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rbo IRomanus {primus 






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IRomanus primus 

With Introduction and Notes by 



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DEC 3 1952 


THE following Introduction to the earliest Or do 
Romanus makes no claim to originality, having no pre- 
tensions to be anything more than a compilation from 
the works of the numerous liturgical writers who have 
expounded either the whole or parts of this venerable 
monument of the ceremonial of the early medieval 
Church in Rome. 

The objective which the general Editor has kept before 
me is the intelligent Churchman who is interested in the 
rites and ceremonies of the Catholic Church, but has little 
leisure or opportunity of examining the numerous works 
that deal with the whole or parts of the matters that 
belong to the ceremonial of solemn mass. With Linde- 
wode 1 I may say,presens opus non precipue nee principaliter 
viris scribo scientia preditis, sed polius simpliciter Utter atis et 
pauca intelligentibus : but I fear that I cannot go on to 
claim for this Introduction even the modest estimate at 
which Lindewode appraises his Provincials as a book for 
students, for it is unlikely that such as they will find any- 
thing therein of which they are not already fully aware. 
It is in consequence of the above-mentioned objective that 

1 Provinciate , Lib. II.: tit. De foro competently cap. Contingit aliquando: verb. 



the use of Latin has been almost entirely restricted to the 
notes, and English used practically throughout. It is 
hoped that the average Churchman will hereby be enabled 
to bring before his mind a picture of a Roman church, and 
the ceremonies that were used at a public mass therein, as 
they were in the eighth century of the Christian era. 

The chief books of which use has been made in the 
following pages are, first of all, Abbe Fleury's delightful 
Les Moeurs des Chrestiens (Paris, 1682); Mgr. Duchesne's 
Origines du Culte Chretien (Paris, 1898); Mabillon's 
Commentary in the second volume of his Museum Italicum; 
Scudamore's Notitia Eucharistica (2nd Edition, 1876); and 
the Rev. J. O. Reichel's Solemn mass at Rome in the ninth 
century (London, 1895). 

I have to thank numerous friends and others who have 
helped me by answering various questions, looking out 
references, and the like : and specially Mgr. Duchesne, 
who has been most kind in explaining many things to me 
a complete stranger ; the Rev. W. H. Frere, for setting 
me right about the manner of chanting the various 
anthems at mass ; Mr. F. C. Eeles, who has been ever 
ready to verify and obtain quotations from books that 
were out of my reach ; and, of course, Dr. Wickham 
Legg, whose good-nature must have been often strained 
by my repeated questions. 

For the loan of blocks, wherewith to illustrate this 
book, I have also to thank first Mr. Francis F. Fox, F.S.A., 
who has been kind enough to lend the three pictures of 
ambones : and the Rev. H. Thurston, S.J., for the picture 
of the Consul Anastasius Probus, 517 A.D. 



In Appendix I. a text and translation of Or do Romanus I. 
appears. The Latin text is a conflation of Mabillon's and 
Cassander's : in the absence of a thoroughly critical edition 
this seemed the best course to pursue, in spite of all that 
may be urged against it. 

Appendix II. is a translation of the text of the Or do 
Romanus of St. Amand printed by Duchesne in his Origines 
du Culte Chretien. 

Appendix III. is an attempt to reproduce the ritual of 
solemn mass of Easter day, as it was sung at about the 
end of the eighth century. The anthems are taken from 
the Gregorian Antiphoner, the collects, etc., from the 
Sacramentary of Hadrian, and in the text of the canon 
the readings of Mr. Edmund Bishop's " Recension A " 
have been followed, taken from his paper in the Journal 
of Theological Studies^ July 1903, vol. iv., pp. 555 sq. 

In Appendix IV. will be found collected together what 
is known of the African Liturgy, chiefly from the works 
of St. Austin, but with a few notices from other authors 
before and since his time. No complete liturgy of this 
part of the Church is known to exist, and the fragmentary 
allusions are few. The scheme is included here, as it gives 
some notion of the rite of a Church which closely accorded 
to that of Rome ; shown in even such details as the posi- 
tion of the kiss of peace, and in the particular develop- 
ment of the people's prayers. No one has found any 
hint in St. Austin's writings that there was any difference 
between the rite of Africa and that of Milan ; but that is 
far from sufficient to show that the two rites were iden- 
tical. Still, what is known as the Gallican rite may be 


the old Latin rite of all the Latin speaking countries, so 
far as the main ritual features are concerned : and the 
African rite may at any rate illustrate that particular 
variety of the old Latin rite which prevailed at Rome 
before the later Roman, founded on an amalgamation 
of the Greek rite in synchronous use with it at Rome, 
supplanted it. 

Where a word or a passage is corrupt and has been left 
unemended, the fact is called to the reader's attention by 
means of an obelus. 


August 25, 1904. 






INTRODUCTION, . . . . * : V 3 

SECT. i. The Basilica, , . < ? ;; '''.. 9 

ii. Lights, . . . . - * ..' . 15 

iii. Incense, . . . . .17 

iv. The Altar, . : , ; . ^ . 18 

v. The Confession, . ...-. . - > 22 

vi. The Ambo, . , ., ; . ib. 

vii. The Sacristy, > . - . . . 23 

viii. The Gates, . . . r .. . . 24 

ix. The Sacred Vessels, . . . . ib. 

x. Liturgical Costume, . . ' . . 26 

xi. Stations, . . . ' : - . J . . . 32 

xii. Hebdomadary Bishops, . . . , 33 

xiii. Hebdomadary Presbyters, . . . 34 

xiv. Deacons, and their Hostelries, . . Ib. 

xv. Holy Orders, . . .36 

xvi. Subdeacons, . . . . '37 

xvii. Collets, . . . k>. . . 38 

xviii. Minor Orders, . . . . 39 

xix. College of Singers, . . .. . 40 

xx. Cubicularii, . . . . .41 

xxi. Papal-Vicar, . . . V . . 42 




SECT. xxii. College of Notaries, . . . .43 

xxiii. Almoner, . . . .49 

xxiv. Sacristan, . . /"' . ib. 

xxv. Counsellor, . . . ... . ib. 

xxvi. Sextons, .... 53 

xxvii. Titular Church, . . . . 54 


INTRODUCTION, . . . . . .58 

SECT. i. The Introit, . . 64 
ii. The Kyries, .... ib. 

iii. Gloria in Excelsis, . . . .71 

iv. The Collect, , . . . 72 

v. The Scripture Lessons, . . . 73 

vi. The Sermon, . . . . 79 

vii. The Creed, . . . . . 80 

viii. The Dismissals, . .. . .81 

ix. The Offertory, . , . - . .82 

x. The Offertory Anthem, . . . 88 

xi. The Preface, ; . . . . 89 

xii. Sanctus and Benedictus, .. . . 90 

xiii. The Canon, . . * .96 

xiv. The Recital of the Names of the Living, . 99 

xv. The Memento for the Departed, . .100 

xvi. The Form of Consecration, . . 102 

xvii. The Sacring, . . . .103 

xviii. Pater Noster, .... ib. 

xix. The Sancta and the Fermentum, . .106 

xx. Agnus Dei, . . . . . 109 

xxi. The Kiss of Peace, . ,. '.... . no 

xxii. The Words of Administration, . . ib. 



SECT, xxiii. The Communion of the People, . . in 

xxiv. The Post-Communion Collect, . . 112 

xxv. Alms and Collections of Money, . . ib. 

xxvi. Concelebration, . . . .113 


Latin Text with English Translation of Ordo 

Romanus Primus, . , .... ' . . 116 


An Ordo Romanus from a ninth century MS of 

St. Amand (c. Soo A.D.), rendered into English, 153 


The Roman Liturgy of the eighth century, with 
the Forms proper to Easter day, and Rubrical 
Directions from the Gregorian Sacramentary, 
Ordo Romanus Primus, and the Ordo of St. 
Amand, . . . , . 169 


The Liturgy of the (civil) Diocese of Africa at the 

time of St. Augustine of Hippo, c. 400 A.D., . 181 

INDEX, : f . . ,-T . .. 189 




the stairs on either side. On the one side is shown the 
whale swallowing Jonah : on the other Jonah's release, 


ii. A PICTURE IN MOSAIC on the left side of the altar in the 
church of St. Vitalis, at Ravenna, of the sixth century. 
The church was built in 526 on the site of the saint's 
martyrdom : and consecrated by Maximianus in 547* ^ n 
the Life of that bishop in the Liber Ponttficalis of Ravenna, 
compiled by Agnellus (in Muratori, Rerum italicarum 
scriptores, Milan, 1723; t. ii, p. 107), we read: * Et in 
tribuna beati Vitalis eiusdem Maximiani effigies atque 
Augusti et Augustae tessellis valde computatae sunt.' The 
Emperor Justinian and Maximianus (twenty-sixth bishop 
of Ravenna, 546-562) are in the centre of the picture: 
the former holding an offering-dish, or bowl of some sort, 
the latter a cross. With the bishop are two clerks, one 
of whom carries a textus or Book of the Gospels, and the 
other a censer. All three wear a long white garment 
reaching to the feet, with full wide sleeves: a narrow 
black band passes over both shoulders to the bottom of 
this garment, which is the linen dalmatic. The stripes were 
known as c/avi. This is an early form of the surplice, 
alb, and rochet. The bishop also wears a dark olive-green 
chasuble (planeta or paenula), and over it the episcopal 
scarf known as the pallium, which is white and fringed, 
and marked with a cross. Notice the left hand under the 
chasuble, an attitude frequently mentioned in Ordo I. 
There is no stole : the pallium takes its place, 


ROME (also called ad Pracsepe, and the Liberian basilica). 
It was rebuilt by Pope Sixtus II, c. 435. The ciborium, 


or canopy over the altar, here represented, was set up in 
the time of Pope Bennet XIV. Notice the tribune, and 
the seats all round the apse : part of the bishop's throne 
can be made out behind the altar. From C. C. J. Bunsen, 
Die Basiliken des christlichen Roms, Munchen, no date ; 
plate x, . . . . . . 10 

Below the altar may be seen the grating of the Confession. 
On either side of the tribune is an ambo, and another 
pulpit on the left. The ciborium, or canopy over the 
altar, is well shown. The mosaics over the arch are ot 
the time of Pope Leo III (795-816). From C. C. J. 
Bunsen, Die Basiliken des christlichen Roms 9 Miinchen, no 
date; plate xxvii, . . . . .22 

v. THE CHALICE OF GOURDON ' is the earliest extant. It is 
two-handled, and made of gold, ornamented with thin 
slices of garnet or garnet-coloured enamel. With it were 
found 104 gold coins, the latest of which were of Justin I 
(0 527), and were fresh and unworn. Consequently, the 
chalice is probably not of later date than the beginning of 
the sixth century, and may be even older. 

A gold dish, probably a rectangular paten, was also found. 
It is decorated with a border of lozenges, with trefoils at 
the angles. The outline of these ornaments is formed by 
thin lines of filagree gold set edgewise upon the plate. 
They are filled with a garnet- coloured enamel. In the 
centre of the dish is a cross of similar workmanship. 

Gourdon is in the department of the Haute-Saone, France : 
and the vessels are in the Bibliotheque National, Paris. 

From La Barte, Histoire des Arts, iv, 492 ; album i, plate 

xxx, . . . ''. . ' . 24 

vi. A PICTURE OF A WOMAN, HELIODORA, dressed in a paenula, 
in the attitude of an orante. Note the c/avi or stripes on 
the dress : it is not so common to find them on the paenula 
as on the dalmatic. The picture is from the cemetery 
of Marcellinus and Peter at Rome. After Marriott, 
Vestiarium Christianum, plate v, . _, . . 27 


vii. There is every reason to believe that this is a contemporary 
MOTHER. It accords completely with the description of 
the same in his Life (Lib. iv : cap 84) by John the 
Deacon (c. 870). The pope and his father Gordianus 
the senator both wear dalmatics, and chestnut- coloured 
chasubles or planetae over. Even his mother Silvia wears 
dalmatic andplaneta. St. Gregory is distinguished by the 
white pallium, draped about his shoulders, and is holding a 
textus in his left hand which is under his planet. Note 
the identity of the senatorial and episcopal costume, save 
for the pallium. After Baronius and Marriott, . . 29 

517 A.D. From his diptych in the South Kensington 
Museum. The consul is represented at the most solemn 
act of his inauguration, when he is about to give the signal 
to start the horses in the arena, by throwing down his 
handkerchief or mappula. Note the manner in which the 
broad scarf is disposed. It is an official scarf, prescribed 
by the Theodosian Code, called a pallium : and of the same 
character as the episcopal pallium. 

The figure on the right, holding the orb, is the Byzantine 
Emperor Leo VI, who came to the throne 886. That 
on the left is the Emperor Michael Palaeologus, 1282, 31 


in a dalmatic. Note the c/avi or stripes, and the wide 
sleeves. From the cemetery of Marcellinus and Peter at 
Rome. After Marriott, Vestlarium Christianum, plate v, 36 

(bishop of Carthage 248-58). They are vested in 
brownish planets, and white dalmatics with very big open 
sleeves. Both wear pa/Ka, and support a textus with the 
left hand under their planets. The painting is on the 
right hand of the sepulchre of St. Cornelius. De Rossi 
remarks that these pictures are in the Roman Byzantine 


style, and are certainly not older than the seventh century : 
perhaps they may be as late as the time of Leo III. 
From G. B. de Rossi, La Roma Sotteranea Christiana, 
Roma, 1864-77 ; t. i, tav. vi, and pp. 298 sq. t . . 57 

xi. A PICTURE OF ST. XYSTUS (pope 257-9) and another 
bishop (? Optatus), from the left-hand side of the sepulchre 
of Cornelius. See the previous note. From G. B. de 
Rossi, La Roma Sotteranea Christiana, Roma, 1864-77 
t. i, tav. vii, . . . . 64 or 65 


CLEMENT, ROME. The illustration shows the position of 
the three ambones, the chancel or screen around the quire, 
and the ciborium. The upper church was erected c. 1 1 oo 
by Cardinal Anastasius, who died before its completion. 
It was consecrated 26th May, 1128. The screen and 
ambones were removed from the ruins of the older church 
and replaced in the upper, in their present position. The 
greater part of the screen is of the sixth century. In 
replacing the quire, the gospel ambo has been placed on 
what is in fact the epistle-side of the old basilican altar 
(Hand-book to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome, London, 
1897; Ft. i, pp. 214 sg.), ' *;. . . . 77 

xiu. A PICTURE IN MOSAIC on the left side of the tribune in the 
church of St. Apollinaris in Classe at Ravenna : repre- 
senting the emperor granting the Privileges of the Church 
of Ravenna to the bishop, who is attended by two clerks, 
one carrying a censer and the other something else. Be- 
hind the bishop are two other figures, apparently also 
bishops. In the Life of Reparatus, 35th bishop of 
Ravenna, Agnellus describes this mosaic as follows : Et 
iussit ut eorum effigies et suam in tribunali cameris beati 
Apollinaris depingi et variis tessellis decorari, ac subter 
pedibus eorum binos versus metricos describi continentes 


Is igitur socius meritis Reparatus ut esset 
Aula novos habitus fecit flagrare per aevum. 

Et super caput imperatoris invenies ita : 

Constantinus maior Imperator. 
Heraclii et Tiberii Imperator.' 



Agnellus proudly adds, speaking of Reparatus : * Verus pastor 
pie cum ovibus vixit. Non sub romana se subiugavit sede ' 
(Muratori, Rer. ital. Script. , t. ii, 148). Reparatus was 
archbishop of Ravenna in the seventh century, . 114 & 115 
As it now stands it is probably of the twelfth century : 
the double one opposite it may be of the sixth. See 
note to plate xii, . . . . 150 & 151 

church was built c. 500 for Arian worship : it passed to 
the Catholics in 570. In the ninth century the relics of * 
St. Apollinaris were brought hither from Classe, and it 
thence obtained its present name. The upper part of the 
ambo is probably part of the original church, . . 178 


Onto Romanus I.] 

[Preceding page i 


(tburcb, it0 flDinteters, anb tbe 
rnamenta tbereof 




THE document commonly known as Or do Romanus 
Primus is a directory of the ceremonies of solemn or 
public mass, celebrated in Rome by the pope himself (or 
his deputy), at which all the clergy and people of the 
Church of Rome were present or at least represented, and 
in which they all fulfilled their several functions in the 
exercise of that royal priesthood which St. Peter tells us 
is the common property of the body of baptized Christians. 

Or do 7, as printed in Mabillon's l Museum Italicum, is 
based upon a St. Gallen MS, with readings from three 
other MSS, all four belonging to the ninth century. But 
although the whole of Mabillon's Ordo I existed in its 
present state in that century, yet it is not all purely 
Roman, nor are all parts of it of the same antiquity. The 
oldest part, and the purely Roman, is contained' in the first 
twenty-one chapters, and is found in several MSS without 
the additional matter of the St. Gallen MS ; and it is this 
part which gives the ceremonies of the stational mass. 

The text of the Ordo which is now set before the 
reader is based upon that of Mabillon, with a few readings 
taken from the version printed by George Cassander, 2 and 
one from Mabillon's Ordo III, a Roman Ordo of the ninth 
century, representing the Roman ceremonies as used by 
some bishop subordinate to the Roman See. 

The Ordo of St. Amand, of which an English translation 
will be found after Ordo /, has been printed by Duchesne 

1 Mabillon, Museum Italicum, Luteciae Parisiorum, 1689; t. ii, pp. 3 sy. 

2 peorge Cassander, Or Jo Romanus de Officio Missae, Coloniae, 1561 ; fol. 14 
verso, et tq. 


from a MS of the ninth century (c. 800) which once 
belonged to the Abbey of St. Amand en Puelle. 1 It 
describes the stational mass as celebrated by the pope, but 
varies in some respects from Ordo /, and may be regarded 
as an unofficial description drawn up for the benefit of 
some church, perhaps in Gaul, desirous of adopting the 
ceremonial of the Court of Rome. 

We now come to the question of the date of Ordo I 
taken as a whole. The Ravennese mosaics show that the 
ceremonial entry with the censer was probably in vogue 
before the middle of the sixth century ; and many other 
indications point to the substance of the ceremonial being 
of the same date or even earlier. But when we come to 
details, the case is different. There are certain features in 
it which we know to have been introduced by St. Gregory 
the Great (0 604) : thus the grail is sung by a cantor and 
not by a deacon, in accordance with the decree of the 
Roman Council of 595 ; Pater noster is sung before the 
Pax and the Fraction ; and defensores regionarii are 
mentioned, a dignity originated by St. Gregory. 

Our Ordo designates the Lateran Palace as Patriarchium, 
a title not found in the Liber Pontificalis before the Life 
of Pope Sergius I (687-701) : previously, in the Lives of 
Severinus (638-639), of Theodore (642-649), and of Conon 
(686-687) ft appears as the Episcopium Later anense. 

The anthem Agnus Dei was brought in by Pope Sergius 
I, to be sung at the time of the fraction ; yet it appears 
in Ordo I. 

The subdeacon-oblationer, who brought the pope's 
offering-loaves from the Lateran, and offered them in his 
name, is first heard of in the Liber Pontificalis in the Life 
of Pope Gregory III (731-742) ; the passage, however, is 
not so clear as to prove that this official was initiated by 
that pope, although he certainly first ordained that he should 
bring the loaves from the Lateran to the stational church. 

The court-officer known as the Nomenclator is first 

1 L. Duchesne, Origines du Culte Chretien, Paris, 1898 ; pp. 440 tq. 


heard of in the Life of Agatho (678-681) ; but he may 
well have existed earlier, so that this too gives no certain 
help towards defining the date of the Ordo. Nor does 
the presence of the hebdomadary bishops of the Lateran, 
who are first mentioned in the Life of Stephen III (768- 
772) ; for the passage in the Liber Pontificate naturally 
means that the bishops were there before, but Stephen 
ordered that they should celebrate at St. Peter's altar, and 
sing Gloria in excehis at their masses. 

But we must examine these points a little more closely. 
St. Gregory the Great tells us that in his new use Kyrie 
eleison was said by the clerks, and the people made answer. 
But in Ordo I the Schola Cantorum sing it alone, and 
the people do nothing. Development had taken place, 
and in the usual Roman direction, gradually eliminating 
the people's active part in public worship. 

Sergius I, when he introduced Agnus Dei y appointed 
that it was to be sung by clergy and people. But in 
Ordo I the people have no part in it, and the Schola 
Cantorum sing it alone. Here again there has been 
development, and in the same direction. 

In the Gelasian Sacramentary the canon begins with 
Sursum corda, as is shown by the rubric preceding those 
words : Incipt Canon Actionis. 1 This book is in substance 
a Roman book of the sixth or seventh century : modern 
opinions seem to favour the earlier rather than the later 
date. It has numerous Gallican additions, but this rubric 
is not one of them, for in the ninth century the canon of 
the Romano-Gallican rite began 2 at Te igitur. Now in 
Ordo I the canon begins after Sanctus, as is clearly shown 
by the following direction : * And when they have 
finished it [Sanctus], the pontiff rises alone, and enters on 
the canon.' But further on we read : ' When the 

1 So, too, in the Life of St. Sixtus (107-116), Liter Pontif calls tells us that he 
appointed that Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus, etc., should be sung by the people, infra 
action en. 

2 Yet Amalar writes: < medio canone, id est cum dicitur Te igitur' (De eccleiiast. 
offic., L. Ill: c, xxvii). 


pontiff begins the canon, a collet comes near, having a 
linen cloth thrown around his neck, and holds the paten 
before his breast on the right side, until the middle of 
the canon.' After the offertory the paten is not used 
until the communion ; there is no room for it on the 
altar, which is occupied with the loaves and the chalices. 
It is natural to suppose that the collet takes charge of it 
as soon as it is no longer needed for the offertory. If this 
is so, we have evidence that the word ' canon ' has two 
meanings, belonging to different dates, in the same 
document : in other words, that Ordo /, as we now 
have it, is a revised version of an older directory, belong- 
ing to a time when the canon began at Sursum corda, 
which was revised at a time when it began at 'Te igitur^ 

This conclusion tallies with what we gathered from the 
manner of singing Agnus Dei. Sergius (0 701) introduced 
it at the end of the seventh century ; but considerable 
alterations in the manner of singing it had taken place 
before Ordo I was drawn up, and so that is of later date 
than 700, but existed c. 800. We have, then, to find 
evidence of a reform of the ceremonial at some period 
between these dates : and Professor Dr. Probst points out 
that we have the required evidence in the Liber Pontificalis 
in the Life of Stephen III. There we read : Erat enim 
hisdem praefatus beatissimus praesul ecclesiae traditionis 
observator : unde et pristinum ecclesiae in diversis clericatus 
honoribus renovavit ritum. Hie statuit ut omni dominico die 
a septem episcopis cardinalibus ebdomadariis, qui in ecclesia 
Sahatoris observant, missarum solemnia super altare beati 
Petri celebraretur et Gloria in excelsis Deo ediceretur. 
In this passage Pope Stephen appears before us as ecclesiae 
traditionis observator, an upholder of ecclesiastical traditions, 
and a renovator of the pristine rite of the Church in the 
several ranks of the clergy. As an example of the latter, 
is brought forward the instance of the seven hebdomadary 
bishops at the Lateran, to whom was granted the privilege 

1 Ferdinand Probst, Die altesten romitchen Sacramentarien und Ordinet, Munster- 
i.-W., 1892; p. 392. 


hitherto reserved to the pope of celebrating at St. Peter's 
altar and using Gloria in excelsis. 

Stephen's renovation of the pristine rite in the several 
ranks of the clergy appears in n. i of our Or do. We are 
told there of a prisca statutio, an ancient constitution, 
dealing with the days allotted to the several districts of 
Rome : Stephen's renovations may well have been such 
things as the provision for various accidents not con- 
templated or wanting in the ancient regulations, such as, 
for example, the death of a district deacon, the internal 
strifes and contentions of the several orders, etc. ; as the 
inclusion of various court-officials in the ceremonies of 
public mass who sprang into existence after the time of 
Gregory the Great ; and, generally speaking, the adapta- 
tion of the prisca statutio (which is the expression of the 
pristinus ritus of Liber Pontificalis) to the needs of the 
enlarged Court and changed customs. His reverence for 
tradition is then seen in his taking this old rite as the 
basis for the new. Dr. Probst thinks that in 4 we have 
the older, and in 2 and 3 the Stephenian arrangements : 
though if so, 4 is not the original, as the mention of the 
hebdomadary bishops and the Diaconiae witnesses. But 
5-2 T inclusive may well have been the original 
Gregorian ceremonial worked up by Stephen : 22 must 
be regarded as part of Stephen's innovations, preserving, 
however, the spirit of the older rite. 

Ordo I must therefore be looked upon as having been 
drawn up c. 770 by Stephen III, but founded upon a 
similar document of the sixth century. 1 

It is sometimes stated that Amalar of Metz commented 
on Ordo Romanus I in his book De officio missae, and on 
Ordo II of Mabillon's collection in his Ecloga. This is 
not so. Amalar in the former work deals with an Ordo 
closely akin to Ordo II. Thus in cap. v, treating of the 
kiss of peace at the commencement of mass, he quotes from 
his Ordo : in ipsa inclinatione datpacem ministris qui a dextris 

1 F. Probst, Die altesten romischen Sacramentarien vna Ordines, Mvinster-i.-W. , 
l8 9 2 5 P- 395- 


laevaque sunt. This is not in Or do /, but is very similar 
to Or do II, 5. The change in the order of the candle- 
sticks when the bishop goes to his throne is not noted in 
Ordo /, but the direction is also different from that pre- 
scribed in Ordo II. The alternative salutation Dominus 
vobiscum to the episcopal Pax vobis> mentioned by Amalarjin 
cap. ix, is given in Ordo 77, 6, but not in Ordo I. Again, 
neither the signing of the forehead before the gospel, nor 
the laying aside of staves, nor the extinguishing of the 
candles after the gospel, is mentioned in Ordo I : but all 
occur in Ordo II. Incense is used at the offertory accord- 
ing to Amalar, as in Ordo II, but not so in Ordo I. Amalar 
quotes almost verbatim from Ordo 77, 9, in his cap. xix, 
concerning the offering by the priests and deacons, who 
are permitted to approach the altar : and so on. Enough 
has been adduced to show that Ordo I was not the Ordo 
Romanus on which Amalar commented. 

Nor was it Ordo II. For there is no mention of the 
mass-creed ; and other details show that his Ordo was not 
exactly the same as that printed by Mabillon. 

Ordo Romanus II is a Gallican recension of Ordo 7, of 
the time of Charles the Great or his immediate successors ; 
and while it follows on the lines of its exemplar, it intro- 
duces many Gallican features. The period during which 
it was constructed was one in which, all over the Prankish 
dominions, various combinations of the Roman and Galli- 
can rites were being effected ; and the second, fifth, and 
sixth Ordines Romani of Mabillon are varying examples of 
the process. Without doubt there were many more of 
the same kind, all differing one from another in minor 
details ; and the Ordo upon which Amalar based his work 
belonged to a type akin to, but not identical with, 
Ordo II. 

We can now pass on to a consideration of the church 
and its ornaments, and the different ecclesiastical ministers 
and functionaries which are mentioned or alluded to in 
our Ordo. 


i. The Basilica. 

The basilica of pagan Rome 1 was a large hall used as a 
court of justice, and a place of meeting where merchants 
transacted their business. In shape it was oblong, and 
usually had an apse at one end ; this end was raised above 
the level of the rest of the hall, and known as the Tribune. 
In the centre of the apse was the curule chair for the 
praetor or the prefect, and on either side seats for the 
judges (indices) and the advocates. In front of the curule 
chair, near the centre of the chord of the apse, was, in 
imperial times, a table. 

Certain high officials of the empire were granted par- 
ticular ensigns of office, which were borne before them when 
they proceeded to hold their public Court of Justice. Thus 
the prefects for the city at Rome and at Constantinople, 
like the praetorian prefects of Italy and the Orient, when 
they made their public procession to their Court, had 
lighted candles and the Liber Mandatorum, or book of the 
Emperor's decrees, carried before them. When they 
arrived at the Tribune they ascended it, and took their seat 
in the curule chair, the Liber Mandatorum being set on the 
table before them and the candles on either side. 2 

In the fifth century incense does not appear amongst the 
ensigns of the vicars or of the prefects : in the time of 
Horace, however, it would seem that incense was used. 3 
Both incense and lights appear among the imperial ensigns, 
and Cicero tells us that incense and candles 4 were burned 
before the statues of popular heroes in the streets. At the 

1 W. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London, 1842 ; s.v. 
BASILICA, p. 130 sq. 

2 Notitia Dignitatum Romani Imperii (first half of the fifth century), in J. G. 
Graevius, Thesaurus Antiquitatum Romanorum, Traject. ad Rhen. et Lugd. Batav., 
1698; t. vii, 1392, 1397, 1648, 1656, 1791, 1798. 

3 Q. Horatius Flaccus, Satirae, Lib. I : sat. v : 1. 36. Theodor Mommsen 
points out that Aufidius Luscus the praetor must have been a Roman, as the 
highest official at Fundi was only an aedile, and the latus claws belonged only to 
the Senatores of Rome, and not to the class of Dccuriones (Romisches Staatsrecht, 
Leipzig, 1887; bd. i, p. 423). 

4 M. T. Cicero, De Officiis, Lib. Ill: cap. xx : 80. 


time of the seventh general Council, the emperor's por- 
trait was honoured in a similar manner by the people 
throughout the empire. 1 As late as the tenth century, 
incense was solemnly burned before the emperor in full 
court, when he was about to create a patrician or a pro- 
consul ; 2 and lighted candles appear among the royal 
ensigns at the sacring of our own king Richard Coeur 
de Lion, 3 and also amongst those of the doge of Venice. 4 

The Peace of the Church under Constantine materially 
affected her rites and ceremonies. She took over the 
basilicas, and converted them into places of worship, for 
which they were eminently fitted. Ausonius 5 seems to refer 
to this transformation in his letter of thanks to the Em- 
peror Gratian for his promotion to consul, when he tells 
the emperor that ' the basilica, at one time full of business, 
now is full of prayers, and prayers offered for thy good 
estate.' And with the buildings the Church took over 
some of the civil ceremonial. The bishop's throne re- 
placed the curule chair in the centre of the apse, the seats 
of the judges and the advocates were now occupied by the 
presbyters : the altar supplanted the table. And when the 
pope entered in solemn procession he was preceded by a 
book of the gospels instead of the Liber Mandatorum, 
by incense, and seven lighted candles. They took the 
same seats as the prefect and his attendants had occupied, 
they wore the same kind of clothes. The gospel-book 
was laid on the altar, and the candles set below. The 
resemblance, save for the incense, is complete. 

The earliest mention of the use of incense in public 

1 In the speech made by Theodosius. Compare the letter of Pope Hadrian to 
Constantini and Irene in 772 (Migne, P.L., xcvi, 1228). 

2 Constantini Porphyrogenneti Libri duo de Cerimoniis Aulae Byzantinae, Lipsiae, 
I 75i-545 t. i, pp. 143, 149. 

3 Gesta Regis Henrici secundi, Benedict! Abbatis, Rolls Series, 1867; vol. ii, 
pp. 80-1, 83. 

4 J. G. Graevius, Thesaurus Antiquitatum et Historiarum Italiae, Lugd. Batavorum, 
1722; t. v, pars Hi, p. 363, and plate opposite p. 362. Said to have been 
granted by Pope Alexander III. 

5 D. Magni Ausonii Burdigalensis Opera, Parisiis, 1730; p. 524. 


\_To face page 10 

Ordo Romanns I.] 


worship is in the account of a pilgrimage to the Holy 
Places attributed to St. Silvia of Aquitaine c. 385-88, 
where we find it used in connection with the bishop and 
the gospel-book, when he goes to read the gospel lesson 
at the vigil service on Saturday night. 1 A little later we 
have what seems to be an allusion to the use of both 
lights and incense carried before a bishop, in the description 
of the marriage of Julian and la by St. Paulinus of Nola 2 
about 400. c Unlooked for ' the light may have been, 
because these ensigns usually belonged to public masses, 
and not to a private one such as a wedding-mass. 

' What is this odour, that, borne through the air, to my nostrils is 

wafted ? 

Whence that unlooked-for light, showing itself to my eyes ? 
Who is he, who afar with gentle steps is approaching, 

Whom Christ's plentiful grace now is accompanying ? 
Whom a blessed band surrounds with heavenly disciples, 

Bringing a picture to mind of the angelical host ? 
I know the man who's accompanied by those celestial odours, 

And whose face reflects starry and glistening light. 
This is the man who is rich in the Lord Christ's bountiful 


He is Aemilius called, shining with heavenly light. 
Memor, arise, show respect to thy father, thy brother embracing ; 
In one Aemilius both titles united appear.' 

The circumstantial detail of the whole poem drives one 
to the conclusion that lights and odours were actually 

This procession with incense and the gospel-book as 
ensigns of the bishop was certainly in vogue in the middle 
of the sixth century, for we have mosaics at Ravenna 3 
of that date which show the bishop attended by a 
deacon carrying the gospel-book, and a subdeacon the 

The number of the seven candles borne before the pope 

1 S. Silvias Aquitanae Peregrinatio ad loca sancta, edit. J. F. Gamurrini, Romae, 
1888 ; p. 49. The service was at Jerusalem. 

2 Poema xxii, 11. 203 sq. 3 See plates ii and xiii. 


was probably derived from the Book of the Revelation. 1 
One cannot help noticing a similarity between the heavenly 
worship therein described and parts of the ceremonial of 
solemn mass at Rome. We are told of a ( throne set in 
heaven, and one sat on the throne : . . . and round about 
the throne were four and twenty seats ; and upon the 
seats I saw four and twenty presbyters sitting clothed in 
white raiment . . . and there were seven lamps of fire 
burning before the throne. . . . And I saw in the right 
hand of him that sat on the throne a book ' : and c under 
the altar the souls of them that were slain for the Word 
of God/ Angels and the elect * clothed in white robes ' 
stand about the throne, singing to God and the Lamb. 2 
Unlike the Churches of the East, the Church of Rome and 
the Western Church as a whole accepted the Apocalypse 
as canonical from the first. 

It is not improbable that the use of lights and incense 
as episcopal ensigns was borrowed from or granted by the 
emperors, as a result of the powers as arbitrators which 
were conferred upon the bishops. 3 The earliest law 
which refers to this power is Cod. Justin., Lib. I : tit. iv : 
cap. 8, 408 A.D. ; but Jewish patriarchs had it in 398, by 
Cod. Theodos., Lib. II: tit. i: cap. 10, so that in all 
probability Christian bishops also possessed it at an earlier 
period. Sozomen says that Constantine allowed litigants 
to request the bishop's decisions, instead of the civil 
magistrate's : that their judgments were confirmed and 
enforced by the civil officials, and that they were even 
held of higher value than the decisions of other judges. 
It may well be that in course of time the bishops used 
the ensigns of the civil magistrates, perhaps at first merely 
when hearing civil or ecclesiastical suits, and then, later, 

1 One may notice that in the Apocalyptic vision represented in the mosaics 
of the apse of SS. Cosmas and Damien at Rome (526-530) and of St. Praxedes 
(eighth cent.) the seven candlesticks are represented as separate lamfada or 
torches, and not as a single seven-branched candlestick. 

2 Rev. iv, 2, 4, 5: v, i : vi, 9. Fleury, Let Moeurs des Chrcstiens, 130 

3 Sozomen, Hittoria Ecclcsiaitica, Lib. I : cap. 9. 


at all their public entrances, including those for solemn 
mass ; and finally, only at the public mass. The inventor 
of the Donation of Constantine attributes the grant of 
the right of proceeding thus 1 with incense and lights and 
the gospel-book to that emperor : he at any rate expresses 
the belief of the eighth century, and, possibly, may be 
recording an actual fact. 

But the time which seems most likely for the intro- 
duction of this ceremony is rather later. Half-a-century 
after the Peace of the Church found a vast change in the 
manners of Christians from the simplicity of the days of 
persecution, particularly in the ranks of the city bishops. 2 

< I will not deny,' writes Ammianus Marcellinus, c when I 
consider the ostentation that reigns at Rome, that those who 
desire such rank and power may be justified in labouring with 
all possible exertion and vehemence to obtain their wishes : 
since, after they have succeeded they will be secure for the 
future, being enriched by the offerings of matrons, riding in 
carriages, dressing with splendour, and feasting so luxuriously 
that their entertainments surpass even royal banquets.' 

He draws a strong contrast between the bishop ot 
Rome and the provincial bishops who ate and drank but 
little, wore cheap clothes, and were pure-minded and 
modest men. It must be remembered that Ammianus 
was a heathen writer ; and his censure of the luxury of 
the city bishops occurs in the description of the disgraceful 
scenes attending the election of Damasus. 

But a little later St. Gregory of Nazianzum 3 makes the 
same complaint in the East, denouncing the luxurious 
style of living, the soft wide-flowing raiment, the pomp 
and magnificence, the gorgeous equipages and showy steeds 
of the bishops of his day. 

1 Gratiani Decreti, pars I : distinct. 96 : cap. xiv, Constantinut imperator, % z : 
1 Conferentes etiam et imperialia sceptra, simulque cuncta signa atque banda et 
diversa ornamenta imperialia, et omnem processionem imperialis culminii, et gloriam 
potestatis nostrae.' 

2 Ammianus Marcellinus, Rerum gestarum Libri, lib. xxvii : cap. iii. 

3 S. Gregorii Nazianzeni Theologi, Opera, Parisiis, 1630; vol. i, pp. 360, 526 
(Orationes 20, 32). 


It is to a time when such luxury as this obtained that 
one would attribute the introduction or the use of lights 
and incense as ensigns of episcopal rank. But whether 
the practice began at Rome is uncertain. We first hear 
of incense used during divine service at Jerusalem ; and 
St, Jerome, 1 in replying to Vigilantius, says distinctly : 
c Candles, however, we do not light in broad daylight as 
you falsely assert, but in order to temper the darkness of 
the night/ Yet it is possible that in this passage he may 
be confining himself to the particular accusation that they 
lit candles in honour of the relics of the Martyrs : since 
he goes on to say that throughout the whole Church of 
the East, when the gospel is read they burn lights in full 
sunlight, not so as to put darkness to flight, but as a 
token of rejoicing. We hear of this custom from no other 
writer of the period, so that we cannot tell how and with 
what ceremonial these lights were employed ; but it seems 
to be a legitimate deduction that, at the time that St. 
Jerome left Rome, they did not there use lights at the 
reading of the liturgical gospel. Changes took place very 
rapidly in those days, however, and much may have altered 
between 385, the year when St. Jerome left Rome, and the 
date of his reply to Vigilantius, written at Bethlehem in 
406. Probably the ensign of lights was not carried at 
Rome before the gospel-book until some time after that 
of incense ; at any rate, St. Silvia only mentions incense 
and not the lights as used at Jerusalem, and in the mass 
of Easter Even, which preserves a number of ancient 
features lost or overlaid in the Sunday masses, incense is 
carried, but lights were, and still are, omitted. 

The interior of the basilica was not left bare and 
unadorned. The walls 2 were covered with frescoes or 
mosaics, or were hung with rich curtains. Specimens of 
early Christian frescoes have been found more or less pre- 
served in the Roman Catacombs : and the churches were 
adorned in a similar manner after the Peace of the Church. 

1 Advenut f^igilantium, 7 (Multa in orbe) : P. L., xxiii, 345. 

2 Fleury, Let Moeurs des Chreitieni, 1 1 8. 


Prudentius, writing in the fourth century, in relating 
the Passion of St. Cassian at Rome, describes the painted 
picture of the martyr, * bearing a thousand wounds,' which 
the warden of the church told him represented no old- 
wives' fable, but a true account, showing the real faith of 
the olden days. 1 And again, describing the church of St. 
Hippolytus at Rome, he mentions that the story of that 
saint's martyrdom was painted on the walls. 2 

ii. Lights. 

The basilicas and churches were illuminated when need 
was with lamps and candles, of which we have very 
frequent mention in the Liber Ponttficalls and elsewhere. 
The numerous gifts, for example, recorded in the Life of 
St. Silvester, which although probably of later date than 
the time of Constantine yet belong to an early period, 3 
include large lamps in which scented oils burned, heavy 
silver candelabra for the nave of the Lateran Basilica, and 
seven bronze candlesticks before the altar in the same ; 
and in the time of Innocent I there was said to be twenty 
brazen candelabra in the nave of the church of SS. Gervase 
and Protase, each weighing forty pounds. Later on, Pope 
Leo III ordained that on Sundays and festivals lights 

1 Aurelius Prudentius, Peristephanon ix, Passio Cassiani Martyris in f oro Cornoliano, 
11. 9 '? 

'Erexi ad caelum faciem, stetit obvia contra 

Fuels colorum picta imago martyris 
Plagas mille gerens, totos lacerata per artus, 
Ruptam minutis praeferens punctis cutem,' etc. 

~ Ilia. , Peristephanon xi, Passio Hippotyti Martyris aa Valerianum Episcopum, 11. 

< Exemplar sceleris paries habet illitus, in quo 

Multicolor fucus digerit omne nefas, 
Picta super tumulum species liquidis viget umbris 
Effigians tracti membra cruenta viri,' etc. 

3 It seems not unlikely that these gifts, or at any rate a great number of 
them, belong to the times of Sixtus (432-440) and of Hilarus (461-467). There 
J s certainly a great similarity between a number of the items in each Life. 


should be set on either side of the lectern during the 
reading of the lessons. 

Prudentius 1 makes the Prefect of the City inquire of 
St. Laurence for the silver scyphi in which the sacred blood 
was held, and for the golden candlesticks in which the 
tapers were set at their nocturnal meetings. Paulinus of 
Nola (5 43 1 ) describes the lights in his basilica of St. Felix 
at the festival 2 in the following lines : 

' Now the golden doors are adorned with curtains all snow-white, 
Thickly crowned with lamps the altars are brilliantly shining : 
Lights are burning, and give forth the scent of the waxen 

Night and day they shine : thus night with the splendour ot 


Blazes, and day itself, made bright with heavenly beauty, 
Shines yet brighter, its light by lamps innumerable doubled.' 

So, in another poem 3 on the same subject, he mentions 
tapers fixed to the pillars of the church, giving forth 
scented odours, and lamps hanging by brazen chains in 
the spaces between them. These he compares to a tree 
full of branches, bearing little glass vessels at the end like 
fruit in which the lights burn : the whole candelabrum, 
when lit, rivalling the crowd of stars with its numerous 

We have got beyond mere lighting for necessity here, 
for the lamps were lit by day as well as by night at the 
festival of St. Felix : the lights are become signs of 
rejoicing, a common practice amongst most nations of 
antiquity. The well-known lines of Juvenal 4 will suffice 
to recall the custom of pagan Rome : 

' All things are gay : my doorway now is decked with tall 

And is keeping the feast with lanterns lit in the morning.' 

St. Paulinus also mentions lamps (lychni) hanging by 

1 Peristephanon it, Hymnus in honorem divi Laurentii, strophe 1 8. 

2 Poema xiv, De 5. F elicit Natalitia Carmen III, 11. 98 sq. 

3 Poema XXvi, S. Felich Natalis Carmen XI, 11. 408 sq. 

4 Satires, Lib. iv : Sat. xii, 11. 91-1. 


brazen chains in the basilica of St. Felix. 1 And in the Life 
of Pope Hilarus we read of four golden lamps burning 
before the Confession in the Oratory of the Holy Cross, 
and ten silver candelabra hanging before the altar of the 
Lateran Basilica. Belisarius is recorded, in the Life of 
Pope Vigilius, to have offered of the spoils of the Vandals 
two large silver-gilt candlesticks, which stood (at the time 
when the biographer wrote) before the body of blessed 
Peter in the Vatican Basilica. There was also a branched 
candelabrum hanging by golden chains in the covered 
space (pergula) before the same Confession, given in the 
time of Leo III ; this pope also ordained that two lamps 
should burn every night before the altar in the same 
Basilica. Pope Paschal caused them to burn by day as 
well as by night. 

iii. Incense. 

From lights to incense is but a step. The list of gifts 
recorded in the Liber Pontificalis under St. Silvester mentions 
Donum aromaticum ante altaria^ after the censers. As the 
latter weighed thirty pounds, the passage may mean that 
the aromatics were burned in censers hung before the altar 
of the Lateran Basilica. Boniface I (418-422) is said to 
have ordained that no woman or man, save only a minister^ 
should burn incense (incensum poneret). We do not meet 
with censers in the Liber Pontificalis before the time of 
Sixtus III (432-440), except in the Life of Silvester ; and 
these latter, as was mentioned before, seem to belong rather 
to the time of Hilarus. 

In the church of SS. Marcellinus and Peter aromatics 
were burned before the relics of the patron saints who were 
buried therein, according to the compiler of the Life of 
St. Silvester. Later on, Pope Sergius (687-701) hung a 
golden censer, with columns and a cover, before the images 
of St. Peter in the Vatican Basilica, * in which incense and 
the odour of sweetness were put while mass was being 

1 Poema xxiv : De S. Felice Natal. Carmen IX, 11. 395-6. 



celebrated, on festivals.' We find a similar practice at 
Cremona 1 in 666, and in England 2 under Theodore 
(668-690). Leo III (795-816) set up a golden censer 
before the vestibule of the altar in the same basilica, which 
weighed seventeen pounds. In the Life of Leo IV 
(847-855) we are told of a censer with a hanging cup 
(canthara) at the basilica of the Four Crowned Martyrs. 

We have already dealt with the ceremonial use of incense 
in the pope's procession to the altar, and the deacon's 
procession to the ambo to read the gospel. Or do I also 
mentions that the sexton and the assistant presbyter of the 
stational church welcomed the pope with incense on his 
arrival there. 

Incense was only used in the Roman rite at these two 
liturgical moments, save the occasional use in some basilicas 
of a hanging censer, burning all through the service, before 
some altar or image. When Amalar of Metz went to 
Rome for the furtherance of his liturgical studies, he 
found that the Or do Romanus, by which he had set such 
store, had misled him in several particulars, which he 
recorded in the second preface to his book on the Ecclesi- 
astical Offices. 3 There he tells us that the Romans did not 
offer incense at the altar after the gospel ; and there is no 
reference to any such practice in Ordo /, although the 
Gallicanized Ordo II directs it to be done. 

iv. The Altar. 

The altar in the early church was probably always of 
wood, and continued to be so commonly after the Peace 
of the Church. St. Athanasius 4 tells how the Arian mob 

1 Carlo Troya, Storia cf Italia de Medio-evo, Napoli, 1853 ; vol. ii, parte ii, 
p. 510. On the feast of St. Sisinnius, bishop and martyr, May 29. 

2 Poenitcntiale, Lib. II : cap. i : n. 9 : A. W. Haddah and W. Stubbs, Councils and 
Ecclesiastical Documents, Oxford, 1871 ; vol. iii, p. 191. 

3 Amalarius, De ecclesiasticis officiis, Praefatio altera (prope finem) : Migne, P.L., 
cv, 992. 

4 Epistle to the Monks, cap. vii : 56 : n. 12 ; written c. 359. 


broke into the cathedral church of Alexandria, and made 
havoc of everything inside, burning the bishop's throne, 
the seats, and the wooden altar. St. Austin l (c. 417) tells 
his correspondent Boniface how the Donatists at Bagaja 
assaulted the bishop with clubs, and finally smashed up the 
wooden altar and beat him with the pieces. Socrates 2 
incidentally mentions two instances of wooden altars shaped 
table-wise. Eutropius, an eunuch and chief chamberlain, 
fled from the Emperor Constantine and took shelter under 
the altar, where he was seen by the bishop. In an earlier 
chapter he relates how Macarius rushed furiously into the 
sanctuary and knocked over the altar. There are two 
altars of wood preserved in the Lateran Basilica, and one 
at St. Pudentiana in Rome. 

Stone came gradually into use as a material for the altar 
after the Peace of the Church. St. Athanasius seems to 
have known of various materials for this purpose, judging 
by his explanatory parenthesis, ' for it was of wood.' And 
in a great many other instances stone was used, with 
increasing frequency as years went by. Pope Gregory II 
covered the sides of the altar of the Oratory of St. Peter 
in the Lateran Palace, with silver all round ; 3 and Hadrian 
I put plates of purest gold, of the weight of 590 Ibs., 
having divers stories chased thereon, on the high altar of 
St. Peter's. 

We are not told anything of the altar frontal in Ordo /, 
but in that of St. Amand the deacon, who has read the 
gospel, is directed on his return to the altar : si fuerit pallium 
super altare, replicat eum in una pane ad orientem, et expand- 
itur corporate super altare a diaconibus : ' if there should be 
a pallium on the altar, to fold it on one side towards the 
east, and then the corporas is spread on the altar by the 
deacons.' Apparently it was not general for there to be 

1 Ep. clxxxv : cap. vii : 27 : Opera, Antwerpiae, 1700; t. ii, col. 498. 

2 Socrates, Hist. Eccles., i, 27; vi, 5. 

3 " Circumquaque altaris parietes deargentavit." This and the next item 
show that the other instances in the Liber Pontificalis of silver or gold altars, or 
altars decorated with those metals, were not of solid gold and silver, but that 
metal plates were fastened upon a wooden or stone background. 


a pallium on the altar, about the year 800, in the Roman 

This pallium was probably more like the c decent 
carpet 1 of the 82nd canon of 1603, than the altar frontal 
of the Ornaments Rubric. There is a mosaic in the 
church of St. Apollinaris-in-Classe at Ravenna, said to be 
of the seventh century, which shows a four-legged square 
altar, having upon it an ornamented cloth falling down on 
and covering all four sides. Set thereon is a two-handled 
chalice between two patens, each of which appears to have 
a loaf thereon. 

Little can be gathered from the Liber Pontificalis to 
throw any light on the question. In the eighth century 
there are many benefactions recorded in the Lives of the 
Popes of vestes altaris or vestis super altare. These are 
contrasted with vela, the veils of the ciborium in the Life 
of Gregory III, so that they were most probably altar 
pallia. In the Life of Vitalian (658-672) it is recorded 
that the Emperor Constantine offered upon the altar of 
St. Peter's a pallium woven with gold. 

It appears from the Ordo of St. Amand that the 
pallium was partially removed before the corporas was 
spread on the altar, so that the linen cloth lay directly 
upon the stone slab without any other fabric intervening. 

When first the altar was covered with a canopy or 
ciborium is not definitely known ; nor when curtains were 
hung between the pillars of the ciborium. 1 St. John 
Chrysostom speaks of the curtains, 2 but at Rome we have 
to wait till a later date before we get any definite inform- 
ation about them. Thus Pope Sergius (687-701) set up 
eight tetravela round about the altar of the Lateran Basilica, 
four red and four white : and Leo III (795-816) set up 

1 There is a picture of an altar, surmounted by a ciborium, supported by four 
pillars, between each of which a curtain is drawn, which is taken from the 
mosaics of the church of St. George, Thessalonica, in C. Texier's and R. P. 
Pullan's Byzantine Architecture, London, 1864 ; plate xxxiii. These mosaics are said 
to date from before 500 A.D. 

2 Horn. Ill, In Ephes., 5. Preached at Antioch, before 398. 


four white silk veils round about the altar of the basilica 
of St. Mary Major, hanging them in the arches of the 
ciborium. Hadrian I and Leo III were the largest bene- 
factors of the Roman churches in the matter of gifts of 
curtains and veils and the like ; the Liber Pontificalis 
contains long lists of their good deeds. It does not follow, 
however, that ciborium curtains were not in use at Rome 
before the time of Sergius : they certainly existed in other 
places at the beginning of the fifth century, and so may 
have at Rome ; but their material may have been inex- 
pensive, and so not worth recording. 

The first notice of the erection of a canopy over the 
altar at Rome occurs in the Life of St. Symmachus (498- 
514), who is said to have made a ciborium and confession 
of silver, at the basilica of St. Andrew near St. Peter's, 
weighing 120 Ibs., and at the church of SS. Silvester and 
Martin a ciborium of silver over the altar, weighing also 
1 20 Ibs. St. Gregory the Great (590-604) is recorded to 
have set up a ciborium with four columns, of pure silver, 
at St. Peter's. Honorius (626-638) built the church of 
St. Agnes in the Via Numentana, and set over her tomb, 
which presumably was under the altar, a brazen ciborium, 
gilded, of wonderful size ; and in the church of St. Pan eras 
in the Via Aurelia, which he also founded, he placed a 
silvern ciborium over the altar, which weighed 287 Ibs. 
Bennet II (684) set up ciboriums of various materials at 
the churches of St. Valentine, St. Mary ad Martyres, and 
St. Laurence. Sergius (687-701) set up an ambo and a 
ciborium in the basilica of SS. Cosmas and Damian ; and, at 
the basilica of St. Susanna, replaced the old one, which was 
of wood, with one of marble. Gregory III (731-742) 
renovated that at St. Chrysogonus and adorned it with 
silver. Hadrian (722-795) did the same by that of St. 
Andrew near St. Peter's, using 135 Ibs. of silver. Leo 
III (795-816) set up or rebuilt several ciboriums. At 
St. Pancras he made one of silver weighing 367 Ibs. At 
St. Paul's basilica he erected a ciborium with its columns 
over the altar, of wondrous size and beauty, decorated 


with the purest silver to the weight of 2015 Ibs. At St. 
Andrew's the ciborium over the high altar weighed 305 Ibs, 
and at the Lateran Basilica it had four columns, depicted 
with divers stories, and screens and little pillars (apparently 
between the four great columns) of wondrous beauty and 
size, decorated with the purest silver, to the weight of 
1227 Ibs. 

Here, again, we can see that ciboriums may be of 
much earlier date in Rome than the end of the fifth 
century : there is no record, for instance, of the erection 
of the old wooden one at St. Susanna's ; and had not 
Pope Sergius replaced it with one of marble, we might 
never have known of its existence. 

v. 'The Confession. 

In the Apocalyptic vision of the heavenly worship, 
which, as we have already seen, bears striking resemblance 
to the Roman ceremonial at the offering of the Eucharistic 
Sacrifice, we read that under the altar l were c the souls 
of them that were slain for the word of God/ In the 
basilican arrangements we have the same thing. Under 
the altar, in a recess, or a small chamber, lay the body of 
the saint in whose worship the basilica was dedicated. 
Sometimes there were steps leading down to the door of 
this chamber from the floor of the church. The details 
of the whole thing varied in different basilicas, but the 
principle remained the same a tomb under the altar, 
accessible from the body of the church. 

This tomb is what was known as the Confession. 

vi. The Ambo. 

In the basilicas adapted for Christian worship there was 
provided one or more pulpits or ambones, from which 
to read the Scripture lessons and preach the sermon. 

1 Rev. vi, 9. 

[To face page 22 


Anciently, it is believed that there was only one ambo in 
each church ; and this was the case at St. Peter's in the 
Vatican until its rebuilding. In other churches and in 
later times two were set up, one on either side, near the 
enclosed space for the choir. That on the (actual) north 
side was reserved for the gospel ; that on the south 
for the epistle, and responsory-psalm. But sometimes, 
as in St. Clement's, there were two on the right side, one 
higher, with the desk turned towards the altar, for the 
epistle ; the other, lower, facing towards the people, for 
the prophetical lesson when there was one, and the re- 
sponsory-psalm. The gospel-ambo was more elaborate 
and more ornamented than the other, and usually had 
two flights of stairs, one up and the other down, as may 
be seen in the picture of the gospel-ambo at St. Clement's. 
Inside, these pulpits were capacious, easily holding three 
or four men. 

vii. 'The Sacristy. Secretarium. 

The sacristy was situate at the lower end of the nave 
of the basilica, on the south side ; that is, on the men's 
side of the church. Whence it happened that in those 
churches that did not orientate, but had the altar at the 
(actual) west end, the sacristy was on the left side of the 
entrance ; as was once to be seen in the old basilicas of 
the Vatican and the Lateran. In those that orientated, it 
was found on the right hand of the entrance, as was the 
ancient sacristy of St. Mary in Cosmedin. 1 

On arriving at a church to celebrate a stational mass, 
the pope did not go at once to the altar, but first entered 
the sacristy and changed his clothes for those he was to 
wear at the mass. Thither his sedan chair had been 
previously brought by the lay-chamberlain, in which he 
sat during the vesting ; but this direction supposes that 
the pope rode on horseback to the church. When he did 
not, it would appear that he was carried there in his chair. 

1 Mabillon, Museum Italicum, ii, p. xxii. 


viii. The Gates. 

In the Greek Church the Iconstasis, or screen between 
the sanctuary and the quire, has three gates or doors. 
Similarly the basilican screen, which, however, was much 
lower than the Iconstasis, had three gates, called rugae : 
the centre pair, in caput presbyterii, sometimes called rugae 
maiores : and one on either side, a parte virorum, and a 
parte mulierum}- St. Paulinus of Nola 2 refers to these 
three gates in his description of his new basilica of St. 

The gates set up in other parts of the church are also 
described in the Liber Pontificals as rugae. 

ix. The Sacred Vessels. 

The vessels used for the Communion were the paten, 
to hold the bread, and chalices and other cups to hold the 
wine and water. 

The Liber Pontificalis mentions patens of gold and of 
silver, and of weights varying from 5 to 30 Ibs. They 
are generally supposed to have been round ; Gregory IV 
(827-844), however, gave to St. Mary's in Via Lata one 
that was octagonal, weighing 6 Ibs. Obviously those 
weighing 20 or 30 Ibs. were far too heavy to carry 
about laden with loaves : they were employed to hold 
them on the altar until the fraction. 3 

We encounter several sorts of chalices or cups. First 
of all the chalices. In the Liber Pontificalis they are 
mentioned both of gold and of silver, and of all weights 
from i to 58 Ibs. It would be even more impossible 
to carry about for communicating a full chalice of the 
latter weight than the heavy patens ; they served to 

1 L. Duchesne, Liber Pontificalis^ Paris, 1886 ; t. i, p. 522. 

2 Poema xxr, De S. Felice Natal. Carmen X, 1. 19: Trinaque cancellis 
currentibus ostia pandunt. 

3 L. Duchesne, Liber Pontif calls, t. i, p. cxliv. 


[To face page 24 

Ordo Romaniis I.] 


contain the wine on the altar. The smaller chalices 
are described as calices minister idles ; evidently much the 
same as we now use, and for the same purpose. At 
public masses the pope consecrated a large two-handled 
chalice, a small quantity of the wine from which was 
poured into the bowls or scyphi, and probably the smaller 
chalices as well, which contained unconsecrated wine. 

These scyphi, made of gold or of silver, and weighing 
anything from 4 to 50 Ibs., are frequently mentioned in 
the Liber Pontificalis. 

Clovis is said, in the Life of Hormisda (514-523), to 
have given six silvern scyphi for stations cum ducibus, where 
the latter word seems to mean the pugillares of our Ordo, 
or metal tubes used for communicating the people with 
the consecrated wine. 

Amae were evidently large flagons. Duchesne points 
out that they had one at the Lateran which contained one 
medimnus or 52*5 litres, and that they are known even as 
large as three medimni, or 157*5 litres. 1 Those mentioned 
in the Liber Pontificalis generally weigh 10 or 15 Ibs. 
Gregory IV (827-844) made six silver amae, which were 
sent to every stational mass. They are not the same as 
amulae, the small cruets in which the people offered their 
wine for the communion, and which were emptied into 
the larger chalice. Hadrian gave an amula offertoria 
weighing 67 Ibs., and Gregory III a pair of amulae^ 
presumably to hold the pope's offering of wine at solemn 

The communion-wine was passed through strainers, 
colatoria or cola. One 2 is mentioned in the inventory, 
dated 47 1 , known as the Charta Cornutiana, and a few are 
enumerated in the Liber Pontificalis? 

We have mention also of certain vessels called gemel- 
/ioneSy but are told nothing of their use. Gregory IV 
(827-844) had made eight vessels of this name, each 

1 L. Duchesne, Liber Pontif calls, Paris, 1886 ; t. i, p. cxliv. 

2 J. Mabillon, De re Diplomatica, Luteciae Parisiorum, 1681 ; p. 462. 

3 e.g. Leo III : Vasa colatoria argentea deaurata pens, libras iv et uncias iii. 


weighing 2 Ibs. Agnellus l in his Liber Pontificalis of 
the bishops of Ravenna mentions a vessel which he calls 
a gemella^ that held 200 gold pieces : this seems to be a 
similar sort of vessel. 

Under Hilarus (461-467) a complete service of sacred 
vessels was provided, which went round to the various 
churches in the city of Rome where the stational mass 
was appointed to be held : 2 this service was deposited 
at. the Lateran or at St. Mary Major's. Leo III (795- 
8 1 6) provided 24 ministerial chalices (communicates) of 
purest silver, which were taken round to various stations 
by the collets. 

Amalar of Metz states that at Rome the chalice was 
brought to the altar wrapped in a sudary, which was 
afterwards laid on the corner of the altar ; and that the 
oblation-loaf was arranged by the side of the chalice, and not 
in front of it. 3 He seems to be speaking here of ordinary 
masses with few communicants and not of a stational 
mass with a large number : for then there were several 
patens standing on the altar crowded with oblation-loaves. 

x. Liturgical Costume. 

The liturgical vestments of the Christian ministry are 
merely the costume worn by civilians of the Roman 
empire in the fifth and sixth centuries. In the days 
of Pope Celestine (423-432) there was at Rome no 
liturgical costume distinct from that of a lay civilian ; in 
Gaul there was, however, a tendency to differentiate 
between the lay and the clerical garb, which Celestine 
emphatically condemned. 

1 In vita sancti Martini (L. A. Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, Milan, 
1713; t. ii, p. 182) 

2 In urbe Roma constituit ministeria qui circuirent constitutas stationes ; and 
see also t. i, p. cliii, in Duchesne's edition of Liber Pontificalis. 

3 Amalarius, De ecclesiastic'u Officiis Liber, praefatio altera (towards the end); 
Migne, P.L., cv, yyz. 


[To face page 27 

H M O 

Onto Romanns I.] 


c We have been informed,' he says, ' that certain bishops 
(sacer dotes) of the Lord are devoting themselves rather to super- 
stitious observances in dress, than to purity of thought and of 
faith. But it is not to be wondered at that the custom of 
the Church should be broken by those who have not grown 
up in the Church, but, coming in by another road, have 
introduced with themselves into the Church, these things 
which they had in another mode of life. Wrapped in a pallium 
and with loins girded, they think that they fulfil the trust- 
worthiness of Scripture, not in the spirit but in the letter. But 
if those things were ordered so that they might be kept 
in such-wise, why do they not equally carry out those that 
follow, that they should hold lighted lamps in their hands 
together with a staff? Those words have a mystery of their 
own, and to intelligent persons are so clear, that they may 
be kept according to a more fitting interpretation. For in 
girding the loins is indicated chastity, in the staff pastoral rule, 
in the lighted lamps the brightness of good works, of which 
it is said, Let your works shine. Yet perchance those who dwell 
in remote places and live far from the rest of mankind may 
wear this costume, following custom rather than reason. 
Whence came this custom in the Gallican Churches, so that 
the custom of so many years and of such bishops is changed 
for another costume ? We must be distinguished from the 
common people and the rest by our learning, and not by our 
clothes ; by our mode of life, and not by our costume ; by 
purity of mind, and not by elegance of dress. For if we begin 
to busy ourselves with novelties, we shall tread under foot the 
traditions handed down to us from the fathers in order to make 
room for worthless superstitions.' 1 

In 397 a law was promulgated which was afterwards 
included in Codex Theodosianus (xiv : x : i), which orders 
senators to wear the peaceful dress of colobium and paenula. 
The class of officiales also was commanded to wear the 
paenula as part of full dress, and their inner garment was 
to be girded. 

The paenula was a large cloak, reaching to below the 
knees, behind and before, with a hole for the head 

1 Epistle IV, to the bishops of the provinces of Vienne nnd Narbonne (Labb6 
and Cossart and Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova Collectio, Florence, 1764; t. iv, 
col. 431). 


to pass through ; just like, in fact, the full Gothic 
chasuble of later days. The colobium was a long tunic 
reaching nearly to the feet with, if any, only very short 
sleeves : the tunica dalmatica^ on the other hand, had 
wide sleeves. 

The paenula worn over a dalmatic may be seen in the 
picture opposite, showing St. Gregory the Great and 
his father and mother. It may be observed that St. 
Gregory the bishop and his father Gordianus the senator 
are dressed exactly alike, and that the bishop is only 
distinguished from the senator by the pallium or scarf 
thrown around his shoulders and the book of the gospels 
which he carries in his hand. 

Towards the end of the fourth century Roman deacons 
began to wear tunicae dalmaticae instead of colobia in church ; 
and by the end of the following century it had become 
a recognized badge of the pope and his clergy. 1 When 
Pope Symmachus (498-514) sent a pallium to St. 
Caesarius of Aries, he at the same time 2 granted to the 
deacons of Aries the privilege of wearing dalmatics ad 
Romanae instar ecclesiae. St. Gregory the Great 3 granted 
a similar privilege to Aregius, bishop of Gap, and to 
his archdeacon, and sent the dalmatics by Abbot Cyriacus 
for them to wear. In the middle of the sixth century 
we find the bishop of Ravenna and his clergy all wearing 
the same in the mosaic at St. Vitalis. 4 

While the paenula, planeta, and casula are apparently 
the same garment, there may originally have been 
differences in the quality of their material. The colobium 
and dalmatic, as we have seen, differed in the shape of 
their sleeves, and the dalmatic had a stripe passing over 
each shoulder and down the back and front, and some- 

1 St. Gregory mentions a dalmatic as early as the time of Symmachus, in 
Dialogorum Liber IV ': cap. xl ; Of era, ii, 444. 

2 Vita S. Caesarii Arelatensis, Lib. I : c. iv, in Ada Sanctorum Holland. ; August. 
17: t. v, 71. 

3 Ep. cvii: Lib. IX: Indict, n ; Opera, ii, 1012. 

4 See Plate ii. 


[To face page 2g 




Ordo Romanits I] 


times one around the ends of the sleeves ; these may be 
seen in the pictures. 

According to the Roman Ordines, all ranks of the 
clergy, from the pope down to the collets, wore a tunic 
with a planet over it. We must note this difference, 
however, in time of liturgical celebration. The pope 
not only entered wearing his planet, but kept it on during 
the whole time that he was engaged in offering the 
Eucharistic Sacrifice, whatever he might be doing. Not 
so the deacons ; who, on arriving in the presbytery 
before the altar, divested themselves of their planets and 
gave them to one of the district-collets to take care of 
for the rest of the service. So it is ordered in Ordo 
Romanus /, 8, and in the Ordo of St. Amand, at solemn 
mass. A change, however, had taken place when 
Amalar of Metz visited Rome in 831 : for he specially 
notes that during the verse of the Alleluia the deacon 
who was about to read the gospel put off his planet, and 
rolling it on his left shoulder, passed its two ends, 
together with his stole, across and under his right arm, 
fastening them there ; and so wore them until the pope 
departed from the altar after mass. 1 Obviously this was 
done to free the arms as soon as the time came for the 
performance of the deacon's special duties. 

According to the St. Amand Ordo, when the subdeacon 
who is precentor sees that the deacons are removing 
their planets, he too divests himself of his, and a quire- 
collet takes charge of it. Later, this Ordo appears to 
direct that the singer of the responsorial psalm should 
remove his planet and give it to a collet before he mounts 
the ambo ; but the passage is corrupt, and some words 
are missing. 

Both deacons and sub-deacons, in the St. Amand Ordo, 
wear albs and planets when the pope does not wear his 
dalmatic : when he is vested in it, the deacons also wear 
dalmatics, and the sub-deacons wrap amices around their 

1 Amalar, De eccleiiasticis Officiis, Praefatio altera, prope finem : Migne, P.L., 

cv, 99 z. 


necks and put on such white tunics as they may have. 
St. Gregory the Great ordered the subdeacons to proceed 
txspoliatoS) without their planets : in doing which he 
claims to have revived an ancient practice of the Church 
of Rome which had been altered by some bishop 
unknown. 1 But his restoration was not permanent : 
in Or do I and the St. Amand Or do the subdeacons wear 
their planets. 

In Or do III the pontiff's vestments are enumerated 
as in Or do /, but with explanations : 2 they are c the linea^ 
the ambolagium, i.e. the amice, which is called the 
humerale^ the linen dalmatic, which we call the alb, the 
girdle, the dalmatic, the orarium, and the planet/ The 
linen dalmatic is evidently the precursor of the alb : but 
in Ordo I the girdle was put on before the linen dalmatic. 
The Ravennese mosaic shows the linen dalmatic ungirded. 

The Liber Pontificalis at the beginning of the sixth 
century mentions an ensign of position called the pallium 
linostimum, as worn on the left arm by the Roman 
deacons, and even those of the suburbicarian churches. 
Duchesne has shown clearly that this ornament 3 is the 
mappula or handkerchief, carried folded on the left arm 
with the ends pendant, just like the maniple of to-day. 
It was used in the act of presenting anything, to shield 
the same from contact with the hand. 

There was another mappula which was used only by the 
clergy of the Church of Rome, by those to whom some 
pope had granted the privilege. Ordo IX speaks of it 4 
under the name of linteum vellosum, which it was customary 
to place on the horse's saddle. It was, in fact, merely an 
ornamental saddle-cloth ; but the privilege of using it 
was much sought after. 5 

The pallium was a long scarf draped about the bishop's 

1 See the letter to John, bishop of Syracuse, given on p. 68. 

2 n. 6 : Mabillon, Museum Italicum, ii, 54. 

' OrigineS) 369. 4 Museum Italicum , ii, 89. 

5 See St. Gregory's Letters, Lib. Ill: Epp. Ivi, Ivii : Opera, t. ii, 668, 669. 
And see the Life of Conon (686) in Liber Pontificalis. 


shoulders, with the two ends hanging down behind and 
before. The popes had adopted this ensign from the end 
of the fifth century. The bishop of Ostia also wore one, 
and the bishops of Ravenna used them in the middle of 
the sixth century. 1 Symmachus sent one to St. Caesarius 
of Aries, and his successors continued to receive the 
pallium. St. Gregory sent the pallium to several bishops. 2 

At first the pallium was granted by the emperor, and 
the inventor of the Donation of Constantine looks upon 
it in that light at the end of the eighth century, when he 
makes Constantine give St. Sylvester ' the superhumeral, 
viz. the lorum which he is accustomed to throw around 
the imperial neck.' In the sixth century the popes, when 
they bestowed the pallium on bishops who were not 
subjects of the Byzantine emperor, asked the permission 
of the emperor to do so. Maur, archbishop of Ravenna, 
in the seventh century asked for and obtained the 
pallium from the Emperor Constantine II. Reparatus 
acted similarly. 

Duchesne has shown clearly that the episcopal pallium 
is an ensign of honour identical with the pallium of the 
consul as seen represented in the consular diptychs, where 
that official appears in the most important act of his 
inauguration, at the moment when he is giving the signal 
for the horses to start in the arena, by throwing down his 
handkerchief or mappula. It is an official ensign, granted 
originally by the emperors ; and Duchesne 3 shows that 
its origin must be sought rather in the fourth century 
than in the fifth. In the early period of its use it was the 
ensign of episcopal power. He further points out that 
when Felix IV (526-530) wished to invest his successor 
before his death, he sent him his pallium ; and that when 
a pontiff was deposed his pallium was taken from him. 

The stole was another distinguishing mark of dignity, 

1 Agnellus, Liber Ponttficalis Ravennae (V"ita S. Mauri) in L. A. Muratori, 
Rerum Italicarum Scriftores, Milan, 1723; t. ii, pars i, pp. 143, 148. 

2 Origines du Quite Chretien, Paris, 1898 ; pp. 372 sq. 

3 Ibid., p. 374. 


worn by presbyters and deacons. But though in use in 
both east and west at the time of Ordo I, it was not used 
at Rome until much later. The deacon wore his stole 
over the left shoulder, hanging down behind and before : 
the presbyter around the neck, with both ends hanging in 
front. Duchesne traces the stole, the orarium, the epitra- 
chelium, the omophorium and the pallium, alike to a 
common origin. He regards them as first introduced 
into ecclesiastical use during the fourth century, and to be 
scarves of office analogous to the similar civil insignia 
mentioned in the Theodosian Code. 1 

xi. Stations. 

A stational mass or station was one whereat the whole 
local Church was present (or represented), from the 
bishop to the layfolk ; and was performed with the 
greatest solemnity. 

Before the time of St. Gregory the Great, there was no 
settled cursus of stations ; but he arranged a definite order, 
dividing them amongst the basilicas, titular churches ; 2 
and even some of the chapels attached to hostelries and 
cemeteries seem to have had stations held in them, for St. 
Gregory has left us a sermon which he preached at the 
oratory of St. Pancras at such a mass. 3 Gregory II filled 
up the Thursdays in Lent, which were hitherto left 
vacant. 4 

The absence of a settled course of stations gives a 
reason for the custom of announcing the next place of 
meeting at each public mass. Originally announced by 
one of the notaries, at the time of Ordo I it had become 
general for the archdeacon to make the proclamation. 

1 Duchesne, Origins* , 376 sq. 

2 Life, by John the Deacon, Lib. II: cap. 18 ; S. Gregorii, Opera, Parisiis, 1705 ; 
t. iv, col. 50. 

3 Lib. II: Homilia xxvii ; ibid. t. i, col. 1560^7. 

4 Vita Gregorii II in Liber Pontif calls. 


Still, we find an instance of the notary 1 fulfilling this 
duty as late as the time of Leo III, when it is said to be 
* according to ancient tradition.' 

The origin of announcing the station during the Com- 
munion is probably to be found in the days of persecution, 
when absolute secrecy as to the next meeting was very 
needful ; for at that time there was the least likelihood 
of strangers being present to hear. 

There was a special service of altar-plate, kept only for 
the stational masses, as early as the days of Hilarus (461- 
467). This was brought at an early hour from the 
Lateran or St. Mary Major, and was preceded, according 
to Mabillon, by the stational cross. 2 

Charles the Great presented a large processional cross 
of gold to Leo III, which was stolen in the time of Pope 
Paschal. Leo IV (847-855) gave another in its stead, 
which was carried c as was anciently the custom/ by a 
subdeacon, before the pope, in Litany-processions. 3 

xii. Hebdomadary Bishops. 

Pope Stephen III (768-772) ordained that the seven 
hebdomadary cardinal bishops, who kept solemn mass in 
the church of the Saviour (/'. e. the Lateran Basilica), should 
celebrate at the altar of blessed Peter, and say Gloria in 
excelsis Deo, according to the Liber Pontificalis. Each 
bishop took a week at a time. The seven bishops were 
those of Ostia, St. Rufina, Porto, Albano, Tusculum, 
Sabina, and Preneste. The episcopus prior in later days 
was he of Ostia, whose privilege it was to bless and 
consecrate the pope, 4 and who wore the pallium. 

1 Liber Pontifcalis, ed. Duchesne, ii, 4. 2 Museum Italicum, ii, p. xxxiii. 

3 Quae mos erat ut in laetaniis ante sacratissimum Pontificem ipsa procederet 
(Vita Leonis ///). 

4 See Life of St. Marcus (336) in Liber Pontificalis : ' Hie constituit ut episcopus 
Ostiensis, qui consecrat episcopum Urbis, pallio uteretur, et ab eodem episcopo 
Urbis Romae consecraretur.' 



xiii. Hebdomadary Presbyters. 

An hebdomadary presbyter was one who performed his 
duties somewhere for a week at a time ; as we should 
now say, he was c in residence,' but for one week at a 
time, just as the canons of our cathedrals are ' in residence ' 
for three months at a time every year. Mgr. Duchesne 
states that there is good ground for distinguishing him 
absolutely from the hebdomadary bishops of the Lateran 
Basilica. 1 He is mentioned in Or do I: n. 15, as handing 
(with the deacons) the offering-loaves to the pope. 

xiv. De aeons > and their Diaconiae (Hostelries). 

' There are but seven deacons at Rome, answering 
precisely to the number ordained by the Apostles,' wrote 
Sozomen 2 in the middle of the fifth century, * whereas in 
other Churches the number of deacons is unlimited.' He 
evidently had in mind the seven district-deacons of Rome, 
when he thus wrote. At an early period the city was 
divided for ecclesiastical purposes into seven districts or 
wards, to each of which was allotted a deacon, under 
whom was placed a subdeacon and a certain number of 
collets. To them pertained the care of the sick and the 
poor, and the administration of charity generally. 

The building whereat this dispensation of alms and 
food usually took place was called a Diaconia or Hostelry. 
To each of these was annexed a chapel or oratory, which 
in later times gave a tide to one of the cardinal-deacons. 
In the seventh century these hostelries were organized by 
monks, 3 whose superior was entitled Pater diaconiae, or 

1 In a private letter to the writer. 

2 Sozomen, Hist. Eccles., Lib. VII: cap. xix. 

8 L. Duchesne, Liber Pontifcalis , Paris, 1886 ; t. i, p. 364, n. 7. 


Dispensator. 1 Popes Bennet II (684-685) and John V 
(685-686) are recorded to have left sums of gold to the 
whole clergy, the monks of the hostelry, and the sextons. 
Mabillon mentions an inscription with the name of 
Theodatus, chief notary (or chancellor) of the holy 
apostolic See, and Pater diaconiae Sancti Angeli in Piscina, 
in the time of Gregory II (7 14-73 1). 2 

It is not quite clear when these charitable institutions 
were first founded in Rome, but we do not hear of them 
under the title of Diaconiae before the seventh century. 
As Xenodochia or caravanserais, they were known to St. 
Gregory the Great. 3 

At Rome the monks of the hostelries were subordinate 
to their district-deacon. 

In the eighth century some at least of these hostelries 
had baths attached to them for the use of travellers and 
others. Pope Hadrian (772-795) ordained that every 
Thursday there should be a procession from the hostelry 
to the bath, with singing of psalms by the way, and that 
there the poor should be relieved and given alms. It 
is recorded of both Hadrian and Gregory III (731-742) 
that they endowed hostelries, besides restoring many old 
ones that had fallen into disrepair, and building new 

Although for a long period there were but seven 
deacons of Rome, their number was increased to eighteen 
from the time of Hononus II, and later on to twenty. 
Of these, six were known as palatine-deacons, and were 
attached to the basilica of St. John 4 in the Lateran Palace : 

1 So in Liber Pontificalis , Life of Hadrian. Liber Diurnus, cap. 7: tit. 17: ' Sed 
Dispensator qui pro tempore fuerit in eodem venerabili Diaconia,' etc. Epitaph 
of Theodinus, district-subdeacon, Rector of the Apostolic See, and Dispensator of 
the Hostelry of St. Andrew, Naples, in Ducange, Glossarium, Niort, 1884; t. iii, 
pp. 95-6. 

2 Mabillon, Museum Italicum, t. ii, p. xvii. 

3 e. g. Epistles, Lib. XII : Epp. 10, 39 ; Lib. XIV : Ep. 2 (Opera Omnia, Parisiis, 
1705; t. ii, 1187, 1207, 1259). 

4 Baronius, Annales Ecclcsiastici, sub anno 1057, num. xxi. Mabillon, Museum 
Italicum, ii, 567, and Comment., p. xvii 


the rest were attached to districts. The former alone had 
the privilege of reading the liturgical gospel at the Lateran 
Basilica ; the others did the same at the stational masses 
held in other basilicas and churches. 

The statement that there were only seven deacons in 
the Church of Rome is true so far as it refers to the 
district-deacons, presided over by the archdeacon of 
Rome: but there were other deacons attached to the 
titular (or as we should now say, parish) churches. 1 

The small number of Roman deacons, St. Jerome tells 
us, made them more honourable than the large body of 
presbyters; and, consequently, the deacons gave them- 
selves airs, and looked down on mere presbyters with 
feelings of contempt. They even presumed to bless the 
food at banquets although a presbyter was present, so 
inflated with their own importance did they become ; 
and it would seem that the presbyters resented their 
insolence so keenly, that at last they refused to stand 
when the deacons read the liturgical gospel, and in con- 
sequence Anastasius decreed that whensoever the holy 
gospels were recited, priests should not sit, but stand 
with bowed heads (curvty. 2 

The Roman deacons before the time of St. Gregory 
the Great were responsible for singing the anthems, etc. ; 
but in consequence of its happening that a good voice 
was too often thought more of than good morals, he 
forbade them to do more than chant the liturgical gospel, 
leaving the rest of the singing to the subdeacons and 
other minor orders. 3 

xv. Holy Orders. 

The bestowal of Holy Orders by the Roman Church 
was characterized by great simplicity. 

Ordinations of presbyters and deacons always took 

1 Museum Italicum, ii, xvii. 

2 See Baronius, Annalcs Ecclesiastic}, sub anno 402, nn. xliv sq. 
8 Concilium Romanum 595, canon i. 


[To face page 36 


Ordo Romamis I] 



place at a solemn stational mass, 1 on an Ember-Sabbath ; 
and in the fifth and sixth centuries it was more frequently 
that in December. 2 On the Wednesday before at the 
basilica of St. Mary Major, and on the Friday at that 
of the Apostles, before the lessons, a scriniarius (a par- 
ticular class of notary) demanded thrice from the ambo 
whether any one present had a charge to bring against 
any of the candidates. 3 The ordinations took place next 
day, at the Vatican Basilica. The mass proceeded (with 
the omission of the Kyries from their usual place) until 
the end of the grail or responsory psalm sung after the 
epistle. Then the subdeacons put off their planets, and 
the pope invited the clergy and people to pray for the 
candidates. The choir then chanted the litany ; after which, 
the pope laid his hands on each candidate and pronounced 
the collect and eucharistic prayer of ordination. The 
new deacon then received the kiss from the pope and the 
bishops and presbyters, and passed to the right hand of 
the bishops with the other deacons. Then one of the 
newly ordained deacons read the gospel ; and the mass 
proceeded as usual. 

The ordination of a presbyter was similar : different 
prayers of ordination were used, and instead of having 
a planet removed, he put one on, after taking off his 

The same took place at the consecration of a bishop : 
the prayers, of course, were different, and it always was 
performed on some Sunday. 

xvi. Subdeacons. 

Under each district-deacon there was a subdeacon ; these 
district-subdeacons chaunted the lessons and liturgical 
epistles at the stational masses. Besides these there were 

1 Ordo IX: i: < Diaconi vero atque presbyteri numquam nisi in publica 
ordinatione' (Museum Italicum, ii, 89-90). Ordo of St. Amand in Duchesne, 
Origines, 458 sq. 

2 According to the records in Liber Pontificalis. 

3 Ordo of St. Amand in Duchesne, Origines, 459. 


seven others who belonged to the Schola Cantorum^ of 
whom more will be said later ; and by the eleventh 
century there were also seven palatine-subdeacons, whose 
duties were confined to the Lateran Basilica. 1 

Two subdeacons had special titles: subdiaconus obla- 
tionariuS) the subdeacon-oblationer, who from the time of 
Gregory III (731-742) brought the pope's offerings 
from the Lateran Palace to the church where the stational 
mass was held, and presented them in the pope's behalf 
to the archdeacon at the offertory. The other was sub- 
diaconus sequens or qui sequitur, the subdeacon-attendant. 
In the Ordo of St. Amand he is called subdiaconus teperita^ 
whatever that may mean. His special duties were, amongst 
others, to bring in the book of the gospels and lay it on 
the altar, to carry the censer before the pope in the pro- 
cession to and from the altar, and to receive the offering 
of water for making the chalice from the ruler of the 
choir. It is probable that he was merely chosen from 
among the other subdeacons just for the day : though 
according to n. 19 of Ordo I there would seem to have 
been several of them. And Boniface V (617-626) 
ordained that in the Lateran the collets should no longer 
assist the deacons in baptizing, but that their place should 
be taken by the subdeacon-attendants. Sequens is prob- 
ably a translation of the Greek axoXou0o : so that this 
class of subdeacon may be regarded as a superior type 
of collet, specially appointed on account of the peculiar 
dignity of the Roman bishop. 

xvii. Collets. 

The collet (acolyte, acolitus, axoXauflos) was permitted 
to carry the vessels with the loaves and wine, and was 
charged with ministering to presbyters. At solemn masses 
the collets carried the consecrated loaves in their linen 

1 Baronius, Annales Eccletiastici, sub anno 1057, num. xxi. Museum Italicum, ii, 
Comment,, xviii, and 567. 



sacks to the presbyters for them to perform the fraction 
for communion. Seven of their number carried lighted 
candles before the pope, as he went from the sacristy 
to the altar to sing mass, and again when he returned. 

In 251 Pope Cornelius 1 wrote a letter to Fabius bishop 
of Antioch, in which he gives the number of his clergy. 
There were then forty-six presbyters, seven deacons, 
seven subdeacons, forty-two collets, and fifty-two in- 
ferior clerks (exorcists, readers, door wardens). Each of 
the seven ecclesiastical districts thus contained one deacon, 
one subdeacon, and six collets. 

Some of the collets seem to have been stationed during 
a solemn mass at the gate of the quire. How long they 
stayed there we are not told, but as the pope departed 
from the altar to the sacristy after mass, he blessed the 
various groups of clergy in turn ; and the last of these 
inside the presbytery were the collets qui rugam observant. 
Perhaps the passage only means that they awaited the 
pope at that spot. 

xviii. Minor Orders. 

The conferring of the three lowest degrees of minor 
order in the Roman Church took place in the Schola 
Can forum; and the ceremonies, if any, were quite private. 2 
The child after leaving the Schola was made collet at some 
mass, generally, if not always, at a private mass; and 
just before communion he was brought to the pope, or 
some one of the hebdomadary bishops, and given a linen 
sack. Bowing down to the ground before the bishop, he 
received his blessing, and so became a collet. 3 

The ordination of a subdeacon was exactly similar: 
he was given a chalice instead of a sack, but the blessing 
was the same. 4 

1 Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, Lib. VI : cap. xliii. 

2 Duchesne, Origines, 339. 3 Museum Italicum, ii, 85, 89. 

4 Museum Italicum, ii, 85, 89 (quanJo et ubi libitum fuerit}. Letter of John the 
Roman Deacon (early sixth century) to Senarius, in Migne, P.L., lix, 405. 


This blessing is probably not older than the seventh 
century, and contains no reference whatever to the order 
conferred ; so that before that time these two orders were 
bestowed merely by the giving of the signs of office 1 
the sack, or the chalice. 

xix. College of Singers. 

The Schola Cantorum^ or College of Singers, was 
founded, so John the Deacon tells us, by St. Gregory the 
Great, who provided it with endowments and two houses, 
one by the steps of St. Peter's, and the other by the 
Lateran Palace ; where could be seen (in that author's 
time) the couch on which St. Gregory lay whilst teaching, 
and the whip wherewith he used to correct and enforce 
order amongst the boys, together with that pope's 
Antiphoner. 2 

In the Schola the boys were trained and brought up, 
passing through the first three minor orders during their 
life there. 3 Several of the popes came from amongst the 
children of the Schola Cantorum.^ The boys or youths 
left the College with the grade of collet. 5 In the eighth 
and ninth centuries the Schola seems to have been 
recruited almost entirely from orphans, which fact gave it 
the tide Orphanotrophium, applied to it in those days. 6 
The building was almost in ruins in the time of Pope 
Sergius II (844-847), one of the popes there educated, 
and it was rebuilt by him. 

Besides the infantes or children of the choir, belonging 
to the Schola^ there were paraphonistae, or adult singers, 
one of whom sang the responsory psalm or grail, and 

1 Job n the Deacon : hie apud nos or Jo est, ut, accepto sacratissimo callce in quo consuevit 
pontifex dominici sanguinis immolare mysterium, subdiaconus iam dicatur. 

2 Life, Lib. I : cap. vi, in S. Gregorii Opera, iv, 47. 

3 Duchesne, Origincs, 339. 

4 e.g. Sergius 1 (687) and Sergius II (844). 

5 Duchesne, Liber Pontifcalis, i, 322. 6 e.g. in Life of Sergius II. 


another the Alleluia, at mass ; and seven subdeacons. 
Perhaps these and the paraphonistae were the same. 

We hear of four officials in the choir : ( i ) Prior 
Scholae, sometimes called Primus Scholae, and later on 
Primicerius Scholae Cantor um. This was the head of the 
Schola, and corresponds to the precentor of later days. 
(2) Secundus Scholae ', who appears to be the forerunner of 
the succentor of later times ; (3) Tertius Scholae, apparently 
a sort of vice-succentor, but of whom nothing is really 
known save his title ; and (4) Archiparaphonista, other- 
wise called Quartus Scholae, the arch-chorister, who seems 
to be the same as the Rector Chori, or ruler of the choir, 
of our English rites, the Gustos Chori of Laon, and the 
Archichorister of Bayeux. Our Ordo states that it was his 
business to inform the pontiff on matters relating to the 

In 595 St. Gregory the Great decreed that in future 
the deacons of the Roman Church should not be allowed 
to sing anything except the liturgical gospels ; the psalms 
and other scripture lessons were to be rendered by the 
subdeacons, or, if need be, by other minor orders. The 
reason for this reform was that the deacons had paid more 
attention to the cultivation of their vocal powers than 
their morals, to the neglect also of their more important 
duties ; and it too often happened that whilst they 
delighted the people with their singing, they offended 
God with their ill-living. 1 

xx. Cubicularii. 

In Mabillon's Ordo IX, printed from an ancient MS 
of St. Gallen, 2 and belonging perhaps to the time of Leo 
III (795-8 1 6), 3 we are told that if any boys who could 
sing well were found in any school, they were removed 
thence, and brought up in the Schola Cantorum, and 

1 Cone. Rom. 595, can. i. 

2 Museum Italicum, ii, 89. 3 Ibid., 93, note a. 


afterwards were made cubicularii. But if they were sons 
of the nobility, they were immediately brought up in the 
Cubiculum, and not first sent to the Schola Cantorum. After 
that they received the first benediction from the arch- 
deacon, so that they might use the linteum vellosum which 
it was customary to place over the saddle of their horse. 

The Liber Pontificalis tells us that Gregory II (714) 
was brought up from an early age in the Lateran Palace 
(Patriarchio) : the same authority says of Stephen II 
(752), that, after his father's death, he was left as a small 
boy in venerabili cubiculo Lateranensi. His younger 
cousin and successor, Paul I (757), was also brought up 
with him in the Lateran Palace. Stephen V (816) was 
brought up in the same place. 

It would thus appear that the cubicularii were the 
boys who were brought up in the Lateran Palace with a 
view to their taking holy orders. 

The lay cubicularii of whom we read were evidently 
chamberlains, but I have not been able to find out any- 
thing more concerning them and their duties than what is 
mentioned in Ordo I. 

In the time of St. Gregory the Great a Roman Synod 
appointed that certain persons, chosen from among the 
clerks or the monks, should attend to the service of the 
pontiffs cubiculum, and be witnesses of his life and con- 
versation and learn from his example. The lay cubicularii 
above mentioned may be a development from these. 

xxi. The Papal-Vicar. Vicedominus. 

Every bishop was bound to have an oeconomus, or 
administrator, who looked after the social and domestic 
side of the bishop's duties, governed his house, received 
guests, and so on. St. Gregory 1 mentions two cases of 
the appointment of a deacon to this office, in one instance 
combining it with that of major-domo. In the life of 

1 Ep. xi: Lib. I: Indict. IX: Of era, ii, 498, and Ep. Ixxi : Lib. XI; ii, 1172. 


Pope Vigilius we read of one Ampliatus, presbyter, and 
his vicedominus ; and in that of Constantinus of Saul, 
deacon and vicedominus. Agnellus 1 makes mention of 
one, Leo, diaconus, et vicedominus of Pope Stephen III. 
Probably, then, this official was always in deacon's orders 
at least, and sometimes a presbyter. 

The Major-domos appear to have had much the same 
duties. Maiores domus Ecclesiae Romanae seem to have 
been concerned with the government of the Lateran 
Palace : skilled men of business, according to Ducange. 2 
Probably they were immediately responsible to the Vice- 
dominus. It does not appear that they were clergymen. 

xxii. College of Notaries. 

Notaries were men skilled in writing notae, or short- 
hand, at which they must have attained almost as great 
dexterity as their successors in modern times. Martial 3 
wrote of one : 

' Swiftly the speaker's words pour forth, but your hand is yet 
swifter ; 

Scarcely the tongue has ceased, than has the hand set it down.' 

Seneca, 4 too, bears witness to the speed with which 
notaries took down speeches. The Emperor Titus 5 is 
recorded to. have been a most rapid shorthand writer, as 
well as being so skilful in imitating other person's hand- 
writing that he might easily have become a forger. 

Under the emperors notaries developed into secre- 
taries, or Civil Service clerks. We read of three classes 
of such : 6 (i) Tribune notaries, (2) Praetorian notaries, 
and (3) Domestic notaries. At their head was an important 

1 L. A. Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriftores, Milan, 1723 ; t. ii, pars i, p. 174. 

2 Sub voct, MAIORDOMUS. 

3 M. Val. Martialis, Epigrammaton, Lib. XIV: n. ccviii. 

4 L. A. Seneca, Opera Omnia, epist. xc, Antwerpiae, 1651 ; p. 578. Cnf. Aur. 
Prudentius, Passio Cassiani Martyris, 11. 21 sq, 

5 Suetonius, Titus, iii. 

6 J. G. Graevius, Thesaurus Antiquitatum Romanarum, Traiect. ad Rhen., et Lugd. 
Batavor., 1698; t. vii, 1576. 


official called Primicerius notariorum, chief secretary or 
chancellor. He was of the rank of Spectabilis, like the 
Tribune notaries. 

The Church, particularly at Rome, availed herself of 
both of these types of notary. The Liber Pontificalis 
credits St. Clement with having apportioned Chris- 
tian notaries among the seven ecclesiastical districts 
of Rome, to record the deeds of those who were 
martyred. St. Anterus (227-233) is said by the same 
authority to have diligently sought out the accounts of 
the passions of martyrs from the notaries, and to have 
stored them up in the churches ; for which he was himself 
martyred by the prefect Maximus. To Fabian (238-254) 
is attributed the division of the seven districts of Rome 
among the seven deacons, and the appointment of seven 
subdeacons to the same, who superintended the gathering 
of the different Acta Martyrum into one work. This 
pope was, according to some authorities, the originator of 
the seven districts. St. Julius (336-352) appears to have 
consolidated the notaries into a Chancery of the Roman 
See, under a Primicerius notariorum, giving this office 
control over the ecclesiastical records, pleadings, donations, 
leases, wills, and such-like documents. 

Evodius x mentions a young man who was skilful both 
in short and longhand writing, strenuus in notis, et in 
scribendo bene laboriosus, and was consequently a useful 
secretary. The larger churches, at any rate, seem to 
have had notaries attached to them who took down the 
sermons in shorthand ; they are mentioned by St. Austin, 2 
who says that they recorded both his sermons and the 
applause of his hearers. St. Jerome 3 wrote to him in 
416 from Palestine, complaining of the lack of notaries 
who understood Latin. These were merely shorthand- 
clerks, or secretaries. 

1 Letter to St. Austin of Hippo (Ep. 158), in his Opera, Antwerpiae, 1700; 
t. ii, 425. 

2 Epist. 213 : ii : September 26, 426 (Opera Omnia, t. ii, col. 600) 

3 Epist. 172 {Ibid., t. ii, col. 465). 


But the notaries of the Roman See were much more 
considerable personages. The letters of St. Gregory the 
Great represent them as despatched to all parts of the 
country on various important missions. Thus, Pantaleon 
the notary is ordered to inquire into the case of a deacon 
of Sipontum in Apulia, who was accused of the rape of a 
virgin, and if he finds him guilty, to sentence him to 
marry her, or else receive corporal punishment and be 
shut up in a monastery. 1 Castorius, Roman notary at 
Ravenna, is told to keep an eye on the archbishop to see 
that he does not wear his pallium in litanies, contrary to 
Gregory's injunctions : 2 or he has to put pressure on the 
Ravennese to elect a new archbishop. 3 

Notaries were not necessarily, nor even usually in 
orders ; but often they advanced to minor orders, and 
sometimes to holy orders. St. Gregory mentions the case 
of Speciosus, a subdeacon, 4 unable to keep his vow of 
continency, who acted as notary for the rest of his life. 

Besides the duties assigned to them in Ordo I at solemn 
mass, which are of small import, they are directed on 
Easter Even to hold two lighted candles, one on either 
side of the altar, at the commencement of the service. 5 
In the St. Amand Ordo they are subdeacons who hold 
these lights : but the Ordo of Einsiedeln has duo regionarii, 
i.e. district-notaries. 6 In the Roman Ordo VII the two 
notaries hold these lights, which are stated to be of the 
height of a man's stature. 

At one time the next stational mass was announced by 
a notary, and not by the archdeacon : of which an instance 
occurs as late as in the Life of Leo III (795-8 16), 7 where 
it is stated to be * according to ancient tradition.' 

At Roman Synods and Councils the notaries played a 

1 St. Gregory the Great, Lib. Ill : Ep. 41 ; Opera, ii, 654. 

2 Ibid., Lib. VI: Ep. 34; t. ii, 819. 

3 Ibid., Lib. V: Ep. 23; t. ii, 753. 4 Ibid., Lib. IV: Ep. 36; t. ii, 716. 
8 Ordo VII : 10 (Mus. Ital. ii, 82). 6 Duchesne, Origines, 452, 466. 

7 Duchesne, Liber Pontificalis, Paris, 1886 ; ii, 4 : et sicut olitanam traditionem 
a notario sanctae romanae ecclesiae.' 


prominent part as secretaries, who read aloud the letters, 
prepared the replies, etc. In the Lateran Synod of 643, 
for example, under Martin I, we have frequent mention 
of Theophylactus, Primicerius notariorum apostolicae sedis, 
and five others notarii regionarii, Paschasius, Theodorus, 
Anastasius, Exsuperius, and Paschalis. 

At the head of the Schola Notariorum was the Primicerius, 
who became the chancellor, 1 and next under him the 
Secundicerius, or secretary of the Roman Curia. The Schola 
contained not only notaries proper, but also a body of 
officials known as Scriniarii. These wrote letters dictated 
by the chancellor, or the chief counsellor, drew up public 
instruments, deeds of gift and the like. 

Thus, a letter written to the abbot of St. Denis in 
786 for Pope Hadrian ends : Scrip turn per manum Christo- 
phori, Notarii et Scriniarii sedis nostrae, in mense lunio. 
Indict. IX. Datum Kal. Iulii> per manum Anastasii, Primi- 
cerii; 2 a bull of Pope Stephen's in 752 : Scriptum per 
manus Benedicti, Scriniarii S.R.E.;* and a letter from Pope 
Paschal in 819 : Scriptum per manus Theodorici Scriniarii 
S.R.E.^ And again, a bull of Pope Martin, 944 : Scriptum 
per manum Adriani, Scriniarii S.R.E. Data per manus 
Stephani) Primicerii defensorum summae apostolicae Sedis? 

It was one of these, Leontius, Notarius regionarius, et 
Scriniarius, who read out from the ambo at St. Peter's an 
account of all that had happened at the Roman Synod of 
76 9 . 6 

Evidently, too, the function of Notarius and Scriniarius 
could be combined in the same person. 

All the notaries of the Roman See, like the counsellors, 
are addressed by St. Gregory with the title Experientia tua. 

Another important official of the Roman Court was the 

1 George Cassander, Ordo Romanus de officio missaf, Coloniae, 1561 ; p. 64. 

2 Martin Bouquet, Rerum gallicarum et francicarum serif tores, Paris, 1744; t. v, 


3 L. A. Muratori, Rerum Italicarum scriptores, t. i, pars, ii, 356. 
Ibid., 385. 8 Ibid., 433. 

6 Duchesne, Liber Pontificalis, i, 472, 482. 


Saccellarius or treasurer, who administered the finances. 
In the procession to the stational church he rode imme- 
diately behind the pope, in company with the vicar, the 
sacristan, and the invitationer ; and, with the last named, 
attended to any petitioners on the route. At Agnus 
Dei these two and the vicar's notary stood before the 
pope, and wrote down the names of all those who were 
to be invited to breakfast with either the pope or the 

The treasurer belonged to the Schola Notariorum, and 
often was one of the district-notaries. At the Roman 
Council of 745, Theophanius, Notarius regionarius et Sac- 
cellariuS) read Boniface's letter to the assembly. In 756, 
Pope Stephen sent to King Pippin, 1 John, regionarium 
nostrumque Saccellarium ; and, in the life of Pope Hadrian, 
Stephen the treasurer is also described as Notarius regionarius 
et Saccellarius. In the Life of Stephen III (768-772) we 
read of one Sei gius, son of Christopher the Primicerius or 
chancellor, who was treasurer, and afterwards Secundicerius 
or secretary, and later on Nomenclator as well. 

But in the Life of Gregory II (715-731) we are told 
that he was made subdeacon and treasurer under Sergius, 
and that the library was committed to his care. Perhaps 
the office had not been entirely appropriated to the 
notaries at that date ; or Gregory may have been a 
notary who afterwards proceeded to orders. 

Another court functionary belonging to the Schola 
Notariorum was the Nomenclator or invitationer. 

In the days of Cicero and the early Empire the Nomen- 
clator was a slave who attended his master for the purpose 
of telling him the names of those whom he met when 
canvassing for votes. 2 He also greeted his master's 
guests, and announced them to him a post, we are told, 
more fitted for a young man than an old, requiring a 

1 M. Bouquet, Rerum gallicarum et francicarum serif tores, Paris, 1744; t. v, 500 B. 

2 M. T. Cicero, Ep. ad Att'icum, Lib. IV : Ep. I : i ; Oratlo pro L. Murena, 
xxxvi, 77. 


good and quick memory. 1 Slaves of this class were apt, 
Seneca tells us, to give a guest a fictitious name when 
they could not remember his real one. They also de- 
livered invitations to feasts, etc. Caligula used to send 
his Nomenclatures about the town to invite young men 
and old to his debaucheries. 2 

In the fifth century there were some minor officials 
under the prefect for the city called Nomendatores, but 
we learn nothing of their duties from Notitia Dignitatum 
Imperil Romani. 

The ecclesiastical official of this name was no doubt 
adapted from the last. We first hear of him in the Liber 
Pontificalis in the Life of Pope Agatho (678-681) ; and 
his chief function in the Ordo I is to assist the treasurer 
in attending to any petitions presented to the pope on 
the way to the stational mass, and with other notaries to 
write down the names of those invited to breakfast with 
the pope, and deliver the invitations afterwards. 3 

It is probable that his creation as a distinct officer is 
later than the time of St. Gregory the Great (0 604), for 
an incident in that pope's life shows that the treasurer 
issued the invitations at that time. 4 Perhaps the 
treasurer's appearance before the pope to write down the 
names is merely a relic of his old function, for the 
invitationer and the vicar's notary would have been quite 
sufficient for the purpose ; and after they have taken 
down the names it is only the two latter who deliver the 
invitations, the one on behalf of the pope, and the other 
of the vicar. The treasurer's presence is thus superfluous, 

1 L. A Seneca, Liber de tranquillitate animi, Epist. 27 ; De benefciis, Lib. I : cap. 
iii ; Lib. VI: cap. 33 ; Opera Omnia, Antwerpiae, 1651; pp. 163, 265, 360, 435. 

2 Suetonius, Caligula, xli. Seneca, Ep. 19; Optra, 421. 

3 Ducange (j. v. Nomenclator) notes that this practice of issuing invitations to 
breakfast with the bishop still obtained in French cathedral churches at pontifical 
public masses in the eighteenth century. At Lincoln in the fourteenth century, 
invitations were issued at the spreading of the corporas before the gospel (Henry 
Bradshaw and Chr. Wordsworth, Statutes of Lincoln Cathedral, Cambridge, 1892 ; 

4 John the Deacon, Vita S. Gregorii, Lib. II : cap. 23 : Opera Omnia, t. iv, 52. 


and is best accounted for as merely the conservative per- 
sistence of an old practice that had become anomalous 
after the creation of a special officer for inviting guests. 
In the Council of Rome in 745 one Gregory figures as 
Notarius regionarius et Nomenclator. That turbulent person 
Paschalis, who is spoken of as chancellor in the Life of 
Leo III in 799, is elsewhere 1 described as Nomenclator. 

xxiii. Almoner. 

The Supplementarius or Subpulmentarius appears to have 
been the official who distributed the pope's alms. 2 

xxiv. Sacristan. 

The Vestararius or Vestiarius had charge of the vestry, 
that is, of the chalices, patens, and other vessels used at 
the stational masses, as well as of the books such as the 
grail and the gospel-books. 3 

xxv. Counsellor. Defensor. 

Amongst the minor officials of the Roman Empire in 
the fourth and following centuries was one called Defensor 
Civitatis. His duties were implied by his name of defender \ 
that is, he held the position of parent towards the people, 
and was empowered to restrain official immoderation and 
the impudence (procadtas) of judges, for which purpose 
he had free right of application to the judges whenever 
he wished. He was not to allow the country or town's 
folk to be ruined by descriptiones, and was enabled to stop 
any excessing of damages more than were sought from 
those whom he ought to watch over as his own children. 
He had to assist in every way those who were engaging in 

1 M. Bouquet, Rerum galllcarum et francicarum scriftorcs, v, 190, 321, 350, 465. 
3 Ducange, s.v. SUBPULMENTARIUS. 3 Ibid., VESTIARIUS. 



a public action. He set aside the pleadings of fautors of 
crime, and directed the proper prosecution of certain 
crimes. In a small way, moreover, he exercised judicial 
functions : he could settle money cases up to three 
hundred gold pieces, and hear lesser criminal cases and 
give suitable punishment. When a testamentary trustee 
or a trustee-at-law was lacking, he with the bishop or 
other public persons had to create trustees or guardians 
for either minor or adult, when their means amounted to 
fifty solidi. In general he had to defend the people and 
the decuriones from all immoderation and injustice on the 
part of the ill-disposed, and not to cease to be what his 
name implied, /'. e. defender of the citizens. 

No one could refuse to undertake the office ofDefensor, 
and deputies were strictly forbidden. 1 

Such was the civil office which the Church copied and 
adapted to the needs of her ecclesiastical organization. 
With the developments of this office in the Provinces we 
are not now concerned, but only with those at Rome. 
The letters of St. Gregory the Great tell us much of 
these ecclesiastical officers, for a large number of them 
were written to various Defensores. From these and other 
sources we learn that the defence of Church interests in 
general was one of their primary duties. They had to 
administer alms, etc., given for the poor, 2 and care for 
widows 3 and the oppressed. 4 The government of the 
patrimony of the Roman Church 5 lying in the Provinces 
was sometimes committed to them ; they acted as arbi- 
trators 6 on behalf of the pope in matters referred to 
him for his decision, and they sometimes saw that the 

1 This account of the duties of the Defensor ci-vitatis is gathered from Cod, 
Justiniani, Lib. I : tit. Iv, De Defensoribus Civitatum, and Authenticae seu Novellae 
Constitutions Justiniani, Collatio III : tit. ii, De Defensoribus Ci-vitatum. 

2 .Lib. I: Ep. 18, 24, 46, 56, 67. Lib. IV: Ep. 28, 33. Lib. VI: Ep. 7, 39. 
Lib. VIII: Ep. 23. Lib IX: Ep. 39. Lib. IX: Ep. 2, 9, 44. 

3 Lib. Ill : Ep. 5. Lib. VI: 38. Lib. XI : Ep. 17. 

4 Lib. 1 : 39, 55. Lib. X:Ep. 53. Lib. XI : Ep. 18, 77. Lib. XII : Ep. 3, 

Lib. Ill: Ep. 22. Lib. VI: Ep. 7. Lib. IX: Ep. 18, 57. 
6 Lib. IX: Ep. 23, 56. Lib. XI : Ep. 37. 


provisions of wills 1 were properly carried out. In cases 
where it was necessary to intervene between a bishop and 
his clergy, they were cautioned to be tactful and not to 
subvert due reverence and discipline. 2 A knowledge of 
ecclesiastical law 3 was of great use to them, although it 
does not appear that this was an essential condition of 
their appointment. 

Justinian gave them duties resembling those of our 
Registrar of Marriages. In the 74th Novel it is ordered 4 
that, in case of the greater dignitaries, members of the 
imperial family, senators, and officials of the rank of 
Illustris, there must for a valid marriage be a dowry and 
an ante-nuptial gift, etc. 

4 But as concerns any one in the more honourable military or 
civil employments, or the more worthy businesses : if he should 
wish to cohabit lawfully with a wife and not to draw up a nuptial 
deed ; let him not do it anyhow, carelessly, without caution, 
and without public recognition, but let him come to some house 
of prayer, and let him inform the Defensor of that most holy 
church. He, thereupon, summoning three or four of the most 
reverend clergymen, shall draw up a declaration stating that in the 

indiction^ in the month of , on the day of the month, in 

the year of our reign, under Consul, he and she came before 

him in the house of prayer , and were joined together each to the 

other. If, indeed, both of them coming together, or either of 
them, wish to enter into an undertaking of this sort, let them 
do it in this way ; and let them and the Defensor of the most 
holy church, and the remaining three, or as many as they 
wish, subscribe their names ; the names of those signing, however, 
are not to be less than three in number.' 

The 1 1 yth Novel compels the highest dignitaries, in- 
cluding the IllustreS) to have a marriage contract drawn 
up, but says nothing of the place or person who is to 
draw it up. 5 

i Lib. IX: Ep. 24, 26, 40, 46. Lib. XI : Ep. 20, 37. 2 Lib. VII: Ep. 66. 

3 Petrus quern defensorem fecimus quia de massa iuris ecclesiae nostrae quae 
Vitalis dicitur oriundus sit, Experientiae tuae bene est cognitum (Lib. XII : 
Ep. 25, Ad Romanum). 

4 Auth. Collat. VI : tit. iii : Nov. Ixxiv : cap. iv, Illud quoque melius. 

5 Ibid.y VIII: tit. xviii Nov. cxvii : cap. iv, Quia vero legem. 


St. Gregory the Great in a letter to Boniface, his chief 
counsellor, 1 granted the privilege to seven counsellors, to 
be selected by him, of being defensores regionarii, as a 
recognition of the good work which the School had done : 
thus extending to them privileges long enjoyed by the 
Schools of notaries and of subdeacons. 

Sometimes, at any rate, they were married. Thus St. 
Gregory directs Anthemius the subdeacon to look after 
the needs of Theodora, widow of Sabinus the counsellor 
of Sardinia. 

They were formally addressed (by St. Gregory) as Expe- 
rientia tua : a title shared by certain notaries and sub- 
deacons ; whether because they were combining the duty 
and office of Defensor with their own, or because it belonged 
equally to the Schools of notaries and of subdeacons is 
not clear. 

Defensores ecclesiae appear to have been usually laymen ; 
but the office was often the preliminary to orders, and 
sometimes the counsellor who became a subdeacon con- 
tinued his defensorial duties, as in the case of Anthemius, 2 
who is called by both titles in a letter to him from St. 
Gregory. Peter the subdeacon 3 seems to be another 
instance. Cyprian the deacon 4 and Candidus the presbyter 5 
appear to be cases where the taking of orders had advanced 
still further. It is to be noticed, however, that the De- 
fensores and subdeacons are called Expcricntia tua> but 
Cyprian and Candidus, Dilectio tua. 

The following formula appears in St. Gregory's letters 6 
granting the office of Defensor : 

* Si nulli condition! vel corpore teneris obnoxius, nee fuisti 
clericus alterius civitatis, aut in nullo tibi canonum obviant 
statuta, officium Ecclesiae Defensor accipias : ut quidquid pro 
pauperum commodis tibi a nobis iniunctum fuerit, incorrupte 
et vivaciter exequaris, usurus hoc privilegio quod in te habita 

1 Ep. xiv: Lib. VIII: Indict. I.: Opera Omnia, Parisiis, 1705 ; t. ii, 905. 

2 St. Gregory the Great, Lib. VII : Epist. 23. 

3 Ibid., Lib. I: Ep. 18, 46, 56, 67, etc. 4 Ibid., Lib. VI: Ep. 39. 

6 Ibid., Lib. VI: Ep. 7. Candidus Defensor is addressed in Lib. IV: Ep. 28. 
6 Ibid,, Lib. V: Ep. 29, and Lib. XI: Ep. 38: Opera, t. ii, 756, mo. 


deliberatione contulimus : ut omnibus quae tibi a nobis fuerint 
iniuncta, complendis operam tuam fidelis exhibeas, redditurus de 
actibus tuis sub Dei nostri iudicio rationem.' 

In an Or do Romanus printed by Hittorp there is a long 
Ordo ad armandum ecclesiae defensorem vel alium militem. 
It comprises forms for blessing his banner, lance, sword, 
the knight himself, and his shield. 1 I am unable to trace 
any connection between the Defensor ecclesiae of this Ordo 
and the official of the same title in our Ordo I : nor has 
the form marks of Roman provenance, but rather of 

In the thirteenth century, John the Deacon 2 enumerates 
the chief Defensor, * the first amongst the Defensores, whom 
we call advocati, as the sixth of the Palatine judges or 
ordinaries. The advocates and the counsellors seem to be 
distinguished from each other in Ordo I : but evidently 
at a later period the two classes became one. 

xxvi. Sextons. Mansionarii. 

These were subordinate officials whose duties were to 
keep the church clean and tidy, see to the adorning of it, 
light the lamps, and the like : they seem to correspond 
more to the sexton of the later middle ages, so far as 
duties are concerned, than to any one else. 

St. Gregory the Great tells a story or two, illustrating a 
portion at least of their duties. One Constantius 3 served 
the church of St. Stephen, which was without its man- 
sionarius for a time ; and in attending to the lamps found 
that the oil had run short. Whereupon he filled the 
lamps with water and put the papyrus wicks in, and they 
miraculously burned just as if full of oil ! In another 
place 4 he relates how one Theodore, mansionarius of 

1 De divinis catholicae ecclesiae officiis, Parisiis, 1610; col. 178 sq, 

2 Museum Italicum, ii, 570. 

3 Dialogorum Liber /: cap. v; Opera, ii, 173. 

4 Ibid., Ill: cap. xxiv ; ii, 333. 


St. Peter's, was one night standing on a pair of wooden 
steps attending to the lights near the door as usual, when 
suddenly St. Peter himself appeared to him. Elsewhere l 
he mentions a mansionarius of St. Peter's, named Acontius, 
who was miraculously healed of paralysis. 

In the Ordo of St. Amand 2 the sextons of the titular 
churches are sent on Easter Even to the Lateran for the 
Fermentum consecrated by the pope, which they carry 
back wrapped up in a corporas. 

At a later period they are spoken of as ringing the 
bells for mass and the hours at suitable times, and lighting 
the lamps. In an old Ordo Romanus the wardens or 
sextons have these duties specifically assigned to them, 3 
as well as the care of altar linen and all other church 

Under the title aedituus this official is mentioned by 
Prudentius 4 and St. Paulinus of Nola. 5 He is also called 
custos ecclesiac by many writers. 6 

xxvii. titular Church. 

The division of Rome into titles or parishes is ascribed to 
Evaristus (112-121) in the Liber Pontificalis. Marcellus 
is also said to have instituted titles in the city for the 
baptism and penance of those who were converted from 
paganism, and because of the tombs of the martyrs. 

Mabillon 7 has shown from the lists of the names of those 
subscribing the acts of Roman councils that in the fifth 
century to each titular church there was at least one 
presbyter attached, and sometimes two, or three, or even 

1 Dialogorum Liber I: cap. xxv. 

2 Duchesne, Origines, 454. 

3 Decretal. Greg. IX, Lib. I : tit. xxvii : cap. i. 

4 Aurelius Prudentius Clemens, Peristephanon, ix, Passio Cassiani Martyris in 
foro Corneliano, 1. 17. 

5 Paulinus, Epist. vi. 6 See Ducange, s. <u. GUSTOS, i. 

7 Museum Italicum, t. ii, pp. xiii sq. In the list at the end of the Council in 
595, eleven titles have two presbyters each. 


In the letter of Innocent I to Decentius in 416 the 
titular churches are clearly distinguished from the oratories 
or smaller churches attached to cemeteries. To the pres- 
byters of the former was allotted a cure of souls, but not 
to those of the latter : to the former the Fermentum was 
sent every Sunday, but not to the latter. 


[To face pag 

Ordo Romanns I.] 


Solemn flDass an& its "Ritual 


LET us briefly picture to ourselves the service described 
in detail in Ordo Romanus I. 

The congregation is gathered together : the men on one 
side, the women on the other. In the apse are seated the 
bishops and priests, on either side of the throne. The 
pope and his attendants have come into the church, and 
are vesting in the sacristy. Then the subdeacon-attendant 
comes out of the sacristy and proceeds through the church 
up to the altar, followed by a collet who is carrying, with 
his hands underneath his planet, a large book, magnificently 
bound the gospel-book ; on arriving at the altar the 
subdeacon takes it from the collet, and lays it solemnly 
> on the altar. As they enter every one rises in honour of 
the gospels. The subdeacon and collet then retire to the 

The singers enter and take their places before the altar 
within the quire, which is divided from the rest of the 
church by a low screen. At a signal from the sacristy, they 
begin to chant the anthem and psalm called the introit : 
and just after they have begun, the procession of the pope 
and his assistants leaves the sacristy, headed by seven 
collets carrying lighted candles, and the subdeacon-attend- 
ant carrying a golden censer, and proceeds to the altar. 
In the presbytery the deacons take off their planets, so as 
to leave their arms free for the service of the altar. Then 
two collets approach the pope with the reserved Eucharist, 
in order that he may see that the required quantity is there 
for the ceremony of the Sancta. The pope next prays 
silently before the altar, and then gives the kiss of peace to 
one of the bishops, to the archpresbyter and to the deacons. 


Then he signals to the precentor to stop singing the introit- ^ 
psalm and finish with the Gloria ; and during As it was 
the deacons two by two go up to the altar and kiss either 
end of it. When they have finished, the pope goes up 
himself, kisses the gospel-book and the altar, and then pro- 
ceeds to his throne in the centre of the apse, where he stands 
facing eastwards. 

Having sung the anthem of the introit for the last time, 
the choir sing the Kyries, until the pope signs to the pre- c 
center to make an end. When the last Kyrie eleison has 
been sung, the pope turns round towards the people and 
intones the Gloria in excelsis, turning back again at once 
to the east while the choir continue and finish it. Then, 
after saluting the people, the pope says the collect, facing 
eastwards. After that, he sits down on his throne, and 
signs to the bishops and presbyters to sit in like manner : 
and at the same time the district-subdeacons go up and 
stand right and left of the altar, excepting him who is 
appointed to read the epistle. The latter goes up into 
the ambo (that on the south side if there be two), reads the 
epistle, and descends. As soon as he has finished, a singer 
carries the grail up into the ambo and sings the responsory- 
psalm. Then, another singer comes up, and sings the 
Alleluia and verse, or the tract, according to the season. 
The choir sing their parts, as is set out more fully in 
Appendix III. 

The singing ended, the deacon appointed to read the 
gospel goes to the pope and, kissing his feet, receives his 
blessing. He then goes up to the altar, takes up the 
gospel-book, and, preceded by two district-subdeacons with 
the censer, and two collets with lighted candles, goes to the 
ambo (that on the north side of the quire, if there be two). 
Then one of the subdeacons comes forward, and makes 
an impromptu book-rest with his left arm, so that the 
deacon may prop up the book while he finds the place to 
read. Then, slipping a finger in the place as he takes the 
book again, he carries it up into the ambo, and there reads 
the gospel. This done, he comes down again, and hands 


the book to the subdeacon, who gives it to the subdeacon- 
attendant standing near in his place. He holds it for all 
who stand in the quire to kiss, and then a collet comes up 
with its case in which to put it away. 
; Meanwhile the pope salutes the people and invites them 
to pray. But in the eighth century no one prayed. The 
prayers of the faithful had disappeared. 

The gospeller meantime returns to the altar, and taking 
the corporas (which at that time was of the size of a large 
altar-cloth), goes to one end of the altar, lays it down, 
throwing the other end of the cloth over to another deacon 
to spread, just as one ordinarily spreads the cloth on the 

The pope and his attendants then go down to the people 
to receive the offerings, loaves of bread and flasks of 
wine. The pope receives the loaves, the archdeacon the 
wine. As the loaves are offered, they are passed on 
to two collets who receive them in a linen bag or cloth. 
As the flasks of wine are offered, they are poured into a 
large two-handled chalice carried by a district-subdeacon : 
and when that is filled, it is emptied into bowls held by 
collets. The offertory of the people over, the pope goes 
back to his throne, and washes his hands ; and the arch- 
deacon does the same before the altar. Then at a sign 
from the pope, the latter goes up to the altar and arranges 
the loaves in rows upon it. Next he receives the wine-offer- 
ings of the clergy and the water-offering from the choir. 
The wine he pours into the large chalice, and then the 
water. Then the pope receives the loaf-offerings of the 
clergy, and sets them on the altar. Finally, the archdeacon 
takes the chalice from the subdeacon who has been 
hitherto holding it, and sets it down on the altar to the 
right of the loaf offered for the pope, the offertory 
veil being twisted through its handles ; then with- 
drawing the veil he lays it down at the altar-end, and 
goes and stands behind the pope. 

Meanwhile, the choir have been singing the offertory 
anthem and psalm ; but as soon as the altar has been duly 


ordered, the pope, standing at the altar, signs to them to* 
stop, and says the secret-prayer over the oblations in an 
undertone, raising his voice for the last clause, For ever and 
ever, that the people may answer Amen. 

During the secret-prayer, and until the end of the canon, 
the clergy group themselves about the altar ; the bishops 
immediately behind the pope, with the archdeacon on their 
right, the second deacon on their left, and the rest in order 
in a line. The district-subdeacons stand behind the altar 
facing the pope, who proceeds with the preface ; and when 
the choir have sung Sanctus he begins the canon in an 

At the end of the canon, when the pope is saying the 
words, By Him and with Him, etc., the archdeacon comes to 
the altar, passes the offertory veil through the handles of 
the large chalice, and, lifting it up, holds it towards the 
pope, who touches it with one of the consecrated loaves 
until the end of the prayer. Then the archdeacon sets 
the chalice down again, and removes the veil. A collet 
has held the paten in a sudary from the beginning of the 
canon, standing behind the deacons ; at the middle of the 
canon he gives it to the subdeacon-attendant, who, a little 
later, hands it to a district-subdeacon. At the end of the 
canon the latter comes and stands behind the archdeacon, 
who, when in the Embolism the pope says, And safe from 
all unquiet, turns round, kisses the paten, and then takes 
it and hands it to the second deacon to hold. 

At the Peace of the Lord, etc., the pope performs the 
ceremony of the Sancta, making a cross thrice with his 
hand over the chalice, and dropping a fragment of a loaf 
(consecrated at the last solemn mass and reserved for 
the purpose) into the same. Meanwhile the archdeacon 
gives the kiss of peace to the chief bishop, the rest of the 
clergy, and the people. 

The pope next breaks one of the loaves, leaves a 
fragment upon the altar, puts the rest on the paten held 
by a deacon, and then goes back to his throne. Im- 
mediately the chancellor and the rest of the notaries go up 


to the altar, and stand on the right and left ; but three 
of their number, as soon as the choir begin to sing Agnus 
Dei, go up to the pope, and take down the names of 
those who are to be invited to breakfast with him or his 

Whilst they are delivering these invitations, the arch- 
deacon lifts the chalice off the altar, and gives it to the 
district-subdeacon to hold at the right corner of the altar. 
The subdeacons-attendant, and the collets with their sacks, 
draw near, and the collets hold out their sacks, while the 
subdeacons keep the necks of the same open, so that the 
archdeacon may fill them with the loaves from off the 
altar. The collets then go to the bishops, and the sub- 
deacons go to the presbyters to help in the fraction. The 
paten is carried to the throne by two district-subdeacons, 
so that the deacons may break the loaves on it. 

The fraction for distribution being accomplished, the 
second deacon takes the paten to the throne for the pope 
to communicate ; who, after having done so, drops a 
small fragment into the chalice which the archdeacon 
has brought up to the throne, and then is communicated 
with the sacrament of the Blood. 

Then the archdeacon announces the next station. 
After this, he pours a little of the consecrated wine out of 
the chalice into the bowls held by the collets, which con- 
tain unconsecrated wine. Next the bishop and presbyters 
approach the throne so that the pope may housel them ; 
and they are communicated with the chalice by the chief 
hebdomadary bishop. The deacons and chief court- 
officers are communicated in like manner. Their method 
of communicating is curious. As they receive the species 
of bread from the pope's hands, they go to the end of the 
altar (the bishops and presbyters to the left, but the 
deacons to the right), and, placing their hands upon the 
altar, so communicate. 

Then the archdeacon takes the large chalice from the 
senior bishop, pouring its contents into one of the bowls 
held by the collets, and hands the empty chalice to a 


district-subdeacon, receiving from him a reed for the 
communicating the people with the species of wine. The 
chalice is then given to the subdeacon-attendant to put 
away in the sacristy. Then the pope and the bishops 
communicate the rest of the clergy with the species of 
bread, the archdeacon and the deacons following with the 
species of wine. 

Then follows the communion of the people, and 
immediately the choir begin to sing the communion- 
anthem and psalm with the subdeacons. The communion < 
of the people differs from that of the higher clergy in 
that they partake of the wine through a reed, and that 
the wine is hallowed indirectly only, by the addition of a 
small quantity of wine from the chalice consecrated by 
the pope. 

As soon as the pope sees that the people have nearly < 
finished communicating, he signs to the precentor to 
begin the Gloria Patri . And when the anthem has been 
sung for the last time, the pontiff comes before the altar 
and says the post-communion collect, facing eastwards. 
Then a deacon announces the dismissal ; and the pope 
and his attendants depart as they came, save that he blesses 
the members of each order one after another in groups. 

A service like this took a considerable time, especially 
when there was a sermon as well as a very large number 
of offerers and communicants. St. Gregory, whose later 
years were troubled with much illness, wrote to Eulogius, 
the patriarch of Alexandria, telling him that he was afflicted 
with such severe gout that he scarcely had strength to rise 
to celebrate the solemn mass on festivals which lasted 
three hours. 1 Three hours seems a long time to us in 
the present day, who are inclined to grumble if a mass 
takes longer than one hour. 

1 Ecce enim iam biennium pene expletur quod lectulo teneor, tantisque poda- 
grae doloribus affligor, ut vix in diebus festis usque ad horarum trium spatium 
surge're valeam missarum solemnia celebrare (Lib. X: Ep. xxv : Opera, ii, 1064) 


i. The Introit. 

As soon as everything is ready, the singers arrange 
themselves in a double row on either side of the quire, 
and the precentor begins the anthem for the entry, or 
introit. This consists of an anthem and a psalm, the 
anthem being sung first, and then again after each verse 
of the psalm. The choir continue singing whilst the 
pope and his attendants pass from the sacristy to the 
> altar, until the pope gives the signal to finish and sing 
Glory be to the Father. The verses of the psalm that remain 
are sung at the communion. 

* The introduction of this practice is attributed to Pope 
Celestine (423-432). In the Liber Pontificalis it is recorded 
that * he appointed that the hundred and fifty psalms of 
David should be sung antiphonally by all before the 
sacrifice, which used not to be done before, but only the 
epistles of St. Paul and the holy gospel were read, and 
so masses were celebrated/ The passage is not as clear 
as it might be, but it can hardly refer to anything else than 
the introit, which is an antiphonal-psalm ; the suggestion 
that the grail is intended cannot be upheld, for that was 
a responsorial-psalm. 

We must note that the introit is sung to occupy the 
time taken up by the entry of the papal procession, and is 
not, as is the grail, a scripture-lesson during which nothing 
is done. 

ii. The Kyries. 

When the choir have finished the introit-anthem, they 
begin the Kyries. The number of times the imprecations 
Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison were sung was not fixed, but 
7 determined by the will of the pope (or whoever was 
celebrating), who signed to the precentor when he wished 
to change the number of times that the Kyries were 

In the earliest post-apostolic account of the Roman or 


[ To face page 64 

Oi'do Romanits I.] 


any other liturgy known to us that given by Justin 
Martyr, about the middle of the second century the 
service was composed of lessons from Holy Scripture, a 
sermon from the bishop, and prayers made by the whole 
congregation, followed by an eucharistic prayer to which 
the congregation assented with Amen, and a general 

4 On the day called Sunday all who dwell in cities or in the 
country meet together in one place, and the narratives of the 
apostles or the writings of the prophets are read as long as there 
is time. When the reader has finished, the president verbally 
instructs us, and exhorts us to imitate those good persons (or 
things) [of whom we have just heard]. Then we all stand up 
together, and offer up prayers ; and, our prayers being over, 
bread and wine and water are brought in, and the president in 
like manner offers up prayers and thanksgivings to the best of 
his ability, and the people shout assent, saying Amen ; and there 
is a distribution to each person and a general partaking of that 
over which the thanksgiving has been made, and it is sent to 
those who are not present by the deacons.' 1 

The prayers of the faithful came after the lessons and 
sermon. In Or do I we find that the pontiff, at the con- 
elusion of the gospel, turned to the people and invited 
them to pray ; but no one prayed. This invitation is all 
that there remained of the prayers made by the people, of 
which Justin Martyr tells us ; but Fleury, 2 and after him 
Duchesne, 8 consider that the solemn orisons, still recited 
on Good Friday in the Roman rite, are the solitary sur- 
vival of these prayers at this point of the service. They 
were said also in the ninth century on the Wednesday 
before Easter ; 4 and there is nothing to connect them 
intrinsically with the solemnities of Passion Week. They 

1 Justin Martyr, Apologia /, cap. Ixvii. 

2 Fleury, Les Moeurs dei Chrestiens, 137. 3 Duchesne, Orlgines, 164-5. 

4 Museum Italicum, ii, 19, 32. They were said on both days at Vienne and 
Besan<jon in the eighteenth century (De Moleon, Voyages Liturgigues, Paris, 1757; 
p 427). These or similar prayers are mentioned by St. Austin in his Epistle to 
Vitalius (Ep. 217: cap. i: n. 2: Opera, Antwerpiae, 1700; t. ii, col. 608); and 
also by Pseudo-Caelestine in the first Epistle to the bishops of Gaul, 



are prayers for the needs of the Church, her hierarchy 
and all the faithful, for the sick, and for heretics, Jews, 
and infidels. But it must be remarked that they are 
prayers for and not of the faithful, quite different in form 
from the people's prayers of the Oriental rites, where the 
deacon announces a subject similar to the 'That it may 
please thee ' clauses of the Litany in the Book of Common 
Prayer, and the people respond Kyrie eleison after each 
one. In the Eastern rites the people, as Mr. Edmund 
Bishop 1 points out, are something accounted of in the 
forms of public worship : in the solemn orisons of Good 
Friday they are as nearly as possible nothing. And in 
this latter liturgical note he recognizes historically the 
true, genuine Roman tendency and spirit. It may be 
that at one time the bidding portion of these solemn 
orisons was recited by the deacon, and that the people 
actually prayed themselves, all being concluded by the 
bishop's summing-up prayer ; but as time went on their 
prayers were gradually eliminated, and the prayer by the 
bishop remained as the substitute for them. St. Austin 2 
seems to allude to some such bidding by deacons when 
he says, * either the bishop prays with a clear voice, 
or common prayer is indicated by the voice of the 

However this may be, with the growth of the vigil 
service (which in essential form is only the mass of 
the catechumens separated from that of the faithful) 
the prayers of the faithful were gradually eliminated 
from the body of the mass, and took the form of a 
litany, concluded by the prayer of the bishop, who 
thus collected in one the several petitions of the 
people. The collect was thus the colkcta or collectio 
the gathering together of the people's prayers. In the 
eighth century and afterwards, when the Litany was sung 
in procession before a public mass, the service in the 

1 Edmund Bishop, Kyrie Eleison, a liturgical Consultation, in the Downside Review 
for December 1899 and March 1900. 

2 Ad inquisitiones lanuar'ti, Lib. II: Ep. 55: 34: cap. xviii : Opera, t. ii, col. 107. 


church began at once with the Pax vobis and the collect, 
just as it does still in the Roman rite on Easter Even ; 
and when, as at ordinations, the Litany was sung after the 
grail, the Kyries were likewise omitted at the beginning 
of mass. 1 

The Kyries are, therefore, the remnant of a litany, and 
are all that is left (save on Good Friday) of the ancient 
prayers of the faithful. Since procession-days, on which 
alone this connection between collect and litany was clear, 
were comparatively few, it gradually appeared to ritualists 
that on Litany-days Kyries and Gloria in excelsis were 
omitted : and consequently the collect seemed to them an 
oratio ad collectam a prayer at the place of gathering 
together ; and the connection between the collect and the 
people's prayers became lost. 

We may ask whether Kyrie e lei 'son was part of the 
prayers of the congregation in Justin Martyr's time, or if 
it was introduced later ; and if so, when, and whence ? 

Many years ago the learned and ingenious Dom Claude 
de Vert 2 pointed out that this form of precation was in 
use amongst the heathen, and quotes Arrian (circ. 170 
A.D.), who makes Epictetus 3 the Stoic say : ' And now with 
trembling we take hold of the bird-augur, and, calling upon 
the god, pray to him, Kyrie eleison^ help me to get out of 
my trouble.' The first intimation that Kyrie was used in 
Christian worship in Rome comes to us from the council 
held at Vaison in 529, which was, as Mr. Bishop tells 
us, a Romanizing rather than a Gallicanizing collection 
of bishops. The third canon of this council states that 
* since both in the Apostolic See, and throughout all the 
provinces of the East and of Italy, the sweet and extremely 
salutary custom has been introduced of saying Kyrie eleison 

1 Duchesne, Origines, 156, 457 ; Museum Italicum, ii, 85, 88. 

2 Claude de Vert, Explication . . . des Ceremonies de I'Eglise, Paris, 1706; t. i, 
pp. 94-5. 

3 Nuv Se Tpe/xovres rbv opviO&piov Kparovfiev, ol rbv 6ebv eVi/mAoi'jUeroj 8e6/j.fda 
ouToO- Kupie t\ft]ffov, eirJTpefydv fJLOt ^e\6etv (Epictetus, Dissertationes ab Arriano 
digestae, Lib. II: cap. 7; edit. J. Schweighauser, Lipsiae, 1799; * ' P m 2O2 )- 


with great feeling and compunction ; it pleases us, too, 
that in all our churches this same holy practice shall be 
introduced, both at mattins, mass, and evensong.' Mr. 
> Bishop shows that for the first three hundred and fifty 
years of Christendom no trace of the liturgical use of 
Kyrie eleison at all is to be found ; and the Council of 
Vaison says that it had been introduced into the Church of 
Rome, as though its origin was recent, arising out of 
popular devotion. 

The next piece of information that we have is St. 
Gregory the Great's letter 1 to John bishop of Syracuse, 
assigned to the year 598. 

* Some one coming from Sicily has told me that some friends 
of his, whether Greeks or Latins I know not, zealous of course 
for the Roman Church, grumble about my arrangements, 
saying : This is how he sets about keeping the Church of 
Constantinople in its place, by following its customs in every- 
thing ! And when I said to him, Which of its customs do we 
follow ? he answered, Why, you have caused Alleluia to be said 
in masses out of Eastertide, you have ordered the subdeacons to 
go in procession without their planets, you have caused Kyrie 
elehon to be said, you have appointed the Lord's Prayer to be 
said immediately after the canon. 

1 And I answered, Well, in none of these things have we 
followed any other Church. For saying Alleluia thus, is said to 
have been taken from the Church of Jerusalem in the days of 
Pope Damasus of blessed memory, according to the tradition of 
blessed Jerome ; and so we have rather curtailed that practice 
in this matter, which had been handed down by the Greeks. I 
did, however, cause subdeacons to proceed without their planets, 
and it was an ancient custom of the Church. But some one of 
our bishops, I know not who, ordered them to proceed vested. 
Now, did we take this tradition from the Greeks ? Whence 
comes it to-day, do you suppose, that the subdeacons proceed 
in linen tunics, save that they were ordered so to do by their 
mother the Roman Church ? 

/ ' As to Kyrie eleison^ we neither have said it, nor do we now, 
as it is said by the Greeks : for among them all the people sing 

1 St. Gregory, Epist. xii : Lib. IX: Indict. II: Of era Omnia, Parisiis. 1705; 
t. ii, 940 jy. 


it together, whilst with us it is said by the clerks, and the 
people make answer ; and Christe eleison (which is never said 
among the Greeks) is said by us as many times as Kyrie eleison. 
But in ferial masses we leave out the other things which are 
usually said, and only say Kyrie eleison and Christe eleison, so 
that we may be engaged a little longer in the words of 

' But we say the Lord's Prayer directly after the canon for the 
following reason ; because it was the custom of the apostles to_ 
consecrate-the sacrificial oblation solely with this prayer. And 
it seemed to me extremely unsuitable to say over the oblations 
the canon, which was composed by some learned man, and not 
to say over his Body and Blood that prayer which our Redeemer 
himself composed. Moreover, amongst the Greeks the Lord's 
Prayer is said by all the people, but with us by the priest alone. 
In what, therefore, have we followed the customs of the Greeks, 
since we have either revived old customs of our own, or established 
new and useful ones, in which nevertheless we are not shewn 
to have imitated others ? ' 

Leaving for the present, to be dealt with later in their 
proper places, the other innovations with which St. 
Gregory was charged, we note that he was accused of 
introducing the use of Kyrie eleison into the mass, and 
that he nowhere denies the charge, merely saying that he 
had not imitated any other Church in his manner of using 
it. But, although his words naturally bear the interpreta- 
tion, it would not be safe, Mr. Bishop tells us, to conclude 
that St. Gregory really himself introduced the practice of 
saying Kyrie eleison. It must be remembered that the 
Council of Vaison did not say that the Kyries had been 
introduced into the Roman Mass : so that there is nothing 
against St. Gregory's statement in the canon of 529. 
But Mr. Bishop, in opposition to Duchesne, regards the 
so-called Gelasian Sacramentary * as in substance a Roman 
book of the sixth, not the seventh, century ; and he 
points to a rubric in the ordination of a presbyter, deacon 
and subdeacon therein, ordering 'that all begin Kyrie 

1 The Gelasian Sacramentary, Lib. I: c. 2O ; edit. H. A. Wilson, Oxford, 1894; 
p. 21: Et post modicum intervallum mox incipiant omnes Kyrie Elelion cum 


eleison with the Litany ' : thus finding evidence of the 
practice before the time of St. Gregory. But in the face 
of St. Gregory's letter it would seem to be at least probable 
(even granting Mr. Bishop's date) that this particular 
rubric is one of numerous interpolations of a date later 
than the sixth century : and the oldest MS of the Gelasian 
Sacramentary is of the end of the seventh or the beginning 
of the eighth century. 

*> Mr. Bishop sums up the history of Kyrie eleison as 
follows : c Kyrie eleison was a pre-Christian religious 
invocation. It found its way into public Christian services 
soon after the triumph of the Church, that is, in the 
course of the fourth century. It was at first probably a 
prayer of popular devotion, and popular from its very 
simplicity. A passage in the Peregrinatio Silviae 1 seems 
to be a record of the way in which the invocation was 
used before it was regularized in the Liturgy. This took 
place, as we should naturally expect, in Greek-speaking 
regions. Thence it spread to the West, through Italy ; 
its introduction into Italy falling in the fifth century at 
the earliest ; probably in the second half rather than in 
the first. It was imported into Gaul, partly by way of 
Aries, from Old Rome (and Italy) ; partly from Con- 
stantinople direct, perhaps as early as the close of the 
fifth century. But there seems to be substantial reasons 
for doubting that it was general in Gaul previous to the 
seventh century. As in the case of most ritual novelties, 
its spread was probably gradual.' 2 

So much, then, for the history of Kyrie eleison. We 
may, however, notice that in St. Gregory's time there were 
additions upon festivals to the simple invocation : doubt- 
less, says Duchesne, 3 a litany more or less elaborated. 
We find no trace of them in Or do I : but * the other 
things' perhaps correspond to the * litany' which was 

1 S. Silviae Aquitanae Peregrinatio ad loca sancta, edit. J. F. Gamurrini, Romae, 
1888; p. 47: ' Et diacono dicente singulorum nomina, semper pisinni plurim 
slant respondentes semper, Kyrie eleison ; quod dicimus nos, miserere Domine.' 

2 Kyrie eleison, Ut supra. 3 Origines, 156. 


sung with Kyrie at Rome in the ninth century at the 
consecration of a bishop. 1 St. Gregory also says that the 
choir sang Kyrie eleison, and then the people sang it in 
answer ; and that Christe eleison was sung as many times 
as Kyrie eleison : but in Ordo I the people have no part at 
all in it, the Schola Cantorum or choir alone singing it. 

iii. Gloria in Excelsis. 

After the Kyries have been sung by the choir, the pope 
turns towards the people and begins Glory be to God on 
high) and immediately returns to the east until the choir 
have finished singing it. Originally this hymn was Greek, 
and formed part of the morning choir-service. It was 
introduced into Rome during the fifth century, 2 at the 
Christmas mass celebrated at midnight in imitation of the 
custom of the Church of Jerusalem ; this mass was held 
at the basilica of St. Mary Major, which was founded circ. 
435. In the Liber Pontificalis we read in the Life of St. 
Telesphorus (142-153) that he appointed the angelical 
hymn, that is, Gloria in excelsis Deo, to be said before the 
Sacrifice on Christmas night [only]. In the Life of St. 
Symmachus (498-514) we are told that he appointed the 
angelical hymn, that is, Gloria in excelsis Deo, to be sung 
every Sunday or festival of a martyr. Walafrid Strabo 3 
took exception to the former statement as long ago as the 
ninth century: how can it be true when we are told a 
little further on that until the time of St. Celestine 
(423-432) mass began with the epistle and gospel ? 
Walafrid finds a way out of the difficulty by supposing 
that the angelical hymn referred to in the Life of 

1 Or Jo Romanus VIII, n. viii (Museum Italicum, ii, 88). In Ordo VII the 
' litany ' sung in the procession to the font is explained ' hoc est, Kyrie ele'uon ' 
(Ibid., p. 82). In Ordo VIII, at the ordination of a deacon, we are told 'schola 
initial, Kyrie eleison;' and in the next line ' expleta litania ' (Ibid., p. 88). 
The litany of these seems to be akin to the alia quae did solent of St. Gregory 

2 L. Duchesne, Liber Pontificalis, Paris, 1886; t. i, pp. 57, 130, n. 5. 
' DC rebus ecclesiasticis, c. 22. 


Telesphorus is Sanctus, the explanation having been added 
in error by the compiler. In reality, however, there is 
not much difficulty. The earliest compiler of the Life of 
Telesphorus limits the use of the Gloria to the night of 
Christmas only; a later editor omitted the word tantum 
at a time when its use had become more extended. Both 
also made the mistake of throwing back the date of the 
introduction of Gloria in excelsis Deo three centuries. 1 
Bishops said it at Rome after Stephen's reform whenever 
s they celebrated mass on Sundays and Festivals, but Roman 
presbyters were not allowed to use it except on Easter 
day, until the eleventh or twelfth century. Berno, 2 
abbot of Reichenau, indignantly asks why presbyters 
were not allowed to sing this hymn every Sunday and 
Festival, and asserts that if they be allowed to use it on 
Easter day, much more ought they on Christmas day, 
when it was first heard. As he flourished about 1048, it 
is clear that the relaxation in favour of presbyters took 
place at a later date than the middle of the eleventh 
century. Later in the century, Micrologus 3 affirms that 
it was said save on Childermas, and in Advent and 
Septuagesima, both by bishop and presbyter : but it was 
used in Advent at Rome in the second quarter of the 
twelfth century, before H43, 4 at public masses celebrated 
by the pope. 

iv. The Collect. 

After the Kyries, or Gloria in excelsis Deo when that 
came to be sung, the pope turns to the people and says 

1 Duchesne, as above, in note 2. 

2 De quibusdam rebus ad missae officium spectantibus , cap. ii. 

3 De missa rite celebranda, cap. ii (circa 1075). For a further relaxation by 
Calixtus II see Martene, De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus, Lib. I : cap. iv : art. iii : 6. 

4 It was sung on Sundays in Advent (Orao XI: 4; Museum Ita/icum, ii, 120), 
but not in Septuagesima, except on feasts of nine lessons ( 30, ii, 132) and on 
Maundy Thursday ( 40, ii, 136): also at Easter ( 43, ii, 139), including Ember 
Saturday in Whitsuntide ( 63, ii, 148). In the thirteenth century neither Gloria 
nor Creed were used at votive masses of St. Mary (Decretal. Greg. IX, Lib. Ill : 
tit. 41 : cap. iv). 


Pax vobis, < Peace to you ; ' to which they respond ' And 
with thy spirit.' When Amalar of Metz, in the ninth 
century, went to Rome for the furtherance of his liturgical 
studies, he was surprised to find that the Or do Romanus 
which he had been using as the basis of his work, De 
officio missae, did not always accurately describe the rites 
and ceremonies which it professed to give. In the second 
preface 1 which he added to his book, De ecclesiasticis 
ojftciiS) he points out the chief errors. In Rome he found 
that the pope said Pax vobis, ' Peace to you,' and not Pax 
vobiscum, c Peace be with you.' 2 He also learned that 
they never used more than one collect at mass. 3 Micro- 
logus, two centuries later, points this out, but says that 
few keep to the rule now. 4 

Of the association of the collect to the Kyries and 
Litany we have spoken above. 

v. 'The Scripture Lessons. 

After the collect come the lessons from Holy Scripture 
and the psalm-singing. From the latter part of the fifth 
century, at any rate, there were usually but two scripture 
lessons at Rome. But traces of the prophetic lesson are 
found still in a few masses, such as those of Ember days, 
Wednesdays after the fourth and sixth Sundays in Lent, 
and other days. On those days there is a peculiarity of 
importance about the chants sung between the lessons. 
On other days there is sung between the epistle and 
gospel the grail (which is a respond in form) and an 

1 Prefatio altera, circa finem (Migne, P.L., cv, 992). 

2 In the tenth century Pax vobis was the festal and Domlnus uollscum the peni- 
tential salutation. Leo VII, Ep. 2, in 937 wrote to the bishops of Germany 
and Gaul : ' Consultum est utrum episcopi Pax vobis an Dominus aob'ucutn pronuntiare 
debeant. Sed non aliter per omnem vestram provinciam tenendum est quam 
sancta Romana ecclesia. In dominicis enim diebus et in praecipuis festivitatibus 
atque sanctorum natalitiis Gloria in excelsis Deo et Pax vobis pronuntiamus ; in 
diebus vero quadragesimae et in quattuor temporibus sive in vigiliis sanctorum et 
in reliquis ieiuniorum diebus Dominus -vobiscum tantummodo dicimus.' 

3 Migne, P.L., cv, 987. * D em i ssa rite celebranda, cap. iv. 


Alleluia ; or in penitential times a tract : always there 
are two chants. But on days when a prophetic lesson is 
read there is only one between the epistle and gospel, 
the other being sung between the prophetic lesson and 
>the epistle. Originally, then, there was always an Old 
Testament lesson before the epistle ; and when this was 
suppressed, the psalm before the epistle was interpolated 
before that sung after it. 1 

In the African Church of the fourth century they had 
a prophetic lesson, at any rate on some days. ' Amongst 
all the lessons which we have heard read, if your charity 
considers the first lesson, from the prophet Isaiah (Ivii. 13), 
since we cannot remember or recite everything which has 
been read,' begins one of St. Austin's 2 sermons ; ' and 
then went up the apostolic lesson' (2 Cor. vii, i), he 
says a little later in the same discourse. In another 3 he 
remarks, ' which is what Solomon says, as we heard to-day 
first of all from another lesson ' (Prov. x, 10 sq.\ ; and 
then, ' Ye heard, my brethren, when the epistle to the 
Hebrews was read' (Heb. xiii, 17): the text of this 
sermon was St. Matt, xviii, 15, probably part of the 
gospel for that day. But at other times there seems to 
have been only two lessons and the psalm, which latter 
St. Austin properly regards as a scripture lesson. c We 
have heard the apostle, we have heard the psalm, we have 
heard the gospel ; all the divine lessons agree that we set 

1 A spurious letter to St. Jerome from St. Damasus refers to the omission of 
the prophetic lesson : ' Qui tantae apud nos simplicitatis indago est, ut tantum in 
die dominca apostoli epistola una recitetur, et evangelii capitulum unum dicatur ' 
(Migne, P.Z., xiii, 440). This bears out the statement in Liber Ponttficalh 
(under Celestine) that before his time the mass began with the epistle and gospel. 

2 Sermo xlv: Ofera, Antwerpiae, 1700; t. v, col. 153. Compare Sermo xlix : 
i, where he mentions that he wished to expound the prophetic lesson read on 
Sunday last (t. v, col. 190). It does not appear whether the lesson from Micah 
was additional to, or a substitute for, the epistle. In Sermo xlviii : 2 (v, 187), 
we read of Lectio prima prophetica. 

8 Sermo Ixxxii: cap. v: 8, and cap. xi: 15 ; t. v, 309, 312. Compare Sermones 
cc: Hi (635); ccii: v (637); cccxli : i (915); xl : v (142); xlvi : i 
(158) and xxxii (170). Also Sermones ccclix : i (975); cccxliii (922); vii 
(17). See Appendix IV, p. i8s. 


our hope not in ourselves but in the Lord/ he tells his 
congregation upon one occasion. 1 * All the [three] divine 
lessons join themselves together just as if they were but 
one lesson ; for they all proceed from one mouth/ he tells 
them at another time, 2 adding that * the mouths of those 
who bring us the ministry of the word are many.' It 
would seem as though the prophetic lesson was already 
in course of disappearance at Hippo by the time of St. 

The reading of all the lessons belonged originally to 
the clergy in the order of lector or reader. St. Cyprian 
of Carthage (c. 255), in a letter to his presbyters and 
deacons concerning his ordination of one Aurelius, 'an 
illustrious youth, tender in years,' tells them that 

* Such an one merited a higher degree of clerical ordination 
and larger accessions, estimated, as he ought to be, not by his 
years but by his deserts. But for the present I thought it fit 
that he should begin with the office of reading. For nothing 
is more fitting for that voice, which has confessed the Lord 
with a glorious witness, than to be heard in the solemn reading 
of the divine word : than after splendid words which bore witness 
to Christ, to read the gospel of Christ whence his witnesses 
are made ; than after the rack to come to the reading-desk.' 3 

And in another letter on a similar subject, he says, after 
Celerinus' noble confession 

c What else was to be done but that he should be set in the 
reading-desk . . . that ... he may read the commandments 
and the gospel of the Lord, which he so courageously and 
faithfully follows. . . . There is nothing wherein a confessor 
can more benefit the brethren, than if while the reading of 
the gospel is heard from his mouth, whoso hears, would imitate 
the faith of the reader.' 4 

1 Sermo clxv ; v, 554. 

2 Sermo clxx ; v, 569. The lessons he denotes as the apostolical lesson, the 
psalm which we have just sung ( 6) and the gospel ( 10). Sermo clxxvi : i 
(584): 'Primam lectionem audivimus Apostoli . . . Deinde cantavimus Psalmum 
. . . Post haec Evangelica lectio.' Sermo clxx x : i (597) : ' Prima lectio quae 
nobis hodie recitata est Apostoli lacobi.' 

3 S. Caecilii Cypriani Opera, Oxonii, 1682 ; Epist xxxviii, p. 75. 

4 Ibid., Epist. xxxix, p. 77. 


But there was always a tendency to withdraw privileges 
of this kind from the lower ranks of the clergy, and 
reserve them for the higher, particularly at Rome. The 
deacon gradually acquired the right of reading the gospel, 
both in the East and the West, before the end of the 
fourth century. 1 The subdeacon in like manner ac- 
quired the right of reading the epistle in the West ; 
certainly by the eighth century at Rome, probably earlier. 
But he was never able to deprive the reader entirely 
of this right, as the. deacon did of that of reading the 

In the eighth century the proclamation of silence before 
the reading of the Scripture lessons had gone out of 
use at the solemn mass at Rome ; but originally it had 
obtained. Even then, however, it was kept up at the 
ceremony called in aurium a^ertionem, in the preparation 
for baptism. 2 Then, before the Old Testament lesson, 
from Isaiah, the deacon called out Signate illos, state cum 
disciplina et cum silentio ; and before each of the gospels : 
State cum silentio, audientes intente ! 

In Ordo I no rule is given for the deacon when reading 
the gospel to turn in any particular direction. Ordo //, 
which is a Gallican recension of a Roman Ordo y tells the 
deacon to face the soutfif where the men stand, doubtless 
with thoughts of i Cor. xiv, 35. At a later period the 
rubrics are unanimous in directing a northward position. 
Micrologus 4 suggests that the change arose in this way : 
when there was no deacon, the celebrant read the gospel 
at the altar, on which the book rested at the north end, 
and so he apparently turned northwards. The deacons, 
emulous of their superiors, took to turning in the same 
direction ; and by degrees the custom became the rule. 

1 Apostolic Constitutions, Lib. II : cap. Ivii, SS. Patrum qui temporibus apostolicis 
foruerunt, edit. J. B. Coteler, Antwerpiae, 1698 ; vol. i, p. z6z. St. Jerome, 

Epist. xciii. 

2 Museum Italicum, ii, 79, 80. 

8 Ipse vero diaconus stat versus ad meridiem ad quam partem viri solent 
confluere (Museum Italicum, ii, 46). 
4 De missa rite celcbranda, cap. ix. 


Where there were two ambos, that on the north was 
reserved for the gospel, that on the south for the epistle. 
A reader in turning towards the greater number of 
persons, would naturally turn more or less southwards in 
the north ambo, and northwards in the other. Probably 
this was the original reason for the position of the reader. 

The Vigil service and the Missa Catechumenorum are in < 
form identical : in fact, the one was the predecessor of the 
other, at first separated from the Missa Fidelium by a 
greater or lesser interval. 1 And in it we find lessons from 
Scripture separated by psalms at a very early date. 
Tertullian, in alluding to this service, 2 says that * Scrip- 
tures are read, Psalms are sung, Sermons are delivered, 
Prayers are offered up.' Justin Martyr, it is true, does 
not mention the singing of psalms in the account which 
we have quoted above of the Sunday vigil and liturgy ; 
but he was not then concerned to give more than a mere 
outline of the service. In the Apostolic Constitutions we 
are told that the reader is to stand in a high place and 
read out of the books of the Old Testament, and then 
after two lessons have been read some other person is to 
sing the hymns of David, and the people are to join in at 
the end of the verses : after which the Acts or St. Paul's 
Epistles are read, and then a deacon or priest reads the 
gospel. 3 There is, then, no reason to doubt that from the 
earliest times a psalm was sung between the lessons from 
Holy Scripture. This psalm was not like the anthems 
at the entry, the offertory, and the communion some- 
thing sung by the choir to occupy the time whilst the rest 
of the clergy were engaged in doing something else : it 
was a Scripture lesson itself, sung by one voice alone, 
from ' a high place,' the ambo, to which the people re- 
sponded at the end of each verse, a psalmus responsorius 

1 See Dr. J. Wickham Legg's Three Chapters in Recent Liturgical Research, 
Church Historical Society, 1903; pp. 14. s</. 

2 lam vero prout scripturae leguntur aut psalmi canuntur aut adlocutiones 
proferuntur aut petitiones delegantur (JDe Anima, cap. ix). 

3 Apostolic Constitutions, Lib. II : cap. Ivii. 


distinguished from an antiphon, or psalm sung alternately 
by two choirs. 1 

In Ordo II we are told that the singer alone begins the 
respond or psalmus responsorius, and every one in the quire 
answers, and the same singer alone sings the verse of the 

We may notice that to the last in England the grail 
preserved a reminiscence of its origin as a Scripture lesson, 
though much cut down, in the fact that it was sung where 
the lessons were read, either at the quire-step, orinpulptt^ 
according to the day or season. 

The method of singing the grail was as follows : it was 
begun by one of the choir or a collet, and then repeated 
by the choir ; then the first verse was sung by the solo 
voice, the grail was again repeated by the choir, and so on 
for each verse. When there was only one verse to be 
sung, the solo voice repeated the grail at the end of it, 
and the choir replied with the same. 2 

The procedure was much the same with regard to the 
Alleluia. The singer sang it through, and the choir 
repeated it : he then sang the verse, and the choir repeated 
the Alleluia. 

Amongst the imitations of the church of Constantinople, 
wherewith St. Gregory was charged, 3 was that of causing 
Alleluia to be sung in masses out of Eastertide. To 
which he replied that the custom came from the Church of 
Jerusalem in the days of Pope Damasus, through St. 
Jerome, not denying the minor accusation. 

St. Austin 4 more than once refers to the custom ot 

1 St. Leo the Great refers to the psalm in Sermo II on the anniversary of his 
becoming pope : ' Unde et davidicum psalmum, dilectissimi, non ad nostra 
elationem, sed ad Christi Domini gloriam consonavoce cantavimus ' (Opera Omnia, 
Venice, 1748; t. i, p. 2). 

2 Compare St. Austin, Sermo cliii : i (506) : ' Audivimus, concorditerque 
respondimus, et Deo nostro consona voce cantavimus, Beatus vir' (Ps. xciii, il). 

3 See his letter given at length on p. 68. 

4 e.g. In Ps. xli Enarr., II: 24; Of era, Antwerpiae, 1700; t. iv, col. 74. 
In Ps. cvi Enarr., i ; iv, 903. In Ps. cxlviii Enarr., I ; iv, 1246. Sermo 
252 : cap. ix ; v, 726. 


singing Alleluia in Eastertide. * The days are come to 
sing Alleluia^ he says in one of his Easter day sermons ; 
and he goes on to tell the people that the * fifty days 
after the Lord's Resurrection, during which we sing 
Alleluia, signify eternity. Sozomen, 1 in the next century, < 
asserts that at Rome Alleluia was only sung once a year, 
on Easter day : and so many Romans were accustomed to 
swear by the fact of having heard or sung this hymn. It 
is fairly certain, however, that he was in error : 2 possibly 
mistaking the meaning of the expression Pascha, which 
might mean either the one day, or the whole season of 
fifty days ; and being informed that the Romans only 
used Alleluia in Pascha, concluded that it meant Easter day 

At one time the Romans sang Alleluia at funerals, as 
we learn from a letter written by St. Jerome 3 to Oceanus 
on the death of Fabiola : whose fame { gathered together 
the whole population of the city to her funerals. Psalms 
were sounded, and Alleluia shook the golden roofs of the 
temples, and re-echoed from on high.' 

St. Gregory, then, extended the custom of singing 
Alleluia during the whole of Eastertide to the rest of the 
year, except of course to Lent and masses for the departed. 

vi. The Sermon. 

After the lessons from Holy Scripture, Justin Martyr 
says that the bishop preached a sermon on them. But 
preaching during mass disappeared from the Roman < 
liturgy at an early period. Sozomen, 4 writing in the 
second quarter of the fifth century, says that in Rome, 

1 Sozomen, Historia Ecclesiastica, Lib. VII : cap. xix. 

2 John the Roman Deacon, at the beginning of the sixth century, writing to 
Senarius, xiii, says : ' Sive enim usque ad Pentecosten Alleluia cantatur, quod 
apud nos fieri manifestum est ; sive alibi toto anno dicitur, laudes Dei cantat 
Ecclesia ' (Migne, P.L., lix, 406). 

3 Ep. 77: n : Migne, P.L., xxii, 697. 

4 Sozomen, Hist. ccles., Lib. VII: cap. xix. 


4 neither the bishop nor any one else teaches the people.' 
St. Leo (0 461) has left a few short sermons for certain 
special feasts, and St. Gregory the Great (0 604) a good 
many more : we do not know whether any other popes 
ever preached, up to the times which we are considering ; 
but at any rate we have none of their sermons, nor any 
mention of their having done so. The lesser clergy were 
not allowed to preach, and the popes did not approve of 
such permission being granted by other bishops to their 
presbyters and others. They seem to have thought that 
the best way to prevent heresy from invading the Church 
was to stop preaching altogether, and then no one could 
publicly teach anything contrary to the Faith. 1 

vii. The Creea. 

The creed was neither sung nor said during mass at 
>Rome until the time of Benedict VIII (1012-1024). 
Berno, abbot of Reichenau, relates 2 that the emperor, 
Henry II, inquired in his presence of the Romans why 
they never recited the creed after the gospel ; and that he 
heard them reply that they did not do so as the Church 
of Rome had not been infected by any taint of heresy, and 
therefore that they did not need to recite it. But the 
emperor did not desist until he had obtained the consent 
of the pope to have the creed sung at public mass. * But 
whether they still keep up this custom we cannot affirm, 
because we are not sure.' 

Some writers have thought that Leo III introduced 
this practice, because in 809 he told the ambassadors of 
Charles the Great 3 that he had given permission indeed 

1 Twenty-first Epistle of Celestine, to the bishops of Gaul, 423 (Migne, P.L., 
t. 50, col. 529). 

2 Berno, De quibmdam rebus ad missae officium spectantibus libellus, cap. ii, in 
J. Cochlaeus, Speculum Missae, Venedis, 1572; fol. 166. St. Austin tells the 
catechumens that the creed was not heard daily, in Sermo Iviii : c. xi (Of era, 
Antwerpiae, 1700 : t. v, col. 239). 

3 Baronius, Annales Ecclesiastic! } anno 809, num. 6c. 


for singing it, but not for adding to it or taking from it 
(alluding to the introduction of the Filioque clause). c We, 
however, do not sing it, but read it, and in reading teach, 1 
he says again ; and he goes on to advise that the practice of 
singing it be given up gradually, ' because in our Church 
it is not sung.' Leo was referring not to ordinary 
masses, but to the recitation of the creed, which was done 
in Greek and in Latin at the third scrutiny before solemn 
baptism. The Vllth Roman Ordo, giving the baptismal 
rites and ceremonies of the ninth century, describes the 
mode of reciting it in Greek by the word decantando> but 
in Latin by dicit^ 

As evidence of the feeling of reserve, which prevented 
any public use of the creed for so long, the intention of 
Sozomen 2 to transcribe that of Nicaea for his History 
may be instanced. He was dissuaded from so doing by 
godly and learned friends, who represented to him that 
such matters ought to be kept secret, only for disciples 
and their instructors ; and probably his book would fall 
into the hands of the unlearned. 

viii. 'The Dismissals. 

After the mass of the catechumens, the deacon formally 
dismissed them. But by the time Or do I was cast in the 
form in which we now have it, the formal dismissal had 
dropped out of the ordinary public masses with the 
decline of public discipline, and was only used on the days 
of scrutinies. On Wednesday in the third week of Lent, 
the catechumens were called into the church, at which the 
stational mass was held, after the celebrant had finished the 
collect, the exorcisms were pronounced, and the lesson was 
read, followed by the singing of the grail. Then the 
deacon 3 dismissed them : Let the catechumens depart ! 
Whoever is a catechumen, let him depart! Let all the 

1 Museum Italicum, ii, 81. 2 Sozomen, Hist. Eccles , Lib. I: cap, xx. 

3 Museum Italicum, ii, 79, 8l. 



catechumens go out of doors ! The same took place on 
the following Saturday at another church. In the fourth 
week another scrutiny was held, and the catechumens 
were formally instructed in the gospels, the creed, and the 
Lord's prayer ; after which they were dismissed in the 
same manner as above. At the seventh scrutiny, on 
Easter Even, they were dismissed 1 by the archdeacon 
after various ceremonies ; there being added to the 
formula given above the words, awaiting the hour when the 
grace of God can administer baptism to you. 

In St. Gregory's days, however, the dismissal had not 
disappeared, but its formulary had changed to suit the 
altered circumstances : or rather, only the dismissal of the 
penitents survived. He tells a story 2 of some nuns who 
died excommunicate (their sin had been incontinence of 
the tongue) : * And when the solemnities of mass were 
being celebrated in the same church [in which they were 
buried] and the deacon as usual cried out, If any do not 
communicate^ let them make room^ their foster-mother, who 
was accustomed to offer an oblation to the Lord for them, 
used to see them come out of their graves and depart 
from the church.' 

ix. The Offertory. 

We now come to the offertory, in the ceremonies of 
> which begins the first exercise of the Christian priest- 
hood in the liturgy. St. Peter 3 tells us that the body 
of baptized Christians is a jBaf/Xffto? Isparsojaa, a royal 
priesthood ; for, having been cleansed from sin in baptism 
and strengthened by the gift of the Holy Ghost in con- 
firmation, they are thereby made members of the one 
true Priest and partake of His priesthood. Observe, 
however, that the apostle does not say that they are royal 

1 Museum Italicum, ii, 82. 

2 Dialogorum Liber II: cap. 13 : Opera, t. ii, 453. Note that the people are 
said to offer the oblation. 3 i Peter, II, 9. 


priests^ but a royal priesthood. This priesthood belongs 
to them, therefore, in a corporate capacity. But where 
there is a priesthood, there is also a sacrifice. The 
sacrifice which Christ offered was himself, once for all 
on the altar of the Cross, for the sins of the whole 
world ; and this sacrifice he continues to plead, ever 
living to make intercession for us, before the Eternal 

So they, too, who share in this priesthood offer sacrifice. 
And since the one great oblation, the full, perfect, and 
sufficient sacrifice, to which nothing can be added, and 
which cannot be repeated, has already been offered, this 
sacrifice of the royal Christian priesthood must be not 
merely a memorial of, but also in some sense identical 
with, the sacrifice offered upon the cross, which Christ is 
ever pleading. There can be no other sacrifice. And if 
the sacrifice is the same, that which is offered is the same 
also : in other words, the Heavenly Victim is himself 
really and truly present therein. 

There are two parts in the Eucharistic Sacrifice : first, 
the offering, for his remembrance, and secondly the 
sacrificial communion, partaken of by all those who have 

In the Christian priesthood there are three distinct 
grades or ranks: layfolk, deacons, and priests (including 
in the latter both ordinary presbyters, and those highly 
specialized whom we generally term bishops). Their< 
functions in offering are distinct, but complementary. 
Layfolk bring and offer to God of the gifts which he 
has bestowed upon mankind, the materials for the sacrifice 
bread, and wine and water. This ceremony is called the 
Offertory. Probably at first the offerings were of wheat 
or flour, and grapes, but we have no direct evidence 
of this ; l it would, however, illuminate if not explain a 
number of passages in early writers if such had been the 

1 In the Liturgy of the Nestorians the loaves are prepared before the service 
from fine flour, olive oil, and warm water (Brightman, Liturgies Eastern ana 
Western, Oxford, 1896; pp. 2^j jy.). 


case. Thus, St. Ignatius l writes to the Romans : c The 
wheat of God am I ; and by the teeth of wild beasts 
am I ground, that I may be found the pure bread of 
Christ.* More plainly the author of the Doctrine of the 
Apostles : 2 c As this broken bread was once scattered 
upon the mountains, and being gathered together became 
one, so let thy Church be gathered together from the 
ends of the world into thy kingdom.' St. Cyprian of 
Carthage 3 in the middle of the third century writes : 
* In which very sacrament also our people are shown as 
united ; so that as many grains collected together and 
ground and kneaded together make one loaf, so in Christ, 
who is the heavenly Loaf, we may know there to be one 
Body to which our number is conjoined and united.* 
And again : 4 * For when the Lord calls a loaf, formed 
by the union of many grains, his Body, he indicates his 
people, whom he bore, as being united ; and when he 
terms wine, pressed from a number of bunches of grapes 
and blended in one, his Blood, he also signifies one flock 
linked together by the mingling of a united multitude.* 

St. Austin more than once develops this idea at some 
length. Thus, in one of his sermons to the newly baptized 
on Easter day, he says : 

* It is shown to you in that loaf how ye ought to love unity. 
For is this loaf made of a single grain ? Are there not many 
grains of wheat in it ? But before they came to that loaf they 
were separate : by water they have been joined after a certain 
grinding. For unless the wheat be ground and moistened with 
water, it never comes to that form which is called bread. So ye 
too have been, as it were, ground beforehand with the humiliation 
of fasting and the sacrament of exorcism. Baptism approaches, 
and water : ye were, so to speak, moistened in order that ye might 
come to the form of bread. But it is not yet bread without fire. 
What then does the fire signify ? It is the Chrism. For the oil 

1 Ad Romanes, iv : Patrum Apostol'tcorum> edit. W. Jacobson, Oxonii, 1863; t. ii, 

P- 393- 

2 Didache, IX: 4: edit. Lightfoot and Harmer, 1893; p. 221. 

8 Epist. 63: n. 10 (Caecilii Cypriani Opera, Oxonii, 1682 ; 154). 
4 Epist. 69: n. 4(/iV., 182). 


of our fire is the sacrament of the Holy Ghost. . . . The Holy 
Ghost approaches then, after water fire ; and ye are made breaa, 
which is the body of Christ. And so in a way unity is 
signified.' 1 

In another sermon he says: 

1 When ye were made known as catechumens, ye were stored 
in the granary. Ye were given your names: ye began to be 
ground by fastings and exorcisms. Later on ye came to water, 
and were moistened, and were made one: when the heat of the 
Holy Ghost approached ye were baked, and became the Lord's 
loaf. See what ye have received,' 2 and so on. 

The so-called Apostolic Canons 3 witness that at the 
end of the fourth century it was customary in some 
places still to offer corn and grapes at the altar ; as 
firstfruits, however, and not as materials of the Sacrifice. 

But if it had been the original practice to offer wheat 
and grapes, it is obvious that the offerings could not have 
been used in the same service at which they were offered ; 
and moreover, grapes were not obtainable all the year 
round. Consequently, the more convenient custom of 
offering bread and wine must have soon displaced the 
other, supposing it to have existed, which is not certain. 
In the fourth century 4 loaves and probably flasks of wine < 
were offered by the people, and so it continued at the 
time of Ordo I. The elements to be consecrated were 
selected from the general offerings. St. Cyprian 5 refers 
to this in his tract On Work and Alms, 12, in the course 

1 Sermo 227: Opera Omnia, Antwerpiae, 1700; t. v, col. 678. 

2 Sermo 229: Ibid., 680. Cnf. his epistle to Boniface, cap. x: 50: ' Unus 
enim panis sacramentum est unitatis ; quoniam sicut Apostolus dicit, unus pants, 
unum corpus, multi sumus* (Ibid., t. ii, col. 5^4)' 

3 Canon III. The Nestorians still prepare the oblation from fine flour, olive 
oil, water, and leaven before the mass (Brightman, Eastern Liturgies, 247 jy.). 

4 One may gather this from the letter of Innocent I to Decentius, 416, cap. ii : 
5 (Migne, P.L., xx, 554). St. Jerome, Ep. 43, writing to Pope Damasus, 
says: ' Anathematis mucrone censent esse feriendos, qui in usu laicorum panes 
oblationem contulerint : quia omnino sacerdotalibus solis debentur' (P.L., 
xxx, 292). 

5 Cypriani Opera, Oxonii, 1682; p. 203. 


of a rebuke to wealthy matrons who communicated with- 
out themselves' offering : c Wealthy and rich art thou, and 
thinkest thou to celebrate the Lord's ordinance who dost 
not regard the oblation ; who comest into the Church with- 
out a sacrifice ; who takest a part of the sacrifice which a 
poor man has offered ? ' St. Austin, 1 too, in writing of the 
taking on of our flesh and its offering in the person of and 
by Christ, says : ' [Christ] takes from thee what he would 
offer for thee ; just as the priest (sacerdos) takes from 
thee what he offers for thee when thou wishest to appease 
God for thy sins.' 

Theodore archbishop of Canterbury states (668-690) 
that women were allowed to offer amongst the Greeks, 
but not amongst the Romans. 2 However, Ordo I certainly 
contradicts him in this, as does St. Gregory the Great ; 
and in Africa St. Cyprian. 

The preparation of the offering and its presentation 
belongs to the deacons, as their peculiar share in the 
royal priesthood. Some have seen an allusion to this 
duty in St. Paul's Epistle to the Colossians, 3 wherein he 
tells them that Christ's body is the Church, whereof he 
has been made a deacon (&axovo), to fulfil the word 
of God, that is, the mystery concealed from the ages and 
from generations, and his purpose as such is to present 
every man perfect in Christ Jesus. St. Ignatius 4 describes 
deacons as ' being ministers of the mysteries of Jesus 
Christ,' in his Epistle to the Trallians. 

The purpose of this preparation is to make the offer- 
ing representative of the Church united in herself as one 
body, and conjoined and united to Christ her Head. The 
deacons, then, selected a certain number of the loaves and 
set them in rows upon the altar, and mixed a little water 
with the wine. With the large number of offerers and 
communicants the altar was, as it were, * loaded with 

1 St. Austin, Enarratio in Ps. cxxix: 7; Of era, iv, 1091. 

2 Poenit., Lib. II : cap. vii : n. 4; Haddon and Stubbs, Councils, iii, 196. 

3 Coloss. i, 24, 25, 26, 28. 

4 Cap. ii: Pair. Apost., Oxonii, 1863; t. ii, 357. 


loaves ' an expression which we find in some of the 
ancient prayers l appointed for use after the offertory, and 
called either Secreta or Super Qblata. 

The bread that was offered was in the form of solid 
loaves, which the author of the Life of Zephyrinus 
(203-221) in the "Liber Pontifical^ and St. Gregory the 
Great describe as coronae, crowns. 2 The anonymous author 
of the treatise De Sacramentis (who wrote, according to 
Duchesne, 3 somewhere in the north of Italy, perhaps at 
Ravenna, about the year 400) describes the bread as < 
usitafus, in common use. 4 A story told in the Life of 
St. Gregory points to the same conclusion. 5 A certain 
noble lady of Rome laughed when the Saint was about 
to communicate her one day at a stational mass; and 
when afterwards asked the reason, said : * I recognized 
the fragment to be of the same oblation-loaf which I 
made myself with my own hands and offered to you ; 
and when I understood you to call it the Lord's Body, 
I smiled.' 

The Offering of the Church must always be a pure 
offering ; and hence those who were known to be in a 
state of sin were debarred from offering until they had 

1 In the Leonine Sacramentary : ' Tua Domine muneribus altaria cumulamus ' 
(edit. Feltoe, Cambridge, 1896; p. 29. Also in Gregorian Sacramentary for 
the Nativity of St. John Baptist : and Ibid., 148). In the Gregorian Sacramentary 
for Vigil of All Saints : ' Altare tuum Domine Deus muneribus cumulamus 

2 Tune duas secum oblationum coronas detulit (Bialogorum Liber IV ': cap. Iv; 
Opera, ii, 464). 

' Origines du cults Chretien, 169. 

4 Lib. iv. cap. 4 : < Tu forte dicis : meus panis est usitatus. Sed panis iste 
est ante verba sacramentorum : ubi accesserit consecratio, de pane fit caro 

5 St. Gregorii Magni, Opera, Parisiis, 1705 ; iv, 10, 58. In the crypt of St. 
Cornelius is a very early fresco, figured in Rossi's La Roma Sotterranea, t. i, tav. 
viii, in which are represented two fish (symbols of our Lord) : each carries on 
his back a basket full of round flattened loaves, and in the midst can be made out 
a vessel containing red wine, most probably representing the bread and wine of 
the Eucharist. We are reminded of St. Jerome's remark (Epist. xcv, ad Rusticum) 
that ' none is richer than he who carries the Body of the Lord in a wicker-basket, 
his Blood in a glass vessel.' 


been restored to the body of the faithful. 1 This feeling 
lasted long after penitents had been allowed to com- 
municate before their term of penance was over ; they 
might communicate, but no offering was accepted from 
them. 2 

x. The Offertory Anthem. 

Walafrid Strabo (c. 840) states that we do not clearly 
read who it was that introduced either the anthem at the 
offertory, or that at the communion ; but in his opinion it 
was the ancient custom to offer and communicate in silence, 
as was still done on Easter Even. 3 St. Austin tells us that 
one Hilary, a catholic layman of tribunal rank, was annoyed 
at a custom which at that time had begun to obtain in 
Carthage, that hymns should be said at the altar from the 
book of Psalms, both before the oblation and when that 
which had been offered was distributed to the people ; 
and apparently expressed his disapproval in no measured 
terms. 4 St. Austin, by general request, was deputed to 
answer him ; but his defence of the practice has not come 
down to us. 

> Originally the offertory-anthem was antiphonal and not 
responsorial ; that is to say, it was performed by two 
semi-choirs and not by a solo voice and chorus. It is 
generally considered that by the time of Ordo I it had 
come to be sung by solo voice and chorus : thus the 
anthem was begun by the choir, and sung through, then 
the solo voice sang the first verse of the psalm, after 
which the choir repeated the anthem ; and so on for 
each verse. 

1 Council of Elvira, can. 28. Apostolic Constitutions, Lib. Ill : cap. iv. 

2 Poenit. Theod. in Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, Oxford, 1871 ; iii, 186. 
Nicholas I ap. Gratiani, Deer., II: causa xxxiii: quaest. ii : cap. xv. Eugenius 
III ap. Deer. Greg. IX, Lib. V : tit. xvii : cap. ii. 

3 Walafrid Strabo, De rebus Ecclesiastics , c. xxii, near the beginning. 

4 St. Aurelii Augustini Hipponensis Episcopi, Retractationum Liber II: c. xi: 
Opera, Antwerpiae, 1700; t. i, col. 33. 


xi. The Preface. 

Justin Martyr tells us that, after the offertory, the 
bishop offered c prayers and thanksgivings to the best of 
his ability.' Just before, he describes these as ' sending 
up praise and glory to the Father of the universe,' and as 
' a lengthened thanksgiving.' It appears from this that < 
the long Eucharistic Prayer, whereby the oblations become 
that of which before they were but a mystic representation, 
namely, the Body and Blood of Christ, was not a fixed 
form in the second century. We might gather the same 
from a consideration of the number of different anaphoras 
in the Eastern, and the great variety of prefaces in the 
Western rites. 1 Had there been a 'fixed form handed 
down from apostolic times, we may be sure that no 
variations would have been allowed. 

In the Leonine Sacramentary, for instance, we find more 
than one preface for many days, and the internal evidence 
shows that individual presbyters had considerable latitude 
in composing prefaces, even to the extent of allowing their 
personal feelings to colour their public prayers. Their 
liberty degenerated into license when they declaimed, in 
this portion of the mass, against bad monks, against false 
brethren who penetrate into houses and lead silly women 
captive, false confessors mingled with the true, and so on. 
As time went on, the number of prefaces was steadily^ 
curtailed, until by the end of the twelfth century we find 
only ten in use. 

But with all the liberty of improvisation which was 
allowed in the early ages of the Church, we find that there 
was a certain fixed outline, with definite fixed points to 
which every priest recurred. To begin with, there was 
the preliminary invitation to the people to lift up their 
hearts and give thanks to God, and the priest generally 

1 Compare too the story of the woman who pretended to consecrate the 
Eucharist invocations non contemptibili in St. Firmilian's letter to St. Cyprian, cap. 10 
(given amongst St. Cyrian's letters [Ep. 75] in Opera, Oxonii, 1682; pt. ii, 223). 


took up the words of their second response, // is meet and 
right, and began the eucharistic preface with them in more 
or less developed form. At the end of this, he always 
worked round to some acknowledgment of the angels' 
worship of the Most High and our participation in it, 
joining with them in singing the seraphic hymn, Holy, holy, 
holy, etc. In most liturgies the celebrant again takes up 
what the people sing, this time the Sanctus, and develops 
it at more or less length, leading finally to a commemora- 
tion of the institution of this Sacrament, of the Passion, 
the Resurrection, and the Ascension, concluding with some 
prayer that the Holy Spirit may change the offering into 
the Body and Blood of Christ. Some intercession for 
the living and the dead was included as well, if it had not 
been offered at an earlier moment. 

> The seraphic hymn was brought into use at a very early 
period. St. Sixtus (107-116) is credited with having 
introduced it into the Church at Rome. Tertullian seems 
to allude to it in his tract, De Oratione. 1 

xii. Sanctus and Benedictus. 

After the pope has finished the preface, the choir then 
sing the angelical hymn, /'. e. the Sanctus. The words, 
which are common to all liturgies (with small variations) 
except the Anaphora of the Ethiopic Church Ordinances, 2 
are adapted from Isaiah vi, 3 ; where we read that the 
Seraphim cried unto one another and said, Holy, holy, holy, 
is the Lord of Hosts ; the whole earth is full of His glory. 
The name * the angelical hymn ' implies that the anthem 
Benedictus with its Hosannas had not yet attached itself to 
it ; and this is made more sure because, in the Gallicanized 
recension of this Ordo, printed by Mabillon as Or do 

1 See Appendix IV, p. 184. 

2 F. E. Brightman, Liturgies Eastern and Western, Oxford, 1896; vol. i, pp. 
I8 9 ^ 


Romanus //, there is added to this passage l the phrase, 
* in which Hosanna is twice repeated.' 

It is evident upon examination of all liturgies, Eastern 
or Western, that the verse of the psalm, wherewith the 
populace of Jerusalem saluted our Lord on the first Palm 
Sunday, is here an interpolation of comparatively late date.^ 
In those of the Egyptian rite, 2 and in that of the * Apostolic 
Constitutions,' 3 it does not appear at this liturgical moment 
at all ; and in other liturgies wherein it does here appear, 
it is not an original constituent of the form, for the 
post-sanctus eucharistic prayer ignores it entirely (with a 
very few exceptions and those of comparatively late date), 
and begins by taking up the words of the seraphic hymn, 
and developing them at greater or less length. Moreover, 
with the exception of Benedictus (and, in the West, of 
Agnus Dei, which was brought in c. 700) all the prayers 
and hymns of early rites are addressed solely to God the 
Father, or to the Holy Trinity, and not to the Second 
Person alone. 4 

In the account given by * St. Silvia of Aquitaine ' (385- 
388) of the procession on Palm Sunday as she saw it at 
Jerusalem, we meet with a curious use of the anthem 
Benedictus. About eleven o'clock at night, after reading 
on Mount Olivet the gospel account of our Lord's entry 
into Jerusalem, 

'the Bishop arises, and all the people depart, every one on foot, 
from the top of Mount Olivet. And all the people go before 
him with hymns and anthems, crying continually : Blessed is he 
that cometh in the name of the Lord. And every child in the 
place (even down to those who by reason of their tender age 
cannot walk on their feet, but are carried on their parents' 
shoulders) carries branches, some of palms, some of olive : and 

1 Museum Italicum, ii, 47-8. 

2 F. E. Brightman, Liturgies Eastern ana Western, Oxiord, 1896; vol. i, pp. 132, 
176, 231. 

3 Ibid., 18-19. 

4 Can. 23 of the third Council of Carthage: Ut nemo in frecilus -vel Pattern pro 
Filio, vel Filium pro Patre nominet. Et cum altare assistitur, semper ad Patrem dirigatur 
eratio.' This is borne out by the Roman canon, and the collects of that rite, 


thus the Bishop is brought in triumph, in a way typical of the 
manner in which our Lord was then led.' l 

The same greeting appears in her account of the mid- 
night mass on the Epiphany, 2 apparently sung in the 
procession back to Jerusalem. At Jerusalem, then, at the 
latter part of the fourth century, Benedictus was used to 
greet the bishop, who (for the time) represented our Lord. 
It probably was not, however, used in the Liturgy after 
Sanctus, for St. Cyril of Jerusalem in 348, not only makes 
no mention of it in his Catechetical Lectures, but like 
Ordo /, refers the hymn to the angels. 3 

In the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom, as now used, the 
Eisodikon, or anthem sung at the Little Entrance which 
is the point at which the bishop first intervenes in the 
service begins on the Epiphany and Palm Sunday 
with the words, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of 
the Lord. God is the Lord, and hath appeared to us y etc. 4 
A little further on, after the Trisagion, the celebrant and 
the deacon go towards the throne ; and on the way the 
former says, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the 
Lord. 5 

Then, on the Epiphany, the reader says for the Pro- 
keimenon of the Apostle (/. e. a short anthem before the 
epistle), Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord* 
After the consecration is over and the clergy have com- 
municated, the deacon comes to the opened doors of the 
bema, and shows the chalice to the people, saying : With 
the fear of God, faith and love, approach ! and then the 
choir sing : Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the 
Lord. God is the Lord, and hath appeared to us. 7 

1 S. Sifoae Aqultanae Peregrinatlo aa loca sancta, edit. J. F. Gamurrini, Romae, 
1888; pp. 59-60. 

2 Ibid., 51. 

3 c We make mention also of the Seraphim . . . who cried Holy, Holy, Holy, 
Lord God of Sabaoth. For the same cause rehearse we this confession of God, 
delivered down to us from the Seraphim, that we may join in hymns with the 
hosts above ' (Lecture XXIII, On the Mysteries, v : 6 [5]). 

4 Brightman, op. cit., 368. B Ibid., 370. 
6 Ibid., 371. 7 Ibid., 396. 


When the paten is brought down to communicate the 
women, the deacon, in the Liturgy of the Coptic Jacobites, 
says Benedictus, without Ho s anna. 1 

In some churches, and on some days, amongst the 
Armenians, at the Great Entrance, after the celebrant 
receives the gifts from the hands of the deacons, he makes 
the sign of the cross with them towards the people, saying : 
Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, and the 
clerks reply : Alleluia? 

When Charles the Great visited Rome in the time or 
Pope Hadrian, he was received in full state, and escorted 
to the basilica of St. Peter by the Pope and his Court. 

* And so they entered into the same venerable court of blessed 
Peter the prince of the apostles, the whole clergy and all the 
religious servants of God singing praise to God and to his 
Excellency, crying out with a loud voice, Blessed is he that cometh 
in the name of the Lord. 1 3 

And, some years later, his successor Ludwig was received 
in like manner, and greeted with the same anthem, 4 when 
he visited Sergius II. 

Pope Stephen is said to have ordered all the inhabitants 
of Paris to meet Pippin and Karlomann with flowers and 
branches of palm, when they brought back the supposed 
relics of SS. Benedict and Scholastica : and they received 
them in that fashion, crying out, Blessed is he that cometh 
in the name of the Lord. 5 With which we may compare 
the account which St. Gregory of Tours gives of the dedi- 
cation of the oratory, wherein the relics of SS. Saturninus, 
Martin, Illidius, and others were placed. As they were 
about to enter the church with the relics, a terrific flash 
of lightning occurred, which St. Gregory at once interpreted 
as a manifestation of St. Martin's power and presence. 
They all thereupon magnified God, saying, Blessed is he 

1 Brightman, op. cit., 186. 2 Ibid., 431. 

3 Duchesne, Liber Pontificalis, i, 497. 4 /^ tj ^ gg. 

6 Epitome Chron. Casinens.,ap. Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, Milan, 1726; 
t. ii, z6o D. 


that cometh in the name of the Lord. God is Lord, and hath 
enlightened us. 1 

Upon a consideration of the instances of the use of 
Benedictus given above, it seems possible that the anthem 
was at first used, without its Hosannas, as a greeting of 
the bishop in the solemn procession on Palm Sunday 
and on the Epiphany, when he typified our Lord. Some 
such idea prevailed in a modified form at Rome in the 
eighth and ninth centuries, where Benedictus was sung as 
a greeting to the emperors ; and in Paris, where it was 
used in the like manner at the reception of the relics of 
SS. Benedict and Scholastica, unless perhaps it was sung 
for the sake of the play on the name, Benedict. Such, 
too, would be the explanation of its use as the Eisodikon 
for Epiphany and Palm Sunday at Constantinople : the 
anthem was there originally a greeting of the bishop on 
his first intervention in the service : such, again, might 
explain its use, just as the bishop is about to come forth 
out of the Holy Place in order to communicate the people, 
in the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom, and the similar instance 
in the Liturgy of the Coptic Jacobites. 

If this was so, the intention of the anthem afterwards 
passed from the bishop who was bringing out the Eucharist, 
to the Eucharist itself, by a natural and easy transition ; 
and when that happened the verse of the psalm was some- 
times augmented by what followed, so that they sang in 
addition God is the Lord, and hath appeared to us; and 
sometimes by the twofold Hosannas. 

In the neighbourhood of Antioch about the year 375 
the Benedictus anthem was referred to the Eucharist, when 
the bishop came out to communicate the people, and called 
out Sancta sanctis. The people are directed to respond 
with One holy, one Lord Jesus Christ, to the glory of God 
the Father, blessed for ever. Amen. Glory to God in the 
highest^and on earth peace, towards men of good-will. Hosanna 

1 St. Gregorii Turonensis, Liber de Gloria Confessorum, cap. xx ; Migne, P.L., 
xi, 843. 


to the Son of David. Blessed is he thai cometh in the name 
of the Lord. God is Lord, and hath appeared unto us. 
Hosanna in the highest. The compiler of this liturgy, 
the so-called Clementine, evidently wished the whole 
response to be referred to our Lord, as present in the 
Eucharist. 1 But whether he here represents current Church 
opinion or not is another matter. In working up material 
for his liturgy, he dealt most freely with it ; and the 
prayers in particular are substantially his own work. 2 
Hence it is probable that this response is his own com- 
position also. It almost seems as though the compiler 
wished to alter a prevailing idea of the use of Benedictus 
as a welcome to the bishop, and to divert its intention to 
the Eucharist, accentuating this idea by the addition of 
the people's cry to our Lord, Hosanna; by the angels' 
Christmas song Glory to God; and by the direct apos- 
trophe in the beginning. Furthermore, there is no 
evidence, and very little probability, that the Liturgy of 
the * Apostolic Constitutions ' was ever used anywhere or 
at any time. 

When the intention of Benedictus was directed towards 
the Eucharist, we can understand the singing of it just 
after the consecration. After a while it would seem that 
the time of singing it was shifted further back until, with 
its Hosannas, it became appended to the Sanctus. Then 
came a change. Benedictus with the second Hosanna was 
shifted forwards again to the elevation in the West and 
the corresponding moment in the East, as a greeting to 
our Lord in the Eucharist, where at the present time it 
remains in actual practice. 

Of the date when Rome first adopted this anthem, 
nothing is clear : the silence of Micrologus in the eleventh 
century hardly helps the question one way or the 
other ; but probably it was absorbed together 
other Gallicanisms in the course of the eleventh 

1 Brightman, op. cit., 24. 2 f^j^ xxx iii xliii. 


xiii. The Canon. 

The most satisfactory theory of the origin of the 
Roman canon, which St. Gregory tells us was composed 
by some learned man, is that propounded by Mr. Edward 
Burbidge. 1 After showing that the original liturgy of 
Rome was in Greek, and that in the middle of the fourth 
century there is every reason to believe that a Latin liturgy 
existed alongside the Greek, he goes on to suggest that in 
the time of Pope Damasus there was a compromise effected 
between the two sections of the Church, which resulted in 
the Latin tongue prevailing over the Greek, and the 
Greek form (to some extent) over the Latin. 

He then goes on to point out the c Gallican ' features 
of the canon : its beginning with the word TV, and having 
a certain diffuseness as compared with genuine Roman 
prayers. Then adducing parallels to the various sections 
of the canon, he shows that they resemble the variable 
prayers of the Gallican uses, from the second to the sixth, 
particularly those of the Mozarabic rite : and concludes 
with the following propositions : (i) That the canon was 
formed out of older Latin prayers, which belonged to a 
variable order of service of the Gallican type : (ii) That 
these prayers were put together in one fixed form to suit 
the customs of the Greek section of the Church at Rome, 
and unite it with the Latin when this had become the 
larger section : (iii) That it thus gained the name of The 
Canon, as being the accepted rule of service, in place of 
the unchanging Greek and the variable Latin forms 
previously in use : (iv) That the double reference to the 
saints was caused by the attempt to satisfy both those 
who were accustomed to begin with prayers for the 
Church, and those who were accustomed to end with 
them : (v) That the repetitions of the phrase Per Christum 
Dominum nostrum show the old divisions of the prayers. 

It must not be supposed that we can find all the sections 

1 In The Guardian of 24 March, 1897. 


of the Roman canon amongst Galilean prayers ; but Mr. 
Burbidge has shown that the contents of the ancient 
prayers of the Galilean rite entitled (i) Alia, (2) Post 
Nomina, (3) Ad Pacem, (4) Post Sanctus, and (5) Post 
Pridie, correspond in general character with the sections of 
the canon beginning (i) TV igitur, (2) Communicantes, (3) 
Hanc igitur, (4) Quam oblationem, and (5) Unde et memores. 
The clause Per quern haec omnia represents the fixed ending 
of the Galilean Post pridie prayer, and Per ipsum is taken 
from the Greek liturgy. 

The Roman canon has not been put together very well : 
there is considerable awkwardness about the second and 
fourth sections, and again from the Per quern clause to the 
end. Mr. Burbidge's theory at any rate explains how 
this arose. It also explains the appearance of Per quern 
haec omnia, a clause that has given rise to a considerable 
amount of discussion for several centuries. The older 
view, and one sanctioned by the authority of Duchesne, 
is that it represented the end of a blessing of the fruits of 
the earth ; and it actually had that position when such a 
form was used, as on Ascension day, when new beans, 
and on St. Sixtus when the new grapes, were blessed, on 
Maundy Thursday when the oil for the sick, and on 
Easter Even and Whitsun Eve when the honey and milk 
for the neophytes were blessed. Whether Duchesne's 
statement, that there is no doubt that this formula was 
originally preceded even under ordinary circumstances 
by a prayer for the good things of the earth, can be 
sustained, is not quite so certain, having in mind the plain 
likeness between the Per quern clause of the canon, and 
the fixed ending of the Mozarabic Post Bridie prayer. 
Nevertheless, it is possible that the Roman ritualists, 
when they compiled the canon, may have taken over this 
ending and adapted it to a series of benedictions of fruits 
of the earth, deeming the phraseology unsuitable to be 
applied (as it undoubtedly is in the Mozarabic rite) to the 
Sacrament of the Body and Blood. There is not any real 
information to guide us, so that we can only speculate as 



to what may have taken place ; but we do know that on 
some occasions this clause was attached to the end of 
such benedictions, and therefore that at the time when 
this was done the then ritualists preferred to refer those 
words to fruits of the earth rather than to the Blessed 

The earliest allusions to the prayers of the present 
Roman canon are not earlier than the time of Pope 
Damasus, during whose reign, on Mr. Burbidge's theory, 
the amalgamation of the Greek and Latin-speaking mem- 
bers of the Church in Rome took place, with the formation 
of the fixed anaphora thenceforward known as the canon. 
There is the evident allusion to the prayer Supra quae by 
the Roman author of the Quaestiones Veteris et Novi 
festamcnti) a contemporary of Damasus. 1 St. Jerome 
must have had in mind the close of the prayer Nobis 
quoque peccatoribuS) which runs intra quorum nos consortium, 
non aestimator meriti, sed veniae quaesumus largitor admitte, 
when he penned his comment upon the last verse of the 
seventy-second psalm (Ixxiii, 27 in our reckoning) : Per 
contemplationem enim spei quam in deum habet : sperat se 
induci in caelestis Hierusalem portis : ad capiscendam futuram 
beatitudinem cum electis suis. In quorum nos consortium, non 
meritorum inspector, sed veniae largitor admittat Chrislus 
dominus. Amen?' 

And in the book De Sacramentis, ascribed to St. Ambrose, 
but written about the year 400, somewhere in northern 
Italy, where the uses of Rome and Milan were combined, 
we have large portions of the canon quoted : not quite 
word for word with the present form, it is true, but still 
fairly closely. There are two interesting differences. 
^> After Hoc est enim corpus meum, pseudo- Ambrose adds : 
quod pro multis confringetur : and in the quotation from 

1 Similiter et Spiritus sanctus quasi antistes sacerdos appellatus est excels! Dei, 
non summus, sicut nostri in oblatione praesumunt (Migne, P.L., xxxv, 2329). 
Duchesne observes that he evidently has in mind the phrase summus sacerdos tuus 
Melchistdech of the Roman epiclesis (Grigints, 169). 

2 St. Jerome, Opera Omnia, Basileae, 1525; t. viii, fol. 65 verso, note^. 


the epiclesis he has per manus angelorum tuorum instead of 
'per manus sancti angeli tui. 1 

xiv. The Recital of the Names of the Living. 

St. Cyprian of Carthage, in writing about the restoration 
of a lapsed person to full communion, 2 says, that * before 
the peace of the Church is restored, they are admitted to 
communion, and their names are offered/ And, later, he 
writes to some bishops in Numidia, sending them some 
money collected for the redemption of captives : 3 * I have 
subjoined the names of all and sundry, that in your 
prayers you may remember our brethren and sisters who 
have so readily and willingly accomplished this needful 
work, that they may always so do, and that ye may make 
them a return in sacrifices and prayers for their good 

Innocent I, writing to Decentius in 416, denounces 
the Gallican custom of ' reading out the names before 
the bishop (sacerdos) says the canon (faciat precem), and 
commends in his own prayer the oblations of those whose 
names are to be recited ; you yourself must acknowledge 
how superfluous is the practice, that you should first 
mention to God, to whom nothing is unknown, the name 
of one whose host you have not yet offered.' Therefore 
he directs that first the oblations should be commended, 
and then the names of those who had offered be read out. 4 

A MS of the ninth century, published by Mabillon, 
has a rubric in the middle of the Memento for the living 
which runs as follows : 5 Here shall the names of the living 
be named) if you should wish it, but not on Sunday, except 
on certain days. Florus Magister (c. 835), after telling us 
that the priest is at liberty to commend to God in this 

1 Quoted in Duchesne, Origincs, 170. 

2 Ep. xvi : Ofera, Oxonii, i68z ; pt. ii, p. 37. 

3 Ep. Ixii : Opera, pt. ii, p. 147. 

4 Migne, P.L., xx, 553-4. 5 Museum Italicum, ii, 560. 


prayer whom he wishes, goes on to say l that ' it was a 
custom kept by the ancients that the names of those who 
offered should there be recited.' In the scrutiny-masses 
of the eighth century the practice was still retained. In 
the Memento the names of the men and women who had 
brought the children (/. e. the god-parents) and offered for 
them were recited, and in the prayer Hanc igitur, the 
names of the elect, or candidates for baptism. 2 Or do 1 
gives no hint of any such practice. It would seem then 
that in Rome the oblation of the names of the living was, 
like that of the names of the dead, omitted on Sundays. 
But, whereas, as we shall see later, the whole Memento for 
the departed was omitted on Sundays, the only difference 
on Sundays in the Memento for the living was the omission 
of the recital of the names. 

xv. The Memento for the Departed. 

j The Memento for the departed does not appear in the 
canon of a large number of early MSS. Amalar of Metz 
wrote a long commentary on the canon (c. 830), but he 
passes over this prayer without even mentioning it. Mr. 
Edmund Bishop 8 points out that this clause is also absent 
from two other expositions of the mass, printed by 
Gerbert from a MS of the tenth century. Obviously 
these omissions require explanation. Mr. Bishop tells us 
that the terminology of this Memento is neither Spanish, 
French, nor Irish, but Roman : so that we cannot account 
for its omission on the grounds of its being a late and 
Gallican addition. He finds the true reason in two tracts 
on liturgical matters printed by Gerbert. One of these 
says : * On weekdays from Monday to Saturday masses 
for the dead may be said, and the names of the dead are 
commemorated in the mass ; but such masses are not to 

1 Florus Magister, De Expositione Missae, cap. 51 : Migne, P.L.. cix, 47. 

2 Museum Italicum, ii. 79. 

3 Journal of Theological Studies, July 1903 ; vol. iv, pp. 570 sq. 


be said on Sundays, nor are the names of the dead recited 
on that day, but only the names of the living.' 1 And 
the other : 2 ' After Supplies* te rogamus come two prayers, 
one super dipticios [viz. Memento . . . pads'] and the other 
after the recitation of the names \Ipsis . . . deprecamur\ 
and this on weekdays, that is working days, only.' That 
is, in the Roman rite of the ninth century the Memento for 
the departed was omitted on Sundays, and only said on 

In the Gallican Church there was a custom of reading 
out the names of the departed from the diptychs of the 
dead ; the celebrant prayed for them, and the deacon read 
out their names. We are often told 3 that c this rite 
was also for a long time observed in the public masses of 
the Church of Rome.' We have seen that the Memento 
for the departed had no place in the public masses of the 
Church of Rome, at any rate on Sundays. Mr. Bishop, 4 
after describing the Gallic customs, goes on to say : ' The 
Roman method was a complete contrast. When read 
without preconceived notions, or parti pris derived from 
present practice, the very text of the Memento shows that a 
simple mention of the names as an integral part of the 
celebrant's prayer is all that is contemplated : Remember 
thy servants so-and-so^ who have gone before us with the 
sign of faith. There is no room here for the diptychs. 
Nor does there seem anything to bar the conclusion natur- 
ally suggested by the documents, that, at least from the 
date when our present recension A 5 was settled, the names of 
the dead were commemorated in the canon silently by the 
celebrant as at present.' Moreover, Or do I ' not only 

1 Journal of Theological Studies > July 1903; vol. iv, pp. 570 sq. 

a Museum Italicum, ii, 6l. 

3 E.g. W. E. Scudamore, Notitia Eucharistica, London, 1876; p. 375. And 
Florus of Lyons, Ofusculum de Expositions Missae, in Migne, P.L., cxix, 6z. 

* Of. cit., 575. 

5 By recension A, Mr. Bishop denotes the text of the canon found in the 
Bobbio Missal or Sacramentary, the Stowe Missal, and the Missale Francorum, 
which give through their combined evidence a text of the Roman canon at the 
latest of the first years of the seventh century, and probably much earlier. 


says nothing of the reading of the diptychs, but describes 
the recital of the canon in a way which excludes 1 such 

xvi. The Form of Consecration. 

The later medieval view in the Western Church was, 
as is well known, that the hallowing of the oblation is 
effected by the recital of the words of institution, 'This is 
my Body : This is my Blood. In the East it has always 
been held that this is brought about by the invocation of 
the Holy Ghost, 2 and so strongly was the stress laid upon 
this that in the Anaphora of SS. Adai and Mari, which 
the Nestorians use, there was no recital of the words of 
institution. 3 

But at an earlier period the oriental view prevailed 
equally at Rome. Gelasius himself speaks of the hallowing 
as Sane to spiritu perficiente, Accomplished by the Holy 
Ghost ' : 4 and in the African Church a definite invocation 
or epidesis was in use. 5 And perhaps we may see a trace 
of the elder Roman view in the fact that after the words of 
institution in the Roman canon the oblation is described 
as panem sanctam, but still panem : both before and after 
those words the oblation is called spotless (illabata^ 
immaculatam)) like the offering of Melchizedech. All 
this precedes the Roman epiclesis, Supplices te rogamus : 

1 We learn from the Life of St. Athanasius, bishop of Naples (872), that the 
diptychs were read there in the ninth century : ' Ordinavit etiam, ut in ecclesia 
Salvatoris omni die missa publica cum diptychis celebretur, offerens ibidem terras 
ex quibus eiusmodi aleretur collegium ' (L. A. Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptoret, 
Milan, 1726; t. ii, pars, ii, col. 1046 A). 

3 W. E. Scudamore, Notitia Eucharistica, London, 1876 ; p. 573. Symeon of 
Thessalonica in J. M. Neale's Liturgies of St. Mark, etc., London, 1859 > P- xx x - 
This was the Gallican view also. 

3 Brightman, Eastern Liturgies, 285. 

4 Gelasius, De duabus naturis in Christo, given in M. J. Routh's Scriptorum 
Ecclesiasticorum opuscula, Oxonii, 1840; t. ii, p. 139, 1. 15. Cnf. Gratiani Decreta, 
pars II : caus. i : qu. i : cap. 92. 

5 See the quotations from Optatus, Contra Parmen., Lib. VI; and Fulgentius Aa 
Monlmum in W. Palmer's Origines Liturgicae, Oxford, 1836; vol. i, p. 138, note v. 


after which the oblation is always called ' the Body and 
Blood of our Lord ' ; as, for example, at the commixture. 

xvii. 'The Sacring. 

At the words By him and with him, etc., the archdeacon 
lifts up the chalice and holds it out towards the pope, who 
touches the side of the chalice with one of the consecrated 
loaves until For ever and ever. He then sets his loaf down 
again on the altar, and the archdeacon again replaces the 
chalice. In connection with this ceremony we must recall 
the well-known account which St. Ambrose gives of St. 
Laurence's appeal to St. Sixtus, 1 as he was being led to 
martyrdom. ' Whither dost thou go without thy son, 
father ? Whither, holy bishop, dost thou hasten without 
thy deacon ? Never wert thou used to offer the sacrifice 
without a minister. What then has displeased thee in 
me, father ? Hast thou found me wanting ? Look to it 
surely whether thou choosest a suitable minister. To 
him to whom thou didst commit the consecration of the 
Lord's Blood, to him to whom thou didst commit the 
participation in the sacraments to be consummated, to him 
dost thou deny participation in thy death ? ' It was by 
holding up the chalice as described above that the deacon 
could be said, ministerially, to ' consecrate the Lord's 

xviii. Pater Noster. 

St. Gregory was accused 2 of having appointed that the 
Lord's prayer should be said directly after the canon, and 

1 < Itaque his verbis appellate coepit : Quo progrederis sine filio, pater ? Quo 
sacerdos sancte sine diacono properas tuo ? numquam sacrificium sine ministro 
offerre consueveras. Quid in me ergo displicuit, pater? num degenerem pro- 
basti 1 experire certe utrum idoneum ministrum eligeris. Cui commisisti 
Dominici sanguinis consecrationem, cui consummandorum consortium sacra- 
mentorum, huic sanguinis tui consortium negas ' (St. Ambrosii Ep. Mediol. De 
Officiis Clericorum Liber, I: cap. 41, in Bibliotheca Patrum Ecdes. Latirtorum, Lipsiae, 
1839; vol. viii, pp. 87, 88). 

2 See his letter given at length on p. 68. 


of following the Church of Constantinople in so doing. 
What is his answer ? He does not deny that he has 

7 introduced the custom : ' It seemed to me extremely 
unsuitable to say the canon over the oblation, which was 
composed by some scholasticus, and not to say over his 
Body and Blood that prayer which our Redeemer himself 
composed.' From this we can gather that the Lord's 
prayer was not used in the Roman rite before the time of 
St. Gregory the Great at the liturgical moment when we 
find it in Ordo 7, that is between the last prayer of the 
canon and the fraction. More than this : taking his words 
as they stand, they seem to indicate that it was not used 
at any time before the communion ; if so, it would still be 
said ' over the Body and Blood.' St. Austin has left it 
on record a that ' almost the whole Church concludes the 
canon with the Lord's prayer ' ; and referring to the use 
of his own Church of Hippo, he says : ' Behold, when 
the hallowing is accomplished, we say the Lord's prayer 
which ye have received and repeated. After it is said 
Pax vobiscum, and Christians salute one another with a holy 
kiss.' Was the Church of Rome one of the exceptions 
which St. Austin had in his mind ? 

In the Gallican Churches the Pater noster was recited 
after the fraction, not before : and we find the same in 
many oriental rites. If the Damasian origin of the canon 
be the true one, we should naturally expect that that pope 
would introduce the Lord's prayer in the place in which 
he had been accustomed to hear it, viz. after the fraction. 

7 Now at Rome, if the ceremonial of Ordo I obtained in 
St. Gregory's time, the fraction was a long process, only a 
small part of which took place at the altar. The pope 
breaks a small piece off one loaf and leaves it on the altar : 
the rest of the loaves are speedily removed, put into the 
collets' sacks, and thus carried to the presbyters, who 
break the loaves into conveniently small pieces for the 
communion. The chalice is removed at the same time, 

1 Ep. 149, Ad Paulinum (Qpcra> t. ii, col. 386). 


and entrusted to a district-subdeacon to hold near by the 
altar, so that the altar is bared of the sacrifice, except for 
one small fragment of bread. Consequently it would be 
admissible, supposing that the Pater noster followed the 
fraction thus conducted, to say that it was not recited over 
* the Body and Blood ' : and, therefore, it may be that 
what St. Gregory did, was not to bring in the use of the 
prayer, but to change the liturgical moment at which it 
was said. 

It is more likely, then, that St. Gregory did not< 
actually introduce the custom of saying the Lord's 
prayer, but altered the time at which it was said. If the 
Church of Rome had been so singular as not to use it, 
it is in the highest degree probable that we should have 
had some allusion to the peculiar custom of so eminent 
a Church, the most important in the whole of the West ; 
but we have none at all beyond St. Austin's, ' almost the 
whole Church/ And, indeed, this one allusion to the 
practice of not using it, is rather against the idea that 
Rome did not use the Pater noster ; for its omission by so 
important a Church would, one may believe, hardly have 
been passed over so briefly by him. 

Unfortunately, argument from silence is not always 
convincing ; a little positive evidence would be far better, 
but we have none ; and so the question whether St. 
Gregory merely changed the position of Pater noster, or 
actually introduced the custom of saying it after the canon 
into the Roman mass, remains unsolved. 

The Lord's prayer is not appointed to be said at all 
in the Liturgy of the Apostolic Constitutions ; in the 
Egyptian rite it followed the fraction ; and according to 
the Cappadocian fathers of the fourth century it preceded 
it, as in the Byzantine rite. Consequently the charge was 
well founded, that St. Gregory was following the practice 
of the Church of Constantinople in what he had done, 
whether it was an introduction or a change of position. 
However, he points out that there was a difference ; for 
amongst the Greeks the Lord's prayer was said by the 


whole congregation, but at Rome by the priest alone. In 
the Gallican church it was recited as amongst the Greeks, 
by the congregation. 

^ St. Gregory l affirms that it was the custom of the 
apostles to consecrate the oblation solely with the Lord's 
prayer. Of course, St. Gregory's belief that such was 
the case is no evidence whatever that it really was so ; 
and it would be very surprising if it were true. He may 
have meant that the Lord's prayer was the only fixed part 
of the form which they used ; or, more likely, had some 
passage running through his mind like St. Jerome's state- 
ment that our Lord ' taught his Apostles that daily in the 
Sacrifice of his Body believers should be bold to say, 
Our Father 1 etc. St. Jerome 2 wrote this at Bethlehem, 
c. 415, so that he was most probably referring to the 
custom of the Church of Jerusalem ; perhaps quoting in a 
free fashion from St. Cyril, who says much the same 
thing in one of his Catechetical Lectures. 3 St. Jerome's 
remark can hardly be taken as evidence for the use of the 
Church of Rome, although we might not unnaturally 
expect some reference to it here, if the Pater noster had 
not formed part of the Roman mass. 

xix. 'The Sancta and the Fermentum. 

The kindred ceremonies of the Sancta and the Fer men- 
turn are sometimes confused, but they are quite distinct 
both in origin and intention. 

7 In the former, the pontiff drops into the chalice a frag- 
ment of the consecrated bread reserved from a previous 
day, at the words, 'The peace of the Lord be with you a/way. 
It is a symbol of the unity of the Eucharist in point of 
time ; uniting the communicants with those at the previous 
solemn mass, and so on back through the ages as long 
as the ceremony had existed. 

1 See his letter given on p. 69. 2 St. Jerome, contra Pelagium, Lib. Ill: n. 15. 
3 Lecture XXIII : On the Mysteries, v : 6. 


The latter was similar, but different. When the poper 
was unable to celebrate solemn mass in person, he sent a 
fragment of the loaves consecrated by him at some pre- 
vious mass to the stational church, by the hands of the 
subdeacon-oblationer ; and the same custom obtained at 
masses celebrated at the titular churches. This was put 
into the chalice by the celebrant instead of the Sanaa, and 
at the same liturgical moment. It is to this custom that 
the notice in the Life of Zephyrinus (203-221) refers: 
the Liber Pontificalis tells us that this pope ordained that 
when he was not present in person, but only by deputy, 1 
the mass should not proceed till the presbyter had 
received from the bishop (/. e. the pope) a consecrated 
corona or loaf. 2 The same book tells us that Melchiades 
(31 1-314) * caused that consecrated oblation-loaves should 
be sent to the churches of that consecrated by the 
bishop ; which is known as the Fermentum, or leaven.' 
Siricius (385-398) is also recorded to have ' ordained that 
no presbyter should celebrate masses throughout the 
week, unless he should receive a certified consecrated 
[loaf] from the bishop of the place appointed [? for the 
stational mass],' words which appear to refer to the same 

Innocent I, writing to Decentius in 416, says : 

4 But concerning the Fermentum^ which we send on Sundays 
to the titular churches, you wished to consult us superfluously, 
since all our churches are situate within the city, the presbyters 
of which being unable to meet together with us on that day, 
because of the people committed to their care, therefore receive 
by the hands of collets Fermentum consecrated by us, so that they < 
may not appear to be separated from communion with us, specially 
on that day. I do not, however, think that this should be done 
for country churches, because the sacraments should not be 
carried about far (we do not send to the presbyters attached to 

1 In the Ordo of St. Amand we learn that the Mamlonarii or sextons of the 
titular churches on Easter Even were sent to the Lateran Basilica to fetch the 
Fermentum consecrated by the Pope (Duchesne, Origines, 454). 

2 This paraphrase is due to G. M. Tommasi, Fermenti Expositio, in Opera, Romae, 
1754; t. vii, p. 54. But the whole passage is most obscure. 



the different cemetery-oratories), and their presbyters have the 
power and licence to consecrate.' l 

The Fermentum was sent, as we see from these quota- 
tions, to symbolize the unity of the Eucharists celebrated 
at the same time by presbyters in their parish churches, or 
by the pope's deputy at the stational church, with the 
pope's Eucharist. As the Sancta demonstrated unity in 
7 point of time, so the Fermentum demonstrated it in point 
of place. Both set forth the teaching of the Church that 
all persons offer as the one mystical Body of Christ, a 
united body at one with itself, and that, as one of our 
reformers 2 puts it, the virtue of the Eucharistic sacrifice 
4 doth not only extend itself to the living and those that are 
present, but likewise to them that are absent, and them 
that be already departed or shall in time to come live and 
die in the faith of Christ.' 

This note of unity in celebrating one Eucharist in one 
Church or diocese is strongly emphasized by St. Ignatius. 
In his epistle to the Ephesians 3 he hopes that they will be 
united in one faith, in obedience to their bishop and pres- 
byterate with entire affection, and in breaking one Loaf, 
which is the medicine of immortality. In that to the 
Philadelphians 4 he urges them to ' endeavour to use one 
Eucharist. For one is the Flesh of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and one the chalice in the unity of his Blood ; 
one the altar, and one the bishop, with the presbyterate, 
and the deacons my fellow-servants.' And more plainly 
still in the epistle to the Smyrnaeans : 5 ' Let no one do 
any of those matters which pertain to the Church without 
the bishop. Let that Eucharist be esteemed valid which 
is either offered by the bishop or by him to whom he has 
given permission.' 

This ceremony of the Fermentum was a visible sign, so 

1 Epist. xxv, ad Decentium ep. Eugubinum (Migne, P.L., xx, 553). 

2 John Cosins, Works, Oxford, 1855 ; vol. v, pp, 352 sy. 

3 Patrum Apostolicorum quae supenunt, edit. W. Jacobson, Oxonii, 1863 ; t. ii, 

p. 320 (cap. xx). 
4 Ibid., 422 (cap. iv). 

5 Ibid. , 464 (cap. viii). 


long as it lasted, of the unity (and consequent validity) of 
the Eucharist celebrated by the presbyters of the diocese 
in various places, with that offered by the bishop. 

xx. Agnus Dei. 

The singing of Agnus Dei during the fraction 
introduced by Pope Sergius I (687-701). At first it 
seems to have only been sung once, and by clergy and 
people together. But in Qrdo I the people's part has 
disappeared, and in the Ordo of St. Amand it is sung 
by the choir and then by the collets. It is still only 
sung twice in the Ordo of John of Avranches, in the 
eleventh century. 1 In the twelfth century Beleth 2 says 
that it is sung twice with the ending Have mercy upon us, 
and a third time with Grant us thy peace ; but Innocent 
III tells us that in many churches the ancient custom 
still obtained of singing it thrice uniformly with Have 
mercy upon us, as was always done in the Lateran. 3 John 
the Deacon, 4 in the thirteenth century, also tells us that 
Grant us thy peace, was never sung at the Lateran after 
Lamb of God, etc? 

Agnus Dei has never been introduced into the mass 
of Easter Even, except in the Ordo Romanus of Einsie- 
deln, 6 which also differs from all other Ordines in several 
other respects. 

1 De d'minis officiis, cap. xlviii : ' choro Agnus bis repetente.' 
a Ibid., cap. xlviii. 

3 De sacro altaris mysterio, Lib. VI : cap. iv : ' Porro secundum consuetudinem 
antiquam Scholae cantorum, quam adhuc ipsi conservant et in pluribus servatur 
ecclesiis, ut in Lateranensi nullatenus variatur, sed tribus vicibus uniformiter 
dicitur miserere nobis ' (Migne, P.L., ccxvii, 908). Pierre le Brun notes that the 
Lateran still conserved this ancient custom in his time (Explication . . . de la 
messe, Paris, 1777; t. ii, 578). 

4 Museum Italicum, ii, 566. 

5 In the Ordo of Benedict, afterwards Celestine II, written in the second quarter 
of the twelfth century, it is specially noted that at the mass on Maundy 
Thursday: Primicerius cum schola cantat Agnus Dei, tribus vicibus miserere nobis 
(Museum Italicum, ii, 137). It is to be noted that the station on this day was at 
St. John in the Lateran (Ibid., 547). 8 Duchesne, Origines, 466. 


xxi. The Kiss of Peace. 

Justin Martyr tells us that after the people's prayers 
were over, they saluted one another with a kiss. And 
then bread, and wine mingled with water were brought 
in to the president of the brethren. The kiss of peace 
thus fell between the end of the missa catechumenorum 
and the missa fidelium. In the Oriental rites it maintained 
its position there, as in the Gallican. 1 

In the African Church, as we learn from St. Austin, 2 
the Peace fell after the Lord's prayer at the end of the 
canon : ' After it, Peace be with you is said, and Christians 
salute one another with a holy kiss, which is a sign 
> of peace.' Innocent I in 416 lets us know that the 
practice at Rome was the same, 3 although elsewhere there 
was a custom (which he reprobates) of giving the kiss 
of peace ante confecta mysteria, before the offertory most 
probably, in the Gallican and Oriental way. In Ordo 1 
it is still found just before the communion. 

xxii. 'The Words of Administration. 

> There is no form of words given in Ordo I for use 
at the administration of the communion. The author 
of the treatise De Sacramentis, at one time ascribed to 
St. Ambrose, 4 incidentally gives a formula : c The priest 
says to thee, 'The Body of Christ.' This represents a 
North-Italian use, c. 400. In the life of St. Gregory 5 
by Paul the Deacon, c. 780, we also incidentally get ( 23) 
another formula : c The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ 

1 See the references in Brightman's Eastern Liturgies, i, 584-5. 

2 Ep. 149, Ad Paulinum (Opera, t. ii, col. 386). 

3 Ep. 25, Ad Decentium(P.L., XX, 553). 

4 ' Dicit tibi sacerdos : Corpus Christi. Et tu dicis : Amen ' (Liber de Sacramentii 
If, cap. v : 25). 

8 St. Gregorii Magni, Opera, Paris, 1705 ; iv, 10. This formula is also found 
in the Missal of M. F. Illyricus (Martene, De Ant. Eccl. Rit., Lib. I: cap. iv : 
art. xii : ordo iv). 


avail unto thee for the remission of all sins and for 
everlasting life.' But in his life by John the Deacon, 1 
c. 875, in the course of relating the same story, we have : 
1 The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ preserve thy soul.* 
Whether there was a fixed formula in the eighth 
century at Rome we cannot say : probably there was not. 

xxiii. The Communion of the People. 

St. Austin 2 more than once refers to the fact that the "" 
Eucharist was put into the hands of the communicant. 
Two centuries later, we find that at Rome the custom 
was to place it in the mouth of the receiver : at least, 
we are entitled to gather that this was so from the story 
of Agapitus, which St. Gregory 3 tells in his Dialogues, 
about a deaf mute whose tongue was loosened when the 
saint put the Lord's Body into his mouth. 

At the time of Ordo I the people, and perhaps 
everybody, were communicated with the Sacrament of 
the Blood through a thin tube, called pugillaris, made 
sometimes of silver, sometimes of gold. At a later date 
the pope generally used a similar instrument at solemn 
masses, for in Ordo X y which Mabillon 4 refers to the 
eleventh century, we are told that on Maundy Thursday 
the pope ' confirms ' himself, not with a calamus or reed, 
but with the chalice only. Innocent III bears witness 5 to 
the same practice in the following century. This custom 
lasted long 6 and was widespread on the continent. 

In spite of the numerous fractions and pourings of the 
consecrated wine from one vessel into another, we have 

1 Lib. II: c. 41, in S. Gregorii Opera, iv, 58. 

2 St. Austin, Contra epistolam Parmeniani, Lib. II : cap vii : 13 (Opera, t. ix, 2l). 
And Contra litteras Petiliani, Lib. II: cap. xxiii: 53 (Opera, t. ix, 158). 

3 Dialog. Lib. Ill: cap. Hi.; Opera, ii, 284. 

4 Museum Italicum, ii, IOO. 

5 De Myster. Messae, Lib. VI : cap. ix. 

6 See a catena of examples in Scudamore's Notitia Eucharistica, London, 1876; 
P- 75*- 


no directions for any precaution against crumbs or drops 
of wine falling to the ground, accidents exceedingly 
likely to occur, one would imagine. It is quite unlikely 
that the Romans of the eighth century ignored such 
possibilities ; but with them custom had not crystallized 
> into formal rule. 1 Nor is anything said of systematic 
ablutions. Probably such matters were left to individual 
devotion. We may remember that the early Church 
dwelt far more strongly on the Sacrifice offered to the 
Father in the mass, than on the worship of our Lord in 
the same. 

xxiv. ^he Post-communion Collect. 

After the communion, the pope says the post-com- 
munion collect. But he does not turn to the people in 
> making the usual salutation. The usual explanation of 
this is that the veils of the ciborium were all drawn, so that 
he could not be seen at all : or, at any rate, that the 
custom arose at a time when such was the practice. 

xxv. Alms and Collections of Money. 

The gathering of alms from the better-to-do for the 
benefit of the poor may be traced back to the injunction 
of St. Paul to the Corinthians, which he had previously 
given to the Galatians ; namely, that on the Sunday each 
person was to set aside something of that in which he was 
prosperous, so that there need be no collections when he 
came. These alms were to be forwarded to the Church 
of Jerusalem, when St. Paul arrived at Corinth. This 
was not a weekly collection, however : but some have 
seen an allusion to such a practice in the words of the 
author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, who tells them to 

1 The possibility of such accidents was recognized in the African Church of 
the third century. Tertullian (JDe corona militis, cap. iii) says : ' Calicis aut panis 
etiam nostri, aliquid decuti in terram anxie patimur.' 


be not forgetful of doing good and communicating their 
goods to those in need. 1 

More clearly Justin Martyr states the actual practice of 
the second century. After the account of the Eucharist 
he continues : 

'But those who have the means give, each at his own discretion, 
what he pleases. And that which is collected is laid up with 
him who presides ; and he succours orphans and widows, those 
in want from sickness and other cause, those in bonds, and 
strangers sojourning at the place : and in a word cares for all 
in need.' 2 

But these collections for charitable purposes were not 
the offertory, nor did they take place at the commencement 
of the mass of the faithful, but after it was over : just as 
in the later middle ages, up to 1 549, gatherings for such 
and similar purposes were made in England after service 
at the church-door. 

Allusions to such collections are not infrequent at most 
periods : under Pope Cornelius (254-255), for instance, 
by some such means, the Church at Rome maintained 
more than fifteen hundred poor persons. 3 But as time 
went on, and endowments began to increase, there was 
less and less need for such methods. We can see in the 
letters of St. Gregory how the funds derived from the 
Patrimony of St. Peter were supplied, amongst other 
matters, to the relief of the poor. 

xxvi. Concelebration. 

At a solemn mass the oblation was hallowed by the < 
united prayers of the whole college of presbyters, voiced 
by their head, the bishop. The presbyters stand around 

1 W. E. Scudamore, Notitia Eucharistica, London, 1876 ; p. 344. 

2 Justin Martyr, at Apology, cap. 67. Of the custom of the African Church 
in the next century Tertullian writes : ' On the monthly collection day, each puts 
in a small donation, but only if he pleases, and only if he be able ' (Apologeticus , 
cap. 39). 

3 Eusebius Pamphilus, Eccles. Hist., Lib. VI: cap. xliii. 



their bishop, and, as a ninth century Gallican writer 1 
expresses it, ' give consent to his sacrifice.' But the 
Roman Church at an early period adopted another method. 
In the Life of Zephyrinus we are told that he established 
the custom of holding glass patens before the presbyters, 
and for deacons to hold them whilst the bishops celebrated 
mass, standing upright by him. We can gather from 
this that the earlier practice, by which the bishop con- 
secrated the oblation with the assent of his presbyters, 
was at some time (which may or may not have been 
during the pontificate of Zephyrinus, 200-218) changed 
to another, whereby each presbyter consecrated a portion 
of the oblation, held before him by one of the deacons on 
a glass paten, simultaneously with the pope. 

>This rite persisted in the eighth and ninth centuries, 
but only on certain high festivals. The St. Amand Ordo 
gives these as Christmas, Epiphany, Easter day (both at 
the midnight mass and that on the day itself), Ascension 
day, Whitsunday, and SS. Peter and Paul. At ordinations 
and consecrations of churches it obtained for a much 
longer period. 

In the ninth century the patens of glass had been 
replaced by corporasses, and each presbyter hallowed two 
or three loaves. 

1 ' Presbyteri e regione dextra laevaque . . . consensum eius praebeant 
sacrificio (Gratiani Decreti pars iii, De consecr. : dist. i : cap. lix, Episcopus Deo}. 


[Between pages 114 and 115 



rbo IRomanue primus 

i . PRIMO omnium observandum est, septem esse regiones 
ecclesiastic! ordinis urbis Romae ; et unaquaeque regio 
singulos habet diaconos regionarios, et uniuscuiusque 
regionis acolythi per manum subdiaconi regionarii diacono 
regionis suae officii causa subduntur. Quorum diaconorum 
si quando quispiam moritur, donee loco eius alius subro- 
getur, illius regionis acolythi archidiacono obediunt : quia 
omnes acolythi, cuiuscumque regionis sint, causa ecclesias- 
tici officii ad ministerium eius pertinent. Quod etiam de 
subsequentibus ordinibus intelligendum est ; servato uni- 
cuique post eum proprii gradus archidiaconi praerogativa 
in sui ordinis ministerio subditis : ut, si quis (verbi gratia) 
vim passus fuerit sive ab ecclesiastico seu a quacumque 
militari persona, si a sui ordinis primo eius causa ad 
effectum minime pervenerit, habeat archidiaconus (id est, 
vicarius pontificis) causam, qualiter subditorum sibi querelas 
absque notitia possit explicare pontificis : cetera vero per 
minores ordines finiantur. Nam primo scire oportet ut 
post numerum ecclesiasticarum regionum sciat, qui volue- 
rit, numerum dierum per hebdomadam quo ordine 
circulariter obsequantur. Nam prima feria regio tertia, id 
est Paschae ; secunda feria, regio quarta ; tertia feria, regio 
quinta ; quarta feria, regio sexta ; quinta feria, regio septi- 
ma ; sexta feria, regio prima ; sabbato, regio secunda. l Ergo 
unaquaeque regio 1 ordines proprios tam in processione 

l - 1 Mabillon omits : added from Cassander. 


rbo IRomanus primus 
i&nglisb {Translation 

i. To begin with, it must be observed that the city 
of Rome is divided for ecclesiastical purposes into seven 
districts, to each of which is allotted one district-deacon ; 
and the collets of each district are subordinate to the 
deacon of their district by reason of his office through the 
medium of the district-subdeacon. But when any one of 
the deacons dies, the collets of that district are subject to 
the archdeacon until another is chosen in his place : for 
all collets, of whatsoever district they may be, belong to 
his administration by reason of his office. *'' Which also 
must be understood of the remaining Orders ; the rights 
of the rank of archdeacon in particular apply to each one 
after him, to those holding subordinate positions in the 
ministry of his Order : so that, if, for instance, any one 
should have sustained an injury either from an ecclesiastical 
or some military person ; supposing that his case cannot 
by any means be settled by the head of his own Order, 
the archdeacon (that is, the pontiff's vicar) shall take it 
up, as he is able to adjust the complaints of those under 
him without any reference to the pontiff : other matters, 
however, can be settled by the minor Orders. 

Now, first, it is necessary to know, in order to under- 
stand how the number of the ecclesiastical districts and 
the number of the days of the week correspond, what 
order they successfully follow. On the first day of the 
week (that is, of Easter), the third district is responsible ; 
on Monday, the fourth district ; on Tuesday, the fifth 


quam in ecclesia 1 habebit, 1 vel ubicumque eos propria dies, 
ratione sui gradus, 2 secundum priscam constitutionem, 2 ire 
vel ministrare compulerit ; et 3 a ministerio pontificis non 
poterit sine ulla sui deesse excommunicationis vel anim- 
adversionis sententia disciplinae. Quorum ministeria primi- 
tus secundum rationem simplicem dupliciter diebus singulis 
dividebantur, 4 id est, primo 5 in processione apostolici ad 
stationem, et [secundo] in egressu 6 e sacrario 6 usque ad 
missarum consummationem. 

^ 2. Diebus itaque solemnibus, sicuti est Pascha, primo 
omnes acolythi regionis tertiae, et defensores omnium regio- 
num convenientes diluculo in patriarchio Lateranensi, prae- 
cedunt pontificem pedestres ad stationem. Stratores autem 
laici a dextris et a sinistris equi ambulant, ne alicubi titubet. 
Qui autem eum equitantes praecedunt hi sunt : diacones, 
primicerius, et duo notarii regionarii, defensores regionarii, 
subdiaconi regionarii. Procedunt vero divisis turmis, 
spatium inter se et apostolicum facientes. Post equum 
vero hi sunt qui equitant ; vicedominus, vestiarius, nomen- 
clator, atque saccellarius. -Unus autem ex acolythis 
stationarius praecedit pedester equum pontificis, gestans 
sanctum chrisma manu in mappula involuta cum ampulla : 
sed et omnes acolythi absque sacculis et sindone et chrismate 
non procedunt, quod disponit stationarius. v Si quis autem 
adire voluerit pontificem, si equitat, statim ut eum viderit, 
descendat de equo, et ex latere viae exspectet usque dum ab 
eo possit audiri : et petita ab eo benedictione, discutiatur a 
nomenclatore vel saccellario causa eius ; et ipsi indicant 
pontifici et finiunt. Quod et similiter observabitur, etiamsi 

1 - 1 Mabillon omits : added from Cassander. 

2 - 2 Prisca statutio, Mab. ; Text from C. 3 C. ; M. omits. 

4 C. ; dtviduntur, M. 5 C. ; M. omits. 6 - 6 C- ; sacrarii, M. 


district ; on Wednesday, the sixth district ; on Thursday, 
the seventh district ; on Friday, the first district ; and on 
the Sabbath, the second district. Each district, therefore, 
will have its proper position both in procession and in 
church, or wherever a particular day may constrain them 
to go or to minister by reason of its rank, according to 
the ancient constitution ; nor can the district-clergy be 
absent from attendance on the pontiff without incurring 
some sentence of excommunication or disciplinary censure. 
And this attendance they used originally to divide into 
two parts by a simple rule, to wit (i) the pope's proces- 
sion to the stational church, and (2) from his leaving the 
sacristy until the end of mass. 

2. Thus, on solemn days (such for instance as Easter 
day) first of all the collets of the third district The Proces . 
and the counsellors of every district meet at sion to the 
daybreak in the Lateran Palace, and proceed on Stationa l 
foot before the pontiff to the stational church : 
and the lay grooms walk on the right and the left of his 
horse in case it stumble anywhere. Those who ride on 
horseback in front of the pontiff are the following : The 
deacons, the chancellor, and the two district-notaries, the 
district-counsellors, and the district-subdeacons. They 
proceed moreover in two troops, leaving a space between 
them and the pope. The following are those who ride 
after the pope's horse : The papal vicar, the sacristan, 
the invitationer, and the treasurer. v The stational-collet 
goes on foot before the pontiff's horse, carrying in his 
hand an ampull wrapped in a napkin, containing the holy 
cream : but the rest of the collets also carry sacks, 
linen-cloths, and the cream, and walk in the procession, 
which duty the stational-collet arranges. Should any 
person wish to approach the pontiff, he must (if he is 
on horseback) dismount directly that he sees the pontiff 
coming, and await him by the roadside until he can be 
heard by him ;' and after ,he has sought a blessing from 
the pope, his case shall be investigated by the invitationer 


absque ulla petitione ei quisquam obvius fuerit. Qui vero 
pedester fuerit, tantummodo loco suo figitur, ut ab eo 
audiatur vel benedicatur. 

3. Die autem resurrectionis dominicae, procedente eo 
ad sanctam Mariam, notarius regionarius stat in loco qui 
dicitur Merolanas, et salutato pontifice dicit : In nomine 
domini nostri Jesu Christi baptizati sunt in sancta Dei 
genetrice Maria infantes masculi numero tanti feminae tantae. 
Respondit pontifex : Deo Gratias. Et accipit a saccellario 
solidum unum : pontifex autem pergit ad stationem. 
Feria secunda x ad missam similiter. 1 Feria tertia in reflexi- 
one porticus sancti Pauli, tantum item qui pedestres obsequ- 
untur. ' In die vero sancti Paschae omnes acolythi regionis 
tertiae simul et defensores omnium regionum conveniunt 
primo diluculo in patriarchio Lateranensi, ut dum proces- 
serit pontifex equum illius praecedant. ' Acolythi autem 
qui inde fuerint, observant ut portent chrisma ante ponti- 
ficem et evangelia sindones et sacculos et aquamanus post 
eum sicut supra diximus. Apostolum autem subdiaconus 
qui lecturus est, sub cura sua habebit ; evangelium archi- 
diaconus. Aquamanus, patenam cottidianam, calicem, 
scyphos, et pugillares alios argenteos et alios aureos, et 
gemelliones argenteos, colatorium argenteum et aureum, 
et alium maiorem argenteum, amas argenteas, cantatorium, 
et cetera vasa aurea et argentea, cereostata aurea et argentea, 
de ecclesia Salvatoris per manum primi mansionarii sumunt, 
et baiuli portant. Diebus vero festis calicem et patenam 
maiores, et evangelia maiora de vestiario dominico exigunt 
sub sigillo vesterarii per numerum gemmarum ut non 
perdantur. Sellam autem pontificis cubicularius laicus 
praecedens deportat, ut parata sit dum in sacrarium 

Ad remissa simfliciter, M. The whole passage is corrupt and far from clear. 


or the treasurer, and they shall state it briefly to the 
pontiff, and bring it to a conclusion : which, also, in like 
manner shall be done if any one should meet the pope 
even without any petition. But any one on foot merely 
stands where he is, so that he may be heard by the pope 
or receive his blessing. 

3. On Easter day, on the way to the basilica of St. 
Mary Major, the district-notary stands in the place which 
is called ad Merulanas, and after saluting the pontiff, 
says : In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ^ last night there 
were baptized in the church of St. Mary the Theotokos, so 
many baby boys, and so many baby girls. The pontiff 
answers, Thanks be to God. Then the former receives a 
shilling from the treasurer ; but the pontiff goes on to 
the stational church. > On Monday to mass in like 
manner.f On Tuesday, at the bend of the porch of St. 
Paul, only those who are on foot attend. 
-But on Easter day all the collets of the third district, 
together with the counsellors of every district meet, as 
day is just breaking, in the Lateran Palace, so that when 
the pontiff sets out they may walk before his horse. But 
the collets who belong to that church take care to carry 
the cream before the pontiff, and the gospel-books, linen 
cloths, sacks, and washhandbasons after him, as we said 
above. But the subdeacon who is going to read the 
epistle shall have charge of the epistle-book, and the arch- 
deacon of the gospel-book. The washhandbasons, the daily 
paten, the chalice, the communion-bowls, and the reeds 
(some golden, some silvern), and the silvern gemellions, 
with the golden and silvern strainer, and another larger 
one of silver, the silvern flagons, the grail, the rest of the 
vessels both golden and silvern, and the golden and silvern 
candlesticks are taken from the Church of St. Saviour 
by the chief sexton, and the bearers carry them. On 
festivals the larger chalice and paten and the larger 
gospel-books are required of the papal vestry, under the 
sacristan's seal on account of the number of precious 


4. Ad denunciatam stationem diebus festis primo mane 
praecedit omnis clerus apostolicum ad ecclesiam ubi static 
antea fuerit denunciata, exceptis his qui in obsequio illius 
comitantur ut supra diximus : et exspectantes pontificem 
in ecclesia cum supplementario et baiulis et reliquis qui 
cruces portant, sedentes in presbyterio ; episcopi quidem 
ad sinistram intrantium, presbyteri vero ad dextram, ut 
quando pontifex sederit, ad eos respiciens, episcopos ad 
dextram sui, presbyteros vero ad sinistram contueatur. 
Sed dum venerit pontifex prope ecclesiam, exeuntes acolythi 
et defensores ex regione ilia cuius dies ad officium fuerit, 
in obsequio prasstolantur eum loco statuto antequam veniat 
ubi descensurus est : ' similiter et presbyteri tituli vel 
ecclesiae ubi statio fuerit, una cum maioribus domus eccle- 
siae romanae vel patre diaconiae (si tamen ilia ecclesia dia- 
coniae fuerit) cum subdito sibi presbytero, et mansionario 
thymiamaterium deferentibus in obsequium illius, inclinato 
capite dum venerit. Primum acolythi cum defensoribus, 
deinde presbyteri cum suis, 1 petita benedictione divisis hinc 
inde partibus prout militant, praecedunt pontificem usque 
ad ecclesiam. Advocatores autem ecclesiae stant quidem 
cum maioribus ; non autem praecedunt cum eis, sed ipsi 
tantummodo sequuntur sellarem pontificis cum acolytho 
qui aquamanus portat ; quern semper necesse est sequi 
pontificem usque dum ad altare ascendit, 2 paratus sub 
humero in presbyterio quando vocetur a subdiacono region- 
ario ad aquam dandam. 

1 A word seems to be missing here. 

2 C. ; ascendat, M 


stones, lest they be lost. The lay-chamberlain, however, 
goes on ahead and conveys the pontiff's sedan-chair, in 
order that it may be ready when he comes into the 

.4. At break of day on festivals all the clergy go on 
ahead of the pope to the appointed station (that Arr i va i 
is, to the church at which it had been previously at the 
announced that the stational mass would be Stational 
celebrated), excepting those whose duty it is 
to accompany him, as we said above, and await the pontiff 
in the church, with the papal almoner and the bearers and 
the rest who carry crosses, sitting in the presbytery ; the 
bishops, that is, on the left hand as they enter, the pres- 
byters on the other hand on the right, so that when the 
pontiff sits down and looks towards them, he may see the 
bishops on his right hand and the presbyters on his left. 
Now when the pontiff draws near to the church, the 
collets and counsellors belonging to the district which is 
responsible for duty on that day, stand humbly awaiting 
him at the appointed spot, before he comes to the place 
where he will dismount : in like manner also the pres- 
byter of the title or church at which the station is going 
to be held, together with the major-domos of the Roman 
Church, or the father of the hostelry (should that church 
happen to have one), with the presbyter subordinate to 
him [/. e. to the presbyter of the title], and the sexton, 
carrying a censer out of respect to the pope ; and they all 
bow their heads when he arrives.. First the collets with 
the counsellors, then the presbyters with their [' curates ' ?] 
having sought a blessing, separate into groups on either 
side, as their service requires, and go before the pontiff to 
the church. But the advocates of the Church, although 
they stand with the major-domos, do not go in front with 
them, but merely follow the pontiff's palfrey, together 
with the collet who carries the washhandbasons : who must 
always follow the pontiff until the time when he goes 
up to the altar, and be ready at his elbow in the presbytery 


5. Cum vero ecclesiam introierit pontifex, non adscendit 
continue ad altare, sed prius intrat in secretarium, susten- 
tatus a diaconibus qui eum susceperint de sellari de- 
scendentem. Ubi dum venerit, sedit in sella sua, et 
diacones salutato pontifice egrediuntur secretarium, et ante 
fores eiusdem mutant vestimenta sua, et parat evangelium 
qui lecturus est, reserato sigillo ex praecepto archidiaconi, 
super planetam acolythi ; et si necesse fuerit propter 
maiora evangelia duobus acolythis super planetas tenentibus 
parat evangelium. Quo facto acolythus defert evangelium 
usque ante altare in presbyterium, praecedente eum subdia- 
cono sequente, qui eum desuper planetam suscipiens 
manibus suis honorifice super altare ponat. Nam egredi- 
entibus diaconibus de secretario remanent cum pontifice 
primicerius, secundicerius, primicerius defensorum, notarii 
regionarii, et subdiaconus sequens qui tenet pallium ponti- 
ficis in bracchio suo super planetam sinistro cum acubus. 

6. Pontifex autem per manus subdiaconorum regionari- 
orum mutat vestimenta sua hoc ordine. Defert ea plicata 
cubicularius tonsoratus, accepta de 1 manibus ostiarii. luxta 
caput scamni subdiaconi regionarii secundum ordinem suum 
accipiunt ad induendum pontifkem ipsa vestimenta, alius 
lineum, alius cingulum, alius anagolaium (id est, amictum) 
alius lineam dalmaticam, et alius maiorem dalmaticam, et 
alius planetam : et sic per ordinem induunt pontificem. 
Primicerius autem et secundicerius componunt vestimenta 
eius ut bene sedeant. Novissime autem, quern voluerit 

c. ; , M. 


when he is called upon by the district-subdeacon to offer 

5. Now when the pontiff enters the church, he does 
not go straight up to the altar, but first enters the sacristy, 
supported by the deacons who received him when he dis- 
mounted from his palfrey ; and when he is gone The 
therein he sits in his sedan-chair ; and the Vesting, 
deacons, after saluting the pontiff, go out of the sacristy 
and change their clothes before the doors : and he who 
is going to read the gospel makes ready the gospel-book 
(the seal of which has been unlocked by order of the 
archdeacon), which a collet holds for him outside his 
planet. If it should be necessary, on account of the size 
and weight of the larger gospel-book, two collets hold it 
outside their planets while he makes it ready. - Which 
done, the collet carries the gospel-book into the presbytery 
before the altar, the subdeacon-attendant leading the 
way, who, taking it, carries it outside his planet and 
places it honourably on the altar with his own hands. 
Meanwhile, after the deacons go out of the sacristy, there 
remain with the pontiff the chancellor, the secretary, the 
chief counsellor, the district- notaries, and the subdeacon- 
attendant who bears the pontiff's pall with its pins on his 
left arm outside his planet. 

6. Now the pontiff changes his vestments, with the 
assistance of the district-subdeacons, in the following 
manner. The clerical chamberlain brings them, all folded 
up, after having received them from the door- war den. 
Near the head of the bench the district-subdeacons take 
the vestments to put on the pontiff according to their 
order, one the linen, another the girdle, a third the amice, 
a fourth the linen dalmatic, a fifth the larger dalmatic, and 
another the planet : and thus they vest the pontiff in 
order. The chancellor and the secretary arrange his vest- 
ments so that they may hang well. Then, last of all, one 
of the deacons whom the lord pontiff may choose, or one 


domnus pontifex de diaconibus, vel subdiaconibus cui 
ipse iusserit, sumit de manu subdiaconi sequentis pallium 
et induit super pontificem, et configit eum cum acubus in 
planeta retro et ante et in humero sinistro, et salutat 
domnum et dicit : lube, domne, benedicere. Respondet : 
Salvet nos Dominus. Respondet : Amen. 

7. Deinde subdiaconus regionarius, tenens mappulam 
pontificis in sinistro bracchio super planetam revolutam, 
exiens ad regiam secretarii dicit : Schola. Respondet : 
Adsum. Et ille : Quis psallet ? Respondet : Ille, et ille. 
Et rediens ad pontificem subdiaconus, porrigit ei mappu- 
lam, inclinans se ad genua illius et dicens : Servi domni 
mei, tails subdiaconus regionarius leget apostolum, et talis de 
schola cantabit. Et postea non licet alterum mutare in loco 
lectoris vel cantatoris. Quod si factum fuerit, archipara- 
phonista (id est, quartus scholae) excommunicabitur, 1 qui 
semper pontifici nunciat de cantoribus. yQuod cum nunci- 
atum fuerit, statim 2 sequitur subdiaconus adstans ante 
faciem pontificis usque dum ei adnuat pontifex ut psallant : 
cui dum adnuerit, statim egreditur ante fores secretarii et 
dicit : Accendite. Qui dum accenderint, statim subdiaco- 3 
nus sequens tenens thymiamaterium aureum, pro foribus 
ponit incensum ut pergat ante pontificem. Et ille quartus 
scholae pervenit in presbyterio ad priorem scholae vel 
secundum sive tertium, inclinato capite, dicit : Domne iubete. 

8. Tune illi elevantes se per ordinem vadunt ante altare 
et statuuntur per ordinem acies duae tantum : paraphon- 
istae quidem hinc inde aforis, infantes ab utroque latere 

1 M. adds : a pontifice. 

3 I think that we ought to read qui sequitur = sequens. 


of the subdeacons whom he may command, takes the pall <"" 
from the hand of the subdeacon-attendant, and sets it 
about the pontiff's shoulders, fastening it to the planet 
behind, in front, and on his left shoulder by means of the 
pins. Then he salutes the lord pontiff, saying, Bid a 
blessing^ my lord. He answers, May the Lord save us : 
and the deacon (or subdeacon) replies, Amen. 

7. Then a district-subdeacon, holding the pontiff's napkin 
on his left arm over his unrolled planet, goes out to the 
gate of the sacristy, and says, 'The choir. They answer, 
/ am present. Then he asks, Who is going to sing the 
psalm ? and they answer, So-and-so^ and so-and-so. Then 
the subdeacon returns to the pontiff, offers him the 
napkin, bowing himself to the pope's knees, and says, My 
lord's servants, so-and-so the district-subdeacon will read the 
epistle, and so-and-so of the choir will sing. And after this 
no change may be made in either reader or singer : but if 
this should be done, the ruler of the choir (i.e. the fourth 
of the choir who always informs the pontiff on matters that 
relate to the singers) shall be excommunicated by the 
pontiff. When this has been announced, the subdeacon- 
attendant stands before the pontiff until such time as the 
latter shall sign to him that they may sing the psalm. As 
soon as the signal is given, he immediately goes out 
before the doors of the sacristy, and says, Light up ! And 
as soon as they have lit their candles the subdeacon- 
attendant takes the golden censer and puts incense in it in 
front of the sacristy doors, so that he may walk before the 
pontiff. And the ruler of the choir passes through the 
presbytery to the precentor or the succentor or vice- 
succentor, and bowing his head to him says, Sir, command! 

8. Then they rise up and pass in order before the altar, 
and the two rows arrange themselves in this manner : the 
men-singers on either side without the doors [of the pres- 
bytery], and the children on each side within. Immediately 
the precentor begins the anthem for the entry : and when 


infra per ordinem. Et mox incipit prior scholae antiphonam 
ad introitum ; quorum vocem diaconi dum audierint, 
continuo intrant ad pontificem in secretarium. Et tune 
pontifex elevans se, dat manum dextram archidiacono, et 
sinistram secundo vel qui fuerint in ordine ; et illi osculatis 
manibus ipsius, procedunt cum ipso sustentantes eum. 
Tune subdiaconus sequens cum thymiamaterio procedit 
ante ipsum mittens incensum ; et septem acolythi illius 
regionis cuius dies fuerit, portantes septem cereostata 
accensa, praecedunt ante pontificem usque ante altare. Sed 
priusquam veniant ante altare, diacones in presbyterio 
exuuntur planetis : et suscipit eas subdiaconus regionarius, 
et porrigit illas ad acolythos regionis cuius fuerint diaconi : 
et tune duo acolythi tenentes capsas cum sanctis apertas, 
et subdiaconus sequens cum ipsis tenens manum suam in 
ore capsae ostendit sancta pontifici vel diacono qui praeces- 
serit. Tune inclinato capite pontifex vel diaconus salutat 
sancta et contemplatur ut, si fuerit superabundans, praeci- 
piat ut ponatur in conditorio. Tune peraccedens antequam 
veniat ad scholam, dividuntur cereostata, quattuor ad 
dextram et tres ad sinistram partem ; et pertransit pontifex 
in caput scholae, et inclinat caput ad altare, surgens et 
orans et faciens crucem in fronte sua, et dat pacem uni 
episcopo de hebdomadariis et archipresbytero et diaconibus 
omnibus : et respiciens ad priorem scholae, adnuit ei ut 
dicat Gloriam : et prior scholae inclinat se pontifici, et im- 
ponit. Quartus vero scholae praecedit pontificem ut ponat 
oratorium ante altare, 1 si tempus fuerit : * et accedens 
pontifex orat super ipsum usque ad repetitionem versus. 
1 * Nam diaconi surgunt quando dicitur : Sicut erat in 
principio, ut salutent altaris latera, prius duo, et duo 
vicissim, redeuntes ad pontificem. Et surgens pontifex 
osculatur evangelia et altare, et accedit ad sedem suam : et 
stat versus ad orientem. 

C. ; M. omits. 


the deacons hear his voice, they at once go to the pontiff 
in the sacristy. Then the pontiff, rising, gives r 

.... ; i i i r Thelntroit. 

his right hand to the archdeacon, and his left to 
the second [deacon] or whoever may be appointed : who, 
after kissing his hands, walk with him as his supporters. 
Then the subdeacon-attendant goes before him with the 
censer, diffusing the perfume of incense : and the seven 
collets of the district which is responsible for that day, 
carrying seven lighted candlesticks, go before the pontiff 
to the altar.^ But before they arrive at the altar, the 
deacons put off their planets in the presbytery, and the 
district-deacon takes them and gives each severally to a 
collet of the district to which each deacon belongs4 - Then 
two collets approach, holding open pixes containing the 
Holy Element ; and the subdeacon-attendant, taking 
them, with his hand in the mouth of the pix, shows the 
Holy Element to the pontiff and the deacon who goes 
before him. Then the pontiff and the deacon salute the 
Holy Element with bowed head, and look at the same in 
order that if there be too many fragments he may cause 
some of them to be put in the aumbry. fc\ After this the 
pontiff passes on, but before he comes to the choir the 
bearers of the candlesticks divide, four going to the right 
and three to the left ; and the pontiff passes between them 
to the upper part of the choir, and bows his head to the 
altar. He then rises up, and prays, and makes the sign 
of the cross on his forehead ; after which he gives the 
kiss of peace to one of the hebdomadary bishops, and to 
the archpresbyter, and to all the deacons.? -Then turning 
towards the precentor, he signs to him to sing, Glory be to 
the Father^ and to the Son, etc. ; and the precentor bows to 
the pontiff, and begins it. Meantime the ruler of the 
choir precedes the pontiff in order to set his faldstool 
before the altar, if it should be the season for it : and 
approaching it, the pontiff prays thereat until the repe- 
tition of the verse [i.e. the anthem for the entry].Q Now 
when As it was in the beginning is said, the deacons rise up 
in order to salute the sides of the altar, first two, and 


9. Schola vero, finita antiphona, imponit Kyrie eleison. 
Prior vero scholae custodit ad pontificem ut ei adnuat si 
vult mutare numerum litaniae, et inclinat se pontifici. 
Quando vero finierint, dirigens se pontifex contra popu- 
lum, incipit : Gloria in excelsis Deo, 1 si tempus fuerit, 1 et 
statim regyrat se ad orientem usque dum finiatur. Post 
hoc dirigens se iterum ad populum dicens : Pax vobis ; et 
regyrans se ad orientem dicit : Or emus, et sequitur oratio. 
Post finitam sedet ; similiter episcopi vel presbyteri sedent. 

10. Tune adscendunt subdiaconi regionarii ad altare, 
statuentes se ad dextram sive ad sinistram altaris. Tune 
pontifex adnuit episcopis et presbyteris ut sedeant. Subdi- 
aconus vero qui lecturus est, mox ut viderit post pontificem 
episcopos et presbyteros residentes, adscendit in ambonem et 
legit. Postquam legerit, cantor cum cantatorio adscendit 
et dicit responsum. 2 Ac deinde per alium cantorem 2 si 
fuerit tempus ut dicatur, Alleluia concinitur : sin autem, 
tractum : sin minus, tantummodo responsum cantatur. 3 

ii. Deinde diaconus osculans pedes pontificis, tacite 
dicit ei pontifex : Dominus sit in corde tuo et in labiis tuis. 

J- 1 C. ; M. omits. 

2 - 3 C. and M. both omit, and instead of concinitur have bene. I have followed 
in the text the corresponding passage in Mabillon's Qrdo III, a ninth century 
document of Roman use, but not of the local church of Rome. 

8 C. and M. both omit : supplied from Ordo III. 


then the rest by twos, and return to the pontiff. And 
then the latter arises, and kisses the book of the gospels 
and the altar, and, going to his throne, stands there facing 


'9. Now, after the anthem is finished, the choir begins, 
Lord, have mercy. But the precentor keeps his 

, . ~ , r , f The Kyries 

eye on the pontiff, so that the latter may sign to 
him if he wishes to change the number of the Kyries, and 
bows to him. fft .When they have finished, the pontiff turns 
himself round towards the people, and begins, Glory be to 
God on high, if it be the season for it, and at once turns 
back again to the east until it be finished. Then, after 
turning again to the people, he says, Peace to you, and 
once more turning to the east, says, Let us pray, 
and the collect follows. At the end of it he sits, 
and the bishops and presbyters sit in like manner. 

. Meanwhile the district-subdeacons go up to the 
altar, and place themselves at the right and left of the 
altar. Then the pontiff signs to the bishops and pres- 
byters to sit. Now, as soon as the subdeacon The 
who is going to read perceives that the bishops 
and presbyters are sitting down after the pontiff, he goes 
up into the ambo and reads the epistle, v When he has 
finished reading, a chorister goes up into the same with 
'the grail, and sings the respond. And then Alleluia is 
sung by another singer, if it should be the season when 
Alleluia is said ; if not, a tract ; if when neither one nor 
the other is appointed, only the respond is sung. 

Then the deacon kisses the pontiff's feet, and the 
latter says to him in an undertone, The Lord be in thy 
heart and on thy lips. Then the deacon comes before the 
altar, and after kissing the book of the gospels, takes it up 
in his hands ; and there walk before him [to the ambo] 
two district-subdeacons, who have taken the censer from 
the hand of the subdeacon-attendant, diffusing incense. 


Deinde venit ante altare, et osculatis evangeliis levat in 
manus suas codicem. Et procedunt ante ipsum duo 
subdiaconi regionarii levantes thymiamaterium de manu 
subdiaconi sequentis mittentes incensum. Et ante se 
habent duos acolythos portantes duo cereostata. Veni- 
entes ad ambonem dividuntur ipsi acolythi ante ambonem, 
et transeunt subdiaconi et diaconus cum evangelic per 
medium eorum. Ille qui absque thymiamaterio est, vertens 
se ad diaconum, porrigit ei bracchium suum sinistrum in 
quo ponit evangelium, ut manu subdiaconi aperiatur ei 
locus in quo signum lectionis positum fuerit ; et interposito 
digito suo diaconus in loco lectionis adscendit ad legendum, 
et illi duo subdiaconi redeunt stare ante gradum descensi- 
onis ambonis. Finito evangelio dicit pontifex : Pax tibi. 
Deinde dicit : Dominus vobiscum. Respondetur : Et cum 
spiritu tuo. Et dicit : Or emus. Descend ente autem diacono, 
subdiaconus qui prius aperuerat, recipit evangelium et 
porrigit eum subdiacono sequenti qui in filo stat, quod 
tenens ante pectus suum super planetam, porrigit oscu- 
landum omnibus per ordinem graduum qui steterint. Et 
post hoc praeparato acolytho in pogio iuxta ambonem cum 
capsa in qua subdiaconus idem ponit evangelium ut sigil- 
letur. Acolythus autem regionis eiusdem cuius et 
subdiaconus est, revocat evangelium ad Lateranis. 

12. Deinde pergente diacono ad altare, stante acolytho 
cum calice et corporali super eum, levat calicem in bracchio 
suo sinistro et porrigit diacono corporalem et accipit desu- 
per calicem, et ponit earn super altare a dextris, proiecto 
capite altero ad diaconum secundum ut expandant. Tune 
adscendunt ad sedem primicerius et secundicerius, et primi- 
cerius defensorum cum omnibus regionariis et notariis : 
subdiaconus vero cum calice vacuo sequitur archidiaconum. 

13. Pontifex descendit ad senatorium, tenente manum 


And in front of them they have two collets carrying two 
candlesticks. On coming to the ambo, the collets part 
before it, and the subdeacons and the deacon with gospel- 
book pass between them. The subdeacon who is not 
carrying the censer then turns towards the deacon, and 
offers him his left arm on which to rest the gospel-book, 
in order that the former may open it with his right hand 
at the place where the mark for reading was put ^hen, 
slipping his finger into ,the place where he has to begin, 
the deacon goes up to read, while the two subdeacons 
turn back to stand before the step coming down from the 
ambo. The gospel ended, the pontiff says, Peace to thee ; 
and then, The Lord be with you. Answer is made, And 
with thy sprit ; and he says, Let us 'pray. 
' ' When the deacon is come down from the ambo, the 
subdeacon who first opened the gospel-book previously, 
takes it from him and hands it to the subdeacon-attendant, 
who stands in his rank. Then the latter, holding the 
book before his breast, outside his planet, offers it to be 
kissed by all who stand [in the quire] in the order of their 
rank. ; And after this a collet is ready on the step by 
the ambo with the case, in which the same subdeacon puts 
the gospel-book so that it may be sealed. But the collet 
of the same district as that to which the subdeacon belongs 
carries it back to the Lateran. 

12. The deacon in the meantime returns to the altar, 
where a collet stands holding a chalice with a corporas 
lying on it ; raising the chalice in his left arm, he offers 
the corporas to the deacon, who takes it off the chalice 
and lays it on the right part of the altar, throwing the other 
end of it over to the second deacon in order to spread it. 
Then there go up to the throne the chancellor and the 
secretary, and the chief counsellor, with all the district- 
officials and notaries : but the subdeacon with the empty 
chalice follows the archdeacon. 

13. The pontiff now goes down to the place where the 


eius dextram primicerio notariorum et primicerio defen- 
sorum sinistram : et suscipit oblationes principum per 
ordinem archium. 1 Archidiaconus post eum suscipit amulas 
et refundit in calicem maiorem, tenente eum subdiacono 
regionario : quern sequitur cum scypho super planetam 
acolythus, in quo calix impletus refunditur. Oblationes a 
pontifice suscipit subdiaconus regionarius et porrigit sub- 
diacono sequent! ; et subdiaconus sequens ponit in sindonem 
quem tenent duo acolythi. Reliquas oblationes post 
pontificem suscipit episcopus hebdomadarius ut ipse manu 
sua mittat eas in sindonem quae eum sequitur. Post 
quem diaconus qui sequitur 2 amulas suscipit, et post 
archidiaconum manu sua refuridit in scyphum. 2 Pontifex 
vero antequam transeat in parte mulierum, descendit ante 
confessionem et suscipit oblationes 3 primicerii et secundi- 
cerii et primicerii defensorum. Nam diebus festis post 
diacones ad altare offerunt. Similiter adscendens pontifex 
in partem feminarum ordine quo supra omnia explet. 
Similiter et presbyteri, si necesse fuerit, post eum vel in 
presbyterio faciunt. 

14. Post hoc pontifex tenente ei manum primicerio et 
secundicerio redit ad sedem suam, abluit manus suas. 
Archidiaconus stans ante altare, expleta susceptione lavat 
manus suas. Deinde respicit in faciem pontificis, adnuit 
ei, et ille resalutato accedit ad altare. Tune subdiaconi 
regionarii levantes oblatas de manu subdiaconi sequentis 
super bracchia sua, porrigunt archidiacono, et ille componit 
altare. Nam subdiaconi hinc inde porrigunt. Ornato 

1 Arche = apx"fl> a beginning. I take it to mean the date of their ' promotion ' 
to their rank; or as we now say, of the creation of their title. 

2 - 2 I follow the order of the words as printed by C. : M. has pott archl- 
diaconem, suscipit ^_amulas~^ et manu sua refundit in scyphum. 

3 C. ; oblatas, M. 


notables sit, the chancellor holding his right hand and 
the chief counsellor his left : and he receives The 
the loaves of the princes in the order of their offertory. 
* promotion ' (?). The archdeacon next receives the flasks 
of wine, and pours them into the greater chalice which is 
carried by a district-subdeacon, and a collet follows him 
holding a bowl outside his planet, into which the chalice 
when full is emptied. A district-subdeacon takes the 
loaves from the pontiff and hands them to the subdeacon- 
attendant, who places them in a linen cloth held by two 
collets. An hebdomadary bishop receives the rest of the 
loaves after the pontiff, so that he may, with his own hand, 
put them into the linen cloth which is carried after him. 
Following him the deacon-attendant receives the flasks of 
wine, and pours them into the bowl with his own hand, 
after the archdeacon. Meanwhile the pontiff, before 
passing over to the women's side, goes down before the 
Confession, and there receives the loaves of the chancellor, 
the secretary, and the chief counsellor. For on festivals 
they offer at the altar after the deacons. In like manner 
the pontiff goes up to the women's side, and performs 
there all things in the same order as detailed above. And 
the presbyters do likewise, should there be need, either 
after the pontiff or in the presbytery. 

14. After this, the pontiff returns to his throne, the 
chancellor and the secretary each taking him The 
by the hand, and there washes his hands. The Lavatory, 
archdeacon stands before the altar and washes his hands 
at the end of the collection of the offerings. Then he 
looks the pontiff in the face, signs to him, and, after the 
pontiff has returned his salutation, approaches the altar. 

Then the district-subdeacons, taking the loaves from 
the hand of the subdeacon-attendant, and carry- The Pre- 
ing them in their arms, bring them to the arch- paration or 
deacon, who arranges them on the altar. The the fferin s- 
subdeacons, by the bye, bring up the loaves on either 
side. Having made the altar ready, the archdeacon then 


vero altare tune archidiaconus sumit amulam pontificis de 
subdiacono oblationario, et refundit super colum in calicem ; 
deinde diaconorum ; et in die festo, primicerii, secundicerii, 
primicerii defensorum. Deinde descendit subdiaconus 
sequens in scholam, accipit fontem de manu archipara- 
phonistae, et defert archidiacono, et ille infundit faciens 
crucem in calice. Tune adscendunt diaconi ad pontificem. 
Quos videntes primicerius, secundicerius, et primicerius 
defensorum regionariorum, 1 et notarii regionarii, et 
defensores regionarii, descendunt de aciebus, ut stent in 
loco suo. 

15. Tune surgens pontifex a sede, descendit ad altare, 
et salutat altare, et suscipit oblatas de manu presbyteri 
hebdomadarii et diaconorum. Deinde archidiaconus sus- 
cipit oblatas pontificis de oblationario et dat pontifici : 
quas dum posuerit pontifex in altare, levat calicem archi- 
diaconus de manu subdiaconi regionarii et ponit eum 
super altare iuxta oblatam pontificis a dextris, involutis 
ansis cum ofFertorio : quern ponit in cornu altaris et stat 
post pontificem. Et pontifex inclinans se paululum ad 
altare, respicit scholam et adnuit ut sileant. 

1 6. Tune finite offertorio, episcopi stant post pontificem, 
primus in medio, deinde per ordinem ; et archidiaconus a 
dextris episcoporum, secundus diaconus a sinistris, et 
ceteri per ordinem disposita acie. Et subdiaconi regionarii, 
finite ofFertorio, vadunt retro altare aspicientes ad pontifi- 
cem, ut quando dixerit Per omnia saecula, aut Dominus 
vobiscum, aut Sursum corda^ aut Gratias^ ipsi sint ad 
respondendum stantes erecti usque dum incipiunt dicere 

1 This word should probably be omitted, as the officer in question was chief of 
the whole Schola defensorum^ and not merely of the district counsellors. 


takes the pontiff's flask of wine from the subdeacon- 
oblationer, and pours it through a strainer into the chalice ; 
then the deacons' flasks, and, on festivals, those of the 
chancellor, the secretary, and the chief counsellor as well. 
Then the subdeacon-attendant goes down into the choir, 
receives a ewer of water from the hand of the ruler of the 
choir and brings it back to the archdeacon, who pours it 
into the chalice, making a cross as he does so. Then 
the deacons go up to the pontiff : on seeing which, the 
chancellor, the secretary, the chief of the district-coun- 
sellors (sic\ the district-notaries, and the district-counsellors 
come down from their ranks to stand in their proper 

15. Then the pontiff, arising from his throne, goes 
down to the altar and salutes it, and receives The offer- 
the loaves from the hands of the hebdomadary ings of the 
presbyter and the deacons. Then the archdeacon Cler sy- 
receives the pontiff's loaves from the subdeacon-oblationer, 
and gives them to the pontiff. And when the latter has 
placed them on the altar, the archdeacon takes the chalice 
from the hand of a district-subdeacon and sets it on the 
altar on the right side of the pontiff's loaf, the offertory- 
veil being twisted about its handles. Then he lays the 
veil on the end of the altar, and stands behind the pontiff, 
and the latter bows slightly to the altar and then turns to 
the choir and signs to them to stop singing. 

1 6. The offertory being finished, the bishops stand 
behind the pontiff, the senior in the midst, and the rest 
in their order ; the archdeacon standing on the right of 
the bishops, the second deacon on their left, and the rest 
in order arranged in a line.<\A.nd the district-subdeacons 
go behind the altar at the end of the offertory and face 
the pontiff, so that when he says, For ever and ever, or, 
'The Lord be with you, or, Lift up your hearts, or, Let us 
give thanks, they may be there to answer, standing upright, 
until the time when the choir begin to sing the angelical 


hymnum angelicum, id est Sanctus : quern dum expleverint, 
surgit pontifex solus et intrat in canonem. Episcopi vero, 
diaconi, subdiaconi, et presbyteri in presbyterio permanent 
inclinati. Et cum dixerit : Nobis quoquepeccatoribus, surgunt 
subdiaconi : cum dixerit : Per quern haec omnia y Domine, 
surgit archidiaconus solus. Cum dixerit : Per ipsum, et 
cum ipso, levat cum offertorio calicem per ansas, et tenens 
exaltat ilium iuxta pontificem. Pontifex autem tangit a 
latere calicem cum oblatis, dicens : Per ipsum, et cum ipso, 
usque Per omnia saecula saeculorum ; Amen. Et ponit 
pontifex oblationes in loco suo, et archidiaconus calicem 
iuxta eas, dimisso ofFertorio in ansis eiusdem. 

17. Nam quod intermissimus de patena ; quando inchoat 
canonem, venit acolythus sub humero, habens sindonem 
in collo ligatam, tenens patenam ante pectus suum in parte 
dextra usque in medium canonem. Tune subdiaconus 
sequens suscipit earn super planetam et venit ante altare, 
exspectans quando earn suscipiat subdiaconus regionarius. 

1 8. Finito vero canone subdiaconus regionarius stat 
cum patena post archidiaconum ; quando dixerit : Et ab 
omni perturbatione securi, vertit se archidiaconus, et osculata 
patena dat earn tenendam diacono secundo. Cum dixerit : 
Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum, faciens crucem tribus 
vicibus manu sua super calicem, mittit sancta in eum. 
Sed archidiaconus pacem dat episcopo priori, deinde ceteris 
per ordinem et populis. 


hymn, that is, Holy, holy, holy.' And when they have 
finished it, the pontiff rises alone and enters r 

JU, ii i i , The Canon. 

on the canon. The bishops, however, and the 
deacons, subdeacons, and presbyters remain in the presby- 
tery, and bow themselves down. Now when the pontiff 
says, 1*0 us sinners, also, the subdeacons rise up, and when 
he says, By whom all these things, O Lord, the archdeacon 
arises alone. When the pontiff says, By him, and with him, 
the archdeacon lifts up the chalice with the offertory-veil 
passed through its handles, and, holding it, raises it towards 
the pontiff. Then the latter touches the side 
of the chalice with the loaves saying, By him, 
and with him, as far as, For ever and ever. Amen. Then 
the pontiff sets the loaves down again in their place, and 
the archdeacon puts the chalice down by them, and removes 
the offertory-veil from the handles of the same. 

17. We have, by the bye, omitted something about 
the paten. When the pontiff begins the canon, The re- 

a collet comes near, having a linen cloth thrown moval of 
around his neck, and holds the paten before his the Paten * 
breast on the right side [of the altar ?] until the middle 
of the canon. Then the subdeacon-attendant holds it 
outside his planet, and comes before the altar, and waits 
there with it until the district-subdeacon takes it from him. 

1 8. But at the end of the canon, the district-subdeacon 
stands behind the archdeacon with the paten. And when 
the pontiff says, And safe from all unquiet, the archdeacon 
turns round, and after kissing the paten, takes it and gives 
it to the second deacon to hold. 

When the pontiff says, 'The peace of the Lord be with 
you alway, he makes a cross with his hand thrice The Sanaa,- 
over the chalice, and drops a consecrated frag- and The Kiss 
ment [reserved from the last solemn mass] into of Peace - 
it. Meanwhile the archdeacon gives the kiss of peace to 
the chief hebdomadary bishop, then to the rest of the 
clergy in order, and then to the people. 


19. Tune pontifex rumpit oblatam ex latere dextro ; et 
particulam quam rumpit super altare relinquit : reliquias 
vero oblationes suas ponit in patenam quam tenet diaconus, 
et redit ad sedem. Mox primicerius et secundicerius, et 
primicerius defensorum, cum omnibus regionariis et notariis 
adscendunt ad altare, et stant in ordine suo a dextris et a 
sinistris. Nomenclator vero et saccellarius et notarius vice- 
domini, cum dixerint : Agnus Dei, tune adscendunt adstare 
ante faciem pontificis ut adnuat eis scribere nomina eorum 
qui invitandi sunt, sive ad mensam pontificis per nomen- 
clatorem, sive ad vicedomini per notarium ipsius : quorum 
nomina ut compleverint, descendunt ad invitandum. Nam 
archidiaconus levat calicem, et dat eum subdiacono region- 
ario, quern tenet iuxta cornu altaris dextrum. Et accedentes 
subdiaconi sequentes, cum acolythis qui saccula portant, a 
dextris et a sinistris altaris, extendentibus acolythis bracchia 
cum sacculis : stant subdiaconi sequentes a fronte ut parent 
sinus sacculorum archidiacono ad ponendas oblationes 
prius a dextris, deinde a sinistris. Tune acolythi vadunt 
dextra laevaque per episcopos circum altare, reliqui 
descendunt ad presbyteros, ad confringant hostias. Patena 
praecedit iuxta sedem, deferentibus cam duobus sub- 
diaconibus regionariis ad diacones ut frangant. Sed illi 
aspiciunt in faciem pontificis ut eis adnuat frangere. Et 
dum adnuerit, resalutato pontifice, confringunt. Et archi- 
diaconus, evacuato altari oblationibus praeter particulam 
quam pontifex de propria oblatione confracta super altare 
reliquit (quia ita observant ut dum missarum sollemnia 
peraguntur, altare sine sacrificio non sit), respicit in scholam, 
et adnuit eis ut dicant : Agnus Dei, et vadit ad patenam 
cum ceteris. Expleta confractione, diaconus minor, levata 
de subdiacono patena, defert ad sedem, ut communicet 
pontifex. Qui dum communicaverit, de ipsa sancta quam 
momorderit ponit inter 1 manus archidiaconi in calicem, 
faciens crucem ter, dicendo : Fiat commixtio et consecratio 
corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Jesu Christi accipientibus 

1 C. ; M. has in. The Galilean Ordo II of Mabillon has inter. 


19. Then the pontiff breaks one of the loaves on its 
right side, and leaves the fragment which he The 
breaks off" upon the altar : but the rest of his Fraction, 
loaves he puts on the paten which the deacon is holding, 
and returns to his throne.^ A J mme diately tne chancellor, 
the secretary, and the chief counsellor, with all the district- 
officials and notaries, go up to the altar, and stand in their 
order on the right and left. The invitationer and the 
treasurer, and the notary of the papal vicar, when the 
choir sing O Lamb of God> go up and stand facing the 
pontiff in order that he may sign to them to The invita- 
write down the names of those who are to be tions to 
invited either to the pontiff's table, by the breakfast - 
invitationer, or to the papal vicar's, by his notary : and 
when the list of names is completed, they go down and 
deliver the invitations. 

The archdeacon now lifts up the chalice and gives it to 
the district-subdeacon, who holds it near the right corner 
of the altar. Then the subdeacons-attendant, with the 
collets, who carry little sacks, draw near to the right and 
left of the altar : the collets hold out their arms with the 
little sacks, and the subdeacons-attendant stand in front, 
in order to make ready the openings of the sacks for the 
archdeacon to put the loaves into them, first those on the 
right, and then those on the left. The collets then pass 
right and left among the bishops around the altar, and the 
rest [/'. e. the subdeacons] go down to the presbyters, in 
order that they may break the consecrated The 
loaves. Two district - subdeacons, however, Fraction 
have proceeded to the throne, carrying the paten continued - 
to the deacons, in order that they may perform the fraction. 
Meanwhile the latter keep their eyes on the pontiff so 
that he may sign to them when to begin : and when he 
has signed to them, after returning the pontiff's salutation, 
they make the fraction. 

The archdeacon, after that the altar has been cleared of 
the loaves, except the fragment which the pontiff broke 
off his own loaf and left on the altar (which is done so 


nobis in vitam aeternam, Amen. Pax tecum. Et cum spiritu 
tuo ; et confirmatur ab archidiacono. 

20. Deinde venit archidiaconus cum calice ad cornu 
altaris et adnunciat stationem : et refuse parum de calice 
in scyphum inter manus acolythi, accedunt primo episcopi 
ad sedem ut communicent de manu pontificis secundum 
ordinem : similiter presbyteri ut communicent post eos. 
Episcopus autem primus accipit calicem de manu archi- 
diaconi, et stat in cornu altaris l ut confirmet sequentes 
ordines l usque ad primicerium defensorum. Deinde 
archidiaconus, accepto de manu illius calice, refundit in 
scyphum quern supra diximus : et tradit calicem subdiacono 
regionario, qui tradit ei pugillarem cum quo confirmat 
populum. Calicem autem accipit subdiaconus sequens, et 
dat acolytho quern ille revocat in paratorium. Qui dum 
confirmaverit quos papa communicat, descendit pontifex a 
sede cum primicerio notariorum et primicerio defensorum 
tenentibus ei manus, ut communicet eos qui in senatorio 
sunt ; post quern archidiaconus confirmat. Post haec 
episcopi communicant populum, adnuente eis primicerio 
cum manu sub planeta, percontato pontifke. Post eos 
diaconi confirmant. Deinde transeunt in partem sinistram 
ut faciant similiter. Presbyteri autem, adnuente primicerio, 

1 - 1 C. ; sequentis ordinis, M. Ordo II agrees with C 


that, while the solemnities of mass are being celebrated, 
the altar may never be without a sacrifice), looks at the 
choir, and signs to them to sing, O Lamb of God, and then 
goes to the paten with the rest. The fraction being 
finished, the second deacon takes the paten from the sub- 
deacon and carries it to the throne to communicate the 
pontiff : who after partaking, puts a particle which he has 
bitten off the holy element into the chalice which The Com- 
the archdeacon is holding, making a cross with mixture, 
it thrice, and saying, May the commixture and consecration 
of the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be to us 
who receive it for life eternal. Amen. Peace be with thee. 
[And he answers] And with thy spirit. And then the 
pontiff is communicated with the chalice by the archdeacon. 

WV 20. Then the archdeacon comes with the chalice to the 
corner of the altar, and announces the next The Com- 
station : and after he has poured a small quantity munion - 
of the contents of the chalice into the bowl held by the 
collet, there approach to the throne, so that they may 
communicate from the pontiff's hand, first the bishops in 
order, and then the presbyters in like manner, so that they 
may communicate after them. Then the chief hebdomadary 
bishop takes the chalice from the hands of the archdeacon, 
in order to administer the species of wine to the remaining 
ranks down to the chief coun seller .IC^jfThen the archdeacon 
takes the chalice from him, and pours it into the bowl 
which we mentioned above : he then hands the empty 
chalice to the district-subdeacon, who gives him the reed 
wherewith he communicates the people with the species of 
wine. But the subdeacon-attendant takes the chalice and 
gives it to the collet, who replaces it in the sacristy. And 
when the archdeacon has administered the cup to those 
whom the pope communicated, the pontiff comes down 
from his throne, with the chancellor and the chief coun- 
sellor, who hold his hands, in order to communicate those 
who are in the places allotted to the magnates, after which 
the archdeacon communicates them with the cup. 


iussu pontificis, communicant populum ; et ipsi vicissim 
confirmant. Nam mox ut pontifex coeperat in senatorio 
communicare, statim schola incipit antiphonam ad com- 
munionem per vices cum subdiaconibus ; et psallunt 
usque dum communicate omni populo adnuat pontifex 
ut dicant Gloria Patri, et tune repetito versu quiescunt. 
Et pontifex, mox ut communicaverit in parte mulierum, 
redit ad sedem ; et communicat regionarios per ordinem, 
et eos qui in filo steterunt : et in diebus festis de schola 
duodecim. Nam ceteris diebus in presbyterio communi- 
cant. Post hos omnes redeuntes nomenclator et saccel- 
larius, et acolythus qui patenam tenet, et qui manutergium 
tenet, et qui aquam dat, ad sedem communicant ; et post 
pontificem archidiaconus eos confirmat. 

21. Adstat autem subdiaconus regionarius ante faciem 
pontificis ut adnuat ei. Ille vero contemplans populum si 
iam communicati sint, et adnuit ei. Et ille vadit ad 
humerum, aspicit ad primum scholae, faciens crucem in 
fronte sua, adnuit ei dicere Gloriam : et ille resalutato, 
dicit Gloria, Sicut erat, et versum. 'Finita autem antiphona 
surgit pontifex cum archidiacono, et veniens ante altare 
dat orationem ad complendum, directus ad orientem. 
Nam in isto loco, cum Dominus vobiscum dixerit, non se 
dirigit ad populum. Finita vero oratione cui praeceperit 
archidiaconus de diaconibus aspicit ad pontificem ut ei 
adnuat, et dicit ad populum : 7te, missa est. Respondent : 


After this the bishops communicate the people, the 
chancellor signing to them to do so with his hand under 
his planet, at the pontiff's formal request : and then the 
deacons administer the cup to them. Next they all pass 
over to the left side of the church, and do the same there. 
Moreover, the presbyters, at a sign from the chancellor, 
by command of the pontiff, communicate the people also, 
and afterwards administer the cup to them as well. 

Now as soon as the pontiff began to communicate the 
magnates, the choir immediately began to sing TheCom- 
the communion-anthem by turns with the sub- munion- 
deacons ; and they go on singing until, when all anthem - 
the people have communicated, the pontiff signs to them 
to sing Glory be to the Father, and then, after repeating 
the verse, they cease. 

The pontiff, directly after communicating those on the 
women's side goes back to the throne and communicates 
the district officials in order, and those who stand in a 
group, and on festivals twelve of the choir as well. But 
on other days these communicate in the presbytery. After 
all these the invitationer, and the treasurer, the collet who 
holds the paten, he who holds the towel, and he who 
offers water at the lavatory, communicate at the throne ; 
and after the pontiff has communicated them, the 
archdeacon administers the cup to them. 

21. Then a district-subdeacon stands before the pontiff 
in order that he may sign to him : but the pontiff first 
looks at the people to see if they have finished communi- 
cating, and then signs to him. Then he goes to the 
pontiff's shoulder and looks towards the precentor, making 
a cross on his forehead as a sign to him to sing Glory be : 
and the precentor returns his salutation, and sings Glory 
be to the Father, etc., As it was in the beginning, etc., and 
the verse. At the end of the anthem the pontiff rises 
with the archdeacon and comes before the altar The Post- 
and says the post-communion collect, facing communion, 
eastwards. For at this part of the service, when he says, 



Deo gratias. Tune septem cereostata praecedunt pontificem 
et subdiaconus regionarius cum turibulo ad secretarium. 
Descendente autem illo in presbyterium, episcopi primum 
dicant: lube, domne, bene dicer e. Respondet: Benedicat no 5 
Dominus. Respondent : Amen. Post episcopos, pres- 
byteri ; deinde monachi ; deinde schola ; deinde milites 
draconarii (id est, qui signa portant) ; post eos, baiuli ; 
post eos cereostatarii ; post quos acolythi qui rugam 
observant ; post eos extra presbyterium cruces portantes ; 
deinde mansionarii iuniores : et intrat in secretarium. 


Si autem summum pontificem, ubi statio fuerit, contigerit non 
adesse; haec sunt quae ab alio episcopo dissimiliter fiunt. 

22. In primis, quod non illi sed diaconi praecedunt cum 
cereostato vel turibulo. Secundum, namque quod non 
sedet in sede post altare. Tertio, non dicit orationem post 
altare sed in dextro latere altaris. Quartum, non ipse epis- 
copus, sed diaconus in eo loco, ubi consuetudo est, signat. 
Quinto loco, post finitum canonem, ubi dicitur : Per quern 
haec omnia, Domine, non levatur calix ab archidiacono. 
Sexto loco, quando dici debet : Pax Domini sit semper vobis- 
cum, deportatur a subdiacono oblationario particula fermenti 
quod ab apostolico consecratum est, et datur archidiacono ; 
ille vero porrigit episcopo. At ille consignando tribus 
vicibus et dicendo : Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum, mittit 
in calicem. Nam et hoc dissimiliter facit, quod apostolicus 
non confringit : ipse vero super pallam, quae corporalis 
dicitur, in altare confringit. Deinde communicant omnes 


The Lord be with you, he does not turn to the people. 
At the end of the collect, one of the deacons, The Dis- 
appointed by the archdeacon, looks towards the missal - 
pontiff for him to sign to him, and then says to the people, 
Go, \mass\ is over ! and they answer, 'Thanks be to God. 

Then the seven collets carrying their candlesticks go 
before the pontiff, and a district - subdeacon with the 
thurible, to the sacristy.v^But as he goes down into the 
presbytery, first the bishops say, Sir, bid a blessing ; and 
the pontiff answers, May the Lord bless us ! and they 
answer, Amen. After the bishops the presbyters say the 
same, and then the monks, then the choir, then the 
military banner-bearers, i. e. those who carry standards : 
after them the bearers, after them the taperers, after 
them the collets who watch the gate (of the Confession ?) ; 
after them, but outside the presbytery, those who carry 
the crosses ; then the junior sextons, and this done the 
pontiff enters the sacristy. 

Supplement, showing what things are done differently if 
the stational mass is celebrated by another bishop when the 
pope is unable to be present. 

22. First, that the deacons, and not the bishop who 
is celebrating that day, enter with the candlestick and 
thurible. Secondly, that the bishop does not sit in the 
throne behind the altar. 'Thirdly, that he does not say 
the collect behind the altar, but at the right side of it. 
Fourthly, that the deacon, and not the bishop himself, 
makes the sign of the cross in the place where it is 
customary. Fifthly, that the chalice is not elevated by 
the archdeacon after the canon, where, By whom thou dost 
create all these things, O Lord, is said. Sixthly, when, The 
Peace of the Lord be with you alway, ought to be said, the 
subdeacon-oblationer brings a fragment of the Fermentum, 
which has been hallowed by the pope, and gives it to the 
archdeacon, and he offers it to the bishop, who making 
the sign of the cross with it thrice as he says, The Peace of 


praeter episcopum tan turn, quod non sua manu com- 
municat. Si 1 in ipsius manum mittit partem, et ipse se 
communicat cum propria manu. Similiter facit presbyter 
presbytero, et diaconus diacono. Nam reliqua omnia 
similiter ut summus pontifex facit. 

Similiter etiam et a presbytero agitur, quando in statio- 
ne facit missas, praeter Gloria in excelsis Deo ; quia a presby- 
tero non dicitur nisi in Pascha. 

Episcopi, qui civitatibus praesident, ut summus pontifex 
ita omnia peragunt. 

48. In diebus festis, id est, Paschae, Pentecostes, sancti 
Petri, Nativitatis Domini, per has quattuor sollemnitates 
habent colligendos presbyteri cardinales, unusquisque tenens 
corporalem in manu sua : et venit archidiaconus et porrigit 
unicuique eorum oblatas tres. Et accedente pontifice ad 
altare, dextra laevaque circumdant altare, et simul cum illo 
canonem dicunt, tenentes oblatas in manibus, non super 
altare, ut vox pontificis valentius audiatur ; et simul 
consecrant corpus et sanguinem Domini : sed tantum 
pontifex facit super altare crucem dextra laevaque. 

1 The passage is corrupt. We should probably read Alias episcofus instead ot 
Si. Compare the corresponding passage in the Ordo of St. Amand on page 163. 


the Lord be with you alway, drops it into the chalice. This 
also is done differently, for the pope does not break one 
of the loaves, but the bishop breaks one over the cloth on 
the altar which is called a corporas. Then all communicate, 
save only the celebrant bishop, for he does not communi- 
cate himself by his own hand. Another bishop puts a 
part of a loaf into his hand, and then he communicates 
himself from his own hand. Likewise a presbyter does 
for a presbyter, and a deacon for a deacon. Everything 
else the bishop does just as the pope. 

In like manner also things are done by a presbyter 
when he celebrates masses at a Station, except, Glory be to 
God on high, for this is not said by a presbyter save only 
at Easter. 

Bishops who rule over cities perform all things as the 
pope himself. 

[The rite of concelebration on festivals. .] 

48. On festivals, that is to say on Easter day, Pentecost, 
St. Peter's day, and Christmas day, the cardinal presbyters 
assemble, each one holding a corporas in his hand, and 
the archdeacon comes and offers each one of them three 
loaves. And when the pontiff approaches the altar, they 
surround it on the right and the left, and say the canon 
simultaneously with him, holding their loaves in their 
hands, and not placing them on the altar, so that the 
pontiff's voice may be heard the more strongly, and they 
simultaneously consecrate the body and blood of the Lord, 
but the pontiff alone makes a cross over the altar. 


[To face page 150 

Ordo Romanus I] 



an rbo IRomanus from a nintb centur? 
of St Hmanfc (c 800 HJ>.) 
ren&ereJ) into 

In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Here beginneth the Order in which mass is celebrated 
in the holy and apostolic Roman Church, which we have 
taken care to set forth with the utmost assiduity and the 
greatest diligence, not in grammatical phrases, but plainly 
and exactly ; that is, how the pontiff proceeds on a solemn 
day with great honour, as has been found out from the 
holy fathers. 

i. Now, first of all, all the clergy as well as all the 
people proceed to the church where the mass is to be 
celebrated, and the pontiff enters the sacristy, The 
and puts on his sacerdotal vestments. When he Vestin g- 
wears a dalmatic, the deacons also wear dalmatics in like 
manner, and the subdeacons wrap themselves in amices 
about the neck, and vest themselves in such white tunics 
as they have, either silken or linen. But if the pontiff 
does not wear a dalmatic, the deacons and subdeacons do 
not wrap themselves in amices, but walk with white tunics, 
and planets. In the meantime, while the pontiff sits in 
his seat in the sacristy, the deacon who is going to read 
the gospel takes care of the gospel-book, and afterwards 
hands it to the subdeacon. Then the subdeacon carries it 
through the midst of the presbytery, and no one presumes 
to sit when they see him pass by ; and, advancing through 


the presbytery, the subdeacon places it on the altar. And 
meanwhile the ruler of the choir stands before the pontiff 
> and says to the district-subdeacon,i$0-#w^-j0 sings the respond, 
so-and-so the Alleluia. Then the pontiff says to the choir, 
Enter! and he sends word to the precentor, and says, 
Command ! Then the above-mentioned subdeacon comes 
to the pontiff's ear and says in an undertone (secreto), 
So-and-so reads ; so-and-so and so-and-so sing the psalms. 

2. Then the oblationer lights two tapers before the 
sacristy for the pontiff's lights, which is the custom at 
all times, and goes in before the pontiff, and sets them 
behind the altar in two candlesticks, one on the right and 
one on the left. Then the collets light their candlesticks 
before the sacristy ; and the pontiff comes out of 
the sacristy with the deacons, two of them sup- 
j porting him, on the right and the left, and there go before 
him the seven candlesticks, and the subdeacon-attendant 
with a censer. The deacons have their planets over their 
dalmatics until they come with the pontiff to the upper 
part of the presbytery. On arriving there, they remove 
the planets which they have on, and their ministers take 
them. Now when the subdeacon who is precentor sees 
them taking off their planets, and the pontiff entering 
the presbytery, he too removes the planet which he is 
wearing, and a collet from the choir receives it. Then 
the priests (sacerdotes) rise up and stand. The subdeacons 
who come in before the pontiff do not pass on through 
the midst of the choir, but stand right and left before 
the screen, on either side. And when the pontiff has 
approached the choir, the collets stand there with their 
candlesticks, their order being changed, the last being first. 
Then the pontiff passes through the midst of the choir 
with the deacons, and signs to the precentor to say, Glory 
be to the Father. Then the senior bishop and the arch- 
presbyter draw near, and the pontiff gives them the kiss 
of peace, and afterwards to the deacons. But if the 
pontiff should not be present, the deacon who is going 


to read the gospel that day gives it in the same way. 
Then the pontiff comes before the altar, and stands there 
with his head bowed down, and the deacons in like 
manner. When the choir have said, As it was in the 
beginning^ the deacons rise up from prayer, and kiss the 
altar on either side. And when the choir have repeated 
the verse, the pontiff arises from prayer, and kisses the 
gospel-book which lies on the altar, and goes from the 
right side of the altar to his throne, the deacons being 
with him on either side, standing and facing eastwards. 

3. Then the collets set the candlesticks which they 
are holding on the ground. And when the choir have 
finished the anthem, the pontiff signs to them to say, 
Lord, have mercy upon us. And the choir says 

it, and the district-officials who stand below the 
ambo repeat it. When they have said it a third time, < 
the pontiff again signs to them to say, Christ, have mercy 
upon us. And when that has been said thrice, he again 
signs to them to say, Lord, have mercy upon us. And 
when they have completed the ninth time, he signs 
to them to stop. Then turning towards the people the 
pontiff says, Glory be to God on high, and turns back 
again to the east, and the deacons with him, until the 
hymn is finished. When this is done he looks towards 
the people and says, Peace to you, and they 

J J -77 ' T^u 1. The Collect. 

answer, And with thy spirit. Then he says, 
Let us pray. Then the collets lift up their candlesticks, 
and set them down before the altar in the order which 
they keep. 

4. The collect ended, the pontiff sits in his throne, 
and the deacons stand on either side ; and the choir turn 
back below the platform which is below the ambo, and 
the subdeacons who stand below the screen go up to the 
altar and stand on either side of it. Then the pontiff 
signs to the priests (sacerdotes) to sit down in The 

the presbytery. Then a lesson is read from the Scripture 
ambo by a subdeacon. Then one of the choir Lessons -. 


or a collet, after removing his planet, 1 takes the grail and 
goes up into the ambo and says the respond : and another 
in like manner the Alleluia. At the conclusion of this, 
the deacon bows to the pontiff, and the latter orders him 
to read the gospel; he then goes up to the altar, kisses 
the gospel-book and takes it up. Then the pontiff rises 
from his throne and all the priests stand. And there go 
before the deacon two subdeacons, one on the right, the 
other on the left, and two collets carrying two candle- 
sticks before him. And when they arrive at the ambo, 
the subdeacon who is on his right offers him his left arm, 
and the deacon rests the gospel-book on it while he finds 
the mark [for reading]. Then he goes up into the ambo, 
while the taperers turn back to stand before the ambo; 
and then the gospel is read. 

5. After this the subdeacon takes the gospel-book, and 
holds it leaning against his breast, below the ambo, while 
all kiss the book. Then he puts it back in its case. The 
deacon returns to the altar, and the taperers go before him, 
and put their candlesticks behind the altar, as also the rest 
of the candlesticks. If there should be a cloth (gallium) 
on the altar, he folds it on one side towards the east, 
and the corporas is then spread over the altar by the 

6. Then the pontiff washes his hands, and rises from 
his throne; and the choir go back to the left side of the 
The presbytery. Then the pontiff goes down to 
offertory. receive the offerings from the people, and the 
archdeacon signs to the choir to say the offertory-anthem. 
As the pontiff receives the loaves, he hands them to a 
subdeacon, who puts them into a linen cloth held by the 
collets who attend him. The deacons receive the flasks 
of wine. The stational chalice is carried by the district- 
subdeacon, and the deacon pours the flasks into the holy 

1 This appears to be the meaning of the passage, which is corrupt 


chalice itself; and when it is full, it is emptied into the 
bowls which the collets carry. Then the pontiff goes with 
the deacons to the women's side, and they do the same 
there. He then goes back to his throne, but the deacons 
remain to receive the flasks of wine. In the meantime 
there stand before the pontiff the chancellor, the secretary, 
the notaries and district-officials, while the presbyters are 
receiving loaves and flasks within the presbytery, both 
from the men's side as well as the women's; and the 
collets hold linen cloths and bowls to gather them in. 

7. Then the archdeacon washes his hands, and the rest 
of the deacons wash their hands. Then the The 
collets hold the linen cloth with the loaves Lavatory, 
which the pontiff received from the people, at the right 
corner of the altar : some of which the subdeacon-attend- 
ant selects and hands to a district-subdeacon, The 
who gives them to the archdeacon. The latter Preparation 
places them upon the altar in three or five rows, of the 
only so much as may suffice for the people, and ( 
remain from that time till the morrow, according to 
canonical authority. In the meantime the chalice is held 
by the district-subdeacon, and the archdeacon takes the 
pontiff's flask from the hand of the oblationer and 
empties it into the holy chalice; and in like manner the 
flasks of the presbyters and those of the deacons as well. 
Then the subdeacon holds a strainer over the chalice, and 
the wine which the people offered and which is in the bowl 
is poured through it. Then one of the choir brings a 
ewer with clean water in it, and gives it to the oblationer, 
and the latter offers it to the archdeacon, who takes it 
and pours it, making a cross as he does so, into the holy 
chalice which is held by the subdeacon at the The 
right corner of the altar. Then the pontiff offerings 
descends from his throne, and comes before the of the 
altar; and the archdeacon receives the pontiff's lergy * 
loaves from the subdeacon-oblationer, and hands them 
to the pontiff, who sets them on the altar. Then the 


archdeacon takes the chalice from the subdeacon and sets 
it on the altar. 

The pontiff then signs to the choir to make an end 
to the offertory-anthem : and they turn back and stand 
before the platform. 

8. On Christmas day, the Epiphany, the Holy Sabbath, 
Easter day, Easter Monday, Ascension day, Whitsunday, 
Conceie- and the feast of Saints Peter and Paul, the 
bration. bishops stand behind the pontiff with bowed 
heads, and the presbyters on their right and left, and 
each one holds a corporas in his hand; two loaves are 
then given to each of them by the archdeacon, and the 
pontiff says the canon so that he can be heard by them ; 
and they hallow the loaves which they hold, just as the 
pontiff hallows those on the altar. The deacons, however, 
stand with bowed heads behind the bishops; and the sub- 
deacons face the pontiff with bowed heads until he says, 
To us sinners also. 

9. If, however, they be not solemn days, when the 
chalice is put on the altar, the presbyters go back into 
the presbytery, and the rest of the clergy in like manner 
go back and stand below the platform ; and if it should 
happen to be a Sunday, the presbyters stand with bowed 
heads, but if on week days they bend the knee, when 
the choir begins, Holy, Holy, Holy. Then the collets 
come and stand before the altar behind the deacons, on 
the right and left, wrapped in linen cloths: and one of 

them, wrapped in a silken pall with a cross on 

The Canon. . ' rr r t 

it, holding the paten before his breast, stands 
first, and others hold bowls with ewers, others little sacks. 
The Now when the pontiff has come to, All honour 

Sacring. anc [ glory, he takes up two loaves in his hands, 
and the deacon takes the chalice and lifts it up a little 
until he says, For ever and ever, Amen. 

10. Then the deacons and priests rise up from prayer. 
And when the pontiff has said, 'The peace of the Lord be 


with you alway, the subdeacon takes the paten from the 
collet, and offers it to the archdeacon, who holds it at 
the pontiff's right hand ; and the pontiff breaks The 
one of the loaves which he offers for himself, Fraction, 
and sets the crown of it down on the altar, putting one 
whole one and the other moiety on the paten; and the 
archdeacon returns the paten to the collet, and the pontiff 
goes to his throne. Then the other deacons break [the 
loaves] on the paten, and the bishops also [break loaves] 
in the right side of the apse. Then the archdeacon lifts 
the chalice up from the altar and gives it to the sub- 
deacon, and stands with him at the right corner of the 
altar ; the collets then approach the altar with little sacks, 
and stand around the altar ; and the archdeacon puts the 
loaves into their sacks, and they return to the presbyters 
in order that they may break them. Meanwhile the 
presbyters and the deacons sing in an undertone, Blessed 
are those that are undefiled. If it should happen to be 
necessary, the loaves are first split asunder by a presbyter, 
and afterwards broken in pieces by the district-subdeacons. 
The choir then return to the left side of the presbytery, 
and the archdeacon signs to them to say, O Lamb of God. 
And in the meantime, while the fraction is being carried 
out, the collets who hold the bowls and the flasks answer 
again, O Lamb of God. And when they have finished 
the fraction, the archdeacon takes the holy chalice from the 
subdeacon, and another deacon takes the paten from the 
collet, and they go before the pontiff. 

1 1 . The pontiff takes the Holy Element (sanctd) from 
the paten, bites a small piece off, and makes a cross with 
it over the chalice, saying in an undertone, May The 
the commixture and consecration^ etc. Then the Commixture, 
pontiff communicates of the chalice which is held by the 
archdeacon. Then the bishops and presbyters receive 
the Holy Element from the pontiff's hand, The 
and go to the left part of the altar and place Communion, 
their hands on it, and so communicate. When the bishops 


and presbyters begin to communicate, the archdeacon goes 
to the right side of the altar, and a collet stands before 
him with the chief bowl. Then the former announces 
the next station, and they all answer, Thanks be to God: 
and then he pours from the chalice into the bowl. Next, 
he gives the chalice to the bishop who first communicated, 
and goes to the pontiff" and receives the Holy Element 
from his hand, and the other deacons do the same; and 
they go to the right side of the altar and communicate. 
Then they partake of the chalice at the hands of the 
same bishop who communicated the presbyters therewith. 
Then the pontiff communicates the chief and the second 
[of the schools of the notaries and counsellors]. Then 
the archdeacon takes the chalice from the bishop, and a 
subdeacon comes up with a little strainer in his hand : and 
he takes the Holy Element out of the chalice, and puts 
it into the chief ewer whence the archdeacon will com- 
municate the people; and the archdeacon empties the 
chalice into the second chalice, and the collet pours from 
The this into the chief ewer. Then the pontiff 

Communion- goes down to communicate the people, and 
Anthem. ^e archdeacon signs to the choir to say the 
communion-anthem. And when the choir have said it, 
the subdeacons on the left side of the screen below the 
throne (thronum) repeat it. And when the magnates, 
tribunes, counts, and judges, and any others whom he 
wishes, have been communicated [by the pope], he goes to 
the women's side below the screen, followed by the deacons 
who administer the cup to the people. Then, when he 
desires it, he returns to his throne, and the priests stand 
below the presbytery to communicate the people in both 
species. And in the meantime the pontiff sits on his 
throne, and a collet stands before him with the holy 
paten, and the subdeacons, notaries, and district-officials 
come before him, and the deacon communicates them 
with the species of wine. 

12. Then the notaries stand before the pontiff with pen 


and book (dhomum, i.e. tomum) in their hand, and he bids 
them write the names of those whom he wishes The invita . 
invited. Then the notaries go down from the dons to 
throne, and announce the invitations to those breakfast, 
whose names are written down. 

13. Meanwhile a priest comes and communicates the 
choir, and the ruler of the choir holds in his hand a ewer 
which has been filled from the principal bowl ; and a 
presbyter takes it from his hand and makes a cross with 
the Holy Element over the ewer, and drops It in, and then 
he administers the cup to the choir. All the presbyters 
do likewise when they communicate the people with the 
cup. And when the archdeacon sees that few are left to 
be communicated, he signs to the choir to say, Glory be to 
the Father. And the subdeacons reply, As it was in the 
beginning, and the choir repeat the verse. 

14. Then the pontiff comes down from the throne and 
goes before the altar, and the candlesticks are put behind 
him. And in the meantime the priests and the The second 
deacons wash their hands, and give one another Lavatory. 

a kiss in order, and the subdeacons in their turn where 
they stand, and the choir likewise in the place where they 

15. The collect having been finished, the c ^J m *on 
deacon (not he who reads the gospel, but another) Collect and 
says, G0, [mass~\ is over ! Dismissal. 

Then the pontiff comes down from the altar, and the 
deacons with him, and the subdeacon who has been 
mentioned above goes before him with the censer, as also 
the candlesticks carried by the collets ; and as he passes 
down through the midst of the presbytery a subdeacon 
of the choir says, Sir, bid a blessing ! And the pontiff 
gives the prayer, and they answer, Amen. And when he 
goes out of the presbytery, the judges next say, Sir, bid 
a blessing. And when the blessing has been given, they 


answer, Amen. And the collets come before the pontiff 
with their candlesticks, and stand before the door of the 
sacristy until he is gone in ; and then they put out their 

1 6. Then the pontiff takes off his vestments, and the 
The Un vest- subdeacons take them and hand them to the 
in s- chamberlains. The deacons, however, unvest 
outside the sacristy and their collets take their vestments. 
And when the pontiff sits down, the chief sexton of 
the church comes with a silver bowl (bacea = bacchia) 
with little round loaves on it (or if there is none of silver, 
with a bowl of some sort [catino]), and stands before the 
pontiff ; and there come in order the deacons, then the 
chancellor and the secretary and the papal-vicar and the 
subdeacons, and they receive little loaves or cakes from the 
pontiff's hand. Then a drink is prepared for the pontiff 
and the rest above mentioned. All having been finished, 
the pontiff gives a blessing, and they go out of the sacristy. 

1 7. And this which we have omitted, we recall to mind ; 
that is, that if the pontiff should not make his appearance, 
the deacons set out as is said above. And if there should 
be no deacons, the presbyter proceeds in their place from 
the sacristy with the candlesticks to set before the pontiff's 
throne, and he can read the gospel in the ambo divested of 
his planet like a deacon, and on coming down from the 
ambo he puts his planet on again. And when the deacons 
or presbyters come before the screen, the bishop or presbyter 
who is going to celebrate mass that day comes from the 
left side of the presbytery, and the deacon who is going to 
read the gospel that day gives him the kiss of peace. 
And when the choir have finished, Lord, have mercy upon 
us, the bishop goes to the right side of the throne within 
the screen, and says, Glory be to God on high. But if it 
should be a presbyter who is celebrating, he does not say, 
Glory be to God on high, but only advances and says the 
collect. And when that is over, he returns to his place 


until the gospel is read. When that is over, he advances 
as above, and says, 'The Lord be with you, then, Let us 
-pray ; and everything is done as it is described above. 
And when he comes to, All honour and glory, the deacon 
does not lift up the chalice as he does for the pontiff, but 
the bishop or presbyter [who is celebrating] lifts up two 
loaves, and touches the chalice with them as he says, For 
ever and ever. And when he is going to say, The peace of 
the Lord be with you alway, the subdeacon holds The Fer- 
a piece of the Holy Element, which the pontiff m entum. 
has consecrated, at the right corner of the altar ; and the 
deacon takes it and hands it to the bishop or presbyter, 
who thereupon makes a cross with it over the chalice, 
saying, The peace of the Lord be with you alway. Then 
he kisses the altar, and the deacon gives the kiss of peace 
to the subdeacon. Then another bishop comes from the 
left side [of the presbytery], and they both hold their 
hands over the loaves and break them ; and then the 
[second] bishop goes back again to his place. The bishop 
or presbyter who is celebrating the mass then hands one 
whole loaf, and a moiety of one which has been divided, to 
the deacon ; and he puts the moiety on the paten, and that 
which is whole into a little sack held by a collet. The 
latter then goes to the archpresbyter for him to break the 
loaf : but the bishop stands at the left side of the altar 
until the loaves have been transferred to the little sacks 
of the collets, as is the custom. Then the bishop turns 
back before the altar, and breaks the moiety of the loaf 
which was left there. And as soon as the fraction has 
been completed, the deacon announces the next station, as 
is the custom. Then both bishops and presbyters come 
before the altar to communicate ; and the bishop [who is 
celebrating] places two fragments in the hand of the first 
of the [other] bishops, and he who receives them returns 
one of the fragments to the celebrant, and he holds the 
fragment in his right hand until they have communicated, 
as described above. Then he who is celebrating the mass 
places his hands upon the altar, and communicates. Then 



the deacons communicate, and the bishop or presbyter who 
first communicated administers the cup to them ; and he 
holds the chalice, and accomplishes all things as is written 

A Table of the most notable differences between Or do I and the 
Or do of St. Amand. 

Or do Romanus I. 

1. A collet carries in the 
gospel-book before mass. The 
subdeacon-attendant precedes 
him ; on arriving at the altar 
he takes the book from him and 
sets it thereon. 

2. A district-subdeacon ascer- 
tains who is to sing the grail, etc., 
then tells the pope who sings 
and who reads the epistle. 

3. When all are ready to en- 
ter, the ruler of the choir goes 
to the precentor and says, u Sir, 
Command ! " 

4. No mention of these tapers 
at all. 

5. Inspection of the Eucharist 
reserved from previous solemn 

6. Pax given before Gloria 
Patri is sung. 

7. Kyries sung by the choir. 

8. After the responsory psalm 
the gospeller kisses the pope's 

9. The subdeacon-attendant 
holds the gospel- book for the 
kissing after the reading. 

Ordo of St. Amand. 

I. The gospel- book is carried 
in by a subdeacon and set on 
the altar by him. 

2. The ruler of the choir 
tells a district-subdeacon, who 
then tells the pope. No men- 
tion of the epistoler. 

3. The pope sends word to 
the precentor and says, "Sir, 
Command ! " 

4. The bringing in of the 
oblationer's two tapers. 

5. No mention of this. 

6. Pax given after Gloria 

7. Kyries sung by the choir 
and repeated by the district 
officials below the ambo. 

8. The gospeller only bows 
to the pope. 

9. The gospel-book held by 
a subdeacon. 



Ordo Romanus I. 

10. No mention of the Pal- 

11. The ruler of the choir 
offers water for the chalice to 
the subdeacon-attendant. 

12. The offertory veil used 
in setting the chalice on the 

13. No mention of this. 

14. The collet acting as 
patener has a linen sudary girt 
around his neck. 

15. The veil is used when 
the archdeacon raises the chalice 
at the second sacring. 

1 6. No mention of this. 

17. Agnus Dei sung by the 

1 8. The Sancta and the 
Pax come before the fraction. 
No mention of the lavatory. 

19. Invitations to breakfast 
issued during Agnus Del. 

20. The next station an- 
nounced between the com- 
munion of the pope and that of 
the bishops. 

Ordo of St. Amand. 

10. Pallium (if any) turned 
back off the altar. 

11. One of the choir offers 
water to the subdeacon-obla- 

12. No mention of the offer- 
tory veil. 

13. At Sanctus collets with 
palls stand behind the deacons 
holding ewers and sacks. 

14. The patener has a silken 
pall or sudary marked with a 

15. No mention of the veil. 

1 6. Ps. Beati immaculati sung 
by priests and deacons at the 

17. Sung by the choir and 
repeated by the collets. 

1 8. No mention of the 
Sancta. Pax and lavatory after 

19. After the communion of 
the subdeacons, notaries and 
district officials. 

20. Announced during the 
communion of the bishops and 



IRoman Xiturg? of tbe eigbtb century 
witb 3form$ proper to Easter bas ant) 
IRubrical Directions from tbe (Bregorian 
Sacramentan>, anfc 'r&o IRomanus 
primus/ ant> tbe 'rbo' of St. Hmank 


IF On Easter day the station is at the Basilica of St. Mary Major. 

IF In the first place is sung the Anthem at the Entry , agreeable 
to the appointed times, whether festivals or ordinary days. 

ist Semi-chorus. Anthem. When I rise up, I am present 
with thee, Alleluia : thou hast laid thine hand upon me, 
Alleluia : such knowledge is too wonderful for me, 

2nd Semi-chorus. Psalm cxxxix, verse i. O Lord, thou 
hast searched me out, and known me : thou knowest my 
downsitting and mine uprising. 

ist Semi-chorus. Anthem. When I rise up, etc., as 

2nd Semi-chorus. Ps., verse 2. Thou understandest my 
thoughts long before : thou art about my path, and about 
my bed. 

ist Semi-chorus. Anthem. When I rise up, etc., as above. 
The psalm is thus continued with the anthem sung after each 
verse until the signal to sing, Glory be to the Father, is 
given, and that having been sung the anthem is again 


IT Then Kyrie eleison is sung. 
The Choir. Lord, have mercy upon us. 
The District-officials. Lord, have mercy upon us. 
The Choir. Christ, have mercy upon us. 
The District-officials. Christ, have mercy upon us. 
The Choir. Lord, have mercy upon us. 
The District-officials. Lord, have mercy upon us. 
The number of times each is sung being determined by the 

H Next is said Glory be to God on high if the celebrant should be 
a bishop ; but only on Sundays and Festivals. It is^ however, never 
said by presbyters, save only on Easter day. But on days when 
Litanies are performed, neither Glory be to God on high nor Alleluia 
is sung. 

IF Afterwards is said the Collect. 

Pontiff. Peace be to you. 
Answer. And with thy spirit. 

Pontiff. Let us pray. O God, who on this day hast 
through thine only-begotten Son unlocked the portal of 
eternity and vanquished death ; follow with thy help our 
desires which thou hast instilled into us by thy preventing 
power ; through the same thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord, 
who with thee and the Holy Ghost liveth and reigneth, 
one God, for ever and ever. 

Answer. Amen. 

Tf Then follows the Apostle. 

i Corinth, v, 7, 8. Beloved brethren, purge out the 
old leaven . . . sincerity and truth. 

1T And then the Grail and Alleluia. 

The Respond. Cantor : This is the day which the Lord 
hath made : let us rejoice and be glad in it. Choir repeat : 
This is the day, etc. 


Verse. Cantor : O give thanks unto the Lord, for he 
is gracious : and his mercy endureth for ever. Choir repeat : 
This is the day, etc. 

Verse. Cantor: Let Israel now confess that he is 
gracious, and that his mercy endureth for ever. Choir 
repeat: This is the day, etc. 

Verse. Cantor: Let the house of Aaron now confess 
that his mercy endureth for ever. Choir repeat: This is 
the day, etc. 

Verse. Cantor : Yea, let them now that fear the Lord 
confess that his mercy endureth for ever. Choir repeat : 
This is the day, etc. 

Verse. Cantor : The right hand of the Lord hath the 
pre-eminence : the right hand of the Lord bringeth mighty 
things to pass. Choir repeat: This is the day, etc. 

Verse. Cantor : The same stone, which the builders 
refused, is become the headstone of the corner. Choir 
repeat: This is the day, etc. 

Verse. Cantor : Blessed be he that cometh in the name 
of the Lord : God is the Lord who hath showed us light. 
Choir repeat : This is the day, etc. 

IF Then another cantor sings the Alleluia. 
Cantor : Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us. 
Choir repeat: Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us. 

Verse. Cantor : Let us therefore keep the feast, with 
the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 

Choir repeat : Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us. 1 

IF After this the Gospel is read by the deacon. 

St. Mark xvi, i-n. And when the Sabbath was past 
. believed not. 

1 After this, in St. Gregory's days, the deacon exclaimed : ' If any one doet not 
communicate, let him go a-way ! ' This had disappeared by the time of Ordo /, but at 
Scrutiny masses the deacon still called out here : ' If any one be a catechumen, let him 
depart ! Let all catechumens go out of the doors / ' 


If And then the Offertory is sung. 

Choir : The earth trembled, and was still, when God 
arose to judgment, Alleluia. 

Cantor : l In Jewry is God known : his name is great 
in Israel, Alleluia. 

Choir : The earth trembled, etc. 

Cantor: At Salem is his tabernacle : and his dwelling 
in Sion, Alleluia. 

Choir : The earth trembled, etc. 

Cantor : There brake he the arrows of the bow : the 
shield, the sword, and the battle : thou art of more honour 
and might than the hills of the robbers. 

Choir : The earth trembled, etc. 

^f And then is said the Prayer over the Offerings^ in an 

Receive, O Lord, we beseech thee, the prayers of thy 
people, with the offerings of sacrifices ; that they, having 
been consecrated by the Easter mysteries, may contribute 
to our eternal healing by thy working in us : through 
our Lord Jesus Christ, who with thee and the Holy 
Ghost, liveth and reigneth, one God, 

Tf At the end of this prayer the pontiff says in a loud voice, 

For ever and ever. Answer. Amen. 
Pontiff. V The Lord be with you. 
1^ And with thy spirit. 
Y Lift up your hearts. 

ty We lift them up unto the Lord. 
V Let us give thanks to our Lord, 
ty It is meet and right. 

1 See, however, p. 


Pontiff. It is very meet and right, reasonable and 
healthful, that we should at all times and in all places give 
thanks unto thee, O holy Lord, almighty Father, eternal 
God ; glorious in truth is it to praise thee at all times, 
but specially on this day, when Christ our passover was 
sacrificed for us, by whom the sons of light arise to eternal 
life, the courts of the heavenly kingdom are opened to 
the faithful, and by the law of blessed fellowship human 
things are changed to divine : for the death of us all is 
destroyed by the cross of Christ, and in his resurrection 
the life of every man has risen again ; whom we own in 
his putting on of our mortality to be the God of majesty, 
and acknowledge to be God and Man in the glory of his 
godhead ; who by his death hath destroyed our death, 
and by his resurrection hath restored to us life. And 
therefore, with angels and archangels, thrones and domina- 
tions, and with the whole company of the heavenly army, 
we sing the hymn of thy glory, evermore saying : 

The Choir. Holy, holy, holy, Lord of Hosts ; heaVen 
and earth are full of thy glory. 

Pontiff. Therefore we humbly pray and beseech thee, O 
most merciful Father, through Jesus Christ, thy Son, our 
Lord, to accept and bless these gifts, these offerings, these 
holy and spotless sacrifices, which, in the first place, we 
offer to thee for thy holy Catholic Church, that thou 
wouldest be pleased to keep it in peace, to guard, unite, 
and govern it throughout the whole world ; together with 
thy servant our pope N. 

Remember, O Lord, thy servants and handmaidens, 1 
and all here present, whose faith is evident and whose 
devotion known to thee ; who are offering to thee this 
sacrifice of praise, for themselves and all their friends, for 
the redemption of their souls, for the hope of their 
salvation and their safety, who direct their prayers to thee, 
everlasting God, living and true. 

Joining in communion with, and moreover celebrating 

1 It would appear that the names were not mentioned on Sundays. 


the most holy day of the resurrection of our Lord God 
Jesus Christ, according to the flesh ; and venerating the 
memory, first of the glorious ever-virgin Mary, mother 
of the same our God and Lord Jesus Christ ; and also of 
thy blessed apostles and martyrs, Peter, Paul, Andrew, 
James, John, Thomas, James, Philip, Bartholomew, 
Matthew, Simon and Jude, Linus Cletus, Clement, Xystus, 
Cornelius, Cyprian, Laurence, John and Paul, Cosmas and 
Damian, George, Gregory, and all thy saints ; by whose 
merits and prayers do thou grant that in all things we 
may be defended by the help of thy protection ; through 
the same Christ, our Lord. 

Graciously accept, O Lord, we beseech thee, this oblation 
of our service and of thy whole family, which we offer 
unto thee, for these also whom thou hast vouchsafed to 
regenerate with water and the Holy Ghost, and to grant 
remission of all their sins : order our days in thy peace, 
and deliver us from everlasting damnation, and number 
us in the flock of thy chosen ones ; through Christ our 

Vouchsafe, O God, we beseech thee, to make this 
offering in every way blessed, available, valid, reasonable 
and acceptable, that it may become to us the body and 
blood of thy dearly beloved Son, but our Lord God, Jesus 

Who, on the day before he suffered, took bread in his 
holy and venerable hands, and raising his eyes heavenwards 
to thee, O God, his almighty Father, gave thanks to thee, 
and blessed, and brake it, and gave it to his disciples, 
saying, Take and eat ye all of this, for this is my body. 
Likewise after supper he took this noble chalice into his 
holy and venerable hands, and gave thanks to thee, and 
blessed it and gave it to his disciples, saying, Take and 
drink ye all of this, for this is the chalice of my holy 
blood of the new and eternal testament, a mystery of 
faith, which shall be shed for you and for many, for the 
remission of sins. As oft as ye do these things, do them 
for my memorial. 


Wherefore, O Lord, we thy servants and thy holy 
people, are mindful both of the blessed passion of the 
same Christ, thy Son, our Lord God, and also of his 
resurrection from hell, and of his glorious ascension into 
heaven, and offer unto thy excellent majesty of thine own 
gifts and presents, a pure sacrifice, a holy sacrifice, a spot- 
less sacrifice, the holy bread of eternal life and the chalice 
of everlasting salvation. 

Vouchsafe to regard these with favourable and gracious 
countenance, and accept them as thou didst deign to accept 
the gifts of thy righteous child Abel, the sacrifice of our 
patriarch Abraham, and the holy sacrifice, the spotless 
offering which thy high priest Melchisedech offered unto 

We humbly beseech thee, almighty God, to command 
these things to be borne by the hands of thy holy angel 
to thy heavenly altar in the sight of thy divine Majesty, 
that so many of us as from this altar of participation shall 
receive the most holy body and blood of thy Son, may be 
fulfilled with all heavenly benediction and grace ; through 
Christ our Lord. 1 

To us sinners, also, thy servants, who trust in the 
multitude of thy mercies, vouchsafe to grant some part 
and fellowship with thy holy Apostles and Martyrs, with 
John, Stephen, Matthias, Barnabas, Ignatius, Alexander, 
Marcellinus, Peter, Perpetua, Agnes, Cecilia, Felicitas, 
Anastasia, Agatha, Lucy, and with all thy saints, into 
whose company we beseech thee to admit us, not weighing 
our merits, but pardoning our offences ; through Christ 
our Lord. 

Blessing of the fruits of the earth, etc. 

God of all flesh, who gavedst Bless, O Lord, these [beans, 
Noah and his sons commands new fruits, grapes] which thou, 
to distinguish between clean and O Lord, hast vouchsafed to ripen 

1 On -week-days -was here added: < Remember also, O Lord, the names of those 
who are gone before us with the sign of faith, and rest in the sleep of peace, 
N.N. To them, and all that repose in Christ, grant, we pray thee, a place of 
refteshment, light and peace; through the same Christ our Lord.' 


unclean beasts, and who didst by the dew of heaven, the 
bid mankind eat of clean beasts watering of rain, and the calm 
as well as of vegetable food ; and quiet season, and hast given 
who didst bid Moses and thy for our use, to be received with 
people to partake of a lamb on thanksgiving, in the name of 
the eve of the Passover in figure our Lord Jesus Christ ; 2 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, by 
whose blood thou didst redeem 
to thyself all the first-born 
creatures of this world, and on 
that night didst slay every first- 
born creature in Egypt, pre- 
serving thy people marked be- 
forehand with the blood of the 
lamb ; vouchsafe, O Lord 
Almighty, to bless and sanctify 
this flesh that all thy faithful 
people who partake thereof may 
be fulfilled with all heavenly 
benediction and grace : through 
Christ our Lord, 1 

by whom, O Lord, thou dost ever create all these good things, 
dost hallow, quicken and bless them, and bestow them upon us. 
By him and with him, and in him, be to thee, God the Father 
Almighty, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, all honour and glory, 
for ever and ever. Answer. Amen. 

Pontiff. Let us pray. Being urged by healthful precept, 
and prepared by divine instruction, we are bold to say, 
Our Father, which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name, 
thy kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is in 
heaven ; give us this day our daily bread and forgive us 
our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us, 
and lead us not into temptation. 

Answer. But deliver us from the evil. Amen. 

1 This is certainly not a Roman but a Gallican prayer : but it is here inserted 
merely to show the position that the prayer for the first-fruits occupied. 
Duchesne says that always, even on ordinary occasions, there was once a prayer 
here for the fruits of the earth (Origincs du Culfk Chretien^ Paris, 1898 ; p. 165). At 
the previous mass on the night before milk and honey were blessed here, and 
given to the neophytes. 

3 This is the Roman prayer used on Ascension day, and the feast of St. Sixtus, 
at this place. 


Pontiff. Deliver us, O Lord, from every evil, past, 
present, and to come ; and at the intercession for us of 
the blessed and glorious and ever-virgin, Mary the 
Theotokos, and of thy blessed apostles Peter and Paul 
and Andrew, and all saints, graciously give thy peace in 
our days, that we, being aided by the help of thy mercy, 
may ever be freed from sin and safe from all unquiet ; 
through our Lord Jesus Christ, thy Son, who with thee 
liveth and reigneth, God, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, 
for ever and ever. 

Answer. Amen. 

Pontiff. The peace of the Lord be with you alway. 

Answer. And with thy spirit. 

1F Then the choir sing during the Fraction. 

O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, 
have mercy upon us. 

And the collets respond : O Lamb of God, that takest 
away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. 

Pontiff. May the commixture and consecration of the 
Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be to us who 
receive it for life everlasting. 

Answer. Amen. 

Pontiff. Peace be with you. 

Answer. And with thy spirit. 

IF Then the archdeacon announces the next station^ saying 1 in a loud 
voice : 

To-morrow the Station will be at the Basilica of St. 
Peter the chief of the Apostles. 

And the choir answer : Thanks be to God. 

IT In administering the Sacrament of the Body is said 2 to each 
communicant : 

The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ avail to thee for the 
remission of all sins, and for everlasting life. 

1 This formula is not given in Ordo /, but appears in Ordo XI: n. 34 {Museum 
Italicum, ii, 134). Cnf. the directions in the Ordo of St. Amand, on p. 163. 

2 This formula is given by Paul the deacon (c. 780) in his Life of St. Gregory, 
Z3 (S. Gregorii Ofera Omnia, Benedictine Edition, Paris, 1705 ; t, iv, p. 10). 



U During the Communion of the people^ the choir sing the Com- 
munion Anthem and Psalm. 

'The Choir : Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us, 
Alleluia : let us therefore keep the feast with the unleavened 
bread of sincerity and truth, Alleluia. 

The Subdeacons repeat : Christ our Passover, etc. 

The Choir : Ps. 139 ; beginning where they left off to 
sing the Gloria of the introit. 

'The Subdeacons : Christ our Passover, etc. 

The Choir : The next verse of the Psalm. 

The Subdeacons : Christ our Passover, etc. 

And so on to the end or the signal to sing the Gloria. 

The Choir : Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and 
to the Holy Ghost. 

The Subdeacons: As it was in the beginning, is now, 
and ever shall be, world without end, Amen. 

The Choir : Purge out the old leaven that ye may be a 
new lump, as ye are unleavened. 

The Subdeacons : Christ our Passover, etc. 
Pontiff. The Lord be with you. 
Answer. And with thy spirit. 

Pontiff. Let us pray. And then he says the Post- 
Communion Collect. 

O Lord, pour forth upon us the spirit of thy love ; 
that of thy lovingkindness thou mayest make us to be of 
one mind whom thou hast refreshed and fed with these 
Easter Mysteries ; through Christ our Lord, etc. 

IF A deacon then says : 
Go, it is over. 
Answer. Thanks be to God. 

Eppenbiy 5555 

Gbe Xiturgp of tbe (Civil) Diocese of Hfrica, 

at tbe time of St Hugustine of 

Ibippo, c 400 H*2>. 

Proclamation of silence, 1 by the deacon : Silentium 
facite ! 

The Scripture Lessons 

1. The Prophetic Lesson. 2 

2. The Apostolic Lesson. 3 

The following notes are from the writings of St. Austin (Opera, 
Antwerpiae, 1700-02; u volumes in 8), unless otherwise specified. 

1 St. Austin, De civitate Dei, Lib. XXII : cap. viii, prope finem : Plena erat 
ecclesia, personabat vocibus gaudiorum . . . Salutavi populum . . . Facto 
tandem silentio, scripturarum divinarum sunt lecta sollemnia.' But perhaps as 
this was an extraordinary occasion, there may not usually have been a proclama- 
tion for silence : still there was one originally in the Roman rite, and so probably 
in the African. 

2 Sermo xlv : ' Primam lectionem Isaiae prophetae . . . Deinde adscendit 
apostolica lectio.' Compare Sermo xl : 5 : ' Quomodo legis Prophetam, Evan- 
gelium, Apostolum.' The public reading of the ludaeorum codices is mentioned 
in Sermones cc : iii, and ccii : v. The Lesson is taken from Exodus in Sermo 
vii, Ezekiel in S. xlvi, Ecclesiasticus in SS. xxxix and ccclix, Isaiah in S. xlv, 
Proverbs in S. Ixxxii : viii, Susanna in S. cccxliii, Michah in S. xlix. But 
in other cases there was no Prophetic Lesson, and the service began with the 
Apostolic Lesson : SS. clxxvi, clxxx, etc. 

8 Sermo clxv : 'Apostolum audivimus, Psalmum audivimus, Evangelium 
audivimus.' S. xxxii : 4: <Ad hoc pertinet quod etiam apostolica lectio ante 
Psalmum canticum praesignavit.' S. cxii : 'In lectione Apostolica ... In 
Psalmo diximus ... In Evangelic . . .' See also SS. xxxii, cxlvii, cliii, 
clxxvi, clxxviii, clxxx, clxxxii. Though usually from the Epistles (those of 
St. Paul, St. Peter, St. James, and St. John are mentioned), the Apostolic Lesson 
was sometimes (as on Ascension day and Pentecost) from the book of the Acts : 
SS. cxlviii, cl, cclxv, cclxix. 


3. The Psalm. 1 

4. The Gospel. 2 
The Sermon. 3 

The dismissal of the Catechumens 4 and the Prayers of 
the People. 5 

i. PRIEST. Orate pro incredulis ut eos Deus convertat ad 
fidem. . . 

DEACON. 6 \Flectamus genua ?] 
[DEACON. Levate ?] 

1 St. Austin frequently refers to the psalm sung between the apostle and 
gospel. It appears to have been sung responsorially : S. cliii : Audivimus, 
concorditerque respondimus, et Deo nostro, consona voce, cantavimus Beatus vir.' 
See for references to the Psalm SS. xiv, xvii-xix, clxv, clxxvi, cxcviii, cclxvi, 
cclxix, etc. 

2 References to the reading of the gospel occur in a large proportion of St. 
Austin's sermons : e.g. S. Ixxxiii : ' Hesterna die sanctum Evangelium admonuit 
nos [Matth. xviii, 15] ... Hodierna etiam die ad ipsam rem pertinet capitulum 
quod sequitur, quod modo cum legeretur audivimus.' On Good Friday sollemniter 
legitur Passio (S. ccxviii). ' Passio autem quia uno die legitur, non solet legi nisi 
secundum Matthaeum. Volueram aliquando ut per singulos annos secundum 
omnes Evangelistas etiam Passio legeretur : factum est ; non audierunt homines 
quod consueverant, et perturbati sunt ' (S. ccxxxii). The narrative of the 
resurrection was read from all the evangelists. On Easter day from St. Matthew, 
Easter Monday from St. Mark, Tuesday from St. Luke, and Wednesday from 
St. John (SS. ccxxxii and ccxxxi, ccxxxix, ccxl). S. clxxiii : Quando cele- 
bramus dies fratrum defunctorum, in mente habere debemus et quid sperandum 
et quid timendum sit ... Illud quod audivimus nunc ex Evangelio tenere 

3 The majority of St. Austin's sermons were preached just after the gospel : 
e.g. S. xliii : 9 : ' Modo cum Evangelium legeretur audistis,' etc.; S. Iv : ' Sancti 
Evangelii capitulum quod modo cum legeretur audivimus.' The following 
sermons, amongst others, all refer to the words of the gospel just recited : 
SS. Ixi-ix, Ixxiv-vii, ci-vi, cxii-xv, etc., etc. 

4 S. xlix : v.: Ecce post sermonem missa fit catechumenis : manebunt fideles, 
venietur ad locum orationis.' 

6 Epist. ccxvii : cap. i : n. z, ad Vltalem : ' Exsere contra orationes ecclesiae 
disputationes tuas, et quando audis sacerdotem Dei ad altare exhortantem popu- 
lum Dei orare pro incredulis ut,' etc., etc. 

6 Epist. Iv : lib. ii : c. xviii : xxxiv, ad inquisitiones lanuarii : ' Quando autem 
non est tempus cum in ecclesia fratres congregantur, sancta cantandi, nisi cum 
legitur aut disputatur, aut antistes clara voce deprecatur, aut communis oratio 
roce diaconi indicitur ? ' 


PRIEST. Deus . . . compel le incredulas gentes ad 
fidem suam venire 1 . . . 

PEOPLE. Amen. 

2. PRIEST. Orate pro catechumenis ut eis desiderium 
regenerations inspire? Deus* . . . 

DEACON. \Flectamus genua ?] 
[DEACON. Levate ?] 
PEOPLE. Amen. 

3. PRIEST. Orate pro fidelibus, ut in eo, quod esse coe- 
perunt^ eius munere perseverent* . . . 

DEACON. \Flectamus genua ?] 
[DEACON. Legate ?] 

PRIEST. . . . augeatur in eis fides . . . Da illis, 
Domine, in te perseverare usque in finem 4 . . . 

PEOPLE. Amen. 

The Offertory, 5 accompanied by the singing of a 
Psalm. 6 

1 Epist. ccxvii ad Vitalem : 26 : ' Numquid ubi audieris sacerdotem Dei ad eius 
altare populum hortantem ad Deum orandum, vel ipsum clara voce orantem, ut 
incredulas gentes ad fidem suam venire compellat, non respondebis Amen ? ' 

Epist. ccxvii : n. 2 : Orare . . . pro catechumenis ut,' etc. 


Liber de haeresibus, 87. De dono per sever antiae, cap. xxiii : 63: ' Aut quis 
sacerdotem super fideles Dominum invocantem, si quando dixit Da il/is, Domine, 
in e perscverare usque injinem . . . non . . . respondit Amen ? ' 

Locuples et dives es, et Dominicum celebrare te credis, quae corbanam 
omnino non respicis, quae in Dominicum sine sacrificio venis, quae pattern de 
sacrificio quod pauper obtulit, sumis ' (St. Cyprian, De opere et e/eemosyne). So 
St. Austin, Enarratio in Ps. cxxix : 7 : < [Christus] accepit abs te quod offerret 
pro te : quo modo accipit sacerdos a te, quod pro te offerat quando vis placare 
Deum pro peccatis tuis.' 

6 Retractationum, Lib. II : cap. xi : ' Morem qui tune esse apud Carthaginem 
coeperat, ut hymni ad altare dicerentur de psalmum libro, sive ante oblationem, 
sive cum distribueretur populo quod fuisset oblatum.' 


Oratio super oblata. 1 

Sursum cor 2 [ or corda~\. 
V Habemus ad Dominum. 

Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. 
V Dignum et iustum est. 
The Eucharistic Prayer : Preface : Fere dignum 3 . . . 

PEOPLE. Sanctus, sanctus^ sanctus f . . . 
The Eucharistic Prayer 5 continued. 

Offerimus pro una ecclesia quae sit in toto terrarum 
diffusa.^ . . . 

1 S. xlix : 8 : ' Manebunt fideles, venietur ad locum orationis.' Epist. cxlix : 
16: 'Precationes . . . quas facimus in celebratione sacramentorum antequam 
illud, quod est in Domini mensa, incipiat benedici.' S. ccxxvii: 'Tenetis 
sacramentum ordine suo. Primo post orationem admonemini sursum habere cor.' 
St. Cyprian seems to refer to this under the name of the " preface " : ' Ideo et 
sacerdos ante orationem, praefatione praemissa, parat fratrum mentes dicendo 
Sursum Corda,' etc. (De oratione dominica, in Opera, Oxonii, 1682 ; p. 152); unless he 
means thereby the X Dominus vobiscum and ty Et cum spiritu tuo as used in the Roman 

2 Sermo ccxxvii : ' Ideo cum dicitur Sursum cor, respondetis Habemus ad Dominum 
. . . Ideo sequitur episcopus vel presbyter qui offert, et dicit, cum responderit 
populus Habemus ad Dominum sursum cor, Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro, et vos 
adtestamini, Dignum et iustum est dicentes.' S. cccxi : 15 : ' Audis quotidie homo 
fidelis Sursum Cor.' S. cccxlv. 4: 'Nam dicitur Sursum Cor et continue respondes 
Habemus ad Dominum.' De dono perseverantiae, cap. xiiii, gives both XX and ty]^7. 
Compare S. xxv: 2. S. Ixviii : 5: Norunt fideles ubi et quando dicatur 
Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro.' St. Cyprian, De oratione dominica (Opera, 152): 
' Ideo et sacerdos ante orationem, praefatione praemissa, parat fratrum mentes 
dicendo Sursum Corda, ut dum respondet plebs Habemus ad Dominum, admoneatur 
nihil aliud se quam Dominum cogitare debere.' Note that St. Cyprian uses the 
plural, core/a ; but St. Austin invariably the singular, cor. 

3 This is implied by the Sursum Corda, etc. 

4 Tertullian, De oratione, cap. iii : 'Cur ilia angelorum circumstantia non 
cessant dicere Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus. Proinde igitur et nos angelorum, si 
meminerimus, candidati iam hinc caelestem illam in Deum vocem, et officium 
futurae claritatis ediscimus.' St. Austin does not seem to mention it. 

6 Epist. cxlix : 8 : ' Orationes cum benedicitur et sanctificatur [quod est in 
Domini mensa], et ad distribuendum comminuitur.' De Trinitate, Lib. Ill: cap. 
iv : x : ' Corpus Christi et Sanguinem dicimus, quod ex fructibus terrae 
acceptum et prece mystica consecratum.' 

6 ' Quis dubitet vos illud legitimum in sacramentorum mysterio praeterire non 
posse? Offere vos Deo, dicitis, pro ecclesia quae una est: hoc ipsum mendacii 
pars est, unam te vocare de qua feceris duas. Et offerre vos, dicitis, pro una ecclesia 


pro salute imperatoris x . . . 

pro statu saeculi . . . pro rerum quiete . . . pro mora 

Commemoration of the Living. 3 
Commemoration of the Martyrs. 4 
Commemoration of the Departed. 5 

quae sit in toto terrarum orbe diffusa ' (Optatus [0 365], contra Parmen. Lib. II). 
As to the position (whether before or after the words of Institution) and the 
order of the various intercessions, etc., that follow, nothing appears to be known 
definitely beyond what is mentioned in these notes. The phrase in toto terrarum 
orbe reminds us of the Roman Te igitur, and is of very frequent occurrence in the 
works of St. Austin. E. g. in De civitate Dei, Lib. xvi : cap. xxii : ' Ibi quippe 
primum apparuit sacrificium, quod nunc a Christianis offertur Deo toto orbe 
terrarum.' And in Epist. xlix : 2, : < Quoniam ecclesia Dei, quae catholica 
dicitur, sicut de ilia prophetarum est, per orbem terrarum difTusam videmus.' 
The phrase occurs also in Epp. lii : i ; Ixxxvii : i ; and cxlii. 

1 < Sacrificamus pro salute imperatoris, sed Deo nostro et ipsius ' (Tertullian, 
ad Scapulam, cap. ii. Cnf. Apol, cap. xxxix). 

2 ' Oramus etiam pro imperatoribus, pro ministeriis eorum ac potestatibus, 
pro statu seculi, pro rerum quiete, pro mora finis ' (Tertullian, Apologeticus, cap. 
xxxix). Compare St. Austin, Epist. cxlix : 17. 

3 St Cyprian, Epist. xvi. (Opera, pt. ii, 37): 'Ad communicationem admit- 
tuntur, et offertur nomen eorum.' See, too, Epist. Ixii, p. 147. 

4 De sancta virginitate, cap. xlv : 46 : ' Fidelibus notum est quo loco et quo 
defunctae sanctimoniales ad altaris sacramenta recitentur.' De civitate Dei, Lib. 
xxii : cap. x : ' Uni deo et martyrum et nostro, sacrificium immolamus, ad quod 
sacrificium, sicut homines Dei qui mundum in eius confessione vicerunt, suo loco 
et ordine nominantur, non tamen a sacerdote, qui sacrificat, invocantur.' 

6 S. clix : ' Ideoque habet ecclesiastica disciplina quod fideles noverunt, cum 
martyres eo loco recitantur ad altare Dei, ubi non pro ipsis oretur : pro ceteris 
autem commemoratis defunctis oratur.' St. Cyprian, Epistle i (Opera, Oxonii, 
1682 ; p. 3): 'Ac si quis hoc fecisset, non offertur pro eo, nee sacrificium pro 
dormitione eius celebraretur. Neque enim apud altare Dei meretur nominari in 
sacerdotum prece.' St. Austin, S. clxxii: z: ' Orationibus vero sanctae ecclesiae, 
et sacrificio salutari, et eleemosynis, quae pro eorum spiritibus erogantur, non 
est dubitandum mortuos adiuvari.' Compare Liber de cura gerenda fro mortuis, 
cap. i : 3 : ' Non parva est universae ecclesiae, quae in hac consuetudine claret 
auctoritas, ubi in precibus sacerdotis quae Domino Deo ad eius altare funduntur, 
locum suum habet etiam commendatio mortuorum.' Cap. iv : ' Quas [suppli- 
cationes] faciendas pro omnibus in Christiana et catholica societate defunctis 
etiam tacitis nominibus eorum sub generali commemoratione suscepit ecclesia.' 
Liter de anima et eiui origine, II: cap. xv : 21 : 'Etiam eorum nominibus tacitis 
quoniam nesciuntur in ecclesia Christi.' 


Commemoration of the Passion and Death of our 
Lord. 1 

Petitions . . . [ut per ipsam caritatem qua pro nobis 
Christus crucifigi dignatus est y nos quoque, gratia 
sancti Spiritus accepta, mundum crucifixum habere 
et mundo crucifigi possimus : imitantesque Domini 
nostri mortem, sicut Christus quod mortuus est 
peccato mortuus est seme!, quod autem vivif, vivit 
Deo ; etiam nos in novitate vitae ambulemus et 
munere caritatis accepto moriamur peccato et viva- 
mus Deo. 2 . . . 

ut in Patre et Filio unum simus. 3 . . . ] 

Epiclesis. 4 

Conclusion of the Eucharistic Prayer : ... in 
saecula saeculorum. PEOPLE. Amen? 

Benedictio episcopi super populum, 6 et absolutio, 7 
per manus impositionem. 

Eenedicat vobis Dominus . 

1 St. Cyprian, Epist. Ixiii (Opera, 156): ' Passionis eius mentionem in sacri- 
ficiis omnibus facimus . . . Quotienscumque ergo calicem in commemorationem 
Domini et passionis offerimus.' Fulgentius (c. 530), contra Fabian. . < Cum 
tempore sacrificii commemorationem mortis eius faciamus ' (Quoted Palmer, 
Origines Liturgicae, Oxford, 1836; i. 138 note). 

2 Fulgentius, quoted Palmer, of. cit. 141. 

3 Fulgentius, quoted Palmer, 141. 

4 Optatus, contra Parmeniano Lib. VI : Altaria Dei ... in quibus vota populi 
et membra Christi portata sunt : quo Deus omnipotens invocatus sit, quo 
postulatus descendit Spiritus Sanctus ' (quoted Palmer, op. cit. 138). Compare 
Firmilian's Epistle to St. Cyprian, cap. x : ' Ut et invocatione non contemptibili 
sanctificare se panem et eucharistiam facere simularet ' (Cypriani, Of era, pt. ii. 
p. 223, as Ep. Ixxv). 

8 Tertullian, de Spectacu/is, cap. xxv : ' Quale est ... ex ore quo Amen in 
sanctum protuleris, gladiatori testimonium reddere, els alStvas cwr' alwvos alii 
omnino dicere nisi Deo et Christo?' 

6 Epist. cxlix : 16 : ' Interpellations autem . . . fiunt cum populus 
benedicitur. Tune enim antistites velut advocati, susceptos suos per manus 
impositionem misericordissime offerunt potestati.' 

7 Optatus: < Etenini inter vicina monumenta, dum manus imponitis et delicta 
donatis, mox ad altare conversi Dominicam orationem praetermittere non 
potestis ' (quoted Palmer, op. cit. 139.). 


Concedatque vobis ut vos abundare faciat in caritate 
invicem et in omnes . . . 

Det vobis secundum divitias gloriae suae virtu te corrobo 
rari per Spiritum eius . . . 

Impleat vos omni gaudio et 'pace in credendo . . . 
Abundetis in spe et potentia Spiritus sancti 1 . . . 

PRIEST AND PEOPLE. Pater noster 2 qui es in caelis 
. . . et dimitte nobis debita nostra : at which words all 
beat their breasts : 3 sicut et nos . . . a malo. 

PRIEST. Pax vobiscum.^ 

1 The African Benediction seems akin to the Gallican form. The first clause 
seems implied by the name : but there were apparently different benedictions for 
different days. Epist. 179: iv : Verum etiam benedictionibus nostris resistitur 
quando super populum dicimus, optantes eis et poscentes a Domino ut eos 
abundare faciat in caritate invicem et in omnes, et det eis secundum divitias 
gloriae suae virtute corroborari per Spiritum eius : et impleat eos omni gaudio et 
pace in credendo, et abundent in spe et potentia Spiritus sancti.' Perhaps the 
people responded Amen at the end of each petition, as in the Gallican rite. 

2 Sermo ccxxvii : * Ecce ubi est peracta sanctificatio [sacrificii] dicimus Oratio- 
nem Dominicam, quae accepistis ac reddistis.' Epist. cxlix : 16 : ' Quam totam 
petitionem fere omnis ecclesia dominica oratione concludit.' See the quotation 
from Optatus in note 7, page 186. That all the faithful said the Lord's Prayer 
seems clear from St. Austin, De dono persevcrantiae, cap. xxiii : 63 : ' Cum aliud in 
ipsa oratione dominica non orent fideles, dicentes maxime illud Ne nos in/eras in 
temptationem: ' although from S. Iviii : 12 : In ecclesia enim ad altare Dei cottidie 
dicitur Dominica oratio, et audiunt illam fideles,' it might be concluded that the 
faithful only heard (as in the Roman rite), and did not repeat the Lord's Prayer. 

3 Sermo cccli : 6 : .' Quod si falsum est, unde cottidie tundimus pectora ? quod 
nos quoque antistites ad altare assistentes cum omnibus facimus. Unde etiam 
orantes dicimus quod in toto ista vita oportet ut dicamus, Dimitte nobis debita 
nostra . . . Nam si non habemus peccata, et, tundentes pectora, dicimus Dimitte 
nobis debita nostra, ' etc. 

4 Sermo ccxxvii : ' Post ipsam [orationem dominicam] dicitur Pax vobiscum : 
et osculantur se Christiani in osculo sancto.' Compare Enarratio in Ps. cxxi : 
13: 'Non propter me illam [pacem] praedico, sicut haeretici, qui quaerentes 
gloriam suam dicunt, Pax vobiscum, et pacem non habent quam populis praedicant.' 
Enarratio in Ps. cxxiv : 13: ' Qui oderunt lerusalem, qui oderunt pacem . . , 
qui falsam pacem pronuntiant in populo et non illam habent. Quibus respondetur, 
cum dixerint Pax vobiscum, Et cum sfiritu tuo.' Optatus also mentions the saluta- 
tion Pax vobiscum (quoted Palmer, op. cit. 140). 


PEOPLE. Et cum spiritu tuo. 1 
The Kiss of Peace. 
The Fraction. 2 

The Communion, 3 accompanied by the singing of a 
Psalm. 4 

The Post-communion thanksgiving. 5 

1 Sermo ccxxvii : Post ipsam [orationem dominicamj dicitur Pax vobiscum, 
et oscularet se Christian! in osculo sancto.' Tertullian, De Oratione, c. xiv : 
' Habita oratione cum fratribus, subtrahunt osculum pacis quod est signaculum 

2 Epist. cxlix : 16: ' Orationes cum [quod est in Domini mensa] ... ad 
distribuendum comminuitur.' Sermo ccxxxiv : 2 : < Norunt fideles quod dicam : 
norunt Christum in fractione panis.' 

8 Retractationum Lib. II : cap. xi : ' Cum distribueretur populo quod fuisset 
oblatum.' Epist. cxlix: 16: 'Participate sancto sacramento.' 

4 Ibid., ' Morem qui tune esse apud Carthaginem coeperat ut hymni ad altare 
dicerentur de psalmorum libro . . . cum distribueretur populo quod fuisset 

6 Epist. cxlix: 16 : ' Quibus peractis, et participate sancto sacramento, 
gratiarum actio cuncta concludit.' 




Absolution by imposition of hands, 

Accidents to the Blessed Sacrament, 


Acies, 126, 136. 

Acolythi qui rugam observant, 39, 146. 
Acolythus, acolitus, 38, Il6, Il8, I2O, 

122, 124, 128, 132, 134, 138, 140, 

142, 146. See Collet. 
Acolythus Stationarius , 1 1 8. 
Acontius, sexton of St. Peter's, 54. 
Acts of the Apostles, 77, 181. 
Acts of the Martyrs, 44. 
Acus, 124, 126. 
Adrian, scriniarius, ^6. 
Advocates, 53, 122, 123. 
AeJituus, 54. 

Africa, Church of, 74, no, 113, 181. 
Agapitus, a deaf mute, in. 
Agatho, Pope, 5, 48. 
Agnellus, biographer of the bishops ot 

Ravenna, xv, xviii, 26, 31, 43. 
Agnes, Church of St., 21. 
Agnus Dei, 4, 5, 6, 47, 62, 109, 140, 

159, 1 77- 
Alb, 29, 30. 
Albano, Bishop of, 33. 
Alexander III, Pope, 10. 
Alexandria, Church of, 19. 
Alleluia, The, 29, 41, 59, 68, 74, 78, 

79 13, is 1 * X 5 6 > 17, I 7 I - 
Almoner, the Pope's, 49, 122, 123. 
Alms and Collections of money, nzsq. 
Altar, i8jy. , 124^5-., 154^7. 

cloth, 19, 156. 

golden, 19. 

High, at St. Peter's in the 

Vatican, 19. 

of St. Peter, in the Lateran 

Basilica, 5, 6, 19, 33. 

silvern, 19. 

wooden, 18, 19. 

Ama, 25, 1 2O. 

Amalar, author of a treatise De offidit 
ecclesiasticis, the third volume of which 
is De officio missae, 7, 8, 1 8, 26, 29, 73. 

Amand, St., en Puelle, Or Jo Romanus 
of, 4, 19, 20, 29, 30, 37, 38, 45, 54, 
107, 109, 114, 153 sj., 164. 

Ambo, xv, xvi, xviii, xix, 21, 22 sq., 
2946, 59. 75. 77, 78, 13. i3' "3** 
i33, 55, 156- 

Ambrose, St., 103. 

Amice, Amictus, 29, 30, 124, 125, 153. 

Ammianus Marcellinus, historian, 13. 

Ampliatus, presbyter and vicedominus, 


Amula, a flask, 25, 60, 134. 
Anagolaium, 124. See Amice. 
Anaphora, 89. 

of SS. Adai and Mari, 102. 

of the Ethiopic Church Ordin- 
ances, 90. 

Anastasius, chancellor, 46. 
Anastasius, district-notary, 46. 
Anastasius, Pope, 36. 
Andrew, Church of St., 21, 22. 
Angelical Hymn, 71, 90, 138, 139. 
Anterus, St., Pope, 44. 
Anthem at the Communion, 64, 144 

160, 178. 
Entry, 64, 127, 128, 129, 

154, 169. 
Offertory, 88, 136, 137, 156, 

172, 183. 

Anthemius, subdeacon, 52. 
Antioch, 20. 

Antiphonal Psalms, 64, 88. 
Apocalypse, The, 12, 22. 
Apollinare Nuovo, St. Ravenna, xix. 
Apollinaris, St., in Classe, Ravenna, 

xviii, 20. 

Apostolic Canons, 85. 
Apostolic Constitutions, Liturgy of 

the, 77, 91, 105. 
Apostolic Lesson, Apostle, or Epistle, 

73. 74> 7 6 77, i 20 > *55 '7> l8 *- 




Apse, xvi, xviii, 58. 
Aquamanus, I2O. See Washhand-bason. 
Arche, 134. 
Archichorister, 41. 

Archidiaconus, Archdeacon, 32, 60-63, 
82, 116, ity, 121, 124, 128, 132- 

i35> *37 *43> i46-i49> 156-161. 
Archiparaphonista^ 41, 126. 
Archipresbyter, known later as the Dean, 

58, 128, 129, 154, 163. 
Aregius, Bishop of Gap } 28. 
Aries, 70. 

Armenians, Liturgy of the, 93. 
Arrian, disciple of Epictetus, 67. 
Ascension Day, 158, 176, 181. 
Assistant presbyter, 18. 
Athanasius, St., 18, 19. 
Athanasius, Archbishop of Naples, 


Aumbry, 129. 

Aurelius, reader, 75. 

Ausonius, poet, 10. 

Austin, St., Bishop of Hippo, 19, 44, 

65, 66, 74, 75, 78, 84, 86, 88, 104, 

105, no, in, 181 sq. 

Bagaja, 19. 

Baiuti, 120, 122, 146. 

Baptism, 82, 84, 120, 121. 

Basilica, ^ sq., 15-17, 32. 

Bearers, Baiuli, 121, 123, 147. 

Beating of the breast, 187. 

Beleth, 109. 

Belisarius, 17. 

Bells, 54. 

Bench, 125. 

Benedict and Scholastica, Relics of 

SS., 93, 94. 
Benedict (Celestine II), Ordo Romanus 

of, 109. 
Benediction of the Fruits of the Earth, 

97> 9 8 "7Si X 7 6 - 

- of the Clergy, etc., 146. 

- of the Faithful during Mass, 186. 
Benedictus, scriniarius, 46. 

Benedict gut venit, 90 sq. 

- as a greeting to the Bishop, 91, 
92, 94. 

- as a greeting to the Emperor, 93. 

- as a greeting to our Lord in the 
Eucharist, 94. 

Bennet II, Pope, 21, 35. 

- XIV, xvi. 

Berno, Abbot of Reichenau, 72, 80. 
Bethlehem, 14, 106. 
Bishop, Edmund, 66-70, 100, 101. 
Bishops, as Arbitrators, 1 2. 

Bishops, Hebdomadary, 33, 58, 59, 61, 
122, 123, 128, 129, 131, 134-137, 140- 
142, 145-149, 155, 158-160, 162-4. 

The Chief, /. e. the Bishop 

of Ostia, 33, 62, 138, 139, 142, 143, 

Blessed are those that are undejiled, 159. 

Blessing. See Benediction. 

Boniface I, Pope, 17. 

Boniface V, Pope, 38. 

Boniface, St., Apostle of Germany, 47. 

Boniface, a correspondent of St. Austin, 

Bowl, for the Communion (Scyphus}, 

62, 120, 121, 134, 135, 142, 143, 

157-160, 162. 
Burbidge, Edward, 96-98. 
Byzantine Emperor, 31. 
Rite, 105. 

CAESARIUS, ST., of Aries, 28, 31. 

Cakes, 162. 

Caligula, Emperor, 48. 

Calix, chalice, 24, 120 sq. See Chalice. 

maior, I2O, 134. 

ministerialist 25. 

Calixtus II, Pope, 72. 

Candidus, presbyter, 52. 

Candles, 9-11, 14, 15 sq., 39, 45, 58, 

59, 127. 
Candlesticks, 12, 15 sq., 121, 128, 129, 

132, 133, 146, 147, 154-156, 162. 
Canon of the Mass, 5, 96 sq., 138, 139, 

148, 149, 158, 173-5. 
Canon 82 of the Synod of London in 

1603, 20. 

Canopy over the altar, xv, xvi, xviii, 

20, 21. 

Cantatorium, grail, the book containing 
the anthems sung at Mass, 120, 130. 

Cantor, 130. 

Cappadocian customs, 105. 

Cafsa, 132. 

Cardinal deacons, 34. 

Cardinal presbyters, 149. 

Case of the Gospels'-book, 133. 

Cassander, 3. 

Cassian, St., Church of, 15. 

Castorius, notary, 45. 

Casula, 28. 

Catacombs, 14. 

Catinum, 162. 

Celerinus, reader, 75. 

Celestine, Pope, 26, 64, 71. 

Cemetery oratories, 55, 108. 

Censer, xv, xviii, 4, 17, 18, 38, 58, 
59, 123, 126-133, '54J 161. 

Cereostata. See Candlesticks. 



Cereostatarii, 146. 

Chalice, 20, 24 sq., 49, 60-63, 92, 104, 
121 sq. , 156 sq. 

of Gourdon, xvi. 

The stational, 156. 

Chamberlain, Lay, 123. 
Chamberlains, 120-123, 162. 
Chancellor, 35, 44, 46, 61, 119, 125, 

13*~ 1 37> i4~ I 45> 1 S7 l6o > l6z - 
Chancery of the Roman See, 44. 
Charles the Great, 8, 33, 80, 93. 
Chief Bishop, 33, 62, 138, 139, 142, 

i43> I 54- 

Counsellor, 46, 124, 126, 132- 

137, 140-143, 160. 

Ewer, 1 60. 

Notary, 35. See Chancellor. 

Sexton, 121, 162. 

Choir, 63, 88, 71, 127, 137, 154-162. 

(the place), 129, 137. 

Communion of the, 161. 

Chorister, 131. 

Chrisma, 84, 1 1 8, 1 20. 

Christmas, The midnight mass of, 71. 

Christopher, notarius and scriniarius, 46. 

Chrysogonus, St., Church of, 21. 

Chrysostom, Liturgy of St., 92, 94. 

Ciborium. See Canopy. 

Cicero, 9, 47. 

Cingulum, 124. 

Clavus, xv, xvi, xvii, 28. 

Cleaning the church, 53. 

Clement, Church of St., xviii, xix, 23. 

Clement, St., Pope, 44. 

Clementine Liturgy, 95. 

Clergy, the number of the, at Rome in 

251 A.D., 39. 

Clerical Chamberlain, 125. 
Clovis, King, 25. 
Code of Justinian, 12, 50. 

of Theodosius, 12, 27, 32. 

Codex Evangeliorum, 132. 

Colatorium, 25, I2O. 

Collect, 59, 66, 67, 72 sq., 131, 147, 

155, 162, 170. 

Collections of money, 99, 112, 113. 
College of Counsellors, 49 sq. 

Notaries, 43 sq. 

Singers, 40 sq. 

Collet, 38-40, 58, 59, 107, 119-125, 

128, 129, 132-135, 140-147, 154-165. 
Colobium, 28. 
Colum, 134. 
Commemoration of the Departed, 100, 

'75> 185. 

Living, 99, 173, 185. 

Martyrs, 175, 185. 

Passion, 186. 

Commixture, 140, 143, 159, 177. 
Communicantes et diem, 97, 173. 
Communion, 143, 159, 163, 188. 
Anthem and Psalm, 63, 145, 160, 

178, 188. 

Bowls, 121. See Scyphus. 

of the People, 63, in sq. 

Concelebration, 113, 149, 158. 
Conclusion of the Eucharistic Prayer, 

1 86. 

Condi to rium , 128. 
Confession, xvi, 17, 22, 135. 
Confirmare, to administer the chalice, 

Confirmation, 85. 
Conon, Pope, 4. 
Consecration, Form of, 102. 
Constantine the Great, 10, 12, 13, 15, 

3 1 - 
Donation of, 13, 31. 

II, 19, 31. 

Ill, 20. 

VI, and Irene, 10. 

VII, Porphyrogenitus, 10. 

sexton, 53. 

Constantinople, Church of, 68, 78, 104, 


Consular diptychs, 31. 
Coptic Jacobites, Liturgy of, 93, 94. 
Cornelius, Pope, 39, 113. 

Sepulchre of, xvii, xviii. 

Corn-offering, 85. 

Corona, loaf used at the Eucharist, 87, 

Corporate, corporas, 19, 60, 114, 132, 

133, 148, 149, 156, 158. 
Cosin, John, Bishop of Durham, 108. 
Cosmas and Damian, SS., 174. 

Church of, 21. 

Council of Carthage, 91. 

of Rome, 4, 36, 41. 

of Vai^on, 67-69. 

Seventh General, 10. 

Counsellor, 49 sq., 118 sq. See Chief 


Country Churches, 107. 
Counts, 1 60. 
Cream, 119, 121. 
Creed of Nicaea and Constantinople 

80 sq. 

Cremona, 18. 
Cross, Sign of the, 8, 61, 136-139, 

144, 147-149, 157, 161. 
Crossbearers, 146. 
Cubicularii, 41 sq. 
Cubicularius laicus, 42, I2O. 

tonsoratus, 124. 

Cubiculum, 42. 



Custos chori, 41* 

ecclesiae, 54. 

Cyprian, St., Bishop of Carthage, xvii, 
75, 84, 86, 99, 106, 183-186. 

deacon, 52. 

Cyril, St., of Jerusalem, 92. 

DAILY PATEN, 120, 121. 
Dalmatic, 28, 30, 37, 153, 154. 

greater, 124, 125. 

linen, 124, 125. 

Damasus, St., Pope, 13, 68, 74,78, 96, 

Days on which each district serves, 

116, 117. 
Deacon, 34 sq., 58, 63, 76, 82, 86, 118, 

119, 124 sq., 153 sq., 182, 183. 

attendant, 134, 135. 

consecrates the Chalice, 103. 

District, 34, 36, 44, 116, 117, 

128, 129. 
forbidden to chaunt anything save 

the Gospel, 36, 41. 

Planet of the, 29, 37. 

Roman, 30, 34, 36. 

Second, 61, 62, 128, 129, 136- 

139, 140, 143. 

Decentius, Bishop of Eugubium, 85, 
99, 107. 

Defensor, 49 sq. See Counsellor. 

civitatis, 49 sq. 

regionarius, $2. See District-Coun- 

Denis, Abbot of St., 46. 

Departed, Memento of, 100 sq., 175, 

Diaconia, 34, 35, 122. See Hostelry. 

Diaconiae Disfensator, 35. 

Pater, 34, 35. 

Diaconus (plural forms, Diacones and 

Diaconi}. See Deacon. 
minor, 140. 

qui sequitur, 134. 

regionarius. See District-Deacon. 

Dies y rat rum defunctorum, 182. 
Diptychs, 101. 

at Naples, 102. 

Disapproval of preaching, 80. 
Dismissals, 63, 81 sq., 144, 147, 161, 

of Catechumens, 171. 

. of non-communicants, 82, 171. 

Disfensator diaconiae, 35. 
District clergy, 119. 

counsellors. See Counsellor. 

notaries. See Notary. 

officials, 132, 133, 157. 

District subdeacons. See Subdeacons. 
Districts of Rome, Ecclesiastical, 116, 


Doctrine of the Apostles, 84. 
Doge of Venice, 10. 
Domestic Notaries, 43. 
Dominicum, 183. 

Dominus vobiscum, 73, 132, 136, 144. 
Donatists, 19. 
Doorwarden, 125. 
Duchesne, L., 3, 24-26, 30-34, 65, 

69, 70, 87, 97, 98, 176. 

EASTER DAY, 72, 79, 148, 149, 158, 169. 

Easter Even, 14, 158. 

Eastertide, 68, 78, 79. 

Egyptian Rite, 91, 105. 

Eisodikon, 92. 

Elevation, 61. 

Embolism, the prayer after Pater noster 

at the end of the canon, 61, 139, 177. 
Epiclesis, 98, 99, 102, 175, 186. 
Epictetus, 67. 

Episcopi hebdomadarii, 3 3 . See Bishop. 
Episcopium Lateranense, 4. 
Epistle, The Liturgical, 73 sq., 131, 

155, 170, 181. 

to the Hebrews, 112. 

Epistles, Book of the, 120, 121. 
Epistoler, 59, 131, 155. 
Ethiopic Church Ordinances, 90. 
Eucharistic Prayer, 89, 184. 

Sacrifice, 83. 

Eulogius, Patriarch of Alexandria, 63. 
Eusebius, historian, 113. 
Eutropius, chief chamberlain, 19. 
Evangelia malora, I2O, 124. 
Evangelium, the Book of the Gospels, 

120, 121, 124, 125, 128, 131-133, 

53 '55 X 5 6 - 
Evaristus, Pope, 54. 
Evodius, correspondent of St. Austin, 

Ewer, 137, 157, 158, 160, 161. See 

Fans: generally a jug, but in the 

Ordo of St. Amand a vessel closely 

akin to a chalice. 
Exsuperius, district-notary, 46. 


Fabiola, 79. 

Fabius, bishop of Antioch, 39. 

Faldstool, 129. 

Father of the Hostelry, 123. 

Felix, Church of St., 16, 17. 

IV, pope, 31. 

Fermentum, 54, 55, 106 sq., 146, 147, 



Filioque clause, 81. 

Filum, a file or row of persons, 132, 


Firmilian, St., 89, 186. 
Flagons, 121. 
Flask, 135, 156, 157, 159. See Ama, 

Fleury, Abbe, author of Les Moeurs des 

Chrestiens, 65. 
Florus Magister, 99. 
fans, 136. See Eiver. 
Form of admitting to office of Dcfensor 

S.R.E., 52. 

Fourth of the Choir, 127. 
Fraction, 4, 61, 62, 140, 141, 159, 163, 


Frescoes, 14, 15. 
Fulgentius, 186. 

GALLICAN customs, 27, 101, 104, 106, 


Gallicanisms, 96. 
Gates, 24, 39, 146, 147. See Ruga, 


Gelasian Sacramentary, 5, 69, 70, 100. 
Gelasius, St., Pope, 102. 
Gemella, 26. 

Gemelliones,Z^ ) I2O, 121. 
Gemmae, I2O. 
George, Church of St., Thessalonica, 


Gerbert, 100. 

Gervaseand Protase, Church of SS., 15. 

Girdle, 30, 125. 

Glass patens, 114. 

Gloria in excelsis Deo, 5, 6, 33, 59, 71, 

72, 130, 131, 148, 149, 155, 162, 170. 
Good Friday, 182. 
Gordianus, senator, and father of St. 

Gregory I, xvii, 28. 
Gospel, The Liturgical, 73 sq., 132, 

*33> 156, 162, 171, 182. 

standing at, 36. 

book, xv, xvii, 10, n, 58, 59, 

120, 121, 124, 125, 128, 131-133, 

!53> ISS *5 6 - 

lights, 14, 18, 132, 133, 156. 

Gospeller, 59, 124, 125, 130-133, 153, 

154-156, 161. 

Gout, St. Gregory suffers from, 63. 
Grail, the book containing the anthems 

sung at mass, called at Rome Canta- 

torium, and in Gaul, Graduate, 59, 

120, 121, 130, 131, 156. 

the responsorial psalm sung be- 
tween the Epistle and Gospel at 
mass, 40, 64, 73, 78, 130, 131, 156, 
170, 182. 

Grape-offering, 85. 

Gratian, Emperor, 10. 

Greater Chalice, 134, 135, 141, 142, 

1 60. See Calix and Chalice. 
Greek customs, 68, 69, 105. 
Gregorian Sacramentary, 100. 
Gregory I, St., called the Great, Pope, 

xvii, 4, 5, ii, 28, 30-32, 36, 40, 41, 

45, 46, 48, 50, 52, 53, 63, 68-71, 78- 
80, 82, 86, 87, 96, 104-106, no, in, 
H3> 17*- 

JI, 19. 3 2 > 35. 47- 

111,4, ", *5, 35 38- 

- IV, 24, 25. 

district notary, 49. 

of Nazianzum, 13. 

of Tours, 93. 

HADRIAN I, POPE, 10, 19, 21, 25, 35, 

46, 47. 93- 

Hanc igitur oblationem, 97, IOO, 174. 
Hebdomadary bishops, 33. See Bishops. 

presbyters, 34, 136, 137. 

Heliodora, orante, xvi. 

Henry II, Emperor, crowned February 

14, 1014 A.D., 80. 
Heraclius, Emperor, xviii. 
Hilarus, Pope, 15, 17, 26, 33. 
Hilary, tribune, 88. 
Hippo, Church of, 104. 
Hippolytus, Church of St., 15. 
Hittorp, 53. 

Holy, holy, holy, 139. See Sanctus. 
Holy Element, 129, 159, 160. See 


Orders, 36 ?y. 

Honey and Milk, 97. 
Honorius I, Pope, 21. 


Horace, 9. 

Hormisda, Pope, 25. 

Hostelries, 34 sq., 122, 123. See 

Father of the, 34, 35, 122, 123. 

IcoNSTASlS, 24. See Screen. 

Ignatius, St., 84, 86, 10.8. 

Image of St. Peter, 17. 

Incense, 9-12, 17 sq., 126-129, 131, 


Infantes chori, 40. See Choir. 
Innocent I, Pope, 15, 55, 85, 99, 107, 


Ill, 109, in. 

Introit, 58, 64, 154, 169. 

Invitationer, 47 sq., 118, 119, 140 141, 

144, 145. See Nomendatur. 
Invitations to breakfast, 62, 161. 

i 9 4 


Invocation of the Holy Ghost, 102. 

See Eplclesis. 
Ite, missa est, 144* 
ludaeorum codices, 1 8 1. 
ludices, 9. 

JEROME, 14, 36, 44, 68, 79, 85, 87, 98, 106. 
Jerusalem, Church of, 71, 78, 106, 112. 

Vigil service at, n, 14. 

Procession at, 91, 92. 

John, bishop of Avranches, 109. 

Syracuse, 30, 68. 

Chrysostom, St., 20. 

deacon, 6th century, 39, 79. 

9th century, 32, 40, in. 

I3th century, 53, 109. 

V, Pope, 35. 

treasurer, 47. 

Judges, 160, 161. 

Julian and la, marriage of, n. 

Julius, Pope, 44. 

Justin I, Emperor, xv. 

Justin Martyr, 65, 67, 77, 79, 89, no, 


Justinian, Emperor, xv, 51. 
Juvenal, 16. 

KARL, THE GREAT. See Charles. 

Karlomann, 93. 

Kiss of peace at the introit, 7, 58, 128, 

129, 154, 162. 
before communion, 61, no, 

138, 139, 161, 163, 188. 
Kissing the altar, 59, 128, 129. 
gospel-book, 59, 60, 128, 131-133, 

i55> IS 6 - 

paten, 138, 139. 

pope's feet, 130, 131. 

Kyrie eleison, 5, 37, 59, 64^., 130, 131, 

155, 162, 170. 

LAMPS, 15, 1 6, 53, 54. 

Lateran, 4-6, 15, 17, 19, 20, 22, 26, 

33> 35> 3 8 > 4> 4*> 43> i9> "8-121, 

i3* *33- 

Synod of, in 643, 46. 

Laurence, St., 16, 103. 

Church of, 21. 

Lavatory, 60, 134, 135, 144, 145, 156, 


second, 161. 

Le gg> J- Wickham, 77. 
Leo I, St., Pope, 78, 80, 81. 

Ill, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 26, 33, 41, 

45, 49, 80. 

IV, 18,33. 

VII, 73. 

VI, Emperor, xvii. 

Leo, deacon, 43. 

Leonine Sacramentary, 87, 89. 

Leontius, district notary, 46. 

Liber Mandatorum, 9, IO. 

Pontificalis, 4sg., quoted passim. 

Footnote references to the Lives of 

the Popes in it are not given except 

in a few special cases. 
Liberanos, quaesumus, the Embolism, 177. 
Lights, 15 sg. See Candles, Candlesticks , 

(jospel-lights , Lamps, 

at the lessons of Mattins, 15, 16. 

in honour of Martyis, 14. 

Linea or lineum, 30, 124, 125. 

Linen cloth, sindon, 118-121, 134, 135, 

.138, I39> 156-158. 
Linen sack or bag, 60, 62. See Sack. 
Linteum villosum, 30, 42. 
Litany, 37, 66, 67, 71. 
Liturgical costume, 26 sg. 
Liturgy of Africa, c. 400, 181 sq. 
Loaf, the Eucharistic, 60, 85-87, 103, 

104, 114, 134-141, 148, i49> iS 6 - 

i59> l6 3- 

Loaves or cakes (fastilli), 162. 
Lord) have mercy upon us, 130? 13 1 ' ^55' 

170. See Kyrie eleison. 
Lorum, 31. 

Ludwig, Emperor, 93. 
Luxurious bishops, 13. 

MABILLON, 8, 54, 90, 99, in. 

Macarius, 19. 

Magnates, 143, 145, 160. See Sena- 


Majordomo, 42, 43, 122, 123. 
Maniple, 30. 
Mansionarii, sextons, 53^.5 120-123. 

iuniores, 146. 

Mappula (maniple), xvii, 30, 31, 118, 

119, 126, 127. 

(saddle-cloth), 30. 

Marcellinus and Peter, Church of SS., 


Cemetery of, xvi, xvii. 

Marcellus, Pope, 54. 

Marcus, St., Pope, 33. 

Marriage before a Defensor ecclesiae, 5 1 . 

Martial, poet, 43. 

Martin I, Pope, 46. 

II, 46. 

Mary ad Marty res, Church of St., 21. 

in Cosmedin, Church of St., 23. 

in Via Lata, Church of St., 24. 

Major, Church of St., xv, 21, 26, 

33, 71, 120, 121, 169. 
Mass, beginning with the Epistles of 

St. Paul, 64. 



Mass, lasting three hours, 63. 

- of Christmas at midnight, 71, 72. 

- of the Catechumens, 77, 81, 171, 

-- faithful, 77, 182. 

- with no deacon, 162. 

- without the Pope, 146, 147, 162. 
Maur, bishop of Ravenna, 31. 
Maximianus, bishop of Ravenna, xv. 
Maximus, prefect, 44. 
Melchiades, Pope, 107. 

Memento, Domine, , . . quorum tibi jidet, 

99, 100, 173. 
Memento etiam Doming . . . qui nos preces- 

serunt, IOO sq., 175. 
Memento for the departed omitted on 

Sundays, 100, 101, 175. 
Men's side of the Church, 76, 157. 
Men singers, 126, 127. 
Merolanas, ad, Place called, I2O, 121. 
Michael Palaeologus, Emperor, xvii. 
Micrologus, 72, 73, 76, 95. 
Military banner-bearers, 147. 
Milites draconarii, 146. 
Minor Orders, 39. 

Missal of Mathias Flaccus Illyricus,i 10. 
Mommsen, Theodore, 9. 
Monachi, 146. See Monks. 
Monks, 34, 35, 42, 146, 147. 
Mosaics, xv, xvi, xviii, 4, n, 12, 14. 
Mozarabic rite, 96, 97. 

NAMES of the Living omitted on Sun- 
days, 99, loo. 

- of those offering, 99. 

Napkin, or handkerchief, 30, 119, 127. 

See Mappula. 
Nereus and Achilleus, Basilica of SS., 


Nestorian Liturgy, 83, 85, 102. 
New beans, Blessing of, 97. 

- -grapes, - 97. 

Nobis quoque peccatoribus , 9^5 *3^' I 39' 

J 75- 

Nomenclator (nomencalator , nomenculator), 5 

47 sq., 118, 119, 140, 141, 144, 145. 

See Senatorium. 

Notables, 135. 
Notae, 43, 44. 
Notaries, 32, 33, 43 sq., 61, 118-121, 

124, 125, 132, 133, 136, 137, 140, 

141, 157, 160, 161. 

- District, 45 sq. See Notaries. 

- of the Roman See, 45. 
Notary of the Papal Vicar, 141. 
Notarii regionarii. See District-notaries. 
Notariorum Primictrius. See Chancellor. 

- Secundiceritts. See Secretary. 

- Schola. See College of Notaries. 

Notarius Vicedomini, 140. 

Notitia dignitatum imperil Romani, 9, 48. 

Novellae of Justinian, 50, 51. 

OBLATJE, the loaves offered at the 

Eucharist, 134, 136, 138, 140, 148. 
Oblationarius. See Subdeacon-oblationer. 
Oblationes, 134, 140. 
Oceanus, correspondent of St. Jerome, 


Oeconomus, 42. 
Offerings, 135, 157. 

of the clergy, 137, 157. 

Offertory, 60, 82 sq., 134, 139, 156, 157, 

anthem and psalm, 60, 88, 136, 

137, 156, 158, 172, 183. 

veil, 60, 61, 136-139, 165. 

Oil for the sick, 97. 

Lamb of God, 141, 143. See Agnus 


Omophorium, 32. 
Optatus, xviii, 185-187. 
Orarium, 30, 32. 
Oratio, the Collect, 67, 72, 130, 170. 

See Collect. 
post communionem, 112, 144, 145, 

161, 178. 

super oblata, 87, 137, 172, 184. 

Oratorium, a faldstool, 128. 

Oratories, 55. 

Oratory of St. Peter in the Lateran, 


the Holy Cross, 17. 

Ordo Romanus /, 3 sq. , passim. 

Date of, 7. 

Text of, 116 sq. (even num- 
Translation of, 117 sq. (odd 

and the St. Amand Ordo, 

Differences between, 164, 165. 

II, 7,8, 18, 76,78, 90. 

Ill, 3, 30, 130. 

VII, 81. 

VIII, 71. 

IX, 37, 41. 

X, in. 

, XI, 177. 

of Einsiedeln, 45, 109. 

of St. Amand, 3, 20, 29, 30, 

37> 3 8 > 54, i9> ii4- 

Translation of, 153^7. 

Oriental customs, no. 
Orphanotrophium, 40. 
Ostia, Bishop of, 31, 33. 
Ostiarius, 124. 



PAENULA, xv, xvi, 27. 
Palatine deacons, 35. 

judges, 53. 

subdeacons, 38. 

Palfrey, The pope's, 122-125. 

Pall, The pope's, 124, 125. 

Silken, worn by the patener, 


Palla corpora/is, 146. See Corporate. 
Pallium, 45, 124, 156. See Pall. 

altaris, 19, 20, 156. See Altar-cloth. 

the Episcopal, xv, xvii, 28, 30, 31, 

45. See Pall. 

linostimum (maniple), 30. 

Palm Sunday, 91. 

Pancras, Church of St., 21, 32. 

Pantaleon, notary, 45. 

Papal Vestry, 121. 

Vicar, 42, 43, 120, 121, 140, 141, 

162. See Vicedaminus. 
Paraphonistae, 40, 41, 126. See Singers. 
Paratorium, 142. 
Pars feminarum, 1 34- 
mulierum, I34> *44- 
Pascha, 79. 

Paschal, Pope, 17, 46. 
Paschalis, chancellor, 49. 

notary, 46. 

Paschasius, notary, 46. 

Passion, Account of, read on Good 

Friday, 182. 
Commemoration of, in the mass, 


Pasting little loaves, 162. 
Paten, 6, 20, 24, 49, 61, 62, 138-141, 

143, 158-160. 
Patena cottidiana, I2O. 

maior, I2O. 

Patener, 138, 139, 144, 145, 165. 
Patener's veil, 6. See Offertory veil. 
Pater diaconiae, 34, 35, 122. 
Paternoster, 68, 69, 103 sq., 176, 187. 
Patriarchium Later anense, 4> 1 1 8, I2O. 
Patrimony of St. Peter, 113. 

of the Roman Church, 50. 

Paul, St., 86, ii2. 

Church of, 21, 120, 121. 

I, Pope, 42. 

the Deacon, biographer of St. 

Gregory, no, 177. 

vicedominus, 43. 

Paulinus, St., of Nola, n, 16, 24, 54. 
Pax, the, or Kiss of Peace, 61, no, 128, 

138, 177, 187. See Kits of Peace. 
Pax <vobis, 73. 

Peace of the Church, 10, 13, 14, 18, 19. 
People's part in public worship, 5. 
prayers, 66. 

Per ipsum, 97, 176. 

Per quern haec omnia, 97, 138, 139, 176. 

Peter, St., 54, 82. 

Church of, in the Vatican, 23, 

37 4> 54- 

defensor, 5 1 . 

subdeacon, 52. 

Petitions in the African Liturgy, 186. 

Pictures, 14, 15. 

Pins, 125, 127. 

Pippin, 47, 93. 

Planet, 28, 37, 58, 124-129, 132-135, 

138, 139, 144, 145, 153, 154, 156, 

Planet a revoluta, 126. 

Pogium, 132. 

Pontiff's lights, 154, 164. 

Pope's offering, 25. 

Porto, Bishop of, 33. 

Post-communion collect, 63, 112, 145, 

161, 178, 188. 
Post fridie, 97. 
Praetorian notaries, 43. 
Prayers for the Church, 66. 
of the Faithful, 60, 66. See the 


of the People, 65 sq., 182, 183. 

over the Offerings, 172. See 

Oratio super Oblata. 
Precentor, 29, 41, 64, 127, 129, 145, 

154- See Primicerius Scholae Cantorum. 
Preface, 89 sq., 173, 184. 
Prefects, 9, 16. 
Preneste, Bishop of, 33. 
Preparation of the Offering, 136, 137, 

Presbyter, 58, 59, 62, 122, 123, 130, 

131, 134-149* '57-164. 

cardinal, 148. 

subordinate to the presbyter of 

the Title, 54, 122, 123. 
Presbyters and Gloria in excelsis Deo, 72, 

148, 149, 162, 170. 
Presbytery, 122-129, 134, 135, 138, 

139, I44-I47* 153-162. 
Prex, the Canon, 99. See Canon. 
Priest, term inclusive of bishops and 

presbyters, 154, 160, 161. 

Priesthood, The Royal, 3, 82. 

Primicirius defensorum, 124, 132, 134, 
136, 140, 142, 144. See Chief Coun- 

notariorum (under the Empire), 44. 

(of the Roman Church), 44, 

46, 118, 124, 132, 134, 136, 140, 142. 
See Chancellor. 

scholae cantor um, 41. See Precentor* 

Primus scholae, 41, 144. See Precentor. 



Prior scholae, 41, iz6, 128, 130. See 


Prisca constitutio (vel statutio), J, 1 1 8. 
Probst, Dr. F., 6, 7. 
Procession of the Gospel-book, 125, 


Proclamation of Silence, 76, 181. 
Prokeimenon of the Epiphany, 92. 
Prophetic lesson, 23, 73, 74, 181. 
Provincial bishops, 13. 
Prudentiana, Church of St. , 19. 
Prudentius, poet, 15, 16, 43, 54. 
Psalm, The responsorial, 73-75, 77, 

78, 130, 131, 156, 170 sq., 182. 
Psalms of David, 64, 88. 
Pseudo-Ambrose, 87, 98, no. 

Celestine, 65. 

Jerome, 74. 

Pugillarcs, 14, 25, I2O, 142. See Reeds. 
Pure offering, 87, 175. 

Quart us scholae, 41, 126, 128. 
Quattuor coronatorum Martyrum, Church 
of, 1 8. 


Ravenna, xv, xviii, xix, 87. 

Archbishop of, xviii, xix, 45. 

Mosaics at, xv, xviii, 4, n, 20, 

28, 30. 
Reader, 75. 

Recital of the names of the Living, 99. 
Rector chori, 41. 

Reeds, in, 121, 143. See Pugillares. 
Reforms of Pope Stephen III, 6, 7. 
Regia secretarii, 126. 
Regiones ecclesiasticae urbis Romae, 1 1 6, 117, 

J 3 2 > X 33- 
Relative position of the Chalice and 

Host, 26, 60. 
Reparatus, Archbishop of Ravenna, 

xviii, xix, 31. 
Respond, 23, 40, 59, 130, 132, 156, 170, 

171, 182. 

Responsorial Psalm. See Respond. 
Responsorial singing, 78, 182. 
Richard Cceur de Lion, 10. 
Romano-Gallic rite, 5. 
Rossi, G. B. de, xvii, xviii. 
Rufina, Bishop of St., 33. 
Ruga, regia, a gate, 24, 146. 
Ruler of the Choir, 41, 127, 129 See 


Sabinus, defensor, 52. 

Saccellarius, 47, 118, I2O, 140, 144. See 


Sacculi, 1 1 8, 1 20. See Sacks. 
Sacks, 104, 119, 121, 141, 163. 
Sacrament of Unity, 108, 109. 
Sacrarium, 118, 1 20. See Sacristy. 
Sacred vessels, 24. See Fasa, Vessels. 
Sacring, 103, 158, 163. 
Sacristan, 47, 49, 119, 121. See festi- 

Sacristy, 23, 58, 119, 123, 1*7, 143, 

i47> '53> 154, 162. 
Salvatoris ecclesia, I2O. 
Sancta, 58, 6l, 106 sq., 128, 129, 138, 

X 39j X 59> l6 5- 
The ceremony of the, 61, \o6sq., 

138, 139, 165. 

Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus, $, 6l, 90, 138, 

139, 158, 173, 184. 

Saturninus, Martin and Illidius, Relics 

ofSS., 93. 
Saviour, Church of St. (/. e. the Lateran 

Basilica), 121. 
Scamnum, 124. 
Scarves of office, 32. 
Schola cantorum (the buildings), 39-41. 
(the singers), 5, 37, 38, 128, 

136, 144. See Choir. 

defensorum. See Counsellors. 

notariorum. See Notaries. 

Screen, 24, 160, 162. 

Scriniarii, 46. 

Scripture lessons, 16, 22, 64, 65, 73^., 

I 3j I 3 I > 1 S5> I S^, 181, 182. 
Scrutinies, 82. 

Scyphus, 25, 120, 134, 142. See Com- 
munion - Boivl. 
Scyfhi cum ducibus, 25. 
Second chalice, 160. See Calix. 
Secret, 61, 87. See Oratio super oblata. 
Secretarium, 124, 126, 128, 146. See 

Secretary, 46, 47, 125, 133, 135, 137, 

141, 157, 160, 162. See Sccundicerius 

Secundicerius notariorum, 46, 47, 124, 132, 

134, 136, 140. 
Secundus scholae cantorum, 41, 126. See 


Sedan-chair, 23, 123, 125. 
Sella, 120, 124. 
Sellaris, 122, 124. 
Senatorium, 132, 142, 144. 
Seneca, philosopher, 43, 48. 
Senior bishop, 154. See Chief bishop. 
Seraphic hymn, 90. 

Sergius I, Pope, 4-6, 17, 20, 21, 109. 
II, 40, 93. 



Sergius, treasurer, 47. 

Sermon, 65, 79 sq., 182. 

Severinus, Pope, 4. 

Sexton , 1 8 , 5 3 sg. , 123. See Mamlonarii. 

- junior, 147. 
Shorthand, 43, 44. 

- clerks, 44. 
Sigillum, 120, 124. 
Signum lectionis, 132. 
Silken pall, 158. 

Silvester, St., Pope, 15, 17, 31. 
-- and St. Martin, Church of, 

1 Silvia,' (Etheria), pilgrim to Jerusalem, 

n, 14, 70, 91, 92. 
Sindon, 118, I2O, 134, 138. 
Singers, 29, 58. 
Sipontum in Apulia, 45. 
Siricius, Pope, 107. 
Sisinnius, St., 18. 
Sixtus I, St., Pope, 5, 90, 103. 
-- Feast of, 176. 

- II, XV. 

- Ill, 15, 17- 
Socrates, historian, 19. 

Solemn orisons on Wednesday and 

Friday before Easter, 65. 
Sozomen, historian, 12, 34, 79, 81. 
Speciosus, subdeacon, 45. 
Station, 32^., 37, 122, 123, 148, 149. 

- announcement of the next, 142, 
143, 163, 177. 

Stational chalice, 156. 

- collet, 119. 

- cross, 33. 

- mass, 48. 

- set of vessels, 25, 26, 33. 
Stephen, Church of St., 53. 
-- II, Pope, 42, 46. 

- "I. 5-7, 33, 43, 47, 93- 

- primicerius defensorum, ^6. 

- treasurer, 47. 
Steps, pair of wooden, 54. 
Stole, 31, 32. 

Strabo, Walafrid, 71, 88. 

Strainers, 25, 121, 157, 160. See 

Cola tor turn. 
Stratores laid, 1 1 8. 
Subdeacon, 37, 39, 76, 127. 

- attendant, 58, 60-62, 124-129, 
131-138, 140-143, 154, 157, 161. 

- district, 37, 44, 59-62, 116-119, 
122, 125-147, 154, 156, 157, 159. 

- epistoler, 120, 121, 130, 131, 155. 
- oblationer, 4, 38, 107, 134, 136, 

137, 146, 147, 154, 157. 

- precentor, 154 

Subdiaconus. See Subdeacon. 

quilecturus. See Subdeacon, Epistoler. 

qui seguitur. See Subdeacon-attendant. 

sequent. See Subdeacon-attendant. 

teferita, 38. 

Subdiaconi exspoliati, 30, 68. 

Subpulmentarius, 49. 

Succentor, 41, 127. See Secundus tcholae 

Sudary, 26, 61. See Mappula, Offertory - 

veil, Sindon. ," 

Suetonius, historian, 43, 48. 
Superhumeral, 31. 
Super oblata, the prayer, 61, 87, 172. 
Supplementariui, 49, 122. 
Supplices te rogamus, 101, 175. 
Supra quae, 98, 175. 
Sursum cor, or corda, 172, 184. 
Susanna, Church of St., 21, 22. 
Symmachus, St., Pope, 21, 28, 31. 

TAPERERS, 156. See Candlesticks, Cereo- 


Te igitur, 96, 97. 
Telesphorus, Pope, 71, 72. 
Tertius scholae cantorum , 4 1 ) 126. 
Tertullian, 77, 90, 112, 113, 184-186, 


Theodatus, chancellor, 35. 
Theodinus, district subdeacon, 35. 
Theodora, widow, 52. 
Theodore, Pope, 4. 

archbishop of Canterbury, 18, 86. 

sexton, 53. 

Theodoric, scriniarius, 46. 
Theodorus, district notary, 46. 
Theodosius, bishop, 10. 
Theophanius, treasurer, 47. 
Theophylactus, chancellor, 46. 
Throne, 133, 160, 161. 
Thurible, 147. See Censer, Incense. 
Thursdays in Lent, 32. 
Thymiamaterium, 122, 126, 128, 132. 

See Censer, Incense. 
Titular churches, 54, 107. 
Titus, Emperor, 43. 
Tommasi, Cardinal, 107. 
Towel, 145. 
Tract, 59, 74. 
Treasurer, 47, 119, 121, 141, 145. 

See Saccellarius. 

Tribune of a basilica, xv, xvi, xviii, 9. 
Tribune-notaries, 43, 44. 
Tribunes, 160. 

Trisagion (/. e. the Agios o theos), 92. 
Turibulum, 146. See Censer, Incense 
Tusculum, Bishop of, 33. 



Unvesting, 162. 

VALENTINE, Church of St., 21. 

Vandals, 17. 

Vasa, 120. 

Vatican, 17, 93. 

Veils of the ciborium, 20, 112. 

Vela ciborii, 20. 

Vert, Dom Claude de, 67. 

Vessels for the celebration of mass, 121. 

VtitararitUi 49. See Sacristan. 

f^esterarius, 1 20. See Sacristan. 

Vates altar is, 2O. 

Vcst'tartum, 120. 

festiarius, 49 j 1 1 8. See Sacristan. 

Vesting, 23, 124, 125, 153. 

Vicar, the papal, 42, 43, 47, 119, 141, 

notary of, 47, 48, 141. 

Vicedominw ) 42, 43, 1 1 8, 140. See 


Vice-succentor, 127. See Tertius Scholae. 
Vigil service, n, 66, 77. 
Vigilantius, Spanish writer, 14. 
Vigilius, Pope, 17, 43. 
Vitalian, Pope, 20. 
Vitalis, Church of St., at Ravenna, 28. 


Washhand-basons, 121, 123. 
Water-offering, 60, 136, 137, 157. 
White tunics, 153. See Alb. 
Women's side of the church, 135, 145, 

157, 160. 
Words of administration, no. 

XENODOCHIUM, 35. T See Hostelry. 
ZEPHYRINUS, POPE, 87, 107, 114. 



Ordo Romanus Primus.