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THE 






QUARTERLY 



OF THE 



OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY 




VOLUME III 



MARCH, 1902-DECEMBER, 1902 



EDITED BY FREDERIC GEORGE YOUNG 



W. H. LEEDS, STATE PRINTER 

SALEM, OREGON 



\ 

\o\. \ 



V 







871. 
0*7. 



CONTENTS. 



SUBJECT INDEX. 

PAGE 

Across the Continent Seventy Years Ago (compiled from the papers of John 

Ball). Kate N. B. Powers 82-100 

American Fur Trade in the Far West, The. Hiram Martin Chittenden. 

(Reviewed) - 260-270 

Archives of Oregon, The. F. G. Young 371-389 

Astoria Taken Possession of by Captain James Biddleon Behalf of the 

United States, August 19, 1818. (Document) 310-311 

Ball, John (compiled from his papers: "Across the Continent Seventy Years 

Ago"). Kate N. B. Powers * _: 82-106 

Barlow Road, History of the. Mary S. Barlow 71- 81 

Brown, Grandma (Mrs. Tabitha), Recollections of. Jane Kinney Smith- 287-295 



Burnett, Peter H., Letters of 398-426 

Cavalry, The First Oregon. Frances Fuller Victor 123-163 

Columbia River, Documents Relating to the Taking Possession of the Post 

and Territory at the Mouth of the. James Biddle 310-311 

Conquest, The True Story of Lewis and Clark. E. E. Dye, reviewed 427-428 

Factory, The Origin and History of the Willamette Woolen. L. E. Pratt 248-259 

Fur Trade, The American in the Far West. Hiram Martin Chittenden. 

(Reviewed) 260-270 

Geography and History (extract from lecture by George L. Hillard, 1845) __ .312-313 

Historian of the Northwest, Frances Fuller Victor. William A. Morris 429-434 

Holden, Horace, Recollections of. H. S. Lyman 164-217 

Husbandry, Sheep, in Oregon. John Minto 219-247 

Iowa, The Oregon Meeting in. (Document) 390-393 

Jory, James, Reminiscences of. H. S. Lyman 271-286 

Kentucky, The, Memorial. (Document) 393-394 

Letter of Tallmadge B. Wood 394-398 

Letters of Peter H. Burnett 398-426 

Lewis and Clark, "The Conquest," The True Story of. E. E. Dye. (Re- 
viewed) 427-428 

Memorial, The Kentucky 393-394 

Northwest, Historian of the. William A. Morris 429-434 

Oregon, The, Archives. F. G. Young 371-389 



iv SUBJECT INDEX. 

PAGE 

Oregon, The First, Cavalry. Frances Fuller Victor 123-163 

Oregon ^Central Railroad, The. Joseph Gaston 315-326 

Oregon, Political History of, from 1865 to 1876. William D. Fenton 38- 70 

Oregon, Political History of, from 1876 to 1895, inclusive. M. C. George 107-122 

Oregon Meeting in Iowa. (Document) 390-393 

Oregon, History of the Press of, 1839-1850. George H. Himes 327-370 

Oregon, Pioneer Land of Promise. (Document) 311-312 

Oregon, Sheep Husbandry in. John Minto 219-247 

Oregon, The Social Evolution of. J. B. Robertson I- 37 

Political History of Oregon from 1865 to 1876. William D. Fenton 38- 70 

Political History of Oregon from 1876 to 1895, inclusive. M. C. George 107-122 

Press, History of, of Oregon, 1839-1850. George H. Himes 327-370 

Railroad, The Oregon Central. Joseph Gaston 315-326 

Recollections of Grandma (Mrs. Tabitha) Brown. Jane Kiniiey Smith 287-295 

Recollections of Horace Holden. H. S. Lyman 164-217 

Reminiscences of James Jory. H. S. Lyman __271-286 

Reminiscences of Daniel Knight Warren 296-309 

Road, The Barlow. Mary S. Barlow 71- 81 

Sheep Husbandry in Oregon. John Minto 219-247 

Social Evolution of Oregon, The. J. R. Robertson 1-37 

Victor, Frances Fuller, "The Historian of the Northwest." William A. 

Morris 429-434 

Willamette Woolen Factory, The Origin and History of. L. E. Pratt 248-259 

Warren, Daniel Knight, Reminiscences of. H. S. Lyman 296-309 

Wood, Tallmadge B., Letter of 394-398 



AUTHOR'S INDEX. 



AUTHORS' INDEX. 

PAGE 

Barlow, Mary 8. History of the Barlow Road 71- 81 

x, Biddle, Captain James Reports Taking Possession of Both Shores of the 

Columbia August 19, 1818 . 310-311 

Burnett, Peter H. Letters of, to the New York Herald 398-426 

Chittenden, Hiram Martin "The American Fur Trade in the Far West." 

(Reviewed) 2(50-270 

Dye, Eva Emery "The Conquest The True Story of Lewis and Clark." 

(Reviewed) 427-428 

Fenton, William D. Political History of Oregon from 1865 to 1876 38- 70 

Gaston, Joseph The Oregon Central Railroad 315-326 

George, M. C. Political History of Oregon from 1876 to 1895, inclusive 107-122 

"Jlillard, George . The Connection Between Geography and History, 1845-312-313 
Himes, George H. The History of the Press of Oregon, 1839-1850 327-370 

Lynian, Horace S. Recollections of Grandma (Mrs. Tabitha) Brown, se- 
cured from Jane Kinney Smith 287-295 

Lyman, Horace 8. Reminiscenses of Horace Holden .164-217 

Lyman, Horace S. Reminiscences of James .Tory 271-286 

Lyman, Horace S. Reminiscences of Daniel Knight Warren 296-309 

Minto, John Sheep Husbandry in Oregon 219-247 

Morris, William A. The Historian of the Northwest Frances Fuller 

Victor 429-434 

Powers, Kate N. B.~ Across the Continent Seventy Years Ago Compiled 

from the Papers of John Ball 82-106 

Pratt, L. E. The Origin and History of the Willamette Woolen Factory 248-259 
Robertson, James Rood The Social Evolution of Oregon 1- 37 

Victor, Frances Fuller " The American Fur Trade in the Far West." 

(Reviewed) -260-270 

Victor, Frances Fuller The First Oregon Cavalry 123-163 

Wood, Tallmadge B Letter of -394-398 

Young, Frederic George The Archives of Oregon 371-389 

Young, Frederic George "The Conquest." (Reviewed) 427-428 



VOLUME III] MARCH, 19O2 [NUMBER 1 



THE QUARTERLY 



OF THE 



OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 



Although Oregon is but thinly populated, clearly de- 
fined stages in its development are apparent and may be 
marked out from the facts already well authenticated. 
These facts may be grouped in various ways according 
to the purpose of the writer, but it is evident that the 
"Social Evolution" of Oregon must be primarily a ques- 
tion of industrial evolution, and the facts must be grouped 
accordingly. 

The acquisition of a livelihood is the motive x which 
operates most powerfully in bringing population together 
in sufficient numbers to create a social organization of 
any kind ; it is the motive which holds the population 
together and renders possible that adaptation to environ- 
ment and integration of elements which result in the 
various institutions of social life. While industry is in 
no sense the most important feature of social life, it is, 
nevertheless, the thing which lies most nearly at .the 
foundation. It bears to the social organism the same rela- 



JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

tion that the skeleton does to the animal. The industrial 
growth of a community depends upon the opportunities 
presented for the making of a livelihood and the other 
features of social life, however varied their character or 
high their aim, depend upon the number and character 
of the population that is attracted. 

A study of the social evolution, therefore, must lead to 
a study of the physical features of the locality ; to the 
causes which lead to the discovery of its resources ; to 
the characteristics and standards of life of the popula- 
tion that congregates ; to the adaptation of population 
to environment and the integration into community life. 
Location relative to other centers of population, abund- 
ance and variety of resources, character, and standards 
of life in the population are all to be taken into consid- 
eration. The study of social evolution is also one of 
constant change. The elements of social life are con- 
tinually shifting with relation to one another. New 
resources are always being discovered ; more popula- 
tion is attracted to a locality ; resources and population 
react upon one another in various ways ; population is 
changed with relation to other centers by new facilities 
of communication; forceful individuals initiate far-reach- 
ing changes and unforeseen events bring into action pow- 
erful impulses to development. 

In the social evolution of Oregon, locality alone has 
been responsible for much. Wide separation from the 
older centers of population has produced that slowness 
of growth and consequent spirit of conservatism which 
have characterized the development. Distance also has 
led in some degree to a sifting of the population. It has 
brought the vigorous and strong and eliminated the weak. 
It has kept away much of the foreign European popula- 
tion that has found readier access to the East and the 
states of the Mississippi Valley. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 3 

Climate and abundance of resource have rendered the 
population of Oregon free from much of that conflict 
with nature which the settlers of less favored regions 
have been obliged to experience. Variety of resource 
has rendered possible that social balance which comes 
from the constant interplay of a population engaged in 
different occupations and the compensating action of a 
city and a country population. A population composed 
of the sturdy stock of New England and the vigorous 
frontier settlers of the Middle West has brought to the 
social life elements of strength. 

Location, abundance, and variety of resource have also 
brought their problems. The elimination of the foreign 
classes from Europe has deprived the population of a 
factor very valuable in the development of a new country 
because of the ability to do work of a burdensome kind 
that the American shuns. The abundance of resource 
and the ease of gaining a mere livelihood leads to the 
problem of a population too easily satisfied and lacking 
in ambition. Variety has tempted a superficial develop- 
ment of many rather than a thorough development of a 
few resources ; and, lastly, the conditions that bring a 
population of the sturdiest kind bring also a class of 
adventurers who injure rather than aid in the social evo- 
lution . 

The largest place in this paper must naturally be given 
to the industrial development, since that lies at the foun- 
dation of all social evolution. The industrial life of 
Oregon began with the discovery of its resources. Up 
to the time that the American colonies began to aspire to 
separate existence the resources of the whole Northwest 
were practically unknown. It is true, the explorers of 
different European nations had passed the coast at in- 
tervals for centuries ; but they were interested only 
in looking for that indenture in the shore line which 



4 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

would promise them a waterway connection between the 
Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Not until Captain Cook, 
engaged in the more careful exploration of the coast in 
1778, do we catch glimpses of any real appreciation of the 
resources of the country itself. Among many interest- 
ing geographical discoveries, he made observations which 
were to be of greatest importance in the development of 
the Northwest. The abundance of the fur bearing sea 
animals along the coast and the islands attracted his 
attention, as well as that of his crew. The fine furs 
brought from the interior by the Indians were an indica- 
tion of an equally valuable supply within the country. 
The natives preferred the gaudy beads and trinkets, and 
were willing to exchange the most valuable furs for 
things of little value. Cook and his crew had learned 
of the esteem in which the Chinese held the furs, and the 
human mind was not slow in projecting a business enter- 
prise which would offer a handsome return. 1 

The crew that served under Cook became more anxious 
to engage in the fur trade than to continue the explora- 
tion. Especially enthusiastic was one of their number, 
an American by nationality. John Ledyard was a native 
of Connecticut, but had joined the English exploring 
party because of his love of adventure. The profits to 
be derived from the fur trade of the Northwest had 
appealed to him with great force. 2 He continued for 
two years after the return of Cook's expedition in the 
British naval service, then deserted from a man-of-war 
stationed in Long Island Sound. He went from one to 
another of the moneyed centers of the United States to 
interest men of capital in the enterprise. In New York 
he was coldly received, and his proposal was treated as 



1 Grreenhow's History of Oregon and California. 
-Sparks' Life of John Ledyard. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 5 

the dream of a visionary mind. In Philadelphia his 
welcome was more cordial, and the great banker, Rob- 
ert Morris, would have sent a vessel to engage in the 
trade had not financial embarrassments prevented. In 
Boston the merchants were favorably impressed but not 
yet ready to act. Indeed, it was a matter to warrant 
careful consideration. It was a venture that required 
capital and that moral courage which risks the loss of 
all in the effort to win reward. There were dangers 
to be met from the sea, disease, and the hostility of 
Indians. Failing at last to secure the encouragement 
of American capital Ledyard went to Europe upon the 
same mission. In France he was encouraged by a com- 
pany, but only to be again disappointed. The revolution- 
ary hero, Paul Jones, cordially favored the enterprise and 
agreed to join in an expedition which also failed. Jeffer- 
son, the representative of the American Confederation in 
Paris, gave intelligent and sympathetic support to the 
enterprise, and kept the subject in 'mind long after Led- 
yard had perished. Failing in every effort to win the 
support of capital, Ledyard accepted a suggestion of Jef- 
ferson and started to cross Europe and Asia, with the 
purpose of reaching the shore of the Pacific Coast and 
exploring the country to the Mississippi River. Captured 
by Russian officers when nearly across Siberia, he was ex- 
pelled from the country and entered the service of African 
exploration, where he perished. To the expedition of 
Captain Cook therefore, and particularly to the enthusi- 
asm of that American member of his crew, the world 
owes its first knowledge of the resources of Oregon and 
the Northwest. 3 

The Russians were best fitted by nature and position 
to avail themselves immediately of the fur resources. 

, 3 Report of Cook was published 1784. 



6 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

They already knew the value of the business from expe- 
rience along their own shores and now extended their 
operations to the American coast. Vessels from England 
and a few from other European nations also entered the 
trade, inspired by the reports from the crew of Cook. 
The English predominated, but were embarrassed by the 
monopoly of the Oriental ports, given to the East India 
Company by England. Gradually the others dropped 
out and the development of the maritime fur trade was 
left to the little nation which had just entered upon its 
national life. 

Among the merchants of Boston were some who had 
for years been interested in the trade with China. The 
breaking out of the Revolutionary War had interrupted 
the trade, and it had just begun to be renewed. Embar- 
rassed by the lack of products, which were acceptable to 
the Chinese in exchange for their own products, they had 
been obliged to send specie to settle the balances. Of 
especial interest, therefore, would be the discovery of a 
product which could be used to further the business 
already begun. They were accustomed to meet in social 
intercourse, and generally the conversation would turn 
to the explorations of Cook and the prospects of the fur 
trade of the Northwest. When at length the undertak- 
ing seemed feasible, six of the merchants furnished the 
capital necessary to send two vessels to the Northwest 
coast to engage in the trade. 4 A silver medal was struck 
to commemorate the occasion, and under the command 
of Captains Robert Gray and John Kendricks the "Lady 
Washington" and the "Columbia" started out upon their 
memorable and significant voyage in 1787 . 5 

After the first trip the representations of Ledyard were 



4 J. Barrell, S. Brown, C. Bulfinch, J. Darby, C. Hatch, J. M. Pintard. 
5 Greenhow's History of Oregon and California. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 7 

vindicated. Cargoes of fur were gathered up along the 
coast at a trifling sum and taken to the market at Canton, 
where they were sold at a high price. Vessels loading 
for the return with the teas, silks, and spices of China, 
carried them to the markets of Europe and America, net- 
ting sometimes as high as one thousand per cent upon 
the capital invested. 

All along the coast from Alaska to California the ves- 
sels touched and gathered their rich harvest of furs. 
Stopping at customary points along the shore, the mer- 
chants' goods were displayed upon the deck of the vessel 
and the Indians came out in their canoes to make their 
exchanges. Skirting along the coast in this way, the 
merchant vessels of New England carried off the resources 
of Oregon to add to the enjoyments of the social life of 
the East. Though the early merchants did not establish 
themselves within the country nor attempt to further 
settlement, they were the stimulus which acted as the 
forerunner of a social life for Oregon. The superficial 
resources were utilized, and the more latent ones would 
be sure to be discovered. Their operations extended far 
to the north of the Oregon coast and far to the south, 
but they had seen Oregon, and a bond of connection 
had been established that was to make New England a 
prominent factor in the social evolution. From that 
connection were to spring important results. Forceful 
individuals at critical times came from the population of 
New England to further the life of Oregon, and her rep- 
resentatives in congress were more outspoken in the 
interests of a region in which they had an interest. 

In another direction the same impulse that had led to 
the maritime fur trade was to make known the interior 
resources of the country and inspire to a change in the 
fur trading methods. Greater permanency was given to 
them, and the center of fur trading operation was located 



8 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

within the boundaries of Oregon. Jefferson had remem- 
bered the conversations with Ledyard ; he, too, had 
become an enthusiast, not alone in the trade of the 
Northwest, but even more in the geographical problems 
that were connected with it. Unable at first to interest 
explorers in the enterprise, he was able, when he be- 
came president, to realize a long cherished desire. It 
was his influence, therefore, that set in motion an expedi- 
tion to explore the interior of the country. At the same 
time that the English were pushing to the west in the 
northern latitudes Lewis and Clark were commissioned 





to explore the Louisiana territory, and to continue their 
journey to the Pacific Ocean. Successful in their mis- 
sion, the year 1805 found them in winter camp at Clatsop 
beach busily engaged in writing the notes of their expe- 
dition, which was to give to the world for the first time 
its knowledge of the basin of the Columbia. 6 This was 
another stimulus to the development of Oregon. Soon 
renewed efforts were made to utilize the fur trade in a 
manner more thorough. The profits of the maritime 
trade, though still great, were declining. The methods 
pursued were wasteful of the animal life. A better 
method was necessary if the fur resources were to be 
conserved and be the aid, which they had promised to 
be, in the trade with China. 

In this new development of resources Boston was to 
give place to New York. The effort of Nathan Winship 
to establish a trading post within the country, some dis- 
tance from the mouth of the Columbia, was unsuccessful, 
and John Jacob Astor was destined to lead in the further 
development. A German by birth, he was an American 
by residence and interest. A fur trader by instinct, he 
loved the very smell and feeling of the furs. Largely 

6 Journal of Lewis and Clark. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 9 

interested in the trade to the east of the mountains, pos- 
sessed of abundance of capital, endowed with great abil- 
ity in organization, he was well fitted for an enterprise of 
such great magnitude and boldness. In partnership with 
other fur men he organized the Pacific Fur Company, the 
first important enterprise to utilize the resources of Oregon 
from the interior of the country. A fort was established 
at Astoria in 1811, and plans were made for the develop- 
ment of the business. As a business undertaking it was 
well conceived. The monopolistic methods of the com- 
pany would best conserve the fur product, which the older 
methods were fast exterminating. Connection with the 
operations east of the mountains would give a continu- 
ous trade across the country. Accessibility to the Pacific 
Coast would insure the trade with China. The Russian 
traders to the north had expressed a willingness to pur- 
chase supplies from the fort at Astoria. Everything 
seemed favorable for a successful business. Unforeseen 
events, however, led to failure. The breaking out of the 
War of 1812 resulted in the appearance of an English 
vessel before the fort at Astoria; but a sale of the fort and 
the possessions of the company had already been made to 
a rival, the English Northwest Fur Company, and what 
had promised so well ended in failure. 7 Mr. Astor re- 
fused to renew the enterprise unless the United States 
government would guarantee protection. 8 As this could 
not be brought about, because of political complications, 
the fur trade of the Northwest fell into the hands of the 
English, who managed to keep control as long as the fur 
resource formed the prevailing industrial life of Oregon. 
Various heroic attempts, both by individuals and com- 
panies, were made to regain the trade for the Americans, 



' Astor's letter to J. Q. Adams in 1823. 
s lrving's Astoria. 



10 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

or at least to win an equal share, but they were all un- 
successful. Consolidation of the two rival English fur 
companies in 1821 under the name of the Hudson Bay 
Company was the crowning act of the fur trading period. 
With a capital of $400,000, and a comprehensive charter 
from the English government, it virtually possessed the 
trade of the whole region. 9 There can be little doubt 
that the consolidation was a master in the line of busi- 
ness in which it engaged. Removing its headquarters 
from Astoria to Vancouver it erected forts at the strategic 
points and soon had within its grasp the entire trade of 
the basin of the Columbia. Monopolistic in its methods, 
it was responsible for much of the irritation that marks 
the early industrial life of Oregon. Its success, however, 
must be attributed as much to the superiority of its in- 
dustrial organization and management. In the preser- 
vation of order, in the treatment of the native races, in 
control of its difficult set of employees, in conservation 
of the fur trading resources, it has probably never been 
surpassed in the history of the fur trade. 

The Hudson Bay Company was an enterprise in which 
the business interests predominated. Its officers were 
engaged in developing the resources of a country, wild 
and remote, because it offered a profit both for them- 
selves and the stockholders who lived in England. The 
other interests of a social life were incidental rather 
than essential. A population was brought into the coun- 
try, but it was small in number and incapable of being 
molded into anything but a social life that resembled 
the feudal society of an earlier period in Europe. The 
gap between the elements of population was great. 
Among the officers were men fitted to grace the social 



9 Act of parliament, 1821. In Appendix to Greenhow's History of Oregon and 
California. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 11 

life of any community, while among the employees were 
reckless characters unfit for any other life than one based 
upon absolute authority and autocratic rule. Most nu- 
merous were the Indian races whose life was undisturbed 
and whose social standards affected everything about 
them. The company was interested that such a social 
life should be continued in the interests of the business, 
and that a region capable of sustaining a large popula- 
tion should be kept a vast hunting ground fit to support 
only the few who lived within it and the stockholders 
whose interest in the region ended with the payment of 
their dividends. A society of another kind, however, 
would have been out of place where the fur trading com- 
pany was in harmony with the surroundings. It was a 
social and industrial life well adapted to the conditions 
and did its part in the process of evolution. It will 
always furnish an interesting period to the student of 
Oregon history, as it is reviewed with something of the 
halo which the imagination throws about it. Its place 
in the industrial evolution is fixed because of its utiliza- 
tion of a superficial resource, but it is fortunate that it 
gave place in good time to other industries and other 
forms of social life that were better and higher. 

As the product of the fur bearing animals was the de- 
termining influence in the first phase of Oregon's social 
life, the agricultural resources were the determining in- 
fluence in that of the second. The transition was one 
from a superficial resource to one more latent, from an 
industry adapted to the support of a small population to 
one capable of supporting large numbers. The transi- 
tion was so gradual that for years the two industries 
existed side by side, the one gaining while the other was 
losing its hold upon the community. The transition was 
a period of conflict, as the sources of Oregon's early his- 
tory bear ample evidence. The interpreter of the sources, 



12 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

however, must, with every year, give less of place to what 
the earlier historians felt was most important. Periods 
of conflict in the broad view of social growth are as stimu- 
lating and vital to social progress as they are annoying 
to those who had to undergo the experiences. Conscious 
efforts were made to discourage the immigration by the 
creation of impressions unfavorable to the resources of 
the country and its accessibility. Immigrants already 
on the way were skillfully diverted wherever possible, 
and wagons were laid aside at the advice of interested 
officers of the company. 

Efforts to conceal the agricultural resources of the 
region, however, were of no avail. The fitness of the 
country for agriculture and the abode of population was 
destined to be revealed. Everything was tending to 
make it known. Speeches in congress might reveal an 
ignorance that would lead to a sacrifice of the country, 
but other forces were stronger in the opposite direction. 
The well kept farm of the fur company in the valley of 
the Cowlitz, adjoining the fort, was itself a demonstra- 
tion of what could be done. Under the direction of the 
old Scotch gardener the soil of Oregon produced as re- 
sponsively as the better known soil of the Royal Gardens 
at Kew, where he had learned his art. The settlement 
of the company's ex-employees upon the French Prairie 
was another proof. The well kept farms of the mission- 
aries, both of the Willamette Valley and east of the 
mountains, were further indication. The world might 
not hear of the former, but it was bound to know of the 
latter. From many sources the news was spread. Let- 
ters to friends in the East, articles written to the local 
press, narratives from travelers, accounts given by fur 
traders who had been driven from the field, reports made 
by officers of the government sent to visit the region, 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 13 

were all influential in making known the agricultural 
resources of Oregon. 

The finding of the resources was one thing and the 
development was another. .A work of heroism was be- 
fore the people as great as anything ever done. Fortu- 
nate was it for the social evolution of Oregon that a 
population existed equal to the emergency and alert for 
the effort. The early missionaries had already led the 
way. They had proved to be genuine pathfinders. At- 
tracted at first by the religious needs of the natives, they 
had become the central stimulus to settlement. Care for 
the native races was overbalanced by preparation for their 
supplanting by the white race. Two streams of popula- 
tion joined on the distant territory. New England, the 
first mother of Oregon's social life, sent by the old sea 
route a population which was strong of purpose and pos- 
sessed of enough capital to become the merchants of new 
colony. 10 The Mississippi Valley sent a population to 
till the soil which was full of the vigor of a frontier life 
and composite of various elements of an American popu- 
lation. To the valley had been coming settlers from both 
the North and the South as well as some of the foreign 
element, then beginning to arrive in America. 11 It was 
a population determined to win from the resources of 
nature a competence and to establish for itself homes. 
It came to establish a settlement that should be perma- 
nent in its character. It was fitted to occupy a region 
which required a population accustomed to the hardships 
and the dangers of a frontier life. Any other kind would 
not have been suited to the conditions and would speedily 
have given up and contributed nothing to the social evo- 
lution. 



10 John Couch established a mercantile business in 1842 at Oregon City. 

11 Analysis of pioneer population by George H. Hlmes. 



14 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

The first companies were small and the difficulties and 
dangers were great. Later companies were larger and 
better organized, and were freed from many of the dis- 
comforts and dangers. The migration of 1843, because 
of the large number that came, 12 may be taken to mark 
the beginning of an agricultural stage in the industrial 
life of Oregon. The settlers located in the valley of the 
Willamette, which seemed most favorable to their purpose 
and was most free from interference from the native races. 

Strangely in contrast with the democratic settlement to 
the south of the Columbia River was the English enter- 
prise to the north. The organization of the "Puget Sound 
Agricultural Company" was an attempt to enter the race 
in the development of the agricultural resources as well 
as the fur. Modeled after the fur company, owned by the 
same persons, operated by the same methods, it aimed 
to secure the settlement of the region to the north of the 
river. In pursuance of the plan a settlement was started 
on the land about the Sound in 1842. A method of in- 
dustrial life, however, that had been successful in the 
conduct of the fur business, was not equally so in the 
development of agricultural resources. The aristocratic 
methods of the English Fur Company were destined to 
fail in competition with the democratic methods of the 
American agricultural population. The Americans were 
better fitted to survive on account of the character of the 
people, the contiguity of the territory, and their indus- 
trial methods. If the English had been able to crowd the 
Americans out in the fur trade, they, in turn, were to be 
crowded out in the development of agricultural resources 
and both sides of the river were to be gained for the 
democratic system of agricultural life. The colonists of 
the company to the north appreciated the difference, and 



12 About nine hundred. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 15 

many of them drifted south and joined the settlers in the 
Willamette Valley. 13 

Nothing is of greater importance to an agricultural 
population than the possession of land. The indefinite 
tenure that would satisfy the trader in furs was entirely 
inadequate to the wants of the farmer. Fixity of tenure 
is the basis of an agricultural life. It is the assurance 
of a livelihood and the guarantee of a home. For the 
earliest settlers who came there was no assurance of pos- 
session beyond the good will of their fellow-men. So 
high was the sentiment of honor, however, that violations 
of good faith were few if any. But the increase of popula- 
tion rendered a more definite system desirable. Tenure 
to the land became, therefore, a motive in every effort 
that was made to secure a form of government. The 
Provisional government was welcome for that reason, as 
well as others, and no part of the plan was received with 
greater satisfaction than the land law. 14 It assured the 
settlers of a tenure to the land upon which they had set- 
tled, which rested upon the consent of the community 
legally expressed and good until a better one could be 
obtained. When the territorial government was extended 
over Oregon, anxiety was felt at the action to be taken 
concerning the land, and the disappointment was great 
when the bill was reported without a law regarding the 
land. Contentment was not fully restored until the land 
law was passed and the settlers knew to what they were 
entitled and that their tenure was secured by the govern- 
ment of the United States. 

Nature had provided a climate and soil that was favor- 
able for the agricultural settler, and the records agree in 
regard to the phenomenal crops of those early days. But 
no provision had been made for the auxiliaries of farm- 



13 Henry Buxton, Forest Grove, one of the settlers on the Sound. 

14 Grover's Archives. 



16 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

ing. All these had to be introduced from without. The 
plains were covered with a luxuriant growth of grass, 
but there were no herds to graze. The climate was 
favorable for the production of fruit, but there were no 
trees to plant. One by one the auxiliaries had to be 
added, often with difficulty, and usually with circum- 
stances of romantic interest. When the prairies of Ore- 
gon are covered with stock and the hills are green with 
orchards, it is hard to realize that it was not always so. 
Among the many things to note in the social evolution 
of Oregon, there is nothing that surpasses the pluck and 
the courage that furnished to so remote a locality the 
things that are needed for an agricultural existence. 

Life for the farmer would have been destitute indeed 
had there been no cattle. Without them "the plow would 
have stood idle in the furrow and the young pioneer 
would have gone hungry to bed.' Cattle were grazing 
in the pastures of the fur company, but they were not 
for sale. No others could be found nearer than the 
Spanish missions of California ; but they must be ob- 
tained in some way, and the earliest of the industrial 
enterprises of the agricultural period had that for its 
object. The "Willamette Cattle Company' was organ- 
ized in 1837, with a capital of a few hundred dollars, to 
bring to the settlers a herd of Spanish cattle from the 
missions of California. The enterprise was intrusted to 
Ewing Young and P. L. Edwards, who started by vessel 
on their important mission. It was no easy task to make 
the purchase from the Spaniards, w T hose policy forbade 
the sale. At length a herd of about eight hundred was 
secured and the journey back was begun. From the 
diary of Edwards we are able to get glimpses of the 
trials that were endured. Few are the incidents of his- 



i* Matthew P. Deady. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 17 

tory to be put beside the attempt to drive eight hundred 
wild Spanish cattle a distance of a thousand miles across 
mountains and over rivers. Sleep was rare where the 
mosquitoes were thick, and the cattle were impelled to 
"break like so many evil spirits and scatter to the four 
winds.' When the task was completed and over six 
hundred cattle were finally driven into the valley, it was 
a time of great rejoicing. All traces of those Spanish 
cattle have now disappeared from the herds of Oregon, 
but the time was when the meadows were dotted over 
with their picturesque forms "as mild looking as gazelles 
when at rest, but as terrible as an army with banners 
when alarmed.' 

The cattle that supplanted the Spanish herds, how- 
ever, came across the plains with the emigrants. It was 
an undertaking of the greatest difficulty to drive them 
two thousand miles through country where pasturage 
was scanty in places and rivers and mountains were 
numerous. The task which had been pronounced im- 
possible was accomplished, however, and in 1843 over 
one thousand cattle were brought to the valley. 17 Supe- 
rior to the Spanish stock, they displaced them in time. 
No further lack was felt, and by 1850 the increase was 
so great that the surplus was shipped to California. The 
quality was improved from year to year, since selected 
varieties were brought, and, in many cases, stock of 
noted breeds. In the records of the early agricultural 
fairs we read of the Durham and Devon cattle, and the 
Cotswold, Oxfordshire, Southdown, and Merino sheep as 
particular attractions of the exhibition. 18 With the in- 
troduction of cattle and sheep, not only were the needs 



10 Diary of P. L. Edwards. 

17 Jesse Applegate's "Day With the Cow Column of 1843." 

18 Pamphlet report of Agricultural Society of Oregon, 1861. 



18 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

of the farmer supplied, but the beginning was made of 
an industry that was able to exist independently. It 
formed the easiest method of making a living, and the 
herder with long lariat riding through the deep grass of 
the valley was a familiar sight in the earlier days before 
the number of agricultural settlers and the cultivation of 
the soil drove them to the prairies of the south and east. 
It has proved to be an industry which has added to the 
wealth of Oregon, and affected in other ways its social 
life. Regions that would otherwise have remained un- 
settled have contributed to the resources, and a popula- 
tion independent and hardy has been added to the state. 

As auxiliary to farming the production of fruit began. 
When the earliest settlers came orchards of choice fruit 
were growing on the property of the fur company. Like 
the cattle, however, they were not destined for the service 
of the settler. The earliest of the orchards of Oregon 
took their start from the "traveling nursery' of Hen- 
derson Luelling. 19 Unable to dispose to advantage of the 
nursery of young trees, when he was ready to start, this 
plucky man packed them in boxes and brought them 
across the continent. Importuned many times to aban- 
don a load so heavy and cumbersome he always refused, 
and had the satisfaction of setting them out upon his 
claim at the end of the route. This choice selection of 
apples, cherries, plums, and pears brought into the com- 
munity health and wealth and the promise of another 
industry for Oregon. From an auxiliary of farming the 
raising of fruit has come to be the means of a livelihood 
to many of the population, and with each year draws 
more to the state. 

Could the facts be obtained there would be interest 
attached to the introduction of all of the auxiliaries to 

19 Hon. R. C. Geer, in his address before the pioneer association. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 19 

farming. Stock of various kinds was added. Cereals, 
fruits, and vegetables were brought to add to the necessi- 
ties and comforts of an agricultural community. Tools, 
though heavy and often cumbersome, were carried across 
the plains or around the Horn by vessel. The agricultural 
life was fully established. Soon spots of cultivated land 
began to appear in various places. Roads were marked 
out and constructed between the different claims and set- 
tlements. Political divisions appeared upon the map. 
Groups of settlers collected at points most favorable for 
distribution. Supplies were secured at the warehouse 
of the fur company or from the merchants of Oregon 
City. Surplus crops were sold to the fur company at a 
regular price of sixty-two and one half cents per bushel. 
Population increased with every year and Oregon was 
fully transformed into an agricultural community. A 
form of industrial life had been started that has charac- 
terized the country ever since. It was established to last, 
and the only question of importance could be whether it 
would grow or stagnate. Far from the other centers of 
population, there was little to connect it with the indus- 
trial life of the rest of the country or of the world. It 
could easily exist, but the possibilities of development 
were not encouraging. The only market was the fur 
company. Destitute emigrants were continually arriv- 
ing to increase the population, but to add little to the 
capital or the wealth. The dangerous entrance to the 
Columbia River kept out the few vessels that might 
otherwise have come. A critical period in the life of 
the colony was reached by 1847. Depression was the 
general feeling prevalent. The settlers organized among 
themselves a little company to build ships and seek by 
themselves to break the isolation of their position. 

Such was the situation when an unforeseen event oc- 
curred that changed the whole aspect of affairs. In the 



20 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

summer of 1848 the "Honolulu" entered the little harbor 
at Portland. She loaded with picks and pans and other 
utensils useful to a mining [population. When leaving, 
the crew mentioned the discovery of gold on American 
Creek by James Marshall, 'an Oregon man in the em- 
ploy of Sutter at his famous mill in California. The 
discovery was confirmed and soon the male population 
of the colony was off for the gold fields. Travelers of 
that day tell us that the towns were inhabited mainly by 
old men, women and children. Crops were left stand- 
ing in the fields, though the time of harvest was near. 
Indian troubles were forgotten, though a war was in 
progress on the frontier of the settlement. The Oregon 
Spectator was unable to get out its regular issues because 
of the lack of hands to do the work. The Provisional 
government was unable to get a quorum for the meeting 
of the legislature though there were important matters 
needing attention. Men even left their children to the 
care of benevolent women, who looked after the "orphans 
of 1848. "* 

It was evident that a change had taken place. A new 
impulse had entered the community like a strong tonic. 
Men who had gone to the mines began^to return. Many 
of them had been successful and brought back enough to 
discharge obligations that had been resting over them for 
years. Others returned with^added facility for^extend- 
ing their business. A market was established for the 
surplus products. Flour- and sawmills were keptJ L run- 
ning day and night. Vessels now^took no heed of the 
dangerous entrance to the Columbia, but waited in line 
for their turn to load. Those who remained at home 
gained as much as those who went and were surer of 
getting it. Prices ranged high. Discouragement was 

-"Tabitha Brown was teacher of school for such orphans in Forest Grove. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OP OREGON. 21 

dispelled and hope rose quickly to take its place. The 
industrial and social life of Oregon had received an im- 
pulse that was significant in its development. 

The effects of the discoveries of 1848 were a strange 
mixture of good and bad for the community. Nothing 
so stirs to its foundation a community as the discovery of 
the precious metals. Many of the population of Oregon 
were unsettled in their industrial habits. The old and 
steady lines of industry were deserted for the chances of 
larger rewards. Emigration was turned to the newer 
settlements of California. Immediate relief from the 
isolated condition had been obtained, but a rival had been 
established to the south, whose attractions were destined 
to lead to speedy settlement. With the rapid growth of 
that community Oregon saw the hope of a connection by 
railroad with the East slipping away and a position of 
subordination to California gradually forced upon her. 
The markets, at first established, failed to bring the large 
returns when the supplies were being produced nearer to 
the point of consumption. A speculative spirit invaded 
the industrial life. Undesirable characters were brought 
into the country by the rush for gold. The Indians 
alarmed at the growing numbers and the irritating acts 
became hostile. Such were some of the objectionable 
features of the new influence that had entered the com- 
munity. 

In the long run, however, it must be counted as an ad- 
vance in the industrial and social evolution. A center 
of population had been established where there had been 
nothing that was of benefit to Oregon. Wealth and capi- 
tal were added to the community. If population that 
was undesirable came much also that was helpful drifted 
northward and entered the steadier life of Oregon in pref- 
erence to the less certain life of the mining region. If 
some were upset and turned from a steadier life to one 



22 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

of search for precious metals, others were aroused to a 
healthy zeal for progress. A stimulus was given to the 
search for the latent resources of Oregon which led to 
the discovery not only of deposits of the precious metals, 
but to other resources that have proved fully as important 
and valuable. As the search was extended to Eastern Ore- 
gon the mineral resources grew richer. In 1868 quartz 
mining supplanted the superficial processes previously 
used, and an industry of a permanent character was thus 
established which has added yearly to the wealth and 
been a means of attracting inhabitants to the state. The 
establishment of mining camps and the growth of towns 
and cities gave opportunity for the utilization of the agri- 
cultural facilities which had been found to exist in the 
region east of the mountains. Settlement was directed 
to other sections beside the Willamette Valley and the 
distribution of population thus changed to a more even 
ratio thoroughout the state. Hardly yet has the older 
population awakened to the consciousness of the change 
and responded to the demands made by it. 

The effect of the stimulus of 1848 was apparent in a 
multitude of ways. The discovery of resources was ac- 
companied by a better utilization of the old. Other 
industries beside those connected with the mineral re- 
sources were established. Manufactures were developed, 
and a varied industrial life was guaranteed to Oregon. 
Population was attracted by the new branches of busi- 
ness that would never have joined the population of a 
strictly agricultural region. Flouring mills increased 
both in number and capacity. The bountiful resources 
of timber were more fully utilized. Woolen mills were 
started to make use of the supply of wool. The canning 
of salmon supplanted the earlier form of packing in bar- 
rels. Tanneries utilized the resources in hides. Invest- 
ment was found for capital and labor had employment. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 23 

Towns and cities increased in number and in size. Social 
life had broadened in every way. 

With the readjustments that followed the discovery of 
gold a forward step was taken in the evolution, but the 
isolation of position had not been overcome. Soon the 
conditions of an earlier time returned. Though less 
apparent, they were just as real and urged to further 
progress. Already the people had felt the need, and 
forces were at work to liberate the community from its 
isolation and to continue in the line of growth. 

None of the forces in the industrial evolution of Ore- 
gon is more significant than the efforts to utilize the 
high seas as an avenue of approach to the markets of 
the world. Nearest to Oregon were the ports of Asia. 
From the time that the early merchants of Boston car- 
ried the furs to the market of Canton a strange link 
existed between the social evolution of Oregon and the 
markets of the Orient. When the Chinese nobles trimmed 
their robes with the furs of the animals that live in the 
forests of the northwest of America, they established a 
bond of union that was destined to strengthen until the 
large populations of Asia should become ready to receive 
the surplus products that the growing population of Ore- 
gon and the whole Pacific Coast were anxious to supply. 
Following the opening of the ports of China by England 
in 1842, and of Japan by Commodore Perry in 1854, a 
closer industrial relation has been gradually established, 
which the people of Oregon have come to feel is insepa- 
rably connected with the industrial welfare of the state. 

Of equal importance was the first cargo that was sent 
to the market at Liverpool in 1868, and led the way to 
an export trade which solves, in a large measure, the 
question of Oregon's continued evolution. To Joseph 
Watt, whose courage made the venture, a large place 
must be given among those who have contributed to the 



24 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

growth of Oregon. The change that has been wrought 
by the acquisition of a European market for the products 
has not been one of those striking events that please the 
fancy, but it has been a gradual force working with ever 
increasing power to draw Oregon out of her isolation and 
into the stream of industrial life that insures prosperity 
and growth. 

Equally important among the forces that destroyed the 
isolation of Oregon has been the construction of railroads. 
Among the early colonists of 1848 a transcontinental line 
was a hope which they even dared to express in their 
petitions to congress. It was many years, however, be- 
fore such a proposal could even receive consideration, 
and when the time finally came the conditions were more 
favorable to California, where the Central Pacific found 
its terminus rather than in Oregon. Henceforth the 
ambitions of Oregon turned toward a connection with 
California, and by that channel with the East. 

Long before the country was ready for such an enter- 
prise, projects were entertained for railroads. Previous 
to 1853 four lines had been contemplated, and in one 
case the books had been opened for subscriptions of stock. 
The action that was destined to materialize earliest into 
tangible form was the survey that was made by Joseph 
Gaston of a line to continue that made by a Californian 
to the border of Oregon. 21 Gaston started the enterprise 
upon his own responsibility. Possessed of little capital, 
it was his purpose to enlist the support of farmers along 
the route, and circular letters were addressed to them. 
Trusting to their interest to furnish food and shelter for 
the surveying party, he was fully rewarded by a generous 
response, and seldom have similar parties fared better. 



21 Gaston's Railroad Development of Oregon, quoted by Bancroft in History 
of Oregon. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 25 

No criticisms that opponents could offer discouraged this 
persevering man. He continued to send circulars to the 
farmers and petitions to the legislature, until finally it 
was voted to grant a subsidy of $250,000 to the company 
that would construct the first hundred miles of road. A 
company was organized and a charter granted under the 
name of the "Oregon Central.' Before the work of con- 
struction began a division arose in regard to the policy 
of construction by Oregon interests or the more abundant 
capital of California. Reconciliation was impossible, and 
two enterprises took the place of the one. The opposing 
factions planned to construct roads upon opposite sides 
of the Willamette River, and began a long and bitter 
rivalry. Curious methods were resorted to by each to 
get within the terms of the charter and to gain the right 
to the original name of "Oregon Central.' Both were 
anxious to get the grants of land w r hich had been prom- 
ised by the United States government. 

Construction was begun by the two divisions in the 
spring of 1868. The west side line was first to start 
amidst demonstrations of approval by the population of 
Portland favorable to their interests. A few days later 
the east side line began construction with even greater 
demonstration of approval. Neither of the factions had 
much money to back their enterprise. Skillful financier- 
ing was necessary to keep the men at work. Bitter liti- 
gation was in progress all the time, but still they kept on 
with the construction. The west side road at first seemed 
to have a little the better of the conflict. Conditions 
w^ere changed with the appearance on the scene of a gen- 
tleman from California in 1868. In the person of Ben 
Holladay the east side road had secured a master in his 
line of business. Bold and autocratic in his methods, 
regardless of the feelings of others, unscrupulous in the 
methods pursued, he was able to crush the west side 



"26 JAMBS R. ROBERTSON. 

division and force it to sell its interests to him. Under 
the united management of the "Oregon and California 
Railroad,' therefore, the lines were continued on both 
sides of the river. 22 Bonds floated in the German market 
gave abundance of capital at first. Interest on the bonds 
began at length to fail, aa investigation was made, and 
the affairs of the road were transferred to other hands in 
1876. In the person of Henry Villard, a man of broader 
views and more tactful methods, undertook the develop- 
ment of railroad interests. The whole policy was en- 
larged. The development of the roads of Oregon was to 
him an effort to develop the roads of the nation. His 
interests were not local. Fortunate was it for the indus- 
trial and social evolution of Oregon that the railroad 
interests fell to the lot of such a man. His own financial 
position was wrecked in the undertaking, but the system 
of railroads which have formed the basis of Oregon's 
growth and prosperity was started by him . The construc- 
tion of the "Northern Pacific Railroad,' the building 
of the "Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company's' 
line through the valley of the Columbia, the extension 
of the "Oregon and California Railroad' 1 nearer to the 
border of the neighboring state, were all parts of the 
comprehensive plan. First to be achieved was the con- 
struction of the Northern Pacific, which gave Oregon its 
long desired connection with the East, and acted as a 
stimulus to the development of the system of railroads 
as they now exist . Connection between the ' ' Oregon Rail- 
way and Navigation Company's' line and the "Union 
Pacific,' and the purchase of the "Oregon and Califor- 
nia" line by the "Southern Pacific Railroad" in 1887, 
added two more lines of transportation across the conti- 
nent and effectively broke the isolation of Oregon from 

22 Lang's History of the Willamette Valley. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OP OREGON. 

other sections of the East. Smaller lines were constructed 
to the productive valleys and seaport towns, and the differ- 
ent parts of the state were joined together and brought 
nearer to the markets and points of shipping. That the 
change was realized is evident from- the following words 
of the president of th-e Portland Board of Trade, spoken 
on the occasion of the completion of the Northern Pacific 
in 1884 : "At present we are in the very midst of a com- 
mercial event of phenomenal importance; an event which 
welds us forever to the other parts of the country, the 
union of the East and the West. The significance of the 
change is yet scarcely apparent, but a rapid adjustment 
of our business methods to the new order of things is 
necessary. Hitherto we have occupied what might be 
called an insular position, with insular advantages and 
insular prejudices; but now we are incorporated with 
the rest of the Union and must adopt the methods that 
elsewhere prevail.' The popular approval and appre- 
ciation was manifested by a monster procession in which 
the principal object of interest was an old pioneer cara- 
van with every detail depicted in realistic manner. Old 
weather beaten wagons were prominent ; household uten- 
sils were mingled with tow-headed babies and bear cubs ; 
men walked beside the wagons to protect, with their rifles, 
from imaginary harm, while a band of Warm Spring 
Indians followed with war whoop and flourish of toma- 
hawks. 

From the completion of the transcontinental lines the 
growth of industrial life has been steady and permanent. 
Isolation has been destroyed. Remoteness of location, 
however, has not been entirely overcome, and the process 
of evolution is not complete. The law of social growth 
has signified in the past that every step toward progress 
requires the taking of another, and already the interest 



28 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

of Oregon's population is centered on the construction of 
an interoceanic canal to shorten the waterway connection 
with her markets. 

In the social evolution of Oregon it is necessary that 
many questions should arise that are closely connected 
with the industrial life. The prosperity of every com- 
munity is identified with questions of an economic na- 
ture. In the first place the welfare of every community 
depends upon the harmonious relation of capital and 
labor. In the history of Oregon there has been little 
to mar the pleasant relation existing between the two. 
Capital has never been so abundant as to menace the 
interests of labor nor has labor ever been so abundant as 
to be independent of capital. Strikes that have occurred 
have been of small size and not aggravated in character. 
Both capital and labor have needed the help of the other 
and have united in the development of the resources of 
a new country. Oregon is yet so young that the men of 
wealth have grown to be such from an early start as 
laborers. Every man feels that his chance is equal to 
that of every other man more fully in a new community 
than elsewhere. 

The only question which has marred the harmony has 
been a conflict between the white laborers and the Chi- 
nese. Such conflicts have been less frequent and pf 
milder nature than in the history of both California and 
Washington. Brought into the state during the time of 
railroad construction, the Chinese performed a valuable 
service and undoubtedly assisted in the industrial devel- 
opment in a very important manner. The legislation of 
the community, however, from an early time shows a dis- 
crimination against them and their privileges are lim- 
ited even in the constitution of the state. Living, as 
they do, by themselves and preserving their own habits 
and standards of life, they do not assimilate with the 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OP OREGON. 29 

other population. Together with the Indians they form 
a novel element in the social life. 

The industrial prosperity of a communty is insepara- 
bly connected with the question of a medium of exchange 
and standard of value. Money is indispensable to the 
existence of industrial life in any important sense, and 
the amount and the kind of money means progress or 
decline and marks the community as industrially sound 
or unsafe. In the early days of the fur trade exchanges 
were made in the terms of the skin of the beaver, the 
animal most numerous in the valley of the Columbia. 
When the agricultural resources were utilized the bushel 
of wheat took its place beside the beaver skin as a stand- 
ard of value. Convenience soon led to the use of orders 
upon the Hudson Bay Company or the stores of the 
agricultural settlement. They served the purposes of a 
medium of exchange for the simple transactions of an 
early time. Metallic money was scarce at first. Occasion- 
ally a barrel of silver would be brought into the region to 
pay the crew of some ship. Much of it would get into 
circulation and thus be added to medium of exchange. 
Here and there could be found the coins of Mexico and 
Peru. With the discovery of gold in California the dust 
became abundant. It was not, however, able to command 
as much in exchange as the same amount of gold in the 
form of coin. This fact led to one of the most inter- 
esting events in the monetary and industrial history of 
Oregon, the coining of the "Beaver money' in 1849. 
An act of the Provisional legislature was passed author- 
izing the coinage of gold. Before it could be carried 
into effect the Provisional government was supplanted 
by the territorial, and the plan seemed to be defeated. 
Some, however, were not willing to see it fail, and formed 
a private company to undertake the enterprise. 23 As it had 

^Oregon Exchange Company. 



30 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

never been submitted to the government of the United 
States, for license, it was unconstitutional in form. In 
every other particular it was eminently regular. The 
little mint was not possessed of the necessary appliances 
to render the coins uniform in quality or color, but they 
were scrupulously accurate in the amount of gold which 
they contained. Never had the mints of the national 
government created a more honest coin. When they 
were called in later by the mint at San Francisco they 
were found to contain eight per cent more gold than the 
standard coins of the United States. 24 This money re- 
ceived the name of "Beaver' from the stamp placed 
upon one side of the coin. Altogether about $30,000 of 
this money was coined in denominations of five and ten- 
dollar coins. 

The - Oregon community throughout its history has 
favored metallic money. The -notes-, which the Provi- 
sional government sometimes gave in return for its obli- 
gations and agreed to receive in payment of obligations 
to itself is the nearest that Oregon ever came to a paper 
currency. No state institutions were ever organized to 
issue paper money because such privilege has been de- 
nied by the wisdom of the framers- of the constitution 
and Oregon has been spared the evils of a currency which 
figured in the history of so many of our commonwealths. 
Even during the time of the civil war, when paper money 
was issued and every appeal to patriotism would urge to 
its use, Oregon remained essentially upon a metallic 
basis, by the passage of a special contract law, 25 enacted 
in imitation of a similar policy in California. Financial 
heresies have not taken root in the industrial life of 
Oregon and the social evolution has profited thereby. 

__^ _____ .. - : ' . . .. .- . , 

24 Ex-Governor G. L. Curry. Address to pioneer association. 

25 Oopy of special contract act. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 31 

Few things so stamp a people as the ideas held in regard 
to money. 

Population congregating in any locality for the pur- 
pose of making a livelihood soon organizes itself into a 
political society, for man is a "political animal.' In- 
dustrial life can not exist without some form of civil 
government. In the early period of the fur trade this 
function was supplied by the company, and particularly 
its officers. It was of an autocratic type, but rendered 
substantial justice, and was able to secure a most excel- 
lent order in circumstances that might easily have been 
disorderly. No region so remote from civilization was 
ever more safe for the traveler than the territory under 
the jurisdiction of the Hudson Bay Company. 

Its ideals, however, were not sufficient for the demo- 
cratic settlers who came to pursue an agricultural life. 
At a very early date justices of the peace were appointed 
in the mission settlement in the Willamette Valley. 
The formation of the Provisional government in 1843 
was a long step in advance, and must mark one of the 
important stages in the social evolution of Oregon. It 
is one of the finest examples to be found of the resource- 
fulness of the American frontier settler. Although tem- 
porary in character, it sufficed to keep the region in trust 
until events could so shape themselves that the United 
States could extend over the region a territorial form of 
government. This again was a forward step in the social 
evolution. At first sight it may seem that it was little 
more than a change from Governor Abernethy to Lane, 
but it marked a greater change than that. It was the 
realization of something long desired ; it attached the 
population of Oregon to that of the rep'ublic. The social 
life expanded with the very thought ; the social life and 
habits that prevailed in the republic were to prevail in 
Oregon ; the nation was henceforth to aid in the develop- 



32 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

ment of Oregon, and the resources of Oregon were to be 
added to those of the nation ; national soldiers were to 
help the colonists in their struggles against the Indians, 
and in time of need the soldiers of Oregon were to defend 
the interests of the nation. 

The establishment of statehood in 1859 was the logical 
end of political evolution. A community can attain to 
nothing higher than to achieve a place in the council of 
the nation. It is both a benefit to be enjoyed and an 
obligation to be honorably met. If Oregon, in the past, 
has occupied a subordinate place in the development of 
national life, her position grows more important with 
the changes that are occurring, and her opportunity to 
take a more prominent part in 'national affairs grows 
greater. 

Connection with the life of the nation brought with it 
the questions of national importance. Oregon always 
had its local party questions ; but now it was to share 
in the great problems that stirred national feeling to its 
depths. The population of Oregon had established a 
reputation for political interest. An early California 
paper said that there were two occupations in Oregon, 
"agriculture and politics.' The politics of the earlier 
days was one-sided. The population was affiliated with 
the democratic party. But how could it be otherwise 
when that was the party which had included the men 
who had taken the greatest interest in the development 
of Oregon. The party of Jefferson, of Floyd and Benton, 
of Monroe and Linn, of Douglas and Polk, was not un- 
fittingly the party of the colonists. In the whole history 
of the territorial government there was but one whig 
governor and his term of office was not a pleasant one. 
Mr. Lincoln was doubtless discreet when he replied to 
the president, who offered him the governorship of the 
Oregon territory, "No sir-ee." 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 33 

The establishment of the Oregonian, under the editor- 
ship of Mr. Dryer, marked a change in the political senti- 
ment of the population. With the growth of the whig 
party the early political conditions were changed. 

With the growing prominence of the slavery question 
and the formation of the republican party the change 
became greater still and the majority were ranged on 
the side that stood for the Union and against the insti- 
tution of slavery. Every interest of Oregon became in 
some way involved in this great question, as in fact did 
the interests of every commonwealth. There was a strong 
Southern element in the population that had come from 
Missouri and there was some hope that the public opinion 
of Oregon might be made to count for secession and 
slavery. General Lane, a favorite son of Oregon, was 
candidate for the vice presidency upon the extreme South- 
ern ticket. Nothing redounds more to the credit of Ore- 
gon than her stand against slavery and secession. The 
vote taken at the time that the question of slavery was 
submitted to the people for action, previous to the sub- 
mission of a constitution to congress for ratification, 
shows the division of opinion, while the clause still kept 
in the constitution prohibiting free negroes is a historic 
reminder of the sensitive Southern spirit that could not 
endure to look upon a free negro if prohibited from keep- 
ing one in bondage. 26 

A study of the social evolution of a community would 
not be complete without some mention of the institutions 
which arise among a population in response to the higher 
needs. Those impulses which lead to the broadening of 
the mental and the deepening of the moral nature are of 



26 Vote 011 slavery: Seven thousand seven hundred against slavery; two thou- 
sand two hundred for slavery. Vote on free negroes: Eight thousand six hun- 
dred against free negroes. Bancroft's History. 
3 



34 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 

utmost importance to a community. In the accomplish- 
ment of this work the community mainly looks to three 
institutions the public press, the church, and the school. 

It was a significant event in the higher life of the peo- 
ple when the first printing press was brought from the 
Sandwich Islands in 1839 and given to the mission at 
Lapwai. It marked the beginning of a movement that 
was to be a powerful agent in stimulating mental activity 
and in molding public opinion and moral sentiment. The 
establishment of the Oregon Spectator in 1846 brought into 
existence a journal that served the needs of the primitive 
colony. Joined by the Free Press, there was little develop- 
ment until 1850, when the establishment of the Oregonian, 
and a few months later, in 1851, of the Statesman, led to 
a stimulus that was to be felt throughout the succeeding 
years. Other journals of a more local character followed 
and each has performed its part in the social evolution. 
In the pages of these journals is to be found the com- 
pletest record of every stage of development in Oregon's 
life. The public questions which have agitated the com- 
munity are all seen reflected in vigorous language and 
with the coloring of the times in which they were living 
matters. Bringing to the population of a community 
the record of events and questions of a common interest, 
the newspaper has served to create a spirit of community 
life, and the news from distant parts of the world has 
broadened the life of those who have come in contact 
with it. 

For the creation of a moral and religious sentiment 
among the early population of Oregon events were favor- 
able. In the period of the fur trade distinctly religious 
influences were not prominent, but there was a higher 
moral tone than usually exists under similar circum- 
stances. The officers of the fur company were men of 
high character. Intemperance and immorality were dis- 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 35 

couraged and prevented as far as possible. Religious 
services were conducted on Sundays at the fort in Van- 
couver. Foremost among the impulses to a high stand- 
ard of moral life must be mentioned the coming of the 
missionaries. Seeking in the first place to serve the na- 
tive races they were equally effectual in preparing a con- 
dition more favorable to the white man. Strong and 
zealous they exerted a lasting influence upon the life of 
the community. Without distinction of denomination 
their influence was beneficial. It is true there was much 
of conflict between the Catholics and Protestants in the 
early days, but the conflict that grew from a zeal to secure 
for the community the things that each thought essential 
was a better foundation upon which to build than the 
moral lethargy which characterizes the beginning of 
many communities. It is true that the efforts of the 
religious leaders to direct affairs of the community life 
favorably to the interests in which they believed, were 
often annoying to the settlers who cared little for relig- 
ion, but it nevertheless sufficed to prevent many of the 
abuses which so easily creep into a community where 
there is too little watchfulness. 

With the organization of the first Catholic Church at 
Champoeg in 1839, and the Protestant churches by the 
Methodists and Congregationalists at Oregon City in 1842 
and 1844, began an organized movement which, regard- 
less of tenets of belief, was to be a potent factor in the 
development of that moral fibre in community life which 
is its most valuable possession. Various denominations 
arose among the population, and there was not always 
the unity most favorable to best results. Centers of in- 
fluence, however, were started, which later development 
has ever been striving to unify. Though the moral foun- 
dations were firmly laid, conditions of a growing com- 
munity have not been most favorable to a development 



36 JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 



proportional to that in other lines. Absorption in the 
pursuit of material interests, shifting of population, thin 
distribution over a wide area, independence from the 
restraining influences of the older communities, are in- 
fluences to be met and overcome in the evolution of 
religious and moral life. A church membership for Ore- 
gon considerable below the average of that for the United 
States, and a crime rate a little above, are indications of 
a condition that should render the serious mind thought- 
ful and alert to seek for every stimulus to a development 
at least equal if not greater than that of the industrial 
and political life. 27 

With the educational institutions, our brief study of 
the evolution of the community may fitly end. In the 
schools of any locality are the centers of influence that 
are most effective in producing social progress in things 
that pertain to the higher life. Beginning with the in- 
stitutions established by the missionaries, the growth 
has been steady though slow; beginning with the schools 
for the native races and the children of the settlers, 
academies and colleges were added generally in advance 
of the needs rather than in response to a demand. First 
of the higher schools was the Oregon Institute, which 
was created in the cabin of "Lausanne' before the mis- 
sionaries had touched the shore of Oregon. 28 In the fol- 
lowing year an academy was founded upon the plains of 
the Tualatin, and earliest among the acts of the territorial 
legislature was the establishment of the public schools. 
From these beginnings other institutions have been 
started both by the different denominations and the 
state. Each in turn has been a center of influence in 
the evolution of the community, and from facilities, in 



27 United States Census Report for 1890. 

28 Catalogue of Willamette University. 



THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF OREGON. 87 

most cases meager indeed, strong leaders have received 
the stimulus that enabled them to perform the work that 
they have done. Among the builders of the social life 
of Oregon credit should be awarded to the men who, 
through sacrifice, made possible the greatest stimulus to 
good that a community can possess. 

JAMES R. ROBERTSON. 



By WM. D. FENTON. 
II. 

On February 24, 1873, the Board of Capitol Building 
Commissioners was organized with John F. Miller, presi- 
dent, and plans for a state capitol prepared by Krumbein 
& Gilbert were adopted ; and pursuant to the joint reso- 
lution of the legislature of 1872 the commission selected 
block 84 in Salem as the site, the selection being made 
May 13, 1873, and the foundation of the present state 
capitol was laid May 17 of that year. An appropriation 
of $100,000 was made in 1872, and the building was 
completed so as to be occupied by the legislature in Sep- 
tember, 1876. The building commissioners were Henry 
Klippel, Samuel Allen, and E. L. Bristow. 

The legislative assembly for the year 1874 convened 
September 14, and concluded its labors October 23. This 
was the eighth biennial session. R. B. Cochran, of Lane, 
was elected president of the senate, and John C. Drain 
was elected speaker of the house. Among the prominent 
members of the senate mention may be made of John 
Myers, of Clackamas ; J. F. Watson, of Douglas ; J. N. 
Dolph, of Multnomah; T. R. Cornelius, of Washington ; 
R. B. Cochran, of Lane ; Dr. James A. Richardson, of 
Marion, and Sol Hirsch, of Multnomah. Among the 
members of the house of prominence may be mentioned 
the names of C. G. Chandler, of Baker; James Bruce, 
of Benton ; G. W. Riddle, John C. Drain, and D. W. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OP OREGON. 39 

Stearns, of Douglas ; W. J. Plymale, of Jackson ; F. X. 
Matthieu and A. N. Gilbert, of Marion ; Raleigh Stott 
and John M. Gearin, of Multnomah ; E. B. Dufur and 
Robert Mays, of Wasco ; Lee Laughlin, E.G. Bradshaw, 
and William Galloway, of Yamhill. On September 17, 
1874, the legislative assembly, in joint convention, can- 
vassed the vote of the state for governor at the general 
election in 1874, which resulted as follows: L. F. Grover, 
democrat, nine thousand seven hundred and thirteen ; 
T. F. Campbell, independent, six thousand five hundred 
and thirty-two; J. C.Tolman, republican, nine thousand 
one hundred and sixty-three votes ; showing a plurality 
in favor of L. F. Grover over T. F. Campbell, three thou- 
sand one hundred and eighty-one, and over J. C. Tolman 
of five hundred and fifty. The oath of office was admin- 
istered to the governor-elect by B. F. Bonham, then chief 
justice. At that session Henry Klippel, R. P. Boise, and 
H. Stapleton were elected capitol building commissioners 
to serve for the ensuing term of two years. 

The legislative assembly for the year 1876 convened 
September 11. John Whiteaker was elected president 
of the senate, and J. K. Weatherford speaker of the 
house. Among the new members of the senate elected 
that year mention may be made of the names of G. W. 
Colvig, of Douglas; T. A. Davis and M. C. George, of 
Multnomah; A. S. Watt, of Washington; E. C. Brad- 
shaw, of Yamhill; John Myers, of Clackamas, and John 
Whiteaker, of Lane. On September 19, 1876, the senate 
voted for United States senator, and Jesse Applegate re- 
ceived seven votes ; L. F. Grover, twenty ; T. F. Camp- 
bell, one ; J. W. Nesmith, one ; and on the next day in 
joint convention Grover received forty-four votes ; Nes- 
mith, eleven ; Applegate, thirty-two, and Campbell, two. 
On Friday, September 22, Applegate received thirty-three 
votes; Nesmith, five; Grover, forty-eight, and Camp- 



40 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

bell, four ; and L. F. Grover was declared duly elected 
senator for six years from March 4, 1877. J. F. Watson 
was elected judge of the second judicial district over J. 
M. Thompson by a vote of three thousand two hundred 
and sixty-two to three thousand and sixty-nine. R. P. 
Boise judge of the third judicial district over B. F. Bon- 
ham by a vote of four thousand two hundred and thirteen 
to four thousand and thirty-eight. L. L. McArthur was 
elected judge of the fifth judicial district without oppo- 
sition, receiving three thousand five hundred and forty- 
one votes. At this election H. K. Hanna was elected 
district attorney of the first judicial district over C. B. 
Watson by one thousand one hundred and sixty to nine 
hundred and seventy-five ; and S. H. Hazard in the 
second judicial district over W. B. Higby by a vote of 
three thousand two hundred and thirty to three thousand 
one hundred and fifty-seven ; and in the third judicial 
district George H. Burnett over W. M. Ramsey, four 
thousand one hundred and eighteen to four thousand 
and twenty-five ; in the fourth judicial district Raleigh 
Stott over F. R. Strong by a vote of three thousand four 
hundred and seventy-seven to two thousand nine hun- 
dred and fifty-six ; and in the fifth judicial district L. B. 
Ison over Robert Eakin by a vote of two thousand three 
hundred and seventy-six to one thousand nine hundred 
and thirty-one. 

A state census for the year 1875 showed a population 
of one hundred and four thousand nine hundred and 
twenty, excluding Indians and Chinese. The total cost 
of the state house up to August 31, 1876, as shown by 
the Board of Capitol Building Commissioners, is $201,- 
728.63. At a special election held October 25, 1875, for 
representative in the forty-fourth congress, L. F. Lane 
received nine thousand three hundred and seventy-three 
votes ; Henry Warren, nine thousand one hundred and 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 41 

six; G. M. Whitney, eight hundred and thirty-seven; 
G. W. Dimmick, three hundred and forty-five ; and scat- 
tering, thirteen votes. 

Speaking of the railroad contest, it may be mentioned 
that on April 6, 1866, the east side road had its opening 
ceremonies in honor of its work of construction. The 
celebration occurred about three fourths of a mile from 
the Stark-street ferry landing at East Portland, and about 
five hundred rods from the east bank of the Willamette 
River, not far from where the old asylum for the insane 
stood, near what is now East Twelfth and Hawthorne 
Avenue. It is said that in honor of the event flags were 
flying from every available flagstaff in the city. Proces- 
sions were formed in the city and marched to the spot, 
preceded by the Aurora Brass Band. The orator of the 
day was Hon. John H. Mitchell. It is estimated that 
five thousand people were present. The shovel used bore 
on it a beautiful silver plate, attached to the front of the 
handle, with this inscription: "Presented by Sam M. 
Smith to the Oregon Central Railroad Company, Port- 
land, April 16, 1868. Ground broken with this shovel 
for the first railroad in Oregon.' President Moores 
drove the first stake and threw out the first sod in the 
construction of the Oregon Central Railroad, now the 
Oregon and California, amid the huzzas of the multitude. 

At the general election held on the first day of June, 
1868, Joseph S. .Smith, democrat, received eleven thou- 
sand seven hundred and fifty-four votes, and David 
Logan, republican, ten thousand five hundred and fifty- 
five votes. 

The total assessed value of the state for the year 1866 
was $25,560,312.63, and for the year 1875, $41,436,086. 

A brief history of the various state conventions,. and 
of the political issues tendered thereby, may not be with- 
out interest. The democratic state convention met at 



42 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

Portland April 5, 1866, and nominated James D. Fay of 
Jackson for congress on the sixth ballot, over Joseph S. 
Smith, who at one time had fifty-nines votes to his 
five; Gates, twenty-four. James K. Kelly of Wasco was 
nominated for governor ; L. F. Lane of Multnomah for 
secretary of state ; John C. Bell of Marion for state 
treasurer; James O'Meara for state printer; P. P. Prim 
judge of the first judicial district ; James R. Neil prose- 
cuting attorney of the first judicial district; George B. 
Dorris prosecuting attorney of the second judicial dis- 
trict; J. W. Johnson of Marion prosecuting attorney of 
the third judicial district, and James H. Slater of Union 
prosecuting attorney of the fifth judicial district. 

On March 19, 1868, the democratic state convention 
met at Oro Fino Hall, in Portland, Oregon, and nomi- 
nated Joseph S. Smith of Marion for congress; S. F. 
Chad wick, John Burnett, and J. H. Slater presidential 
electors, and instructed the delegates to the national con- 
vention to vote for George H. Pendleton for president. 
The convention met and nominated W. G. T'Vault for 
prosecuting attorney of the first judicial district; L. F. 
Mosher judge and R. S. Strahan prosecuting attorney of 
the second judicial district ; W. F. Trimble judge and 
J. H. Reed prosecuting attorney of the fourth judicial 
district ; William B. Las well prosecuting attorney of the 
fifth judicial district. 

The democratic state convention which met at Albany, 
Oregon, March 23, 1870, nominated James H. Slater for 
congress ; L. F. Grover for governor ; S. F. Chad wick 
secretary of state ; L. Fleischner treasurer ; Thomas Pat- 
terson state printer; B. F. Bonham judge and N. L. 
Butler prosecuting attorney of the third judicial district ; 
R. E. Bybee prosecuting attorney of the fourth judicial 
district ; L. L. Me Arthur judge and W. B. Laswell prose- 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 43 

cuting attorney of the fifth judicial district ; A. J. Thayer 
judge of the second judicial district. 

The democratic convention which met at The Dalles 
Wednesday, April 10, 1872, elected James W. Nesmith 
chairman, and nominated John Burnett of Benton for 
congress ; George R. Helm of Linn, L. F. Lane of Doug- 
las, and N. H. Gates of Wasco presidential electors ; 
P. P. Prim judge and J. R. Neil district attorney of the 
first judicial district; C. W. Fitch district attorney of" 
the second judicial district ; J. J. Shaw district attorney 
of the third judicial district ; C. B. Bellinger district at- 
torney of the fourth judicial district, and W. B. Laswll 
district attorney of the fifth judicial district. 

The democratic convention which met Wednesday, 
March 18, 1874, at Albany, nominated L. F. Grover for 
governor ; George A. LaDow of Umatilla for congress ; 
S. F. Chad wick for secretary of state ; A. H. Brown for 
treasurer ; M. V. Brown for state printer ; E. J. Dawne 
superintendent of public instruction ; William B. Las- 
well prosecuting attorney of the fifth judicial district ; 
L. F. Mosher judge of the second judicial district ; C. W. 
Fitch district attorney of the second judicial district ; 
H. K. Hanna district attorney of the first judicial dis- 
trict, and J. J. Whitney district attorney of the third 
judicial district. 

The democratic convention which met Wednesday, 
April 26, 1876, at Salem, elected Henry Klippe] chair- 
man, and nominated L. F. Lane for congress by ac- 
clamation; B. F. Bonham judge of the third judicial 
district; W. M. Ram.sey district attorney of the third 
judicial district; F. R. Strong district attorney of the 
fourth judicial district; H. K. Hanna district attorney 
of the first judicial district ; L. B. Ison district attorney 
of the fifth judicial district; S. H. Hazard district at- 
torney of the second judicial district ; L. L. McArthur 



44 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

judge of the fifth judicial district, and J. M. Thompson 
judge of the second judicial district. Henry Klippel of 
Jackson, W. B. Laswell of Grant, and E. A. Cronin of 
Multnoraah were nominated as presidential electors. 
The election for congressman at this time occurred No- 
vember 7, 1876, at which Richard Williams, the repub- 
lican candidate, received fifteen thousand three hundred 
and forty-seven votes and Lafayette Lane, democrat, re- 
ceived fourteen thousand two hundred and twenty-nine 
votes. The republican electors were W. H. Odell, J. W. 
Watts, and J. C. Cartwright, and received an average 
vote of fifteen thousand two hundred and six against the 
democratic vote of fourteen thousand one hundred and 
thirty-six. Growing out of the fact that J. W. Watts was 
at the time of his election postmaster at Lafayette, and 
of the further fact that the presidential election was close 
and that several states of the South were contested, there 
was a contest made by E. A. Cronin as to the right to 
issue the electoral certificate in favor of J. W. Watts. A 
change of one electoral vote would have resulted in the 
election of Samuel J. Tilden as president and Thomas 
A. Hendricks as vice president of the United States in- 
stead of Rutherford B. Hayes, president, and William 
A. Wheeler, vice president. The electoral commission 
created by act of congress refused to sustain the action 
of Governor Grover who declined to issue a certificate to 
J. W. Watts, but counted all three of the electoral votes 
for Hayes and Wheeler. 

The union state convention met at Corvallis March 29, 
1866, and this convention was held under the auspices of 
what was then known as the union party, and later the 
union republican party, and still later the republican 
party. This convention nominated Rufus Mallory on 
the first ballot for congress, the vote being : Mallory, 
sixty-three ; Bowlby, twenty-three ; Henderson, seven ; 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 45 

Baker, twenty-eight. George L. Woods of Wasco was 
nominated for governor ; Samuel E. May of Marion for 
secretary of state ; E. N. Cooke of Marion for state treas- 
urer ; W. A. McPherson of Linn for state printer ; B. F. 
Dowell w T as nominated judge for the first judicial dis- 
trict and D. M. C. Gault district -attorney ; J. F. Watson 
was nominated district attorney of the second judicial 
district; P. C. Sullivan of the third; M. F. Mulkey of 
the fourth, and C. R. Meigs of the fifth. In the elec- 
tion held in June Mallory received ten thousand three 
hundred and sixty-two votes ; Fay, his opponent, received 
nine thousand eight hundred and nine votes. The union 
ticket was successful by a small majority. 

The union state convention met at Salem March 25, 
1868, and nominated David Logan for congress on the 
second ballot over P. C. Sullivan, of Polk, by a vote 
of fifty-six to fifty-one, two votes scattering. Orange 
Jacobs, Wilson Bowlby, and A. B. Meacham were nomi- 
nated as presidential electors ; John Kelsey judge of the 
second judicial district ; W. W. Upton judge of the 
fourth judicial district ; D. M. Risdon prosecuting attor- 
ney of the second judicial district; J. C. Powell prose- 
cuting attorney of the third judicial district; A. C. 
Gibbs prosecuting attorney of the fourth judicial dis- 
trict ; C. M. Foster prosecuting attorney of the fifth 
judicial district. The convention instructed its delegates 
for Ulysses S. Grant for president. 

The union republican convention met at Portland 
Thursday, April 7, 1870, and nominated Joseph G. Wil- 
son for congress; Gen. Joel Palmer for governor; James 
Elkins for secretary of state ; M. Hirsch for state treas- 
urer ; H. R. Kincaid for state printer; E. B. Watson 
district attorney of the first judicial district ; J. A. Odell 
district attorney of the second judicial district ; J. C. 
Powell district attorney of the third judicial district; 



46 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 



A. C. Gibbs district attorney of the fourth judicial dis- 
trict ; D. W. Lichtenthaler prosecuting attorney of the 
fifth judicia] district ; John Kelsey judge of the second 
judicial district; R. P. Boise of the third judicial dis- 
trict, and B. Whitten of the fifth. A. J. Thaver was 

t/ 

elected judge of the secoiid judicial district by a majority 
of eighty-six; R. P. Boise judge of the third judicial 
district by a majority of eighteen; L. L. McArthur judge 
of the fifth judicial by a majority of six hundred and 
seventy-eight ; H. K. Hanna was elected district attor- 
ney of the first judicial district by a majority of one 
hundred and ninety-six; C. W. Fitch district attorney 
of the second judicial district by a majority of sixty 
votes; N. L. Butler district attorney of the third judicial 
district by a majority of one hundred and nine ; A. C. 
Gibbs prosecuting attorney of the fourth judicial district 
by a majority of four hundred and twelve votes, and W. 

B. Laswell prosecuting attorney of the fifth judicial dis- 
trict by a majority of six hundred and sixty-nine. 

The republican state convention met on Wednesday, 
March 29, 1872, at Portland, and elected Rufus Mallory 
chairman. J. G. Wilson was nominated by unanimous 
vote for congress ; F. A. Chenoweth district attorney of 
the second judicial district; W. D. Hare, J. F. Gazley, 
and A. B. Meacham presidential electors. 

The republican state convention which met at Salem 
April 8, 1874, nominated J. C. Tolman of Jackson for 
governor ; D. G. Clark of Benton for treasurer ; C. M. 
Foster of Baker for secretary of state; E. M. Waite of 
Marion for state printer ; L. L. Rowland of Wasco for 
superintendent of public instruction ; John Kelsey judge 
of the second judicial district; F. A. Chenoweth district 
attorney of the second judicial district; N. B. Hum- 
phrey district attorney of the third judicial district ; W. 
Carey Johnson judge of the fourth judicial district; J. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OP OREGON. 47 

C. Moreland district attorney of the fourth judicial dis- 
trict ; J. C. Cartwright district attorney of the fifth 
judicial district. 

The independent state convention met at Salern April 
15, 1874, and nominated T. W. Davenport for congress ; 
Thomas F. Campbell of Polk for governor; James H. 
Douthitt for secretary of state; D. Beach of Linn for 
treasurer ; William M. Hand of Wasco for state printer ; 
M. M. Oglesby of Douglas for superintendent of public 
instruction. It also nominated John Burnett for judge 
of the second judicial district; J. J. Walton district 
attorney of the second judicial district; Tilman Ford 
district attorney of the third judicial district ; 0. Huma- 
son district attorney of the fifth judicial district; E. D. 
Shattuck judge of the fourth judicial district, and H. Y. 
Thompson district attorney. The Oregonian, then edited 
by William Lair Hill, supported the ticket nominated by 
this convention. In the state convention thirteen coun- 
ties were represented. 

The republican state convention met Wednesday, May 
3, 1876, at Portland, and nominated W. H. Odell, J. W. 
Watts, and J. C. Cartwight as presidential electors and 
Richard Williams for congress. It also nominated as 
district attorney of the first judicial district C. B.Watson ; 
second judicial district, W. B. Higby ; third judicial dis- 
trict, George H. Burnett ; fourth judicial district, Raleigh 
Stott ; fifth judicial district, S. B. Eakin ; and J. F. Wat- 
son judge of the second judicial district ; R. P. Boise 
judge of the third. The independent movement which 
was so strong in 1874 and which was mainly a protest 
against republican management, disappeared in the elec- 
tion in 1876. 

The union republican convention which convened on 
March 29, 1866, adopted a platform of nine resolutions. 
The first expressed abiding confidence in the justice, in- 



48 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

telligence, and patriotism of the people of the United 
States, and that they had firmness and wisdom to pre- 
serve the Union their valor had sustained ; the second 
recognized honest difference of opinion as to the best 
plan of reconstruction, but deprecated the obstinacy or 
pride of opinion that gave strength to the enemies of the 
Union through discord and division among its friends ; 
the third resolution expressed a desire for full recogni- 
tion of all the civil and political privileges of the states 
lately in revolt as soon as compatible with national safety 
and the protection of the loyal people in these states ; 
the fourth resolution reads as follows: "The name of 
the man or of the party that would propose to the nation 
to repudiate its just pecuniary obligations should be con- 
signed to everlasting infamy ;' the fifth expresses devo- 
tion to the soldiers and the cause for which they fought, 
and the sixth expresses a pledge to support the rights of 
the states in their domestic affairs, and at the same time 
a pledge to preserve the general government in its whole 
constitutional vigor ; the seventh declared that the doc- 
trine of nullification and secession held by the so-called 
democratic party is antagonistic to the perpetuity of the 
Union and destructive of the peace, order, and prosperity 
of the American people ; the eighth pledged the party 
to maintain the national Union, and the ninth opposed 
taxation of the sale of mineral lands. 

The democratic state convention which met April 5, 
1866, adopted a platform consisting of eleven resolutions, 
the first of which expressed devotion to equal and exact 
justice to all men ; support of the states in their rights 
and of the federal government in all its vigor ; a jealous 
care of the elective franchise ; supremacy of the civil over 
the military power ; expressed opposition to centralized 
power ; favored economy, education, morality, religious 
freedom, free speech, free press, and the writ of habeas 



POLITICAL HISTORY OP OREGON. 49 

corpus. The second denounced the majority in congress 
in its refusal to admit the representatives of eleven states ; 
sustained President Johnson in his controversy with the 
republican majority ; approved his veto of the f reed- 
men's bureau and civil rights bills. The third resolu- 
tion declared its sympathy with and support of President 
Johnson in his contest, and the fourth denounced the 
assumption that the democratic party was in. favor of 
repudiation, nullification, and secession as false and 
slanderous. The fifth resolution was in these words : 
^Resolved, That we indorse the sentiment of Senator 
Douglas that this government was made on a white basis 
for the benefit of the white man, and we are opposed to 
extending the right of suffrage to any other than white 
men.' The sixth denounced the exemption of United 
States bonds from taxation, and favored their full taxa- 
tion. The seventh condemned the protective tariff, and 
the eighth denounced the national banks and declared 
"that the existence of national banks after the experience 
we have had with and without them, especially in times 
of peace, is a subject of just alarm.' The ninth resolu- 
tion denounced the squandering of the public money by 
state officers. The tenth praises the patriotic soldiers of 
the war, but denounces the republican party as trying to 
turn the late war into a party triumph, and a war of 
conquest instead of the suppression of a rebellion ; a war 
for the negro instead of the white man. The eleventh 
resolution favors the free_use of mines. 

The union state convention which met March 25, 1868, 
instructed its delegates for Grant for president, and 
adopted a platform of nine resolutions. The first is ex- 
pressive of the duty to maintain the Union ; the second 
indorses the Thirteenth and Fourteenth amendments, 
and the reconstruction acts ; the third favors the admis- 

i 

4 



50 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

sion of the rebel states to representation as soon as it 
was safe so to do ; the fourth opposes the payment of the 
national debt, contracted in specie, in legal tender ; the 
fifth declares that congress had no right to interfere with 
the elective franchise where a state is represented in 
congress, and has a civil government not overthrown by 
rebellion ; the sixth demanded the protection of all citi- 
zens, native or naturalized ; the seventh encouraged for- 
eign immigration ; the eighth pledged its support to the 
soldiers and sailors, and favored liberal pensions ; and 
the ninth resolution favored liberal appropriations of 
land and money by the government to aid in the con- 
struction of railroads. 

The democratic state convention which convened on 
March 19, 1868, adopted a platform containing twelve 
resolutions, the first of which pledged the convention to 
adherence and unswerving fidelity to the time-honored 
principles of the party ; the second declared that the 
federal government was one of limited powers, defined 
by the constitution ; the third denied that the constitu- 
tion authorized congress to legislate upon internal affairs 
of the state ; and the subsequent portions of the plat- 
form, in substance, declared in favor of the maintenance 
of the constitution ; opposed to sharing with the servile 
races the priceless political heritage achieved alone by 
white men and by them transmitted to their posterity ; 
and declared that good faith and justice to all demands 
that the public debts should be paid in like currency as 
contracted, and that United States securities should be 
taxed as other property ; that taxation should be upon 
the property instead of the industries, and protested 
against the reconstruction acts ; condemned the usurpa- 
tion of the judiciary and executive by congress ; ex- 
pressed sympathy with the Irish people in their efforts 
to secure for themselves liberty, and declared that the 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 51 

government must protect alike native and naturalized 
citizens at home or abroad; resolved in favor of a ju- 
dicious system of railroad improvement in Oregon to 
develop the vast resources, and for this purpose asked 
congress to make liberal donations. This convention 
instructed its delegates for George H. Pendleton for 
president. 

The democratic state convention which met March 
23, 1870, adopted a lengthy platform of thirteen resolu- 
tions, in substance declaring the attachment of the party 
to the principles of the republic ; denouncing political 
partisans at Washington and the reconstruction measures 
as "a nefarious scheme, revolutionary in design, treason- 
able in execution.' It also condemned the then sena- 
tors as misrepresenting the wishes and outraging the 
sentiments of the people of the state ; denounced the 
bestowal of the elective franchise upon Indians, negroes, 
and Chinese, and denounced the ratification of the recent 
amendments to the constitution ; urged the repeal of the 
Burlingame treaty between the United States and China ; 
denounced special privileges as to burdens of taxation, 
and adopted the eighth resolution which reads, "that the 
continual payment of the semiannual interest on the 
bonded debt of the United States without abatement, to- 
gether with other numerous expenses for which the peo- 
ple are taxed, make a burden too intolerable to be borne 
without an effort to find some speedy measures of relief ;' 
that the amount of the bonded debt was increased more 
than twofold by the venal, illegal, and unjustifiable terms 
of its contraction, and that there was neither justice nor 
wisdom in the repeated payment of the principal by the 
continued payment of the interest ; that it is no part of 
good policy or good government to embarrass the ener- 
gies of all labor and all business enterprises by excessive 
and oppressive taxation for the exclusive benefit of a 



52 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

combination of un taxed capital; that to relieve the coun- 
try and restore prosperity we favor an equitable adjust- 
ment of the bonded debt of the United States. This 
resolution was challenged by the republicans as a direct 
expression of a desire to repudiate the national debt. 
The ninth resolution condemns the payment of bonds in 
specie and pensions in currency, and declared that "this 
evinces a design on the part of the moneyed aristocracy 
to influence the restablishment of a policy favoring the 
aggrandizement of the rich at the expense of the poor, 
a policy which has for its object the aggregation of wealth 
and power on the one hand, and misery, poverty, and 
slavery on the other, a policy fitted only to a monarchial 
form of government.' The platform closes by favoring a 
revenue tariff; denouncing protection for the sake of 
protection ; favoring the adoption of an amendment re- 
scinding the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments, and 
favoring land grants to railroads; it denounces the action 
of the governor and resigning members of the last leg- 
islature as a conspiracy to overthrow the state govern- 
ment and collect taxes to speculate in bonds, warrants, 
and other securities, and approved the action of the 
democratic members who strove to maintain the legis- 
lative session. 

The republican state convention which met April 7, 
1870, adopted its platform under the name of the "Union 
Republican Party,' and expressed its views in eleven 
resolutions. It declared its devotion to the Union ; fidel- 
ity to the constitution and amendments, and the laws 
of congress ; indorsed the administration of President 
Grant ; expressed confidence in the administration of 
our foreign relations, and especially in relation to our 
claim against Great Britian, and the fourth resolution 
was as follows : "We denounce all forms of repudiation 
as a national crime ; and the national honor requires 



POLITICAL HISTORY OP OREGON. 53 

the payment of the public indebtedness in the uttermost 
good faith to all creditors at home or abroad, not only 
according to the letter, but the spirit of the laws under 
which it was contracted. And for this purpose we favor 
strict economy in the administration of the national gov- 
ernment, and the application to such payment of all sur- 
plus revenue from whatever sources derived, and that 
taxation should be equalized and reduced as rapidly as 
the national faith will permit.' The platform expresses 
sympathy with men of all nationalities, striving for self- 
government ; opposes any change in the naturalization 
laws which shall admit to citizenship foreigners not now 
entitled thereto ; favors a judicious system of railroad 
and river improvements, and insists upon congress mak- 
ing liberal grants of aid ; favors a tariff for revenue with 
such discriminations in favor of domestic manufactures as 
will not diminish its efficiency for the purposes of reve- 
nue; favors universal amnesty to those people whose 
states have been restored to their full relations to the 
Union ; favors education and opposes any diversion of 
the common school funds to any other purpose than the 
support of the common schools. Declares that it recog- 
nizes in the union republican party the measures and 
men who saved the government from destruction, and 
that its continuance in power is the only safeguard to 
national peace and prosperity. 

The democratic state convention which met April 10, 
1872, adopted a platform of nine resolutions, in substance 
declaring in favor of a strict construction of the con- 
stitution ; the restoration of the states to their rights ; 
opposes corruption in all departments of the government ; 
declares against privileged classes or capital ; expresses 
its approval of a tariff to raise money only for the neces- 
sary expenses of the federal government, and not for 
benefit of monopolies. It condemns as unconstitutional 



54 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

the reconstruction and Ku Klux laws, and the fraud and 
corruption in the administration, and declares that the 
freedom, welfare, and rights of the people are superior to 
the interests of incorporations, and should be protected 
against the exactions of oppressive monopolies. It favors 
the appropriation of swamp land funds to internal im- 
provement and common schools, and indorses the con- 
struction of the locks at Oregon City, and favors like 
improvement of the Columbia River ; indorses the state 
administration in securing land grants that otherwise 
would have gone to corporations. 

The union republican state convention which convened 
March 20, 1872, adopted a platform consisting of fourteen 
resolutions. The first declares its fidelity to the consti- 
tution and its amendments ; commended the administra- 
tion of President Grant, and denounces all forms and 
degrees of repudiation of the national debt as affirmed 
by the democratic party and its sympathizers as not only 
national calamities, but positive crimes, and declared that 
its party would never consent to a suspicion of lack of 
honor or justice in the complete satisfaction of that debt. 
It recognized no distinction between native and foreign 
born citizens, and favored complete amnesty to all peo- 
ple of the states lately in rebellion ; favored the encour- 
agement of railroads by the general government of the 
United States and the disposal of the public domain so 
as to secure the same to actual settlers ; favored a reve- 
nue tariff with such adjustment of duties as gives liberal 
wages to labor and remunerative prices to agriculture ; 
condemns the expenditure of $200,000 of the common 
school fund on the locks at Oregon City ; condemns the 
last legislature in respect to the disposal of swamp lands, 
the increase of salaries of state and county officers, and 
the Portland charter bill ; favored a bounty of one hun- 
dred and sixty acres for each soldier ; demanded the 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 55 

repeal of the litigant act ; expressed its approval of aid 
from the federal government for the construction of a 
railroad from Portland, Oregon, to Salt Lake City, and 
from Jackson County to Humboldt County, California, 
and pledged its party representatives to support the 
same. It favored a discriminating license of the liquor 
traffic and national aid to build a wagon road from Port- 
land to The Dalles, and favored the continuance of its 
party in power. 

The democratic state convention which met March 18, 
1874, adopted a platform consisting of fourteen resolu- 
tions. The chairman of the committee on resolutions in 
that convention was C. B. Bellinger. It declared in favor 
of the rights of the states ; asserted that the danger of 
corruption in public office was the greatest issue, and 
that the cardinal principle of the party's future political 
action was "retrenchment, economy, and reform," and 
that this was imperatively demanded ; opposed the so- 
called "salary grab,' the actions of ring politicians and 
land monopolies, and appealed to honest men every- 
where, without regard to past political affiliations, to 
join the representatives of the party in branding, as they 
deserved, "these corrupt leeches on the body politic, and 
assist us to purge official stations of their unwholesome 
and baneful presence.' It condemned the national ad- 
ministration and federal interference at the polls ; favored 
the regulation and control of corporations by the legisla- 
ture, and declared in favor of a speedy return to specie 
payments, just and equal taxation for support of federal 
and state governments, and opposed all discrimination in 
the assessment of federal revenue for the purposes of pro- 
tection ; favored free navigation and improvement of the 
Columbia and the construction of a breakwater at Port 
Orford, improvement of the Coquille and Willamette 
rivers, and the construction of a railroad from Portland 



56 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

to Salt Lake City and an early completion of the Oregon 
and California Railroad to the state line. The platform 
approved the "Patrons of Husbandy," commonly known 
as the "Grange," and opposed schoolbook monopolies; 
favored the reduction of fees of clerks and sheriffs, and 
an amendment to the state constitution permitting the 
state printing to be let to the highest bidder, and favored 
the retention of the litigant act. It opposed the state 
buying, leasing, or speculating in anything not directly 
belonging to the state's business ; favored the construc- 
tion of a wagon road from Portland to The Dalles, and 
congressional aid to build the railroad from Portland to 
Salt Lake, and for continuation of the Oregon Central 
from St. Joseph to Junction City. 

The republican platform adopted April 8, 1874, con- 
sisted of fifteen resolutions, and was a general eulogy of 
honest government ; defined and declared the uses of a 
political party, and the necessity therefor; expressed a 
desire to control corporate franchises ; opposed interfer- 
ence by state officials with conventions ; demanded po- 
litical reform and honest economy ; sympathized with 
the agricultural classes ; demanded congressional aid for 
rivers and harbors and liberal grants of public land in 
the aid of the construction of railroads and other public 
works, and particularly of the railroad from Portland to 
Salt Lake, the construction of the Oregon Central from 
St. Joseph to Junction City, the improvement of the Wil- 
lamette River, and congressional aid for a wagon road 
from Rogue-river Valley to the coast and Portland to The 
Dalles ; opposed the purchase or lease of the locks at 
Oregon City ; favored the repeal of the litigant law, 
Portland charter, and the law for the increase of salaries 
and. the schoolbook monopoly; favored the payment of 
the expenses or claims growing out of the Indian wars 
in 1872 and 1873 in Southern Oregon, and favored the 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 57 

regulation of the sale of liquor so as to restrain abuses, 
and favored the opening of the Wallowa Valley to settle- 
ment. 

The independent state convention which convenec). on 
April 15, 1874, adopted a platform consisting of fifteen 
resolutions, and condemned the extravagance of the state 
and national administrations, and declared that there 
was no ground to hope for a remedy for these evils 
through the agencies of the two political parties that 
had heretofore ruled the country. It condemned the 
multiplication of offices, state and national ; favored 
means, both state and national, which would give cheap 
transportation, and to this end favored the construction 
of a railroad to Salt Lake and the completion of the Ore- 
gon and California Railroad to the south line of the state; 
the construction of the Oregon Central from St. Joseph 
to Junction City, and the completion of the same to 
Astoria ; the construction of roads across the mountain 
chains ; the wagon road from The Dalles to Portland, 
and demanded that freight rates should be fixed by law, 
state and national ; that there should be a return to the 
salaries of the constitution, and a repeal of the law in- 
creasing the same ; and a law protecting the state against 
the extravagant charges of the state printer. It declared 
itself in favor of the common schools and the repeal of 
the schoolbook monopoly and litigant act ; it opposed 
the purchase of the locks at Oregon City ; condemned 
the swamp land legislation and the lease of the lands 
thereunder ; declared that personal character was the 
test of fitness for office ; expressed its desire to regulate 
the liquor traffic by local precinct option and civil dam- 
age laws, and noted, with approval, the uprising of the 
agricultural masses. 

At this time the Portland Bulletin was published as a 
daily paper at Portland, Oregon, in opposition to the 



58 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

Oregon i an, and was considered the regular organ of the 
republican party, and was edited by James O'Meara. 

The democratic state convention which met April 26, 
1876, adopted a platform consisting of three resolutions. 
It declared for the common schools ; for religious free- 
dom ; commended the lower house of congress for its 
reforms, and reaffirmed the democratic platform for the 
year 1874. 

The republican state convention which met May 3, 
1876, adopted a platform consisting of nine resolutions, 
declaring its fidelity to the constitution and the Union ; 
in favor of the preservation of the liberties of the people 
and the impartial administration of the laws ; economy 
in public office and in favor of public schools, protective 
tariff, specie payment, and approved the resumption act; 
favored the prosecution of all criminals, having special 
reference to the star route and whisky ring, and other 
scandals exposed by the democratic congress ; demanded 
national candidates of tried integrity and in accord with 
the fruits of the war ; denounced the present state ad- 
ministration, which had contracted a debt of $300,000. 
. It is thus seen that from 1865 up to 1874 the issues 
which divided the people into two political parties were 
practically those which grew out of the results of the 
civil war and the legislation following the adoption of 
the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments 
to the constitution. It was not till 1874 that the old 
issues which had hitherto divided the political parties of 
the nation and state since 1861 ceased to be vital. The 
period from 1865 to 1876, embraced in this paper, wit- 
nessed that bitterness of political controversy and division 
of the people growing out of the great issues settled by 
the civil war and developed by the legislation rendered 
necessary thereby. 

It has not been the purpose in this paper to give ex- 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 69 

pression of approval or disapproval to any political event, 
platform, or action during the period named. The pur- 
pose has been to record the chief events of a political 
character, and to take note of some of the men who were 
active in the public affairs of this state during that time. 



APPENDIX A. 

LEGISLATURE OF 1866. 

The members of the senate were as follows: 
Baker S. Ison. 
Benton J. R. Bayley. 
Clackamas W. C. Johnson. 
Grant L. O. Stearns. 
Jackson J. N. T. Miller. 
Lane H. C. Huston. 
Linn R. H. Crawford, William Cyrus. 
Marion Samuel Brown, J. C. Cartwright 
Multnomah J. N. Dolph, David Powell. 
Polk W. D. Jeffries. 
Umatilla N. Ford. 

The following- senators held over from the session of 1864: 
Baker and Umatilla James M. Pyle. 
Douglas James Watson. 
Douglas, Coos, and Curry G. S. Hinsdale. 
Josephine C. M. Caldwell. 
Lane S. B. Cranston. 
Wasco Z. Donnell. 

Washington, Columbia, Clatsop and Tillamook T. R. Cornelius. 
Yamhill Joel Palmer. 

Members of the house: 
Baker A. C. Loring. 
Baker and Union W. C. Hindman. 
Benton F. A. Chenoweth, James Gingles. 
Clackamas J. D. Locey, J. D. Garrett, W. A. Starkweather. 
Clatsop, Columbia, and Tillamook Cyrus Olney. 
Coos and Curry F. G. Lockhart. 
Douglas B. Hermann, James Cole, M. M. Melvin. 
Grant Thomas H. Brentz, M. M. McKean. 



60 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

Jackson E. D. Foudray, Giles Welles, John E. Ross. 
Josephine Isaac Fox. 

Lane John Whiteaker J. E. P. Withers, R. B. Cochran. 
Linn E. B. Moore, G. R. Helm, J. Q. A. Worth, J. R. South, 

W. C. Baird. 
Marion J. I. O. Nicklin, W. E. Parris, C. B. Roland, L. S. Davis, 

B. A. Witzell. 
Multnomah W. W. Upton, A. Rosenheim, J. P. Garlick, John 

S. White. 

Polk J. Stouffer, J. J. Dempsey, William Hall. 
Umatilla T. W. Avery, H. A. Gehr. 
Union James Hendershott. 
Wasco O. Humason, F. T. Dodge. 
Washington G. C. Day, A. Hinman. 
Yamhill J. Lamson, R. R. Laughlin. 

LEGISLATURE OF 1868. 

SENATE. 

Newly elected members : 

Clackamas D. P. Thompson. 

Douglas, Coos, and Curry B. Hermann, C. M. Persh baker. 

Josephine B. F. Holtzclaw. 

Lane R. B. Cochran. 

Marion Samuel Miller. 

Multnomah Lansing Stout. 

Polk B. F. Burch. 

Union James Hendershott. 

Wasco Victor Trevitt. 

Washington, Columbia, Clatsop and Tillamook T. R. Cornelius. 

Yamhill S. C. Adams. 

Hold overs : 

Baker S. Ison. 

Benton J. R. Bayley. 

Grant John A. Dribblesby. 

Jackson J. N. T. Miller. 

Lane H. C. Huston. 

Linn William Cyrus, R. H. Crawford. 

Marion Samuel Brown. 

Multnomah David Powell. 

Umatilla N. Ford. 

HOUSE. 

Baker R. Beers. 

Baker and Union D. R. Benson. 

Benton J. C. Alexander. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 61 

Clackamas J. W. Garrett, D. P. Trullinger. 

Columbia, Clatsop, and Tillamook W. D. Hoxter. 

Coos and Curry Richard Pendergast. 

Douglas John G. Flook, James F. Gazley, James Applegate. 

Grant R. W. Neal, Thomas E. Gray. 

Jackson J. B. White, Thomas Smith, J. L. Louden. 

Josephine Isaac Cox. 

Lane John Whiteaker, H. H. Gilfrey, E. N. Tandy. 

Linn John T. Crooks, John Bryant, B. B. Johnson, W. F. Alex- 
ander, T. J. Stites. 

Marion John F. Denny, J. B. Lichten thaler, T. W. Davenport, 
John Minto, David Simpson. 

Multnomah W. W. Chapman, T. A. Davis, James Powell. 

Polk R. J. Grant, F. Waymire, Ira S. Townsend. 

Umatilla A. L. Kirk. 

Union H. Rhinehart. 

Wasco D. W. Butler, George J. Ryan. 

Washington John A. Taylor, Edward Jackson. 

Yamhill W. W. Brown, G. W. Burnett. 

LEGISLATURE OF 1870. 

SENATE. 

Newly elected members : 
Baker A. H. Brown. 
Grant J. W. Baldwin. 
Jackson James D. Fay. 
Lane A. W. Patterson. 
Linn Enoch Hoult, R. H. Crawford. 
Marion Samuel Brown, John H. Moores. 
Multnomah David Powell. 
Umatilla T. T. Lieuallen. 

Hold overs : 

Clackamas D. P. Thompson. 

Douglas, Coos, and Curry C. M. Pershbaker. 

Josephine B. F. Holtzclaw. 

Lane R. B. Cochran. 

Multnomah L. Stout. 

Union J. Hendershott. 

Wasco Victor Trevitt. 

Washington, Columbia, Clatsop and Tillamook T. R. Cornelius. 

HOUSE. 

Baker H. Porter. 

Baker and Union J. R. McLain. 



62 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

Benton W. J. Kelly, W. J. Dunn. 

Clackamas J. T. Apperson, W. A. Starkweather, P. Paquet. 

Clatsop C. Olney. 

Coos and Curry P. G. Lockhart. 

Douglas C. M. Caldwell, J. C. Hutchinson, J. C. Drain. 

Grant J. M. McCoy, W. H. Clark. 

Jackson J. Rader, A. J. Burnett, J. Wells. 

Josephine A. L. Waldron. 

Lane John Whiteaker, G. B. Dorris, J. P. Amis. 

Linn W. P. Alexander, Thos. Hunkers, J. Ostrander, W. S. 

Elkins, Geo. R. Helm. 
Marion W. R. Dunbar, J. M. Harrison, T. W. Davenport, Geo. 

P. Holman, R. P. Earhart. 
Multnomah D. O'Regan, J. W. Whalley, L. P. W. Quimby, J. 

C. Carson. 

Polk W. Comegys, R. J. Grant, B. Hayden. 
Umatilla P. A. Dashiel, J. Thompson. 
Union J. T. Hunter. 
Wasco O. S. Savage, J. Pulton. 
Washington W. A. Mills, W. D. Hare. 
Yamhill L. Laughlin, A. Hussey. 

LEGISLATURE OP 1872. 

SENATE. 

Newly elected members: 
Clackamas John Myers. 

Douglas, Coos, and Curry J. P. Watson, G. Webster. 
Josephine E. N. Tolen. 
Lane W. W. Bristow. 
Multnomah J. N. Dolph. 
Polk R. S. Crystal. 
Union Samuel Hannah. 
Wasco William Monroe. 

Washington, Columbia, Clatsop and Tillamook T. R. Cornelius. 
Yamhill J. W. Cowles. 

Hold overs: 

Baker Albert H. Brown. 

Benton R. S. Strahan. 

Grant J. W. Baldwin. 

Jackson James D. Fay. 

Lane A. W. Patterson. 

Linn R. H. Crawford, Enoch Hoult. 

Marion Samuel Brown, J. H. Moores. 

Multnomah David Powell. 

Umatilla T. T. Lieuallen. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 63 

HOUSE. 

Baker J. B. Onstein. 

Baker and Union Dunham Wright. 

Benton James Gingles, Benjamin Simpson. 

Clackamas L. T. Barin, J. D. Crawford, N. N. Matlock. 

Clatsop John West. 

Clatsop, Columbia, and Tillamook Samuel Corwin. 

Columbia Thomas Hodgkins. 

Coos and Curry M. Rlley. 

Douglas G. W. Riddle, James T. Cooper, D. Bushey. 

Grant C. N. Thornbury, S. R. Johnson. 

Jackson Eli C. Mason, E. Walker, Nathaniel Langell. 

Josephine A. L. Waldon. 

Lane N. Martin, C. W. Washburn, A. S. Powers. 

Linn James Blakeley, R. B. Willoughby, N. H. Cranor, J. T. 

Crooks, H. Shelton. 
Marion Rufus Mallory, John Downing, T. McP. Patton, Joseph 

Engle, Wm. Darst. 

Multnomah J. B. Congle, J. P. Caples, Sol Hirsch, J. D. Biles. 
Polk J. H. White, J. C. Allen, R. Clow. 
Umatilla George A. LaDovv. James Curran. 
Union O. D. Andrews. 
Wasco T. J. Stephenson, R. Grant. 
Washington Thomas A. Stott, G. H. Collier. 
Yamhill A. R. Burbank, T. R. Harrison. 

LEGISLATURE OF 1874. 

SENATE. 

Newly elected members : 
Baker John W. Wisdom. 
Benton J. B. Lee. 
Benton and Polk A. M. Witham. 
Clackamas J. W. Offield. 

Clatsop, Columbia, and Tillamook S. H. Smith. 
Douglas W. F. Owens. 
Grant William H. Clark. 
Jackson John S. Herrin. 
Lane R. B. Cochran. 

Linn S. D. Haley, Thomas R. Munkers, T. P. Goodman. 
Marion James A. Richardson, M. L. Savage, Joseph Engle. 
Multnomah Sol Hirsch, J. S. M. Van Cleave. 
Umatilla Charles L. Jewell. 
Wasco Elisha Barnes. 
Yamhill William Townsend, J. C. Braly. 



64 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

Hold overs: 

Clackamas John Myers. 

Douglas, Coo*, and Curry J. F. Watson, G. Webster. 

Josephine E. N. Tolin. 

Lane W. W. Bristow. 

Multnomah J. N. Dolph. 

Polk R. S. Crystal. 

Union Samuel Hannah. 

Washington T. R. Cornelius. 

HOUSE. 

Baker C. G. Chandler, J. C. Wilson. 

Benton James Bruce, W. J. Kelly, James Chambers. 

Clackamas P. S. Noyer, J. M. Reed, Henry McGugin, S. P. Lee. 

Columbia J. S. Rinearson. 

Coos John P. Dully. 

Coos and Curry H. Blake. 

Clatsop and Tillamook W. R. Deane. 

Douglas G. W. Riddle. John C. Drain, Thomas Legerwood, 

D. W. Stearns. 
Grant Bart Curl (contested). 

Jackson William J. Plymale, G. B. Van Riper, Thos. Wright. 
Josephine William Fidler. 

Lane A. J. Doak, J. D. Matlock, John McClung. 
Linn Joseph Lane, Jonathan Wassom, Harvey Shelton, Frank 

Shedd, G. F. Crawford, A. W. Stanard. 
Marion C. A. Reed, David Simpson, Warren Cranston, William 

Darst, F. X. Matthieu, A. N. Gilbert. 
Multnomah William Cornell, R. S. Jewett, Jacob Johnson, R. 

Stott, John M. Gearin, P. Kelly. 
Polk David Stump, T. L. Butler, W. C. Brown. 
Umatilla T. Roe, U. Jackson, J. M. Partlow. 
Union Dunham Wright, W. W. Ross. 
Wasco E. B. Dufur, Robert Mays. 
Yamhill Lee Laughlin, E. C. Bradshaw, William Galloway. 

LEGISLATURE OF 1876. 

SENATE. 

Newly elected members: 

Benton and Polk J. S. Palmer. 
Clackamas John Myers. 
Coos and Curry A. G. Brown. 
Douglas James Applegate, G. W. Colvig. 
Josephine D. L. Green. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 65 

Lane John Whiteaker. 

Linn S. D. Haley. 

Multnomah T. A. Davis, M. C. George. 

Polk L. Bently. 

Union M. Jasper. 

Wasco and Lake S. G. Thompson. 

Washington A. S. Watt. 

Yamhill E. C. Bradshaw. 

Hold overs : 

Baker J. W. Wisdom. 

Benton J. B. Lee. 

Clackamas J. W. Offield. 

Grant W. H. Clark. 

Jackson John S. Herrin. 

Lane R. B. Cochran. 

Linn T. R. Munkers, T. P. Goodman. 

Marion M. L. Savage, J. A. Richardson, Joseph Engle. 

Multnomah J. S. M. Van Cleave. 

Umatilla C. L. Jewell. 

Yamhill J. C. Braly. 

HOUSE. 

Baker A. J. Lawrence, I. D. Haines. 

Benton J. T. Hughes, R. A. Bensell, James Chambers. 

Clackamas J. M. Read, H. Straight, Jr., J. W. Cochran, Henry 

Will. 

Columbia T. A. McBride. 
Clatsop and Tillamook R. W. Wilson. 
Coos R. H. Rosa. 
Coos and Curry E. J. Gould. 
Douglas W. F. Benjamin, E. A. Kirkpatrick, W. P. T. Grubbe, 

M. M. Melvin. 
Grant F. Winnegar. 
Jackson Joseph Grain, J. M. McCall. 
Josephine W. W. Fidler. 

Lane A. D. Burton. R. B. Hayes, Rodney Scott, Allen Bond. 
Linn A. W. Stanard, T. L. Porter, J. T. Crooks, John Sumner, 

J. K. Weatherford, B. R. Grimes. 
Marion Stephen Smith, F. R. Smith, A. N. Gilbert, D. Payton, 

H. K. Hunsaker, William Porter. 
Multnomah R. H. Love, B. Z. Holmes, William Cornell, Gideon 

Tibbetts, J. M. Scott, D. Goodsell, J. B. Roberts. 
Polk Stephen Staats, T. J. Hayter, J. B. Stump. 
Umatilla J. L. Morrow, W. S. Goodman. 
Union M. W. Mitchell, R. D. Ruckman. 
5 



66 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

Wasco J. H. Mosier, D. W. Butler. 

Washington E. E. Fanning, D. M. C. Gault, C. T. Tozier. 

Yamhill William D. Fenton, J. L. Ferguson, J. J. Henderson. 

General summary of taxable property for the years 
1858 to 1875, inclusive : 

1858 $ 22,824,118 00 

1859 24, 181 , 669 15 

1860 23, 886,951 00 

1861 21,288,931 00 

1862 19, 866, 125 50 

1863 20,911,931 47 

1864 22, 188, 153 48 

1865 24,872,762 24 

1866 - 25,560,312 63 

1867 25, 893, 469 75 

1868 26,746,862 25 

1869 26, 919, 097 75 

1870 29, 587, 846 25 

1871 - 34,744,459 75 

1872 37, 174, 168 94 

1873 40, 700, 159 00 

1874 40, 494, 236 00 

1875 41,436,086 00 

OFFICIAL ELECTION RETURNS, JUNE 5, 1866. 

Congressman Rufus Mallory, republican, ten thou- 
sand three hundred and sixty -two votes ; James D. Fay, 
democrat, nine thousand eight hundred and nine votes. 
Governor George L. Woods, republican, ten thousand 
three hundred and sixteen votes ; James K. Kelly, dem- 
ocrat, ten thousand and thirty-nine votes. Secretary of 
State Samuel E. May, republican, ten thousand three 
hundred and eighty-seven votes ; Lafayette Lane, demo- 
crat, nine thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven 
votes. State Treasurer E. N. Cooke, republican, ten 
thousand three hundred and sixty-seven votes ; John C. 
Bell, democrat, nine thousand eight hundred and seventy- 
four votes. State Printer W. A. McPherson, republi- 
can, ten thousand four hundred and thirteen votes ; 
James O'Meara, democrat, nine thousand six hundred 
and forty-six votes. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 67 

GENERAL ELECTION JUNE 1, 1868. 

Congressman Jos. S. Smith, democrat, eleven thou- 
sand seven hundred and fifty-four votes ; David Logan, 
republican, ten thousand five hundred and fifty-five votes. 

Legislature in 1866 Senate : fourteen republicans, 
eight democrats; house: twenty-four republicans, twenty 
three democrats ; republican majority on joint ballot, 
seven . 

On March 21, 1868, it was advertised in the Daily Ore- 
gonian that five hundred and twenty-five miles of the 
Union Pacific railroad, running west from Omaha, had 
been completed, and that it was expected that the road 
would be completed and opened to the Pacific Coast 
in 1870. 

Legislative assembly for 1868 Republicans, senate, 
nine ; house, seventeen ; democrats, senate, thirteen ; 
house, thirty. Democratic majority on joint ballot, sev- 
enteen. 

At the general election in 1868 David Logan received 
one thousand one hundred and twenty-one votes, and 
Joseph Smith one thousand one hundred and eighty-one 
votes in Multnomah County. The presidential election 
was held November 3, 1868, the republican electors re- 
ceiving ten thousand nine hundred and sixty votes, and 
the democratic receiving eleven thousand one hundred 
and twenty-five votes. Total vote in June, 1868, twenty- 
two thousand three hundred and sixty-nine ; total vote 
in November, 1868, twenty-two thousand and eighty-five ; 
total vote in November, 1864, eighteen thousand three 
hundred and forty-five. 

At the general election held June 6, 1870, Joseph G. 
Wilson, republican candidate for congressman, received 
eleven thousand two hundred and forty-five votes; James 
H. Slater, democrat, eleven thousand five hundred and 



68 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

eighty-eight votes. Gen. Joel Palmer, republican can- 
didate for governor, received eleven thousand and ninety 
five votes ; L. F. Grover, democrat, eleven thousand 
seven hundred and sixty -two votes. James Elkins, re- 
publican candidate for secretary of state, eleven thousand 
one hundred and forty-two ; S. F. Chad wick, democrat, 
eleven thousand six hundred and fifty -five votes. E. 
Hirsch, republican, state treasurer, ten thousand nine 
hundred and sixty-nine votes ; L. Fleischner, democrat, 
eleven thousand five hundred and ninety -three votes. 
State printer, H. R. Kincaid, republican, eleven thou- 
sand one hundred and fifty-eight votes ; Thomas Patter- 
son, democrat, eleven thousand five hundred and fifty- 
nine votes. At this election A. J. Thayer, democrat, 
was elected judge of the second judicial district by eighty- 
six majority ; R. P. Boise, republican, judge of the third 
judicial district, eighteen majority ; L. L. McArthur, 
democrat, judge fifth judicial district, six hundred and 
seventy-eight majority; H. K. Hanna, democrat, dis- 
trict attorney first judicial district, one hundred and 
ninety-six majority ; C. W. Fitch, democrat, district at- 
torney second judicial district, sixty majority ; N. L. 
Butler, democrat, district attorney third judicial district, 
one hundred and nine majority; A. C. Gibbs, republi- 
can, district attorney fourth judicial district, four hun- 
dred and twelve majority; W. B. Las well, democrat, 
district attorney fifth judicial district, six hundred and 
sixty-nine majority. 

At the general election held June 3, 1872, John Bur- 
nett, democrat, congressman, received twelve thousand 
three hundred and thirty-seven votes ; Joseph G. Wilson, 
republican, thirteen thousand one hundred and eighty- 
seven votes. Total vote in* June, 1872, twenty-five thou- 
sand five hundred and four ; total vote in November, 
1872, nineteen thousand and forty-nine. Legislative 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 69 

assembly, 1872 Senate: republicans, twelve; house, 
thirty-two; democrats, senate, ten; house, seventeen. 
Republican majority on joint ballot, seventeen. At that 
election Wilson received two thousand and eighty-four 
votes in Multnomah County ; John Burnett, one thou- 
sand one hundred and eighty-five votes. Joseph N. 
Dolph, state senator, one thousand nine hundred and 
sixty-five votes ; Al Zieber, democrat, one thousand one 
hundred and seventy votes. Presidential election No- 
vember 5, 1872 : Grant electors, eleven thousand eight 
hundred and eighteen votes ; Greeley electors, seven 
thousand seven hundred and forty-two votes ; 'Con- 
ner, five hundred and eighty-seven votes. State election 
June 1, 1874 L. F. Grover, democrat, governor, nine 
thousand seven hundred and thirteen votes: J. C. Tol- 

t 

man, republican, nine thousand one hundred and thirteen 
votes, and T. F. Campbell, independent, six thousand five 
hundred and thirty-two votes. State election June 5, 
1876 No state or congressional candidate voted for, but 
on November 7, 1876, Richard Williams was elected to 
congress, receiving fifteen thousand three hundred and 
forty-seven votes, over Lafayette Lane, democrat, receiv- 
ing fourteen thousand two hundred and twenty-nine 
votes. The republican electors at the same election 
received fifteen thousand two hundred and six votes ; 
democratic electors, fourteen thousand one hundred and 
thirty-six votes. 

Population of Oregon February 12, 1859, fifty-two 
thousand four hundred and sixty-five. Census 1870, 
ninety thousand seven hundred and seventy-six. Port- 
land; Oregon, in 1860, had two thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-eight and in 1870 eight thousand two hundred 
and ninety-three inhabitants. Assessed value of the 
State of Oregon, 1860, $19,024,915; in 1870, $31,798,- 



70 WILLIAM D. FENTON. 

510. Miles of railroad in Oregon in 1860, four ; in .1863, 
four ; in 1866 to 1869, nineteen ; in 1870, one hundred 
and fifty-nine. 

In 1875 Henry Warren, republican, congressman, re- 
ceived nine thousand one hundred and six and Lafayette 
Lane, democrat, nine thousand three hundred and sev- 
enty-three votes. In 1873 Hiram Smith, republican, re- 
ceived six thousand one hundred and twenty-three and 
J. W. Nesmith, democrat, eight thousand one hundred 
and ninety-four votes. 



NOTE. It has been stated in the first paper ( page 334, December Quarterly) 
that John R. McBride was the republican nominee for the first congressman for 
Oregon at the election in 1858, but that he was defeated by L. P. Grover. While 
he was the republican nominee as stated, he was not defeated by Mr. Grover. 
The republicans practically withdrew his name from the election, and threw their 
votes to James K. Kelley, who had been nominated by the National democrats. 
The contest was practically between two democrats. Grover receiving five 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine votes, Kelley, four thousand one hundred 
and ninety. Bancroft, speaking of this incident, says: "At the election in 1858, 
there were three parties in the field; Oregon democrats, National democrats, and 
republicans. The National faction could not get beyond a protest against tyran- 
ny. It nominated J. K. Kelley for representative in congress, and E. M. Barnum 
for governor. The republicans nominated an entire ticket, with John R. McBride 
for congressman, and John Denny for governor. Feeling that the youth and in- 
experience of these candidates could not hope to win against the two democratic 
candidates, the republicans, with the consent of McBride, voted for Kelley, whom 
they liked and whom they hoped not only to elect, but to bring over to their par- 
ty. Bancroft's Works, vol. 30, page 430. 



From "Recollections of Seventy Years," by William Barlow. 

Quite a remarkable coincidence in name and purpose 
is evident from the facts that Dr. Samuel K. Barlow of 
Massachusetts was the first man to propose a transcon- 
tinental railroad across the Rocky Mountains, and that 
Samuel K. Barlow of Kentucky, a generation later, pro- 
posed and executed the first wagon road over the Cascade 
Mountains, thus completing the circuit of one third of the 
land circumference of the globe. The life action of the 
latter fully realized the thought of the former. 

Samuel Kimbrough Barlow was of Scotch descent and 
was imbued with the spirit of that type of men who fear 
not. In 1844 he worked with might and main to elect 
the great Kentuckian, whom the nation failed to honor. 
Failure with Mr. Barlow was not dispair, but renewed 
and tactful ardor. He was a whole emergency corps in 
himself. The nation failed to elect Clay, so Mr. Barlow 
declared his determination to go where he could not feel 
the force of the failure. 

Illinois became the stepping stone to the final goal 
Oregon. S. K. Barlow was captain of one of the large 
immigration companies of 1845. Five thousand men, 
women, and children moved out of Independence, Mis- 
souri, westward bound, armed with the spirit of the name 
of the lonely little town left behind. There were about 
one thousand wagons, all under the leadership of Dr. 
William Welch. But independence soon prevailed and 
each little company became a law unto itself. At Fort 



72 MARY S. BARLOW. 

Hall about half the wagons parted from those destined 
for California and continued on without unusual incident 
to The Dalles, Oregon. This was the supposed terminus 
of the wagon road for all time. An Indian trail was 
known and used by many for the transportation of house- 
hold goods, etc., by pack horses, or for cattle droves, but 
no man had been courageous enough to undertake the 
supposed impossible journey. Captain Barlow was out- 
spoken in his determination to try the untried mountain 
passes. He said : "God never made a mountain that he 
had not made a place for some man to go over it or under 
it. I am going to hunt for that place, but I ask no one 
who feels in the least the force of the word 'can't' to 
accompany me.' Members of his own family had implicit 
faith in his ability to find what he sought, so did not 
hesitate to follow. The Barlows had plenty of provisions 
to last two months, their cattle and horses were in good 
condition, and there was money enough to furnish any 
comfort necessary for a continuance of the time and dis- 
tance if courage sanctioned inclination. 

At last the start was made, about the first of October, 
1845. Those who signified their willingness to try the 
untried with Mr. Barlow were his wife, Susannah Lee, 
his eldest son William, aged twenty-two, James and 
John Lawson Barlow, two younger sons, Mrs. Sarah 
Barlow-Gaines, her husband, Albert Gaines, and their 
two daughters, now Mrs. Rhinehart of Seattle, and Mrs. 
G. B. Curry of La Grande, and Miss Jane Barlow, after- 
wards Mrs. A. F. Hedges. Those who joined the Bar- 
lows were William Rector and wife, Mr. Gessner and 
wife, J. C. Caplinger and wife, John Bacon, William 
Berry, and several children. The entire party numbered 
nineteen men and women, besides children. Their able 
assistants were seven horses, thirteen wagons, sixteen 
yoke of cattle, and one dog. The party drove to Five 



HISTORY OF THE BARLOW ROAD. 73 

Mile Creek, where water and grass were plentiful for 
stock, and here they halted several days for rest and 
repairs. 

During the stay here Samuel K. Barlow left for a recon- 
noitering trip. A low sink w^as observed from the Blue 
Mountains, and to that point the observing pioneer di- 
rected his attention. After several days' absence, he 
returned full of dauntless courage to proceed. Mr. Wm. 
H. Rector then volunteered to accompany Mr. Barlow 
and help make the preliminary surveys of the untried 
route. "You are just the man I need,' Mr. Barlow said. 
"You are young, stout, .and resolute; so come right 
along.' The teams were in fine condition, hopes were 
buoyant, and "On, on," were the watchwords. The pro- 
visions and tools were divided so all could fare alike, we 
started. A drive of twenty-five or thirty miles brought 
us to Tygh Valley, where we rested a day and prepared 
for the trying ordeal of the next few days. From our 
captain's report we knew a long hill, a deep canyon, and 
a long stretch of dry land lay in front of us. The old gent 
quietly determined to take us beyond these barriers him- 
self, feeling that once beyond them, the memory would 
not only deter us from a desire of retracing our steps, but 
rather encourage a forward movement. Plenty of wood 
and water would then be on every hand. At this point 
it was determined that Mr. Barlow and Mr. Rector should 
leave us for another contemplated reconnoitering move- 
ment. Armed with an ax, a gun, a few blankets, light 
provisions, and plenty of resolute will, the two pathfind- 
ers struck out to strike the first steel blade into the pri- 
meval forest of the Cascade Mountains. The remainder 
of the party was divided into two forces ; one, a working 
party of about ten men and boys, was to cut out the road 
after the blazers ; the other, composed of the women and 
children and two boys to assist, was to follow the road 



74 MARY S. BARLOW. 

builders. The greatest deficiency we felt was the lack 
of good tools. Old rusty axes and saws, young and ten- 
der muscles, and big trees were quite incompatible. But 
pluck and necessity compelled action, so we hacked away 
and went on. The east side of the Cascades is but slightly 
timbered ; our teams passed around and under the pine 
and hemlock trees with ease, but on the west side the 
trees were thick and the underbrush made every yard or 
foot even an impassable barrier to our wagons, till ax, 
saw, or fire demolished or burned the barriers away. 

Days and weeks passed and no tidings of the road 
hunters came. Our men had cut to the head or source 
of the Little Des Chutes River, close to Mount Hood. The 
wagons had advanced but twelve miles. We stopped at 
the long but not very steep hill and waited for the road 
hunters to return to give us hopeful prospects, for we 
did not wish to descend it for fear we might have to 
ascend it again if the fiat were to be, "Thus far and no 
farther." 

The spot where we waited and rested was most beau- 
tiful. But for our anxiety for the absent pathfinders, 
our fears of the winter snows coming on, and the fast 
diminishing supply ofwhat we considered our ample sup- 
ply of provisions, we should have enjoyed the panorama 
like a Mazama. Our anxiety was of short duration, how- 
ever, for about dark a few davs after our halt rifle shots 

tf 

heralded the approach of those whom we awaited. The 
return salute from half a dozen rifles made the woods 
ring for miles around. " Tallows" were lighted and men, 
women, and children went with a rush to meet the stal- 
wart pioneers and learn the fate of future movements. 
Greetings over, the first thing the old gent said was, 
"Don't give us much to eat; a little coffee must be 
food and stimulant too.' Mr. Rector said: "Speak 
for yourself, Barlow ; I am going to eat whatever my 



HISTORY OF THE BARLOW ROAD. 75 

good wife will cook for me at this late hour. You 
would not let me eat those big snails, nor eat you, so 
now I'm going to do as I please.' Mrs. Rector, how- 
ever, did not please to be over lavish in her supply for 
that meal, so no disaster followed. 

In the morning all gathered around to hear the result 
of the advance expedition. Mr. Rector spoke first and 
said: "We have found a good route for a road, but it 
will be a very hazardous journey this time of the year. 
I dread the possibility of the danger for my wife, so we 
have concluded to return to The Dalles.' Mr. Barlow, 
wishing to allay fear and dread on the part of others, 
spoke quickly, "Mr. Rector, you are at liberty to do as 
you please. If I had any fears of losing any of my com- 
pany on account of the road, I would not say 'Go' to 
any of them ; but I know we can go on from here and 
reach the summit of the Cascades, the mountains we 
have started in to overcome. If we can not go on from 
there we will build a cache for our surplus wagons and 
baggage and leave two of our trusty young men to guard 
them. We, ourselves, will follow the trail we have just 
made, and soon reach the civilization of the Northwest.' 
All except Mr. Rector and wife determined to advance, 
and preparations began at once. Wm. Berry and Wm. 
Barlow agreed to take charge of the wagons until the 
condition of the weather and road would permit their 
being brought out. 

It was now late in November. The snow was liable 
to blockade us at any day, so it was decided to send the 
cattle over the Indian trial at once. Wm. Barlow was 
to accompany James A. Barlow and John L. Barlow over 
the mountain as far as the main Sandy road. Here he 
would procure what supplies he could and return to the 
hungry men and women in the mountains. The old 
Indian trail was marked out by the Indians regardless 



76 MARY S. BARLOW. 

of altitude and snow, which to them were not such insur- 
mountable barriers as the trees and underbrush. Their 
tomahawks and scalping knives were not sufficient to cut 
away logs and trees, so they went around them. When 
they came to a log they could not avoid, they hacked a 
notch in it just deep and wide enough for their adroit 
little ponies to jump over. These narrow passes often 
caused damage, and even death, to many cattle. 

We were two days in going over Mount Hood trail. 
Leaving the young men on the established road to Fos- 
ter's, Wm. Barlow returned to camp and assisted in build- 
ing a safe and snug cache for the goods and a cabin for 
the men who were to care for all the emigrants' worldly 
goods that winter. On account of the limited supply of 
food, it was decided that Wm. Berry should remain alone 
and await the return of Wm. Barlow, the writer, in Janu- 
ary. Wagons were worth from $150 to $200 in the valley, 
and twenty wagons were indispensable to the pioneers at 
any price. Captain Barlow packed the horses snugly with 
women, children, and provisions and started over the 
last and most dangerous part of the route the coastal 
side of the Cascades. Then it w r as that hard times 
came. Whortleberry swamps confronted us frequently, 
and many a time all had to wade through them, as the 
horses mired with the least load upon them. The best 
time we could make was from three to five miles a day. 
A snowstorm coming on covered the ground with a foot of 
snow, leaving nothing for our horses to eat except laurel, 
which was supposed to be poisonous. Something caused 
the death of one of our few horses. The hams were cut 
out and saved for an emergency. Mrs. Caplinger and 
some of the others became much disheartened and be- 
moaned the fate of "doubly dying' of starvation and 
cold. Mrs. Gaines, Mr. Barlow's oldest child, laughed 
at their fears and said, "Why, we are in the midst of 



HISTORY OP THE BARLOW ROAD. 77 

plenty, plenty of snow, plenty of wood to melt it, 
plenty of horse meat, plenty of dog meat if the worst 
comes.' Notwithstanding this courageous spirit it was 
deemed best to send John M. Bacon and Wm. Barlow 
on foot into Foster's settlement for more supplies. Mr. 
Bacon had been an indispensable man all along the route, 
as he was a tailor by trade, and his needle was always 
busy on clothing or harness. 

We started out with our scanty quota of coffee and 
four small biscuits. A dull chopping ax was the only 
tool that could be spared for our purposes. We knew 
the necessity of haste. With snow over everything but 
the poison laurel, our horses were forced to eat it and 
die, or to starve and die. Then came the thought of our 
families having to eat the flesh of poisoned horses, pos- 
sibly to die from its effects ; or, if they lived, to walk 
out over the snow and barely exist on scanty allowance. 
We therefore went down Laurel Hill like "shot off of a 
shovel," and in less time than two hours' we had to look 
back to see the snow. We soon struck the Big Sandy 
trail and our troubles were over. The only danger was 
in crossing the stream so many times. In many places 
we found drift or boulders for stepping stones, but at one 
place we had to chop down a big tree and take the 
chance on its falling on a small rock in the middle of 
the turbulent water. The chance was lost, for the tree 
broke as it fell and washed away. We then concluded 
to prepare a good supper of coffee and biscuits. But 
poor John drew a long breath and said, "Will, I'm sorry 
and ashamed to tell you that I lost those four biscuits in 
the stream. I slipped and fell in stepping on a boulder, 
and away went the bread and I could not catch it.' I 
never really suspected that John ate them, but for fun 
replied, "I thought it would be hard to catch anything 
on its way to a hungry man's breadbasket.' 



78 MARY S. BARLOW. 

In the morning I determined to cross that stream. I 
cut a ten-foot vaulting pole, and placing it firmly on the 
bottom among the boulders, I braced myself against it 
and sprang. I reached the island. Again I ventured to 
reach the opposite shore, and surprised myself by suc- 
ceeding. There were no flags or horns to herald ap- 
proval, but Bacon's cheers and my own feelings of vic- 
tory, and what it meant to my mother, father, all in the 
mountains, were sufficient. I sang "good-bye" to Bacon, 
and bounded away to Foster's, eight miles further on, 
for food and rescue. In three hours I was with my 
brothers, James and ''Dock,' and sent them posthaste 
to Oregon City for men, food, and horses. I remained 
to rest and recuperate my half-famished condition. The 
next morning we were ready to retrace our steps and 
carry the much needed succor. To our surprise we met 
the emigrants that evening. They had moved steadily 
on, knowing that the distance was short and that food, 
raiment, and rest were near at hand. We followed the 
blazed road and it led us to a safe crossing over the 
treacherous Sandy. The next day, December 23, 1845, 
the whole party arrived at Foster's haven. Food was 
set before us in abundance, but we out heralded Tan- 
talus himself and ate sparingly. The roads were still 
pretty good, and we felt that there should be no rest for 
the weary till Oregon City was reached. We accord- 
ingly pushed on with most of our party, and arrived 
at our final destination, Oregon City, December 25, 1845, 
just eight months and twenty-four days from Fulton 
County, Illinois. 

The first winter in Oregon was spent without incident 
of note. Many of our company bought land or took up 
donation claims and went to work with a purpose and 
earnestness worthy of true pioneers. 

Samuel K. Barlow for many years after made annual 



HISTORY OF THE BARLOW ROAD. 79 

trips into the mountain wilds. Finally old age compelled 
him to enjoy these trips in reminiscences only, and many 
are the recitals he gave with accurate memory of events 
indelibly stamped to his children and children's children. 

In the summer of 1846, after the Provisional govern- 
ment had been established, S. K. Barlow made applica- 
tion for a charter to make a wagon road over the Cascade 
Mountains south of Mount Hood. Permission was readily 
granted. About forty road workers started out under the 
personal supervision of Mr. Barlow. They improved the 
condition generally, cutting down grades here and there, 
building bridges, making corduroy, and widening the 
road everywhere. Two thirds of the immigration of 
1846 came over this road and fully if not more than that 
proportion availed themselves of this continuous route 
in subsequent years. Thus the hazards and expense of 
the Columbia River route were obviated. A few miles 
extra on the long journey were less trouble than to make 
a transfer of goods to the bateaux at The Dalles. 

The road was about eighty miles long ; sixty-five miles 
of it were cut through the primeval forests, canyons, 
creeks, and rivers of the Cascade mountains and slopes. 
It began at the western side of Tygh Valley and followed 
the Indian path for about fifteen miles. In Mr. Barlow's 
first reconnoitering tour his observations led him to deter- 
mine to blaze out the road over the natural passes he then 
and there discovered. Subsequently Mr. Rector approved 
of the route and together they confirmed its possibility, 
w r hich was afterwards fully determined to be the natural 
and most practicable route by immigrations from 1845 to 
the present day. The late Judge Matthew P. Deady said 
of this road : "The construction of the Barlow road con- 
tributed more towards the prosperity of the Willamette 
Valley and the future State of Oregon than any other 



80 MARY S. BARLOW. 

achievement prior to the building of the railways in 
1870." 

In 1848 the road was made a toll road by a charter 
from the Provisional government. A toll of $5.00 for 
each wagon and $1.00 for a single head of stock was 
charged to balance accounts. Many were unable to pay 
the toll, but readily gave their promises to settle in the 
future. Mr. Barlow, after two seasons, thinking he had 
reimbursed himself for his outlay, turned the road over 
to the territory and it became a free highway for the 
future immigrants to the Willamette Valley. Little or 
no repairs were made to it after it became public prop- 
erty and it soon relapsed into an almost impassable con- 
dition. Immigrants lost many times the toll in the loss 
of their stock, besides having delays, hardships, and nu- 
merous annoyances. After several years, Mr. Barlow 
found that the promises of many who desired to pay toll 
had been forgotten. Thus the scheme was not a profit- 
able one, but one which always gave satisfaction to the 
pioneer spirit of its builder. 

Messrs. Foster and Young afterwards rechartered the 
road and kept it in fairly good repair by the income in toll. 
Later, Hon. F. 0. McCown of Oregon City, organized a 
stock company for its improvement. Many of the diffi- 
cult passes are avoided in the new route, but practically 
the same general direction is followed as that blazed by 
the pioneer road builders of 1845. 

Samuel K. Barlow was born in Nicholas County, Ken- 
tucky, January 24, 1795. He was thoroughly pioneer in 
every respect ; in religion, an investigator ; in politics, 
an independent whig ; in character, moral and honest ; 
in customs, unconventional ; in all things, himself. 

In 1848 Mr. Barlow paid $3,000 for the entire donation 
claim of Thomas McKay. After "proving up" on it by 
a four years' residence he sold it to William Barlow, its 



HISTORY OF THE BARLOW ROAD. 81 

present owner. The last few years of S. K. Barlow's life 
were spent in Caneraab, near Oregon City, where he died 
July 14, 1867. He was buried by the side of his wife at 
Barlow's Prairie, where a monument marks the final 
resting place of the builder of the first road over the Cas- 
cade Mountains. 

MARY S. BARLOW. 

6 



JEYEPTY 

Extracts from the journal of John Ball of his trip across the Rocky Mountains, 
and his life in Oregon, compiled by his daughter. 

John Ball was the youngest of ten children born on 
Tenny's Hill, Hebron, Grafton County, New Hampshire, 
November 12, 1794. His father, Nathaniel Ball, whose 
ancestors came from England, settled in the county of 
Worcester, Massachusetts. 

The subject of this sketch was born in a log cabin, and 
his earliest recollection was the building of a frame house, 
into which the family moved when he was but three years 
old. His childhood was spent on this farm. Of school 
he had but very little before he was twenty years old. 
Being anxious for an education, after much urging, his 
father consented to his leaving home. In 1814 he was 
sent to a clergyman in Groton, the next town. Thence 
he went to Salisbury Academy, and entered Dartmouth 
College in 1816, spending his summer vacation on the 
farm, and teaching what he could during the winters. 
He was graduated in 1820. The late George P. Marsh 
was a classmate. 

After graduating he went to Lansingburgh, New York, 
where his youngest sister (the late Mrs. Deborah Powers) 
lived, and studied law, teaching school to meet necessary 
expenses. In 1822 he fancied he could better himself, and 
took passage from New York City for Darien, Georgia. 
Arriving off the coast of that state, a violent storm came 
on, and in attempting to reach an "inland' passage by 
St. Catherine's Sound the vessel grounded on a bar five 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 83 

miles from land, causing a complete wreck. This hap- 
pened after dark, but all stuck to the ship until daybreak, 
as the wind was blowing a gale. All were saved but two 
negroes, who would not leave the ship. The others were 
picked up by a vessel bound for Darien. At Darien he 
read law and taught school. After six months he gladly 
returned north and resumed his studies in Lansingburgh. 

In the summer of 1824 he was examined by the supreme 
court in session at Utica, New York, and was admitted as 
an attorney at law. The celebrated Aaron Burr was pres- 
ent as court counsel. In 1827 he was elected justice of 
the peace of Rensselaer County, holding that office and 
practicing law until 1829, when the sudden death of his 
brother-in-law, Mr. Wm. Powers, June 24, 1829, who had 
just started in the floor oilcloth manufacturing business, 
obliged him to close his office in order to relieve his sister 
in trouble and settle Mr. Powers' estate. This he did in 
two and one half years, having paid up all the debts of 
nearly $10,000. Knowing that his sister was now well 
provided for, Mr. Ball left Lansingburgh January 1, 1832, 
to join Capt. N. J. Wyeth's expedition to Oregon, at Balti- 
more. A trip of this kind had been one of the dreams of 
his life. 

One of the parties of the Lewis and Clark expedition in 
1803-6 was John Ordway, a neighbor of his father, who 
filled his youthful imagination by the stories he told. He 
had been in correspondence with Captain Wyeth of Bos- 
ton, whom he had learned was arranging to journey to 
Oregon by land. On his way to Baltimore he stopped in 
New York and met a young man named J. Sinclair, who 
went with him to Oregon. He called on Ramsey Crooks, 
one of the men in John Jacob Astor's fur enterprise. 
At Washington he met General Ashley, who carried on 
the first fur trade across the plains. General Ashley was 
then a member of congress from Missouri. Mr. Ball 



84 JOHN BALL. 

called at the White House to see General Jackson, of 
whom he was a great admirer. The story of this journey 
is perhaps best and most succinctly told by extracts from 
Mr. Ball's journal, which opens as follows : 

I met Captain Wyeth in Baltimore March 18, 1832. The company 
were in uniform dress. Each wore a coarse woolen jacket and panta- 
loons, a striped cotton shirt and cowhide boots. Each had a musket, 
some had rifles. All had bayonets on their broad belts, with a large 
clasp knife for eating and general use. Some had pistols, but each 
had also a small axe or hatchet in their belts. To complete this outfit 
were utensils for cooking, tents, camp kettles, and blankets. Each 
man paid Captain Wyeth $40 to defray expenses by wheel or steam- 
boat. 

We went by railroad to Frederick, sixty miles over the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad by horse power. This was then the longest rail- 
road in the country. It had been built at enormous expense, and was 
constructed on a plan very unlike the present. A flat iron rail was 
used and was riveted onto granite blocks or stringers. The winter 
frost had so displaced these blocks that it was very rough. The rail- 
road cuts gave a fresh and fine view of the geology of the country ; 
the granite, the strata of marble of the BJue Ridge, and the Alleghany 
sandstone. 

We arrived at Frederick March 29. From there we walked, hav- 
ing a wagon for our baggage, and then we commenced our camplife. 
We pitched our tents by the roadside, and built fires to cook by. So 
we continued on the National road to Brownsville, on the Monongahela 
River. There we took a steamboat for Pittsburgh, then a small village 
of smoke and dirt. April 8 we took a steamboat, "The Freeman," 
down the Ohio River to Saint Louis, Missouri. We stopped at Cin- 
cinnati April 12 for a day. It was a mere village, the buildings being 
of wood and of no great pretensions. The river had been so high that 
it had flooded the village, doing much damage. We passed Marietta, 
distinguished for its mounds, resembling modern fortifications, but 
doubtless the work of aborigines, now extinct. There was, too, a creek 
about a hundred miles from Pittsburgh, called "Seneka Oil Creek," 
which would blaze on the application of a match. 

Captain Wyeth lessened our expenses (or tried to) by bargaining 
with the captain of the steamboat, that we should assist in helping 
bring wood on the boat. The sail from Cincinnati to Saint Louis was 
interesting, and passing the falls or rapids of the Ohio in the vicinity 
of Louisville was especially exciting. We arrived at Saint Louis 
April 18, 1832. Here we hoped to meet some of the traders who were 
going west on their annual trip, and called on Mr. Mackenzie, one of 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 85 

the fur traders, who afterwards sold his interest to William Sublette. 
He informed us that Mr. Sublette expected to start from Lexington, 
Missouri, about May 1. Mr. Mackenzie kindly arranged for us to go 
up the Missouri River on the steamboat "Otto," which went up two 
hundred and sixty miles. As we steamed away from Saint Louis we 
passed a company of soldiers sailing up the Mississippi on their way 
to fight the Black Hawk Indians, where Chicago now stands. After 
we had gone about one hundred miles up the Missouri we struck a big 
sand bar, extending across the river. Our boat drew six feet of water 
and here was but three feet. The boat could do nothing except keep 
her nose in the sand bar and wait until the sand had washed away. 
This was pretty tedious and most of us got tired, and going ashore, 
walked on to Lexington, reaching there before the boat did. When 
we stopped for food or lodging we were hospitably received and fed. 

An extract from a letter of his printed in the New 
Hampshire Statesman from Lexington, gives Mr. Ball's 
impression of Missouri at that early date : 

LEXINGTON, Missouri, April 29, 1832. 

Yesterday I walked thirty miles over prairies. Although somewhat 
rolling, it has the appearance of a vastness like the ocean. The river 
bottoms are wooded, as are also the hills, extending a few miles back. 
There is much cottonwood (a kind of poplar) on the islands and river 
banks. By the way, islands are constantly forming in the Missouri 
River, and as rapidly as they emerge above the surface the cottonwood 
tree springs up spontaneously. The bottoms are skirted with limestone 
bluffs, which continue for a few miles, and are again broken. This 
region affords a rich field for botany. Vegetation begins to spring 
forth but it is not as forward as I expected. The season is said to be 
late. Grass on the prairies is from six to twelve inches high, except 
where it has been burned over (as it mostly has been) and there it is 
not as thick; still fine herds of cattle of a hundred head or more are 
seen grazing upon it. 

There is not a sufficient supply of good water, nor should I think it 
very healthy from the circumstances of the people. The bed of the 
Missouri is a quicksand, mixed with soil. The water is the color of 
well-creamed coffee. After drinking it and shutting the mouth one 
can feel the grit. But still thus it flows eternally on at four knots per 
hour. 

Here we take our final outfit, which done we start forth, leaving 
civilization and all the comforts of social life behind us. It will be 
necessary to obtain forty or fifty horses to carry our goods and ourselves 
part of the time. Our path launches off on a prairie south of the river 



86 JOHN BALL. 

that ends in the mountains. The distance is said by the hunters to be 
from one to two thousand miles (but doubtless these estimates are much 
exaggerated). The inhabitants of this region know more of the moun- 
tains and Santa Fe than of New York or New England. Our party 
goes with one of sixty men (Mr. William Sublette, our captain, is a well 
known trader,) to the headwaters of the Lewis River. He is the best 
guide of the country. 

The narrative is again taken from Mr. Ball's journal : 

We found that William Sublette and his men were encamped near 
Independence, Missouri. He readily consented to our joining his men; 
we must be under his full command and take our share in guarding 
camp and in defending in case of an attack by the Indians. Here we 
purchased more horses, having bought a few at Lexington to carry 
our baggage. Here a Mr. Campbell and his party also joined Mr. 
Subletted party, making in all a party of eighty men and three hun- 
dred horses. Captain Wyeth's party consisted of twenty-five men. We 
took with us fifteen sheep and two yoke of oxen. Each man was to 
have charge of three horses, two packs and one to ride. We also took 
some extra horses in case some were stolen or worn out. 

We were kept in strict military order, and marched double file. 
Those first ready took their places next to the commander. We always 
camped in the form of a hollow square, making a river or stream the 
fourth side. The horses were hobbled (fore feet tied) and turned out 
of camp to feed. When brought into camp at night they were left 
hobbled, and were tied to stakes driven close to the ground, giving 
each horse as much room as could be spared him within the square. 
The watch changed every four hours. If found asleep, the watch was 
obliged to walk the next day for punishment. Captain Sublette's camp 
calls were as follows: "Catchup; catch up," which was at sunset. 
Then each man brought his horses into camp. At dawn the call was 
"Turn out; turn out," and then horses were turned out of camp to 
feed, while we breakfasted. Then the horses were saddled and packed. 
At noon a stop was always made for half an hour. The horses were 
unpacked to rest them, each horse carried one hundred and eighty 
pounds. Not being able to trot with this load, they soon formed the 
habit of walking fast. 

There was so little dew or rain that we did not need our tents, so 
we slept on the ground wrapped in our blankets, our saddles for pil- 
lows. I always wrapped myself first in my camlet cloak, pulling the 
cape over my head to shut off the wind or moon. This was our camp 
routine until we reached the Rocky Mountains. 

May 12 Left Independence, traveling west on the Santa Fe road. 
The fifteenth we left Santa Fe trail, going northwest to the Kansas 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 87 

River to a government agency there. The country was mostly hilly, 
the hills being of shell-filled sandstone and boulders of quartz and 
granite. The last white man we saw was a blacksmith for the Indians, 
who had his smithy on the Kansas, near where Lawrence now is. 

We passed an Indian village, which was entirely deserted, as all 
had gone buffalo hunting. The Indians always go out for buffalo once 
a year and bring home the meat to dry for winter. Their wigwams 
were made by sticking poles in the ground in circular form, covering 
the whole with buffalo skins, and leaving an opening at the top for the 
smoke to get out. Here we found game and honey in abundance, but 
no Indians. 

May 21 We encamped on a branch of the Kansas called the Big 
Blue, which we crossed the next day and passed Captain Bonneville's 
party on a trading excursion by wagon. We stopped a few moments 
to salute and passed on. The next day we passed another Indian vil- 
lage, probably winter quarters. There were holes dug in the ground 
some five or six feet deep and covered with split plank or brush, so 
making warm quarters in severe weather. But this, too, was deserted. 
We kept up the waters of the Blue to its source, and thence reached the 
Platte in one day's march of twenty-five miles over barren, dry prairie. 

We found no timber of any amount after leaving the waters of the 
Blue. We could not carry our percussion caps on our guns for fear of 
discharging them, the air was so very dry. We reached the Platte 
opposite a big island, probably Grand Island, on May 28, and continued 
up the Platte a hundred and sixty-five miles to junction of the forks, 
which we reached June 2. 

The Platte is a broad, turbulent stream and warm. Its bed is a 
mile or two wide. Here we saw the first buffalo and ate our last meal 
of packed provisions. 

There was a great deal of grumbling among Captain Wyeth's men. 
Some deserted and turned back. We all felt gnawings of hunger and 
were very thirsty. The warm water of the Platte was not refreshing. 
June 3 we saw a frightful drove of buffalo appearing as far as the eye 
could reach, as if the ground was a sea of them. Such armies of them 
see and fear nothing. Sublette's men killed ten or twelve, of which 
we had only two. The others the wolves carried off. 

The warm water of the Platte caused diarrhoea. Dr. Jacob Wyeth, 
the captain's brother, was quite ill. But for the guidance of Captain 
Sublette we must have perished for the want of subsistence in this 
desert of the Missouri. 

June 4 We crossed the south branch after we had gone some fifty 
miles from the forks, and a short ride of ten miles over the bluffs 
brought us to the North Platte. There was little timber along this 
stream. We continued up this river two hundred and eighty-seven 



88 JOHN BALL. 

miles. June 8 we killed some more buffalo as they came out of the 
water. There was great sameness of the scenery, and we passed 
many trails but saw no Indians yet. 

June 10 We saw ahead of us a bio: castle on a small mountain. As 
we approached it, it appeared like a big tower of sandstone standing- 
alone. It was called the "Chimney Rock," and is probably three 
hundred feet high. On the south side of the Platte were immense 
herds of buffalo. 

June 12 We arrived at the Laramie Fork of the Platte. It was 
high, cold, and rapid, and comes from the mountains of the same 
name. The banks of this stream were covered with willows. Here 
we made a halt to make "bull boats " and rafts to carry ourselves and 
goods across. 

A "bull boat " is made of willow branches twelve or fourteen feet 
long, each about one and one half inches at the butt end. These ends 
were fixed in the ground in converging- rows at proper distances from 
each other, and as they approached nearer the ends the branches were 
brought nearer together so as to form something like a bow. The 
ends of the whole were brought together and bound firmly together 
like ribs of a great basket ; and then they took other twigs of willow 
and wove them into those stuck in the ground so as to make a sort of 
firm, long, huge basket. After this was completed they sewed together 
a number of buffalo skins and with them covered the whole ; and after 
the different parts had been trimmed off smooth, a slow fire was made 
under the "bull boat," taking care to dry the skins moderately; and 
as they gradually dried and acquired a due degree of heat they rubbed 
buffalo tallow all over the outside of it so as to allow it to enter into 
all the seams of the concern, now no longer a willow basket. As the 
melted tallow ran down into every seam, hole, and crevice, it cooled 
into a firm body, capable of resisting the water and bearing a consid- 
erable blow without damage. Then the willow-ribbed buffalo skin 
tallowed vehicle was carefully pulled from the ground behold! a boat, 
capable of transporting men, horses, and goods over a pretty strong 
current. 

At the sight of it we Yankees all burst into a loud laugh, whether 
from surprise or pleasure I do not know. Captain Wyeth made a raft 
against the advice of Captain Sublette, who did not believe the ropes 
strong enough to stand against the current. However, Captain Wyeth 
was not a man easily diverted by the advice of others. 

We fixed a rope to our raft and with some difficulty got the other 
end across the river by a man swimming with the rope in his mouth. 
He fastened the rope to a tree, and we loaded our raft with our anvil, 
large vise, and other valuable articles belonging to the smithery, bar 
iron, steel traps, and alas ! a cask of powder and a small number of 
valuable articles. When we got about halfway over the rope broke 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 89 

and the raft caught under the limbs of a partly submerged tree and 
it tipped on one side, so we lost our iron articles and many of our per- 
cussion caps, as well as our powder, and our other goods were dam- 
aged. This was a very serious and absolutely irreparable loss. 

June 15 We came to the Black Hills, so called because of the thick 
growth of cedar. Here, also, we found red sandstone. It was a region 
of rattlesnakes and large fierce bears. Some of the best hunters of 
Captain Sublette's party shot one five or six times before they killed 
him. Snow was seen on the mountains, although the middle of June. 
We crossed a spur of these mountains while the main range lay away 
to the north. 

June 16 It rained half a day. This is the first rain we have had. 
Here we took what was afterwards known as the "Laramie Pass." 

June 18 We crossed the Platte, where it comes from the south. 
Along the river were beautiful flowers. We again used our "bull 
boats." After crossing we turned north five miles and then struck 
across a broken, hilly plain on both sides of the river, with no vegeta- 
tion but sagebrush, grease brush, and wormwood. From an eminence 
we got our first view of the craggy granite peaks of Wind River 
Mountains. 

June 23 We reached the Sweetwater,' traveling through a naked, 
bleak country, the bare granite rocks lifting their craggy heads above 
the sea of sand and sandstone. There was no timber even on the 
river, but much snow on the mountains. At noon we reached " Inde- 
pendence Rock." It is like a big bowl turned upside down; in size 
about equal to two meeting houses of the old New England style. We 
encamped here. There being no timber in this valley, we had to dry 
buffalo dung or chips, as they are called, to use as fuel to cook by. 
This beautiful, clear, cool stream was a luxury, and a pleasant remedy 
for our sick. We wound our way as best we could through this pleas- 
ant valley, until the Sweetwater became a mere rivulet that one could 
step across. We crossed several snowdrifts on the way. 

June 27 We encamped on the southeast foothi-lls of the Wind 
River Mountains, and the last branch of the Sweetwater, and June 
28 found us on the great watershed between the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans. It was on open prairie, with ranges of mountains on the 
north and immense prairies on the south. This is the celebrated 
South Pass, and from it the waters flow into the Gulf of Mexico and 
Gulf of California. On this extensive prairie buffalo are feeding by 
the hundred thousands. We continued traveling northwest, as near 
the foot of these mountains traveling was good. 

June 30 We crossed a number of tributaries of the Colorado River. 

July 2 Was cold. Our camp was fired on about midnight. Unper. 
ceived by the guards, the Indians approached the camp, gave their 



90 JOHN BALI,. 

whoop and fired with guns and arrows. They so frightened our horses 
that they broke loose and rushed out of camp. We were instantlyou 
our feet (we always slept with our guns by our side). The Indians were 
not to be found. We collected our horses and retied them, laid down, 
and went to sleep again. The Indians had accomplished what they 
had aimed at, having stolen a dozen of our best horses. They were 
supposed to be " Blackfeet." 

July 3 We followed up one of the branches of the Colorado and 
camped on Bull Creek. 

July 4 It rained, snowed, and hailed. We passed the divide of 
the Columbia. The sand, limestone soil seemed good. Large snow- 
capped mountains were seen in the north, which we afterwards learned 
were the " Trois Teton," fifteen thousand feet high. The only way I 
had to ascertain our altitude was by the temperature of boiling water 
by my thermometer, which I made, allowing five hundred and thirty 
feet to a degree, eight thousand four hundred and eighty feet. 

The days were very hot, thermometer 80, and the nights cold, 
even freezing. 

It is said by the Indians that the Lewis River rises in the ' Trois 
Teton " in a lake. 

Our way was becoming difficult. Our horses were worn out, and 
the men, although in a feeble condition, were compelled to walk. 
Food, too, became scarce. We met no more buffalo, but, fortunately, 
found some game of other kinds, and nothing came amiss except 
snakes. 

Vegetation became better as we advanced, and we found some 
strawberries. On July 6 we arrived at the main branch of the Lewis 
River, Henry's Fork, coming from the northeast. We crossed its 
rapid current and came upon high ridges clothed with handsome 
pines and snowdrifts. 

July 9 We met a party of Sublette's mountain trappers, who 
appeared liberal in their expenditures for their new bought luxuries, 
and who also seemed to be generally well satisfied with their wild life. 

At the rendezvous at Pierre's Hole were also the Nez Perces and 
Flatheaded Indians, who appeared in their dress and person decent 
and interesting. They have many horses. Men, women, and children 
ride well. They all ride astride and mount from the right side. They 
encamp in buffalo skin lodges, which they always carry with them. 
The whites often adopt many of their manners, and often intermarry. 

Reached the rendezvous that night. These Indians were decidedly 
honest and friendly. There were also some of the traders and trap- 
pers of the American Fur Company there. The Indians sold us fresh 
ponies or exchanged our lean ones for fresh ones. The full price of a 
pony was a blanket and a cheap knife. So we, as well as they, were 
supplied with what was needed. 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 91 

These mountain ponies are of Arabian stock, brought over by the 
early Spaniards into Mexico. They are light and fleet and sure of foot. 
It is a grand sight to see a herd of them feeding with a mounted guard 
on their beautiful prairies. The guard's duty is to run them into camp 
if attacked by the Blackfeet, in whose country we were. 

Here at Pierre's Hole (where Mr. Sublette met his party of trap- 
pers), as this valley is called, there are mountains on all sides, covered 
with snow. The water in the creek was 40 F. There was plenty of 
timber and good feed for the horses. I felt debilitated and tired from 
the long journey, but the Indians had plenty of dried buffalo meat and 
some roots. We ate the meat, lean and fat, like bread and cheese. I 
never witnessed so great a change among men as I witnessed here in 
a few days with plenty to eat and good water to drink. We were a 
mixed company, two hundred whites and as many Indians, and a social 
time we had in telling our varied experiences. 

There is a mongrel language between the Indians and traders com- 
posed of French and English. A hog goes by the French name and 
birds are designated by their cries, etc. 

Here we tested the honesty of the Indians. When we had bought 
a horse, and it had got away with theirs, they would bring it back time 
and time again. The Flathead chief would often mount his pony in 
the evening and give his people a lecture on morals and honesty. Here 
we were thousands of miles away from white settlement, and these 
were the first Indians we had really seen. Their dress was of a frock 
and leggings of dressed deerskins. A well dressed buffalo skin with 
the hair on for a blanket to ride on or to sleep in each Indian had with 
him. The frocks of the women were longer than the men. Both long 
and short were ornamented with fringe of skin, sometimes shells and 
feathers, and beads in their dress and hair. These mountain women 
are very bashful, blushing if looked at. They consider it an honor to 
be married to a white man, but it must be for life, or beware. Some 
of the men were very eager for vegetable food. 

There were rounded stones in this valley, containing much quartz, 
and a fine gray sandstone. 

July 14 We had rested here for five days, and oh! such a good 
rest. Captain Sublette had reached his journey's end. All but twelve 
of Wyeth's men had concluded to return East with Captain Sublette. 
We were anxious to go farther, even to the Pacific. 

July 16 We twelve moved our camp up the creek towards Vander- 
burgh, eight miles, with Mr. Frap and Milton Sublette, a brother of 
Capt. William Sublette, and with twenty-two of their trappers and 
sixteen independent trappers, including some half-breeds and Indians, 
hoping to come out somewhere all right. Mr. Frap took the lead. We 
had a quiet night. 



92 JOHN BALL. 

On the following morning, just as we had packed, ready for march, 
we saw a band of Indians in the direction in which we were to go. Mr. 
Prap sent an Indian and a half-breed named Antoine to meet them. As 
they approached, they discovered the Indians were Blackfeet. The 
chief left the party and came out in a friendly way to meet Antoine 
and his Indian companion. But Antoine's father had been killed by 
the Blackfeet: he was going to have his revenge then and there. So 
he said to the Indian "I'll appear friendly when we meet, but you 
watch your chance and shoot him." This he did. Antoine caught his 
robe or blanket of blue or red, turned and fled to camp. The Blackfeet 
fired after him, and as he rode into camp he said: "They were Black- 
feet. We killed their chief. Here is his robe." We, to our dismay, 
expected a battle, which we did not like. An express was sent back 
to Captain Sublette's camp to tell the state of affairs and ask assistance. 

The whites and Indians returned in great numbers, Captain Sub- 
lette going against the Blackfeet on his own account. The Blackfeet 
by this time had built a breastwork by the creek, taking their women 
and horses inside with them. 

We had hastily thrown up a breastwork of our saddles. There was 
a hard fight until sunset. The Indians always lay down on their backs 
while loading their guns, and sometimes fire lying down The Indians 
considered the leaden bullet a sort of thunder and lightening death, 
and the whites did not think the barbed arrows any better. At sun- 
down we retired and encamped. A Mr. Sinclair died of his wounds 
that night. During the battle I was left in charge of the horses and 
camp and took care of the wounded. 29 

The next night we returned to the rendezvous, and in the horse 
pen buried Mr. Sinclair. Mr. Wm. Sublette was wounded. There 
were eight whites and as many friendly Indians killed, and some 
others wounded. After breakfast we visited the enemy's camp and 
found some twenty-five dead horses and two dead women. There 
were ten scalps taken by our Indians from the Blackfeet. We con- 
cluded that the reason they had left their dead was because there was 
not enough of them left to carry them off. 

This affair detained us three days. We buried all the dead in the 
horse pen, as the ground was so well trodden they couldn't be found. 
They would, we knew, be sought for their scalps. 

The wounded were carried on stretchers to Sublette's camp. A 
bier was made by suspending trees covered with blankets between 
two horses, one in front of the other. 

July 24 We quit camp, going south by the battle ground of the 
eighteenth ; got but ten miles along. The next day was showery, but 

^Washington Irving, in "Bonneville's Adventures," describes this battle. 
Bonneville was encamped not far from there at the time. 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 93 

we traveled to the south. Vegetation was forward, especially flax 
and currants of an orange color. 

July 26 We crossed the Lewis River in the bull boat, where Fort 
Hall now is. Three of the men left us here to trap alone. The white 
and variegated marble and melted rock showed the effects of volcanic 
action. The vegetation was diversified and timber of various kinds 
grew in abundance. We had a little rain. Traveling to the south- 
west we crossed several creeks with volcanic bluffs on either side of 
blacksmith-cinder-like rocks, often pentagonal in form, although they 
had not lost their stratification. In examining the rocks, was nearly 
bitten by a rattlesnake. 

We found many berries and currants, red and black, also orange 
in color. On the twenty-eighth passed Gray's Fork to Gray's Hole. 
The Trois Tetons were still in sight to the northeast. Grass was good, 
the buffalo fat, and we staid in camp two days drying meat. We then 
crossed Blackfoot Creek to a hilly and wooded country with high 
basaltic rocks in perfect pentagonal form. 

August 1 Mrs. Milton Sublette (a squaw) had a child, and the 
next day she mounted her horse, the babe was put in a basket feet 
down and hung on the pommel of her saddle, and she rode fifteen 
miles that day. Mrs. Sublette also had a child about three years of age 
who rode a gentle pony. The child was so fastened on by blankets as 
to keep it upright, and the pony followed the train with loose horses, 
never straying far with its charge. The thermometer fell to 20 F. 
We traveled to the southeast, crossing the Blackfoot to a branch of 
the Port Neuf, over an extensive prairie, which they say extends to 
Bear River of the Salt Lake country, a hundred miles distant. 

August 5 In camp drying more meat. Saw a white wolf and some 
crows eating together on a buffalo carcass. There are two kinds of 
wolves here, that make the nights hideous. We traveled down the 
Port Neuf to the south eighteen miles, crossed it, and encamped on a 
branch for two days. 

August 11 We started to the west, encamped on a small creek, 
and the next day continued southwest on same creek. Here the six- 
teen independent trappers quit us, going south into California. 

August 13 We traveled west northwest over two ridges, the first 
limestone, the second volcanic, and came in view of the Lewis River 
at the American Falls. The course of the river is nearly west. 
Extensive plains stretched away to the north, and a far-off snow-clad 
mountain range was seen. Here I lost my pocket thermometer. We 
traveled to the southwest away from the Lewis River and encamped 
on the Cassia. Vegetation was rank. Next we traveled up the Cassia to 
the south over barren plains of prickly pears and sage, and encamped 
in high grass on a creek coming in from the west. Vegetation was 



94 JOHN BALL. 

rich. We continued up the creek to the west, and found plenty of dry 
grass well liked by animals. The hills on either side were of stratified 
basaltic rock and white marble. There were many berries which 
formed a good sauce to go with our dried meat, and the water was 
good. 

August 17 We continued our journey over mica slate ridges ; snow 
was seen north and south on the mountains. 

August 20 There was frost in the forenoon, but in the afternoon 
very hot, with some clouds and thunder, but no rain. We experienced 
many days of this kind. We passed several large hot springs. Not 
knowing they were hot, I was much startled when I stooped to drink 
from one of them and found the water very hot. probably 100 or more. 

August 21 We met some Shoshone Indians, or Diggers, as they are 
often called. They appeared leaner and poorer, even in their clothes, 
than those we had seen before. They were armed only with bows 
and arrows. They had earthen pots and baskets in which they carried 
their water, and boiled their fish in the baskets by putting in hot 
stones, which, with the camas and white roots, formed their diet. 

August 22 We started northwest, leaving the Cassia on the right, 
passed several limestone ridges, with high mountains in the west, cov- 
ered with snow, and came into a barren plain and encamped on a 
small creek. None of our company knew where we were. The next 
day we traveled over the barren plain fifteen miles, came to a large 
creek from the south, which joined one coming from the northeast, 
passing through "Cat Creek.'' 

August 24 We went up the creek to the south fifteen miles ; then 
west five miles and encamped. There was volcanic rock all about us, 
and beyond high conical mountains, the range running east and west. 
The coal like rock looked like burnt granite, with some sandstone. 
There was no timber on the stream but the willow. 

August 26 We traveled southwest over the barren plains, open to 
the south as far as the eye could reach. We encamped on a small 
creek running southeast, which we afterwards learned was the Hum- 
boldt River. We continued up the creek to the northwest six miles 
and took an Indian trail in a southwest direction, reaching the creek 
at its source, which ran to the northwest. 

Here we parted with Messrs. Sublette and Frap, who were going 
west to trap. We twelve continued down this creek eighteen miles. 
This first night that we twelve adventurers were alone was full of curi- 
osity and anxiety for the future for all of us in that unknown country. 
Our aim was to get back to Lewis River. We had traveled to the south- 
west since we had first crossed it ; to get back to it and follow it to 
the junction with the Columbia was our plan. 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 95 

We were now at what I knew was the headwaters of the Owyhee 
River, then supposed to be the eastern boundary of Oregon. We con- 
tinued down this canyon of burnt granite, mica, slate, etc., for several 
days, and saw many curious things. In one case there was a stone 
resting on a column as if just balanced there. We then traveled 
northwest over a very even plain, with some sagebrush, but saw water 
only once. 

September 1 Some thirty miles from the stream, there was a kind 
of well in the rocks. Snowy mountains were visible to the north, and 
country descended in that direction. We encamped on the plain, the 
Owyhee being a thousand feet below us. The rocks appeared like a 
burnt brickkiln. We saw some Indian with dried fish, and bought 
some, then ascended the bluffs on the west. We saw horses tracks 
down the steep bluffs, which with difficulty we descended, to our joy 
to quench our thirst and that of our horses. 

September 9 We visited a large Indian encampment or village. 
They were fishing. Their ingenious mode was very interesting. The 
stream was shallow. They built a fence across it near its mouth (we 
were now at the mouth of the Owyhee). Then leaving some distance 
above they made a weir at one side so that the fish coming down or 
coming up would go in, but were unable to find their way out. Then 
they speared them. Their spears were made having a bone point 
with a socket that fitted into a shaft or pole, and a hole was drilled 
through the bone point by which a string tied it to the shaft. At sun- 
rise a signal was given by their chief; they all rushed from both sides 
into the stream, struck the salmon with their spears, and in each case 
the point would come off, but being fastened to the shaft by a string, 
the fish were easily towed ashore. 

The chief of this village accompanied us down the stream six miles. 
I here lost my hatchet, given me by Doctor Brinsmaide of Troy, New 
York. We reached the Lewis River September 10, and continued 
down the river, trapping wherever we saw signs of the beavers. 

September 17 We had some fresh fish boiled in baskets, the water 
being kept boiling by hot stones. For a day we went up a creek from 
the southwest trapping. Our horses were cut loose at night by the 
Indians, and my camlet cloak was stolen. As a general rule, the 
Indians were kind and friendly, and would make us presents of food, 
but they could not forego the attempt to steal our horses (of which we 
had two to each man) any more than a negro can leave a hen roost 
alone. The Indians we met were Shoshones or the Pallotipallos, or 
Flatheads, so called from the fact that the foreheads of all members 
of the tribe are flattened during infancy. The operation is performed 
by tying boards hewn to proper shape for the purpose, which compress 
the head, one being placed against the forehead and tied to another at 



96 JOHN BALL. 

the back, on which the infant is placed. The more the head is mis- 
shaped the greater the supposed beauty. 

September 20 We met Mr. Sublette and Mr. Frap. They went 
to the southwest. There was little timber in this region. When two 
or three of us went up trapping 1 , we tied our horses' halters to our 
arms at night, so as to be sure not to lose them. We traveled slowly, 
trapping- on the streams coming 1 from the west. At last we got tired, 
not having 1 good luck, and the fish being bad. We tried to make the 
Indians understand that we wanted to go to Walla Walla. That being 
the only word in common between us, the conversation had to be by 
signs. An Indian drew a map on the sand; one sign meant river, mak- 
ing a motion of paddling ; another the trail, by pointing to a horse. 
We understood that we were to keep down the river three sleeps (laying 
his head on his hand and shutting his eyes three times) thus giving us 
to understand we were to go by day, and if we whipped up, could cover 
the ground in two days. There the river went into the mountains, and 
we were to go over these mountains, and sleep; then another range, 
and sleep; then making a sign of a plain, then two more sleeps, and 
then Walla Walla. I was quite confident I understood him, if it was 
by signs. It proved as he said, and was a great help to us. Lewis and 
Clark speak of the destitute condition of these Plathead Indians. 

Not knowing just where we were, and not taking the precaution to 
buy a supply of dried fish, and meeting no more Indians, we soon got 
short of food. We made some thirty miles a day some days over the 
prairie, for when we arrived at the mountains we were in a sad plight. 
We were thoroughly exhausted by hard travel and the horses were no 
better. 

October 12 Having nothing to eat, we killed an old horse, and as 
hungry as we were, we did not relish it. We vowed if we killed an- 
other we would take a young one. The meat of a good horse tastes 
like venison. 

October 13 Captain Wyeth took four men and the best horses and 
started ahead for Walla Walla, requesting me to follow the next day. 
Traveling was hard and the ground frozen. We continued traveling 
north northwest and came to a broken plain. 

October 14 I had schooled myself to one meal a day, so had reserved 
part of my rations. Here I noticed in the western horizon something 
stationary, although it looked like a cloud in the bright sky. It proved 
(I afterwards found) the grand and snowy Mount Hood. I called the 
attention of the men to it. This we hailed as a discovery, and the 
grandest sight we had yet seen. We saw no water all day, but en- 
camped at night on the bank of a creek which came from the west. 
Here we found berries which was all we had for supper. Here were 
many trails. 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 97 

The next day we took the one most trodden, as I felt sure this creek 
was the Walla Walla. We followed the old trail along- the bottoms of 
the creek. There was some fine timber now, but nothing to eat. We 
came to an Indian encampment the seventeenth and got some food. 
Before we came to the Indians, I had proposed to the rest of the party 
to kill another horse, but hungry as we were, we preferred to push on. 
The food we got from the Indians consisted of dried bear meat and 
elder berries, which we bought. I did not feel as ravenous as the other 
men. who ate until I urged them to stop, for fear of the result. The 
next day, after a fifteen-mile ride, we arrived at Fort Walla Walla on 
October 18, where we found Captain Wyeth, who had been there two 
or three days. 

The fort was built of upright timbers set in the ground. The tim- 
bers were some fifteen or eighteen feet high. A small stockade, with 
stations or bastions at the corners for lookouts. The Hudson Bay Com- 
pany kept a fort here for the trade. There was a clerk and half a 
dozen men. 

We were received kindly, and for the first time since we left the 
forks of the Platte on June 1 we tasted bread. It was a very interest- 
ing and gratifying sight to look on the Columbia (Fort Walla Walla 
stands where Walla Walla Creek empties into the Columbia) after our 
long and tedious journey. 

The country around was barren. Rain, if they had any, com- 
menced later in the season. There is little or no timber. Wild sage 
grows from five to six feet high, and is found everywhere on moun- 
tains and plains. It has ash colored leaves, and is bitter like the 
garden sage. Where nothing else is found, it is eaten by buffalo and 
deer. Here we decided to leave our faithful horses and descend the 
river in boats, which we began the day after our arrival. 

October 19 We took a boat of the Hudson Bay Company and two 
of their men (Canadians) and started down the river. We soon came 
to high basaltic bluffs, almost perpendicular, with only a narrow shore 
of grass and sand. The clear ocean blue water swept us swiftly on. 
We ascended the bluffs at night and there encamped. We found 
above a grassy plane, but no timber. 

October 20 We encamped on the left shore. The Indians of this 
section were not so respectable in appearance as those we had seen. 
They subsisted mainly on bad fish and a few roots. There were snow- 
clad mountains on the south. 

October 21 We passed the picturesque rocks rising terrace on ter- 
race. The night of the twenty-second some Indians brought us a nice 
fat horse to eat for supper, which proved very good. We found many 
roots and berries, which were also very good. Although we had 
7 



98 JOHN BALL. 

brought plenty of food from the fort for the voyage, the horse did not 
taste like the poor one killed by us in the Blue Mountains. 

October 24 We passed the falls, where we made a short portage, 
and again at the dalles, or narrows, through which the river rushes. 
At its low stage a boat can pass through it. I was told this was six 
miles below the falls. The bluffs stand out prominently, frequently 
of pentagonal form. Lewis and Clark called them "High Black 
Rocks," which indeed they are. We finally came to the cascades, 
where the river rushes through a break in the mountains. They are 
so called from the thousands of beautiful cascades falling from these 
mountains. 

October 26 It rained harder than I had seen it in five months. 
The mountains became thickly timbered to the snow line. The next 
day we came to the tide water, one hundred and eighty miles from its 
mouth. 

October 28 We encamped at the sawmill of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany, which was superintended by Mr. Cannon, one of J. J. Astor's 
men, who came out with Mr. Hunt in 1811. 

October 29 We arrived at Fort Vancouver, it having taken us nine 
days to come down the river, some two hundred miles. Fort Vancou- 
ver is an extensive stockade, enclosed on a prairie back from the river. 
It includes the storehouses and the houses for governor and partners, 
as the clerks were called. For the servants and Frenchmen there were 
little houses outside of the fort. This was the main station of the 
Hudson Bay Company west of the mountains, and to this place ship- 
ping came. 

Lewis and Clark spoke of what a great harbor the Columbia 
might be: "That large sloops could come up as high as the tide waters, 
and vessels of three hundred tons burden could reach the entrance of 
the Multnomah River. " Fort Vancouver is situated on the right-hand 
side going down the river (now in Washington state). We were a 
hard looking set, owing to our hard life, but we were most hospitably 
received in spite of the awkward and suspicious circumstances in 
which we appeared. There had been some farming done about the 
fort for some seven years previous. 

November 3 Five of us started down the river in an Indian canoe. 
We could not go before, as it had rained. The country continued low 
on both sides of the river. Mount Hood on the south, Saint Helens 
on the north, in the rear of which appeared an hexagonal cone, white 
and beautiful (not then named ; afterwards known as Mount Rainier). 

November 4 We passed many of the company's sloops, and Indians 
singing as they paddled their canoes. We saw also many white geese 
and ducks. We encamped on the shore opposite an island, used by 
the Indians as a burial ground. Their way of burial was odd. They 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 99 

wrapped the body of a warrior in his clothing 1 , and with his mats, 
placed it in his own canoe, which they placed in some conspicuous 
point, on the shore of the river on the island, covered it with split 
plank and loaded it down with stone, so the wolves and other animals 
could not get at it. All property of the dead was also put into the 
canoe. To rob a grave is a very great crime. The island was called 
"Coffin Island," because there were so many of the canoes of their 
dead on it. As we went on shore to camp here, we went to a house, 
and got some wappato a root much eaten by the Indians. 

November 5 We continued down the river. The banks became 
broken and heavily timbered as far down as Tongue Point, where we 
encamped in sight of Fort George, and overlooking the sea. The next 
day we went to Fort George, or "Astoria," and were well received. 

A tree near the fort had recently fallen. Some said it was forty- 
seven feet in circumference, and others said seven fathoms. I do not 
think either exaggerated. 

November 8 We went over the hills to Young's Bay, where Lewis 
and Clark wintered, calling their camp "Clatsop Camp." We saw 
many enormous trees, two hundred feet high and from forty to fifty 
feet in girth. In fact, everything, even to the brakes, were of gigantic 
size. Still the potatoes on the clearing near the fort were small, and the 
soil looked poor. 

November 9 We got a yawl and a man to sail it, and crossed over 
to Chinook Point on the east, encamped, and at low tide went three 
miles around the point to the seashore. I urged the men to go with 
me, but all declined. So I went alone to look on the broad Pacific, 
with nothing between me and Japan. Standing on the brink of the 
great Pacific, with the waves washing my feet, was the happiest hour 
of my long journey. There I watched until the sun sank beneath the 
water. Then by the light of the moon, I returned to camp, feeling I 
had not crossed the continent in vain. 

November 11 We began returning slowly up the river. The In- 
dians we found always peaceable, these traders having had the good 
sense and tact to keep them so, by always keeping faith and a good 
understanding with them. That day we went but five miles, keeping 
along the south shore. In the evening we were visited by Indians in 
a friendly way. 

November 16 We arrived at Fort Vancouver, to learn that one of 
our twelve had died. He had stood the hardships of the journey well. 
He ate heartily at supper of pease, which gave him colic, of which he 
died before morning. It seemed very hard to us, who had borne so 
much. 

The next day Mr. Wyeth and myself were invited by Doctor Mc- 
Loughlin, the oldest partner and nominal governor, to his own table 



100 JOHN BALL. 

and rooms at the fort. Others were quartered out of the fort. I soon 
gave Doctor McLoughlin and Captain Wyeth to understand that I was 
on my own hook, and had no further connection with the party. We 
were received with the greatest kindness as guests, which was very 
acceptable, or else we would have had to hunt for subsistence. But 
not liking to live gratis, I asked the doctor (he was a physician by pro- 
fession) for some employment. He repeatedly answered me that I was 
a guest and not expected to work. But after much urging, he said if I 
was willing he would like me to teach his own son and the other boys 
in the fort, of whom there were a dozen. Of course I gladly accepted 
the offer. So the boys were sent to my room to be instructed. All 
were half-breeds, as there was not a white woman in Oregon. The 
doctor's wife was a "Chippewa," from Lake Superior, and the lightest 
woman was Mrs. Douglas, a half-breed, from Hudson Bay. I found the 
boys docile and attentive, and they made good progress. The doctor 
often came into the school, and was well satisfied and pleased. One 
day he said: "Ball, anyway you will have the reputation of teaching 
the first school in Oregon. " So I passed the winter of 1832 and 1833. 

The gentlemen of the fort were pleasant and intelligent. A circle 
of a dozen or more sat at a well-provided table, which consisted of 
partners, the clerks, Captain Wyeth, and myself. There was much 
formality at the table. Men: waited on the table, and we saw little of 
the women, they never appearing except perhaps on Sunday or on 
horseback. As riders they excelled. 

The national boundary had not been settled beyond the mountains 
at this time. The traders claimed the river would be the boundary. 
The south side the American. The fur trade was their business, and 
if an American vessel came up the river, or coast, they would bid up 
on furs, and if necessary a price ten to one above their usual prices. 
So American traders soon got entirely discouraged. 

The voyage around Cape Horn to England was so long to take sup- 
plies, that the company brought a bull and six cows from California, 
and in seven years said they had raised from this start four hundred 
head of cattle. They plowed fields and raised good wheat. Salmon 
was so abundant that it was thrown away, to get some old imported 
salt beef. They had not as yet killed any of their stock. 

In the spring of 1833 Captain Wyeth and two other of the men 
started on their return home across the plains. Others of the party 
went into the employ of the Hudson Bay Company. 

I wrote letters home and sent by the Hudson Bay Express. Leav- 
ing Fort Vancouver March 20 each year, this express went north to 
about latitude 52, then by men on snowshoesover the mountains, which 
takes them two. weeks. Then they take bark canoes on the La Bashe 
(or Athabasca), which flows north; descend it a distance, and make a 
short portage at Port Edmonton to the Saskatchawan River, down 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 101 

that to Lake Winnipeg 1 . There the express was divided, part going 
down the Lake to Nelson River, descending it to the Hudson Bay. 
The rest was taken up the Lake and across to Lake Superior, and on 
to Montreal. My friends in New York and New Hampshire got my 
letters in September. The postage was twenty-five cents. 

The following is an extract from a letter written at 
Fort Vancouver February 23, 1833, by Mr. Ball to his 
parents : 

Believing you still feel that interest in me that is usual to parents, 
and that you have always manifested towards me, I will inform you of 
my welfare. 

My health has been uniformly good ever since I saw you some fif- 
teen months ago, and never better than now. I wrote you from the 
mountains and hope my letters were received, and that this will be also. 

I continued my journey across the country, leaving the place I wrote 
you from last July and arriving here at this place last October. After- 
wards I went to the ocean, a hundred miles or more below here, then 
returned. Here I have been in comfortable quarters, teaching a few 
boys and enjoying the conveniences of home and good living. 

This is a post of the Hudson Bay Company, which extends its trade 
of furs from Canada to this place. Here they have extensive fur oper- 
ation, raise wheat, corn, pease, potatoes, etc., and have cattle, sheep, 
and hogs. I have been civilly treated by them, although I possessed 
no introductory letters or anything to recommend me, being destitute 
of everything. Little can be brought under any circumstances across 
such an extent of wilderness of country. Now I am going to the trade 
you taught me farming from which more comforts can be obtained 
with less labor, and it is more healthy than most others. 

But perhaps I am too fast. You know your changeable weather 
brings on colds, and those colds, consumption. Here some three years 
past, some have had fever and ague, though never known even in the 
recollection of the natives before. I shall have to begin farming with 
a few tools, and accommodations. But mind you, my farm is cleared, 
and I have the choice of a tract as large as the whole State of New 
Hampshire, except what is taken by seven other farmers. I am going 
up the Multnomah or Willamette, near the mouth of which is the 
fort. I shall settle in the neighborhood of those already there. I 
have this week returned from looking out the place ; find good soil, 
most of it prairie; still there is timber in abundance for fencing, fire, 
building, etc., well dispersed over the country. The white oak often 
grows on the plains like an orchard, and. there are groves of pine and 
other timber. The same fir you have grows to a great height and 



102 JOHN BALL. 

three or four feet through, answering for all the uses you put the white 
pine to. There is another tree, called the red fir. The timber is like 
the yellow pine, and grows immensely large. 

The great advantage here is the climate, for there is so little winter 
that I found cattle, horses, and hogs on the Multnoniah fat, though 
none of them had been fed this winter. In fact, I have not seen a 
flake of snow on the ground a moment, and hail but once, which lav- 
two inches deep for one day. There was much rain in December and 
January, and it was so cold that the Columbia froze over, but the Mult- 
nomah did not. Some trees are now in blossom, and in favorable spots 
the fresh green grass has grown six inches high. The Indians have 
horses, which they sell at $8.00 per head, but cattle are still scarce. 
There are none this side of California, except what has sprung from 
a bull and six cows brought from California seven years ago, if I have 
been rightly informed. 

Anything can be raised here that can with you, any many things 
which can not be. Many kinds of fruit trees have been introduced 
which succeed well. But recollect, I am not in possession of these 
things myself, but hope to be after awhile from the generous conduct 
of those who are the owners. I have seen the country the description 
of which John Ordway gave you so interestingly when he returned 
from his tour with Lewis and Clark in 1806. The natives with their 
flattened heads are nearly the same, though a residence of some whites 
in their neighborhood for more than twenty years has doubtless had 
its effect. They have changed their skin dress to a considerable ex- 
tent for cloth. Some wear nothing on their feet, and wear a kind of 
apron and blanket of skin. Some have adopted the dress of the whites. 
They are not a warlike people, in this quarter, though some individ- 
uals are killed, but in case of murder a payment of a valuable article 
is said to satisfy the friends of the departed. 

Mr. Ball's journal continued : 

When Doctor McLoughlin found I was bent on going to farming, he 
loaned me farming utensils and seed for sowing, and as many horses 
as I chose to break in for teams. I took the seed and implements by 
boat, getting help up the Willamette to the falls, (passing the site of 
Portland and beyond the now Oregon City,) about fifty miles from 
Fort Vancouver. We carried by the falls, boat and all, and first 
stopped with one of the neighbors, a half-breed, J. B. Desportes, who 
had two wives and seven children, and plenty of cats and dogs. I 
caught from the prairie a span of horses with a lasso, made a harness, 
and set them to work. For harness I stuffed some deerskins, sewed 
in proper form, for collars, fitted to them for the harness, crooked oak 
limbs tied top and bottom with elk skin strings. Then to these strips 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 103 

of hide was -fastened for tugs, which I tied to the drag made from a 
crotch of a tree. On this I drew out logs for my cabin, which, when 
I had laid up and put up rafters to make the roof, I covered with bark 
pealed from the cedar trees. This bark covering was secured by poles 
crossed and tied at the ends with wood strings to the timbers below. 
Then out of some split plank I made a bedstead and a table, and so I 
dwelt in a house of "fir and cedar." 

An extract from a letter dated September 15, 1833, 
reads : 

On the Willamette, about fifty miles from Port Vancouver, in my 
own habitation, the walls of which are the cylindrical fir, and the roof 
thereof cypress and yew, greeting : After dissolving connection with 
N. J. Wyeth on the seventeenth of last November, I was invited by 
Dr. John McLoughlin, chief factor of the fort, (a man of first rate 
general intelligence, and if I am not mistaken, of very liberal views,) 
to take charge as a pedagogue of his own son and a few other boys in 
the fort for the winter. All the gentlemen within the fort ate at a 
common table, where the fare was plain but good, and there was much 
instructive conversation. 

Here I passed the time, not disagreeably, until March. In Febru- 
ary Capt. N. J. Wyeth and two men started for America by the 
mountains. In the same month I went up the Willamette about sev- 
enty-five miles to see the country ; and the first of March, having no 
opportunity to return home immediately, Doctor McLoughlin offered 
me seed, a team, and farming utensils. I came to this place and com- 
menced farming under many disadvantages* I boarded the first three 
months at J. B. Desportes. a half-breed, whose family consisted of two 
wives, besides one absent, by all seven children, four or five slaves 
and two or three hired Indians, besides cats and dogs without number. 
All inhabited one room in common. 

I made horse harness, hoe handles, plowed, made fences, sowed and 
planted without help, except what I could get from a wild Indian, 
about six weeks in the spring. I built the house aforesaid, sleeping 
within its walls from the day it was commenced, and soon after built 
a little barn. I kept for food five bushels from the twenty-five secured 
for sowing, but have had no corn or potatoes for want of rain. 

By July 10 my companion, Mr. Sinclair, was taken with fever and 
ague, and is now down again. I have had two attacks this month 
already, and have been unable to attend at all to things scientifically 
from the multiplicity of other business. 

I enjoy no society except Sinclair's, and even my own house has 
not been enjoyed without the intrusion of those I did not wish. In 
fact, it is a country of falsehood and low cunning 1 . The whites adopt, 



104 JOHN BALL. 

in many things, the customs of the natives. Still, if one had learned 
their ways, he might get along very well ; but as it is, and with no 
prospect of immigrants such as to change the tone of society, I shall 
soon depart from this coast, leaving for the present my home and farm. 
On the Willamette strawberries and other plants are in flower, and 
trees in leaf in April. By April 15 the camas are in bloom, and plants 
of many kinds full grown. By May 15 strawberries are ripe and roses 
are in bloom. By June 1 pease are ripe, and by June 15 barley and 
winter wheat are headed. Many kinds of fruit grow well. On ground 
previously tilled, one would have a good crop most years of every 
kind desirable. Deer and elk are plentiful, and one can always get 
salmon at the falls to eat. Hogs, horses, and cattle are easily raised. 
Cattle, if large stock could be obtained, would be the best. 

The journal continued : 

Camas grow on the prairie about the size of an onion. The stem is 
about a foot high, having a blue blossom. It is palatable and nutri- 
tious as potatoes. The wappato, another root, is not as good, but 
grows larger. It is the root of a plant like the water lily. The 
Indians wade in up to their arms and break it off with their toes. 
Then it rises to the surface. The common way of cooking is by dig- 
ging a hole in the ground, in which a stone is placed. A fire is built 
on the stone, and when it is heated the food is put on the hot stone 
wrapped in leaves, covered, and fire again built on top. 

A part of the time while on my farm I suffered much with fever 
and ague, which proved so fatal with the Indians, partly, probably, 
because of their plunging into water when the fever came on. They 
were wonderfully aided by medicine procured from the whites. One 
instance shows its fatal effect on the Indians. At one time a trader 
returning to the fort came to their lodge, or village, on the river just 
below the mouth of the Multnomah. He there found a number of 
dead and unburied. The only one alive was an infant on its dead 
mother's breast. He carried the babe to the fort, where it was thriv- 
ing when I was there. Many die of fright. They are superstitious 
people, and think that sickness and death are caused by the "Evil 
Spirit." 

I had no nurse but my faithful friend Sinclair, who was sick, too. 
We got medicine from the fort, and it would hold up. Then we would 
be taken down again. Completely discouraged, I left my house on 
September 20. I sold my produce to the company at the fort. The 
grandeur of these beautiful mountains, Hood and Jefferson, and others 
not named on the south of the Columbia, as seen from the fort and 
my farm, were the hardest to leave. By the looks of the country I 
had passed through the year before, I knew they were volcanoes long 



ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO. 105 

extinct. The Indians spoke of the "Evil Spirit" not disturbing" them 
for forty snows (meaning- forty years). The "Evil Spirit" caused the 
mountains to vomit fire, mud, and stones, but the Great Spirit had 
driven him away. 

September 20 I left my farm with something 1 of regret, but on the 
whole glad, seeing there was no prospect of any settlers and no society. 
Sick and discouraged I started down the river to the falls. Our Indian 
boy assisted us in carrying the boat. The boy said: " My people are 
all sick and dying. I'll be dead, too, when you come back." Below 
the falls I asked the chief for two of his men to row us to the fort. 
He answered that all his men were sick or dead, so we had to paddle 
our own canoe. 

The proceeds of my farm enabled me to buy my passage in the fore- 
castle of the brig "Dryad," commanded by Captain Kipling, bound 
for the Sandwich Islands. 

September 28 I boarded her, and she sailed down the Columbia 
from Fort Vancouver. October 6 we arrived at Fort George. The 
next day Duncan Finlayson, Esq., and Mr. David Douglas arrived to 
take passage in the brig, and by Mr. Finlayson's direction I was trans- 
ferred to the cabin. 

October 14 We anchored in Baker's Bay, under Cape Disappoint- 
ment, from the top of which, called Fruzin's Head, was a fine view of 
the ocean and surf. In the bay at the mouth of the river were rocks. 
I should think they were "serpentine," and presented a somewhat 
burnt appearance. 

Sailing down the shore we occasionally saw the coast, which ap- 
peared high and broken, but we were not near land until we approached 
Drake's Bay, where the hills and all the coast are quite destitute of 
timber, presenting a barren appearance. 

November 4 We entered the bay of San Francisco, passing the 
fort and presidio, and came to anchor six miles or more up the bay. 
The next day we were visited on board Don Jose Figueroa, general 
and governor of Upper California, commissionary, commandant, etc. 

The people were Spanish or Creole descent, all very dark and prob- 
ably most of them of mixed blood. They dressed in various fashions, 
and always go about on horseback, and even draw wood, drags, etc., 
by a lasso, tied to the pommel of the saddle, the man still riding. The 
Indians are darker and larger than those on the Columbia. 

Immense herds of cattle and horses were grazing on the hills and 
plains. The inhabitants attended but little to agriculture, though 
the soil is good. I saw from the ship a Spaniard lasso a wild bullock 
by the horns. Another Spaniard threw his lasso so that the first move 
the animal made he stepped into it and was thrown down so as to 
butcher him. It was done almost in a twinkle, the horses keeping 



106 JOHN BALL. 

their places. The end of the lasso was fastened to the pommel of the 
saddle. The men then dismounted to cut the bullock's throat. 

One day I wandered to the mission ; another day to the presidio. 
They are both built of mud or adobe, with tile roof, much dilapidated. 
Another time I wandered to the woods, and over the hills to the sea- 
shore and up to the Gate. I found in the grass, dismounted, three 
or four cannons, which probably were once used for guarding 1 the 
entrance to the bay. (For want of "the needful" and not being well, 
I did not go about as much as I wished. ) 

The geology of the country is the same as at Cape Disappointment. 
The climate is lovely, and they say they seldom have frost. Most of 
the country east of the bay is an open prairie. Near the bay were 
some shrub oak and other small timber. On the distant mountains 
were large and lofty trees. 

We came into this bay in company with an American whaler home- 
ward bound, the Helvetius, Capt. George S. Brewster of New London, 
Connecticut. J. Sinclair and two others who crossed the mountains 
with me went on board of her. They left on the twenty-seventh. I 
met here a Mr. Renson, who resides up the coast and raises wheat to 
supply their trading post at Sitka and other places in Alaska. One of 
the articles of trade was tallow, sewed up in bags of skin. When asked 
about it, he said the French and Indians used it with corn and other 
grain to make their soup. 

November 29 We sailed for the Sandwich Islands. 

KATE N. B. POWERS. 



VOLUME III] JUNE, 19O2 [NUMBER 2 



THE QUARTERLY 



OF THE 



OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 



By M. C. GEORGE. 

At the commencement of this period the officers of the 
state were : Governor, L. F. Grover ; secretary of state, 
S. F. Chad wick; treasurer, A. H. Brown; state printer, 
Mart. V. Brown ; superintendent of public instruction, 
L. L. Rowland. All democrats save L. L. Rowland, 
republican . 

Judges E. D. Shattuck, B. F. Bonham, John Burnett, 
L. L. McArthur, and P.P. Prim constituted the supreme 
court of the state, the members of which also performed 
circuit court duty in the several judicial districts of the 
state. 

The district attorneys serving as state officers were 
H. Y. Thompson, J. J. Whitney, W. B. Laswell, C. W. 
Fitch, and H. K. Hanna. 

Our United States senators were James K. Kelly, 
democrat, and John H. Mitchell, republican ; and our 



108 M. C. GEORGE. 

representative in congress was Lafayette Lane, democrat. 

In the state election of 1876 H. K. Hanna, democrat, 
S. H. Hazard, democrat, George H. Burnett, republican, 
Raleigh Stott, republican, and L. B. Ison, democrat, were 
elected district attorneys. J. F. Watson, republican, 
R. P. Boise, republican, and L. L. McArthur, democrat, 
were elected supreme judges. 

The republican state platform made the protective 
tariff a special feature, while the democratic state plat- 
form protested against it and denounced the evils of 
Chinese immigration, of monopolies, and of national 
banks, and demanded that all currency be issued directly 
by the general government; and called for the regulation 
and control of corporations, and asked for aid from the 
government to certain railroads. Both parties demanded 
a return to specie payments. 

A democratic legislature was elected in 1876, which 
organized in September with John Whiteaker as presi- 
dent of the senate, and J. K. Weatherford as speaker of 
the house. At this session L. F. Grover, democrat, was 
elected United States senator for six years, from March 
4, 1877, to succeed James K. Kelly. Mr. Grover received 
forty-eight votes, Jesse Applegate, republican, thirty- 
three, J. W. Nesmith, democrat, five, and T. F. Camp- 
bell, four. 

Through an erroneous impression no congressman 
was voted for in June the fact being overlooked that 
the new congressional law, regulating such elections and 
prescribing November as the time, had really excepted 
Oregon by excepting such states as had to change their 
state constitutions in order to change their state general 
elections. 

At the presidential election in the fall, Richard Wil- 
liams, republican, was elected by a vote of fifteen thou- 
sand three hundred and forty-seven over Lafayette Lane, 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 109 

democrat, who was a candidate for re-election, receiving 
only fourteen thousand two hundred and thirty-nine 
votes. 

Hayes and Wheeler carried the state over Tilden and 
Hendricks, and W. H. Odell, John C. Cartwright, and 
J. W. Watts, republicans, were chosen presidential elec- 
tors. A question, however, was raised as to the eligi- 
bility of Mr. Watts, and Governor Grover awarded the 
certificate to Eugene Cronin, democrat, who had received 
nearly one thousand two hundred less votes. The after 
events are a part of the history of the nation. 

On February 1, 1877, Governor Grover resigned to 
accept a seat in the United States senate, and Secretary 
of State S. F. Chadwick became acting governor of Ore- 
gon. . 

In 1878 the republicans nominated H. K. Hines for 
congress and adopted as a state platform resolutions 
opposing the repeal of the resumption act, and favoring 
a uniform currency, founded upon a coin basis, inter- 
changeable and convertible at par at the pleasure of the 
holder. Also denouncing the democratic state adminis- 
tration as reckless and corrupt, and the leaders of the 
party as attempting to defraud Oregon out of an electoral 
vote. Also favoring the restriction of the treaty with 
China to commercial purposes only. At the election, 
John Whiteaker, democrat, was chosen representative in 
congress, defeating H. K. Hines, republican. The dem- 
ocratic state platform approved heartily the action of 
congress remonetizing silver (referring evidently to the 
Bland-Allison act). It also resolved "That money made 
or issued by the government should be of equal value, 
and that we are in favor of paying all the obligations 
of the government in greenbacks, so called, when the 
pecuniary interests of the people are promoted thereby, 
except when otherwise expressly provided.' It favored 



110 M. C. GEORGE. 

the repeal of the resumption act, and also the repeal of the 
national bank act, and the direct issue by the government 
of currency, receivable for all public dues, sufficient to 
supply the place of the present bank note circulation. 
Also favored reducing the tariff to a strictly revenue 
standard, and declared "that the interests of the great 
mass of people of the United States lie in the paths of 
unrestricted commerce.' Also favored restriction of 
Mongolian immigration, and a subsidy for the Portland, 
Salt Lake and South Pass Railroad and the railroad to 
California, and an extenson of time to the Northern Pa- 
cific Railroad to build under reasonable conditions. 

At the election in 1878 the following state officers 
were elected : 

Governor, W. W. Thayer, democrat ; secretary of 
state, R. P. Earhart, republican ; state treasurer, Edward 
Hirsch, republican; state printer, William B. Carter, 
republican; superintendent of public instruction, L. J. 
Powell, republican ; judge of supreme court, James K. 
Kelly, democrat ; circuit judge, P. P. Prim, democrat ; 
district attorneys, J. R. Neil, democrat; S. H. Hazard, 
democrat ; J. J. Whitney, democrat ; J. F. Caples, repub- 
lican ; L. B. Ison, democrat. 

The legislature chosen was democratic, and organized 
with John Whiteaker as president of the senate and John 
M. Thompson as speaker of the house, and by a vote of 
forty-eight to forty, scattering, elected James H. Slater 
United States Senator for six years from March 4, 1879, 
to succeed John H. Mitchell. 

In 1879 W. B. Carter, State Printer, died and W. P. 
Ready was appointed by the governor to fill the vacancy 
until the next general election. 

In 1880 the republican state platform resolved in 
favor of a protective tariff. On the money question its 
declaration was somewhat notable, reading as follows : 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. Ill 

"That to the republican party is due the credit of success- 
ful resumption and restored prosperity and business 
revival, and we insist that the paper and coin circulation 
of the country shall at all times be maintained at par with 
the gold standard of the commercial world. ' 

That was probably the first public platform utterance 
favoring the maintenance of parity of all coin and cur- 
rency on a gold standard of valuation. 

On this platform M. C. George was elected Oregon's 
representative in congress, defeating, by a majority of 
one thousand three hundred and ninety-seven, ex-Gov- 
ernor Whiteaker for re-election. 

The democratic state platform that year opposed any 
and all protective tariff and on the money question it 
"Resolved, that while we recognize gold and silver as 
the constitutional currency and regard it as the real 
money, we deem any further contractions of the paper 
issues of the government unwise in the present financial 
condition.' 

Whatever had heretofore been the platforms concern- 
ing tariff, the congressional campaign for that year (1880) 
was the first time in the history of the state when the 
canvass was mainly upon a protective tariff issue. 

At that election, E. B. Watson, William P. Lord, and 
John B. Waldo, all republicans, were elected to constitute 
the new supreme court, whose members were no longer 
to do circuit court duty. This new supreme court was 
in fulfillment of that clause in our state constitution pro- 
viding that "When the white population of the state 
shall amount to two hundred thousand the legislative 
assembly may provide for the election of supreme and 
circuit judges in distinct classes.' 

W. H. Odell was also elected at this time state printer 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of W. B. Carter. 

The legislature elected in June, 1880, being repub- 



112 M. C. GEORGE. 

lican, organized in September by electing Sol Hirsch as 
president of the senate and Z. F. Moody as speaker of 
the house. 

The following were elected circuit judges : First dis- 
trict, H. K. Hanna ; second district, J. F. Watson ; third 
district, R. P. Boise ; fourth district, Raleigh Stott ; fifth 
district, L. L. Me Arthur. 

Also the following district attorneys : First district, 
T. B. Kent ; second district, J. W. Hamilton ; third dis- 
trict, W. G. Piper ; fourth district, John F. Caples ; fifth 
district, D. W. Bailey. 

At the fall election the Garfield and Arthur presiden- 
tial electors, to wit, George B. Currey, C. B. Watson, and 
E. L. Applegate, beat the Hancock and English electors 
about six hundred and seventy-one votes in the state. 

In 1882 neither of the state political platforms had 
any especially notable features. 

At the June election M. C. George, republican, was 
re-elected representative in congress, receiving a majority 
of three thousand three hundred and sixty-five votes over 
William D. Fenton, democrat. The state officers elected 
were: Governor, Z. F. Moody, republican; secretary 
of state, R. P. Earhart, republican (re-elected); state 
treasurer, Edward Hirsch, republican (re-elected); state 
printer, W. H. Byars, republican ; superintendent of 
public instruction, E. B. McElroy ; supreme judge, Wil- 
liam P. Lord (re-elected). R. S. Bean was elected circuit 
judge in the second district, and the district attorneys 
were as follows : First district, T. B. Kent ; second dis- 
trict, E. G. Hursh; third district, W. H. Holmes; fourth 
district, John F. Caples ; fifth district, T. C . Hyde. The 
legislature chosen in 1882 was republican, and organized 
by electing W. J. McConnell President of the Senate, and 
George W. McBride Speaker of the House. J. N. Dolph 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 113 

was elected United States senator to succeed Hon. L. F. 
Grover. 

At the close of the year 1883 Judge Raleigh Stott re- 
signed, and Governor Moody appointed Seneca Smith his 
successor. 

In 1884 the political platforms in Oregon generally 
followed the national platforms respectively, and both 
favored forfeiture of all unearned land grants. 

Binger Hermann, republican, was elected member of 
congress over John Myers, democrat, and W. W. Thayer, 
democrat, was elected judge of the supreme court. The 
following were the circuit judges elected : First district ; 
L. R. Webster; fourth district, Seneca Smith; fifth dis- 
trict, F. J. Taylor; sixth district, M. L. Olmstead. The 
following were the district attorneys : First district, T. 
B. Kent; second district, J. W. Hamilton; third district, 
George E. Chamberlain; fourth district, John M. Gearin; 
fifth district, T. A. McBride ; sixth district, M. D. Clif- 
ford. At the fall election Blaine and Logan carried the 
state over Cleveland and Hendricks by a plurality of 
about two thousand two hundred and sixty-five votes, 
and D. P. Thompson, Warren Truitt, and John C. Leas- 
ure were chosen as presidential electors. 

The legislature chosen in June, 1884, was republican, 
but owing to a change in the time of meeting, organized 
in January, 1885, with William Waldo as president of 
the senate, and W. P. Keady as speaker of the house. 
After fruitlessly balloting sixty-nine times, during the en- 
tire session, for United States senator, during which time 
Sol. Hirsch received generally about thirty-three votes, 
the legislature adjourned with no election. At a special 
session in the following November, John H. Mitchell was 
elected United States senator to succeed James H. Slater. 

In 1886 Binger Hermann was re-elected to congress 
over N. H. Butler on a republican platform saying, 



114 M. C. GEORGE. 

among other things, "We believe that the coin of the 
country should be gold and silver, and that our paper 
currency should be maintained and convertible thereto 
at par, and we favor such legislation as shall in the 
future maintain the use of both metals as a circulating 
medium, and we favor international arbitration with a 
view to determine and establish a uniform ratio between 
gold and silver.' 

The democratic state platform was silent on the money 
question, and otherwise both platforms followed the usual 
national lines. 

Sylvester Pennoyer, democrat, was chosen governor 
over Thomas Cornelius, republican, and George W. Mc- 
Bride, republican, was elected secretary of state; G. W. 
Webb, democrat, state treasurer; R. S. Strahan, demo- 
crat, supreme judge; E. B. McElroy, republican, super- 
intendent of public instruction, and Frank C. Baker, 
republican, state printer. 

The following were our circuit judges : First district, 
L. R. Webster; second district, R. S. Bean; third dis- 
trict, R. P. Boise ; fourth district, E. D. Shattuck and 
L. B. Stearns ; fifth district, F. J. Taylor; sixth district, 
L. B. Ison ; seventh district, J. H. Bird. District Attor- 
neys : First district, William M. Colvig ; second district, 
J. W. Hamilton ; third district, G. W. Belt ; fourth dis- 
trict, Henry E. McGinn; fifth district, T. A. McBride ; 
sixth district, M. D. Clifford; seventh district, W. R. 
Ellis. 

The legislature was republican and organized in Jan- 
uary, 1887, by choosing J. C. Carson president of the 
senate and J. T. Gregg speaker of the house. 

In 1888 Binger Hermann was re-elected to congress. 
The democratic candidate was John M. Geariu. The re- 
publican platform dealt largely in criticism of the tariff 
policy of the national democratic administration, favored 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 115 

protection, opposed Chinese immigration and found fault 
generally with President Cleveland's administration. 

The democratic platform, on the contrary, indorsed 
Cleveland and his policy, and in other matters demanded 
forfeiture of railroad grants and opposed Mongolian im- 
migration. In these state platforms in this as well as in 
nearly all the years, each party protested its special 
fealty to its own time honored principles, and denounced 
those of the opposite party, and both claimed special de- 
votion to the welfare of the tax payers and the people 
generally. As to whether either has ever fallen short in 
practice might require a historical sketch more extended 
than this. 

In June, 1888, James A. Fee was elected circuit judge 
in district No. 6, and the following were elected district 
attorneys: First district, William M. Colvig ; second 
district, J. W. Hamilton; third district, H. H. Hewitt; 
fourth district, H. E. McGinn; fifth district, T. A. Mc- 
Bride ; sixth district, J. L. Rand, and seventh district, 
W. R. Ellis. 

In the fall election of 1888 Benjamin Harrison carried 
the state for the presidency by a plurality of over six 
thousand seven hundred and sixty-nine over Cleveland, 
the republican presidential electors, to wit, Robert Mc- 
Lean, William Kapus, and C. W. Fulton defeating W. 
H. Effinger, W. R. Bilyeu, and E. R. Skipworth, demo- 
crats. The legislature, which had been elected in June, 
1888, was republican, organized in January, 1889, by 
electing Joseph Simon President of the Senate and E. L. 
Smith Speaker of the House, and at this session Joseph 
N. Dolph was re-elected United States senator for Oregon. 

In 1890 Binger Hermann was re-elected representa- 
tive in congress, defeating Robert A. Miller, democrat. 
The republican state platform favored the enactment of 
the Australian ballot, a protective tariff, the forfeiture 



116 M. C. GEORGE. 

of the railroad land grant from Wallula to Portland, the 
restriction of Chinese immigration, internal improve- 
ment, an eight hour law, and denounced trusts. 

On the money question its declaration was noticeable: 
"that recognizing the fact that the United States is the 
greatest silver producing country in the world, and that 
both gold and silver were equally the money of the con- 
stitution from the beginning of the republic until the 
hostile legislation against silver, which unduly contracted 
the circulating medium of the country, and recognizing 
that the great interests of the people demand more money 
for use in the channels of trade and commerce, therefore, 
we declare ourselves in favor of the free and unlimited 
coinage of silver, and denounce any attempt to discrim- 
inate against silver as unwise and unjust.' 

The democratic state platform on the silver question 
was equally red hot on the trail, and after condemning 
the tariff bill and denouncing Speaker Reed, and favoring 
forfeiture of all unearned land grants and the enactment 
of an eight hour law, sought to give the "gold bugs" the 
warm end of the poker, as follows: "We reaffirm the 
position which has ever been maintained by the demo- 
cratic party that gold and silver are equally the people's 
money. We are opposed to all measures of discrimina- 
tion against silver, and demand free coinage to supply 
the needs of business, and that all money issued by the 
government be made legal tender for all debts, both pub- 
lic and private.' 

Both platforms were condemned as to the money ques- 
tion by the leading daily of Portland, which said, "the 
men in both parties have assented to a policy in regard to 
silver that they know is erroneous.' 

Governor Pennoyer was re-elected over D. P.Thomp- 
son, republican. The other state officers were : George 
W. McBride, republican, secretary of state ; Phil Met- 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 117 

schan, republican, state treasurer; Frank C. Baker, re- 
publican, state printer; E. B. McElroy, republican, 
superintendent of public instruction ; R. S. Bean, repub- 
lican, supreme judge ; M. D. Clifford, Circuit Judge of 
sixth district. The following were the district attor- 
neys : First district, W. M. Colvig ; second district, S. 
W. Condon; third district, George G. Binghara ; fourth 
district, T. A. Stephens; fifth district, T. A. McBride ; 
sixth district, C. F. Hyde ; seventh district, W. H. Wilson. 

The legislature was republican, and organized Janu- 
ary, 1891, with Joseph Simon President of the Senate 
and T. T. Geer Speaker of the House. John H. Mitchell 
was re-elected United States senator. This legislature 
created the office of attorney-general, and George E. 
Chamberlain was appointed by the governor. 

In 1892 the State of Oregon, on reapportionment be- 
ing entitled to two representatives in congress, Binger 
Hermann was re-elected for the first congressional district 
over R. M. Veatch, democrat, and W. R. Ellis, repub- 
lican, for the second over ex-Senator James H. Slater. 

The republican platform followed the usual lines, and 
on money matters indorsed the Sherman act as "adding 
the silver product of the United States to the people's 
currency.' It favored a boat railway at the Dalles and 
the election of senators by direct vote of the people, the 
construction of ample defense of our coast and the build- 
ing of an efficient navy. 

The democratic platform endorsed the national plat- 
forms of 1884 and 1888, pointed with pride to the admin- 
istration of Cleveland, condemned the billion-dollar con- 
gress, and denounced the McKinley tariff as the blighting 
iniquity of the age ; demanded tariff reform, believed in 
honest money, the gold and silver coinage of the consti- 
tution, and in currency convertible into such coin with- 
out loss and of sufficient value to meet all demands of 



118 M. C. GEORGE. 

the people, all money to be of equal monetary value and 
of equal purchasing power, and all currency redeemable 
in gold or silver, at the option of the holder and not at 
the discretion of the secretary of the treasury. It also 
favored pensions, election of senators by the people, and 
various other good things. 

F. A. Moore, republican, was elected supreme judge, 
George E. Chamberlain, democrat, was elected attorney- 
general, and the legislature was republican. 

The following were the circuit judges : First district, 
H. K. Hanna and W. C. Hale; second district, J. C. 
Fullerton ; third district, George H. Burnett; fourth 
district, E. D. Shattuck and L. B. Stearns; fifth district, 
T. A. McBride ; sixth district, M. D. Clifford; seventh 
district, W. L. Bradshaw. The district attorneys were : 
First district, H. L. Benson ; second district, Seymour 
W. Condon ; third district, James McCain ; fourth dis- 
trict, W. T. Hume ; fifth district, W. N. Barrett; sixth 
district, Charles F. Hyde; seventh district, W. H. Wilson. 

At the fall election Harrison had twenty thousand 
seven hundred and fifty-nine plurality over Cleveland, 
and eight thousand one hundred and twenty-seven over 
Weaver ; and the republican presidential electors chosen 
were John F. Caples, D. M. Dunne, and G. M. Irwin. 
Nathan Pierce was also chosen through the fusion of the 
opposition votes on him. 

The legislature, on convening in January, 1893, 
elected C. W. Fulton as president of the senate, and W. 
P. Keady as speaker of the house. 

In 1894 the republican platform reaffirmed its policy 
of protection, and denounced the action of the democratic 
party in congress for its discrimination against Oregon 
fields, forests, and mines. On money matters it adopted 
the statement of the national republican platform of 1882 
favoring bimetallism and the parity of the two metals, 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 119 

and all dollars, paper or coin. It also favored the Nica- 
ragua Canal and restricted foreign immigration. 

The democratic state platform resolved for income 
tax, the Nicaragua Canal, liberal pensions, election of 
senators by the people, and opposed Chinese and pauper 
immigration, the federal election law, and all measures 
discriminating against silver. It demanded free coinage 
"to supply the demands of business," and that all money 
be made a full legal tender. 

The people's party resolved against the vicious finan- 
cial system of Great Britain and the issuance of gold 
bonds, and hauled both the old parties over the coals 
generally. 

W. P. Lord, republican, was elected governor; H. 
R. Kincaid, republican, secretary of state; W. H. Leeds, 
republican, state printer; Phil Metschan, republican, 
re-elected state treasurer; G. M. Irwin, republican, 
superintendent of public instruction; C. M. Idleman, 
republican, attorney-general; C. E. Wolverton, republi- 
can, supreme judge; and the legislature was republican. 

The following were elected circuit judges : Third dis- 
trict, H. H. Hewitt; fourth district, Hartwell Hurley 
and Thomas A. Stephens ; sixth district, James A. Fee. 
The district attorneys were: First district, H. L. Benson ; 
second district, George M. Brown ; third district, James 
McCain ; fourth district, W. T. Hume ; fifth district, 
W. N. Barrett; sixth district, John L. Rand; seventh 
district, A. A. Jayne. 

The legislature, meeting in January, 1895, organized 
by selecting Joseph Simon as president of the senate and 
Charles B. Moores as speaker of the house. 

This legislature after fruitlessly balloting the entire 
session over the re-election of Senator Dolph, at the last 
moment of the last day, elected George W. McBride. 



120 M. C. GEORGE. 

Judge Hartwell Hurley died during this year and 
Governor Lord appointed Henry E. McGinn as his 
successor. 

In 1896 the republican state platform followed the 
national platform of 1892 and on the money question 
favored bimetallism and use of both gold and silver as 
standard money, with such restrictions and provisions 
as will maintain parity of value of the two metals, and 
the equal debt paying and purchasing power of every 
dollar, silver, gold, or paper. Also favored the election 
of senators by popular vote and the construction of the 
Nicaragua Canal, etc. 

The democratic state platform opposed the single gold 
standard and favored the unrestricted coinage of silver 
at sixteen to one, all to be full legal tender. It also 
demanded the immediate coinage of all silver bullion in 
the treasury, and all silver bullion hereafter offered for 
coinage and demanded the repeal of all specific contract 
laws. Favored the construction of the Nicaragua Canal 
and its control by the general government ; also a tariff 
for revenue and other matters. 

At the election in June, 1896, Thomas H. Tongue, 
republican, was elected congressman for the first con- 
gressional district, over W. S. Vanderburg, people's 
party, and Jeff Myers, democrat; and W. R. Ellis, re- 
publican, was elected in the second district over Martin 
Quinn, people's party, and H. H. Northup, independent 
gold republican, A. S. Bennett, democrat, and F. Mc- 
Kercher, prohibitionist. The legislature was also repub- 
lican. R. S. Bean was re-elected judge of the supreme 
court, and Alfred F. Sears, Jr., circuit judge of fourth 
district, S. A. Lowell of sixth district, and Robert Eakin 
of the eighth district. 

The district attorneys were: First district, J. A. 
Jeffery; second district, W. E. Yates; third district, 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF OREGON. 121 

Samuel L. Hayden ; fourth district, Charles F. Lord; 
fifth district, T. J. Cleeton ; sixth district, H. J. Bean ; 
seventh district, A. A. Jayne ; eighth district, H. F. 
Courtney, and ninth district, Charles W. Parrish. 

At the fall presidential election McKinley and Hobart 
carried the state, and John F. Caples, T. T. Geer, E. L. 
Smith, and S. M. Yoran were chosen as presidential 
electors. 

The legislature in January, 1897, became involved in 
a political wrangle and failed to even organize. 

During this year, 1897, on the death of T. A. 
Stephens, circuit judge, Governor William P. Lord ap- 
pointed M. C. George to fill the vacancy, and later on, 
Judge L. B. Stearns, having resigned on account of ill 
health, the governor appointed John B. Cleland to fill 
the unexpired term. 

In 1898 the republican state platform declared un- 
mistakably for the maintenance of the single gold stand- 
ard and "unqualifiedly opposed the free coinage of silver 
and all other schemes looking to the debasement of the 
currency and the repudiation of debt.' While it deplored 
imminence of the war with Spain, it recognized that the 
country was on the eve of a war undertaken for the vin- 
dication of the national honor and the performance of a 
work dictated by every instinct of humanity. It recog- 
nized that representative government is one of the prin- 
ciples of the federal constitution and oppose any change 
in law or constitution which would abrogate this time 
honored principle. 

The question of the free and unlimited coinage of sil- 
ver at the ratio of sixteen to one was the practical issue, 
and the democrats and the people's party men (except the 
middle-of-the-roaders), along with free silver republicans, 
united on a state ticket, as follows : For governor, Wil- 
liam R. King, people's party ; congressman, first district, 



122 M. C. GEORGE. 

R. M. Veatch, democrat ; congressman, second district, 
C. M. Donaldson, silver republican; secretary of state, 
H. R. Kincaid, silver republican ; state treasurer, J. 0. 
Booth, democrat ; superintendent of public instruction, 
H. S. Lyman, silver republican; attorney-general, J. L. 
Story, people's party ; supreme judge, William M. Ram- 
say, democrat; state printer, Charles A. Fitch, people's 
party. This fusion ticket was opposed by the middle-of- 
the-roaders, as they were called the out-and-out popu- 
lists and they put forward a state ticket headed by John 

C. Luce and adopted both the Omaha and Saint Louis 
platforms. 

At this election Thomas H. Tongue, republican, was 
re-elected congressman from the first district over R. M. 
Veatch, fusing democrat ; and M. A. Moody in the second 
district over C. M. Donaldson, fusing silver republican ; 
T. T. Geer, republican, governor; F. I. Dunbar, repub- 
lican, secretary of state ; Charles S. Moore, republican, 
state treasurer; W. H. Leeds, republican, state printer; 

D. R. N. Blackburn, republican, attorney-general ; J. H. 
Ackerman, republican, superintendent of public instruc- 
tion ; F. A. Moore, republican, re-elected supreme judge. 

A session of the legislature called by the governor in 
the fall of this year organized by electing Joseph Simon 
President of the Senate and E. V. Carter Speaker of the 
House, and elected Joseph Simon United States Senator 
to fill the four years and five months of the term follow- 
ing the expiration of the term of John H. Mitchell. 

The regular session in January, 1899, continued the 
officers of the special session, except that T. C. Taylor 
became president of the senate. 



" Lest we forget, lest we forget." 

From the period of its earliest settlement to 1849 
Oregon had no military history, if we except the several 
months spent in the Cayuse country by a few hundred 
volunteers after the massacre of 1847. The punishment 
received by the Cayuses left them so reduced in numbers 
that, even had they wished to make war, they were 
unable without the support of the neighboring tribes, 
particularly of their relatives, the Nez Perces. But a 
vengeful spirit was cherished toward their conquerors, 
which they imparted to the Shoshones in the Snake-river 
country, w^hich was laying the foundation of future wars. 

When Governor Lane arrived in the newly established 
territory in the spring of 1849 he brought with him the 
remnant of his escort, consisting of a lieutenant, G. W. 
Hawkins, and five men, the main detachment having 
deserted en route. Early in May, however, the United 
States steamer Massachusetts, commanded by Captain 
Wood, arrived in the Columbia with two artillery com- 
panies, under Brev. Maj. J. S. Hathaway, who encamped 
with one company at Vancouver, leaving the other with 
Capt. B. H. Hill at Astoria, comfortably quartered in the 
building erected in 1846 by the crew of the wrecked 
United States vessel Shark. The whole force numbered 
but one hundred and sixty-one men and officers ; but 
the Indians on Puget Sound being threatening, it was 
determined between Governor Lane and Major Hatha- 
way to establish a post near Nisqually, and accordingly 
the artillerymen under Captain Hill were removed in 
July to the Sound, and a post erected at Steilacoom. 

2 



124 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

At the same time the long delayed Mounted Rifle Reg- 
iment, commanded by Brev. Col. W. W. Loring, was on 
its way from Fort Leavenworth to Oregon. It arrived, 
as much of it as was left by desertion, deaths, and de- 
tachments, in October. This regiment, when it left Fort 
Leavenworth, numbered six hundred men, thirty-one 
commissioned officers, some women and children, with 
guides, agents, helpers and teamsters a large number. 
There were one hundred and sixty-one wagons in the 
train, one thousand and two hundred mules, and seven 
hundred horses. For all these men and animals subsist- 
ence had to be carried. 

At Laramie a post was established and provisioned. 
At or near Fort Hall a cantonment was erected and also 
partially provisioned. Owing to the failure to arrive on 
time of a supply train from the Willamette under Lieu- 
tenant Hawkins, Colonel Loring's command, which had 
pushed on to meet it, was reduced nearly to the point of 
starvation, Hawkins having taken the southern route 
and missed making the rendezvous. When the regiment 
reached The Dalles many of the men were barefoot and 
their horses too weak to carry them. In such sorry 
plight were the Oregon Riflemen who, in Mexico, had 
covered themselves with glory. At The Dalles they 
found no better means of transportation than mackinaw 
boats, canoes, and a yawl or two. Several men were 
drowned in attempting to run the Cascade rapids on a 
raft. Those who crossed the Cascade Mountains by the 
Mount Hood road with the wagons and the herds suffered 
severe hardships. Forest fires, steep hills, worn-out and 
perishing stock, all conspired to add to their miserable 
condition. The teamsters were not men bred to the ser- 
vice, but adventurers picked up at Leavenworth who 
were seeking opportunities to get to the California gold 
mines. The regiment also was largely recruited from 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 125 

this class of men. The deaths and desertions on the 
march numbered seventy men enough for a company. 
The other losses by the way were thirty horses and nearly 
three hundred mules. Forty-five wagons and one am- 
bulance were among the abandoned property. 

On arriving at their journey's end no quarters were 
found prepared for their reception at Vancouver, and as 
winter with its rains was setting in the soldiers were 
quartered as best they could be at Oregon City. Their 
presence in the metropolis of Oregon was anything but 
delightsome to its inhabitants, who were soon made as 
unhappy by the advent of troops as they had been pre- 
viously by the want of them. When spring opened there 
was a wholesale desertion of one hundred and twenty 
riflemen organized into a company, which, by rapid 
marching for two or three days, kept in advance of a 
proclamation by the governor warning the farmers, off 
whom the deserters expected to live, not to trust or har- 
bor them. Their well concerted plan was to pass them- 
selves off as a company sent out by the government to 
purchase beef cattle on government credit. 

Lane and Loring overtook one division in the valley 
of the Umpqua, the governor returning to Oregon City 
with seventy men in charge. The forward division 
reached Klamath Kiver before it was overtaken by Col- 
onel Loring, and thirty-five men escaped by canoe across 
to the south side. With the remainder, which was in a 
miserable condition from insufficient food and hard travel- 
ing in snow, he returned after a two weeks' forced march, 
leaving the fugitives to their fate, which undoubtedly was 
death to some, if not all of them. Soon after this inci- 
dent the artillerymen were removed from Vancouver to 
Astoria, and the riflemen put to work erecting quarters 
at the former place, by order of Gen. Persifer F. Smith, 
commanding the Pacific division. The quartermaster 



126 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

who superintended the erection of Fort Vancouver was 
Capt. Rufus Ingalls, long and well known in Oregon. 

The construction of barracks for the accommodation of 
the riflemen and also for troops expected in the autumn, 
was a task more difficult than might have been antici- 
pated. Mechanical skill of any sort had never been a 
feature of pioneer life ; but whatever assistance the Ore- 
gonians might have given the army at other times, was 
reduced to nought by the absence of the working element 
in the mines of California. For the same reason (the 
great demand made by mining), lumber was scarce and 
high priced. Captain Ingalls had, therefore, to make 
the best use he could of the abandoned buildings of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, and to pay the soldiers wages 
in addition to their regular pay to induce them to perform 
the labor of cutting down timber and rafting it to Van- 
couver. With the help of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
however, a sufficient number of buildings were erected 
or leased to shelter the troops in Oregon and on the road. 

It was impossible at this time to secure a title to the 
site (the United States land law not having been passed), 
except by purchase or lease of the possessory rights of 
the British fur company. A lease was accordingly taken 
by the chief of the quartermaster's department, Maj. H. 
D. Vinton, of the site of Vancouver, which became and 
remains the military headquarters for the Columbia re- 
gion. The same course was pursued at Steilacoom with 
regard to the site of a fort. 

A post was established at The Dalles, where two com- 
panies of the rifle regiment were stationed in the spring 
of 1850, under command of Maj. S. S. Tucker. A post 
was in contemplation in Southern Oregon, but the temp- 
tation to desertion on the road to the gold mines was too 
great, and the design was abandoned for the time. Can- 
tonment Loring, being found to be too far from a base of 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 127 

supplies, and forage scarce, was evacuated. Thus, Ore- 
gon began its military history with a few companies of 
artillerymen and riflemen to maintain the peace from 
Astoria to the South Pass, and from the forty-second to 
the forty-ninth parallel. The government was not pre- 
pared, nor was the army department equipped for such 
extensive and expensive service. The outlay was enor- 
mous in proportion to the population guarded ; and to 
troops drawn from forts east of the Rocky Mountains, the 
transfer was unwelcome. 

The Oregon trail, which for several seasons following 
the Cay use war had been practically deserted, after the 
passage of the rifle regiment began to be again traveled, 
and in 1852 the immigration to Oregon was large. In- 
dian outrages increased, provoked not only by the inva- 
sion of every part of the country by explorers and settlers, 
but by the presence of soldiery, the presumption being 
that fighters were here to fight, and the Indians desired 
to secure the advantage of a first blow. 

Not only had the government provided fighting men, 
but peacemakers in the appointment, in 1850, of a super- 
intendent of Indian affairs (Anson Dart, of Wisconsin), 
and three agents. It is not intended in this article to 
give a history of Indian treaties, but only to indicate the 
general course of events by referring to the effect of cer- 
tain acts of government agents. 

That part of the country most rapidly settling up was 
the rich and well watered valley region west of the Cas- 
cade Mountains and south of the Columbia River. No 
trouble was had with the Indians of the Willamette, they 
being but miserable fragments of tribes, more or less 
accustomed to white neighbors. But the Umpqua and 
Rogue River valleys and the coast region were unsubdued, 
and were inhabited by warlike tribes whose practice had 
been from time immemorial to rob and kill. White men, 



128 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

whether travelers, settlers, or gold hunters, feared and 
hated them, and oftentimes the transient classes, ani- 
mated by fear, killed the wild man on sight with as little 
compunction of conscience as they would have felt at 
killing any wild animal. The Indians, on their side, 
without taking into account that they had been the 
aggressors in the first instance, revenged themselves by 
massacres in the white settlements, and war became 
necessary. That has been the history of the subdual of 
the American continent from the Atlantic to Pacific, let 
apologists on either side say what they will. 

It has been charged upon the Oregon people that they 
provoked Indian wars by wilfully wronging in various 
ways the innocent natives. That the charge is untrue is 
clear when it is remembered that, situated as they were 
for years, without protection, they dared not, had they 
desired, offer violence to the natives. It is true that the 
presence of the Hudson's Bay Company while it was in 
power restrained the Indians and the white men as well. 
It was after the arrival of the United States government 
officers that wars became unavoidable, the necessity in- 
creasing from year to year in the manner just referred to. 

The rifle regiment, having proven a disturbance to 
the people rather than a protection, was removed in 1851 
to California, the Oregonians believing that if armed 
they could protect themselves at less expense to the gov- 
ernment than that required to transport and supply 
regular troops. This probably was a wrong move, for 
it placed the settlers and the natives in opposition to each 
other as they had not been before. Hostilities opened by 
the Rogue River Indians gathering to attack a division 
of the riflemen under Major Kearney on its way to Cali- 
fornia, and exploring for a road that would avoid the 
Umpqua canyon. Kearney attacked them in a fortified 
position at Table Rock, and was compelled to fall back 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 129 

while a detachment was hurried up, with a volunteer 
company from mining camps and settlements, when two 
engagements of several hours duration each were fought, 
the Indians losing heavily, and the riflemen having sev- 
eral men wounded beside losing one officer Capt. James 
Stuart. This was the beginning of a long series of out- 
rages and a protracted Indian war which was ended only 
by the final conquest of the southern tribes of western 
Oregon in 1856. 

From 1851, when the territory was left with only two 
skeleton companies of artillerymen, and they on Puget 
Sound, for a period of fifteen years there was a succession 
of "wars,' with a continually disturbed condition in 
some part of the country. The "wars" after 1855 were 
chiefly north of the Columbia, and thus in the territory 
of Washington ; but the governors of the two divisions 
of old Oregon chose to make a common interest of Indian 
affairs, and did so. Military affairs, which formerly 
were managed by the commander of the department of 
the Pacific, were in 1858 -transferred to the department 
of Oregon under command of General Harney, whose 
ideas of Indian affairs in any department were more in 
consonance with the popular view than those of any 
general yet assigned to the Columbia region. By his 
order the country closed to settlement or occupation east 
of the Cascade Mountains was opened, exploration for 
roads was carried on, and settlement encouraged. Im- 
migration began again to flow along the Oregon trail. 
Murders and outrages increased. Incursions of Indians 
from Nevada preyed upon the growing cattle industry of 
Eastern Oregon, and miners were compelled to go armed 
at all times. 

Such was the situation in Oregon and Washington 
when civil war threatened the republic, and the govern- 



130 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

ment was calling in the army from the outlying posts. 
In 1861 less than seven hundred regulars, with nineteen 
commissioned officers, were left in Oregon and Washing- 
ton to garrison eight forts and temporary posts, located 
at Colville, Walla Walla, The Dalles, Cascades, Vancouver, 
Yamhill, Steilacoom, and San Juan Island. Col. George 
Wright was placed in command of the district of Oregon 
and Washington, and instructed to do the best he could 
with this "corporal's guard.' To the governors and 
people he apologized for the country's abandonment at 
so critical a time, when Indian difficulties surrounded 
them, and disunion plots were scarcely concealed in their 
midst. 

Hitherto the prejudice of the regular army against 
volunteer organizations had operated to prevent the de- 
fense of mineral districts and the routes of immigration, 
although when news came of some fresh outrage, the 
settlements nearest to the scene usually hurried out a 
company, without waiting to get the news to Vancouver. 
Of all the commanders, except Harney, who had been at 
the head of military affairs in Oregon, Colonel Wright 
was the most popular. He foresaw that he was likely 
at any time to be ordered East, and that the country was 
liable to be the scene of internal discord as well as border 
warfare, and set about arranging for its protection. 

In the summer of 1861 Wright made a requisition 
upon Governor Whiteaker for a cavalry company, to be 
enlisted for three years, unless sooner discharged, and 
to serve in the United States army, under its rules and 
regulations, the only exception being that the men should 
furnish their own horses, for the use or loss of which they 
would be compensated. Suspicion attaching to the gover- 
nor of disunion sentiments, a doubt also extended to the 
enrolling officer, the attempt failed, and the enlisted men 
were discharged, on which Wright departed so far from 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 131 

military etiquette as to summon together the loyal young 
men of the state and address them in camp at Oregon 
City, appealing to their patriotism to organize for services 
in the field, even to fight Indians, in order to release the 
regular troops for immediate duty in the East. 

There was, indeed, no difficulty about raising one or 
more regiments of the best blood in the state for services 
in the East, to which their loyalty and their ambition 
prompted them ; but not a man of them at this time 
wanted to fight Indians. He wanted to get at a "foeman 
worthy of his steel.' They were in this mood w r hen 
Wright was transferred to California to suppress rebellion 
in the southern part of that state, and Lieutenant Colonel 
Cady, of the Seventh United States Infantry, took com- 
mand of the District of Oregon. Promotions were rapid 
during this period of military history. Before the end 
of the year Colonel Wright was made brigadier general 
and given the command of the Department of the Pacific. 

As troops continued to be withdrawn from the several 
Oregon posts, General Wright replaced them with volun- 
teer companies from California. Three hundred and fifty 
Californians were divided between Forts Yamhill and 
Steilacoom, and soon after five companies arrived which 
were stationed at The Dalles, Fort Walla Walla, and Fort 
Colville. 

This was a rebuke the loyal youth of the state could 
understand ; and when in November, 1861, the war 
department made Thomas R. Cornelius, of Hillsboro 
(veteran of the Cay use and Yakima wars), a colonel, 
directing him to raise ten companies of cavalry for three 
years' service, there was no further hesitation. Although 
expecting to be sent into the field against the Indians to 
get a seasoning, it was believed that when they had 
learned the trade of war they would be sent East to fight 
the battles of their country should it come to that at last. 



132 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

Said one of them to me years ago in reviewing this early 
history, "It was thought as soon as we should become 
disciplined, if the war should continue, we would be 
taken East should there be no war on this coast. For 
my own part I should have gone to the army of the 
Missouri but for this understanding. ' 

The regimental officers of the First Oregon Cavalry 
after the colonel were R. F. Maury, lieutenant colonel ; 
C. S. Drew", major; J. S. Einearson, junior major, and 
Benjamin F. Harding, quartermaster and mustering 
officer. The pay for each man and horse was $31 a 
month; $100 bounty at the expiration of service, with a 
land warrant for one hundred and sixty acres. Camps 
were established in Clackamas, Marion, and Jackson 
counties. The first company, A, raised was in Jackson 
County, T. S. Harris, captain; the second company, B, 
in Ma.rion County, E. J. Harding, captain ; Company C 
was raised at Vancouver, William Kelly, captain ; Com- 
pany D in Jackson County, S. Truax, captain ; Company 
E in Wasco County, George B. Currey, captain ; Com- 
pany F chiefly in Josephine County, William J. Matthews, 
captain. Adjutant, Richard S. Caldwell ; surgeon, Wil- 
liam H. Watkins ; assistant surgeon, commissioned in 
April, 1862, was David S. Holton, and quartermaster, 
commissioned in February, 1862, was David W. Porter. 
The first lieutenants commissioned in 1861 were Jesse 
Robinson, Seth Hammer, John M. Drake, David P. 
Thompson ; in January, 1862, William V. Rinehart and 
Frank B. White. 

The second lieutenants commissioned in 1861 were 
John W. Hopkins, Charles Hobart, and John M. McCall ; 
early in 1862 Peter Fox, William Kapus, James L. Steele, 
and D. C. Underwood. These names, still well remem- 
bered in Oregon, are those of the original First Oregon 
Cavalry officers. During the three years' service some 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 133 

i 

changes occurred, but the regiment remained practically 
the same for its full term. 

The winter of 1861-'62 was one of extreme cold with 
heavy snows. Miners who attempted to stay through 
the season in their camps were driven out by the pros- 
pect of starvation, and frozen to death, or killed by 
Indians on the trail, when they became food for the fam- 
ished savages. The spring floods brought down many 
bodies of, or fragments of bodies, of these unhappy ad- 
venturers, warning the volunteers of the nature of the 
foes they were to encounter. 

Volunteering went on tardily through the winter, 
with headquarters at Vancouver. Eastern Oregon fur- 
nished but forty men, recruited at The Dalles by Captain 
Currey, and brought up to the standard by detachments 
from other companies . This was the first company in the 
field, a detachment being sent out early in March, by the 
commanding officer at The Dalles, to find and search a 
camp of Indians from the Simcoe Reservation suspected 
of murdering a party of miners on John Day River. No 
evidence being found in their camp, the detachment re- 
turned from a disagreeable march on the fifth day, hav- 
ing performed the first scouting duty of the regiment, 
between the eighth and twelfth of March inclusive. 

Captain Currey was not only an indefatigable officer 
and good cavalryman, but a man possessed of a poetic 
and literary turn of mind which is seldom found in con- 
nection with the more active qualities. He was a sort 
of Oregon "Teddy Roosevelt" in temperament, but un- 
happily for him, deprived of the opportunity to shine. 
This deprivation, that came from his being in the Oregon 
cavalry, which he had joined in the hope and expectation 
of being sent to fight for loyalty to his country, as time 
dragged on through the weary three years in the Indian 
service became an actual grief to him. This is apparent 



134 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

in his report. But some of his private letters written 
twenty years after the close of the war are touching ex- 
pressions of his disappointment. That he performed his 
duty well, and not only he, but the whole regiment, with 
few exceptions, should not be forgotten by the passing, 
nor unknown to the rising generations. 

There was this peculiar feature about the cavalry 
regiment that distinguishes it from other military organ- 
izations. Besides being the voluntary offering of the best 
homes of the state to the service of the country, the men 
who composed it pledged themselves at the beginning to 
temperance and pure living. If any violated their pledge 
it was never reported. 

Among those whom I have personally known is Hon. 
James A. Waymire, son of that worthy pioneer, Fred 
Waymire, of Polk County, known as the "apostle of 
democracy' and "watch dog of the treasury" in terri- 
torial times. James was a smooth-faced, rosy-cheeked 
lad, having scarcely attained his majority when he 
entered the service as a private in Company B, in Decem- 
ber, 1861. He was mustered in as second lieutenant 
April 13, 1863, and assigned to duty with Company D, 
in which capacity he served until the disbandment of the 
regiment in the autumn of 1864. 

Lieutenant Waymire in his report to Adj. Gen. Cyrus 
A. Reed has this passage : "I will say here that from my 
personal knowledge I know that a great majority of the 
men who composed the First Oregon Cavalry were young 
men acting from a conviction of patriotic duty. They left 
pleasant homes and profitable occupations to take up 
arms, not only in defense of our frontiers against the In- 
dians, but also to assist in preventing or countenancing 
any movement on-the Pacific Coast in favor of the attempt 
to dissolve the Union ; they also hoped that should the 
war prove a long one, and should there be no serious 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 135 

difficulty here they would, after becoming drilled and 
disciplined, be ordered East to engage in active service 
there. That they have fought no great battles, nor won 
any important victories, is the misfortune and not the 
fault of the Oregon volunteers.' It indeed required of 
such men, and under such circumstances as the adjutant 
general declared in his report, as much patriotism to 
absent themselves from civilized society, and encounter 
the hardships and privations of frontier savage warfare, 
as did any service they could be Called upon to render. 

It was midsummer of 1862 before all the six compa- 
nies were uniformed, armed and mounted. The Dalles 
company was ordered about the last of March to Camp 
Barlow, near Oregon City, to be uniformed, and it was 
July before it was clothed for the service, although in 
May it was sent to Fort Walla Walla to do garrison duty. 
The summer was spent in patroling the region about the 
fort, arresting Indians who violated their .treaty obliga- 
tions, and performing escort duty on the Oregon Trail, or 
to the mines. Detachments went to Coeur d'Alene Mis- 
sion, Fort Colville, Umatilla Indian Reservation, and to 
the mouth of Palouse River to guard a depot of govern- 
ment freight intended for Fort Colville. In this way the 
eighty men in Company E were kept on duty and in 
motion. 

In August Captain Currey was ordered to proceed to 
Grand Ronde and arrest three Indian chiefs who were 
driving settlers from their claims and tearing down their 
houses. When found and told that they were wanted 
by the commanding officer at Fort Walla Walla, they an- 
swered that they were on their own land, and if the officer 
desired to see them, he must come there. During the 
parley, other Indians gathered about, and Captain Currey, 
seeing that to fulfill his orders force would have to be 
used, entered the lodge of the principal chief with the 



136 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

intention of binding them. On this two of the Indians 
made demonstrations with rifle and revolver, and their 
motions being less quick and certain than the white 
man's, both were shot. At the same time exchanges of 
shots were going on outside, two Indians being killed 
and another wounded. At this reverse, the band fled, 
and the troops were ordered to cease firing, while word 
was sent to them to return and bury their dead ; Captain 
Currey explaining to them that he had not come with the 
intention of killing any of them, but that he must obey 
orders, and their armed resistance had brought on the 
fight. A report of the affair was sent to General Wright, 
who approved. This was one form of service. Another 
was scouting. 

The aggregate distance traveled by Currey 's company 
in 1862 was three thousand miles. Then came a winter 
in garrison at Walla Walla. "This," says the captain, 
"of all duty the volunteer soldiers are called upon to per- 
form, is the most harrassing, tedious, and abominable.' 

On the return of spring, scouting and pursuing preda- 
tory raiders kept the troops in motion. A detachment 
of Company E, under Lieutenant Monroe of the First 
Washington Infantry Regiment, in a forced march to 
overtake thieves w^ho had driven off sixty head of gov- 
ernment mules traveled two hundred miles ; but near the 
junction of the Okanogan Trail and the Columbia River, 
and while attempting to cross a high mountain range 
was compelled to turn back by a snow storm which cov- 
ered the trail to a depth of two feet. Two citizen em- 
ployees of the quartermaster's department, with great 
determination pushed on, coming up with the thieves, 
three in number, the next day at sunrise surprising and 
shooting two of them before being discovered. The third 
being but a lad, and an Indian, was taken into their em- 
ploy, proving a valuable assistant, as the white men had 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 137 

frozen their feet in crossing the mountain. But imme- 
diately upon Lieutenant Monroe's departure becoming 
known in Walla Walla town, news was sent to the mule 
thieves by their fellows. On learning this, the command- 
ing officer at the fort sent out another detachment under 
Lieutenant Apperson to overtake Lieutenant Monroe and 
give him assistance. Finding, after traveling one hun- 
dred and twenty-five miles, that he was not going to be 
able to come up with him, and not having rations or 
forage for more than ten days, Apperson returned to 
Walla Walla, when Captain Currey was instructed to take 
twenty cavalrymen and thirty days rations, and renew 
the pursuit. Snake River was crossed on the evening of 
the twelfth of March, 1863, the men in an Indian canoe, 
and the horses swimming the river being three hundred 
yards wide, swift, and very cold. This expedition which 
in four days met the mule rescuers returning and turned 
back, "is only mentioned," says Currey in his report, "to 
present the fact that forty-eight head of horses belonging 
to Company E made forced marches and swam Snake 
River when its waters were winter cold, as preparatory 
training for a summer campaign.' To complete the 
mule stealing incident, Currey was ordered to take six 
men and proceed to Lapwai on the Nez Perce Indian 
Reservation a hundred miles distant, with the Indian lad 
in charge to be tried for horse stealing, the punishment 
for which was hanging, if proved guilty. He was 
acquitted and the detachment marched back again. 

Fort Walla Walla was at this period commanded by 
Col. Justin Steinberger, Colonel Cornelius having re- 
signed. Steinberger was colonel of the First Washington 
Infantry, and belonged to Pierce County in that terri- 
tory. He went to California and raised four companies 
to fill out his regiment, reporting at Vancouver early in 
May, 1862, relieving Colonel Cady of the command of 



138 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

the district until July, when Brigadier General Alvord 
arrived to take command, and Steinberger repaired to 
Walla Walla to assume command of the post resigned 
by Cornelius. 

On the fourth of May, 1863, a long contemplated ex- 
pedition against the Snake Indians was set on foot by 
Colonel Steinberger, Lieutenant Colonel Maury of the 
cavalry being assigned to the command of the expedi- 
tion, which was intended to punish the Snakes for 
atrocities committed in 1860, as well as to protect the 
immigration of the current year. At the same time there 
was need of troops on the Nez Perce Reservation, where 
trouble was threatened between two political parties 
among the Indians, a portion, under Lawyer, being favor- 
able to Americans, and another division under Big Thun- 
der, opposing the passage of miners across the reservation. 
That there was some justification for this opposition was 
probable, but it could not be allowed to bring on a war, 
especially with the Nez Perces, who had never yet been 
at war with the white race. 

The population of Eastern Oregon was at this period 
increasing rapidly. The two principal causes operating 
to produce this increase were the civil war, from which 
many southern and southwestern men desired to escape, 
and the mining excitement which drew large numbers to 
the Northwest Pacific Coast from 1860 to 1865, and later. 

To such an extent had the rush to the mines depopu- 
lated Western Oregon of its able-bodied men that a call 
made in January, 1863, for six companies to fill up the 
First Cavalry Regiment produced only one during the 
whole summer, and it was feared a draft would be re- 
sorted to. The state had not raised her share of troops 
for the United States service, and had but seven com- 
panies in the field, while California had not only nine 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 139 

regiments, but Californians were serving in Oregon and 
Washington. 

Troops were needed at various points on the frontier 
and posts at Boise and Klamath, the latter for the pro- 
tection of the immigration by the southern route, on 
which some bloody massacres had occurred. Accord- 
ingly, in the spring of 1863, the government having con- 
sented, Major Drew, of the Oregon Cavalry, who had 
been promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel, sent 
Captain Kelly with Company C to construct and garri- 
son a fort on the Klamath lands near the head of Upper 
Klamath Lake. These two expeditions left but two of 
the cavalry companies to be employed in keeping the 
peace between white men and Indians, pursuing horse 
thieves, white and red, and arresting whisky sellers and 
highwaymen. In this service, often requiring long 
inarches, the cavalry horses were kept worn down. 

The expedition into the Snake country proceeded from 
Fort Walla Walla to Lapwai to be present at a council 
of United States commissioners with the chiefs of the 
Nez Perces, trouble being apprehended ; the object of the 
commission being to secure the relinquishment of a cer- 
tain part of the reservation in order to open a safe high- 
way to the mineral regions lying east of it. To make a 
treaty, with a handful of white men on one side and 
twenty-five hundred Indians on the other, a part of whom 
were openly hostile to the measure, was an undertaking 
straining to the nerves of the commissioners. But the 
policy of Lawyer prevailed, together with the knowledge 
that ammunition was issued to the troops and the post 
put in condition for defense. 

To make sure of the intentions of the Nez Perces, 
Colonel Maury ordered Captain Currey to take twenty 
men at midnight and proceed to the council ground, two 



140 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

miles distant from the post, to make observations. Ac- 
companied by Lieutenant Kapus, regimental adjutant 
of the Washington Territory Infantry, he entered a lodge 
where fifty-three chiefs and sub-chiefs were deliberating 
on the propositions of the commissioners. Says Currey 
in his report : 

"The debate ran with dignified firmness and warmth 
until near morning, when the Big Thunder party made 
a formal announcement of their determination to take no 
further part in the treaty, and then with a warm, and in 
an emotional manner, declared the Nez Perce nation dis- 
solved ; whereupon the Big Thunder men shook hands 
with the Lawyer men, telling them with a kind but firm 
demeanor that they would be friends, but a distinct 
people. It did not appear from the tone of their short, 
sententious speeches, that either party was meditating 
present outbreak. I withdrew my detachment, having 
accomplished nothing but witnessing the extinguishment 
of the last council fires of the most powerful Indian na- 
tion on the sunset side of the Rocky Mountains.' The 
"treaty" was really no more than the agreement of Law- 
yer and his band, numbering less than a third of the Nez 
Perce people. 

While the council of the commissioners and chiefs 
was in progress, word was brought that a band of rene- 
gades from the Yakimas, Palouse, and Nez Perces was 
encamped three miles from the council ground, with the 
purpose of stirring up discord and causing the rejection 
of the treaty. Captains Drake and Currey a with detach- 
ments of Companies D and E, were ordered to proceed 
by night, surround their camp, and at daylight put them 
across Clearwater River with the admonition to remain 
away or take the consequences . This being accomplished , 
complaint being made that two white men had erected a 
house on, and laid claim to a portion of the reservation 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 141 

lands, Captain Currey took his company twelve miles 
down the river to the squatters' cabin, which his men 
demolished and threw into the river. In this impartial 
manner military government maintained something like 
order over a wild and lawless region. 

On the thirteenth of June Maury's expedition left 
Lapwai for the Snake-river country. This part of Currey's 
report is very interesting from his descriptions of regions 
that had not been frequented by white men since the fur- 
hunting companies had roamed over them. The com- 
mand passed up Lapwai Creek, and from Craig's Mountain 
traveled through broken ridges to Salmon River where a 
ferry enabled them to cross the train of a hundred and 
fifty pack mules without swimming. In crossing the 
high ridge between the Salmon and Snake rivers, how- 
ever, several of these animals lost their footing, and were 
precipitated down the rock-ribbed mountain sides. 

In this manner the command passed several days, 
resting one day at the head of Little Salmon ; passing 
over another ridge to the head of Payette River, where 
it again rested, while a detachment under Currey pro- 
ceeded southward to the headwaters of Weiser River to 
look for signs of Snake River Indians, finding only a 
deserted camp. 

According to Currey, on the head of Payette River are 
located the most beautiful valleys of Idaho, the moun- 
tains that wall them in being covered with pine and 
tamarack trees, and the prairies verdant with nutritious 
grasses and clover, watered with trout streams. This 
region, he says, was in former times the debatable land 
between the Snakes and Nez Perces, where once a three 
days battle was fought for its possession and the Snakes 
driven off, until more settled habits had been adopted by 
the Nez Perces, when it relapsed to its ancient claimants. 
At the period of his visit he was convinced it had for 



142 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

several years been the refuge of a band of Snakes which 
had plundered white travelers and settlers, successfully 
eluding pursuit or discovery. 

The march from the Weiser to Boise River proved "a 
pleasant country to travel through.' When the Oregon 
troops arrived at the latter river they found Major Lugen- 
beel of the regular army, from Fort Colville, on the 
ground, having arrived the day previous, July 1, 1863, 
with men, materials, and supplies for the establishment 
of a post, which was named Fort Boise, near which Boise 
City soon grew up. 

Here Maury's command was encamped for several 
days awaiting supplies and preparing for the long march 
to Fort Hall, that was eagerly anticipated, but which 
proved in experience to be more wearisome by its monot- 
ony than the mountains by their roughness and dangers. 
The prairies and streams passed on the march are now 
well known and need not be mentioned. 

No serious encounters with Indians occurred on the 
march to Fort Hall. Only one scout of any importance 
was made, which was from Little Camas Prairie, in 
search of a considerable band of Snake Indians rumored 
to be encamped fifty miles off, and near the trail. But 
the night march brought to light no Indian camps. A 
depot of supplies was established at Trail Creek, and 
while it was being made secure, Currey with twenty men 
was sent to look for Indians down the Malade, which, 
the report says, is called a river more from the habit of 
calling every running stream a river, than from the quan- 
tity of water in its channel. "For miles this industrious 
little stream has mortised its way through a lava bed by 
the process known as 'pot-holing.' The walls of the 
stream vary from five to twenty feet in height, resembling 
an unfinished mortise before the concave clefts of the 
auger have been cut away by the chisel. The concaves 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 143 

left by the broken pot-holes vary in diameters from one 
inch to five feet.' 

On the fourth day of Currey's scout in this region he 
came upon a camp, recently abandoned, in which the 
camp fires were still burning, and pushing on overtook 
this band of a dozen tepees, located on the river bottom 
almost beneath the feet of the pursuing troop. Every 
chance of escape being cut off, the chief displayed all his 
people unarmed, with their hands held up. "Although, ' 
says the chronicler, "we had then trailed the party for 
four days, one day without rations, I could not consent 
to fire upon an unarmed and supplicating foe," and only 
laid them under contribution for a supply of salmon, 
though he carried off their chief to receive the judgment 
of his superior. Two hundred miles of hard traveling 
had resulted in the capture of one Indian. 

The command proceeded to the Port Neuf, six miles 
from Fort Hall, remaining until the last of the immigra- 
tion had passed, when it began its homeward march. At 
Salmon Falls Creek it remained long enough to gather 
in the Indians pretending friendship to inform them of 
the determination henceforth to let no outrages upon 
white people pass unpunished. It was expected that 
this message would be communicated by these friendlies 
to the hostile members of the tribe, as no doubt it was. 
The effect of this pacification, however, would be to warn 
the hostiles to keep out of the way, while the unarmed 
and old peace men displayed their submission to the 
soldiers by holding up empty hands. 

While in camp at this place Currey was ordered to 
make another scout across the desert that lay between 
Snake River and the Goose Creek Range [Seven Peaks?] 
to the southwest. With twenty men and ten days' rations 
the expedition set out. A four days' march brought it, 
through sagebrush and lava ridges, to Salmon Falls 



144 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

Creek [West Fork?] , a stream which ran through a can- 
yon from one thousand to two thousand feet in depth, 
with nearly perpendicular walls, and few places where a 
descent to it was possible for man or horse. The w r ater 
famine was somewhat relieved by a rainstorm. 

The point traveled for w^as a snow peak of the Goose 
Creek Mountains [Seven Peaks] , two days' travel from 
Salmon Falls Creek [West Fork] , where at the foot of 
the peak on the morning of the seventh day a smoke was 
discovered, and the supposed encampment surrounded. 
"We found," says the captain, "a lordly Indian, 'monarch 
of all he surveyed.' His kingdom consisted of two wives, 
seven children, eight horses, and some camp equipage.' 
Out of commiseration for his wives and children, he was 
allowed to remain in peace and accumulate more horses. 

On the thirtieth of September, from observations taken 
in passing along the northern base of Goose Creek Moun- 
tains [Seven Peaks], it was discovered that the "Seven 
Peaks' were only seven views of the same mountain as 
seen from the east side ; and that the Bruneau River 
gathered its waters from the north side, while the Owyhee 
was fed by the snows of the south side. Within a few 
miles the tributaries of the Bruneau were gathered to- 
gether, and entered "one of the most terrific chasms my 
wanderings have brought me to shudder on the brink of,' 
says the report. "With this immense fissure on my right, 
sagebrush and trap rock beneath my feet, the hazy, death- 
like sky of Snake River over my head, and a cloud of alkali 
dust hurled by the sagebrush in my eyes, ears, and nos- 
trils, I picked my way as best I could for myself and men. 
The principal object of solicitude in these desert marches, 
is water for your men and animals ; and here, although 
a river of respectable magnitude was rippling cool and 
clear, whose margin walls broke surface within a rod to 
our right, yet to go down there after it required wings 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 145 

which, unfortunately for the service, the Oregon cavalry 
were not supplied with. At intervals gulches break the 
face of the margin wall, and down these, with much labor 
in rolling stones and smoothing, a way can be made down 
which the thirsty horses and men will force themselves 
when urged by the strongest of all possible inducements 
desire for water on a sagebrush desert. While passing 
down the river we got one drink a day in the manner 
above described. 

Down in one of these deep canyons we found three 
Indians, who claimed to be Conner's Indians, and as 
General Conner and the governor of Utah had sent the 
commanding officer of the expedition notice that they 
had treated with the Bannocks, as a matter of course we 
twenty would not molest three. Besides their discovery 
was rather fortunate for us, as the morning before finding 
them our last ration, one half inch square of flatcake, 
was devoured, and we relished some fresh elk, procured 
from the Indians, exceedingly.' 

In this painful and apparently useless manner the 
march continued down the Bruneau River; losing the trail 
at night, examining it by the light of "Dutch' matches, 
for horse tracks ; finding one dead Indian which seemed 
to say that some part of the command had been in a 
skirmish in that region ; scrambling down precipices two 
thousand feet in depth to siake intolerable thirst, and 
marching the last day without food, it came up with an- 
other detachment under Lieutenant Apperson with a de- 
tachment of Company A, who was encamped fifteen miles 
further down stream. From Apperson supplies were 
obtained, and Currey's command returned to the main 
camp, having traveled in eleven days about four hundred 
miles. On this march, "with the exception of two camps 
on Goose Creek Mountains [Seven Peaks] , the remainder 
were made in fissures of the earth so deep that neither the 



146 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

'Polar Star' or the 'Seven Pointers' could be seen.' The 
return to Fort Walla Walla was by the dusty emigrant 
road, and over the Blue Mountains covered with snow, 
arriving October 26, 1863 the expedition having been on 
the march five months. With all their hardships the 
troops preferred such service to garrison life, than which, 
declared Currey, no better system could be devised to 
alienate men from their officers, chill the enthusiasm of 
troops, sap the foundation of patriotism, and destroy the 
efficiency of the army, leaving them exposed to tempta- 
tions, to vice, and the enervating influence of aimless 
formality and self-abnegation. 

Holding such views it was with pleasure that, after 
a brush with the renegade band on the Palouse in March, 
1864, Currey received notice from Brigadier General 
Alvord that he would be sent into the Snake country 
again. Accordingly on the twenty-eighth of April, an 
expedition was organized, consisting of Companies E, A, 
and a part of F, Currey commanding ; Lieut. John Bowen, 
Company F, adjutant ; Lieut. Silas Pepoon, acting assist- 
ant quartermaster and A. C. S. ; Sergt. Peter P. Gates, 
sergeant major; Capt. W. V. Rinehart, commanding 
Company A, and Lieut. James L. Currey, commanding 
Company E. The train consisted of one hundred and 
three pack mules and eight army wagons drawn by six 
mules each, with a traveling forge. The troops, says 
their commander, were "a noble set of Oregon men, well 
drilled and in an excellent state of discipline, eager for 
service and anxious to accomplish something.' 

In crossing the Umatilla Indian Reservation, camp 
was made at the foot of the Blue Mountains, to which the 
Cayuses were invited, with the object of securing volun- 
teers among them to go against their old enemies, the 
Snakes. A war dance was held, the result of which was 
ten volunteers, under Chief Umahontilla. These war- 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 147 

riors, glad of an opportunity to strike their hereditary 
foe, furnished their own horses, two to each man, and 
without pay or the promise of it, joined the white cav- 
alry. But Currey's desire was for a considerable force of 
Indians, which might have been had for $10 a month per 
man, their clothing and rations, and the use of the arms 
furnished them, with their ammunition. 

"With well trained troops, and one hundred riders 
equal to the Cossacks in agility, and the Mamelukes in 
bravery and intrepidity, fired by their hereditary hatred 
of the Snakes, there can be no doubt but that the spring 
flowers of 1865 would have come and found peace upon 
our borders so long the scene of plunder, massacre, and 
torture.' * * "This digression," continues the 

report, "has been indulged in, not to reflect upon the 
military leaders of the country, nor with the hope of 
instructing the political rulers of the land, but to- give 
expression to an opinion pretty generally entertained by 
the subordinate officers doing military duty on our bor- 
ders, where important and decisive action is constantly 
demanded at their hands without adequate force where- 
with to accomplish it.' 

This abstract is, here made to show the spirit in which 
the Oregon volunteers performed their duties, at no time 
agreeable or wholly satisfactory. That they desired to 
have something to show for their three years' services, 
we are frequently reminded by paragraphs like the fol- 
lowing : "When I visited this valley (the Grande Ronde) 
in 1862, what is now a thriving village of over a hundred 
houses, consisted of a single house, without any roof, and 
another up to the top of the valley that the settlers have 
thrown up as a fort against the Indians. I do not remem- 
ber any others except those in La Grande. Now the whole 
valley is dotted with farm houses. This great change, 



148 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

I flattered myself, was materially aided by the night ride 
of 1862." 

There is not space in a magazine article to continue 
the details which give interest to Currey's report. His 
objective point being the Owyhee, it is only necessary to 
say that after leaving the emigrant road, about the hiid- 
dle of May, the experiences of the previous summer were 
repeated riding among rocks and sagebrush through the 
long, hot days to come at last to a stream several hundred 
feet below the surface of the surrounding country. Some 
of the descriptive passages are very interesting ; indeed, I 
know of no traveler in the Northwest, unless it is Theodore 
Winthrop, whose word pictures of natural objects are 
equal to those of our acting colonel of the First Oregon 
Cavalry. Here is something from the Owyhee country : 

"The region immediately opposite the mouth of Jor- 
dan Creek has a weird, antiquated look ; it is one of the 
unusual landscapes wherein the wind has been the most 
powerful and active agent employed by Dame Nature to 
complete her exterior. The formation is of greyish red 
sandstone, soft, and under the capricious workings of the 
wind for centuries, has assumed shapes strange and fan- 
tastic. Here stands a group of towers ; there is an arch- 
way curiously shaped ; yonder is a tunnel running the 
face of a sandstone ledge hundreds of feet from the bot- 
tom. The whole catalogue of descriptive antique might 
be exhausted in giving fanciful names to the created re- 
sults of this aerial architecture. The spectacle of seeing 
my command wind its way through this temple of the 
wind was pleasing, and one that will long be remembered 
by the most who beheld it.' 

Camp Henderson was established on Gibb's Creek, 
about eight miles from the mouth of Jordan Creek, on 
the twenty-sixth of May, 1864, distant from Walla 
Walla three hundred and thirty miles, and the tents 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 149 

having been left at Fort Boise to lighten transportation, 
the troopers made themselves wickeups out of willow 
wands, grass, canes, or sagebrush, which served as shel- 
ter from the burning desert sun. 

On the twenty -eighth of May, Currey, with Campanies 
A and E, mounted for a ride to a snow peak in the south- 
west. "After thumping along all day through sagebrush 
and loose trap rock without water, a short time before 
sundown, the sergeant of Company E, who had been 
sent to the top of a neighboring height to examine the 
country around for appearances of water, returned to the 
command and reported a large lake about two miles 
further on. This encouraged us, and tumbling more 
than marching we reached the bottom of a canyon that 
led into our prospective lake, and just as the sun was 
passing behind the dark ridge of basalt to our west. 
But what was our surprise and disappointment upon 
nearing it to find that it did not contain a drop of water. 
It was nothing but an extensive tract of perfectly smooth, 
yellow clay smooth as the drying yard of the brick- 
maker. It was the mirage caused by this flat, hard sur- 
face that deceived us. At a hundred yards from it Old 
Neptune himself would have wagered his trident that it 
was a beautiful sheet of water, but he would have lost. 
While riding towards it I heard men, when within less 
than fifty yards of it, offering to wager six months' pay 
that it was a lake we were approaching, so complete was 
the deception. Passing over this deceptive ground, in 
about two miles, at the foot of a high ridge, we luckily 
found some beautiful springs and a nook of excellent 
grass. Part of the Indians accompanied me on this 
scout, and so much did one of them suffer for water 
that when we reached the springs he had completely lost 
his hearing in one of his ears, and could hardly see his 
horse . ' ' 



150 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

The morning following Alvord Valley was discovered 
and a place selected for a summer camp, the indications 
being that this valley was the headquarters of a consider- 
able body of Indians. On the return to Camp Hender- 
son the troop amused itself for an hour with the mirage 
on the dry lake, which performed an amusing panto- 
mime, figures of men and horses moving over its surface, 
some high in the air, while others were sliding to right 
or left like weavers' shuttles. Some horses appeared 
stretched out to an enormous length, while others spin- 
dled up, the moving tableau "representing everything 
contortions and capricious reflections could do.' 

Returning by a different but not easier route to Gibbs' 
Creek, the" command remained in camp until June 2, 
when a scouting party which was out for three days 
found and killed five unarmed Snake Indians. While 
awaiting the arrival of the quartermaster's train at Camp 
Henderson, Captain Rinehart was sent on a scout up the 
Owyhee River, and during his absence a settler on Jor- 
dan Creek arrived in haste to report Indians in his neigh- 
borhood. On this information the main force started in 
pursuit, finding only satisfactory proofs that the Indians 
seen were Currey's Cayuse scouts, and they had taken a 
forced night ride in pursuit of themselves ! 

On the sixteenth of June, the supply train having 
arrived, the whole command set out by a new route for 
Alvord Valley. It consisted at this time of one hundred 
and thirty-three officers and men, having been joined at 
the mouth of the Owyhee by twenty-nine non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates of the First Washington 
Infantry, officered by Capt. E. Barry, Lieutenant Harden- 
burg, and Assistant Surgeon Cochran, U. S. A. Twelve 
miles from camp a rest of two days was taken, the horses 
being much jaded, this being the first rest of the whole 
command since the twenty-eighth of April. The re- 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 151 

mainder of the march thirty-four miles to Camp 
Alvord was completed on the nineteenth, when all 
arrived, "the infantry very much fatigued.' 

Satisfied that a large body of Indians had been re- 
cently encamped in Alvord Valley, a place was chosen 
by Currey at the foot of Stein's Mountain for a depot of 
supplies, and a star-shaped fort erected of earthworks. 
Through it ran a stream of snow water from the moun- 
tains, and altogether, this spot was deemed a paradise in 
comparison with the camps left behind. Leaving Camp 
Alvord on the twenty-second with the greater portion of 
the cavalry, Currey started for Harney Lake, where he 
was ordered by the department commander to form a 
junction with Capt. John M. Drake, in command of an 
expedition starting from The Dalles. 

Marching north by an old Indian trail, with grass 
and water abundant and excellent, Malheur Lake was 
reached on the evening of the twenty -fourth. Here, in- 
stead of dry alkali lakes Malheur was found to be a wet 
one, and not in the least amusing, as the approaches 
were crossed by alkali marshes, and the shallow water 
was unfit to drink. Harney Lake was found to lie to the 
west of, and to be connected with Malheur Lake. In 
order to reach it a stream from the south had to be 
crossed, requiring a half days travel to find a ford, a 
passage being affected by cutting and piling in willow 
brush, which was made compact by sods of grass. At 
the moment the front rank of cavalry reached the bank 
a loud clap of thunder burst overhead, from which inci- 
dent the stream was named Thunder River, while one of 
its headwaters took the euphonious name of Blitzen 
River. 

Not finding Captain Drake at Harney Lake, Currey 
proceeded to look for Indians, and was on a tributary of 
Silvie's River when at midnight of the thirtieth a cour- 



152 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

t 

ier from Drake overtook him with the information that 
he was at Rattlesnake Camp on a small stream coming 
from the mountain rim encircling the Valley of Harney 
and Malheur Lakes. The two commands now acted in 
concert. The first attack was on the thirteenth of July, 
when the Cayuse scouts were pursued almost into camp 
by the Snakes, and on that afternoon the trail of the In- 

/ * . 

dians was discovered. In following it the next day 
through the canyon of the south fork of John Day River, 
the troops were fired on from the overhanging rocks. 
Captain Drake with Company D scrambled up the sides 
of the canyon. Captain Rinehart was posted in the rear, 
and the remainder of the command took positions in the 
bottom of the canyon and fired a volley or two to draw 
the attention of the Indians away from Drake's move- 
ments. In about an hour Drake got his men on a level 
with the Indians, when after receiving one volley they 
fled. The pursuit, continued until the following after- 
noon, was fruitless. The Indians were not overtaken, 
but the valley was relieved of their presence. Neither 
the Indians nor the cavalrymen had sustained much 
harm. Hoping to discover other bands, which if not 
found would renew depredations upon settlers and miners 
in the John Day region and on the Canyon City Road, 
the remainder of July was spent in patroling this high- 
way and scouting to the south of it, but without results. 
While encamped one night near the Eugene City road 
an express arrived from Fort Boise bringing news of a 
raid in Jordan Valley. The command was then three 
hundred and fifty miles from Jordan Creek, and had not 
rested a day since leaving Camp Alvord. And yet the 
Oregon and California newspapers commented severely 
upon the failure of the cavalry to prevent or to punish 
Indian raids. "The California press is more excusable,' 
says Currey, "than the Oregon ; but the unjust criticism 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 153 

that we received from the Oregon press did more to make 
my command lag than a thousand miles of hard march- 
ing over the most inhospitable desert that can be found 
in North America.' 

And here the historian may make a digression to ex- 
plain that both the Oregon press and the Oregon cavalry 
were at that time unaware of the fact that it was not the 
Snake Indians whose raids gave so much trouble, but in- 
cursions of Nevada and Utah tribes, with some Shoshones 
from the upper Snake River, who were responsible for 
the robberies, murders, and other atrocities committed 
for years in Eastern Oregon and Western Idaho, a record 
of which would fill a large volume. It was only after the 
close of the civil war, when the regular army was released 
from service against rebellion, that troops could be sent 
to the relief of the frontier settlements, and bv that time 

V 

border warfare had assumed such proportions that many 
regiments, much money, and much time were required 
to subdue the savage foe. The southern invaders knew 
every movement of the volunteer companies, which they 
could observe from their hiding places in the rocks, 
from which they did not emerge when danger seemed to 
threaten. They knew where to find water and grass, and 
could sleep in peace while the cavalry wore out men and 
horses in night rides to hunt trails which they were too 
cunning to leave. Camp Alvord, at the foot of Stein's 
Mountain, was almost at the entrance to a rocky defile, 
up which they fled to a place of safety when alarmed by 
the approach of an enemy. In a country so immense 
and so rough as the deserts of Southeastern Oregon and 
Southwestern Idaho looking for Indians, was like search- 
ing for the legendary "needle in the haymow.' 

I have not room to go much further into detail. The 
object in view has been to show the spirit of the services 
rendered, and why it accomplished little more than to 



154 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

train a regiment of young Oregonians for military duty. 

It was the twelfth of August before Currey 's command 
reached Camp Alvord, by which time two thirds of his 
men were suffering from disorders peculiar to armies 
kept continually on the march in hot climates without 
proper diet. It was about this time, and from seeing in 
what direction a party of marauders fled after a slight 
skirmish, that Currey became convinced of the character 
of the enemy, and that he held a defensive position 
among the crags of Stein's Mountain. 

Acting upon this conclusion an expedition was under- 
taken and prosecuted as far as the Pueblo mining district, 
in the northern border of Nevada. A small party of 
Piutes was captured, but such was the fear of savage 
vengeance that Currey was entreated by the miners to 
spare the Indians, who deserved hanging for past crimes. 
The return made for this undeserved clemency was the 
murder a few months later of these same miners. 

On returning to Alvord Valley, which was now seen 
to be the base of all the thieving operations in Eastern 
Oregon, Currey suggested to the district commander, 
General Alvord, the utility to the service of maintaining 
Camp Alvord through the winter, but the suggestion not 
being approved by the department commander, General 
McDowell, the camp was abandoned September 26. The 
following spring and summer many lives and much prop- 
erty were destroyed on the roads leading from the Sacra- 
mento Valley to the Idaho mines. 

The wagon train was sent to Fort Boise, and the 
cavalry returned north. On the sixteenth of October, 
Currey was met by an express from district headquarters, 
stating that southern sympathizers in Oregon threatened 
an outbreak on the day of the presidential election, and 
directing him to be at Fort Dalles on that day with Com- 
pany E. On the twenty-sixth the command was in camp 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 155 

near Fort Walla Walla, and dissolved the same evening, 
Company A going into garrison, Company F to Lapwai, 
Company E beginning its march to The Dalles on the 
twenty-eighth of October, and arriving November sixth, 
when it went into garrison. Currey was ordered to Van- 
couver and assigned to recruiting service. This ended 
his connection with the First Oregon Cavalry, being ap- 
pointed in the spring of 1865 to the command of the 
First Oregon Infantry Regiment. 

It is not pretended that this article is a history of the 
First Oregon Cavalry "only a photograph," in the slang 
language. From the reports of the various officers an 
interesting volume might be written. One of the earliest 
encounters with the enemy in the field, in 1863, was by 
the youthful second lieutenant, James A. Waymire, as- 
signed to duty with Company D. Waymire was with 
Colonel Maury on his march to Fort Hall and back. 
While Maury was encamped near the mouth of the Bru- 
neau River the lieutenant was sent with twenty men to 
punish any Indians he might find in that region. Mov- 
ing up the stream and scouting, on the first of October 
the scouts reported a large body of Indians encamped in 
a canyon a mile ahead. Fearing that they would escape 
if alarmed, Waymire pushed forward with eleven men, 
finding the Indians in a rocky defile three hundred feet 
deep, through which ran the river and seemingly inac- 
cessible. A volley brought about thirty armed men out 
of the wickeups, who posted themselves behind rocks, 
and, when Waymire dismounted his men on the brink of 
the canyon, opened a brisk fire on them. This was re- 
turned with effect, and the Indians attempted to escape. 
This so excited the cavalrymen that they scrambled down 
the rocks, waded the stream, and followed in hot pursuit 

for some distance. Five Indians were killed, several 
4 



156 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

American horses captured that had recently been stolen 
from immigrants, and a large supply of ammunition and 
provisions, obtained in the same way, destroyed. 

The following spring Lieutenant Waymire left Fort 
Dalles under orders to proceed with twenty-five men, and 
supplies for ninety days, to the south fork of John Day 
River and encamp at some point best calculated to pro- 
tect the settlers against incursions from the Indians. He 
was instructed to treat the friendly Indians from Warm 
Springs Reservation with kindness ; and if opportunity 
occurred to investigate the charge that they committed 
any of the frequent depredations along the Canyon City 
road. 

Way mire's command marched a hundred and fifty 
miles from The Dalles in severe weather, reaching the 
south fork, March 15, 1864, where it established Camp 
Lincoln. On the nineteenth with a detachment of fifteen 
men the lieutenant proceeded to Canyon City where he 
learned that a few days previous Indians had made a 
raid on the ranch of a citizen, driving off about one hun- 
dred mules and horses, and that the owner of the ranch 
with a party of volunteers had gone in pursuit. Leaving 
word that he held himself in readiness to pursue the 
thieves on receiving information that there was any 
likelihood of overtaking them, he awaited such informa- 
tion. Word came to him on the twenty- second that 
twenty citizens were on the trail of the Indians, at Har- 
ney Lake, where they waited for supplies, and that thirty 
more men, with plenty of provisions and transportation 
would start immediately to re-inforce them. 

Waymire sent word that he would co-operate with 
them, and asked that guides be sent to bring him to their 
camp. With eighteen men and twenty days rations he 
set out on the twenty-fourth, encountering severe weather 
with snow, sleet, and ice, delaying the march an entire 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 157 

day. On the thirtieth he reached the volunteer camp 
ninety miles from his own, finding a company of citizens 
fifty-four strong, commanded byC. H. Miller ("Joaquin' 
Miller), and two lieutenants, elected by the company, 
which Miller represented to be thoroughly organized. 

On the thirty-first Miller took twenty men of his 
company toward the upper end of the valley, intending 
to cross the Silvies River to scout on the other side. Be- 
ing unable to find a ford the re-united commands marched 
south along the eastern side of the valley, where the In- 
dian trail led, to the southeastern border. Here severe 
weather again detained the commands in camp until the 
fourth of April, when scouts reported a large valley 
fifteen miles ahead. (The same discovered by Currey's 
command later in the year.) On the fifth the expedition 
crossed the ridge between the two valleys, finding in the 
southern one evidences of a recent encampment of about 
one hundred Indians. "They seem,' ' reported Waymire, 
"to subsist to a great extent upon horse and mule flesh, 
as a great number of bones which were lying about the 
campfires, and from which the meat had been taken, 
plainly indicated.' 

Continuing the march, on the sixth the scouts re- 
ported signal fires to the south. The cavalry were de- 
ployed as skirmishers, but found no enemy, although an 
Indian village, recently deserted, with fires still burning, 
and which had contained about one hundred inhabitants, 
was found. These had left about their deserted fires half- 
cooked horse flesh, baskets, ropes, furs, and trinkets, 
showing the haste with which they had abandoned their 
encampment ; and the tracks all led towards the moun- 
tains, up a gorge of which two stragglers were observed 
to be fleeing. They were overtaken by two citizens, their 
horses captured, and one of the thieves wounded. Before 
the command could come up the Indians had disappeared. 



158 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

It was now certain that the marauding bands which 
gave so much trouble to settlers, miners, teamsters, emi- 
grants, and other travelers, enjoyed a safe retreat in the 
mountains of Southeastern Oregon. Hoping to find their 
winter quarters, at 3 o'clock on the following morning 
Waymire with fifteen cavalrymen, and Miller with thirty- 
two citizens, set out to discover this resort. A large smoke 
being observed about three miles distant, Waymire dis- 
patched Sergeant Casteel with privates Cyrus R. Ingra- 
ham, John Himbert, Company D, and George N. Jaquith, 
a citizen acting under his command, to reconnoiter the 
position and return as soon as possible to the command. 
At 7 o'clock in the morning, the citizen company being 
in advance, mistook a flock of geese on the plain two 
miles below for a band of horses, and made a charge 
which exhausted their riding animals, making them unfit 
for efficient service during the day. (This was the effect 
of the mirage referred to in the report of Colonel Currey 
as magnifying and distorting objects reflected in its at- 
mosphere). 

On the divide between the valley of Dry Lake and 
Alvord Valley Lieutenant Waymire requested Captain 
Miller to send a scouting party forward, as he was appre- 
hensive of falling into an ambuscade. Miller took five 
men and moving half a mile to the front, on seeing an 
Indian on the hills to his right, sent three of them in pur- 
suit, and moved on with the other two. Impatient at this, 
Waymire resumed his march, but hearing the report of a 
rifle in the direction Miller had taken, directed his course 
accordingly. Proceeding but a short distance, he dis- 
covered a body of Indians filing down a gulch on the side 
of the mountain west of the narrow plain he was travers- 
ing, and at once took position with his cavalry, reduced 
by the absence of Casteel's scouting party to eleven men, 
upon a ridge near the defile. 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 159 

Reinforcements of Indians, mounted and afoot, drew 
together from various directions, concealing themselves 
among rocks and sagebrush, the horsemen deploying in 
front to draw attention from the footmen, and the whole 
showing considerable skill in the art of war. Their ob- 
jective point was a tongue of rock, covered thickly with 
tall sage, and projecting into the pass or plain. Just 
beyond it was a canyon, easily defended, but dangerous 
to enter, and this was where they had hoped to ambuscade 
the troops, but being a little late found themselves in a 
position where it became necessary to fight, if fight they 
must, in the open. 

Waymire's chance of success in battle was to demora- 
lize the enemy by a dashing charge, or to gain the defile 
by a flank movement. He chose the former plan, and 
desired the citizen company to make a vigorous attack 
on the enemy's left, while the cavalry would charge him 
in front, to be supported as soon as possible by the citi- 
zens. Miller's men being scattered in squads of two to 
five over several miles of plain, Way mire dismounted 
his men, deploying them as skirmishers to cover the 
horses while waiting for these squads to come up. Tak- 
ing advantage of the delay, the Indians opened fire with 
rifles, most of their bullets falling short. Seeing that 
they were becoming bolder, and expecting to be attacked, 
Waymire advanced to within easy range and delivered a 
few well directed volleys, emptying several saddles and 
unmasking the footmen, who kept up a ceaseless firing 
with no effect, their balls flying overhead. The fighting 
was varied by the Indian horsemen making a dash in- 
tended to cut off the cavalry horses, a movement which 
was met by a change of position and continued firing, 
until both sides fell into their original situations. 

After half or three quarters of an hour spent in this 
manner, seeing that a party of citizens twenty-five strong 



160 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

were gathered on the plain, Way mire sent Lieutenant 
Bernon to solicit their aid, who returned in haste with 
the information that the citizens refused to join him. On 
receiving this news, the Indian force all the time increas- 
ing, Waymire withdrew to the plain, mounting his men 
and forming a line diagonal to the canyon, when the 
volunteers rallied and fought for a short time. The 
small force of cavalry was now on the defensive, and it 
retreated firing, the Indians endeavoring to surround it 
on the plain, whose broken surface, familiar to them, 
gave them great advantage. Three quarters of a mile to 
the east was a large hill, which, could it be gained, 
offered comparative safety, and of this the Indian horse- 
men were endeavoring to secure possession. On each 
side of the summit was a bench, one of which was occu- 
pied by six citizen volunteers, including their surgeon 
and a wounded man. 

Waymire sent Corporal Meyer with five men to occupy 
the summit of this hill, and a brisk race followed, in 
which the corporal won, having the shorter arm of a tri- 
angle, and the command was soon in this defensible 
position and able to repulse a much larger force. After 
resting for an hour, and considering the chances of escape, 
with several of the men on foot, their horses failing from 
fatigue or wounds, retreat to camp twenty miles distant 
was determined upon. The route lay across Dry Lake, 
and was effected in good order, although the Indians fol- 
lowed, at one, time passing with a body of horsemen in 
an attempt to get to the front. A desultory firing was 
kept up, "in which several of the volunteers rendered 
very efficient service with their, rifles.' 

On reaching camp which with the entire pack train 
was left in charge of twenty men, it was found to be 
secure, to the satisfaction and surprise of the troops. 
"That it was so," remarks Waymire, "I can only attrib- 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 161 

lite to the want of a sagacious leader among the Indians.' 

The day, from three o'clock in the morning to late at 
night when the last footmen were in, had been spent in 
this first engagement of the cavalry with fierce and 
predatory Indians of the southern border, who for several 
years after occupied the regular army under its most 
noted Indian fighters with their subjugation. 

Waymire's report of this days operations was, "the 
discovery of the nature and strength of the enemy and 
the whereabouts of his home, which information I trust 
will be of material benefit hereafter, in connection with 
operations to be carried on in that region. Our loss was 
very light. One of the citizens was wounded in the 
breast, but not seriously. Some of the horses were 
wounded, one of the cavalry horses severely. Several 
of the horses belonging to the citizen volunteers gave out 
and were left behind. As the enemy held his ground it 
was impossible to ascertain his loss. Many of the Indian 
warriors, and several of their horses, were seen to fall 
either killed or seriously wounded. Nothing has been 
seen of Sergeant Casteel's party since their departure.' 

The morning following, Waymire, with a party of 
fourteen men on foot went in search of Casteel, following 
the trail made by them to the supposed fire, which proved 
to be steam from some hot springs, and back to the pass 
between the two valleys, where it ended. Nothing could 
be found of them or their remains. Another day was 
spent in camp hoping for their appearance, but imagina- 
tion only pictured the fate of this little detachment. 

Being upon half rations, and expecting pursuit, the 
command broke camp on the night of the ninth with the 
bells on the leading pack mules silenced, and the march 
to Harney Valley was begun in darkness. Meeting no 
opposition, by forced marches the volunteer and cavalry 
companies reached Canyon City on the fifteenth, where 



162 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

they were thanked by the citizens, who if they had not 
recovered their property, realized the peril and privation 
suffered in the attempt to restore it. Way mire says of 
his command: "They were at all times self-possessed, 
and as prompt in the execution of commands as when on 
ordinary dril] ;' and adds : "as a matter of justice to 
myself and command, I feel it my duty, though a painful 
one, to state that our defeat on the seventh was due in 

i 

great part to the want of a proper organization under an 
efficient commander on the part of the citizen volunteers. 
Although it is hardly possible that the stolen animals 
could have been recovered with our jaded horses, yet I 
feel confident that from the position I first occupied, with 
thirty cavalry instead of eleven, the Indians could have 
been routed and severely punished.' 

In this opinion Adjutant General Reed, in his report 
to Governor Gibbs, appears to concur. He says of Way- 
mire's services : "His encounter with the Snake Indians 
near Harney Lake, is undoubtedly the hardest fought 
battle in which bur troops participated, and evinces a 
courage and coolness on the part of the lieutenant and 
his brave followers worthy of note ; and should any 
future occasion call him into the battlefield, I have no 
doubt, judging from the past, that he would rank high 
as a military leader. The report of Capt. H. E. Small 
of Company G, First Oregon Volunteer Cavalry, is also 
worthy of a permanent record, and we have sufficient 
evidence from every quarter to demonstrate to us that 
had Oregon volunteers been permitted to cope with an 
enemy worthy of their steel, they would have ranked 
with the bravest of our country's brave.' 

It was not my intention, nor is there space to pursue 
this subject beyond the limits of the first three years of 
service. But year after year Indian troubles increased, 
as the savages grew strong on horse meat, rich on 



THE FIRST OREGON CAVALRY. 163 

thievery, intelligent by imitation, and powerful by accre- 
tion of allies from beyond the border. This increase of 
strength, notwithstanding Indian superintendents and 
posts on Indian reservations, was a continual occasion 
of remark, the favorite explanation being the bad treat- 
ment of Indians by volunteers state troops and emer- 
gency organizations accounted for it. But the facts will 
show that until the regular army listened to advice from 
those who had acquired their knowledge by experience, 
they made no headway in securing peace. Then the long 
marches and hardships, with occasional fighting of the 
First Oregon Cavalry, were found to have revealed the 
things important to be known before Indian wars could 
be brought to an end. 

A history of the wars of Eastern Oregon from 1862 to 
1868 would embrace that of the First Oregon Infantry, 
the permanent establishment of Forts Lapwai, Klamath, 
Boise, and Lyons ; the reports of many exploring expedi- 
tions, among which one by Maj. C. S. Drew is of par- 
ticular interest, together with many incidents worthy of 
remembrance.* It would also embrace a list of casual- 
ties and losses of appalling length, the memory of which 
is rapidly fading, as has faded the story of the whole con- 
tinent from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 



*I avail myself of this opportunity to suggest to the readers of the Quarterly, 
that already it is almost, if not quite impossible, to find the printed reports of 
officers connected with these expeditions, and other historical matter of date 
forty or forty-five years past. The state library does not contain them, the city 
and private libraries have been searched in vain, and the conclusion follows that 
the people have not, and the state officers have not, properly comprehended the 
value of such "documents," which should, if any still exist, be preserved by 
binding and placing where they can be found by students of history. 

Among the most valuable of documentary matter is the report of Adjt. Gen. 
Cyrus A. Reed, 1865-0, which is not preserved in the state library, nor can I learn 
that any effort has been made to secure it since my earnest inquiry for it some 
time ago. The only copy I can hear of is one in General Reed's hands, which he 
generously loaned me for reference in this article. Yet this volume contains in- 
formation about every man who served in the volunteer regiments from 1862 to 
1866, a period of great interest to the people of Oregon. 

FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 



The following reminiscences of Horace Holden, of 
Salem, Oregon, in regard to his adventures in the Pacific 
Ocean, among the cannibals of Polynesia, are of great 
interest and also possess great value. 

For one thing they are told by a man now in his 
ninety-first year, and relate to a period about seventy 
years past. Again they illustrate how Oregon became 
the beneficiary of almost all the early enterprises in the 
Pacific Ocean, either one way or another, and gained her 
citizens from the most adventurous and enterprising of 
all classes of men, both by land and sea. Still further, 
they are an account hardly equalled in history of wild 
adventure, furnishing a good model, in fact, for the ro- 
mancer upon which to base thrilling narrative. It is 
indeed doubtful whether Verne, or Stevenson, or Hag- 
gard would dare to invent such a chain of incident, 
reaching so often the boundaries of improbability, and 
passing so often the usual limits of human endurance. 
In this view it is seen that writers of fiction do probably 
owe the most of their creations to men who have per- 
formed in fact the deeds that they arrange in striking 
form. Ethnologically, 'also, such accounts furnish pic- 
tures, and record the habits and feelings of islanders as 
yet almost wholly unaffected by the white man's civiliza- 
tion ; and draw a comparison between the mental or 
moral qualities of the civilized and uncivilized man. 

As to verifying these stories, there is, of course, no 
means at hand ; yet Mr. Holden gives them as simply a 
detail of sober fact, every incident of which actually 



REMINISCENCES. 165 

occurred ; and much more that is not introduced. All 
who know Mr. Holden and he has been well known in 
Oregon for many years will testify to the simple, plain 
honesty, and the unusual intelligence of the man. Among 
his friends and acquaintance there is no question of the 
conscientious accuracy of his statements. Also, many 
years ago, upon his arrival in America from his thrall- 
dom in the Ladrones, he published an account of his 
adventures, which appeared in book form, and which 
was everywhere accepted as unadorned fact. It was, 
however, comparatively brief, and written, moreover, in 
the somewhat, precise style of the time, omitting much 
of the most startling occurrences. Besides this, if the 
skeptical were so minded, they would find the body of 
Mr. Holden tattooed in South Sea Island art an opera- 
tion no white man would voluntarily submit to, and 
which those islanders would not perform except for some 
extraordinary reason, upon a white man. This fact in 
itself gives a presumption of adventures as extraordinary 
even as Mr. Holden narrates. 

ADVENTURES OF HORACE HOLDEN ON THE WHALER. 

Mr. Holden was a New Hampshire boy, though of 
English stock ; having been born at Hillsboro, in the 
Granite State, a little over ninety years ago. While still 
a boy he went to Boston, where he lived until he was 
eighteen years old. He was a rather delicate youth, and 
formed the idea that a sea voyage would be beneficial to 
his health. Going to New Bedford, the main port of the 
whaling fleet, then the pride and wealth of New England, 
he shipped on the old vessel Mentor, Captain Barnard. 
This was a ship that had seen service in the Pacific al- 
ready, having made two cruises as far as Nootka Sound, 
on Vancouver's Island. 



166 HORACE HOLDEN. 

The first course of the ship was to the Antarctic in 
search of whale. The hunt in these waters proved dis- 
appointing, and it became necessary to seek port, in order 
to recruit ship. They had drifted toward the Azores, and 
here making harbor, took on supplies of water and other 
necessary provisions, and deposited what little oil had 
been secured to be shipped to market, and started off on 
a new cruise. Mr. Holden recalls with great interest 
the Portuguese people that he saw here, and the natural 
scenery, over which Mount Pico-pico loomed up. It was 
a long drift now, bringing the Mentor at length into the 
Indian Ocean, and through the Mozambique Channel ; 
and at length into Banda Sea and the shores of Timor, 
a big Island, where they stopped to recruit ship in the 
harbor Kupang. 

Sailing proved quite difficult in these latitudes, the 
wind being uncertain and often fitful, and the currents 
among the various straits and islands often opposing. In 
making the Straits of Malone [Om bay Pass?] , they were 
often set back, and finally gave up the attempt ; but just 
at this moment were struck with favoring breezes and 
borne through into the Banda Sea, crossing which, were 
forwarded on the main ocean, and then took their course 
toward the Ladrones. This is a chain of tropical islands, 
being like Hawaiian group, of volcanic origin ; or more 
exactly, being a submerged mountain chain, with the 
mere points and crests of the elevation piercing the sur- 
face of the almost universal sea, and thus offering specks 
or juts of land, around which the corals of the Pacific have 
been gradually built. The coral makers usually build 
some distance off shore, according to the depth of the 
water, and form reefs ; and between the reefs and the 
island itself is a stretch, wider or narrower, according 
to circumstances, of enclosed water, forming a lagoon. 
There are passages, often rocky and dangerous, from 



REMINISCENCES. 167 

the main sea into the lagoons ; but except for these the 
islands are surrounded with the reefs, and upon these a 
ship fortuitously reaching an island would be all but sure 
to be cast. The reefs reach but a few feet above the level 
of the sea, and over them, in storms, the ocean water is 
often dashed. 

It is necessary to bear in mind these island forma- 
tions, with their reefs and lagoons, in order to understand 
the incidents related by Mr. Holden. 

. 

SHIPWRECK ON A TROPICAL ISLAND. 

The Mentor, having reached the open ocean, was 
headed first toward the Island Tusnat, with the intention 
of here recruiting and sailing thence to the Northern 
Pacific Ocean for whale, but being moved from her course 
by the wind was directed toward the Ladrones. The 
weather had been calm, too much so for the speed of 
the ship, but about noon of a certain day, soon after 
heading towards the Ladrones, there came a change. 
The wind began to blow, and it soon became evident 
that an East Indian typhoon was approaching. Captain 
Barnard, a careful seaman, at once ordered the sails 
shortened, but the speed of the vessel seemed little di- 
minished, as the wind was constantly increasing in vio- 
lence, and the rain also poured in torrents. At length 
sails were all lowered, and as the topmasts now offered 
sufficient surface to catch the hurricane they were also, 
though not without difficulty, let down, and along with 
the yards lashed to the vessel's sides. A simple stay- 
sail was set in order to steady the ship and afford the 
use of the helm, if this were possible. 

Night came on, with the storm still increasing, and 
thus the typhoon continued three days and three nights, 
neither sun, moon, or stars being visible, and no obser- 



168 HORACE HOLDEN. 

vations being possible, and the ship at the mercy of the 
wind. 

Just at twelve o'clock of the third night, as the deck 
watch was turning in and the lower watch coming up to 
take their place, the vessel struck. The waves were roll- 
ing high and were coming with the speed of the storm, 
so that one barely receded before another struck, and the 
ship was evidently on the reef of an island. The night 
was intensely dark, and though the wind itself was 
moderating, the situation was sufficiently perilous. 

Mr. Holden dwells with great detail upon the circum- 
stances of the wreck which followed, having thought 
them over so many times and arranged them in succes- 
sion. At the third wave the ship, which had been lifted 
up and dropped down on the reef, w.as so far driven 
ashore as to stick fast at the bow, and was then almost 
instantly swung around broadside to the sea and moved 
on her beam ends onto the shore, and then every comber 
lifted her up, and she was let down with a smash. 
Holden 's berth was aft, and as soon as the trouble began 
he turned out, and got as quickly as possible into his 
breeches, and rushed on deck. He found all excitement, 
and the ship so far canted over as to make movement 
difficult. At the quarter deck, however, the first mate 
and ten men were lowering a boat, under the fear that 
the ship would soon break up, and that they must as 
quickly as possible get clear, hoping, probably, also to 
reach the calmer water of the lagoon, which must be 
just over the reef. This w r as ill-advised, however, as the 
boat and men had hardly cleared away and dropped into 
the darkness before the boat was capsized and nothing 
ever again seen of them. 

In the mean time, in order to lighten the ship and 
lessen the danger of its keeling entirely over, the masts 
were ordered cut away, and when the weather lanyards 



REMINISCENCES. 169 

were chopped off and a few strokes made at the masts, 
these fell to leeward. The ship had now been boosted 
over the divide of the reef, but its further progress was 
stayed by masts falling over and acting as stays. 

One man was crushed as the first boat was lowered, 
and the fate of the others was surmised ; but the captain 
still fearing the wreck would soon go to pieces, called for 
his boat, intending to launch her with the eleven men 
remaining. But Holden believed this was the most dan- 
gerous course. It had ever been a motto with him, 
"Don't give up the ship," and he considered the wreck 
would still be the safest place ; he decided therefore to 
hold on to the last plank. Noticing his attitude, some 
of the boys said, "Are you going in the boat?" and he 
answered "No.' "Then we will not,' they replied. 
Three, however, were found ready to try it with the cap- 
tain, but it proved only a hazardous failure. 

As the ship was lying on her beam ends it was with 
great difficulty that the boat was gotten ready, and at 
every wave a sea of water fell over the decks that threat- 
ened to wash anyone without a strong handhold over- 
board. Holden went into the captain's cabin for the 
sextant and log book, etc., and found the task very diffi- 
cult, but succeeded in obtaining them. It was a fearful 
place inside the ship. Then the captain and the three 
men were ready to be committed to the sea. At what 
seemed an opportune moment the order came, "lower 
away," and the boat dropped ; but the lull was but just 
before a violent sea that caught the boat, and with one 
stroke dashed it against the ship's bottom, shattering it 
to fragments. The men were tossed into the water, but 
one of them seized the gripe of a loose lanyard, and 
swinging around by the stern of the vessel reached the 
lee side, and there crawled aboard. The captain had 
tied himself, before getting into a boat, by a, towline 



170 HORACE HOLDEN. 

around the waist, and as he was thrown into the waves 
the boys aboard saw the line spin out through the scup- 
per hole. They made an effort to snub this in, but not 
until all but the last reel or so had been paid out did 
they succeed. Then it slacked, and they towed the "old 
man" aboard. 

All that now remained was to wait upon the wreck 
until morning, though passing the longest night he ever 
remembers, says Holden. At daybreak the hulk was 
still intact, and an old whale boat was gotten out on the 
deck, and after considerable work made ready for 
launching. At a distance of about two miles and a 
half, over the misty lagoon, there appeared something 
whitish, which imagination led them to think might be 
the mate's boat, with the oars. Towards this, after 
launching their old boat and filling with what provisions 
they could carry, they pulled away. But they found the 
object not a boat, but a little sand beach, on a very low 
island. Their situation was certainly far worse for the 
effort of the mate and captain to leave the wreck, as in 
many and many an instance of the kind has proved. 
With the two boats intact, and a full crew their situation 
would not have been hopeless. As it was they were 
comparatively helpless ; for they were in the very midst 
of the islanders that are the fear of all castaway sailors ; 
men of the same habits as the Fijis and some of the 
African tribes, in whom the taste of human flesh has de- 
stroyed all sentiment of humanity. However, the eleven 
men in the old whale boat had nothing to do but wait on 
the little sand beach until the sea should calm down, 
when they might return to the wreck and see what they 
might do to patch up a boat or raft that would take them 
to some place of refuge. In the distance they could see 
Ahkee Angle [Kaj angle?] , of the Pelew group of islands. 



REMINISCENCES. 171 

/ 

Their latitude was about seven degrees north of the 
equator. 

However, they had not been undiscovered, and on 
the third day, just about daybreak, were visited by a 
canoe, with several natives. At a safe distance the little 
craft stopped. The wrecked sailors, knowing that any 
sign of hostility would be only more dangerous to them- 
selves, now beckoned them to come on, which they 
cautiously did until within a short distance, and in 
shallow water, when the canoe stopped, two men, fore 
and aft, held the craft in position, and the rest leaped in 
the water and came ashore. Their object, however, was 
not to offer relief to the shipwrecked men, and of these 
they took little notice, but raced about wildly, almost 
like animals, searching for any wreckage or provisions 
that might be found. In this they were disappointed, 
as all the sailor's provisions had been cached. Then they 
began to cry to each "Moribite uhle" go to the ship. 
Their object was simply wreckage, and no doubt these 
American sailors of the Mentor were not the first unfor- 
tunates that had enriched, by their misfortunes, this 
piratical race. 

The natives made no attempt to molest them ; but 
had hardly begun their cry to go to the ship, before one 
of the sailors cried out: ''Look yonder, look yonder;' 
and raising their eyes they saw now appearing the entire 
lagoon covered with a fleet of native canoes. They at 
once saw that these people meant no good, and ran their 
boat out into deep water and tried to be in readiness for 
defense. But in a few moments they were surrounded 
by canoes of all sizes, which were occupied by a full 
body of natives, mostly naked, and brandishing the cruel 
native spears, which are long handled and bearing at 

the end a hardwood point, with three sharp barbs run- 
5 



172 HORACE HOLDEN. 

ning back a foot or so on the shank. Babylon seemed 
also to have broken loose, the natives yelling and jabber- 
ing in the most hideous manner. Nevertheless, there 
was no offer of violence as yet, and in a few minutes the 
whole fleet started away for the wreck, which they un- 
doubtedly soon broke up for the spikes and iron. 

The sailors were left alone except for one canoe which 



hung by. This was a large war canoe and held about 
twenty men, who stood up and held spears and battle 
axes and tomahawks. It was evidently that of a chief. 

TO THE ISLAND OF THE CANNIBALS. 

The chief, however, did not seem unfriendly, and 
when, by motions and words partly understood, he indi- 
cated that they were to follow, there seemed no other 
course open. It must be understood that in escaping 
from the wreck, it had been impossible to take their fire- 
arms, and it was to some extent in hope of obtaining 
these that they had started onto the water ; but being sur- 
rounded by the fleet of native canoes, had been entirely 
unable to pursue their object. Any resistance would 
therefore be useless, and bring down the immediate vio- 
lence of savages whose appearance indicated a low order 
of intelligence and little humanitv. 

v 

There was a light wind, and as they moved along 
over the waters of the lagoon, the canoe of the natives 
hoisted their lateen sail, and then coming nearer, the 
chief called out to let him have the painter of the boat. 
But to do this the sailors felt reluctant, and refused. 
Then he sailed his craft about the boat a few times, show- 
ing its speed and ability to sail into the wind ; then again 
demanded the painter, and the canoe now came along- 
side, made fast, and the chief, with utmost unconcern, 
sprang from his canoe, into the boat, and began a per- 



REMINISCENCES. 173 

sonal inspection of all on board. He showed much curi- 
osity in regard to a box of biscuit, wishing to break it 
open and examine the contents. He wished also to open 
and examine a bundle of clothes. This he was not al- 
lowed to do, and in consequence began to show signs of 
dissatisfaction. Still the canoe went on, towing them 
after by the painter, until almost out of sight of shore. 
Then came the cry "Morio ahani" drop the sail, which 
was done quickly, and the canoe dropped alongside, the 
chief sprang back ; and the whole party of savages raised 
their bamboo poles and began most viciously attacking 
the sailors, striking all within reach. 

The sailors in the boat had but four oars, and these 
proved to be unsound ; for as they began shoving away 
to get clear, one was snapped off, leaving the boat but 
poorly supplied. The order was also given to cut the 
painter ; but this was a matter of no little difficulty, and 
the sailor who had it to do was under a rain of blows 
from the bamboo sticks, which were only so frequent as 
to interrupt each other. However, it was done, and the 
boat then shoved off, gaining some space between itself 
and the canoe. But the natives were no sooner out of 
reach of striking with their sticks than they began fling- 
ing hand billets of wood, striking and hurting some of 
the sailors. Then, as the distance widened, they began 
hurling their spears, all of which, however, at first fell 
short. One, however, nearly struck the captain, who 
saved himself from an ugly wound only by suddenly 
heeling over, as he sat in the stern sheets. 

The object now was to get clear at all events, if the 
savages made any attempt to pursue further. That such 
was their intention, only too soon became clear, as they 
raised the sail and prepared to renew their attack. It 
was impossible, especially now that there was but three 
oars left, to outspeed them ; and only some sort of skill 



174 HORACE HOLDEN. 

would suffice. The captain tried first steering directly 
into the wind ; and this for a little while put the savages 
to a disadvantage ; but their sail was able to bring them 
in two points of the wind's eye, and it was clear to the 
writer that in no great time they would be overhauled. 
Then some strategy must be resorted to ; and the bundle 
of shirts was opened. One by one the articles were taken 
out and thrown upon the water ; and the device had the 
desired effect. The canoe stopped to pick up the articles, 
one after another, and was thus constantly thrown out 
of her course. When in time the contents of the bundle 
were exhausted, and still the canoe pursued, the shirts 
were stripped from the backs of the sailors, and the sops 
still thrown to Cerberus; and so long was the pursuit, 
that the island was all but lost sight of. 

At length the day was almost spent, the sun only 
about an hour high, and as it would soon be dark, the 
pursuit was given over, and our sailors, well nigh ex- 
hausted, and in much worse condition than ever, with 
their old boat and brittle oars, were left to meet the night 
This seemed hardly a human part of the world, where 
man and nature were both unfriendly. 

BOGLE THORPE. 

The twilight was very short, as always in the tropics 
"at one stride comes the dark ;' and all night they kept 
watch, looking for any sign of land that might appear. 
For unfriendly as had been their reception on the reef, 
the sea, to men in their situation, meant only death by 
starvation or famishing of thirst. At about 3 o'clock in 
the morning they were roused by one of the men crying 
"land ahead," and the response of the officer "where 
away?' A dark object just appeared on the horizon, 
under the stars, and the distance could not be easily 



REMINISCENCES. 175 

reckoned. Soon, however, they discovered themselves in 
rapidly shoaling water, and the rugged form of a reef 
began to appear. It was with difficulty that at day- 
light they passed an entrance that they found, and at 
length gained the calmer waters of the lagoon. It was 
yet twenty miles to the land itself. 

For this, as the sun rose and mounted, they pulled 
away, and at length reached a nice little beach of a fine 
sandy shore, and upon this, above the level of the water, 
grew abundant groves of tropical trees, the largest and 
most grateful of which was the breadfruit tree. This 
produces fruit nine months of the year, and to the cast- 
aways, who had had nothing but sea biscuit for three 
days, here was spread a rich feast. There were also 
cocoanuts and a species of tropical fruit much resem- 
bling cherries. To add to their comfort was also found 
a spring of fine water, such as they had not had on the 
reef. Near the spring they found a large crab, such as 
frequents the shores in the tropical regions. 

But they were not to be long left alone in this cove 
on the shore in the groves of breadfruit and cocoanuts. 
Soon a native canoe came in sight, and at a distance of 
about two hundred yards stopped. It was occupied by 
a few boys and men, who stood up at a safe distance and 
held up a fish in sign of friendliness, and the sailors of 
Holden's party responded at once by holding up the crab 
which they had just caught. The natives then came 
toward them, seeming very friendly and shaking hands. 
They then went to the boat, but found nothing there. 
In order to meet this friendly manifestation Holden took 
his hat off and made a present of this to the boy, who 
replied, "Mario English ; sabiete Pelew" "Hello Eng- 
lishman ; come to Pelew.' 

The canoe then put out into the lagoon, leading the 
way, and the sailors in the boat considered that there 



176 HORACE HOLDEN. 

was nothing better than to follow, being in no condition 
to resist and not wishing to rouse the hostility of the 
savages. After some time on the lagoon they reached 
the mouth of a bayou from the interior of the island, 
towards which the canoe led the way, and they felt the 
intimation that they would be taken to the portion of the 
country seldom seen by strangers. A loud blast of warn- 
ing was then blown by one in the canoe upon a conch, 
an alarm that white men were coming, and in almost an 
instant the waters became alive with manv native canoes, 

i 

putting into the lagoon from the bayou and every wind- 
ing of the shore. But as flight would now be useless 
they pulled directly into the fleet, and were soon con- 
fronted by an immense war canoe about fifty feet long 
and holding about thirty-two men armed with spears, 
battleaxes, etc. 

With the actions and intention of this canoe Holden 
and his party naturally felt much concern, and were not 
a little solicitous as it bore down upon them with all 
paddles in action and the craft itself cutting the light 
waves of the now narrowing arm of the lagoon. Sud- 
denly, as it came exactly abreast, and in truth made 
a somewhat imposing appearance with its armed and 
bronze-bodied occupants, the paddles were reversed, it 
came to an instant stand, and all the paddlers but two 
stood up. By the two it was held in its position as firmly 
as if tied, and the chief then rose and sprang into the 
stern sheets of the whaleboat. His manner betokened 
no kindness, and with the utmost indifference he looked 
around at the sailors, evidently estimating the plunder 
to be had. He then began stamping as he stood in the 
stern sheets, and the twenty-nine unoccupied natives be- 
gan with him the looting of all that appeared. He first 
snatched at the shirt of the captain, which the latter 
gave up without resistance. The other white men were 



KEMINISCENCES. 177 

i 

then stripped of their shirts, and with tomahawks and 
axes the savages began to break the boat, their object 
being to secure the iron of the nails, rivets, etc. The 
comfort or rights, or even lives of the sailors cast upon 
their shore seemed to be regarded not the least, though 
they were admitted, stripped and humiliated as they 
were, into the big canoe. 

TO THE INTERIOR OF THE ISLAND. 

i 

It was some relief to know that they were not to be 
killed at once, though there was little indication of their 
final fate. They could simply follow the course taken 
by their savage captors. The canoe was immediately 
run into a bayou, and after proceeding a short distance 
stuck fast in the mud. The sailors were at onqp ordered 
by signs to jump into the water and proceed by foot. 
Holden was a swift runner, and finding the bottom of 
the bayou firm ran briskly up the nearly dry water 
course. Bending over on both sides were many sorts of 
tropical trees and under any other circumstances the 
scene would have been of striking delightf ulness . 

In about a quarter of a mile the bayou ended, and 
among the trees was disclosed a considerable opening. 
Here, in fact, was one of the principal villages of the 
island of Pelew. There was first encountered a broad 
wall, about five feet high, built of selected stones. From 
the surface of this, which was about the level of the land, 
appeared quite an extensive space, like a park, terminat- 
ing at a distance in a natural bluff of about twelve feet 
face. Upon the flat was built the town. What most 
attracted the eyes of the white captives was, near the 
center of the area, a platform about twelve feet square, 
and two feet high, made of flat stones. This was the 
place, of public consultation, and near were seen two 



178 HORACE HOLDEN. 

large council houses. Most gruesome of all was a block 
of wood closely resembling a butcher's block. This was 
set at one side of the platform and was recognized at 
once as the facility of executions. 

As the captives were brought near the platform they 
saw that, naked and miserable as they were, they were 
the center of attraction. Crowds of natives appeared and 
gathered on the bluffs. They were armed with battle 
axes and spears, and were dressed mainly in tattooes. 

Then the chief and his advisers came to the platform 
and began counseling what to do, their sentiments being 
understood by the sailors only from the tones of their 
voices, which were loud and rough. In the mean time 
the crowds of the people pressed and thronged about the 
white men, examining them with utmost curiosity. That 
these were not absolutely without human feelings was 
even then shown, by at least one woman. She worked 
her way toward the captives, and finally paused near 
Holden, with tears streaming down her face, and having 
no other way of expressing sympathy began stroking his 
arm ; then, probably intending to gain the ear of the 
counselors, cried out "Chlora cabool ; arrakath English.' 

Her exclamation seems to have been heard, as one of 
the men on the platform came to the edge, and address- 
ing the captives asked "Kow English ; or kow American 
English?' The American sailors quickly answered 
"American English.' By this information, matters 
seemed to be brought to an immediate change. The 
question was now discussed, as nearly as could be under- 
stood, whether they should at once cut off the heads of 
the captives, or send for instructions to the sorceress of 
the island to learn the will of the spiritual powers. The 
latter course prevailed and a young man was selected 
who should run as rapidly as possible. 

While he was gone the first indication of any hospi- 



REMINISCENCES. 179 

tality on the part of the savages was now shown. A 
young man was sent to prepare a dish of sweetened 
water, and soon returned, bringing the drink. He came 
down over the bluff and carried a large calabash, about 
the size of a half bushel measure on his head, and bring- 
ing it to the platform was helped by a chief to set down 
his load. A cocoanut dipper was then produced, and 
the chief took with it the first draught, then offered it 
to the sailors, who drank all around. The syrup made 
by the natives was from the sap of cocoanut trees, and 
of an agreeable flavor. 

The messenger soon returned from Aiburel, the chief 
village, where the sorceress of the island, an old woman, 
held her sacred place. He brought word that the men 
must be brought to her in order that she might see them. 
The order was at once obeyed. The head chief, or king, 
rose and all his subordinates followed, taking the way up 
the bluff. The captured sailors went immediately after 
them, and the crowd followed irregularly behind. 

AIBUREL AND THE OLD WITCH. 

After passing up the low bluff and gaining the general 
level of the island, they saw a paved footpath, or narrow 
road, about three feet wide, well laid with flat stones. 
This they followed about three miles. Under more hope- 
ful circumstances this would have been a most delightful 
walk. On both sides there were shade trees, forming an 
arching canopy overhead. 

As they approached the town another public place 
with a platform appeared, and near by were council 
houses. The residence from which the woman who was 
to decide their fate came out reminded Holden strongly 
of a building in Boston Simpson's old feather store, 
near Faneuil Hall. The platform to which they were led 



180 HORACE HOLDEN. 

was about a foot high. It was shaded by such tropical 
trees as the betel, the nut of which was chewed, mixed 
with chenan [chinar?] leaf and lime, discoloring the 
teeth and mouth almost black, and the chenan [chinar?] 
and cocoanut. 

The woman of the island showed much curiosity as 
she looked at the men, and they were also rather struck 
by her appearance. Her finger nails had been allowed 
to grow to full length, some two or three inches. She 
was dressed in aprons, such as were made of the frayed 
kuriman leaf, the fibers being braided at the belt and 
falling in thick strings, much resembling a horse's mane, 
to the knees. 

After satisfying her curiosity she returned to her 
house, and soon a young man appeared, coming out with 
the head of a hog, well roasted, and a calabash of water, 
which he set down on the platform. The meat looked 
extremely appetizing, but the sailors hardly knew what 
was expected, when one of them attracted the attention 
of the rest by exclaiming, "Look yonder;' then a very 
unexpected sight met their eyes. 

THE LITTLE OLD MAN. 

This was nothing less than a little old man hastening, 
as fast as his short and now rather shriveled legs could 
carry him, toward the platform. He waddled along with 
a paddling motion like a duck. He was no more than 
five feet tall, tatooed, and his mouth was black from betel 
nut. He wore a breechcloth and carried a little basket, 
in which were shells, small pieces of bright stones, and 
trinkets, probably representing considerable value in 
island wealth. 

The others yielded him right of way, and he came as 
near as possible to the platform, regarding the castaway 



REMINISCENCES. 181 

sailors with the utmost concern and astonishment ; but 
his was not so great as theirs, for the sailors at once saw 
that he was a white man a shriveled, dried up little 
Englishman. He was trembling so much with excite- 
ment that he could hardly speak, but after a little, com- 
manding his voice, he said : "My God, you are English- 
men, are you not?' 

"Yes,' they answered. 

"You are safe now," he continued. "I have some 
authority; I am the sixth chief. I mistrusted that some- 
thing was wrong,' he continued, "for I found a 'Bow- 
ditch's Navigation' on the shore, and have been looking 
to find who might have been wrecked. You are safe 
now/ he said, "but it is a wonder," and this he kept 
repeating. 

The cause of his surprise was not so astonishing, as 
he afterwards told them that about six months before 
this an English ship had cruised off their coast, and had 
wantonly shot some of the natives. Thus the white man 
here, as in too many cases of barbarian savagery, seems 
to have been the first aggressor. 

This singular little man, who now appeared so oppor- 
tunely, and who called himself Charles Washington (per- 
haps an assumed name), had escaped many years before 
from an English man-of-war on a cruise in the East 
Indies, his offense having been sleeping on watch, and 
during his sleep losing his musket ; an islander having 
taken it and slipped overboard down the anchor chain ; 
and Charlie, upon waking soon and finding the loss, also 
slid overboard, fearing a very severe punishment. He 
soon identified himself with the Pelews, being tatooed 
and marrying a native woman. 

After these preliminary words of inquiry, he said, 
"Boys, that food is for you," and needing no further in- 
vitation the eleven men fell to with a will. 



182 HORACE HOLDEN. 

TWELVE MONTHS ON PELEW. 

The situation of the stranded American sailors now 
became very tolerable. The tedium of the days was en- 
livened by frequent conversations with Charley Wash- 
ington, the little old Englishman, and through him with 
the natives, and in learning the language and customs 
of these South Sea islanders. 

As day after day passed, however, with monotonous 
regularity and no sail of a white man's ship appeared, 
the Americans began to think of the advisability of 
attempting a voyage by boat to some other less remote 
point in the seas. Finally mentioning this to the natives, 
they were encouraged, and the king of the island declared 
that he himself and his people would build a suitable 
ship for the purpose. He said that some time past there 
was a white man's ship lost among the Koracoas, inhab- 
itants of a neighboring archipelago, and that these people 
had built a ship by which the mariners returned home. 
If the Koracoas could do this for Captain Wilson and his 
crew that being the name of the former shipwrecked 
captain, why could not the Pelews do the same for 
Captain Barnard? 

Without any particular faith in this scheme, and 
knowing that the king's suggestion was mere conceit, 
the Americans, however, accepted the proffer, and readily 
agreed to procure for him payment for his proposed ser- 
vices, which was no less than two hundred rifles if he 
would deliver them safely to an American or European 
vessel. 

The command then went forth to the chiefs to bring 
timbers and prepare for making a ship. This was quickly 
obeyed, and all sorts and descriptions of timber were 
brought together with childish eagerness. The royal 
command was then given to put these together and con- 



REMINISCENCES. 183 

struct the craft. But of the ill matched and miscellaneous 
materials, and with their entire ignorance of shipbuild- 
ing, nothing whatever could be made. The king then 
sent word to the sailors to come themselves and make the 
ship ; but without proper tools, and with the timbers on 
hand, even the white men could do nothing, or make 
any sort of seaworthy craft. They worked, therefore, 
only long enough to make a good demonstration of the 
of the futility of the attempt, and then stopped. 

By this the natives were much disappointed, and be- 
came moody and uncommunicative, while the sailors 
resumed their occupation of scanning the horizon from 
day to day in hopes of sighting a sail. When, however, 
it became apparent to the islanders that the ship could 
not be constructed out of timbers, they proposed to make 
a very large canoe in their own way, out of the biggest 
tree on all the island of Pelew, and thus deliver the sea- 
bound Americans and get the ransom of rifles. This was 
more encouraging and the sailors readily agreed. The 
king appointed a day of feasting, and then gave the 
command to fell a great breadfruit tree that had been 
growing from almost immemorial times, and overhung 
the cliff that sloped to the lagoon. This was at length 
felled, but unluckily, and greatly to the disappointment 
of the natives, the huge trunk, which was about nine 
feet in diameter, and probably unsound, was split into 
several pieces as it pitched ov"er the bluff. Following 
this new disappointment the natives again sulked, and 
the sailors had no other hope but in watching the horizon. 

Months passed by. The king, however, was still 
captivated with the idea of getting rifles in return for his 
white refugees, and at length said that in the interior of 
the island there was another tree nearly as large as the 
big one, and probably sounder. Should they make a 
canoe out of this for the Americans? This was at once 



184 HORACE HOLDEN. 

agreed upon, and after another feast whose object no 
doubt was to get the people together, workmen attacked 
the tree, and it was felled without accident. It was 
shaped and in part hollowed out on the ground, and then 
moved to the seashore. This latter was a great task, and 
required no little engineering skill. The trunk of the 
tree was eight feet or more thick, and the uncompleted 
boat correspondingly large. Long poles were brought 
and bound to the hulk, and upon these an immense force 
of natives were placed, lifting together, and the burden 
was carried by mere muscular strength. 

All now worked eagerly, the sailors themselves mak- 
ing sails out of the mats that had been woven by the 
women for the first attempted craft. A considerable 
supply of poi was also in readiness, prepared by the 
women from taro, for the voyage. Three of the Pelews 
were selected to accompany the sailors, and to bring back 
the guns. 

OFF FROM PELEW. 

Just a year had been passed upon this strange island 
when all was ready to start off, and to commit their 
course once more to the sea, trusting to bring up some- 
where nearer rescue. Three men, however, had to be 
left as hostage, in order, as the king and his advisers 
reasoned, to insure the fulfillment of their contract on 
the part of the whites. This, and indeed all the acts of 
these islanders, indicated quite a large intelligence and 
shrewdness, or cunning ; and showed that the savage is 
not so much the inferior of the civilized man in native 
intelligence as in humanity. Individually, all savages 
show themselves very fair equals of the civilized in 
some respects their superiors. It is socially that they 
indicate deficiency. 

The day that the Americans believed that they were 



REMINISCENCES. 185 

off, a new delay occurred. The Pelews declared that 
they must wait until nightfall. "The Karacoa people,' 
they said, "will come out and capture us ; we shall be 
taken for King George men.' It would in fact have been 
best if the attempt had not been made, as the three sail- 
ors left as hostages reached America precisely the same 
time as Holden and his one surviving comrade. How- 
ever, the future could not be foreseen, and even a forlorn 
hope of rescue seemed preferable to an indefinite stop on 
the island of Pelew. As night fell, as it always falls sud- 
denly in the tropics, all was made ready for the depar- 
ture. The provisions were placed on board; two green 
bamboo joints of water were allowed for drink, each hold- 
ing two to three gallons of water, or more, being about 
as large as stovepipes and about two feet long. All was 
ready, and the eleven Americans and three Pelews lifted 
the anchors and made a start. Besides the canoe, in 
which there were seven, the sailors still had the old whale 
boat, which had been repaired, and four, among whom 
was Holden, occupied this. As the tide was low, the 
crafts were drawn down the bayou and out over the flats 
into deep water of the lagoon. They then began a circui- 
tous movement, intending to find the opening of the reef 
on the outer side of the lagoon, out of which to drop off 
into the main ocean. But the men in the boat were soon 
startled by the cry from a native in the canoe "We are 
filling with water !' Coming along side they found this 
was even so, and Holden said "We shall go back.' The 
boat was also leaking considerably. 

The natives objected strongly, believing that once on 
the sea they could manage to drift, as water had very 
little terror for them . Their minds were so much made 
up for the guns and ammunition promised that they over- 
looked such little impediments as a sinking boat. How- 
ever, Holden insisted that they must return and repair 



186 HORACE HOLDEN. 

the crafts ; and this was done, all arriving safely on the 
island early in the morning. The natives, however, were 
very much chagrined and sullen for a number of days. 
But, plucking up courage and hope, went to work, and got 
some of the gum of the breadfruit, which made a pitch 
somewhat resembling maple wax, and with this filled the 
seams injudiciously made in hollowing out the canoe. 
The boat was also patched up as well as possible ; and a 
second attempt was made. The sailors said ''we shall 
choose our time for starting," and named the morning 
as best. To this the natives made little objection, and 
the start was made in much the same order as before. 
i 

ON THE WAVES AGAIN. 

They were accompanied down the bayou and across 
the flat and far out upon the lagoon by probably every 
soul on the island, the native canoes swarming precisely 
as they had done twelve months before when the ship- 
wrecked sailors were brought to the interior. Finally the 
farew r ell was taken, the exit was. made from the lagoon, 
and the two crafts, the canoe and the boat, dropped off 
upon the deep sea. The day was nearly spent as they 
began their course upon the unknown ocean, and the sun 
was but an hour high. The sailors began to realize upon 
what a hazardous venture they had embarked, and dis- 
covered how frail and unseaworthy was their canoe . They 
had no chart or compass, and their venture was evidently 
fearfully perilous. They were in the region of unknown 
islands, and might soon drift into that portion of the 
South Sea known as "The Desert," from the infrequency 
of the ships visiting it. Moreover, the canoe, made with- 
out skill, went like a sawlog, bobbing up and down on 
the sea swells. "Never mind,' ' however, they said, "w^e 
have started.' Just about as soon as the sun dipped 



REMINISCENCES. 187 

there rose squalls of wind and rain, which to the sailors 
just from the sheltered island seemed icy cold. The 
main care was to keep off the reef, and thus they wor- 
ried along until morning. Night at last passed without 
accident, though their progress was very slow. The 
second day was passed on the sea, all land being out of 
sight. Just at sunset again, as the day before, there 
came up squalls of wind and rain. At length the rudder 
of the canoe was carried away, and there .was nothing 
but to drift and keep as nearly upright as possible until 
morning. At early daylight, as the weather moderated, 
they succeeded in making the rudder fast again, and re- 
sumed their voyage to anywhere or nowhere. 

They so continued until the fifth day, having con- 
siderable confidence in sailors' luck, and keeping a sharp 
lookout for an island or for a sail. On the evening of 
that day, however, affairs took a turn for the worse. 
Just after sunset the wind rose again as on the first 
nights, only more fiercely, with heavy black clouds suc- 
ceeding. A gust, reminding them of the corner of a 
typhoon, struck the sail of the canoe, careening and 
nearly capsizing the clumsy craft. Hardly had it re- 
covered from the first before it was struck by a second 
that bent the mast until the sail dipped in the water, 
upon w^hich the canoe was overset and rolled on its beam. 
It immediately filled, and was now but a log on the 
waves. It had to be abandoned then and there, and the 
entire company crowded into the old whaleboat to the 
imminent risk of its also swamping. It was no little 
task to take off the sailors from the rolling hulk, but all 
were rescued safely, the Pelews taking care of themselves 
and swimming like water rats to the boat. One, how- 
ever, clung to the canoe all night trying to get pro- 
visions, and succeeded in securing four cocoanuts. All 

6 



188 HORACE HOLDEN. 

the rest of the food was lost. At daylight they took him 
aboard the boat, and finally abandoned the foundered 
craft. Then they took to the oars, pulling away steadily 
hour after hour, and as it proved for day after day, hav- 
ing no object except to keep going, and where they had 
no idea. The weather became calm and the sea glassy. 
The sun shone twelve hours out of the twenty-four and 
passed so nearly overhead as to cast little shadow at noon, 
but filled the. whole sky with heat and made the horizon 
all around, never broken either by notch of land or speck 
of sail, palpitate and waver like the atmosphere of an 
oven. It dropped precisely the same at night, and almost 
instantly the sky was full of brilliant stars, only they 
pointed to no known land. 

This continued ten days, making this entire journey 
on the water sixteen days long. During the last part of 
this time, as might be supposed, there was great suffer- 
ing from hunger and thirst. The four cocoanuts were 
all the food for ten days, and although they were saving 
of the water in the bamboo joints, this became thick as 
frogs' spawn, and sour and unfit to use. It had curdled 
and rotted in the juice of the wood. Some of the sailors 
drank saltwater, but these suffered most. Their lips 
swelled and cracked and turned dark. Holden wetted 
his mouth and face frequently, but though the tempta- 
tion was great, resolutely abstained from the sea water. 
He greatly mitigated his thirst by keeping a button in 
his mouth, bv which a flow of saliva was maintained. 

' V 

Indeed, he says that life may be prolonged almost indefi- 
nitely by thus using a button or coin, and the sense of 
thirst be mostly overcome without drink of any kind. 

The men gradually gave up effort. Toward night of 
the sixteenth day they had all lain down and were yield- 
ing themselves to their fate. "They lay down in the 
boat side by side, like fingers on your hand,' says Hoi- 



REMINISCENCES. 189 

den ; all but Holden. If the reader here begins to im- 
agine that he is now romancing, it should be remembered 
that Holden is a man of uncommon vitality. At the age 
of ninety-one he shows the same tenacity of life as he 
tells of himself in the South Seas over sixty years ago. 
He has already "held on' thirty years longer than the 
most of his generation, and is perhaps the only survivor 
of that race of sailors in the South Seas. 

It came on night. Holden sat in the stern sheets to 
manage a little sail that he had on the mast. He was 
''the only live one there.' The others were dying, or 
waiting death, and only breathing, nor could be aroused 
from their lethargy. "What can I do?' he thought. 
"Here is the boat and all, and I can not leave them 
alone ; but is it possible that I can keep awake all this 
night?' But this he determined to attempt. He gath- 
ered up the sheet and brought it aft, and got a steering 
oar. There rose now a light wind, that increased to a 
gentle and delightful breeze. He brought the sail toward 
the wind free. This was the sixteenth night on the sea, 
and during which he had scarcely slept. But he held 
the boat to her course, and amused himself listening to 
the sound of the water as the boat glided over the ripples. 

The musings of this solitary man in a boat with a 
company who might all be but corpses, on a tropical sea, 
and not knowing where he was going, could not be but 
strange, and Mr. Holden is either as good a romancer as 
the Lakeside bard, or the "Rhyme of the Ancient Mari- 
ner' has been equaled by sober fact. The night seemed 
the longest he had ever spent, even in the South Seas, 
and it almost needed the assurance of the dawn streaking 
up at last in the east that he was not himself the dying 
or dead. It was a morning of extreme beauty, and sun- 
rise on the tropical sea is a soul-stirring sight in clear 
weather. This was doubly and tenfold more so to Holden 



190 HORACE HOLDEN. 

as this day must either see his deliverance, or end his 
own power of endurance. 

As it grew lighter Holden followed the circle of the 
horizon with his gaze, hoping to descry some sign of sail 
or land. At what seemed the very utmost limit of his 
vision, toward the brightening dawn, he saw a black 
hump on the water. Toward this he was steering, and 
as he advanced, and at length the sun shot up, he dis- 
tinguished trees, the tops of cocoanut palms. He was 
now certain that land was ahead, and with strange 
mingled feelings he watched it emerge and grow upon 
the sight until the sun was a full hour high. But, of 
course, whatever his sense of relief at first in the sight 
of palms and the thought of cocoanuts and fresh water, 
his next feeling was only of apprehension. He was un- 
doubtedly to be saved from the sea only to fall into the 
hands of savages. The beauty of the scene, however, the 
island not as yet made frightful to him by its inhabitants, 
but rising like a fresh creation out of the ocean, was a 
sight never to be forgotten. 

However his apprehensions were soon to be realized. 
Canoes were soon seen on the water and putting out to 
meet the boat. Holden at once sung out to the boys in 
the boat to awaken, but there was no stir. Four canoes 
could now be distinguished, but the number of the native 
occupants could not be counted. Holden continued 
singing out "Get up, get up, boys! The natives are 
bearing down onus!' Still he obtained no response, 
and he began jumping up and down on the stern sheets 
making a racket, and crying "you must, you shall get 
up ! ' By his noise they were partially aroused and be- 
gan looking over the rail, and at the sight of the canoes 
were startled into what little life they still retained. The 
savages at first kept off, but finally, concluding appar- 
ently that the boat had no firearms, took a course directly 



REMINISCENCES. 191 

toward her. The sailors, just awakened from their leth- 
argy, and Holden single handed and unarmed, were 
unable to make any resistance to what was evidently a 
hostile intention. Holden simply prepared to jump when 
the canoe struck, as she did in a few moments. It came 
at a dashing speed, and the sailors that did not jump 
into the water were knocked down helplessly and 
pitilessly. 

The four chiefs sprang at once into the boat, and be- 
gan knocking it to pieces, and made no account of the 
sailors. Their first concern was to secure for themselves 
as much as possible of the iron in the boat. 

As Holden says they were "naked brutes," and of 
copper colored skins. Their absolute insensibility to the 
perishing sailors should be understood, however, as 
rather an intellectual limitation. They had not yet 
learned that the life of a man not of their tribe was of 
any value, and had learned that possession of iron was 
increase of power. The iron nails and spikes, therefore, 
excited all their activity, while the men were unnoticed. 

Holden leaped into the water to avoid the collision, 
and those of his mates who did not do so, were uncere- 
moniously thrown overboard by the natives, to be out of 
the way while the process of demolishing the boat went 
on. When this was broken nearly to the water line, it 
was decided by the chiefs to tow the bottom over to the 
land, and the fleet of canoes began moving toward shore. 
In the meantime, the sailors in the water had been at- 
tempting to sustain themselves by taking hold of the 
edges of the boat, but were pushed back into the water. 
Some tried to take hold of the outriggers of canoes, but 
were driven back. But when the boat was broken up, or 
what was left was taken in tow, the sailors were allowed 
to take refuge in the canoes. But this seems rather to 
have been for the purpose of plunder than humanity. 



192 HORACE HOLDEN. 

Holden was immediately taken up into a canoe, but 
what rags he wore were at once taken from him. This 
was a great cruelty, as the sun, in latitude three north, 
was boiling down now upon his shoulders, and without 
the protection of his shirt, soon began blistering. He 
was separated from his mates, and did not see what treat- 
ment they received, but afterwards learned that it was 
the same. 

He was then given a paddle, and the order came 
"Saveth, saveth ! Take the paddle and help us pull to the 
shore, to Tobey.' Such he understood was the name 
of the island. Holden, however, said "No," and shook 
his head ; being in fact too worn and exhausted to dread 
any consequences, and almost incapable of exertion . The 
native who thus commanded him now went to the bow 
of the canoe, and placing upon a bit of cocoanut shell a 
piece of poi about the size of a walnut, said "Eat.' Hol- 
den opened his mouth and took the poi from the man's 
fingers, according to native custom. As is well known, poi 
is the staple food of the South Sea islanders, and is made 
from taro, a plant of the lily family, somewhat resembling 
turnip ; and the poi is of a mushy consistency, and is 
easily rolled up on the finger in a wad or ball, and is 
taken in the mouth without touching the finger. Holden 
then held the paddle, but did not row much. 

ISLAND OP TOBEY. 

This island, with its strange and fierce people, was 
destined to be the home of Holden for nearly two years, 
and here he underwent almost incredible sufferings, both 
of the body and the mind. 

The canoes were directed toward the shore and entered 
the lagoon through the opening of the reef, and directly 
reached the landing. The tide was low, and upon reach- 



REMINISCENCES. 193 

ing the rocky edge that was exposed, Holden was lifted 
by the natives and boosted onto the beach above. This, 
on the lower portion, was covered with coarse gravel, 
being particles from off the coral reef, and in all degrees 
of comminution, but mostly particles coarse and sharp, or 
ragged. In walking up this coral shingle to the finer 
sands next the palm trees, his feet, which were bare, 
suffered intensely, being pierced and well nigh burned 
by the hot gravels. Once upon the smoother sands, and 
under the trees, he suffered little less. All the women 
of the island appeared and performed wild antics, cutting 
all the curlicues known to savages in praise of the exploit 
of their husbands in capturing specimens of the white 
race. Under the cocoanut trees, where he went, he was 
quickly surrounded by a group of boys, to whom he 
was an object of intense curiosity. They "oh'ed ri and 
"ah'ed' !l and "ooh'ed," and repeated excitedly "putchi- 
butchi mari" white man, white man and shoved him 
in every direction and scanned him from all sides, in 
their eagerness. But this usage was of small torment 
compared to the pain they inflicted upon his blistered 
shoulders, each one insisting upon sampling him with 
the fingers, and one seizing or grabbing him away from 
another. 

At last the miserable day passed, and night came on. 
The question then arose, what to do with the prisoner. 
Word was returned from some authority to place him 
in the Penniaris house God's house the house corre- 
sponding to our church. This was a mere hatch, with 
a roof laid on poles resting upon a plate about ten feet 
above the ground, set on posts. The two sides were 
open, but the ends, which were bowed somewhat outward 
so as to form a semicircle, were closed with thatch, and 
into one of these ends he was placed. The floor was the 
ground, but this was merely the sharp coral gravel, which 



194 HORACE HOLDEN. 

cut cruelly into his already lacerated skin. It was like 
the cinders of a blacksmith's forge, and upon waking in 
the morning, he was sore and stiff almost beyond endur- 
ance. 

This was his entrance upon Tobey, a lonely island 
seven hundred miles from Pelew. It was a new terri- 
tory, a new world ; not so much in its natural aspects as 
in the character of the inhabitants . They were apparently 
without many of the human feelings, and without usual 
means of influence or control. 

A BRITISH SHIP. 

Holden was fed a small allowance of poi, and the 
curiosity of the natives gradually wore off. He was be- 
ginning to regain his strength, and a certain hopefulness 
of mind. However, he saw nothing of his mates, who, 
however, were treated in much the same way, being dis- 
posed singly in different places on the island. 

In about twenty days he was astonished and over- 
joyed by the sight of an East Indian merchant ship, 
appearing early in a morning within a few miles of the 
shore. This was the signal for a wild rush of the natives 
to reach the vessel in their canoes, in order to get a pres- 
ent of iron. It was no less thrilling to the castaway 
Americans, who in their nakedness and feebleness still 
had no means of reaching the vessel. There was only 

4 

one course and that was to seize their chance to accom- 
pany the canoes, and make their way thus. 

This they attempted. Two, the captain, Barnard, 
and one sailor, Rawlins, almost literally fought their way 
thither, taking a place in a canoe and refusing to leave, 
and so threatening and delaying the native boatmen that 
they preferred to carry them on rather than risk the 
chance of missing the ship and any little scrap of iron 



REMINISCENCES. 195 

that they might secure. But the other sailors, being less 
forward, were driven back, or dashed into the water. 
Holden made a wild rush to a canoe just putting off 
and started with it, but was thrown out. However, he 
seized the side of the craft and although his fingers were 
heavily belabored, still clung until the canoe put back. 
But the moment it was off he again caught onto the out- 
rigger and was towed along. Maddened by his perti- 
nacity the natives again returned and casting him on the 
shore dealt him a blow upon the head that rendered him 
helpless and nearly senseless. When he came to, the 
ship was gone, and he and the eight others were left in 
"that horrible place.' 

It seemed incredible, and something stunning to his 
mind, that an English ship could have left him and his 
fellow sailors, after learning, as must have been the case 
from the captain, that w r hite men were there. He would 
not have believed that Barnard and Rawlins reached the 
vessel had it not been that his mates saw them climb up 
the companion way and over on to the deck. The name 
of the captain of that ship should be remembered, as a 
man of a brutality equal to that of any of the natives, 
and one from whom the natives perhaps learned some- 
thing of the hardness shown the sailors. It was Sommes, 
and when finally rescued, Holden was told the pitiful 
excuse that he offered for his act. 

It was for some time impossible for Holden and his 
mates to believe that they had been left, and the nine 
Americans waited, expecting that a boat would return 
for them ; but they only saw the great ship stand off and 
finally disappear not to come back, or to send any word 
or help. The natives were much dissatisfied and grum- 
bled at great length at what they considered the niggardly 
treatment of the British ship, from which they were 
given but the hoops of an old barrel knocked down on 



196 HORACE HOLDEN. 

the spot for them. They were thus taught the small 
value of a sailor's life, and encouraged to treat castaways 
with contempt and cruelty. Holden and his companions 
feared that their ugly temper would find vent in the tor- 
ture or death of themselves, but did not meddle to 
attempt any explanation. 

. 

A CHANGE. 

However there now came a change. This was for 
the worse. The sailors were divided off to masters and 
set to work. But at the same time instead of more food 
to keep up their strength, less was given them ; it was 
barely enough to sustain life. Holden 's work was assist- 
ing his master pull a boat in fishing at night, and in 
working the taro patches. This latter was very labor- 
ious, especially making new pits. The taro is grown in 
soft muddy ground, which must be prepared by digging 
pits out of the rock, and then filling the cavity with 
earth, and leading in water. The rock is broken up with 
hardened wooden pikes, from the already partly decom- 
posed coral rocks, and then the pieces must be lifted and 
thrown or carried outside. Under a broiling sun, and in 
pits sunk six feet deep, such work is heavy, even with 
the best of food. But on the low and insufficient diet 
allowed him, it was slow'death. 

' u 

He worked away, however, stolidly if not patiently, 
feeling a certain hardening and listlessness as his life 
was reduced and the probability of escape or rescue 
seemed passing away. The sight of a ship" no [longer 
meant rescue, as even if another hove in sight, it^was by 
no means certain that he could induce the natives to let 
him reach it, or that the ship itself would be brought 
within hail. 

One day, however, he met with a menace of death 



REMINISCENCES. 197 

that brought some little sympathy from the natives. He 
was working as usual in the taro patch, but in an old pit. 
He was half knee deep in the mud, and with his hands 
as a spade was seizing the mud and casting it behind 
him. It was about ten in the morning, the sun now 
shining well down over the tops of the cocoanut trees. 
Suddenly he went out of life, dropping as if dead, and 
all consciousness snuffed out, quickly as a candle might 
be extingushed. Upon coming to again, which was a 
gradual return, he found himself lying on the bank next 
the pit, and the sun was not over an hour high. He had 
been unconscious about seven hours. He heard voices 
near ; it was the natives talking about him, repeating 
"Samoriat Temit" Temit is dead, perhaps as a sort of 
rite. They were greatly astonished and showed consid- 
erable pleasure when he began to stir. "Temit ' ; was the 
name given him, the significance of which, however, 
Mr. Holden does not know. When he rose they brought 
him what they thought he needed to eat and drink. 

This was procured from the cocoanut palm near by. 
A boy was sent up the tree, and a large cocoanut was 
selected and thrown to the ground. This was properly 
ripe, not bursting as those but two thirds ripe are wont 
to do. The husk was quickly removed and the one free 
eye two of the three eyes are "blind," and it is from 
the free or open eye that the milk is drawn and the shoot 
springs was opened and he was told to drink. He took 
a portion and returned it to his master, who, however, 
gave it back, and he then drank all. The shell was then 
broken and the soft, delicious meat such as is never 
seen in the shriveled meats that we see was given him, 
and he ate the whole of it. He was, in fact, dying of 
hunger, having been allowed nothing the morning he 
went to work or the night before. 

He had now became the property of a leading man of 



198 HORACE HOLDEN. 

the island, and the family to whom he belonged seemed 
to have some actual feeling for him, but worked him un- 
mercifully, and except on that occasion did not give him 
sufficient food. 

Time wore on amid hunger and thirst and hard work, 
and still no permission to see the other men. He suffered 
constantly for fresh water, there being little or none on 
the island, the natives quenching their thirst with eating 
the succulent taro, or poi, and drinking cocoanut milk. 
Holden, not having enough of these, learned to eat cer- 
tain leaves, which furnished juice and stimulated saliva. 
He was threatened with death from flux, and looking 
among the leaves wondered if some of them might not 
relieve him, and found that they did. 

To show his misery from insufficiency of food, he tells 
of eating raw fish on the sly. He was required one morn- 
ing to follow his master to a special fishing place where 
a species solely for the use of the women was taken. 
These were to be for his master's wife, who was spending 
certain time at the tahboo house of the women. The 
master went ahead and, dipping his net, brought up one 
fish a small sort, but a finger or so in length. This, 
however, was given Holden to carry ; and presently an- 
other was taken, which was also given him. The tempta- 
tion to eat was irresistible, and with one or two swallows 
it was gone. A number of others were taken and the 
theft if it might be so called was not discovered. Be- 
sides that fish he tasted no animal food on the island, 
except a bite of turtle. This was given him by a priest. 
But one turtle was caught while he was on the island, 
and this was the perquisite of the priests. While they 
were eating he could not restrain his hunger, and sat 
down, like any other beggar, on his haunches, and beg- 
ged for a morsel. For a long time the priest gave him 
no notice, but at last deigned to cast him a fragment from 



REMINISCENCES. 199 

the entrails. This he accepted only too eagerly. The 
priest in refusing him at first would throw back his hair 
and scratch his head and say "It's tahboo" himself 
only being able to take off the tahboo, which he finally 
did, after gormandizing his fill. 

As to the cause of this stinginess of food, Mr. Holden 
says that to a small community like those on Tobey, the 
coming of eleven men, who had already been nearly 
starved, made quite a draught, and they were themselves 
nearly always more or less short of victuals. Tropical 
abundance was not realized under their manner of culti- 
vation. Abundance of food, like the most of blessings, is 
a product of civilization. They also seemed to have many 
strange superstitions, and the priests, who managed the 
tahboo mysteries, required their living from the people. 

A PERIOD OF HORRORS. 

It was perhaps owing to the scarcity of some articles 
of food, or some superstitious awakening among the peo- 
ple, that a rising of a part of the people against the white 
men began. It led to acts that can not be recalled with- 
out a shudder, to think that even savages should perpe- 
trate such deliberate cruelty, or that white men should 
suffer it. Mr. Holden 's account only occasions the sur- 
mise how many sailors have perished, as the most of his 
comrades did, in the South Seas, but with the hope that 
that phase of trade and commerce in the world has passed 
away. 

On a certain day, along before noon, the family of his 
master, of which he was now considered one, were all to- 
gether in the house, when suddenly there was heard a 
fearful yelling from some distance down the shore. The 
master raised a whoop and started out of the house, fol- 
lowed at once bv the wife and four children. Holden did 



200 HORACE HOLDEN. 

not move; but in a short time he began to feel that some 
tragedy was occurring. His mind fell into a horrid state, 
and he felt his flesh creeping and hair crawling as he 
listened to the continued yelling and turmoil. His anx- 
iety now became so intense he could remain no longer, 
and he walked out upon the sand beach and looked down 
the shore. Not a soul appeared in sight. He went for- 
ward a few rods, but being weak from the sickness re- 
ferred to above sat down in the sand at a point where the 
waves of the rising tide bubbled up and still watched 
down the shore. Then all at once two men, at some dis- 
tance, made their appearance from the shrubbery of the 
island, moving rapidly onto the beach and bending for- 
ward. In another instant it was seen that they were 
carrying some sort of an object, and in the next that this 
was a man. It was evident that this was one of his 
shipmates, and that the proceedings were his massacre. 
Holden watched a moment longer, until a third man 
appeared, having a boulder in his hand with which he 
began crushing the head of the victim, who was then 
hurried to the water's edge by the bearers. But sud- 
denly, while Holden was stealing off, a shower of blows 
from clubs was rained upon his own head. A party of 
the murderers had crept up upon him while he was 
watching with horror the fate of his mate, and thus un- 
expectedly began an attempt upon his own life. 

Holden at first fell partially stunned and lay with his 
arms over his head in order to shield himself from the 
blows, and attempted to rise, but was unable. How- 
ever, recovering himself somewhat, he sat up. The 
natives, who were attacking him, perhaps became a little 
confused, and seizing-a favorable moment Holden sprang 
to his feet, feeling a sudden acceleration of strength. He 
knew now that it was neck or nothing, and with bare 
hands began striking right and left, sailor fashion. By 



REMINISCENCES. 201 

this warlike attitude the natives were somewhat con- 
fused, but raising a terrific din began striking violently, 
though somewhat at random. Unable to hit his head, 
but still ringing blow after blow on his arms, which soon 
seemed battered to a pumice along the outer side. He 
looked in every direction, but saw no friendly face, and 
knowing that he must soon be worn out, changed his 
tactics, and suddenly darted to one side and made a rush 
for his master's hut. They followed after in a savage 
rage, but only occasionally were able to reach him with 
a blow upon the shoulders. Even in such a scuffle as 
this the mental superiority of the white man appeared. 
A murder or massacre by savages owes much of its hor- 
ror to lack of purpose and method. He was, however, 
now very much helped, and in fact no doubt saved, by 
the appearance upon the scene of an old gray-headed 
man, who stood between him and his pursuers, holding 
them back. 

By this diversion Holden was able to gain his mas- 
ter's hut and take refuge in the loft. This was a room 
above the lower apartment, with a floor but eight or nine 
feet above ground, and was reached through a scuttle 
hole by means of a rope that dangled down. After using 
the rope, and pausing a moment to breathe and recover 
himself, he forgot, or neglected to haul it up, and in a 
very short time savages were below, and in another in- 
stant one ferocious native was climbing after and had 
already placed a hand upon the ledge to draw himself to 
the floor. He was a fearful sight, gritting his teeth and 
eyes glaring ; but his hold was at once unloosed by Hol- 
den, who seized and twisted the fingers, and the man 
with howls of rage fell back. This process was repeated 
a number of times, until the rage and turmoil of the 
murderers seemed to pass all bounds. Then they at- 
tempted another plan. The entire upper part of a man's 



202 HORACE HOLDEN. 

body was thrust up the scuttle hole, being held from be- 
low by a powerful native, and Holden saw that he must 
soon be forced back ; but at that instant the body of the 
intruder was drawn down and cast with a dull thud upon 
the ground. This was done by the master, who had re- 
turned, and seeing what was happening threw himself 
upon the lower part of the man's body, carrying him 
down and knocking over also the one that held him. 
This was not the same party that attacked him at first. 
Those had been held back by the old man, but the mur- 
derers of the other sailor, whose name was Pete, came 
up, and learning where Holden had gone, followed to 
finish him also ; but by the timely appearance of his 
master he was now safe. This attempt upon his life and 
that of the others was not countenanced by the leading 
men, and the ringleaders were seized and held by Hoi- 
den's master and his friends until a promise was given 
to molest Temit no more. 

There were two families living in this hut, one being 
that of a brother, a man of gigantic stature, nearly seven 
feet tall, who, as soon as the house was rid of the mur- 
derers, came to the scuttle hole and called, "Woobish, 
woobish," come down and I w T ill put you down on the 
ground. Holden thinking that there was no way but to 
trust him did as told, and let himself into the giant's 
arms, who took him carefully and let him to the floor in 
a very gentle manner. Holden could scarcely yet think 
himself safe, and the memory of the murderer who as- 
cended the rope seemed fixed on his mind for days. It 
was indeed a fearful sight, the man beside himself with 
passion, with glaring eyes and teeth grinding, and hav- 
ing in human form all the insensibility and incapacity of 
pity or reason pertaining to a wild beast. 

However, his master and his party were truly friendly 
to Temit, and after a long and excited discussion decided 



REMINISCENCES. 203 

to defend him at all costs. They inquired of one another 
"What shall we do with Temit? Where will he be 
safe?' Then the big man suggested that the best place 
would be in their father's hut. This was one of the best 
on the island, and was thatched all around. After a 
supper shared with the family he was taken to the house 
of the old people and shown a place of concealment and 
was given a cocoanut palm mat, upon which he slept 
quite comfortably. He was also supplied with taro, and 
remained in the thatch for three days. Word was then 
sent that he would be safe at home, and he returned. 

FURTHER HORRORS. 

The policy of destroying the white men was continued. 
The one that Holden saw killed was Pete Anderson. His 
body was taken out to the outer edge of the lagoon, and 
was cast into the main ocean, as if unfit to remain on the 
island. Not long after one of the Pelew chiefs was 
killed. He had been accused of stealing cocoanuts, some 
of these having been taken, and he was pitched upon by 
the priests, who demanded that he die. These atrocities 
were no doubt instigated by the priests, who had secret 
reasons for opposing the influence of even chance for- 
eigners, the priestly caste being the most conservative of 
all, and able also to most quickly arouse the latent ferocity 
in the human heart. 

Another of the Pelews had already died of disease 
and exposure. The Pelew that was killed was taken to 
a canoe and tied, and then set adrift on the ocean. Soon 
after, a sailor, Milton Hulett, a young man of twenty and 
still quite strong, was also turned adrift in the same 
manner, still alive. The theory of the natives seemed 

to be that these foreigners came from the sea, and to the 

7 



204 HORACE HOLDEN. 

sea must return. However, the next day a great howl- 
ing and uproar was heard, the whole island being ex- 
cited. This, as was soon learned, was caused by the 
body of Milton being found on the shore of the lagoon, 
to which it had been drifted in the night, and this brought 
more fear and dread than if many live men had come. 
It was awfully unlucky for a dead man to come back to 
his murderers, and for a whole month the man who set 
him adrift was obliged to perform rites in the Tahboo 
house. This seems to indicate the superstitious origin 
of these horrors. 

William Seddon, another sailor, died of disease on 
the shore, having become very low through privation. 
One after another, however, the rest were turned adrift 
alive, never to return, until but three remained. These 
were one Pelew, a sailor named Knute, and Holden. 

THE TATTOOING. 

Mr. Holden is yet tattooed in South Sea islander fash- 
ion over his entire chest and arms. This appears to be 
as distinct as after it was first done, and resembles the 
pattern of some sort of shirt or dress, or more probably 
some native design. Without expert inquiry the sugges- 
tion still arises that in the South Seas, where dress was 
unnecessary for comfort, the only use that occurred to 
the natives was as an ornament, or mark of distinction, 
following out, I believe, a suggestion of Carlyle's in 
Sartor Resartus. For ornament or distinction tattooing 
on the skin would answer the same purpose as dress. 
Possibly, too, these patterns were from the dress of cast- 
aways or conquerors, whose clothes were worn out, and 
no new ones were to be had, and the design was preserved 
on the skin. 

But whatever its origin, its intent at the time Mr. 



REMINISCENCES. 205 

Holden was there seemed to be simply to incorporate him 
into the community. This showed an increase of kindly 
feeling, and prospect of better treatment ; but the process 
was one of great pain. The instrument used was made 
from the bones of the great Man-o'-war hawk, being 
about an inch long, with teeth long enough to not only 
pierce the skin, but to reach even the bones. It is quite 
unlike the sailors' method, which is done with a fine 
needle, and the outer skin simply raised sufficiently to 
admit the ink under the cuticle. But this was on a truly 
barbarous plan. The man to be tattooed was laid flat on 
the ground, and the operator straddled his body, and 
with the instrument laid at the proper place made the 
incisions with the blow of a mallet. Often over the ribs, 
as Holden was thus operated upon, the teeth were driven 
into the bone and were pulled out only with some exer- 
tion. Under such treatment he could only hold his 
breath, waiting for the man to take a fresh supply of ink, 
to suspire. The process required three whole days, and 
the juices used to make the color, were so severe as to 
cause the flesh to puff into large swellings. It was the 
intention to tattoo his face also, but this he resisted, pre- 
ferring to die, and threatening them with the vengeance 
of the white man's God. 

Nevertheless, amid all these troubles, he did not wholly 
stagnate mentally, but took pains to learn the language, 
which he still retains, and to be able to form a correct 
vocabulary of their words. He still had a hope of escape, 
and felt the value to commerce, or more especially of any 
castaways like himself, of knowing more of these people 
and teaching them in some way the value of human life. 
He found that they held the white man's God in supersti- 
tious regard, seeing the ships, the firearms, and the iron 
given, as they supposed, to His favorites. More than 
once in a desperate situation he overawed them by threat- 



206 HORACE HOLDEN. 

ening to call upon this powerful being for vengeance. 
Moreover, he instilled, wherever possible, into their minds 
that the white men would gladly make a present for his 
release, and that he must be returned to them whenever 
a ship appeared. This promise his master grew to rely 
upon with utmost confidence. 

A SENSE OF DELIVERANCE. 

Two years had now passed upon the island of Tobey, 
amid horrors and cruelties, but also with some growing 
companionship with the natives. 

A curious premonition of rescue from that prison 
island at length began to take possession of him. What- 
ever its source, whether from some outward or providen- 
tial origin, or from his own imagination, the assurance 
grew more complete, and raised his hope. As this be- 
came firmer he began to think of his one mate left, the 
sailor, Knute ; but of him he had now seen nothing for 
some time. This was a bad sign, as, although they were 
not allowed any intercourse, he had frequently seen the 
lad on the beach at a distance. His own hope had become 
so firm and his anxiety for Knute became so intense, 
fearing that he had been murdered, that at last one after- 
noon he determined to take all risks and hunt him up. 

It happened that he was alone in the house, and, al- 
though not knowing how soon his master might return, 
he decided on the spur of the moment to go towards 
Knute 's place. This he did, chosing the back trail, which 
led through the brush and shrubbery, and was some dis- 
tance back from the usual road along the front. He 
walked rapidly, and soon came to a point where he could 
look into the main path. He saw no one, but nearing the 
crossways soon discovered a man, all but nude, crouching 
in a hopeless attitude on the ground. He was sitting 



KEMINISCENCES. 207 

with his hands over his face, and his head sunk between 
his knees. Surmising who it was, Holden was soon along- 
side, and saw that it was in truth his shipmate. He 
quickly laid his hand on the drooping shoulder, and 
shook him gently, but with the intent of rousing him 
from the lethargy into which he saw the man had fallen. 
"Why are you here, Knute?' ; he asked. "What is the 
matter?' But to this inquiry there was no reply, yet a 
slight movement. The man looked up, but the look was 
as of death itself, hopeless and lifeless, of one soon to be 
a corpse. Even with his fresh sense of hope, Holden 
shuddered, but said cheerfully, "Come, come, Knute, let 
me take you to the house.' "It's no use," answered his 
mate, with a groan ; he cared only to die. 

"You are not going to die yet," replied Holden ; "I 
still have strength and you have a little. I will take 
hold of you, and when I say 'ready' you must get up." 
So taking hold he sung out in sailor fashion, "Ready, 
heoho ; now she goes,' and sure enough had him on his 
feet, and began hitching him along toward his home, 
helping himself by taking hold of the bushes at the 
pathside. But after a little Knute moaned, "Let me 
down," and suddenly collapsed and fell like lead. Hol- 
den could assist no more, but said, "Knute, you must 
not give up ; keep up heart and hope, my man, just for 
my sake. What shall I do if I am left entirely alone on 
this savage island? Can't you bear up for me if not for 
yourself? Besides, we do not know how soon we may be 
rescued ; we can not tell when we may go ; it may be 
to-morrow." 

With these words he left his comrade and returned as 
quickly as possible to his master's hut, and fortunately 
found that he had been seen by no one, the hut being 
still empty. 

The natives seemed to have been occupied with cere- 



208 HORACE HOLDEN. 

monies at the tahboo house, and about nightfall the mas- 
ter returned alone, having left his wife at the woman's 
tahboo. However, he said, "We will sleep here," and 
both prepared for the night. 

We can not help but linger here a moment in thought, 
considering an experience like this and the pathos of a 
hope without a reasonable or demonstrable foundation 
springing up in such a situation. The question also 
arises, will the results of the civilization brought to these 
seas and islands seem at last to recompense the losses 
and sufferings that lads like Holden and Knute and their 
more unfortunate mates, or the many unknown sailors of 
the Pacific, had to endure? 

"SAWA, SAWA," A SHIP. 

Next morning, just about daylight, he was aroused 
by the sound of loud voices singing out from the tops of 
the cocoanut trees, where the natives had gone early to 
gather toddy, "Sawa, sawa.' His master heard the cry, 
and roused instantly and jumped up. Holden did not 
move, lying in a singular repose, feeling that his premo- 
nition was to be realized, and yet having no urging of 
his own effort. In a few minutes his master came back 
all excitement and hurried him down to the beach . ' ' Look 
yonder,' he said, "and see whether there is a ship.' 
Holden scanned the horizon, but saw nothing. What- 
ever there was was below the horizon. He replied that 
he saw nothing yet, but told his master to climb a tree 
and he might discover it. 

The natives readily climb the long shafts of the cocoa- 
nut trees by means of a hoop, into which they place their 
feet, on the side opposite their body, and hold themselves 
while taking a new hold with the arms. The master, 
whose name was Parabaway, was soon into his hoop, and 



REMINISCENCES. 209 

had ascended about thirty or forty feet when he stopped 
and sang out, "Sawa, sawa" yes, it is a ship. He then 
came down speedily and laid his hand on Holden's shoul- 
der and said, "Temit, I will set you on that ship.' "You 
know my promise," Holden replied, "to the man who first 
places me on a white man's ship.' 

Parabaway was a man of activity, and one to redeem 
in some measure the character of his people. He there- 
fore at once called to his men, who brought the sea canoe 
to the beach, carrying it across the bayou, and bringing 
the paddles and also Temit. 

THE STRUGGLE TO THE SHIP. 

The canoe was shoved into the water and the crew of 
paddlers took their places. Holden was duly placed 
aboard and took a position at the bow, ready to descry 
the first appearance of the ship, which lay becalmed, but 
below the horizon from their situation on the water. He 
constantly urged the men to paddle, crying "Vettell" 
pull until you reach the ship. The canoe went boldly 
out over the deep ocean, riding the low swell, until after 
a time Holden caught sight of a white speck, the gleam 
of a sail, seeing which the men took heart and paddled 
away with a will, the ship rapidly growing on the sight, 
and Holden at last believing fully in his deliverance, and 
of his comrade, Knute's. The master, Parabaway, and 
his men were also indulging in lively anticipations of the 
treasure of iron to be given them. The ship was now 
within but a mile, and soon would be within hailing 
distance. 

But suddenly, without warning, there came a white 
pun 7 of smoke, and a six-pound cannon ball whistled over 
the heads of the canoemen and their passenger. This 
was something which Holden had not calculated upon, 



210 HORACE HOLDEN. 

and turned the ship, which but a moment before seemed 
the sign of salvation, into an object of new peril. Of 
course the natives were terrified and squatted in the 
canoe as another and still another cannon ball screamed 
over them in quick succession. Then they headed away, 
fully believing that the ship intended to destroy them. 
Holden immediately began tasking them to head to the 
ship, himself almost reckless of consequences, but not 
believing that any ship of any nation would fire upon a 
helpless canoe with intention of killing. They cried out 
with terror, however, and replied, "If we go to the ship 
we shall be killed.' Holden determined that they must 
proceed and commanded them to pull. "Which way?' 
they again inquired. "To the ship; you shall not go 
home.' 

Finally he succeeded in calming them, and began 
singing out to the ship in a voice which he thought must 
carry across the water. On his positive promise that 
they should not be killed they resumed paddling, headed 
for the vessel. But not over five or six strokes had been 
taken before "biff' once more, and directly with the 
boom came a charge of copper ore, striking the water no 
great distance in front of the canoe, and splashing Hol- 
den himself, who stood in the prow. At this of course 
the natives broke into new terror, and what small head 
of courage that Holden had gained for them was now 
lost. All must be done over. They were about to re- 
treat with all speed, but he checked them with all the 
intimidations of the white man's God. They would pro- 
ceed no further, but by the greatest exertion of will and 
persuasion he prevented their return. While thus urg- 
ing and struggling a flag was run up on the mizzen, 
the English Jack, the most beautiful of all signs just 
then, unless it had been the stars and stripes. English- 
men could surely be made to understand the situation. 



REMINISCENCES. 211 

A boat was now seen lowered from the ship, and, 
under a good stroke from the crew supplied from the ves- 
sel, came gliding over the water toward Holden's canoe. 
This boat came within about fifty yards, in full view, 
then stopped, the sailors resting on their oars. Not a 
word was spoken, but after a few moment's inspection, 
the oars were dropped again into the water and the stroke 
resumed, but the boat was headed back to the ship. Hoi- 
den then cried out in his loudest tones, telling them who 
he was, and what he was wanting, but the boat pulled 
back to the vessel. 

By such treatment as this, he was almost thrown into 
frenzy, and continued calling ; and then commanded the 
natives to pull away to the vessel after the boat, but was 
met with a volley of small arms, at which the natives, of 
course, stopped rowing again. Holden had only to wait 
and see what would be done by the British vessel. After 
returning to the ship, the detail in the boat reported that 
they thought they heard English words spoken, and asked 
for further orders ; and permission was then given by the 
captain, one Short, to return, but well armed. As soon 
as within hailing distance again, the officer of the boat 
standing in the stern sheets called to Holden, and said, 
"Swim here.' 

We can not but be astonished that when, within speak- 
ing distance, and easily able to ascertain who Holden 
was, and the disposition of the natives, that any such 
order should be given. But the captain and his crew 
were acting under very careful instructions, and following 
the English axiom, took everybody for an enemy or crim- 
inal until proved otherwise. Without waiting for further 
urging and, indeed, almost before the order was out of 
the officer's mouth, Holden sprang into the water and 
swam for his life toward the boat ; leaping like a flash, 
and swimming under the water. In the meantime the 







212 HORACE HOLDEN. 

boat came slowly toward him, and as he rose to breathe, 
she was alongside, and two of the sailors reached over 
and lifted him in. But this was scarcely done, before one 
of them cried out "We have just saved him now !" and 
looking into the water, all were horrified to see the body 
of a man-eating shark, overlapping the boat in length, 
and already turned on its side to seize the prey. Of 
this peril Holden himself had not thought, as the boat's 
officer had also overlooked it ; though both probably knew 
that those seas were full of these carnivores of the waters. 

A BRITISH CAPTAIN. 

The rescuing crew now bent to the oars and laid away 
to the ship, which was a three masted merchantman, and 
came along broadside. The manropes hanging over were 
scarcely reached before Holden laid hold of them and, 
without help or invitation, scrambled to the deck. He 
was at once surrounded by the sailors, to whom he was a 
subject for instant solicitude. Some brought him clothes 
out of their chests, into which he was speedily installed, 
while one came with a spoonful of boiled rice, his lank 
appearance indicating at once long want, if not starva- 
tion. The first officer began to question him, and every 
time he made an answer carried this back to report to 
the captain, who was pacing the after deck. 

This was done with so much ceremony and delibera- 
tion that Holden, who was all anxiety to secure the rescue 
of his mate, Knute, and to redeem his promise to his 
master, Parabaway, became very impatient. But when 
a little breeze now began to blow, and the order came 
from the captain to brace up the yards, he could no 
longer control himself. It seemed incredible that a man 
should be left, or that no attention should be paid to his 
representations about the natives. Setting aside red tape 



REMINISCENCES. 213 

and taking matters into his own hands he went aft and 
met the captain as he came alongside on his walk. Ad- 
dressing him by name, he said, "Captain Short, I am an 
American ; I have a shipmate who is undoubtedly in one 
of those canoes waiting to be taken aboard. I beg of you 
to do w^hat you can for his rescue.' 

The captain simply looked him over, and up and 
down, without a word turned and walked back across 
the deck. Holden's Yankee spirit rose, and he waited 
until the captain faced his way again, and looked him 
over once more and said : 

"You are an American?' 

"Yes." 

"You say you have a shipmate yonder?' 

"Yes." 

"If that is the case I will do what I can for him.' 

"You can do no more, sir," replied Holden, bowing. 

Captain Short then called the men aft and explained 
in a few words the situation of Holden's mate, and said 
that those who wished to volunteer for his rescue might 
do so. A boat was soon manned and lowered away. 

LAST SCENE WITH THE NATIVES. 

This boat was already about to leave when Holden 
demanded to be allowed to accompany the rescuing party, 
and to be enabled to fulfill his promise to the natives, 
who had risked their lives literally at the cannon's 
mouth, to carry out their part of the agreement. The 
captain at first was disinclined to permit- this, but finally 
consented, and ordered the cabin boy to go below and 
fill a basket with iron scraps, nails, or other refuse out 
of the locker, and bring it to the boat. It seemed diffi- 
cult for Holden to work through his obtuse mind that 
this was not a mere bit of sentiment or whim, but that 



214 HORACE HOLDEN. 

it was entirely worth while to teach these islanders that 
ample reward would be given for shipwrecked men, in- 
ducing them thus to place a high value upon human life. 

The burly captain was at last made willing to hold 
the ship for an hour or longer, while the ship's boat 
went out with Holden to the canoes of the islanders, who 
but that very morning held him as a slave, but now, 
seeing him coming from the ship with a boat load of 
sailors, and himself dressed in clothes that were to them 
of fabulous worth, were now ready to bow down and 
almost worship him. 

While thus rowing out to meet them the thought 
came into Holden's mind to teach them a lesson. Call- 
ing to his old master, Parabaway, he selected and placed 
into his hands the finest and largest pieces of iron that 
he saw in the basket. Parabaway immediately began 
singing or chanting his praises, declaring what a good 
child Temit was ; or rather continued his laudation which 
he began as Temit appeared in the boat, and adding 
thanks for what this good child would give him. After 
this Holden called to Knute's master, and gave him a 
present nearly as good. Then he distributed to the 
others, dealing to each accordingly as their treatment of 
himself and his mates had been. Those to whom he gave 
but a small amount of the treasure of iron soon began to 
make loud complaints and beg for more. But he made 
them all be quiet until the distribution was over, then 
he spoke so that all could hear, and said, "I have now 
treated you as you treated me and my mates. Those 
that complain because I placed a small present in their 
hand must remember that they placed but a small bite of 
poi in my mouth when I was hungry.' 

These became very much concerned and said to him, 
"But we did not know that. Let Temit return with us 
and stay until another ship comes this way, and we will 



REMINISCENCES. 215 

place much poi in his mouth.' But Holden said that he 
could not return to them ; he must now go to his own 
home ; but let them provide for any other sailors that 
were cast away among them from the sea. 

Speaking of this eventful day, Mr. Holden says that 
it was the hardest of his life, requiring him to oppose, 
with all his determination, those in whose power he was, 
first the affrighted natives, and then a very dense and 
conservative British captain, who cared much more for 
the safety of his ship than for rescuing Yankee castaways 
(or perhaps runaways) or in teaching moral lessons. 

But the day's work, as he designed it, and thought it 
ought to be accomplished, was done. He was rescued ; 
his mate Knute was also saved, being found in the 
second canoe, following Parabaway's, though in an 
almost unconscious condition, and stowed away in the 
center of the canoe in the sort of box formed by seats 
and side planks. The promised treasure was given the 
natives for returning him to the ship, and the lesson 
taught that human life was of more value than old iron 
or nails in a castaway boat. Holden bade the islanders 
goodbye, who went off singing his praises, and he said 
"Nang England," I go to England. 

RETURN TO AMERICA AND THE FATE OF THE OTHERS.* 

The breeze was now well up and the Britannia, Cap- 
tain Short's vessel, set sail and squared away for China. 
After eighteen days reached Lateen, in the lower harbor 
below Nankeen, and there met an American, Captain 
McComber, who was anchored in the roadstead with a 
receiving ship to collect cargo for other vessels. By 
McComber, a Boston man, he was told Captain Sommes' 
excuse for leaving the nine Americans at Tobey ; first, 
that he was on short allowance, and his crew was muti- 



216 HORACE HOLDEN. 

nous ; and, second, that it would have detained him 
twenty-four hours one hour would have been an ample 
allowance. 

From the Britannia the two Americans were trans- 
ferred to the Morrison, an American bark under com- 
mand of Captain Lavender, of New York. The voyage 
to America was made without accident, and at New 
York, although Holden had no money, he was forwarded 
to Boston by the aid of friends, reaching his home city 
in 1835. 

Here he wrote and published a narrative of his adven- 
tures, two copies only, so far as known, being now ex- 
tant. He felt it his duty to see that the hostages on the 
island of Pelew were released, so he published a small 
edition of his book in order to obtain funds to visit 
Washington City and make the proper representations 
there. At the capital he visited the Secretary of the 
Navy, Levi Woodbury, of New Hampshire, and found 
upon examining the records that two and a half years 
previously the man-of-war Vincennes had been ordered, 
for a part of her three years' cruise in the Pacific, to 
visit Pelew, and also Tobey ; and the news was just 
brought that this vessel was now at Norfolk, just re- 
turned. Two of the hostages, Medor and Davis, were 
brought home on the Vincennes, the other, a boy, hav- 
ing escaped. The Pelew chief was also returned to his 
island home from Tobey. 

Mr. Holden was married in Boston, and in 1837, with 
his wife and infant son returned to the Pacific, making a 
home on the Hawaiian Islands, attempting the culture of 
silk, but later going into sugar raising. In 1844 he de- 
cided to come to Oregon, to help make this an American, 
rather than a British, country. He was very loyal to the 
stars and stripes, his wife being perhaps the first to make 
an American flag, which, for the Fourth of July celebra- 



REMINISCENCES. 217 

tion in 1847, he ran up on a pole in front of his house, 
and with Doctor Wilson, who came with his wife in an ox 
cart, and with John Minto, J. S. Smith, and other neigh- 
bors properly observed the day. 

Mr. Holden's place was a few miles north of Salem, 
on the Willamette bottoms, but not next to the river. 
Here he raised apples, and for nearly fifty years followed 
the noble art of horticulture. He has three sons 
Horace lives at Tillamook City, Eugene at Wardner, 
Idaho, and Theodore in New Jersey. His daughters are, 
deceased Ellen died at Hilo, Hawaii, and Isabell at 
Petaluma, California. Mr. Holden lives at Salem, near 
the bank of the Willamette, and although ninety-one 
years of age is of sound memory, good voice, and hear- 
ing and but little impaired. He was first married in 
Boston to Mary Miller, who died at Honolulu, and a 
second time to Harriet J. Darling, who died at Salem in 
1888, June 14. 

(Corrected by Horace Holden.) 

H. S. LYMAN. 



VOLUME III.] 



SEPTEMBER, 19O2 



[NUMBER 3 



THE QUARTERLY 



OF THE 



OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



THE PIONEER ERA OF DOMESTIC SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 



The materials of history are not yet ripe enough to give 
us authentic data of the very first introduction of domes- 
ticated sheep into Oregon, and will not be perhaps until 
the historical gleaner is admitted to the records of the 
Hudson Bay Company, the rule of which was superseded 
over the valley of the Columbia River between 1840 and 
1843, by the pioneer American home builders. 

The earliest mention of sheep in Oregon is by John 
Ball, who came with N. J. Wyeth in 1832, and who be- 
came the first school-teacher by instruction of a dozen 
boys, sons of officers of the Hudson Bay Company. In 
the winter of 1832-33, in a letter to his parents, dated 
Vancouver, February 23, 1833, Mr. Ball says: "This is 
a post of the Hudson Bay Company, which extends its 
trade in furs from Canada to this place. Here they have 
extensive farming operations, raise wheat, corn, pease, 
potatoes, * * * and have cattle, sheep and hogs.' In 
a letter to the writer, Dr. W. F. Tolmie mentions that 



220 JOHN MINTO. 

"by the use of sheep and rape the late Daniel Harvey 
was in the early 30's producing better crops of wheat 
from the company's farm on Mill Plain than I now 
(1880) see the American farmers getting.' 

The next record of sheep in Oregon is in Bancroft's Ore- 
gon, Vol. I, p. 338, quoting Wilkes for the fact of sheep 
being at the Waiilatpu Mission in 1841, having been 
obtained from the Hawaiian Islands. On page 346 the 
same historian tells us the Nez Perces, in 1842, owned 32 
neat cattle, 10 sheep and 40 hogs, and that the Cayuses 
had 70 head of cattle, mostly cows, and also a few "sheep 
earned by herding the flock belonging to the mission.' 

This, doubtless, was the result of the Whitman mission 
policy of teaching the natives spinning and weaving, and 
we have good reason for believing Dr. Whitman was 
very anxious to have the United States add sheep to the 
medium of purchase of the native right to the soil, as one 
of the best agencies of civilization. The savage massacre, 
which destroyed this heroic man and all his plans, wiped 
out all connection between them and the American home 
builders, then confined to western Oregon, and we have 
no evidence that any sheep were in western Oregon, ex- 
cept at Vancouver, prior to the second cattle drive from 
California in 1842-43, when Jacob P. Lease, an American 
settler in California, yielding to the advice of Capt. 
Joseph Gale and his associates, started his flock of 900 
head in the wake of Gale's drive of 1,250 head of cattle 
and 600 head of horses and mules to sell to the Oregon 
settlers. 

According to Hon. J. W. Nesmith, who spent the win- 
ter of 1843 with Captain Gale, there were 3,000 sheep in 
this drive, 2,000 of which we may reasonably believe 
were for the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, formed 
by officers of the Hudson Bay Company as means of 
stocking the country from the Sound southward to the 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 221 

north bank of the Columbia, which most of them hoped 
to fall to Great Britain on the settlement of the Oregon 
boundary question. Bancroft mentions 2,000 sheep be- 
ing brought overland from California about this date 
by the Hudson Bay Company, indefinitely, but, as we 
know Dr. W. F. Tolmie was placed at Fort Nesqually 
about the time of their arrival, the supposition is reason- 
ably probable that Wm. Glen Rae, the officer in charge 
of the Hudson Bay Company's station in California and 
son-in-law of Doctor McLoughlin, bought 2,000 or more 
sheep and furnished men to drive them in company with 
Mr. Lease, under Captain Gale's leadership, the result of 
which was to end cattle monopoly in Oregon, which the 
first cattle drive in 1836-37 can hardly be said to have 
done. There was good reason for this being done quietly 
by the gentlemen forming the Puget Sound Agricultural 
Association. That they were playing for empire was no 
secret, but they did not trumpet their plans and objects. 
Captain Gale's movement reached the Willamette settle- 
ment in seventy-five days from California, the sheep in 
the rear of the horses and cattle. The writer was in- 
formed by one of the drivers that "though they had but 
seven guns, they fought Indians nearly every day till 
they crossed Rogue River;' that "though they lost 200 
[20?] head at the crossing of Klamath River, the increase 
on the way more than made up all losses and caused them 
to use from 4 to 8 pack horses to carry forward young 
lambs.' The sheep were as low in quality as they could 
well be, light of body and bone, coarse and light of 
fleece, of all colors of white, black, ring-streaked and 
grizzled, having in an eminent degree the tenacity of life 
common to all scrub stock, and giving their increase at 
all seasons, though mostly in spring. They responded 
quickly to any cross for improvement, especially toward 
the Merino blood. 



222 JOHN MINTO. 

In 1844 the first sheep were brought across the plains 
from Missouri by Joshua Shaw and son. They were for 
meat on the way, should the need arise, and soon fell into 
the daily movement with the loose cattle, occasioning 
little trouble, but gave profit and consideration to the fam- 
ily after their arrival in Oregon . 

In 1847 sheep husbandry in Oregon received very im- 
portant accessions. A Mr. Fields brought a flock, which, 
as all-purpose sheep, have never yet been surpassed, if 
equaled, in Oregon. He, however, and his wife, were 
both stricken with measles as they arrived, and died 
without attaining domicile. His estate was administered 
upon by Daniel Waldo, who wisely sold the sheep in 
small lots, and they thus became the foundation of many 
flocks. A Mr. Headerick, William Turpin, and Johnson 
Mulkey each brought a flock. E. Patton also brought a 
large flock, settling in Yamhill County, and Mulkey in 
Benton, so that this important pastoral interest spread 
widely over the valley. 

In 1848 Joseph Watt who crossed the plains in 1844 
and went back in 1846 returned to Oregon with his 
father's family, bringing 330 head of sheep, some of 
them Saxon and some of Spanish Merino blood j 1 and the 
machinery of a carding mill, this latter attracting even 
more attention than the sheep, which latter were now 
attracting less of public notice as this year began by 
calling many men to the fighting field against the In- 
dians who had committed the Whitman massacre. This 
was followed soon by the discovery of gold in California, 
the rush to which and feverish labor and exposure there 
were more destructive to life than wars w^ith the natives. 
It stopped home building development for a time, put 

1 The Rev. M. Fackler, an Episcopalian minister, as a means of making him- 
self useful, drove the combined flocks of 1817 most of the way. Mrs, Werner 
Breyman, now or Salem, drove the Watt flock in 1848. 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 223 

sheep on the market at $5.00 to $6.00 per head, but soon 
began to take all that was fit for mutton for driving over- 
land for food for the miners and others. This very soon 
took from Oregon many more and better sheep than had 
originally been received from California. The writer, 
who started with a small lot in 1849, sold his wethers to 
go to California in 1850 at $5.00 per head, but readily 
sold ewe lambs to his neighbors in 1853 at $12 per head, 
and refused an offer of $15 per head for lambs by a Cal- 
ifornia buyer. Production had been neglected by so 
many who had been to the mines and got a little gold 
that food of all kinds was for a time at almost panic 
prices wheat $6.00 per bushel at Salem ; mutton sheep 
$16 per head in Portland. This affected all business and 
called reflecting men back to tlie land. In 1851 Hiram 
Smith brought three thoroughbred Merino rams from 
Ohio, hoping to initiate a trade, but it was too early and 
he turned to the importation of mules instead. 

In 1854 Dr. W. F. Tolmie began to sell off the sheep 
of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, and after 
disposing of all he could north of the Columbia River 
brought 1,500 and sold them in Marion County. They 
were of the California importation of 1842, improved by 
such importations of British breeds as the doctor could 
induce the company, whose agent he was, to buy. Some 
good Leicesters and Southdowns and indifferent Merinos 
were used with great benefit, but the sheep had been low 
kept and were affected with scab, and for that reason 
were a bad bargain to all purchasers, as little was known 
of that disease in Oregon at that time. 

In 1857 Martin Jesse, of Yamhill County, Oregon, 
returning from California gold mines, heard the call for 
a sheep sale from the deck of a ship at San Francisco. 
He found on inquiry that the stock were thoroughbred 
Merinos from the Camden Park flock of the Macarthur 



224 JOHN MINTO. 

Bros, of New South Wales, descended from the Kew 
flock of King George III of England, which were drawn 
from the Neggretti flocks of the Marchioness del Campo 
di Alange, by royal grant of the King of Spain, who only 
could permit exportation, for which courtesy the English 
King thanked the noble lady by a present of eight splen- 
did English coach horses. 2 The start of Macarthur's 
Australian Merinos were those drawn from the English 
King's flock and imported into New South Wales in 1804 
by Capt. John Macarthur, founder of the Camden Park 
flock and father of the firm of brothers who sold the 
sheep, herein mentioned, to J. H. Williams, United 
States Consul at Sydney, N. S. W., for shipment to Cali- 
fornia in March, 1857. The ship had been driven out 
of her course and both food and water for the sheep 
scarce. The latter had been given at last out of bottles 
and the sheep saved were saved by that means. Mr. 
Jesse purchased 20 head of them and transferred them 
to the ship he had engaged his passage to Portland on. 
Thus were brought the means of reproduction of the 
golden fleece to Oregon. They could not be watered on 
the ship, but by drinking out of a bottle until they were 
landed on the farm of Coffin & Thompson of Dayton, 
Oregon. 

In 1858 R. C. Geer, of Marion County, had imported 
Southdowns direct from England. In 1860 Hon. Ben- 
jamin Stark, United States Senator for Oregon, sent a 
fine Cotswold to Oregon, and a little later John Cogs- 
well, of Lane County, imported New Oxfordshire and 
Hampshire Downs. Early in this year Messrs. Jones & 
Rockwell imported and sold in Western Oregon 45 head 



2 The writer has verified copies of the certificates given by the Macarthur Bros, 
to Consul Williams, which, together with the history of the attainment of their 
progenitors, constitutes the only pedigree known to be extant tracing to a partic- 
lar Spanish flock. 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 225 

of thoroughbred Merinos, mostly of the Spanish type, 
so improved by Vermont breeders as to justify naming 
them American Merinos, which they at this time began 
to do. Flocks and herds had so accumulated in 1860 
and the wild grasses had so given way, that without 
reserved pastures or other winter feed little beef or 
mutton could be found in good condition for market in 
early spring. The wool product, at first selling high, 
had declined for lack of a market, there being from 1853 
to 1858 only one buyer in Portland for export, whose uni- 
form price was ten cents per pound. It traded among 
farmers for stocking yarn and flock beds at twenty-five 
cents per pound, and some house manufacture began 
even before 1854 in the outside settlements. The writer 
went to San Francisco in 1856 dressed entirely in clothes 
of his wife's make from the fleece. Returning home in 
April he found Joseph Watt of Amity well advanced 
towards an organization of wool growing farmers for 
building a woolen factory at Salem. 

From the pen of L. E. Pratt, who gave his assistance 
to securing the proper machinery and threw his personal 
fortune into the project by coming from Massachusetts to 
set it up, we have an excellent manuscript history of the 
inception, early struggles against high rates of interest, 
frontier and commercial conditions to success, change of 
ownership, bad management, business wreck and mys- 
terious destruction by fire of this pioneer factory. For 
the writer's purpose it is sufficient to say here that it was 
a wool-growers' enterprise, started by Joseph Watt, one 
of the leading pioneer flock owners, joined by a few men 
looking to public life in the community, and " it was in- 
corporated in 1856 with Hon. Geo. H. Williams as presi- 
dent ; Alfred Stanton, vice president; Joseph Watt, W. 
H. Rector, Joseph Holman, E. M.Barnum, L. F. Grover, 



226 JOHN MINTO. 

directors; Joseph G. Wilson, secretary, and John D. 
Boone, treasurer.' 

On Mr. Watt (who was more a carpenter than farmer) 
was devolved the construction of the building and the 
supervision of construction of the canal from the Santiam 
River into the channel of Mill Creek, as an abundant and 
constant water power, which has since been used by other 
and important interests in Salem. It would be amazing, 
were it not a serious beginning of so important an enter- 
prise, to learn that when W. H. Rector was sent East to 
order the machinery and secure a competent man to set it 
up his first order was for $12, 000 worth of machinery for 
which he had $2,500 and his face to pay. It was re- 
ported of him at the time that in answer to the aston- 
ished looks of the manufacturers, when he told them the 
amount of cash he had with him, he said : "Look in my 
face, gentlemen. If you can not trust me when I say 
you shall have your pay, my trip is a failure.' "Uncle 
Billy' ' got the machinery with the aid of his chosen man- 
ager, then with him. Mr. Rector's friend and neighbor, 
Daniel Waldo, a stock-raising farmer, proved the chief 
financial support of the enterprise while starting, main- 
taining his trust in it till being wrecked by mismanage- 
ment he proved the chief loser. 

The year of 1860 may be said to end the pioneer period 
of the domestic stock interests of Oregon, especially of 
sheep husbandry. In addition to the imported improved 
sheep already mentioned, A. McKinley had retired from 
the Hudson Bay Company and brought with him as a 
settler in Marion County some of the latest imported 
South Downs and New Leicestershires of the Puget Sound 
Agricultural Company. 

Visiting and examining the first Merinos brought to 
Salem by Messrs. Jones and Rockwell, I turned away un- 
believing on the latter's answer to my question of weight 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 227 

of annual fleece yield from these sheep to me small com- 
pared to the Field's stock I had been breeding for ten 
years with comparative success, so I turned to history for 
light, as to the value of the breed for wool production. 
By this means I was broadened out much as a man and 
very ready in November of the same year to entertain the 
offer of Joseph Holman to sell me at cost the undivided 
half of ten head .of thoroughbred Merino sheep for $512, 
consisting of one French Merino ram and one ewe of the 
same blood, 2 ewes of Spanish Merino type as improved 
by Vermont breeders, and 6 ewes, part of the descend- 
ants from the Macarthur's Australian Merinos, brought to 
Oregon by Martin Jesse as herein related. Messrs. J. L. 
Parrish and Joseph Holman were the first 'purchasers of 
ewes from both the Martin Jesse importation of Mac- 
arthur's Australian Merinos and of the Jones & Rockwell 
importation from Vermont. The following are copies of 
my agreement with Mr. Holman and of the certificates 
which came into my possession thereby. I interbred to 
American Merinos all the Australian ewes of the Holman 
and Parrish purchase for two years after coming into 
ownership of the certificates : 

SALEM, Marion County, Oregon, Nov. 29, 1860. 

Be it known to all men, that we, Joseph Holman and John Minto, 
have this day become joint owners of a lot of ten head of Merino 
sheep, consisting of one ram and nine ewes; and that we agree to 
remain joint owners of the same until November the 29th, 1864, under 
the following agreement, to wit : The sheep are to be left in the care 
of said John Minto, who, on his part, agrees to take care of the same 
according to his best skill and judgment, to keep a correct account of 
all sales made from said sheep or their increase, and pay to said Hol- 
man one half of the amount of such sales. 

The said Joseph Holman on his part agrees to pay said Minto at 
the rate of $10 per head per annum for keeping his half of said sheep 
and their increase after they are one year old; provided, that if said 
sheep shall yield more than twenty-five per cent profit, he shall pay 

said Minto at the rate of $12 per head. 

JOSEPH HOLMAN. 
JOHN MINTO. 



228 JOHN MINTO. 

COPY OF A CERTIFICATE OF FINE WOOL SHEEP. 

We hereby certify that the 250 thoroughbred Merino ewes, 28 
thoroughbred Merino bucks, sold by us to J. H. Williams, Esq., Consul 
of the United States at Sydney, for shipment to California, were bred 
by us on this estate, being descendants in a direct line from the Merino 
sheep imported in 1804-5 by our father, the late John Macarthur, Esq., 
and by him selected from the Royal Kew flock, obtained from the 
Spanish Government by his majesty, the late King George III. 

There has been no intermixture of any but undoubted Merino 
blood in the Camden Park flock. We have crossed only with rams of 
Merino race derived from the French Imperial flock of Rambouillet. 
Neither the sheep now sold by us nor the flock from which they are 
taken have ever had scab, catarrh, or any other infections. 

A first-class medal was awarded to us for the wool of this flock 
exhibited at Paris Industrial Exhibition of all nations in 1855, in ref- 
erence to which the following passage is extracted from a letter from 
Sir William Macarthur to James Macarthur, dated Paris, 12th August, 
1855: "Of the samples exhibited of the wool of our thoroughbred 
Merino flock, taken from about 150 fleeces of the shearing of 1853, the 
jurors said in my presence that they were free from the defect often 
found in Australian wool of hollowness or spongeness of fibre, and com- 
bine in a remarkable degree all the most valuable qualities which dis- 
tinguish German and Australian wools, preserving the true old Merino 
type in the greatest beauty." 

The sheep are branded in the right cheek with the letter "M," 
which runs into a " U," the mark of our thoroughbred flock ; they have 
also a pitch brand on the outside of the fleece upon the weathers of " J. " 
Signed: JAS. W. MACARTHUR. 

Camden Park, N. S. Wales, 28th April, 1857. 

To certify that we have this day sold to J. H. Williams, Esq., con- 
sul at Sydney for the United States, six thoroughbred Merino rams, in 
addition to the [twenty?] eight included in our certificate of the 28th 
instant. The pedigree and other remarks in that certificate apply 
equally to the six rams now sold, which had been reserved for our own 
use, and are considered to be very choice animals. 

Signed: J. W. MACARTHUR. 

Camden Park, N. S. Wales, 30th April, 1857. 



SAN FRANCISCO, 29th July, 1857. 

This is to certify that the above are the true copies of the original 
certificates. 

J. W. MACONDREY. 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 229 

DAYTON, Yamhill County, March 10th, 1860. 

This is to certify that Messrs. J. L. Parrish and Joseph Holman, 
of Salem, have this day bought of us (8) eight thoroughbred Merino 
ewes, part and descendants of the original flock spoken of in the above 

certificates. 

J. G. THOMPSON and 

P. M. COFFIN, 

Dayton, Oregon. 

COPY. 
We have this day sold to Messrs. J. L. Parrish and Joseph Holman : 

I860. 

March 311 French buck, $500 $ 500 00 

4 breeding ewes, $275 each 1,100 00 

2 ewes, young and not in lamb 100 00 



$1,700 00 

Received payment in cash and notes. 

J. R. JONES and 

S. B. ROCKWELL. 

This certifies that Messrs. Holman and Parrish of Salem, Oregon, 
have this day purchased of us one French buck, "Revenue," which 
was our first choice in all that lot of bucks, and also two French Merino 
ewes and four American Merino ewes. 

These sheep are thoroughbred and raised in Addison County, Vt., 
and imported by us direct from Vermont to this state in January and 
February last. 

The French Merinos are the largest fine-wooled sheep in the world. 
The American capable of producing the most wool from a given area 
of land. Both of these varieties are highly prized in Vermont, where 
sheep breeding is carried to greater perfection than in any other part 
of the world. While we readily grant that the Saxon sheep have wool 
of a little finer texture, yet we claim that our French and American 
Merinos shear annually more than double the quantity of the Saxons. 
The wool is unsurpassed in its felting properties and makes a cloth 
suited to the wants of nine tenths of the masses. A cross of the bucks 
with the common sheep of Oregon will, we believe, add about two 
pounds extra to the lambs and double the price of it in market. 

R. J. JONES and 
S. B. ROCKWELL. 



230 JOHN MINTO. 

THE ERA OF EXPANSION OF SHEEP HUSBANDRY FROM 
THE CASCADES TO THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 

In the autumn of 1861 Joseph Watt, R. P. Boise, and 
Lucien Heath associated themselves together in the en- 
terprise of sending 4,500 head of sheep into the Yakima 
country, east of the Cascades. It was a world of rich 

/ ' 

grass, in the condition of sun-made hay. There was no 
provision for winter feed. Late in December a snowfall 
covered all of the Columbia Vallev. The weather set in 

/ 

clear and cold and gave fourteen weeks continuous sleigh- 
ing at Salem in Western Oregon. East and north all 
weather conditions were more severe, which made the 
season the most destructive to live stock known to the 
white race of men on this coast. This first sheep ven- 
ture east of the Cascades was represented by 45 living 
skeletons in March, 1862. It crippled Mr. Watt finan- 
cially, but did not shake his faith in the upper Columbia 
Valley as a grand pastoral region. Mr. Heath, who had 
been very sanguine of large and certain profits, said : "I 
will never own another sheep as an investment.' Cattle 
and horses had been colonized from west to east of the 
Cascades, and these, also, were almost a total loss, except 
in the lake region of Southeastern Oregon. This longest 
snow-lay had been preceded by floods in Western Oregon, 
and some loss of sheep had occurred by drowning on the 
Willamette bottom lands. This unusual season had no 
apparent deterrent effect on the movement to Eastern 
Oregon and Washington. Horses, cattle, and sheep were 
taken without attempts to provide winter feed in the case 
of the two former, and generally very inadequate efforts 
in the latter. The ranges were wide and mixture of 
flocks on them was very rare. Herding as a business 
had to be learned by most Americans, and general man- 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 231 

agement was also much a matter of experiment. Some 
owners sent to Scotland for shepherds and their collies ; 
but to them the conditions were so new and wild at- 
tempts to herd thousands in a band, where the herds- 
man had been trained to hundreds ; he lived alone and 
did his own cooking, not seeing his owner more than 
once in two weeks, and sometimes not for the entire 
summer season ; these imported herdsmen did not satisfy 
themselves nor their employers. The passage of the 
homestead law attracted the attention of squatters and 
others in Australia, and an immigration from there of 
practical sheep keepers set in, which was not entirely 
stopped by Australian lawmakers trying to better the 
land laws of the United States. These Australians took 
hold of the range situation much more readily than the 
Scotch, and some of them became, for a time at least, 
fairly successful flock masters ; but were notably more 
harsh to their employees than Americans, and often 
themselves seemed to fall victims to the drink habit. In 
the end Americans made the best success, both as herd- 
ers and flock masters. Not rarely a young man starting 
as herder ended as a wealthy sheep and land owning 
banker. Among these were sons of Oregon pioneer fam- 
ilies and frontiersmen who had never handled sheep 
before. It seemed to make little difference where the 
man started from, or what his previous occupation or 
condition had been. The field was so inviting that men 
who proved to have no vocation for it entered it. Farms 
were sold or mortgaged west of the Cascade range, and 
the value lost in a few years in the range country, chiefly 
because of inadequate provision for winter feeding. In 
no case within the writer's knowledge was there failure 
where adequate winter feed was kept ready for a possible 
bad season. Thus it was that, though the range was 
strewn with business failures, development went on and 



232 JOHN MINTO. 

men succeeded where others failed. Choice sheep camps 
became the sites of towns and cities, and favorite lamb- 
ing grounds became rich grain farms. Dufur, Antelope, 
Arlington, Condon, Fossil, Heppner, Maysville, Moro, 
Adams, and many other towns are illustrations of this. 
Arlington began as a public shearing corral, the wool 
being taken from the bank of the river by passing steam- 
boats. The means of crossing the common sheep towards 
the merino was at first derived from the few pioneer 
breeders in Western Oregon. The common or coarse 
wooled sheep were mainly supplied from Western Ore- 
gon, though some were driven in by both sides of the 
Cascade range as a result of heat and drouth in Cali- 
fornia in 1864, whence starving flocks were driven from 
the parched plains to the mountains, and across them to 
Oregon, Nevada, Washington, Idaho, and Utah. In 1866 
a countermovement of stock sheep took place, and some 
hundred thousand head were taken from Western Oregon 
to California to restock pastures in that state. The toll 
gate keeper in South Umpqua Canyon reported passage 
of 80,000 head southward that season, and considerable 
numbers were driven up the middle fork of the Wil- 
lamette and across the lake region of Southeastern Oregon 
to Pit River Valley, and thence across the Sierra Nevada 
to the plains of California. During these years of the 
early 60 's sheep pastures were curtailed in favor of wheat 
growing in Western Oregon, and this added to the rap- 
idly increasing flocks east of the Cascades in Oregon by 
colonizing, whence they were spread northward, east, 
and southeast, into Washington, Montana, Idaho, and 
Utah, and later to the Dakotas and Wyoming as stock 
sheep; and to Lincoln, Neb., and on to Chicago as mutton 
sheep. Hundreds of thousands of Oregon bred sheep 
have been trailed through the dryest and highest, least 
settled country, between Eastern Oregon and the corn 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 233 

bearing lands of Nebraska. The mutton sheep trail in 
this direction kept as near as possible to the old Oregon 
trail over which the first sheep were driven west in 1844, 
until the close of the century, when local settlements and 
locally ow^ned sheep and other stock, and especially lo- 
cally owned watering places, so intervened that shipping 
by railroad had become the prevailing practice as most 
economical in 1892, and "trailing sheep" has fallen or is 
now falling into past methods. 3 Up to 1890 stock sheep 
from Eastern Oregon were purchased and driven on foot 
to the ranges of Eastern Washington, Idaho, Montana, 
and mutton sheep reached Chicago via the feeding farms 
of Nebraska, Kansas, and Iowa ; but by 1892 buyers for 
North and South Dakota generally preferred to ship by 
rail. 

The history of the occupation and development of Du- 
fur and Heppner will indicate the general growth of well- 
watered sheep camps to towns and cities, and centers of 
wheat growing. The Dufur family, after some years con- 
ducting a dairy farm near Portland, concluded to change 
to sheep husbandry in the early '70s. They purchased 

3 There is probably no fiercer tirade against range sheep husbandry in the 
English language than that of the committee of the National Academy of Science, 
asked for by Hon. Hoke Smith at the suggestion of the executive committee of 
the American Forestry Association, in order to secure the counsel of this learned 
body as to an administrative policy over the forest covered portion of the public 
domain as secretary of the interior. Sheep were "hoofed locusts, leaving desola- 
tion and ruin on the grass lands and destroying the forests," driven by "nomads 
and marauders." The epithets used are the worn coin of the half insane but 
charming Carlylian writer on mountains and forests, John Muir. Much bitter- 
ness, doubtless, was caused by sheep trailers as they passed through; sometimes 
it was in resentment for extortion for water and feed purchased. The laws of 
Spain under the rule of her grandee and clergy, who were the chief owners of the 
fine wooled flocks, provided by law wide roads for their migration; but this body 
of highly respected men, who it may be said are our only grandees, made no sug- 
gestions for the benefit of this important industrial interest. In many localities 
of our State the annual movement of sheep to and from the mountain ranges 
causes serious injury to the wheat farmer and homestead settler. This is at pres- 
ent tending to induce our best flock owners to purchase their summer ranges as 
near as possible to their winter homes, and is bringing into the public service as 
lawmakers practical men like Hons. J. N. Williamson and Thomas H. Tongue, 
Douglas Belts, and others. 



234 JOHN MINTO. 

from Joseph Beezley, a resident of The Dalles, about 1870, 
a homestead sheep ranch on a small mill stream there, 
called "Fifteen-Mile" (estimated that distance from The 
Dalles). They moved onto this farm and starting with 
a moderate flock began, by irrigation, to farm for the 
winter care of their sheep. Excepting a few acres under 
fence at Four-Mile and Eight-Mile, watering places, no 
fences existed between The Dalles and the Dufur farm at 
that date. They enlarged their crops as their flocks in- 
creased, and were the first to purchase swamp lands near 
the base of Mt. Hood for summer range for their flocks. 4 
From first a house of entertainment for settlers locating 
further south, and next a blacksmith shop, gristmill, 
and post office, the seeds of a rural town were planted 
and rapidly grew, until the lands around and beyond from 
The Dalles were occupied, first for grazing, then for 
wheat growing. Within about ten years a corporate 
town had grown, supported largely by stock-raising fam- 
ilies, who builded for winter residence and winter school 
facilities. The district now produces about 1,000,000 
bushels of wheat. Heppner was planted by a young un- 
married Englishman, who brought capital to buy a flock 
of sheep and the small gristmill there, erected by a 
Frenchman ; he took the cream of the beautiful grazing 
lands near and sold out to a grain-raising compatriot from 
North Britain, who made flour and mill feed his chief 



4 They were also among the first to breed thoroughbred Merinos as range sheep 
for improvement of their own and neighbors' flocks, taking a colony of the 
writer's flock on shares about the date of Doctor Baldwin's locating at Hay Creek. 
This did not interfere with my taking my surplus bred in the Willamette Valley 
to districts further east and south. For twenty-five years after buyers ceased 
coming to me at Salem I did a moderate but very interesting business as sheep 
merchant on Lower John Day and its tributaries, Rock Creek and Thirty-Mile, 
and from Heppner to Prinesville, near which I also had a colony in the hands of 
Hon. J. N. Williamson, who, however, from the time he was as well known in 
Crook County as I knew him as a youth at Salem, has been called to public duties 
by his fellow-citizens in too many ways to make a successful sheep breeder. To 
me the business was an instructive pleasure. 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 235 

staples. J. Graham Hewison, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
England, thus started with the best 3,000 ewes as a wool 
growing flock money could then buy in Eastern Oregon, 
and kept it to the highest standard natural conditions 
would permit, and sold out at a fair profit when the press- 
ure of population claimed his location for food produc- 
tion. His example was good for his day, except that it 
drew into the surrounding country other young British- 
ers with capital sufficient to buy a flock of sheep, and 
who. caring for neither citizenship nor land ownership, 
flourished for a season as grazing freebooters, sometimes 
impudently gleaning the grass of the American home- 
stead settler up to their fences under circumstances which 
justified the latter's resentment and resistance to the im- 
minent danger of both the property and the persons of 
these grazing scavengers. Indeed, it is safe to say that 
during the years of expansion of sheep husbandry over 
the portion of Oregon west of the Blue Mountains, more 
lives have been taken and more property destroyed over 
range feuds, provoked by a marauding spirit, than by the 
racial wars with the natives; and even in the last disturb- 
ance of the latter kind in Oregon, most of the lives lost 
were believed to be in revenge for injuries received or 
fancied, by the Cayuse Indians in strife for grass in the 
Blue Mountains between the native owners of hirsels of 
ponies and herders of the flocks of the white men. More 
sheep herders were murdered on the pony ranges of the 
Cayuse tribe, under cover of the "Piute raid," than of all 
other classes of men, and no one acquainted with local 
conditions believed that the murder of Mr. Jewett (him- 
self a highly respected man and a leading flock master) 
was entirely clear of his line of business. 

In these contests the numbers and the apparent effects 
of the close feeding of sheep on the pasturage have often 



236 JOHN MINTO. 

arrayed against them and their owners, feelings of preju- 
dice not justified by ultimate results, and added bitter- 
ness to these separate lines of pastoral industries until in 
some localities slaughter of sheep, and even murder of 
herders, occurred which could not be punished under 
legal forms at the time and place of the action, because 
unbiased juries could not be formed. 

The writer speaks here from personal knowledge gath- 
ered from the herders in their camps just as the Piute 
raiders arrived near Pilot Rock. Knowing the defense- 
less condition of the Rock Creek settlers at the time the 
trouble with Joseph's band arose in the Wallowa coun- 
try, I secured twenty stand of needle guns from Governor 
Chadwick, for the Rock Creek settlement, and took charge 
of six repeating rifles to forward to sons and friends of 
Wm. J. Herren at Heppner, and leaving Salem on the 
night of the Fourth of July, on which date General How- 
ard's order appeared in The Oregonian, to the effect that 
the raiders would leave the Blue Mountains and cross the 
Columbia River between the mouth of the John Day and 
Walla Walla. Having sons and other kinsmen in that 
country, I got among the herders in the Blue Mountains 
on July 8, twenty miles southeast of Heppner, near Bur- 
ton's sheep camp, where Frank Maddock arrested a party 
of Umatilla Indians, and was giving the aid of ammu- 
nition and the comfort of my company at the very time 
the soldiers were throwing shells from Pilot Rock into the 
position they supposed the Indians to occupy. I reached 
Heppner that day and found the citizens had a rude fort 
completed and were awaiting the arrival of Thomas Ayers, 
who had been sent to Umatilla Landing for arms, but he 
returned that day with the report of failure, as the com- 
munity had received one hundred guns when Joseph's 
raid occurred. Next day at noon I met Messrs. Laiug 
and Varney, heavily armed, on their way to learn the 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 237 

fate of their herders and flocks on Butter Creek, from 
which point nothing had been heard at Heppner for some 
days. 

CONFLICTS FOR RANGE. 

Generally the cattle breeding interest preceded sheep 
keeping on the public lands of the range portion of the 
state, and opposed its extension, first, because cattle, 
being more able and more willing to defend their young 
against wild animals, could be left free to range at will 
among others, the chief trouble with their management 
being to find the calf as soon as possible after birth and 
brand it with the mark of ownership ; second, because, 
while left free to find fresh pasture, cattle would not stay 
on range soiled by the presence of sheep grazing ; and, 
third, if they did, until the district was overstocked, the 
larger animals would perish first for lack of food, so that 
the invasion of sheep into a cattle range greatly increased 
the labor of caring for cattle and greatly added to risk of 
loss by a severe winter ; and by thus being the cause of 
cattle scattering more and more over the wide range, 
increased the labor while diminishing the profits of rang- 
ing cattle over all of Eastern Oregon, except on the damp 
lands which margin the shallow lake beds of Southeast- 
ern Oregon, where the conditions of grass and water are 
much more favorable for cattle than for sheep. There 
were no rights in the question ; each party was gath- 
ering where it had not strewn. To these, what may 
be called natural causes of bitterness against the expan- 
sion of sheep husbandry in Oregon in common with all 
the range states, may be added the fact that the care of 
horses, cattle, and sheep, acts diversely on human char- 
acter. The tending to horses and cattle on the range is 
done on horseback. A few hundred head of them will 
scatter over hundreds of miles of country, intermixing 



238 JOHN MINTO. 

with the horses or herds of other owners. This brings 
owners and their employees to agree, upon set times, to 
co-operate in what are called "round-ups," that is, driving 
all stock of the same kind to a common center agreed 
upon, where each owner "cuts out' what he claims as 
his, and puts his brand on the young he finds for the 
first time. Of course there are large opportunities for 
mistakes, and for misappropriations, and with the most 
honest intentions contentions arise. The farther horses 
and cattle spread over a given range the greater the oppor- 
tunity for theft, and as the very occupation tends to reck- 
lessness it becomes a school for crime, of which the horse 
ranging interest will show the greatest proportion for the 
number employed and the cattle interest the next most 
numerous. It is not claimed that sheep owners and their 
employees are immaculate, but the occupation of a herder 
is that of a protector. It is supposed, and is generally 
true, that a good shepherd has his flock within his sight 
every waking hour. In truth and justice, however, it 
must be said that it was cattle raisers who first acted on 
the perception that the only way for any graziny interest to 
peaceful, progressive success is ownership or legal control of 
the land necessary to support the stock kept. Some of those 
who have most conspicuously succeeded secured their 
ample holdings under the swamp and overflowed land 
law passed by the Oregon legislature subsequent to a 
similar law enacted in California, from which the Oregon 
law was copied, and it was the Glens and Frenches, who 
were really citizens of California, who were among the 
chief beneficiaries of the Oregon law. 

The late John Devine grew very wealthy from cattle 
grazing in the Harney-Lake region, but he is understood 
to have been a citizen of Oregon and was a highly respected 
man. From the beginning of sheep keeping in Oregon 
as a range stock interest it was found well adapted to 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 239 

associated capital, but beyond such associations as may 
be effected by the members of one family, or a few friends 
with families, such associations are not popular with the 
people of Oregon, nor consistent with the pioneer pur- 
pose of filling an unoccupied country with industrious 
family life. The latest census reports indicate strongly 
that the effect of the large land ownership titles secured 
in the lake districts of Southeastern Oregon, by doubtful 
methods and almost entirely used for cattle, are proving 
disastrous to the counties containing them and seriously 
affect the growth of the state. 

The following is taken from the Rural Northwest for 
August 1, 1902 : 

i 

The fact that half a dozen powerful companies own nearly all the 
deeded and irrigated land in Harney County, is not only most disastrous 
to that county but seriously affects the growth of the state. The 
census shows that the area of irrigated land in Harney County in- 
creased from 26,289 in 1889, to 111,090 acres in 1899, but the number of 
irrigators decreased from 240 in 1889 to 228 in 1899. Harney County 
has the unfortunate distinction of being the only county in Oregon 
with fewer farmers in 1900 than in 1890. It is also unfortunate in 
showing that the total value of the crops of its 111,090 acres of irrigated 
land in 1899 was only $232,423, or a little over $2.00 per acre. Under 
ordinarily favorable conditions 40 acres of irrigated land, with out- 
lying range, will support a prosperous farmer, but if there were even 
a farmer to every 80 acres of irrigated land in Harney County, the 
number of irrigation farmers would be six times as large as it is, and 
Harney County's population would be three or four times as numerous 
as at present. 

Ten years ago the writer, examining the condition of 
sheep husbandry for the United States Department of 
Agriculture, wrote to the then representative of Harney 
County to learn if public sentiment would favor the prop- 
osition to sell the range lands to the people at ten cents 
per acre, or just enough to pay the national government 
the cost of attaining title, survey, record and issuing 
patent. The answer was in the negative ; fear of the rich 



240 JOHN MINTO. 

land grabber and regard for the poor stockman's inter- 
ests underlay the answer, but since then, increased con- 
fidence in the capacity of 40 acres of irrigated alfalfa land 
to produce hay sufficient to carry 3,000 head of the best 
grade of Merino sheep through an ordinary winter, there 
is no question but that the range portion of Oregon will 
soon have three times its present enumeration of families 
living in greater general comfort than was ever attain- 
able when one herder took charge of 3,000 head during 
five months of summer ranging, not seeing his owner or 
camp supplier oftener than once in two weeks, and some- 
times not once during the five months of May, June, July, 
August, and September. Every 40 acres, added to pres- 
ent alfalfa production, means an additional family home 
in the range portion of the state, and in some districts 
three or four, where, by fruit growing, 10 acres of irri- 
gated ground will support a family, and an addition of 
10 acres feed a family cow and a choice lot of 50 first- 
class Merino breeding sheep as means of sustaining range 
flocks up to the highest standard. 

This last prediction may seem to some readers a chi- 
mera of the brain, but the writer has his own practice in 
mind in keeping a flock of first-class Merinos within his 
home lot of less than 20 acres, 17 acres of which was in 
orchards, and he had no such resource for securing the 
best kind of feeding hay, as alfalfa land under irrigation 
gives. It is, I believe, the history of successful breeding 
of the first quality of domestic stock in any given line, 
that the highest results are attained under one directing 
mind. In 1892 the writer, in the service of the Bureau 
of Animal Industry, visited the breeding farm of Mr. 
Frank Bullard of Wheatland, Cal. He was and had been 
for some years confessedly in the lead of breeders of Me- 
rinos of Vermont type in California. His feed barn was 
in a 10-acre lot, containing at the time of my visit over 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 241 

60 head of young rams, the most inferior looking one in 
the lot being a high-priced yearling recently received from 
Vermont. The alfalfa fed Pacific Coast bred sheep, aver- 
aged larger and had better fleeces than their Vermont 
progenitors, because the plains of California are under a 
better growing climate than that of Vermont, though that 
was not perfect, because of excessive heat at times during 
summer. This same season I had seen the choice ram 
flock of the Baldwin Sheep and Land Company, who were 
at the time drawing their means of improvement from 
Mr. Bullard ; and again their stock appeared and I think 
were an improvement on his. Alfalfa was the basis feed 
in each case, but the Oregon bred sheep had the ideal 
sheep pastures on the slopes of the Blue Mountains to run 
on, and not a day in the year that was not stimulative to 
growth of flesh and wool fibre. 

I may appear to be writing inconsistently in claiming 
superiority for this company, but the foundation was laid 
by the individual, Doctor Baldwin, in 1873. In March, 
1882, he had not yet succeeded with alfalfa. His health 
was failing, but he had two strong assistants in the Van 
Houten Bros., who, knowing what was lacking, relieved 
the failing doctor by purchase and reorganized the busi- 
ness by taking in associates w T ith capital and energy. J. 
P. Van Houten is still the one to select the fundamental 
elements of success. President C. M. Cartwright is a 
cautious and shrewd judge of men and things, and it 
seems he is ready to spend freely to secure the best where- 
ever it may be found, in which policy he is ably sup- 
ported by J. G. Edwards. Whether in France or Ger- 
many, among the breeders of Rambouillets in Ohio, 
among the leading American Delaine Merino breeders, 
or at the Oregon State Fair, where their excellent flock 
manager, E. H. Dean, had instruction to purchase any 
sheep, showing points excelling what he had in his care. 



242 JOHN MINTO. 

This was the order of J. G. Edwards, treasurer, and shows 
enterprise worthy of his company. 

I have thus briefly touched the historical origin of what 
I am not alone in deeming the greatest Merino breeding 
station in the world at present. Fourteen thousand se- 
lected pure Merino ewes, giving opportunity to place an- 
nually to the service of flock owners 5,000 head of choice 
breeding sheep, and on the wool market 500,000 pounds 
of fine wool. The basic security for doing this is the 
annual harvest of 2,500 tons of alfalfa hay in addition to 
30,000 acres of carefully selected land for pasture and hay 
production. 

The representative of the American Sheep Breeders and 
Wool Growers, himself a Merino breeder in Ohio, was so 
impressed by the superior size of these Eastern Oregon 
bred sheep that he sent one back to Ohio as a specimen. 

In addition to this leading Merino breeding plant there 
are at least four others in Eastern Oregon which would 
be deemed large in any other state or country. Allan & 
LaFollett of Prineville have an annual output of rams 
for the trade of 1,000 to 1,200. As many are now mar- 
keted from Antelope. From Heppner E. F. Day has 
1,000 to 1,200, and A. Lindsay from 500 to 600 head. 
Charles Cunningham of Pendleton, who began breeding 
thoroughbred Merino in 1871, two years in advance of 
Doctor Baldwin, has, in addition to several large bands 
of stock sheep, over 8,000 thoroughbred ewes, and his 
sales of rams has for years past been upwards of 3,000 
annually, a record he will surpass the present season. 
His stock is mainly of the Rambouillet and Delaine 
types of Merino. This makes Mr. Cunningham the 
largest individual breeder and a pioneer in the business in 
Eastern Oregon, and swells the total output to the trade 
to more than 12,000, which, by the aid of middlemen, 
who make a business of it, disseminates this means of 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 243 

improvement from the east slopes of the Cascades to 
Central Kansas and from the Mexican line to that of 
Canada and beyond. The retail value of these 12,000 
sheep ranges from five to twenty times the value of mut- 
ton and stock sheep. 

On the uplands of the Willamette Valley high grade 
Merinos are the very best gleaners and assistance in grain 
farming ; but the climate of Western Oregon will permit 
under lowland Scotch methods of farming, the Down 
breeds of Middle Wools or the Lincolns, Cotswold or 
Leicesters of quality equal to the same breeds in Great 
Britain, and the general tendency is now towards those 
breeds. At the State Fair, closing as this is written, 
there were 157 Middle Wools, 113 Long Wools, and 70 
head of Merinos, and 47 Angora goats entered for prizes. 
Ten exhibitors of English breeds and those of Merinos. 
The Merinos and the Angoras are the frontier settler's 
profitable aid, and British breeds, with rape, clover and 
vetches are the intense farmer's profits, or means to that 
end. 

As stated in the first part of this paper, the writer in 
1860 became half owner of nine pure merino ewes, six 
of which were pure Macarthur Australians. The first 
ewe lamb sold was to his neighbor, T. L. Davidson'. In 
1862 Mr. Davidson purchased two more ewe lambs and 
one from Donald McLeod of Vermont type. The three 
purchased from me were of the first cross of the Vermont 
type of Spanish Merino with the Australian. Mr. David- 
son bred in the same direction, with the result that his 
flock classed as pure Spanish with finer wool than was 
then aimed for by Vermont breeders. He sent samples 
to the Centennial of 1876 and was awarded a first-class 
medal on the following report of the judges : "Some ex- 
cellent samples of fine Merino wool from the State of 



244 JOHN MINTO. 

Oregon, closely resembling Australian wools; giving evi- 
dence that the state can produce very valuable wool.' 

This is upon the quality of Merino wool grown in 
Western Oregon, not more than 180 feet above sea level, 
eighteen years after the introduction into the Willamette 
Valley of 20 head of Macarthur's Australian Merinos. 
This may be a fitting point to record the opinion of two 
acknowledged experts, not citizens of Oregon, yet serving 
as judges at Oregon's State Fair, just closed. N. H. 
Gentry, a prominent cattle breeder of Sedalia, Mo., vis- 
ited the fair and served as judge of beef cattle and swine. 
After praising the exhibits of both classes he said : 

I also saw some fine displays of sheep, and, judging by the re- 
markably healthy condition of the sheep I should say this must be a 
good country for sheep. The thrifty appearance of the wool and the 
good gloss it bore particularly attracted my attention. 

Mr. Gentry is, besides being prominent as a stock 
breeder, a member of the Louisiana Purchase Exhibi- 
tion Commission, and it is hoped he will revisit Oregon 
in 1905. 

Prof. W. L. Carlyle, of the Chair of Animal Industry 
at the University of Wisconsin, was judge of dairy cattle, 
draft horses and sheep at the last Oregon State Fair. In 
answer to questions of a reporter for the Oregonian, he 
said : 

The sheep exhibit was a complete surprise to me in its high qual- 
ity. I think that at none of the eastern state fairs will as good an 
exhibit of Cotswold sheep be found. The growth of wool was particu- 
larly fine, and demonstrated that this country, in so far as wool pro- 
duction is concerned, can not be excelled in the United States. Not a 
single poor sheep* was shown, though there were four large exhibits. 
The Shropshire breed was well represented, but the animals were not 
of such uniformly high character as the Cotswolds. The development 
of the lambs in this class was noteworthy, as it was in all others. This 
seems to indicate that Oregon should prove a very formidable rival of 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 245 

England in the future, and I can see no reason why eastern breeders 
should not get their exhibit stock from the Pacific Coast, instead of 
going to England for it. 

With the long, hard winters which we have to contend with in the 
middle west, it is very difficult to grow lambs and young sheep to the 
greatest perfection in the first year, and for this reason exhibitors 
import their show stock from England. So soon as Oregon breeders 
take hold of the matter as they should, I believe they can challenge 
the world in the production of high-class sheep. 

I do not know of a better flock of Dorset sheep on the continent 
than the flock of Mr. Scott of Menomone, and I think the best Shrop- 
shire lamb I have seen in years was exhibited by Mr. C. E. Ladd. I 
am taking some samples of wool from this flock to Wisconsin Univer- 
sity for exhibition purposes in the classroom, as I have never found its 
equal in length of staple and strength of fiber. 

This is in line with the prediction of Mr. Peale, the 
naturalist, who, as a member of Wilkes' Expedition, was 
in Oregon in 1842, and said : 

Oregon will be a fine sheep country, as for the health of sheep up- 
land pastures are necessary, and your even, moderate climate, permit- 
ting the fur-bearing animals to carry their fine furs throughout the 
year, will do the same for the wool of sheep. 

It also accords with results attained by leading breed- 
ers in both Western and Eastern Oregon. Dr. James 
Withycombe, now at the head of the Oregon Experiment 
Station, of English birth, has been a breeder of both 
Cots wold and Merino sheep, and believes with Professor 
Carlyle that Western Oregon can produce Cotswolds su- 
perior to England. 

THE INFLUENCE OF SHEEP HUSBANDRY ON HUMAN 

CHARACTER. 

There is another and still more important product of 
sheep husbandry than that breeding the best sheep. In- 
dependent manhood is doing much and enduring much as 
a pioneer of law order and thereby advancing the be- 



246 JOHN MINTO. 

ginnings of agriculture, commerce, and manufactures, 
over the waste places of our yet young state. I have in- 
dicated how the first woolen mill was started on the Pa- 
cific side by the pioneer wool-growing farmers and may 
fittingly close this paper by summarizing the transactions 
of the last meeting of the Oregon Wool Growers' Asso- 
ciation. 

It met at Pendleton, Oregon, on the sixteenth of Sep- 
tember, was welcomed by the mayor of the city, re- 
sponded to by Hon. J. N. Williamson in behalf of the 
association. It passed a series of resolutions in behalf of 
farmers, ranchmen, cattlemen, and a number of other in- 
dustries, particularly in the eastern part of the state, to 
the effect that the wool growers are receiving a benefit 
from the funds appropriated by the state for the purpose 
of paying a bounty on the destruction of coyotes and other 
predaceous animals far in excess of the amount paid out ; 
declares a great reduction of these destructive animals 
under the law passed by the last legislature, and thanks 
that body therefor, predicting a rapid decrease in the 
expense to the state from now on if the law be continued, 
for which it prays, pledging its efforts to secure a similar 
law in adjoining states. It speaks for legislative appro- 
priation of public money in assistance of the fair to be 
held in commemoration of the first exploration of the Pa- 
cific Northwest and pledges its assistance. 5 

It indorses the proposed national forest reserve on the 
Blue Mountains as having an undoubted tendency towards 
settling the untoward differences that now exist between 
those owning cattle on the one hand and sheep on the 
other, known as "the cattle and sheep war.' It pledges 



5 This association at its annual meeting in 1901 declared its purpose to bring 
assassins of sheep on the range, whether by poison or the rifle, to legal punish- 
ment, and as members have more than ordinary means of indentifying a mis- 
creant of this kind, it will be a long time before some of them are entirely safe. 



SHEEP HUSBANDRY. 247 

its co-operation with the plans of the government in 
making rules for grazing such portions of forest reserves 
as can be grazed not only without injury, but as experi- 
ence was proving while this body was in session, and 
voting from its limited funds, contribution in aid of suf- 
ferers by the death and destruction caused west of the Cas- 
cade range, mainly by brush fires of home builders. It 
sends its condolence and sympathy to these sufferers, con- 
demns the manufacture of and sale of shoddy cloth for 
that of sound wool, and speaks for a railroad rate of 
twenty-five miles per hour from Oregon shipping points 
to the great markets of Chicago, Omaha, and Kansas 
City. 6 Can the cattle interest show any such spirit? 

6 This body had at this meeting 119 members in good standing, owners of 
325,000 sheep, not quite one tenth of the sheep of the state, but ably representing 
its entire interests in its particular field. The interest, however, from the writer's 
point of view is in a transition state away from the range system and towards a 
settled permanency on all lands in Eastern Oregon not reachable by irrigation. 



By L. E. PRATT. 

About the year 1854 Mr. Joseph Watt, being at that 
time one of the largest sheep owners in the territory, and 
there being no market for the wool produced, Mr. Watt 
conceived the idea of manufacturing the wool into service- 
able goods to supply the pioneers. He first attempted 
to organize a company and locate the factory in Yamhill 
County (then his place of residence), but, failing to get 
satisfactory encouragement, he came to Marion County 
and here met with better encouragement, and by perse- 
verance succeeded in getting others interested and finally 
organized a joint stock company, which was duly incor- 
porated by an act of the territorial legislature in 1856. 
He commenced operations by constructing a canal from 
the Santiam Eiver, about one mile, to intersect with Mill 
Creek, (which was totally dry in the summer season,) 
which leads down through the prairie about 15 miles 
and intersects the Willamette at Salem, where the fac- 
tory was located, furnishing abundant water power for 
the factory and for other extended improvements. Mr. 
Joseph Watt was the originator and also the father of 
the wool producing and wool manufacturing industry of 
Oregon. The following is the history of the first woolen 
factory on the Pacific Coast, by the manager from 1857 
to 1863 : Its unfavorable and almost unsuccessful com- 
mencement Its final perfect success Its changing 
ownership and by the mismanagement of the new com- 
pany was burdened with debt and loss of credit Again 
changed ownership and was soon thereafter mysteriously 
destroyed by fire. 



HISTORY OF WILLAMETTE WOOLEN FACTORY. 249 

THE HISTORY. 

In the year 1856 the Willamette Woolen Manufactur- 
ing Company was organized and incorporated with Geo. 
H. Williams, president ; Alfred Stan ton, vice president ; 
Joseph Watt, W. H. Rector, Joseph Holman, E. M. Bar- 
num, L. F. Grover, directors ; Joseph D. Wilson, secre- 
tary, and John D. Boon, treasurer. 

In the autumn of this year Mr. W. H. Rector was 
chosen to proceed to the East to procure the machinery 
and to employ a competent man to go to Oregon to put 
in operation the machinery and to superintend the man- 
ufactory when in operation. Upon arriving in the East 
he chanced to meet a woolen manufacturer to whom he 
stated his business. Finding him free and communica- 
tive he asked his advice as to the course to pursue, which 
he freely gave as follows : In the first place secure your 
man, one who thoroughly understands every depart- 
ment and also capable of locating and drawing a plan 
of the building adapted to the machinery and water 
power, and finding such you will find all else easy. His 
adviser chanced to be my last employer, for whom I su- 
perintended for the last six years. He also recommended 
and advised him to secure my services if he could. I 
was also recommended by the machine builders in Mas- 
sachusetts, with most of whom I was well acquainted. 
He came to see me and in about twelve hours I had 
engaged to him to go to Oregon. The first thing re- 
quired was the plan of the building requisite for two 
sets of machinery, he giving me a verbal description of 
the location, fall of water, etc. The draft for a wood 
building completed was forwarded by mail in order to 
have the work on the building progressing. Then an 
itemized bill of the machinery and supplies was made 
out. This completed, I accompanied him to North An- 



250 L. E. PRATT. 

dover to Davis & Furber, woolen machinery builders, 
to procure the same. My surprise may be imagined upon 
hearing his proposition to Mr. Davis, having but $2,500 
to pay for $12,000 worth of machinery and to get credit 
for the balance. Mr. Davis qustioned Mr. Rector as to 
the respectability of the individual members of the com- 
pany. Then calling me to one side the following conver- 
sation passed : "Have you engaged to this man to go to 
Oregon?' I answered, "I have.' "Don't you think 
you are making a great mistake, as you will soon get 
into a good situation here at home?' I replied, "Busi- 
ness is very dull. We don't know how long it will last, 
and I have a desire to go West to see and know something 
of the country, and decided to take this opportunity to 
go to the far West.' Davis said, "Then you will go?' 
"I will.' Then said Davis, "I would not like to take 
the risk of furnishing the machinery on account of the 
distance and no one there that I know ; but as you are 
going the machinery can go on the terms proposed, and 
I wish you success.' 

All necessary arrangements completed, I then made 
preparations to leave New England for Oregon, which 
occurred on the fifth of May, 1857, via the Isthmus, ar- 
riving in Salem June 7. 

Soon after my arrival here the money to liquidate the 
Davis & Furber bill of machinery was loaned to the com- 
pany by Mr. Daniel Waldo, about $10,000, at 2 per cent 
per month, interest to be paid every six months or note 
renewed and interest added. In November ('57) the 
machinery arrived in Salem and the building was com- 
pleted and ready to receive it. 

At this time another loan was effected from Joseph 
Watt of about $9,000, on same terms of that from Mr. 
Waldo. The freight on machinery and other expenses 
made this necessary. I immediately commenced to set 



HISTORY OF WILLAMETTE WOOLEN FACTORY. 251 

up and get in operation the machinery with two men to 
assist and learn to operate when set up. In the last w r eek 
in December ('57) we had the machinery in good work- 
ing order, and at the end of the first week in January 
('58) were finished the first lot of fine white blankets, 
and in a few days after cloths and flannels were finished 
and ready for market. 

About this time E. M. Barnum was appointed "general 
agent.' In about one month after his appointment he 
resigned, discouraged with the unfavorable prospect of 
disposing of the goods and furnishing money and wool to 
keep the factory in operation. 

A. S. Watt was then appointed his successor. About 
May 1 ('58) the stock of wool was nearly exhausted, the 
mill was stopped and all hands except myself went or 
started for Frazer River. About July 1 ('58) the men 
all returned and work was resumed. A. S. Watt not 
meeting with any better success than Mr. Barnum and 
for the same reason he resigned. A contract was then 
made with Joseph Watt to take all the goods manufact- 
ured, except what might be required to exchange for wool 
at the mill. He was to furnish money and wool suffi- 
cient to enable me to keep the mill in operation. After 
about two months, having been applied to a number of 
times for relief and failing to furnish any money and very 
little wool, and the employees being in debt to the mar- 
ket and stores in town and further credit being refused, 
a suspension of operations appeared certain in conse- 
quence. I then presented to the directors a statement of 
the situation of affairs, showing that it was impossible 
to continue longer without relief. A meeting of the com- 
pany was called, which resulted in the abrogation of the 
contract with Joseph Watt with a stipulation in his favor 

and a decision as to the course to pursue. 
3 



252 L. E. PRATT. 

I was then called into their meeting and the president 
related to me their decision, (the following appears in 
the margin : "Expecting to hear that they had decided 
to suspend operations,") which was: As a last effort 
to succeed in the enterprise the entire management was 
intrusted to myself with this remark : "There is the mill 
and the machinery, the wool and goods on hand. We 
put everything into your hands to do the best you can 
and abide the result.' I replied that under the circum- 
stances and in justice to myself I ought to decline to 
take the responsibility and the risk. The reasons : First, 
the company's notes are out for over $20,000 at 2 per 
cent per month ; second, there is very little money in cir- 
culation in the country, business nearly all done by trade 
and exchange and long credit. Stores throughout the 
country well stocked with cheap eastern goods sent to 
this country during the panic of '56 and '57, and, as has 
been reported by the three successive agents, with the 
exception of a few blankets very little could be sold ; 
third, wages, the lowest to be obtained, at $2.50 and 
$3.00 per day. All the help, with myself, are in debt for 
our living and further credit declined, and some bills 
owing in San Francisco and Portland for oils, dyestuffs, 
etc. This is the present condition and situation. I am 
here and this is my occupation. In accepting your prop- 
osition upon myself rests the success or failure of this 
enterprise at this time in Oregon, but I accept and will 
make a most vigorous effort to succeed. 

I at once informed the employees of the arrangement, 
asking them to continue on with the work to the best ad- 
vantage, as we must consider we were then working for 
ourselves ; that there should always be goods on hand at 
the mill sufficient, if the worst came, to pay every man, 
and I was taking my chance with them. I also gave the 
merchants in town the same assurance, they agreeing to 



HISTORY OF WILLAMETTE WOOLEN FACTORY. 253 

extend our credit for a time. Having arranged every- 
thing as satisfactory as I could, I then turned my atten- 
tion to introducing the goods, going the length and 
breadth of the valley to every responsible merchant, mak- 
ing an arrangement to exchange factory goods for wool, 
taking orders to be paid in wool. It was useless to pro- 
pose to sell to them, but to exchange for wool suited 
them as well as myself. Almost without exception they 
readily agreed to that proposition. This was the first 
successful movement towards introducing the goods. 

About the first of August I proposed to the secretary, 
J. G. Wilson, that there should be duebills issued by the 
company in value from 50 cents to $10, to the amount at 
that time of $1,000, to be issued to the employees to pay 
for their purchases in town, it being more convenient 
than giving orders and safer for the merchants than stand- 
ing accounts with them. Seeing the advantage he rec- 
ommended the plan to the directors and they consented 
to the plan, and the duebills, or as they were called 
' 'Factory Scrip,' was issued and used as paper money. 
The advantage gained by this issue of factory scrip in 
different ways, and more particularly in introducing the 
goods, was almost incredible. In fact, for a time it was 
a current circulating medium. In about one year from 
the time it was first issued it accompanied the orders for 
goods from Victoria and the Sound to Roseburg, Oregon ; 
and when greenbacks were first in circulation here, in 
most cases factory scrip was preferred. I then felt that 
the company was safe when the credit of the company 
was as good as that of the United States. 

During the month of August ('59) I made arrange- 
ments with a firm in Portland dealing most entirely in 
groceries for the exchange of goods, which they did to 
quite an extent. Soon after, as the goods became known, 
a wholesale house made to me a more advantageous prop- 



254 L. E. PRATT. 

osition which was accepted ; the result was the opening 
of a store in connection with the factory, which was con- 
tinued for some time and resulted in an increased demand 
for the factory goods. 

In September ('59) I put up quite a large invoice of 
goods to be exhibited and sold at the California State Fair 
at Sacramento, which was successful, receiving from the 
fair a fine diploma on silk in a fine frame for first woolen 
goods manufactured on this coast. The goods were all 
sold at a fair price, Charles Crocker of San Francisco 
being the principal purchaser. From this introduction 
orders were received from California until the Mission 
mill in San Francisco was in operation in the following 
year. At about the same time I made a tour through 
the Sound country with samples. Succeeded in getting 
a number of orders ; though small, they answered well 
as an introduction of the goods, as it afterwards proved. 
Having made a thorough distribution of the goods and 
being satisfied what the result would be, turned my at- 
tention to the manufacture through the winter. More 
wool having arrived than expected as the result of the 
exchange plan, there being about 80,000 pounds more 
than could be consumed before the new clip, I sold it to 
a San Francisco firm at the rate of 20 per cent above cost. 
The proceeds from this sale and from a small contract for 
blankets for the Indian Department yielded an amount 
of money which enabled me to pay the indebtedness of 
the company in San Francisco and Portland for soap, 
oils, dyestuffs, etc., and procure for the winter a supply 
of the same. May 1, quite a large supply of goods on 
hand ; wool had commenced to arrive ; soon found goods 
were being exchanged as fast as made ; commenced run- 
ning a part of the machinery nights on the first of August 
('60). Found that we had a surplus of about 25,000 
pounds of wool, which was sold to a San Fransisco firm 



HISTORY OF WILLAMETTE WOOLEN FACTORY. 255 

for 25 per cent above cost. The balance of the amount 
received for this wool, after reserving an amount suffi- 
cient for the purchase of supplies, along with $5,000 bor- 
rowed at 1 per cent, paid off the Watt note and interest 
amounting to about $11,000. May, 1861, found us better 
prepared to receive the wool, the store being well sup- 
plied with an assorted stock of goods and the factory 
goods found to be more serviceable and giving better sat- 
isfaction than the imported and the rapidly increasing 
confidence in the company relieved to a great extent the 
anxiety of myself and the company. 

Again in August of this year ('61) I found that we 
would have a surplus of about 55,000 pounds of wool and 
run the machinery day and night. The directors not 
complying with my wish to ship it East it was sold to the 
same firm in San Francisco for about 30 per cent above 
cost. The proceeds paid all the indebtedness of the com- 
pany, except the claim of Mr. Waldo, who preferred to 
let his remain by the interest being paid and at 10 per 
cent per annum instead of 2 per cent a month . This was 
thought advisable, as it was now evident that to increase 
the machinery to five sets might be advisable and this 
was being considered. 

In the early spring of 1862 it was evident that the 
wool clip would be increased this year fully 100 per 
cent and we had it all secured and partly paid for, and 
our surplus would be about 100,000 pounds. Renewing 
my urgent advice and insisting upon it, the directors finally 
consented for me to ship this year's surplus East. I ac- 
cordingly shipped 100,000 pounds to Boston the first 
shipment of wool direct from Oregon to the East. About 
August 1, 1862, all the wool was taken from Salem. It 
reached Boston in February, 1863. 

Immediately after shipping the wool I ordered three 
sets of machinery complete. Made a draft of the new 



256 L. E. PRATT. 

building to be erected and ordered lumber for the same. 
Employed a competent accountant, took an account of 
stock, made a balance sheet which showed at that time 
the assets of the company made the stock worth fully 
$650 a share (in pencil : "the original not counting cost 
of Santiam water in the account") . The wool arriving 
in Boston in good condition and at a favorable time sold 
readily at a net gain of over 200 per cent. Including 
the proceeds in the estimate of the value of the stock it 
would exceed $850 a share. It will be observed that in 
about four years the value of the stock increased from 
$250 per share and over $20,000 in debt, to over $850 a 
share and no debt, making a net gain of over 400 per 
cent. (In pencil the figures 156 and 500 are placed over 
$250 and 400 per cent respectively). This was accom- 
plished with the disadvantages under which we were 
laboring as before mentioned at the commencement. I 
would challenge any other woolen factory on this coast 
to exhibit as favorable a showing under less difficulties. 

L. F. Grover, being one of the shareholders of the 
company, upon hearing my report of the standing of the 
company associated with him Joseph Smith, W. K. Smith, 
and J. F. Miller, and in a quiet way commenced to pro- 
cure the controlling interest in the stock, in which they 
succeeded by paying from $2,000 to $2,500 a share. A 
meeting of the company was called in January, 1863. I 
had about twelve shares at the time and was putting all 
my earnings in the stock. At this meeting James F. 
Miller claimed and voted a share of stock I had paid for 
two months previous and I held the certificate trans- 
ferred to me by the original owner, but he did not allow 
me to represent it. This gave to those men the majority 
or control. 

They voted to themselves all the offices of the com- 
pany. Then, voting to each one an exorbitant salary, 



HISTORY OP WILLAMETTE WOOLEN FACTORY. 257 

the meeting adjourned. In about two weeks after this 
meeting the four, with J. F. Miller at their head, came 
to me at my desk and Miller in an authoritative and to 
me insulting manner said, "Pratt, we will run this thing 
now.' I (being surprised) replied, "I suppose you have 
no further use for me?' : Don't recollect of either of them 
making any reply to me, but waiting a few minutes and 
nothing being said or notice given me, I went home. In 
a fe\v days Mr. Rector was sent to me by them with a 
proposition to return and take the agency of the company 
and set up the new machinery which had then arrived 
in Portland. I declined their proposition, and made 
them a proposition stating the terms on which I would 
return, which they in turn declined with a threat that, 
unless I acceded to their terms and came and set up the 
machinery, (which in fact was all they wanted of me,) 
they would make such representations that would reflect 
seriously upon my reputation and prevent me from get- 
ting another situation in Oregon. I replied, "That settles 
it. If those men will condescend to such contemptible 
business, they altogether have not money enough to em- 
ploy me. Tell them they can go to .' Thus ended 

my connection with the Willamette Woolen Manufactur- 
ing Company. 

[The lines of the following sentence are inclosed 
within braces: "The next year ('64) located, drew up 
plan of the Oregon City factory, procured the machinery 
and put the mill in operation."] 

Upon leaving the factory company I sold my stock 
in the company, and also advised my friends, Daniel 
Waldo and W. H. Eector, to do the same, particularly 
advising Mr. Waldo to draw his money he had loaned the 
company, as I was sure he would then realize more for 
his stock and money than he ever would again. He de- 
clined to take my advice. The result was as I told him. 



258 L. E. PRATT. 

He withdrew from the company in 18 with about 
$5,000 instead of $25,000 if he had done as advised. 

It was my intention, with the proceeds of the last sale 
of wool, to liquidate the indebtedness of the company, 
have regular monthly pay days for the employees, and, 
when it was necessary, to pay cash for wool ; and by all 
means to retain this as the market for all the wool of 
this valley, as it then was and could have been for some 
time to come with proper management, but the "quar- 
tette' owning property in the vicinity of South Mill 
Creek, and aiming to make it more valuable, an exten- 
sive "flour mill" was erected with the proceeds of that 
wool, and, that not being sufficient, and finding that 
there was quite a large amount of factory goods distrib- 
uted through the valley (intended to be exchanged for 
wool) an immediate demand for payment in money was 
made (a violation of my understanding and agreement), 
which would have been a great disappointment to the 
best patrons of the company. In consequence of which 
many of those who had engaged wool intending it for 
the factory sold to San Francisco buyers, who, finding 
the factory company was working under a different man- 
agement and a different plan, sent men through the 
valley to purchase the wool, the result of which was that 
it checked the demand for factory goods and invited com- 
petition in the securing the wool to such an extent that 
the company found it difficult to secure sufficient for the 
factory. 

In 18 Robert Kinney became one of the Willamette 
Woolen Manufacturing Company by purchasing one of 
the Smiths' eighteen shares of the stock. At about this 
time, or before, the Smiths, seeing where their superior 
mismanagement was taking them, in some way extricated 
themselves altogether from the company. I am not able 
to learn how or in what way, other than the unloading 



HISTORY OF WILLAMETTE WOOLEN FACTORY. 259 

the above eighteen shares onto Robert Kinney. The 
Smiths being out, the agency devolved on L. F. G. 
In 18 Robert Kinney discovered his mistake, and, 
thoroughly disgusted with the management, immediately 
set to work to extricate himself from the company, in 
which he finally succeeded in 1870 by taking the flour 
mill for his portion, paying therefor the eighteen shares 
of stock in the Willamette Woolen Manufacturing Com- 
pany and $7,500 coin. 

It has been said that the Willamette Woolen Manufac- 
turing Company was doing better under the management 
of Joseph Smith (my successor) than at any other time, 
which should have been the case I will admit for the fol- 
lowing reasons : First, the company soon after his ap- 
pointment to that position came into the possession of 
about $60,000 cash, the proceeds of the wool I shipped 
East in 1862 ; second, it being the time during the war 
that the woolen goods were advancing from 10 to 20 per 
cent, and a ready market for all that could be made ; 
third, the increased capacity of the factory to three times 
what it had been by the addition of the new machinery, 
just arrived from the East. With the benefit of the 
above advantages in his favor, most of which was ac- 
complished and provided by his predecessor, why should 
he not have succeeded better? And if the company did 
succeed better, why did they soon after commence to 
borrow money from the Bank of British Columbia and 
from Ladd & Bush, and continue to borrow until finally 
the whole property was mortgaged to secure a debt of 
$85,000? Add to this $20,000 that was swindled out of 
Daniel Waldo, making over $100,000. Then in 1875 it 
was deeded to W. C. Griswold in consideration of the 
sum of $100. 









This work, by Capt. Hiram M. Chittenden of the United 
States Corps of Engineers, is a departure from the old 
methods in history. We have in the past been satisfied 
to know the main incidents in human progress and their 
results without inquiry into the personal motives and 
technical features of our founders and builders. If we 
ever learned more, it was through the researches of an 
occasional biographer, who in his admiration for, or con- 
demnation of, an individual character, brought to light 
hitherto unknown, often unsuspected facts. Inspired by 
emulation a rival biographer gave an opposite view, and 
in the course of time the true history was dragged to 
light. Thus, in the passing of centuries, by adding to and 
taking from, we get what we are satisfied to believe is a 
correct general account of our beginnings and progress. 

In the book before us readers are saved this tedious 
method of getting at an understanding of events in the 
first century of American occupation of the Pacific North- 
west. To accomplish such a result Captain Chittenden 
has, of course, been compelled to avail himself of the 
work previously done by others. But he has so carefully 
collected his material, and so artistically brought it to- 
gether, that it has in effect the realistic features of the 
cyclorama, and we see all the participants in the action, 
which continues to go on. 

The history of Oregon, subsequent to the navigator 
period, began with the Lewis and Clark expedition. 



CHITTENDEN'S FUR TRADE. 261 

Already there were fur traders in what was then the far 
west. For two thirds of a generation after that, all 
the vast territory between the Missouri and the Rocky 
Mountains, and also a border-land about the Great Lakes, 
and the headwaters of the Mississippi was every-man's 
land, where the French and the English hunted, and 
made war upon Americans, while the Indians made war 
upon each in turn. 

After our war of 1812, which although brought on by 
an abuse of maritime rights by the English, was made the 
excuse by English fur traders for the abuse of American 
rights on land, the United States congress passed an "ex- 
clusion act' compelling the British traders to remove 
their posts to British territory. This they did as to their 
posts, but as to their hunting they still for several years 
continued to gather furs on American rivers and in Ameri- 
can forests. 

These unsettled conditions bred a class of men whose 
''double' will never again be seen on American soil, if 
anywhere on the globe. For brain and brawn, for cour- 
age and generalship , their leaders stand unrivaled . Their 
battlefields were scattered over the interior of America 
from the Missouri to the Columbia, and beyond, to the 
headwaters of the great Oregon River, even to the Ump- 
qua, near the California boundary. 

Unfortunately, the wars were not always with Indians, 
but quite as often between rival trading companies . Com- 
merce has always been a relentless pioneer, as it is the 
most successful civilizer. Except for trade there would 
be "open doors' nowhere on the earth. It has always 
required b]ood to make fertile the soil of its most produc- 
tive regions the more productive, the more blood. 

Beginning with a sketch of the condition of the Missis- 
sippi frontier, and the founding of St. Louis, Captain 
Chittenden gives us the story of the Astor enterprise, 



262 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

following pretty closely Irving's narratives, which, how- 
ever, he amplifies with proofs and opinions which estab- 
lish its credibility as against certain authors of nearly an 
even date. He makes plain Astor's claim to be consid- 
ered a genius of the highest order as a promoter, although 
sometimes failing from overzeal or overconfidence in his 
associates. Of his influence on the fate of Oregon, he 
says : 

In exploiting 1 his schemes of commercial conquest Mr. Astor was 
early led to entertain views regarding- the expansion of American ter- 
ritory altogether in advance of those of our own statesmen. He be- 
lieved not only in the desirability but the practicability of our taking 
possession of the whole Pacific coast from the Spanish to the Russian 
possessions, and he clearly saw in that distant region the germ of a 
mighty future empire. He took the only view which a man accus- 
tomed to look at things on a broad scale yet in a plain matter of fact 
way, could take, that it would be better for this territory to be in the 
possession of a single power than to be parceled out among several. 
There can be no doubt as to what power Mr. Astor thought that this 
should be. His project of commerce led him into relations with his 
government which, it seems, heartily applauded his views, but could 
lend him no other aid than tacit encouragement. It is ever to be 
lamented that President Madison did not see his way to adopt as bold 
a course in regard to Mr. Astor's enterprise as did his illustrious prede- 
cessor in office in regard to the purchase of Louisiana. Had he done 
so the political map of North America would not be what it is to day. 

Captain Chittenden explains Astor's unfortunate con- 
nection with the Northwest Company of Montreal, which 
had declined to join him in his commercial schemes, and 
says that they "resolved to anticipate him in his own 
plans," and acknowledged that he erred in organizing 
his company largely from the Northwest Company's men. 
This was certainly, on either side, meant to be a counter- 
plot. The Northwest Company preferred to undertake 
to beat Mr. Astor at his own game. Astor thought by 
taking into the Pacific Fur Company men from the North- 
west Company to prevent such an achievement. But 
circumstances were all against him ; disasters by land 



CHITTENDEN'S FUR TRADE. 263 

and sea, wars and rumors of wars, bloodless so far as the 
two companies were concerned, but decisive in their 
effect, joined to defeat him in his so nearly realized con- 
quest of the trade of the world. 

Although beaten at the time it can not be said that Mr. 
Astor failed to leave a great legacy to the United States. 
He secured a trade with the Russian establishments in 
the North which has played no insignificant part in 
American history for the last century. Beside the bene- 
fit derived from trade, Russia acted as an ally in the de- 
fense of the coast from other foreign powers. It is true 
that Great Britain enjoyed for over thirty years this leg- 
acy along with the possession of the Oregon territory on 
the Pacific, and obtained (from the Russians) privileges 
of trade in California ; but in one respect English traders 
were crippled, in the Pacific seas, where the East India 
Company had a monopoly. They could not ship direct 
to their best market, China, but were forced to send their 
costly cargoes across the continent and across the Atlantic 
to be reshipped from London via the East Indian route. 
That this hardship, which kept open interior American 
routes worked a final benefit to the American trade, and 
the commerce of the West is true. It is true also that 
since the United States was not yet able, through its 
youth, and lack of means, to contend with any great 
power, it was fortunate that its joint occupancy was with 
the English nation rather than with a people of another 
tongue, and other ideas of civilization. 

It was fortunate again that the orderly and strictly or- 
ganized Hudson Bay Company finally absorbed the brave 
but wild Northwesters. Had the latter been in occupa- 
tion at the period when American traders first ventured 
west of the Rocky Mountains, it might have fared worse 
with them. In criticizing Captain Chittenden, I should 
"stick a pin there.'-' The Northwest leaders, while they 



* 

264 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

were trained athletes, often scholars, thoroughly versed 
in the tactics of their warlike business, entertaining so- 
cially, and hospitable, were rapacious and merciless in 
their dealings with rival traders. The story of the fur 
trade runs very differently after George Simpson became 
their head in America by the union of the two great Eng- 
lish companies of Canada, and John McLoughlin took 
charge of affairs on the Columbia River in Oregon. The 
early prejudices of Oregon pioneers were chiefly an 
inheritance from their grandfathers, who had fought 
"Northwesters" and Indians of a previous generation on 
the Canada frontier, and finding some of that stock among 
the Columbia River traders were fain to fall to fighting 
them without much if any provocation. What would 
have become of the first missionaries and settlers had the 
British fur company with its stores of goods and its farm 
products not been found here? The fate of the overland 
expedition of Astor would have been theirs. It is true 
McLoughlin, who was practically the governor of Oregon, 
had been an officer of the Northwest Company, but he 
was one who on occasion could safely set at defiance his 
superiors in rank by shaming them into more civilized 
practices. The historian of Oregon should, I think, dis- 
criminate between the men who ousted Astor, and their 
successors, the Hudson Bay Company. 

The losses and discouragements of Mr. Astor on the 
Pacific Slope were not permitted to interfere with his 
plans concerning the interior. Out of the wreck of sev- 
eral early trade organizations he created the Great Amer- 
ican Fur Company, a part of whose history is the story 
told by Irving, Franchere, Cox, and others. The English- 
Canadian companies' system was one of forts. These 
they found necessary not only for the storage of their 



CHITTENDEN'S FUR TRADE. 265 

goods and furs, but for protection in case of attack. Fort 
Union, on the Upper Missouri, erected in 1828, was the 
chief establishment, the capital it may be said, of the 
American company. There were many more at places 
favorable for trade on the Missouri and its branches. 

Other fur companies competing with the American 
were kept away from the great rivers by the tribes in 
alliance with this company and were forced, or found it 
to their advantage, to adopt the wandering habits of the 
Indians, having only a general rendezvous from which 
parties were sent out in different directions for the sea- 
son's hunt. Instead of permanent storehouses they re- 
sorted to caches, burying their furs until the annual 
caravan set out for Saint Louis. When the trade was at 
its height, about 1834, there were half a dozen organized 
companies in the field from the United States, besides 
many lone traders like Wyeth, Bonneville, Pilcher, Fon- 
tenelle, and others. 

It does not require any great stretch of imagination to 
picture, rudely, what fur hunting life must have been in 
and about the Rocky Mountains from 1821 to 1840, when 
it had ceased as a great business, only the American com- 
pany still occupying the field a few years longer. It does 
require, however, something more than imagination to 
picture it as it was. This, Captain Chittenden has suc- 
cessfully accomplished, and unveiling the greedy brood 
of fortune hunters in a lawless and comfortless country, 
has shown us how the Far West was despoiled of its nat- 
ural riches, and depopulated of its wild men and wild 
animals. The loss of life in the business, in proportion 
to the number of men employed, was large ; while the 
profits, on account of losses by Indian raids and rob- 
beries, as well as by the raids of the rival parties, were 
not so enormous as from the small prices paid for furs 
and small wages to trappers, might be expected. "Judged 



266 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

by the volume of business, also, "says Chittenden, "the 
fur trade was of relatively insignificant proportions ; but 
its importance and historic interest depend upon other 
and quite different considerations.' 

The "other considerations,' which included the one 
first mentioned the saving of Oregon to the United 
States were numerous, even after deducting the for- 
tunes which were made by the few at the expense of the 
many. Allowing that there were, in the service of the 
American fur companies in the Oregon Territory during 
the twenty years of their existence, 2,000 men, which is 
probably a fair estimate, the results of their labors are 
remarkable. To their presence in the country, and the 
protection it afforded, the various sciences of geography, 
natural history (animal life), botany, ethnology, meteor- 
ology, geology, and mineralogy are greatly indebted. 
Government expeditions, fitted out though they may be 
with every possible instrument and apparatus, through 
the very perfection of their equipment fail to effect the 
discoveries which the lonely hunter and trapper made in 
his annual wanderings. 

Exploring expeditions by the government in the Pacific 
Northwest began about the time the fur trade period 
closed, in the early '40s ; but before that time there were 
books upon the physical sciences whose authors had trav- 
eled over the far West under the escort of the fur com- 
panies, being entertained at forts and made welcome at 
camp and rendezvous. There was hardly a stream or 
lake in the Rocky -mountain region, now comprising sev- 
eral great states, that had not been named, and to which 
some incident of history attached. A trapper (American) 
although he could not quote Shakespeare ( as some of 
them could), was able to make a map of the region he 
roamed over which the reader of explorers' reports would 
be glad to possess to-day. During the period between 



CHITTENDEN'S FUR TRADE. 267 

1843 and 1860, when mining began to be developed the 
discoveries being made by old mountain men who still 
lingered on the borders of former hunting grounds 
many of these unsung heroes had become settlers among 
immigrants of the coast region, and in this new life of 
members of orderly communities had proven themselves 
patriotic and law-abiding citizens. They were the ' 'hearts 
of oak" on whose firm loyalty the young empire when in 
peril always depended. 

I have not space without monopolizing too many pages 
of this magazine to express my conception of the coun- 
try's debt to the hunters and trappers as well as to leaders 
in the fur companies. Such, I believe, is the sentiment 
under whose influence Captain Chittenden wrote his His- 
tory of the Fur Trade ; and for the faithful pen pictures 
he has given us of all sides of the subject he deserves our 
praises. 

As a narrative the book is a storehouse of adventure 
and biography. Dates and descriptions of forts is another 
interesting feature, these "ancient' : structures being 
among those first things which always seem of so much 
greater importance than any that follow. But it is in the 
men who built, occupied, and defended them that we find 
the chief interest. Their lives and their aims are a prob- 
lem ; but then, so are all lives. 

Let me not omit to mention the part played in the his- 
tory of the fur trade by that demoralizing fluid which, 
taking possession of a man's stomach, "steals away his 
brains.' A century ago the fathers of our republic, pat- 
terning after their British sires, thought no ill of a wine 
cellar or a sideboard with a variety of liquors upon it. 
Whether it was climate or science or the Indian question 
or experience whatever it was a change in sentiment 
was developed, and the bottle in the closet was considered 

more^in the light of a questionable indulgence than a so- 
4 



268 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

cial necessity. This opinion invaded the Indian Depart- 
ment of the government, and the laws of the United 
States forbade the sale of liquor to Indians. It was also 
forbidden to manufacture whiskey in the Indian country. 

This regulation of the department was alike for the 
good of the native man, who, when intoxicated, sold his 
furs for a fishhook, and for the welfare of the white trap- 
per who did the same. It was intended also to save lives 
of both races. That was plain enough ; but that the sale 
or gift of liquor on the British side of our boundary should 
have the effect to ruin the rich and powerful American 
company on our side, was not at the first glance so ap- 
parent to every one. That was the danger that threat- 
ened the company, however, when the tribes near the line 
were drawn away from their allegiance to the Americans 
by the rum allowed them on the British side. Driven to 
despair, the agent at Fort Union erected a still, but being 
betrayed by an employee was compelled to resort to fic- 
tion of the most yellow complexion and finally to abandon 
his manufacture. 

The other companies south of the Missouri who carried 
their goods in trains from the mouth of the Platte, and 
who had no headquarters, experienced the same, or even 
greater difficulties, having to outwit the keen-eyed agents 
at Fort Leavenworth, where their cargoes underwent in- 
spection. 

The companies' chiefs, while they honestly admitted 
and deplored the evil that liquor worked to white men 
and Indians, could not prevent traders from the British 
territory bringing it across the line, nor could they resist 
the temptation to use the stuff to get the better of a rival 
of their own nationality. Hence, the trapper went about 
his business with his alcohol bottle as regularly as the 
soldier with his canteen, to the horror and indignation of 
the missionary traveler in the mountains. In time the 



CHITTENDEN'S FUR TRADE. 269 

British traders were instructed by the London board of 
management to stop the sale of liquor to Indians, and the 
practice was abolished. It is a curious fact, however, 
that the first successful application of a prohibitory liquor 
]aw was in the Indian country and among fur traders. 

Captain Chittenden has given a very good catalogue 
of Indian tribal names, but I more than suspect that it 
would be impossible at this date to obtain from any 
source a perfectly correct notion of these family names 
or of their significance, least of all of their spelling and 
pronunciation. Observe the spelling of Lewis and Clark 
and the endless variations from their standard by subse- 
quent travelers and writers. Observe, also, how fre- 
quently the Indians on the Clearwater River, in Idaho, 
are divided and subdivided, passing usually under the 
name of Nez Perces, but answering to Flathead, Sahap- 
tin, and Chopunnish about equally well. The Snake or 
Shoshone tribe has also several names, one, that of Les 
Serpents, evidently French. 

Let me close by mentioning in the American fur trade 
some of the most familiar names after Astor. Saint Louis 
being the starting point of trading expeditions furnished 
most of the leaders and partners, among whom were 
Choteau, Henry, Lisa, Pratt, Ashley, Fontenelle, Bent, 
St. Vrain, Sarpy, Smith, Sublette, Jackson, Campbell, 
Farnham, Fitzpatrick, Bridger, Pilcher, Carson, Walker, 
Williams, Tulloch, Vanderburg, with many others ; and 
Wyeth and Bonneville. The work, which is in three 
volumes, with map and illustrations, is rich in biogra- 
phies. As an introduction to, or an accompaniment of 
the history of the settlement of the Northwest, Captain 
Chittenden's book is invaluable. 

FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

Captain Chittenden was born October 25, 1858, in Weston, N. Y. He came of 
good stock, being descended from William Chittenden of Guilford, Conn., whose 
descendants have furnished many men to the official positions of their country. 



270 FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 

After graduating from the high school of Weston, he taught for several terms to 
help himself through college; went from Cornell to West Point; graduated third 
in class of 1884, and was assigned to the engineer corps. For three years he served 
at Willett's Point, New York Harbor; three years at Omaha, Neb., in the Depart- 
ment of the Platte, and in charge of works on the Upper Missouri; two years 
in charge of government work in Yellowstone National Park; two years on gov- 
ernment work at Louisville, Ky.; one year in charge of surveys for routes be- 
tween Lake Erie and the Ohio River; three years secretary of the Missouri River 
Commission, and in charge of surveys for reservoirs in the arid regions. Since 
1899 he has been in charge of works on the Upper Missouri, and in the Yellow- 
stone National Park, writing a book upon the Park, its history and notable nat- 
ural features; and also an exhaustive report upon the practicability of storage 
reservoirs in the arid regions; the Reservoir System of the Great Lakes; the rela- 
tion of the government to the conservation of the waste flood of streams, and 
numerous articles on professional subjects in current periodicals. 

During the war with Spain he served as chief engineer of the Fourth Army 
Corps. He designed and erected the Mowrey obelisk, at Sioux City, in memory 
of Sergt. Charles Floyd of the Lewis and Clark expedition; and is still engaged in 
government work in Yellowstone Park while pursuing his plans for furnishing 
water to the arid lands on both sides of the Rocky Mountains. Meanwhile, he is 
laying out some further historical work interesting to Oregon. 

FRANCES FULLER VICTOR. 



The history of Oregon, as it is pursued more defi- 
nitely and is traced to its sources and details, becomes a 
study of families quite as much as of localities or of 
tendencies. Without royalty or nobility or hereditary 
titles Americans have yet developed family traits and 
characteristics more strongly than other people, and no 
where is this more noticeable than in our own Oregon. 
A family name is already well recognized here as indi- 
cating a certain type of man. This may be due in part 
to the considerable proportion of Englishmen among 
the early pioneers, who brought with them not only 
strong racial, but also family characteristics. It is 
quite noticeable, too, that when once here the English- 
men became most sturdy and radical Americans. Among 
the well-known families of Oregon is that of the Jorys, 
who crossed the plains to Oregon in 1847. The family 
home is in Marion County, south of Salem, among the 
Red Hills, which have become famous as a prune-grow- 
ing country. 

James Jory, Sr., the founder of the Oregon family, 
and perhaps the first of the name to come to America, 
was a carpenter and mechanic of Cornwall, England, 
being a son of James Jory, gamekeeper and gardener 
on an English estate. He was married about 1812 to 
Mary Stevens in St. Clear Parish. There were two 
daughters and six sons reared in this family. The 
daughters were Mary and Elizabeth, and the sons John, 
James, Henry, Thomas, William, and H. S., all except 
the last born in England. 



272 REMINISCENCES OF JAMES JORY. 

This English family, however, had various causes for 
dissatisfaction with conditions as thev then existed in 

*/ 

the mother country. For one, there was a parish law 
that children must be bound out to a master at the age 
of nine years. This gave great opportunity for men 
desiring laborers to secure such children as they might 
select, even from families preferring to rear their chil- 
dren at home. A native love of liberty very strong 
with the English made them restive for a country not 
hampered with petty restrictions, and where opportunity 
was equal to ambition. Such, of course, America was 
understood to be. 

It is interesting to note in what way this family ob- 
tained the means to cross the ocean. This was done by 
a little shrewd management beyond the ordinary savings 
of days' work. "A large half acre" near the family home 
was rented at a low figure. This had been spoiled for 
ordinary use by the prospecting of tin miners, who had 
dug it into pits, and thrown the gravel over the soil. By 
much careful work, from year to year, however, the 
mud, or fine earth collected in the pits was thrown out, 
and the gravel was placed back. The larger boulders or 
rocks were used to construct a good stone building. In 
course of time the piece was restored to its original con- 
dition and fertility, with soil on top and gravel under- 
side, and was placed in good tilth as a garden patch. As 
the lease was at a low rate, and for a long time "three 
lives," this became quite a valuable property, and upon 
sale realized enough to pay the passage across the At- 
lantic. 

Passage was taken upon an old lumber ship coming to 
Saint Johns, New Brunswick. Water was declared short 
toward the close of the voyage, and the passengers were 
placed on allowance, but this was discovered to be a nauti- 
cal fabrication, simply to avoid tapping the casks, or com- 



H. S. LYMAN. 273 

partments, that carried the ballast which was fresh water. 
A home was made on land taken some forty miles up the 
Saint John River, where tracts of fifty acres were open 
to public entry, such a tract, and ten acres by purchase 
constituted, the farm . This was a region of young timber, 
in a country swept some time previously by a great fire, 
such as is periodical in all timbered countries. 

After several years of farming poor soil it was decided 
to return to Saint John, and here work in the ship yards 
was undertaken. The father was a master mechanic, 
and the older boys, John and James, were able to give 
valuable assistance in running the whipsaw getting out 
necessary birch, white pine, and spruce timbers for ships' 
knees and other particular work. It was learned here, 
however, that land was better and more abundant, and 
conditions were generally better in Upper Canada. It 
was decided therefore to use the earnings of the family 
to remove thither. Passage was taken to New York, 
with the intention of going thence by the Erie canal to 
their destination ; but once on the soil of the United 
States this industrious family was not to be let off. At 
New York they were made acquainted with an old gen- 
tleman from Missouri, who described his state as in everv 

/ 

way better country than Canada. It happened also that 
the boat on which they were to start to Upper Canada 
was delayed, and it was decided to go to Missouri instead. 
The route chosen was by water ; going first to New Or- 
leans by a sailing vessel, and from New Orleans to Saint 
Louis by steamboat a side wheeler, named the George 
Collier. Saint Louis was still a frontier town, but the 
leading point in the West. 

It was just before Christmas that the Jorys arrived, 
and they found work for the winter on the large farm, 
or plantation, of a leading citizen, Col. John O'Fallon. 
The father was employed in repairs on the buildings 



274 REMINISCENCES OP JAMES JORY. 

and putting in a crop, while the four boys old enough 
for work built fences. There were negro slaves on the 
farm, but they were not severely taxed with work, and 
seemed happy and contented, and liked their master. 
However, James Jory, Sr., did not like the slave system, 
and James, the son, recalls with what a shock he re- 
flected that the negro who came to convey their baggage 
from the city to the farm was the property of a master, 
the same as the oxen which he drove. 

It was partly for this reason that it was decided to 
move over into Illinois, across the Mississippi River, 
into Pike Countv, of that state, where the land w r as also 

v * 

found to be good, and an abundance was still open for 
settlement. Land was very cheap, being obtained by 
sale of tax titles, or use of soldiers' or other warrants. 
The Jorys bought of the government 40 acres of the 
richest of land, partly prairie and partly timbered. 
This was in the fall of 1837. 

Here they remained nearly ten years, James Jory, Jr., 
buying the place of his father, who removed to a farm 
in Brown County, some 40 miles away. 

On March 12, 1846, James Jory, Jr., was married to 
Sarah Budd, daughter of Aaron and Phoebe Ogden Budd. 
This lady, who has shared equally with her husband in the 
work and privations experienced in building up a com- 
monwealth on the Pacific Coast, belonged to an old Ameri- 
can family, her grandfather Budd having been a soldier in 
the War of Independence, and her father a resident of 
Duchess County, New York, until removing to Illinois 
at an early date. On the side of her mother, who was 
Phoebe Ogden, she was also of revolutionary stock ; so 
that the Jory family in Oregon embraces both the strains 
of the independent working class of west England and 
the original American of the Atlantic States. 



H. S. LYMAN. 275 

James Jory, who was thus married at the age of 26, 
had a place of his own in one of the most productive 
sections of Illinois, and was in good prospect of acquir- 
ing a substantial competence ; but he could not but 
mark the sad results of the malaria prevalent in the 
country upon the breaking of the prairies. He noticed 
that the universal fever and ague proved particularly 
debilitating to young married women, who easily fell 
victims to other disorders after being weakened by this 
malady ; and like a thoughtful husband began to con- 
sider removal to a more healthful country. The matter 
was talked over first with his wife and afterward with 
his father and brothers, and as a consequence it was 
decided to sell out and go to Oregon the next spring. 

Mr. Jory with his young wife prepared to start from 
their own place and join the rest of the family at Inde- 
pendence, Mo. Being a practical mechanic, he made it 
his first concern to have a suitable wagon. For $50 he 
purchased the running gear of a vehicle that had been 
made out of green timber, and had shrunk so as to be 
considered unserviceable ; but this he saw was just the 
thing, as it could be tightened all around and would best 
endure a trip across the drouth-stricken plains. For 
this he constructed a box, which should serve all pur- 
poses of living as well as of travel, or might be used as 
a flatboat in case of necessity. Around the sides and 
through a partition three or four feet from the front end 
augur holes were bored, and a piece above the end gate 
at the rear was likewise perforated, and through these a 
bed cord was run in the old fashion, and thus was con- 
structed a comfortable spring bed. Underneath there 
was space for provisions, tools and other necessary 
traveling articles. Substantial bows were fitted above 
and a cover of double thickness of canvas was drawn 
over this. Double canvas proved much more comfort- 



276 REMINISCENCES OF JAMES JORY. 

able than the single canvas painted, of which some 
covers were made. The provisions consisted of seven 
sacks of flour, and an abundance of bacon, which was 
made from a phenomenally fat corn-fed porker ; also 
dried pease, beans and fruit ; gunpowder and garden 
seeds were prudently added. Much valuable informa- 
tion in regard to Oregon was obtained from letters of 
Rev. E. E. Parrish, who came to Oregon in 1844, and 
writing East gave very favorable descriptions of the 
mild and healthful climate and the advantages of stock 
raising, where cattle might browse or pasture twelve 
months of the year. 

At Independence Mr. Jory did not find his father, or 
brothers as anticipated, but with his younger brother, 
who was with him from the first, drove on to the Kaw 
River. At this point about eighty or one hundred wagons 
had collected and were waiting to form a regular organi- 
zation. It was soon learned that these were too many for 
one company, and two were therefore formed. Of the 
part to which Mr. Jory belonged Joseph Magone was 
elected captain. Magone was from New York, an un- 
married man, young, handsome, and deservedly popular. 
He had hired his passage with the train, and was out for 
an adventure, but when it was represented that he was 
the best man for captain, being free-handed and well- 
informed, he set aside personal considerations and ac- 
cepted. He proved to be one of the best emigrant captains 
ever on the Plains, alert, cheerful, watchful of the needs 
of every one, and promising all that he would see the 
last one through safely to the banks of the Willamette, 
and he most bravely redeemed his promise. Indeed, 
nothing now seems to Mr. and Mrs. Jory more noteworthy 
of that whole trip across the continent than the value and 
delight of association and practical brotherhood. Except 



H. S. LYMAN. 277 

for this the journey could never have been made by fam- 
ilies, or Oregon occupied with an American population. 

It was customary, says Mr. Jory, to elect a captain by 
"standing up on sides," and being then counted off, aim- 
ing to be fair and democratic, and give every one a chance 
to show his preference, as so interestingly described in the 
file of the New Orleans Picayune found by Doctor Wilson. 
In the case of Joseph Magone there was no need of this ; 
it was all one side for him. Magone was married after 
reaching Oregon to a Miss Tomlinson that he met on the 
Plains ; and long afterwards, indeed after the railroad 
was built, illustrated his original love of adventure by 
walking back East for a visit. 

One of his memorable pleasantries occurred at the time 
the first buffalo was killed on the Plains. This was a fine 
young heifer and was shot by Magone. He came back 
to camp and invited the men to go out and each take a 
piece. There was a little hesitation, no one wishing to 
show greed where all were so anxious. "Come, come,' 
said Magone, "don't be bashful; the best-looking man 
start first.' But this started no one ; "Well, then,' he 
said, "the man with the best-looking wife come first;' 
and there was a general rush. That first buffalo was con- 
sidered the best meat tasted on the trip. This party did 
not see many of the buffalo herds, being too early, as the 
animals had gone north. The later emigrants of that 
season, however, described them as occurring "in clouds' 
upon the prairie. 

It was considered something of a joke on Magone, 
being a bachelor, that no less than five times he was 
obliged to give the order to halt the train a day on ac- 
count of the birth of a child. These were in the fami- 
lies of Mr. Watts, Nelson, one of the Knightons, and of 
Mr. Jory. This latter was the oldest child, a daughter, 
who was born on Burnt River. There was no regular 



278 REMINISCENCES OF JAMES JORY. 

medical attendance, but with such care as the women of 
the train could render each other there was no difficulty. 

As the train proceeded westward, as" in the case of all, 
it was broken up into several smaller companies of eight 
or ten wagons each, those wishing to travel at about the 
same rate of speed naturally going together, and the 
danger of Indians being considered small as they reached 
the Pacific Slope. It was understood that the Nez Perces 
and their allies were friendly to the whites, as was indeed 
the case, and but for the friendship of these truly rare 
native Americans the scattered and weakened bands of 
immigrants might easily have been cut off. It must be 
remembered that there was not a United States soldier 
stationed in Oregon until 1848. Even through the Cayuse 
troubles and the later Indian wars the Nez Perces have 
been unvarying friends of the whites. 

As to Indians, Captain Magone's company had very 
little to do. Some of the Kaws appeared early on the 
journey, and were great beggars. One of them was given 
by Mrs. Jory what she considered a generous piece of 
light bread, as he claimed that he was desperately hun- 
gry. But no sooner was this offered than he opened his 
blankets, showing a much larger piece of biscuits, which 
he intended as an object lesson of the size and kind of 
bread he wanted. On another occasion, somewhere in 
the Blue Mountains, an Indian felt a curiosity to exam- 
ine the interior of the Nelson wagon, where there was a 
young baby. By the irate Nelson, who resented the in- 
decorum, the young brave was severely lashed with the 
oxwhip, much to his discomfiture, but to the great amuse- 
ment of the assembled Indians and immigrants. Such 
punishment is regarded by the Indians as a great joke ; 
but killing an Indian is, or was, a very serious matter. 

The thievish, but still good-natured side of the Indian 
disposition is well illustrated by the following incident 



H. S. LYMAN. 279 

related by Mr. Jory : Before making a long drive over 
dry country to Green River, the immigrants found it 
necessary to lay in a supply of water. While busy filling 
his water keg he noticed two Indians standing close to- 
gether by his wagon, evidently engaged in some small 
mischief. Slyly watching them he went on filling his 
keg until he thought it time to interfere. Going up to 
them he found that the Indian furthest from him, and 
partly concealed by the other, had removed from the 
wagon bed a screw which held the wagon cover down 
in one place. Pointing to the empty screw hole Mr. 
Jory demanded the return of the stolen article. It was 
promptly presented in the Indian's open palm. Mr. Jory 
then ordered by signs that he should turn the screw back 
into the proper place. This the Indian tried to do, but, 
using his butcher knife awkwardly, was making but sorry 
headway, but readily lent Mr. Jory the knife and received 
it meekly when the screw was properly restored. The 
crestfallen culprit was compelled to endure the humilia- 
tion of a very hearty horselaugh from his equally virtu- 
ous companion. Thus theft was not condemned, but a 
bungling and unsuccessful attempt at stealing was the 
object of extravagant ridicule. 

Another incident of somewhat similar import came to 
Mr. Jory's notice at Fort Laramie, on the South Platte. 
The train was making a short stay for repairs. Sioux 
Indians in considerable numbers, with their ponies and 
half wolf dogs, were gathered about the fort. While 
one of the emigrants was greasing his wagon, watched 
by a number of Indians, the wagon hammer suddenly 
disappeared. An Indian was seen walking quickly 
away with his blanket drawn tightly about him. When 
about 50 yards off he was brought to a halt by a per- 
emptory order from the owner, " Bring back that wagon 
hammer!' Turning about the Indian denied the theft 



280 REMINISCENCES OF JAMES JURY. 

and opened and shook out his blanket in proof of his 
innocence, and then hurried on. The owner, only half 
convinced, went to the place where the Indian stood, 
and found the hammer on the ground. 

The following shows one of the practical difficulties of 
company travel, and an intelligent solution reached' by 
the emigrants. When Captain Magone's train reached 
Scott's Bluff, it was found that the rate of travel was 
too slow. The chief cause of the trouble was that some 
of the company who were bringing with them a con- 
siderable number of cattle, were careless, or had com- 
mitted their stock to irresponsible herders, and allowed 
them to stray too far from camp, or to fall out by the 
way, as many of them, being footsore, were much in- 
clined to do ; and so it happened that each morning 
when the time to start came, much valuable time had to 
be wasted in hunting the missing stock. 

The captain's scheme for finding a remedy well illus- 
trated his wisdom and resourcefulness. Calling the 
company together and laying the gravity of the situa- 
tion before them, he invited each man w r ho had a plan 
to step out of line and state his plan to the company ; 
and all who approved the plan proposed were to come 
forward and stand with its author until counted a 
majority vote being necessary to adopt any plan. When 
several plans had been successively rejected, Mr. Jory, 
who had the reputation of being the quietest man in the 
company, came forward and proposed a plan which met 
with hearty approval. The plan embraced the follow- 
ing provisions : First, each owner of stock must care- 
fully count his animals in the evening on reaching camp 
before turning them out to graze ; second, he must bring 
into camp and count them again early each morning ; 
third, if any cattle proved missing in the morning that 
were known to have been present on the previous even- 



H. S. LYMAN. 281 

ing, the company was bound to make diligent search for 
them before moving on ; but if any of those found 
missing in the morning were not known to have been 
present the previous evening the company should not be 
delayed to search for them. Thus the loss of time con- 
sequent upon searching at one camping place for stock 
that might have been missed for several days would be 
avoided. After a little friction, which spent its force in 
two or three days, the plan was found to work admir- 
ably ; and Mr. Jory, now nearly 82 years old, recalls 
with just pride the success of his first and only public 
address. This incident shows also the strong hold 
which the principle of majority rule had taken on the 
minds of early pioneers, and its entire competency to 
deal with questions far more difficult than those encoun- 
tering military enterprises. 

Although having heard of the friendliness of the Cay- 
uses, Mr. Jory saw things on the Umatilla and met 
treatment that led him to distrust them. Among others 
there was a Catholic priest that crossed the Blue Moun- 
tains with his train. He was met on the Umatilla by 
the Cayuses, one of whom made a long speech. Of course 
this was not understood by Jory, except that the name 
of Whitman was repeated a number of times, and each 
time the Cayuse would take hold of the large crucifix 
that hung from the priest's belt and make the motion of 
wringing it in pieces and throwing it down, and showing 
great rage. This Mr. Jory understood as a description 
of what the Cayuse considered the disposition of Whit- 
man toward the Catholic religion. 

However, as he heard that his father and brothers 
were on the way, being so informed by three young men 
that were hastening forward and overtook him, he de- 
cided to camp on the Umatilla and wait for them. 

While camping here he found one morning that his 



282 REMINISCENCES OF JAMES JORY. 

oxen were missing. But looking in the distance he saw 
them down on the bottoms, and hastened to get them ; 
but saw that an Indian was driving them. He quickly 
asked, "Are you stealing my cattle?' 1 "Heap water,' 
replied the Cayuse, meaning that he was simply driving 
them to water, and also at once demanded a shirt as pay 
for his service. Jory at once refused pay, as he could 
himself water his cattle ; and pointed out, too, that one 
was missing. "No one ox,' ' the Indian maintained, but 
allowed Mr. Jory to drive the cattle to camp. After 
some further search and before camp was reached the 
missing "one ox' ! was found. But next day the same 
Indian reappeared and demanded a shirt. Jory again 
refused, and the Indian became very threatening, declar- 
ing, by signs, that he would kill him. After some fur- 
ther parley, Jory tried to settle the trouble by offering 
him some powder, about half the quantity in his powder- 
horn, but the Indian spurned the offer. Mr. Jory then 
emptied the horn for him, by carefully turning it up and 
shaking out all the powder. The Indian was then well 
pleased, and left doubtless thinking that no powder was 
left for defense. From all this Mr. Jorv concluded that 

V 

the Cay uses were troublesome and treacherous, and 
would have been glad to be out of their country, but 
felt the necessity of remaining until his father and 
brothers arrived, as he had some of their cattle, and had, 
according to their instructions, sold them, and thought 
it not improbable that they would need the proceeds in 
order to reach Willamette Valley. As soon, therefore, 
as the Indian was gone he refilled his powderhorn from 
a keg concealed in the wagon, and saw to it that his 
rifle was loaded and in prime order. 

As for others on the road that year, Mr. Jory particu- 
larly recalls Seth Luelling, who passed and repassed 
many times, with his little nursery of grafted fruit trees. 



H. S. LYMAN. 283 

On the Umatilla Mr. Jory also met with Doctor Whit- 
man. He remembers him as a plain man of medium size 
and direct manner and speech. The Doctor had been 
with a party of immigrants showing them a route to The 
Dalles by the John Day, keeping along the foothills rather 
than taking the old route through the heavy sands along 
the Columbia. He also gave Mr. Jory the directions, 
telling him that without very heavy grades this hill route 
would afford them abundant water and good grass, as well 
as avoiding the sands. 

The Jorys, the remainder of the family having now come 
up, and meeting James Jory and his family at the Uina- 
tilla, came by this route to The Dalles . At this point they 
built flatboats, preferring to come down the Columbia 
rather than attempt the snow-covered route over the Cas- 
cades. About forty boats were built at The Dalles that 
year, from the pine trees along the shore of the Columbia. 

At The Dalles Captain Magone still stayed by his party, 
to see that the last one got through. He had, indeed, 
made all the young men promise that they would stay by 
the families until all were at their journey's end. There 
were some, however, that never came through. A family 
named Wilcox contracted the measles early on the way, 
and owing to exposure in looking after cattle in the rain, 
the entire family, except two girls and a little boy, died. 
A family named Rydenhour also, with the exception of 
one boy, died of the same. Measles were general that 
year on the Plains, and, as is well known, were the 
occasion of the outbreak against Whitman that occurred 
late in the autumn, the Cayuses contracting the disease 
from the immigrants, and becoming terrorized at a plague 
which they could not control. 

A man by the name of Koontz was drowned on the 
Snake River. He was crossing cattle at the ferry, and 



284 REMINISCENCES OF JAMES JORY. 

seeing one with crumpled horns caught on the cable went 
out to unloose the animal. He was a jovial man, and to 
his wife who cautioned him to be careful, he made the 
laughing rejoinder, "If I was born to be drowned I won't 
be hanged, and if born to be hanged, I'll never be 
drowned.' Reaching the place where the ox was en- 
tangled he jumped from the boat, swimming towards the 
animal, but miscalculating the current was carried be- 
low, and was caught in a whirlpool and went down. 
Persons from the Mississippi Valley were very much de- 
ceived in the waters of the Columbia or Snake, which are 
very much lighter [clearer] than those to which they are 
accustomed, and also colder, and with stronger currents 
and more dangerous eddies. Magone himself was nearly 
drawn down into a whirlpool of the Snake, and only 
was saved by resting for a time on the edge until he re- 
covered strength to break away. 

The widow of Koontz was made a special care by Ma- 
gone, who brought her chest of goods himself in a boat 
from The Dalles to the cascades, and with Mr. Jory car- 
ried it over the portage at the cascades, slung on a pole 
between the two. 

The Jorys all reached Oregon in safety, and coming 
into the Willamette Valley looked about for a home. 
They were struck with the attractive little settlement at 
Salem, and the advantages of church and school. The 
choice lay between this and the yet unoccupied prairies 
of the Santiam, and above Albany. There the land 
seemed better, but the other attractions, and the fact 
also that in the hills near Salem the prospect of health 
seemed better than on the prairie, outweighed in the 
decision, and all took claims together about six or eight 
miles from the present capital. This was in the land of 
oak trees, and the Father Jory having seen such timber 
in England believed that the soil would prove fertile. 



H. S. LYMAN. 285 

The sons, however, never expected to farm, except along 
the narrow creek bottoms ; but the open oak groves and 
endless hills offered great scope for cattle range. As a 
matter of fact, however, the hills have proved the best 
of wheat land, and have now become still more valuable 
for fruit and prune raising. " The Jory settlement " is 
now in the very region where there are great orchards 
crowning the hills, and where fruit driers are as con- 
spicuous as the hop houses of French Prairie. The 
donation land claim of John Jory has been divided into 
small fruit-raising tracts, and H. S. Jory, the youngest 
brother, has become well known as the inventor and 
maker of one of the most serviceable fruit driers in use. 
While, however, the Jorys have been agriculturists in 
Oregon, their tastes have been mechanical, reverting to 
the original occupation of their grandfather and father. 
H. S. Jory, of South Salem, has invented and patented 
the " Oregon Fruit Dryer,' and an ingenious harrow- 
hinge ; Henry Jory, who died in Marysville, California, 
and his son, James W., eaclr invented and patented a 
swivel plow. John W. and Arthur, sons of James Jory, 
invented and patented a wheat header ; T. C. and John 
W., sons of James Jory, of this sketch, invented and 
patented a grain separator. Thomas C. Jory, who was 
for some time Professor of Mathematics at Willamette 
University, Salem, where he graduated, also invented 
and presented for patent a machine for converting recip- 
rocal into rotary motion, avoiding the "dead points;' 
but was preceded by Westinghouse, of the celebrated air- 
brake apparatus. These items are of interest as show- 
ing a still larger truth, that probably half the young 
men of Oregon, at least among those at school, devote 
much of their leisure time in planning practical inven- 
tions in mechanics, and of the many who do not succeed 
in producing a tangible result the case is not so much 



286 REMINISCENCES OF JAMES JORY. 

lack of practical skill as the intense rivalry of others at 
more central points. Oregon alone could furnish enough 
inventors to supply the world if the race of Fulton and 
Edison should fail elsewhere ! 

The Jorys have been a prolific family in Oregon, the 
oldest son, John, who married Caroline Budd, having a 
family of ten children ; James, who married Sarah A. 
Budd, a sister of Caroline, eleven children ; Thomas, of 
South Salem, who married Katharine Leabo, seven 
children ; William, who married Jane Moore, four chil- 
dren ; and H. Stevens, of South Salem, who married 
May Budd, still another sister of Caroline and Sarah A., 
five children. Thomas C. Jory, well known over the 
entire state as an educator and an advanced thinker on 
political and social matters, lives upon a part of the old 
donation claim, in a locality of ideal Oregon beauty, 
with his family of wife and three children. 

The Grandfather Jory, who came to America and 
then with his sons to Oregon, is said to have thought 
himself the last of his race ; but besides the numerous 
family founded by himself in Oregon and in California, 
it is now known that there are also many other Jorys in 
different parts of the United States and England. 

H. S. LYMAN. 



By JANE KINNEY SMITH, of Astoria. 

The following are personal recollections in regard to 
one of the most worthy and beneficent of all the pioneers 
of Oregon, Mrs. Tabitha Brown, whose school at Forest 
Grove formed the nucleus of the academy founded later 
by Rev. Harvey Clark, and Dr. G. H.Atkinson, and was 
extended still later by Dr. S. H. Marsh into a college 
with an outlook and endowment warranting the name 
university. 

It is expected later to present a paper touching more 
fully upon the entire life of Mrs. Brown, which will be 
prepared by Mrs. Mary Strong Kinney of Astoria, Mrs. 
Kinney being a great granddaughter of Mrs. Brown. 
The recollections of Mrs. Smith, however, who was an 
inmate in Mrs. Brown's schoolhouse, are of unusual in- 
terest, and in accordance with the views of all writers 
on history, we should fail as collectors of historical facts 
unless we placed on record where possible all that may 
be obtained of the pioneer characters. Mrs. Smith is a 
daughter of Robert Crouch Kinney, who was well known 
all over Oregon in the early day as a pioneer farmer and 
fruit grower in Yamhill County ; and later as the pio- 
neer export manufacturer of flour from Salem. Jane 
Kinney was but ten years old when coming to Oregon, 
with her father's family, but remembers many details of 
the journey across the plains, one of the most exciting 
occasions being in the Umatilla country when two young 
Indians rode alongside a daughter of Samuel Kinney, 



288 JANE KINNEY SMITH. 

Robert's brother, and lifted her from the saddle as if to 
kidnap the girl ; but were suddenly brought to time by a 
blow from the butt end of the father's oxwhip. This 
chastisement of the saucy young braves nearly precipi- 
tated a general quarrel, but it was finally settled. 

The Barlow road had recently been opened and it was 
by this that these immigrants came into the Willamette 
Valley, and they soon found unoccupied land of excellent 
quality and sufficient for donation claims for both Robert 
and Samuel. This was at the head of Wapato Lake, and 
at the foot of Chehalem Mountain, then one of the best 
range countries in the world. 

Robert Kinney was from Muscatine, in Iowa, and had 
been engaged in business, and besides being a foremost 
man in enterprise, was one of the most considerate of 
fathers. One of his first cares was to find educational 
advantages for his large family of girls and boys. In 
1848 there were no public schools yet established in Ore- 
gon, and the country was much agitated over the Cayuse 
war, just closed, and the gold mines just discovered in 
California. Nevertheless Oregon had a number of mis- 
sion schools. The Catholic school at St. Paul, and the 
Methodist mission school at Salem, and a school well 
attended on Clatsop Plains, were of the number ; but 
Mr. Kinney was glad to learn that there was another still 
nearer home, at what was then called West Tualatin, but 
thirteen miles from Chehalem Mountain. Finding that 
this bore an excellent reputation, and that charges were 
extremely moderate, he decided to take his daughter to 
Mother Brown's boarding school. Of such an institu- 
tion Jane, although but a girl of eleven, had rather an 
exalted opinion and was prepared for something quite 
remarkable. 

It was some time in May or June of 1848 that her 
father brought her down from the farm, and she was 



MRS. TABITHA BROWN. 289 

greatly impressed with the beauty of the place, soon 
named Forest Grove. The location is striking, and in 
the early days, before there had been brought about the 
changes incident to settlement, it possessed a romantic 
charm that is now lacking. The slightly elevated site, 
which is divided by a small run, or swale, was orna- 
mented with an exceptionally handsome grove of oak 
trees, amid which rose an occasional group of firs, the 
whole area being open and clean and well grassed. It 
was a natural park, and while bearing on the first glance 
the impress of nature only, had also that simulation to 
man's most artistic planning that startles one with the 
thought that surely some one must have made it. Through 
the vistas of oak trees appeared to the north and east 
broad level prairies, or plains, edged with evergreen 
forests, and the horizon, at a long distance, was deline- 
ated underneath by the line of the Blue Mountain ranges, 
surmounted by the snow peaks. A fine appreciation of 
natural beauty is very distinctly marked in all the early 
pioneers and their children, and is very different from 
the vulgar raptures of the real estate dealer, who "writes 
up" our lovely scenery from the purely speculative point 
of view. The deterioration is to be regretted. 

Arriving shortly before noon, Jane and her father 
were invited first of all to dine. The house was a log 
cabin, underneath some fine oaks, and was at no great 
distance from another of the same pattern, occupied by 
Rev. H. H. Spaldiug. These were afterwards con- 
nected, Grandma Brown's school requiring additional 
room. Mrs. Smith remembers the meal as a substantial 
boiled dinner of beef and vegetables, and very abundant^ 
Meat was furnished regularly to the school by one of the 
patrons, a pioneer named Black, whose three boys were 
in attendance. Large bands of cattle were already 
owned by the settlers. Grandma Brown also had a fine 



290 JANE KINNEY SMITH. 

kitchen garden as time went on, and provided early 
vegetables. The girl was also impressed with the neat- 
ness and tastefulness of the table. There was a white 
cloth ; and the sugar bowls, salt cellars and spoonholders, 
which were made of cardboard, were neatly covered with 
fancy calico. Mrs. Smith also tells how she remembered 
the time of the year. It was when wild strawberries 
were ripe, and in the afternoon the girls were given 
some cups and told that they might gather berries. 
They did so, the wild fruit growing in great abundance 
and of luscious flavor; all except the new girl. She, 
thinking this was a boarding school, did not know why 
she should pick strawberries. But at supper she found 
she was the only one who had none to eat. 

Mrs. Brown, however, at once made her at home, and 
indeed made her a companion, sharing with her her own 
room. Mrs. Brown was known as Grandma to all the 
pupils. She was even then an elderly woman, past 
sixty years of age. In person she was small and slight, 
not weighing over 108 pounds. She also walked with a 
cane, one of her limbs being weakened from paralysis. 
Above a delicate face, with blue eyes, there was gray 
hair ; yet in manner and expression she was always 
young, and made herself a companion rather than a dis- 
ciplinarian. She often told Mrs. Smith of her trip across 
the Plains. She was from the East, and of a cultivated 
family, who were in good circumstances. She had 
married an Episcopal minister, who died early, leaving 
her a family of two boys and one girl. With these she 
went at an early day to Missouri, and there opened a 
school, making of it a success both educationally and 
financially. However, she decided to come to Oregon, 
partly, perhaps, on account of an uncle of her husband's, 
a Captain Brown, who was very old, but believed a trip 
to Oregon would prolong his life. The trip was made 



MRS. TABITHA BROWN. 291 

in 1846, and the latter part of the way by the Applegate 
route, by the Umpqua Valley into the Willamette. 
This proved very severe, and Mrs. Brown was compelled 
to come alone over the Cascades with the old captain, 
whom she expected might die of exhaustion at any 
moment. For several nights she camped alone in the 
mountains, or ''worse than alone,' as she said, not 
daring to sleep, but to watch by the fire to keep the wild 
animals away and take care of her charge. 

Once arrived at Salem she was entirely destitute, not 
having even a cent left ; but one day, placing her hand 
in an old glove, she felt a coin. It proved to be a pica- 
yune. The glove suggested an idea. With the picayune 
she bought three buckskin needles, and with a dress 
bought deerskins of the Indians and made men's gloves. 
Selling these she invested the proceeds in more mate- 
rials, and was soon doing a good business making and 
selling these articles. Becoming acquainted she was 
invited by some of the missionary families to their homes. 
She paid a visit first to W. W. Raymond's, in the spring 
of 1847, on Clatsop Plains, and afterwards to Rev. Har- 
vey Clark's, at West Tualatin or Forest Grove. One 
day, riding with Mr. Clark and noticing the fine situa- 
tion where the Pacific University campus now is, she 
said that this was the place for a school. Mr. Clark 
readily fell in with the idea, but feared that there would 
be no one to conduct the necessary boarding department. 
Mrs. Brown offered to do this herself, and opened a home 
for pupils of all ages, herself acting as teacher until 
others were found. 

Mr. Clark, who had come to Oregon as an independent 
missionary, and was one of the most benevolent and 
generous of men, both in sentiment and action, had 
already with his wife, conducted a school on the East 
Tualatin Plain, in the neighborhood of the settlement of 



292 JANE KINNEY SMITH. 

the old American Rocky-mountain men, Meek, Wilkins, 
Ebbarts, and Walker. He now owned the present site 
of Forest Grove, and being assured that Mrs. Brown 
would and could successfully carry out the plan of an 
educational institution, gladly welcomed this as the op- 
portunity. It is noteworthy that this plan was in line 
with a suggestion of Doctor Whitman's, that as the 
United States Government would undoubtedly confirm 
the act of the Provisional Government of Oregon, granting 
a square mile of land to each family, there was a great 
opportunity open for Christian familes to form colonies 
and acquire contiguous claims, and donate sufficient of 
their lands to establish schools. It is not improbable 
that Mr. Clark, as well as Mr. A. T. Smith, who were 
intimate friends of Whitman, and Rev. Elkanah Walker, 
who was an associate, were fully acquainted with this 
plan for schools. At all events this was the plan fol- 
lowed at Forest Grove ; and Tualatin Academy, after- 
wards united with Pacific University, received its first 
endowment in land from the donation claims of the set- 
tlers there. Mr. Clark gave one half his donation land 
claim. 

While the school was not intended as a charity the terms 
were so reasonable that any could attend, being but a 
dollar per week, including board and tuition. As was 
natural in the case of immigrants just crossing the 
Plains, there were men with families of children, left 
alone by the death of the mother. Some of these were 
placed in school at Mother Brown's. During her first 
term at the school Mrs. Smith recalls the following as in 
attendance : Eliza Spalding, who with her parents had 
recently come from the scenes of the Whitman massacre, 
and could tell stories only too heartrending of that sad 
affair ; Mary Ann Butts and several younger children of 
the same family ; a Miss Kimsay, usually so styled, though 



MRS. TABITHA BROWN. 293 

but a girl of twelve ; the three boys of William Black ; 
Emeline Stuart, later Mrs. Lee Laughlin, the banker of 
McMinnville, and Mrs. Brown's two granddaughters, 
Teresa and Caroline, the former becoming Mrs. Zachary, 
and the latter Mrs. Robert Porter. These two grand- 
daughters assisted in the housework, although Mrs. Brown 
herself conducted all household affairs personally. 

Mrs. Brown was exceedingly quiet and cheerful in her 
ways and Mrs. Smith can not recollect a single case of in- 
subordination or discipline, so orderly arid intelligent was 
"Grandma's" management. All the various household 
affairs were punctually ordered, meals being on time, and 
retiring and getting up in the morning promptly observed. 
At dusk Mrs. Brown would call the children in from their 
play, and arranging themselves at their seats they re- 
peated together an evening prayer. In the morning, 
especially Sundays, she would waken her household by 
singing, and as her voice was still sw^eet and strong, and 
her singing good, this made the children feel cheerful all 
the week. This lady was also something of a mechanic, 
and contrived many little conveniences, one being a clay- 
made oven, which was the admiration of the neighbor- 
hood ; having been constructed by simply a wooden frame- 
work, of proper size, over which was placed a sufficiency 
of well-mixed clay, after which the woodwork was burned 
out, and other fuel added until the clay was hardened 
into something like brick. 

All the holidays were properly observed, and Mrs. 
Brown took as much interest as the children in seeing 
that suitable dresses were provided for the girls. The 
matter of cloth for gay clothes was not an easy one to 
arrange. The dress goods in the territory were still 
mostly obtained from the Hudson Bay stores, and their 
trade was still mostly calculated for native taste, the white 
women often found it difficult to get what they wanted. 



294 JANE KINNEY SMITH. 

Mrs. Smith well remembers how her new dress was spoiled 
for her. It was the custom of the company's clerks to 
lay out a large bolt of print goods, for instance, and sell 
only from this until it was disposed of. The only avail- 
able calico for the girl's new school dress was from a piece 
with a strikingly large figure ; but great was her disgust 
to find on entering the schoolroom that her teacher, a 
young man, had a school coat made from the same bolt 
of calico, with the impressively large figure, though he 
came from Clatsop and she from Yamhill. This was joke 
enough to last the girls all the term. Mother Brown, 
however, circumvented the restriction of the company so 
far as to watch her chance and buy a whole bolt of cloth 
at a time, getting in that way, for one picnic occasion, 
enough muslin to dress the whole band of young girls in 
white. Who can reckon the world of happiness that these 
simple acts of kindliness brought to the little girls, some 
of them "mitherless bairns' and all of them feeling 
keenly the privations of a new and little improved terri- 
tory? Or who can tell the good that such simple devices 
brought to the young community, made up of so many 
heterogeneous elements, and with the tendency always to 
sink toward the level of the surrounding barbarity? It 
was by such ways and acts that a refined society was 
established, possessing in many ways a charm that our 
later and more differentiated culture has lost. 

The teachers of that early school were persons of high 
education, and much varied experience, although not 
having the specialized culture of the present day. These 
were Lewis Thompson, the pioneer Presbyterian mis- 
sionary of the present boundaries of Oregon ; Rev. Mr. 
Spalding, and Mr. Wm. Geiger. Miss Mary Johnson, 
of Oregon City, was also employed at one time. Mr. 
Geiger was the singing teacher. He was general master 
of ceremonies on all occasions ; training the children 



MRS. TABITHA BROWN. 295 

once for a Fourth of July temperance picnic held on the 
North Plain. This was a day of great remembrance to 
the pupils; and the songs then learned, "Flowers, 
Wildwood Flowers,' and "The Temperance Banner,' 
still are as fresh in Mrs. Smith's mind as on that day 
nearly fifty years ago. 

This is intended as but an introduction to a fuller 
sketch of Mrs. Brown. Mrs. Kinney, her great grand- 
daughter, has agreed to furnish many more of the par- 
ticulars of her work, and to gather as nearly as possible 
her letters still in the family possession. It is hoped 
that these may be presented to the readers of the QUAR- 
TERLY at no distant date. Mrs. Brown's home grew and 
flourished, so that her house had to be enlarged, and so 
careful was she about useless expenditures that her own 
private funds became quite a comfortable competence, 
for those days, enabling her to donate, or bequeath, 
actual cash, or property, for further educational work. 

' H. S. LYMAN. 

I have read the above and find it very satisfactory and correct. 

JANE K. SMITH. 
ASTORIA, November 25, 1901. 



The following is the narrative of a pioneer of 1852, 
who is, however, at the age of sixty-five, still an active 
business man, and who belongs not so distinctively to 
the early pioneer period of settlement as to the -second 
pioneer period that of early enterprises and the busi- 
ness ventures that have determined business arrange- 
ments and channels of trade. This is a field that the 
Historical Society has yet scarcely entered upon, and it 
should be approached cautiously, as it is thus far with- 
out historical perspective, nor free from local predisposi- 
tions. Nevertheless, the great advantage of collecting 
such data as opportunity offers, while the pioneers of 
enterprise are still with us and in active mind, is so ap- 
parent, that the scruples of these men themselves, who 
hesitate to present for public perusal what is so personal, 
may be set aside. Sooner or later the public claims all 
worthy life and action. 

The following is taken mainly from a letter written 
by Mr. Warren to a relative at the East, interested in 
family history, and is, therefore, even more of family 
interest than the usual pioneer reminiscences ; but to the 
historian and sociologist these records are of much more 
interest than the usual political history to which such 
exclusive attention is commonly given. Study of gen- 
ealogies, even, has ceased, under modern historical 
methods, to be exclusive or egotistical, and throws valu- 
able light upon our most perplexing social problems. 
In the case of Mr. Warren, for instance, the question of 
what has become of the old New England revolutionary 
stock has some answer, and the persistence of the char- 



REMINISCENCES. 297 

acteristics of the New Englander is well exhibited. New 
England industry, New England enterprise, the New 
England community and the New England home appear 
wherever the New England blood has gone, no matter 
through what vicissitudes it may have been drawn. 

Mr. Warren's great grandfather, Phineas Warren, 
was a first cousin to Gen. Joseph Warren, of revolution- 
ary fame, and was born in Boston, Mass., about the year 
1745. His grandfather was born at Marlborough, Vt., 
in the memorable year 1776, and his grandmother, Mary 
Knight, in 1777. The infancy of these children was 
certainly during the days and years to develop all the* 
native faculties of activity and fortitude. This was per- 
haps shown in the patriarchal family that came to them, 
consisting of seven sons and three daughters, who grew 
to maturity. The fourth child, Danford, was the father 
of D. K. Warren, and of the three other sons who made 
Oregon their home in 1852. Danford Warren was born 
in 1.806, in Saratoga County, New York. This shows 
the slow drift of American life westward, which was so 
much accelerated half a century later. Mr. Warren's 
mother, Amanda Pike, was born in Springfield, Mass., 
April 9, 1808. 

They were married at Bath, Steuben County, N. Y., in 
1830, and their family was four boys, of w^hom D. K. was 
the youngest. He was born March 12, 1836, at Bath. 
The family history, until that time moving with the hope 
and happiness of the earlier American life, was now, how- 
ever, sadly changed for the worse. The father was cut 
off prematurely at the age of thirty-one, by brain fever. 
Mr. Warren thus describes the burden that then fell upon 
his mother : "My mother was left upon a small and un- 
productive farm in western New York to battle for bread 
for herself and her four little boys. The farm contained 
only 110 acres, two thirds of which was covered with 



298 DANIEL KNIGHT WARREN. 

timber and brush, and but a few acres were susceptible 
of cultivation. Therefore my mother was compelled to 
support her 4 little brood in some other way. This she 
did for five years after the death of my father by spin- 
ning the wool and flax with which to make the clothing 
not only for the family, but burning the midnight oil (or 
tallow candle) in cutting, fitting, and making clothes for 
others and for the trade.' However, this life of hard 
work was comfort and peace compared with what fol- 
lowed owing to an unfortunate second marriage. The 
commendable traits of the stepfather's character, says 
*Mr. Warren, were "that he was temperate and indus- 
trious, and finally accumulated considerable property in 
Illinois ;' but such was his brutality in the family as to 
destroy all comfort or peace at home. The caprices of 
this man merit recollection only for the bearing they 
had upon directing the four sons toward their journey 
to Oregon. The neighbors at length were so outraged 
as to drive the stepfather from the community, and he 
went to Illinois, then the far West. Here he seemed to 
have reformed, and made so favorable an impression 
upon the uncle of the lads as to win from him a recom- 
mendation for the mother to again live with him. The 
family therefore went to Illinois in 1848, making a new 
home at Princeton ; but this soon proved as unhappy as 
the old. The boys found work with the neighbors, from 
whom the stepfather attempted to collect their pay, and 
they were in fact forbidden to see their mother, on pain 
of severe punishment. This led to troubles and scenes 
which made it almost imperative to break forever all 
home ties, and separation from their devoted mother 
was the least of the evils. D. K. found work with a 
kindly farmer named Judd, at Princeton, and although 
but a slender lad of thirteen, performed his work so well 
that at the end of the year he received pay at the rate of 



REMINISCENCES. 299 

$12 a month a dollar more than the wages of grown 
men. He worked here during the summers for three 
years, but during winters attended school, working in 
term time only for his board. Here he began his first 
business venture, investing his limited earnings in live 
stock colts and horses and at the age of sixteen found 
himself possessor of $250 cash and a fine span of horses. 
This, as he now says, was as good a piece of financiering 
as he has ever done since. 

In 1852 the four boys, the oldest of whom was not yet 
twenty -one, and the youngest but sixteen, put together 
their earnings, or its proceeds, and fitted out a four- 
horse team for the trip to Oregon. To this adventurous 
enterprise they were incited by acquaintance with 
Thomas Mercer, of Princeton, 111., who had become 
an enthusiast for Oregon, and although a leading man 
in the growing community of a great and growing 
state, gave up all and gathered his family and goods 
into emigrant wagons, bound for the Pacific shores. He 
became one of the early pioneers of Seattle, locating a 
claim in the then deep woods beyond Lake Union, and 
acquired property which at length became very valuable. 
He had the great misfortune, however, on the journey 
to Oregon to lose his wife, who died at the cascades. 
With Mercer the Warrens effected a business arrange- 
ment, selling him their team for $100 per head for the 
horses, with the option to buy back at the end of the 
journey at the same price, and paying him $100 each for 
passage in the train, doing their share of the work, 
which included guard duty every fourth night. 

The company was not fully organized until the Mis- 
souri River was reached at Council Bluffs. The train 
left Princeton about the first of April, and crossed the 

Mississippi at New Boston, near the mouth of Iowa 
6 



300 DANIEL KNIGHT WARREN. 

River ; thence the route traveled lay through Pella, 
Oskaloosa, and Winterset, in Iowa, to Council Bluffs, or 
Kanesville, as then called, which was nearly all wild 
country. 

They camped at these old Indian meeting grounds by 
the Missouri, resting the horses for a couple of weeks 
and awaiting the arrival of other members of the party. 
The company as finally organized consisted of the fol- 
lowing : Captain, Thomas Mercer, who was accom- 
panied by his wife and four children ; Aaron Mercer and 
wife ; Dexter Horton, wife and child ; Rev. Daniel Bag- 
ley, wife and child ; Rev. W. F. West and wife ; Ashby 
West, James Rossnagle, Wm. Shoudy ; George Gould, 
wife, son and daughter ; John Pike, an uncle of Mr. 
Warren's ; Daniel Drake, and the four young men War- 
ren. There were several others who were with this train 
at the start, but did not continue with it the entire jour- 
ney. This was, it will be noticed, a small company, and 
shows the disposition of the emigrants of the '50s to 
break up or form small parties, as the big companies 
of the '40s had been found unwieldy. There were about 
fourteen wagons and forty horses. Sixteen men of the 
company constituted the guard, and each was thus re- 
quired to stand guard every fourth night, two men at a 
time, the first watch being relieved at midnight. 

In the above list we recognize the familiar names of 
Horton and Bagley, as well as Mercer. These became 
pioneers of Seattle, Horton engaging early in mercantile 
pursuits, trading up and down the Sound, and finally 
undertaking the banking business, being for a time in 
partnership with W. S. Ladd of Portland. He acquired 
property and erected some of the best buildings in that 
truly queenly city, the New York block being projected 
almost before the ashes of the great fire were cold. Rev. 
Daniel Bagley became identified with the religious and 



REMINISCENCES. 301 

educational life of the young commonwealth of Wash- 
ington, as that part of Oregon was soon constituted, and 
from his labors sprang the University of Washington. 
Mr. Horton is still in his vigor, and Mr. Bagley still 
enjoys a green old age at eighty-three. Captain Mercer 
is no longer living. 

Mr. Warren recalls his life on the Plains as furnishing 
the basis of a thrilling story, with its daily round of toil 
and change, with the alterations of plains and moun- 
tains and deserts, and incidents of buffaloes, Indians, 
and wolves, " along a track of more than 150 camp fires, 
which dotted the line for nearly 2,000 miles.' He 
makes note, however, of only the following particulars 
of his journey : 

I. In regard to the general health of our company. That dread 
scourge, the cholera, broke out among- the emigrants along the Platte 
River, and for days and weeks we were rarely out of sight of a new 
made grave. Our company, however, left but one, Mrs. Gould, from 
Iowa, who died with cholera at Elm Creek, on Platte River; but many 
members of our company were sick along this part of the route. My 
health was good until we reached the Powder River in Eastern Ore- 
gon, where I was taken with mountain fever and did not recover 
until I reached the end of the journey. The wife of Capt. Thomas 
Mercer died at the cascades of the Columbia, within but one day's 
travel of the end of her journey, leaving four little girls. 

II. The Indians. We were very fortunate in getting through 
without serious trouble from them. On one occasion, a very dark 
night, they made a bold attempt to steal our horses, but were 
promptly checked by the guards, who were Dexter Horton and my- 
self. The Indians were armed with bows and arrows, and in the 
skirmish for the possession of the horses an arrow was shot through 
my coat and vest under the left arm. With the knowledge that we 
now have of the Indian character, it seems. remarkable, and we were 
indeed fortunate, that we were not left on the desolate plain without 
a single horse, as they could easily have stampeded our horses in 
spite of the guards almost any day or night between the Rocky Moun- 
tains and Snake River. On account of the scarcity of grass through 
that desolate region we were compelled to keep horsemen constantly 
scouting for grass, and at times sending from one to three miles from 
camp in the night in order to obtain sufficient grass to keep the horses 



302 DANIEL KNIGHT WARREN. 

alive ; and only the regular guard of four went with them. We lost 
only one horse, however, on the trip, and that was bitten by a rattle- 
snake on Burnt River. (In the above brief description are included 
many adventures. Once, when the horses were needing good pasture 
most, Mr. Warren was guided out a long distance from camp over the 
parched plains to a bit of grass, selected by an inexperienced or unob- 
servant companion, only to find that the "grass " was simply a patch 
of wild flag, or iris, which the horses would not touch ; and the dis- 
gust of Captain Mercer, as the animals came back hollow and weakened 
by further fasting, knew no bounds.) 

III. Our route. As before stated, we crossed the Missouri at 
Omaha; thence up the north side of the Platte River and up the 
Sweetwater River to the South Pass : thence to Green River. At 
Soda Springs, on Bear River, we diverged from the California route 
toward the northwest to Fort Hall, on the Snake River; thence prac- 
tically down the Snake River (cutting across the Blue Mountains by 
the Grande Ronde) to the Columbia. Our whole route being sub- 
stantially that of the Union Pacific Railroad (and the Oregon Short 
Line branch). 

From The Dalles, where the first outposts of the Ore- 
gon settlements were seen, the older settlements on the 
Walla Walla having been abandoned after the Whitman 
massacre, and that valley not being occupied again by 
whites until after the war of 1855-56, the journey was 
by the Columbia. The wagons were embarked upon 
flatboats and transported down to the cascades, and 
thence by the old portage to a steamer, on which they 
came to Portland. 

First experiences in Oregon were even more adventur- 
ous than on the Plains, and the four young men found 
that hard work and privation were as necessary here as 
ever in Illinois ; but to this they were not averse, being 
both by nature and training disposed to take work or 
danger wherever these met them . They arrived at Port- 
land, September 9, 1852, then a small but ambitious 
town in the woods ; but were here detained by the sick- 
ness of his brother, P. C. Warren. Upon his conva- 
lescence the others began the search for employment. 
George and Frank went down the Columbia and found 



REMINISCENCES. 303 

work at a sawmill at Astoria, where they were later 
joined by P. C. D. K. determined to try his luck at the 
gold fields in the valley of the Rogue River, Southern 
Oregon. At the Umpqua, having covered about 200 
miles of his journey, he found employment in ferrying 
across the North Fork at Winchester. In December he 
continued his journey, arriving finally at Jump-off- Joe. 
The hardships of the journey and the intensely cold 
weather of that season, which was one of the most severe 
ever experienced, proved too much for the strength of 
the lad. He was taken with lung fever, being predis- 
posed to this disorder from a previous attack the year 
before in Illinois. He lay sick in the camp of three 
brothers of the name of Raymond, who procured for him 
a physician of the old school, whose main prescription 
was to forbid him drinking water. In his raging fever 
and delirium this was a torture that still remains in mem- 
ory, and if he had not eluded his nurse one night, and 
gone to the spring at the door, under a bank of snow, 
and drunk his fill, though so weak as to be unable to get 
back, and being found in the snow, he thinks the fever 
would have terminated fatally. At any rate with the 
draught of water the fever subsided, and health slowly 
returned. 

He found work in the mines until spring opened, but 
seeing little hope of financial success concluded to go to 
Astoria, where work at better wages could be had in the 
sawmill. He had but $10 with which to make the jour- 
ney, and that at a time when the roughest fare cost a 
dollar a meal. He worked his way, however, reaching 
Astoria in June. It was probably fortunate that he left 
the Rogue River as he did, since in the fall of '53 there 
was the memorable Indian outbreak, and the miners that 
escaped with life only were to be congratulated. The 



304 DANIEL KNIGHT WARREN. 

house in which he had lain sick was burned, and his 
physician, Doctor Rose, was killed by the Indians. 

At Astoria, where he arrived with only the clothes he 
wore and $3.00 cash, he found work in a logging camp, 
at the mouth of the Walluski River. He was paid $75 
per month, but after three months his employer broke up 
and absconded. Mr. Warren says, however, that he "did 
not claim all the credit for his failure, as there were ten 
others working for the man.' What was another's ex- 
tremity proved Mr. Warren's opportunity, as he soon 
went to logging on his own account, and continued this 
with fair success until the summer of '55, when he de- 
termined to try once more his luck in the mines. He 
went up the Columbia to the Colville district, taking a 
claim at the mouth of the Pen d'Oreille ; but this enter- 
prise was soon broken off by the general Indian uprising 
of that year, and the miners were compelled to seek safety 
in flight. 

Returning to Astoria in '55, being then nineteen years 
old, Mr. Warren resumed his logging operations, and con- 
tinued until '59. In the mean time he purchased a tract 
of 360 acres of timber land on the Columbia, thirteen 
miles above Astoria. This was on the present site of 
Knappa. Life here was free and busy, but not altogether 
satisfactory to the young man. He had a few acres in 
cultivation, and a small house, a barn, and a young or- 
chard. On this little place he "batched" a part of the time, 
alternating this, when it became monotonous, with board- 
ing at a neighbor's ; but tiring of a life that offered so 
few advantages, especially in the way of society or per- 
sonal culture, he decided to return to Illinois, and made 
the journey in company with his brother, P. C. Warren. 
They left Astoria in February of 1860 on the steamship 
Panama for San Francisco ; thence on the Cortez to the 
Isthmus, which they crossed upon the railroad then but 



REMINISCENCES. 305 

lately completed ; and finished the journey on the steam- 
ship Ariel, the same which was afterwards captured on 
this line by the privateer Alabama in 1863. After visit- 
ing the old home at Bath a few weeks he went on to 
Princeton, 111., and remained in that state until 1863. 
This he speaks of as the most remarkable period of his 
life, as he here renewed an old acquaintance, and on 
February 24, of the year last named, was married to Sarah 
Elizabeth Eaton. This lady was the only daughter of 
John L. and Lovey B. Eaton, who were of the pioneer 
and revolutionary stock of New England, and who were 
among the pioneers of the then far west, having moved 
from Salisbury, N. H.,to Illinois in 1845, when the sub- 
ject of this sketch was but five years old. This was an 
event and experience, which Mr. Warren describes as 
"lifting him to a higher plane and a better life.' 

He looks back, however, with surprise upon the confi- 
dence with which Mrs. Warren, then but a girl in years, 
accompanied him on the return journey of 7,000 miles, 
and undertook life amid the privations of pioneer days 
in Oregon, for they decided to return to the little clear- 
ing on the Columbia. Pleasant visits with friends in 
New York were quickly followed by the sea voyage, 
upon which, off Cape Hatteras, a terrible storm was 
encountered, making the trip to the Isthmus double its 
usual length. The steamship on the return from 
Panama was the Constitution, to San Francisco, and 
from that city the Brother Jonathan, whose wreck subse- 
quently is still remembered as thrilling all the scattered 
settlements of Oregon with sorrow and sympathy. They 
arrived at Astoria on May 2, and soon undertook pioneer 
life on the farm by the Columbia. They were not in 
affluent circumstances. Mr. Warren recalls that after 
buying such furniture as was necessary, and a small 
stock of provisions, he had but $4.00 cash left. How- 



306 DANIEL KNIGHT WARREN. 

ever, this stringency was but a small impediment to 
their spirit of enterprise and did not at all mar their 
happiness. 

Mr. Warren's business was chiefly rafting logs to 
Astoria, and this required that he should often be absent 
from home, and Mrs. Warren remembers the courage 
that it required, or must be assumed, to remain alone at 
such times and care for the home. She tells of one day 
when she was thus alone that the entire place was sur- 
rounded by Indians who had become intoxicated, and 
although usually they were tractable when sober, she 
did not know what they might attempt while thus ex- 
hilarated, but she sang around the house, doing her 
work and attending to the baby with the greatest show 
of unconcern ; and perhaps this cool manner saved 
trouble. 

Neither was it all pleasure on the river where Mr. 
Warren navigated the rafts. In the daytime and dur- 
ing serene weather there was no difficulty, but logs had 
to go at other times also. He tells of one night off 
Tongue Point, an elevated headland that projects sharply 
a mile or more into the broad river, and where both 
wind and stream are violent in heavy weather, that the 
raft of logs which he and one other man were attempt- 
ing to handle became windbound, and all but went to 
pieces. The seas broke constantly over the end of the 
clumsy structure, and to make it worse, the gale, having 
risen suddenly from the east, was piercingly cold, freez- 
ing the spray as it fell. At another time he lost a raft 
in the breakers near the mouth of the Columbia, and 
narrowly escaped with his life. 

After seven years on the farm and rafting on the river, 
a mercantile and market business was undertaken at 
Astoria. It is worthy of mention that in connection 
with the market business the firm, Warren & McGuire, 



REMINISCENCES. 307 

ran the first market wagon in Astoria, in 1876 ; and that 
Mr. Warren owned the horse that drew the first wagon, 
and kept the animal until his death, which occurred at 
the patriarchal age, for a horse, of thirty-four. It is 
also to be noted that the first street improvement in 
Astoria, being that part of Ninth Street between Astor 
and Duane, three blocks, was made by Mr. Warren's 
brother, G. W. Warren. This was done in the fall of 
'53, and consisted of filling it up to the established 
grade with sawdust from Parker's mill ; being a depth 
of about three feet. The work was through a swamp 
almost the entire distance.' 

In connection with the market business, quite a portion 
of which was in contracts for supply of Fort Stevens army 
post, it was found convenient to pasture cattle on the tide 
lands west of Astoria, across Young's Bay. This led to 
purchase of considerable tracts of this land by himself 
and his brother, P. C. Warren, along both banks of Skip- 
anon Creek, which w r inds for several miles through the 
natural meadows laid down by the action of the tides 
along the Columbia River's estuary. Mr. Warren had 
already made some experiments in reclaiming such lands 
by diking, at Knappa, and was the first in this effort. 
He now attempted this on a larger scale and was so well 
pleased with the results that he at length inclosed his 
entire holding of several hundred acres. This was done 
in 1878. The land thus reclaimed has proved highly pro- 
ductive of hay and pasturage, and as the lower Columbia 
region alone has many thousands of acres of such lands, 
his success has led the way to a large development of re- 
sources considered before as of little value. 

After fourteen years at Astoria Mr. Warren decided to 
retire upon his farm at Skipanon, and there made a de- 
lightful home amid the most pleasant surroundings. He 
has made almost a model farm, with a large and elegant 



308 DANIEL KNIGHT WARREN. 

residence, and orchard and fields, whose product fill his 
immense barns to overflowing ; but business habits proved 
too strong to be broken, and although nominally on the 
retired list, he continued actively in business, taking up 
interest in banking, sawmills, steamboats, and railroads. 
A share of his time was given also during this period to 
public service, and he successfully filled several local 
positions with honor, and also served a term in the state 
legislature, as joint senator from Clatsop, Tillamook, and 
Columbia counties in 1876. 

Railroad development in Clatsop County, of which Mr. 
Warren was a pioneer, and became president of the short 
Seaside line of sixteen miles first built, placed new value 
upon his farm property. Here was found the most con- 
venient place for railroad shops and yards. Here there- 
fore he decided to lay off a town site, which appropriately 
took the name of Warrenton. This is now the central 
part of what is known as the Westside. In Warrenton 
the New Englander's ideas of utility and beauty in a 
village or city have reappeared. The streets are broad, 
and carefully kept. Shade trees are planted along the 
lanes, and careful provision for schools, churches, and 
public libraries has been made. A liberal policy has been 
followed by Mr. Warren to induce residents to build hand- 
some houses, lots having been given in numerous in- 
stances on the simple condition that fitting improvements 
be made. The handsome schoolhouse, costing $1,100, 
was built and donated, together with the grounds on which 
it stands, by Mr. Warren. He has offered the most lib- 
eral conditions of use of his water frontage, and it is not 
improbable that the ample tide-land meadows of War- 
renton will become in time the manufacturing district of 
Astoria. This, however, is for the future. 

The lesson of his life, as Mr. Warren sees it, is that 
there is always rew r ard for industry, and that opportunity 



REMINISCENCES. 309 

has rather widened than diminished since the early days. 
To his own sons and daughters his enterprises have opened 
the way to the most desirable opportunities in society and 
business ; and to many other young persons, either di- 
rectly through his own home, or indirectly through the 
work he has always managed to furnish, he has provided 
the way to work and success ; having constantly, since 
the age of nineteen, given employment to a number of 
men. 

The general success of Mr. Warren's enterprises em- 
phasizes the truth, which all founders of communities 
and town builders should ponder, that liberal rather than 
narrow interpretations of business laws will in the end 

show the greatest results. 

H. S. LYMAN. 



A copy of the orders to Captain Biddle, United States 
Navy, to command the U. S. S. Ontario when sent out 
and to resume possession for the United States of the 
post and territory at the mouth of the Columbia ; also 
an extract from the log of that vessel covering the period 
from June 30, 1818, when she sailed from Lima, Peru, 
to August 30, 1818, the date of the commencement of 
her return voyage to that port, after her cruise to the 
Columbia River ; and Captain Biddle 's official report of 
his work : 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, May 12, 1817. 
CAPT. JAMES BIDDLE, Philadelphia: 

SIR : Proceed to New York and assume the command of the U. S. 
ship Ontario destined for immediate service. This order is given 
with a desire to meet your wishes, as frequently expressed, for active 

employment. 

B. W. CROWNINSHIELD. 

EXTRACT FROM LOG OF THE U. S. S. ONTARIO, CAPT. JAMES BIDDLE. 

I sailed from Lima on the thirtieth of June (1818) and arrived off the 
Columbia River on the nineteenth of August at daylight. The en- 
trance to this river is rendered difficult to vessels so large as the Onta- 
rio by the shoalness of the water on its bar, by its sinuous channel, 
and by the strength and irregularity of its tides. As it was not indis- 
pensable to the service I had to perform that the ship should enter the 
river, I anchored outside the bar, and proceeded in with three boats 
well armed and manned with more than fifty officers and seamen. I 
landed at a small cove within Cape Disappointment on the north side 
of the river, and here, in the presence of several of the natives, dis- 
playing the flag of the United States, turning up a sod of soil, and 
giving three cheers, I nailed up against a tree a leaden plate in which 
were cut the following words: 

TAKEN POSSESSION OF IN THE NAME AND ON THE 

BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES, BY CAPTAIN 

JAMES BIDDLE, COMMANDING THE UNITED STATES 

SHIP ONTARIO. COLUMBIA KIVER, AUGUST, ISIS. 



DOCUMENTS. 311 

While this was passing on shore, the ship fired a salute. When this 
ceremony was concluded, I proceeded up to Chinoake village and vis- 
ited its chief, thence crossed the river and visited the settlement, 
which is 20 miles from Cape Disappointment, and on my way down the 
river I landed on its south side near Point George and took possession. 
I anchored with the boats for the night off Chinoake Point, and on the 
following morning I recrossed the bar and returned on board. 

As it was impracticable to bring wood and water in our boats to 
the ship without the bar, it became necessary to go into some neigh- 
boring port for a supply of these articles. The want also of fresh pro- 
visions, which can not be procured at the Columbia River, and which 
it was not prudent the crew should be longer without, rendered it ad- 
visable to enter a port in the vicinity. I therefore sailed for Monte- 
rey, where I arrived on the twenty-fifth of August. At this point I 
met the Russian sloop of war Kutusoff. 

Having completed wooding and watering, I sailed for Monterey on 
the thirtieth of August, and arrived on the twenty-second of October 
at Lima. 

U. S. SHIP ONTARIO, Aug. 19, 1818. 

SIR : I have the honor to inform you I have this day taken posses- 
sion, in the name and on the behalf of the United States, of both 
shores of the river Columbia ; observing in the performance of this 
service the ceremonies customary upon the like occasions of setting 
up a claim to national sovereignty and dominion. 

I have the honor to be with great respect, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

J. BIDDLE. 

The Hon. THE SECRETARY OF NAVY, Washington City. 

Letter from Iowa Territory, dated March 4, 1843, and 
signed "H.,' in National Intelligencer, April 18,1843. 
Copied from the New Haven Palladium : 



I suppose you of the East consider the present residents of Iowa 
the very pioneers of the West. Never was a greater mistake ; the 
true western pioneers have pushed on beyond us, or if here and there 
one still lingers, it is only that he may dispose of his farm and " im- 
provements " to push for a " new country." 

Strange, restless beings are the genuine pioneers. Among them 
you may find some who have helped to lay the foundations of every 
state from the "old thirteen" hither; men who have successfully 
held seats in every legislature, from Virginia to Iowa, inclusive, but 
who are now moving to a new country again to ' ' make a claim ; ' 
again to act a conspicuous part in the community in which they live ; 



312 DOCUMENTS. 



to run the political race, become the members of the legislature 
of some future state, find themselves thrown in the shade by those of 
greater attainments who follow in their wake, and again to push for 
the "new purchase." 

Fearlessness, hospitality, and independent frankness, united with 
restless enterprise and unquenchable thirst for novelty and change, 
are the peculiar characteristics of the western pioneers. With him 
there is always a land of promise further west, where the climate is 
milder, the soil more fertile, better timber and finer prairies ; and on, 
on, on, he goes, always seeking and never attaining the Pisgah of his 
hopes. You of the old states can not readily conceive the every-day 
sort of business an "old settler " makes of selling out his "improve- 
ments," hitching the horses to the big wagon, and, with his wife and 
children, swine and cattle, pots and kettles, household goods and 
household gods, starting on a journey of hundreds of miles to find 
and make a new home. 

Just now Oregon is the pioneer's land of promise. Hundreds are 
already prepared to start thither with the spring, while hundreds of 
others are anxiously awaiting the action of congress in reference to 
that country, as the signal for their departure. Some have already 
been to view the country, and have returned with a flattering tale of 
the inducements it holds out. They have painted it to their neighbors 
in the brightest colors ; these have told it to others ; the Oregon fever 
has broke out, and is now raging like any other contagion. Mr. Cal- 
houn was right when he told the senate that the American people 
would occupy that country independent of all legislation ; that in a 
few years the pioneers of the West would overrun it and hold it 
against the world. "Wilson, " said I a few days since to an old settler, 
"so you are going to Oregon." "Well, I is, horse. Tice Pitt was 
out looking at it last season, and he says it is a leetle the greatest 
country on the face of the earth. So I'm bound to go." "How do 
the old woman and the girls like the idea of such a long journey?" 
"They feel mighty peert about it, and Suke says she shan't be easy 
till we start." 

Extract from a lecture by George L. Hillard, on "The 
Connection Between Geography and History," delivered 
before the American Institute of Instruction at Hart- 
ford, Conn., August, 1845 : 

There are no considerable tracts of land wholly unfitted for agri- 
cultural purposes within the limits of the United States. Between us 
and the Pacific there is an extensive region of this kind of about 800 
miles in length and 600 miles in breadth, including the Rocky Moun- 



DOCUMENTS. 313 

tains, which run through it; a sandy, rocky tract not capable of sup- 
porting- a stationary agricultural population, and only to be safely 
traversed by persons in considerable numbers. Of the validity of our 
claims for this territory, I have not carefully informed myself, but all 
past history gives its testimony against the probable success of any 
attempt to combine into one political whole two great members thus 
disjoined. Nature interposes her veto by rearing her rocky walls and 
spreading out her dreary wastes of separation. She forbids the bans 
of such a union, and in this point of view alone I should hold our claim 
upon Oregon to be dearly maintained at the cost of one dollar of 
treasure or one drop of blood. 



VOLUME III.] 



DECEMBER, 19O2 



[NUMBER 4 



THE QUARTERLY 



OF THE 



OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



BEGINNING OF OREGON RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT. 

The March QUARTERLY contained two references to this 
subject, in treating of other questions. Both Professor 
Robertson and Mr. W. D. Fenton give accounts of the 
contest between the "East Side Line "and the "West Side 
Line" for the possession of the first grant of land to Ore- 
gon in aid of the construction of railroads. That con- 
tention between the two companies makes a memorable 
chapter in the history of the state. 

Being now the only survivor of the twenty-two men 
who made up the boards of directors of the two compa- 
nies contending for the land grant, I am impelled, at the 
risk of being thought governed by personal and contro- 
versial feeling (of which I am unconscious), and by the 
interest I have in historical accuracy on this subject, to 
make the following additions to, and corrections in the 
articles referred to : 

The contest referred to by Professor Robertson grew out 
of the desire to get possession of the land grant made by 
Congress on July 25, 1866. That grant, so far as it re- 
lated to Oregon, was, more than to any other person, due 
to the labors of Joseph Gaston, who, at Jacksonville, in 



316 JOSEPH GASTON. 

December, 1863, organized and put in the field a party of 
engineers to survey a railroad line from the state boundary 
north to the Columbia River through the Rogue River, 
Umpqua, and Willamette valleys. Gaston assumed all 
responsibility for the undertaking, furnished the outfit, 
raised the means to pay and subsist the party, wrote and 
printed the report of the engineers, paid for the maps, 
procured and sent hundreds of petitions to the legislature, 
and memorials to Congress, in favor of the land grant, 
conducted all the correspondence, answered all the objec- 
tions, and devoted his time for three years to the under- 
taking, and was recognized by the congressional delega- 
tions from both Oregon and California as the guiding and 
responsible promoter of an Oregon and California railroad 
on behalf of the State of Oregon. The act of Congress 
provided that so far as the grant related to Oregon, the 
lands should go to such corporation as the legislative 
assembly of Oregon should designate. At the ensuing 
session of the Oregon legislature, after the passage of the 
act granting the lands, Gaston prepared and had signed 
articles of incorporation, incorporating "The Oregon Cen- 
tral Railroad Company," which were read and discussed 
before the legislature, and filed according to law, and the 
legislature then passed a resolution designating the Oregon 
Central Railroad Company to receive the granted lands 
in Oregon, which resolution was afterwards filed with the 
Secretary of the Interior at Washington City, which officer 
recognized said company as entitled to the land grant in 
Oregon. The legislature went farther, and passed an act 
pledging the state to pay seven per cent interest on 
$1,000,000 of the company's first mortgage bonds to aid 
in construction of the road. 

Up to the date of these acts of the legislature, and for 
six months thereafter, no one questioned the proceedings 
of Gaston or the legality of his company ; but now sud- 



THE OREGON CENTRAL RAILROAD. 317 

denly appears on the scene one S. G. Elliot from California, 
and who had made the survey in that state. Mr. Elliot 
kindly proposed to take over the whole business, and re- 
lieve the Oregonians of the trouble of building their end 
of the line. He had a grand scheme which he proposed 
to unfold to a select few of the incorporators in the Oregon 
company. He proposed to take possession of the Oregon 
Central Railroad Company, and, by a board of directors 
in favor of his scheme, enter into a contract with a ficti- 
tious concern known in the deal as "A. J. Cook & Com- 
pany," for the construction of the road, and issue to Cook 
& Company $7,000,000 in stock and first mortgage bonds 
to the amount of $35,000 per mile of road for construction 
purposes ; $2,000,000 of which stock should be preferred 
interest-bearing stock, and should be by Cook & Company 
transferred back to the Oregon board of directors for their 
perquisites in the matter and for the purpose of influ- 
encing legislation in Oregon. 

When this scheme was proposed to Gaston he, under 
the advice of a large majority of the incorporators of the 
Oregon Central Company, rejected it and refused to be a 
party to it, and being in a position to defeat it, prevented 
the Oregon Central Railroad Company from being con- 
nected with it, and then the trouble commenced. Three 
of the incorporators out of twenty of the Oregon Central 
Company seceded, and with three other persons made and 
filed articles of incorporation on April 22, 1867, in the 
name of the Oregon Central Railroad Company. 

Here then were two companies both claiming the same 
corporate name, when in law and equity there could be 
but one entitled thereto. The east side company was not 
only open to the objection that it had usurped the corpo- 
rate name of a prior corporation, but also to the objection 
that it had violated the law of the state in its organiza- 
tion. For while its articles of incorporation provided for 



318 JOSEPH GASTON. 

a capital stock of $7,250,000, and the state law required 
that one half of this capital should be subscribed before 
the election of a board of directors, yet in violation of 
this law the east side company had been organized by a 
subscription of $100 each by six men, and then the six 
men present passing a resolution authorizing the so-called 
chairman of the meeting to subscribe $7,000,000 to the 
capital stock of the company in the name of the com- 
pany ; or, in other words, authorizing a man to lift him- 
self over a fence by the straps of his boots. These facts 
becoming known, Gaston lost no time in applying to the 
circuit court of Marion County for leave to test the legality 
of the east side company. This was refused by the pre- 
siding judge on the ground that no damages had been 
shown by the Oregon Central Company from the alleged 
unlawful usurpation of its name ; and so another tack 
must be tried. The opportunity came a few months 
later when the east side company sought to condemn the 
right of way for its railroad through a farmer's land in 
Clackamas bottom. Here the Oregon Central Company 
inspired the farmer to refuse the right of way and deny 
the legal corporate existence of the east side company ; 
and upon this issue a trial was demanded, but the east 
siders were too wary to submit their organization to such 
legal test, and immediately withdrew their suit of con- 
demnation, relocated their line, and avoided the farmer's 
land by a more circuitous route. 

Foiled again, the Oregon Central resolved to get into 
a court where there could be no dodging, and assigning 
one of its first mortgage bonds to James B. Newby, of 
California, Newby commenced a suit in the United 
States district court of Oregon, to enjoin the east side 
company from using the name " Oregon Central Eailroad 
Company," on the ground that such use was an injury 
to the value of his bond. Here was found a judge who 



THE OREGON CENTRAL RAILROAD. 319 

never shirked a responsibility, and after many months of 
dilatory special pleading by the east side company, Judge 
Deady decided, without evasion, that the prior adoption 
of a corporate name by a corporation appropriated the 
exclusive use of such name, and that a second company 
attempting to use such name could be enjoined from the 
use thereof without any showing of damages to the first 
appropriator. This decision was the death knell of the 
east side company, which made haste to incorporate and 
organize the Oregon and California Railroad Company, 
and to it made a transfer of all its property and franchises. 
Judge Deady's decision in that case is a landmark in the 
jurisprudence of the United States, being the only deci- 
sion up to that time ever made upon the question involved, 
and it has ever since been the law of every court through- 
out the Union. 1 

The Oregon Central Railroad Company, (then widely 
known as the west side company,) was thus vindicated in 
its right to the exclusive use of that name. Now let us 
see how the east side company stands in the light of hav- 
ing ever had a lawful existence. Not long after Judge 
Deady's decision, Ben Holladay and S. G. Elliot, who 
were partners in the A. J. Cook Company construction 
contract mentioned, quarreled over a division of their 
plunder, and Elliot brought suit for a settlement of part- 
nership affairs. Never was there a better illustration of 
the old maxim, "When rogues fall out, honest men get 
their dues," than was afforded by this law suit, which was 
finally decided by the Supreme Court of Oregon and re- 
ported on pages 85 to 99 of the eighth volume Oregon 
Reports. The decision states the facts that 

On the day the (Salem) corporation was formed six different persons 
subscribed one share each to this stock (stock of the company), and 
thereupon there was an attempt to subscribe seventy thousand shares 

1 See Deady's Reports, pp. 609 to 620. 



320 JOSEPH GASTON. 

by the company, of its own stock, by a subscription, as follows: "Ore- 
gon Central Railroad Company, by George L. Woods, chairman, sev- 
enty thousand shares seven million dollars." 

Farther along the decision recites the facts, that in ad- 
dition to the above, the directors of this Salem company 
issued $2,000,000 unassessable preferred stock, bearing 
interest at seven per cent per annum, and delivered the 
same to A. J. Cook & Company under a private under- 
standing that Cook & Company was to give back to these 
directors $1,000,000 of this preferred stock, to be used by 
them in procuring legislation in Oregon. On page 91 of 
the decision the court says : 

The attempt to subscribe seventy thousand shares to the stock of the 
Oregon Central Railroad Company, by the corporation itself through 
a person styling himself chairman, was done simply to evade the lia- 
bility which the law imposes on all persons who subscribe to the cap- 
ital stock of corporations. This action was a mere nullity, and added 
nothing to the amount of stock subscribed, which then was only six 
shares of one hundred dollars each. Those who subscribed the six 
shares then proceeded to elect directors and other officers of the cor- 
poration. The corporation was not organized according to law, but in 
direct violation of the statute, which provides that "it shall be lawful 
in the organization of any corporation to elect a board of directors as 
soon as one half the capital stock has been subscribed." In this case 
the attempted organization of the Oregon Central Railroad Company 
amounted to nothing. It was absolutely void. Nor did the joint or- 
ganization of the legislative assembly, adopted October 20, 1868, recog- 
nize this corporation as the one entitled to receive the land granted by 
act of Congress, to aid in the construction of a railroad, cure the in- 
herent defects of its organization. It had no power to legally transact 
any business nor to accept or hold the lands so granted. 

Farther along, on page 93 of the decision, in speaking 
of the value of the bonds issued by this company, the 
court says : 

Goldsmith and others had tried in vain to negotiate these bonds and 
found it impossible to sell them at any price. The evidence shows 
that they were worth nothing in the money markets of the country. 
Suits had been commenced in the United States circuit court and the 
circuit courts of this state against the Oregon and California Railroad 
Company to test the legality of its existence as a corporation, and 



THE OREGON CENTRAL RAILROAD. 321 

they had so far progressed as to foreshadow its overthrow. Joseph 
Gaston, the president of a rival corporation of the same name, known 
as the Oregon Central Railroad Company (west side) had issued circu- 
lars and sent them to bankers and brokers in the East, setting forth, 
in language more forcible than elegant, that "the corporation was a 
humbug, and its bonds were worthless." It was known that the com- 
pany was hopelessly insolvent. 

Such was the organization and end of the company 
Mr. Fenton seems to believe was the "Oregon Central 
Railroad Company.' It never was a corporation, and is 
entitled to no place in the history of the state as such. 
It may be inquired how that company finally secured the 
land grant if it had no legal standing or existence? The 
answer is, that after Elliot and his Oregon associates were 
practically beaten in the courts and before the people, 
and in a state of hopeless collapse, they made a hasty 
antemortem disposition of their effects to Ben Holladay, 
noticed by Professor Robertson. Holladay was every- 
thing that Professor Robertson paints him, and a great 
deal more and worse. Possessed of large wealth for that 
time, he came to Oregon to take up the east side wreckage 
and make something of it. He distributed his money 
with a lavish hand, subsidized newspapers, hired lawyers, 
and purchased politicians right and left ; and at the next 
ensuing session of the legislative assembly organized a 
hostelry at Salem, keeping "open house' ' to all comers, 
and so successfully plied susceptible members of the leg- 
islature that he was able with his money judiciously dis- 
tributed to secure from the legislature the passage of a 
resolution declaring that "The Oregon Central Railroad 
Company' ' had never been designated to receive the lands 
granted by Congress ; that such designation was yet to 
be made, and that "The Oregon Central -Railroad Com- 
pany of Salem' ' be designated to receive the grant. This 
action of the legislature, as Holladay afterward informed 
the writer hereof, cost him $35,000. This was the first 



322 JOSEPH GASTON. 

time in the history of the state its legislative assembly 
had been openly and unblushingly corrupted ; and the 
damage, disgrace, and dishonor thus inflicted on the com- 
monwealth far outweighed any possible benefit Holla- 
day's railroad enterprise ever did the state ; but armed 
with this resolution, Holladay proceeded to Washington 
City to induce Congress to set aside the acts of the Sec- 
retary of the Interior in recognizing the Oregon Central 
Railroad Company as entitled to the land grant. On this 
question the Oregon delegation divided, one senator 
espousing the cause of Holladay and the other remaining 
immovable in his support of the rightful claimant of the 
land grant. Congress finally adopted a compromise, and 
passed an act to give the land to the company which 
should first complete twenty miles of road ; and Holladay 
won the land grant on that stake. 

The Salem (east side) Company was not yet out of trouble. 
Notwithstanding it had purchased an indorsement from 
the Oregon legislature, and had been recognized by Con- 
gress as entitled to compete for the land grant, and had 
actually won it by completing the first twenty miles of the 
road, yet Judge Deady's decision was fairly a sentence of 
dissolution, death, and defeat. Conscious of its inherent 
illegal organization, and forbidden to use the corporate 
name it had unlawfully usurped, and without which it 
could neither raise money by selling bonds, or even con- 
demn the right of way for its road, it may well be imagined 
the east side company was in straits from which it required 
a master's hand for delivery. Its attorneys, doubtless, saw 
well enough what our supreme court afterwards decided, 
that it could neither take nor hold the land grant. In this 
dilemma Holladay applied to the distinguished New York 
lawyer Wm. M. Evarts, who was afterwards secretary of 
state under President Hayes, and who, after investigating 
the whole matter, devised the plan of incorporating a new 



THE OREGON CENTRAL RAILROAD. 323 

company "The Oregon and California Railroad Com- 
pany," to which corporation the Salem company trans- 
ferred all its effects. Mr. Evarts gave the legal opinion 
that inasmuch as Congress had recognized the Salem Com- 
pany as an Oregon corporation, and had extended to it the 
franchise of competing for the land grant, and the company 
had actually complied with the terms of such recognition 
by building twenty miles of railroad, and that franchise 
was a grant from the sovereign that no one could dispute 
but the grantor, and that if this grantee should transfer 
to a new and lawful corporation all its rights in the grant, 
the courts would respect and maintain such transfer in the 
possession of the grantee, and that it would be safe for 
capitalists to lend the new corporation money on such 
security ; and so the transfer of the Oregon and California 
Company was made, and bankers in Germany advanced 
the money on the first mortgage bonds of the company to 
build the road. For this service rendered by Mr. Evarts, 
Holladay paid a fee of $25,000. 

It might be inferred from the articles of Professor Rob- 
ertson and Mr. Fenton that the east side company was 
the popular one with the people of Oregon ; but this was 
not the fact. Both companies strenuously sought to 
enlist popular support ; and the Oregon Central (or west 
side) company succeeded to the extent of getting the Port- 
land city council to pass an ordinance pledging the city to 
pay the interest on $250,000 of the company's bonds for 
twenty years. A like pledge was made by the commis- 
sioners of Washington County, to the extent of $50,000 
of the company's bonds, and a like pledge by Yamhill 
County, to the extent of $75,000 of the company's bonds. 
In addition to this, citizens of Portland subscribed and 
paid for $50, 000 of the company's stock, citizens of Wash- 
ington County took $20,000 of the company's stock, and 
citizens of Yamhill County $25,000 ; while Couch and 



324 JOSEPH GASTON. 

Flanders of Portland gave the company ten blocks of land 
where the Union Depot now stands as an inducement to 
locate its Portland depot in the north of the city. 

On the other hand, the east side company applied to 
the Portland council for aid and indorsements, and was 
refused ; no aid was given them by citizens of Portland, 
and no one along their own line would take stock in their 
company. The people of Portland were not opposed to 
an east side railroad, but they were opposed to the methods 
the east side company were using to organize their com- 
pany and get the land grant. It is true that the east side 
company had the larger assemblage at their "ground 
breaking celebration, but it was not a spontaneous gather- 
ing. It had been widely advertised and worked up in the 
brass band whoop-and-hurrah style of a political meeting. 
The Oregon Central Company broke ground for the con- 
struction of its road on April 14, 1868, two days ahead 
of the east side event. The ceremony took place at the 
point where Woods Street, in Caruthers' Addition to Port- 
land, intersects the -line where the railroad is now con- 
structed. A brief announcement of the event was given 
in the local news columns of the Daily Oregonian a few 
hours before the ceremony took place, and thousands of 
the people responded and were promptly on the ground. 
Walter MofFatt, a public spirited citizen, contributed a 
wagon load of refreshments free to all, and there was an 
abundance of "real old Monongahela rye" for everybody 
to toast the enterprise and everything else, and the celebra- 
tion went off with a spirit which showed which railroad 
company was the popular favorite. Governor Gibbs and 
Col. W. W. Chapman made addresses which were cheered 
to the echo ; after which, the Daily Oregonian of the 15th 
describes the proceedings as follows : 

More speeches were called for, but some one called out, "Talk 
enough; let's go to work," and before anybody could have led off in 



THE OREGON CENTRAL RAILROAD. 325 

any other direction, the whole mass of the people, as if moved by one 
impulse, began to seize upon the shovels, picks, wheelbarrows, etc., 
and to start the carts toward the place of beginning 1 the first cut. 
The scene at this moment was one of the most animated ever witnessed 
in this city. Carts were hurried under the direction of Mr. Slavin to 
their places, were filled almost by magic, and hurried away, their 
places being instantly supplied by others. The people were cheering 
and giving all manner of demonstrations of joy. Many of them rushed 
in among the crowds of workmen, seized upon shovels and commenced 
throwing dirt as if for life. Others seized upon wheelbarrows, and, 
getting loads as fast as they could, hurried down the grade to the 
dumping place, just to say they had assisted in breaking ground. Old 
men, middle-aged men, young men, boys, and even ladies, vied with 
each other in good natured rivalry to throw dirt into the first cart. 
There were not shovels enough for all, and those who did not succeed 
in helping to fill the first cart struggled for a chance at the second, or 
the third, or the fourth, and so on. One lady, Mrs. David C. Lewis, 
wife of Engineer Lewis, was among the first to throw dirt into the 
carts, and was immensely cheered. 

That was the ground breaking for the first railroad in 
Oregon. 

After losing the land grant the Oregon Central Com- 
pany sent Mr. Gaston to Washington City in December, 
1869, where he was successful in getting from Congress a 
second grant of land to aid in constructing a railroad from 
Portland to McMinnville, with a branch from Forest Grove 
to Astoria ; and under which grant the road was con- 
structed to the Yamhill River at St. Joe. This was the 
last grant of land made by Congress as a subsidy to rail- 
roads ; and that part of the road proposed from Forest 
Grove to Astoria not having been constructed, the grant 
for such branch was forfeited by act of Congress in 1882. 
Had it been retained to the present the timber on this 
route would have made it the most valuable grant in the 
United States. 

During this memorable contest, the board of directors 
of the east side, or Salem Company, was composed of I. R. 
Moores, George L. Woods, E. N. Cooke, T. McF. Patton, 
John H. Moores, Jacob Conser, and John H. Miller, of 



326 JOSEPH GASTON. 

Marion County ; J. H. Douthitt, of Linn County ; F. A. 
Chenowith and Greenbury Smith, of Benton County ; 
S. Ellsworth and J. H. D. Henderson, of Lane County; 
Stephen F. Chadwick, of Umpqua County ; John E. Ross, 
of Jackson County; A. F. Hedges and A. L. Lovejoy, of 
Clackamas County, and S. B. Parrish, of Multnomah 
County ; while the directors of the Oregon Central Com- 
pany were J. B. Underwood, of Lane County; Wm. T. 
Newby, of Yamhill County ; Thos. R. Cornelius, of Wash- 
ington County ; and John C. Ainsworth and Joseph Gas- 
ton, of Multnomah County. It is a great pleasure to have 
the opportunity to testify to the public spirit and high 
character of these men who have passed away, and who in 
their day did their whole duty in unselfish labors to lay 
deep and broad the sure foundation of civic institutions 
and commercial prosperity for the State of Oregon ; and 
while it was true that $50,000 of the preferred stock re- 
ferred to was issued and deposited in the safe of E. N. 
Cooke, of Salem, for each one of the east side directors in 
pursuance of the scheme of Elliott, it is gratifying to know 
that not a man of them ever accepted a dollar of it, and 
could never be used by Holladay to promote or approve 
his questionable methods, and who for that reason, when 
he organized his new company were all left out of it. As 
the railroad could not be located on both sides of the Wil- 
lamette River, it was inevitable that there should be a 
contest for the franchise and the land grant which accom- 
panied it ; and now, when the bitterness engendered by 
the contention has long since passed away and been for- 
gotten, and both sides of the Willamette Valley have se- 
cured through the labors of those pioneers in public works 
all the benefits of railroad transportation, their places in 
the historical record of the state may be clearly denned, 
arid the legend end with, "Well done, good and faithful 
servants." JOSEPH GASTON. 



'IT 2F TlrfE W\ 



1 



\ ri 6} 

K 11 5 



By GEORGE H. HIMES. 

One of the most signally important agencies in the de- 
velopment of a country is the art of printing with mova- 
ble types, the "Art Preservative of all Arts.' Since its 
discovery in Europe in 1430-1450 it has become one of 
the most potent of world forces. The first printing press 
in America, at least so far as the English language is con- 
cerned, about which anything is known, was established 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in March, 1639, by one Day. 
The proprietor's name was Glover, who died on his way 
from England to America. The first thing printed was 
the freeman's oath, the second an almanac, and the third 
a version of the Psalms. In 1709 a press was established 
at New London, Connecticut, by a printer named Short. 
The first code of Connecticut laws was revised by the gen- 
eral court, held at Hartford in October, 1672, and printed 
by Samuel Green, at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1675. 
The first newspaper in America was the News Letter, 
printed in Boston, April 17, 1704. The first newspaper 
in Connecticut was the Gazette, begun at New Haven in 
1755, by James Parker, but discontinued in 1767, because 
he removed to New York, and is believed to have been 
the first printer in that city. 

The first press on the Pacific Coast, or any of its tribu- 
tary islands, operated by citizens of the United States, was 
the Mission Press of the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions (the foreign missionary society of the 
Congregational and Presbyterian churches of the United 
States), which was sent to Oahu, Sandwich Islands, late in 



328 GEO. H. HIMES. 

1821. On January 5, 1822, stands for type cases were 
made and part of the type placed in the cases. On Jan- 
uary 7th the first impression of the first sheet of the 
Owyhee spelling book was taken. The name of the 
printer was Elisha Loomis, who was also a teacher, and 
went from Middlesex, New York, to join the mission 
party at Boston, which sailed from that port to the islands 
on October 23, 1819. When the first sheet of the spelling 
book was printed the native governor, Tiamoko, several 
masters of vessels, and others, were present to witness the 
scene, the first of the kind in these islands. How inter- 
esting to those who carried forward their reflections to 
the future and distant and endless results. On January 
10th Mr. Loomis printed the king's name in "elegant 
capitals" in the two forms, "Rihoriho," and, 'Liholiho,' 
so that he might settle the question whether "R' or 
"L" should be used in spelling his name. He chose the 
former. On January 12th Mr. Loomis printed a supply 
of several kinds of approbation tickets, to be used among 
the school children. The progress of printing was slow, 
owing to the difficulties in translating the language. At 
the end of six months only sixteen pages of a small 
spelling book had been printed. Late in 1825 Mr. 
Loomis made a statement to the effect that up to that 
date sixteen thousand copies of the spelling book, four 
thousand copies of a small scripture tract, four thousand 
copies of a catechism, and tw r o thousand copies of a 
hymn book of sixty pages had been printed, and in this 
connection stated that another press and more type was 
greatly needed. Not long after the above date a press 
was established at Honolulu, and by March 20. 1830, 
the combined plants had issued twenty-two distinct books, 
averaging thirty-seven small pages each, amounting in all 
to three hundred and eighty-seven thousand copies. 
In a few years the demand for printed matter in the 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 329 

islands assumed such proportions that greater facilities 
for printing became necessary ; hence the first Honolulu 
press was laid aside. 

In 1836 the American Board Mission among the In- 
dians in Oregon was established, so as a means of encour- 
agement, and with a view to helping on in the work of 
this mission as far as possible, the First Native Church 
of Honolulu decided to send it the unused press. Accord- 
ingly, an arrangement was effected with Mr. Edwin 0. 
Hall, who had been one of the printers of the mission 
since 1835, to take it to Oregon. It was shipped with 
type, fixtures, paper, and binding apparatus, all valued 
at $500, and arrived at Vancouver, on the Columbia River, 
about April 10, 1839. An express was sent to Dr. Marcus 
Whitman at Wai-il-et-pu, six miles west of the present 
city of Walla Walla, Washington, and to Rev. H. H. 
Spalding at Lapwai, on the Clearwater, not a great way 
from the present city of Lewiston, Idaho, notifying them 
that the press, with Mr. and Mrs. Hall, and F. Ermatin- 
ger, as guide, would leave Vancouver on the 13th with the 
hope of reaching Fort Walla Walla (now Wallula) on 
the 30th. Spalding, with his wife and child, started for 
Wai-il-et-pu on the 24th and reached his destination on 
the 27th. The next day a note was received to the effect 
that the press and party before named had just arrived, pas- 
sage having been made up the Columbia River in a canoe. 
On May 6th the press and escort started for Lapwai, the 
press on pack animals in charge of Ermatinger ; Hall and 
wife, and Spalding and family in a canoe, and all arrived 
safely at their destination late on the evening of the 13th. 
On the 16th the press was set up, and on May 18, 1839, 
the first proof sheet in the original Oregon territory was 
struck off. This was an occasion of great rejoicing. On 
the 23d it was resolved to build an adobe printing office. 
On the 24th the first four hundred copies of a small book in 



330 GEO. H. HIMES. 

the Nez Perce Indian language was printed. The trans- 
lation was made by Mr. and Mrs. Spalding and Cornelius 
Rogers, a teacher in the mission, and used in manuscript 
form prior to the arrival of the press. On July 10th the 
style of alphabet was agreed upon, it having been decided 
to adopt the one used in the Sandwich Islands. This was 
done at Kamiah by Doctor and Mrs. Whitman, Mr. Spald- 
ing and wife, Rev. A. B. Smith and wife, and Mr. Hall. 
On August 1st the printing of another book was com- 
menced in the new alphabet, and by the 15th five hundred 
copies were completed. On December 30th the press was 
packed, with the intention of sending it to Doctor Whit- 
man's station, Wai-il-et-pu, to print a book there. The 
next day it started on its journey, and that evening the pack 
horse fell down a precipice and it was supposed that the 
press was dashed to pieces. On January 1, 1840, Mr. 
Rogers rode to the scene of the accident, gathered all the 
material together and returned. By the 17th the press 
was again set up, and it was discovered that nothing was 
lost save a few type. By this experience it was found that 
it would be easier to send the manuscript to the press than 
the press to the manuscript. Printing was resumed on 
the 20th, and on the 28th, Mr. Hall having started for 
the Sandwich Islands, Mr. Rogers, who had been taught 
to set type and operate the press by Mr. Hall, was em- 
polyed to take charge of the press and do the printing for 
the mission for 30, English money, per year and his 
board. Thereafter, so long as the mission was sustained, 
the usual routine of work was pursued. 

It is impossible to state accurately the number of pub- 
lications that were issued from this press in the Flathead, 
Spokane, Cayuse, and Nez Perce languages, but it is be- 
lieved to have been at least a dozen. It has been my good 
fortune to secure four copies of these publications for the 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 331 

library of the Oregon Historical Society during the past 
three years. 

Tramp printers were not common in those early days, 
and but few found their way to this then comparatively 
unknown region. The earliest one that there is any record 
of was a man named Turner. One evening in 1839, soon 
after the press was set up at Lapwai, Mr. Spalding was 
standing on the banks of the Clearwater, and was sur- 
prised to hear a white man on the opposite shore call him. 
He paddled across the river in a canoe to the stranger and 
took him home. The man gave his name as above, that 
his home was in Canada, and that he had come from Sas- 
katchewan on foot. Spalding, being somewhat incredu- 
lous, never learned his history. When Turner saw the 
printing office he said, "Now I am at home.' He assisted 
in arranging the plant and in making pads. Mr. Spald- 
ing translated passages of the Bible and several hymns for 
the Sunday-school in the Nez Perce tongue, and Turner 
set them up. He was quite attentive to his work and re- 
mained all winter. Mr. Spalding had planned to have 
considerable printing done and had arranged to pay Tur- 
ner wages, but he suddenly disappeared and was never 
heard of afterward. 

The next printers to appear at Lapwai were Medare G. 
Foisy and Charles Saxton, both coming across the plains 
from Saint Louis in 1844. But little is known of Mr. Sax- 
ton, as he returned to "The States'' the following year, 
and published a journal of his trip across the plains, 
giving a description of Oregon, and dwelling at length 
upon the importance of the country claimed by the United 
States upon the North Pacific coast. 

Mr. Foisy was a French Canadian by birth, a son of an 
affluent leather merchant, and was born at Quebec in 1816. 
After receiving a practical education in the French schools 
2 



332 GEO. H. HIMES. 

of his native city, at the age of sixteen he was sent to an 
English school in Vermont for a short time. His father 

o 

desiring that he should learn the leather business, kept 
him about the tannery and store for eighteen months. 
This proving uncongenial, and having a desire to acquire 
a knowledge of printing, he learned the trade in a French 
office. Determining to acquire a knowledge of English, 
he left home early in 1837 and worked in a Cincinnati 
office a short time, then in the Louisville Journal office two 
months, and that fall went to Saint Louis, where he ob- 
tained a situation on the Republican, remaining until the 
close of 1843, when he gave up his job to prepare for the 
overland trip to Oregon, and arrived at Spalding's mis- 
sion at Lapwai as above stated. He worked in the mis- 
sion printing office nearly a year, and in December, 1845, 
went to French Prairie. The following spring he was 
elected a member of the legislative committee from Cham- 
poeg County changed to Marion County in 1850. Soon 
after he concluded to visit Canada, and started thither by 
the way of California and the Nicaragua route. On reach- 
ing California his homeward journey was temporarily 
given up. Here he met the northwestern limits of the 
Mexican war, and saw considerable active service under 
Fremont. For a time he was the alcalde of Monterey, 
and worked on the first newspaper printed in that place. 2 
When peace was declared in February, 1848, Mr. Foisy 
once more started for his home, via Central America, but 
was blockaded in the port of San Bias, Mexico. Soon he 
was relieved by Captain Bailey of the United States Navy, 
and taken back to Monterey. Here he remained until after 
the delegates to form a state constitution were elected. 
In that exciting event he took an active part against the 
spread of slavery. The years 1849 and 1850 were for the 

2 The Californian, first issued August 15, 1846. 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OP OREGON. 333 

most part spent in the mines, and in the fall of the latter 
year he gave up his contemplated trip to Canada and re- 
turned to Oregon, bought a farm near the present site of 
Gervais, and became one of the principal farmers of that 
region, and was highly respected by all who knew him. 
He died in 1879. 

The next that is known about this mission press is in 
June, 1846. A number of parties living at Salem, among 
them Dr. W. H. Willson, Joseph Holman, Mr. Robinson, 
Rev. David Leslie, J. B. McClane, and Rev. L. H. Judson, 
desiring to issue a paper, sent Mr. Alanson Hinman, then 
a teacher in Salem, now living in Forest Grove, on horse- 
back to Whitman mission, to secure it for the purpose in- 
dicated. Doctor Whitman was willing that it should be 
used, but referred the matter to Mr. Spalding, at Lapwai, 
where the press was located. Mr. Hinman rode there and 
interviewed Mr. Spalding. He consented to have the press 
go to the Willamette Valley, but not without the consent of 
Messrs. Walker and Eells, who were at the Spokane mis- 
sion. Accordingly Mr. Hinman secured an Indian guide 
and rode thither and obtained their permission, but was 
referred back to Messrs. Spalding and Whitman. Return- 
ing to Lapwai, Mr. Hinman explained the situation to Mr. 
Spalding, who made conditions which would give him 
more control over the paper than the Salem parties were 
willing to grant, hence they declined to take the plant. 
However, Mr. Spalding sent the press to Doctor Whitman, 
and he sent it on to Wascopum The Dalles where it 
remained until after the Whitman massacre, November 
29-30, 1847. Early in March, 1848, it was transferred by 
Mr. Spalding to Rev. J. S. Griffin, who took it to the Tual- 
atin Plains, near Hillsboro, and that year issued eight 
numbers of a sixteen-page magazine called The Oregon 
American and Evangelical Unionist. As it may be of in- 



334 GEO. H. HIMES. 

terest to show the scope of this publication, the following 
is quoted from the prospectus in the first numbers : 

It is devoted to American principles and interests, To evangelical 
religion and morals, To general intelligence, foreign and domestic, - 
To temperance and moral instrumentalities, generally, To science, 
literature and the arts, To commerce and internal improvements, - 
To agriculture and home manufactures, To the description and de- 
velopment of our natural resources, To the physical, intellectual and 
moral education of rising generations, And to such well defined dis- 
cussions generally, as are calculated to elevate and dignify the char- 
acter of a free people. 

Edited by Rev. J. S. Griffin, and printed by C. F. Putnam. Issued 
once in two weeks. 

The editor in his introduction says : 

Our list of subjects, to which we are devoted, is not so much an ex- 
pression of confidence in our humble ability to treat them all success- 
fully, as to call attention of the writers generally, each to his chosen 
department of interest and investigation, that all through a common 
medium of communication, may mutually instruct and be instructed. 

The first issue was on June 7th, although it is not dated. 
It is evident that it did not appear as originally intended 
from the following apology : 

A train of unavoidables has prevented our first number appearing 
as early as intended and its execution is by no means what may here- 
after be expected. 

We have much confidence in the young gentleman, Mr. Putman, 
our publisher, who, being disappointed in obtaining his new ink roller 
as expected, was left in the first number to the daubing use of a past- 
recovery dried ink ball. Those acquainted with the difference in the 
execution of the two instruments, know how to appreciate the apology. 

Some typographical improvements, as well as improvements in the 
general execution, may be looked for. 

The following is taken from the prospectus : 

Terms : $4.00 currency, or $3.00 in cash, if paid within three months; 
$4.00 cash, or $5.00 in currency, if not paid at the end of three months; 
if not paid at the end of six months, discontinued at the discretion of 
the proprietor. 

Advertisements at $1.50 per square of sixteen lines or less, for first 
insertion ; and 75 cents per square for each subsequent insertion. A 
liberal discount to yearly advertisers. 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OP OREGON. 335 

N. B. Companies of ten subscribers may pay in merchantable wheat 
at merchant prices, delivered at any time (giving- us notice), at any 
principal depot for wheat in the several counties, being themselves 
responsible for its storage and delivery to our order. Duebills issued 
by solvent merchants taken at their currency value. 

We will not declare our days of issuing, until the next number, hop- 
ing some mail opportunity may be secured, and if so, will issue on the 
day most favorable for our immediate circulation. 

Much space in the magazine is given to the history of 
the Whitman massacre of November 29-30, 1847, by Rev. 
H. H. Spalding, together with a discussion pro and con of 
the causes leading up to it. In this discussion Peter H. 
Burnett, a lawyer of Oregon City, and afterwards the first 
governor of California, took a prominent part. 

In No. 3, July 5, 1848, referring to President Folk's 
message, the editor says it "manifests more interest about 
Mexico than about Oregon." 

After No. 7 was issued the paper suspended for several 
months. This suspension was caused, so the editor states, 
by some one opposed to his views on the causes leading 
to the Whitman massacre hiring the printer to break his 
contract and go off \o the mines. Early in 1849 another 
printer 3 was secured, and on May 23d, No. 8 appeared. 
This was the last number issued. 

Fully thirty years ago Mr. Griffin placed the press in 
the custody of the Oregon Pioneer Association, and now 
it is in the possession of the Oregon Historical Society. 

Rev. John Smith Griffin was born in Castleton, Ver- 
mont, in 1807. He was educated in various schools in 
New England and Ohio, finishing his theological course 
in Oberlin, where he was ordained a minister of the Con- 
gregational Church. The church at Litchfield, Connecti- 
cut, secured an equipment and sent him to Oregon in 

1839 as an independent missionary to the Indians. In 

1840 he endeavored to start a mission among the Snakes, 

3 His name was Frank Johnson, an apprentice of the Spectator and afterwards 
of the Free Press, and now is a professor in the University of Chicago. 



336 GEO. H. HIMES. 

but failing he and his wife went to the Tualatin Plains in 
1841 and began the first white settlement in what is now 
Washington County. On May 2, 1843, he was at Cham- 
poeg, and voted in favor of the first civil government in 
Oregon. He was pastor of the first church in Washing- 
ton County for a time. He died in February, 1899. 

Charles F. Putnam, printer, was born in Lexington, 
Kentucky, July 7, 1824. He learned the printing trade 
in New York City, and in 1846 came to Oregon, settling 
in Polk County. In 1847 he was married to Miss Rozelle, 
the eldest daughter of Jesse Applegate, who came to Ore- 
gon from Missouri in 1843. When he contracted with 
Mr. Griffin to print his paper, he taught his wife to set 
type, and thus she became the first woman typesetter on 
the Pacific Coast. Mr. Putnam left the Willamette Valley 
for Umpqua Valley in the fall of 1849, and settled near 
Mount Yoncalla. He is still living, though quite feeble, 
near the town of Drain. 

Early in 1844 it became evident to the leading spirits 
of the infant settlement at Oregon City that its interests 
would be greatly promoted by a press, and accordingly, 
after much discussion as to methods of management, the 
Oregon Printing Association was organized, the officers 
of which were as follows : W. G. T'Vault, president ; 
J. W. Nesmith, vice president ; John P. Brooks, secretary ; 
George Abernethy, treasurer; Robert Newell, John E. 
Long, and John R. Couch, directors. The press used was 
a Washington hand press, bed twenty-five by thirty-eight 
inches . The plant was procured in New York through the 
instrumentality of Governor George Abernethy, although 
he was reimbursed by the Printing Association in due 
time. 

The constitution of the association was as follows : 

In order to promote science, temperance, morality, and general in- 
telligence; to establish a printing press; to publish a monthly, semi- 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OP OREGON. 337 

monthly or weekly paper in Oregon the undersigned do hereby asso- 
ciate ourselves together in a body, to be governed by such rules and 
regulations as shall, from time to time, be adopted by a majority of the 
stockholders of this compact in a regularly called and properly notified 
meeting. 

The "Articles of Compact" numbered XI ; all but the 
eighth article refer to the method of doing business, and 
are similar in their provisions to the by-laws of our incor- 
porations of to-day. The eighth article touched vitally 
the editor's duties, and is as follows : 

ART. 8. The press owned by or in connection with this association 
shall never be used by any party for the purpose of propagating sec- 
tarian principles or doctrines, nor for the discussion of exclusive party 
politics. 

The Printing Association was jealous of the editorial 
control of the paper. Provision was made for amending 
all articles except the eighth. The shares of stock were 
$10 each, and article ten provides for the method of trans- 
ferring the same ; also the distribution of dividends an 
emergency that never occurred ; and in that respect the 
experience of the first newspaper men of the Pacific Coast 
was not unlike that of some of their brethren of these later 
days. The name selected for their paper was the Oregon 
Spectator, and it was first issued at Oregon City on Thurs- 
day, February 5, 1846. The motto was "Westward the 
Star of Empire takes its Way." The printer was John 
Fleming, who came to Oregon in the immigration of 1844. 

The size of the Spectator page at first was eleven and 
one half by seventeen inches, with four pages, four col- 
umns to the page, and was issued semimonthly. The first 
editor was Col. William G. T'Vault, a pioneer of 1845, who 
was then postmaster general of the Provisional Govern- 
ment. His editorial salary was at the rate of $300 a year. 
It is believed that he was of Scotch-Irish and French de- 
scent, and a native of Kentucky. He was a lawyer by 
profession, although it is said that he had had some edi- 



338 GKO. H. HIMES. 

torial experience in Arkansas. While he was an uncom- 
promising democrat of the Jeffersonian school, and never 
so happy as when promulgating his principles in the 
most positive way, the constitution of the Printing Asso- 
ciation made it necessary that the editor should eschew 
politics. However well he may have tried to do this, his 
efforts evidently did not please the association, because 
in the issue of April 2, 1846, his valedictory appears. 

The contents of the first issue of The Spectator are as 
follows : 

First page : Organic laws of Oregon, as recommended 
by the legislative committee ; an act to prevent the intro- 
duction, sale and distillation of ardent spirits, both cer- 
tified to by John E. Long, secretary of the Provisional 
Government ; an infallible remedy for lowness of spirits ; 
good advice. 

Second page : The editor's salutatory, defining the atti- 
tude of the paper ; to correspondents, stating that no notice 
can be taken of anonymous communications ; city gov- 
ernment, saying that the time has arrived for a thorough 
organization, urging that it "dig up the stumps, grade 
the streets, tax dogs, prohibit hogs, and advertise in The 
Spectator;' calling on some of the "Old Settlers" to give 
an "account of the climate, soil, and productions of Ore- 
gon,' ' stating that this "would all be news to people away 
east in Missouri and other states ;' an item deprecating 
controversies ; announcement that Captain Knighton will 
give a ball on the 24th instant at the City Hotel ; item 
calling attention to F. W. Pettygrove's stock of goods ; 
appointments by the Governor Wm. G. T'Vault, pros- 
ecuting attorney, vice M. A. Ford, and H. M. Knighton, 
marshal, vice J. L. Meek, resigned ; reference to the 
"Two-thirds law" of Illinois ; item relating to a serious 
accident to Mr. Wallace of the Oregon Milling Company 
as a result of coming in contact with a circular saw ; an 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 339 

item on "Slander;' communication from "New Emi- 
grant,' whose "heart's desire is," among other things, 
"that Oregon may be saved from intemperance, and that 
our beloved little colony may continue free, and become 
great and good ;" communication by David Leslie, giving 
a sketch of the life of Rev. Jason Lee. 

Third page : A number of clippings, among them Frank- 
lin's Advice to Editors ; an original poem on "Love," 
signed "M. J. B." Mrs. Margaret J. Bailey ; announcement 
of the postmaster general "To Persons Wishing to Send 
Letters East ;" ship news, giving "The arrivals and depart- 
ure from Baker's Bay, Columbia River, since March 12, 
1845," showing nine arrivals and eleven departures ; "List 
of officers of H. B. M. sloop of war Modeste, now lying at 
Vancouver, Columbia River ;" death notice, Miss Julia Ann 
Stratuff, aged about fourteen years : then advertisements 
as follows : "Mail Contracts to Let Route No. 1 : From 
Oregon City to Fort Vancouver, once in two weeks, by 
water. Route No. 2 : From Oregon City to Hill's in Twality 
County ; thence to A. J. Hembree's in Yam Hill County ; 
thence to Andrew Smith's by Yam Hill County ; thence 
to N. Ford's, Polk County; thence to Oregon Institute, 
Champoeg County ; thence to Catholic Mission and Cham- 
poeg to Oregon City, once in two weeks, on horseback. 
The contractor will enter into bond and security, to be 
approved by the postmaster general;" signed by W. G. 
T'Vault. A. Lawrence Lovejoy, attorney and counsellor at 
law and solicitor in chancery; Masonic notice to secure a 
charter for a lodge the first on the Pacific Coast; signed 
by Joseph Hull, P. G. Stewart, and Wm. P. Dougherty. 
Notice of George Abernethy and Alanson Beers that they 
had bought the business of the Oregon Milling Company. 
Adminstrator's notice of estate of Ewing Young, signed 
by Lovejoy. City Hotel, H. M. Knighton, proprietor, who 
says "His table shall not be surpassed in the territory," and 



340 GEO. H. HIMES. 

that those "who favor him with a call from the west side 
of the river, will receive horse ferriage free." "The Red 
House and Portland" heads an advertisement three and a 
half inches long of F. W. Pettygrove's general merchan- 
dise store. This is the first time anything appears show- 
ing approximately the date when Portland was so named. 
John Travers and William Glaser announce that they have 
begun manufacturing hats, and will take "wool, beaver, 
otter, raccoon, wild-cat, muskrat, and mink skins in ex- 
change." Notice by Pettygrove to the effect that John B. 
Rutter, Astoria, is wanted to take charge of a box of medi- 
cine which was consigned to him from New York. Notice 
of Abernethy & Beers stating their terms for grinding 
"merchantable wheat." Notice by C. E. Pickett that he 
has town lots for sale on the lower part of his claim, "just 
at the foot of the Clackamas rapids." Announcement of 
The Spectator terms $5 in advance ; if not paid until the 
expiration of three months, $6. 

Fourth page : Post office law of the Provisional Gov- 
ernment, approved December 23, 1845 ; Constitution of 
the Printing Association ; three clippings, one entitled 
"The Fall of Empires," the other about "Morse's Electro- 
Magnetic Telegraph," and the last from the St. Louis Dem- 
ocrat, speaking of an emigrating party of the father, mother, 
and twenty children. The editor says "Their destination 
we did not learn, but think it not improbable the old man 
is about settling a colony in Oregon." 

Colonel T'Vauit was a marked character in the early 
history of Oregon, and he made warm friends and bitter 
enemies. He was chosen a member of the legislature of 
the Provisional Government June 4, 1846. In June, 1858, 
he was elected a representative to the first territorial legis- 
lature, and was chosen speaker at the special session from 
May 16 to June 4, 1859. In 1851 he established an ex- 
press line between Winchester, on the Umpqua River, to 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 341 

Yreka, California. In the years following he took an 
active part in the trying scenes of the Rogue River war, 
part of the time being a volunteer aid to Governor Joseph 
Lane. In 1855 he, in company with Messrs. Taylor and 
Blakely, established the Umpqua Gazette at Scottsburg, 
the first paper south of Salem, and moved it to Jackson- 
ville soon after. The name was then changed to the Table 
Rock Sentinel, and it was first issued on November 24th. 
Soon after the paper was started it became noised abroad 
that T' Vault was tainted with abolitionism. This was too 
much for the stout-hearted old democrat, so he wrote a 
personal article over his own signature, denying in the 
most positive manner all sympathy for, or affiliation with, 
the abolition idea ; and among other things he said that 
if "I thought there was one drop of abolition blood in my 
veins I would cut it out.' That declaration was wholly 
satisfactory, and thereafter until the close of his life there 
was never any question as to his political faith. He was 
the principal editor of the paper, and his connection w r ith 
it ceased in 1859, after the name had been changed to the 
Oregon Sentinel. His next editorial experience was in 
1863, when he issued the Intelligencer in Jacksonville from 
the plant of the Civilian, then defunct. This enterprise 
failed in a few months, and was his last effort in journal- 
ism. He remained in Southern Oregon until the close of 
his life, having something of a law practice, and died 
from an attack of smallpox early in 1869. 

At this point it is not out of place to give the personnel 
of the other members of the Printing Association as far as 
possible. James Willis Nesmith came to Oregon from 
Maine in 1843, at the age of twenty-three ; in 1845 he was 
elected supreme judge of Oregon under the Provisional 
Government ; in 1848, captain in the Cayuse Indian war ; 
in 1853, captain in the Rogue-river Indian war; in 1855- 
1856 colonel in the Yakima Indian war ; in 1857 he was 



342 GEO. H. HIMES. 

appointed superintendent of Indian affairs for Oregon and 
Washington, and held that position two years ; in 1860 
he was a candidate for presidential elector on the Douglas 
democratic ticket ; that fall he was elected United States 
senator ; in 1873 he was elected a member of Congress. 
He filled every position with conspicuous ability. He 
died June 17, 1885. 

John P. Brooks taught the first school of any kind in 
Oregon City, under the patronage of the late Sidney W. 
Moss, in the year 1844-45 ; when he came to Oregon is 
not known. In the late forties and early fifties he was in 
business at Oregon City. He died many years ago, date 
unknown. 

George Abernethy was at the head of the Provisional 
Government. He was born in New York in 18C7, and 
came to Oregon in 1840. He had much to do with large 
milling and mercantile enterprises, and died in 1877. 

Robert Newell was a typical "mountain man," and spent 
many years of his early life on the frontier in trapping. 
He was born at Zanesville, Ohio, in 1807. He came to 
Oregon in 1840 and brought a wagon from Fort Hall to 
Doctor Whitman's mission the first to arrive there, and 
he brought it on to the Willamette Valley, making it the 
first wagon in Western Oregon. He was at Champoeg on 
May 2, 1843, and voted for civil government. He died at 
Lewiston, Idaho, in 1869. 

John H. Couch was born at Newburyport, Massachusetts, 
February 21, 1811. In 1840 be brought the brig Mary- 
land into the Columbia River, and up the Willamette to 
Oregon City. He made a second trip to the Columbia in 
1843, and soon after engaged in the mercantile business 
at Oregon City. In 1845 he located a donation land claim 
near the then townsite of Portland, all of which was in- 
cluded within the corporate limits of that city many years 
ago. He was the treasurer of the Provisional Government, 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 343 

and held a number of places of trust in the city of his 
adoption. As early as October, 1849, in company with 
Benjamin Stark, he did a banking business in Portland, 
in addition to general merchandising. He died in Janu- 
ary, 1870. 

John Fleming, the first printer of the Spectator, came to 
Oregon from Ohio. He was appointed postmaster in 1856, 
and held that office until 1869. He died at that place 
December 2, 1872, aged seventy-eight years. 

In glancing through the pages of the Spectator numer- 
ous references are made to the primitive conditions then 
existing, some of which are here given. 

As postmaster general Colonel T'Vault was compelled 
to conduct affairs on an economical basis. Fifty dollars 
was appropriated by the legislature of 1845 to establish 
a post office department. Accordingly, in February, 1846, 
post offices and postmasters were appointed in the several 
counties south of the Columbia River, and full instruc- 
tions published concerning their respective duties. The 
rates between any Oregon post office and Weston, Missouri, 
were fifty cents for a single sheet. Nine months later the 
postmaster general declined further responsibility in the 
matter of mail service, stating that the mail had been 
carried for three quarters, but the receipts had been insuf- 
ficient to pay for the transportation of the mail for one 
quarter. 

In the Spectator of April 16, 1846, the name of Henry 
A. G. Lee appears as editor. He was the choice of the 
Printing Association at the beginning, but he wanted a 
salary of $600, and that was considered too high. At this 
date there were one hundred and fifty-five subscribers, 
but an editorial item says there ought to be five hundred 
in the existing population. Lee's connection with the 
paper ceased with the issue of August 6, 1846. 

Mr. Lee deserves more than a passing mention. He 



344 GEO. H. HIMES. 

was a native of Virginia, and descended from Richard 
Lee, founder of the Old Dominion family of that name. 
He was well educated and prepared himself for the min- 
istry, but did not follow that profession because some 
doubts arose in his mind as to the inspiration of the Bible. 
He came to Oregon in 1843 and spent the first winter at 
Wai-il-et-pu. He was a man of much more than average 
ability, but very reticent when speaking of himself or 
family. In December, 1847, he assisted in raising the 
first company of volunteers to punish the Cayuse Indians 
for the murder of Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife, and 
twelve others, and was elected captain. Soon after he 
was promoted to major, and a little later appointed peace 
commissioner. Not long after that he was chosen colonel 
of the regiment to succeed Col. Cornelius Gilliam, who 
lost his life by an accident, but returned his commission 
because he thought it should be given to Lieut. Col. James 
Waters. When the war was ended he was appointed 
superintendent of Indian affairs by Governor George 
Abernethy, and rendered good service in treating with the 
Indians. After that duty was performed he went to the 
California gold mines and was successful. Upon return- 
ing, he brought a stock of goods, and formed a copart- 
nership with S. W. Moss, having already been married 
to his daughter. In the fall of 1850 he went to New York 
with a large sum of money, to buy more goods, and on 
his return trip he had an attack of the Panama fever, 
which caused his death. If he had lived to return he 
doubtless would have figured largely in the political affairs 
of the then young territory. 

In the Spectator of July 9, 1846, there is a full account 
of the first 4th of July celebration in Oregon, and prob- 
ably on the Pacific Coast. Thirteen regular toasts were 
given, and the last one is in these words : " The Ameri- 
can ladies accomplished , beautiful , and useful . If every 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON.- 345 

Oregonian swain was possessed of one, we could exclaim, 
' Oregon is safe under the Stars and Stripes.' This was 
really true at the time, the treaty fully making Oregon a 
part of the United States having been signed June 15th 
preceding ; but it was not known in Oregon until No- 
vember 12th following, and then the news was brought 
by Benjamin Stark on a sailing vessel from Sandwich 
Islands. The oration was delivered by Peter H. Burnett, 
a pioneer of 1843, afterward the first governor of Califor- 
nia, elected as such by the vote of Oregonians who had 
gone with him to the mines, and who held the balance of 
power there. 

On September 17, 1846, reference is made to a memo- 
rial prepared by Capt. George Wilkes on the subject of a 
national railroad between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, 
presented to Congress in December, 1845, asking the leg- 
islature to indorse it. 

From August 6th to October 1, 1846, John Fleming, 
the printer, edited the Spectator. Then George L. Curry, 
fresh from Saint Louis by way of the plains, having come 
by the southern route through the famous Cow Creek 
Canyon, being with the first immigrant party that ever 
entered the Oregon territory from that direction, was 
installed as editor. Among other things he proposed to 
do was to give the paper a "firm and consistent American 
tone.' In this number the war with Mexico is fore- 
shadowed. 

In the issue of September 5th, Mr. Curry speaks in 
high terms of the many conditions of Oregon society, 
and among other things says : 

We feel unfeigned pleasure in announcing to the world that the 
social, moral, political, and religious state of society in Oregon is at 
least as elevated and enlightened as can be witnessed in any of the 
territorial or frontier settlements east of the Rocky Mountains. 



346 GEO. H. HIMES. 

He admits, however, that the people may be behind 
hand in the matter of good clothes. To offset this they 
are congratulated upon having but few real loafers among 
them. 

For the next eleven months but little is known about 
the paper, except that Mr. Curry was the editor. The 
printer was changed, John Fleming retiring, and N. W. 
Colwell, who also came in 1845, taking his place. 

In the issue of October 15, 1846, it is announced that 
a roll of the Spectator's subscribers was called, but as they 
did not answer paid, according to the necessary require- 
ments in every well regulated newspaper office, the suf- 
ferings of all connected with the establishment were made 
intolerable. 

On September 2, 1847, Mr. Curry apologizes for the 
lack of editorial matter by saying that he had gone to 
climb Mount Hood. Two weeks later it is apparent that 
the trip was not successful. At this time the printer 
was W. P. Hudson, who came to Oregon in 1846, Mr. Col- 
well having retired. He had been the printer for several 
months, and in addition to printing the paper, printed a 
spelling book, the first English book issued on the Pacific 
Coast. This bore the date of February 1, 1847. During 
the fall of that year Mr. Hudson printed an almanac 
the first on the Pacific Coast for the year 1848. This 
was compiled by Henry H. Everts. Through this source 
it is learned that there were eight counties in the terri- 
tory Clackamas, Champoeg, Tualatin, Yamhill, Polk, 
Clatsop, Vancouver, and Lewis their area being all of the 
territory now included in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and 
those parts of Montana and Wyoming west of the Rocky 
Mountains. This was a publication of twenty-four pages, 
five by seven inches, and in addition to the twelve usual 
calendar pages and remarks on astronomical matters, it 
contained a list of the officers of the Provisional Govern- 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 347 

ment, the members of the legislature, lists of officers for 
each county, times and places of holding courts, a list of 
the officers of the United States in Oregon, and in addi- 
tion the following interesting information : Public debt, 
October 1, 1847, $3,243.31 ; population, same date, about 
six thousand ; vote for governor on the first Monday in 
June, 1847, one thousand and seventy-four ; immigration 
now beginning to arrive, about three thousand ; estimated 
annual value of imports and exports, about $130,000 ; 
estimated amount of wheat raised in the territory for the 
last two years, about one hundred and fifty thousand 
bushels each year. After the calendar pages the follow- 
ing appears : Summary of the Mexican war; Agricultural; 
Table of Important Scientific Discoveries and Inventions 
from 2224 B. c. to 1844 A. D.; a few paragraphs upon the 
value of correct habits ; a short poem in blank verse on 
"Charity;" and an eight-line rhyme entitled a "Receipt 
for a Wife." 

Mr. Hudson went to the gold mines in the fall of 1848. 
He soon found a rich gulch from which he dug $21,000. 
He then returned to Oregon, but did not remain long. He 
took passage by sailing vessel for San Francisco in Decem- 
ber, 1850, and died at sea while on the way thither. 

While not strictly connected with the newspaper history 
of Oregon, it is not out of place to give a brief account 
of the spelling book above referred to. 

It was an abridgment of the old Webster's Elemen- 
tary Spelling Book, and was about two thirds the size of 
the original, the long words and quaint illustrations in 
the back being omitted. As this was practically a foreign 
country at that time, the printer was not particularly 
sensitive about violating the copyright law. After this 
book was printed the question of binding became a seri- 
ous one, there being no binder in the settlement, so far 
3 



348 GEO. H. HIMES. 

as known. With the immigration of 1846 there came a 
bookbinder, who some time after his arrival went to Ore- 
gon City. His name was Carlos W. Shane, and he had 
learned his trade in the Methodist Book Concern, Cincin- 
nati, where he had been employed a number of years 
prior to coming to Oregon. Instinctively gravitating to- 
ward the printing office, he discovered the unbound sheets 
and was awarded the job of binding them. Improvising 
such implements as he needed, with the crude material 
at hand, he bound up the edition, numbering eight hun- 
dred copies, which was soon absorbed by the primitive 
schools then existing. For years effort has been made to 
secure a copy of this book, but so far without success. I 
have, however, obtained a fragment of the book, prob- 
ably twenty pages. These I found in a farmhouse garret 
near Oregon City, about eight years ago, where it had 
been placed, doubtless, by the original owner of the 
place, the late M. M. McCarver, a pioneer of 1843, w r ith 
other old documents, more than forty years before. More 
than a dozen years ago the whereabouts of a perfect copy 
was discovered, but upon further investigation it proved 
that this book, a number of early newspaper files, a lot of 
miscellaneous letters, all of undoubted historic value, had 
been considered "worthless trash,' and burned. Mr. 
Shane taught a number of the very early schools in Clacka- 
mas County, was something of a rhymester, and a fre- 
quent contributor of verse as well as prose to the press of 
the early days. He was a man of fine clerical ability, 
and for many years followed conveyancing. He died at 
Vancouver, Washington, in 1901. 

In due time the censorship exercised by the printing 
association over his utterances on the editorial pages of 
the Spectator caused Mr. Curry to resign his position early 
in 1848. 

Mr. Curry was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 349 

July 2, 1820. From 1824 to 1829 he lived with his parents 
in Caracas, South America. On returning to the United 
States, the family settled in Boston. At the age of eleven 
he was apprenticed to a jeweler. One of his fellow-work- 
men was the late Hon. William D. Kelley, of Pennsylvania. 
All spare moments were employed in study and reading. 
He developed literary tastes quite early, and read original 
poems and delivered addresses before the Mechanics' Ap- 
prentice Library in Boston, of which he was a member and 
president for two years. He became a resident of Saint 
Louis in 1843, where he formed an acquaintance with 
Joseph M. Field, the actor and manager, father of Miss 
Kate Field, and with him published the Reveille. In 1846 
he started to Oregon, arriving at Oregon City August 30th. 
After leaving the Spectator he bought about eighty pounds 
of type from the Catholic missionaries and determined to 
start an opposition paper. 

It was difficult for Mr. Curry to decide upon a name, 
and he sought advice from Peter G. Stewart, a personal 
friend. "Why," said the latter, "since you don't want 
to be muzzled, why not call it the Free Press ?' The sug- 
gestion pleased Mr. Curry, and the name was adopted. 
The motto was the following : 

"Here shall the Press the people's rights maintain, 
Unawed by influence, and unbribed by gain." 

Having no press he caused one to be made, mainly out 
of wood a rude affair. The type, having been used to 
print the French language, had but few letter w's. The 
editor had to write without double u's, but the country 
and its inhabitants were too weird and wild and wonder- 
ful, and his own fancy too warm, and his ways too winning 
for him not to be willing to wield a pen as free and un- 
trammeled as were his surroundings ; so he whittled a 
number of w's out of hard wood to supply the deficiency. 



350 GEO. H. HIMES. 

This feature gave the paper an unique appearance, and 
was really one of its attractions. The first issue of this 
paper was in March, 1848. It contained four pages, seven 
and one half by fifteen inches, two columns to the page. 
During this month Mr. Curry was married to Miss Chloe 
Boone, daughter of Col. Alphonso Boone, a great grandson 
of Daniel Boone. In October, 1848, the paper stopped, 
mainly because of the rush of people to the mines. In 
1853 Mr. Curry was appointed secretary of the territory 
by President Pierce, and soon became acting governor. 
He was appointed governor in November, 1854, and held 
that office until 1859, when the state government was 
formed. It was during his administration that the Yak- 
ima Indian war of 1855-56 was fought. On January 1, 
1861, he became a partner and coeditor with S. J. McCor- 
mick in the Portland Daily Advertiser, and continued that 
relation until the paper suspended about two years later. 
The Advertiser was the second daily in Portland and was 
issued by S. J. McCormick on May 31, 1859 . 4 After the 
Advertiser died Mr. Curry remained in private life until 
he died on July 28, 1878, aged fifty-eight years. 

The earliest perfect copy of the Oregon Free Press that 
is known bears the date of August 26, 1848. Its contents 
are as follows : 

Page one : Comparisons between the London and Paris 
daily press. This shows the largest circulation of a news- 
paper in London to be twenty-nine thousand and in Paris, 
thirty -three thousand. The price of the Paris dailies runs 
from $7.25 to $21 ; the London Times is nearly $32 per 
annum ; California exports and imports ; an article on 
"Poverty ;' general news items. 

4 The first daily newspaper in Oregon was the Portland Daily News, issued 
April 18, 1859, by S. A. English and Win. B. Taylor. Its first editor was Alonzo 
Leland, but his services were soon dispensed with and E. D. Shattuck became 
the editor. The paper in the beginning had four pages, each ten and one half 
by fifteen inches, with four columns. 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 351 

Page two : Local news items about Oregon, exports to 
Sandwich Islands, burning of Indian houses, a stabbing 
affray, a communication relating to the distribution of 
arms and ammunition by the Catholic missionaries among 
the Indians, report of a meeting preliminary to organizing 
a medical society ; latest foreign intelligence by way of a 
paper from the City of Mexico, announcing among other 
things, the escape of Louis Philippe, and news from The 
Dalles, inquiring into the reason why so nftich ammuni- 
tion is being distributed by priests among the Indians. 
Then follows the advertisements : Notice is given that a 
meeting will be held at Lafayette to organize an associa- 
tion to protect land claims ; John Cooper says he is about 
to start overland to California with pack animals ; Holder- 
ness & Company are ready to pay cash for produce ; F. W. 
Pettygrove & Company, at Oregon City, Portland, and 
Champoeg plead for business the company being A. E. 
Wilson and David McLoughlin. 

Page four : An original poem, "A Poor Man's Thoughts;" 
three miscellaneous items; notice of W. B. Chatfield as 
administrator of Joel Wilcox; Couch and Crosby's an- 
nouncement that they have just received a stock of new 
goods at their stores in Oregon City and Portland; the 
appeal of H. Clark for business on the plea that he has 
opened a new store on Main street, Oregon City ; the proc- 
lamation of S. W. Moss that his Main Street Hotel is the 
largest and most commodious public house in Oregon, 
"where the public are entertained free of charge, because 
the proprietor always takes pay in hand ;" the announce- 
ment of Kilborn, Lawton & Company, as commission mer- 
chants; C. L. Ross, proprietor of the "New York Store," 
San Francisco ; P. G. Stewart, clock and watchmaker, the 
first in Oregon ; and the medical card of Doctor Carpenter. 

On February 10, 1848, the Spectator was enlarged to 
twenty-four columns and Aaron E. Wait, a native of 



352 GEO. H. HIMES. 

Massachusetts, born on December 13, 1813, who had 
arrived the previous September, became the editor, hav- 
ing been employed by Governor Abernethy. He desired 
to make the paper a medium of communication accept- 
able to all, of whatever political or sectarian preference. 
By this time the rule of the Printing Association had 
been modified to some extent. Mr. Wait edited a demo- 
cratic paper in Michigan in 1844, during the exciting 
political campaign of that year, and had the power of 
quickly adapting himself to circumstances an indispen- 
sable requirement in newspaper work. The first news 
from the democratic national convention in that eventful 
year gave the names of Hon. Mr. Blank and Hon. Mr. 
Blank as the successful nominees. Mr. Wait wrote the 
accustomed editorial congratulating the people upon the 
ability of the chosen standard bearers, and promising his 
heartiest support and placing the names at the masthead. 
After the paper had gone to press the news came that 
Polk and Dallas had secured the nominations. Mr. Wait 
hurried to the office, caused the latter names to be in- 
serted, and the press was started again. What he had 
written in the first place answered for the last candidates 
as well. 

In those early days it was as common to slur Oregon 
weather as it is nowadays, for, on December 14th, Editor 
Wait takes exception to it, and, among other things, says : 
"For the year ending November 30th there have been 240 
clear days, 25 days on which it rained or snowed all day, 
and 101 days on which it rained, hailed, snowed, or was 
cloudy part of the day.' 

The only exchanges of the Spectator at this time were 
one at Honolulu, and two small papers in California, one 
in San Francisco and the other at Monterey, which were 
brought semi-occasionally by vessels. Papers and letters 
arrived from the "States" once a year. Thus, it may be 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 353 

seen, that an editor in those days must have been a man 
of resources. 

On September 7th the Spectator suspended, the printer, 
John Fleming, going to the mines. Publication was re- 
sumed on October 12th, with S. Bentley, printer. At this 
date the editor apologizes as follows : 

The Spectator, after a temporary sickness, greets its patrons, and 
hopes to serve them faithfully, and as heretofore, regularly. That 
"gold fever," which has swept about three thousand of the officers, 
lawyers, physicians, farmers, and mechanics of Oregon, from the 
plains of Oregon into the mines of California, took away our printer 
also hence the temporary non-appearance of the Spectator. 

In 1848 Judge Wait drew the deed by which Francis 
W. Pettygrove conveyed the Portland townsite of six hun- 
dred and forty acres to Daniel H. Lownsdale, the con- 
sideration being $5,000 in leather. 

With the issue of February 22, 1849, Mr. Wait's con- 
nection with the paper ceased. During the Cayuse war, 
1847-48, Mr. Wait was assistant commissary general. 
Prior to leaving Massachusetts he had studied law, and 
was admitted to the bar in Michigan in 1841. At the 
first election after Oregon became a state 1859 he was 
elected one of the judges of the supreme court, and was 
chief justice for four years. At the close of his official 
career he resumed his law practice and continued until he 
acquired a competency, when he retired, although still 
retaining an active interest in public affairs, and fre- 
quently contributing to the press. He lived to the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-five, and died in 1898. 

Soon after Mr. Wait's connection with the Spectator was 
ended, it suspended publication. On October 4, 1849, it 
again appeared with Rev. Wilson Blain, a clergyman of 
the United Presbyterian Church, as editor, and George B. 



354 GEO. H. HIMES. 

Goudy, 5 printer. On February 7, 1850, the paper was re- 
duced to sixteen columns on account of a shortage in the 
paper supply. On April 18, 1850, Robert Moore, then pro- 
prietor of Linn City, opposite Oregon City, became owner, 
Blain being retained as editor. In this issue he says : 

We find the opinion that Oregon should be immediately erected into 
a state much more prevalent than we had anticipated, * * and we feel 
impelled to warmly urge it on public attention. * * Time was when 
Oregon enjoyed a large share of public attention, * * but things have 
greatly changed in the last two years. Oregon has passed almost 
entirely into the shade. * * We rarely see Oregon mentioned in the 
papers received from the States, while California, Deseret, and New 
Mexico engrossed a very considerable part of public attention. 

On July llth the size was increased to twenty columns 
and on July 25th to twenty-four columns. In this issue 
appears a prospectus of The Oregon Statesman. After stat- 
ing what it is going to be in religion, in morals, and in 
politics, which it says will be democratic, the prospectus 
goes on to say that "The Statesman will be 116 inches 
larger than The Spectator," and places the subscription 
price at the lowest mark $7 per annum, and $4 for six 
months. It was to be published weekly at Oregon City 
by Henry Russell and A. W. Stock well. The Spectator 
of August 8th contains the announcement that a whig 
journal The Oregonian is to be published at Portland 
by T. J. Dryer, a "stump speaker of power and a pun- 
gent writer.' On September 5th Blain ended his career 
as editor. 

Mr. Blain was born in Ross County, Ohio, February 28, 
1813. He was graduated at Miami University, Oxford, 
Ohio, in 1835. He completed the full course of study at 
the Associate Reformed Theological Seminary at Alle- 

5 George B. Goudy came to Oregon in 1849. In 1852 he worked on the Oregonian. 
In 1853 he went to Olympia, and soon after became one of the publishers of the 
Pioneer and Democrat. In 1855-5(5, during the Yakima war, he commanded Com- 
pany "C," of which H. W. Scott, now of the Oregonian, was a member. Mr. Goudy 
died September 19, 1857, at Olympia, in his 29th year. 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 355 

gheny, Pennsylvania, was licensed to preach by the first 
presbytery of Ohio on April 18, 1838, and was ordained 
by the presbytery of Chillicothe, Ohio, October 17, 1839. 
He had pastoral charge of the congregation at Hebron, 
Indiana, until May 15, 1847, when he began preparing 
for the journey to Oregon as a missionary. He started 
on May 8, 1848, and arrived at Oregon City on November 
29th. Soon afterwards he organized a small church the 
first of his denomination in Oregon. On June 6, 1849, he 
was elected to the upper branch of the first territorial legis- 
lature. In November, 1850, Mr. Blain removed to Union 
Point, Linn County, and organized a church over which 
he was installed pastor in 1853. He was a prime mover 
in the organization of the United Presbyterian Church 
there. He established an academy at Union Point, in 
which he was manager and teacher until 1856. These 
exacting duties, in connection with his ministry, injured 
his health, and he died on February 22, 1861. 

On September 12, the Spectator was first issued weekly 
with D. J. Schnebly, as editor, and the subscription price 
raised to $7 per annum. 

On September 26th the paper was again reduced to six- 
teen columns, and the editor says : 

This is a matter of perplexity to us and a great disappointment to 
our subscribers ; but it is a matter over which we have no control. A 
large supply is expected soon, as it has been seven months on the way 
from New York. 

On October 17th the former size is resumed, and the 
names of John Fleming and T. F. McElroy appear as 
printers ; and on the 31st the editor, in acknowledging the 
gift of a chair, says that it is the "first one that has been 
in the sanctum for seven weeks, and that the donors have 
a few more left at the rate of $30 per dozen." 

On November 28th there apppeared an advertisement 
for a railroad from "Milton and St. Helens to LaFayette," 



356 GEO. H. HIMES. 

and the enterprise is referred to as a "Brilliant Chance for 
Investment," and in the opinion of "competent judges" 
the cost is estimated at $500,000. The advertisement goes 
on to say that "From the unusual amount of stock taken 
abroad, and from the fact that every possible arrangement 
has been made for its speedy completion, it is confidently 
believed that the work will be finished in six months." 
The advertisement is signed by W. H. Tappan, St. Helens, 
and Crosby & Smith, Milton. An "N. B." is added to the 
notice in which it is stated, in italics, that "It is almost 
useless to add that the terminus of this road should be at 
a point that can be reached with safety by large vessels at 
any season and at any stage of the river" a thrust at 
the pretensions of the village of Portland to be a com- 
mercial point. 

Beginning with Vol. VI, No. 1, September 9, 1851, Mr. 
Schnebly became owner of the Spectator. In November 
following he secured C. P. Culver as associate editor. 
At this time T. F. McElroy and C. W. Smith were the 
printers. A few weeks later T. D. Watson and G. D. R. 
Boyd became the printers. In the issue of November 
25th Mr. Schnebly complains bitterly because there is 
only a semimonthly mail between Oregon City and Port- 
land. On February 3, 1852, the Spectator became for the 
first time a distinctively political journal, and espoused 
the cause of the whig party. On March 16, 1852, it was 
suspended, and did not resume business until August 19, 
1853. After this date the paper was not well supported, 
and gradually it grew weaker and weaker, and finally was 
sold by Mr. Schnebly to C. L. Goodrich, late in 1854, and 
was permanently suspended in March, 1855. 

Soon afterwards the plant was sold to W. L. Adams, a 
pioneer of 1847, for $1,200. He used it in starting the 
Oregon City Argus, which was issued on April 21, 1855, 
and was the first distinctively republican paper in Oregon, 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 357 

if not on the Pacific Coast. Prior to this time he had 
become well known as a teacher, and as a forcible political 
writer and speaker. He wrote in the Oregonian over the 
signature of " Junius," and was the author of a locally 
famous political satire entitled "Brakespear: or Treason, 
Stratagems, and Spoils." This was published in the Ore- 
gonian of February 14 and 21, and March 6 and 13, 1852, 
and afterwards printed in pamphlet form, and illustrated 
with a number of rude cartoons the first attempt of the 
kind in the territory which added spice to the text. 

The leading democrats of that day, among them Judge 
Matthew P. Deady, Judge 0. C. Pratt, Asahel Bush, editor 
of the Oregon Statesman, John Orvis Waterman, editor 
of the Oregon Weekly Tim.es, Col. William M. King, and 
Gen. Joseph Lane, were mercilessly caricatured. All were 
veiled under fictitious names, but the peculiarities and 
characteristics of each one were so aptly described that 
the disguises did not hide their identity. 

Mr. Adams was born in Painesville, Ohio, on February 
5, 1821, both parents emigrating from Vermont to Ohio 
when it was a wilderness. On his father's side he is con- 
nected with the Adams' family of Massachusetts, and his 
mother, whose name was Allen, descended from Ethan 
Allen of Ticonderoga fame. He went to school at the 
academy in Milan, Ohio, for a time, and obtained through 
his own efforts a classical education at Bethany College, 
Virgina. He came to Oregon in 1848, and the first thing 
he did, after locating a claim in Yamhill County, was to 
join with his neighbors in building a schoolhouse, wherein 
he taught the children of the settlers during the follow- 
ing winter. 

As a master of cutting invective he was rarely equalled 
and never surpassed. His proficiency in this direction, 
together with similiar qualifications on the part of two of 
his territorial contemporaries, gave rise to what was lo- 



358 GEO. H. HIMES. 

cally known as the "Oregon Style." He was fearless and 
audacious to the fullest degree, had the pugnacity of a 
bulldog, never happier than when lampooning his oppo- 
nents, and his efforts were untiring. He was one of the 
leading spirits in organizing the republican party in Ore- 
gon, and on February 11, 1857, at the "Free State Repub- 
lican Convention," held in Albany, was appointed chairman 
of a committee of three to prepare an address to the people 
of the Territory of Oregon. As a reward for diligent 
efforts as a speaker and writer in the arduous campaign 
closing on November 6, 1860, by which Oregon was car- 
ried for Lincoln by a small plurality, he received the ap- 
pointment of collector of customs, being Lincoln's first 
appointee for Oregon. He then retired from the Argus, 
but during his residence in Astoria edited the Marine 
Gazette for a time, and ever since has been a frequent con- 
tributor to the press of the state. In 1868-69 he made a 
trip to South America, and late in the latter year returned 
to the United States and delivered a series of lectures. 
In 1873 he studied medicine in Philadelphia, and 1875 
began its practice in Portland. A few years later he re- 
moved to Hood River, where he still lives, now in his 
eighty-third year, as full of fire and fight as he was forty 
years ago. 

Before passing from the Argus, mention should be made 
of his foreman and all round right-hand man David 
Watson Craig. He was born near Maysville, Kentucky. 
July 25, 1830. His mother was Euphemia Early, a sec- 
ond cousin of Jubal Early, who became a noted Confed- 
erate general during the civil war. His parents removed 
to Palmyra, Missouri, in 1839, and to Hannibal, Missouri, 
in 1841. On May 25th, that year, he became an appren- 
tice on the Hannibal Journal. One of the typesetters was 
Orion Clemens, a brother of Samuel L. Clemens, better 
known by his pen name, "Mark Twain.' (Mark, him- 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 359 

self, learned the printing business in the same office.) 
Serving an apprenticeship of four and a half years, young 
Craig went to Illinois and worked at Quincy, Peoria, and 
Springfield, remaining at the latter place four years, as 
an employe of the Illinois State Journal, edited by Simeon 
Francis, 6 and served in various capacities as compositor, 
reporter, editorial writer, and telegraph operator. While 
in Hannibal, Craig began reading law, and all spare 
moments in Springfield were thus employed, part of the 
time in Lincoln & Herndon's office. Indue time he passed 
a rigid examination, B. S. Edwards, John T. Stewart, 
and Abraham Lincoln being his examining committee, 
and was licensed on September 15, 1850, the license being 
signed by S. H. Treat, chief justice, and Lyman Trumbull, 
associate justice. He practiced law as occasion offered, 
and performed editorial work on the Journal until the 
latter part of 1852. He then went to Washington, spend- 
ing the winter, and in the spring of 1853 started for Ore- 
gon via the Isthmus. He remained at Panama a few 
months, acting as foreman of the Panama Daily Star. He 
soon went to San Francisco, but only remained a little 
while, when he started for Oregon, and arrived in the 
Columbia Kiver November 25, 1853. He soon found his 
way to Salem, and sought employment of Asahel Bush, 
then proprietor of the Oregon Statesman, on which paper 
he worked for a short time. Unable to get permanent 
employment with Mr. Bush, he had to seek other fields, 
and hence began teaching school. It was while thus 
engaged that Mr. Adams sent for him to act as his fore- 

6 Simeon Francis was born in Wethersfleld, Connecticut, May 14,1796. He served 
an apprenticeship in a New Haven printing office, and in 1824 published a paper 
in New London for a time. Then he removed to Buffalo, New York, and published 
The Emporium. In 1831 he removed to Springfield, Illinois, and in connection 
with three brothers began the publication of the Sangamo Journal, afterwards 
changed to the Illinois State Journal, and remained with it until 1857. In 1841 he 
was appointed Indian agent for Oregon by President Harrison, but after making 
all the needed preparations for the trip, he resigned. 



360 GEO. H. HIMES. 

man, in the spring of 1855. He became proprietor of the 
Argus on April 16, 1859, retaining Mr. Adams as editor 
until October 24, 1863, at which time the Statesman, 
mainly owned by Bush and James W. Nesmith, the latter 
United States senator, and the Argus were consolidated, 
and the publication continued under the name of The 
Statesman, by an incorporation known as the Oregon Print- 
ing and Publishing Company, composed of J. W. P. 
Huntington, Benjamin Simpson, Rufus Mallory, Chester 
N. Terry, George H. Williams, and D. W. Craig, with 
Clark P. Crandall as editor. In time Craig acquired a 
majority of the stock, and in 1866 sold the paper to Ben- 
jamin Simpson, and his sons, Sylvester C. and Samuel 
L. Simpson, became the editors. Simpson afterwards 
sold to W. A. McPherson and William Morgan, the owners 
of the Unionist, and on December 31, 1866, it was merged 
into that paper, the name of the Statesman being dropped. 
Eighteen months later Huntington acquired control of 
the Unionist, and published the same up to the time of 
his death, in the spring of 1869, when the plant was 
bought at administrator's sale by S. A. Clarke, and the 
name The Statesman again adopted. In the merging of 
the Argus into the Statesman in 1863. an extra plant was 
acquired, most of which, aside from the press, was sold 
to an association of printers in Portland, who began pub- 
lishing the Daily Union, with W. Lair Hill as editor. The 
press was acquired by H.R. Kincaid, who began publish- 
ing the State Journal, Eugene, in December, 1863 ; and 
in this office, to-day, may be found the original press of 
the Spectator, not much the worse for its almost constant 
use since February 5, 1846 fifty-six years. Thus may 
be seen the connection between the Spectator of February 
5, 1846, with the Oregon Statesman of to-day. 

Before taking up the story of the next paper, in chron- 
ological order, a few words may be said about the first 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 361 

election tickets printed in Oregon. In a letter recently 
discovered, dated "Oregon City, Willamette Falls, O.T., 
27th June, 1845," written to "Samuel Wilson, Esq., 
Reading, Cincinnati, Ohio, Politeness of Dr. White," it 
being carried by Dr. Elijah White from Oregon City to the 
nearest post office, which was in Missouri, J. W. Nesmith, 
in speaking of the supreme judge of Oregon, says : "I 
received the nomination of the Champoeg convention and 
ran for the office at the election which took place on the 
first Tuesday of the present month, at which I received 
the unanimous vote of the whole territory, happening to 
be on all the tickets, two of which I send you enclosed, 
which were printed for Champoeg County. They are the 
first tickets printed in Oregon. You should preserve them 
as curiosities.' Now, the question is, where were these 
tickets printed? Not at Oregon City, because the Spec- 
tator plant had not yet arrived ; probably at the mission 
press at Lapwai, on the Clearwater, about four hundred 
miles distant by the most direct route of that day. 

The second and third papers in the Territory of Oregon, 
the Free Press and the Oregon American and Evangelical 
Unionist, having already been referred to, I will pass to 
the fourth. This was the Western Star, first issued at 
Milwaukie by Lot Whitcomb, November 21, 1850, with 
John Orvis Waterman and William Davis Carter, print- 
ers, the first of the two being the editor. These young 
men were thorough printers, and learned their trade in 
Montpelier, Vermont, from whence they came to Cali- 
fornia in 1849, and to Oregon early in 1850. Lot Whit- 
comb was a native of Vermont, and the founder of Mil- 
waukie. 

This paper was twenty-four by thirty-four inches in 
size, with twenty-four columns, with a good assortment of 
display type for advertising and job work, and was demo- 
cratic in politics. In May, 1851, Portland having begun 



362 GEO. H. HIMES. 

to lead Milwaukie in growth, the paper was moved away 
from the latter place between two days, during the last 
week of the month, whereat Whitcomb and the Milwaukie 
people generally were much incensed. At the time it was 
charged that Waterman and Carter stole the plant, but 
as a matter of fact, Whitcomb, owing his printers more 
than he could conveniently pay, had given them a bill of 
sale of the whole establishment, and they had a right to 
do as they pleased with it. They took it away at night 
on a flatboat to save time, avoid an open collision, and all 
further controversy. In this connection it may be of in- 
terest to note that with The Star, Dr. Oliver W. Nixon, 
for more than twenty-five years past the literary editor 
of the Inter-Ocean, Chicago, began his newspaper career, 
by assisting in the midnight adventure above described. 
He was an Oregon pioneer of 1850, and in 1851 taught 
school at Milwaukie. Afterwards he was purser on the 
steamer Lot Whitcomb. 

The Star of March 19, 1851, states that a paper is about 
to be started at Salem by Joseph S. Smith, to be called the 
Salem Recorder. On the 27th No. 1, Vol. I, of the Oregon 
Statesman was received, and in commenting upon it Editor 
Waterman says : "We should judge from the style of the 
leaders that the editor had been dining on pickles and case 
knives since the adjournment of the legislature." 

After going to Portland the name Western Star was 
dropped and on June 5, 1851, the paper came out under 
the name of Oregon Weekly Times. Waterman and Carter 
were the proprietors until June 13, 1853, when Carter 
sold to Waterman, who continued it until May 29, 1854. 
He then sold to Messrs. W. D. Carter and R. D. Austin, 
but retained editorial control until November 8, 1856. 
Some time after that Mr. Waterman was elected probate 
judge of Multnomah County, or Washington, as it was 
then, and later he practiced law for a time. The closing 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 363 

years of his life were spent in school work, sometimes in 
teaching and sometimes as county superintendent. He 
died at Cascades, Skamania County, Washington, a num- 
ber of years ago. 

The Times continued to be democratic, with Carter and 
Austin proprietors. In May, 1859, Carter sold his inter- 
est to Austin and retired from journalism. He continued 
work as a journeyman printer until December, 1864, when 
he established a small job office, which he sold five years 
later to the writer. He worked as a journeyman about 
twenty-five years. Then advancing age compelled him 
to retire, and he died in this city in 1898. 

Austin continued the publication of the Times, and on 
December 19, 1860, started a daily, the third in Portland. 
In 1861 he made it a union paper, supporting the nomi- 
nees of that party composed of the republican and Doug- 
las democrats. Austin was not a man given to "diligence 
in business.' He was a "good-fellow," hail-fellow well 
met with all, and was passionately fond of playing the 
violin. On this account he was much in demand at balls 
and parties. This caused more or less inattention to bus- 
iness, and by the early part of 1864 the paper suspended. 
Mr. Austin died in Portland about nineteen years ago. 
Among the editors of the Times, in its later years, were 
Henry Shipley, E. C. Hibben, A. S. Gould, W. N. Wal- 
ton, the late A. C. Gibbs, afterward the war governor of 
Oregon, and W. Lair Hill, who became a prominent at- 
torney, and is now a resident of San Francisco. 

The fifth paper in Oregon was The Weekly Oregonian. 
In June, 1850, W. W. Chapman and Stephen Coffin, 
leading citizens of Portland, then a village of a few hun- 
dred people, and vitally interested in everything pertain- 
ing to its well being, had occasion to visit San Francisco 
on business, and among other things to arrange, if pos- 
4 



364 GEO. H. HIMES. 

sible, for the publication of a newspaper. About July 
4th they met Thomas J. Dryer, at that time city editor 
of the California Courier, and disclosed their plans to 
him. He, having a desire to engage in journalism on 
his own account, listened favorably to their proposals. 
Accordingly, a plan of operations was agreed upon, and 
a secondhand plant belonging to the Alta, the press being 
a Ramage No. 913, was secured and shipped on the bark 
Keoka on October 8th, and arrived in the Columbia 
River in the latter part of November following. Before 
leaving San Francisco an order was sent to New York for 
a new plant throughout, to be shipped direct to Portland. 
The name The Weekly Oregonian was suggested by Col- 
onel Chapman. The paper was issued on Wednesday, 
December 4, 1850, and Stephen Coffin, Col. W. W. Chap- 
man, A. P. Dennison, and W. W. Baker took the first 
paper by the four corners and lifted it from the press. 
The first number was distributed through the town by 
Arthur and Thomas, sons of Col. Chapman, and Henry 
C. Hill, a stepson of Stephen Coffin. Colonel Chapman 
had a man to go on horseback and deliver the first num- 
ber at various points along the trail as far south as Cor- 
vallis, then Marysville, and to cross the river and return 
on the east side. Thus was The Oregonian given to the 
world A. M. Berry 7 was the first printer, and Henry Hill 
the first "printer's devil.' 

Mr. Dryer was born in Canandaigua County, New York, 
January 10, 1808, and was the second son of Aaron and 
Lucinda Dryer. His paternal grandfather was a soldier 
of the Revolution, and his father served in the war of 1812. 
His mother was a daughter of Isaac Lewis, who served 

7 Mr. Berry was born in New Hampshire. He went to California in 1849, and 
came to Oregon with Mr. Dryer in 1850. He went to Olympia late in 1853, and 
bought an interest in the Pioneer and Democrat. He went to his early New Eng- 
land home in the summer of 1854 to make a visit, was exposed to the cholera, and 
died at Greenland, New Hampshire, August 1, 1854. 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 365 

under Washington. The family removed to Ohio, near 
Cincinnati, in 1818. Thomas stayed there until 1825, 
when he returned to New York and remained until 1841. 
During the next seven years he had a mail contract, 
shipped beef to New Orleans, and had an interest in a 
steam laundry in Cincinnati, each in turn, the latter being 
about the only industry that he found profitable. In 1848 
he went to California to mine for gold, but incidentally 
became connected with the Courier, before mentioned, as 
a reporter, where he was found as previously stated. Mr. 
Dryer was a whig, and an aggressive and spirited writer, 
with a dash of audacity and fearlessness which were well 
suited to pioneer journalism, besides being a born contro- 
versialist and an attractive public speaker. His attacks 
on democracy by pen and voice were bold, persistent, and 
denunciatory to a marked degree. The democratic jour- 
nals, particularly the Statesman, replied in kind, and thus 
considerable excitement was created throughout the terri- 
tory among the partisans of the respective journals when 
they made their appearance from week to week. The new 
plant of The Oregonian, before referred to, arrived early 
in April and the printed page of the paper was enlarged 
from fourteen and three eighths by nineteen inches to 
fifteen and one quarter by twenty and three quarter inches. 
The new Washington hand press superseded the Ramage, 
and that machine, with the old plant of The Oregonian, 
was bought in 1852 by T. F. McElroy and J. W. Wiley, 
and taken around on the schooner Mary Taylor to Olympia 
and used in printing the Columbian, the first newspaper 
north of the Columbia River, and was issued at "Olympia, 
Puget's Sound, 0. T., Saturday, September 11, 1852." 
The editor, in making an appeal for subscribers, says : 

The Olympian the pioneer newspaper west of the mountains be- 
tween the daddy of Oregon waters and Kamchatka (we don't expect 
any subscribers there, however, as they don't "cumtux" our "wau- 



366 GEO. H. HIMKS. 

wau"). Walk up, gentlemen a few chances for subscription left. 
Only five dollars a year "And a-going, and a-going !" Ten copies, did 
you say ? Thank you, sir. Sale closed. Be patient, gentlemen. Open 
again to-morrow morning at 8 o'clock, precisely. 

The paper was neutral in politics and religion. At the 
end of six months Editor Wiley says that he "will venture 
the assertion that not another newspaper in the United 
States nay, not in the world that has existed for six 
months with more economy than has the Columbian. 
We commenced its publication without a subscriber and 
without a dollar. Since that time we have 'kept bach,' 
done our own cooking, our own washing, our own mend- 
ing, cut our own wood, made our own fires, washed our own 
dishes, swept out our own office, made up our own beds, 
composed our own editorials out of the cases writing paper 
being a luxury which we have been deprived of and done 
our own presswork. Now we have three hundred and fifty 
subscribers. * * What has been accomplished for the 
Territory of Columbia or rather what has Northern Ore- 
gon accomplished for herself during the last six months ? 
History in the future history of the State of Columbia 
may be found an answer." 

Wiley withdrew from the paper on March 13, 1853. 
On March 26th J. J. Beebe appears as a partner with Mc- 
Elroy, but retired on July 13th. In the first number of 
the second volume the name of Mat. K. Smith appears as 
editor, and he conducted it as a whig journal, until 
November 26th. In the next issue the names of J. W. 
Wiley and A. M. Berry appear as proprietors, and the 
name is changed to the Washington Pioneer, with Wiley 
as editor, who says that as long as he has anything to do 
with it it will "be a straight-out, radical democratic jour- 
nal." In the issue of February 4, 1854, the name is 

t/ 

changed to Pioneer and Democrat, and it is printed on a 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 367 

new press with new type, and R. L. Doyle taken in as 
partner. 

In making this change the paper was enlarged by the 
addition of one fourth of an inch to the length of the 
printed page a fact which the editor emphasizes. At 
this point the old Ramage press was practically laid aside. 

In July, 1861, the manager of The Press, Victoria, Brit- 
ish Columbia, conceived the idea that it would be good 
business policy to send a man to Olympia to print a sheet 
containing the latest war news, and have it ready to send 
by each steamer leaving Olympia for Victoria, thus enabling 
The Press management to place the latest news before its 
readers, upon arrival of the steamer, without having to 
wait to print it. This sheet was called the Overland Press, 
and it was in charge of J. R. Watson and A. M. Poe, and 
for a few weeks was printed on the press of the Washing- 
ton Standard. In August, however, the old Ramage was 
secured and used for a year or more. 

In 1863 Watson took it to Seattle, and printed the first 
paper there, the Seattle Gazette. A little later, some time 
in 1865, it was used in printing the Intelligencer, started 
by S. L. Maxwell, for the first time. Some time afterwards 
it was used in printing the first daily in Seattle, which, it 
is believed, was the first in the Territory of Washington. 
Twenty years thereafter, or thereabouts, it began to be 
considered an historical relic, and was stored in a room in 
the University of Washington, Seattle, and there it is to- 
day. 

When the press came to the Pacific Coast is a question 
not yet fully settled. The writer is of the opinion, how- 
ever, after most careful research, based largely on printed 
evidence in his possession, dated as early as 1852, that it 
was sent from New York to Mexico, thence to Monterey, 
California, in 1834, where it was used by the Spanish 
governor for a number of years in printing proclamations, 



368 GEO. H. HIMES. 

etc., and on August 15, 1846, by Rev. Walter Cotton and 
R. Semple in printing the Californian, the first newspaper 
in California. Late in 1846 it was sent from Monterey to 
San Francisco, and used in printing the Star, the first 
paper in that city, which was issued in January, 1847. 
The interests of the Californian and the Star were com- 
bined, and in the fall of 1848 the first number of the Alta 
California was issued with the plant. 

If the foregoing position is true, and there seems to be 
no reasonable doubt of it, from the evidence now in hand, 
the press in question was the first in Monterey, the first in 
San Francisco, the first in Portland, the first in Olympia, 
and the first in Seattle. 

On December 16, 1854, George B. Goudy became a part- 
ner in the publication of the Pioneer and Democrat, and on 
August 10, 1855, sole owner. In 1857 he sold to Edward 
Furste, who retained J. W. Wiley as editor until May 14, 
1858. On May 30, 1860, Furste sold to James Lodge, who 
continued to publish the paper until May 31, 1861. After 
the first year of this paper's life its publishers had the 
territorial printing, and fortunes were made out of it. 
The change of the national administration in 1860 cut 
off that source of revenue, and it gently expired without 
an apology. 

Notwithstanding Mr. Dryer's capacity to work hard, it 
was difficult for him to make ends meet. With consider- 
able ability as an editor, he was also in frequent demand 
as a public speaker. This left him but little time to attend 
to business matters, which, as every one knows who has 
had any experience in newspaper business, is largely a 
matter of small details. This feature of journalism was 
wholly distasteful to him. 

t 

About this time, November, 1853, a beardless youth of 
seventeen appeared on the scene. He had finished his 
journey across the plains a few weeks before, and was seek- 



HISTORY OF THE PRESS OF OREGON. 369 

ing employment. He had been taught by his father to set 
type at the age of twelve, and hence had five years' expe- 
rience. He had applied at the printing office at Oregon 
City and at The Times office in Portland without success. 
The job of bartender had been offered him, but this was 
not to his taste. Finally, he called at The Oregonian office 
one morning and asked for work. Mr. Dryer was rather 
brusque in his manner, and said, "What can you do?" 
"Set type," was the reply. "Well, see what you can do 
with that," said Mr. Dryer, handing him a composing stick 
and a piece of reprint copy, and directing him to a case. 
The article was soon set and proof taken. Mr. Dryer was 
surprised to find it correct, and at once regarded the youth 
with favor. He said, "Have you any money?" "No," was 
the reply. Tossing the boy a $5 coin he was bidden to 
call again. This he did and Mr. Dryer soon found him a 
most industrious workman always on hand, and willing 
to work early and late. Before many months elapsed this 
young man was advanced to the position of foreman. 
Soon after that he overhauled the subscription books and 
began introducing more careful business methods. Thus 
it was that Henry L. Pittock became connected with The 
Oregonian. 

On November 8, 1856, he and Elisha Treat Gunn, 8 an 
accomplished printer who came from Connecticut, and had 
worked on the paper a number of years, were admitted to 
partnership by Mr. Dryer. This continued until Novem- 
ber 20, 1858, when Pittock and Gunn withdrew. On No- 
vember 24, 1860, Mr. Dryer transferred his interest to Mr. 
Pittock, but retained editorial control until January 12, 

8 Mr. Gunn was born in Connecticut about 1827, and went to California in 1849. 
Early in 1851 he came to Portland and was a compositor on the Oregonian for a 
time. In 1854 he went to Olympia, Washington Territory, and on May 19, 1855, he 
begun publishing thePuget Sound Courier at Steilacoom, the first paper there, and 
continued until its suspension in April, 1856. On November 30, 1867, he started the 
Olympia Transcript, and continued it until his death in 1883. 



370 GEO. H. HIMES. 

1861. This is how it came to pass that Henry L. Pittock 
became the owner of The Oregonian. In recognition of 
Dryer's services in assisting to carry Oregon for the repub- 
lican ticket in 1860, on which he was one of the electors, 
Lincoln appointed him commissioner to the Sandwich 
Islands, whither he went in 1861. A few years later he 
returned to Portland and spent the remainder of his life 
to the year of his death in 1879, the principal part of the 
time holding the office of justice of the peace. 

Upon becoming sole owner of The Oregonian Mr. Pittock 
saw that if he made his business successful he must start 
a daily, although there were two in the field already. Ac- 
cordingly, the necessary new material was secured, and 
the Morning Oregonian was first issued February 4, 1861, 
four pages, each page being eleven and one half by eighteen 
and one fourth inches, four columns each. It is needless 
to recount the further history of this enterprise at this time. 

Since Mr. Dryer, the principal editors of the paper have 
been as follows : Simeon Francis, long the owner of the 
State Journal oi Springfield, Illinois, who came as a result 
of a letter written by D. W. Craig, with the expectation of 
establishing a paper himself, but finding the field well 
occupied, he set type and did faithful editorial work on 
the Oregonian until 1861, when he was appointed pay- 
master in the United States Army by President Lincoln, 
for many years a warm personal friend ; Henry Miller ; 
Amory Holbrook, who was appointed United States district 
attorney by President Taylor, an able lawyer and a polished 
and vigorous writer ; John F. Damon, Samuel A. Clarke, 
H. W. Scott, W. Lair Hill, and again H. W. Scott. Mr. 
Scott's first editorial engagement began May 15, 1865, al- 
though he became an editorial contributor several months 
before. In 1872 he was appointed collector of customs. 
In 1877 he bought an interest in the paper, and became 
editor in chief, which position he retains to-day. 




The Public Archives Commission was organized at the 
Boston meeting of the American Historical Association, 
in December, 1899. The project had been before the 
association for several years, but the way had not been 
clear for starting upon it. The commission proposed to 
undertake a systematic examination of the contents and 
condition of the various classes of American public rec- 
ords national, state, and local, with a view to the ultimate 
publication of such a guide to them as will make them 
available for students. 

To facilitate the work of the commission an adjunct 
member was appointed in each state, who is the imme- 
diate representative of the commission in that state, and 
primarily responsible for such lines of investigation as 
may be undertaken in his rield. The work is without 
compensation, a labor of love for all. 

FROM THE CONSTITUTION OF OREGON. 

Duties of Secretary of State 

The Secretary of State shall keep a fair record of the official acts 
of the legislative assembly and executive department of the state 
and shall, when required, lay the same and all matters relative thereto 
before either branch of the legislative assembly. 

FROM BELLINGER AND COTTON'S ANNOTATED CODES AND STATUTES 

OF OREGON. 

Duties of Secretary of State 

It shall be the duty of the Secretary of State, 

1. To keep a record of the official acts of the executive department 
of the state ; and he shall, when required, lay the same and all mat- 
ters relative thereto before each branch of the legislature ; 

3. He shall be charged with the safe-keeping of all enrolled laws 
and resolutions, and shall not permit the same or any of them to be 
taken out of his office or inspected, except in his presence, unless by 
order of the Governor, or by resolution of one or both houses of the 



372 F. G. YOUNG. 

legislature, under penalty of $100. All legal papers of the state shall 
be deposited and preserved in his office. The chief clerks of the senate 
and house of representatives, at the close of each session of the legis- 
lature, shall deposit for safe-keeping in the office of the Secretary of 
State, all books, bills, documents, and papers in the possession of the 
legislature, correctly labeled, folded, and classified. It shall be the 
duty of the Secretary of State to cause the original enrolled laws and 
joint resolutions passed at each session of the legislature to be bound 
in a volume, in a substantial manner, and in the order in which they 
are approved, and no further record of the official acts of the legis- 
lature, so far as relates to acts and joint resolutions, shall be required 
of said secretary; and he shall index the same, and cause the title 
thereof, with the session at which the same shall have been passed, 
to be written or printed on the back of such volume. At the end of 
each session of the legislative assembly the State Printer shall, of the 
acts, memorials, resolutions, and journals of each session, print the 
number of copies 

as specified later in this report. 

A collection of documents designated by the Secretary 
of State as the "Archives" of the state contains the fol- 
lowing : 

ARCHIVES. 

The Code of Civil Procedure and other general statutes of Oregon, 
enacted by the legislative assembly at the session commencing Sep- 
tember 8, 1862. Code Commissioners: M. P. Deady, A. C. Gibbs, J. K. 
Kelly. Salem: 1863. 

General Laws of Oregon, 1845-1864, compiled and annotated by M. P. 
Deady. Salem, December 26, 1865. 

General Laws of Oregon, 1843-1872, compiled and annotated by M. P. 
Deady, Lafayette Lane. 

The Codes and General Laws of Oregon, compiled and annotated by 
William Lair Hill. 2 vols. Published by authority of an act of Feb- 
ruary 26, 1885. San Francisco: Bancroft- Whitney Company. 1887. 

Same, including statutes and decisions to 1892. San Francisco: 
Bancroft- Whitney Company. 1892. 

The Codes and Statutes of Oregon, showing all laws of a general 
nature, including the Session Laws of 1901. Compiled and annotated 
by Charles B. Bellinger, William W. Cotton. 2 vols. San Francisco: 
Bancroft- Whitney Company. 1902. 

The Oregon Archives, including the Journals, Governor's mes- 
sages, and Public Papers of Oregon. "From the earliest attempt to 
form a government to and including the session of the territorial leg- 
islature of 1849. Collected and published pursuant to an act of the 



THE ARCHIVES OP OREGON. 373 

legislative assembly, passed January 29, 1853." By Lafayette Grover, 
Commissioner. Salem: 1853. 

Same, including- following additional contents: 

(a) Papers relating to the war with the Cayuse Indians. 

(6) Laws of a General and Local Nature. Passed by the legislative commit- 
tee and legislative assembly at their various successive sessions from the year 
1843, down to and inclusive of the session of the territorial legislature held in 1849, 
except such laws of said session as were published in the bound volume of Ore- 
gon Statutes, dated Oregon City, 1851, collected and published pursuant to an act 
of January 26, 1853. 

Statutes of a General Nature. Passed by the legislative assembly 
of the Territory of Oregon at the second session, begun and held at 
Oregon City, December, 1850. Oregon City : 1851. 

Journals, Local Laws, and Joint Resolutions of the legislative as- 
sembly of the Territory of Oregon : 

(a) Journal of the Council of the Territory of Oregon during the second session 
of the legislative assembly, begun and held at Oregon City, December 2, 1850. Ore- 
gon City : 1851. 

(&) Journal of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Oregon, during 
the second session of the legislative assembly, begun and held at Oregon City. 
Oregon City : 1851. 

(c) Statutes of a local nature and joint resolutions of the legislative assembly 
of the Territory of Oregon, passed at the second session thereof, begun and held 
December 2, 1850, at Oregon City. Oregon City : 1851. 

Laws and Journals. Oregon, 1851-1852 : 

(a) General laws passed by the legislative assembly of the Territory of Oregon 
at the third regular session thereof, begun and held at Salem, December 1, 1851. 
Oregon : 1852. 

(6) Local laws and joint resolutions of the legislative assembly of the Terri- 
tory of Oregon, passed at the third regular session thereof, begun and held at 
Salem, December, 1851. Oregon : 1852. 

(c) Journal of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Oregon, during 
the first session of the legislative assembly, begun and held at Oregon City, July 
16, 1849. Oregon : 1854. 

(d) Journal of the Council of the Territory of Oregon, during the first regular 
session of the legislative assembly, begun and held at Oregon City, July 16, 1849. 
Oregon : 1854. 

(e) Journal of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Oregon, during 
the third regular session of the legislative assembly, begun and held at Salem, 
December 1, 1851. 

Appendix : Memorial to Congress requesting officers appointed from among 
themselves ; increasing salaries of revenue collectors ; establishment of military 
posts, mail facilities. 

(/) Journal of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Oregon, dur- 
ing a special session, begun and held at Salem, July 26, 1852. Oregon : 1852. 

(g) Journal of the Council of Oregon, during a special session, begun and held 
at Salem, July 26, 1852. Oregon : 1852. 

(h) Journal of the Council of the Territory of Oregon, during the third regular 
session of the legislative assembly, begun and held at Salem, December 1, 1851. 
Oregon : 1852. 



374 F. G. YOUNG. 

Appendix: Memorial to the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States, expressing dissatisfaction with Governor Gaines and the territorial 
judges ; including, also, Judge Pratt's opinion on the "Location Law." 

Laws and Journals, 1852-1853 : 

(a) General laws passed by the legislative assembly of the Territory of Oregon, 
at fourth regular session thereof, begun and held at Salem, December 6, 1852. Ore- 
gon : 1853. 

(6) Special laws and joint resolutions of the legislative assembly of the Terri- 
tory of Oregon, passed at the fourth regular session thereof, begun and held at 
Salem, December 6, 1852. Oregon : 1853. 

(c) Journal of the Council of the Territory of Oregon, during the fourth regu- 
lar session of the legislative assembly, begun and held at Salem December 6, 1852. 
Oregon: 1853. 

Appendix : Librarian's report, with catalogue of library. Report of company 
sent out from counties of Lane and Linn to learn the practicability of an emi- 
grant route from Fort Boise to the Willamette Forks, commenced August 20, 1852, 
and lasted sixty days. Report of Secretary relating to distribution of general 
laws and journals and local laws. Reports of payments made on account of the 
library. Report of Treasurer. 

(d) Journal of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Oregon duiing 
the fourth regular session of the legislative assembly, begun and held at Salem, 
December 6, 1852. Oregon : 1853. 

Appendix : Correspondence relating to provisions for the convicts of Oregon 
Territory in the guardhouse at Columbia Barracks. Instructions to the Gov- 
ernor and Secretary of Oregon Territory in disbursing money intrusted to them 
by virtue of their offices, from the Treasury Department of the United States. Re- 
port of the Minority of the Committee on Maynard's Bill for Divorce. Report of 
Governor Gaines of the money received and expended for the Territorial Library, 
with copy of letter from the Comptroller of the Treasury of the United States. 
Majority and Minority Reports of Commissioners to superintend the erection of a 
penitentiary at Portland. Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts. Memorial 
by Territorial Legislature to Congress requesting a release to Dr. John McLoughlin 
of the "Oregon City Claim," and a donation to the territory for university en- 
dowment in lieu thereof of a township of land. Report of Commissioners on 
Cayuse War Claims. Report of committee to whom this report was referred. 
Memorial to Congress urging the importance of immediate action on the part of 
the General Government relative to the construction of a railroad from some 
point on the Mississippi River to some point on the Pacific Ocean, or some of the 
navigable waters connected therewith. Resolution requesting: (a) Delegate in 
Congress to use his best endeavors to secure the erection of marine hospitals at 
desirable points on the Oregon coast ; (&) Congress to divide the Territory of Ore- 
gon. Speaker's Decisions. 

Laws and Journals, Oregon, 1853-4-5, 1855-6 : 

(a) Journal of the House of Representatives of Oregon, during the fifth reg- 
ular session of the legislative assembly, begun and held at Salem, December 5, 
1853. Salem, Oregon: 1854. 

Appendix: Report of Commissioners elected to prepare a Code of Laws. Li- 
brarian's report, with catalogue of library. Report of Commissioner of Cayuse 
War Claims. Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts. Report of Territorial 
Treasurer. Memorial to Congress urging compensation for services and for losses 
sustained in war with Rogue River Indians. Report of Committee to whom was 
referred reports of Auditor and Treasurer. Memorial to the Postmaster General 



THE ARCHIVES OP OREGON. 375 

urging provision of mail facilities for southern Oregon. Re port of Commissioners 
to superintend the erection of a Penitentiary. Report of Legislative Committee 
on the progress of the work. Report of the Commissioners to superintend the 
erection of public buildings. Memorial asking admission as a state. Memorial 
asking for a change in the act of Congress of September 27, 1850, so as to release 
to Dr. John McLoughlin what is known as the "Oregon City Claim," and in lieu 
thereof donate to the territory two townships of land. Report of moneys ex- 
pended by the Commissioners for the erection of a Penitentiary. Memorial 
urging change in the "Land Law" of September, 1850, so as to facilitate the process 
of securing titles. Resolution relating to the state house building fund, safes for 
Auditor and Treasurer, funds for public buildings, relief of Joseph Hunsacker. 
Speaker's Decisions. 

(6) Special Laws passed by the legislative assembly of the Territory of Oregon 
at the fifth regular session, begun and held at Salem, December 5, 1853. Oregon : 
1854. 

(c) Journal of the Council of the legislative assembly of the Territory of Ore- 
gon, during the fifth annual session, begun and held at Salem, Decembers, 1853. 
Oregon : 1854. 

Appendix: Report of the Committee appointed to draft rules for the govern- 
ment of the Council. Report of Commissioners to superintend the erection of 
public buildings. Communication relating to the binding of the Oregon Ar- 
chives. Report relative to the selection and location of University lands. Resigna- 
tion of one of the Commissioners. Report of the Joint Code Committee. Report 
of Auditor of Public Accounts. Report of the TeiTitorial Treasurer. Report of 
the Judiciary Committee for the repeal of the Stephen's Ferry Charter. Commu- 
nication of William M. King, relating to contract for building a penitentiary. 

(d) Reports of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of the Territory of Oregon 
at the December term, 1853. Judges: George H. Williams, Chief Justice ; Cyrus 
Olney, Obadiah B. McFadden, Associate Justices. Oregon : 1854. 

(e) Bound in the same volume are the following : Laws of the legislative assem- 
bly of the Territory of Oregon enacted during the seventh regular session thereof, 
begun December 3, 1855, and [concluded January 31, 1856. Salem, Oregon : 1856. 
General laws ; special laws. 

Journals, Oregon, 1854-55: 

(a) Journals of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Oregon, dur- 
ing the sixth regular session of the legislative assembly, begun and held at Salem, 
December 4, 1854. Corvallis, Oregon : 1851. 

Appendix: Rules for the Government of the House of Representatives of Ore- 
gon Territory. Treasurer's Report. Correspondence relating to the massacre of 
immigrants by the Snake River Indians in August, 1854. Report of the Auditor 
of Public Accounts. Report of the University Land Commissioner. Report of 
the State House Commissioners. Report of the Willamette Falls Canal, Milling 
and Transportation Company. Report of Commissioners to erect the Territorial 
University. Report of the Territorial Librarian, with catalogue of library. Re- 
ports, majority and minority, of Judiciary Committee on petition of Mary Ann 
Huner. Report of Commissioners to erect Penitentiary. Report of Governor 
Curry on massacre of a portion of the immigration of last season near For tBoise> 
with correspondence of military officials. Memorial to the legislature of the Ter- 
ritorial Printer. Report of the State House Commissioners. Report of the Joint 
Committee on the charges against the Commissioners for the erection of the State 
House. Message of Governor Curry in relation to the investigation of the ex- 
penditure of the penitentiary fund, submitting papers containing accounts, etc. 
Report of Joint Committee on Message from the Governor, in relation to the 
massacre of immigrants last season by the Snake River Indians. Message of 



376 F. G. YOUNG. 

Governor Curry, submitting a report of the disbursements and the condition of 
the fund appropriated by Congress for the erection of public buildings. Report 
of Select Committee on the report of the State House Commissioners. Report on 
the burning of the city jail of Portland by Oregon convicts confined therein. Re- 
port of Minority of Committee on Relief of Addison Flint for viewing and loca- 
ting the Territorial Road from Corvallis to Winchester. 

(6) Special laws passed by the legislative assembly of the Territory of Oregon 
at the sixth regular session thereof, begun and held at Salem December 4, 1854. 
Corvallis, Oregon: 1855. 

(c) Journal of the Council of the Territory of Oregon during the sixth regular 
session of the Legislative Assembly, begun and held at Salem, December 4, 1855. 

Appendix: Treasurer's Report. Correspondence relating to the massacre of 
immigrants by the Snake River Indians in August, 1851. Report of Auditor of 
Public Accounts. Report of University Land Commissioner. Report on bill to 
legalize the marriage of John C. Carey and Sarah Carey. Report of State House 
Commissioners. Report of Willamette Falls Canal, Milling and Transpprtation 
Company. Report of Commissioners to erect Territoi'ial University. Report of 
Commissioners to erect Penitentiary. Message of Governor Curry relating to 
plans by which perpetrators of massacre of immigrants near Fort Boise might be 
brought to justice; submitting also correspondence of military officials. Memo- 
rial of Territorial Printer, relating to the shipment of one thousand copies of 
Oregon documents from New York. Report of State House Commissioners. 
Report of Joint Committee against State House Commissioners. Message of 
Governor Curry in relation to the investigation of the expenditure of the peni- 
tentiary fund, submitting papers. Report of joint committee on message of 
Governor, relating to massacre of immigrants by the Snake River Indians. 
Message of the Governor, submitting the report of the disbursements and condi- 
tion of the fund appropriated by congress for the erection of public buildings. 
Message by Governor Curry, relating to the recommendation of the Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs in regard to the law prohibiting the sale of arms and 
ammunition to the Indians. 

(d) Reports of the decisions of the Supreme Court of Oregon during the years 
1853-54. Judges: George H. Williams, Chief Justice; Cyrus Olney, Obadiah B. 
McFadden, M. P. Deady, Associate Justices. Corvallis, Oregon : 1855. 

(e) Reports of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of Oregon, at the December 
term, 1851. Judges: George H. Williams, Chief Justice ; Cyrus Olney, M. P. Deady 
Associate Justices. Corvallis, Oregon: 1855. 

Supreme Court Reports, 1855-56: 

(a) Reports of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of the Territory of Oregon 
rendered at the June and December terms, 1855, and June term, 1856. Judges; 
George H. Williams, Chief J ustice; Cyrus Olney, M. P. Deady, Associate Justices. 
Salem, Oregon : 1856. 

(6) Bound in the same volume: Journal of the House of Representatives of 
the Territory of Oregon, during the seventh regular session, from December 3, 
1855, to January 31, 1856. Salem, Oregon: 1856. 

Appendix: Rules of the House. Correspondence relating to the location and 
erection of capitol building. Report of the Commissioners to erect Penitentiary. 
Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts. Message of Governor Curry, and cor- 
respondence relating to the suppression of Indian hostilities. Report of the dis- 
bursements and condition of the fund appropriated by Congress for the erection 
of public buildings. Report of the University Land Commissioner. Report of 
Quartermaster of the Department of Oregon Territory, of Adjutant General and 
Surgeon in Chief of the Medical Department, of Commissary General. Memorial 
to the President of the United States complaining of the course of General Wool 



THE ARCHIVES OF OREGON. 377 

in connection with the suppression of the Indian hostilities. Preamble to act 
providing for the taking of ;the sense of the people of the terrirory relative to 
forming a state government. Report of the Commissioners to superintend the 
erection of a monument over the grave of Hon. S. R. Thurston. Memorial criti- 
cising the action of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs of the territory in his loca- 
tion of Indian tribes. Memorial relating to the issuing of patents to land claim- 
ants. Memorial urging claims for services rendered in punishing the Snake 
River tribe of Indians. Memorial relating to the assumption of indebtedness of 
Provisional Government of Oregon. Memorial praying for the establishment of 
a mail route from San Francisco to Olympia. Memorial requesting an appropria- 
tion for the construction of a military road from Oregon City to The Dalles. Me- 
morial relative to the establishment of a mail service east of the Cascade Moun- 
tains. Report of the Territorial Librarian. Report of the Committee to Inquire 
into the cause of the destruction of the State House. Memorial asking Congress 
to assume the expenses of the existing Indian war. Memorial preferring charges 
against the Surveyor General. Correspondence and resolution relating to the 
events of the Indian war. 

Laws of Oregon, 1855-56 : Laws of the legislative assembly of the 
Territory of Oregon, enacted during the seventh regular session therof, 
begun December 3, 1855, and concluded January 31, 1856. Salem, 
Oregon: 1856. 

General laws ; special laws. 

Laws and Journals of Oregon, 1856-57 : 

(a) Laws of the legislative assembly of the Territory of Oregon, enacted during 
the eighth regular session thereof, begun December 1, 1856; concluded January 29, 
1857. Salem, Oregon : 1857. 

(6) Journal of the proceedings of the Council of the legislative assembly of the 
Territory of Oregon, during the regular session from December 1, 1856, to January 
29, 1857. Salem, Oregon : 1857. 

Appendix : Memorial of Messrs. Dickinson and Fitch, and other papers rela- 
ting to the Territorial Penitentiary at Portland. Report referring to contest for 
seat in the Council ; also petition and other papers relating to the same. Joint 
Resolution instructing Delegate in Congress to secure further donations of uni- 
versity lands. Rules of the Council. Joint Rules. 

(c) Journal of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Oregon, during 
the eighth regular session, 1856-57. Salem, Oregon : 1857. 

Appendix : Message of the Governor. Report of the Comptroller. Report on 
Capitol Fund. Correspondence between the Governor and the Secretary of War 
in relation to General Wool, and to location of the capital. Report of the Auditor 
of Public Accounts. Report of Select Committee to which was referred the Audi- 
tor's Report. Annual Report of the University Land Commissioner. Treasurer's 
Report. Message of the Governor, submitting correspondence relating to Indian 
hostilities. Report of the Commissioners for the erection of a Penitentiary. Re- 
port of the Commissioner to audit claims growing out of the Indian war of Oregon 
Territory. Report of Committee appointed to visit the Penitentiary. Pilot Com- 
missioner's Report. Report and papers in a case of a contested election. Papers 
relating to Penitentiary. Communications of Auditor. Librarian's Report. Mis- 
cellaneous reports, resolutions,' and memorials. Rules of the House. 

Laws of the legislative assembly of the Territory of Oregon enacted 
during the eighth regular session thereof, begun December 1, 1856, 
concluded, January 29, 1857. Salem, Oregon: 1857. 



378 F. G. YOUNG. 

General laws; special laws. 

House and Senate Journal, 1856-57: 

(a) Journal of the proceedings of the Council of the legislative assembly of 
the Territory of Oregon, during the regular session, from December 1, 1856, to Jan- 
uary 29, 1857. Salem, Oregon: 1857. 

Appendix: (The same as listed under "(6)" under the heading "Appendix" of 
the "Laws and Journals of Oregon, 1856-57.") 

(6) Journal of the ninth regular sessson of the House of Representatives of 
the legislative assembly of the Territory of Oregon, commencing December 7, 
1857. Salem, Oregon: 1858. 

Appendix: Librarian's Report. Auditor's Report. University Land Com- 
missioner's Report. Report of the Superintendent of the Penitentiary. Report 
of the condition of the fund for the erection of Public Buildings. Laws of the 
Territory of Oregon enacted during the ninth regular session of the legislative 
assembly, begun December 7, 1857, concluded February 5, 1858. Salem, Oregon: 
1858. 

(a 1 ) Constitution of Oregon. General laws. Special Laws. 

(& 1 ) Journal of the legislative assembly of the Territory of Oregon, during the 
seventh regular session, from December 3, 1855, to January 31, 1856. Salem, Ore- 
gon : 1856. 

Appendix.- Treasurer's Report. Penitentiary Report. Auditor's Report. Pilot 
Commissioner's Report. 

Laws and Journals, Oregon, 1858-59 : 

(a) Laws of the Territory of Oregon, enacted during the tenth regular session 
of the legislative assembly, begun December 6, 1858, concluded January 22, 1859. 
Salem, Oregon: 1859. General laws; special laws. 

(6) Journal of the Territorial Council of the legislative assembly of Oregon 
Territory, tenth regular session, 1858-59. Salem, Oregon: 1859. 

Appendix: Report relative to a contested seat. Report of the Committee on 
Education. Report of Casualties by Committee on Military Affairs. 

(c) Journal of the House of Representatives of the Territory of Oregon, dur- 
ing the regular session, 1858-59. Salem, Oregon: 1859. 

Appendix: Documents accompanying the Governor's message (1) Corre- 
spondence relating to buildings required for the accommodation of the terri- 
torial officers of the United States. Report of Commission on Indian war ex- 
penses in Oregon and Washington. Auditor's Report. Account accompaying the 
Auditor's Report. Treasurer's Report. Report of Superintendent of Penitentiary ; 
Chaplain's Report accompanying. Report of the University Land Commis- 
sioner. Librarian's Report. Report on failure to print documents accompanying 
the Governor's message. Report on claims of Roberts and Shortle. Proposi- 
tion of Joseph Knott to make penitentiary a self-supporting institution. Report 
of Joint Committee on Education. Minority Report of the same Committee. 
Report of Judiciary Committee on petitions asking for the passage of a law to 
protect property in slaves in the Territory of Oregon. Minority report on the 
same. Proposition on the administration of the penitentiary. Report on peti- 
tions asking for the enactment of a "prohibitory liquor law." Statement of 
amount annually paid by the Secretary of Oregon for rent of legislative halls and 
offices, and the fitting up of the same. Report of the Committee on Military 
Affairs. 



THE ARCHIVES OF OREGON. 379 

Laws and Journals of Oregon, 1859-60 : Laws of the State of Ore- 
gon, enacted during- the first extra session of the legislative assembly, 
begun May 16, 1859, concluded June 4, 1859. Salem, Oregon : 1859. 

(a) General Laws and Special Laws. 

(6) Journal of the House of Representatives of the legislative assembly of the 
State of Oregon, during the first session thereof, 1858. Salem, Oregon : 1859. (Min- 
utes show an attempt at what is called the "first regular session" on September 
13, 1858. It was adjourned on the second day. A session had also been held from 
July 5th to July 9th.) 

(c) Journal of the House of Representatives of the legislative assembly of the 
State of Oregon, during the first extra session, 1859. Salem, Oregon : 1859. 

(d) Journal of the Senate of the legislative assembly of the State of Oregon, 
during the first extra session, 1859. Salem, Oregon : 1859. 

Appendix: The State Constitution, together with the session laws of Oregon, 
enacted during the first regular session of the legislative assembly of Oregon, Sep- 
tember 10, 1860. Salem, Oregon : 1860. 

(e) Journal of the proceedings of the Senate of the legislative assembly of Ore- 
gon during the first regular session thereof, begun September 10, 1860. Salem, 
Oregon : 1860. 

Appendix : Declarations of Pardon. Documents relating to swamp land acts. 
Treasurer's Report. Memorial to Congress asking the payment of the Indian war 
claims. Memorial by J. Q,uinn Thornton asking acceptance of a silver medal 
commemorating the discovery of the mouth of the Columbia River. Report of 
committee recommending acceptance of it. Governor's message calling attention 
to the massacre of immigrants near Salmon Falls on the Snake River. Secre- 
tary's Report. 

(/) Journal of the proceedings of the House of Representatives of the legisla- 
tive assembly of Oregon, during the first regular session, commenced September 
10, I860. Salem, Oregon : 1860. 

Appendix: Librarian's Report. Report and Memorial concerning the Pen- 
itentiary. Report relative to Agricultural Societies. Report of Pilot Commis- 
sioner. Report of Committee on Education. 

House Journal, 1860 : 

(a). Same as (/) above. 

(6) Journal of the proceedings of the Senate of the legislative assembly of 
Oregon, for the session of 1862. Salem, Oregon : 1862. 

(c) Special laws of the State of Oregon and Memorials and Joint Resolutions 
enacted by the legislative assembly thereof during the session of 1862. Salem, 
Oregon: 1862. 

House and Senate Journal, 1862 : 

(a) Journal of the proceedings of the House of the legislative assembly of Ore- 
gon, for the session of 1862. Salem, Oregon : 1862. 

Appendix : Governor's Message and accompanying documents, mainly grants 
of pardon and correspondence relating to threatened Indian depredations. Treas- 
urer's Report. Special Message, and accompanying documents. Secretary's Re- 
port. Librarian's Report. 

(6) Same as (6) next above. 
5 



380 F. G. YOUNG. 

Journals and Local Laws of Oregon, 1862 : 

(a) Same as (&) next above. 

(6) Same as (c) above. 

(c) Same as (a) of the " Senate and House Journal, 1862." 

House and Senate Journal, 1864 : 

(a) Journal of the proceedings of the House of the legislative assembly of Ore- 
gon for the third regular session, 1864. 

Appendix : Governor's Message. Abstract of reports of county school super- 
intendents. Doctors Glisan and Wilson's report as visiting and inspecting physi- 
cians of the Oregon Insane Asylum. Petition for the extension of the contract 
with Doctors Hawthorne and Loryea. Biennial Report of the Physicians of the 
Oregon Hospital for the Insane. Names of persons pardoned. Penitentiary Re- 
port. Secretary's Report. Report of State Treasurer. Report of Adj utant Gen- 
eral. Abstract of Description Book of the First Cavalry Regiment Oregon Vol- 
unteers. Librarian's Report. Railroad Report. Special Message relating to the 
locating of the State's Public Lands. Mrs.Thornton's letter presenting tomahawk. 

(6) Journal of the proceedings of the Senate of the legislative assembly of 
Oregon for the session of 1864. Salem, Oregon : 1864. 

(c) Special Laws of the State of Oregon enacted during the third regular ses- 
sion of the legislative assembly, begun September 12, and concluded October 22, 
1864. 

(d) Memorials and Joint Resolutions. 

House and Senate Journals, 1864 : 

(a) Same as (&), (c), and (d) next above. 
(&) Same as (a) next above. 

House and Senate Journals, 1864-65 : 

(a) Same as (c) next above. 

(6) The Senate Journal during the special session, begun and held December, 
1865. Salem, Oregon : 1866. 

(c) Special Laws, Resolutions. 

(d) The Journal of the House during the special session begun and held De- 
cember, 1865. Salem, Oregon : 1866. 

(e) Report of the Adj utant General of the State of Oregon for 1865. Salem, Ore- 
gon: 1865. 

(/) Message of Governor Addison C. Gibbs, to the legislative assembly, and 
accompanying documents for the special session, December 5, 1865. Salem, Ore- 
gon: 1865. 

(g) Report of the Penitentiary Commissioners for the quarter ending May 31, 
1865. Salem, Oregon : 1865. 

(h) Report of the Secretary of State. 

(i) Report of the State Printer. 

House and Senate Journal, 1865: 

(a) Same as (d) to (i), inclusive, next above. 
(&) and (c) Same as (6) and (c) next above. 

Messages and Documents, 1865: 

(a) Report of the Secretary of State, September, 1866. 

(&) Report of the State Treasurer, September, 1866. 

(c) Report of the Commissioners of the University and Common School Fund. 



THE ARCHIVES OF OREGON. 381 

(d) Report of the State Librarian, September, 1866. 

(e) Census returns and statements of taxes and bounties. 

(/) Copy of deed transferring land to the state on which the State House is 
erected. 

(g) History of mint, established in 1849. 

(ft) Report of the Willamette University, June 4, 1866. 

(i) Abstract of votes cast at general election, June 4, 1866. 

(j) Abstract of Commissioners of Deeds. 

(k) Abstract of Notaries Public. 

( I ) Abstract of Articles of Incorporation from September 1, 1864, to August 
31, 1866. 

(m) to (Z), inclusive, same as (6) to (i), under "Senate and House Journal, 
1864-65." 

Miscellaneous Documents, Oregon Archives, 1865-80: 

(a) In the matter of the State of Oregon, claiming certain lands in said state 
as "Swamp and Overflowed" under and by virtue of the actsx>f Congress of Sep- 
tember 28, 1850, and March 12, 1860. Correspondence and House Joint Resolution 
pertaining thereto. 

(&) Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Oregon for 1863-64. 

( c) Same for the year 1864. 

(d) Same for the year 1865. 

(e) to (p), inclusive, same as (a) to (I) next above. 
(q) Adjutant General's Report, September, 1868. 
(r) Adjutant General's Report, September, 1872. 

(s) Reportof the Joint Committee to investigate the manner of the segregation 
and sale of the swamp and overflowed lands, 1878. 

( O In the Circuit Court of the United States for the District of Oregon, John 
Nightingale and S. G. Elliott, plaintiffs, v. The Oregon Central and Oregon and 
California Railroad Companies et al., defendants. 

Laws of Oregon, 1865-70. 

(a) The General Laws of Oregon, passed at the special session, begun and 
held December, 1865, Salem, Oregon: 1865. 

(6) Resolutions and Memorials passed at the same session as above. 

(c) Acts and Resolutions of the legislative assembly of the State of Oregon 
passed at the fourth regular session, 1866, Salem, Oregon: 1866. Contains an Ap- 
pendix. 

(d) Joint Resolutions and Memorials. 

(e) General Laws of the legislative assembly of the State of Oregon, passed at 
the third regular session, 1864, and the special session, 1865, omitted by mistake 
from the volumes published after the adjournment of said sessions. Ordered pub- 
lished by law, approved October 24, 1866. 

(/) Reports of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of the State of Oregon, as 
filed in the office of the Secretary of State since the publication of 1862. Salem, 
Oregon: 1866. 

(g) General Laws of the State of Oregon, passed at the fifth regular session of 
the legislative assembly thereof, 1868. Salem, Oregon: 1868. 

(h) Special Laws, 1868. 

(i) Joint Resolutions and Memorials, 1868. 

(j) Amendments to the Laws of Oregon compiled in accordance with Sen- 
ate Joint Resolution No. 22, directing the publication of all amendments to the 
Civil and Criminal Code. Salem, Oregon: 1868. 

(k) Acts and Resolutions of the legislative assembly of the State of Oregon 
passed at the sixth regular session, 1870, and Supreme Court Decisions. Salem, 
Oregon: 1870. 



382 F. G. YOUNG. 

General Laws, Special Laws, Joint Resolutions, Joint Memorials, Supreme 
Court Decisions. 

Senate and House Journals, 1866: 

(a) Journal of the Senate proceedings of the legislative assembly of Oregon 
for the fourth regular session, 1866. Salem, Oregon: 1866. 

(6) Journal of the proceedings of the House of the legislative assembly of Ore- 
gon for the fourth regular session, 1866. Salem, Oregon: 1866. 

Appendix: Second Biennial Report of the Physicians of the Oregon Hospital 
for the Insane. Adjutant General's report for 1855-56. Report of the Superin- 
tendent of the Penitentiary. Report of the Penitentiary Commissioners. House 
Joint Resolutions. 

Then follows a list of documents that is the same as from (e) to (p) 
under "Miscellaneous Documents, Oregon Archives, 1865-80." 

Laws of Oregon and Decisions of the Supreme Court, 1866: (a), (6), 
(c), and (d) the same as (gr), (ft), (i), and (j) of the "Laws of Oregon, 
18765-0, ' ' respectively. 

Laws of Oregon and Decisions of the Supreme Court, 1872: Acts 
and Resolutions of the legislative assembly of the State of Oregon, 
passed at the seventh regular session, 1872, and Decisions of the Su- 
per me Court. Salem, Oregon: 1872. 

General Laws, Special Laws, Joint Resolutions, Joint Memorials, Decisions of 
the Supreme Court. 

Laws of Oregon and Decisions of the Supreme Court, 1874 : Acts 
and Resolutions of the legislative assembly of the State of Oregon, 
passed at the eighth regular session, 1874, and Decisions of the Su- 
preme Court. General Laws, Special Laws, Joint Resolutions, Joint 
Memorials, Decisions of the Supreme Court, September term, 1872 ; 
January term, 1873 ; July term, 1873 ; December term, 1873 ; August 
term, 1874 ; December term, 1874. 

Appendix : Opinion and Findings of M. P. Deady, referee, in the case of the 
State of Oregon v. Samuel E. May et al. 

The later Archives are arranged in quite uniform series 
of publications : 

SERIES A. Laws of Oregon. Comprises volumes as follows : 
1876 Ninth regular session. 
1878 Tenth regular session. 
1880 Eleventh regular session. 
1882 Twelfth regular session. 

1885 Thirteenth legislative assembly, special session. 
1885 Thirteenth regular session. 
1887 Fourteenth regular session. 
1889 Fifteenth regular session. 
1891 Sixteenth regular session. 



THE ARCHIVES OF OREGON. 383 

1893 Seventeenth regular session. 

1895 Eighteenth regular session. 

1898 Twentieth legislative assembly, special session. 

1899 Twentieth regular session. 

1901 Twenty-first regular session. 

The contents of the above series are uniformly: General Laws, 
Special Laws, Joint Resolutions, Joint Memorials, Names Changed, 
Financial Statement. The Joint Resolutions are termed "Concurrent 
Resolutions" in the laws of the special session of the twentieth legis- 
lative assembly. The Special Laws of the last (twenty-first) regular 
session are omitted. 

SERIES B. House Journals. Extensive lists of documents are bound 
in with the earlier volumes of this series as follows : 

1. 1857-58. Legislative assembly of the Territory of Oregon. 

Appendix: Librarian's Report. Auditor's Report. University Land Commis- 
sioner's Report. Report of the Superintendent of the Penitentiary. Report of 
the Condition of the Fund for the Erection of Public Buildings. Treasurer's 
Report. Report of the Visiting Committee to the Penitentiary. Auditor's Report 
of Claims. Pilot Commissioner's Report. 

2. First regular session of the legislative assembly, 1860: 

Appendix: Librarian's Report. Report and Memorial concerning Peniten- 
tiary. Report of Select Committee on Penitentiary. Memorial relating to agri- 
cultural societies. Report of Select Committee on Vessels entering the Columbia 
River. Memorial to Congress to establish a Branch of Pilot Service on the Colum- 
bia and Western rivers. 

3. Session of 1862: 

Appendix : Governor's Message. Pardons. Correspondence on Military Mat- 
ters. Treasurer's Report. Special Message. Report of sublessee of State Peniten- 
tiary. Report of Committee on Military Affairs. Secretary's Report. Librarian's 
Report. 

4. Special session, 1865. 

Appendix ; Report of Adj utant General. Governor's Message. Report of Vis- 
iting Committee to the Penitentiary. Report of the Proprietors of the Asylum 
for the Insane. Report of the Secretary of State. Report of the condition of the 
fund for the erection of Public Buildings. Report of State Printer. 

Later volumes have no appendix until the year 1885 is reached, 
when the Governor's message and the inaugural addresses are included. 

SERIES C. Senate Journal. The series is regular from 1868. There 
is a "Senate Journal, 1897," as the Senate succeeded in effecting an 
organization that year while the House did not, and therefore the cor- 
responding Journal for the House is lacking. The volume for 1897 has 
the Governor's Message for an appendix ; the volume for 1901 has the 
Governor's Message and Accompanying Documents.'' 



. i 



384 



F. G. YOUNG. 



SERIES D. Oregon Reports. Decisions of the Supreme Court : 



Volume. 



Compiler. 



Publisher. 



Jos. G. Wilson, Clerk. 



II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 
X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 

XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

XVIII 

XIX 

XX 

XXI 

XXII 

xxm-xxxix 



Jos. G.Wilson, Clerk 

Jos. G.Wilson, Clerk 

C. B. Bellinger, Reporter 

C. B. Bellinger, Reporter 

C. B. Bellinger, Reporter 

C. B. Bellinger, Reporter 

C. B. Bellinger, Reporter 



T. B. Odeneal, Reporter. 
T. B. Odeneal, Re porter . 



T. B. Odeneal, Reporter 

J. A. Stratton, Reporter 

J. A. Stratton, Reporter 

J. A. Stratton, Reporter 

W. H. Holmes, Reporter 

W. H. Holmes, Reporter 

W. H. Holmes, Reporter 

W. W. Thayer, Chief Justice. 
R. S. Strahan, Chief Justice- 
Geo. H. Burnett, Reporter 
Geo. H. Burnett, Re porter __. 
Geo. H. Burnett, Reporter- 
Robert G. Morrow, Reporter. 



Banks and Brothers, New York ; 
A. L. Bancroft & Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 

A. L. Bancroft & Co.; Bancroft- 
Whitney Co., San Francisco. 

A. L. Bancroft & Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 

A. L. Bancroft & Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 

A. L. Bancroft & Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 

A. L. Bancroft & Co., Sa*i Fran- 
cisco. 

A. L. Bancroft & Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 

A. L. Bancroft & Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 

Geo. H. Himes, Portland. 

M. Waite and W. H. Byars, 
Salem. 

M. Waite and W. H. Byars, 
Salem. 

Sumner-Whitney & Co., San 
Francisco. 

Bancroft-Whitney Co., San Fran- 
cisoo 

Bancroft^Whitney Co., San Fran- 
cisco 

Bancroft-Whitney Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 

Bancroft-Whitney Co., San Fran- 
cisco. 

Bancroft-Whitney Co., San Fran- 
cisco 

Frank C. Baker, State Printer, 
Salem. 

Frank C. Baker, State Printer, 
Salem. 

Frank C. Baker, State Printer, 
Salem. 

Frank C. Baker, State Printer, 
Salem. 

Frank C. Baker, State Printer, 
Salem. 

W.H.Leeds, State Printer,Salem. 



SERIES E. Separate Volumes of Miscellaneous Documents : 

Adjutant General's Report, 1865. 
Adjutant General's Report, 1865-66. 
Adjutant General's Report, 1868. 
Adjutant General's Report, 1865-78. 
State Board of Equalization Tables, 1891-97. 
State Levy of Taxes, 1888-1899. 

Report of Committee of Investigation, appointed pursuant House 
Joint Resolutions Nos. 8 and 10, passed at the tenth regular session of 
legislative assembly. Salem. Oregon : 1877. 



THE ARCHIVES OF OREGON. 385 

Report of Investigating Committee appointed pursuant to Senate 
Joint Resolution No. 27, passed at the sixth regular session of the legis- 
lative assembly, 1870. Salem, Oregon : 1870. 

Briefs in State Cases, 1881. 

Report of Secretary of State, 1880. Documents, 1880. 

Oregon School Reports, 1883-84. 

The early Indian Wars of Oregon, by Frances Puller Victor. Com- 
piled from Oregon Archives and other original sources, with Muster 
Rolls. Salem, Oregon : 1895 

Exercises on the Fortieth Anniversary of the Statehood of Oregon, 
February 14, 1899. Held before the legislative assembly. 

Report of Secretary of State, 1893-98. 

Report of Secretary of State, 1899-1900. 

Fish and Game Report, 1897-98. McGuire. 

Report of Board of Charities and Corrections. Oregon : 1892. 

Report of State Treasurer, 1897-98. 

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Oregon, held 
at Salem, commencing August 17, 1857, together with the Constitution 
adopted by the people, November 9, 1857. Salem, Oregon : 1882. 



386 



F. G. YOUNG. 




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An account of "Oregon meetings" held at Blooming- 
ton, Iowa, in March and April, 1843, copied from a file 
of the Ohio Statesman by Professor Joseph Schafer. This 
document was taken from the issue of April 26, 1843 : 

OREGON MEETING. 

From the Bloomington (Iowa) Herald. 

At a public meeting held at the schoolhouse in Blooming-ton on Sat- 
urday, 19th inst., for the purpose of taking into consideration the pro- 
priety of organizing a company to emigrate to Oregon Territory, the 
Rev. Geo. M. Hinkle, of Louisa County, was called to the chair, and 
Win. P. Smith elected secretary. The chairman having explained 
the object of the meeting, Mr. John C. Irwin, chairman of the com- 
mittee appointed for that purpose at a previous meeting, made the fol- 
lowing report : 

Your committee, who were appointed to draft a report to be made 
to this meeting, beg leave to submit the following, to wit : 

That from the information they have obtained from various sources, 
they believe the Oregon Territory to be far superior in many respects 
to any other portion of the United States ; they believe it to be superior 
in climate, in health, in water privileges, in timber, in convenience to 
market, and in many other respects ; they believe it to be well adapted 
to agriculture and stock raising ; also holding out great inducements 
to mechanics of the various branches ; they would, therefore, recom- 
mend to every person possessing the enterprise and patriotic spirit of 
the true American citizen, to emigrate to the Oregon Territory at as 
early a date as possible, and thereby secure to themselves a permanent 
and happy home, and to their country one of the fairest portions of her 
domain. In order to bring this subject more fairly before this meet- 
ing, your committee beg leave to submit the following resolutions for 
consideration and adoption : 

Resolved, That the company here formed start from this place 
(Bloomington) on the tenth day ol May next, on their journey to Oregon. 

Resolved, That the route taken by the company shall be from here 
to Iowa City; from thence to Council Bluffs ; and from thence to the 
most suitable point on the road from Independence to Oregon ; from 
thence by way of the Independence road to Oregon. 



OREGON MEETING IN IOWA. 391 

Resolved, That the company leave or pass through Iowa City on the 
twelfth day of May next, and invite other companies to join. 

Resolved, That each and every individual, as an outfit, provide him- 
self with 100 pounds flour, 30 pounds bacon, 1 peck salt, 3 pounds pow- 
der, in horns or canteens, 15 pounds lead or shot, and one good tent 
cloth to every six persons : every man well armed and equipped with 
gun, tomahawk, knife, etc. 

Resolved, That all persons taking teams be advised to take oxen or 
mules ; also that each single man provide himself with a mule or pony. 

Resolved, That we now appoint a corresponding secretary, whose 
name shall be made public ; whose duty it shall be to correspond with 
individuals in this country, and with companies at a distance ; receive 
and communicate all the information that he may deem expedient. 

Resolved, That the members of the association meet on the last Sat- 
urday in April next for the purpose of a more complete organization. 

On motion of Mr. Purcell,- 

Resolved, That the resolutions just offered be taken up and read 
separately, which was agreed. 

From the first to the seventh article of the resolutions were voted 
for unanimously, with the request that those who wished to join the 
company would particularly look to the fourth and fifth resolutions. 

On motion of Mr. Irwin adjourned till 2 o'clock. 

2 o'clock P. M. 

Pursuant to adjournment, the meeting met, and being called to 
order, proceeded to the regular business of the day. Rev. M. Fisher, 
General Clark, Rev. G. M. Hinkle, Judge Williams, Stephen Witcher, 
Esq., and J. B. Barker, Esq., addressed the meeting with very elo- 
quent and appropriate addresses in behalf of those persons who wish 
to emigrate to Oregon. 

On motion of Mr. Irwin, General Clark was requested to act as cor- 
responding secretary for the company until its final organization and 
departure for Oregon. Also, that a committee of three be appointed 
to act in conjunction with the corresponding secretary, in the trans- 
action of any business for the advancement of the interests of the 
company. John W. Humphreys, Barton Lee, and Thos. Gartland 
were appointed said committe. 

On motion 

Resolved, That the ladies, and all others friendly to the settlement 

of Oregon, be respectfully invited to attend, and that the Rev. Mr. 
Hinkle and others be invited to address the assembly. 

On motion 

Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be signed by the 

chairman and secretary, and be published in the Bloomington Herald. 

On motion of Rev. Mr. Fisher, the meeting adjourned till Friday, 
31st inst. 

W. F. SMITH, Secretary. G. M. HINKLE, President 



392 DOCUMENTS. 

Saturday, April 1, 1843. 

The meeting was organized by calling David Hendershott to the 
chair, and Silas A. Hudson as secretary; when, on motion of James G. 
Edwards, the report of the committee read in part on Saturday last, 
was ordered to be read in full. 

Mr. Hight, from the committee of correspondence, made the follow- 
ing report: 

Your committee of correspondence beg leave to report that they 
have written to Independence, Missouri, and to Columbus, Ohio, and 
have requested information, and also have proposed to join at some 
point this side of the mountains. Your committee have also thought 
it proper to submit a set of resolutions for your consideration, which 
ought to govern the company. It is expressly understood that we emi- 
grate to Oregon for the purpose of settlement; men of families are 
requested to join; we have already engaged a physician, and expect a 
chaplain to accompany the enterprise. 

Organization of the Oregon Emigration Society. There shall be elected 
one captain, four sergeants, and as soon as the company shall arrive at 
the gap of the Rocky Mountains, and consists of not less than one hun- 
dred men, they may choose one first and one second lieutenant. The 
captain and the four officers next in rank shall direct all the move- 
ments, and make all arrangements of the society for their march; and 
they shall act as directors, and shall qualify candidates and receive 
them as such at their discretion. They shall have charge of the funds 
of the company; shall choose their own clerk, who shall keep a regular 
account of all moneys expended and the amount on hand; and the di- 
rectors shall report to the company monthly. The clerk shall keep a 
regular journal of the march. No negroes or mulattoes shall be al- 
lowed to accompany the expedition under any pretenses whatever. 

Equipment. Rifle gun, to carry from thirty-two to sixty bullets 
to the pound, and a tomahawk and knife, $16 ; one chopping axe, spade, 
etc., $2; 100 pounds side bacon, $3; 1 barrel flour and one peck salt, 
$2.25; | pound cayenne pepper, 1 barrel beans, $1 ; 1 canteen, and 1 
blanket, $5 ; 1 tent to every six men, $6 ; 1 wagon and 2 yoke of oxen 
to six men, $150 ; 1 pony or mule, $60 ; teams and horses to be shod, 
and spare shoes ; i barrel, iron hooped, to each wagon, for carrying 
water, $1.50. To each wagon 3 sets plow irons ; 1 cradling scythe to 
each wagon, all mechanical tools to be taken ; $20 cash to be deposited 
with the directors for company use. 

Every man ought to carry with him a Bible and other religious 
books, as we hope not to degenerate into a state of barbarism. 

The whole amount necessary for each man, without a horse, will be 
about $65. 

As soon as fifty men shall have joined and been inspected, and found 
competent, they shall choose their officers, and then agree as to the 



KENTUCKY MEMORIAL. 393 

time to take up the line of march. We shall pass through Mt. Pleas- 
ant, and to the agency, and thence the best route to Council Bluff. 

Mr. Edwards moved that the report be adopted and printed, which 
was agreed to, when, on motion of General Hight, the meeting ad- 
journed to meet on Saturday, April 8th, at 2 o'clock p. M. 

MEMORIAL TO CONGRESS. 
BY CITIZENS OF KENTUCKY, JANUARY 13, 1840. 

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States in Congress assembled : 

Your petitioners respectfully suggest : That the Government of the 
United States ought to plant a colony in the Oregon Territory, and 
give it such nurture in its infancy as to enable it to get a hold suffi- 
ciently permanent for it, by industry, to make the many natural ad- 
vantages of that vast region contribute to the wealth and prosperity 
of our nation. To crown this enterprise with success, they believe it 
to be expedient to have a road cut from some of the towns on the Mis- 
souri River, across the Rocky Mountains to Astoria, at the mouth of 
the Oregon River. As soon as this passage can be opened, a colony of 
farmers and mechanics should be conducted across the mountains and 
settled, with a military power, stationed strong enough to protect the 
colony. Donations of land should be made to those who would become 
actual settlers, sufficiently large to induce emigration. At a conven- 
ient distance across the mountains small garrisons should be placed, to 
protect travelers from the hostilities of the Indians. Under these ar- 
rangements, with such additions as you in your wisdom may make, a 
settlement in that territory can be made, which will doubtless redound 
to the advantage of this country. Your petitioners believe there are 
but few sections of country in North America embracing more advan- 
tages than that region. Its climate is said to be more temperate than 
the climate of any other country situated in a similar latitude. Its 
soil is fertile and well adapted to the growth of all kinds of agricul- 
tural products. Its valuable fisheries would be a splendid accession of 
wealth to the United States; its peltries, for a time, would be im- 
mensely profitable. A settlement in that country would afford more 
extended range to the pursuit of agriculture, into which it is our na- 
tion's interest to induce as many as possible ; when markets shall be 
opened for the products of this country, its rivers will afford advanta- 
geous facilities of navigation. The commercial position of this coun- 
try must not be overlooked. The East India trade, which enriched 
the Phoenicians, the Jews, and all succeeding nations, which have been 
so fortunate as to enjoy its trade, is more convenient to this quarter of 
the country than any commercial point in the United States or Europe. 
The estuary of the Oregon River is said to afford a safe, easy, and 



394 DOCUMENTS. 

commodious harbor. Were a trade carried on between this point and 
the East Indies, the perilous navigation of dangerous seas, to which 
our commerce with that quarter is unavoidably exposed, would be ob- 
viated. With a little energy and an inconsiderable expense, compared 
with the magnitude of the design, we can have the luxuries and rich- 
est products of the Oriental climes brought up the Oregon River, over 
the snowy heights of the Rocky Mountains, and poured out into the 
lap of the prosperous West. 

Your petitioners feeling a lively interest in speedily securing so 
many important advantages for their country, therefore pray, that your 
honorable body will, by law, afford the necessary facilities as soon as 
practicable, to settle the Oregon Territory in the manner suggested in 
this petition. 

H. Hough, Fielding Friend, Samuel Haycraft, J. R. Boyce, C. S. 
Craig, James W. Hays, F. W. Foreman, S. D. Winterbower, R. G. Hays, 
John H. Thomas, J. W. Miller, E. S. Brown, Nathaniel McLane, James 
W. Smith, E. H. Haycraft, P. S. Wood, Samuel J. Stuart, Wm. D. Ver- 
trus, P. W. D. Stone, W. S. Morris, Thomas Morris, John Arnold, W. 
S. English, W. E. English, Stephen Eliot, Arthur Park, Wm. C. Van 
Mater. 

ELIZABETHTOWN, Kentucky, January 13, 1840. 

TALLMADGE B. WOOD LETTER. 

The following letter, written by Tallmadge B. Wood, 
was secured through Miss Florence E. Baker, of the Wis- 
consin State Historical Society. Tallmadge B. Wood 
was without doubt the Benjamin Wood of whose murder 
by Indians in the California mines in 1848 Mrs. Fannie 
Clayton gives a circumstantial account in the June QUAR- 
TERLY, 1901, pages 180-181. As the letter and other evi- 
dence indicate, he was prominent in the direction of the 
emigration of 1843. 

Miss Baker supplies the note below, descriptive of the 
letter; also the following facts: "Mr. Wood was born July 
5, 1817, and was the son of Jesse and Rebecca (Bryan) 
Wood, and grandson of Benjamin Wood. They lived in 
the township of Milton, and their post office was Ballston 
Spa, Saratoga County, New York. His sister was Mrs. 
(Wood) Stinner, [?] who founded a seminary for young 



LETTER OF TALLMADGE B. WOOD. 395 

ladies at Mount Carroll, Illinois. He came from a fine 
family of educated Christian people. 



Copy of a letter written by Tallmadge B. Wood, about 
April, 1844, from Willamette Falls, Oregon, to his friends 
at Milton, Saratoga County, New York. The letter is 
written on large foolscap paper, tinted blue, and the lines 
on which the writing is placed are a shade of darker blue. 
This letter was nicely written ; the letters were at a slant 
of about forty-five degrees. Florence E. Baker. 

One year has elapsed since I had an opportunity of communicating 
with you ; x at which time you doubtless recollect receiving- a letter from 
me, which was mailed at Missouri ; & in which I informed you of my 
intention to take a trip to Oregon, which I accordingly did, & after 
seven months tedious traveling, arrived at Willamet Fall, on a branch 
of the Columbia River. My road lay through a Savage country, a dis- 
tance of Twenty-three hundred miles, which you are aware makes it 
necessary to travel in caravans. As I presume you have a curiosity to 
know how we journeyed, & the country &c , I will attempt to give you 
as much of a description as the limited space of a letter will allow ; I set 
out (from Independence, Jackson County, Missouri, which is the gen- 
eral place of rendezvous for emigrants to this country ;) April 25th, 
1843 ; in a company of One thousand : three hundred of which were 
able men ; the remainder were women & children. 

There was three [one] hundred & twenty wagons, drawn by oxen or 
mules (chiefly oxen) of about three yoke to each wagon ; 9 they per- 
formed the journey admirably, I was myself equipped with two yoke 
of cattle, to haul my provisions; two Horses & one Mule, to ride by 
turn, & though my horses & mule were of the best quality, they were 
not sufficient to carry me the whole distance. We also had about two 
thousand head of cows, young cattle, & horses. We traveled in some 
confusion, 'till we arrived at Con [Kaw or Kansas] River, a distance of 
about ninety miles from Missouri line ; We there found it necessary to 
have some order in traveling, for which purpose we elected Officers, & 
came under a sort of military discipline, & thus marched very pleasantly 
through a fertile country, until we arrived at Blue River, a branch of 
the Con. [ * * ] Here we found our stock was too large to get sufficient 
sustenance from one campground, therefore we concluded tosepperate 
& form two divisions, & march a few miles apart. I had the honor of 
being second in command, of the division in which I traveled. We 
struck Big Platte River about 300 miles from the Missouri line. We 

Compare with statistics given in Burnett's letters following. 
6 



396 DOCUMENTS. 

traveled up the river a few days & crossed South Platte, passed 
through Black hills, crossed the North Platte & steered our course 
towards Sweet Water which we struck at the entrance of the pass 
through the Rocky Mountains which place is called Independence- 
Rock, So named from the circumstance of the Mountaineers meeting 
here to celebrate the Fourth. The pass through the Mountains is 
about Ninety miles but so gradual, that the traveler would scarcely 
perceive he was ascending, were it not for the -great change in the 
atmosphere. We were on the Divide in July, & saw ice every morning, 
At no great distance on the right & left, are very high, snow peaks, 
We found great abundance of game from South Platte, until we left 
Sweet Water. I amused myself very well in killing Buffaloes though 
it was old sport to me. After crossing the Mountains, we passed Green 
River (or Colrado of the west;) Struck Bear River & followed it up 
to the Soda Springs. These Springs (which are numerous at this 
place) are among the great curiosities of the west; The waters of 
these springs are similar in flavour to those of Ballston & Saratoga, 
though some of them are very cold and much stronger, while there are 
others very hot. We arrived at Port Hall the last of September. 
Here, (though two thirds the distance was passed); 10 the difficulties of 
the journey just commenced, though not so difficult as had been rep- 
resented, yet the roads from this place were very rough & grass in 
many places very scarce. We followed down Snake River, passed the 
Blue Mountains & arrived at the very foot of the Cascades; Here 
many left their wagons & descended the Columbia River in boats, 
while others crossed the Cascades (a distance of Ninety miles). But 
the emigrants all arrived in the Valley between the Cascades & Pacific ' 
Ocean, about the last of November. The whole distance, from the 
Platte River, to the east base of the Blue Mountains, is entirely unfit 
for the residence of civilized man, and is inhabited only by wandering 
tribes of hostile Indians. They however did not trouble the Emigra- 
tion, as the Sight of so large a body of whites, was sufficient to quell 
all hostility. The country from the eastern base of the Blue Moun- 
tains, to the Cascades, is peculiarly adapted to grazing purposes. The 
Indians in this vicinity, are not hostile, & are quite enterprising. 
They are anxious to own cattle & some are getting considerable herds 
they are also very fond of horses & some individual Indians own sev- 
eral thousand head of the handsomest I ever saw. The country be- 
tween the Cascades & the Sea coast is some parts very heavy timbered 
lands, with a deep, rich soil though rather broken to please a western 
man. The size of the timber is enormous, there being abundance of 
trees measuring three hundred feet in height, & some as large as 
twenty feet in diameter. Big trees ! but it is a fact. The timber of 

10 Compare with table of distances in Burnett letters. 



LETTER OF TALLMADGE B. WOOD. 397 

this country is of a different kind from that of the states though gen- 
erally of the Pine & Ceder species, with the exception of Oak & Soft 
Maple. The Prairies of this country are beautiful, full equal to any 
in Missouri or Illanois. They are generally found on the head of water 
courses. The land produces most all the productions of the States, in 
great perfection, except corn. Wheat is raised here in large quanti- 
ties which is exported (by the Hudspn Bay Co. ) to the Islands & northern 
Russia. Wheat is worth one Dollar per bushel, Beef $6 per hundred. 
Pork $10 per hundred. These prices will probably hold good, & may 
increase as soon as we can produce a surplus sufficient to supply the 
Whaling Vessels, which will induce them to make more frequent calls 
on us. The first settlers here, were men who were discharged from 
the service of the Hudson Bay Co. & as they draw all their wages in 
Supplies; & all the cash brought here by emigrants goes immediately 
into the hands of merchants and is taken out of the country ; hence 
we are left entirely destitute of a cash currency. Yet we have a cur- 
rency which is not liable to fluctuations ; any responsible man's order 
is good with the merchants for their amount in goods; & these orders 
are finally redeemed in Wheat, Pork or Beef. The Indians on the 
Columbia are a cowardly, thievish, indolent race of beings, subsisting 
almost entirely on Fish. The Indians on the coast are in small bands 
& disunited, on which circumstance the safety of the settlers of Oregon 
much depends ; We however, had a small affray with them a few days 
ago, in which one white man was killed & one Indian. The Territory 
is well supplied with navigable streams & mill privileges. As to the 
climate I can speak only of the past winter, during which we have' 
had no snow, & the grass has been in growing condition the whole 
winter, in short it has been the most pleasant (so far) I ever experienced 
in any country. It is exceedingly healthy, there is no sickness in the 
country at present, & although the emigrants were so much exposed 
during the journey, there has been but two deaths since our arrival.- 
The whole white population is probably about Fifteen Hundred. We, 
the citizens of Oregon, are very anxious that the United States should 
extend her jurisdiction over this territory. & render us some means of 
protection, as we should be incapable of protecting ourselves in case 
of general hostilities with the Indians. 

For my part, I am much pleased with the prospects of the country. 
I have a location immediately on the Columbia River, in sight of the 
great Pacific, I can go to & return from the coast, in a small boat with 
one tide, which ebbs & flows 8 & ten feet. I am engaged in partnership 
with two other persons, in having erected two saw mills & a grist Mill, 
we are making good progress, & will soon have one in opperation. I 
believe we have an as advantageous a mill sight as any in America. 
We intend exporting our lumber to the Islands, as there is a veiy great 
demand for it, & as one of the gentlemen with whom I am engaged, 



398 DOCUMENTS. 

has two Brigs in the Island trade, our expenses for exportation will be 
trifling :- 

Just say (for me) to the young men of old Milton, Don't live & die in 
sight of your Father's house, but take a trip to Oregon! you can per- 
form the journey in two years & I am sure you will never regret spend- 
ing the time. But, if they should come to settle here, I would advise 
them, to bring a wife along, as ladies are (like the specie) very scarce. 
And if you have any maiden ladies about dying in despair, just fit up 
their teeth well, & send them to Oregon. 

I shall have an opportunity to write to you again when our ships 
leave, which will be in July or August. T. B. WOOD." 

[Printed in the New York Herald in 1844-45.] 
LETTERS OF PETER H. BURNETT. 

Burnett in his "Recollections of an Old Pioneer," page 
177, says : "During the winter of 1843-44 I had, while at 
Linnton, written some hundred and twenty-five foolscap 
pages of manuscript giving a description of the journey 
and of the country along the route, as well as of Oregon. 
I had stated the exact truth to the best of my knowledge, 
information, and belief ; and my communications were 
published in the New York Herald, and were extensively 
read, especially in the western states." 

The Herald (daily) of Saturday morning, December 28, 
1844, says editorially : "We received yesterday, and pub- 
lish in our columns this morning, some very interesting 
intelligence from the Oregon Territory, which is now a 
subject of very important negotiation between our govern- 
ment and that of England, and will probably be a matter 
of great debate in Congress." 

The Herald published five different sections of the Bur- 
nett material in the form of five letters, four in the daily 
and one in the weekly. In addition to this, the weekly of 
December 28, 1844, published the same matter found in 
the daily of the same date. The daily of January 6, 1845, 
published the second and fourth sections two letters in 
the same issue. It is evident that the Herald rearranged 



LETTERS OF PETER H. BURNETT. 399 

the order of the sections in printing. It printed first 
the installment of December 28, 1844 what was probably 
the closing portion of the manuscript. The sections are 
given below in what appears to be their natural order 
the order in which they were composed. This Burnett 
material was sent to New York naturally under one en- 
closure. 

If Burnett wrote at this time "some hundred and twenty- 
five pages of foolscap," as he says he did, not more than 
half of his manuscript was printed by the Herald. For 
that number of pages of foolscap published would have 
filled at least fifteen columns of the Herald, whereas the 
matter printed constituted hardly seven and one fourth 
columns ; and I shall point out later that it is almost cer- 
tain that this Burnett manuscript, as a whole, was used for 
the Wilkes' account of the migration of 1843, and Wilkes 
covers the whole trip, and not merely a portion of it, as do 
the Herald letters. 

In his "Recollections," page 101, Burnett says : "I kept 
a concise journal of the trip as far as Walla Walla, and 
have it now before me." This journal no doubt furnished 
the basis of his narrative in the first four letters and of 
the twenty-seven pages in his "Recollections" in which he 
describes the trip. In fact, the resemblance between this 
part of the "Recollections" and these letters is so striking 
and of such a character as to suggest that this part of the 
"Recollections" was written up from a first draft of the 
letters, which he would naturally have retained and pre- 
served when sending the letters to the Herald. The his- 
torical significance of this probability is that it intakes this 
portion of the "Recollections" virtually a contemporary 
source for the whole of the migration of 1843. 

The last date on the journey given by the letters is June 
27th. Yet it seems almost certain that the copy sent by 
Burnett to the Herald covered the whole trip. One reason 



400 DOCUMENTS. 

for this inference is found in Burnett's statement of the 
amount of copy that he sent "some hundred and twenty- 
five pages of foolscap ;" a second distinct basis for this 
conclusion is found in connection with George Wilkes' 
"History of Oregon," published in New York in 1845. 
The title page of that book reads as follows : " The History 
of Oregon, Geographical and Political, by George Wilkes. 
Embracing an analysis of the old Spanish claims, the 
British pretensions, the United States title ; an account of 
the present condition and character of the country, and a 
thorough examination of the project of a national railroad, 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. To which is added 
a journal of the events of the celebrated emigrating expe- 
dition a? 1843 ; containing an account of the route from 
Missouri to Astoria, a table of distances, and the physical 
and political description of the territory, and its settle- 
ments, by a member of the recently organized Oregon 
legislature." In the preface the reference to the journal 
mentioned in the title is as follows : "The second part of 
the work consists of a journal, prepared from a series of 
letters written by a gentleman now in Oregon, who himself 
accompanied the celebrated emigrating expedition of 
1843." After a sentence about the style of the letters he 
goes on to say : "The author (Wilkes) has done scarcely 
more to this portion than to throw it into chapters, and 
to strike from it such historical and geographical statistics 
as had been drawn from other sources and arranged in 
the preceding portions of the work. These letters fell into 
his hands after the adoption and commencement of his 
original Design ; and adapting them to his purposes by 
linking them with his own manuscripts, a deal of research 
was saved him by the valuable and peculiar information 
they contributed." These statements by Wilkes concern- 
ing the author and the character of the material used by 
him in Part II of his book, along with indubitable internal 



LETTERS OF PETER H. BURNETT. 401 

evidence, prove conclusively that the whole Burnett man- 
uscript sent to the New York Herald, part of which was 
printed in the Herald and is now reprinted below, was the 
basis of Wilkes' book. Wilkes, however, asserts that he 
"has done scarcely more to this portion (Part II) than to 
throw it into chapters and to strike from it such historical 
and geographical statistics," etc. The following excerpts 
from his version, when compared to the corresponding 
portions of the Burnett narrative in the letters, prove that 
Wilkes took such liberties with the original as in his judg- 
ment were necessary to make an interesting story, and to 
support the contention of his book, namely, that the route 
was a practicable one for a national railroad. To realize 
how freely Wilkes used his imagination, along with the 
Burnett text, it is only necessary to compare the following 
transcript from the opening, paragraphs of Part II of 
Wilkes' book with the first page or two of the letters: 

It is not necessary, to the object in view, that the writer of this 
journal should furnish the reason which induced him to turn his face 
toward the wilderness. Let it suffice that on the morning of the seven- 
teenth of May, 1843, I (to drop the third person) mounted my horse in 
Independence, Missouri, and set out for the general rendezvous. This 
was situated in a little spot about twenty miles distant, in a southeast 
direction. I did not start alone. A family of the name of Robbins, 
from the northern part of Pennsylvania, were my companions. The 
party consisted of a husband and wife, two chubby boys, one six and 
the other eight years of age, and a bouncing baby of eighteen months, 
or thereabouts. 

After having examined for the twentieth time if all the necessaries 
required for the journey were properly stowed away in the wagon, and 
after having for the last time jerked at the trace, settled this and that 
portion of the harness, looked under the horses, passed his hand over 
the near one's flank, and walked completely around the concern, John 
Robbins mounted his seat, gave a sonorous ahem! in evidence of his 
complete satisfaction, and describing a preparatory circle with his lash, 
was about bringing it down on the backs of his team, when a little cir- 
cumstance in the body of his wagon interrupted his purpose and soft- 
ened the threatened sweep of the gad into an oblique flourish that spent 
its elegance in a faint snap near the ground. 



402 DOCUMENTS. 

He had turned his head for the twenty-first time to see that all was 
right in the canvass domicile behind, when he discerned that Mrs. 
Robbins was yielding 1 to the weakness of her bosom at the separation 
of the last link that bound her to the associations of early youth, and 
to the ties of friends and home. The husband kissed away the tears 
that were tumbling over her full and rosy cheek, spoke a word of en- 
couragement in her ear, and then with a moistened eye himself, turned 
hastily to his place, brought the whip sharply down, set his features as 
rigid as a decemvir's, and rattled off at a pace that soon jolted off every 
vestige of sadness or depression, amid the cheers of a large circle of 
friends and well-wishers, who had gathered to see us off, and whose 
benisons floated after us upon the air as if they were unwilling to resign 
this living evidence of their continual guardianship. 

Wilkes continues in this strain through some seven 
closely printed pages, when he brings in the following 
incident (it occurred in connection with the meeting for 
organization held at Big Spring, May 20th): 

The strange assemblage was gathered from various sections of the 
country ; they were agitated with various views, and naturally sepa- 
rated into various cliques. Most of them had their favorite plans 
already cut and dried, and their nominees were all ready to wear the 
chieftain's mantle. A stormy session was the consequence, and it was 
evident that the question of commandership would not be decided this 
day. In the middle of the uproar of the first hour Dumberton, who had 
given his hair an extra intellectual rush from the front, and arranged 
the snuff-colored garments in style of superlative finish, managed to 
obtain the ear of the assemblage. After having waved the crowd into 
profound silence, he commenced an eulogium on the character of 
Washington ; made patriotic allusions to the Revolution, and the late 
war ; touched on the battle of New Orleans ; apostrophised the Amer- 
ican eagle, and then wound up his introduction with a very meaning 
sentiment leveled with great force and earnestness at the "iron arm of 
despotism." Imagining that he had fairly taken captive the admira- 
tion of his audience, Mr. Dumberton, of Big Pigeon, came to the point 
of his address, and gravely proposed that the emigration should adopt 
the criminal laws of Missouri and Tennessee for its future government. 

No sooner had the speaker delivered himself of his proposition than 
McFarley, who had been chafing like a stung bull for the last half hour, 
sprang up, and remarked that since the gentleman from Big Pigeon 
had found out that we had robbers and thieves among us, he (McFarley) 
would move that a penitentiary be engaged to travel in company if his 
proposal should pass. 



LETTERS OF PETER H. BURNETT. 403 

Wilkes requires over five thousand words to reach the 
account of the above incident. Burnett's narrative uses 
less than four hundred. The above excerpts might raise 
the suspicion that the letters that Wilkes represents he is 
using are not the Burnett letters. The transcript given 
below will, I think, dispel all doubts : 

There is perhaps no flesh more delicious to the traveler's appetite 
than buffalo meat, particularly that cut from a fat young buffalo cow; 
and it has the peculiar advantage of allowing you to eat as much as you 
please without either surfeit or oppression. I shall never forget the 
exquisite meal I made on the evening of the first of June. I had been 
out hunting all day, was very weary, and as hungry as a whole wilder- 
ness of tigers. Out of compassion for my complete fatigue, Mrs. Bur- 
nett cooked six large slices from a fat young buffalo for my supper. 
My extravagant hunger induced me to believe when I first saw the 
formidable array served up, that I could readily dispose of three of 
them. I did eat three of them, but I found they were but the prologue 
for the fourth, the fourth to the fifth, and that to the sixth, and I verily 
believe that had the line stretched out the crack of doom I should have 
staked my fate upon another and another collop of the prairie king. 
This story hardly does me credit, but the worst is to come, for two 
hours afterward I shared the supper of Dumberton, and on passing 
Captain Gant's tent on my way home I accepted an invitation from him 
to a bit of broiled tongue ; yet even after this, I went to bed with an 
unsatisfied appetite. I am no cormorant, though I must admit I acted 
very much like one on this occasion. My only consolation and excuse, 
however, is that I was not a single instance of voracity in my attacks 
upon broiled buffalo meat. 

This story should be compared with the latter part of 
the third letter. Comments are quite unnecessary. 

Wilkes' tactics in rendering Burnett's letters are not 
merely those of one who would conceal authorship but 
those of one who deliberately perverts history. He not only 
changes the names of emigrants, but is careful to repre- 
sent that Burnett is not the author of his text. On page 
65, he says : "I should not omit to mention here, that I 
was also introduced this afternoon to Mr. Peter H. Bur- 
nett, who was subsequently made captain of the expedi- 
tion." He not only garbles, but deliberately falsifies. On 



404 DOCUMENTS. 

page 82, he says : "The region we passed through from the 
thirtieth of July up to the twenty-ninth of August, com- 
prised all the passes through to Rocky Mountains, and 
was by far the most arduous and difficult portion of the 
whole journey." Between these dates the emigration pro- 
ceeded from the headwaters of the Sweetwater to Fort 
Hall ; but Burnett, in his "Recollections," as explicitly 
affirms that the most difficult and arduous portion of the 
journey was not encountered until the emigration had 
passed Fort Hall. The editor thought it worth while to 
go into the question of the relation of these important 
sources, that are now being made generally accessible, to 
one that should be condemned. His conclusions have 
important applications to the Whitman controversy. 

The conclusions are (A) that the more important con- 
temporary sources, so far as known, of data on the migra- 
tion of 1843 and of Doctor Whitman's services to it are 
(a) Burnett's Journal (unpublished) in the possession of his 
descendants ; (b) the Burnett Herald letters given below ; 
(c) the letter of Tallmadge B. Wood, printed for the first 
time in this number of the QUARTERLY ; (d) a letter by 
M. M. McCarver, dated November 6, 1843, to Hon. A. C. 
Dodge, delegate to Congress from Iowa, printed in the 
Burlington Gazette and reprinted in the Ohio Statesman. 
This letter will be reproduced in the next number of the 
QUARTERLY. (e) Excerpt from New Orleans Picayune, 
November 21, 1843, reprinted in QUARTERLY, vol. I, pages 
398-401. (B) The account given in Part II of Wilkes' 
History of Oregon, purporting to be a faithful rendering 
of a contemporary journal is a more or less garbled ver- 
sion of the Burnett manuscript sent from Linnton to 
James G. Bennett which fell into the hands of Wilkes. 

[The editor is indebted to Professor Joseph Schafer for 
the data of this criticism.] 



LETTERS OP PETER H. BURNETT. 405 



[From New York Herald, January 5, 1845.] 

LINNTON, Oregon Territory, January 18, 1844. 
James G. Bennett, Esq.- 

DEAR SIR : Having arrived safely in this beautiful country, and 
having seen, at least, its main features, I propose to give you some 
concise description of the same, as well as a short history of our trip. 
I reached the rendezvous, twenty miles from Independence, on the 
seventeenth of May, and found a large body of emigrants there, wait- 
ing for the company to start. On the 18th we held a meeting, and ap- 
pointed a committee to see Doctor Whitman, for the purpose of obtain- 
ing information in regard to the practicability of the trip. Other 
committees were also appointed, and the meeting adjourned to meet 
again, at the Big Spring, on the 20th. On the 20th, all the emigrants, 
with few exceptions, were there, as well as several from the western 
part of Missouri. The object of the meeting was to organize, by adopt- 
ing some rules for our government. The emigrants were from various 
places, unacquainted with each other, and there were among them 
many persons emulous of distinction, and anxious to wear the honors 
of the company. A great difference of opinion existed as to the proper 
mode of organization, and many strange propositions were made. I 
was much amused at some of them. A fat, robust, old gentleman, who 
had, as he said, a great deal of "beatherlusian," whose name was Mc- 
Healy, proposed that the company, by contribution, should purchase 
two wagons and teams for the purpose of hauling two large boats, to 
be taken all the way with us, that we might be able to cross the 
streams. A red-faced old gentleman from east Tennessee state, high 
up on Big Pidgeon, near KitBullard's Mill, whose name was Dulany, 
generally styled "Captain," most seriously proposed that the meeting 
should adopt the criminal laws of Missouri or Tennessee, for the gov- 
ernment of the company. This proposition he supported by an able 
speech, and several speeches were made in reply. Some one privately 
suggested that we should also take along a penitentiary, if Captain 
Dulany 's proposition should pass. These two propositions were voted 
for by the movers alone. A set of rules were adopted, a copy of which 
I send you. Capt. John Grant [Gant?] was employed as our pilot, and 
a general understanding that we should start on the 22d. 

On the twenty-second of May, we commenced one of the most ardu- 
ous and important trips undertaken in modern times. We traveled 
fifteen miles, to Elm Grove, where we encamped for the night. The 
road and weather were most delightful, and the place of encampment 
most beautiful. There are only two trees in this grove both elms 
and I have learned for the first time that two trees could compose a 
grove. The small elm was most beautiful, in the wild and lonely 
prairie, and the large one had been so, but its branches had been cut 



406 DOCUMENTS. 

off for fuel. A few small swamp dogwood bushes supplied us with 
fuel and we found fuel scarcer at no place on the road than at this 
point. The weather since the thirteenth of May had been fine. I 
have never witnessed a scene more beautiful than this. Elm Grove 
stands in a wide, gently undulating- prairie. The moon shed her 
silvery light upon the white sheets of sixty wagons ; a thousand herd of 
cattle grazed upon the surrounding plain ; fifty camp fires sent up their 
brilliant flames, and the sound of the sweet violin was heard in the 
tents. All was stir and excitement 

"The scene was more beautiful far to my eye, 
Than if day in its pride had arrayed it; 
The land breeze blew mild, and the azure arched sky 
Looked pure as the Spirit that made it." 

At the rendezvous, as well as elsewhere, we were greatly amused by 
the drolleries of many a curious wag. Among the rest was J. M. Ware, 
a most pleasant fellow, droll, original, like no one else, who had seen 
some of the world, and whose mimicry, dry wit, graphic descriptions, 
and comic songs, afforded us infinite amusement. Many of our friends, 
who came to visit us at the rendezvous, will never forget the pleasant 
evenings they spent, while witnessing the exhibitions of this comical 
fellow. Ware was an old bachelor, with all the eccentricity usually 
belonging to that sweet class of fellows. The whole camp were con- 
stantly singing his songs, and telling his tales. Among the rest he 
sang 

" If I had a donkey that wouldn't go, 
Do you think I'd wallup him? no! no! no!" 

And also 

"A gay young crow was sitting on an oak." 

I remember well his description of George Swartz, a Dutchman, in 
Kentucky, who turned out a preacher. Ware said he knew him well, 
and was present and heard George preach his first sermon. He said 
George gravely arose in the pulpit, and after gazing some time around 
him, in a loud and commanding voice he commenced : "Me tinks I 
hear my Savior say, 'Shorge, what you doin' up dar in dat bulpit?' 
Me say neber mind Shorge he knows what he's 'bout he's goin' 
breachin ; brethren, let us bray. I tank de, O Lort Got, dat a few 
names of us have come up to worship in dy house, through the inclem- 
ency of de mud." I will just say that Ware is here, safe and sound, 
and I expect to hear him repeat many of his comicalities. A few such 
men, on a trip like this, can beguile many a lonesome hour, and soften 
the asperities of the way. 

The following are the rules and regulations for the government of 
the Oregon Emigrating Company : 

Resolved, Whereas we deem it necessary for the government of all 
societies, either civil or military, to adopt certain rules and regula- 



LETTERS OF PETER H. BURNETT. 407 

tions for their government, for the purpose of keeping good order and 
promoting civil and military discipline. In order to insure union and 
safety, we deem it necessary to adopt the following rules and regula- 
tions for the government of the said company : 

Rule 1. Every male person of the age of sixteen, or upward, shall be consid- 
ered a legal voter in all affairs relating to the company. 

Rule 2. There shall be nine men elected by a majority of the company, who 
shall form a council, whose duty it shall be to settle all disputes arising between 
individuals, and to try and pass sentence on all persons for any act for which they 
may be guilty, which is subversive of good order and military discipline. They 
shall take especial cognizance of all sentinels and members of the guard, who may 
be guilty of neglect of duty, or sleeping on post. Such persons shall be tried, and 
sentence passed upon them at the discretion of the council. A majority of two 
thirds of the council shall decide all questions that may come before them, sub- 
ject to the approval or disapproval of the captain. If the captain disapprove of the 
decision of the council, he shall state to them his reasons, when they shall again 
pass upon the question, and if the same decision is again made by the same ma- 
jority, it shall be final. 

Rule 3. There shall be a captain elected who shall have supreme military 
command of the company. It shall be the duty of the captain to maintain good 
order and strict discipline, and as far as practicable, to enforce all rules and reg- 
ulations adopted by the company. Any man who shall be guilty of disobedience 
of orders shall be tried and sentenced at the discretion of the council, which may 
extend to expulsion from the company. The captain shall appoint the necessary 
number of duty sergeants, one of whom shall take charge of every guard, and who 
shall hold their offices at the pleasure of the captain. 

Rule it. There shall be an orderly sergeant elected by the company, whose 
duty it shall be to keep a regular roll, arranged in alphabetical order, of every 
person subject to guard duty in the company ; and shall make out his guard de- 
tails by commencing at the top of the roll and proceeding to the bottom, thus 
giving every man an equal tour of guard duty. He shall also give the member of 
every guard notice when he is detailed for duty. He shall also parade every 
guard, call the roll, and inspect the same at the time of mounting. He shall also 
visit the guard at least once every night, and see that the guard are doing strict 
military duty, and may at any time give them the necessary instructions respect- 
ing their duty, and shall regularly make report to the captain every morning, and 
be considered second in command. 

Rule 5. The captain, orderly sergeant, and members of the council shall hold 
their offices at the pleasure of the company, and it shall be the duty of the council, 
upon the application of one third or more of the company, to order a new election 
for either captain, orderly sergeant, or new member or members of the council, or 
for all or any of them, as the case may be. 

Rule 6. The election of officers shall not take place until the company meet 
at Kansas River. 

Rule 7. No family shall be allowed to take more than three loose cattle to 
every male member of the family of the age of sixteen and upward. 

I propose to give you a very concise description of the route, some 
of the most prominent objects we saw upon the way, and a statement 
of the distances from point to point. I will here remark, once for all, 
that the distances were estimated by me every evening when we en- 
camped ; and that I put them down in my journal fully as great as I 
think they ought to be. They are not ascertained by admeasurement, 



408 DOCUMENTS. 

but are merely guessed at. I will now give you a table of the distances, 
etc., at this point, that you may the better understand what I shall 
afterwards relate : , 

Miles. 

From Independence to Rendezvous 20 

Rendezvous to Elm Grove 15 

Elm Grove to Walkalusia 22 

Same to Kansas River 31 

Kansas River to Big Sandy 31 

Sandj 7 to Hurricane Branch 12 

Hurricane Branch to East Fork of Blue River 20 

East Fork to West Fork of Blue River 15 

West Fork to where we came in sight of the Republican Fork of 

Blue River 41 

Up Republican Fork of Blue to where we left it to cross over to Big 

Platte 66 

Blue to Big Platte . 25 

Up Platte to where we saw first herd of buffalo 56 

Up same to crossing on South Fork ,. 117 

Crossing to North Fork of Platte 31 

Up North Fork to Cedar Grove 18 

Up North Fork to Solitary Tower 18 

Up North Fork to Chimney 18 

Up North Fork to Scott's Bluffs 20 

Up same to Fort Larimer 38 

Fort Larimer [Laramie?] to Big Spring, at foot ofBlack Hills 8 

To Keryan on North Fork 30 

To crossing on North Fork 84 

To Sweetwater 55 

Up Sweetwater to where we first saw the eternal snows of the Rocky 

Mountains 60 

To main dividing ridge of the Rocky Mountains 40 

To first water that runs into the Pacific 2 

To Little Sandy 14 

To Big Sandy 14 

To Green River 25 

Down same 12 

To Black's Fork of Green River 22 

To Fort Bridger ^ 30 

To Big Muddy 20 

To Bear River 37 

Down Bear River to range of hills which run up to the river 57 

Down Bear River to Great Saduspring [Soda Spring?] 38 

To Partnith [Portneuf ?], first water of the Columbia 25 

To Fort Hall on Snake River 58 

To Partnith [Portneuf?] again 11 

To Rock Creek 87 

To Salmon Falls on Snake River . 42 

To crossing on Snake River 27 

To Boiling Spring 19 

To Boise River (pronounced Boa-sie) 48 

Down same to Fort Bois6 on Snake River 40 

To Bunt River _. 41 

Up same 1 25 

Cross to Powder River at "Lane Pens" 18 

To Grande Ronde 15 

To Utilla [Umatilla ?] River over Blue Mountains 43 

To Doctor Whitman's 29 

To Walla Walla 25 

Making in all about one thousand seven hundred and twenty-six miles 
from Independence to Port Walla Walla on the Columbia River. From 
Walla Walla to the Methodist Mission, at The Dalles, is about one 
hundred and twenty miles, and from The Dalles to Vancouver it is 
called one hundred miles, making the distance from Independence to 
Vancouver, by route we traveled, one thousand nine hundred and forty- 
six miles. I am well satisfied that the distance does not exceed two 
thousand miles, for the reason that ox teams could not have traveled 
further than we did, traveling in the manner we did. 

Your friend, P. H. B. 



LETTERS OP PETER H. BURNETT. 409 

[From New York Herald, January 6, 1845.] 

LINNTON, Oregon Territory, 1844. 
James G. Bennett, Esq. 

DEAR SIR : In my former communication I gave you some account 
of our trip as far as Elm Grove, fifteen miles from the rendezvous. On 
the twenty-fourth of May we crossed the Walkalusia, a tributary of 
the Kansas, about twenty yards wide, clear running water, over a 
pebbly bed. We let our wagons down the bank (which was very steep) 
with ropes. There was, however, a very practicable ford, unknown to 
us, about one hundred yards above. We here saw three Potawotomie 
Indians, who rode fine horses, with martingales, bridles, and saddles. 
We found very few fish in this stream. On the twenty-sixth of May 
we reached Kanzas River, which was too high to ford ; and we pre- 
pared a platform, by uniting two large canoes together and com- 
menced crossing on the 29th. On the 27th we held a meeting, and 
appointed a committee of three to make arrangements for crossing 
the river. The committee attempted to hire Pappa's platform (a 
Frenchman who lived at the crossing, ) but no reasonable arrangement 
could be made with him. Before we had finished our platform, some 
of the company made a private arrangement with Pappa for them- 
selves, and commenced crossing. This produced great dissatisfaction 
in camp. On the 28th Pappa's platform sank, and several men, women, 
and children came near being drowned, but all escaped with the loss 
of some property. As yet no organization, and no guard out. Wagons 
still coming in rapidly. On the thirtieth of May two Catholic mission- 
aries to the Flathead Indians arrived and crossed the river. The 
Kansas is here a wide stream, with sandy banks and bottom. I suppose 
it to be about a quarter mile wide at this point. The water was muddy, 
like that of the Missouri River. We finished crossing on the thirty- 
first of May. Our encampment was on Black Warrior Creek ; very 
uncomfortable, as our stock were constantly sticking fast in the mud 
upon its banks. On the first of June we organized the company, by 
electing Peter H. Burnett commander in chief and Mr. Nesmith or- 
derly sergeant. On the 4th we crossed Big Sandy, a large creek with 
high banks. Last night we had a hard rain. Last evening we saw 
several of the Kanzas chiefs, who visited our encampment. Our usual 
mode of encampment was to form a hollow square with the wagons. 
When we organized we had about one hundred and ten wagons and 
two hundred and sixty- three men, all able to bear arms. On the 5th 
we crossed the East Fork of Blue, a large creek, and a tributary of 
the Kanzas, and on the 6th, in the evening, we crossed the West Fork 
of Blue, a small river, about fifty yards wide. Contrary to our expec- 
tations, we found it fordable, by propping up our wagon beds with large 
blocks of wood. We encamped for the night on a level prairie, dry 
and beautiful. In the night we had an immense thunderstorm, and 



410 DOCUMENTS. 

torrents of rain. Half the tents blew down, and nearly the whole 
encampment was .flooded with water eight inches deep. We were in 
a most uncomfortable predicament next morning, and nearly all wet. 
We this day met a war party of Osages and Kanzas Indians, consisting 
of about ninety warriors. They all rode ponies, were painted, and 
their heads shaven, and had one Pawnee scalp, with the ears still to 
it, and full of wampum. This scalp had tolerably long hair upon it, 
and they had divided it into some five or six different pieces, some with 
an ear to them, and some with part of the cheek. The Kanzas and 
Osages are the most miserable, cowardly, and dirty Indians we saw 
east of the Rocky Mountains. They annoyed us greatly by their con- 
tinual begging. We gave this war party bread and meat, and a calf ; 
they said they had eaten nothing for three days. Two of this party 
were wounded severely, one in the shoulder and the other in another 
part. They had killed but one Pawnee, who had wounded these two 
before he fell. The Kanzas Indians, however, did not steal from us, 
except perhaps a horse or two which were missing, but which might 
have escaped back to the Kanzas River. On the 7th we removed our 
encampment one half mile to a place we supposed to be dry ; but in 
the night another severe storm of rain succeeded, and again flooded 
half the encampment. On the 8th we traveled five miles to a grove of 
green elm trees, and it again rained in torrents, but our encampment 
was upon high ground this time. P. H. Burnett this day resigned the 
command of the company in consequence of ill health. On the 9th the 
clouds dispersed, and we traveled five miles to find wood, where we 
dried our clothes. The company now separated into two parties, one 
under the command of Capt. Jesse Applegate, and the other reorganized 
by electing William Martin commander. Martin's company had about 
seventy-two wagons and one hundred and seventy-five men. On the 
10th we met a company of four wagons from Fort Larimer [Laramiej, 
with furs and peltries, going to Independence. They had with them 
several buffalo calves. As yet we saw no game of any kind, except a 
few straggling deer. This day Mr. Casan and others saw the corpse 
of an Indian in the prairie : his head had been cut off and was badly 
scalped, and left to be eaten up by the buzzards. This, no doubt, was 
the same Indian killed and scalped by the war party of the Osages and 
Kanzas. On the llth we had a fall of rain in the evening, before dark, 
but none in the night. On the 12th the whole company were thrown 
into a state of great excitement by the news, which reached us, that 
Captain Gant and some others had killed a large buffalo. He was a 
venerable old bull, by himself, and was discovered by the hunters at 
about one mile distant ; they run upon him with their horses and shot 
him with their large horse-pistols ; seven balls were fired into him 
before he fell. The animal was not very fat, and was tough eating. 
He had, no doubt, been left here in the spring by other buffaloes. These 



LETTERS OF PETER H. BURNETT. 411 

animals frequently come down upon the waters of Blue River to spend 
the winter among the rushes, which are abundant in the bottoms near 
the stream ; but they return in the spring. On the fourteenth of June 
we passed over a level plain of rich prairie land, equal to any in the 
world for farming purposes; but it was wild, solitary prairie. 

On the 15th one of the company killed an antelope an animal not 
very plenty in this region, but seen occasionally for the last three or 
four days. June 16th, one deer and one antelope were killed, and we 
had a most beautiful race between an antelope and some fleet dogs. 
The animal ran down the line of wagons for about two miles, in full 
view, about two hundred yards from us ; and as fast as he would leave 
one dog behind, another would come in from the wagons. Why the 
animal did not change his course, I can not tell, unless perhaps he was 
too much confused. Perhaps no animal in the world is so fleet as this 
beautiful creature. He will weigh about as much as a deer, has hair 
of much the same length and color, is formed a little like the goat, but 
is much more slender and neat in his form. The bucks have horns, 
with several prongs to them, not so long as the horns of a deer, and of 
a black color. The bucks have black stripes, about an inch wide, run- 
ning down from under each ear, and continuing under each eye toward 
the nose. These stripes, and thin black hairs, give the animal quite a 
fanciful appearance. Nothing is more beautiful and graceful than 
the movements of this active animal. He runs very smoothly ; not 
in irregular bounds, like the deer. Mr. Lindsay Applegate, who 
had two very fleet greyhounds with him, stated to me that he one 
day witnessed a race between his best greyhound and an antelope. 
He said the antelope and dog were running at right angles towards 
each other, and the antelope did not discover the dog until the dog 
was within twenty feet of him. The struggle then commenced, and 
they ran about a quarter of a mile, each doing his utmost; but the 
antelope outran the dog so far, that the dog stopped still, and looked 
after the antelope in utter astonishment. The dog had often run upon 
deer and wolves with ease. The antelope is a very wary animal, 
and difficult of approach. His curiosity is, however, very great ; and 
the hunter, adapting himself to the habits of the animal, conceals 
himself behind a hillock of sand, or other object, and putting his hat, 
cap, or handkerchief upon the end of his gunstick, he raises it about 
two feet, gently waiving it backward and forward. As soon as the ante- 
lope sees it, he approaches gradually nearer and nearer, making a sort 
of snorting noise, and alternately approaching and retreating, until he 
comes within reach of the hunter's trusty rifle. He is not very tena- 
cious of life, and a small wound will disable him, so that he surren- 
ders. The antelope, though exceedingly fleet, can be run down on horse- 
back, when very fat, by continuing the chase about twenty miles. Mr. 
7 



412 DOCUMENTS. 

Nolan, who had been in the region of the Rocky Mountains several 
years, so informed me ; and he also stated that the wolves very fre- 
quently run them down, and that he had often fell in with the wolves 
and the antelope when the latter was much jaded with the race, and 
had then caught the antelope himself. June 17th we encamped for the 
last time on Blue River. Our course since the 13th has been up the 
Republican Fork of Blue. Here we saw a hunting party of Pawnees, 
who were returning from a buffalo hunt south. They had not their 
heads shaved like the Kanzas Indians : but their hair was cut like 
white men, and they were fine looking fellows. They had many packs 
of buffalo meat, which they cure by cutting it into very thin, long, and 
wide slices, with the grain of the meat, and then drying it in the sun. 
After it is dried they have a mode of pressing it between two pieces 
of timber, which gives it a very smooth and regular appearance. Of 
this meat they gave us very liberally. They amused themselves very 
much, by imitating our driving of cattle and teams. We informed 
them of the war party of Kanzas and Osages that we had seen, and 
they were much excited, and vowed to take vengeance upon their 
enemies. They did not interrupt us, or our stock, but were very kind 
and friendly. The road from independence to this point is generally 
through prairie and a most excellent road, except the fords upon the 
streams, which are miry, and difficult to cross. The Kanzas country 
as it may be called, is nineteen-twentieths prairie, generally fertile, 
but destitute of timber, except upon the streams. This timber is elm, 
low burr oak, and small swamp ash, along the margin of the streams. 
I saw only a very few places where good farms could be made, for 
want of timber. This whole country has very little game of any kind, 
except a very few wild deer and antelope. We saw no squirrels on 
Blue, and very few birds, except a small species of snipe. I remem- 
ber a wild-cat, killed by some of the company, that was a mere skeleton, 
from starvation, no doubt ; but few fish were found in the stream. 

Your friend, 

P. H. B. 

[From New York Weekly Herald, January 18, 1845.] 

LINNTON, Oregon Territory, 1844. 
James G. Bennett, Esq.- 

DEAR SIR : In my letter of the 26th instant, I continued my ac- 
count of our trip to our last encampment on the waters of the Blue. 
On the eighteenth day of June we crossed the main dividing ridge be- 
tween the waters of Kanzas and the Great Platte. We traveled twenty- 
five miles over the finest road imaginable, and our eyes first beheld 
the wide and beautiful valley of the Great Platte just as the sun was 
going down behind the bleak sand hills. We encamped in the bottom, 
about two miles from the river, without fuel. Next morning we 



LETTERS OF PETER H. BURNETT. 413 

started, without any breakfast, and traveled a few miles, where we 
found willows for fuel, and where we took a hearty meal. We struck 
the river near the head of Grand Island, which is seventy-five miles 
long 1 , covered with timber, and several miles wide, varying greatly, in 
places, as to width ; but what was strange, there was not a solitary 
tree on the south side of the river where we were. The river above the 
island, as far as the Forks, is generally about two miles wide. Perhaps 
this is one of the most remarkable rivers in the world. Like the Nile, 
it runs hundreds of miles through a sandy desert. The valley of this 
stream is from fifteen to twenty miles wide, a smooth <level plain, and the 
river generally runs in the middle of it, from west to east. The course 
of this stream is more uniform than any I have ever seen. It scarcely 
ever makes a bend. The Platte River was very high until after we 
had passed Fort Larimer [Laramie?]. This river has low, sandy banks, 
with sandy bottom, and the water muddy, like that of the Missouri. 
The current is rapid, and the river being very wide, is very shallow, 
and easily forded, except in high water. It is full of most beautiful 
islands of all sizes, covered with beautiful trees, contrasting finely with 
the wild prairie plains and bold sand hills on each side of the river. 
The plain on each side of the river extends out to the sand hills, 
which are about three miles through them, when you ascend up to a 
wide prairie plain of almost interminable extent. Upon this plain, and 
sometimes in the sand hills, we found the buffalo, and numbers of white 
wolves. In the plains, near the river, we generally found the antelope. 
When the season is wet, as was the case this season, the buffalo resort 
to the plain beyond the sand hills, where they find water in the ponds, 
As the summer advances, and the ponds dry up, they approach the 
river, and are found in the plain near it. You have, perhaps, often 
heard of buffalo paths. As you go from the river out to the wide plain, 
beyond the sand hills, through which you must pass, you will find val- 
leys among those hills leading out toward this plain. These valleys 
are covered with grass, and the buffalo have made numerous paths, 
not only in these valleys, but over all the hills, where they could pass 
at all (and they can pass almost any where), leading from this wide plain 
to the river, where they resort for water, in the dry season. These paths 
are very narrow, and are sunk in the ground six or eight inches deep. 
In traveling up the Platte, almost every thirty yards we had to cross 
a path, which was about all the obstruction we met while traveling up 
this gently inclined plain. While hunting, there is no danger of be- 
ing lost, for you can find a buffalo path anywhere, and they always lead 
the nearest route to the river. All the plains are covered with grass ; 
but the plain upon the river has not only the greatest variety, but the 
most rich and luxuriant grass. The greatest general scarcity of wood 
we found upon the Platte, before we reached Fort Larimer [Laramie?]. 
We sometimes found bunches of dry willows, often Indian wigwams 



414 DOCUMENTS. 

made of willows, but the way in which we generally procured our fuel, 
was to pick up the pieces of driftwood during- the day, and at night we 
would have plenty. It requires very little fuel. It is necessary to 
dig a narrow ditch, about eight inches wide, one foot deep, and two or 
three feet long. This confines the heat, and prevents the wind from 
scattering the fire. 

On the twenty-second day of June, we saw the first band of buffa- 
loes, which contained about fifty, of all ages and sizes. Out of this 
band two were killed. They were found in the plain close to the river, 
and were pursued on horseback. Perhaps no sport in the world is so 
exciting as a buffalo hunt. The fox chase sinks into insignificance 
when compared to it. The mode of hunting this noble animal is very 
simple. They are generally found upon the wide plain beyond the 
sand hills, as I before stated, and you will almost always find them 
grazing near the head of some hollow leading up near them. When 
you approach him you must get the wind to blow from him to you ; 
because if you scent him, you will hardly run off, but if he scents you, 
he is certain, to scamper. The sight of the buffalo is very dull, but 
their sense of smell is very acute. I one day saw a band of about one 
hundred buffaloes on the opposite side of the river from us, and about 
two miles off, running parallel with the line of wagons, up the river. 
When they came directly opposite us, so as to strike the stream of 
wind, which blew from us directly across the river, they turned sud- 
denly off at right angles, and increased their speed greatly. They had 
evidently scented us. If you have the wind of them you can approach 
within a very short distance, near enough to kill them readily with the 
rifle. When you fire, if you remain still, and do not show yourself, the 
buffalo will perhaps bring a bound, and then stop, and remain until 
you have fired several times. If he is wounded he will lie down. If 
several guns are fired in quick succession it alarms the band, and they 
all move off in a brisk trot ; but if you load and fire slowly you may 
often kill several before the balance leave. I have seen three or four 
lying within ten yards of each other. When you have fired as often 
as you can, and the buffalo have retired beyond the reach of the balls, 
you return down the hollow to your horses, and having mounted, you 
approach as near as possible before you show yourself to the animal ; 
and when he sees you, your horse ought to be at the very top of his 
speed, so as to get near him before he gets under full speed. You may 
dash at a band of buffaloes not more than one hundred yards off, and 
they will stand and gaze at you before they start ; but when one puts 
himself in motion, all the rest move instantly, and those lying down 
will not be far very behind the others, as they rise running. Although 
they seem to run awkwardly, yet they step away rapidly, and if you 
lose much time you will have a hard run to overtake them. The better 
plan is to put your horse at the top of his speed at once. This enables you 



LETTERS OF PETER H. BURNETT. 415 

to press upon the buffalo at the first of the race, and when you approach 
within fifty or sixty yards of them, you will find that they can let out 
a few more links; but if a bull is wounded, even very slightly, the 
moment you press hard upon him he will turn short around, curl his 
tail over his back, bow his neck, and face you for a fight. At this time 
you had as well keep at a convenient distance. If you keep off about 
fifty yards he will stand, and you may load and fire several times ; but 
you had better not fire at his head, for you will not hurt him much if 
you hit him, for the ball will never penetrate through the skull bone. 
Whenever you bring one to bay, if the country is not too broken, and 
your horse is good, there is no danger of his escape, as you may shoot 
as often as you please ; and whenever you give the animal a deadly 
shot he will kick as if kicking at some object that attacks him. The 
buffalo, when excited, is very hard to kill, and you may put several 
balls through his heart, and he will then live, sometimes for hours. 
The best place to shoot him is behind the shoulder, at the bulge of the 
ribs, and just below the backbone, so as to pass through the thick part 
of the lungs. This is the most deadly of all shots ; and when you see 
the animal .cough up blood it is unnecessary to shoot him any more. 
When you shoot them through the lungs the blood smothers them im- 
mediately. The lungs of the buffalo are very large and easily hit by 
any sort of a marksman. If you pursue a buffalo, not wounded, you 
may run up by his side, and shoot off your horse. The animal becomes 
tired after running at the top of his speed for two or three miles, and 
will then run at a slow gallop. The buffalo is a most noble animal- 
very formidable in appearance and in the summer has a very short 
soft coat of fine wool over his body, from behind his shoulders to his 
tail. His neck and head a*re covered with a thick mass of long black 
wool, almost concealing his short thick horns (the points of which just 
peep out), and his small eye. This animal has a great deal of bold 
daring, and it is difficult to turn him from his course. 

On the twenty-seventh of June we had stopped our wagons, about 
one half mile from the river, to spend the noon, and rest our teams. 
While there, we discovered seven large buffalo bulls slowly moving 
up the river on the opposite side ; and when they were about opposite 
to us, they plunged into the river, and swam toward us, in the face of 
wagons, teams, cattle, horses, men and all. Every man shouldered his 
gun, and some went up, and some down the river, so as to form a com- 
plete semicircle. We were all certain that the buffalo would turn 
back, and recross the river ; but on they came, merely turning their 
course a little around the wagons. You never heard such a bombard- 
ment in all your life. Not a buffalo escaped unhurt ; and three or four 
were killed within a very short distance. The buffalo, being a very 
large object, can be seen at a very great distance. Perhaps the flesh 
of no animal is more delicious than that of a young buffalo cow, in 



416- DOCUMENTS. 

good order. You may eat as much as you please, and it will not 
oppress you. The flesh of the antelope is fine eating-, equal to good 
venison, but more juicy. I remember while we were on Sweetwater, 
that we remained at one place a day or two ; and that one evening 1 I 
came in from hunting, very hungry. Captain Gant had killed a very 
fat buffalo cow, and had made me a present of some choice pieces. It 
was after dinner, and Mrs. B. had six large slices of this meat cooked 
for me. I supposed I could eat three of them, as I thought they would 
be sufficient for any one ; but when I had eaten them, I felt a strong 
inclination to eat the fourth, and so I eat them all. About two hours 
afterward, supper came on, and we had more of this fine meat. 
Doctor Long took supper with me, and something was said about Ore- 
gon. The Doctor remarked, that he feared Oregon was like the buffalo 
meat, overrated. Said I, "Doctor, I have always thought as you do in 
regard to buffalo meat until this day, and now I think it has always been 
underrated." I continued eating until I was ashamed, and left supper 
hungry. I then went to Captain Gant's tent ; and there he had some 
buffalo tongue cooked nicely, and insisted I should eat a piece. I sat 
down and eat of the buffalo tongue until I was ashamed, and then 
went to bed hungry. Prom this you may infer that I was a gormand- 
izer ; but if I can judge impartially, in my own case, I assure you, I 
was not more so than most persons on the road. 
Your friend, 

P. H. B. 

[January 6, 1845.] 

LlNNTON, 1844. 

James G. Bennett, Esq.- 

DEAR SIR : The proper outfit for emigrants is a matter of very great 
importance, as upon it depends the ease of the journey. As little as 
we knew about the matter, we were well enough prepared to get here, 
all safe, and without much suffering on the road. I would even be 
most willing to travel the same road twice over again, had I the means 
to purchase cattle in the States; and Mrs. B. (who performed as much 
labor on the road as any other woman) would most gladly undertake 
the trip again. There is a good deal of labor to perform on the road, 
but the weather is so dry and the air so pure and pleasant, and your 
appetite so good, that the labor becomes easy. I had more pleasure in 
eating on this trip than I ever did in the same time before, which 
would have been greater had it not been for the eternal apprehension 
of difficulties ahead. Whether we were to leave our wagons, or 
whether we were to be out of provisions, was all uncertain, and kept 
us in a state of painful suspense. This state of uncertainty can not exist 
again, as the way is broken and conclusively shown to be practicable. 
The sedge, which was a great impediment to us, we broke down com- 
pletely, and left behind us a good wagon road, smooth and easy. Those 



LETTERS OF PETER H. BCRNETT. 417 

who come after us will be better prepared, and they will have no ap- 
prehension about a scarcity of provisions. There is not the slightest 
danger of starvation, and not the least danger of suffering, if even or- 
dinary care is taken. Emigrants may now come, knowing that the 
property they start with they can bring clear through ; and when they 
reach here it will be worth about twice, and some of it (all their cattle) 
four times as much as it was when they left the States. There is no 
danger of suffering for water, as you will find it every evening, and 
always good, except perhaps at one or two places not more ; and by 
filling a four-gallon keg every morning, you have it convenient all day. 
Fuel on the way is scarce at some points, but we never suffered for 
want of fuel. You travel up or down streams nearly all the way, upon 
which you will find dry willows, which make an, excellent fire, and 
where you find no willows, the sedge answers all purposes. Nothing 
burns more brilliantly than the sedge ; even the green seems to burn 
almost as readily as the dry, and it catches as quick as dry shavings, 
but it does not make as good coals to cook with as the willows. The 
wagons for this trip should be two-horse wagons, plain yankee beds, 
the running gear made of good materials, and fine workmanship, with 
falling tongues ; and all in a state of good repair. A few extra iron 
bolts, linchpins, skeins, paint bands for the axle, one cold chisel, a few 
pounds of wrought nails, assorted, several papers of cut tacks, and 
some hoop iron, and a punch for making holes in the hoop iron, a few 
chisels, handsaw, drawing-knife, axes, and tools generally ; it would 
be well to bring, especially, augers, as they may be needed on the way 
for repairing. All light tools that a man has, that do not weigh too 
much, he ought to bring. Palling tongues are greatly superior to 
others, though both will do. You frequently pass across hollows that 
have very steep, but short banks, where falling tongues are preferable, 
and there are no trees on the way to break them. The wagon sheets 
should be double and not painted, as that makes them break. The 
wagon bows should be well made and strong, and it is best to have 
sideboards, and have the upper edge of the wagon body beveled out- 
ward, so that the water running down the wagon sheet, when it strikes 
the body, may run down on the outside ; and it is well to have the bottom 
of the bed beveled in the same way, that the water may not run inside 
the wagon. Having your wagons well prepared, they are as secure, 
almost, as a house. Tents and wagon sheets are best made of heavy 
brown cotton drilling, and will last well all the way. They should be 
well fastened down. When you reach the mountains, if your wagons 
are not well made of seasoned timber, the tires become loose. This is 
very easily repaired by taking the hoop iron, taking the nails out of 
the tire, and driving the hoop iron under the tire and between it and 
the felloes ; the tire you punch, and make holes through the hoop iron 
and drive in your nails, and all will be tight. Another mode of tight- 



418 DOCUMENTS. 

erring the tire, which answers very well, is to drive pine wedges cross- 
wise under it, which holds it tight. If your wagons are even ordinarily 
good, the tire will never become loose, and you will not perhaps have 
to repair any on the whole trip. Any wagon that will perform a jour- 
ney from Kentucky to Missouri, will stand the trip well. There are 
many wagons in Oregon, brought through last year, that are both old 
and very ordinary. It is much easier to repair a wagon on the way 
than you would suppose. Beware of heavy wagons, as they break down 
your teams for no purpose, and you will not need them. Light wagons 
will carry all you want, as there is nothing to break them down, no 
logs, no stumps, no rock, until you get more than half way, when your 
load is so much reduced, that there is then no danger. You see no 
stumps on the road until you get to Burnt River, and very few there, 
and no rock until you get into the Black Hills, and only there for a 
short distance, and not bad, and then you will see none until you reach 
the Great Soda Spring, on Bear River at least none of any conse- 
quence. If an individual should have several wagons, some good and 
some ordinary, he might start with all of them ; and his ordinary 
wagons will go to the mountains, where his load will be so reduced 
that his other wagons will do. It is not necessary to bring along an 
extra axletree, as you will rarely break one. A few pieces of well 
seasoned hickory, for the wedges and the like, you ought to bring. 

TEAMS. The best teams for this trip are ox teams. Let the oxen 
be from three to five years old, well set, and compactly built ; just such 
oxen as are best for use at home. They should not be too heavy, as 
their feet will not bear the trip so well ; but oxen six, seven, and eight 
years old, some of them very large, stood the trip last year very well, 
but not so well in general as the younger and lighter ones. Young 
cows make just as good a team as any. It is the travel and not the 
pulling that tires your team, until after you reach Port Hall. If you 
have cows for a team it requires more of them in bad roads, but they 
stand the trip equally well, if not better, than oxen. We fully tested 
the ox and mule teams, and we found the ox teams greatly superior. 
One ox will pull as much as two mules, and, in mud, as much as four. 
They are more easily managed, are not so subject to be lost or broken 
down on the way, cost less at the start, and are worth about four times 
as much here. The ox is a most noble animal, patient, thrifty, durable, 
gentle, and easily driven, and does not run off. Those who come to 
this country will be in love with their oxen by the time they reach 
here. The ox will plunge through mud, swim over streams, dive into 
thickets, and climb mountains to get at the grass, and he will eat 
almost anything. Willows they eat with great greediness on the way ; 
and it is next to impossible to drown an ox. I would advise all emi- 
grants to bring all the cattle they can procure to this country, and all 
their horses, as they will, with proper care, stand the trip well. We 



LETTERS OF PETER H. BURNETT. 419 

found a good horse to stand the trip as well as a mule. Horses need 
shoeing 1 , but oxen do not. I had oxshoes made, and so did many others, 
but it was money thrown away. If a man had $500, and would invest 
it in young heifers in the States and drive them here, they would here 
be worth at least $5,000 ; and by engaging in stock raising, he could 
make an independent fortune. Milch cows on the road are exceed- 
ingly useful, as they give an abundance of milk all the way, though 
less toward the close of it. By making what is called thickened milk 
on the way, a great saving of flour is effected, and it is a most rich and 
delicious food, especially for children. We found that yearling calves, 
and even sucking calves, stood the trip very well ; but the sucking 
calves had all the milk. 

PROVISIONS. One hundred and fifty pounds of flour and forty 
pounds of bacon to each person. Besides this, as much dried fruit, 
rice, corn meal, parched corn meal, and raw corn, pease, sugar, tea, 
coffee, and such like articles as you can well bring. Flour will keep sweet 
the whole trip, corn meal to the mountains, and parched corn meal all 
the way. The flour and meal ought to be put in sacks or light barrels ; 
and what they call shorts are just as good as the finest flour, and will 
perhaps keep better; but I do not remember of any flour being spoiled 
on the way. The parched corn meal is most excellent to make soup. 
Dried fruit is most excellent. A few beef cattle to kill on the way, or 
fat calves, are very useful, as you need fresh meat. Pease are most 
excellent. 

The loading should consist mostly of provisions. Emigrants should 
not burthen themselves with furniture, or many beds ; and a few light 
trunks, or very light boxes, might be brought to pack clothes in. 
Trunks are best, but they should be light. All heavy articles should 
be left, except a few cooking vessels, one shovel, and a pair of pot 
hooks. Clothes enough to last a year, and several pair of strong, heavy 
shoes to each person, it will be well to bring. If you are heavily loaded 
let the quantity of sugar and coffee be small, as milk is preferable and 
does not have to be hauled. You should have a water keg, and a tin 
canister made like a powder canister to hold your milk in ; a few tin 
cups, tin plates, tin saucers, and butcher knives ; and there should be 
a small grindstone in company, as the tools become dull on the way. 
Many other articles may be useful. Rifles and shotguns^ pistols, powder, 
lead, and shot, I need hardly say are useful, and some of them neces- 
sary on the road, and sell well here. A rifle that would cost $20 in the 
States is worth $50 here, and shotguns in proportion. The road will 
be found, upon the whole, the best road in the world, considering its 
length. On the Platte, the only inconvenience arising from the road 
is the propensity to sleep in the daytime. The air is so pleasant and 
the road so smooth that I have known many a teamster to go fast 
asleep in his wagon, and his team stop still in the road. The usual 



420 DOCUMENTS. 

plan was for the wagons behind to drive around him, and leave him 
until he waked up, when he would come driving up, looking- rather 
sheepish. Emigrants should start as early as possible in ordinary sea- 
sons ; by first of May at furthest : even as early as first of April would 
do. For those emigrants coming from the Platte country, it is thought 
that they had better cross the Missouri River at McPherson's Ferry, 
in Hatt County, and take up the ridge between Platte and Kanzas 
rivers ; but I can not determine that question. Companies of from 
forty to fifty wagons are large enough. Americans are prone to differ 
in opinion, and large companies become unwieldy, and the stock be- 
come more troublesome. In driving stock to this country about one 
in ten is lost ; not more. Having started, the best way to save the 
teams is to drive a reasonable distance every day, and stop about an 
hour before sundown. This gives time for arranging the camp, and 
for the teams to rest and eat before it is dark. About eight hours' 
drive in long days resting one hour at noon I think is enough. Never 
drive irregularly, if you can avoid it. On Platte River, Bear River, 
and Boise" River, and in many other places, you can camp at any point 
you please ; but at other places on the way you will be compelled to 
drive hard some days to get water and range. When you reach the 
country of buffalo, never stop your wagons to hunt, as you will eat up 
more provisions than you will save. It is true you can kill buffalo, 
but they are always far from camp, and the weather is too warm to 
save much of it. When you reach the country of game, those who 
have good horses can keep the company in fresh meat. If an individual 
wishes to have great amusement hunting the buffalo, he had better 
have an extra horse, and not use him until he reaches the buffalo re- 
gion. Buffalo hunting is very hard upon horses, and emigrants had 
better be cautious how they unnecessarily break down their horses. 
A prudent care should be taken of horses, teams, and provisions, from 
the start. Nothing should be wasted or thrown away that can be 
eaten. If a prudent course is taken, the trip can be made, in ordinary 
seasons, in four months. It took us longer ; but we lost a great deal 
of time on the road, and had the way to break. Other routes than the 
one traveled by us, and better routes, may be found. Captain Gant, 
our pilot, was decidedly of the opinion that to keep up the South Fork 
of the Platte, and cross it just above a stream running into it, called 
the Kashlapood, and thence up the latter stream, passing between the 
Black Hills on your right and peaks of the Rocky Mountains on your 
left, and striking our route at Green River, would be a better and 
nearer route more plentifully supplied with game than the one we 
came. He had traveled both routes, and brought us the route he did 
because he had been informed that large bands of the Sioux Indians 
were hunting upon the southern route. 

The trip to Oregon is not a costly or expensive one. An individual 



LETTERS OF PETER H. BURNETT. 421 

can move here as cheap, if not cheaper, than he can from Tennessee 
or Kentucky to Missouri. All the property you start with you can 
bring 1 through, and it is worth thribble as much as when you started. 
There is no country in the world where the wants of man can be so 
easily supplied, upon such easy terms as this; and none where the 
beauties of nature are displayed upon a grander scale. 

[December 28, 1844.] 

LINNTON, Oregon Territory, 1844. 

The fisheries of this country are immense. Foremost of all the fish 
of this, or any other country, is the salmon. Of the numbers of this 
fish taken annually in the Columbia River, and its tributaries, it would 
be impossible to state. They have been estimated at ten thousand 
barrels annually, which I think is not too large. The salmon is a 
beautiful fish, long, round, and plump, weighing generally about 
twenty pounds, very fat, and yet no food of any kind is ever found in 
the stomach. What they eat no one can tell. Sir Humphrey Davy 
supposed that the gastric juice of the salmon was so powerful as in- 
stantly to dissolve all substances entering the stomach. The salmon 
in this country is never caught with a hook ; but they are sometimes 
taken by the Indians with small scoop nets, and generally with a sort 
of spear, of very peculiar construction, and which I will describe. 
They take a pole, made of some hard wood, say ten feet long and one 
inch in diameter, gradually sharpened to a point at one end. They 
then cut off a piece from the sharp prong of a buckhorn, about four 
inches long, and hollow out the large end of this piece so that it fits on 
the end of the pole. About the middle of the buckhorn they make 
a hole, through which they put a small cord or leather string, which 
they fasten to the pole about two feet from the lower end. When they 
spear a fish, the spear passes through the body, the buckhorn comes 
off the pole, and the pole pulls out of the hole made by the spear, but 
the buckhorn remains on the opposite side of the fish, and he is held 
fast by the string, from which it is impossible to escape. All the 
salmon caught here are taken by the Indians, and sold to the whites 
at about ten cents each, and frequently for less. One Indian will take 
about twenty per day upon an average. The salmon taken at differ- 
ent points vary greatly in kind and quality, and it is only at particu- 
lar places that they can be taken. The fattest and best salmon are 
caught at the mouth of the Columbia ; the next best are those taken 
in the Columbia, a few miles below Vancouver, at the cascades, and 
at the dalles. Those taken at the Wallamette Falls are smaller and 
inferior, and are said to be of a different kind. What is singular, 
this fish can not be taken in any considerable numbers, with large seines. 
This fish is too shy and too active to be thus taken. I believe no white 
man has yet succeeded in taking them with the gig. The salmon 



422 DOCUMENTS. 

make their appearance >in 'the vicinity of Vancouver, first in the 
Klackamus. The best salmon are taken in June. The sturgeon is a 
very large fish, caught with a hook and line, and is good eating. 
They are taken in the Wallamette, below the falls, and in the Columbia 
at all points, and in the Snake River as high up as Fort Boise". 

NAVIGATION. As I have before stated, the navigation of the 
Columbia is good to The Dalles, with the exception of the cascades. 
The river near the ocean is very wide, forming bays, and is>subject to 
high winds, which render the navigation unsafe for small craft. The 
difficulties at the mouth of the river will rapidly diminish as the busi- 
ness increases, and they have regular pilots and steam towboats. 
Ships pass up the Wallamette some five miles above Linnton, where 
there is a bar ; but small ships go up higher, and to within seven or 
eight miles of the falls. Above the falls, the Wallamette is navi- 
gable for steamboats about fifty miles. Tom Hill River is navigable 
for canoes and keelboats up to the forks, the distance I can not say. 
The navigation of this, the first section, is much better than that of 
the second section. 

WATER POWER. The water power of this country is unequaled, 
and is found distributed throughout this section. The water power at 
the falls of the Wallamette can not be surpassed in the world. Any 
q uantity of machinery can be put in motion ; but the good water power 
is not confined to the Wallamette Falls. Everywhere on the Columbia 
and Wallamette rivers there are mill sites as good, but not so large as 
the falls. Most of the mill sites in this country are overshots; but we 
have not only the finest water power, but we have the finest timber. 

TIMBER. The timber of this section of Oregon constitutes one main 
source of its wealth. It is found in inexhaustible quantities on the Co- 
lumbia and on the Wallamette, just where the water power is at hand 
to cut it up, and where ships can take it on board. The principal 
timber of this section is the fir, white cedar, white oak, and black ash. 
There three kinds of fir, the white, yellow, and red, all of them fine 
timber for planks, shingles, boards, and rails. The white fir makes 
the best shingles. The fir is a species of the pine, grows very tall and 
straight, and stands very thick upon the ground. Thick as they stand 
upon the ground, when you cut one it never lodges, for the reason this 
timber never forks, and the limbs are too small to stop a falling tree. 
You can find them in the vicitity of Linnton, from eight feet in diameter 
to small saplings ; and the tallest of them will measure about two hun- 
dred and twenty-five feet. In the Cascade Mountains, and near the 
mouth of the Columbia River, they rise to the height of three hundred 
feet. The fir splits exceedingly well, and makes the finest boards of any 
timber I have ever seen. I cut one tree from which I sawed twenty- 
four cuts of three-foot boards, and there are plenty of such trees all 



LETTERS OF PETER H. BURNETT. 423 

around me, yet untouched. The white cedar is a very fine timber, 
nearly if not quite equal to the red cedar in the States. 

The wild animals of this the first section of Oregon, are the black 
bear, black-tailed deer, raccoon, panther, polecat, rabbit, wolf, beaver, 
and a few others. Deer and wolves are plenty. We have no buffaloes, 
antelopes, or prairie chickens here, but in the second section prairie 
chickens are plenty. As for. birds, we have the bluejay, larger than 
the jay of the States, and deep blue. We have also the nut-brown 
wren, a most beautiful and gentle little bird, very little larger than 
the hummingbird. Also, a species of bird which resembles the robin 
in form, color, and size. Also, a bird that sings the livelong night, ; 
but although I have heard them often, I have never seen one. The 
bald eagle, so well described by Wilson, is here found all along the 
rivers, but he was here to catch his own game, as there are no fish- 
hawks to do it for him. The eagle here feeds principally upon the dead 
salmon that float down the rivers, for you are aware, perhaps, that 
out of the myriads of salmon that ascend the rivers of Oregon, not one 
ever finds the way back to the ocean. They are never found swim- 
ming down stream, but their last effort is to ascend. The eagle also 
feeds upon wild ducks, which he catches as follows : He darts at the 
duck while in the water, and the duck dives, but as soon as he rises to 
the surface, the eagle, having turned himself, strikes at the duck again 
and the duck again dives. This manoeuvre the eagle continues until 
the duck becomes tired, when the eagle nabs him just as he rises to 
the top of the water. The duck seems to be afraid to attempt escape 
upon the wing. We have also pleasants very abundant, and they are 
most excellent eating. Like old Ireland itself, there are no poisonous 
reptiles or insects in this section of Oregon. The only snake is the 
small harmless garter snake, and there are no flies to annoy the cattle. 

MOUNTAINS. We have the most beautiful scenery in North America 
-the largest ocean, the purest and most beautiful streams, and loftiest 
and most beautiful trees. The several peaks of the Cascade range 
of mountains are grand and imposing objects. From Vancouver you 
have a fair and full view of Mount Hood, perhaps the tallest peak of 
the Cascades, and which rises nearly sixteen thousand feet above the 
level of the Pacific, and ten thousand feet above the surrounding moun- 
tains. This lofty pile rises up by itself, and is in form of a regular 
cone, covered with perpetual snow. This is the only peak you can see 
from Vancouver, as the view is obscured by the tall fir timber. At 
the mouth of the Wallamette, as you enter the Columbia, you have a 
view of both Mount Hood and Mount St. Helena. From Linnton you 
have a very fair and full view of Mount St. Helena, about fifty miles 
distant; but it looks as if it was within reach. This peak is very 
smooth, and in the form of a regular cone, and nearly, if not quite, as 
tall as Mount Hood, and also covered with perpetual snow. This moun- 



424 DOCUMENTS. 

tain is now a burning volcano. It commenced about a year since. The 
crater is on the side of the mountain, about two thirds of the distance 
from its base. This peak, like Mount Hood, stands far off and alone, 
in its solitary grandeur, rising far, far above all surrounding objects. 
On the sixteenth of February, 1844, being a beautiful and clear day, 
the mountain burned most magnificently. The dense masses of smoke 
rose up in one immense column, covering the whole crest of the moun- 
tain in clouds. Like other volcanoes, it burns at intervals. This 
mountain is second to but one volcanic mountain in the world, Cotopaxi, 
in South America. On the side of the mountain, near its top, is a large 
black object, amidst the pure white snow around it. This is supposed 
to be the mouth of a large cavern. From Indian accounts this moun- 
tain emitted a volume of burning lava about the time it first commenced 
burning. An Indian came to Vancouver with his foot and leg badly 
burnt, who stated that he was on the side of the mountain hunting deer, 
and he came to a stream of something running down the mountain, 
and when he attempted to jump across it, he fell with one foot into it ; 
and that was the way in which he got his foot and leg burned. This 
Indian came to the fort to get Doctor Barclay to administer some remedy 
to cure his foot. From a point on the mountain immediately back of 
Linnton you can see five peaks of the Cascade range. As we passed 
from the Atila [Umatilla ?] to Doctor Whitmarsh's [Whitman's ?] we 
could distinctly see Mount Hood, at the distance of about one hundred 
and fifty miles. 

CLIMATE. The climate of this, the lower section of Oregon, is indeed 
most mild. The winter may be said to commence in about the middle of 
December, and end in February, about the 10th. I saw strawberries in 
bloom about the first of December last in the Fallatry [Tualatin?] Plains, 
and as early as the twentieth of February the flowers were blooming 
on the hill sides. The grass has now been growing since about the 
tenth of February, and towards the end of that month the trees were 
budding, and the shrubbery in bloom. About the twenty-sixth of 
November we had a spell of cold weather and a slight snow, which was 
gone in a day or two. In the month of December we had a very little 
snow, and it melted as it fell. In January we had a great deal of snow, 
which all melted as it fell, except once, which melted in three days. 
The ground has not been frozen more than one inch deep the whole 
winter, and plowing has been done throughout the winter and fall. 
The ink with which I now write has stood in a glass inkstand, on a 
shelf, far from the fire, in a house with only boards nailed on the cracks, 
during the whole month of January, and has not been frozen, as you 
may see from its good color. As regards rains in the winter, I have 
found them much less troublesome than I anticipated. I had supposed 
that no work could be done here during the rainy season ; but a great 
deal more outdoor work can be done in the winter season than in the 



LETTERS 01? PETER H. BURNETT. 425 



Western States. The rains fall in very gentle showers, and are gen- 
erally what you term drizzling rains, so light that a man can work all 
day without getting wet through a blanket coat. The rains are not 
the cold, chilly rains that you have in the fall and spring seasons in 
the East, but are warm as well as gentle. Since I have been here I. 
have witnessed less wind than in any country I have ever been in : and 
I have heard no thunder, and only seen one tree that had been struck 
by lightning. If the tall timber we have here were in the States, it 
would be riven and blown down, until there would not be many trees 
left. The rains are never hard enough here to wash the roads or the 
fields. You can find no gullies washed in the roads or fields in this 
region. 

COMMERCIAL ADVANTAGES. I consider the commercial advan- 
tages of this country as very great. The trade with the Sandwich 
Islands is daily increasing. We are here surrounded with a half civ- 
ilized race of men, and our manufacturing power will afford us a means 
of creating a home market besides. South America, the Sandwich 
Islands, and California, must depend upon us for their lumber. Already 
arge quantities of shingles and plank are sent to the Islands. We 
shall always have a fine market for all our surplus ; but, until this 
country is settled, we shall have a demand at home. Most of the 
vessels visiting the Pacific touch at the Sandwich Islands, and they 
will be glad to obtain fresh supplies of provisions there. The Russian 
settlements must also obtain their supplies here. We have China 
within our reach, and all the islands of the Pacific There can be no 
competition with us in the way of provisions, as we have no neighbors 
in that line. I consider Oregon as superior to California. The climate 
of that country is too warm for men to have any commercial enter- 
prise. Besides, in California, pork and beef can not be put up ; and 
consequently, the grazer loses half his profits. For a commercial and 
manufacturing people, the climate of Oregon is warm enough. We 
can here preserve our pork and beef, and we have much finer timber 
than they have in California, and better water power, and not the 
drouths they have there. I do not wish a warmer climate than this. 
A very warm climate enervates mankind too much. 

TOWNS. This is a new item in the geography of this country, and 
one that I have never seen before ; but of late towns have become quite 
common. As all the towns yet laid out in the country are upon the 
water, I shall begin at the mouth of the Columbia, and come up wards. 
First, there is old Astoria revived. Captain Applegate and others are 
now laying off a town at old Astoria, to be called Astoria. They have 
not yet sold any lots. Next is Linnton, laid off by Burnett and Mc- 
Cown. This place is on the west bank of the Wallamette River, four 
miles above its mouth, and is the nearest point on the river to the 
Fallatry [Tualatin] Plains, and the nearest eligible point to the head o f 



426 DOCUMENTS. 

ship navigation for large vessels on the Wallamette. Next in order is 
Oregon City, laid out by Doctor McLoughlin, at the falls. At this 
place there are four stores, two sawmills, one gristmil], and there will 
soon be another built by the Doctor, to contain about three run of 
stones. There is quite a village here. The last town I shall mention 
is Champoe, on the Wallamette, at the head of navigation. I do not 
know that any lots have as yet been sold at that place. Business of 
all kinds done in the territory is very active, and times are flourish- 
ing. Lazy men have become industrious, as there is no drinking or 
gambling here among the whites ; and labor meets with such ready 
employment and such ample reward, that men have more inducements 
to labor here than elsewhere. This is, as yet, no country for lawyers, 
and we have the most peaceable and quiet community in the world. 
Mechanics find ready employment, as well as ordinary laboring hands. 
Farming is considered the best business in this country. This may be 
seen at once from the prices of produce, and its easy production. The 
business of making and putting up butter, which is here never worth 
less than twenty cents, is very profitable. Good fresh butter, I am 
told, is never worth less than fifty cents, and often $1 per pound in the 
Pacific Islands. There are now in operation, or will be this summer, 
mills enough to supply the population with flour. There are several 
mills, both saw and grist, in operation up the Wallamette, above the 
falls. There is no scarcity of provisions at the prices I have stated ; 
and I find that our emigrants who came out last year, live quite com- 
fortably, and have certainly improved much in their appearance. 
When an individual here has any idle time he can make shingles, 
which are worth $4 for fir and $5 per thousand for cedar. Any quantity 
of them can be sold at those rates. We have the finest spar timber, 
perhaps, in the world, and vessels often take off a quantity of timber 
for spars. The sawmills at Wallamette Falls cut large quantities of 
plank, which they sell at $2 per hundred. Carpenters and other me- 
chanics obtain $3 per day and found, and ordinary hands $1 per day 
and found. The fir timber of this country makes excellent coal for 
blacksmiths ; and what is singular, neither the fir nor cedar, when 
burned, make any ashes. It has been supposed that the timbered land 
of this country will be hard to clear up, but I have come to a very dif- 
ferent conclusion, from the fact that the fir timber has very little top, 
and is easily killed, and burns up readily. It also becomes seasoned 
very soon. It is the opinion of good farmers that the timbered land 
will be the best wheat land in this country. 

P. H. B. 



REVIEW. 
THE TRUE STORY OF LEWIS AND CLARK. 

This book is more comprehensive than its subtitle would 
indicate. Part one gives the story of George Rogers 
Clark and the American conquest of the Old Northwest ; 
part two is an account of the Lewis and Clark expe- 
dition ; part three unfolds the work of William Clark, 
first as territorial governor of Missouri and then as 
United States Indian agent, in leading the Indian tribes 
westward before the advance of the white man. 

The book gathers up, at different spots in Virginia, 
threads of adventure, romance, and war of certain national 
Ulyssean spirits, weaves them into our national history, 
carries them across the continent to the mouth of the 
Columbia, and bringing them back, with one main thread 
left, the author works a rosette with Saint Louis as the 
center. Or, to change the metaphor, she clears a high- 
way from the Blue Ridge to the Mississippi and blazes a 
trail to the Pacific. It is a stupendous task that she 
essays, the story of the pressing back of the red race by 
the white, from the Alleghanies to beyond the Missouri, 
and the penetration of the white race to the Pacific. 

Her style is admirably adapted to carry out such a work, 
but it is quite evident that a plan like that of Mrs. Dye's 
in "The Conquest" no more lends itself to art than did 
the lives of the successive generations of pioneers who 
carried the frontier from the Atlantic Coast to the Pacific. 
Though the lone explorers and pathfinders led very plain 

*The Conquest, by Eva Emery Dye, A. C. McClurg & Company, Chicago. 

8 



428 REVIEW. 

lives, hardly conscious of the high purposes they were 
fulfilling, their work, nevertheless, was exceedingly useful 
as forerunners of civilization and heralds of national des- 
tiny. So with Mrs. Dye's book. Her coign of vantage in 
her home in the oldest American community on the Pacific 
Coast for the perspective of our national history, her 
spirit as an ardent hero-worshipper, her aptitude for bio- 
graphical narrative, her keen zest for dramatic and historic 
conjunctions of time or place, her strongly feminine point 
of view so rarely applied to chapters of adventure, and 
above all her intense enthusiasm which fuses remotely 
related details into an integral whole these make "The 
Conquest " a book useful to the student of history. She 
was indefatigable in her search for the material for her 
book, and successful. Many a new clue promising infor- 
mation about some one of the Lewis and Clark party did 
she find and follow out. Her book represents a fine array 
of historical material, and not a little of it is new. 

She took a large field. Of necessity she could point 
out only immediate relations of events. The deeper rela- 
tions, the true proportions, could not be expected. It was 
natural, too, that salient and relevant facts should be over- 
looked. For all that the book is a genuine and an impor- 
tant contribution to the literature of American history. 




A WOMAN WHO LOVED OREGON. 

By WILLIAM A. MORRIS, A.B. 

( From Pamphlet "In Memoriam.") 
Poems, 1851. 

Florence Fane Sketches, 1863-65. 
The River of the West, 1870. 
All Over Oregon and Washington, 1872. 
Woman's War Against Whisky, 1874. 
The New Penelope, 1877. 
Bancroft History of Oregon, 2 vols., 1886. 
Bancroft History of Washington, Idaho, and Montana. 
Bancroft History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming. 
Bancroft History of California, vols. 6 and 7. 
History of Early Indian Wars in Oregon, 1893. 
Atlantis Arisen. 
Poems, 1900. 

By the death, on November 14th, of Frances Fuller 
Victor there was removed the most versatile figure in 
Pacific Coast literature, a literary pioneer on the coast, 
and a woman to whom Oregonians owe much. Frances 
Fuller was born in the township of Rome, New York, 
May 23, 1826, and had, therefore, reached the ripe age of 
seventy-six years. She was a near relation of Judge 
Ruben H. Walworth, Chancellor of the State of New 
York. Through her ancestor, Lucy Walworth, wife of 
Veach Williams, who lived at Lebanon, Connecticut, in 
the early part of the eighteenth century, she could trace 
her descent from Egbert, the first King of England, 
while Veach Williams himself was descended from Robert 
Williams, who came over from England in 1637 and set- 
tled at Roxbury, Massachusetts. 

When Mrs. Victor was thirteen years of age her par- 
ents moved to Wooster, Ohio, and her education was re- 
ceived at a young ladies' seminary at that place. From 
an early age she took to literature and when but fourteen 
years old wrote both prose and verses for the county 
papers. A little later the Cleveland Herald paid for her 
poems, some of which were copied in English journals. 

Mrs. Victor's younger sister, Metta, who subsequently 



430 WILLIAM A. MORRIS. 

married a Victor, a brother of Frances' husband, was also 
a writer of marked ability. Between the two a devoted 
attachment existed, and in those days the two ranked 
with Alice and Phoebe Carey, the four being referred to 
as Ohio's boasted quartet of sister poets. The Fuller 
sisters contributed verses to the Home Journal, of New 
York City, of which N. P. Willis and George P. Morris 
were then the editors. Metta was known as the "Singing 
Sybil.' In eulogy of the two sisters, N. P. Willis at this 
time writes concerning them : 

One in spirit and equal in genius, these most interesting and bril- 
liant ladies both still in earliest youth are undoubtedly destined to 
occupy a very distinguished and permanent place among the native 
authors of this land. 

In her young womanhood Frances spent a year in New 
York City amid helpful literary associations. Being 
urged by their friends, the two sisters published together 
a volume of their girlhood poems in 1851. In the more 
rigorous self-criticism of later years Mrs. Victor has often 
called it a mistaken kindness which induced her friends 
to advise the publication of these youthful productions ; 
but in these verses is to be seen the true poetic principle, 
and their earnestness is especially conspicuous. 

Metta Fuller Victor, after her marriage, took up her 
residence in New York City, and continued her literary 
work both in prose and in verse until her death, a num- 
ber of years ago. Frances' husband, Henry C. Victor, 
was a naval engineer and was ordered to California in 
1863. She accompanied him and for nearly two years 
wrote for the San Francisco papers, her principal contri- 
butions consisting of city editorials to. the Bulletin, and a 
series of society articles under the nom de plume of Florence 
Fane, which, we are told, by their humorous hits, elicited 
much favorable comment. 

About the close of the war Mr. Victor resigned his posi- 
tion and came to Oregon, where his wife followed him in 



HISTORIAN OP THE NORTHWEST. 431 

1865. She has often told how, upon her first arrival in 
this state, she recognized in the type both of the sturdy 
pioneers of Oregon and of their institutions something 
entirely new to her experience, and at once determined to 
make a close study of Oregon. As she became acquainted 
with many of the leading men of the state, and learned 
more and more about it, she determined to write its his- 
tory, and began to collect material for that purpose. In 
doing this she performed a service of inestimable value 
to the state, since our state builders were then nearly all 
alive, and facts concerning the beginnings of the state 
were well known to them, which, had it not been for Mrs. 
Victor's efforts, would have been lost to posterity. 

Her first book on the history of Oregon was "The River 
of the West," a biography of Joseph L. Meek, which was 
published in 1870. Many middle-aged Oregonians tell 
what a delight came to them when in boyhood and girl- 
hood days they read the stories of Rocky Mountain adven- 
tures of the old trapper Meek, as recited by this woman 
of culture and literary training, who herself had taken so 
great an interest in them. The book was thumbed and 
passed from hand to hand as long as it would hold to- 
gether, and to-day scarcely a copy is to be obtained in 
the Northwest. Mrs. Victor before her death prepared a 
second edition for the press, and it is to be sincerely hoped 
that the work will soon be republished. For, intensely 
interesting as the "River of the West" is, the chief value 
of the work does not lie in this fact, but rather in its value 
to the historian. Meek belonged to the age before the 
pioneers. It was the trapper and trader who explored the 
wilds of the West and opened up the way for the immi- 
grant. That historians are just beginning to work up the 
history of the fur trade in the far West, the number of 
books in that particular field published within a year 
will testify; and such men, for instance, as Capt. H. M. 



432 WILLIAM A. MORRIS. 

Chittenden, who last year published his "History of the 
American Fur Trade in the Far West," freely confess 
their indebtedness to Mrs. Victor's "River of the West" for 
much of their material ; and so the stories of the Rocky 
Mountain bear killer, Meek, romantic though many of 
them are, check with the stories given by other trappers 
and traders and furnish data for an important period in 
the history of the Northwest. 

In 1872 was published Mrs. Victor's second book touch- 
ing on the Northwest, "All Over Oregon and Washing- 
ton.' This work, she tells us in the preface, was written 
to supply a need existing because of the dearth of printed 
information concerning these countries. It contained ob- 
servations on the scenery, soil, climate, and resources of 
the Northwestern part of the Union, together with an out- 
line of its early history, remarks on its geology, botany, 
and mineralogy and hints to immigrants and travelers. 
The preface closes with the prophetic words : 

The beautiful and favored region of the Northwest Coast is about 
to assume a commercial importance which is sure to stimulate inquiry 
concerning 1 the matters herein treated of. I trust enough is contained 
between the covers of this book to induce the very curious to come and 
see. , 

Her devotion to the Northwest and her interest in it 
could not be more clearly expressed than in the words 
just quoted. Her interest in the subject led her at a later 
date to revise "All Over Oregon and Washington,' and 
to publish it again, this time under the title, "Atlantis 
Arisen.' 

In 1874 was published "Woman's War With Whisky," 
a pamphlet which she wrote in aid of the temperance 
movement in Portland. Her husband was lost at sea in 
November, 1875, and from this time on she devoted her- 
self exclusively to literary pursuits. During her residence 
in Oregon she had frequently written letters for the San 
Francisco Bulletin and sketches for the Overland Monthly . 
These stories, together with some poems, were published 
in 1877 in a volume entitled "The New Penelope." 



HISTORIAN OF THE NORTHWEST. 433 

This last volume was printed by the Bancroft publish- 
ing establishment in San Francisco. The Bancrofts were 
an Ohio family of Mrs. Victor's early acquaintance, and 
Hubert Howe Bancroft laid before her his plan for writ- 
ing the history of the Pacific Slope, and asked her to 
work on the part concerning Oregon. In 1878 she 
entered the Bancroft library, taking with her a mass of 
valuable material relating to Oregon history, which she 
had collected in the days when she intended to publish 
an Oregon history. 

For eleven years, or until the completion of the Ban- 
croft series, Mrs. Victor remained in this sei'vice. Here 
she did the crowning work of her life. At least six of 
the volumes which to-day pass as the works of Hubert 
Howe Bancroft were written by her. These are the 
''History of Oregon" in two volumes, the "History of 
Washington, Idaho, and Montana," the "History of Ne- 
vada, Colorado, and Wyoming, ' ' and the sixth and seventh 
volumes of the "History of California.' These latter 
two volumes cover the political history of California, and 
were prepared at the special request of Mr. Bancroft, 
though out of her regular line of work, for the reason 
that he considered Mrs. Victor especially strong as a 
writer on political subjects. Parts of the Bancroft "His- 
tory of the Northwest Coast' : ' and numerous biographies 
throughout the series are also from her pen. 

The style of writing in all of these histories is clear 
and vivid, for Mrs. Victor had that most enviable of 
gifts, the ability to put life into her writings. As a his- 
torian she was careful, painstaking and conscientious. 
Her judicial habit of thought is especially prominent, an 
attitude toward things which she inherited in common 
with her kinsman, Judge Walworth. 

That her work was done well is fortunate for the people 
of seven Northwest states. Her histories of six of them 
were not only the first to be published, but the only 



434 WILLIAM A. MORRIS. 

histories in available form to-day. Her history of the 
seventh, Oregon, was the first history of this State ever 
printed which brought the account past the provisional 
period and which took up the subject for thorough treat- 
ment. The press reviews at the time the Oregon volumes 
were published all united in their praise, and many, tak- 
ing them to be the work of Hubert Howe Bancroft, pointed 
out the superiority of this work over the previously pub- 
lished volumes of the Bancroft series. 

The commendation was richly deserved, for time and 
time again Mrs. Victor has said that Oregon was her favor- 
ite subject, and upon this history she lavished an untold 
amount of care and labor. 

After her return to Oregon she was employed by the 
state in 1893 to complete her "History of the Early In- 
dian Wars of Oregon," a volume which was published by 
the State Printer the following year. She continued to 
write for the OREGON HISTORICAL QUARTERLY up to the 
time of her death. After a thirty years' study of the his- 
tory of Oregon she stated her appreciation of the subject 
in a letter to the Secretary of State,, in which she said 
that the history of no state is richer in the material that 
makes history interesting by combining the romantic and 
the philosophic elements. No state has had its early 
history better preserved or more clearly set forth, a result 
for which in large measure Frances Fuller Victor is re- 
sponsible, and for which the people of Oregon owe to her 
a deep debt of gratitude. By her work on the history of 
the entire region west of the Rocky Mountains she has 
well earned the title once conferred upon her the Clio of 
the Northwest. 

Mrs. Victor's last published work was a small volume 
of poems printed in 1900, and selected from the many 
metrical compositions which she had written for newspa- 
pers and magazines through a period of sixty years. She 
was an able writer of essays and possessed an insight into 
the evolution of civilization and government rare, not only 
for an author of her sex, but for any author. Combining 
the qualities of poet, essayist, and historian, she occupied a 
position without a peer in the annals of Western literature. 



INDEX 



VOL. Ill 1 



TOPICAL INDEX. 



A 

PAGE 

ABERNETHY, GOVERNOR GEO 31 

Chosen governor of Oregon 69 

Treasurer Oregon Printing Association 336, 342 

ABRAMS, W. P 60 

ABRAMS, C 63 

ACROSS THE CONTINENT SEVENTY YEARS AGO 

Extracts from the Journal of John Ball. (Kate N. B. Powers) 82 

ACKERMAN, J. H. 

Elected superintendent of public instruction 122 

ADAMS, HENRY - 

History of United States. (Quoted) 7 

ADAMS, W. L.- 
Oregon City Argus 356 

Sketch of life 357 

AGRICULTURE 

Beginnings of 11- 19 

AINSWORTH, JOHN C. 

Director Oregon Central Railroad Company 326 

ALLEN, SAMUEL - 

Member Board Capitol Building Commissioners 38 

ALLEN AND LA FOLLET 242 

ALVORD, BRIGADIER GENERAL 138, 146, 154 

"ALL OVER OREGON AND WASHINGTON." (Mrs. Victor) 432 

APPLEGATE, JESSE - 

Candidate for United States senator 108, 336 

APPLEGATE, E. L.- 

Ghosen presidential elector 112 

APPERSON, LIEUTENANT 137, 145 

ARGUS, THE OREGON CITY- 

First Republican paper in Oregon 356 

Consolidated with the Statesman 360 

ARCHIVES OF OREGON, THE. (F. G. Young) 371 

ASHLEY, - - 269 

ASTOR, JOHN JACOB 8,9 

The Astor enterprise 261 

Legacy to the United States 263 



438 TOPICAL INDEX. 

ASTORIA - PAGE 

Fort established at 9 

ASTORIA, OREGON - 

The Educational History of. (Alfred A. Cleveland) 21 

ATTORNEY GENERAL FOR OREGON - 

Office of, created 117 

ATKINSON, DR. G. H - 

Founder Tualatin Academy 287 

AUSTRALIA 

Shores outlined 4 

AUSTIN, R. D.- 

Bought Oregon Weekly Times 862 

AYERS, THOMAS 236 

B 

BAGLEY, REV. DANIEL 300 

BAILEY, D. W.- 

Elected district attorney 112 

BAILEY, CAPTAIN 332 

BAKER, FLORENCE E 394 

BAKER, W. W 364 

BAKER, FRANK C. 

Elected state printer 114,117 

BALDWIN SHEEP AND LAND COMPANY 241 

BALDWIN, DR 242 

BALL, JOHN 

Early career i 82 

First school in Oregon 100 

First mention of sheep in Oregon 219 

BANCROFT, HUBERT HOWE 433 

BARLOW ROAD, The History of. (Mary Barlow) 71 

BARLOW ROAD- 

Charter for granted 79 

Description of 79 

Made toll road 80 

Made a free road 80 

Rechartered and made a toll road 80 

BARLOW, SAMUEL KIMBROUGH 71,72,73,78,79,80, 81 

BARLOW, SUSANA LEE 72 

BARLOW, MARY- 

History of the Barlow Road 71 

BARLOW PARTY, THE - 

Personnel of 72 



TOPICAL INDEX. 439 

BARNUM, E. M. , PAGE 

Director Salem Woolen Mills 225,249 

General agent Willamette Woolen Factory ___ 251 

BARRETT, W. N. 

Elected district attorney 118, 119 

BARRY, CAPTAIN E 150 

BEACH, D 47 

BEAN, H. J.- 

Elected district attorney 121 

BEAN, R. S.- 

Elected circuit judge 112, 114 

Elected supreme judge 117, 120 

BEAVER MONEY 29 

BEERS, ALANSON 339 

BEEBE, J. J 366 

BEEZLY, JOSEPH 234 

BELT, G. W - 114 

BELL, JOHN C 42, 66 

BELLINGER, C. B 43, 55 

BENNETT, A. 8. 

Defeated for congress 120 

BENSON, H. L.- 

Elected district attorney 118, 119 

B ENT, 269 

BENTLEY, S. 

Printer, Spectator 353 

BENTON, 32 

BERNON, LIEUTENANT 160 

BERRY, A. M. 

First printer, Oregonian 364, 366 

BIDDLE, CAPTAIN JAMES 

Extract from log and reports 310 

BILYEU, W. R.- 

Defeated for presidential elector 1 15 

BINGHAM, GEORGE G. 

Elected district attorney 

BIRD, J. H.- 

Elected circuit judge 

BLACK HILLS - 

Why so called 

BLACK, WILLIAM -- <289 ' ' m 

BLACKBURN, D. R. N. 

Elected attorney general 



440 TOPICAL INDEX. 

PAGE 

BLAIN, REV. WILSON 1 353 

Sketch of life 354 

BLAKELY, MESSRS. TAYLOR AND- 

Established Unipqua Gazette 341 

BOISE, R. P 40, 47 

Elected Capitol Building Commissioner 39, 40 

Elected supreme judge 108 

Elected circuit judge 112, 114,230 

BONH AM, B. F 39, 40, 42, 43 

Supreme judge 107 

BONNEVILLE, CAPTAIN 265 

BOONE, JOHN D. 

Treasurer Salem Woolen Mill 226,249 

BOONE, MISS CHLOE 350 

BOONE, COLONEL ALPHONSO 350 

BO WEN, LIEUTENANT JOHN- 

Adjutant expedition to Snake River 146 

BOWLBY, 44, 45 

BOYD, G. D. R 356 

BRADSHAW, E. C.- 

Representative 39 

Senator 39 

BRADSHAW, W. L.- 

Elected circuit judge US 

BRIDGER, 269 

BRISTOW, E, L.- 

Member Board Capitol Building Commissioners 38 

BROOKS, JOHN P.- 

Secretary Oregon Printing Association 336 

Sketch of life 342 

BROWN, A. H 43 

Treasurer of Oregon 107 

BROWN, MART V 43 

State Printer 107 

BROWN, GEO. M.- 

Elected district attorney 119 

BROWN, GRANDMA 

Recollections of, by Jane Kinney Smith 287 

BROWN, CAPTAIN 290 

BRUCE, JAMES 

Representative 38 

"BULL BOAT"- 

Description ot 88 

BALLARD, FRANK - 

Breeding farm of .. 240,241 



TOPICAL INDEX. 441 

PAGE 
BURNETT, JOHN _________________________________________________________ 42, 43, 47,107 

BURNETT, GEORGE H.- 

Elected district attorney ________________________________________________ 40, 47,108 

Elected circuit judge ____________ _ __________________________________________ 118 

BURNETT, PETER H ___________________________________________________________ 335, 345 

Letters of ________________ '_ ___________________________________________________ 404-420 

BUSH, ASAHEL ____________________________________________________________ 357, 359, 360 

BUTLER, N. L ___________________________________________________________________ 42 

BUTLER, N. H.- 

Defeated for congress ____________________________________________ - ----------- 113 

BYARS. W. H.- 

Elected state printer _______________________________________________________ 112 

BYBEE, R. E _____________________________________________________________________ 42 

C 

CADY, LIEUTENANT COLONEL - 

Command District of Oregon _____________________________________________ 131, 137 

CALDWELL, RICHARD S.- 

Adjutant First Oregon Cavalry ------------------------------------------- 132 

CAMPBELL, T. F. 

Candidate for governor _____________________________________________________ 39 

Candidate for United States senator -------------------------------------- 108 

CAMPBELL, - - _____________________________________________________ 269 

CAPLES, JOHN F. 

Elected district attorney ---------------------------------------------- H2 

Re-elected district attorney ------------------------------------------------ 112 

Chosen presidential elector ------------------------------------------------ 118, 121 

CAPITOL BUILDING COMMISSIONERS - 

Board of, organized ---------------------------- 38, 40 

CARLYLE, PROFESSOR W. L --------- _ ------------------ - 244 

CARSON, J. C.- 

Elected president of senate ------------------------ 



CARSON, - ---------------------------- 269 

CARTWRIGHT, JOHN C.- 

Chosen presidential elector ---------------- ' ----- 

CARTWRIGHT, C. M --------------------- 241 

CARTER, WM. B.- 

Elected state printer ------- - ---- 

Death of- ____________________ - no 

CARTER, E. V.- 

Elected speaker of the house 

CARTER, WILLIAM DAVIS ------------ -361,362 

CASTEEL, SERGEANT - 

Party lost ______________________________________________ 



442 TOPICAL INDEX. 

CATTLE - PAGE 

Second drive from California 220 

CAVALRY, THE FIRST OREGON. (Frances Fuller Victor) 123 

Officers of 132 

CHADWICK, S. F.- 

Secretary of state 107 

Acting governor 109, 236 

Director east side railroad company 326 

CHAMBERLAIN, GEO. E.- 

Elected district attorney 113 

Appointed attorney general 117 

Elected attorney general 118 

CHAPMAN, W. W 363, 364 

CHANDLER, C. G.- 

Prominent representative 38 

CHENOWETH, F. A.- 

Director east side railroad company 326 

CHITTENDEN, CAPTAIN HIRAM M.- 

Author "American Fur Trade in the Far West" 260 

Biographical sketch of 269,432 

" CIVILIAN, THE " 341 

CLARK, REV. HARRY- 

Founder Tualatin Academy 287. 291 

CHOTEAU 269 

CLARKE, S..A..* 360 

Editor Oregonian 370 

CLELAND, JOHN B.- 

Appointed circuit judge 121 

CLEETON, T. J.- 

Elected district attorney 121 

CLIFFORD, M. D. 

Elected district attorney 113 

Re-elected 114 

Elected circuit judge 117 

Re-elected ., 118 

COCHRAN, R. B. 

Senator 38 

Elected president of senate 38 

COCHRAN, ASSISTANT SURGEON 150 

COFFIN AND THOMPSON 224 

COFFIN, STEPHEN 363, 364 

COGSWELL, JOHN ! 224 

COOK, CAPTAIN . 4, 5, 6 

COOK, A. J. & COMPANY - 

Fictitious concern.. 317 



TOPICAL INDEX. 443 

COOKE, E. N. PAGE 

Director east side railroad company 325, 326 

COLVIG, G. W.- 

Senator 39 

COLVIG, WM. M.- 

Elected district attorney 114 

Re-elected 115,117 

"COLUMBIAN, THE"- 

First newspaper north of Columbia River 365 

COLWELL, N. W.- 

Pri liter of Spectator 346 

CONSER, JACOB - 

Director east side railroad company 325 

CONFLICTS FOR RANGE 237 

CONNER, GENERAL 145 

CONQUEST, THE- 

Reviewof 427 

CONDON, S. W. 

Elected district attorney 117, 118 

COTTON, REV. WALTER 368 

CORNELIUS, THOMAS R.- 

Senator 38 

Defeated for governor 114 

Made colonel 131 

Resigned office of colonel 137 

Director Oregon Central Railroad Company 326 

COUCH AND FLANDERS . 823 

COUCH, JOHN H.- 

Sketch of life 342 

COUCH, JOHN* R.- 

Director Oregon Printing Company 336 

COURTNEY, H. F.- 

Elected district attorney 121 

COX, 264 

CRAIG, DAVID W.- 

Sketchof life 358,360 

Appointed paymaster, United States army ; 370 

CRANDALL, CLARK P.- 

Editor Statesman 360 

CROCKER, CHARLES 254 

CROSBY AND SMITH . 356 

CRONIN, EUGENE - 

Awarded certificate of presidential elector 109 

CULVER, C. P.- 

Associate editor Spectator 356 



444 TOPICAL INDEX. 

PAGE 

CUNNINGHAM, CHARLES 242 

CURREY, CAPTAIN . 133,136 

CURRY, GEORGE L.- 

Editor Spectator 845 

Sketch of life 349 

Appointed secretary of the Territory ; later governor 350 

Partner and coeditor Portland Daily Advertiser 350 

Death of 350 

D 

DAY, E, F - 242 

DAMON, JOHN F.- 

Editor Oregonian 370 

DAVIS AND FURBER 250 

DAVIDSON, T. L 243 

DAVIS, T. A. 

Senator 39 

DAVENPORT, T. W 47 

DAWNE, E. J 43 

DART, ANSON- 

Appointed superintendent Indian affnirs in Oregon 127 

DEADY, JUDGE MATHEW P 79 

Decides against east side railroad company 319, 322, 357 

DIMMICK, G. W.- 

Defeated for congress 40 

DEVINE, JOHN 238 

DENNISON, A. P 364 

DEAN, E. H 1 241 

DOUGLAS, 32, 47 

DOLPH, J. N.- 

Senator 38 

Elected United States senator 112 

Re-elected 115, 119 

DOUTHITT, J. H 47 

Director east side railroad company 326 

DONALDSON, C. M. 



Candidate for congressman 122 

Defeated 122 

DORRIS, GEORGE B 42 

DOYLE, R. L 367 

DO WELL, B. F 45 

DOCUMENTS - 

Orders to Captain Biddle 310, 390 



TOPICAL INDEX. 445 

DREW, MAJOR C. 8.- PAGE 

First Oregon Cavalry 132, 139 

Exploring expedition 163 

DRAIN, JOHN C. 

Represen tati ve 38 

DRAKE, JOHN M.- 

First Lieutenant First Oregon Cavalry 132 

Captain HO, 151, 152 

DRAKE, DANIEL 300 

DRYER, THOMAS J. 

Editor Oregonian 33, 354 

City editor California Courier 364 

Sketch of life 364, 368, 369 

Appointed commissioner to Sandwich Islands 320 

DRYER, AARON AND LUCINDA 364 

DUFUR, E. B. 

Representative 39 

DUFUR - 

Town of, rise and development of 233 

DUNNE, D. M.- 

Chosen presidential elector 118 

DUNBAR, F. L- 

Elected secretary of state ^_ 122 



E 

EAKIN, S. B 47 

EAKIN, ROBERT 40 

Elected circuit judge 120 

EARHART, R. P. 

Elected secretary of state 110 

Re-elected 112 

EARLY. JUBAL '. 358 

EARLY, EUPHEMIA 358 

EAST INDIA COMPANY 6 

EATON, LOREY 305 

EATON, ELIZABETH 305 

EBBARTS, 292 

EDWARDS, P. L 16 

EDWARDS, J. G 241,242 

EDWARDS, B. S 359 

EELLS, MESSRS. WALKER AND 333 

EFFINGER, W. H.- 

Defeated for presidential elector 115 



446 TOPICAL INDEX. 

ELECTION, STATE PAGE 

Of 1868 67 

Of 1876 108 

Congressional of, 1878 109 

Of 1878 110 

Of 1882 112- 

Tickets, first in Oregon 361 

ELKINS, JAMES 45 

ELLIS, W. B. 

Elected district attorney 114 

Re-elected ._ 115 

Elected to congress 117 

Re-elected 120 

ELLIOT, S. G.- 

Scheme for control Oregon Central Railroad 317,319, 321,326 

ELLSWORTH, S.- 

Director east side railroad company 326 

ERMATINGER, F 329 

EVARTS, WM. H.- 

Lawyer for Holladay 322 

EVARTS, HENRY H. 

Published Almanac for 1848.. 347 



F 

FAIR, CALIFORNIA STATE- 

Of 1859- 154 

FAIR, OREGON STATE 243 

" FACTORY SCRIP " 253 

FARNHAM, 269 

FAY, JAMES D.- 

Nominated for congress 42,45, 66 

FENTON, WM. D. 

Political History of Oregon from 1865 to 1876 38 

Candidate for United States representative 112, 315, 321, 323 

FEE, JAMES A.- 

Elected circuit judge 115 

Re-elected 119 

FIELDS, . 



Brought all-purpose sheep to Oregon 

FIELDS. JOSEPH M 349 

FIELDS, KATE 349 

FITCH, C. W 43 

District attorney 107 

FITCH, CHAS. A.- 

Candidate for office of state printer ' 122 



TOPICAL INDEX. 447 

PAGE 
FITZPATRICK, 



FLOYD, 32 

FLEMING, JOHN 

Printer 337 

Sketch of life 342 

Editor Spectator 345,346,363,355 

FLEISCHNER, L 342 

FOISY, MEDARE G.- 

Sketch of life _ . 331,332 

Printer at Lapwai 331 

FONTENELLE, . - 

Fur trader 265, 269 

FORD, TILMON 47 

FORD, M. A 337 

FORTS- 

Location of, in Oregon and Washington in 1861 130 

FORT UNION- 

Capital American Fur Company 265 

FOSTER, C. M 45, 46 

FOX, PETER- 

Second lieutenant First Oregon Cavalry 132 

FRANCHERE, ,. . 264 

FRANCIS, SIMEON- 

Editor Oregonian 370 

"FREE PRESS, THE" 34, 349 

FULLERTON, J. C. 

Elected circuit judge 118 

FULTON, C. W. 

Chosen presidential elector 115 

Elected president of the senate 118 

FUR CONPANY, THE ENGLISH NORTHWEST 9 

FUR COMPANY, THE GREAT AMERICAN 264 

FUR TRADE- 

Beginnings of, on Pacific Coast 4- 11 

FUR TRADE IN THE FAR WEST- 

The American-Review by Frances Fuller Victor 260 

FUR TRADERS- 

List of prominent 269 

FURBER, DAVIS AND 250 

FURSTE, EDWARD 368 



448 TOPICAL INDEX. 

G 

PAGE 

GAINS, ALBERT 72 

GASTON, JOSEPH 24 

The Oregon Central Railroad Company 315 

Obtained from Congress grantof land for railroad through Oregon 315 

Sent to Washington for second grant of land 325 

Director Oregon Central Railroad Company 326 

"GAZETTE, THE UMPQUA"- 

First paper south of Salem 341 

" GAZETTE, THE SEATTLE "- 

First paper published in Seattle 367 

GAYLEY, J. F 46 

GALE, JOSEPH- 

Cattle to Oregon 220, 221 

GALLOWAY, WILLIAM 

Representative 39 

GATES, N. H 43 

GATES, PETER P 42 

Sergeant-major Snake River expedition 146 

GAULT, D. M. C 45 

GEER, T. T. 

Elected speaker of house 117 

Chosen presidential elector 121 

Elected governor 122 

GEER, R. C. 

Imported Southdown sheep 224 

GEARIN, JOHN M. 

Representative 39 

Elected district attorney 113 

Defeated for congress 114 

GEIGER, WM 294 

GENTRY, N. H 244 

GEORGE, M. C. 

Senator 39 

Political History of Oregon from 1876 to 1898, inclusive 107 

Elected to congress 111 

Re-elected 112 

Appointed circuit j udge 1 12, 121 

GIBBS, GOVERNOR 162,324 

GIBBS, A. C.- 

Editor Times 45, 46, 363 

GILBERT, A. N. 

Representative 39 

GILBERT. KRUMBEIN AND- 

Plans for capitol building 38 



TOPICAL INDEX. 449 

PAGE 

GILLIAM, COLONEL CORNELIUS _ 344 

GLASER, WILLIAM 340 

GOLD- 

Discovery of, in California 20, 223 

GOUDY, GEO. B 354,368 

GOULD, A. 8.- 

Editor Times 363 

GOULD, GEORGE 300 

GOODRICH, C. L.- 

Bought Spectator 366 

GRANT, ULYSSES S 454 

GRAY, CAPTAIN ROBERT 6 

GREEN, SAMUEL 327 

GREGG, T. J.- 

Elected speaker of the house 114 

GRIFFIN, REV. JOHN A. 

Issued Oregon American and Evangelical Unionist 333 

Sketch of life 335-336 

GRISWOLD, W. C. 

Purchased woolen factory 259 

GROVER, L. F. 

Elected governor 39, 42, 43,44 

Elected United States senator 108, 109 

Resigned as governor 109 

Term as senator expired 112 

Director Salern Woolen Mill 225, 249, 256 

GUNN, ELISHA TREAT 1 369 

. 

H 

HALE, W. C.- 

Elected circuit judge 118 

HALL, EDWIN O 320 

Takes printing press from Honolulu to Oregon 329 

HAMILTON, J. W. 

Elected district attorney 112 

Re-elected 113-115 

Elected circuit judge 118 

HAND, WILLIAM M 41 

HANNA, H. K. 

Elected district attorney 404 

District attorney 107 

Elected district attorney 108 

Elected circuit judge 112 

Re-elected - 118 



450 TOPICAL INDEX. 

HAMMER, SETH- PAGE 

First Lieutenant, First Oregon Cavalry 132 

HARDING, BENJAMIN F.- 

Quartermaster First Oregon Cavalry 132 

HARDING, E. J.- 

Captain Company B, First Oregon Cavalry 132 

HARDENBURG, LIEUTENANT 151 

HARE, W. D 46 

HARNEY, GENERAL - 

Commander Department of Oregon 129, 130 

HARRIS, F. S.- 

Captain Company A, First Oregon Cavalry 132 

HARRISON, BENJAMIN- 

Carried Oregon for President 115 

HARVEY, DANIEL - 

Sheep in early '30s 220 

HATHAWAY, BREV. MAJOR J. S ._ 123 

HAWKINS, LIEUTENANT G. W 123, 124 

HAYES, R. B.- 

Presidentof United States 44, 109, 323 

HAYDEN, SAMUEL L. 

Elected district attorney 121 

HAZARD, S. H 40, 43 

Elected district attorney + 108 

Re-elected 110 

HEATH, LUCIAN 230 

HELM, GEORGE R 43 

HEADRICKS, - - 109 

Brought sheep to Oregon 222 

HEDGES, A. T.- 

Director east side railroad company 326 

HEMBREE, A. J 339 

HENDERSON, 44 

HENDERSON, J. H. D.- 

Director east side railroad company 326 

HENDR1CKS, THOMAS A , 44 

HENRY, 269 

HEPPNER, OREGON 

Rise and development of 233 

HERMANN, BINGER- 

Elected to congress 113 

Re-elected 113, 115, 117 

HERREN, WILLIAM J. . 236 



TOPICAL INDEX. 451 

HEWITT, H. H.- PAGE 

Elected district attorney 115 

Elected circuit judge 119 

HEWISON, J. GRAHAM 235 

HIBBEN, E. C.- 

Editor Timed 863 

HIGBY, W. B.- 

Defeated for district attorney 40, 47 

HILL, CAPTAIN B. H.- 

Stationed at Astoria 123 

Removed to Puget Sound 123 

HILL, HENRY C 364 

HILL, W. LAIR 47 

Editor Daily Union 360 

Editor Times 363 

Editor Oregonian 370 

HILLARD, GEORGE L.- 

Extract from lecture 312 

HIMBERT, JOHN 158, 159 

HIMES, GEO. H.- 

History of the Press of Oregon 1839-1870 327 

HINES, H. K.- 

Nominated and defeated for congress.: ^ 109 

HINMAN, ALANSON 

Sent to Whitman Mission for printing press 333 

HIRSCH, M 45 

HIRSCH, SOL- 

Senator 38 

Elected president of senate 112 

Candidate for United States senator 113 

HIRSCH, EDWARD - 

Elected State Treasurer 110 

Re-elected 112 

HISTORIAN OF THE NORTHWEST. (William A. Morris) 429 

HOBART, CHARLES - 

Second Lieutenant First Oregon Cavalry 132 

HOLDEN, HORACE - 

Reminiscences of. (H. S. Lyman) 164 

HOLM AN, JOSEPH 

Director Salem Woolen Mills 225, 227, 249, 333 

HOLLADAY, BEN 25 

Partner in A. J. Cook Co 319 

Character of 321,326 

HOLMES, W. H.- 

Elected district attorney 112 

VOL. Ill 2 



452 TOPICAL INDEX. 

HOLBROOK, ARMORY- PAGE 

Editor Orojnn'xm 870 

HOLTON, DAVID S. - 

Assistant Surgeon First Oregon Cavalry 132 

HOPKINS, JOHN W.- 

Second Lieutenant First Oregon Cavalry 132 

HORTON, DEXTER 300 

HOWARD, GENERAL 236 

HUDSON BAY COMPANY 10, 29, 31,89, 97, 98 

Use of its abandoned forts 126 

Records not open 219, 263 

HUDSON, W. P.- 

Printer Spectator 346 

Printed first almanac on Pacific Coast 346 

HULL, JOSEPH 339 

HUM ASON, O 47 

HUME, W. T.- 

Elected district attorney 118 

Re-elected 119 

HUMPHREY, N. B 46 

HUNTINGTON, J. W. P 360 

HURLEY, HARTWELL- 

Elected circuit judge 119 

Death of 120 

HURSH, E. G 110 

District attorney 112 

HYDE, F. C.- 

Elected district attorney 112 

Re-elected 117, 118 

I. 
IDLEMAN, C. M.- 

Elected attorney general 119 

INDIANS- 

Cayuse 123 

Nez Perces 123 

Shoshones 123 

Rogue River and Umpqua, character of 127, 128 

Rogue River, attack Major Kearney 128 

Snake, expedition against 138 

Nez Perces 139 

Cay use, brush with 152 

Nevada and Utah responsible for atrocities in Eastern Oregon 153 

Skirmishes with 156-159 

Nez Perces, owned cattle, sheep, and hogs 220 

Cayuse, owned cattle, sheep, and hogs 220 

Cay use, strife between, and herders 235 

Piute raiders.. 236 



TOPICAL INDEX. 453 

INDIANS CONTINUED PAGE 

Nez Perces, friendly to emigrants 278 

Kaws, great beggars 278 

Cayuse . 281 

INDIAN WAR- 

The Yakima 350 

INGALLS, CAPTAIN RUFUS- 

Superintendent erection Fort Vancouver ^ 126 

INGRAHAM, CYRUS R._ 158 



.. 



INTELLIGENCER, THE NATIONAL" 

Copy of letter in 311 

"INTELLIGENCER 1 ' 

Newspaper In Jacksonville, Oregon 341, 367 

IRVING, WASHINGTON 262,264 

IRWIN G. M.- 

Chosen presidential elector 118 

Elected superintendent of public instruction 119 

ISON, L. B 40, 43 

Elected district attorney 108 

Re-electeil 110 

Elected circuit judge 114 

JACKSON, 269 

JACOBS, ORANGE 45 

JAYNE, A. A.- 

Elected district attorney 119 

Re-elected 121 

JESSE, MARTIN 223,227 

JEWETT, . - 

Murder of 235 

JEFFERSON, THOMAS 5, 8, 32 

JEFFREY, J. A.- 

Elected district attorney 120 

JOHNSON, W. CAREY 46 

JOHNSON, MRS. MARY- 

Teacher Mrs. Brown's school 294 

JOHNSON, J. W 42 

JONES, JOHN PAUL _. 5 

JONES AND ROCK WELL - 

Imported thoroughbred merinos 224, 226 

JORY, JAMES 

Reminiscences of 271 

Family of 271 

JORY. JR., JAMES - 

Married to Sarah Budd 274 

JORY, JOHN.. 285 



454 TOPICAL INDEX. 

PAGE 

JORY, H. S 285 

JORY, THOMAS , 286 

JORY, WILLIAM 286 

JUDSON, L. H . 333 

K 
KAPUS, WM.- 

Chosen presidential elector 115 

Second Lieutenant First Oregon Cavalry 132, 140 

READY, W. P.- 

Appointed state printer 110 

Elected speaker of the house 113 

Re-elected speaker 118 

KEARNEY, MAJOR- 

Battle with Indians 129 

KELSEY, JOHN 45, 46 

KELLY, JAMES K 66 

Nominated for governor 42 

United States senator 107, 108 

Elected supreme judge 110 

KELLY, WM. 

Captain Company C, First Oregon Cavalry 132, 139 

KELLY, HON. WM. D 349 

KENDRICKS, CAPTAIN JOHN 6 

KENT, T. B. 

Elected district attorney 112 

Re-elected 112,113 

KLIPPEL, HENRY - 

Member Board Capitol Building Commissioners 38, 39, 43, 44 

KING, WM. R.- 

Candidate for governor 121 

KING, COL. WM. M 357 

KINNEY, ROBERT 258 

Pioneer farmer and fruit grower 287,288 . 

KINNEY, MARY STRONG 287, 295 

KINNEY, SAMUEL 287 

KINCAID, H. R 45 

Elected secretary of state - 119 

Candidate for office of secretary of state _122, 360 

KNIGHTON, , 277 

KOONTZ, . 



Drowned in Snake River___ 283 

KRUMBEIN AND GILBERT 

Prepared plans for capitol building 38 



TOPICAL INDEX. 455 



LADD & BUSH PAGE 

Bankers 259 

LA DOW, GEORGE A 43 

LA FOLLETT, ALLEN AND 242 

LAING AND VARNEY 236 

LANE, GOVERNOR JOSEPH H 31,33 

Arrival in Oregon 123, 341, 357 

LANE, LAFAYETTE 40, 42, 43, 44, 66 

United States representative from Oregon 107 

Candidate for representative 108 

LASWELL, W. B 42, 43, 44, 46 

District attorney 107 

LAUGHLIN, LEE 

Representative 39, 293 

LEABO, KATHERINE 286 

LEASE, JACOB P 220 

Brought sheep for Hudson Bay Company 221 

LEASURE, JOHN C.- 

Chosen presidential elector 113 

LEE, HENRY A. G. 

Editor Spectator 343 

Sketch ot life 343 

LEEDS, W. H.- 

Elected state printer H9 

Re-elected 122 

LEDYARD, JOHN 4, 5, 6, 8 

LEGISLATURE OF OREGON - 

Bribed by Holladay 321 

Assembly of 1874 38 

Fail to organize 121 

LESLIE, REV. DAVID 333,339 

LEWIS, ISAAC 364 

LEWIS AND CLARK 8 

History of Oregon begins with 261 

LICHTENTHALER, D. W 46 

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM- 32, 94 

LINCOLN & HERNDON 359 

LINDSAY, A 242 

LISA, 269 

LODGE, JAMES 368 

LOGAN, DAVID- 41, 45 



456 TOPICAL INDEX. 

LONG, JOHN E.- PAGE 

Director Oregon Printing Association 336, 338 

LOOMIS, ELISHA- 

Operator Mission Press 328 

LORD, WILLIAM P.- 

Elected to supreme court 111 

Re-elected supreme judge 112 

Elected governor 119, 121 

LORD, CHAS. F.- 

Elected district attorney 121 

LORING, COL. W. W 124 

LOVEJOY, A. L.- 

Director east side railroad company 326, 339 

LOWELL, S. A.- 

Elected circuit judge 120 

LOWNSDALE, DANIEL H. 

Bought site of Portland 353 

LUCE, JOHN C.- 

Candidate for governor 122 

LUELLING, HENDERSON 18 

LUELLING, SETH 282 

LUGENBELL, MAJOR 

Established Fort Bois6 142 

LYMAN, H. S.- 

Candidate for superintendent of public instruction 122 

Reminiscences of Horace Holden. adventures in the South Seas__^ 164 

Reminiscences of James Jory 271 

Daniel Knight Warren, narrative of 296 

M 

MADDOCK, FRANK 236 

MAGONE, JOSEPH - 

Elected captain emigrant train 276 

Married 277,278 

MALLORY, RUFUS 44-46, 66, 360 

MARSH, S. H.- 

School at Forest Grove 287 

MARSHALL, JAMES 

Discoverer of gold in California 20 

MASSACHUSETTS, THE- 

United States steamship in Columbia River 123 

MATTHIEU, F. X.- 

Representatlve 39 



MATTHEWS, WILLIAM J. 

Captain Company F, First Oregon Cavalry 133 






TOPICAL INDEX. 457 

MAURY, LIEUT. COL. R. F. PAGE 

First Oregon Cavalry 132 

Against Snake Indians 188, 139 

Expedition to Snake River country 141 

MAXWELL, S. L 367 

MAY, SAMUEL E 45, 66 

MAYS, ROBERT - 

Representative 39 

McARTHUR, L. L.- 

Elected j udge 40, 42, 43 

Elected supreme judge 107, 108 

Elected circuit judge 102 

McARTHUR, CAPTAIN JOHN . A 224 

McBRIDE, GEORGE W. 

Elected speaker of the house 112 

Elected Secretary of State 114,116 

Elected United States senator 119 

McBRIDE, T. A.- 

Elected district attorney 113, 114 

Re-elected 115, 117 

Elected circuit judge 118 

MCCAIN, JAMES- 

Elected district attorney 118,119 

MCCALL, JOHN M.- 

Second Lieutenant First Oregon Cavalry 132 

McCARVER, M. M. 

Pioneer of 1843 348 

McCLANE, J. B 333 

McCONNELL, W. J. - 

Elected president of senate ___ ^ 112 

McCORMICK, S. J.- 

Partner and coeditor Portland Daily Advertiser 350 

MCDOWELL, GENERAL 154 

MCELROY, E. B. 

Elected superintendent of public instruction 112 

Re-elected 114 

Superintendent of public instruction 117 

MCELROY, T. F 355,356, 36 

MCGINN, HENRY E.- 

Elected district attorney 114 

Re-elected 115 

Appointed circuit judge 120 

McKINLEY, A 121,226 

McKIRCHER, F.- 

Defeated for Congress 120 



458 TOPICAL INDEX. 

MCLEAN, ROBERT- PAGE 

Chosen presidential elector 115 

McLEOD, DONALD 243 

McLOUGHLIN, DR. JOHN 99, 221,264 

MCPHERSON, w. A 45, 66, 360 

MEACHAM, A. B 45,46 

MEASLES - 

Fatal to emigrants 283 

MEEK, JOSEPH 90, 292, 338, 431 

MEIGS, C. R 45 

MERCER, THOMAS- 

Early enthusiast for Oregon 299 

MERCER PARTY OF IMMIGRANTS - 

Personnel of _ 300 

METSCHAN, PHIL 117 

Etected state treasurer 119 

MILLER, JOHN F. 

President Board Capitol Building Commissioners 38, 256, 257 

MILLER, ROBERT A.- 

Defeated for congress 115 

MILLER, JOAQUIN 157 

MILLER, C. H 157 

MILLER, JOHN H. 

Director east side railroad company , 325 

MILLER, JAMES F 256 

MILLER, HENRY- 

Editor Oregonian 370 

MINTO, JOHN- 

"Sheep Husbandry in Oregon" 219 

Agreement with Joseph Holden 227 

" MISSION PRESS, THE "- 

First printing press on Pacific Coast or tributary islands 327 

MITCHELL, HON. JOHN H 41,107,110,113 

Re-elected United States senator 117, 122 

MOFFATT, WALTER 324 

MOORE, F. A.- 

Elected supreme judge 118 

Re-elected supreme judge 122 

MOORE, ROBERT - 

Bought Spectator 354 

MOORE, CHARLES S.- 

Elected State Treasurer.. 122 



TOPICAL INDEX. 459 

MOORES, I. R.- PAGE 

Director east side railroad company 325 

MOORES, CHAS. B.- 

Elected speaker of the house 119 

MOORES, JOHN H.- 

Director east side railroad company 325 

MOODY, Z. F.- 

Elected speaker of house 112 

Elected governor 112, 113 

MOODY, M. A.- 

Elected to congress 122 

MONEY- 

Different kinds of. 29 

MONROE, JAMES 32 

MONROE, LIEUTENANT- 

First Washington Infantry 136, 137 

MORELAND, J. C 47 

MORGAN, WILLIAM 360 

MORRIS, ROBERT 5 

MORRIS, GEORGE P 429 

MORRIS, WILLIAM A.- 

" Historian of the Northwest " 429 

MOSHER, L. F.- 

Nominated for judge 42, 43 

MOSS, S. W 344 

MULKEY, M. F 45 

MULKEY, JOHNSON- 

Brought sheep to Oregon , 222 

MYERS, JOHN- 

Senator 38,39 

Defeated for congress 113 

MYERS, JEFFERSON 

Defeated for congress 120 

N 

NEIL, J. R - 42, 43 

Elected district attorney 110 

NELSON, 277 

NESMITH, HON. J. W 39, 42 

Candidate United States senator 108, 220 

Vice president Oregon Printing Association 336 

Sketch of life -341, 360, 361 

NEWBY, JAMES B.- 

Suit with east side railroad company 318 



460 TOPICAL INDEX. 

NEWBY, WM. T.- PAGE 

Director Oregon Central Railroad Company 326 

NEWELL, ROBERT 

Director Oregon Printing Association 336 

Sketch of life 342 

NEWS LETTER, THE- 

First newspaper in United States 327 

NIXON, DR. OLIVER..-' 362 

NORTHRUP, H. H.- 

Defeated for congress 120 

NORTHWEST COMPANY- 

Astoria's connection with-, 262 



o 

ODELL, W. H 44, 47 

Chosen presidential elector. 109 

Elected state printer 111 

ODELL, J. A 45 

O'FALLON, COL. JOHN 273 

OGLESBY, M. M 47 

OHIO STATESMAN 

Extract fronl . 390 

OLMSTEAD, M. L. 

Elected circuit judge 113 

O'MEARA, JAMES- 

Nominated for state printer 42, 58, 66 

OREGON 

Officers of, beginning 1876 107 

OREGON - 

Political history of, from 1865 to 1876, by Win. D. Fenton 38 

OREGON- 

Political history of, from 1876 to 1898, inclusive, by M. C. George 107 

OREGON RAILWAY AND NAVIGATION COMPANY 26 

OREGON 

Entitled to two representatives 117 

OREGON RIFLEMEN- 

Deserters from 125 

Removed to California^ , 128 

OREGON CENTRAL RAILROAD 25 

OREGON AND CALIFORNIA RAILROAD 26 

"OREGON INSTITUTE, THE" 36 

"OREGON AMERICAN AND EVANGELICAL UNIONIST, THE "- 

Extract from_. 333 



TOPICAL INDEX. 461 

OREGON PRINTING ASSOCIATION- PAGE 

Organized 330 

"OREGON SPECTATOR " 34 

First issue 337, 338-341 

"OREGON SENTINEL "- 

Formerly Table Rock Gazette 341 

"OREGON FREE PRESS, THE" 

Early copy of 350 

OREGON CITY WOOLEN MILL 257 

"OREGONIAN, THE" 

Establishment of 33, 34 

Interview with Professor Carlyle 244 

Description of ground breaking Oregon Central Railroad 324 

Announcement of 354, 357, 363, 364 

First issue of daily 370 



P 

PACIFIC FUR COMPANY 9 

PALMER, GEN. JOEL 45 

PARKER, JAMES 327 

PARRISH, CHAS. W.- 

Elected district attorney 121 

PARRISH, J. L 227 

PARRISH, REV. E. E.- 
Oregon pioneer 276 

PARRISH, S. B.- 

Director east side railroad company 1 326 

PATTERSON, THOMAS 42 

PATTON, R.- 

Brought sheep to Oregon 222 

PATTON, T. McF.- 

Director east side railroad company 325 

PEALE, .- 

Naturalist Wilke's expedition ' 245 

PENNOYER, 8YLVESTER- 

Elected governor of Oregon 114 

Re-elected governor 116 

PENDLETON, GEORGE H 42 

Defeated for president 51 

PEPOON, LIEUTENANT SILAS - 

Assistant quartermaster Snake River expedition 146 

PERRY, COMMODORE 23 

PETTYGROVE, FRANCIS W 338, 340, 353 



462 TOPICAL INDEX. 

PIERCE, NATHAN- PAGE 

Chosen presidential elector 118 

PIERCE, PRESIDENT 350 

PIKE, MRS. AMANDA 297 

PIKE, JOHN 300 

PILCHER, - -.- 

Fur trader 265, 209 

PIPER, W. G.- 

Elected district attorney 112 

"PIONEER, THE WASHINGTON" 366 

"PIONEER AND DEMOCRAT, THE" 366 

PITTOCK, HENRY L 369, 370 

PLYMALE, W. J.- 

Representative 39 

POLITICAL PLATFORMS 109, 111, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121 

POE, A. M. . 367 

POLK, JAMES K : . 32 

PORTER, DAVID W.- 

Quartermaster First Oregon Cavalry 132 

PORTER, MRS. ROBERT 293 

"PORTLAND DAILY ADVERTISER" 

Started - 350 

"PORTLAND DAILY NEWS "- 

First daily paper in Oregon 350 

POWELL, L. J J10 

POWELL, J. C 45 

PRATT, L. E. 

Manuscript history first woolen mill 225 

PRATT, - _'_ 269 

PRATT, JUDGE O. C 357,359 

PRESS OF OREGON, 1839-1850- 

History of the, by George H. Himes 327 

"PRESS, THE FREE" 34, 349 

" PRESS, THE " 367 

PRIM, P. P 42,43 

Supreme judge _ 107 

Elected circuit judge 110 

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING COMPANY, THE OREGON 360 

PUGET SOUND AGRICULTURAL COMPANY- 

Formed 14 

Purchase sheep 220 

Playing for empire 221 



TOPICAL INDEX. 463 

PUTNAM, MRS. ROZETTE- PAGE 

First woman typesetter on Paci lie Coast 336 

PUTNAM, CHARLES F.- 

Printer 334 

Sketch of life- 336 



Q 

QUINN, MARTIN - 

Defeated for congress 120 



R 

RAE, WILLIAM GLENN 221 

Charge Hudson Bay Company in California 222 

RAILROADS - 

Development of 26, 27 

RAILROAD, THE OREGON CENTRAL. (Joseph Gaston) 315 

RAILROAD COMPANY, THE OREGON CENTRAL - 

Incorporated by Joseph Gaston 316 

Articles filed for second company of same name 317 

RAILROAD COMPANY, THE OREGON AND CALIFORNIA 

Incorporated 319,323 

RAMSAY, WILLIAM M 40,43 

Candidate for supreme judge 122 

RAND, J. L.- 

Elected district attorney 115 

RAND, JOHN C.- 

Elected district attorney 119 

RAYMOND, W. W - 291 

RECTOR, WILLIAM H 73-75, 79 

Director Salem Woolen Mill 225 

Sent East for machinery 226,249,257 

"RECORD, THE SALEM" 362 

REED, J. H 42 

REED, ADJUTANT GENERAL CYRUS A 134 

Report to Governor Gibbs 162 

RICHARDSON, DR. JAMES A.- 

Senator 38 

RIDDLE, G. W.- 

Representative 38 

RIFLE REGIMENT, THE MOUNTED - 

Arrival in Oregon 124 

RINEARSON, JR., MAJOR J. Q,. 

First Oregon Cavalry ^ 132 



464 TOPICAL INDEX. 

RINEHART, WILLIAM V.- PAGE 

First Liutenarit First Oregon Cavalry 132 

With Snake River expedition 146,150, 152 

RISDON, D. M 45 

RIVER OF THE WEST, THE- 

Biography of Meek 431 

ROBERTS, CORNELIUS 330 

ROBERTSON, JAMES R- 

The Social Evolution of Oregon 1 

The Oregon Central Railroad 315,321.323, 333 

ROBINSON, JESSE - 

First Lieutenent First Oregon Cavalry 132 

ROCKWELL, JONES AND- 

Imported thoroughbred merino sheep 224 

ROGERS, CORNELIUS - 

Teacher in mission 830 

ROSS, JOHN E. 

Director east side railroad company 326 

ROSSNAGLE, JAMES 300 

ROWLAND, L. L 46 

Superintendent of public instruction 107 

"RURAL NORTHWEST, THE"- 

Extract from.. 239 



s 

SALEM - 

Selected for site state capital , . 38 

SARPY, 269 

SAXTON, CHARLES 

Printer at Lapwai 331 

SEARS, JR., JUDGE ALFRED F. 

Elected circuit judge 120 

SEMPLE. R 368 

"SENTINEL, THE TABLE ROCK" 341 

SCHAFER, PROF. JOSEPH 390 

Criticisms of Wilke's Narrative 404 

SCHNEBLY, D. J.- 

Editor Spectator 355 

Owner Spectator 356 

SCHOOL, MRS. BROWN'S- 

List of scholars 292 

SCOTT, H. W.- 

Editor Oregonian 370 



TOPICAL INDEX. 465 

SHANE, CARLOS W.- PAGE 

Bookbinder 348 

Death of 349 

SHATTUCK, E. D 47 

Supreme judge 107 

Elected circuit judge _ 114, 118 

SHAW, JOSHUA, AND SON 43 

Brought first sheep across the plains 222 

SHEEP HUSBANDRY IN OREGON. (John Minto) 219 

SHEEP HUSBANDRY - 

Era of expansion from the Cascade to the Rocky Mountains 230 

Influence of on human character 245 

Sheep east of Cascades, first venture unsuccessful 230 

SHIPLEY, HENRY 

Editor Times ^ 363 

SHIPWRECK ON A TROPICAL ISLAND 167 

SHOUDY, WILLIAM 300 

SIMON, JOSEPH - 

Elected president of senate 115, 117, 119, 122 

Elected United States senator 122 

SIMPSON, BENJAMIN 360 

SIMPSON, SYLVESTER C : 360 

SIMFSON, SAMUEL L 360 

SIMPSON, GEORGE - 

Head of Hudson Bay Company 264 

SKIPWORTH, E. R.- 

Defeated for presidential elector 115 

SMALL, CAPTAIN H. E. 

Company G, First Oregon Cavalry 162 

SLATER, JAMES H 42 

Elected United States senator 110 

Term expired 113 

Defeated for congress 117 

SMITH, GENERAL PERSIFER F.- 

Commander Pacific Division 125 

SMITH, HIRAM 

Brought sheep to Oregon 223 

SMITH, C. W 356 

SMITH, JANE KINNEY 

Recollections of Grandma Brown 287 

SMITH, A. T 292 

SMITH, MAT K.- 

Editor Columbian '. 366 



466 TOPICAL INDEX. 

SMITH, SENECA- PAGE 

Appointed circuit judge 113 

Elected circuit judge 115 

SMITH, GREENBURY- 

Director east side railroad company 326 

SMITH, REV. A. B. AND WIFE 330 

SMITH, E. L.- 

Elected speaker of house 115 

Chosen presidential elector 121 

SMITH, JOSEPH 41, 42, 256 

Manager Willamette Woolen Factory 259, 362 

SMITH, W. K 256 

SMITH, ANDREW 339 

SPECTATOR, THE OREGON 20, 34, 343 

Enlarged 351 

Suspended 353 

Permanently suspended 356 

SPELLING BOOK- 

Account of first published in Oregon 347 

SPALDING, REV. H. H 289 

STANTON, ALFRED - 

Vice president Salem Woolen Mills 225, 249 

STAPLETON, H.- 

Elected Capitol Building Commissioner 39 

"STAR, THE WESTERN" 61 

Moved to Portland ___ 362 

STARK, BENJAMIN- 

Sent Cotswold sheep to Oregon 224, 345 

"STATESMAN, THE" 31, 354 

Consolidated with Argus 360 

Merged into Unionist 360 

Name again adopted for Unionist 360 

STEARNS, D. W.- 

Representative__ 39 

STEARNS, L. B. 

Elected circuit judge 114, 118 

Resigned 121 

STEELE, JAMES L.- 

Second Lieutenant First Oregon Cavalry 132 

STEINBERGER, COLONEL JUSTIN - 

Commander Fort Walla Walla 137 

STEPHENS, T. A.- 

Eiected district attorney 117 

Elected circuit judge 119 

Death of 121 



TOPICAL INDEX. 467 
STEWART, CAPTAIN JAMES = PAGE 

Killed by Indians 129 

STEWART, J. T . 359 

STEWART, PETER G ____339, 349 

STOCKWELL, A. W. 354 

STORY, J. L.- 

Candidate for attorney general 12*2 

STOTT, RALEIGH- 

Representative : 39, 40, 47 

Elected district attorney 108 

Elected circuit judge 112 

Resigned 113 

ST. VRAIN, - -. . 269 

STRAHAN, R. S 42 

Elected supreme judge 114 

STRONG, F. R 40,43 

SULLIVAN, P. C 45 

SUTTER, - - 20 

SITBLETTE, - - 269 

SWAMP LAND LAW PASSED ^ 238 

T 

"TABLE ROCK SENTINEL" 

Formerly Umpqua Gazette 341 

TAPPAN, W. H 356 

TAYLOR, F. J.- 

Elected circuit judge 114 

TAYLOR, T. C.- 

Elected president of senate 122 

TAYLOR AND BLAKELY- 

Established Umpqua Gazette 341 

TERRY, CHESTER N _ 360 

THAYER, A. J 42, 46 

THAYER, W. W.- 

Elected governor 110 

Elected supreme judge 113 

THOMPSON, H. Y . 47 

District attorney 107 

THOMPSON, JOHN M 40, 44 

Elected speaker of house 110 

THOMPSON, D. P. 

Chosen presidential elector 113 

Defeated for governor 116 

First Lieutenant First Oregon Cavalry 132 

VOL. Ill 3 



468 TOPICAL INDEX. 

THOMPSON, LEWIS- PAGE 

Teacher 294 

TILDEN, SAMUEL J 44. 109 

TIMES, THE OREGON WEEKLY - 

Formerly the Star 362 

Suspended 363,367 

TOLMAN, J. C. 

Defeated for governor 39, 46 

TOLMIE, DR. W- F.- 

Extractfrom letter of 2J9 

Placed at Fort Nesqually 221, 223 

TONGUE, THOMAS H. 

Elected congressman 120, 122 

TRAVERS, JOHN 340 

TREAT, S. H 359 

TRIMBLE, W. F 42 







TRUAX, S. 

Captain Company D, First Oregon Cavalry 132 

TRUITT, WARREN 

Chosen presidential elector 113 

TUCKER, MAJOR S. S. 

Commander at The Dalles 126 

TULLOCK, . 

Fur trader 269 

TURPIN, WM. 

Brought sheep to Oregon i 222 

TURNER, . 

Printer . 331 

T'VAULT, W. G 42 

President Oregon Printing Association 336 

First editor Oregon Spectator 337, 840 

Sketch of life and character 341 

Postmaster general provisional government 343 

/ 

u 

UNDERWOOD, D. C. 

Second Lieutenant First Oregon Cavalry 132 

UNDERWOOD, J. B.- 

Director Oregon Central Railroad Company 326 

UPTON, W. W 45 

V 
VANCOUVER - 

Site of, leased from Hudson Bay Company 126 



VANDERBURG, . 

Fur trader.. 269 



TOPICAL INDEX. 469 

VANDERBURG, W. 8.- PAGE 

Defeated for congress 120 

VAN HOUTEN, J. P 241 

VAN HOUTEN BROS 241 

VEATCH, R. M.- 

Defeated for congress 117 

Candidate for congressman 111 

Defeated for congress 122 

VICTOR, FRANCES FULLER - 

The First Oregon Cavalry 123 

The American Fur Trade in the Far West 260,429 

List of works 433 

VICTOR, META FULLER.. 430 



VICTOR, HENRY C 430 

VILLARD, HENRY 26 

VINTON, MAJOR H. D 126 

W 

WAIT, AARON E 351 

Editor of Spectator 352, 353 

WAITE, E. M 46 

WALDO, JOHN B.- 

Elected to supreme court 111 

WALDO, WILLIAM - 

Elected president of senate 113 

WALDO, DANIEL 222 

Chief financial support of Salem Woolen Mill 226,250,257,259 

WALKER, . 

Mountain man 292 

WALKER, REV. ELKANAH___. ! 292 

WALKER AND EELLS 333 

WALKER, 269,292 

WALKER, CAPTAIN GEORGE r 

WALTERS, LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAMES 344 

WALTON, W. N.- 

Editor Times 362, 363 

WALTON, J. J 47 

WALWORTH, RUBEN H 433 

WALWORTH, LUCY 429 

WARREN, DANIEL KNIGHT 296 

Reminiscences of, by H. S. Lyman 296 

Biographical sketch of 297 

Notes from iournal of 301,805 



470 TOPICAL INDEX. 

WARREN, HENRY . PAGE 

Defeated for congress 40 

WARREN, GENERAL JOSEPH J 297 

WARREN, P. C _ 297, 302 

WARREN, FRANK 302 

WARREN, GEORGE , .302,307 

WARREN, D. K 297 

WARREN AND McGUIRE _. 306 

( . 

WATERMAN, JOHN ORVIS 357, 361 

Elected probate judge of Multnomah County ,__ 362 

WATKINS, WILLIAM H. 

Surgeon First Oregon Cavalry^ _ _ 132 

WATERS, LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAMES 344 

WATT, JOSEPH 23, 44, 47 

Brought merino sheep to Oregon , 222 

Director Salem Woolen Mill 225 

Plan for woolen factory 225 

Constructed mill and canal at Salem 226, 230 

Originator wool growing and wool manufacturing in Oregon__248, 249, 250,251 

WATT, A. S. 

Senator 39 

Appointed general agent Willamette Woolen Factory 251 

WATTS, J. W - - 44 

Chosen presidential elector 109 

WATTS, 277 

WATSON, J. F 38,45, 47 

Elected supreme judge :_ 108 

Elected circuit judge 112 

WATSON, T. D 356 

WATSON, J. R " 367 

WATSON, E. B 45 

Elected supreme judge 111 

WATSON, C. B 40,47 

Chosen presidential elector 112 

WAYMIRE, FRED 134 

WAYMIRE, JAMES A 134 

Fight with Indians 155, 156, 157 

Battle with Indians 159 

WEATHERFORD, J. K.- 

Elected speaker of house 39, 108 

WEBB, G. W.- 

Elected state treasurer 114 

WEBSTER, L. R.- 

Elected circuit judge 113, 114 



TOPICAL INDEX. 471 

PAGE 
WELCH, DR. WILLIAM 71 

WEST, REV. W. F 300 

WEST, ASHBY 300 

WHEELER, WILLIAM H.- 

Vice president of United States 109, 44 

WHITCOMB, LOT- 

Issued Western Star- 361 

Founder of Milwaukie, Oregon 361 

WHITEAKER, JOHN- 

Elected president of senate 39, 108 

Elected to congress 109 

Elected president of the senate 110 

Defeated for congress 111, 130 

WHITE, DR. ELIJAH 3(51 

WHITE, FRANK B.- 

First Lieutenant First Oregon Cavalry 132 

WHITMAN, DR. MARCUS 220, 281, 292, 329, &30, 333, 334 

WHITNEY, G. N . 41 

WHITNEY, J. J 43 

District attorney 107 

Elected district attorney : 110 

WRITTEN, B 46 

WILEY, J. W 365, 366, 368 

WILKES, CAPTAIN GEORGE 345 

WILKES, GEORGE - 

History of Oregon, extracts from 400 

Criticism Wilkes' Narratives 400-404 

WILKINS, 292 

WILLIAMS, GEORGE H. - 

President Salem Woolen Mills 225, 249, 360 

WILLIAMS, RICHARD 44, 47 

Elected United States representative 108 

WILLIAMS, VEATCH 429 

WILLIAMS, J. H.- 

United States consul at Sydney, N. S. W 224 

WILLIAMS, . 

Fur trader 269 

WILLIAMSON, J. N 246 

WILLIS, N. P 430 

WILLAMETTE CATTLE COMPANY - 

Organized 16 

WILLAMETTE WOOLEN FACTORY - 

Oregon and history of, by L. E. Pratt 248 



472 TOPICAL INDEX. 

PAGE 
WINSHIP, NATHAN . 8 

WINTHROP, THEODORE 148 

WIISON, DR. 277, 333 

WILSON, SAMUEL 361 

WILSON, W. H.- 

Elected district attorney 117,118 

WILSON, JOSEPH G 45, 46 

Secretary Salem Woolen Mills 226, 253 

WILSON, JOSEPH D 249 

WOODS, GEORGE L 45, 66 

Director east side railroad company 325 

WOOD, TALMADGE B.- 

Letterof 394 

WOLVERTON, C. E. 

Elected supreme judge 119 

WOOL GROWERS, ASSOCIATION - 

Summary meeting 246 

WRIGHT, COLONEL 130 

Commander district Oregon and Washington 130 

Requisition for cavalry 130 

Made brigadier general 131 

Transferred to California 131 

Replaced troops with volunteer companies from California 131, 136 

WYETH, N. J 219,265, 269 

WYTHECOMBE, DR. JAMES 

Oregon experiment station 245 

i 

. 

Y 

YATES, W. E.- 

Elected district attorney 120 

YORAN, S. M.- 

Chosen presidential elector : 121 

YOUNG, EWING 16, 339 

z 

ZACHARY, MRS _ 293 



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