-CHEST, FORGE B. 



331 



Contents of Limber-Chest of Forge B — Continued. 



TOOLS AND STORES. No. Weight TOOLS AND STORES. No. Weight 



Box B 2 — continued. 
Round punrh, w. handles . 
Square puneh, " 

Square hand-punch 

Round hand-punch 

Centrc-punoh 

Koy-liunch 

Set-hammer, flat 

Set-hammer, half-round.. . 

Chisels for hot iron 

Chisels for eold iron 

Hand cold-chisels 

Smiths' tongs 

Nail-claw 

Tire-circle 

Bevel-vice 

Hardie 

Fuller 

Iland-axo 

Total in box B 2 

Box B ?t, containing:... 
Screws, 1-in., No. 14 — gross 

Small hand-vice 

Hand screw-driver 

5tP;}i,S,i,«,l,andlin. 

Gimlets, assorted 

Small punches 

Spring compasses pair 

Files, assorted, w. handles 

Iron wire-guage 

Scrihing-awl 

Callipers pair 

Bevel 

Trying-square 

Scriber 

Buttress 

Quart can of sperm oil. 

Total in box B 3 . . 





Lbs. 




2.10 




2.10 




1.00 




1.00 




0.,50 




1.00 




2.85 




3.00 




4.50 




3.00 




2.00 




15.00 : 




5.00 i 




1.35 




1.75 




0.75 




2.40 




5.00 




73.30 




8. 


1 


2.10 i 


1 


1.00 


1 


0.32 , 


6 


2.85 , 





2.75 


12 


0.95 


3 


0.75 


1 


0.15 


12 


10.00 


1 


0.25 


1 


0.15 


1 


0.40 


1 


0.35 


1 


0.60 


1 


0.15 


1 


1.50 


1 


2.70 


26.97 



Box B 4, containing:. 
Nave-bands, developed . 

Hand hammer 

Riveting hammer 

Nailing hammer 

Sledge 

Fore-]mnch 

Creaser 

Screw-wrench 

Smiths" shovel 

Smiths' poker 

Split broom 

Tap-wrench, with 4 holes 

Die-stock 

Tracing point 

Augers, j-in. and 1-in.. 

Framing chisel 

Felling axe 



Total in box B 4 

Shoeing box, containing:, 

Shoeing hammer 

Shoeing pincers 

Shoeing rasps 

Pritchel 

Nail-punch 

Toe-knife 

Clinching iron • 

Shoeing knife 

Leather aprons 

Oil-stone 



Total in shoeing box . . . 

Iron square, on inside cover, 

Padlock, on chest 

Tar-bucket, on its hook . . . . . 
Tow 



Total 



Lbs. 

14.5 

11.75 
3.50 
1.05 
1.80 

10.50 
1.00 
1.00 
2.42 
3.05 
1.90 
1.25 
3.75 
6.25 
0.15 
2.50 
1.50 
6.00 



59.37 

4.7 

0.82 

2.00 

2.15 

0.85 

0.80 

0.30 

1.00 

0.33 

3.00 

1.60 



12.75 

2.00 

0.5 

7.00 

14.00 



332.24 



Boxes Nos. 1 and 2 occupy the bottom of the limber-cheat; No. 1 against the 
left end. 

No. 3 is placed on top of Nos. 1 and 2, against the left cud and the back of the 
chest. 



8^ 



ORDXANCK MANUAL. 



No. 4 on top of Nos. 1 and 2, aj^ainst the front of the chest. 

The tihocing box. on No. 2. against the right end and the back of the chest. 



Contents of Forge Body B. 



VOOU AKD SrORU. 



No. WeiKht. 



8quftr« iron (i to 1 in.) 

rut iron (IJX», IXi, lix2-10, 
IJXl in.) 

Round iron (fl-in.) 

Cant Htr.'l 

Enijliish bii^tori-d ntccl 



Boxew K 5 and B A. containing :. 

norocHlioeii No8. 2 and 'A 

ll<ir(<o!<hor nails N(>«>. 2 and 3 .. . . . 

Water bucket 

Watering bucket (leather) 

Anvil 

Vice 

BitaminoiK) coal < 

Coal shovel 

Padlock 

Tow 



Total. 



Lbs. 
100. 

50. 

60. 

10. 

6. 

16.5 
200. 

20. 

10. 

8. 

100. 

250. 
4.75 
0.50 
3. 



In the iron room. Bars not 
more thon three feet long. 
B<(uarc iron in two bundles. 



}'" 



the iron room. 



827.75 



On itj4 hook. 

On the vi(M>. 

On the fireplaoo. 

On the stock of the forg*. 

[ In the coal-box. 

On coal-box. 

Exclusive of vice. 



To put the boxes 5 and 6 in place, loosen the thumb-nuts and raise the rear of the 
bellows one inch. 



EQrir.MENT OF A BATTERY-WAGON FOR THE FIELD PARK. 

Limber-Chest. 

The chest is marked Battery-wagon D. 

The stores arc packed with tow in the bottom of the chest, and in 2 hoxc* aud 1 
oil can. 

Interior arrangement. — 2 chats of oak for the boxes, Alh inch wide and 0.75 
inch thick, are fastened to the ends of the chest by 8 tcreici, No. 14. 1.5 inch ; the 
upper edges of the cleats 7.5 inches from the bottom of the chest. 

5 irotu/rii clamjjt for saw.^, fastened to the inside of the chest cover by 12 •crew*. 

2 6rn«t elampt for webs of frame-saw, fastened to the inside of the oorer by 12 
nails. 



LIiyjBER-CHEST FOR BATTERY WAGON D. 333 

Ejclerior Vimeasiong of Boxes. 



D No. 1. 



D No. 2. 



Remarks. 



Length in. 

WiJth in. 

Depth in. 

AVeight lbs. 



39.8 
8.0 
6.25 

11.0 



39.8 
9.8 
6.25 

13.0 



No. 1 has 2 partitions. 5.25 inches from one 
end and 7.5 inches from the other. 

No. 2 lias 2 partitions. 14 inclies from one 
end and 11.8 inches from the other. 

Made like the boxes for Forge A. 



The boxes are marked, respectively, D Nos. 1 and 2. 

One 0(7 can, like that for the limber-chest of Forge A, marked T>, Sperm oil. 

Contents of Limber- Chest for Battery-Wagon D. 



TOOLS AND STORES. 



No. Weight 



TOOLS AND STORES. 



No. 



Weight 



CAHRIAGK MAKERS TOOLS. 

(Packed in the bottom of the 
chest with tow.) 



Bench-planes 

Wood-clamps 

Oil-stones 

Broadaxe 

Hand-axe 

Felling axe. ....... 

Hand-hammer 

Claw-hatchet 

Adze 

Table-vice 

Holdfast 

Framing chisels. . . . 

Firmer-chisels 

Gouges 

Frame-saw 

Screw-wrenches .... 
Augers and handles 

Claw-hammers 

Saddlers' mallet. . .. 
Saddlers' clam 





Lbs. 


4 


16.00 


2 


12. 



Box D 1, containing:.... 

Brace and 21 bits 

Pincers, small pair 

Callipers pair 



5.35 
6. 

1.50 
2. 

8.30 
3.80 
10.5 



4.50 

4.84 

4.70 

3.00 

1. 

5.00 



106.24 

11.09 
4.35 
1. 
0.40 



Box D 1. — Continued. 

Spoke-shaves 

(xauges 

Plane-irons 

ISaw-sct 

Trying square 

Bevel 



Rule (2-feet) 

Gimlets 

Compasses pair 

Chalk-line 

Brad-awls 

Seriber 

Taper-files (4i-in.) 

Wood files 

Wood rasps 

Compass-saw 

Harness buckles gross 

Tacks M. 

Quart call sperm oil 



Total in Box D 1. 



saddlers' tools k. STORES 

Box 2, containing : 

Hammer . • • 

Shoe-knives 

Half-round knife 

Shears pair 

Sandstones 



Lbs. 
0.60 
0.60 
3.15 
0.25 
0.60 
0..35 
0.14 
0.95 
0.18 
0.10 
0.17 
0.15 
0.87 
3.. 36 
0.80 
0.30 
4. 

2.50 
2.70 



27.52 



13. 
0.65 
0.54 
0.28 
0.47 
4.62 



834 ORPNANCE MANUAL. 

Contents of Limber-Chest for Battery-Wagon D — Continued. 



TOOLS AND RTOKU. No. Weight TOOLS AMD STORKS. No. Weight 



Box D 2. — Continued, 

RhIp (2-fcct) 

Nci-dloH, aFHorted 

( 'oil Hr need IcH 

A wli< 

Awl llUlldll'H 

Punches, aj<8orted 

I'inrers pairs 

Pliers [luire 

Claw-loolx 

('reii8eri< 

Slrni)-awl!' 

Gaufrc-knil'c 

Ci>in|iHsseH ]iair 

Thimbles 

Bristles 



1 
600 
a 
36 
6 
6 
3 
6 
3 
3 
3 
1 
1 
6 



Lbs. 
0.14 
0.50 
0.05 
2.25 
0.60 
0.66 
2.25 
1.32 
0.36 
0.45 
0.03 
0.80 
0.18 
0.09 
1. 



Box D 2. — C'oHliitued. 

Beeswax 

|Black wax 

'Patent thread 



Total in Box 1) 2 

Iland-sawj:, 1 in wooden ( 
Tenon-nuws, j clamp ( 
Webs or bladei* for frame- 
saw, in brass clamps 

Padlock, on chest 

Tar bucket, on iih hook . . . . 
Tow 



Total 



Lba. 
3. 
6. 

b. 



30.24 

4. 

3. 

0.75 
0.60 
7. 
5.26 



208. &0 



Boxes Nos. 1 and 2 rest on the cleats ; No. 1 against the back «f the chest. 

Wagon Body D. 

The large stores are packed loosely in the body and in the till : the small stores 
and tools arc packed in 9 bojret, 8 tin cans, and 2 kc(/i. 

IxTERiOii ARRANOEMENT. — A till and aj-e rack a." in Battery-wagon C. 

2 wooden button* for rummer-staves, fastened to the ridge-pole by 2 (ereicff. 

1 wooden clomp for reaping-hook, fastened to the ridge-pole. 

2 wooden clnmpii for saws. 

1 iron gtapic and leather strap fur reaping hooks, passing through the ridge-pole. 

Exterior Dimen»ion» of the Boxet. 



SIMENSIONS. 



^amTs' ' ^ ^°- *■ ° ^"- ^- ^ ^°" '• ^ ^°- *• ^ **" »• D N«- W- ^j^i"* 



Length ..... 

Width in. 

Depth in 

Weight lbs 



23.5 


27.5 


19.5 


31.5 


12.5 


13. 


14.5 


20.25 


23.5 


19.5 


19.5 


8.5 


13. 


«. 


14. 


14. 


10.5 


8. 


7.5 


5. 


5.5 


28. 


34. 


21. 


26. 


4. 


6. 


3.5 



16.5 
8. 
•.6 
4.7 



Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 are of hard wood, .075 inch thick, with hinged covers and 
hooks. 

Nos. 8, 9, and 10 are of white pine, .625 inch thick, with hinijes and hooks. Xo. 
9 is divided into 4 parts. 



CONTENTS OF WAGON BODY D. 



335 



The boxes are marked, respectively, D Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 9 10. 

The shoeing box is marked D. 

Eiijht tin cans: two, of the capacity of two c/alions, for neat's-foot oil and lin- 
seed oil; t"hree, of one gallon, for the same oils and for turpentine; two, for 
twentii-jive pounds each of olive paint ; and one, for fee pounds of black paint. 
They are made like those of the same capacity for Battery-wagon C. 

Two kegs, for grease ; like those in Battery-wagon C. 

Contents of Wagon Body D. 



TOOLS AND STORES. 



Gun-carriage stock (ironed). 



Caisson-stocks (not ironcdj 



Splinter-bars . 



Tire-bolts, nuts and washers . 
Axle-trees, 6-pounders 



Half- tires . 



Bar-iron . 
Steel ... 



Wheel-traces 

Leading-traces 

Trace-chains, staples and rivets, 

Collars 

Girths 

Whips 

Hamc-straps 

Bridles [\\ 

Halters 

Halter-chains 



No. Weight. 



Pole-yokes 3 



Lbs. 
165.00 

70.00 

30.00 

11.75 
234.00 

140.00 



200.00 
50.00 



37.00 



10 


47.5 


10 


57.5 


20 


26.00 


6 


27.50 


16 


11.00 


16 


8.00 


25 


4.50 


fi 


18.00 


6 


21.00 


12 


J5.50 



On the bottom of the wagon, 
against the right side, rest- 
ing on two blocks, to clear 
the rammer-stop; the lu- 
nette to the rear. 

Against the left side and rear 
of the wagon; one on the 
other, the lunette ends in 
front. 

On the bottom, lying on each 
other against the caisson- 
stocks and the rear of the 
wagon. 

On the bottota against the 
front and right side. 

On the bottom, against the 
gun-carriage stock and the 
front end. 

Between the axle-trees and 
the splinter-bars. 

(In 5 bundles, not more than 
3 feet long ; on the half- 
tires, against the front of 
the wagon. 
On the bar-iron, toward the 
front. 

1 
Piled on the bottom of the 
wagon, against the gun- 
carriage stock and the 
till, and on the caisson- 
stocks and splinter-bars; 
occupying about 31 in. 
in length of the rear part 
of the wagon. 



886 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Contents of Wagon Body D — Continued. 



TOOLS AND STORES. 



No. Weight. 



HarncRf leather sides 

Bridle leiUlicT *' 



Rope, 2J-in 



NoBe-bft(t8 

Sli>w mulch yards 

Scn.'w jacks 

Elcvatin;j;-screw!* 

DraK-r()))es 

Grindstoiio and arbor 

Felliiij; axes 

Hand -bills 

TarpaiiliuH, 6 feel square 



Marline. . . . 
Sheep-skin.* 
Spades . . . . 



Piek-axes, without bandies 

Uaodles fur do 

Sash-cord pieces 

Drill-how 

liarrul wiper and scraper 

Shoe thread 



Dark-lnntcrns . . . . 
Common lanterns. 



Rammer-heads 
Sponges 

Paiat brushes . 



Rammer-staves, 12-poundcr. 



Reaping hooks 



Lbs. 

75.00 
22.00 

3Q.00 



13.50 
0.60 
75.00 
31.50 
.S3. 00 
56.60 
18.00 
6.00 
18. 
18. 

10. 
12. 
30. 



14.50 
5. 

40. 
0.45 
2.5 

10. 

3. 
4.60 

4.40 
3. 

3. 
13.5 



5.75 



Trimmed and rolled np 
tight : on the axle-trees 
and tire?, in front of the 
pile of liariic!<i<. 
IBotwcen the front ends of 

the cHi.oHun-st^cks and the 

bar-iron. 

[ On the pile of harness. 

[ On the slow-match. 

Coiled on the screw jacks. 
On the drag-ropes. 

[ In the axe rack. 

On the gun-carriage stock. 

Between the till and boxea 

I Nos. 3, 4 and 5. 

;0n box Xo. 3. 

On boxes Nos. 4 and 5. 

'In the till, on each other; 

I the bits against the back 

I of the wagon. 

I In the till, between the 
I spade handles. 

I In the till, lying on the 
I bottom. 

In the till, in front of box 
No. 10. 

In the left side of the till, 
between the shoe thread 
and the front end. 
In the till, between the 
lanterns and the side of 
the wagon. 
On box No. 10, and by the 

side of it. 
In the wagon cover : three on 
each side of the ridge-pole, 
secured by two wooden 
\\ buttons. 

I [Fastened to the ridge-pole 
' by a wooden damp and 

II leather strap. 



CONTENTS OF WAGON BODY D. 

Contents of Wagon Body X>— Continued. 



337 



TOOLS AND STORES. 



No. 



Weight. 



Cross-cut saw 1 ... . , ,, f 
Pit saw without handles 



Handles for do..... 

Sparo stock for battery-wagon. . .' , i 



Padlo 
Watcriii 
Tow . . . 



bucket. 



Lbs. 



9. 
1.5 



3. 
90. 

0.5 

8. 
26.50 



f In the wagon cover laid on 
each other, and fastened 
by two wooden clamps; 
the teeth of the cross- 

■i cut saw against the 
right cover-rail; the han- 
dle end of the pit saw 
against the rear board 
of the cover. 

On the .spade handles. 

On its hook. 



Contents of Wagon Body X>-Continue(l. 




Box D .S, containing 3 cans 

and 2 kegs 

Neat's-foot oil gals 

Grea.sc 

Spirits turpentine gals 

Bo.x D 4, containing:... 

LABORATOUV TOOLS. 



Copper adze, with handle. 

Wooden bowls 

BencLi-lirushes 

Calliiiers. . . 

Dredginj,^ bo _ 

Rocket mould, ) . , . , 
Set of formers, I ^'•'" V'""'" 
Set of drifts, J rockets. 
Forms for cylinders and caps, 

each calibre get 

Copper funnels .". . 

Shot and sliell gauges set 

(Timk'ts 

Copper hammer 

Paste kettle 



• pair 



28. 

25.00 

60.00 



i.77 



.34-. 



1 


3.00 


4 


6.00 


2 


0.90 




0.40 




1.00 




5.00 




21.60 




1.75 



1 


7.50 


4 


4.00 


1 


15.00 


3 


0.25 


1 


1.80 


1 


9.00 



Box D 4.— Continued. 

Lead ladle 

Stencil cutters, for letters 

and figures f,(.t 

jBo.\ for do. . . , \ ^ 

{Mallets '.'..'!..!! 

jPowder measures, 4 oz., 8 oz ' 

1 lb., and 2 lbs .' 

iBrass mortar and pestle.... 
jMoulds for musket and rifle 

balls and buckshot set 

Wooden mullers 

Needles 

IPaste brushes 

I Copper pans, 10 or 12 in.*, 
Rule (2-feet), not folded . 

Sandstones 

Spring balance, 30 lbs ... ! 

Scissors 

Copper scoop, large 

" small 

Hair sieve 

Hand screw-drivers. large. 
Spatula 



1 
1 

4 

4 
1 

1 

2 
50 

3 

3 

1 

2 

1 
12 

1 



Lbs. 
2.00 

18.00 
6.00 
4.00 

2.00 
6.00 

23.00 
4.00 
0.04 
1.25 
5.00 
0.15. 
3.00) 
5.00 
1.50 
2.00 
1.50 
0.80 
2.00 
0.30' 



338 



ORnXANTK MANUAL. 



Contentii of Wagon Body B — Continued. 



TOOL* AND 8TOKEM. 



No. Weight 



TOOLS kxro sroKiB. 



No. 



Vel|^ 



Uox D 4.— Continued. 

ThimMi'* 

(^unnt•r^' cMlliiwr* 

Priming wirt-s 

Ciunncre' giinlcli 

Ouon»T»' jpinciTS 

TinnfiH' furn»oc 



Total in box I> 4. 



Box D 7, containing:.... 
HaviTiinrks 

Tlllll-I'OlKlx'l' 

Thuinl'i'lalli' 

Linen cauva!! yardf 



Box R R. containing:. 
Sperm or wiix cainllcs . . 

Box D 9. containing:. 
Nails. 6d. to lOd 



Shoeing box, containing :. 
Shoeing tools set 

Box D .'>, with b can.s 

Linseed nil gals 

Olive jiaiiit 

Black paint 



Box D 6. containing:.... 

AnMORKRs' TOOLS. 

Wire awls 

Band-s^'t 

Drill-l'racc 

Hand-brace 

Centre-bits 

Hand-brusbe? 

Bench-brush • 

Callipers pair 

Centre-punch 

Cold-chisels 

Stockerc' chisels 

Stockers" gouges • . 

Compasses pair 



Lbs. I 

0.09; 

0.50 
0.50| 
0.501 
2.65 
9.00; 



Box D 6. — Continued. 

Spring-clamps 

Wood-clamps 

Drill-stock 

Drills, assorted 

Die-stock ' 

Dies 



.t0i.\ 



26.0 

22.32 

7.60' 

0.04' 

7.50| 

4. 

10. 

8. 
20. 

4.7 
12.75 

25. 

26.5 

50. 

5. 

21. 



3 


0.25 


1 


0.50 


1 


2.60 


1 


2.50 


6 


0.40 


2 


0.60 


1 


0.50 


1 


0..30 


1 


0.50 


ff 


6.75 


« 


2.00 


6 


1.60 


1 


0.18 



Files, assorted ' 

File hamlles | 

Glue pot I 

Spring bonks 

Bcnch-lianiniers 

Drawiiig-kuife 

Nippers pairs i 

Pliers pairfl 

Reamers, assorted : 

Sp^ing-eompa»se^ P*''' 

Rifler 

Bench-stake 

!Hack-saw frame 

IHock-saw blades 

Armorer.-' punches 

Screw-drivers, brace 

jRule. 2-fcet 

JArmorerg' tongs 

JScrew-taps set 

jBreechiiig vice 

Hand-vices 

!Bcvcl-vice8 

Breeching wrench 

Tap wrench 

'straight-edge 

Bayonet mandrel 

Soldering irons 

Screw-wrench 

Oil-cans, small 

Tinners' shears pair 

Brass scale, 1 foot 



2 

2 

1 

6 

1 

1 
72 
12 i 

1 

3 

i 

1 

3 

3 
12 



' Box D 10, containing : 
Quiek-match 



Total weight 



Lbi. 

3.00 
3.00 
U.45 
0.25 
0.76 
0.25 
21.50 
1.5 
2.15 
0.63 
5.25 
1.25 
0.90 
0.90 
1.40 
U.21 
0.25 
6.50 
1. 
1. 

0.38 
0.75 
0.15 
2.&« 
O.M 
7. 
S. 

1.75 
1.80 
1.20 
0.57 
2.50 
3.50 
2.42 
0.22 
1.M 
• .SO 

100.92 

3.5 
2.0 



25.83 



FORGE-CHEST. 339 

Boxes D 3 and 4 are placed on the caisson-stucks and the rolls of leather. No. 3 
against the front of the pile of harness. 

Box D 5 is placed on the pole-yokes and rope, between No. 4 and the front of the 
wagon. 

Box D 6 is placed on top of No. 5, against the front of the wagon. 

Box D 7 is placed on top of No. 4. and against No. 6. 

Box D 8 on top of No. 3 ; box D 9 on No. 3 and on the till ; the shoeing box on 
No. 3 ; box D 10 in the left side of the till, in front of the spade handles. 

The boxes are put in after the grindstone and tarpaulins. 

FORGE FOR THE MOUNTAIN HOWITZER. 

Two chests, designated ih^ forge-chest and the smithn' tool-chest, contain the forge 
and the necessary tools for shoeing horses and making repairs. 

The chests are carried on the sides of the pack-saddles, fastened by means of the 
lashing-chain. 

The coal-sack, containing the charcoal, is fastened to the arc by the handles. 

Forge- Chest. 

The different articles are packed in this chest in racks, or held fast by cleats. 
The legs of the frame are first folded up close to the frame, and the back of the fire- 
place is turned down on the hearth and fastened by its catch. The handle is 
detached from the bellows, which is closed and fastened by the connecting rod. 

Interior arrangement. — AVood. — 1 comer piece, fastened to the left end, at the 
back, by 4 copj^er tacks ; 1 cleat for bellows, fastened to the bottom by 2 screws No. 
14, l-i-inch; it has a hole in its top surface to receive the journal; 1 support for 
nuzzle of belloivs, framed and fastened to the bottom of the chest by 2 screws No. 14, 
IJ-inch ; 1 cleat for bellows handle, fastened to the front side, toward the right, by 2 
screws No. 14, IJ-inch; 1 clamp for bellows has a hole for upper journal of bellows, 
goes over and across the bellows, and is hold by the staple-plates; 1 clamp for 
frame. 

Iron. — 1 strap-staple, driven through the nozzle-support for the right side and 
clenched; 1 bracket for wrench, fastened to the right end by 2 screws No. 9, .625- 
inch ; 2 staple-plates, fastened opposite each other, one on the front side and the 
other on the back, by 4 «c)-e!o« No. 9, .625-inch; 1 staple-plate, fastened to the back 
by 2 screws No. 9, .625-inch; 2 clamp-plates, fastened to the clamps by 4 screws No. 
9, .625-inch. 

Leather. — 1 nozzle-strap 16 inches long; 1 buckle No. 6 ; 2 straps 40 inches long; 
2 buckles No. 8. 



340 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Contents of Forge- Chest. 



Too&a kn ■roKU. 



Nu. Weight. 



WHIBI rtAOKD. 



Fireplace and frainc, folded np 
Bellows, olo^cil 



BollowR hiiniJIr 

Wrciicli f.ir iiul> Ni>i<. 1 anii-1... 
1 hMnil-huinrner with bamlle . . . . 
) rivoiing " " " . . 

1 fore- punch and creaacr on aame 

hnn.ile 

BagH of horaosboe nailn I 2 




On it.<< nide, the bnttnm afcainst the 
bacic of tho rbi-Hl. 

The right journal in tho hole io 
the ili'uf on tin- liiittnin. ibo left 
in thnt in the rliiinp : the no«le 
fantcned to its support by the 
strap. 

On its dent. 

In its brarld-L 

Placed uprii:!il ni:ir tin- »rpiieb. 



Parked with tow in the fpa«c to the 
ri^ht of the bellows. 



Weight of forge-eheat with eleats and clamps. 45. 

" " tools and stores I}8.4 

" ** forgc-ehest, packed 113.40 

tSmiths' Tool-Chest. 



lbs. 



i 



The stores arc secured by cleatu or brackets. 

Intkuiok ARnA.NGKMKNT. — WooD. — 1 uiivil-rciit, with a mortise for the head of the 
anvil, fastened to the bottom of the chest by '■i tcieici No. 14, 1.76-ineh; 1 trianjular 
eUiti, fastened in the left front corner by '2 tcretei No. 14, l.^-O-iucb; 1 rice-cUal, 
fastened to the front side by "2 tcreiei No. 14, 1.75-inch; 'i rarki {ur poker and ihovel, 
1 button on upper cleat, faiileDcd to the back by 4 tcreici No. 14, 1.5-ioch ; '■i iiuJc* for 
rasp, fusteued to the back by 4 $creic> No. 14, l.'25-iuch; '2 dealt for tue-knif«, 
fastened to the back by 4 tcretct No. 9, .'ii-i-inch ; 1 cleat for tongs, fastened to the 
left end by 2 icrewt No. 14, l.'25-inch; 2 ileati for files, and 1 buUun on right cleat, 
fastened on the inside of cover by 4 $crewi No. 14, l-incb; 1 mocabU cUat, hollowed 
out to fit the anvil-bloek and bucket : 1 »tud. 

Iro.n. — I itrap-tlapU, fastened to the bottom by 2 n'teu, .2.0- inch ; 3 brackets, 
fastened to the front side by 6 tcreici No. S, .5-ineh ; 2 hook* driven into the upp«r 
cleat for poker. 

Lkathbr. — 1 $trap 28 inches long; 1 buckle No. 5. 



CARRIAGE MAKERS TOOLS AND STORES. 



341 



Contents of Smiths' Tool-Chest. 



TOOLS AND STORES. 



Weight. 



WHERE PLACED. 



Anvil and block 

Water bucket (iron) 

Pair shoeing pincers 

Vice 

Nailing hammer 

Shoeing '• 

Splitting chisel 

Tongs pair 

Pritchel 

Hardie 

Clenching iron 

Shoeing knife 

Poker 

Shovel 

Rake 

Nail-punch 

Buttress 

Toe-knife 

Rasp 

Square file 

Flat file 

Half-round file 

Bags horseshoe nails 



Lbs. 
38.5 

1.S76 

2.656 

1.6 
.875 
.8125 

1.6875 
.718 
.406 
.9375 
.406 



t3 



.68 

.5.31 

.064 

1.469 

.60 
1.5 

.719 
1.031 

.8126 
10. 



The head in the mortise of the rest, the 
block secured by the strap and buckle. 

On the movable cleat resting on the 
anvil-block. 

In its cleat on the front with the vice. 

In its cleat. 

In brackets on front. 



In triangular cleat in the corner. 

In rack on the left end. 

In rack on the left. 

In rack on the left end. 

In two wooden racks on the back of 
the chest. 

On two hooks in the poker rack, held 

by a button. 
In its cleats on the back of the chest. 
I In two racks on the back of the chest, 
J near the left end. 
) In two cleats on the inside cf cover, 
) held by a button. 
One on the bottom at the left end, the 
other in the bucket. 



Weight of the chest with cleats and racks. . 44. lbs. 

" " tools and stores 72.875" 

" " chest packed 116.875" 



Carriage Makers' Tools and Stores. 

The tools and stores for the use of carriage makers, in repairing the carriages 
and equipments, are packed in two chests, which are like those for the ammunition, 
but without the interior divisions. 

The hasp and hasp-staples are like those of the forge-chest. 

The two chests are designated by the letters A and B. 



342 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Contents of Carriage Makers' Tool-Chests. 



No. Weight 



Chest A. 



No. Weight 



Claw-hatchet 

Nailing batcbct 

Firinur-chiHclH, ) and } in. 

Trjin^ nquaro 

Bevel 



Au^vrH. \ and i iii.i and ona 

bundle 

Kivi-ting bauinicr 

Hand-Kiiw 

Jack plane 

Screw-driver 

Rule (2-reet) 

UimletB 

Hand-saw files 





Lbs. 


1 


2.125 


1 


1.76 


2 


.594 


1 


.422 


1 


.375 


2 


1..375 


1 


1.5 


1 


2.0 


1 


4.25 


1 


.375 


1 


.156 


3 


.1875 


2 


.125 



j Wood-files, 12-incb 

'Sickles 

iGunners' fi^jmlet 

jPriming-wirc 

Gunners' pinccrii 

Fuze-cutler 

IPapcrs of sprigs, 1-inch and 

I IJ-incb 

Papers of tacks, 8 oc. and 

I 12 o-t 

iWood-screws, } inch, No. 9.. 
iLbs. sash-curd 



Weight of chest 21. lbs. 

" tools and stores, 24.96 " 

" chest packed... 46.96 " 



Cbmt B. 



No. Weight 



No. Weight 



Hand-axe 

Claw-batchct 

Nailing hatchet 

Firmer-chisels 

Firmer-gouge 

Pair compasses 

Trying snuare, 6 inches 

Scriber 

Riveting hammer 

Mallet 

Gimlets 

Screw-driver 

Wood-rasp 

Oil-stone 



Lbs. 
3.25 
2.125 
1.75 
0.594 
0.25 
0.25 
0.422 
0.125 
1.5 
2.25 
0.1876 
0.375 
0.5 
1.812 



Brad-awls S 

.Sickles I 2 

(lunncrs' Gimlet ' 1 

|Priming-wire 1 

I Papers tacks, 8 and 12 oz.. .' 2 

I Lb. twine i 

iLeather thongs 25 

i Wood-screws, IJ and 1 inch, 

I No. 14 j 3« 

Wood-screws, li and 2 inch,' 

I No.16 12 

Nuts No. 1 ; 2. No. 2 ; 6, 

No. 4 12 

Washers No. 1 12 



Weight of chest 21. lbs. 

" tools 22.083 " 

" chest packed... 45. " 

The sickles are fastened to the front and back of the chests (inside) by small 
cleats at the necks and points. The other articles are securely packed in tow, the 
edges of the cutting tools being carefully wrapped up to prevent injury. 



GUN-CARUTAGES AND CAISSONS. 



343 



WEIGHTS OF GUN-CARRIAGES AND CAISSONS EQUIPPED FOR FIELD 

SERVICE. 



DESIGNATION. 



GrN-CARRIARE. 

Gun 

(xun-carriage, without wheels 

Two wheel)! 

Limber body, without wheels' 

Two wheels 

Ammunition-che8t. with interior divisions. 

Ammunition, packed 

Large tarpaulin 

Other implements and equipments 

Total weigh t 

Number of rounds of ammunition on each 
limber 



Body, without wheels 

Two wheels 

Two ammunition-chests 

Ammunition, packed in do 

Limber body, without wheels 

, Two wheels 

Ammunition-chest 

Ammunition, packed in do 

Large tarpaulin 

Other implements and spare parts. 



Total weight 3,509 



Number of rounds of ammunition on each 
caisson and its limber 



6-pdr. 12-pdr. 



FOR HOWITZERS. 



13-pdr. 24-pdr. 32-pdr. 



Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


884 


1,757 


1 788 


1,318 


540 


783 


1 540 


736 


360 


392 


360 


392 


335 


335 


1 336 


335 


360 


360 


< 360 


360 


185 


182 


! 206 


198 


.395 


497 


465 


541 


36 


36 


36 


36 


83 


86 


83 


86 


3,178 


4,428 


3,173 


4,002 


50 


32 


39 


23 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


432 


432 


432 


432 


360 


360 


360 


360 


370 


364 


412 


396 


790 


994 


! no 


1,082 


33.i 


335 


;i35 


335 


360 


.3^0 


360 


360 


185 


182 


206 


198 


.395 


497 


465 


541 


36 


36 


36 


36 


246 


246 


1 246 


246 


3,509 


3,806 


3,782 


3,986 


150 


96 


117 


69 



Lbs. 

1,890 
783 
392 
335 
.360 
192 
470 
36 
86 

4,544 



15 



Lbs. 

432 
360 
384 
940 
3.35 
360 
192 
470 
36 
246 

3,755 



45 



»44* 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Weights of Forges and Battery-wagons equipped for Field Service. 



DBSIOIIATION. 



Fur the 
Battery. 



Vur the 
Park. 



FORGE. 

Body complete, without wheels . . . . 

Two wheels 

Anvil ami water buckets 

8torc8 in iron room 

Stores in coal-liox 

Limber body, without wheels 

Two whcils 

Limber-<'heRt. empty 

SlorcB and tools on tho limber 



Total weight. 



B »TTKRY-WAflON. 

Body complete, without wheelii 

Two wheels 

Stores in wagon body j 1,289 

Limlicr body, without wheel? ' •^■'55 

Two wheels I 360 

Limber-chest, empty 15K 

Stores and tools on the limber 



Total weight (exclusive of forape) ) 3,574 




Bill of Boards for Interior of Am munition- Chests. 



DESIGNATION. 






a K 



6. * 



Cic 



?^ 






DIMSNSIO.N!! (^ rough). I q . 

, ee >» 

Thick- =,5 



Length.| Width. I "^1;^; 



Partitions 

C bottom 

Tray . < sides 

(_ ends 

Partitions j 

( bottom 

Tray. I sides 

( ends 

Partitions 

Bolsters for lower tier 

I'rops for upper tier 

Bolsters for canisters 

Partitions < 

Linings 

Partitions j 



In. 

168 
22 
22 
20 
84 
42 
22 
22 
20 

120 
54 
90 
8 
96 
13 
96 
54 

108 
60 



In. 
11. 
20. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
14. 
20. 

7.5 

9. 
15.5 
10. 
12. 
10. 
15.5 
10.5 

8.25 
15.5 

16. 
8.5 



In. 

0.625 

0.75 

0.75 

1. 

0.75 

0.75 

0.75 

0.85 

1. 

0. 



2. , 


17.50 




7.5 


1.5 


1.87 


0.75 


7.75 




0.94 


1. 


5.5 




5.81 


\ , 


12. 


*• i 


3.54 



Veet. 

8.02 Poplar. 

2.29 ) Poplar, 

1.15 \'>r white 

1.53 j pine. 

5.25 I Poplar. 

3.06 

2.20 ] Poplar, 

0.86 \oT white 

1.25 I J pine. 

9.69 : Poplar. 



Oak. 
Poplar. 



Poplar. 



FIELD TRAIN. 345 

FIELD TRAIN. 
Ordnance. 

The proportion of artillery to other troops varies generally between the limits of 
1 and ;^ pieces to 1,000 men, aceording to the force of the array, the character of the 
troops of which it is composed, the force and character of the enemy, the nature of 
the country which is to he the theatre of war, and the character and objects of the 
war. 

Similar considerations must regulate the selection of the kinds of ordnance and 
the proportions of the different kinds in the train. 

The following principles may be observed in ordinary cases: 

^ n r 1 • 1. f i arc r2-pdrs. 

( s guns, of which lax c i 

2 pieces to 1,000 men. ^ ** , ,,,^,- „„ , 

1 i howitzers, of which 1 1 f;^"''* '^- "' ^^-pdrs. 
( } '• 12-pdrs. 

Distributed as follows: 

For the lufunlry. — I piece to 1,000 men: 6-pdr. guns and 12-pdr. howitzers, in 
batteries of foot artillery. 

For the Caralry. — 2 pieces to 1,000 men; 6-pdr. guns and 12-pdr. howitzers, in 
batteries of horse artillery. 

For the apcciiil and (jcncral piirhn «f reserve — 

fi in ri-pdr. batteries 1 , -, . ..,, 
1 piece to 1,000 men. \ '■ G-j.dr. " } "^ '^°°* artillery. 

( J *• 6-pdr. batteries of horse artillery. 

Ammunition for Cannon. 

200 rounds to each piece, both of the reserves and of the active batteries. 

The ammunition which cannot be carried in the caissons attached to the pieces 
will be kept in bo.\es with the reserves. 

Additional supplies of ordnance and ordnance stores are placed in convenient 
depots, according to circumstances. 

Ammunition for Small Arms. 

100 rounds to e.ach man ; of which, for the musket, 40 rounds are in the c.artridge- 
bo.K, 60 in the parks of reserve. In the same proportion for other small arms. 
Percussion-caps in the proportion of 12 caps to 10 cartridges. 



34G ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Composition of a Battery on the War Establishment. 



KIND or BATTBRT. 



fi f 12-pouDder8, mounted. 

] 6-j)iiunilcrs, " 

,, I 2t-ii>)unJer«, " 

JlownzKiis . ,o 1 1, 

( 1 2-|pi)un(iLTS, " 



Total number of pieces. 

Caissons... (J"^^""^; 

( for howitzers . . . 



Travf.llimo rOROK 
Batteuy-wacon .. . 



Whole number of carriages with a battery. 



rSbot 

For 4 guns ■; Spiicrioal-casc. 

( Canisters 



Ammunition. 



r Shells 

For 2 howitzers.. J. Spherical-case 
( Canisters . . . . 



Total number of roands with a battcrr. 



T^ f 6 to each carna<'e 

DrAVGHT HOUSES. ... ■^ cj , " . ... 

I Spare horses, oue-twelfil 



Total. 



12-pdr. 



6-pdr. 



12 



20 



448 

.358 

UO 



14 



130 



400 

320 

80 





• 


806 


800 


168 


120 


112 


1«0 


42 


32 




• 


322 


312 


1,218 


1,113 


120 


84 


10 





91 



Note. — For two .32-pdr. howitzer-carriages and 4 j ^ , . * *. „. 

caissons, the number of rounds of ammunition is J ^'' . . ' ** , . 

' (^ Canisters 14 

Total 210 

Harness, corresponding to the number of horses to the carriages. 



THE FIELD PARK. 347 

Battery of Mountain Hoirltzcrs. 

Howitzers 6 

Gun-carriages 7 

Ammunition-chests 36 (48 rounds for each howitzer.) 

Forge and tools, in 2 chests 1 

Set of carriage makers' tools, in 2 chests 1 

Pack-saddles and harness 3."? 

Horses or mules 33 

Such additional supplies of the above kinds as may be thought necessary will be 
carried with the park of ^reserve, together with the necessary ammunition for 
infantry, in jiacks. 

A mountain howitzer ammunition-chest will carry about 700 musket ball 
cartridges. 

Rocket Battery. 

No regular organization of a rocket battery has been arranged. 
The nature and number of rockets, and of carriages or conductors, will be deter- 
mined by the character of the service for which they may be required. 

The Field Park. 

The spare carriages, reserved supplies of ammunition, tools and materials for 
extensive repairs, and for making up ammunition, for the service of an army 
in the field, form the Field Park, to which should be attached also the batteries of 
reserve. 

The quantities of these supplies must depend in a great measure on the particular 
circumstances of the campaign. 

The ammunition required for artillery and small arms (according to the propor- 
tions above stated), in addition to what can be carried by the batteries and the 
troops, will be carried with the park, in caissons or in store-wagons. 

The following carriages and stores, in due proportion, according to circumstances, 
will also form parts of the field park, viz : 

Spare gutt-cnrriagea, 1 to each field battery. 

TraveUinq Forqex, B. 1 ^ r l 

•' ( ^"^^ '''■ niore of each. 

Batterij-ioaijonn. D. ) 

Spare spokes, .')0 to each battery. "| 

Spare felliei,, 20 tO each battery. 1. 1„ store-wagons. 

Spare harnesa I t l I 

^ ^ In bo.xes. J 

Horne/ihoes and nails. . ) 

Gunpowder. i Friction primers for cannon. 

Saltpetre. 



Sulphur. 
Charcoal. 
Laboratory paper. 
Percussion-caps for small arms. 



Stufi" for cartridge-bags. 
Woollen yarn. 
Cotton yarn. 
Glue. 



OHIiNANrK MAM'Ar.. 

SIECJE TRAIN. 
The imtnluT and kind of cannon for a nicpe train muft l>c ilctrnnincd by th* 
cirruin'<tan''OB of each cane; bnt the foUowiii;; giMieral principles may l>c obwjrrcd 
in aiitigning tbe proportion of diflvrcnt kindx and culibre>. and (bi- rt-lutive <|UBntiij 
of other luppliei, for a train uf 100 picccn of ordnance. 

Cannon. 

g, ( 24-pdr about onr-balf of tbe whole number it 

( 18-pdr. or 12-pdr " one-tenth 10 

lIowiTEKRii, 8-ia. ficKC " one-fourth 2A 

M( 10-in. ^ii'Kc " onf-eii;lilh " IS 

( 8-in. ricfce " 3 

CoEiioHN MoKT ARN, in addition to the 100 piece* 4 

Wai.i. imk<kii «Q 

Gun-Corridijes. 

For 24-pdr. pun* and S-in. howilcerr, one-fifth hpurc VO 

For 18-pdr. and 12-pdr. Run» one- fifth »parc IS 

For 10- in. inortari one-^ixth rpare 21 

For 8- in. in<<rtar» 4 

Othrr Ciirriaijes. 

itiirtnr-vtigoni. — 1 for each 10-in. mortar and bed, and for thrr« H-in. mortari 

and bi.>d» IS 

WagoHt, for tranpporling implements, intrenching and mlnert' tonii, labora- 
tory toolii and utenniU, and oih<?r stores — each loaded with about 3,700 

lbs., sar 140 

Cari§ (carryinj; ball*, etc. on the march) 69 

l\irk //ri/rrrjr-f'if/oNir, fully «>qaipped S8 

Part Korijrt, fully eiplippcd 8 

Sli*i<f-rnrl», lar;,'c 5 

Siiitg-carit, band 4 

Draught Horses. 

For each pun anil howitr.er, with itf carriage 8 

" Spare pun-carriape 6 

" Mortar-wapuii 8 

•• Balterywapon • 

'• Forpe • 

Cart 2 

•• Sling-cart, large 2 

Spare hones 1-IOtb. 

Tot*!, about l^VOObonM. 



PROJECTILES AND AMMUNITION. 



349 



Projectiles and Ammunition 

Round shot . 



(800 to each 24-pdr 

( 1,000 to each 18 and 12-pdr. 



40,000 

For GoNg ■( * i,"uu to eacQ is and la-pdr 10,000 

j Grape and eanisters strapped. 20 rounds to each piece . 1,200 

^ Spherical-case strapped, 20 rounds to each piece 1,200 

f Shells, 800 to each 8-inch howit/.cr 20,000 

For Howitzkrs. / Canisters iHrapped, 5 to each 125 

v Sphcrical-f-a'c strapped. 20 to each 500 

t 600 shells to each 10 inch 7,200 

For Mortars... < SOO " " S-inch 2,400 

'^ 200 " " Coehorii 1,200 

Gunpowder, in barrels. lbs. 500,000 

Computing for each 24-pounder round shot, one-third the weight of shot. 

18 and 12-pdr. " one-fourth " " 

grape, canister, and spbcrical-casc, one-sixth the weight of 

shot. 

round of howit/.er ammunition. 5 lbs. ") 

,„ . , ^ » ,, ( including charge of 

" 1.0-inch mortar < " > " ° 

,, o • L . ., .. ^ shell. 

" 8-inch mortar .{ " ) 

" C.ieh'trn i " 

Cartridge-hagf, 1 for each round. 

Cartridge piper, bundles 200 

Wads — hay wads, made in the field. 

Slow-match jj)g_ 590 

Port-fires 200 

Faxes, i more than tlie number of shells 35.000 

Wooden bottoms and tubs, for firing small shells 1 200 

Friction primers, for guns and h ) withers, 1^ ti each round. 

Cartridges for wall }ji.eces, 500 rounds to each. 

Cartridges, powder, percus-iion-caps and lead, for small arms, according to the force 

of the army. 

Most of the ammunition is transported by hired wagons. 



350 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Implements and Equipments. 



ron EACH GLN. 



2 Sponges — I spare. 
2 KiimiiiurK — 1 " 
1 Worm to 4 pieces. 
1 La.llc 
8 Ilanii^pikes — 2 mpare. 

1 Piiss-box. 

2 Tulic-poiichcti. 
1 Ounnfm' perpendicular tu 10 pieces. 

1 Vciit-pinirh to 3 pieces. 

2 Tliiiinl'Dtnllx. 
2 I'rimiu^j-wires — 1 spare. 
1 UuDDcrs' gimlet. 

FOR KACH HOWITZER ANP MORTAR. 



1 Breech sight. 
1 Vent cover. 
1 Water bucket. 
1 Brooui. 

1 Toinpion. 

2 Chocks. 

2 Lanyarils for friction primeri. 
1 Piece of chalk. 
1 Wrench to fi pieces. 
1 Short roller. 
1 Triice-rofie. 



IMrUMUtTS. 



Sponges and rammers 2 — 1 spare 

Hnuilii)iikes (2 fchod, for mortar) ' 7 — 2 spare 

liaversHcks f • • • I 

Tube-pouches \ 2 

Thumbstiill 1 



I'rirain); wires 2 — 1 spare 

Vent-punch — to 3 pieces 

Gunners' gimlet 

(Junners" perpendicular — to 6 pieces 

Quadrants 

FuT.e-scttcrs 

Fur.e-mallets 

Baskets 

Chocks for wheels 

Maul 

Loading tungs 

Tompious 

Vent cover 

Water bucket 

Broom 



I 

I 

1 

1 
1 Sparc 
-I spare 

1 

2 



2 — 1 spare 
1 



2 — 1 spare 
2 — I spar* 



Breech sight 

Lanyards for friction primers. 

Plummets 

Pointing-stakes 

Pointing-cord 

Quoins 

Shell-hooks 

Scrapers 

Spatulas. 



2 — 1 spare 



Gunners" sleeves (pair) 

Grommet wad 

Wipers of tow linen 

Chalk 

Hammer-wrench — to 6 pieces 



MACHINES AND ROPES. 351 

Scales and weightr, or a spring balance, funnel, set of powder measures of 3 
sizes, and fuze-extractor to each Vjattery magazine. 

The nuniher of implements must be proportioned to the whole number of gun- 
carriages, including the spare carriages. 

One tar bucket to each travelling carriage. 

Platforms. 

For guns and howitzers 1-lOth spare. 

For mortars 1 -8th " 

Embrasure Shutters. 

For half the number of guns and howitzers. 

Spare Parts of Carriages. 

Proportion to the number of parts in the carriages : 

Pintles for siege carriages l-30th. 

Nuts and washers, assorted 1-lOth. 

Linchpins l-5th. 

Axle-trees l-20th. 

Wheels 1-1 5th. 

Shoulder 1 -20th. 



Axle-washers 

Liuch 1 -lOth. 

Cap-squares l-15th. 

Poles, one-half ironed l-4th. 

Elevating-screws l-8th. 

Leading-bars, one-half ironed l-8th. 

Spare parts of field carriages, as for field batteries. 

Timber and other Materials for llepairs. 

Proportion to the number of parts that enter into the construction of the car- 
riages : 

Axle bodies for siege carriages, l-fjOth; B'oech-bolsters, l-20th; Cheeks, l-30th; 
Fellies. l-50th; Spokes, l-30th; Fork-saddles, l-30th ; Poles, l-20th; Hounds, 
l-20th; Splinter-bars, l-20th; Leading-bars, 1-lOth ; Square timber of various 
scantling — Plank — Wooden parts of mortar-wagons; of each, l-20th. 

Bar-iron, assorted, 80 lbs. to a piece, 8,000 lbs. ; Steel, 5 lbs. to a piece, 500 lbs. ; 
Sheet-iron, 50 sheets; Iron wire, 400 lbs.; Tin, 225 sheets; Nails, assorted, 300 
lbs. ; Screws, assorted, 5 gross. 

Machines and Ropes. 

7 Gins, with tackle, complete; 10 Lever Jacks; 14 Screw Jacks; 5 Lifting 
Jacks ; 20 Wheelbarrows, l-5th for shells ; 7 Hand-barrows j Balances, for weighing ; 



352 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



10 Spare gin-fall « ; 75 Double prolonged; 75 Single prolonges ;/ Drag-ropes, 200; 
2J-ineb rope, C>(\0 fathoms; Men's harness, SO; Small ropes, 200 lbs.; Twine, of 
various sizes, 50 lbs. 

Tools. 

Sets of carria(;e makers' and blacksmiths' tools — Pioneers' tools, for the artillerj 
alone, 40 t<t a piece, say 4,000; of which 1,600 spades, 270 shovels, 2,00il mattocks, 
130 picks— Spare tool handles, one-half. 

Axes, .'t to a piece, ."iOO; Bill-hooks, 2 to a piece, 200; Saw.«, various kinds, 100; 
10-foot rods, 2-foot rules, masons' levels, 50 of each; Mauls, '^00; Scythes, 8; 
Miners' tooln ; BaKkets. 

Laboratory Tools and uMatcrials. 

2 Sets of Laboratory tools. (See page 312.) 
Nitre, pulvcrited I,.')00 lbs 



Sulphur, pulverized 100 '• 

Cbarooal, pulverized lUO " 

Sulphur, roll 100 " 

Pitch .. 150 " 

Rosin 150 " 

Beeswax 50 " 

Camphor 20 " 

Spirits turpentine 10 gals. 

Sperm oil 30 '• 

Linseed oil 2 " 

Tow — Tarred links — Rock-fire, etc. 



Ibf. 



Twine 50 

Tarred ropf-yurn 200 " 

Cop]ier wire 1 (( " 

Brass wire 10 " 

Cotton yarn 25 " 

Glue 10 " 

Wrapping paper 10 reams. 

Tar 2 barrels. 

Mealed powder 300 lbs. 

Quick-match 150 " 

Torches 100 " 

Coal-tar 1 barrel. 



Implements for Firing Hot Shot. 

4 Sets. (See Chapter XIIL) 

Instruments and Books. 

2 Theodolites, or other instruments for measurinj: angles: 2 Levels and staret^S 
Compa.'-ses; 4 Surveying chains; Diagonal scales: Cases of mathematical instm- 
meuts: Spy-glasses: Thermometer; Barometer. 

liookf. — Ordnance Manual: Artillery for the land service; Tables of firing; 
Logarithmic t-ables ; Drawing paper. 

Miscellaneous Supplies. 

Smiths' coal, "20 tons; Grease, 2,000 lbs., in 50-lb. kegs ; Sandbags, -500 to each 
piece of ordnance; Chevaux-de-frise ; Scaling ladders: Rampart grat4.-s. 50; Tar- 
paulins, various sizes, 100; 2 Grindstones; Lanterns, lUO; Sperm candles, 150 lbs.; 
Lamplighters' torches ; Canvas; Friction matches, in small tin cases. 



ARMAMENT OF FORTIFICATIONS. 



353 



ARMAMENT OF FORTIFICATIONS. 

The kind and number of pieces of ordnance required for the armament of each of 
the fortitication.s are prescribed by the War Department, according to the char- 
acter and extent of each work. 

The carriages, ammunition, implements, equipments, and other supjilies, for a 
fort placed on the war establishment, may be proportioned to the number of pieces 
on the following general principles, the application of which must, however, be reg- 
ulated by the importance of the position and by the peculiar circumstances of each 
case : 



For a front of attack 



For other land 
fronts and for 
sea-coast bat- 
teries. 



Gun-car- 
riages. 



f Casemate 

I Barbette 

Siege 

Field 

Mortar-beds . . . 
Trench-carts for advanced 

works 

Sling-carts 

Tumbrils or hand-carts 

Caissons 



Forges, travelling (besides 
permanent forges) 



AMMUNITION. 

For each 10-in. columbiad .. 

For each gun and sea-coast 
howitzer and 8-inch co- 
lumbiad 

For each 24-pdr. howitzer... 

For each siege howitzer 

For each 10-in. mortar 

For each mortar 

For each 8-in. mortar and 
Coehorn 



l-6th . 
1 -.3d . . 
l-3d.. 

l-M .. 
l-4th . 



1 to 20 pieces. 
1 to 25 pieces. 
1 to 20 pieces. 
I to each field- 
piece. 

1 to 30 pieces of 
all kinds. 

400 rounds. 



800 rounds. 
100 " . 
600 " 
400 " 



600 rounds. 



,.1-lOth 
,.l-20th 
.1-lOth, 

.1-lOth! 



1 to 25 pieces. 
1 to 20 pieces. 



250 rounds.. 
100 " 
200 " .. 

200 " 



More than the 
number of 
pieces. 



1-20 

1-2 

1-20 



Grape and 
canister. 



Rampart grenades, .300 to a front of attack. 

For each piece of artillery of a field battery for sorties, 200 rounds. 
Gunpowder. — The quantity of cannon powder may be calculated on the following 
principles : 

For each charge of a gun — J of the weight of the shot. 
" " 10-inch columbiad, 15 lbs. 

" " 8-inch " 10 " 

23 



354 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Including the charge of the 
(bull. 



For cBoh charjfc of a 24-p(lr. howitzer, 2 lbs 

" " fS-inch piego bowit/.er, 4 " 

" " Ifl-inoh sea-coast " 12 " 

" " 8-inch " " 8 " 

" " 10-inch mortar, light, 7 " 

" " 10 inch " heavy, 15 " 

" " 8-inch " 3 " 

" " 13-inch " 30 " 

" " Coehorn " i " 

To ryiHTc : for mining, fireworksi, and waste, 1-10 of the whole, including a pro 
portion (if mcaU-il i)Owdi!r and its components, pulvcriicd. 
Fuze* A more than the numln'r of shcllii. 
Slotr-mnleh, 4 lbs. to a piece. 
Cannon cartridge paper, I shoot to a round. 
Sah„l$. 

Woodru hoiiomt for mortars firing grenades. 
Porl-jiret, 1 to 200 rounds. 
Friction primrrt, li the number of rounds. 

Small Arms. 



More than the numWr of troops of the 
several kinds supposed t<> hi- fully 
armed and equipped. 



Muskets 1-3 

Pistols 1-8 

Artillery and infantry swords 1-25 

Cavalry subroc 1-5 

Wall-pieces — 50 to a front of attack, or a front exposed to escalade. 

^riimi(Mifi..n. — Musket cartridges, for each man 400 

Musketoon, pistol, and rifle cartridges 100 ) 

Cartridges for each wall-piece 400 

Spare puwder for small arms, l-25th of the whole quantity required for the car- 
tridges. Cartridge paper in proportion. 

Percussion caps, in addition to those packed with the cartridges, J the number 
of rounds. 

Implements and Equipments. 

FOR EACH GUN. 



2 Rammers — 1 spare. 
2 Spiiuges — 1 " 

} ^^'^^^P^- I to 6 pieces. 
1 Ladle, J ^ 

1 (lunners' perpendicular to 6 pieces. 

1 Pass-box. 

1 Bud^e-barrel. 

2 Tube-pouches. 

2 Thumbstalls — 1 spare. 
2 Priming-wires — 1 spare. 



1 Gunners' gimlet. 

1 Vent-jiunch, to 3 pieces. 

1 Breech sight. 

1 Vent cover. 

2 Lanyards for friction primers. 
1 Water bucket. 

1 Tompion. 

1 Chalk-line and chalk. 

I Broom. 

1 Wrench to 6 pieoat. 



IMPLEMENTS AND EQUIPMENTS. 



3§& 



FOR EACH HOWITZEU. 



The same as for a gun, omitting jBa»«-to.r, 

and adding : 
1 Haversack. 
1 Fuze-setter. 



1 Fuze-mallet. 

1 Fuze-extractor, to 6 pieces. 

1 Quadrant. 



FOR EACH COLUMBIAD. 



The same as for a howitzer, adding, for those of model IS44, 1 Woolen sponge, 
of the diameter of the bore, to 3 guns. 



FOR EACH MORTAR. 



1 Sponge and rammer. 
6 Handspikes — 4 shod. 
] Haversack. 

1 Tube-pouch. 

2 Priming-wires. 

1 Vent-punch, to 3 pieces. 
1 Gunners' gimlet. 
1 Quadrant. 

1 Plummet. 

2 Pointing-stakes. 
2 Quoins. 

1 Torapion. 

2 Lanyards for friction primers. 



1 Pair shell-hooks. 

1 Scraper. 

1 Spatula. 

1 pair gunners' sleeves. 

I Wiper. 

1 Fuze-setter. 

1 Mallet. 

1 Fuze-saw. 

1 P"uze-e.\tractor, to 6 mortars. 

1 Basket. 

1 Broom. 

J Tarpaulin. 



FOR EACH 24-PDR. HOWITZER FOR FLASK DEFENCE. 



2 Rammers and sponges — 1 spare. 
2 Sponge-covers — 1 spare. 

1 Roller-bar. 

2 Manoeuvring-handspikes. 
1 Gunners' haversack. 

1 Budge-barrel. 

2 Tube-pouches. 

2 Thumbstalls — 1 spare. 
2 Priming-wires — I spare. 



1 Gunners' gimlet. 

1 Breech-sight. 

2 Lanyards for friction primers 
1 Water bucket. 

1 Fuze-cutter. 

1 Vent-punch. 

1 Vent cover. 

1 Tompion and strap. 

1 Broom. 



For EACH CASEMATE CARRIAGE (woodcD. including the spare carriages), 2 truck- 
bars ; 2 chocks ; 1 broom. 

For EACH BARBETTE CARRIAGE (woodcn ). 2 manwuvring handspikes : 1 tarpaulin, 
or other cover ; 1 platform and 1 maul ; if the platform be not permanent. 

For each iron carriage, 2 mano-uvring-bars ,• 2 pinch-bars; J manoeuvring- 
handspike ; 2 wrenches : 1 elevating-bar for columbiads. 

For each siege carriage, 4 handspikes; 1 maul; 1 platform. 

For EACH conTMBiAD BARBETTE CARRIAGE (wooden), 4 truck-bars ; 2 manoeu- 
vring-bars ; 1 elevating-bar. 



Hi 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Spare Parts for Repair of Carriages. 



Proportion of tin- iiiiinbcr of »j)are purU Ij thiil of similar jiarti" wliicU belong to 
tbo farriuK'"' — 

Forkv for travcroinjt wheeli of barbette carriafccs l-20th. 

Pinik'n for nioj^o carria);e limbers I -•''Oih. 

Pinlk'i" for cuwinate oarriaK''!* ' -'^Oth. 

LinrhpitiH l-)ih. 

/ for »ic|fc carriajfcs 1 --0th. 

Axle-tree* \ for barbcllo curriajKCH 1-lOlh. 

l for ragumate carriages 1 -lOlh. 

Rollcri for ca«ciuat« carriagce l-4(Mh. 

Bol»tcr-i>laio», for pinlloc uol purmanintlj fixed I -lOlh. 

I for niejti" carria({cii l-loth. 
for barbttti- upper carriojKc-g (iucludinj? rollorn) l-'JOlli. 
for caneiii«to " ' -40ih. 

I for barbette chaKsiii l-l'»lh, 

I for coocinate chaHKi* MOib, 

^ , , I ..houlder 1.20lb. 

All-washers, ^ j^^j^ , ,^,^ 

Poles, for siege earria^T liiiilicrf, niie-biiir ironeil I -lib. 

Elcvatiiij;-8cro«T8 1-^th. 

Tongues (iron) for casemate carriages l-lllth. 

Nuts, assorted l-llith. 

Timber and other Mutcrials for Repairs. 

Checks, slock.*, naves, spukes, fellies, for siege carriages, of each 1-ViOth; cheeks 
of mortar-beds. l-12tb. Handspikes. 4 to a |tiece ; tool handles, \: sets of timber 
for barbette carriages, l-20th; ditto, casemate, 1-lOth: iron, assorted, 50 lbs. to c»ih 
piece; uails and screws, assorted, \{.<Q tu each piece: steel, 1 lb. to each piece; ihaeW 
iron, 6 square feet to each piece ; tin, 5 sheets to each piece : spare parts for small 
arms, see Chapter VIII. 

Machines. Ropes, etc. 

Qins, casemate and rampart, as may be required, according to the extent of the 
fort; screw jacks, capstans, lever jacks, wheel-barrows. 1 to each piece; band- 
baiTow, for shells, 1 to each mortar; sling hand-barrow, or frame hand-barrow with 
legs, 1 to guns and howitKors : platform balance, or scales and weight*: gin-Callj, 
l-.'itb spare; double prolongcs, 2 to each gin ; drag-ropes, 2^-inch rope, small rope, 
lbs. to a piece; handspikes. 7 feet long: skids, blocks, rollers. 



MISCELLANEOUS SCPPLIES. 357 

Tools. 

Sets of carriage makers', smiths' and armorers' tools; intrenching and miners' 
tools, saws, levels, paviors' rammers : iO-foot rods ; 2-foot rules ; the number of each 
kind to be regulated by the particular circumstances of each case. 

Tools and Materials for Fireworks. 

(See Chapter X.) 

Laboratory tools and materials, according to the extent and resources of the fort. 
See the pr<>i>ortion of those for a siege train. 

For each night of a siege, or for each ni^ht on which the guns will probably be 
served, have 6 tarred links to each piece moutitcd on the ramparts of a front of 
attack, or of a sea-coast battery, and ."i fire-balls for a front of attack. 

Signal rockets, torches, rock-firc, etc., according to circumstances. 

Instruments, Books and Stationery. v 

According to the character and extent of the fort. — See Siege Train. 

Miscellaneous Supplies. 

Timber, plank, and boards; .wood for sabots, fascines, gabions, etc. Pickets; 
coal, 5 tons to a forge; grease, grindstones, rampart grates. 2 to each piece on the 
ramparts; sand-bags, for the batteries on the front of attack; lantern, 1 to each 
piece ; candles, oil, fire-engine and buckets. 

Field pieces forming a part of the armament of a fortification should be provided 
with their caissons, ammunition, etc., as for service in the field. 



858 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



C II A I' T E R T W E L F T II 



MECHANICAL MANCEUVKES. 



The intrdiliiotioii tu-ro of a few of the most common mcchuiical mana>uvrei with 
liuBV.v f;uii8, for mounting uikI <lii<mounliiig, etc., it \a bclivveil. will prove coDvcnicnt. 
For full (liroolioDD fur ilu- iiiuuii'uvrci- of heuvj orduaucc, »ee " llhA\ r AuTiLLKKr." 

Knots, (Hill the Manner of Tying them. (Plato 33.) 

Loor. — neiiil the r(>]>e 80 aa to bring the branches near to each other, without 
cr<>8f>inK tlicni. 

IIai.p-hitch. — Beml the rope, crossing one branch over the other. 

SiMTLK KNOT. — Form a balf-Litch: turn one end arouml the other, pMsing it 
tbroufth the half-hit<h : close it by drawing the two ends. 

SiMiM E URAW-KNoT, or Bow-K.NOT. — Form a half-hitch; make a loop with one end; 
tarn this loop around the other part, t^o as to pass it in the half-hitch; close iu 

Gai.i.ry knot. — Form a simple draw-knot ; pass a lever in the loop, and close it. 

Sgi'ARK KNOT. — 1«» Mrthod : Cfoss the ends of the rope, say, the right end over 
the left; turn the left end around the right branch from above downward, and from 
within outward ; bend the left end. forming a loop with it : turn the right end around 
the left, and pass it in the loop from below upward; close iL 

id Mrih<i<i : Make a loop with one end; pa^s the other end through the loop, and 
take a turn around the two branches that form the loop, beginning with the long 
one; pass it again through the loop, and close it. 

That the knot may not slip, the two ends of the rope should separate, one to the 
right, the other to the left, but both in front or both behind. 

Draw st^iARE knot. — Make an onlin.iry square knot, but with the end passed in 
the loop to complete the knot ; form a second loop, and pass it through the first ; 
close it. 

Weavers' knot. — Form a loop with one end ; pass the other end through the 
loop, and take a turn around the two branches forming the loop — first around the 
long one — and pass it between the loop and that part already passed through the 
loop ; close it. 



KNOTS, AND THE MANNER OF TYING THEM. 



359 



Gkrman knot.— Form a half-bitch ; turn the free end around the standing part; 
cross the free end on itself, and pass it through the half-hitch. 

Artificers' knot, or two half-hitches.— l»r J/ef/joc/ .• Make two half-hitches 
near to each other, but in contrary directions ; that is, if the free end of one half- 
hitch cross above that part of the rope which is between the half-hitches, the free 
part of the other half-hitch must cross under,- place these two half-hitches one on 
the other, so that the ends shall be on the inside; put the half-hitches over the end 
of the object to which the rope is to be fastened, and close it. 

2d Method : To fasten a rope to a picket, keeping it stretched, take a turn around 
the picket with the free end, and bring it back under the standing part ; take a 
second turn above the first with the same end, passing the free end between the last 
turn and the fixed part; close it by drawing on the free end. 

3d Method i Form a half-hitch, with the free end beneath ; place it over the head 
of the picket; form a second half-hitch, the free end beneath; place it over the 
picket, above the first; close it. 

Magnus hitch.— Take a turn around the picket with the free end, and bring it 
back above the standing part; take a second turn with the same end, and bring it 
back under the standing part: make with this end a half-hitch, the free end 
being underneath ; place this half-hitch over the picket ; close it by drawing on 
the free end. 

This knot difi'ers from the artificers' knot, by having three turns around the 
picket, instead of two. 

M00F.ING knot, with half-hitches.— To fasten a rope to a picket by half- 
hitches, take two turns around the picket, and bring the free end back along the 
standing part; take a turn with the free end around the standing part, and pass it 
through the half-bitch thus formed; make a second half-hitch by crossing the free 
end aeain over the standing part, and passing the free end through the half-hitch; 
tie the end to the standing part with lashing-cord, if necessary. 

Rolling hitch.— To tie a rope to another which is stretched, cross the end of the 
free rope on the stretched one, and take a turn around it from above downward, and 
bring back this end in the acute angle formed by the two ropes; take a second turn 
in the same manner; make a half-hitch with the free end around the stretched rope, 
and then a second half-hitch above the turns already formed; tie the end to the 
rope with lashing-cord. 

Anchor knot.— To fasten a rope to a ring, pass the rope through the ring twice; 
make a half-hitch around the standing part and the part forming the second turn ; 
make a second half-hitch below the first ; tie the short end to the standing part, if 
necessary. 

Capstan knot.— To fasten the gin-fall, for instance, to the handles of a gun, 
make a half-hitch by crossing the free end on the part coming from the head of the 
gin; pass the free end through the handles and through the hiiH-hitch from beneath 
upward; pass the end around the standing part, turning it between the standing 



860 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

part and the part leading to tht- handle ; pass it in the loop from shore downward; 
draw it clo»c. 

CaoW!f.— Take the r»\>u and form a coil of the sire rcrjuircd. and with the fr«« 
end wrap the tcveral vtriindH forming the coil, and faften the two end* lij a («|uare 
knot. 

Shout si-Lirn.— Unlny wh.iut one foot of the endn of the two rop«g, A and Bt 
that are to lie Hpliocd; bring the end* together, no that the iilran<lii of one rop« 
ihHll lie hotwcen lho»e of the other. Holding the rope A in the left hand, for 
instance, croM caeh utrand of thif rope over the ^trnnd of the other that in to lt« 
lefU and ]>u.r* earh utrand of the rope A, hy meant of a marline-npike, onder th« 
Mrand H to the left of that which it crossed; draw hard on ea<>h utrand ihos 
tmtii; do the came thing with the strand* of the rope B. To give i;reater 
strength to the uplioe, paas again each strand over that t« it* left aiid under the 
one Id the left of Uiis last : cut off the projecting ends. Thin splice will not paat 
through the throat of the pulley. 

LoNO RPi.icR. — I'lilay ahoui QO inrhcc of each rope: bring them together aa in 
the short splice: unlay one of the strands of A, and replace it by the corresponding 
strand of B; cross the end of this last strand over the replaced strand, and p«W 
them, each on its own side, under the adjoining strands; replace, in same way.eaeh 
strand of one rope hy one of the other, and secure them two and twn, as haa Jut 
been oxplaine<l, at different places in the splice; eat off the projecting ends. Til* 
long .-plicc will pans through the throat of the pulley. 

To Slew a Gun. 

Chock the gun on the side to which it is to be turned; pass a trannion-looa am 
one of the trunuioun, run a handspike through it, and turn the gun in ita pla«e. 

To Move a Gun by Rolling it. 

Place a skid under the middle of the reinforce, and another under the middle of 
the chase, and roll the gun over. 

By inclining the skids and cutting the muzzle, it may be mored in different 
directions. 

In rolling heavy guns, it is most convenient to use two collars of wood or caat- 
iron, of eijual diameters (one on th» breech, the other on the maztlej, large enonrh 
to allow the trunnions to tarn without striking the ground. 

To Transport a Field Piece by means of a Limber. 

Detach the jirolonge; place the limber over the jiiece, so that the pintle-bonk 
shall be over the handles (or over the rear of the trunnions), with the brciooh 
toward the pole : run a handnpike into the bore and raise the chaae; Usb the pioon 
to the pintle-hook with the prolonge, by passing the ring of the prolongc twioo 



MANOEUVRES WTTH GINS. 



sSF 



through the handles (or around the piece in rear of the trunnions) and over the 
pintle-hook. 

With the loose end of the prolonp;e. lash the eascahle to tbc fork of the limber. 

The gun may he placed on blocks at the proper height, and then lashed to the 
limber as before. 

To Shift a Gun from the Trunnion-holes to its Travelling-bed. 

Limber up ; remove the eap-squares and chock the wheels fr<vnt and rear; place 
the short roller under the reinforce: att;ich the trace-rope at its middle to the cas- 
cable by two balf-hitehcs; cross two handspikes under the one in the bore; lift and 
push at the muzzle and haul on the rope until the trunnions arc over their travel- 
ling position ; raise the chase, bring forward the roller to the head of the stock, and 
lower the chase upon it; raise the chase again ; remove the roller, and lower the 
chase upon the stock ; take off the rope ; replace the cap-squares ; insert the elevat- 
ing-screw from below, and lash it. 

With the Li/tiiicf-.Jack. — Place the jack under the swell of the muzzle; raise the 
chase; place a half block on the head of the stock; take a second lift, and place 
two rollers on the stock, one just in rear of the trunnion, the other under the rein- 
force; chock the latter toward the muzzle, and remove the half blocks: haul on 
the rope attached to the cascable, and bring the breech over the bolster; chock the 
rear roller; place the jack under the muzzle, and remove the rollers. 

To Shift a Gun from, its Trdvelling-bed to the Trunnion-holes. 

Chock the wheels front and rear; remove the cap-squares: raise the chase and 
insert the short roller under the trunnions ; attach the rope by its middle to the 
cascable ; bear down the muzzle, *nd, as the piece rolls forward, guide the trun- 
Tiions into their holes bj' means of the rope ; remove the short roller. 

A howitzer is shifted to and from its travelling-bed by the same means, except 
that the handspike in the bore is chocked above and below for raising the chase, 
the lower chock being placed about 18 inches in the bore. The vertical diameter of 
the short roller should be just forward of the rimbases. 

MANCEUVRES WITH GINS. 

Implements. — 2 i/iii-hnndnpikes ; 1 (jin-fall for siege gin, 4-inch rope, 90 feet long; 
1 gill-fall for casemate or garrison gin, 5-inch rope, 120 feet long; 1 trace-rope, 2,25 
inches round, 30 feet long; 2 lashiug-ropes, 12 feet long; 1 hammer. 

To Put the Field or Siege Gin together. 

Lay the legs on the ground, outer sides down, in position to receive the sheaves, 
braces, windlass, and pry-pole. Put these in place, and key the braces. 



362 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



To Reeve the Fall. 

Raiiio the pry-pole ; run one end of the fall through the left sheave from holow : 
\ta,** it through the pully which is hooked to the miildlo brace, and thence through 
the right sheave, securing it to the pully or to the middle brace. 

To Raise the Field Gin. 

Odc man places his foot on the lower brace, holds the foet of the gin in place, and 
■toadies the pry-polo. Six men seize the logs and raise the gin. 

To Move the Field Gin when Raised. 

Place four men at the ends of two handspikes run under the windlass, apd two 
men nt the handles of the pry-pole, and move the gin. The gin is lowered in ft 
manner similar to that prescribed for raising it. 

To Put a Casemate or Garrison Gin together. 

The legs or pry-p<>le are laid on the ground or acroM the gun-carringc, inner 
■ides down and upper ends together, to receive the clevis and bolt. The windlus, 
braces, and clevis uud bolt aVe then put in their proper places and secured. The 
gin is then raised by moving up the legs and pry-]iole toward each other. 

To Reeve the Fall of a Casemate or Garrison Gin. 

Fasten one end of the trace-rope to the upper block, pass the other end through 
the clevis, and thence round the windlass. Ilcave upon the windlass, raii<e the 
block, ami hook it iu the clevis. Reeve the fall as described for the field gin. 

To Lower the Casemate or Garrison Gin. 

Draw out gradually the legs and pry-pole until the men can get n«Ar cnongb to 
the head to support it. Lower it upon the piece or upon the ground. 

To Move the Casemate or Garrison Gin. 

Lash the pry-pole to the upper brace to keep the gin from spreading. Four men 
lay hold of each leg and move them ; then move the pry-pole. 

To Mount a Piece by means of a Gin. 

Place the gin with its pulleys directly over the trunnions, and the foot of the pry- 
pole about thirteen feet from the lower brace. Remove the cap-sqaares. run a haad- 
spikc into the bore, fasten the sling to it and over the cascable, and hook the pulley 



TO MOUNT A GUN ON A CASEMATE CARRIAGE. 363 

to it, just in rear of the trunnions. Steady the gun with the handspike in the bore, 
pass the running end of the fall from the outside under the windlass, and take three 
turns with it from the right to the left around the left of the windlass, and hold fast 
to the end of the rope. Work the windlass and raise the gun to the required height. 
Bring up the carriage until the trunnion-holes are directly under the trunnions. 
Slack off the fall slowly, and let the trunnions descend into their holes. Put on the 
cap-squares. 

IlE>f ARK. — The piece may be slung with a short piece of rope passed around each 
trunnion, and the ends fastened together on the top of the piece ; or the trunnion- 
rings may be put on. Ilook the pulley to this sling, or to the trunnion-rings, bear 
down with one or two men on the handspikes in the bore to balance the piece, and 
raise it to the proper height. Place a handspike in the trunnion-holes, and a block 
on the stock to receive the breech. Lower the gun, the trunnions directly over the 
trunnion-holes, until it rests upon the handspike. Remove the sling from the trun- 
nions, and run the carriage, with the gun on it, back until the heads of the cheeks 
are in rear of a perpendicular let fall from the head of the gin. Pass the sling 
around the chase, hook the pulley to it, and work the gin to relieve the weight on the 
handspike. Remove it, and lower the trunnions into their places. Bear down the 
muzzle, and remove the block from under the breech. 

To Dismount a Piece by means of a Gin. 

Place the gin as for mounting the gun, remove the cap-squares, put on the sling, 
raise the gun out of the trunnion-holes, run out the carriage, and slack off gradually 
to lower the gun to the ground. 

To Shift the Fall. 

Overhaul the loose end of the fall, and make a double hitch with it around the leg 
of the gin below the lower cross-bar, passing the end inside of the windlass and 
braces to a man mounted on the windlass, who makes with it a rolling hitch on the 
standing part of the fall near the upper brace. Slack off until the weight bears on 
the end of the fall, and slip the rope to the other end of the windlass; or the stand- 
ing part of the fall may be lashed to the leg above the windlass with a small rope. 

To Mount a Gun on a Casemate Cdrriage. 

Traverse the carriage to one side; place the gun on blocks, or on the truck, near 
the middle of the casemate, the muzzle toward the embrasure, and the gin over the 
gun and carriage; the latter on the side of the pry-pole. Sling the gun, and work 
the giu until the gun is raised sufficiently high to traverse the chassis under it; jdace 
the carriage so that the trunnion-holes come exactly under the trunnions ; lower the 
gun into its place ; remove the sling, and take away the gin. 

To prevent the pavement from being injured by the points, a truck-wheel, or a 
piece of 3-inch plank, with a hole to receive the point, is placed under each foot. 

To dismount a piece, proceed in the inverse manner. 



8(>4 ORONANCK MAMJAL.;yim }9P 

To Ldicer a Barbette Carriuje from its Chassis, the Piece beinrj 

Mounted. 

Place till- jiicc'c in Iditfcry, tlif liiiiher ucpuratoly in llio ])riil<in;;:iti<iD of it- uxis, 
about Hix yanlc (o the rear. Chock the rollers: place wbeel-chocl;H iijion (be railn, 
near the inanti-iivrin^-Hta|)lef«, to serve a8 fuleruin!* ; cinliar under the Ktuplcs. luKurt 
a bnniliipikc in (be bore to bear down with. Kais^e the trail and put blueks on the 
tuii;rue under and perpendicular to the transom and axic-fie. Kaisic the rear of the 
chaKoiii ; rcino»"e the traverce-wheeli*, and lower the chassis upon the traverse-circle. 
Form scafTobU one )d>>ck and a half high on each side of (he carria;;c, undi r au<l 
perpendicular to the rhnKfis, about four inchei' in rear of the middle traoKom, and 
place (bo plajikf on them, their inner edges against the rails of the i-han«is, and (heir 
front ends about ei^iht inches in front of the scaffolds, beveled sides up. ]tack ibe 
limber upon the planks: raise the pide to cn<;aj^e the pintle in the luiiet(e, and (hen 
bear down the pole: remove the blocks from under the trail, and key the pintle. 
rtii-Iiiiik the wheels, and run (he piece carefully down the planks to (he (errepU-in. 

To Mount the Barbette Carriage upon its Chassis. 

Lower the rear of the chassifl upon the traverse-circle, and place the piece, lim- 
bered, accuratily in the prolongation of the tongue, about six yards to the rear. 
Place the planks in position. Embar with two handspikes (hrouf^h the wheels near 
the fire under the front niano-uvring-bcdts ; euibar with two handspikes, in a ^inlilar 
Way, over the rear mnna'uvring-bolts, and with two more under the wheels: guide 
the pidc: heave upon the handspikes and at the limber-wheels, and buck the carriage 
up the plunks into battery : chock the wheels ; raise the trail and |)la<-c'a block under 
aad perpendicular (o the transom and tixle-tie : raise the pole to disengage the pintle 
fromVthe lunet(c; remove the limber and planks; raise (be rear of the chassis; 
replace the traverse-wheels and prop, and remove the block from under the transom 
And axle-tie. 

To Grease the Hollers of a Barbette Carriage, the piece being 

Mounted. 

Run the piece from battery: place a half block lengthwiiie on the cha8si.--rail in 
front, and another in rear of the roller to be greased, with a wheel-chock upon 
each to serve as a fulcrum. Embar on them and under the front and rear manoeu- 
▼ring-bolts : raise the roller from the rail: move it about six inches; grease the 
spindle, and return the roller t"b its place. Unbar, and put on the wheel. 

To Grease the Forks of the Traverse- WheHs. 

Rai^e the rear of the chassis; remove the nuts of the fork-bolts with a wrench ; 
take out the bolts and grease them. 

Remark. — The iron gun-carriages have holes for oiling the truck-wheel, traverse- 
wheels and axle-boxes. 



TO SLING A PIECE ON TWO LIMBERS. 365 

' To Sling a Gun, Howitzer, or Mortar on the Cart. 

Baok tlie cart over the iiiece, the pole toward the breech, and the axle-tree 
directly over the trunnions: chock the wheels. Fasten the middle of the prolonge 
to the end of the pole, and carry one end of it to the rear of the cart ; raise the 
pole l>y hand and by means of the prolonge until it is nearly vertical, and steady it. 
Lay the middle of the slinjr-chain over the piece; carry each end around the trun- 
nions, from the rear to the front, and hook them to the axle-hooks, being careful to 
take uj) all the slack. Haul upon the prolonge until the end of the pole can be 
reached by hand ; sciz.e and bear it to the ground ; hook the caseable-chain around 
th(k cascable in such a manner that the piece will swing level when the pole is 
horizontal. Raise the pole until it rests on the pole-prop. By putting blocks 
under the piece, and repeating the operation, the piece may be raised higher. 

To Lower the Piece. 

'■ Bear the cud of the pole to the ground ; unhook the cascable-chain, and allow 
the pole to rise gently until it is nearly vertical. If the piece do not rest upon the 
ground, it must be blocked up and unslung. The operation is repeated and the 
piece is lowered to the ground. Ease the pole down carefully. 

To Sling a Mortar Mounted on its Bed. 

Back the sling-cart over the mortar, the pole toward the breech, and the axle- 
tree directly over tho trunnions : raise the pole vertically ; pass the sling-chain 
around the front manoeuvring-bolts ; hook it over the axle-hooks, and haul down the 
pole. Block up the front of the bed ; take off the sling-chain, and pass it under 
the bed just in front of the cap-square bolts; bear the pole down to the ground; 
remove the blocks ; pass another sling-chain around the rear manoeuvring-bolts and 
over the pole, and hook it iu such a manner that the bed will be level when the pole 
rests on the pole-prop. 

Sea-coast mortars and their beds must be slung separately. The sling-chain is 
passed through ihe clevis of the mortar and over the axle-tree, and hooked around 
the pole at its junction with the axle, the pole having been raised vertically. 

To Sling a- Piece on Two Limbers so that it may be transported 

with horses. 

Place blocks under tho chase and reinforce : remove the pole of one of tho lim- 
bers, and run it over the piece until the pintle is over the knob of the cascable; 
raise the muzzle and slip the front block under the trunnions ; bear down the muz- 
zle, and fasten tho pintle to the cascable with the chain or lashing-rope ; bear down 
the fork to the piece and lash it around tho reinforce. Back the other limber over 
the neck of tho piece; raise the pole, and attach the neck to the limber by taking 



3G6 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

two turnf with the prolonge around the pintle, and two turns over the fork in front 
of the axle-tree. Raise the jiiece hy bearing on the 1"p1c. 

To Mount a Gun on an Iron Carriage. 

A Hiinjtlc and expeditious method of mounting a gun upon an iron eatemate 
carriage ronsi!<tH in rnicing the gun upon two scaffoldH, and asRcmhling the chMsU 
and top ciirriage in portion under the gun. 

Tn do (hii>, place the gun with its muzzle toward the eml>rai>urc and its axis per- 
pendicular to the middle of the face of the wall; raise the muzzle and the hrecch 
alternately by mean* of the lifting-jack, 8up|n»rting the gun on two scaffold* of 
blocks, placed in front and iu rear of the trunnions : acsemhle the chassis in 
position; |il»co one cheek of the top carriage on the chassis-rail, with the trunnion- 
bole directly under the trunnion, and bolt the transoms to it; ]ilaco the other chock 
in ]iositioii, and bolt it to the transoms. Lower the trunnions into their holes, and 
remove the blocks. 

The lilooks for the scaffolds should be about three inches shorter than the distance 
between the rimbasis of the gun, and not less than fifteen inches wide. They 
should be two inchch, four inches, and eight inches thick- Neither the muszle nor 
the breech should lie raised more than four inches by a sin;:le lift. As soon as the 
gun hut' been raised high enough to allow it, the chassis should bo put in place and 
assembled. Cari- must be taken to build the scaffolds so as not to let them interfere 
with the transoms iu assembling the carriage. 

To Dismount the Gun. 

Rai^e the breech an<l build a scaffold under it, as in mounting the gun ; raise 
the muzzle with a jack, and build a scaffold under the chase; take the cheeks 
apart and remove them ; lower the gun until its under surface is nearly down to the 
chassis; take the chassis apart, remoro it, and lower the gun upon two blocks. 

To Mount or Dismount a lb-inch Gun. 

Place the chassis on the platform, and roll the gun on skids upon it, placing 
the axis of the gun in the vertical plane of the axis of the chassis. Place u gin 
over the muzzle and another over the case-able, and, by means of them and the 
lifting-jack, raise the muzzle and the breech, alternately, supporting them upon 
scaffolds. When the gun has been raised to the proper height, place the cheeks of 
the top carriage upon the chassis-rails, and proceed as in mounting a smaller gun. 

To dismount a gun, proceed in the inverse manner. 



RANGES. 



367 



Chapter Thirteenth 



AUTILLEEY PRACTICE. 



The plan of this work does not include the details relative to the service of 
artillery ; but, in the absence of more full and accurate tables of firing, it is thought 
useful to give here the mean results of such trials of the ranges of our ordnance as 
have been made from time to time by the Ordnance Department, together with some 
other practical information derived from authentic sources. 

Ranges. 

The range of a shot or shell is the first graze of the ball on horizontal ground, 
the piece being mounted on its appropriate carriage. 

The range of a spherical-case shot is the distance at which the shot bursts near 
the ground, in the time given ; thus showing the elevation and the length of fuze 
required for certain distances. 



KINS OF ORDNANCE. 



Powder. 



Ball. 



Eleva- 
tion. 



Range. 



Remarks. 





Lbs.' 




c / 


Yards. 






6-PDR. FIELD GUN. 


1.25 


Shot. 




1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


318 
674 

867 
1138 
1256 
1523 


Time 2 secc 






1.25 


Sph.-case. 


1 


600 


nds. 






Shot. 

it 
<< 


1 45 

2 

2 45 

3 


700 

800 

900 

1000 


" 2J ' 
" 3 ' 
" 3i ' 

<; 3| < 








(( 


3 15 


1100 


" 4 








« 


4 


1200 


u 5 




12-PnR. FIELD GUN, 


2.5 


Shot. 





347 






Model 1841. 




a 


1 
1 30 


662 

785 


' 





368 



ORDNANCE MANUAL, 



Ranges — Continued. 



KIND or ORDNANOI. 


Powder. 


Ball. 


filevft- 

tiun. 


Uange. 


Romarka. 




Lbs. 




O I 


TardB. 




12-IM)H. KIKI.D OUM, 


2.& 


Shot 


2 


909 




Mudol 1S41. 




« 


.3 


1269 




Continued. 




« 


4 


1455 








« 


5 


1663 






S.6 


Sph.-case. 


1 


600 


Time, 1} Reconda. 






« 


1 45 


700 


" 2i " 






" 


2 


800 


" 21 " 






« 


2 15 


900 


„ 3 .« 






« 


2 .30 


1000 


" 31 " 






« 


3 


1100 


" 4 " 






" 


3 30 


1200 
325 


" 4k " 


12-pnR. riRi-D orx, 


2.6 


Shot 







Napoleun. 




it 


1 


620 








« 


2 


875 








« 


3 
4 


12IMI 

i:i2(i 








<i 


5 


1680 






3.5 


Sph.-oase. 


30 


300 


Time, 1 aeoond. 






Shot 


1 


575 


li attcouda. 






II 


1 30 


633 


" 21 






u 


2 


7.30 


" 3 






« 


3 


960 


.. 4 






" 


3 30 


1080 


.. 4| 


» 




« 


3 45 


1136 


" b " 




2.0 


Shell. 





300 


" OJ 






" 


30 


425 


" IJ 






" 


1 


616 


" 1} " 






« 


1 30 


700 


" 2i " 






« 


2 


787 


" 21 " 






« 


2 30 


925 


" 3i 






« 


3 


1080 


.. 4 






« 


3 46 



1300 


" 5 


12-pnR. FIELD 


1. 


Shell. 


195 




HOWITZER. 




« 


1 


539 








« 


2 
3 


640 

847 








« 


4 


975 








•' 


5 
2 15 


1072 






0.76 


Sph.-ca8e. 


485 


Time, 2 seconda. 



RANGES. 



869 



Ranges — Continued. 



KIND OF ORDNANCE. 


Powder. 


Ball. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Range. 


Remarks. 


12-PDR. FIELD 


Lbs. 




o / 


Yards. 




HOWITZKR. 












Continued. 


0.75 


Sph.-case. 


3 15 


715 


Time, 3 seconds. 






<< 


3 45 




1050 


" 4 


12-PDU. MOUNTAIN 


0.5 


Shell. 


170 


. 


HOWITZER. 




« 


1 
2 


300 
392 








" 


2 30 


500 


Time, 2 seconds. 






n 


3 


637 








« 


4 
5 


, 785 
1005 


" 3 




0.5 


Sph.-case. 





150 








« 


2 30 
3 


450 
500 


Time, 2 seconds. 






i< 


4 


700 


" 2i " 






" 


4 30 


800 


« 3 


24-PDR. FIELD 


2. 


Shell. 





295 




HOWITZER. 




« 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


516 

793 

976 

1272 

1322 






2.5 


Sph.-case. 


1 30 


600 


Time, 2 seconds. 






« 


2 


700 


" 2i 






It 


2 30 


800 


u 3j 






« 


2 45 


900 


" 3i 






u 


3 15 


1000 


« 4 II 






« 


3 45 


1100 


" 4i " 






" 


3 50 


1200 


" 4| 


32-PDR. FIELD 


2.5 


Shell. 





290 




HOWITZER. 




it 


1 


531 








II 

II 


2 
3 
4 
5 


779 
1029 
1203 
1504 






3.25 


Sph.-case. 


1 30 


600 


Time, 2 seconds. 






" 


2 


700 


" 2i " 






« 


2 15 


800 


« 3 <r 






" 


2 45 


900 


" 3i " 






II 


3 


rooo 


" 31 " 






" 


3 35 


1100 


II 4j 






II 


3 45 


1200 


II 4a " 



24 



'wnL. 



370 



ORDNANCE MA.NUAL. 



Ranges — Continued. 



SIMD OF OBSRAKCK. 


Powder. 


Ball. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Range. 


Remarks. 


IS-I'DH. SIKOE AND 
GAIUtlSON GTN. 

On biirbettc carriage. 


Lbs. 
4.5 

6. 


Shot. 
« 
« 


O 1 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


Yards. 

641 

950 

1256 

1450 

1692 




24-ri)n. sikge and 

0AKU180S WIN. 

On hiege carriage. 


Shot. 




1 

1 30 

2 

3 

4 

5 


412 
842 
953 
1147 
1417 
1666 
1901 




S2-rDR. 8EA-COA8T 
GUN. 

On barbette carriage. 


6. 

8. 


Shot. 


1 45 

1 

1 30 

1 35 

2 

3 

4 

5 


900 
713 
800 
900 
IIUO 
1433 
1684 
1922 




42-PDn. SRA-C0A8T 
GIN. 

On barbotlo carriage. 


10.5 


Shot. 


1 
2 

3 
5 


1 
2 
3 

1 4 
! 5 
i 12 30 


775 
1010 
1300 
1600 
1955 


i 


S-IMCH SIEGE HOW- 
IT7.KU. 

On siege carriage. 


4. 

4. 
6. 


Shell, 
45 lbs. 

<< 


251 
435 

618 

720 

992 

1241 

2280 


; 
1 


8-INCH SKA-COAST 
HOWITZEK. 

On barbette carriage. 


Shell, 
45 Ibe. 


j 1 
2 
3 

1 4 

' 5 
1 

1 2 


405 
652 

875 
1110 
1300 ! 

572 : 

828 l| 



RANGE?. 

Ranges — Continued. 



371 



KIND OP ORDNANCE. 


Powder. 


Ball. 


Kleva- 
tiou. 


Range. 


Remarks. 




Lbs. 




O 1 


Yards. 






8-I.\CH SEA-COAST 


6. 


Shell, 


3 


947 






HOWITZER. 




45 lbs. 


4 


1168 






On barbette carriage. 




" 


5 


1463 






Continued. 


■ 8. 


" 


1 
2 
3 

4 
5 


646 

909 

1190 

1532 

1800 






lO-INCH SEA-COAST 


12. 


Shell, 


1 


580 






HOWIT/.EK. 




90 lbs. 


2 


891 


Time, 3 seconds 




Ou barbette carriage. 




,, 


3 

3 30 
4 


1185 
1300 
1426 


" 4 " 
" 5J " 








>< 


5 


1650 


" 6 




8-INCH COLUMBIAD.* 


10. 


Shell, 


1 


681 


Time, 1.88 seconds. 






50 lbs. 
« 

« 

(I 


2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 


1108 
1400 
1649 
1733 
1994 
2061 
2250 
2454 
26;)4 
2718 
290S 
3060 
3123 
3138 


" 3.58 
" 4.30 
" 5.41 
" 6.25 
" 7.56 
" 7.96 
" 9.12 
" 10.16 
" 10.91 
" 11.3 
" 13. 
" 14.08 
" 14.25 
" 16. 


< 






« 


20 
25 
30 


3330 
3474 

3873 


" 18.40 
" 20. 
" 25. 


< 






Shot. 


5 


1697 


" 6.20 


i 






" 


15 


3224 


" 14.19 


' 


lO-INCH COLUMBIAD.* 


15. 


Shell, 


3 


1068 


Time, 3.20 sec( 


)nds. 






100 lbs. 


5 

8 

10 

12 

20 


1525 
2238 
2720 
2847 
3842 


" 5.64 
" 8-10 
" 10.98 
" 11.73 
•' 18.92 


< 
< 



* Axis of gun 6 feet above the horizontal plane. 



Jl 



372 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Ranges — Con tinued. 



KtXD OP ORDMAirCI. 


Powder. 


Ball. 


Kleya- 
tion. 


Range. | 


Remarks. 




LbH. 


Shell, 


o / 


Yards. 




10-IN. COHTMBIAD. 


15. 


100 Iba. 


30 


4836 


Time, 27.50 seconds. 


OuntiDued. 




Shot, 


15 


.S2S1 


" 14.32 " 






125 lbs. 


30 


516.3 


" 27.08 




18. 


<< 





394 


Axis of (^iin 16 foct 






•< 


1 


752 


above the water. 






« 


2 
3 


1002 
1230 








If 


4 


1570 








« 


5 


1S14 1 








« 


6 


2U37 


Shot ceased to ricochet 






" 


8 


2519 


on wut«r. 






" 


10 


2777 








ti 


15 


3523 








it 


20 
25 
30 
35 


4020 
4304 
4761 
5433 






20, 


" 


3S> 15 


5654 






12. 


Shell, 


1 


800 








100 lbs. 


2 

3 


1012 
1184 








K 


4 
5 


H43 
1604 






18. 


« 



1 
2 
3 


448 

747 

1100 

1239 








« 


4 
5 
6 

8 


1611 
1865 
2209 
2489 








« 


10 


2848 








« 


15 


3200 








" 


20 


38S5 








« 


25 
30 


4150 
4651 








" 


35 



4828 


Time of flight, 35 sec. 


15-lH. COLCMBIAD. 


40. 


Shell, 


273 








302 lbs. 


1 
2 


484 
812 








« 


3 


1136 








« 


4 
5 


1310 
1518 








« 


6 


1760 








" 


7 


1948 








315 Ibe. 


8 


2194 





RANGES. 



373 



Banges — Continued. 



KIJTD OF ORDNANCE. 


Powder 


Ball. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Range. 


Remarks. 




Lbs. 


Shell, 


o 


Yards. 




16-IN. COLtJMBIAD. 

Continued. 


40. 


315 lbs. 
« 


9 

10 


2236 
2425 


Time, 8.87 seconds. 
" 10.00 " 








12 


2831 


" 12.07 " 






'' 


15 


3078 


" 13.72 








20 


3838 


" 17.82 


t 




" 


25 


4528 


" 22.03 " 






*' 


28 


4821 


" 24.18 " 








. 30 


5018 


" 26.71 




45. 

50. 




25 


4595 


" 23.20 " 




" 


25 


4680 


" 2.3.29 


13-INCH SEA-COAST 




Shell, 






MORTAR. 


20. 


200 lbs. 


45 


4325 




10-INCH SEA-COAST 


Shell, 






MORTAR. 


10. 

1. 

1.5 


98 lbs. 


45 


4250 


Time, 36 seconds. 


10-INCH SIEGE 
MORTAR. 


Shell. 
90 lbs. 


45 
45 


300 
700 


Time, 6.5 seconds. 
" 12 " 




2. 


" 


45 


1000 


" 14 " 




2.5 


" 


45 


1300 


" 16 




3. 




45 


1600 


" 18 " 




3.5 


" 


45 


1800 


" 19 " 




4. 


" 


45 


2100 


" 21 




Lbs. oz. 










8-INCH SIEGE 
MORTAR. 


10 
13 


Shell, 
46 lbs. 


45 
45 


500 
600 


Time, 10 seconds. 
" 11 " 




1 
1 2 




45 

45 


750 
900 


" 12i 

" 13 " 




1 3 
1 4 


It 

u 


45 

45 


1000 
1100 


" 13i " 
" 14 




1 6 
Oz. 


'^ 


45 


1200 


" 14} 






o 


Yards. 




24-POUNDER COE- 


0.5 


Shell, 


45 


25 




nOKN MORTAR. 


1. 


17 lbs. 


45 


68 






1.5 


" 


45 


104 






1.75 


" 


45 


143 






2. 


ti 


45 


165 






2.75 


" 


45 


260 






4. 


it 


45 


422 






6. 


« 


45 


900 






8. 




45 


1200 



m 



374 



If \ 



Sr. » 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



17 



C-) A| ^ ^ ^ ^ q q ^. -J ^ - ^ ^ ^ CI 7 1 CC PS 

o -^ « ri <-■ I* ' t-^ ci CO o cc r- x ol o *-* W eo 

Mill' — ^" 



IN fi .-< i' ■ F- c^' n' r: -r •« « 1^ X • » o "- e4 

III' ::-jL 

f I I I 



> U5 •?; »c -r cc r: : 



:^8 

llT''." 

cgc4i-: j' 'p^e4C0'^<i«i-ccoie — S4rj2 





J. 




•s. 




«(> 






r. 


- — r— 






f I ■ ^ ^ e« ci 00 rt ■* ^ •♦ "O lO rf •' »^ 



S|S25??g||33|8S8S588 

cii-I i' i" ■■-<e<»'«>o<Or^«:oid — ejn'^ 

SSSfiS— »:xS5x^•»*l■:23J[- 
ci I— i' c ' i-i ci rt ^ »c « I- X • c — ' Ti r: ^ 



« ej -* ^ » I- •« • 
:* <B ^ — * * '- - 
n © M o I- e c .- 



I I 



I I 



''ii^z^n'*^*fi»^^^^*^ 



•o>necix-» — xc-»-»-»«x — <c?«»3t 
c^ « C I- c^ C I- r? 5 t- -^ ^ X ».': rt ■^ X •*> c^ 

,— ■ l' ° ^ i-^ ;i Ti K r: -» .n o c e 1-^ ■- oe a 



t-"' i' ■ ^ ^' c« CO «-»•.•; u; « I- «-» oi oi cS 






5-5«=i — « = !--» — x<:— •=» or; — » 


ill'' 




•- |cc^NTip5^"**c««t-ac«»oo 


- 



■M3lS0<I 



I o -)■ ^ ^ c< c< c5 r: ■• ■*' .c «■ c e f^ r-^ 00 «D a! 



TO ESTIMATE DISTANCES, APPROXIMATELY. 



375 



f^^ 
^ 



I: 



q 



s «* 



2S 



S =* 



O u 



O I. 
00 « 



a 


to CO .— O <M QC C: •.'; t- .O (M M 

or^ocoo>oo>-«ccr-io> 










a" 


1~ '.-5 M O IM 03 O iO O (M -f C<1 

e^itc-f-r-f-rt~i— -ftoct — 


d 
t— 1 












d 

M 








d 


^-i^oooi-ciNosc<st--Mac 






d 
1— ( 


•O CO OC CC OO O -f< C-l OO C-1 CC (M 






d 


>-• ^ O O O iM to CC 'O O Ct 1^ 



CC-^CCCOCCCOr— CJCO-^CO^I 



•*1— l5O--03'-J00C^C0OeO(M 



?■; (M o o ^H -t 'O j~ cr o t~. lO 

«CCCC^C^C^C^CCOt^00OtO 









J3 
£ J3 ■" 

H g 



.-^ be « 

o » P 

a ^ = 

= ■> <- 

ceo 

£ S o 

^ o 

« :S .2 

J3 



to .^ -" 

•3 - f 

a £ - 

r- ^ m 



V 






M 

o ^ o 

a J S 

^ .2 I* 
o j3 ja 






'o a bo 

bo m a 

^ .s S- 



ee .2 



■S 3 



879 



<^-^ 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Recoil of the Iron Carriages. 



The recoil of the top rarriagi- on its cliiissis if> cnsily reftulatpd l«y the condition 
of the rails: if there he not mifficicnt recoil, clean the rails and a<ld a little oil: 
the recoil bo excessive, sprinkle a little sand on the rails. The carriage works 
s tter when the rails arc clean. 



Initial Velocities of Cannon Balls. 

(From experiments made with the Balliitlc Pendutnm, at Waahlngtoo AimmL) 



KIRB OP OOII. 



KiDd. 



0-pdr. field gun 



l2-pdr. field gun. 



12-pdr. field bo witter. 



12-pdr. siege and garri- 
SOD guu 



Shot. 



Spherieal-case 
Caniiter 



Shot. 



SphericaUcase 
CaDi8t«r 



Shell 



Spherical-case 
Canister 



Shot. 



1 2-pdr. gun, 26 calibres ) 
long J 



Shell 



Shot. 



Waisfat. 



Charm of 
powder. 



Lb«. 
8.15. 



5.5 

6.8 



12.3 • 



II. 
13.5 



8.9 



11. 
9.64 



12.3 



8.9 



12.3 -I 



Initial 
ralacUy. 



Lba. 



U 



FMt. 

US* 
16M 
1741 



ISftr 
IIM 



1486 
1597 
I 1816 



189S 
IMS 



1054 

1178 



953 
1015 



1S78 
1874 
19M 



1611 
IM* 



1411 

irs4 

198S 
2098 
2288 
2300 
S824 



INITIAL VELOCITIES OF CANNON BALLS. 

Initial Velocities of Cannon 5rt?/.s— Conlinued. 



377 



KI.ND or ARM. 


PROJECTILE. 


CImrpe of 
poHilur. 


Initial 




Killil. 


1 Veifrlit. 


velocity 


1 


Shot 


[ 
24.25- 


3. 
4. 
6. 

! s- 


1240 
1440 




1 


1680 
1870 


24-pdr. siege and garri- 


Shell 


17. \ 
( 


1 3. 
4. 


1470 




1670 






Canister 


29. 


3. 
4. 


1135 






1303 


. 


Grape 


30.6 


3. 


1108 




4. 


1272 

1250 

1430 


- 


Shot 


r 

32.3 -' 


4. 

5.33 






8. 
10.67 

4. 

5.33 


1640 
1780 


32-pdr. sea-coast gun • . . | 


Shell 


23.4 J 


1450 




1657 




Canister 


37. f 


4. 
5.33 


1172 






1342 


■ 


Grape 


39.75 j 


4. 

5.33 


1133 




1297 



Initial Velocities of Balls fired from Small Arms. 



KIND OF ARM. 



Rifle musket ....... 

Rifle, 1855 

Altered musket 

Pistol carbine (U. S.) 
Musket, 1841 



Charge. 



Grains. 

60 
60 
70 
40 
110 



Weiglit of 
ball. 



Grains. 

510 
510 
740 
4CS 
412 



Initial 
velocity. 



Foet. 

963 
914 
879 
G03 
1500 



Elongated ball. 



Round ball. 



37H 



ORDXANCE MANUAL. 



Loss of Velocity by the Windage of tlu: Ball. 





ClinrKe 

of 
powder. 


Initial velocity of ImUI. 






KI?fT> or OCX, 


_ . iWUh wlnd- 

Wltllnlit 1^^, „f 1.40 

witi.iatre. 1 dlM,»el*r. 

1 


i.f I-** diaiiif- 
1 ter. 




Lb». 
4. 


Koet. 
1444 


F«»t. ''\ Feet. 

1171 '! i»* 


Per n. 
12 






1 

187 
187 




24-IMiR. 8ir<iK j 


4. 
ft. 

2. 

.1. 
4. 


1«00 
1890 


1723 


10 
9 


12-iMiH., 2:. caliliicc J 


1817 
I9I5 
2124 


1444 
1742 
1961 


178 
173 
173 


11 
9 

8 


12-iMiR. riEi.n, 16 calibres. . I 


2. 
3. 
4. 


1528 
1793 
1993 


isro 

18.15 
1834 


1 158 
15H 

, 158 


10 
9 

8 




1.6 


17M 


1580 


1 "* 


10 









The loss of velocity by a piven winiln^ it directly as the windage, and invertfcly 
as tbo diameter of the bore, verv neurlv. 



PENETRATION OF SHOT. 



379 



Penetration of Shot in Masionry. 

(From French Expcrinionts ma<1(! at Molz. 1S34.) 
Rubble-work of good quality ; scarp wall built by Vauban. 



DISTANCE IN TARDS. 



65. 109. 219. 328. 438. 656. ST.S. 



> 




In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


36... 


l-.3d 


26.78 


26.39 


25.60 


23.83 


22.25 


20.87 


17.92 


14.96 


12.21 




■1-2<1 


2.5.60 


25.20 


24.22 


22.45 


20.87 


19..30 


16.25 


13.39 


10.83 




l-.3.i 


24.22 


23.83 


22.84 


21.07 


19..50 


18.12 


15.16 


12.21 


9.85 


24... 


{ l-4tli 


22.6.5 


22.25 


21.46 


19.89 


18.22 


16.74 


13.78 


11.23 


9.06 




l-6tli 


20.08 


19.69 


18.90 


17.33 


15.75 


14..38 


11.81 


9.65 


7.88 




l-8th 


17. .33 


16.93 


10.15 


14..57 


13.20 


11.81 


9.65 


7.88 


6.50 




' 1-2(1 


22.45 


21.86 


20.S7 


19.10 


17.53 


15.95 


12.80 


10.05 


!S 




l-:iil 


21.07 


20.68 


19.69 


17.92 


16.35 


14.77 


11.81 


9.26 


16... 


J l-4th 


19.50 


19.10 


18.22 


16.74 


15.16 


13.78 


10.83 


8.47 


6.69 




l-fith 


17.1.3 


16.74 


16.15 


14.57 


13.00 


11.62 


9.06 


7.29 


6.91 




l-8th 


14.96 


14.57 


13.78 


12 21 


10.83 


9.45 


7.48 


6.11 


5.12 




f i-.sa 


18.90 


18.51 


17. .53 


15.95 


14..57 


13.00 


10.05 


7.68 


6.11 


12... 


J l-4th 


17.72 


17 ..33 


16.54 


14.96 


13..39 


11.81 


8.86 


6.89 


5.51 


1 l-6tli 


15.56 


15.16 


]4.:iS 


13.00 


11.42 


10.05 


7.48 


6.11 


4.93 


* 8... 


1 l-8tli 


13.78 


13.39 


12.60 


11.03 


9.65 


8.27 


6..50 


7.68 


4.33 


l-,3d 


15 95 


15..'-.6 


14.77 


1319 


11.02 


10.24 


7.48 


5.51 


4.14 



Penetration in Oak Wood, Beech or Ash. 

fFrom French Experiments made at Metz. 1834.) 



DISTANCE IN YARDS. 



328. 438. I 656. 875. 1094. 



Guns. 




In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


36... 


l-.3d 


65.4 


64.2 


62.2 


58.3 


64.3 


50.8 


44 1 


37.4 


31.5 




'l-2d 


63.0 


61.4 


69 1 


54.7 


60 8 


47.3 


40.2 


33.5 


27.6 




1-3(1 


59.1 


57.9 


55.9 


61.6 


47.6 


44.1 


37 4 


.30 7 


24.8 


24... 


-i 1-4tli 


.55.5 


54.3 


62.3 


48.4 


44.9 


41.3 


35.0 


28.4 


22.8 




l-6th 


49.2 


4S.4 


46.5 


42.9 


39.4 


36.2 


29.5 


24.0 


19.3 




l-8th 


42.5 


41.6 


40.2 


36.6 


32.7 


30.3 


24.4 


19.7 


15.8 




(1-2(1 


54.7 


63.2 


,50.8 


46 5 


42.5 


39.0 


31.9 


25.6 


197 




l-3d 


51.2 


60.0 


4S.0 


43.7 


40.2 


36.6 


29 9 


23.6 


18.5 


16... 


J 1-ith 


47.7 


46.5 


44.6 


40.9 


.37.4 


33.9 


27.6 


21.7 


169 




l-6th 


42.1 


41.4 


■39.8 


36.2 


32.7 


29 5 


23.2 


17.7 


14.2 




l-8th 


37.0 


36.2 


.34.3 


30.7 


27.6 


24.4 


19.3 


150 


11.8 




l-3d 


46.1 


44.9 


42.9 


.38.6 


35.0 


31.9 


25 6 


19 7 


14.6 


12... 


]-4th 


43.3 


42.1 


40.2 


36.6 


33.1 


29.9 


23.6 


18.1 


13.4 


i i-c.tii 


37.8 


37.0 


35.4 


31.9 


28.4 


25.2 


19 3 


15 


11.4 




1 8th 


33.9 


33.1 


.31.1 


27.6 


24.4 


21.7 


16 5 


1.3.0 


98 


8... 


l-:5d 


39.4 


38.2 


30.2 


32.3 


28.7 


25 6 


19.3 


13.8 


10.6 


Howitzers. 


Lbs. 






















f 4.4 


28.4 


27.6 


20.0 


22.4 


19.3 


16.5 


13.0 


10.6 


9.1 


8-in. Siege. 


3.3 


23.2 


22.4 


20.9 


18.1 


15.8 


13.8 


11.0 


9.5 


8.3 


i2.2 


10.1 


15.4 


14.2 


12.6 


11.4 


10.2 


8.7 


79 


75 




'l.l 


39.1 


8.7 


8.3 


8.3 


7.5 


7.1 


6.7 


6.3 


5 




( 3.3 


.33.1 


31.9 


30.3 


26.8 


23.6 


20 5 


15.0 


11.8 


9.8 


6-in. 


J 2.2 


27.6 


26.8 


25.2 


21.7 


18.6 


15.8 


11.4 


9.1 


7.9 




llOo 


22.8 


22.1 


20.6 


17.3 


14.6 


12 6 


9.8 


8.3 


7.1 


24-i)dr. 


(2.2 


27.6 


26.8 


26.2 


21.7 


18.1 


15.0 


10.2 


7.9 


6.3 


1 1.1 


189 


18.1 


16.6 


13.4 


11.0 


9.5 


7.6 


6.3 


6.1 


12-pdr. Mouiit.ain. 


0.6 
Grains. 


15.0 


14 2 


12.6 


10.2 


8.3 


7.1 


59 


4.7 


3.0 


Mushcl Balls 


154 


3.35 


3.15 


2.56 


1.77 


1.06 


0.71 


0.32 











380 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Pcnrfrafion of Shot in Compact Earth (half sand, half clay). 

(From Freocli Experiments made at Metz, M^Si.) 



m 


TALIURE. 


o 






DI8TAXCB 


IN TARD8. 










J 


.... 








2T. 


6». j 


100. 


219. 1 


328. I 43S. 1 6M. I 815. | ION. 




Oun$. 




In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 1 


In. 


In. 


Id. 


In. 


Ii. 




3«.... 


J -.3d 


109.1 


106.3 


102.4 


97.3 


93.4 


89.4 


«2.3 


75.6 


69. T 






l-2d 


108.2 


107.2 


U'J.3 


91.0 ; 


84.3 


79.6 


72.5 


66.2 


60.6 






1.3d 


100.4 


97.7 


92.6 


85.9 ' 


81.1 


77.2 


70.1 


63.8 


58. S 




24.. 


l-4tb 


92.0 


90.2 


86.6 


si. 5 


77.6 


7t.O 


67.3 


61.8 


57.1 






l-«th 


83.5 


82.3 


79.9 


7. '..6 


72.2 


68.9 


62.6 


57.1 


52.4 






l-8th 


76.4 


74.8 


7?. 4 


68.9 


65.8 


63.0 


57.5 


52.0 


47. S 






l-2d 


94.5 


91.0 


85.9 


77.6 


72.2 


67.7 


61.4 


55.9 50.4 






l-3d 


86.6 


83,5 


79.6 


73.6 


69.3 


65.8 


59.9 


54.4 


49.2 




18.. 


I-4tb 


80.7 


78.3 


75.2 


«9.7 


66.5 


63.4 


57.9 


52.4 


47.3 






I-Oth 


72.9 


70.9 


68.1 


«.>.o 


f.l.S 


59.1 


53.6 


48.8 


44.6 






l-8ih 


63.0 


65.4 


63.8 


CO. 6 


57.9 


55.1 


50.4 


45.7 


41.3 






l-3d 


65.0 


63.4 


59.9 


54.7 


50.8 


48.2 


42.9 


38.6 


35.0 




1 
12.. i 

I 


l-4th 


60.6 


59.1 


55.9 


52.0 


48.8 


46.1 


41.3 


37.4 


33. » 




l-6th 


54.7 


53.6 


50.8 


48.2 


45.3 


42.9 


38.6 


35.0 


32.3 




l-8th 


50.0 


48.8 


47.3 


44.5 


41.7 


39.8 


36.2 


33.1 


30.7 




S 


l-3d 


56.3 


54.7 


52.0 


46.9 


43.3 


40.2 


35.4 


31.9 


28.7 




Huicituri. 


1 Lbs. 
























1 ** 


48.4* 


47. 3» 


45.. 3* 


41.7 


38.6 


%bA 


30.3 


26.0 


23.2 




8-in. Siege. • 


3.3 


42. 9» 


41.7 


40.2 


37.0 


33.9 


31.1 


27.2 


24.0 


21.7 




2.2 


.14.7 


33.9 


32.. T 


29.5 


27.6 


25.6 


22.8 


20.9 


19.3 




I 


1.1 


22.8 


22.4 


21.7 


20.9 


20.1 


19.3 


17.7 


16.5 


15.8 






3.3 


52.8* 


51.2* 


48.8 


45.0 


41.0 


37.4 


30.7 


25.2 


22.1 




6-in. ' 


2.2 


45.3 


44.1 


42.5 


38.6 


35.0 


31.9 


264 


22.4 


19.7 






, 1.65 


39.8 


38.6 


37.0 


33.5 


30.7 


28.0 23.6 


20.5 


18.1 




24-pdr. 1 


! 2.2 


44.5* 


42.9* 


41.0* 


.56.6 


32.7 


29.1 23.2 


18.9 


16.1 




1 1-1 


.'«3.5 


32.3 


30.7 


27.6 


24.8 


22.4 18.1 


1 1^' 


13.4 


12 


pdr. Muuntaiu 


! 0.6 

itir'DB 


27.2 


26.4 


24.8 


21.7 


19.3 


17.3 U.6 


12.2 


10.2 


ifutket Jh,!lt 


' 154. 


9.85 


9.45 


8.66 


5.91 


4.33 


3.15 1.58 







* With these charge, and at these distances, the shells were oft«n broken. 



PENETRATION OF SHELLS. 



381 



Penetration of Shells. 

(From French Experiments made at Metz, 1834.) 



ELEVATION. 



Yards. 



o„o / '556.. 

"^ , tl31? 

45° I 

C0° ' 



I f 656 

••■; 1l3l2 

I / 6.56 

•■• \nv2 

Falling with maximum vel- 
ocitv , 



IX COMPACT EARTH. 



S-in. 10-in. 12-in. 



In. 


In. 


7.88 


17.72 


9.85 


25.60 


11.81 


19.69 


15.75 


27.57 


19.69 


29 54 


•^1.66 


31.60 


23.63 


.J3.47 



In. 

19.69 
27. ,57 



33.47 
35.44 



IN OAK WOOD. 



8-in. 10-in. 12-in. 



In. 


In. 


3 94 


7.88 


4.73 


11.81 


5 91 


9.85 


7.88 


13.78 


8.66 


13.00 


9 85 


13.78 


9 85 


13 78 



IN MASONRY. 



In. 

8.66 
1.T78 
1003 
15.75 
14 .57 
15.75 

15.75 



8-in. 10-in. | 12-in« 



In. 

1.97 
2.36 
3.15 
3.94 
,4..33 
4.73 

4.73 



In. 

3.54 
4.73 
3.94 
5..51 
5.91 
6.30 

6.69 



In. 

3.94 
5.12 
4 33 
5.91 
6.30 
6 69 

7.09 



By multiplying the penetrations in the table for masonry by 1.25, 1.75, or 0.46, 
tbc penetration in masonry of medium quality, or of brick, or in hard, calcareous 
stone (solid), respectively, will be obtained. 

Multiply the penetration in oak by 1..3 for the penetration in elm, by 1.8 for white 
jiinc. and by 2 for poplar. 

Multiply the penetration iu compact earth by O.G.'i for the penetration in sand 
mixed with gravel. 

By 0.87, for earth mi.x:ed with sand and gravel, twice the weight of water. 
" ].09, for compact mould and fresh earth mi.xed with sand, or half clay. 
" 1.44, for wet potters' clay. 
" 1.50, for light earth, settled. 
" 1.90, for light earth, fresh. 

In general, sand, sandy earth mi.xed with gravel or small stones, chalk, and tufa, 
resist shot better tliau the productive eartlis, or clay, or earth that retains water. 

According to the experiments, the holes made in masonry, such as that referred 
to in the table, by shot striking it perpendicularly at a short dLsitanee, are formed of 
an exterior funnel-.shaped opening, the mean diameter of which is about 5 times 
that of the shot, and of au interior part nearly cylindrical. The exterior cone 
appears to be produced by the reaction of the masonry, some fragments of which 
are projected backward to the distance of 45 or 50 yards. The train of fragments 
in front of the bole extends about 20 feet. Around the exterior opening the masonry 
is loosened to a distance a'bout one-half greater than the diameter of the opening — 
say 45 inches by the 24-pdr. shot, 35.5 inches by the 16-pdr., .31.5 inches by the 
12-pdr. This loosening indicates the proper distance between the first shots from 
a breaching battery. Nearly all the shot are broken, even at the charge of one- 
fourth, and the fracture is generally in meridional planes, the pole of which is the 
point which strikes first. On the shot which are not broken, and on the fragments 
of those which are broken, small cracks or furrows, sometimes 0.02 inch deep, are 
observed, radiating from the same point. 

The eUcct of shells fired horizontally against masonry is very small ; they are 



382 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



broken at the moment of striking, or if fired wilh very 1"W i-liarpe* so as not to 
brcitk, they produce a very slight imprci'sion. 

In oak, the fibres arc displaced laterally by the passapo of the shot, and after- 
ward cloce up u;ri>in, so as to leave an oj»ening seareely sufficient for measuring the 
dci)fh of penetration. This effect explains the cause of vessels not being always 
sunk by shot striking below the water-line ; but the timber is split longitudinally 
even by the smallest shot, to a length of 6.5 feet; the splinters are driven to the 
dislaneo of 42 to 60 feet, and the largest timbers are soon destroyed. 

In white pine, nearly all the fibres struck by the shot are broken, but the effeot 
does not cxlcud much beyond the opening made: this material is, therefore, prefer- 
able to oak fur structures which are not intended to bo proof against cannon-shot. 



Penttration in Fascines, Wool, etc. 

At the distance of 24 yards, a musket round ball penetrates 20 inches into • 
gabion stuffed with sap fagots; the ball from a wall-]iiece, 23. A3 inches. The re- 
sistance of faseiues ducrvabcs very rapidly by the twigs being broken or separated 
by the balls. 

A ivHiiKj gabivn, ."luffed with fascines, is proof against the ball of a wall-piece at 
15 yards; at the distance of 200 yards, and even more, it is pierced through by 
cannon balls of the smallest calibre. 

The penetration of bulls in wool is more than double that in compact earth, even 
when the wool is coutuiiied in close, well <|uilted mattresyes pressed between hur- 
dles. At 40 yards, a musket ball (round) penetrates m<jre than 40 inches into 
Woollen mattresses thus placed together. sf 

Penetration in Masonry. 

(Experimenta at West Point in 1853, and at Fort Monroe Arsenal in 1839.) 





M 
C 
CC 

X 

u 


5 

i 


PENETaATIOX. 


C\LIURE. 


Granite 


Potomac n,i„i. 


Concrete. 


Boiler. 

plaU 

.6in.thkk 


10-iiuh Columbiad .. 18. 

8-inch •• ..' 12. 

42-pdr. gun , 10.5 


Yds. 
114 
.200 


In. 
7.75 


In. 


In. 
44. 


In. 
'"24* 


la. 


4.0 





18. 




•.T2-pdr. pun shut. . . . 

•S-inch sea-coast how- 

iUer shell 


s. 

j 

! ^• 

i 


880 
880 


3.5 
1. 


12. 
4.5 


15.25 
8.5 







• Made at Fort Monroe Arsenal. 



4 



PENETRATION IN MASONRY. 383 

The solid shot broke against the granite, but not against the freestone or brick. 
The (/riif-rnl effect is less in brick than in granite. 

The shells broke into small fragments against each of the three materials. 

The circumstances attending the penetration of the shot and shells corresponded 
with those stated below in the experiments at Met/.. The wall used as a target at 
Fort Monroe Arsenal was built of dressed stone and of the best bricks, laid in 
hydraulic cement j but being an isolated wall (10 feet stiuare of each material, and 
5 feet thick, with 3 counterforts), and being battered before the masonry was per- 
fect!}' set, the effect of the projectiles in xlKitterinij the masonry around the point 
struck was greater than indicated by the experiments referred to. 



384 



00 

n 

00 

is, 

< 

00 
H 
O 

B 

GO 

o 

o 

^^ 
H 
-< 
PS 
H 

is 

H 

04 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Ck «<) C» CO •-'5 -f X C^ 



0> O u? >A OD *^ 

*** ifl ^ t/5 "*" -^ 



C» I- CO Q Ci c^ or. lo 



eoCC4^ 



* lA r^ kA 0> O 



§0 "( 00 o ct t- 
i- « <o « m ^ 1- cj 



O O X lO 



>* o o o o 
-r .o S tJ g N 

'* O oi 00 



o» oc oi e> -»• o 
» ori « .o •- -» "^ '- '- 



» I- » 
•A ^ O OC 






o -♦■•''— ?' 1- -t 
1- (i 1-.^ >n a ■« 



Sr-SsS 



-* »C CO I* 

c. I- c >n « 
^ cc 5 e » o 



2 I- 'N I- U 1- — •^ » 

" ac " -♦ ■= "I ■" - * 
■" M " c« *" ii " " 



I- „• t- <s ■♦ 






n .- -o 1- .n <c X •^ 

Sc; 1- -T 'Ti T> n lO 






rt X I- 00 c< 
'^ N '^ M '^c* 



O O O 00 

c «-• T« ?5 » 






^ tO tv CD O O O 



00 lO e O Q 






J <N e< -- .^ ,- r- 



^ r< 3 3 O 

^ ^ ,-i ^ O 



5 2-?S 






St>S 8e(8 






s^u SBH 



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pen?:tration op shots and shells in oak. 



385 



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386 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



It has been ascertained by experiment that a musket roinul ball h ivinp a velo- 
city oC '.\C>2 feet, at the moment of impact, will just pass through a white pine 
bnaril I iuch thick: and that, with the same velocity, the ball has sufficient force 
to shatter the leg bono of an ox covered with one thickness of stout harness 
leather. A musket ball moving with this velocity would, therefore, inflict a wound 
which would disable a man or beast; or a spherical-eose shot having this velocity 
at the moment of bursting, would be effective against troops in its immediate 
vicinity. ' 

A musket ball with an initial velocity of SS."? feet will pass through one-inch 
white pine board at 100 yards : hence a spherical-case shot, moving with that velo- 
city at the moment of bursting, would be effective at 100 yards <listaDt from th« 
place of bursting. The remaining velocity at 100 yards, as computed, is .'J04 feet. 

Effects of Shot on Cttst-Jron. 

Shot projected with even a small velocity will break pieces of cast-iron of very 
large dimensions. A 2-1-pounder ball fired with a charge of l-12th, anil moving 
•with a velocity of 88.3 feet in a second, sj)lit a block of cast-iron 12 inches wide by 
40 inches thick, to the depth of 40 inches, in two shots. The fragments of the 
block and of the broken shot are jirojected with sufficient velocity to produce the 
most destructive effects. 

Cast-iron, therefore, is not a proper material for gun-curriugcs, or for revetcmontt 
of furtificatious. 

Penetration of Small Arms in White Pipe seasoned. 



KIND OP ARM. 



WEIGHT OP 
CHARGE. 



PESKTRATIOW. 



BaU. 



Grs. 

Kiflo musket ' 500 

Altered musket 7.30 

Harper's Ferry rifle j 600 

Pistol carbine 450 

Sharpc's carbine ! 463 

Burnside's " i 350 



Powder. 



Grs. 



Diame- 
ter of 
Ball. 



.30 

ydii. 



200 
y<l8. 



600 
yd». 



1000 
yd.. 



60 
70 
40 
60 
55 



In. 

.5775 

.685 

.5776 

.6775 

.65 

.55 



In. 



In. 

11. 

10.5 
9.33 
5.75 



7.27 
h.15 



In. 

6.33 
6.33 
5.66 
3.0* 



In, 

3.25 

3.5 

3.0 



*At 500 yards. 



Firing Hot Shot. 

Furnaces for heating shot are erecttd at the forts on the sea-coast. Theie fur- 
naces bold 60 or more shot. The shot being placed, and the furnace cold, it 



FIRING HOT SHOT. 887 

requires 1 hour and 15 minutes to heat them to a red heat. After the furnace is 
once heated, a 21-pdr. shot is brought to a red heat in 25 minutes; the 32 and 42 
require a few minutes longer. Two or three men are required to attend a furnace. 
Grates. — In siege batteries, or in other situations where there are no furnaces, a 
grntc is used for heating shot. This grate consists of 4 bars, 1.75 inch square, 3 
feet long, placed diagonally, 4 inches apart, resting on .3 iron stands with legs 1 
foot high. 

To unr the t/rntc. — Make an excavation 1 foot deep and width of grate, with no 
slope at the sides or in rear, open in front. Place the grate in it, on stones or 
bricks, rising about 4.5 inches above the bottom ; make a roof over it with hoops of 
flat iron, covered with sods and with 18 inches of earth, leaving in the back part 
a chimney 6 inches square. Put the shot on the grate, leaving about one-fourth of 
the length free in front; on this pnrt, and under the front of the grate, put the 
wood, cut into pieces about 14 inches long and 2 inches or 2.5 inches thick. Make 
use of a thick sod, as a register, to regulate the draught of the chimney, so that no 
flame shall issue from the front of the furnace. This little furnace, which will con- 
tain about fifteen 24-pdr. balls, heats them to a red heat in 1 hour, and will supply 
3 guns: it requires the attendance of one man. 

Implements. — 2 pokevK, for stirring the fire, made of 3 -inch round iron, •''ij feet 
long, the end bent at a right angle; 2 iron forki, for taking out the shot. These 
forks are immersed alternatelj' in water to cool them. 1 roup, to rub the scales 
from the balls when they have been overheated ; 1 pair to»g/i with circular jaws, 
for taking up shot ; 1 iron rake, to remove the cinders, etc., from the ash-pit ; 1 
trovgh or tub, 1 hnclcet, 1 barrel ; 1 rammer, with the head covered by a circular 
plate of sheet-iron, of rather larger diameter than the ball, to remove the clay 
which may stick to the sides of the bore when clay wads are used; 1 ladle (to each 
piece) for carrj'ing the balls, formed of an iron ring the interior of which is 
bevelled to fit the ball, with 2 arms inserted into wooden handles : for small cali- 
bres it is made with 1 handle. 

Wads may be made of good clay, free from sand or gravel, moistened just 
enough to work well; the wads are cylindrical, 1 calibre long. But it is preferable 
to use hay wads that have been steeped in water for 15 minutes and allowed to drip. 

Cartrid(je» for hot shot are made of cannon cartridge paper or parchment well 
pasted, to prevent the powder from sifting out; they should be carefully examined 
before use, to see that there are no holes in them. It is best to use two cartridge- 
bags, one within the other. 

Manner of loading. — Elevate the muzzle sufliciently to allow the ball to roll in; 
ram the cartridge home carefully, and a dry hay wad over it; theu a wet hay or 
clay wad : prick and prime; insert the ball, and put a wet hay or clay wad over it; 
this second clay wad may be only ^ calibre long. It is a good precaution, also, to 
pass a wet sponge into the gun just before putting in the shot. When wet hay 
wads arc used, steam is seen to issue from the vent as soon as the ball gets home; 
this is the effect of the heat of the ball upon the water contained in the wad ; no 



388 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



danger can result from it, as the ball may he allowed to cool in the gun without the 
charge taking fire ; but it is better to fire without much delay, as this steam would 
injure the powder. 

The penetrations of cold and hoi shut into wood are equal under the same cir- 
cum8tancc8. A red-hot shot retains sufiBcicnt heat to set fire to wood after having 
Htruck the water several times. The fire is communicated more rapidly and cer- 
tainly to the wood when the ball does not penetrate more than 10 or 12 inches, 
because at a greater depth the communication with the external air is not suffi- 
ciently free. It is proper, therefore, to fire with small charges, i to i weight of the 
shot, according to the distance, in order that the shot may remain in the wood and 
not peni'triitc too deep. 



Expansion of Shot heated to a White Heat. 



CAUBBB. 




8-in. 


42. 


32. 


24. 


18. 


12. 






0.149 


0.11 


0.10 


0.08 


0.06 


04 









Heated shot do not return to their original dimensions on cooling, bat retain a 
permanent enlargement, as will appear from the following table, giving the mean 
of 16 trhils by Lieutenant \now Captain) Rodman, of the Ordnance Department: 





riRST HEATIita. 


BECOVD BJtATMa. 


8-INCU SHOT. 


Diameter. 


Expansion. 


Diameter. 


Expansion. 


Original . . 

White heat 


In. 

7.840 
7.9S9 
7.963 
7.895 


In. 



0.149 
.123 
.054 


Per cent. 

0.000 
.019 
.016 
.007 


1 I°- 

j 8.017 
7.939 


In. 

0.177 
.099 


Per cant. 
COM 






After cooling 


.012 



TIMBER. 



389 



Chapter Fourteenth 



MATEEIALS. 



TIMBER. 



The selection, inspection and seasoning of timber for ordnance purposes require 
especial attention. The quality of the wood, and the defects to which it is subject, 
depend much on the soil, the exposure, and particularly the climate in which it 
grows. 

In the United States, the climate of the states in the North and Middle is most 
favorable to the growth of the timber used for ordnance purposes. 

Kinds of Timber used. 

The kinds of wood, and the uses to which they are principally applied in ordnance 
construction, are as follows, viz : 

White oak (quercns alha). — The bark is a grayish white, the leaf long, narrow 
and deeply indented ; the wood is of a straw color, with a reddish tinge, tough and 
flexible. It is the principal timber used in the construction of all kinds of artillery 
carriages. 

White beech. Red beech {fngus n!/lvestn's, farjits /erntginca) are the most suit- 
able for saddle-trees, fuzes and mallets; also for plane stocks and various other 
tools. 

White ash (fraxinus Ainericaiia) is straight grained, tough and elastic; it ie 
used for sponge and rammer staves, shafts for light carriages, and, in case of neces- 
sity, for handspikes, tool handles and sabots. There is but little difference in 
quality throughout the whole thickness; the outside is rather tougher. It lasts & 
long time when protected, but rots quickly when exposed to the weather. 

Elm {itlmus Americana) is well suited for fellies and for small naves. 

UiCKORY [jaglans tomentona) is very tough and flexible ; the most suitable wood 
for handspikes and tool handles, and for wooden axle-trees. 

Black walnut {juglans nigra) is hard and fine grained; it is used for ammuni- 
tion-chests, and may be used for naves of field carriages. It is used exclusively 
for the stocks of small arms. 

White poplar, ou Tulip-tuee (liriodendron tnlipi/cra), is a soft, light, fine 



300 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

grained wood, which j;r"W ^<^ "^ Rrcat size; it is used for sabot8, cartridge-blocks, 
etc., and for the lining of amniunition-rbe8t!<. 

WriiTK ri.MK (piiiuii finihiif) is Hoft, light, fine graineil, and cuisily wrought. It in 
OMd for arra-chcstH and packing-boxes generally, and for building purpoHcs. 

Cypukss {ruprcmut iliniirha) is a Soft, light. Straight grained wood which grows 
to a very large size. It may bo used for many of the purposes for which oak is 
useil, but is much inferior to it in strength and hardness, though it rtvists better 
than (ink the action of a moivt, hot climate. 

Basswood, on AuRRiCAN limr (fi7ia Ameruatia), is very light and soft, not 
easily split, and is excellent for sabots and ciirtridgc-blocks. 

Ri.ACK CUM (iii/»»<i »y/r(ifiV(i) is a fine grained wood, of medium hardness and 
density, very difficult to split, and well suiteil for 8i)ongc and rammer heads, and 
for naves of carriages. It is also used for bowls for laboratory purposes. 

Doo WOOD (ciirnv jloridn) is hard and fine grained, suitable for mullets, drifts, etc. 

Selection of Standing Trees. 

Wood grown in a m^ist soil is less firm and decays sooner than that grown in a 
dry, sandy soil, but the trees are generally larger. 

The best limber is generally found on a dark soil mixed with stones and grarel. 
Poplar, cypress, willow, and some others which grow best in a wet soil, are excep- 
tions to this rule. 

The hardest and most dense woods, and those least subject to decay, grow at the 
South : but they are more liable to split and warp in seasoning. 

Trees grown on jilaius, or in the centre of forests are less dense than those from 
the edge of the forest, from the sides of hills, or from open ground ; but they are 
generally more free from limbs and of finer growth. The aspect most favorable to 
the production of sound, straight timber, free from defects, is that which is shel- 
tered from the prevalent winds. The vicinity of salt water is favorable to the 
strength and hardness of white oak. 

Trees should be selected in the latter part of July or first part of August: for at 
this season the leaves of the sound, healthy tree are fresh and green, while those of 
the unsound are beginning to turn yellow. A sound, healthy tree will be known by 
its top branches being vigorous and well covered with leaves, the bark even and of 
uniform color., A rounded top, a sparse covering of leaves, some of the leaves 
turning yellow before the rest, a rougher bark than common, covered with parasitic 
plants, streaks or spots, indicate a tree on the decline. The decay of branches at 
the top, of large branches, and the separation of the bark from the wood, arc infal- 
lible signs that the wood is impaired. 

Felling Timber. 

The most suitable season for felling timber is that in which vegetation is at 
rest — which is the case in midwinter and in midsummer. Recent experiments indi- 



INSPECTION OF TIMBER. 391 

cate the latter scascn, say the month of July, as the proper season : but the usual 
jiractice has been to fell trees for timber between the first of December and the 
middle of March. 

The tree should be allowed to attain its full maturity before being felled. Oak 
matures at seventy-five to one hundred years and upward, according to circum- 
jitances. The ago and rate of growth of a tree are indicated by the number aud 
size of the rings of annual increase in a cross-section. 

The tree should be cut as near the ground as possible, the lower part being the best 
timber. Leaning trees should always be cut so as to fall at right angles to the 
direction of greatest inclination : and all trees, especially oak, shouM be cut entirely 
through the heart while standing, and the woodman should allow sufficient kerf to 
enable him to cut the tree completely off, by rapid strokes of the axe, after the troo 
lias started to fall. These precautions will jirevctit splintering at the biitt. 

Getting out Timber. 

As soon as the tree is felled, it should be immediately stripped of its bark and 
raised from the ground. A short time only should elapse before the sap-wood is taken 
off and the timber reduced nearly to the dimensions required for use. This is done, 
generally, by the saw : but those pieces requiring great strength and toughness, such 
as spokes, poles, handspikes, and splinter-bars, should be split. These pieces should 
always be taken from the butt cut of young, straight grained trees of such size as to 
furnish but one piece between the sap and centre heart, the width in the direction of 
the radius. 

Naves should be taken from the butts of trees of suitable size to leave them, after 
the removal of the sap-wood, IJ inch greater in diameter than the finished size. 
They should be cut off S((uarc about two inches longer than the finished length, and 
bored through their axes with an auger h inch less than the small end of the nave- 
1)0X which they are to receive. This facilitates their seasoning and diminishes 
cracking. 

Pieces for fellies should always be got out so that the planes of their broad faces 
shall run nearly toward the centre of the tree. Slab piecei are not fit for this purpose. 

Inspection of Timber. 

Examine the timber all over carefully, whenever it can be done, aifter several days 
of fine weather, in order to see better certain defects which moisture renders less 
:il)pareiit. 

The quality of the wood is in some degree indicated by the color, which should be 
nearly uniform in the heart-wood, a little deeper toward the centre, aud free from 
sudden transitions. White spots here and there indicate decay, and should cause the 
rejection of the piece. All pieces containing sap-wood should be rejected, except 
hickory and ash ; in this kind of wood the sap-wood is generally the toughest and 
best. The sap-wood is known by its white color; it is next to the bark, aud very 



392 ORONANCE MANIAL. 

soon rols, ;in<l should never be used. S.imcliuics ihcre an; rin;;8 of lidht colored 
wood found (iurroun<lcd by Rood, hard wood ; tbiR may be called the second siip, and 
should cniise the rejection of the piece in which it occurs. 

Ri'jcct jiicces containing the centre heart, except in timber which, from its size, 
cannot be procured free from it. Even in these it is better to use biiill hrntnn of 
smaller jiicces free frnm centre heart, on account of the great difficulty in seasoning 
such large pieces, and ihcir exlreme liability to being attacked by ilry rot during the 
process. 

In pieces which have been got out by s)ilitting, the oeeurrencc of nhort bends 
indicates that they have been taken from the u|)|)er part of the tree; and the nintiintf- 
onl of tiio grain, so as to show the ends of the fibres along the side of the ^tiek, is an 
unfailing indication of brashncss. Reject the i)ieec in which cither occurs. 

Pieces for handspikes should be free from knots near the fulcrum end. After 
inspection, each slick is marked on each end, with while lead, with the initials of the 
contractor, the year when received — a letter designating the purpose for whicli the 
timber is intended, and the number of pieces contained in each stick. On small 
Slicks, as spokes, it is sufficient to mark the uootractor's name and data on uno end, 
the fihiipu of the piece showing for what it is inltiodcd. 

Defects of Timber — esperiolly of Oak. 

WiinJ-flinL-rt are cracks separating the cuucentrio layers of wood from each othor: 
a circular crack : it is a serious defect. 

»S)»/('M, cheat*, and erack*, extending toward the centre, if deep and strongly 
marked, render the timber unfit for use, uuless the purixise fur which it is inlvnded 
will admit of its being split through them. 

These defects are found iu young trees as well as old, and arc no signs of the 
aiteraliou of the quality of the timber. They always increase in extent in seasoning. 

Jirnsh-iroud is generally con8ei|ueut on the decline of the tree from age. The wood 
is porous, of a reddish color, and breaks short, without splinters, and, in marked 
oases, the chips crumble to pieces. This wood is entirely unfit for artillery carriages. 

Delud timber (that which has been killed before being felled, or which has died 
from other causes) should be rejected. 

Kiuitiy timber: that containing a great many knots, though sound, usually of 
stunted growth. It is difficult to work, and weak when cross-strained ; reject. 

Ttrisud tcoodf the grain of which winds spirally, is unfit for long pieces; it may 
be used in short ones, as naves or short transoms, etc. 

Dry-riit. — This is indicated by yellow stains. Elm and beech are soon affected, 
if left with the bark on. 

Large or decayed knots should cause the piece to be rejected. 

Seasoning and Preserving Timber. 

Timber fresl^y cut contains about 37 to 48 per cent, of liquids. By exposure to 
the air in seaWBing one year, it loses from 17 to 2.') per cent., and seasoned wood 
still retains from 10 to 15 per cent. 



SEASONING AND TRESERV^ING XniBER. 393 

Timber of large dimensions is improved and rendered less liable to warp and 
crack in seasoning by immersion in water for some weeks, according to the si/.e. 

For the purpose of seasoning, timber sbonld bo piled under shelter and be kept 
dry; it should have a free cirfulation of air about it, without Iteing exposed to 
strong currents. Place the Ijottom pieces on skids, which should be sound, raised 
not less than 2 feet from the ground ; leave a space of an inch between the pieces of 
the same horizontal layers: place slats or piling-strips between different layers, one 
near each end of the jiile. and c)thcrs at short distances to keep the timber straight. 
These strips should be one over the other, and in large piles should not be less than 
1 inch thick. Spokes arc piled in square piles, the length of one piece, omitting 
the slats. Light timber may be piled in attics, heavy timber on the ground floor. 
Each pile should contain but one kind of timber, and be marked with the date of 
inspection and the number and kind of pieces it contains. Pieces of the same kind 
and of different dates of ret'cipt, if piled one on the other, should have that which 
was received first piled on top. The piles should be at least 2i feet apart: this 
secures free access at all times to the different kinds of pieces in store. 

Timber should be replied at intervals varying with the time it has been in store, 
and all pieces showing evidences of decay should be thrown out, to prevent their 
affecting those which are still sound. 

Timber storehouses are best provided with ))liuds. which keep out the rain and 
snow, but which can be turned to admit the air freely in fine weather. They should 
bo kept entirely free from pieces of decayed wood. 

This gradual mode of seasoning is considered the most favorable to the strength 
and durability of timber, but various methods have been proposed for hastening 
the process. For this purpose, Httnuiiiuj timber has becu applied with success; and 
the results of experiments with Mr. Kyan's process of saturating timber with a 
solution of corrosive sublimate have been highly sntisfactory ; this is said to harden 
and season the wood, at the same time that it secures it from the dry-rot and from 
the attacks of worms. The process of Mr. Earle, which consists in saturating the 
wood with a hot solution of the sulphates of copper and iron, mixed together, has 
been tried by the Ordnance Department, and found to impair the strength without 
increasiug the durability of the limber. Kiln dryinij i^ serviceable only for boards 
and pieces of small dimensions, and is apt to cause cracks and to impair the 
strength of wood, unless performed very slowly. Charring or jynintinrj is highly 
injurious to any but seasoned timber, as it effectually prevents the drying of the 
inner part of the wood, in which, consequently, fermentation and decay soon take 
place. 

Timber piled in badly ventilated sheds is apt to be attacked with dry-rot. The 
first outward indications are yellow spots on the ends of the pieces and a yellowish 
dust in the checks and cr.acks, parficularl}' where the pieces rest on the piling- 
strips; when cut, the timber is of a dull, reddish brown color, dotted over with small 
white specks, and it is brittle and very weak. 

Timber requires from 2 to 8 years to season thoroughly, according to its size. It 






ORPNANOK MAMAI. 



Fhonlil be worl«cd m Frion as it is thoroughly dry, for it hcpins to deteriorate afler 
that time. Very old timber, as the workmen say, loses its life. 

Oak timber loses about onc-fiflh of {m ireiyht in seasoning, and about onr-thirj uj 
itH weight in bccominj; ]>(rfertly dry. 



Mea.^uring Timber. 

Sawed or hewn timber is measured by the cubic foot, or more commonly by Imrd 
nriMMiiif, the unit of whieh is a superficial foot of a board 1 inch thick, Small 
pieces, especially those which are pot out by splitting (such as spokes), and ihnprt, 
or pieces roughed out to a particular pattern (sut-h as stocks for small arms), are 
often fiurchabcd by the j>ieec. 

r^ual rule for measuring rouud timber: 

Miilli}tl;i ihr lenijth b\/ ikr tenure o/uiie-/ourlh the mr.ui ijirth, for the Soliii contents; 

or. - -^ ■ I, beine the lenirtb of the loir, and C half tbo sum of the cireumfereDO«i 
10 r. r> 

of the two ends. Hut when round timber is procured for use in the Ord.ianee 

Department, it should be measured according to the s()uare of good timber which 

can be obtained from the log. 

To find tlio number of f<>cl, hoard metiture, in any piece of timber of a given 

width, multiply the tabular aren, for that width, by the length in feel and the 

thioknesh in inches. , 

Ta»LE, tkotcing lA* Smprfieia' Ft«t in one Lineal Foot of Board* of varfoua »idtk». 



Width. 


Ana. 


Width. 


AreiL 


Width. 


Area. 


In. 


Sup. ft 1 


In. 


Sup. ft. I 


1 In. 


Sup. ft 


0.25 


0.020)> 


' 4.25 


0.3542 


8.25 


0.6875 


0.5 


0.0417 


4.5 


0.375 


8.5 


0.70HS 


0.75 


O.Oti'.'J 


4.75 


0.3958 


8.75 


0.7292 


1. 


0.0^3,1 


5. 


0.41f.7 


9. 


0.75 


1.25 


0.1042 


5.25 


0.4:J7.i 


9.25 


0.7708 


1.5 


0.12.S 


5.5 


0.45S3 


9.5 


0.7917 


1.75 


0.14:.S 


5.75 


0.4792 


9.75 


0.8125 


2. 


0.1667 


6. 


0.5 


10. 


0.8S33 


2.25 


O.lJSTO 


6.25 


0.520S 


10.25 


0.8512 


2.5 


0.20S3 


6.5 


0.5417 


10.5 


0.K75 


1.75 


0.2292 


t 6.75 


0.5625 


10.75 


0.8958 


i. 


0.25 


' 7. 


0. 58.33 


11. 


0.9167 


S.25 


0.270S 


7.25 


0.6042 


11.25 


0.9.375 


S.5 


0.2'J17 


7.5 


0.625 


11.5 


0.9583 


3.75 


0.3125 


7.75 


0.6458 


11.75 


0.9792 


4. 


ftH^ 


8. 


0.6667 


12. 

i 


1.0000 



IRON. 395 



IRON. 



Iron is obtained from its ore."*, in which it generally exists in tbe .«tate of an 
oxide, combined with earthy or stony matters, and frequently with carboti, sulphur, 
artenic, mngncsia, manganese, etc. Iron ores are classed and named according to 
their different combinations, as magnetic, specular, micaceous, clay iron-stone, red 
hematite, brnun hematite: tbe last named is the ore from which tbe Salisl)ury and 
the Juniata irons are extracted; the first, that from which tbe Swedish iron is 
obtained ; and the clay iron-stone that from which the iron of England is made. 

The foreign substances which iron is found to contain modify in a marked man 
ncr its essential properties. Carbon adds to its hardness, but destroys some of its 
characteristic qualities, and produces ca.st-iron or steel according to tbe proportion 
of carbon it contains. Sulphur renders it fusible, difficult to weld, and brittle 
when heated, hot short. Phosphorus renders it cold short, but may be present in the 
proportion of 2-lOOOths to 3-lOOOths without affecting injuriously its tenacity. 
Aiitimoni/, arsenic and copper have the same effect as sulphur — tbe last in a greater 
degree. 

Cast-iron. 

The process of making cast-iron depends much on the kind of fuel used: char- 
coal, coke, bituminous and anthracite coals, are all used. 'When anthracite coal is 
employed, the ore is placed at once in the blust-furnacc: when charcoal is used, the 
ore is first roasted, by distributing it in alternate layers with waste coal, wood or, 
sometimes, with charcoal, .and the pile thus formed is ignited and burned in tbe 
open air. For the more refractory ores a kiln similar to that used for burning lime 
is required. The ore is rendered, by this operation, more porous and easily broken 
into small pieces, by which it is more readily acted upon in the smelting furnace. 
The small pieces would be disadvantageous in an anthracite furnace. 

Smelting is the process by which the iron is separated from the refractory sub- 
stances with which it is combined in the ore. It consists in raising the ore to a 
high heat in contact with carbon and a suitable flux in the blast or smelting fur- 
nace. The flux unites with the earthy matter of the ore, forming a glassy sub- 
stance called slag or cinder, and the carbon unites with the oxygen of the ore, 
setting the iron free, which in turn unites with a portion of the carbon and forms a 
fusible compound, carburet of iron, or cast-iron. 

Tbe melted iron and slag descend to tbe bottom of the furnace, the slag forming 
a covering to the pool of iron and protecting it from the action of the blast. As 
the_v accumulate, tbe slag runs off over the dam, and is a good indication, to an 
experienced eye, of the quality of metal tbe furnace is making. 

The furnace is generally tapped once every twelve hours, and the metal is run out 
intoxhaunels formed in the sand, and is known as j)igs. 

Limestone is the flux used for most ores : clay is sometimes required to mix with 
ores containing much limestone. 

A larger yield from the same furnace, and a great economy in fuel, are cffeotcd 



31H) ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

by the use of a hut hlati. The greater heat thue produced cauvos the iron to com- 
bine with a larger percentage of furcign subslances, and the strength of the ca«t- 
irun i!< thiiH injured. 

Cant-iron for cannon and for all purposesi rci|uiring great Htrcngth should be 
emellod with the rold blaRt. 

f'i;i iron, according to the proportion of carbon which it contain«, ix divided into 
fuiiuili-)/ iriin and /<>rfje iron, the latter being adaptecl only to conversion into mal- 
leable iron ; while the former, containing the largest proportion of carbon, can be 
used cither for casting or for making bar-iron. 

There are many varieties of cacf-iron, differing from each other by almost inMn- 
sible ^hadps ; the two principal divisions are t/rui/ and irhilr, so called from the color 
of the fracture when recent Their properties are very different. 

firny iron is softer and less brittle than white iron: it is in a slight degree mal- 
leable and flexible, and is nut sonorous: it can be easily drilled and turned in (be 
lathe, and dovf not resist the file. It has a brilliant fracture, of a gray, or, some- 
times, a bluii'h gray color: the color is lighter as the grain becomes closer, and its 
hardness increases at the same time. 

It melts at a lower heat than white iron, becomes more fluid, and prc«ervci its 
fluidity longer; it runs smoothly; the color of the fluid metal is red, and deeper in 
proportion as the beat is lower: it does not stick to the ladle: it fills the moulds well, 
contracts less and contains fewer cavities than white iron: the edges of a easting are 
sharp, and the surface smooth, convex, and i overed with carburet of iron. A me<lium 
■iied grain, bright gmy color, lively aspect, fracture sharp U^ the touch, and a close 
eompaei texture, indicate a good quality of iron. A grain cither very large or very 
small, a dull, earthy a-pvct, loose texture, dissimilar crystals mixed together, indi- 
cate au inferior i|uali(y. 

Orav iron is uj'ed for ordnance jiuriKtses where the pieces are to be bored or fitted. 

ItB tonacity and specific gravity are diminiihui by annealing, lu mean specific 
gravity is l.MH). 

H'Aife iron is very brittle and sonorous: it resists the file and the chisel, and ia 
bUtceptible of high polish ; the surface of a casting ia concave; the fracture prc««nt« 
a silvery appearance. jeneraJly fine grained and compact, somctimM radiui.ug, or 
lamellar. 

When melted it is white, and throws off a great number of sparks, and it« t|UaUliM 
arc the reverse of those of gray iron ; it is, therefore, unsuitable for ordnance pur- 
poses. Its tenacity is iiirreattJ and its specific gravity diminisktd by annealing. It« 
mean specific gravity is ".-'iUO. 

Motiltd iron is a mixture of white and gray ; it has a spotted appearance ; it Sows 
well and with few sparks: the casting has a plane surface, with edges slightly 
rounded. It is suitable for making shot and shells. 

A fine mottled iron is the only kind suitable for making castings which require 
great strength, such as cannon. The kind of mottle will depend uach on the sit* 
•f the casting. 



MALLEABLE IRON. 397 

Besides these general divisions, the manufacturers distinguish more particularly 
the different varieties of pig metal by numbers, according to their relative hardness. 

No. 1 is the softest iron, possessing in the highest degree the qualities described 
as belonging to gray iron : it has not much strength, but on account of its fluidity 
when melted and of its mixing advantageously with old or scrap iron, and with the 
harder kinds of cast-iron, it is of great use to the founder, and commands the highest 
price. 

No. 2 is harder, closer grained, and stronger than No. 1 ; it has a gray color and 
considerable lustre. It is the kind of iron most suitable, in general, for making shot 
and shells. 

No. 3 is still harder than No. 2. Its color is gray, but inclining to white; it has 
considerable strength, but it is principally used by the founder for mixing with other 
kinds of iron. 

No. 4 is brujht iron ; No. •>, mottled ; No. G, white — which is unfit for general use 
by itself. 

The qualities of these various kinds of iron seem to depend on the proportion of 
carbon, and on the state in which it is found in the metal. In the darker kinds of 
iron, where the proportion is sometimes 7 per cent, of carbon, it exists partly in the 
state of graphite or plumbago, which makes the iron soft. In white iron, the carbon 
is thoroughly combined with the metal, as in steel. 

Cast-iron frequently retains a portion of foreign ingredients from the ore, such as 
earths, or oxides of other metals, and sometimes sulphur and phosphorus, which are 
all injurious to its quality. Sulphur hardens tlic iron, and, unless in a very small 
proportion, destroys its tenacity. 

These foreign substances, and also a portion of the carbon, are separated by melt- 
ing the iron in contact with air, and soft iron is thus rendered harder and stronger. 
The effect of remelting varies with the nature of the iron and the kind of ore from 
which it has been extracted; that from the hard ores, such as the magnetic oxides, 
undergoes less alteration than that from the hematites; the latter being sometimes 
changed from No. 1 to rohite bj' a single remelting in the air furnace. 

The color and texture of cast-iron depend greatly on the size of the casting and 
the rapidity of cooling; a small casting, which cools quickly, is almost always 
white, ivnd the surface of large castings partakes more of the qualities of white metal 
than the interior. 

All cast-iron expands forcibly at the moment of becoming solid, and again con- 
tracts in cooling; gray iron, as before remarked, expands more and coutract.s less 
than other iron. 

The contraction is about 1 -100th for grey and strongly mottled iron, so that the 
dimensions of a pattern for casting should be about 1-lOOth larger than the size re- 
quired for the casting. 

Malleable Iron. 

Malleable iron is made from the pig, in the bloomcry fire or in the puddli»g fur- 
nace — generally in the latter. 



806 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Tho process coDKistB in melting the east-iron and keeping it exposed to a great 
heat, eonftantlj' Htirring the masp, bringing every part of it evenly under the action 
of the flame, until it loi^eiJ it« remaining carbon — when it l)eriime« malleable iron, 

TiiK n!-oowKnv refemblcs a large forge fire, where charcoal and a strong bbiAt are 
ns«d, and Ihe refined metal of the |>ig-iron, after being broken into pieces of the 
proper fiie, iii jdaced before the blast, directly in contact with the charcoal : u the 
metal fu!<ef<, it fallK into a cavity left for that purpose below the blast, where the 
bloomer work* it into the shape of a ball, which ho places again before the blast, 
Rurroundetl with frerih charcoal; this operation in generally again repeated, when tho 
ball is ready for the nhimjlrr. 

Tho I'l'DDMNG PURNACE 18 a reverberalofy furnace, with a cast-iron bottom lined 
generally with a pure and refractory iron ore, where the flame of bituminous coal it 
i^ade to act <iirectly on the metal. 

The operation of puddling is a most important one, as tho quality of the iron 
depends so much upon the skill with which it is conducted. 

The metal is first melted, and the puddler then begins to stir it, exposing each 
portion in turn to tho action of the flume, and continues this as long as ho is able 
tu work iU When it has lost its fluidity, ho forms it into puddlers' balls, weighing 
from bU to 100 lbs., which arc next passed to the shinglcr. 

8iiiNaLiN0 is perfiirmcd in a strong tf/ucezcr or umler the trip-hammer. Its 
object is to press out as perfectly as possible the liquid cinder which the ball still 
contains: it also forms the ball into shape for the puddle-rolls. A heavy ham- 
mer, weighing from 6 to 7 tons, effects this object most thoroughly, but not so 
cheaply as the squeezer. The ball receives from 15 to 20 blows of the hamra'^r, 
being tiirued from time to time us required: it is now called a bfoam, and is ready 
to bo rolled or hummerud. Or the ball is pai^sed once through the squcexer, and is 
Btill hot enough to be passed through the puddle-rolls. 

Ptinni^K-iiOLLH. — By passing through diflerent grooves in these rolls, the bloom 
is reduced to a romjh bur from three to four feet in length, its name conveying an 
idea of its condition, which is rough and imperfect. 

Piling. — To prepare rough bars for this operation, they are cut, cither hot or 
eold, by means of a strong pair of tkears, into such lengths as are best adapted to 
tho site of the finished bar required; the sheared bars are piled, one over the other, 
to the number of from two to six or more pieces, according to the size required — 
when the pile is ready for balling. 

Balling. — This operation is performed in the balling furnace, which is similar to 
the puildling furnace, except that its bottom or hearth is made up, from time 
to time, with sand ; it is used to give a welding heat to the piles to prepare them 
for rolling. 

KiMsuiNG-BOLLS. — The balU are passed successivel}- between the rollers of 
various forms and sires according to the shape of the finished bar required. 

The bars are straightened on a cast-iron bed, with heavy wooden beetles,- 

The quality of the iron depends on the kind of pig used, the skill of the puddlcr, 
and the absence of deleterious substances in the furnace. 



MALLEABLE IRON. 899 

The strongest cast-irons do not produce the strongest malleahle iron. 

For many purposes, such as sheets for tinning, best boiler-plate, and bars for 
con%-erting into steel, charcoal iron is used exclusively; and, generally, this kind of 
iron is to be relied upon for strength and toughness with greater confidence than 
any other — though iron of superior quality is made from pigs made with other fuel 
and with the hot blast; iron for gun barrels has been lately made from anthracite 
hot-blast pigs. 

Iron is improved in quality by judicious working, reheating it, and hammering 
or rolling: other things being equal, that is the best ir*)n that has been wrought 
the most. 

Piles are sometimes made of good iron on top and bottom and poorer iron in the 
middle : this is easily detected in the fracture. Reject it, where strength and 
toughness are required. 

Bak-irox. — The iron used in ordnance constructions is generally furnished in 
bars of difi'ercnt sizes, or in shapcg. It should be of the best qualit}* of iron, highly 
refined. 

The quality of iron is generally judged of by its (/rain as shown in a fresh frac- 
ture. 

The samjile shouM be 1 inch square, or, if a flat bar, i inch thick. Cut a notch 
on one side with a cold-chisel, and bend the bar down over the edge of an anvil, or 
give it a heavy blow, when lying flat on the ground, with a sledge-hammer; if the 
fracture exhibit long, silky fibres, of a leaden graj' color, cohering together and 
twisting or pulling apart before breaking, it denotes a. tough, soft iron, which is 
easy to work and hard to break, suitable for sheet-iron, wire, etc., but it may weld 
badly. A medium, even grain, mixed with fibres as above, but without bright 
specks or dark spots, is also a favorable iudicalion. In general, a short, blackish 
fibre indicates iron badly refined and mixed with carbon, plumbago, or oxide; if 
worked very hot, it may be improved, but there will be a reat waste, A very Jiue, 
close grain denotes a hard, steely iron, which is apt to be colJ-vliuri, hard to work 
with the hammer or file. A coame grain, with a brilliant, crystallyzed fracture, or 
yellow or brown spots, denotes a brittle iron, inclined to be cold-nhurt, but work- 
ing easily when heated, and making a good weld. But this test is not always sulE- 
cient, as the same iron will present dificrent appearances acc(>rding to the manner 
in which it has been forged and the degree of heat to which it has been subjected. 
Numerous ci-acks on the edges of the bar generally indicate a liut-xliort iron, which 
crjicks or breaks when punched or worked at a red heat, and will not weld; it is 
strong when cold, and may be useful in that state, but, if worked, care should be 
taken not to subject it to strains at a red heat. Bliiitcrs, jhurn, and cinder-hnhs are 
caused by imperfect welding at too low a heat, or by the iron nut being properly 
worked, and do not always indicate an inferior quality. 

The surest test of the quality of iron is to submit it to the followinL? proofs : 

Test when cold. — Bend the iron, if in small bars, several times biu:k and forth in 
diflFercut direction.", at sharp angles, with heavy blows of a bannucr, and twist it in 



400 ORDNANCR MANUAL. 

ft vice. Large pieces are reduced in size at one end, and submitted to the same 
tests. Round bars have a screw-thruad cut on them, and arc then hcnt according 
to the use for which they are intended. Pieces which are to have holes in tbcm 
are tested by punching holes in them cold. 

Tent frilir» hot. — Draw out the iron, bend and twist it; split it, and turn back the 
two parts, to sec if the split extends up; punch a long hole in the direction of tb« 
fibre, and unollior at right angles to it; punch holes of different forms— some near 
the edge; weld the iron to iron and to steel ; make chains from small rods ; obacrre 
if cracks or flaws weld easily: finally, forge some of the most diflicult pieces for 
which the iron is intended. 

NOTR iiM FORGING. — Oood iron is often injured by being unskilfully worked. 
Care hhould be taken that the iron while heating is not exposed to the air, which 
would assist in forming scales of oxide on its surface : it is to prevent this that tho 
workman from lime to lime throws sand or clay on his iron to protect it. When 
iron i" at a white beat, immediate contact with coal tends to carbonize it and make 
it »ttrly. Iron heated for any purpose, and especially for welding, fhould be heated 
as rapitlly as possible, in order to expose it the least possible time to tlie action of 
the air anil coal; for this purpose, the strongest fuel, with an abuiidiint, steady 
blast, is necessary. Defects in iron caused by unskilful working may be remedied 
in part: if, for example, iron has been Imrutd, give it a smart heat, protected aa 
much as )>ossible from the air; if the iron has been injured by cold-hitmmering, % 
moderate aiiiieMliiig heat will restore it; if the iron has become hard an <1 steel j, 
give it one or more smart heats, to extract the carbon. 

Inspection of Iron for Garrison and Sea-coast Carriages. 

The chrck-plntei should be made of iron of good quality, uniform in thicknesf, a 
plane surface, and cut near to the required size. Verify the size by a wooden frame 
made of the required shupe, and the thickness by an iron gauge. Try the quality 
of tho iron by punching holes near the edge at the place for the trunnion-holes. 

The railn should be straight on the top, bottom and edge of the flange; try ihem 
by laying a straight-edge on them. The web should be a plane surface, without 
corrugaliou.s — at right angles to the fiaugcs, which should be smooth and free from 
breaks or cracks. 

Examine that the welds are all good, that there arc no scams, and that the 
iron has not been burned. Verify the cross-section of the rail by a profile cut 
from sheet-iron or mahogany; measure the length with a rod of the correct 
length. 

See that the trough-beams and angle-iron are straight, and their edges sonnd^ 
without cracks. Verify their length. 

Examine the bar-iron by the tests given above for bar-iron, and where the pieces 
are cut to lengths, verify them. 

Weigh several pieces of each kind of the exact length, sufficient to get a fuir mean 
weight, from which the weight of the whole can be calculated. 



STEEL. 401 

Puddled Steel. 

U, in the opriition of puddling, the process be slopped at a particular time 
determined by indications given by the metal to an experienced eye, an iron is 
obtained of greater hardness and strength than ordinary iron, to which the name of 
scmi-stecl, or puddled steel, has been applied. The principal difficulty in its manu- 
facture is that of obtaining uniformity in the product, homogeneity and solidity 
throughout the entire mass. It is much improved by reheating and hammering 
under a heavy hammer. 

A tenacity of 118,000 lbs. to the square inch has been obtained from semi-steel 
made in this country in this way. Field pieces have been made of this material, 
and it is believed that it will answer well for this purpose. 

Steel. 

Steel is a compound of iron and carbon, in which the proportion of the latter is 
from 5 to 1 per cent., and even less, in some kinds. Steel may be distinguished from 
iron by its fine grain; its susceptibility of hardening by immersing it, when hot, in. 
cold water; and with certainty by the action of diluted nitric acid, which leaves a 
black spot on steel, and on iron a spot which is lighter colored in proportion as the 
iron contains less carbon. 

There are many varieties of steel, the principal of which are— 
Natural xteel, which is obtained by reducing the rich and pure kinds of iron ore 
with charcoal, and refining the cast-iron, so as to deprive it of a sufficient portion 
of carbon to bring it to a malleable state. It is made principally in Germany, and 
is used for making files and other tools. 

The India steel, called wootz, is said to be a natural steel, containing a small 
portion of other metals. 

Blhtered steel, or steel of cementation, is prepared bv the direct combination of 
iron and carbon. For this purpose, the iron in bars is put in layers alternating 
with powdered charcoal, in a close furnace, and exposed for 1 or 8 days to a heat of 
about 70° Wedgewood. and then suffered to cool for as many days more. The bars 
on being taken out are covered with blisters, have acquired a brittle quality, and 
exhibit in the fracture a uniform crystalline appearance. The degree of carboni- 
zation IS varied according to the purposes for which the steel is intended, and the 
best qualities of iron (Russian and Swedish) are used for the finest kinds of steel. 

Tilted steel is made from blistered steel moderately heated and subjected to the 
action of a tilt-hammer, by which means its tenacity and density are increased and. 
it is thus adapted to use. 

Shear steel is made from blistered or natural steel refined by piling thin bars into 
fagots, which are brought to a welding heat in a revcrbcratory furnace, and ham- 
mered or rolled again into bars ; this operation is repeated several times to produce 
the finest kinds of shear steel, which are distinguishad by the names of half shear, 
26 



402 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

tingle thenr nilil dnuhle ihenr, or pteel of 1 mark, of 2 mnrku, of r! innrkt, etc., 
according to the Dumber of times it has been piled. 

Caul-Heel is made by bre.nkinjf blistered steel into small pieces and melting; it in 
close crucibles, from which it is poured into iron moulds : the ingot is then reduced 
to a bar by hammering or rolling, as described under the bead of malleable iron, 
these operations being performed with great care. Cast-stccl is the finest kind of 
steel and best adapted for most purposes: it is known by a very fine, even and 
close grain, and a silvery, homogeneous fracture ; it is very brittle, and acquires 
extreme hardness, but is diffioult to weld without the use of a flux. The other kinds 
of steel have a similar appearance to cast-stuul, but the grain is coarser and less 
homiigeneous ; they are sort<'r and less brittle, and weld more readily. A fibrous 
or lumcllar appearance in the fracture indicates an imperfect steel. A material of 
great toughness and elasticity, as well as hanlnesi', i.s made by forging together 
steel and iron, forming the celebnited (lnma»k- gitrl. which is used for sword blades, 
springs, etc.: the dninasked appearance is proilufcd by the action of a diluted 
acid, which gives a black tint to the steel parts, whilst the iron remains white. 

Various j'nney ulerlit, or alloy.s of steel with tilrer, jilntinum, rhnriium and nlumin- 
iiini have Iteen niaile with a view to imitating the Damascus steel, w<>ot7., etc.. and 
improving the fabrication of some of the finer kimls of surgical and other instru- 
ments. 

PRorr.nTiKS or stkkl. — The best steel possesses the following characteristic! : 
heated to redness and plunged into cold water, it bicnmcs hard enough to scratch 
glass and to resist the best files; the hardness is uniform throughout the piece: 
after being tempered it is not easily broken ; it welds readily : it doe« not crack or 
split ; it bears a very high heat, and preserves the capability of hardening after 
repeated working ; the grain is fine, even and homogeneous, and it receives a bril- 
liant polish. Its specific gravity is 7.816, being greater than that of iron. 

Test. — Break a few bars, taken at random : make tools of them and try them in 
the severest manner. 

Hardening and TKMrERiSG stkel. — On these operations the quality of manufac- 
tured steel in a great measure depends. 

Hardening is effected by heating the steel to a cherry red, or nntil the scales of 
oxide are loosened on the surface, and plunging it into a liquid, or placing it in 
contact with some cooling substance : the degree of hardness depends on the heat 
atd the rapidity of cooling. Steel is thus rendered so hard as to resist the hardest 
files, and it becomes at the same time extremely brittle. The degree of heat and 
the temperature and nature of the cooling medium must be chosen with reference 
to the quality of the steel and the purpose for which it is intended. Cold water 
gives a greater hardness than oils or other fatty substances, sand, wet iron scales or 
cinders, but an inferior degree of hardness to that given by acids. Oil, tallow, etc., 
prevent the cracks which are caused by too rapid cooling. The lower the heat at 
which the steel becomes hard, the better. 

Tempering- — Steel in its hardest state being too brittle for most purposes, the 



WELDING COMPOSITION. 403 

requisite strength and elasticity arc obtaincil l>.v tempering — or letting dou-n the tem- 
per, as the workmen term it^ — which is perfuruied by heating the hardened steel to a 
certain degree and cooling it quickly. The requisite heat is usually ascertained by 
the color which the surface of the steel assumes from the film of oxide thus formed. 
The degrees of heat to which these several colors correspond are as follows : 
At 430° Fahr., a very faint yellow.. ) Suitable for hard instruments; as hammer 
At 450° " a pale straw color. . j faces, drills for hard substances, etc. 

( For instruments requiring hard edges witb- 

At470° " a full yellow ) .,.••. \ ■ \ ^ r 

■< out elasticity ; as shear?, scissors, tools for 

At 490° " a brown color i * • • j . i 

( turning iron and steel. 

At .510° " brown, with purple 1 „ , , , ... , i r * . i 

f For tools for cutting wood and soft metals : 
spots *- 



i such as plane irons, chisels, knives, etc. 



At 538° " purple 

I For tools requiring strong edges without 

At 550° " dark blue ) extreme har<lness : as cold-chisels, axles. 

At 5f)0° " full blue I table cutlery, etc., which will break before 

(^ bending. 
At 600° " grayish blue, verging ) For spring-temper, which will bend before 

on black J breaking; saws, sword blades, etc. 

If the steel be heated higher than this, the effect of the hardening process is 
destroyed. 

Case-hardening. — This operation consists in converting the surface of wrought 
iron into steel, by cementation, for the purpose of adapting it to receive a polish or 
to bear friction, etc. ; this is effected by heating the iron to a cherry red, in a close 
vessel, in contact with carbonaceous materials, and then plunging it into cold 
water. Bones, leather, hoofs and horns of animals are generally used for this pur- 
pose, after having been burnt or roasted so that they can be pulverized. Soot is 
also frequently used. 

Welding Composition for Iron or Steel. 

Borax 10 parts. 

Sal ammoniac 1 part. 

Pound them together, and melt them in a crucible into a clear liquid : pour it out 
on an iron plate, and, when cold, pulverize it for use. 

Composition A^o. 2. 

Borax 5 . lbs. 

Sal ammoniac 1*0 " 

Prussiate of potash 5 " 

Rosin 5 " 

Alcohol 5 pint. 

Water 5 " 

Iron filings 5 lb. 



404 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

Put all the inatcriiils in an iron pan tflgethi-r, and melt them over a gentle fire, so 
tluit the eorapoiiition shall boil far ii few minutes, stirring it until it shall become 
fitiiillj' dry and eharred; then pulverize, and use it in the same manner as borax, 
ajiplyin^ it to the parts to be welded when at a red heat. 

Sheet-Iron. 

Slirrt-irnn is made by rolling. It should be soft nn<l tiiu^h. its siirfiiee very 
smooth, withfiut holes or thick scales; it is generally of a blui.-h color, simictimes 
clouded: the sheet should be of regular thickness, clastic, and crackling when 
bent in the hamls. When bent at a right angle, there should be no iipjicnrancc of 
fracture on the exterior. 

Iliimin uhtii-iron has a planished, glossy, and smooth surface of gray oxide of 
iron; it should be free from rust or flaws, and be very soft and tough. Punch 
holes in it near the edge, and see that there arc no flaws or cracks after this opera- 
lion. 

The severest test of sheet-iron consists in hammering a juirt of the sheet into a 
concave form. 

8HKKT-8TEKI. 18 manufactured in the same wa}', and should have the same ({uali- 
ties as sheet-iron, with greater elasticity and hardness in a thinner sheet. 

For the weight of sheet-iron, sec Tables on pages 405 and 42C. 

Sheet-Tin. 

Sheet-tin is made by coating sheet-iron with tin. The iron is first leoured, or 
thoroughly cleaned, by means of an acid, and then immersed in melt«d tin. There 
are two kinds — called oingh tin and double tin, differing in thickness and in the 
quantity of tin with which the iron is coated. The surface of the sheets should be 
bright and smooth, free from specks, beads and blisters. 



THICKNESS AND WEIGHT OF SHEET METALS. 



405 



Dimen$ion» of Sheet- Tin. 



Size. 



Mean Thickness. Weight. 



Remarks. 



Single tin. 
Doi ble X. 
Roofing . . 



in. 

10X14 
10X14 
20X14 



Wire Guage. 

31 
27 
27 





In. 





0125 





OlS 





018 



Lbs. 
0.5 
0.75 
1.5 



I There are usually 225 
J sheets in a box. 
112 sheets in a box. 



A square of roof (100 square feet) requires about 71 sheets of roofing tin. 
Thickness^and Weight of Sheet Metals. 



Thickness by the Guage. ' 



WEIGHT PER SQUARE FOOT IN POUNDS. 



No. 0. 

1. 



3. 
4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9 

10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
If). 
17. 
18. 

ly. 

20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27., 
28., 
29., 
30., 
31., 
32., 
33.. 
34.. 
35.. 
36.. 



Thiclmcss in 
Inches. 



Slieet and 
Boiler Iron. 



0.340 

0.300 

0.284 

0.259 

0.23S 

0.220 

0.203 

0.180 

0.105 

0.148 

0.134 

0.120 

0.109 

0.095 

0.0s3 

0.072 

0.065 

0.0.')8 

0.04 it 

0.042 

0.035 

0.032 

0.028 

0.025 

0.022 

0.020 

0.018 

0.016 

0.014 

0.013 

0.012 

0.010 

0.009 

0.008 

0.007 

0.005 

0.004 



13.7 
12.1 
11.4 
10.4 
9.60 
8.85 
8.17 
7.24 
6.65 
.'■).96 
5.40 
4.83 
4.40 
3.83 
3.34 
2.90 
2.62 
2.34 
1.97 
1.69 
1.41 
1.29 
1.13 
1.00 
0.685 
0.805 
0.724 
0.644 
0.563 
0.523 
0.485 
0.402 
0.302 
0.322 
0.282 
0.230 
0.170 



Sheet Cast- 
Steel. 



Sheet-Copper. 



14.0 


15.6 


12.4 


13.8 


11.7 


13.0 


10.6 


11.9 


9.80 


11.0 


9.02 


10.1 


8.33 


9.32 


7.38 


8.25 


6.78 


7.59 


6.08 


6.80 


5.51 


6.16 


4.93 


5.51 


4.50 


5.02 


3.91 


4.37 


3.41 


3.81 


2.96 


3.31 


2.67 


3.00 


2.39 


2.67 


2.01 


2.25 


1.72 


1.93 


1.42 


1.61 


1.31 


1.47 


1.15 


1.29 


1.02 


1.14 


0.903 


1.01 


0.820 


0.918 


0.73S 


0.826 


0.657 


0.7.35 


0.574 


0.642 


0..533 


0.597 


0.493 


0.551 


0.410 


0.480 


0.370 


0.420 


0.328 


0.370 


0.288 


0.32,{ 


0.235 


0.262 


0.173 


0.194 



40G 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Files and Rasps. 



LIST or fILES Ann nA8P8 REQUIRED FOR USE AT AN ARSENAL OT rONSTROCTION. 



No. 



Kind. 



Length. Width 



'"'i?" Weight. Bemu-ka. 



1 

2 
.3 
4 

6 

7 
« 
9 
10 
II 
12 
13 
14 
16 
16 
17 
IS 
19 
20 
21 
22 
2;{ 
24 
2.'. 
26 



Flat, rough (riiiTii) ■ . 
Do. do. 

Do. bantanU 

D... do 

lliilf-round hantards 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Hound ba.i<tard8 . . . . 

Do. 

Do. 

Do, 
Stjuare 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Flat, i:in|;le cut (floats) 
Flat, hand, smooth. . . . 

Do. do 

Do. do 

Do. do 

Half-round, hand 
Do. 
Do. 
Taper, handsaw . . . 
Flat, shoeing ras]i . 
Half-round, smooth 



inooth. 
do. 

do. 



In. 

U. 

12. 
12. 

8. 
12. 

0. 

6. 
12. 

9. 

C. 

4.i 
12. 

8. 

6. 

4. 
12. 
12. 

9. 

8. 

4. 
12. 

9. 

6. 

4.5 
14. 
12. 



In. 


In. 


Lbi OS. 


1.35 


0.35 


1 4 


1.17 


0.3 


15 


1.17 


0.3 


14 


0.7 


0.2 


5 


1.14 


0.32 


11 


0.85 


0.25 


Si 


0.56 


0.2 


U 





0.5 


8i 




0.23 


2 




0.23 


i 




0.16 


i 


0.5 


0.5 


9 


0..12 


0.32 


3 


0.24 


0.24 


2 


0.2 


0.2 


} 


1.12 


0.22 


lOi 


1.16 


0.31 


1 2 


0.96 


0.27 


10 


0.83 


0.2 


6 


0.44 


0.1 


i 


1.15 


o.n 


12 


0.84 


0.27 


51 


0.6 


0.18 


U 


A 


0.4 


li 


1.5 


0.35 


1 8 


1.14 


0.32 


11 



Flat, tai>ering. 



1 cdjro rounded. 
Safe rdge. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Without tang. 



English files are generally used at the arsenals and armories. 

Files should be made of the best cast-steel. The teeth are generally cut at an 
iinjjie of 60° with the centre line ; at a smaller angle the teeth are apt to choke, 
and at a greater angle they do not cut. 

In choosing files, they should be examined to see that they are straight, that 
they ure free from cracks and flaws, and that they are cut regularly. The teeth 
should not be turned or broken by filing on iron or tempered steel. One out of 
each dozen may be tried on a piece of t«mpered steel, such as the tang of a file 
screwed in a Ticc ; the file should "take" in its whole length, both on the flat 
and edge, and should not cut in drawing back ; it should not make furrows, or 
show a tendency to deviate from the direction given to it by the hand. The quality 
of the steel may be determined by breaking some of the files and working the steel 
in the forge. 



CUT NAILS. 



407 



Wood Screws. 

Wood screws are classed by the length in inches, and by the number which 
indicates the size of the wire, or body of the screw. 

The following table of dimensions, derived from measurements of the screws 
made by the New England Screw Company, at Providence, Rhode Island, will be 
found convenient for reference. 







HEAD. 








No 


Diameter 
of Body. 






Niiinber of 

thrcnUs to 

1 inch. 




Ilcmarks. 












Diameter. 


Tliickness. 










In. 


In. 


In. 








3 


0.10 


0.20 


0.06 


24 


The length 


of thread cut is two- 


4 


.11 


.22 


.065 


24 


thirds the 


length of the screw. 


5 


.13 


.26 


.075 


20 






6 


.15 


.30 


.08 


20 






7 


.16 


.32 


.085 


18 




> 

V 


8 


.17 


.34 


.09 


14 




9 


.19 


.38 


.095 


13i 






10 


.20 


.40 


.10 


13 






11 


.21 


.42 


.11 


12 






12 


.22 


.44 


.12 


11 






13 


.23 


.46 


.13 


11 






14 


.24 


.48 


.14 


10 






15 


.25 


.60 


.15 


10 






16 


.26 


.52 


.16 


n 






17 


.27 


.54 


.17 


9 






18 


.28 


.56 


.18 


Si 






20 


.30 


.60 


.20 


8 






21 


.32 


.64 


.21 


8 






22 


.35 


.70 


.22 


7i 






24 


.38 


.76 


.24 


7 






26 


.40 


•80 


.26 


7 







Cut Nails. 



N08. 


2d. 


3d. 


id. 


6d. 


8d. 


lOd. 


12d. 


20d. 


Length inches. 

Number in 1 lb 


1. 

550 


1.25 
450 


1.5 

340 


2. 
150 


2.5 
100 


3. 
60 


3.5 
40 


4. 
25 



Spikes are large nails, wrought or cnt : the size is designated by the length in 
inches. 



408 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

BcUoirn itniU ati'I rliiiit unih are short wrought nail?, with lar;;o heads, slij;htly 
convex: they arc used chiefly for nailing leather, canvas, etc., on wood. 

Bellows nails 1.1.3 inch long, 0.1 inch thick, with heads .75 inch to 1 inch in 
diameter, should weigh about 120 to 1 lb. 

Tacks are classed by the length in inches, or by the weight of 1,000, in ounces. 

Spn'f/g, hradt, finiihiiig uailt, are classed by the length in inches. 

Alloys. 

Jiroutf. — Gun metal: 90 copper and 10 tin. 

Dell metal. — 78 cojjper and 22 tin. 

Fiue bran. — 2 copper and 1 zinc. 

Itrami for pnrtt o/ tmtiN armi and of gun-earriatff$. — SO copper, 17 line, and 3 tin. 

Shcet-braiif. — 3 copper and 1 zinc. 

Silver Holder. — 4 silver and 1 copper; or 2 silver and 1 brni's wire. 

Hard luldrr. — I line and 2 brass. 

Plumhert' Bolder. — 1 tin and 1 lead. 

Tiniicm' ttildrr. — 1 tin and 2 lead. 

I'eiclrrcrt' solder. — 2 tin and 1 lead. 

Fuif'Ue alloy.— 'i. tin ; 3 lead ; f) bismuth : melts at 197°. 

Type metal. — 11 lead, 2 antimony, and i tin. 

(iermiin silrrr. — 404 copper; 31J nickel; 254 zinc; 24 iron. 

" " for casting. — 60 copper; 20 zinc ; 20 nickel ; 3 lead. 

I'eirtir. — 4 tin an<l 1 lead. 

-4ii alio;/ that rxpundu in coolimj. — 9 lead, 2 antimony, and I bismuth; useful for 
filling small cavities in cast-iron. 

Babbit's metal, for journal-boxes. — 9 tin and 1 copper. 

PiCKLK FOR CLKAM.NG iRO.v. — To a mixture of equal parts of nitric and muriatic 
acids add twelve times their joint volume of water. 

Liquor for tinnm.vg or solderivg. — Dissolve 3 ounces of zinc in a pint of muriatic 
acid, letting it stand in a warm place about 8 hours; strain the solution through a 
cotton or linen cloth ; add a teaspoonful of pulverized sal-ammoniac to a pint of the 
solution, and let it boil for ten minutes; when cool it is fit fur use. 

To TIN IRON. — Immerse the iron in the cleaning pickle; if the surface be rough, 
let it remain in the pickle about 4 hours, or until all the scales can be rubbed ofi°. 
Then dip the iron into the solution of zinc, and immediately afterward into the 
'melted tin, which must be kept a little above the melting point. Let it remain in 
the melted tin until the latter has ceased to be agitated, when the iron will have 
become warm enough for the tin to adhere; on taking it out, wipe or shake off the 
surplus tin. 

To TIN COPPER. — It is only necessary to dip the copper into the solution of zinc 
and then into the bath of tin ; or to clean the copper with diluted sulphuric acid 
before immersing it in the tin. 



ROPKS. 40'^> 

STORAGE AND PRESERVATIOX OF METALS. 

Metah are stored on the ground floors of dry and well aired buildingp, which 
should be kept open in fine weather only. 

Unr-iron and iteel, and pieces rough forged {shapex), divided according to kind 
and size, on racks, or standing upright in frames; unaerriceahle iron and Kcrapn, in 
piles marked with the weight. Sliert-iron and tin, oiled, and placed on edge, in 
frames. Wire, oiled, in coils, hung on hooks; arranged according to kind and size. 

Heavi/ chains, coiled up in piles. — Small chains, in bundles of 10 or 20, in boxes or 
on shelves. 

Fininhed work, according to kind, in piles or in boxes. 

Pig nietal, in square piles ; the flat sides Ij'ing together. 

The iron and steel parts of iniplements, etc., covered with a black varnish, made 
of white varnish and liunjiblack, for intrenching and other heavy tools; of white 
varnish and ivory black, for polished tools. (See Chapter VII.) 

Artificers' tooln and /;/(«, according to kind, in a dry place, with suitable divisions; 
they should be sprinkled with powdered charcoal, or fine quicklime, to protect them 
from rust. 

Nails, according to kind and size, in bins or kegs. Aurih and other heavy pieces, 
on skids on the floor. Every division, bin, pile, and box should be marked with a 
label showing the character of the article contained in it, its kind, its distinctive 
number or size, the quantitj', weight, etc. 

ROPES. 

The size of a rope is designated by the circumference or girth measured with ». 
thread : thus, a 3-inch rope measures 3 inches round. The length is usually expressed 
in fathoms. 

Stukngtii. — The utmost strength of good hemp rope is G,400 lbs. to the square 
inch; the weight which it will bear before breaking is expressed in tons by one-ji/th 
of the square of the girth in inches; in practice, a rope should not be subjected to 
more than half this strain. It stretches from l-7th to l-5th, and its diameter is 
diminished from l-7th to l-4th, before breaking. A difference in the quality of the 
liemp may produce a difference of l-4th in the strength of ropes of the same size. 

AVhite rope is stronger than tarred rope, and the difi"erenee is increased by age and 
service: therefore, such ropes only as are to be immersed in water should be tarred. 

Oil or gre.ase diminishes the strength of rope without adding to its durability. 

The strength of manilla rope is less than that of hemp rope. 

Quality. — The quality of hemp is in some measure indicated by its color: the 
the best is of a pearl gray ; the next, greenish ; then, the yellow ; a brown color indi- 
cates that it has been rotted too long and has begun to decay. Brown spots show 
that it has moulded and the spots are decayed. The odor should be strong, but free 
from a musty, tainted smell. It should be well combed, pliant, and free from stalks. 
The yarns should be fine spun and slightly twisted : they are from i to i of an inch 



410 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

in girlli. A rope is defeotivc when the yania arc of unequal sizes or uncijuotly 
twixtcd ; when it is fuxzy before being used; and when it cuntains pieces of stalk, 
indicatinf^ that the hemp was nut well combed. 

TwiKTrNO OR i.AYiNM. — Tho Dumbcr of yarn* in a *frniK/ of cordage rarioa from Itt 
to 2!), and sovcral strands are combined, or laid, to form a large rope. A rope is 
■aid to be twisted i or ^ when it is J or i shorter than the strand. For artillery 
service ropes should lie twinted J. 

The degree of twisting may be determined by constructing a right-angled triangle, 
tho base of which is the circumference of the rope, and the height the length of one 
revolutioif (if the strand, nicaKured parallel to the axis; the difference between thix 
height and the hypothcnuse is the <|uantity by which the rope is twinted. 

PiiKSEKVATiuN IN SToRK. — Ropcs should be jilaccd in the upper stories of a build- 
ing, coiled up and labelled: large rojies on skids, so as to allow the circulation of 
air: small ropes hung up to the joists, on pins or hooks. Ropes should not be coiled 
until they are perfectly dry : they should be uncoiled every year, and stretched out 
for several days at the beginning of the dry season. 

Uo]>es which have been too long in Ktore lose their strength. 

COAL. 

Charcoal. 

Charcoal is made from either hard or soft wood; that from the firmer, such as 
oak, rou}ilc, boech, chestnut, is the most serviceable, giving the greatest quantity of 
heat for un equal weight of coal. 

For ordinary purposes it is burned in heaps or stacks. Wood from 18 to 20 years 
old is to bo preferred. It may be charred immediately after being felled ; if left for 
a year exposed to the weather before being burned, it produces an inferior coal. 

Select siiuuil woud; cut it into pieces from 4 to Ti feet lung, and split those which 
lire more than 4 inches in diameter. 

It is well to make stacks, as far as practicable, of wood of the same kind, or of 
such as differ from each other but little in their general nature. If it be necessary 
to use soft and hard woods in the same stack, place the former on the outside. 

Making cHAncoAi.. — Choose a dry spot on which to place the stack, sheltered 
from the wind: level the ground. Plant a stake iu the middle of the space, and 
cover the bottom of the pile with wood placed in a direction converging toward the 
centre, the intervals being filled up with small ^Micks; place the rest of the wood 
around the stake, the pieces nearly upright and close together, in several tiers, cover- 
ing the whole with a layer of wood placed as close together as possible; leave one or 
more horizontal openings near the ground, from the exterior to the centre. CoTet 
the stack, commencing at the top, with leaves and a coat of wet sod alx>ut 4 inches 
thick, leaving open a space 6 inches high, all round the bottom, for the escape of the 
air and steam. 

Draw out the stake, and set fire to the pile, either by means of the bole left by the 



PIT COAL. 411 

stake, or through the horizontal gallery, which may have been previously filled with 
combustible materials. Push the fire actively until the flame comes out at the top of 
the stack, in order to ignite the whole of the bottom part, and to expel the steam, 
which would otherwise occasion explosions. Then close the hole at the top, and 
cover the lower part of the pile, leaving small openings at intervals: the smoke 
should now escape equally from all parts of the stack, except toward the top, which 
is kept closed in order to prevent a draught. When the stack has mrcatcd sufficiently, 
increase the thickness of the coating of earth ; moderate the fire, and direct it, by 
means of openings on the sides, in such a manner that the combustion may be equal 
in every part and that the fire may be always drawn toward the bottom. Leave the 
holes open as long as the smoke is black and thick, and close them when it become^ 
light and of a bluish color. The charring is completed when the flame escapes 
through the openings at the bottom; then stop the holes and cover the pile well with 
earth, which should be renewe<l after 24 hours; extinguish the fire entirely, and let 
the pile stand 12 or 24 hours more. Open it on one side only; select the coal, and 
separate what is imperfectly burnt. Wood furnishes in this way, on an average, 
about 16 or 17 per cent, of charcoal. 

Large stacks are the most advantageous : as much as 50 or 60 cords of wood may 
be put into one. 

PnorKRTiES. — Charcoal of good quality burns slowly in the air, without flame; it 
is clean, hard, compact, brittle, sonorous, and of a fine black color; its fracture is 
shining, irridesccnt, and of a conchoidal form. 

When not perfectly charred, it is tough, of a grayish color, and burns with a white 
flame and smoke. When too much burnt, it is of a dull black, soft and unelastic. By 
exposure to the air, charcoal absorbs from 10 to 20 per cent, of moisture, and its 
qualities are thereby impaired ; it should, therefore, be kept under cover. 

Pit Coal. 

BiTUMixous COAL. — There are two principal varieties. 

Opcn-hurniiKj coal kindles quickly and burns well, but produces much flame and 
smoke, and is soon consumed; it lies open in the fire, and does not cake. Of this 
kind is the English cannel coal. 

Closc-hurninij coni melts and swells in .the fire and runs together, forming what 
blacksmiths call a hollow Jire, or a dome over the nozzle of the bellows, under which 
the iron is heated equally and covered from the air. This kind of coal forms a very 
hot fire and leaves little residuum : it is, therefore, the most suitable for smiths' use. 
The Newcastle coal and the Virginia, Maryland,. North Carolina, and Pennsylvania 
bituminous coals are of this kind. 

Anthracite coal is now extensively used for the forge, in fireplaces specially 
contrived for the purpose. It ignites with difficulty, and does not cake or melt in 
the smallest degree, but produces a very hot, open fire. 

Coal is not injured, but, on the contrary, rather improved, by exposure to air and 
moisture. 



412 



OUDNANCK MANUAL 



Mean Weight of CoaU. 



ISiliiii^nouii 

Authruciti* (egg site). 



Hpcciflc 
Kravily. 



1.355 
1.500 



POR grOWAOE. 



Wefffht of Cnlilc fret 
1 cable foot. to 1 ton. 



Lb*. 
61.4 
56.8 



4.1.58 
40.14 



Cohe. 

Ciil-f is produced •>>• ohnrrinjt bituminouii pom], in order to expel the bitumen and 
fulphtir; this i.« uvtinlly done in cIokc fiirnaeei' or orcnx. (iuud <-ukc bar a dull frae- 
ture, IK very porouo and cellular: it gives verv little ashes when burned ; it is injured, 
like wood cliHrcdal. I'V absorbing water. 

Coal fdriilKlieH 60 to 70 per cent, of coke l>y weight, the volume being increased 
5 to "JO per cent. 

CoAi. TAU ir^ a biliiniinnus product obtained by the distillation of coal in making 
pas. etc. 

TAR. PITCH. TIRPEXTIXE. 

The following arc (he principal varieties of products from resinous trees, such as 
the pine : 

TiRi'KSTiXK. — This is extracted from the tree in warm weather, by cutting a deep 
notch, or h>ix, neiir the base, and (^coring the tree by scraping off the bark above the 
box ; the first year's running produces the rinjin <ir irhitt turfienltne, and the second 
year's is nearly as good ; after thut the turpentine becomes each year darker and 
sitiffer, the tree yielding less of what is called f/iy/;.i'M(/», and more irmpiny ; the latter 
kind of turpentine is hard and yellow. A tree will bear tapping fourteen to sixteen 
years, on two sides alternately — the scoring being extended upward from twelve Ut 
fifteen inches each year. 

Spirits of TrRi'ENTiSK is the esuential oil obtained by distillation from tLe iiutire 
turpentine. 

Rosis, OR Colophony, is the residuum of the distillation of turpentine. Its quality 
depends on that of the turpentine, and on the care used in distillation: the finest 
quality is of a light straw color. 

Tar is obtained from the heart of the pine tree by *mr>uldering. or a smothered 
combustion, effected in stacks, nearly in the manner described for making charcoal. 
The tar runii off into tjH;nches dug for the purpose. Tar is semi-fluid, transparent 
in thin portions, and of a reddish color: it has a strong, peculiar odor. It is ren- 
dered more fluid by heat ; and it burns with a bright flame, leaving a light and dry 



CHEMICAL EQUIVALENTS OF ELEMENTARY BODIES. 



413 



coal. It is refined by heating it in an iron vessel, and pouring it off, after it has been 
kept for some time in a liquid state; by this means water and pyroligneous acid are 
driven off, and the earthy particles are separated b}' settling. 

Itris used for coating cordage, and for wood which is not to be immersed in water. 

PiTcn is made by boiling tar down to the requisite consistency, either by itself or 
combined with a portion of rosin; it becomes solid on cooling, but is soon softened 
by the heat of the hand, in which state it is very adhesive ; when of good quality, it. 
is clear and bard. 

It is used for coating wood which is to be immersed in water, and is applied hot, 
with a 7ti<>p, 

Venick TunPENTi.VK is obtained from the larch; but what is commonly called by 
that name is a compound of melted rosin and spirits of turpentine. 



Chemical Equivalents of some of the Elementary Bodies. 



Name. 



Symbol. 



Oxygen . . . 
Sulphur . . . 
Bromine • . . 
Chlorine . . . 
Fluorine . . . 
Iodine . . . . 
Antimony. . 
Arsenic . . . 
Bismuth ... 
Nitrogen. . . 
Phosphorus 

Boron 

Carbon . . . . 
Silicon . . . . 
Hydrogen. . 
Sodium . . . 
Potassium . 
Barium . . . . 



0. 

S. 

Br. 

CI. 

Fl. 

I. 

Sb. 

As. 

Bi. 

N. 

P. 

Bo. 

C. 

Si. 

H. 

Na. 

K. 

Ba. 



Equivalent. 



16. 

80. 

35. 

19. 
127. 
122. 

76. 
214. 

U. 

U. 

11. 
6. 

21. 
1. 

23. 

39. 



Calcium . . 
Magnesium 
Strontium . 
Aluminium 
Chromium 

Cobalt 

Copper. . . . 

Iron 

Lead 

Nickel . . . . 
Mangauese 

Tin 

Zinc 

Gold 

Mercury . . 
Platinum. . 

Silver 

Palladium 



Symbol. Equivalent. 



Ca. 

Mg. 

Sr. 

Al. 

Cr. 

Co. 

Cu. 

Fe. 

Pb. 

Ni. 

Mn. 

Sn. 

Zn. 

Au. 

Hg. 

PI. 

Ag. 

Pd. 



20. 

12. 

43.75 

13.75 

26.75 

30.5 

31.75 

28. 

103.5 
29.5 
27.5 
59. 
37.75 
98.5 

100. 
99. 

108. 
53.3 



Strength of Materials. 



(These t«l>lo(i are niiule op. with the exception of tlioRe ninterialH marked *, from the reRiilt« 
obtained bjr axperimento made, by direction of the Ordnance Department, by Captain T. i. 
ItiNliiian.) 



Aah. 



Birch 

B«M.. 



Ohio 

I'enoiylvania 

Canaila 

New York 

Vermont. 

Virginia 

Oregon - 

Kngland 

M«ino 



Box 

ItnlinofOlloail 

Beei'li ' Canitda. 

New llampahire.. 



Oanaila , 
Africa... 
Orejpm . 



Che«tnut . 



CTprl^«• .... 

Ciieriy 

Cedai-. re<l. 
I>i>KW(M<d... 
Elm 



Fir, yellow.. 



" red 

" wliitc ... 
Gum. black.. 
Uickury 



white 



Knchiiiil . 
Maw>H<-iiiiiiett8 . 

.New York 

Alabama. 

Pennvylvania .. 

Oregun 

Virginia 

Maa«arhuBett« 



Or*gun . 



Holly 

Hemlock \ Oregon 



Alabama. 

Ohiu 

North Carolina 

Kasteru Virginia. 

Ma<ipu:hiuett« 

New York 

Maaaachiisetts 

Alabama. 

Virginia 



llHi'kiiiatack 
Lipmim-viljp 

LlH'll!i| 

Mah<>)^ny .. , 
Maple 



Oak. whit« 



Maine. 

South America 

I'ennsylvania 

St. Domiogu 

Canada 

Maine 

Oregon 

New England 

Western New York... 

Ohia 

Monongahela River.. 

Ohio 

New Y^ork 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 



paatnre. 



Time of 

8eaA«)n- 

ing. 



Years. 
16 
3 
» 
7 
2 
1 
1 

4 
12 
9 
6 
1 
U 
8 

"s 

6 
2 
o 

4 

1 

43 

1 

1 

2 

2 

2 

1 
13 

3 

1 



Ppocific 
gravity. 



.61720 

Mila 
.73874 
.flioa 

.(TflUS 



.IKM18 
..VriVl 
/4^22» 
.80076 
.4<VJ70 
.n7a46 
.734W 

.64403 
.4*870 
-'>5-Vj7 
..'.-871 
.37601 
.80263 

.■iJos 

.77464 
.«»*74 
.66803 
4«1«4 
.40800 
.01610 
.84227 
.82624 
.06630 
.87401 
.72046 
.00161 
.00384 
.01088 
.64102 
.46.118 
.5t>S»76 
1.26760 
.82612 
.70300 
.68060 
.73620 
.40128 
.74082 
.76566 
.00540 
.74016 
.64642 
.63212 
.72048 
.88200 
.83364 
.80126 



Crush- 


Tensile 


Trana- 


ing force 


strength 


rusist- 


per 
square 


|wr 
square 


ance. 


inch. 


inch. 


*-iS- 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lb«. 


8,783 


24U33 


Z118 


4.476 


14.200 


1.4«e 


.^ '"' 


1 ' '-Wl 




4 




2.ii«4 


b i..,.! 


_.. i".7 


1 .'>28 


6 7Mt 


I4.7<>0 


1.438 


M iis:i 


17 (Kill 


168 






2.196 
l.'.tlS 


4 






Ui.;.i.i 


-iMUt 




6.811 


12,033 


2.240 


6:w» 


14WI0 




f. • 




2.203 

I'JO 

1.025 


6.111 


1 1 v.d 




8.402 


17.707 


1.011 


f.ll'' 
V 


1 •: T.IO 


U15 

2M 

1.7M 

2,0M 

i',>*24 
1200 
1,138 
OM 
1481 
2 727 

;;;;■■ 
2000 

2.76* 
2.886 


11 




2.808 
3..')02 


^ _ , 


_ ■ .7 


664 


6.(>1T 


j IbJMZ 


1.202 
UIO 


« ...',4 


1(, (MMI 


2080 
2.413 


• 




1,600 


St.Jl 


1\.-M 


1.029 


4 44:', 


liJ.400 


073 


' 


'•'. 


1,830 
1,876 
l,4.<i0 

2,(.3« 
2,800 


• 




1.778 
2.420 
2.443 
l.OM 


li..-.. 


i-i.JM 


2,286 



Strength of Materials — Continued. 



Material. 



Locality. 



Time of ! <;„„„■<-„ 
Season- 1 ^Pf^^'^lf 



Crush- I Tensile 
ing force, strength 



per 
square 
inch. 



per 
square 
inch. 



Oak, whit* 



yellow, 
live .... 



Pine, pitch . 
" white. 



'• yellow.. 



sugar.. 



Poplar 



Kfdwood , 
Spruce .... 



Teak , 

Walnut, black 



*Brass, cast 

♦Brass Wiie 

♦Bronze 

*Ca«t-iron. common pig 

* '■ good com'on 

* " " for guns 

* " " in bars, 
♦Bar-iron 

* ■• Salisbury 

* " Swedish 

*Copper, cast 

* " bolts 

* "' wire 

♦Cast-steel 

♦Shear-steel 

♦Puddled steel 

♦Gold, cast 

♦Silver, cast 

♦Platinum wire 

♦Tin. cast 

♦Zinc 

♦Lead, cast 

♦Brick 

Granite 



Canada 

Connecticut 



North Carolina.... 

Alabama. 

Virginia 

Oregon 

James River, Va.. 

Kngland 

New Hampshire.. 
Alabama 



North Carolina 

Alleghany Uiver, Pa., 

New York 

Maine , 

Florida 

North Carolina, , 

Alabama. 

Virginia , 

Nevada Co., Cal 

Humboldt Co.. Cal.... 

Ohio 

New York 

Virginia 

California 

M.aine 

Oregon 

East Indies 

Western States 

Virginia 

Michigan 

Canada 

England 



Rockfort, Mass . 



Years. 

9 
U 
IS 

8 

2 

1 

1 
13 

13 
3 

3 

4 

.■) 

13 



.66656 
.76118 
.81948 
.77402 
.7.'5nr.7 
.77058 
.S0996 
.78237 
.932 
.71132 
1.02171 
1.1037 
1.0801 
.41926 
.40064 
.35953 
.67212 
.63002 
.52843 
.62795 



.49802 
.47720 
.43233 
.38659 
.44416 
.43085 
.90057 
.52932 
.64917 
.59187 
.52370 



8.396 



8.700 
7.000 
7.180 
7.280 
7.320 
7.855 



8.712 

8.878 



19.258 
10.476 
22.069 
7.291 
6.801 
11.352 



Lbs. 
6.000 
5,199 
7.089 
6.f,50 
5.744 
6 {(02 
6.072 
6.667 
10.058 
6.279 
6,.531 
7.279 
8.947 
5.017 
5.775 
.5.017 
8..'550 
7.836 
8.201 
7,867 



5.742 
6.075 
6.579 
0.083 
6.862 
5,092 

10.819 
7.471 
7.500 
5.782 
5.989 
7.227 

10.300 



105.000 
1.30.000 
40.000 



2.645 



3,500 to 

13.000 

15.300 



Lbs. 
16,646 
13,333 
21.000 
21.100 
18.307 
19,033 
18,467 
25.222 
15,000 
25.000 
1 0.383 
15.800 
11.400 
11.433 
11,933 
11.960 
18.000 
12.600 
17,946 
19.200 



14.933 

9,066 

8.200 

10.833 

13.666 

10.867 

30,800 

16,633 

16,300 

17.580 

16.133 

8,130 

18,000 

49.000 

42,000 

15,000 

20,000 

32,000 

34.000 

57,000 

66.000 

72 000 

24.138 

33,000 

60,000 

128,000 

124.000 

lO.'i.OOO 

20.000 

40,000 

56,000 

4.800 

7,500 

1,800 



578 



416 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Strength of Material. 

KIIKAItrNC 

Anglo formed by fhcar lila<lf.<, 3 degree*. 
Hktet Metal*. 



IBOI. 



Ooma. 



BrUL, PUDMO. 



Thlckii«M.| PraMure. IJTblcknaM.I Prewnre. |jThickn«NM.| PreMore. ThkkoaM.I ^PrMMir*. 




144,000 
53.440 
39,150 
25,970 
15,715 
10,390 
4,200 
2,180 



In. 
.297 
.238 
.204 
.150 
.09 
.064 
.05 
.02 



LiM. 

11,196 
6.U07 
4,820 
3,676 
2,200 
1,006 
552 
113 



In. 


LlM. 


In. 


.05 


540 


.24 


.042 


423 


.24 


.035 


.333 




.025 


220 




.024 


200 





14.020t 
U,980i 



• The riiU<-i-» were parallel; tbt bar 3 inchc* wide. t With oil. J WUboat oJI. 



BolU. 





IMV. 


II OorrBft. II Bum. 


IManteier. 


PrcMiirs. 

Lba. 
85,410 

30.707 
24.057 
19,688 


Diameter. 


Pr««aure. 

Lba. 
18,970 / 

10.593 

5.543 
3,093 


1 Diameter. 


PrMMm. 


Diamater. 

III. 
1.110 
.905 
.779 
.648 


PfMrnrs. 


In. 
l.US 

1.040 
.945 
.812 


la. 
.••7 

.585 
.447 
.320 


' .943 

' .906 
.775 
.635 


Uia. 
18,460 

1.3.872 
11,310 1 

8.218 1 


Lba. 

29,790 
22,386 
17.976 
11,648 



PVHCBINO. 



Diamr- 
t«r of 
pnncb. 



In. 

1.5 

i.;?75 

1.25 
1.0 

.9 

8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.8 

.2 





Pussimn. 


Thick- 








neat of 
aheet 


Bran i 


Ci»pper, 


In«. 


06 itich 


.16 inch 


.105 inch, 




thirk. 


thick. 


thick. { 




Lbs. ' 


Lb«. 


Lba. 


In. 


8,475 ' 


15.996 


23.273 


.3 


7.723 


14.570 


21.445 


.205 


O.'.OO 


i;?.275 


19.682 


.150 


5.4JU , 


11,073 


lt),535 1 


.100 


5,092 ' 


9,788 


14.778 1 


.... 


4,332 


S.5S0 


12.602 


.050 


3.772 


7.S27 


11.46S 


.045 


3.267 


6.706 


9.772 1 


.041 


2,635 


; 5.507 


7.916 ' 


.034 


2,183 


1 4.585 


6.660 1 


.032 


1,673 


3,435 


4,970 j 


.028 


1,110 


2,240 


3,333 1 


.022 



PKUaUBM. 

CIrc. bole 1 in. diam. 



Copper. 

Lbs. 

21,248 

15.542 

11.088 

7,461 

3,646 
3,362 

2,538 
2,212 

1.5U 



Lb*. 



5,448 
4,997 
3.730 
3,540 
2.964 
2,448 



lara. 



Thick. 



In. 
.615 
.565 
.510 
.445 
.404 
.858 
.283 
.245 
.183 
.145 
.104 
.057 



Praaeara, 
Circ'r hol« 
1 in.dt— . 

Lba. 

82.871 
76,962 
69,984 
62,591 
67,6t3 
51.883 
40,486 
35,712 
27.978 
22,213 
16.533 
9,452 



THICKNESS FOR CAST-IRON WATER PIPES. 



417 



Iron-Wire Rope and Hempen Cable. 

(Wire rope by J. E. Roebling.) 





Circumference of Wire 


Breaking weiRht in 


Circumference of Hemp 


Trade Number. 


Rope. 


tons of two thousand 


Rope of equal 


\ 


pounds. 


strength. 




Inches. 


Tons. 


Inches. 


1 


6.62 


74. 


15.5 


2 


6.20 


65. 


14.5 


3 


5.44 


54. 


13. 


4 


4.90 


43.6 


12. 


6 


4.50 


35. 


10.75 


6 


3.91 


27.2 


9.5 


7 


3.36 


20.2 


8. 


8 


2.98 


16. 


7. 


9 


2.56 


11.4 


6. 


10 


2.45 


8.64 


5. 


11 


4.45 


36. 


10.75 


12 


4.00 


30. 


10. 


13 


.3.63 


25. 


9.5 


U 


3.26 


20. 


8.25 


15 


2.98 


16. 


7.25 


16 


2.68 


12.3 


6.25 


17 


2.40 


8.8 


5.5 


18 


2.12 


7.6 


5. 


19 


1.9 


5.8 


4.75 


20 


].63 


4.09 


4. 


21 


1.53 


2.83 


3.3 


22 


1.31 


2.13 


2.80 


23 


1.23 


1.65 


2.46 


24 


1.11 


1.38 


2.2 


25 


0.94 


1.03 


2.04 


26 


0.88 


0.81 


1.75 


27 


0.78 


0.56 


1.50 



Thickness for Cast-Iron Water- Pipes. 

Let P=:the pressure in pounds per square inch on the inner surface of gige;, 

Z) = the interior diameter; 

T= the thickness of pipe, in inches ; 

a = the thickness necessary to insure good casting: 



27 



DP 

Then T=a-\ 

10,000 



418 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



The values of a are aa fullow : 

For pipes less than 12 inches in diameter, a = 0.375 inch. 

from 12 to 30 " " a =0.5 " 

" " 30 to 48 " " fi = 0.625 •' 

" " 48 to 70 " " a = 0.75 " 

" " 70 to 100 " " a = 0.875 " 

Thickness to give to Water and Steam-Pipes. 





e = 0.00086 « f/ 4- o.oo?,n 
, = 0.0(I23S II ,i -\. 0.3:5465 
f = 0.001 4S n ,/ -|- 0.1 J74>< 
f = 0.00242 1. ./ 4- 0.1 9<>^'' 
e = 0.00620 n d 4- 0.1574S 
e = 0.03230 *d+ 1.06301 


(/, interior dinmeior in inches ; 


<'a8t-ir<iit 

WrouRht-copper . 
licad 


', tbiikiiiKS of the pipe ; 

ri, Diini)>t'r of almmphcrcn correspond- 

iiijf to the interior pressure per 

square inch. 


Wood 







Strength of Colujnn.<<. 

When the length of the column i!< from 30 to 90 times its diameter, bii<1 it jield^ 
rholly hy bendin;;, Mr. Iludgkitiiiun deduces tiic following furmulir : 
H' := the lireaking weight, in tone of 2,000 poundn: 
A = the leugth of the column, in feet: 
Z) ^ the diameter of the exteri<ir, in inchei' : 
d = '* " interior, " 



Nature of column. 



Both ends being rounded. th<> Both eodii being flat, the length 
length of the culuun esceed-l uf the culumn exceedin( 30 
Ing 16 timea its diameter. | time* its diameter. 



Solid cylindrical columo ) i j^ . . , 

of ca.«t-iron j' 

Hollow cylindrical col-).™. 

umn of cast-iron .... j ' ^ 

Solid cylindrical column 1 

of wrought-iron J 1 *' ^ •iT.S 

Solid square pillar of) 
Dantzic oak (dry) . . . . j 

Solid square pillar of) | 
red cedar (dry) j ] 




ir=4».4-,- 

/A»— d»-»» 
H'=49.6 — 



W= 149.7 



H'=12.2-^Y 



W = 8.7 




When the columns arc shorter t%an those giren in the tablet:, the ritrength may 
be determined by the following : 



STRENGTH OF COLUMNS. 419 

Let fc =: the breaking weight, as computed by the formula above : o =: the crush- 
ing weight of the material : 

Then, Tr=-Af_. 
l> + Ic 
The strength of similar columns is nearly as the area of the cross section. 

Transverse Strength. 

^=tho weight, in pounds, required to break a beam 1 inch square and 1 inch 
long, fixed at one end and loaded at the other ; b = the breadth ; d = the depth ; 
i = the length, in inches, of any other beam of the same material; and >r=:the 
weight which will cause it to break, neglecting the weight of the beam itself. 

1. If the heam be supported at one end and loaded at the other; 

6rf' 
W=S—--. 

2. //■ the beam be supported at one end and the load distributed over its whole 
length : 

S. 1/ the beam be supported at both ends and loaded in the middle: 

bd^ 

4. 1/ the beam be supported at both ends and loaded uniformly over its whole 
length : 

hd'' 



W=S S- 



l 

b. If the beam be supported at both ends and loaded at the distance ux from o7ie end: 

Ibd"^ 



W=S- 



\{l — m) 
6. If the beam beji-xed at both ends and loaded uni/ormli/ over its whole length: 

In practice, about one half of these values should be used in computing the 
strain to which a beam should be subjected. 

Deflection of Rectangular Beams. 

Let b ^ the breadth, d = the depth, and « =: the deflection, in inches. 
W= the weight, in pounds; Z =the length of span, in feet. 
C= a coeflScient, different for different materials. 
1. For a beam fixed at one end and loaded at the other : 



420 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

2. n«nm firrd al onf end and uniformly landed: 

b d* 

3. Beam tupporfed at holh endt and loaded in the centre : 

w /s 

'« bd* 

4. Beam lupported at loth tndi and %iniformly loaded : 

For wrought iron, the raluc of r= .0002 to .0003 
" OMt Iron, " C= .00037 to .000 

«• whit* pine or beech, " r=.0048. 

•« aah, " r=.004. 

9-iDrh beatn, X'bape (Cooper dk Hewitt), 18 feet hetwocn bearingi, weight per 
running fuot .^4 i>ound», with a weight of 16,864 pouodj at centre, deflected, after 
14 hour», I.'JK6 inch. 

inch beatn, I-ahape (Phcenix Iron Co.), 21 feet between bearings, weight per 
running fuut 32>4 pounds, .with a weight of 4,865 pound* at centre, deflected 0.50:) 
inch; with a weight of 10,i'I6 poundii, deflected 1.184 inch. 



Resistance to Torsion. 

S^ the weight, in pounds, required to break, by twigting, a »oUd cjlinder 1 inch 
diameter, the weight acting at the distanoe of 1 inch frutn the axia of the cylinder; 
d = the diameter, in inches, of any other cylinder of the same material ; r = the 
distance from its axia to the point where the breaking-weight, H', is applied : then, 

r 



For hollow cylinderB : M — S 



Dr 

Theoretical formula of Lieut, (now Captain) Rodman, Tori6od by Major Wade's 
experiments. 

D =: the exterior, and d ^ the interior, diameter of the cylinder in inches. 

Values of S. 

Begins to set. Begins to set. 

... ( 3.600 I „ I 2,300 

Wrought iron.. jy.(,() | Bronze ^^'^^^ 



SPECIFIC GRAVITIES OF FLUIDS. 



421 



Relative torsional strength of cast-iron shafts of different forms, having equal areas 

of cross sections. 
(From Major Wade's experiments on dhafts whose cross-secf ions were 1. 2, and 3 square inches.) 



Solid cylinder. 


Solid square. 


Hollow cylinders, whose interior and exterior diameters 
are in the proportion of 




4 to 10. 


6 to 10. 


8 to 10. 


7 to 10. 


8 to 10. 


1.0000 


0.8750 


1.2656 


1.4433 


1.7000 


2.0864 


2.7377 



Specific Gravities of Fluids. 



Liquids. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Klastic Fluids. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Acid, nitric 

" sulphuric 

" acetic 

" hydrochloric 

Alcohol, absolute 

Ether, sulphuric 

Oil, linseed 

" olive 

" essential, of turpentine 

" whale 

" proof spirit 

Turpentine, liquid 

Vinegar 

Water, distilled 

" sea 

" Dead Sea 

Wine 



1.217 

1.841 

1.062 

1.200 

.792 

.715 

.940 

.915 

.870 

.92.'? 

.925 

.991 

1.080 

1.000 

1.026 

1.240 

.992 



Air, atmospheric 

Ammnniacal gas 

Nitrogen 

Carbonic acid 

Carburetted hydrogen 

Chlorine 

Chloro-carbonic 

Hydrogen ■ 

O.xygen 

Phosphuretted hydrogen . . . 

Sulphuretted hydrogen. . . . . 

Sulphurous acid 

Vapor of alcohol 

" spirits of turpentine 
" sulphuric ether .... , 
" water 

Steam at 212° 



1.000 

.597 

.972 
1.524 

.555 
2.470 
3.389 

.070 
1.104 

.870 
1.777 
2.120 
1.613 
5.013 
2.586 

.623 

.488 



The weight of dry atmospheric air at the temperature of 32°, the barometer 
being at 30 inches, is l-770th of that of distilled water. 

The weight of a cubic foot of distilled water at the maximum density being nearly 
1,000 ounces avoirdupois, the specific gravity of a solid or liquid body expresses 
the weight of a cubic foot, in ounces ; therefore the weight of such a body in 
ounces will be found by multiplying its contents in cubic feet by its specific gravity. 

According to Mr. Hassler's comparisons, the weight of a cubic foot of water at 
its maximum density, the barometer being at 30 inches, is 998.068 ounces. 

According to the British imperial standards, the weight of a cubic foot of water 
at 62°, the barometer being at 30 inches, is 997.136 ounces ; this would give for the 
cubic foot of water, at the maximum density, 998.224 ounces. 



422 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

JfyJrojneter. 

The hydrometer rnnnisUi of a copper hulb, in one piece, without »cain ; a $oi%d 
itm% of brMi, dcrpwcd into the bottom of the bulb, with « weight at iu lower 
•itrcn)itv ; n hrnf irirr hamlh, attached to the iipj'er i^urface of the bulb ; 1 fM>r- 
tt'ral iniifx-ttrm, nl«el, .071 inch diameter, inserted into the middle point of the 
handle ; a trriphi-pnn, with a coniral »ockct on it« under !«idc, rcit* on the upper 
end of the r\rm : i lilrer wiret, two attached to the handle and two t« the Rtem, 
their point* turned toward each other. The whole lUTtro-gildi-d. Wngkf of dif- 
ferent »i»ei. from llOth of a grain to 5.000 priiinH. 

IHrneuaioM: — Bulb, 8 inchen high, 7.5 inched diameter : 03 inch thick. Diatanoe 
from the bottom of the bulb to the wcij^hing-pan, 21 inchea. 

Wfigkt:—0( bulb, about 15.850 grainn ; of luwer itvm and ball, 30..'i30 graiof i 
pan, 060 grainii ; whole hjdrometer. 36,8.')0'grain*. 

The maximum buoyancy of the hydromcU-r ii U.600 grains, and may be reduced 
one-half by i>Ucing the adjunting-weightu over the ball at the bottom of the vten. 
This <« found convenient in weighing rmall lampleH, to avoid plating numerona 
waightJ on the pan. One inch of the in<lex-»tem dinplaeei one grain of water. 
The pointi of the .silver wiren arc placed .1 and .3 inch apart, reipe<>tiTely, and are 
•loped to .1 inch from the point. For more full deUil* of ita conftruction, m« 
Reporlh of KxperimenU> on Metalu for Cannon, by Ordnance OAcTra. 

The instrument ii< at its lero when one of the pointu of the »et of wire* nearaat 
eaeh other is above, and the other below the surface of the water: when either 
touches the water, the load is 1-lOth of a grain too light or heavy. If either o( 
the two points which are more distant from the lero touch the surfaoe of the water, 
the load is too heavy or too light by S-lOths of a grain; if the heel of either of 
these parts touch llie surface, the error is 4-10lh» of a grain. 

The water for the hydrometer is contained in a glaas jar 25 inches deep and not 
less than 12 inches in diameter. The height of the water in the jar should be such 
that when the bottom of the hydrometer descends to the bottom of the jar the 
weight pan shall be one-quarU-r of an inch above the surface of the water. 

A thermometer divided into degrees and quarters of a degree is mspended in the 
water while wcij;hing samples, and the temperature is noted at each weighing. 

To UsK THK HrDROMETKR. — Load the pan with the grain-weights until the in- 
strument rests at its lero : note the weight required. Place the sample on the pan ; 
add weights until the hydrometer sinks to its zero ; the difference between this and 
the first wcijrht is the weight of the sample in the air. Place the sample on the 
bulb of the instrument; immerse both until the hydrometer again rests at lero ; 
note the weight on the pan. Subtract this weight from the weight of the sample 
in the air, and the difference will be equal to the weight of water displaoed by the 
sample. 



WEIGHT AND STRENGTH OF IRON CHAINS. 



423 



Divide this last weight hy the number in the tahle, page 478, corresponding to 
the temperature of the water at the time of weighing, and the quotient will give 
the corrected displacement for the temperature of fiU°. The weight of the sample 
in the air divided by the corrected displacement, gives the density of the sample. 

Rain or river water may be used instead of distilled water, if its relative density 
first be determined accurately and the proper correction be made. 

The density of the same water at different degrees of temperature may be deter- 
mined in like manner. The weight of water which the hydrometer displaces at any 
other temperature than 60°, divided by its displacement in the same water at 60°, 
gives the proportionate weights of water displaced by the same instrument at other 
temperatures. 

The table on page 478 docs not give the absolute density of water at different 
temperatures, but only the proportionate weights displaced by the same glass bulb. 
The varying bulk of the latter in different temperatures is not taken into account, 
as it compensates very nearly for the varying bulk of the metals weighed in cor- 
responding temperatures. 

Beaurnes Areotneter. 



BoauuiS. 


Specific 
gravity.* 


Beaum^. 


Specific 

gravity.* 


Beanm^. 


Specific 
gravity.* 


46 
40 
36 
33 
31 


.796 
.815 

.833 
.848 
.863 


28 j .876 
26 1 .889 
24 1 .901 
21 1 .923 
19 1 .9.33 


18 
17 
16 
15 
14 


.942 
.951 
.958 
.964 
•970 



* At the temperature of 60°. 



Weight and Strength of Iron Chains. 



Diameter of 


Weiglit of 






Diameter of 


Weight of 






iron for the 


1 foot of 








1 foot of 


Breaking- 


Proof- 


links. 


chain. 


weight. 


weight. 


linkx. 


chain. 


weight. 


weight. 


In. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


In. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


n.l875 


0.325 


2,240 


948 


! 0.625 


4.217 


26,880 


10,.304 


0.25 


0.65 


4,256 


1.680 


0.6875 


4.8.33 


32,704 


12,544 


0.3125 


0.967 


6,720 


2,464 


0.75 


5.75 


38,752 


15,232 


0.375 


1.383 


9,63J 


3,584 


0.8125 


6.667 


45,696 


17,696 


0.4375 


1.767 


13,216 


5,152 


0.875 


7.5 


51,744 


20,384 


0.5 


2.633 


17,248 


6,720 


0.9375 


9.333 


58,464 


23,520 


0.6625 


3.333 


21,728 


8,512 


1. 


10.817 


65,632 


26,880 



424 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Weight of One Foot in length of Flat and Square Bar- Iron* 



WMth. 


Thickn«M. 


Weight. 


j Width. 


ThickneM. 


Weight. 


' Width. 


ThirkncM. 


W«i(lit. 


In. 


In. 


u. 


In. 


In. 


Lbs. 


In. 


In. 


Um. 


O.SS 


0.X5 


0.21 


1.375 


0.625 


2.88 


S. 


0.876 


S.6S 


O.S 


0.3 


0.30 


" 


0.75 


3.46 


« 


0.5 


8.80 


O.S7» 


0.375 


0.47 


« 


0.875 


4.04 


" 


0.625 


4.20 


0.6 


0.125 


0.21 


« 


1. 


4.62 


<< 


0.75 


5.04 


« 


0.1876 


0.81 


« 


1.125 


5.19 


« 


0.875 


6.88 


<i 


0.25 


0.42 


« 


. 1.25 


5.77 


" 


1. 


6.7S 


« 


0.876 


0.63 


« 


1.375 


6,35 


<i 


1.125 


7.M 


« 


0.5 


0.S4 


1.5 


0.125 


0.6.'{ 


« 


1.25 


8.40 


0.6S5 


. 62.S 


i.:m 


« 


0.1875 


0.94 


« 


l..'J75 


0.14 


0.76 


0.125 


o.:ii 


« 


0.25 


1.26 


t< 


1.6 


lO.N 


i( 


0.1875 


0.47 


« 


0«876 


1.89 


« 


1.75 


11. 7« 


i( 


0.25 


0.63 


II 


0.5 


2.52 


•< 


3. 


18.44 


i< 


0..n5 


0.94 


« 


0.625 


3.15 


2.25 


0.126 


0.94 


« 


0.5 


1.2f. 


II 


0.75 


3.78 


« 


0.1876 


1.41 


i< 


0.625 


1.57 


u 


0.876 


4.41 


« 


0.26 


l.St 


i< 


0.75 


1.8» 


« 


1. 


5.04 


« 


0.87* 


S.8» 


0.875 


0.875 


2.57 


« 


1.125 


5.67 


« 


0.6 


8.78 


1. 


0.125 


0.42 


« 


1.25 


6.. to 


« 


0.026 


4.7S 


« 


0.1875 


0.63 


« 


1.5 


7.56 


u 


0.76 


8.6« 


II 


0.25 


0.84 


1.625 


0.125 


0.68 


i< 


0.876 


O.Ol 


II 


0.375 


1.26 


" 


0.25 


1.36 


i< 


1. 


7.M 


II 


0.5 


1.68 


X 


0.5 


2.73 


<« 


1.125 


8.60 


<i 


0.625 


2.10 


" 


0.75 


4.20 


« 


1.25 


9.45 


X 


0.75 


2.52 


« 


1. 


5.46 


" 


1..S75 


10.30 


« 


0.875 


2.94 1 


« 


1.625 


8.87 


« 


1.5 


11.84 


« 


1. 


3.36 


1.75 


0.125 


0.73 


« 


1.75 


18.22 


1. 125 


1.125 


4.25 


« 


0.1875 


1.10 


« 


2. 


16.12 


1.S6 


0.126 


0.52 


« 


0.25 


1.47 


« 


2.25 


17.01 


« 


0.1875 


0.78 


« 


0.376 


2.20 


2.6 


0.125 


1.06 


M 


0.25 


1.05 


« 


0.6 


2.94 


u 


0.1876 


1.67 


« 


0.375 


1.57 


« 


0.625 


3.67 


t< 


0.25 


2.10 


M 


0.5 


2.10 


« 


0.75 


4.41 


M 


0.376 


8.16 


« 


0.625 


2.62 


« 


0.875 


5.14 


« 


0.6 


4.20 


M 


0.75 


3.15 


(• 


1. 


5.87 


M 


0.626 


6.26 


II 


0.875 


3.67 i 


« 


1.125 


6.60 


•< 


0.75 


6.80 


«< 


1. 


4.20 


« 


1.25 


7.35 


« 


0.876 


7.86 


« 


1.125 


4.72 


« 


1.375 


8.07 


•< 


1. 


8.40 


« 


1.25 ' 


5.25 


« 


1.5 


8.80 


« 


1.125 


f.66 


1.876 


0.125 . 


0.57 1 


« 


1.75 


10.29 


« 


1.25 


10.60 


« 


0.1875 


0.86 i 


1.875 


1.875 


11.81 


« 


1.5 


12.60 


« 


0.25 1 


1.15 1 


2. 


0.125 


0.84 


« 


1.75 


14.70 


M 


0.375 


1.73 1 


" 


0.1875 


1.26 


« 


2. 


16.80 


M 


0.5 1 


2.31 


« 


0.25 


1.68 


" 


2.5 


21.00 



*Tbe above tables are computed for a specific gravity of 7.741. weight of I cubic inch ^ M 
\Xf. : they are about 1 percent, too low for ordinary American iron; thia ia accounted for by the 
fact that our iron i* rolled g«neraUy to/uU dimensiona. 



WEIGHTS OF BAR IRON. 425 

Weight of One Foot of Flat and Square Bar-Iron — Continued. 



Width. 


Thickness. 


Weight 


Width. 


Thickness. 


Weight. 


Width. 


Thickness. 


Weight. 


In. 


In. 


Lbs. 


In. 


In. 


Lbs. 


In. 


In. 


Lbs. 


2.75 


0.125 


1.15 


3.25 


2.5 


27.39 


4. 


1.5 


20.18 


" 


0.1875 


1.73 


'' 


3. 


32.76 


" 


2. 


26.88 


" 


0.25 


2.31 


" 


3.25 


35.50 


" 


2.5 


33.66 


« 


0.375 


3.40 


3.5 


0.125 


1.47 


It 


3. 


40.32 


" 


0.5 


4.62 


" 


0.1875 


2.20 


" 


3.5 


47.04 


11 


0.625 


5.77 


" 


0.25 


2.94 


<i 


4. 


63.76 


« 


0.75 


6.93 


" 


0.375 


4.41 


4.25 


0.125 


1.78 


" 


0.875 


8.08 


It 


0.5 


5.88 


" 


0.25 


3.57 


" 


1. 


9.24 


" 


0.625 


7.35 


It 


0.375 


5.35 


« 


1.125 


10. .39 


" 


0.75 


8.82 


It 


0.5 


7.14 


<< 


1.25 


11.55 


tt 


0.875 


10.29 


i< 


1. 


14.28 


« 


1.5 


13.86 


It 


I. 


11.76 


II 


4.25 


60.69 


" 


2. 


18.48 


It 


1.25 


14.70 


4.5 


0.125 


1.89 


" 


2.5 


23.10 


" 


1.5 


17.64 


" 


0.25 


3.78 


" 


2.75 


25.41 


" 


2. 


23.62 


■ It 


0.375 


5.66 


3. 


0.125 


1.26 


« 


2.5 


29.40 


ti 


0.5 


7.56 


" 


0.1875 


1.89 


" 


3. 


36.28 


It 


1. 


15.12 


" 


0.25 


2.52 


" 


3.5 


41.16 


'< 


4.5 


68.04 


« 


0.375 


3.78 


3.75 


0.125 


1.57 


4.75 


0.125 


2.00 


" 


0.5 


5.04 


" 


0.1875 


2.36 


" 


0.25 


4.00 


" 


0.625 


6.30 


" 


0.25 


3.15 


II 


0.375 


6.00 


it 


0.75 


7.56 


" 


0.375 


4.72 


tt 


0.5 


7.98 


« 


0.875 


8.82 


« 


0.5 


6.30 


It 


1. 


15.96 


<< 


]. 


10.08 


" 


0.625 


7.87 


It 


4.75 


75.81 


« 


1.125 


11.34 


« 


0.75 


9.46 


5. 


0.125 


2.10 


" 


1.25 


12.60 


It 


0.875 


11.02 


II 


0.25 


4.20 


« 


1.5 


15.12 


" 


1. 


12.60 


tt 


0.375 


6.30 


•* 


2. 


20.16 


.1 


1.25 


15.75 


" 


0.5 


8.40 


« 


2.5 


25.20 


" 


1.5 


18.90 


11 


1. 


16.80 


« 


3. 


30.24 


" 


2. 


25.20 


ti 


5. 


84.00 


3.25 


0.125 


1.36 


" 


2.5 


31.50 


5.25 


0.25 


4.41 


" 


0.1875 


2.04 


" 


3. 


37.80 


« 


1. 


17.64 


" 


0.25 


2.73 


It 


3.75 


47.25 


5.5 


0.25 


4.62 


" 


0.375 


4.09 


4. 


0.125 


1.68 


it 


1. 


18.48 


It 


0.5 


5.46 


" 


0.1875 


2.52 


5.75 


0.25 


4.83 


" 


0.625 


6.82 


" 


0.25 


3.36 


" 


1. 


19.32 


t< 


0.75 


8.19 


It 


0.375 


5.04 


6. 


0.25 


5.04 


" 


0.875 


9.65 


" 


0.5 


6.72 


" 


1. 


20.16 


It 


1. 


10.92 


'< 


0.625 


8.40 


" 


6. 


120.96 


It 


1.125 


12.28 


It 


0.75 


10.08 


6.5 


0.25 


5.46 


" 


1.25 


13.65 


" 


0.875 


11.76 


" 


1. 


21.84 


" 


1.5 


16.38 


'< 


1. 


13.44 


It 


6.5 


142.00 


It 


2. 


21.84 


It 


1.25 


16.80 


7. 


7. 


164.64 



436 



OTIBVANCE MANFAL, 



Weight of One Foot in length of Round Bar-Iron. 



DtAOUtM'. 


Wetcht. 


Dtamotar. 


Weight. 


Dikmetcr. 


Weight. 


Dtometer. 


Weight. 

1 


Ifc 


Urn. 


la. 


Um. 


In. 


Lb*. '1 In. 


Urn. 


r**M 


0.069 


1.A25 


6.91 


3.25 


27.65 


, 4.75 


59.06 


#.1 


0.10& 


1.76 


8.01 


3.375 


29.82 


, 4.875 


62.21 


t.t* 


O.lO.'t 


1.875 


9.2 


3.5 


32.07 


1 *• 


65.45 


•.trs 


0.M8 


3. 


10.47 


3.625 


.S4.4 


5.125 


68.76 


• .6 


0.A64 


2.125 


11.82 


3.75 


.-{fi.Sl 


5.25 


72.16 


e.U6 


l.OS 


2.25 


13.25 


i 3.875 


39.31 


5.. 175 


75. 6S 


O.Tft 


1.47 


2.375 


14.76 


i ^■ 


41.89 


5.5 


79.19 


•.trs 


S. 


2.5 


16.36 


1 4.125 


44.54 


5.625 


82.83 


1. 


S.«l 


2.825 


18.03 


4.25 


47.28 


1 5.75 


86.56 


1.1S& 


8. SI 


2.75 


19.79 


4.375 


50.11 


5.875 


90.36 


l.t6 


4.09 


2.875 


21.63 


4.5 


53.01 


6. 


94.25 


I.t75 


4.04 


S. 


23.56 


• 4.625 


56. 


6.185 


100. 


l.» 


*.89 


8.125 


25.56 


1 




1 
1 





Weight of One Square Foot of I'arious Metal> 









WUOHT. 




















Wnmght-Iibo. 


CMt-Iron. 


Coppw. 


Btmi. 


UU. 


In. 


LiM. 


Lb*. 


Uf. 


LIm. 


U-. 


0.0625 


2.5.35 


2.345 


2.S60 


2.738 


.5.693 


0.125 


5.070 


4.690 


5.720 


5.476 


7.386 


0.1875 


7.605 


7.(i:i5 


8.580 


8.214 


11.079 


0.25 


10.140 


9.380 


11.440 


10.952 


14.772 


0.3125 


12.675 


11.725 


14.300 


13.690 


18.465 


0.S75 


15.216 


14.670 


17.1«0 


16.428 


22.158 


0.4375 


17.851 


16.415 


20.020 


19.166 


2J.851 


0.5 


20.280 


18.760 


22.8S0 


21.904 


2y.544 


0.5625 


22.815 


21.105 


25.74P 


24.642 


:',:<.2.17 


0.625 


25.350 


23.450 


28.600 


27.380 


zr,.<i:'At 


0.6875 


27.885 


25.795 


31.640 


30.118 


4(i.f.2:< 


0.75 


:ui.4io 


28.140 


34.320 


32.856 


4i.ni6 


0.8125 


32.945 


30.485 


37.180 


35.694 


4H.009 


0.875 


.•^5.480 


32.880 


40.040 


38.332 


51.702 


0.9375 


.^S.015 


.35.225 


42.900 


41.170 


55.405 


1. 


40.550 


37.570 


45.760 


43.908 


59.098 



WEIGHT OF CAST-IRON PIPES. 



427 



Weight of 1 foot in length of Cast-Iron Pipes of different thickness. 



Diameter 
of Bore. 


^-inch. 


%-inch. 


J^-inch. 


%-inch. 


%-inch. 


%-inch. 


l-inch. 


In. 


Lbs. 


Lb8. 


L))8. 


Lba. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


1 


3.06 


5.06 


7.36 


9.97 


12.89 


16.11 


19.63 


u 


3.68 


5.98 


8.59 


11.51 


14.73 


18.25 


22.09 


n 


4.29 


6.9 


9.82 


13.04 


16.56 


20.4 


24.54 


n 


4.91 


7.83 


11.05 


14.57 


18.41 


22.55 


27. 


2 


5.53 


8.75 


12.27 


16.11 


20.25 


24.7 


29.45 


2i 


6.14 


9.66 


13.5 


17.64 


22.09 


26.84 


31.85 


2i 


6.74 


10.58 


14.72 


19.17 


23.92 


28.93 


34.36 


21 


7.36 


11.5 


15.95 


20.7 


25.71 


31.14 


36.81 


3 


7.98 


12.43 


17.18 


22.19 


27.62 


.33.29 


3J.28 


3i 


8.59 


13.34 


18..35 


23.78 


29.45 


35.44 


41.72 


3i 


9.2 


14.21 


19.64 


25.31 


31.3 


37.58 


44.18 


31 


9.76 


15.19 


20.86 


26.85 


.3.3.13 


39.73 


46.63 


4 


10.44 


16.11 


22.1 


28.38 


34.98 


41.88 


49.1 


4i 


11.1 


17.08 


2.3.37 


29.97 


36.87 


44.08 


51.6 


44 


11.66 


17.94 


24.54 


31.44 


38.65 


46.17 


54. 


4i 


12.27 


18.87 


25.77 


32.98 


40.5 


48.32 


66.45 


5 


12.80 


19.78 


26.99 


34.51 


42.33 


50.46 


59. 


6i 


13.5 


20.71 


28.23 


.36.05 


44.18 


52.62 


61.36 


5i 


14.11 


21.63 


29.45 


37.58 


46.02 


54.76 


63.81 


5i 


14.73 


22.55 


30.68 


39.12 


47.86 


56.91 


66.27 


6 


15.34 


23.47 


31.91 


40.65 


49.7 


59.06 


68.73 


6i 


15.95 


24.39 


33.13 


42.18 


51.54 


61.21 


72. 


6i 


16.57 


25.31 


34.36 


4.3.72 


53.39 


63.36 


73.41 


6f 


17.18 


26.23 


35.59 


45.26 


55.23 


65.28 


76.1 


7 


17.79 


27.15 


36.82 


46.79 


56.84 


67.65 


78.53 


7i 


18.41 


28.08 


38.05 


48.1 


58.91 


69.79 


81. 


7i 


19.03 


29. 


39.05 


49.86 


60.74 


71.95 


83.45 


71 


19.64 


29.69 


40.5 


51.38 


62.59 


74.09 


86. 


8 


20.02 


30.83 


41.71 


52.92 


64.42 


76.23 


88.35 


Si 


20.86 


31.74 


42.95 


54.45 


66.26 


78.38 


90.81 


Si 


21.69 


32.9 


44.4 


56.21 


68.33 


80.76 


93.49 


8J / 


22.09 


33.59 


45.4 


57.52 


69.95 


82.68 


9572 


9 


22.71 


34.52 


46.64 


59.07 


71.8 


84.84 


98.18 


9i 


23.31 


35.43 


47.86 


60.59 


73.63 


86.97 


100.63 


9i 


23.93 


36.36 


49.09 


62.13 


75.47 


89.13 


103.1 


9i 


24.55 


37.28 


50.32 


63.66 


77.32 


91.28 


1 05.54 


10 


25.16 


38.2 


51.54 


65.2 


79.16 


9.3.42 


108. 


lOJ 


25.77 


39.11 


52.77 


66.73 


80.99 


95.57 


110.44 


lOi 


26.38 


40.04 


54. 


68.26 


82.84 


97.71 


113. 


lOJ 


27. 


40.96 


55.22 


69.8 


84.67 


99.86 


115.35 


11 


27.62 


41.88 


56.46 


71.33 


86.52 


102.01 


117.81 


Hi 


28.22 


42.8 


57.67 


72.86 


88.35 


104.15 


120.26 


11^ 


28.84 


43.71 


58.9 


74.39 


90.19 


106.3 


122.71 


HI 


29.45 


44.64 


60.13 


75.93 


92.04 


108.45 


126.18 


12 


30.06 


45.55 


61.35 

1 


77.46 

1 


93.6 

1 


110.6 


127.6 



4:i8 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



(' II A I' T K R Fifteenth 



MISCELLANEOUS INFOKMATION. 



WEKJHTS AND MKASIRKS. 

Measures of Length. 
.The yard ii Uie unit, aad ia the same m the Britiah yard. 



iDcbes. 


WmL 


Tarda. 


Roda or PoIm. 


Fnrloaga. 


MUa. 


11 


I 










SA 


S 


1 








1V8 


l«l 


M 


1 






7.920 


MO 


220 


40 


1 




C3.360 


5.2X0 


1.760 


320 


8 


1 



feel, J 



OuDter'iehaiB. 



For Survtyimg L«md.—7.9i Inehea » 1 link, 

100 Linkii 3= 4 pules, or 22 Tarda, or M 
For Map- Making.— Chminf are often inadi- of 50 linkii, ca<.h 1 fuot in lenfth. 
For MeaiurtHff IIcjjci and Suundiugi. — 1 Fathom = 6 fccL 

1 Cable Icn^'th = 120 fathoma. 
For Mraturing Cloik.—\ Nail = 2J inches z= l-16lh of a yard. 
1 Qunrt*-r ^ 4 nails. 
1 Yard = 4 qu.irlcr». 
1 Kll Kngliah = 5 quarters. 
For Meaivrintj U,.rfft.— \ Hand ^4 inches. 
O'eographicil .Vf <i.»/f.— 1 Do-ree of a preat circle of the earth ■=69.77 mile*. 

1 OcdjirBphical or nautical mile = l-60th of a dcgrae of 

the earth = 2,025 yards. 
1 Nautical league = .S Miles. 
.S'amtical Mrasurr.—} Mile or Knot ^ 1.1507 mile. 

The inch was formerly divided into three parts, called barley-eomt, and alao into 
twelve parts, called line*, neither of which denominations is now. in eommoB Bse. 
Scales and measuring-rules are generally divided into inchet, ifuartert, eighth* and 
lirteenth* : t.r into invhen and decimal purti : the latter of these divisions is uaed 
in the Ordnance Department. 

Copies of the tttindard yord have been distributed to various part* of the OMio- 
try, for the purpoae of establishing uniformity. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



429 



Measures of Surface. 

Square Meaiurc. — 144 Square in(Aes = 1 square foot. 

9 Square feet = 1 square yard. 
Laud Meanure. — 30J Square yards = 1 square perch or pole. 
40 Perches = 1 rood. 
160 Perches = 4 roods = 1 acre = 10 square chains (Gunter*s) = 

4,840 square yards = 70 yards square, nearly. 
640 Acres = 1 square mile. 
Arcliitect'i and BwUder'$ Jfeanure. — 1 Square = 100 square feet. 

Board Measure. 

The unit of board measure is a superficial foot of a board 1 inch thick. To find 
the number of feet, board ineature, in any piece of timber, multiply the number of 
superficial feet_by the thickness in inches. 

Planks of less thickness than one inch are estimated at one inch. 

Measures of Solidity. 

Cubic or Solid Measure. — 1 Cubic foot = 1,728 cubic inches. 

1 Cubic yard = 46,656 " " = 27 cubic feet. 
3feaauriii(/ Stone. — 1 Perch is usually 24 j cubic feet. 

This varies in different parts of the United States. 
3feaiurin(j Wood. — 1 Cord is a prism 4 feet square and 8 feet long = 128 cubic feet. 

Measures of Capacity. 

Liquid Measure. 
The standard ijallon of the United States is the old wine gallon, which measures 
231 cubic inches, and contains (as determined by Mr. Hassler) 58373 Troy grains, 
or 8.3388822 avoirdupois pounds, of distilled water at the maximum density (39°.83 
Fahr.) ; the barometer being at 30 inches. 



Gills. 


Pints. 


Quarts. 


Gallons. 


4 

8 

32 


1 
2 
8 


1 
4 


1 



A cubic foot contains 7.48 gallons. 

A box 6 X 6 X 6.42 inches contains 1 gallon. 

A box 4 X 4 X 3.61 inches contains 1 quart. 



Dry Measure. 
The standard bushel of the United States is the Winchester bushel, which meas- 
ures 2160.4 cubic inches, and contains 543391.89 Troy grains, or 77.627413 lbs. 
avoirdupois, of distilled water, under the circumstances above stated. 



430 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Pints. 


<tMrto. 


OkllMM. 

• 


P«irk«. 


BiMkata. 


3 


1 








8 


4 


1 






10 


8 


2 


1 




«4 


33 


8 


4 


1 



A cnbic yard containi 21.69 bnibclB. 

A rjlin.i.r 14 in. diain. X H in. .Iccp j ^,.„,^i„, , v,„,hel. 
Or m box 16 X 1«.8 X >* incbcx ) 
A box 12 X 11.2 X 8 inched containK i buchel. 

A box 8 X 8.4 X S incbcd coiitaing I peck. 

N. B —It will be obicrved that the pint, <juiiri. and gallon of drjr mea«are arc not 
til* vame ar> Tor liquid meafurc. 

Measures of \Vei(jht. 

AvuiKiirpois Wkioiit. 
The utandard aroirdttpoit jvmnd of the I'nitcd Slater. aJ" determined bj Mr. 
UaMlcr, ii" the weiichl of 27.7015 cubic inches of di«tilled water wcij;he<l in air at 
th« iemperaUir* of the maximum denaity (39°.83) ; the baromcier being at 30 inehM. 



Drama. 



Oiinoea. 



Posada. 



Qoartara. 



Ovt. 



TMl. 



1« 


1 










256 


16 


1 








7.168 


448 


28 


1 






28.672 


1,792 


112 


4 


1 




573,440 


35,840 


3,340 


80 


30 


1 



Teot Wkiobt. 



Oraina. 



DwL 



34 

480 
5,760 



1 

20 
240 



1 
12 



The pound, ounce, and grain are the $ame in Apothecaries' and Troy weight: in 
the former, the ounce is divided into 8 drachm.^, the drachm into 3 scruples, and 
the scruple into 20 grains. 

7,000 Troy grains = 1 lb. avoirdupois. 
175 Troy pounds = 144 lbs. avoirdupois. 
175 Troj ounces = 192 oz. avoirdupois. 
4371 Troy grains ^ 1 ot. avoirdupois. 



FOREIGN MEASURES AND WEIGHTS. 



431 



Measures of Value. 



Double _ , 
Eagl«. ^"g'"- 



Half- 
Eagle. 



Dollars. 



Three Quarter- t. n 

Dnllnri. Hagle. ^OH**". 



Weight grains 

Deviation allowed " 

Diameter inches 

Thickness '< 



516 i 258 
0.5 I 0.6 
l.n20 1.05 
.076 I .059 



129 

0.5 
.85 
.045 



77.4 
0.75 
.80 
.033 



64.6 
0.25 
.70 
.033 



25.8 
0.25 
.60 
.019 



Dollar. 



Half. Quarter- 
Dollar. Dollar. 



Dime. 



Half- 
Dime. 



Three- Copper 
Cent. Cent. 



Weight grains 412.5 



Deviation allowed 

Diameter inches 

Thickness •' 



1.5 

1.6 
.084 



192. 
1.5 
1.2 
.060 



0.5 
.95 
.050 



38.4 
0.6 



19.2 
0.6 



.024 



11.52 
0.6 
.55 
.018 



72. 
4.0 
.76 
.065 



The 



he standard of gold and silver is 900 parts of pure metal and 100 of alloy in 
1,000 parts of coin. The alloy of gold coin is 25 silver and 75 copper; the alloy 
of silver IS copper. The cent is 88 parts copper and 12 parts nickel in 100 parts. 



.1 ft. 
.1 " 



Dimensions of Drawing Paper 
Cap 

Demy 

Medium j 

Royal 2 

Super royal 2 

Imperial 2 

Elephant 2 

Columbier 2 

A tlas 2 

Theorem o 

Double elephant 3 

Antiquarian a 

A ream of paper is 20 quu-cs of 24 sheets each. 



1 

7i 
10 

3 
5 
31 

n 

9 

10 

4 

4 



foot 4 inches. 
" 3i " 
" 6 " 

" 7 

" 7 

" 9i " 

" lOi 

" 11 

" 2 

" 4 " 

" 2 

" 7 



FOREIGN MEASURES AND WEIGHTS. 

Measures of Length. 

Great B.UTAiN.-The same as those of the United States. (See page 428.) 
The Imperial standard yard of Great Britain, adopted in 1825, is referred to a 
natural standard, which is the distance between the axis of suspension and the 
centre of oscillation of a pendulum which shall vibrate seconds in vacuo, in Lon- 



482 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



don, at the level of the sea : that distance, measured «n a brafs rod, at the temper- 
ature of fi2° Kahr., in declared to be 3y.l.'t93 imjirrinl iurhrt. 

FnAKCE.— iVrir Stfulrm : The metre io the unit, and i.« the ten-millionth part of a 
quadrant of a meridian of the earth, mfacured at the temperature of 32^. The 
multiple* and diviiion* of it arc decimal, vir. : 

1 Metre = 10 decimetres =« 100 centimetres = 1,800 millimctrei. 

1 Metre =»» I'o decametre ■— f ^j hectametre = yOOO kilometre ■- TOoOO 

myriametre. 
1 M<-tr.- = 1 093633 yard ■-> 3.28089» feet = 39.37078 Inche*. 
1 Mftrc => 0.&1317 toite. 
1 Kilometre ^ 0.021383 mile. 

For talile for reducing metrei to inches, see page 470. 
Old Sylrm : 
I Point ^ 0.0074 Eng. inch. 

1 Line — 13 poinU » 0.08884 

1 Inch —12 lines — 1.06i77 

1 Foot — 12 inches — 12.7892 

1 Kll — 4.T in. 10 lines — 46.716 " —1.298 yd, 

1 Toiiie — 6 feel — 76.735 — 2.132 " 

1 Piroh (I'arii) — 18 feet. 
1 Perch (ro.val) =-. 22 " 

1 Lcairuc (common), 2.*) to a degree = 4,S61 yds. =« 2.76 miles. 
1 League (post) — 2,000 toises ^ 4,264 yd». = 2.42 miles. 
1 Fathom (iratie) ^ 6.3.946 inches, or 5i feet Eng., nearly. 
1 Cable length i— 120 fathoms French = lOCJi fathoms English. 
1 Pace {pa$) =— i metre «— 26.5 inches nearly. 

f 1 Foot (/«•») «— 12 «oll = 1.0371 fL = 12.445J inches. 
Ai'smiA. \ 1 Inch (to//) = 12 linie = 144 punkt = 1.0371 inch. 
[ 1 Mile (mriU) = 4.7141 miles. 
1 Rhineland a. (Hheiu/Htt) = 12 toll = 1.0297 fi. =- 12.3564 in. 
1 Inch (toll) ^ 12 linie = 144 scrupel = 10297 inch. 
1 Mile (poit-meile) = 2,000 ruthe = 24.000 Rhein-fuss =—4.68045 

miles. 
The foot is the same as the English foot. 
1 Foot = 12 inches = 120 lines = 1,200 points. 
1 Archine = 2S inches = 2.3333 feel = 1 fooL 
I Sagene = 3 archines ^ 7 feet. 

1 Verst = 500 sagenes = 1,500 archines = 3,500 fL = .6629 miles. 
I 1 Foot = 0.91319 foot = 10.95S2S inches. 

1 Vara = 3 feel = 0.91319 yard = 2.73957 feel. 
■j 1 League = 24,000 feet = 4.1508 miles. 
1 Common league, or 19,800 feet = 3.4245 miles. 



Pbobsia. 



Russia. 



Spaiv. 



FOREIGN MEASURES. 433 

[ 1 Ft. (Turin) = 12 oncia = 144 punto = 1.123r4 ft. = 13.485 in. 
Sakpivia. \ 1 F" 't (Liprando) = 1.68561 ft. 

[ 1 Mile = 1,300 tesa ^ 1.5744 mile. 

Sweden I ^ ^°"* "" 0.97144 foot == 11.6573 inches. 

" ■ I 1 Mile = 6.6235 miles. 

Ti'RKEY I ^ P'c = 0.T3173 yard = 2.19519 feet. 

1 1 Berri = 1.0358 mile. 

( 1 Cliik mathematical = 13.125 inches = 1.093 foot. 

I 1 Chik commercial = 14.7625 inches = 1.2302 foot. 

China. j j l; = 608.608 yards = .3458 mile. 

I 1 To = 69.1797 miles. 

Havana | ^ ^""^ ^ 0.92741 foot = 11.129 inches. 
■ I 1 Vara = 0.92741 yard — 2.78223 feet. 

j- 1 Foot = .91578 foot = 10.989 inches. 
Mexico. -(' 1 Vara = 0.91578 yard == 2.74735 feet = 32.9682 inches. 

[l League (common) = 2.594 miles. 

Measures of Surface. 

Great Britain. — The same as tho.se used in the United States. 

f 1 Square inch = 1.13587 .-quare inch. 
YnAycE.— Old Syxtem. { 1 Arpent (Paris) = 4.089 square yds. = .8449 acre. 

[ 1 Arpent (ordinary) = 1.0457 acre. 
New System. P are = 100 square metres = 119.603 square yards. 

I 1 hectare = 10 decares = 100 ares = 2.4711 acres. 
Austria. — 1 J<ich or Jochart = 1.4223 acre. 
Prussia. — 1 Morgen = 0.6309 acre. 
Spain.— 1 Fanigada = 1.5871 acre. 

Measures of Solidity. 

Great Britain.— The same as tho.«e used in the United States. 
France.- OW%»rem. f ^ ''"b'" ''^«1' = 1-2106 cubic inch. 

I 1 cubic foot = 2091.85 inches = 1.2105 foot. 

f 1 cubic decimetre = 61.0271 cubic inches. 
New System. \ 1 stere = 1 cubic metre =35.3166 cubic ft. = 1.308 

[ cubic yard. 

Measures of Capacity. 

Great Britain.— The British imperial gallon measures 277.274 cubic inches, 
containing 10 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water weighed in air at the tempera- 
ture of 62°, the barometer being at 30 inches. The same measure is used for 
liquids as for dry goods which are not measured by heaped measure ; for the lat- 
ter, the bushel is to be heaped in the form of a cone not less than 6 inches high, the 
28 



49|l OBlt.NANCE MANUAL. 

IxiFc bring IP^ inohci. Tbo old dutinctions of wine mcaaure, ale nn<I ^-qit meM- 

urc, «n'l <lr_v mpniiurc, arc difcontinucil. 

1 (iailon =— 1 2(i0rt jtallon = 277. 274 cuhic inches, 

,. (1 Hui>l)cl == 1.0318 bui-bcl = 1.25*3(5 cubic ft. 

torgratn. < 

I 1 Load s= 5 quartcra ^ 40 bu.'-liul)' =» 51.;i47 cubic fcct- 

., , ( 1 Sack "— .S bunlicl* =» 3.0944 bunhcU. 

r or coal. < 

( 1 Chaldron =— 12 nacki =» 36 bushel* =» 58. CS cubic fe«L 

For limher.—\ Load — 40 cubic feet. 

il Litre »— 1.057 quart = 61.0271 cubic imhe*. 
1 ]Ic<<l'>lilrc — 10 df-ralilres = 100 litrcH =» 26.418 galioU. 
1 Kilolitre — 10 hect<ditn.-8 = 2S.37^2 buaheU. 
1 Plntc ("Id) -■ .118383 quart. 
( 1 Wine arroba — 4.20304 kuIIods. 
''*"'■ ( 1 Fanoga — 1.51»yi4 bu.htl. 
Mexico.— 1 Fancga -« 1.60307 bui-bcL 
Hava!«a.— 1 Fancga —■ 3.11023 bushel*. 

Mf(tsures of Weight. 

Orbat Britaik. — The MMi« at those used in the I'Ditod Ptates. 

The imperial avoirdupois pound is the weight of 27.7274 cubic inches <>f distilled 
watvr wci)jbcd in air at the temperature of 62° Fahr.; barometer, 30 incber. 

HorttmuHi irrifjhl.—l StOI»e =■ 14 lbs. 
J'ra>TE. — Old Sf/ilrm: 

1 Livre =« 16 onces ■" 1.07.'iO lb. aroirdopois. 

I Once =» S grus *^ 1.0780 ot. avoirdupois. 
a Gros ="72 grains ^ 58.9548 grains Troy. 

II Grain —0.8188 

New SgtUm : The basis of the system of weights is the weight, in vacuo, of a 
!litre, or a cubic decimetre, of distilled water, at the temperature uf 3V°.2 Fakc; 
ioV>u P^rt of this weight is a ./ram/;i»-. the multiples of which are: 1 deca- 
gramme = 10 grammes; I hocU>gr«mme = 100 grammes: 1 kilogramme =« 1,000 
gramme.". The divisions are: 1 decigramme = j'g gramme ; 1 centigramme—" 
TOO gr»«n"i«-"= ^ milligramme = 750O gramme. 
1 Quiuta^l ^ 100 kiUigrammcs. 

1 Millier = 1.000 kilogrammes = 1 ton sea-weight (French). 
1 Kilogramme = 2.204737 pounds avoirdupois. 
1 Grammc-= 15.433159 grains Troy = 0.03528 01. avoirdupoia. 
For table for converting kilogrammes into pounds, see page 477. 

(I Pound = 16 unre ^^ 32 loth = 128 quent = 512 pfennigs 
AtJSTRiA. -i 1.234677 pound. 

■[ 1 Xarch 4 centner = 20 stein == 493.87084 lbs. 



FOREIGN MEASURES. 



435 



32 loth = 12S quentchen = 



fl Pound = 2 mark = 16 un-c 
Prussia. \ 1.03118 lb. 

[ 1 Centner = 110 pfund = 113.44 lb?. 

fl Pound = 12 lana = 32 loth = 96 solotniks = 9 216 doli = 

j .901691 lb. 
Russia. -[ 1 Pood = 40 pounds. 

I 1 Berkowitz = 360.6764 lbs. 

[ 1 Pound is the weight of 25 cubic inches of water. 

r 1 Pound = 16 onza = 128 ochava = 256 adarmc = 768 tomine 
Spain. ^ = 9,216 grano = 1.016097 lb. 

[ 1 Ton == 20 quintal = 80 arroba = 2,000 lbs. = 2,032.2 lbs. 

f 1 Pound = 12 oncia = 96 ottavo = 6125 grano = .896286 lb. 
Sardinia. ■{ I Pound of Turin = .813332 lb. 

[ 1 Rubbio = 25 pounds = 20.3333 lbs. 

Sweden, f ^ ^°""'^ = ^^ ""t'- = 128 qwintin = 8,848 as = .937284 lb. 

( 1 Skcppund (for iron) = 299.93088 lbs. 
Turkey.— 1 Oka = 2.828571 lbs. 

f 1 Pound = 16 leuug = 364 chu = 3,840 lui = .38,400 shu = I.3.333 
China. .j lb. 

[l Shik= 4 kwan = 60 yin = 120 kan = 160 lbs. 
Japan.— 1 Pecul = 100 catty = 1,600 tael = 10,000 mas = 160.000 condorine 
= 130 lbs. 



Equivalents of Ounces in Decimal Fractions of a Pound. 



inces 




Pounds 


1 


= 


.0625 


2 


= 


.125 


3 


= 


.1875 


4 


= 


.25 


5 


= 


.3125 


6 


= 


.375 


7 


= 


.4375 


8 


= 


.5 


9 


= 


.5625 


10 


= 


.625 


11 


= 


.6875 


12 


= 


.75 


13 


= 


•8125 


14 


= 


.875 


15 


= 


.9375 


16 


== 


1.0 



Poundg. 




Ounces 


.1 


= 


1.6 


.2 


= 


.3.2 


.3 


= 


4.8 


.4 


= 


6.4 


.5 


= 


8.0 


.6 


= 


9.6 


.7 


= 


11.2 


.8 


= 


12.8 


.9 


= 


14.4 


1.0 


= 


16.0 



Of 



099MANCK MANUAL. 



Measures of Value. 



ronEION MONKV. — ITS MINT VALUE. 



(InKAT Brit- 
ain 



FltAM<-K 



Al'STBlA. 



I'lU SSIA . 

Kl1s^tIA . . 
Sardihia 

Spain . • 

SWKDKN 

Rom . . 
Mkkioo. 

TlBKKY 

Japan . 

HlMDOSTA 



Gold 



Sih- 



l()uinea^21 shillings 
1 Sovcroign or Pound ^ 

20 thiliinfTA 

( 1 Crown ^6 shilliii>r?. 
j 1 KliillinK = 12 pence. 

Clipper . 1 I'enny 

„ ,, I 100 Francs 

Silver 
Coppe 



Gold 



I 20 Francis 

5 Friincn 

1 Sou 

1 Iiii|H-riaI souvcrain ^ 
1.3florin.H 20 kreut/.cr* 
1 Iin|>critil ilucal = 4 
florinx .'^6 kreut/.crs. . 
I 1 Kix-dullar = 2 flurina 
I 1 Crown = 2 florins 12 

I krculzers 

Silver. ■{ 1 ZvrantiKcr=20kreut- 

ccm 

1 Silver Gro(<chen = 3 

krcutf.erf 

Gi,l<i. .1 Double Frederick = 11 

tbalcrti 10 silver grodclien . . . . 

Sihrr. . 1 Thiiler = 30 silver gro- 

sclien 

G.iltl..] Ini]ierial = 10 roubles. 

SilrerA Kuublo 

Gold. . SO Lires 

Silrer.b Lires 

,-, , , (1 Doubloon or Ounce.. 

^"''^ ' I 100 Reals 

.•^ilrer. 1 Piastre 

Gald.A Ducat 

SilvrrA Specie rix-daler 

Gnld..2^ Scudi 

SilrerA Scudo 

Gold. . 1 Doubloon 

Silrrr.l Piastre of 8 real* 

Gold.AOO Piastres 

._Wrfr.20 Piastres = 800 paras. 

Silver. I Itiebu 

Gold.. I Mohur 

Silver . 1 Rupee 



Dollam. SulMliviHi.iiiii. 

5.059 i, t, } of guinea. 



4 . 848 
l.OS 
0.222 
(1.018 
19.225 
:!.si;, 

o.ouyr.s 



50 franei, 40 franco. 
10 francs, 5 francn. 
I franc ^ 20 sumh. 



6.77 Half, (juarter souvcrains, 

2.28 I 

1.013 Half, or florin. 



1.1138 



0.188 Or 20 krcaUers. 



0.025 

8.00 

0.717 
7.952 
784 
,488 
,968 
.731 
963 
,005 
267 
101 
GO 
047 
534 
,049 
.374 
865 
.37 
.08 
.46 



Single, half. 

i.i.1-12. 1-24, ISO. 
Ilnlf imperial. 
{Half rouble. 
40, 20 lires. 
2, 1, i, i lire. 



Pistarc«D (1-5 of piaxtre). 
i, i ducat, 
i. i. i. 1-16. 



Pieces of 10 and 5 piaJtn*. 



FRENCH AND UNTTED STATES MEASURES. 



437 





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438 ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

PHYSICAL DATA. 
Working Power of Men and Horses. 

Men. — K t'liiit nolilirr travels in 1 minute, 

in common timo, 90 stcpg = 70 yards, 
in quick time, 110 " = 86 " 
in double-quick. ]40 " = 109 " 
He uccu]iie8 in the ranks a front of 20 in., and a depth of 1.3 in., without the kna])- 
sack ; the interval between the ranks is 13 in. b men can stand in a space of 1 
Square yard. Avcrnjre weight of men, 150 lb? each. 

A mnii IravclK, without a load, on level ground, during 8} boon a day, at the rate 
of '.\.7 miles an hour, or 'Mi miles a day. He can carry 111 lbs. II miles in a day. 
A ]>ortcr going short distances and returning unloaded, carries 135 ll>s. 7 miles a 
day. He can carry in a wheelbarrow 150 lbs. 10 miles a <iay. 

The maximum power of n strong mau, e.xcrted for 2} minutes, may be 8tal«d at 
18,000 lbs. raiscMl 1 foot in a minute. — }fr. Field'* ejcperimmtt, 1838. 

.K man of ordinary strength exerts a force of 30 lbs. for 10 hours a day. with u 
velocity of 2i feet in a second = 4,500 lbs. raised 1 foot in a minute = one-ji/tk the 
work of a horse. 

Daily allowance of water f')r a man, 1 gallon, for all purposes. 

Horses. — A hum, travels the distance of 400 yards, at a walk, in 4i minutes; at 
a trot, in 2 minutes ; at a gallop, in 1 minute. 

He occupies in the ranks a front of 40 in., a depth of 10 feet; in a stall, from 3i 
to 4i feet front ; at picket, 3 feet by 9. Average weight of horses, 1.000 lbs. each 

A horso carrying a soldier and his equipments (say 225 lbs.) travels 25 miles in a 
day (8 hours). 

A pack-horte can carry 250 to 300 lbs. 20 miles a day. 

A. draught -korte can draw 1.600 lbs. 23 miles a day — weight of carriage in- 
cluded. 

Artillery horses should not be made to draw more than 700 lbs. each, the weight 
of the carriage included. 

The ordinary work of a horse for 8 hours a day may be stated at 22,500 lbs., 
raised 1 foot in a minute. 

In a kortf-mill, the horse moves at the rate of 3 feet in a second. The diameter 
of the path should not be less than 25 or 30 feet. 

Daily allowance of water for a horse, 4 gallons. 

Ventilation. — A. man exhales ubout § of a cubic foot of carbonic acid in an 
hour, or 15 cubic feet in a day. He produces from the lungs and skin about GOO 
grains of rapor in an hour. 



VELOCITY OP SOUND. 



439 



Air is no longer fit for combustion or respiration when it contains 4 per cent, of 
Its volume of carbonic acid. 

A ventilation of 8 to 9 cubic yards per hour fur each person is in all cases suf- 
ficient. For barracks, a capacity of 13 to 20 cubic yards per man is suflScient; the 
air being renewed in part by the cracks about the windows and by the opening of 
the doors. 

In dormitories the volume of carbonic acid does not exceed three or four thou- 
sandths of the whole space, and the air is not more than J saturated with moisture. 

Table showing the Weigh t and Bulk 0/ 1,000 Rations. 



1.000 Rations. 



Net weight 
in pounds. 



Pork 

Bacon . . . . 
Flour 

Pilot bread 

Beans 

Rice 

CoflFee 

Sugar . . . . 
Vinegar . . 
Candles . . . 

Soap 

Salt 




Gross weiprht 




in pountig. 


Bulk in barrels. 


1218.75 


3.75 


90.3.18fil 


4.9019 


12:^4.0561 


5.7397 


921.6867 


9.031 


1228. 9] 56 


12.048 


177.3187 


0.7142 


114.5 


0.4629 


118.1683 


0.5813 


169.5312 


0.625 


107.5 


0.333 


17.5 


0.0925 


46.8965 


0.1877 


38.6328 


0.1562 



Average weight of 



Foraye. ~l\a,y pressed in bundles, 11 lbs. to the cubic foot, 
bundles, 300 lbs. 

Oats : 32 lbs to the bushel, or 25.71 lbs. to the cubic foot. 
Wheat : 60 lbs. to the bushel, or 48.21 lbs. tq,tbe cubic foot. 
Corn : 56 lbs. to the bushel, or 45.02 lbs. to the cubic foot. 
Fresh grass weighs about 84 lbs. to the cubic yard. 
3 beeves or 15 sheep consume the forage of 2 horses. 

Weight of the Atmosphere. 

Pre»s„re of the fitnwophere on one square inch, the barometer being at 30 in., is 
14.736 lbs.; at 29.922 in., the pressure is 14.7 lbs. 

^ Velocity of Sound. 

At the temperature of 33° the mean velocity of sound is 1092.5 feet in a second. 
It is increased or diminished h,,!/ a foot for each degree of temperature above or 
below 33°. 



440 



ORUNANCK MANl AL. 



Velocity and Force of the Wind. 



▼tMCITT. 


Pr—wirg on 


Conmon dMignAtiooa oftb* •««• of U» wlnda. 


Ul htmt. 


la 1 Mooad. 


1 


m^mmtm firaC 


MUm. 


fMC 




Uw. 






1.47 




W.005 


Hardly perceptible 




4.40 




.1 I 1 


.Fuii| |)«rceptibl«. 




6.87 
7.U 




.123 \ 


Gendr, plcvant wind. 


10 

u 


14.«7 
11.00 




.4V2 
1.107 


I'leajant, briik brv«tc. 


to 
u 


10. S4 

S6.07 




l.S»«H 1 
.'J. 075 \ 


Very brink. 


M 

u 


44.01 
&I.S4 




4.42y 1 
6.027 \ 


High wind. 


40 
4& 


68.08 
60.01 




7.l'7.1 
O.OA.'t 


Very high 


60 


7S.S6 




12.300 


.K itorm of I. ini-cM 


•0 


88.03 




17.714 


A jrrcat ►t.rin. 


M 


117. S6 




S1.4i»0 


.K hurri< hiu-. 


lOO 


140.70 




40.200 


A hurrii-ane that trar* np tn*», earrW bvtld- 
iiiga bclure it, etc. 


Ma 


UcabiUty of 


Mttals. 


Ductility of MctaU. 


1 Gold 




6. 


Platinum. 


1. <;..id. I 4. N 


S. SUve 


r. 


6. 


Ix«d. 


2. .-Silver. 1 6. ' 


S. Copi* 


cr. 


7. 


Zinc. 


3. Platinum. ' 7. Z...-. 


4. Tin. 






8. 


Iron. 


4. Irvn. 8. Tin. 



Electricity. 

RKLATIVB COXDl'CTIKO POWKH OF HBTALI. 



Copper 10.000 

Gold V..HfiO 

Silver T.360 

Zinc 2.S40 

Platinum l-^'^O 



Iron 1,»00 

Tin 1,460 

Lead •«• 

Merrurr 344 

Potassium 1S3 



The conducting power of rod» of the aame metal, of equal diaacter, ia iarafMly 
a; their lengtba. 

The conducting power is increased by lowering the temperaUra, aa4 *i»M»*h<*t 
and finally destroyed, by rawing the temperature. 

The metalf are infinitely better conductor* than any other fubttaaoM. Chareoal 
which ha«> been exposed to a strong heat i« one of the beat coadactora, bat freatJy 
inferior in thit rt efet to iron and platinuBi. 



BOILIXO POINTS OF LIQUIDS. 

Heai. 



441 



THERMOMETERS. 



Fixed PoinU. 


Fahrenheit. 


Reaaniiir. 


Centi grade. 




.",2° 
212° 


0° 
80° 


0° 
lOffo 







y?°x9 

— — + 3i 



For converting degrees of one scale into those of another we have- 
(7°X9 

■A- ?,2° = — 

4 

The zero of Wcdgewood's pyrometer corresponds with 1077° Fahr., and 1° 
Wedgewood is equal to 1.30° Fahr. Hence t'^ = 11° > 130° -f- 1077°. 

Note. — Tlic indications of Wcdgewood's pyrometer are no longer relied on for 
high temperatures. 

Melting Points of Solids. 

3280° is the highest heat attained with an air-furnace. Platinum does not melt 
at this temperature. 

Platinum, jialladium, rhodium, lime, silcx, fine porcelain, can be melted, in small 
quantities, by means of strong lenses, or by the hydro-oxygen blow-pipe. 

Iron red hut, in daylight, 1077° Fahr.; in the dark, 752°. 



Wrought-iron 3,280° 

Cast-iron 2,786 

Gold ; 2,016 

Silver 1.873 

Copper 2,204 

Brass 1.869 

Flint glass 2,377 

Antimony 955.5 

Zinc 775.5 

Saltpetre ; 600 

Lead 644 

Bismuth 500 



Tin 445° 

Lead 2, tin 1 (common solder) 475 

Lead 1, tin 1 393 

Lead 1, tin 2 (soft solder) 360 

Lead 1, tin 1, bismuth 1 272 

Lead 2, tin 3, bismuth 5 212 

Lead 1, tin 1, bismuth 2 200 

Sulphur 228 

(tutta-percha softens 145 

Beeswax 150 

Tallow 127 



Boiling Points of Liquids. ( The Barometer at 30 in.) 



Hydrochloric ether '. . . 52° 

Sulphuric ether 96 

Sulphuret of carbon 118 

Ammonia 140 

AlcoL ol of . 825 175 

Water, and essential oils 212 

Water, saturated with salt 224 

Nitric acid 248 



Spirits of turpentine 314° 

Naphtha 320 

Phosphorus 554 

Sulphur 570 

Sulphuric acid, sp. gr. 1.843 620 

Linseed oil 600 

Whale oil 630 

Mercury 662 



442 



ORDNANCE MANUAL. 



Li<)ui'li' boil at a much lower temperature in vacuo, or under dimininhed pressure 
of the III mo8]. here. At the altituile of about 17,500 feet above the sea, where the 
barometer Htiinds at 16.35 in., water boils at 180°. 

Expansion by Heat. 

Lxnrnr Espnnti;,, of S<.li(h, from S2° lo 212°. 

Roman Cement 0.0nU4 

Marble, Pioilian 0.(mi41 

Currarii O.HOllW 

Sandstone 0. mil 17 

Slate 0.00104 

(iraiiile 0.00080 

flla^.-, flint ' ' 

Hri<-k, clock 

. " fire ' 

Marble, black Oalway (HioiU6 

Oak, dry , O.OOOOrt 



Zinc 0.0029416 

Lead (i.(i02S4S.S 

Tin, refined (I.002172H 

Silver, tine 0.00 1 <J0'J7 

Brase 0.001 S750 

Copper 0.001 71 22 

G oM 0.00 1 5000 

Steel, tempered 0.0012.S'.t5 

Iron, noft. bamniere.l 0.00125S:t 

" cMfl 0.0011111 

Steel, not tempered 0.00107SS 

Platinum 0.0008842 



Antimony 0.001083.3 | 

The exjinnsion in (<urface in expressed by number! double of the above, and the 
expani^ion in volume by In'plr numbers. 

Erpaniion of Fluids in bulk; from 32° lo 212' 



Mercurv 0.01 808 

Water, distilled 0.04330 

Water, saturated with emit 0.05000 

Alc.hol 0.11000 



Suljdiuric acid 0.06882 

Oil (olive and linitced) 0.0K333 

Spirits turpentine 0.071 ».! 

Gases, and air 0.37500 



The rate of expansion of solids and liquids increases with the temperature; that 

of thi' ^a«i.-s is uniform for all temperatures. 

Density of Water. 

(From a report of Prut IL S. McCuUoch to Pruf. A. D. Bache). 



Temp. 


Dentltj. 


Temp. 


Density, 


T«MP. 


DMalty. 


20° 


.99901 


1 

! 50° 


.99975 


M* .MM* 


25 


.«y94» 


55 


.9avt7 


85 .99.081 


30 


.y9<»S4 


60 


.99910 


»0 t .99487 


35 


.yyyyy 


65 


.99s«:i 


»5 .y93H3 


40 


l.MOOUO 


1 70 


.9J807 


100 1 .99270 


45 


.99993 


75 


.9.»741 


Max. density at 39°.«. 



Conduction of Heat. 
T r 

^r= . When 7. the rate of eondi ction, is axprMMd in thermal units p«r 

hour, per square foot of area, and x = the thickness of the layer in inches, T and 



LATENT HEAT. 



443 



T' being tlie temperatures at the two faces, the value of 7, which is equal tn 1 divided 
by the coefiBcient of conductivity, is as follows : 



G old. Platinum, Silver 0.0036 

Copper 0.0040 

Iron 0.0096 

Zinc 0.0099 



Lead 0.019S 

Marble 0.157S 

Brick 0..3306 



Specific Heat between 32° and 80°. 

The number of units of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of each of 
the followinj; substances one degree is as follows: 



Antimony 5077 

Bismuth 30S4 

Charcoal 241.5 

Copper 0951 

Glass 1980 

Gold 0298 

Ice 504 

Iron, wrought 1138 



Lead 0293 

Mereurv 0333 

Platinum 0314 

Silver 0557 

Sulphur 20259 

Spirits turpentine. .4672 

Tin ; 0514 

Zinc 0927 



Water 1.000 

Air 0.23S 

Carbonic acid 0.217 

Hydrogen 3.405 

Nitrogen 0.244 

O.xygen 0.218 

Steam 0.475 



The unit of lient is the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 
lb. of water at its maximum density 1°. 

Specific heats of substances are in the inverse ratio of their atomic weight. 

The specific heat of a substance is called its capacity for heat. The capacity for 
heat increases with the temperature, and diminishes as the density of the body 
increases. Air reduced rapidly to one-fifth of its volume evolves heat enough to 
set fire to tinder. 

Latent Heat. 

In thermal units for one pound : the vapors under a pressure of one atmosphere 
of 14.7 lbs. per square inch. 



Of Fusion. 



Of Evaporatioa. 



Ice 142.65 

Spermaceti 148. 

Beeswax 175. 

Phosphorus 9.06 

Sulphur 16.86 

Tin 500.0 



Water 966.1 

Alcohol 364.3 

Ether 162.8 

Bisulphuret of carbon 1 56.0 



444 



ORDNANCE MANTAL. 



Total Heat of Combustion of different Combustibles ; 

Or, the hfat produced by burning one pound of each inbttitne*. 



8UBSTA?(CC8. 



W.iKlit ..f 

r(irlK)ti In 

piiHliiri' III) 

Hanie heat. 



Urn. or 

water 

erA|M>mt«id 

At -iX-JP. 



t'nIU of 
hMil. 



n y»lr(i>:on pnc 

Carbiin iinpcrfi-i-tly burned, so as to make C O . 

Ciirlxm coiniili'lely )iiiri)L'<1, fo u» to make C O'. 

,..,..,,, , ( fmra. 

« • ( to . . . 

Charcoal from wood 

" from jieat 

Coke, );(>od 

" mi<ldlinf; 

" b«d 

Coal, unthraoite 

" dry bituininou!^ 



caking. 



" eanncl 

Dry long flaming 

Li^rnite 

Puut. dry 

" oontainiii^ 25 jier cunt, of moisture . 
Wood. dry 

" containing 20 per cent, of moisture. 



1.0 

1.46 

0.».1 

O.SO 

0.04 

0.R8 

0.R2 

1.05 

l.OA 

1.025 

1.02 

0.95 

1.075 

1.01 

1.04 

0.91 

O.Sl 

0.66 



0.50 



64.2 
4.55 
15.0 
20. 
22. 
14. 
12. 
14. 

n.3 

12.3 

15.74 

15. V 

15.4 

15.3 

14.25 

16. 

15.15 

15.6 

13.65 

12.15 

10. 

7.25 

7.5 

5.8 



.'!►• 



62.032 

4.400 

14.500 

10.(100 

21 .tn'O 
i:-,. .oil 

II .<-.no 
1 

11 .-'.Ml 

1. ..:;:;:. 
lj..;:u 

I4.H60 
14.790 

v,.:::, 
1. ■..".•;: 
11. '-.J J 

l...n»0 



.7-15 

. l.l'iO 

. HIlO 

..'4J 

.ouu 



The heating power of different kinds of wood (taking equal weighu of wood 
equally dry) does not vary more than in the proportion of 13 to 14, for the 
extremes. 

Nearly six times as much heat is required to evaporate a given quantity of w«|«r 
as is required to raise its temperature to the boiling point: multiplying the aboTC 
numbers by 6, we have, therefore, the quantity of water which each kind of fiMl 
will raise from 32° to 212°. 

In even the best apparatus, not more than hnlf the heat produced by the combov 
tion of fuel is economized. j 

Dry wood makes a hotter fire than equal weights or volumes of green wood. > 



Freezing Points of Liquids. 



Olive oil 
Water . . 
Milk . . . . 

Vinegar . 



.36< 
.32 
.30 

.28 



Fahr. 



Spirits of turpentine 16 



Strong wines 20' 

Sulphuric acid 1 

Bran dy — 7 

Mercury — .39 

N itric acid — 56 



Fakr. 



MEASUREMENT OF HEIGHTS BY THE BAROMETER. 445 



Strength of Ice. 



Ice 2 ioches thick will bear infantrj. 



cavalry or light guns, 
heavy field guns. 

24-pdr. guns on sledges: weight not more than 1,000 
lbs. to a square foot. 

Frigorijic Mixtures. 



Materials. 



Parts. The thermometer falls. 



Ilydroehlorate of ammonia. 

Nitrate of potassa 

M'ater 

Ilydroehlorate of ammonia. 

Water 

Nitrate of ammonia 

Water 

Sulphate of soda 

Dilute nitric acid 

Sulphate of soda 

Hydrochloric acid 

Snow 

Common salt 

Snow 

Caustic potash, crystallized 

Snow 

Sulphuric acid, dilute 

Snow 

Chloride of calcium 

Sulphuric acid, dilute 

Snow 



5 
5 

16 
5 

16 
1 
1 
.3 
2 
8 
5 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
?, 

10 
8 



From 50° to 10°. 

From 50° to 4°. 
From 50° to 4°. 
From 50° to .3°. 
From 50° to 0°. 
From 32° to 0°. 
From 30° to— 15°. 
From 20° to —60°. 
From —4° to — 67 °. 
From —67° to —90°. 



Measurement of Heights by Means of the Barometer. 



1. A' =60345.51 ft. X 



1 + .00102 «+<'— 64°) 



loc 



/i'[l + 0.0001 (T— T')] 



1 — 0.002695 COS. 2 X. -^ 
X is the required difference of height, in feet, 
T, the temperature of the air, in degrees of Fahrenheit, ") 

t, the temperature of mercury V at the lower station. 

H, the height of mercury \ 

T', the temperature of the air) 

t', the temperature of mercury V at the upper station. 
H', the height of mercury ) 

L, the latitude of the place. 

2. Neglecting the corrections for the latitude of the place and for the difference 
between the temperature of the air and that of the mercury in the barometers at the 



44G ORDNANCE MANUAL. 

two station?, the difference of neight, in feet, may be expressed approximately by 

H 
X 67.0505 (T+ r -^ 836) X log. ,>,• 

n 

3. Approrimaie Rule. — For a mean temperature of 55° the difference of height in 

feet is, A' = 55,000 X - , , • Add l-440th of this result for each degree which the 

mean tompcrnturc of the air at the two stations exceeds 55°, and deduct as much 
for each do^ree below 55°. 

Altitudes may bo determined without the aid cf a barometer by observing accu- 
ratoly the boiling point of water at the different stations, h, the altitude, is equal 
to 517 7*+ T*; or, for altitudes under 10,000 ft., A = 540 T; 7* being the differenee 
in degrees between the boiling points of water at the two stations. 

The altitude of Washington City is 50 to 90 feet; that of St. Loui», 4.-.0 feet ; of 
Santa Fo. 6,846 feet ; of San Antonio. 600 feet. 

The averoye fimnititj/ «/' icaicr which falls in rain and snow at Washington City it 
41.2 inches ; at San Francisco, 23.59 inches; at ."^anta Fe, 19.83 inches. 

Latitude of the Washington Observatory, 38° 63' 39". 25. 

The mean temperature of Washington City is 36°. 05 in winter, 76°.33 in summer ; 
56°. 14 for the year: of San Francisco, 50°. 86 in winter, 57°. 53 in the sumuier, and 
54°.88 for the year. 

Declination of the Magndic Needle for 18C0. 

Washington City 2° 36' West. | Savannah 3° 5' 



New York 7 01 

Albany 8 3 * 

Charleston 1 7 East 

The annual increase at Washington is 3 minutes 
Dip of the needle at Washington, 1801, 71° 24'. 



Mobile 6 8 

San Diego 12 6 

San Francisco 15 8 



Sun-Dials. 

The most common dial is that in which the plane of the dial is horizontal, and 
the stijJf. placed in the meridian, is inclined to the plane of the dial at an angle 
equal to the latitude of the place. 

Hour-lines are drawn from the centre, or point where the style intersects the 
plane, to the circumference: their positions are calculated from the formula tan. 
ar^tan. // sin. L, in which ar = the hour-angle on the horizontal plane A =s 15", 
30°, 45°, etc., the hour-angle on the equatorial plane, and L ^ the latitude of the 
place. 

To determine these lines geometrically, draw in the meridian plane from soBC 
point o, on the style, a line perpendicular to the style, and note the point h where 
it intersects the plane of the dial. Draw through this point a line, in the plane of 
the dial, perpendicular to the meridian plane. This will be the equatorial line. 



FORMULA IN MECHANICS. 



447 



Measure off from b, on the prolongation of the meridian, the distance b c equal 
to a h, and with c as a centre, describe a semicircle, and divide it into 12 equal 
parts, on each side of the meridian : through these points of division draw radii, 
and prolong them till the