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Full text of "Oregon, end of the trail"




CA L I F O R N 1 A 




RAY LEDOUX 



REGON TOURS 



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ylt WHITMAN^MISSION 




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LEGEND 



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(NEVA D A 



MAIN TOURS 
SECTIONS OF MAIN TOURS a b C 
DIVISION POINTS OF MAIN TOURS & 
INDEPENDENT SIDE TOURS * B C 
U S ROUTE NUMBERS @ 

STATE ROUTE NUMBERS [2Ol] 



From the collection of the 

z n m 

o PreTinger 

a 

v JJibrary 



San Francisco, California 
2006 



OREGON 
End of the Trail 



OREGON 

END OF THE TRAIL 



Compiled by Workers of the Writers' Program 
of the Work Projects Administration 
in the State of Oregon 



AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES 

ILLUSTRATED 




BY THE PACIFIC 

Sponsored by the Oregon State Board of Control 
BINFORDS & MORT : Publishers : PORTLAND 



COPYRIGHT, I94O, BY OREGON STATE BOARD OF CONTROL 



* * * 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY THE METROPOLITAN PRESS, 
PORTLAND, OREGON 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO REPRODUCE THIS BOOK OR PARTS 
THEREOF IN ANY FORM 



STATE OF OREGON 
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR 

THE OREGON GUIDE is the major accomplishment of the Oregon Writ* 
ers' Project of the WPA. More than the conventional guide book, 
this volume attempts to present the history and heritage of Oregon as 
well as its numerous points of interest and the contemporary scene. 
Though designed to portray Oregon to visitors, it is also intended, as 
it were, to present Oregon to Oregonians. 

As Governor of the Commonwealth I am happy that this valuable 
work is being made available to the citizens of Oregon and the nation. 

(Signed) CHARLES A. SPRAGUE, 
March I, 1940 



FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY 
JOHN M. CARMODY, Administrator 

WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION 

F. C. HARRINGTON, Commissioner 

FLORENCE KERR, Assistant Commissioner 

E. J. GRIFFITH, State Administrator 



PREFACE Vl'i 

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Preface 

THE OREGON GUIDE is the product of many hands and minds work- 
ing joyously, without hope of individual reward or recognition, to ac- 
complish something of which by and large they are proud, and diffi- 
dently offering it to the public of travelers and scholars and general 
readers. In contributing this volume to the American Guide Series, the 
members of the Oregon Writers' Project of the Work Projects Admin- 
istration, speak collectively and anonymously. Most of them would 
rather have had some small part in its creation, working as carpenters 
of language with words as tools, finding facts and fashioning them into 
sentences and paragraphs and chapters, than to have built a fast highway 
or an impressive public building. For, generally, the writer believes that 
long after the best road of his day has been supplanted by a straighter 
and wider one, and long after the highest building has crumbled with 
time or been blown to bits by air bombs, this book will remain. And 
the makers of this Guide have faith, too, that their book will survive ; 
in the future, when it no longer fills a current need as a handbook for 
tourists, it will serve as a reference source well-thumbed by school chil- 
dren and cherished by scholars, as a treasure trove of history, a picture 
of a period, and as a fadeless film of a civilization. 

It was easy to write about Oregon. The state has something that 
inspires not provincial patriotism but affection. California has climate.; 
Iowa has corn; Massachusetts has history; Utah has religion; and New 
York has buildings and money and hustle and congestion; but that 
"lovely dappled up-and-down land called Oregon" has an ever-green 
beauty as seductive as the lotus of ancient myth. 

It is not only the native son of pioneers who feels this affection for 
the land. The newcomer at first may smile at the attitude of Oregonians 
towards their scenery and their climate. But soon he will begin to refer 
to Mt. Hood as "our mountain" significantly, not as "The Moun- 
tain," as Seattlites speak of Mt. Rainier. Soon he will try to purchase 
a home-site from which he can view it. And before a year of life in 
Oregon has passed, the sheer splendor of peaks and pines, the joy of 



viii OREGON 

shouting trout-filled mountain streams, the satisfying quiet of Douglas 
firs, the beauty of roses that bloom at Christmas, the vista of rolling 
wooded hills and meadows always lush and green, the scenic climax 
of a fiery sun sinking into earth's most majestic ocean all will have 
become a part of his daily happiness, undefined and unrecognized in 
his consciousness, but something so vital that he can never again do 
without it. And he will even, as do the natives, find merit in the long 
winter of dismal skies and warm but chilling rains, calling himself a 
"webfoot" and stoutly proclaiming that he likes it when all the while 
he means that he considers it poor sportsmanship to complain, since he 
knows that this is the annual tax he pays for eternal verdure, for trees 
and grass and ferns and ivy and hydrangeas and holly, and for the 
privilege of appreciating by contrast the short bright rainless summer 
cooled by the softest yet most invigorating northerly winds. 

These tributes are generally inspired by only a part, not even a 
third part, of Oregon. Beyond the wall of the Cascades, which cuts 
the state into two sections sharply contrasting topographically, stretches 
a land whose character is that of the plateaus and deserts and mountains 
of the Rockies country. Yet even the climate of this eastern region has 
its enthusiasts, and has been thus described by Claire Warner Churchill : 
"It rains. It snows. It scorches. It droughts. It suspends itself in celestial 
moments of sheer clarity that hearten the soul. Whatever else it may 
do, it challenges rather than enervates. Rather than complacency it 
breeds philosophy." 

So Oregon offers, it is claimed, the greatest variety of climate and 
scenery and vegetation of all the states. 

It was this very diversity that occasioned a lively controversy in the 
selection of a subtitle for the Guide. In a public contest many Ore- 
gonians offered titles dripping with ardor. Such phrases as "The Land 
of Perpetual Spring" and "Land of the Midwinter Rose" were viewed 
by out-of-state critics with arched eye-brows as either un-factual or 
over-sentimental. Stolid history lovers suggesting "The Beaver State," 
were countered with the quip, "Why not call it the Rodent State so 
as not to discriminate against our rabbits and prairie dogs?" Others 
argued that the subtitle should derive from the state stone, which is 
agate, or the state bird, the meadow-lark, or even the state flower, the 
Oregon grape, which has an unromantic but highly practical history. 
Geographically-minded persons, aware that Portland is the farthest 
west of America's large cities, advised "Oregon Farthest West." An- 
other group wanted "Oregon Nearest Japan," and their argument was 



PREFACE 11 

political. Finally, an amateur artist drew a dust cover depicting the set- 
ting sun and proffered "The Sunset State." 

And what of Oregon's future? It is, after all, only a few short years 
between the time when William Cullen Bryant wrote in one of his 
greatest poems about the primitive country "Where rolls the Oregon 
and hears no sound," and the present, when Bonneville Dam has made 
a great gash in beautiful Columbia Gorge, and when the greatest struc- 
ture in history, Grand Coulee, looms portentously to the north. Oregon 
today is still the most unspoiled and most uncluttered spot in America 
partly because the gold rushes of California and Alaska left it undis- 
turbed. Soon, perhaps, it will be changed by the coming of Power, the 
inrolling of immigration from the dust bowl, the devastation of timber- 
cutting and forest fires, and the boosting activities of chambers of com- 
merce. It may be regrettable to see this peaceful beautiful land trans- 
formed into a network of highways, clogged with cars and defaced 
with hot dog stands, the groves littered with tin cans and papers, the 
hills pock-marked with stumps, and the cities cursed with the slums that 
seem to accompany industrial progress. 

The sons of Oregon today are tall and sturdy, and the complexion 
of the daughters is faintly like that of the native rose a hue gained 
from living and playing in a pleasant outdoors. Will the sons of the 
impending industrial age be shorter and shrewder, and the daughters 
dependent for their beauty upon commodities sold in drug-stores; and 
will Oregonians become less appreciative of nature and rooted living 
and more avid and neurotic in the pursuit of wealth? These are some 
of the questions and misgivings in the minds of native Oregonians, 
including some of those who wrought the Oregon Guide. 

Yet the writers of the Guide worked hard and gladly, though aware 
that their names would never be known. And only here can acknowledg- 
ment be made of their zeal and devotion. They were aided and en- 
couraged by many citizens of Oregon who served as consultants, and by 
many institutions which gladly and courteously opened to them their 
stores of history and tradition and current fact. Among those who 
helped are: Leith Abbott, Dr. Burt Brown Barker, J. R. Beck, C. I. 
Buck, Dr. V. L. O. Chittick. Dr. R. C. Clark. H. L. Corbett, Dr. L. S. 
Cressman, Dr. H. C. Dake, Wm. L. Finley, George H. Flagg, Dr. 
James A. Gilbert, Frederick Goodrich, Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Griffith, 
Mrs. Charles A. Hart, M. T. Hoy, Herbert Lampman, Mrs. Katherine 
Lawton, Lewis A. McArthur, Roi Morin, Glen W. Neel, J. A. 
Ormandy, Dr. E. L. Packard, Jamieson Parker, Phil. Parrish, Professor 



X OREGON 

Morton E. Peck, Miss Nellie B. Pipes, Alfred Powers, Charles P. 
Pray, Ralph J. Reed, Professor Wm. A. Schoenfeld, Leslie Scott, Earl 
Snell, Dr. Warren D. Smith, V. D. Stanberry, Oswald West, F. B. 
Wire; also the State Library, the Portland Public Library, the Oregon 
Historical Society, the Portland Art Museum, the State Planning 
Board, the State Highway Commission, and the U. S. Forest Service. 

T. J. EDMONDS, State Supervisor. 



CONTENTS XI 



Contents 



PAGE 

PREFACE -'V Vli 

GENERAL INFORMATION . XXl' 

CALENDAR OF EVENTS XXVl'i 



Part I. Past and Present 

OREGON YESTERDAY AND TODAY 3 

NATURAL SETTING 9 

INDIANS . ',. . *. . . 33 

HISTORY . **-.<- 40 

AGRICULTURE 52 

INDUSTRY, COMMERCE AND LABOR 60 

TRANSPORTATION . 69 

RACIAL ELEMENTS .75 

TALL TALES AND LEGENDS 81 

HUCKLEBERRY CAKES AND VENISON . ; . . * . . 86 

SPORTS AND RECREATION * ' * . . . ^ : . .. 9^ 

SOCIAL WELFARE . . - . . 95 

EDUCATION . . . . IO2 

RELIGION "."' . . . ..... . . r . . 107 

LITERATURE .'. v . * . .. . . . . . . no 

THEATER, Music AND ART. .. ... . . . . 118 

NEWSPAPERS AND RADIO . * .. . . , .,, v r^*> . . 135 

ARCHITECTURE . . . ' J 4 J 



iff OREGON 

Part II. Cities and Towns 



PAGE 



ASTORIA H9 

CORVALLIS J 58 

EUGENE 167 

HOOD RIVER 177 

KLAMATH FALLS 182 

MEDFORD 187 

OREGON CITY I9 1 

PENDLETON 200 

PORTLAND 206 

SALEM . . 228 

THE DALLES .... 238 



Part III. All Over Oregon 

TOUR I (Caldwell, Idaho) Ontario Baker La Grande Pendleton 

Umatilla The Dalle* Portland Astoria [US 30] . . 249 

Section a. Idaho Line to Umatilla 249 

Section b. Umatilla to Portland 263 

Section c. Portland to Astoria 276 

TOUR lA Baker Hereford Unity [State 7] 283 

TOUR iB Baker Richland Homestead [State 86] 286 

TOUR iC La Grande Enterprise Wallowa Lake [State 82] . . . 290 

TOUR iD Arlington Condon Fossil Junction with US 28 [State 19] 294 

TOUR lE Hood River Junction with State 50 [State 35] .... 297 

TOUR 2 (Vancouver, Wash.) Portland Salem Junction City 
Eugene Roseburg Grants Pass Medford ( Yreka, 

Calif.) [US 99E-99] 300 

Section a. (Vancouver, Wash.) to Junction City ... 301 

Section b. Junction City to California Line 315 

TOUR 2A Oregon City Silverton Lebanon Brownsville Eugene 

[State 215] 332 

TOUR 2B Junction with US 99 Gervais St. Louis St. Paul Cham- 

poeg [State 219] and County Roads ...... 336 



CONTENTS Xlli 
PAGE 

TOUR 2C Salem Rickreall Dallas Junction with Statt 18 [State 22] 341 

TOUR 2D Albany Corvallis Toledo Newport [State 26] . . 344 

TOUR 2E Philomath Junction Alsea Waldport [State 34] . . 347 

TOUR 2F Junction with US 99 Blachley Florence [State 36] . . 349 

TOUR 2G Drain Elkton Reedsport [State 38] 351 

TOUR 2H Coos Junction Myrtle Point Coquille [State 42] ... 354 

TOUR 2! Grants Pass California Line [US 199] 258 

TOUR 3 Astoria Tillamook Newport North Bend Marshfield 

Gold Beach (Crescent City, Calif.) [US 101] . . . 363 

Section a. Astoria to Newport 364 

Section b. Newport to California Line 376 

TOUR 4 (Maryhill, Wash.) Biggs Jnct. Redmond Bend Klamath 

Falls (Dorris, Calif.) [US 97] 387 

Section a. Washington Line to Bend ...... 388 

Section b. Bend to California Line ....... 394 

TOUR 4A function with US 97 Maupin Government Camp Portland 

[State 50] 40i 

TOUR 46 Bend Elk Lake Junction with US 97 [The Century Drive] 407 

TOUR 4C Junction with US 97 Oakridge Goshen [State 58] . . . 4 

TOUR 4D Klamath Junction Fort Klamath Crater Lake National Park 

Medford [State 62] 4'4 

TOUR 5 (Wallula, Wash.) Pendleton John Day Burns Lakeview 

New Pine Creek [US 395] 4'7 

Section a. Washington Line to Burns 4*7 

Section b. Western Junction with State 54 to California Line 423 

TOUR 5A Burns Crane Follyfarm Fields Denio [State 78 and un- 
numbered roads] 428 

TOUR 58 Burns French Glen Blitzen Fields [State 78 and 205] . 43' 

TOUR 5C Valley Falls Paisley Silver Lake Junction with US 97 

[State 31] *'*'- ' * 435 

TOUR 5D Lakeview Klamath Falls Ashland [State 66] .... 43? 

TOUR 6 Ontario Vale John Day Redmond Sisters Springfield- 
Junction with US 99 [US 28] . . >.- * 44* 

Section a. Ontario to Redmond 443 

Section b. Redmond to Junction with US 99 . . 453 



XIV OREGON 

PAGE 

TOUR 6A Cairo Jordan Valley Rome [State 201 j ..... . 458 

TOUR 7 Va l e Burns Bend Sisters Albany [State 54] . . . . 464 

Section a. Vale to Bend .......... 465 

Section b. Bend to Albany ......... 471 

TOUR 7A Little Nash Crater Junction Detroit Stayton Salem 

[State 222] ............ 475 

TOUR 8 Portland Hillsboro Forest Grove Tillamook [State 8-6] . 477 

TOUR 9 Junction with State 8 Wolf Creek Elsie Necanicum Junc- 

tion [unnumbered roads, State 2] ....... 484 

TOUR IO Portland Newberg McMinnville Corvallis Junction City 

[US 99 W: ............ 486 



TOUR IDA Junction US 99\V Grand Ronde Junction US 101 [State 18] 492 

MOUNT HOOD RECREATION AREA ....... 496 

CRATER LAKE NATIONAL PARK ...... . . 502 

NATIONAL FORESTS ........... 5 11 



Part IV. Appendices 

CHRONOLOGY 521 

A SELECT READING LIST 529 

INDEX 53$ 



ILLUSTRATIONS x\ 

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Illustrations 



Mural, U. S. Post Office, Ontario 

Treasury Dept. Art Projects 
Oregon Trail in 1843 

17. S. Bureau of Public Roads 
Astoria in 1811 

U. S. Army Signal Corps 
Discovery of the Columbia River 

Drawn by W. E. Rollins 
Joe Meek, Mountain Man 

Angelus Studio 
Indian, Pendleton Round-up 

Gretchen Glover 

Indian Chiefs, Pendleton Round- 
up 

Gretchen Glover 
Pioneer Homestead (from old 
print) 

Angelus Studio 

The Dalles Methodist Mission 
(old print) 

Angelus Studio 
Providence Baptist Church 
West Union Baptist Church 

Verne Bright 
St. Paul Catholic Church 
Tualatin Plains Presbyterian 
Church 

Verne Bright 
Old Fort Dalles, Historical 

Museum 

Seth Luelling House, Milwaukie 
Joel Palmer House, Dayton 
Ladd and Reed Farm, Reedville 

Verne Bright 
Umatilla, 1864 

W. S. Bowman 
Portland, 1854 

Angelus Studio 



Cattle Ranch 

Alfred Monner 
Ovvyhee Project Farm 

U. S. Department of Interior 
Main Intake Klamath County 
Project 

U. S. Department of Interior 
Irrigated Field, Owyhee Project 

U. S. Department of Interior 
Linn County Flouring Mill 
Pea Harvest 

Genevieve Mayberry 
Klamath Irrigation Project 

U. S. Department of Interior 
Settlers on Owyhee Project 

[7. S. Department of Interior 
Hop Pickers Willamette Valley 

U. S. Department of Interior 
Onion Harvest, Ontario 

U. S. Department of Interior 
Turkeys, Redmond 

Oregon Journal 
Washington County Farm 

Alfred Monner 
Central Oregon Sheep Ranch 

Farm Security Administration 
Central Oregon Sheep Herder 

Farm Security Administration 
Oregon State Capitol, Salem 

Frank I. Jones 
Dayton Farm Family Labor Camp 

Farm Security Administration 
Farm Boy 

Farm Security Administration 
Pioneer Logging 

Angelus Studio 
Cut-over Land, Siltcoos 

Farm Security Administration 



XVI OREGON 

Early-day Loggers, Tillamook 

Tillamook Pioneer Association 
Sea-going Log Raft 

Angelus Studio 
Forest Fire in Coast Range 

Tillamook County Chamber 

of Commerce 
Paper Mill, Oregon City 

U. S. Forest Service 
Bridal Veil Lumber Flume 

Angelus Studio 
Indians Fishing for Salmon, 1856 

Harpers Monthly Magazine 
Columbia River Salmon Fisheries 

Columbia Empire Industries 
Pilchard Fishing Fleet 

Oregon State Game Commis- 
sion 
Fish Nets Drying 

Angelus Studio 
Aerial View, Portland 

W. C. Brubaker 

Aerial View, Oregon State Col- 
lege 

W. C. Brubaker 
Old Administration Building, O. 

S. C. 

Deady Hall, U. of O. 
Main Entrance, Timberline Lodge 

Atkeson: Photo Art Studio 
Main Door, Timberline Lodge 

Atkeson: Photo Art Studio 
Main Lounge, Timberline Lodge 

Atkeson : Photo Art Studio 
Newel Post, Timberline Lodge 

Atkeson: Photo Art Studio 
Isaac Jacob House, Portland 

Oregon Art Project 
Entrance Public Library, Portland 

Oregonian 

Art Museum, Portland 
Portland Public Market 

Oregonian 
Auditorium, Portland 

Oregonian 

State Forestry Building, Salem 
Union Station, Portland 

Oregonian 



First Presbyterian Church, Port- 
land 

Oregonian 
Temple Beth Israel, Portland 

Oregonian 

Mount Hood and Interstate 
Bridge 

Angelus Studio 
Indian Teepees Molalla Buckaroo 

Farm Security Administration 
Warm Springs Indian Boy 

Farm Security Administration 
John Day Country 

Oregon State Highway Com- 
mission 

Basalt Bluffs Along John Day 
River 

Angelus Studio 
Highway Sign Near Madras 

Farm Security Administration 
Ontario 

Oregonian 

Old Boones Ferry, Wilsonville 
Covered Bridge near Dillard 

Angelus Studio 
Battleship Searchlights, Fleet 
Week, Portland 

F. E. Mclntosh 
Portland and Mount Hood 

Angelus Studio 
Basque Girls, Malheur County 

Oregonian 
Columbia River Indians 

Angelus Studio 

Indian Burial Ground Memaloose 
Island 

Angelus Studio 

Early Day Vehicles, The Dalles 
Indian Teepees Umatilla Reserva- 
tion 
Astor Column, Astoria 

Angelus Studio 

Coming of the White Man, Port- 
land 

Angelus Studio 
Eliot Glacier, Mount Hood 

Oregonian 



Rogue River National Forest 

U. S. Forest Service 
Timberline Lodge, Mount Hood 
Punch Bowl Falls, Eagle Creek 

U. S. Forest Service 
Plaque "The Beaver" 

Angelus Studio 
Battleship Oregon ' / 

Angelus Studio 
Mount Hood from Lost Lake 

Angelus Studio 
Bonneville Dam 

U. S. Army Engineers 
Oregon Coast Curry County 

Frank I. Jones 
Wallowa Mountains 

Cecil V. Ager 

Holland Grass Plantings Oregon 
Coast 

Farm Security Administration 
Mitchell Point Tunnel Columbia 
River 

Angelus Studio 
Snake River Canyon 

Cecil V. Ager 
Bonneville Dam and Mount Hood 

U. S. Army Air Corps 
Sheep Mountain 

Shell Oil Company 
Multnomah Falls Columbia River 

Angelus Studio 
Phantom Ship Crater Lake 

Sawyer Photo Service 
Ice Stalagmites in Malheur Cave 

Dr. H. C. Dake 
Bunchgrass Central Oregon 

Alfred A. Monner 
Wheat Fields Grande Ronde Val- 
ley 

Cecil V. Ager 



ILLUSTRATIONS XVI) 

Mount Hood in Winter 

Albert Altorfer 
La Grande 

Oregon Journal 
Roseburg 

Oregon Journal 
Mount Washington 

U. S. Forest Service 
Game Studies Survey 

U. S. Forest Service 
Indians Fishing at Celilu Falls 

Oregon State Highway Com- 
mission 
Surf Fishing Oregon Coast 

Shell Oil Company 
Elk at Wallowa Lake 

U. S. Forest Service 
Salmon Jumping Willamette Falls 

Ralph J.Eddy 
Deer Tracks in Snow 

U. S. Forest Service 
Oregon Beaver 

' U. S. Forest Service 
Black Bear, Fremont National 
Forest 

U. S. Forest Service 
Coyote 

U. S. Forest Service 
Wild Cat 

U. S. Forest Service 
Proof of a Tall Tale 

F. E. Mclntosh 
Sea Lions Oregon Coast 

Sawyer Photo Service 
Archers' Camp with Deer 

U. S. Forest Service 
One Month's Catch 

U. S. Forest Service 
Fishing in Deschutes National 
Forest 

17. S. Forest Service 



MAPS XIX 

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Maps 



STATE MAP .' v . . i . . back pocket 

TRANSPORTATION . " . * . . . . reverse of state map 

PORTLAND * . -.'-,.- * - reverse of state map 

TOUR KEY MAP . ' . . . . . front end paper 

PAGE 

ASTORIA ., _, W . ....... .154-155 

CORVALLIS . .' * -. - . .162-163 

EUGENE . . . . . . . . . . . . 172-173 

OREGON CITY . , . . . 196-197 

SALEM ; , ,- ; . > . . . / . -. . 234-235 

THE DALLES . 242-243 



GENERAL INFORMATION XXI 

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General Information 



(State map, showing highways, and maps 
giving railroad, air, bus, and water transpor- 
tation routes in pocket, inside back cover.) 



Railroads: Great Northern Ry. (GN), Northern Pacific Ry. (NP), 
Southern Pacific Lines (SP), Union Pacific R. R. (UP), Spokane, 
Portland & Seattle Ry. (SP&S), Oregon Electric Ry. (OE) (see 
TRANSPORTATION MAP.) 

Bus Lines : Pacific Greyhound Lines, Union Pacific Stages, North Coast 
Transportation Co., Spokane, Portland & Seattle Transportation Co., 
Oregon Motor Stages, Mount Hood Stages, North Bank Highway 
Stages, Boyd's Dollar Lines, Independent Stages, and Benjamin Frank- 
lin Line serve all but most remote sections. Pacific Greyhound and 
North Coast are principal carriers N. and S., operating over US 99 
the former S. of Portland into California, the latter to Seattle and 
points N. Union Pacific Stages and Spokane, Portland & Seattle line 
(US 30), are chief lines E. and W., the former operating E. and the 
latter W. from Portland : all lines listed above enter Portland ; averag< 
fare, ac per mi. (see TRANSPORTATION MAP). 

Air Lines: United Airlines (Vancouver, B. C, to San Diego) stops 
at Portland and Medford; United Airlines (Portland, Pendleton, Salt 
Lake City, Omaha, Chicago, New York) connection at Pendleton fo? 
Spokane (see TRANSPORTATION MAP). 

Waterways: Principal waterways are Columbia and Willamette Rivers. 
Portland, on the Willamette, is a regular port of call for coastwise 
vessels between Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle and for com- 
bination freight and passenger vessels to the Orient, and to South 
American, Atlantic Coast and European ports. Freight and passenger 
river boats operate between Portland and Astoria, and Portland and 
The Dalles. 



XX11 OREGON 

Highways: Eight Federal highways, six of them transcontinental or 
with international connections. State highways connect all sections. 
State police patrol highways. No inspection of cars into Oregon, but 
cars from Oregon entering California undergo inspection for horti- 
cultural diseases. Water or gasoline scarcity possible only in high desert 
region of southeastern Oregon. Gasoline tax, 6c (for highway routes, 
see STATE MAP). 

Motor Vehicle Laws (digest) : No fixed speed limit, but no person shall 
drive at a speed inconsistent with prudent control of car; "indicated 
speeds," which are accepted as reasonable, are 45 m. p. h. on open high- 
way, 25 m. p. m. in city residence districts, 20 m. p. h. in business dis- 
tricts and at intersections where vision is obscured, and 15 m. p. h. while 
passing school grounds. Speed in excess of 45 m. p. h. on open high- 
ways permitted, but driver operates at his own risk. State licenses not 
required of non-residents, but cars must be registered within 24 hrs. 
after entry into state; registration may be made with secretary of state 
or his agents, which include chambers of commerce and the American 
Automobile Assn.; no fee charged. State police supply information; 
they drive blue cars with state insignia on the doors and are easily 
recognized by their blue uniforms. 

Headlights must conform with 8-point adjustment system. Accidents 
resulting in injury to person or property must be reported within 24 
hrs. to nearest chief of police or sheriff. Minimum age for drivers 15 
yrs., unless special permit has been granted. Full stop required while 
streetcars are loading or unloading passengers, except where safety 
zones have been established. 

Unlawful: To drive while intoxicated, to carry any person on any 
external part of automobile, to coast in neutral, to park on paved or 
main-traveled portion of highway, to carry more than three persons 
over 12 on front seat, to pass streetcars on L., to display windshield 
stickers other than temporary licenses and registration tags. 

Accommodations: Hotel accommodations are adequate; tourist camps 
along all main highways; U. S. Forest Service camps within forest 
areas; beach accommodations along US 101 at all seasons; eight dude 
ranches, the four most elaborate ones being in Baker and Wallowa 
Counties. At Portland, during Rose Festival in June, and Pacific Inter- 
national Stock Show in autumn; Salem, during State Fair in Septem- 



GENERAL INFORMATION XXl'il 

her; Pendlcton, during Round-Up in September; and at Astoria, during 
Regatta in late summer, advance hotel accommodations should be ar- 
ranged. 

Climate and Equipment : Moderate temperatures prevail W. of Cascade 
Mountains; medium weight clothing sufficient the year around; top- 
coats needed in the valleys in all seasons but summer, and along Pacific 
Coast even in warmest weather; rain general during fall and winter, 
when water-proof clothes will be appreciated. 

East of the Cascades temperatures are more extreme: summer days 
hot, nights cool; summer travel equipment should include medium- 
weight clothing; snow and sub-zero weather in winter. 

Special outdoor clothing, cooking utensils, and bedding required for 
hiking and pack-horse trips; equipment available in any county seat 
town ; drinking water wholesome and plentiful in Cascades and western 
Oregon, but water from rivers not recommended except in most primi- 
tive areas. 

Recreational Areas: Thirteen national forests (set STATE MAP) ; of 
these, Wallowa, Mount Hood, Willamette, and Rogue River have 
primitive areas, all have recreational areas. Crater Lake National Park 
and Oregon Caves National Monument, both in southern Oregon, are 
other National playgrounds. 

Recreational areas visited to best advantage in summer; guides avail- 
able for primitive areas; any U. S. Forest Service headquarters or 
ranger will furnish information; national forest campers between July 
i and Sept. 30, except at improved campgrounds, required to obtain 
campfire permits from rangers and to carry ax, water container, and 
shovel; all campfires must be put out before camp is abandoned, or 
campers are liable to heavy fine; smoking while traveling in national 
forests forbidden except on paved or surfaced highways. 

Poisonous Plants, Reptiles f Dangerous Animals f and Insects: Poison 
oak prevalent E. of Cascades and in valleys between Cascade and Coast 
Ranges; rattlesnakes only poisonous reptiles, not common but found 
occasionally E. of Cascades, in southern Willamette Valley, and south- 
ern Oregon ; none has been found W. of Coast Range ; bears, mountain 
lions, and timber wolves, found in the mountains, generally harmless 
unless molested. 

Poisonous insects are the Rocky Mountain or Spotted Fever tick, 



XXIV OREGON 

found in cattle country of eastern Oregon from March to June; Black 
Widow spiders, active in late summer months, found occasionally around 
rock and lumber piles; mosquitoes attain pest proportions only in high 
Cascade forests when snow is melting in early summer. 

State Liquor Laws: State controls liquor traffic; hard liquor purchas- 
able only from state stores or agencies; permit, costing 5oc and good 
for i yr., must be obtained by residents and visitors for purchases ; hard 
liquor sold only in original packages and may not be consumed on 
premises; beer, ale, and unfortified wine may be purchased without a 
permit from privately owned and operated depots, licensed by the 
state, and may be consumed on the premises. 

Fishing Laws: Nonresident angler's license, $3; special vacation license 
for two consecutive days, $i ; unnaturalized persons must obtain $25 
alien gun license before purchasing angling or hunting license; all per- 
sons 14 yrs. and more must have license to hunt or angle; licenses may 
be obtained from any county clerk, the State Game Commission, or its 
agents, usually drug and sporting-goods stores; complete copies of state 
game laws available at any agency. 

Open season for trout, fixed by Oregon Game Commission, usually 
from April to November; bag limit, 15 Ib. and I fish, but not to ex- 
ceed 20 fish in I day; or 30 Ib. and I fish, but not to exceed 40 fish 
in 7 consecutive days, except special bag limits for certain lakes and 
streams (for which see complete state game laws) ; for trout more than 
10 in., season open all year in Pacific Ocean, its tidewaters, and Coast 
lakes. 

Open season for salmon, 15 in. and more, entire year; bag limit 
salmon 20 in. and more, 3 such fish in any i day, but not to exceed 10 
such fish in any 7 consecutive days; bag limit on 15 in. salmon, 15 Ib. 
and i fish, but not to exceed 20 fish in any i day; salmon under 15 in. 
classified as trout and may be taken only as such. 

Bass season open entire year except in Oswego Lake, where it runs 
from Apr. 5 to Oct. 31, both inclusive. 

Crappies, catfish, perch, and sunfish seasons open all year except in cer- 
tain waters, for which see complete state laws. 

Hunting Laws: Nonresident's license $15 including deer tag; elk tag, 
$25 additional. Licenses may be obtained in same manner as fishing 



GENERAL INFORMATION XXV 

licenses (see above) ; open season for game animals and birds, all dates 
inclusive : 

Bear: Entire year, except in Jackson, Josephine, and Klamath coun- 
ties, where open season is Nov. i to Nov. 30. Buck deer, Sept. 20 to 
Oct. 25 ; bag limit, 2 Columbia blacktail deer or I mule deer having 
not less than 3 forked horns. Bull elk, having horns: Nov. 8 to Nov. 18. 
Chinese pheasants: Oct. 15 to Oct. 31 in most counties; bag limit 4 
birds in I day, 8 in any 7 consecutive days, with I hen pheasant in bag 
of 8. Hungarian partridges: Oct. 15 to Oct. 31 in Wasco, Sherman, 
Morrow, and Wheeler counties; Sept. 15 to Nov. 15 in Malheur, 
Baker, Wallowa, Union, and Umatilla counties; bag limit 6 birds in I 
day, 12 in any consecutive 7 days. Quail: Oct. 15 to Oct. 31 in most 
counties except Klamath, where season is from Oct. I to Oct. 31, bag 
limit 10 birds in any consecutive 7 days. Grouse, native pheasants: Oct. 
15 to Oct. 31 W. of Cascade Range summit, Sept. 10 to Sept. 30 in 
eastern Oregon, bag limit 4 birds in I day, or 8 in consecutive 7 days. 
Ducks, geese, brant, coots, Wilson snipe, or jacksnipes; Nov. i to Nov. 
30, bag limit on ducks 10 in i day or in possession at any one time, 
geese and brant 4 in i day or in possession at any one time, snipe 15 in i 
day or in possession at any one time. 

Unlawful: To kill whitetail deer, sage hens, to hunt at night, to hunt 
on any game refuge, to hunt deer with dogs, to waste game wantonly, 
to shoot from public highway or railroad right-of-way, to hunt on lands 
without permission of owner and to lie in wait for deer at or near licks, 
to possess more than 30 Ib. and i fish (trout) or more than 40 trout 
at one time. The provision as to trout, permits angler to have i fish 
in excess of 30 Ib. provided the aggregate does not exceed 40 trout. 
(In view of frequent changes in regulations tourists should check with 
latest editions of hunting and fishing laws.) 

Picking wild flowers is not forbidden in national forests, and timber 
may be removed from certain areas under a sustained yield system; but 
picking flowers along highways in national forests or in dedicated 
recreation districts is not allowed. 

General Service for Tourists: A publication of value is the Oregon Blue 
Book, an official state publication, available in public libraries, or for 
sale by the Secretary of State, Salem, 25c per copy; chambers of com- 
merce, state troopers, automobile associations, forest officers will supply 
information at any time. 

No toll bridges or toll ferries within Oregon, but toll charges are 



XXVI OREGON 

made for interstate crossings at several points between Oregon and 
Washington. Three bridges and seven ferries cross Columbia River be- 
tween Astoria and Umatilla, levying charges varying from 500 for car 
and all passengers to $i for car and driver (see Tours). Travel over 
Interstate Bridge at Portland is free. 



CALENDAR OF ANNUAL EVENTS XXVli 

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Calendar of Annual Events 



Only events of general interest listed: for descriptions consult index. Many 
opening dates vary with the years and are placed in the week in which they 
usually occur. 



Third week 
Fourth week 
Fourth week 
Fourth week 



Second Friday 
Third week 
Third week 

Fourth week 
Fourth week 



First week 
Third Sunday 
No fixed date 
Easter 



No fixed date 



First Sunday 
First week 
Third week 
Fourth week 



JANUARY 

at Kamela La Grande Ski Tournament 

at Government Camp Cascade Ski Club Tournament 
at Portland Olympic Bowman League Shoot 

at Eugene Olympic Bowman League Shoot 

FEBRUARY 

Statewide Arbor Day 

at Government Camp Winter Sports Carnival 

at Government Camp Pacific Northwest Slalom 

Tournament 
Champion Ski Jumps 
"El Campo" Celebration 



at Government Camp 
at Vale 



MARCH 



at Portland 
at Prineville 
at Portland 
at Portland 



Salmon Fishing Derby 
Old Timers' Reunion 
Dog Show 

Easter Services in Mt. Tabor 
and Washington Parks 



APRIL 
at The Dalles Indian Salmon Feast 

MAY 

at Champoeg Oregon Founders' Day 

at Klamath Falls Flower Show 

at Milton Pea Festival 

at Klamath Falls Upper Klamath Lake Regatta 



xxviii OREGON 

First week 
First week 
First week 
Second week 
Second week 
Second week 

Second week 
Second week 
Third week 
Third week 

Third or Fourth 

week 

Fourth week 
No fixed date 
No fixed date 
No fixed date 
No fixed date 
No fixed date 



JUNE 



at Lebanon 
at Union 
at Independence 
at Canyon City 
at Portland 
at Salem 

at Government Camp 
at Weston 
at Brownsville 
at Portland 

at Taf t 

at St. Helens 
at Sheridan 
at Gold Beach 
at Beaver ton 
at Newberg 
at Florence 



Strawberry Fair 

Eastern Oregon Livestock Show 

Jersey Jubilee 

'62 Gold Rush Celebration 

Rose Festival 

Oregon Trapshooters' 

Association Meet 
Summer Ski Tournament 
Pioneer Picnic 
Pioneer Picnic 
Oregon Pioneer Assn. 

Celebration 
Redhead Round-Up 

St. Hellions Days 
Phil Sheridan Day 
Fat Lamb Show 
Flower Festival 
Berry Festival 
Rhododendron Show 



JULY 



First week 
First week 
First week 
First week 
First week 
Second week 
Third week 

(biennial) 
Third week 
Third week 

(every 3rd yr. 
Third week 
Third week 

Third week 
Third week 



at Hillsboro 

at Molalla 

at Bend 

at Klamath Falls 

at Vale 

at Marshfield 

at Oregon City 

at Portland 
at Eugene 
I 

at Tillamook 
at Hood River 

at Gearhart 
at Stay ton 



Happy Days Celebration 

Buckaroo 

Water Pageant 

Rodeo 

Rodeo 

Paul Bunyan Celebration 

Frontier Days Celebration 

Fleet Week 

Oregon Trail Pageant 

Tillamook Beaches Jubilee 
American Legion Mt. Hood 

Climb 

Oregon Coast Golf Tournament 
Santiam Spree 



CALENDAR 
Third or Fourth at Baker 

week 

Fourth week at Grants Pass 
Fourth week at Ocean Lake 
No fixed date at Corvallis 



OF ANNUAL EVENTS 

Mining Jubilee 



xxix 



No fixed date 
No fixed date 



at Tillamook 
at Portland 



No fixed date at Coquille 



Gladiolus Show 
Devil's Lake Regatta 
Pacific Northwest 

Horticultural Show 
March of Progress 
Outdoor Portland Symphony 

Concerts 
Flower Show 



AUGUST 



First week 



at Silverton 



First week 


at Nyssa 


First week 


at Mount Angel 


Second week 


at Bend 


Third week 


at Oregon City 


(biennial) 




Third Sunday 


at Falls City 


Fourth week 


at Ashland 


Fourth week 


at Independence 


No fixed date 


at Portland 



Fourth week at Astoria 



American Legion Baseball 

Playoff 

Owyhee Canyon Days 
Flax Festival 
Flower Show 
Territorial Days Celebration 

Old Timers' Picnic 
Shakespearean Festival 
Hop Fiesta 
Outdoor Portland Symphony 

Concerts 
Astoria Regatta 



SEPTEMBER 



First week 
First week 
First week 
First week 
First week 
First week 
First week 
Third week 
Fourth week 
No fixed date 
No fixed date 
No fixed date 



at Lakeview 
at Ontario 
at The Dalles 
at Heppner 
at Salem 
at Caves City 
at Prairie City 
at Pendleton 
at Enterprise 
at Condon 
at Siletz 
at Monmouth 



Round-Up 

Stampede 

Fort Dalles Frolic 

Rodeo 

Oregon State Fair 

Miners' Jubilee 

Round-Up 

Round-Up 

Race Meet and Rodeo 

Rodeo 

Rodeo 

American Legion Hi-jinks 



XXX OREGON 

First week 

No fixed date 
No fixed date 
No fixed date 
No fixed date 

No fixed date 
No fixed date 



OCTOBER 



at Portland 



at Milton-Freewater 
at Newberg 
at Merrill 
at Dufur 



Pacific International Livestock 

Show 

Apple Show 
Farm Products Show 
Potato Show 
Ex-Service Men's Reunion 



NOVEMBER 

at Coquille Corn Show 

at Corvallis State Horticultural Show 



DECEMBER 

Second week at Oakland Northwestern Turkey Show 

No fixed date at Roseburg Turkey Show 

No fixed date at Portland Cat Show 

Fourth week at Simnasho Indian New Year's Celebration 



No fixed date 
No fixed date 
Last week 
Last week 
Fourth week 



First week 
First week 
First week 
First week 
First week 
Second week 
Fourth week 
Fourth week 
Fourth week 
No fixed date 
No fixed date 
No fixed date 
No fixed date 



COUNTY AND DISTRICT FAIRS 

AUGUST 

at Gresham Multnomah County Fair 

at Tillamook Tillamook County Fair 

at Toledo Lincoln County Fair 

at Eugene Lane County Fair 

at Hermiston Hermiston Project Fair 

SEPTEMBER 



at Canby 
at Ontario 
at Moro 
at Dallas 
at Hillsboro 
at Lakeview 
at Redmond 
at Enterprise 
at La Grande 
at Woodburn 
at Halfway 
at St. Helens 
at Myrtle Point 



Clackamas County Fair 
Malheur County Fair 
Sherman County Fair 
Polk County Fair 
Washington County Fair 
Lake County and 4.H Club Fair 
Deschutes County Fair 
Wallowa County Fair 
Union County Fair 
Community Fair 
Baker County Fair 
Columbia County Fair 
Coos County Fair 



CALENDAR OF ANNUAL EVENTS XXXI 

No fixed date at Gold Beach Curry County Fair 

No fixed date at John Day Grant County Fair 

No fixed date at Burns Harney County Fair 

No fixed date at Gold Hill Northwest Jackson County Fair 

No fixed date at Grants Pass Josephine County Fair 

No fixed date at The Dalles Northern Wasco County Fair 

No fixed date at Tygh Valley Wasco County Fair 

OCTOBER 

First week at Prineville Crook County Fair 



Fourteenth 



PIONEER ASSOCIATION MEETINGS 

FEBRUARY 

at Portland Sons and Daughters 

of Oregon Pioneers 



MAY 



First Saturday 
Second week 



First week 
Second week 
Second week 
Third week 

Third week 
Third Sunday 
No fixed date 



at The Dalles 
at Hood River 



JUNE 



at Tillamook 
at Canyon City 
at Burns 
at Portland 

at Brownsville 
at Hillsboro 
at Weston 



JULY 



Last Sunday at Coquille 
Last Sunday at Dayton 
Last Wednesday at Enterprise 



Wasco County Association 
Hood River County Association 

Tillamook County Association 
Grant County Association 
Harney County Association 
Oregon State Pioneer 

Association 

Linn County Pioneer Association 
Washington County Associatior 
Umatilla County Association 

Coos County Association 
Yamhill County Association 
Wallowa County Association 



AUGUST 

First Sunday at Prineville Crook County Association 

Third Sunday at Toledo Lincoln County Association 

No fixed date at Canyon City Eastern Oregon Pioneer 

Association 



XXXl'i OREGON 

SEPTEMBER 

No fixed date at Oregon City McLoughlin Memorial 

Association 

OCTOBER 

at Lexington No fixed date Morrow County Association 



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PART I. 

Past and Present 



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Oregon Yesterday and Today 



OREGONIANS pridefully point out that theirs is the only state 
for which a transcontinental highway is named. It is the Oregon 
Trail, which began at Independence, Missouri. Even yet there travel 
along US 30, which in part roughly approximates and in part coincides 
with the original trail, a continuous caravan of folk whose purposes par- 
allel those of the pioneers who sought adventure, profit or release from 
economic pressure. This third objective they have realized, it is said, 
because the Trail's End State, although slow to respond to the impetus 
of prosperity, has been correspondingly resistant to the effects of de- 
pression. 

Oregon's topography, as well as its location, has importantly affected 
its development. The ninth largest commonwealth, it is divided physical- 
ly by the Cascade mountain range, and metaphysically by economic, 
political, and sociological Alps of infinitely greater magnitude. The 
Cascades cut the State into two unequal portions from the northern to 
the southern boundary lines. If the geologists are correct, the mountains 
owe their eminence to a terrific vulcanism that sent the great peaks 
hurtling up through the ooze and miasma of prehistoric Oregon. The 
disturbance gave the modern state a scenic grandeur that has exhausted 
even the superlatives of the gentlemen who write recreational brochures, 
but it walled eastern Oregon away from the humid winds, the warm 
rains of the coast, and turned most of the land, through countless aeons 
of slow dehydration, into a country of drought and distances, of grim 
and tortured mountains and high desert grown sparsely with stunted 
juniper and wind-blown sage. 

The mountain range stood as a colossal veto of whatever motions 
the early eastern Oregon settlers might have made toward economic 
equality with the pioneers of the lush country west of the Cascades. It 
turned them, out of sheer necessity, into cattlemen and sheepmen and 
miners and "dry" farmers, just as more benign circumstances made 
western Oregon residents into lumbermen, dairymen, fishermen and 
farmers, and in the more populous centers into artisans and politi- 



4 OREGON 

cians and financiers. At once the hero and the villain of the early Ore- 
gon piece, the Cascade Range still imposes a dozen divergent viewpoints 
upon the modern State; and it is therefore unlikely, if not impossible, 
that there be any such thing as a typical Oregonian. 

The history of the State has been an essay in dramatic counterpoint 
that did not in itself make for homogeneity. The epochal journey of 
Lewis and Clark into the wild country still stands as a monumental 
achievement. The explorers live as shining examples of men who had a 
difficult job to do, and who did it with resounding thoroughness. But, 
while they pried open the dark doorway to the unknown West, the 
reports that they brought back of the Oregon Country's teeming animal 
life opened the territory also to some precious scoundrels. 

The fur traders who came after Lewis and Clark were as realistic 
in their approach to the country as were Cortez to Mexico and Pizzaro 
to Peru. They plagued the Indians with whiskey and social diseases, 
salted the very beaver skins with corruption, and yearned to be quit 
of the savage land as quickly as possible. The missionaries who followed 
were, in the main, devout if somewhat severe men who strove mightily 
to invest the natives in spirituality and trousers; but even among these 
a few learned to sing upon both sides of the Jordan, and to deal more 
briskly in real estate than in salvation. While the great overland migra- 
tion to Oregon has been sanctified by tradition it seems foolish to pre- 
sume that the covered wagons carried nothing but animated virtues into 
Oregon. 

The great migration, as a matter of fact, contained every sort of 
human ingredient. Here came craftsmen from the Atlantic seaboard 
cities, uprooted by cheap labor from troubled Europe, journeying across 
the yellow Missouri, the great deserts and the towering mountains. So, 
also, came eastern farmers whose soil had worn thin from the sowings 
and reapings of two hundred years, doctors who lacked patients, lawyers 
who lacked clients. They came because they thought that they might 
better themselves and their families. No sane person would question 
their courage, or the hardihood of those who survived; but it is barely 
possible that they were not all either sunbonneted madonnas, or para- 
gons of manhood jouncing westward with banjos on their knees. 

The better of those who came may have lived longer. They certainly 
toiled harder, and they left the stamp of their fierce industry upon 
everything they touched. Had they been given time, had immigration 
ceased with them, they might have fused and welded the traits of a 
dozen eastern localities and produced something a mode of speech, a 



YESTERDAY AND TODAY 5 

style of architecture, a form of culture, or even a set of prejudices 
uniquely their own. Subsequent waves of immigration, however, washed 
again and again over them, to warp the sober pattern of living that 
they laid down. The discovery of gold in southwestern Oregon and in 
the eastern portion of the State in the fifties and sixties brought the 
living prototypes of Bret Harte's fictions into the country by the 
thousands during the next two decades. The argonauts, like the Federal 
troops who came to fight a half dozen bloody Indian wars, had the 
irresponsibility of men who live lonely and dangerous lives anywhere, 
and they sowed their seed from Port Orford, on the southern Oregon 
coast, to the Wallowa foothills, on the State's northeastern boundary 
line. Veterans of Lee's shattered Army of the Confederacy, spared their 
horses by Grant at Appomattox, rode the starveling beasts into the 
country that had irked the Union commander as young lieutenant at 
Fort Vancouver years before, and men of his own victorious army 
pushed westward to settle side by side with their vanquished foes. 

Then General Howard's troops blew out the last determined Indian 
resistance with a single gust of black powder smoke at Willow Springs 
in 1879, and eastern capitalists began to read some significance in the 
tumultuous Oregon scene. The transportation kings arrived, to wrestle 
for supremacy like embattled bulls, and while their methods may have 
shocked students of ethics, the shining rails went down, so that men 
along the Deschutes might ship some of the largest and finest potatoes 
in the world, and Jackson County fruit growers might find a market for 
their golden pears, and the lumber barons might hack at the State's 
timber resources. Lumberjacks from the thinning pine woods of Michi- 
gan swarmed into the Oregon wilds, just as in many cases their fathers 
before them had come into the Middle West from the hardwood forests 
of Maine, and the great epoch of Oregon lumbering was begun. 

It is an interesting genealogical fact that the grandsons of Maine 
residents sometimes married the descendants of men who had come 
from that state a half century before; but there were not enough of 
these to make a Yankee sampler of Oregon. Swedes had come in too, 
and Norwegians; German and Bohemian immigrants were planting 
garden plots and pulling stumps as the forest wall receded. In Astoria 
Finnish fishermen adapted themselves to a climate less rigorous than 
that of their native land, while on the hills of southeastern Oregon, 
Spanish Basques were raising sheep, to the disgust of cattlemen who 
ruled like feudal lords over ranches larger than the lesser Balkan states. 

The ranchers and the cowboys who served them, were as pungent 



6 OREGON 

a set of personalities as the North American continent ever knew. Their 
manner of living was Oregon's last link to the fabulous West that has 
vanished forever. Many of the cattlemen rode into the unmapped coun- 
try with no other possessions than their rifles and blankets and the 
clothing that they wore. Their successful efforts to wring livelihoods 
from the hostile land is an unwritten epic of the frontier. Although the 
financial wizard, Henry Miller, might swallow their ranches event- 
ually, they held things with a short rein while they lasted, and were 
quicker to resort to the rifle than to the courts of law. Some of them 
were pillars of rectitude who married early, begot large families, and 
grew gaunt and gray and old in sober monogamy. Others punished 
their livers with bad whiskey and pursued their amours in the Indian 
lodges as well as in the brothels of Pendleton and the settlements of 
the Klamath Basin. A woman tavern keeper on Applegate Creek in 
Jackson County wrote to her niece in 1854: "Em, I should like to have 
you here, but a young lady is so seldom seen here that you would be in 
dangt of being taken by force." 

This reckless era wore itself down with its own sheer animal vigor, 
and died, figuratively, in its tracks, like a spent bull. There followed 
the homesteading migration of the early igoo's when thousands of 
easterners settled upon lands that often failed to yield a living. Some 
of them ultimately beat their way back to the East, many found foot- 
holds in the productive soils of the western part of the State, and Oregon 
cities absorbed the rest. Then the World War was fought and finished, 
Oregon troops came back from overseas, and the State passed through 
the golden twenties and the lean nineteen-thirties to immediate time. 

The forces of good and evil, as we know them, have hammered one 
another through every hour of the State's history. Balanced against 
debaucheries, failures and land frauds are the solid accomplishments of 
men and women who had honesty of purpose and vision, vast courage 
and friendliness, and generosity that sprang warm from their hearts. 

Politically, the individual Oregonian may be certain that he under- 
stands himself, but he cannot always be so sure of his neighbors. Citi- 
zens of conservative opinion may declare solemnly that a staunch and 
inflexible conservatism is the bone and bowel and sinew of the State's 
body politic, but the body politic has never patiently endured a tight- 
ened belt, and there has been no lack of faithful followers to heed the 
chant of every economic muezzin from Henry George to Dr. Town- 
send. Throughout the State, a preponderantly conservative press voices 
at least an editorial approval of the status quo; but there is always a 



YESTERDAY AND TODAY 7 

play of heat-lightning and a rumble of distant thunder along the politi- 
cal horizon, and champions of new causes emerge each year. 

Oregon politics have been matters of both comedy and melodrama. 
The State was harshly dictatorial in its treatment of Chinese immi- 
grants, with whose descendants the commonwealth now finds no quar- 
rel; but it was also the first to introduce the initiative and referendum, 
and the breath of liberalism has never entirely failed. Unpredictable as 
are voters elsewhere, Oregonians sometimes make strange uses of their 
franchise. The Ku Klux Klan burned its fiery crosses over a hundred 
hills, and its propagandists sowed racial intolerance in every county of 
the state, but the Oregon electorate, unmoved by these activities, plodded 
to the polls and elected a Jewish governor. The voters of Salem en- 
thusiastically accepting a plan for a new courthouse as proposed in a 
primary measure, marched forth at the general election to reject the 
tax levy with which the structure was to have been built. The general 
elections of November, 1938, found the Oregon electorate voting down 
a sales tax which was intended to have financed an extended old-age 
pension plan, approved in the preceding primary. The commonwealth's 
true political picture reads from Left to Right, with all deviations and 
all shades of opinion represented, and in the very vociferousness of 
dissenting voices, Oregon may count its democracy secure. 

Oregonians have expressed themselves well in the fields of art, 
letters and music. Although Portland has been called the "Athens of 
the West," only a few persons are inclined to be disagreeably emphatic 
about the matter, or to make a fetish of culture. The State's painters and 
sculptors show strength and imagination and skill, and men and women 
employed by WPA have executed some of the most forthright work 
among contemporary artists. Oregon writers delve into a wealth of raw 
source material, and do well with what they withdraw and refine; and 
if it is not precisely true that there are more writers in Portland than 
in any other American city, as has been contended, there are at least 
an astonishing number of poets and novelists and journalists for so small 
a municipality. Besides these, there are sailors who come from the sea 
to write of what they have seen, and former lumberjacks who wade as 
zestfully into the world of letters as once they did into the Oregon 
mill-ponds. 

All this promises well for a rich and full and native culture in the 
future, but it should not be supposed that the state has yet abandoned 
itself utterly to the refinements of the arts. The pulp magazines sell as 
well in Oregon as anywhere else, the cinema offers as many ineptitudes; 



8 OREGON 

and while the Portland Junior Symphony, or the touring Monte Carlo 
Ballet, may attract large audiences to the Portland Auditorium, the 
beer halls are filled also with citizens who frankly prefer "swing" 
rhythms. Perhaps the greatest cultural achievement of the common- 
wealth is expressed by the fact that only one state, Iowa, has a greater 
degree of literacy, although higher education in Oregon was long re- 
tarded by persons opposed to any institutions more advanced than the 
most elementary of schools. 

Pictorially Oregon is this: tidy white houses and church spires of 
the Willamette Valley settlements, like transplanted New England 
towns, among pastoral scenery warm and graceful as the landscapes of 
Innes; the Alice-through-the-looking-glass effect of a swift incredible 
geographic change that lifts the motorist out of lush green forests and 
over the wind-scoured ridgepole of the Cascades, and plummets him 
into a grim Never-Never land of broken rim-rock and bone-bare plains 
beyond the range; the lamplit frontier towns of eastern Oregon, the 
rolling, golden wheatlands, great ranches where booted and spurred men 
still ride; Crater Lake, with its unbelievably blue waters trapped for- 
ever in a shattered mountain peak; Newberry Crater, the Lava Fields 
and the Columbia Gorge; and the Wallowa Mountains where the last 
big-horn sheep in Oregon browse among mile-high lakes and meadows 
of alpine flowers. Or if the bird's-eye view is toward the west coast; 
a humid, forested, mountainous region, fronting the Pacific, to which it 
presents, abruptly, a precipitous escarpment, relieved here and there by 
long stretches of sand beaches, an occasional lumber port or fishing 
village, or a river mouth. Southward toward California the land rises 
in a jungle of ranges dented by narrow valleys where live and work 
miners and lumbermen. 

If symbolism may be needed to complete the picture, let there be 
two symbols for Oregon: a pioneer of the covered wagon epoch, and 
beside him likewise grim and indomitable, the plodding figure of a 
modern farmer driven from middle-western soil by years of drought. 
Thousands of dust-bowl refugees have drifted into Oregon since 1930. 
If hunger and hardships and uncertainty are the essences of the pioneer 
tradition, they are a part of it already; and as the bearded early immi- 
grants brought a first cohesion to the territory, these latter day American 
pioneers may strengthen that cohesion and make their own distinctive 
contribution to the future state. 



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Natural Setting 



~O UGGED coast line, sandy beaches, heavily timbered ranges, snow- 
**^ capped peaks, broad river valleys, rough drainage basins, lava 
fields, gigantic geologic faults, and rolling upland plains cut by deep 
gorges, spread out in changing panoramas in this land of scenic surprises. 
Rugged masses, but slightly changed from the form of their volcanic 
origin, stand out in contrast to wide areas with lines softened by 
erosion. 

Oregon is a land divided by great mountain barriers into regions of 
productive farms and desert wastes; it is a land of crowded habitations 
and scanty settlements, of lofty eminences and deep depressions, of iso- 
lated mountain-hemmed areas and open plains beyond the limit of 
vision, of deep lakes and barren playas, of rushing rivers and dry water 
courses, of dense forest undergrowth and park-like stands of timber. 

The present State, formerly part of a vast area known as the Oregon 
country, is bounded on the north by the State of Washington, on the 
east by Idaho, on the south by Nevada and California, and on the west 
by the Pacific Ocean. Forming the larger part of its northern boundary 
line, the historic Columbia River gives the State somewhat the shape 
of a saddle, with its pommel near the river's mouth. The Snake River, 
with a rugged gorge deeper than the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, 
forms more than half of the eastern boundary. These two rivers, with 
the three hundred miles of coast, make more than two- thirds of Ore- 
gon's boundary line. 

The state's extreme length, along the I24th meridian, is 280 miles; 
its extreme width, between Cape Blanco and the eastern boundary 
line, is 380 miles. Including 1,092 square miles of water surface, its 
total area is 96,699 square miles, making it the ninth largest state in 
the Union. With the exception of the far eastern portion, it lies in the 
Pacific Time Belt; and it embraces 36 counties. 

The lofty and frosty-peaked Cascade Range divides Oregon into 
two unequal parts. To the east is the broad plains-plateau section; to 
the west, and comprising about one- third of the state's area, lies the 



IO OREGON 

more fully developed and more densely populated valley and coast 
section. 

Although the dominating mass and altitude of the Cascade Range 
are responsible for major differences in climate, topography, and much 
else within the state, geographers subdivide Oregon into eight natural 
regions, or physiographic provinces, differing in soil, climate, plant life, 
and other characteristics. From west to east, these are the Coast, South- 
ern Oregon, Willamette, Cascade, Deschutes-Columbia, Blue-Wallowa, 
Southeastern Lake, and Snake River regions. 

The Coast Region, extending from the backbone of the Coast Range 
to the Pacific Ocean, is a long strip of less than 25 miles in average 
width. The Coast Range is low and rolling, with a mean elevation of 
less than 2,000 feet and occasional peaks up to 4,000 feet. Its western 
foothills leave but a narrow margin of coast plain, varying from a few 
miles wide to a complete break where precipitous promontories jut out 
into the ocean. Many streams rise in this range and flow westward 
into bays and estuaries or directly into the Pacific. Two southern rivers, 
the Umpqua and the Rogue, penetrate the Coast Range from the west- 
ern slope of the Cascades. Seven of the streams are navigable for river 
craft from ten to thirty miles, and were once picturesquely active with 
steamboat commerce. A little stern-wheeler used to go up the deep but 
narrowing Coos until passengers on the deck could almost reach out 
and touch the damp and mossy walls on either side. A pioneer doctor 
at Florence, on the Siuslaw, owned a motor boat but no horse and 
buggy. Seven jetties have been built along the coast, but there are few 
good harbors. The old Spanish mariners passed them by, and Drake 
claimed that he anchored in a "bad bay." Rainfall averages about 
seventy-two inches annually, the climate is made mild by the closeness 
of the Pacific, and luxuriant vegetation, green the year around, affords 
a natural grassland for dairy farming along the lower valleys. Dairy- 
ing, fishing, and lumbering are the principal industries. There are few 
railroads, but the region has a good network of highways, including the 
scenic Oregon Coast Highway, which roughly parallels the coast line 
for its entire distance. Astoria, Tillamook, Marshfield, and North Bend 
are the towns of major importance in this region. 

The Southern Oregon Region, extending from the Calapooya Moun- 
tains southward to the state line between the Cascades and the Coast 
Range, is of rough topography, with heavily timbered mountainsides, 
dissected plateaus, and interior valleys of fine fruit, nut, and vegetable 
land. Portions of the Rogue River Valley are famous for pears and 



NATURAL SETTING II 

of the Umpqua River Valley for prunes, the former being raised largely 
with irrigation, the latter without. Game is plentiful in its many wilder- 
ness areas, and fish abound in its streams. It is one of the richest min- 
eral regions in the state, and has abundant potential waterpower. Can- 
ning and preserving of fruits and vegetables, lumbering, and mining 
are the chief industrial activities. Roseburg, Grants Pass, Medford, 
and Ashland are the principal towns. A number of fine highways pene- 
trate the region, but there will long remain many remote and primitive 
areas. Although the climate is varied, there are no extremes. 

The Willamette Region comprises the famous Willamette Valley, a 
rectangular trough of level and rolling farm and timber lands, about 
one hundred and eighty miles long from the Columbia River to the 
Calapooya Mountains, and sixty miles wide from the Cascades to the 
Coast Range. The Willamette River and its tributaries drain the entire 
region, which has a widely diversified agriculture, the greatest com- 
mercial and industrial development in Oregon, and two-thirds of the 
state's population. Its particularly favorable soil and climatic condi- 
tions, and the availability of the Willamette and its tributaries for 
water transportation, made it the goal of most of the early immigrants. 
This early settlement and the region's natural advantages have main- 
tained its position as the most important area of the State. Together 
with the Coast Region, it contains some of the finest stands of market- 
able timber now remaining in the United States, making lumbering an 
important industry. Manufacturing covers a wide variety of products, 
many of which have a national distribution. The region enjoys a mild 
climate and abundant rainfall, and has an excellent network of high- 
ways, railroads, waterways, and airways. Scenically, it is considered 
by many travelers to be one of the most beautiful in the West. Port- 
land, Oregon City, Salem, Albany, Corvallis, and Eugene are the 
principal towns of the Willamette Valley. 

The Cascade Region, extending along both sides of the Cascade 
Range, is an area of rugged grandeur. The western slope is the more 
precipitous, leading down into the Willamette, Umpqua, and Rogue 
River valleys. The eastern slope merges into a high plateau, which 
differs in climate and rainfall from the western slope because of the 
mountain barrier to the warm moisture-laden winds from the Pacific. 
Drainage is largely into the Deschutes River. Flora and fauna are 
distinctly, almost abruptly, different on the two slopes. With its moun- 
tain lakes and tumbling streams, the region has tremendous possibili- 
ties for irrigation and waterpower. Some irrigation developments have 



12 OREGON 

already been made, and a number of valley cities have power dams along 
the water-courses. It is an important grazing area. Lumbering flour- 
ishes, and immense stands of timber still await the saw. Of the 13,788,- 
802 acres of national forests in Oregon, more than one-third are in 
the Cascade Region. The two most important agricultural districts 
are Hood River County, in the extreme north, with its famous irrigated 
apple orchards, and Klamath County, in the extreme south, prolific in 
potatoes, barley, and dairy products. Increasing accessibility has caused 
extensive use of the region as a playground. Being near to Portland, 
Mount Hood is the main focus of recreation, although Crater Lake, 
the Three Sisters, and other attractive natural areas are becoming in- 
creasingly popular. The Klamath lakes and marshes are famous shooting 
grounds, and the Pacific Crest Trail along the backbone of the Cas- 
cades is a notable hiking and saddle route. Climate and rainfall vary 
with the slope and altitude. Klamath Falls and Hood River are the 
principal cities. 

The Deschutes-Columbia Region is a great interior plateau between 
the Cascade Range and the Blue Mountains. Most of the northern 
boundary is the Columbia River. The entire course of the Deschutes 
River and most of the John Day River are within its boundaries. It 
is a country of rolling hills, interspersed with level stretches of valley 
and upland. It is situated in the great Columbia lava flow, said to be 
the largest and deepest in existence. Canyon walls, from fifteen hun- 
dred to two thousand feet in height, reveal as many as twenty super- 
imposed flows. The climate is dry and hot in summer, moderately cold 
in winter, and the region has from ten to twenty inches of annual rain- 
fall. Irrigation is practiced wherever conditions warrant, but dry farm- 
ing predominates. The wide uncultivated sections support large herds 
of sheep and cattle. There are some magnificent pine forests, mostly in 
the foothills, and regional lumbering operations are carried on. The few 
towns are supported largely by trade in livestock and agricultural com- 
modities, and by the manufacture of flour, lumber, and woolen products. 
There are several good highways, along with two main railroad lines 
and a number of branch lines. The Dalles, Bend, and Pendleton are 
the principal towns. 

The Blue-Wallowa Region is an area of about twenty thousand 
square miles in the northeastern part of the state, with two great moun- 
tain masses the Blue Mountains, with the reverse L of the Strawberry 
Range, and the Wallowa Mountains. The Blue Mountain section con- 
sists of rolling terrain, covered with park-like stands of timber; the 



NATURAL SETTING 13 

other is rugged precipitous country, with beautiful mountain lakes and 
other striking scenery. The climate is less temperate than in the west- 
ern part of the State, and the annual rainfall is from ten to twenty 
inches. The only farms are on the broad river bottoms, with livestock, 
wool, and hay as the most important products. There is much gold 
mining, principally by dredging. Parts of five national forests lie within 
the region. Industrial activity is restricted largely to lumbering, flour- 
making, and gold and copper refining. Highways are being extended 
as the recreational advantages of the region become more widely recog- 
nized. There is one main-line railroad. Baker and La Grande are the 
largest towns. 

The Southeastern Lake Region, including the High Desert, gives 
a first impression of being an immense wasteland of little value for 
human use, but it has many undeveloped resources. It extends south- 
ward from the Blue-Wallowa Region to the southern state line and 
contains many lakes, some of which dry up altogether or shrink greatly 
during the summer. Even some of the larger lakes have been known to 
evaporate entirely, then fill again. A striking example of this is Goose 
Lake on the southern boundary. For years settlers had seen the weath- 
ered wagon ruts of early emigrant trains leading up to the lake shore, 
and continuing from the water's edge on the opposite shore, although 
the lake was too deep to ford. One of the emigrant-train pioneers was 
asked how the wagons got across. They didn't cross any lake, he said, 
in their journey. The mystery of the tracks remained; but years later 
the lake dried up, and there were the wagon ruts leading across its bed 
and connecting with those on the two shores. Precipitation in most parts 
of this region amounts to about 10 inches annually. Livestock, prin- 
cipally sheep, is the chief product, although some farm crops are raised 
in scattered sections, and there is some wild hay. Surface streams and 
underground water are both scanty. Minerals other than salts from 
the dry lake beds are rare. There are few improved highways and but 
one branch railroad. Although the area is generally treeless, portions 
of the Deschutes and Fremont National Forests have fair stands of 
pine, in which some lumbering is done. The population is sparse. Burns 
and Lakeview are the chief towns. 

The Snake River Region is a strip along the eastern boundary of the 
State, consisting of an open plateau from thirty-five hundred to four 
thousand feet in altitude, with narrow and deeply-cut river valleys 
low ranges of mountains, detached buttes, rim-rock, and sagebrush 
plains. It is semi-arid, with only about ten inches of annual rainfall 



14 OREGON 

The Vale and Owyhee irrigation projects have brought a considerable 
acreage into high agricultural productivity; and in other sections, such 
as the Jordan Valley, there are several smaller irrigation projects. The 
northern portion has a number of adequate highways and railroads, 
but in the south there has been little transportation development of any 
kind. The area has considerable mineral wealth, great herds of sheep 
and cattle, and some horses. Except in the irrigated sections, the popu- 
lation is very sparse. Ontario and Vale are the principal towns. 

Altogether, Oregon has a geography of immense diversity and notable 
contrast. In what is now Lake County, in December, 1843, John C. 
Fremont ascended to an altitude of seven thousand feet amid snows and 
howling winds. Suddenly, from a rim, he looked down three thousand 
feet upon a lake, warm and smiling and margined with green trees 
and grass. He and his party on that December day picked their way 
down the declivity, from winter into summer. He named the two points 
Winter Rim and Summer Lake. 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY 

Two distinct bodies of land, washed by the primal sea, were 
the nuclei from which, at an extremely remote period of time, the 
present state of Oregon was formed. One of these was in what 
is now the Bald Mountain region of Baker County and the other in 
the present Klamath-Siskiyou area of southwestern Oregon. The sub- 
sequent geological history of the state is chiefly the story of their exten- 
sion and topographic variation by elevation of the sea bed, by lava 
flows, by deposits of volcanic ash, and by erosion. 

For millions of years these islands alone stood above the water, but 
during the Triassic period (one hundred and seventy to one hundred 
and ninety million years ago) the sea, while it still covered most of 
the present state, had become shallow around the Blue Mountains. 
Sedimentary beds of this period are found on the northern flanks of the 
Wallowa Mountains, and typical exposures are seen along Hurricane 
Creek, Eagle Creek, and Powder River. Rocks of the Jurassic period 
(one hundred and ten to one hundred and seventy million years ago) 
are widespread in both the Blue Mountain and the Klamath regions. 
Fossils of the flora of this period, found at Nichols in Douglas County, 
and consisting of conifers, cycads and ferns, point to a tropical climate 
for the region at that time. 

At the close of the Jurassic period, or perhaps a little later, there 



NATURAL SETTING 15 

was a great upheaval in the region. The low-lying land and adjacent 
sea bed were thrust up by forces below the earth's surface, and about 
the site of Baker became what were probably Oregon's first mountains; 
while the shallower sea bed, with its lime shales and volcanic rocks, 
became the Powder River Mountains. 

At the opening of the Cretaceous period (sixty-five to one hundred 
and ten million years ago), sea surrounded the Klamath Mountains, 
flowing in from California over the site of Mount Shasta to what is 
now Douglas County and thence to the main ocean by a passage near 
the mouth of the Coquille River. 

The close of the Cretaceous period saw the Blue and Klamath 
regions, with their accretions, separated by a sea dike that had been 
slowly rising out of the ocean bed from Lower California to the Aleu- 
tian Islands. The elevation of this barrier, the Sierra Nevada Range 
in California and the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington, di- 
vided the State into two geologically, geographically, and climatically 
dissimilar parts. It made the region to the west a marine province, in 
which geologic changes were brought about by agencies existing in and 
emanating from the sea; it made the region to the east a continental 
province, the development of which was bound up with the large land 
mass of the continent. 

Rising slowly, the dike shut out the sea from the interior and cre- 
ated three great drainage areas: one to the south, which in time became 
the Colorado River; one to the north, which in a later age formed the 
Columbia River Basin; and a third, in what is now southeastern Ore- 
gon, whose outlets were cut off and whose waters disappeared through 
evaporation. At the close of the Cretaceous period, the sea retreated 
and never again advanced farther than the present axis of the Cascades. 

At the dawn of the Tertiary period or age of mammals, fifty mil- 
lion years ago, eastern Oregon was a region of lakes. The Blue Moun- 
tains and the Cascade hills were green with forests and beautiful with 
large flowering shrubs. Magnolia, cinnamon, and fig trees flourished. 
Sycamore, dogwood, and oak appeared. The Oregon grape, now the 
state flower, grew densely in the hills. Sequoias towered to imposing 
heights. 

The earliest, or Eocene, epoch of the Tertiary period is represented 
by the first upthrust of the Coast Range, by the Monroe, Corvallis, 
and Albany hills, and by the Chehalem and Tillamook coal beds. The 
development of coal, however, was greatest along the Coos Bay coast. 
New land was forming in the next epoch, the Oligocene, as shown by 



l6 OREGON 

the structures in the John Day Valley and in northwestern Oregon. 
In the former region these are sedimentary rocks known to geologists 
as the John Day series. Late in the same epoch or early in the Mio- 
cene, vast flows of lava, now known as the Columbia lava formation, 
began to well up from the earth. This was an age of volcanism, when 
the Cascade hills, later to become mountains, belched clouds of ashes 
that were carried eastward to take part in filling the great eastern 
Oregon lakes; when vents opened in hillsides to pour out gigantic rivers 
of molten rock that filled the lakes and valleys to the east and sur- 
rounded lofty mountain peaks with a sea of basalt; when the great 
plateau now encompassing most of Oregon from the west slope of the 
Cascades eastward was formed. The Blue and Wallowa Mountain 
ranges of today rise above the plateau, but the effect of their height is 
minimized by the thick strata of lava surrounding their bases. Geologists 
pronounce the formation to be one of the three greatest lava flows of 
the world. Twenty-five successive flows have been counted in the Des- 
chutes Valley, and as many as twenty in the Columbia River canyon. 

Changes other than volcanic were also taking place in the Miocene 
epoch. The Umpqua Valley was being elevated above sea level. The 
Calapooya Mountains, which had been rising late in the preceding 
epoch (as indicated by recovered shell fossils), were extending to join 
the slowly developing Coast Range, thus excluding the sea from what 
is now southwestern Oregon. Toward the middle of the epoch com- 
parative quiet returned. The old animal life of the earlier epochs of 
the Tertiary period had perished, and new types succeeded. Forests 
blossomed in new glory. By the close of the epoch the Coast Range 
had formed a solid wall paralleling the Cascade hills, and the Willam- 
ette Valley had been elevated above the sea. 

During the Pliocene epoch which followed, land was elevated over 
all the area of western United States. The Oregon coast extended 
many leagues farther west than it does today. A period of coastal de- 
pression followed, and land which once was mainland is now sub- 
merged far out at sea. Volcanic activity reappeared in the Cascades, 
and toward the end of the epoch there was great activity in mountain 
building both along the coast and in the Cascade region. It was then 
that the Cascades attained their great height, erected their superstruc- 
ture of peaks and castles, and were crowned with snow. The barrier 
thus raised shut out from the interior the warm moisture-laden Qcean 
winds, and turned the climate colder. By the middle of the following, 
or Pleistocene, epoch, the glacial age had come on. 



NATURAL SETTING 17 

Oregon was never under a continuous coat of ice during the Pleisto- 
cene epoch, as was much of continental North America. At this time 
glaciers formed on Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, the Three Sisters, 
and sky-piercing Mount Mazama in southern Oregon, and were scat- 
tered through eastern Oregon and along the Columbia River gorge. 
Among the largest moraines is a lateral one on the east side of Wallowa 
Lake, in extreme northeastern Oregon. It is approximately six miles 
long, one-fourth of a mile wide, and between six hundred and seven 
hundred feet high. 

An event of importance at the close of the ice age was the violent 
eruption of Mount Mazama, which either blew up, scattering its sub- 
stance over the surrounding countryside, or collapsed and fell into its 
own crater. Perhaps both explosion and collapse occurred. This cata- 
clysm resulted in the formation of the huge caldera now occupied by 
Crater Lake. 

Another period of land depression followed, during which Oregon 
lost still more of its western coastal area. The Willamette Valley be- 
came a sound or fresh-water lake formed by the damming of the 
Columbia by ice, at which time water flowed 300 feet above the present 
level of Portland, 165 feet above that of Salem, and 115 feet above 
that of Albany. An important development of this period was the fault 
ing in the Great Basin area of southeastern Oregon, when the impos 
ing Steens and Abert Rim Mountains were formed. 

During recent time, deposits found in Oregon have included stream 
gravels, silt washed from the valley sides, dunes along the coast and in 
the lake region of eastern Oregon, peat bogs in the coastal dune area, 
volcanic deposits in the Cascade Mountains, shore deposits along the 
beaches, and many others. The shifting dune sands damming sluggish 
streams have created a chain of beautiful fresh-water lakes along the 
ocean shore. 

In many parts of the Cascade Mountains there are cinder cones that 
have the appearance of recent origin. Some of them may be not more 
than a hundred years old. The Portland Oregonian reported an erup- 
tion of Mount Hood as late as 1865. 

Since 1862, when Dr. Thomas Condon, Oregon's noted pioneer 
geologist, discovered and made known to the world the now famous 
fossil beds of the John Day Valley, Oregon has been an important 
center for paleontological research. Exploration has been rewarded by 
yields of a number of the most highly prized specimens of prehistoric 
plant and animal life uncovered in the United States, and has revealed 



l8 OREGON 

the fascinating story of Oregon's ancient eons. Plant life of the Plio- 
cene epoch was not represented in Dr. Condon's finds; but in 1936 
the discovery of flora fossils of that epoch, in the Deschutes River 
gorge nine miles west of Madras, filled the one gap existing in the 
record. 

The oreodonts, an interesting group of animals now extinct, were 
formerly abundant in the lower lake region of the John Day Valley. 
Oreodonts ranged in size from that of a coyote to that of an elk. These 
animals had the molar teeth of a deer, the side teeth of a hog, and the 
incisors of a carnivore. Oreodonts, rhinoceroses, and peccaries are in 
the Condon collection of fossils. The well defined metacarpal bone of 
a camel was found in the gray stone of a former lake bed near The 
Dalles, and fossils found in other regions of the State indicate a prob- 
ability that the camel once roamed much of the Pacific Northwest. 

The fossil head of a seal found in 1906 and that of a giant sea 
turtle found embedded in sandstone near the Oregon coast in 1939 
prove that these primitive species lived in that section when the ocean 
still covered western Oregon. Seal fossils have also been found in the 
Willamette Valley. In southeastern Oregon, in the vicinity of Silver 
(or Fossil) Lake, were discovered the fossil bones of a wide variety 
of birds. This region has also yielded the remains of a mylodon a 
great sloth as large as a grizzly bear four kinds of camel, a mammoth 
elephant, three species of primitive horse, and many smaller animals. 

A notable fossil recovery was that of the mesohippus, a tiny three- 
toed horse, found in 1866 by men digging a well near the Snake River 
not far from Walla Walla in eastern Washington. Taken to The 
Dalles and given to Dr. Condon, who identified them, these bones 
brought attention to the "equus beds" of eastern Washington and 
Oregon. 

The mastodon and mammoth have left abundant fossil remains in 
Oregon. A fine specimen of the broad-faced ox, precursor of the bison, 
was dredged from the Willamette River. Fossil remains of the ground 
sloth, though rare, have been found in Yamhill County and in the 
John Day Valley. Remains of the rhinoceros are plentiful in the large 
lake beds. The Suidae, or hog family, is represented in the lower lake 
regions by several species, the largest of which is the entelodont. Fossils 
of a musk deer and of the head of a primitive cat about the size of the 
present-day cougar were found in the north fork of the John Day 
River. This area also abounded in early ages with saber-toothed cats. 



NATURAL SETTING IQ 

The dog of the Miocene epoch is represented in fossils indicating an 
animal about the size of the Newfoundland breed. 

In the northeastern part of the state, and in the vicinity of Burns, 
Canyon City, and Prineville, various groups of important fossil shells 
of the Jurassic period have been found. In Baker and Crook Counties, 
and in the Siskiyou region of southern Oregon, the carboniferous rocks 
have yielded many interesting groups of fossil shells of the Paleozoic 
era. The trigonia, a bivalve shell of Cretaceous times, is abundant in 
both southern and northeastern parts of the state. 

A group of marine shells of great interest to the geologist and 
paleontologist is that of the chambered cephalopods. Of highest rank 
in this group are the ammonites, which became extinct at the close of 
the Cretaceous period. Both the chambered nautilus and the ammonite 
have been found widely distributed in the rocks of the Siskiyou region. 
At Astoria and in the vicinity of Westport, the Columbia River, cut- 
ting into the Eocene belt, has exposed specimens of another beautiful 
shell fossil, the aturia. 

Submerged groves of trees in the Columbia River near the Upper 
Cascades indicate that this river between the Cascades and The Dalles 
was more than twenty feet lower when these trees were living than it 
is today. These submerged forests are in a slow process of decay and 
are not "petrified," although they have been thus termed by some lay- 
men. The upright position of the trees affords evidence that rising water 
covered them where they stood. 

In Columbia Gorge, near Tanner Creek, were found fossil frag- 
ments of a leaf of the gingko tree, a beautiful species known previously 
only in sacred groves around the temples of China and Japan. Since 
discovery of these fragments, test plantings of gingko trees imported 
from Japan have been found to thrive in the vicinity of Portland. Near 
Goshen, on the Pacific Highway, is an assemblage of fossil leaves, en- 
tombed in fine-grained volcanic ash, resembling trees of the lower 
Oligocene epoch, whose counterparts now flourish in Central America 
and the Philippines. This evidence seems to establish unquestionably 
the existence of a tropical climate in the Oregon region at some re- 
mote time. 

FLORA AND FAUNA 

In the moist valleys, on the craggy mountains, and on the semi- 
arid deserts of Oregon, grow a multitude of flowers, ferns, grasses, 
shrubs, and trees. One authority lists more than two thousand species 



2O OREGON 

and subspecies that flourish within Oregon's 96,000 square miles. 

Western Oregon offers a warm and sheltered conservatory for the 
development of plant growth. A large area is covered with Douglas 
fir, interspersed with cedar, yew and hemlock, while along the coast 
grow gigantic tideland spruce and contorted thickets of lodgepole pine. 
In the southern Cascades and in the Siskiyous, firs give place to the 
massive pillars of the sugar pine. Near the southern coast are extensive 
groves of Port Orford cedar, redwood, and the rare Oregon myrtle 
found nowhere else in America. Eastward of the Cascades are the 
widely distributed forests of yellow pine, lodgepole pine and Englemann 
spruce. On the desert uplands grows the western juniper, hardy and 
sparse, furnishing the only shade. In the valleys and on the adjacent 
hills of the Columbia, Willamette, Umpqua, Rogue and other rivers, 
appear numerous hardwoods and deciduous trees oaks, maples, alders, 
willows, and those unsurpassed flowering trees, the red-barked madrona 
and the Pacific dogwood. 

Along the sea beaches and on the wave-cut bluffs are verbenas and 
wild asters, tangled thickets of devil's club, laurel, sweet gale, and 
rhododendron, and watery sphagnum bogs lush with the cobra-leaved 
pitcher plant and the delicate sundew. In June, on the windy headland 
of Cape Blanco, a party of visitors picked sixteen varieties of flowers 
within a single acre. 

In Oregon valleys great fields are seasonally blue with the wild 
flag, pastures are bright with buttercups, and the moist woods with 
violets, trilliums, and adder's-tongues. Alpine regions are deeply car- 
peted with sorrel, and orchids lend their pastel shades. Deeper in the 
forest grow the waxy Indian pipe, the blood-red snow plant, and the 
rare moccasin flower. In the Siskiyous are more than fifty plants found 
nowhere else in the world. 

Both on the coast and in the interior valleys Scotch broom glows 
goldenly, but is regarded by farmers as a pest. In the spring and early 
summer, the wild currant's crimson flame, sweet syringa, ocean spray, 
and Douglas spirea form streamside thickets of riotous blossom ; and the 
glossy-leaved Oregon grape, by its omnipresent neighborliness, justifies 
its selection as the State flower. 

Eastward of the Cascades there is a decided topographical and botani- 
cal change. A hiker on a mountain trail will sometimes notice an almost 
knife-edge break between the two floras. A high inland plateau, broken 
by deep river canyons and small scattered mountain ranges, stretches 
away to the state's borders. This seeming waste is an empire of fertility 



NATURAL SETTING 21 

Sagebrush and juniper abound, and beneath their branches the sage lily 
develops in splendor. Along the bluffs of the Columbia, wild clover 
covers many dry hillsides, and distant fields take on a misty, purplish 
hue, like wafted smoke. Lupines and larkspurs tint the landscape for 
miles, while locoweeds, some of them of great beauty though of evil 
fame, are very abundant. Here, too, are the yellow-belled rice root, the 
blazing star, and the Lewisia and the Clarkia, named for the adven- 
turers who discovered them. 

Among early botanical explorers, besides Lewis and Clark, were 
Douglas, Nuttall, Pickering, Brackenridge, and Tolmie. Douglas re- 
lates that in hunting for cones of the sugar pine, after he had shot 
three specimens from a 3OO-foot tree, he was confronted by eight un- 
friendly Indians. By offering tobacco he induced them to aid him in 
securing a quantity of the cones. As they disappeared to comply with 
his request he snatched up his three cones and retreated to camp. 

The flora of Oregon plays an important part in the Indian lore of 
the region. Nearly two hundred plants found place in the commercial, 
industrial, medical, culinary, and religious economy of the Northwest 
tribes. With the passing of winter, camps became active with prepara- 
tion for the annual food gathering. Tribes migrated to the camas 
prairie, the wappato lake, or the wocus swamp, for the yearly harvest. 
Throughout the State there is a great variety of wild fruit, which 
formed a principal article of subsistence for the natives. A dozen varie- 
ties of berries, wild crab apple, plum, Oregon grape, ripened in their 
season. Bird-cherry, salal, and wild currant grew in profusion in forests 
and along the seashore. Nuts of various kinds were stored for the lean 
months, and seeds of numerous grasses and rushes added the important 
farinaceous element to the diet. 

The Indians also utilized a great many varieties of nutritive roots. 
Camas, the most extensively used, is an onion-like bulb with a spiked 
cluster of blue flowers. In some parts of the State, great fields are azure 
in April with its bloom. Townsend says, "When boiled this little root 
is palatable, and somewhat resembles the taste of the common potato; 
the Indian mode of preparing it, however, is the best that of fer- 
menting it in pits underground, into which hot stones have been placed. 
It is suffered to remain in these pits several days; and when removed, 
is of a dark brown color . . . and sweet, like molasses. It is then made 
into large cakes ... and slightly baked in the sun." Another root is 
the wappato, a marsh bulb growing in great quantity along the low- 
lands of the Columbia, on Chewaucan Marsh in Lake County, and in 



22 OREGON 

many other shallow lakes. This was one of the chief commercial roots of 
the tribes, much sought after by those whose country did not produce it. 
Numerous other roots lent variety to the diet blue lupine, which, when 
baked, resembles the sweet potato; Chinook licorice, bitterroot, the 
tuber of the foxtail, wild turnip, lily bulbs, and onions. 

A host of plants was included in the medical kit of the Indians. 
Roots of the wild poppy were used to allay toothache. The dried ripe 
fruit and the leaves of the scarlet sumac were made into a poultice for 
skin disease. A tea from the bark of the dogwood was imbibed for 
fevers and colds. Wild hops and witch hazel aided in the reduction of 
sprains and swellings, and rattlesnake plantain was efficacious for cuts 
and bruises. Oregon grape and sage brush, buckthorn and trillium, 
death camas and yarrow, false Solomon's seal and vervain, went into 
the pharmacopoeia of the tribes, while the juice of the deadly cowbane 
augmented the supply of rattlesnake virus as a poison for arrows. 

Mats, baskets, nets, and cords were made of the fibres and leaves 
of grasses, nettles, Indian hemp, tough-leaved iris, milkweed, dogbane, 
and scores of other fibrous plants. Cedar was the favorite lumber tree, 
because of the ease of working the long, straight boles. Canoes, from 
the small one-man craft to those of sixty feet in length, were wrought 
from single cedars, while the great communal houses were made of 
huge slabs split from cedar logs and roofed with the bark. Drawing 
and casting nets were woven of silky grass, the fibrous roots of trees, 
or of the inner bark of the white cedar. Bows were usually made of 
yew or crab-apple wood, while arrows were shaped of the straight 
shoots of syringa or other tough stems. Fish weirs were made of willow, 
as were the frames of snowshoes. Fire blocks were of cedar and twirling 
sticks of the dried stems of sagebrush or manzanita. 

Many of the Indians of Oregon still continue in this ancient economy. 
Each season the Klamaths reap the wocus seed from the yellow water 
lilies of Klamath Lake, the Warm Springs Indians journey into the 
mountains for the berry picking, and some tribes still dig the wild roots. 
On the Warm Springs Reservation a root festival is held in the spring 
and a huckleberry festival when the huckleberries ripen in late summer. 
These are thanksgiving feasts bringing out colorful costumes and con- 
sisting of dances, speeches, and religious ceremonies that are parts of a 
well defined ritual, the meaning of which is preserved in the tribal life. 

Following the customs of their red neighbors, the pioneers drew 
a portion of their subsistence from the wilderness. Wild berries and 
fruits of all kinds went into the frontier larder, as well as many of the 



NATURAL SETTING 23 

wild roots used by the Indians. One comestible of the early Oregon 
housewife was camas pie, a delicacy dwelt on reminiscently by more 
than one longbeard at pioneer gatherings. Miners' lettuce took the place 
of the cultivated vegetable, and so often did our forbears substitute the 
dried leaves of the yerba buena for "store tea" that the plant has be- 
come known by the common name of Oregon tea. 

Not only did the pioneer draw heavily upon the floral resources 
of the State for food and shelter but his modern descendant continues 
to utilize these products extensively. Wild berries are gathered by the 
ton, chit tarn bark, digitalis or foxglove, and other medicinal plants are 
collected for the market, and flowers and shrubs are brought in from 
forest and crag for rock garden, park, or lawn. 

The bird and animal life of Oregon is fully as varied as the plant 
life. Eliot lists over three hundred species: song birds, game birds, and 
birds of prey; mountain dwellers, valley dwellers, and dwellers by the 
sea. Perhaps a third of them are permanent residents, a third part-time 
residents, and a third transient visitors to the region. Great contrasts 
are found, for the dry eastern areas are incongruously intermingled 
with large marshlands and lakes. One may observe the aquatic antics 
of grebes, cormorants, pelicans (see KLAMATH FALLS), herons and 
coots, and almost simultaneously, on the high arid lands round about, 
catch glimpses of the great sage grouse, the sage thrasher, and the desert 
sparrow. 

Best loved by Oregonians is the state bird, the western meadow 
lark, heard from fence or tree at almost any season of the year. Another 
favorite is the robin, abundant in field and garden, foraging in winter 
orchards, lighting the chill gray months with his song. The blackbird 
lingers through the year, his notes ringing in gay orchestration. Numer- 
ous also among the permanent residents are the willow goldfinches, the 
Oregon towhee, the chickadee, sparrow, and bluebirds. 

Less frequently are seen the great blue heron, the killdeer, and the 
mountain quail; hawks and owls and the Oregon jay; the varied thrush 
or Alaska robin; the water ouzel of perfect song. Yearlong one may 
hear the drum of flicker or woodpecker, the hoarse caw of the crow, 
the screech owl's hoot. Along the seashore curve on swift wings, gulls, 
fulmers, petrels, and the myriad other dwellers of cliff and marsh. 
And, climaxing all, the great American eagle still sometimes flies darkly 
against the sky. A popular children's story is of a log schoolhouse on 
the Columbia, where, on the Fourth of July, an eagle swooped down, 
took in his talons the school flag that floated from the summit of t 



24 OREGON 

tall fir, and flew away with the banner over mountains, rivers, and 

valleys. 

More than fifty summer residents return to Oregon after southern 
winters. The more numerous of these are the rufous humming bird, the 
russet-back and the hermit thrush, the swallows, warblers, and many 
finches. Among the shyer and less frequently encountered are the band- 
tailed pigeon and the mourning dove, the lazuli bunting and the west- 
ern tanager, the Bullocks oriole and the clown-like chat, the horned 
lark and the magpie of Eastern Oregon, the sandpiper, and the plover, 
with scores of lesser birds. From the far north come many others for 
the winter months, including the ruby-crowned and the Sitka kinglet, 
the cedar and Bohemian waxwing, the junco, and a host of sparrows. 

Foremost among the numerous game birds is the China pheasant, 
which was imported into the state in 1881, when twenty-six birds were 
turned loose in the Willamette Valley. This hardy stranger now re- 
ceives the larger part of the sportsman's attention, thus giving the more 
timid birds the ruffed and sooty grouse, the sage hen and lesser 
quails a greater margin of hope for survival. The aquatic game birds 
including the Canadian goose, the mallard, canvasback and wood duck 
and the teal, have greatly decreased but are now protected by stric 
Federal laws. 

With six more names this incomplete roll call must close tru 
Stellar jay, mythical demigod of the Chinook tribes, the sand-hill crane, 
the pelican, the whistling and trumpeter swan, the white heron. Plume 
hunters visited Malheur and Harney Lakes in 1898 and perpetrated a 
carnage that amounted almost to annihilation of the white heron, known 
to commerce as the snowy egret. 

Many other winged inhabitants, worthy of description, must go eve.-' 
without mention. Pages would not suffice to list all the myriad swim 
mers and fliers that make up the vivid pageant of Oregon bird life. 

Within the borders of Oregon there now live, or were formerly 
found, characteristic varieties of almost all North American temperate 
zone mammals. Of the fur bearers it may be said that the state was 
founded on the value of their pelts. The sea otter is gone, and land 
otters are now scarce, but mink, bobcats, foxes, muskrats and racoons 
are still plentiful ; and the beaver, for all the high hats to which he wai; 
a sacrifice in the old days, also remains. This gnawer, the backbone of 
the early fur trade, was once so plentiful in Oregon that Franchere, 
in 1812, took 450 skins of it and other animals on a 2O-day trip up 
the Columbia from Astoria. In 1824, Peter Skene Ogden said of his 



NATURAL SETTING 25 

seventy-one men equipped with 364 traps: "Each beaver trap last year 
in the Snake Country averaged 26 beavers. Was expected this hunt 
will be 14,000 beavers." Two years later in the Harney country, a band 
of six trappers averaged from fifty to sixty beavers a day. As late as 
1860 many of the Eastern Oregon streams were "thronged with 
beavers," but later the animals were almost exterminated. During the 
last quarter century, however, due to rigid protective laws, they have 
increased in numbers until colonies are now found in many counties of 
the State. 

The king of the Oregon forests is the cougar, and in many sections 
still lives the black bear, venerated by the early Indians and reverently 
called "grandfather." Some tribal myths taught that the bear was the 
ancestor of all Indians. In rare instances is found the fierce grizzly or 
silvertip, the great "white bear" of Lewis and Clark. 

Most abundant among the larger animals are members of the deer 
family the Columbian black-tailed of mountain and coastal forest; 
the larger mule deer, an inhabitant of the dryer Eastern Oregon sec- 
tions; elk or wapiti in the Wallowa region and the coast mountains; 
and, in the extreme southeast part of the State, some of the largest 
remaining herds of pronghorns or American antelope, graceful and fleet. 

In the southeast, also, numerous skeletal remains of the buffalo have 
been found, and small bands of bighorn or Rocky Mountain sheep still 
inhabit the wild crags of the Wallowa Range. 

The Cascade timber wolf continues in some numbers, but the chief 
representative of the wolf clan is the shy and crafty coyote. 

Oregon has a number of interesting smaller animals. The porcupine- 
is common in almost all sections at high altitudes, as is the peculiar 
mountain beaver or sewellel, not a true beaver but a burrowing rodent, 
which seems to have no very close allies elsewhere in the world. Wood- 
land sections are inhabited by varieties of wood rats, called by the 
natives "pack" or "trade" rats because of their predilection for carrying 
off small articles and leaving in their stead a pine cone, a nut, or a 
shiny pebble as apparent compensation. At very high altitudes lives the 
pika little chief hare or cony rock-inhabiting creatures that gather 
and dry large amounts of "hay" for winter provender. Chipmunks, 
squirrels, hares, and rabbits are numerous. Jackrabbits in the sage lands, 
like the stars above, frustrate all census takers because they "count too 
high." An Italian settler in Eastern Oregon left the country and gave 
gastronomic reasons for doing so: "I no like da Eastern Org. No 
sphagett, no macarone, too mucha jacka-da-rab." 



26 OREGON 

The coastal headlands and rocky promontories present many inter- 
esting glimpses of the life habits of seals and sea lions, and the rocks, 
wave-washed and scarred, harbor a marine fauna that is of interest to 
scientist and common observer alike. 

Oregon snakes consist mostly of the harmless garter snakes, the King 
snakes, and the Pacific bull snakes. The deadly rattler is now confined 
largely to the dryer eastern counties. 

The fishes of the state are of three types those living entirely within 
the salt waters of the Pacific; the migratory fish which spend most of 
their life in the sea but enter the rivers to spawn; and the fresh-water 
fish living in lakes and rivers. Of the first, the coast fisheries of halibut, 
herring, pilchards, and other lesser fish add greatly to the wealth of the 
state. Aside from this, sportsmen find profitable recreation in surf fishing. 

Of the migratory fishes, the salmon is of first importance. Myriads 
of the five great species the chum, the humpback, the silversides, 
the sockeye, and the royal chinook travel up streams for great dis- 
tances, those of the Columbia deep into the fastenesses of its moun- 
tainous watershed. The salmon is the chief commercial fish of the state. 
In marked contrast to the gigantic salmon is the smelt or eulachon, 
called anchovy by Lewis and Clark, and also known as candlefish be- 
cause their small dried bodies, rich in oil, were formerly utilized as 
torches. Each spring they still run the Sandy River in countless thou- 
sands and are taken by Portlanders with bird cages, nets, and buckets. 

The prince of all the fresh-water fishes is the great steelhead trout, 
the fighting spirit of which is so renowned that fishermen have crossed 
oceans and continents to pit their skill against its strength. All of the 
cold water streams of the State are well stocked with smaller trout, 
the principal ones being the rainbow, the cutthroat, the brook, and the 
Dolly Varden. 

Bass, sunfish, and crappies have been introduced into most lowland 
streams, and give the angler abundant sport. Fishing for catfish fur- 
nishes contemplative recreation for whole families, particularly on 
Sauvie Island, where on Sundays the wooden bridges across the slug- 
gish streams are double-lined with Portlanders. Of the plentiful suckers, 
especially noteworthy are the multiple varieties inhabiting the Klamath 
Lakes and river and adjacent waters. To the Klamath and Modoc 
Indians these were formerly a source of wealth second only to the great 
salmon runs. 

A red fish that abounded fifty years ago in Wallowa Lake and Wal- 
lowa River has mysteriously disappeared. In early days white men 



NATURAL SETTING 27 

found this food fish in almost limitless quantities in spawning season. 
It is said to have existed nowhere else except in one small body of water 
in Idaho. It was "probably a very small variety of salmon now extinct." 

In the summer of 1937, visitors to Bonneville Dam saw the blocked 
migration of the Columbia River eels it had never before been con- 
ceived that such countless masses of them inhabited this current. The 
new white concrete, in a wainscot reaching several feet above the water 
line, was dark and wet with spray, and this damp area was compactly 
fringed with eels, hanging like extensive drifts of kelp. Driven by their 
relentless upriver urge and obstructed by the temporarily closed flood- 
gates, they attempted to scale the sheer and massive walls. Side by side 
and one below the other, they climbed up until they reached the dry 
portion of the masonry, upon which their bodies had no clinging suc- 
tion. Then they slid down, leaving the ones below to try, then return- 
ing themselves to make the effort again and again. An eastern scholar 
came away disturbed and sick at the sight, and saying, "It is such a 
terrible demonstration of futility as to haunt the mind." 

Salmon, "netted, hooked, trolled, speared, weired, scooped salmon 
taken by various sleights of native skill " composed the chief diet of 
the Columbia Indian tribes and was also a principal object of trade. 
Certain ceremonies were observed with the first fish taken: he was laid 
beside the water with head upstream and with salmonberries placed 
in his mouth ; his meat was cut only with the grain ; and "the hearts of 
all caught must be burned or eaten, and, on no account, be thrown into 
the water or eaten by a dog." The catches were cleaned by the women, 
dried and smoked, and often pulverized between two stones before being 
packed away in mats for trade or for winter consumption. Lewis and 
Clark described in great detail the fishing, curing, and packing, at Celilo 
Falls, where today remnants of the tribes continue to stand on the 
jagged rocks and spear the salmon in the rapids or dip them out 
with nets. 

The natives also depended much on the sturgeon, and took many 
smaller varieties of fish to fill the winter larder. They trapped or shot 
wild fowl, and caught elk and deer in covered pits dug along favorite 
runways or feeding grounds. 

The dress of the Columbia River Indians consisted principally of a 
robe fastened by a thong across the breast and made, usually, of the skins 
of cougars, wildcats, deer, bear, or elk. The most esteemed of the 
women's robes were made of strips of sea otter skin, interwoven with 
silk grass or the inner bark of the white cedar. The upriver Indians used 



28 OREGON" 

the hides of elk and larger animals in the construction of their tepees. 

The folklore and mythology of the Oregon Indians contains a verita- 
ble "key" to the fauna of the State. Their gods and demigods, their 
spirits of good and evil, took on the forms of birds and beasts, while 
their own origin was usually explained by naming some tribe of animals 
as their ancestors. The animal people, they said, were here first, before 
there were any real people. 

The birds were always a source of wonder to the red men because 
of their musical songs and their ability to soar into the skyey regions 
where dwell the supernatural beings. The eagle was regarded with vene- 
ration and was the chief war symbol. The fierce electric storms raging on 
the high peaks were personified as incarnations of the mysterious "thun- 
der bird." Bluejay was a mischievous, impish deity among the Chinooks. 
He was the buffoon of the gods, always playing pranks on others and 
as often as not becoming the victim of his own folly. 

The chief animal deity of the Columbia tribes, however, was the 
coyote. He was the most important because when he was put to work by 
the chief Supernatural Being, he did more than any of the other animals 
to make the world a fit place in which to live. 



NATURAL RESOURCES AND THEIR CONSERVATION 

The fur of wild animals was the first natural resource of Oregon 
to be utilized by white men. It was the fur trade that brought this 
northwest coast region to the attention of the world. A hundred years 
ago beavers were abundant in every creek, river, and lake in the state. 
In 1812 it is said that a small group from Fort Astoria returned to the 
post after a twenty-day expedition with "450 skins of beaver and other 
animals of the furry tribe." As late as 1860 a traveler on the head- 
waters of the Deschutes reported that "every stream thronged with 
beaver." 

Although fur was the first natural resource of Oregon it is by no 
means its most prominent, but the fur trade is still a stable part 
of the state's industry. Oregon is a green land of forests and grassy 
wilderness teeming with wild life ; a land of rich-soiled valleys maturing 
to golden harvests; a land of minerals; of streams that hold a vast 
potential water power ; of timbered areas immensely valuable for lumber. 

Agricultural lands are the most important on the list of Oregon's 
many natural resources. Of the state's total land area of 61,188,489 



NATURAL SETTING 29 

acres, land in farms comprise 1 7,3 5 7,549 acres, according to the U. S. 
Agricultural census of 1935. There were in that year 64,826 individual 
farms which, with land and buildings, were valued at $448,711,757. 

In 1934, 2,831,742 acres of crop land were harvested, while there was 
crop-failure on 280,426 acres. Idle or fallow crop land amounted to 
1,085,286 acres; 723,585 acres were in plowable pasture; woodland 
pasture took in 2,778,314 acres; other pasture 8,536,677 acres; wood- 
land, not pastured, 571,630 acres, and all other land in farms, 549,889 
acres. 

In general, eastern Oregon has the most extensive grain lands and 
the greatest grazing areas, while western Oregon is devoted to diversi- 
fied farming and fruit growing. The use of agricultural land is steadily 
increasing. The growth of all land in farms between the years 1930 
and 1935 was about 809,000 acres. 

According to the U. S. Census of 1930 (the latest figures available) 
Oregon's population was 953,786. Persons gainfully occupied numbered 
409,645. Of these, 81,879 were workers in agriculture, about 2O% of 
the whole. The total farm population was 223,667. In 1935, according 
to the U.S. Agricultural Census, Oregon's total farm population had 
grown to 248,767, an increase of 25,100 or more than ten per cent. In 
the same year the value of products for all manufacturing industries 
was $265,437,000, while the estimated gross income from farm produc- 
tion (crops and livestock) was $99,800,000 and the cash income 
$89,300,000. 

Next to agricultural lands in importance to Oregon are the forests. 
In 1935 (according to figures of the U. S. Forest Service and the U.S. 
Agricultural Census) of the state's 61,188,489 acres, a total of 
28,217,000 acres were covered with forest. Of these forest areas, 
19,278,160 acres were covered with saw-timber trees of more than 12 
inches in diameter inside the bark. 

The total volume of saw- timber in Oregon in 1934 was 300,793 
million feet, board measure. Of this, 137,043 million feet, or 46 per 
cent, were privately owned; 112,599 million feet, or 37 per cent, were 
in National Forests; and 51,151 million feet, or 17 per cent, were on 
other public or Indian lands. Privately owned saw-timber covered 
10.756,447 acres; saw-timber in National Forests 5,481,163 acres; 
and saw-timber on other public and Indian lands 3,040,550 acres. 

Of Oregon's 300,793 million feet of saw-timber, 213,114 million 
feet grew west of the Cascade mountains and consisted mainly of 
Douglas fir, West Coast hemlock, spruce and cedar; and 87,679 million 



30 OREGON 

feet grew east of the Cascades, with Ponderosa pine, Douglas and White 
fir, and Western larch the most important species. 

Forests furnish the raw materials for Oregon's largest manuf acturies : 
lumber, shingles, pulp and paper, veneers, plywood, doors, masts, spars 
and square timbers, besides supplying the special woods used in cooper- 
age plants and for the making of furniture, wooden boxes, automobile 
bodies, ladders, etc. In 1929 some 50,000 persons were employed in for- 
est industries, or about 12 per cent of all gainfully occupied. An esti- 
mated 300,000 people, a large proportion classified as rural non-farm, 
are directly or indirectly dependent for their living on forest activities 
and industries. The 1929 value of products from Oregon's forest indus- 
tries was $181,231,473, while these products provided about two-thirds 
of the out-going freight tonnage. 

In 1937, according to figures of the State Fish Commission, 27,689,- 
805 Ibs. of fish were taken from Oregon waters, of which 26,578,712 
Ibs. were salmon, 522,620 shad, 472,121 smelt, 82,207 sturgeon and 
24,145 Ibs. bass. Of the salmon more than 16,000,000 Ibs. were of the 
chinook variety, and the rest silversides, steelheads, bluebacks and chums. 
Of lesser commercial importance are cod, flounder, black snapper, tuna, 
crabs, clams, and oysters. The smelt were caught in the Columbia River, 
as were about 90 per cent of the salmon, while the remainder of the 
take came from bays and inlets of the Pacific Ocean and Oregon rivers 
emptying into them. The average yearly yield of Oregon fisheries (ac- 
cording to the U.S. Department of Commerce) is valued at some 
$2,500,000, while approximately 4,500 persons are employed in catching 
and handling the product. 

Oregon (according to the State Department of Geology & Mineral 
Industries) produces in metals, gold, quicksilver, silver, copper, lead, 
zinc, and platinum, important in the order named, and in non-metals, 
stone, sand, gravel, cement, and clay, besides coal, diatomite, lime, 
pumice, and mineral waters. Production figures for 1938 were: metals 
$3,318,000; non-metals $5,500,000; total $8,818,000. 

Production of metals in 1936, in detail, amounted to: gold $2,126,- 
355 ; quicksilver $329,750; silver $65,880; copper $52,808 ; lead $7,268 ; 
zinc $6,100; platinum (estimated) $2,100; total $2,590,261. 

Oregon is second only to California in the production of quicksilver. 
Baker County leads in gold production. Next in rank are Josephine, 
Douglas, Coos and Curry counties. Copper comes from Josephine 
County. Southwestern Oregon has several chromite properties. 

In spite of predatory loss and the 68,612 hunting and fishing licenses 



NATURAL SETTING 31 

issued during 1938 by the State Game Commission (according to report 
by the U.S. Wildlife Bureau) big-game animals increased in numbers 
between 10 and 15 per cent. 

Of deer ranging the state outside of National Forests there were in 
1938 an estimated 135,000 mule and 60,000 blacktail, while in the 
National Forests there were 141,860 of all species. Elk in the state 
numbered 22,000 of which 19,000 were in the National Forests. 

Predatory animals in National Forests were estimated to number as 
follows: coyotes 23,200; bobcats 8,500; lynx 1,260; cougar 660 and 
wolves 130. 

According to the State Game Commission there were in Oregon in 
1938 some 1 6 state hatcheries for the propagation of game fish, mostly 
trout of various species. Oregon is an all-year fishing country, meaning 
that there is an open season for some sort of game fish every month in 
the year. Game fish, which were threatened with depletion some years 
ago, are now increasing, through regulation as to catches, and through 
stocking. Fishing in tidal waters is permitted the year around. 

Beside wildlife in National Forests in Oregon in 1938, the range af- 
forded grazing for 82,547 privately owned cattle and 587,000 sheep. 

Oregon's greatest power source is the energy of falling water. Accord 
ing to the report of the State Planning Board of 1936, 16,000 miles of 
streams hold 4,605,000 horsepower of potential energy available 90 per 
cent of the time, or third among states in potential electrical energy. 

In 1889 the first long-distance transmission line in the world was con- 
structed in Oregon, sending power 14 miles from a hydroelectric plant 
at Oregon City to Portland. In 1936 there was in the state 254,000 
horsepower of installed hydroelectric capacity distributed among some 
250 plants, large and small, privately owned and municipal and state. 
The total share of Oregon from the Bonneville project will ultimately 
reach 500,000 horsepower. 

Besides power, the streams of Oregon furnish water for the reclama- 
tion of arid lands. Among the most important irrigation projects are the 
Owyhee and the Klamath. The Owyhee project, according to the U. S. 
Reclamation Service, embraces lands near the Owyhee and Snake rivers 
to the extent of 115,383 acres, of which 48,100 acres were irrigated 
in 1937. 

The Klamath project provides for diversion of water from Upper 
Klamath Lake for the irrigation of about 40,000 acres east of Klamath 
Falls and for the reclaiming of 33,000 acres of the bed of Tule Lake 



32 OREGON 

and along Lost River. During 1937 about 51,468 acres were irrigated 
and 50,439 cropped, including pasture. 

Oregon's recreational resources are unsurpassed in the United States. 
The green beauty of the country makes it constantly attractive, while 
the ever- varying contrasts of mountains, streams, and valleys holds con- 
tinued surprise. There are in the state more than 1,000 lakes, many in 
settings that would make them famous for loveliness, were they bet- 
ter known. 

The U. S. Forest Service has built trails and roads in all parts of 
the National Forests and dotted them with pleasant and well-equipped, 
sanitary camps for the convenience of visitors, campers, and sportsmen. 

Conservation with a view to perpetuation of Oregon's natural wealth 
is the policy of both private and public interests. In the matter of agri- 
cultural lands and forest domains, federal and state agencies are work- 
ing hand in hand with private owners for beneficial regulations as to use 
and preservation. Farm lands have come under scientific scrutiny as to 
crop possibilities; the public range has been placed under official control 
as to grazing; and the method long practiced in National Forests of 
selective cutting and leaving of seed-trees has been adopted by many 
private, forest-owning concerns. 

A conservation program is being carried out by the Civilian Conser- 
vation Corps for the forest service. Among the important work com- 
pleted by the enrollees of some 17 camps in National Forests from 
April 1933 to July 1937 were: 3,488 miles of truck trails; 3,593 miles 
of telephone lines; 227 lookout houses and towers; 1,240,681 acres of 
rodent control work; 327,691 man-days of fighting forest fires; and 
764,775 acres of insect pest control. 

A conservation plan of the utmost concern to Oregon is the Will- 
amette River Basin Project, authorized by Congress June 28, 1938. 
Preliminary mapping was done during the years 1935 to 1939, by U. S. 
Army Engineers. The project embraces flood control, which is vitally 
needed, the storage of water for irrigation, the development of water 
power, and the improvement and deepening of stream channels for 
commerce. Millions of dollars will be expended over a period of six to 
ten years; reservoirs will be built to insure water for agricultural lands, 
and modern locks will be constructed at Willamette Falls near Oregon 
City. Actual work on three storage reservoirs is planned to begin in 
1940, and to be completed before the end of 1941. 



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Indians 



A RCHEOLOGICAL research has revealed evidences of numerous 
**> successive cultures in many parts of Oregon. Surviving the wear of 
centuries on canyon walls and cliffs are rude designs daubed in red 
ochre or outlined in primitive carving. Although often the subject of 
fanciful interpretation, most of these pictographs and petroglyphs are de- 
void of symbolic or esoteric meaning, being merely the groping efforts 
of prehistoric man to give graphic expression to his experience. Burial 
mounds in irregular patterns mark the places where the dead, with theii 
crude artifacts, lie buried. Along the coast, numerous kitchen middens- 
heaps of shells, bone and stone fragments, and miscellaneous refuse, 
overgrown with grass and trees indicate the existence of prehistoric 
homes. Where the Coast Highway cuts through such a kitchen midden, 
as it does at several places, varying levels or strata in the heap are re- 
vealed, denoting successive occupations of the locality. 

Stone and obsidian weapons and bone fragments, frequently dis- 
covered beneath layers of lava or volcanic ash, indicate human existence 
in Oregon at a remote period. Near Abert Lake in Lake County, and 
at the base of Hart Mountain in Warner Valley, are excellent examples 
of prehistoric painting and carving. A local legend associates Abert Rim 
with the retreat of an "Indian army" that ended in a plunge over the 
cliff, at the foot of which are scattered many relics. Near The Dalles, 
Arlington, and Forest Grove, and in the Cascadia Caves, are diverse 
examples of prehistoric pictorial representations. The Linn County 
mounds, the Deschutes region, the Malheur and Catlow Caves in Har- 
ney County, and numerous other sites, have yielded weapons, utensils, 
and other Indian artifacts. 

The Indians who inhabited Oregon at the coming of the first white 
men were members of twelve distinct linguistic families. Along the 
south side of the Columbia, from its mouth to the Cascades, the Chi- 
nookans held sway. Important branches of this family were the Clatsops, 
who lived along the river to Tongue Point and along the coast to Tilla- 
mook Head, and the Cathlamets, who dwelt a short distance farther up 



34 OREGON 

the river; while numerous bands on Sauvie Island and about the mouth 
of the Willamette were known by the collective name of Multnomahs. 
The Clackamas tribe lived in the Clackamas Valley and about the falls 
of the Willamette. In all, some 36 tribes of the Chinookan family occu- 
pied the south shore of the Columbia, and as many others dwelt near 
the north bank. 

The Athapascans occupied two widely separated regions. On the 
Clatskanie and upper Nehalem Rivers lived the Tlatskanai, a warlike 
tribe. It is said that the early Hudson's Bay Company trappers did not 
dare to traverse their lands in a group of fewer than 60 armed men. 
In southwestern Oregon dwelt the other Athapascans the Tututni, the 
Upper Coquilles, the Chastacostas, and the Chetcoes. Also in the south- 
western region were the Umpquas and the Siuslaws, who together form 
a separate family. 

The Salishan family, although more numerous north of the Colum- 
bia, was represented south of that river by the Tillamooks and the 
Siletz. The Yakonians, consisting of the Yaquina and the Alseas, lived 
on the two bays thus named; and on Coos Bay and the lower Coquille 
dwelt the three tribes of the small Kusan family. 

One of the most important families was the Kalapooyan. This nu- 
merous people occupied the whole of the Willamette Valley above the 
falls, practiced flattening of the head, and lived on game and roots. A 
dozen tribes of this family inhabited the Willamette region at the com- 
ing of the white man. The Atfalati or Tualati, numbering more than 
30 bands, occupied the beautiful and fertile Tualatin Valley. Other 
tribes of this group were the Yamhills, the Chemeketas, and the San- 
tiams. 

The southern part of Oregon was occupied by divisions of three 
families: the powerful Klamath and Modoc tribes of the Lutuamians 
or Sahaptians, the Takelmans of the upper Rogue River, and two "spill- 
overs" from California the Shastas and Karoks of the Hokan family. 

The upper Columbia River country was the home of other Sahap- 
tians. The greater part of this family lived in eastern Washington and 
the Lewis River district of Idaho ; but four tribes, the Willewah branch 
of the Nez Perces, the Umatillahs, the Teninos of the Deschutes River, 
and the Tyighs of the Tygh Valley, inhabited the uplands of eastern 
Oregon. The Waiilatpuan branch was represented by the powerful 
Cayuse or "horse" Indians, dwelling on the headwaters of the Umatilla, 
the Walla Walla, and the Grande Ronde Rivers. A small offshoot of 
this branch had in times past wandered over the Cascades into western 



INDIANS 35 

Oregon, and under the name of Molallas lived along the Molalla 
River. Over the high desert country of the southeastern region roamed 
the nomadic Snake and Paiute tribes of the Shoshoneans. 

Intercourse between the various tribes and later with the white men 
made it necessary for the Indians to supplement their many dialects with 
a common language. Among merchant Indians at the mouth of the Co- 
lumbia there grew up a pidgin language based upon Chinook, and later 
intermixed with French and English words. This language became 
known as Chinook jargon, and was widely used by all tribes, as well 
as by thf early settlers, traders, and missionaries. When the Indians 
were removed to reservations, many who had not adopted the jargon 
were obliged to learn it in order to speak with their neighbors. 

The local customs of Indians in the western valleys and coast re- 
gion differed greatly from those of the interior. The western tribes, be- 
cause of the density of the forests, usually traveled by canoe. They sub- 
sisted chiefly on salmon, roots, and berries. The opening of the salmon 
season in June was attended with great formality. The first salmon 
caught was sacred, and was eaten ceremonially in a long-established 
ritual intended to propitiate the salmon and insure future runs. Before 
the arrival of the whites, the coastal Indians were scantily clad. The 
men went entirely naked in summer, and the women wore a flimsy 
skirt of cedar bark fiber or grasses. In winter, the men wore a robe 
made of skins reaching to the middle of the thigh; the women added 
to their costume a similar robe reaching to the waist; or either might 
wear a fiber cape. 

Among the Chi nooks, distinctions of rank extended to burial. The 
bodies of slaves were tossed into the river or gotten rid of in some 
other way, while the free born were carefully prepared for box, vault, 
tree, or canoe burial, and were honored with rituals of mourning which 
included periods of wailing during a certain length of time, cutting the 
hair, and refraining from mentioning the name of the dead. Entomb- 
ment varied according to the tribe and locality. Columbia River Indians 
utilized Memaloose Island near The Dalles, Coffin Rock near the 
mouth of the Cowlitz River, and other islands and promontories, with 
ceremonial dressing and storing of bones. The coast Indians used 
canoes supported on decorated scaffolds, and placed the head toward 
the west so that the departed spirit might more easily find its way to 
Memaloose lllahee, or the land of the dead, which lay somewhere to- 
ward the setting sun. Valley Indians often placed their dead, wrapped 
in skins, in the forks of trees. 



36 OREGON 

The houses of the western Oregon Indians were of the communal 
type, from 40 to 60 feet long and 20 feet wide, constructed of large 
cedar planks and roofed with bark or boards. The interior walls of 
these great lodges, scattered in clusters along the coast, the Columbia, 
and the lower Willamette, were tiered with bunks. Along the middle 
of the floor ran a firepit, the smoke escaping through a gap left along 
the ridgepole of the roof. Men, women, children, and dogs mingled in 
the dusky interior. These houses were put together with lashings, and 
when fleas and other vermin became intolerable the houses were dis- 
mantled and the planks removed to a new location, supposedly leaving 
the fleas behind. 

The Indians of river and coast were skilled in fashioning canoes. 
Each of these was made from a single log, their size varying from the 
small craft capable of sustaining only one person to the great war canoe 
in which as many as 60 warriors might safely put to sea. For these 
graceful vessels, cedar and spruce were usually preferred, though fir 
was also used. 

The native bow, like the canoe, was beautifully and skillfully formed. 
It was generally made of yew or crab-apple wood. The string was a 
piece of dried seal-gut or deer-sinew, or consisted of twisted bark. The 
arrows, about a yard long, were made of arrow-wood or cedar. House- 
hold utensils included baskets of cedar root fiber or tough grasses often 
woven so closely as to be watertight, and stone mortars and pestles for 
pulverizing seeds and wild grains. The principal art displayed was in 
the carvings on house posts and canoe figureheads, and in the fashioning 
of woven mats and baskets. Basketry was a highly developed art, many 
examples of which, richly colored with intricate and pleasing designs, 
today grace museums or are offered for sale in Indian curio stores. 

The culture of the northeastern Oregon tribes had undergone a defi- 
nite change a few decades before the invasion of the whites. Through 
the introduction of the horse they had become a more or less nomadic 
people. The Snakes, Nez Perces, and Cayuses counted their wealth in 
horses, and because they were thus free to move about they evolved a 
culture based largely on the chase and warfare. Bucksh-'n ornamented 
with dyed porcupine quills formed their dress, their moccasins, and 
their shelters, and skins dressed with the fur intact made their robes 
and blanketsiGame, supplemented by roots and berries, was their food. 

The Shoshonean culture of the southeast plateau was of a lower 
order, owing to the nature of the barren and forbidding country. The 
Klamath and Modoc culture, influenced by the same factors but modi- 



INDIANS 37 

fied by the tules (reeds) and wocus (yellow water lily) of the Klamath 
and Tule Lake marshes, presented a definite departure from the cul- 
ture in other sections of Oregon. The Klamaths and Modocs have been 
termed "pit Indians" because their dwellings were little more than 
roofed-over pits sunk about four feet below the surface of the ground. 
These houses appeared as mounds of earth about six feet high, with a cir- 
cular hole two and a half feet in diameter at the top, from which a lad- 
der led down into the circular space below. The interior was 20 feet 
across, with sleeping bunks and arrangements for storing dried meats, 
seeds, acorns, and roots. The whole was substantially built, the roof being 
of poles covered with rushes and with earth taken from the pit beneath. 
On hooks from the rush-lined ceiling hung bags and baskets, laden with 
such luxuries as dried grasshoppers and berries. About the bunks hung 
the skins of deer and other game. 

The dress of the women consisted of a skirt of deerskin thongs fas- 
tened to a braided beltjfthe men wore breechclouts of deerskin, and the 
children went entirely naked. When grasshoppers were abundant the 
Indians scoured the valleys, gathered the insects in great quantities by 
driving them into pits, and made preparations for a feast. A fire was 
kindled in one of the pits, and after the latter had been thoroughly 
heated the harvest was dropped in, covered with damp tules and hot 
stones, and baked. Prepared in this fashion the insects were eaten with 
great relish. They were also powdered and mixed with wocus meal in a 
kind of bread baked in the ashes. 

All tribes believed in an existence after death, and in a soul that in- 
habited the body yet was distinct from the vital principle and capable 
of leaving the body in dreams, faints, and trances, though if it stayed 
away too long the body died. Other living things were also similarly 
endowed. So it was that a canoe builder deferentially addressed the tree 
from which he obtained his log, as though it were a conscious person- 
ality, and a fisherman spoke apologetically to the first catch of the sea- 
son as he took it from the water. 

Creation myths varied from tribe to tribe. The creation of men and 
animals was ascribed by one to Echanum, the fire spirit, by some to 
Coyote, the transformer, who is given credit for creating the tribes 
from the legs, head, belly, and body of his vanquished enemy, the 
beaver. Stories of Coyote and Thunderbird were common to many 
tribes. The Thunderbird was ruler of the storm, avenger, originator 
of numerous taboos, and creator of volcanic activity. Coyote in a hun- 
dred grotesque forms was the hero of many roguish stories, emphasizing 



38 OREGON 

his trickery, selfishness, and prurience, and the source of rigid taboos 
regarding foods, domestic economy, and ceremonial observance. 

Legends were invented by the Indians to explain the origin and form 
of many geographic features. The story of Loowit, a beautiful Indian 
girl, who was the subject of a quarrel between rival lovers, and who 
dwelt on the natural rock Bridge of the Gods which once spanned the 
Columbia River at the Cascades, tells of the destruction of the bridge 
and of Loowit's transformation into Mount St. Helens, while her 
lovers became Mount Adams and Mount Hood. Another legend has it 
that Neahkahnie Mountain on the coast reached its present form from 
a single blow of the hatchet of Coyote, who built a fire on the mountain- 
side, heated rocks and threw them into the sea, where the seething 
waters grew into waves that have been crashing against the shore ever 
since. Mitchell Point, once called the "Storm King" by the Indians, 
was believed by them to have been built to part the storm clouds that 
hurried up the Columbia. 

In 1938, Oregon's surviving Indian population was distributed as 
follows: Klamath Reservation, 1,201 ; Warm Springs Reservation, 
1,094; Umatilla Reservation, 1,117; Siletz River district, 1,140; and 
on the public domain, 2,220. The population on the Umatilla Reser- 
vation is composed of Cayuse, Nez Perce, and Walla Walla tribes, 
with many full bloods and many mixed breeds, all of whom speak the 
Nez Perce language. Wascos, Teninos, and Paiutes are chiefly concen- 
trated on the Warm Springs Reservation. Klamaths, Modocs, Yahoo- 
skins, Snakes, Shastas, and Pit River Indians are gathered on the 
Klamath Reservation. Rogues (or Tututinis), Chetcos, Tillamooks, 
and other mixed tribal remnants dwell in the Siletz River region. 
There is an independent village of Paiutes a few miles north of Burns 

The Indians living on reservations dress in much the same way as 
their white neighbors, live in the same kind of houses, and carry on the 
same domestic and industrial pursuits. Their native handicrafts include 
tanning and decorating of skins, fabrication of baskets, beadwork on 
buckskin, and the making of cornhusk bags and mats. Each reservation 
is served by church mission schools or by the public school system of 
the State, the only government Indian schools being on the Warm 
Springs Reservation and at Chemawa near Salem. 

Four canneries care for the output from 5,000 acres of upland peas 
on the Umatilla Reservation, and on the Klamath Reservation contracts 
between Indian owners and commercial interests have resulted in the 
cutting and marketing of much timber. Fine horses, cattle, hay, and 



INDIANS 39 

grain are produced. All land has been allotted, and a business com- 
mittee for each reservation has superseded tribal government. 

Although Oregon Indians have abandoned most of their tribal ways, 
at times drums still throb above the music and words of tribal songs 
and busy feet pattern the ceremonial dances. The salmon festival on 
the Columbia River is generally held in secret each year; but the annual 
root feast at Simnasho in the spring, and the Warm Springs and Klam- 
ath Reservation huckleberry feasts in the fall, are open to the public. 

The Umatilla Indians form an encampment at the Pendleton Round- 
up and participate in the parade and Westward Ho pageant. The 
Round-up, though colorful, is not a true picture of Indian life, but a 
dramatized version of what the Indian thinks the white man wants to 
see. As many as 2,000 natives in ceremonial trappings participate as 
paid performers. 



iiiiiiiiiiuiiiiii!ii!iiBii!iiiii!iiiu]iimii!!iiuiiiiiii!ii!iaiiiim 



History 



THE earliest explorers along the coast of what is now the State of 
Oregon were Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese in the service 
of Spain, and his chief pilot Bartolome Ferrelo, who are believed to 
have sailed up from Mexico as far as 44 north in 1542-3. About the 
same latitude was reached in 1579 by Sir Francis Drake, who there 
abandoned his search for a northern passage to England and turned the 
prow of his Golden Hind southward. Whether the Spanish navigator 
Sebastian Viscaino sailed farther north than the 42nd parallel on his 
voyage of 1602 is a moot question, though one of his ships under Martin 
d'Aguilar proceeded another degree or two northward and reported the 
entrance to a river or strait not far from Cape Blanco. 

A century and three-quarters elapsed before further discoveries of 
importance were made. The Spaniards Perez in 1774, Heceta on two 
voyages in 1774 and 1775, and Bodega in 1775 sailed along all or most 
of the present Oregon coast, and on his second voyage Heceta noted 
evidences of a great river in the northern region. In 1778 the English 
navigator Captain James Cook, seeking (as Drake had sought) a north- 
ern sea passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic, reached from the south 
what is now Vancouver Island and anchored for several weeks in a fine 
harbor to which he later gave the name of Nootka Sound. Here he 
traded with the Indians for furs", and learned much about their life and 
customs. 

Ten years later another Englishman, Captain John Meares, fitted out 
a naval expedition in search of the great river that Heceta had reported 
in 1775. Entering the broad mouth of the present Columbia, he de- 
cided that this was no more than a large bay and departed after naming 
the entrance Deception Bay and the promontory on the north Cape Dis- 
appointment. It remained for an American sea captain and trader, 
Robert Gray of Boston, to verify the existence of the hitherto legendary 
"River of the West." In company with Captain John Kendrick, Gray 
made a trading voyage to the Pacific in 1788; and the two ships com- 
manded by these men, the Columbia and the Lady Washington, were 



HISTORY 41 

the first American vessels to visit the northwest coast. On a second voy- 
age from Boston, in the Columbia, Gray again visited this region and 
entered the long-sought river on May n, 1792, sailing for several miles 
upstream, trading with the natives, and making notes about the sur- 
rounding country. Before leaving, he named the river the Columbia, 
after the first ship to anchor in its inland waters. Five months later, 
Lieut. William R. Broughton, an English naval officer under Captain 
George Vancouver's command, explored the river for nearly a hundred 
miles inland, sighted and named Mount Hood on October 29, and for- 
mally clai-red the region for Great Britain on the grounds that (though 
he knew of Gray's earlier visit) "the subjects of no other civilized 
nation or state had ever entered this river before." 

For a good many years both before and after Gray's verification of 
its existence, the river was commonly referred to as the Ouragon, Ore- 
gan, Origan, or Oregon. As early as 1765, Major Robert Rogers, com- 
manding an English post in the upper Mississippi Valley, petitioned 
King George III for permission to conduct an exploring party to the 
Pacific Ocean by way of the river "called by the Indians Ouragon." As 
now spelled, the name first appeared in Jonathan Carver's Travels in 
Interior Parts of America, published 1778, in a reference to "the River 
Oregon, or the River of the West, that falls into the Pacific Ocean at 
the straits of Anian." Carver states that he got the name from the In- 
dians, and most authorities believe it is derived from the Sautee word 
oragan, meaning a birchbark dish. It remained unfamiliar to the public 
at large until William Cullen Bryant popularized and perpetuated it 
by the reference in his poem "Thanatopsis," published in 1817: 

Or lose thyself in the continuous woods 
Where rolls the Oregon, and hears no sound 
Save its own dashings. 

As the river was long known as the Oregon, so the vast northwest 
territory of which it was one of the most prominent geographical fea- 
tures acquired the name of "the Oregon country" or "the Oregon ter- 
ritory." The region thus designated originally comprised all the land 
between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean, from the vaguely 
delimited border of the great Spanish Southwest to the equally vague 
delimitations of British America and the Russian possessions on the 
north. By the Treaty of Florida in 1819, the southern boundary was 
fixed at the 42nd parallel; and in 1846, Great Britain and the United 
States agreed to a northern boundary along the 49th parallel. From 
the area of more than 300,000 square miles within these boundaries 



42 OREGON 

were later carved the present States of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, 

in their entirety, and Montana and Wyoming in considerable part. 

Into this immense wilderness, inhabited only by scattered tribes of 
Indians, came the American explorers Meriwether Lewis and William 
Clark, heading an expedition authorized by President Jefferson and 
Congress "to explore the Missouri River, & such principal streams 
of it, as, by its course communication with the waters of the Pacific 
Ocean, may offer the most direct & practicable water communication 
across this continent, for the purposes of commerce." Starting up the 
Missouri on May 14, 1804, the party reached the headwaters of the 
Columbia in October of the following year, journeyed down the river 
to arrive at Cape Disappointment in November, and passed the winter 
in a rude log fort which they named Fort Clatsop, after a neighboring 
Indian tribe. In the spring they began the homeward journey, reaching 
St. Louis on September 23, 1806. 

The accounts of this expedition, the first to be made by white men 
across the Oregon country, aroused widespread interest, particularly 
in the immense opportunities for fur-trading offered by the northwest 
region. In 1806 a British trading post was set up by Simon Fraser of 
the North West Company, on what later came to be known as Fraser's 
Lake, near the 54th parallel. But the first post in the Columbia River 
region was that established by members of John Jacob Astor's Pacific 
Fur Company in 1811 at Astoria, close to the log fort in which Lewis 
and Clark had passed the winter of 1805-6. One group of Astor's com- 
pany sailed from New York around Cape Horn, arriving in March 
1811 at the mouth of the Columbia, where eight members of the party 
lost their lives in an unskilful attempt to enter the river. Another group 
took the overland route and arrived about a year later. After disem- 
barking the men who built the post at Astoria, the ship in which the 
first party had arrived proceeded northward along the coast to trade 
with the Indians, and very soon thereafter was destroyed with a loss of 
more than 20 lives in a surprise attack by hostile natives. 

The fur-trading operations at Astoria were scarcely well under way 
before war broke out between Great Britain and the United States, and 
early in 1813 the Astorians received information that a British naval 
force was on its way to take possession of the mouth of the Columbia. 
This news was brought by agents of the North West Company, who 
offered to buy the entire establishment of Astoria at a reasonable valu- 
ation. Fearing confiscation if he delayed matters, the American factor 



HISTORY 43 

accepted this otter, and the post was renamed Fort George by its new 
owners. 

Astoria was restored to American ownership in 1818, and the United 
States and Great Britain agreed to a ten-years' joint occupancy of the 
Oregon country. Spanish claims in the nebulous southern area were 
eliminated a year later, when the southern boundary was fixed at the 
42nd parallel; and Russia in 1824 renounced all interests below 54 
40' north latitude. After its purchase of Astoria in 1813, the North 
West Company continued to control the Oregon fur trade until 1821, 
when it was merged with its British rival the Hudson's Bay Company. 
Soon thereafter, American trappers and traders began to push westward 
beyond the Rockies into the rich domain of the British traffic, and their 
frequent clashes with men of the Hudson's Bay Company together with 
the beginnings of organized immigration brought the vexed question of 
sovereignty over the Oregon country increasingly to the fore. By the 
late 1830'$ many Americans were demanding in bellicose tone that 
Great Britain should relinquish all jurisdiction south of 54 40', and 
"Fifty-four forty or fight" proved a popular slogan in Folk's compaign 
for the presidency. The issue was finally settled in 1846, when the two 
countries compromised on a boundary along the 49th parallel, and the 
Oregon country between that and the 42nd parallel on the south be- 
came undisputed American soil. 

The treaty of joint control was in effect when Dr. John McLoughlin 
destined to be the most powerful individual in the territory for 20 
years, came down the Columbia to Fort George. Appointed Chief Factor 
of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1824, within a year he built Fort 
Vancouver on the north bank of the Columbia River, a few miles east 
of the mouth of the Willamette. Six-feet-two, beaver-hatted, already 
white-haired at 40, McLoughlin knew how to control his half-wild 
white trappers; he made beaver-hunting vassals of the Indians and foi 
a long time succeeded in crushing all competition though many of his 
competitors were given places in the Georgian mahogany chairs at his 
table. With Fort Vancouver as the capital, he was king of a vast do 
main stretching from California to Alaska and from the Rocky Moun 
tains to the sea. 

Jedediah Smith, a Yankee trader, reached Oregon by way of Cali- 
fornia in 1828. Indians near the i.iouth of the Umpqua had attacked 
his party, killing all but himself and three companions, and taking his 
furs. McLoughlin sent an expedition to secure the pelts, which he then 



44 OREGON 

bought from Smith with the understanding that the Yankee should 

thenceforth stay out of Oregon. 

Nathaniel J. Wyeth of Boston came to the Columbia in 1832 with 
the intention of starting a salmon fishery and packing plant. After 
returning to the east coast in 1833, he came again to the Oregon coun- 
try in 1834 an d established Fort William on Sauvie Island. With 
Wyeth's second company were the Methodist clergyman Jason Lee and 
his nephew Daniel Lee, the first of many missionaries to come to the 
Northwest. They proposed to educate and Christianize the Indians, and 
for this purpose they established in 1835 a Methodist mission station and 
school in the Willamette Valley. The School was taken over in 1844 by 
the Oregon Institute (now Willamette University), organized in 1842. 
Other missionaries arrived, among them Dr. Marcus Whitman and 
Henry Spalding in 1836. 

Until early in the 1840*8 there was no local government in the Ore 
gon territory except that of the Hudson's Bay Company which exer 
cised feudal rights derived from the British Crown. McLoughlin en 
joyed the protection of British laws in the conduct of his company's 
affairs, but Americans in the territory were for the most part ignored 
by successive administrations at Washington. However, the missionaries 
formulated regulations for themselves as well as for the Indians over 
whom they assumed charge, and their leadership was accepted in a large 
measure by the independent American settlers. 

The Lees were discouraged by the indifference of the Indians to 
religious salvation, but in letters to friends in the East they extolled the 
wild western country, thus supplementing the publicity given to the 
territory by Hall J. Kelley, a Boston schoolmaster who was one of the 
first propagandists for Oregon. Jason Lee, on the first of two trips to 
the Atlantic coast, presented a memorial to Congress asking for the Gov- 
ernment's protection of its citizens in Oregon. Meanwhile, American 
settlers were finding their way into the Willamette Valley. The "Peoria 
Party" came in 1839, a few more arrived in 1840, and about 40 adults 
and children in 1841. In 1842 Whitman made a difficult winter ride 
across the Continent on missionary matters and also to enlist homeseek- 
ers and invoke governmental aid in the settlement of the Oregon coun- 
try. That year a larger immigration came across the plains, and in 1843 
the first considerable wagon train made the long and trying journey 
over the Oregon Trail. Thenceforward the population rapidly and 
steadily increased. 

Despite his misgivings concerning the effect of their arrival on the 



HISTORY 45 

business of the Hudson's Bay Company, Dr. McLoughlin had aided the 
newcomers with credit and counsel. In 1845, however, the company 
forced him to resign and his influence upon the development of the 
region came to an end. 

Life in the Oregon country was crude in the extreme, but despite its 
difficulties, it was not without its favorable aspects. Pioneers hewed their 
cabins and barns from the forest, and took their food from the newly 
tilled ground or from the surrounding wilderness. The climate was 
mild, and farm animals required little outlay for stabling or winter 
feeding. The scarcity of money was a great inconvenience, somewhat 
mitiga:ed by the issue of what were known as "Ermatinger money" and 
"Abernethy money," the use of wheat and peltry as mediums of ex- 
change, and the coinage of "beaver money" at Oregon City. Chiefly un- 
favorable to peace of mind in this life of primitive self-sufficiency were 
the inevitable isolation and ever-present fear of the Indians. Of these, 
the former was perhaps the harder to endure. 

Attempts to form an organized government in Oregon antedated the 
settlement of the boundary question by several years. When Jason Lee 
went east in 1838, he carried a paper signed by 36 settlers petitioning 
Congress for Oregon's admission to the Union. In the next year, the 
Reverend David Leslie and about 70 others presented a similar petition 
asking for "the civil institutions of the American Republic" and "the 
high privilege of American citizenship." Congress, however, was hesi- 
tant to act because of possible trouble with Great Britain, and the 
Americans in Oregon became restless while awaiting a decision. Plans 
for a provisional government became a matter of active discussion when, 
early in 1841, Jason Lee made an earnest speech on the subject. Very 
soon thereafter an event occurred which hastened the efforts to organize. 
This was the death of Ewing Young, who owned a great part of the 
Chehalem Valley and a large herd of Spanish cattle which he had driven 
north from California. In the absence of a will and any legal heirs, 
arrangements were made at his funeral to call a mass meeting of Ore- 
gon's inhabitants south of the Columbia River for the purposes of ap- 
pointing officers to administer his estate and to form some sort of 
provisional local government. At this meeting, held February 17 and 
1 8, 1841, at the Methodist Mission in the Willamette Valley, a "Su- 
preme Judge, with Probate powers" and several minor court officers 
were elected, and it was resolved "that a committee be chosen to form 
a constitution, and draft a code of laws." 

At an adjourned meeting held four months later, it was moved "that 



46 OREGON 

the committee be advised to confer with the commander of the American 
Exploring Squadron now in the Columbia river, concerning the pro- 
priety of forming a provisional government in Oregon." The naval 
commander, Capt. Charles Wilkes, and his fellow officers were definite- 
ly opposed to the settlers' plans, and assured the people that soon they 
would doubtless be placed under jurisdiction of the United States gov- 
ernment. The arrival in September 1842 of an official sub-agent of 
Indian affairs, who contended that his office was equivalent to that of 
Governor of the Territory, served further to retard the movement for 
setting up a local government. 

Several isolated Indian outrages, however, and the threat of a con- 
certed Indian attack upon the American settlement in the Willamette 
Valley led the inhabitants of that region to meet at Champoeg on May 
2, 1843, "for the purpose of taking steps to organize themselves into a 
civic community, and provide themselves with the protection secured by 
the enforcement of law and order." On July 5 of the same year the 
settlers again assembled at Champoeg and adopted "articles of compact" 
as well as a detailed "organic law" based largely upon the laws of Iowa. 
The provisional government thus organized was confirmed and came 
into effect as the result of a special election held on July 25, 1845. 
George Abernethy was chosen Governor, and remained so by re-election 
throughout the three years of provisional government. 

President Polk attempted to secure a territorial government for the 
region before his term expired. On August 14, 1848, more than two 
years after the boundary dispute was settled, and as the climax of a 24- 
hour debate; a dilatory Congress passed the bill admitting Oregon as a 
territory. President Polk signed the bill the next day and then pro- 
ceeded to appoint Territorial officers, including General Joseph Lane, 
of Indiana, as Governor, and Joseph L. Meek as United States marshall. 
Meek had gone to Washington to report the Whitman massacre, and 
to function as a self-styled "Envoy extraordinary and minister plenipo- 
tentiary from the Republic of Oregon to the Court of the United 
States." He returned by way of Indiana to inform General Lane of his 
appointment, and the two hurried to the Northwest, reaching Oregon 
City by boat and proclaiming the Territorial government on March 3, 
1849, the day before Polk went out of office. 

The new Territory of Oregon embraced all of the original Oregon 
country between the 42nd and 49th parallels from the Rockies to the 
Pacific. It was reduced to the confines of the present State of Oregon 
in 1853, when the rest of the original area was organized as the Tern- 



HISTORY 47 

tory of Washington. From this latter, in turn, the eastern portion was 
detached in 1863, to form the largest part of the Territory of Idaho. 

With the discovery of gold in California in 1848, Oregon farmers, 
soldiers, tradesmen, and officials joined in the mad rush to the gold 
fields. Within a few months two-thirds of Oregon's adult male popu- 
lation had left for California. Many of the stampeders acquired quick 
and easy fortunes, returning with as much as thirty or forty thousand 
dollars in gold dust and nuggets. This new-found wealth was badly 
needed ; debts were paid, farms improved, houses built. And in addition 
to the gold-rushers who became well-to-do, those who remained at home 
also prospered. The miners in California required food, lumber, and 
other supplies, and they turned to neighboring Oregon for them. The 
price of wheat soared to $4 a bushel, flour to $15 a barrel, and lumber 
to $100 a thousand feet. Oregon began to take on an atmosphere of 
well-being. Log cabins gave way to comfortable dwellings of the New 
England and southern type; many of these are still standing today. 

The Indian population of the Oregon country, estimated at about 
27,000 in 1845, was comparatively peaceful throughout the domination 
of McLoughlin. But the rising tide of immigration in the 1840*8 filled 
the red men with apprehension and resentment, increased by wanton 
invasions of Indian rights by unprincipled whites. In November 1847 
a band of Cayuses attacked the Presbyterian mission near the site of 
Walla Walla, killed Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife, and 12 others, 
and burnt all the buildings. The settlers immediately declared war upon 
the Cayuse tribe, and after several battles the Indians were routed and 
their villages destroyed. Another campaign, marked by a sharp engage- 
ment at Battle Rock and desultory skirmishes in other places, began 
against the Rogue Indians in 1851. Although Governor Joseph Lane 
effected a treaty with them at Table Rock, attacks and reprisals con- 
tinued until 1855, when Jackson County volunteers massacred 23 In- 
dians, including old men, women, and children. This act drove the 
Indians into a frenzy of resentment; they appeared everywhere, killing 
the settlers and driving off their cattle. Culminating a year of bitter 
struggle, the final battle of the campaign was fought at Oak Flat, on the 
Illinois River, June 26, 1856. Three days later, Chief John surrendered, 
and was subsequently imprisoned at Alcatraz. Meanwhile a similar war 
had raged in eastern Oregon, but the defeat of the Spokane nation on 
September i, 1858, and the execution of 16 Indians by Colonel Wright, 
brought the hostilities to an end. 

During the Territorial period, social and economic conditions in 



48 OREGON 

Oregon improved rapidly. Numerous ships discharged and loaded car- 
goes in the harbors, gold was discovered in several southwestern coun- 
ties, and roads and bridges were constructed. More than a score of aca- 
demies and two universities came into existence. A fire destroyed the 
state house at Salem on December 30, 1855, and the seat of government 
was moved to Corvallis; but the legislature, meeting in the latter city 
in 1856, decided to transfer the capital back to Salem, where it has 
since remained. 

The slavery controversy retarded the movement toward statehood, 
presenting the main obstacle to unity at the constitutional convention 
in 1857. Finally a determination of the issue was left to a popular vote 
to be taken concurrently with the vote on the constitution itself. At a 
special election on November 9, 1857, the people ratified the document 
and defeated by a large majority the proposal to permit slave-holding. 
The largest majority of all, however, was given to an article prohibiting 
the admission of free negroes into Oregon. Though this provision was 
a dead letter for many years, only in 1926 was it taken out of the con- 
stitution. 

The bill granting statehood to Oregon was signed by President Bu- 
chanan on February 14, 1859, but the news did not reach Portland 
until March 15. By noon of the next day the announcement found its 
way to Oregon City, where it aroused little excitement. "A few persons 
talked about it with languid interest," said Harvey Scott, "and won- 
dered when the government of the state would be set in motion." But 
Stephen Senter of Oregon City, feeling the news ought to be speeded 
to Salem, undertook to act as messenger, and like Paul Revere rode over 
miry roads and through swollen streams, spreading the tidings that 
Oregon was a State. The legislature was convoked and the organization 
of the state government completed on May 16, 1859. 

The brilliant and ambitious Edward Dickinson Baker came up from 
California to stump the State for his old friend Lincoln and for himself 
as United States Senator. Eloquent beyond most Pacific coast public 
men of his time or since, he caused the congregated pioneers to wonder 
that such glorious speech could come from mortal mouth. He was 
elected, but soon joined the Army and made a final dramatic appearance 
before the Senate in a colonel's uniform. He was killed in the early 
months of the Civil War while leading a charge at Ball's Bluff. Little 
Willie Lincoln at the White House commemorated him in a poem, and 
the city of Baker and Baker County were named for him. 

In general, Oregon's part in the Civil War was confined in the main 



HISTORY 49 

to protecting the frontier from marauding bands of Indians. Governor 
Whiteaker proved dilatory in responding to President Lincoln's call for 
volunteers; and after waiting until September of 1861 for the Governor 
to act, Colonel Wright, who commanded the United States forces with- 
in the State, requisitioned a volunteer troop of cavalry for three years' 
service against the Indians in eastern Oregon. By 1862 there were six 
companies in the field, forming a regiment known as the First Oregon 
Cavalry. This unit, in addition to its service against the Indians, held 
in check the Knights of the Golden Circle, a secret order which opposed 
the war. There was a good deal of secession sentiment in the state, and 
several seditious newspapers were suppressed during the conflict. 

Within a few years after the Civil War, Oregon was plunged into 
Indian troubles that continued intermittently for more than a decade. 
The Modocs went on the warpath in 1872, when attempts were made 
to force them onto the Klamath reservation. A mere handful of war- 
riors, under the leadership of "Captain Jack," they retreated to the lava 
beds near Tule Lake, California, and there held out against a large 
force of United States soldiers, upon whom they inflicted defeat after 
defeat with little loss to themselves. They resisted until the courageous 
chieftain was captured and hanged, after he and some of his band had 
treacherously assassinated General E. R. S. Canby and an associate dur- 
ing a parley on April n, 1873. 

In 1877, the younger Chief Joseph of the Nez Perces, incensed at 
the government's attempt to deprive his people of the beautiful Wallowa 
Valley, refused to be moved to an Idaho reservation. Several regiments 
of United States troops were dispatched to force him into obedience. 
After a number of sharp engagements and a retreat of a thousand miles 
across Idaho and Montana, ending about fifty miles from the Canadian 
border, Joseph was compelled to surrender. It is reported that he raised 
his hand above his head and said: "From where the sun now stands, I 
will fight no more forever." This great Indian warrior died in 1904 
and was buried at the foot of Wallowa Lake, in the heart of the moun- 
tains he loved so well. 

Soon after the close of the Nez Perce war, the Paiutes and Bannocks 
spread such terror throughout eastern and central Oregon that in 1878 
the white farmers began moving into towns or erecting block houses 
for protection. This outbreak, however, was short-lived, and by 1880 
the Indian troubles in Oregon were for the most part ended. 

With the completion of the Union Pacific to Promontory Point, 
Utah, in 1869, and construction of a connecting line to Portland in the 



5O OREGON 

early i88o's, a new era of population growth and economic expansion 
began for Oregon. Homesteads were established in the more isolated 
sections, and the eastern plains and ranges were utilized for large-scale 
production of wheat and livestock. Industries for processing the mate- 
rials from forests and farms came into being. Steamship as well as rail- 
road commerce developed at a rapid rate. The Sally Brown, sailing 
from Portland to Liverpool in 1868, carried the first full cargo of 
Oregon wheat ever to be exported ; since then Portland has become one 
of the more important wheat-shipping ports of the world. In the three 
decades between 1870 and 1900, the State's population increased from 
90,923 to 413,526. Impressive evidence of a century's advance was pre- 
sented in the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, held at Portland 
in 1905. 

The second Regiment of Oregon's National Guard was the first unit 
of the American expeditionary force to support Admiral Dewey at 
Manila, in the Spanish- American War of 1898. The regiment took 
part in several engagements with the Spanish, and remained in the 
Philippines throughout the campaign against Aguinaldo. 

Oregonians were among the first American troops in active overseas 
service during the World War, taking part with distinction in the en- 
gagements at Chateau Thierry, Belleau Wood, St. Mihiel, Cambrai, 
Argonne Forest, and elsewhere. In the total of 44,166 Oregon men 
enrolled in the American forces, more than 1,000 deaths were recorded, 
and 355 were cited or decorated for distinguished service. 

In the march of political and social progress, as expressed in legisla- 
tive enactments and constitutional amendments, Oregon has kept well 
abreast of her sister States. The Australian ballot system was introduced 
in 1891, and a year later William S. U'Ren of Portland began an ex- 
tensive campaign that resulted in adoption by the state of the initiative 
and referendum in 1902, the direct primary in 1904, and the recall in 
1908. Other progressive steps were taken with the adoption of woman 
suffrage in 1912, workmen's compensation and widows' pensions in 
1913, compulsory education in 1921, and a system of people's utility 
districts in 1930. 

Nothing in recent Oregon history is of greater significance for the 
future than the construction by the Federal government of Bonneville 
Dam and lock on the Columbia River 42 miles east of Portland. Begun 
in 1933 and now (1940) nearly completed, this $70,000,000 project 
will supply hydro-electric power to a huge area in the Columbia River 



HISTORY 51 

region and will permit navigation by ocean-going vessels as far east as 
The Dalles. 

With only 13,294 inhabitants in 1850, Oregon has developed into a 
modern State of more than a million population, and its possibilities for 
future development are as bright as those of any commonwealth in the 
Union. 



\ 



iiiiiiiiiiumiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiUiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiHN 



Agriculture 



HPHE first independent and successful American farmer in Oregon 
-*- was Ewing Young, erstwhile fur-trader, who came in 1834 and in 
the following year had crops growing and cattle grazing on the rich 
acreage of the Chehalem Valley. Before his arrival, various ventures in 
agriculture had been attempted, the earliest being by Nathan Winship 
and his crew of the Albatross, who brought hogs and goats and did some 
planting along the lower Columbia River bottoms in 1810. This ex- 
periment was flooded out, and a year later the Astor expedition brought 
hogs, sheep, and cattle, and planted vegetables at Fort Astoria. Dr. John 
McLoughlin, of the Hudson's Bay Company, started a farm at Fort 
Vancouver in 1825; and three years later he placed Etienne Lucier, 
one of his trappers, who had become superannuated, on a tract of land 
at the present site of East Portland. In 1829, James Bates established 
a farm on Scappoose Plain, and three years later John Ball began wheat 
growing in the Willamette Valley. These men were share-croppers for 
the fur company. In 1835, Nathaniel Wyeth brought cattle, hogs, and 
goats, with grain and garden seeds, to Sauvie Island, but later relin- 
quished the land to Dr. McLoughlin, who established a dairy on the 
island under the supervision of Jean Baptiste Sauvie. 

Favorable reports concerning the fertile valleys of Oregon brought a 
trickle of eastern farmers into the new and unclaimed country in the 
late 1830*8. Thereafter, immigration increased rapidly, until the trickle 
became a stream and then a flood. The cry of "Free land !" echoed back 
over the Oregon Trail, and the route became crowded with long pro- 
cessions of covered wagons. 

Wheat was the pioneers' first and principal crop. Many of the early 
homeseekers arrived in the Willamette country destitute, and Dr. Mc- 
Loughlin, partly with an eye to future profit and the enhancing of 
British influence, staked them to clothing, tools, and seed-wheat, to be 
repaid in kind, so that thousands of settlers were at length in debt to 
him. In 1846 more than 160,000 bushels of wheat were produced in 
the Oregon country. By an act of the provisional government, wheat 



AGRICULTURE 53 

\vas declared legal tender and had a standard value of $i a bushel. 
With the rush of the gold-seekers to California, the price soared to $6 
a bushel, and by 1849 more than 50 ships had entered the Columbia 
River seeking supplies of grain. This export commerce provided the 
economic foundation for building towns and seaports, laying out wagon 
roads, establishing steamship lines, and constructing railways. For the 
next half century the Willamette Valley, with its brown loams and silty 
clay soils, was predominantly "wheat country." 

In 1861, gold was discovered in eastern Oregon and backtrailing 
farmers, attracted by the possibility of finding fertile land near the new 
diggins, followed the influx of miners to the region. Town sites were 
staked out and agricultural development began. River steamers plying 
the Columbia hastened the movement of farmers to the inland plateaus 
and sagebrush plains. The first wheat grown in this portion of the state, 
was harvested in 1863 by Andrew Kilgore in Umatilla County. Within 
a few years, wheat was being sown over a large area of eastern Oregon. 
Shipping centers sprang up along the river; and when, in the early 
i88o's, the railroad came through, wheat-growing developed wherever 
the soil was suitable and shipping possible. 

It was inevitable that this extensive single-crop production should 
make for exhaustion of the light basaltic soils and a consequent decrease 
in the yield. In time it became necessary to reduce the seeded acreage 
and to try various plans for restoring fertility. Summer fallowing or 
dust mulching, a method whereby half of each ranch remains unseeded 
in alternate years, is now generally adopted, and wheat still remains the 
principal crop in Oregon. Production in 1937 was 20,424,000 bushels, 
valued at $18,263,000 or slightly more than 30 per cent of the com- 
bined income from all crops in the state. The average yield from the 
993,000 acres harvested was 20.6 bushels an acre. 

Present-day wheat ranching in the rolling country of eastern Oregon 
is a highly-mechanized industry. Each spring, tractor-drawn gang- 
plows, harrows, and drills prepare and seed the moist earth. In late 
summer, great combines move over the vast fields, reaping and threshing, 
in a golden haze of chaff and straw, and leaving at measured intervals 
bags of wheat stacked behind them. Day and night, trucks haul the grain 
to towering elevators in nearby towns, or to freight sidings and ware- 
houses, for shipment by rail or water to flour mills and export markets. 

Of other grains than wheat, the principal crops in 1937 were oats, 
10,360,000 bushels, harvested from 280,000 acres; barley, 4,160,000 
bushels, from 130,000 acres; corn, 2,178,000 bushels, from 66,000 acres; 



54 OREGON 

and rye, 600,000 bushels, from 48,000 acres. In the same year, such 
forage crops as clover, timothy, and alfalfa yielded a combined total of 
1,428,000 tons, cut from 806,000 acres. Tame hay is now grown on a 
much greater acreage than wheat; and 242,000 tons of wild hay were 
cut in 1937 from 220,000 acres, principally in mountain valleys east of 
the Cascade range and in the Klamath and Harney basins. 

From the time farming began at Fort Astoria until 1828, when 
enough wheat was raised to support the inhabitants, potatoes were the 
main substitute for bread. As settlement increased and spread it was 
found that certain portions of the Oregon country were peculiarly adapt- 
ed to potato culture, notably the Deschutes region, with a soil of vol- 
canic ash and loamy sand, the Klamath Falls district of fine sandy loam, 
and the sandy silt and humus of Coos County, on the coast. In 1937 
Oregon produced 7,840,000 bushels of potatoes on 49,000 acres, or an 
average of 160 bushels an acre. 

There is scarcely a vegetable known to the temperate zone that does 
not thrive in Oregon. Every ranch has its home garden and truck farm- 
ing is an important commercial activity in certain parts of the state, 
particularly on acreage near large towns. Onions head the list of truck 
garden products, 660,000 sacks being marketed in 1937. Green celery 
is a close second, with a 1937 output of 234,000 crates, grown chiefly 
in the middle Columbia and Willamette Valley. Cantaloupes from 
Douglas and Wasco Counties are of a superior grade. 

Describing the Oregon country as he saw it in 1845, the Rev- 
erend Gustavus Hines wrote: "Apples, peaches, and other kinds of fruit, 
flourish, as far as they have been cultivated; and from present appear- 
ances, it is quite likely that the time is not far distant, when the country 
will be well supplied with the various kinds of fruit which grow in the 
Middle States." The first extensive planting of fruit trees was done at 
Milwaukie in 1 847 by William Meek and the Lewelling brothers, %vho 
brought some 800 seedlings and a few grafted trees over the Oregon 
Trail in boxes fitted inside their covered wagons. The venture paid well. 
The first box of apples placed on sale in Portland realized $75," and 
in 1851 four boxes were sold in San Francisco for $500. Seth Eewdling 
set out the earliest Italian prune orchard in 1858; and the brothers 
developed a number of distinctive fruit varieties now well known -in 
Oregon among them the Black Republican, Lincoln, and Bing cher- 
ries, the Golden prune, and the Lewelling grape. 

Fruit growing has become one of Oregon's major econ&nic activities. 
Hood River apples, Rogue River pears, The Dalles djer/ies, 4nd Wii- 



AGRICULTURE 55 

lamette Valley prunes are famed throughout America and Europe. 
Only one other state (California) produces more prunes than Oregon, 
the 1937 yield being 43,000 tons, valued at $1,414,000. Other principal 
fruit crops of the same year were apples, 3,763,000 bushels, valued at 
$3,010,000; pears, 3,621,000 bushels, valued at $2,350,000; cherries, 
124,000 tons, valued at $1,525,000; grapes, 2,100 tons, valued at 
$69,300; and peaches, 241,000 bushels, valued at $2,892,000. 

Strawberries, raspberries, currants, youngberries, loganberries, and 
evergreen blackberries thrive in various sections, though the best crops 
are prod-ired in the moist western valleys. Strawberries constitute the 
most important item in this list, the 1937 crop amounting to 1,050,000 
crates, was raised on 14,000 acres (an average yield of 75 crates to the 
acre), and valued at $3,518,000. Cranberries have long grown wild, 
principally on peat-bog land along the coast, but are now profitably cul- 
tivated over a large acreage. 

Nuts of various kinds, chiefly English walnuts, and filberts, are raised, 
especially on the sandy loams and "red hill" lands of the Willamette 
and Tualatin Valleys, one of the few regions of the world adapted to 
filbert culture. There are approximately 9,000 acres of filbert orchards 
in Oregon, or 85 per cent of the national total, and about 14,000 acres 
of bearing walnut trees. 

Hops are among the principal agricultural products of the Willamette 
Valley. High green-hung hop trellises cover thousands of acres in 
Marion County. Although over-production in recent years has reduced 
the value of the crop, Oregon continues to produce more hops than any 
other state in the Union. The value of the 1937 crop exceeded 
$4,000,000. 

Wild flax grew in Oregon before the first white men came, and has 
been grown there almost continually from the beginning of settlement, 
but not until recent years has a consistent effort been made to utilize 
the product commercially. In 1915 a flax plant was established at the 
state penitentiary; and recently the Federal Government, through the 
Works Progress Administration, assisted in constructing scutching plants 
and mills. In 1935, more than 2,000 acres were planted to flax. About 
2,000,000 pounds of fiber are annually produced at the state plant. 

Seed production provides the farmers of Oregon with some three 
million dollars of annual income. Nearly a million pounds of alsike 
clover seed, sown as a soil-restoring rotation crop in wheat growing 
areas, are marketed annually ; and west of the mountains, vegetable seeds 
are produced on an extensive scale. 



56 O R E G O N 

Ornamental nursery stock yields almost a million dollars each year 
for Multnomah County nurserymen alone. Field-grown roses are 
shipped out of the state in carload lots. Daffodil, tulip, and gladioli 
farms are numerous in western Oregon, and hothouses with thousands 
of feet under glass supply cut flowers and bulbs to local and national 
markets. 

Until 1837 the only cattle in the Oregon country belonged to the 
Hudson's Bay Company, which supplied milk to the settlers but refused 
to sell any part of its stock to them. With the object of breaking up 
this monopoly, a group of prominent men in the Willamette Valley, 
headed by Jason Lee and Ewing Young, organized an expedition to 
California "to purchase and drive to Oregon a band of neat cattle for 
the supply of the settlers." The expedition sailed early in February 
1837 on the U. S. brig Loriot, commanded by William A. Slacum, and 
returned overland a few months later with some 600 head of cattle and 
a number of horses, which were distributed among the settlers. The 
supply of livestock was considerably augmented in 1841, when Joseph 
Gale and others built the sloop Star of Oregon and sailed it from the 
Columbia River to San Francisco, where they traded their vessel for 
cattle, horses, mules, and sheep, which they drove north over the wilder- 
ness trails to Oregon. Soon thereafter the long "cow columns" of the 
eastern emigrants began to arrive in the Willamette Valley, and the fu- 
ture of one of Oregon's principal economic resources was permanently 
assured. 

By the early 1870*8, cattle ranching had become a firmly established 
and highly profitable activity in the vast range lands of central and 
southeastern Oregon. For the next two decades, cattle had almost free 
run of this semi -arid plateau country, where the bunchgrass grew stir- 
rup-high; and the unfenced area of Harney County in particular con- 
tained some of the most extensive ranches and largest herds in the West. 
But it was not long before sheepmen began to compete for the open 
range, and violent friction ensued between them and the cattle barons. 
Sheep were maliciously slaughtered, and their owners retaliated by 
burning the stacks, barns, and houses of the cattlemen. Into the feud 
was injected another element inimical to both sheep and cattle ranchers 
the invasion of homesteaders with their fences and land-speculators 
with their townsites. The outcome was defeat for the hitherto dominant 
cattle kings, restriction of their rights, and a gradual decrease in the 
size of their herds. However, Harney County has remained a prominent 
cattle region, and Oregon as a whole is still an important cattle state. 



AGRICULTURE 57 

In an estimated total of 945,000 head of cattle in Oregon at the 
beginning of 1937, nearly 260,000 were cows and heifers kept for milk 
a notable contrast to the first little herd, owned by the Hudson's Bay 
Company, which browsed the moist levels of Sauvie Island more than a 
century ago. Adjacent to the principal cities and towns are many dairy 
farms and creameries. The Tillamook, Coos Bay, and other coastal 
areas, with their perennial green pasturage, are ideal dairying regions, 
and the irrigated Klamath basin is also an important field. 

The first sheep successfully driven across the plains were brought 
to Oregon in 1844 by Joshua Shaw and his son. Saxon and Spanish 
merinos were introduced in 1848, and purebred merinos in 1851. The 
earliest herds were confined to the western region, particularly the Wil- 
lamette Valley, but by 1860 many had been established in eastern Ore- 
gon. As the favorable climate and range conditions became better known, 
sheepmen from California and Australia swarmed into the State, and 
by 1893 the herds had increased to two and a half million head. After 
rising to 3,319,000 in 1930, the number declined to an estimated total 
of 2,245,000 at the beginning of 1937. Besides the marketing of mutton, 
a large annual clip of wool is sold. The 1937 production was more 
than 17,000,000 pounds, the average weight per fleece being % l / 2 pounds. 
Shipping of wool began in 1862, when the surplus clip of that year, 
amounting to 100,000 pounds, was sent from the Willamette Valley 
to New England. Many settlers brought goats with them across the 
plains, but commercial goat-raising is a comparatively recent enterprise. 
The most prevalent breed is the Angora, valued for its mohair wool. 
Today more than half of the mohair wool produced in the United States 
comes from Oregon. 

Every pioneer farmer raised hogs to provide fat for soap, candles, 
and cooking, and meat for his table. Purebred swine were brought to 
the state in 1868, after which the importation of fine hogs became com- 
mon. The number of hogs on Oregon farms at the beginning of 1937 
was estimated at 242,000 as against only 169,000 in 1935. 

Poultry has always been indispensable in Oregon farm life, since the 
first leghorns were introduced in 1834. Not until the present century, 
however, were eggs and poultry produced on a large scale. The tem- 
perate Willamette Valley is a favored area. Commercial turkey raising 
is comparatively new, but with its favorable summer climate and free- 
dom from disease the state has already become an important producing 
area. 

In 1935 there were 64,826 individual farms in Oregon occupying 



58 OREGON 

17,358,000 acres or 28.4 per cent of the state's entire land area, and 
with a collective value for land and buildings of $448,712,000. Of 
these farms, 17,206 were under 20 acres each in size, 30,498 were 
under 50 acres, 40,782 were under 100 acres, and 3,046 comprised 1,000 
acres or more; the average acreage per farm being 267.8. In the com- 
bined farm area, about 3,100,000 acres were used for crops and about 
12,000,000 acres consisted of pasture land. Of the total number of 
farms, 50,046 were operated by full or part owners, 715 by managers, 
and 14,065 by tenants. The total farm population numbered 248,767; 
and of the persons working on farms, family labor accounted for 83,102 
and hired help for 15,287. Considerably more than 25,000 farm opera- 
tors worked part time to pay off their farms during the year. Farms 
to the number of 29,740 or 45.9 per cent of the total, were carrying a 
combined mortgage debt of $119,670,000. 

Although much sub-marginal land cultivated during boom years in 
the "high desert" of south central Oregon, and in the remote hill 
regions elsewhere, is now abandoned, the total acreage of land in farms 
increased 50 per cent in the quarter-century from 1910 to 1935 and 
more than 22 per cent in the decade of 1925-35. Yet the total value of 
land and buildings declined sharply from $675,213,000 in 1920 and 
$630,828,000 in 1930 to $448,712,000 in 1935. The number of mort- 
gaged farms decreased from 51.5 per cent of the total in 1930 to 45.9 
per cent in 1935, with an accompanying decrease of nearly $2,500,000 
in the total farm mortgage debt. The number of farms operated by 
tenants increased from 9,790 in 1930 to 14,065 in 1935; and in the 
latter year 21.7 per cent of the total number of farms and 17.1 per 
cent of all land in farms were under tenant operation. 

Government irrigation projects in the Owyhee, Klamath, Umatilla, 
Vale, and three other districts have done much to increase the agri- 
cultural resources of Oregon. More than a million acres are now under 
irrigation in the state. Summer irrigation is rapidly supplementing 
normal winter rainfall in portions of the Willamette and Hood Rivet 
Valleys. 

The State Agricultural College at Corvallis, founded 1868, has 
played a role of incalculable importance in Oregon's agricultural ac- 
tivities. Besides the specialized training given to thousands of young 
men and women, it conducts experimental farms in various parts of the 
state, maintains a radio broadcasting station, publishes numerous bulle- 
tins, and contributes in numerous other ways to the improvement of 
farming and the conditions of farm life in general. A state agricul- 



AGRICULTURE 59 

tural experiment station has assisted Oregon farmers for more than 50 
years, and the first quarter-century of farm agent work in the state 
was celebrated in 1937. The State Agricultural Society, founded 1854, 
was the first of several state-wide organizations of farmers, the most 
important of which is now the Oregon unit of the National Grange. 
The annual State Fair at Salem and Pacific International Livestock 
Exposition at Portland are attended by farmers and stock breeders from 
every part of Oregon. 



uiiiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiBiiiiiiiiiiiiamiiiiiiniQiiiiiiiiiiiiDimim 



Industry , Commerce and Labor 



INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE: Timber is the dominant factor 
in Oregon's industrial and commercial life, and activities connected 
with it spread over all but the grasslands and the high plateaus in the 
southeastern section. So important is timber and its products that there 
is hardly a comn unity, in western Oregon at least, whose prosperity 
does not depend upon it. Even the state's tax-supported schools derive a 
good portion of their income from the forests. The importance of the 
industry is symbolized in the state shield, which the founding fathers 
inscribed with a forest and a ship. 

Water-powered mills, with up-and-down mulay saws, cut the boards 
for Oregon's earliest frame houses. The first steam-driven mill, with 
a circular saw, was built in Portland in 1850, while teams of oxen 
were busy hauling logs down skidroads which are now Portland streets. 
Along the shores of the Columbia, inland as far as Hood River, were 
great stands of timber. Here the lumber industry had its first real 
beginnings. Skidroads were pushed from the river banks into the dense 
forest. Over these the bull teams, driven by swaggering bullwhackers, 
hauled the big butts to water, where they were made into rafts and 
floated down to the mills. 

By 1890, when the exhaustion of the forests of the Great Lakes 
region was in sight, Oregon began to be prominent as a lumber state. 
The lumberjacks followed the timber west. It is common to find 
loggers in Oregon today whose fathers helped cut the pine of* Michigan, 
and whose grandfathers helped fell and saw the spruce of Maine. 

Timber owners and sawmill operators, too, came from the lake 
states to Oregon and built mills in the Willamette Valley and pushed 
logging railroads into the foothills. The Coos and Tillamook Bay 
districts were developed. When, later, lumber operators from the 
southern states arrived, because the timber there was giving out, they 
found Oregon forest land mostly taken up. 

Shortly after 1900, widespread corruption in the lumber industry was 
exposed in the great Oregon Timber Fraud cases. Men grew wealthy 



INDUSTRY, COMMERCE AND LABOR 6l 
by acquiring forest areas through a system of "dummies", names of non- 
existent people or of persons who for a few dollars signed fraudulent 
homestead applications. A happy outcome was the setting aside later of 
thousands of acres of forest, formerly public domain and open to home- 
steading, to form national reserves within the state. 

In eastern Oregon the lumber industry was slower in starting but 
once begun it gathered great speed. There the timber is mainly pine. 
Some of the largest sawmills in the world are now located at Burns, 
Bend, and Klamath Falls. Others are near Baker and La Grande. 

Waste has marked the lumber industry throughout its history, but 
today pulp and paper manufacturing, which takes care of much lumber 
refuse, seems to be developing into a major aspect of the lumber in- 
dustry. Furniture making, utilizing Oregon oak, alder, maple and 
walnut, is growing in importance. Several hundred persons in the Coos 
Bay area are employed in making novelties from myrtlewood. In Marsh- 
field and Coquille the manufacture of battery separators from the acid- 
proof Port Orford cedar is a leading industry. This unique wood is also 
used in airplane construction. In general, the utilization of forest prod- 
ucts is greater in the pine than in the fir regions. One reason is that 
pine is easier to "work" than fir. Much low-grade pine goes into box 
"shocks", the pieces from which boxes are made. One pine mill furnishes 
all the curtain rollers used by a large manufacturer of automobiles. 
Small pieces of pine are made into toys. One mill specializes in ironing 
boards. 

Until 1930 the tendency was towards larger and larger sawmills. 
Some of the pine mills in Bend and Klamath Falls have a rated eight- 
hour capacity of 300,000 feet of lumber. A fir mill at Marshfield has 
a capacity of 650,000 feet in the same space of time. Of late years, 
however, because of the depression and because of the increased overhead 
costs in large mills when on curtailed production, and because of the 
loss of the European market for heavy timbers, few large mills have 
been built. Instead, many cutting only from 10,000 to 50,000 feet a shift 
have gone into operation, using logs hauled on trucks which have sup- 
planted logging railroads. 

The income from forest products in Oregon is about 177 million 
dollars annually. Some 40,000 persons are employed who receive in 
wages and salaries approximately 56 million dollars. 

Fishing is still an important industry in Oregon, particularly so on 
the Columbia River at Astoria, at Warrenton, and at The Dalles; 
and on the Pacific Coast at Tillamook, Newport, Reedsport, and the 



62 OREGON 

cities on Coos Bay. Salmon is the leading catch, with halibut, pilchards, 
cod, steelhead trout, shad, and oysters important in the order named. 

The salmon-wheels in the Columbia River, a few of which are still 
standing, are reminders of a past made obsolete by law. Formerly thou- 
sands of salmon were taken in these ingenious contraptions. However, 
horse-seining is still done on the lower river, where teams, neck deep 
in water, pull in nets filled with struggling fish. The animals, most of 
them old discarded work-horses, seem to be rejuvenated by the brine. 
Astoria is the largest fish-canning center in the state. From here a fleet 
of boats puts out to troll or seine in the river, or off the coast. For the 
past few years the catching and processing of pilchards for oil and fer- 
tilizer have become important activities during a two-month season at 
Astoria and Coos Bay. This industry is so new that no reliable data 
on it have as yet been collected. However, in 1936, a tax of 50 cents 
per ton on pilchards taken in Oregon waters netted about $35,000. The 
annual yield of all Oregon fisheries is about 25,000,000 pounds, valued 
at over $2,600,000. The pilchard products are used locally and along 
the Pacific Coast; salmon and allied products, canned, smoked, dried, 
or kippered, are shipped to all parts of the world. 

From mining, Oregon receives a small but steady income. Gold, cop- 
per, silver, and lead rank in the order named. Mercury production 
equals that of gold in value, or about $350,000 annually. Three thou- 
sand persons are engaged in the production of minerals in the state, 
and the total income is approximately $4,500,000 a year. Gold was 
Oregon's earliest mineral discovery. In eastern and southern parts of 
the state prospectors are still active in the mountains and along streams. 
Tales of "lost" mines persist as part of local folklore. In Curry, Baker, 
Jackson and Josephine counties are many ruins of "ghost towns," built 
hurriedly and as swiftly abandoned and forgotten. 

Manufacturing in Oregon has made slow but steady progress. The 
lumber industry plays the role of a general stimulant through its de- 
mand for logging locomotives, donkey-engines, steel cables, blocks and 
timber-cutting tools, much of which equipment is made in the state. 
In Portland a factory, in business since 1887, builds 13,000 stoves and 
2,500 furnaces a year. Another plant specializes in automatic stokers 
that are sold all over the world. Still another makes 2,000,000 tin cans 
annually to meet the demands of the local fruit and fish-canning indus- 
tries. Woolen goods have been made since earliest days. Though wool 
in great quantities and of excellent grade is still produced in the state, 
the industry has lagged somewhat in late years. 



INDUSTRY, COMMERCE AND LABOR 63 

Oregon grows a fine grade of flax fiber, yet mills have come and gone 
for fifty years. In 1935 an Oregon Flax Committee was appointed to 
investigate the industry and make recommendations. In October of that 
year the Works Progress Administration consented to earmark money 
to build three flax-processing plants in the state. In December the Agri- 
cultural Adjustment Administration granted a federal subsidy of $5 a 
ton to flax growers. Committees which were granted WPA funds for 
plants, furnished land and contributed cash to the enterprise, while 
farmers and business men, backed by their bankers, organized coopera- 
tives. The state engaged experts to supervise construction of the plants 
and to help the cooperatives get started. The WPA agreed to construct 
the plants and run them for one year, whereupon the state assumed re- 
sponsibility. 

Oregon exports, like the state's commerce in general, depend on the 
activity of the timber industry, which in turn influences agriculture. 
The bulk of water-borne shipments consists of lumber, flour, wheat, 
paper, and canned goods, including salmon, in the order named. Next 
in rank are logs, apples, dried fruits, pulp-wood, hides and leather; then 
plywood, cereals, doors, milk, vegetables, cheese, and butter. Cattle, 
sheep, horses, and hogs on the hoof, poultry and poultry products, and 
wool in the raw, are shipped chiefly by freight car. 

The total commerce of the Port of Portland, Oregon's chief com- 
mercial terminal, which handles by far the largest share of the state's 
shipments, was 7,353,378 tons in 1938. Some 1717 vessels entered and 
cleared, carrying a tonnage of 5,556,535 tons. Total port commerce 
value in 1938 was $273,258,096. Commerce along the inland waterways 
and by train, truck and electric line, with shipments from Tillamook 
and Coos bays, added vastly to the state's commercial figures. 

The Bonneville dam on the Columbia, forty miles east of Portland, 
completed by the Federal Government in 1937, had an immediate ca- 
pacity of 115,250 horsepower, and foundations for 576,000 additional 
horsepower. This gave inestimable impetus to Oregon industry and 
commerce. The largest development to date (1940) is that of the Ameri- 
can Aluminum Company that has purchased a 300 acre site and has 
scheduled the opening of a plant in 1941. Public Utility Districts for 
use of Bonneville power are being organized in many parts of the state, 
and many private companies are negotiating for the use of power from 
the dam. 

LABOR: Romantic historians of the great migration to Oregon 
have woven a stirring tale of a land-hungry yeomanry carving an em- 



64 OREGON 

pire out of the wilderness. The covered wagons, however, brought with 
them also a number of mechanics and artisans driven from their homes 
by chaotic industrial conditions in the East. In Europe the great period 
of unrest following the Napoleonic Wars set in motion a wave of emi- 
gration that flooded America's Atlantic seaboard with thousands of in- 
digent workers. Wage scales toppled and standards of living fell as the 
Europeans entered every field of labor. 

American workers, faced with the specters of unemployment and 
poverty, chose westward migration. By the middle of the century the 
trek to the Northwest was under way. in the wagon trains were Ore- 
gon's first printers. These men carried pamphlets of craft unionism 
among their gear, and became the pioneers of the Oregon labor move- 
ment. From Oregon and Washington territories they came in 1853 to 
Portland, then a town of about i,OOO inhabitants, and organized a 
Typographical Society along the lines of the successful National Typo- 
graphical Union formed in the East in 1850. Portland soon became an 
important shipping point, and in 1868 the longshoremen set up their 
Portland Protective Union. This was Oregon's second labor association. 

Meanwhile there had arisen the problem of competitive Chinese labor 
which was to harry the white workers of Oregon for many years. Driven 
out of California by anti-Chinese feeling, the Orientals flocked north 
as far as Portland. The Burlingame Treaty, ratified in 1867, which 
opened the country to coolies recruited for railroad construction, greatly 
increased the number of yellow laborers. A crowded labor market re- 
sulted, followed by decreased wages, at a time of rising living costs. 

White laborers, threatened with the loss of their jobs, responded by 
boycotting those who employed the Asiatics. Feeling ran high and for 
the first time in Oregon a line was sharply drawn between those for 
and against Orientals. Political destinies were shaped by the conflict, 
which was fought out in the decades following, industry as a whole 
staunchly favoring the low-wage coolie labor, and the white workers 
forming organizations to effect its exclusion. In 1886 the anti-Chinese 
agitation was at its height. Mayor Gates of Portland called a meeting of 
protest in favor of the Chinese, but Sylvester Pennoyer took over the 
meeting and declared that the Chinese must go. Partly because of his 
stand on this question he was elected governor of the state at the fol- 
lowing election. Heroic attempts were made to organize a central labor 
body which might better handle the issue, but a confusion of economic 
ftnd political aims prevented united action. 

Finally, however, labor did draw itself together within a framework 



rr 



R\ 



% 



v 




MURAL, U. S. POST OFFICE, ONTARIO 



* * * * 

,&?'j 



OREGON TRAIL IN 1843 











OF Th& 



DISCOVERY OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER 



ASTORIA IN 1811 





JOEL PALMER HOUSE, DAYTON 



LADD AND REED FARM, REEDVILLE 




UMATILLA, 1864 



PORTLAND, 1854 





CATTLE RANCH 



OWYHEE PROJECT FARM 




MAIN INTAKE KLAMATH COUNTY PROJECT 

IRRIGATED FIELD, OWYHEE PROJECT 



'TfrJ 




CENTRAL OREGON SHEEP RANCH 



CENTRAL OREGON SHEEP HERDER 




y* 




OREGON STATE CAPITOL, SALEM 




I 




DAYTON FARM FAMILY LABOR CAMP 



FARM BOY 




f. 







INDIANS FISHING FOR SALMON, 1856 



COLUMBIA RIVER SALMON FISHERIES 







PILCHARD FISHING FLEET 



FISH NETS DRYING 






AERIAL VIEW, PORTLAND 



AERIAL VIEW, OREGON STATE COLLEGE 








HUP 






OLD ADMINISTRATION 
BUILDING, O.S.C. 




DEADY HALL, 
U. OF O. 



rt 






STATE FORESTRY BUILDING, SALEM 



UNION STATION, PORTLAND 



nun 



FIRST PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH, PORTLAND 



TEMPLE BETH ISRAEL, 
PORTLAND 




JdLi 



INDUSTRY, COMMERCE AND LABOR 65 

of united craft associations. These weathered the panic of 1873, and 
by 1882 were ten in number. The unions learned to make use of the 
strike, and, although most walkouts were lost, some, among them the 
strike of the harnessmakers in 1889, gave union labor confidence and a 
measure of badly needed prestige. 

The period between 1880 and 1890 was one of tremendous expansion 
in Oregon, and alternately harsh and kind to labor. As the Northern 
Pacific Railroad, completed in 1883, linked the state to the great indus- 
trial cities of the East, Portland grew from a town of 25,000 to a 
marketing and shipping center with three times that many people. 
Building construction reached unprecedented levels. Commodity prices 
continued to mount until the minor depression of 1884. 

Samuel Gompers visiting Portland in 1883 had to raise his voice to 
make himself heard above the noise of the building operations in the 
booming city. But he achieved his purpose, that of leading Portland's 
300 organized craftsmen into forming the Portland Federated Trades 
Assembly, the first central labor body in Oregon with a completely 
unified membership. The assembly found itself opposed by the Knights 
of Labor, James Sovereign's organization, established since 1880, which 
had 600 members. The two bodies, one committed to rigid crafts union- 
ism, the other to the policy of including all craftsmen in the same or- 
ganization, engaged in a struggle for control of all Portland labor. The 
Knights were temporarily left in possession of the field, and in 1885 
the Portland Federated Trades Assembly was dissolved. 

Although Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882, this 
legislation did not affect the Orientals already in the country. Their 
number was augmented by smugglers, who found the closed immigration 
channels easy to circumvent. Thus, during the depression of 1884, labor 
found itself, in spite of the exclusion law, competing with an ever- 
increasing number of Asiatics. Knights of Labor organizers led Oregon's 
aroused workers to action and in 1885 a camp of Chinese coolies was 
attacked by a mob at Albina. Oregon's Governor called the militia, 
which refused to serve. More riots followed, an anti-Chinese convention 
was called together, the boycott was again invoked and for the first time 
in Oregon dynamite was used as a class-war weapon. As the result of 
these events the Knights of Labor dominated the situation when Samuel 
Gompers returned to Portland in 1887. 

All attempts to revive the Portland Federated Trades Assembly, dead 
for two years, had failed, but Gompers, now representing the American 
Federation of Labor (formed the year before) succeeded in bringing 



66 OREGON 

the central body back to life. The A. F. of L. had only 250,000 mem- 
bers in the United States to pit against the Knights of Labor's national 
organization of 700,000 members, but the influence of the Knights was 
on the wane in Oregon, while that of the A. F. of L. now rose rapidly. 
In 1889 the Portland Federated Trades Assembly showed its strength 
through a boycott in favor of locked-out brewery workers. In 1890 the 
A. F. of L. called a general strike to obtain the eight-hour day, and 
Portland's union carpenters won their fight, though they had to submit 
to a wage-cut in return for victory. 

The 1 890*8 were not happy years for Oregon workers. The "hard 
times" of 1893-95 were levying a heavy toll upon the whole country, 
and the plight of organized labor in general was desperate. Oregon's 
unemployed grew in numbers, hunger marchers stormed Portland's city 
hall, and hungry men joined Coxey's Army. The state's railroad workers 
walked out in sympathy with Gene Debs' great transportation strike 
and lost their jobs when the strike failed. 

In its struggle for existence the Portland Federated Trades Assembly 
clung to its A. F. of L. affiliation, and fought off the threat of the newly 
formed Central Labor Council for control of Oregon's workers. It 
called a state labor congress to devise means of relief, and again ob- 
tained undisputed leadership of the battered labor ranks, with new union 
charters granted. 

The need of a state labor body had become apparent and in 1902, 
when 17 strikes disrupted Oregon industry, 175 delegates, representing 
about 10,000 workers, met in Portland and formed the Oregon Fed- 
eration of Labor. The Federation stood for economic and political re- 
form, and was largely instrumental in obtaining legislation for the estab- 
lishment of the state bureau of labor in 1903. Made strong by the 
Federation, craft unionism felt more secure. Nothing now appeared to 
challenge the authority of the A. F. of L. 

However, the idea of the One Big Union advocating that labor, to 
be effective, ought to set aside all distinctions of craft, color, sex and 
nationality, and unite in one coordinated body began to attract attention. 
This idea was reaffirmed by the Industrial Workers of the World, a 
revolutionary organization formed in Chicago in 1905. Soon the world 
was to hear much of the I. W. W., or the "Wobblies" as members were 
nicknamed. 

The genius of the organization was "Big Bill" Haywood, a former 
miner who knew conditions in western mining and logging camps. The 
I. W. W. seemed peculiarly fitted to conditions in the Far West, and 



INDUSTRY, COMMERCE AND LABOR 67 

among the miners and lumberjacks of Oregon the influence of Hay- 
wood's organization was soon paramount. In 1907 that part of the 
state's lumber industry centering about Portland was paralyzed by the 
greatest strike in its history. The walk-out was brief, and although no 
recognition was gained, strikers pointed to increased wages and improved 
working conditions as results of the dispute. 

The I. W. W. remained a power in the lumber industry until war 
measures in 1917, gave to its members all they were fighting for, in- 
cluding the eight-hour day, better sanitation and working conditions, 
and beds provided by operators so no man would have to carry his 
blankets on his back in order to obtain a job. With its objectives gone, 
the organization lost its militancy and dwindled. However, it came back 
again after the Armistice, when the threat of lowered wages and the re- 
turn of the longer working day again menaced. Lumber and logging 
operators, with the aid of the 4-L, first a war-measure organization and 
later a "Company Union," made strenuous war on the I. W. W., which 
in 1919 retaliated with a general strike. This was unsuccessful, and 
after much violence and bloodshed, and sharp division of sentiment 
among the lumber workers, the I. W. W. gradually lost footing. 

The 4-L the Loyal Legion of Loggers and Lumbermen was formed 
by the Federal Government through the War Board to do away with 
unrest and dissatisfaction in the lumber industry of the Pacific Coast, 
and thus to speed up the production to meet war-time needs. Barring 
nobody because of previous affiliations, it was organized in the summer 
of 1917 and soon included all persons in any manner engaged in camps 
or sawmills. As long as the government ran the 4.L, peace was main- 
tained between the workers and their employers. After the end of the 
war, however, most of the loggers as well as many of the sawmill work- 
ers dropped from the rolls. Members who remained belonged to the 
better paid categories among the lumber workers. After 1919 the Loyal 
Legion never possessed the confidence or support of the great mass of 
workers, and is regarded by many as having taken on the character of 
a "company union". The 4.L continued to function in some sort of 
manner until, pressed by changing labor conditions, it reorganized under 
the name of the Industrial Employees Union, with an influence largely 
confined to the pine-producing districts. 

In recent years only two major strikes have taken place in Oregon 
the International Longshoremen's Association strike in 1934, for better 
conditions, and that of the Sawmill and Timber Workers' Union, in 
1934-35. They were settled by the aid of Federal arbitration. Both dis- 



68 OREGON 

putes were tinged with the passions and prejudices of extremists on the 
sides of labor and capital alike, but led to improved working conditions 
and union recognition. 

The Oregon Federation of Labor with a present membership of 
approximately 70,000 represents craft unionism in Oregon, with its 
corresponding purposes and motives. The idea of industrial unionism, or 
the vertical plan of organization as opposed to the horizontal, has been 
powerfully revived through the C.I.O. headed by John L. Lewis; and 
the late 1930*8 in Oregon have been marked by spectacular struggles 
between the two union systems. By initiative process a rigid anti-picket- 
ing law was adopted at the general election of 1938, 



NUuniimiiiiiiiaimimiiiiQiiimiiiiiiOiiiiiiiiiiiiDiniiiiiiiiimiim 



Transportation 



IN the late spring of 1837 a little company of men and women, sent 
out from Boston to reinforce the four lonely brethren at the Metho- 
dist mission station in the Willamette Valley, arrived in the lower 
waters of the Columbia, after a voyage of ten months by way of Cape 
Horn and the Sandwich Islands. Near the mouth of the Willamette 
River they were met by Jason Lee, who had made the journey of 75 
miles from the mission by canoe, and with him they paddled up the river 
to the station. In mid-July two women among the newcomers were 
united in marriage to Lee and his co-worker Cyrus Shepard. "As the 
sickly season came on," according to a contemporary record, the newly- 
married couples "performed two tours through the country, for the 
benefit of their health." The first was a ten-days' journey on horseback, 
southward along the Willamette River, eastward to the headwaters of 
the Molalla, northward to Champoeg, and back to the mission. Very 
shortly thereafter they set out on foot "to perform a land journey to 
the Pacific coast," following a trail some 80 miles long from the valley 
to the ocean that had been used by Indians and by retired Hudson's Bay 
trappers. Though they found this route "exceedingly difficult, on ac- 
count of the abruptness of the ascending and descending, and the numer- 
ous large trees that had fallen across it," the party arrived at the Pacific 
in four days; and the same length of time was required "in crossing the 
mountains, jumping the logs, fording the streams, and traveling over the 
prairies" on the return. By the end of August they were back at the 
Willamette station, "better qualified, from the improvement of their 
health, to pursue the business of their calling." 

Most of the common methods of travel available in the Oregon 
country a century ago are represented in the above brief narrative by 
canoe on the waterways, by horseback in the valley bottoms and level 
open country, afoot through the mountains and other forested areas over 
narrow trails cut by Indians and trappers. With the coming of the 
homeseekers, however, the principal trails were rapidly broadened into 
roads. Thousands of immigrants in ox-drawn wagons, with their leaders 



70 OREGON 

and guides on horseback, eventually fashioned a main route of travel 
from the lower Missouri River to the Willamette Valley. In its far 
western course this route traversed the northeastern corner of what is 
now the State of Oregon, entering from the valley of the Snake River 
near the latter's confluence with the Malheur, and continuing past the 
sites of Baker, La Grande, and Pendleton to the junction of the Walla 
Walla River with the Columbia. This latter point was the end of the 
original Oregon Trail, the rest of the journey being accomplished by 
boat and portage down the Columbia. But in 1843 a roadway was 
broken along the south bank of that river as far west as The Dalles; 
and in the following year a route came into use from the site of La 
Grande over the Blue Mountains to the Umatilla, along the latter to 
the Columbia, and thence to The Dalles. From this point westward, the 
river provided the only means of transportation until 1845, when Samuel 
Barlow and Philip Foster cut a crude wagon road through the forests 
and over the precipitous slopes south of Mount Hood to Willamette 
Falls at the site of Oregon City. In 1846 they improved the grades and 
secured a toll franchise. Travelers using this road of 85 miles in length 
paid tolls of $5 a wagon and $i for each head of livestock. Today part 
of the course is followed by the Mount Hood Loop Highway. 

A second road, completed in 1846, led into the Willamette region by 
way of the Malheur River valley and the Klamath country, thence 
through the mountains and northward to the upper Willamette. By this 
time relatively short stretches of primitive road had been constructed 
between various adjacent settlements not connected by waterways. Some 
of these were community affairs, built by the settlers to provide means 
of local intercourse ; others were commercial enterprises, operating under 
toll franchise. By 1846 there was a wagon road from Portland to the 
fertile Tualatin Plains. Many of the early roads led to river landings 
where boat service was available. Bridges, too, began to be built. On 
May 8, 1850, according to a local record, "the court proceeded to let 
by public outcry the bridge across the river near Hillsborough imme- 
diately below the forks of Dary and McKays creek where the former 
Frame bridge stood"; and another bridge was built across the Yamhill 
River, at the site of Lafayette, in 1851. 

Popular demands for adequate mail service hastened the transforma- 
tion of trails into vehicular roadways. A stagecoach line began operations 
in 1851 up and down the Willamette Valley and to points in southern 
Oregon; this line was taken over by the Wells Fargo company four 
years later. In 1857 a Concord coach made the run of about 50 miles 



TRANSPORTATION Jl 

from Portland to Salem in one day. Larger vehicles, some of them drawn 
by six horses, came into use as the roads were gradually improved. Dur- 
ing the early i86o's connections were established with California stage 
lines, and fast service was instituted to adjacent valley and mountain 
points. 

Until well along toward the middle of the I9th century, freighting 
on the Columbia River was chiefly controlled by the Hudson's Bay 
Company, which operated fleets of large barges for carrying furs from 
the upper tributaries of the Columbia down to the company's general 
depot at Fort Vancouver, where the pelts were examined, dried, and 
packed for shipment to London. Each of these barges had a cargo capac- 
ity of five or six tons, and was manned by a crew of at least six French- 
Canadian or half-breed oarsmen. At the Cascades, the boats and their 
cargoes were carried across a short portage, while the rapids below were 
"shot" by the sturdy voyageurs. Many of the early homeseekers and 
their belongings were transported down the river in these barges. The 
Hudson's Bay Company long maintained a similar service on the Wil- 
lamette River as well. 

There were few steamboats on either river before 1850. In that year 
the Columbia, go feet long, was launched at Astoria and began operat- 
ing on a semi-weekly schedule between Astoria and Oregon City, on the 
Willamette. This service was supplemented later in the same year by 
a larger vessel, the Lot Whitcomb, built and launched at Milwaukie, 
near Portland. Steamer service above the falls at Oregon City reached 
Salem in 1853 and Eugene in 1857. At Portland, ocean-going vessels 
loaded shipments for California, the Sandwich Islands, and eastern ports 
by way of Cape Horn. 

Wagon wheels were still creaking over the mountain passes when 
pioneer promoters in the Northwest began to organize railroad com- 
panies. In the late 1850'$, Joseph S. Ruckel and Harrison Olmstead 
gave Oregon its first rail service, selecting as their scene of operations 
the portage trail around the Cascades of the Columbia River. Here, in 
the summer of 1859, four and a half miles of wooden track were laid, 
between the site of Bonneville and what is now Cascade Locks; and 
over this track, mules and horses pulled trains of four or five small cars. 
A few months later the wooden rails were given a bearing surface of 
sheet iron, and the Oregon Pony, first steam locomotive to be built on 
the Pacific coast, began transporting amazed immigrants past the Cas- 
cades in a cloud of sparks and steam and smoke. The Union Transpor- 
tation Company, later reorganized as the Oregon Steam Navigation 



72 OREGON 

Company, also came into being in 1859. Starting operations with eight 
small river boats, it eventually acquired the portage railroad at the Cas- 
cades and another higher up along the Columbia between The Dalles 
and the mouth of the Deschutes River. 

Oregon's railroad history begins with a project for a line from Oregon 
to connect with the railroad already built from California to the East. 
This intention resulted in plans for two lines, one from Portland up 
the east side of the Willamette River, the other on the west side. A 
group sponsoring each plan sought for land grants from the Federal 
Government, and a conflict developed between the "Eastsiders" and the 
"Westsiders" which involved much lobbying and trickery. In 1868 both 
broke ground for their lines. A Kentuckian, Ben Holladay, a picturesque 
character typical of the financiers of his time, thrust himself into this 
struggle and pushed the fortunes of the East Side road. The backers 
of the other line came at last to an agreement with Holladay that 
victory should go to the line that first completed twenty miles of track. 
Holladay won, and the rival road was sold to him. His road, the Oregon 
and California, had, however, been built only to Roseburg when, in 
1873, financial difficulties blocked further construction. 

Henry Villard, whose gift for organization was of much importance 
in the development of Oregon, was a German-American who had been 
a newspaper reporter in the 1859 gold rush to Colorado and in the Civil 
War. He had come to Oregon to represent German bond-holders in 
Holladay's enterprises. Villard took over the Oregon and California 
Railroad, and resumed the building of the line. It reached Ashland in 
1884 and was extended over the Siskiyous to connect with San Francisco 
and the East in 1887, after Villard's control of it had ended. 

Villard also acquired the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, which 
controlled traffic on the Columbia River, and, reorganizing it as the 
Oregon Railway and Navigation Company, began building a line on 
the Oregon bank of the Columbia, intending to link it with a road being 
built northwestward across Idaho by the Union Pacific. That road, 
however, refused to join its tracks with Villard's. With Eastern backing, 
Villard managed to gain control of the Northern Pacific, then being 
built from Minneapolis toward the West. Confronting this opposition, 
the Oregon Short Line (Union Pacific) and the O. R. N. joined in 
1884. Oregon now had its outlets to the East and to California. 

The period from 1890 until well into the present century was one 
of almost continual railroad expansion in the state. With trunk lines 
established, branch lines were extended up many valleys where the set- 



TRANSPORTATION 73 

tiers had relied on stagecoaches or steamboats. Astoria, the state's oldest 
city, had no railroad until 1898. Not until 1911 were coyotes on the 
high plateaus of central Oregon startled by steam whistles, and then the 
air was made doubly shrill by the construction race to Bend between 
the Hill and Harriman lines. Marshfield waited until April 5, 1918, to 
greet its first train. Burns, center of the cattle country, had to wait 
until 1924. 

But the smell of gasoline was already heavy in the air. The good roads 
movement opposed at the outset by many who were to benefit most from 
it, was well under way by 1910. Auto travel demanded speedy and 
accessible highways. Presently the first of the one-man stage and truck 
lines appeared, automobiles that bumped over the still-dusty roads at 
25 miles an hour, stopping anywhere and everywhere for passengers and 
freight, and delivering them to cities or remote mountain hamlets. Rib- 
bons of asphalt, macadam, and concrete radiated from the more populous 
centers, and stretched out a few miles at a time across and up and down 
the state. The Columbia River Highway was begun and completed. 
The Pacific Highway became a hard-surface reality in 1932. By the end 
f J 939> there were almost 50,000 miles of road in the state, of which 
about 5,900 had medium or high type improvement. 

Meanwhile the rail carriers were entering the bus and truck transport 
business and were pulling up rails that had outlasted their usefulness. 
Today, there are innumerable trucking lines, both interstate and intra- 
state. Much of the inland freight trade of Oregon's coast communities 
was first made possible by trucking companies, and the vast spaces of 
southeastern Oregon are still served entirely by motor. 

Oregon was quick to grasp the significance of air transport. No soonei 
had stunt flying in crude planes become a part of state and county fair 
programs than adventurous individuals began buying machines for 
private use. Pastures near population centers became landing fields. As 
these pioneers showed the possibilities of flying, progressive cities started 
building airports. By 1936 there were 32 established airports in 31 
cities. Three of these Portland, Medford and Pendleton are trans- 
continental lines and many of the others have been recognized as intra- 
state ports. There are also many emergency landing fields. In recent 
years the United States Forest Service has used planes for detecting and 
fighting forest fires. 

The year 1936 saw the development of important Oregon airports, 
when the Works Progress Administration allocated one and one-half 
million dollars for their modernization and improvement. The new Port- 



74 OREGON 

land airport was established on the Columbia River and the Medford, 
Pendleton, and Astoria ports were improved. 

Some 60 steamboat lines, operating in the coastwise and intercoastal 
trade have ports of call in Astoria and Portland; with the early com- 
pletion of improvement to the river channel below Bonneville Dam, The 
Dalles is expected to become an important deep-water port. A total of 
7,763,683 tons of outgoing vessel freight crossed the Columbia River 
bar in 1934; rafted lumber reached 4,318,906 tons; a total of well over 
12 million tons for the year. 

Steamboating on the Columbia and lower Willamette Rivers is still 
carried on by a few combination stern-wheel freight and towboats, craft 
whose construction recalls the days when rivers were the chief lanes of 
commerce and travel. There are also three small passenger boats plying 
six times a week, between Portland and Astoria. They call at way ports 
on both sides of the river and a trip on one of them recalls the old 
Steamboating days. 



niiiiimoiiiiiiimuaiiiiiiiiiiiioiiimiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiainiiiimiioiiim 



Racial Elements 



OREGON'S racial background is principally American. The first 
white inhabitants the hunters and trappers, explorers, traders 
and fanners of 1800 to 1820, were either American-born or American 
in their general outlook, habits and ambitions. The Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, which established Fort Vancouver in 1824-25, though British- 
controlled and in part British manned, employed many French-Cana- 
dians who, when their terms of service expired, settled on French Prairie 
in Marion County, where their descendants can be found today. The 
Hudson's Bay Company also prepared the way for the missionary set- 
tlers, zealous Americans who endeavored to improve the lot of the Ore- 
gon Indians. 

In the wake of the Methodist missionaries, beginning about 1840, a 
few American settlers began to cross the great plains, the number in- 
creasing until the first large immigration arrived in 1843. From then 
on, almost every year showed a steady numerical increase, Missouri 
being the leading contributor to the population flow. These settlers were 
looking for economic opportunities more favorable than could be found 
in the older sections of the country and, regardless of their diverse 
national origins German, English, Irish, Dutch, Scotch, Scandinavian, 
French and Italian they were already Americans in their general out- 
look, habits and ambitions. 

During the 1 850*8 gold hunters, adventurers and settlers drifted into 
Oregon from California; merchants and mechanics, laborers and profes- 
sional men arrived from New England, the eastern seaboard and the 
Mississippi Basin, seeking more favorable economic opportunities than 
could be found in those regions. 

In 1860 Oregon had a population of 52,465, which increased by 
decades to 90,923; 174,768; 317,704; 413,536; 672,765; and 783,389, 
bringing the 1930 population to 953,786. In 1860 the per cent of 
foreign born was 9.8, which mounted to 18.0 per cent in 1890 and fell 
again to 11.6 per cent in 1930. The increase of aliens corresponds to 
the period of railroad construction when swarms of common laborers, 



76 OREGON 

including Asiatics, were imported; and their decrease to the period of 
adjustment and changing economic conditions that followed. Of the 
1 1.6 per cent of foreign born in Oregon in 1930, almost one-third came 
from English-speaking countries; 13,528 from Great Britain and North 
Ireland; 2,802 from the Irish Free State; and 17,946 from Canada. 

Immigration to Oregon had two peaks 1880-90, when 142,936 
people arrived, and 1900-10, when newcomers numbered 259,229. The 
first increase was largely due to the completion of the transcontinental 
railroads and the construction of local lines, affording easy transporta- 
tion for settlers; while the second was in the main the result of the 
World's Fair held in Portland in 1905, which brought vast crowds of 
visitors, many of whom remained or returned later to the state to live; 
the development of irrigation which opened large tracts of land for 
settlement; and the modern exploitation of Oregon's great lumber re- 
sources, with the consequent growth of all business. 

Of Oregon's 953,736 total population in 1930, 937,029 were white 
and 16,707 dark-skinned; 392,629 were born in the state and 450,667 
in other states; and 110,440 were foreign-born. The native Oregonians, 
though less than half of the number of inhabitants, comprise, culturally 
and economically, the dominant elements in the state. The character 
of the early settlers has, in numberless instances, been inherited by their 
descendants, and pioneer names abound in the register of Oregon indus- 
trialists, merchants, bankers, agriculturists, and public and professional 
men. The thoroughly American character of Oregon's population is 
emphasized by the few exceptions to the rule. Only in isolated instances 
do groups of people maintain cultural habits that distinguish them from 
the majority. Among these are the Basques of the southeastern part of 
the state; the Germans of Aurora; the Finns and Scandinavians in and 
about Astoria; and the Chinese of Portland. Of Oregon's 110,440 
foreign-born, 12,913 came from Germany; 5,507 from Finland; 22,033 
from Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and 2,075 from China. The num- 
ber of Basques is negligible. Japanese number 4,958, but they have 
adopted occidental customs to a surprising degree. The negroes, num- 
bering 2,234, are prone to live in colonies. All children in Oregon, 
regardless of hue of skin, attend the same schools, and restrictions be- 
cause of color in business or occupational activity are non-existent. In- 
dians number 4,776, largely on reservations, the most important of 
which are the Klamath, Umatilla, and Warm Springs (see INDIANS 
AND ARCHEOLOGY). There remains a small sprinkling of Mexi- 
cans, Filipinos and Hindus, insignificant in numbers. 



RACIAL ELEMENTS 77 

In Oregon, as in other states, there has been a shift in population 
from country to city. In 1890 the urban inhabitants constituted 26.8 
per cent; in 1900, 32.2; in 1910, 45.6; in 1920, 49.9; and in 1930, 
51.3 per cent. The total urban population in that year was 489,746, 
while the rural numbered 464,040. The tendency of urban centers to 
absorb the native-born rural citizen is, of course, a familiar phenomenon. 
The residence of the foreign-born, because of his occupation, is usually 
determined before he leaves his homeland. Most of the state's immi- 
grants from England, Scotland, Wales, and the north of Ireland, 
flocked to Portland because they were there likely to find work at the 
industrial pursuits in which they were skilled. Similarly, a large portion 
of the immigrants from Scandinavia, Russia, Italy and Poland selected 
this city as their residence, largely because it afforded them the most 
promising chances to make a livelihood in ways to which they were 
accustomed. Immigrants from Denmark, the Netherlands, Switzerland 
and other agricultural countries, drifted to the dairy, fruit and farming 
districts by preference; while Finns, and to some degree Russians, 
Swedes and Norwegians, sought regions where fishing, lumbering and 
sailing were the principal occupations. 

Among groups that differ from the rest of the population are the 
Basques of Malheur County. More than forty years ago an immigrant 
from the Basque provinces in Spain visited the Jordan valley in south- 
eastern Oregon. He was a herdsman, and the sweep of country from 
Crane in Harney County to the Nevada line, reminded him of home 
in its promise of fine pasturage for sheep. He wrote about the region 
to his brother in Spain, who soon joined him. Thus was started an im 
migration that resulted in the establishment of several Basque com- 
munities. 

The people are thrifty and energetic and have become prosperous. 
In manners they are courteous and pleasant, but reticent. They have to 
a great degree maintained the cultural habits of their native country. 
Besides English, most of them speak Spanish and their native tongue of 
Escuara. Their appearance is marked by clear olive complexions, dark 
eyes, fine teeth and red lips. With their Spanish love of color they enjoy 
wearing bright sashes and vests. It is not unusual to find a group of 
them gathered about an accordion or guitar player, singing and dancing 
as many generations of Basques have done before them. 

The German community at Aurora, Clackamas County, dates from 
1856. The year before, because of marked Indian hostilities, migration 
to Oregon had slowed down. A determined band of Germans, of Bethel, 



78 OREGON 

Missouri, decided to brave the danger of conflict with the redskins, and 
set out on the long westward trek. They were threatened on several 
occasions but eventually arrived in the Willamette Valley. 

They obtained land, settled down to an experiment in communal 
living, and named their colony Aurora. Farms were established, fields 
cleared, and crops and stock raised. Dwellings, a church, a community 
house, shops and stores took shape; also a school and a park. A band 
was organized, the finest in the state at the time. Being industrious and 
frugal, the colony thrived. 

The community developed on a communistic-religious basis, though 
the details are not fully known. The products of farm and shop were 
placed in a storehouse from which all members drew supplies as needed. 
No money changed hands. So diversified were the talents of the colonists 
that their town was practically self-sustaining. 

It flourished, a place apart, both as to vocational and recreational 
life, for more than twenty years. Its religious leader was Dr. William 
Keil, the colony worshipping in accordance with the inspirations he drew 
from the Bible. When he died in 1877, a process of disintegration began. 
In time, hastened by pressure from the outside world, the communal 
property was divided and members of the Aurora colony embarked on 
individual enterprises. 

Finnish immigrants and in some measure Scandinavian were 
drawn to Astoria because of the fishing and sailing, the shipbuilding 
and lumbering, pursuits to which they were accustomed in the old 
country. There had been a time, about 1870, when transient American 
fishermen from California had done the fishing for the Astoria canneries 
and caused a small "Barbary Coast" to grow up. The newcomers from 
the north of Europe were a different class of people. They were eager 
to settle down as law-abiding citizens, save money and send for families 
left behind. Besides being excellent workmen, they were steady and in- 
dustrious. Gradually Astoria developed a Finnish-Scandinavian atmos- 
phere. In 1930 more than half the city's population of 10,349 were 
Finnish-Scandinavian born, or of Finnish or Scandinavian parentage, 
with a sprinkling of Russian stock. 

Chinese immigration to Oregon began in 1850. In that year the 
scarcity of common labor, caused by the rush of able-bodied men to the 
California goldfields, became so acute that Asiatics were imported. The 
influx increased with the years and the construction of the railroads, 
beginning in 1862, brought the Chinese pouring into the state. 

At first everybody was satisfied. The Chinese were patient workers, 



RACIAL ELEMENTS 79 

willing to toil long hours for small wages. But a reversal of feeling came 
with the completion of the first overland railroad in 1869. With swarms 
of coolie laborers released to compete with white laborers for jobs that 
were none too many, they were soon regarded as a menace by white 
workers in general all along the Pacific Coast. In Oregon the idle 
Chinese flocked to Portland, Oregon City, and other large towns. 

For many years after 1870 anti-Chinese demonstrations were frequent. 
In Portland men met in open lots and harangued against the Orientals, 
while conservative newspapers defended them. Torch-light processions 
marched through the streets, carrying anti-Chinese banners. A committee 
of fifteen was chosen to notify the hated foreigners to "git up an' git." 
Masked men terrorized the Chinese by dynamiting their dwellings. 
Chinese lives were sacrificed and little done about it. The militia was 
finally called out to cope with the situation, but did no permanent good. 
It was only through the passing of the Chinese exclusion act in 1882 
that violent race prejudice was finally appeased and the anti-Chinese 
feeling died down. 

In Portland, as in other cities of the state where Chinese live today, 
they reside for the most part in a well-defined section. Portland's China- 
town is about two or three blocks wide and seven or eight long. Chinese 
is commonly spoken and Chinese dress frequently worn. Chinese funerals 
are still magnificent spectacles, and debts are still liquidated on the day 
of the Chinese New Year. However, these people are in general very 
quiet, peaceful and self-sufficient and ask only to be permitted to live as 
they see fit. With tong wars relegated to the past, the problems of work 
and business constitute their principal interests. 

Oregon's 4,958 Japanese are engaged chiefly in farming, gardening 
and small commercial enterprises. A few are employed by industry or in 
hotels and restaurants. As farmers, their ambition to own land raised 
issues of national and international import. A quarter of a century ago 
early orchardists of the Hood River Valley hired Japanese laborers to 
clear land. The Oriental stump-diggers saved money and began to buy 
orchard land of their own, and to build homes. The act was resented 
and in 1917 a Hood River senator introduced a bill in the Oregon 
legislature, prohibiting Asiatics from owning land in the state. 

The bill was withdrawn at the urgent request of the United States 
Department of State, for fear that it might have serious international 
consequences at a time when the country was on the verge of war in 
Europe. A later legislature, however, adopted the bill, following the 
example of California in this respect. In the meantime, a Hood River 



8O OREGON 

anti-Japanese association had been formed, and the Hood River Post 
of the American Legion had lent its influence toward prohibiting Japa 
nese immigration to the United States. The American Legion Post 
carried the issue to the state convention, and the latter obtained en- 
dorsement of the principle at their national meeting in Minneapolis. 
This was the beginning of a movement which resulted in Congressional 
action prohibiting Japanese immigration. 

Of late the anti-Japanese ownership laws of Oregon have been much 
nullified, because Japanese children, born in the United States and 
guaranteed citizenship by the Federal Constitution, have acquired land 
under white guardianship. Thus Japanese today successfully own land 
in Oregon and till it with profit since they are expert gardeners and 
orchardists. 

The proportion of negroes to whites in Oregon was greatest in 1850. 
being then 1.6 per cent. The 1930 total of 2,234 negroes in the state 
is only O.2 per cent of the inhabitants. In the pre-Civil War era negroes 
were brought to Oregon by wealthy southern immigrants in such large 
numbers that in June 1844, a law was enacted declaring all persons 
brought into the country as slaves must be removed in three years 01 
become free. In 1857 tne State Constitution provided that no free 
negroes might enter Oregon. This law was, however, more honored in 
the breach than in the observance, and has long been a dead letter. 

Of Oregon's 2,234 negroes, more than half live in Portland, in a 
colony, for the most part, on the east bank of the Willamette. The 
men are chiefly employed as railroad porters. They have several churches 
of their own, as well as lodges and other organizations. 



iinmiiinmiimiiiiDiiimiiimniiiiiiimiiniiiiiiiiimaiiiiiiiH 



Tall Tales and Legends 



CEDAR shakes, described as "shingles that are the same thickness 
at bo:h ends," covered the log cabins of early Oregon. When Paul 
Bunyan's loggers roofed an Oregon bunkhouse with shakes, fog was 
so thick that they shingled forty feet into space before discovering they 
had passed the last rafter. 

Paul Bunyan performed notable feats in Oregon, eclipsing the prowess 
of his famous predecessor Joe Paul, the Indian guide who lifted a 
barrel of lead from the floor to the trading post counter. He created 
Spencer's Butte, the Columbia River, and Crater Lake. Spencer's Butte, 
near Eugene, represents one wagon load of dirt, upset when Paul was 
making a road. The Columbia River was also something of an acci- 
dent, being the deep, irregular furrow dug by Babe, the big blue ox, 
when he peevishly broke away with a plow and rushed headlong from 
the mountains to the sea. Into Crater Lake Paul dumped the last of the 
blue snow, where it melted and produced the azure phenomenon that 
greatly amazed early loggers. 

Although Paul and Babe had ceased their exploits long before logging 
became important in Oregon, tales of "bull teams" continue to circu- 
late. A bull-whacker for a logging company near Knappa found that 
sweet nothings, whispered in the oxen's ears, inspired them to prodigious 
feats, and he would race from one animal to another with his confiden- 
tial endearments. In contrast was the far-reaching vituperation of Little 
Billy Ross, employed at Westport, whose voice could be heard for miles, 
and his stage-driving counterpart in Eastern Oregon, Whispering 
Thompson, whose ordinary conversational tones thundered across two 
counties. 

Joe Gervais, descendant of an Astor boatman, gravely explained a 
Bunyanesque feat that he performed along the ocean. The Clatsops and 
Nehalems, a little tired of their constant warfare with each other, asked 
him to keep peace between them. 

"I put the Clatsops at work on their side," he said, "and the Ne- 
halems at work on the south, moving rocks and dirt. It was slow going 



82 OREGON 

because we had to have a solid rock foundation. That required patience 
to fit the rocks together and yet allow space through the center so 
that water forced in by the ocean waves would surge up through it and 
trickle down the mountains, to irrigate the trees which we intended 
to plant." 

When Gervais sighted an elk, he gave directions to his hounds and 
paddled his canoe home as fast as he could. Scarcely reaching his cabin 
before the elk would lope into sight, closely followed by the dogs, he 
would shoot it at his door. 

Animals figured largely in pioneer tall tales. A ravenous cougar met 
a hunter on a mountain trail. When it sprang, the man rammed his 
hand down its throat, caught it by the tail, deftly flipped it wrong 
side out, and it tickled itself to death. A bear with a thorn in its paw 
mutely begged and obtained aid from an Oregonian. Imagine his aston- 
ishment the next morning to discover that during the night the grateful 
animal had brought him two hams and a side of bacon. A farmer in 
Eastern Oregon, who missed first his hogs, then his ripened corn, learned 
that bears had killed and cured the hogs and had ricked the corn in a 
secluded place. 

In primitive Curry County areas wild hogs enjoy their porcine Eden, 
each succeeding generation teaching its young to sleep with heads down- 
hill so that they may escape faster when disturbed by hunters. The 
first man to discover Chinook salmon in the Columbia, caught 264 in a 
day and. carried them across the river by walking on the backs of other 
fish. His greatest feat, however, was learning the Chinook jargon in 
15 minutes from listening to salmon talk. Sheepherders claim that they 
rub tobacco juice in their eyes to keep awake during their long vigils. 
An erratic early-day sawmill in Union County received a cottonwood 
log, from which it cut seven thin boards and a wagonload of sawdust. 
Within three days, the hot sunshine so enlivened the boards that they 
warped themselves out of the lumber yard and were found a mile away 
in a neighbor's corral. 

An inhabitant of the upper Rogue River, in passing down a narrow 
trail, shoved a huge boulder from his path. It crashed down the canyon, 
reached the bottom, and to his amazement, rolled up the other side. It 
poised on the crest then plunged down again, only to ascend to its 
original resting place. The native fled. Returning some weeks later, 
he discovered the rock had cut a new transverse canyon and was still 
crashing back and forth, as regular as a pendulum. 

Frogs and snakes in Klamath County formerly made winter migra- 



TALL TALES AND LEGENDS 83 

tions to the south. The trek began in late September, snakes and frogs 
crawling and hopping along together in such numbers that the pro- 
cession required two hours to pass a given point. Two long parallel 
ridges were formed, one of snakes and one of frogs. At ten in the morn- 
ing a halt was called and a long rest taken. Lumped, entwined, and 
bunched together during their siesta, they made a mass two feet wide, 
a foot and a half high, and a mile and a half long. Just before march- 
ing formations were resumed, about two o'clock in the afternoon, the 
hungry snakes gulped down a few of their companion frogs. 

During dog days in August a rattlesnake bit Luther King, later fea- 
tured in Oregon newspapers as Rattlesnake King. The wound upon 
his leg healed quickly. Twenty years later, in August, the old scar be- 
came a running sore. By early September he was well again. The next 
year in early August the old sore reappeared accompanied by another. 
Each August thereafter all the old ones and a new one broke out. King 
believed that when the number of sores equalled the number of rattles, 
his affliction, which he called the "Serpent's curse," would be removed. 
The cumulative eruptions upon his leg had reached more than a dozen 
when he died. 

As ingenious as these stories, are those of the labor-saving devices 
used by early Oregonians. A Lake Creek settler used mouse traps to 
catch crawfish, while an Umpqua pioneer placed his hog pen where 
daily tides filled a fish trap with sturgeon for the hogs' food. A south- 
ern Oregon farmer broke a breachy horse, not by mending his fallen 
fences, but by tying an iron nut to the animal's foretop in such a man- 
ner that it hit him between the eyes each time he tried to jump. 

Other tales that sound incredible have had the backing of reliable 
report. In 1877 sea pigeons came into the Columbia River in such 
multitudes that they formed a winging column 15 miles long. A cater- 
pillar migration in Lane County was of such proportions that a South- 
ern Pacific train was stalled when the rails became slick from the 
quantities crushed. During a cold spell a rancher in the Coast Range 
could not understand the nightly commotion of his horses out in the 
barn until he found that shivering cougars, in search of comfort, had 
been sleeping in the manger. A Siskiyou hunter, who bugled with a 
cowhorn to disperse his 20 hounds after game, was much annoyed by 
the coming of the railroad, because his hounds, mistaking the locomo- 
tive's whistle for the horn, "would wander on wild chases like the 
foolish after snipe." In a canyon between Portland and its Cascade 
watershed the huge wooden pipeline was gnawed by beavers, which 



84 OREGON 

were undeterred by the interminable length of the log they set them- 
selves to severing. A village merchant in the Blue Mountains sold, and 
still sells, snowshoes for horses. Forty feet of cowhide belting used by 
an early Eastern Oregon sawmill stretched so much that within a week 
50 feet had been cut off by installment shortening and 40 feet were 
still left. 

Oregonians of the settler period, like the native tribes before them, 
were tinged with melancholy, but, unlike the Indians, they trafficked 
very little with spooks. At Rickreall and a few other places in the Wil- 
lamette Valley were haunted mills. In Benton County was a hollow 
locally known as Banshee Canyon tenanted by the ghost of Whitehouse, 
a suicide. From the old, long- vacated Yaquina Bay Lighthouse came 
cries from a throat that was not human and light from a place where 
no light was; it is now occupied as a lookout station by the Coast 
Guard. A young journalist, while on vacation in the high Cascades, was 
lured away from his sleeping companions at night by mountain Lorelei, 
and was never afterwards found, passing into "some sweet life that 
has no end 

Within the Cascades' inner walls, 

Where nymphs beyond all fancy fair, 
Soothe him with siren madrigals 

And deck him with their golden hair." 

During the gold rush in Jackson County in the 1850'$ money to 
pay for the new courthouse was obtained from gold panned from the 
dirt excavated for the basement of the building. "Back yard" mines are 
still conducted in Jacksonville. One of the town's early churches was 
built on one night's receipts from the gambling houses. Hardworking 
men tossed away a year's or a season's earnings in a night at resorts 
which catered to their tastes. Bartenders swept pennies, proffered in 
change, to the sawdust floor with a gesture as grandiose as that with 
which they had tossed away their keys on opening day, a symbol that 
indicated that their place would never close. 

Several accounts of buried wealth have caused much searching and 
digging. Letters, anchors, dots, and arrows on the rocks of Neah-kah-nie 
Mountain have long tantalized treasure hunters. Interviews with In- 
dians during the period of settlement yielded varying and fantastic 
stories of shipwrecks, of a negro who was killed and interred with a chest 
on the mountain, and of slant-eyed Orientals and swaggering Spanish 
pirates. Pieces of oriental wood found on the shore, and tons of beeswax 
dug from the sands, have to a degree verified the stories of the wrecks. 



TALL TALES AND LEO ENDS 85 

Laurel Hill, on the old Barlow immigrant road near Mount Hood, 
also hides treasure, placed there by a highwayman who murdered his 
accomplice and buried their loot. Upon his deathbed the outlaw con 
fessed to his son, who spent several summers trying to find the money, 
but discovered only the blazes on the cedar he had been directed to seek 

When two miners from the Randolph beach mines became appre 
hensive of robbery, they buried a five-gallon can of gold dust beneath 
a tree and left the country. Upon returning they found that a forest 
fire had swept the district. The can of gold, as yet undiscovered, ha^ 
been sought for years. 

The Blue Bucket Mines, said to be located on a swift central Orego. 1 
stream that is literally pebbled with gold nuggets, have been sought fo 
seventy-five years. Emigrants, camping for the night on a hazardou* 
section of Meek's Cut-off, fished in the stream. Yellow pebbles, taken 
from the stream bed, and hammered flat on wagon tires, served as sink- 
ers in the swift current. Children filled a blue bucket with the stones 
but all were tossed aside as the train proceeded. Several years later 
tales of the gold strikes in California renewed discussion of the yellow 
pebbles, and a wild rush to discover the Blue Bucket Mines ensued 
They have never been discovered. 

Aptness of description, sometimes with a jest, is evident in the names 
applied to pioneer Oregon localities. Some of this nomenclature persists, 
but much of it has been discarded by a more polite but less poetic era. 
Fair Play was so called from the fairness of its horse races. Lick 
Skillet and Scanty Grease have an obvious origin. Row River was named 
for neighborhood feuds; Soap Creek for bachelors who had no soap; 
and Ah Doon Hill for a Chinese who was shanghaied there. Hell's 
Canyon on Snake River, the deepest chasm in America, is as descriptive 
of wild grandeur as God's Valley in the Nehalem country is of peace. 



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Huckleberry Cakes and Venison 



ASK an old pioneer about his first years in the Oregon country and 
a reminiscent light comes into his eyes. "Our first years in Oregon? 
Well, it wasn't so bad. There were venison, fish, and wild game. We 
had plenty of berries. Our principal dish was boiled wheat or hominy 
and milk. Used side bacon as a seasoning. Didn't have much salt in 
those days. Salt was so scarce it was often traded for its weight in gold. 
The Indians were fairly friendly. Taught us a lot. Oh, yes, my mother 
used to work pretty hard cooking for our big family, but she never 
seemed to mind the hardships." 

Many an old-timer remembers the revolving table, a common sight 
in the homes of early settlers. It was a circular, homemade affair about 
six feet in diameter, like an ordinary table; but attached to a support 
in the center, about eight inches above the main surface, there was a 
smaller table-top that could be revolved by hand. Appetizing arrays of 
food used to grace these curious old tables loaves of golden bread and 
plates of butter, brilliantly colored fruits and vegetables, cinnamon- 
brown gingerbread cakes, fruit pies with rich juices staining the crisp 
crust, head cheese, fresh or salted meat and fish. 

Some of the dishes enjoyed by the pioneers of Oregon have not been 
prepared for many years; but the recipes for others are carefully pre- 
served, and (with some adaptation to present-day methods and mate- 
rials) are still followed by many housewives. In the former category 
is fern pie, thus referred to by George A. Waggoner in his Stories of 
Old Oregon: 

At supper, among other things, we had what I feel assured but few mortals 
have ever tasted fern pie. It was made of the tender and nutritious stalks of 
young ferns, and was very good. Thomas was surprised, but said the Lord was 
very wise, and had undoubtedly clothed the hills and valleys with the delicious 
plant in order that the coming generation might be supplied with food, and 
never be without a supply of good pie. ... I believe these pies are now extinct, 
and their making a lost art, unless, happily, a recipe has been preserved among 
the early settlers of Sweet Home valley. 

Prominent among the recipes that are still popular is the following, 



HUCKLEBERRY CAKES AND VENISON 87 

originated some 70 years ago by Mrs. John James Burton, an Oregon 
pioneer : 

MEAT PANCAKES 

To a cupful of cold meat add a few raisins, chop the mixture fine and season 
with salt, paprika, the pulp of a lemon, nutmeg, sugar, and i teaspoon of finely 
chopped pepper; add an egg and heat the mixture. 3 eggs, a pint of milk, and 
enough flour to make a thin batter. After beating thoroughly, drop the batter 
in large spoonfuls on a hot and well greased frying pan. As each cake browns 
on one side, place some of the meat mixture on it and fold the cake over the 
mixture. Then place the cakes in another pan containing a little meat-stock and 
butter, and steam from 5 to 10 minutes. 

The wild fruits of the Northwest were much used in early days, as 
indeed they are now. The huckleberry, blackberry, Oregon grape, elder- 
berry, and serviceberry provided a basis for many delectable dessert 
dishes. Here is an old iccipe that is still much used: 

HUCKLEBERRY GRIDDLE CAKES 

Sift together 2 cups of flour, i teaspoon of salt, and i l / 2 teaspoons of baking 
powder. Combine with i beaten egg, i 1 /* cups of sour milk, and i teaspoon of 
soda. Then add i teaspoon of melted butter and i cup of huckleberries. Bake 
on hot greased griddle, and serve with syrup or thick huckleberry sauce. 

An early western recipe for apple turnovers, named no doubt for some 
long-departed Mrs. McGinty of culinary prowess, runs as follows: 

McGINTIES 

Wash i pound of dried apples, removing bits of core and skin, and soak over- 
night. Next day stew in enough water to cover, and when soft run through a 
collander. Replace on stove, add enough brown sugar to make the fruit rich and 
*weet, and cook until thick; then cool and add i l /i tablespoons of ground cin- 
namon. Line a dripping-pan with pie crust, put in fruit mixture and cover with 
upper crust, gashing the latter slightly to let the steam escape. Press edges of 
crust together and bake at first in a hot oven, then reducing the heat. When 
done cut into diamond-shaped portions, and serve hot with cream. 

Sourdough biscuits and prospector's soup were known to every old- 
timer who roamed the mountains, valleys, and plains of the West in 
search of some likely spot in which to stake a mining claim. This is the 
way they were commonly prepared: 

SOURDOUGH BISCUITS 

Mix i pint of flour and i teaspoon of salt with i pint of warm water or 
canned milk. Beat into a smooth batter, and keep in a warm place until well 



88 OREGON 

soured or fermented; then add another teaspoon of salt, i^ teaspoons of soda 
dissolved in half a cup of tepid water, and enough flour to make the dough easy 
to handle. Knead thoroughly, until dough is no longer sticky, then cut up into 
biscuits and cook in a pan containing plenty of grease. 

PROSPECTOR'S SOUP 

Put 2 tablespoons of bacon fat and 3 tablespoons of flour into a saucepan, 
and stir over a medium fire until the flour is golden brown. Then add i quart 
of boiling water and a half a can of milk, stirring in slowly until smooth, and 
season with salt and pepper to taste. An onion may be added to improve the 
flavor. 

Deer once roamed the Oregon woods in countless numbers, and the 
settler's meat supply was easily replenished at the expense of a charge 
of powder and lead. The favorite method of cooking venison was by 
roasting, a method which the housewife of today continues to follow. 

ROAST VENISON 

Rub a leg or saddle of venison with butter, wrap it in buttered paper and 
place in roasting pan. Make a thick paste of flour and water, and apply a half- 
inch coating of this to the paper. Put a pint of water in pan, cover the latter, 
and roast in a moderately slow oven, allowing 30 minutes of roasting time for 
each pound of meat and basting every 15 minutes after the first hour. Before 
serving remove paper wrapping and baste with a sauce of melted butter, flour, 
salt, and pepper. 

Fish from the rivers and coastal waters provided a bountiful food 
supply for early Oregonians. The Indians depended largely on salmon 
for their sustenance throughout the year; and today, as for more than 
a century past, this fish is a staple delicacy. Fresh salmon, split length- 
wise and slow-baked in a willow frame before an open fire, according to 
the Indian method of cooking, has a delicious flavor that modern grills 
and broilers fail to impart. An old recipe for preparing salt salmon, 
one that continues to be extensively used, is as follows: 

SALT SALMON, PIONEER STYLE 

Soak two pounds of salt salmon in fresh water overnight. Next day shred 
without peeling 6 or 8 potatoes, place the salmon and potatoes in a stew pan, 
cover with boiling water, and boil until the potatoes are done. Serve in a cream 
sauce. 

A delicacy not to be found on any restaurant menu is smoked native 
or brook trout. Preparation of this chef-d'oeuvre assumes an ample sup- 
ply (from 50 to 200 pounds) of freshly caught trout, since the time and 



HUCKLEBERRY CAKES AND VENISON 89 

labor required in the operations would not warrant dealing with a 
picayune quantity. The place should be in the mountains where plenty 
of the right variety of willow for smoking may be secured Elk Lake, 
for example. The next step is to build a conical tepee or wickiup of 
stout green boughs covered with leaves. Then, from the nearby marshes 
or shores of the lake, loads of young willows are brought by canoe to 
the improvised smokehouse. When the fish have been suspended inside 
the structure, a subdued smoky fire of willow twigs is maintained for 
24 hours a task requiring energy, patience, and an optimism that is 
justified by the results. After the smoked trout are dressed with butter 
in a hot pan and cooked over glowing camp coals, the gourmand has 
only to take the final step and eat as heartily as he likes, while the rest 
of the catch can be conveniently shipped from the mountains to his home. 

Coos Bay is noted for its Empire clams, which sometimes weigh four 
or five pounds each. The large necks of these clams can be split into 
sections after scraping off the rough outer skin; the sections are then 
well pounded, dipped in seasoned flour or cornmeal, and fried to a crisp 
brown. The Indian method of making clam chowder was to soak the 
clams overnight in a freshwater stream, and then throw them into a 
hollowed log containing water heated to the boiling point by hot stones. 
After they had opened, the clams were scraped from their shells and 
replaced in the water, together with chunks of jerked or smoked veni- 
son, dried wild onions, and wapato roots that the squaws had gathered 
in dry lake beds. An appetizing counterpart of this can be prepared today 
in a boiler over a driftwood fire, substituting bacon, potatoes, and ordi- 
nary onions for the now less accessible minor ingredients used by the 
Indians. 

Another prized marine delicacy is the Columbia River smelt or eula- 
chon (referred to by Lewis and Clark as the anchovy), which is caught 
in immense quantities each r spring. These little oily fish are commonly 
fried in their own fat, but a favorite way of serving them on the Pacific 
coast is this: 

Heat 2 tablespoons of olive oil or bacon grease in a skillet, and brown therein 
a small quantity of minced onions, garlic, and green pepper. Add a can of 
tomato sauce, and let simmer for 5 minutes; then add half a cup of vinegar and 
cook 2 minutes longer. Meanwhile dredge the smelt in flour, and fry until brown 
and tender. Place on platter, and pour the sauce over the fish. 

It was old Peter Mclntosh, a Canadian, who introduced the fine art 
of cheese-making to Tillamook County more than half a century ago, 
and Tillamook has been famous ever since for its American cheddar. 



gO OREGON 

In his delightful book, The Cheddar Box, Dean Collins writes : "If you 
follow the trail of the history of cheese in the Pacific Northwest, out- 
side the confines of Tillamook County into southern Oregon, you'll 
still find Peter Mclntosh. . . . And if you'll sit in on a meeting of 
Alaska sourdoughs talking about the Klondike, you'll hear about Mc- 
lntosh cheese, which was as yellow as the gold in Alaska, and at times 
commanded almost ounce for ounce in the mining camps." A delicious 
cheese sauce for boiled fish, especially halibut, has been originated by 
the Portland home economics expert, Mary Cullen. Her recipe runs 
as follows: 

Melt 2 tablespoons of butter in the top of a double boiler, and add \ l / 2 table- 
spoons of flour, half a teaspoon of salt, and a quarter teaspoon of pepper and 
paprika. Blend thoroughly, and add gradually i l /y cups of milk. Cook 10 min- 
utes, stirring constantly, then add half a pound of cheese grated or cut into small 
pieces, and beat with an eggbeater until the cheese is melted. After draining the 
fish, pour the sauce over it and garnish with parsley and lemon. 

In pioneer days, what is still known locally as "Oregon tea" was 
made by brewing the leaves of a shrub called by the Spaniards yerba 
buena, "the good herb." Parched and ground peas provided a substitute 
for coffee, when the latter could not be had. 



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Sports and Recreations 



THE charms of Oregon have been sung since 1805 when Captain 
William Clark wrote his vivid description of its ocean shore, moun- 
tains, and streams. A few years later William Cullen Bryant in 
Thanatopsis celebrated the grandeur of its great river and its forests. 
Today hundreds of miles of highway penetrate the innermost fastnesses 
of the wilderness; and trails that were formerly seldom trodden have 
become all-year routes of travel. 

The extension of good roads has coincided with a Federal program 
designed to conserve Oregon's resources for recreation. In 1897 the 
Federal government took over wide areas of forest land, and later created 
national forests and opened them to the public. In May 1902 Congress 
established Crater Lake National Park, and in July 1909 President 
Taft proclaimed the Oregon Caves a national monument. Within the 
past few years the U. S. Forest Service has set apart large tracts as 
recreational and wilderness areas. Its sustained-yield forest policy pre- 
serves these great playgrounds for perpetual public uses (see NATION- 
AL FORESTS). 

Angling in the thousands of streams and lakes in all parts of Oregon 
is one of the state's chief sports. The cutthroat, the rainbow, the Dolly 
Varden, and the eastern brook trout are the principal game fish, but 
the one most sought after is the cutthroat, which starts upstream in 
March or April, when it is very susceptible to a bait of salmon eggs. 
In summer its taste turns to flies, with an all-season relish for royal 
coachman No. 10 and a less sustained appetite for March-brown, red- 
and-blue, upright, and grey hackle. 

Men the world over have come to Oregon to fish for the steelhead, 
king of game fish, torpedo-like on the line. Flies, spinners, and crayfish 
tails are the enticements to make it strike. The Rogue and the Umpqua, 
its chief habitat, are at their best from July to October. The Deschutes 
is a famed trout stream in which flies are used exclusively during all 
seasons. 

Rudyard Kipling has left an exciting account of a day on the Clacka- 



92 OREGON 

mas River, matching strength and wits with a battling salmon. The 
Willamette River below the falls at Oregon City is one of the few 
places in the world where a fisherman can sit in his boat and calmly wait 
for salmon to bite. This is possible because of the swift current that 
carries the lure into the face of the up-river bound salmon. The Colum- 
bia, the Nehalem, the Umpqua, and the Rogue have spring runs of 
Chinook salmon, which are usually lured by No. 4 spinners and wob- 
blers. The autumn runs of Silverside salmon entice anglers to coastal 
streams and bays. 

The State Game Commission maintains sixteen fish hatcheries in all 
parts of the state at which trout are propagated for the stocking of 
streams and lakes. At these hatcheries millions of fingerlings are de- 
veloped each year. 

In the lower Columbia and Willamette rivers and in the lakes and 
bayous of Sauvie Island are bass, crappie, catfish, blue gill, and perch. 
The Tualatin, the Long Tom, and the Yamhill rivers, as well as many 
coastal and mountain lakes, are stocked with bass. Many vacationists 
go deep-sea fishing in small vessels off the coast, or angle with pole and 
line from the sand or rocks for torn-cod, perch, sea-trout, and flounders. 
Each year the early spring smelt-runs attract great crowds of visitors 
to the banks of the Sandy. 

At the opening of the hunting season, red-capped and red-shirted 
men flock to forest, mountain, or field. As many as 12,000 deer the 
Columbian blacktailed in the western section and the mule-deer in the 
eastern and southeastern section of Oregon are killed annually. Elk 
or Wapiti are hunted in the Wallowa and Blue Mountain region, but 
antelope are at present protected by law. On the Hart Mountain Ante- 
lope Preserve in the south central part of the state are great herds of 
this fleet little animal. Timber wolves are few but coyotes plentiful. 
Bounties have decreased the number of cougars and bobcats, but these 
animals have by no means entirely disappeared. Cinnamon and black 
bears are most numerous on the western slopes of the Cascades and in 
the Coast Range. 

The State Game Commission operates five game farms from which 
are liberated yearly thousands of China and Mongolian pheasants. Geese 
and ducks are found in the entire drainage area of the Columbia and on 
the marshes and lakes of southeastern Oregon. In the western valleys 
and upland pastures are pheasants, quail, bobwhites, and Hungarian 
partridges, while blue and ruffed grouse inhabit most wooded sections of 
the state. 



SPORTS AND RECREATIONS 93 

The Canyon Creek game refuge in Grant County has been reserved 
for bow and arrow hunters. Arrows are inspected for sharpness at a 
checking station near John Day. 

Because of its many sky-piercing peaks and its leagues of forest trail, 
Oregon is especially appealing to the climber and hiker. There are many 
mountain-climbing organizations in the state: The Mazamas, the 
Wy'east Climbers, and the Trails Club of Portland; the Angoras of 
Astoria; the Obsidians of Eugene; the Chemeketans of Salem; the 
Skyliners of Bend ; the Crag Rats of Hood River, and others, with more 
than 2,000 members in all. The peak of Mount Hood, with an average 
of 1,500 ascents a year, is second in mountain-climbing popularity in the 
world. Hundreds of foot and bridle-trails criss-cross the forested moun- 
tain regions. The Skyline Trail, that clings to the summit of the Cas- 
cade Range across the entire length of the state, is one of the Nation's 
most interesting hiking routes. 

Thousands enjoy swimming and canoeing in Oregon lakes. Many 
own motor launches and cruise up and down the rivers and lakes of 
the state. Towns dotting the Oregon Coast draw throngs of tourists 
each year. The most popular are Seaside, Cannon Beach, Tillamook 
County and the Lincoln County beaches. Popular forms of recreation 
are surf bathing, clam digging, crab raking and netting, deep sea fish- 
ing, shell and agate collecting, tennis, and golf. Most Oregon cities 
have modern pools for residents and visitors. 

An annual winter sports carnival is held at Mount Hood each year. 
The peak is only sixty miles from Portland, and Timberline Lodge, con- 
structed in 1936 by the Works Progress Administration, located on its 
slope, is easily accessible by automobile and stage (see MOUNT 
HOOD). 

Tobogganing, skiing, snowshoeing, and hiking are the main forms 
of winter recreation. Winter sports are also held at Three Sisters, west 
of Bend, in the Cascades east of Eugene and Albany, in the Blue Moun- 
tains near La Grande, the Anthony Lakes area near Baker, in the 
Siskiyous, and in many other sections. 

The Pendleton Round-Up, a civic enterprise held in a mammoth 
arena, is representative of many of its type in the state. Competitive 
events include racing, broncho-breaking, roping, steer riding, and bull- 
dogging. As a special feature of the Round-Up, Indians come in from 
the Umatilla Reservation to dance and to re-enact scenes which were 
once a grim reality to living members of the tribe. In the boxes around 



94 OREGON 

the arena many prominent figures of the Old West gather to watch the 

revival of activities in which they themselves once participated. 

Tennis courts are found everywhere; the larger towns often provide 
municipal grounds, some of which are flood-lighted for night playing. 
Twenty-one free public courts in Portland are maintained by the city 
Bureau of Parks, In or adjacent to Portland are twenty-four golf links 
and "out-state" are sixty additional courses, most of them located in 
Western Oregon. Fees are moderate, ranging from 3OC for nine holes 
to $2 a day. 

The state has the usual round of interscholastic and inter-collegiate 
sports, as well as professional and semi-professional events. The Coli- 
seum of Portland, ice-skating rink, is the home arena of the Buckaroos, 
members of the Pacific Northwest Hockey League. In summer the 
Multnomah Civic Stadium is nightly filled with an average of 7,500 
dog-racing fans; about 400 greyhounds are brought to Portland for 
these events from kennels all over the United States. Racing and pari- 
mutual betting are legal in Oregon, and from these the state annually 
collects $60,000 in taxes. Horse races are features of the State Fair 
at Salem and of various county fairs. 



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Social IVelfare 



PIONEER Oregon had a simple formula of social welfare: work 
was provided for those who could work and aid for those who 
could not. Whatever latter-day society has added to the homespun tra- 
dition has been brought forward by trial and error methods in a state 
which still has vast unexploited natural resources and, theoretically at 
least, offers more opportunities than many other states. 

If the present results of Oregon's efforts to provide aid for the in- 
digent young and old, hospitalization for the physically and mentally ill, 
and rehabilitation for criminals may seem inadequate in some respects, 
it should be remembered that most of the state's present social welfare 
institutions are comparatively young, and were established to comple- 
ment a robust pre-depression economy. 

Few persons in the opulent 1920*5 anticipated the havoc that falling 
prices and dwindling markets might work upon Oregon's great lum- 
bering and agricultural enterprises, or that "seasonal" work long a 
convenient stop-gap measure for spring and summer unemployment 
might fail to halt a rising tide of indigence, swollen by the migration 
of thousands of desperate persons from the drouth areas of the middle 
west. It is significant that the editor of a prominent newspaper recently 
questioned the necessity of organization among the unemployed, inti- 
mating that opportunity still knocked at every man's door in Oregon, 
even if not so loudly and insistently as some romanticists would have us 
believe. In Oregon, as elsewhere, the Federal Government has entered 
into the relief field upon a tremendous scale, and the number of the un- 
employed apparently makes the continuation of Federal aid imperative. 
The achievements of the Federal agencies the WPA, PWA, NYA, 
and FSA are a warm penumbra between the bright accomplishments 
of Oregonians who have striven to keep alive the best pioneer tradition 
of mutual help, and the darkness of insufficient relief, the thin slops 
provided on soup lines, and the county poor farms for the needy aged. 

Until the beginning of the present decade, Oregon's legislative as- 
semblies, drawn from a state with many diverse geographical sections 



gb OREGON 

and divergent economic problems, left most public welfare services to 
be performed by the counties, or by various private agencies. A legisla- 
tive act of 1913, however, required that counties levy a tax providing 
assistance to mothers with dependent children. The state had early a 
workman's compensation act, faulty in the opinion of many persons, be- 
cause of a clause which permits employers to reject the responsibilities 
of the measure. Old age pensions which seldom reach maximum pay- 
ments of $30 a month have been declared inadequate by many sociol- 
ogists. The state board of health, which has broad powers, cooperates 
with county and municipal agencies, and seldom operates locally, unless 
authorities refuse or neglect to enforce ordinances. The board has done 
yeoman service in Oregon's fight against disease, and its efficiency is re- 
flected by the fact that the state has 9.2 hospital beds for every thousand 
of population, an enviable rating compared to the national standard of 
4.6 beds per thousand. 

The excellence of hospital facilities is perhaps the brightest tone of 
the Oregon social welfare spectrum. While many of the state's 72 hos- 
pitals, sanitariums, and related institutions with their total of 10,298 
beds, are in Portland, there are modern hospitals in every section of the 
state except the most remote areas. On Marquam Hill in Portland are 
a notable group, consisting of the Doernbecher Memorial hospital for 
children, The United States Veterans hospital and the Multnomah 
County General hospital which houses the laboratory and class-rooms 
of the University of Oregon Medical school. Outstanding among de- 
nominational general hospitals in the city are: St. Vincent (Catholic), 
Good Samaritan (Protestant Episcopal), both of which maintain schools 
for nurses; Emanuel (Lutheran) and the Portland Sanitarium (Sev- 
enth Day Adventist). Other modern institutions include the Hahne- 
mann Private Hospital, Portland Medical Hospital, Portland Con- 
valescent Hospital, Sellwood General Hospital, Portland Eye, Ear, 
Nose and Throat Hospital, the Mountain View Sanitarium, the Port- 
land Open Air Sanitarium, and the Shriners Hospital for crippled chil- 
dren. A cooperative hospital is in the process of organization. 

Other hospitals of official nature in addition to the Multnomah Coun- 
ty hospital and the Veterans institution are the Multnomah County 
Tuberculosis Pavillion, which cares for indigent persons, the Oregon 
State Tuberculosis hospital at Salem, a similar institution at The Dalles, 
and the Morningside hospital at Portland, maintained by the govern- 
ment for the care of mental patients from Alaska. 

The Oregon Tuberculosis Association, supported by the sale of penny 



SOCIAL WELFARE 97 

Christmas seals, is interested in the eradication of tuberculosis by edu- 
cational methods, early diagnosis, nursing service, promotion of pre- 
ventive legislation and appropriations for clinical and hospital services. 
Airs. Sadie Orr Dunbar for many years executive secretary of this or- 
ganization is now (1940) on leave of absence as national president of 
the General Federation of Women's Clubs with headquarters at Wash- 
ington, D. C. The tuberculosis death rate of Oregon has gradually been 
lessened until it is now among the lowest in the world. 

Critics of the State declare that the high percentage of industrial 
accidents makes the maintenance of numerous hospitals necessary, but 
constantly diminishing epidemics and low infant and general mortality 
rates seem to indicate consistent and reasonably thorough efforts to safe- 
guard and improve public health. Oregon has made conscientious at- 
tempts to check venereal diseases, through the establishment of clinics 
for the treatment of gonorrhea and syphilis, and through the passage 
of a law which requires physical examinations before marriage licenses 
can be obtained. The state's experiments in the field of cooperative 
medical care have attracted nation-wide attention, and thousands of 
persons belong to group health associations, which provide preventive 
medical service, surgery and hospitalization at low cost. 

Conditions in the institutions for the mentally ill are less favorable. 
Both the Oregon State hospital at Salem and the Eastern Oregon State 
hospital at Pendleton are overcrowded, and the effect of economic cata- 
clysm is evident in the steadily increasing number of commitments since 
1930. These institutions supplanted and improved a system under 
which before the mentally ill were cared for under contract or by a 
private asylum in Portland. Both hospitals provide educational facili- 
ties, medical and dental care, and vocational therapy, as does also the 
Oregon Fairview Home for feeble-minded and epileptics, located near 
Salem. 

Approximately 2000 children annually receive care in institutions 
supervised by the State Child Welfare Commission, whose functions, 
by act of the 1939 legislature, are being absorbed by the State Welfare 
Commission. The bright record for child welfare has been smudged 
occasionally by scandals arising from the efforts of certain institutions 
to regulate placements of orphaned or abandoned children for purposes 
of profit alone, but these are exceptional cases. 

Portland with more than one-third of the state's population, has many 
child placement organizations, juvenile clinics, orphanages, foundling 
homes and shelters for unmarried mothers and their children. Out- 



98 OREGON 

standing is the Albertina Kerr Nursery Home which provides for babies 
of unmarried or abandoned mothers and for foundlings under five years 
of age. The Salvation Army offers similar services at its White Shield 
Home; the Volunteers of America provide an additional place of refuge 
for deserted or widowed mothers and their children; the Louise Home 
cares for delinquent girls and for young unmarried mothers and their 
infants, and also maintains a juvenile hospital for girls afflicted with 
venereal diseases. In the city and its vicinity there are a dozen institu- 
tions which shelter children from infancy to seventeen years of age. 
Many are non-sectarian; Catholic charitable activities in the Portland 
Arch Diocese are coordinated under one agency; the Jewish Shelter 
Home, cares for children between the ages of three and sixteen, and 
serves also as a placement bureau. 

Portland offers social welfare services similar to those afforded in 
most other metropolitan cities. There are children's clinics, supervised 
playgrounds and recreational centers within the city, summer camps in 
the country to which are sent selected children and, occasionally, their 
mothers from the city's low rent districts. An outstanding contribution 
to child welfare in Portland is the Fire Department's "milk fund," sup- 
ported by athletic events, which distributes milk to undernourished 
pupils in the public schools. 

The Portland Community Chest, of which Ralph J. Reed has long 
been secretary, coordinates the activities of 44 charitable and philan- 
thropic organizations, including many already mentioned here, and 
through its annual campaigns solicits all or a large portion of the funds 
upon which their operation depends. The Chest maintains the Portland 
Council of Social Agencies as a social service planning board represent- 
ing public and private agencies of the county. Established in 1920, the 
Community Chest over-subscribed its quota in 1939. Its annual budget, 
in recent years fully subscribed by Portland citizens, provides for the 
full scope of activities usual in a Chest program. 

The Portland City Bureau of Health maintains an emergency hos- 
pital for first aid at the Portland police headquarters. The Women's 
Protective Division of the Portland police department cooperates with 
the Bureau. The "Sunshine Division" of the Portland City Police De- 
partment has won acclaim by collecting new and used material for dis- 
tribution to needy families. The Portland Fire Department "Toy and 
Joy Makers" repair annually great numbers of broken toys donated to 
the organization for distribution as Christmas gifts. 

Oregon's Good Will Industries provide work and wages for aged 



SOCIAL WELFARE 99 

and otherwise handicapped poor, collecting discarded articles which are 
refurbished and sold in stores throughout the city. 

The Travelers' Aid Society functions in Portland as well as in other 
metropolitan areas. A legal aid committee of the Oregon Bar Association 
renders free legal assistance to indigent persons in Multnomah County, 
while the American Civil Liberties Union acts to safeguard constitu- 
tional rights of free speech and assembly. 

The Multnomah County Health Unit provides skilled nursing in the 
home and conducts health education. Indigent soldiers in the county are 
provided for from the funds raised by a tax levy. 

Fraternal orders have established many homes for their aged members 
in Portland. The Maccabees, the United Artisans, the Odd Fellows, 
Masonic Orders and the Eastern Star all maintain homes in the state. 
The Oregon- Washington Pythian Home also serves Oregon, though 
located at Vancouver, Washington. The Patton and the Mann Homes 
in Portland provide board and room and general care for men and 
women under 60. Grandma's Kitchen gives shelter to 300 homeless men 
and 50 indigent women, besides operating a salvage department and a 
working girls' home. The First Presbyterian Church Men's Resort in 
Portland maintains a free reading and writing room. 

Operating in Portland are several agencies which give aid to different 
national groups. The National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People is also active. The American National Red Cross has 
a number of county chapters in Oregon, the Multnomah County Chap- 
ter with 30,000 members being the largest and most active. 

Oregon has the usual organizations classed as "character building" 
institutions including the Young Men's Christian Association, and the 
Young Women's Christian Association. The 4.H Clubs and the Future 
Farmers of America are active throughout the state. Boy Scouts and 
Campfire Girls and Girl Scouts have many active troops. 

In the field of penology, Oregon suffers from the lack of a modern 
and more commodious penitentiary, although the treatment of prisoners 
is generally humane, and the commonwealth's efforts to rehabilitate 
criminals equals those of penologists in many other states. Oregon's 
first penitentiary was established by legislative act of the territorial 
government in 1851. First located at Portland, it was moved to Salem 
in 1866. 

On January 24, 1939, it housed 1071 inmates, of whom 10 were 
women. Convicts labor in a prison flax plant, which has developed into 
an important establishment with the largest scutching plant in the 



100 OREGON 

United States, although regulations are imposed by many common- 
wealths and foreign nations against the importation of prison-made 
goods. 

The prison magazine Shadows for two successive years (1936-1937) 
won the Walter F. Gries award, the "Pulitzer Prize of prison journal- 
ism." Its title page bears the legend: "A monthly magazine dedicated 
to those who would salvage rather than destroy," and its purpose is, 
"to give inmates an opportunity for self-expression; to encourage moral 
and intellectual improvement among the inmates; and to acquaint the 
public with the true status of the prisoner." The magazine is available 
to the general public at $1.00 per year. 

The Oregon Prison Association, a private agency conducted by the 
Pacific Protective Society, does valuable work in maintaining the rights 
of prisoners and overseeing their welfare following release. 

Oregon correctional institutions for youth stress rehabilitation rather 
than punishment. The Frazier Detention Home of Portland cares for 
delinquent boys committed by the Department of Domestic Relations. 
The Oregon State Training School for Boys near Woodburn receives 
boys 10 to 1 8 years old and gives them training in useful occupations. 
Girls from 12 to 25 classed as delinquent or incorrigible are sent to 
the State Industrial School for Girls at Salem. The school provides 
educational facilities, medical and dental care, and special vocational 
instruction. 

Among the state agencies at Salem, directly or indirectly involved in 
social welfare are the State Board for Vocational Education, State 
Board of Eugenics, Oregon Mental Hygiene Society, State Welfare 
Commission, State Industrial Accident Commission, and the Unem- 
ployment Compensation Commission. Also near Salem is the School 
for the Deaf, which cares for children between the ages of 6 to 21 
years who are unable to attend ordinary schools. 

The School for the Blind at Salem provides special education for 
visually handicapped youth. The Blind Trade School includes in its 
curriculum, broom making, chair caning, and classes in Braille. Dormi- 
tories are provided for those living at the school, which is under the 
jurisdiction of the State Commission for the Blind and the Prevention 
of Blindness. 

The broad program of the Work Projects Administration in Oregon 
has, through service projects, made substantial contributions to the 
social welfare of the state. More than fifteen hundred persons are em- 
ployed upon projects that have a wide range in variety and point of 



SOCIAL WBLFARB IOI 

utilitarian purpose. Through the services of a Readers' Project, blind 
persons are able to remain conversant with current events, or to hear 
such books or magazines as they prefer read to them in their homes. 
The WPA activities include survey studies, adult education projects, 
and a housekeeping unit, through which women are taught modern 
housekeeping methods. In addition, WPA units supervise installation, 
extension and revision of public records, and conduct six nursery schools 
in Portland and 21 throughout the state. Among other service projects 
are recreational leadership which supervises play in public parks and 
schools, the Library Aid Project and two units engaged in public health 
and hospital work; also classes in First Aid and Traffic Safety. 

The NYA conducts classes in iron work, carpentry, photography, 
art, poster drawing, domestic science, clerical work, domestic service, 
and also trains library assistants. Classes are limited to those employed 
on the NYA program, but a number of clubs are being formed which 
will admit other youths to membership. A photography club, already 
active, meets three times a week, using the facilities of the NYA center. 

The Farm Security Administration, another Federal agency intensely 
active in Oregon, has granted rural rehabilitation loans to more than 
4000 families, made rehabilitation grants to another 4000 families, 
aided a hundred native families through one resettlement project, and a 
thousand families through community and cooperative services. 

The Federal Government has been compelled to bear the major por- 
tions of Oregon's relief burden since the counties' facilities for aid 
proved inadequate during the early years of the depression. County 
relief budget almost trebled between 1929 and 1932 and even at present 
the county burden still remains heavy despite Government relief ex- 
penditures. The picture today is far from bright, Oregon differs very 
little in this respect from other states in the Union. 



mtllllHBIIIIIIIIIIIIDIIIIIIIIIHinilllllllll!^ 



Education 



THE first school in the Oregon country was conducted at Fort Van- 
couver for the half-breed children of the Hudson's Bay Company 
trappers. Its teacher was John Ball, a Dartmouth graduate who came 
west in 1832 with the first Wyeth party. Not wishing to accept free 
lodging from the factor, Dr. John McLoughlin, Ball asked for work 
and was assigned to teaching. Early in 1833 he was succeeded by an- 
other member of the Wyeth party, Solomon H. Smith, who taught for 
a year and a half, and then eloped with the Indian wife of the fort's 
baker. Thereafter, Smith taught in a school at French Prairie, and 
later established a school at Clatsop Plains. By the end of 1834, Jason 
Lee and his three co-workers in the newly-founded Methodist mission 
school at French Prairie were teaching the Indian and half-breed chil- 
dren of the region to read and write. 

The pioneer schools of Oregon received little public support, but were 
usually maintained by individuals or church organizations. At the pri- 
mary school conducted in Oregon City during the winter of 1853-4, 
tuition was free because Sidney Walter Moss, Oregon's first writer of 
fiction, paid most of the expenses. While some communities provided 
primitive schoolhouses, many of the early classes were held in settlers' 
cabins, where the teacher was often a pioneer mother or other person 
familiar with the rudiments of learning. Teachers in privately con- 
ducted schools that charged a fee were paid meager stipends, in addition 
to being "boarded around." Such a "rate bill" school was established 
in Portland as early as 1847. The tuition fees were commonly no less 
meager than the pay of the teachers. An announcement of the Lone 
Butte school, in Marion County, states in 1854: "One quarter taught 
at $5 per schollar. The other two quarters cost $4 per schollar each." 
In the early agitation for free schools, a prominent part was taken by 
the Reverend George H. Atkinson, often referred to as "the father of 
public education in Oregon." But this agitation produced little in the 
way of concrete results until the Territory of Oregon was officially 
organized in 1849. Then, under the terms of the Nathan Dane Act, two 



EDUCATION IO3 

sections of land in each township throughout the Territory were granted 
and reserved for sale to provide funds for educational purposes; and in 
his inaugural address to the first Territorial legislature, Governor 
Joseph Lane emphasized "the importance of adopting a system of com- 
mon schools and providing the means of putting them in operation." 
Two months later the legislature accepted the land granted by Congress 
"for the support of the common schools," voted a two-mills school tax, 
specified certain requirements for administration of the educational 
system, and stipulated that every school should "be open and free to all 
children brtween the ages of four and twenty-one years." 

According to the Federal census of 1850, the Territory of Oregon 
(then embracing all of the present States of Oregon, Washington, and 
Idaho, with parts of Montana and Wyoming) contained in that year 
only three public schools, with a total of 80 pupils under the super- 
vision of four teachers, and with an annual income from all sources of 
less than $4,000. The "academies and other schools," conducted under 
private or denominational auspices, numbered 29, with 842 pupils and 
44 teachers. 

Public schools were opened at Portland, West Union, and Cornelius 
in 1851, and at Oregon City in 1855. At the end of the quarter-century 
following the adoption of Oregon's first school law, the State could 
boast of 530 public schools, with 860 teachers. The latter received an 
average monthly salary of $45.92 for men and $34.46 for women. 
Before 1900 the only high schools in the State were those at Port- 
land, Astoria, Baker City, and The Dalles; but their number increased 
rapidly after 1901, when special provision was made for them as a 
part of the public educational system, and by 1910 the total had 
reached 115. Union high schools in rural districts were authorized in 
1907, the first of such schools to open being one at Pleasant Hill, in 
Lane County. 

The first book printed in Oregon was an abridged edition of Web- 
ster's Speller, issued from the Oregon Spectator press at Oregon City 
on February i, 1847. But in the early years of settlement, very few 
textbooks were to be found in the Oregon country. Solomon Smith 
had only one school book at Fort Vancouver, and a single McGuffey 
Reader did duty for the entire school at Amity in 1848. The scanty 
supply of readers, spellers, and arithmetics brought by early immi- 
grants was supplemented with almost every sort of available printed 
matter, including the Bible, books of verse, religious journals, and 



IO4 OREGON 

newspapers. Not until passage of the common school law of 1872 was 
a uniform system of textbooks adopted throughout the State. 

A considerable portion of the three or four million acres comprised 
in the land grants for educational support found its way into the 
hands of private speculators, who paid only a nominal sum for their 
purchases. As a result, the amount each district received from the 
common school fund was small in the early years, and school taxes 
were reluctantly imposed upon settlers struggling to secure a foothold 
in the new country. Moreover, most of those settlers were accustomed 
to think of education as a denominational or private concern, as in- 
deed it was for the most part until the late i86o's. Of the numerous 
academies, institutes, and seminaries established in Oregon during the 
first three or four decades of settlement, the earliest of all was the 
Oregon Institute, which in 1844 purchased the land and buildings of 
the Methodist mission school founded ten years earlier by Jason Lee 
and his nephew Daniel in the Willamette Valley at the present site 
of Salem. This eventually developed into Willamette University, the 
oldest institution of higher education in the far West. Other early de- 
nominational schools which formed the nuclei for present-day universi- 
ties or colleges were Tualatin Academy (Congregational), founded at 
Forest Grove in 1848, now Pacific University; McMinnville College 
(Baptist), founded at McMinnville in 1857, now Linfield College; 
Albany Collegiate Institute (Presbyterian), founded at Albany in 
1866, now Albany College; and Friends' Pacific Academy (Quaker), 
founded at Newberg in 1871, now Pacific College. The towns of Dallas 
and Jeflerson had their originating centers in two of the early acade- 
mies La Creole Academic Institute and Jeflerson Academy respec- 
tively, both established in the middle 1850'$. Of the few pioneer edu- 
cational institutions in eastern Oregon, the Blue Mountain University 
(Methodist), founded in 1875 at La Grande, was best known. Since 
the 1 850*8, Roman Catholic academies and institutes have been active 
in the State's educational life. 

Corvallis College, founded at Corvallis in 1858 and for a time 
controlled by the Southern Methodist Church, was the precursor of 
Oregon State Agricultural College, opened under that name in 1868. 
The first graduating class, in 1870, consisted of four persons. This in- 
stitution has since become one of the leading agricultural colleges of 
the country, with a faculty of 345 members and a student enrollment 
of 4,476 in 1938. 

The University of Oregon, at Eugene, grew out of a land grant 



EDUCATION IO5 

made in 1859 "to aid in the establishment of a university." Not until 
1872, however, did the State legislature definitely provide for its crea- 
tion, and the economic depression of the ensuing years delayed its com- 
pletion until 1876. The first graduating class was that of 1878. The 
faculty list comprised 230 names and the student enrollment was 3,420 
in 1938. 

A separate department of higher education with an administrative 
chancellor now brings under unified control the Oregon State College, 
the University of Oregon, and the three State normal schools. The lat- 
ter, which trace back to early teachers' institutes and to teacher-training 
courses in the academies and seminaries, comprise the Oregon College 
of Education at Monmouth, founded 1910; the Southern Oregon Col- 
lege of Education at Ashland, founded 1926; and the Eastern Oregon 
College of Education at La Grande, founded 1929. 

Special schools for the blind, the deaf, and the mentally deficient are 
maintained by the State (see SOCIAL WELFARE). Vocational train- 
ing is stressed in these institutions, as it is also in the Chemawa Indian 
School, established by the Federal government in 1880, near Salem. 

In 1936, according to Federal statistics, the number of pupils en- 
rolled in the public elementary and secondary schools of Oregon was 
188,361. The teaching staff comprised 7,017 persons, who received an 
average annual salary of $1,154. The total expenditures for these 
schools amounted to $15,746,000, or a per capita of $15.48 with re- 
spect to the entire State population. The enrollment in private and 
parochial schools, excluding kindergartens, was 12,791 ; while that in 
universities, colleges (including junior colleges), and professional schools 
totaled 11,131. 

That Oregon's education system has done efficient work is perhaps 
best attested by the fact that, according to the Federal census of 1930, 
only one other State (Iowa) had a lower percentage of illiteracy with 
respect to the total population. The Oregon rate was only one per 
cent, as against a national average for the continental United States 
of 4.3 per cent. 

Federal and State agencies, either singly or in cooperation, have 
carried on noteworthy educational activities of a special sort during the 
recent depression years. The Federal Emergency Educational Program 
was initiated in 1933 by the Civil Works Administration. When the 
latter was dissolved, the program was in part continued with State 
emergency relief funds; and since the inception of the Works Progress 
Administration, it has been financed out of WPA appropriations. 



106 OREGON 

Courses have been added from time to time, until the curriculum now 
includes cultural and vocational training in almost every important 
field. More than 3,000 alien residents have been prepared for American 
citizenship in special Americanization courses, and the elements of 
English reading and writing have been taught to more than 800. Inci- 
dental to the main objectives of the emergency educational program is 
its effectiveness in improving neighborhood relations and fostering com- 
munity spirit through classroom contacts and an interchange of ideas. 
In 1936 the Portland Public Forums, one of ten national demonstra- 
tion projects in adult civic education, achieved excellent results under 
joint sponsorship of the Federal government, through the Commissioner 
of Education, and the State WPA organization. Forums were con- 
ducted for eight months, with a total attendance of 100,418 persons. 



iiiiiiiiiiDiiiii iDiiiiiiiniiiQi iiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiitiiaiiiiitiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiDiiiiiiiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiDiiiiiiiiiiiiBiiniiiiiiiiDii it) 



Religion 



harbingers of organized religion in Oregon were four Flathead 
Indians who in 1832, according to a contemporary chronicle, "per- 
formed a wearisome journey on foot to St. Louis, in Missouri, for the 
purpose of inquiring for the Christian's Book and the white man's 
God." When, in due course, news of this "wonderful event" appeared 
in eastern religious journals, "a general feeling of Christian sympathy 
was produced in all the churches of the land for these interesting 
heathen, and a proposition was made that the Missionary Board of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church proceed forthwith to establish a 
mission among the Flathead Indians." 

Jason Lee, a Methodist clergyman engaged in spreading the Word 
among Indians in Canada, was chosen to set up the proposed mission. 
With his nephew Daniel (also a clergyman) and two lay workers, 
Cyrus Shepard and P. L. Edwards, Lee accompanied the second Wyeth 
expedition to the Oregon country, arriving at Fort Vancouver on 
September 15, 1834. Here, a fortnight later, he preached two sermons 
"to a congregation of English, Irish, French, half-caste, &c., which were 
the first sermons ever preached in the place, and doubtless the first 
that many of the people had ever heard." Upon the advice of Dr. John 
McLoughlin, chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and "after 
much prayer for direction as to the place," it was decided to locate the 
mission in the lower Willamette Valley rather than in the Flathead 
country. Before the end of the year the little party had erected a rude 
log shelter some 75 miles up the Willamette River, at a place known as 
French Prairie, and had begun its labors "for the spiritual benefit of all 
the Indians, and the few French people who had settled in the country." 

In the following year a Presbyterian clergyman, Samuel Parker, was 
sent out by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 
to explore the Oregon country with a view to selecting the most de- 
sirable site for a Presbyterian mission. With him came Dr. Marcus 
Whitman, appointed by the same body to work as a medical missionary 
among the Indians. But upon their arrival at the Snake River, Whit- 



IO8 OREGON 

man decided to return East and to endeavor to persuade the Board 
into sending missionaries immediately to Oregon, without awaiting 
Parker's report. In 1836, Whitman made his second journey to the 
Northwest, accompanied by his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Spalding, 
and W. H. Gray. Setting up a mission station at Waiilatpu, near 
the site of Walla Walla, he labored indefatigably here until late in 
1847, when he and his wife with several others were killed in an Indian 
raid upon the station. Spalding established a mission among the Nez 
Perces in the Snake River Valley. Two years later, Daniel Lee and 
H. K. W. Perkins were assigned to missionary work at The Dalles. 
These three missions, with the earliest one of all at French Prairie in 
the Willamette Valley, were the outposts of Protestant Christianity in 
the Oregon country until the arrival in 1840 of the "great reinforce- 
ment" gathered by Jason Lee on a return visit to the East. 

But the region was known to Jesuit missionaries long before the 
coming of the Methodists in 1834. Most of the French-Canadians em- 
ployed by the Hudson's Bay Company were of the Roman Catholic 
faith, as was the company's chief factor, Dr. McLoughlin ; and religious 
instruction in the little school at Fort Vancouver was in accordance with 
the tenets of that faith. The first church within the present limits of 
Oregon was a log structure erected by Roman Catholics at St. Paul 
(in what is now Marion County) in 1836, although mass was not 
celebrated there until three years later. Father Blanchet presided here 
after his arrival in 1838, and in 1844 he became archbishop of the Ro- 
man Catholic Church in Oregon, whose seat of authority was removed 
from Oregon City to Portland in 1862. 

For the most part, the earliest settlers had neither time nor money 
to build churches, but they organized small congregations in a few scat- 
tered communities, which were served by itinerant preachers such as 
Robert Booth and Joab Powell, who are commemorated in a statue on 
the Capitol grounds at Salem. With the ever-rising tide of mass immi- 
gration after 1842, however, various Protestant denominations found 
it possible to erect their first houses of worship. The earliest of these 
was built by the Methodists at or near the site of Oregon City. Under 
date of Sunday, June 23, 1844, the Reverend Gustavus Hines has 
recorded that he "Preached to a congregation of about forty persons 
in the Methodist Church at the falls, and proved the truth of the 
Saviour's promise, 'Lo, I am with you/ " Other denominations that 
soon followed this example were the "Old School" Presbyterians at 
Clatsop, near the mouth of the Columbia, and the Disciples of Christ 



RELIGION 109 

or Campbellites on the Yamhill River in Polk County, both in 1846; 
the Cumberland Presbyterians at Rickreall, Polk County, in 1848; the 
Episcopalians at Portland, in 1851. 

Besides the "Old School" and Cumberland sects, two other Presby- 
terian bodies were represented in early Oregon the Associate Presby- 
terians and the Associate Reformed Presbyterians, both dissenters from 
the Church of Scotland. These two merged in 1852, to form the United 
Presbyterian Church of Oregon, the first church body. in North America 
organized under the name "United Presbyterians." The Baptists first 
organized at West Union in the Tualatin valley in 1844. 

The earliest Jewish congregation in Oregon was that of Beth Israel, 
organized at Portland in 1859, although its synagogue was not built 
until some time later. The immigration from Germany and Scandinavia 
in the 1870*5 and i88o's brought many Lutherans, and this denomina- 
tion is now prominently represented in the state. Japanese residents 
of Portland maintain a Buddhist temple in that city. 

The religion preached in Oregon's early days was of an extremely 
fundamentalist character, promising salvation to the faithful and 
eternal damnation to the unbeliever. That this sort of religion still 
exists in some degree is evidenced by the Pentecostal and Four-Square 
Gospel denominations, whose rise is an interesting phenomenon of the 
past two decades. Religious prejudice was also evident in 1922, when 
Oregonians, stirred by appeals of the Ku Klux Klan, then active on 
the Pacific coast, sought unsuccessfully to do away with Catholic paro- 
chial education in the state. 

"Somewhat over one-fourth of the total Oregon population belongs 
to some religious denomination. The leading denominations numerically 
are the Roman Catholic, Methodist Episcopal, Baptist, Disciples of 
Christ, Presbyterian, Congregational, Methodist Episcopal (South), 
and Protestant Episcopal." 



Literature 



A S is the case with most of the other states, the literature of 
^"^Oregon may be said to begin with the accounts of the first explorers 
and travelers. In 1775, twenty years before the historic overland journey 
of Lewis and Clark, Captain Bruno Heceta, a Spanish navigator, 
sighted the Tillamook coast and recorded his impressions of its rugged 
outlines in his diary. Three years later the English Captain James 
Cook remarked in the log of his voyage to the Northwest that Sir 
Francis Drake had mentioned the severity of the climate hereabouts in 
June, whereas in March he found it mild enough; but ten days later 
Cook himself confessed that cold and snow prevailed along the coast 
later to be known as Oregon. 

When Captain Robert Gray discovered the Columbia River in 1792, 
a log was kept by one of his young sailors, John Boit, Jr. Among other 
shrewd observations the lad noted the fine stature of the Indian males 
and the comeliness of the females. The Lewis and Clark journal, besides 
its historic significance, has great claim to literary value. With the 
reports concerning the trappers and traders of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, historical accounts began to be flavored with legend. And even 
the dry commercial records of the fur company helped Washington 
Irving vividly to reconstruct in Astoria, published in 1836, the setting 
of its far-reaching empire. 

Jason Lee, the indefatigable Methodist missionary of the Willamette 
Valley, through his eloquence was able to interest Easterners particu- 
larly the religious minded in the primitive wonders of the Oregon 
region. His wife, Anna Marie Pittman, is credited with being Oregon's 
first poet. Her farewell poem to her husband, written in 1838 when he 
was starting east, is marked rather by intense conjugal devotion and 
pious fervor than by literary excellence. 

During the same year the Reverend Samuel Parker, who had accom- 
panied Dr. Marcus Whitman on his first trip to the Northwest, pub' 
lished a Journal of an Exploring Tour Beyond the Rocky Mountains 
(1835), which had an astonishing success for that time, selling some 



LITERATURE III 

1,500 copies within a few years after its issue. The author pointed 
out one of the early disadvantages of missionary work in the new Land 
of Canaan: "There is yet one important desideratum the missionaries 
have no wives. Christian white women are very much needed to exert 
an influence over Indian females." 

The career of the poet, Cincinnatus Heiner Miller (1841-1913) 
better known as Joaquin Miller, illustrates the vicissitudes and adven- 
turousness of pioneer life. At the age of 13 he arrived in Eugene City 
in a covered wagon. Between 1855 and 1857 he lived with an Indian 
woman, by whom he had a child. After his Indian love affair he 
studied in Columbia College, Eugene ; was class valedictorian and poet ; 
then, successively, he taught school, practiced law, tried mining, rode 
the pony express, edited a newspaper, married, went into cattle raising, 
became a judge, printed his first volume of poems, Specimens (1868), 
in Portland, his second, Joaquin f et al, a year later, and in 1870 was 
divorced. Publication in 1871 of Songs of the Sierras in London made 
him famous. Thereafter his visits to Oregon were infrequent and his 
name was associated with California. A bit of a charlatan, Miller was 
a restless, spectacular, character, capable of writing an occasional poem 
with a vigorous lilt. 

With Marcus Whitman on his famous trek in 1836 was the mis- 
sionary historian, W. H. Gray, best remembered as the author of one 
of the first histories of the State. His History of Oregon (1870) is 
notable because it provided first-hand information (for many years he 
was Government inspector of the port of Astoria) of the region and 
also because it anticipated the work of Hubert Howe Bancroft. 

The first comprehensive history of early Oregon was the work of 
Bancroft (1832-1918) and his little-known associates. Bancroft, a San 
Francisco publisher, set out to become the historian of the entire West. 
His grandiose plan came near enough to fruition to assume epic propor- 
tions. By 1868 he had accumulated more than 15,000 volumes relat- 
ing to the West and during the ensuing years he employed a large staff 
of reporters and archivists to supplement his material. In this great 
work it is believed that he had the help of a dozen competent writers 
who never received credit for their share of it. His History of the 
Northwest Coast (1884) was a prelude to the richly documented two- 
volume History of Oregon (1886-88), in which source material on the 
State was finely combed. The Oregon Historical Quarterly, IV, con- 
tains an analysis of the contributions of his collaborators. 

One of his associates, Frances Fuller Victor, was a remarkable liter- 



112 OREGON 

ary personality, poet in her early youth in New York, and author of 
The River of the West (1870) and All Over Oregon and Washington, 
authoritative accounts of the Oregon territory. She worked on Ban- 
croft's staff for eleven years and in this capacity wrote the History of 
Oregon (1886-88) as well as several other studies. Among her other 
works were a volume of poems and short stories, The New Penelope 
(1877), Atlantis Arisen: or, Talks of a Tourist About Oregon and 
Washington, and The Early Indian Wars of Oregon (1894). She 
died in 1902 in a Portland boarding house after several years of bitter 
poverty. 

Francis Parkman's famous Oregon Trail first published as The 
California and Oregon Trail in 1849 belongs in this record, though it 
deals mainly with conditions at the eastern end of the trail. It should 
be read in connection with such volumes as W. J. Ghent's Road to 
Oregon (1929), Early Far West (1931), and The Oregon Trail 
(i939) by the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Ad- 
ministration. 

Judge Charles H. Carey, prominent in Portland's cultural activities, 
is one of the State's outstanding historians. His numerous historical 
works include a History of Oregon (1922) and a General History of 
Oregon (1935). Professor R. C. Clark, of the University of Oregon, 
was a scholarly historian of Texas and of Oregon; in 1925 he pub- 
lished a History of Oregon and in 1927 a History of the Willamette 
Valley. Other historians in special fields of State and local history 
include Bishop Edwin Vincent O'Hara, who wrote the Pioneer Catholic 
History of Oregon (1911-1925) ; Dr. Dan E. Clark, of the University 
of Oregon; and Professor Frederic G. Young, editor of the Oregon 
Historical Quarterly from 1900 to 1928, and author of numerous 
articles. In 1900 Professor Young rode a bicycle along the entire 
length of the Oregon Trail. A standard work is Horace S. Lyman's 
History of Oregon: the Growth of an American State (4 vols., 1903). 
Richard G. Montgomery has written The White-Headed Eagle ( 1934), 
an excellent biography of Dr. John McLoughlin. Philip H. Parrish 
published in 1931 Before the Covered Wagon, a collection of historical 
essays. 

The Oregon pioneers, men and women, wrote copiously but rarely 
with any literary intent. Their memoirs are valuable source material 
for the historian and historical novelist. Such accounts as A Day with 
the Cow Column (1934) by Jesse Appiegate, George A. Waggoner's 
Stories of Old Oregon (1905), T. T. Geer's Fifty Years in Oregon 



LITERATURE 113 

(1912), and the Autobiography of John Ball, published as late as 
1925, have a veracity that often escapes the authors of historical fiction. 

The best of these volumes of reminiscences is Cathlamet on the Co- 
lumbia, a small book of 119 pages, first published in 1906. Its author, 
Thomas Nelson Strong (1853-1927), spent his earliest boyhood playing 
with Indian children, then moved to Portland and later became a promi- 
nent attorney. Few books have shown so clearly "the influences of the 
surrounding forests, natives, and frontier," which, as Strong declared, 
molded his life. Of equal native vigor and honesty is The Country Boy, 
(1910) by Homer Davenport (1867-1912), the well-known cartoonist; 
a homely, humorous record of his boyhood in Silverton and the Waldo 
Hills. The State's more recent complexion is shown in George H. 
Putnam's In the Oregon Country (1915) and A. D. Pratt's A Home- 
steader's Portfolio (1922). 

A year after Oregon was organized as a territory, the first novel, 
The Prairie Flower, or, Adventures in the Far West, was written in 
the new country. This novel was published in Cincinnati in 1849. 
Emerson Bennett was credited with its authorship, but there can be little 
doubt that it was motivated and mainly written by Sidney Walter Moss 
(1810-1901), a hotel-keeper of Oregon City. It was notable for its por- 
trayal of early mountain characters and its salty trapper's dialect. With- 
in a decade three more literary works appeared. W. L. Adams of Yam- 
hill County wrote in 1852 a melodramatic satire in verse entitled 
Treason, Stratagems and Spoils in Five Acts, by Breakspear, which was 
first published serially in the Portland Oregonian. A second work was 
Ruth Rover (1854), a two- volume novel of the Oregon Trail and 
French Prairie life, by Margaret J. Bailey. In 1859 Abigail Scott Duni- 
way (1835-1915), who later became the State's most brilliant champion 
of woman suffrage, published Captain Gray's Company, a fictional ver- 
sion of the overland journey of the first immigrants, marked by a some- 
what barren realism. 

A fictitious reconstruction of primitive life before the coming of the 
white man is found in one of Oregon's most popular novels, The Bridge 
of the Gods, published in 1890 by Frederic Homer Balch (1861-91). 
The theme of the story is the collapse of the legendary stone bridge 
which Indians believed once spanned the Columbia River at the Cas- 
cades. Although the time of the story is some 200 years ago, Balch gave 
his Indians an authentic touch of life through first-hand studies of the 
myths of the Columbia River Indians and visits with the redmen. In 
spite of its romantic flavor and somewhat sentimental style, the novel 



114 OREGON 

successfully recreates the feeling of a pagan, primitive world and has 
moments of genuine poignancy. 

A novelist of the period of fur trading and exploration is Eva Emery 
Dye, of Oregon City. Her McLoughlin and Old Oregon (1900) is 
accepted by the reading public of the State with the same affection ac- 
corded The Bridge of the Gods and for a similar reason; it is filled 
with a sense of Oregon's historic background, especially that of the 
Hudson's Bay Company and its redoubtable factor. Her second book, 
Stories of Oregon (1900), suffered destruction during the printing, in 
the San Francisco earthquake and fire. In 1902 she turned to the Lewis 
and Clark expedition for The Conquest: the True Story of Lewis and 
Clark. Another book, McDonald of Oregon (1906), was based on the 
journal of that notable trader. In The Soul of America (1933) she 
describes the influence of women in pioneer society. 

Popular short-stories and numerous juveniles brought moderate 
wealth to John Fleming Wilson (1877-1922). His sea tales have 
achieved some fame and his Tad Shelton, Boy Scout (1913) has become 
part of the reading equipment of Oregon youngsters. 

H. L. Davis strikes the modern note of pungent realism in his novel, 
Honey in the Horn, issued as the 1935 Harper prize novel. This gusty 
saga of homesteaders along the coast and on the "high desert" of east- 
ern Oregon became a best seller and in 1936 received a Pulitzer award. 
Davis, in the manner of the younger generation, deflowers the sweeter 
legend of the heroic pioneers, seeing them as average humans and none 
too civilized in speech and customs. 

Many of the newer novelists and short-story writers of the state 
are drawing on the rich sources of Oregon's historical, social, and in- 
dustrial background for this material. Sheba Hargreaves and Sabra 
Conner have written historically authentic novels of pioneer days. 
Robert Ormond Case and Ernest Haycox have taken the range lands 
of the "high desert" as their domain and are producing colorful tales 
of the cattle era. Edison Marshall, prolific producer of popular fiction, 
has written a number of short stories of literary merit. Charles Alex- 
ander has done some excellent animal stories, among them The Fang in 
the Forest (1923) and Bobbie, a Great Collie (1926). Interpreters of 
Indian lore are Claire Warner Churchill, author of Slave Wives of 
Nehalem (1933) and South of the Sunset (1936), and Clarence Orvel 
Bunnell, writer of Legends of the Klickitats (1933). Anne Shannon 
Monroe has published several novels of the eastern Oregon range coun- 



LITERATURE 115 

try, Feelin Fine (1930), the life of William (Bill) Hanley, and a 
number of volumes of personal and inspirational essays. 

Mary Jane Carr has written a number of children's books, the most 
popular of which is Children of the Covered Wagon (1934), and 
Theodore Ackland Harper is author of a dozen juvenile stories with 
scenes laid in Siberia, Mexico, and Oregon. Albert Richard Wetjen is 
a writer of sea stories and in two volumes, Way For a Sailor (1928) 
and Fiddler's Green (1931), has attained to literary excellence. James 
Stevens, formerly of Bend, has published Homer in the Sagebrush 
(1928), short stories of Oregon workers, but is best known for his 
Paul Bunyan legends, Paul Bunyan (1925) and the Saginaw Paul 
Bunyan (1932). Recent additions to Americana are Stewart H. Hoi- 
brook's Holy Old Mackinaw (1938), a natural history of the American 
lumberjack and Iron Brew (1939), the history of the iron industry. 

Other prose writers who have contributed to the State's literary out- 
put are Vivien Bretherton, Eleanor Hammond, Alexander Hull, Laura 
Miller, Kay Cleaver Strahan, Elizabeth Lambert Wood, Ared White, 
and Richard L. Neuberger. 

Of Oregon's poets, with the exception of Joaquin Miller, the best 
known is Edwin Markham, born at Oregon City in 1852, though his 
fame is based almost entirely on the polemical "Man With the Hoe," 
which was written at San Francisco in 1898. He published other vol- 
umes of poetry during his residence in New York and in 1927 he 
edited the Book of Poetry. Except for the fact of his birth in Oregon, 
the poet has had little connection with the State. 

Minnie Myrtle Miller, ex-wife of Joaquin Miller, during the 1870'$ 
was a poet in her own right, composing in the early Victorian style. 
Sam L. Simpson (1846-99) wrote one popular piece, "Beautiful Wil- 
lamette" (1868), that escapes the obscurity of his later verse. 

Beloved poet of Oregon scenes is Ella Higginson, (b. ca. 1860) 
who began as a successful author of western short stories and by degrees 
became known as the author of several volumes of poetry, including 
When the Birds Go North Again (1898), The Snow Pearls (1897), 
and The Vanishing Races and Other Poems (1911). Her lyrics have 
tempted many composers and her songs have been rendered by Calve', 
Caruso, McCormack, and other singers. 

Charles Erskine Scott Wood, for 35 years a Portland lawyer, is now 
living in California. His Poet in the Desert was published at Portland 
in 1915, but he is more widely known for the satirical Heavenly Dis- 
course (1927) and Earthly Discourse (1937). During a long and active 



Il6 OREGON 

life Mr. Wood has boxed the compass from a conservative corporation 
counsel to a vigorous radical graced with humor. 

One of the most gifted of Oregon's sons, John Reed (1887-1920) 
of Portland, finally devoted his talents to the cause of world revolution 
and received the unique distinction of burial at the foot of the Kremlin 
in Moscow, where his grave is an object of communist pilgrimage. As a 
young man and Harvard graduate he was a poet of distinction; the 
themes of Sangar (1912), The Day in Bohemia (1913), and Tambur- 
lane and Other Poems (1916) in their virile imagery and lyrical aban- 
don give little hint of the potential revolutionist in him. The rebellious 
motive becomes apparent in his graphic articles on Pancho Villa and on 
labor subjects in the Metropolitan Magazine in 1913 and 1914. Soon 
he was active in several strikes and wrote as an observer for the radical 
Masses. In 1917 he went to Russia. Intimacy with the leaders of the 
Russian Revolution resulted in his powerfully written Red Russia 
(1919) and the classic of the left, Ten Days that Shook the World 
(1919). 

Mary Carolyn Davies, educated in Portland and later a resident of 
New York City, combines a sensitive lyrical gift with flashes of intui- 
tive insight. Following the war poems, The Drums in Our Street 
(1918), oppressive with the tragedy of men fighting, came a one-act 
allegorical play, The Slave With Two Faces (1918), and other vol- 
umes of poetry, notably Youth Riding (1919) and a book of western 
verse, The Skyline Trail (1924). 

A pure lyrical note is struck in the poetry of Hazel Hall (1886- 
1924). An invalid after her twelfth year, her failing eyesight later 
caused her to turn from doing needle work for her living to writing. 
Her poems, suggestive of the exquisite sensitivity of Emily Dickinson, 
appeared in such magazines as Century t Yale Review, and the New 
Republic. Her three published volumes are Curtains (1921), Walkers 
(1923) and Cry of Time (1928), a posthumous volume. Simplicity of 
statement and images that seem almost inevitable mark such poems as 
"Three Girls," selected by William Stanley Braithwaitc as one of the 
five best poems of 1920. 

A number of Portland poets have published books of literary value: 
Mable Holmes Parsons with Pastels and Silhouettes (1921) and Listen- 
er's Room (1940) ; Ethel Romig Fuller with White Peaks and Green 
(1928), and Kitchen Sonnets (1931) ; Ada Hastings Hedges with Des- 
ert Poems ( 1930) ; Eleanor Allen with Seeds of Earth ( 1933) ; Howard 
McKinley Corning with These People (1926) and The Mountain in the 



LITERATURE Iiy 

Sky (1930) ; and Laurence Pratt with A Saga of a Paper Mill (1935) 
and Harp of Water (1939). Other contemporary poets who merit men- 
tion are Queene B. Lister, Charles Oluf Olsen, Walter Evans Kidd, 
Ben Hur Lampman, Courtland W. Matthews, Phyllis Morden, Borg- 
hild Lee, and Eleanor Hansen, all of Portland; Ernest G. Moll of 
Eugene who has published three volumes of verse; Lulu Piper Aiken 
of Ontario ; Paul E. Tracy of Baker County, a plumber, who writes of 
the people of eastern Oregon; and Verne Bright of Aloha. Bright has 
written a book-length narrative poem, Mountain Man, of the early 
trapping period and the Oregon Trail, parts of which have appeared in 
the Frontier and Midland and the North American Review. These 
poets exhibit a feeling for their own locale that augurs well for the con- 
tinued vitality of Oregon poetry. 

Oregon journalism (see NEWSPAPERS AND RADIO) owes 
much to Harvey W. Scott, editor of the Portland Oregonian from 
1877 to 1910, president of the Oregon Historical Society from 1898 to 
1901, and author of many historical articles, collected in six volumes 
as History of the Oregon Country (1924). 

A number of publishers have been active in Portland, producing books 
by indigenous authors. Among them were S. J. McCormick, George H. 
Himes, A. G. Walling, E. M. Waite, The J. K. Gill Co., F. W. Baltes 
and Co., and McArthur and Wood. At present the University Press of 
Eugene and Binfords and Mort of Portland are publishing many excel- 
lent books, mostly of a regional nature. The John Henry Nash Press at 
the University of Oregon prints books of fine format and typography. 



iiiiiiHiiQiiiiiiiiiiiiamiiiiiiiiiQimiiiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiio^ 



Theater, Music and Art 



HPHE history of fine art in Oregon is a brief one. Yet a good deal of 
* art has been created in the state during the past fifty years. The 
early inspiration of this work was mainly the romantic interest aroused 
in artists of eastern communities by the primitive and frontier life of 
the Rockies and the regions beyond. 

Among the settlers themselves the urge for self-expression most com- 
monly found release in the singing of homely songs brought from the 
East and from Europe. Instrumental music for such occasions was 
largely provided by "fiddles" and accordians, many of which had first 
enlivened the camp-fire gatherings on the "road to Oregon," or had 
eased the nostalgia of gold-seeking miners in distant Eldorados. Only 
occasionally in the early decades was itinerant entertainment available. 
The visit, then, in 1855, of Stephen C. Massett, impersonator, singer, 
song writer, and 'globe trotter, journeying from San Francisco by boat, 
for readings and concerts at Astoria, Vancouver, Portland and other 
interior Oregon towns, today seems symbolic. While he was giving a 
concert in the small Salem courthouse, lighted by six tallow candles, 
all were dramatically extinguished by a gust of wind as he was singing 
"The Light of Other Days." At the close of his performance at Cor- 
vallis he was obliged to shake hands with half the frontier population 
before they would let him depart. Appreciation for the arts was in- 
herent in Oregonians from the beginning. 

Later, with the growth of settlement Oregon came into contact with 
the general development of art in America. Theaters were built in the 
larger towns, and applauding audiences, their eagerness for entertain- 
ment often exceeding their artistic discrimination, viewed the produc- 
tions of the professional stage or listened to the voices and instruments 
of the world's great musicians. Symphony organizations and choral so- 
cieties were organized, employing almost entirely local talent. Art mu- 
seums came into being, their services supplementing the activities of the 
few artists who sojourned for a time amidst the western scene, or re- 
mained to settle among the native-born craftsmen. 



THEATRE, MUSIC AND ART IIQ 

By 1915 the state had become articulate in the truest sense. The 
physical scene was still unspoiled and grand. But now there was as 
much respect for the life of the people as for the beauty of the region, 
although as yet this "putting forth" was often tentative; the evidence 
was more of promise than of fulfillment, more traditional than native. 
Only from the perspective of the present does the achievement of the 
past twenty-five years in the field of the arts have significance. Today 
in Oregon the worthy work of the stage, the concert hall, and the art 
studio, professional and amateur, enjoys the recognition of a discerning 
patronage. 

THE THEATER 

The first known theatrical performance in the Oregon Country 
was given in 1846 by the crew of the British sloop Modeste, an- 
chored in the Columbia River off Fort Vancouver. Settlers from 
many miles up the Willamette Valley made the journey to see the play, 
which, oddly enough, was a sophisticated drama, Three Weeks of Mar- 
riage. This production, like others that followed at rare intervals, was 
melodramatic in theme and treatment; virtue and vice were plainly 
marked and the moral heavily stressed. In reporting the performance 
The Spectator of Oregon City generously remarked that the actors 
"sustained their characters in the most creditable manner, that even had 
Will Shakespeare himself looked in he could not have said, nay . . ." 

In 1855, in the gold camp of Browntown in Southern Oregon, the 
entrancing San Francisco child star, Lotta Crabtree, entertained the 
miners and was showered with coins and nuggets. However, when 
she returned in 1863, at the age of sixteen, she was hissed when she 
endeavored to sing patriotic airs declaring her loyalty to the North. 
"She faced a cold and relentless audience and they never gave her a 
hand," her manager related. 

During the 5o's the people of Oregon were entertained principally 
by mediocre minstrel troupes and one-ring circuses. In Portland, in 
1858, the Stewart Theater housed a small company of players for the 
"better part of the season." After that the theater appears to have 
diminished in interest for the home-building Oregonians until 1861, 
when the Willamette Theater opened in Portland. Here in 1864 ap- 
peared "Julia Dean Hayes, for a limited number of nights." Her plays 
were Othello, Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, and The Man in the Iron 
Mask. She interrupted her Portland engagement with several one-week 
stands at Salem. In the same year Mr. and Mrs. Charles Kean appeared 



120 OREGON 

with their Shakesperian company in the Merchant of Venice. A travel- 
ing troupe of players visiting Salem and other Willamette Valley towns 
in 1875 presented Ten Nights in a Barroom. 

As Portland continued to grow, her interest in the theater grew 
also. In 1875 the New Market Theater, Oregon's first brick show- 
house, was built at a cost of $100,000, and a truly gorgeous presentation 
of Rip Van Winkle was staged. Soon thereafter the Tivoli (1883), 
playing comic opera, and the Casino (1885), fitted with a bar and 
tables and playing cheap melodrama, were opened. The latter, under 
moral protest, was later reconstructed and renamed the New Park 
(1888). Thereafter grand opera, alternating with the lighter vein of 
Gilbert and Sullivan, was offered, with occasional productions of such 
melodramas as The Creole and the sensational After Dark. Portland's 
prominence as a mecca of the drama brought eager playgoers from as 
far away as San Francisco. 

Traveling drama, however, reached its acme with the opening in 
February, 1890, of the Marquam Grand Opera House. The initial pro- 
duction was Robin Hood. In the two decades that followed, such pre- 
tentious shows as Ben Hur, the Old Homestead, and the Count of 
Monte Cristo made this house the center of Oregon's theatrical and 
social life. Here in 1893 James L. Corbett, the prize ring champion, 
played in Gentleman Jack. Great artists who performed at the Mar- 
quam Grand were Sarah Bernhardt, Frederick Warde, Sir Henry 
Irving, Ellen Terry, Edwin Booth, Lillian Russell, Julia Arthur, Nat 
Goodwin, James K. Hackett, John Drew, and many others. A galaxy 
of opera stars, including Modjeska, Melba, and Nordica, with support- 
ing troupes, made Portland the entertainment center of the Northwest. 
Portland's theatrical production reached its most extravagant at- 
tempt at realism during this period, when the road show Blue Jeans 
played the Marquam Grand. Blue Jeans was a melodrama with one 
scene laid in a sawmill, and since sawmills played a major part in 
Northwest life, its opening was well but critically attended. The pro- 
moters advertised this scene as "Mechanically Perfect in Every Detail." 
The stage "mill," however, proved to be merely a pitifully inept repro- 
duction, and when the silk-hatted villain sneered at his brave but help- 
less victim about to be fed into it; "Die like a dog, you ," he was 
interrupted by a clear, bellowing voice from the audience: "Set your 
blocks or you won't get no clears outa that log." This advice was 
thoroughly justified, and the uproar which followed caused the manager 
to ring down the curtain for good on the Portland run of this play. 



THEATRE, MUSIC AND ART 121 

Meanwhile, as early as 1894, nearly a dozen other Oregon towns 
had built theaters, invariably termed opera houses. These exhibited road 
shows almost exclusively, with the occasional "great" of the legitimate 
stage taxing their usual icoo-seat capacity. 

Early in the IQOO'S several small theaters came into being, presenting 
principally variety shows, burlesque, and "thrillers." This phase was a 
further development of the variety type of entertainment brought to 
Portland in 1889 by John Cordray, but now made acceptable for 
women as well as men. Straight vaudeville houses w r ere opened under 
the management of Sullivan and Considine, Keating and Flood, and 
Alexander Pantages. On one occasion the latter presented Charles 
Chaplin in A Night in a London Music Hall. 

These years saw also the forming in Portland of local stock com- 
panies playing New York successes. George L. Baker, responding to 
the trend of the times, organized the Baker Stock Company (1902). 
Forty-week seasons of stock were not unusual. Road shows continued to 
visit and when, later, the Columbia was opened, a packed house 
thrilled to the famous Mrs. Leslie Carter playing Madame Du Barry. 

The first moving picture was shown in Portland, August 7, 1897. 
Soon thereafter small movie houses or "nickelodeons" sprang up in 
Portland and in other Oregon towns and became so popular that by 
1915 the legitimate theater, competing with its most formidable enter- 
tainment rival, was operating at a loss. Nearly every small town in the 
state had a movie "palace," while the larger cities supported from 
three to six; Portland had more than twenty. As a consequence, the- 
atricals suffered a much diminished patronage. 

With the waning of the professional theater in the state, local self- 
expression in the field of amateur acting made a bid for public recog- 
nition. A dramatic class, begun under the auspices of the Portland 
Labor College and directed by Doris Smith, soon developed into the 
Labor College Players. The first group of its kind in the country, it 
produced such one-act plays as Davis' Miss Civilization and Yeats' 
Land of Heart's Desire, and was the inspirational medium for the 
founding of similar groups elsewhere. 

Popular support waned, allowing the Labor College Players to die 
after a few years, but it was revived in 1925 with the forming of the 
Portland Civic Theater, until 1927 known as the Portland Art The- 
ater. In 1929 this organization absorbed the locally popular Bess Whit- 
comb Players, an independent amateur group formed in 1927, and en- 
larged its activities. Self-supporting and nonprofit-making, the Civic 



122 OREGON 

Theater has offered the public creditable and often distinctive produc- 
tions, with such Broadway successes as O'Neil's Anna Christie and 
Ah, Wilderness, Coward's Design for Living, and Rice's Judgment 
Day; and has given amateur performances, sometimes while the shows 
were still running in New York. One-act play writing contests were 
conducted for local talent, and in 1931 a school of drama was added 
as a feature of the theater's activities. Dean Collins, teaching play- 
writing to large classes, also made adaptations of such universal fa- 
vorites as Alice in Wonderland, and the Christmas Carol. The former 
had several presentations as an out-of-door Portland Rose Festival 
feature. In 1936 the Civic Theater school of drama came under the 
direction of the University of Oregon extension division. Since 1937 
the Civic Theater Blue Room productions have supplemented the usual 
program of five stage productions each year. 

Since the middle twenties Shakespearian drama seemingly has ap- 
pealed most strongly to the Oregon play-going public, with visiting 
English troupes most loudly acclaimed. Local performances, however, 
have not been lacking. A civic Elizabethan theater maintained at Ash- 
land since 1935 presents a yearly summer Shakespearean Festival. Under 
the direction of Angus L. Bowmar, of the Southern Oregon College of 
Education, such plays as Hamlet and the Taming of the Shrew are 
staged with professional actors carrying the leads, assisted by supporting 
casts of students. For one week four plays are given two performances 
each to audiences averaging seven hundred each evening. In 1937 and 
1938 the Reed College Players and the Civic Theater Players jointly 
produced Othello in summer out-of-door performances. 

For several- decades dramatic pageants have been popular. Since the 
late twenties the Portland Rose Festival Association has staged mam- 
moth productions at the Multnomah Stadium and the city parks, cele- 
brating the symbolism of the rose, the city's chosen flower. These pres- 
entations, and the Oregon Trail Festival given periodically at Eugene, 
have been ably directed by Doris Smith and others prominent in the 
state's dramatic life. For a brief time around 1920 Portland's China- 
town had a Chinese theater. 

Since 1936 the Federal Theater Project of the Works Progress Ad- 
ministration staged effectively Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, 
Langner's Pursuit of Happiness, and the three "living newspaper" 
plays, Arthur Arent's Power, and One Third of a Nation, and Sund- 
gaard's Spirochete. Several of these and the children's fantasies, Pinoc- 
chio and Hansel and Gretel, were produced in the WPA Federal The- 



THEATRE, MUSIC AND ART 123 

ater, Portland, opened to the public in May 1938. Dance skits given 
at Timberline Lodge in 1937, depicting flax culture, Indian life, and 
other regional folk activities, were followed in 1938 by Timberline 
Tintypes, sketches portraying Oregon logger life. These performances 
were under the supervision of Bess Whitcomb, State Director of the 
Federal Theater Project. Tapestry in Linen, a play dealing with flax 
culture, was written by the project and staged at Mount Angel in the 
summer of 1937. Since its beginning in October 1936, the Portland 
unit played to an aggregate audience of 200,000; of this number, 83 
per cent were admitted free of charge. 

Oregon has had a few well-recognized playwrights. Jules Eckert 
Goodman, born at Gervais in 1876, received national acclaim in 1910 
for his play Mother, and later was co-author of Potash and Perlmutter. 
Margaret Mayo, born at Salem in 1882 and first an actress, was the 
author of Polly of the Circus and other plays produced on Broadway. 
Among contemporary playwrights, Alice Henson Ernst is known for 
her dramas based on the Alaska gold rush and aspects of Indian life, 
published under the title of High Country, and Laura Miller for short 
folk plays locally produced. Bloodstream, by Frederick Schlick was pro- 
duced at the Times Square Theatre in New York City in 1932, and 
his The Man Who Broke His Heart was released by Paramount in 
1935 under the title of Wharf Angel. Sally Elliott Allen is known for 
studies in domestic life. Mrs. Allen, author of more than twenty one- 
act plays, in 1933 won the James B. Kerr award, offered by the Port- 
land Civic Theater, for a three-act play, What the Gulls Knew. All 
of these writers have had one-act plays produced by little theater groups 
of the state. 

The noted actress, Blanche Bates, was born in Portland in 1873 but 
three years later moved to San Francisco, where she made her first stage 
appearance in 1894. Earle Larrimore, Ona Munson, Mayo Methot, and 
Portland Hoffa, among contemporary players, were Portland born, and 
Clark Gable once resided in Oregon. 

MUSIC 

The French-Canadian voyageurs plying the Columbia River from 
1818 until about 1845 enlivened their days and nights with gay songs 
in French patois, but the River of the West seems not to have had a 
chant peculiarly its own. A lusty song, "Fur Trader's Ballad," was 
sung amidst laughter and filled flagons on Yuletide occasions at old 
Fort Astoria, but what tunes the trappers may have sung on their long 



124 OREGON 

winter hunts are unknown. Stanzas adapted from the English and Irish 
poets and heard wherever a river threaded the Northern wilderness 
were sung by Narcissa Whitman, a particularly good singer, and Eliza 
Spalding, wives of the missionaries, upon their arrival in the Oregon 
Country in 1836. Most often heard were "Hail to the Chief," "At the 
Clear Running Fountain," and Thomas Moore's "Canadian Boat 
Song." The overland pioneers, as appears from countless references 
in old journals, brought with them texts and tunes from their home- 
lands which they sang on almost every occasion. Only fragments re- 
main of the covered-wagon ballads and homesteader minstrelsy. "Oh, 
Susannah," by Stephen Foster, was universally popular during the 
California gold rush and was soon carried into Oregon. But for the 
next few decades such songs of sentiment as "Annie of the Vale," "The 
Old Log Hut," "Sweet Genevieve," and "I Wandered by the Brook- 
side," were most frequently heard, supplementing the countless religious 
songs found in the denominational hymnals. 

As early as 1849 a program of vocal music was given at Oregon City 
by William Morgan, who had "given concerts in New York and other 
Eastern cities." Among the twelve numbers sung by him were such 
long-forgotten songs as "Pretty Star of the Night" and "The Ivy 
Green." For dances of that day, particularly the Christmas Ball held 
each year at Oregon City, music was furnished by the United States 
Army Band, stationed there with other military units to preserve order 
among the Indian tribes and the gold seekers turning northward from 
California. Pioneer Oregon had many singing groups, usually associated 
with religious organizations. In 1856 a chorus of young people trained at 
Oregon City journeyed to Portland and sang from the collection. 
Fiona's Festival, and for a quarter-century pupils of the old Portland 
Academy sang in happy unison from Merry Chimes, a popular western 
song book. In the i86o's the Finck family at Aurora, organized the 
Aurora Band, which was soon very popular at fairs and political rallies 
throughout the Willamette Valley. Years later one of their number, 
Henry T. Finck, became known as a New York music critic and wrote 
the autobiographical Adventures in the Golden Age of Music. The 
DeMoss family, like troubadours of old, toured the state and surround- 
ing country, singing to settler and city dweller alike. 

As Oregon developed culturally, symphonic music began to make its 
appeal. The first known orchestral programs were given in Portland 
in 1868 and 1870 by a United States Infantry Band. In 1875 an ama- 
teur musical society was formed, and in 1882 the Orchestral Union 



THEATRE, MUSIC A N T F> ART 125 

was organized. This union with the newly-established Apollo Club gave 
a musical program in 1883 in a building which stood on the site of 
the present Municipal Auditorium. 

Thereafter, musical activities in Portland grew in volume and in- 
terest. With a ibovoice chorus and a 25-piece orchestra, William H. 
Boyer conducted the first performance of Handel's Messiah on January 
1 6, 1895. The following year the city was electrified by the initial 
visit of the great Sousa and his band. It was during these years, begin- 
ning with a concert on October 30, 1895, that the original Portland 
Symphony Orchestra, first conducted by W. H. Kinross, struggled into 
being. In 1902 and 1903, with Edgar E. Coursen directing, it played 
accompaniments for concerts given by the Willamette Valley Choral 
Union at Corvallis and Eugene. Organized in 1899, the Choral Union 
gave yearly festival concerts in principal towns throughout the Willam- 
ette Valley. 

During these years the cowboy, the logger, the miner, and the 
itinerant ranch-hand sang or chanted as he labored, or when he gath- 
ered with his companions in the bunkhouse or around a campfire. None 
of their songs, however, were of local origin. In certain instances liberties 
of improvisation were taken with well-known compositions. Not until 
after 1900 was one of these songs, a refrain of the "road," given written 
record: "Portland County Jail" is included in Carl Sandburg's Ameri- 
can Song bag. 

The first "Music Day" in the history of expositions in the United 
States was given at Festival Hall, Lewis and Clark Exposition ground, 
Portland, in 1905; Frederick W. Goodrich was in charge. Three years 
later, at the Alaska- Yukon Exposition at Seattle, a Portland chorus 
sang Samuel Simpson's "Beautiful Willamette," composed by Father 
Dominic, O. S. B., of Mount Angel Abbey. The same composer's 
overture, "Call of the West," was played by the Portland Symphony 
Orchestra at a Portland concert, May I, 1914. 

The Portland Music Festival Association, after two years (1917- 
1918) of symphonic and choral music supremacy in the Northwest, 
under the leadership of Carl Denton and W. H. Boyer, suspended be- 
cause of conditions brought on by the World War. Following the 
dedication of the Municipal Auditorium in 1918, the Portland Sym- 
phony Orchestra, which had previously played in theaters, opened an 
annual program of concerts that continued for twenty years. From 
1925, guided by the distinguished conductor, Willem Van Hoogstraten, 
this 6o-piece orchestra, recognized as one of the foremost in Amer- 



126 OREGON 

ica, played both the established masters and contemporary composers. 
From 1923 to 1925, and again from 1929 to 1938, the Portland 
Choral Society, sometimes called the Portland Symphony Chorus, sang 
once yearly with the orchestra. Oratorios by Handel, Verdi, and Men- 
delssohn, among others, were given. In 1938 the Symphony manage- 
ment announced a two-year suspension of activities. 

Beginning in 1919, Hal Webber pioneered in the development of 
children's orchestras. Under his stimulation the Portland Junior Sym- 
phony Orchestra was organized in 1925; conducted by Jacques Gersh- 
kovitch, it continues its noteworthy performances. In 1936 the Stadium 
Philharmonic Orchestra gave the first of its annual series of six out- 
door summer concerts, or "Starlight Symphonies," with distinguished 
guest-conductors and soloists. 

A few Oregon musicians, members of the Society of Oregon Com- 
posers, have had works produced by the Portland Symphony Orchestra, 
or have been accorded publication and production elsewhere. Among 
these are the former Portlander, Aaron Avshalomoff, for his suite "The 
Soul of Kin Sei"; Manuel Palacios, for "Entr'acte Valse" for strings, 
and the deceased Dominic Waedenschwiler, for the previously men- 
tioned "Call of the West." Dent Mowrey, nationally known pianist of 
Portland, is the composer, among other symphonic pieces, of "Dance 
Americaine," and the tone poem "Gargoyles of Notre Dame." George 
Natanson and E. Bruce Knowlton, in the 1920'$ and early 1930*8, pro- 
duced operas and light operas, a few of them written by the producers. 
Some sacred music and a few popular songs have been locally com- 
posed, with pieces by Alexander Hull and L. W. Lewis among the 
most noteworthy. The Oregon State Song, "Oregon, My Oregon," was 
selected in competition in 1920; the words are by J. A. Buchanan, the 
music by Henry T. Murtagh. 

The Oregon State Music Teachers' Association has long had a wide 
influence, and groups and societies for the study, composition, and en- 
joyment of music, vocal and instrumental, number more than two score. 
All of the principal ethnic groups German, Norwegian, Swedish, 
Swiss have large choral organizations, most of which center in Port- 
land. All of the state's institutions of learning have ably directed music 
departments, and many have choruses or glee clubs, of which the Uni- 
versity of Oregon Glee Club is the best known. Howard Barlow, the 
distinguished orchestra conductor, first lived and studied in Portland. 
A few dance bands originating in Portland, notably George Olsen's, 
are nationally known. Through the years nearly all of the great per- 



THEATRE, MUSIC AND ART 127 

sonages of concert or operatic fame have sung in Portland and else- 
where in the state. 

Since 1936 the Federal Music Project of the Work Projects Ad- 
ministration has made band and orchestral music widely available to 
the public. Guided by Frederick W. Goodrich, State Director and 
Oregon's only member of the National Association of Orchestra Lead- 
ers, the project is supplying music for many civic occasions and, in the 
spring of 1940 revived symphonic music, which had been temporarily 
discontinued with the suspension of the Portland Symphony Orchestra 
in 1938. The orchestra is under the direction of Leslie Hodge. Since 
December 1936 the bands and orchestras of the Oregon Federal Music 
Project have played to audiences aggregating nearly three-quarters of a 
million persons, including 200,000 in the schools of the state. 

ARTS AND HANDICRAFTS 

Arts and handicrafts in the Oregon country began with the 
original inhabitants, the Indians. While none of the tribes of the 
region were blanket weavers, garmenting themselves in grasses, or in 
skins, whole or woven, all were basket makers, fashioning with withes 
and grasses waterproof containers. Into these, symbolic designs were 
worked : images of the thunderbird, the fire-crow, and the sun. Wooden 
bowls, a few bearing designs, were carved from cedar and other soft 
woods. Everywhere the bark house door-posts were carved and painted 
with tribal insignia for the protection of the dwellers. The Coast In- 
dians reached a high level of art in the decoration of their canoes, often 
of great size, carved, inlaid, and colored with the images of whales and 
thunderbirds. Likewise, their grave-canoes, holding their dead in air in 
some riverside memaloose, were supported by frames decorated with 
meaningful triangles and circles in black and red. Centers for the fash- 
ioning of arrowheads and spear-heads, work in which the red crafts- 
man took a pride of design, were maintained in many parts of the 
state. Still remaining, but gradually wasting from the surface rock on 
which they were carved, are the petroglyphs of the vanished tribesmen. 

The earliest professional painter to bring art to Oregon was Lieu- 
tenant Henry Warre, sent by the British government to picture the 
Pacific Northwest. Oil paintings of Fort Vancouver and Oregon City, 
as they appeared in 1841, are of much interest today. Shortly thereafter 
a United States Army artist, his name now forgotten, accompanied a 



128 OREGON 

mounted rifle regiment and painted several excellent views of the Co- 
lumbia River. In the 1830*8 John Mix Stanley did numerous sketches of 
both people and scenery. On his second tour, in the early 1850*8, he 
painted portraits of such frontier personages as John McLoughlin, Peter 
Skene Ogden, and Amos Lovejoy. 

A few skilled cabinet makers and allied craftsmen followed the cov- 
ered wagons westward. Settling in the growing centers, these workmen- 
artists executed, painstakingly if somewhat imperfectly, much of the 
state's early household furniture. The German Aurora colony produced 
numerous pieces of able workmanship spool beds, oak chests, woven- 
bottom chairs now collectors' items. The members of this colony, and 
other craftsmen in Portland and Oregon City, fashioned architectural 
iron work of great beauty. Much of the pottery used by the pioneers 
was moulded and burned at the Buena Vista kilns, on the mid- Willam- 
ette River. 

About 1880 Edward Espey's genius flowered briefly, leaving as his 
best creation the oil painting, Repose, now hanging in the Portland 
Public Library. Espey died at 29 and. little is known of his career or 
his work. Toward the close of the century Cleveland Rockwell's marine 
vieus, notably the much-reproduced Columbia River Bar, found their 
way into many galleries and private collections. 

Early contributions in the field of sculpture in Oregon came mainly 
from visiting artists attracted by the esthetic possibilities of Indian and 
western life. Hermon A. MacNeil, who had studied in Paris and Rome, 
made several trips to northern territories and reservations; his Coming 
of the White Alan, an Indian group study, stands in Washington Park 
at Portland. Contemporaries of MacNeil were A. Phimister Proctor, 
represented by his monuments in Eugene and Portland, and Alice 
Cooper, whose life-size bronze of Sacajawea, the Shoshone Indian 
woman who guided the Lewis and Clark party, was unveiled in Port- 
land in 1905. Two sculptured fountains of this period grace downtown 
Portland streets. The Skid more Fountain, near the waterfront, was the 
work of Olin Levi Warner, who made an extensive tour through the 
West in the late i88o's. Between the Plaza Block and Lownsdale 
Square, the Elk Fountain, a bronze figure by Roland H. Perry, dedi- 
cated in 1900, stands where elk grazed in pre-pioneer days. In the early 
years of the Twentieth Century, Douglas Tilden, called "the most 
eminent sculptor of the Western Coast," completed his group study, 
Soldiers' Monument, dedicated to Oregon's Spanish-American War 
dead. It stands in Lownsdale Square. 



THEATRE, MUSIC AND ART 129 

Two native-born cartoonists came into prominence in the nineties. 
Homer Davenport (1867-1912), born near Silverton, won interna- 
tional attention by his vitriolic anti-Tammany cartoons of 1896 in the 
New York Journal and his Spanish- American war sketches of 1898. 
Frank Bovvers, Davenport's cousin and a Silverton contemporary, also 
won notice as a New York cartoonist. 

Public interest in art appreciation received its earliest encouragement 
in 1892, when the Portland Art Association was organized and an art 
museum opened on the second floor of the old City Library. Outgrow- 
ing these racilities in 1905, the first public art museum in the Pacific 
Northwest was built and art instruction to the public was begun. Here, 
for a quarter of a century, many students received instruction in various 
branches of art, some graduating to continue study elsewhere, a few 
winning national recognition. Meanwhile, an appreciative audience 
viewed the growing permanent and traveling exhibits, represented by a 
wide selection of American and Old World paintings of all schools. 

The first decades of the present century saw a flowering of art in 
Oregon, although only a few of the local artists were native born. Soon 
after 1900 Charles Erskine Scott Wood, poet-lawyer, executed some 
excellent paintings in oils and water color. The impressionist, Childe 
Hassam of New England, visiting the state in 1908, painted forty can- 
vasses of the "high desert" in the Blitzen River region of Harney 
County. Louis B. Akin (1872-1913), native-born, beginning an art 
career as a sign painter, devoted the concluding fifteen years of his life 
to portrayals of the Southwest Indians. The marine and landscape oils 
of Rockwell W. Carey, born near Salem in 1882, and C. C. McKim. 
who died in Portland in 1938, were prominent among artists of this 
period. Merle DeVore Johnson, born at Oregon City in 1874, studied 
at Stanford, going to New York in 1910 as an illustrator and cartoonist. 
He became a prominent authority on American first editions. He died 
in 1935. 

Through the years the majority of Oregon artists have been expo- 
nents of open-air painting. In a desire to sympathetically portray the 
regional scene they have inclined toward realism. The airy lyricism of 
the landscapes of Clyde Leon Keller (b. 1872), who has worked in 
Portland since 1906, and of Anthony Euwer (b. 1877) of the same 
city since 1915 has aided in popularizing local pictorial art. Since 1912, 
Harry Wentz, born at The Dalles, has divided his creative efforts 
between teaching at the Portland Art Museum and painting water 
colors of Oregon's mountains and sea coast. Percy Manser, who has 



130 OREGON 

lived in the Hood River Valley since about 1920, has likewise painted 
mountain and coastal scenes much admired by Oregonians. During the 
1920*8 Emil Jacques, Belgian artist, conducted a studio in Portland 
while teaching art at Portland (Columbia) University; he left his in- 
fluence upon several local artists, and contributed nine panels to St. 
Mary's Cathedral. Coming to Oregon ten years ago from the range- 
lands of the Wyoming Rockies, C. S. Price (b. 1874), largely self- 
trained, and a friend of the cowboy artist, Charles Russell, has executed 
some noteworthy oils of life in this region. Two of his pioneer studies, 
done while employed on a Civil Works Administration art project in 
1934, are on permanent display in the Portland Public Library; two 
others hang in the Senate Office Building and the United States Treas- 
ury Building, Washington, D. C. 

Since 1915 at least three portrait painters of merit have lived in the 
state. Likenesses of Oregonians, painted by Sidney Bell (b. 1888) from 
1915 to 1930, hang in New York and Washington galleries. Colista 
Dowling, a long-time resident, has painted portraits of many prominent 
Oregonians. Leonabel Jacobs, a former University of Oregon student, 
has painted likenesses of Mrs. Warren G. Harding and Mrs. Calvin 
Coolidge. 

Other artists, native to the state or of extended residence, have ex- 
pressed themselves in a variety of mediums and techniques. Born in 
Oregon were the three well-known magazine illustrators, Henry Raleigh 
(b. 1880), Fred Cooper (b. 1883), and Mahlon Elaine. Regional bird 
life has been recorded in colors by R. Bruce Horsfall (b. 1869) in nu- 
merous books and magazines. Wylong Fong, a young Chinese artist 
living in Portland some fifteen years ago, created vividly in oils but is 
best remembered for Oriental figure studies done with pastels on velvet. 
Phyllis Muirden, teaching art in Portland high schools, has executed 
some much-admired water colors. 

At least four etchers may be claimed by the state. W. F. Mcllwraith 
a New Englander, made Portland his home for more than twenty years, 
returning to New York in 1939. His subjects were chiefly historical and 
marine, done in free and incisive lines and with rich tonal gradations. 
The highly-acclaimed architectural etchings of Louis Conrad Rosenberg, 
born in Portland in 1890, hang in the British Museum, the Royal 
Academy of Arts at Stockholm, and the Smithsonian Institute. Eyler 
Brown and Lloyd Reynolds, among younger craftsmen, have had notice 
beyond the state. 

In 1924 monumental sculpture as a civic contribution again received 



THEATRE, MUSIC AND ART IJI 

recognition when Douglas Tilden's Circuit Rider was unveiled on the 
State Capitol grounds. The lo-foot bronze of Abraham Lincoln, 
mounted in the Portland Park Blocks, was sculptured by George Fite 
Waters in 1928. Guteon Borglum's giant bronze of Harvey W. Scott, 
early editor of the Portland Oreaonian, erected in 1933, looms atop 
Mount Tabor. The state's largest sculptural acquisition is the Oregon 
Pioneer statue, by Ulric Ellerhusen, which stands on the tower above 
the new State Capitol. 

Within recent years a small group of sculptors have made their 
homes in Oregon. Native born was Roswell Dosch, whose talent had 
just begun to flower when his life was cut short in 1918 by influenza 
while serving as an officer in the World War. At that time he was 
head of the School of Applied Arts of the University of Oregon. Fol- 
lowing him at this institution from 1921 to 1927 was Avard Fair- 
banks (b. 1897), now teaching at the University of Michigan. His 
brother, J. Leo Fairbanks (b. 1880), has been art instructor at Oregon 
State College since 1923. Both have done portrait busts, group studies, 
plaques, and architectural art work for both civic and private use. 
Adrien Voisin, after study in Paris and a period of residence in Cali- 
fornia, came to Oregon in 1931.' He has done portrait busts of Indians 
and of prominent Oregonians and plaques of historical subjects. Gabriel 
Lavare, who also came from California in the early 1930*8, is best 
known for his bas-reliefs carvings over the three entrance doors and 
the Mother and Child medallion in the foyer of the new Oregon State 
Library, the lion and the lioness at the entrance to Washington Park, 
Portland and for the Town Club fountain. Oliver L. Barrett, sculp- 
tor-teacher at the University of Oregon for the past five years, in 1939 
executed the marine figure standing in the Battleship Oregon Memorial 
Park, Portland. Ralph Stackpole, born in Oregon in 1885, early re- 
moved to California and Paris and gained recognition as a portraitist in 
bronze. A new approach to sculpture is being made by Anna Keeney (b. 
1898), now living in Chicago, who has just completed a large fountain 
for the Leander Stone School in that city. The artist uses glazed terra 
cotta forms set in solid stone for an entirely new effect. Miss Keeney 
studied sculpture under Avard Fairbanks at the University of Oregon, 
from which she graduated in 1928, remaining there as assistant instruc- 
tor for two years. Her mother lives in Arlington, Oregon. Miss Keeney 
modeled the figure of the Fallen Aviator, at Condon, Oregon. 

With exhibits and class rooms crowding the original Art Museum 
building, the first unit of a new and permanent structure was erected 



132 OREGON 

in 1932; a second unit was completed in 1939. Indubitably, the works 
shown at the Art Museum of such Europeans as Monet and Derain, 
and later of Picasso and Matisse the latter two to a lesser extent 
have influenced the subject matter and treatment of many contemporary 
artists. The experimental foreign techniques have modified somewhat 
the tendency of some state-loving artists to reproduce too literally what 
they saw around them. Also influencing art expression have been the 
art classes at the various schools of higher learning, notably the Uni- 
versity of Oregon and the Oregon State College. The former institution 
has been most influential in sculpture. The University of Oregon Art 
Museum, erected within the last decade, houses, among other notable 
groups, the Murray Warner collection of Oriental art (see EUGENE). 

Contemporary Oregon artists, many of them young, number more 
than two score, working in a variety of mediums and techniques. Char- 
lotte Mish, Portland, is best known for her marines and landscapes in 
oil but has also done portraits. An example from the water colors of 
Edward Sewell represented Oregon at the "American Scene" Exhibition 
at Indianapolis in 1933. In 1935 Edgar Bohlman, a thirty-three year 
old native of Forest Grove, made his New York debut with paintings 
of cafe and street life done while living in Spain; the work displayed 
an interesting mixture of boldness and detail. Prior to this, in 1931, he 
designed the stage sets for the New York production of The Venetian 
Glass Nephew. After painting quietly in Portland for more than ten 
years, Darrel Austin, in 1938 exhibited in Hollywood and New York, 
winning acclaim for his oils of women and girls in green orchards 
executed in a rhythmic riot of color reminiscent of Van Gogh and 
Renoir. Maude Walling Wanker (b. 1882), with a photographic in- 
tent, has placed on canvas nearly all of the state's historical sites and 
buildings ; a few less than one hundred paintings done since the summer 
of 1933. Albert Gerlach (b. 1884) of Portland is the designer of a 
number of art glass windows installed in churches, theaters, and halls in 
Oregon and Washington, while Bernard Francis Geiser is painting a 
series of murals for St. Mark's Episcopal Church, Portland. David 
McCosh (b. 1903) of the University of Oregon art department depicts 
in oils and water colors subjects of social significance, avoiding rigid 
formulae. His Venita, Oregon, done in oil, distinguished the small group 
of art works representing Oregon at the New York World's Fair in 
1939. Among his staff colleagues, Andrew Vincent has been exhibited 
at the Chicago Art Institute. 

Several contemporary artists are producing murals and easel paintings 



THBATRB, MUSIC AND ART 133 

dealing with regional and social themes. The mural, Early Mail Car- 
riers of the West, by Rockwell W. Carey, at the Newberg post office, 
and the two tempera panels by John Ballator, at the St. Johns post office, 
were executed under the sponsorship of the Section of Fine Arts of the 
United States Treasury Department. Under the guidance of the Civil 
Works Administration and the Works Progress Administration Art 
Projects, paintings and decorations in a wide variety of mediums, in- 
cluding glass mosaic and wood marquetry, have recently been produced 
for federal, county, and city buildings. Frontier and industrial subjects 
are most popular. WPA muralists include Amiee Gorham, Virginia 
Darce, Howard Sewell, and Edward Quigley; and in a diversified field 
the woodcuts of Charles E. Keaney, the lithographs of Kurt Fuerer, the 
wood carvings of Eric Lamade, and the wood marquetry of Martina 
Gangle deserve special mention. 

Among the various enterprises of the Federal Arts Project is the 
metal work of O. B. Dawson, who, with a small crew of craftsmen, 
fashioned in 1937 the ornamental wrought iron gates for the University 
of Oregon Library and for the Memorial Union Building on the 
campus of the Oregon State College, and the grille and metal fittings 
in the Mount Hood Timberline Lodge. Skilled cabinet makers and 
other craftsmen also furnished the Lodge as a recreational center in a 
manner harmonious to the rugged natural scene. At Portland, a pottery 
kiln built as a WPA project and sponsored and maintained by the 
Arts and Crafts Society, offers its facilities free to the public. Co- 
operating with the Works Progress Administration, the Salem Federal 
Art Center came into being in the summer of 1938. The Center exhibits 
the works of living American artists, national and local, conducts a free 
art school, and oilers public lectures. With the cooperation of sponsors in 
cities and towns near Salem, branch Federal Art Centers are planned, 
with exhibits, and classes taught from the Salem center. A similar art 
center, but more elaborately planned, is in prospect (1940) for Port- 
land. State WPA Art Project activities have been in charge of Dr. 
Margery Hoffman Smith, Art Director, and Thomas Laman, Assistant 
Art Director. 

Several organizations of artists, while promoting their own work, 
have fostered the development of talent and art appreciation in the 
state. The earliest of these, the Arts and Crafts Society, was founded 
in 1905 by Mrs. Lee Hoffman. In December 1929 the Oregon Society 
of Artists was formed, while the Oregon and Portland chapters of the 
American Artists Professional League were established in 1931. All of 



134 OREGON 

these groups hold annual or semi-annual exhibits. From 1930 until 
her death in 1936, Mrs. Harold Dickson Marsh was the state's most 
active exponent of organization among artists, and in 1934 was chair- 
man of National Art Week, inaugurated by the League at her sug- 
gestion. 

It must be admitted that the native conservatism of Oregonians has, 
until recent years, materially hindered experimentation and free ex- 
pression among its artists. Today this restraining influence seems, 
happily, on the wane. Many artists, their viewpoints broadened by a 
realization of the social significance and the functional usages of art, 
are creating with broader regional meaning and wider universality. 



HHffliiiniiiiiiimiffliiiiiiiiiiiiDiiimiiiiiinffliniiiiiiPiiiim 



Newspapers and Radio 



THE Oregon Spectator, first newspaper published west of the Rocky 
Mountains, made its initial appearance on February 5, 1846, at 
Oregon City; it was issued by the Oregon Printing Association. With 
a swagger typical of that period, it flaunted on its banner, "Westward 
the Star of Empire Takes Its Way." Colonel William G. T'Vault, 
prominent in early Oregon newspaper history, was the first editor of 
the Spectator, but his aggressive nature balked at the association's rule 
against political discussions. T'Vault resigned after a few weeks and 
went to southern Oregon. He edited the Umpqua Gazette at Scottsburg 
after several years, and later moved the paper to Jacksonville under 
the name of the Table Rock Sentinel. Charged by his enemies at Jack- 
sonville with harboring abolitionist sympathies, a heinous accusation in 
Oregon in those days, the doughty colonel declared, "If I thought 
there was one drop of abolition blood in my veins, I would cut it out." 
The statement silenced his critics. 

Henry A. G. Lee, a descendant of the Virginia Lees, succeeded 
T'Vaul on the Spectator, and in turn was followed by George L. 
Curry, later Territorial governor. Curry, too, found the inhibition 
against political discussion irksome, and he resigned to found in Oregon 
City the Free Press, Oregon's second newspaper. The Free Press, issued 
first in March 1848, gave up the ghost when the gold rush emptied 
Oregon of its few printers. 

The last of Oregon's three pre-Territorial publications, a 1 6-page 
magazine, was the Oregon American and Evangelical Unionist, begun 
June, 1848, and published and edited on Tualatin Plains by the Rev- 
erend John S. Griffin. The press that was installed for this magazine 
had been used in Oahu, Sandwich Islands, by the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions for the printing of hymns, cate- 
chisms and gospels in the islanders' native tongue. It was later given 
to Dr. Marcus Whitman and the Reverend H. H. Spalding, Presby- 
terian missionaries in the Oregon country at Waiilatpu and Lapwai. 
The press arrived at Fort Vancouver in 1839 and was carried by canoe 



136 OREGON 

up the Columbia to the missions. A man named Turner, the first tramp 
printer in Oregon, operated the press at Lapwai, turning out hymns, 
Biblical passages, and educational tracts in the Nez Perce, Flathead 
and Spokane Indian languages. After eight issues, the American was 
suspended, because, according to Editor Griffin, somebody opposed to 
his views on the Whitman massacre bribed the printer to break his 
contract and go off to the California mines. The last number appeared 
in October, 1848. 

Oregon's fourth newspaper, the Western Star, which was established 
to foster the growth of Milwaukie in the face of the rising settlement 
at Portland, began publication in November, 1850, with Lot Whitcomb, 
an aggressive local promoter at its head. He hired two young printers, 
Waterman and Davis, to run the press, and eventually became so in- 
debted to them for unpaid wages that they owned the plant. In the 
dead of a May night in 1851 the new owners moved it on a flatboat to 
Portland. Milwaukie rose en masse. The men were accused of stealing 
the newspaper, but it developed that Whitcomb had actually sold it. 
Waterman and Davis explained that they moved the property at night 
to escape opposition, so high ran the feeling between the two towns. At 
Portland the Western Star became the Oregon Weekly Times. 

A few months after the birth of the Western Star, two newspapers 
destined to exert great influence on Oregon affairs appeared. They were 
the Weekly Oregonian, established at Portland on December 4, 1850, 
and the Oregon Statesman, that began publication at Oregon City in 
March 1851. Both are still major publications, the former as the Ore- 
gonian at Portland and the latter under its original name at Salem. 
The Oregonian has been published as a daily for more than seventy-five 
years and the Statesman for a half-century. 

In their early years these two newspapers were bitter rivals, but they 
have long since laid aside their enmities. The Weekly Oregonian, 
financed by Colonel W. W. Chapman and Stephen Coffin, was a Whig 
newspaper, and the Oregon Statesman, owned and edited by Asahel 
Bush, supported the principles of the Democratic party. After publish- 
ing his newspaper at Oregon City for a few years, Bush moved it to 
Salem, explaining the move by saying that business had not been good, 
but adding "Oregon City is not all of Oregon." At Salem the news- 
paper became the spokesman of the famed "Salem clique," an aggressive 
group of Democratic party leaders who exerted tremendous influence in 
the early days of the Territory. 

The Statesman and the Weekly Oregonian battled over Oregon's ad- 



NEWSPAPERS AND RADIO 137 

mission to the Union, with the slavery question, thinly disguised at 
times, the real issue in the controversy. The former urged statehood, 
and the latter, under Thomas J. Dryer's editorship^ opposed it, fearing 
that slavery would be imposed on the Territory by the National Gov- 
ernment. Nine times in seven years the issue appeared in one form or 
another, and on four occasions it went to a vote of the people. The 
Oregonian, however, withdrew its opposition in the fourth election on 
the ground that under statehood the slavery issue would rest with the 
people and not with congress. This proved to be a decisive factor in the 
dispute, as the electorate finally voted for admission to the Union. 

H. L. Pittock gained control of the Weekly Oregonian and converted 
it into a daily, the Morning Oregonian, in February, 1861. In 1877 
Harvey W. Scott assumed the editorship, beginning a notable career 
in Pacific Northwest newspaperdom which continued until his death 
in 1910. In 1937 the name was changed to the Oregonian. In time the 
ownership and policy of the Statesman also changed, and it became a 
Republican newspaper. 

While the Weekly Oregonian and the Statesman were fighting over 
statehood, the Spectator expired. But out of the wreck arose the Oregon 
City Argus. W. L. Adams, the founder, was an admirer of Abraham 
Lincoln, and he made the Argus the first distinctively Republican news- 
paper in Oregon if not on the Pacific Coast. Adams was a master of 
cutting invective, which he turned to good account against the Demo- 
cratic leaders of his day. The editorial columns of the Argus under 
Adams, the Table Rock Sentinel under T'Vault, and the Weekly Ore- 
gonian under Dryer, reflected the tense condition of Oregon public 
opinion on the stormy issues of statehood and slavery. So bitter did the 
diatribes become that Oregon editorial expression of the period was 
referred to by newspapermen as "the Oregon style." This reached a 
climax during the Civil War, when the Federal Government suppressed 
five newspapers, two at Eugene, the others at Albany, Corvallis and 
Jacksonville, for their attacks upon President Lincoln's prosecution of 
the war. The Eugene City Democratic Register, one of the papers sus- 
pended, was at the time edited by Joaquin Miller. He revived it as 
the Democratic Review in 1863. 

For two decades after the Civil War, Oregon newspaper history was 
strewn with the obituaries of new enterprises. Newspapers sprang up in 
all sections of the State, but lack of printers, want of capital, scarcity of 
news print, and difficulty in news transmission made the business 
hazardous. 



138 OREGON 

Length of service and able editorial direction have established the 
Oregonlan as a potent influence on Oregon thought. The Oregon 
Journal, established in 1902 at Portland by C. S. Jackson, is equally 
successful in moulding public opinion. Long a liberal Democratic news- 
paper, it is now independent, with Democratic sympathies. The Journal 
early attracted attention as a champion of Oregon's Initiative and 
Referendum, Recall, Direct Primary, and other progressive measures. 

The Telegram, established in 1877 and for three decades owned by 
the Morning Oregonian, dominated the Portland afternoon daily field 
until after the Journal was born. Some of the most brilliant men in 
Pacific Northwest journalism were developed by the Telegram. A. C. 
McDonald, one of its early executives, died from the effects of a duel 
with James K. Mercer, editor of the Portland Bee, in the early i88o's. 
Mercer went to prison for fifteen years. Among the men who directed 
the Telegram in its heyday were Alfred D. Bowen, Clifford J. Owen, 
John F. Carroll, and Paul R. Kelty, later an editor of the Oregonian. 
Although owned by a Republican newspaper, the Telegram was usually 
Democratic in politics in order to keep competitors out of the field. In 
1914 J. E. Wheeler and L. R. Wheeler, prominent Pacific Northwest 
lumbermen, bought the paper, but several unpopular campaigns, one 
being against the Ku Klux Klan, undermined its prestige and untoward 
circumstances plunged it into bankruptcy. C. H. Brockhagen, at that 
time publisher of a string of Pacific Coast newspapers, purchased it in 
1927 with the backing of Herbert Fleishhacker, San Francisco capitalist. 
Under the editorship of Lester Adams it began to recoup its political 
fortunes, and in 1930 it was victorious in a campaign for the public 
ownership of water-power. In 1931, however, the Telegram was sold 
to the Portland News, a Scripps-Canfield newspaper. In the merger 
the personality of the historic paper was lost, and nothing remained 
of it in the News-Telegram but the name. Two Oregon newspapers 
have won national recognition in recent years. In 1934 the Medford 
Mail Tribune received the Pulitzer award for its campaign against 
political corruption and in 1937 Quincy Scott, cartoonist of the Port- 
land Oregonian was awarded honorable mention. 

Despite the consolidation of Oregon newspaper properties in the past 
few decades, there remain 208 newspapers in the State, of which 
twenty-eight are dailies and 1 80 .are weeklies. The weekly newspapers 
maintain, on the whole, high standards and a number have won national 
recognition by their excellence. 



NEWSPAPERS AND RADIO 139 

RADIO: The growth of radio facilities among people who once de- 
pended upon stagecoach and pony express to bring their news has been 
rapid and widespread. Today, with a population numbering fewer than 
a million persons, Oregon has more than 500 licensed amateur radio 
stations, fourteen commercial broadcasting stations, and two non-com- 
mercial stations. It is estimated that more than 172,000 homes in the 
State are equipped with radio receiving sets. 

Radio does not appear to jeopardize newspaper prosperity, and it thrives 
in Oregon without opposition from the Fourth Estate. Oregon's two 
largest newspapers are substantially interested in broadcasting stations, 
the Oregonian owning Stations KEX and KGW, members of the NBC 
red and blue networks respectively, and the Oregon Journal holding a 
large interest in Stations KOIN and KALE, CBS members. In 1935 
the Roseburg News-Review, one of the leading smaller city daily news- 
papers, established its own broadcasting station, KRNR. 

Aeronautical and marine communication are important in the work 
of radio stations. Storm warnings, weather reports and medical advice 
flashed from the State's coastal stations can be picked up by ships hun- 
dreds of miles at sea. Broadcasters of this information include KKB, 
Sherwood; KEK, Hillsboro; KPK, Portland; KCK (Columbia River 
Lightship) at the mouth of the Columbia, and NPE, Astoria. In addi- 
tion to these, radio beacons at dangerous points along the coast, at the 
mouth of the Columbia River and at Cape Blanco, are proving to be 
invaluable protection against shipwreck. 

In the past few years air travel has become more and more dependent 
on radio. Especially is this true along the west coast, where winter fog 
adds to the hazard of flying. Stations at Medford, Portland and 
Pendleton send out regular reports along the airways, and radio bea- 
cons have been placed at strategic points throughout the State as aids to 
aeronautical navigation. 

Broadcasting and receiving sets on police cars, enabling officers to 
converse over long distance, are a recent addition to law enforcement 
weapons. 

Radio has been used on an ever-larger scale by the United States 
Forest Service, especially in the vast tracts of virgin forest, where travel 
and communication by the rangers and fire fighters are extremely lim- 
ited. Small compact sending and receiving sets are now packed by the 
rangers into forest and mountain regions, in some of which neither 
telephone lines nor trails exist. These small sets operate on an average 
radius of ten miles. 



I4O OREGON 

The State maintains Station KOAC at Oregon State Agricultural 
College at Corvallis for the purpose of broadcasting cultural and in- 
formative programs of interest to the public. It also has four experi- 
mental stations: Salem (W7XBJ), Portland (W7XBD), Benson 
Polytechnic School, Portland (WyXBHO) and Oregon State College, 
Corvallis (WyXED). The last-named station transcribes programs re- 
leased over KOAC, to other Oregon stations. 



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Architecture 



A RCHITECTURAL trends in Oregon have closely paralleled the 
\. historical development of the state. In the first forty years of the 
nineteenth century nearly all of the white men in the state were trappers 
and fur traders, rough men who, with their Indian wives, contented 
themselves with little better shelter than that of their aboriginal pre- 
decessors. The first permanent cabins, blockhouses, trading posts, and 
missions, were not built until the 40*8 and 5o's. These were simple 
structures of hand-hewn timbers, with locked and caulked joints, low- 
pitched roofs, and shuttered windows. A remainder of this early period 
of settlement is the old Fort Yamhill blockhouse at Dayton. 

In 1843 an extensive immigration began. For the most part the 
newcomers had limited means. With surprising rapidity, however, their 
economic condition improved and by the close of the decade they were 
constructing substantial dwellings. This early period of permanent set- 
tlement in the Willamette Valley, represents an important phase of the 
state's architecture. Structural design was dominated by the nostalgia 
of the settlers for their old homes in New England, the Ohio Valley, 
and the South. At least two-thirds of the homes built during the late 
1840*3 and 1 850*8 show the direct influence of such traditional Colonial 
and Post-Colonial styles as Georgian, Federal, and Greek Revival. Al- 
though not distinguished for fineness of detail the houses were archi- 
tecturally sound. Designs were simple, direct, and well proportioned. 

A few of these houses, especially those in isolated sections, retained 
the solid log construction of the earlier buildings, but most of them 
were erected with open structural frames covered with lapped siding. 
The sash, frames, siding and trim were often brought overland or 
shipped around the Horn. Some seventy structures of this period are 
still standing, though many of them are in a state of disrepair. A par- 
ticularly fine example is the Dr. John McLoughlin residence in Mc- 
Loughlin Park, Oregon City. The design of the Ladd & Reed farm- 
house at Reedville recalls the colonial architecture of the South Atlantic 
with its simplicity of line that made it a show place in the iSso's. The 



142 OREGON 

central part, with pleasingly proportioned fenestration and a full length 
gallery porch, is flanked by symmetrical one-story wings. The design 
of the J. C. Ainsworth house, built in 1852 at Mount Pleasant near 
Oregon City, shows the influence of the Greek Revival, having a 
characteristic temple-like two-storied portico with free-hung balcony 
above the door. 

The next three decades were years of great activity marked by the 
disordered and sprawling growth of cities, the spread of trade, the com- 
ing of the railroads and, finally, the rise of a new and wealthy industrial 
class. Fully a third of the buildings now standing in Oregon were either 
built during this exuberant Victorian period or show its influence. The 
majority of these structures have a sentimental rather than an artistic 
value, being for the most part excessively ornate, and unsuited to their 
needs. In the northwestern part of Portland, residences of some of the 
leading families of a former generation display the measure of their 
unguided taste in the decorative complication of this jag-saw and 
bracketed era. In the old business section along the waterfront the 
narrow streets are still lined with mansard-roofed commercial struc- 
tures erected between 1860 and 1890, with brick, wood, cast-iron, and 
ornamental plaster facades all of dubious design. Today these build- 
ings that were formerly important retail business houses are given 
over to the wholesale trade and to Portland's Chinatown. The only 
edifice of architectural importance built in this period is the Old 
Federal Post Office (1875), Portland. Curiously enough, it is not in 
the Victorian style, but is designed in the Classical Revival of Federal 
tradition. 

With the beginning of the 1890*8 came the Neo-Classic style a na- 
tional trend fostered by a conservative group of academically-trained 
men. About 1885 Stanford White of the firm of McKim, Mead & 
White of New York City was commissioned to design the Portland 
Hotel. To supervise the construction of this building William M. 
Whidden and Ion Lewis were sent to Oregon. After their work was 
completed they formed a partnership that exerted a decisive influence 
on the course of Oregon architecture for a quarter of a century. Many 
of the state's leading architects of a later period were trained in their 
office. 

Monumental structures began to arise, the designs of which showed 
a knowledge of and appreciation for the classic idiom. This Neo-Classic 
architecture is characterized by more formal planning, studied propor- 
tions, and carefully rendered detail. The oldest, and perhaps the best, 



ARCHITECTURE 143 

example is the Oregonian Building in Portland, built of steel and faced 
with red sandstone. It was designed by Reid Brothers of San Francisco 
in 1892. 

After 1905 school- trained and foreign-traveled architects and drafts- 
men rapidly supplanted the so-called practical builder designers. Various 
traditional styles were adapted to all classes of buildings. The Reed 
College buildings, designed in 1912 by Doyle and Patterson of Port- 
land, and the Benson Hotel, built in the same year, are noteworthy 
examples of the English Tudor style. The University Club, built in 
1913 and designed by M. H. Whitehouse, likewise follows the English 
Collegiate Gothic tradition. Its construction was hailed by press and 
public as evidence of Portland's growing metropolitan consciousness. 

The First National Bank (1916), a white marble structure, and the 
United States National Bank (1916), both in Portland, are of Neo- 
Classic design. The former, the work of Coolidge and Shattuck of 
Boston, is considered one of the finest buildings of its type in America; 
and the latter, the work of A. E. Doyle of Portland, is notable for its 
elaborate carvings depicting the history of the pioneer period. Another 
Neo-Classic structure is the massive Portland Civic Auditorium, by 
Whitehouse and Doyle. 

In 1914 the University of Oregon established a department of archi- 
tecture under the direction of Dean Ellis F. Lawrence. By 1919 archi- 
tecture had reached a place of sufficient importance in the public mind 
for the Oregon Legislature to pass the Architects Registration Law, 
thereby making Oregon one of the first states west of the Mississippi 
River to have such an enactment. 

Since the World War there has been a definite decline in the classic 
trend established at the turn of the century by the Chicago Columbian 
Exposition and by the work of McKim, Mead & White. The contem- 
porary period is marked by the stimulating influence of various theoreti- 
cal approaches in design some based upon a strict adherence to the 
historic styles, others characterized by a free interpretation of the old 
forms, and finally, those stemming from the radical but solid theory 
that "form follows function." This latter trend, both scientific and or- 
ganic, is derived from the teachings of Louis Sullivan and the Chicago 
School. 

Architecture generally has begun to show greater simplicity and re- 
finement. Ornamentation as a decorative element is subordinated to the 
use of materials with frank consideration of their structural and aesthetic 
qualities. The design of city, county and state-erected public build- 



144 OREGON 

ings tends to combine traditional and strictly utilitarian ideas. Out- 
standing among architects of this period are Louis C. Rosenberg, Fred- 
erick A. Fritsch, and Wade Pipes, who is known for his fine residential 
work throughout the state. 

The rising tide of post-war affluence taxed the capacity of Portland 
office buildings. Two monumental structures designed to remedy this 
situation deserve special mention: The Pacific Building, erected in 1925, 
and the sixteen-story Public Service Building, Portland's tallest office 
building. Both of these substantial structures, designed by A. E. Doyle, 
are functional in plan and simple in design. They exemplify the modern 
architectural trend. 

Two of Portland's churches show evidence of the cultural influences 
brought into the state by the tide of westward-flowing immigration. 
The Church of our Father, Unitarian, is one of the few examples of 
strictly Georgian Colonial architecture among the city's buildings. It 
seems a part of New England birthplace of American Unitarianism 
transplanted to a far land. Temple Beth Israel, a large-domed struc- 
ture of Byzantine design, rich in color, was completed in 1927. Morris 
H. Whitehouse and Herman Brookman were the architects. 

The Multnomah County Library in Portland, designed by Doyle, 
Patterson and Beach, is a three-storied edifice of modified Italian 
Renaissance design, surrounded on three sides by a finely carved balus- 
trade with the names of masters of literature and music on its walls. 
Increasing interest in art motivated the construction in 1932 of Port- 
land's Art Museum by A. E. Doyle and Associates; the building is a 
simple dignified structure of modified Georgian Colonial design, faced 
with brick and trimmed with Colorado travertine. Other fine Portland 
buildings include the Masonic Temple, designed by Frederick Fritsch; 
the Multnomah Hotel, by Gibson and Cahill of San Francisco; the 
Public Market, by William G. Holford of the firm of Lawrence, 
Holford and Allyn, said to be the largest of its kind in America, a 
utilitarian structure designed along classic lines, and the Finley Mor- 
tuary by A. E. Doyle and Associates. 

There are few buildings of outstanding architectural design outside of 
Portland and few architects of more than local importance. Among the 
more prominent of these are F. C. Clark of Medford, and H. R. 
Perrin of Klamath Falls, who designed a number of buildings in that 
city. The most important examples of the work of Mr. Perrin are the 
Klamath Falls Elks Temple, of modified Greek design, and the Klamath 
Falls Armory, an imposing modern structure with the statue of a soldier 



ARCHITECTURE 145 

in a niche at one corner and the medallion of a spread eagle above the 
entrance. 

There are many interesting buildings on the campuses of the University 
of Oregon at Eugene and the Oregon Agricultural College at Corvallis. 
Most of the recent buildings were designed by the firm of Lawrence, 
Holford, and Allyn. Among the more interesting are the Art Museum 
at the University and the Memorial Union Building at the Agricultural 
College. 

Perhaps the most significant modern work in Oregon is the new 
Capitol group at Salem. The State House, of modified classic design, is 
constructed of white Vermont marble. The front elevation presents a 
long low mass broken by two projecting central bays which flank the 
principal entrance. The monumental portal and the long bay of win- 
dows lighting the executive chambers in the flanking wings are filled 
with decorative metal grille work. Dominating the impressive struc- 
ture is a cylindrical tower surmounted by a heroic bronze figure rep- 
resentative of the pioneer ; the buttressed tower suggests the fluted drum 
of a classic column. Trowbridge and Livingstone and Frances Keally, 
Associate Architects, of New York, were the architects. The firm was 
awarded the commission after winning a national competition for the 
design. To the left of a sunken garden before the Capitol is the State 
Library, designed by Whitehouse and Church of Portland, in a style 
conforming to the other buildings around the plaza. The structure 
is of Georgia marble, three stories high, with a triple entrance above 
broad marble steps and adorned with sculptures over each door by 
Gabriel Lavare of Portland. 

In widely scattered sections of the state are examples of minor archi- 
tectural influences. In Portland some of the buildings carry a subtle 
suggestion of the Orient. The German colony that settled at Aurora in 
the fifties and sixties adapted the severe style of their old country homes 
to their colony houses, many of which are still in use. The Basque 
emigres in the Jordan Valley region of Malheur County applied adobe 
and native stone to the architectural elements of their homeland, achiev- 
ing a distinctive style that is well known for its simplicity and 
quaintness. 

Certain natural building materials and environmental influences have 
had a major bearing upon the development of architecture in Oregon. 
An abundance of good lumber at low prices has largely determined the 
structural methods employed in commercial and public buildings and 
has greatly increased the extent of individual home building and home 



146 OREGON 

ownership. The mild climate west of the Cascade Mountains, particu- 
larly in the Willamette Valley and along the coast, and the long rainy 
season have likewise affected building design and construction. Thus 
building operations are rarely slowed up at any time of year because of 
inclement weather; while roofing with flashing to repel moisture has 
been scientifically developed in Oregon. Deposits of stone suitable for 
building and clays for brickmaking are available in various sections but, 
due to the abundance of timber, they have been little exploited. 

One individualistic style of residential architecture that developed 
in Oregon is gradually spreading into other states. Known locally as 
the "board and batten" style, it consists essentially of a somewhat 
rambling structure covered with plain vertical boards with battens, or 
narrow strips, over the cracks. This style grew from the old "box" 
type house of the pioneers. An outstanding example is the beautiful 
Connecticut country home of Louis Conrad Rosenberg, who was born 
in Portland. 

The early settlers from New England and the middle states were 
essentially conservative and their architectural designs reflected this 
attitude. Even today the modern interpretation is tempered with an 
innate conservatism. Large office buildings particularly, with their 
transverse lines, ornamental cornices, and monotonous fenestration, il- 
lustrate this trend. Smaller houses are responding to the exigencies of the 
machine age and becoming more and more standardized. 



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PART II. 

Cities and Towns 



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Astoria 



Railroad Station: zoth St. and Waterfront for Spokane, Portland & Seattle Rail 

way. 

Bus Station: 614 Duane St. for Spokane, Portland & Seattle Transportation Co.; 

nth St. and Waterfront for Oregon Motor Stages. 

Airport: 3 m. SW. on US 101, bus fare 150, taxi $1.50; no scheduled service. 

City Busses: Fare ice. 

Taxis: Basic fare 25C. 

Piers: River steamers, foot of nth St., weekly trips to Portland; ocean steamers, 

Port Terminals, Port way off Taylor Ave. (consult travel agencies or classified 

telephone directory for ocean travel). 

Accommodations: Five hotels; numerous auto camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, i4th and Exchange Sts. 

Radio Station: KAST (1370 kc.). 

Motion Picture Houses: Two. 

Athletics: Gyro Field, Exchange St. between i8th and 2ist Sts. 

Tennis: Y.M.C.A. courts, i2th and Exchange Sts. 

Swimming: Ocean beaches: Clatsop Beach (25 miles long), 9 m. SW. on US 101 

at Skipanon, 18 m. SW. at Gearhart, 20 m. SW. at Seaside; Cannon Beach, 

30 m. SW. on US 101 and unnumbered road. River beaches: Numerous on lower 

Columbia River, along US 30 and US 101 ; beaches vary with level of river; 

inquire locally. 

Golf: Astoria Golf and Country Club, 8 m. SW. just off US 101, 18 holes; 

greens fee $i. 

Annual Events: Astoria Regatta, four days prior to Labor Day. 

ASTORIA (12 alt., 10,349 pop.), named for John Jacob Astor, is 
the seat of Clatsop County and the site of the first permanent settle- 
ment in the Oregon country. Because of its commerce and industry and 
its position at the mouth of the Columbia River, Astoria has grown 
from a palisaded trading post to an important port. Flour mills, saw- 
mills, salmon canneries, and grain elevators line the course of the river, 
and fishing boats and fleets of ocean-going vessels dock at the long 
wharves. 

Sprawling waterfront warehouses and docks, orderly rows of busi- 
ness blocks along a narrow beach, steep declivities where houses are 
niched into yellow clay banks, terraced hillsides where substantial resi- 
dences rise one above the other, and the timbered crests of Coxcomb 
Hill where the Astor Monument points toward the sky are individual 
bits of Astoria's pattern but by a whim of nature in fashioning the 
headland upon which the town is built no general view is possible except 
from the Columbia River. Yet even this vantage point cannot reveal the 
caprice that completely eliminated Thirteenth Street from the city plan, 



1 5O OREGON 

yet permitted Bond, the second street in the alphabetical arrangement 
that originates at the waterfront, to wander through Union town as 
Taylor Avenue. 

Not unlike the Columbia which determined its settlement and growth 
Astoria displays aspects as enchantingly diverse as its weather, which, 
according to Finnish residents, may be predicted by reading the fog on 
the Washington shore of the Columbia. All glitter and brittle air in 
summer, all hush or foggy mystery in autumn, and all bluster and fury 
during winter storms, Astoria never lacks the characteristics of the sea 
that has drawn Finns, Norwegians, and Swedes in such numbers that 
shop signs in the various languages are commonplace. Finnish is usually 
spoken in the stores and fraternal orders and churches often conduct 
their ceremonies in both that language and English. The steam bath, of 
Finnish heritage, is ritualistically observed both in private homes and 
in public bath houses. 

The site of Astoria was first seen by white men in 1792, when Cap- 
tain Robert Gray, "on a trading voyage to the N. W. Coast of America, 
China, etc.," sailed his ship Columbia Rediviva, laden with "Blue 
Cloth, Copper and Iron," into "Columbia's River" for the first time. 
Captain Gray's journal is lost, but that of his fifth officer, John Boit, 
reveals how well the area was appraised. "This River in my opinion," 
Boit wrote, "wou'd be a fine place for to set up a Factory. The Indians 
are very numerous, and appear'd very civil (not even offering to 
steal)." Gray's men, however, bought "Furs, and Salmon, which last 
they sold two for a board Nail. The furs we likewise bought cheap, for 
Copper and Cloth." 

The Lewis and Clark expedition, arrival of which in late November, 
1805, proved an overland passage practicable from the East, passed a 
point of land, the future site of Astoria, while "in surch of an eligible 
place for our winters residence." They wintered seven miles south west 
of the present city, and turned eastward again in the spring. 

Choice of the site of Astoria in April, 1811, was a matter of com 
promise between the crusty captain of the Tonquin, the ship sent out 
by John Jacob Astor to found a trading post, and two partners of 
Astor's company. Captain Jonathan Thorn, a Navy man on leave of 
absence, by insisting on his absolute authority, had antagonized partners 
and crew on the voyage around the Horn. Duncan McDougal and 
David Stuart, Astor partners, set out in a small boat from the ship to 
reconnoiter the lower Columbia. "Not having the captain to contend 
with," says Washington Irving in his Astoria, "they soon pitched upon 
a spot which appeared to them favorable for the intended establish- 
ment. It was on a point of land called Point George, having a very good 
harbor. . . . These gentlemen, it is true, were not perfectly satisfied 
with the place, and were desirous of continuing their search ; but 
Captain Thorn was impatient to land his cargo . . . and protested 
against any more of what he termed 'sporting excursions.' " 

Clearings were made, a log residence, a storehouse, and a powder 
magazine were erected, a vegetable garden was planted, and the post 



ASTORIA 151 

\vas named Astoria, for "the projector and supporter of the whole en- 
terprise." The Astorians sought immediately to extend their trade and 
forestall the threat of English expansion into the area from Canada. 
The Tonquin, thanks to the arbitrary methods of Captain Thorn in 
dealing with the Indians, was lost in an attack farther up the coast. 
The handful of men remaining at the post, menaced by an Indian up- 
rising, were saved by the stratagem of the factor, McDougal. He threat- 
ened to uncork a small bottle, which, he told the Indians, contained the 
scourge of smallpox; the resulting peace through fear earned for him 
among the Indians the name of "the Great Smallpox Chief." 

The following February an overland party headed by Wilson P. 
Hunt "swept round an intervening cape, and came in sight of the infant 
settlement of Astoria . . . with its magazines, habitations, and picketed 
bulwarks, seated on a high point of land, dominating a beautiful little 
bay, in which was a trim-built shallop riding quietly at anchor." The 
united forces then set to work to clinch their trade supremacy in the 
area and to carry out a commercial agreement with the Russians in 
Alaska. Parties and cargoes were sent to New York both by land and 
by sea, A series of reverses, including losses of men and ships, brushes 
with Indians, and evidences of British encroachment on their area, was 
capped by the news, received from Canadian traders in January, 1813, 
that war had been declared between England and the United States. 

At this discouraging juncture, when abandonment of the post was 
considered, the factor McDougal, "a man of a thousand projects, and 
of great though somewhat irregular ambition," decided to marry a 
daughter of Concomly, the one-eyed Chinook chieftain who had been 
loyal to the white men. She was said to have "one of the flattest and 
most aristocratical heads in the tribe," and the old chief put a high price 
on her charms. She appeared for the wedding, painted with red clay 
and anointed with fish oil; "by dint, however, of copious ablutions, she 
was freed from all adventitious tint and fragrance, and entered into 
the nuptial state, the cleanest princess that had ever been known, of the 
somewhat unctious tribe of the Chinooks." 

In the face of reports that British men-o'-war were in Pacific waters, 
the Astoria post was sold out in October, 1813, to the North West 
Company, a British concern operating in Canada, under circumstances 
reflecting on the loyalty of McDougal, who later joined the new com- 
pany. When the British sloop of war Raccoon entered Astoria port in 
late November old Concomly and his warriors came armed and painted 
to do battle for the post. "McDougal reassured him," says George W. 
Fuller in The Inland Empire, "and exacted his promise not to go aboard 
the British ship ; but Concomly visited the Raccoon, and to the Captain 
he expressed his admiration for British ships and spoke contemptuously 
of the Americans. [Captain] Black gave him an old flag, a laced coat, 
cocked hat and sword. On the following day, Concomly came sailing 
across to Astoria in full uniform and flying the Union Jack." There- 
after he was entirely loyal to the British. 

The British took formal command of Astoria and held it under the 



152 OREGON 

name of Fort George until 1818, when it was returned to the United 
States. However, it was still under English domination, and in 1821, 
when the North West Company consolidated with the Hudson's Bay 
Company, the post was placed under the charge of Dr. John McLough- 
lin. The factor felt that Astoria had less commercial and agricultural 
possibilities than a situation farther up the river. He moved his head- 
quarters to Vancouver. Washington, in 1824 and Astoria became a 
lookout station and trading post of minor importance. By 1841 all trace 
of the fort was gone except for a cabin, a shed, and a bare space among 
the trees. 

The first overland immigrants arrived in 1844-45, settling in Clatsop 
Plains. Ships entered the river in increasing numbers, and on March 9, 
1847, the Astoria post office was opened, the first west of the Rockies. 
By 1850, with a population of 250, the town had established itself as 
the trading center of the lower Columbia country. The first salmon 
cannery was built on the river in 1866. Others followed, and soon 
salmon was shipped to all parts of the world. From this modest start 
the salmon-canning industry grew to be Astoria's chief asset ; the annual 
pack is valued at from $3,500,000 to $7,000,000. 

Beginning with 1880, when it had a population of 2,803 persons, the 
city experienced a brisk growth. By 1911, at the time of the centennial 
celebration, its fisheries, sawmills, canneries, flouring mills, and numer- 
ous other enterprises made it the second largest city in the state. In 
1920 it had 14,027 inhabitants, and held second rank among Oregon 
cities. At two o'clock on the morning of December 9, 1922, fire broke 
out along the waterfront. Before the flames were checked at one o'clock 
the following afternoon, they had reduced thirty-two city blocks forty 
acres of buildings to ashes, and had wiped out the entire business dis- 
trict. Citizens launched a reconstruction program, which made Astoria 
a fireproof city. The loss of more than three thousand in population in 
the decade may be attributed to the decline of industry caused by the 
fire. 

Astoria's industry and commerce consist chiefly of fishing, lumbering, 
dairying, general agriculture, and a rapidly increasing tourist business. 
Dairying is on the way to becoming a $2,ooo,ooo-a-year industry, and 
specialized as well as general agriculture has been developed. Some of 
the first cranberry bogs on the Pacific Coast were planted near by and 
the growing and canning of peas is proving increasingly profitable. The 
principal manufacturing output includes lumber and box shooks, salmon 
products, flour, fertilizer, cheese, powdered milk, and medicinal oils 
and other fish by-products. 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

i. The SITE pF OLD FORT ASTORIA, I5th and Exchange 
Sts., i heavily outlined in paint on streets and sidewalks. A square laid 
out diagonally to the present city streets, the area comprises approxi- 
mately two city blocks. A marker at the northwest corner of the inter- 



ASTORIA 153 

section bears a diagram of the fort, showing its construction and plan. 

2. The SITE OF ORIGINAL SETTLEMENT AT AS- 
TORIA, 1 6th and Exchange Sts., occupied by the city hall, is marked 
by a granite boulder and bronze plaque, placed by the D. A. R. in 
1924. Here the thirty-three members of the Astor party settled tem- 
porarily after disembarking from the Tonquin, while they were build- 
ing Fort Astoria. 

At the southeast corner of the city hall a stone slab marks the 
GRAVE OF D. McTAVISH, fur trader, who was drowned in 1814 
while crossing the Columbia River. Alexander Henry, who lost his life 
on the same trip, is buried nearby, but no marker indicates his grave. 
The two men were rival lovers of Jane Barnes, barmaid and adven- 
turess, and the first white woman in Oregon. 

3. The SITE OF THE FIRST POST OFFICE west of the 
Rocky Mountains, I5th St. between Franklin Ave. and Exchange St., 
is occupied by a florist's garden. John M. Shively was the first post- 
master in the Oregon country, appointed March 9, 1847. 

4. The INTERSTATE FERRY SLIP, N. end of nth St., is the 
center of a picturesque waterfront life. Each hour of the day and late 
into the night ferries arrive and depart. Tugs, fishing smacks, deep-sea 
trollers, pilchard boats, and ocean liners sail in and out or sway quietly 
to the dirty tide lapping at the green-slimed piling. Machine shops and 
boat yards along the dock have an atmosphere of purposeful activity, 
but without an appearance of hurry. Motion seems deliberate and 
directed, and, whether a dock be crumbling or standing with orderly 
piles of rope and cargo, there lingers about it an air of permanency asso- 
ciated with the sea. 

5. The FLAVEL MANSION (open 9-5 weekdays), Duane St. 
between 7th and 8th Sts., is a striking example of pioneer architecture. 
Built of lumber freighted around the horn, it is a two-story frame 
dwelling with turret chimneys, and a three-story tower at the northeast 
corner accentuates its height. It was erected in the early i88o's by a 
family prominent in Astoria's civic and cultural life. The estate deeded 
the house to Clatsop County in 1936 with the stipulation that it be 
used for philanthropic purposes. It is occupied by the Clatsop County 
Relief Association, the Red Cross, and other civic agencies. 

UNIONTOWN, Astoria's foreign quarter, along the western sec- 
tion of Bond Street, has Chinese restaurants, Finnish steam bathhouses, 
river union offices, and Japanese and Scandinavian shops. 

6. The UNION FISHERMEN'S COOPERATIVE CAN- 
NERY (open 8-5 weekdays)^ waterfront behind office at 325 Taylor 
Ave., is operated by the Union Fishermen's Cooperative Packing Com- 
pany. The organization is composed of fishermen of the Columbia River 
area, who process and sell their own catches of salmon. The main fishing 
season begins the first of May and ends late in August. The sec- 
ondary season opens September 10 and closes March i of the following 
year. 

7. The PORT OF ASTORIA TERMINALS, Portway off Tay- 




r 



ASTORIA POINTS OF INTEREST 

1. The Site of Old Fort Astoria 3. The Site of the First F 

2. The Site of Original Settle- Office 

ment at Astoria 4. The Interstate Ferry Slip 










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ASTOFOA 



1940 



5 The Flavel Mansion 8. The Columbia River Packer's 

S.The Union Fishermen's Co- Association Plant 

operative Cannery 9. Shark Rock 

Port of Astoria Termi- 10. Shively Public Park 

nals II. The Astor Column 



156 OREGON 

lor Ave., is on the Astoria waterfront. Since 1909 the Port of Astoria 
corporation has gradually acquired properties until the investment is in 
excess of $5,000,000. The port district extends to all the river towns 
of Clatsop County and includes Wauna, Warrenton, Westport, and 
Bradwood. At Pier No. I are the port administrative offices, a flouring 
mill, and large grain elevators. At Pier No. 2, which is equipped with 
two large locomotive cranes, electric overhead cargo cranes, tractors, 
trailers, conveyors, and pilers, cargoes of lumber, logging equipment, 
and fish products are assembled and shipped. Pier No. 3 has a ware- 
house 1,550 feet long, affording storage facilities for general cargo. 
Ships from all over the world load and discharge from the terminal and 
from the many smaller wharves and docks along the waterfront. 
^The PILLSBURY-ASTORIA FLOUR MILL (open 9-4 Mon.- 
Fri.; 9-12 Sat.), on Pier No. I, is the largest in the state. Adjacent to 
the mill are concrete grain elevators of 1,250,000 bushels capacity, with 
cleaning, washing, and drying equipment. At the end of a long water 
grade from the Inland Empire grain belt, the mill has many distribu- 
tional advantages. Its annual production has an estimated value of 
$5,000,000. 

8. The COLUMBIA RIVER PACKER'S ASSOCIATION 
PLANT (open during season by arrangement), N. end of 6th St., is 
the largest of the lower Columbia River salmon canneries. In season the 
cannery processes shiploads of salmon brought from distant points, and 
boatloads of the fish caught by local fishermen. The association main- 
tains fishing fleets in Alaskan waters and other points in the North 
Pacific. 

9. SHARK ROCK, in Niagara Park at 8th St. and Niagara Ave., 
bears a message left by the survivors of the United States sloop-of-war, 
Shark, which was wrecked at the mouth of the Columbia River. Carved 
in the rock is the statement: "The Shark was lost Sept. 16, 1846." Be- 
neath this is the record of the loss of the Industry, which reads: "The 
Industry was lost March 16, 1865. Lives lost 17. Saved 7." More than 
fifty years after the Industry sank the rock was recovered from the sand 
near I3th and Exchange Sts. The Astoria Kiwanis Club placed it on the 
ornamental concrete base, as a memorial to the many who have lost their 
lives by shipwreck at the mouth of the Columbia. 

^ 10. SHIVELY PUBLIC PARK, S. of reservoir at S. end of i6th 
St., on an eminence commanding a view of Young's Bay, Saddle Moun- 
tain, and the Coast Range, is centered by a natural amphitheater used 
for public gatherings. To the southwest beyond Young's Bay is the 
Lewis and Clark River, which flows past the site of Old Fort Clatsop, 
the explorers' winter camp. In the park are the Portals of the Past, 
decorative columns saved from the ruins of the Weinhard Hotel, de- 
stroyed in the fire of 1922. 

ii. The ASTOR COLUMN, summit of Coxcomb Hill ( 700 alt. ) , 
is a cylindrical monument 125 feet high, on which is a spiral frieze 535 
feet in length. Executed by A. Pusterla, the frieze depicts the explora- 
tion of the Columbia River and the founding of Astoria. Within the 



ASTORIA 157 

column is a circular staircase leading to an OBSERVATION PLAT- 
FORM (open 9-5 dally; adm. 25c) near the top, from which is a 
magnificent view of the Pacific Ocean, the Columbia River, and the 
mountainous wooded region about the city. Vincent Astor of New 
York, great-grandson of the founder of Astoria, and the Great North- 
ern Railway Company supplied the funds for construction of the tower. 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

Tongue Point, 2.5 ro. (see TOUR i). Old Fort Clatsop, Lewis and Clark en- 
campment, 7.7 m.\ Camp Clatsop, National Guard Camp, 11 m. ; Fort Stevens, 
10 m.\ Radio Naval Base, 6.4 m. (see TOUR 3). 



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Corvallis 



Railroad Station: 6th & Madison Sts., for Southern Pacific Lines (branch). 

Southern Pacific busses from this station connect with main line at Albany Depot, 

loth and Lyon Sts. 

Bus Station: 353 Monroe St., for Greyhound Lines and Oregon Motor Stages. 

City Busses: Fare, 6c. 

Taxis: Basic fare 250. 

Accommodations: Three hotels; auto camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 306 S. 3rd St. 

Radio Station: KOAC (550 kc.). 

Motion Picture Houses: Three. 

Swimming: Men's Gymnasium, Women's Building, both on Oregon State campus 

open only to students; Marys River. 

Golf: Corvallis Country Club, 3 m. W. on State 26, half-mile from highway, 

9 holes, greens fee 250, Sat. and Sun. 5oc. 

Riding: Corvallis Riding Academy, 2oth and Railroad Sts.; fees 750 first hour, 

5oc each subsequent hour. 

Annual Events: Farmers' Day, Oct.; 4-H Club, June; Benton County Fair, last 
of Aug.; State High School Band Contest, Apr. or May. 

CORVALLIS (227 alt., 7,585 pop.), seat of Oregon State Agricul- 
tural College and of Benton County, is on the west bank of the Will- 
amette River just below its confluence with Marys River. The city de- 
rives its name from the Latin phrase meaning "heart of the valley," and 
is in truth, culturally and economically, the heart of a large fertile 
region. Few Oregon municipalities are more beautiful. Westward the 
green hills rise gently into the lower slopes of the Coast Range, and to 
the east beyond the valley, are the sharper crests of the Cascade Moun- 
tains. 

The first white men to settle in the vicinity of present Corvallis were 
James L. Mulkey, Johnson Mulkey, and William F. Dixon, who ar- 
rived in 1845, and Joseph C. Avery, who came in 1846; they settled 
on lands purchased from the Calapooya Indians. Avery operated a free 
canoe ferry to encourage settlement here, sold the first town lots, and 
in 1849, after returning with others from the California gold fields, 
established a store. 

The town was officially platted and designated the seat of the newly 
created county of Benton in February, 1851. Known originally as 
Marysville, Corvallis was given its present name in 1853, to differenti- 
ate it from Marysville, California. The town somehow escaped the raw, 
rough period undergone by most frontier settlements, though there was 
an occasional case of "justifiable homicide" mob hanging of a half- 



CORVALLIS 159 

breed or an Indian who had made trouble for white people. In 1852 
the Baptists erected the first church, and a school was started. Out of 
this school in 1858 grew Corvallis College. Steamboats began to ply the 
Willamette and wharves were heaped with freight brought up from 
Portland at forty dollars a ton. 

In January, 1855, the legislature voted to remove the territorial seat 
to Corvallis. Legislators' baggage and office equipment were moved up 
the Willamette River on the steamer Canemah, which was received in 
Corvallis with a great demonstration. Asahel Bush, who had been pub- 
lishing the Oregon Statesman at Salem, brought along his presses and 
issued the paper here. He said of Corvallis at the time: "A first-class 
court house is nearly completed. There is but one better in the Terri- 
tory the one at Salem. . . . The work on the Methodist Episcopal 
Church here is well advanced; a couple of stores and quite a number 
of dwellings have also been erected here this summer." The legislators 
felt that Salem had other advantages than its courthouse, for scarcely 
had they convened than a resolution was introduced to move back to 
better accommodations at Salem. In June of the same year the capital 
was returned to Salem, and Asahel Bush took his Oregon Statesman 
along with it. 

Stagecoaches rumbled over the crude roads, and in 1856 workmen 
strung the city's first telegraph line to the state metropolis. The follow- 
ing year the city was divided into wards, and an ordinance was passed 
prohibiting people from riding horses on the sidewalks. The second 
newspaper, the Union, began publication in 1859 and continued until 
1862, when it was suppressed for disloyal utterances. It was almost im- 
mediately succeeded by the Gazette (now the Daily Gazette-Times), 
which for a time in the early 1870*5 was owned and edited by Sam 
Simpson, the poet. 

Wallis Nash, in his Oregon: There and Back in 1877, provides a 
glimpse of the town in that year: "We fitted out our expedition at Cor- 
vallis, and there engaged probably the best horsekeeper and the worst 
cook in the State. Horses were hired from the 'Livery and Feed Stables' 
in the main street, and half the loafers and idlers in the town clustered 
round us to watch the selection of six horses out of about twenty stand- 
ing there, presenting a series of groggy hind-legs and rough coats and 
tails down to their heels. . . ." 

The coming of the railroad in 1878 inaugurated an era of expansion 
for Corvallis, as the distributing point of Benton County's rich dairy- 
ing and fruit-producing areas. In succeeding decades the town has de- 
veloped into a modern city with numerous industries based upon the ex- 
tensive agricultural and timber resources of the region. Among the com- 
mercial enterprises are fruit and vegetable canneries, creameries, hatch- 
eries, flouring mills, and a sawmill with a daily capacity of 100,000 
board feet of finished lumber. However, Corvallis remains essentially a 
college city. 



ibO OREGON 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

OREGON STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, 9th, aoth, 
Monroe, and Washington Sts., occupies a campus of 189 acres, ex- 
clusive of farm and forest lands, divided into East Campus, and East, 
West, Men's, and Women's Quadrangles, with several groupings of 
buildings not designated by quadrangles. Each section is landscaped 
with trees and shrubs that beautify the campus and serve as a living 
laboratory for horticultural study. Among the thirty-six buildings of the 
institution are the schools of agriculture, commerce, engineering, home 
economics, forestry, pharmacy, and education. With the exception of five 
of the older structures the principal buildings hate been erected since 
1908 and are of harmonious design. Brick and terra cotta are the mate- 
rials most used, and the Neo-Classic style of architecture predominates. 

Corvallis College, an outgrowth of a community school started in 
1852, was co-educational and included primary and secondary grades. 
The school passed into the control of the Methodist Church, South, in 
1865. Three years later Congress authorized a land grant to colleges 
offering instruction in agricultural and mechanical arts and military 
tactics, and in the same year the state legislature designated Corvallis 
College for the purpose. The first class under this arrangement was 
graduated in 1870. In 1885 the state assumed control of the institution, 
and in 1887, the first unit was built on the present campus. 

CAMPUS TOUR 

(Unless otherwise stated, all buildings on the campus are open during 
school hours.) 

1. The ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, oldest edifice on the 
campus, a three-story brick structure, built in 1889, contains offices of 
the registrar, business manager, comptroller, the workshop theater, and 
the music department. On the second floor is a memorial tablet erected 
in 1894 to Benjamin Lee Arnold, president 1871-92. 

2. SCIENCE HALL, four stories high, erected in 1902, of gray 
granite and sandstone, houses the chemistry department, the Rockefeller 
Research Institute, and chemistry laboratories of the agricultural ex- 
periment station. 

3. The PHARMACY BUILDING, a three-story brick structure 
constructed in 1924, has classrooms, laboratories, a model drugstore, a 
motion-picture amphitheater, and the drug laboratory of the state board 
of pharmacy. The stock and fixtures of the model drugstore, donated 
by interested firms, are used for instruction in salesmanship, store man- 
agement, prescription taking, keeping of poison and narcotics records, 
inventory, and showcase and window trimming. The state drug labora- 
tory is maintained for the purpose of determining the purity of medicinal 
substances sold in the state. 

4. MUSEUM BUILDING (open 8-12, 2-5 weekdays; 2-5 Sun.), 
built in 1899 as the men's gymnasium, is now headquarters for the 



CORVALLIS 

R.O.T.C. band and t! e Oregon State Symphony Orchestra. Occupying 
the lower level is the Homer Museum of pioneer relics, Indian weapons, 
beadwork, baskets, and artifacts from burial mounds. The museum, 
formally opened February 20, 1925, ewes its name and beginning to the 
late Dr. J. B. Horner, Professor of History and Director of Oregon 
Historical Research. Specimens from many collections are on display 
and those not displayed are catalogued and accessible for study. Ex- 
hibits of the museum include the J. G. Crawford collection of artifacts 
from prehistoric burial mounds: the E. E. Boord collection of mounted 
animals native to the Northwest and Far North; the Wiggins, Lisle, 
Hopkins, and Rice collections of historic American weapons; the Mrs. 
J. E. Barrett collection of Indian basketry; the Maggie Avery Steven- 
son collection of Rocky Mountain relics; paintings and sculptures from 
the State Committee of Public Works of Art Projects; and a collection 
of minerals gathered by Andrew M. Sherwood, economic geologist of 
the Smithsonian Institution and the Carnegie Museum. 

5. The ARMORY, a vast enclosed stadium of steel and concrete 
built in 1910-11, is used for .the activities of the R.O.T.C. and of the 
polo teams. At the northwest corner is a tablet memorializing Major 
General Ulysses Grant McAlexander, commandant at Oregon State 
from 1907 to 1911. General McAlexander served in the Spanish- Ameri- 
can War in Cuba and the Philippines, and was cited for gallantry at 
Santiago. In France he first commanded the i8th Infantry, and later, 
during the second Battle of the Marne, July 15, 1918, the 38th U. S. 
Infantry. He was awarded the D.S.M., the D.S.C., and a number of 
foreign decorations. 

6. The MEN'S GYMNASIUM, built in 1915 and enlarged in 
1921, includes a swimming pool and gymnasium hall, where Pacific 
Coast Conference basketball games are played. Adjoining the gymna- 
sium is BELL FIELD, the stadium, seating 20,000 spectators. 

7. The FORESTRY BUILDING, constructed in 1917, contains 
classrooms and laboratories for the school of forestry, a collection of 
manufactured wood products, and a MUSEUM (open 8-5 weekdays) 
of commercial woods from all sections of the United States. 

8. The MEN'S DORMITORY (1928) includes five residence 
halls, and is three stories above a basement, with a five-story central 
tower. An open arch under the tower affords a view of the hills and 
mountains. Behind the building is a recreational area with cinder track, 
tennis courts, and practice fields. 

9. KIDDER HALL, built in 1892 as a dormitory and known as 
Cau thorn Hall, houses the Farm Security Administration and the de- 
partments of art and architecture, history, and modern language. The 
lobby of the building provides a spacious and attractive exhibition hall 
for loan collections and other works of art. The building was named 
for Ida Angeline Kidder, librarian, 1908-20. 

10. The MEMORIAL UNION BUILDING (1928) at the 
south end of the West Quadrangle, was erected in 1928 to the memory 
of college men and women killed in the Spanish-American and World 




CORVALLIS 



^ 



1940 






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saop D.O Q 

S s 9 5 QODis!yQ 




164 OREGON 

Wars. Student social events are held here, and here also are the de- 
partment of journalism and the offices of student publications. In the 
COLLEGE HERBARIUM (open 8-12, 2-5 weekdays; 2-5 Sun.), in the 
basement, are 40,000 sheets of plant specimens. Oregon and the North- 
west are especially well represented. The collection is augmented each 
year by about four thousand specimens. 

11. AGRICULTURE HALL, between the East and West Quad- 
rangles, is the dominant building on the campus. Its first unit was 
started in 1909 and added to in 1913. In the central section are the 
school of agriculture, the agricultural experiment station, the agricul- 
tural extension service, the office of the state leader of 4-H Clubs, and 
offices, classrooms, and laboratories of the departments of botany, 
zoology, entomology, and bacteriology. The wings are occupied by the 
departments of agronomy and horticulture. 

Special research in agriculture is carried on at the agricultural ex- 
periment station, which consists of the central station at Corvallis and 
nine branch stations in the state. The stations correlate investigations 
with pressing farm problems. The improvement of strains through bet- 
ter breeding of poultry and livestock has resulted in the rapid develop- 
ment of these industries. The first hen in the world to lay 300 eggs in a 
year was bred at the station. Control of plant and animal diseases, in- 
troduction of new cash crops, and general improvement of farming 
methods have been stressed. An agricultural agent is maintained in each 
county of the state, working directly under supervision from the college. 

12. The LIBRARY (open 7:50 A.M.-io P.M. weekdays; 2-5 
Sun.), built in 1918, is the only building on the East Quadrangle. The 
three stories and basement of the structure house 130,000 volumes, in- 



CORVALLIS POINTS OF INTEREST 

Oregon State Agricultural College J 5. The Engineering Laboratory 

1 6. The Mechanic Arts Building 

1. The Administration Building I7 . Apperson Hall 

2. Science Hall X 8. Waldo Hall 

3. The Pharmacy Building I9 . Margaret Snell Hall 

4. Museum Building 20. Women's Building 

5. The Armory 2 i. Home Economics Building 

6. The Men's Gymnasium 22. Dairy Building 

7. The Forestry Building 23. Commerce Building 

8. The Men's Dormitory 

9. Kidder Hall Other Points of Interest 

10. The Memorial Union Building 24. The Haman Lewis House 

11. Agriculture Hall 25. Benton County Courthouse 

12. The Library 26. The Site Of the Territorial 

13. The Mines Building Capitol 

14. The Physics Building 27. The Corvallis City Park 



CORVALLIS 165 

eluding an excellent collection on the history of horticulture, and about 
1,400 periodicals. Of interest to bibliophiles is the Mary J. L. McDon- 
ald collection of more than three thousand volumes in fine bindings, 
and rare editions. Among its treasures are a page from the Polychroni- 
con, Ranulph Higden, reprinted by William Caxton in 1482; a folio 
bible, printed in 1769 on the press of John Baskerville, and a pearl bible 
of 1853; a book of poems in Latin by George Buchanan (1506-82) 
from the Elzevir Press in 1628; and a fifteenth-century antiphonal, 
composed of Gregorian chants in Flemish, hand-printed and illumi- 
nated on parchment, bound in brown calf over the original board cov- 
ers. Among the more valuable items is an illustrated set of the Gettys- 
burg edition of the Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln, edited by 
Nicolay and Hay. Volume 24 contains autographs of Lincoln and other 
prominent men of his time. The set is valued at $4,800. 

13. The MINES BUILDING, a four-story brick building erected 
in 1913, is similar to the newer buildings on the campus. It houses the 
chemical engineering, mining engineering, geology, paleontology, and 
allied departments. On the second floor are the college GEOLOGICAL 
COLLECTIONS ' open 8-5 weekdays}, including 700 minerals arranged 
according to the Dana classification, a large collection of ore specimens 
arranged according to the Lindgren classifications, and 150 samples 
arranged according to Marker's book on igneous rocks. 

14. The PHYSICS BUILDING (1928) forms the east wing of 
the Mines Building. Here are the department of physics, the graduate 
division, and offices of the dean of the graduate school. On the third 
floor are the studios of KOAC, the state-owned broadcasting station. A 
radio extension service is carried on through the station, which operates 
with 1,000 watts' power on a frequency of 550 kilocycles, and is on the 
air daily except Sunday from 9 A.M. to 9:15 P.M. The material 
broadcast is educational and recreational, and the programs are en- 
tirely free from commercialism. 

15. The ENGINEERING LABORATORY is north of the 
Physics Building. The main laboratory is 40 by 220 feet and contains 
three divisions a materials laboratory, a hydraulics laboratory and a 
steam and gas engine laboratory all served by a five-ton electric travel- 
ing crane. 

16. The MECHANIC ARTS BUILDING (1908), its central 
part fifty-two feet square and two stories high, is flanked by one-story 
ells. It nouses offices of the department of mechanical engineering, and 
offices, classrooms, and shops for the department of industrial arts. 

17. APPERSON HALL, erected in 1908 and rebuilt in 1920, ad- 
joins the Mechanical Arts Building. It is named for a regent of the 
college and is devoted to the department of civil and electrical engineer- 
ing. 

Other buildings on the campus are WALDO HALL (18) and MARGA- 
RET SNELL HALL (19), women's dormitories, the WOMEN'S BUILDING 
(20), the HOME ECONOMICS BUILDING (21), the DAIRY BUILD- 
ING (22), and the COMMERCE BUILDING (23). 



l66 OREGON 

OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST 

24. The HAMAN LEWIS HOUSE (private), 218 N. 3rd St., 
an important social center in pioneer days, was built about 1852. Wain- 
scoted and plastered in all rooms, it remains unchanged except for minor 
repairs. Unevenly fitted floor boards and whittled door pins reveal the 
hand work that went into the building. 

25. BENTON COUNTY COURTHOUSE, Jackson St. extend- 
ing to Monroe, between N. 4th and N. 5th Aves., was erected in 1888- 
89. It is a three-story cement-covered brick building surmounted with a 
clock tower, its white walls gleaming brilliantly through the dense 
foliage of parklike grounds. 

26. The SITE OF THE TERRITORIAL CAPITOL, S. E. 
corner S. 2nd and Adams Sts., is now occupied by a business block. On 
the front of the corner building is a bronze plaque commemorating the 
short period in 1855 when Corvallis was the capital of Oregon. 

27. The CORVALLIS CITY PARK, S. end of 4th St. extending 
from 3rd to 6th Sts., is in a shaded bend of the Marj^s River just west 
of US 9QW. In the park are a pair of old millstones, quarried in 
France and shipped around the Horn. In 1856 they were hauled by 
ox-team from Portland and set up in Chambers' Mill, on the Luckia- 
mute River northwest of Corvallis, where they were in constant use for 
more than sixty years. The park has recreational facilities and an auto 
camp. 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

Hanson's Poultry Farm, 1 m.; Prehistoric Burial Grounds, 10 m.; Marys Peak, 
17.3 m. (see TOUR zD). State Fish Hatchery, 29.6 m. (see TOUR zE). Peavy 
Arboretum, 9 m. (see TOUR 10). 



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Eugene 



Railroad Stations: Southern Pacific Station, 400 Willamette St., for Southern 
Pacific lines; Oregon Electric Station, 5th and Oak Sts., for Oregon Electric Ry. 
Bus Stations: Oregon Hotel, 541 Willamette St., for Pacific Greyhound Line and 
Oregon Motor Stages ; E. Broadway and Willamette St., for Independent Motor 
Stages; Broadway Cash Store, E. Broadway near Willamette, for the Dollar 
Line; 92 W. 8th Ave., for the Benjamin Franklin Line. 
Airport: i8th and Chambers Sts.; no scheduled service. 
Taxis: 2$c and upwards according to distance and number of passengers. 
City Busses: Fare yc, four-ride card for 250. 

Accommodations: Six hotels; numerous rooming houses, tourist camps. 
Information Service: Chamber of Commerce and A.A.A., 230 E. Broadway. 

Radio Station: KORE (1420 kc.). 

Motion Picture Houses: Five. 

Swimming: Women's Pool in the Gerlinger Hall and Men's Pool in Men's 

Building both on U. of O. campus, restricted to college students: Y.M.C.A. 

building; Willamette River. 

Golf: Laurel wood Golf Course, 2700 Columbia St., 18 holes, greens fee, 250 for 

each 9 holes; Oakway Golf Course, S. Willamette St. near Wood Ave., 9 holes, 

greens fee 250. 

Riding: Eugene Hunt Club Academy, West Fair Grounds, i3th and Van Buren 

Sts. Fee $i an hour. 

Annual Events: Oregon Trail Pageant (every three years) in July. 

EUGENE (423 alt., 18,901 pop.), cultural and industrial center of 
the upper Willamette Valley, is the site of the University of Oregon 
and of Northwest Christian college. It is the seat of Lane County, and 
the fourth largest city of the commonwealth. By fields and wooded hills, 
through leaning groves of cottonwood and balm, the Willamette River 
curves around the northwest quarter of the city. Eastward rise the 
swelling foothills of the Cascades, and westward the misty summits of 
the Coast Range. 

Essentially a city of homes, Eugene has the appearance of a land 
scaped park, with comfortable houses and long lines of shade trees bor- 
dering its streets. The business thoroughfares are lined with fine brick 
and concrete structures, while in the neighborhood of the university 
many large fraternity and sorority houses add to the charm of the resi- 
dential districts. Economic and cultural interests are well balanced. 
Varied industrial plants creameries, canneries, and flour and lumber 
mills close to the university, indicate the dual character of the com- 
munity. 

Arriving in the upper valley in 1846, Eugene F. Skinner built a 



l68 OREGON 

crude log cabin at the foot of a small peak, and there his young wife 
gave birth to the first white child born in Lane County. Known to the 
Calapooya Indians as Ya-po-ah, the peak was called by the early set- 
tlers Skinner's Butte, and the small settlement that grew up at its base 
was known as Skinner's. Here the first post office in the region was 
established in i8s3. Skinner's was outside the later corporate limits of 
Eugene. Judge D. M. Risdon erected the first dwelling within the pres 
ent limits of the town in 1851. Lane County was created the same 
year, and several other dwellings and a schoolhouse were erected. James 
Huddleston opened a store and arriving immigrants cut a millrace and 
built a sawmill on the river bank. Skinner operated a ferry near th 
present Ferry Street Bridge, dealt in real estate and, with Judge Risdon. 
platted a townsite in 1852. Heavy winter rains, however, turned part 
of the site into a quagmire that earned for it the title of "Skinner's 
Mudhole." Two fat hogs, trying to root in the mud, are said to have 
been lost completely. The trend of building then swung toward higher 
ground. When the town was designated the seat of Lane County in 
1853, Skinner and a settler named Charnal Milligan each donated forty 
acres for county purposes. In recognition of the first settler it was 
named Eugene City. The first term of the United States district court 
was held in March, 1852, in a bunkhouse originally built for loggers. 
Incorporation of the city, "to banish hogs and grog-shops," as one editor 
put it, was authorized in 1864. 

Eugene claimed to be the popular choice for territorial capital in 
1856, but there was a dispute over the majority of votes cast. The activ- 
ity of the settlement, however, induced the Cumberland Presbyterians 
to build Columbia College in that year. The college building was de- 
stroyed by fire of incendiary origin during the first term. It was imme- 
diately rebuilt, only to be burned a second time in 1858. Efforts to re- 
build it again were abandoned before the third structure was com- 
pleted. Among the students of this school was Cincinnatus Hiner (Joa- 
quin) Miller, whose father had settled near Eugene. Of this period 
Miller later wrote: "I have never since found such determined students 
and omnivorous readers. We had all the books and none of the follies 
of great centers." He was an outstanding student of Latin and Greek 
and delivered the valedictory poem (his first in print) at commence- 
ment exercises in 1859. One stanza of this early effort survives: 

We are parting, schoolmate*, parting, 

And this evening sun will set 
On gay hearts with sorrow starting, 

On bright eyes with weeping wet. 

The town had no regularly issued newspaper until New Year's Day, 
1862, when the State-Republican began publication. In opposition, se- 
cessionist sympathizers founded the Democratic-Register, which Miller 
purchased and renamed the Eugene City Review. While here he studied 
law on the side, wrote contributions for his own paper under the name 
Giles Gaston, sought out another contributor, "Minnie Myrtle," found 



B U O E N B 169 

she was the daughter of Judge Dyer of Port Orford, and, in less than 
a \veek married her. Miller was forbidden the use of the mails for his 
paper on the ground that he was a Southern sympathizer, sold out, 
bought fruit trees and cattle, and went to Canyon City. Later, while 
residing in California, he achieved international note as a poet of the 
Far West. 

Early industry of the county centered in agriculture and milling, and 
the transportation of these products to tidewater markets. The first 
steamer to ascend the Willamette River to Eugene was the James Clin- 
ton, in March, 1857. Although the city was considered the head of 
navigation, an occasional boat ventured farther upstream. The Relief, 
according to the first issue of the State-Republican, came up the river 
from Portland on December 28, 1861, with a cargo of beans and whisky, 
and other staple commodities, and tied up at the Eugene wharf. For a 
few years boats plied between the city and Portland, but water trans- 
portation was abandoned after construction, in 1871, of the Oregon 
& California Railroad. 

Shortly after the Civil War Eugene's population increased to 1,200, 
and the industrial life of the region began to develop rapidly. The 
University of Oregon was established in 1872 and the first class matricu- 
lated in 1876. From the first, wheat had been the chief crop in the 
county, but fruit growing, dairying, lumber, and mining began to be 
important elements of the domestic economy. Lumbering, with its saw- 
mills, shingle mills, planing mills, and box factories, has constituted one 
of the chief sources of income for Eugene citizens. Excelsior is made 
from the cottonwood and balm trees that flourish along the banks of the 
Willamette and other valley streams. Mining in the Bonanza and Blue 
River districts for a time added a romantic element to the industrial 
life. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF OREGON 

The campus of the university occupies a tract of 100 acres between 
nth and i8th Sts. and Alder and Agate Sts. University Street, north 
and south, and I3th Street, east and west, divide the campus into un- 
equal quadrangles. The old campus between nth and I3th Streets is 
planted with trees and shrubbery and well-clipped lawns, while the new 
campus is more open, interspersed with gardens. From north to south 
the story of the institution's development is seen in its architecture. On 
the old campus the buildings are without architectural uniformity, but 
to the south are more harmonious groupings. 

The University of Oregon had its official beginning in 1876. The 
federal government in 1859 set aside a grant of seventy-two sections of 
land to establish a state university. No advantage was taken of the act 
until 1872, when the legislature fixed the site of the institution at 
Eugene on guaranty of the Lane County delegation that the city would 
provide a building and campus to cost not less than $50,000. The 
amount was soon raised; pledges ranged from fifty cents to fifty dol- 
lars. Farmers without cash donated wheat; one gave a fat hog. Con- 



1 7O OREGON 

struction of the first building, Deady Hall, began in 1873, but that year 
panic struck the country and there followed a struggle to keep the en- 
terprise alive. Finally, however, in 1876, the doors opened and classes 
began. At first only classical and literary courses were offered. As the 
state developed, the college of arts and letters, the schools of architecture 
and allied arts, of education, of law, of journalism, of music, and of 
physical education, and the college of social science were established. 
The medical school is at Portland, the extension division is co-existent 
with the Oregon State System of Higher Education, and the graduate 
school offers courses both at the university and at Oregon State College. 

CAMPUS TOUR 

(Buildings are listed according to geographical location from main 
entrance at gth and Madison Sts., and are numbered to correspond with 
numbers on accompanying map. Unless otherwise stated, all buildings 
are open during school hours.) 

1. VILLARD HALL, facing nth St. at Franklin Blvd., is a two- 
story brick building with a mansard roof; it is French Second Empire 
in style. Villard Hall was erected in 1885 and named for the railroad 
builder, Henry Villard, who gave the university $7,000 in cash in 
1881 and $50,000 in Northern Pacific Railway bonds in 1883. In the 
building are offices and classrooms of the English department. 

2. DEADY HALL, built in 1876 of native stone, was for a num- 
ber of years the entire university plant. It stands on a slight eminence 
in the center of the old campus, and is of the same architectural style 
as Villard Hall. It was named for Judge Matthew P. Deady, presi- 
dent of the board of regents from 1873 until his death in 1893. The 
building is occupied by the classrooms and laboratories of the depart- 
ments of physics, zoology, botany, and mathematics. It also contains a 
ZOOLOGICAL COLLECTION (open by arrangement) of 5,000 specimens 
of mammals, birds, and eggs, mostly Oregon fauna. 

3. The OLD LIBRARY (open 8-5 weekdays), S. of Deady Hall 
facing I3th St., a three-story brick building, built in 1907 and remod- 
eled in 1914, houses the school of law and the law library. An adjoining 
fireproof annex contains book stacks. 

4. CONDON HALL, SE corner I3th and Kincaid St., designed 
and built in 1924 as the first wing of a larger structure, perpetuates 
the name of Dr. Thomas Condon, pioneer geologist and discoverer of 
many rare fossils, who was a member of the faculty from the founding 
of the institution until his death in 1907. It houses laboratories and 
classrooms for geology, geography, anthropology and phychology, 
as well as the collections of the MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
(open 8-5 weekdays). The herbarium contains specimens from Oregon 
and the Northwest, the eastern United States, and the Philippine 
Islands. The geological specimens include Miocene and Pleistocene in- 
vertebrate fossils from the Coos Bay vicinity, and mammal fauna from 



EUGENE 171 

the John Day region fossil beds, in which Dr. Condon made his most 
noteworthy discoveries. 

5. The ART MUSEUM (open by permission), centered in the 
SW. quad facing W. toward Kincaid St., a gift of alumni and friends, 
built in 1930, is an imposing brick building that shelters the rare and 
extensive Murray Warner Collection of Oriental Art, given to the 
university by Gertrude Bass Warner as a memorial to her husband. 
The collection was started by Major and Mrs. Warner while living in 
Shanghai, China. In the Chinese group are many paintings by the old 
masters of China, tapestries and embroideries, cinnabar, jades, porcelains, 
and ancient bronzes. Among the Japanese rarities are old prints, bro- 
cades, temple hangings and altar cloths, embroideries, lacquer, a great 
palanquin two centuries old, and delicate works in silver, bronze, cop- 
per, pewter, and wood. The Korean collection contains ornamental 
screens, old bronzes, and a chest inlaid with mother-of-pearl. The Mur- 
ray Warner Museum Library of 3,500 volumes, dealing with the his- 
tory, literature, art, and life of Oriental countries, fills a room in the 
museum, and current magazines on art and life in the Far East are in 
the reading room. 

6. The NEW LIBRARY (open 8-5 weekdays), built with a view 
to future expansion, was erected with the aid of a Federal grant and 
loan in 1936. It has desk and table space for a thousand readers, and 
stack room for 400,000 books. Among the 275,000 volumes are several 
collections. The Edward S. Burgess Rare Book Collection contains 500 
volumes of manuscripts and incunabula purchased by friends of the uni- 
versity. Dr. and Mrs. Burt Brown Barker presented 1,000 volumes, in- 
cluding works by Shelley, Byron, Browning, Stevenson and others. The 
Pauline Potter Homer Collection of Beautiful Books comprises 800 
volumes noteworthy for their fine bindings and illustrations, and as ex- 
amples of the work of famous presses. There is also a collection of 
pamphlets and books about Oregon and by Oregon writers, another 
comprising 2,000 school and college textbooks, the F. S. Dunn collec- 
tion of historical fiction, the Overmeyer collection of published works 
on the Civil War, the Camilla Leach collection of art books, a collec- 
tion of League of Nations documents (1,050 volumes), and a collection 
of works by Balzac. 

7. The MUSIC BUILDING, erected in 1920, contains studios, 
classrooms, and an auditorium for recitals and concerts. In the audi- 
torium is a four-manual Reuter organ. 

8. McARTHUR COURT, a large concrete basketball pavilion 
seating 7,000 was erected in 1926. Offices of the Associated Students 
and of athletic coaches are in the building. It was named for C. N. 
McArthur, former Congressman from Oregon and graduate of the 
class of 1901. The Physical Education Building (1936) is an addition 
to McArthur Court. 

9. HAYWARD STADIUM, SW. corner of I5th and Agate Sts., 
was built with Associated Students' funds. Started in 1919, and fin- 
ished in its present form in 1931, the stadium has a seating capacity of 







EUGENE POINTS OF INTEREST 
The University of Oregon 7. The Music Building 

1. Villard Hall 

2. Deady Hall 

3. The Old Library 

4. Condon Hall 

5. The Art Museum 

6. The New Library 



8. McArthur Court 

9. Hayward Stadium 

10. Gerlinger Hall 

11. The Pioneer Mother 

12. Johnson Hall 

13. The Pioneer Monument 




14. Friendly Hall I9 . The Lane County Pioneer As- 

Lr4 Urn r a r IlSm BuiIdlI1 S sociation Museum 

. McClure Hal m The Site of the First Schoo i. 

17. Arts and Architecture Build- house 

ln 21. The Spanish- American War 
Other Points of Interest Memorial Fountain 

18. Site of the First Cabin in Eu- 22 ' S ^ inn f ' s Bu e . 

23. Northwest Christian College 



1 74 OREGON 

eighteen thousand and was named for William L. (Bill) Hayward, 
track coach and trainer since 1903. 

10. GERLINGER HALL, W. side University St., houses a 
gymnasium and swimming pool for women, and Alumni Hall, the uni- 
versity social center ANTHROPOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS (open by ar- 
rangement) are (1939) temporarily housed in the building. The dis- 
play includes the Condon Collection of archaeological material, the Ada 
Bradley Millican Collection of basketry, woodwork, and textiles of 
aboriginal craftsmanship, the Mrs. Vincent Cook Collection of Indian 
basketry, and the Gold Hill Site Collection of obsidian ceremonial 
blades, stone implements, and Indian skeletal remains. 

11. The PIONEER MOTHER, a heroic bronze statue by A. 
Phimister Proctor stands in the court between Susan Campbell and 
Hendricks Halls, women's dormitories. The statue was presented in 
1932 by Burt Brown Barker, vice president of the university, in mem- 
ory of his mother. 

12. JOHNSON HALL, facing N. on I3th St., the administra- 
tion building, contains the central offices of the university, and of the 
Oregon State System of Higher Education. It also contains Guild Hall, 
in which dramatic productions are presented. The structure, of brick 
and ornamental stone, was erected in 1915, and perpetuates the name 
of John Wesley Johnson, the university's first president, who was a 
great Latin teacher during the school week and a great duck hunter on 
Saturday. 

13. The PIONEER MONUMENT, in the court between the 
Old Library and Friendly Hall, is a heroic figure holding a bull-whip 
and carrying a long rifle slung over the shoulder. Sculptured by A. 
Phimister Proctor, it was given to the university in 1919 by Joseph N. 
Teal. 

14. FRIENDLY HALL, NE. corner I3th and University Sts., 
erected in 1893 as the first men's dormitory and remodeled in 1914, 
houses the department of sociology, the bureau of municipal research, 
and offices of faculty members. It is named for S. H. Friendly, regent 
from 1895 to 1915. 

15. The JOURNALISM BUILDING, an annex of McClure 
Hall, contains the school of journalism and the editorial offices of the 
Oregon Daily Emerald, campus newspaper. 

1 6. McCLURE HALL, adjoining the Journalism Building and 
facing on the old campus, houses classrooms and laboratories of the de- 
partment of chemistry. The building \vas named for Professor Edgar 
McClure, member of the faculty and brilliant scientist, who died in 
1897. 

17. The three units of the ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE 
BUILDING, NE. grouped about a central court at the corner of the 
old campus facing Villard Hall, are of brick and stucco. The first unit 
was erected in 1901, others added in 1914 and 1922. Here are class- 
rooms, studios, drafting rooms, a gallery for display of student work 



EUGENB 175 

and loan exhibitors, and the Architecture and Allied Arts Library. Ex- 
hibits are held at intervals throughout the year. 

Other buildings on the campus are COMMERCE BUILDING (1921), 
OREGON BUILDING (1916), EDUCATION BUILDING (1921), JOHN 
STRAUB BUILDING (1929), and EXTENSION AND HOME ECONOMICS 
BUILDING. 

OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST 

18. A stone monument marks the SITE OF THE FIRST CABIN 
IN EUGENE, 364 2nd St., which was built in 1846 by Eugene F. 
Skinner, lor whom the city was named. 

19. The LANE COUNTY PIONEER ASSOCIATION MU- 
SEUM (open 8-5 weekdays). NW. corner 6th and Willamette Sts., 
houses a large collection of pioneer relics gathered by Cal Young and 
others. Included in the collection are Concord coaches, Conestoga wag- 
ons, early types of threshers, plows, mills, logging carts with ten-foot 
wooden disc wheels, Indian dugout canoes, war clubs, and mortars and 
pestles. 

20. A bronze plaque at nth St. between Willamette and Olive 
Sts. marks the SITE OF THE FIRST SCHOOLHOUSE which 
was attended by Leonora Skinner, first white child born in Lane 
County. The large frame structure on the site, used by the Knights of 
Pythias Lodge, was the second public school building in Eugene. 

21. The SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR MEMORIAL FOUN- 
TAIN, E. 8th and Oak Sts., on the corner of the courthouse grounds, 
was erected in 1901, in memory of Lane County volunteers who lost 
their lives in the Philippines in 1898-1899. The memorial consists of 
two square stone pillars inscribed with a dedication and the names of 
the volunteers; an oblong connecting slab bears two drinking fountains. 

22. SKINNER'S BUTTE (681 alt), reached from ist and N. 
Lincoln Sts. by a spiral drive, is a city park and recreation ground be- 
tween the main business section and the Williamette River. From its 
summit can be seen a panorama of Eugene, the upper Willamette Val- 
ley, and the surrounding mountains. 

23. NORTHWEST CHRISTIAN COLLEGE, iith and Alder 
Sts., was founded in 1895 as Eugene Divinity School. Since then it has 
been reorganized three times under different names Eugene Bible 
University, Eugene Bible College, and Northwest Christian College. 
Courses are so arranged that students may take some studies in the ad- 
joining University of Oregon. 

The ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, built in 1908, the BUSHNELL 
LIBRARY (open 8-5 weekdays), with 100 rare copies of the Bible. One 
of them, printed in Latin, dates from 1479. 

The FINE ARTS BUILDING was erected in 1921. The Louis H. 
TURNER MUSEUM (open 8-5 weekdays), in this building, contains 
many articles sent by missionaries from foreign lands and Indian relics 
contributed by former students. Also in this building is the GRADUATE 



176 OREGON 

LIBRARY (open 9-5 weekdays}, containing special books for divinity 
students, including many rare volumes on theology. 

Other buildings on the campus are RHEM HALL (1897), the PRESI- 
DENT'S RESIDENCE (1901), and KLINGER GYMNASIUM (1912). 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

Spencer's Butte, 5 m. ; Goshen Area of fossilized plant life, 9.2 /.; Washburne 
State Park, 17 m. (see TOUR 2). Alderwood State Park, 25 m. ; Triangle Lake, 
41 m. (see TOUR zF). Willamette National Forest, 28 m. (see TOUR $B). 



iimiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiioiiiimimiamiiiiiiiiioiiiiiiiiimoiiiinm 



Hood River 



Railroad Station: Union Pacific Station, ist and Cascade Sts., for Union Pacific 

R.R. 

Bus Sta f ion: in Oak St., for Union Pacific Stages, Washington Motor Coaches- 

7 'axis: Fare roc and 25C 

Accommodations: Three hotels; auto camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 102^2 Oak St. 

Motion Picture Houses: Two. 

Tennis: High school courts open to public in summer. 

Swimming: Koberg's Beach, i mi. E., near end of Hood River- White Salmon 

Bridge; entrance fee ice. 

Golf: Hood River Golf Club, 6 m. SW. on Mountain View and Sunset Rds., 

9 holes, greens fee 35C. 

Annual Events: Mt. Hood Climb, mid-July, sponsored by city and American 
Legion. 

HOOD RIVER (154 alt., 2,757 Pop.), seat of Hood River County 
and business center for a noted fruit-growing region, rises on the steep 
terraces of the Columbia River between the narrow and precipitous 
Hood River and Indian Creek gorges. The business district occupies 
the lower levels, and long flights of weather-beaten stairs climb the 
cliffs on First and Eugene Streets, connecting the market places with 
homes clinging to the sheer wall and resting on the heights above. 
At almost every point the broad river below and Mount Adams, with 
its flanking ranges on the Washington side, are visible. 

From the lower part of town, Mount Hood, 26 miles south, is not 
visible, but from the heights it is seen in full grandeur, its massive 
bulk seeming almost at the door. Between the city and the mountain, 
the orchards of the Hood River Valley stretch almost unbroken, a mass 
of pinkish-white blossoms in spring, a sea of ruddy fruit in late sum- 
mer and fall. The panorama is best viewed from the top of the Wash- 
ington hills across die Columbia River first the wide stream, then the 
compact group of business houses on the south shore, then the resi- 
dences atop the cliff, and, finally, the orchards blending into the base 
of Mount Hood. 

Throngs of visitors come to the city and its environs, especially in 
summer, and make it their headquarters while exploring the clear 
streams, green hills, and clean orchard land. When the harvest opens 
in late August there is an influx of fruit pickers; and trucks, filled with 
fresh fruit travel to warehouse and cannery, leaving behind the frag- 
rant odor of ripened apples and pears. 

Itinerant workers pour into Hood River at the opening of the fruit 



178 OREGON 

gathering season. Boys seeking adventure or the chance to earn a few 
dollars to help them through school, young women trying to get away 
from the humdrum of home, drift in and soon find a place in the busy 
crew of harvesters. Roaming families packed in old jalopies trundle up 
the steep streets toward the upper valley, following the fruit from crop 
to crop. Pinched little faces snowing the lack of food peer from the 
torn curtains of cars; young bodies covered with ragged clothing huddle 
among tubs, washboards, and camping plunder. Groups of Hawaiian 
and Filipino boys, eager to please and learn American ways, labor in- 
dustriously and make their evening camp a scene of pleasure with the 
ukeleles and lilting native songs. 

When the strawberries ripen in June many Indians come into the 
valley from the Warm Springs Reservation to gather the fruit, and re- 
main through the loganberry and raspberry season. For generations, In- 
dian women have been adept at gathering olallies. While the men idle 
and smoke, the women and children toil in the sun, deftly harvesting 
the red berries. It is a common occurrence to see the Indian women 
with papooses strapped to their backs stooping along the rows. However, 
the Indians are not attracted to picking fruit that grows on trees; they 
leave the gathering of apples and pears to white people. 

Indian tepees of the village of Waucoma (Place of the Cotton- 
woods) dotted the ground near the confluence of the Columbia and 
Hood Rivers when Lewis and Clark arrived in October, 1805, on their 
way to the Columbia's mouth. It was not until 1852 that W. C. 
Laughlin and Dr. Farnsworth discovered the abundant grass of the 
Hood River Valley and moved in with their herds. Winter storms of 
1 852-53 destroyed their stock and so discouraged the men that they 
soon left. Nathanial Coe was the first permanent settler, arriving with 
his family in 1854. The spot then bore the unromantic name of Dog 
River, because the people of an early emigrant train, being delayed, 
were forced to subsist on dog meat. Mrs. Coe soon forced a change of 
nomenclature, refusing to accept mail for the community unless it bore 
the address of Hood River. 

The Hood River Valley developed slowly before the Oregon Railroad 
and Navigation Company's line reached it in the early i88o's. Heavy 
timber and deep snow in the valley offered little inducement to home- 
steaders. Settlers were scattered and money was scarce. Income from 
cordwood peddled at The Dalles and accepted as legal tender, provided 
the principal income. But with the coming of transportation conditions 
changed. Sawmills were built in the heavily timbered valley, beginning 
an industry that is still important in the area. 

Virgil Winchell, an old settler familiarly known as "Doc," often told 
of the hardships of his childhood. Roads to the "outside" did not exist. 
Provisions were sometimes brought in on pack ponies, but for the most 
part they were brought down the Columbia River from The Dalles by 
boat. One winter, storms began early, cutting off the valley from the 
outside world, and the settlers were caught without food staples. Lard- 
ers ran low, and the snow was so deep that it was impossible to go into 



HOOD RIVER 179 

the woods for game. One day Mr. Winchell, then a small boy, discov- 
ered in his father's barn a great many native birds, mostly blue jays 
and owls that had taken refuge from the cold. He called his father, who 
immediately chinked all exits and began catching birds. The Winchell 
family still had a small quantity of flour, and that night at supper they 
feasted on blue jays and owl pie. 

Arrival of the rail line, however, put an end to isolation and many 
hardships. Attracted by the region's recreational resources, Portland 
citizens built summer cabins, and in 1889 a group of Portland's capi- 
talists constructed Cloud Cap Inn on the north snow line of Mount 
Hood and built a toll road to it. The Inn was the first mountain hostelry 
in the Pacific Northwest. 

In the last decade of the nineteenth century, Hood River residents 
discovered the suitability of local conditions for fruit-raising on a large 
scale. The first cash crop was strawberries. Professor T. R. Coon, pio- 
neer Oregon teacher, migrated to the Hood River Valley in the 
eighties, bringing with him a supply of Clark Seedling strawberry 
plants, which had been developed in the Mount Tabor district of Port- 
land. In a few years the valley was producing Clark Seedling straw- 
berries in car lots. Ranchers, who had been living in comfort but with- 
out cash surpluses, soon found themselves in comparative luxury. For 
years annual shipments have exceeded 300 carloads. 

The first apple trees in Hood River were planted by the Coe family, 
and other pioneer families soon had productive home orchards, but nat- 
ural barriers stood in the way of commercial development. The valley 
floor was so densely covered with giant conifers and oaks that clearing 
land was a slow and expensive process. To help in preparing the ground, 
land-owners brought in Japanese laborers. The industrious Orientals 
stayed by the job. They dug out stumps, cut slashing, burned debris, 
tilled the soil, and transformed cut-over waste into a vast garden. 

The first carload of Hood River apples was shipped to New York 
City in 1900, and from this carload the apple industry in the Pacific 
Northwest had its real beginning. Rumors of the new industry spread 
rapidly, and soon there was an influx of settlers bent on becoming gen- 
tlemen farmers. Retired business men, navy and army officers, and young 
college graduates, created a sort of golden era of business and refine- 
ment unusual for so small a city. For years Hood River had a Uni- 
versity Club with several hundred members, probably the smallest city 
in the United States to have such an organization. 

The region's orchards approximate 10,000 acres, and while apples 
are still predominant, the acreage of pears has so increased that pear 
production bids fair to equal the apple output. Cherry culture has also 
been found profitable and hundreds of tons of Royal Annes, Bings, and 
Lamberts are produced annually. Anjou pears are shipped to the Sudan 
district of North Africa. 

For several years Hood River was the home of Frederic Homer 
Balch, missionary preacher and Oregon's most important novelist. Here 
he wrote Genevieve, A Tale of Oregon, and most of The Bridge of the 



l8o OREGON 

Gods, his best-known work. A resident in the city at various periods 
after 1913 was George W. Cronyn, who married a native of the valley, 
and has written, among other books, The Fool of Venus (1934), a his- 
torical novel of the troubadours, and Mermaid Tavern (1937), a fic- 
tionized life of Christopher Marlowe, the Elizabethan dramatist. An- 
thony Euwer, poet, lecturer, and essayist, lived here for a number of 
years and Percy Manser, the landscape artist, makes his home nearby. 
The principal public event in the city is the annual Mount Hood 
climb sponsored by the city and the American Legion. In July of each 
year several hundred people from Hood River and other points in the 
Northwest gather at the legion camp at the foot of Cooper Spur on the 
east flank of the mountain and begin the steep ascent at dawn. 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

1. The CITY HALL, 2nd St. between State and Oak Sts., is a 
one-story brick business block of utilitarian design that houses city of- 
fices, including the fire department and jail. In a glass case attached to 
the north wall of the council chamber is the flag raised at the com- 
munity's first Fourth of July celebration in 1861. 

2. The OLD ADAMS HOUSE (private), I3th and State Sts., 
for decades one of the city's show places, but for many years deserted 
and fallen into disrepair, has been recently remodeled into a modified 
Cape Cod style cottage. Formerly in the yard was a large fountain pat- 
terned after one of the fountains in the garden of the Palace of Ver- 
sailles, France. In its pool once swam a gigantic sturgeon captured in 
the Columbia River. Dr. Adams was in early life a minister, then a 
lawyer, and in his late years a physician. He was a personal friend of 
Abraham Lincoln and at one time editor of the Oregon City Argus. 

3. The APPLEGROWERS' ASSOCIATION CANNERY 
(open on application at office, ^rd St. between Railroad and Cascade 
Aves.), 6th and Columbia Sts., is adjacent to the Columbia Street ware- 
house. From late August, when canning starts on Bartlett pears, until 
late December, when the season ends with the canning of low-grade 
apples, it is filled with uniformed women workers. After going through 
mechanical washing and grading processes, the fruit passes on belts 
through automatic paring and cutting machines to cans and cookers and 
finally to storerooms. 

4. HOOD RIVER DISTILLERIES (open on application at of- 
fice), ist and Oak Sts., manufactures cull fruits into brandy. The com- 
pany has the only Federal-bonded warehouse on the Pacific coast out- 
side California. 

5. OBSERVATION PROMONTORY, N. end of May St., a 
scenic vantage point on a high headland at the junction of Hood River 
and Columbia gorges, provides a panoramic view of mountains, valleys, 
and rivers. Southward, Mount Hood towers above the formal patterns 
of orchards, while to the north, beyond the reaches of the Columbia, 
rise Mount Adams and the Washington hills. 



HOOD RIVER l8l 

6. ELIOT PARK, occupying Indian Creek gorge from I2th St. 
to the turbulent Hood River, is a primitive spot where native flowers, 
shrubs, and trees grow in profusion. The park is the gift of Dr. Thom- 
as Lamb Eliot, for a half-century pastor of the Church of Our Father, 
Unitarian, in Portland, and one of the first to recognize Hood River 
as a vacation center. 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

Wau-Guin-Guin Falls, 1 m.\ Crag Rats Club House, 1 m. ; Early Indian Burial 
Ground, 1 in.] Starvation Creek State Park, 9.4 m. (see TOUR i). Hood River 
Experiment Station, 2 m. ; Panorama Viewpoint. 3 /.; Frederic Homer Balcb 
House, 3.5 m.', Rev. W. A. (Billy) Sunday House, 6 m.\ Cloud Cap Inn, 
33.1 m. (see TOUR lE). 



IIIIIIIIHBIIIIIIIIIIIIBIIHIIIIIIIIBIIIIIIIIIIIIUIlllllllllllD^ 



Klamath Falls 



Railroad Stations: Oak and Spring Sts., for Southern Pacific Lines; 1340 8. 6th 

St., for Great Northern Ry. 

Bus Station: Union Stage Depot, 830 Klamath St., for Pacific Greyhound Lines, 

Mount Hood Stages, Red Ball Stages, and Oregon, California and Nevada Stages. 

Airport: 4-5 m. SE. on State 66. 

City Busses: Fare IDC. 

Taxis: 500 in city limits. 

Docks for Pleasure Boats: Front St. on Upper Klamath Lake. 

Accommodations: Four hotels; tourist camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, and Oregon State Motor Association, 
323 Main St. 

Radio Station: KFGI (1210 kc.). 
Motion Picture Houses: Four. 

Tennis: Mills Addition, Home and Stukel Sts.; Moore Park, Rock Creek High- 
way. 

Swimming: Hot Springs Natatorium, 530 Spring St.; New Klamath Natatorium, 
1719 Main St.; fees, adults 35c, children 250. 

Golf: Reames Golf and Country Club, 3.5: m. W. on State 236; 9 holes; greens 
fee, 5oc Mon.-Fri., 75c Sat., Sun. and holidays. 

Riding: Klamath Riding Academy, S. Sixth St. (The Dalles-California High- 
way) ; fees, riding horses 750 first hour, $oc for each subsequent hour; riding 
lessons 500 an hour. 

Annual Events: Upper Klamath Lake Regatta, June; Buckaroo Days, week-end 
nearest July 4th. 

KLAMATH FALLS (4,105 alt., 16,093 pop.), industrial center and 
seat of Klamath County, is on the eastern slope of the Cascade Range 
and commands a panoramic vista of snow peaks, evergreen forests, and 
thriving valley farms. The business section stretches along the banks 
of Link River and the shores of Lake Ewauna (Ind., elbow), while 
the residential district occupies rising grounds to the east and north. 
The city has a clean modern appearance; its growth has taken place 
almost entirely since 1915, and its buildings and residences are of lat- 
ter-day architectural styles. Upper Klamath Lake touches the northern 
city limits. Entirely within the city is Link River less than a mile in 
length and said to be the shortest river in the world which flows 
through the western edge of town, connecting Upper Klamath Lake 
with Lake Ewauna. The grayish-blue Klamath River flows from Lake 
Ewauna across northern California to the Pacific. 

Thousands of white pelicans make their summer homes on Lake 
Ewauna, Link River, and Upper Klamath Lake. From late March to 
September they can be seen everywhere in and about the city, soaring 
in flocks against the sun or floating on the waters of lake or river. They 



KLAMATH FALLS 183 

nest in the reeds along the shores of Upper Klamath Lake. So inti- 
mately is the bird associated with the city that social and athletic or- 
ganizations, business houses, a hotel and a theatre are named for it. 

The old West rubs elbows with the new in Klamath Falls. Typical 
survivors of the city's most colorful period, men and women who were a 
part of the pioneering and homesteading eras, linger here. Grizzled 
ranchers still sit at friendly poker games under the brighter lights of 
the new town. Sheepherders in from tending flocks on the lonely hills. 
Indians from the Klamath Reservation, and loggers from the deep 
woods, mingle freely, lending color to the modern business activity. 
Because of the many industrial establishments "pay nights" (Saturday 
nights nearest the first and fifteenth of the month) are carnival-like 
periods. Great crowds of visitors, mill employees and townspeople, surge 
in and out of the stores spending the earnings of the previous fortnight. 
Stores and banks stay open until 10:30, and the moving-picture houses, 
dance halls and other recreation centers reap a large portion of the mil 
lion-dollar pay roll before the night ends. 

Key city of south-central Oregon, Klamath Falls is the distributing 
and marketing point for rich lumbering, agricultural, cattle and sheep- 
raising areas. The Klamath Basin contains over 300,000 acres of ir- 
rigable land ; with more than a million acre-feet of water available in a 
normal run-off during the irrigation season. The principal crops are 
alfalfa, grains and potatoes. Shipments of potatoes have, in recent years, 
averaged well over five thousand carloads annually, and in 1938-39 the 
potato acreage was more than 20,000, with a crop value in excess of 
four million dollars. Sheep and cattle are summered on the surround- 
ing ranges in the mountains and remote areas, and wintered in the 
irrigated section where feed is plentiful. The Klamath Irrigation Proj 
ect contains almost 200,000 acres under irrigation. 

Lumbering and its affiliated activities form the city's chief industry. 
Within the town and the surrounding region are twenty-eight sawmills 
and manufacturing plants employing 3,000 men and cutting 350,000,000 
feet of lumber annually. It is said that Klamath Falls is the largest 
box-shook manufacturing district in the United States. Tributary to the 
city are approximately 30,000,000,000 feet of pine timber. 

Settlement of the Klamath Lake country was retarded by the hos- 
tility of the Klamath Indians, and the village from which the modern 
city grew was not established until 1867. Before that time the develop- 
ment of the valley had been sanguinary. Lieutenant John C. Fremont's 
camp was attacked in 1846, and three of his men were killed. An im- 
migrant train was ambushed in 1850 and almost wiped out. A year 
later a second train was attacked at Bloody Point on Tule Lake and a 
mere handful of its hundred members escaped massacre. These and 
other raids caused the area to become known as the "dark and bloody 
ground of the Pacific," and it was not until 1864 that Federal troops 
sufficiently subdued the tribesmen to enable pioneers to settle along Link 
River with any degree of safety. 

The Applegate brothers, Jesse and Lindsey, explored in this region 



184 OREGON 

in 1846 and in 1848 organized the Klamath Commonwealth to settle 
the area; discovery of gold in California, however, led the settlers to 
another destination. Wendolen Nus, first permanent settler in the 
Klamath country, built a cabin and established a claim on the west 
shore of Klamath Lake in 1858. Others settled in the Basin in the early 
sixties. In 1863 a United States military post, known as Fort Klamath, 
was established to the north of the lake. In 1864 a treaty was nego- 
tiated with the Indians and the Klamath Reservation (see TOUR 4) 
was established. 

Linkville, as Klamath Falls was first called, was founded by George 
Nurse, a sutler from Fort Klamath, who built a cabin on the east bank 
of Link River at its junction with Lake Ewauna in 1866. Approxi- 
mately a hundred emigrants had taken up homes in the district by 1867. 
A log trading post, established by Nurse at the landing of the ferry 
across Link River, supplied the wants of the scattered settlers. With 
the Indians confined to the Klamath Reservation and the fear of at- 
tack allayed, Linkville became a thriving town, possessing the raw 
color of most frontier communities. In those early days the Klamath 
Basin was essentially cattle country; a wild country of rough men. Old 
time residents still recall many cases of murder and sudden death in 
gambling and land claim disputes. One big family in the Basin carried 
on a wholesale business in cattle rustling and other banditry. It was 
said of them that they were tough and gloried in the fact. In time the 
entire family was wiped out, most of its members going to their final 
rest with their boots on. 

Security from Indian outbreak was short lived. In 1872 the region 
was again plunged into conflict. The Modocs refused to remain on the 
Klamath Reservation and made persistent efforts to return to their for- 
mer home near Tule Lake. A small band under Chief Keintpoos, better 
known as Captain Jack, clashed with a body of United States cavalry, 
routing it and precipitating the bloody Modoc War. Inhabitants of 
Klamath Falls knew months of terror as the Modoc bands parried 
thrust after thrust of the Federal troops. However, the soldiers finally 
overcame the Indians, and Captain Jack and three of his followers were 
executed. 

After the creation of Klamath County in 1882 the city maintained a 
slow but steady growth. Platted in 1878 in a plan covering forty blocks, 
it was incorporated in 1889 as Linkville; but this name was changed 
to the Town of Klamath Falls in 1893. Impetus was given to develop- 
ment when, in 1900, the Klamath Basin Irrigation Project was started 
by the Federal Government. A few years later a new stimulus came 
with the building of the first railroad. A branch line was opened by the 
Southern Pacific from Weed, California, in 1909, as a lumber carrier, 
and in the mid-i92o's the Natron cut-off extension was completed be- 
tween Klamath Falls and Eugene. From the construction of the first 
railroad the growth of the city was phenomenal, the population increas 
ing more than six-fold between 1915 and 1930. 

The principal recreational events of Klamath Falls are the Klamath 



KLAMATH FALLS 

Lake Regatta in June and the Buckaroo Days celebration on the week- 
end nearest the Fourth of July. The First event features yacht, out- 
board, rowboat, surfboard, and swimming races, and log-cutting and 
log-bucking contests. The Buckaroo Days festival, commemorating the 
period when the Klamath Basin was cattle country, presents the usual 
rodeo events, riding, roping, bulldogging, wild horse racing, and others 
of frontier significance. 

Klamath Falls has a series of hot mineral springs, one of which dis- 
charges 800,000 gallons of water daily at a temperature of 200 de- 
grees. These waters, containing soda, lime, magnesia, iron, and sul- 
phuric, muriatic, and silicic acids are effective in diseases arising from 
impurities of the blood and for various other complaints. Public and 
private buildings are heated from these natural hot water springs, and 
two swimming pools are filled with the waters. 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

1. The KLAMATH COUNTY COURTHOUSE (open 8-5 
Mon.-Fn., 8-1 Sat.), Main St. between 3rd and 4th Sts., erected in 
1918, is a modern two-story building faced with buff brick and trimmed 
in terra cotta. The entrance pavilion is of the Greek style with Ionic 
columns. The interior has a six-foot wainscot of Alaskan marble in 
matched patterns. The architect was E. E. McClaren. 

2. The CITY LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays), SE. corner of 5th 
St. and Klamath Ave., a red brick two-story structure, was built in 
1926 on property donated by Mrs. Fred Schallock and C. H. Daggett 
in memory of Henrietta F. Melhasse. The building is ell-shaped, with a 
classic portico inside the bend of the ell facing the intersection of Fifth 
Street and Klamath Avenue. The library has 13,000 volumes. 

3. The FEDERAL BUILDING, 7th St. between Walnut and 
Oak Aves., is a three-story reinforced concrete building, with tile hip 
roof, first story faced with sandstone, and the upper stories with red 
brick and sandstone trim. The foundation is of native Oregon granite. 
The building of modified Italian Renaissance architecture was designed 
by government architects under the direction of James A. Wetmore. 

4. LINK RIVER BRIDGE, SW. end of Main St. at the head of 
Lake Ewauna, is of ornamental concrete construction, single span with- 
out superstructure, and is one of two that span Link River. It is at the 
site of the old Nurse ferry and bridge, which for many years accom- 
modated all traffic between the Rogue River Valley and the south-cen- 
tral Oregon range country. In spring and summer it offers a view of 
great numbers of snow-white pelicans, some floating silently on lake or 
river, others soaring in flocks overhead. 

5. The EWAUNA BOX MILL (open 8-5 weekdays on applica- 
tion at office), 6th & Spring Sts., with a daily capacity of 150,000 feet 
of finished lumber, is one of the larger mills of the district. Operations 
can be watched from the time a log is hauled up out of the water until 
it has been put through the mill. With the log in position on the car- 



l86 OREGON 

riage, the big saw screams its way through from end to end, lopping ofi 
great slices. At times these cuts are four or more feet in thickness. The 
thick slices are canted onto rollers that canf them to the edger, which 
squares the timbers, and then on to the trimmer, where the poorer 
parts are cut out. This process continues until the log has been trans- 
formed into lumber. 

6. FREMONT BRIDGE, W. end of Nevada Ave., is a memorial 
to Lieutenant John C. Fremont, the pathfinder, who, under the guid- 
ance of Kit Carson, slashed his way through the Oregon wilderness in 
1843 and 1846. In and about Klamath Falls many campgrounds, burial 
places, and battle sites are marked in his honor. From Fremont Bridge 
is a fine view of Upper Klamath Lake, made nationally famous by E. 
H. Harriman, who built an elaborate lodge on Pelican Bay at the 
northern end of the lake because, it is said, he considered it the most 
beautiful spot in the west. The bridge is of concrete, single-arched with 
ornamental railing. 

7. MOORE PARK, on Rock Creek Highway W. of Link River, 
a large area mostly in its natural state, was donated to the city by 
Rufus C. Moore, a pioneer. In the park is a small Zoo and AVIARY 
(open 8-8 daily) , a tennis court, a toboggan slide, and a well-equipped 
picnic ground. 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

Klamath Wild Life Reservation, 11 m. (see TOUR 4). Algoma Point, 12 m.\ 
Klamath Indian Reservation, 32 m. ; Crater Lake National Park, 60 m. (see 
TOUR 40 ). Lava Beds National Monument, 36 m. S. in California (set TOUR 
*A, CALIFORNIA STATE GUIDE). 



iniiraiimiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiinniiiiiiiiiiiraiiiiiiiiiiiioiiiiiiiiiiiiDHiimm 



Medford 



Railroad Station: N. 5th and Front Sts., for Southern Pacific Lines. 
Bus Station: Jackson Hotel, 614 S. Central St., for Pacific Greyhound and Inde- 
pendent Motor Stages. 

Airport: Municipal Airport, 3 m. NE. on State 62 for United Airlines; Taxi 
$1.25. 
Taxis: Fare, 25C minimum. 

Accommodations: Five hotels; six tourist camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, i E. Main St., near depot; Oregon 
State Motor Assn., 34 S. Riverside St. 

Radio Station: KMED (1310 kc.). 

Motion Picture Houses: Four. 

Swimming: Merrick Natatorium, N. Riverside St., fee 25C. 

Golf: Rogue River Valley Golf Association, Hillcrest Road, 18 holes, greens fees 

$i weekdays, $1.50 Sundays. 

MEDFORD ( 1,377 alt., 11,007 pop.), summer resort town and fruit 
and lumber center, lies in the heart of the Rogue River Valley, which 
presents a picture of endless orchards, irrigated by clear mountain 
streams and hemmed in, for the most part, by the steep walls of the 
Cascade and Siskiyou Ranges, and the broken escarpment of Table 
Rock. From the floor of the valley sloping benches and rounded foot- 
hills rise to the surrounding mountains, which are heavily timbered with 
yellow pine, sugar pine, fir, cedar, oak, madrona and other varieties of 
trees. In the spring the valley is filled with coral-tinted blossoms; in 
the autumn pears, apples, peaches, plums, almonds, and grapes are har- 
vested. 

The city is built on both sides of Bear Creek ten miles from its con- 
fluence with Rogue River. Several bridges connect the east and west 
sides of the town. Orchards extend on all sides of the city, and numer- 
ous fruit trees abound within the city itself. Poor indeed is the home 
that has neither apple nor pear trees in its yard. In the last two decades 
Medford has made rapid growth, more than doubling in population; 
but in spite of this it is a well-planned city. Native trees have been per- 
mitted to grow and, supplemented by imported growths, give a park- 
like effect to the town. An extensive park system and civic center with 
architectural harmony adds to the attractiveness of the city plan. Along 
the railroad tracks is an almost unbroken row of fruit-packing and ship- 
ping warehouses, fragrant with fruit in late summer and early fall. 

Many easterners maintain summer residences in the surrounding foot- 
hills and mountains, and Medford's hotels and restaurants are crowded 
with visitors. The city is in the heart of an extensive recreational area 



l88 OREGON 

and its roads give access to Crater Lake, Rogue River Gorge, the Ore- 
gon Caves, Table Rock, a natural bridge near Prospect, many varieties 
of mineral springs, and numerous scenic and recreational attractions. 
There is good fishing in near-by Rogue River, and it is said that Jack- 
son County has more deer than cattle. 

With the approach of fall the exodus of summer residents is fol- 
lowed by the arrival of a small army of fruit pickers and packers of 
both sexes and all ages. Throngs jam the sidewalks and automobiles 
crowd the curb. Among the throngs are youngsters who have trekked 
across the continent in ancient flivvers to see the long dreamed-of West, 
roaming families who follow the fruit, flitting from one crop to an- 
other, Hawaiian and Filipino boys from their island homes, organizers 
and knights of the soap-box airing their views on government and eco- 
nomics. Here today and gone tomorrow, they come when the fruit calls 
them, and, their tasks finished, they vanish until another season beckons 
them back. 

Visitors to Medford in the fall and winter months may note the stacks 
of wood that stand unprotected from the elements, bearing "wood for 
sale" signs. Winters are so mild in the Rogue River Valley that house- 
holders need not store up wood for winter, but content themselves with 
buying an occasional load for use on chilly evenings. 

The site of Medford, unapproached by a navigable river, was set- 
tled late. The well-grassed valley and the surrounding forested moun- 
tains abounded in game, and this was a favorite hunting ground for the 
Indians, who resented white encroachment. When gold was discovered 
at near-by Jacksonville in 1851 a great many people came from the 
Willamette Valley to go into mining. As the richness of the gold field 
diminished, many of them, seeing the fertility of the valley, settled here. 
The Indians of Rogue River Valley were placed on a reservation under 
the terms of a treaty of 1856, and the area was thrown open for settle- 
ment. 

Medford was an ''opposition" town, established in 1883 by the Ore- 
gon and California Railroad Company (now the Southern Pacific), 
when Central Point, four miles north, refused to lend financial aid 
toward completion of the road through the southern part of the state. 
"Though poor in purse" the people of Jackson County contributed gen- 
erously to the building of the railroad. Many farmers subscribed quan- 
tities of wheat or other grain, a few made direct payments in cash, 
others filled out their quotas with beaver skins, and sawmill owners 
gave cross ties to be used in laying the track. Unable to punish Central 
Point by leaving it off the main line, the railroad for a number of 
years refused to stop at the town or to sell tickets to that destination. 
The new town was named Middleford because it was situated at the 
middle of three fords on Bear Creek, but David Loring, a railroad en- 
gineer who had lived in Medford, Massachusetts, suggested the change 
to the present name. 

With wide streets and "a reserved space for public buildings," Med- 
ford began as a well-planned town. Saloons were permitted to operate 



MED FORD 189 

here, though they were barred in some other Jackson County settle- 
ments, and an occasional "roughian" disturbed the peace and quiet of the 
little community, which otherwise got most of its amusement from at- 
tending church meetings and dances sponsored by the literary society or 
the temperance union. Medford was incorporated as a town in 1884, 
and reincorporated as a city in 1905. 

With the support of the railroad, Me'dford became the distributing 
point of the sparsely settled valley, but not until the turn of the cen- 
tury, when its fruit began to attract attention, did the town begin a con- 
sistent growth. In the first decade of the twentieth century the city grew 
from 1,790 to almost 9,000 population, the greatest growth taking place 
about 1908. During these boom days every train was crowded with 
landseekers from California and the eastern states, bringing capital and 
scientific knowledge to the fruit industry in the valley. Thousands of 
acres nearby were planted to pears and other fruits; Medford ex- 
panded its borders to four square miles and started public works that 
are still (1939) an expense to local taxpayers. 

As Medford prospered, the old mining town of Jacksonville, the 
original county seat, dwindled. In 1927 Medford was made the county 
seat. The previous year the county received a refund from the Federal 
Government on taxes owing on railroad "grant lands." This land, 
known as the Oregon and California Grant, was given to the railroads 
in the eighties as a subsidy, on condition that the railroad dispose of it 
at $2.50 an acre. The railroad ignored the condition and the Govern- 
ment took back the land in 1915. The "grant counties" then persuaded 
the Government to compensate them, in the amount of a million dol- 
lars, for lost taxes. Jackson county utilized its share of the fund in 
building a new courthouse, which was completed in 1932. 

The commercial life of Medford revolves around the fruit and lumber 
industries. Orchards planted during the boom have now reached full 
bearing and the annual pear pack of the district averages about four 
thousand carloads, which move out in two streams, one to the eastern 
states and to foreign countries as fresh fruit, and one to the canneries 
of the Willamette Valley. Six cold-storage plants handle truck and rail 
shipments and more than $12,000,000 worth of products are annually 
dispatched to the markets of the world. Jackson County's vast timber 
wealth is reflected in local industries, which include planing mills, cabi- 
net factories, and a sawmill with a capacity of 250,000 board feet 
daily. Here great power-driven saws drone and whine, ripping to exact 
thickness and length great trees logged in the hills and mountains that 
encompass the vallev, and stacks of yellow pine lumber shed on the air 
a pungency that not even the sharp fragrance of fruit blossoms can 
dispel. The city also has a modern candy factory, a plate glass works, 
a flouring mill, three stone-tile and cement-block plants, an iron foun- 
dry, a catsup plant, twenty-one fruit-packing plants, a vegetable and 
meat canning plant, and a large ice plant. 

Numerous Federal offices are located in Medford. A branch office 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture is fitted with a library-labora- 



190 OREGON 

tory in charge of a pathologist whose duty it is to attend to the horti- 
cultural interests of the Rogue River Valley. 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

1. JACKSON COUNTY COURTHOUSE, S. Oakdale St. be- 
tween W. Main and W. 8th Sts., the most imposing edifice in the city, 
is a modern four-story building faced with Indiana limestone and 
trimmed in Ashland granite. The entrance pavilion, five bays in width, 
is nanked by heavy pylons, while the fourth story is in the form of a 
low set-back. The interior trim is of Alaska marble. Designed by John 
G. Link, it was completed in 1932. 

2. MEDFORD PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays; 2-9 
Sun.) 413 W. Main St., a brick and stone structure of Neo-Classic 
design containing more than thirty thousand volumes, some of them rare 
and valuable editions, is opposite the courthouse in a park-like block. 
One of the acquisitions is a collection of books on animal life, travel, 
and history, presented by Edison Marshall, author and big game hunter, 
formerly a resident of the city. The library maintains branches in several 
smaller towns of the county. In the grounds of the library, as in many 
other parts of the city, are huge native oak trees covered with great 
clumps of mistletoe, in some instances so abundant that it almost hides 
the branches. 

3. MEDFORD CITY PARK, W. Main St. between S. Ivy and 
S. Holly Sts., has a central fountain surmounted by a Carrara marble 
statue of a youth seated with two dogs upon his knees. The fountain, 
which provides drinking water for birds and dogs, was given to the 
city in 1929 by C. W. and Callie Palm. The sculptor and designer are 
unknown. 

4. NEWBY & SONS FRUIT PACKING PLANT (open week- 
days by arrangement), First St. and Southern Pacific Ry., is one of the 
larger packing, shipping and cold storage plants of the city where fruits 
are sorted, graded and packed, as they come from the orchards. After 
a special bath in acid or alkaline solutions the fruit is run through 
rinses of fresh water and dried by currents of air. Washing machines 
deliver the fruit to grading machines, which automatically deliver the 
sized fruit to the correct bin. Men and women pack the apples from 
the bins into the boxes in which they are to be shipped. Pickers, graders, 
and packers all wear gloves and the fruit is not touched by the bare 
hand. After packing the fruit is stored in refrigerated rooms or shipped 
in refrigerated cars. 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

Jacksonville, scene of first gold discovery in Oregon, 1851, 6 m, ; Jackson Hot 
Springs, 8 m. ; Lithia Springs, Ashland, 10 m.- Site of Old Fort Lane, 10 m. ; 
Gold Ray Dam in the Rogue River, 12 m. ; Table Rock, 15 m. (see TOUR 2). 
Rogue River Canyon, 46 m. ; Natural Bridge, 56 m.\ Crater Lake, 80 m. (see 
TOUR 4<7). Oregon Caves, 94 m. (see TOUR zD). 






Oregon City 



Railroad Station: yth St. and Railroad Ave., for Southern Pacific Lines. 

Bus Stations: yth St. between Main and Railroad Ave., for Greyhound Stages; 

Railroad Ave. between 6th and yth Sts., for Dollar Lines; 5th and Main Sts., 

for Pedf-n & Rankin. 

City Busses: Fare 50. 

Taxis: roc a mile. 

Accommodations: Hotel at West Linn, across river. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, Hogg Bldg., 8th and Main Sts.; 
A.A.A., Ed May Garage, 5th and Water Sts. 

Motion Picture Houses: Three. 

Tennis: High school courts, izth and J. Q. Adams Sts. 

Swimming: Municipal Swimming Pool, loth and Madison Sts.; Library Park 

Wading Pool, 6th and John Adams Sts. 

Golf: Mt. Pleasant Golf Club, 9 holes, greens fee 250; Oregon City Golf Club, 

9 holes, greens fee $i. 

Annual Events: Territorial Days, usually during last two weeks of Aug.; Mid- 
Spring Chinook Salmon Run; Lamprey Eel Migration, May- July. 

OREGON CITY (72 alt., 5,761 pop.) is a city of first things in 
Oregon. It was the first provisional and territorial capital, the first town 
incorporated west of the Missouri River, scene of the first use of water 
power in Oregon, the first Masonic lodge west of the Missouri was 
organized here, and a pioneer library and temperance and debating so- 
cieties were first in the region. 

Oregon City is the seat of Clackamas County, situated at the point 
where the broad, navigable Willamette River drops forty-two feet from 
a basaltic ledge with a crest more than three thousand feet long. The 
city owes its importance as a manufacturing center chiefly to utilization 
of abundant water power furnished by the falls. 

The city is best viewed from the west end of the graceful, single-span 
Willamette River bridge. As the prehistoric inland sea that filled the 
Willamette Valley gradually drained into the Pacific Ocean, it left 
three distinct terraces or shore lines, locally called benches, on the 
precipitous bluff along the east shore of the Willamette River. Occu- 
pying the first of these benches, between the river and the cliff, is the 
business section of the city.A hundred feet above, on the second terrace, 
is the residential district. Two hundred feet above this is the third 
bench, stretching eastward toward the green foothills of the Cascade 
Range and the rigidly symmetrical slopes of Mount Hood. Streets so 
steep that they seem to stand on end connect these three levels. Many 
houses edge the cliff, facing the wide expanse of river and forested hills 



192 OREGON 

beyond. Almost hidden in trees and shrubbery, they peer down like 
sentinels from a parapet. 

The chinook salmon run in mid-spring, and the flocks of fishermen 
drawn to it, can be seen from the bridge. Above the span, in the pool 
below the falls, is a choice spot for more venturesome sportsmen ; it is 
difficult to keep boats in place here, but the salmon rest in the pool be- 
fore attempting the fish ladder over the falls. The great majority, how- 
ever, fish below the bridge at a safe distance from the white torrent, 
their boats anchored in rows at right angles with the current. From 
the bridge, too, is a birdseye view of Willamette Falls and the industrial 
plants huddled close on both sides of the river. 
^ White occupancy fy Oregon City, in an area that the Hudson's Bay 
Company did not originally want settled, was forced upon the company 
because of the pending boundary settlement between the United States 
and England. "It becomes an important object to acquire as ample 
an occupation of the Country and Trade as possible," company officials 
wrote in 1828, "on the South as well as on the North side of the Colum- 
bia River, looking always to the Northern side falling to our Share on 
a division, and to secure this, it may be as well to have something to 
give up on the South when the final arrangement comes to be made." 
Dr. John McLoughlin of Vancouver, chief factor of the Columbia 
department, was ordered to set up a sawmill at "the falls of the 
Wilhamet (south of the Columbia) where the same Establishment of 
people can attend to the Mill, watch the Fur & Salmon Trade, and 
take care of a Stock of Cattle." 

Three log houses were built on the site of Oregon City in the winter 
of 1829-30, and potatoes were planted in the spring. The Indians, 
resenting this infringement of their territory, burned the houses. A 
flour mill and sawmill constructed in 1832 made use of the first water 
power in Oregon. Feeling quickly developed between American settlers 
and the Hudson's Bay Company, and in 1841 a group of Methodist 
missionaries organized a milling company, occupying an island below 
the falls, opposite the property claimed by Dr. McLoughlin; later they 
built on the shore, directly on his claim. In order to forestall this pre- 
emption, Dr. McLoughlin the' following year named the town and had 
it platted by Sidney Walter Moss, who came with the first big group 
of settlers in 1842 and owned a pocket compass. 

The Oregon Temperance Society, founded in 1838, was the first of 
its kind in the region; prohibition, much agitated at the time, had a 
safety factor, for no house was safe from Indian entry if it was known 
to contain liquor. The Multnomah Circulating Library was organized 
in 1842, with three hundred books and a capital of $500. The Oregon 
Lyceum and the Falls Debating Society were formed the following year. 
The latter probably gave impetus to the beginning of civil government 
in the Northwest ; its members frequently debated such questions as 
"Resolved, That it is expedient for the settlers on this coast to establish 
an independent government." 

The immigration of 1844 added about eight hundred people to the 





TIMBERLINE LODGE, MOUNT HOOD 



PUNCH BOWL FALLS, EAGLE CREEK 




PLAQUE "THE BEAVER" 



BATTLESHIP OREGON 




. ' *!* 






f 




. 



If 



'i> 



COMING OF THE WHITE MAN, PORTLAND 




ELIOT GLACIER, 
MOUNT HOOD 






ROGUE RIVER 
NATIONAL FOREST 




COVERED BRIDGE NEAR DILLARD 



OLD BOONES FERRY, WILSONVILLE 




* .* 



& 



BATTLESHIP SEARCHLIGHTS, FLEET WEEK, PORTLAND 

PORTLAND AND MOUNT HOOD 







1 -s 

I **^ 



s*-wj 



5HH 



*..< 







JOHN DAY COUNTRY 



BASALT BLUFFS ALONG JOHN DAY RIVER 










HIGHWAY SIGN NEAR MADRAS 







ONTARIO 




COYOTE 





PROOF OF A TALL TALE 



SEA LIONS, OREGON COAST 





ELK AT WALLOWA LAKE 



SALMON JUMPING WILLAMETTE FALLS 



DEER TRACKS IN SNOW 








OREGON BEAVER 



* 
+* 



BLACK BEAR, FREMONT NATIONAL FOREST 



SK 








BONNEVILLE DAM AND MOUNT HOOD 



SHEEP MOUNTAIN 



MULTNOMAH FALL! 




ICE STALAGMITES IN MALHEUR CAVE 



BUNCHGRASS, 
CENTRAL OREGON 



PHANTOM SHIP, 
CRATER LAKE 









WALLOW A MOUNTAINS 



HOLLAND GRASS PLANTINGS, OREGON COAST 




MITCHELL POINT TUNNEL, COLUMBIA RIVER 



SNAKE RIVER CANYON 






OREGON CITY IQ3 

population of Oregon City. The provisional government, formed the 
year before at Champoeg, chose the city as its seat, and the first pro- 
visional legislature assembled here in June, 1844. Jesse Applegate was 
given authority to replat the city, making it larger than the original 
Moss survey. He used a rope four rods long instead of the usual sur- 
veyor's chain, and the variation in the rope's length due to moisture 
conditions and stretching accounts for the irregular size of the lots. 
The legislature granted the town a charter, making it the first to be 
incorporated west of the Missouri River. George Abernethy, who one 
year later became provisional governor, erected the first brick store in 
Oregon. In the same year the first furniture factory in the Pacific 
Northwest was built here. 

By 1846 Oregon City had seventy houses and some five hundred 
inhabitants. In that year the Oregon Spectator began publication, mem- 
bers of the Masonic fraternity organized the first lodge west of the 
Missouri River, and the first American flag owned by the provisional 
government was raised. 

Oregon City was profoundly shocked by news of the Whitman mas- 
sacre at Waiilatpu in 1847; the surviving women and children were 
brought to the town by Peter Skene Ogden, Hudson's Bay agent. The 
Oregon capital sent men to fight in the resulting Cayuse War, and the 
murderers of the Whitman party were subsequently tried in Oregon 
City, sentenced to death, and hanged. In January, 1848, Joe Meek, a 
colorful character, left Oregon City to carry the request of the provi- 
sional legislature for territorial status to Washington, and returned in 
March, 1849, with the newly appointed territorial governor, Joseph 
Lane. The city was made territorial capital and remained so until 1852, 
when the seat of government was removed to Salem. 

Oregon City's modern industrial life dates from 1864, when a woolen 
mill was established by two brothers named Jacobs. Two years later, the 
erection of the first paper mill on the Coast initiated development of the 
city's most important industry. In 1925 Oregon City adopted the com- 
mission form of government and appointed a city manager. 

Several well-known literary figures are associated with the city at 
the falls. First in time was the host of the Main Street Hotel, Sidney 
Walter Moss, who wrote The Prairie Flower, a tale of Oregon and 
the Oregon Trail. Edwin Markham, the poet, was born here in 1852, 
but removed to California with his mother when he was a small boy. 
Eva Emery Dye, resident of the city for more than forty years, in 
McLoughlin and Old Oregon, The Conquest, and The Soul of 
America, used the historical background of the state as material for her 
books. A resident for a time was Ella Higginson, author of stories, 
novels, and poems with an Oregon and Northwest background (see 
LITERATURE). 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

i. The SITE OF THE FIRST PROTESTANT CHURCH 
in the Oregon Country, SE. corner of 7th and Main Sts., is occupied 



194 OREGON 

by a store, on the west front of which is a bronze marker commemora- 
tive of the old Methodist church, dedicated in 1844. In the winter of 
1847 the provisional legislature met in the building. 

2. The SITE OF THE FIRST CAPITOL OF OREGON 
TERRITORY, SE. corner 6th and Main Sts., now occupied by a 
grocery store, is indicated by a bronze marker on the west wall. The 
capitol was a plain two-story building, which served after removal of 
the capital to Salem as the meeting place of the Masonic lodge, the Sons 
of Temperance, and the county court. 

3. The HAWLEY PULP AND PAPER PLANT (open on 
application at off ice) > S. end of Main St., on E. bank of Willamette 
River, manufactures print and wrapping paper. Organized in 1908, 
it affords employment for an average of one thousand workers. The site 
of the Oregon Spectator office, "the first newspaper issued in the Ameri- 
can territory west of the Rocky mountains" (see NEWSPAPERS 
AND RADIO), is designated by a bronze marker in the wall of the 
paper company's office. Printed first on February 5, 1846, the paper 
was published for less than a decade, but it strongly influenced the 
political and cultural life of the period. One of its earliest editors was 
George Law Curry, who later became governor of the territory. 

On the grounds of the plant was the old Main Street House, the 
first hotel of the city, a cabin measuring fourteen by seventeen feet. 
Later the hotel was established in a two-story building on the southwest 
corner of 3rd and Main Streets and advertised in rhyme: 

"To all, high or low, 
Please down with your dust, 
For he's no friend of ours 
That would ask us to trust." 

The proprietor, Sidney Walter Moss, who platted the town, was one 
of the most colorful of early Oregon characters. Coming to the North- 
west in 1842, he was Oregon's first recognized novelist; built the first 
jail ; paid from his own pocket for a free primary school ; was at various 
times assessor and clerk of the circuit court; and conducted, beside his 
hotel, a store, a ferryboat, and a livery stable. He was convicted and 
fined for selling brandy to the Indians, and it is said that he would 
rather fight than eat. It was his custom to stride up and down the street 
ringing a cowbell to call his customers to dinner. 

4. The SITE OF THE McLOUGHLIN MANSION, Main 
St. between 2nd and 3rd Sts., is occupied by a paper mill. The old 
house was built and occupied by the "White-Headed Eagle" after his 
resignation as factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and later was 
moved to McLoughlin Park. Across the street, where a woolen mill 
now stands, was the stockade where Dr. McLoughlin, while factor, 
safeguarded company stores. 

5. On the riverbank W. of Water St. and S. of 5th St., is the 
SITE OF THE OLD MINT. Early settlers were handicapped by 



OREGON CITY 195 

coin scarcity, substituting as media of exchange "beaver skins, wheat, 
bills, drafts and orders, gold dust, and silver coins of Mexico and Peru." 
After the discovery of gold in California, dust and nuggets were brought 
into Oregon. Merchants allowed only eleven dollars an ounce whereas 
eighteen dollars was the current value. The provisional government 
authorized the striking of coins just before news was received of terri- 
torial recognition. The need for a medium of exchange was so great 
that this "mint" was built and operated by a private company of pioneers 
from February to September, 1849. The Oregon Exchange Company 
produced $58,000 worth of $5 and $10 pieces from dies and a press 
constructed from old wagon irons. These pieces, known as "beaver 
money," because each was stamped with the likeness of a beaver, dis- 
appeared from circulation as federal currency grew plentiful. An orig- 
inal ten-dollar coin, the two dies, and the rollers of the press are in 
the possession of the Oregon Historical Society at Portland. 

6. The SITE OF THE BIRTHPLACE OF EDWIN MARK- 
HAM, Water St. between 5th and 6th Sts., is a vacant lot, near the 
middle of the block. The house, a small yellow cottage, was destroyed 
in the flood of 1861. The poet Edwin Markham, best known for "The 
Man with the Hoe," was born here on April 23, 1852. His father, 
Samuel Markham, was captain of an emigrant train that came west 
from Michigan, arriving in Oregon City in 1847; he was later a 
farmer and hunter, and "a good provider." "I remember vividly the 
Willamette Falls at our back door and the Indians that paraded into 
my mother's store," Markham told his biographer, William L. Stidger. 
"My mother [Elizabeth Winchell Markham] not only kept a store to 
help make a living but she also planted the apple seeds she had brought 
from Michigan. . . . She was also the poet laureate of the new settle- 
ment, the earliest woman writer recorded in Oregon. Her verse cele- 
brated all the local affairs, such as the arrival of ships, the deaths of 
pioneers, the flight of strange birds." In his California the Wonderful 
Markham recalls his "first years, picking up pebbles on the shore, 
watching the white waterfalls, gazing on the high mysterious bluffs 
that look down upon the young city." He remembered Dr. John Mc- 
Loughlin, "six-feet-six, handsome and impressive," and wrote in the 
foreword to Richard Montgomery's The White-Headed Eagle: "I was 
taken into the cathedral in Oregon City when the good man was lying 
in state . . . some strong man lifted me onto his shoulder that I might 
look down upon the face of the great dead ... it was my first encounter 
with Death." Edwin was five at the time. 

7. The MASONIC TEMPLE, Main St. between 7th and 8th 
Sts., is headquarters of the oldest Masonic Lodge west of the Missouri 
River. It was organized in 1846 after the preliminary meeting called in 
the first issue of the Oregon Spectator. The charter was brought across 
the plains by ox-team. 

8. The CLACKAMAS COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 8th and 
Main Sts., of modern design, is constructed of reinforced concrete faced 
with tcrra-cotta. In the county clerk's office is the original plat of San 




OREGON CITY POINTS OF INTEREST 

1. The Site of the First Protes- 4. The Site of the McLougft 

tant Church 

2. The Site of the First Capitol 

of Oregon Territory 



j. The Havvley Pulp and Paper 
Plant 



Mansion 

5. The Site of the Old Mint 

6. The Site of the Birthplace 

Edwin Markham 

7. The Masonic Temple 






a a.ac^iie 





9T 


' T . J 




; 1 


D 


CANT ST. 







OREGON CIXY 



1940 



The Clackamas County Court- 1 1. McLoughlin Park 

^ house ^ 12. Albion Post House 

St. John's Roman Catholic 13. Willamette Falls Vista 

Church 14. Mountain View Cemetery 
'Fhe Municipal Elevator 



198 OREGON 

Francisco, filed in 1850, when Oregon City was the only seat of Ameri- 
can government on the Pacific Coast. 

9. Beneath ST. JOHN'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 
loth and Water Sts., are buried Dr. John McLoughlin and his wife, 
Margaret. The headstones are set in the front wall not far from roth 
Street. 

10. The MUNICIPAL ELEVATOR (free), 7th St. and Rail- 
road Ave., is the city's oddest structure. It is a slender perpendicular 
steel framework tower with an enclosed elevator shaft, from the top 
of which a horizontal steel bridge leads to the first residential terrace 
above the business section. The elevator lifts pedestrians ninety feet up 
the steep face of the cliff. 

11. In McLOUGHLIN PARK, 7th and Center Sts., facing the 
cliff overlooking the business district and the River, stands the old 
McLOUGHLIN MANSION (open 9-5 daily), a rectangular two- 
story structure with simple dignified lines, characteristic of early Oregon 
architecture. Dr. McLoughlin built the house in 1845-46 and occupied 
it until his death on September 3, 1857. The lumber used in construc- 
tion was cut locally, but doors and windows were shipped around the 
Horn from the east. Removed from its original site in 1909, the five- 
bay, hip roofed, clapboarded house was restored by the Daughters of the 
American Revolution. The upper sashes of the windows have sixteen 
small panes, the lower ones twelve an unusual arrangement. A short 
flight of wooden steps leads up to a plain porch. About the massive 
front door are narrow side lights and transoms, providing light for 
the central hall. A stairway rises in a graceful curve at the rear of the 
hall, and on both sides of the hall are large living rooms. At each end 
of the house is a wide fireplace and mantel. 

Dr. McLoughlin (1784-1857) was appointed chief factor in the 
Columbia River department of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1824. 
From his headquarters in Vancouver the tall, white-haired gentleman 
with the cane ruled as a kindly despot over the whole Columbia country. 
He ruthlessly but openly crushed competition in the fur trade, was 
generous to destitute immigrants, enforced prohibition among the Indian 
tribes, and preserved peace between the Indians and whites. Under 
orders from the company he established the first settlement at Oregon 
City, and moved here when he resigned as factor in 1845. His British 
citizenship, Catholic faith in a Protestant country, and comparative 
wealth prevented his election to public office. He became an American 
citizen in 1851, and spent his embittered latter years operating his store 
and mills, and attempting to collect from those who had obtained seed 
and supplies from him while he was chief factor. Although she was 
part Indian, McLoughlin always treated his wife with great deference. 
More than once he rebuked a colonist for "y ur manners, before ladies" 
when he failed to remove his hat in her presence. 

North of the mansion is the BARCLAY HOUSE (private), built 
by Dr. Forbes Barclay in 1846, on the site of the present Masonic 
Temple. It was moved to the park in 1937. Dr. Barclay was surgeon 



OREGON CITY 199 

at Fort Vancouver and a close friend of Dr. McLoughlin. The house 
of Cape Cod colonial architecture is used as the caretaker's residence. 
^ 12. The ALBION POST HOUSE (private), 1115 Washington 
St. (now called the Cochran House), was built in 1852, and is a fine 
example of the Cape Cod colonial type of architecture. An old elm in 
the yard was brought as a sapling from New England by a sea captain 
and given to Rev. George H. Atkinson, pastor of the First Congrega- 
tional church and first territorial superintendent of education. 

13. WILLAMETTE FALLS VISTA, W. end of S. 2nd St. 
between the Pacific Highway and the river, is a small parking space and 
observation walk affording an excellent view of the falls. Although most 
of the water has been impounded to furnish power for the mills, the falls 
remain one of the most interesting features of the city. The annual 
migration of lamprey eels attracts much attention. The eels begin coming 
up the Willamette in April, the main run arriving at Oregon City from 
May to July. When the mills are closed on Sundays, the water is higher, 
and large numbers of eels work up among the rocks to get over the 
ledge. When the mills open on Monday the withdrawal of water kills 
thousands of the lampreys. To prevent pollution, a campaign of ex- 
termination has been waged against the eels. Fires are built below the 
falls where the dead eels are burned. 

14. MOUNTAIN VIEW CEMETERY, E. end of Hilda St., 
is the burial place of Peter Skene Ogden, early Oregon fur trader and 
Dr. McLoughlin's successor at Fort Vancouver. Left of the entrance 
stands a granite monument to his memory. Ogden, who led fur-trading 
expeditions into all parts of the Oregon country, rescued the women 
survivors of the Whitman massacre from their Indian captors. Ogden, 
Utah, is named for him. The oldest headstone in the cemetery marks the 
grave of Dr. Forbes Barclay. Sidney Walter Moss is also buried there. 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

Marylhurst School for Girls, 3 m. ; Oswego Lake and old Iron Smelter, 4 m. 
(tee TOUR 2). Clackamas River, fishing stream, 2 m. 



IIIHIIIIiailHIIIIIIIIDIIIIIIIIIIIiaillllllllM 



Pendleton 



Railroad Station: Main and Railroad Sts., for Union Pacific Railroad, and North- 
ern Pacific Railway. 

Bus Station: 500 Main St., for Union Pacific Stages. 
Airport: 2 m. W. on US 30, then R. 0.5 m., for United Airlines; taxi, $i. 
Taxis: Minimum charge, 25C. 

Accommodations: Four hotels; auto camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, Elks Temple, Court and Garden Sts. 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Civic theater in Round-Up Park; two 

motion picture houses. 

Tennis: Municipal Tennis Courts, E. Webb and Clay Sts., free. 

Swimming: Natatorium, Round-Up Park, free. 

Golf: Pendleton Country Club, W. end Raley St., 9 holes, greens fee, 5oc Mon.- 

Fri., $i Sat. and Sun. 

Annual Events: The Pendleton Round-Up, mid-September. 

PENDLETON (1,070 alt., 6,621 pop.), seat of Umatilla County 
and home of the famous Pendleton Round-Up, is the trading center 
for an extensive grain, sheep, and cattle area. Curving between folded 
hills, the Umatilla River flows through the city, dividing it into tw r o 
unequal sections. Often beaver and muskrats can be seen playing in 
the stream just below the busy city streets. North of the river the hills 
rise abruptly from the water's edge, bringing to a quick terminus the 
well-paved streets that for a short distance climb the precipitous slopes. 
Residences, shadowed by rows of locust trees, overlook the business 
district that occupies the flat on the opposite side of the river. The 
principal industries are concentrated along the eastern and southern 
edge of town. Wheatfields, invisible from the lower levels, stretch in 
every direction. Towering flour mills produce 2,000 barrels a day, and 
woolen mills manufacture the well-known Pendleton blankets. 

A few riders from the ranges and Indians from the reservation may 
be seen on the streets of Pendleton at any time of year, but as Round- 
Up time approaches the city takes on all the appearance of a typical 
cow town of the Old West. Then on the streets the familiar figures 
of an almost lost romance appear in picturesque variety. Here they are 
again, chapped and booted cowboys, saddles creaking, spur-chains jing- 
ling; cowgirls in fringed buckskin riding costumes; Indians from the 
nearby Umatilla Reservation, blanketed and moccasined, the bright- 
shawled squaws bearing papooses strapped to their backs. Mingled 
with them are hawkers of souvenirs and strangers from far and near. 

The Round-Up, a civic enterprise first produced in 1910 and an 



PENDLETON 2OI 

annual event since 1912, attracts thousands of visitors during three 
days of mid-September. Railroads run special excursion trains, on which 
celebrants eat and sleep while the Round-Up is in progress, and private 
homes are thrown open to accommodate visitors when other facilities 
prove inadequate. Profits from the enterprise are spent upon public 
improvements. 

Charles Wellington Furlong, in Let 'er Buck, a book about the 
Pendleton Round-Up, titled with its slogan, gives a picture of the 
crowd, including cowboys "outfitting in the high-grade shops of the 
city, which carry for this occasion particularly gala-colored shirts of 
sheening silk or rich velvet, and studded on collar, front and forearm 
with pearl buttons as flat and big as dollars, and kerchiefs which would 
make any self-respecting rainbow pale with envy. On the corner a big- 
sombreroed, swarthy Mexican puffs silently on his cigarillo; moccasin- 
footed Umatilla Indians pigeon-toe along, trailed by heavy-set papoose- 
bearing squaws and beautiful daughters, pausing before the allurements 
in the display windows. Among the fancy and useful objects, naturally 
the beautiful blankets and shawls make the greatest appeal not only to 
the passing Indian woman, but to the white." 

The stadium in which the Round-Up contests are held is in the 
western edge of Pendleton beside the Old Oregon Trail. The contests 
include lassoing and trick and fancy rope work ; wild-horse, stage-coach, 
pony relay, and squaw races; steer-throwing and bulldogging; and the 
grand finale of all events, the bucking contests. Around three sides of the 
vast arena stretch the grandstands and bleachers. Across the arena knee 
to knee, sits a long line of cowboys, cowgirls, and Indians, mounted on 
some of the best stock of the range, awaiting their turn to participate in 
the stirring contests. To the left rise the Indian bleachers, and beyond, 
toward the river, are the steer and horse corrals and the white-topped 
tepees of the Indians. 

Contestants from California to Canada take part in the numerous 
events, re-enacting the daily toil and the infrequent pageantry of the 
Old West. Stage coaches and prairie schooners parade against the vivid 
background of brilliantly shirted and kerchiefed cowboys and bright- 
robed Indians. The barbaric regalia of the 2,000 Indians, cherished for 
this annual display, is exhibited with a true sense of showmanship by 
descendants of the tribes that once harried the wagon trains. War- 
bonnets decked with eagle feathers, costumes and robes of finest buck- 
skin or woven of brilliant wool and decorated with gorgeous scroll- 
work of beads and elk teeth a million dollars' worth of finery flash 
in the sun as the warriors go through the intricate maneuvers of the 
war dance. These Indians come from all parts of the Pacific Northwest, 
to dance their native dances and recreate the war scenes that were once 
a grim reality to some members of the tribes still living. 

Prizes awarded in the various contests are the gold and silver Roose- 
velt Trophy, valued at $2,500, and presented by the Hotel Roosevelt 
in New York City in commemoration of Theodore Roosevelt's interest 
in cow camp and cattle trail; the Sam Jackson Trophy, which honors 



202 OREGON 

the founder of the Portland (Oregoi.) Journal, for many years a citizen 
of Pendleton; a silver-mounted saddle, made by Hamley and Company 
of Pendleton, one of the oldest saddleries in the West; and the Police 
Gazette belt. 

As the pageantry of the stadium brings again to life the ancient 
activities of the ranch and open range, Happy Canyon revivifies the 
hectic nights of the cow town. Here in the heart of Pendleton has 
been constructed a spot where everyone can participate in a period of 
frontier fun. Along Main Street of Happy Canyon rise the false fronts 
of saloons, dance halls, a hotel, a millinery shop, a Chinese laundry, and 
several other emporiums of trade. Indians, pioneers, cowboys, and spec- 
tators mingle in a realistic revival of the old days when men were 
"cow-pokes" and cattle were "ornery beef critters" ; they dance, put on 
Indian battles and frontier horseplay. 

On the last day of the celebration is held the Westward Ho ! parade, 
a pageant of the Old West on the march. Led by the mounted cowboy 
band, officials of the Round-Up, hundreds of kerchiefed cowboys and 
cowgirls riding four abreast, hunters, prospectors, packers, mules, ox- 
carts, prairie schooners, stage coaches, floats depicting pioneer and 
Indian life, and lastly the gorgeously costumed Indians in a kaleidos- 
copic mingling of color pass in review. 

The site of Pendleton was on the Oregon Trail, and emigrant trains 
rattled over the townsite for twenty years before the Umatilla River 
country was recognized as good wheat land, in the early sixties. But 
land was cheap even then, for Moses E. Goodwin traded a team of 
horses to a squatter for 160 acres just below the mouth of Wild Horse 
Creek on the Umatilla River. Goodwin operated a ferry and ran an 
inn at which he entertained "an occasional wayfarer." The only other 
house on the Goodwin tract was occupied by G. W. Bailey. 

Creation of Umatilla County in 1862 gave Goodwin and Bailey an 
opportunity to exercise their genius toward making the farm into a 
county seat town. Marshall Station was the first county seat, but the 
election of 1864 to select a permanent county seat eclipsed the presiden- 
tial election in local interest. Umatilla County then included almost 
all of northeastern Oregon, and agricultural interests wanted a central 
location for the transaction of their legal business. Umatilla City, or 
Landing, at the junction of the Umatilla and Columbia rivers, won the 
contest, and the county seat was moved there in 1865. Goodwin erected 
a toll bridge the following year. 

Agitation for a new county seat was not long in coming, and Moses 
Goodwin and G. W. Bailey were in the thick of it. The state legisla- 
ture in 1868 provided for a general election in which two choices were 
possible: "the present location of Umatilla Landing as one candidate 
and the Upper Umatilla, somewhere between the mouths of Wild 
Horse and Birch creeks, as the other." In the elections of that year 
Bailey was chosen county judge, and w r hen public sentiment showed 
itself in favor of a change in county seats he and Goodwin assumed 
leadership of a movement to have Goodwin's farm declared the county 



PENDLETON 2O3 

seat. Goodwin's offer was accepted by the commissioners after a few 
weeks' "search," and the records were removed to Judge Bailey's house 
in 1869. On his recommendation the new "town" was named Pendleton, 
for George Hunt Pendleton, Democratic candidate for President in 
1868; Pendleton was popular among agricultural people in the West 
because they regarded his proposal to pay the principal on government 
bonds in greenbacks instead of gold as a measure of relief from taxation. 

Umatilla City promptly brought suit against Pendleton for remov- 
ing county records from a safe place to a farmhouse, and the new 
"county seat" was required to give them up until suitable housing could 
be arranged. Moses Goodwin and Judge Bailey provided most of the 
funds for a new courthouse, which was built in record time. 

In 1870 Goodwin and Judge Bailey had the farm surveyed into blocks 
and lots, reserving two and a half acres for public buildings. They 
offered the lots at reasonable prices to induce quick settlement, but the 
town grew slowly at first. Pendleton's earliest newspaper, the weekly 
East Oregonian, was started in 1875. 

The people of Pendleton had anxious moments during the Nez Perce 
Indian War of 1877, for Chief Joseph, the Nez Perce leader, had 
married a Umatilla woman from the reservation adjoining the town, 
and it was feared that the Umatilla people might take up the cause of 
their relative. There were several reports that Joseph was coming to 
raid the town, and the Indian agent for the Umatilla reservation called 
several councils in Pendleton. He succeeded in convincing the Umatillas 
that it was best "not to get mixed with Chief Joseph's rebellion." The 
town felt safer after General O. O. Howard and his troops came into 
the area. Howard went in pursuit of the Nez Perce chieftain, who 
executed one of the most brilliant i,4OO-mile retreats known in history, 
ending with his capture by General Nelson A. Miles forty miles south 
of the Canadian line in Montana. Chief Joseph, who was attempting 
to protect Nez Perce rights to the Wallowa Valley, promised by a 
treaty in 1855, was sent to Indian Territory. 

The town was incorporated in 1880, and at the end of another four 
years more room was needed for expansion. By a special act of Congress 
640 acres were taken from the Umatilla Reservation adjoining the 
original plot, and were made into a new subdivision. Pendleton suffered 
severe floods in 1880 and 1882, after which levees were built along 
the river. 

During the seventies and eighties Pendleton was a center for the 
eastern Oregon cattle country. Herds were assembled here and driven 
across the mountains into Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana. The cattle 
drives were lonely and hazardous ventures, and to the cowboys who 
followed the weary cattle columns for many arid miles, the friendly 
town was an oasis in a desert land. They raced their cayuses down the 
dust-deep streets, clinked their spurs as they strode with swaggering 
gait on the board walks, or tilted glasses of "red-eye" above the scarred 
and tarnished bar of the Last Chance saloon. 

In 1889, when the railroad reached Pendleton, "the surrounding 



2O4 OREGON 

region was still in the process of change from cattle to wheat country. 
The little town of three thousand had twenty-seven saloons and there 
was wide open gambling. 

Two great 5res, in 1893 and 1895, burned many of the original 
wooden buildings, and by the turn of the century most of the local 
structures were of brick or stone. Church schools, meantime, provided 
high school or "academy" education for local youth until after 1900. 

At the time of the World War a troop of cowboy cavalry was re- 
cruited at Pendleton, under the captaincy of Lee Caldwell, a great 
rider of bucking horses. Troop D, 3rd Oregon Cavalry, was later 
transferred to the I48th Field Artillery, and saw service at Chateau 
Thierry, St. Mihiel, Belleau Wood, and the Argonne. They were cited 
once by American military officials and twice by the French. 

Pendleton as the center of an extensive trading area, has a large 
business section in comparison to its population. Local industries include 
flour mills, foundries, machine shops, planing mills and creameries. 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

1. TIL TAYLOR PARK, E. Court and Alta Sts., is named for 
Tillman D. Taylor, former sheriff of Umatilla County, killed in 1920 
while resisting a jailbreak. The park was laid out and landscaped 
as a setting for the TILLMAN D. TAYLOR MONUMENT, gift of a host 
of friends throughout the Pacific Northwest, which was unveiled 
in 1929. An officer of wide reputation, during the eighteen years of his 
career Sheriff Taylor captured hundreds of criminals, including des- 
peradoes of the most vicious type, without killing any of them. An un- 
erring marksman, he shot only to disable. Taylor met his death while 
attempting to prevent the escape of four prisoners. He was killed with 
his own gun, which fell out of the holster as he grappled with one of 
the men he surprised in his office where they were searching for weapons. 
While the sheriff was attempting to subdue one prisoner, another picked 
up the fallen gun and shot him through the heart. The murderers 
escaped into the hills but a posse of Indians and white men took up the 
trail and recaptured them. In a dramatic appeal W. R. "Jinks" Taylor, 
brother of the slain man, prevented an infuriated mob from lynching 
the slayers, who were legally hanged thereafter at the state peniten- 
tiary. The monument, a bronze equestrian statue of the sheriff, rises 
from a mirror-pool flanked by lily ponds. It is the work of A. Phimister 
Proctor. 

2. The COUNTY COURTHOUSE, Court St. between College 
and Vincent Sts., a square, two-story concrete-covered brick building 
with a central clock tower, was erected in 1889, replacing the original 
building (moved to a site on Clay Street). A monument on the lawn 
marks the site of the first school in Pendleton, opened in 1870. 

3. HAMLEY AND COMPANY SADDLERY (open 8-5 week- 
days), 126-135 E. Court St., is an internationally known manufactory 
of fine saddles and harness. Starting in 1905 with a force of two workers 



FENDLETON 2O5 

the establishment now has a personnel of thirty-four employes. The 
company presents silver-mounted saddles to winners of various events 
in the Pendleton Round-Up. 

4. The PENDLETON WOOLEN MILLS (open 8-5 week- 
days) , Court and Benefit Sts., manufacturers Pendleton blankets in 
Indian designs, rugs, and wearing apparel. Although the mill is com- 
paratively, small, a two-story structure covering a half-block, it is one 
of the most important manufacturing establishments of the town, sup- 
plying stores in Portland and other cities of the Northwest. It was 
started as a scouring mill to save the expense of shipping raw wool in 
grease to New England manufactories. The firm produces almost a 
million pounds of woolen goods annually, and employs ninety people. 

5. The CIVIC CENTER, between Ann, Aura, Alta and Webb 
Sts., occupies two blocks. Here are the junior high school and gym- 
nasium and the Vert Memorial Building, all of modern brick construc- 
tion, completed in 1937. The VERT MEMORIAL BUILDING (open 9-5 
weekdays, catalogue available), houses a large collection of Indian relics 
and other western curios. There is also in the building a civic auditorium 
seating 1,200. Architects of the center were George H. Jones and 
Harold P. Marsh of Portland. 

6. PIONEER PARK, Jackson St. between Bush and Madison 
Sts., was a cemetery in pioneer days, and many old graves and tomb- 
stones remain. However, most of the area is now given over to a chil- 
dren's playground, a wading pool, and a municipal bandstand. 

7. ROUND-UP PARK, W. edge of city on W. Court St., has an 
arena and quarter-mile track surrounded by grandstands and bleachers 
seating 40,000 spectators. Also in the park are the Municipal Nata- 
torium and an OPEN AIR THEATER, the civic drama center, with a stage 
of natural basalt upon which community plays and pageants are enacted. 

In 1928 the Roosevelt Trophy was won for the third time by Bob 
Crosby which entitled him to be called the world's champion cowboy. 
The $5,000 Sam Jackson trophy, a replica of A. Phimister Proctors' 
The Buckaroo, which has replaced the Roosevelt Trophy, won perma- 
nently by Crosby, has been won twice by Everett Bowman. Other cow- 
boys who have won fame at the Round-Up are Jackson Sundown, 
nephew of the Indian Chief Joseph, champion all-around cowboy for 
1916, and Lee Caldwell, champion for 1915. Caldwell rode three of 
Pendleton's worst buckers, Two Step, Old Long Tom, and Spitfire, 
in one day. Hoot Gibson and Art Acord, movie start, participated 
in the Round-Up of 1912. 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

Eastern Oregon State Hospital, 2 m. ; Umatilla Indian Reservation, 5 m. ; Emi- 
grant Hill (panoramic view of wheatfields and mountains), 10 m. ; Bingham 
Springs, 26 m.; Emigrant Springs State Park, 27.5 m. (tee TOUR i); McKay 
Dam, 5 m. (see TOUR 5). 



imiiniiniHiiinmmiiimmiimimmmnrmmHuiinnmiiim 



Portland 



Railroad Stations: Union Station, NW. 6th Ave. and Johnson Sts., for Southern 
Pacific Lines, Union Pacific R. R M Northern Pacific Ry., Great Northern Ry. 
and Spokane, Portland and Seattle Ry. SW. ist Ave. and Alder St., for Port- 
land to Gresham, and Oregon City Lines (electric interurban). 
Bus Stations: Union Stage Terminal, SW. Taylor St. between 5th and 6th Aves., 
for Greyhound Lines, Interstate Transit Lines, Mt. Hood Stages, North Coast 
Transportation Co., Oregon Motor Stages, Washington Motor Coach System. 
Airports: Swan Island Municipal Airport, 4.5 m. N. of city center, via Broad- 
way Bridge, Interstate Ave., and Greeley Cut-off, for United Airlines; Taxi, 
5oc, time 10 min. New municipal airport, (ready for use in the summer of 1940) 
at NE. Columbia Boulevard and 4716 St., supersedes Swan Island. 
Taxis: Twenty-five cents for first % m., ice for each */? m. thereafter; IDC for 
each extra passenger. 
Street Cars and Busses: Basic fare ice. 

Street Numbers: Burnside St. divides the city into N. and S. and the Willamette 
River into E. and W. districts. Street and Avenue addresses are NE. for the 
section N. of Burnside and E. of the river except a triangular piece between 
Williams Ave. and the Willamette River and N. city boundary which is desig- 
nated as N. SE. numbers are E. of the river and S. of Burnside ; NW. and SW. 
for the regions W. of the river and N. or S. of Burnside St. Streets are num- 
bered N. and S. from Burnside St. and E. and W. from the Willamette River. 
Traffic Regulations: Speed limit 25 m. p. h. No U turns permitted in metro- 
politan area. Downtown streets have parking meters. Only one-way Streets: 
SW. Park and SW. 9th Ave. S. of Stark to Main St. 

Accommodations: One hundred hotels; tourist courts, many with trailer facilities, 
on main highways leading into the city. 

Information Service: Portland Chamber of Commerce, 824 SW. 5th Ave.; 
Oregon State Motor Association, 1200 SW. Morrison St.; P.C.C.A., 1004 SW. 
Taylor St.; Motor Club, 139 SW. Broadway; Multnomah Hotel, SW. 4th Ave. 
and Pine St.; and Benson Hotel, SW. Broadway and Oak St. 

Radio Stations: KALE (1300 kc.) ; KBPS (1420 kc.) ; KEX (1160 kc.) ; KGW 
(620 kc.); KOIN (940 kc.); KXL (1420 kc.) ; KWJJ (1060 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Municipal Auditorium, SW. 3rd Ave. and 
Clay St., concerts and important public addresses; 50 motion picture houses. 
Baseball: Portland Ball Park (Pacific Coast League), NW. 24th Ave. and 
Vaughn St. 

Swimming: Mount Scott Tank, SE. 73rd Ave. and 55th St.; Creston Pool, SE. 
Powell Boulevard and 47th St.; Montavilla Tank, NE. 82nd and Glisan St.; 
Sellwood Tank, SE. yth Ave. and Miller St.; U.S. Grant Tank, NE. 3$rd and 
Thompson St. ; Peninsula Tank, Albina Ave. and Portland Boulevard ; Columbia 
Tank, Lombard and Woolsey Sts.; Jantzen Beach (commercial), Hayden Island 
near Interstate Bridge, entrance to park ice, bathing fee additional 300. 
Golf: Eastmoreland Municipal Links, 2714 SE. Bybee Ave., 18 holes, 300 for 
nine holes; Rose City Municipal Golf Course, NE. 7ist St. near Sandy Boule- 
vard, 18 holes, 3oc for nine holes; West Hills Municipal Links, at Canyon Road, 
9 holes, 300 for nine holes. 



PORTLAND 2O7 

Tennis: U. S. Grant Park, NE. 3jrd Ave. and Thompson St.; Washington Park 
entrance at W. end of SW. Park Place; Mount Tabor Park, SE. 68th St. off 
Belmont Ave.; Irving Park, yth Ave. and Fremont St. All free. 
Boating: Oregon Yacht Club (private), at Oaks Park; Portland Yacht Club 
(private), on Columbia River at Faloma. 

Annual Events: Winter Sports Carnival, Skiing Contest, Government Camp, 
Mount Hood, 4 days in Jan.; Rose Festival, 2nd week in June; Portland Phil- 
harmonic Orchestra, summer concerts, Multnomah Civic Stadium, July and Aug. ; 
dog races, Multnomah Civic Stadium, three months in summer; Fleet Week, 
July or Aug.; International Livestock Show, Sept. 

PORTLAND (30 alt., 301,815 pop.), largest city in Oregon, is on 
both banks of the Willamette River near its confluence with the Co- 
lumbia. It is a city of varied and extensive industrial output, with more 
than a thousand manufacturing establishments, employing 25,000 work- 
ers at an annual wage of almost $50,000,000. Most of the factories are 
run by electricity, and the city is largely free of soot and smoke. The 
principal manufactured products are flour and cereals, lumber and mill- 
work, canned and preserved fruits and vegetables, woolen goods, meats, 
butter and cheese, foundry ware, and dozens of lesser products. One of 
the Nation's important fresh-water ports and a port of entry, Portland 
is terminus for fifty-seven steamship lines, and is the wholesale and re- 
tail distribution point for a wide agricultural and lumbering region. 

From Council Crest or from the heights behind Washington Park, 
the city is a vista of green hillsides, with gardens and terraced courts, 
and dwellings framed in foliage. Beyond lies the business district, while 
in the middle distance gleams the Willamette, crossed by bridges, and 
busy with shipping. East of the river long residential avenues reach 
away to Mount Scott, Mount Tabor and Rocky Butte, and the snowy 
peaks of Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams, and Mount Hood rise 
on the northern and eastern horizons. 

The older part of the city, west of the Willamette River, occupies 
a comparatively narrow strip of bench land along the water's edge, 
backed by hills that extend toward the Coast Range, cutting the metrop- 
olis off from the fertile Tualatin Valley. These hills are segmented by 
the numerous winding drives and streets of Westover, King's Heights, 
and Portland Heights, culminating in Council Crest at an altitude of 
nearly 1,100 feet above the business section. The business area is the 
oldest section of the city, and unsuited to the demands of modern busi- 
ness. The founders of the town provided no alleys, and trucks must 
load and unload at sidewalk gratings. The streets are short and nar- 
row, many buildings occupy a block or half-black, and the effect is one 
of congestion. 

Four-fifths of the city a spacious area of recent development lies 
east and north of the Willamette. Of the five divisions of the city, 
only the northwest is relatively undeveloped. However, industrial and 
manufacturing establishments are being built in this section between 
Vaughn Street and the Linnton district. Just as old Portland is con- 
fined by the Willamette and the neighboring heights, the north section 



2O8 OREGON 

St. Johns is restricted by the Willamette and the sloughs of the Co- 
lumbia. Many residences, however, are being built in the eastern and 
southeastern sections of the city and along the western slopes of the 
hills back of the city. The principal residential districts lie east of the 
Willamette River, and eight bridges connect them with the business 
section. 

The source of Portland's water supply is an isolated section on the 
northwest flank of Mount Hood, where a network of small streams 
flows into Bull Run Lake and Reservoir, and through huge pipe lines 
to the city. The water is so chemically pure that it need not be distilled 
for use in electric batteries and medical prescriptions, and is especially 
suited to the manufacture and dyeing of textiles. On many of the 
busiest corners are four-bracketed bronze drinking fountains presented 
to the city by the late Simon Benson, noted lumberman, because he 
believed that if plenty of good water were available his loggers would 
not consume so much alcoholic liquor while visiting the metropolis. 
Whatever the cause, business in Portland saloons fell off about thirty 
per cent immediately following installation of the fountains. 

Although there are several ethnic groups represented in Portland only 
the Chinese, living principally in a section on SW. 2nd and SW. 4th 
Avenues, extending from SW. Washington to W. Burnside Streets, have 
kept their national customs. Scandinavians, Germans, Russians, Italians, 
Japanese, Jews and English-speaking people from Great Britain, the 
Dominions, and Ireland, are fairly well scattered over the various sec- 
tions of the city. Portland negroes, comprising the balk of the negro 
population of the state, live mostly on the east bank of the Willamette 
River, where they have their churches and their own social and civic life. 

Chinook Indians were the first to use the site of Portland as a port. 
They found it a good place to tie up their canoes on trading trips 
between the Columbia and Willamette rivers, and cleared about an 
acre of ground gathering wood for their campfires. Captain William 
Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition is known to have reached the 
site of Portland in 1806. The possibilities here were noted by Captain 
John H. Couch in 1840, when he came from New England to investi- 
gate the prospects for a salmon fishery. "To this point," he told a 
fellow traveler, "I can bring any ship that can get into the mouth of 
the Great Columbia River." 

The first person who actually settled within the present corporate 
limits of Portland was Etienne Lucier, a French-Canadian, whose term 
of service had expired with the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1829 he 
built a small cabin on the east side of the river near the site of the 
present Doernbecher Furniture Company; he soon removed to French 
Prairie. In 1842 William Johnson, a British subject, settled in what is 
now known as South Portland, and built a cabin. In addition to small 
farming he manufactured and sold a liquid decoction known as "blue 
ruin" for which he was arrested and fined by the provisional court. 
He died in 1848 and his possessory rights passed with him. 

A 64O-acre tract on the west bank of the Willamette, part of the 



PORTLAND 2O9 

present business district, was claimed in 1844 by William Overton, a 
lanky Tennesseean who rowed ashore in an Indian canoe. The entire 
claim, except for the "cleared patch" around the landing, was covered 
with dense forest. Lacking the trifling sum of twenty-five cents required 
for filing his claim with the provisional government, he offered Amos 
L. Lovejoy, who had come to Oregon from Boston, a half interest in 
the claim if he would pay the filing fee. Lovejoy, considering the site 
ideal for a harbor town, paid the fee. They made a "tomahawk claim" 
by blazing trees, a method recognized on the frontier. 

Placing little faith in Lovejoy's town-building plan, Overton, who 
had intended to establish a homestead, traded his half-interest to Francis 
W. Pettygrove, a merchant from Portland, Maine, for $100 in goods 
and provisions. Lovejoy convinced Pettygrove of the soundness of his 
plans. By 1845, fur streets and sixteen blocks had been cleared and 
platted, but the founders were unable to agree on a name for the new 
town. Lovejoy wanted "Boston"; Pettygrove, "Portland." They tossed 
a coin, Pettygrove won, and the cluster of log cabins among the stumps 
was named Portland. Pettygrove erected a log store at the southeast 
corner of Front and Washington Streets in 1845, on the site where 
Overton had built his claim shack the year before, and built a wagon 
road westward to the hills. 

Two British officers, Captains Warre and Vavasour, visited Port- 
land in the winter of 1845-46 and reported: "Portland had only then 
received a name and its inhabitants were felling the trees from which 
their first homes were to be constructed and their primitive furniture 
was to be made. With such tools only as saw, augar, pole-ax, broad- 
ax, and adze, those men labored with zeal that atoned for want of 
better implements." 

James Terwilliger came with the emigrants of 1845, established a 
claim south of the Overton tract, and the following year built a black- 
smith shop. In this same year Daniel H. Lownsdale established the 
first tannery in the far Northwest. He tanned on a large scale, and 
turned out excellent leather, which he exchanged for raw hides, furs, 
wheat, or cash. Captain John H. Couch returned to Portland in 1845 
and selected a tract north of the Lovejoy-Petty grove claim. 

In the winter of 1845-46, Lovejoy sold his share of the claim to Ben- 
jamin Stark, and in 1848 Pettygrove sold his interest to Daniel Lowns- 
dale for $5,000 worth of hides and leather. The new proprietors added 
two partners, Stephen Coffin and W. W. Chapman, and formed the 
Townsite Promotion Company. Coffin established a canoe ferry in 
1848. When traffic was heavy he used a raft of canoes. An excerpt from 
a diary of that year says, "Portland now has two white houses and 
one brick and three wood-colored frame houses and a few cabins." 

John Waymire, a man of boundless energy and versatility, established 
Portland's first sawmill. His equipment consisted of an old whipsaw 
brought across the plains from Missouri, and two men to operate it. 
One stood on top of a log, raised on blocks, and pulled the saw up- 
ward; the other, in a pit beneath, pulled the saw downward and was 



2IO OREGON 

showered with sawdust at each stroke. Great labor was required to cut 
a few pieces of lumber, but Waymire's "sawmill" encouraged building 
activity. He also erected the first hotel, a double log cabin of Paul 
Bunyanesque proportions, where he "furnished meals and a hospitable 
place to spread blankets for the night." His team of Missouri oxen 
hitched to a lumbering wagon served as the first local transportation 
system. 

By 1850, the town had a population of 800. Churches and a school 
had been built; stores, boarding houses, and nearly 200 dwellings lined 
the streets. A steam sawmill was erected by W. P. Abrams and Cyrus 
A. Reed, and in December, 1850, the first copy of the Weekly Oregonian 
came from the Washington hand press owned and operated by Thomas 
Dryer. Portland replaced Oregon City as the largest city of the North- 
west. The California gold rush was then at its height, and Portland 
carried on a heavy trade with that state. Lumber and flour were shipped 
to California, and local merchants outfitted men joining the frenzied 
quest for California gold. 

First news of the gold discovery brought about an exodus of more 
than half the able-bodied men in Oregon merchants deserted their 
stores, workers left their shops; business was almost at a standstill. 
However, within a few months, there was a demand for all sorts of 
goods and food-stuffs at unbelievable prices. Those left at home often 
made more money than the gold seekers. The continued inflow of money 
in exchange for Oregon goods created a boom in Portland and the 
population rapidly increased. 

The city was incorporated and the first election held in 1851. Hugh 
D. O'Bryant, a native of Georgia, was elected mayor. A few days 
later the city council met and levied a tax of one-quarter of one per 
cent for municipal purposes. The voters at a special election authorized 
a tax to purchase a fire engine. At that time the forest came down to 
the river's edge except that the trees were cut from Front Avenue be- 
tween Jefferson and Burnside Streets. The stumps remained in the 
streets and were whitewashed so that pedestrians would not collide with 
them at night. 

In 1851, also, a free school was opened with twenty pupils. That 
the citizens were not all peaceful and law-abiding is attested by the 
fact that the first ordinance passed created the office of city marshal 
and that within two months the town council had requested the com 
mittee on public buildings to furnish estimates on the cost of a log jail 
A one-story building of hewn timber, 1 6 by 25 feet, was soon built. One 
of the first arrests after the city's incorporation was of one O.Travaillott 
for riding "at a furious rate through the Streets of the City of Portland 
to endanger life and property." The Portland-Tualatin Plains road wa 
planked, making a comparatively rich agricultural district accessible to 
Portland. There were almost daily arrivals of sailing vessels from San 
Francisco, besides a semi-monthly steamer service, between Portland 
and California points. By the spring of 1852 there were fourteen river 
steamers docking at the wharves of the city. 



PORTLAND 211 

The first brick building in Portland was erected in 1853 by W. S. 
Ladd, a young man from Vermont, who was twice elected mayor of 
Portland. The building, in a good state of preservation and now occu- 
pied by wholesale meat and produce merchants, still stands at 412 SW. 
Front Avenue. 

Trade was stimulated by the Indian wars of the 1850*8, for Portland 
outfitted most of the military forces. In February the town had one 
hundred stores and shops, and in October, 1858, the Oregonian declared 
with orotund gravity that the "Rubicon has been passed" and that 
Portland was entered on an era of expansion that could not be halted. 
The population, estimated in 1858 as 1,750, in 1860 had grown to 2,874. 

The original town had been extended to the south, covering present- 
day Multnomah Stadium area, which was known in 1862 as "Goose 
Hollow." Most of the women in this suburban settlement raised geese 
while their husbands hunted for gold or farmed. The flocks of geese 
became mixed and the "women not only pulled goose feathers, but pulled 
hair." The matter got into court, and Police Judge J. F. McCoy, unable 
to sort out the geese, made a Solomonic decision. He sent a deputy 
out to Goose Hollow to round up all the flocks and divide the geese 
equally among the complainants. He then closed the matter by threat- 
tening to incarcerate the "first woman to start another ruckus over 
geese." 

The discovery of gold in eastern Oregon and Idaho in the early 
i86o's resulted in heavy trading with inland camps and settlements. 
These were lively years in Portland. Tin-horn gamblers swarmed in 
Front Street shacks or operated their roulette and faro layouts in tents 
set up on vacant lots. The gold rush, however, soon ebbed, and during 
the Civil War years money was scarce. The city went into debt in 
1866, floating a $20,000 bond issue at 12 per cent interest. 

The salmon industry began to make headway in 1864. From boat- 
loads of fish at the wharf big ones were sold to hotel keepers at "two 
bits each, and smaller ones to family men at ten cents each." About 
1865 an Irishman named John Quinn started to cut up fish and sell it 
in more usable amounts, by the pound. Soon he inaugurated Portland's 
first food delivery service delivering fish from a basket. His wife, 
meantime, stayed behind the meat block, cutting and selling fish. A 
customer once asked Mrs. Quinn if she didn't get tired of her job. She 
replied, "Oh yes, it is not the most beautiful job, to be sure, but I am 
going to stay right here at this block until I make twenty thousand 
dollars, and then I'll quit and get myself the finest silk dress ever bought 
in this city." One day in 1868 Mrs. Quinn appeared in Vincent Cook's 
store and bought twenty yards of the finest goods he had. Cook, im- 
pressed with the Quinns' success, sold his store, went into the fish 
business and later into salmon canning, and made millions. 

A fire in 1872 destroyed three important city blocks with a loss esti- 
mated at half a million dollars. Inadequate fire-fighting equipment was 
blamed, and agitation began for an improved fire department. A second 
and greater fire in 1873 began at First and Salmon Streets and devas- 



212 OREGON 

tated twenty-two city blocks. Fire-fighting equipment was brought from 
Vancouver, Oregon City, Salem and Albany, to aid the local companies. 
Police rounded up all the Chinese available to relieve white citizens at 
the hand pumps. It was reported that the Chinese were held to their 
tasks by tying their queues to the pump handles. Domestic pigeons 
circled above the flames until, exhausted, they fell. 

Wallis Nash describes Portland in Oregon-. There and Back in 1877: 
"Portland seemed to us to be nearly as great a place as San Francisco. 
The approach to it is of the same kind, in so far as that the railway 
lands us on the eastern side of the Willamette, and that a big ferry- 
boat transfers us across the river to the city. The city rises from the 
water's edge, and covers what used to be pine-clad hills. The depth 
of water allows the grain-ships to lie alongside the wharves to load, 
and there is a busy scene with the river steamboats and tugs and ferry- 
boats passing and repassing. The original wooden shanties are being 
rapidly replaced with great structures of stone and brick. Warehouses 
are full of grain, wool, skins, canned salmon, and meat; logs and 
planks of pine and cedar are stacked in high piles. . . ." 

In 1883 the final railroad line was completed between Portland and 
the eastern states. The city, playing host to Henry Villard and his 
party, celebrated the event with a parade and a general illumination of 
the town with tallow candles. Following completion of the railroad 
business increased, money was more plentiful, and manufacturing was 
stimulated. Spluttering gas and oil lamps were replaced by electric arc 
and incandescent lamps. Late in the i88o's franchises were granted for 
street-railway lines, the lines to be run by "horse, mule, cable, or elec- 
tric." The death knell of the ferry boat was sounded in 1887, when 
the Morrison Street bridge was built across the Willamette. 

In 1891, Portland annexed the towns of East Portland and Albina, 
the merger adding 20,000 to the city's population. In the first decade 
of the twentieth century the population increased from 90,426 to 
207,314; home building was at its height; land prices soared. This 
tremendous growth was due in part to the Alaska gold rush, and in 
part to the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, held in Portland 
in 1905, which brought the city three million visitors and many new 
residents. The Federal government brought its huge exhibit from St. 
Louis, where the year before it had been a part of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition. Foreign countries as well as the states of the Union 
were well represented. 

With its ebullient, untamed and sometimes giddy youth outgrown, 
Portland found the time and the desire to improve itself. Almost coinci- 
dent with the first schools and churches, the Multnomah County 
Library Association was organized. Since 1915 many writers have ap- 
peared in Portland. Among them are A. R. Wet j en, Anne Shannon 
Monroe, Claire Warner Churchill, Mary Jane Carr, James Stevens, 
Stewart H. Holbrook, Sheba Hargreaves, Philip H. Parrish, Richard 
G. Montgomery, Hazel Hall, Ethel Romig Fuller, Ada Hastings 
Hedges, Eleanor Allen, Mable Holmes Parsons, Howard McKinley 



PORTLAND 213 

Corning, Richard L. Neuberger, Ernest Haycox, Robert Ormond Case, 
John Reed, and Laurence Pratt (see LITERATURE). 

Outstanding yearly events in Portland are the Rose Festival, Fleet 
Week, and the Pacific International Livestock Exposition. The festival 
grew out of the Portland Rose Society's exhibit of 1889, and in 1904 the 
society sponsored the first floral parade in which four decorated automo- 
biles were the attraction. The first official Rose Festival was held in 1907. 
The principal features of the celebration are the crowning of the queen, 
a rose show at the Civic Auditorium, programs at the Multnomah 
Stadium, a Junior Pageant, the floral parade, and the "merrykana" car- 
nival parade on the closing night. Chinatown gets out its massive man- 
carried dragons and sets off myriads of firecrackers. Roses bloom in 
Portland even at Christmas time; in June the city is filled with all 
varieties of roses. All of the parks and many of the parking strips 
along the streets are bright with the bloom of Caroline Testout (the 
official rose), La France, Talisman, Cecil Brunner, and scores of others. 
Portland has been visited each summer since 1936 by a fleet of U. S. 
naval craft ranging from heavy cruisers to light destroyers. During 
their ten days' sojourn the ships are the foci of innumerable visitors. 
During the daylight hours the docks and ships are thronged, at night 
the white beams of searchlights cut through the darkness. Men and 
officers are entertained at banquet and reception, with a grand street 
dance on the last night of shorestay. 

The Pacific International Livestock Exposition and Horse Show 
brings together fine blooded stock from all parts of the Pacific coast, 
from British Columbia to Mexico, and from many parts of the East. 
In addition to those for livestock, premiums are given for all sorts of 
farm and industrial products. The show is housed under one roof that 
covers eleven acres. The horse show arena is 200 feet wide by 332 
feet long. 

For years Portland has been recognized as the music center of the 
Pacific Northwest. For a third of a century the Portland Symphony 
Orchestra was nationally known, rising to prominence under the direc- 
torship of Willem Van Hoogstraten. An orchestra of more than sixty 
pieces playing a yearly program of fifteen concerts, its activities were 
temporarily discontinued in 1938. More popular in its appeal are the 
"Starlight Symphonies," a program of six open-air concerts given each 
summer at Multnomah Stadium. An audience of ten thousand or more 
persons listens to the concerts of this 45-piece orchestra under the direc- 
tion of distinguished American and European directors. The Portland 
Junior Symphony Orchestra, giving four concerts yearly, is nationally 
recognized. Throughout the winter season the WPA Federal Symphony 
Orchestra gives bi-weekly concerts. 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

i. The OLD POST OFFICE BUILDING, SW. Morrison St. 
between 5th and 6th Aves., a classic stone structure designed by 



214 OREGON 

M . A. R. Mullet, is in the center of a landscaped square ; it accommo- 
dates the downtown post office and other Federal offices. Erected in 
1875, the building for many years housed the post office and the United 
States District Court, and was the center of the city's activities. In 
court sessions it was a humming hive of witnesses, litigants, jurors, 
lawyers and spectators. Many famous trials were held in this building. 
Important among them were the land fraud trials begun in 1904 and 
continued for many years. These trials have been recorded at length 
in S. A. D. Puter's Looters of the Public Domain, published in Port- 
land in 1908. Other cases were the opium smuggling trials of the early 
nineties, the most noted of which was that of the United States v. 
William Dunbar in November, 1893, which was carried into the U. S. 
Supreme Court. 

2. HOTEL PORTLAND, SW. 6th Ave. between SW. Yamhill 
and SW. Morrison Sts., was begun in the i87o's by Henry Villard, 
the railroad builder, but its construction was halted when the Villard 
fortunes crashed. Later, a company was formed to complete the hotel, 
which was opened in 1889 with great pomp. Many Presidents, gov- 
ernors, business leaders, and people prominent in world affairs have 
been entertained in this hostelry. Stanford White, New York architect, 
designed the building. 

3. The FIRST NATIONAL BANK BUILDING, SW. 6th 
Ave. and SW. Stark St., constructed of Colorado Yule marble and of 
Neo-Classic design, is a splendid example of the adaptation of classic 
Greek architecture to modern business purposes. The entrance is in the 
form of a Doric pedimented loggia. The organization is the oldest 
financial institution in the Pacific Northwest, and the oldest national 
bank west of the Rocky Mountains. 

4. The U. S. NATIONAL BANK is at the NW. corner of SW. 
6th Ave. and SW. Stark St., with entrances on 6th Ave. and on 
Broadway. The largest banking institution in the Pacific Northwest, it 
is housed in a classic terra cotta structure adorned with Corinthian 
columns and pilasters. 

5. The UNITED STATES CUSTOMHOUSE, NW. Davis St. 
extending to NW. Everett St. between NW. Broadway and NW. 8th 
Ave., faces 8th Ave. and the North Park Blocks. Erected in 1901, and 
designed by the supervising architect's office of the U. S. Treasury De- 
partment, the building, of Italian Renaissance design, is of buff-colored 
brick with sandstone trim and a granite base. Here are housed the U. S. 
Customs, Internal Revenue, Weather Bureau, and Army Engineers' 
offices. 

6. The UNITED STATES POST OFFICE, NW. Glisan St. 
extending to NW. Hoyt St. between NW. Broadway and NW. 8th 
Ave., is a six-story, limestone structure of Italian Renaissance design, 
erected in 1918, housing the Post Office, Regional Forestry offices, and 
other Federal departments. It was designed by Lewis P. Hobart of 
San Francisco. 

7. UNION DEPOT, N. end of NW. 6th Ave., is used jointly 



PORTLAND 215 

by all steam railroad lines entering Portland. The depot was erected 
in 1890, and is a large, rambling, stucco-finished structure of modified 
Italian Renaissance design, surmounted by a tall clock tower. 

On display in the depot courtyard is the Oregon Pony, a small, early 
type locomotive used in 1862 on the Portage railroad at the Cascades 
of the Columbia. This engine was presented to Portland by Davis 
Tewes, of San Francisco, as a souvenir indicative of the part played 
by the Oregon Steamship Navigation Company original owners of the 
engine in the development of Oregon commerce. 

8. BOSS SALOON, E. end of NW. Glisan Street, although its 
official address is 57 NW. Flanders Street, a "flatiron" building bear- 
ing the sign, Boss Lunch, stands virtually as it was built in the seventies 
except for the potency of its merchandise. In the days when it was 
a popular place for sailors and dock workers, it is said that many a crew 
was shanghaied from its bar. Built in the early iSyo's, as part of the 
Oregon Central railroad's headquarters, the little building was aban- 
doned as a railroad unit after a few years. For a time it was a gentle- 
man's resort, but with improved railroad facilities and removal of the 
depot to a point farther from the river, it deteriorated into a waterfront 
"headquarters for sailors, longshoremen, dockhands and riffraff hangers 
on, until its unsavory existence terminated with the advent of pro- 
hibition." 

The wide thoroughfare North of Ankeny Street is "THE SKID- 
ROAD," known as a meeting place for itinerant workers from all over 
the country. In former days Burnside Street separated the rough North 
End "bowery" district from the more genteel parts of town, but now 
it is the southern boundary of a cheap mercantile district of lounging 
rooms for itinerants and numerous cheap hotels and flop houses. These 
are gradually being pinched out to make room for factories and whole- 
sale warehouses. In 1905 Mayor Harry Lane, later United States Sen- 
ator, clamped down on the women denizens, and scattered them to ail 
parts of the city. Since then the city has had no restricted red light 
district. 

9. ERICKSON'S, stretching the full north side of the block on W. 
Burnside Street between NW. 2nd and NW. 3rd Aves., was once the 
most widely known saloon in the Pacific Northwest. It is occupied by 
beer parlors, a restaurant called Erickson's, and a number of other small 
establishments. 

All western states have boasted of places with a "mile long bar" that 
usually measured a modest hundred feet; but it is a fact that the ma- 
hogany in Erickson's saloon ran to 674 feet. Here loggers, seafaring 
men, dirt movers, and hoboes from everywhere met to drink and talk. 
When the flood of 1894 swept into the place, proprietor Erickson quick- 
ly chartered a scow, anchored it at 2nd and Burnside, stocked it, and 
business continued more or less as usual. 

10. The SKIDMORE FOUNTAIN, in the triangle at SW. ist 
Ave., SW. Ankeny and SW. Vine Sts., is the gift of Stephen Skidmore 
to the city in 1888. Olin L. Warner was the sculptor; H. M. Wells, 



2l6 OREGON 

the architect. The granite base is carved into a horse trough supplied 
with water issuing from lions' heads. The central structure consists of 
a bronze basin supported by classic bronze female figures. This spot 
was the Rialto of the 1890'$, the center of such night life as there was. 
"Meet you at the fountain" was a popular expression. Men, horses, and 
dogs once drank here in the shade of the Bank of British North 
America. A small colony of artists, musicians, and writers maintain 
studios in the old Skidmore Building at 29 First Avenue, facing the 
fountain. 

n. NEW MARKET BLOCK AND THEATER, 49 SW. ist 
Ave., is the building where in the iSyo's and i88o's, Thespians and 
mountebanks, ranging from E. H. Sothern to Anna Eva Fay, enter- 
tained Portland. Erected in 1871 the theater did not open until 1875, 
when James Kecne staged what the posters said was a "truly gorgeous 
presentation of Rip Van Winkle." No less than one hundred gas lights 
startled the eyes of pit and gallery. Among the noted people who ap- 
peared on the New Market stage were Madam Modjeska, Janauschek, 
Annie Pixley, Fannie Davenport, Billy Emerson, Baird's Colossal Min- 
strels, Henry Ward Beecher, Robert G. Ingersoll and John L. Sullivan. 
The building is a two-story brick structure of utilitarian design 200 feet 
wide and extending from SW. First to SW. Second Avenue. 

PORTLAND'S CHINATOWN is on SW. 2nd and SW. 4th 
Avenues, extending from SW. Washington to W. Burnside St. Chinese 
gambling establishments operate widely over Portland, but here are the 
Chinese stores, markets, tong halls, and eating places that cater more to 
Orientals than to others. The sidewalks are filled with circular mats 
on which are dried many articles strange to occidental sight and smell. 
In the show windows, too, are odd looking foods. Bran-like balls in a 
wooden box are hens' eggs, the shells coated with a mealy substance to 
preserve their contents. Their age is said to be great the greater the 
better, according to Oriental taste. A 5O-year-old egg brings the price 
of vintage wine. Ducks are recognizable, plucked and immersed in oil, 
but other dried things of various sizes and shapes shark fins, small 
devil fish, oysters, shrimp and some species of mussels are not easily 
identified. 

12. The CHINESE BULLETIN BOARD, between SW. 2nd 
and SW. 3rd Aves., on SW. Pine St., is a long wall plastered with a 
variety of notices and messages in bold, black characters on flaming 
orange paper. These characteristic ideographs are items of local and 
international interest and are closely scanned by groups of intent Chinese. 

13. CHINESE DRUG STORE, 323 SW. 2nd Ave., contains items 
strange to Occidentals. One of the popular remedies comes in the shape 
of a pair of dried turtles held flat together by a binding around their 
tails, and looking not unlike a fan. The turtles are boiled and the soup 
eaten as specific for rheumatism. The storekeeper computes on his na- 
tive calculating rack, or abacus. 

14. The GREENE BUILDING, 536 SW. ist Ave., houses an 
interurban station of the Portland General Electric Railway Co. Its 



PORTLAND 217 

ornate facade recalls the days when it operated as Emil Weber's drink- 
ing and gambling emporium, a hell hole of activity by day and by night. 
Activities ceased when Weber was murdered in broad daylight by Sandy 
Olds, a habitue. Following a periodic cleanup of gambling dens, Emil 
Weber went to a rival, Charlie Sliter, who operated the Crystal Palace 
Saloon, and notified him that Sandy Olds was running a game and 
that if Sliter didn't "fire" Olds, he would report Sliter to the police. A 
few days later, on May 10, 1889, Weber was accosted by Olds on a 
street corner. An altercation ensued and in the heat of the argument 
Weber reached for his handkerchief. Misinterpreting the action, Olds 
drew a revolver, emptying it into Weber's body, killing him instantly. 
Olds fought conviction to the supreme court, and escaped with two years 
in the penitentiary. 

15. The ESMOND HOTEL, 620 SW. Front Ave., built in 1881, 
had a plush bellpull in every room, a luxurious convenience for those 
days. The Esmond flowered in an era when hotel marriages were the 
thing, and many Portland families of today are the result of unions 
sanctioned by ceremonies in its green plush parlors. The hotel enter- 
tained Rutherford B. Hayes, while he was President of the United 
States, John L. Sullivan, and many others. 

1 6. *ST. CHARLES HOTEL, SW. corner SW. Front and SW. 
Morrison St., was the finest and busiest hotel in the Northwest before 
the Esmond opened. In this mansard-roofed building, begun in 1869 
and completed in 1871, Henry Villard and other early railroad giants 
of the Pacific Northwest lived intermittently. Kate Claxton, Emma 
Abbot, and other actresses of the 1870'$ and i88o's, stopped here when 
they visited the city. In its barroom Sam Simpson, early Oregon poet, 
held communion with the muse. With his pleasing disposition and readi- 
ness of conversation he was welcomed by the idlers of the St. Charles, 
and usually found little difficulty in borrowing "two-bits until to- 
morrow," which he spent forthwith for liquor, helping himself liberally 
to the saloon's free lunch. In his last poem pathetically he wrote: 

"The musical fountain has ceased to flow . . . 

In earthly sense \ve comprehend 

That death, after all, is life's best friend." 

17. The PORTLAND PUBLIC MARKET, on SW. Front Ave. 
between SW. Salmon and SW. Yamhill Sts., is a large three-story 
building of modern construction containing many stores and about three 
hundred farm produce stalls. Merchandise ranging from fresh bean 
sprouts, ham, pumpernickel and carrots, to pink petunias and wild black- 
berries in season, are displa3"ed on the brightly lighted stands over which 
Japanese, Chinese, Italians, and Americans urge customers to buy their 
wares. A ramp leads to car-parking space on the roof. The building 
has an auditorium seating 500, in which food shows and demonstrations 
are given. 

1 8. Near the west end of Hawthorne Bridge at the E. end of SW. 
Jefferson St. is the BATTLESHIP OREGON (open 9-5 daily, adm. 



2l8 OREGON 

I0c; schoolchildren and veterans free). Launched in 1895, this relic 
of the Spanish- American War made its epic I5,ooo-mile run in 1898 
from Bremerton, Washington, through the Straits of Magellan, to 
Key West, Florida, in forty-seven days. The great run was made under 
the command of Captain Robley D. "Fighting Bob" Evans, who earned 
his nickname at Valparaiso in 1891, while relations were strained with 
Chile; he threatened "to blow the Chilean navy out of the water" 
unless they stopped torpedo practice while he was there in command of 
one light cruiser. They stopped. Evans commanded the Iowa in the 
Battle of Santiago; at one time the fire of the entire Spanish navy was 
concentrated on his ship. In the same battle the Oregon engaged and 
sank the Maria Teresa, Spanish flagship, and, after a chase of forty- 
eight miles, beached the Colon. In 1925 the old ship was given to the 
state of Oregon, which maintains it as a historic memorial. A mooring 
basin and park are being constructed (1940) as a permanent anchorage. 

19. The PORTLAND CIVIC AUDITORIUM, SW. 3rd Ave. 
between SW. Clay and SW. Market Sts., erected in 1917, was de- 
signed by Freedlander & Seymour of New York City. The exterior, of 
modified Italian Renaissance design, is of buff brick and stone, with 
terra cotta and green metal trim. The main auditorium seats 3,527, 
while with side wings thrown open it has a maximum capacity of 6,700. 
In the building is the OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION (open 
9-5 weekdays; 9-12 Sat.), entrance at SW. 3rd Ave. and SW. Market 
St. The society was founded in 1898. In its collection, are thousands 
of rare and valuable volumes, including the Journal of John Ledyard, 
dealing with Captain Cook's first voyage to the northwest coast in 1788, 
of which only five copies are known to exist. Another item is the Diary 
of Jason Lee, the first Oregon missionary. In the newspaper collection 
are files of more than three hundred newspapers, including the Oregon 
Spectator, the first newspaper published west of the Rocky Mountains. 
The collection also contains more than ten thousand manuscripts, many 
dealing with provisional and territorial stages of the state's development, 
hundreds of maps, and old photographs and paintings. 

Among the historical objects is the sea chest that Captain Robert 
Gray carried with him in the Columbia Rediviva when he discovered 
the river named for his ship. Here also is the tiny Mission Press, the 
first printing press west of the Rocky Mountains. It was first used at 
Lapwai, now in Idaho, in 1839, to print a primer and certain of the 
gospels in the Nez Perce language. The Indian collection shows graph- 
ically every phase of native life; and there are innumerable objects, in- 
cluding a covered wagon, used by the pioneers. Since 1900 the Society 
has published the Oregon Historical Quarterly. 

20. CITY HALL, SW. 5th Ave., between SW. Madison and 
SW. Jefferson Sts., erected in 1895, of Italian Renaissance architecture, 
was designed by Whidden & Lewis of Portland. The design of the 
four-story structure suggests that of a stately town house. The outer 
walls are of yellow gray sandstone, with a circular portico supported 
by columns of polished black granite. A bronze plaque commemorating 



PORTLAND 219 

the architects was placed at the entrance in 1932 by the Oregon chapter 
of the American Institute of Architects. 

21. LOWNSDALE SQUARE, SW. 4 th Ave., between SW. Sal- 
mon and SW. Main Sts., is named for Daniel H. Lownsdale, one of 
the earliest owners of the Portland townsite and donor of the plot to 
the city. The park is the orating ground of the city's soap-box evangels. 
In fair weather its benches are filled with men from all parts of the 
world, and innumerable tame pigeons strut on the lawn. In this square, 
said to be an old feeding ground for elk, is the ELK FOUNTAIN, the 
work of Roland H. Perry, noted animal sculptor, and the SOLDIERS' 
MONUMENT, by Douglas Tilden, honoring members of the Second 
Oregon Volunteers who fell in the Spanish-American War. 

22. The MULTNOMAH COUNTY COURTHOUSE, SW. 
Salmon St. between SW. 4th and SW. 5th Aves., occupying the entire 
block, was also designed by Whidden & Lewis, and erected in 1913. 
It is of Neo-Classic architecture, with stone trim, tall Ionic colonnades, 
and a heavy classic cornice. The base is of California granite, the upper 
part of white Bedford stone. County offices and courts are housed here. 
The jail occupies part of the top floor. 

23. The PUBLIC SERVICE BUILDING, SW. 6th Ave. be- 
tween SW. Taylor and SW. Salmon St., a sixteen-story structure with 
an off-set tower, is the tallest commercial building in the state. Con- 
structed of terra cotta and gray brick it is designed in a modified 
Italian Renaissance style. 

24. The MULTNOMAH PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 week- 
days; reading room 3-9 Sun.), SW. loth Ave. between SW. Yamhill 
and SW. Taylor Sts., erected in 1913 and constructed of red brick 
with limestone trim, is of Italian Renaissance design. The three-story 
and basement structure occupies an entire city block, and is considered 
the finest library in the Northwest. The interior trim is of domestic 
and imported marbles, with columns of scagliola. The building is sur- 
rounded on three sides by a carved limestone balustrade interspersed 
with benches. These benches, the cornice of the building, and the 
spandrels under the large windows, are inscribed with the names of fa- 
mous artists, writers, philosophers, and scientists. The architects were 
Doyle, Patterson and Beach. The library has large reference and circu- 
lating departments, an excellent technical department, and an extensive 
collection of Oregoniana. The library has a per capita circulation of 
eight volumes, and 43 per cent of Portland residents are registered 
borrowers. 

25. The UNITARIAN CHURCH, 1011 SW. i2th Ave., is a 
small church structure of Georgian Colonial design. In a setting of older 
residences and curb-side trees, it gives an atmosphere of old New Eng- 
land. The exterior is of brick with cast stone trim, surmounted by a 
cupola and slender spire. The interior is finished in ornamental wood 
panels. Jamieson Parker was the architect. 

The SOUTH PARK BLOCKS arc a series of landscaped areas 
extending southward for thirteen blocks from SW. Salmon St. to SW. 



22O O R B G O N 

Clifton St., between SW. Park and SW. Ninth Aves. The blocks are 
landscaped with trees and shrubs transplanted from the eastern United 
States, and some of them contain fountains and statuary. 

26. The LINCOLN STATUE, in the center of the square 
bounded by SW. Main St., SW. Madison Sts., SW. Park Ave., and 
SW. Ninth Ave., shows the Great Emancipator with head bowed and 
shoulders drooping. Many patriotic organizations participated in the 
unveiling in 1928. The statue is an original, and under the terms of 
the agreement between the late Dr. Henry Waldo Coe, the donor, 
and George Fite Waters, the artist, it may never be duplicated. 

27. In the SW. Park Ave. block between SW. Madison and Jeffer- 
son Sts., is A. Phimister Proctor's ROUGH RIDER STATUE OF 
THEODORE ROOSEVELT, also a gift of Dr. Coe. The bronze 
equestrian figure, mounted on a base of California granite, towers 
twenty-three feet and weighs three tons. It was dedicated on Armistice 
Day, 1922, and Vice President Calvin Coolidge made the dedicatory 
address. The figure of Theodore Roosevelt was designed with the ad- 
vice and aid of the family; Mrs. Roosevelt made available to the artist 
the actual uniform and accoutrements used by the Colonel at the battle 
of San Juan Hill. 

28. The PORTLAND ART MUSEUM (open 10-5 weekdays; 
12 M.-5 P.M. Mon.; 7-10 P.M. Wed.; 2-5 Sun. and holidays free), 
SW. 9th Ave. between SW. Madison and Jefferson Sts., is owned by 
the Portland Art Association and was a gift from W. B. Ayer. Of 
modern design with a trend toward crisp functionalism, the broad 
building is faced with Oregon brick of a rich golden-red color and 
Colorado travertine. Especially notable are the three entrance portals 
with their five metal gates. Built in 1932, it was designed by Pietro 
Belluschi of the firm of A. E. Doyle and Associates. The Solomon and 
Josephine Hirsch Memorial wing was added in 1939 through the gift 
of Ella Hirsch. In the south wing is the Lewis collection of Greek and 
Roman vases, bronzes, and glass. Other objects in this wing are a 
Chinese terra cotta figurine, given by L. Allen Lewis; three Chinese 
paintings, a gift from the Freer Collection; and Greek glass and jade 
given by the children of Mrs. William S. Ladd. The Doyle memorial 
collection of Egyptian scarabs and seals is in the small south gallery. 

In the large room of the north wing are selections from the textile 
collections, gifts of Mrs. F. B. Pratt, the Misses Failing, and others. 
The lace collection is in a small gallery beyond. 

The permanent exhibit of French and American paintings is in two 
galleries on the upper floor. In the small south gallery is a loan collec- 
tion of Chinese potteries, porcelains, and paintings from the L. Allen 
Lewis collection, and a display of Japanese prints. Among the permanent 
displays are pieces of Near-Eastern, Chinese, and Persian pottery. Two 
other items of unusual interest are an Egyptian vase from Fayoum, 
northern Egypt, belonging to the Ptolemaic period, and a small bronze 
cat from a cat cemetery of ancient Egypt. A good collection of casts 



PORTLAND 221 

of Greek and Roman sculpture, given by Henry W. Corbett, the first 
president of the association, is on the ground floor. 

The museum has been the recipient of many fine paintings, among 
them works of Corot, Delacroix, Monticelli, Courbet, Diaz, Renoir, 
Pissarro, Inness, William Sartain, Childe Hassam, William M. Hunt, 
George Fuller, Albert Ryder, and A. B. Davies. Besides the permanent 
collections, there are circulating exhibitions from the American Federa- 
tion of Art, the College Art Association, and other groups. There are 
about sixteen of these exhibits annually. 

Other facilities of the museum include a library of 2,000 volumes, a 
collection of illustrated prints and slides for school use, and the Braum 
collection of 15,000 photographs and color reproductions of the master- 
pieces of European galleries. The museum conducts an art school and 
special lectures are frequently given in the auditorium. 

29. SIXTH CHURCH OF CHRIST SCIENTIST, 1331 SW. 
9th Ave., is of modern design with heavy, set-back, corner pylons. The 
building is of reinforced concrete construction faced with light brown 
brick, and with a slate shingle roof of harmonizing red. The interior 
woodwork is of oak, the walls and ceiling of plaster, and the floor of 
terrazzo. The dome over the crossing is covered with acoustical ma- 
terial painted in antique mosaic effect. Morris H. Whitehouse and 
Associates were the architects. 

30. The FINLEY MORTUARY, 432 SW. Montgomery St., is 
a blending of the traditional with the functional style of design. It is 
reminiscent of the past, yet strictly modern. The fresh, crisp style was 
achieved chiefly through the elimination of superfluous detail. The 
exterior walls are of concrete with brick facings. The entrance is of 
Indiana limestone. The interior has a plastic finish, with the exception 
of the main chapel, the walls of which are lined with Philippine ma- 
hogany, flat panels set on furring strips in concrete. The mortuary, 
known as the Morninglight Chapel, was awarded honorable mention 
in the 1938 National Exhibition of the New York Architectural 
League, and was listed in 1938 by The Association of Federal Architects 
as one of the hundred best buildings erected in America since 1918. 
It was designed by Pietro Belluschi, of the firm of A. E. Doyle and 
Associates. 

31. MULTNOMAH CIVIC STADIUM, SW. Morrison St. 
between SW. i8th and SW. 2Oth Aves., is a concrete structure designed 
after the Roman Coliseum, with a seating capacity of 30,000. White- 
house and Doyle were the architects. Inter-collegiate and interscholastic 
football games are played here. In June it is the center of activities of 
Portland's annual Rose Festival. In summer months dog races attract 
large crowds. 

32. TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SW. corner NW. igth 
Ave. and NW. Everett St. is a vine-clad stone edifice, designed in the 
manner of an English parish church with steep gable roof and crenelated 
corner tower. A parish house, erected in 1939, is joined to the church 
by a connecting unit. 



222 OREGON 

33. TEMPLE BETH ISRAEL, NW. igth Ave. and NW. 
Flanders St., is octagonal in plan, with quotations from the Talmud 
above each door. The building is of reinforced concrete construction 
faced with golden-yellow sandstone, the upper portion is of salmon- 
colored brick and glazed terra cotta. A huge dome surmounts the struc- 
ture, its apex ninety feet above the floor. Built in 1926, Temple Beth 
Israel was designed by Morris H. Whitehouse and Herman Brook- 
man, architects, associates with Bennes and Herzog. 

34. ST. MARK'S CATHEDRAL, NW. 2ist Ave. and NW. 
Northrup St., designed by Jameson Parker in the manner of an Italian 
Romanesque basilica, is surmounted by a seventy-five-foot tower and is 
faced entirely with red brick. It was a gift to the parish from Miss 
Catherine H. Percival. St. Mark's, one of the oldest religious organ! 
nations in Portland, was founded as a mission in 1874, and was or- 
ganized as a parish in 1889, by the late Bishop Morris. 

35. In SAM JACKSON PARK, on Marquam Hill, is the VET 
BRANS' HOSPITAL (open 2-4 daily), a Federal institution offering free 
medical care to veterans of American wars. It consists of a group of 
red-brick structures of modified Georgian Colonial architecture, de- 
signed by government architects of the Veterans' Administration. The 
principal units were put into service in December, 1928. The official 
capacity is 385 beds. 

36. The PORTLAND MEDICAL CENTER, W. edge of Sam 
Jackson Park on SW. Marquam Hill Road, crowns the height of 
Marquam Hill. On a campus of 108 acres, the group comprises the 
University of Oregon Medical School, the Multnomah County Hos- 
pital, and the Doernbecher Hospital for Crippled Children. The first 
unit of the Medical School, a three-story, reinforced concrete structure, 
was built in 1919. The second unit, MacKenzie Hall, similar in design 
to the first but with twice its capacity, was erected in 1922. The Out- 
patient Clinic, erected in 1931, connects the Doernbecher Memorial 
Hospital and the Multnomah County Hospital, and affords teaching 
facilities for the clinical branch of the Medical School. The Multnomah 
County General Hospital was built in 1923 at a cost of $1,000,000. 
Providing space for 300 patients, it offers free medical care to the 
county's indigent. The architects were Sutton and Whitney, with Cran- 
dall and Fritsch, associates. The Doernbecher Memorial Hospital for 
Children, erected in 1925, is a buff brick, fireproof structure with terra 
cotta trim. Ellis F. Lawrence v/as the architect. The Doernbecher Hos- 
pital, endowed by the pioneer Portland furniture manufacturer whose 
name it bears, is maintained partly by the state. 

A unit of the University of Oregon Medical School is the new 
University State Tuberculosis Hospital, the third such state institution. 
Opened in November, 1939, it cares for 80 resident tubercular cases, 
conducts an out-patient clinic, and is expertly equipped. Its $290,900 
cost was shared by the State and the WPA, and by a $50,000 gift 
from the widow of Oregon's late Governor Julius L. Meier. 

37. COUNCIL CREST PARK (1,107 alt.) is directly west o 



Sam Jackson Park and close to the southwest city limits. It is reached 
by SW. Broadway Drive and Talbot Roads, and other roads encircle it. 
The highest point within the city, the view from this eminence in clear 
weather is approximately forty miles to the west, sixty miles to the 
east, and more than a hundred miles to the north and south, and in- 
cludes six snow-covered peaks. To the west, beyond the bowl-like 
Tualatin Valley, is the Coast Range. Eastward the gorge of the Co- 
lumbia River is visible from Crown Point to Cascade Locks; to the 
south are Oregon City and the Willamette Valley; and to the north 
is the city of Vancouver and the orchards of Clark County, Washing- 
ton. The small tower on the crest is a United States Coast and Geodetic- 
Survey trhingulation station. 

38. WASHINGTON PARK crowns the hills directly west of 
the main business section and is one of the most beautiful of Portland's 
many parks. It comprises one-hundred acres of hillside, partly improved. 
At the SW. Park Place entrance stands a thirty-four foot shaft of 
granite brought from the Snake River and erected in honor of Lewis 
and Clark, the explorers. The first stone was laid for the base by 
President Theodore Roosevelt in 1903. Along the driveway (R) is the 
much-photographed STATUE OF SACAJAWEA, the "bird woman" who 
guided Lewis and Clark through the mountains. Modeled by Alice 
Cooper, the statue depicts the Indian woman with her baby on her 
back pointing out the way to the whites. A little farther on is the 
statue, THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN, by H. A. McNeil, which 
shows two Indians astonished by their first sight of a white man. 

In the upper part of the park is the Zoo (open 8-6 daily), containing 
lions, tigers, monkeys, and many animals native to the Pacific North- 
west. Deer, elk, buffalo roam the pastures at the far south end of the 
park. 

In the center of the park are the INTERNATIONAL ROSE TEST GAR- 
DENS, conducted by the Portland Council of the National Rose Society. 
Cuttings from all parts of the world are received here and cross-grafted 
to develop new types. 

39- The FORESTRY BUILDING (open 9-5 daily), NW. 28th 
Ave., between NW. Vaughn and NW. Upshur Sts., made entirely of 
fir, is a weather-beaten structure 206 feet long, 102 feet wide, and 72 
feet high. In the vast interior, accentuating the great size, are fifty-two 
log pillars six feet in diameter, that support the roof and a gallery of 
small logs. On the floor are sections of great logs nine or ten feet in 
diameter, and polished slabs of various kinds of commercial lumber. 
Doubtless the largest log cabin in the world, 1,000,000 feet, board 
measure, of logs went into its construction. It was a feature of the 
Lewis and Clark exposition of 1905. It is occupied only by a caretaker. 

40. ST. JOHNS BRIDGE, foot of N. Philadelphia Street, of 
suspension type, designed and built by the bridge engineering firm of 
Robinson & Steinmann, New York, is one of America's most beautiful 
bridges. From it there is an excellent view of the Willamette River. 
Upstream are the Oceanic dock, the Eastern and Western Lumber 



224 O R B O O * 

Mill, Municipal Terminal No. I, and other docks. Downstream is 
Municipal Terminal No. 4, where eleven deep-sea craft can berth 
simultaneously. 

41. UNIVERSITY OF PORTLAND, on triangle formed by 
Willamette Blvd., Portsmouth Ave. and the river bluff, occupies a 
beautiful site overlooking the Willamette River. The university was 
founded in 1901 by Archbishop Christie of the Roman Catholic diocese 
of Oregon, and is operated by the Holy Cross Fathers of Notre Dame, 
in Indiana. The buildings consist of Administration Hall, of Renais- 
sance design ; Christie Hall, of Tudor-Gothic design, and Howard and 
Science Halls, of modern functional design. Founded as Portland Uni- 
versity, the name of the school was changed to Columbia University, 
but reverted to the present name in 1935. 

Below the bluffs upon which the university is situated is Mock's 
Bottom (R), a mud-flat dotted with stagnant ponds and crossed by 
the tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad. In the river is Swan Island, 
Portland's municipal airport, soon to be superseded by a larger municipal 
airport under construction (1940) at 47th St. and Columbia Blvd. 

42. PENINSULA PARK, N. Portland Blvd. between N. Albina 
and Kerby Aves., and Ainsworth St., occupies a twenty-acre area, 
equipped with playgrounds, ball grounds, and a swimming pool. In the 
park is the SUNKEN ROSE GARDEN (open), occupying six acres and 
containing more than 1,000 varieties of roses. When the plants are in 
full bloom the gardens are a mass of vivid color. The plantings are 
in rectangular beds, surrounded by close-cropped boxwood hedges. From 
four pergola entrances of red brick, one at each side of the garden, 
wide flights of red brick steps lead downward past terraced plantings 
to the lowest level, in the center of which is a large fountain. 

43- STATUE OF GEORGE WASHINGTON, a bronze heroic 
figure at NE. 57th Ave., NE. Sandy Boulevard and the Alameda, is 
the work of Pompeii Coppini. Set near the apex of a tringular plot in 
front of the Friendship Masonic Home Association, donors of the 
site, the statue faces Sandy Boulevard and looks eastward down the old 
Oregon Trail, the route traveled by the pioneers. Formally dedicated 
in 1927, it was given to the city by Dr. Henry Waldo Coe. 

44- The SHRINE HOSPITAL FOR CRIPPLED CHIL- 
DREN, NE. Sandy Blvd. between NE. Sand and NE. 84th Aves., 
is a large brick and wood structure of English Renaissance design, 
erected in 1922. Well-staffed and nationally-known, this children's 
hospital is conducted by the Masonic order, and is celebrated for its 
success in the treatment of congenital hip diseases. 

45. On Sandy Blvd. near NE. 84th Ave. is the entrance (R), to 
the grounds of the SANCTUARY OF OUR SORROWFUL 
MOTHER (free parking space), the open air grotto and sanctuary of 
the Servite Fathers. It is the only one of the twenty-one sanctuaries of 
the Servite Order outside Europe. The lower level is landscaped, with 
stations for prayer, and, in the side of Rocky Butte, there is a large 
altar at which daily services are conducted. The upper level of the 



PORTLAND 225 

sanctuary is separated from the lower by a perpendicular cliff, and is 
reached by an elevator (charge 2$c). The Sanctuary covers eighteen 
acres on the lower level and forty acres on the higher level. On the 
upper level are seven shrines containing thirty-four wood-carvings of 
Italian design and craftsmanship. On the crest, also, are a monastery 
serving as a home for the Servite Fathers, and a heroic bronze STATUE 
OF OUR SORROWFUL MOTHER, depicting the Virgin in an attitude of 
adoration, overlooking the Columbia River and visible for miles. A 
special mass is held before the statue on Mother's Day. 

46. An aircraft beacon and observation platform at the end of the 
winding road leading from NE. Fremont St. marks the summit of 
ROCKY BUTTE (612 alt.), one of three cinder cones of volcanic 
origin on the east side of the city. Its slopes are rough and broken. A 
grove of quaking aspen, not ordinarily native to the lower altitudes of 
western Oregon, grows on the northern side. From Rocky Butte there 
is a view of the city stretching to the hills beyond the Willamette and 
northwestward to the lowlands of the Columbia River. In the angle 
between the rivers are North Portland's large meat packing plants and 
stockyards. Beyond the Columbia are the peaks of St. Helens, Rainier, 
and Adams. Eastward the Columbia is lost between encroaching foot- 
hills of the Cascades, while slightly to the southeast rises Mount Hood. 

JOSEPH WOOD HILL PARK covers three acres on the crest of the 
butte. The site was given to Multnomah County by Joseph A. and B. 
W. Hill, in 1935, and dedicated to the public in memory of their father, 
Dr. J. W. Hill, an early educator. The park was improved during 
1 93 7-39 as a WPA project, with stone walls, roadways, and a wide 
parking platform. 

47. The northeastern entrance to MOUNT TABOR PARK is at 
69th Ave. and SE. Yamhill St., from which point a curving drive of 
easy grade leads upward to the summit (600 alt.). This is another of 
the cinder cones lying along the east edge of the city. From its grassy, 
tree-shaded crest, there is a view of the East Side and the country be- 
tween Portland and the Sandy River, fourteen miles distant. Mount 
Hood gleams white in the east. Facing southeast on the crest is Gutzon 
Borglum's STATUE OF HARVEY W. SCOTT, Oregon's noted newspaper 
editor. Below the summit on the southwest slope of the butte are the 
city reservoirs, where the force of the stream piped from the mountains 
sixty miles away hurls great jets of water a hundred feet into the air. 

48. REED COLLEGE, SE. Woodstock Blvd. between SE. 28th 
and SE. 36th Aves., was founded as Reed Institute by the widow of 
Simeon Reed, pioneer railroad builder, "for the increase and diffusion of 
practical knowledge . . . and for the promotion of Literature, Science, 
and Art." The buildings, on a large and beautiful landscaped campus, 
are of Tudor Gothic design reminiscent in detail of Compton Wyngates. 
The construction is of reinforced concrete, faced with red brick and 
trimmed with limestone. The dormitory and administration buildings 
were erected in 1912, and the library in 1930. A. E. Doyle of Portland 
was the architect. 



226 OREGON 

Opened in 1911, Reed College maintains a College of Liberal Arts 
and Sciences presided over by a faculty representing more than twenty 
American graduate schools, who are given opportunities for supplemen- 
tary foreign travel and research. There are no fraternities or sororities, 
and no intercollegiate athletic teams. Reed operates as a democratic co- 
educational community, fostering the spirit of inquiry and investigation, 
and sharing the advantages afforded by its endowments, memorials, and 
lectureships with the community outside its campus. The annual enroll- 
ment is approximately 500. 

The LIBRARY (open 8-8 weekdays), contains 54,000 volumes, acquires 
2,500 volumes every year, receives about 200 periodicals, and is a de- 
pository for government documents. The reading rooms are open to the 
public, as are many lectures in the Chapel or Commons. The Pacific 
Northwest Institute of International Relations, and many other con- 
ferences of educational interest, are held on the Reed campus. 

49. LONE FIR CEMETERY, SE. 2Oth Ave. between SE. Mor- 
rison and Stark Sts., was begun in 1854 when Crawford Dobbins and 
David Fuller, victims of the Gazelle river steamer disaster near Oregon 
City, were buried here. In the cemetery are markers inscribed in English, 
Hebrew, German, Japanese, Chinese, French, and Spanish. Here lie 
Catholics, Protestants, Jews, pagans and free thinkers; white, yellow, 
black, red, and brown men and women; bums and bankers; senators, 
governors, and mayors. Among the graves in the cemetery are those of 
Samuel L. Simpson, early Oregon poet; William Hume, father of the 
salmon-canning industry; George Law Curry, territorial governor; and 
W. H. Frush, early-day saloon keeper. On the plot of the Frush grave, 
marked by a pretentions monument, is the large marble urn in which 
he annually mixed his Tom and Jerry. On several occasions in late 
years, the urn has been taken away and used for its original purpose, 
but is always returned. 

Two sections of the cemetery were set aside for the graves of firemen, 
and many of the markers have elaborate carvings of hooks, ladders, 
trumpets and shields. 

In earlier days, when the Oriental population of the city was larger 
than it is today, scores of Chinese were buried here, but the bones of 
those whose families could afford it have been disinterred and sent to 
China. 

50. LAURELHURST PARK, SE. 39th Ave. between SE. An- 
keny and SE. Stark Sts., is a thirty-acre recreational area and playground. 
Large firs rise from the knolls, and the shrubbery is profuse. The park 
contains many varieties of Oregon plants and flowers, an artificial lake, 
stocked with ducks and swans, a bandstand, picnic facilities, two tennis 
courts, and a playground. 

51. JOAN OF ARC STATUE, NE. 39th Ave. and NE. Glisan 
St., is a copy of the original statue in the place de Rivoli, Paris, and was 
given to the city by Dr. Henry Waldo Coe. It was dedicated in 1925 
to the American doughboy. 

52. The JANTZEN KNITTING MILLS (open 9-5 Mon.-Fn. t 



PORTLAND 227 

9-12 Sat.; apply at office), NE. igth Ave. and NE. Sandy Blvd., 
manufacture bathing suits. The knitting department has seventy-five 
machines, each with about 1500 needles. Following the knitting the 
fabric is shrunk, cut into shape by electric cutting machines, and sewed 
on power-driven machines. In its Portland mill the company employs 
700 workers. The buildings are modern, well lighted and ventilated, 
and the grounds beautifully landscaped. 

53- The BURNSIDE BRIDGE, joining W. and E. Burnside Sts., 
a double bascule span of reinforced concrete construction, was dedicated 
in 1926 and cost approximately $3,000,000. So precisely are its bascules 
balanced that they move practically of their own weight when once set 
in motion. It was designed by Hendrick & Kremer, consulting engineers, 
of Portland and Kansas City. East Burnside Street is one of the main 
approaches to the city from the east. 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

Sandy River Bridge, 13 m.\ Crown Point, 18.2 m. (see TOUR i) ; U. S. Army 
Post, Vancouver, Washington, 9 m. (see WASHINGTON GUIDE)] Oswego 
Lake, 7 m. ; Marylhurst College, 8.6 m. ; Willamette Falls, Oregon City, 14.5 m. 
(see TOUR 2); Multnomah County Fairgrounds, Gresham, 13.7 m.; Bull Run 
Lake, 28 m. (see TOUR ^A). 



imim^^ 



Salem 



Railroad Station: isth and Oak Sts., for Southern Pacific Lines. 

Bus Station: 228 High St., for Greyhound and Oregon Motor Stages; 441 State 

St., for Independent Stages and Dollar Line. 

Airport: Municipal, 2.5 m. SE. on Turner Rd. via S. i4th St.; no scheduled 

service. 

City Busses: Fare 70. 

Accommodations: Five hotels; seven tourist camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 147 N. Liberty St.; Oregon State 
Highway Commission, State Office Bldg., 1146 Court St.; Oregon State Motor 
Association, 515 Court St. 

Radio Station: KSLM (1370 kc.). 

Motion Picture Houses: Five. 

Swimming: Olinger Field, Capital and Parrish Sts.; Leslie Field, Cottage and 

Howard Sts. 

Golf: Salem Golf Club, 2 m. S. on US 99E, 18 holes, fees 5oc for 9 holes; Illahee 

Golf Club, 5 ra. S. on US 99!% 18 holes, fees 35C for 9 holes. 

Tennis: Olinger Field, Capital and Parrish Sts.; Leslie Field, Cottage and 

Howard Sts.; both free. 

Annual Events: Cherry Blossom Festival, in spring, when fruit trees are in 
bloom; Oregon State Fair, September. 

SALEM (171 alt., 26,266 pop.), capital of Oregon and seat of Marion 
County, is the second largest city in the state. 

The Willamette River, rolling through forest and meadow, passes 
along the margin of the town. Westward, across a checkerboard pattern 
of farms and forest, rises the crest of the Eola Mountains. Farms, 
orchards, and vineyards cover the slopes of the Waldo Hills to the east, 
and beyond them the snow-capped Cascade Mountains form the horizon. 

Salem's streets are unusually broad. Residences of modern design are 
half hidden behind trees that line the parkways and dot the lawns. 
There are no unsightly districts or slums. A landscaped area traversing 
the city serves as a civic center and embraces Willson Park, which is 
flanked on the west by the federal and county buildings and on the east 
by state offices. The shopping district, with its dignified structures, new 
and old, has an air of stability. 

The city, county, and state business conducted in Salem tends to 
overshadow its industrial activities. The city is also the marketing and 
distributing center of a rich agricultural area on both sides of the Wil- 
lamette. Approximately one-third of the fruits and vegetables of the 
Pacific Northwest are processed in Salem's canneries. 

The daily bustle of a small city is intensified when the legislative ses- 



8 A L E M 229 

sion brings lawmakers, lobbyists, and political writers to town. Salem 
is then overcrowded and surcharged with an excitement that does not 
subside until adjournment. 

Salem was founded by Jason Lee, who was sent from New England 
as the Methodist "Missionary to the Flatheads"; he arrived at Fort 
Vancouver, Hudson's Bay Company post, in the fall of 1834. Dr. John 
McLoughlin, the factor, whose real purpose was to confine American 
settlement to the area south of the Columbia River, advised Lee to 
avoid the more dangerous Flathead country and settle near French 
Prairie, where he would have protection, and where the land would lend 
itself to cultivation. Then he could gather the Indians around him, 
"teach them first to cultivate the ground and live more comfortably 
than they could do by hunting, and as they do this, teach them religion." 

Lee's first mission was not a success because the "great sickness" wiped 
out about four-fifths of the Indians in this section; he began another, 
on the more healthful site of Salem, on June I, 1840. The missionaries 
erected a house and combined sawmill and gristmill on this property, 
and continued their efforts toward education and conversion of the In- 
dians. Becoming discouraged in these efforts, and not anticipating much 
success from another eastern trip to raise funds, the missionaries decided 
to lay out a town and sell lots to finance the Oregon Institute, a "liter- 
ary and Religious Institution of learning," which turned its emphasis 
to schooling of white children following the great emigration of 1845. 
Oregon Institute was the forerunner of Willamette University, which 
was chartered in 1853. 

The town was laid out the following year, and the first lots sold 
were purchased with wheat. In choosing a name for the "town," which 
had one house when it was platted, the Calapooya Indian name Cheme- 
keta, or "place of rest," was proposed, but the missionary brethren pre- 
ferred a Biblical word, Salem, with a similar meaning. 

Growth of Salem was slow in the 1840'$, and discovery of gold in 
California at the end of the decade drew nearly half the population to 
the Mother Lode country. A few prospered and brought their new 
wealth back to Salem, where it contributed to the development of the 
town. 

The territorial legislature, meeting at Oregon City in 1851, chose 
Salem as the territorial capital. Democratic members, supported by the 
missionary influence, were apparently instrumental in this move. The 
Oregon Statesman, edited by Asahel Bush, strongly supported the move 
to Salem, and Thomas J. Dryer, editor of the Whig Oregonian, took 
the opposite side. When the time came for the meeting in Salem, in 
December of that year, the governor, two members of the territorial 
supreme court, and a minority of the legislature refused to move from 
Oregon City, stating that the act was unconstitutional because it con- 
tained two unrelated items, contrary to the organic law. A writer to 
the Statesman advanced "the probability that party spirit, to sustain the 
Governor, had something to do with this strange course of proceeding." 



23O OREGON 

Bush was more forthright; he called the dissidents "a squad of federal 
nullifiers" and "lickspittles and toadies of official whiggery." 

Accommodations were none too good for the legislators, their first 
session being held in the residence of J. W. Nesinith. In 1852 "there 
were perhaps a half dozen families living in Salem. The store was owned 
by John D. Boon. . . . The mission building and mill were standing." 
The following year Asahel Bush, who had been appointed territorial 
printer, moved his newspaper to Salem. The legislature, dissatisfied with 
unfinished buildings and cramped quarters, voted to move the capital to 
Corvallis in 1855. They traveled on the steamer Canemah, and Asahel 
Bush, in his dual guise as territorial printer and newspaper editor, took 
his much-traveled printing equipment along. However, Congress had 
appropriated money for erection of a capitol and other public buildings 
at Salem, and the Comptroller of the U. S. Treasury refused to recog- 
nize the bill moving the capital. The legislators then reembarked from 
Corvallis following one session there, and came back to Salem. Late that 
year the capitol was burned, supposedly by an incendiary. Thereafter the 
legislature met in rented buildings until a new one could be constructed. 
When Oregon was admitted to the union as a state in 1859, Salem 
continued as state capital. 

During the 1 850*8 Salem had connections with other valley points by 
river steamer, stage line, and telegraph, and seemed well on its way to 
an era of prosperity. Hopes were shattered, however, by the disastrous 
flood in December, 1861. The Willamette, swollen by heavy and pro- 
longed rains, surged over the business district, destroying wharves, saw- 
mills, stores, and residences. Not until 1871, with the coming of the 
railroad, did a new period of rapid development begin. 

During the Hayes-Tilden presidential election of 1876, Governoi 
LaFayette Grover (1823-1911) made a daring political move which, 
says the Dictionary of American Biography, "If it had succeeded, would 
have elected Tilden president." Governor Grover attempted to dis- 
qualify a Republican elector, a postmaster, on the grounds that he could 
not act because he held public office, and to replace him with a demo- 
crat, next highest on the list. He prepared an extended brief to support 
his position, but the electoral commission ruled against him. The Gover- 
or was threatened with mob violence as a result of this action, and when 
he resigned the governor's chair the following year to enter the U. S. 
Senate there was an unsuccessful attempt to prevent his being seated. 
As editor of the Oregon Archives and as a public official in several 
capacities Grover otherwise served with credit; for a number of 
years he was a prominent woolen manufacturer in Salem, but spent the 
latter years of his long life in retirement. 

Since that time Salem has had a steady industrial and commercial 
development, and state institutions have been built here until the city 
and vicinity now (1940) has all but two of them. The city has linen 
and paper mills, canneries, packing houses, ironworks, sawmills, and sash 
and door factories. 



SALEM 231 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

1. The MARION COUNTY COURTHOUSE (Open 8-5 
Mon.-Fri.; 8-1 Sat.), High St. between Court and State Sts., and ex- 
tending to Church St., was erected in 1872. Constructed of stuccoed 
brick, it is of French Renaissance design, with a mansard roof. A con- 
ventional figure of Justice with scales and a sword surmounts the high 
front cupola. 

2. The FEDERAL BUILDING (open 8-6 Mon.-Fri.; 8-12 
Sat.), Court St. between Church and Cottage Sts., is of modern design 
and is constructed of Vermont marble, with a California granite base. 
The lower story which houses the post office, is 136 by 124 feet, and 
the upper story 50 feet square. The grounds are beautifully landscaped. 

3. WILLSON PARK, bounded by Court, State, and Cottage Sts., 
with its towering shade and ornamental trees, many of them cuttings 
of historic trees, was the gift of Dr. W. H. Willson, early Oregon 
missionary. 

4. The STATE CAPITOL, Court, State, and i2th Sts., stands 
in its own park, adjoining Willson Park and seemingly a part of it. 
In the two parks are more than four hundred varieties of trees. Near 
the east entrance of the capitol is the CIRCUIT RIDER, a bronze eques- 
trian statue of life size, commemorating the pioneer missionary, Rev. 
Robert Booth. The sculptor was A. Phimister Proctor. 

The present Oregon State Capitol replaces the one destroyed by fire 
in 1935. Francis Kelly, associated with Trowbridge & Livingstone of 
New York, is the architect. Oregon associates are Whitehouse and 
Church. The building, modern in design, has a symmetrical facade that 
is divided into three main sections and dominated by a cylindrical cen- 
tral dome. The main entrance with its triple doors is surmounted by 
long windows and flanked by w r ide projecting bays, the latter taking the 
form of monumental pylons. The severity of the symmetrical wings is 
relieved by an effective arrangement of windows, which are designed in 
five bays separated by the vertical lines of narrow buttresses. These 
windows provide clerestory lighting for the executive chambers within. 
A row of square windows pierce the wall of the first story. 

The most decorative feature of the exterior is the cylindrical dome, 
resembling the fluted drum of a column. The base is pierced by a row 
of narrow stone-grilled openings. The dome is surmounted by a heroic 
figure, The Pioneer, by Ulric Ellerhusen. The building is 400 feet in 
length, 164 feet in width and 166 feet in height. 

The focal point of the interior of the Capitol building is the circular 
rotunda. It is finished in Travertine Rose, marble-like stone from Mon- 
tana. In the center of the marble floor is the seal of the State of Oregon. 
Four large murals depicting the history of the state decorate the upper 
walls of the rotunda. The two by Barry Faulkner, of New York, tell 
the stories of Captain Gray landing at the mouth of the Columbia River, 
and Dr. John McLoughlin welcoming settlers at Fort Vancouver. Those 
of Frank Swartz, also of New York, picture the Lewis and Clark expedi- 



232 OREGON 

tion at Celilo Falls, and a wagon train of 1843. Four smaller murals 
by the same artists represent Oregon's industrial development. Faulk- 
ner's represent the wheat and fruit industries, and fishing, and lum- 
bering. Swartz's depict sheep raising and mining, and dairying and cattle 
raising. The governor's suite, of three spacious rooms, is finished in 
native myrtlewood. 

5. West of the state house plaza stands the STATE LIBRARY 
(open 8-5 Mon.-Fri.; 8-1 Sat.), NE. corner of N. Winter and Court 
Sts., a three-story building with basement and penthouse. The design 
is modern, to conform with that of the capitol. It is constructed of white 
Georgia marble, and was designed by Whitehouse and Church, Portland 
architects. 

At the top of a flight of broad steps are three entrance doors, above 
each of which a marble plaque depicts an event in Oregon history ; they 
were carved by the Portland sculptor, Gabriel Lavare. In the main 
lobby of the building is a decorative medallion, also by Lavare. 

The interior is of oak with Montana travertine marble trim, the main 
office and board room finished in knotty ponderosa pine. The principal 
features of the library are the stack and reference rooms, and the Ore- 
gon and Government rooms. The stack room, planned to accommodate 
the library's 400,000 volumes, is three stones in height and has a floor 
area of 42 by 136 feet. The reference room, of two stories, is paneled 
in oak, with several wood plaques carved by Lavare depicting Oregon 
historical scenes. The Oregon Room, separated from the main reference 
room by bronze and wrought-iron gates decorated with the different 
Oregon seals in bronze, contains a special collection of reference and 
historical works, books, documents, and pamphlets, concerning the state. 
The Government Room is for the special use of legislators and state 
department employees. Here are gathered all state governmental records, 
books, and other data. 

6. The FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, NE. corner of 
N. Winter and Chemeketa Sts., designed by Whitehouse and Church, 
was built in 1928-29, of Willamette brick with wood trim. The struc- 
ture is of modified Georgian design, with columned portico and octa- 
gonal spire. To the right an extensive wing houses Sunday-school and 
recreational activities. 

7. SEQUOIA PARK, Marion and Summer Sts., only 150 square 
feet in area, contains a single redwood tree, eighty feet tall, planted by 
William Waldo in 1872. 

8. The STATE OFFICE BUILDING (open 8-5 Mon.-Fri.; 8-1 
Sat.), SE. corner of I2th and Court Sts., erected in 1914, houses 
subordinate state officials. It is a five-story Neo-Classic structure, em 
bellished with Doric pilasters and rusticated stone work. 

9. The STATE SUPREME COURT BUILDING (open 8-5 
Mon.-Fri.; 8-1 Sat.), NE. corner of I2th and State Sts., is occupied by 
offices and courtrooms of the state supreme court and the offices of & 
state superintendent of public instruction. The Neo-Classic stru' 



SALEM *33 

three stories in height, fs constructed of marble with engaged Ionic 
columns on each facade. 

10. WILLAMETTE UNIVERSITY, State St. between iath 
and Winter Sts., extending to Trade St., occupies an eighteen-acre 
campus, with seven buildings and an athletic field. Founded as Oregon 
Institute in 1842, the college is the oldest institution of higher learning 
in the Pacific Northwest. In 1844 the trustees of the institute purchased 
the Methodist mission-school property, including the three-story build- 
ing, then the most imposing structure in the Oregon country. In 1853 
a charter was granted by the territorial legislature creating Wallamet 
University, the institute being retained as a preparatory department. 
Later the name was changed to its present spelling, and the institute 
was discontinued. 

Oldest of its structures is WALLER HALL, built (1864-67) in 
the form of a cross, and named for Rev. Alvin Waller, early-day mis- 
sionary. The chapel and pipe organ are on the first floor. The UNI- 
VERSITY LIBRARY (open 7:30-9 Mon.-Fri.; 7:30-5 Sat.), con- 
tains 35,000 volumes and many valuable historical records, is the new- 
est building on the campus. It is of modified Georgian design. 

Administration offices and general classrooms are in EATON HALL, 
a red-brick and gray-sandstone structure finished in Oregon fir, the gift 
of A. E. Eaton of Union, Oregon. 

SCIENCE HALL, built for the use of Willamette Medical School 
(now discontinued) with funds raised by Salem physicians, houses the 
chemistry, physics, and home economics departments. MUSIC HALL, 
occupied by the school of music, originally housed the Kimball School 
of Theology. LAUSANNE HALL was named for the ship Lausanne, in 
which a party of missionary men and women came around Cape Horn 
to Oregon in 1839. The building, completed in 1920, is the women's 
dormitory. 

The GYMNASIUM, a modern three-story building with a gallery, 
is capable of seating 2,800 persons. THE UNIVERSITY MUSEUM 
(open 7:30-9 Mon.-Fri.; 7:30-5 Sat.), on the second floor of the gym- 
nasium, contains a collection of birds and animals, Indian relics, his- 
torical documents, minerals, woods, shells, and plants. 

CHRESTO COTTAGE was erected in 1918 by the Chrestomathean 
and Ch res tophi lean societies as a student-faculty social center. The 
ATHLETIC FIELD has a grandstand seating 5,600 persons. 

11. SITE OF THE FIRST STORE IN SALEM, NE. corner 
Ferry and Commercial Sts., is designated by a bronze marker. Here, in 
1848, Thomas Cox opened the first commercial establishment in Salem 
with a small stock of drygoods. 

12. FEDERAL ART CENTER (open 10-5:30 Mon.-Fri.; 10- 
5:30, 6-9 Sat.; 1-5 Sun.), 460 N. High St., established in 1937 by a 
Salem citizens' group in cooperation with the Federal government, is 
housed in the old Salem high-school building. The program being car- 
ried out by the sponsors includes a free art school, public school and 
library extension work, art library and reading room, lectures, and 




RAY LEOOUX 1930 



SALEM POINTS OF INTEREST 



1. The Marion County Court- 

house 

2. The Federal Building 

3. Willson Park 

4. The State Capitol 

5. State Library 



7. Sequoia Park 

8. The State Office Building 
g. The State Supreme Court 

Building 

10. Willamette University 

1 1. Site of the First Store in Sa 



i. The First Presbyterian Church 12. Federal Art Center 




SALEM 



\x 



1940- 



13. The Site of the Jason Lee Saw 

and Gristmill 

14. The Home of Jason Lee 

15. The Boyhood Home of Her- 

bert Hoover 

1 6. Oregon State School for the 

Deaf 

17. Miles Linen Mill 



1 8. The Jason Lee Cemetery 

19. The Oregon State Hospital for 

the Insane 

20. The State Penitentiary 

21. The State Forestry Building 

22. The State School for the Blind 

23. I.O.O.F. Cemetery 



236 OREGON 

exhibitions of the work of American and foreign artists and of students. 

13. The SITE OF THE JASON LEE SAW AND GRIST- 
MILL, Broadway and Liberty Sts., is noteworthy because the mill that 
stood here was the first structure in the settlement. The machinery for 
the mill was brought around the Horn on the Lausanne, and was later 
transported from Fort Vancouver to Salem in Chinook canoes. The 
preacher-mechanic at first set the millstones incorrectly so that they 
threw out the wheat instead of grinding it. 

On the same site, in 1857, Daniel Waldo established the first woolen 
mill in Oregon Territory, manufacturing blankets, flannels, and cash- 
meres. The mill was later burned but was reestablished on South I2th 
Street as the Thomas Kay Woolen Mills. 

14. The HOME OF JASON LEE (private}, 960 Broadway, was 
the scene of the first meeting, in 1842, of the founders of Willamette 
University, and was also the first post office in Salem. The frame resi- 
dence with its gable roof and bracketed doorway stands as it was built 
except for an addition by Judge R. P. Boise, Salem's first postmaster 
and later chief justice of the state supreme court. 

15. The BOYHOOD HOME OF HERBERT HOOVER 
(private), stands at the NW. corner of Highland Ave. and Hazel St. 
After young Hoover was orphaned, he spent several years in Salem 
with his uncle. It is said that the youth, later President of the United 
States, drove one of the horsecars on the then new street railway. 

1 6. OREGON STATE SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF (open 
8-12 and 1-4 daily, except Sat., Sun., fcf holidays), N. end of Laurel 
St., established in 1870 and moved to its present site in 1910, educates 
deaf children between the ages of six and twenty-one. 

17. MILES LINEN MILL (open 9-5 weekdays), 2150 Fair- 
grounds Rd., manufactures salmon twine, fish nets, sack twine, shoe 
thread, and linen yarns from Oregon flax. 

1 8. The JASON LEE CEMETERY, N. end of 25th St., is the 
last resting place of many of the pioneers who founded Salem. In the 
Missionary Plot are the graves of Jason Lee and his family. On a 
large marble headstone is inscribed a record of his work. The inscrip- 
tion on the headstone over the grave of Lee's first wife, Anna Pittman 
Lee, records that she was the first white woman buried in Oregon. 
Lee died in 1845, on a visit to his birthplace in Canada, and his body 
was returned here sixty-one years later. 

19. The OREGON STATE HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE 
(open 10-12, 2-4, daily except Sat., Sun. and holidays), Center and 
24th Sts., was established in 1880. Flower-bordered drives lead to the 
buildings and through the grounds. Twenty-five hundred patients are 
cared for, many of whom work on the hospital farm a few miles south 
of the institution, 

20. The STATE PENITENTIARY (open 9-11; 2-4; Mon. t 
Wed. and Frl), State and 24th Sts., a buff-colored building erected in 
1866, is noted for the development here of the Oregon flax industry, 
an enterprise started in 1915 to furnish non-competitive labor for prison 



IALEM 237 

inmates. The penitentiary has the largest scutching plant in the United 
States and the largest single acreage of flax in the world. A lime plant 
grinds fertilizer that is sold to farmers of the state at cost. 

Most notorious of its prisoners was Harry Tracy, the bandit, who 
escaped in June, 1902, and spread terror throughout the Northwest 
until his death in a gun fight, two months later, in a Washington wheat 
field. 

21. The STATE FORESTRY BUILDING, State and 24th Sts., 
is of gray stone veneer and Douglas fir construction. The front is of 
stone and the sides and back of stone veneer as high as the windows 
with Douglas fir planking laid horizontally to the eaves. Hand split 
and shaved cedar shakes cover the roof. The interior of the building is 
in native woods. The walls of the reception room are of Douglas fir 
and the floor of broadleaf maple; the walls of the state forester's office 
are of myrtlewood, the ceiling of tanbark oak and the floor of inter- 
mingled white oak, black locust, black oak, and tanbark oak ; the deputy 
forester's office has walls lined with crowfoot hemlock, ceiling of firtex, 
and floor of white oak. The board of forestry room has a freize of 
Oregon broadleaf maple burls, each burl "booked" to provide a pleasing 
design. The ceiling is a patchwork of burl-designs. Other rooms have 
walls of yew wood, sapstain pine, knotty ponderosa pine, Port Orford 
cedar, redwood, alder, curly ash, sugar pine, golden chinquapin, juniper, 
and madrona. The furniture is of native woods in harmony with the 
interior finish. 

22. The STATE SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND (open 8-12 
daily; 1:10-4:30 except Sat., Sun., and holidays)) Church and Mission 
Sts., established 1872 in a private residence, has occupied the present 
quarters since 1892. It is conducted as a free boarding school for blind 
children, and its courses meet college entrance requirements. 

23. In the I.O.O.F. CEMETERY, S. Commercial and Hoyt Sts., 
are graves of pioneers, state executives, and prominent citizens. Among 
those buried here are John Pollard Gaines, territorial governor from 
1850 to 1853, and Dr. William H. Willson, pioneer missionary, who 
donated the townsite of Salem. 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

Indian School at Chemawa, off US 99, 6 m. (see TOUR 2) ; Silver Falls State 
Park, 25 m. (see TOUR 2/4). 



IIIIIIIIIOIIIIIIIIIIIIDIIIIIIIIIItlDlillltllllllDllllllllllliailllllllllllDIIIIIIIIIIHailllllllllllDIIIIIIIIIIIIDIIIIIIIIIIIiaillllllH! 



The Dalles 



Railroad Station: Union Pacific Station, N. end of Liberty St., for Union Pacific 
Railroad. 

Bus Station: 311 E. 2nd St., for Union Pacific Stages and Mount Hood Stages. 
Airport: Emergency landing field, 2.1 m. N. via Columbia River ferry to Dalles- 
port, Wash.; no scheduled service. 

Pier: Port of The Dalles Dock for ocean and river craft, foot of Union St. 
Ferry: Connecting with US 830 via Dallesport, Wash.; 5oc for car and passen- 
gers, 25c for pedestrians. 

Accommodations: Two hotels, four tourist camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 2nd and Liberty Sts. 

Motion Picture Houses: Two. 

Tennis: High School courts open to public in summer, free. 

Golf: The Dalles Country Club, 3 m. W. on US 30; 9 holes, greens fee 5oc 

vfekdays, 750 Sun. and holidays. 

Annual Events: Easter Sunrise Services, Pulpit Rock; Pioneer Reunion, early 
May; Old Fort Dalles Frolic, early September. 

THE DALLES (98 alt., 5,883 pop.), seat of Wasco County, is the 
principal trade center of a large agricultural area in north central Ore- 
gon. Navigation development at Bonneville Dam and the dredging of 
a ship channel from Vancouver, Washington, to the dam will make 
marine transportation feasible to this point, 189 miles from the mouth 
of the Columbia River. 

The name of the city originated with French voyageurs of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, who found a resemblance between the basaltic 
walls of the Columbia narrows and the flagstones (les dalles) of their 
native village streets. The city is on the south bank of the river along 
a great crescent bend. The business district occupies a low bench along 
the water front, and the residential sections are built on terraces that 
extend southward, with a maximum elevation of one thousand feet. In 
The Dalles are numerous upthrusts of basaltic rock, causing many dead- 
end streets, confusing to visiting motorists and creating peculiar building 
difficulties. Some residences are perched fifty feet above their nearest 
neighbors. A flight of stairs, where Laughlin Street climbs from Fifth 
to Fulton, ascends an almost perpendicular cliff for three blocks. 

Old frame buildings shoulder modern masonry structures in the busi- 
ness center, while in the older residential districts are a number of 
quadrangular houses, with the inevitable ell of pioneer construction. 
In these the front door generally opens into a central hall, from which 
rises a stairway with newel and lamp. Modern home design tends to- 
ward the rustic. There are, however, a number of stone and pebble 



THE DALLES 239 

houses, such as are found in Italy and on the Dalmation coast; these 
were built by stone masons, who settled here following their employ- 
ment at Cascade Locks, the Celilo Canal, and on other public works. 

Indians called the site of the city Winquatt and Wascopam. The 
former means a hemmed-in bowl; the latter, the place of the wasco, a 
bowl made from the horn of a mountain goat, now extinct in this 
section but formerly hunted by the Indians in the surrounding moun- 
tains. Both names suggest the bowl-like arrangement of the canyon 
walls. 

Because its narrows and rapids made a break between navigable por- 
tions of the Columbia River, the site of The Dalles was geographically 
fitted to be "the great [Indian] mart of all this country," as Lewis 
and Clark, first recorded white visitors, found it in the fall of 1805. 
"Ten different tribes who reside on Taptate [Yakima] and Catteract 
[Klickitat] River," Clark wrote, "visit those people for the purpose of 
purchasing their fish, and the Indians on the Columbia and Lewis's 
[Snake] river quite to the Chopunnish [Nez Perce] Nation visit them 
for the purpose of tradeing horses buffalow robes for beeds, and such 
articles as they have not. The Skillutes precure the most of their cloth 
knivs axes & beeds from the Indians from the North of them who trade 
with white people who come into the inlets to the North at no great 
distance from the Tapteet." The Indians also found this a good fishing 
ground and a strategic point at which to levy tribute on travelers. 

Lewis and Clark stopped here on their westward journey "to make 
Some Selestial observations" and "to treat those people verry friendly 
& ingratiate our Selves with them, to insure us a kind & friendly recep- 
tion on our return." They gave the Indians presents, fed them plenti- 
fully, and entertained them. Pierre Cruzatte, one of the French voy- 
ageurs, played his violin, and York, Captain Clark's giant Negro 
servant, "danced for the Inds." The expedition found seals above and 
below The Dalles, and "one man giged a Salmon trout which ... I 
think the finest fish I ever tasted." In spite of their blandishments, 
however, the party had "ill suckcess" in purchasing horses when they 
returned here in the spring of 1806. Indians at The Dalles were ac- 
quainted with all the nuances of close bargaining; it was only after 
making purchases at high prices, which were retracted by the Indians 
to bargain for still higher prices, that Lewis and Clark were able to 
obtain four horses on which to pack goods eastward. 

After the establishment of fur trading stations on the lower Co- 
lumbia, The Dalles was a rendezvous for traders and Indians. When 
N. J. Wyeth passed this way in 1832 he found the Wascopam Indians 
friendly, but "habitual thieves." He "hired the Indians about 50 for 
a quid of tobacco each to carry our boats about I mile round the falls." 

The first white settlement was the Methodist mission, established 
in 1838 by Daniel Lee and H. K. W. Perkins. A Catholic mission was 
begun three years later, and one source says that the "two missions 
spent much more time striving against each other instead of striving to 
save the Indians' souls." By 1847 the Methodist mission had so declined 



340 OREGON 

that it was sold to Dr. Marcus Whitman, Presbyterian missionary, for 
$600. The Whitman Massacre late in that year led to abandonment of 
the mission and the establishment of Fort Lee in 1849 to subdue the 
Indians and protect emigrants. The fort was named for its command- 
ant, Major H. A. G. Lee. At this point overland emigrants placed 
their wagons on rafts and continued down the Columbia by water. The 
first store was opened the following year, and a rough board hotel was 
built, which was soon replaced by Umatilla House (razed in 1929), 
for a half a century internationally known for the excellence of its 
appointments, 

By 1852 a town had grown up around Fort Lee, and shortly after 
the formation of Wasco County in 1854 the town was laid out and lots 
were sold. Three years later a charter was granted to Fort Dalles, the 
name of which was soon changed to Dalles City, the present official 
designation, but the Post Office Department listed it as The Dalles, 
which name it retains. Captain Thomas Jordan, commandant at the fort, 
began publication of the Journal, first newspaper between the Missouri 
River and the Cascade Mountains, early in 1859. Within the year he 
sold it to W. H. Newell, who changed its name to the Mountaineer. 

The back-surge of migration, which had streamed into the regions 
west of the Cascades, came with the gold rush of the sixties. The streets 
swarmed with the heterogeneous humanity typical in frontier towns, 
and saloons and gambling houses flourished. The flow of gold was so 
large that the Federal government erected a mint at The Dalles, but 
exhaustion of the placer beds was as sudden as the initial rich strikes, 
and the mint was abandoned. 

During the two decades before 1880 the city's population was aug- 
mented by an influx of miners, cowmen, and traders. Long lines of 
freight wagons crawled through the streets and over the trails south- 
ward and eastward to the mines and stock ranges. Stages rumbled in 
from Umatilla, Canyon City, and the high desert regions. Steamboat 
service on the river was rapidly augmented, but it could not keep pace 
with the demand for transportation, and livery stables flourished. The 
Oregon Short Line, a Union Pacific enterprise, was completed in 1884, 
displacing freight wagons and taking some of the business from steam- 
boat lines. 

Following completion in 1896 of the Cascade Locks on the Columbia, 
about half way between The Dalles and Portland, steamboats could 
come up the river as far as The Dalles, and the rapids at this point 
remained the only obstacle to steamer transport as far east as Lewis- 
ton, Idaho. Many plans were advanced to overcome the barrier, and a 
portage railroad was built in 1904. The traffic handled by this road 
was so great that it led directly to the formation of the Open River 
steamboat line. Construction of the six-mile Celilo lock canal was begun 
in 1908 and completed in 1915, but river traffic declined after 1920. 

Salmon packing is a major local industry. F. A. Seufert, a resident 
of The Dalles, designed the fish-wheel (now prohibited by law), which 
revolutionized salmon fishing. Cooperative associations pack more than 



THE DALLES 24! 

thirty thousand barrels of brined cherries annually. The Dalles handles 
grain worth a million and a quarter dollars each year, livestock worth 
a million dollars, and wool to the value of a quarter of a million. 

With completion of the Bonneville dam project, The Dalles will 
be at the head of a 2OO-mile waterway. To accommodate this antici- 
pated traffic the Port of The Dalles has built docks and terminals at 
a cost of $300,000 to serve ocean and river shipping. 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

^ i. The FEDERAL BUILDING, SW. corner of 2nd and Union 
Sts., is a two-story Neo-Classic structure of gray Tenino sandstone. It 
houses the post office, the only remaining U. S. land office in eastern 
Oregon, and the office of the Wasco County agricultural agent. Once 
one of the busiest centers of activity in The Dalles, the land office has 
gradually become quiescent following the withdrawal of public lands 
from homestead entry. 

2. The CITY HALL, NW. corner of Court and 3rd Sts., a two- 
story brick building with native black basalt trim, houses all municipal 
departments, including the fire department. Set into the east wall is a 
bronze plaque that marks the site of the first courthouse between the 
Cascades and the Rocky Mountains. The old building was removed to 
320 East 3rd Street when the city hall was built. 

3. The WASCO COUNTY COURTHOUSE, NW. corner of 
Washington and 5th Sts., is a Neo-Classic structure of gray pressed 
brick and granite, with interior-finish dark gray variegated marble. In 
addition to all departments of county government, it houses The Dalles 
chapter of the American Red Cross and the county public health unit. 
In the county archives is the record of a license for a ferry across Green 
River, formerly in Oregon Territory but now within the boundaries of 
Wyoming. 

4. The CIVIC AUDITORIUM, NW. corner of 4th and Federal 
Sts., is a memorial built by the city to World War veterans. Besides an 
audience hall seating over a thousand persons, there is a ballroom, a 
community room, a gymnasium, and offices of the National Guard 
company. The American Legion meets in the community room. 

5. The FIRST COURTHOUSE (private), 320 E. 3rd St., was 
built in 1859 on the site of the City Hall and was removed to its 
present site to make way for that building. At the time of its construc- 
tion, Wasco County embraced the entire region between the Cascades 
and the Rocky Mountains, the Columbia River, and the California line. 
The old building has been given a coat of stucco and is used as a lodg- 
ing house. 

6. The HORN, 205 E. 2nd St., originally a saloon operated by 
Charles Frank, is a lunchroom with a collection of ancient firearms; 
the horns of mountain sheep, bison, deer, elk, and other animals adorn 
its walls. 

7. The WILSON HOUSE (private), 209 Union St., a small 










THE DALLES POINTS OF INTEREST 



1. The Federal Building 

2. The City Hall 

3. The Wasco County Court- 

house 

4. The Civic Auditorium 

5. The First Courthouse 



6. The Horn 

7. The Wilson House 

8. The Port of The Dalles Ter- 

minals 

9. Fort Rock 

10. St. Mary's Academy 



THE DAL ES 




St. Peter's Church 
Park 

Pulpit Rock 
Amaton Spring 
Pioneer Cemetery 
Sorosis Park 



1 8. The Parade Ground of Old 

Fort Dalles 

19. The Dalles Indian Mission 

Monument 

20. The Dalles Cooperative Grow- 

ers Plant 



The Old Fort Dalles Histori- 21. The Dalles Mint 
cal Society Museum 



244 OREGON 

square frame house, was once the home and post office of the nation's 
first postmistress, Mrs. Elizabeth Millar Wilson, an appointee of Presi- 
dent Grant. 

8. At the N. end of Union St., is the PORT OF THE DALLES 
TERMINALS, two corrugated iron warehouses on a wharf 1,190 
feet in length, equipped with modern marine elevators to serve ocean 
and river craft. 

9. FORT ROCK, reached by way of a marked trail from the 
Union Pacific Station, N. end of Liberty St., is on the rocky promon- 
tory overlooking the Columbia. This "rockfort camp" was used by the 
Lewis and Clark expedition in the fall of 1805 and in the spring of 
1806. Clark wrote: "we formed our camp on the top of a high point 
of rocks, which forms a kind of fortification . . . well Calculated for 
Defence, and convenient to hunt under the foots of the mountain." 
They had good reason to choose a strong situation; the Indians would 
probably have killed them for their goods had not their party been a 
strong one. But they had other troubles: "The Flees which the party 
got on them at the upper & great falls, are very troublesom and dificuelt 
to get rid of, perticularly as the men have not a Change of Clothes to 
put on, they strip off their Clothes and kill the flees, dureing which time 
they remain nakid." 

^ 10. ST. MARY'S ACADEMY, NW. corner of 3rd and Lincoln 
Sts., has provided high-school instruction for girls since 1863, but until 
1930 there was only primary instruction for boys. Among the youths 
who attended the school was N. J. Sinnott, former Congressman from 
Oregon and member of the U. S. Court of Claims. 

11. ST. PETER'S CHURCH (Roman Catholic), SW. corner 
3rd and Liberty Sts., is a red-brick edifice of Gothic design. Its spire 
rises 146 feet and is surmounted by a chanticleer weathervane. 

12. In a small city PARK, I2th and Union Sts., opposite the red- 
brick schoolhouse is an old Oregon Trail marker dedicated by Ezra 
Meeker, who crossed the plains in 1852, and who in his later years re- 
traced the route by ox-team and covered wagon, and also by airplane. 

13. PULPIT ROCK, I2th and Court Sts., is a natural upthrust 
of conglomerate in the form of a pulpit, from which early Methodist 
missionaries preached to the Indians. All religious denominations in the 
city join in an annual Easter sunrise service at this rock. 

14. Immediately north, below Pulpit Rock, is AMATON 
SPRING (Place of the Wild Hemp), site of an ancient Indian en- 
campment. The buildings of the Methodist mission, established in 1838, 
were near this point. Daniel Lee, co-founder of the mission, in his Ten 
Years in Oregon tells of finding "a valuable spring of water, some rich 
land, and a good supply of timber, oak, and pine, and an elevated and 
pleasant location for a house almost in their shade; with a fine view 
of the Columbia River, three miles on either hand. . . . The Indians 
assisted in cutting the timber, and bringing it upon the spot." The 
mission was sold to the Presbyterians in 1847 and retransf erred to the 
Methodists the following yearj the buildings were damaged during the 



THB DALLES 245 

occupancy of Federal troops in 1849 and following years, and the Meth- 
odist Mission Board was compensated to the amount of $24,000. 

15. PIONEER CEMETERY, on winding Scenic Drive, is the 
burial place of many of the city's pioneer citizens. The cemetery was 
established in 1859 with the burial of a man named Kelly. The marker 
has been broken and his first name is unknown. The plot comprises 
about four acres covered with native oak trees. Wild bunchgrass, sun- 
flowers, lupines, and Oregon grape cover some of the graves. Here are 
buried Joseph Gardner Wilson (1826-73), first circuit court and su- 
preme court judge from eastern Oregon, and his wife Elizabeth Millar 
Wilson (1830-1913), the first postmistress whose appointment was con- 
firmed by the United States Senate. 

1 6. SOROSIS PARK, a pine-covered tract at the top of Scenic 
Drive, is partially improved. Here is a $5,000 marble fountain, the gift 
in 1911 of Maximilian Vogt, early-day merchant and philanthropist. 
The bowl of the fountain is ten feet in diameter divided into four sec- 
tions into which the water flows from bronze lions' heads facing the 
major points of the campus. Above the bowl rises a square granite shaft 
surmounted by a bronze decoration with five tines. From the park is an 
inspiring view of the grain-covered eastern Oregon hills and plateaus, 
and the snow-capped peaks of the Cascade Range. 

17. The OLD FORT DALLES HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
MUSEUM (open 9-5 daily), SW. corner I5th and Garrison Sts., 
occupies the last remaining building of the Old Fort Dalles group. The 
museum contains Indian artifacts and American history material, in- 
cluding arrows, stone bowls, baskets, beadwork, and old articles of 
furniture brought across the plains in covered wagons. Pioneer vehicles 
owned by the American Legion and stored in sheds near the museum, 
are exhibited annually at The Old Fort Dalles Frolics. One of them, a 
stagecoach that once carried President U. S. Grant, bears bullet holes 
from early-day bandit raids. 

1 8. The PARADE GROUNDS OF OLD FORT DALLES, 
1 4th and Trevitt Sts., is occupied by the Colonel Wright Grade School, 
named for a fort commandant. 

19. THE DALLES INDIAN MISSION MONUMENT, in a 
triangular plot at 6th and Trevitt Sts., was erected by Willamette 
University in 1930 to perpetuate the memory of the Methodist mission 
established here in 1838, by Daniel Lee. The marker was carved from 
native Oregon granite by Louis Comini, pioneer granite worker. 

20. THE DALLES COOPERATIVE GROWERS PLANT 
(open by arrangement), N. end of Jefferson St., processes annually 
20,000 barrels of maraschino cherries and employs 250 women seven 
months of the year. Experiments in collaboration with the Oregon State 
Agricultural College, beginning in 1927, perfected sulphurous bleaching 
and acid brines for hardening the cherries. The product is sold in whole- 
sale quantities to eastern confection concerns. The enterprise affords a 
sure market for the large number of cherry growers in The Dalles area. 

ai. THE DALLES MINT (private), center of block bounded 



246 OREGON 

by E. 2nd, Monroe, Madison, and E. 3rd Sts., is a stone building con- 
structed by the Federal government in 1868. It was built at a cost of 
$105,000 at a time when gold mining in eastern Oregon and Idaho 
promised rich returns, but never coined a piece of money. Before the 
structure could be equipped, the mines so diminished in production 
that the government sold the building. Today it is the enginehouse of 
the Columbia Warehouse Company, a grain and storage concern. 

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS 

Seufert Bros. Cannery, 3 m. ; Celilo Falls (Indian fisheries), 11 m. ; Mayer 
State Park (Rowcna Lookout), 10.5 m.\ Memaloose Lookout, 14.1 m. (see 
TOUR i). 



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PART III. 

All Over Oregon 



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nmimiamiiiinmniiimiiimniiiimmiinmiHiiimaimimminiiiiiiiim 



Tour 1 



(Caldwell, Idaho) Ontario Pendleton The Dalles Portland- 
Astoria; 518.9 m. US 30. 

Union Pacific Railroad parallels US 30 between Idaho Line and Portland; 

Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railroad, between Portland and Astoria. Stage 

service throughout. 

Paved road, passable except after severe snow and ice storms, when sections 

along Columbia River are temporarily blocked. 

All types of accommodations; improved camp sites. 

US 30 in Oregon closely follows the old Oregon Trail. Lewis and 
Clark used boats in the Columbia to reach the coast though later travel- 
ers followed the south bank of the river to The Dalles, where they 
transferred. 

Section a. Idaho State Line to Junction US 730, 221.7 m. 

US 30 crosses the Oregon line, which is in the SNAKE RIVER, 
m. ; the river forms more than 200 miles of the Oregon-Idaho bound- 
ary. The river was named Lewis Fork by William Clark in honor of his 
fellow explorer Meriwether Lewis. Later the terms Shoshone and Snake 
were more often applied, because of Indian tribes that inhabited its 
drainage basin. Saptin, or Shahaptin, also frequently applied is derived 
from a branch of the Nez Perce. 

ONTARIO, 1.4 m. (2,153 alt., 1,941 pop.), a townsite in the 
i88o's, is the principal trade center for the 300,000 acres of the Owyhee 
and Malheur irrigation projects (see TOUR *ja; also TOUR 6a). 
On the irrigated farms, apples and other fruits are produced ; and grain 
growing, hog raising and dairying are important industries. Ontario is 
the shipping point for vast areas of the Owyhee and Malheur Valleys 
and is the gateway to the great cattle country of central Oregon, served 
by the Oregon Eastern branch of the Union Pacific Railroad extending 
127 miles southwestward to Burns (see TOUR Ja). 

US 30 crosses the Malheur River (see TOUR ^a) at 3.7 m. In 
Fremont's Journal, under date of October n, 1843, he wrote: "about 
sunset we reached the Riviere aux Malheurs (the unfortunate or un- 
lucky river) a considerable stream, with an average breadth of fifty feet 
and, at this time, eighteen inches depth of water." From the straight 
young shoots of the wild syringa that grow along the river bank, the 
Indians fashioned their arrows, which fact gave the bush the local name 
of arrow- wood. 

Northward from the Malheur the road curves over sage-covered hills, 



25O OREGON 

a trail once traversed by Indians, trappers, frontiersmen, missionaries, 
soldiers, covered wagons, the pony express, the Concord coach. 

"Hickory yoke and oxen red 
And here and there a little tow-head 
Peeping out from the canvas gray 
Of the Oregon Overland on its way 
In Forty-Nine " 

At 8.8 m. is a junction with State 90. 
Right on State 90 to PAYETTE, Idaho, 3 m. (see TOUR 3, IDAHO GUIDE). 

At 16.8 m. US 30 forms a junction with US 3oN. 
Right on US 3oN to WEISER, Idaho, 3 m. (see TOUR 3, IDAHO GUIDE). 

OLDS FERRY at FAREWELL BEND, 30.7 m., established in 
1862, was one of the earliest ferries on the Snake River. At Farewell 
Bend, where the Old Oregon Trail leaves the Snake River and curves 
northwestward over the ridges to Burnt River (see below), the pioneers 
bade farewell to the river not knowing where they would again reach 
water. A marker (R) indicates that the expeditions of Wilson Price 
Hunt, Captain B. E. L. Bonneville, Nathaniel J. Wyeth, and Captain 
John C. Fremont, camped at this place. Here, on the night of December 
22, 1811, the starving Astorians under command of Captain Hunt 
crossed the ice-filled Snake River. "Mr. Hunt caused a horse to be 
killed and a canoe to be made out of its skin," wrote Washington Irving 
in Astoria. "The canoe proving too small another horse was killed and 
the skin of it joined to that of the first. Night came on before the little 
bark had made two voyages. Being badly made it was taken apart and 
put together again by the light of the fire. The night was cold ; the men 
were wearied and disheartened with such varied and incessant toil and 
hardship. ... At an early hour of the morning, December 23, they began 
to cross. . . . Much ice had formed during the night, and they were 
obliged to break it for some distance on each shore. At length they 
all got over in safety to the west side; and their spirits rose on having 
achieved this perilous passage." 

Hunt, leading his party of 32 white men and Marie and Pierre 
Dorion, Indian guides, and their two small children, made for the moun- 
tains. Five horses had been laden with their luggage, and these horses 
ultimately served as food. 

Fremont wrote in an early report: "Leaving the Snake River, which 
is said henceforth to pursue its course through canyons, amidst rocky 
and impracticable mountains where there is no possibility of traveling 
with animals, we ascended a long and somewhat steep hill ; and crossing 
the dividing ridge, came down into the valley of the Brule' or Burnt 
River, which here looks like a hole among the hills." 

At 35.7 m. change is made between Rocky Mountain and Pacific 
Standard Time. 



TOUR I 251 

HUNTINGTON, 36.3 m. (2,112 alt., 803 pop.), named for two 
brothers who platted the townsite, is three miles from the Snake River 
in the Burnt River Valley. The townsite is a part of the land claim of 
Henry Miller who settled here in August, 1862, and built the stage 
tavern known for many years as Miller's Station. The rails of the 
Oregon Short Line and the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company 
line were joined here in 1884, and since that time Huntington has been 
an important railway division point. 

Northward from Huntington, US 30 follows the canyon of Burnt 
River, which it crosses 15 times in 12 miles. As early as 1819 Donald 
McKenzie spoke of the Brule', saying that Indians had been burning 
the hills, giving the country a black appearance. Fremont noted: "The 
common trail, which leads along the mountain-side at places where the 
river strikes the base, is sometimes bad even for a horseman." All pio- 
neers agreed that the Burnt River canyon was one of the most arduous 
sections of the old Oregon Trail. 

At LIME, 41.6 m. (2,223 alt., 18 pop.), a large conveyor crosses 
over the highway, connecting two units of a cement plant. 

At RATTLESNAKE SPRING, 51.9 m. t the State Highway De- 
partment maintains a drinking fountain and rest rooms. 

DURKEE, 57.3 rn. (2,654 alt., 100 pop.) is the trading post for 
a quartz and placer mining area and shipping point for cattle. Close by, 
along Burnt River, are found fire opals of excellent quality. 

BAKER, 82.2 m. (3,440 alt., 7,858 pop.). 

Railroad Station: Union Pacific Depot, W. end of Broadway, for Union Pacific 

Railroad. 

Bus Station: ist and Court Streets, for Union Pacific Stages. 

Taxis: 2$c minimum. 

Accommodations: Three hotels; six tourist camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, Baker Hotel, 1701 Main St. 

Moving Picture Houses: Three. 

Athletic Fields: Baseball Park, Campbell and Grove Street. 

Swimming: Natatorium (Adm. 25c), 2450 Grove St. 

Golf: Baker Country Club, 9 holes; greens fees, 3oc, 0.8 m. SW. on State 7 

Shooting: Baker County Rod and Gun Club, 2.7 m. SW. on State 7. 

Annual Events: Baker Mining Jubilee, July. 

Baker, on the upper reaches of Powder River, is at the mouth of a 
shallow canyon, and looks northward over the Powder River Valley. 
Its wide streets are bordered for many blocks by business houses and the 
dwellings are shaded in summer by poplar, locust and cottonwood. Ris- 
ing above the city roofs the ten-story Baker Hotel, one of the tallest 
buildings in the state, is a conspicuous landmark. The city hall, schools, 
hospital, and other public buildings, and many other structures, are built 
of a steel-gray volcanic stone, quarried a few miles south of town. This 
stone cuts readily when first quarried, and hardens when exposed to 
the weather. 



252 OREGON 

Although born of the eastern Oregon gold rush, and firmly estab- 
lished as the "gold coast" of Oregon, Baker is a city of numerous in- 
terests. Flour mills, grain elevators, and dairies process grain and milk 
from surrounding farms; packing plants and poultry houses serve cattle 
and sheep ranches of surrounding ranges, and the valley poultry farms. 

Early settlers overlooked the beauty of the Baker site and the utility 
of its resources. Not until the California gold rush reminded men of 
the fabled yellow stones, picked up in a blue bucket on the trail, did 
prospecting begin in the canyons. 

The first house in the Baker settlement was built of log, in 1863. 
Soon a box saloon, a hotel, and a blacksmith shop were opened. In the 
spring of 1864 Col. J. S. Ruckels built a quartz mill; James W. Virtue 
erected the first stone structure for his assay office and bank, and the 
Reverend P. DeRoo opened the Arlington Hotel. The town was laid 
out in 1865 by Royal A. Pierce and named for Col. E. D. Baker, 
United States Senator from Oregon and close friend of Abraham 
Lincoln. Baker was killed at Ball's Bluff, Va., October 21, 1861, while 
serving in the Federal army. 

In 1868 the county seat was changed from Auburn to Baker. Some 
difficulty arose over the transfer of records and a crowd from Baker 
went to Auburn with a team and wagon and "very early in the morning 
everything belonging to the county offices was loaded into the wagon 
and on the way to their destination before the people of Auburn knew 
what was going on." In 1874 the town was incorporated as Baker City, 
but about 1912 "City" was dropped. 

In spite of poor transportation facilities Baker did a thriving busi- 
ness in mining supplies and provisions. Merchandise was freighted over 
the hazardous mountain roads to the mining camps of Rye Valley, 
Willow Creek, and the Mormon Basin, 75 to TOO miles away. The stage 
line, carrying the United States mail and Wells, Fargo & Company's 
express, was transferred from the old immigrant road east of town to 
Place's toll road through Baker City in 1865. Coaches of the North- 
west Stage Company made regular connections with the Union Pacific 
Railway at Kelton, Nevada, while other lines reached out to Gem 
City, Sparta, Eldorado, and the Greenhorn Range. Hold-ups by "road- 
agents" and pillaging of stages and freight wagons by hostile Indians 
were of frequent occurrence, and swollen rivers and winter storms added 
peril to many a trip. 

Travelers passing through saw more exciting life in Baker City than 
in any town between Portland and Salt Lake. Miners, gamblers, filles 
de joie, ranchers, cowboys, and sheepherders frequented the dance halls 
and saloons or mingled on the board walks with the citizenry. Gambling 
halls, blacksmith shops, livery stables, and feed corrals were the prin- 
cipal industrial establishments. Notwithstanding the two-fisted char- 
acter of the town, the city commissioners in 1881 passed an ordinance 
prohibiting small boys from shooting marbles or riding velocipedes on 
the sidewalks, and required one citizen to remove his potato patch from 
a lot on a principal street. 



TOUR I 253 

In 1880 the Census Bureau found 1,197 people here, including 166 
Chinese, males being predominant. According to this census there were 
only 143 females in the city. 

The first train on the new Oregon Short Line arrived here August 
19, 1884. The town then boasted a substantial business district with 
two-story brick or stone structures; and the coming of the railroad 
further stimulated trade. The Eagle Sawmill Company opened a lumber 
yard in Baker in 1886; in 1888 the Triangle Planing mill began oper- 
ation, and in June 1892, the Baker City Iron Works was established. 
The first newspaper published in Baker County was the Bedrock 
Democrat, on May II, 1870; soon followed by the Daily Sage Brush, 
the Reveille, and the Tribune. 

The last decade of the century opened with the usual western boom 
hitting the little "Denver of Oregon," and real estate values sky-rock- 
eted. But the boom soon burst and values settled to their former firm 
level. Since the turn of the century the city has had a steady grow 
becoming the trade center of a vast agricultural and stock-producing 
region and the mining metropolis of the State. Neighboring mines have 
already produced more than $150,000,000 and Baker County still holds 
75 percent of the mineral wealth of the State. A bullion department 
is maintained at the First National Bank. 

The GOLD EXHIBIT (open 9-3 weekdays), in the First National 
Bank at 2001 Main St., contains gold in its various forms: nuggets, 
dust, and ores. One nugget from the Susanville district weighs 86 ounces 
and is worth more than $3,000. 

The BAKER MUNICIPAL NATATORIUM (open 9-9 week- 
days, adrn. 25c), SE. corner of Campbell and Grove Sts., was built at 
a cost of $200,000. Springs of considerable mineral content furnish 
water at 80 degrees, gushing 400 gallons a minute. The main plunge 
is equipped with shower, steam, needle and tub baths. 

The CITY PARK, Grove St., between Madison and Campbell 
Sts., extending to Resort St. on both banks of the Powder River, has a 
playground for children, swings, seats, and a bandstand that is used for 
weekly concerts during the summer. In the park is a monument erected 
in 1906 to the pioneers of the provisional government period. The 
monument was built with the contributions of 800 school children. 

The CARNEGIE PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-5 weekdays), SE. 
corner of 2nd and Auburn Sts., of modified Classical Revival design, 
is constructed of local stone. On its shelves are 16,000 volumes, several 
thousand music scores, and a large collection of art prints, many in 
color, which are used by study clubs. 

The BAKER COUNTY COURTHOUSE (open 9-4 weekdays), 
3rd and Court Sts., is a square, three-story building of local stone, sur- 
mounted by a clock tower. 

Baker is at the junctions with State 7 (see TOUR lA) and State 86 
(see TOUR iB). 

North of Baker the route runs through the broad Powder River 
Valley. 



254 OREGON 

HAINES, 92.9 m. (3,334 alt., 431 pop.), is the trading center of a 
rich farming district. The Elkhorn Range of the Blue Mountains (L) 
is dominated by five conspicuous peaks; from south to north ELK- 
HORN PEAK (8,922 alt.), ROCK CREEK BUTTE (9,097 alt.), 
HUNT MOUNTAIN (8,232 alt.), named for Wilson Price Hunt; 
RED MOUNTAIN (8,304 alt.), and TWIN MOUNTAIN (8,920 
alt.). Fremont wrote of this range: "It is probable that they have re- 
ceived their name of the Blue Mountains from the dark-blue appear- 
ance given to them by the pines." 

A couple miles north of Haines is the Ford of Powder River called 
in early days the Lone Tree Crossing. Thomas J. Farnham noted on 
September 19, 1839: "Cooked dinner at L' Arbor Seul, a lonely pine in 
an extensive plain." Four years later Fremont wrote: "From the 
heights we looked in vain for a well-known landmark on Powder River, 
which had been described to me by Mr. Payette as I'arbre seul (the 
lone tree) ; and, on arriving at the river, we found a fine tall pine 
stretched on the ground, which had been felled by some inconsiderate 
emigrant axe. It had been a beacon on the road for many years past." 
After the cutting of the tree the place became known as Lone Pine 
Stump. 

Crossing the North Powder River, 101 m., US 30 passes a RODEO 
STADIUM (L) on the edge of NORTH POWDER, 101.3 m. 
(3,256 alt., 553 pop.), founded in the seventies by James DeMoss, 
father of the famous DeMoss family of concert singers. The city was 
named for a branch of the Powder River that enters the main stream 
at this point. The river was so named because of the powdery character 
of the volcanic soil along its banks. 

Left from North Powder on a gravel road that winds along the North Powder 
River into the WHITMAN NATIONAL FOREST, 12 m., and ascends sharply 
toward the summit of the Blue Mountains. 

At 18 m. is a junction with a foot trail. L on this trial 1 m. to VAN PATTEN 
LAKE, one of a closely grouped series of beautiful highland lakes in the heart 
of the mountainous region known as the ANTHONY LAKES RECREATIONAL 
AREA. These lakes, headwaters of three major streams the North Fork of the 
John Day, the Grande Ronde, and the North Powder are well stocked with 
rainbow and eastern brook trout. 

On the graveled road is ANTHONY LAKE, 21 m. (7,100 alt.), a vacation 
resort. (Forest camps, picnic grounds, commercial accommodations; boats and 
fishing tackle for hire}. The resort is summer headquarters of the district forest 
ranger. Left from Anthony Lake 0.7 m. to BLACK LAKE (good fishing] ; right 
0.3 m. to MUD LAKE (camp sites) ; and right 1.6 m. to GRANDE RONDE 
LAKE (boats for hire; camp sites). 

A marker at 104.1 m. indicates the camp where Marie Dorion, wife 
of the half-breed interpreter attached to the Hunt party, gave birth 
to a child on December 30, 1811. Irving writes: "They . . . suffered 
much from a continued fall of snow and rain. . . . Early in the morning 
the squaw of Pierre Dorion . . . was suddenly taken in labor, and en- 
riched her husband with another child. . . . Pierre, . . . treated the 
matter as an occurence that could soon be arranged and need cause no 



TOUR I 255 

delay. He remained by his wife in the camp, with his other children 
and his horse, and promised soon to rejoin the main body, who proceeded 
on their march. ... In the course of the following morning the Dorion 
family made its reappearance. Pierre came trudging in advance, fol- 
lowed by his valued, though skeleton steed, on which was mounted his 
squaw with the new-born infant in her arms, and her boy of two years 
old wrapped in a blanket slung at her side." 

Crossing a dividing ridge over which the wagons of the pioneers 
struggled valiantly, the highway drops into the Grande Ronde Valley, 
called by the French-Canadian trappers La Grande Vallee'. "About two 
in the afternoon," wrote Fremont, "we reached a high point of the 
dividing ridge, from which we obtained a good view of the Grand Rond 
a beautiful level basin, or mountain valley, covered with good grass 
on a rich soil, abundantly watered, and surrounded by high and well- 
timbered mountains; and its name descriptive of its form the great 
circle. It is a place one of few we have seen in our journey so far 
where a farmer would delight to establish himself, if he were content 
to live in the seclusion it imposes." 

Captain Bonneville, saw the valley in 1833 and reported: "Its shel- 
tered situation, embosomed in mountains, renders it good pasturing 
ground in the winter time; when the elk come down to it in great 
numbers, driven out of the mountains by the snow. The Indians then 
resort to it to hunt. They likewise come to it in the summer to dig the 
camas root, of which it produces immense quantities. When the plant 
is in blossom, the whole valley is tinted by its blue flowers, and looks 
like the ocean when overcast by a cloud." 

UNION, 116.8 m. (2,717 alt., 1,107 Pop-)> once the seat of Union 
County, was settled in 1862 by loyal citizens who perpetuated the spirit 
of their patriotism in the name of the town. Conrad Miller, the first 
settler, selected land a mile west of the present town in 1860. Union 
is the center of a rich agricultural and stock-producing area. Catherine 
Creek, a good fishing stream, runs through the town. The 62O-acre 
EASTERN OREGON STATE EXPERIMENT STATION is at 
the west city limits; here experiments are made in the growing and 
improving of grains, grasses, and forage crops. Here also are a dairy 
unit, a poultry unit, a five-acre orchard, and truck-garden plots. 

At HOT LAKE, 122.4 m. (2,701 alt., 250 pop.), water gushing 
from springs has a temperature of 208 degrees, boiling point at this 
altitude. It is used for both medicinal and heating purposes in a large 
sanitorium. Irving says, in speaking of the eastbound Astorians under 
the command of Robert Stuart: "They passed close to ... a great 
pool of water three hundred yards in circumference fed by a sulphur 
spring about ten feet in diameter boiling up in the corner. The vapor 
from this pool was extremely noisome, and tainted the air for a con- 
siderable distance. The place was frequented by elk, which were found 
in considerable numbers in the adjacent mountains, and their horns, shed 
in the springtime, were strewed in every direction about the pool." 

LA GRANDE, 131.5 m. (2,784 alt., 8,050 pop.). 



256 OREGON 

Railroad Station: Jefferson Ave., between Depot and Chestnut Sts., for Union 

Pacific Railroad. 

Bus Station: Terminal, Washington Ave. and jth St., for Union Pacific Stages 

and Inland Transit Lines. 

Taxis: Rates 250 in city. 

Accommodations: Hotels and tourist camps. 

Information Service: La Grande Commercial Club and Oregon State Motor 
Association, Chestnut St. and Adams Ave. 

Radio Station: KLBM (1420 kc.). 

Motion Picture Houses: Two. 

Athletic Fields: La Grande High School (flood-lighted), 4th St., between K 

and M Sts. 

Tennis: Municipal Courts, Walnut St. and Washington Ave. 

Golf: La Grande Country Club, 9 holes, $i weekdays; $1.50 Sun., 3 m. NE. on 

State 82. 

Swimming: Cone Pool (open air), a m. W. on US 30; Crystal Pool, N. 2nd St. 

Shooting: La Grande Gun Club, 3 m. E. on US 30. 

Annual Events: Union County Pioneer Meeting, July; Grange Fair, September. 

La Grande (2,784 alt., 8,050 pop.), seat of Union County, lies at 
the foot of the Blue Mountains near the western edge of the Grande 
Ronde Valley. Eastward rise the Wallowas, a low wall against the sky, 
serrated by bristling growths of fir and spruce. The town spreads out 
across a gently rising slope on the south bank of the Grande Ronde 
River, its wide streets pleasantly shaded by long rows of deciduous 
trees. Modern brick and concrete structures lend a metropolitan touch to 
the little city. 

Ignoring the beauty and productivity of its level acres for a quarter of 
a century settlers passed through the valley toward the Willamette and it 
was not until 1861 that a few settlers retraced their trail to stake the 
first claims in this region. They spent the winter about five miles north 
of the present city and in the following spring Ben Brown moved with 
his family to the south bank of the Grande Ronde River and built a 
log house at the foot of the mountains beside the overland trail. He 
converted his house into a tavern around which arose a small settlement 
known variously as Brown Town and Brownsville. Upon the estab- 
lishment of a post office in 1863, the name was changed to La Grande, 
in recognition of the beauty of the scenery. 

The town was incorporated in 1864 and in the same year the legisla- 
ture created Union County, designating La Grande as temporary county 
seat. The erection of a two-story frame courthouse started a county-seat 
fight that lasted 20 years. No vote was taken until 1874 when the town 
of Union won the contest. Then the citizens of Union descended on 
La Grande, forcibly appropriated the county records, and carted them 
home. Ten years later another vote reversed the first plebiscite and La 
Grande citizens invaded Union and took back the records. 

The city was once the home of Blue Mountain University, a Metho- 
dist college that ceased to function in 1884. During the Indian uprising 
of 1878, the alarmed populace took refuge behind the thick brick walls 



TOUR I 257 

of the old university building. The Indians did not enter the valley, 
but fear did not fully abate until Gen. O. O. Howard routed the tribes, 
killed Buffalo Horn, and drove Egan, the Paiute chieftain, from the 
state. 

The Oregon Railway and Navigation line came in 1884, following a 
tangent across the prairie from the gap at Orodell, two miles to the 
north, to Pyle Canyon. La Grande, finding itself a mile off the railway, 
created a "New Town" beside the tracks, though "Old Town," as it 
is still known locally, remains an integral part of the city. The coming 
of the railroad opened a wider market for the products of the region 
and the location of division shops in the city insured a large and perma- 
nent payroll. Thereafter the population steadily increased. 

Here in her girlhood dwelt Ella Higginson (ca. 1860- ), author 
of three books of poems, a novel, some volumes of short stories, and 
many songs. Here also lived Mrs. Higginson's sister, Carrie Blake 
Morgan, poet and magazine writer; Kay Cleaver Strahan, writer of 
mystery stories; Bert Huffman (1870- ), poet and author of Echoes 
from the Grande Ronde; and T. T. Geer (1851-1924), who during 
his long residence in the town and county, accumulated much of the 
material for his volume of reminiscences, Fifty Years in Oregon. 

The industrial life of La Grande centers about the railroad shops and 
the two large sawmills. Creameries, cold-storage and packing plants, 
and flouring mills provide additional employment. The principal prod- 
ucts of the surrounding country are fruit, livestock, and lumber. La 
Grande is the chief shipping and distributing point for Union and 
Wallowa Counties and the starting point for hunting, fishing, and 
sight-seeing trips into the Wallowa and Blue Mountains. 

The city adopted the commission-manager form of government in 



^ The FIRST UNION COUNTY COURTHOUSE (private), 
SE. corner of ist St. and B Ave., was erected in 1864 on the site of 
the former Ben Brown log cabin tavern. During the first year of its 
existence the lower floor of the courthouse was used as a print shop by 
the Democratic Grande Ronde Sentinel and the Republican Blue Moun- 
tain Times, the city's first newspapers; county offices were on the second 
floor. Later the second story was utilized as a schoolroom and sawdust 
was spread on the floor so that the noise of the children's feet would 
not disturb the county officials on the floor below. After the removal 
of the county seat to Union in 1874, the building was used as a 
church, as a store, and since 1876 as a residence. 

The OREGON TRAIL MONUMENT, on a hillside at the west 
end of B Ave., is a slab of stone three feet high and 15 inches square, 
with "The Old Oregon Trail, 1843-1853" inscribed on the east face. 
Scars of the old trail still remain slanting across the rugged slope. From 
the site is a panoramic view of the Grande Ronde Valley with the city 
in the foreground surrounded by checkered fields, and in the distance, 
Mount Emily and Mount Fanny lifting their crests above the Wallowa 
and Blue Mountains. 



258 OREGON 

The SITE OF BLUE MOUNTAIN UNIVERSITY, W. side 
of 4th St. between K and M Aves., is now the grounds of the La 
Grande high school and the Central grade school. In 1875 the university 
was organized under the auspices of the Columbia Conference of the 
Methodist Church. For a decade the college flourished, but in 1884 
it was discontinued when the conference was divided and the church 
endowment restricted. The property was then leased for public school 
purposes and was purchased in 1889. The old La Grande high school, 
now the Central school, erected in 1899, was constructed partly of bricks 
from the old university hall, and the material from the old cornerstone 
was taken out and placed in the cornerstone of the new building. 

UNION COUNTY COURTHOUSE, L Ave. between 5th and 
6th Sts., constructed in 1904, is a two-story red brick building, sur- 
rounded by a landscaped park. Here are the court records since 1864, 
ivhich have suffered little loss or damage, despite the two forcible 
removals. 

EASTERN OREGON COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, S. of L 
Ave. between 8th St. and Hill Ave., has a 30 acre campus on an emi- 
nence overlooking the city. It was established in 1929 and is the only 
Oregon institution of higher learning east of the Cascade Mountains. 
The central, or administrative building, a concrete structure of Italian 
Renaissance design, erected in 1929, provides offices, classrooms, a li- 
brary, and an auditorium seating 600. Leading upward to the building, 
which is 42 feet above the street level, is a wide stairway of buff-colored 
concrete with ornamental balustrades. The J. H. Ackerman Training 
School, of similar architecture to the administration building, a labora- 
tory school, sponsored jointly by School District No. I of Union County 
and the State of Oregon, was erected with Public Works Administration 
funds. One of Oregon's three teachers' training institutions, it serves 
an average of 350 students. 

La Grande is at a junction with State 82 (see TOUR ic). 

West of La Grande US 30 winds up the gorge of the Grande Ronde 
River into the Blue Mountains, Oregon's oldest land, known to geolo- 
gists as the Island of Shoshone. The Blue Mountains were one of the 
most formidable barriers in the path of the pioneer. In 1839 Thomas 
Farnham wrote about "The trail. . . . over a series of mountains swell- 
ing one above the other in long and gentle ascents covered with noble 
forests of yellow pine, fir and hemlock." In the evening "the mountains 
hid the lower sky, and walled out the lower world. We looked upon 
the beautiful heights of the Blue Mountains, and ate among its spring 
blossoms, its singing pines, and holy battlements." 

KAMELA, 151.3 m. (4,206 alt., 27 pop.), highest railroad pass in 
the Blue Mountains, is a starting point for camping and fishing trips. 

MEACHAM, 156.9 m. (3,681 alt., 70 pop.), was named for Col. 
A. B. Meacham, a member of the Modoc Peace Commission, who 
established the Blue Mountain Tavern at this point in 1863, just out- 
side the borders of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. In the early 1890'$ 
the site of Meacham was platted and given the Biblical appelation of 



TOUR I 259 

Jerusalem with a pretentious plaza in the center known as Solomon 
Square. But the dreams of the new Jerusalem soon abated and the little 
mountain village reverted to the old name of Meacham. 

EMIGRANT SPRINGS STATE PARK (facilities for picnick- 
ing) , 160.2 m., is at a spring said to have been discovered in 1834 by 
Jason Lee. Right of the highway, opposite the entrance to the park, 
is a large stone marker, erected in honor of the members of the first 
wagon train over the trail. It was dedicated in 1923 by President 
Warren G. Harding. 

The UMATILLA INDIAN RESERVATION, entered at 162.6 
77i., was named for a tribe of Indians that once inhabited the lands ad- 
jacent to the Umatilla River. It was established in 1855, and is now 
occupied by about 1,200 members of the Cayuse, Umatilla, and Walla 
Walla tribes, who engage in wheat-growing and ranching (see IN- 
DIANS AND ARCHEOLOGY). The reservation has no govern- 
ment school, but missions are maintained by the Roman Catholic and 
Presbyterian Churches. 

The summit of EMIGRANT HILL, 167.8 m. f (3,800 alt.), dis- 
closes a panorama of the Columbia Basin wheatlands. Fields of waving 
grain alternate with summer-fallow in a vast checker board of gold 
and gray, and the wild war cry of the painted savage is replaced by 
the hum of the combine harvester. On clear days Mount Hood and 
Mount Adams, more than 100 miles distant, can be seen against the 
western horizon. 

MISSION, 181.2 77*., is headquarters for the Umatilla Indian 
Agency. At the STATE PHEASANT FARM, 181.9 m. t grouse, 
quail, pheasants, and other game birds are bred for release on the up- 
lands of eastern Oregon. 

At 185.7 77i. US 30 forms a junction with State n, the Walla Walla 
Highway. 

Right on State n through wheatfields that stretch in a broad panorama up the 
slopes of the Blue Mountains (R), crossing the UMATILLA (Ind., water rip- 
pling over stones) RIVER, to ADAMS, 12.5 m. (1,520 alt., 178 pop.), named 
for an early wheat rancher. A school, a church, grain elevators, and dwellings 
are all that remain of a once thriving settlement. 

Right from Adams, on a gravel road 10 m. to THORN HOLLOW (1,450 
alt.), a small Indian settlement on the Umatilla Reservation. Left here to 
GIBBON, 16.1 m. (1,751 alt.), also on the Reservation, which has a school for 
Indian and white children. At 23.8 m., near the Umatilla River, is BINGHAM 
SPRINGS, a summer resort centering about the warm sulphur springs. (Hotel 
and cabin accommodations'). 

The old town of ATHENA, 17.7 m. (1,713 alt., 504 pop.), on State n by 
Wild Horse Creek, was a stage station on the road from Walla Walla to Pendle- 
ton. It was long the scene of an annual camp meeting with horse racing as an 
added diversion. A cannery, absorbing the pea yields of former wheatlands, 
gives the town an increasing economic importance. 

Before the Civil War WESTON, 21.3 m. (1,686 alt., 384 pop.), did brick- 
making and milling and was the first home of the Eastern Oregon Normal School. 
Until a fire destroyed all but two business houses in the iSSo's, Weston was a 
formidable rival of Pendleton. Pendleton editors complained that Weston was 
ahead of their town because Weston supported a street sprinkling system, con- 



260 OREGON 

sisting of two Chinese who spent the entire day passing up and down sprinkling 
the main street from their five-gallon cans of water. The old SALING HOUSE 
(private), on Main St., is a two-story structure of locally-made bricks and has 
a cupola that was used as a look-out during Indian raids. 

The town is the background for Oregon Detour, by Nard Jones, a popular 
novel of recent years. 

The summit of WESTON HILL, 30.3 m., commands a splendid panoramic 
view of the Blue Mountains and the Walla Walla Valley. To the right, is the 
deep Storm Canyon of the South Fork of the Walla Walla River, with Table 
Mountain upthrust between it and the North Fork Canyon, on the left. In the 
foreground, is the deeply etched canyon of the Walla Walla River, with its 
sun-lit orchard valley, bordered by golden terraces of wheat-covered foothills. 

MILTON, 31.4 m. (1,010 alt., 1,576 pop.), is on the old stage line between 
Wallula, Wash., and La Grande. The town was first settled by a few families 
who prohibited the sale of alcoholic beverages. In the i88o's the opposition led 
by the miller, who owned water rights on a nearby stream, moved outside of 
Milton's corporate limits. Buyers of lots in the new townsite received as a bonus 
free water privileges. Thus was established the town of FREEWATER 32.3 m. 
(1,010 alt., 732 pop.), which sold its liquor at "Gallon Houses," because Federal 
permits allowed them to sell liquor only in gallon lots. The two towns, which 
now overlap, are usually referred to as Milton-Freewater. They support a union 
high school, one of the best in the state. 

Milton is the canning and shipping center for a large pea-raising area, the alti- 
tude, from 1,000 to 3,500 feet, making several harvesting periods. Formerly 
wheat was the major crop, but from one-third to one-half of the land was idle 
under the summer-fallow plan. Now, with the rotation of peas and wheat, all 
of the land is used. Early in the year farmers lease the land not planted with 
wheat to pea canneries for cultivation. A mechanical drill, powered by a tractor, 
does the seeding, and while the plants are growing they are sprayed with pea- 
weevil poisons by a machine developed by the Agricultural Department of the 
Oregon State College. The crop is harvested by tractor-drawn swathers that cut 
the vines close to the ground. An automatic loader lifts the vines and deposits 
them in dump trucks that carry them to huge stationary viners, where the peas 
are taken from the pods. They are then placed in boxes, which are loaded into 
water-cooled trucks and rushed to the canneries, whose season extends from mid- 
June into August. 

After the vines have been stripped, they are stacked and sold to farmers as 
feed for stock. In 1938 pea-vine ensilage ranked second to alfalfa as roughage 
for cattle in this area, with an average yield of three and a half tons per acre. 
The vines are also dried and used as hay. 

When harvesting comes to an end discs are attached to tractors and the remain- 
ing vegetation is turned into the ground. This increases the fertility of the soil 
and aids in the control of pea pests. 

At 36.7 m. is a junction with a gravel road, L. here 12.5 m. to an old 
HUDSON'S BAY FARM, on which one of the original buildings of the com- 
pany's settlement still stands. Refugees from Waiilatpu, the Whitman Mission, 
were said to have been sheltered in this house in 1847. 

At 36.7 m. State n crosses the Washington Line and at 38.7 m. meets a 
county road leading northwestward down the Walla Walla River valley. 

Left on this road 5 m. to the WHITMAN MONUMENT. The old Whitman 
Mission of Waiilatpu was on the right bank of the Walla Walla River near its 
confluence with Mill Creek. Near the mission site is a shaft of granite com- 
memorating the Whitman tragedy of November 29, 1847, when thirteen inmates 
of the mission were slain by Indians. To the left of the grave is the site of the 
log house built in the fall of 1836 by Dr. Whitman and W. H. Gray, mission 
blacksmith. A short distance from this cabin stood the main building of the 
mission a T-shaped structure. At the mouth of Mill Creek was the mission mill. 
All these buildings were destroyed at the time of the Indian uprising. 

Dr. Marcus Whitman, a physician belonging to the Presbyterian church, estab- 



T O U R I 26l 

lished the mission in 1836, on the site selected the year before by the Reverend 
Samuel Parker, commissioned by the American Board of Foreign Missions. 

Dr. Whitman was prominent in early Oregon history. In 1843 he induced 
migration into Oregon so as to force it into the hands of the United States. He 
turned his mission into a sort of relay station, catering to the needs of the emi- 
grants and tending them in illness. The slaying of the mission inmates hastened 
Congress in declaring Oregon a Territory. 

PENDLETON, 187 m., (1,070 alt., 6,620 pop.) (see PENDLE- 
TON). 

Points of Interest: Round-Up Park, Pendleton Woolen Mills, Pioneer Park, 
Til Tavlor Park, County Courthouse. 

At Pendleton US 30 forms a junction with US 395 (see TOUR 5<z), 
with which it unites westward to a junction at 188.2 m. 

The EASTERN OREGON STATE HOSPITAL, (L) at 188.5 
m., a modern institution, with buildings adequate for 1,325 patients. 

West of Pendleton is a section of the vast wheat region of the Inland 
Empire. In this area two million acres of wheatlands are under cultiva- 
tion, and one might walk from Pendleton to The Dalles through grow- 
ing grain. Early spring, tractors, drag plows, harrows, and drills cross 
rich brown fields ; late summer and early fall, combines, drawn by trac- 
tors, mules, or horses, harvest the grain. Occasionally 32 horses are 
handled with one pair of reins as a combine travels around the golden 
foothills, cutting, threshing and sacking, exemplifying modern efficiency 
at its peak, in marked contrast with a scythe and cradle used by pioneers. 
These large-scale operations directed by bronzed harvest crews, are as 
picturesque as the cattle drives of old. As in other semi-arid portions of 
Oregon where wheat growing is a major industry, the practice of sum- 
mer fallow is almost universal. Half the acreage is planted each year 
and the remaining fields are either allowed to lie idle until weeds are 
plowed under, or the acreage is plowed and harrowed at frequent inter- 
vals during summer to preserve moisture and to keep down weed growth. 
Tawny squares of ripened grain, alternating with dull blues, purples 
and blacks of the fallow fields, is the picture just before harvest. 

At 188.6 m. is a junction with a side road. 

Left on this road, former route of US 30, to REITH, 2.7 m. (979 alt., 44 pop.), 
Pendleton Railroad division point. At 8.3 m. is HAPPY CANYON, an early- 
day settlement whose dance halls and gambling dens have been reproduced as a 
feature of the Pendleton Round-Up. ECHO, 23 m. (636 alt., 311 pop.), is a 
wool and wheat shipping point, near the site of old Fort Henrietta, an early-day 
army post. At 24.4 m. is the junction with US 30 near Stanfield. 

At 189.2 m. on US 30 is a junction with a gravel road. 

Right here to the PENDLETON AIRPORT, 1.1 m. (1,500 alt.), the first 
regular stop of the eastbound United Airline planes from Portland to Salt Lake, 
Chicago, and New York. A branch route to Spokane makes connections here. 

At 194.5 m. is the approximate point where the Oregon Trail left 
the general course of what is now US 30, and crossed high plains to 
Willow Creek, Alkali Flats, went down Rock Creek Canyon, and 
crossed the John Day River to The Dalles. 



262 OREGON 

STANFIELD, 210 m. (204 pop.), center of a great sheep raising 
country, was named for the Stanfield family, owners of a nearby ranch. 

HERMISTON, 215.5 m. (459 alt., 608 pop.), a tree-shaded oasis, 
with irrigation canals running through its streets is in the Umatilla 
Irrigation Project. Artificial waterways have reclaimed from the desert 
the surrounding fields that produce crops of grain, vegetables and fruit 
and that stand out in startling contrast to the sagebrush. The town is 
the home of the Eastern Oregon Turkey Association, which ships 
thousands of birds annually, and it is well known for its desert honey. 
It was named for the Weir of Hermiston, written by Robert Louis 
Stevenson. 

Left from Hermiston on State 207 to BUTTER CREEK, 18.4 m., so named 
it is said, when volunteer soldiers during the Cayuse Indian War of 1848 ap- 
propriated some butter intended for the officers' mess. Another version of the 
story is that the soldiers on breaking camp left crocks of butter cooling in the 
stream. The creek courses through a broken country, hideout for a gang of cattle 
and horse thieves in the i88o's. They carried on their depredations until the 
stockmen organized vigilante committees. The first victim was hanged on a 
scaffold made of fence rails. To discourage cattle thieving, as well as to prevent 
ownership confusion, raisers of stock filed with the county clerks small portions 
of leather on which were burned their identifying brands. Many of these leather 
brands are in the courthouses at Pendleton, Heppner, and Condon. 

LEXINGTON, 38.1 m. (1,418 alt., 180 pop.), is an important wheat-shipping 
point, named for the Massachusetts town. It began as a "wide place in the road" 
in 1885 and became a competitor with Heppner for the county seat of Morrow 
County. The townsite is on the homestead of William Penland for whom Penland 
Buttes to the north were named. At Lexington State 207 unites with State 74 and 
turns L. to CLARK RANCH, 46 m., where are the remains of an ancient stone 
sepulcher, one of several in this region. Found nearby are pictographs and arti- 
facts. Anthropologists have surmised that these graves contain remains of a 
Mayan people, antedating the American Indians, who left a trail from the Co- 
lumbia River to Central America. 

HEPPNER, 47.4 m. (1,905 alt., 1,190 pop.), the seat and commercial center 
of Morrow County, is situated at the confluence of Hinton and Willow Creeks, 
on a level valley floor, sheltered between high dome-like foothills. About 1858 
cattlemen drove their herds into the region to forage. Finding an abundance of 
rye grass along the creek bottoms, they established cattle camps and from them 
grew the first settlements. Sheepmen followed, but their first experiments were 
unsuccessful and lent encouragement to the cattlemen's hope that the sheep busi- 
ness would fail. Today, however, sheep raising is a leading enterprise. 

Heppner, the first permanent settlement in the region, was originally called 
Standsbury Flat, for George W. Standsbury, whose log cabin was for several 
years the only white man's dwelling within many miles. Heppner and Morrow 
established a store in 1872. When the need for a school was recognized in 1873, 
Henry Heppner, jumping on a cayuse, solicited the scattered settlers for funds. 
Later, at the suggestion of Standsbury, the town's name was changed. Heppner 
was completely razed by a flood, which swept down the Balm Fork into Willow 
Creek, following a cloudburst on Sunday afternoon, June 14, 1903. The wall of 
water, five feet high, drowned more than 200 persons, and damaged property to 
the amount of nearly $1,000,000. 

Southwest of Heppner State 207 winds up SPRINGLE CANYON to SPRIN- 
GLE MILL SUMMIT, 51.9 m., from which are extended views of the Blue 
Mountains. 

HARDMAN, 67.5 m. (3,590 alt., 120 pop.), once a center of commercial ac- 
tivity, is a village in a round depression of wheatlands that gives the illusion 
of great isolation. In the days of stage coaches, there were two villages in this 



T O U R I 263 

vicinity. Yellow Dog stood on the Adams ranch, about a mile west of the town 
of Rawdog. There was great rivalry between the two for the stage depot and 
the post office, and when Rawdog finally won by strength of numbers, it was 
known for some time as Dogtown. Still later it was called Dairyville, but the 
name was finally changed to Hardman for Dan Hardman, who had homesteaded 
the site. 

Hardman is one of the few towns in Oregon where the old-fashioned hand- 
worked pumps and town pump are in use. 

South of Hardman the country levels into a wide plateau before dipping 
sharply into the Rock Creek Canyon, which marks the end of the wheat-growing 
region and the beginning of the cattle and sheep ranges. 

At 79.4 m. is a junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road 0.9 m. to the HARRY FRENCH RANCH, where fire-opals 
of excellent quality have been found. The opal geodes lie in outcroppings from 
the surface to two feet in depth. In 1880 there was an "opal rush" to the district. 

A boundary of the UMATILLA NATIONAL FOREST is crossed at 83.1 m.; 
the forest is noted for its magnificent stand of western yellow pine. Limited lum- 
bering and the summer grazing of stock is permitted under Forest Service super- 
vision. 

At 89.3 m. is a junction with the Tamarack Mountain road; R. on this 
rough road 10 m. to TAMARACK MOUNTAIN, a splendid hunting ground 
where deer abound. 

At FAIRVIEW FOREST CAMP, 91.5 m., named for the fine view of the 
Blue Mountains to the southeast, are the usual camping facilities. South of the 
camp the highway descends over a sharply winding road into the gorge of the 
John Day River (see TOUR 6a), which cuts a great gash through the towering 
mountain ranges of eastern Oregon, to a junction with State 19, 100.3 m. (see 
TOUR iD), at a point 3.1 miles east of SPRAY. 

At 219 m. on US 30 are the UMATILLA COUNTY STATE 
GAME REFUGE, which shelters wild birds, especially migratory geese 
and ducks, and a GOVERNMENT IRRIGATION DAM. Below 
the dam, the Umatilla River's bed shows a curious rock formation 
similar to that at Celilo Falls (see below). 

At 221.7 m. is a junction with US 730 (see TOUR $a). 

Section b. Junction with US 730 to Portland, 192.7 m. 

West of the junction with US 730, m. f US 30 is called the Upper 
Columbia River Highway. It follows the south side of the river's mag- 
nificent gorge most of the way across the state. 

UMATILLA, 0.9 m. (294 alt., 345 pop.), at the confluence of the 
Umatilla and Columbia Rivers, was founded in 1863 under the name of 
Umatilla Landing as a shipping point for the Powder River and Idaho 
mines during the rush to the gold fields. In June, 1863, its buildings 
numbered 53, thirteen of which had been erected in four days. The 
Oregonian for June 24, 1863, reported: "Very little regard is paid to 
the pretended title of the proprietor, Mr. Lurchin, as any one who 
wishes a lot just naturally jumps it." As a result the town boasted over 
100 substantial buildings within six months after its founding. Twenty- 
five stores supplied the needs of citizens, packers, and stampeders, and 
two large hotels accommodated the traveling public. Wild-eyed mule 
skinners and gents with gold in their pokes and a hankering for whiskey 



264 OREGON 

roared through the streets, and freight wagons, stage-coaches, and pack 
trains clattered in from the dusty trails. 

When Umatilla County was formed in 1862 Marshall Station, forty 
miles up the Umatilla River, was designated the county seat, but the 
seat was moved to Umatilla Landing in 1865, where it remained until 
1868 when it was removed to Pendleton. In the years that followed 
Umatilla became the shipping point for large cargoes of grain from the 
eastern Oregon fields, but the Oregon Railway and Navigation line, 
constructed in the early eighties, diverted traffic and the town declined 
in importance as a port. 

IRRIGON, 8 m. (297 alt., 65 pop.), on the site of old Grande 
Ronde Landing, a former stopping place for travelers, derives its name 
and sustenance from the irrigation district of which it is the center. An 
experiment farm nearby demonstrates the agricultural possibilities of 
the rich soil. 

At 11.2 m. is a junction with a side road. 

Right on this road to PATTERSON FERRY, 1 m. (toll for cars and five 
persons, $i ; round trip, $1.50) connecting with US 410 at Prosser, Washington. 

On a slight knoll (R) at 19.7 m. is a mounted specimen of Indian 
picture writing. The engraved boulder was found on the bank of the 
Columbia River a few miles east of its present location. 

BOARD MAN, 19.8 m. (250 alt., 100 pop.), lies in an area that 
holds the fossilized remains of many prehistoric animals. Specimens in- 
clude part of a mastodon tooth, bones of fishes, of the three-toed horse, of 
the rhinoceros, and bits of turtle shell. 

Left from Boardman on the Boardman Cut-off across a barren stretch of sage- 
brush plains to an unimproved road at 15 m. 

Left 1 m. on the dirt road, dusty and deeply rutted as it was in the days of 
the wagon trains, to WELLS SPRINGS and the WELLS SPRINGS CEME- 
TERY. The cemetery (L) is identified by its high, rabbit-tight fence. Here were 
buried several pioneers, also Colonel Cornelius Gilliam who on March 24, 1849, 
was killed by the accidental discharge of his gun. 

West of Boardman US 30 follows the river, a green band separating 
bleak and barren shores. 

CASTLE ROCK, 25.6 m. (241 alt., 10 pop.), once a busy com- 
munity, now is a station on the railroad edging an empty plain. The 
magazine West Shore for October, 1883, records: "Castle Rock. . . . 
now contains an express office, post office, saloons, dwellings, schools, 
etc. . . . The growth of western towns is wonderful." 

HEPPNER JUNCTION, 35.1 m. (241 alt.), distinguished by an 
airplane beacon on the cliff (L), is the junction of the Union Pacific 
Railroad main line with its Heppner branch, as well as the junction 
of US 30 with State 74. 

Left from Heppner Junction on State 74 through a narrow rimrock-walled 
cleft up Willow Creek. Rust-colored, basaltic cliffs are in vivid contrast with 
emerald green alfalfa fields, sub-irrigated by gravity flow of water from Willow 
and its tributary creeks, and from underground springs. As the route continues 



T O U R I 265 

into the gradually rising country, wheat fields roll away to the benchlands on 
either side of the highway. 

During gold rush days, miners traveling from lower Columbia River points 
to the Idaho and John Day mining districts, passed through Willow Creek 
Valley, hastening south by way of Dixie Creek and the forks of the John Day 
River. Processions of Columbia River Indians followed this road, to hunt deer, 
pick berries, and camp in the Blue Mountains, returning down the creek for the 
salmon fishing at Celilo. 

At 15.1 m. is a junction with a gravel road; L. here 0.5 m. to CECIL, 
(618 alt., 15 pop.), by the Oregon Trail crossing of Willow Creek. The settle- 
ment was an important stage station. The WELL, where travelers obtained 
drinking water for themselves and their teams, remains at the center of the 
village street. 

On State 74 is MORGAN, 20.4 m. (10 pop.), in early days called Saddle. The 
stage station of the name was situated, until 1888, on a side road about 2 m. 
northwest of the present site. SADDLE BUTTE is right. 

IONE, 29 m. (1,090 alt., 283 pop.), is strategically situated near the mouth 
of Rhea Creek, and is also at the junction of the Boardman Cut-off Highway (L). 
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, lone was considered an 
ideal picnic site for conventions, celebrations and pioneer gatherings. 

At 32.7 m. is a gravel road; R. here 6 m. to the OREGON CREAM-O-LINE 
RANCH, the only palomino horse ranch in the Pacific Northwest. Palominos are 
golden and cream, or ivory-colored horses, a gentle and tractable product of fine 
breeding, that are used for show purposes and for racing. 

LEXINGTON, 37.7 m. (1,418 alt., 180 pop.), a shipping center for wheat, 
is at a junction with State 207 (see above.) 

West of Heppner Junction, US 30 crowds close upon the river, in 
places climbing along the basaltic cliffs, affording views of the gorge and 
the piling mountains to the north in Washington. 

ARLINGTON, 46.5 m. (224 alt., 601 pop), first known as Alkali, 
was given its present name by N. A. Cornish in commemoration of the 
home of Robert E. Lee. The first dwelling was erected on the site in 
1880 by Elijah Ray, and the town of Alkali was platted two years 
later by J. W. Smith. The town was incorporated in 1887. Ducks and 
geese are plentiful in the vicinity; the open season is from October 21 
to November 19, inclusive. Hunting rights are often rented from the 
ranchers at $8 to $10 a day. The Arlington Ferry (cars, $i ; round trip, 
$1.50) makes connections with Roosevelt, Wash. At Arlington is a 
junction with State 19 (see TOUR iD). 

Passing through BLALOCK, 55.4 m. (216 alt., 16 pop.), US 30 
threads the narrow gorge through which the Columbia has cut its 
channel. From SQUALLY HOOK at 70.1 m., Mount Hood is seen 
to the southwest, rising above the waters of the Columbia River. 

The JOHN DAY RIVER, 70.5 m., called LePage's River by Lewis 
and Clark for a member of their party, honors a member of the As- 
torians. Washington Irving describes John Day as "a hunter from the 
backwoods of Virginia. . . . about forty years of age, six feet two inches 
high, straight as an Indian ; with an elastic step as if he trod on springs, 
and a handsome, open, manly countenance. He was strong of hand, bold 
of heart, a prime woodsman, and an almost unerring shot." Day, with 
Crooks and several French-Canadians, fell behind on the Snake River, 
while Hunt forged ahead with the main party in the winter of 1811-12 



266 OREGON 

(see above). The following spring when, after many hardships, the 
two Americans reached the mouth of the John Day River "they met 
with some of the 'chivalry' of that noted pass, who received them in a 
friendly way, and set food before them; but, while they were satisfying 
their hunger, perfidiously seized their rifles. They then stripped them 
naked and drove them ofl, refusing the entreaties of Mr. Crooks for a 
flint and steel of which they had robbed him; and threatening his life 
if he did not instantly depart." In this forlorn plight they were found 
months later by a searching party and taken to Astoria. Day decided to 
return to the States with Robert Stuart's party, but before reaching the 
Willamette he became violently insane and was sent back to Astoria 
where he died within the year. 

In the striated gorges carved by the swift waters of the John Day 
River are written the successive chapters of Oregon's geological evo- 
lution. 

Across the river from RUFUS, 75.5 m. (180 alt., 70 pop.), stands 
the STONEHENGE MEMORIAL to the World War dead, a re- 
production of the ruin in England. It was built by Samuel Hill. 

At 78.1 m. is a junction with US 97. 

Right on US 97 to the Maryhill ferry, 0.4 m. (fare $i; service as needed). 
From the north bank ferry landing in Washington, US 97 continues to the junc- 
tion with US 830, 1.2 .; L. here 2.9 m. on US 830 to MARYHILL CASTLE, 
also built by Samuel Hill. It is a three-story rectangular structure of concrete, 
set on a bluff 800 feet above the river. Though the building was dedicated by 
Queen Marie of Roumania in 1926, it was not opened to visitors until 1937. 
Queen Marie gave to the museum a life-size portrait of her daughter, a desk, 
chairs, and other pieces of furniture. Hill lavished a fortune on the estate but 
never made it his home. However, he left a bequest of $1,200,000 for complet- 
ing and maintaining it as a museum. In a crypt repose the owner's ashes, com- 
memorated by a tablet bearing the inscription: "Samuel Hill amid Nature's 
unrest, he sought rest." 

At BIGGS, 80.4 m., is a junction (L) with US 97 (see TOUR 40). 

MILLER, 84.4 m. (168 alt., n pop.), is a grain-shipping station. 
US 30 crosses the Deschutes River, 85.3 m. f on the CHIEF DUC- 
SAC-HI BRIDGE, an arched concrete structure named for a chief of 
the Wasco tribe, who operated the first ferry across the river. The 
Deschutes, often designated on old maps as Falls River, has been an 
important fishing stream for both Indians and whites. Lewis and Clark 
found that the river, "which is called by the Indians Towahnahiooks," 
was "divided by numbers of large rocks, and Small Islands covered by 
a low growth of timber." 

CELILO, 88.2 m. (158 alt., 47 pop.), at Celilo Falls, is a canoe 
portage as old as the fishing stations still held by the Indians under a 
treaty granting exclusive and perpetual fishing rights to them. Long 
before Lewis and Clark passed here, fishing stands on these rocks were 
handed down by the Indians from father to son. Robert Stuart of the 
Astorians writes in his journal: "Here is one of the first rate Salmon 
fisheries on the river. ... the fish come this far by the middle of May, 
but the two following months are the prime of the season during this 



T O U R I 267 

time the operator hardly ever dips his net without taking one and some- 
times two Salmon, so that I call it speaking within bounds when I say 
that an experienced hand would by assuidity catch at least 500 daily " 

When Lewis and Clark visited the falls they found ". . . great num- 
bers of Stacks of pounded Salmon neetly preserved in the following 
manner, i.e. after suffi(ci)ently Dried it is pounded between two Stones 
fine, and put into a speces of basket neetly made of grass and rushes 
better than two feet long and one foot Diamiter, which basket is lined 
with the Skin of Salmon Stretched and dried for the purpose, in this 
it is pressed down as hard as possible, when full they Secure the open 
part with the fish Skins across which they fasten th(r)o. the loops of 
the basket that part very securely, and then on a Dry Situation they Set 
those baskets . . . thus preserved those fish may be kept Sound and sweet 
Several years." Here at Celilo the Indians still spear or net the fish 
in the traditional manner, protected by treaty from infringement on their 
ancient rights. Near the north end of the falls is the old village of 
WISHRAM, described by Lewis and Clark in their Journals and by 
Washington Irving in Astoria. This village furnished many fine studies 
of Indian life to Edward Curtis in preparing his North American 
Indians. 

Lewis and Clark, finding seventeen Indian lodges along here, "landed 
and walked down accompanied by an old man to view the falls. ... we 
arrived at 5 Large Lod(g)es of natives drying and prepareing fish for 
market, they gave us Philburts, and berries to eate." A portage rail- 
road, 14 miles long, was opened in 1863. The canals and locks here 
were constructed by the Federal Government in 1905 to accommodate 
wheat shipments. Below the falls the OREGON TRUNK RAIL- 
ROAD BRIDGE spans the river, its piers resting on solid rock above 
the water. 

SEUFERT, 97.4 m. (138 alt., 10 pop.), was named for the Seufert 
family, who established a large salmon and fruit-packing plant at this 
point. Many Indian petroglyphs and pictographs are on the bluffs facing 
the Columbia; prehistoric as well as historic aborigines of the region 
came here to fish for salmon, and while some of the pictures of fishes, 
beavers, elks, water dogs, and men were doubtless made as primitive 
art expression, others were carved and painted to carry messages. 

At 97.8 m. is a junction with State 23. 

Left on State 23 along gorge-enclosed watercourses to the plateau ran the 
Barlow road, first road over the Cascades from The Dalles region to the Wil- 
lamette Valley. The route crosses Wasco County, once an empire in itself. With 
boundaries that reached from the Columbia River to the California-Nevada Line, 
and from the Cascades to the Rockies, it was the parent of 17 Oregon counties, 
the greater part of Idaho, and portion! of Wyoming and Montana. The name, 
meaning a cup, or small bowl of horn, was derived from a local Indian tribe, 
known for its art of carving small bowls from the horns of wild sheep. 

In 1905 a very large apple orchard was planted on the plateau but it is now 
an expanse of wheat fields with but an occasional scraggy apple tree. The pro- 
moters proposed to sell individual investors separate lots on the basis of perpetual 
care, the owners to reap continuous dividends after the mature trees began pro- 



268 OREGON 

ducing. The soil was ideal for grain, but the moisture, though sufficient to pro- 
duce large crops of wheat by dry-farming methods, was inadequate for fruit. 
After the owners had lost the opportunity of making large profits, during the 
World War, when high wheat prices were enriching their neighbors, they be- 
latedly grubbed up thousands of trees to return the land to grain. 

On the edge of DUFUR, 17 m. (1,319 alt., 382 pop.), is the BARLOW 
DISTRICT RANGER STATION of the Mount Hood National Forest. (Camp 
fire permits for restricted areas and information.) One of the earliest settlements 
in this region, Dufur overlooks undulating wheat fields and diversified farm- 
lands, with the rugged contours of Mount Hood on the western horizon (R). 

Right from Dufur on a gravel road that runs southwest to meet various forest 
roads entering recreational areas in the eastern sections of MOUNT HOOD 
NATIONAL FOREST. 

From TYGH RIDGE on State 23, 26.9 m. (2,697 alt.), the former long Tygh 
grade, for many years notoriously steep and difficult, the highway skirts a canyon 
(L) hundreds of feet in depth. Paralleling the present highway, are three other 
gashes on the hillside, made by early road builders, the winding trail-like thor- 
oughfares of the Indians and emigrant wagon trains, the stage road, and a rutty 
passage for horse-drawn vehicles and early Model-T's that hazardously ventured 
into this part of Oregon 20 years ago. 
At 34.3 m. is a junction with State 216. 

Left on State 216, 7.9 m. to SHERAR'S BRIDGE, at the falls of the Des- 
chutes River. It was here, in 1826, that Peter Skene Ogden, chief fur trader 
for the Hudson's Bay Company, found a camp of 20 native families. An Indian 
trail, later used by the fur traders, crossed the river at this point by a slender 
wooden bridge. During the salmon runs, descendants of these early tribesmen, who 
held fishing privileges under a Federal treaty, still gather annually to spear 
salmon or catch them with dipnets below the falls. 

Joseph Sherar collected exhorbitant tolls from travelers and stockmen for use 
of his bridge, near which he established a stage station and pretentious inn. 
Stephen Meek's exhausted wagon train of 1845 camped at this place, and the old 
ruts made by the 200 wagons are still visible on the ranch of E. L. Webb north 
of the bridge. 

TYGH VALLEY, 34.7 m. (i,iu alt., 60 pop.), is in the valley of Tygh Creek, 
which took its name from the Tyigh Indian tribe. Fremont called the place 
Taih Prairie. North of the town are the race track and the exhibit buildings of 
the Wasco County Fair Association, which holds its annual fairs in early 
September. 

Right from Tygh Valley, 6 m. on a dirt road to WAMIC (1,664 alt., 106 
pop.), in a stock raising country. This road is along the route of the old Barlow 
Trail that led westward parallel to White River and crossed the Cascade divide 
at Barlow Pass. Above Smock Prairie, southwest of Wamic, the ruts of ox-drawn 
wagons remain on the hillsides. 

WHITE RIVER, 35.8 m., a tributary of the Deschutes, is noted for excellent 
fishing. 

At 39.3 m. is a junction with a county road; (L.) here 2 m. to the OAK 
SPRINGS STATE TROUT HATCHERY, in the Deschutes River Canyon. 
Millions of rainbow trout are propagated annually for restocking the Deschutes 
and other popular fishing streams of the region. The young fish, held in feed- 
ing pools until almost a legal size, are distributed in tank trucks, equipped with 
compressor machines to keep the water aerated. Former methods of distribution, 
when no provision was made for supplying oxygen, resulted in considerable loss 
of finger-lings. A chemical quality of the Oak Springs water keeps the young 
trout from fungus growths that destroy the fish in many hatcheries. 
State 23 joins State 50 at 42.3 m. 

THE DALLES, (Fr. Flagstones) 100.8 m. (95 alt., 5,885 pop.) 
(see THE DALLES). 



TOUR I 269 

Points of Interest: Federal Building, City Hall, Wasco County Court House, 
The Horn, Fort Rock, St. Mary's Academy, and others. 

West of The Dalles US 30 follows the gorge of the Columbia River 
as it threads its way through the Cascade Range. Southwest towers 
Mount Hood, and northward across the Columbia Mount Adams. On 
some early maps these mountains are labeled the Presidents' Range, an 
attempt having been made in 1839 to use the names of chief executives 
to denominate the most prominent peaks. 

West of ROWENA, 109.2 m. (148 alt., 60 pop.), the highway 
climbs the face of a steep cliff by a series of sharp curves and switch- 
backs known as the Rowena Loops. 

Opposite Rowena, near LYLE, Wash., is the grave of Frederic Homer Balch 
(1861-1891), near that of his sweetheart, Genevra Whitcomb, whom he com- 
memorated in his posthumously published novel, Genevieve: A Tale of Oregon. 

ROWENA CREST, 111.8 m. (706 alt.), is in MAYER STATE 
PARK; parking place. From the crest one has a panoramic view of 
cliff and winding river. 

ROWENA DELL, 112.6 m., a sheer-walled canyon (R) was in- 
fested by rattlesnakes until pioneers fenced the lower end and turned 
in a drove of hogs. Then for a time the dell was called Hog Canyon. 

Memaloose View Point, 115.5 m. f overlooks MEMALOOSE IS- 
LAND, the "Island of the Dead," for hundreds of years an Indian 
burial place. Many of the bleached bones of generations of Indians 
have now been moved to other cemeteries along the Columbia, taken 
away from burial houses where they had been placed. A white marble 
shaft marks the grave of Victor Trevitt, an Oregon settler who asked 
that he be buried among his friends, the Indians. 

MOSIER, 118.1 m. (95 alt., 192 pop.), at the confluence of Mosier 
Creek and the Columbia River, is in a small fruit-growing section well 
known for its apple cider. The MOSIER TUNNELS, 119.5 m., one 
261 feet and the other 60 feet long, often referred to as the Twin 
Tunnels, penetrate a promontory more than 250 feet above the river. 
West of this point the contrast between the barren, semi-desert con- 
tours of eastern Oregon and the lushness of the Pacific Slope becomes 
apparent. 

At 124.6 m. is a junction with State 35 (see TOUR lE). 

US 30 crosses HOOD RIVER, 124.8 m., a glacier-fed stream 
known in pioneer days as Dog River, a name said to have resulted from 
the adventure of an exploring party in early days who were compelled 
to eat dog meat to avert starvation. Lewis and Clark named the stream 
Labiche River for one of their followers. 

HOOD RIVER, 125.6 m. (154 alt., 2,757 pop.) (see HOOD 
RIVER). 

Points of Interest: Historic Flag, Old Adams House, Applegrowers' Associa- 
tion Warehouse, Applegrowers' Association Cannery, Hood River Distilleries, 
Observation Promontory, Eliot Park, etc. 



27O OREGON 

The COLUMBIA GORGE HpTEL (R), 127.2 m. t a large 
structure of striking lines, was built in 1921-22 by Simon Benson, pio- 
neer lumberman. Just behind the hotel the picturesque WAW-GUIN- 
GUIN FALLS drop over a sheer cliff to the river below. Nearby is 
the ^Crag Rats Clubhouse, owned by a mountain climbing organization 
having a membership limited to those who have climbed at least three 
major snow peaks; members must climb at least one major snow peak 
annually to remain in good standing. 

MITCHELL POINT TUNNEL (watch for traffic signals) 130.3 
m., was bored through a cliff overhanging the river. In its 385-foot 
length are hewn five large arched windows overlooking the Columbia. 
The great projecting rock through which the bore was made was known 
among the Indians as the Little Storm King, while the sky-sweeping 
mountain above was called the Great Storm King. 

The village of VIENTO (Sp., wind), 133.3 m. (103 alt., 14 pop.), 
is fittingly named, for the wind blows constantly and often violently 
through the gorge. 

VIENTO STATE PARK (R), 133.4 m., is a wooded area that 
is popular as a picnic ground; through it runs scenic Viento Creek. 

Starvation Creek empties into the Columbia at 134.5 m. Here is 
STARVATION CREEK STATE PARK, so named because at this 
point in 1884 an Oregon- Washington Railroad & Navigation train was 
marooned for two weeks in thirty-foot snowdrifts, and food was with 
difficulty carried to the starving passengers. Newspapers of that day 
gave columns of space to this story, telling how car seats were burned in 
addition to all coal in the locomotive tender, that passengers might be 
kept from freezing. 

Near LINDSAY CREEK, 135.7 m., is a bronze plaque commemo- 
rating the commencement in 1912 the building of the first section of 
the Columbia River Highway. SHELL ROCK MOUNTAIN, 136.9 
m. (2,068 alt.), is opposite WIND MOUNTAIN, which is in Wash- 
ington. The Indians believed that the Great Spirit set the whirlwinds 
blowing in constant fury about Wind Mountain as a punishment to 
those who, breaking the taboo, had taught the white men how to snare 
salmon. 

The Dalles and Sandy Wagon Road was authorized by the Oregon 
Legislature in 1867 and appropriation made for its construction. The 
road was built to a point 15 miles west of Hood River. Portions of the 
old dry masonry retaining wall may still be seen a hundred feet or so 
above the Columbia Highway, especially at Shell Rock Mountain. 

COLUMBIA GORGE RANGER STATION, 142.8 m., is the 
headquarters of the MOUNT HOOD NATIONAL FOREST. 

Left from the Columbia Gorge Ranger Station along the east fork of Herman 
Creek on Pacific Crest Trail through the heavy underbrush and pine growth of 
the Mount Hood National Forest. The trail mounts along the stream that pours 
its gleaming water in continuous cataracts, to CASEY CREEK (improved 
camp), 4 m. South of this point the route climbs the swelling base of MOUNT 
HOOD (see MOUNT HOOD] to GREEN POINT MOUNTAIN (improved 



TOUR I 271 

campsites), 7 m. WAHTUM LAKE (improved camp), 12.5 m. (3,700 alt.), 
reflects the jagged crest-line of dense pine forests. 

Continuing southward the trail winds around the sharply rising shoulder of 
BUCK PEAK (4,768 alt.), to jewel-like LOST LAKE, 22.5 m. (3,140 alt.), 
(see TOUR lE). Mount Hood's white slopes seemingly lift from the yellow 
sands of the lake shore and the calm waters reflect the image. Although Lost 
Lake was viewed by the Indians with superstitious dread, its shores have long 
been a popular recreational area for white men. (Forest Guard Station; resort; 
bathing; boating; trout fishing.} 

CASCADE LOCKS, 145.8 m. (120 alt., 1,000 pop.), Here in 
1896 the Federal Government built a series of locks around the treach- 
erous Cascades rapids. It is said by geologists that these rapids were 
caused by avalanches that slipped from the heights of Table Mountain 
impeding the free flow of the river. From earliest times the Indians 
of the region were noted for their ugly and thievish natures. Lewis and 
Clark, on their return from the mouth of the Columbia, noted that 
"the Wahclellahs we discovered to be great thieves. ... so arrogant 
and intrusive have they become that nothing but our numbers saves us 
from attack. . . . We were told by an Indian who spoke Clatsop that 
the Wahclellahs had carried off Captain Lewis's dog to their village 
below. Three men, well armed, were instantly dispatched in pursuit of 
them, with orders to fire if there were the slightest resistance or hesita- 
tion. At the distance of two miles they came within sight of the thieves, 
who, finding themselves pursued, left the dog and made off. We now 
ordered all the Indians out of our camp, and explained to them that 
whoever stole any of our baggage, or insulted our men, should be in- 
stantly shot." 

Washington Irving, in writing of Robert Stuart's passage of the 
rapids in 1812, calls the Cascades "the piratical pass of the river," and 
that "before the commencement of the portage, the greatest precautions 
were taken to guard against lurking treachery or open attack." How- 
ever, in 1824, Sir George Simpson wrote in his Journal: "Left our 
Encampment at 2 A. M. and got to Cascade portage. ... Here we 
found about 80 to 100 Indians who were more peaceable and quiet than 
I ever saw an equal number on the other side of the mountain; it was 
not so many years ago as on this very spot they attempted to pillage a 
Brigade under charge of Messrs. A. Stewart and Ja Keith when the for- 
mer was severely wounded and two of the Natives killed; but since 
that time they have given little trouble and this favorable change in 
their disposition I think may be ascribed in the first place to the prompt 
and decisive conduct of the Whites in never allowing an insult pass 
without retaliation & punishment, and in the second to the judicious 
firm and concilitary measures pursued by Chief Factor McKenzie who 
has had more intercourse with them than any other Gentleman in the 
Country." 

Skilled Indian paddlers or French-Canadian boatmen were sometimes 
able to shoot the Cascade rapids successfully, particularly during spring 
freshets, but customarily even the most daring disembarked and portaged 
their cargoes. Prior to the building of the Barlow road (see TOUR 



27* OREGON 

4A) in 1846 all travelers seeking passage to the lower Columbia or 
Willamette Valleys halted at The Dalles, dismembered their wagons, 
loaded them upon rafts, and steering the rude barges down the Colum- 
bia to the Cascades, docked at the Cascades and portaged wagons and 
goods around the dangerous white water. Ropes, used as shore lines, 
guided the rafts to safety. 

The Columbia River water route continued popular both for passen- 
gers and for freight, and a portage road was constructed in 1856 to 
accommodate traffic. Rather than following the water level, later used 
by the railroad portage, the original wagon road around the Cascades, 
climbed 425 feet, a steep ascent for the plodding oxen used to draw 
cumbersome wagons. Toll roads later permitted the passage of cattle 
and pack trains, but it was not until 1872 that the Oregon legislature 
made an appropriation to construct a road through the gorge. The pres- 
ent highway has been developed from the narrow, crooked road built 
with that appropriation. A serious barrier to quantity freight transpor- 
tation during the era when mining booms in Idaho and eastern Oregon 
made steamboat transportation on the Columbia a huge business, the 
Cascades were again mastered, this time at water level by a wooden- 
railed portage tramway over which mule-drawn cars, laden with mer- 
chandise, rattled from one waiting steamer to another. This proved so 
profitable a venture that steel rails replaced the wooden ones, and the 
Oregon Pony, first steel locomotive to operate in Oregon and now on 
exhibition at the Union Station grounds in Portland, was imported to 
draw the cars. The importance of the Columbia River as a traffic artery 
being established, the locks were later built by the Federal Government 
being established, the locks were later built by the Federal Government. 
Nard Jones' novel, Swift Flows the River, is based on the steamboat era 
of the Columbia centering about the Cascades. 

The entrance (R) to the BRIDGE OF THE GODS is at 146 m.; 
this is a cantilever toll bridge (cars, 5oc; good for return within three 
hours) spanning the river just west of Cascade Locks, and occupies a 
place where, according to Indian legend, a natural bridge at one time 
arched the river. This bridge, they say, was cast into the river when 
Tyhee Sahale, the Supreme Being, became angry with his two sons, who 
had quarreled over the beautiful Loo-wit, guardian of a sacred flame on 
the bridge. The two sons and the girl, crushed in the destruction of the 
bridge, whose debris created the Cascades, were resurrected as Mount 
Hood, Mount Adams, and Mount St. Helens. This legend is used by 
Frederic Homer Balch in his romance, The Bridge of the Gods. 

EAGLE CREEK PARK (L), 148.7 m., one of Oregon's finest 
recreational areas and picnic grounds, was constructed and is maintained 
by the United States Forest Service. On the banks of plunging Eagle 
Creek are rustic kitchens, tables and extensive parking facilities. 

x. Left here on the Eagle Creek Trail, that winds up the mountain side to 
WAHTUM LAKE, 13.5 m. Construction of the trail presented many difficulties; 
parts of it are cut through solid rock, and in one place it passes behind a 
waterfall. Along the trail are GHOST FALLS and the DEVIL'S PUNCH 



TOUR I 273 

BOWL. The latter, a fresh-water cauldron hemmed In by pillars of basalt, 
abounds with steelhead trout. 

2. Right across Eagle Creek from Eagle Creek Campground on the WAUNA 
POINT TRAIL, which leads 5.5 m. through Eagle Creek and Columbia Gorge 
canyons to WAUNA POINT (2,500 alt.). 

BONNEVILLE, 150 m. (50 alt., 800 pop.), is at Bonneville Dam, 
begun by the Federal Government in 1933 and finished in 1938. The 
dam, designed by United States Army engineers, raised the level of 
water to a point four miles above The Dalles. Many of the river's 
beauty spots and historic sites were submerged by this impounding of 
water. The Cascades and much of the shore line disappeared beneath the 
rising waters of the great reservoir. The dam spans the Columbia River 
from Oregon to Washington, a distance of 1,100 feet. Bradford Island, 
an old Indian burial ground separating the river's two channels, is at the 
center of the mammoth barrier. There is a single-lift lock, 75 feet wide 
and 500 feet long, near the Oregon shore; a power plant with two com- 
pleted units, each of 43,000 kilowatts capacity, and with foundation for 
four additional units ; a gate-control spillway dam creating a head of 67 
feet at low water; and fishways designed to permit salmon to ascend 
the Columbia to their spawning grounds on its upper tributaries. The 
slack-water lake formed above the dam creates a 3O-foot channel between 
Bonneville and The Dalles, a distance of 44 miles. With the deepening 
of the Columbia between Vancouver, Washington and the dam, to a 
depth of 27 feet, the river will be navigable to sea-going craft for 176 
miles inland. The final cost of the project, including its ten hydroelectric 
units with a capacity of more than a half million horsepower, will be 
more than $70,000,000. 

Bonneville was named for Captain Benjamin de Bonneville, whose 
exploits were set forth in The Adventures of Captain Bonneville by 
Washington Irving. 

At MOFFET CREEK, 151.4 m., the highway crosses a large flat- 
arch cement bridge. The span, 1 70 feet long, is 70 feet above the stream. 

The JOHN B. YEON STATE PARK, 152 m. f was named in 
honor of an early highway builder. 

At the eastern end of the McCord Creek Bridge, 152.6 m., is a 
petrified stump that is believed to have matured long before the Cascade 
Range was thrust up. 

Left from the eastern end of the bridge on a trail along the creek to ELOWAH 
FALLS. 

At 153.2 m. BEACON ROCK, across the Columbia (R), is seen. 
Alexander Ross, the fur trader, called it Inshoach Castle. A landmark 
for river voyagers for more than a hundred years, it is now surmounted 
by a beacon to guide airplanes. A stirring chapter of Genevieve : A Tale 
of Oregon relates dramatic events that took place on its summit. A foot 
trail has been carved in its side from base to crest. 

HORSETAIL FALLS, 156.6 m., forming the design that gives 
it name, shoot downward across the face of the sheer rock wall into an 



274 OREGON 

excellent fishing pool. Spray from the pool continually drifts across the 
highway. East of the falls towers ST. PETERS DOME, a 2,ooo-foot 
basalt pinnacle. 

ONEONTA GORGE, 156.9 m., is a deep, narrow cleft in the 
basalt bluff through which flows a foaming creek. Fossilized trees 
caught by a lava flow, are entombed in its perpendicular walls. 

Left from the highway on a trail to ONEONTA FALLS, 800 ft., hidden in 
the depths of the gorge. The water, falling into the narrow ravine, stirs the air 
into strong currents giving it a delightful coolness even when temperatures 
nearby are high. 

MULTNOMAH FALLS, 159 m., inspired Samuel Lancaster, 
builder of the Columbia River Highway, to write: "There are higher 
waterfalls and falls of greater volume, but there are none more beautiful 
than Multnomah," a sentiment approved by many observers. The source 
is near the summit of Larch Mountain 4,000 feet above the highway. 
After a series of cascades the waters drop 680 feet into a tree-fringed 
basin. 

Left from Multnomah Falls on a foot trail, across a bridge above the short 
stretch of creek between the upper and lower falls, to LARCH MOUNTAIN, 
6.5 m., (4,095 alt.). 

WAHKEENA (Ind. most beautiful) FALLS, 159.6 m., named 
for the daughter of a Yakima Indian chief, are considered by some the 
most beautiful of the many falls in the gorge. There is no sheer drop, 
but the waters hurl themselves in a series of fantastic cascades down the 
steep declivity. Wahkeena Creek has its source in Wahkeena Springs 
only a mile and a half above the cliff over which the waters plunge. 

MIST FALLS, 159.8 m., where the water drops from a i,2OO-foot 
escarpment were thus mentioned by Lewis and Clark: "Down from 
these heights frequently descend the most beautiful cascades, one of 
which [now Multnomah Falls] throws itself over a perpendicular 
rock. . . . while other smaller streams precipitate themselves from a 
still greater elevation, and evaporating in mist, again collect and form a 
second cascade before they reach the bottom of the rocks." 

COOPEY FALLS, 161.9 m., according to Indian legend is at 
the site of a battle of giants. 

BRIDAL VEIL, 162.7 m. (40 alt., 204 pop.), is a lumber-mill 
town in a small valley below the highway. Formerly Bridal Veil Falls 
was noted for its beauty but the waters now are confined in a lumber- 
flume. 

Two sharp rocks between which pass the tracks of the Union Pacific 
and known as the PILLARS OF HERCULES or SPEELYEI'S 
CHILDREN, the latter name commemorating the feats of the Indian 
coyote god, rise (R) beyond FOREST HILL. 

In the shadowy grotto of SHEPPERD'S DELL, 163.7 m., a spark- 
ling waterfall leaps from a cliff. A white concrete arch bridges a chasm 
150 feet wide and 140 feet deep. Near the bridge the highway curves 



TOUR I 275 

round a domed rock known as BISHOP'S CAP or MUSHROOM 
ROCK. 

LATOURELLE FALLS, 164.9 m. f take a sheer drop of 224 feet 
into a pool at the base of an overhanging cliff. LATOURELLE 
BRIDGE was so placed as to give the best view of the falling waters. 

The GUY W. TALBOT PARK, 165.1 m., is a 125-acre wooded 
tract overlooking the Columbia. 

Winding along the forested mountainside the highway reaches 
CROWN POINT, 167.3 m. t 725 feet above the river on an over- 
hanging rocky promontory. The highway makes a wide curve, in the 
center of which is the VISTA HOUSE. This impressive stone structure, 
a modern adaptation of the English Tudor style of architecture, modified 
to conform to the character and topography of the landscape, was built 
at a cost of $100,000. The foundation about the base of the Vista 
House is laid in Italian-style dry masonry, no mortar having been used. 
Men were imported from Italy to work here and elsewhere along the 
highway. The windswept height, once known as THOR'S CROWN, 
commands a view of the river east and west for many miles. 

Inside the Vista House is a bronze tablet recording the explorations 
of Lieut. William B rough ton of Vancouver's expedition, who came up 
the Columbia River in 1792. 

The SAMUEL HILL MONUMENT, 168.5 m., is a 5o-ton 
granite boulder dedicated to the man who was chiefly responsible foi 
building the Columbia River Highway. 

CORBETT, 169.9 m. (665 alt., 90 pop.), set in rolling hills, is at 
the eastern end of a cultivated area. The road cuts between the cliffs 
and the waters at the SANDY RIVER, 174.5 m. This stream, flowing 
from the glaciers on the south slope of Mount Hood, was discovered 
by Lieut. William Broughton on October 30, 1792, and named Barings 
River for an English family. The bluffs near the river mouth now bear 
the name of the discoverer. Lewis and Clark passed this point on No- 
vember 3, 1805, and in their Journals records the immense quantities 
of sand thrown out. They wrote: "We reached the mouth of a river 
on the left, which seemed to lose its waters in a sandbar opposite, the 
stream itself being only a few inches in depth. But on attempting to 
wade across we discovered that the bed was a very bad quicksand, too 
deep to be passed on foot. ... Its character resembles very much that of 
the river Platte. It drives its quicksand over the low grounds with great 
impetuosity and ... has formed a large sandbar or island, three miles 
long and a mile and a half wide, which divides the waters of the Quick- 
sand river into two channels." The river is noted locally for its annual 
run of smelt (eulachan), which ascend in millions each spring to spawn. 
When they appear the word goes out that "the smelt are running 
Sandy." Cars soon crowd the highways, while hundreds of people snare 
the fish with sieves, nets, buckets, sacks or birdcages. (Special license 
required, 5OC.) 

TROUTDALE, 177.7 m. (50 alt., 227 pop.), is a trade center for a 
fruit and vegetable producing area specializing in celery growing. Be- 



276 OREGON 

tween truck gardens and dairy farms, US 30 crosses the bottom lands 
of the widening Columbia Valley to FAIRVIEW, 180.3 m. (114 alt., 
266 pop.), and past orchards, bulb farms, and suburban homes to 
PARKROSE, 185.2 m. 

PORTLAND, 192.7 m. (32 alt., 301,815 pop.) (see PORT- 
LAND). 

Points of Interest: Skidmore Fountain, Oregon Historical Society Museum, 
Art Museum, Portland Public Market, Sanctuary of our Sorrowful Mother, and 
many others. 

Portland is at junction with US 99 (see TOUR 2a), State 8 (see 
TOUR 8), State 50 (see TOUR ^A, US ^W (see TOUR 10). 



Section c. Portland to Astoria, 104.5 m. 

US 30 leaves PORTLAND, m. f on NW. Vaughn St. and St. 
Helens Road, a part of the Lower Columbia Highway, and passes 
through a busy industrial district along Portland's lower harbor. 
Wharves line the Willamette River bank (R) and factories and ware- 
houses occupy the river flats. 

The highway passes under the west approach to the ST. JOHNS 
BRIDGE, 6.5 m. t an attractive suspension bridge high above the river. 

LINNTON, 7.9 m. t a part of Portland since 1915, was founded 
in the 1840'$ by Peter H. Burnett, later, first governor of California. 
He visioned the tiny town as the future metropolis of the Columbia 
Valley but Portland drew most of the shipping trade and Linnton 
languished. At present it is an important industrial district of the city; 
large lumber shipments leave from its wharves. 

At 12.7 m. is a junction with the Burlington Ferry approach, a plank 
viaduct leading to a ferry (free) crossing Willamette Slough. 

Right on this viaduct to the ferry landing, 0.5 m., off which is SAUVIE 
ISLAND (850 pop.), which retains much of its pastoral charm. Numerous fish- 
ermen and duck hunters frequent the lakes and swales of this popular recrea- 
tional area. Land of island is quite fertile; bulb culture and truck gardening 
have become increasingly important in recent years. 

Frederic Homer Balch wrote in his Indian romance, The Bridge of the Gods: 
"The chief of the Willamettes gathered on Wappatto Island, from time im- 
memorial the council-ground of the tribes. The white man has changed its name 
to 'Sauvie' island; but its wonderful beauty is unchangeable. Lying at the 
mouth of the Willamette River and extending many miles down the Columbia, 
rich in wide meadows and crystal lakes, its interior dotted with majestic oaks 
and its shores fringed with cottonwoods, around it the blue and sweeping rivers, 
the wooded hills, and the far white snow peaks, it is the most picturesque 
spot in Oregon." 

In spite of the fact that the island has a comparatively small population with 
neither stores nor shops and with but one small sawmill to represent the industrial 
interests, it is by no means isolated. Many people go there, so many that the 
small ferry is crowded to capacity. Because of its numerous lakes, ponds and 
bayous, the island is a popular haunt for duck hunters, and many club houses 
dot its length. Fishermen seek the shores of the Gilbert River for the crappies, 
catfish, black and yellow bass, sunfish and perch, that lurk in these sluggish 
waters. Men grown weary of the turbulence of mountain streams and the elusive 



TOUR I 277 

antics of the fighting trout, find peace and relaxation in the lazy swirl of the 
waters and the bobbing of the cork-float when a channel-cat or crappie takes 
the bait. 

The first white men to visit the island as far as known were the Lewis and 
Clark expedition on November 4, 1805. "We landed on the left bank of the 
river, at a village of twenty-five houses; all of these were thatched with straw 
and built of bark, except one which was about fifty feet long, built of boards. 
. . . this village contains about two hundred men of the Skilloot nation, who 
seemed well provided with canoes, of which there were at least fifty-two, and 
some of them very large, drawn up in front of the village. . . ." The exploring 
party stopped a short distance below the village for dinner. "Soon after," Clark 
recorded, "Several canoes of Indians from the village above came down, dressed 
for the purpose as I supposed of Paying us a friendly visit, they had scarlet & 
blue blankets Salor Jackets, overalls, Shirts and hats independent of their usial 
dress ; the most of them had either Muskets or pistols and tin flasks to hold their 
powder, Those fellows we found assumeing and disagreeable, however we 
Smoked with them and treated them with every attention & friendship. 

"dureing the time we were at dinner those fellows Stold my pipe Tomahawk 
which they were Smoking with, I immediately serched every man and the 
canoes, but could find nothing of my Tomahawk, while Serening for the Toma- 
hawk one of those Scoundals Stole a cappoe (coat) of one of our interperters, 
which was found Stuffed under the root of a tree, near the place they Sat, we 
became much displeased with those fellows, which they discovered and moved 
off on their return home to their village." 

In 1832 an epidemic decimated the native population, and Dr. McLoughlin 
removed the survivors to the mainland and burned many of the straw and board 
huts of the settlements. 

In 1834. Captain Nathanial J. Wyeth built a trading post on the island and 
named it Fort William. "This Wappato island which I have selected for our 
establishment," he wrote, "consists of woodland and prairie and on it there is 
considerable deer and those who could spare time to hunt might live well but 
mortality has carried off to a man its inhabitants and there is nothing to attest 
that they ever existed except their decaying houses, their graves and their un- 
buried bones of which there are heaps." Wyeth set his coopers to making barrels 
to carry salted salmon to Boston. However, his trading activities met with such 
persistent opposition from the Hudson's Bay Company that in 1836 he was 
forced to abandon the enterprise. 

In 1841 McLoughlin established a dairy here, placing Jean Baptiste Sauvie, 
a superannuated trapper, in charge. The place has since borne the name of the 
old dairyman. 

The hills (L) recede and the highway enters the Scappoose Plains, 
a fertile district devoted to potato culture, truck gardening, and dairying. 

SCAPPOOSE (Ind. gravelly plain), 20.9 m. (56 alt., 248 pop.), 
is on the site of an old trading post and farm of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, under the charge of Thomas McKay. Chief Kazeno, men- 
tioned in the annals of the Astorians and of many other later writers, had 
his village close by. It was here that the great Indian highway, later the 
Hudson's Bay trail between the Columbia River and the upper Wil- 
lamette Valley, had its beginning. When Lieut. W. R. Broughton of the 
Royal Navy, visited the Columbia River in H. M. S. Chatham of 
Captain Vancouver's squadron in 1792, he found at Warrior Rock, on 
Wappato (Sauvie) Island opposite Scappoose, Indians with copper 
swords and iron battle axes. These Indians said that they had obtained 
these axes from the other Indians many moons to the eastward. Scap- 
poose appears to have been a great trading center for the Indians on the 



278 OREGON 

lower Columbia during many centuries. The virulent disease which al- 
most wiped out the Indians of the Sauvie Island region began among the 
Indians at Scappoose Bay and was attributed to "bad medicine" admin- 
istered by Captain Dominis of the brig Owyhee, which had been trading 
in the river. 

The first white man to settle on Scappoose Plain was James Bates, 
an American sailor, who probably deserted from the Owyhee in 1829. 
The town of Scappoose had a slow growth and was not incorporated 
until July 13, 1921. In 1934 fire destroyed several buildings. Today 
it is a trading center for a prosperous farming community with large 
potato warehouses and a pickle factory. 

MILTON CREEK, 23.5 m., was named for the old town of Milton 
founded in the late forties at its confluence with Willamette Slough. 
The Oregon Spectator, in its issue of May 16, 1850, carried the follow- 
ing advertisement: "TOWN OF MILTON Is situated on the lower 
branch of the Willamette River, just above its junction with the Colum- 
bia. The advantages of its location speak for themselves. All we ask 
is for our friends to call and see the place. For particulars apply to 
Crosby & Smith, Portland and Milton." A few months later the editor 
of the Spectator wrote: "The town of Milton one mile and a half above 
St. Helen's is fast improving and may look forward to its future im- 
portance. . . . We are told that the flats or bottom lands which occasion- 
ally overflow, are of great extent and produce abundant grass for the 
grazing of immense flocks and herds, besides offering the opportunity to 
cut large quantities of hay." A few years later, waters flooded the town 
and its business was gradually absorbed by near-by St. Helens. 

ST. HELENS, 28.6 m. (98 alt., 3,944 pop.), a river port, is also a 
market and court town. Its manufacturing plants produce insulating 
board, pulp and paper, lumber, and dairy products. 

The site of St. Helens was first known as Wyeth's Rock for the early 
trader, Nathaniel Wyeth, who had built a temporary post here in 1834. 
Captain H. M. Knighton took up the site as a donation land claim and 
in 1847 laid out the town as a competitor of the newly established 
Portland, which he contemptuously referred to as "Little Stump Town." 
It is said that Knighton named the town both to honor his native city of 
St. Helens, England, and for the beautiful mountain that rises a few 
miles to the northeast. According to some early records the vicinity was 
also referred to as Plymouth Rock or Plymouth and the earliest elec- 
tion district established here was named the Plymouth precinct. The 
earliest school was established in 1853 by the Reverend Thomas Condon, 
a noted scientist, who later became professor of geology at the University 
of Oregon. He added to his small salary as pastor of the St. Helens 
Congregational church by his teaching. The KNIGHTON HOUSE, 
155 S. 4th St., was built in 1847 with lumber shipped around Cape 
Horn from Bath, Maine. Many of the town's buildings, including the 
COLUMBIA CpUNTY COURT HOUSE, at First St. on the 
river bank, are built of stone from local quarries. 

DEER ISLAND, 34.2 m. (48 alt., 75 pop.), is a small community 



TOUR I 279 

opposite the island of the same name visited in 1805 and again in 1806 
by Lewis and Clark. The naming of Deer Island is thus accounted for 
in the report of Lewis and Clark: "We left camp at an early hour, 
and by nine o'clock reached an old Indian village. . . . Here we found 
a party of our men whom we had sent on yesterday to hunt, and who 
now returned after killing seven deer in the course of the morning out 
of upwards of a hundred which they had seen." 

GOBLE, 40.6 m. (25 alt., 91 pop.), is at the former landing of the 
Northern Pacific Railway Ferry at Kalama, Washington, before the 
building of the railroad bridge between Vancouver and Portland. 

LITTLE JACK FALLS, 43.9 m. (125 alt.), tumbles over a 
precipice beside the highway. 

RAINIER, 47.5 m. (23 alt., 1,353 Pop-)> named for Mount Rainier, 
which is often visible to the northeast, was an important stop in the 
days of river commerce. The town was founded by Charles E. Fox in 
1851. First called Eminence, its name was later changed to Fox's 
Landing and finally to Rainier. In 1854 F M. Warren erected a large 
steam sawmill and began producing lumber for the homes and other 
buildings of the settlers. Rainier was incorporated in 1885. At Rainier 
is a toll-bridge connecting with Longview, Washington (car and driver, 
8oc; maximum, $i). 

From the winding curves of RAINIER HILL (671 alt.) there is a 
fine view of Longview, Washington, and the narrow roadway of the 
bridge spanning the river, hundreds of feet below. The summit is 
reached at 50.6 m. 

Descending, the highway crosses ubiquitous BEAVER CREEK, 
51.4 m. Within the next 15 miles westward the road spans the stream 
a dozen times. The country now presents wide expanses of logged-off 
land. 

At 61.7 m. is a junction with a gravel road. 

Right on this road to QUINCY, 1 m. (18 alt., 303 pop.), center of a drained 
and diked area of the Columbia River lowlands; L. here 3 m. on a dirt road 
to OAK POINT. The Winship brothers of Boston attempted to establish a 
trading post and settlement at this place which is known as Fanny's Bottom. 
On May 26, 1810, while Astor was still maturing his plans for the Pacific Fur 
Company, Captain Nathan Winship arrived in the Columbia River with the 
ship dlbatross. He began construction of a two-story log fort and planted a 
garden. However, the attempt was abortive. Robert Stuart, of the Astorians, 
wrote in his diary under date of July i, 1812: "About 2 hours before sunset we 
reached the establishment made by Captain Winship of Boston in the spring of 
1810 It is situate on a beautiful high bank on the South side & enchantingly 
diversified with white oaks, Ash and Cottonwood and Alder but of rather a 
diminutive size here he intended leaving a Mr. Washington with a party of 
men, but whether with the view of making a permanent settlement or merely 
for trading with the Indians until his return from the coast, the natives were 
unable to tell, the water however rose so high as to inundate a house he had 
already constructed, when a dispute arose between him and the Hellwits, by his 
putting several of them in Irons on the supposition that they were of the Chee- 
hee-lash nation, who had some time previous cut off a Schooner belonging to 
the Russian establishment at New Archangel, by the Governor of which place 
he was employed to secure any of the Banditti who perpetrated this horrid 



280 OREGON 

act The Hell wits made formidable preparations by engaging auxiliaries &c. 
for the release of their relations by force, which coming to the Captain's knowl- 
edge, as well as the error he had committed, the Captives were released, every 
person embarked, and left the Columbia without loss of time " 

CLATSKANIE (cor. Ind., Tlatskanie), 64.8 m. (16 alt, 739 
pop.), bears the name of a small tribe of Indians that formerly inhabited 
the region. The town is on the Clatskanie River near its confluence 
with the Columbia and is surrounded by rich bottom lands devoted to 
dairying and raising vegetables for canning. In 1852 E. G. Bryant took 
up the land upon which a settlement grew up with the name of Bryants- 
ville. In 1870 the name of the town was changed to Clatskanie and it 
was incorporated as a city in 1891. State Fisheries Station No. 5, for 
restocking the river with fingerling salmon, is at this point. 

At 65.2 m. is the junction with State 47. 

Left on State 47 over a mountainous grade into the Nehalem Valley and 
across a second ridge into the Tualatin Valley to FOREST GROVE and a 
junction with State 8 (see TOUR 8) at 56.1 m. 

WESTPORT, 74.5 m. (32 alt., 450 pop.), is one of the many 
lumbering and fishing towns scattered along the waters of the Columbia. 

The highway ascends the Coast Range in a series of hairpin turns 
to CLATSOP CREST, 79.7 m. f overlooking the Columbia River and 
the country beyond. In the immediate foreground is long, flat PUGET 
ISLAND, where grain fields and fallow lands weave patterns of green 
and gray, and sluggish streams form silvery canals. Although the island 
is close to the Oregon shore, it lies within the State of Washington. 
It was discovered in 1792 by Lieut. Broughton of the British Navy, 
who named it for Lieut. Peter Puget. 

US 30 twists down to HUNT CREEK, 80.7 m., then climbs a spur 
from which a desolate waste of logged-over land extends in all direc- 
tions. A high, sharply etched mountain (L), with sides bare of vegeta- 
tion, shows the results of unrestricted timber cutting. 

At 92.5 m. is a junction with an improved road. 

Right here to SVENSON, 0.7 m. (10 alt., 100 pop.), less a town than a series 
of fishing wharves, extending into the Columbia River, which broadens to a 
width of five miles. Tied up at these docks are many fishing crafts. ^These small 
boats, their engines hooded for protection from spray and weather, ride restlessly 
in the tide's movement. Net-drying racks stretch at length over the salt-soaked 
planking, where fishermen mend their linen nets between catches. 

It is from these docks, and the many that closely line the river's south shore 
from this point to Astoria, a distance of eight miles, that a large portion of the 
salmon fishing fleet puts out. 

The principal method of taking fish in the Columbia is by gill-netting. The 
gill-netter works with a power boat and a net from 1,200 to 1,500 feet long. 
On one edge of the net are floats to hold it up and on the other edge weights to 
hold it down and vertical in the water. Fish swarming upstream strike the 
net and become entangled in the meshes, held by their gills. The gill net fisher- 
men usually operate at night; at such times the river presents a fascinating 
spectacle, dotted with lights as the boats drift with the current. 

Seining operations are employed on sand shoals, some of them far out in the 
wide Columbia estuary. One end of the seine is held on shore while the other 



TOUR I 28l 

end is taken out Into the river by a power boat, swung around on a circular 
course and brought back to shore. As the loaded net comes in, teams of horses 
haul it into the shallows, where the catch is gaffed into boats. Seining crews 
and horses live in houses and barns on the seining grounds. Fishing crews often 
work in water to their shoulders. 

Trolling boats are larger than gill-netters and cross the Columbia bar to ply 
the ocean waters in their search for schools of salmon, and for sturgeon, which 
are taken by hook and line. They carry ice to preserve their cargo, as they are 
sometimes out for several days. 

Mysterious are the life and habits of the salmon which provide the lower 
Columbia with perhaps its main industry. Spawned in the upper reaches of the 
river and its tributaries, the young fish go to sea and disappear, returning four 
years later to reproduce and die where they were spawned. Each May large 
runs of salmon come into the river and fight their way against the current; 
each autumn the young horde descends. Full-grown King Chinook salmon weigh 
as much as 75 pounds each. 

Until 1866, the salmon were sold fresh or pickled whole in barrels for ship- 
ping. In that year the tin container came into use. By 1874, the packing industry 
had become an extensive commercial enterprise. Artificial propagation, to prevent 
fishing out of the stream, began in 1887. Today, about 3,500 fishermen are 
engaged in various methods of taking fish in the Columbia River district, and 
about i,8co boats of various sizes and types are used. It has been estimated that 
as many as 20,000 persons now depend upon the industry for a living. The 
value of the annual production, most of which is canned at the processing 
olants at Astoria and elsewhere on either side of the river, is estimated at ten 
million dollar*. 

US 30 crosses the little JOHN DAY RIVER, 97.9 m. t another 
stream named for the unfortunate Astorian of whom Robert Stuart says 
as he camped a few miles up the Columbia: "evident symptoms of 
mental derangement made their appearance in John Day one of my 
Hunters who for a day or two previous seemed as if restless and unwell 
but now uttered the most incoherent absurd and unconnected sentences. 
... it was the opinion of all the Gentlemen that it would be highly 
imprudent to suffer him to proceed any farther for in a moment when 
not sufficiently watched he might embroil us with the natives, who on 
all occasions he reviled by the appellations Rascal, Robber &c &c &c " 

Nearing the western sea that they had been sent to find, Lewis and 
Clark recorded enthusiastically, on November 7, 1805, "Ocian in view. 
O the Joy." On the following day he wrote: "Some rain all day at 
intervals, we are all wet and disagreeable, as we have been for several 
days past, and our present Situation a verry disagreeable one in as 
much, as we have not leavel land Sufficient for an encampment and 
for our baggage to lie cleare of the tide, the High hills jutting in so 
close and steep that we cannot retreat back, and the water too salt to be 
used, added to this the waves are increasing to Such a hight that we 
cannot move from this place, in this Situation we are compelled to form 
our camp between the Hits of the Ebb and flood tides, and rase our 
baggage on logs." On the 9th he wrote: "our camp entirely under 
water dureing the hight of the tide, every man as wet as water could 
make them all the last night and to day all day as the rain continued 
all the day, at 4 oClock P M the wind shifted about to the S.W. and 
blew with great violence immediately from the Ocean for about two 



OREGON 

hours, notwithstanding the disagreeable Situation of our party all wet 
and cold (and one which they have experienced for Several days past) 
they are chearfull and anxious to See further into the Ocian, The water 
of the river being too Salt to use we are obliged to make use of rain 
water. Some of the party not accustomed to Salt water has made too 
free use of it on them it acts as a pergitive. At this dismal point we must 
Spend another night as the wind & waves are too high to preceed." 

At 100.7 is TONGUE POINT STATE PARK; here is a junc- 
tion with a gravel road. 

Right on this road to TONGUE POINT LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE BASE, 
0.7 m. Built on a projection extending into the wide mouth of the Columbia 
River, this base is the repair depot for the buoys that guide navigators along 
the watercourses of the two states. Tongue Point was so named by Broughton 
in 1792. A proposal to establish a naval air base at this point, agitated for 
many years, has been at last approved by Congress (1939) and funds appropri- 
ated for beginning construction. 

On November 10 the Lewis and Clark party, unable to go far because of the 
wind, camped on the northern shore nearly opposite this point. The camp was 
made on drift logs that floated at high tide, "nothing to eate but Pounded fish," 
Clark noted, "that night it Rained verry hard. . . . and continues this morning, 
the wind has luled and the waves are not high." The party moved on but after 
they had gone ten miles the wind rose and they had to camp again on drift logs. 
Neighboring Indians appeared with fish. The camp was moved on the i2th to 
a slightly less dangerous place and Clark attempted to explore the nearby land 
on the i sth: "rained all day moderately. I am wet &C.&C." On the i4th: "The 
rain &c. which has continued without a longer intermition than 2 hours at a 
time for ten days past has destroy'd the robes and rotted nearly one half the 
fiew clothes the party has particularly the leather clothes." Clark was losing his 
patience by the i5th; even the pounded fish brought from the falls was becoming 
mouldy. This was the eleventh day of rain and "the most disagreeable time I 
have experenced confined on the tempiest coast wet, where I can neither git out 
to hunt, return to a better situation, or proceed on." But they did manage to move 
to a somewhat better camp that day and the men, salvaging boards from a de- 
serted Indian camp, made rude shelters. The Indians began to give them too 
much attention, however, "I told those people. . . . that if any one of their 
nation stole any thing that the Senten'l whome they Saw near our baggage with 
his gun would most certainly Shute them, they all promised not to tuch a thing, 
and if any of their womin or bad boys took any thing to return it imediately 
and chastise them for it. I treated those people with great distance." 

The party moved on to a place on the northern shore of Baker Bay, where 
they remained for about ten days. From this point Clark went overland to ex- 
plore, inviting those who wanted to see more of the "Ocian" to accompany him. 
Nine men, including York, the negro, still had enough energy to go. 

On the 2ist: "An old woman & Wife to a Cheif of the Chunnooks came and 
made a Camp near ours. She brought with her 6 young Squars (her daughters 
& nieces) I believe for the purpose of Gratifying the passions of the men of our 
party and receiving for those indulgience Such Small (presents) as She (the 
old woman) though proper to accept of. 

"These people appear to View Sensuality as a Necessary evel, and do not 
appear to abhor it as a Crime in the unmarried State. The young females 
are fond of the attention of our men and appear to meet the sincere approba- 
tion of their friends and connections, for thus obtaining their favours." 

Here the explorers had further evidence that English and American sailors 
had previously visited the Columbia. The tattooed name, "J. B. Bowman," was 
seen on the arm of a Chinook squaw. "Their legs are also picked with defferent 
figures," wrote Clark, "all those are considered by the natives of this quarter as 



T O U R I 283 

handsom deckerations, and a woman without those deckorations is Considered 
as among the lower Class." 

Three days later Lewis and Clark held a meeting to decide whether the party 
should go back to the falls, remain on the north shore or cross to the south side 
of the river for the winter. The members with one exception voted to move to 
the south shore, where they set up a temporary camp on Tongue Point. From 
this place they hunted a suitable site for the permanent camp (see TOUR 30). 

ASTORIA, 104.5 m. (12 alt., 10,349 pop.) (see ASTORIA). 

Points of Interest: Fort Astoria, City Hall, Grave of D. McTavish, Flavel 
Mansion, Union Fishermen's Cooperative Packing Plant, Port of Astoria Ter- 
minal, and others. 

In Astoria US 30 meets US 101 (see TOUR 30). 



lUiiiiiiinmiiiiiiiiiniiiffliiiiioimimmniimimmoiiniiim 



Tour 1A 



Baker Salisbury Hereford Junction with US 28; 46.1 m., State 7. 

Gravel road. 

Local stages between Baker and Unity; Baker and Bourne. 

Hotels in towns and camps. 

State 7 penetrates one of the richest mining regions of early Oregon. 
Tucked away in canyons or stark against mountainsides are the few 
crumbling buildings of old camps and abandoned towns. The discovery 
of gold in Griffin's Gulch in the fall of 1861 brought thousands east 
from the Willamette Valley and up from California to pan the streams 
and pluck nuggets from pockets in decaying ledges. In the 1890*8 came 
a second period of activity, a hardrock boom no less intense than the 
earlier placer fever. After the early white miners had left for fields 
with richer strikes hundreds of Chinese poured into the region to pan 
the tailings. Farmers came into the Powder River bottoms as the gold 
played out and the mining camps disappeared. 

The western part of the route crosses a semi-arid range country along 
the headwaters of Burnt River. 

State 7 branches south from US 30 (see TOUR 10) at Baker, m. 
and crosses the tracks of the Sumpter Valley Railroad, the state's last 
narrow-gauge line. Constructed in the 1890*3 to develop the timber 
holdings of several Mormons, it was an important factor in the growth 
of the district. A two-car train with a wood-burning locomotive called 
the "Stump Dodger" made the run for many years between Baker and 



284 OREGON 

Prairie City. Passenger service has been discontinued and only logs and 
freight are hauled over the line as far as Austin. 

In GRIFFIN CREEK, 2.3 m. Oregon gold was first discovered on 
October 23, 1861. Henry Griffin of Portland had come into the Mal- 
heur River region with a party of gold-seekers searching for the fabled 
Blue Bucket Mine (see TALL TALES & LEGENDS). Though 
most of the members had become discouraged and turned homeward, 
Griffin and three companions had continued northward toward the head- 
waters of the Powder River. While his companions were making a 
noon camp here Griffin shoveled gravel into his pan and washed out the 
handful of coarse gold that started the stampede. 

At 7 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road along Blue Canyon Creek into the heart of the old raining 
region. At 2.6 m. (L) many spearheads and arrow-heads have been found. The 
SITE OF AUBURN (R), 3.3 m., is marked by a grove of weeping willows, 
a few plum trees, and a single apple tree. After gold was discovered here in 
1861 log cabins were built and a blockhouse was erected as a protection against 
Indians. The town, named for Auburn, Maine, began to mushroom in 1862 when 
droves of prospectors rushed in. It was the metropolis of the mining region, 
with 1,270 claims having been recorded within a year for the surrounding hilly, 
stream-gouged area, so rich that two Frenchmen panned about $100,000 worth 
of gold dust in the fall of 1862. When Baker County was created in the autumn 
of that year Auburn became its seat. 

At its zenith, in 1863-64, Auburn had a population of 5,000 and was the 
second largest town in the state. It was wide open and became a magnet for 
gamblers, bunco men and their ilk. But the town had this code a wanton killing 
would not be tolerated. Therefore French Pete, a miner, was hanged on Gallows 
Hill (L) for putting strychnine in his partner's flour, and Spanish Tom died 
the same way for wielding a Bowie knife. In later years many Chinese came in, 
to operate laundries, restaurants, and gambling houses, and also to garner any 
gold that had been overlooked by the careless white man. 

An account book kept by a merchant from June 29 to October 7, 1868 listed 
these prices: four pounds of sugar, $1.00; one pound of tea, $1.25; one sack 
of flour, $2.25; five pounds of beans, $.80. Liquor prices were: whiskey $1.50 a 
quart; brandy and gin, $1.25. The only toothbrush was sold for $.50. The 
Chinese were heavy buyers of rice, ginger, beanstick, tea, and all kinds of dried 
or preserved fish. 

After the discovery of gold in Idaho in 1867, Auburn began to decline. The 
next year the county seat was moved to Baker, and one by one the buildings 
were deserted; later they were torn down by ranchers and carted away for 
firewood. Nearby were three cemeteries, one for whites and two for Chinese. 
One of the latter was washed away in a "second washing" for gold. 

The site of the LITTLEFIELD HOMESTEAD, 3.8 m., the first taken up 
in Baker County, is marked by a grove of cottonwood trees. David S. Littlefield 
was a member of the first gold-discovery party. 

At 9 m. State 7 forms a junction with a gravel road. 

Right on this road along the north bank of Powder River to SUMPTER, 
19.6 m. (4,424 alt.), an almost deserted town of the "hard-rock" mining era. 
In 1902 an editorial in the local paper asked: "Sumpter, golden Sumpter, what 
glorious future awaits thee?" The answer today is a U. S. Forest station, one 
store with a pool hall, and the crumbled remnants of a business section that 
once stretched seven blocks up the steep hill. The town was so named because 
three North Carolinians, who chose a farmsite at this point in 1862, called their 
log cabin Fort Sumpter a misspelling of "Sumter." For many years the camp 



T O U R I A 285 

existed by grace of the few white miners who explored the district and hundreds 
of Chinese who followed them. With the coming of the railroad in 1896 and 
the opening of ore veins on the Blue Mountains, Sumpter became a city of 3,000 
inhabitants. The total yield of the Sumpter quadrangle from both placer and deep 
mines has been nearly sixteen million dollars. Names of the most productive 
mines were Mammoth, Goldbug-Grizzly, Bald Mountain, Golden Eagle, May 
Queen, Ibex, Baby McKee, Belle of Baker, Quebec, White Star, Gold Ridge, 
and Bonanza. Twelve miles of mine tunnels were in operation at one time. The 
town even had an opera house where fancy dress balls were held, but the sheep- 
men of the region were not welcome at them. The vigilante committee warned 
sheepmen away from the gold country on the threat of fixing them up "until 
the Angels could pan lead out of their souls." 

The story of Sumpter after 1916 is almost a blank. The few people who 
remained became accustomed to the sound of crumbling walls and to using 
doors and window frames for firewood. The smelter erected during the last days 
of the boom still stands. Pack rats live in the vaults of two former banks. 

Right from Sumpter, 6.7 m. along Cracker Creek to the town of BOURNE, 
(5)397 !*> * pop-)* the smallest incorporated town of the state. It came into 
existence as the lively gold camp of Cracker in the 1870*8, and in its latter days, 
as Bourne, was notorious for the number of wild-cat ventures. Many persons in 
the East were inveigled into disastrous investment by gilt-edged prospectuses 
from the town. Two weekly newspapers were published here by the same firm, 
one giving factual information for home consumption ; the other, contained 
glowing accounts of rich strikes and fabulous mining activities. The exodus from 
the camp occurred about 1906, when most of the producing mines were closed. 
A cloudburst in 1937 washed down many buildings and changed the course of 
Cracker Creek. 

A dazzling white house on the hillside is a monument to one of Oregon's most 
flagrant mining swindles. Surrounded by terraced grounds, with crushed-quartz 
pathways leading up to it the house still presents a striking appearance. Piles 
of quartz tailings from the mines rise in rose-colored pyramids in the formerly 
landscaped lawns. In the living room is a massive fireplace of rose and white 
gold-bearing quartz. A stairway of peeled and stained logs leads up six feet 
from the living rooms to a dining floor. The glass has long since disappeared 
from the huge windows, the doors have been removed, and only shreds of the 
expensive floor coverings remain. Wall-paper brought from England has been 
torn from the walls, though here and there ragged and faded remnants flutter 
in the breeze. 

Designed and built by J. Wallace White, the mansion was erected in 1906 
from proceeds of the Sampson Company, Ltd., of New York, London and 
Bourne, a wildcat mining organization that fleeced hundreds- of their savings. 
White continued his operations for many years, amassing a large fortune, though 
he was eventually arrested in the East for using the mails to defraud. 

West of Sumpter is GRANITE, 35.6 m. (4,688 alt.), where a Grand Hotel, 
an ornate three-story building with thirty rooms, still stands empty and dilapi- 
dated. Granite was first called Independence because the first settlers, prospectors 
from California, arrived on July 4, 1862. When application was made for a 
post office at Independence it was found that there was already a post office of 
this name in the state and the governor chose the present name. Unlike many 
of the mining camps of eastern Oregon, Granite relied more on trade and on its 
distributing and shipping business than on the pay-day sprees of miners. But 
when the many mines were worked out the town dwindled and disappeared. 
Deserted tunnels, jagged heaps of tailings, dilapidated cabins, occasional graves, 
remind the few inhabitants of the days that they still hope may come again. 
Only tourists and fishing and hunting parties serve to keep the place alive. In 
1938 Granite's one general store still had in stock 24 derby hats, a number of 
black corsets with beaded tops, tnd a few dozen gaily-colored women's garters 
with spangles. 

South of SALISBURY, 9.2 m. (3,675 alt., 4 pop.), a railroad 



286 OREGON 

station. State 7 winds through the yellow jackpines of the WHITMAN 
NATIONAL FOREST to DOOLEY MOUNTAIN SUMMIT, 
17 m. (5,392 alt.), which commands wide vistas of the Blue Mountains. 
The Dooley Mountain Toll Road, joins State 7 at 17.5 m. (L). It 
was named for John Dooley, an emigrant who purchased the road from 
B. F. Koontz, of Baker. 

Reaching Burnt River the road swerves westward through the 
BURNT RIVER GAME REFUGE, 26.1 m., to HEREFORD, 
35.6 m. (3,658 alt., 32 pop.), named for a Hereford bull of renown 
in the extensive range country the hamlet serves. In 1885 the Oregon 
Horse & Land Company, operating in the district, imported 109 Per- 
cheron horses from France for breeding purposes 47 males and 62 
females. The outfit was the largest operating in Oregon at the time; 
in 1885 it branded about 11,000 horses. 

Left from Hereford to the DIAMOND-AND-A-HALF DUDE RANCH, 
4.5 m., at the southern edge of the Whitman National Forest. This ranch, estab- 
lished by the Whites shortly after their arrival in 1869, is still in the hands of 
the family. Visitors are regaled with tall tales by the wranglers, ride herd with 
the cowhands, and go on hunting and fishing trips into the Blue Mountains. 

At 46.1 is the junction with US 28 (see TOUR 6a), at a point 1.7 
miles northwest of Unity. 



intiiitnDiiiiiiiiitiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiaiiiiiiiitiiiDiiiiiiiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiaiiimiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiDiiiiiiuiiiiDiiiiiii uiniiiiiii 



Tour IB 



Baker Richland Robinette Copperfield Homestead ( Cuprum, 
Idaho) ; 84.3 m. State 86 and unnamed road. 

Gravel road in lower sections, elsewhere dirt. 
Limited accommodations, in towns. 

East of the broad uplands of the upper Powder River and the fertile 
Baker Valley, State 86 crosses the broken terrain to the river's con- 
fluence with the Snake; paralleling that stream for thirty miles, to a 
terminus at the interstate bridge into Idaho at the opening of the Grand 
Canyon of the Snake (see TOUR iC). 

Tucked in numerous gulches along the tributaries of Powder River 
are sites and ruins of towns and camps of the gold rush days of the 
l86o's. Here gold was at a premium, human life and morals at a dis- 
count. Such law as existed was administered by officials subservient to 
the proprietors of saloons and dives, and although recorded killings were 



TOUR IB 287 

few, "accidental" deaths and "suicides" were not infrequent. For a brief 
period before 1914 the boom town of Copperfield, never a mining town 
as its name might imply, revived a shoddy counterpart of those early 
towns. In former days when millions in gold were mined the area was 
populous, but with the exhaustion of the rich sands, it became for a time 
practically deserted. Although only a few of the mines are now being 
worked, some of these are large producers. In the region are also con- 
siderable deposits of silver and copper. 

State 86 branches east from the junction with US 30, (see TOUR 
la) in Baker, m. and passes through a district of small truck farms 
and alfalfa ranches in the Powder River Valley. 

At 2.2 m. is a junction with State 203, a graveled road. 

_ Left on State 203 to the BAKER AIRPORT (R), 2.1 m., used by transcon- 
tinental planes, although not a regular stop. 

PONDOSA, 20.9 m. (3,200 alt., 300 pop.), is a lumber town, and MEDICAL 
SPRINGS, 22.3 m. (3,388 alt., 40 pop.), is a commercial resort on the edge of 
the WHITMAN NATIONAL FOREST. State 203 continues to a junction 
with US 30 in UNION 42.7 m. (see TOUR la). 

East of Baker Valley State 86 passes over a low saddle formerly 
traversed by the Old Oregon Trail. 

At 9.6 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to the VIRTUE MINE, 3 ., first of the gold bearing 
quartz mines in the Powder River district, and one of the richest The first ore 
was carried by horseback several hundred miles to The Dalles and other water 
transportation points. James W. Virtue, pioneer mine operator and banker, was 
its owner for many years. Between its discovery in 1862 and its final shutdown 
in 1924 the mine produced $2,200,000. The shaft house on a small hill is a con- 
spicuous landmark. Scattered over Virtue flats a level stretch of arid sagebrush 
land between the mine and the highway are tumbled-down farm buildings, 
that recall the shattered hopes of homesteaders who profitably dry-farmed the 
land during the period of high prices just after the World War but were forced 
to abandon their claims when prices fell. It is planned to reclaim these flat* 
by irrigation. 

At 17.6 m. on State 86 is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left here to KEATING, 3 m. (2,650 alt., 68 pop.), at the confluence of Ruckles 
Creek with the Powder River, headquarters of the Thief Valley Irrigation 
District, a Federal project supplying a small section of the lower Powder River 
Valley. Thief Valley was so named because a horse thief was hanged there 
in 1864. 

At 20.7 m on State 86 is the junction with the Middle Bridge Road. 

Left on this road, crossing the Powder River, to SPARTA, 12 m. (4,120 alt., 
25 pop.), remnant of a mining town founded in the i86o's. The Sparta mines 
once had an annual output of several million dollars, but when the richest 
pannings had been taken miners pulled up stakes and sought other fields. Follow- 
ing close on their heels, came bands of Chinese, who had been released from 
construction work with the completion of the first transcontinental railroad. They 
scoured the gulches and gullies gleaning the tailings, but were continually 
harassed, robbed and even murdered by those who objected to the presence of the 
Orientals. This bad feeling culminated in their forcible ejection from the dig- 
gings by a band of "stalwarts," who were dissatisfied with the mild provisions 



288 OR BOON 

of the Chinese Exclusion Act. Only a few weathered skeletons of shacks and false- 
front shops stand on Main Street. The hillsides and gulches are scarred with 
prospect holes and piles of tailings. The shaggy lynching pine remains, and the 
"arrow tree" still points the way to Sparta. 

A ROADSIDE FOUNTAIN (R) is at 30.4 m. From the center 
of a large flat-surfaced granite boulder spouts a 12-foot, geyser-like 
stream of water that falls into a basin chiseled in the rock. The water is 
always fresh and cold, and never freezes. 

At 45.8 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left here up Eagle Creek to NEW BRIDGE, 2.5 m. (2,400 alt, 38 pop.), 
named by Joseph Gale, (see TOUR B\, who spent his last years here, and was 
the first postmaster. He was buried on his old homesite, conspicuous because of the 
profusion of lilac bushes that he planted. His home has been moved and rebuilt. 

RICHLAND, 46.1 m. (2,213 alt., 212 pop.), named for the fer- 
tility of the surrounding soil, is the trade center of the farmers and 
dairymen of Eagle Valley. 

At 52.6 m. the route diverges from State 86. 

Left on State 86 over winding grades to HALFWAY, 11.1 m. (2,653 alt, 351 
pop.), in Pine Valley, an isolated upland farming country hemmed in by barren 
hills. The town has its own water system, electric light and power plant, 
cooperative creamery, and is the home of the annual Baker County Fair. 

Left from Halfway, 5.5 m. on a dirt road to CARSON, (3,355 alt, 90 pop.), 
and CORNUCOPIA, 11.5 m. (4,800 alt, 10 pop.), a town described in the 
September, 1885, issue of West Shore as having "one nice frame house," and 
many "tents and log cabins, built rather hastily to accommodate the first rush. 
The town can boast of five saloons, one store, two restaurants, blacksmith shop, 
barber shop, butcher shop and livery stable; also a lodging house, which, while 
neatly kept for a young town, is hardly patronized enough, as the traveling 
class in such camps objects seriously to too close confinement and prefers camp 
life. . . ." The Cornucopia Mine has a 6,300 foot shaft and from its 30 miles 
of underground workings comes one-half of Oregon's gold output. Opened in 
the early i88o's the mine has produced many millions of dollars worth of gold 
and silver. 

Diverging (R) from State 86, at 52.5 m., the route continues down 
the widening canyon of the lower Powder River to its confluence with 
the Snake, 55 m. (i,935 alt.), then swings along the west bank of that 
stream to ROBINETTE, 56.5 m. (1,900 alt., 46 pop.), the northern 
terminus of a branch line of the Union Pacific Railroad, formerly ex- 
tending about 25 miles farther along the Snake. The abandoned roadbed 
has been converted into a highway. 

The OXBOW POWER PLANT, 77.3 m. (R), in a large bend 
of the Snake, supplies power and light for a wide area. The once flour- 
ishing town of COPPERFIELD, 77.9 m. (1,725 alt, 8 pop.), is near 
the lower curve of the Oxbow in the Snake River. This town was laid 
out in 1908 by four Baker speculators because of the presence of large 
crews of men engaged in building the power plant to the south and a 
railroad tunnel. These promoters bought a quarter section between the 
railroad and the power plant, cleared large sums in the first six months 
by selling lots and retired from the scene. The boom town soon had 
every conceivable type of business, both legal and illegal, with the latter 



TOUR IB 289 

in the ascendency. The inhabitants aped the wickedness of the mining 
towns of the i86o's and boasted of it. The railroad construction gangs 
often clashed in "free-for-alls." It is said that one conflict that lasted 
more than an hour was accompanied by the tinny tunes from the me- 
chanical piano in Barney Goldberg's saloon. Rocks and beer bottles, 
and other missiles, as well as fists, were used, but when truce was 
finally called from sheer exhaustion, enemies drank from the same bottle, 
bound up each others wounds, and set the date for the next encounter. 

The leading citizens of Copperfield including the mayor and the 
members of the council either ran saloons or were financially interested 
in them. A few peaceful citizens finally tired of the disorder and ap- 
pealed to the governor for help. He ordered the Baker County authori- 
ties to clean up Copperfield by Christmas; but they refused to act. On 
New Year's Day, 1914, Governor West dramatically sent his small 
secretary in with a declaration of martial law, accompanied by an "army 
of invasion" consisting of five national guardsmen, and two penitentiary 
guards commanded by a colonel of the National Guard who was also 
warden of the state penitentiary. Notified of the approach of the "army" 
with a female representative of the governor the mayor ordered the town 
decorated for a glorious welcome. Flags and bunting hung in the streets, 
and all bars were embellished with pink and white ribbons and such 
flowers as were available. The entire town was lined up to greet the 
train. Accompanied by her "army," "war" correspondents, photograph- 
ers, and almost the entire populace, the secretary marched at once to 
the town hall, mounted a platform, gave the governor's orders for the 
resignation of all officials connected with the saloon business; said that 
if they refused she would hand oVer the governor's declaration of mar- 
tial law, disarm everyone in town, close all saloons, burn all gambling 
equipment, and ship all liquors and bar fixtures out of town. The offi- 
cials turned down her demands, and the secretary immediately com- 
menced to carry out her threats. The audience was silent throughout 
the proceedings, and there was little protest when the expeditionary force 
collected all six-shooters present and piled them on the platform. Just 
80 minutes after her arrival the secretary boarded the train for her re- 
turn journey. The men remained to mop up. A few months after the 
departure of the guardsmen, fire, of suspected incendiary origin, left 
the town in ruins, and it was never rebuilt. 

North of Copperfield, State 86 leads to HOMESTEAD, 82.1 m. 
(1,675 alt., 150 pop.), by the Snake River at the eastern edge of the 
copper belt. During the World War the town was the scene of exten- 
sive mining operations, but operations ceased in 1922. 

State 86 crosses the Snake River and becomes Idaho 45 at the Idaho 
Line, 84.3 m. in the river. 



29O OREGON 

iiiiiiimHmiiiiHiiiDHiiiiimiiHiiiiiiiimiRiiiEimiH 



Tour 1C 



La Grande Elgin Enterprise Joseph Wallowa Lake Resort; 78.8 
m. t State 82. 

Oiled gravel road ; occasionally closed by snow. Union Pacific Railroad branch 
roughly parallels route between La Grande and Enterprise. Daily stages between 
La. Grande and Joseph, and between Enterprise and Paradise. Good accommo- 
'dations in towns. 

This route runs through the beautiful Grande Ronde Valley and gives 
access to the rugged wilderness of the Wallowa Mountains. Here for- 
ests are protected from despoliation and streams are closed to com- 
mercial fishing. Rising sharply from a basaltic plain in tiers of mag- 
nificent peaks, the short Wallowa Mountain range thrusts up a mass of 
marble and granite. Ten peaks rise more than 9,000 feet in an area 
covering less than 350 square miles, and almost an equal additional 
number rise more than 8,000 feet. In appearance the W a ^ owas are 
more rugged than the Blue Mountains, and, in their isolation, form an 
imposing sight. From their slopes flow a number of streams that have 
cut deep, rock-walled canyons, and plunge over ledges in long ribbons. 
Glacial meadows are tapestried with brightly colored wild flowers. In 
the forests are many lakes set in beautiful frames. East of the moun- 
tains is the Grand Canyon of the Snake River also called Hell's 
Canyon, 6,748 feet in depth at one point, and separating Oregon and 
Idaho. 

State 82 branches northeast from US 30, m. (see TOUR la) on 
Hemlock St. in LA GRANDE. 

ISLAND CITY, 2.4 m. (2,743 alt., 116 pop.), grew up around a 
store opened by Charles Goodenough in 1874. It is on an island formed 
by a slough and the Grande Ronde River, which drains into the Snake 
in Washington. Peter Skene Ogden, the Hudson's Bay trapper, referred 
to this stream in his Journal as the Clay River, and also as Riviere de 
Grande Ronde. 

Right from Island City on a gravel road to Cove, 14 m. (2,892 alt, 307 pop.), 
on the eastern side of the valley in a pocket formed by Mill Creek near the 
foothills of Mount Fanny (7,132 alt.), four miles to the east. It is the market 
center of a diversified farming, dairying, and fruit area, and provides transpor- 
tation and guides for trips in the region. A dirt road follows Mill Creek, 7 m. t 
to MOSS SPRING GUARD STATION, where a pack trail begins. BIG 
MINAM HORSE RANCH, 15 m. (open May to Nov.), a dude outfit with a 
landing field, is on a mountain prairie (3,600 alt.), surrounded by rimrock. It 
is situated by the river from which it takes its name, a fine fishing stream 
whose course is accessible by trail. Little Minam River flows into the larger 
stream about six miles from the ranch. 



TOUR 1C 291 

ALICEL, 8.3 m. (2,754 alt., 300 pop.), in the heart of a wheat- 
growing district, has several large grain elevators cooperatively owned. 

IIMBLER, 12.2 m. (2,711 alt., 204 pop.), is a grain-shipping point 
in a thickly settled fanning region. 

ELGIN, 20.3 m. (2,666 alt., 728 pop.), draws the trade of fruit- 
growers and lumbermen. After 1890, when the Oregon Railway & 
Navigation Co.'s branch line was completed to this place, the town was 
the shipping and distributing point for an extensive territory. Horse- 
drawn stages brought travelers long distances over bad roads to this 
railhead. 

Left from Elgin on graveled State 204 over the summit of the Blue Moun- 
tains, 17.3 m. (5,158 alt), to TOLLGATE, 21 m. Covering the Tollgate meadow 
is 4o-acre Langdon Lake (public camp and kitchen}, formed by damming the 
waters of Looking-glass Creek. In winter this area offers excellent skiing, skating, 
and other sports. At this point is the TOLLGATE RANGER STATION of the 
Umatilla National Forest. State 204 continues to a junction with State n (see 
TOUR i) in WESTON, 41.4 m. 

The summit of MINAM HILL, 29.5 m. (3,638 alt.), is reached 
by gradual ascent through rolling farmland between the Grande Ronde 
and Wallowa rivers. At CAPE HORN promontory, 32 m., is a 
striking vista (R) of the rugged canyon of the Minam River and the 
forested Wallowa Mountains. 

East of MINAM, 35 m. (2,535 alt., 60 pop.), at the confluence of 
the Minam and Wallowa Rivers, State 82 runs through the canyon of 
the Wallowa beside rushing waters and below towering cliffs. 

THE FOUNTAIN, 41 m., is a camping place by a cold mountain 
spring. 

WALLOWA, 48.5 m. (2,940 alt., 749 pop.), has a large sawmill 
and a flour mill. It is an old "cow town" and still retains some of its 
frontier character. The farmers who trade here do general farming, 
fruit growing, and sheep and cattle raising. 

x. Right from Wallowa to BEAR CREEK CANYON, 10 m. (picnic and 
camp grounds; good fishing after high water.) 

2. Left from Wallowa on a dirt road, following the Powwatka Ridge, which 
affords views of impressive MUD CREEK CANYON, to TROY, 34 m. (2,950 
alt., 200 pop.), which selected its classical name in 1902 after several others 
had been rejected by the Post Office Department. 

LOSTINE, 56.2 m. (3,362 alt., 176 pop.), by a river of the same 
name, is sometimes called "the lost town of Lostine," because it is in 
a valley 30 miles from the officially platted site, which is on top of a 
mountain. A surveyor's blunder accounts for the discrepancy. 

1. Left from Lostine 4 m. to the FIRST BURIAL PLACE OF CHIEF 
JOSEPH, Nez Perce chieftain, who died in 1872. His body was later removed 
to Wallowa Lake (see beloiv). His son was the Chief Joseph whose military 
leadership was outstanding (see HISTORY). 

2. Right from Lostine along the Lostine River into the heart of the Wallowa 
Mountains and the EAGLE CAP PRIMITIVE AREA of 223,000 acres within 
the Wallowa National Forest. The road follows the canyon to the LOSTINE 



292 OREGON 

FORKS (guides and horses available), 19 m., from which point all travel is 
by trail. 

The rugged Eagle Cap Area is the most impressive in the region. Among the 
peaks are Eagle Cap (9,695 alt.), Sacajawea (10,033 alt.), honoring the inter- 
preter of the Lewis and Clark expedition, and Matterhorn (10,004 alt.) Also here 
are Aneroid, Sentinel, Peat's Point, and Glacier Mountain, all of them nearly 
10,000 feet high. The southwest face of the Matterhorn, which resembles the 
mountain in Switzerland for which it was named, has a sheer face of white 
marble. On the sides of Eagle Cap are two residual glaciers, one of which, the 
Benson, is notable for its peculiar shape and rainbow colors. In abundance and 
variety of wild life, this region is outstanding. Streams and lakes furnish ex- 
cellent fishing (trout, steelhead, land-locked salmon). The salmon are locally 
called blue-backs, or "yanks" because of the manner in which they are caught by 
fishermen who use deep, weighted lines and yank the fish out violently. The 
area was formerly a haunt of the fierce silvertip or grizzly bear. The small 
band of bighorn sheep for whom a reserve (see below) has been established 
frequently wanders into tin* area, roaming the remote fastnesses, and it is esti 
mated that there are 3,000 ulk and 10,000 mule deer in the district. 

ENTERPRISE, 66.4 m. (3,755 alt., 1,379 pop.), living up to its 
name, is the bustling trade center for ranchers in the Wallowa Valley. 
It is also the county seat, and headquarters of the Wallowa National 
Forest (information from forest supervisor). 

i. Left from Enterprise on a gravel road to the STATE FISH HATCHERY, 
1 m. on the Wallowa River, now mainly devoted to the propagation of trout. 

z. Right from Enterprise on an unimproved dirt road to MARBLE FINISH- 
ING PLANT, C.2 m., where an unusual black marble is cut and polished. The 
marble is taken from the quarry at 0.4 m. 

3. Left from Enterprise on State 3, graveled, through a logged-off region 
that parallels rugged JOSEPH CREEK CANYON and at intervals offers views 
of the deep gorge with the creek a silver line two thousand feet below. 

At 34.6 m. is the junction with a dirt road; L. here 1 m. to FLORA (4,000 
alt., 60 pop.), formerly an outfitting point for summer sheep camps and now 
the trading point for a dry-farming section, producing diversified crops. 

At 35 m. is a junction with a dirt road; right here to PARADISE, 2 m. 
(3,500 alt., 60 pop.), a stock-raising and general farming area, and a former 
sheepmen's outfitting point. Community life centers about the church, the school, 
and the grange. In winter, this region is isolated by heavy snows that frequently 
pack to fence levels. At such times, all travel is on foot, horseback, bobsleds, or 
in homemade, horse-drawn sleighs. 

State 3 crosses the Washington State line, 44 m. 

Southeast of Enterprise State 82 continues up the valley of the Wal- 
lowa River. 

At 69.8 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road through hilly farming and stock-raising country of MID- 
WAY, 13 m. at the junction with the Zumwalt Road. Left 11 m. from Mid- 
way to ZUMWALT (80 pop.) ; the road continues to BUCKHORN SPRINGS, 
25 m. (camping and picnicking facilities.) 

Right from Buckhorn Springs 1 m. to BUCKHORN POINT on the Snake 
River rim. This point commands an impressive view of a canyon deeper than that 
of the Colorado and quite as awe-inspiring though less dramatic in color. More 
than a mile below the rim, the Snake River winds through the gorge toward the 
Columbia. Seen from the rim, the river is deceptively calm and gives no hint of 
its dangerous rapids and whirlpools. 

JOSEPH, 72.8 m. (4,400 alt., 504 pop.), an outfitting point, bears 



T U R 1C 293 

the name of two great Nez Perec chieftains, father and son. Both Chief 
Josephs ruled this Valley-of-the-Winding Waters, the hereditary home 
of their people until 1872. The younger Chief Joseph (see HISTORY), 
led his people in a long and losing struggle against white invasion and 
fought their banishment from their ancestral home. 

1. Right from Joseph on a dirt road to its end, 2 m. to HURRICANE 
CREEK CANYON, 5 m. For grandeur of scene with high waterfalls, stark 
canyon walls, and immense marble peaks intermingled with stretches of meadows 
and streams this trail is perhaps the best in the forest. 

2. Left from Joseph on the Little Sheep Creek Road and abruptly down 
through the Imnaha River Canyon to IMNAHA, 30.6 m. (1,850 alt, 45 pop.), 
district headquarters for the Wallowa National Forest. 

Right from Imnaha on a single-track forest service road, with occasional turn- 
outs, which climbs steadily from the canyon floor. At 5 m. is a broad turnout 
affording an impressive view. To the west are seen five ridges of the Wallowas, 
with intervening canyons and, nearer, the depths of the canyon from which 
the road has just emerged, with the river a narrow band of tree-lined water. 
The road reaches the plateau of GRIZZLY RIDGE, 10 m., and follows the 
main Imnaha-Snake River Ridge, to the MEMALOOSE GUARD STATION, 
22 m. 

On HAT POINT, 23 m. (7,000 alt.), is a yo-foot Forest Service lookout tower. 
Eastward, the point commands a fine view of the Grand Canyon of the Snake 
and the lofty, snow-capped peaks of the Seven Devils Range; westward and 
southward is the broken Imnaha River basin, with the vast snow-tipped bulk of 
the Wallowas beyond. This remarkable gorge is deeper than the Grand Canyon 
of Colorado: it averages 5,500 feet in depth for a distance of forty miles and 
is both the narrowest and deepest gash in the continent. From Huntingtpn, 
Oregon, to Lewiston, Idaho, the Snake descends on an average of nine feet a mile. 

State 82 continues along the east shore of WALLOWA LAKE, a 
beautiful body of water at the base of steep, forested mountains. The 
GRAVE OF OLD CHIEF JOSEPH, marked by a stone shaft, is on 
a knoll (R) between the highway and the northern end of the lake. 

WALLOWA LAKE LODGE, 78.8 m., is at the southern end of 
the lake. (Hotel and housekeeping cabins, moderate rates; club house 
and nine-hole golf course; excellent fishing; boats, pack and saddle horses 
and outing equipment for hire; guides. The M. J. G. Dude Ranch 
nearby has usual attractions). South of the lake is the WALLOWA 
MOUNTAIN SHEEP REFUGE, set aside for Oregon's surviving 
band of bighorn sheep, estimated 30 in number. The sheep do not always 
recognize the boundaries of the area and may not be at home to greet 
visitors. 



294 OREGON 

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To ur ID 



Arlington Condon Fossil Servicecreek Spray Kimberly Junc- 
tion US 28; 123.6 m. State 19. 

Graveled road. Union Pacific Railroad branch line roughly parallels route be 
tween Arlington and Condon. 
Hotels in towns; tourist camps. 

State 19, a section of the John Day Highway, crosses part of the great 
wheat belt of central Oregon and of the arid range country, where the 
only conspicuous vegetation for many miles is sagebrush and juniper. 
The highway penetrates the region of the important John Day Sedi- 
mentary Deposits, with its remarkable fossils. The region, with its suc- 
cession of startling contours, jagged skylines, sharp pinnacles rising from 
mountains of solid rock, and gashes through volcanic formation, often 
brilliantly colored, has great fascination. The barren splendor of the 
canyon of the John Day River, which the highway follows for many 
miles, is not duplicated in Oregon. 

State 19 branches southward from US 30 at ARLINGTON, m. 
(see TOUR ib) and follows a narrow, winding canyon to a plateau 
called SHUTLER FLATS, 7.1 m. (710 alt.), named for a type oi 
wagon popular with the early emigrants, one of which was found aban 
doned here along the Oregon Trail, that crosses State 19 at this place 
At one time Shutler Flats was ranched by a man who owned 2O,ocx 
acres of wheat land. Later it was subdivided into smaller holdings. 

CONDON, 37.7 m. (2,844 alt., 940 pop.), seat of Gilliam County 
was formerly called Summit City, then Summit Springs. The latte; 
name was applied because of the sweet-water springs at which stage 
drivers, freighters, and other travelers paused. The present name wa<- 
given for Harvey C. Condon, nephew of Dr. Thomas Condon, the 
geologist who brought the near-by fossil region to the attention of the 
scientific world. The high plateau on which the city lies was once an 
Indian ceremonial ground. Later it was used for cattle roundups. From 
the elevated site on clear days are visible the Ochoco Mountains, the 
Blue mountains, and the Cascade Range. Condon is in the heart of 
vast rolling wheat fields for which it is the distributing center, with 
extensive warehouses and elevators. 

South of Condon the road dips down the Condon Canyon to DYER 
STATE PARK (picnicking facilities), 47.4 m., named for J. W. 
Dyer. The narrow rim-rock walled area is shaded by cottonwoods, red 
osier willows, and elderberry bushes. 

FOSSIL, 58.5 m. (2,654 alt., 538 pop.), the seat of Wheeler Coun- 



TOUR ID 295 

ty, at the confluence of Butte and Cottonwood creeks, was so named 
because of the fossils found on the ranch where the townsite was platted 
in 1876. Highway construction often uncovers interesting fossils, such 
as those of the saber-toothed tiger, found in a cut just north of town. 

Right from Fossil on State 218, over a winding mountain grade offering ai 
excellent view of forest-covered mountains, to CLARNO, 20.5 m. (1,304 alt, 45 
pop.), un the John Day River. It was named for Andrew Clarno, one of the 
earliest white settlers on the river and an Indian fighter, who settled on Pine 
Creek in 1866. This town lies at the western edge of the great fossil deposits. 
Those nearest the town (not accessible by automobile), the CLARNO SECTION 
OF THF TOHN DAY FOSSIL BEDS, have yielded many specimens of Eocene 
tropical fruits, nuts, and leaves, and are particularly rich in specimens of the two 
toed, three-toed, and four-toed horse. These animals, which lived many millions o' 
years ago, and were no larger than a fox, is believed to have been the ancestoi 
of the modern horse. 

West of Clarno the road leads up a narrow winding canyon, exceedingl} 
steep for the first half mile. The remaining climb is over a graveled road will 
easy grades and curves. At every turn are views of the majestic John Da} 
Gorge, with Craggy Rock lifting its jagged peak almost due east At the top 
of the grade, 30.8 m., is a view-point offering a magnificent panorama of tht 
John Day region. 

West of the summit the highway descends to ANTELOPE, 33.8 m. (2,63; 
alt., 136 pop.), named for the herds of the horned animals that formerly ranged 
this region. It is one of the few remaining typical stock towns of central Oregon 
Except for a modern school its buildings look as they did in stagecoach days. 
Bullet scars in them are evidence of the times when scores were settled according 
to the law of the six-gun. H. L. Davis, editor of the Antelope newspaper in 
1928, made the town the setting for scenes in his novel Honey in the Horn 
winner of the Harper (1935) and Pulitzer (1936) awards. 

The roads to the rock formations and agate beds in the vicinity are not wel 
defined (obtain local directions or guide). John Silvertooth, authority on th< 
town's history and local minerals, has a fine collection of rock specimens. Staf 
1 8 continues to SHANIKO, 43.7 m. (see TOUR 40). 

South of Fossil on State 19 is a junction with an improved roa(' 
at 67.2 m. 

Left on this road to KINZUA, 5.8 m. (450 pop.), in a yellow pine lumberim 
area. Here is one of the largest pine mills in eastern Oregon, owned by a com 
pany that has timber holdings adequate for 50 years of continuous operation. 

SHELTON STATE PARK (R), 69.4 m. (3,362 alt.), (camping 
facilities) on State 19 was given to the state by the Kinzua Lumbei 
Company, who stipulated that the park should be named for Lewis D. 
Shelton, pioneer of 1847 and surveyor who cruised all the company's 
holdings in the vicinity. The park is the annual summer meeting place 
for the Eastern Oregon Pioneer Association. At 70.1 m. is (R) a stone 
arch erected in 1924 to the memory of the Eastern Oregon Pioneers. 

SERVICECREEK, 79.2 m. (1,719 alt., 6 pop.), in the center of a 
timber belt, was settled about 1885. It was named so because of the 
great number of service-berry bushes in the vicinity. 

SPRAY, 92 m. (1,772 alt., no pop.), early a ferrying point on the 
John Day River, was settled in the sixties and named for J. F. Spray, 
one of the first residents. 



296 OREGON 

At 95 m. is the junction with State 207 (see TOUR 10). 
In KIMBERLY, 105 m., are a service station and other tourist fa- 
cilities. 

Left from Kimberly on a gravel road to MONUMENT, 14.6 m. (1,983 alt., 
97 pop.), a ranching community on the edge of the PAINTED HILLS, a region 
sculptured into fantastic shapes and stained a hundred shades, from mauve to 
brilliant red. The road winds between rugged buttes to HAMILTON, 25 in. 
(37S8 alt., 25 pop.), a small ranching settlement named for J. H. Hamilton, 
stockman and lover of fine horses, who settled here in 1874. 

South of Kimberly the John Day River has carved a deep canyon. 
Throughout this section, volcanic ridges, bluffs, and isolated mountains 
are laid open from bedrock to rim, as if by a giant chisel, exposing a 
geologic record of Oregon's physical history. Embedded in these eroded 
pinnacles and resembling glacial ice in texture, are fossils of prehistoric 
flora, in particular treefern leaves, reeds, and grasses. 

JOHNNY KIRK SPRINGS (picnicking facilities), 116.1 m., 
named for a pioneer of Grant County, is surrounded by one of the most 
important fossil regions of the United States. It yields relics of the 
Oligocene Epoch, particularly rich in specimens of the three-toed horse 
and other Tertiary fauna. 

At 117.7 m. through a ranch yard and up Waterspout Gulch, the 
the JOHN DAY FOSSIL BEDS in a ridge where a layer of pale 
green calcareous deposit a thousand feet thick is exposed. The ridge is 
so spectacularly eroded in its upper reaches that it is called the New 
Jerusalem. In these deposits are fossilized relics of the period when this 
high region of badlands, sagebrush plain, and wheatfields was low tropi- 
cal jungle inhabited by rhinoceroses, saber-toothed tigers, giant sloths, 
oreodonts, miniature horses, and other ancestors of present-day animals, 
as well as curious and extinct species. As shown by great numbers of 
specimens, including agatized roots and leaves, palm, redwood, mag- 
nolia, fig, and ginko trees grew in profusion in this place where the 
hardy sagebrush now survives with difficulty. After the gigantic up- 
heaval that resulted in formation of the Coast Range, volcanic eruptions 
covered the land with lava and ash. Then came the great ice-cap over 
the lands to the north and, yet later, the slow melting period during 
which some of Oregon's chief rivers were formed. As these, including 
the John Day, cut down through the crust accumulated through the 
ages, they revealed the deposits that tell the story of the land's pre- 
historic life. 

Among the Oregon emigrants of 1852 was a clergyman, Thomas 
Condon, who was particularly interested in geology. A cavalry officer, 
member of a punitive expedition against the natives of central Oregon 
in the i86o's, brought the first specimens from this area to The Dalles 
and to Mr. Condon's attention. Soon Mr. Condon had visited the beds 
himself in the company of other Indian fighters. In 1870 he sent a small 
collection of teeth from the beds to Yale University, bringing the nat- 
ural museum to the attention of scientists. In 1889 a Princeton Uni- 
versity expedition removed two tons of specimens from the beds and 



TOUR ID 297 

many other groups have also worked here. Only a small part of the 
region has been explored. 

At 118.2 m. the exposed strata of a lofty cliff (L), bared by erosion, 
tells the geologic history of the region for millions of years. 

At 123.6 m. is the junction with US 28 (see TOUR 6a). 



lin!!!!m^ 



Tour IE 



Hood River Mount Hood P. O. Bennett Pass Barlow Pass 
Junction with State 50; 44.8 m. State 35. 

Asphalt paved roadbed; closed between Cooper Spur Road and Junction with 

State 50 during heavy snows. 

All types of accommodations; also public forest camps. 

This route, one of the chief approaches to the Mount Hood recrea- 
tional area, threads its way through the narrow Hood River Gorge, 
crosses the Hood River Valley orchards, pierces deep canyons close to 
the eastern base of Mount Hood and scales the Cascade divide. 

State 35 branches south from US 30, m., at the eastern edge of 
the city of HOOD RIVER (see TOUR ib). The huge hydro-electric 
plant, 0.5 m., in the canyon of the Hood River, serves the fruit-packing 
plants and the homes of the Hood River Valley, which is intensely 
electrified. 

Also in the gorge are the tracks of the Mount Hood Railroad, which 
carries the valley's fruit to packing and processing plants, and lumber 
from a large sawmill at Dee to the mainline railroad. 

At 1 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Right on this road to PANORAMA POINT, 2 m. (582 alt.), overlooking 
the entire lower valley. Miles of orchards are broken by alfalfa fields and berry 
ranches, all sharply outlined by the mesh of irrigation canals bringing water 
from Mount Hood. Here and there on little hills are clumps of forest trees, 
survivors of the fir and pine that once covered the secluded valley. In May 
white blossoms transform the valley into a huge flower bowl. In early autumn 
the fruit trees glow with ripe apples and pears, and the oaks and maples flame 
with color. In winter the trees and earth mingle in a gray monotone, dominated 
by the gleaming white peaks of Mount Hood and Mount Adams. 

South of the Junction State 35 emerges into the widening valley, 
passing neat apple and pear orchards, where orchard crews work during 
spring, summer and fall, and occasionally in winter. Irrigation began 
in the valley about 1900 and through constant vigilance and scientific 



298 OREGON 

application has reached a high state of efficiency. Land must have enough 
but not too much moisture, and to maintain the quality of the soil 
orchard floors should be planted with a cover crop that is eventually 
plowed under. Once during the winter and several times during other 
periods of the year the orchards must be sprayed with chemicals to 
destroy insect pests, particularly the codling moth. Care must be taken 
that the chemical does not destroy the bees that are needed for polleniza- 
tion. Danger not only lurks in the trees where the bees garner the nectar 
from the blossoms but also in the ground cover with its wild flowers. 
If the rancher succeeds in spraying without killing the bees he is still 
at times faced with a problem of fertilization. Some trees may have too 
few blossoms to provide the necessary pollen and flowering branches 
must be grafted from sections where blooms are more numerous. How- 
ever, the result of this expensive work is worthwhile because Hood 
River fruit commands top prices. 

The harvesting picking, sorting, and packing is done by itinerant 
workers but labor conditions in the valley are better than in other parts 
of the West because the people who have developed the land are foi 
the most part well educated and face their problems squarely. In the 
early years the harvesting crews lived along the irrigation ditches, but 
the pollution of water led to the establishment of camps similar to camps 
in recreational areas. Because of this the orchardists draw the cream 
of the pickers and have less turnover during the rush season. Hard a i 
the work is the camps have a holiday air about them at the end of the 
day. 

Because of the type of settler in this valley the section is noted foi 
the high standard of its schools and for the comfort of its ranch homes 

At 6.2 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Left on this road to the BILLY SUNDAY RANCH, 0.2 m. t purchased by thr 
evangelist in 1909. Sunday grew grain and bred cattle. 

At 6.7 m. on State 35 is the junction with a paved road. 

Right on this road to ODELL 1.5 m. (710 alt., 25 pop.), a fruit-packing 
center, named for William Odell who settled here in 1861. 

WINANS, 9.2 m. (863 alt.), is named for Ross Winans, who in the 1880'^ 
erected a hotel for hunters. The structure, no longer standing, was noted for it:- 
square observation tower. 

Right from Winans 2.4 m. to DEAD POINT TROUT HATCHERY, which 
produces annually about 3,000,000 rainbow and Eastern brook trout fingerlings. 
and a smaller number of steelheads for local lakes and streams. At this point 
is a forest camp (camping and picnicking facilities). 

DEE, 10.7 m. (950 alt., 100 pop.), is built about a large sawmill. 

The West Fork of the Hood River is crossed at its confluence with the Lak< 
Branch, 17.2 m. The West Fork, fed by melting glaciers, is usually milky, while 
the Lake Branch, fed by springs, is always crystal clear. Both streams offer 
excellent trout fishing. 

The route climbs to LOST LAKE, 24.2 m. (3,140 alt.), which mirrors the 
image of snowy Mount Hood. No other view of the mountain is as beautiful 
as this one. (Forest camp with picnicking facilities; swimming; rowboats and 
fishing tackle for hire.) 

The shores of Lost Lake, according to legend, were long favorite summer 
and autumn camp grounds of the Indians. It, is told that in days when the oldest 



TOUR IB 299 

grandfathers were mere papooses, a tribe gathered here for a potlatch. Oni 
evening, after the squaws had returned from the berry patches with well filled 
baskets, the men had brought in tender venison, and a feast of roast meat had 
been prepared, a snow-white doe pursued by wolves suddenly broke from a 
thicket, plunged into the lake, swam to the middle, dived beneath the surface and 
disappeared. A medicine man pronounced the event an omen of very bad luck. 
The Indians broke camp and never returned to the lake. 

In 1912 a young Indian couple who had been educated in an eastern college 
and did not share the beliefs of their elders came here to camp. During a storm 
a bolt of lightning struck the tree under which they were standing and killed 
the bride. Today no Indian can be persuaded to visit Lost Lake. 

At 10.6 m. on State 25 is a FOREST RANGER STATION (in- 
formation and fire permits). 

At MOUNT HOOD (P. O.), 13.5 m. (1,467 alt., 65 pop.), 
Mount Hood is visible in clear weather a gigantic, snow-covered pyra- 
mid looming against the blue sky. 

DIMMICK STATE PARK (1,550 alt.) (camp sites and tables), 
15 m., is a small wooded area. 

At 15.7 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Right on this road to PARKDALE, 0.3 m. (1,743 alt., 125 pop.), center of 
commercial and packing activities in the upper valley. Strawberry raising is 
locally important and in early June a Strawberry Festival is held. 

From the LAVA BEDS, 1.6 m., flow a number of the finest springs in the 
valley. 

The northern boundary of the MOUNT HOOD NATIONAL 
FOREST is crossed at 23 m. The forest encloses Mount Hood and 
extends across the Cascade Range. The road climbs rapidly through 
heavy timber. 

The junction (3,415 alt.) with the Cooper Spur Road is at 23.8 m. 

Right on^this road to a LOOKOUT POINT, 7.1 m. (4,995 alt.), affording 
a superb view of the Hood River Valley orchards, groves, meadows and the 
surrounding mountains. 

At 9 m. is the junction with a gravel road; L. here 1.5 m. to TILLY JANE 
FOREST CAMP (5,600 alt.) (picnicking facilities; guide service obtainable 
usually in July). Just acress the canyon is the base camp of the American Legion, 
which annually sponsors a climb to the summit of Mount Hood (see MOUNT 
HOOD RECREATION AREA). 

CLOUD CAP INN (5,985 alt.), i at 10.5 m. (see MOUNT HOOD REC- 
REATION AREA). 

South of Cooper Spur Road State 35 dips into the canyon of the 
East Fork of Hood River where it crosses and recrosses the stream. 

SHERWOOD FOREST CAMP, 28.1 m. (3^100 alt.), is main- 
tained by the U. S. Forest Service. 

HORSE THIEF MEADOWS (R), 31.5 m. (3,400 alt.), was so 
named because a band of outlaws once had a hide-out here. In 1884 a 
man named Phillips appeared in Hood River Valley and engaged Dave 
Cooper, for whom Cooper Spur was named, to assist him in a search 
for the cabin of the men who, he said, four years before had taken 
$25,000 in gold from a stage coach near Walla Walla, Washington. 
He believed that the gold had been cached near the cabin. Although 



JOO OREGON 

the cabin was found deserted no gold was discovered so far as is 
known. 

The ROBIN HOOD FOREST CAMP (3,560 alt.), is at 32.1 m. 
(information at nearby Double Three Forest Service Station). 

At 35.9 m. is MEADOWS CREEK (summer home sites here rented 
by government at reasonable annual rates). 

HOOD RIVER MEADOWS FOREST CAMP, 36.1 m. (4,480 
alt.), is a large open space covered with coarse grass and mountain 
flowers. It affords a close-up view of Mount Hood. The lupine, which 
blooms at lower levels in June and July, is in flower here in late August. 

SAHALE FALLS, 36.5 m. (4,575 alt.), is an ethereal cascade (R) 
of the East Fork of Hood River. There is a fountain (L) at the road- 
side. The road now swerves in long loops to cross the divide. 

From BENNETT PASS, 37.3 m. (4,670 alt.), is an impressive 
view of Mount Hood. Its scarred, bleak walls here seem to bar further 
progress. 

The road descends to WHITE RIVER, 39,5 m. f a tributary of 
the Deschutes noted for summer floods caused by the melting of White 
River Glacier on the southeastern slope of Mount Hood. The bridge 
(4,280 alt.) is dangerous when the river is a torrent. 

BARLOW PASS, 41.9 m. (4,158 alt.), was used by the first wagon 
train and the first road into the Willamette Valley. It was developed to 
enable emigrants to avoid the hazardous raft trip down the Columbia 
River. The pass is named for its discoverer, Samuel Kimsbrough Barlow, 
a pioneer of 1845 (see TOUR 4^). 

A cross at 43.9 m. is dedicated to a woman member of the 1845 
emigrant train who died at this point. Her husband made a coffin from 
a wagon box and buried her here. 

At 44.8 772. (3,648 alt.), is a junction with State 50 (see TOUR 
at a point three miles east of Government Camp. 



niiiiiiiicimiiiimiDiiimiiiiKHmiiiiiiiiiBiiiiimii^ 



Tour 2 



Vancouver, Wash. Portland Salem Albany Junction City Eu- 
gene Roseburg Grants Pass Medford Ashland (Weed, Calif.); 
345-3 m. US 99, US 99E. 

Paved road, sometimes temporarily blocked in the Siskiyou Mtns., by ice or snow. 
Southern Pacific Railroad parallels route between Portland and California line; 
Portland Electric Power Company Interurban, between Portland and Oregon City. 
Excellent hotels; improved tourist camps at reasonable rates. 



TOUR 2 3OI 

US 99 traverses Oregon, north to south, through its most densely 
populated area. It threads the streets of Portland, passes through subur- 
ban towns and hamlets, bisects the beautiful Willamette Valley, climbs 
a range of canyon-gashed mountains, and descends into the Umpqua. 
Farther south it scales another mountain and dips into the Rogue River 
Valley before crossing the lofty Siskiyous. 

This was the first paved road of any considerable length in Oregon, 
and it still carries a heavy traffic; because of the great number of trucks 
and busses on it it is less of a pleasure route than US 101. Along its 
general course the early Concord stages, with their six-horse teams, 
careened over corduroy roads on the six-day run between Portland and 
Sacramento. In the narrow defile of Canyon Creek, south of Roseburg, 
and on the slopes of the Siskiyous the old road is visible from the high- 
way. First pushed southward from Portland to Salem in 1857, and to 
Eugene in 1859, the line gave through coach service by 1861. In 1872 
the railroad from the north reached Roseburg, but for several years 
thereafter stages continued to cover the gap across the Umpqua and 
Siskiyous into the upper Sacramento Valley. 

Section a. Vancouver, IV ash., to Junction City; 114.3 m. US 99-E 

The south city limits of VANCOUVER, m.(ii5 alt, 15, 786 pop.), 
coincides with the Oregon-Washington state line. On the north bank 
of the Columbia River, and linked with Portland by the Interstate 
bridge, Vancouver (see WASHINGTON STATE GUIDE) was one 
of the first permanent settlements made by white men in the Pacific 
Northwest. The present city, reflecting both modern and early archi- 
tectural influences, is the shipping and marketing center for a diversified 
farming and lumbering area. In the city is located one of the largest 
grain elevators in the Pacific Northwest. 

Although Captain George Vancouver's lieutenant, William Brough- 
ton, touched the site of the present city in 1792, the settlement was not 
founded until 1824, when John McLoughlin removed the Hudson's 
Bay Company's Pacific Northwest headquarters to Belle Vue Point 
from Fort George. Within two years McLoughlin and his employes 
had constructed a stockade of fir posts, 40 log buildings and a powder 
magazine made of stone, cleared a considerable area, established a saw- 
mill, a forge, and were grazing 700 head of cattle on the adjacent lands. 
As Chief Factor of the company, McLoughlin had extraordinary pow- 
ers, governing a vast territory, and extending the scope of the Hudson's 
Bay Company's influence to Alaska, Hawaii and California. While he 
fought encroachment upon the territory north of the river, it is evident 
that he believed the United States would eventually acquire the lands 
south of the water-course through settlement of the territorial dispute 
then raging between this nation and Great Britain. 

Great Britain's hegemony in the Oregon country was ended by the 
treaty of 1846, the United States acquiring what is now Washington, 
in addition to Oregon, and McLoughlin's feudal domain slipped from 



j()2 OREGON 

his grasp. The factor removed to Oregon City, but Fort Vancouvei 
continued to be an important settlement. Without the presence of Mc- 
Loughlin's armed retainers, who had exerted control over unruly In- 
dians, American settlers were in greater peril, but the government estab 
lished a military post in 1848, and settlement continued under the pro 
tection of Federal troops. From Fort Vancouver military expeditions 
set forth to subdue hostile tribes throughout the two territories. Young 
Phil Sheridan and Ulysses S. Grant were stationed here for short 
periods. Grant, in his Memoirs, tells of his efforts to add to his scam 
army pay by raising potatoes upon lands adjacent to the fort. The 
vegetables sold at that time at the fabulous price of $45 per hundred 
pounds. Grant described the incident: "Luckily for us, the Columbia 
River rose to a great height from the melting of the snow in the moun- 
tains in June, and overflowed and killed most of our crop. This saved 
digging it up, for everybody on the Pacific Coast seemed to have come 
to the conclusion at the same time that agriculture would be profitable. 
In 1853 more than three-quarters of the potatoes raised were permitted 
to rot in the ground or were thrown away ..." 

With the establishment of the military post, a townsite was platted, 
ind named Vancouver City, by Henry Williamson, who had arrived 
from Indiana in 1845. The town thrived, there being 95 houses in the 
newly organized Clark County, according to a census taken in 1850. An 
acrimonious dispute over land holdings arose between the Hudson's Bay 
Company (which still functioned as a commercial enterprise), mission- 
aries, the War Department, and private citizens. When all disputes 
and suits were settled the claims of the War Department and immigrant 
Amos Short were upheld by the courts. 

Fort Vancouver had a strong influence upon the cultural life of early 
Oregon. The first theatrical performance ever held in this region was 
on the British gunboat, Modeste, while moored at Vancouver in Feb- 
ruary, 1846. Such fashion as the country boasted was displayed at the 
fort, under British occupancy, and later, at parties given by American 
officers. In the fifties, residents of Oregon City and the struggling village 
of Portland were ferried across the river to participate in gay affairs 
at the home of Richard Covington, who seems to have been the social 
arbiter of the town, or in the quarters of Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin 
de Bonneville. Settlers and officers amused themselves with amateur 
theatricals and dances. In 1867 a company of actors on tour presented 
the melodrama Robert Macaire and the comedy Tootles. Social activi- 
ties reached their acme when tickets to a St. Patrick's Day ball and 
supper at the Alta House were sold for $5 each. 

VANCOUVER BARRACKS, bounded by 5th Street (Evergreen 
Highway), Fourth Plain Avenue, and East and West Reserve Streets, 
has 300 buildings. Among the oldest of these is NUMBER TWO 
BARRACKS, in Officers' Row. The log walls of the crude original 
building have been sheathed with boards, but the harsh outline of the 
structure remains unchanged since the days when Sheridan, Grant, and 
others who won fame in the Civil War were quartered at the fort. 



T O U R 2 303 

There are few modern buildings on the reservation, with the exception 
of several two-apartment houses, made of brick, in colonial design, which 
were constructed recently for the use of married non-commissioned 
officers. 

The COVINGTON HOUSE (open 11-4, 2nd and th Tues. each 
month}, at southwest corner 39th and Main Streets, built about 1845 
is a reconstruction of what is believed to have been the oldest privatt 
dwelling in the state. Its architecture is similar to that of Hudson's Bay 
Company buildings, a sloping roof surmounting hewn logs and weath 
ered clapboard sidings. Here Richard Covington entertained officers. 
Hudson's Bay officials, and such few women as were on the frontiei 
during the middle century. 

PEARSON ARMY AIRPORT, 5th and E. Reserve Sts., with its 
hangars, shops, and administration buildings, was the terminus of the 
first Soviet flight across the North Pole. The three Russian aviators 
who took off from Moscow on June 18, 1937, grounded their plane at 
the field after a 63-hour dash over unmapped arctic wastes, fog forcing 
the birdmen down short of San Francisco, their destination. The Soviet 
flyers were greeted upon their arrival by Brigadier General George 
Marshall, since appointed chief of staff of the United States Army. The 
then Soviet Ambassador Troyanovsky came to Portland and accom- 
panied the flyers to San Francisco after they had been entertained in 
Portland by civic leaders and officials of city, county and state govern 
ment. 

The PIONEER MOTHER in Esther Short Park, 8th St., between 
Columbia and Esther Sts., a heroic size bronze statue, depicts an immi- 
grant woman clutching a rifle. Three small children cling to the pioneer 
woman's skirt. The park in which the statue stands commemorates 
Esther Short, who with her husband, Amos, were among the first United 
States citizens to arrive in the city of Fort Vancouver, having been 
preceded by but one man, Henry Williamson of Indiana. Esther Short 
bore a child during the long overland journey and she and her husband 
were refused aid by the British authorities when they arrived destitute 
at the fort. A remarkable woman, Mrs. Short is said to have knocked 
down a Hudson's Bay Company employe who attempted to drive the 
family away from Vancouver. 

The FIRST APPLE TREE, E. ;th and T Sts., was planted in 
1826 by Chief Factor McLoughlin, who it is said nurtured seeds 
brought from London by one Captain Acmilius Simpson. 

US 99 crosses the Columbia River, the Washington State Line, on 
the INTERSTATE BRIDGE (free), opened in 1917. The total 
length of the structure, rising in the center 175 feet above low water, 
is 3,531 feet. The bridge commands a superb view of the great river 
which has played so important a part in the settlement and development 
of Oregon. The bateaux of the French-Canadian voyageurs, laden with 
bales of furs, shot its rapids and paddled its smooth waters, and the 
rafts of the home-seekers ventured its hazardous gorge (see TOUR la). 
Long before the whites arrived the river had been closely interwoven 



304 OREGON 

with the life of the Indian race. Pictographs and petroglyphs carved on 
the basaltic walls of the Cascade Gorge record the older culture. 

Discovered and first entered by the Yankee skipper, Robert Gray, in 
the Columbia, on May u, 1792 (see HISTORY), and explored in 
that year by the English Lieutenant, Broughton, the river was soon vis- 
ited by ships of many nations. After 1811, when Astor's fur traders 
established Astoria (see ASTORIA), the river was the scene of heavy 
traffic as traders brought furs down it to Vancouver, and British ships 
loaded them for distribution all over the world. 

At the southern end of the bridge, US 99 crosses Hayden Island 
upon which is JANTZEN BEACH (R), a commercial amusement park 
(open early May to mid-Sept.; adm. loc). 

PORTLAND, 7.5 m. (30 alt, 301,815 pop.) (see PORTLAND). 

Points of Interest: Skidmore Fountain, Chinese Drug Store, U.S.S. Oregon, 
Oregon Historical Society Museum, Portland Museum of Art, Multnomah Public 
Library, Sunken Gardens, and others. 

In Portland are junctions with US 30 (see TOUR i), US 99W (see 
TOUR 10), State 8 (see TOUR 8), and State 50 (see TOUR A}. 

At 8.6 m. US 99E passes under the eastern approach to Ross Island 
bridge, carrying State 50. 

Right across Ross Island bridge into SW. Kelly Ave.; L. on SW. Gibbs to 
SW. Macadam Ave., an alternate route to Oregon City along the west bank of 
the Willamette River. 

SW. Macadam Road follows the river bank past the west end of the SELL- 
WOOD BRIDGE, 3.3 m., the southernmost of Portland's eight Willamette River 
bridges. RIVERVIEW CEMETERY (R), 3.4 m., is a beautiful memorial park. 

Just south of the Sellwood bridge, and extending for more than a mile is 
POWERS PARK, a narrow strip between the highway and the river. Through 
a fringe of firs are views of the river, of squatty house-boats along the far 
shore, and of the sleek, green turf of WAVERLY GOLF COURSE. 

OSWEGO, 5.8 m. (98 alt., 1,285 popO> " a suburban town by Oswego Lake, 
a long, narrow body of water, with wooded shores holding country estates and 
country clubs. Through the hills and along the lake front are miles of bridle 
trails constructed for the MULTNOMAH HUNT CLUB, which is near the 
western end of the lake. 

Left from the eastern end of the lake 0.2 m. to the ruins of the old Willamette 
Iron Company BLAST FURNACE. A chimney 20 feet high is the only trace 
of a plant that reduced ore mined in the hills behind Oswego. 

WEST LINN, 11.3 m. (1,966 pop.), took its name from Linn City, an am- 
bitious waterfront settlement on the Willamette River, on the site where a large 
power plant and paper mills now stand. Linn City was established as Robin's 
Nest by Robert Moore, an immigrant of 1840, who was a leader in establishing 
the provisional government. In 1844 he began to operate a ferry between Oregon 
City and Robin's Nest. In time the community was named Linn City, to honor 
U. S. Senator Linn of Missouri, an ardent advocate for the seizure of Oregon. 
The town was washed away by the great flood of 1861 and never rebuilt. 

From West Linn the highway crosses the Willamette River. Upstream (R) 
are the Willamette Falls and the paper mills. At the eastern end of the bridge 
is OREGON CITY, 12.2 m. (see OREGON CITY), at a junction with 99 E 
(see belezv). 

Just south of Ross Island bridge the route veers into McLoughlin 
Boulevard. Ross Island is (R) covered by a dense growth of cotton- 



TOUR 2 305 

woods and willows. Beyond the river rise the smokestacks of the South 
Portland factories anJ above them, the dwellings of Terwilliger Heights 
under the shadow of Council Crest (see PORTLAND). 

The JOHNSON CREEK MEMORIAL BRIDGE, 12.8 m., is 
just ahove the site of the sawmill constructed in 1847 by the Reverend 
William Johnson. This mill supplied lumber for many years for homes 
in Milwaukie and Portland. The creek is a unit of an extensive flood 
control project of the WPA. 

MILWAUKIE, 12.9 m. (96 alt., 1,767 pop.), is a quiet suburban 
town spread over low hills. Founded in 1848 by Lot Whitcomb (1806- 
1857), it soon became the rival of Portland and other river towns for 
the commercial supremacy of the Oregon country. Here, on the banks 
of the Willamette, Whitcomb and his associates constructed the Lot 
IVhitcQinb, in its day the finest steamboat ptying the river. Milwaukie 
failed to become the important commercial port that its founder had 
hoped. 

The LUELLING HOUSE (L), close to the street and shaded by 
a huge weeping willow, is at the corner of Jackson St. The simplicity 
of the two-story structure, with its low wing and small balustraded 
entrance portico, is hidden by vines and shrubs. In 1847 Henderson 
Luelling (1809-1878) brought his traveling nursery of 700 fruit trees 
across the plains from Iowa, and established Oregon's first nursery 
in Mihvaukie. He planted the first Royal Anne cherry tree in the state 
and in the i86o's originated the Black Republican and Bing cherries. 
The Royal Anne is canned and shipped from the valley in large quanti- 
ties as a fruit and is also used to make the decorative maraschino cher- 
ries. The Black Republican was so named for political groups of the 
day, and the Bing for Luelling's Manchurian gardener. 

JENNINGS LODGE, 16.9 m., a suburban community, was named 
for Berryman Jennings, a pioneer of 1847 and receiver for the Oregon 
City Land Office under President Buchanan. It is the home of W. L. 
Finley, the naturalist. The STARKER GARDENS here display many 
rare Oriental plants and ship many species of rock plants. Here grow 
nearly 75 kinds of heather. 

At 18 m. is the street (L) to the city center of GLADSTONE 
(1,384 pop.). The town lies along the north bank of the Clackamas 
River, the river-front drive curving gracefully with the bank of the 
stream. Because of the nearness of Oregon City and Portland, the busi- 
ness district is small, but a preponderance of residences line tree-shaded 
streets. At the eastern edge of town is the old CHAUTAUQUA 
PARK, for long the center of popular lyceums in Oregon. 

The JOHN McLOUGHLIN BRIDGE, 18.3 m., spanning the 
Clackamas River, is a memorial to the "father of Oregon" (see HIS- 
TORY). That the Clackamas River is an excellent fishing stream was 
attested by Rudyard Kipling, who wrote in his American Notes. "I 
have lived! The American Continent may now sink under the sea, for 
I have taken the best that it yields, and the best was neither dollars, 
love, nor real estate." With an eight-ounce rod he had spent 37 minutes 



306 OREGON 

landing a twelve-pound fighting salmon. "That hour," he wrote, "I sat 
among crowned heads greater than all. . . . How shall I tell the glories 
of that day." 

OREGON CITY, 19.7 m. (102 alt., 5,761 pop.) (see OREGON 
CITY). 

Points of Interest: McLoughlin Mansion, Edwin Markham Birthplace, Crown- 
Willamette Paper Mills, Hawley Pulp and Paper Mill, and others. 

At Oregon City is a junction with State 215 (see TOUR 2A). 

NEW ERA, 24.9 m. (102 alt., 48 pop.), consisting of two or three 
buildings, one of which is an abandoned grist mill on Parrot Creek, is 
the scene of the annual summer camp-meetings of the Spiritualist So- 
ciety of the Pacific Northwest. The commodious and pleasant camp 
grounds lie a short distance up the creek. The community was founded 
by Joseph Parrott, who named it for a visionary publication of the day. 

CANBY, 29.1 m. (154 alt, 744 pop.), is a trade center in a bulb 
and flax growing region consisting of some of the most fertile land of 
the valley. In the spring and early summer, brilliant fields of daffodils 
and tulips border the highway. In the vicinity is grown a great deal of 
fiber flax which is prepared for market by a scutching and retting plant 
here. Canby was named for Gen. E. R. S. Canby, commander of the 
Department of the Columbia, who was slain at the peace council in the 
Lava Beds during the Modoc uprising of 1873 (see TOUR ^b t also 
HISTORY). 

BARLOW, 30 m. (101 alt., 40 pop.), once a trading center for a 
rich agricultural region was named for Samuel K. Barlow, who took 
up a donation land claim here. He was the explorer and builder of the 
Barlow Trail (see TOUR lE), historic pioneer road across the Cas- 
cade Mountains. His grave is in a local cemetery. 

The old BARLOW HOUSE (L), a hundred yards from the high- 
way at the end of a long avenue of black walnut trees that were set 
out by William Barlow, son of Samuel K. Barlow, in the sixties. Wil- 
liam Barlow sent East for a bushel of black walnuts; the transportation 
charges amounted to $65. However, Barlow sold the young trees that 
he grew from the nuts at a profit of almost $500. The avenue of trees 
is from this shipment. 

PUDDING RIVER, crossed at 31.8 m. t was named by Joseph 
Gervais (see TOUR 28), and Etienne Lucier, Hudson's Bay Company 
trappers, after they had enjoyed a sumptuous repast of elk-blood pudding 
at its confluence with the Willamette. 

AURORA, 32.1 m. (120 alt., 215 pop.), was settled about the 
middle of the nineteenth century by a colony of old-country Germans 
and "Pennsylvania Dutch," united under the precepts of their teacher 
and leader, Dr. William Keil (1812-1877). "Every man and woman 
must be a brother or sister to every other man and woman in our family 
under the fatherhood of God," said Dr. Keil. "No man owns anything 
individually but every man owns everything as a full partner and with 
an equal voice in its use and its increase and the profits accruing from it. 



T U R 2 307 

But in no other way do we differ from our neighbors. As a community 
we are one family. 'From every man according to his capacity, to every 
man according to his needs' is the rule that runs through our law of 
love. As between ourselves we are many with one purpose. In contact 
with outsiders we are one dealing with many, but with justice and hon- 
esty and neighborliness, withholding no solicitude or needed act of char- 
ity or mercy, and giving it without money and without price where 
there is any call for it, to the limit of our ability in money or food or 
clothing or service in sickness or in health." 

For a dozen years Dr. Keil and his followers had been at Bethel, 
Missouri, where, on six thousand acres in Shelby County, they had de- 
veloped a prosperous community of homes, mills, and shops, supporting 
several hundred families. This satisfied them for a long time but, in 
order to develop a fuller community life, Dr. Keil determined to seek a 
new location in the Oregon country. 

The new community in Oregon was named Aurora Mills, in honor 
of Dr. Keil's favorite daughter. The first houses were of logs but it was 
not long before these were either weatherboarded or replaced by frame 
structures. The favorite dwelling was a two or three-story building with 
a large brick chimney at either end. Huge fireplaces provided warmth 
and cooking facilities. The first to rise was "the big house," the home 
of Dr. Keil, a large, three-story building with a two-deck porch across 
the east front. A store, bachelor-hall, and a church, were erected, and 
family homes began to appear here and there over the countryside. Many 
of these buildings are still standing: the WILL, the KRAUS, the KEIL 
HOUSES, and the GEISEY STORE in Aurora, and numerous farm 
homes in the surrounding country, some of them remarkably well pre- 
served. Numbers of these old homesteads are still occupied by descend- 
ants of old colony families. 

One of the earliest buildings to rise in Aurora was its famed hotel. 
Here meals were served to the general public and to stage passengers 
before the coming of the railroad and to train passengers afterwards, 
Epicures have waxed eloquent in praise of the delectable viands served 
at Aurora. "Aurora fried potatoes surpass all other fried potatoes. 
Aurora home-baked bread is without peer in the broad land. Aurora 
pig sausage has a secret, if captured, that would make a fortune for an 
enterprising packer." So declared one, while another glowed with 
memories of the old days: "And they liked to eat good meals; indeed 
they did. Aurora cooking was famous all over Oregon. . . . Why did 
trains stop for meals at Aurora when the Portland terminal was only 
twenty-nine miles away? Because the trainmen wanted the better meals 
they could get at Aurora better meats, better vegetables, better pies 
and puddings." 

The original village of Aurora was not located as at present. The 
old colony community was situated largely on the west bank of Mill 
Creek a little above its junction with the Pudding River, and across the 
creek from the modern town. Here the first farms and garden plots 
were cleared and the first houses built beside the old stage road. Near 



308 OREGON 

the road are several ancient, dilapidated, and curious appearing struc- 
tures, and a few rows of old and gnarled fruit trees, reminiscent of the 
time when Aurora was one of the principal fruit-growing sections of 
the Northwest. Henry Theophilus Finck, noted music critic and boy- 
hood resident of Aurora, dwells enthusiastically on the quality of Oregon 
apples: "By rare good luck, my father was able to buy a house with a 
fine apple orchard on the hill only a half mile from the village. It was 
one of the very first and best of the many commercial orchards for which 
Oregon soon became famous. I find from my diary that we harvested 
up to 2,000 bushels in one year. . . ." 

Just behind the Keil house, at the edge of a little ravine, is the family 
cemetery of the Keils, in what was formerly Keil Park, the graves 
marked by simple stones inscribed in German. At the brow of the hill, 
near where the public school is now, was the old community park, known 
throughout the lower Willamette region for its picnics and gala gather- 
ings. Many of the moss-hung maples which lent welcome shade to 
stranger and colonist alike, are still standing, while an old gooseberry 
hedge is almost lost in the dense undergrowth. 

From its first plantation the colony prospered, due largely to strict 
economy of living and unflagging industry. Thousands of acres were 
brought under cultivation, vineyards were planted, and orchards were 
set out. One who visited the colony remarked : "All this valley was like 
a province in Germany. Farming was carried on in the thrifty German 
way, and everywhere was heard the German tongue." 

During the winter when there was little farm activity the people 
worked in the mills and shops. The Aurora commune produced some 
very fine articles of furniture, clothes, basketry, chests, and implements. 
Today the spool-beds, chests, chairs, tables, and other articles manu- 
factured there are sought eagerly by collectors and discriminating house- 
holders, who prize highly these simple and artistic pieces of the German 
craftsmen. 

Social life in the community was somewhat restricted. Church services, 
band and orchestra concerts, "butcher frolics," and the various festivals, 
provided relaxation. Tables were spread with the sumptuous products 
of the German kitchen and cellar, and everybody was welcome to share 
in the feast without cost, the stranger as well as the members of the 
commune. The band played during the feasting. The evening was spent 
in dancing. "At Christmas time the church was decorated with two huge 
Christmas trees. The celebration, which was rather unique, took place 
at the early hour of four on Christmas Day. For this occasion, also, 
hosts of strangers arrived. The program consisted of a talk by the 
preacher, congregational singing, and music by the band. Then huge 
baskets of cakes, apples, and quantities of candy were distributed. Col- 
onists and strangers shared these absolutely alike. The trees were allowed 
to remain standing until New Year's Day, and then the gifts were dis- 
tributed among the children of the colony." 

School at Aurora was kept open the year round but little was taught 
except reading, writing, and arithmetic. Professional training was en- 



TOUR 2 309 

couraged, but for a classical education there was little place. Music 
was the one cultural subject permitted and encouraged by Dr. Keil, 
and Aurora became the musical center of the State. The Aurora band 
was in demand for fairs, picnics, and political meetings. In April, 1869, 
Hen Holladay paid the commune $500 for the services of the band on 
the voyage of the Portland party to Puget Sound. Harvey Scott called 
it "the best musical organization of its time." 

The Aurora experiment endured about 25 years, then reaction against 
the autocratic rule of Dr. Keil began to manifest itself. As Jacob 
Miller remarked: "Such an enterprise can succeed in but one of two 
ways: either through a natural-born leader, who is deeply impressed that 
he is serving God, or else by a military power." As long as Dr. Keil 
was able to make his people accept him as the former, they obeyed him 
as if he were a father. In time the spell he held over the older folk 
began to weaken and younger generations came on, with different ideals 
and different purposes. Necessarily there was a reorganization and final 
abandonment of the theory of "equal service, equal obligations, and 
equal reward." However, the complete disintegration was delayed until 
the death of Dr. Keil in 1877. Upon that event, no one being willing 
or able to assume the leadership thus left vacant, the property was 
divided among the members, each according to his original contribution 
and length of service in the colony. 

With the division of property accomplished, the Aurora colony ceased 
to function as a communal organization. Thenceforward the members 
faced the world as individuals. After more than half a century few of the 
old colony people remain, but many of their descendants still maintain 
farms round about and a few of the business enterprises of Aurora per- 
petuate colony names. However, as the years pass and the old houses 
are torn down, Aurora more and more loses its unique old-world ap- 
pearance, and gradually assumes the undistinguished air of an Oregon 
country village of the twentieth century. 

South of Aurora are numerous hop fields or "yards." A hop field is 
easily recognizable because of its spider-web of wire, strung on posts 
10 to 12 feet high, to support the vines which form a canopy of green 
over weedless earth. The luxurious vines form impenetrable walls from 
one end of the field to the other, with the laterals about 10 feet apart. 
Many of the hop farms have vines that are 30 years old. In the early 
fall, when the hops are ready for the harvest, the trellis of vines is 
lowered to the earth, and armies of men, women, and children gather 
the blooms. Between 25,000 and 30,000 pickers are required to harvest 
the crop, and at picking time, a tent city springs up about every hop 
field of any size. Hop festivals, similar to the European harvest festivals 
are often held. 

HUBBARD (R) 36.5 m. (210 alt., 330 pop.) (R), is a trading 
center in an area growing and canning strawberries, raspberries, logan- 
berries, youngberries and blackberries. The high school (R) stands on 
the approximate site of Charles Hubbard's cabin, built in 1849. Hub- 



310 OREGON 

bard gave land for a townsite when the Southern Pacific Railway was 
built. 

At 38.4 m. is the 273-acre OREGON STATE TRAINING 
SCHOOL (L), whose inmates tend highly developed tracts producing 
small fruits and diversified farm products. Four hours are spent in 
school each day and four hours in work. In addition to agricultural 
training, the school provides training in various trades. The institu- 
tion, established in 1891, cares for delinquent boys between 10 and 18 
years of age. 

WOODBURN, 40 m. (183 alt., 1,675 pop.), in a berry-raising 
district has a large cannery (L). Bulb culture is also carried on in the 
environs and in spring the fields of bright flowers make the countryside 
a huge garden. 

At 42.9 m. facing the highway (L) is the SAMUEL BROWN 
HOUSE, built in the early 1850*8 by a man who had made a small 
fortune mining gold in California. For many years it was a station on 
the Oregon-California stage line. This house, constructed as a long, 
low story-and-a-half salt-box, and still exhibiting the New England 
characteristics, has been remodeled by the addition of a second floor over 
the central third with a gabled roof that has been extended forward 
to form the pediment of a two-story porch. The second floor has a lat- 
ticed balustrade. It is now occupied by Sam H. Brown, grandson of 
the builder. 

At 43.3 m. is a junction with Champoeg State Park road (see TOUR 

2 B). 

The land of the LAKE LABISH district, 51.3 m., has been acquired 
by Japanese gardeners who raise much celery and market it through 
cooperative organizations. The soil is beaverdam, rich and mellow, the 
bottoms of lakes formed in pre-settlement days by dams constructed by 
beavers. 

At 51.6 m. is a junction with a graveled road. 

Right here to CHEMAWA INDIAN SCHOOL, 1.3 m., with 450 students 
from various northwestern states. The school operates a large farm and has 
dormitories, school-rooms, and shops representing an investment of more than 
$1,000,000. 

SALEM, 57.5 m. (191 alt., 26,266 pop.) (see SALEM). 

Points of Interest: State Capitol; Willamette University; Jason Lee House; 
Miles Linen Mill; State Penitentiary; Sequoia Park, and others. 

South of Salem the highway winds through low rolling hills, where 
cultivation exposes the typical red shot soil in marked contrast with the 
green of pear, cherry, and prune orchards which cover the slopes. 

LOONEY BUTTE (R), 72.7 m. (630 alt.), was named for Jesse 
Looney, an early settler. The hills gradually diminish in height as the 
road nears the valley of the SANTIAM RIVER, named for a tribe 
of Calapooyan Indians. 

JEFFERSON, 74.3 m. (241 alt., 391 pop.), is on the north bank of 
the Santiam River. Once it was the head of navigation on the Santiam, 



TOUR 2 311 

though travel on any part of the river was difficult except during high 
water. Jefferson was formerly the seat of a pioneer school known as 
Jefferson Institute. The Scottish botanist, David Douglas, discovered 
many interesting plants in this vicinity, among them the native tobacco. 
On November 15, 1826, he swam the cold, swollen stream and thought 
nothing of danger, though mourning because his precious collection of 
plants had become soaked in the crossing. 

Left from Jefferson on a graveled road, to MARION, 1.5 m. (315 pop.), 
where on the outskirts is the VIVA LA FRANCE MONUMENT honoring a 
Jersey that at one time held three world championships for milk and butter-fat 
production. 

The JACOB CONSER MEMORIAL BRIDGE, crossed at the 
southern edge of Jefferson, was named for a pioneer of 1848. 

Right from the southern end of the bridge on an unimproved road to a ne- 
glected cemetery, marking the SITE OF SYRACUSE, 1 m., founded in 1848 
by Milton Hale. In the autumn of 184.5 Hale staked his claim on the south side 
of the river. Returning with his family, in the spring of 1846, he found the 
river impassable, and with an ax, an adze, and an augur, he constructed a ferry- 
boat to convey his possessions across. Other travelers arriving before the barge 
was completed waited to use it in crossing. Thus encouraged, Hale continued to 
operate the ferry for many years. Nearly all of the emigrant travel to the upper 
valley on the east side of the Willamette passed this point. The town of Syracuse, 
on the south side of the river, soon had a rival on the north in Santiam City, 
which became an important trading point. Both towns prospered for some years, 
then disappeared, until no trace of them except the cemetery remains. 

At 81.4 m. is the ALBANY CIVIC AIRPORT, used frequently 
for United States Army transport air maneuvers. 

ALBANY, 83.1 m. (214 alt., 5,325 pop.), seat of Linn County, is 
on the curving east bank of the Willamette River at its junction with 
the Calapooya. The level plain that stretches eastward from the river 
to the foothills of the Cascade Range affords no point of vantage for a 
view of the city. However, owing to this flatness of terrain, the streets 
and squares exhibit a regularity unusual among Oregon towns. Though 
industrially and commercially progressive, Albany has a quiet and restful 
conservatism apparent in its architecture as well as social life. Broad 
well-shaded streets pass substantial houses and business blocks built 
several decades ago. The city is a trading center for farmers of Linn, 
Benton, and Polk counties, ships wool, grain, rye-grass and vetch seed, 
and cascara bark, a medicinal product collected from the nearby upland 
forests ; it has a chair and box factory, a meat-packing plant, a tannery, 
a saddlery, a foundry and machine shop, several creameries, and a flour- 
ing mill. 

The city was established in 1848 by Walter and Thomas Monteith, 
who named it for their native town in New York. The Calapooyas had 
called the district Takenah (deep and placid pool) because of the clear 
basin at the junction of the two rivers. Early settlers jeered at the 
Indian name, asserting that the word should rightly be translated as 
"hole in the ground." The Indian title is perpetuated in the civic park. 

The early history of Albany parallels that of other Oregon towns. 



312 OREGON 

A period of activity was followed by a temporary stagnation, caused by 
the exodus, in 1849, of most able-bodied men to the California gold 
fields. 

The Oregon Spectator was forced to suspend publication because, as 
its editor wrote: "the printer, with 3,000 officers, lawyers, physicians, 
farmers and mechanics" was leaving for the gold fields. For a time, 
buildings in Albany as elsewhere stood in a state of semi-completion, 
farms were abandoned, and business was at a standstill. The return of 
the gold-seekers however, stimulated expansion and established a new 
era of prosperity. Some of the argonauts who left during the early days 
of the stampede returned during the winter months ; Joseph Lane wrote 
on March 8, 1849, "that of those who had come back from the mines 
to winter, most were going back, and that most of those who had not 
been were going." Lane estimated that one million dollars in gold dust 
had been brought into the Oregon territory by returning miners; the 
historian, Bancroft, declares that some returned $30,000 to $40,000 
richer after a year's absence, and states that "most of those who did not 
lose their lives were successful." Such settlers, either shrewd or timid, 
who remained in Oregon, reaped enormous profits from the sale of food- 
stuff and lumber. 

Significant events in the history of the town were the building of 
a grist mill in 1851, the arrival, in 1852, of the Multnomah, the 
first steamboat from down-river, the building of the first courthouse 
in 1853, the first schoolhouse in 1855, the first church in 1857, the pub- 
lication in November 1859, of the Oregon Democrat, the city's first 
newspaper, and the incorporation of the city in 1865. 

Early Albany was the scene of many hard-fought political battles and 
was noted as the birthplace of the Republican Party in Oregon. On 
August 20, 1856, Free State men held a meeting and adopted a platform 
that included the bold declaration: "Resolved, that we fling our banner 
to the breeze, inscribed, free speech, free labor, a free press, and Fre- 
mont." February n, 1857, delegates from eight counties assembled in 
Albany at a territorial convention and selected a committee to prepare 
an address on the slavery question which placed the issue squarely be- 
fore the people for the first time. In the sixties Southern sympathizers 
were numerous in the city and made themselves known vocally, and 
fistically, if occasion presented. During the stormy period of 1861, a 
cannon, mounted on the bank of the Willamette and used during local 
celebrations, was stolen and sunk in the river by "Joe Lane Democrats" 
to prevent the victorious "Cayuse Republicans" from firing it as a 
triumphal gesture. The old howitzer lay in the river for almost 70 
years, when it was dredged from the bottom and placed on exhibition 
by a local sand and gravel company. 

In 1870 the Oregon and California Railroad (now the Southern 
Pacific) reached Albany, and a few years later the Corvallis and Eastern 
connected the city with tidewater at Yaquina City and stretched east- 
ward toward the summit of the Cascades. Later short spurs were ex- 
tended into the rich surrounding areas, and products of farm and forest 



TOUR 2 313 

poured into the city where processing plants were built to receive them. 

Writers who have been identified with Albany are Sam L. Simpson, 
author of many poems collected after his death into the volume, Gold 
Gated West, Charles Alexander, author of Fang in the Forest, Bobbie, 
a Great Collie, and winner in 1922 of the O. Henry memorial prize 
with his story, As a Dog Should, and Fred Pike Nutting, who conducted 
the oldest newspaper column in Oregon under the name of "Misfits" in 
the Albany Democrat-Herald. 

The MONTEITH HOUSE (private), 518 W. 2nd St., is the first 
house erected in Albany. Although remodeled about 1918 it retains the 
original architectural lines. The first unit of the structure was built as 
a claim cabin in 1848 by Walter and Thomas Monteith, founders of 
Albany. It stood facing Washington Street at Second, and the dividing 
line of the two claims ran through the house so that the brothers could 
occupy the cabin in common but each could live on his own claim. The 
cabin, enlarged in 1849 and finished in 1850, became the civic and social 
center of the new settlement, sheltering the first religious service in 
Albany, and serving as the first store. 

TAKENAH PARK, 4th at Ellsworth St., is named for the old 
Indian designation of the district at the mouth of the Calapooya River. 
The Weatherford Tablet in the park commemorated J. K. Weather- 
ford (1850-1935), who for fifty years was a director of the Albany 
schools. The marker stands beneath a young Douglas fir tree, planted 
by Mr. Weatherford, which, during the Christmas season, is illuminated 
with colored lights. Another memorial tablet in the park marks the 
old Oregon-California Wagon Road, over which the great trek to the 
^old fields took place. 

OLD STEAMBOAT INN (private), Water St. near Ellsworth 
St., E. of the southern approach to the Ellsworth St. Bridge, was built 
in the early fifties. Standing on the brink of the Willamette River near 
the old boat landing it was an important stopping place for steamboat 
travelers, before the coming of the railroad, and served as a stage station 
for the lines up and down the valley and eastward across the Cascades 
into Central Oregon. The house, as originally constructed, has two 
stories with a double-decked porch across the entire front and a large 
chimney at each end. 

SITE OF FIRST BRIDGE, foot of Calapooya St., marks the point 
where the Willamette River was first spanned at Albany. Built in 1892, 
the bridge was abandoned in 1925, but the cement piers are still in 
use as supports for the steel towers of the Mountain States Power Com- 
pany's high voltage lines. Near this spot the early Oregon poet, Sam L. 
Simpson, is said to have composed his well-known poem, "Ad Willame- 
tum," better known as "The Beautiful Willamette," published in the 
Albany States Rights Democrat April 18, 1868. 

BRYANT PARK, on the peninsula between the Willamette and 
Calapooya Rivers, known as Bryant Island, is reached by a covered 
bridge across the Calapooya at the W. end of 3rd St. Near the entrance 
to the park a rough boulder monument bears a bronze plaque inscribed 



314 OREGON 

to Hubbard ("Hub") Bryant, donor of the land to the city. There are 
about 80 acres of natural hardwood forest, a baseball diamond with 
bleachers, a children's playground, a municipal swimming pool, and 
horseshoe courts. Part of the park is set aside as a camp accommodating 
several hundred auto tourists. Takenah, or the "deep placid pool," is in 
Bryant Park. A short distance above the pool is a point made memorable 
by David Douglas, the botanist, who camped there in November 1826. 

South of Albany the valley widens into prairie-like expanses, with 
many scattered groves. Fields are larger and grain farming and seed- 
growing dominate. Canadian or field peas, alsike clover, Hungarian, 
hairy, and common vetch, and Italian rye grass, a forage crop much in 
demand in the East and Southwest, are grown. 

TANGENT, 90.2 m. (248 alt., 127 pop.), was named because of 
the long straight stretch of Southern Pacific track that passes through 
the town. 

1. Right from Tangent on a gravel road to the Calapooya River, 2 m., 
along which is a scattered chain of PREHISTORIC MOUNDS, that extends 
from Albany to ^Brownsville (see TOUR zA). A number of the most important 
are near the point where the road crosses the river. Stone mortars and pestles, 
arrow points, shell, stone, and copper beads are sometimes found, together with 
skeletons. The road continues west following a winding course to OAKVILLE, 
6 m. t with the first church housing the Willamette Congregation, organized in 
1850, the oldest United Presbyterian Church Society still existing in the western 
half of America. The building is sheltered by wide-spreading oaks. 

2. Left from Tangent on a gravel road to the junction with a dirt road, 8 m., 
L. here 0.5 m. to the DENNY PHEASANT FARM. On this farm, the first 
ring-necked, or Chinese pheasants, brought to Oregon were liberated in 1882. 
They were sent by a brother of the farm owner who was in the consular service 
at Shanghai. Now there are thousands of the magnificent birds in the Willamette 
Valley. 

South of Tangent the prairie-like expanses are dotted at intervals 
by dome-like buttes. Formed by volcanic upthrusts, it is believed that 
at one time they formed islands in the waters that formerly filled this 
valley. Their upper strata abound with marine fossils, and about their 
bases are found ancient mammalean remains, including the tusks and 
teeth of mammoths and mastodons. In the surrounding foothills petri- 
fied wood is frequently exposed by the weathering of crumbling volcanic 
tufa (see GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY). 

At 92.8 m. the highway crosses the Calapooya River, a small winding 
stream named for the Calapooya tribe of Indians that formerly roamed 
the valley. Across wide vistas the high Cascade Range is visible (L), 
with Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters prominent on the skyline. 

At 95.2 m. is a junction with a gravel road. 

Left, here to BOSTON, 2 m., where only the THOMPSON FLOURING MILL, 
built in 1856 and still in operation, remains to mark the town, that was platted 
in 1863. Richard Finley and his associates constructed the mill and laid plans 
for a flourishing community. As its trade territory increased, other businesses were 
established. People from all parts of the Willamette Valley and as far south as 
Yreka, California, came to settle in the village. 

Boston was famous for its county fair, which, though primitive when com- 
pared with present-day events, was the great annual celebration of the settlers. 



TOUR 2 315 

Local and community rivalry developed over the horse races and the agricul- 
tural exhibits, because the virgin soil produced vegetables of extraordinary size. 
Boston flourished until the railroad built in the early 1870*9, missed it by two 
miles. After Shedd (see below) was established about a railroad station it quick- 
ly won business away from its older neighbor and people drifted away to other 
places. 

SHEDD, 95.9 m. (263 alt., 125 pop.), was named for Captain 
Frank Shedd, on whose donation land claim it grew up after the coming 
of the railroad in 1871. Rising prominently from the flat terrain are 
(L) Wards Butte (858 alt.) and Saddle Butte (646 alt.). 

South of Shedd the swales are blue in springtime with the hyacinth- 
like bkxms of the camas, Indian food-root. The carrot-like white- 
flowered Indian Yampah, the carum of the botanists, also abound; the 
slender plants spring from crisp, nutlike bulbs that were also relished 
:is food by the natives. 

HALSEY, 101.1 m. (282 alt., 300 pop.), named for William L. 
Halsey, vice-president of the Willamette Valley Railroad at the time 
of construction, ships grain, wool, and seed crops. 

HARRISBURG, 110 m. (309 alt., 575 pop.), is a typical river 
town, with old buildings and traditions of the steamboat era. Here, in 
1848, was established a primitive ferry merely two boats lashed to 
gether with a platform for carrying one wagon; while the horses or 
oxen were forced to swim behind it. Later a scow was built to earn' 
both wagon and team. The ferry was operated until 1925 when a bridge 
was built. 

At 113.8 772. is the junction with US ggW (see TOUR 10) ; south- 
ward the route is US 99. 

JUNCTION CITY, 114.3 772. (324 alt., 922 pop.), was named in 
1871 in anticipation of becoming the meeting place of two railroads. 
Junction City is a prosperous trading point for people of the adjacent 
valleys. 

Section b. Junction City to California State Line, 231 m. US 99 

South of JUNCTION CITY, m., the highway runs through a 
flat section, with deep alluvial soil. Orchards of prunes, pears, cherries, 
peaches, walnuts, and filberts line the highway, interspersed with plant- 
ings of small fruits and commercial gardens. Peppermint growing and 
distillation of the oil has proved commercially practicable on the moister 
bottom lands. 

At 1.9 m. is a junction with US 28 (see TOUR 2E). 

EUGENE, 14.5 m. (423 alt., 18,901 pop.) (see EUGENE}. 

Points of Interest: University of Oregon, Skinner's Butte, Pioneer Museum, 
and others. 

South of Eugene for several miles the route closely parallels the 
Willamette River (L). 

At 17.5 772. is a junction (L) with US 28 (see TOUR 6a). Near 
this point, the forks of the Willamette River converge, joined by the 



3l6 OREGON 

McKcnzie River, which flows from the high Cascades. The open valley 
continues southward but the encircling hills slowly close in. Farms be- 
come smaller and stock raising and lumbering are important. 

CORYELL PASS, 18.9 m., overlooks a stretch of the Willamette 
River. 

GOSHEN, 21.1 m. (500 alt., 93 pop.), yet another trade town, was 
named by Elijah Bristow, an early settler who believed the valley to 
be the Land of Promise. Goshen is at a junction with State 58 (see 
TOUR 46). 

South of Goshen the highway traverses the Goshen Floral Area, so 
called because of the fossils of tropical and sub-tropical flora unearthed 
from the underlying rocky strata. Many specimens have been found in a 
rocky cut at 22.9 m., close to the highway. When the Southern Pacific 
Railway, which runs beside the highway at this point, was being con- 
structed large numbers of finely preserved leaf casts were obtained, 
among them those of the fig, smilax, magnolia, laurel, ebony, oak, chest- 
nut, and viburnum (see GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY). 

CRESWELL, 26.7 m. (531 alt., 345 pop.), was founded in 1872 
by Ben Holladay and named for the Postmaster General at that time, 
Creswell Butte (892 alt.) rises just south of the town. 

COTTAGE GROVE, 35.6 m. (640 alt., 2,475 pop.), is in the 
heart of a lumbering region, though stock raising, dairying, and fruit 
culture are also carried on. Here in 1920 lived Opal Whitely, 22 years 
old, who caused a furore in the world of letters and of psychology when 
the Atlantic Monthly published serially The Story of Opal: The 
Journal of an Understanding Heart, purported to have been written by 
Opal Whitely when she was five or six years old. In the "diary" she 
appeared as a child in a logging camp, a changeling of royal parentage, 
whose friends were a fir tree named Michael Angelo Sanzio Raphael; 
a crow named Lars Porsena of Clusium; a most dear wood rat called 
Thomas Chatterton Jupiter Zeus ; a pet pig named Brave Horatius ; and 
a shepherd dog, Peter Paul Rubens. Opal disappeared from public notice 
after various curious adventures. 

The Coast Fork of the Willamette River divides the town into an 
eastern and western section. In 1894 the west-siders sent a representative 
to Salem who persuaded the legislature to designate the west side as 
Cottage Grove and the other as East Cottage Grove. The east-siders 
resented this and incorporated their section of the town under the name 
of Lemati, thus leaving Cottage Grove off the railroad. The latter, 
however, had the post office and it became the duty of the Cottage Grove 
marshal to go to Lemati to meet the mail trains. When he neglected 
to remove his badge of office on crossing into alien territory the Lemati 
marshal immediately arrested him and clapped him into jail, there to 
languish until Cottage Grove paid his fine. After two years a recon- 
ciliation was effected, whereby the towns were united and incorporated 
under one name. 

Left from Cottage Grove on an improved road up Row River to DORENA, 
7 m., a village in the foothills of the Calapooya Mountains. Row River was so 



TOUR 2 317 

named because of a "row" or disagreement between two pioneer families living 
on its banks. 

DISSTON, 19 in., a small lumber town at the confluence of Layng and Frank 
Brice Creeks, was named for a well-known brand of saws. 

BOHEMIA, 30 m. t lies almost at the summit of the ridge between the VVil- 
lamette and the Umpqua rivers, the center of the historical Bohemia Mining 
District, about 225 square miles of mountainous country heavily timbered with 
old fir, spruce and hemlock. Turbulent mountain streams fighting their way 
through gorges, wooded scarps, and jagged peaks, make this a region of great 
natural beauty. Deer, elk, cougars, bears and other game are found here in 
abundance. 

The district was named for "Bohemia" Johnson, the man who discovered gold- 
bearing quartz in 1863. Johnson, an emigrant from Bohemia, is said to have 
killed an Indian and with another man hidden in the mountains to prevent cap- 
ture. When later he brought gold out of the mountains great excitement ensued. 
But when it was discovered that the "dust" was not found in stream beds but 
must be extracted from the quartz ledges by machinery the excitement soon died 
out and, until 1891, only intermittent attempts were made to mine the region. 
However, in that year, Dr. VV. W. Oglesby located and opened the Champion 
and Noonday mills at Music Ledge. The height of activity in the district came 
in 1900 after assays had demonstrated the richness of the strike. It is estimated 
that up to 1910 the district yielded between five hundred thousand and a million 
dollars. When the free milling ledges were exhausted and the cost of working 
the lower grade ores became prohibitive the region was gradually abandoned. 
From time to time attempts have been made to re-open the district and some 
mines are again beginning activity, but all the operations are in low grade ores. 

DIVIDE, 40.3 m. (751 alt.), is on the crest of the watershed be- 
tween the Willamette and Umpqua Valleys. This inconspicuous pass 
was important to the pioneer adventurers, for it was here that they 
left the placid valley country and plunged into a region inhabited by- 
Indians alert for plunder. 

At 47.1 m. is the junction (R) with an old Territorial Road, an im- 
portant artery of commerce in the early 1850'$, extending across the 
Coast Range to Scottsburg, on the lower waters of the Umpqua, thus 
providing the interior with transportation to the ocean. 

DRAIN, 53.8 m. (304 alt., 497 pop.), the shipping point for a fruit, 
vegetable, and turkey growing area, was named for Charles Drain, 
last president of the Oregon Territorial Council. It was the site of one 
of Oregon's first normal schools. The old building stands on the hill- 
side (L). Drain is at the junction with State 38 (see TOUR 2G). 

YONCALLA, 59.1 m. (336 alt., 252 pop.), another rural trade 
town, was the home of Jesse Applegate, explorer, road builder, and 
Indian fighter of southern Oregon, captain of the famous "Cow Col- 
umn," one of the first wagon trains to reach Oregon in 1843. He 
adopted the Indian name for the tall hill near the town; the hill in 
turn was named for a powerful chief of the early days. 

Roselle Applegate Putnam, daughter of Jesse Applegate, in a letter 
dated January 25, 1852, wrote: "I have only one more question to 
answer which is one that really should have been answered long ago, 
that is what is Yoncalla now it is not a town nor a place of man's 
creation nor of a white man's naming but it is a hill round and high 
and beautiful; a splendid representative of hills in general it is ten 



3l8 OREGON 

miles in circumference and one and a half in height. The north side of 
it is covered with fir timber, oak, hazel and various kinds of under- 
wood this thicety forest has been from time immemorial a harbor for 
deer, bear, wolves and many other kinds of wild animals. . . . 

"The hill is called after a chief who with a numerous tribe once in- 
habited these valleys among the few remaining survivors of this tribe 
that occasionally came to beg a crust of bread or an old garment that 
is getting worse for the wear there are some old ones who remember 
the chief, say that he was a great physician and skilled in witchcraft 
which is a belief still prevalent among them his men hunted bear and 
deer on this hill and caught salmon in the streams around it and the 
women dug roots in the valleys and gathered nuts and berries on the 
hills they were a numerous and happy nation but now the busy multi- 
tudes are low and still the dense forest whose echoes were then only 
wakened by the war song and the wolf's howl are now half demolished 
by their enterprising successors the game is frightened away by the 
sound of the axe and the crack of the whip the acorns, nuts and roots 
are yearly harvested by their hogs so that if these ancient owners were 
still living they would be deprived of their means of sustenance. 

"At this time there are four men living around the foot of Yoncalla 
who have between four and five hundred of cattle whose chief pas- 
turage is on this hill besides fifty head of horses and an unnumbered 
stock of hogs ... my father's claim lies at the foot of it he keeps 
the post-office and called it after this hill he is very fond of hunting 
and this is his hunting ground he has killed two bear and upwards of 
forty deer on it since he has been living there." 

RICE HILL, 64.6 m. (710 alt.), the divide between the valley of 
Elk Creek and the Umpqua Valley, before the era of modern roads 
was a most difficult one and many an emigrant train was long delayed 
before reaching its summit. 

The Umpqua Valley is made up of many adjoining valleys, with the 
farmlands usually restricted to the level portions closely bordering the 
stream. In the sheltered, almost windless Umpqua drainage area fruits 
ripen early and may be marketed with unusual profit. Prunes, cherries, 
pears, and apples are abundant; small fruits, blackberries, loganberries, 
youngberries, raspberries, and strawberries provide occupation for many, 
both in their culture and in their preservation. Broccoli, or winter 
cauliflower, is an important commercial crop. Maturing in late winter 
or early spring, it is in great demand in more northern and eastern 
markets, and is shipped in large quantities. The Umpqua Valley has also 
large stands of sugar pine, Douglas and white fir, hemlock, spruce, 
and cedar. 

A granite monument (L) at 72.1 m. commemorates the Reverend 
J. A. Cornwall and family, who built the first immigrant cabin in what 
is now Douglas County near this site in 1846. On the trip to the West 
the Cornwalls traveled part of the way with the ill-fated Donner 
Party, which attempted to take a short cut into California, with fatal 
results. 



TOUR 2 319 

OAKLAND, 73.3 m. (427 alt., 321 pop.), on Calapooya Creek was 
named for the groves of Oregon white, or Garry oak that dot the valley, 
bearing great clumps of the broad-leaved mistletoe. The first town of 
Oakland, three miles north of the present site, was a stopping point for 
the old California Stage Company's coaches and the center of four 
diverging mail routes leading to the bustling mining region of Jackson- 
ville, to Eugene, to Marysville (Corvallis), and to Scottsburg, on the 
lower Umpqua. 

The region about Oakland is supported by farming, stock raising, 
dairying, fruit growing, and lumbering, but the town's principal reve- 
nue comes from the shipment of turkeys. In late autumn and early 
winter, long lines of trucks loaded with dressed birds draw up at weigh- 
ing platforms. Early in December a turkey show is held here, where local 
turkeys, both live and dressed, compete with those brought from many 
parts of the United States. 

South of Oakland the character of the country shows a marked change 
in vegetation. Hills are more rugged, firs are fewer, and mingled with 
the oak groves are many red-barked, evergreen madronas. 

SUTHERLIN, 76.1 m. (519 alt., 457 pop.), named for a pioneer 
family, is the cradle of the great turkey raising business of the North- 
west. It was here, in 1851, that Mr. Sutherlin (1824-85) established 
the first turkey farm in Oregon. Shortly thereafter he brought fruit trees 
from Oregon City and planted the first orchard in southern Oregon. 
Stitherlin's wife, Lucy Richardson, rode Kentucky Belle, a bluegrass 
thoroughbred, across the plains; this horse became the ancestor of many 
famous race horses of the Willamette Valley. Sutherlin Valley was first 
called Camas Swale, because in the spring the floor of the valley was so 
thickly covered with the deep blue blossoms of this plant that it ap- 
peared to be a peaceful blue lake surrounded by forested hills. 

South of Sutherlin, is (L), the OREGON WOODS CAMP, 78m. 
(adm. 25c), a roadside museum entered through a high and unusual 
crib- work arch of logs, the plans for which, the owner declares, were 
conceived in a dream. 

At WILBUR, 81.3 m. (464 alt., 146 pop.), the Umpqua, later called 
Wilbur Academy, was established in 1854 by the Rev. James H. Wilbur, 
(1811-87), a Methodist clergyman; it was closed in 1900. The first 
building was a rough log structure with a few rough pine desks. Like 
other Oregon pioneer places of learning, the "Rules" of the academy 
prohibited: "Profane, obscene or vulgar language or unchaste yarns or 
narratives, or immoral gestures or hints; any degree of tippling any- 
where; any sort of night reveling." The pupils for the academy came 
"from southern Oregon, from about Jacksonville, Leland, Canyonville, 
Cow Creek, Lookingglass and from the northerly parts of the county, 
from Yoncalla, Elk Creek, Green Valley and the classic precincts of 
Duck Egg, Tin Pot and Shoestring." 

The NORTH UMPQUA RIVER crossed at 84 m. f was named 
for the country through which it flows. Formed by tributaries in the 
Cascade and Calapooya ranges, the North and South Umpqua unite a 



32O O R B O O N 

few miles west of this point to form the main stream which cuts through 
the Coast Mountains, the lower reaches forming a wide estuary. The 
river affords excellent fishing for trout in the upper reaches and great 
silver salmon and fighting steelheads in the middle and lower channels. 
WINCHESTER POOL, at the crossing of the river, is a favorite 
lurking place for that king of all western fish, the Royal Chinook salmon. 
At the southern end of the bridge are the remnants of WIN- 
CHESTER, 84.2 m. (459 alt), founded by the Umpqua Exploring 
Expedition of 1850, and named for Herman Winchester, its captain. 
The town was the seat of Douglas County until 1854, when Roseburg 
(see below) was chosen in its stead. The people of Winchester not only 
yielded to that decision but actually moved a large part of their town to 
augment the successful contestant. Between Winchester, and Roseburg 
is the WHITE TAIL DEER REFUGE (L), a reserve of about 
twenty thousand acres. At 89.7 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

At 89.7 m. on this road to the NORTHWEST NATIONAL SOLDIERS' 
HOME, 0.9 m. established as the Oregon State Soldiers' Home. This became 
federal in 1933, and now has modern buildings and equipment to care for 360 
veterans. 

ROSEBURG, 89.6 m. (478 alt., 4,362 pop.), seat of Douglas 
County is built along a gentle curve of the Umpqua River at its con- 
fluence with Deer Creek. In spite of round houses and car shops, fruit 
and vegetable canning factories, sawmills and wood-working plants, the 
little city maintains a domestic, settled air among the steep green hills 
that surround it on all sides. Homes stand on broad tree-shaded lawns 
and the citizens are prouder of their gardens than they are of the busi- 
nesses on which their prosperity depends. Roses are the topic dearest 
to the householders' hearts. Having established an annual Rose Festival 
(May), the citizens lavish much labor and thought on their gardens, 
each trying to outdo the other in profusion and variety of blooms. But 
the town, first called Deer Creek, was not named for the popular 
flower; the title honors Aaron Rose (1813-89) a settler of 1851 in this 
then remote valley. The practical nature of the Roseburger is shown in 
the fact that the annual festival also celebrates the strawberry, an im- 
portant crop of the environs. The fruit matures so early in this sheltered 
valley that the combination is practical. 

Roseburg city fathers in 1882 were concerned over the laundry 
problem and decreed that : "Any woman who had been lawfully married 
and had a legitimate child or children to support may operate a hand 
laundry upon recommendation of the committee on health, and police." 

On January 14, 1889 an ordinance was passed to prevent the use of 
bells on cows and other domestic animals between the hours of 8 P. M. 
and 6 A. M. Previous to the ordinance one citizen frequently detached 
the bells from cows and threw them in the gutter when on his way 
home in the evening, thus hoping to get a good night's sleep. 

Roseburg was the home of Oregon's first Territorial Governor, 
Joseph Lane, who became a candidate for the Vice Presidency of the 
United States in 1860. His grave is in the MASONIC CEMETERY. 




MOUNT HOOD AND INTERSTATE BRIDGE 




INDIAN TEEPEES MOLALLA BUCKAROO 



WARM SPRINGS INDIAN BOY 






BASQUE GIRLS, MALHEUR COUNTY 




COLUMBIA RIVER INDIANS 



INDIAN BURIAL GROUND, MEMALOOSE ISLAND 











EARLY DAY VEHICLES, THE DALLES 



INDIAN TEEPEES UMATILLA RESERVATION 





ASTOR COLUMN, ASTORIA 



MOUNT HOOD FROM LOST LAKE 




BONNEVILLE DAM 






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OREGON COAST, CURRY COUNTY 







MOUNT HOOD IN WINTER 



WHEAT FIELDS, GRANDE RONDE VALLEY 






ROSEBURG 



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LA GRANDE 








MOUNT WASHINGTON 



GAME STUDIES SURVEY 








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INDIANS FISHING AT CELILO FALLS 



SURF FISHING, OREGON COAST 







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ARCHERS' CAMP WITH DEER 



ONE MONTH'S CATCH 








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FISHING IN DESCHUTES NATIONAL FOREST 



TOUR 2 321 

From the business center (R) is a fine view of MOUNT NEBO 
(1,100 alt.), across the Umpqua. This angular mountain was the place, 
according to local tradition, where the logger's giant mythical hero, Paul 
Bunyan, paused on his busy way with Babe the Blue Ox. It now holds 
an airways beacon. 

It was on Sugar Pine Mountain, west of Roseburg, that David 
Douglas, the Scotch botanist, discovered the sugar pine, so named for 
its sweet resin. He first learned of these trees when he saw its seeds 
in the pouch of an Indian at the falls of the Willamette near the present 
Oregon City. In October, 1828, while traveling southward with Hud- 
son's Bay traders, he found his long-sought tree, magnificent in size, and 
with extremely long pendant cones. "These cones," wrote Douglas in 
his Journals, "are only seen on the loftiest trees, and the putting myself 
in possession of three of these . . . nearly brought my life to a close. 
As it was impossible either to climb the tree or hew it down, I en- 
deavored to knock off the cones by firing at them with ball, when the 
report of my gun brought eight Indians, all of them painted with red 
earth, armed with bows, arrows, bone-tipped spears and flint knives. 
They appeared anything but friendly. I endeavored to explain to them 
what I wanted, and they seemed satisfied, and sat down to smoke, but 
presently I perceived one of them string his bow, and another sharpen 
his flint knife with a pair of wooden pincers, and suspend it on the 
wrist of his right hand. Further testimony of their intentions were 
unnecessary. To save myself by flight was impossible, so without hesita- 
tion I stepped back about five paces, cocked my gun, drew one of the 
pistols out of my belt, and holding it in my left hand and the gun in 
my right, showed myself determined to fight for my life. As much as 
possible I endeavored to preserve my coolness, and thus we stood looking 
at one another without making any movement or uttering a word for 
perhaps ten minutes, when one, at last, who seemed the leader, gave a 
sign that they wished for some tobacco: this I signified that they should 
have if they fetched me a quantity of cones. They went off immediately 
in search of them, and no sooner were they all out of sight, than I picked 
up my three cones and some twigs of the trees, and made the quickest 
possible retreat, hurrying back to camp, which I reached before dusk." 
At 96.8 m. is the junction with State 42 (see TOUR 2H.) 
DILLARD, 98.6 m. (540 alt., 11 pop.), on the South Umpqua, 
was named, as were so many Oregon towns, for the owner of the dona- 
tion land claim on which it was built. Fine cantaloupes are grown here- 
abouts. Along the South Umpqua is seen rare Oregon myrtle, also dis- 
covered by David Douglas. The tree, easily recognized by its sym- 
metrical, closely branched crown, has foliage that is glossy and ever 
green, with an odor very much like that of the bay. Indians ate the 
seeds of the tree and made tea from the bark. Its attractive mottled 
wood, now becoming very rare, takes on a high polish and is much used 
in cabinet work, and for bowls, vases and other small articles. Large 
pieces of furniture made from it have high market value. 

MYRTLE CREEK, 109.7 m. (639 alt., 401 pop.), on a stream of 



322 OREGON 

the same name, serves an area where lumbering, fruit growing, dairying, 
and poultry raising is carried on. This region was once the range of 
great prehistoric mammals, as is indicated by a fossil tusk ten inches in 
diameter at the butt and six feet long, discovered in 1927. 
At 113.9 m. is the junction with an improved road. 

Right on this road to RIDDLE, 3 m. (705 alt., 195 pop.), a distributing 
point for lumbering and mining camps, and farms growing pears, prunes, and 
broccoli. Water for irrigation and power is furnished by Cow Creek, so named 
because in its canyon an emigrant once recovered cattle from thieving Indians. 

CANYONVILLE, 119.7 m. (767 alt., 167 pop.), at the northern 
end of Canyon Creek Gorge, is also a trade town that developed as a 
station on the California-Oregon Stage route. In 1851 Canyonville, or 
Kenyonville as it was then called, had only two cabins, those of Joseph 
Knott and of Joel Perkins, who operated a ferry across the South 
Umpqua. The streams of the vicinity were the scenes of great activity 
when rich ledges of gold-bearing quartz were discovered. 

The highway follows Canyon Creek along a route traversed in 1846 
by the South Road Expedition, hunting a passage to the east. For 
various reasons settlers in Oregon were seeking another route across 
the Cascades. The Barlow Road, developed to avoid the trying and ex- 
pensive passage down the Columbia, was considered too difficult to in- 
duce much travel; moreover, settlers further up the Willamette Valley 
were anxious to divert new arrivals to the areas in which they had taken 
up land and immigrants were prone to settle near the point where they 
reached the valley. Further, persons who were living in the upper valley 
were anxious to gain supporters in the struggle with the members of the 
Methodist missionary parties who had early seized control of valley 
government. Both factions were anxious to have a road across the 
mountains that could be used by troops they hoped would be sent to 
protect them if the argument with Britain over control of Oregon cul- 
minated in war. 

In 1846 the colonists of the south organized an expedition to discover 
a southern pass and blaze a trail. Levi Scott, the leader, soon turned 
back to enlist more men. Among the fifteen who made the second start 
were Jesse and Lindsay Applegate. Near this point a party coming up 
from California had been attacked by Indians and one man had been 
severely wounded. Proceeding cautiously they crossed the mountains, 
swung down into northern California, turned eastward to follow the 
Humboldt of Nevada and then cut up to Fort Hall on the Oregon 
Trail. There Jesse Applegate was able to induce some members of the 
1846 migration to follow his lead over the new trail; the rest of the 
party went ahead to clear the road. 

Lindsay Applegate later wrote of the road-makers' experiences: "No 
circumstance worthy of mention occurred on the monotonous march 
from Black Rock to the timbered regions of the Cascade chain ; then our 
labors became quite arduous. Every day we kept guard over the horses 
while we worked the road, and at night we dared not cease our vigilance, 






TOUR 2 323 

for the Indians continually hovered about us, seeking for advantage. 
By the time we had worked our way through the mountains to the 
Rogue River valley, and then through the Grave Creek Hills and 
Umpqua chain, we were pretty thoroughly worn out. Our stock of 
provisions had grown very short, and we had to depend to a great extent, 
for sustenance, on game. Road working, hunting, and guard duty had 
taxed our strength greatly, and on our arrival in the Umpqua valley, 
knowing that the greatest difficulties in the way of immigrants, had 
been removed, we decided to proceed at once to our homes in the 
Willamette." But the journey was not so easily accomplished by the 
immigrants as the road makers had hoped. Tabitha Brown (see TOUR 
8), a 63-year-old member of the train, wrote of the journey from the 
standpoint of the party led by Jesse Applegate : "We had sixty miles of 
desert without grass or water, mountains to climb, cattle giving out, 
wagons breaking, emigrants sick and dying, hostile Indians to guard 
against by night and day, if we would save ourselves and our horses 
and cattle from being arrowed and stole. 

"We were carried hundreds of miles south of Oregon into Utah 
Territory and California; fell in with the Clamotte and Rogue River 
Indians, lost nearly all our cattle, passed the Umpqua Mountains, 12 
miles through. I rode through in three days at the risk of my life, on 
horseback, having lost my wagon and all that I had but the horse I 
was on. Our families were the first that started through the canyon, 
so that we got through the mud and rocks much better than those that 
followed. Out of hundreds of wagons, only one came through without 
breaking. The canyon was strewn with dead cattle, broken wagons, 
beds, clothing, and everything but provisions, of which latter we were 
nearly all destitute. Some people were in the canyon two or three weeks 
before they could get through. Some died without any warning, from 
fatigue and starvation. Others ate the flesh of cattle that were lying dead 
by the wayside." 

Canyon Creek flows through a part of the UMPQUA NATIONAL 
FOREST. 

COW CREEK GAME RESERVE (R), a mountainous and tim- 
Dered area is surrounded on three sides by Cow Creek. 

The summit of the CANYON CREEK PASS (2,302 alt.) is at 
128.6 m. 

AZALEA, 130.6 m. (80 pop.), in a little open valjey surrounded by 
forests of fir, yellow pine, oak, and alder, was so-named because of 
abundance of this plant with its beautiful tinted blossom in the vicinity. 

At 138 772. is the junction with an improved road. 

Right on this road to GLENDALE, 4 m. (1,425 alt., 800 pop.), supposedly 
named for Glendale, Scotland, in the heart of a mining and lumbering region. 

The SITE OF THE SIX-BIT-RANCH, 138.6 m. was a station 
on the Oregon and California State route in the early fifties and was so 
named because of an interruption made by the owner when soldiers 
were about to hang an Indian near the ranch; the owner demanded 



324 OREGON 

that the hanging be delayed until the Indian paid six bits that he 
owed him. 

STAGE ROAD PASS, (1,916 alt.) is crossed at 140.5 m. 
WOLFCREEK, 144.2 m. (1,276 alt., 130 pop.), has two names; 
the railway station is Wolf Creek, but the postoffice department makes 
the name one word. WOLF CREEK TAVERN, opened in 1857 and 
still in use, is a long neat two-story building, with a two-story wing. 
The roof of the two-story veranda, which runs across the front of the main 
building, is formed by an extension of the roof of the house. Panelled 
doors with transoms and side lights open onto the porch from the central 
halls on each floor. The structure, little changed through the years, 
stands behind a white picket fence. Many travelers of note have stopped 
here, among them President Hayes, Jack London, and Sinclair Lewis. 

South of Wolfcreek, US 99 sinuously ascends to the summit of Wolf 
Creek Hill, 147 m. f and to GRAVE CREEK, 150.4 m. Grave Creek 
was so named because Josephine Crowley, daughter of Leland Crowley. 
died and was buried here in 1846. October 30, 1855, occurred the 
Battle of Grave Creek sometimes called the Battle of Hungry Hill, 
or the Battle of Bloody Springs in which six Oregon volunteers and 
three regulars were slain by Indians. 

SEXTON MOUNTAIN (3,855 alt.), above SEXTON MOUN- 
TAIN PASS, 154 ra., (2,046 alt.), is surmounted by a forest lookout 
and an airway radio station and beacon. 

As the highway descends, manzanita, with roundish, evergreen leaves 
and red-barked branches, is seen. In this area it often covers immense 
tracts with its dense, elfin-like forests. The fruit of the manzanita is 
like a small plump apple, dry and tasteless, which the Indians ground 
into a fine meal that was leached with water, to produce a rich and 
delicious cider. 

On the side of Sexton Mountain, at 160.9 m., is a roadside monument 
(L), erected to Burrell M. Baucom, a state policeman and World War 
veteran, who was killed at this point in the performance of his duties, 
July i, 1933. Baucom was slain when he stopped Harry Bowles, 21, 
and John Barrier, 17 two youths he had stopped to question about an 
auto they were driving. Barrier admitted firing the three shots that 
killed the state trooper. The monument, made of southern Oregon 
granite, bears a bronze plaque inscribed: "In memory of Burell M. 
Baucom an officer and soldier brave of heart, sincere of purpose, and 
faithful to trust, who fell here July I, 1933, in performance of his duty, 
this tablet in inscribed by his fellow members of the Oregon State Police 
and Oregon National Guard. Dedicated February 25, 1934-'* 
At 163.4 m. is a junction with a market road. 

Right on this road, to MERLIN, 3 m., site of early gold mining activity. The 
laboratories of a former mining and milling company are still standing. The 
ruins of prehistoric pit houses near Merlin are among the earliest anthropological 
remains found in Oregon. 

At GALICE, 17 m., also a pioneer gold mining town, are the ruins of a 
Rogue River Indian War powder house and arsenal, built about 1854. 



TOUR 2 325 

"Galice Creek" has its origin in an episode that took place in early times 
between the "pack train" men and an old Indian who lived there. Old John 
would watch for a mule train to strike camp, and then he would draw up his 
blanket until only his eyebrows and face were visible, seat himself on the ground 
near the camp fire, and every turn in the culinary operations of getting supper 
would cause him to say, NIKA TIKA MUCKA MUCKE, which was an appeal 
for something to eat. Packers were liberal men and the appeals of even a savage 
never went unheeded, but patience sometimes when overtaxed will call out other 
qualities in the man, and these rude pioneers, when they had filled their old 
beggar almost to bursting, on the evening of their arrival were not in good 
humor when he took up his station for breakfast and commenced his same plain- 
tive wail demanding 'gleece' which meant bacon. They concluded to fill him 
up for goid, and taking a side of fat bacon, they cut slices and handed to him, 
which he greedily devoured for a while. At last he signified a sufficiency by 
shaking his head and saying, WAKE TIKA GLEECE. But you may judge of 
nis surprise when the packer drew a six shooter and cocking the weapon drew 
a bead on old John and handed him another slice and ordered him to eat it, 
and another, and another, each time enforced by coercive demonstrations with 
the pistol until the old Indian's outraged stomach could stand no more. He lost 
his appetite for gleece and the creek has always borne the name of Galice Creek 
since that event. 

ALAMRDA, 21 m., another mining town whose glory has departed, now con- 
tains the RAND UNITED STATES FOREST RANGER STATION. At the 
mouth of Grave Creek, a few miles north of town but inaccessible by automo- 
bile, lie LITTLE MEADOWS and BIG MEADOWS, which were rallying 
points for Oregon volunteers in the Rogue River Indian wars. These points were 
the scenes of several skirmishes. 

The whole country in the "Gorge of the Roaring Rogue" is highly mineral- 
ized with deposits of gold, silver, and copper. The gorge is one of the wildest 
regions of all Oregon. It is almost inaccessible except where new and improved 
roads lead into it from a number of points. It is a mecca for hunters and fisher- 
men who come from many parts of the world, but only experienced boatmen 
should venture upon its waters, for its bars and rapids, and its Hell Gate 
Canyon are hazardous. Many well-known people have summer lodges in the 
deeper wilderness; hunters, explorers, and writers, come here for rest and recre- 
ation. Peter B. Kyne and ex-President Herbert Hoover fish the river regularly, 
as formerly did Zane Grey. 

GRAVE CREEK BRIDGE, 25 m. t is at the end of the auto road down the 
Rogue. Pack trains of horses or mules furnish the only regular transportation 
between Grave Creek Bridge and Agness, on the lower river. Horses and packers 
are available for trail trips at Galice, Illahee, and Agness. From Grave Creek 
Bridge a pack trail leads down the Rogue River to RAINIE FALLS, 27 m. 
WHISKEY CREEK, 28 m., and the HORSESHOE BEND GUARD STATION, 
38 m. 

MULE CREEK GUARD STATION and the post office of MARIAL, 49 m., 
are at the mouth of Mule Creek. This creek was originally John Mule Creek 
and the name appears as such in mining records from 1864 to as late as 1904 
when the present name filters in. John Mule was an Indian who for many years 
made his home on the meadow at the mouth of the stream. In the sixties two 
miners on John Mule Creek had a falling out and one of them, called Dutch 
Henry, shot the other with a rifle, but his opponent, known as Big George Jack, 
struck Dutch Henry with an axe. The two men were found two days later, still 
alive but too badly wounded to be moved ; whereupon miners built a cabin over 
them and sent more than eighty miles for a doctor. Both men recovered. 

ILLAHEE, 55 m. (see TOUR 2/7), is a village and commercial resort (horses 
and packers available). Many years ago John Fitzhugh was mining near Illahee. 
His provisions running low he went in search of game. His shoes were worn out 
so he went barefoot. He had gone but a short way when he noticed what he 
took to be a bear track and he followed the spoor for the best part of the day 
Finally he scrutinized the tracks more closely and came to the conclusion that 



326 OREGON 

he had been tracking himself all the time. In relating the story he ended: "I don't 
know what would have happened if I had caught up with myself as I am a 
pretty good shot." 

AGNESS, 63 m., is another packing center and commercial resort for hunters 
and fishermen on the north bank of the Rogue. From Agness to Gold Beach the 
trip must be made by motor boat. Points touched are LOWERY'S, 75 m., 
LOBSTER CREEK, 83 m., BAGNELL FERRY, 89 m., WEDDERBURN, 94 m., 
and GOLD BEACH. 95 m. on US 101 (see TOUR 3$). 

GRANTS PASS, 168 m. (948 alt., 4,666 pop.), the seat of Jose- 
phine County, lies at the southern end of a narrow valley on the bank 
of the Rogue River. With long streets bordered with tree-shaded houses 
diverging from the compact business district toward the enclosing hills, 
the city presents an aspect of modernity. The Southern Pacific bisects 
the town and store buildings press upon the tracks from either side. 
Modern structures have replaced the old false-front wooden buildings 
and filling stations and ice-cream parlors have taken the place of the 
hitching racks and dim-lighted saloons of other days. However, Saturday 
night is still a time of unusual activity when ranchers, miners, and lum- 
berjacks, mingle with townsmen and tourists along the brightly lighted 
streets. 

The town, which came into existence as a stopping place on the Cali- 
fornia Stage route, was named by enthusiastic builders of the road over 
the pass when a messenger told them of General Grant's capture of 
Vicksburg. It is the trading, banking, and shopping center of the Grants 
Pass Irrigation District, which produces pears, prunes, apples, grapes, 
and cherries, and is an active dairying region. In the environs gladiolus 
culture is carried on and during the blossoming months, June to August, 
the flower fields present a gorgeous sight. An annual gladiolus show is 
held during the fourth week in July. 

There is considerable logging nearby and sawmills and wood-working 
plants are numerous. The city draws much wealth from the mines in the 
surrounding mountains. Gold, copper, platinum, silver, and chromium 
are among the more important minerals. Miners still come in from the 
back country with their dust, which is bought by local banks. The 
mineral resources of the region, together with the proximity of the 
Oregon Caves (see TOUR. 2/), have drawn the attention of many 
citizens to the collection of minerals. Some excellent exhibits are those 
in the lobby of the Hotel Del Rogue, 6th and K Sts., the Caves Grotto 
at the Redwood Hotel, 6th and E Sts., and the semi-precious stones 
collected by Eclus Pollock. 

The CITY PARK on the south bank of the Rogue provides facili- 
ties for swimming, boating, tennis, and other sports. The Oregon Cave- 
men, a social and service club, hold annual festivities and carnivals, in 
which the members impersonate their primal forbears. The Cavemen 
claim the marble halls of the Oregon Caves as their ancestral home. 
Symbolically their food and drink consists of the meat of the dinosaur 
and the blood of the saber-tooth tiger. The officers of the organization 
are Chief Big Horn, Rising Buck, keeper of the wampum, Clubfist, 
Wingfeather, and Flamecatcher, 



TOUR 2 327 

Rogue River is one of the best fishing streams of the nation. Fishing 
riffles are within a mile of the city, and up and down the river are more 
than 200 miles of fine fishing waters. In the city is the HEADQUAR- 
TERS OF THE SISKIYOU NATIONAL FOREST, 6th and 
FSts. 

US 99 crosses the Rogue River, 169 m., on the graceful CAVE- 
MEN'S BRIDGE to a junction with US 199 at 169.3 m. (see 
TOUR 2l). 

US 99 curves sharply left and at 169.4 m. is a junction with State 
238. 

Right on State 238 to MURPHY, 4.1 m. (1,600 alt.), and PRO VOLT, 13.9 m., 
small mountain hamlets. Right from Provolt on a gravel road, 6 m. along Wil- 
liams Creek to WILLIAMS, which came into existence as Williamsburg in 
1857, when gold was discovered on Williams Creek. Miners flocked in until 
there were a thousand residents, but the camp soon passed into oblivion. 

At 12 m. the graveled road ends at a camp (over-night facilities}. From this 
point a trail leads over the mountains to the OREGON CAVES, 22.3 m. (see 
TOUR 2l). 

On State 238 is APPLEGATE, 18.4 m. (30 pop.), in a mining, fruit-growing, 
and lumbering region. It was named for Jesse and Lindsay Applegate (see 
above). In early days all streams of this region were worked for gold and some 
small fortunes were taken from the gravel. Local legend perpetuates the tale 
that a Chinaman, "Chiny Linn," removed more than two million dollars in gold 
from his claim but this is probably erroneous as the district was never one of 
the great producers. 

In Jackson Creek at JACKSONVILLE, 34.9 m. (1,600 alt, 806 pop.) in 
January, 1852, James Cluggage and J. R. Poole discovered gold. Now untrimmed 
trees, dropping low over moss-grown houses and crumbling brick buildings, line 
streets once noisy with the tramp of miners' feet, or shrill with the chatter of 
pig-tailed Orientals. Cornices of old brick structures threaten to fall and de- 
molish sagging corrugated awnings, beneath which miners, harlots, and merchants 
once paraded. Bearded men now drowse on benches outside dusty shops where 
dozens of empty whiskey bottles displayed in windows are reminders of a lively 
past. Following the decline of gold production, Jacksonville lost its population, 
and in 1927 the county seat was moved to Medford. Small back-yard mines take 
the place of family gardens in a place where men washed as much as a pint 
cup of gold in a day. William Hanley (1861-1935), the eastern Oregon cattle 
baron, was born here. 

In the window of the J. A. BRUNNER BUILDING, erected in 1855 and on 
occasion used as a refuge from Indians, are gold scales on which hundreds of 
thousands of dollars worth of gold dust were weighed. In the building is a 
museum of pioneer relics. In the UNITED STATES HOTEL where President 
Hayes and General William T. Sherman spent a night, are displayed leg irons, 
ox shoes, a cradle for grain, gold coins and scales, and many other articles. 
According to legend, the METHODIST CHURCH was built in 1854 with one 
night's take at the gaming tables. In this small building gamblers, roughly- 
dressed proprietors, and sedate bankers, dropped their nuggets into the collection 
plate. The melodeon was brought around Cape Horn, up the coast to Crescent 
City, and over the mountains on the backs of mules. The church, a simple white 
clapboarded structure, has a small bell tower and steeple in one gabled end. 
The OLD BARN was used for the relay horses of the California-Oregon Stage 
Line. The BEEKMAN BANK, built in 1862, made express shipments of gold 
to Crescent City, the California port. East of Jacksonville, State 238 passes 
through an attractive suburban area of small houses and orchards to MED- 
FORD, 39.9 m. (see MEDFORD), at the junction with US 99. 



328 OREGON 

At SAVAGE RAPIDS DAM, 175 m. on the Rogue, salmon and 
steelhead flash in the sunlight as they leap the falls. 

ROGUE RIVER, 178.3 m. (1,025 alt., 286 pop.), is on the north 
bank of the Rogue River and is connected with the highway by a 
bridge (L). 

Established as Woodville, it was known in pioneer times by the ex- 
pressively significant moniker of "Tailhold." It has borne the present 
name since 1912. The town, situated at one of the early ferries of the 
Rogue River, clusters on the rocky north bank of the river among 
ragged growths of pine. 

Directly across the river from the town is a "rattlesnake farm" or 
"garden" where 8,000 rattlesnakes are being fed and "fattened" to 
provide rattlesnake meat (an expensive delicacy), and venom, which is 
used medicinally. A Los Angeles packing company purchases the meat 
and a drug company the poison, which is often prescribed in epileptic 
cases and in the preparation of anti-toxins. The public is invited to visit 
the rattler farm, and if any person will bring a live native rattler with 
him the standing price is one dollar each. To keep the serpents at home 
there is an inner wall of masonry four feet high and three feet below 
the surface of the ground, and an outer wall eight feet high and three 
feet below the surface. 

A monument here marks the SITE OF THE DAVID BIRDSEYE 
HOUSE built of square hewn timbers in 1855. It was used as a fortress 
and called Fort Birdseye in the Rogue River Indian wars. 

ROCKY POINT HOUSE (L), 184.3 m. f about 200 yards from the 
highway, was built by L. J. White in 1864. From the time of its erec- 
tion until the coming of the railroad in 1883, it was a tavern on the 
stage line between Redding, California and Roseburg. Once the scene of 
colorful activity when stages swept up to its broad porches and dislodged 
the motley cargo of adventurers, bad men, miners, and immigrants, the 
building is now the property of a large pear orchard and packing plant. 

The tavern was built of hand-hewn timbers. Of southern Colonial 
style, it is of rectangular shape, two stories high, with low pitched roof 
and a double decked porch the full width of the house. A large chimney 
for fireplaces dominates the west end of the house. It is perhaps the only 
complete surviving example of the old stage coach taverns still having 
its horse stalls and carriage house attached in a long wing at the rear. 
The building is of heavy box-type construction, built of undressed boards 
placed on end with no studding and covered with dressed siding which 
is painted white. 

GOLD HILL, 186.6 m. (1,108 alt., 502 pop.), like many of the 
places in this region, owes its name to a discovery of gold in the sur- 
rounding uplands. Here, in 1860 was established the first quartz mill in 
Jackson County. Limestone and marl are abundant, and large Portland 
cement manufacturing plants utilize this material. 

Left from Gold Hill on State 234 to SAMS VALLEY, 7 m, t formerly the 
home of Chief Sam of the Rogue River tribe. At 9 m. is the junction with a 
graveled road; R. here 2.6 m. to the marked TABLE ROCK TREATY SITE, 



TOUR 2 329 

where on September 10, 1853, Gen. Joseph Lane, concluded peace negotiations 
with the Rogue River Indians, who had taken arms against the whites who 
had plowed up their ground, depriving the Indians of food plants and driving 
away their game. The surrounding country was the scene of the battles of 1851. 

Southeast of Gold Hill US 99 crosses the Rogue River, and at 
186.8 m. diverges from the old Jacksonville stage road (see above). 
At 191.6 m. is the junction with a gravel road. 

Left on this road to the monument marking the SITE OF FORT LANE, 
0.5 m. Built in 1853 by Capt. Andrew J. Smith, the fort was military head- 
quarters in that region for several years and it was here that the treaty was 
signed after the Indian wars. The property of the fort was relinquished to the 
Department of the Interior in 1871. At 2 m. are TOLO and the GOLD RAY 
DAMS, which impound the Rogue River for use in irrigation and for power 
development. 

CENTRAL POINT, 195.8 m. (1,290 alt., 821 pop.), is a shipping 
point for farm products, fruits and vegetables. Central Point was so 
named because it was near the center of the valley where two stage 
routes crossed. 

MEDFORD, 200 m. (1,377 alt., 11,007 Pop.), (see MEDFORD). 

Points of Interest: Jackson County Court House, City Park, Medford Public 
Library, fruit packing plants. 

South of Medford US 99 passes through orchard tracts, with large 
pear packing plants at intervals. 

PHOENIX, 204.7 m. (1,566 alt, 430 pop.), settled in 1850 by 
Samuel Colver, is said to have received its name after a disasterous fire. 
In 1855 a blockhouse called Camp Baker was erected here; manned by 
fifteen men it withstood a siege by the Rogue River Indians. Originally 
known as Gastown, Phoenix was platted in 1854, before which it was a 
stage stop where meals were served by a very loquacious woman. The 
SAMUEL COLVER HOUSE, built in 1855 of logs and later 
sheathed with sawed lumber, served as a refuge from the Indians. The 
logs beneath the sheathing are pierced by loopholes for rifle fire. Di- 
rectly west of the house is the smaller house of Hiram Colver, a brother. 

TALENT, 207 m. (1,586 alt., 421 pop.), first called Wagner, was 
renamed to honor A. P. Talent, who platted the townsite in the early 
i88o's. 

South of Talent US 99 follows up Bear Creek, crossing it many times. 

JACKSON HOT SPRINGS (R), 210 m., a favorite swimming 
pool for pioneer boys, have been commercially exploited. 

At 211.9 m. is the junction with a gravel road. 

Right here to ASHLAND MINE, 3 m., still in operation. This is a region of 
small widely scattered gold deposits, where a spring freshet, ditching in the 
fields, or even a spadeful of turned-up garden earth may reveal a nugget. 

ASHLAND, 212.5 m. (1,900 alt., 4,544 pop.), lies at the southern 
extremity of the Rogue River Valley on the banks of Bear Creek which 
winds through the town. Southward the towering Siskiyous cut the 
horizon. Northward the broad reaches of the valley, checkered with 



33O OREGON 

pear and apple orchards, stretch away to the fretful waters of the Rogue 
River. The town was named in 1852 by Abel D. Hillman either for 
Ashland, Ohio, or for the birthplace of Henry Clay at Ashland, Vir- 
ginia. The post office was first called Ashland Mills because of a grist 
mill here. The trade of farmers and orchardists and the handling of their 
products is the principal source of community revenue, though lumber- 
ing, mining, and the shipment of gray granite and white marble from 
nearby quarries add to the city's assets. The first marble works here were 
established in 1865. 

In August Ashland holds a Shakespearean Festival at the Elizabethan 
Theater, which in the early 1900'$ housed the annual Chautauqua series. 
The building had been condemned and after the dome was removed, 
Angus Bowman, who later became director of the Shakespearean the- 
ater, noticed the resemblance to the Globe Theater of Shakespeare's 
time. A sixteenth century stage was built and costumes made from dis- 
carded clothing found in the Ashland attics for the first festival in 1935. 
In addition to several Shakespearean plays there are archery contests, 
bowling on the green, and folk dances. A prize is awarded to the man 
who grows the most handsome spade beard, and the male citizen who 
cannot, or will not raise a beard is sentenced to spend an hour in the 
stocks in the city square. Some of the actors are home talent but most 
of them are out-siders who are not paid from the festival ; many of the 
latter support themselves by odd jobs bell-hopping, gardening, dish- 
washing, farm work during their stay at Ashland. 

Ashland is in a region of mineral springs; at the civic center is 
LITHIA PLAZA, in which are two fountains with copious flows of 
lithia water. One fountain, of bronze, has been dedicated to H. B. and 
H. H. Carter, early settlers, and is ornamented with the heroic-sized 
figure of a scout; the other fountain is of gray granite, quarried and 
polished nearby. 

Adjoining the plaza is LITHIA PARK (playgrounds, tennis and 
horseshoe courts; tourist camp), a large tract of hardwood and fir, at- 
tractively landscaped. In this park is a zoo containing wild animals of 
the region. 

North of the park on a sloping hillside is a marble STATUE OF 
ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 

At the southern limits of Ashland, US 99 passes the campus of the 
SOUTHERN OREGON COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, one of 
three in the state. This institution was established (1869) as Ashland 
College by the Methodist Episcopal Conference. 

At 213.6 m. is the junction with State 66 (see TOUR $E). Here 
US 99 begins to rise rapidly towards the main range of the SISKI- 
YOUS (Ind., bob-tailed horse). In 1828 Alexander McLeod, a Hud- 
son's Bay trapper, was heading a party in the mountains; they were 
lost in a snow-storm, suffered severe privations, and lost several horses, 
among them the bob-tailed race-horse belonging to the leader. This 
mountain pass was thereafter called "the pass of the Siskiyou," a name 
that was later given to the whole range. 



TOUR 2 331 

The forests of the Siskiyous appear green and fresh, with yellow pine, 
Douglas fir, hemlock, cedar, and sugar pine, mingled with many oaks 
and madronas. In the higher regions grow the Brewer spruce and Sadler 
oak. Undergrowth consists of manzanita, blue and white flowered 
ceanothus (wild lilac), and the red-berried kinnikinnick, whose leaves 
were formerly used as a substitute for tobacco. Beneath the taller 
growths are many flowers, while in places the whole forest floor is car- 
peted with an aromatic mint-like vine, the yerba buena of the Spanish- 
California missionaries, the Oregon tea of the more northern settle- 
ments. 

A few miles to the west of the open, sunny summit of SISKIYOU 
PASS, 225.3 m. (4,522 alt.), occurred a most notorious train holdup. 
On October u, 1923, the three D'Autremont brothers, Hugh, 19 years 
of age, and Roy and Ray, 23-year-old twins, swung onto the tender of 
the southbound Shasta Limited No. 13 just outside of the small station 
of Siskiyou and ordered the engineer to stop the train, which he did at 
the southern end of Tunnel Number 13. Under the leadership of Hugh 
the amateurs at crime shot and killed the engineer, the fireman, and a 
brakeman. When the mail clerk opened the mail-car door in answer to 
the order to come out, they shot at him, but he managed to close the 
door in time. Unable to enter the car the bandits dynamited it, but the 
gases and flames from the explosion further thwarted them and they 
fled into the rough Siskiyou wilderness without a penny for their efforts. 
In their haste, they left some supplies and other articles behind them. 
The most important to detectives was a pair of overalls, in a pocket of 
which was the receipt for a registered letter signed by Hugh. 

Immediately the railroad's telegraph wires sizzled with the news. 
The U. S. Post Office Department threw out the largest net it had ever 
cast for fugitives. The Southern Pacific and the American Railway 
joined the state of Oregon and the Federal government in offering dead- 
or-alive rewards that totaled $5,300 for each culprit. Bulletins and 
posters bearing pictures of the brothers appeared conspicuously in every 
railway station and post office in the country. Canada and Mexico also 
posted "wanted" notices. The search spread to all parts of the world 
and descriptions of the men were issued in seven languages. 

Many fake clues were followed before a soldier early in 1927, land- 
ing in San Francisco after serving in the Philippines, noticed the re- 
semblance between the picture of Hugh D'Autremont on a post office 
circular and a soldier in the 3ist Infantry in the Islands. The authori- 
ties were notified and Hugh was captured on February 12 and was 
brought to Oregon, where he was indicted for murder. 

The trial opened on May 3 at Jacksonville, becoming the town's 
most important event since the gold stampedes of the i85o's. A mistrial 
resulted when one of the jurors died, and a second trial began on June 
6 and ended on June 21, when Hugh was sentenced to life imprison- 
ment. 

Meanwhile, the search for the twins continued and on June 8 they 
were arrested in Steubenville, Ohio, where they had been living and 



332 OREGON 

working as the Winston brothers. Ray had married and had one child. 
They had heard of Hugh's capture and after first denying their identity, 
waived extradition and were returned to Oregon, where they confessed 
to the crime. Hugh then admitted his guilt. The twins were also given 
life sentences. 

At 231 m. US 99 crosses the California Line, 54 miles north of 
Weed, California. (Plant inspection at line.) 



iiiiimipiiiiiniHiiniiiiiiiimiaiiiiiiiiiiiiHH^ 



Tour 2 A 



Oregon City Mulino Silverton Stayton Lebanon Brownsville 
Eugene; 115.5 m - State 215, State 21 1, unnumbered roads. 

Road partly paved, partly graveled. 

Southern Pacific Railroad branch line parallels route. 

Usual accommodations. 

The delightful back-country route winds southward through a fertile 
farming country facing the evergreen foothills of the Cascade Range. 
Closely following an early road opened by the Hudson's Bay Company 
brigades, and later developed as the California-Oregon Territorial Road, 
it penetrates many isolated villages that bear new hallmarks of the 
present. Split-rail worm fences divide fields and covered bridges span 
many of the streams. Farm houses with moss-covered shake roofs silvered 
by the sun and rains of a hundred years stand beside the highways that 
run between busv modern towns and dying villages. 

State 215 branches southeastward from US 99E (see TOUR 2a) 
in OREGON CITY, m., and passes through meadows and orchards 
to the Molalla Valley, once a hunting ground of the Klamath, Molalla, 
and Caiapooya. The Klamath made yearly, visits to their allies and 
kinsmen of the district by way of the old Klamath Trail, which crossed 
the Cascades near Mount Jefferson. The first white men to come to 
this territory were led by Donald McKenzie of Astor's Pacific Fur 
Company, who explored and trapped in the region in 1812. 

MULINO (Sp. molino, mill), 10.6 m. (236 alt., 106 pop.), was 
first called Howard's Mill after the nucleus of the grist mill (R) had 
been erected in 1851. 

The highway crosses the Molalla River to LIBERAL, 12.8 m. (256 
alt., 22 pop.), the trading center of a farming and dairying district. 

At 13.4 m. is a junction with State 21 1. 



TOUR 2 A 333 

Left on State an to MOLALLA, 1.6 m. (371 alt., 655 pop.), in an area where 
farming, lumbering and fruit-growing are carried on. The first white man to 
settle in the vicinity was William Russel, who took up a claim in 1840. The 
Molalla Buckaroo, the largest rodeo in western Oregon, is held here annually 
about July Fourth. 

The main route, now the southern sector of State 21 1, cuts across 
the flat lands between the Molalla and Pudding rivers. The valley In- 
dians used to burn the tall grass in the area to round up the game. 

MARQUAM, 22.7 m. (291 alt., 150 pop.), named for Alfred 
Marquam, a settler, is in a region supported by the culture of hops 
and prunes. 

At 24.7 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Right here to MOUNT ANGEL, 6 m. (167 alt., 979 pop.), where in 1883 
monastery was established by the Order of St. Benedict. In 1904 Mt. Angel's 
College and Seminary was built on Mount Angel Butte (485 alt.) just east of 
the town. It is reached by a winding drive that commands a far-reaching view 
of the valley. The long three-story building of light-colored brick has at each end 
short ells extending forward with gabled ends. In the center is a chapel, form- 
ing a third wing which consists of a two-story gabled structure entered through 
a small enclosed portico; above it and somewhat to the rear rises a much gabled 
section, which with lower extensions at the side produces the effect of a cleres- 
tory. Nearby is a large cooperative creamery operated by the order. The abori- 
gines called the butte Topalamhoh (place of communion with the Great Spirit). 

In the center of Mount Angel, is SAINT MARY'S PARISH CHURCH, its 
spire visible for many miles, of a modified Gothic structure and elaborately 
decorated. 

The town is a trading point for hops, prunes, and flax. In a FLAX SCUTCH- 
ING PLANT (visited on application) the fibres of the flax are beaten free. It is 
one of three establishments of its kind built by the state with federal aid in the 
Willamette Valley. 

SILVERTON, 29.6 m. (249 alt., 2,462 pop.), takes its name from 
Silver Creek, which flows through the town at the edge of the Waldo 
Hills. The nucleus of the settlement, called Milford, grew up around a 
sawmill built in 1846, at a point two miles east. 

The parents of Edwin Markham, the poet, settled on a donation 
land claim a short distance north of Silverton, but later moved to Ore- 
gon City where their son was born. 

Silverton Bobbie, a dog of the town, was taken east in 1926 and dis- 
appeared from the car in Indiana. He turned up again at this place, 
having found his way home alone. His wanderings were described 
imaginatively in Bobbie, a Great Collie, by Charles Alexander. 

Left from Silverton on State 214 to SILVER CREEK FALLS STATE PARK 
(picnicking facilities), 15.5 m., an area including nine attractive waterfalls, 
several of which are almost 200 feet high. The falls are all within a radius of 
three miles and are easily reached by forest trails. 

State 214 circles R. to a junction with the main route, 25.4 m. 

South of Silverton the route follows an unnumbered road and climbs 
over the Waldo Hills, where Samuel L. Simpson (1845-1909), author 
of the volume of poems Gold Gated West, spent several years of his 
youth. T. T. Geer, governor of Oregon from 1899 to 1903, was born 



334 o R E G o x 

near Silverton in these hills in 1851. He went to school at Salem but 
when he was fourteen came back here to work at his cousin's farm. In 
1877 he came again to the farm and made his living on it for twenty 
years. On the farm he wrote his book Fifty Years in Oregon (1912). 
Frank Bowers, the cartoonist, Margaret Mayo, the playwright, and 
Margarita Fischer, screen actress were also from this neighborhood. 

The earliest white settlement in the Waldo Hills was made in 1843 
by Daniel Waldo. Years later he wrote: "Oregon was just like all other 
new countries. For a long time we had to pack our own blankets and 
no place to sleep. There was only a little town at Oregon City. I always 
kept people without charging them a cent. I accommodated quite a 
number of people in my house out here on the road. We had not very 
many beds; they would sleep on the floor anyhow. I would give them 
their supper and breakfast. It was pretty hard on the women but they 
were healthy. . . . There was no sickness. More of the people got 
drowned in ten years than died . . . We had parties here in the early 
times and once in a while a dance. They [the settlers] would go fifteen 
or twenty miles and think nothing of it. They would ride at a pretty 
good jog, men and women both. There were about as many women as 
men, young and old and married and all kinds. . . . There was plenty 
to eat then; plenty of pork, beef and wheat. We had a fiddle of 
course ..." 

The BIRTHPLACE OF HOMER DAVENPORT (private) is 
(L) at 34.2 m. The cartoonist whose most notable creation was the 
suit covered with dollar marks on Mark Hanna was born here on his 
father's donation claim in 1851. On the back porch of the tree-shaded 
farm dwelling is a drawing by Davenport which he made while a boy. 
He was continually drawing cartoons and likenesses of local people and 
of farm animals on the walls and smooth boards of the barn, on the 
woodshed and house, or any surface available. Davenport never lost his 
love for the Waldo Hills, and once said: "From this old porch I see 
my favorite view of all the earth affords. . . It's where my happiest 
hours have been spent." 

SUBLIMITY, 43.6 m. (538 alt., 214 pop.), (see TOUR >jA), is 
at a junction with State 222, with which the route is united to 
STAYTON, 45.9 m. ( 4 47 alt., 797 pop.), ("' TOUR ?J). 
Here State 222 turns L. 

Southward, the unnumbered route crosses the North Santiam River 
and winds crookedly southwestward along the river, then southward to 
SCIO, 55.7 m. (300 alt., 258 pop.), which was named for a town in 
Ohio, named in turn for the island of Chios in the Mediterranean. It 
was near here that Joab Powell, the circuit rider, organized the Provi- 
dence Baptist Church in 1853. Powell ranged over the Willamette 
Valley preaching salvation by immersion. "Uncle Joab" wore home- 
made jean trousers "four feet across the seat," and as a preliminary to 
preaching would place a chew of tobacco in his mouth. He invariabh 
commenced his sermons by saying, "I am Alpha and Omegay," and 
when his appeals failed to obtain a response, would remark, "There i- 



TOUR 2 A 335 

not much rejoicing in Heaven tonight." Powell was a great eater and 
preferred cabbage to potato for breakfast. 

The unnumbered road continues southward; below a junction with 
State 226 it is paved. 

LEBANON, 69.5 m. (341 alt., 1,851 pop.), (see TOUR 7*), is 
at the junction with State 54. 

Right from Lebanon on a country road to the old settlement of TALLMAN, 
4.5 in. (306 alt.), birthplace of Frederic Homer Balch, novelist (see HOOD 
RIVER). 

South of Lebanon the route is united briefly with State 54, turns R. 
from State 54, then L. winds between hills and cultivated fields, over 
unnumbered roads to BROWNSVILLE, 83.7 m. (358 alt., 746 pop.), 
at the entrance to the Calapooya Valley. First called Kirk's Ferry, it 
was later named for Hugh L. Brown, a settler of 1846, who with his 
nephew, Capt. James Blakely, laid out the townsite in 1853. The com- 
munity grew up about woolen mills, established by local citizens as a 
cooperative venture, with machinery and a textile expert brought from 
the East. 

George A. Waggoner, pioneer of 1852, one of the first railroad 
commissioners of Oregon, and author of Stories of Old Oregon, and 
Z. F. Moody, governor of Oregon, 1882-1887, lived here. The Reverend 
H. H. Spalding, who crossed the Rockies with Marcus Whitman and 
their wives, also lived here for a time. 

Many of the pioneer structures are decaying, but the town has the 
atmosphere of a bygone day in spite of its granite monument to the 
memory of James Blakely. There is an extensive park on the banks 
of the Calapooya River. 

Here are two PREHISTORIC MOUNDS, one on East Penn 
Street in North Brownsville and the other across the river in South 
Brownsville. While no excavations have been made, it is believed that 
these mounds are part of a chain of 89 along the Calapooya River be- 
tween Albany and Brownsville (see INDIANS). 

South of Brownsville the route closely follows the Springfield Branch 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad, crossing it numerous times. The region 
is uniformly level, with extensive plantings of rye grass for seed and hay. 
Dairying, sheep-raising, turkey culture, and general farming are car- 
ried on. 

At 85.3 m. is a right angle turn at a junction with an unimproved 
road. 

Left on this road to the SITE OF UNION POINT, 1.7 m., scene of the meet- 
ing of February 10, 1852, at which was consummated a union of the various 
branches of the Presbyterian churches in Oregon. Union Point was on the Old 
Territorial Road, which, south of the settlement, entered a defile in the hills long 
called the Big Gap. This road, now neglected and almost impassable, was the 
course taken by early travelers to and from the Upper Valley and by gold- 
seekers of 1849 and 1854. 

At 88 m. is TWIN BUTTES, (508 alt.), near the railroad (L). 
After crossing the railroad the road swings south past BOND BUTTE, 



336 OREGON" 

(500 alt.), distinguished by an airway beacon on its summit. East of 
Bond Butte are the prominent INDIAN HEAD BUTTES (1,294 
alt.). Behind them rise foothills of the Cascades, tier upon tier. This 
region was once inhabited by the fierce grizzly, now almost extinct. 

ROWLAND, 94.2 m., is only a railroad station but in the early 
i86o's it was a trading point. 

At 104.1 m. is the junction with a narrow lane. 

Left on the lane (muddy and impassable in rainy weather} to the marked 
HULINS MILLER HOMESTEAD, 1.7 m., where after crossing the plains with 
his father, Cincinnatus Heiner (Joaquin) Miller, the poet (see TOUR 5*2 ), lived 
from 1854 until 1856, when he was fifteen years old. The present farmhouse 
rests on the foundations of the Miller house. Sunny Ridge, on which the house 
stands, offers a magnificent view of the surrounding region. The entire Miller 
family were highly appreciative of the primitive beauty of the Willamette 
Valley. The great mountains in the rear, young Miller wrote, were "topped 
with wonderful fir trees that gloried in the morning sun, the swift, sweet river, 
glistening under the great big cedars, and balm trees in the boundless dooryard." 

COBURG, 107.7 m. (399 alt., 263 pop.), at the foot of the Coburg 
Hills (L), is a trading center of farmers. In early days this was a 
stopping place for travelers on the Territorial Road. 

The McKenzie River, 110 m. f was first explored by Donald Mc- 
Kenzie of the Pacific Fur Company, who built a trading camp on the 
bank in 1812. The route continues southward with devious windings 
and crosses the Willamette River to meet US 99 (see TOUR 2b) in 
EUGENE, 115.5 /. (see EUGENE). 






Tour 2B 



Junction US 99E Gervais St. Louis St. Paul Champoeg State 
Park; 19.6 m. State 219 and unnumbered roads. 



Macadamized road. 
Few accommodations. 



The route traverses French Prairie, the region where settlement and 
government began. In this section Oregon's earliest farmers, retired 
trappers of the Hudson's Bay Company, established farms; here came 
the early Methodist missionaries and Catholic fathers. Wagon train 
immigrants settled on donation land claims. In this area arose the first 
low mutterings of discontent that presaged the establishment of the 
Provisional Government at Champoeg on May 2, 1843. 



TOUR 2 B 337 

The route branches north from US 99E, m. (see TOUR 2a), at 
.1 point 3.4 miles south of Woodburn, and runs across a flat prairie, 
past well kept farmsteads with old time houses, orchards of prunes and 
peaches, and acres of high-trellised hop vines to GERVAIS, 0.4 m. 
(183 alt., 254 pop.), named for Joseph Gervais, a French-Canadian 
member of the Astor overland party that reached Oregon in 1811 (see 
TOUR la). Gervais remained at the Astoria post after the Pacific Fur 
Company had sold it to the North West Company later amalgamated 
in the Hudson's Bay Company. 

About 1828 he retired from the service and McLoughlin permitted 
him to settle in this valley though such settlements in fur country 
had not been permitted by the company. His claim was by the Willamette 
River, several miles from this town. A number of his countrymen, all 
former employees of the Hudson's Bay Company, were settling in the 
same area, which in time was called French Prairie. Dr. McLoughlin 
gave out seed-wheat to the settlers on the promise that they would return 
the same amount to him after the harvest In his house was held the 
"Wolf Meeting," the assembly that led to the formation of an Ameri- 
can local government. 

The town of Gervais was established when the Oregon & California 
Railroad, now the Southern Pacific, was built through the valley in 
1868-72. The French-Canadian origin of the settlers is apparent in the 
business signs bearing French names on many of the old stores. Two 
fires and a shift of trade to larger centers has kept the village small. 

ST. LOUIS STATION, 2.5 m., is the Oregon Electric Railwa> 
stop for ST. LOUIS, 3. m. (180 alt., 50 pop.), which grew up about 
the Roman Catholic church established by Father Vercruisse in 1846. 
The settlement consists of a church, a parish house, a parish school, 
and a handful of scattered houses. In the old cemetery is the GRAVE 
OF MARIE DORION, who accompanied the Astor overland party 
of 1811 (see TOUR. la). According to an early description, she was a 
tall, dignified, and strikingly handsome woman of much character. 

At 4.2 m. the route turns R. on State 219. 

ST. PAUL, 12.3 m. (168 alt, 148 pop.), was settled by retired 
Hudson's Bay trappers and their Indian wives in the late 1830*8. In 
1839 the Reverend Francis Norbett Blanchet established a Roman 
Catholic church here which he served until 1845, when he became 
bishop of the Archdiocese with headquarters in Oregon City. The 
settlers had built a chapel here in 1836; a remnant of this structure 
remains, as does a grapevine early planted by the Jesuits. The ST. 
PAUL ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH built in 1846 was en- 
larged on Victorian Gothic lines in 1898. Some of the bricks used in 
the building were made by the Blanchet party from clay taken from a 
pit still visible to the rear of the church. 

In the ROMAN CATHOLIC CEMETERY, on the outskirts of 
the town were buried Archbishop Blanchet, Dr. William J. Bailey, an 
early physician, and Etienne Lucier, first settler on French Prairie. 

At 16.3 m. R. on a paved road to the Champoeg Park lane, 18.5 m. ; 



33 OREGON 

L. here to the entrance to CHAMPOEG MEMORIAL STATE 
PARK, 18.8 7?2., covering the site of the first settlement in the Wil- 
lamette Valley. A little log museum not far from the entrance holds 
Indian and pioneer relics. 

Here when the whites arrived in Oregon was an Indian village at a 
place called Cham-poo-ick because of an edible plant growing in 
abundance. The village was headquarters of the local chieftain and the 
point where the scattered tribesmen gathered several times a year before 
setting off on expeditions to spear salmon and hunt. For this reason 
William Wallace and J. C. Halsey came down from Astoria in 1811 
and established a crude trading post for the Pacific Fur Company. It 
was named Fort Wallace. After the North West Company bought out 
the Astor holdings in Oregon it continued to maintain this post, and in 
1813 Alexander Henry came here to visit his nephew, William Henry, 
who was then in charge. After the North West Company was absorbed 
into the Hudson's Bay Company and Dr. John McLoughlin was made 
Chief Factor of the Department of the Columbia, the post was some- 
what expanded. McLoughlin had been ordered to make his posts more or 
less self-sufficient, so he started some grain growing in the neighbor- 
hood and continued to ignore the rule against permitting settlement in 
the fur territory by retiring trappers. These trappers wanted to remain 
because they had made contract marriages with local Indian women. 
Gradually the number of half-breed children in the valley increased but 
McLoughlin asked his company in vain for teachers and clergymen. 
When Jason Lee arrived in the Columbia Valley in 1834 with the an 
nouncement that he was going to establish a mission on the upper 
Columbia among the Flatheads, McLoughlin deflected him southward, 
partly in an attempt to keep Americans as far south of the Columbia 
as possible and partly from a sincere desire to give his charges some 
spiritual leadership. But since the French-Canadians were Roman Cath- 
olics and Methodism did not appeal to them, Lee turned his attention 
to valley Indians. It was several years before a priest arrived to estab- 
lish a mission here. 

In the meantime the number of buildings at Champoeg along what 
was gaily called Boulevard Napoleon continued to increase and this 
became one of the chief settlements of the valley. The post had been 
rechristened Fort Champooick a name later corrupted. 

Though the number of Indian converts was very small the number 
of Methodist missionaries in the valley continued to increase. In time 
Dr. McLoughlin became aware that the Americans were taking con- 
siderably more interest in laying claims to land than in saving souls. 
One non-missionary in the valley was Ewing Young, who had arrived 
in 1834 and had later helped bring cattle to the valley from California, 
part of them for himself and part for the Hudson's Bay Company. 
Such government as existed in the territory was company laws; the 
Hudson's Bay Company had held complete feudal rights in the lands 
where it first operated and had worked out a series of rules under 
which its employees lived. Each chief factor served as both judge and 



TOUR 2B 339 

jury in his district and onJv those accused of serious crimes were sent 
east across Canada for trial and judgment. The difficulty in the Oregon 
country was that no nation held title to it; treaties several times renewed 
between the United States and Great Britain and the renunciation of 
claims by other countries had left the region open to "joint occupation" 
by the United States and Great Britain. The American missionaries 
refused to accept the rulings of the Hudson's Bay Company, which was 
in actual occupation of the country for Britain and acting as Britain's 
legal agent. Hudson's Bay employees, and former employees who had 
settled in the valley far outnumbered the Americans, of whom there 
were less than 250 in all Oregon. Nonetheless, the Americans were in- 
creasing their demands that their government "seize" the territory and 
that an American government be set up. 

This was the situation in 1841 when Ewing Young died leaving 
considerable cattle and some other property but no heirs. Various people 
looked with envy on the valuable cattle but were not sure how they 
could acquire them. 

A meeting was finally called by the Americans and an executor to the 
Young estate was appointed. Meanwhile Young's stock ran wild in the 
Chehalem Valley and wolves and panthers were soon attracted by the 
easy prey. The marauding beasts gradually grew bolder in approaching 
the central Willamette settlements; cows, calves, and colts were killed. 
The settlers finally called what came to be known as the first "Wolf 
Meeting." It met at the Oregon Institute on February 2, 1843; it was 
agreed that each person present should be assessed $5 to pay bounties on 
all wolves, lynxes, bears, and panthers killed. French-Canadians as well 
as citizens of the United States attended. At a second "Wolf Meeting," 
held at the home of Joseph Gervais on March 6, the real intent of 
many was revealed, a resolution being unanimously adopted for the ap- 
pointment of a committee of twelve to "take into consideration the 
propriety of taking measures for civil and military protection of this 
colony." 

That meeting took place on May 2, in the office corner of the local 
Hudson's Bay Company warehouse. Many of the British subjects had 
attended with the idea that this was merely another "Wolf Meeting" to 
further organize protection. As soon as they became aware of the true 
purpose the resolution was voted down and most of the French-Cana- 
dians withdrew. Employees of the company were indignant over the use 
of the warehouse for what they considered seditious purposes and the 
Americans withdrew to a nearby field. There was much talk of inalien- 
able rights, of loyalty to the Hudson's Bay Company whose factor had 
made numerous grants of credit to the Americans. Then big Joe Meek, 
the trapper, shouted enthusiastically, "Who's for a divide? All in 
favor of the report and an organization follow me." Legend records 
that when the milling had ceased 50 men were on Meek's side of the 
field, 50 on the other, with two men undecided. These were Etienne 
Lucier and his friend, F. X. Matthieu, both French-Canadians. Lucier 
hesitated because someone had told him that should the United States 



340 OREGON 

Government come into control here it would tax the windows in his 
house. Matthieu, who then lived with Lucier, argued convincingly other- 
wise, and in the end the pair took their position with those favoring 
organization. Though many had already refused to participate and had 
withdrawn, it was concluded "a majority" had decided for local gov- 
ernment. The report of the committee was then disposed of article by 
article and a number of officers chosen. Nine Americans were named to 
act as a committee that would draw up a program of government. 

When the legislative committee made its first report at a mass meet- 
ing at Willamette Falls (Oregon City) on July 5, it created four "leg- 
islative" districts, Champooick, one of them, had Champoeg settlement 
as its judicial center. On the east the district ran to the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and included much of what later became Idaho, and parts of 
Montana and Wyoming. 

The commercial importance of this settlement, through its three 
decades of existence, was large. According to a report to the Hudson's 
Bay Company made by Peter Skene Ogden and James Douglas, the 
physical investment in 1847, amounted to 1700 sterling. But property 
values were booming. When the company withdrew from American 
territory in 1852 it demanded twice that amount for loss of the property. 

There were two fires in the community in the 1 850*8. A store occu- 
pied by two Germans but owned by Ed. Dupuis, was burned in Sep- 
tember, 1851, and about $7,000 worth of goods were ruined. In 1853, 
again in September, fire demolished the new dwelling of Dr. Bailey. 
Only the doctor's stock of medicines was saved from the house, and 
that only briefly because soon afterwards a runaway horse trampled 
them in the yard where they had been deposited. 

A glorious Fourth of July celebration was held here in 1854. In the 
forenoon a procession formed in the town's center and marched to the 
house of Ed. Dupuis, where Dr. Edward Shiel read the Declaration of 
Independence. Later, the Salem Statesman said, "the celebrants enjoyed 
a sumptuous dinner . . . given beneath the roof where the first celebra- 
tion took place in Oregon, and where the first laws . . . were enacted. 
After dinner the guests proceeded on a pleasure excursion, three miles 
up the river, on board the steamer Fenix." Back at Champoeg, toasts, 
loudly cheered by voice and the shooting of firearms, concluded the 
program, and the Fenix drew six rousing cheers as it departed for 
Canemah and Oregon City. 

During November 1861, the whole Willamette Valley experienced 
heavy rains and in December the river flooded the lowlands here and 
elsewhere. The waters rose so fast that many of the residents were 
trapped in their homes and stores and had to be rescued by men in 
rowboats. Gradually even the heavy hewn timbers of the warehouse 
loosened and were swept away. Two saloons on the high south side of 
town were the only buildings that remained. The town was never 
rebuilt. 

In 1900 the Governor of Oregon and the secretary of the Oregon 
Historical Society, with the aid of the last survivor of the Champoeg 



TOUR 2B 341 

meeting, Francois Xavier Matthieu, made a trip to determine the site 
and the state legislature in 1901 designated 107 acres here as a state 
park. The names of the men who were believed, on best authority, to 
have been among the 52 who voted for the establishment of a pro- 
visional government, are engraved on a granite shaft marking the alleged 
site of the meeting. 



miiiiiioiiiiiiiiuiiniiiiimimaiiiiimiiiiniiiimimiBmn^ 



Tour 2C 

Salem Rickreall Dallas Junction with State 18; 29.7 m. State 22. 

Paved road. 

Tourist camps at convenient points; hotels in Salem and Dallas. 

State 22 crosses the farms and orchards of the Willamette and Rick- 
reall valley and passes over hills between the tributaries of the Yamhill 
River, to meet State 18, the Salmon River cut-off a mile south of Willa- 
mina. 

Branching west from US 99E at SALEM (see TOUR 2a) m. 
State 22 crosses the Willamette River, 0.4 m., on an arched span that 
affords an excellent view of the river. Occasionally a river boat, sur- 
vivor of the fleet that once plied the Willamette, approaches or leaves 
the wharf (L) near the Salem end of the bridge. On summer days the 
river is dotted with canoes and small boats (available near wharf, 250 
an hour). 

WEST SALEM, 0.8 m. (140 alt., 974 pop.), does lumbering and 
prepares maraschino cherries. (Tourist camp for trailers). West Salem 
is at the junction with State 22 1 (see TOUR 10). 

West of the Willamette, State 22 passes through orchards, hopfields, 
and berry farms, and curves between the river and (R) the encroach- 
ing Eola Hills. 

HOLMAN STATE PARK (R), 4 m., is a tract of woods on a 
hillside, with spring water piped to the roadside. 

EOLA, 4.5 m., was first called Cincinnati because of a fancied re- 
semblance of the site to that of Cincinnati, Ohio. In early days it lost 
a bid to be made the state capital by two votes. With its chance for 
expansion checked the town in 1856 changed its name to Eola, derived 
from Aeolus, Greek god of the winds. The once prosperous community 
waned in importance with the growth of Salem, its successful rival. 

The HOUSE OF I. J. PATTERSON, governor of Oregon from 
1927 to 1929, is (R) at 4.9 m. 



342 OREGON 

OAK KNOLL GOLF COURSE (R), 6.6 m., is a nine-hole public 
course (greens fee 5oc). 

The La Creole River is visible (L) at 7 m. Many insist that the 
river should be called Rickreall, that it was so called by the Indians in 
the days when they dug camas bulbs along its banks. Others insist that 
La Creole was the name used by French-Canadians in memory of an 
Indian girl who was drowned in it. As a compromise, the stream is 
called La Creole River below Dallas and La Creole Creek at Dallas 
and Rickreall above it. 

The NESMITH HOUSE, (private), 8.8 m., was the early home of 
Col. James W. Nesmith, who served in the U. S. Senate during the 
Civil War. The structure, built in the 1850*5, has been altered many 
times and has probably lost much of its original appearance. 

At RICKREALL, 10.2 m. (210 alt., 127 pop.), is a junction with 
US 99 W (see TOUR 10). 

DALLAS, 14.4 m. (340 alt., 2,975 pop.), on the banks of La Creole 
Creek, was settled in the 1840'$ and was at first named Cynthia Ann, 
for Mrs. Jesse Applegate, wife of the trail-maker (see TOUR 2b), 
but this was later shortened to Cynthian. The present name honors 
George Mifflin Dallas, Vice President of United States during Folk's 
administration. The first building in the settlement was La Creole 
Academic Institute, later called La Creole Academy. 

The earliest business center was on the north bank of the creek, 
but after a successful contest with Independence for the court house of 
Polk County, during which the citizens raised $17,000 to build a narrow 
gauge railroad to the town as an inducement, the center of affairs 
shifted to the south bank. The court house was built on the flat land 
there and the town was platted around the court house plaza. 

One of the earliest woolen mills of the state was established here in 
1856, and a short time later an iron foundry was built. Since early 
days, however, lumbering has been the industrial mainstay of the sur- 
rounding region and the town sawmills yearly prepare great quantities 
of lumber for shipment. There are also prune-drying and packing plants 
here, providing seasonal work for hundreds. 

i. Left from Dallas, 0.4 m., on the Ellendale Road to (L) the JOHN E. 
LYLE HOUSE, an excellent example of pioneer Oregon architecture. Built in 
1858, the house is in good condition in its grove of tall trees. It is a story and a 
half frame structure with an unusually high gabled roof. An equally high gable, 
with even steeper slope, breaks the front of the roof and forms the usual pedi- 
ment of a one-story portico with four square columns. 

ELLENDALE, 2.5 m., a deserted town, developed around a grist mill built 
here in 1844 by James A. O'Neal (see below). It was first called O'Neal's Mills 
and later Nesmith's Mills. Near his mill O'Neal erected a store and living quar- 
ters, and before long a postoffice was opened. But in 1849 the mill was sold to 
James W. Nesmith and Henry Owen, who in turn, four years later sold it to 
Hudsons & Company. In announcing the purchase of "the flouring mills and con- 
tents . . ." in the Oregon Statesman for July 19, 1853, the new firm assured its 
prospective customers that it was prepared to "furnish flour of the first quality 
to miners and the country trade" ; that it had completed "arrangements whereby 
fresh stocks of merchandise would be received by boat from San Francisco twice 



T o u R 2 c 343 

monthly"; and that it was the intention of the firm to have its "upright and 
circular sawmill" in operation by October. 

To keep the latter pledge, Ezra Hallock and Luther Tuthill in 1854 built a 
dam a mile above the grist mill and there built the sawmill. It was the only 
mill of the kind for miles around and people flocked to see it. Part of the equip- 
ment was the only planer in that section of Oregon, all lumber having previously 
been dressed by hand; its installation proved a master stroke of enterprise on 
the part of the mill, which furnished much of the lumber for many of the build- 
ings still in the neighborhood. 

In the early i86o's, Judge Reuben P. Boise, one of the outstanding members 
of the Oregon bar, and several others bought the mill and incorporated them- 
selves as the Ellendale Woolen Mill Company, rebuilt the building, installed 
new machinery, and constructed a boarding house and other dwellings for mill 
employes. Ellendale, rechristened in honor of Mrs. Ellen Lyon Boise, rapidly 
grew into a busy village. 

The small white building (R) was used as SLAVE QUARTERS for negroes 
belonging to one of the mill owners before the Civil War. The long, low house 
(L), was the old store and boarding house. 

2. Left from Dallas, 11.7 m., on State 223 to LEWISVILLE; in the HART 
CEMETERY nearby is the GRAVE OF JAMES A. O'NEAL (see above), who 
came to Oregon with the Wyeth party in 1834, and who served as chairman of 
the second "wolf meeting," held on March 6, 1843 (see TOUR 2B), and as 
member of the legislative committee appointed by the meeting. 

At 12.3 m. on State 223 is a junction with a graveled road ; on this road 
3 m. to AIRLIE (40 pop.), named for the Earl of Airlie, president of the syn- 
dicate of Scotch business men who bought the narrow gauge railroad built by 
the people of Yamhill County and in 1881 extended it to this point. 

KING'S VALLEY, 22 m. (325 alt., 129 pop.), was named for Nahum King 
who settled here in 1847. The town developed about a flouring mill established 
in 1853 and still in use. The KING HOUSE, built in 1852, is one of the best 
preserved houses in the state. 

At 22.3 m. on State 223 is a junction with a graveled road ; R. here 2 m. 
to the CHAMBERS GRIST MILL, built by Rowland Chambers in 1853. The 
original wheel and several of the feed-grinders are still in use. The power for 
the mill is furnished by the Luckiamute River, named for the Lakmiut, a sub- 
division of the Calapooya Indians, who made their homes on its banks. 

On State 223 at 24.3 . is the junction with a graveled road; R. here 1.5 m., 
to HOSKINS, a crossroads with a store, near which is the SITE OF FORT 
HOSKINS (R), named for Lieutenant Hoskins, who was killed in the battle of 
Monterey during the Mexican War. It was established in 1856 and built under 
the supervision of Lieut. Phil Sheridan to protect the settlers and to prevent the 
Indians penned up in the Coast Reservation from invading the valley. About 
150 men were stationed here. The site commands a wide view of the valley. 

In Hoskins is the JAMES WATSON HOUSE built in the early fifties. It is 
said to have been the first plastered house in the state. 

State 22 turns north at Dallas and passes through prune and cherry 
orchards and over low hills covered with scrub oak. It was in this 
vicinity that the Applegates (see TOUR 2b) Charles, Lindsay, and 
Jesse settled in 1844 and laid out their mile-square claims. The GER- 
MAN BAPTIST CHURCH, (R), 19.7 m., is near the SITE OF 
JESSE APPLEGATE'S CABIN, where the first articles of the Ore- 
gon unofficial government were revised. 

In an old INDIAN BURIAL GROUND (R), 20.7 m. now a 
pasture many Indian relics have been found. 

At MILL CREEK, 24.6 m. f is the junction with the graveled Mill 
Creek road. 



344 OREGON 

Left here to the CRUIKSHANK FARM (private), 0.2 m. where Madame 
Ernestine Schumann-Heink came to live for a time to rest after a strenuous 
concert tour abroad. 

At BUELL, 25.2 m. (379 alt., 83 pop.), is a chapel erected in 1860. 
WALLACE BRIDGE, 29.4 m., over the South Yamhill River, is 
at the junction with State 18 (see TOUR loA). 



imiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiigiimiiiiinnim^ HI 



Tour 2D 



Albany Corvallis Philomath Toledo Newport; 67.8 m. State 26. 

Yaquina Branch of Southern Pacific Railroad roughly parallels route. 

Paved road. 

Hotels and tourist camps. 

This route follows the west bank of the Willamette River through 
a fertile farming district between Albany and Corvallis. West of Cor- 
vallis it enters the foothills of the Coast Range, passes to the north of 
Marys Peak, and over the range to the coast. The route is an important 
link between US 99E and US 99W and between mid-Willamette Valley 
towns and Pacific Ocean beaches. The first road over this route was 
built along an old Indian trail, and a stage route established between 
Corvallis and Yaquina Bay in 1866. 

State 26 branches westward from US 99E in ALBANY (see 
TOUR 2a), m.j and crosses a modern bridge over the Willamette 
River. Near the west end of the bridge is the nine-hole BRIDGEWAY 
GOLF COURSE (greens lee 50 cents), 0.3 m. 

The W. C. T. U. CHILDREN'S FARM HOME (L), 6.8 m., 
consists of 285 acres of land with numerous cottages and other buildings. 
A modern school building has been constructed. 

CORVALLIS, 10.5 m. (230 alt., 7,585 pop.), (see CORVALLIS). 
Points of Interest: Benton County Court House, site of territorial 
capitol, City Park, Old Mill Stones, Haman Lewis House, Oregon 
State Agricultural College. 

Corvallis is at the junction with US 99W (see TOUR 10). 

HANSON'S POULTRY FARM (R), 12.5 m., is noted for indi- 
vidual, pen, and flock production records. Hanson's White Leghorns 
have set many world's records for egg production. The poultry farm 
cooperates with Oregon State College in experimentation with poultry 
housing and feeding. 



At 13.6 m. is the junction with a gravel road, 



TOUR 2D 345 



Left on this road 0.4 m. to PLYMOUTH CHURCH and COMMUNITY 
CENTER, an essay in neighborly cooperation. Church and social gatherings, in 
which the entire neighborhood takes part, are held periodically at the community 
center. The same spirit of cooperative effort extends to the planting and harvest- 
: ng of crops so that there is no need of hired help to accomplish needed work. 

PHILOMATH (gr. lover of learning), 16.3 m. (279 alt., 694 
pop.), received its name from Philomath College, chartered in 1865 by 
the United Brethren Church as a coeducational institution devoted to 
the liberal arts and ministerial training. The college held an important 
place in the educational economy of the state for two generations. The 
influence of the school was not at all lessened by the positive character of 
its moral and religious instruction. Professor Henry Sheak, who was 
connected with the college for most of its existence, was noted as the 
"Father of Local Option" in Oregon. Competition with state-endowed 
institutions and inadequate financial support forced the abolition of the 
college in June, 1929. The buildings and campus are (R) at the western 
edge of town. 

Sponsors of Philomath College discouraged the establishment of fac- 
tories, as it was feared that the moral tone of the community would be 
lowered by the influx of an industrial population. The town grew up 
about the college and drew its support from the agricultural and lum- 
bering activities of the adjacent district. Recent attempts to establish 
processing plants for fruits, vegetables and milk have not been successful. 
The Benton County Review, the only newspaper in the county outside 
Corvallis, was established in 1904 and is still published weekly. A resi- 
dent of Philomath for a number of years was Dennis H. Stovall, author 
of numerous children's stories. 

PHILOMATH JUNCTION, 17.3 m., is the site of a small saw- 
mill, tourist camp, and service station. Here is the junction with 
State & (jr*r0l7&2). 

West of Philomath Junction the roi>:e closely parallels the Newport 
Branch of the Southern Pacific Railroad. This line was built in the 
early iSSo's under the name of the Oregon Pacific Railroad and was 
originally intended to extend from deep water at Yaquina Bay (see 
TOUR T>a) eastward across the Coast Range, the Cascade Range, and 
the high desert to a junction with the Oregon Short Line on the Snake 
River near Ontario (see TOUR la). In 1859 according to Dennis 
Stovall, Jerry Henkle led a party to the coast near Newport (see below) 
and "on their return to the valley the Henkle party blazed the trail 
that later became the main traveled highway into the Yaquina Bay 
Country. In the early sixties Congress granted lands to the "Corvallis 
and Acquinna Bay Military Wagon Road Company" incorporated in 
1863 with a capital stock of $5,000. Eight years later the stock was in- 
creased to $300,000. It was operated as a toll road. In 1872, Col. T. 
Egenton Hogg incorporated the Corvallis and Yaquina Railroad Com- 
pany. The first train over the new road, recliristened the Oregon Pacific, 
was in March, 1885; and connections wir!- steamers from Yaquina Bav 



346 OREGON 

to San Francisco began on September 14 of the same year. The line now 
is used only as a freight feeder for the Southern Pacific. 

At 18.2 m. is a crossing of Marys River, said to have been named in 
1846 for Mary Lloyd, the first white woman to ford the stream. West 
of this point the highway follows this stream to the summit of the Coast 
Range, crossing it numerous times. 

At 19.1 m. {9 the junction with the gravel Wood Creek Road. 

Left on this road along Wood Creek to a trail at 8.6 m., leading (L) to the 
top of MARYS PEAK, 11.6 m. (4,097 alt.), the highest point in the Coast 
Range. The peak is in the Siuslaw National Forest ; the area around the moun- 
tain was recently increased by purchase of 8,000 acres. Corvallis owns several 
hundred acres on the east slope, as protection for water supply. From the crest 
the Pacific Ocean is visible beyond the seaward foothills. The Indians called 
the mountain Chintimini; it received its present name from the same source as 
Marys River. 

At 21 m. is the junction with graveled Kings Valley Road (see 
TOUR 2C). 

BLODGETT, 27 m. (633 alt., 12 pop.), a sawmill hamlet on the 
banks of the Marys River, was first named Emerick w T hen established in 
1888, but shortly thereafter the name was changed to honor William 
Blodgett, a pioneer settler. West of the SUMMIT, 35.7 m. (804 
alt.), the highway follows Little Elk Creek through narrow canyons 
to the Yaquina River. 

EDDYVILLE, 43.4 m. (92 alt., 41 pop.), is at the confluence of 
the Little Elk Creek and the Yaquina River. These streams afford ex- 
cellent angling. 

At 51.4 m. is the junction with a gravel road. 

Left on this road to ELK CITY, 5.1 m. (16 alt., 43 pop.), a point of depar- 
ture for hunting and fishing parties. It was platted in 1868 by A. Newton, the 
first town in the present confines of Lincoln County, and was named for the 
herds of elk roaming the region. The first settlement at Elk City was made by the 
Corvallis and Yaquina Bay Wagon Road Company, who erected a warehouse 
here in 1866. This is ordinarily the head of small-boat navigation on the Yaquina 
River. Here was the overland terminus of the stage and mail route, the rest of 
the distance to the bay being by water. During the major active period of the 
Oregon Pacific Railroad, Elk City flourished as an important point on the route, 
but as the railroad declined so did the town. 

PIONEER MOUNTAIN, 54.3 m. (423 alt.), commands a wide 
view of the Pacific Ocean. From the summit the highway descends 
through a heavily wooded canyon into a widening tide-land valley. 

TOLEDO, 60 m. (64 alt., 2,137 pop.), seat of Lincoln County, was 
named by Joseph D. Graham, son of an early pioneer, for Toledo, Ohio. 
The first post office was established in 1868 and the town grew slowly 
until 1917, when the Federal government established a gigantic spruce 
production plant here to supply lumber for airplane building for the 
World War. During this period, 1,500 men of the famous "Spruce 
Division" were stationed in Toledo, engaged in cutting spruce. At the 
end of the war, the plant was sold to private interests. It is the largest 
spruce mill in the world, with a capacity of 400,000 board feet every 



TOUR 2 D 347 

eight hours, employing: in normal times an average of 400 men. Other 
Toledo mills also manufacture lumber and its by-products. 

At 60.7 m. the road crosses the tide flats, winding between low hills 
covered with dense forests of spruce, fir, and hemlock. 

At 65.7 m. from an elevated point, Yaquina Bay, an arm of the Pacific 
Ocean, is visible in the distance. 

At NEWPORT, 67.8 m. (134 alt., 1,530 pop.), State 26 forms a 
junction with US 101 (see TOUR 30). 



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Tour 2E 



Philomath Junction Alsea Waldport; 59.1 m. State 34. 

Asphalt or rock-surfaced road. 

Hotels at Alsea and Waldport; some tourist camps along route. 

State 34 is a link between the Willamette Valley and the rugged 
central Oregon coast. It climbs the heights of the Coast Range and after 
crossing the summit, follows the Alsea River to Waldport. The high- 
way borders tributaries of Marys River and Crooked Creek into the 
Alsea Valley, where it swings around the base of Digger Mountain and 
passes through narrow defiles to the sea. The territory traversed was 
originally hunting and fishing grounds of the Alsea Indians, who were 
removed to the Siletz Reservation. Apparently, they had camped within 
the area for many years, for excavators of Alsea Indian fishing camps 
have found as many as 20 tiers of their shell mounds. The old Alsea 
wagon road ended at the head of the Alsea Valley, from which trails 
led over the mountains into the Tidewater district. 

State 34 branches southeastward from State 26 at PHILOMATH 
JUNCTION, m. (see TOUR 2D) and crosses Marys River on one 
of the covered bridges frequently found spanning Oregon streams. 

West of ROCK CREEK, 4 m., the highway begins the ascent of 
Alsea Mountain. Sparse growths of yew, cedar, and mountain laurel 
appear among the stands of pines, alders and maples. The Oregon yew 
found on these slopes is considered by archers as an excellent wood for 
bow making. On the side of the mountain (L) are the ruts of the old 
wagon road over which the teams of pioneers toiled on their arduous 
journeys to Alsea Valley (see below). 

The summit of ALSEA MOUNTAIN, 9.7 m. (1,403 alt.), over- 
looks a splendid panorama of peaks and canyons. West of the summit 



$48 OREGON 

State 34 winds down the mountain through fire-scarred forests to YEW 
CREEK CAMP, 13.4 m. (trout fishing; cabins). 

The ALSEA STATE TROUT HATCHERY (L), 15.6 m., one 
of the largest on the coast, propagates cutthroat trout, chiefly for the 
replenishment of mountain streams. 

Westward the valley widens and small farms border the roads. 
Mountain balm trees, peculiar to this section, appear on the hillsides 
among the firs and pines. The mountains around the Alsea Valley are 
frequented by numerous game animals. The blacktailed Columbian deer 
is often encountered; formerly there were also many white-tailed deer 
and elk, or wapiti. Other animals in the region are the black or cinna- 
mon bear, and less often the cougar, the lynx, and the bob-cat. 

One of the first white settlers of the Alsea Valley was Edward 
Winkle. An early writer has pictured him as he appeared "with mocca- 
sins on his feet, his ever-present trusty rifle on his shoulder and butcher- 
knife in belt. Whither his inclination led him there he went, through 
mountain passes without regard to road or trail, always depending upon 
his weapon for food." It is related that upon one occasion, in order to 
attack a bear bayed by his faithful dog, it became necessary to crawl 
under the brush for some distance and finally to pass under a log. As 
he straightened from his prone position he found himself face to face 
with Bruin, who struck him on the breast, tore off his clothing and 
lacerated his flesh. His dog came to the rescue and the bear, turning 
upon him was about to end his career when Winkle closed in with his 
knife and fought the bear hand to hand to the death. Man and dog were 
barely able to creep to their cabin, where they both lay for several days 
before help came to them. 

ALSEA, 18.7 m. (244 alt., 100 pop.), is in a broadened section of 
the Alsea Valley, at the confluence of the North and South Forks of 
the Alsea River. The first settlers arrived in the valley in 1852 and 
late that year the Ryecraft brothers opened the first farm. The town is 
the only commercial center in the valley whose important industry is 
lumbering. It is a rendezvous for fishermen seeking steelhead and trout 
in the Alsea and its tributaries, and for deer hunters in the fall. 

The highway crosses the eastern boundary of the SIUSLAW PRO- 
TECTIVE AREA at 19.7 m. Although this heavily wooded area is not 
in a national forest it is under the administration of the forest service. 
ALSEA GUARD STATION, on Mill Creek, is at 20 m. Mill Creek 
was named for the Lone Star Flouring Mills, formerly situated at the 
confluence of the creek and the Alsea River. 

At 25 m. the highway crowds between the river and DIGGER 
MOUNTAIN, for many years a barrier to travel. Digger Creek is 
crossed at 30.5 m. MISSOURI BEND, 31.5 m., was so named for 
the Missouri settlers who first farmed this section of the Alsea Valley. 

The eastern boundary of the SIUSLAW NATIONAL FOREST 
is crossed at 32.4 m. 

BEAR CREEK LODGE, 33.7 m., a mountain inn, is near Bear 



TOUR 2 E 349 

Creek Bridge. At the STATE FISH HATCHERY, 46.8 m. t are 

propagated steelhead and cutthroat trout. 

At TIDEWATER, 48.5 m., the river widens into an estuary, salt 
waters mingling with the fresh. In season there is much trolling for 
salmon at this point. In this region the Alsea River formerly comprised 
the northern boundary of the Alsea Indian Reservation, with head- 
quarters at Agency Farm near Yachats (see TOUR $b). David D. 
Fagan's History of Benton County records: "When the white men 
began to settle in the Alsea district they found there the remnants of 
three tribes : the 'Alseas' by the bay and on the coast, a people of fishers ; 
the 'Klick'tats' who hunted in the woods and over the mountains to 
the south; and the 'Drift Creek Indians' whose homes were scattered 
through the heavy timber round Table Mountain and on the streams 
heading thereabouts, to the east and northeast of Alsea. Though gener- 
ally at enmity with each other yet there were times when, feuds laid 
aside, the hunting tribes visited their neighbors by the ocean in peace, 
bringing with them the spoils of the chase to exchange for the sea fish 
and shell fish of the Alseas. Then fires were lighted and feasting and 
jollity went on day after day together." The Alsea tribe was called 
"salt water" or "salt chuck" Indians. 

The first settler in the lower Alsea was G. W. Collins who came in 
1860 as Indian agent for the sub-agency of the Alsea Indian Reservation. 

WALDPORT, 59.1 m. (20 alt., 367 pop.), on the south shore of 
Alsea Bay is at the junction with US 101 (see TOUR $b). 



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Tour 2F 



Junction with US 99 Cheshire Blachly Swisshome Mapleton 
Cushman Florence; 67.5 m. State 36. 

Southern Pacific Railroad branch parallels State 36 between Swisshorae and 

Cushman. 

Paved road. 

Accommodations scant; tourist camps. 

State 36 is one of the ten highways that link the interior valleys to 
the Pacific Ocean beaches. Fur traders and emigrants blazed the old 
trail now followed by the highway in its winding course from the Wil- 
lamette Valley over the Coast Range to tidewater. 

State 36 branches westward from the junction with US 99 (see 
TOUR 20), m., at a point 1.8 miles south of Junction City and 



350 OREGON 

follows the shallow valley of Bear Creek between vineyards, orchards, 
hopyards and berry fields into the foothills. 

CHESHIRE, 3.9 m. (323 alt., 33 pop.), on the Corvallis- Eugene 
spur of the Southern Pacific Railroad, is a snipping point for the fertile 
Bear Creek Valley. West of Cheshire beyond a low divide is a branch 
of the Long Tom River. In his Journal of a trip from Fort Vancouver 
to the Umpqua in 1834, Hudson's Bay factor, John Work, spoke of the 
river both as the Sam Tomleaf River and as the Lamitambuff. Douglas 
in his Journals called it the "LongtabufE River" and Wilkes' Narrative 
has "Lumtumbufl." At the head of the branch is the LOW PASS 
(1,173 alt.), 19.4 m., and a descent into the Lake Creek Valley. 

BLACHLY, 22.4 m. (690 alt, 12 pop.), is a small cross-roads 
village with a grange, church and Union High school serving the agri- 
cultural population of the mountain-hemmed valley. There is excellent 
angling for cutthroat, rainbow, and Eastern brook trout in the streams 
of the vicinity. The encroaching mountains give covert to deer and 
other game. 

TRIANGLE LAKE, 25.5 m. t is about a square mile in area formed 
by a fault across Lake Creek. The outlet is a waterfall over the pre- 
cipitous ledge. Along the western shore of this small wedge-shaped lake 
are recreational resorts for dwellers of the upper Willamette Valley 
region. 

The eastern boundary of the SIUSLAW NATIONAL FOREST is 
crossed at 39.4 m., an area of green forest growth, the interstices crowd- 
ed with underbrush characteristic of the coast region. 

SWISSHOME, 44.8 m. (118 alt., 50 pop.), so named because its 
early settlers came from Switzerland, is a small agricultural settlement 
at the confluence of Lake Creek and the Siuslaw River. "Yangawa" is 
the name that John Work gave this river when he crossed it in 1834. 

Cascara trees grow abundantly in the Siuslaw Valley. The peeling 
and drying of the bark has become a small industry in western Oregon. 
The bark is stripped from the trees in the spring when there is an 
abundant flow of sap; after it has been dried in the sun it is hauled to 
urban centers for sale. 

West of Swisshome the Siuslaw River threads a devious course 
through the Coast Mountains, widens as it nears the sea, and flows 
between rich alluvial fields, dairy pastures, and goat ranches. 

MAPLETON, 53 m. (17 alt., 130 pop.), head of deep-water navi- 
gation on the Siuslaw River, is a shipping and marketing center for a 
prosperous region. The town is a mecca for anglers who troll for Chi- 
nook and silversides salmon or cast for steelheads and cutthroats. The 
U. S. Forest Service maintains a ranger station at this point. 

On December 22, 1888, Captain W. W. Young made a preliminary 
examination of the Siuslaw according to the river and harbor act of 
August n, 1888, stating that the river and harbor were worthy of im- 
provement. The timber is "so extensive that even at $1.00 per thousand 
feet the saving would amount to a sum greater than the cost of improv- 
ing the entrance." 



TOUR 2F 351 

Continued recognition of the Siuslaw was given by the introduction 
of bills by Senator Mitchell and Congressman Hermann to provide 
$80,000 for the construction of a lighthouse at Heceta Head, eight miles 
north of Florence. 

In the fall of 1889 Mr. Hermann visited Eugene and promised to 
exert his influence towards obtaining a life-saving station at the mouth 
of the Siuslaw and the establishment of regular mail service between 
Eugene and Florence. 

Finally, on May 31, 1890, a dispatch from Hermann stated that 
Congress had appropriated $50,000 for beginning a jetty at the mouth 
of the river. Eleven months later the Representative announced that the 
Siuslaw project was being prepared by the chief engineers. 

Great indignation was aroused in Eugene in June 1891, when the 
engineers' report stated that the Siuslaw was not worthy of improve- 
ment at the time. Eugene citizens sent protests to Washington. In 
August, Representative Hermann announced that the engineer had over- 
estimated the cost. Shortly afterwards the work was ordered to com- 
mence. This so thrilled George Melvin Miller, brother of the poet 
Joaquin Miller, that he rode to Florence on horseback to deliver the 
good news before the mail could bring it. 

In the meantime, feeling was so intense against the engineer that the 
citizens of Florence had him hung in effigy. Miller's arrival directed 
their resentment to enthusiasm, but the remnants of the stuffed image 
still swayed in the breeze. 

CUSHMAN, 64.8 m. (23 alt., 145 pop.), maintains a complete 
port organization, which controls its deep-sea commerce. Ocean boats 
are often at its docks. The hills above the rich adjacent farm lands pro- 
duce much valuable Port Orford cedar, a conifer noted for its beauty 
and size, that grows naturally only in a narrow belt along the coast of 
southern Oregon and northern California (see TOUR 3^). 

FLORENCE, 67.5 m. (11 alt., 339 pop.) (see TOUR 3*), at 
the junction with US 101 (see TOUR 36). 



Tour 2G 



Drain Elkton Scottsburg Reedsport; 50.1 m. State 38. 

Paved road. 

Hotel at Elkton, auto camps at other convenient points. 

State 38, a link between US 99 and US 101, follows Elk Creek to 
the Umpqua River and closely parallels that stream westward. The 



352 OREGON 

name Umpqua, of Indian origin, has also been applied to the country 
along the river, to the mountains, to forts, to towns, and to a forest 
reserve. The Spanish navigator, Bartolome Ferrelo, is said to have 
reached the mouth of the Umpqua in 1543 and some romanticists like to 
believe, Sir Francis Drake sailed the Golden Hynde into the river and 
there set ashore in the wilderness his Spanish pilot, Morera. This, how- 
ever, probably took place farther south. Spanish archives record that in 
1732 a ship disabled by severe weather entered the Umpqua, and 
ascended it as far as the site of Scottsburg, where repairs were made. 
Many trees were cut down and, the decayed stumps were seen by the 
first white settlers, who were told by the Indians about the vessel that 
had arrived there many years before, manned by white men with beards. 
The Hudson's Bay Company sent expeditions to the river early in the 
century and in 1828 the trapper and explorer, Jedediah Strong Smith, 
followed the river with a party of fur hunters that were almost anni- 
hilated by the natives, three men only escaping (see TOUR $b.) 

Differing from other links between the interior and the sea coast, 
State 38 passes through the Coast Range at an almost even water grade. 

State 38 branches west from US 99 (see TOUR 2b) at DRAIN, 
m., and traverses an open valley with farms and dairies and then en- 
ters a region in which groves of scrub oak cover abrupt hills in a nar- 
rowing valley. 

A tunnel at 10.3 m. passes through a high headland in a loop of Elk 
Creek. Directly above the tunnel is ELKTON TUNNEL STATE 
PARK, as yet (1940) unimproved. 

The site of ELKTON, 14 m. (140 alt., 90 pop.), early attracted 
attention from white men. On the bank of the Umpqua in 1832 the 
Hudson's Bay Company established a post perhaps as a result of Jede- 
diah Smith's rich harvest of furs in this area. Having successfully re- 
covered Smith's furs, Chief Factor McLoughlin had little fear that the 
natives would repeat the attacks they had made on Smith's party. Like 
other Hudson's Bay posts, this one had a substantial warehouse of hewn 
slabs, a barn, and some small dwellings inside a large stockaded area. 
As this was one of the smaller posts the traders made little attempt to 
cultivate fields; beyond the raising of sufficient cattle and vegetables for 
post needs, they busied themselves almost exclusively with furs. The 
post was eventually abandoned, probably soon after 1850, when the 
United States had control of the territory. In that year the Winchester 
and Payne Company sent a boat, the Samuel Roberts, from San Fran- 
cisco to the Umpqua to find a site for a town and also to prospect for 
gold. An exploring expedition came up the river to this place, which was 
considered but rejected. Then in 1854 the townsite was surveyed for 
the establishment of the seat of Umpqua County. The first session of the 
court was held in a woodshed and was presided over by young Matthew 
P. Deady, who was later to become one of the leading jurists of the 
state and notable for his promotion of education. In time the town 
became the midway station of the Drain-Scottsburg stage route and the 
appearance of the six-horse team was the leading event in local life. 



T o u R 2 c 353 

Gradually the place dwindled in importance and at present is a small 
trading village in the midst of the mountains. 

West of Elkton the river is a succession of rapids, where in autumn 
fishermen from many parts of the state gather for the salmon and steel- 
head runs. In 1871 the steamer Enterprise made a trip as far as 
SAWYER'S RAPIDS, 23.7 m. f but the channel was too shallow except 
at flood time to make navigation inland possible. 

Long Prairie is a narrow strip of bottom land eight or nine miles 
long by the winding stream. It is hemmed in by partly timbered moun- 
tains. Old orchards, trees draped with moss, mark it as the scene of 
early settlement. 

The valley abruptly narrows at 29.8 m. and winds through the Coasi 
Range between ridges timbered from water's edge to crest. The river 
makes a long curve to the north, past the WELL CREEK GUARD 
STATION, 31.5 m. A decided change in the character of vegetation 
is noticed as the flora of the interior valleys gives way to that of the coast 
regions. Instead of oak and Douglas fir, myrtle and round-topped chin- 
quapin is seen, with its deep furrowed bark, leaves yellow and green, 
and spiny nuts. Also seen are the smaller chittem (cascara sagrada] and 
the lodge-pole pine sometimes straight as a lance, sometimes twisted and 
stunted by wind. 

SCOTTSBURG, 33.3 m. (46 alt., 105 pop.), at the head of naviga- 
tion, was once the metropolis of southern Oregon. Founded in 1850 by 
Levi Scott, who with the Applegates, opened the South Road across the 
Cascades in 1846, it soon became a center of business activity. The dis 
covery of gold along the creeks and rivers of the Siskiyous in 1852 
attracted throngs and Scottsburg immediately became an important out- 
fitting point. Ships laden with food and other supplies for the miners 
arrived from San Francisco and dwelling and business houses rose 
quickly between the river and the hills. Long lines of pack-mules pawed 
the dust of the street as they waited to start off on wilderness trails to 
the camps. At the height of its prosperity, the town had 15 mercantile 
establishments, a grist mill, and many saloons and gambling houses. 
The Umpqua Gazette, first newspaper published in southern Oregon, 
made its appearance here. The leading hotel was owned by the blind 
Kentuckian, Daniel Lyon, who had wandered like a troubadour through 
the gold camps, singing and playing a guitar, until he had accumulated 
enough gold to purchase it. Every one with money stayed at Lyons' 
Hotel, including "Fighting Joe" Hooker, then supervising construction 
of a military road from Scottsburg into California, but later commander 
of a Union army division. Lyons was assisted by a wife whom he had 
met at the home of Henry Clay. She survived him, to see the end of 
Scottsburg in 1861 after the mining excitement had subsided, when 
Umpqua flood waters created great havoc. 

This LOWER TOWN, which was washed away, is now a dreary 
stretch of brush and weed-covered sand. 

West of Scottsburg the receding hills are covered with heavy stands 
of Douglas fir, hemlock, and Sitka or tideland spruce. Near the coast 



354 OREGON 

are excellent stands of Port Orford cedar (see TOUR 3^). Groves 
of Oregon myrtle or California laurel grace hills and valleys. 

State 38 crosses the eastern boundary of the ELLIOTT STATE 
FOREST, 35.1 m. t a small tract, largely composed of second growth 
Douglas fir. It is used as a forestry laboratory by the Oregon State 
Agricultural College. 

BRANDY BAR (R), 35.3 m., an island in the river, received its 
name when the schooner Samuel Roberts grounded here in the summer' 
of 1850. The crew, waiting for the tide, started to while away the time 
with a cask of brandy. The incensed captain heaved the casks overboard. 
(Boating, fishing, and swimming). 

MILL CREEK, 36.9 m., is at the junction with a dirt road. 

Left here to LOON LAKE, 6 m. (fishing and boating], covering about 1,200 
acres. This lake, discovered in 1852 and so named for the bird found here in 
abundance, was formed by a huge landslide that blocked Mill Creek Valley. 
Other small lakes within this area are accessible by foot or on horseback over 
well marked trails. 

West of Mill Creek is a region of tidal flows, farm lands, and low 
jreen pastures belonging to dairymen. 

West of CHARLOTTE CREEK, 39.5 m., for several miles the 
road is cut into a rocky cliff. Canyons are lush with the broad-leaved, 
shrubby salal, and streamsides grow thick with red and amber salmon- 
berry. 

DEAN CREEK, 44.4 m., was named for two brothers who settled 
at its mouth in 1851. West of KOEPKE SLOUGH, 46 m., State 38 
follows a dike across lowlands. Into the wide flowing Umpqua, once 
came many ships to load lumber, but fishing boats are now more numer- 
ous. The waters teem with runs of salmon. Great blue herons live along 
the shallows and on the waters are wide floating log booms upon which 
cormorants perch at attention. 

REEDSPORT, 50.1 m. (28 alt., 1,179 pop.) (see TOUR 3*), is 
the junction with US 101 (see TOUR 30). 



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Tour 2H 



Coos Junction Ten Mile Camas Valley Myrtle Point Coquille: 
61.8 m. State 42. 

Paved road. Pacific Greyhound stages. 
Standard accommodations. * 

State 42, an important link between US 99 and US 101, swings 
southwestward in a great arc from the upper Umpqua Valley across 



TOUR 2 H 355 

the Coast Range. It passes through the farming region of the foothills, 
the forested hills around Camas Mountain Pass, and the green pastures 
of the Coquille River Valley. 

Branching southwestward from US 99 at COOS JUNCTION. 
m. (534 alt.), State 42 leads across Lookingglass Valley, the greater 
part of which is excellent farm land. Hoy B. Flournoy, who settled here 
in 1850, was a member of a party of settlers who organized in Polk 
County for the purpose of exploring southern Oregon. They went as 
far south as Rogue River and the members were greatly impressed by 
the beauty of the little valley, which was so named because Flournoy 
thought the green grass appeared to reflect light like a mirror. 

Lookingglass Valley is the setting for several chapters of Honey in 
the Horn, the 1936 Pulitzer Prize Novel, by H. L. Davis, although 
for fictional purposes he placed it in eastern Oregon. 

The first white settler in Lookingglass Valley was Daniel Huntley 
who came in the fall of 1851. For a time he and H. B. Flournoy were 
the only settlers in a wide area of country. Milton and Joseph Huntley, 
Robert Yates, and J. and E. Sheffield, settled in the valley in 1852. By 
the fall of 1853, the whole valley was covered by donation land claims 
nine sections of plow land being quickly taken. 

The country west of the South Umpqua, embracing Lookingglass 
Olalla, Ten Mile, and Camas, suffered considerably during the Indian 
wars. In 1855 a band of 64 Umpqua Indians lived on Lookingglass 
Creek, three miles below the present town of that name, supposedly 
under the care of J. M. Arrington. They grew restless when hostilities 
began further south, and fearing an attack, the white settlers organized 
and struck the first blow on October 28, 1855 ; eight Indians were killed 
and the others driven to the mountains. The fugitives joined the hostile 
tribes on Rogue River, obtained reinforcements, and returned in De- 
cember, 1855, to wreak vengeance upon the settlers. Houses were burned 
and property destroyed from the South Umpqua to South Ten Mile. 
The whites had united and were augmented by volunteers from various 
localities, and met the Indians in the Battle of Olalla, in which James 
Castleman was wounded, the only casualty suffered by the whites. 
"Cow Creek Tom," one of the Indian chiefs, was killed and eight others 
mortally wounded. The Indians were completely routed and the white 
settlers recovered most of their stolen cattle. 

In April, 1856, the settlers provided further protection for them- 
selves, when, under authority of a proclamation issued by Gov. George 
Law Curry, a company of 30 "Minute Men" was organized at the 
schoolhouse in Lookingglass. David Williams was chosen captain, Wil- 
liam H. Stark, first lieutenant, and William Cochran, first sergeant. 

Outcroppings of coal were discovered in the early 1 850*5 in the 
vicinity of Lookingglass Prairie. James Turner, owner of the first 
sawmill on Lookingglass Creek, and R. M. Gurney, made the first 
discoveries. 

BROCKWAY, 1.9 m. (524 alt., 62 pop.), is in a farming, fruit- 
growing and stock-raising district. A post office here was formerly called 



356 OREGON 

Civil Bend, but was discontinued for a time, and, when re-established, 
named in honor of B. B. Brockway, an early resident. 
At 9.3 m. is a junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to OLALLA (Ind., O-lil-y, berries), 1.7 m., a country settle- 
ment, devoted to general farming. It is probable that the purple-flowered, native 
salmonberry, a red or amber fruit resembling raspberries, was the reason that 
the Indian word was applied to the town. The present name was given by the 
Post Office Department. 

TEN MILE, 9.4 m. (681 alt., 9 pop.), probably so named because 
it was ten miles from Flournoy, is a former pioneer settlement in the 
Lookingglass Valley. Ten Mile Valley, drained by Ten Mile and the 
Olalla Creeks, was first settled about 1852 by John Byron. 

The principal industries of Ten Mile Valley are farming and stock- 
raising, though a gold mine was operated on Olalla Creek about five 
miles south of Ten Mile. Wells & Ireland formerly operated a grist 
mill in the valley. 

West of Ten Mile the ascent is rapid through a heavily forested 
region of Douglas fir, sugar and yellow pine, spruce, cedar, hemlock and 
yew, to the summit of the Coast Range at CAM AS MOUNTAIN 
PASS, 14.9 m. (1,468 alt.). Each fall, in pioneer times, wagons heavily 
loaded with wheat, creaked from the isolated mountain valleys over these 
densely timbered slopes to the new settlement of Roseburg, then a long 
day's journey. 

CAMAS MOUNTAIN STATE PARK (R), is a scenic tract of 
1 60 acres. 

From Camas Mountain Pass, State 42 descends through an area of 
straight, slender trees, and enters the mountainlocked CAMAS VAL- 
LEY, 15.9 m., a fertile area, about seven miles long and three miles 
wide. The name of the valley is derived from a blue-flowered plant 
(Ind., LaKamas), which grew here in such profusion in the early days 
that Solomon Fitzhugh, William Day, and A. R. Flint, discoverers of 
the valley in 1848, looking down upon the blossoms for the first time, 
mistook the pale blue fields for a lake. The bulbs of this plant are 
starchy and edible, one of the most important of primitive food plants. 
The Indians cooked them in earth-covered pits over red-hot stones, 
and pressed them into cheese-like cakes to dry and store for winter use. 
White pioneers also mashed these roots into a pulp and cooked them in 
the same manner as the pumpkin, making excellent pies (see FLORA 
AND FAUNA). 

CAMAS VALLEY (P. O.), 17.4 m. (1,133 alt., 302 pop), is the 
center of a fertile area drained by the Coquille (fr. shell) River which 
flows to the Pacific Ocean. The name of this river is thought to have 
been applied by French traders o/ the Hudson's Bay Company because 
of the many shells of clams and mussels found at the river's mouth. 

Camas Valley was formerly known as Eighteen-Mile Valley, being ap- 
proximately that distance from the settlement of Flournoy (sec above). 
The first permanent settlement was made on March 8, 1853, by Wil- 
liam Day, Abraham Patterson, and Alston Martindale. Other settlers 



TOUR 2H 357 

soon followed. In 1856 there were only three women in the valley, the 
wives of William Day and Martindale and the daughter of Adam Day. 
Mrs. Martindale before her marriage was Nancy Fitzhugh, daughter 
of the patriarch, Solomon Fitzhugh, who helped draft Oregon's con- 
stitution. 

One of the first sawmills in Camas Valley was operated by Prior, 
Ferguson & Devitt, upon the headwaters of the Coquille River. It 
cut 3,000 feet a day and was surrounded by excellent timber, including 
fir, cedar, sugar pine, and oak. 

Descending from Camas Valley, the highway crosses the Middle 
Fork of the Coquille at 19.8 m., at which point the valley is left behind 
and the highway again enters the timbered hills of the coastal lumbering 
region. Here one can see almost every operation of the industry, from 
the lone shake-splitter who falls his own trees and rives out hand-made 
boards with froe and mallet, to the great modern camps powered by 
electric donkey engines. At certain locations are towering spar-trees 
from which "high lead" lines swing huge logs across hills and canyons 
for miles, and drop them beside the road, where they are loaded on 
trucks and trundled to tide-water sawmills. Other logs are left in the 
river bed to be carried down to the bay by winter floods. 

As the road drops from Camas Valley, it narrows, with many sheer 
rocky cuts through the cliffs. Though the country is yet rough and 
mountainous, the seacoast influence is soon felt in the increasing number 
of round-topped myrtle trees which appear, and by occasional glimpses 
of ducks, gulls, cormorants, and other water fowl. Yew trees, which 
once supplied the Indians with their strong bows, grow on craggy cliffs. 

This is the country of the Coos Indians, whose recorded myths add 
interest to many features of the route. Perhaps the blue-flowered camas 
marks the spot where the Coos heroine, Night Rainbow, and her young 
grandson defied the great Grizzly Bear, their persecutor, and slew him. 
Another tells of the Great Fire-wind, which drove the Indians into the 
sea to escape its consuming heat. 

REMOTE, 34.2 m. (238 alt., 15 pop.), surrounded by mossy old 
orchards, is a pioneer settlement, whose name was likely suggested by 
its distance from other communities. 

BRIDGE, 41.5 m. (145 alt., 39 pop.), a small rural settlement, was 
named for a bridge across the Coquille. The post office was established 
on July 6, 1894. 

At 49.7 772. is the junction with a macadam road. 

Left on this road up the valley of the South Coquille River through the vil- 
lages of BROADBENT, 2.7 m. and GAYLORD, 10.7 m. to POWERS, 18.7 m. 
(500 pop.), the terminus of the Coos Bay branch of the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road and the outfitting point for the Johnson Creek and Salmon Creek gold 
mining area. 

South of Powers the route enters the SISKIYOU NATIONAL FOREST, 
23.2 m., passes COQUILLE FOREST CAMP, 23.3 m., and COAL CREEK 
FOREST CAMP, 24.3 m., traversing a magnificent stand of Port Orford cedar. 
Climbing to the summit just west of BALD KNOB, 42.7 m. (3,614 alt.), the 
highway descends to BIG BEND RANCH, 47.5 ro., on the north bank of Rogue 
River. The ranch pasture is an emergency airplane landing field. 



358 



OREGON 



Down the Rogue River is ILLAHEE, 48.6 m. (173 alt., 25 pop.), starting 
point for several trails into the back country. Chiseled from the sides of the 
forested mountains, the highway skirts the turbulent Rogue to AGNESS, 54.7 m. 
(113 alt., 10 pop.), where there is a Forest Service ranger station. A heavy- 
duty suspension bridge spans the Rogue and leads to primitive regions spotted 
with deposits of chromite, gold, and other ores. 

MYRTLE POINT, 52.5 m. (go alt., 1,362 pop.), is named for the 
abundance of the shrub around here, the wood of which is beautifully 
mottled, and is manufactured into fine cabinet work. On the (R), at 
the eastern edge of the town is an avenue of these trees. The pioneer 
Hotel Myrtle stands on Spruce Street. At the confluence of the three 
forks of the Coquille River, Myrtle Point is the trade center of a rich 
agricultural and dairying region. Within its environs are eight cream- 
eries with a combined annual output of hundreds of thousands of pounds 
of butter, and more than a million pounds of cheese. 

Because of the cool, moist climate, specialized forms of agriculture 
are carried on here. Summer and autumn crops of green peas command 
a premium. The soil and climate are also especially adaptable to the 
growth of Reed canary grass, one of the heaviest producing pasture 
grasses in the world. Another prized grass is the Carrier's or Coast bent 
grass, used extensively for lawns and golf greens. 

West of Myrtle Point the valley widens and hills and pastures appear. 
The mild climate, with frequent rainfall and the absence of heavy frosts, 
assures abundant crops of cranberries in these fertile flood lands. In 
late June pale, rose-colored blossoms cover the marshes. Harvesting of 
the berries in late September and early October furnishes seasonal 
employment for many workers. Better grades of the berries are hand 
picked, while others are gathered by use of especially constructed boxes, 
equipped with forklike prongs, called scoopers. 

COQUILLE, 61.8 m. (40 alt., 2,732 pop.) (see TOUR 36), is at 
the junction with US 101 (see TOUR 3^). 



lll!IIIIIlDIII[IIHI!IIE:i!!l!!li!l!in!il!:i!II!iin!llil!llli:!^ 



Tour 21 



Grants Pass Junction Wilderville Wonder Kerby (Crescent 
City, Calif.) ; 42.4 m. US 199. 

Paved road, open all year except during severe snow or sleet when it may be 

temporarily blocked. 

Southern Pacific Railroad spur parallels US 199 between Grants Pass and 

Wilderville. 

Accommodations few, but improved campsites available. 

US 199, the Redwood Highway, follows the qld trail over which 
the Argonauts of the early 1850'$ rushed north from California's waning 



TOUR 21 359 

gold fields to the new diggings on southwestern Oregon creeks. As the 
direct route between the miners' base of supplies at the ocean port of 
Crescent City, California, and the placer camps of the northern terri- 
tory, it was traveled by a motley horde of fortune-seekers who might 
have stepped straight from Poker Flat. 

The old highway was a military road when volunteers in homespun 
and blue- jacketed regulars fought federated Indian tribes in a series of 
wars that lasted more than a decade. The old road was a route of 
hazard and necessity; the new one is safe and connects vast scenic and 
playground areas in Oregon with California's redwood empire. The 
road, slashed through a virgin wilderness of jagged mountains, deep 
ravines, and swift water courses traced the beginning of southwestern 
Oregon's commercial growth. From the Rogue River and its two chief 
tributaries, the Illinois and the Applegate, a mesh of smaller streams, 
spreads out across the lower valley, and from them irrigation canals 
carry water across fruitful bottomlands. Many residents of the valley 
work small mining claims along with their farms. 

US 199 branches west from US 99 at GRANTS PASS JUNC- 
TION, m. (see TOUR lb), and passes into the southern extremity 
of the Rogue River Valley. 

The APPLEGATE RIVER, 6.8 m., named for the pioneer family 
(see TOUR 2b), swarmed with miners during the gold rush of the 
1 850*5. At one time the banks of the stream were honeycombed with 
miners' excavations. On every gravel bar the sunlight flashed upon pans 
and picks. Fortunes in gold dust were washed out and a considerable 
amount of placer mining is still evident. 

WILDERVILLE, 8.5 m. (936 alt., 12 pop.), is a hamlet on the 
threshold of a narrow valley that extends to the California Line. It 
was first called Slate Creek but was given its present name August 12, 
1878, when Joseph L. Wilder was appointed postmaster. Cultivated 
fields yield to tumbled hills that rise into forested mountains. 

South of WONDER, 11.6 m. (1,078 alt.), the region grows more 
rugged. The village was ironically named by settlers who "wondered" 
how a merchant who established a store at this point might hope to 
make a livelihood. 

West of the summit of HAYES HILL, 16.7 m. (1,658 alt.), a 
corner of the Siskiyou National Forest is crossed. In Deer Creek Valley 
forests crowd close to the road. Against the dense growth of pine, ma- 
drona trees stand out in bright relief. The graceful madrona, with dark- 
green leaves, smooth bark, waxy white blossoms, and scarlet, edible 
fruit, is beautiful to look upon. 

The ANDERSON STAGE STATION, 18.6 m. (R), on the 
banks of Clear Creek, was known also as Fort Hays for the Hay family 
that lived here. It stands on what is now the Smith Ranch and was 
built in 1852 as a tavern and stage station. During the Rogue River 
Indian Wars of 1855-56 it was a refuge. One of the bloodiest battles 
of the wars was fought there on March 24, 1856. A group of volunteer 
soldiers and miners beseiged by Indians succeeded in repelling them 



360 OREGON 

after an all-night battle. There were several casualties, but the numbei 
is not of record. 

The window frames of the old building, which quiver as motor cars 
roar down the modern highway, shook once with the passing of earlier 
traffic mule trains from Crescent City with flour, bacon, and beans 
for the northern diggings, and rumbling stagecoaches with mail and 
passengers, strong-boxes crammed w T ith Oregon gold, and armed guards 
riding the boots of the cumbersome vehicles. Weathered clapboards cover 
the original logs of the building. 

Near the second crossing of Clear Creek, 20 m., is (R) a PIONEER 
CEMETERY. 

SELMA, 20.9 m. (1,324 alt., 37 pop.), a post office and store serves 
the miners who work chrome ore claims in a part of the Illinois Valley. 
Ore produced in the district is freighted to the railroad by way of this 
tiny settlement, an outlet in the precipitous hills that hem in the valley. 

Southwest of Selma the route spans half a dozen creeks and winds' 
over the sharply lifting hills that form the divide between the Deer 
Creek and the Illinois River Valleys. In the Illinois Valley volunteers 
and tribesmen fought many pitched battles. Many early gold strikes 
were made in this vicinity. 

KERBY, 27.2 m. (1,262 alt., 40 pop.), was an important trading 
center and placer mining camp of the early Oregon gold rush (bear 
hunting in November; dogs and guides available). In 1858, when it 
supplanted Waldo as the seat of Josephine County, Kerby was a mush- 
room town of tentS'and rude shacks and was known as Kerbyville. Once 
a settlement of 500 or more inhabitants, it faded into oblivion when the 
rich placer claims in the vicinity were worked out. Of its many saloons, 
brothels, and stores only a few sagging buildings remain. An OLD 
HOUSE (L) with a balcony and columns was a stagecoach station; 
the OLD BARN in which relay horses were stabled is (R) at 27.3 m. 

Mining operations in the vicinity of Kerby were continued after 
prospectors deserted the creeks from which surface gold had been 
panned. Quartz mining, introduced but recently, has also produced a 
considerable amount of ore. The Kerby district also yields gold, iron, 
quicksilver, cobalt, ilmenite, an ingredient for paint-making, and in- 
fusorial earth, used in the manufacture of furnace linings. 

CAVES JUNCTION, 29.7 m., (1,348 alt., 250 pop.), so named be- 
cause it is upon the threshold of the route leading to the Oregon Caves 
National Monument (see below), is a rapidly growing village with many 
new buildings and stores. 

Left on State 46 from Caves Junction to CHAPMAN CREEK, 2.5 m. 

i. Right 2.5 m. from Chapman Creek on a dirt road through a region of 
active and abandoned mining camps to the ghost town of ALTHOUSE. A few 
crumbling stone chimneys and fireplace heaps are all that remain of this once 
prosperous mining community. 

Near Althouse is the SITE OF BROWNTON, scene of a placer strike that 
yielded much gold including one nugget valued at $1,200. The forest has re- 
claimed the old camp. 

Beyond Chapman Creek State 46 parallels the East Fork of the Illinois River, 






TOUR 21 SI 

then Tycer Creek, and at about 7 m. reaches Sucker Creek, which it follows 
through wooded hills and broken-crested mountains to the OREGON CAVES 
NATIONAL MONUMENT, 19.7 m. (open May i$-0ctober 15; two-hour tour; 
warm clothing advisable ; special winter guide service; lodge open during entire 
year; tourist cottages; United States Forest Camp). 

The Oregon Caves, known as "The Marble Halls of Oregon," are a series 
of spectacular caverns in ELIJAH MOUNTAIN (7,000 alt.), a towering lime- 
stone and marble formation in the Siskiyou Range. The mountain was named 
for Elijah Bristow, a pioneer who discovered the caves in 1874, while pursuing 
a bear that disappeared into the mountainside. The mountain is a labyrinth of 
chambers, corridors, and passageways of incredible beauty, carved by the relent- 
less flow and drip of water in subterranean darkness. 

In ea-liest time this region was twisted by volcanic movements which made 
great rents in the rocks. Melting glaciers formed streams, one of which found its 
way through the fissures and left deposits of gravel. The stream enlarged the 
fissures and fashioned them into grottos. Slow deposits of limestone formed the 
white incrustations that give the caves their name. At present, a stream, prob- 
ably much smaller than the glacial river, gushes from the grotto and tumbles 
down a canyon between forested hills. 

The entrance to the caves is a narrow interstice, almost hidden by overhanging 
ferns and beetling crags of rock. The descent is through a low-roofed tunnel 
into a broad, starkly white, chill chamber, where last preparations and examina- 
tions of clothing are made. 

Carved through unreckoned ages are wierdly beautiful caverns in which clus- 
ters of intricately sculptured marble hang from frescoed ceilings like frozen lotus 
flowers. Stalagmite and stalactite join together, forming columns like vast organ 
pipes; they emit sweet thin music when struck by metal. Out-thrust from the 
walls are shelves adorned with bric-a-brac fashioned by nature, some of it gro- 
tesque, but all of it arresting in its cold brilliance. Fluted columns and pillars 
rise along the passages, shimmering like pearl when the search-lights play upon 
them. Colored lights, at intervals through arched vaults, give the marble walls 
a blue and crimson translucence. A spoken word echoes and reverberates in the 
stillness. 

The route leads over chasms spanned by steel bridges, down corridors that 
twist back upon themselves, and through narrow apertures and broad chambers. 
More than fifty points of interest are featured and others are constantly being 
discovered as further explorations are made. There is NIAGARA FALLS, a 
waterfall frozen eternally into marble. JOAQUIN MILLER'S chapel is a vast 
cathedral-like room, named for the poet, who visited the caves in 1907. The 
crystal tubes of the QUEEN'S ORGAN in this room give forth musical sounds. 
Deeper within the mountain is PARADISE LOST, a high-vaulted chamber from 
which hang the pendants of crystal chandeliers. In the GHOST stalactites 
and stalagmites suggest supernatural, white-robed figures. DANTE'S INFERNO 
is a yawning chasm in which marble, under crimson lights, resembles the con- 
tents of a boiling cauldron. Along the passages and corridors and in all the 
chambers are fantastic formations named for their resemblance to figures of 
fact or fiction. The exit from the caves is through a long tunnel, cut for 550 
feet through solid rock, that opens upon a wooded hillside, bright with alpine 
flowers. The western Tofieldia and the rare bog asphodel are found in this 
region. The yellow monkey flower and the wild hellebore also grow in pro- 
fusion. In the spring crimson rhododendrons paint great splashes of color against 
the green hillsides. 

President Taft proclaimed the caves and 480 acres of adjacent land a national 
monument in 1909. The Grants Pass Cavemen, formed to publicize the natural 
wonder, have done much to bring it to the attention of the world. The surround- 
ing area offers a superb scenery and the usual recreational features found in a 
mountainous region. A system of forest trails leads around Elijah Mountain, a 
distance of about four miles. 

The OREGON CAVES GAME REFUGE surrounds the caves, and the district 



362 OREGON 

teems with wild life, bear and deer frequently becoming quite tame under the 
protection of the refuge officials. 

Among the unusual fauna in the area is the lemming, a small rodent re- 
sembling the common mouse in color. It ranges widely from the Alaskan coast 
across the continent to Arkansas and Tennessee. The animal is a distant relative 
of the lemmings that make a periodical migration across the tundras of northern 
Europe. 

The OREGON CAVES CHATEAU is encircled by a scenic drive that winds 
under terraces of limestone, tapestried with velvet moss, with the mountain 
rising almost sheer behind it. It is entered by way of the fourth floor level into 
a spacious lounge. Beneath it is the dining room into which a mountain water- 
fall plunges, forming a stream that flows across the building and out through 
another wall. 

South of the junction with State 46, US 199 follows the valley of 
the West Fork of the Illinois River over a graveled flat, boulder- 
strewn, and surrounded by forest and pasture land. 

At 36.6 772. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left from the junction across a plank bridge over the West Fork of the 
Illinois River, 0.9 m., and through a region of manzanita and scrub-pine. 
At 3.7 m. is WALDO (1,583 alt.), the site of the old mining town called Sailor's 
Diggings because the settlement was founded by a ship's crew who deserted 
their vessel at Crescent City in the 1850*5 and established placer claims from 
which a large amount of gold was mined. Waldo reached its zenith in the 
i86o's as thousands of Chinese miners worked claims in its vicinity, but declined 
as the placer diggings waned. Abandoned hydraulic mining operations are in 
evidence throughout the valley. 

TAKILMA, 4.2 m. (1,567 alt.), another ghost town of gold-rush years, is the 
center of extensive copper-mining activities. 

South of the junction LONE MOUNTAIN (1,598 alt.) rises as 
if to block the highway, but the road sweeps around in a long curve, 
zigzagging through lush forests and along the brinks of almost sheer 
precipices. 

Tall pines are dwarfed at intervals by redwood trees, the advance 
guard of the mighty redwood forests of California. Imposing because 
of their great diameter and their soaring height, these beautiful trees 
increase in number as the California Line is approached. Once in- 
digenous to all Oregon, the redwood, after the convulsion that created 
the Cascade Range, withdrew to the mild and moist coastal area of 
extreme southern Oregon and northern California. The tree reaches a 
not unusual height for pinaceous growths, 200 to 300 feet, but its 
diameter ranges to 30 feet or more. 

US 199 crosses the California Line, 42.4 m. at a point 43.9 miles 
northeast of Crescent City, California (see CALIFORNIA GUIDE, 
TOUR 2a). 



TOUR 3 363 

iiiiiiimoimiiiiiiiiDiiimiiiiiiQiiiimiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiaiim 



Tour 3 



(Aberdeen, Wash.) Astoria Seaside Tillamook Newport 
Marshfield Gold Beach (Crescent City, Calif.) ; US 101. 
Washington Line to California Line, 394.4 m. 

Paved road. 

Spokane, Portland, and Seattle Railroad parallels route between Astoria and 
Seaside; Southern Pacific Railroad between Mohler and Tillamook and between 
Reedsport and Coquille. 

US 101, which closely parallels the rocky Oregon Coast and affords 
striking views of sea and shore, follows in part an Indian trail over 
which, according to legend, passed Talapus, the Indian coyote god, 
when he was fashioning the headlands and bays and setting a limit to 
the tide. Traders early followed the stretches of beach below the present 
route before covered wagons had flattened the underbrush on higher 
land. But most travel along the coast in early days was by water, though 
boatmen had to be exceedingly careful in the treacherous coastal tides. 
From 1853, when Ferrelo, under orders from the Spanish viceroy in 
Mexico City, pushed up the coast in search of the mythical Straits of 
Anian which were supposed to provide a passage across the continent 
until long after 1792 when Robert Gray entered the mouth of the 
Columbia River and Lieutenant B rough ton explored it, the shore waters 
were the scenes of perilous adventure. 

South of the tidal estuary of the Columbia, the salt marshes and low 
sand-spits of the northwestern rim of the state, cliffs crowd close to 
the ocean. Construction of a motor road along the coast, to be called 
the Roosevelt Military Highway, was begun in 1921 after long urging 
by Benjamin F. Jones of Newport and in the face of derision because 
of the difficulties of the project. The highway was completed in 1932. 

It was only then that along the coast real development began. Their 
long isolation has given the sea-board towns a certain individuality 
though they share the characteristics of villages on any coast subject 
to violent storms. Summer cottages here and there are trim and brightly 
painted but the majority of the nouses have a haphazard look ; each has 
been placed where its owner thought he could gain the most protection 
from wind and waves. Most of the weatherboarding, locally called 
shiplap, and shingles are a uniform silver gray. Formerly shingle "sec- 
onds" could be had at the mills without cost, or for very little, and 
many coast homes were covered with them. Shingles over shiplap were 
considered the best walling though discouraged coasters insist that a 
weatherproof house simply cannot be built the wind will whip rain 
through the most cleverly joined and mortised walls. The same wind 



364 OREGON 

tears loose both clapboards and shingles, so every house more than a 
few years old is bound to show the marks of repeated repairs, unless 
the owner has given up the struggle. Another characteristic of the coast 
is the number of buildings standing on piling over inlets. While some 
of the villages ramble over flats, quite as many are huddled in the lea 
of a steep hill or cliff. There are even occasional houseboat colonies. 

In spite of the summer fogs and winter rains the stream of visitors 
to the region is growing steadily; the physical grandeur of the terrain, 
and the smell of evergreen forests tanged with salt air and heightened 
by mist form an exhilerating combination. 

Section a. Washington Line to Newport, 154 m. 

This section of the route, which .is one of the most spectacular in the 
United States, is never long out of sight of the sea. It crosses inlets 
and marshes on beautiful modern bridges; passes through villages reek- 
ing with the smell of salmon oil and decaying flotsom softened by the 
tantalizing odor of brine-soaked pilings, and proceeds over sand-reaches 
where many bits of bone and shell from the refuse pits of an earlier 
civilization are exposed by the wind. 

US 101 crosses the Washington Line, in the middle of the Columbia 
River at a point 87 miles south of Aberdeen, Wash. Travelers cross 
the river on the Point Ellice- Astoria ferry. (Car and driver $i; pas- 
sengers $.25 each). 

At ASTORIA, m. (see ASTORIA), is the junction with US 30 
(see TOUR ic). 

Here US 101 swings R. then L. around SMITH'S POINT, 2 m., 
at the entrance to Young's Bay, an arm of the Columbia. In the water 
lie the decaying hulls of half-completed merchant ships, abandoned at 
the close of the World War. The headland, on the opposite side of 
Young's Bay, about three miles away, is POINT ADAMS (see below), 
near which in 1792 Lieut. William Broughton, an English officer, an- 
chored his brig Chatham and set out with small boats to explore the 
bay and river, naming them in honor of Sir George Young of the 
royal navy. 

US 101 crosses Young's River, 3.4 m. t and at 4.8 m. meets Miles 
Crossing Road. 

Left here up Young's River to (L) the UNITED STATES NAVAL RADIO 
STATION, 0.5 m., which broadcasts weather observations and storm warnings 
for the Oregon and Washington coast and reports conditions on the bar at the 
mouth of the Columbia River. At 10 m. the road loops around Young's 
River Falls. 

At 13 m. is the junction with a dirt road; R for 12 m. to SADDLE MOUN- 
TAIN STATE PARK, the Swal-la-lachast, (home of the Thunder Bird) in 
Clatsop legend. Here she laid the eggs that rolled down the mountainside and 
hatched into tribes of men. On the mountain (3,266 alt.) are trails, shelters, and 
picnic grounds. Much hunting for deer and occasionally for elk, and fishing 
for trout is done in this area. 

US 101 crosses the Lewis and Clark River, 5.7 m., named for the 
leaders of the overland expedition sent by President Jefferson in 1804 



TOUR 3 S^S 

to find a route "to the Western Ocean" (see HISTORY). William 
Clark and Meri wether Lewis led the expedition across the Rocky 
Mountains and down the Columbia River, reaching this coast late in 
1805. The Shoshone squaw, Sacajawea, and her husband, a French- 
Canadian, acted as interpreters for the party. 
At 6.5 m. is the junction with a gravel road. 

Left here to the SITE OF FORT CLATSOP, 1.5 m., the winter encampment 
>f the Lewis and Clark party in 1805-06. 

Now overgrown with evergreens, the site is designated by a flagpole and is 
marked by a plaque. On December 7, 1805, Clark recorded: ". . . after brackfast 
I delayed about half an hour before York Came up, then proceeded around this 
Bay wb.ch I call (have taken the liberty of calling) Meriwethers Bay the 
Christian name of Capt. Lewis who no doubt was the rst white man who ever 
Surveyed this Bay. [Clark was in error on this]. . . . This is certainly the most 
eligable Situation for our purposes of any in its neighbourhood." 

On December 8 the rest of the party arrived and within a short time trees 
had been felled and rude huts erected around an open square. Some of the men 
were sent to the Pacific shore to make salt from sea waters, others to hunt, and 
the remainder, working against time and weather, completed the shelters suffi- 
ciently to enable the party to move in by Christmas. 

The first American Christmas in the Northwest was a meager affair. Clark 
wrote: "at day light this morning we were awoke by the discharge of the fire 
arms of all our party a Selute, Shouts and a Song which the whole party joined 
in under our windows, after which they retired to their rooms were chearfull 
all the morning, after brackfast we divided our Tobacco which amounted to 12 
carrots one half of which we gave to the men of the party who used tobacco, 
and to those who doe not use it we make a present of a handkerchief, The In- 
dians leave us in the evening all the party Snugly fixed in their huts. I reeved a 
present of Capt. L. of a fleece hosrie [hosiery] Shirt Draws and Socks, a pr. 
Mockersons of white weazils tails of the Indian woman, & some black root of 
the Indians before their departure. . . . The day proved Showerey wet and dis- 
agreeable. . . . our Dinner concisted of pore Elk, so much Spoiled that we eate 
it thro' mear necessity." They were without salt to season even that. 

On the 26th Clark wrote: "we dry our wet articles and have the blankets fleed, 
The flees are so troublesom that I have slept but little for 2 night past and we 
have regularly to kill them out of our blankets every day for several past." The 
fleas were contributed by the Indians on their daily visits. On the 27th he 
added, "Musquetors troublesom." 

Clark noted also: "With the party of Clatsops who visited us last was a 
man much lighter Coloured than the nativs are generaly, he was freckled with 
long duskey red hair, about 25 years of age, and must Certainly be half white 
at least, this man appeared to understand mere of the English language than 
the others of his party, but did not Speak a word of English, he possessed 
all the habits of the Indians." In Adventures on the Columbia (1832) Ross 
Cox also described such a man and said he was the son of a sailor who had 
deserted from an English ship. He was said to have had the words "Jack 
Ramsey" tattoed on his arm. "Poor Jack was fond of his father's countrymen," 
Ross says, "and had the decenty to wear trousers whenever he came to the fort 
[Astoria]. We therefore made a collection of old clothes for his use; sufficient to 
last him many years." The Indians told them of several parties of white men 
who had landed on the Oregon coast in the eighteenth century and of a red- 
haired sailor who had been washed ashore about 1760 indicating the presence 
of European traders on the Oregon Coast long before Gray saw the mouth of 
the Columbia. 

The Clatsops became such frequent and troublesome visitors at the fort 
that, ". . . at Sun set we let the nativs know that our Custom will be in future, 
to Shut the gates at Sun Set at which time all Indians must go out of the fort 



366 OREGON 

and not return into it untill next morning after Sunrise at which time the gates 
will be opened, those of the Warciacum Nation who are very forward left the 
house with reluctiance." In view of the Indians' conceptions of property rights, 
this seems to have been an expedient ruling. 

By March the leaders believed that the mountain snows would be melting, 
and the return to the East could be made. On March 23 Clark reported: "loaded 
our canoes & at i P. M. left Fort Clatsop on our homeward journey, at this 
place we had wintered and remained from the yth of Deer. 1805 to this day 
and have lived as we had any right to expect, and we can say that we were 
never one day without 3 meals of some kind a day either pore Elk meat or 
roots. . . ." 

By the junction with the Fort Clatsop Road is the ASTORIA 
MUNICIPAL AIRPORT, 6.6 m., terminus of the Portland- Astoria 
airway. Because of its strategic importance as a sea-plane base, the fed- 
eral government contributed to its development in 1936. 

At 7.9 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Right here to WARRENTON, 2 m. (8 alt., 683 pop.), one of several places 
where the chief business is razor-clam canning. The road continues through 
the undulating dunes, marshes, and fertile lowlands a strip about 4 miles 
wide and 24 miles long of Clatsop Plains, composed of sediment deposited by 
the Columbia River, and now worn into ridges by wind and tide. 

POINT ADAMS COAST GUARD STATION, 5 m., was named for Vice 
President John Adams in 1792 by Capt. Robert Gray. In 1775 Capt. Bruno 
Heceta (see below) named it Cabo Frendoso (Leafy Cape.) Though Heceta 
had reached the river, he did not realize the fact and lost for his sovereign 
the chance to claim the Oregon country. Before the coming of the railroad, 
Point Adams was the point of debarkation from Portland passenger steamers 
for summer vacationists bound for Seaside (see below). Transfer was made to 
creaking democrat wagons which covered the 20 miles to the old Seaside House. 

FORT STEVENS, 6 m., the only coastal fortification in Oregon, has a small 
garrison. Each summer the encampment of the coast artillery of the Oregon 
National Guard is held here. 

At 11.1 m. is the junction with a gravel road. 

Right here to CAMP CLATSOP, 0.5 m., used in summer by the infantry 
and field artillery units of the Oregon National Guard. Maneuvers are usually 
held in July. 

The road turns southward, passing the GRAY MEMORIAL 
CHAPEL, (R) 11.2 m. f on the site of a Presbyterian church dedicated 
in 1851 by a congregation organized in 1846 by the Reverend Lewis 
Thompson. W. H. Gray, one of the founders, wrote the first local 
history of Oregon (1869). The chapel erected by his daughter is a 
square brick structure with a very long and somewhat lower brick 
wing. The roof of the main unit rises to a square bell tower topped 
by a steeple. The pedimented entrance portico has walled sides and a 
recessed entrance between tall columns. 

DELMOOR, 15.7 m., was named by J. S. Dillinger, who estab- 
lished a cranberry bog here in 1912. In spring this section of the route 
is banked with Scotch broom. In earlier days this plant was imported 
from Scotland for use in broom making and was later used to bind 
the drifting sands on Clatsop Plains. Sometimes 15 feet high and bear- 
ing long sprays of golden pea-like flowers, it is constantly spreading 
farther south along the coast. An annual May Festival celebrates the 
seasonal bloom. 



TOUR 3 367 

At 18 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Right here to GEARHART, I m. (16 alt., 125 pop.), a beach resort with 
an excellent i8-hole golf course on which the Oregon golf championship 
matches are played in late summer. Many conventions are held in the town. 

SEASIDE, 20.4 m. (16 alt., 1,565 pop.), (hotels, tourist cottages; 
sea-water natatorium), Oregon's largest seaside resort, spreads across 
the narrow Necanicum River which parallels the coast and up and 
down a long narrow sandy bar. On the ocean side of this bar is a sea- 
wall that also forms a "boardwalk" above the beach. At the southern 
end of town the ground rises abruptly into a wooded ridge that bulges 
westward and forms a high, bold promontory. 

Seaside gained its first prominence during the iSyo's when Ben 
Holladay, who came into prominence in the days of the Overland Stage 
and was later a railroad promoter and builder (see TRANSPORTA- 
TION), built the sumptuous Holladay House, a place to entertain his 
illustrious friends. It became noted; guests were brought here at times 
from San Francisco by chartered steamers to be lavishly entertained. 

On the promenade at the foot of Main Street is the END OF THE 
TRAIL MONUMENT, commemorating the Lewis and Clark jour- 
ney. Near the southern end of the promenade on Q St. are the ruins of 
the SALT CAIRN, a heap of brine-crusted rocks protected by an iron 
railing. It was built by the men Lewis and Clark sent to get salt by 
boiling down sea water. Clark wrote that he: "directed . . . Jos. Fields, 
Bratton Gibson to proceed to the Ocean at some convenient place form 
a Camp and Commence making Salt with five of the largest Kittles, and 
Willard and Wiser to assist them in carrying the Kittles to the Sea 
Coast." Messengers reported that "the men had at length established 
themselves on the coast about 15 miles S. W. from this, near the lodge 
of some Killamuck families; that the Indians were very friendly and 
had given them a considerable quantity of the blubber of a whale which 
perished on the Coast some distance S. E. of them ; part of this blubber 
they brought with them, it was white and not unlike the fat of Poark, 
tho' the texture was more spongey and somewhat courser. . . ." Lewis 
had some of the blubber cooked and liked it. Lewis continued: "they 
commenced making salt and found that they could obtain from 3 quarts 
to a gallon a day; they brought with them a specimine of the salt of 
about a gallon ; this was a great treat to myself and most of the party, 
having not had any since the 2Oth Ult. mo.; I say most of the party, 
for my friend Cap't Clark, declares it to be a mere matter of indiffer- 
ence with him whether he uses it or not; for myself I must confess I 
felt a considerable inconvenience from the want of it; the want of 
bread I consider trivial provided, I get fat meat, for as to the species 
of meat I am not very particular, the flesh of the dog the horse and the 
wolf, having from habit become equally familiar [as] with any other, 
and I have learned to think that if the chord be sufficiently strong, which 
binds the soul and body together, it does not so much matter about 
the materials which compose it." 



368 OREGON 

Right (straight ahead) from the southern end of First St. on a trail (rocky 
for about a mile) that swings south following an old logging road and climbs 
up the ridge that terminates near TILLAMOOK HEAD (1,260 alt.), 4 m. 
Along the ridge are sweeping views of the territory northward. From the 
Head, TILLAMOOK LIGHTHOUSE is seen offshore, rising 41 feet on an 
isolated rock so sheer that people visiting the lighthouse frequently have to be 
landed in a breeches buoy. The. base of the lighthouse is 91 feet above the 
water. Winter gales sweep this rock with hurricane force and the lighthouse 
keeper is frequently isolated for long periods. This lighthouse is described in 
John Fleming Wilson's sea stories (see below). Far below the crest of Tilla- 
mook Head, gulls wheel above the waves that swirl in DEATH TRAP COVE 
that has caused the death of adventurous visitors. 

South of Seaside US 101 follows the NECANICUM RIVER, 23.3 
m., through green lowlands, bordered with alders and willows and 
yellow-patched in spring with huge skunk cabbages, whose leaves were 
used by the Coast Indians to wrap their food in the cooking pits. Let- 
tuce and peas are the principal crops grown on farms in this district. 

At CANNON BEACH JUNCTION, 24.1 m., is the junction with 
a road paved with asphalt. 

Right on this road, winding through groves of gigantic hemlock to CANNON 
BEACH, 5 m. (25 alt., 125 pop.), an ocean resort so named because a cannon 
was washed ashore here from the American sloop Shark, wrecked in 1846 at 
the mouth of the Columbia River. She had been sent up the coast during the 
turbulent discussions that ended with the annexation of the Oregon Country 
by the United States. The cannon stands beside the foot trail that leads south- 
ward along the coast. Just offshore is HAYSTACK ROCK (300 alt.). 

The road continues southward tunneling ARCH CAPE, 11.4 m. It has been 
carved into a bluff at Neah-kah-nie Mountain, 500 feet above the sea. Neah- 
kah-nie, one of the many places along the coast south of this point with names 
beginning with the Indian prefix ne (place), was known to the Tillamooks as 
"the place of the Fire Spirit." Neah-kah-nie Mountain (1,638 alt.), has been 
the setting for several books, among them being Beeswax and Gold by Thomas 
Rogers; Ward of the Redskins by Sheba Hargreaves, and Slave Wives of 
Nehalem by Claire Warner Churchill. 

At 18.8 m. is the junction with an improved road; R. here 0.3 m. to MAN- 
ZANITA (150 pop.), both a beach and mountain resort. A collection of relics 
here is associated with the Neah-kah-nie treasure story. It was on the beach 
near this point that the whale reported by Lieutenant Clark was washed ashore 
(see above}. The town is in a cove protected by the rugged headlands to the 
north. 

The main road turns inland to NEHALEM (Ind., place of peace), 21.1 m. 
(16 alt., 245 pop.), and crosses the Nehalem River to a junction with US 101, 
22.2 m., near Wheeler (see below). 

From Cannon Beach Junction US 101 veers inland several miles into 
the Necanicum (Ind., place of lodge) Valley, where herds of elk, pro- 
tected by law, have been placed. The NECANICUM STATE FISH 
HATCHERY, 31.3 m., annually releases millions of trout fmgerlings 
in coast streams. 

In its loop inland the highway skirts the rugged area over which 
Captain Clark struggled with a smdl party that was eager to see the 
whale that had been cast ashore (see above}. By her only request of a 
personal nature Sacajawea was with the men on this journey, papoose on 
her back. Reports many years later said that her sight of the "big fish" 



TOUR 3 369 

was the only thing on the journey that Sacajawea never tired of talking 
about after her return to her people. 

NECANICUM JUNCTION, 33.5 m., is a junction with State 2; 
the super-highway between Portland and the sea (see TOUR g). 

US 101 crosses the North Fork of the Nehalem River, 41.3 m., which 
it follows downstream. 

Sharp declivities, now denuded of spruce, cedar, and hemlock, indi- 
cate the site of former high-line logging which is characterized by the 
network of cables, blocks, and guy lines strung from spars (trees de- 
nuded of limbs), along which logs are pulled by donkey engines from 
one Huge to the other. High-climbers whose insurance rates indicate 
the great risks of their calling trim and top 2OO-foot trees, up which 
they climb with the aid of spurs and a rope loop attached to a belt. Out 
in the timber a chokerman places a heavy wire slip-loop, or choker, 
around a log and a rigging-slinger attaches this loop to the main cable, 
when the hooker yells "Hi", then the whistle-punk presses an electric 
grip and the donkey 1,500 feet away, whistles a short, sharp blast. The 
donkey-puncher, or engine operator, "opens her up" and the log rises 
above stumps and brush as he yards it to the landing. As soon as the 
chaser has unhooked the log, a haulback returns the choker to the woods. 

US 101 crosses the Nehalem River to MOHLER, 51.6 m. (27 alt., 
50 pop.), which has a cooperative cheese factory (L) that, like others 
in the region, is identified by its yellow paint. Many people of Swiss 
birth or descent operate dairies in the vicinity. They are particularly 
fond of playing the accordion and yodeling during their leisure hours. 

At 52.6 m. is the junction with the Cannon Beach Road (see above}. 

At WHEELER, 53.5 m. (48 alt., 280 pop.), by Nehalem Bay, the 
shrill scream of shingle-mill saws and the odor of fresh cedar-wood is as 
characteristic of the town as is the cry of the gulls that soar above the 
three fish-packing houses along the waterfront. 

Immediately west of Wheeler is HOEVET, 54.3 m., (200 pop.) 
remnant of a once prosperous mill town. The Hoevet post office funct- 
tions within a few blocks of the Wheeler post office, the offices serving 
probably less than 300 persons. 

LAKE LYTLE (L), 60.5 m. (15 alt.), a brackish, shallow body 
of water, is a state bird refuge. Many species of aquatic birds nest and 
feed along its reedy shores. Occasionally a man is seen behind a blind 
snaring ducks and geese for a state game farm, where they are used for 
study and propagation. 

ROCKAWAY, 61.1 m. (15 alt., 300 pop.), is another attractive 
resort (sea water natatorium) , with a wide beach. Off-shore are the 
arched TWIN ROCKS. 

From the north BAR VIEW, 64.4 m. (16 alt., 60 pop.), overlooks 
the narrow entrance to Tillamook Bay, named for the Indians who lived 
in the district. In 1788 Capt. Robert Gray crossed the bar, anchored 
his ship Lady Washington (see HISTORY), inside the bay, and sent 
men ashore to find fresh fruits and game for his scurvy-weakened men, 
and hay for his cattle. Robert Haswcll, the mate, named the place Mur- 



37 OREGON 

derer's Harbor because a "Black Boy", a member of the crew, when 
endeavoring to recover a cutlass that had been stolen by Indians, had 
been killed. They endeavored to rescue the boy, but as Haswell wrote 
in his report: "the first thing which presented itself to our view was a 
very large group of the natives among the midst of which was the poor 
black with the thief by the colour loudly calling for assistance saying 
he had cought the thief, when we were observed by the main boddy of 
the Natives to haistily approach them they instantly drenched their 
knives and spears with savage fuery in the boddy of the unfortunate 
youth. He quieted his hold and stumbled but rose again and stagered to- 
wards us but having a flight of arrows thrown into his back and he fell 
within fifteen yards of me and instantly expiered while they mangled 
his lifeless course." Captain Gray hurriedly put to sea. 

South of the bay is CAPE MEARES (700 alt), with its lighthouses; 
the view of the cape is sometimes obscured by mist or spray. The head- 
land was named for Capt. John Meares, English explorer, who a month 
before Gray's visit, had declared the bay closed by a sand barrier. He 
called it Quicksand Bay. 

The route swings inland to skirt the shores of the bay and passes the 
TILLAMOOK BAY COAST GUARD STATION, 64.2 m. 

GARIBALDI, 66 m. (10 alt., 213 pop.), facing the bay, was for- 
merly an important mill town. The dikes along the Miami River, 67.4 
m. t as well as those along other rivers in cheese-making Tillamook 
County, have earned the district the name of Little Holland. Grazing 
in meadows yellow with buttercups are the cows that produce milk for 
the cheese kitchens, where cream cheese is made and placed in long rows 
of shelves in the cooling rooms to mellow. 

On HOBSONVILLE POINT (R), 68.4 m., overgrown with 
alders, once stood the lively lumber town of Hobsonville. An empty 
hotel and several bleached frame dwellings remain; the mill ruins were 
recently washed into the bay. This rocky point was called Talapus 
Cradle by the Tillamooks because they thought it resembled a gigantic 
cradle board, shaped like those used to flatten the heads of all free-born 
infants. 

BAY CITY, 70.5 m. (17 alt., 427 pop.), named for Bay City, 
Michigan, a fishing town. During a salmon run in Tillamook Bay the 
catches of the night fishing fleets are dressed and stored in local can- 
neries {admittance by arrangement at offices). 

The i8-hole public ALDERBROOK GOLF COURSE (small fee), 
72.6 m. t has an excellent club house. 

A section of the highway just west of the Kilchis River Bridge, 74 m,, 
is frequently inundated during winter rains. It is said that during these 
floods some motorists find salmon on their running boards. 

TILLAMOOK, 76.9 m. (23 alt., 2,549 pop.), seat of Tillamook 
County, is the prosperous trade center of the dairying region. Early in 
the morning the dairy ranchers never called farmers begin to arrive 
at the factory weighing-in platforms, where an attendant checks the 
quantity of milk delivered and takes samples for the butter-fat test that 



TOUR 3 371 

determines the rate of payment. After the ranchers have delivered their 
milk they drive to the whey tank to load empty milk cans with the liquid 
that is left after removal of the milk curd. This whey is valuable as 
hog feed. 

By eight in the morning, after all the milk has been received, the 
cheese-makers empty the fresh milk into huge stainless steel vats and add 
rennet, salt, and coloring matter to it before turning steam into the 
jackets around the vats. As soon as coagulation starts long rakes of wire 
begin a steady movement through the curd to cut and break it. When 
the curd has been completely separated from the liquid it is pressed 
into molds of various shapes that have been lined with cloth. Finally, 
the containers of the new cheeses are stamped with the trade name and 
coated with paraffine. The round disks are placed in long rows in curing 
rooms where cool air of constant temperature is circulated. 

Butter-making is now being carried on in connection with cheese- 
making in various places, the cheese being made from the skim milk. 

Most cheese-masters are quite willing to permit visitors to sample 
the pleasant-tasting fresh curd. Even visitors who do not care for its 
taste usually like to eat a small amount because of the peculiar squeaks 
produced when it is chewed. Here are cooperative cheese factories that 
are well worth a visit. Here also are lumber mills and box factories. 

Loggers, fishermen, and dairymen are seen on Tillamook streets, par- 
ticularly on Saturday. The notice "No caulked boots allowed" is seen in 
the places where woodsmen congregate. These caulks, sharp spikes at- 
tached to the soles of shoes, are a necessity in the woods where life 
depends on swift and sure balance. Some of the establishments provide 
shingles or pieces of tire casing for the convenience of their customers; 
the logger steps on these, which adhere to his shoes and walks or slides 
along without damaging the floors. Loggers, not permitted to smoke 
while at work, are identified by their chewing tobacco and "snoose" 
(snuff), by their boots and "tin pants" (water-proofed canvas trousers 
cut short or "stagged"). Knee boots are commonly worn by dairymen 
who wade through marshes to herd their cows. Hip-boots, and sou'west- 
er, and sometimes a beach slicker, identify the fishermen. 

Tillamook is the western terminus of the Wilson River Highway 
(see TOURS). 

Right from Tillamook to NET ARTS (boats for deep-sea fishing), 7.6 m. 
(46 pop.), a beach resort by Netarts Bay, where waters have been planted with 
Japanese oysters. Several varieties of clams are dug here. 

The road continues to OCEANSIDE, 10.1 m. (24 pop.), another resort. Off- 
shore are THREE ARCH ROCKS, massive wave-worn monoliths, mentioned 
in many of the early ships' logs, that have ^been made a bird refuge. The rocks 
are crowded with bird and sea life. At their base during low tide are sea lions 
(see below). This is the locale of an essay in Dallas Lore Sharp's book, Where 
Rolls the Oregon.