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THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SEBOSa 



THE 

ORGANS OF SPEECH 

AND THEm APPLICATION IN 

THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 



BT 

GEOEG HEEMANN VON MEYEE, 

FBOFB880B IN OBDUTABT OT ANATOMT AT TBB UKIYSBSITT OT Z0BIOH. 



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PREFACE. 



The more we become convinced that a true knowledge 
of the laws which govern the transformation of the 
elements of speech in the formation of dialects or deriva- 
tive languages can only be obtained from a study of the 
physiological laws of the formation of articulate sounds, 
the more necessary does it become for the philologist to 
be thoroughly acquainted with the structure and func- 
tions of the organs of speech. The ordinary anatomical 
handbooks are little adapted to this purpose, for much 
is there discussed at length which is of no use to the 
philologist, while, on the other hand, points which to 
him are of considerable importance are only briefly 
alluded to; in physiological handbooks, also, only a 
short space is in most cases devoted to this subject. 

It is, therefore, my object in the present work to 
discuss, with special reference to this requirement of 
the philologist, the structure and functions of the organs 
of speech. 



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VI PREFACE. 

In explaining the origin of articulate sounds, I have 
so far departed from the usual method that I have not 
attempted to arrange physiologically the entire series of 
Boimds employed in the most differing languages, but 
rather, starting from the structure of the organs of 
speech, to give a sketch of aU possible articulate soimds. 
I believe I have thus constructed a system in which 
all known articulate sounds, and all those with which 
we may hereafter become acquainted, will find a place. 
Such a sketch could not, of course, be given without 
reference to existing languages* The object has not been, 
however, to enter into the field of discussion upon the 
various modifications of sounds, but merely to bring 
forward a sufficient number of examples in confirmation 
of the laws explained, for which purpose the more nearly 
related European languages are sufficient. 

In taking this line, it has been possible to trace the 
relations and capacity for combination of the various 
articulate sounds. From this point of view, again, 
we are enabled to discover the leading characteristics 
in the manner of the employment of the organs of 
speech (" accent ") from the manner in which words 
of the original language have changed in the period 
of transition. I should have had much pleasure in 
attempting to illustrate this interesting study in the 
case of a single language, but the scope of the present 
work rendered such an undertaking impossible. I must. 



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PBEFAGE. VU 

therefore, he contented with referring to this question 
together with its value in connection with etymology 
and orthoepy. 

From the great interest which this subject must 
arouse in all educated people, especially in those engaged 
in philological studies, and for all musicians, I venture 
to hope that my work will be welcomed by a large circle 
of readers ; and also that the various new and original 
interpretations contained in it will be of interest to 
others of my profession. I trust, therefore, that my 
work may obtain a friendly and favourable reception. 

THE AUTHOR. 



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CONTENTS. 



Fbefacb 
Inteoduction 



YAOB 



CHAPTEE L 

70BHATI0N OV THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

The Production of the Air-Current • • • 

Importance of the Eespiratory Process • 

The Air.Fassages . • • • 

The Mechanism of Bespiration • 

Strengthenyig of the Air-Current • • 

Survey of the Air-Passages • • • • 

The Larynx ...... 

The Vocal Chords and their Tension . . • 

The Vocal Apparatus of the Larynx 

The Glottis and its Adjusting Cartilages • • 

The Superior Cavity of the Larynx 

Summary . , . . , , 

The Pharynx .••••. 

The Nasal Cavity ..... 

The Belation of the Organ of Smell to the Air-Passages 
Division of the Nasal Cavity into an Air-Passage 

Olfactory Chamber .... 
The Bony Framework of the Nasal Cavity 
The External Nose .... 

The Muscles of the Nose • . • • 

Summary ..•••« 
The Inner Wall of the Nasal Cavity . . 

The Side Chamber^ of the Nose . • « ' 

Individual Variations in the Nasal Cavity . • 



and 



9 
10 
17 
24 
32 
33 
35 
46 
61 
71 
72 
79 
79 

81 

83 

92 

96 

98 

100 

107 

115 



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CONTENTS. 



The Cavity of the Month • 
The Teeth 
The Mechanical Movements of 

The Movement of the Jaws 

The Lips . 

TheTongne . 

The Hyoid Bone . 

The Pharynx . 

The Soft Palate . 
The Nerves of the Air-Passages 



the Cavity of 



the Month 



PAG I 

119 
121 
121 
123 
129 
137 
142 
149 
156 
161 



CHAPTER n. 

THE RELATION BETWEEN THE ORGANS OV SPEECH AND THE TOBMATION 
or SOUND. 



Unnsnal Forms of the Bespiratory Process 


• 


• 


. 173 


The Kespiratory Noises ...••• 181 


The Formation of Tone in the Air-Passages . , .187 


The Larynx as an Apparatus for producing Tone ' • • 190 


Voice and Speech . . . . . . .217 


Beciprocal Closure of the Cavities of the Mouth and Nose . 220 


The Nasal Cavity 230 


The Cavity of the Mouth ...... 240 


The Superior Cavity of the Larynx and the Pharynx . , 247 


CHAPTER m, 


THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. ^ 


Articulate Sounds . . . • • • « 251 


The Elements of Artioulat/O Sounds . 






. 255 


The Vowels . . . • , 






274 


The Pure Vowels . • • . 






. 275 


The Diphthongs , . 






291 


The Nasal Vowels . . • . 






. 298 


The Resonants^ • • • • , 






300 


The Consonants • . . « 






. 305 


The Labials • • . • 






310 


The Dentals • • • • 






. 313 


The Guttui-als • • , • • 






315 


The Marginals • "• • . 






. 318 


TheVibrants • • • • < 






320 


The Double Consonants . , . 






. 321 


Consonants and Resonants • • < 






333 


LsajidNMouiU4 . . • • 




• • 335 


Index .•••«< 






846 



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THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 



INTEODUCTION. 

The possession of speech has always been considered as 
a distinctive mark of the human race^ and indeed, as 
far as we can learn from history or ethnography, in no 
age and in no part of the globe do we meet with a people 
without a language. Although races are known which 
in this respect are at a very low standard of development, 
and which possess a language which is very poor both 
in its form and in the expression of ideas, they still 
nevertheless do possess a language, which answers to 
their humble condition and is sufficient for their different 
wants. 

In fact, the possession of speech cannot be prized too 
highly, since its possession serves the whole human race 
as the starting-point towards the acquirement of a pro- 
gressive development and of civilization ; it is the chief 
means by which the ideas and thoughts of individuals 
are communicated to their fellows, and the knowledge of 
one generation transmitted to the next. When^ again, 
we consider that speech is the means by which feelings 
of every kind are communicated and excited, whether in 



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2 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

the various forms of speech or in the higher forms of 
poetry and sotg> we shaU not hesitate to distinguish 
language as the centre of the entire mental and intellec- 
tual life of man. 

If, now, we ask in what this wonderful and priceless 
gift of the human race consists, and in what manner it 
is produced, we obtain an answer which gives us a fresh 
example of the humble means by which in nature the 
greatest and most important results are obtained. 

If we analyze speech, we find that it is nothing more 
than a combination of separate sounds; that these sounds 
are noises which are produced by the expired air, with 
which tones of a musical kind, produced by the same 
means, can unite as supplementary components. 

The power of producing sounds by the current of 
expired air is by no means a peculiar property of man- 
kind ; rather it is possessed in a more or less pronounced 
form by all vertebrata performing respiration by means 
of lungs ; the noises thus produced being used by them, 
partly to give expression to their feelings, partly to make 
communications to each other. What an immense differ- 
ence between the sounds and the meaning attached to 
them, in the angry hiss of a snake and the song of a 
nightingale, in the warning whistle of a marmot and 
the various accents of the bay of a hound ! 

But although animals make so much use of their 
power of producing noise, yet they never attain to human 
speech ; for these sounds have to them no more value 
than the use made by man of the calls and exclamations 
— He! Ho! Psh! H'm! The greater use which man can 
make of his power of producing soimds depends upon 
the faculty which he possesses of combining sounds into 
complex sounds, which complex sounds become words 
used for the expression of certain ideas. But from this 



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INTRODUCTION. 3 

view of the characteristics of hnman speech we are not 
to conclude that everything included in it is an essen- 
tially human property. As far, at least, as the methods 
of production of these complex sounds (words) go, we 
find that certain animals — ^birds, for instance — ^are able 
to imitate man in this respect, although to a limited 
extent. 

But although we are quite right in assuming that the 
talking parrot does not understand the meaning of the 
words which it has learnt, and undoubtedly connects 
no meaning with them, we may still ask the question 
whether, in the combination of sounds which many 
animals under certain circumstances are able to produce, 
some conceivable meaning may not be recognized, which 
allows us to consider them as, at least to a small extent, 
somewhat analogous to words. The various modulations 
and combined sounds in the croak of a frog, in the song 
of a nightingale, and in the nocturnal concert of cats, 
etc., seem to require such a view ; and the probability is 
increased by the fact that in the legends of ail nations 
an important part is played by wise men, who under- 
stand the language of animals. 

Even should we conclude to give such an interpre- 
tation to the language of animals, we cannot but see 
that the range of ideas for which it can find expression 
must be immeasurably smaller than the range of those 
ideas which human language must and can express, 
partly by means of the words themselves, and partly by 
the modification which it gives to these words (declension, 
conjugation, etc.). 

The great variety of the sounds employed in language 
forces upon us the conclusion, that the possibility of this 
variety is accounted for by the more or less composite 
structure of the apparatus employed in their production; 



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4 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

and this to a certain extent is the case. Nevertheless, 
the groundwork of the structure of this apparatus is 
simple. It depends upon the fact, that as the air 
expired from the lungs escapes either through the nasal 
cavity or through the cavity of the mouth, different 
sounds are produced by its means dependent upon the 
path taken by the current of air, and upon voluntary 
movements of certain structures within the cavity of the 
mouth. The current of air employed in this manner 
can either pass out noiselessly through the larynx, or 
during its passage through the larynx can be thrown 
into sonant vibration. 

How means so simple in their characteristics are 
able to produce the sounds which form the elements of 
speech, will be explained in the following pages. For this 
purpose we must proceed, on the one hand, to examine 
the structure of the apparatus employed in the pro- 
duction of sound, and on the other to show how with 
their aid the sounds ordinarily used in speech are 
produced^ 



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CHAPTEE I. 

8TRUCTUBE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

The Production op the Air-Current. 

The chief condition for the production of articulate 
sounds is a current of air> modifications of which, pro- 
duced at will, are perceived as sounds. Such modifi- 
cations are, e.g. streaming through a large cavity or 
through a narrow slit, sudden interruption of the 
current or a sudden removal of some obstruction to the 
current, etc. 

Such a current of air is an accessory phenomenon 
in the process of respiration, in which the air is at 
regular intervals first drawn into the limgs and then 
driven out again. The process of respiration is, there- 
fore, carried on by two alternating currents of air, 
differing in direction, the one going in, the other going 
out. Both can be employed in the production of sound; 
nevertheless this, as a rule, only takes place with the 
expired current. The inspired current is only employed 
for the production of sound in extraordinary circum- 
stances, either as a make-shift or at times from affecta- 
tion, or again when the sound is accidental — e.g. in the 
hiccough. On this account, in our subsequent investi- 



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6 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

gations upon the nature of the production of sound, 
we shall only consider the current of expired air. 

But in order that the significance of this air-current, 
and its differences in strength and rhythm, which are so 
important for the production of sound, may he correctly 
understood, it seems necessary that we should first 
explain the position of the respiratory process among 
the vital phenomena of the organism. 

Importance of the Respiratory Process. 

For the success of the different chemical processes 
which are taking place in the body and are necessary for 
the maintenance of life, a constant supply of oxygen to 
aU parts of the body is necessary. All highly organized 
animal forms are on this account provided with special 
apparatus, by which this supply is maintained. This 
apparatus is distinguished as the respiratory apparattis, 
or as respiratory organs. 

The oxygen, which serves for respiration, is either 
contained in the air or in water, and animals, as a rule, 
absorb it from either medium, according to the one in 
which they live. Important exceptions to this rule are 
certain aquatic mammalia (whales) which breathe atmo- 
spheric air directly, although they live in the water. 

The absorption of oxygen into the different parts of 
the body from the surrounding medium takes place partly 
indirectly, partly directly. 

In the direct absorption of oxygen the surrounding 
medium itself is conveyed in its distribution to all parts 
of the body, and, according to the nature of the life of the 
animal, passes through water-channels opening upon 
the surface of the body, as in the sea-urchin, or through 
similarly arranged air-passages (tracheae) as in insects. 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 7 

This kind of respiration is of no interest for ns in connec- 
tion with our purpose, and is merely mentioned here in 
order to complete this portion of our subject. 

The indirect absorption of oxygen is always connected 
with the presence of an extensive vascular system, and 
rests upon the direct supply of oxygen by means of 
certain organs to the blood wl^ch is circulating in these 
vessels, and its distribution through the body by means 
of the circulation of the blood. The circulation of 
the blood, therefore, belongs, strictly speaking, to the 
respiratory organs, since, as regards its subsequent 
significance, it plays a part similar to that of the 
above-mentioned water-passages and trachesa. Never- 
theless it is usual, in animal forms belonging to these 
classes, to consider as respiratory organs that apparatus 
only which concerns the transmission of oxygen to the 
blood. 

The respiratory organs in the above-mentioned sense 
are all formed upon the same plan. They consist of a 
more or less extended membrane, with which the medium 
containing the oxygen comes in contact, and which con- 
tains in its substance a minute network of capillary 
vessels. The blood which traverses these capillaries is 
in this manner only separated from the air or from the 
water by a very thin partition, through which an exchange 
by diffusion between both liquids is possible; this results 
in the blood taking up a small quantity of oxygen from 
the air or from the water, and consequently evolving 
carbonic acid gas. 

The respiratory organ is, therefore, always a specially 
organized membranous surface, and the differences notice- 
able in respiratory organs rest solely upon the differences 
in its mode of arrangement. In this relation there are, 
however, only two chief forms to be distinguished. The 



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8 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

respiratory organ either consists of a specially organized 
portion of the outer membrane, which extends as a lami- 
nated or ramified process upon the outer surface of the 
body (gills), or of a cavity of a sacculated or ramified 
form within the body (lungs). In the lower animals only 
(e.g. snails) is the lung an expansion of the outer mem- 
brane ; in all higher animals, especially in the three first 
classes of vertebrata, it takes the form of an expansion of 
the mucous membrane, commencing with the alimentary 
canal immediately behind the cavity of the mouth, and 
spreading out subsequently in the cavity of the trunk. 

A peculiar intermediate form is exhibited by fishes, 
since in the latter the surface of the body, which serves 
as a respiratory organ (the gills), is provided with narrow 
openings, which pass outwards from the cavity of the 
mouth through the substance of the body. It may be 
laid down as a general rule that water-breathing animals 
only possess gills, and only air-breathers possess lungs. 

The necessary oxygen is supplied to the gills by the 
flow of the water, which, moreover, is assisted by the rapid 
movement of the outer surface of the gills. A special 
apparatus, on the contrary, is requisite for the lungs, 
which, by its alternating activity, fills them with air 
and then empties them again. 

This is the mechanism which is more or less exter- 
nally visible, while the peculiar essential process of 
respiration is not perceived. On this account the suc- 
cession of movements associated with this process is 
popularly designated as '^ breathing," and we distinguish 
as "inspiration" the movement by which the air is 
brought into the lungs, and as " expiration " that by 
which the air is driven out from the lungs again. 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 9 



The Air-PassageB. 

We now proceed to describe the working of the 
mechanism by which the current of air is conducted into 
the lungs and again expelled from them, and will at 
present postpone a more exact description of the con- 
struction of those spaces which lead to the air-passages 
strictly so-called. We will confine ourselves to the 
statement that the back of the nasal cavity and of the 
cavity of the mouth unite* to form a common space 
(the pharynx), from which the gullet (cBSophagus) leads 
to the stomach on the one hand, and the windpipe 
(trachea) to the lungs on the other. 

The cavity of the windpipe is, therefore, directly 
connected with the external air by the cavities of the 
pharynx, the mouth, and the nose ; and the current of 
air created during'inspiration finds its way through these 
cavities into the windpipe, and so into the lungs ; and 
in the same manner the current of air expelled from the 
lungs passes out again through these cavities. On this 
account all these cavities may be classed broadly among 
the air-passages. The important fact, however, must not 
be overlooked, that between the pharynx and the external 
air, either the nasal cavity by itself, or the mouth by 
itself, or the nasal cavity and the mouth together, may 
serve as passages for the current of air. An important 
property of these air-passages is that they are always 
kept open — either from their walls, consisting of solid 
material, or because they are maintained tightly stretched 
by some peculiar arrangement. This circumstance is of 
less importance for the expelled current of air, but of the 
greatest importance for the inspired current ; for it is 
evident that, if the walls of the air-passages were yield- 



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10 



THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 



ing, they would be compressed by the pressure of the 
external air, and a clear passage would not be main- 
tained. 



The Mechanism of Respiration. 

The structure of the lungs themselves is of the very 
greatest importance to the mechanism of respiration, 
since the nature of the whole, as well as the properties 
of its materials, represent in themselves the foundation 
for the most important part of the respiratory process. 

Fio. 1. 




Front view of windpipe (trachea) and lungs. Lnngs somewhat separated, in order to 
show the division of the trachea. In the lower inner part of each lung, especially of the 
leit lung, a depression, in which the heart is situated a. Thyroid gland ; above which is 
the larynx, attached by its three ligaments to the hyoid bone. 

The external form of the lungs is that of a rather 
large soft organ, filling the greater part of the cavity of 
the chest (thorax), and therefore somewhat approximating 
to the shape of a cone with the base situated below and 



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STKUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 11 

a rounded apex directed upwards. It is divided into 
two entirely separate parts, each of which fills one-half 
of the cavity of the chest, so that we may distinguish a 
right and a left lung— a customary distinction. Between 
the opposing surfaces of each lung rises the windpipe as 
a simple tube, which is divided, at a point about in the 
centre of the thoracic cavity, into two branches, one of 
which leads to each lung. Between the lower divisions 
of the two lungs, and under the point where the wind- 
pipe divides, the heart is situated ; firom the heart the 
great tube (pulmonary artery) passes, which conveys 
the blood, which has to absorb oxygen, into each lung, 
and from each lung tubes (pulmonary veins) pass to the 
heart, which bring back to the heart the blood which has 
been changed by the respiratory process. The point of 
entrance and exit of these tubes is situated close to the 
entrance of the branches of the windpipe into each lung, 
and with the latter forms the ** root of the lungs." 

The cavity of the lungs into which the air is admitted 
consists of very minute ramifications of the trachea. 
The diameter of the smallest branch is i mm. (y^ inch), 




DIagnm of an afr-cell of fhe lungs with lis Burrotindlng yeflsels. a. Air-cell ; b« oon- 
dacting branch of the pulmonary artery ; c, abducting brancb of the pulmonary vein. 

and on these branches are placed, lastly, small round- 
shaped air-cells of iV - i ^na- (tJtt - tV inch) diameter, 
and it is in these air-cells that the transfer of oxygen 



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12 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

from the inspired air to the blood takes place, since they 
are surrounded by a fine network of vessels, and the 
blood circulating through these vessels is only separated 
from the air contained in the air-cells by a layer of 
extremely thin material. 

It would not serve our purpose to follow out the struc- 
ture of the lungs in all its details, and we wiD therefore 
limit ourselves to the discussion of those points which 
are important in a mechanical sense to the current of 
air during respiration. 

In this connection it is first to be noticed, that the 
solidity of the walls in the trachea mentioned above as 
characteristic of the air-passages is produced by semi- 
circular rings of cartilage, and that cartilage is found 
enclosed in the walls of the trachea as far as its furthest 
ramification. In the first divisions of the trachea within 
the lungs, however, this cartilage does not present the 
regular semicircular form, but, in the finer division of 
the trachea, the form of small round plates, which are 
perfectly fitted to keep the cavity of the branches of the 
trachea open, so that the passage of air may suffer no 
obstruction. 

The most important fact, however, is that in the sub- 
stance of the windpipe itself and in that of its branches, 
close under the covering of mucous membrane, there 
occurs a thick layer of elastic fibres, which run in the 
direction of the tubes and completely surround the air- 
cells. This so-called "elastic tissue," to which these 
fibres belong, is best compared to caoutchouc, since it, 
like the latter, possesses a considerable expansibility, and, 
after the expanding force has ceased, an elasticity comes 
into play which brings it back to its original form and 
thickness. From the large share of this elastic tissue in 
the formation of the lungs and from its disposition men- 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 13 

tioned above, the longs may be compared to a branched 
elastic sac, which can expand upon internal pressure, 
and upon the cessation of the pressure which had in- 
creased its capacity, contracts again in its circumference, 
and the additional space disappears. The extreme im- 
portance of this action for the mechanism of respiration. 



Fio.S. 




Diagram of the longs to explain the mechanism of respiration. A^ Entrance faito the 
l»«ncbed windpipe ; 6, the breast-bone (stemnm) represented as a solid integnment ; c, 
the diaphragm in its relaxed state (continuous line), and in its contracted state (dotted 
line) ; a, the space added to the cavity of the thorax by the contraction of the diaphragm. 

and also for that part of it which concerns the production 
of speech, will be explained further on. 

The means by which a certain quantity of air can be 
drawn with such force into the air-space of the lungs, 
and every part of it enlarged till its sides are in a high 
state of tension, are provided by the situation of the 
lungs in the thoracic cavity, and by the mechanism 
which can be brought into play in the walls of the cavity. 

The thoracic cavity is a part of the cavity of the 
trunk, which is bounded posteriorly by the ribs articu- 
lating by moveable joints with the vertebral column, and 
by the breast-bone, which anteriorly unites the ribs ; the 



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14 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

lower boundary of the thoracic cavity is formed by the 
diaphragm. 

Begarding for the present the wall of the chest thus 
formed entirely by the ribs as a fixed and immoveable 
wall, we may explain most of the phenomena connected 
with the mechanism of respiration from the action of the 
diaphragm, after which we shall have no difficulty in 
adding those modifications which are due to the mobility 
of the ribs. 

The diaphragm is a muscular plate which is attached 
to the entire lower circumference of the bony framework 
of the thorax, and so entirely shuts off the thoracic cavity 
from the abdomen that it only affords a relatively small 
passage to the oesophagus, and to some of the greater 
blood-vessels. The pressure of the abdominal viscera 
produced by the walls of the abdomen and transmitted 
to the diaphragm, forces the latter upwards, giving it an 
arched appearance when viewed from below. This gives 
a convex floor to the thoracic cavity, making it some- 
what smaller than we should be led to expect from the 
size of its bony framework. When the diaphragm is con- 
tracted, every diameter of it is shortened, and its convexity 
consequently diminished. When contracted to its greatest 
imaginable extent, which is never attained, the dia- 
phragm might present the appearance of a perfectly even 
plate, and the whole of the arched space which, imder 
ordinary conditions, belongs to the abdominal cavity 
would then be added to the thoracic cavity. The con- 
traction of the diaphragm thus increases the space within 
the thoracic cavity by depressing its highly convex floor. 

Now, in ordinary quiet breathing, the action upon 
which the inspiration of the air depends is produced 
entirely by the contraction of the diaphragm. By this 
contraction the cavity of the chest is enlarged, and the 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 16 

action of the diaphragm may therefore be compared to 
the sucking action of a piston in its cylinder, the air 
thus sucked in being chiefly the external air, which, 
entering by the air-passages, is able to fill the enlarged 
cavity of the chest. But the current of air cannot thus 
force its way directly into the cavity of the chest, for 
in following the course of the windpipe it will be lost 
in the ramifications of the latter and in the air-cells, the 
closed terminations of those ramifications. Since, how- 
ever, these air-cells are all provided with elastic walls, 
they expand when the air enters, and the dimension 
of the lungs is thus increased so as to fill the additional 
space within the cavity of the chest. 

Inspiration, therefore, is due to the regular activity 
(contraction) of the diaphragm. 

To understand correctly the mechanism of expiration, 
we must remember that the flattening of the diaphragm, 
besides enlarging the cavity of the chest, will effect a 
pressure upon the abdominal viscera, which pressure 
will be transmitted to the walls of the abdomen. The 
latter will therefore be forced outwards, and consequently 
expanded. 

Thus the result of the contraction of the diaphragm 
is a greater or less expansion of the elastic tissue 
of the lungs by the entering air, and an expansion of 
the walls of the abdomen by the pressure of the dia- 
phragm upon the abdominal viscera. Let us now see 
what effect will be produced by the relaxation which 
is a necessary consequence of this contraction of the 
diaphragm. The elasticity of the expanded tissue of 
the lungs will at once be called into play; the walls, 
namely, of all the cavities within the lungs will contract 
to the dimensions which they possessed before inspira- 
tion, and the superfluous air will thus again be driven 



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16 THE ORGANS OF SrEECH. 

out through the air-passages. The lungs will now be 
smaller than the enlarged cavity of the chest, and the 
vacuum so produced must, therefore, be filled by the 
pressure of the external air. This cannot, however, be 
well effected by the rigid walls of the chest, since they 
do not yield readily to the pressure of the air. The 
same result is, however, obtained by the pressure of the 
air, which acts upon the walls of the abdomen, forcing 
in the abdominal viscdta, which then transmit the 
pressure to the diaphragm. The diaphragm thus again 
encroaches upon the cavity of the chest in the arched 
form of its position when at rest, the cavity itself 
assuming the smaller dimensions which characterized it 
before inspiration. 

Expiration is, therefore, due to no special muscular 
activity, but is a phenomenon which is caused merely 
by the elasticity of the tissue of the lungs and by the 
pressure of the external air, the parts which had been 
violently disturbed by inspiration being thus again 
restored to a state of rest. The last act of respiration 
before death is, therefore, expiration, and for this reason 
a depressed abdomen (from the pressure of the external 
air) is characteristic of a corpse. 

The fact, however, must not be overlooked, that the 
depression of the abdomen during expiration is increased 
by the elasticity of the expanded abddminal walls, and 
even further by a slight voluntary contraction of the 
muscles with which they are provided. 

It is now clear why the expired current (^ air is most 
suitable for the production of sound in speech, and 
therefore almost exclusively employed for that purpose. 
The reason for this is clearly that the entering current 
of air must be produced by muscular activity, and can 
only with difficulty be drawn in slowly or for any length 



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STKUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 17 

of time ; the retnming current, on the other hand, is 
involuntary and takes place spontaneously, and only 
requires to be regulated to form a continuous current of 
air of sufficient duration for the production of sound. 

Strengthening of the Air-Current. 

The duplex mechanism just described, which is suffi- 
cient for the ordinary requirements of respiration, can 
be employed in different degrees of activity, so that a 
single exchange of the air in the lungs is represented 
by a greater or less quantity of air. The lungs are 
never completely emptied of all the air which they 
contain, and never can be, since, as mentioned above, 
the walls of the air-passages are stiffened throughout 
their entire length by a cartilaginous layer, which pre- 
vents their being ever completely closed; nor are the 
lungs ever emptied to the extent allowed by the above 
check to further contraction, even in the strongest 
forms of expiration to be described directly. This is 
proved by the fact that after the thoracic cavity of 
a dead body has been opened, a sound lung contracts 
to such an extent that it only occupies from one-half to 
two-thirds of the space which it fully occupied before 
the opening was made. The lungs, therefore, even 
when most completely emptied of air, are still in a 
condition of expansion; from which fact we may draw 
the following interesting conclusions : — 

(1) So much air remains in the lungs, that even in 
the pause between one expiration and the following 
inspiration, the essential respiratory process (change of 
the composition of the blood) undergoes no interruption ; 
(2) this residual air keeps the air-passages always open, 
so that during inspiration the flow of air inwards can 



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18 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

more readily take place ; (3) on this account a certain 
portion of the elastic contractibility remains in excess, 
which ensures a powerful action of the elasticity of the 
lung in expiration. 

If, however, only a certain portion of the air con- 
tained in the lungs is expelled from them in the ordinary 
process of quiet respiration, a corresponding quantity 
only of fresh air is taken in again during inspiration. 
These facts point to the conclusion that a certain quan- 
tity of air is always present in the lungs, and that the 
respiratory movements only give rise to a partial renewal 
of this air, to a kind of ventilation which is more com- 
plete or more superficial according to the strength of 
the movements. 

There are, however, cases in which a more complete 
ventilation in the lungs is required ; for instance, in those 
diseases which produce difficulty in breathing, and in 
the passing condition of *' being out of breath," as after 
violent exercise. Again, a greater current of air is ne- 
cessary for loud calling, for sustained notes in singing, 
for the rapid pronunciation of long sentences, etc. ; and 
for this purpose either a more considerable emptying of 
the quantity of air in the lungs must take place, or a 
greater quantity of air must be taken in (a deep breath), 
so that an increased current of air may flow out again. 

In all these cases the ordinary gentle ventilation 
produced by the alternate contraction and relaxation of 
the diaphragm is not sufficient, and more powerful means 
are necessary for the greater .general enlargement of 
the thoracic cavity, which is produced by raising the ribs 
simultaneously with the contraction of the diaphragm, 
thus increasing the circumference of the thorax. A 
powerful expiration is similarly produced by drawing 
down the ribs, which diminishes the circumference of 



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STBUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OF SPEECK 19 

the thorax. The arrangement of the ribs will explain 
how these movements can produce the required result. 

The ribs are, as is well known, arches of bone, which 
are attached to that part of the trunk which surrounds 
the thoracic cavity. Behind they articulate by moveable 
joints with the vertebral column, and in front are united 
by means of the sternum, or breast-bone, to which they 
are all attached, either directly or indirectly. This con- 

Fio. 4. 




Front view of tne thoracic cavity, ag^ Vertebral colnmn ; &, stemnm ; Me, the seren 
upper ribs which are directly connected with the Bternum (trae rilw) ; f, the five lower 
ribs which are not directly connected with the breast-bone ; <^ collar-bone; », slioulder- 
blade. 

nection with the breast-bone is only wanting in the 
lowest ribs (the eleventh and twelfth), which terminate 
freely in muscular tissue. They are, however, held by 
this in a fixed position, and have a definite position 
with regard to the upper ribs. The collection of all the 



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20 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

ribs forms, together with the backbone (dorsal vertebrae), 
to which they are attached, and with the breast-bone, a 
firm bony framework, the whole of which is called the 
'* thorax," or the *' chest.** The first is the term used 
in science, the latter the common name. 

The thorax forms firstly a more or less rigid covering 
for the cavity of the chest, and on the one hand 
prevents the walls of the chest from sinking in during 
the contraction of the diaphragm, and on the other hand 
forces the current of air which has filled the increased 
space of the thoracic cavity to return by the circuitous, 
but still the only possible way, which on this account is 
distinguished as the *' air-passages.** 

On this account we have hitherto taken no further 
notice of it than to mention it as a rigid wall. 

Nevertheless, it contains the needful elements for 
taking a very active part in the mechanism of inspira- 
tion and expiration, and the most powerful mechanism 
of respiration is shown to be due to its co-operation. 
Each pair of ribs, together with the intervening portion 
of the breast-bone, may be regarded as a closed ring 
articulating behind with the vertebral column. The 
plane of this ring can be brought into different positions 
with regard to the vertebral column; it can either be 
made more horizontal, so that it takes up a position 
more at right angles to the vertebral column, or it can 
be depressed so that it in a manner inclines downwards 
from the vertebral column. In the first case, the portion 
of the trunk enclosed by the ring will represent an 
almost circular horizontal section ; in the latter case, on 
the contrary, it will slope from the front backwards. The 
space enclosed by the ring will, in the first case, be 
circular, and in the latter case lozenge-shaped. The 
action of the ribs does not, it is true, attain such 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 21 

extremes^ but the manner of their action proves that 
their elevation mast increase^ and their depression 
diminish the capacity of the thorax. 

The position of the ribs when at rest is slightly 
inclined downwards, so that they can either be raised or 
depressed ; it is therefore evident that, when the occa- 
sion for a deep "inspiration arises, we can produce it 
most easily by raising the ribs which form the wall of 
the chest, and in the same manner a powerful expiration 
can be produced by drawing the ribs downwards. Be- 
spiration is produced by this more or less voluntary 
elevation and depression of the thorax in the above- 
mentioned cases of want of breath, and whenever the 
necessity arises for the creation of a stronger current of 
air. The same form of respiration is, moreover, adopted 
in those cases where quiet respiration by the reciprocal 
action of the diaphragm and the walls of the abdomen 
is prevented. The commonest example of such a con- 
dition is that which is produced by "tight lacing,'* when 
the corset compresses the lowest portion of the thorax, 
and the greater part of the abdominal walls, to such an 
extent that the free movement of these parts is entirely 
out of the question. This form of respiration is, there- 
fore, especially striking in public singers, the style of 
whose dress renders the ordinary quiet mode of breathing 
impossible^ and yet who have frequently to make use of 
long-continued and powerful currents of air. 

There is another interesting point in the mechanism 
of the elevation of the ribs to which we may briefly 
allude, a close analysis leading us further than the 
object of the present work would justify. The greater 
number of the ribs — all, namely, except the upper two or 
three^ — according to the individual, have, in addition to 
the curvature which they derive from the form of the 



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22 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

walls of the trunk, a downward inclination, each rib 
descending rapidly, and then in a sharply rounded angle 
again ascending to the point of its contact with the 
sternum, or, as the case may be, with the preceding rib. 
At this angle the rib loses its bony character, and 
becomes cartilaginous, remaining so to its extremity. 
The cartilage is yielding and elastic, and when the rib is 
raised, it expands from this angle, increasing in length, 

Fig. 6. 




Dfi^^mmatic representatloii of fhe elevation of the thorax dnring a deep hispiratfon. 
Instead of the entire thorax, the first and seventh ribs only are given, attached both to the 
sternum and the vertebral column. The continuous lines mark the position of the ribs 
when at rest; the dotted lines when elevated, showing the tension of the seventh rib. 

therefore, and so enlarging the circumference of the 
thorax. As soon, however, as the muscular activity 
producing inspiration ceases, the elasticity of the carti- 
lage restores to the angle its former acuteness. Thus, 
when the mechanism of respiration is carried on by the 
movement of the ribs, we see that expiration is again to 
a great extent due to the action of elasticity. 

The elevation of the ribs in inspiration is produced 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 23 

by muscles which descend from the cervical and dorsal 
vertebraB to the ribs (acaleniy levatorea costarum, serratus 
posticus superior, serratus posticus inferior), and by those 
which pass in the spaces between the ribs from one rib 
to another (the intercostal muscles). The former elevate 
the ribs from the fixed point of the vertebral column, and 
the latter draw the lower ribs towards the upper. In 
cases of excessive want of breath, the muscles which 
pass from the thorax to the upper extremities are 
also called into play in elevating the ribs ; but in this 
case the* shoulders must be fixed — as, for instance, by 
resting upon the arm. Such cases are, however, due 
to disease, healthy subjects only having recourse to 
a somewhat similar expedient when in excessive want 
of breath — as, for instance, after rapid running, at which 
times they will throw back the shoulders so as to be 
able to take a deeper inspiration. 

The depression which follows this elevation of the ribs 
arises partly from the elasticity of the contiguous parts, 
partly from that of the cartilages themselves. A stronger 
expiration by the further depression of the ribs is effected 
by the abdominal muscles, which by their forcible con- 
traction draw the ribs to which they are attached down- 
wards, and thus contract the thorax ; also, however, by 
the pressure of the abdominal viscera, which forces the 
diaphragm upwards. The action of the abdominal 
muscles is reinforced by those parts of the long erector 
spinas muscle which pass from below to the ribs, and by 
the intercostal muscles, which draw down the upper ribs 
towards those which have been depressed. 

From the above it appears — 

(1) That the returning current of air is specially 
adapted for the formation of sounds, particularly for 
the rapid succession of sounds necessary for speech. 



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24: THE OEGANS OP SPEECH. 

because its production is not dependent upon any distinct 
actiyity. ^ 

(2) That it is possible to increase this current of air 
either by creating a stronger current of air to follow upon 
a quiet, moderate inspiration, by means of special mus- 
cular activity, and so almost emptying the lungs, or by 
taking a deeper inspiration, and so filling the lungs with 
a greater volume of air. 

Again, from the facts which point to the possibility 
of the voluntary participation of muscles in both acts of 
respiration, we may without hesitation assert — 

(1) That we are able, by means of certain muscles, to 
modify the strength and duration of the returning current 
of air, and thus either to allow it to escape slowly and 
evenly, as in speech, or to expel it violently, as in a 
shout. 

(2) That it is also in our power to prolong to some 
extent the act of inspiration, or again, by special mus- 
cular activity, to perform it with the greatest rapidity. 

(8) That we are, therefore, able to employ for the 
purpose of speech a current of air of (within certain 
limits) any volume and strength we please, which may 
be so regulated, that is, interrupted only by such short 
inspirations, that it may be regarded as a continuous 
stream. 

Survey op the Air-Passages. 

It has already been observed, in the preceding section, 
that the path followed by the air entering and leaving 
the lungs is of a somewhat complicated form; but nothing 
further was said, our only object then being to become 
acquainted with the mechanism by which the currents 
of air are formed. We must now, however, endeavour 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPF^CH. 25 

to gain at least a general knowledge of the form of the 
air-passages. 

NoWy the alimentary canal must be regarded as the 
foundation for the structure and arrangement of all 
organs concerned in the nutriment of the body. Why 
and how this is necessarily the case with regard to the 
animal organism we need not here inquire. The mere 
statement of the fact is sufficient for our present purpose, 
though we may, in passing, oflfer the following proof; 
namely, not only do we meet with a well-developed 
alimentary canal in those lower forms of the animal 
kingdom in which other organs of digestion are wanting, 
but that in the embryonic development of the higher 
(vertebrate) animals the alimentary canal is the first 
organ amongst those of digestion to be formed, upon and 
from which the other organs of this nature are developed. 

The alimentary canal commences with the orifice of 
the mouth, which leads into a spacious cavity situated 
between the jaws (the cavity of the mouth). Here the 
mechanical division or mastication of the food takes 
place, to prepare it for solution (digestion) which follows 
in the stomach. The food thus prepared is then carried 
to the hindermost portion of the cavity of the mouth, 
where a descending depression marks the commencement 
of the oesophagus. Certain muscular actions (swallow- 
ing, drinking) then force the food into the oesophagus, 
down which it is carried, by forces peculiar to that tube, 
into the stomach. 

In the human body the direction of the cavity of the 
mouth is from the front backwards, and its more back- 
ward portion, situated directly above the oesophagus, 
which descends vertically from it, is cut oflf from the 
larger anterior portion by a fold or valve-like structure 
(the soft palate), so that at first sight it might be regarded 



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26 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH- 

as a continuation of the oesophagus to the base of the 
skull. From this peculiarity this portion of the cavity 
of the mouth is generally regarded as a distinct space, 
and as such described as the pharynx; while the 
term " cavity of the mouth " is only applied to the space 
between the soft palate and the orifice of the mouth. A 
point which we shall presently find of interest is that 
the food prepared in the cavity of the mouth passes 
rapidly through the pharynx before falling into the 
oesophagus. In effecting this an important part is played 
by the " tongue," a muscular fold lying upon the floor of 
the cavity of the mouth, the free upper surface (dorsum) 
of which passes as a convex protuberance (root of the 
tongue) into the anterior wall of the pharynx. 

During the embryonic development a small growth 
appears upon the anterior wall of the pharynx, which 
afterwards becomes hollow. It continues growing and 
becomes a tube which divides into a right and a left 
branch, and each branch continues growing and dividing 
till it presents at last the appearance of a highly rami- 
fied structure. This forms the groundwork of the lungs, 
which for their completion only require the subdivision 
of the pulmonary veins and arteries ; these vessels unite 
at an early period with the tube, the growth and ramifi- 
cations of which they then follow. Thus the lungs arise 
as an outgrowth, or process of the pharynx. It is evident 
that this ramifying tube must be the windpipe, dividing 
at first into two branches, each of which passes to a lung, 
where it becomes very highly ramified ; and since the 
windpipe originated as a process of the pharynx, it opens 
into and is immediately connected with the latter. The 
part adjoining this orifice is termed the larynx, and will 
presently be described as a separate organization. 

Now^ since the pharynx opens into the cavity of the 



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STRUOTURK OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 27 

mouth, T¥hich again, by means of the lips, is in free com- 
munication with the external air, it follows that an unin- 
terrupted passage is afforded to the air through the cavity 
of the mouth to the lungs, and thus inspiration as well 
as expiration can be effected through the cavity of the 
mouth. We know, however, that respiration through the 
open mouth is only resorted to in eases of want of breath, 
or when a deep inspiration is taken, or, again, as the 
result of bad habit. In ordinary quiet respiration the 
mouth is generally closed, and the cavity of the mouth 
is not employed as an air-passage. 

Entrance and exit is, as is well known, afforded to the 
air employed in respiration by the nose, or rather the 
nasal cavity — a cavity which commences anteriorly with 
the nostrils, and opens posteriorly freely into the 
pharynx. 

It is interesting to observe that fishes have no nasal 
cavity, and that in their case the organ of smell, which 
otherwise is always connected with the nasal cavity, con- 
sists merely of folds in the outer integument which are 
situated above the orifice of the mouth. We first meet 
with a nasal cavity, in the accepted sense, in the amphibia, 
while it becomes general with birds and mammals. Its 
appearance, therefore, in the animal kingdom is simul- 
taneous with respiration by means of lungs, a proof that 
its structure is more intimately connected with this form 
of respiration, and that we are therefore justified in 
regarding it as the true air-passage. 

Thus we obtain the curious fact that the air-passage, 
strictly speaking, commences with the nasal cavity situ- 
ated above the cavity of the mouth, and that from the 
nasal cavity it passes into the upper part of the pharynx, 
then through an orifice in the anterior wall of the 
pharynx immediately below the cavity of the mouth into 



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28 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

the larynx, which marks the commencement of the 'wind- 
pipe, and finally through the windpipe into the lungs. 
The peculiarity of this arrangement lies in the fact that 
the air-passage crosses the portion of the alimentary 
canal formed hy the cavity of the mouth, the pharynx, 
and the oesophagus in such a manner that the pharynx 
belongs equally to the two passages. It is precisely this 
peculiarity, however, which makes it possible to employ 
the returning current of air in the formation of sound 
and, therefore, for speech. The parts of the cavity of the 
mouth, and in particular the tongue, by their great 
mobility can alter the form of the cavity of the mouth 
in the most varied manner. Every such conformation 
imparts a peculiar kind of vibration to the current of air 
which is heard as sound. The possibility of speech is 
therefore due to the power we possess of voluntarily 
directing the current of air from the pharynx into the 
cavity of the mouth, where sound can be produced in 
the manner described. 

It is evident that air and food cannot pass through 
the pharynx at the same time, as all, moreover, know 
tcom experience who have been excited to laughter during 
the act of swallowing. We should therefore naturally 
expect to find some arrangement which would keep both 
passages clear, so that the one process should suffer no 
inconvenience from the other. Kespiration being a con- 
tinuous process, while swallowing is merely a transitory 
and quickly executed act, we should conclude beforehand 
that this arrangement will in its usual form be in favour 
of the flow of the air ; and this we find to be the case. 
The pharynx, from causes presently to be discussed, is 
always open. Its walls, indeed, are not composed of such 
rigid material as the cartilage of the windpipe, but from 
the manner of their attachment to the bones of the 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 29 

ekull and to the hyoid bone, they are held so tense 
that they cannot collapse, and therefore always form an 
open cavity. Thus an uninterrupted passage is secured 
to the air from the nasal cavity through the pharynx 
into the larynx, and thence through the windpipe into the 
lungs. 

This, however, is not sufl&cient. We find further that> 
except during the time of swallowing, the cavity of the 
mouth and the oesophagus are cut off from free commu- 
nication with the pharynx. The arrangement for the 
oesophagus is the simpler of the two. Thus the oeso- 
phagus is not to be regarded as simply an open tube down 
which the food falls by its own weight, for throughout its 
entire length it is so contracted upon itself as to be per- 
fectly impassable, and special forces are required to force 
the morsels of food from the pharynx into the oesophagus. 
Thus the entrance to the oesophagus, viewed from the 
pharynx, has merely the appearance of a funnel-shaped 
depression. Showmen in menageries are accustomed to 
claim this as a striking peculiarity of the crocodile, 
when they draw attention to the open jaws of this reptile. 

The closure of the cavity of the mouth is less simple, 
being effected by a double system of valves. A broad, 
crescent-shaped valve, the horns of which, descending 
laterally, rest upon the root of the tongue, hangs down 
from the bony plate (the hard palate), dividing the 
cavity of the mouth from the nasal cavity between the 
cavity of the mouth and the pharynx. This is the soft 
palate, or velum paiati. When at rest it lies immediately 
upon the highly convex posterior portion of the dorsum 
of the tongue, and thus closes the cavity of the mouth. 
When in great thirst the mucous membrane of the cavity 
of the mouth loses its necessary degree of moisture, the 
soft palate adheres so firmly to the dorsum of the tongue. 



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30 



THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 



that the act of swallowing, by which it is removed, gives 
rise to a sensation of pain. Thus, in describing a high 
degree of thirst, we are accustomed to say that the 
** tongue cleaves to the roof of the mouth." This pecu- 
liarity, which we must all have experienced, may be 




J, The phuynx during respiration ; the cavity of the month shut off by the soft palate 
and the epiglottis ; current of air indicated by arrows. 

B^ The pharynx* daring swallowing; the nasal cavity shut off by the soft palate, the 
windpipe by the epiglottis ; course of the food indicated by arrows. 

In both figures : a, nostril ; &, cavity of the mouth \tinA^e\xiB, orifice of the 
Eustachian tube ; d, windpipe ; e, oesophagus ; /, soft palate ; g^ epiglottis ; St frontal 
sinus ; if, sphenoidal sinus. 

In ^ : Sy superior, m, middle, i, inferior turbinated bones ; e, part of the pharynx 
behind the nasal cavity. 



regarded as proving the assertion that the soft palate 
lies upon the tongue. Opposite the soft palate is situated 
another valve, which rises as an elastic, rigid plate of a 
tongue-like form from the upper margin of the entrance 
to the larynx. This is the epiglottis ; it lies close to the 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 31 

lowest and most posterior part of the dorsum of the 
tongue, and runs upward so far as to almost come into 
contact with the free margin of the soft palate. These 
two valves, if not absolutely, yet quite sufficiently, shut 
off the cavity of the mouth from the pharynx, the gap 
which is left between them being practiciJly closed by 
the arched position of the dorsum of the tongue, so that 
the closure may be regarded as complete. This, how- 
ever, is only the case when the mouth is closed by bring- 
ing the lower jaw into contact with the upper. If the 
lower jaw is depressed the tongue descends with it, and 
renders the above-mentioned closure less complete. 

Having thus seen the fall extent to which the air- 
passage is independent, we might feel almost tempted to 
regard the pharynx, from the fact of its being connected 
with it for by far the greater space of time, as originally 
belonging to the air-passage. There is nothings however, 
to support such a view, the entire conformation of the 
pharynx proving emphatically that it is merely a portion 
of the alimentary canal, and indeed the hindermost part 
of the cavity of the mouth. It always resumes its im- 
portance as such in the act of swallowing, and it is 
interesting to observe how the arrangement and con- 
formation of the different parts is then changed. The 
food which has been masticated in the cavity of the 
mouth is forced backwards by the pressure of the tongue 
against the hard palate into the pharynx, and from the 
latter into the oesophagus. The double system of valves 
closing the cavity of the mouth gives way; the soft 
palate is raised, and shuts off the uppermost part of the 
pharynx from the posterior entrance to the nasal cavity ; 
the epiglottis, on the contrary, is pressed downwards, and 
covers the entrance to the larynx. Thus during swallow- 
ing the continuity of the alimentary canal is preserved 



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32 THE OBGANS OF SPEECH. 

by inserting, if not the whole, at any rate the lower half 
of the pharynx between the cavity of the mouth and the 
oesophagus, the nasal cavity and the larynx being shut oflf 
from the alimentary canal, just as, when in a quiescent 
position, the cavity of the mouth and the oesophagus are 
cut oflf from the windpipe (cf. Fig. 6). 

We must defer for the present the examination into 
the structure of the parts here mentioned, and the im- 
portance of their mechanism in connection with the 
formation of articulate sounds. The above remarks show, 
however — 

(1) That the true air-passage is formed by the nasal 
cavity, the pharynx, the larynx, and the windpipe. 

(2) That the cavity of the mouth is part of the ali- 
mentary canal, but that it can, when occasion requires, 
be also used as an air-passage. 

(8) That it always serves this purpose whes the re- 
turning current of air is employed for speech. 

(4) That no inconvenience is caused by the intersec- 
tion of the air-passage and the alimentary canal, as each 
passage can be entirely cut oflf from, and so rendered 
independent of, the other. 

The Labynz. 

Having now discussed the creation of the current of 
air and the passages through which it passes outwards, 
we must proceed to examine the apparatus, which, situ- 
ated at the upper extremity of the windpipe, possesses 
the property of imparting sonant vibrations to the air 
issuing from the lungs. This apparatus, the laryn-x, is 
not, however, in constant activity in this respect, but, on 
the contrary, generally allows the air to pass by without 
sound; and it is only under certain conditions, the fulfil* 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. ^ 33 

ment of which is dependent upon our will, that it becomes 
productive of sound. It depends, therefore, entirely 
upon our will whether the air, which is to be employed 
in the formation of sound, is with or without tone, in 
that part of the air-passage in which sound is created, 
the articulate sound which results owing its character to 
the choice thus made. We have here, therefore, a means 
of considerably increasing the number of our elements 
of speech. 

The Vocal Chords and their Tension. 

The larynx is the highest portion of the windpipe, 
which is traversed by the expired air immediately before 
its entrance into the pharynx. Being in direct communi- 
cation with the windpipe on the one hand, and with the 
pharynx on the other, it is in this respect simply a por- 
tion of the windpipe ; its peculiar significance is due to 
the fact that it contains an apparatus for the production 
of tone, towards which the windpipe, as a rule, acts 
as " porte-vent *' ("wind-trunk" of an organ), and the 
pharynx as " resonance tube." Under certain conditions 
of rare occurrence this relation may, indeed, be reversed, 
tone being produced in the larynx by an inspired current 
of air. The tones produced in the larynx constitute the 
voice, which stands in a distinct relation to speech. The 
elements of the latter are only toneless noises; and just 
as it is possible to make the voice heard without any arti- 
culate sound, though it is generally accompanied by the 
sound of some vowel, so it is equally possible, in whisper- 
ing, to create articulate sounds without any admixture of 
laryngeal tone. Ordinary audible speech consists, it is 
true, of a mixture of voice and speech, a current of air 
which has been thrown into sonant vibration by the 



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34 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

larynx being employed for at least the greater number 
of articulate sounds. 

The vocal apparatus of the larynx is exceedingly 
simple, its character being merely that of a membranous 
reed-instiTiment, consisting of two elastic plates, stretched 
so as to leave a narrow fissure between them, so that 
when the current of air streams through the fissure they 
are thrown into vibration. 

Two circumstances, however, in spite of the simplicity 
of this principle, tend to give a complex appearance to 
the larynx. In the first place, we have to distinguish 
in the larynx, as the term is generally understood, 
two entirely separate parts, one of which (the lower) 
is the true vocal organ, and the other (the upper) is 
a neutral space, which is inserted between the vocal 
apparatus and the pharynx, and can: only be regarded as 
an integral part of the larynx from being surrounded by 
the same envelope as the vocal apparatus. The inter- 
position of this neutral space (the superior cavity of the 
larynx) removes the vocal apparatus to such a distance 
from the alimentary canal as to render any inconve- 
nience or injury from the latter impossible. The second 
of the above-mentioned circumstances is that the vocal 
apparatus itself exhibits a certain amount of complica- 
tion, the disposition of the membranous reeds, and the 
mechanism by which they are adjusted for musical vibra- 
tion, and, again, the farther adaptation of this adjustment 
for the creation of tones of various pitch, necessitating a 
certain multiplication of accessory structures. In spite 
of this, we must confess that the organization of the 
larynx is wonderfally simple as compared with all it is 
able to accomplish. 

Our next step will be to examine the vocal apparatus 
more closely. 

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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 35 



The Vocal Apparatus of the Larynx. 

The larynx, as already observed, merely constitutes 
the upper extremity of the windpipe ; its entire structure 
is, therefore, nothing more than a modification of the 
structure of the windpipe. 

The windpipe (trachea) is a tube of the same width 
throughout, lined with mucous membrane, forming that 
portion of the air-passage which lies nearest to the lungs, 
and in its ramifications a component of the lungs them- 
selves. In accordance with the general character of the 
structure of the air-passages, the walls of this portion are 
rendered rigid by solid layers interposed between those 
structures which complete the walls of the windpipe. 
The rigidity produced by these layers gives a firm cha- 
racter to the whole ; it may, therefore, be regarded as the 
foundation of the windpipe, and as such occupy the first 
place in our description of the latter. 

The layers here referred to consist of a number of 
cartilaginous rings of about 3 ^lm. (| inch) in depth and 
1 mm. (^ inch) in thickness. They are so curved as to 
form the anterior and two lateral sides of the windpipe, 
leaving, however, the posterior wall free. These im- 
perfect rings are so joined together by fibrous membrane 
{ligamenta interannularia) , that they present the ap- 
pearance of a groove, the open side of which faces 
backwards. The free, rounded ends of these cartilages, 
as well as the ends of the intervening ligaments, and 
therefore the free margins of the groove, are connected 
by fairly strong transverse muscular fibres, which, as a 
continuous layer, form the posterior level wall of the 
windpipe. Externally, the tube thus formed is enclosed 
by a fibrous membrane,^ which inprease^ in thickness 



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36 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

upon the surface of the transverse muscular fibres, the 
two layers thus completing the posterior wall of the 
windpipe. 

The inner coat of this tube is formed by a mucous 
membrane, which is provided externally with a layer of 
small glands, the secretion from which serves to moisten 
the inner surface of the windpipe. In addition to these 
smaller glands, there are others of rather larger size, 
which open by an excretory duct upon the surface of the 
mucous membrane. The glands attached to these ducts 
are situated between the cartilaginous rings, or between 
and behind the muscular fibres of the posterior wall. 

This inner lining is completed by bundles of elastic 
fibres which form a continuous tissue immediately be- 
neath, or even imbedded in, the mucous membrane, and, 
enclosing the entire periphery of the windpipe, run 
longitudinally even into its ramifications. 

Upon comparing the structure of the windpipe with 
that of other tubes — for instance, the alimentary canal — 
we find a remarkable harmony in spite of all differences. 
Such tubes are, namely, provided with both annular and 
longitudinal muscular fibres; the former contract the 
diameter, the latter the length of the tube. In the trans- 
verse layer of muscular fibres which form the posterior 
membranous wall of the windpipe, we recognize at least 
the rudiments of the annular form of muscular fibre ; 
from their attachment, however, with the cartilages by 
which the cavity of the windpipe is always kept open, 
they cannot effect any important contraction, but merely 
serve to modify this constant condition. As representa- 
tives of the longitudinal muscular fibre, we have the 
elastic fibres mentioned above, the action of which, again, 
though resembling, is not perfectly analogous to that of 
longitudinal muscular fibres of other tubes. They lack. 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 37 

namely, that vital contraction which distinguishes mus- 
cular fibres, and therefore can never effect a contraction 
of the windpipe, but only through their elasticity restore 
it to its previous position of rest after any considerable 
tension — as, for instance, after it has been filled with 
inspired air. 

We must here again draw attention to the important 
part played by elastic elements, having already shown 
how expiration is almost entirely due to the physical 
action of elasticity. This fact is particularly interesting 
in connection with the functions of the larynx, which, 
as will presently be shown, impedes the free exit of the 
air when the larynx is adjusted for the formation of 
tone, and consequently when adjusted for audible speech. 
This obstruction to the exit of the air is, however, con- 
stantly counterbalanced by the tension of the elastic 
elements of the lungs and of the windpipe, and so a 
continuous current of air is insured for the formation of 
speech without any special action on our part. Thus 
the lungs and the windpipe stand in the same relation 
to the tone-producing apparatus of the larynx as the 
expanded bellows to the organ, which, by the gradual 
collapse of the former, is supplied with a continuous 
stream of air till the air is exhausted, when the bellows 
must be refilled; or as the indiarubber membrane 
which, in the child's toy, is attached to a whistle, and 
which, when blown full of air, by its subsequent elastic 
contraction gives rise to a sustained note in the whistle. 

The elastic condition of the windpipe described above 
has, however, a further significance, as it supplies the 
material for the construction of the tone-producing 
apparatus of the larynx. The elastic fibres, which 
line the windpipe as a continuous tissue, are in its 
uppermost portion multiplied and closely packed to- 



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38 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

gether^ so as to form a strong compact elastic mem- 
brane, which, preserving the form of the transverse 
section of the windpipe, is funnel-shaped. If, now, we 
suppose the windpipe to terminate with the highest 
cartilaginous ring, then this funnel-shaped sac will pro- 
trude freely beyond the upper end of the windpipe, and 
it is this protruding portion of the elastic membrane* 
which forms the foundation of the vocal apparatus of 
the larynx. Before proceeding further, we will, however, 



Fig. T. 



fl 




The vocal chords as the free edges of an elastic sac. aa. Vocal chords; the cricoid 
cartilage supporting them indicated by a dotted line over the sac ; c, the thyroid cartilage ; 
the part which produces the tension of the vocal chords given in a continuous line; the 
outline of the remaining part dotted ; d, upper part of the windpipe. The arrow sbowa 
the direcUon In which the crico-thyroid muscle pulls. 

first describe a simple apparatus, from which we shall 
easily understand the leading principles of the structure 
of the larynx. 

A tube of moderate length is formed of cardboard or 
any other material, the diameter of which should be 
about 2 cm. (f inch). An indiarubber tube about 4 cm. 
(If inch) in length is then drawn over one end, so that 
it shall continue the cavity of the cardboard tube. Care 
should, of course, be taken that both tubes are securely 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OF SPEECH 39 

fastened together, either with glue or by tying them 
round with strong string. K we blow into this appa- 
ratus from the other end of the cardboard tube, the air 
will pass through without producing any sound. We 
now, however, take the free end of the indiarubber tube 
at two diametrically opposite points, and draw these 
points apart, so that the hitherto round opening assumes 
the form of a narrow slit. The whole of that part of 
the indiarubber tube which no longer lies directly upon 
the cardboard tube resembles the shape of a wedge, the 
base of which is round. If we now blow again through 
the apparatus we find that it has become capable of 
producing tone, the indiarubber plates being to a greater 
or less extent thrown into vibration. If the tension is 
slight, more of the plates will vibrate, and the tone will 
be deeper ; when, on the contrary, the tension is greater, 
only the free margins bounding the fissure vibrate, and 
the tone is higher. 

Upon analyzing this apparatus, we find that the sound 
is due to the two elastic plates which are inclined towards 
each other. The current of air, for instance, which has 
been driven through the spacious " porte-vent " enters 
the rapidly narrowing wedge-shaped cavity, from which 
it can only escape by the narrow fissure between the 
elastic plates, where it produces vibration by its friction. 
The force with which it is driven out through the fissure 
and acts upon the margin of the plates, is undoubtedly 
partly due to the strength of the blast given, partly also, 
however, to the rapid contraction of the cavity through 
which it passes, causing an increase in its velocity at 
the fissure-like outlet. The rigidity of the base of the 
wedge-shaped cavity, which insures the entrance into 
the latter of the entire current of air, is not of itself 
sufficient to produce sound ; the tension of the margins 



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40 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

bounding the fissure is also necessary. Let A and B 
stand for the two ends of the fissure, then the tension 
may be created by drawing these two points {A and B) 
simultaneously apart ; this is the method adopted in the 
experiment just described* The same result would, how- 
ever, be-equally well attained if one of the two points 
(e.g. B) were fixed, and the other point {A) drawn away 
from it. Two conditions must, however, be fulfilled before 
B can be so fixed ; in the first place, it must be so fixed 
as to offer resistance to the tension exercised upon -4, 
and secondly so as to be held at a constant distance from 
the base of the wedge. 

The apparatus here described illustrates exactly the 
tone-producing apparatus of the larynx, and we have 
now only to discover how these fundamental laws of its 
construction are carried out. 

The sac formed of elastic tissue, which projects 
beyond the upper end of the windpipe, represents the 
indiarubber tube of the above apparatus ; it must, there- 
fore, fulfil all those conditions which rendered the pro- 
duction of tone possible by the indiarubber tube. 

The first of these conditions is the fixation of the base 
of the membranous wedge, and this, together with the 
second condition of the fixation of one end of the fissure, is 
accomplished by a single piece of cartilage, namely, by the 
cricoid cartilage. This cartilage presents the appearance 
of a perfectly closed ring, and is attached to the upper- 
most ring of the windpipe in the same manner as the 
lings are united to each other ; being, however, in the 
form of a perfect ring, its posterior portion must rest 
upon the membranous posterior wall of the windpipe, of 
which it forms the upper termination, being attached to 
it by its lower border. In this respect, therefore, it forms 
a continuation of the windpipe. The lower border of the 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 41 

cricoid cartilage, with the exception of a few unimportant 
deviations, lies in a horizontal plane, therefore vertical 
to the axis of the windpipe ; the upper border, on the 
contrary, ascends obliquely backwards and upwards, 
BO that the posterior surface is from three to four times 
higher than the anterior surface. The posterior portion 
of the upper border, again, is for a short distance hori- 
zontal. It is from this resemblance to a signet-ring, of 
which this posterior surface forms the '' plate," that the 
cricoid cartilage derives its name. Thus, seen from be- 
hind, the middle portion of the upper border of the plate 
appears horizontally flattened, while the lateral portions 
descend rapidly forwards. Upon the angle between the 
middle horizontal and the lateral descending upper 
borders is, on either side, a small convex articular sur- 
face for the attachment of the arytenoid cartilage, which 
will be described presently. The structure of the carti- 
lage is fairly strong throughout, but is thicker at the 
sides, and thus the cavity enclosed is not round, but 
oval, with its longest diameter from before backwards. 

Now, the sac of elastic tissue, alluded to above, is 
firmly attached to the entire inner surface of the cricoid 
cartilage, except in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
articular surfaces, thus fixing the lower periphery as 
the lower periphery of the indiarubber tube was fixed by 
the cardboard tube. As, however, the elastic sac has 
precisely the same height as the plate of the cricoid 
cartilage, support is at the same time given to a 
triangular portion of the posterior sur&ce of the sac, the 
apex of which lies in the highest point of the plate. Here, 
then, we have the necessary fixation of one end (B) of the 
tone-producing fissure; for the fissure, formed between 
the free margins of the membrane, and called the glottis, 
commences at this point, from whence it passes diametri- 
cally forwards. 



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42 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH.- 

For the tension of the margins bordering this fissure, 
which are called the vocal chords, some arrangement is 
required which shall, draw away the anterior end of the 
fissure from the posterior end, which is attached to the 
cricoid cartilage. This condition, again, is met in the 
simplest manner by the organization of the larynx, and at 
the same time a protective envelope is given to the vocal 
apparatus. Both objects are again fulfilled by a single 




Side view of the larynx attached to the hyoid bone ; position of the vocal chords and 
arytenoid cartilages indicated by the dotted lines, o. Body of the hyoid bone ; ft, lesser, 
c, greater horn of the latter ; d, central, e, lateral portion of the thyro-hyoid ligament ; 
/, cricoid cartilage ; g^ crico-thyroid muscle i A, thyroid cartilage. 

piece of cartilage, namely, the thyroid cartilage. The 
latter is a plate of cartilage, the surface of which is so 
curved as to form a sharp angle in the middle line of the 
body, which gives it almost the appearance of being 
formed of two lateral plates, firmly blended together in 
front. Each of these plates is five-sided. The upper, 
lower, and posterior borders are approximately straight ; 
the anterior border, on the contrary, is marked half-way 
by such a strong projection as to fall into two halves, 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 43 

an upper and a lower^ meeting at an obtuse angle and 
constituting the fourth and fifth sides of the plate. By 
the lower of these two halves the two cartilaginous plates 
are firmly blended into a whole. As, moreover, the 
height of the two plates is considerable, the larynx is 
thus provided with large, rigid walls, and the vocal 
apparatus which they enclose adequately protected. They 
also determine the outward form of the larynx, and in 
thin persons especially are distinctly visible, the pro- 
jection which they form being called the " Adam's apple." 
The part played by the thyroid cartilage in connecting 
the different parts of the larynx, and also as a basis for 
its movements, will be shown presently ; here we have 
only to consider its direct participation in the structure 
of the larynx. Now, we have already observed that the 
tension of the vocal chords is due to the thyroid cartilage. 
To produce this effect it must be attached to the anterior 
end of the fissure, and accordingly we find this end 
firmly attached in the receding angle formed by the 
union of the two plates. The upper portion only of the 
elastic sac is affected, however, by this attachment, the 
rest lying free between the lower border of the thyroid 
cartilage and the upper border of the cricoid, and pre- 
senting the appearance, when viewed from before, of a 
connecting wall between the two ; it is called the crico- 
thyroid membrane. 

Begular movement cannot be carried out without a 
pivot and a moving force. The thyroid cartilage ac- 
quires the former in the following manner. The posterior 
border is prolonged above and below into stem-like 
processes, which are called the superior and inferior 
horns of the thyroid cartilage. The superior horn serves 
for the attachment of the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid 
bone. The lower horn articulates upon a small elevation 



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44 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

on the posterior portion of the lateral surface of the cricoid 
cartilage. If, now, we cut away any width we please 
of tl^e lower border of the thyroid cartilage, including 
the inferior horn of either side and the angle at which 
the two plates unite in front (see Fig. 7), we obtain a 
cartilaginous arc, which articulates by its two free ends 
(the inferior horns) with the cricoid cartilage, and, by 
the middle of its concave fronts, is fastened to the anterior 
termination of the glottis. The portion thus artificially 

Fia.9. 



To show that the depreasfon, without the advanoement, of the thyroid cartilage miutt 
cause the tension of the vocal chords. Position of the thvroid cartilage when at rest indi- 
cated by dotted lines ; also that of the vocal chord. The continnoas line shows Uie arc 
described by the thyroid cartilage, and also the vocal chord, when depressed. The arrow 
indicates the path of the point of attachment of the vocal chord with the thyroid cartilage 
upon the pivot a. 

removed from the thyroid cartilage is the sole agent in 
the adjustment of the vocal apparatus, the other parts 
merely constituting the protecting envelope. 

Two movements are possible to this arc from the 
manner of its articulation. It can, for instance, be either 
drawn directly forwards, or it may complete part of a 
circle upon an axis drawn through the two points of 
articulation. It is clear that the first movement must 
cause a tension of the vocal chords; and that the second 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 45 

most have the same e£fect, will be seen at once from the 
diagram given in Fig. 9, which shows that the movement 
in a circle upon tiie axis of the two articulations must 
increase the distance between the point of attachment of 
the vocal chords to the thyroid cartilages, and their point 
of attachment to the plate of the cricoid cartilage. 

A small but powerful muscle (Fig. 8) serves as moving 
force for these movements of the thyroid cartilage. This 
muscle (the crico-thyrcdd) springs anteriorly from the 
outer surface of the cricoid cartilage ; it then expands, 
and is inserted into the lower border of the thyroid 
cartilage and the anterior border of its inferior horn. 
The parts of the muscle which are attached to the in- 
ferior horn tend rather to advance the thyroid cartilage, 
those which are attached to the lower border to make it 
describe an arc. The movements described above as 
both possible and most effective are thus completed simul- 
taneously, and the glottis becomes depressed in its 
anterior portion by the tension of the vocal chords which 
enclose it, while the elastic plates which terminate as the 
vocal chords are at the same time (their point of attach- 
ment with the cricoid cartilage being unmoved) drawn 
downwards. 

Thus we see that the tone-producing (vocal) apparatus 
of the larynx bears a perfect resemblance to the caout- 
chouc apparatus described above, the indiarubber tube 
being represented by the elastic sac, the cardboard tube 
by the cricoid cartilage and the windpipe. The tension of 
the margins of the fissure which in that apparatus was 
performed by the fingers, is one-sided in the larynx, one 
end of the fissure being fixed in the cricoid cartilage, and 
the tension being effected from the other end by the aid 
of the thyroid cartilage. 



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46 THE OKGANS OF SPEECH. 



The Glottis and its Adjusting Cartilages. 

There is another point to be considered in connection 
with the structure of the glottis. It was given above as 
a general law of the air-passages that their cavities must 
always be open. If, however, the glottis were a fissure 
like that in the caoutchouc apparatus, the inspired cur- 
rent of air, by pressing upon the two plates, would press 
their edges together, and thus itself close the passage 
into the windpipe. This difficulty is avoided in the 
simplest manner; the two posterior ends of the vocal 
chords do not lie close together at the point of their 

Fio. 10. 




Open glottis (when at rest) seen from above. A, glottis ; 6, cricoid cartilage ; e, thyroid 
cartaage devided horizontally at the level of the glottis. 

attachment to the cricoid cartilage, but are removed from 
each other to a distance of about 5 mm. (J inch) ; in other 
woi:ds, the plate of the cricoid cartilage does not, like the 
thyroid cartilage, fix one point merely in the periphery of 
the elastic membrane, but about 5 mm. (i inch) of the 
periphery. Thus the glottis presents the appearance of 
a triangle, with a narrow base lying posteriorly upon the 
plate of the cricoid cartilage, its long sides terminating 
in an apex situated within the hollow of the thyroid 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 47 

cartilage. It is, therefore, always open for both the 
entering and retnming currents of air. 

Notwithstanding the necessity and convenience of 
this arrangement of the glottis, it is undoubtedly a dis- 
advantage when the vocal chords are to be employed for 
the production of tone. If the vocal chords are to be 
thrown into vibration by the current of air, the fissure 
between them must be a very small one. At the utmost 
the width of the glottis cannot exceed 2 mm. (^ inch) in 
the production of tone, while the vocal chords must be 
brought as closely as possible together for utterance to 
be easy and without effort. It is clear, therefore, that no 

Fio. 11. 




Side view of the vocal chords with the arytenoid cartilage, a. Cricoid cartilage ; ib, arti- 
cular surface for inferior horn of thyroid cartilage ; b, vocal chord ; c, vertical section of 
thyroid cartilage ; d, arytenoid cartilc^e; e, vocal process of d; /, muscular process of <l% 
p, cartilage of Santorini. 

tone can be created in the wide-open, triangular glottis. 
We know, moreover, that ordinary respiration, and even 
the deepest and strongest inspiration or expiration, are 
effected without tone. Thus we are led to anticipate 
some arrangement which can be voluntarily employed 
to place the vocal chords in the necessary relations for 
the production of tone. 

This arrangement is given in the small cartilages (the 
arytenoid cartilage) which are attached to either side of 



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48 



THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 



the vocal chords. Each cartilage is triangular and pyra- 
midal in shape, with its base directed downwards and 
its apex upwards. The internal lateral surface rises 
almost vertically &om the base and bends inwards, while 
its lower margin is attached to the outer surface of the 
vocal chords ; the two other lateral surfaces face out- 
wards, one to the back, the other to the front: they form 
with the base a prominent angle, which rests upon that 
part of the upper border of the cricoid cartilage already 
described as the articular surface for this cartilage. This 
angle is directed more backwards, because the posterior 
of the two external lateral surfaces unites with the vertical 




Olottls aAJosied for tones, a, Parx retpiratoria of fhe glnUIs; h, cricoid cartilage; 
c. attachment of the vocal chords to the thyroid cartilage ; <i, hori^ntal aeciiun of the bases 
of the arytenoid cartilages. 

posterior edge of the inner lateral surface at an obtuse 
angle ; the anterior of the two external surfaces must, 
therefore, meet the two others at a very acute angle. 

In considering the adjustment of the vocal chords for 
the production of tone, we are at present only interested 
in the relation of the base of the arytenoid cartilage to 
the vocal chord. If we divide the length of the vocal 
chord into a larger anterior and a smaller posterior 
half, and then again divide the posterior half into two 
almost equal sections, we shall be able to determine 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 49 

more accurately the precise position of the base of the 
arytenoid cartilage upon the yocal chord. We may, for 
instance, describe this position as the anterior section of 
the posterior half. If, now, such a horizontal direction is 
given to the base of the arytenoid cartilage of either side 
that the anterior angle of their bases come into contact, 
a very diflFerent shape will be given to the glottis. The 
larger anterior halves of the two vocal chords, which lie 
between this angle and the thyroid cartilage, will, namely, 
be so closely approximated, that only a narrow fissure 
will be left between them ; the two posterior halves, on 
the contrary, form the sides of a short, open triangle, the 
base of which lies against the plate of the cricoid car- 
tilage. It is evident that tone can only be created by 
the anterior of these two parts ; hence it is called glottis 
vocalis, or better, pars vocaUs glottidis. The posterior 
portion, from the manner in which it exempUfies the law 
that the air-passages must always be open, is called the 
glottis respiratoria, or better, pwrs respiratoria glottidis. 
The portions of the vocal chords which are thus separated 
by the arytenoid cartilages are, therefore, regarded as sepa- 
rate hgaments, and are called, from their attachments, 
the crico-arytenoid and the thyro-arytenoid ligaments. 

Thus the movement of the arytenoid cartilages adjusts, 
by a voluntary act, the anterior larger portion of the 
glottis for the production of sound, while, in a quiescent 
state, the entire glottis stands wide open and allows the 
current of air to pass through unhindered. If, however, 
the glottis is to produce a tone after being adjusted in 
this manner, it is clear that the current of air must be 
driven through it with a certain amount of force ; this, 
however, is impossible as long as the glottis respiratoria 
remains open, offering an easy escape to the current of 
air. It follows, therefore, that if the glottis vocalis is to 



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60 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

be adjusted for sound, the glottis respiratoria must be so 
closed that no air can escape through it. This cannot 
be effected by the rigid walls formed by the plate of the 
cricoid cartilage and the bases of the arytenoid cartilages 
of the glottis respiratoria itself; the means of closing it 
is found elsewhere, and indeed in the form of the ary- 
tenoid cartilages themselves, by which the object is 
attained in the simplest manner. 

The arytenoid cartilage rises, as we have already 
observed, as a triangular pyramid upon the base, the 
action of which has also been described. The internal 
lateral surface is free, and situated directly opposite the 
internal surface of the corresponding cartilage ; thus the 
current of air issuing from the glottis respiratoria must 
pass between these two surfaces. As, however, the two 
posterior, vertical edges of these surfaces are so con- 
nected by a transverse muscle, which will presently be 
described, that the intermediary space is entirely filled 
up, the two cartilages form with these walls a kind of 
channel or groove, into which the air passes upon 
issuing from the glottis respiratoria. This channel is 
not, however, of the same depth throughout, but from 
the triangular shape of the cartilaginous walls becomes 
shallower as it ascends, disappearing entirely at the apex 
of the arytenoid cartilage. The action of those muscles 
by which the glottis is adjusted is, however, such that 
not only the anterior angles of the bases, but the anterior 
margins of both arytenoid cartilages, are brought into 
contact with each other. By this means the above- 
mentioned groove is closed ; the passage of air through 
the glottis respiratoria is, therefore, entirely stopped, and 
it is all forced to pass through the glottis vocalis. 

The contact between the two arytenoid cartilages is 
rendered more intimate, and the obstruction, therefore, 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 61 

to the eurrent of air more complete, by two small car- 
tilages (the cartilages of Santorini), which pass back- 
wards and inwards as prolongations, in the shape of 
small horns, of the apices of the arytenoid cartilages. 
By the mutual approximation of the arytenoid cartilages 
these little cartilages of Santorini are firmly pressed 
together, and thus are of material assistance in securely 
closing the upper end of the groove. 

The movements of the arytenoid cartilages are, in 
common with all voluntary movements, produced by 
muscles which are attached to them, and which, moreover, 




Arytenoid cartilages seen from behind, a. Cricoid cartilage; &, articular facet for 
articulation with the inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage ; c, arytenoid cartilage i d, car- 
tili^e of SantorinL 

offer several points of interest. Two of these muscles 
contract the glottis, and these adjust it for the produc- 
tion of tone, while two others effect its relaxation. 

Before attempting to describe the action of these 
muscles, we must have a clear conception of those 
secondary causes which regulate the results of their 
contraction. There is scarcely a single muscle the 
stretching uction of which works independently, for there 
are always other forces acting upon the point to be 
moved, so that the movement arising from any muscular 
contraction is the double result of the action of the 



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62 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

muscle and those other forces. Thus, for instance, the 
bending of the lower part of the arm towards the upper 
is not due to the direct action of the flexor muscles, but 
is the combined result of their action and the resistance 
of the elbow-joint. It is true, indeed, that those other 
forces, as in the example just given, consist in the 
resistance offered by the joint, and we often find, there- 
fore, that the structure of the joint is regarded as regu- 
lating the movement caused by the contraction of a 
muscle. Looking at the question from this point of 
view, there is a temptation to consider the articulation 
of the arytenoid cartilage, by which the outer angle of 
its base rests upon the plate of the cricoid cartilage, as 
regulating the movements imparted to the arytenoid car- 
tilage by its muscles. We must, however, distinguish 
two kinds of articulations, differing very essentially from 
each other. The one kind do undoubtedly, from the 
clear mathematical contour of their articular surfaces, 
regulate the direction of the movement made, and thus 
form a joint in the mechanical sense ; the other kind, 
on the contrary, are characterized by the more indefinite 
contour of these articular surfaces, and even by the 
incongruity of the latter, and can less be said to regulate 
than to allow movements : they do not, therefore, repre- 
sent joints in the mechanical sense, but merely gliding 
surfaces (" slot" would be the technical mechanical term). 
The elbow-joint may be taken as an example of the first 
kind, while the condyles at the lower extremity of the 
femur, upon which tiie knee-cap moves, will illustrate 
the second. 

The more closely we examine the articulation of the 
arytenoid cartilage with the cricoid cartilage, the more 
are we convinced that it belongs to the second category, 
and that its form cannot determine the character of the 



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STRUCTUKE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 63 

movements of the arytenoid cartilage. Their character 
is rather determined by the connection of the inner 
margin of the base of this cartilage with the vocal 
chord, and the superposition of its external angle upon 
the cricoid cartilage can only, by the resistance which 
that point derives from below, form a component in the 
result of the muscular action. The interposition of a 
serous sac between the gliding surfaces of the cartilages 
is merely an example of the universal presence of serous 
sacs in all places where there is friction. Serous sacs of 
this kind are caUed hursoe mucoscB, to distinguish them 
from the synovial bursoe of the joints, with which, how- 
ever, they are closely connected. The most accmrate 
descriptions of this contact between the arytenoid and 
the cricoid cartilage would therefore be — that it is a 
gliding surface provided with a bursa mucosa, and 
lacking the true character of a joint. 

Taking this view, therefore, the resistance by which 
the result of muscular action upon the arytenoid car- 
tilage is modified arises from the elastic tension of 
parts or of the whole of the vocal chords, and from the 
reaction of the cricoid cartilage. The latter, by only 
acting upon a certain portion of the base of the arytenoid 
cartilage, gives to this case the character of a two-armed 
lever, towards which the cricoid cartilage acts as fulcrum. 

The muscles by which the arytenoid cartilage is 
moved have their point of attachment partly without 
and partly within this fulcrum. It is, therefore, not 
quite correct to call the angle of the base of the arytenoid 
cartilage which projects upon the cricoid cartilage the 
mvscular process, because it would thus seem that this 
part were the only point for the attachment of muscles, 
while the reason for the choice of this name has only 
been to distinguish this angle of the base from the very 



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64 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

acute angle which is connected with the vocal chord, and 
to which we gave the name of vocal process. 

The manner in which the different relations and 
forces described above together effect the resulting mus- 
cular action, will be best seen from an analysis of the 
largest of these muscles, the thyro-arytenoid. This 
muscle arises from the posterior surface of the thyroid 
cartilage, close to the attachment of the vocal chords, 
and is inserted into the greater part of the anterior 
surface of the arytenoid cartilage ; a line connecting the 
central point of origin and of its insertion, which will 

Fsa. 14. 




Muscles of the arytenoid cartilages. The muscular processes («) prolonged to show 
tlie muscles more distinctly, a, 'iransverse arytenoid; 6, thyro-ary tenoid ; c, anterior 
crico-ary tenoid ; ci, posterior crico arytenoid. 

at the same time give the direction in which the muscle 
pulls, will therefore ascend outwards. The action of the 
muscle, if unimpeded, must, therefore, be to bring the 
central point of its insertion, that is, about the middle of 
the anterior surface of the arytenoid cartilage, into a 
straight line with the point of attachment of the vocal 
chord upon the plate of the cricoid cartilage, and with 
the central point of the origin of the muscle upon the 
thyroid cartilage. The -cartilage, viewed from above, 
will then rotate in such a manner that its anterior 
margin and vocal process will be forced considerably 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 55 

inwards; a side view would, however, show that the 
cartilage must he drawn downwards. The central point 
for hoth movements must he the point at which the 
vocal chord is attached to the plate of the cricoid car- 
tilage, round which the ahove-mentioned point upon the 
anterior surface of the arytenoid cartilage will rotate 
till it is brought into that straight line. It never, how- 
ever, quite attains this position, for its rotation onwards 
is stopped by contact with the opposite cartilage, and 
the downward movement impeded by the elastic counter- 

Fio. 16. 





Actkm of the tbyro-arytenold muscle. A, Viewed ft-om above ; B^ side view. The 
arrow indicates the direction in which the muscle pulls. In A, the dotted line represents 
the other vocal chord (of the right side). A shows the position which would be given by 
the muscle to the arytenoid cartilage if there were no impediment in the way of the 
completion of its action ; B shows that the muscle must depress the vocal chord. 

tension of the vocal chord (in the broader sense), which 
by this movement is drawn down into an angle, the apex 
of which lies in the vocal process. The action of the 
thyro-arytenoid muscle is, therefore, to adjust the vocal 
chord, strictly speaking, for the production of tone, at 
the same time drawing it downwards. It was often said, 
formerly, that the thyro-arytenoid, being a muscle which 
runs parallel to the vocal chord from before backwards, 
must by its pull upon the arytenoid cartilage contract, 



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56 



THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 



and therefore relax the true vocal chord ; as this, how- 
ever, did not agree with the necessity for a corresponding 
tension of the vocal chord, it was thought that this was 
compensated for by the innermost part of the muscle, 
which lies close to the vocal chord, becoming thicker in 
consequence of its contraction, and at the same time 
forcing the vocal chord inwards. This inner portion of 
the muscle has on this account even been distinguished 
as the thyro-arytenoideus internus. In addition to the 
fact that no compensating action is to be found in this 



Fio. It, 





Action of the crico-aT3rtenoid miiscle. The position, viewed firom above, which it 
would give to the arytenoid cartilage, if no obstruction were placed in the way of the 
completion of its action. The arrow shows the direction in which the muscle pulls ; the 
dotted line the vocal chord of the other side ; B^ side view, showing that the glottis is 
raised by the muscle. 

manner, it does not appear necessary to seek it when we 
remember that the chord is always in a state of con- 
siderable elastic tension, and becomes still more stretched 
when depressed. 

The action of the anterior {lateral) crico-arytenoid 
muscle is similar to that of the last. It arises upon the 
upper margin of the lateral portion of the cricoid cartilage, 
and is inserted into the muscular process of the arytenoid 
cartilage. Thus it ascends from before backwards, and 
must, therefore, draw the muscular process downwards. 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 67 

As, however, the arytenoid cartilage here acts as a two- 
armed lever, the portion which lies within the cricoid 
cartilage will move backwards and upwards, and at the 
same time rotate upon a vertical axis in such a manner 
that its vocal process will be turned inwards. The 
central point for all these movements is here, again, the 
point of attachment of the vocal chord (in the wider 
sense) to the cricoid cartilage, as the action of the muscle 
in question, if entirely unobstructed, would be to draw 
the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage into a 

Fio. IT. 




Action of the posterior crioo-arytenoid muscle. The ftirow shows the directkm In 
which it pulls. Side view. (Cf. Fig. 19.) 

straight line with the central point of its origin, and 
with the point of attachment of the vocal chord to the 
cricoid cartilage. The movement, therefore, which this 
muscle imparts to the arytenoid cartilage is in all 
respects similar to that which it derives from the thyro- 
arytenoidy and, like the latter, occasions the closure of 
the glottis, or its adjustment for the utterance of sound ; 
the one difference being that the glottis is placed higher. 
The two other muscles of the arytenoid cartilage have 
the opposite effect upon the glottis ; that is, they widen 
it. This is most clearly seen in the posterior crico- 



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58 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

arytenoid. It arises upon the posterior surface of the 
plate of the cricoid cartilage, occupying, indeed, each 
lateral half of the plate ; its fibres then converge and are 
inserted into the muscular process of the arytenoid carti- 




View of the transyene arytenoid muscle (b) and the posterior erloo-arytenold nrascle 
(a) from behind. 

lage. Its action is such that it draws down these points 
of the arytenoid cartilage backwards and inwards. The 
greater part of the arytenoid cartilage, which lies within 
the cricoid cartilage, is consequently drawn outwards, 
that part which is furthest from the fulcrum upon the 

F». Id. 




Form given to the glottis by the posterior crico-arytenold miucle. Direction In which 
the muscle polls indicated by arrows. 

cricoid cartilage, namely, the vocal process, making the 
largest excursion in that direction. Thus the action 
of the posterior crico-arytenoid muscle is to widen the 
entire glottis in such a manner that its greatest width 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 69 

falls between the vocal processes, while at the same time 
these points are considerably raised. 

The transverse arytenoid muscle is a broad muscular 
plate which passes from the outer margin of the posterior 
surface of one arytenoid cartilage to the corresponding 
part of the other. The action of this muscle is to ap- 
proach the two arytenoid cartilages together till that 
portion of the vocal chord known as the crico-arytenaid 
ligament is rendered tense ; the arytenoid cartilage then 
rotates upon the point where it is attached to the vocal 
chord in such a manner that the vocal processes are 

Fio. 20. 




Form given to the glottis by the transverse airytenoid muscle. Direction In which 
tbe muscle pulls indicated by arrows. 

drawn apart and the glottis widened, But at the* same 
time the vocal processes are somewhat depressed, and 
the position of the glottis consequently lowered. 

By the action of the four muscles attached to the 
arytenoid cartilages, the quiescent form of the glottis, 
which was compared to a triangle with a narrow base, 
can be enlarged to a rhomboidal opening, the shorter 
diagonal of which passes from one vocal process to the 
other (posterior crico-arytenoid m., transverse arytenoid 
m.) ; or its anterior portion (the true vocal chord formed 
by the thyro-arytenoid ligament) can be contracted to a 
narrow fissure, the posterior portion (pars respiratoria 
4 



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60 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

glottidis) remaining a triangular opening, but, as already 
shown, efficiently closed by the meeting of the anterior 
margins of the two arytenoid cartilages (thy ro -arytenoid 
m.y anterior crico-arytenoid m.) ; and both forms of the 
glottis can be accompanied by its elevation (anterior 
crico-arytenoid) or by its depression (thyro-arytenoid, 
transverse arytenoid). 

Naturally those movements only are of importance 
in the production of tone which are connected with the 
closure of the pars vocalis glottidis. Here, however, it is 
of importance to mark the results of the depression or 
elevation of the glottis. From the manner in which the 
glottis is formed by the free periphery of a sac, it is 

Fxo. 21. 

S 

A 




Diagrammatic cross-section of the space between tbe vocal chords (A) when the glottis 
is depressed, B when raised, a. Section of the cricoid cartilage; b, vocal chord; 
C glottis. 

evident that the entrance to it from below is formed by 
the converging lateral portions of the membrane, which 
pass inwards as broad plates (vocal chords) from the 
upper margin of the cricoid cartilage, to be more or less 
closely approximated by their edges forming the glottis. 
Thus the vocal chords together form a kind of roof; and 
since the base of these plates remains unaltered upon the 
cricoid cartilage, it follows that they will make a more 
acute angle with each other when the glottis is raised 
than when it is depressed. The result must, moreover, 
be that when the glottis is depressed the vocal chords 
will be more fully affected by the current of air, and 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 61 

therefore a greater part of them can take part in the 
sonant vibration than when the position of the glottis is 
higher, as then the current of air flows more gently 
along the lateral walls which lead to it. 

The Superior Cavity of the Larynx. 

The neutral space situated between the actual vocal 
apparatus and the pharynx (the superior cavity of the 




Superior cavity of the larynx, ah. Opening Into the pharynx ; e, vocal chord ; imme- 
diately above it the ventricle of Morgagnl ; A, hyoid bone ; c, thyroid cartilage ; /, middle 
portion of thyro-hyoid ligament, in which is seen the long, narrow end of the epiglottis 
(a) ; d, section of the cricoid cartilage, and immediately above that of the transverse 
arytenoid muscle. The position of the arytenoid cartilage and of the cartilages of Santorinl 
and Wrisberg is also indicated. 

larynx) may be described generally as bounded by the 
hyoid bone and the vocal chords ; this, however, would 
seem to imply that the height of the cavity was the same 
throughout; it will be better, therefore, to mention at 
once that, although the lower boundary is formed by the 
horizontal vocal chords, the upper boundary is cha- 
racterized as being the entrance from the pharynx into 



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62 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

the larynx. This entrance lies in the anterior wall of 
the pharynx below the cavity of the mouth, and descends, 
therefore, obliquely backwards. The upper boundary of 
the superior cavity of the larynx must, therefore, also 
slant backwards, and the cavity itself be higher before 
than behind. An examination of the hyoid bone and its 
relations to the larynx will be the first step towards a 
clear comprehension of the situation of these parts. 

The lingibal or hyoid hone resembles in shape a horse- 
shoe, and consists of five segments. The central part of 
the bone (the body), forming the middle of the arch, is a 
bony plate of about 3 cm. (1*17 inch) in length and 1 cm. 

Fxa.23. 




The hyoid bone from above. <h Body; ft, greater hpm ; e, leaeer ham. 

(•39 inch) in width. This plate lies, with its long axis 
placed transversely, immediately under the integument 
of the throat, at the point where the upper horizontal 
division of the anterior surface of the throat separated 
by the lower jaw passes into the lower vertical division. 
Two separate pieces of bone, which are called horns 
(cornua), are attached to the lateral borders of the body ; 
one is termed the greater horn {comu majtis), the other 
the lesser horn (comu minus). The greater horn is a 
rod-like piece of bone, about 3 cm. in length, which by 
its broader anterior end is attached to the lower half of 
the lateral border of the body ; it passes, parallel to that 
of the other side, horizontally backwards, and termi- 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 63 

nates posteriorly in a small tubercle. The lesser horn 
is a rod-like piece of bone, only i - 1 cm. in length, 
which rests upon the upper half of the lateral border of 
the body, and is directed upwards and backwards. It 
gives attachment to a long, slender ligament (the styh- 
hyoid), which arises upon the styloid process of the 
temporal bone. These two muscles (of the right and 
the left side) thus hold the hyoid bone suspended from 
the base of the skull ; they alone would, however, not be 
sufficient to effect this object. The position of the hyoid 
bone is due rather to its connection with a number of 
muscles, the stylo-hyoid ligaments acting merely as a 
support, and as a security against imdue depression. 

The hyoid bone is situated from 2^3 cm. ('QS-l'll 
inch) above the upper margin of the thyroid cartilage, 
with which it is connected in such a manner that it sup- 
ports the thyroid cartilage, and with it the entire larynx 
(cf. Fig. 8), A strong broad elastic ligament (the middle 
thyrO'hyoid muscle) passes from the posterior surface of the 
body of the hyoid bone to the anterior depression of the 
thyroid cartilage ; and on either side a rounded ligament 
(the lateral thyro-hyoid muscle) passes from the tubercle 
at the end of the greater horn of the hyoid bone to the 
superior horn of the thyroid cartilage. In addition 
to this, a strong membrane (the thyro-hyoid membrane) 
passes from the entire lower margin of the hyoid bone to 
the whole of the upper margin of the thyroid cartilage, 
and is connected with the three ligaments just mentioned. 
Thus the larynx is firmly suspended from the hyoid bone, 
and through the latter from the base of the skull, 
without losing its mobility towards the hyoid bone, or 
with the hyoid bone towards other parts. 

If we now examine the relation of the hyoid bone to 
the cavities in which we are interested, we find that the 



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64 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

floor of the cavity of the mouth passes obliquely back- 
wards and downwards over the upper border of the body 
of the hyoid bone, till, immediately in front of the cervical 
vertebraB, it comes in contact with the posterior wall of 
the pharynx, with which it combines to form the oeso- 
phagus. As, however, the body of the hyoid bone is 
necessarily removed by the entire length of the greater 
horns from the vertebral column, against which they are 
directed, it follows that the hyoid bone constitutes the 
upper periphery of a funnel-shaped space leading into 
the oesophagus, the posterior wall of which is vertical, 
the anterior wall descending as an inclined plane &om 
before backwards. Now, the latter contains the entrance 
into the larynx, or rather into the superior cavity of the 
larynx, and it is clear, therefore, that the upper limit of 
this orifice will be so situated that the anterior portion 
will be considerably higher than the posterior portion. 

We are now in a position to consider the form of 
the superior cavity of the larynx more closely, and, with 
this object in view, will take the inclined plane just 
mentioned as our starting-point. 

It has already been shown that the arytenoid car- 
tilages are placed upon the posterior division of the 
vocal chords, from which they rise in a pyramidal form 
to a height of about 1 cm. (*89 inch), and again that 
their posterior surfaces are connected by the transverse 
arytenoid muscle. The two cartilages, with this inter- 
vening muscle, thus enclose a cavity situated above the 
most posterior portion of the glottis (pars respiratoria), 
the important effect of which arrangement we have also 
pointed out. This space belongs, however, actually to 
the superior cavity of the larynx ; for though it forms, to 
a certain extent, part of the vocal apparatus, it is clear 
that it must be immediately connected with the superior 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 65 

cavity of the larynx, and therefore covered by the mucous 
membrane, which passes from the floor of the cavity of 
the mouth into the oesophagus. We find, namely, that 
the inclined plane formed by this mucous membrane 
commences at the upper border of the body of the hyoid 
bone, from which it passes to the upper border of the 
transverse arytenoid muscle ; the mucous membrane 
then descends over the posterior surface of this muscle 
and the posterior surface of the two posterior crico- 
arytenoid muscles lying upon the plate of the cricoid 
cartilage, and finally from the lower border of the plate 
of the cricoid cartilage to the free oesophagus. 

Now, in this plate of mucous membrane there is a slit, 
extending from the hyoid bone to the arytenoid muscle, 
which marks the entrance from the pharynx into the 
superior cavity of the larynx, and by means of which the 
mucous membrane of the pharynx is continued as the 
inner lining of the air-passages. The surface traversed 
by the mucous membrane between this slit and the vocal 
chords is the lateral wall of the superior cavity of the 
larynx, and as this wall is higher between the hyoid 
bone and the vocal chord than between the upper 
border of the transverse arytenoid muscle and the vocal 
chord, it follows that the superior cavity of the larynx 
must be higher anteriorly than posteriorly. 

If this narrow entrance leading into the superior 
cavity of the larynx were, however, a simple slit, then its 
edge would consist of mere folds of mucous membrane 
placed close together, and which by their mobility would 
be pressed downwards and against each other by the 
entering current of air. This, however, would be in direct 
opposition to the laws of the organization of the walls of 
the air-passages. We have still, therefore, to discover 
whether the law which ensures a free course through the 



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66 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

air-passages is fulfilled in the form of this slit. This 
object is attained in a surprisingly simple manner by 
the structure of the epiglottis. The foundation of the 
latter is a peculiarly formed plate of elastic cartilage. 
Its form has often been compared to that of a spoon, a 
comparison which is in many respects an apt one. The 
upper part consists of a rounded plate, the lower part of 
a thin stem, the length of which is, it is true, scarcely 
more than the diameter of the plate. The great point 
of interest, and that, moreover, which is particularly well 
shown in the comparison, is the manner in which the 
stem is united to the plate. This, namely, is the same 
as that in which the stem of a spoon is generally joined 
to the bowl — that is with a double curvature of the surface 
— so that when the spoon is held vertically the bowl lies in 
a plane parallel to the stem, and not in the plane of the 
stem itself. Now, the stem of the epiglottis is inserted 
in the middle thyro-hyoid ligament^ so that its axis lies in 
the direction of the fibres of the Ugament (cf. Fig. 22). 
From this arrangement it follows that, as long as the 
larynx is suspended by this ligament, when the latter is 
necessarily stretched, the stem is held in a vertical 
position. The plate then ascends behind the body 
of the hyoid bone; its broadest part forces its way 
through the slit, and so separates its margins, just as the 
margins of the glottis are separated by its broad attach- 
ment to the plate of the cricoid cartilage. Thus the 
entrance from the pharynx into the larynx is always 
open, its form being that of a triangular slit, the base of 
which faces upwards towards the epiglottis. We must 
remember that this is not the only function of the 
epiglottis, but, stretching upwards into the free cavity of 
the pharynx, it acts at the same time as a valve, which 
according to its position can either close the entrance to 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 67 

the cavity of the mouth or that of the larynx. This 
point has ahready been alluded to, but will be discussed 
more fully as we proceed. 

The free passage to the superior cavity of the larynx 
is not, however, due to the epiglottis alone, for small, 
solid bodies are found in the folds of mucous membrane 
(the aryteno-epiglottidean folds) which border the sHt 
passing from the side of the epiglottis to the transverse 
arytenoid muscle. Support is given to each of these 
folds immediately above the arytenoid cartilage by the 
cartilage of Santorini already mentioned, and between 
the latter and the epiglottis there lies another small 
cartilage, the cartilage of Wrisberg. 

In this manner an open connection is maintained 
between the superior cavity of the larynx and the 
pharynx, whilst the oesophagus is, on the contrary, always 
closed by the larynx pressing against the posterior 
wall of the oesophagus which lies upon the vertebral 
column, and by the free walls of the oesophagus below 
the larynx contracting upon themselves. This relation 
is only altered during the passage of food, when the 
entrance to the larynx is closed and the oesophagus 
opened. Thus, of the two continuations of the pharynx, 
that which, as the superior cavity of the larynx, leads to 
the vocal apparatus, is always open, and we must, there- 
fore, in considering the relation of the organs in question 
to respiration and the formation of voice, regard the 
superior cavity of the larynx as the lowest portion of the 
pharynx, when the latter acts as an air-passage. 

The entrance to the superior cavity of the larynx, like 
the similarly organized passages of the nostrils and the 
glottis, can be directly contracted by means of a mus- 
cular layer which surrounds it. This layer varies greatly 
with the individual; but as a rule we find a number of 



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68 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

bundles of muscles, which, arising upon the base of the 
arytenoid cartilage of one side, ascend obliquely over the 
posterior surface of the transverse arytenoid muscle to 
the apex of the arytenoid cartilage of the other side, and 
then, passing upwards in the aryteno-epiglottidean fold, 
are inserted into the side of the epiglottis. That part of 
this muscle which lies behind the transverse arytenoid 
is called the arytenoidem obliquus, and that within the 
aryteno-epiglottidean fold the aryteno-epiglottideus. The 
action of this muscle is twofold : it must, for instance, by 
lateral pressure draw the arytenoid cartilage inwards 
towards the cavity of the larynx, and, on the other hand, 
it must depress the epiglottis. The action of this muscle 
is in both cases reinforced by two bundles of muscles 
which are generally found in the larynx. Thus its action 
upon the arytenoid cartilage is reinforced by a muscular 
bundle in the form of a loop, the depressor cartilaginis 
arytenoidisy which, with the anterior crico-arytenoid, 
arises upon the lateral portion of the cricoid cartilage, 
and, spreading backwards over the lowest portion of the 
arytenoid cartilage, is inserted into the upper border of 
the plate of the cricoid cartilage ; this presses the 
arytenoid cartilage inwards towards the cavity of the 
larynx. In connection with the epiglottis its action is 
reinforced by a muscular bundle, the thyro-epiglottideus, 
which, arising upon the inner surface of the lateral plate 
of the thyroid cartilage, is inserted into the side of the 
epiglottis ; it draws the epiglottis downwards. 

The upper cavity of the larynx is, generally speaking, 
a broad space between the glottis and the entrance 
from the pharynx, which has just been described. The 
walls are formed entirely of mucous membrane, and 
present a certain degree of rigidity in front only, where 
the mucous membrane is firmly connected with the 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 69 

middle thyro-epiglottic ligament, and behind, where again 
it acquires a firm support from the arytenoid cartilage 
and the transverse arytenoid muscle. Its lower border 
is horizontal, corresponding to the position of the glottis ; 
its upper opening into the pharynx is, on the contrary, 
inclined backwards and downwards. This inclination, 
moreover, does not exactly correspond with that of the 
inclined plane which we took as a foundation for our 
description, but is considerably more abrupt, its upper 
end being driven more backwards and upwards by the 
epiglottis, which ascends in a backward and upward 
direction. The current of air, which ascends vertically 
as far as the glottis, will then gradually assume a more 
backward direction as it passes into the pharynx, against 
the posterior wall of which it will strike, and then, gUding 
upwards upon this posterior wall, enter the posterior 
nares (cf. Fig. 6). In the same manner, the current of 
air entering through the nose will first strike the posterior 
wall of the pharynx and glide downwards upon it into 
the larynx. Thus the entrance to the cavity of the 
mouth, situated between the posterior nares and the 
upper entrance into the larynx, never comes directly in 
contact with the current of air during quiet respiration, 
the air being further prevented from entering by the two 
valves, the soft palate and the epiglottis, which, with the 
dorsum of the tongue, form a fairly perfect partition 
between the cavity of the mouth and the pharynx. 

Yet another structure demands our special attention, 
the so-called ventricles of Morgagni, situated in its lateral 
walls, and most intimately connected with the pro- 
duction of tone in the larynx. If the edges described 
as the vocal chords are to vibrate so as to produce a 
tone, they must be free chords or edges. The vocal 
chords cannot, however, be free in this manner from 



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70 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

below, as they are not independent structures, but merely 
the terminations of the vocal plates which converge up- 
wards towards them. They acquire this freedom, how- 
ever, sufficiently from above, as immediately above the 
actual vocal chords (thyro-arytenoid ligaments) a deep 
depression occurs in the lateral wall of the superior cavity 
of the larynx, which, at first passing outwards along the 
entire length of the ligaments, afterwards ascends upon 
the outer side of the mucous membrane with which the 
superior cavity of the larynx is lined. It is this pouch 




Vertical cross-Bectlon of the cavity of the larynx, a. Cavity of tbe windpipe ; 5, cavity 
between tbe vocal plates ; c, glottis ; d, ventricles of Morgagni ; e, superior cavity of tlie 
larynx ; /, lateral folds marking tlie outlet of tlie larynx into the pharynx. 

which is called the ventricle of Morgagni. Its anterior 
rises somewhat higher than its posterior portion. 
These ventricles give to the vocal chords the form of 
sharp edges, which are well adapted to perform musical 
vibrations. Without them the glottis would merely pre- 
sent the appearance of an isthmus, bounded by blunt 
prominences in which the current of air could only have 
created a whistling sound. The ventricles of the larynx 
may also possibly reinforce the tone by resonance. 



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STRUCTUKE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 71 

Summary. 

We have now completed our examination of the 
larynx, and may briefly sum up the conclusions we have 
arrived at as follows : — 

(1) The external form of that organ which is called 
the larynx is determined by the thyroid cartilage. 

(2) Two parts must be distinguished in this organ ; 
namely, the vocal apparatus, and the superior cavity of 
the larynx. 

(8) The superior cavity of the larynx is merely a 
neutral space interposed between the pharynx and the 
vocal apparatus. It exhibits no special organization 
beyond the rigidity given to its walls by the cartilages 
embedded in them, of which the epiglottis is the most 
important, and the weak muscular layer which serves for 
the contraction of its orifice. The ventricles situated in 
its walls rather belong to the vocal apparatus, as they 
give freedom to the vocal chords. 

(4) The vocal apparatus is formed by the elastic 
lining of the larynx, which is a thickened continuation of 
the elastic lining of the windpipe; the approximated 
edges of two sides of this lining constitute the tone- 
producing " vocal chords." 

(5) The cricoid cartilage is the foundation upon 
which the apparatus is constructed. 

(6) The thyroid cartilage and the crico-thyroid muscle 
effect the tension of the vocal chords. 

(7) The glottis when quiescent is in the form of a 
triangular fissure; when adjusted for tone its anterior 
larger half becomes a narrow fissure, its posterior portion 
a rounded opening. 

(8) The glottis is adjusted for the production of tone 



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72 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

by the arytenoid cartilages, and by two of the four 
muscles to which the movement of the latter is due. 

(9) That portion only of the vocal chord which lies 
between the thyroid cartilage and the arytenoid cartilage 
can act as a vocal chord in the true sense of the word 
— that is to say, can produce tone. The activity of the 
apparatus mentioned in (6) and (8) is therefore entirely 
or chiefly directed to this point. 

The Pharynx. 

Having thus fully described in the preceding section 
the interesting apparatus which determines whether the 
current of air in passing from the windpipe to the suc- 
ceeding cavities shall be accompanied by tone or shall be 
toneless, we must now proceed to examine that cavity 
which it must traverse before finally escaping either 
through the nasal cavity or the cavity of the mouth. 

The pharynx is the immediate upward continuation 
of the oesophagus, and is therefore, like the latter, 
nothing more than a tube of mucous membrane enclosed 
externally by a muscular layer. Posteriorly and on 
either side its walls are closed ; it has no such anterior 
wall, and stands, therefore, in open connection with the 
three spaces which are situated one immediately above 
the other, namely, the larynx, the cavity of the mouth, 
and the nasal cavity. Above it presents a blind termina- 
tion against the base of the skull, to which it is firmly 
attached; passing downwards behind the larynx, it 
contracts, immediately below the entrance into the 
latter, into a narrow slit, from the antero-posterior 
pressure to which it is there subjected, and this slit leads 
into the cavity of the oesophagus, which is closed by the 
contraction of all its walls, and which passes downwards 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 73 

below the larynx. We may thus regard the pharynx as 
closed, from onr point of view, by this slit situated 
between the larynx and the posterior wall of the pharynx ; 
for here the latter ceases to be an open cavity, in which 
condition alone it can act as an air-passage, and there- 
fore be of interest in our present investigation. 

Fio. 2B. 




The pharynx. a» Nasal portion ; 5, oral portion ; c, laryngeal portion ; d, posterior 
portion of the nasal septum ; e, posterior portion of tlie tongue ; /, superior cavity of the 
laryDX ; g, hyoid bone ; h, soft palate ; t, epiglottis. 

In the formation of voice the importance of the 
pharynx is not only due to the free passage which it 
presents to the current of air, and to its connection with 



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74 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

the cavity of the mouth and the nasal cavity, but also 
especially to the fact that it is attached as a direct 
resonance tube to the superior cavity of the larynx, and, 
moreover, a resonance tube of variable length, thus exer- 
cising an influence upon the pitch of the tones produced. 
We must defer for the present the discussion as to how 
this alteration in the length of the pharynx is effected, 
and proceed now to examine its form when at rest. 

In the first place, we must not imagine the pharynx 
to be an upright tube of equal diameter. Its form is in 
a great measure determined by the parts which surround 
it, in connection with which it must, therefore, be con- 
sidered. 

Now, in order that it may always present a free 
passage, it is of the greatest importance that it should 
possess the same breadth throughout its length. Its 
uppermost part (the nasal portion) is firmly attached to 
the base of the skull by a surface which measures a httle 
more than the posterior entrance to the nasal cavity — 
about 8 cm. (1'17 inch) — ^in breadth, while its depth from 
before backwards is about 2 cm. ('78 inch). Its lower 
termination is firmly connected with the inner circum- 
ference of the hyoid bone, the greater horns of which lie 
about 3 cm. (1*17 inch) apart. Thus its breadth is fixed 
by these two attachments, and is, as the measurements 
show, the same at the base of the skull and at the hyoid 
bone. Below the hyoid bone it falls oflf rapidly, disap- 
pearing below the larynx in the contracted walls of the 
cavity of the oesophagus. Between the two points of 
attachment just mentioned, the lateral walls receive no 
support from any imbedded structures ; they are, how- 
ever, kept apart by several causes. This object is at- 
tained by their being, in the first place, continuous with 
the rigid lateral walls of the nasal cavity and with the 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 76 

lateral walls of the cavity of the mouth, which, if not 
rigid, are at least widely separated ; they are, moreover, 
still farther separated by the styh-pharyngeus muscles, 
which descend from the styloid process of the temporal 
bone situated even further apart; while the effect is 
increased by the weight of the larynx, which, with the 
parts below, is attached to the hyoid bone, drawing it 
downwards, and thus necessarily stretching the walls of 
the pharynx between the two points of attachment. 

The depth (antero-posterior diameter) of the pharynx 
is less regular, and presents several peculiarities. The 
depth depends upon the distance of the posterior from 
the anterior wall, and may, therefore, be varied by an 
alteration in the position of either wall, or both walls 
may be concerned in the alteration at once. This is the 
case in the pharynx. 

The conformation of the posterior wall is, on the 
whole, simple, as it lies upon the anterior surface of the 
cervical portion of the vertebral column, by which its 
form is determined. This surface is, it is true, covered 
by muscles, but they are of small size, and have no 
perceptible effect upon the surface they occupy. Now, a 
curve occurs in this portion of the vertebral column, 
which is convex in front, and therefore the posterior 
wall of the pharynx will also be curved forwards. The 
highest part of this curve lies almost opposite the gap 
between the soft palate and the epiglottis, from which 
point it gradually recedes upwards to the base of the 
skuU, and downwards to the commencement of the 
oesophagus. The height of this curve of course varies 
greatly according to the individual, but may be roughly 
estimated at 2 cm. ('78 inch). 

The conformation of the anterior wall of the pharynx 
is less simple, for although its upper and lower divisions 



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76 THE ORGAKS OF SPEECH. 

are so fixed as to be equally distant from the posterior 
wall — those parts, therefore, always constituting an open 
cavity — the conformation of the middle division is both 
different and variable. In the upper (nasal) portion 
we cannot, strictly speaking, distinguish an anterior 
pharyngeal wall, as the lateral walls of the pharynx here 
pass directly into the lateral walls of the nasal cavity, so 
that instead of an anterior waU we have merely the 
direct transition of the cavity of the pharynx into the 
nasal cavity. We may, however, still obtain an antero- 
posterior diameter of the pharynx at this point. As the 
nasal cavity is divided into two parts by a vertical 
septum, the posterior end of this septum forms the end 
of the nasal cavity, and at the same time the anterior 
limit of the pharynx. If, now, we examine the posterior 
margin of the nasal septum, we shall find that it does 
not descend in a vertical line from tfie base of the skull, 
but that it runs distinctly forwards, so that its lower end 
is further from the anterior surface of the vertebral 
column than its upper end, although this part of the 
vertebral column itself advances. This line, therefore, 
remains at almost the same distance from the posterior 
wall of the pharynx upon the vertebral column (the dis- 
tance being a little greater at its lower extremity), and 
gives to this part of the pharynx a constant depth of 
about 2 cm. ('78 inch). 

The same is the case with the lowest (laryngeal) 
portion of the pharynx. As the ends of the greater 
horns of the hyoid bone lie against the vertebral colunm, 
the hyoid bone forms with the latter a framework, the 
antero-posterior diameter of which is from 2-3 cm. 
(•78-l*17), and from which, as we have already shown, 
the larynx is suspended. The space below this frame is 
so entirely occupied by the larynx that its posterior wall 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 77 

lies upon the vertebral column, the entrance from the 
pharynx to the oesophagus being only marked by a narrow 
sUt between the two. The space above the horizontal 
vocal chords is thus necessarily open, and this we found 
to be the necessary characteristic of that space, which we 
have already described as the superior cavity of the 
larynx. As, however, it is directly connected by its 
orifice with the cavity of the pharynx — ^with which, in fact, 
it is continuous — it may be regarded as the lowest portion 
of the pharynx in its capacity as an air-passage. This 
view is, indeed, contrary to that generally taken of the 
superior cavity of the larynx as part of the larynx, but 
the foundation for it will at once be seen if we allow that 
the pharynx in its two capacities terminates in a slit, 
and that the transverse arytenoid mmcle constitutes a kind 
of valve, separating the anterior portion (leading to the 
larynx and windpipe) from the posterior portion (leading 
to the oesophagus). 

The middle (oral) part of the pharynx does not offer 
the same securities for a constant width as those ob- 
served in the parts just described. It appears, indeed, 
considerably contracted in the direction from before 
backwards, at that part which lies directly behind the 
cavity of the mouth. Two causes contribute to effect 
this contraction. In the first place, it is at this point 
that the curvature of the cervical portion of the vertebral 
column reaches its height; and, secondly, the hindermost 
portion of the tongue projects, when at rest, backwards, 
so that the two curves lie opposite to each other, merely 
separated by a narrow slit-like passage. The tongue 
does not, however, advance freely into the pharynx, but 
is covered above by the soft palate, which hangs down 
from the hard palate, and below by the epiglottis, which 
rises upwards from the anterior wall of the pharynx. 



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78 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

Thus the cavity of the pharynx possesses an anterior 
wall suflScient for the purposes of closure, which is 
formed by the posterior surface of the epiglottis, the 
posterior surface of the soft palate, and a portion of the 
dorsum of the tongue situated between their free edges. 
The part marked by the free surface of the dorsum of the 
tongue between the two valves, is the narrowest portion 
of the pharynx. 

Thus the pharynx, in its capacity as air-passage, has 
the same breadth throughout ; its depth (antero-posterior 
diameter) is greater above (behind the nasal cavity) and 
below (above the larynx) than in the middle (behind the 
cavity of the mouth). It would appear that this con- 
formation of its cavity must be detrimental, and in 
opposition to the law which demands that all air-passages 
should be open. We find, however, that there is on the 
one hand no disadvantage in this arrangement, while on 
the other it is of great value in the formation of articulate 
sounds. It is of no disadvantage because the narrowest 
space is sufficient to allow the current of air to pass in 
and out during quiet respiration ; in cases of great want 
of breath it is undoubtedly too small, and under such 
circumstances the cavity of the mouth must also be 
employed as an air-passage. Its advantage is due to the 
fact that by this arrangement a very slight backward 
movement of the soft palate is sufficient to completely 
shut off the nasal cavity from the returning current of 
air, the full volume of which is thus led aside into the 
cavity of the mouth, where it can be employed in the 
formation of sounds. The mechanism by which this is 
effected will be explained hereafter. 



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STBUCTUBE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 79 



The Nasal Cavity. 

The nasal cavity may be described generally as a 
long narrow passage through the bones of the face, 
beginning with the nostrils and terminating at the upper 
part of the pharynx. The construction of this passage 
is, however, not so simple as to render further description 
unnecessary. The mere circumstance that it also con- 
tains the organ of smell shows that the construction 
must to some extent be intricate, while, considered simply 
as an air-passage, it exhibits many interesting and im- 
portant compUcations. 

• 
The Relation of the Organ of Smell to the Air-Passages. 

Our attention is at once drawn to the fact that the 
nasal cavity contains the organ of smell, because it 
is by means of the latter that we become cognizant 
of the fact that the nasal cavity constitutes* the com- 
mencement of the air-passage, not by any peculiarities 
of the cavity itself. We shall see the reason of this if 
we consider the important part played by the organs of 
sense in the maintenance of the organism. Thus, while 
they inform us of the presence and properties of external 
objects, they at the same time caution us against those 
objects which will be injurious to the organism, and 
thereby afford us the opportunity of avoiding them. 
The eye and the ear act in this manner for more distant 
objects; the other organs perform the same duty for 
objects which are near to us — the skin in the case of 
immediate contact or temperature, while the tongue tests 
the properties of the substances placed in the mouth for 
mastication, and the nose the properties of the inspired 
air. The organs of sense may, therefore, to a certain 



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80 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

extent be said to play the part of sentinels to the organ- 
ism. This peculiarity is particularly remarkable in the 
skin, all those parts which are brought most necessarily 
and frequently into contact with external objects, the 
palms of the hands and feet and the natural orifices, 
being especially sensitive. This attribute is also unmis- 
takably the property of the tongue, which not only 
possesses a delicate perceptive faculty for testing imme- 
diate contact or temperature, but also for ascertaining 
the chemical properties of the objects with which it is 
brought into contact. It is scarcely necessary to remark 
that the tongue thus becomes a most important critic 
upon all the substances which are brought into the 
mouth. This is also the case with the nasal cavity as a 
whole, which is, indeed, only sensitive to actual contact, 
here of rare occurrence, and to temperatures ; a certain 
part, however, the organ of smell, properly so-called, has 
a peculiar perceptive faculty for testing the properties of 
gaseous substances. Now, since the part specially organ- 
ized as the organ of smell is only accessible to gaseous 
substances, it is evident that it must act as a sentinel 
towards the latter, and that, therefore, the gaseous sub- 
stances which enter come as naturally and necessarily into 
contact with the organ of smell, as the solid and liquid 
substances introduced into the food-passages come into 
contact with the tongue. The nasal cavity seems, there- 
fore, to possess every characteristic of the natural air- 
passage, a view entirely borne out by its construction, 
which will be most easily and clearly understood if 
regarded in its relation to the entering and the issuing 
currents of air. 

From what has been said, it would appear that one 
portion of the mucous membrane must be specially 
adapted for the organ of smell, and this would lead us to 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 81 

infer that there mast be some peculiarity attached to 
that part. It will, therefore, be well to discover the 
relation which it bears to the rest of the nasal cavity, 
at the same time obtaining some general information as 
to the construction of that cavity itself. 

Division of the Nasal Cavity into an Air-Passage and an 
Olfactory Chamber. 

Although the nasal cavity has been compared to a 
canal traversing the bones of the face, its width is not 
the same throughout, but less at both ends than in the 
middle. The base in no way contributes to this increase 

Flll.96. 




BeUUon of the organ of smell to the air-passage of the nasal carltj (dlagraminaffc 
transverse section), a. Air-passage, in which the inferior turbinated bone is indicated by 
the dotted line ; b, chamber of the organ of smell ; c, septum. 

of dimension, as it proceeds backwards in a straight 
line. We shall see presently the effect produced in this 
respect by the side walls. The point which is of greatest 
interest to us now is to find that the middle portion 
is characterized by its greater height, being only sepa- 
rated from the skull by a thin lamina of bone, which, 
from the numerous holes with which it is perforated, is 
called the cribriform plate. In the middle line of the 
chamber we find a plate composed of bone and cartilage, 



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82 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

which acts as a partition or septum, di^dding the nasal 
cavity into two parts, so that we have a cavity of the 
right side and a cavity of the left side ; the anterior 
portion of the septum divides the entrance to the nasal 
cavity into the two ''nostrils," while the posterior portion 
divides the orifice of the nasal cavity which is directed 
towards the pharynx into the two hinder openings, 
which are known as the posterior nares {choanae narium). 
If we take a vertical section of the nasal cavity at 
the point of its greatest height, we see very clearly 
the relation between the cavity of the nose (strictly 
speaking) and the organ of smell. Thus we find that 
the upper portion of the side wall approaches so closely 
to the septum that there is only a narrow crevice left 
between the two. The organ of smell lies in the mucous 
membrane which lines this crevice, and which is provided 
with an immense number of nerve filaments. These 
filaments belong to the lobes of the olfactory nerve which 
rest upon the upper side of the cribriform plate, passing 
through the holes of the latter to the olfactory mucous 
membrane. Below the crevice containing the olfactory 
organ the nasal cavity suddenly expands, forming the air- 
passage, properly so-called. We see from the section that 
the form of the latter is oval, the long axis being vertical, 
and the air-passage, consequently, is higher than it is 
broad. As the upper part of this oval is necessarily 
further from the septum than the middle, the entrance to 
the organ of smell is not at the extreme summit of the 
air-passage, but in the upper portion of the inner cir- 
cumference. The upper part of the air-passage and the 
lower portion of the organ of smell are, therefore, in close 
proximity, only separated by a thin plate, which, when 
examining the side wall of the nasal cavity, we shall find to 
be the middle turbinated bone. In the section it has the 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 83 

appearance of a tongue, which acts as a partition between 
the two cavities. It is remarkable that the approach to 
the organ of smell is still further contracted by the margin 
of the inferior turbinated bone being enlarged, a similar 
thickening also appearing upon the septum, a little below 
the latter, so that between the two swellings a compara- 
tively narrow crevice leads from the air-passage to the 
organ of smelL Now, as this insignificant entrance is 
the only means of direct communication with the inspired 
air, it follows that the cavity must to a great extent be 
filled by diflfusion. At the same time we see why a cold 
in the head is always prejudicial to the sense of smell, 
the entrance to the crevice in which the organ is situated 
being more or less completely closed, and consequently 
excluded from the air, by the swelling of the mucous 
membrane with which a cold is accompanied. 

A closer investigation of the construction of the side 
wall of the nasal cavity will give us still more information 
as to the shape of the air-passage and its relation to the 
organ of smell. With this end in view we must first 
become acquainted with the roof of the nasal cavity, 
reserving, however, our special attention for those parts 
which constitute the side walls. 



The Bony Framework of the Nasal Cavity, 

The cranial and facial bones of the skull both take 
part in the construction of the nasal cavity, which may 
be roughly described as that portion of the skull which 
lies between the base of the cranium and the arch of the 
upper jaw. The latter is composed entirely of bone, 
commencing in front of the ears with the zygomatic arch 
and united in the median line of the face to the corre- 
sponding bone of the other side. The central portion of 



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84 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

this arch receives the upper row of teeth, and is there- 
fore called the superior maxillary bone. The entire arch 
of the upper jaw is composed of a number of separate 
bones, and is strongly attached on each side and in the 
centre of the face to the base of the skull. The lateral 
connection is formed by that part of the upper jaw 
known as the malar bone, which at once constitutes the 
anterior border of the temporal foss© and the external 
border of the orbits ; below the outer angle of the eye 
this portion of the upper jaw thickens considerably, 
forming the prominence known generally as the " cheek- 
bone/' 

The central point of attachment, forming at once the 
inner walls of both orbits, is of the greatest interest from 
our point of view, forming as it does the framework of 
the nasal cavity. Looking more closely, we find that this 
attachment is double, and only appears single because, 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the frontal bone of the 
cranium, the two nasal bones form an arched connection 
between the highest portions of the two attachments. In 
the skull of the adult it is difficult to realize that the 
bony eminence between the eyes, which we readily recog- 
nize as the bony framework of the upper portion of the 
external nose, is only a double continuation of the arch 
of the upper jaw. This difficulty is merely caused by the 
elevation of the superior maxillary bone, which forms 
with the teeth the central portion of the arch of the 
upper jaw. In the skull of the infant, where the superior 
maxillary bone is not developed to so great a height, the 
difficulty disappears, the continuity of the arch of the 
upper teeth with the malar bone is at once evident, and 
the arch of the upper jaw can be seen passing beneath 
the orbits. 

In that portion of the superior maxillary bone which 



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STRUCTTUBE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 85 

lies close to the median line of the face, we find a process 
passing obliquely upwards and inwards, and forming the 
inner wall of the anterior opening of the orbit. The 
processes of the two sides are attached close together to 
the central part of the frontal bone, being only separated 
by the narrow nasal bone. The gap left between these 
two processes, which above is partially covered by the 
nasal bone, constitutes the pear-shaped opening of the 
anterior nares ; in the living subject it is so covered by 
cartilage and integument as to form the external nose. 

This description gives a general idea of the nasal 
cavity, and especially of the relation of its anterior 
opening to the surface of the face; we have still to 
investigate the interior of the cavity. We shall do this 
most easily if we consider the arch of the upper jaw 
from below. We then see at once that the portion of 
this arch formed by the superior maxillary bone widens 
out considerably backwards, and that the margin of the 
surface thus formed constitutes the alveolar arch, into 
which the upper teeth are inserted. The posterior 
margin of either superior maxillary bone is attached to 
a downward process of the base of the skull (or, more 
strictly speaking, of the sphenoid bone) by which they 
are supported. A small bone (the palate bone) is partly 
the medium for this attachment ; it is, however, un- 
necessary to describe its form and position here. The 
space contained within the arch of the teeth is filled by 
a thin, horizontal, bony plate (the hard or bony palate), 
and this forms, while separating the cavity of the mouth 
from the cavity of the nose, the roof of one and the floor 
of the other. The side walls of the nasal cavity are 
about as far removed from each other above the hard 
palate as the posterior extremities of the arch of the 
teeth are below it ; they extend, however, further back- 



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86 



THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 



ward than the hard palate, for they are so closely con- 
nected with the whole internal surface of those processes 
of the hase of the skull (the pterygoid processes of the 
sphenoid) as to only terminate with their posterior 
margin. On either side, therefore, these margins con- 
stitute the posterior extremity of the nasal cavity, the 
floor of which, however, terminates earlier with the 
posterior margin of the hard palate, and the roof is 

FlO. 27. 




Lateral wall of the nose, a. Partition Bei>arating the narrow entrance to the organ of 
eraell from the passage under the middle turbinated bone ; b, recesstu spheno^hinoidali: 

formed hy the whole of that portion of the skull which 
lies between the articulation of the nasal bone with the 
frontal and the posterior border of the pterygoid processes. 
"We have already remarked that the middle portion 
of the nasal cavity rises to a considerable height. The 
roof of this part is formed by the cribriform plate. This 
thin lamina of bone lies almost horizontally between the 
internal margins of the orbital vaults formed by the 
horizontal portion of the frontal bone. Its upper surface 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 87 

may be seen in the position described, at the base of 
the cavity of the skull, and is characterized by a number 
of sieve-like perforations. Upon its median line, which 
passes from before backwards, may be seen a small 
prominence somewhat resembling a cock's comb, and 
therefore called the crista-galli. This prominence 
divides the surface of the cribriform plate into two lateral 
halves, upon each of which lies the broad extremity of 
the olfactory nerve (the olfactory bulb), which sends an 
immense number of small filaments through the holes of 
the plate to the organ of smell. 

The roof of the nasal cavity in front of the cribriform 
plate follows the course of the nasal bones, which pass 
obliquely downwards and forwards. Beyond the posterior 
margin of the cribriform plate, on the contrary, the 
anterior surface of the body of the sphenoid bone descends 
as an almost perpendicular wall, which, however, soon 
turns backwards almost at right angles to form the under 
surface of the sphenoid. This latter surface articulates 
immediately with the inferior surface of the occipital 
bone, which extends as far as the foramen magnum. The 
inclination of the whole surface is such that its posterior 
extremity (the anterior margin of the foramen magnum) 
is about on a level with the floor of the nasal cavity. 
The anterior portion of this surface, so far as it is 
laterally bordered by the pterygoid processes, belongs 
to the roof of the nasal cavity, and within the same 
limits is also attached to the upper margin of the nasal 
septum. 

If we were to continue this surface forwards we should 
find that it would strike the lower extremity of the nasal 
bone, thus connecting the upper margin of the anterior 
nares with the upper margin of the posterior nares. The 
nasal cavity is, therefore, divided into two parts, which 



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88 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

may be genelrally described as the air-passage and the 
organ of smell. The space between the continuous 
surface just described and the floor of the nasal cavity, 
being the direct connection between the anterior and 
posterior nares, is plainly marked as the air-passage. 
The upper space, situated between that surface and the 
cribriform plate, contains the organ of smell ; it has the 
appearance of an upward extension of the air-passage, 
from which alone it can be approached ; its anterior wall 
is formed by the nasal bone, its posterior by the sphenoid 
bone. Further, with regard to the air-passage, we find 
that it is lower behind than before, expanding like a 
trumpet as it proceeds forwards; the extent of this 
expansion is indicated by the fact mentioned above, that 
the posterior prolongation of the floor of the nasal 
cavity upon reaching the anterior margin of the foramen 
magnum comes in contact with the under surface of the 
sphenoid and the occipital. The angle at which this 
connection takes place gives the degree of divergence, 
or rather convergence, between the upper and lower 
extremities of the air-passage. We shall speak presently 
of the peculiar construction presented by a horizontal 
section of the air-passage ; we need here only remark 
that it is considerably wider in the middle than at 
either end. 

These two divisions of the nasal cavity are bounded 
laterally by several distinct pieces of bone, a fact which, 
upon closer investigation, furnishes us with an important 
feature in our description of the bony framework of the 
nasal cavity. We have thus far only regarded the nasal 
cavity as a space enclosed by the two superior maxillary 
bones, stretching upwards between the orbits as far as 
the base of. the skull. If, however, we examine the inner 
wall of the orbit, we find that only the foremost portion 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 89 

(the nasal process) of the superior maxillary bone ex- 
tends to the base of the skull ; the greater part of the 
superior maxillary bone, which with its upper surface 
forms the floor of the orbits, being considerably removed 
from the vaults of the orbits which are formed by the 
frontal bone. Thus a gap is left, bounded below by the 
superior maxillary, above by the portion of the frontal 
forming the orbital vaults, anteriorly by the nasal pro- 

FiO. 28. 




Vertical transrene eectlon of the nasal caavlty; the boundaries between the different 
bones marked by dots, a, Superior maxillary bone with the antrum ; b, ethmoidal cells 
separated from the orbit o by the os planum ; e, part of the orbital vanlt formed by the 
frontal bone with the frontal sinus ; d, the upward continuation of the septum of the nose, 
the crista-galU, under which lies the horizontal cribriform plate ; e, the inferior turbinated 
bone. 

cess of the superior maxillary, and posteriorly by the 
sphenoid. This gap is filled by a thin plate of bone, the 
08 planum of the ethmoid, which thus forms the inner 
wall of the orbit. With regard to the lateral border of 
the nasal cavity, we find, therefore, that the superior 
maxillary forms the lateral wall of the air-passage ; the 
OS planum of the ethmoid, on the contrary, closes ex- 
ternally the portion of the nasal cavity containing the 
organ of smeU. 

The inner surfaces of the superior maxillary and the 



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90 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

OS planum of the ethmoid lie almost in a vertical plane, 
and yet it has been shown that the organ of smell must 
be sought in a crevice forming the upper space of the 
nasal cavity. If the os planum of the ethmoid is the 
true external boundary of the portion of the nasal cavity 
containing the organ of smell, these two facts oflfer a 
contradiction which must be cleared up. The difficulty 
at once disappears when we find that the os planum is 
not a separate free plate of bone, but only the outer 
coating of a large cellular mass of bone which projects 
into the nasal cavity, where it terminates in a similar 
bony plate (the turbinated bone). The space between 
these two plates is filled by the ethmoidal cells. 

We shall have another opportunity of speaking of the 
cellular cavities of these lateral masses of the ethmoid 
and similar appearances in the surrounding bones, and 
considering their general importance; we must, how- 
ever, now devote a few words to the relation between the 
ethmoidal cells and the adjoining bones. The lateral 
mass of the ethmoid is a plane right-angled parallelo- 
gram, the larger surfaces of which, the os planum and 
the superior and middle turbinated bones, have already 
been mentioned. With regard to the latter we must, 
however, further observe that the os planum is composed 
of two parts, a posterior (the os planum, strictly speaking) 
and an anterior (the lachrymal bone). The lachrymal 
bone differs from the actual os planum in not forming, 
like the latter, an unbroken continuation of the walls of 
the cells, but may, on the contrary, be compared to a 
loose lid placed upon their outer surface ; in all other 
respects it has so entirely the appearance of being part 
of the OS planum, that we shall generally use the latter 
term for the two bones, which, however, it is usual to 
separate. 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 91 

The lateral mass of the ethmoid has the same borders 
as those which have already been described as belonging 
to the OS planum. They are, however, of some thickness, 
corresponding to the distance of the turbinated bones 
from the os planum ; thus they assume the character of 
narrow surfaces, and as such may be regarded as the 
lateral surfaces of the plane parallelogram, with which 
the lateral mass of the ethmoid has been compared. 
The lower of these surfaces rests with its outer edge, 
where it joins the os planum, upon the upper margin of 
the superior maxillary bone, and thus forms the roof of 
the air-passage. The further characteristics which this 
gives rise to will be described more minutely as we pro- 
ceed. On either side of the upper of these narrow sur- 
faces are half-broken spaces, a closer acquaintance with 
which is important for our thorough investigation of the 
cavity of the nose. In order to understand this charac- 
teristic we must examine a little more closely that part 
of the frontal bone which forms the orbital vaults, and 
remark particularly the thickness of the inner wall. 
This fact is quite apparent in any skull without dissec- 
tion. The surface of the orbital vaults, namely, which 
is directed towards the cavity of the cranium is only 
separated from that of the other side by the intermediate 
cribriform plate; the surface, however, which turns 
towards the orbits is divided from that of the other side 
by the whole of the space lying between the orbits. If 
the frontal bone is removed, we find that the inner part 
of the orbital vault consists of two plates, the one of 
which joins the os planum of the ethmoid, while the other 
is attached to the lateral wall of the cribriform plate. 
As, however, the two turbinated bones of the lateral 
mass of the ethmoid are connected with the same wall of 
the cribriform plate, it appears that each half of the 



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92 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

cribriform plate forms the roof of the organ of smell iu 
the corresponding division of the nasal cavity, determin- 
ing by its breadth the width of the crevice in which the 
organ is situated. 

The construction which we have thus described as 
that of the bony framework of the nasal cavity, will be 
found to harmonize perfectly with the relation between 
the air-passage and the organ of smell, to which we have 
already alluded. We have, namely, only to prolong the 
lower edge of the inner surface of the lateral mass of the 
ethmoid (the middle turbinated bone), and we shall 
obtain the thin tongue-like wall of division between the 
upper portion of the air-passage and the lower part of 
the organ of smell, which has already been mentioned. 

The External Nose. 

We see from this sketch of the bony framework of 
the nasal cavity, which we shall presently make more 
complete, the importance of the bony case to the 
cavity, giving as it does the characteristic conformation 
to the air-passage, and setting aside a special chamber 
for the organ of smell ; nevertheless, the walls of the 
nasal cavity do not entirely consist of this bony founda- 
tion, but are provided with an external prolongation of 
such a form that the whole of the pear-shaped orifice is 
closed, and the entrance to the nasal cavity confined to 
the comparatively small openings of the two nostrils. 
This prolongation affects the side walls as well as the 
septum, and is partly produced by plates of cartilage, 
partly by the external skin. The result of the combina- 
tion is the external nose. 

The cartilages of the external nose are of two different 
kinds, which differ inaterially from each other. The 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 93 

onei namely, has more the characteristics of bone, the 
other those of the accessory parts of the external skin. 

The cartilages of the first kind are remains of the 
rudimentary skull, by which is meant the earliest form 
of the skull — the exact miniature, indeed, of the fully 
developed skull, but consisting merely of a continuous 
capsule of cartilage, instead of the separate bones of the 
latter. These separate pieces of bone, which are united 
when the skull is fully developed, are produced from cer- 

Fio. 2». 




Cartilage of the external noee. a. Triangular cartilage ; h (shaded with vertical lines), 
the lower lateral cartilage of the nostril. 

tain points or centres of ossification, which are found 
partly in the cartilage of the rudimentary skull, and 
partly in the perichondrium. A portion of this rudi- 
mentary cartilaginous skuU remains unossified at the 
anterior extremity of the nasal cavity, standing in the 
same relation to the bones with which it is united as the 
costal cartilages to the ribs, of which these cartilages are 
also merely extensions of undeveloped bone. This carti- 



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94 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

laginous prolongation of the walls of the nose consists of 
a middle plate, which forms the anterior lower portion of 
the septum, and two lateral plates, which form a con- 
tinuation of the nasal bone. Although these three plates 
are composed of a single piece of cartilage, the central 
plate is generally distinguished as the cartilaginom 
septum^ and the two smaller lateral plates, which unite 
with the latter upon the dorsum of the nose, the trian- 
gular lateral cartilages. 

The cartilaginous septum protrudes to such a distance 
beyond the pear-shaped opening of the anterior nares, 
that, with the exception of the tip, it supports the dorsum 
of the whole external nose ; it does not, however, extend 
either to the extreme tip of the nose, or to the edge of the 
septum, which may be seen dividing the outer margin 
of the nostrils. Thus it forms, if not a perfect, yet a 
very efficient extension of the bony septum. The lateral 
cartilages are, on the contrary, unimportant, and repre- 
sent the side walls of the cavity in a much less decided 
manner. The well-known form of the external nose is 
completed by the integument of the face, which is con- 
tinuous with the mucous membrane lining the interior of 
the nasal cavity. 

The lowest marginal portion of the septum, formed 
entirely by the skin, is short, but possesses, as we know, 
considerable mobility; it is called the septum mobile. 
The lateral portions of the external nose, which are 
formed in the same manner, are considerably expanded, 
and hang like a loose curtain between the skin of the 
cheek and the dorsum of the nose ; they are therefore 
called the alae of the nose. 

The mobility and softness of the alae of the nose, to 
which we have just alluded, are, however, in direct op- 
position to that fixity which we pronounced as an indis- 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 95 

pensable characteristic of tho walls of an air-passage ; 
and the alae of the nose afford, therefore, an excellent 
means of demonstrating the importance and the necessity 
of such a peculiarity in an air-passage. If, namely, the 
entrance of the air is impeded by lightly laying the 
finger upon the nostril, and a strong inspiration taken, 
the ala of the nose falls in, and if a great inspiratory 
effort is made, remains in such close contact with the 
septum that the passage is more or less entirely closed 
to the air. This experiment shows, however, at the 
same time that there is no danger of the air being 
excluded in this manner in ordinary quiet breathing. 
On the other hand, the mobility of the nose offers the 
great advantage, that by this means the entrance of 
air to the nasal cavity can be regulated, as we shall 
presently show. There is, moreover, another peculiarity 
in the formation of the nostril, which, without affecting 
the mobility of the nose, secures the entrance of air into 
the nostrils. A cartilaginous ring is, namely, inserted 
in the periphera of the nostril, where it does not come 
in contact with the lower margin of the anterior nares, 
which stiffens the skin forming the nostril and thus 
keeps the latter open. The principal portion of this 
ring is formed by the lower lateral cartilage, a moderately 
broad, thin plate which is situated in the lower central 
portion of the ala, and, curving round the lobe of the 
nose, runs into a narrow process which is enclosed in the 
fold of integument forming the septum mobile. Pos- 
teriorly the plate of integument situated in the ala is 
produced into several united cartilaginous plates — tho 
sesamoid cartilages — which extend as far as the anterior 
naies. The lobe of the nose, therefore, is formed of the 
curved portion of the lower lateral cartilages of the right 
and the left side, the inward processes of which are 



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96 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

situated in the septum mobile. This construction of the 
lobe of the nose can often be distinctly recognized by a 
shallow vertical groove, but still more plainly if, as it 
sometimes happens, one cartilage projects beyond the 
other. 

The Mtiscles of the Nose. 

The great advantage of the mobility of those parts of 
the nose which are in close proximity to the nostrils, 
especially the alsB of the nose, is that by this means the 
entrance of air into the nasal cavity can be regulated. 
It is true that this arrangement chiefly aflfects the organ 
of smell, but this fact is in itself a reason why a 
certain amount of importance should attach to the 
quantity of air admitted. The development of this 
mobility into actual motion is, of course, due to certain 
muscles, the disposition of which we find to be such that 
some produce an alteration in the width of the nostril, 
while others aflfect its position. Here, again, much is 
attained by the smallest means, for it is through the 
action of four muscles only that all this is accomplished. 
There are, indeed, other smaller muscles distributed over 
the surface of the nose, but these are much too unimpor- 
tant to exercise any perceptible influence, even where 
they are fully developed, which, however, is very rarely 
the case. Their whole value lies in the fact that they 
are indications of similarly arranged, but much more 
powerful and therefore more active, muscles in the 
lower animals. 

Of the four muscles mentioned above, the largest is 
the one which distends the nostril by raising the ala of 
the nose. It arises upon the side of the bony external 
nose, close to the inner angle of the eye, and descends in a 
straight line to the angle between the ala of the nose and 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 97 

the cheek, where its fibres terminate partly in the ala of 
the nose, and partly a little lower down in the upper lip. 
When in action it draws the last-mentioned angle up- 
wards, thus raising the ala of the nose and the adjoining 
portion of the upper lip, and at the same time dilating 
the nostril. It is therefore called the levator labii aupe- 
rioris alaeque nasi. Its action may be seen when a very 
strong inspiration is taken, especially in shortness of 
breath, when it affords entrance to a greater amount of air. 

The antagonist of this muscle is one which it partly 
covers, and which arises upon the incisive fossa im- 
mediately above the outer incisors, passing upwards to 
angle between the ala of the nose and the cheek. A 
number of its terminal fibres are here inserted in the ala 
of the nose ; the rest, however, extend further, spreading 
out in a fibrous aponeurosis over the entire dorsum, 
especially that part which has no bony foundation. The 
first division of this muscle is called the depressor aloe 
nasi; from a false conception of its* position and con- 
sequent action it is, however, sometimes called the levator 
aloe nasi. The second division, from its fibrous expan- 
sion over the moveable portion of the dorsum, draws 
that part of the nose downwards, and is therefore called 
the compressor narium. The two muscles act unani- 
mously in one respect, for they both cause a diminution 
in the quantity of air admitted into the nasal cavity — a 
fact which has no effect upon the process of breathing, 
but, as we shall presently see, is of some importance to 
the organ of smell. 

The two muscles which we have just described are the 
most important, and most frequently brought into action, 
from their position upon the exceedingly mobile alsB of 
the nose. Closely related to them we find, however, 
two smaller muscles, the action of which is restricted to 



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98 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

the lobe of the nose ; the one again being an elevator 
and the other a depressor. 

The elevator of the lobe of the nose — the m. pyrami- 
dalis nasi — is a double bundle of fibres, which does not 
arise upon any particular surface of bone, but is a pro- 
longation of some of the fibres of the frontal muscle, run- 
ning down the dorsum of the nose towards the lobe. Its 
size varies in different individuals ; as a rule, it does not 
extend beyond the lower margin of the nasal bone. As 
it finally blends with the integument, its action is to 
draw the integument of the dorsum of the nose slightly 
upwards, and therefore slightly to raise the lobe. 

In opposition to this muscle is the depressor septi 
mobilis. This, again, does not arise from any special 
bone surface, but consists merely of a few bundles of 
the orbicularis oris, which, passing upwards, terminate 
in the septum mobile. Their action is to draw the latter 
downwards, and with it the lobe of the nose. 



Summary. 

If, now, before proceeding to a closer examination of 
the walls of the nasal cavity, we briefly review the facts 
obtained from the foregoing description of the con- 
struction of the nasal cavity in general, we have the 
following results : — 

(1) The nasal cavity, with the exception of a portion 
of the external nose, is a space entirely enclosed by 
walls of bone, which opens anteriorly by a narrow orifice 
in the face to the outer air, and posteriorly by an 
equally narrow orifice in the uppermost part of the 
pharynx. 

(2) A septum, also for the most part composed of 
bone, occupying a vertical position in the median line 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 99 

of the cavity, divides the latter from the anterior to 
the posterior orifice into a right and a left portion. 

(3) An almost horizontal cross-piece, which, however, 
ascends forwards, again divides each half into two 
spaces distinguished by their difference in width, but 
immediately connected with each other. 

(4) The lower, wider space is the air-passage, strictly 
speaking; it is bounded laterally by the superior 
maxillary bone, and the pterygoid processes of the 
sphenoid with the accompanying palate bones ; the floor 
is formed by the hard palate, with which posteriorly 
the soft palate is directly continuous ; posteriorly the 
roof is formed by the under surface of the body of 
the sphenoid, and anteriorly by the under surface of the 
lateral mass of the ethmoid. 

(5) The upper, narrow sj)ace is the organ of smell. 
It has the appearance of a small crevice-like upward 
extension of the air-passage, which is bounded laterally 
by the inner plate (middle turbinated bone) of the 
lateral mass of the ethmoid. It ascends to the cribriform 
plate, and is bounded posteriorly by the anterior surface 
of the body of the sphenoid, anteriorly by the nasal 
bone ; its lower boundary is given by the plane (sec. 3), 
which, from the under surface of the sphenoid, extends 
as far as the nasal bone; below it is slightly enlarged 
by the middle turbinated bone, without, however, being 
in any way detrimental to the air -passage. (This point 
will be treated more fully presently, and is only alluded 
to here, that the division between the two spaces should 
not seem too pronounced.) 

(6) The external nose, where the nasal bone does 
not form its foundation, is principally to be regarded as 
the most anterior portion of the air-passage ; it consists 
partly of plates of cartilage, which are direct con- 



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100 THE. ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

tinuations of the nasal bones, partly of folds of in- 
tegument, which round the two nostrils are stiffened 
by rings of cartilage. 

(7) That part of the septum also which is situated 
in the external nose, is formed of cartilage retaining 
this character also for some distance into the nasal 
cavity. 

(8) The cartilaginous portion of the external nose 
can be moved by muscles in such a manner, that by 
one pair of muscles the ala, and by another the lobe, 
of the nose can be elevated and depressed. 

(9) The whole of the nasal cavity is lined with a 
mucous membrane which is continuous with the outer 
integument at the nostril, and at the posterior nares 
with the mucous membrane of the pharynx. The 
mucous membrane of the crevice, in the upper part of 
the nasal cavity, hus a peculiar organization which 
enables it to act as the organ of smell. 

The Inner Wall of the Nasal Cavity. 

We have already observed that the space which is 
commonly called the nasal cavity is really divided into 
two spaces, so that, to be perfectly accurate, we should 
distinguish a right and a left nasal cavity ; as, however, 
both cavities stand in precisely the same relation to 
the current of air passing through them, and therefore 
act as a whole, the term *' nasal cavity '* is still generally 
appUed to the two spaces. Still, in a closer examination, 
this division must not be forgotten. We must remember, 
namely, that each cavity has two walls, the inner one 
of which is formed by the septum, and the outer one 
by the superior maxillary bone and the ethmoid. 

The inner lateral wall formed by the septum offers 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 101 

little of importance, it being simply a smooth and even, 
surface, bearing the single characteristic of that fold 
of mucous membrane which serves to narrow the 
entrance to the organ of smell. It consists funda- 
mentally of two thin plates of bone and a plate of 
cartilage, which are so united at their margins as to 
represent a single plate. 

In fact, the septum in the rudimentary skuU consists 
of a single plate of cartilage, of which the two bony plates 

Fzo. 80. 




Septnm of the nose, a. Frontal bone with the frontal sinas (Z) ; &, nasal bone ; e, the 
crista galli and the cribriform plate ; d, sphenoid and sphenoidal sinus (m) ; o, hard 
palate ; e, soft palate ; /, entrance to the Eustachian tube ; ^, perpendicular plate of the 
ethmoid ; h, vomer ; i, cartilaginous septum ; k, septum mobile. 

described are only ossified portions. These bony plates 
are the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and the vomer. 
The latter is situated between the under surface of the 
body of the sphenoid and the upper surface of the hard 
palate, its upper border (guttural edge) forming a line 
extending from the anterior lower angle of the body 
of the sphenoid to the forward termination of the hard 
palate. The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid is 



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102 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

attached before to the nasal bone, above to the cribriform 
plate, behind to the anterior surface of the body of the 
sphenoid, and below to the posterior half of the guttural 
edge of the vomer ; a fifth free border passes from the 
middle of the vomer to the lower extremity of the nasal 
bone. Between this border and the anterior half of 
the guttural edge of the vomer lies the cartilaginous 
septum, the curved margin of which projects in front of 
the anterior nares, between the lower extremity of the 
nasal bone and the anterior extremity of the hard 
palate. The portion of the septum still remaining 
between the latter and the nostrils is composed of the 
fold of integument which we already know as the septum 
mobile. 

It not unfrequently happens with this construction 
that the septum is unsymmetrical, that its central portion 
is bent in on one side, bulging out at the corresponding 
point on the other side into the opposite cavity. 

Far more complicated are the lateral walls of the 
two nasal cavities, for they present all the peculiarities 
connected with the passage of the air through the nose. 

The first thing which strikes us in this wall is the 
difference between the chamber of the organ of smell 
and the air-passage. We see on the latter, namely, 
two convoluted mussel-shaped plates of bone, so situated 
that their concavity faces downwards, and covered with 
the mucous membrane which lines the nasal cavity. 
The lower of these two plates (the inferior turbinated 
bone) may for the present remain unnoticed ; the upper 
one, however, is more important. It is called the middle 
turbinated bone, although this title is most unsuitable, as 
it implies the existence of an upper turbinated bone. 
There is, it is true, another similar small plate of bone 
to be seen above the middle turbinated bone, which is 



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STRUCTUHE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 103 

called the superior turbinated bone ; but its formation 
and its relations are so different, that it cannot be 
considered as equal in importance to the middle tur- 
binated bone. Strictly speaking, the relations of the 
inferior turbinated are quite different to those of the 
middle, and the common designation bestowed upon 
these two bones is equally misapplied; nevertheless 
there is more excuse in the latter case, as the two bones 
bear an outward resemblance to each other. 

The middle turbinated bone divides the air-passage 
from the organ of smell. It is, in fact, a downward 
prolongation of the inner surface of the lateral mass of 
the ethmoid, leaving between the latter and the septum 
a narrow crevice-like space, which is an immediate 
downward extension of the chamber of the organ of 
smell. There is, however, an intermediate space between 
this middle turbinated bone and the superior maxillary, 
which is the highest part of the air-passage. Thus the 
upper part of the air-passage and the lower part of the 
organ of smell lie on the same plane, only separated by 
the middle turbinated bone, and the crevice of the organ 
of smeU opens into the upper and inner portion of the 
air-passage. The entrance to the former is, as we have 
already observed, greatly contracted by the thickening 
of the mucous membrane upon the lower margin of the 
middle turbinated bone, and by a similar swelling upon 
that part of the septum which is opposite to it. The 
chamber of the organ of smell commences in the narrow 
opening thus left, expanding slightly as it passes 
upwards. 

In shape the middle turbinated bone may be com- 
pared to a right-angled triangle. Its lower margin 
begins a little below and before the lower angle of the 
body of the sphenoid, and proceeds parallel with the 



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104 



THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 



horizontal floor of the nasal cavity forwards, terminating 
under the upper end of the nasal bone; the anterior 
margin then starts upwards at a right angle, passing 
nearly to the roof of the nasal cavity. The hypotenuse 
which connects these two lines is formed by the attach- 
ment of the turbinated bona to the lateral mass of the 
ethmoid. It is the same line which has already been 
mentioned as continuing the under surface of the body 
of the sphenoid, and forming the upper boundary of the 
air-passage. It is clear that this line must ascend as it 

Fio. 81. 




Horizontal Beciton of the nasal cavity below the attachment of the inferior turbinated 
bone, viewed from above, a. Floor of the nasal cavity, terminating behind with the 
posterior margin of the hard palate, the anterior margin of the bony floor indicated by 
the dotted line ; b, view through the nostril ; c, antrum ; d, pterygoid process of the 
sphenoid ; «, integument of the external nose. 

passes forwards, and consequently that the air-passage, 
the roof of which is marked by the under surface of the 
middle turbinated bone, must be higher before than 
behind. The importance of this construction probably 
consists less in forcing the air through the ensuing pos- 
terior contraction, as in the fact that space is given for all 
the air which enters the nasal cavity in the air-passage, 
and that it is thus kept back from the chamber of the 
organ of smell. 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 106 

This view is borne out by the peculiarity of the 
anterior margin of the turbinated bone and the manner 
of its union with the side wall of the nasal cavity. The 
anterior portion of the nasal cavity, so far as it is formed 
by the external nose and the anterior nares, is very 
narrow ; the inner wall of the superior maxillary bone 
then recedes considerably, the nasal cavity becoming 
proportionately wider, to contract again at the pos- 
terior nares. It is precisely this wider portion which is 
roofed by the turbinated bone, the anterior margin of 
which curves forwards and outwards into the narrower 
portion, where it is continued for some distance parallel 
to the dorsum of the nose as a low fold, losing itself in 
the even surface, which extends to the nostril. The 
space below the turbinated bone thus commences with a 
trumpet-shaped opening, which is peculiarly well adapted 
to take up the greatest part of the entering air and to 
direct its course into the air-passage, while only a small 
quantity will be able to force its way through the narrow 
slit between the dorsum of the nose and the thickened 
edge of the turbinated bone, and obtain direct access 
to the organ of smell, this chamber being generally 
filled by diffusion from the air passing through the air- 
passage. 

These characteristics also throw some light upon the 
relation between the external muscles and the act of 
smelling. The m. compressor narium, acting in imison 
with the depressor of the septum, impedes the entrance 
of air through the narrow opening leading to the organ 
of smell, and therefore we make use of these muscles 
when wishing to avoid unpleasant smells. On the other 
hand, an elevation of the alae of the nose, accompanied 
by a slight depression of the septum mobile, will draw 
the current of air inwards against the septum, and thus 



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106 THE ORGAJSS OF SPEECH. 

facilitate its entrance under the lower edge of the tur- 
binated bone into the chamber of the organ of smell, 
which will take place still more easily if the air is inhaled 
slowly, so as not to be forced at once into the air-passage 
when it has passed through the nostril. Thus, when 
we wish to perceive any odour very distinctly — as, for 
instance, in smelling a rose — we elevate the alae of the 
nose and then slowly draw up the air. 

In the middle of the air-passage, and therefore in 
its widest part, we meet with another mussel-shaped 
plate lying parallel with the floor of the nasal cavity. 
It is formed of a separate piece of bone (the inferior 
turbinated bone), which is united with the inner wall of 
the superior maxillary. It divides the above-mentioned 
lateral dilation of the air-passage into two parts, an 
upper and a lower, and is situated at about the same 
distance from the septum as the middle turbinated bone. 
The two divisions thus caused by these bones in the air- 
passage are known as the middle and inferior meatus. 
We shall also find mention of a "superior meatus" 
below the " superior turbinated bone," but it can as 
little be compared with the two other meatuses as the 
superior turbinated can with the middle and inferior bones. 
Moreover, we cannot attribute a common significance to 
the two lower meatuses, as they possess none whatever 
when considered apart, and must only be regarded 
as accidental appearances in the air-passage produced 
by the interposition of the inferior turbinated bone. It 
is, indeed, difficult to discover the significance of the 
inferior turbinated bone in this passage. It seems most 
probable that it is designed to warm the air which enters 
before it passes further inwards. In support of this 
view, it appears that the mucous membrane of the 
inferior turbinated bone is so vascular as to form almost 



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STKUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 107 

a spongy tissue, which is filled with blood ; and as, in 
accordance with a well-known law, the current of air 
must flow more slowly in the expanded portion of the 
air-passage, there would be suflBcient time for it to be 
warmed by the constantly renewed blood of the vascular 
membrane. As the process just described must in any 
case be always going on, we may venture to regard it as 
the oflBce of the inferior turbinated bone — a view which 
we shall find confirmed by the relation of the inferior 
turbinated bone in many mammals. In the latter, for 
instance, it is often not merely a simple convoluted plate, 
but a complicated construction filling the whole of the air- 
passage. The two principal forms which we meet with 
are (1) a plate, which near its point of attachment splits 
into two plates, each of which is convoluted upon itself, 
one in an upward, the other in a downward direction ; 
(2) a plate, split in the same way, but these secon- 
dary portions split again, so that a cross section of 
these series of plates has a delicately branched appear- 
ance. In either case there can be no mention of the 
division of the air-passage into two channels, but the 
air streaming through the passage is thus forced to find 
its way through the numerous windings between these 
plates, and consequently must be warmed by its long- 
continued contact with the mucous membrane, which is 
so rich in blood, just as the inhaled air is warmed by 
passing through the threads of a respirator. 

The Side Chambers of the Nose. 

The side chambers of the nasal cavity are a very 
characteristic part of its construction. We may describe 
them generally as excavations in the bones enclosing 
the nasal cavity, into which they open by means of com- 



6 



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108 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

paratively narrow orifices. In each of the. two nasal 
cavities there are three distinct side chambers — the 
sphenoidal sinus, the antrum or maxillary sinus, and the 
ethmoidal sinus. 

The sphenoidal sinus (Fig. 27) is a spherical cavity 
which is found in the body of the sphenoid, and is 
separated from that of the other side by a thin lamella 
of bone. It opens by a small round aperture upon the 
anterior surface of the body of the sphenoid into the 
posterior part of the nasal cavity, or, more correctly, into 
the spheno-ethmoidal recess. The manner of opening 
peculiar to this sinus is of some interest, as affording 
a possibility of discovering the function of the side 
chambers ; we shall, therefore, refer to it again. 

The antrum is a cavity which runs through the entire 
maxillary bone. It is a large cavity, and opens by a 
small round aperture into the upper part of the air- 
passage, below the centre of the middle turbinated bone. 

The ethmoidal sinus is an extensive and very irregular 
cavity, which owes its origin to the hollow character 
of the lateral mass of the ethmoid, and to the fact that 
this character extends beyond the limits of the lateral 
mass, and is more or less continued in the contiguous 
bones. It is not so noticeable in the sphenoid, the palate, 
or the maxillary bone, but very striking in the inner 
walls of the. orbital vaults, and particularly so in the 
frontal part of the frontal bone ; so much so that this 
extension is commonly regarded as a separate cavity 
(the frontal sinus). The system of ethmoidal cells 
possess two entrances into the nasal cavity. By one of 
these — the superior ethmoidal fissure, generally called the 
** superior meatus" — ^the posterior ethmoidal cells open 
into the back part of the chamber of the organ of smeU ; 
by the other — the inferior ethmoidal fissure (known as the 



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STRUCTUKE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 109 

" middle meatus ") — the anterior cells and the frontal 
sinuses open into the nasal cavity under the middle 
turbinated bone, at almost the same place as the antrum. 
Both entrances are long and narrow. 

We may also regard as one of the side chambers of 
the nose, the tympanic cavity of the organ of hearing, 
which opens into the hindermost part of the air-passage, 
close to the posterior nares, by the Eustachian tube. 
As, however, this cavity and the passage by which it is 
connected with the nasal cavity have a very decided and 
important influence upon the organ of hearing, it is not 
generally included with the side chambers, though from 
its hollow nature it so strongly resembles them. 

We must further, to leave nothing unnoticed, re- 
member that the lachrymal canal, which conveys the 
tears, opens under the foremost end of the inferior 
turbinated bone, so that the tears, after having moistened 
the eye, are conveyed into the nasal cavity, where they 
evaporate in the passing current of air. It is only in 
cases where the fluid flows very freely, and when, indeed, 
the lachrymal canal cannot carry it all off, so that some 
of the tears flow over the lower eyelid, that the quantity 
of fluid forced into the nasal cavity cannot evaporate, and 
therefore either flows down through the nostril, or by 
repeated short inspirations is drawn back into the 
pharynx. These short inspirations are either voluntary, 
or they belong to the phenomenon of " sobbing," which 
is caused by spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm. 

But now what significance are we to attribute to 
these side chambers? That they have no connection 
with the organ of smell, is sufficiently proved by the fact 
that in cases where, perhaps from injuries sustained, the 
more easily approached side chambers — as, for instance, 
the frontal sinus or the antrum — have been exposed, it 



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110 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

has been evident that the mucous membrane with which 
they are lined is not adapted for the sensation of smell. 
They must, therefore, be more especially connected 
with the air-passage, particularly as they all open into 
the air-passage and not into the chamber of the organ 
of smell. Their exact significance from this point of 
view has not, indeed, been yet discovered, still we may 
venture to form some opinion from the manner in which 
they open into the nasal cavity. 

We find that there are only two entrances into the 
nasal cavity, one leading from the sphenoidal sinuses 
and the posterior ethmoidal cells, and the other from the 
antrum, the anterior ethmoidal cells, and the frontal 
sinuses. The construction of both entrances is such 
that the entering current of air must flow past them ; 
but the returning current will be caught by them, and 
will be able to penetrate the cavities to which they lead. 

This pecuUarity can be most clearly seen in the 
entrance below the middle turbinated bone which leads 
to the antrum, the anterior ethmoidal cells, and the 
frontal sinuses. It is, namely, a groove, shallow where it 
commences posteriorly, but becoming deeper as it pro- 
ceeds forwards, till at last it leads into a canal which 
ascends to the ethmoid bone and the frontal sinuses. A 
round opening in the groove leads to the antrum. Such 
is the first entrance, and there is no difficulty in following 
the course of the second. 

The posterior extremity of the middle turbinated 
bone lies at a slight distance — about 8 mm. (^ inch) 
— ^below and before the lower angle of the body of the 
sphenoid. The passage formed by this separation at 
once divides into two branches. One of these ascends 
in front of the anterior wall of the body of the sphenoid, 
and terminates abruptly at the cribriform plate ; it forms 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. Ill 

a groove of some depth (the spheno-ethmaidal recess), 
upon the posterior wall of which the sphenoidal sinus 
opens. The other branch, rising obliquely upwards, cuts 
deep into the ethmoid bone, and passes into a canal 
which penetrates into the posterior ethmoidal cells. It 
does not, however, penetrate the lateral mass of the 
ethmoid in a direction vertical to the surface of the plate 
of the turbinated bone, but passes obliquely upwards 
and outwards ; thus its lower edge falls sharply towards 
the septum, and its upper edge appears as a sharp border 
directed downwards. This indentation (the superior 
ethmoidal fissure) is what is commonly called the 
superior meatus, and its upper edge the superior turbinated 
bone. In some cases it is double, the lateral mass of the 
ethmoid being indented by two fissures of this kind 
running parallel to each other. The upper of the two 
passages is then called the '' uppermost meatus,*' and 
its upper edge the uppermost turbinated bone. 

The remarks just made will sufficiently show how 
entirely imsuitable the comparison is which is commonly 
drawn between the crevice here called the superior 
ethmoidal Jissure, with the divisions of the air-passage 
made by the inferior turbinated bone (whence the 
terms " superior turbinated bone," "superior meatus*')* 
and that it can only properly be coupled with the 
inferior ethmoidal Jissure. 

The construction of both fissures plainly shows that 
they can only admit the expired current of air to the 
cavities to which they lead, and that the inspired air 
must flow past them. The necessary repletion of the 
side chambers with air must, therefore, be the work of the 
retreating current of air. That the air really is renewed 
in the side chambers is shown by the example of the 
tympanic cavity, where the air undoubtedly changes 



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112 THE ORGAim OF SPEECH. 

periodically, producing an effect upon the organ of hear- 
ing with which we are fairly well acquainted. We know, 
however, very little about the influence of the side cham- 
bers, and must, therefore, endeavour to form some opinion 
out of the foregoing facts. 

The expired air, like all liquid currents, has a certain 
lateral pressure ; it flows out through the narrow nos- 
trils, entering the nasal cavity, however, through the 
comparatively wide posterior nares ; an accumulation of 
the air in the nasal cavity necessarily ensues, accom- 
panied by increased lateral pressure, which will affect 
even the side chambers, compressing the air which they 
contain considerably. Expiration, therefore, fills the 
side chambers with compressed warm air. When the 
act of expiration is over, part of this air, from its subse- 
quent expansion, will return to the nasal cavity. When 
inspiration commences, the expansion of the air in the 
side chambers still continues, the result of inspiration 
being a rarity of air in these chambers. Thus the side 
chambers are constantly ventilated by the currents of air 
passing through the nose. This cannot be of much 
value to the side chambers themselves ; and the recogni- 
tion of this fact, if we consider the side chambers sepa- 
rately, can throw no light upon their significance in con- 
nection with the nasal cavity. We must, therefore, see if 
we can discover any benefit resulting from this arrange- 
ment to the nasal cavity, or still more to the breathing 
process. If, now, we have already been led to form the 
opinion that the inferior turbinated bone exercises a 
warming influence upon the inhaled air, and when we 
find that the ventilation just described not only supplies 
the nasal cavity before inspiration with a supply of 
warmed air, but that also during inspiration a stream of 
warmed air flows ont of the side chambers and is mixed 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 113 

with the inspired air, w6 shall seem to be justified in 
holding that the side chambers, like the inferior turbi- 
nated bone, may be regarded as a warming apparatus 
for the inspired air. 

They have, moreover, a further significance in 
connection with the formation of articulate sounds, 
when they take part in the resonance of the nasal 
cavity. 

In conclusion, we must draw attention to the relation 
of the superior ethmoidal fissure to the chamber of the 
organ of smell. The upward course of this fissure in 
front of the body of the sphenoid, and the way in which 
it cuts through the turbinated plate of the ethmoid 
covered by the olfactory mucous membrane, would seem 
to stand in contradiction to the description we have 
already given of the chamber of the organ of smell, as 
being entirely isolated from the direct current of air 
through the nose. If, however, we look at the relation 
more closely, we shall find in the arrangement of this 
fissure another cause for the isolation just mentioned. 
The fissure, namely, takes up that smaller portion of the 
exhaled air which forces its way over the posterior root 
of the middle turbinated bone in the direction of the 
chamber of the organ of smell. This side stream can, 
however, never reach the chamber of the organ of smell, 
for it is conducted by the fissure into the sphenoidal 
sinus and the posterior ethmoidal cells, and that portion 
of it which cannot force its way into these cavities is 
thrown back by the wall in which the fissure terminates 
into the great current of air below. In complete accord- 
ance with this, we find that odorous substances entering 
through the posterior nares are not so easily perceived 
as those which come in through the nostrils with the 
inspired air. 



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114 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

The results obtained in this section may be briefly 
stated as follows : — 

(1) Of the two walls which enclose each nasal cavity, 
that which constitutes the septum is unimportant in its 
construction, as, with the exception of the fold which 
serves to narrow the entrance to the chamber of the 
organ of smell, its surface is plane. 

(2) The lateral wall, on the contrary, composed of 
the superior maxillary and the ethmoid bones, possesses 
every characteristic form which gives to the nasal cavity 
its varied significance. We find, namely, (a) in the 
upper part an even surface situated close to the septum, 
which forms the outer wall of the chamber of the organ 
of smell, and to which, from the nostril, there is only 
access by a shallow groove running parallel to the dor- 
sum of the nose ; in the lower, larger part, we find (b) 
the air-passage, which is partly roofed by the middle 
turbinated bone, and which commences anteriorly with 
a height almost corresponding to that of the whole ex- 
ternal nose, and terminates with about half the height 
at the posterior nares. 

(3) The air-passage, in a transverse section, is nar- 
rower anteriorly and posteriorly, and wider in the middle; 
the wider portion is divided by the inferior turbinated 
bone into an upper and a lower half. 

(4) The side chambers of the nose open into the air- 
passage by two narrow fissures, into which fissures only 
the expired air can enter, the inspired air flowing past 
them. 

(5) The probable significance of the inferior turbi- 
nated bone and the side chambers is that they act as a 
warming apparatus for the inspired air. 

(6) There is no doubt that the side chambers exercise 
some influence upon the resonance of the nasal cavity. 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 116 

IndividtLal Variations in the Nasal Cavity. 

As in all parts of the body, so also in the nasal cavity, 
we find many individual variations, which, it is true, have 
no significance when considered in connection with the 
function of the nasal cavity in breathing and smelling, 
but become of importance for the part which they play in 
speech, as they must considerably influence its resonance. 

Some of the peculiarities which we have now to con- 
sider are due to difference in age, while others are vari- 
ations in the nasal cavities of adults. 

If we compare the face of a young child with that of 
an adult, we find a very considerable difference in the 
relation of the several parts to each other. In the 
child's face, for instance, the middle of its elevation 
falls between the eyelids; the elevation from the root 
of the nose to the chin is therefore equal to the ele- 
vation of the forehead, and the lower half of the face 
consists of two, roughly speaking, equal parts, the first 
being the elevation of the nose and the second the eleva- 
tion of the region of the mouth. In the face of the 
adult, on the contrary, we find that the horizontal line 
formed by the space between the eyelids divides off the 
elevation of the forehead as a third of the face, and that 
the second third consists of the elevation of the nose, 
and the third of the elevation of the region of the mouth 
as far as the chin. 

This difference of relation arises from the changes 
which the bones of the face undergo during their develop- 
ment into the perfect form. With regard to the region 
of the mouth, it is clear that the development of the 
alveolar processes of the jaws and the appearance of the 
teeth must cause a considerable elevation, till at last it 
reaches the same height as the region of the forehead. 



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116 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

The region of the nose, on the contrary, acquires its 
increase of elevation entirely from the enlargement and 
development of the nasal cavity. 

We find in the side wall of the nasal cavity of the 
infant all those peculiarities of construction which cha- 
racterize it in the adult ; but they are remarkably com- 
pressed from above downwards. The turbinated bones 
stand out distinctly, but the spaces between them are 
mere narrow crevices, although the anterior trumpet- 
shaped opening in the inferior turbinated bone already 
distinctly betrays its characteristic shape. The whole 
cavity appears as a very low, and in comparison to its 
height, as a very long canal. But, again, the side wall 
approaches so closely to the septum that, in a transverse 
section, it also looks very narrow. There is as yet no 
trace of the side chambers. These facts are quite suffi- 
cient to explain why a cold in the head with small chil- 
dren is accompanied by such difficulty in breathing. 
The narrow space must be nearly entirely closed by the 
inflammation of the mucous membrane which accom- 
panies this complaint, and what does remain open will 
be filled by the discharge of mucous fluid, which, from 
want of a strong current of air, cannot be carried away 
in the usual manner. Gradually, and with the advanc- 
ing growth only, do these relations change ; the nasal 
cavity begins to develop in height and breadth, and the 
side chambers appear. 

The antrums of the superior maxillary bone, which 
are not present in the infant, begin during this gradual 
development to increase considerably in height; the 
floor of the nasal cavity is thus further removed from the 
roof, so that the space within gains much in height, and 
the side walls are able gradually to develop those forms 
with which we are familiar in the adult. The develop* 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 117 

ment of the teeth also expands the superior maxillary 
bone from before backwards, so that by this means, again, 
the nasal cavity gains in depth ; this advantage is also 
increased anteriorly by the rapid development of the 
external nose, which, through the enlargement and 
elevation of the nasal bone, acquires that commanding 
form which distinguishes it from the short, round nose 
of the child. 

Simultaneously with these changes there is a de- 
velopment of the sphenoidal sinuses, which are not 
present in the infant, of the ethmoidal cells, of which 
also there is little trace in the infant, and of the frontal 
sinuses with which they are connected. 

This process of development can only be considered 
complete at about the twentieth year. 

That the development just described is not carried 
out in all persons to the same extent, is evident from the 
fact that the external nose assumes every variety of 
form, from the small round nose to the noble aquiline. 
The striking resemblance of the short pug-nose to that of 
a child shows at once that in such cases the development 
of the nasal cavity has been less perfect than in that of 
the larger external nose. 

It is remarkable that the general characteristic of 
this variation in development — that is, greater or less 
development — is not so much an accident of individu- 
ality as a characteristic of a typical form of head. 
In the classification of skulls, namely, two principal 
forms are distinguished — the brachycephalous, or short- 
headed, and the dolichocephalous, or long-headed; the 
former being characterized by a spherical horizontal 
periphery of the skulls, while in the second this peri- 
phery is an oval, the long diameter of which passes 
from before backwards. This difference is not, how- 



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118 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

ever, produced by individual development, but, as we 
learn from accurate comparative measurement, is most 
distinctly perceptible in the infant; it is, therefore, 
unmistakably a characteristic of race. We may, there- 
fore, consider it to be a general law that in brachy- 
cephalous skulls the development of the nasal cavity and 
its side chambers is not so complete as in the dolicho- 
cephalous, and that, therefore, an equal characteristic 
difference may be observed in the form of the face. 

The dolichocephalous head, besides the long cranium, 
has a long face, in which the lower part of the forehead, 
from the great development of the orbits, projects con- 
siderably and overhangs the eyes, which appear, therefore, 
more deeply set, while between the eyes rises a long high 
nose, which is generally arched ; in the region of the chin 
the profile again retreats. 

In the brachycephalous head, on the contrary, from 
the development of the frontal sinuses being defective or 
entirely wanting, the forehead is upright ; the nose is 
short and low, with a straight or even depressed dorsum ; 
the eyes are more advanced, and the chin does not fall 
away so much from the nose. 

An apparently retreating forehead is, therefore, 
characteristic of the dolichocephalous skull, but bears no 
resemblance to the retreating forehead peculiar to idiots, 
which arises from an absence of brain in the upper 
region of the forehead, while the retreat in the dolicho- 
cephalous skull is caused by the presence of the frontal 
sinuses in the lower part of the forehead, and is, there- 
fore, rather a projection of the lower part of the fore- 
head. 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 119 



The Cavitt of the Mouth. 

The mouth, as we have abready observed, m a natural 
classification of the organs of the body, would not be 
considered to belong to the air-passages, but rather to the 
alimentary canal of the organs of digestion. It contains 
the necessary mechanical apparatus for the mastication 
of the food ; the salivary glands open into it, and during 
the process of mastication moisten the food with their 
secretions, thus preparing it for solution ; and here, also, 
we find the apparatus which carries down the mass thus 
formed through the pharynx into the oesophagus. At 
the same time, from being immediately connected with 
the pharynx, it is adapted to act occasionally as an 
air-passage both in inspiration and expiration. This 
use is made of it in cases of distress for breath — when 
a person is out of breath, for instance, or suflfering 
from asthma, which occasions a constant difficulty in 
breathing ; and also in those cases where, from general 
weakness, the stronger respiratory action which is neces- 
sary to inhale the air through the nose cannot be 
performed. Consumptive people generally have the 
mouth slightly open, so as to breathe with less exertion. 

The complicated mechanism which is connected with 
the natural function of the cavity of the mouth, gives it 
the power of assuming a great number of diflferent forms, 
which partly affect the orifice, partly its internal cavity. 
The air, moreover, passing through the cavity of the 
mouth, derives a characteristic noise from each form 
assumed by the latter ; and again, if the current of air 
is vibrating with a musical sound, the momentary con- 
formation of the cavity of the mouth will give to the 
air thus passing through it a different resonance. These 
relations explain the use of the cavity of the mouth in 



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120 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

speaking, for noises and resonances just alluded to re- 
present the elements of articulate speech. As, however, 
the cavity of the mouth is not adapted by any special 
apparatus for the part it plays in speech, but is only 
provided with that which fits it for its natural position 
as part of the alimentary canal, and is merely occasion- 
ally otherwise employed, it will be well first to study 
the cavity of the mouth from this point of view. 

The mouth is a moderately wide cavity, bounded 
laterally by the cheeks, having a roof formed by the hard 
palate of the upper jaw, and a floor by a plate of mucous 
membrane, which, commencing with the lower lip, ex- 
tends to the upper margin of the hyoid bone. This plate 
finds attachment and support from resting upon the upper 
border of the lower jaw, with which, moreover, it is strongly 
connected. Thus there are bony foundations to both the 
roof and the floor of the cavity, giving to part of it at 
least relations incapable of modification. The anterior 
orifice of the mouth is formed by the space between the 
lips, while posteriorly it is immediately connected, by 
means of a narrow opening (the isthmus of the fauces), 
with the pharynx. Imbedded in the mucous membrane 
which covers the alveolar processes of the upper and 
lower jaws, we find the upper and lower rows of teeth 
projecting into the cavity of the mouth. The mucous 
membrane which surrounds the teeth, and is closely 
attached to the alveolar processes, is generally known 
as " the gums." The cavity of the mouth is imperfectly 
divided by the teeth into two chambers ; into that, namely, 
which is enclosed by the teeth (the cavity of the mouth, 
strictly speaking, or the oral cavity), and that which lies 
between the teeth and the cheeks (the cavity of the 
cheeks, cavum buccarum). This peculiarity will be 
alluded to again as we proceed. 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 121 

The Teeth. 

Each jaw is provided with sixteen teeth, arranged in 
a wide arch, so that four incisors are situated in the 
crown of the arch, followed on either side by one canine ; 
upon the sides of the arch, which are prolonged back- 
wards to some distance, we find in succession behind the 
canine two bicuspids and four molars. The two arches, 
following the well-known form of the crowns of the teeth, 
are thin in front, gradually thickening towards the 
molars, with which the broad ends of the arch terminate 
symmetrically. 

There is a striking difference between the two rows 
of teeth, the crown of the arch of the lower teeth 
being flatter than that of the upper. The result of this 
peculiarity is that, when the teeth are closed, the incisors 
of the upper jaw project beyond those of the lower. 
It, therefore, generally happens that the upper incisors 
overlap the lower, and that when the two rows of incisors 
are made to meet, a gap is left between the molars of 
the two jaws ; and further, that the incisors of the upper 
jaw thus prolong the roof of the cavity of the mouth (the 
oral cavity) anteriorly. This latter peculiarity is carried 
out still further by the upper incisors, and especially the 
two middle ones, being much broader and longer than 
the corresponding teeth of the lower jaw. 

The Mechanical Movements of the Cavity of the Mouth. 

To obtain a proper acquaintance with the changes 
in form of which the cavity of the mouth is capable, it 
will first be necessary to consider the various mechanical 
movements which, from this point of view, exercise an 
influence upon the mouth. 

Now^ that which naturally strikes us first is the 



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122 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH 

movement of the lower jaw. In the process of digestion 
it plays the important part of chewing, or mechanically 
dividing the food ; in speech it is also of importance, its 
action being first to remove the floor of the cavity of the 
mouth from the roof, and then to bring them together 
again, or, in other words, to regulate the size of the 
orifice of the cavity of the mouth. 

A second mechanical movement is that of the lips, 
which regulates the form of the orifice of the mouth. It 
assists in the digestive process by receiving the food into 
the mouth; in speech it gives a different form to the 
orifice of the mouth, thus exercising an important in- 
fluence upon the production of articulate sounds. 

A third mechanical movement is that of the soft 
palate. The soft palate comes into play in that part of 
the process of digestion which consists in the act of 
swallowing ; in speech it regulates the degree to which 
the nasal cavity is shut off from the cavity of the mouth, 
and, therefore, the strength of the current which is 
diverted into the cavity of the mouth. With the action 
of the soft palate is connected the mechanism of the 
constrictor of the pharynx. 

The fourth mechanical movement is that of that 
complex bundle of muscles lying upon the floor of the 
cavity of the mouth, which is called the tongue. In the 
process of digestion it is called into play in the reception 
of the food, in mastication and in the act of swallowing ; 
in speech it has the power of altering the shape of the 
inner cavity of the mouth in such a variety of ways that 
it has the greatest influence upon the creation of certain 
articulate sounds. 



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BTEUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 123 



THE MOVEMENT OF THE JAWS. 

Of the two jaws the upper is rigid, being immoveably 
connected with the rest of the skull ; the lower jaw, on 
the contrary, articulates by a moveable joint with the 
skull. When, therefore, we speak of moving the jaws, 
the lower jaw alone must be understood, the movement 
of which causes it to assume diflferent positions in relation 
to the skull, and especially to that part which articulates 
immoveably with it, namely, the upper jaw. 

The movements of the lower jaw are, in common 
with the movements of all portions of the bony frame- 
work of the body, produced by muscular action. The 
kind of movement resulting from this muscular action 
is, however, due to the character of the joint in which it 
arises ; and it is precisely in this respect that the lower 
jaw displays peculiarities which distinguish it greatly 
from other joints, and to a great extent decide the share 
which the movements of the lower jaw are to take in 
speech. 

It is to the hinder portion, the ramus, of the lower 
jaw that these movements are due. The body, or hori- 
zontal portion bearing the teeth, bends upwards at its 
posterior extremity in an angle which is little short of 
being a right angle. It is this ascending posterior 
portion which is called the ramus. The upper border of 
the ramus presents two processes, separated from each 
other by a deep concavity (the sigmoid notch). The 
anterior process (the coronoid process) is pointed, and 
serves for muscular attachment ; the posterior process 
(the condyloid process) is, on the contrary, broad and 
round at its upper end, and serves for articulation with 
the temporal bone of the skull. 

The round end (condyle) just mentioned may be 



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124 THE ORGANB. OF SPEECH. 

compared to a cylinder placed transversely upon the 
process, and lies, when quiescent, in a hollow {glenoid 
cavity) of the temporal bone immediately in front of the 
outer ear. When the lower jaw is depressed, a rotatory 
movement of the two (right and left) condyles upon an 
horizontal axis immediately takes place in the corre- 
sponding hollow articulating surfaces of the temporal 
bones ; it is, however, only in the ruminants that this 
movement is sufficiently great to constitute the whole of 
the movement by which the mouth is opened; in the 
human lower jaw we find a distinct mechanism which 
provides for its perfect removal from the upper jaw. In 
front of the glenoid cavity of the temporal bone, namely, 
may be observed a transverse rounded eminence (the 
eminentia articularis) upon which the condyle of the 
lower jaw is carried forward when the mouth is opened ; 
when this happens two rounded bodies come into con- 
tact, thus allowing the movement to be continued still 
further. As a necessary precaution in this movement, 
a biconcave fibrous plate (the inter-articular fihrO'Ca/r- 
tilage) is placed between the two articulating surfaces, 
and being more closely attached to the condyle of the 
lower jaw, is carried forward with this bone, returning 
with it to a state of rest in the glenoid cavity. This 
forward movement of the condyle is very perceptible in 
thin persons, a hollow appearing in front of the ear 
which is caused by the external air depressing the skin 
into the empty cavity of the joint ; when the mouth is 
shut, the condyle returns to the glenoid cavity which it 
fills, and the hollow disappears. 

The question now follows as to the forces by which 
the lower jaw is set in motion — a question which, though 
at first sight a simple one^ offers many difficulties in its 
solution. With regard to the forces which bring, the 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 125 

lower jaw into contact witli the upper, thereby closing 
the mouth, the answer is easy, for we find several 
powerful muscles exercising this function. When, how- 
ever, we turn to consider those forces which depress the 
lower jaw, and therefore open the mouth, we are placed 
in the not inconsiderable predicament of being unable to 
discover a single muscle which we can with equal justice 
designate a depressor of the lower jaw in opposition to 
the former, which may be considered as the elevators of 
the lower jaw. We can, indeed, refer to muscles as 
taking some parts in the depression of the lower jaw, but 
at the same time must confess that they perform other 
functions which are more important. It would seem, 
therefore, that the removal of the lower jaw from the 
upper must be effected by some other force than that of 
direct muscular action, and this force we shall find to 
lie in the weight of the lower jaw. Eemarkable as this 
fact may at first sight appear, it is soon explained when 
we consider what force it is which brings the lower jaw 
to a state of rest against the upper jaw. If we compare 
the laws to which the natural positions of different parts 
of the body, particularly in the living subject, are due, 
we find that, besides different statical momenta, there 
are muscles which act by their *' contractility." By this 
term is meant a chronic state of contraction which is 
natural to every muscle when at rest, and corresponds 
to the degree of expansion of which the muscle in ques- 
tion is capable. We can, therefore, have no hesitation in 
referring the raised position of the lower jaw to the 
contractility of its constrictor muscles. At the same 
time it should be remembered that this contractility, in 
order to maintain the raised position of the lower jaw, 
paust overcome the weight of the latter, so that this 
position depends upon the equilibrium existing between 



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126 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

the contractility of the elevating muscles and the weight 
of the lower jaw". If this equilibrium is destroyed by the 
action of the muscles being too strong, the raised position 
will still be maintained, and the teeth merely pressed 
more tightly against each other. If, however, the 
muscular action is too weak, and equilibrium conse- 
quently destroyed by the weight, the lower jaw drops. 
Thus a depressed lower jaw, and therefore open mouth, 
may be regarded as a sure sign of general weakness, or 
of temporal paralysis caused by fright, astonishment, 
etc. It is upon this fact that the common expression 
"gaping with astonishment" is founded. It appears, 
therefore, that the weight of the lower jaw is quite 
sufl5cient to account for the opening of the mouth, and 
it only remains to be proved whether we have it in our 
power to call this weight into action. We can, of course, 
only do so by putting an end to the state of muscular 
contraction. There is, indeed, no doubt that we are 
able by an eflfort of the will to relax those muscles which 
are in a state of active contraction, but how this process 
is accomplished it is difl&cult to say. It is not im- 
probable that the cause of this contraction arises from 
some unconscious psychical action upon the motor 
nerves, and therefore the state of the mind finds expres- 
sion in the bearing of the whole person which is due to 
general muscular contractility; the character of this 
bearing, especially in the face, gives, therefore, some idea 
of the mental life of a person. This being so, it seems 
as natural that we should be able to exercise an in- 
fluence upon this contractility as that we should be able 
to arrest any voluntary muscular contraction. We 
cannot continue this discussion here, but must be satis- 
fied with knowing that we have it in our power, when 
we wish to open the mouth, to destroy the equilibrium 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 127 

between the weight of the lower jaw and the contractility 
of the elevating muscles, and so to drop the lower jaw. 

The freely suspended lower jaw of a dead body is 
held in position by two lateral bands, the external 
lateral ligaments. The point of attachment of each 
band lies a little below the corresponding condyle, upon 
the outer surface of the condyloid process. The centre 
of gravity of the lower jaw falls below this point of 
attachment, which causes the whole body of the bone to 
fall backwards, while the condyle, which lies above 
the point of attachment, is carried forward as far as 
the eminentia articularis. This forward movement 
of the condyle upon the eminentia articularis, therefore, 
necessarily takes place when the lower jaw is moved 
from the upper in the manner just described. If now, 
for a moment, we imagine the point of attachment to 
be fixed, it is clear that, if the condyle were drawn 
forward, the same movement would be imparted to the 
lower jaw as that which it experiences when allowed to 
fall. The condyle, in fact, is drawn forward in this 
manner by a short powerful muscle (the external ptery^ 
goid), which arises upon the pterygoid process of the 
sphenoid, or, more accurately, upon the outer surface of 
the external plate of the latter, and is attached to the 
anterior surface of the condyle. There is no question 
that this muscle must have an influence upon the de- 
pression of the lower jaw ; indeed, its action is distinctly 
perceptible when the mouth is very widely opened, as, 
for instance, in yawning, the unpleasant sensation then 
experienced in front of the ear, especially when a yawn is 
suppressed, merely arising from a spasmodic contraction 
of this muscle. 

Although there is no doubt that the external pterygoid 
muscle is of use in the opening of the mouth, yet it is 



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128 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH, 

tjhiefly important from another point of view. When, 
namely, this muscle acts in harmony with the elevating 
(or closing) muscles, its forward action alone comes into 
play, and it then causes the molar teeth to grind upon 
each other. If the muscle of only one side is in action, 
the movement is oblique ; but if both muscles act simul- 
taneously, the lower jaw is propelled directly forwards, 
and can, indeed, be carried so far that the incisor teeth 
of the lower jaw can be placed at some little distance in 
front of those of the upper jaw. Although the im- 
portance of these movements is chiefly connected with 
the process of mastication, the position thus given to 
the lower jaw is scarcely less influential in the formation 
of individual or national peculiarities of pronunciation. 

Note. — ^With regard to the muscles which take part in the depression 
of the lower jaw, we must further remark that there is a g:roup of small 
muscles upon the anterior surface of the neck, to be described presently, 
the action of which is connected with the movements of the hyoid bone 
and larynx ; they are, however, also called into play when the mouth is 
very widely opened. The powerful contraction can be felt during a yawn 
upon the anterior surface of the neck. 

Wlien the lower jaw has been depressed in the manner described, and 
is to be re{>laced in its former position, those muscles come into action 
which have already been mentioned, and which are generally called the 
masseterSt because they effect the division of the food. Tiie external 
pterygoid^ moreover, is generally included amongst the masseters, and 
rightly so, because of the grinding action to which it gives rise. 

The muscles which act as elevators of the lower jaw may be regarded 
as a single muscular mass, which finds its attachment upon the external 
and internal surfaces of the ramus of the lower jaw. If we continue the 
line of the anterior margin of the coronoid process downwards upon the 
internal and external surfaces of the ramus, we shall obtain upon each 
surface a triangle, the apex of which lies in the point of the coronoid 
process and the base given by the angle, in which the lower border of 
the body of the lower jaw bends upwards to form the posterior border of 
the ramus. These two surfaces are occupied by the attachments of the 
muscles in question, only a small space being left upon the inner surface 
for the opening through which the inferior dental nerve and its accom- 
panying artery pass. This muscular mass arises upon the outer side of 
the skull, partly outside and partly within the coronoid process of tlie 
lower jaw. The temporal muscfe may be regarded as the centre of the 
group, which arises upon the entire surface of the temple, and is attached 
to the external and internal surfaces of the coronoid process. Upon the 
zygomatic arch, which forms the external boundary of the temple, arises 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 129 

the masiteter musde, another of this gronp of masticatory muscles ; it is 
attached to that part of the triangle upon the external surface of the 
ramus wliich is not occupied by the temporal mu$de. The more isolated 
inner part of the group, the internal pterygoid, arises in the fossa bi-tween 
the two plates of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, and is at- 
tached in the lower division of the triangle to tho inner surface of the 
ramus, below the opening for the dental nerve mentioned above. 

At the same time that these muscles raise the lower jaw, they also 
produce a backward movement of the condyle of the lower jaw, so that 
it falls back again into the glenoid cavity, A change is, moreover, also 
produced in the mutual position of the incisor teeth of the upper and 
lower jaws, the latter being again placed behind the former, which is 
very striking, if, as described above, the lower jaw, from a position of 
slight contact, is not actually depressed, but only curried forward. 



THE LIPS. 

The lips are two transverse fleshy folds which mark 
the external orifice of the cavity of the mouth. They 
surround the narrow transverse entrance to the mouth. 
The latter is, however, generally speaking, merely an 
opening made from without into the cavity of the mouth, 
and consequently pierces through both the outer in- 
tegument of the face and the mucous membrane of the 
cavity of the mouth. The outer surface of the lips is, 
therefore, formed by the integument of the face; the 
inner, on the contrary, by the mucous membrane of the 
cavity of the mouth. The construction of the two in- 
teguments is very similar, the only difference being the 
extreme thinness and delicacy of the mucous membrane. 
The transition from one integument to the other at the 
margin of the orifice is, therefore, almost imperceptible. 
The point of transition, however, which is marked by 
the red margin of the lips, has somewhat the character 
of thickened mucous membrane, but beyond this line 
it rapidly assumes the character of the integument of 
the face. 

We are aU familiar with the fact that the lips, when 
quiescent^ are closed against each other, and that they 



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130 . THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

have also the power of performing a great number of 
voluntary movements, by means of which the orifice of 
the mouth can be made to assume almost any shape. 
This purpose is answered by a number of muscles, 
which are either situated in the lips, or approach them 
from different sides; all, however, are so strongly at- 
tached to the integument of the lips, that their action 
has an immediate effect upon them. The fibres within 
each lip are, however, so numerous, that it is scarcely 
possible to distinguish the separate fasciculi and to 
arrange them as distinct muscles. This has given rise 
to much discussion upon the question as to how many 
and what muscles are to be considered as typical 
muscles of the mouth. 

It would occupy too much time if we were here to 
enter into a minute discussion upon the best analysis 
of the system of the muscles of the lips. We must, 
therefore, be satisfied with a rapid glance at the 
arrangement which is generally accepted at the present 
time. 

Following, therefore, this arrangement, we must 
distinguish two layers of muscles, an upper and a lower. 

The lower layer is not confined to the mouth, but is 
merely part of a broad, thin muscular layer, the larger 
part of which constitutes the buccinator mxiscle. The 
entire cavity of the mouth, and the adjoining portion of 
the pharynx, is surrounded by a broad layer of muscles, 
the fibres of which run horizontally (cf. Fig. 88). This 
layer attains its greatest width upon the cheeks, and it 
is here that it bears the name of buccinator (also called 
the trumpeter-muscle, since by its contraction the air 
collected in the cheeks is driven out in the act of blowing 
a trumpet). It is of an annular form, passing without 
interruption from one side of the lips to the other, thus 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 131 

forming the foundation of the system of the muscles of 
the lips. The orifice of the mouth, considered in con- 
nection with this layer of muscles, is merely a long 
narrow opening situated between its fasciculi ; and yet 
these fasciculi cannot be regarded as passing simply 
upon either side of the opening, for we find that the 
bundles of fibres interlace each other at the comers of 
the mouth, and that some, which, if they proceeded 
directly forwards, would run along the upper margin of 
the lower lip, alter their course to the lower margin of 
the upper lip, and in the same manner others, which 
would run along the lower margin of the upper lip, cross 
over to the upper margin of the lower lip. The two sets 
of fasciculi, by intersecting each other in this manner, 
give a more definite form to the lateral ends of the 
orifice of the mouth. 

Above this first layer of muscles lies another, in 
which it is usual to distinguish two antagonistic systems, 
one of which closes the orifice of the mouth and the 
other opens it. The system of expanding muscles ra- 
diates from all sides towards the orifice of the mouth, and 
can draw back its margins in every direction. In opposi- 
tion to this system we have that which closes the mouth, 
an annular layer of muscle surrounding the orifice of 
the mouth, which is known as the orbicularis oris; 
the layer is, however, by no means a simple one, but is 
unquestionably composed of different elements. For 
the present, however, we will still regard this circular 
layer as a simple annular muscle, and proceed to investi- 
gate the radiating system of the expanding muscles of 
the orifice of the mouth ; the modifications which must 
be made in our conception of the closing muscle will 
then be self-evident. 

The muscles which act as expanders of the orifice 

7 



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132 



THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 



of the month are arranged npon a very simple plan, and 
are partly attached to the lips themselves and partly to 
the angles of the mouth. Each lip has its abductor — 
the levator laUi superioris and the depressor labii inferioris; 
and at the angle of the mouth we find an elevator and 
a depressor — ^the levator and the depressor anguLi oris. 
As all these muscles are in pairs, we have already eight 

Fi08.32,38. 




The ransclefi of the month. The dlagrain, Ftg. 33, shows how, bj the partial inter- 
lacing of their fibres, they form a constrictor muscle for closing the month. L, Elevator of 
the angle of the month (levator angvli oris) ; 2>, depressor of the angle of the month 
(depressor anguli oris); Z, zygonuUtctu; I, lower muscles of the incisors (incisivi ir^fe- 
riores), partly blending with the orbictUariM oriit and partly descending as the muscles 
raising the chin (lewUores mentt)— I, to the integument of the chin ; T, inciiivi tuperwrett 
partly blending with the orinaUarit orii, partly passing to the nasal septum as the 
depressor of the nasal septum (depressor sepH nartum)— <l. In the complete figure we see 
the levator angtdi oris on the left side partially covered by the levator labii superioris; 
between the depressor angtdi oris of the right and left sides lie two quadrilateral muscles 
which partially intersect each other— the dmressor labii ir\ferioris. Running vertically 
upon either side: the masticatory muscle (masseter), and behind horizontally, the 



muscles which act upon the orifice of the mouth in the 
manner described. Acting in concert with these, more- 
over, we find a muscle (the zygomaticus) which descends 
obliquely to the angle of the mouth, and in many cases 
another (the risorius) which ascends obliquely to the 
angle of the mouth, so that we have altogether ten or 
twelve muscles, the action of which is to distend the 



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STEUOTURB OF THE OBGANS OF SPEECH. 133 

orifice of the mouth. We must now consider these 
muscles singly, both as regards their action and their 
relation to the annular layer of muscle. 

Two muscles are generally distinguished upon each 
side as elevators of the upper lip, though the distinction 
rests upon a very slight foundation. A very broad plate 
of muscle arises from the inner half of the lower margin 
of the orbit, the line of origin extending as far as the 
lateral surface of the nasal bone, close to the inner angle 
of the eye. This muscular plate diminishes in size as it 
descends, and is inserted in the upper lip. The inner 
fibres do not, however, reach as far as the upper lip, but 
terminate in the fold of integument between the ala of 
the nose and the cheek. An interruption which occurs 
in the line of origin near the inner angle of the eye, 
caused by the passage of a small nerve to the lower eye- 
lid, has been considered as a sufficient reason for dividing 
this muscle into two parts. Those fasciculi which arise 
upon the inner side of this gap are called the levator laUi 
superioris alaeque nasi, because they contain those fibres 
which terminate near, and consequently raise, the ala of 
the nose ; the rest of the muscle, however, which arises 
from the outer side of the above-mentioned gap, is called 
the levator labii superioris proprivs. It is evident that 
this division is entirely artificial, and that the two 
muscles should more properly be regarded as one (the 
levator laUi superioris), although a few of its fasciculi 
cannot directly elevate the upper lip, but do so only 
through the ala of the nose. If any artificial division is 
to be made, it would be better to call the latter fasciculi 
the levator alae noM. 

Corresponding to this muscle, we have a depressor of 
the lower lip, the depressor labii inferioris {quadratus 
menU). This arises upon the lower jaw in the hollow 



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134 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

which Kes near the triangular eminence, called the mentoZ 
process ; it strikes upwards and inwards, and is lost in 
the under lip, after having intersected the corresponding 
muscle of the other side. Its action is to draw down one 
side of the lower lip, but also, from its fibres extending 
beyond the middle line, to draw down the other side 
obliquely; both muscles (of the right and left sides) 
therefore draw the lip downwards in such a manner as 
to form a groove beneath it. 

The levator angvli oris, which raises the angle of the 
mouth, arises upon the surface of the superior maxillary 
bone below the margin of the orbit, and descends 
obliquely, diminishing at the same time in size, to the 
angle of the mouth. 

In antagonism to this muscle we find the depressor 
anguli oris {triangularis menti), which depresses the angle 
of the mouth ; it arises in a long line upon the anterior 
portion of the lower margin of the lower jaw, diminish- 
ing in size as it approaches the angle of the mouth. 

From the angle of the mouth also the zygomatic 
muscle passes upwards and outwards to the zygomatic 
arch. 

By the risorius (Santorini) muscle we understand an 
irregular and uncertain fasciculus which passes towards 
the angle of the mouth from behind and below, arising 
upon the margin of the lower jaw, but which is generally 
nothing more than a few fasciculi of the great muscle of 
the neck, the platysma myoides. 

The last-named muscles stand in a peculiar relation 
to the annular muscular layer (constrictor) of the orifice 
of the mouth. The depressor anguli oris does not, for 
instance, terminate at the angle of the mouth, or at least 
does so only partially; the greater part curves round 
this angle to blend with the muscle of the other side. 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 135 

and thus not only acts as a depressor of the angle of the 
mouth, but also as a depressor of the upper lip. The 
levator anguli oris and the zygomaticus behave in the 
same manner towards the lower lip, curving round it to 
blend with the corresponding muscles of the other side, 
and therefore acting as elevators of the lower lip. A few 
fasciculi of the two last-named muscles even pass by the 
angle of the mouth, and, blending with the depressor 
anguli oris, run with it to its point of origin. They form, 
therefore, a convex loop towards the angle of the mouth, 
which consequently they draw outwards. 

Note. — It is tisnal to distingnish a second zygomatic mtucle^ which, the 
first being the major, is described as the zygomaticus minor. This muscle 
is, however, only a variety of part of the zygomaticus major, or indeed of 
the levator anguli oris, which displays no regularity either in its appear- 
ance or in its arrangement when present. As, moreover, this muscle has 
no independent effect upon the mobility of the mouth, we can have no 
hesitation in omitting it from the group of the typical muscles of the 
mouth, and in regarding it merely as a variety. 

We may now return to the constrictor muscular layer 
which surrounds the mouth, and proceed to examine its 
component parts. 

We have already seen that it is partly composed 
of the interlacing portions of the huccinator, and of 
the portions detached for that purpose from the three 
muscles of the angle of the mouth, and we must now 
inquire whether other elements enter into the annular 
system, or whether these alone are sufficient to form 
the constrictor muscle. When we consider that these 
elements are undoubtedly able to press the lips together, 
but not to draw the angles of the mouth inwards, so as 
to give a round appearance to the orifice of the mouth, 
it is clear that other elements must be found in the lips 
to which this latter function belongs, and this we shall 
find to be the case upon closer investigation. 



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136 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

We are at once confronted with an annular layer of 
muscle, fully corresponding to the definition of a con- 
strictor (sphincter) muscle, namely, the orbicularis oris. 
The greater part of this layer is, moreover, so strongly 
connected with the integument at the angle of the 
mouth, as to make it appear that the continuity of the 
fibres must be broken. Although the constrictor may 
thus be considered as divided into two half-circles, one 
of which lies in the upper lip and the other in the lower, 
its character as a whole is not destroyed, its function of 
drawing in the angles of the mouth merely becoming in 
this manner more pronounced, and the possibility given 
for the independent action of one or other of the half- 
circles. 

The function of the closure of the orifice of the mouth 
is further shared by two muscles, the incisivi, the con- 
struction of which is somewhat complicated. One of 
these muscles (the incisiviis superior) is situated upon the 
upper jaw, the other (the incisivus inferior) upon the 
lower jaw. 

The incisivus superior arises above the external 
incisor tooth and the canine tooth of the upper jaw. 
The fibres proceeding from this point of origin pass (1) 
upwards towards the nose as the depressor aloe, (2) down- 
wards to the upper lip, which they draw upwards, and 
(3) obliquely to the angle of the mouth, where they are 
lost in the integument. The last division draws the 
angle of the mouth inwards, and thus completes the 
action of the orbicularis oris. 

The incisivus inferior behaves in a similar manner. 
It arises beneath the external incisor and the canine 
of the lower jaw, and also separates into three por- 
tions, which are the exact analogues of those of the 
incisivus superior. One portion (distinguished as the 



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STRUCTUEB OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 137 

levator menti) descends to the integument of the chin, 
and therefore draws the chin upwards ; a second portion 
is dispersed along the lower lip, which it draws down- 
wards; and the third portion passes obliquely to the 
angle of the mouth, in the integument of which it is lost. 
The action of the latter portion is, therefore, exactly 
similar to that of the corresponding portion of the 
incidvvs superior, except that it draws the angle of the 
mouth more downwards and inwards, while the corre- 
sponding portion of the incisivuB superior draws it up- 
wards and inwards. 

The sphincter system of muscles which effects the 
closure of the orifice of the mouth is, therefore, com- 
posed of the following elements : — 

(1) Part of the buccinator muscle, 

(2) A true annular (sphincter) muscle. 

(3) Loop-muscle of the comer of the mouth. 

(4) Parts of the incisivi muscles. 

The great variety of the muscular forces acting upon 
the orifice of the mouth at once explain its great 
mobility and power of assuming such a variety of shapes, 
all of which are of greater or less importance in the 
formation of articulate sounds. The close connection 
between the shape given to the orifice of the mouth and 
those articulate sounds which are influenced by it will be 
discussed more at length in another section. 

THE TONGUE. 

A definition of the tongue offers considerable difficul- 
ties, for it is impossible to isolate it as an independent 
structure from its surroundings, as we are accustomed to 
isolate and to describe independently a given bone or 
muscle. All that we can say about it is, that it is a 



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138 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

moveable fold, which occupies nearly the whole of the 
floor of the cavity of the mouth ; this mobility depends 
partly upon its power of assuming different shapes, and 
partly from the relatively great power it possesses of 
altering its position. 

If we proceed to examine the structure of this fold, 
we find that the entire substance of the tongue ap- 
parently consists of a confused mass of muscular fibres 
and a little intermediary fat. Upon following the 
course of these fibres, we are able to distinguish three 
separate muscles on each side, arising upon certain 
bone surfaces, and thus we find that six muscles, three 
upon each side, passing from different directions, are 
intimately bound together at their free ends so as to form 
a complicated muscular mass, which penetrates into the 
cavity of the mouth and rests upon its floor in the form 
of that fold which is known to us as the tongue. In 
addition to the elements contributed by these three 
muscles, we find, though in a less degree, muscular fibres 
which are peculiar to the tongue, their origin, course, 
and termination being all within its limits. 

The external appearance presented by the tongue 
in the cavity of the mouth is that of a long flattened 
rounded body, the greater part of the under surface of 
which is implanted in the floor of the cavity of the mouth, 
whilQ the upper surface, the dorsum, faces freely upwards, 
and the apex, or tip, free both above and below, is directed 
forwards. The broad posterior end, the base, or root, 
lies near the epiglottis, with which it is connected by 
a small fold of mucous membrane passing from before 
backwards (the glosso-epiglottic ligament), which, being 
attached to the upper surface of the epiglottis, helps to 
keep it in a raised position. A similar fold of mucous 
membrane, the frenum linguae, passes from the under 



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STRUCTURE OF TOE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 139 

surface of the apex of the tongue, at the point where it 
rises from the floor of the cavity of the mouth, down- 
wards to the latter. 

The groundwork of the formation of the tongue is, 
as we have ahready remarked, laid by three pairs of 
muscles, which, arising from fixed points of origin, after 
a free course of greater or less length, terminate in the 
body of the tongue. The most important of the three, 
and that at the same time which contributes most to 
the form of the tongue, is the genio-hyo-glossiLB. It arises 
upon the upper genial tubercle on the inner surface of 

Fio. 34. 




The muKles of the tongae and the hyoid hone. A, stylo-hyoid B, genio-hyoid; 
C, stemo-hyoid; i), omo-hyoid; o, hyo-glossut; b, genio-hyo-gUntttt i c, itykhglossiu ; 
• stylo-pharyvgeui ; C, />, and * divided. 

the symphysis of the chin. It passes first backwards 
for a short distance and then spreads out upwards and 
backwards throughout the entire length of the tongue, 
so that its uppermost fibres terminate in the apex of 
the tongue, and its lowest upon the upper margin of the 
body of the hyoid bone at the hindermost end of the 
dorsum of the tongue. The two (right and left) genio- 
hyo-glo8Bi muscles, lying close together in the middle line 
of the body, form to some extent the foundation of the 
tongue, constituting both a considerable part of its sub- 



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140 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

stance, and a central point of support to which the other 
muscles are attached. 

Next to it we find the hyo-glosstis muscle. This 
muscle arises upon the upper part of the greater horn 
of the hyoid bone, and then passes, close to the lateral 
wall of the pharynx above the hyoid bone, forwards 
upon the external surface of the genio-hyo-glossus to the 
tongue, in which its fibres spread out and terminate. 

The third muscle is the stylo-ghsaus. This is a long, 
thin, round muscular band which arises upon the styloid 
process of the temporal bone, and passes freely down- 
wards near the upper part of the pharynx. It bends 
forward above the hyoid bone, and then runs to the 
apex of the tongue upon the external surface of the 
hyo-glossus. 

The muscles which are entirely situated in the tongue 
are the following : — 

(1) The lingimlis longitudinalis inferior y a round 
muscular band, running between the genio-hyo-glossus 
and the hyo-glossus through the whole length of the 
tongue. 

(2) The lingtuilis longitudinalis superior , a flat layer 
of muscular fibres which spreads over the entire dorsum 
of the tongue under the mucous membrane. 

(3) The lingualis transversu^, an aggregation of sepa- 
rate fasciculi, which traverse the whole of the tongue 
from side to side. 

As regards the action of these muscles, it is clear 
that the second group, comprising the three muscles 
just mentioned, can only have an influence upon the 
form of the body of the tongue, while the muscles of the 
first group effect a change of position in the body of 
the tongue in addition to a change of form. 

Let us first consider the second group, and we find 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 141 

that the two longitudinal muscles produce by their con- 
traction a shortening of the body of the tongue, which of 
course makes it wider and thicker. A similar effect is also 
produced in a single muscle, i.e. the flexor of the elbow- 
joint situated in the anterior region of the upper arm, 
in which this simultaneous shortening anfl thickening is 
plainly perceptible. A difference will, however, be ob- 
servable, according as the longitudinalis superior or the 
longitudinalis inferior is in action, or both at once. The 
first, namely, can only effect a contraction of the upper 
portion of the tongue ; and as the lower portion remains 
quiescent, this contraction must produce a concavity upon 
the dorsum of the tongue or cause an elevation of its 
apex. Similarly, the longitudinalis inferior only acts 
upon the lower part of the tongue, the dorsum being 
quiescent, and therefore the dorsum of the tongue becomes 
convex and the apex is bent downwards. If the two 
longitudinal muscles act simultaneously, the whole tongue 
is contracted ; if, however, the muscles of one side only 
are called into action, half of the tongue only is con- 
tracted, and directed upwards or dowmwards according 
as the upper or lower muscle is most powerful. 

The transverse layer of muscle (the musculus trans- 
versus) draws the sides of the tongue together, thus 
lessening the body, but at the same time lengthening it, 
and thickening it in a vertical direction. 

Of the muscles of the first group the * action of the 
genio'hyo-glossus is the most important, and at the same 
time the most striking, for it draws the whole body of 
the tongue forwards, so that the apex of the tongue 
protrudes beyond the incisor teeth and the lower lip. 
The hyo-glossuSf on the contrary, draws it backwards and 
downwards, rendering the back part of the tongue convex, 
. and forcing it into the pharynx. The stylo-glossus also 



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142 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

draws the tongue backwards, but in an upward direc- 
tion, thus bringing it into contact with the palate ; the 
muscle of either side raises the corresponding edge of 
the tongue, thus forming a sort of fold throughout its 
length ; if both muscles act at once they create, by thus 
raising the edges, a groove along the dorsum of the 
tongue. 

Enough has been said to explain the cause of the 
extraordinary mobility of the tongue. Great variety is 
shown even by the simple action of the separate muscles, 
which must, however, be infinitely increased when a 
number of muscles act simultaneously, or when there 
is a succession of simple or compound actions. 

Three movements of the tongue predominate in the 
process of mastication : (1) it is alternately stretched out 
and drawn back for the purpose of receiving the food ; (2) 
it is moved in different ways, but especially raised 
laterally for the purpose of replacing the food, which 
has fallen during mastication into the cavity of the 
mouth, under the molar teeth — ^the buccinator performs 
the same servic? to the food which has fallen into the 
cavity of the cheeks; (3) it is raised backwards to 
perform the act of swallowing. 

The influence of the movements of the tongue upon 
the formation of articulate sounds will be particularly 
noticed in another section. 



THE HTOID BONE. 

The movements of the tongue which we have just 
described are all derived from muscles which either 
enter into or are situated in the tongue; they may, 
therefore, be termed independent Movements, or, if we 
prefer it, active movements of the tongue. In addition 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 143 

to these there axe, however, a great number of move- 
ments which we may describe as passive, as through 
them an alteration is effected in the position of the 
tongue as a whole. These movements are imparted to 
the tongue as part of the floor of the cavity of the mouth, 
and are therefore, strictly speaking, movements of the 
latter. They are, moreover, of considerable importance 
in the formation of articulate sounds, because they at 
the same time act upon the pharynx in such a manner 
that the position of the latter, especially in a vertical 
direction, is altered, and the resonance tube of the vocal 
apparatus contracted or lengthened. 

The diaphragmatic floor of the cavity of the mouth 
ma.y be regarded as the foundation for these move- 
ments. 

What is meant by a diaphragmatic floor, and how it 
is produced, will best be seen from a consideration of the 
diaphragm itself. The latter is a thin plate of muscle 
which throughout its periphery is united with the thorax, 
the fibres passing from this attachment as from their 
origin towards a central point in such a manner that if 
we follow the course of any two fibres which meet here, 
we find that they arise from opposite points upon the 
periphery. As, therefore, all the fibres have a fixed 
attachment at both ends^ they cannot possibly, like 
other muscles, bring these ends together by contraction. 
This contraction must, therefore, have a diflferent effect, 
which we find to be as follows. The muscular plate, 
which constitutes the diaphragm, is situated between the 
abdominal viscera and the contents of the thorax. The 
pressure exerted by the latter in transmitting the pres- 
sure of the abdominal walls, is greater than that of the 
contents of the thorax, and the diaphragm, therefore, is 
forced upwards. When it contracts it becomes flatter, 



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144 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

and thus exerts a pressure upon the abdominal viscera. 
In generalizing this construction, we must represent a 
diaphragmatic muscle as a muscular plate stretched 
between two fixed points of attachment, forming the 
boundary of a cavity upon one side, concave when 
quiescent from unequal pressure, but becoming flatter 
when in action, and thus exerting a pressure upon that 
side, from which at other times the pressure proceeds. 

This diaphragmatic construction may be observed in 
the levator ani muscle of the pelvis as well as in the dia- 
phragm ; and again in the lower boundary of the cavity 
of the mouth. The floor, for instance, of the mouth is 
formed in this manner; we will therefore proceed to 
examine it somewhat closely. 

The principal part of the diaphragmatic floor of the 
cavity of the mouth consists of a flat muscle which, in 
current terminology, bears the inappropriate name of 
myh-hyoid, but which would be much better described as 
the diaphragma oris, because the relation in which it 
stands to the cavity of the mouth is purely diaphrag- 
matic, while its relation towards the hyoid bone is only 
of secondary importance. Upon the inner surface of the 
lower jaw may be seen a small ridge, the ^internal obliqtie 
line, which passes backwards upon the body of the lower 
jaw from the genial tubercle, to which we have already 
alluded. The muscle we are describing crosses from one 
of these lines to the other, thus closing the lower part of 
the cavity of the mouth, strictly speaking (the oral cavity) ; 
it is covered above by the mucous membrane which lines 
the cavity of the mouth and the tongue. The weight of 
the latter presses down the middle of this muscular 
plate, so that it presents a concave appearance from 
below. From this it is clear that a contraction of this 
muscle will only produce an elevation of the fl^or of the 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 145 

cavity of the mouth, and consequently of the whole body 
of the tongue. 

In the muscle just described, the fibres run only in 
one, namely, a transverse direction* The diaphragmatic 
character of the floor of the cavity of the mouth requires, 
however, that another series of fibres should cross the 
former ; and as we find this to be the case with the fibres 
of the digastric muscle, we need not hesitate to include 
this muscle as participating in the diaphragmatic closure 
of the cavity of the mouth. Before describing it, we 
must first show the relation of the hyoid bone to the 
mylo'hyoid muscle. 

The form and construction of the hyoid bone has 
already been described, so that here we need only 
remark that the body of the hyoid bone is connected 
with the free posterior border of the mylo-hyoid muscle 
in such a manner that it projects into the posterior 
fasciculi of the latter, and interrupts their continuity. 
This gives rise to two important relations. One result 
of this connection will be that the hyoid bone, and with 
it the parts dependent upon it, especially the larynx, 
must be raised by the posterior fasciculi of the mylo- 
hyoid; another, that all movements which the hyoid 
bone has the power of performing must have an influence 
upon the floor of the cavity of the mouth, thus, for 
instance, creating the possibility of its depression. 

The digastric muscle is composed of two short muscular 
bellies, and an intermediate long tendon. The posterior 
belly arises from the mastoid process of the temporal 
bone behind the ear, and presently blends with the 
tendon, which descends to the hyoid bone, and is here 
attached to the side of the body by an aponeurotic loop. 
From this point the anterior belly passes to the lower 
jaw, and is attached below the mylo-hyoid muscle to the 



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146 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

lower margin of this bone close to the genial tubercles. 
It not unfrequently happens that this anterior belly has 
an independent origin upon the hyoid bone ; but the 
construction is not materially effected by this variation. 
Thus the digrastic muscle is in the form of a curve, the 
lowest point of which is the hyoid bone, from the base 
of the skuU to the lower jaw. When in action, it wiU 
become tense, and therefore raise the hyoid bone ; but as 
this elevation of the hyoid bone necessitates that of the 
floor of the cavity of the mouth, the activity of this 
muscle reinforces and completes that diaphragmatic 
action of the mylo-hyoid muscle. 

From these relations it appears that the hyoid bone 
acts as a fixed central point of the floor of the cavity of 
the mouth ; it follows that the position of the latter may 
be indirectly affected by movements or alterations of 
position in which the hyoid bone is primarily concerned. 
As, moreover, the situation of the hyoid bone also 
decides that of the larynx, which is suspended from it, 
the movements and changes in the position of the hyoid 
bone must be further imparted to the larynx. 

The movement of the hyoid bone is due to a number of 
muscles which radiate towards it from several fixed 
points of origin, and are attached to the body of the . 
bone. The mechanism presented by these muscles as 
a whole is the most wonderful of the whole body, the 
smaU number of four muscles upon each side being 
sufficient to ensure the movement of the hyoid bone in 
any direction. The number of these muscles is, there- 
fore, really eight, but may be reduced to six, two of 
the four muscles in the middle line of the body being 
immediately connected with those of the other side, 
and thus acting singly from a mechanical point of 
view. 



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STKUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 147 

The fixed points from which the muscles of the hyoid 
bone arise are — 

The genial tubercles of the lower jaw. 

The posterior smrface of the upper part of the breast- 
bone. 

The styloid process of the temporal bone. 

The upper border of the internal surface of the 
shoulder-blade from the supra-scaptdar notch 
behind the coracoid process which rises from the 
upper part of the neck of the shoulder-blade. 

The names of the four muscles are derived from the 
points where they terminate, and following the same 
order as above, will be therefore — 

The genio-hyoid. 

The sternO'hyoid. 

The styh'hyoid. 

The omO'hyoid. 

As regards the position of the latter, we need only 
observe that the genio-hyoid passes directly along the 
lower border of the genio-hyo-ghssus, which has already 
been described, and above the mylo-hyoid, so that it is 
covered inferiorly by the latter. The other three muscles 
are free. (Cf. Fig. 34.) 

If we regard the group of the muscles of the hyoid 
bone from before, we find that the genio-hyoid descends 
directly towards it, and that the stemo-hyoid and the 
omO'hyoid ascend vertically to the side of the bone. 
Thus all transverse movements of the hyoid bone are 
provided for, though at the same time the action of these 
muscles is most powerful in a vertical direction. 

If we take a side view of the group, we find that the 
direction of the genio-hyoid is distinctly from before 
backwards, its rise being much less pronounced. On 
the other hand, the sterno-hyoid, the direction of which 



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148 THE OKGANS OF SPEECH. 

is undoubtedly also from before backwards, is much more 
remarkable for its upward tendency — so much so that 
our attention is almost entirely claimed by the latter 
peculiarity. The direction of the styh-hyoid and of the 
omo-hyoid, again, is distinctly forward, the former from 
above and the latter from below. Movement in every 
direction is thus provided for in the middle line of the 
body of the hyoid bone. 

The glance we have taken from these two points of 
view shows that the upward direction is the one least 
provided for, the genio-hyoid haviQg a more forward 
direction, and thus that the upward movement through 
muscles of the hyoid bone is chiefly due to the styUh- 
hyoid ; it seems probable, therefore, that the whole of 
the diaphragmatic apparatus of the cavity of the mouth, 
described above, must take part in the production of the 
movement. The demonstration of the muscles which are 
either directly or indirectly concerned in the movements 
of the floor of the cavity of the mouth would gain greatly 
in simplicity if we could regard the genio-hyo-glossiis and 
the styh-ghssua as part of the diaphragmatic apparatus 
which raises the floor of the cavity of the mouth, and 
therefore imite them into one group with the mylo-hyoid 
and the digastric as " elevators of the floor of the cavity 
of the mouth and the tongue," which group would then 
be opposed by another consisting of the sterno-hyoid and 
the omo'hyoid, or " depressors of the floor of the cavity 
of the mouth and the tongue.'' The first of these groups 
would also, from reasons already explained, act as ele- 
vators of the larynx, and the latter as depressors of the 
larynx. 

The larynx is not, however, entirely dependent upon 
the movements of the hyoid bone for its elevation and 
depression, but possesses for this purpose special forces. 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 149 

which are most closely connected with the group of the 
muscles of the hyoid bone, and especially with the stemo- 
hyoid. 

Covered by the sterno-hyoid, a long muscle passes 
upwards from the sternum to the hyoid bone, being ap- 
parently nothing more than a deeper layer of the sterno- 
hyoid, but distinguished from the latter by having 
another point of attachment upon the thyroid cartilage 
of the larynx, thus separating into two parts, which from 
their attachments are called respectively the hyo-thyroid 
and the sterno-thyroid. This band of muscle, which 
might be called the ^terno-hyo-thyroid, has, as a whole, 
the same action as the sterno-hyoid. The action of its 
separate parts differs, however, with regard to the larynx, 
the hyo'thyroid raising it towards the hyoid bone, and 
the aternO'thyroid depressing it in the direction of the 
sternum. 

The hyO'thyroid, again, has a special influence upon 
the act of swallowing. When, for instance, it is then 
called into action, it relaxes the median hyo-thyroid 
ligament, the tension of which keeps the epiglottis up- 
right, and thus .facilitates the fall of the epiglottis by 
which the entrance to the larynx is protected from the 
passing food. 

THE PHARYNX. 

The hinder portion of the cavity of the mouth is 
closed towards the pharynx by the apparatus which is 
known to us as the soft palate, or the velum pcdati. The 
latter may be generally described as a soft pendulous 
fold, which according to its position either shuts off the 
cavity of the mouth from the pharynx, or the nasal 
division of the pharynx from that belonging to the cavity 



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160 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

of the month. The apparatus is not, however^ quite so 
simple as it appears at first sight, for we find that the 
walls of the pharynx are included in the mechanism. 
We must, therefore, first consider the walls of the pharynx 
with regard to the movements of which they are capable. 

The pharynx is distinguished from the rest of the 
alimentary canal, especially the oesophagus, of which it 
is the upper termination, in not being, like the latter, 
an enclosed circular tube, for it is entirely without an 
anterior wall, the cavities of the nose, mouth, and larynx 
all opening into this side ; unless, indeed, we regard as 
an anterior wall the posterior margins of the septa be- 
tween these cavities, or, since these septa are prolonged 
into the soft palate and the epiglottis, the free margins 
of these two folds. The pharynx, therefore, has only a 
posterior wall and two lateral walls, the latter being con- 
tinuous with the lateral walls of the cavities of the nose, 
mouth, and larynx. 

The muscles in the walls of a perfect tube are so 
arranged that some surround the tube as an annular 
plane of fibres, while the rest run downwards as a lon- 
gitudinal plane. The first contract, the latter, on the 
contrary, shorten the tube. 

The absence of an anterior wall in thie pharynx 
makes it impossible that there should be a perfect con- 
strictor muscle, and yet the same movements take place 
in the pharynx as in a free tube — shortening, namely, 
and contraction. This becomes possible from a modifi- 
cation in the typical muscles of a tube in accordance with 
the relations of the pharynx. The constrictor muscles 
being chiefly concerned, we will first examine them; 
the modification of the longitudinal muscles is closely 
connected with the adjustment of the soft palate, and 
will, therefore, be discussed with the latter. 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 151 

The contraction effected by the constrictor muscle of 
a tube is due to the fasciculi of fibres of which it is 
composed, which, in shortening, form the circumference 
of a smaller circle, and thus all the points of the cir- 
cumference are equally approached to the axis of the 
tube. The same contraction may, however, take place 
if one point of the circumference is fixed. The only 

Fio. 3S. 




Diagram of a free constrictor moBcle : a, when relaxed ; h, when contracted. 

difference will be that here the separate points of the 
circumference are approximated to this point, when the 
contraction takes place. 

Fio. 86. 




Diagram of a oonstrictor muscle, In which a point (e) of the peripherj is fixed : a and b 
'as in Fig. 35. 

The relation of the circle at rest to the contracted 
circle is in the first case that of two concentric circles, in 
the second that of a smaller circle, which touches the 
inner surface of a larger circle at one point ; in the first 
case the two circles have a common centre, in the second 
a common tangent. 

A similar relation to that just described will, how- 
ever, result when two points of a circumference are 



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152 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

separated by, for instance, one-fourth of the circum- 
ference, when, of course, the remaining portion between 
the points may be absent. The remaining arc will, 
therefore, be drawn towards a line connecting the two 
fixed points. Here we can no longer speak of a con- 
strictor muscle, but must regard the entire construction 
as a ''loop '* with two fixed points, or points of attach- 
ment. 

Fto. 89. 



ti^ 



c c 

DUgram of a loop-muscle ; e e, fixed poluts of the loop : a and b as In Fig. 86. 

It is a metamorphosis of this kind which takes place 
between the constrictor muscles of the oesophagus and 
the muscular planes which we find in the pharynx, from 
the lower border of the cricoid cartilage of the larynx 
to the base of the skull. 

Before passing to the examination of this arrange- 
ment in the pharynx itself, let us first consider the 
mechanism of such a loop. Let us still imagine a loop as 
constituting three-fourths of the circumference of a circle, 
and instead of the remaining fourth a line connecting the 
two fixed points as the base of the loop, we shall then be 
able to divide the loop into three parts, namely, into the 
part opposite to the base line and the two lateral parts. 
Now, the contractile action of a loop will be most readily 
understood if we imagine the highest portion of the loop 
to be brought nearer to the base line, and the lateral 
portions to each other. Beferred to the pharynx, this 
implies that by the contraction of the loop-muscles of the 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGAN§ OP SPEECH. 153 

pharynx the posterior wall of the pharynx is drawn for- 
wards and the lateral walls inwards. 

The fixed points of the loop-muscles surrounding 
the constrictors of the pharynx are three in number: 
(1) the larynx, (2) the hyoid bone, and (3) the maxillary 
portion of the skull. A loop-muscle enclosing the 
pharynx arises from each of these points, and the three 
loops are called either, from their position, the inferior, 

Fio.88. 




The miucles of the pharynx, a, Superior constrictor, paieing anteriorly Into the 
bnccinaior ; b, middle constrictor ; e, inferior constrictor ; d» stylo-pharyngeus ; e, hyo- 
gloesns ; *, diaphragma oris (mylo-hyoid). 

middle, and superior constrictors, or, from their points of 
attachment, the laryngo-pharyngeus, hyo-pharyngetis, and 
the gnatho'pharyngeus. 

The arrangement of the three constrictors presents 
this peculiarity, that their fibres, closely packed together 
at the two points of attachment, diverge as they pass 
backwards — so much so that the two halves of each 



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154 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

muscle meet in a comparatively long line in the middle 
of the posterior wall of the pharynx. As each of the 
constrictors spreads out backwards in this manner, they 
must partially cover each other, which* in fact we find 
to be the case, the upper margin of the lower loop in 
each case overlapping the lower njargin of the one above 
it. We must further remember that the oblique direction 
which their divergence gives to the greater number of 
the fibres, introduces a longitudinal component into their 
action, thus making up for the absence of longitudinal 
fibres. 

The inferior constrictor consists of a lower portion 
(the crico-pharyngeus), which arises from the outer sur- 
face of the cricoid cartilage, and of an upper portion (the 
thyro'pharyngevs), arising from the raised oblique line on 
the lateral surface of the thyroid cartilage. The lower 
margin of the entire muscle is horizontal, and rests im- 
mediately upon the circular plane of fibres of the oeso- 
phagus; the upper margin ascends rapidly from the 
divergence of the fibres, and overlaps the greater part of 
the adjacent muscle. 

The greater part of the middle constrictor (the kerato- 
pharyngeus) arises upon the upper border and the pos- 
terior rounded end of the greater horns of the hyoid 
bone; a small portion (the chondro-pharyngem) arises 
upon the lesser horns of the hyoid bone. Li this muscle 
the descent of the lower margin is slight; the upper 
margin, on the contrary, ascends very abruptly, and 
overlaps the greater part of the succeeding muscle. 

The superior constrictor is an exceedingly broad layer 
of muscle ; one portion (the mylo-pharyngeus) arises upon 
the inner surface of the lower jaw, immediately in front of 
the attachment of the greater or internal pterygoid muscle; 
another portion (the pterygchpharyngeus) from the lower 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 165 

part of the posterior free margin of the internal ptery- 
goid plate. Between these two a larger middle portion, 
lying against the inner surface of the pterygoid muscle, 
passes directly into the buccinator; it forms with the 
latter, therefore, one muscle, which might be called the 
stomaijo^haryngeus. This muscle is, however, generally 
understood to be interrupted by a narrow tendinous band, 
which is observed in that part which is in relation with 
the greater pterygoid muscle, and the portion in front of 
this ligament is called the Imccinator muscle / the portion 
situated behind it, which is directly continuous with the 
two first-mentioned parts of the superior constrictor, is 
known as the bucco-pharyngeus. The divergence of the 
fibres is not so striking in this muscle, though its lower 
margin is seen distinctly to descend, and its upper 
margin ascends to the base of the skull, to which it is 
attached by a narrow prolongation. 

In spite of a certain similarity in their arrangement, 
the three constrictors have each a significance of their 
own. The two lower ones, namely, are only brought into 
service in the act of swallowing; for, always being in the 
contracted state, they press the larynx and the ends of 
the greater horns of the hyoid bone against the posterior 
wall of the pharynx, and can only be called into action 
during the passage of food. The upper constrictor has, 
however, a free space in front of it which it can diminish 
by its own contraction. We shall presently show the 
part which such a movement plays in the formation of 
articulate sounds, and how ithe superior constrictor thus 
assumes the character of a muscle belonging to the action 
of speech just as much as the two lower ones assume 
that of loop-muscles. 

8 



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156 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 



THE SOFT PALATE. 

In considering the apparatus of the soft palate, the 
idea of a pendulous fold is of the greatest assistance 
towards a true comprehension. This idea moreover is, 
within certain limits, as convenient as it is correct, being 
specially well adapted for a sectional illustration ; at the 
same time, it by no means fully represents the mechanism 
of the soft palate. We obtain an idea which in many 
respects is more accurate, if we regard the soft palate as 
an apparatus consisting of a double constrictor muscle, 




Diagnm of two constrictor mnscleB tmlted to eacb other in a part of their drcntn* 
ference, each with a fixed point (c). The dotted line represents the change of form which 
takes place when one of them (here the upper) is contracted. 

which on the one hand cuts off the cavity of the mouth 
from the adjacent portion of the pharynx, on the other, 
the portion of the pharynx which adjoins the nasal cavity 
from that which belongs to the cavity of the mouth. 

If, now, in our examination of the construction of the 
soft palate, we take as our starting-point the simplest 
diagram of a constrictor muscle, we shall find that our 
first diagram of this apparatus will consist of two circles, 
which meet in one point of their circumference. One of 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 167 

these circles would embrace the circumference of the pos- 
terior nares, the second the posterior aperture of the cavity 
of the mouth. If, further, we imagine each circle to repre- 
sent a constrictor muscle, the result inferred in both cases 
will be correct : (1) that this double apparatus on the one 
hand will effect a closure of the nasal cavity, on the other 
a closure of the cavity of the mouth ; and (2) that if the 
points opposite to the points of contact of the two circles 
are fixed, the two constrictor muscles must act antago- 
nistically in such a manner that the contraction of the 
one must cause an expansion of the other, so that, there- 

Flfi.40. 



Diagnnn rg prcicnt tng the change of the two constrictor maBcles Into loop-mnsclea with 
two points of fixation (e c). Dotted line as in Fig. 39. 

fore, the closure of the nasal cavity must be accompanied 
by the opening of the cavity of the mouth, and that of 
the cavity of the mouth by the opening of the nasal 
cavity. 

The above result is, however, in reality obtained by 
the two muscles not being constrictors but loop-muscles, 
and the apices of the two loops being connected. The 
upper loop effects the closure of the nasal cavity, the lower 
that of the cavity of the mouth. The apices of the two 
loops come into contact upon the boundary between the 
cavity of the mouth and that of the nose ; that is to say. 



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168 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

at the posterior end of the hard palate, or, more definitely 
still, in that prolongation of the hard palate which is 
Imown to us as the velum palati, or soft palate. 

The distinctive features of the soft palate are derived 
from that part which lies in the cavity of the mouth. 
The foundation is laid by a loop-muscle (the palato- 
pharyngem), which is situated immediately upon the 
mucous membrane of the pharynx and is covered exter- 

Fio. 41. 




Muscles of the soft palate, a, Levator vdi; h, tensor palati ; c, atygos uvulae (tevator 
uvulae); d, palato-pharyngeus ; *, styla-pharyngem (e\e\'&ior of the ph&rjnx). 

nally by the constrictors. The fixed points of the loop 
rest upon the posterior border of the thyroid cartilage ; 
it then ascends the sides of the pharynx, curving inwards 
to form its apex in the soft palate. External evidence 
of this muscle is given by a fold of mucous membrane 
which projects into the interior of the pharynx. This 
fold is very indistinct at first, but becomes more pro- 
nounced above the hyoid bone, finding its greatest 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 159 

breadth in the soft palate. If we trace its course from 
the latter, we find that the two together form a crescent- 
shaped fold, the broad middle portion of which passes 
into two lateral processes which descend backwards. 
This broad middle portion, which appears as a soft con- 
tinuation of the hard (bony) palate, is called the soft 
palate; the two processes which are direct continuations 
of it are, however, known as the posterior pillars of the 
soft palate, and are nothing more than the fold which 
was mentioned above. Opposite to these posterior piUars 
we find the anterior pillars, two very narrow folds, which 
run upwards from the base of the tongue and unite in 
the margin of the soft palate with the posterior pillars. 
In the triangular space left on either side between the 
two pillars and the lateral margins of the base of the 
tongue may be seen two rounded glandular bodies, about 
the size of a hazel-nut, namely, the tonsils. The free 
margin of the soft palate is still further characterized by 
a conical-shaped process which hangs from its centre, 
and which is known to us as the uvvla. 

From the above remarks we may imagine the soft 
palate as part of a loop-shaped fold, which, projected into 
the interior of the pharynx by a loop-like muscle, sepa- 
rates the cavity of the mouth from the adjacent portion 
of the pharynx ; this wiU also explain the pendent posi- 
tion of the soft palate when at rest. 

Turning now to examine the influence and action of 
this closing apparatus, we will for the moment regard 
the thyroid cartilage as a fixed starting-point for this 
action. The apex of the loop will in the first place be 
drawn downwards towards this point, and the soft palate 
consequently depressed ; as, however, this depression will 
soon be opposed by the connection of the latter with the 
hard palate, the sides will be drawn out into a straight 



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160 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

line ; the posterior pillars will, therefore, be driven inwards 
so far that they almost come into contact with each 
other. The closure of the cavity of the mouth from the 
pharynx is, therefore, chiefly effected by the simultaneous 
advance of the posterior pillars of the soft palate towards 
each other, the soft palate itself doing little more to 
effect this result than when at rest. 

It must, however, be remembered that the position 
of the larynx is not absolutely fixed, so that when a 
further descent of the soft palate meets with opposition, 
it is the larynx which forms the basis of any further 
action. Thus, if the action is continued, the larynx, 
together with the lowest part of the pharynx, is drawn 
upwards. The palato-pharyngevs muscle acts, therefore, 
in a twofold manner during swallowing; in the first 
place, closing the apertmre of the cavity of the mouth, 
thus preventing the return of the food which is to pass 
into the pharynx ; and, secondly, facilitating the descent 
of the food into the oesophagus by drawing the latter up 
towards it. 

The action of this muscle has, therefore, a secondary 
effect upon the pharynx and oesophagus, which gives it 
the character of a longitudinal muscular layer ; it may, 
therefore, be regarded as a modification of the longi- 
tudinal muscular layer of the alimentary canal, and 
the more so as the effect produced is partly due to a 
layer of muscle situated beneath the mucous membrane 
of the posterior wall of the pharynx, and not attached 
to the thyroid cartilage; the soft palate here acts as 
the fixed point for the ensuing elevation. 

The longitudinal character of the action of this 
muscle becomes still more striking when we find that 
two portions of it have their attachment in the base of 
the skull, from which point they act only as elevators of 
the pharynx. 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 161 

The first of the attachments here alluded to is that of 
the free fasciculi of the palato-pharyngeus, which, instead 
of passing into the soft palate, ascend still further, and 
are attached to the Eustachian tube (salpingo-pharyn- 
geu8 m.). 

The second attachment belongs to a comparatively 
strong, round fasciculus, which breaks off at the boun- 
dary between the middle and superior constrictors, 
passing outwards between these two muscles, and then 
rising freely upwards, to find attachment upon the styloid 
process of the temporal bone (stylo-pharyngetis m.). 

The upper loop-like constrictor muscle which belongs 
to the nasal cavity has a similar oblique position, having, 
like the lower, its fixed point of origin near the vertebral 
column, from whence it descends obliquely forwards as 
far as the soft palate. The levator palati muscle must 
be regarded as the leading feature in this part of the 
apparatus of the soft palate. It arises from the apex of 
the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and from the 
adjoining margin of the Eustachian tube. In this origin 
it is closely contiguous with the mucous membrane of 
the pharynx, which here forms the concave roof of the 
latter below the base of the skull; but instead of fol- 
lowing this surface, it descends to the soft palate, and, 
like the palato^haryngeus, is covered externally by the 
superior constrictor. In the soft palate it expands with 
the same muscle of the other side into a loop which lies 
behind the corresponding loop of the palato-pharyngeus. 
The position of this muscle upon the nasal side of the 
soft palate gives it the character of a muscle for closing 
the nose, as the position of the palato-pharyngeus upon 
the oral side of the soft palate gives to the latter the 
character of a muscle for closing the mouth. This course 
enables the muscle in question, or rather the loop formed 



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162 THE OllGANS OP SPEECH. 

by the muscles of both sides, to raise the soft palate 
backwards, so that the lower margin of the latter is 
approximated to the posterior wall of the pharynx ; by 
this means the nasal portion of the pharynx is shut off 
from the oral portion. 

The action of this loop is, moreover, strengthened 
by that of the azygos uvulae {levator uvulae). This muscle 
consists of a pair of fasciculi, which arise from the 
posterior border of the hard palate, and pass im- 
mediately below the mucous membrane of the posterior 
surface of the soft palate to the apex of the uvula. 
When in action it helps to raise the posterior margin of 
the soft palate, and especially the uvula, in a backward 
direction. 

In addition to these two elevators, a third muscle 
enters the soft palate from above, in which the character 
of an elevating loop is curiously modified. This muscle, 
the tensor palati, arises on the outer side of the levator 
palati from the scaphoid fossa of the internal pterygoid 
plate, and from the contiguous margin of the Eustachian 
tube. It descends upon the external surface of the 
superior constrictor, and winding round the hooked 
(annular) process of the internal pterygoid plate with 
its tendinous end, enters the soft palate from the side ; 
its fibres here spread out, and form with those of the 
other side a tendinous plate (aponeurosis), the anterior 
margin of which is attached to the posterior margin of 
the hard palate. When this muscle acts the aponeurosis 
is made tense horizontally, giving the same direction to 
the upper half of the soft palate. Thus the two levatores 
palati form a loop, modified, it is true, which acts as an 
elevator of the soft palate, and takes part in the closure 
of the nasal portion of the pharynx. 

If we now look back upon the different mechanisms 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 163 

and apparatus in the cavity of the mouth with which, 
from the foregoing remarks, we have become acquainted, 
we find that its adjustment rests upon a most simple 
foundation, and yet that it is adapted for the greatest 
variety of purposes. We may make a brief summary 
of these characteristics as follows : — 

(1) The cavity of the mouth is a large, spacious 
cavity, the roof being formed by the rigid hard palate, 
which is a part of the upper jaw. 

(2) The parts composing the floor of the cavity are 
soft, and only partially fixed through their connection 
with the lower jaw. 

(8) The anterior border of the cavity of the mouth 
is formed by the orifice which is bounded by the lips. A 
number of muscles, some entirely situated in, others 
entering the lips, give to this orifice the power of as- 
suming diflferent shapes, and especially of opening and 
shutting in a variety of ways and degrees. 

(4) The posterior border of the cavity of the mouth 
is indicated by the apparatus of the soft palate and its 
pillars. In this apparatus a constrictor muscle for 
closing the nasal cavity, and another for closing the 
cavity of the mouth, are connected in such a manner 
that the soft palate, strictly speaking, is entirely under 
their control, so that it can be employed in shutting oflf 
the cavity of the mouth from the pharynx, or, again, in 
shutting off the nasal from the oral portion of the 
pharynx. 

(5) The interior of the cavity of the mouth is divided 
by the teeth into two imperfectly separated spaces, the 
cavity of the mouth and the cavity of the cheeks. 

(6) The interior of the entire cavity of the mouth 
can be enlarged by the depression of the lower jaw, and 
modified in its form by the advancement of the latter. 



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164 THE ORGAi^^S OF SPEECH. 

(7) The interior of the cavity of the cheeks is de- 
pendent upon the tension or contraction of the huccinaior 
muscle. 

(8) The interior of the cavity of the mouth, strictly 
speaking, can he modified in a great variety of ways in 
form and width by the activity of the tongue. 

(9) The tongue produces these changes through 
alterations in its own form and position. 

(10) The tongue, however, is more passive in the 
movements of the floor of the mouth, which are partly 
diaphragmatic elevations of the latter, and partly 
depressions caused by lowering the hyoid bone. 

(11) Among the group of muscles which draw down 
the hyoid bone are two, one of which draws the larynx 
to the hyoid bone, while the other draws it away. 

(12) Further, the elevation or depression of the 
larynx is dependent upon that of the hyoid bone, to 
which it is attached. 

The Nerves of the Air -Passages. 

The air-passages which we have described are, like 
all parts of the organism, provided with nerves, which 
are partly sensory nerves for the skin with which they 
are covered, and partly motor nerves for the muscular 
parts. So far as the air-passages are in connection with 
the animal part of the body, these nerves give the pos- 
sibility of conscious perceptions and voluntary move- 
ments. Their nerves, therefore, proceed from the centres 
of the animal nervous system — the brain, namely, and 
the spinal cord. 

Now, since the creation of articulate sounds depends 
partly upon the presence of a suitable current of air, 
and partly upon the modifications to which the latter 



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STRUCTURE OP THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 165 

can be subjected, the nerves belonging to' the organs 
of speech may be regarded from these two points of 
view. 

As regards the nerves which regulate the current 
of air, it would appear at first sight as if nerves 
took no part in the production of this current; for, 
as we have already shown, the current of expired air, 
which from the present point of view is of the greater 
importance, is due to the purely physical action of the 
elasticity of the tissue of the lungs and the costal carti- 
lages. On the other hand, it must be remembered that 
the force of a current of air produced in this manner 
must to a great extent depend upon the degree of 
elasticity called into action, and this, again, depends 
upon the degree of the preceding tension. The latter, 
however, is created by the force to which the inspiratory 
act is due. The stronger and deeper the inspiration, the 
stronger and fuller will be the current of the expired air. 
Those nerves which give activity to the inspiratory muscles 
will, therefore, undoubtedly have a great, if indirect, in- 
fluence upon the general characteristics of the expired 
current of air. Ordinary quiet inspiration is effected 
by the activity of the diaphragm alone ; when deeper 
and more powerful, several groups of muscles already 
described are called into play, the action of which is 
principally directed towards raising the walls of the 
thorax. All these movements take place automatically 
without any effort of the will, but they may be so modi- 
fied by the will, that they may either be carried on with 
greater force, or the separate acts may be more rapidly 
performed, or, again, the number of these acts within 
a certain space of time varied. Thus we have to a 
great extent the power of regulating the current of air 
according to requirements; and so we see in ordinary 



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166 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

quiet speedh that the quiet course of inspiration is 
scarcely interrupted, hut in loud speech, which requires 
a stronger current of air, we observe a deeper and 
stronger inspiration, and in rapid speech, when a great 
quantity of air has to pass through the vocal organs 
in a short space of time, we find a quick repetition of 
the separate acts of inspiration. 

The degree to which the will may regulate the current 
of air expelled by the force of elasticity alone is not, 
however, confined within the above limits. A more 
direct influence is derived from the voluntary muscular 
activity by which the current of air may be pre- 
vented from escaping too quickly, and thus become 
better adapted for use. This is achieved by the atten- 
tion being directed to the inspiratory muscles, and after 
the completion of the inspiratory act not allowing them 
to relax suddenly, but forcing them to do so by degrees. 
The necessity of asserting this effort of the will for 
ordinary speech will most clearly be seen if we consider 
the peculiarities in the speech of delicate persons. They 
speak, for instance, in jerks, because from the too rapid 
escape of the current of air they are obliged to take 
breath more frequently, and, what makes this necessity 
more striking, cannot at any time take a deep breath on 
account of the weakness of their muscles. 

Healthy persons when awake always hold back the 
respiratory current in this manner in ordinary quiet 
breathing, so that the time employed in inspiration and 
expiration is almost the same. When asleep, however, 
on account of the absence of this modifying element, 
another rhythm is followed, namely, a prolonged quiet 
inspiration followed by a quicker expiration ; and during 
speech, again, from reasons which may be inferred from 
what has been stated above, the rhythm is reversed, 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 167 

the inspiration, namely, being short and the expiration 
long. 

The retreating current of air which is to be employed 
in speech can, therefore, be modified in a great variety 
of ways by the manner in which the inspiratory act or 
the relaxation of the inspiratory muscles is regulated. 
The expiratory act itself can, however, also be modified 
by voluntary muscular activity. The expulsion of the 
air from the lungs is not entirely due to the elasticity 
described above, but may be reinforced by muscular 
activity. In quiet breathing this is due to the abdominal 
muscles, in stronger breathing more directly to the 
expiratory muscles acting upon the walls of the thorax. 
When these muscles are called into play, the strength 
and rapidity of the current of air is increased on the 
one hand, and on the other the emptying of the lungs 
is more fully performed than would be possible from 
the force of elasticity alone. By this means a singer 
is enabled at any time to hold back the current and so 
avoid taking breath at unsuitable times. It is, again, 
within our power to separate the single expiratory act 
into a number of smaller parts, by suddenly stopping 
a powerful expiration due to muscular activity, then 
allowing it to go on, then again stopping it, and so on, 
the single expiratory act being thus divided into as 
many short explosive expirations as we please. This 
gives the singer the power of producing a series of 
distinctly separated tones — that is to say, of singing 
''staccato." And then, again, a continuous current of 
breath can, by a corresponding regulation of the activity 
of the muscles, be made alternately strong and weak, 
quick and slow, and thus occasion an increase or decrease 
in the power of the voice. 

All those muscles which directly or indirectly effect 



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168 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

the modifications of the current of air which we have 
just described, are excited to their activity by motor- 
nerves, which arise in the spinal canal ; these nerves, 
moreover, may be divided into three groups, one of 
which, it is true, only contains a single nerve. 

(1) The phrenic or diaphragmatic nerve. 

(2) The dorsal nerves. 

(3) Branches of the brachial plexus. 

The phrenic nerve, passing from the spinal canal 
in the upper part of the neck, is the motor-nerve for 
the diaphragm; its activity occasions ordinary quiet 
breathing. 

The dorsal nerves enter the region of the chest from 
the spinal canal, and are distributed among the inter- 
costal cartilages and the abdominal muscles ; they 
effect the stronger inspiratory and expiratory acts. 

The nerves of the brachial plexvs escape from the 
spinal canal in the lower region of the neck, and after- 
wards divide to supply all the parts of the arm, and also 
the great muscles which pass from the trunk to the 
arm ; when the arm has been fixed to some external 
object, they help, in cases of great want of breath, to 
raise the thorax a degree higher. 

As long as these nerves can perform their functions 
in a normal manner, the processes described above, and 
the modifications of those processes, are carried on with- 
out interruption. As soon, however, as any disturbing 
cause appears, whether a general affection of the whole 
nervous system or merely a local derangement, the breath- 
ing apparatus, and therefore the expiratory current, will 
suffer, partly from the affected nerves being themselves 
disturbed, and partly from the will being deprived of its 
influence. Thus general nervous excitement occasions 
quick breathing movements, or a convulsive cessation of 



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STRUCTURE OF TUE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 169 

these moyements ; rapid speech is, therefore, the effect 
of this nervous excitement, while the stoppages in the 
speech observed at such times may be partially attributed 
to the check sustained by the breath. It is, again, a 
well-known fact, that if the chest or hands are cold, 
a numbness may be produced, the result of which will 
be a halting trembling voice. 

We must include in the apparatus for the production 
of sound not only the motor-nerves, which act upon the 
muscles of these apparatus, but also the sensory nerves, 
which render the skin forming their external covering 
capable of receiving impressions. These sensory nerves 
have a twofold importance with regard to their appa- 
ratus and their functions. In the first place, they possess 
the characteristics of all sensory nerves belonging to the 
skin — that, namely, of imparting the intelligence of the 
contact of the surface of the skin with any foreign body, 
and thereby giving warning of, and affording protection 
from, external injury; in many parts of these apparatus, 
indeed, the arrangement is such that the usual circuitous 
path to the exercise of volition through a conscious sen- 
sation is unnecessary when an injurious foreign body or 
a detrimental irritation is to be removed, but the contact 
of the foreign body or the irritating object is sufficient to 
create a so-called " reflex action," the purpose of which is 
to remove the irritating body. The air-passages, strictly 
speaking, are specially remarkable in this respect. To 
show the truth of this assertion, we need only recall the 
fact that when irritating vapours or foreign bodies (when 
swallowed) enter the larynx they immediately give rise to 
violent coughing, and any irritation of the inner surface 
of the nose is followed by a sneeze. A second character- 
istic of the sensory nerves, which is of importance to the 
organs of speech, is that they control the activity of 



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170 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

the muscles. The excitation which they receive from 
the tension or wrinkling of the skin they transmit as a 
sensation to the brain, and thus bring intelligence of the 
completion of any muscular action ; and on the other 
hand, when contact is sought by any muscular movement, 
they indicate when and to what degree the contact has 
taken place. Gases have been known in which persons 
suflfering from an affection of the sensory nerves of the 
hand have been unable to take firm hold of anything, 
because these nerves could give them no intimation that 
contact had taken place vdth an external object ; again, 
we have all experienced that uncertainty of gait which 
arises from the foot being " asleep," the cause of which 
is that we are not conscious of the foot being in contact 
with the ground. In the same manner an affection of the 
sensory nerves of the tongue will occasion uncertainty in 
speech, because no intimation is given of its contact 
with the different parts of the mouth — for instance, with 
the teeth in the pronunciation of «, by which means 
alone perfect speech can be produced. 

The nerver, sensory as well as motor, of the organs 
of speech, may be divided into two well-defined groups, 
separated from each other by the narrow opening be- 
tween the pillars of the soft palate (the isthmus of the 
fauces). The anterior group consists of four nerves, the 
trifacial (trigeminm), olfactory, facial, and inferior TnaxiJr 
lary ; the posterior group, on the contrary, is composed 
of four nerves, which are so intimately connected as to 
almost constitute a single nerve : they are the pneumo- 
gastric {nervua vagus), the spinal accessory, the glosso-phar- 
yngeal, and the hypoglossal. 

Of the anterior group, the olfactory and trifacial are 
sensory nerves ; the fadal and inferior maxillary motor- 
nerves. 



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STRUCTURE OF THE ORGAKS OP SPEECH. 171 

The olfactory nerve is distributed to the chamber of 
smell in the nasal cavity, and produces the sensation of 
smell. 

The trifacial nerve is the common sensory nerve for 
the integument and mucous membranes of the face; it 
leaves the cranial cavity where it arises from the brain in 
three branches, whence its name — trigeminus. The first 
branch passes through the orbit to the integument of 
the forehead, and to the outer and inner surface of the 
dorsum of the nose. The second branch is distributed 
upon the superior maxillary bone in the integument of 
the face between the eyes and the mouth ; internally it 
supplies the mucous membrane of the air-passage of the 
nasal cavity, and the mucous membrane of the hard 
and soft palate. The third branch is distributed upon 
the lower jaw, and supplies the integument of the face 
below the orifice of the mouth; internally it supplies 
the mucous membrane of the cheeks and the floor of 
the cavity of the mouth with the tongue; in the 
hindermost part of the tongue, however, the glosso- 
'pharyngeal, of the posterior group, appears as the nerve 
of taste (gustatory nerve). 

The inferior maxillary is the motor-nerve for the so- 
called muscles of mastication, and for the oral diaphragm 
with the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. 

The /aciaZ nerve produces the activity of the muscles 
of the integument of the face, especially therefore of the 
muscles of the nose and mouth. 

The nerves, the combination of which forms the pos- 
terior group, are distributed on either side of the pneumo- 
gastric, which acts as sensory nerve to the mucous 
membrane of the pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, and wind- 
pipe ; in the pharynx it is supplemented by the ghsso- 
pharyngeal, part of which also enters the tongue as a 



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172 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

gustatory nerve. Part of the spinal accessory blends 
with both nerves as a motor-nerve, its other parts being 
distributed to the region of the neck. This intermixture 
gives rise to those motor-nerve branches which the 
pneumogastric supplies to the muscles of the pharynx 
and larynx. 

The hypoglossal is the motor-nerve for the muscles 
of the tongue and of the hyoid bone. 



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CHAPTER n. 

THE RELATION BETWEEN THE 0BGAN8 OF SPEECH AND 
THE FORMATION OF SOUND. 

Unusual Forms of the Eespiratory Mechanism. 

The most important condition for perfect and normal 
speech is a perfect and undisturbed action of the respi- 
ratory mechanism ; that is to say, a quick inspiration 
should follow, with the greatest possible regularity, a long 
easy expiration. It seems right, therefore, ta devote a 
few words to those disturbances of the respiratory 
mechanism, which either destroy perfect speech or 
render the exercise of it impossible for the time. We 
cannot, of course, here allude to those disturbances 
which owe their existence to serious diseases, such as 
heart-complaint, hydro- thorax, etc., but can only 
mention those which appear as passing disturbances of 
an otherwise perfect respiratory mechanism. Since, 
therefore, in these cases, the condition of the mechanical 
apparatus is perfect, they will only be considered in 
connection with the form and manner in which it is 
employed. The employment of the respiratory apparatus 
is, however, synonymous with the application of its 
proper muscular activity. But since the irritation of 
muscles must always proceed from their motor-nerves, 
it follows that all these disturbances' must be referred to 
unusual or abnormal excitation of the nerves then in 



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174 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

action, whether such a condition of excitation has arisen 
voluntarily or from unforeseen circumstances. 

The disturbances in question naturally fall into two 
divisions, in the one of which inspiration, in the other 
expiration, if not alone, yet certainly in a great measure 
alone, assumes an unusual form. 

As disturbances of the normal form of inspiration, 
we have the phenomena which are known as— 
Hiccough, 
Gaping, and 
Stammering. 

Of these forms the simplest is the hiccough, which is 
merely produced by violent inspiration, arising from a 
convulsive contraction of the diaphragm. The ensuing 
expiration then takes place quietly. The inspired air 
can, moreover, enter principally either through the mouth 
or the nose, or through both equally, and in each case 
the accompanying noise is different. A contraction of 
the glottis may also take place at the same time, and in 
this case the entering stream of air creates in passing 
through the vocal chords a sharp clear tone. In any case 
the hiccough arises from over-irritation of the nerves of 
the diaphragm, the cause of which we know to be either 
psychical conditions or overfilling of the stomach. The 
influence of the latter is undoubtedly due to the fact that 
the overladen stomach resists to a greater or less extent 
the fall of the diaphragm; the contractions of the dia- 
phragm become, therefore, necessarily more laboured, 
and occasionally, like other over-irritated muscles, as- 
sume a convulsive character. Frequently, however, 
the hiccough appears as a sign of the general over-irrita- 
tion of the nervous system in hysteria, and, probably from 
the same reason, it may not uncommonly be observed in 
otherwise healthy young persons, particularly children. 



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ABNORMAL FORM OF RESPIRATION. 176 

The above explanation of hiccough as a convulsive con- 
traction of the diaphragm is further confirmed by the 
manner in which it may be stopped. It is, namely, only 
necessary to allow an exceedingly protracted and, finally, 
forcible expiration to follow a long and quiet inspiration. 
The slow inspiration, especially when it is chiefly per- 
formed by the wall of the chest, prevents the phrenic 
nerve from being too powerfully irritated, while the long 
expiration gives the phrenic nerve time to recover from 
its over-irritation. A single trial of this remedy will 
often stop a troublesome attack of hiccough. 

Gaping also arises from a convulsive form of inspira- 
tion, which, however, is not so short and violent as in 
the hiccough. In the latter, moreover, those muscles 
which raise the wall of the chest are at once brought into 
prominent action, while further a rapid contraction of 
the diaphragm is necessary before the climax can be 
reached, after which a somewhat rapid fall of the thorax 
produces a quick expiration. The important part which 
is played by the rise of the chest is particularly shown 
by the fact that in very violent gaping the head is 
thrown backward, and the shoulders raised, in addition 
to which even the arms are sometimes stretched upwards. 
During the gaping inspiratory process the mouth is 
opened spasmodically, the external pterygoid muscle 
and the group of the muscles of the hyoid bone drawing 
the lower from the upper jaw ; at the same time the soft 
palate is spasmodically raised and closes the air-passage 
of the nose. The whole phenomenon seems an indication 
of strong desire for air, and the existence of this desire 
imder those circumstances in which gaping is generally 
observed — sleepiness, for instance, or weariness — may be 
perfectly explained as follows: such circumstances are 
accompanied by a general inactivity of the nervous 



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176 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

system, which shows itself in a weak respiratory action, 
insufficient for the body when awake, so that after a 
time a more or less marked desire for air must arise, the 
demand for which is announced by gaping. 

The root of that defect in speaking which we call 
stammering lies also in spasmodic inspiration, and so 
resembles the hiccough, that here, as in the latter, the 
diaphragm is subject to spasmodic contraction. While, 
however, in the hiccough a short convulsive spasm causes 
a short violent inspiration, after which expiration proceeds 
with perfect freedom, in stammering a long contractile 
spasm of the diaphragm takes place, which as long as it 
continues prevents expiration. As, however, the possibility 
of speech depends upon the existence of this issuing 
stream of air, it is impossible for a person suffering from 
such a spasm to produce any. sound. This ineffectual 
and therefore exaggerated effort even in this case to create 
some sound with the aid of the organs of the mouth and 
throat, gives rise to distressed grimaces, and this dis- 
tressed expression must necessarily be augmented by the 
fact that, by so delaying expiration, a want of breath is 
felt and the circulation of the blood interrupted. When 
at length the spasm ceases and is followed by a quick 
expiration, this appearance entirely disappears, and the 
natural condition is restored till again destroyed by a 
fresh spasm. This phenomenon, as far as it is connected 
with a defect in speech, we are accustomed to call 
stammering. The defect in speech is, however, a phe- 
nomenon which only at times accompanies the spasm in 
the diaphragm, being due to an attempt to speak during 
the spasm. There may be no attempt to speak, and 
yet the cause of the phenomenon (the spasm in the 
diaphragm) may be experienced; in this case it will 
not cause stammering, but will either, if there is just 



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ABNORMAL FOBMS OF RESPIRATION. 177 

then no occasion for speaking, be quite imperceptible 
to the observer, or, if the persons aflfected give up the 
ineffectual effort to produce a sound, only appear as an 
inability to speak. It is well known that great physical 
excitement — as, for example, surprise — will occasion 
attacks of stammering, and the same cause will in certain 
persons give rise to a passing inability to speak. If, now, 
as appears from the above, stammering is only an 
occasionally observed symptom of a long contractile 
spasm in the diaphragm, it must be clear that all 
attempts to cure stammering by exercising the organs of 
the mouth and throat must be unsuccessful, and that 
this defect can only be efficiently treated by following 
those rules which were given above for the treatment of 
hiccough. A quiet, unhurried inspiration must be followed 
by an expiration as slow and long as possible, the 
issuing stream being either employed in speech or not. 
In this manner the motor-nerves of the diaphragm can 
most eflfectually recover from their state of over-irritation 
and return to their normal condition. We must, more- 
over, be careful not to fall into the common error of 
confounding stuttering with stammering. In stuttering, 
the process of breathing is quite normal, and the de- 
fective speech only arises from inaptitude in the formation 
of sound; this defect in speech is, therefore, peculiar to 
children, idiots, and persons suffering from apoplexy. 

As an abnormal form of expiration, we might mention 
in the first place obstruction of expiration. This, how- 
ever, is not quite correct, for there is a kind of obstruction 
of expiration which is intentionally produced by entirely 
closing the glottis, the effect of which is, either to 
influence the abdominal viscera by means of the depressed 
diaphragm, as in straining, or, by bracing up the chest 
for labour requiring great exertion — as, for instance, 



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178 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

lifting a weight — to afford certain muscles a firmer basis 
for operation ; this kind of obstruction does not, however, 
concern us here. There is another kind, again, which 
is caused by a long contractile spasm in the diaphragm, 
and this being only a secondary peculiarity of a defective 
inspiration, has already been described. The altered 
forms of expiration which really belong to our subject 
are — 

Sneezing, 

Coughing, 

Laughing, and 

Sighing. 
Of the^e, the simplest is that which attracts our 
attention as sneezing^ Just as the hiccough depends 
upon a single violent spasm during inspiration, so the 
sneeze is due to a single violent spasm during expiration, 
generally of the abdominal muscles, but when very violent 
of the other expiratory muscles, also. It is a reflex action 
which occurs after an irritation of the mucous membrane 
of the air-passages of the nose. A few sUght contractions 
of the abdominal muscles are at first suppressed by 
some short inspirations rapidly following each other 
without any intervening expirations; then, however, 
follows a vigorous contraction of the abdominal muscles, 
by means of which the stream of air is violently driven 
out through the mouth and nose. In its passage through 
the nose the air produces a well-known noise, which 
may, however, be connected with a sound produced in 
the vocal chords. We recognize the same pecuHarity, 
though the action is voluntarily and less violently per- 
formed, in "blowing the nose.*' 

Coughing and laughing are also due to a spasmodic 
contraction of the expiratory muscles, generally of the 
abdominal muscles, and only in violent cases are the other 



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ABNOEMAL FORMS OF EESPIRATION. 179 

expiratory muscles contracted. They differ from sneez- 
ing only in this respect that, while in the latter the act 
of expiration is accomplished by a single violent action, it 
is here characterized by a number of separate impulses 
of the expiratory muscles with small intervening pauses. 
In long-continued coughing or laughing, short inspira- 
tions, which, on account of their shortness and violence, 
often approach the verge of hiccoughing, are taken be- 
tween the separate expirations modified as described 
above. Coughing most closely resembles sneezing, not only 
as regards its origin, but also as regards its execution. It 
is, for instance, a reflex action which follows an irritation 
of the air-passages, particularly of the windpipe and the 
larynx, but also of the pharynx and the nasal cavity. 
The accompanying expiratory impulses may attain great 
violence, so as in this respect to resemble the single 
impulse of sneezing. While, however, in sneezing, the 
stream of air escapes, as a rule, through the nose, in 
coughing it escapes through the cavity of the mouth, 
which is separated by the raised soft palate from the 
nasal cavity, and enlarged by dropping the lower jaw 
and by the depression of the floor of the cavity, the tongue 
at the same time being pushed forward. The stream of 
air, in its passage through the mouth, merely produces 
a breathing sound, which, however, is generally accom- 
panied by a sound, shrill or deep as the case may be, 
produced by the vocal chords, the glottis being as a rule 
spasmodically contracted. Performed voluntarily and 
with less violence, coughing assumes the form known to 
us as " clearing the throat." In laughing, the separate . 
expiratory impulses are not so violent, and the stream 
of air passes either through the fairly open m outh, or 
when the mouth is shut, through the nose. The stream 

of air produced by laughing is heard merely as a breath- 
9 



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180 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

ing or blowing noise; this, however, may be accompanied 
by a sound, either high or low, loud or weak, originating 
in the vocal chords. In the latter case, the stream of 
air which from time to time is quickly inspired during 
prolonged laughter, as is also the case in coughing, 
may produce a clear, shrill tone in that organ which is 
specially adapted for tones, namely, in the glottis. 

Connected with coughing and laughing on account 
of a similar disturbance of the breathing apparatus, is 
sighing. In the latter, the air contained in the lungs is, 
in a single act of expiration, either at once or with several 
consecutive efforts hastily expelled, and escapes either 
through the mouth or nose. The breathing noise which 
is thus produced is often accompanied by a shrill tone 
originating in the vocal chords, in which, on its passage 
through the nasal cavity, nasal resonance can be dis- 
tinctly recognized. Considered more closely, a material 
difference may be observed between these two kinds of 
sighing. The isolated sigh which appears as a single 
act of expiration is to be attributed less to the activity of 
the expiratory muscles than to a sudden cessation of that 
muscular activity, which, as has been already shown, 
regulates, by retarding, the issuing stream of air ; the 
elastic forces of expiration assume, therefore, absolute 
power, and drive out the air with greater rapidity. When 
the sigh is repeated by fits in single expiratory acts, as 
happens, for instance, in violent crying, the stream of 
air is, on the contrary, driven out by small, weak mus- 
cular impulses, so that, as far as mechanism is concerned, 
there is a considerable resemblance with laughing and 
coughing, which accounts for the fact that it is often 
dif&cult with a crying child, when it is beginning to be 
comforted, to decide whether it is still sighing or 
beginning to laugh. This similarity becomes still more 



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ABNORMAL FORMS OP RESPIRATION. 181 

striking, when we fbid that if this kind of sighing is 
continued for any length of time, it will be interrupted 
by short inspirations, which shows a similarity to sobbing. 
Those disturbances of the respiratory mechanism, 
which impede or prevent the proper use of the stream of 
air for speech, are therefore either disturbances of the 
normal form of inspiration, or of the normal form of 
expiration. 

The disturbances of inspiration are the hiccough, 
gaping, and stammering. The disturbance 

In the case of the hiccough is — a single violent 

spasm of the diaphragm. 
In the case of gaping — a slighter spasmodic activity 

of the muscles of the chest and diaphragm. 
In the case of stammering — a more prolonged spasm 

of the diaphragm. 
The disturbances of expiration are sneezing, coughing, 
laughing, and sighing. The disturbance 

In the case of sneezing is — a single violent contraction 

of the expiratory muscles. 
In the case of coughing and laughing — a resolution 
of a single act of expiration into a series of more 
or less violent expiratory impulses. 
In the case of sighing — similar resolution of a single 
act of expiration into very slight impulses, or the 
undisturbed action of the force of elasticity act- 
ing during expiration. 

The Eespiratory Noises. 

It is well known that a current of air, in passing 
through a tube or over an edge, will produce a kind of 
sound, which, if the vibrations of the air, or of the body 
set in motion by the current of air, are rhythmically 



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182 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

regular, is called a tone (in the musical sense) ; if, how- 
ever, the vibration is not rhythmical, the intervals of 
time between the separate waves being irregular, the 
result is termed a noise. 

We should assume beforehand that the breath, in 
passing through the air-passages, would produce such 
kinds of tone and noise, as its course lies partly 
through more or less elastic tubes, partly across 
variously constructed prominent edges. And, in fact, it 
does so to a great extent, though we find, further, that 
the noises greatly predominate, because the conditions 
for the production of musical sound are much more 
restricted. 

In quiet breathing no such noises are perceptible. 
This, however, is at once explained by the fact that loud 
and perceptible noises can only be produced by a strong 
or rapid current of air, whether the latter be strong 
throughout, or only locally so from the necessity of 
forcing itself through a narrow opening. In ordinary 
quiet breathing, however, gentle and slow currents of air 
pass through sufficiently wide spaces, and thus leave 
the conditions for the formation of a noise unfulfilled. 
Nevertheless, the current of breath does not pass quite 
noiselessly through the air-passages, and of this we 
may easily convince ourselves by placing the ear or the 
stethoscope upon proper parts of the body. By these 
means, even in the quietest breathing, the current of air 
can be heard entering and returning through the nasal 
orifices, the larynx, and the windpipe ; and by placing 
them upon the chest, the noise of the passing current 
can be heard in the ramifications of the bronchial tubes 
in the lungs. It is this fact which has given rise to the 
use of the stethoscope by the physician. The form and 
the mobility of the spaces through which this current 



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RESPIRATOEY NOISES. 183 

passes must necessarily give the distinctive character to 
the noise, and thus it is possible to decide, from the 
character of the noise, the form and mobility of the 
spaces in question ; and thus the physician is able to 
form an opinion, from the respiratory noise which the 
stethoscope enables him to hear, upon the healthy state 
of the lungs, or to detect a state of disease, such as 
obstructions, accumulation of mucus, cavities in the 
lungs, etc. 

Now, although it is perfectly true that the process of 
breathing is generally accomplished in a manner imper- 
ceptible to those standing near, yet it often happens that 
a person in the vicinity will perceive it to be accom- 
panied by very audible noises. Even the hurried 
breathing of a person who is excited or out of breath 
gives rise to a blowing sound of greater or less intensity, 
which we are accustomed to call "panting." A con- 
tinued contraction of the air-passages may also cause 
the process of breathing to be always accompanied by a 
more or less perceptible kind of noise, as, for example, 
the local contraction of the windpipe by bronchocele. 
A similar effect is also produced by a passing obstruction 
of the orifices of the air-passages, such as, for instance, 
is caused by an accumulation of mucus in the nose or 
larynx. 

Similar effects may also be observed when, from some 
passing change in the shape of the cavity, the course of 
the air in quiet breathing is interrupted. The most 
generally known and, at the same time, the most in- 
teresting forms of this species of noise, are snoring and 
groaning. 

Snoring is a peculiar noise which is generally ob- 
served to accompany inspiration as well as expiration, 
particularly in sleep. The conditions necessary for 



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184 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

its production are that the breath should be drawn 
through the mouth with the soft palate and tongue in a 
given position. The soft palate, namely^ must be drawn 
or have fallen back in such a manner that the posterior 
entrance to the nasal cavity, if not altogether closed, is 
at least obstructed ; the posterior and middle divisions 
of the tongue are at the same time drawn or have fallen 
back so far that there only remains a narrow opening 
between it and the soft palate. It is by the air being 
forced through this opening that the noise is produced. 
Similar noises are also. produced when, with a closed 
mouth, the air is forced between the soft palate, which 
has been drawn or has fallen back, and the posterior 
wall of the pharynx into the nasal cavity. It is worthy 
of remark that with a strong current of air, perhaps 
accompanied by the corresponding position of the soft 
palate, a rattling noise may be heard in addition to the 
snoring, which has its origin in a vibration of the soft 
palate. 

Groaning is a noise which is produced when, after 
the larynx has been perfectly closed by bringing the 
vocal chords and the arytenoid cartilages into contact 
(whether spasmodically or as a voluntary action with 
the object of holding the breath), the current of air, 
which has in this manner been interrupted, is suddenly 
resumed. The noise thus produced consists of two 
elements, which we must be careful to distinguish. The 
first, namely, is a clicking sound, and the other an 
explosive sound, somewhat resembling a slight report. 
Into the origin of the latter element we need not here 
inquire. The *' report " with which the sudden expansion 
of a compressed mass of air is connected has long been 
a well-known phenomenon. The former, however, the 
clicking element, we must discuss more closely. When 



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RESPIRATORY NOISES. 185 

two contiguous bodies are suddenly separated^ the out^ 
air will rush in from all sides to fill up the space thus 
produced between the two bodies. In dry bodies, which 
even when in contact always leave a small intermediary 
space through which the air may pass, this separation 
may be accomplished without any perceptible sound. It 
is different, however, in objects which, unitedby a slightly 
fluid substance, exhibit a strong mutual adhesion, or, 
if we may use the term, attachment ; in this case the 
adhesion will resist the separating force till the latter 
has become strong enough to overcome it. The moment 
the adhesion ceases, the separation, on account of the 
greater force employed, takes place so suddenly that 
the air rushes in from all sides with such rapidity that 
the masses of air thus brought into collision strike 
against each other with a clear tone. Thus if the 
tongue, which has previously been pressed against the 
hard palate, is suddenly released from this position, 
a very loud tone of this description is produced, which 
is commonly called " clicking." A similar tone may 
be observed upon a sudden separation of the lips, if 
they have been moistened and tightly pressed together, 
and even the finger-tips, if moistened, will upon separa- 
tion give rise to a similar sound. We cannot be 
mistaken, therefore, in saying that a sudden removal of 
the arytenoid cartilage and the vocal chord of the 
one side from the corresponding parts of the other 
side must also be connected with a similar clicking 
sound, as all the conditions for its production are 
present. In the. groan, therefore, we recognize a noise 
which is composed of an explosive noise and a clicking 
noise. It cannot, however, be denied that the latter 
element plays but a very small part in the noise of 
groaning, and that it can scarcely be experimentally 



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186 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

demonsirated. It appeared, however, not to be without 
interest to employ this opportunity to show that the 
peculiarities of the explosive sound which can be pro- 
duced by the organs of speech not only correspond with 
the report of a pop-gun, but also comprise the clicking 
element described above. 

It should further be remarked, in connection with 
what has been said above, that different noises are found 
to accompany the modifications of the respiratory mecha- 
nism (sneezing, coughing, hiccough, etc.) discussed in a 
previous section. As, however, they are connected with 
other than the normal relations of the respiratory move- 
ments, they cannot be taken into consideration here. 

We have in this section become acquainted with 
three species of noise produced by the organs of speech : 
panting, snoring, and groaning. The subject is one 
of great interest, inasmuch as we find each to arise in a 
different manner. 

In panting, a rapid current of air passes through the 
open air-passages. 

In snoring, the current of air forces its way through 
a long, narrow opening, and causes, under certain con- 
ditions, such a vibration of the walls as to give rise to a 
series of low, rattling, explosive sounds. 

In groaning, the noise is produced by the sudden 
release of a hitherto confined current of air. 

Thus we have become acquainted with three typical 
forms of noise, and also with a secondary form. lif we 
look more closely we shall find that these are the only 
possible fundamental forms of noise in the air-passages, 
and that it is possible voluntarily to call forth the con- 
ditions necessary for their production. Therefore, again, 
noises, developed from these three fundamental forms, 
are employed as articulate sounds, and we shall see 



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FORMATION OF TONE. 187 

presently that the whole group of the so-called conso- 
nants originate in this manner. 



The Formation of Tone in the Air-Passagbs. 

The above considerations will have convinced us that 
the respiratory process may give rise to a variety of 
noises, and we shall have further obtained an intimation 
that a certain class of these noises, voluntarily produced, 
may be the basis of the formation of articulate sounds. 
In articulate sounds we find, moreover, a second, very 
important element, which is characteristic of audible 
speech, namely, tone, in a musical sense. We have still, 
therefore, to discover under what conditions the latter 
can be produced in the air-passages. 

The only condition which we could expect to meet 
with in the air-passages is the escape of the air through 
a narrow opening furnished with elastic walls. Now, 
this condition we find is really fulfilled at four points. 
Commencing posteriorly, we may enumerate the possible 
formation of such fissures as follows : — 

Between the vocal chords of the larynx. 

Between the soft palate and the root of the tongue. 

Between the apex of the tongue and the upper row of 
teeth. 

Between the two lips. 

Of these four possible formations, that existing be- 
tween the soft palate and the root of the tongue is scarcely 
worthy of consideration, for the yielding soft palate is 
not capable of forming an opening the edges of which 
are as sharply defined as those necessary for the pro- 
duction of a pure musical sound. A fissure at this 
point may, indeed, produce vibrations of the soft palate, 
but on account of the size and want of elasticity of the 



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188 THE OEGANS OF SPEECH. 

soft palate they are necessarily ample and irregular^ and 
thus only produce that barring rattling noise which we 
recognize as an element of snoring. 

The sound produced by the fissure between the apex 
of the tongue and the incisor teeth of the upper jaw is 
purer and more distinct, and furnishes sounds of un- 
deniable musical value. To produce these, the anterior 
portion of the tongue, formed into a groove in the 
middle, must be brought into contact with the anterior 
portion of the hard palate in such a manner that the 
point of the tongue lightly covers the entire posterior 
surface of the incisors to their free extremity. The 
expelled air thus passes, following the furrow on the 
back of the tongue, through the fissure between the tip 
of the tongue and the free extremity of the teeth, and a 
whistling sound is produced, which becomes higher 
when the tongue is pressed flatter towards the roof of 
the mouth, and lower when, by means of a deep farrow 
along the back of the tongue, the centre line of the 
tongue is depressed, though at the same time the lateral 
edges must remain in contact with the palate. This 
tone, however, exercises but Kttle influence on the for- 
mation of speech, because it never attains any power, 
and also, as we shall presently see, because its position 
is too forward. It is only employed in "hissing," though 
also sometimes in a low whistle. 

The tone formed by the lips owes its origin to the 
projection of both lips, the lateral portions being at the 
same time pressed together, so that the air is forced 
through the middle portion of the lips which have thus 
been brought into slight contact. In this manner a 
whistling sound is produced, which becomes higher if 
the lower jaw is slightly dropped and the tongue raised; 
lower, on the contrary, when the jaw is dropped still 



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FOEMATION OP TONE. 189 

more and the tongue depressed. Here, againi as in the 
previous case, the current of air is led by a kind of 
furrow along the back of the tongue directly to the 
fissure which is to produce the sound. It is well known 
that the whistling soimd created in this manner may 
attain very considerable strength, and is also capable of 
a fair amount of modification as regards height and 
depth. However, this form is unadapted for speech, 
because, being produced so for forward, it cannot easily 
combine with other speech-sounds, and because, from 
the same reason, it cannot combine with noises, which, 
as we shall presently show, is of great importance in 
the formation of articulate sounds. We all know how 
well, on the contrary, this kind of whistle is adapted 
to act as a signal, and often assumes the character of 
a small musical performance. 

Of the four above-mentioned possible methods of pro- 
ducing tone, we have now only to consider the last, that, 
namely, by the vocal chords of the larynx, the only one 
which is adapted for the formation of articulate sounds. 
Although it will require special demonstration to show 
how the tones produced by the larynx take part in the 
formation of articulate sounds, yet a few words are 
necessary here, if only to explain why the several kinds 
of true musical tones just discussed cannot be included 
in the elements of speech. A tone, the origin of which is 
very forward, is capable of no other modification than 
that of pitch given in its production. A tone, on the 
contrary, which is produced far back in the air-passages, 
such as the tone produced by the larynx, is capable of 
considerable modification by the resonance of the secon- 
dary cavities of the mouth and nose, and has also the 
power, while the current of air upon which it is carried 
is passing through the mouth, of mingling with the 



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190 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

diflferent noises which may be created in the latter, and 
both these properties prove to be important elements in 
the formation of the series of sounds which are employed 
in speech. 

The Labykx as an Apparatus por producing Tone. 

Turning our attention again to the minute anatomical 
description of the larynx which has been given in a pre- 
vious section, we must now discover how far it may be 
regarded as an apparatus for producing tone, or, if we 
prefer the expression, as a musical instrument. 

In this respect the most important part of the larynx 
is formed by the vocal plates, which, converging upward 
in a concave form, cause a local contraction of the upper 
part of the windpipe ; they terminate in edges which pass 
horizontally from before backwards, and are called the 
vocal chords. Their outer surface is covered in such a 
manner by the thyro-arytenoid muscle and cellular tissue, 
that the mucous membrane which lines the windpipe 
passes outwards in a horizontal direction above the vocal 
chords, as far as the latter are concerned in the pro- 
duction of tone. The fissure lying between the vocal 
chords (the glottis) is, therefore, really formed by two 
protuberances projecting on either side, which in a vertical 
cross-section present a triangular appearance, and are 
so situated, with their sharp edges in juxtaposition, as 
to enclose between them the glottis (cf. Fig. 24). From 
below, therefore, the entrance to the glottis presents the 
appearance of a wedge ; from above, on the contrary, 
that of a fissure in a level surface. The above only 
refers to that portion of the edges of the vocal plates 
which is really employed in the production of tone, to the 
larger anterior division, namely; for the smaller posterior 



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FORMATION OP TONE IN THE LARYNX. 191 

division into which the arytenoid cartilages are inserted 
is not free, bat is attached as a border of the so-called 
glottis respiratoria to the vertical lateral walls of the 
superior cavity of the larynx. This difference will be at 
once understood by a glance at the internal wall of the 
larynx. We shall there see, namely, that above the 
line which marks the edge of the vocal plate, in the pos- 
terior portion the wall rises smoothly upwards, whilst 
in front a deep indentation of the lateral wall (the ven- 
tricles of Morgagni) leaves the edge of the vocal plate 
perfectly free. 

The substance of the vocal plates is a strong elastic 
tisue, which may be most aptly compared with india- 
rubber, and is therefore peculiarly well adapted for being 
thrown into vibration by a passing current of air. The 
vocal plates may on this account alone be compared 
to the reeds of certain musical instruments, which from 
this fundamental peculiarity are sometimes called " reed- 
instruments." There is, however, an important difference 
in these reed-instruments which we must not pass over. 
The reeds (free vibrators) of the instruments used in 
music are, namely, thin strips of metal or wood, which, 
attached merely by a narrow edge, execute oscillations 
like those of a pendulum, in which the point of attach- 
ment may be compared to that of the pendulum. With 
such reeds the vocal chords cannot be compared, as they 
differ from them both in material and arrangement. 
Their material is a soft, elastic membrane, the elasticity 
of which has no power to assert itself; and in this it 
differs from the strip of wood or metal, if it is only 
attached at one end. A membrane of this kind can only 
become elastic, and be employed for the production of 
tone, when it is stretched between at least two points. 
Stretched membranes of this kind are not employed 



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192 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

in musical instruments ; though we meet with them in 
children's musical toys, when they are blown upon at 
the edge that is parallel to their surface. Another 
instance is the tone produced by blowing upon a leaf or 
blade of grass held between the lips. Such stretched 
membranous plates have, again, more resemblance to a 
stretched string, as they vibrate throughout their entire 
length between two opposite points ; we might almost 
describe them as membranous strings, and compare their 
tones, as far as principle is concerned, to the iBolian 
harp. 

The pendular oscillation of a &ee point characterizes 
the reed of a musical instrument. If we wish to imitate 
these peculiarities in a membranous material, we can 
only do so by fastening an elastic membrane under the 
necessary tension in such a manner that it shall only 
oflfer one free edge ; as, for example, when stretched over 
the half of the opening of a tube. When blown upon 
at right angles to the surface of the membrane, the free 
edge will perform vibrations the plane of which lies 
at right angles to the plane of the membrane, and thus 
far resemble the vibrations of a reed. To what extent the 
free edge thus attached at either end will at the same 
time perform vibrations like those of a stretched string, 
need not here be discussed. On account of their simi- 
larity to a reed, membranes when arranged in the above 
manner are generally termed membranous reeds. 

The best way to construct such membranous reeds 
is to place two membranes of this kind opposite each 
other in such a manner that their free edges shall 
almost touch ; a stream of air driven through the narrow 
slit thus formed will consequently strike the two mem- 
branes simultaneously. For the production of a pure 
tone we need scarcely say that it is necessary that the 



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FORMATION OF TONE IN THE LARYNX- 193 

material and tension of the two membranes should be 
perfectly similar. Now, the vocal apparatus of the 
larynx consists of two membranous reeds attached in the 
manner described above. It may on this account be 
successfully imitated in two ways. Firstly, we may 
so close the opening of a tube with two sheets of india- 
rubber, the free edges of which lie opposite to each other, 
so that the slit thus formed between them, which is to 
represent the glottis, lies across the diameter of the 
mouth of the tube. Secondly, a thin and tolerably 
wide indiarubber tubing may be drawn over an open 
wooden tube, so that about 2-3 cm. ('78-1*17 inch) of the 
indiarubber tube may extend beyond the wooden one ; 
by gently stretching two diametrically opposite points 
of the tree circumference of the indiarubber tube the 
latter is drawn into a long narrow opening. The second 
kind of imitation, from its representation of the wedge- 
shaped entrance to the tone-producing slit, is the more 
accurate ; the former is, on the contrary, better adapted 
in every way for experiments upon the laws of the forma- 
tion of sound by such membranous reeds. 

Musical instruments in which durability and precision 
of tone are required cannot, of course, be prepared from 
such sheets of indiarubber, or indeed from any kind of 
elastic membranes. Instruments constructed upon the 
reed principle are, therefore, provided with the more 
durable and reliable reeds of metal or wood. Still, how- 
ever, the elastic membranous reeds offer an advantage 
which can never be attained by metal or any kind of 
rigid reed. Every metal, namely, can only produce one 
tone, and therefore a reed-instrument must be provided 
with as many reeds as the number of tones to be 
produced by the whole instrument, an arrangement 
which may be se^i at any time in an harmonium. With 



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194 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

a single pair of such membranous elastic reeds a great 
number of tones may, on the contrary, be produced, as 
greater tension will occasion higher tones, less tension 
lower tones. As, therefore, the vocal plates of the larynx 
are such a pair of membranous elastic reeds, they possess 
the advantage of being able alone to produce a relatively 
large numbers of tones regulated merely by the degree 
of tension into which they are brought by muscular 
activity. The compass of the scale which the larynx is 
capable of producing is generally considered to consist 
of from two to two and a half octaves ; more practised 
individuals may increase it ; highly educated singers, 
indeed, will sometimes have a compass of from two and 
a half to three octaves ; and the celebrated singer Gatalini 
is said to have had at her command a compass of more 
than three and a half octaves. 

Now, in order that the tone-producing current of air 
may have sufficient influence upon the edges which are 
to be set in vibration, the slit between the two must be 
as narrow as possible; in a wider slit a quantity of 
useless air would pass through. If, then, a tone is to be 
produced in the larynx, it is especially necessary that 
the two vocal chords, strictly speaking, should be drawn 
together as closely as possible. In this mutual advance 
they are thrown out of the state of rest which charac- 
terizes them when placed at a greater distance in the 
process of breathing, by the two following muscles — ^the 
thyro-arytenoid and the lateral crico-arytenoid. 

These muscles cause the arytenoid cartilages to 
rotate in such a manner as to approximate their vocal 
processes (cf. Fig, 12). Now, since the posterior ex- 
tremities of the vocal chords are attached to these pro- 
cesses, it follows that they also must be approximated, 
since at their anterior extremities upon the thyroid 



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FORMATION OF TONE IN THE LARYNX. 195 

cartilage they already are in close juxtaposition. There 
is, however, a difference in the action of these muscles. 
The thyro-arytenoid muscle, for instance, from being 
attached at a higher level to the arytenoid cartilage, 
draws the upper portion of this cartilage more powerfully 
forwards and downwards, and the arytenoid cartilage is 
thus made to rotate in such a manner upon a horizontal 
axis that its vocal process is pressed downwards. When 
the glottis, therefore, is adjusted by the activity of the 
thyro-arytenoid muscle, it lies lower than when the 
vocal chords are in a state of rest. When, however, 
the glottis is adjusted by the crico-arytenoid muscle, its 
position is higher, because this muscle acts upon the 
muscular processes of the arytenoid cartilage which are 
situated beyond the cricoid cartilage, and draws them 
down forwards; the principal portion of the arytenoid 
cartilage, which is situated within the cricoid cartilage, 
is thus forced to rise, and the glottis so adjusted con- 
sequently lies higher (cf. Figs. 15 and 16). It should, 
however, be remembered that this change in position 
does not affect the whole of the glottis, but only the 
posterior portion, the anterior attachment of the vocal 
chords with the thyroid cartilage representing a fixed 
point, at least as regards the effect of the movement of 
the arytenoid cartilage upon the vocal chords. It would 
thus be more correct to say the thyro-arytenoid muscle, 
in adjusting the glottis, gives it such an inclination that 
its posterior end lies lower than its anterior end; the 
lateral crico-arytenoid muscle, also employed in the 
formation of the glottis, causes, on the contrary, a dif- 
ferent inclination, raising the posterior extremity higher 
than the anterior. Whether the above-mentioned pecu- 
liarity has any influence upon the tone produced, is 
uncertain, but such an influence is at least probable, 



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196 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

when we find that the positions described mast affect 
the current of air which comes in contact with the vocal 
chords in two different ways. In the first place, the 
increased height of the central part of the glottis, which 
is caused by the lateral crico-arytenoid muscle, must 
produce a more gradual convergence of the side walls of 
the lower laryngeal cavity ; the current of air can, there- 
fore, glide onwards with Uttle interruption to strike with 
its full force upon the vocal chords. The position given 
to the glottis by the thyro-arytenoid muscle must, on the 
contrary, produce a more rapid convergence of the side 
walls of the lower laryngeal cavity, because the centre of 
the glottis lies at a lower level, and the effect of the 
current of air must, therefore, be partly expended upon 
the side walls before it reaches the vocal chords in which 
they terminate (cf. Fig. 21). In the second place, the 
current of air rising vertically through the windpipe will 
traverse the plane of the vocal chords in a direction which 
will differ with the position of the latter. If we represent 
this ascending current of air by a line drawn upwards 
to the centre of the glottis, we shall find that this line 
forms, when the thyro-arytenoid muscle is in action, an 
acute angle with the anterior half of the glottis, but, when 
the lateral crico-arytenoid is in action, an obtuse one. 
It seems scarcely probable that such differences in the 
direction in which the current of air strikes the vocal 
chords can be without influence upon the tone produced. 
The mere adjustment of the glottis is not, however, 
sufficient to give the vocal chords the power of producing 
tone ; the air ascending the windpipe must be forced to 
pass through the glottis, arranged in such a manner that 
the current may strike against the vocal chords with its 
full strength ; and, to ensure this end, all side passages, 
by means of which it could escape the glottis, must be 



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FORMATION OP TONE IN THE LARYNX. 197 

closed. Such a side passage is the glottis respiratoria, 
which is bounded on either side by the arytenoid car- 
tilages, and appears when the vocal chords are under 
tension as a triangular opening. It is impossible that 
this opening should be closed directly, but indirectly it 
is easily accomplished. When, for instance, the vocal 
processes are approximated, the whole of the anterior 
edges of the arytenoid cartilages are drawn towards 
each other, and lie close together, stUl further supported 
by the spring-like action of the cartilages of Santorini at 
their apices ; since, moreover, the space between the 
posterior edges of the arytenoid cartilages is closed by 
the transverse arytenoid muscle, and by the mucous 
membrane with which the latter is covered, a cap or lid 
is thus formed over the glottis respiratoria which effec- 
tually prevents the escape of the current of air. Again, 
it is possible that the mutual approximation of the 
arytenoid cartilages, and perhaps, also, the simultaneous 
contraction of the transverse arytenoid muscle, may force 
a fold of the mucous membrane which covers the an- 
terior surface of the latter into the above-mentioned 
cavity, and so further assist in its closure. We must 
not overlook the fact that this closure at the same time 
causes a narrowing of the air-passage from behind 
forwards, or rather, to speak more correctly, such a 
shortening of the orifice that the remaining part of the 
latter, namely, the glottis properly so called, must form 
a still sharper angle with the windpipe — a circumstance 
which must have a considerable influence upon the 
velocity, and consequently upon the force of the current 
of air passing through the glottis. 

In the tone-producing apparatus just described, the 
windpipe may be considered as the " porte-vent,** and 
the pharynx, with the cavities of the mouth and nose 



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198 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

which connect it with the outer air, as the " resonance 
tube." The tone-producing apparatus of the larynx 
may, therefore, be described as a vibrating reed, with a 
simple porte-vent and a resonance tube, which, at first 
simple, is afterwards divided into two, and further pos- 
sesses the power, by a special adaptation of the soft 
palate, of directing the current of air either through 
both portions of the resonance tube, or according to 
choice through one of the two alone. 

The force of the current of air which throws the vocal 
chords into vibration cannot be accurately estimated, as 
we have no means of calculating its intensity in the 
moment of passage. We shall, however, be justified 
in saying that the pressure of the air in the windpipe 
must be considerably increased at the moment of exit, 
and that, particularly during speech, the pressure upon 
the air in the windpipe must be greater, because the open- 
ing through which it escapes is confined. It is evident, 
however, that this pressure does not depend entirely 
upon the relations just mentioned, but also upon the 
contractible force of the expiratory muscles. Experi- 
ence agrees with experiment, and fully justifies this 
statement. 

The force by which, in breathing, the air is driven 
out of the lungs when the entire glottis is open, consists, 
as we have already seen, of two elements, namely — 

(1) The elastic pressure of the expanded tissue of 
the lungs. 

(2) The activity of the expiratory muscles. 

The importance of the first element was established 
by Bonders through the following experiment : he placed 
in the windpipe of a human corpse a manometer, and 
then opened the cavities of the chest by an incision 
between the ribs ; the lungs sank immediately from their 



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FORMATION OP TONE IN THE LARYNX. 199 

own elasticity, and the expelled current of air caused 
the mercury in the manometer to rise 6 mm. (•23 inch = 
pressure of 80-90 mm., or 3*12-3*51 inches, of water). 
The lungs were then filled with air through the windpipe 
to their utmost extent, and again by means of the 
manometer the force was observed with which the air 
was driven out through the elasticity of the tissue of the 
lungs ; the manometer registered a pressure of 30 mm. 
(1'17 inch), or 420 mm. (16*38 inches) of water. These 
experiments give on the one hand a result higher than 
the maximum of that pressure which during expiration 
can be effected by the elasticity of the lungs alone, and, 
on the other hand, they show that even in the most per- 
fect expiration, such as may be observed in a corpse, there 
is still a residue of elastic power in the lungs sufficient 
to support 6 mm, of mercury (or 80-90 mm. of water). 

These numerical values are not, however, perfectly 
true for ordinary respiration, as in inspiration the 
maximum of expansion for the lungs is not generally 
attained, and as regards expiration, the air is never 
expelled from the lungs by elasticity to the extent ob- 
served in a corpse, though, on the other hand, it may 
be more completely expelled in the living subject by 
muscular exertion. 

Valentin, again, experimented upon the force of the 
expired current of air by allowing several persons to 
breathe, with the nose closed, upon a manometer 
(pneumatometer) placed in front of the mouth. It appeared 
that the ordinary easy expiratory stream had a pressure 
of 4-5 mm. of mercury ('15-' 19 inch), or of about 60 
mm. (2*3 inches) of water ; in more forced breathing, 
however, a pressure of 10 mm. ('39 inch) of mercury, 
or 140 mm. (5*76 inches) of water. 

The most powerful expiration of a weak person 



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200 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

registered 88 mm. (1*48 inch) of mercury, or 532 mm. 
(20*75 inches) of water. The effect produced by very 
powerful lungs was as much as 266, 290, and even 326 
mm. of mercury (10-37, 11-46, 12-7 inches), or 3724, 
4116, 4564 mm. (136, 160, 172 inches) of water. We 
find &om these experiments that in the ordinary process 
of breathing, or even when it is slightly forced, we by 
no means employ the elasticity of the lungs to its full 
extent, because we do not carry the repletion of the 
lungs to its maximum. We learn, however, at the same 
time, that the muscular power employed in the most 
powerful act of expiration may in strong persons exceed 
the elastic activity of the lungs by a pressure of from 
8000 to 4000 mm. of water. The mean strength of the 
expired stream of the three persons giving the highest 
results was equal to a pressure of 4135 mm. Now, if we 
assume that the preceding inspiration was as deep as 
possible, we must deduct from this result a pressure of 
420 mm. (16*4 inches) of water as the action of the 
elasticity of the lungs, and we shall then find that a 
pressure of 8715 mm. (135-8 inches of water) will 
express the muscular force employed in expiration. 

That the pressure gf air in the windpipe should be 
greater during the adjustment of the glottis and the 
production of a tone is at once obvious upon physical 
grounds, but cannot, from reasons which are equally 
clear, be proved by experiment. We must, therefore, be 
satisfied with the results of the experiments which 
Cagniard-Latour performed upon a person who had a 
fistula on the windpipe, i.e. an abnormal orifice of the 
windpipe upon the anterior surface of the throat, such 
as are made in tracheotomy, as, for example, when a 
child is suffering from croup. Cagniard-Latour placed 
a manometer in this fistula, and found — 



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FOBMATION OF TONE IN THE LARYNX. 201 

When a middle note was sung, a pressure of 160 mm. 

(6'24 inches) of water. 
When a higher note was sung with the same force, 

a pressure of 200 mm. (7*8 inches) of water. 
When a loud call was given, a pressure of 945 mm. 

(86'8 inches) of water. 
K we compare these figures with the result of Valen- 
tin's experiments, according to which the pressure of the 
expired current of air in the windpipe during quiet 
respiration is about 60 mm (2*34 inches) of water, we 
find that — 

(1) During the production of tone, the pressure of 

air in the windpipe is perceptibly increased. 

(2) During the production of higher tones the pressure 

of air is greater than during the production of 
lower tones. 

(8) It is also greater when a loud shout is given. 

In the last case the pressure of the air is, as we see 
from a comparison of the results, fifteen or sixteen times 
greater than in tranquil respiration. 

The Pitch of Tones. — The tones which can be produced 
by the vibrating reeds of the larynx, when acted upon 
by the current of air streaming through the glottis, are 
capable of considerable variation as regards pitch. The 
limits between which the human larynx has the power of 
producing tones is about four octaves, namely, from E to 
</" ; the greatest limits ever attained are an F^ of a singer 
named Fischer, and an/" oio, prima donna named Sessi, 
a distance therefore of five octaves. A single larynx is 
never, however, in possession of such a compass ; indeed, 
it becomes remarkable if it exceeds two or two and a half 
octaves. Three or three and a half octaves, as the com- 
pass of a single individual, is regarded in the history of 
music as an extraordinary occurrence. Every person has 



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202 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. ' 

his own compass somewhere in the scale of four octaves ; 
moreover, the various compasses have been arranged in 
four classes, into which the individual compasses fall 
according to their places in the scale. 

The bass voice has a compass from E tof. 

The tenor „ „ c to c". 

The alto „ „ /to/'. 

The soprano „ „ c' to c"'. 

According to another calculation, the bass voice 
extends from D to/', tenor from c to a', alto from g to e'\ 
and soprano from c' to a". In this division, however, 
nothing is said of the possibility of an individual com- 
pass exceeding the limits of the class to which it belongs 
in either an upward or downward direction. 

These four classes, moreover, differ not only in the 
position which they hold in the possible range of four 
octaves, but also in the special quality of tone which is 
peculiar to each class of voice, and which may be 
referred to the corresponding structure of the larynx. 

The difference in the pitch of tones is due in the first 
place to the number of vibrations performed by the vocal 
chords in a given time ; the greater the number of vibra- 
tions, the higher is the tone produced. While E is pro- 
duced by 80 vibrations in the second, 1024 vibrations 
are required in the same period to give c'". Estimated 
by the number of vibrations performed by the vocal 
chords in a given time, the bass voice may be described 
as belonging to that class the tones of which are pro- 
duced by 80 to 842 vibrations ; the tenor in the same 
manner is characterized by 128 to 512 vibrations, the 
alto by 171 to 684, and the soprano by 256 to 1024 
vibrations. 

When, therefore, the question is asked by what means 
the pitch of a tone is estimated, the answer will clearly 



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FORMATION OF TONE IN THE LARYNX. 203 

be that the conditions must be discovered under which a 
greater or less number of vibrations of the tone-producer 
— ^in the case of the larynx, the vocal chords — will be 
created. 

It is now known that the pitch of a tone is due to the 
following causes : — 

(1) A stout, firm substance will give a deep tone. 
Thus the thick, substantial vocal chords are as well 
adapted to produce a deep tone, as thick strings. This 
fact cannot, indeed, be verified by direct observation, 
though at the same time it is supported by universal 
experience. For instance, when the larynx is affected by 
catarrh, the voice is perceptibly lower, the explanation 
of which lies in the fact that under these conditions the 
mucous membrane covering the vocal chords is swollen, 
thus increasing their size. The accompanying impure 
sound (hoarseness, inequality) of the voice is caused by. 
the ill-fitting edges of the glottis, made soft and uneven 
by the swollen mucous membrane. This peculiarity 
is particularly striking when permanent catarrh has 
caused permanent thickening and hardening (induration) 
of the mucous membrane ; the rough bass of a confirmed 
drinker is due to this cause. 

(2) Long strings give deeper tones than shorter ones 
of the same thickness. Long vocal chords must, therefore, 
produce deeper tones than shorter chords. The truth of 
this assertion is shown by the well-known fact that men 
speak in a lower voice than women, the former as a rule 
being bass or tenor, the latter alto or soprano. A com- 
parison of the male and female larynx at once explains 
this peculiarity; we find, namely, that the size of the 
male larynx greatly exceeds that of the female, especially 
as regards length, the ratio between the length of the 
male and female larynx being 3 : 2. Again, a child, from 

10 



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204 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

the undeveloped state of its larynx, speaks in a high 
register. At the age of puberty the development of the 
larynx commences and proceeds somewhat rapidly. The 
irregularity which is peculiar to the voice at this period 
is well known, the latter then being familiarly described 
as "cracking" or "breaking." This period is much 
less marked in girls than in boys, the fully developed 
larynx in their case differing relatively but little from 
the child's — being, in fact, about the size of a boy's before 
the age of puberty. If the perfect development of an 
individual is retarded by castration, the larynx will 
retain its youthful form, and consequently the high 
register. The knowledge of this fact has given rise to a 
shameful practice for procuring high voices in choirs. 

The two properties just mentioned decide in the first 
place the height of the register peculiar to the larynx ; 
in addition to this, however, we find a power to produce a 
certain number of notes of different pitch. We have now 
to discover the conditions upon which the production of 
tones of different pitch by a single pair of vocal chords 
depends. Physical laws would lead us to assume that 
these conditions must be occasioned by changes in the 
tension of the vocal chords, and this supposition we 
shall find confirmed by the experiments which have 
been made upon the larynx. 

Tension of the vocal chords can, however, be attained 
in two different ways, namely — 

(1) By the chords being stretched in the direction of 

their length, whether this is done at both ends, 
or at one end only, the other being fixed. 

(2) By the action of the current of air, which forces 

the vocal chords in a direction vertical to their 
position when at rest. 
Direct tension of each vocal chord is produced to 



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FORMATION OF TONE IN THE LARYNX. 205 

some extent by the mere adjustment of the glottis. 
Before adjustment the entire vocal chord from the thyroid 
to the cricoid cartilage forms a straight line ; after adjust- 
ment, on the contrary, it forms an angle projecting in- 
wards, the apex of which angle lies in the vocal process 
of the arytenoid cartilage. The line bent thus into an 
angle must obviously be longer than the straight line ; the 
vocal chord must therefore have been stretched to attain 
this greater length (cf. Figs. 15 and 16). As, however, the 
arytenoid cartilage, on account of its want of elasticity, 
occasions no tension in that part of the vocal chord with 
which it is in contact, and as the portion of the chord 
which is situated between the arytenoid and cricoid car- 
tilages (generally called the crico-arytenoid ligament) is 
very short, while that situated between the arytenoid and 
thyroid cartilages (the vocal chord in the more limited 
sense, or thyro-arytenoid ligament) is considerably longer, 
it follows that the angle produced by the adjustment 
must belong principally to the latter division. If we 
consider further that in adjustment by the thyro-arytenoid 
muscle the vocal process of the arytenoid is at the same 
time pressed down, and in adjustment by the lateral crico- 
ai^tenoid muscle is raised, we shall see that there must 
also be an angle in the vocal chord when viewed from 
the side, the summit of which will be directed downwards 
in the first, upwards in the second adjustment (cf. Figs. 15 
and 16). The effect upon the tension of the actual vocal 
chord will be the same in this case as in that of the 
first-mentioned angle, which is apparent only from 
above. Thus the mere adjustment of the glottis has 
some influence upon the tension of the vocal chords, 
partly through the approximation of the vocal pro- 
cess of the arytenoid cartilages, and partly through their 
depression or elevation. 



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206 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

The crico-thyroid muscle has, however, a more direct 
influence upon the tension of the vocal chord. In the 
anatomical description of the larynx it was shown how 
the thyroid cartilage articulates by its inferior horns 
with the sides of the cricoid cartilage, and how this 
attachment permits it both to move forward, and also 
to rotate upon a horizontal axis passing between the 
articulations of both sides. It was shown, further, how 
both these movements must be produced by the crico- 
thyroid muscle, and that they were necessarily accom- 
panied by tension of the vocal chords (cf. Fig. 9). We 
need not, therefore, say more upon this point, further 
than to remark that we may in the living subject dis- 
tinctly recognize the influence of the crico-thyroid muscle 
upon the tension of the vocal chords, and therefore in 
the production of the higher tones. The depression of 
the thyroid cartilage, for instance, must cause the lower 
border of the latter to be approximated to the upper 
border of the cricoid cartilage. This part of the larynx 
can, however, be felt through the skin without any 
difl&culty ; and if the finger is placed upon the spot while 
a high note is sung, the described approximation of the 
two cartilages will be distinctly felt, and we shall be 
assured that the necessary tension has taken place. 

Tension of the vocal chords is also produced by the 
stretching action of the thyro-arytenoid (in some cases 
the lateral crico-arytenoid) and the crico-thyroid muscles. 
The former effects the tension by a pull upon the pos- 
terior end of the actual vocal chord, drawing inwards 
and downwards the vocal process of the arytenoid car- 
tilage. (If the lateral crico-arytenoid is the adjusting 
muscle, then this movement is directed inwards and 
upwards, the effect as regards tension being the same.) 
The crico-thyroidmxxQGle, on the contrary, occasions tension 



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FORMATION OF TONE IN THE LARYNX. 207 

by stretching the anterior end of the vocal chords, as 
it draws their point of attachment with the thyroid 
cartilage forwards and downwards. 

The second species of tension experienced by the vocal 
chords is caused by the current of air which is forced 
between them. When, for instance, the ascending current 
presses against the vocal chords, they yield before it and 
bulge out into a curved Kne. As, however, the arc is 
longer than its chord, the vocal chord must necessarily 
be stretched and drawn out. The stronger the current 
of air, the greater will be the curvature ; and the greater 
the curvature, the greater also the tension which it 
occasions ; a greater tension, however, also produces a 
higher tone. Thus we find that the pitch of the tone 
depends upon the strength of the expiratory pressure, 
whether this pressure is produced from a feeling of pain, 
or intentionally for the purpose of creating a higher 
tone. For this reason the voice of a person speaking in 
violent anger will often rise suddenly to an exceedingly 
high pitch ; singers, again, are obliged to use such effort 
in producing forced high notes, that they lose the power 
of modulation, and are thus very liable to turn the note 
into a scream. This fact, moreover, considered from dif- 
ferent points of view, explains another interesting pecu- 
liarity connected with singing. When great pressure is 
put upon the current of air in the windpipe, it naturally 
passes out quickly, and the reserve of air is soon ex- 
hausted ; low notes, therefore, which are produced by a 
more gentle action upon the vocal chords, can be held 
longer than those forced high notes. 

Now, although the laws described above, which attri- 
bute the difference in the pitch of tones to the degree of 
tension to which the vocal chords are subjected, are in 
perfect harmony with the first principles of physics, and 



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208 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH, 

therefore require no further confirmation, yet it is in- 
teresting to find that they have been proved by direct 
experiment with special reference to the larynx. Jo- 
hannes Miiller, who has won a deserved reputation 
by his work upon the formation of tone in the larynx, 
experimented upon a larynx which had been removed 
from a male subject ; he adjusted the glottis by connecting 
the arytenoid cartilages, and then attached a thread to 
the thyroid cartilage. By taking the thread over a pulley 
and fastening a small scale to its free end, he was able, 
by placing different weights in the scale, to vary the 
tension of the vocal chords. The tone produced by the 
various degrees of tension was then tested by blowing 
in each case upon the vocal chords with as nearly as 
possible the same force, the precaution being taken to 
compare the tone answering to each degree of tension 
with the notes of a piano. It would take too long if we 
were to give the whole series obtained by Miiller in this 
manner; the following extracts from his experiments 
must, therefore, suffice : — 

"By gradually increasing the weight which held the 
vocal chords in tension from 7 to 540 grm. (i-19 oz.), he 
succeeded in producing the entire series of tones and 
semitones from aft to dj'". 

" When the tension was small, a small increase in 
the weight (7*8 grm. = '22 oz.) was sufficient to raise 
the pitch of the tone a semitone. 

" When the tension was greater, the addition required 
rose to 43 grm. = 1*52 oz." 

We shall more readily understand these experiments, 
and, what is still more essential, the conclusions to be 
drawn from them, if we compare in a few cases the 
weights necessary to increase the tension so as to raise 
the tone one octave. 



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POEMATION OF TONE IN THE LARYNX. 209 

Tone. Tenglon. Tone. Tension. Tone. Tension. 

aj 7 grm. djf 41 grm. b 15 grm. 
at 88 „ df 142 „ V 96 „ 
af 325 „ dT" 540 „ h" 866 „ 
If, on the other hand, we compare the degrees of 
tension and their results, we find that a gradual increase 
in the weight from 7 to 277 grm. will raise the pitch of 
the tone from a% to a", but beyond that a further 
addition of 268 to 540 grm. will only raise the pitch 
to d$". 

Miiller then reversed the process; that is to say, 
attached the scale and its weights in such a manner as 
to draw the thyroid cartilages backwards and so relax 
the vocal chords ; in this manner he was able, by gradual 
relaxation of the vocal chords obtained by increasing the 
weight from 4 to 56 grm., with a constant pressure of air 
to lower the note from djjf to B. 

Thus, by merely altering the tension of the same 
pair of vocal chords, he was able, with a constant pressure 
of air, to obtain a compass of more than three octaves, 
from B to d^''. 

Miiller further succeeded in showing by direct experi- 
ment the influence exercised by a variation in the force 
of the pressure of air. He again adjusted a larynx in 
the manner described above, and while maintaining the 
same degree of tension, varied the force of the pressure 
of air. In three experiments which he carried out upon 
this principle, gradually blowing more strongly upon the 
vocal chords the tension of which remained constant, 
he succeeded in raising the pitch of the tone produced 
from d% to a, from g to c^, and from / to e" ; he was 
able, therefore, counting semitones, to force out from 
six to nine tones above that which was characteristic of 
the tension under ordinary circumstances. He further 



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210 THE OEGANS OP SPEECH. 

remarked particularly that the quality of such forced 
tones was greatly inferior to that of tones of the same 
pitch, produced entirely by direct tension of the vocal 
chords, and this was especially true of those tones which, 
where the tension of the vocal chords was at its maximum, 
could be forced out by increasing the pressure of air ; he 
describes them as unmusical and screaming. 

According to the laws of physics a difference in the 
length of the porte-vent, or the resonance tube, or both, 
should, through the resonance which is inherent to them, 
exercise an influence upon the pitch of a tone; this, 
however, cannot be proved in the human organ of speech.^ 
There is, indeed, a fact which directly contradicts this 
theory, namely, that when high tones are produced 
the larynx rises, thus lengthening the porte-vent, or 
the windpipe, while theoretically we should consider the 
lengthening of the porte-vent as one of the conditions for 
the production of low tones. This seeming contradiction 
is, however, explained when we remember that the walls 
of those parts adjoining the larynx, as porte-vent and 
resonance tube, are too soft and yielding for their 
resonance to have any perceptible effect upon the re- 
markably powerful tone of the vocal chords^ 

Chest and Head Notes. — The notes which the human 
voice is capable of producing are of two kinds, and so 
are generally divided into chest and head notes (falsetto). 
The latter, as a rule, have a higher pitch, but both are 
further characterized by a peculiar quality. Now, as 
the formation of the tones employed in speech must be 
primarily referred to the vocal chords in the larynx, we 
are justified in assuming that the peculiarities in question 
are caused by different action of the vocal chords during 
the production of tone. Direct observation upon the 
living subject is of little assistance in showing how far 



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POKMATION OF TONE IN THE LARYNX. 211 

we are right in this supposition ; as we merely find that 
chest-notes produce a much greater vibration, particularly 
of the walls of the chest, while falsetto notes are accom- 
panied by an elevation of the larynx and by a considerable 
increase of exertion. We are therefore forced to fall back 
upon experiments upon removed larynxes, and shall have 
the more confidence in them, as we have already found 
such experiments to be entirely satisfactory in explaining 
the production of musical notes by the voice. 

From these experiments it appears that chest-notes 
are always produced when the entire vocal plates are 
thrown into vibration, and that, on the contrary, head- 
notes are produced when only the sharp edges of the 
vocal chords vibrate. This fact may be proved by ob- 
serving the action of the vocal chords during the pro- 
duction of a tone. The result of these experiments so 
far has been to show that the vibration which is limited 
to the extreme edges of the vocal chords arises when, with 
a somewhat more widely open glottis, the vocal chords 
are highly stretched, and a strong rush of air then passes 
rapidly through them which can only cause their edges 
to vibrate by friction ; during the production of chest- 
notes, on the contrary, the vocal chords are relaxed and 
their edges lie nearer together, so that the whole of 
the vocal plates are forced to vibrate like valves. These 
greater vibrations of the entire vocal plates call forth a 
corresponding increase in the resonance of the windpipe 
and its ramifications, which has given rise to the terms 
" chest-note, chest-voice." 

From the manner in which it thus appears that head- 
notes are produced, it should follow that they require 
a greater supply of air than chest-notes, the air in the 
former case passing with greater rapidity through a larger 
opening ; this agrees with the fact that head-notes can- 



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212 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

not be held as long as chest-notes, while on the other 
hand this very agreement is greatly in favour of the 
view we have taken of the production of head-notes. 

The Quality of the Voice. — The tones created in the 
larynx have, besides their pitch and division into chest 
and head notes, a peculiar qtiahty (clang), which cha- 
racterizes them as tones of the human vocal organs. 
This quahty, like that of all musical instruments, is 
chiefly dependent upon the structure of the whole 
apparatus as regards both material and form. Varia- 
tions in the character of these two factors impart to each 
individual voice an individual " quality." They, namely, 
determine the composition of the different resonances, 
and the manner in which they blend to foi^n the com- 
pound tone, which is the cause of the peculiar "quality." 

The most important point in connection with this 
part of the subject is the size and condition of the 
cartilage of the larynx, if, that is to say, it is in a 
normal condition, or shows any signs of a change in 
its texture (such as ossification). It is also of the 
greatest importance to consider the resonance of the 
cavities of the windpipe and of the mouth and nose, 
which, again, depends upon the form of the walls and 
upon the extent of these cavities. We have already 
remarked, in passing, the part which the resonance of 
the air in the windpipe plays in the production of chest- 
notes, therefore we shall now only draw attention to 
the fact that the resonance of the air in the cavities 
of the mouth and nose has a considerable effect upon 
the quaUty of a tone; for when both mouth and nose 
serve as exits for the air, the quality of the tone differs 
from that produced when either of these orifices are 
closed. When the mouth is closed we have a nasal 
quaUty, which is used intentionaUy for certain sounds, 



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FORMATION OF TONE IN THE LARYNX. 213 

but sometimes, from habit or from some defect in the 
palate, a person can use no other, or, as we say, 
"speaks through his nose." The resonance of these 
cavities will, moreover, be effected by their size and 
shape in each particular instance, whUe even compara- 
tively unimportant circumstances, such, for instance, as 
the loss of a few double teeth, will have a perceptible 
effect upon the quahty of the voice. 

It would be almost impossible to enumerate all the 
causes upon which this difference in " quality " depends ; 
and such an attempt would, moreover, possess little 
interest. It is enough to know that herein lie the 
reasons of the quality of the human voice as such, and 
of the quality pecuHar to each individual. 

If we consider, further, that the existence of a par- 
ticular register depends upon the corresponding forma- 
tion of the tone-producing apparatus, and that this 
formation also possesses the conditions necessary for a 
peculiar quality, we shall see how it is that the four 
principal registers — bass, tenor, alto, and soprano — ^not 
only differ in their position in the scale, but also in the 
quality which is peculiar to each. 

Intensity of Tone ; Crescendo and Decrescendo. — The 
intensity of a tone depends partly upon the forces im- 
mediately concerned in its production, partly upon the 
accessory circumstance of resonance. A loud tone 
requires a strong pressure of air and healthy vocal 
chords capable of performing vibrations; with such 
vocal chords the tone will be louder, in proportion to the 
force with which the air is expelled by the expiratory 
muscles, as we have seen from Cagniard-Latour's experi- 
ments with the manometer, which for a shout showed a 
pressure five times greater than that for ordinary singing. 
The resonance of the air contained in the windpipe and 



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214 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH, 

lungs, and of the walls of the chest, the resonance of the 
air in the cavities of the mouth and nose, and the re- 
sonance of the component parts of the larynx and 
especially of the walls of the air-passages, are all so 
many means for reinforcing the tone, the intensity of 
which depends, therefore, upon the degree of perfection 
to which this resonance can be brought. A spacious 
thorax, a spacious nasal cavity, and a large larynx, each 
of course, in a healthy condition, will contribute mate- 
rially towards the production of powerful tones. 

A weak voice is occasioned, on the one hand, by any 
affection of the mucous membrane which covers the vocal 
chords (catarrh, for instance), or by muscular weakness 
which prevents the possibility of a powerful expiration ; 
and, on the other hand, by disease of the lungs, which 
diminishes their capacity for containing air and producing 
resonance ; and, indeed, by any circumstance which pre- 
vents powerful resonance in the above-mentioned parts. 

Another interesting question is the possibility of 
giving a crescendo or decrescendo effect to a tone sus- 
tained at the same pitch. We have already seen that the 
pitch of a tone is primarily dependent upon the tension 
of the vocal chords, but that with the same degree of 
tension a slight expiratory effort will produce a low tone, 
a strong one, on the contrary, a high tone. We know, 
further, that if a given tone is to become forte, the current 
of air must be increased in strength, and that if, on the 
contrary, we change it to piano, the current must be 
weakened. The tone should therefore become higher 
vfhen forte, lower when^nawo. As, however, it is possible 
to pass from piano to forte without altering the pitch of 
the tone, there must be some means of correcting the 
effect of the difference in the strength of the current of 
air. This counteracting influence can only arise from 



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FORMATION OF TONE IN THE LARYNX. 215 

the muscles of the larynx, which, as the tones become 
forte, will be relaxed, when it becomes piano will, on 
the contrary, be more highly stretched, so that in both 
cases the difference in tension will correct the variations 
which would be caused by the difference in the strength 
of the current of air. 

Let us now glance back, and we shall find that 
although there are present many conditions which 
render possible the production of tones (in a strictly 
musical sense) in the air-passages, yet that of all these 
the tone-producing power of the larynx is the only one 
which is fully adapted for the formation of articulate 
sounds. 

In the larynx, moreover, we have a musical apparatus 
of a peculiar kind, which may, indeed, be generally com- 
pared to a vibrating reed, but which differs in many 
respects from the reeds employed in musical instruments. 

The tone is here produced by a moist membrane 
composed of elastic tissue (the vocal plate), which by 
means of organic change is always in a condition to 
produce tone, and therefore does not suffer from con- 
tinued use, as, for instance, is necessarily the case with 
the indiarubber plates, by means of which we can con- 
struct a musical apparatus upon the same principle. 
While with the reeds used in musical instruments a 
separate pipe is necessary for each tone, the material of 
the vocal chords is such that the vibrating reeds of the 
larynx can be employed in the creation of a large series 
of tones, embracing from two to two and a half octaves. 

This is rendered possible by the faculty which the 
portion of the vocal plates principally employed in the 
production of tone (the vocal chords) possesses of re- 
ceiving different degrees of tension, partly by the im- 
mediate action of muscles which pull them in the direction 



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216 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

of their length, and paxtly by the degree of force with 
which the current of air is driven against them. These 
two kinds of tension act simultaneously, so that the 
absolute degree of tension distinctive of a particular 
pitch may be caused by a different division of the two 
forces. Thus it is possible if, as in a note sung forte^ 
one force producing the tension (the pressure of air) 
is too great, by diminishing the other (muscular activity) 
to maintain an equal tension, and therefore the same 
pitch. 

By varying the action of the vocal chords we are able 
to obtain two registers of musical notes, the register of 
chest-notes and the register of head-notes, the latter 
being somewhat higher than the former. 

The resonance in the passages through which the air 
is supplied (the windpipe, etc.), and in those which carry 
it away (the cavities of the mouth and nose), corre- 
sponding to the porte-vent and resonance tube of a reed- 
instrument, serve partly to reinforce the tone, and partly 
to give to it the peculiar quality characteristic of the 
human voice. 

The quality of the voice can be modified by changing 
the form of the resonance tube, especially the very 
adaptable cavity of the mouth, in different ways. 

The larynx, therefore, in spite of its diminutive size 
and simple construction, must be regarded as one of 
the most perfect and comprehensive of musical instru- 
ments, and superior in action to any artificial musical 
instrument. 

Another fact is interesting, namely, that the entire 
larynx, and particularly the space between the vocal 
chords, merely serves imder ordinary circumstances as 
a free passage for the current of air employed in re- 
spiration, and that a single slight muscular action is 



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VOICE AND SPEECH. 217 

sujBEicient to adjust the vocal chords for the production of 
musical tones, and so to change a free air-passage into 
an inimitable musical apparatus. 

Voice and Speech. 

In the last section we showed that the air, in its 
passage through the breathing apparatus, is capable of 
producing different sounds, which sometimes assume the 
character of a noise, sometimes that of a tone (in a 
restricted sense). We further traced these sounds to 
their origin, and found that those which are caused by 
the inspired current of air are not of frequent occurrence, 
and are rather to be regarded as peculiar and accidental 
phenomena;, those, on the contrary, which are pro- 
duced by the expired current of air occur more fre- 
quently, and are more varied in nature; then, again, 
they are more easily uttered and sustained because there 
is less direct muscular activity required for the creation 
of the expiratory current than for the inspiratory cur- 
rent, expiration being to a certain extent merely an 
involuntary reaction after the effort of inspiration. 

This peculiarity of expiratory founds is the reason 
why they are to a great extent employed in the means 
of communication characteristic of man, that is, in 
articulate speech. We say to a great extent, for by no 
means are all sounds employed which can be created by 
the expiratory current in the above-mentioned manner, 
but only those which can be easily uttered, and possess 
the advantage of being easily combined so as to form 
those combinations of sounds which we call "words." 
Again, this choice is by no means universally the same 
or a constant rule for all races of men ; very generally 
speaking, it is true that the same sounds are universally 



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218 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

used in the formation of speech; if, however, we look 
more closely, we find that each race, or even smaller 
fractions of the human species, offers not inconsiderable 
differences, arising in some cases from special modifi- 
cation of these primary sounds, in others to a use of 
particular sounds which are only met with in certain 
languages or dialects. As an example of the first kind 
of variation, we may mention the many different pro- 
nunciations of the vowel A ; of the second, the compara- 
tively limited distribution of the English sound th. 
That, moreover, this possibility of easy utterance and 
easy combination of sounds which we have given above 
as the motive in their choice is a very relative one, we 
know from personal experience, when, in learning a 
foreign language, we have been obliged to master those 
sounds or modifications of sounds which are peculiar to 
it. Practice from earliest youth is here, as in so many 
cases, the only foundation for the term " easy.'* 

The sounds employed in the formation of speech are, 
however, by no means either pure noises or pure tones ; 
ordinary speech is much rather composed to a great 
extent of a mixture of noise and tone. In whispering 
only is tone almost &cluded. It is the combination of 
these two elements in the formation of sound to which is 
generally applied the term "voice."* Thus the voice 
represents the " tone-quality " of what is uttered, and we 
may speak of a voice as being musical, strong, etc. The 
voice is, therefore, quite independent of speech, and 
may equally be employed for unintelligible sounds and 
for most pathetic speech. A singer's fame depends upon 
his power of modulating his voice, and we all know how 

♦ The term ** voice " (Stimme) is here used in a different sense to the 
pense generally applied to it in English phonetics, where it is used for 
the sound produced by the vibration of the vocal chords. For the latter 
the author uses tone (Ton), which word is retained. — Tb. 



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VOICE AND SPEECH. 219 

seldom a word when sung can be rendered merely as a 
word without drawing severe criticism upon the singer. 
We speak, therefore, and with justice, of the voice of 
birds, etc. 

" Speech," on the contrary, is the creation of combina- 
tions of sounds, by means of which we render ourselves 
intelligible, and are able to communicate with others ; 
and, in a wider sense, the combination of separate com- 
pound sounds (words) into sentences, etc. The conception 
of ** speech," therefore, infers an intelligible meaning in 
what is spoken, and is consequently quite independent of 
the conception of "voice," it being immaterial whether 
it is uttered in a musical or an unmusical voice. In 
this sense we talk of a person speaking well, vulgarly or 
with great enthusiasm, and also use these expressions 
with regard to written or printed speeches, which shows 
still more plainly the independence of the conception of 
*' speech " from that of " voice." 

It is important that we should be quite clear about 
the difference between these two conceptions, for they 
are not always as clearly differentiated as they should be. 
Thus we often hear the remark that the Italian is a 
beautiful language, because it has such a musical sound, 
when evidently only the voice-quality of the ItaUan 
language is implied. 

Since, therefore, we are now proceeding to consider 
the elements of speech — that is to say, articulate sounds 
with reference to their creation and mutual relation — ^we 
shaU not, after what has been said above upon the choice 
of articulate sounds, confine ourselves to a single alpha- 
bet. We should in that case be as deserving of blame 
as a person who would attempt to explain the mechanism 
of walking or grasping from the observation of a single 
individual. Just as a true demonstration of the move- 



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220 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

ments of walking and grasping depends upon a thorough 
investigation of each joint of the arm and leg, which will 
account for every variety of walking and grasping; so 
for our purpose must we explain every mechanism and 
apparatus which assist in the formation of articulate 
sounds, that we may thus become acquainted with the 
whole range of possible articulate sounds, and distinguish 
those which are actually in use. We may, however, 
without in any way injuring our subject, pay particular 
attention to the more familiar languages of Europe. 

Eeciprocal Closxjbb op the Cavities of the Mouth 
AND Nose. 

Of the two means of exit open to the expiratory 
current of air, that of the cavity of the nose is, under 
normal conditions, only employed in the mechanism of 
respiration. The passage through the cavity of the 
mouth, though under unusual circumstances also forming 
a passage for the breath, is, on the contrary, generally 
employed when the current of air is used for the creation 
of speech. The cavity of the nose, however, serves also 
as a passage for the air in certain articulate sounds. 
We shall, therefore, proceed to examine by what mechan- 
ism the current of air is driven through one or other of 
.these passages. 

A general explanation is at once given in the peculiar 
adjustment of the soft palate, which, when at rest, hangs 
vertically downwards, closing from behind the cavity of 
the mouth and leaving the entrance to the nasal cavity 
free ; when raised, however, till it lies horizontally, the 
floor of the nasal cavity is continued to the posterior 
wall of the pharynx : thus the entrance to it is closed, 
while that of the cavity of the mouth is left perfectly 



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CLOSURE OF MOUTH AIJD NOSE. 221 

open. This relation is sufficiently shown by the two 
views given in Fig.. 6. In both, a represents the nasal 
cavity, h the cavity of the mouth, d the windpipe with 
the larynx, and /the soft palate ; in A the soft palate is 
hanging down and closes the cavity of the mouth, in B 
it is raised and closes that of the nose. This sketch, 
though correct as regards the leading points, is a very 
rough one, and would require to be much developed and 
filled in before it could be called a perfect representation. 
The idea we gain from this figure is far too much that of a 
door opening at different angles, while the soft palate is 
a yielding, pliable structure, by which an opening can be 
closed in many other ways than by that which is alone 
possible with a rigid board. 

There are in the human organism several such valves, 
so arranged that, under certain relations, they close an 
otherwise open passage. The principle is the same in 
all, for each consists of an arched plate or lip, which 
when effecting the closure does not touch the opposite 
side with its free edge only, but with a considerable 
extent of its convex surface. The advantage of this 
arrangement is that the greater the pressure upon the 
concave side of the arch the more perfect will be the 
contact, provided, of course, that the valve cannot go 
back too far, which in every case we find, from some 
special provision, to be impossible. The valves in the 
cavities of the heart and in the veins are provided with 
an exceedingly simple check, the principle of which is 
precisely the same as that of the soft palate. 

In the anatomical section we compared the soft 
palate to the blinds of a bay window, the middle one of 
which is broad and drawn only a little way down, while 
the narrow side blinds reach to the bottom of the window. 
The broad middle portion is the soft palate, strictly 



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222 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

speaking, and the narrow hanging sides the pillars of the 
fauces. Now, in each of these three pillars there is a 
muscle (the pharyngo-palatine m.) which draws down the 
soft palate and thus effects many important changes; 
hut in the question now hefore us we may undoubtedly 
regard them as checks of the descriptions mentioned 
above, which, when the soft palate is employed to close 
the cavities of the mouth and nose, prevent it from 
springing back too far. 

We must, moreover, examine the two portions into 
which the soft palate is still further divided if we wish to 
obtain an accurate acquaintance with its mechanism. 
These two parts may be termed the upper and the lower 
part; the former is that which adjoins the posterior 
border of the hard palate, the latter that which terminates 
in a free edge. Viewed externally, no division is visible 
between the parts, but it is shown very plainly in the 
internal structure by the arrangement of the muscles. 
Two pairs of muscles enter the soft palate from above in 
such a manner, that each, consisting of a right and a 
left hand muscle, forms a loop, the broad summit of 
which spreads out in the soft palate. One is formed by 
the tensor veli muscle, and belongs specially to the upper 
part of the soft-palate; the other by the levator veli, 
which, together with the pharyngo-palatine of the pillars 
of the fauces, is chiefly spread throughout the lower part 
of the soft palate. 

The elevation of the soft palate is principally effected 
by the tensor palati muscle, notwithstanding the apparent 
contradiction offered by the name of the muscle. The 
form, namely, of this muscle is very peculiar. Springing 
from the side of the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid 
bone which skirts the posterior nares, it passes with its 
tendon through a notch situated at the base of the inner 



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CLOSURE OP MOUTH AND NOSE. 223 

plate of this process into that portion of the soft palate 
which is contiguous to the posterior border of the hard 
palate, and there joining the corresponding muscle of 
the other side, forms the above-mentioned loop. The 
portion of this loop lying behind the hard palate is only 
formed of the tendons of both muscles, and indeed in 
such a manner that they together constitute a broad 
aponeurosis, the anterior border of which is firmly 
attached to the posterior border of the hard palate. 
When now the two tensor palati act simultaneously this 
membrane is pulled obliquely, and so forms a continua- 
tion of the arch of the hard palate in the direction of 
the posterior wall of the pharynx. A horizontal wall of 
division is thus to a certain extent created between that 
portion of the nose and the cavity of the mouth adjoining 
the pharynx, and the most important part of the closure 
of the nasal cavity to the current of air effected, only a 
proportionately small gap being left between the posterior 
wall of the pharjux which lies upon the vertebral column, 
and the upper portion of the soft palate now stretched 
into a horizontal position. This gap is filled by the 
lower portion of the soft palate being drawn into it by 
the levator palati muscle. An arch is thus formed up- 
wards and backwards, resting against the posterior wall 
of the pharynx, the free edge, which touches more lightly, 
passing into the pillars of the fauces. 

Passavant * was the first to show that this mechanism 
is not the sole agent in the closure of the nasal cavity, 
but that the posterior wall of the pharynx comes into 
contact with the elevated soft palate by means of a 
projecting fold against which the soft palate rests. To 
understand the cause of this protuberance we must 

* G. PasBavant, Ueber die Verschliessung des Schlundes beim 
Spreohen (Frankfurt a. M., Sauerlander, 1863), und Virchow'B Archiv. 
Bd. XLVI., 8. 1-31. 



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224 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

remember that the pharynx is surrounded by three 
constrictor muscles, each of which may be compared to 
a loop with a fixed point of attachment. The first and 
inferior constrictor has its origin in the larynx, the 
middle one in the hyoid bone, and they both spread out 
backwards to such an extent as to entirely cover the 
sides and back of the portion of the pharynx bordered by 
the larynx and the oral cavity ; they are thus peculiarly 
well adapted to produce a contraction of that portion of 
the larynx through which the food passes in the act of 
swallowing, in which consequently they play an important 
part. The action of the superior constrictor is different. 
It arises from the posterior margin of the internal 
pterygoid plate, therefore at the side of the posterior 
nares, and also from the inner surface of the inferior 
maxillary bone under the last molar teeth. Between 
these two points of origin a middle portion may be 
observed, consisting of fibres which are an immediate 
continuation of the buccinator. This superior constrictor 
is very different in construction to the two others, not 
expanding as it passes backwards, and so enclosing the 
nasal portion of the pharynx as a band of scarcely 2 cm. 
('78 inch) in width. The action should, therefore, only 
affect this portion of the pharynx, which is really the 
case, as it draws forwards the above-mentioned protuber- 
ance of the posterior wall of the pharynx, almost upon 
the same level as the base of the nasal cavity, and, because 
some of its fibres run upwards, at the same time draws it 
downwards. It is obvious that the raised portion of the soft 
palate must, by contact with this protuberance, accomplish 
the closure of the nasal cavity with great precision. We 
must not, however, forget that with such properties the 
superior constrictor cannot be considered as a muscle 
employed in swallowing, but as one of those which form 
part of the mechanism of speech. 



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CLOSURE OF MOUTH AND NOSE. 225 

The truth of this assertion may be shown in many 
ways. 

Fassavant was able to prove the existence of this 
protuberance upon the posterior wall of the pharynx by 
direct observation upon a subject bom with such a high 
palate that the upper part of the pharynx was quite 
visible. He was even able to take its dimensions ; he 
estimated it as raised from 5-6 mm. (•19-*23 inch) 
above the surface of the pharyngeal wall, and as from 
9-12 mm. (•35-*47 inch) in length. It is remarkable 
that a fact so important for the investigation of the 
mechanism of speech should have hitherto met with no 
further consideration, although it was published as long 
ago as 1868. 

The fact of the perfect closure of the nasal cavity by 
the soft palate in speech was, after much controversy, 
first experimentally demonstrated by Czermak.* His 
experiments prove this closure first in the case of the 
pure (not nasal) vowels, and then for the consonants, of 
course with the exception of the resonants (m, n, ng), 
which are still often regarded as consonants. He first 
showed that the elevation of the soft palate differed with 
the utterance of each vowel, the greatest elevation 
occurring with the vowel i (ee in see), and that the 
elevation gradually diminished when the vowels were 
uttered in the following order : — i, u, o, e, a.f This he 
proved in the following manner. A thin wire was 
bent twice at right angles in the same plane ; to one end 
a small ball of wax was attached, and the wire was then 
pushed through the nose till the wax ball lay upon the 

• Ueber das Verhalten des weichen Gaumens beira Hervorbriiigcn der 
reinen Vocale. (SitzuDgsberiohte der wiener Akademie — mathematisch- 
naturwisseiiBchaftUche Klasse — , Bd. XXIY., S. 4. M'arz, 1857.) 

t It should be remembered that the vowels mentioned are in every case 
the German vowels. The English e<^aivalents are — for i, eeintee; «, a in 
pay ; o, o inno; u^oo in poor ; a, a mfcUher, — Tb. 



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226 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

posterior surface of the soft palate ; the other end of 
the wire hung as an indicator before the mouth. The 
vowels were then uttered in the following order — a, e, o, 
u, i — and the indicator rose for each, attaining the 
greatest elevation with i ; the order of the vowels was 
then reversed, and the indicator gradually sank, till, when 
a was no longer audible, it resumed its former vertical 
position. He was afterwards * able to make even closer 
observations. For instance, in a surgical operation con- 
ducted by Professor Schuh at Vienna, the face of the 
patient was so opened that the posterior surface of the 
soft palate could be seen, and Gzermak experimented 
upon it with Schuh and Briicke. He thus discovered 
that in uttering the vowel i the soft palate was raised to 
such a height that its posterior (in the act of raising, the 
upper) surface lay at an angle of about ten degrees 
above the plane of the floor of the nasal cavity ; when 
u was uttered the point at which the soft palate came 
into contact with the wall of the pharynx lay 6 mm. 
(•23 inch) lower ; for o and e it fell again 6 mm., and 
when a was uttered there was only a slight elevation in 
a backward direction of the surface of the soft palate. 

Gzermak further demonstrated in several ways that 
the closure, which is effected by the elevated soft palate, 
is a very complete one. In his first treatise he mentions 
the following experiment upon himself. While uttering 
the vowel i he had some water poured through a small 
tube into the hindermost part of the nasal cavity ; this 
water remained there and did not flow down into the 
lower part of the pharynx : this was also the case when 
the vowels w, o, and e were uttered, the water only 
entering the pharynx when he uttered the vowel a. The 

* Czennak, Bemerkung fiber die Bildung einiger Spraohlaute, in: 
Untersuchungen ztir Naturleiure des Mensohen und der Tmere (publLsIied 
by MolcBchott), V., 1. 



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CLOSURE OP MOUTH AND NOSE. 227 

closure had, therefore, been sufficient to support the 
weight of the superincumbent water till the vowel a was 
uttered, when it became too weak to answer that purpose. 
That, however, there was a closure even in the latter case 
has been shown by Fassavant * in another manner. 
He repeated Czermak's experiment, using, however, milk 
instead of water, the advantage being that milk could be 
more easily seen, by reason of its white colour, when 
escaping down the pharynx. The result of the experi- 
ment was the same as when Gzermak tried it. He 
resorted, however, to another method, to discover whether 
the escape which accompanied the utterance of the 
vowel a arose from imperfect closure, or from the weight 
of the fluid forcing open a closure which otherwise would 
have been perfect. A wire, of the thickness of a strong 
thread, was bent at right angles, and carefully introduced 
into the nose till one end could be seen through the open 
mouth hanging down below the free margin of the soft 
palate, the other end projecting from the nose. Upon 
moving the latter, the end hanging down the pharynx 
could be distinctly seen to move slightly from side to 
side ; when, however, the vowel a was uttered it was no 
longer possible to produce this motion, which shows that 
the contact between the soft palate and the posterior wall 
of the pharynx is so perfect when the vowel a is uttered 
that a wire of the thickness of a thread will be held fast. 
Although the above-mentioned facts are quit^ sufficient 
to prove that when the vowels are uttered an air-tight 
closure of the nasal cavity takes place, still Czermak t 
did not consider a further experimental proof to be 
superfluous. For instance, while be was uttering the 
vowels, he held a mirror or a polished steel blade before 

• Ueber die Verschliessung des Schlundkopfeg, S, 13-14. 
t Bemerkungen iiber die Bilduug eiuiger Spraoblaute, S. 2. 
11 



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228 THE ORGANS OF SPEECa 

Us nose, and found no moisture upon its surface — a 
sign that no air could have passed through the nasal 
cavity, which must, therefore, have been entirely isolated 
from the current of air. This experiment also was 
tried by Passavant with the same result. 

We must not omit to mention that from Passavant's 
observation it appeared that in some exceptional cases 
there was a small gap between the soft palate and the 
wall of the pharynx during the utterance of a, o, u, which 
did not affect the purity of the sounds. 

As, however, we are not here discussing the formation 
of the separate articulate sounds, but merely the laws 
for the isolation of the nasal cavity during the produc- 
tion of pure oral sounds, we need not at present extend 
our remarks beyond the general laws just laid down for 
the vowels. Still it is a fact too important to be omitted 
that Czermak, and after him Passavant, have shown that 
there is the same isolation of the nasal cavity for the 
oral consonants. 

We are, therefore, perfectly justified in saying that 
during the production of all pure oral sounds, whether 
vowels or consonants, the nasal cavity is entirely shut off 
from the expiratory current of air. 

These facts would lead us to expect a similar exclu- 
sion of the mouth from the current of air during the 
production of nasal sounds, and this we shall find to be 
the case. The nasal sounds which are employed in 
ordinary speech are the nasal modifications of the vowels 
so general in French and German, and the so-called 
resonants, m, n, ng, or semi-vowels, as they have been 
termed. Now, as the soft palate, when at rest, hangs 
down before the posterior opening of the mouth like a 
valve till it touches the root of the tongue, we have 
the necessary provision for the isolation of the mouth. 



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CLOSURE OF MOUTH AND NOSE. 229 

and any special apparatus is apparently unnecessary, 
although we may well imagine that as such nasal sounds 
only occur occasionally in speech, and since in speech 
the soft palate is generally raised to effect the closure 
of the nasal cavity, so, when the mouth is to be isolated 
for the formation of a single sound, it must be tem- 
porarily drawn by some special muscular action into 
that position which it always assumes when at rest. 

There can be no question as to the fact that in nasal 
sounds the current of air passes through the nasal cavity. 
The point may be argued, however, whether this isolating 
closure of the mouth is only effected by a temporary 
resumption of the state of rest, or whether a special 
closing action is not rather the cause. Direct observation 
by looking into the open mouth is impossible, since the 
mechanism necessary to produce the sounds acts so as 
to close the aperture of the mouth. The question may, 
however, be solved in another manner, for besides our 
knowledge of the theoretical possibility of such actions, 
it is possible to make observations upon ourselves and 
to follow them out upon others. 

Muscular sensation gives evidence of two movements 
during the formation of the nasal vowels, namely — 

(1) A movement of the soft palate downwards and 

forwards ; 

(2) A movement of the tongue backwards and 
upwards. 

The inference to be drawn from these movements is 
clear ; close contact must, for instance, be formed between 
the soft palate thus drawn down forwards and the tongue 
drawn towards it backwards, the result of which will be 
a perfect isolation of the mouth. That such a complete 
isolation really takes place in the nasal vowels is shown 
in the well-known defect in a foreigner's pronunciation 



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230 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

of the French nasal vowels ; for though he pronounces 
the vowel itself rightly, he adds a A; to the end of it. Now, 
as this is an explosive sound formed by the root of the 
tongue and the soft palate, its appearance here is a proof 
that contact between these two parts is broken at the 
end of the vowel, and therefore that such a contact must 
have existed during the utterance of the vowel. The 
defect merely arises from this liberation being performed 
audibly ; it is most noticeably in the nasal a — ^as, for 
instance, " departemank." 

Since, however, we are not here considering the 
formation of the separate articulate sounds, but merely 
the mechanism employed in the closure of the mouth, 
we need not enter into the discussion as to whether, and 
to what extent, such a complete closure of the mouth is 
necessary in all nasal sounds ; we may be satisfied with 
having ascertained the fact, that an absolute isolation oj 
the mouth from the expiratory current is possible through 
special muscular action, and may be regarded as part of the 
mechanism of speech. 

The Nasal Cavity. 

From what has been said in the preceding section, 
it appears that we have the power of allowing the air 
which has ascended from the larynx into the pharynx 
to escape either through the nasal or through the oral 
cavity, and at the same time it was shown that the 
course of the current differed with the different articu- 
late sounds. 

The nasal cavity is of the two the most simple in 
construction, being formed of immoveable, rigid walls ; 
its influence on the formation of articulate sounds is, 
therefore, uniform. 



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CLOSURE OF THE NASAL CAVITY. 231 

The formation of independent noises or tones — ^that 
is to say, of any which could be employed as articulate 
sounds — ^is rendered impossible by such a construction. 
The only sounds which a normal nasal cavity is capable 
of producing are — 

(1)^A blowing sound, when the current of air is 
driven through the open nasal cavity with con- 
siderable force — a noise generally called snorting. 

(2) A hissing sound connected with a more or less 
pronounced whistling tone ; it is produced at the 
nostrils, and requires that the nostrils should be 
pressed together so as to leave only a narrow slit, 
as in blowing the nose. 

As, however, the latter sound can only be created with 
the help of the finger, and the former possesses no value 
as an articulate sound, they need not occupy our atten- 
tion any longer. 

We can here only consider the air-passage, properly 
so called, of the nasal cavity, because it alone forms the 
channel of the current of air. This space may be 
roughly described as funnel-shaped, and its lower wall 
(the hard palate) as horizontal in the usual position of 
the head. The upper wall starts from the posterior 
nares and rises, following the concavity of the middle 
turbinated bone, gradually upwards, and is at its anterior 
extremity about half as high again above the floor of the 
cavity as it was at the posterior nares. The anterior 
extremity of the space thus marked out by the middle 
turbinated bone lies in close proximity to the hollow 
side of the dorsum of the nose, against which, conse- 
quently, the current of air must strike, after which it is 
forced almost at right angles through the narrow opening 
of the nostril, through which it finds its way into the 
open air. A general idea of the form of this cavity may 



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232 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

be easily obtained by making a funnel of paper, completely 
closing the wide end and piercing a small hole imme- 
diately below it. The inner wall of each nasal air- 
passage is formed by the straight septum of the nose, 
and is therefore also straight ; the outer wall, on the 
contrary, bulges out considerably, so that in a horizontal 
section the narrowest parts are before and behind, and 
the widest in the middle (cf. Fig. 31). In this widest 
part the passage is imperfectly divided into two parts by 
the so-called lower turbinated bone. 

We must, however, observe further that these walls 
of the air-passage are not perfectly air-tight, but are 
pierced by canals and orifices leading into side chambers. 
A narrow slit upon the inner side of the roof between 
the septum and the free edge of the middle turbinated 
bone leads into the long narrow space which is lined 
with the olfactory mucous membrane, and also opens 
into the hollow side of the dorsum of the nose. Near 
the posterior nares the spheno-ethmoidal sinus leads to 
the sphenoidal cells, and the superior ethmoidal fissure 
(at first united with the spheno-ethmoidal sinus) to the 
posterior ethmoidal cells. At about the middle of the 
outer side waU the inferior ethmoidal fissure leads to 
the anterior ethmoidal cells and to the frontal sinuses. 
In the same fissure, or separated from it, an aperture 
leads to the antrum, and behind the back part of the 
inferior turbinated bone lies the considerable opening 
of the Eustachian tube, which leads into the tympanum 
and its side chapabers. 

Thus the air-passage, with its two narrow openings 
and intermediate greater width, possesses the general 
form of a resonator, and there can be no doubt but that 
it has a corresponding influence, and that the tones 
with which the air passing through it vibrates are 



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CLOSURE OP THE NASAL CAVITY. 233 

strengthened by its resonance. The larger the nasal 
cavity the more powerful the resonance, and, conse- 
quently, the reinforcement experienced by the tone. 

Eesonance being the only influence exercised by the 
nasal cavity upon the formation of articulate sounds, it 
follows that all nasal sounds — ^that is to say, all sounds 
passing through the nasal cavity — must be accompanied 
by tone, being produced in the larynx and reinforced by 
resonance in the nasal cavity. In consequence of the 
peculiarity of the walls of the nasal cavity, it appears 
that sounds uttered with the nasal resonance, particu- 
larly the nasal vowels, are fuller and more ample than 
the same sounds when strengthened by the resonance 
of the cavity of the mouth. The general impression of 
fulness and richness conveyed by the French language 
arises from its wealth in nasal vowels ; and it is for this 
reason that second-rate tragic actors like to give a nasal 
resonance to all the vowels in the pathetic speeches of 
their heroic parts. 

We have still to consider whether, and how far, the 
side chambers of the nose, among which we may include 
the chamber of the organ of smell, take part in the 
production of this resonance. 

That they do so in a certain indirect manner there 
can be no doubt. The manner in which they are 
arranged causes the bony walls enclosing the upper and 
outer side of the air-passage to be extremely thin, and, 
moreover,, to occupy such a position as to have the air- 
chamber of the air-passage on one side and the air- 
chambers of the side chambers, particularly the ethmoidal 
cells and the antrum, upon the other. Now, since the 
septum which forms the inner wall of the air-passage 
is also very thin, it follows that the greater part of the 
walls of the air-passage are peculiarly well fitted to take 



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234 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

up musical vibrations, and thereby to reinforce the 
resonance. The floor of the nasal cavity, the hard 
palate, also takes part in this reinforcement, but differs 
from the other walls in its thin places being little ex- 
posed to the surface. 

This kind of participation in the resonance of the 
nasal cavity cannot, however, be claimed for the other 
side chambers (frontal sinuses and sphenoidal cells), as 
they he too far off. However, since these cavities are 
of some size, and it is, moreover, possible that all these 
secondary cavities may exercise a common influence 
upon the importance of the nasal cavity, it will be well 
to look for a relation to the air-passage .of the nasal 
cavity which will be common to all the secondary 
cavities. From this point of view it is a remarkable 
fact that the approach to all these side chambers is free 
to the returning, but not to the entering, current of air. 
This curious circumstance has been already alluded to 
in the anatomical section and explained, as showing 
that the side chambers must serve to warm the entering 
air. Without interfering with this view of the value of 
the side chambers, we may see in this peculiarity an 
evidence that by this means the air contained in the 
side chambers is able to take a more direct part in the 
resonance of the nasal cavity, the easy approach to the 
side chambers for the returning stream of air rendering 
it possible for the latter to impart musical vibrations to 
the air, and also to the walls of the side chambers. It 
is, however, further possible that the resonance of the 
nasal cavity may be transmitted to all the bones of 
the skull, and so find its way to the air of these air- 
chambers. 

The air of the chamber of the organ of smell can, 
through its narrow connection with the air-passage, 



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CLOSURE OP THE NASAL CAVITY. 235 

come into direct contact with the vibrations of the air 
contained in the latter. It is not, however, immediately 
open to the returning current of air. 

If, therefore, we attribute this importance to the side 
chambers we have in the nasal cavity an exceedingly 
comprehensive resonance apparatus, the influence of which 
upon the formation of articulate sounds must necessarily be 
very important. 

The nasal resonance is an essential and characteristic 
component of certain articulate sounds, particularly in 
the languages nearly related to us, of the French nasal 
vowels and of the so-called resonants, the sounds, 
namely, which we call m, n, g. 

Is its participation in the formation of articulate 
sounds to be limited to this? The difl&culty of this 
question is increased by the impossibility of solving it 
by direct experiment. We shall, however, see our way 
more clearly to the answer if we approach the question 
from another side. The resonance of the cavity of the 
mouth plays a very important part in the formation of 
all other articulate sounds, while the air is prevented 
from directly entering the cavity of the nose. If, there- 
fore, the resonance of the nasal cavity is to take part in 
the formation of these other articulate sounds, it can only 
do so by the resonance of the cavity of the mouth being 
transmitted to the nasal cavity. There can be no doubt 
as to the possibility of this process, for, on the one hand, 
the vibrations could be transmitted through the soft 
palate to the nasal cavity, and, on the other hand, the 
hard palate which vibrates with the resonance of the 
mouth may impart its vibrations to the air of the nasal 
cavity. Should this prove to be the case, a difference 
will be found between the resonance thus transmitted 
from the cavity of the mouth to that of the nose and 



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236 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

that which occurs when the entire current of air passes 
through the nose ; for in the first case the air present 
in the nasal cavity is a quiescent layer, in the second a 
moving current. The relation, therefore, of the nasal 
cavity must, if it really takes part in the resonance of 
the cavity of the mouth, be similar to the relation of the 
side chambers of the nasal cavity to the cavity itself, as 
they also are filled with a quiescent layer of air, which, 
separated from the air-passage by thin walls, is thrown 
into sympathetic vibrations with the resonance produced 
in the latter. 

We shall, therefore, without further hesitation, adopt 
the view that the resonance of the nasal cavity also plays 
a part in the formation of non-nasal articvlate sounds ; 
that, however, it then only appears as a reinforcement of 
the resonance of the cavity of the mouthy and does not 
assume the specific character which distinguishes nasal 
sounds. 

The directly excited nasal resonance does, however, 
sometimes play an immediate part in the formation of 
all articulate sounds, giving to the latter the character 
to which we apply the term *' nasal twang." 

The general conception of this mode of speaking is by 
no means scientifically correct, the ordinary acceptation 
of the term ** nasal twang " embracing every species of 
pronunciation in which the nasal element asserts itself 
with undue prominence. It may, however, arise from 
two different causes ; firstly through a stoppage of the 
nasal cavity, or secondly through insufficient opening of 
the nasal passage. 

The closure of the nasal passage can be accomplished 
in different ways. After the voluntary closure of the 
nostrils by pressure with the finger, the most common 
example is the obstruction of the passage by a foreign 



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CLOSURE OF THE NASAL CAVITY. 237 

body, such as accumulated mucus, polypus, etc. The 
effect of such a stoppage is twofold. One result is 
purely mechanical. During certain series of sounds, in 
which the ascending air cannot escape with sufficient 
rapidity through the lips, an accumulation is produced 
at the back of the cavity of the mouth ; when .the au:- 
passage is in its normal condition this accumulation is 
not evident, because from the frequent removal of the 
soft palate in continuous speech the air can easily 
escape through the nasal cavity. When, however, the 
means of exit is closed in that direction, the accumu- 
lation becomes unpleasantly perceptible, and must be 
reduced in bulk through the passage of the cavity of the 
mouth, which causes, however, a temporary obstruction 
in the flow of speech. Czermak* mentions a very 
remarkable example in the case of a girl whose soft 
palate had so grown into the posterior wall of the 
pharynx that the entrance to the nasal cavity was com- 
pletely closed. The obstruction of the nasal cavity acts, 
secondly, upon the pronunciation by altering the re- 
sonance, for in the formation of nasal sounds the air is 
entrapped in a closed space, being in the end obliged also 
to escape through the cavity of the mouth ; the nasal 
sounds are, therefore, formed imperfectly and falsely. 
Finally, there is no doubt that the alteration in the form 
of the cavity has a very considerable modifying influence 
upon the part taken by the resonance of the nose in that 
of the mouth. The same disturbance is also produced, 
though in a less degree, by the partial obstruction of the 
nasal cavity which is experienced during a *' cold in the 
head " from the swollen condition of the mucous mem- 
brane and from its increased secretion. 

* Bemerknngcn fiber die Bildune einiger Sprachlaute, in : Unter* 
Bttchongen zur Katurlehre u. s. w. (poblished by Molcschott), Y., 6. 



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238 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

The improper escape of air through the nasal cavity 
is most striking in persons suffering from that defect 
known as ** cleft palate," especially when the division is 
continued into the hard palate. This defect naturally 
renders a perfect closure of the nasal cavity impossible, 
and therefore a portion of the air must escape through 
the nose during the formation of all articulate sounds, 
thus imparting a nasal intonation to the whole manner 
of speaking. The escape of air will naturally be espe- 
cially great in those sounds, the formation of which 
depends upon a compression of air in the cavity of the 
mouth ; in attempting to form such sounds as, for in- 
stance, b or py the air may be heard escaping through the 
nose with a distinct blowing noise. It is evident that 
a good pronunciation may thus be prevented in many 
ways ; now, however, we are not concerned in examining 
them more closely. 

A nasal twang may be often observed unaccompanied 
by any such grave defect, though it is always caused by 
insufficient contact between the soft palate and the 
posterior wall of the pharynx, a portion of the current of 
air being thus allowed to escape into the nasal cavity. 
This imperfect closiure may be due to such unimportant 
causes as a too severe tension of the soft palate, which is 
prejudicial to its mobility, or swollen tonsils, which impede 
the elevation of the soft palate; or it may only arise 
from a bad habit of not raising the soft palate sufficiently 
— a habit which may be peculiar to an individual, or may 
extend as a peculiarity in dialect over a considerable 
area. 

It has already been observed that in individual cases 
the contact between the soft palate and the wall of the 
pharynx may be somewhat imperfect without being pre- 
judicial to the formation of articulate sounds. That the 



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CLOSURE OF THE NASAL CAVITY. 239 

effect of a very imperfect contact will be a nasal twang is, 
however, an ascertained fact. It will, therefore, be in- 
teresting to know to what extent this contact may be 
broken without injuring the articulation. The experi- 
ments of Passavant* will give us the wished-for informa- 
tion. He first discovered the fact that the soft palate 
might be removed a certain distance from the posterior 
wall of the pharynx without interfering with the articula- 
tion, but that when once this limit is passed a nasal 
intonation ensues. He proved this in the following 
manner : — ^A thread was, with the help of a small tube, so 
passed behind the soft palate, that one end protruded 
through the nostrils and the other through the mouth. 
When the pure vowels were uttered, the thread was found 
to be held fast by the soft palate. Both ends of the 
thread were then pulled, thus removing the soft palate 
from the wall of the pharynx ; the vowels were again 
uttered, the soft palate being gradually removed from 
the wall of the pharynx; at first no change was observed, 
but at a certain point the nasal intonation became 
suddenly perceptible. 

In order to gain more accurate information about this 
distance, Passavant made the following experiment: — 
Pieces of indiarubber tubing 6 cm. (1*95 inch) long were 
placed behind the soft palate in such a manner that 
when the latter was raised they would be pressed against 
the posterior wall of the pharynx. For the better 
adjustment of the tube a thread was fastened at either 
end, one protruding from the nose, the other from the 
mouth. The experiment was made with three tubes, 
the first of which had a sectional area of 3*14 sq. mm. 
(•0048 sq. inch), the second 12*46 sq. mm., and the third 
28*27 sq. mm. The two first tubes produced no differ- 

* Ueber die Yerschliessung des Sohlundes beim SpTechen, S. 15-16. 



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240 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

ence. When the third was adjusted the nasal intonation 
was observed in a number of consonants, but not in the 
vowels. Thus the "nasal twang" in this case began to 
appear with an aperture of, roughly speaking, about 
30 sq. mm. (•045 sq. inch). 

A case observed by Briicke * shows, moreover, that 
it is possible for speech to be produced with tolerable 
purity when the soft palate is entirely wanting. As this 
was only accomplished with the aid of a special appliance, 
it cannot, however instructive it may be in itself, have 
any bearing upon the question before us. 



The Cavity op the Mouth. 

The cavity of the mouth differs essentially from that 
of the nose, in its walls being less rigid and its construc- 
tion more mobile. Except the hard palate and the 
alveolar processes of the two jaws, the walls are all 
yielding, and as they are further lined or acted upon by 
muscles they are extremely mobile, thus enabling the 
cavity of the mouth to assume a great variety of forms. 
Still it so far resembles the nasal cavity that it is a 
cavity which has a low posterior entrance between the 
soft palate and the root of the tongue, which is still 
further contracted by the pillars of the fauces on either 
side, and that anteriorly it has also a narrow opening, 
while the middle portion is of much greater dimensions. 
Thus the cavity of the mouth has, like the nasal cavity, 
the form of a resonator, and the air contained in it is 
capable of essentially reinforcing sound by resonance. 
This resonance, however, can never be as strong as that 

* Nachscbrift za Kudelka's Abhandlung. (Sitznngsberichte der 
wiener Akademie — matliematisch-naturwisseiiBchafUiche Klasse — 
Bd. XXVm., S. 71.) 



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CLOSURE OP THE CAVITY OP THE MOUTH. 241 

of the nasal cavity, because its soft walls cannot so 
readily take it up as the thin, bony walls of the nasal 
cavity. The influence exercised by the close proximity 
of the nasal cavity in reinforcing the resonance of the 
cavity of the mouth has already been discussed. 

The shape of the cavity of the mouth, when in its 
quiescent condition with the jaws closed, may be described 
as a short oval enclosed by four waUs ; i.e. (1) the floor, 
(2) the roof formed by the hard palate and the soft 
palate, and (8) and (4) the two side walls formed by the 
cheeks. 

This form is, moreover, subject to important modifi- 
cations. 

Thus, in the first place, the alveolar processes of the 
jaws as well as the teeth project far into the cavity just 
at the boundary between the roof and the side walls, and 
between the floor and the side walls. They form upon 
the upper as also upon the lower jaw a paraboUc cmve, 
which lies almost parallel with the lateral and anterior 
periphery of the cavity of the mouth, leaving, however, 
the back part of the latter free. The hindermost part 
of the cavity of the mouth is, therefore, uniform, but the 
greater middle and anterior divisions are separated 
by the highly projecting alveolar processes and teeth 
into two spaces, one of which (the cavum buccarum, or 
cavity of the cheeks) is situated between the teeth and 
the alveolar processes, with their coating of mucous 
membrane (the gums) on the one side, and the cheeks on 
the other. The second space (the cavity of the mouth, 
strictly speaking, or the oral cavity) is, on the contrary, 
bounded by the alveolar processes and teeth of both 
jaws. When the teeth are closed, there is no com- 
munication between the two spaces, except that which 
Btill remains between the teeth ; both are, however, 



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242 THE OKGANS OP SPEECH. 

direct continuations of the posterior undefined division 
of the cavity of the mouth, and are, therefore, placed 
in direct communication with each other through the 
passage to the latter behind the hindermost teeth. The 
cavity of the cheeks may be roughly divided into two, or 
rather three parts; firstly into the space between the 
molar teeth and the cheeks, and secondly into that 
between the incisors and the lips : the first may be con- 
sidered as the cavity of the cheeks proper, the latter the 
cavity of the lips. 

As in the following investigations considerable im- 
portance will attach to these divisions, it will be well to 
mention them again, that the terms used in future may 
convey a distinct idea of the part intended. 

The whole cavity between the soft palate and the lips 
is called tJie cavity of the mouth. 

The undefined back portion of the latter, between 
the soft palate and the hindermost molar teeth, the 
posterior cavity of the mouth. 

The space enclosed by the teeth, the inner cavity of 
the mouth, or oral cavity. 

The space between the molar teeth and the cheeks, 
the cavity of the cheeks. 

The space between the incisors and the lips, the 
cavity of the lips. 

The posterior cavity of the mouth is bordered on 
either side by the ascending portion of the lower jaw, 
and by the internal pterygoid muscle lining its inner 
surface. It is, therefore, no wider than the oral cavity, 
and the transition from its lateral wall to the inner 
surface of the cheeks is accomplished by a sudden bend 
outwards between the posterior margin of the ascending 
portion of the lower jaw and the last molar teeth. The 
oral cavity follows as a direct continuation of the pos« 



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CLOSURE OF THE CAVITY OF THE MOUTH. 243 

terior cavity, while the cavity of the cheeks is situated 
on either side outside the molar teeth. In front of the 
oral cavity, and separated from it by the incisors, lies 
the cavity of the lips. It is worthy of remark, that when 
the teeth are closed the cavity of the lips is not so en- 
tirely separated from the oral cavity as are the cavities 
of the cheeks ; for the molar teeth of the upper jaw close 
exactly upon those of the lower jaw, shutting off the 
cavity of the cheeks with great precision; but when 
the teeth are closed, the incisors, on the contrary, of the 
upper jaw overlap those of the lower jaw, leaving be- 
tween the two rows of incisors an almost vertical fissure, 
which thus connects the oral cavity with the cavity of 
the lips. 

It follows, from the relative positions of the spaces of 
the cavity of the mouth, that the air passing under the 
soft palate into the oral cavity passes out through the 
cavity of the lips, while the cavity of the cheeks merely 
occupies a lateral position. This fact becomes the more 
striking when we remember that, before using the cavity 
of the mouth as an air-passage, the obstruction pro- 
duced by the overlapping of the incisors is removed by 
opening the jaws, and that when this is done the cheeks 
are drawn tightly over the molar teeth, by which means 
the cavity of the cheeks is either entirely or partially 
destroyed. 

Before investigating the important modifications in 
the form of the cavity of the mouth caused by the tongue, 
it will be well to consider the various ways, besides the 
one just given as typical, in which the cavity of the 
mouth may be used as an air-passage and their relation 
to the sounds produced. 

The most necessary condition for the adaptation of 
the cavity of the mouth as an air-passage is that the 



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244 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

lips should either be actually opened, or so lightly closed 
that the stream of air can easily break the contact. We 
shall presently consider the various noises which may be 
produced by the air passing through the lips, and need 
now, therefore, make no further remark on the subject. 

It is possible to allow the air to pass only through 
the passage just described when the teeth are closed, 
if the cheeks are drawn closely across the molar teeth 
by the hucdnator muscle. The air then streams through 
the slit between the two rows of incisors with a hissing 
noise. 

If the tension of the cheeks is diminished by drawing 
back the comers of the mouth, the stream of air can 
also pass through the cavities of the cheeks ; and, indeed, 
the greater portion will follow that course, if a strong 
expiratory eflfort drives forward such a mass of air that 
the oral cavity is filled to excess, and the air which 
cannot escape through the fissure between the rows of 
incisors rushes through the outlet afforded by the cavities 
of the cheeks. A stream of air taking this direction 
gives rise to a rushing noise in the cheeks, sometimes 
scarcely perceptible, but which may be very loud when 
produced by a strong current of air. In the latter form 
it is employed to mimic violent anger. 

When the teeth are separated, the current of air can 
pass out unhindered. The cavity of the cheeks may at 
the same time be either destroyed by pressing the cheeks 
upon the molar teeth, or retained by drawing back the 
angles of the mouth. In both cases the air passes 
through with a scarcely perceptible breathing sound, or, 
if the current is strong, with a louder blowing noise. 

If the lips are sufficiently compressed, the cavities of 
the cheeks may be fully expanded by the expired current 
of air either with closed or open teeth, and the air can 



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CLOSURE OF THE CAVITY OF THE MOUTH. 245 

only be driven through the narrow aperture of the 
mouth by the help of the buccinator muscle. No cha- 
racteristic noises, except those caused by the compression 
of the lips, are, however, occasioned. 

The most important modification in the form of the 
cavity of the mouth is, however, produced by the 
elevation of the tongue from the floor of the cavity. 

It has already been observed in the anatomical 
section that the chief part of the substance of the tongue 
consists of a bundle of muscular fibres, which raises 
the mucous membrane forming the floor of the cavity of 
the mouth into a long fold from the hyoid bone to the 
lower jaw. Some of these fibres are quite free, and 
traverse the tongue partly in a longitudinal, partly in a 
transverse direction. These muscles have the power of 
altering the shape of the tongue in a great variety of 
ways, forcing it to become short and thick, long and 
thin, or bending it towards either side. The other fibres 
of the tongue are the terminations of three muscles, 
with fixed points of origin — the genio-hyo-glossvs, the 
hyo-glossus, and the stylo-glossus — ^the fibres of which 
spread out in the substance of the tongue, and mingle 
with its inherent fibres mentioned above. The action of 
these muscles serves principally to alter the position of 
the entire tongue, by drawing it upwards, downwards, 
forwards, backwards, or to either side ; as a secondary 
action they also influence its outward conformation by 
strengthening the action of the inherent muscular fibres 
of the tongue. Again, irrespective of the actions of the 
muscles just mentioned, the tongue is subject to con- 
siderable elevation or depression from the diaphragmatic 
muscles of the floor of the cavity of the mouth, namely — 
the genio'hyoid, the slylo-hyoid, the mylo-hyoid, and the 
digastric — ^through the united action of which it is forced 



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246 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

upwards ; and from the muscles which draw down the 
hyoid bone — the stemo-hyoid, the stemo-thyroid, the 
thyro-hyoid, and the omo-hyoid — ^the combined actions of 
which draw down the hyoid bone, and with it the floor 
of the cavity of the mouth. 

The body of the tongue lies as a thick fold upon the 
entire floor of the posterior cavity of the mouth and the 
oral cavity. The posterior portion, or root, is thinner, 
and forms the floor of the posterior cavity of the mouth ; 
in the oral cavity it is slightly raised from the floor, 
standing apparently upon a short, thick stem, somewhat 
resembling that of a mushroom ; the foremost part, or 
tip, is, on the contrary, much more free and mobile. 
The hindermost part of the under surface of the free. tip 
is attached to the internal surface of the lower jaw by a * 
small longitudinal fold of the mucous membrane, the 
frenum linguce, and similar bands, the glosso-epiglottic 
ligaments, unite the root of the tongue with the upper 
surface of the epiglottis. 

When at rest the tongue fills almost the whole space 
included in the posterior cavity of the mouth and the 
oral cavity, lying lightly against the teeth on either side, 
and at least touching the soft palate above, thus leaving 
only a narrow fissure between its surface and the hard 
palate. But even in this circumscribed position it can 
display its extraordinary power of mobility, for with its 
tip it can touch almost any point of the roof and lateral 
walls of the oral cavity as well as the fore part of the 
floor. 

It can exercise its mobility most strikingly, however, 
when the jaws are separated and the mouth opened ; for 
then the tip commands the whole of the cavities of 
the cheeks and of the lips, and, protruding beyond the 
Ups, can even touch the outer surface of both, and 



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THE SUPERIOR OATITY OF THE LARYNX, 247 

also the skin of the cheeks adjoining the angles of the 
mouth. 

We need not here speak of the influence exercised by 
the tongue in its variety of shape and position upon the 
expiratory current passing through the cavity of the 
mouth, as we shall have to allude to it more fully when 
discussing the formation of articulate sounds. 

For the same reason we shall defer the examination 
of the posterior closure, effected by the soft palate and 
the root of the tongue, and the anterior closure by the 
lips, with their characteristic peculiarities — ^those, at 
least, which have not already been mentioned. 

The Superior Cavity op the Larynx and the 
Pharynx. 

Having now gained some acquaintance with the 
cavities of the nose and mouth in regard to their relation 
to the expired current of air, it remains for us to examine 
from the same point of view the passage which the air 
has to ascend when leaving the glottis, before it can enter 
one of the two cavities, which are of such importance 
when it is to be employed in the formation of articulate 
sounds. 

We need scarcely say that this course pursued by the 
the current is first through the superior cavity of the 
larynx, from which it passes into the pharynx, and 
thence either into the cavity of the mouth or the nasal 
cavity. 

The general conformation of the superior cavity of the 
larynx is the same as we have noticed in the cavities of 
the mouth and nose. It is a broad cavity with a narrow 
entrance, the glottis ; and a narrow exit, the pharyngeal 
opening of the larynx. This is the structure of a reso- 



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248 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

nator. We shall, therefore, be justified in asserting that 
as soon as a tone is formed in the glottis it is reinforced 
by the resonance of the superior cavity of the larynx. 
This space, moreover, is to some extent complicated by 
the so-called ventricles of the larynx. In the anatomical 
section these cavities have already been described as 
pouches situated immediately above either vocal chord in 
the side wall of the superior larynx ; as, moreover, they 
are called into existence by the tension of the vocal chords, 
strictly speaking, the effect they produce is to give to the 
vocal chord a sharp edge, which places it at once in a 
position to be employed as an apparatus for the produc- 
tion of tone. We must, however, further regard them 
as air-chambers situated immediately above the vocal 
chords, and shall give the more importance to this view 
when we observe that these pouches are greater than is 
necessary merely for the liberation of the vocal chords. 
They commence, namely, upon the inner surface of the 
upper cavity of the larynx as a narrow crevice, per- 
haps 8 mm. ('117 inch) high, the ends of which are 
rounded off both behind and before. Within this crevice, 
however, these cavities are formed in such a manner in 
the anterior portion of the mucous membrane lining the 
upper cavity of the larynx, that their upper margin is in 
front near the thyroid cartilage 10-12 mm. (•89-*47 inch) 
above the vocal chord, descending backwards till their 
posterior end rests upon the arch of the vocal chord. 
The width of these ventricles from within outwards is 
about 5 mm. ('195 inch). The space enclosed by the 
ventricles is, therefore, considerable ; and when they are 
fully expanded, the mucous membrane, in the fore part 
of which they are situated, is so forced into the superior 
cavity of the larynx that this portion of it is rather 
narrower, and only attains its full dimensions above the 



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THE SUPERIOR CAVITY OF THE LARYNX. 249 

level of the ventricles. We may well suppose that part 
of the air ascending from the glottis laden with musical 
vibrations will be caught in these ventricles, and there 
produce a reinforcing resonance. This, however, is not 
all. These ventricles are in direct contact with the 
mucous membrane ; there is, therefore, between them and 
the cavity of the upper larynx a thin band composed of a 
fold of mucous membrane, the lower margin of which 
forms the upper lip of the entrance into the ventricles. 
This margin is inaptly termed the superior vocal chord. 
Now, when the ventricle is expanded by the stream of 
air which rushes into it, this band is stretched, and in 
this condition is exactly fitted to take part in resonance 
vibrations. 

We are, therefore, justified in saying that we have in 
the ventricles another reinforcing apparatus which has 
special reference to the superior cavity of the larynx, irre- 
spective of its importance as giving free room to the vocal 
chords. This cannot, indeed, be proved by experiment, 
several experiments upon the "superior vocal chords" 
having produced no satisfactory results. We must, 
therefore, at present be content with the above theoretical 
deduction. 

The pharyngeal orifice of the superior cavity of the 
larynx is almost vertical. The air issuing from it does 
not, therefore, pass directly upwards, but first strikes 
against the posterior wall of the lowest portion of the 
pharynx — that, namely, which is in contact with the 
vertebral column, following which it necessarily rises 
upwards. The air is, however, in some measure directed 
upwards by the conformation of the pharyngeal orifice of 
the larynx. This orifice is widest at its upper end, which 
lies at some distance from the vertebral column, the sides 
being there pushed apart by the epiglottis. The greater 



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250 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

part of the current of air will, therefore, escape through 
this upper portion, a.nd necessarily take an upward 
direction — the more so as the inferior surface of the 
epiglottis is concave from side to side, and its free margin 
curved forwards. These peculiarities give to the current 
of air issuing from the pharyngeal orifice of the superior 
cavity of the larynx a more upward direction than from 
the position of this orifice we should be led to expect. 

If the soft palate is depressed, the current of air 
strikes the base of the skull at the arched roof of the 
pharynx and then passes into the nasal cavity. 

If, on the other hand, the soft palate is raised, and 
the nasal portion of the pharynx consequently cut off, 
the ciurent of air strikes against the lower surface of the 
soft palate and passes into the cavity of the mouth. 



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CHAPTER m. 

THE FORMATION OF AETICULATE SOUNDS. 

Abticulatb Sounds, 

If, with our knowledge of the structure of the organs of 
speech and the physical properties with which they are 
endowed, we now proceed to inquire into the origin of 
articulate sounds, we find that our natural impulse is 
first to seek an explanation of the articulate sounds in 
general use, and then to find their equivalents in the 
letters of our alphabet. It has, however, been already 
observed in the section upon voice and speech that the 
task is by no means such a simple one, and the way was 
also indicated by which alone we can obtain a true com- 
prehension of articulate sounds. 

If, from the standpoint there taken, we disapproved 
of any investigation confined to a certain number of 
articulate sounds as resting upon a wrong foundation, 
we must here even more emphatically protest against 
the idea that the letters in our alphabet at aU correspond 
with the number of articulate sounds which we employ. 
Setting aside altogether differences of dialect, and con- 
fining ourselves entirely to the so-called true pronuncia- 
tion, we find that our alphabet is nothing more than an 
arbitrary collection of letters, in which, on the one hand, 
several letters represent the same sound, and on the 

12 



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252 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

other hand, several Bounds which exist as pore elements 
of speech are not represented at all by a special letter, 
but must be expressed by a combination of letters, while 
compound sounds, on the contrary, are given in a single 
letter. The English and French languages are particu- 
larly wanting in this correspondence between articulate 
sounds and the letters of the alphabet, but even the Ger- 
man language, which in this respect has fewer imperfec- 
tions, affords sufficient proof of the truth of the remark 
made above. 

Thus in the German alphabet we find two letters 
which do not represent a simple sound, but stand for a 
compound one, namely, x for ks or gs, and z for ts 
or ds. 

Again, we find as different letters for the same sound, 
k, q, and c (before a, etc.), /and v, i and y. 

C before i, moreover, represents the same compound 
sound which is expressed by z ; in words from other lan- 
guages t has the same peculiarity. 

The letters c, g, v, y, x, and z might, therefore, be 
dispensed with, as there are no articulate sounds which 
especially correspond to them. If we strike out these 
letters we have nineteen left, which, however, do not 
represent all the simple articulate sounds which we make 
use of, and we are obliged to form combinations of letters 
for simple articulate sounds. The sound sch is only 
expressed by those three letters, the guttural resonant 
by ng, and by ch two different sounds formed between 
the tongue and the palate, one of which is produced more 
forwards (as in ich), the other being more guttural (as in 
ach). 

We might prolong this criticism upon the letters of 
the alphabet ; it would, however, be of little interest, for 
what has been said will suffice to show that the alphabet 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 263 

cannot be regarded as proportionate to the number and 
variety of our articulate sounds. 

In spite of the incongruities which it is easy to see 
must be the consequence of this state of things, it is 
nevertheless the general practice to regard the alphabet 
as the representative of our store of articulate sounds, 
and thus we find that in most grammars the alphabet is 
given instead of an enumeration of articulate sounds. 

This error gives rise to a still greater one. It is, for 
instance, most natural that an effort should be made to 
divide articulate sounds into a number of groups so as to 
review them more easily ; but in doing so attention has 
been paid only to the general impression which the 
sounds corresponding to the different letters make upon 
the ear, and the sounds are divided into — 

(1) Vowels: 

a, e, i, 0, u. 

(2) Consonants: 

(a) semivowels — 

liquids : I, m, w, r. 
spirants : /, h, j, s, V« 

(b) mutes — 

tenues : c, k, q, p, U 

medicB: g, b, d. 

aspirates : ch, ph, th. 
The only reference to the physiological origin of 
sounds is generally the following division : — 

labials : b, p, ph, /, m, v. 

dentals : d, t, th, I, n, r, «. 

gutturals : g, c, k, q, ch, h, j. 
A critical analysis of these two methods of classifica- 
tion, which are those commonly adopted in grammars, 
would take up much time to no purpose, and may there- 
fore with advantage be passed over. 



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264 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

The physiological method of classification is the only 
one by which we can obtain, from a general suiTey, a 
true insight into the character of articulate sounds. And 
this may be done in two ways. We may, on the one 
hand, confine our attention to a certain series of articulate 
sounds — for instance, those of the German language — 
and then inquire into the cause of the production of the 
separate sounds, the influence exerted by the position of 
the mouth, the tongue, etc., and form categories of such 
isounds as are produced under the same or similar con- 
ditions. The investigation may be extended in this 
direction by studying the dialectic variations of the 
various sounds. This manner of dealing with the ques- 
tion undoubtedly tends merely to the explanation of a 
certain number of sounds without obtaining any satisfac- 
tory general point of view. Dialects and foreign lan- 
guages will, therefore, always offer fresh fields for inves- 
tigation, and thus it is impossible for the method to 
attain anything like completeness. 

The other method of physiologically classifying arti- 
culate sounds is founded upon the means which the 
so-called organs of speech present for the production of 
such sounds as may serve for articulate sounds. Its 
object is as far as possible to assign a place in a previ- 
ously completed system to every species of sound which 
can be created by the organs of speech. Like every 
investigation conducted on the a priori principle, it can- 
not dispense with a knowledge of the relations with 
which it deals — in this case a knowledge of the articulate 
sounds really in use, which knowledge, however, merely 
affords convenient landmarks. The system once per- 
fected, all articulate sounds in use will be found there, 
or at least may be at once inserted in their proper place. 

We shall now endeavour to give the leading features 



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THE ELEMENTS OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 266 

of such a system, at least so far as it is compatible with 
our present knowledge. 



The Elements of Abticulate Sounds. 

The articulate sound is not a simple phenomenon, 
but is composed of various elements, which are intimately 
blended together into the apparently uniform whole, 
which we call an articulate sound. 

The simple elements are of three kinds> namely — 
Tone,* 
Noise, 
Besonance. 

The difference between articulate sounds is partly 
due to the different degrees in which one of these 
elements participates in the production of the entire 
articulate sound, partly to the character or property of 
that particular element. 

Giving a wider significance to the term resonance 
than it is generally understood to possess, we may assert 
that with one exception, which will be mentioned pre- 
sently, resoncmce plays a part in the formation of all arti- 
culate sounds. We must now explain and account for 
this wider significance. 

By resonance is generally understood the phenomenon 
of a second body performing sympathetic vibrations 
with the body originally made to vibrate. The result is 
that the sympathetic vibrations of the secondary body 
produce a special impression upon the organ of hearing. 
It may follow from the properties of the body performing 
the secondary vibrations that the effect upon the ear 

* Gennan, ton. The term *< tone *' is retained for the sound produced 
by the vibration of the vocal chords instead of the vsiial English term 
"voice."— Tb. 



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256 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

will be the same as that produced by the body per- 
forming the primary vibrations, in which case they will 
blend to form a single impression, the former merely 
reinforcing the latter. It may, however, happen that 
the body performing the secondarj- vibrations is unable 
to reproduce the primary vibrations perfectly, and then 
its vibrations make a different impression upon the ear. 
We need not, however, inquire more closely into these 
peculiarities, as they do not immediately concern the 
question before us. The impression upon the ear pro- 
duced by vibrations assumes 4he character of a tone 
(musical sound) when the vibrations are regular or 
synchronous, and when a sufficient number of separate 
vibrations take place in a given interval. If either of 
these conditions is not fulfilled, the impression of noise 
is made upon the ear. We generally consider resonance 
in connection with tones, because the laws by which it is 
governed here receive the truest development, and be- 
cause, again, it derives its greatest importance from its 
connection with tones. We must not, however, overlook 
the fact that those vibrations which only give rise to 
noises have the power, as we know from experience, of 
causing secondary vibrations ; at the same time it must 
be confessed that this species of resonance has not been 
much investigated. We may, therefore, give a somewhat 
wider interpretation to the term resonance than it is 
generally understood to possess, and distinguish between 
tone-resonance and noise-resonance. 

Articulate sounds will, therefore, fall into one of the 
three following categories according to the character of 
their composition from the above-mentioned elements : — 

(1) Tones, 

(2) Noises, 

(3) Mixed sounds, or combinations of tone and noise- 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 267 

The formation of the tone, and also of any particular 
noise, is always connected with a certain part of the air- 
passage, and the accompanying resonance is as per- 
ceptible in that part of the air-passage which conducts 
the air to the larynx (the " porte-vent ") as in that 
which carries it oflf (the resonance tube). 

It has already been shown at what parts of the air- 
passage the production of true tones is possible, and at 
the same time it was observed that only those tones 
which, among the possible methods of production, are 
produced in the larynx, can be employed for the for- 
mation of articulate sounds. The character of the 
laryngeal tone, except as regards its division into chest 
and falsetto notes, is always the same, for differences in 
pitch and intensity are of no consequence when it is 
considered merely as a tone; but when the tone pro- 
duced in the larynx, carried onwards by the current of 
air, is accompanied by different kinds of resonance, it 
becomes so changed that it can give rise to a whole 
series of articulate sounds. This modifying resonance, 
however, as has been already shown, is effected both by 
the cavity of the mouth and the nasal cavity, and thus 
the tone-sounds may be still further divided into — 

(1) Eesonants of the cavity of the mouth, pure vowels : 

a, e, i, 0, u, 

(2) Eesonants of the nasal cavity with the mouth 

open, nasal vowels ; with th6 mouth shut, reso- 
nants : m, w, ng. 
The last division is founded upon the participation 
of the cavity of the mouth in the resonance of the nose, 
when the mouth may either be open, as in the pure 
vowels, or closed at different points (the lips, teeth, or 
palate), so that the part of the cavity lying behind the 
point of closure takes part directly in the resonance. 



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258 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

Afl regards the noises which are created in the air- 
passages, we have ahready pointed out the more unusual 
forms, which, moreover, cannot be employed in the 
formation of articulate sounds. We have now, therefore, 
only to consider those which are easily and voluntarily 
produced, and consequently suitable to be employed as 
elements of speech. 

Now, since every noise caused by a stream of air is 
due to some obstruction of that current, it is clear that 
the rigid walls of the nasal cavity offer no facility for 
the voluntary creation of different noises. We have also 
seen that the only noise which can be created in a normal 
nasal cavity is " snorting," which is caused by the 
friction of a strong rapid current of air against the waJls 
of tlie nasal cavity. 

Thus, in explaining the cause of noises in the air- 
passages, we need only turn our attention to the larynx 
and the cavity of the mouth, and perhaps also to the 
laryngeal and oral portions of the pharynx, for the great 
mobility of these parts affords every facility for the most 
varied obstruction to the current of air. 

Let us first consider under what conditions a current 
of air can create a noise in a long, narrow chamber of 
variable form, and we shall find — 

(1) If the cavity, though at one point narrower, is so 
wide open that the current of air meets with no ob- 
struction of importance, a gentle, quiet current will pass 
through noiselessly; but when a stronger current is 
impelled through the cavity with increased rapidity, a 
fricative noise, due to its friction upon the walls of the 
cavity, and corresponding in loudness to the force of the 
current, will be created. 

(2) If the cavity is so narrowed at one point that the 
current of air in passing is very much compressed, the 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 259 

friction of the air upon this part of the walls produces, 
with a slight effort, a rvshing noise, with a stronger 
effort, a hissing noise. 

(3) If two opposite parts of the walls are so ap- 
proximated that they come into slight contact, then, if 
the surfaces thus brought into contact are large, the 
current of air will force a passage for itself, and, as long 
as it continues, will keep this narrow passage open, 
streaming through it with a hissing noise ; this form of 
noise is undoubtedly merely a modification of the previous 
one. If, however, one or both of the surfaces in contact are 
small, and the retreating portion of the wall adjoining 
the surface in contact is shaped like a lip, then the 
advancing air will be compressed behind the barrier till 
it is able to break through it, forcing the valve-like 
obstruction on one side, and so creating the necessary 
outlet. As soon as this is done the valve returns by its 
elasticity to its former position, which it maintains till 
the pressure of the accumulated air is again great enough 
to overcome the obstruction, and this process is repeated 
with great rapidity as long as the current lasts. When- 
ever the baxrier is broken through, the suddenly ex- 
panding air rushes outwards with an explosive sound, 
which is weak if the resistance has been slight, but more 
audible when it is greater. The rapid succession of 
these explosions conveys the impression of a rattling or 
burring noise. If the intervals between these escapes of 
air are so small that the vibrations of the obstructing 
plate follow each other with great rapidity, we have the 
conditions necessary for the production of a musical 
sound — as, for instance, is the case in the vocal chords. 
We are now, however, only investigating the conditions 
for the creation of noise, and need, therefore, say no 
more on that subject, especially as we have already 
considered it at some length. 



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260 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

(4) If two opposite portions of the walls are so firmly 
pressed together that they entirely cut off the current of 
air, no noise can be produced. But if the two surfaces 
are suddenly parted, a noise ensues. If the obstruction 
is merely removed without any pressure from the current 
of air, by separating the surfaces in contact, a clicking 
noise is heard, the origin of which has already been 
explained in connection with *' groaning " in the section 
upon respiratory noises. If, on the contrary, the pressure 
of the advancing current of air is so great that it breaks 
through the obstruction, the expansion of the suddenly 
issuing air gives rise to an explosive noise. If the barrier 
is raised while the air is pressing upon it, a noise ensues 
which is a mixture of the clicking and the explosive 
elements. When the force of the current of air is consi- 
derable, the latter, when weak the former, predominates. 
(5) A similar explosive noise is created when the air 
passing through a cavity is suddenly entirely stopped. 
The cause of this noise is, however, different. It is, namely, 
the result of the succeeding portion of the current of dir 
striking upon that which has been suddenly checked 
in its progress, and which, thus brought to a stand- 
still, receives the shock of the air following upon it. 
The stronger the current of air that has met with this 
check the greater will be the concussion between the two 
divisions of air, or, to use a familiar expression, the 
clapping sound. A distinct effect may also be produced 
by the contact which takes place between the obstructing 
portions of the walls. By observing sounds which are 
formed in this manner — t andj), for instance — we find that 
this noise, as represented in its full value in the forma- 
tion of articulate sounds, is accompanied by a slight 
explosive noise caused by the relaxation of the muscles 
effecting the closure. 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 261 

The diBferent noises which have just been described 
are all employed in the formation of articulate sounds, 
and form the groundwork of the so-called consonants, 
with the exception of the sounds m, n, ng^ which are 
generally included among the consonants by gramma- 
rians. It will not, however, be possible to give an 
account of all the consonants which are possible or even 
in use, but, to make what follows more intelligible in 
describing the different noises, examples will be taken 
from the consonants with which we are most famiUar. 
Noises (strepitm) fall naturally into two groups from the 
time of their duration — into those which may be pro- 
longed for some time (continui), and into those which are 
momentary, being merely the result of a sudden action 
(repentini). The two kinds of noises may be further sub- 
divided according to the manner in which they are 
produced. 

The noises employed in the formation of articulate 
sounds may, therefore, be classified as follows : — 

I. StrepituB continuus, 

(1) Str. cont. spirans. 

Example: h, the air passing through the 
open mouth. 

(2) Str. cont. stridulus. 

Example: ch (in ach, German, or loch, 
Scotch. — Tr.), the air being forced through 
a narrow opening between the palate and 
the dorsum of the tongue. 
(8) Str. cont. vibrans. 

Example : lingual r, when the current of air 
is driven between the upper incisors and 
the apex of the tongue, which lies against 
them. 



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262 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

n, Strepitvs repentintts, 

(1) Str. rep. avvlsivvs. 

Example : the peculiar clicking noise of the 
Hottentots produced by suddenly with- 
drawing the anterior part of the tongue 
from the hard palate, occasionally employed 
by us when we suddenly separate the lips 
to form the whispered p, 

(2) Str. rep. explosivus. 

Example : t, when the current of air breaks 
through the obstruction formed by the 
contact of the tongue with the upper 
incisors; also p, when the closure of the 
lips is suddenly forced by the current of 
air, as in pa, 
(8) Str. rep. ocdusivus. 

Example: p, produced by suddenly closing 
the mouth during the passage of a current 
of air, as in ap. 
The examples given in this classification show that 
all the noises described above as possible are actually 
employed in the formation of articulate sounds. Glanc- 
ing at the list, we see at' once that the movements neces- 
sary for the production of these noises have that in 
common that they are based upon the approximation or 
separation of opposite parts of the air-passages. When, 
therefore, we come to investigate the various forms which 
can be assumed in the production of these noises, our 
aim will be to discover those localities at which the 
different approximations and separations take place. 

The parts which are situated below the tongue need 
not here be taken into consideration, as the current of 
air which enters the cavity of the mouth between the 
pillars of the fauces is carried forwards upon the dorsum 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 263 

of the root of the tongue, and therefore must find its 
way out along the upper surface of the tongue. Still, 
when the tongue is raised, thus blocking up the natural 
path, the current of air is obliged to force its way along 
the sides of the tpngue and pass out between the lower 
surface of the tongue and the teeth of the lower jaw, and 
in doing so creates a hissing, fricative noise. This way 
is, however, not so direct as that along the dorsum of 
the tongue, and cannot, like the latter, allow the full 
strength of the current of air to pass, the course being 
further impeded by the teeth, and especially the teeth of 
the lower jaw. The current of air which occasionally 
passes below the tongue cannot, therefore, be of much 
importance in the formation of articulate sounds ; this, 
however, is not the case with the obstructions alluded to, 
which have an important effect upon the clearness and 
distinctness of the utterance, for in the formation of 
many articulate sounds, especially those in which the 
front part of the tongue is raised, they produce a division 
of the current of air. This applies particularly to the 
incisors of the lower jaw, a want of clearness and decision 
in the utterance being very noticeable when these teeth 
are absent. 

We shall, therefore, regard the current of air which 
passes over the tongue as alone adapted to take part in 
the formation of articulate sounds — a view which is sup- 
ported by the fact that the tongue in all its relations 
belongs to the floor of the cavity of the mouth. At the 
same time, we must not forget that an effect may occa- 
sionally be contributed by the escape of the air beneath 
the tongue. 

If now we follow the passage of the air with reference 
to the localities of possible contraction and expansion, 
and the effect upon the formation of articulate sounds, 



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264 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

we shall have to point out three regions as of special 
interest from our present point of view, namely — 

The larynx, 

The oral cavity, and 

The cavity of the lips. 
We find the larynx adapted for contraction through 
the two lateral protuberances, the free margins of which 
constitute the vocal chords. We know that the space 
between the vocal chords can, on the one hand, be 
so expanded by muscular action, that, as in ordinary 
breathing, a gentle current of air can pass through quite 
noiselessly, and that, on the other hand, by the same 
means a perfect closure may be effected, so that, for in- 
stance, in holding the breath, the exit of the air is entirely 
suspended. A number of noises are possible from this 
arrangement. A strepitus continuus spirans must ensue 
when (1) a violent stream of air passes between the 
glottis opened to its fullest extent, and (2) when the 
vocal chords are so closely approximated as to offer an 
obstruction to the current of air, though without affording 
the conditions necessary for the production of tone. The 
strepitus continuvs stridulus is not possible because the 
surfaces of the vocal chords brought into contact are too 
narrow, and therefore more adapted for the production 
of tone ; on the other hand, the production of a strepitus 
continuus vibrans is possible when the glottis is adjusted, 
but not suflSciently so as to produce a tone. As regards 
the strepitus repentinus, we have already shown how both 
the strepitus exphsivus and the strepitus avulsivus take 
part in the ''groan." It seems probable, however, that 
the strepitus avulsivus can be heard independently, for if 
the breath is held for some time, and then, without 
allowing the expiratory current to escape, the closure is 
destroyed, a slight click is heard, which is most easily 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 266 

explained if we regard it as a strepitus avuUivua. A 
strepitus occlusivus also seems possible in the larynx, for 
if a current of air, especially if toneless,* is allowed to 
pass through the larynx, and then suddenly stopped, as 
in holding the breath, a small clapping sound is heard 
which may be explained in this manner. 

In the oral cavity a long surface is presented both by 
the roof and floor. The two surfaces may be perfectly 
separated by removing the lower jaw from the upper, 
and can then again be gradually approximated till the 
jaws meet. In the formation of noise the greater or 
less separation of the two surfaces is alone of interest, 
because the opportunity is there given for a strepittts 
continuus spirans. The modifications of which the cavity 
of the mouth is capable when the jaws are closed will be 
considered in the remarks upon the cavity of the mouth. 
Although the oral cavity as a whole has little influence 
upon the noises available for speech, yet it acquires 
great importance from the fact that it is composed of 
several parts, all of which play a prominent part in the 
formation of noise. 

The roof of the oral cavity consists of three parts — 
the soft palate, the hard palate, and the alveolar process 
with the teeth. In considering the third division, we 
may confine our attention to the incisor teeth and the 
corresponding portion of the alveolar process, as they 
alone lie in the direct path of the current of air. The 
molar teeth, and the part of the alveolar process into 
which they are inserted, may be regarded as the lateral 
parts of the hard palate. Opposite to these parts we 
have, indeed, only the tongue, which, however, from the 
wonderful power it possesses of changing both form and 

* Qerman, tonlos, unaccompanied by tone ; the general term in 
English is **un vocal," •* unvoiced." — Tb. 



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266 THE OBGANS OF SPEECH. 

position, may equally well be divided into three parts, 
which will correspond to those of the roof. The root of the 
tongue is situated opposite to the soft palate, the middle 
part of the tongue opposite the hard palate, while the 
front part (apex) is situated opposite the alveolar process 
and the teeth. We cannot, of course, assign any dis- 
tinct boundaries to these three divisions of the tongue — 
a remark which, moreover, applies equally to the divi- 
sions of the roof. 

Turning our attention first to the expansions of the 
oral cavity, we find in the first place, setting aside the 
general expansion effected by the depression of the lower 
jaw alluded to above, that in the roof of the back 
part a local expansion may be produced by the eleva- 
tion of the soft palat^; it has, however, been already 
observed that the expansion in this case is not of so 
much importance as the closure of the nasal cavity. 
But whatever its value in this respect, it is of no 
assistance in the formation of noise, and need not, 
therefore, detain us here. This is al^o the case with the 
local expansions which can be created by the depression 
of the entire tongue or of separate parts of the tongue. 
We may, therefore, at once proceed to the contractions. 

It is clear that a contraction at any of the three 
places which can allow of the production of a strepitus 
continuuB spirans could have no other effect than to 
modify the noise generally in the oral cavity. We may, 
therefore, at once investigate the more complete closures. 

The entire length of the tongue may be so approxi- 
mated to the roof of the oral cavity as to give the con- 
ditions necessary for strepitus continuus stridulus. The 
lower jaw must at the same time be widely separated 
from the upper jaw, and the tongue raised to a great 
height, almost as in the act of swallowing. The noise 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 267 

ereated by the stream of air utider these circumstances 
is a rough, blowing sound, which, however, from in- 
sufficient opening of the mouth, is not powerful. It is 
very difficult to obtain the necessary position of the 
parts in question ; the result will be most easily attained 
with the head bent downwards. There is less difficulty 
in effecting a closure at one of the three above-mentioned 
places ; each closure, moreover, gives rise to a distinct 
noise, and these three noises are such important factors 
of speech that it will be simpler at once to give the 
corresponding articulate sound, instead of entering into 
a long description. The strepitus continuus stridulus 
between the root of the tongue and the soft palate, is the 
sound of ch in ach; that between the middle of the 
tongue and the soft palate the sound ot ch in ich;* and 
that between the apex of the tongue and the alveolar 
arch the sound of s. 

A strepitus continuus vibrans can only be produced by 
the posterior and anterior of the three points of closure ; 
in the first case by the margin of the soft palate and 
the uvula, in the second by the moveable tip of the 
tongue. Both noises give rise to an r. It is further an 
interesting fact that the membranous character of the 
soft palate inclines it to vibrate as a whole in the for- 
mation of the above-mentioned noise ach, which some- 
times causes an r to intermingle with the ach. 

As regards the various forms of the strepitus repen- 
tinvs, we find that the str. rep. avulsivus may be formed 
at the three points of closure, the result being the 
clicking sound. It is produced with the greatest ease 
by the tip of the tongue and the alveolar portion of the 
hard palate, being more difficult with the middle of 

* These tiro Bounds wiU be explained more fully presently, but to 
avoid the long description necessary to distinguish them, they will always 
be referred to as ach and ioh. 



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268 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

the tongue and the hard palate, as modifications arise 
from the situation of the closure to be broken through ; 
it may, namely, lie between the apex of the tongue and 
the incisors, or between the apex of the tongue and a 
more backward part of the hard palate, or between the 
lower surface of the foremost part of the tongue and 
different parts of the hard palate. The latter modifica- 
tion is characterized by a duller sound. The str. rep. 
avuUivuB of the most backward of the three points of 
closure differs in the manner of its production from 
those of the anterior points, for here it would appear 
to be the soft palate that is moved or suddenly detached 
— a view which is founded partly upon the sensation 
accompanying the act, and partly upon the fact that 
the root of the tongue is brought against the more solid 
and immoveable part of the soft palate. This noise is 
not easy to make ; it may, however, be acquired with a 
little practice, when the sound will resemble a weak, 
tolerably clear click. 

Whilst the more easily produced clicking sounds are 
only employed to a very limited extent as articulate 
sounds (by the Hottentots), although they are often 
heard as a sort of interjection of doubt or displeasure, 
the strepitvs repentinus explosivus has a very wide appli- 
cation in the formation of articulate sounds ; it is heard, 
when formed at the posterior point of closure between 
the root of the tongue and the soft palate, as a dull A;, 
at the middle point as a clear k, and at the foremost 
point between the apex of the tongue and the alveolar 
portion of the palate, as t. 

The only point at which the quick, strong muscular 
action necessary for the production of the strepitm rep. 
occlvsivvs appears to be possible is the anterior point of 
closure ; it here appears as t. 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 269 

Just as the closure of the oral cavity is effected at 
three different points^ so that of the lips varies in 
character; and, indeed, here we have four different 
points of closure : (1) by the contact of the two lips, 
(2) by the contact of the lower lip with the incisors of 
the upper jaw, (3) by the contact of the upper lip with 
the incisors of the lower jaw, (4) by the contact of the 
tongue with the upper lip. A fifth form, by the contact 
of the tongue with the lower lip, does not belong to the 
question before us, as the current of air cannot pass 
between them. 

The wide opening of the lips, which is one of the 
conditions for the production of a strepitm continum 
spirans, calls for no particular remark here. It accom- 
panies the depression of the lower jaw in the production 
of this strepitvs in the oral cavity, and has, therefore, 
no special peculiarity. The opening of the lips has 
undoubtedly a very important effect in the formation 
of articulate sounds, but not in the department of 
noises ; its influence is asserted in the formation of 
vowels, and will, therefore, be more fully entered into 
in connection with the latter. 

The 8tr. cont. stridulus may be produced in two ways 
by the lips : either, namely, the air may be allowed to 
pass between the entire length of the lips, or only 
between the middle portions. The noise is softer and 
weaker in the first case than in the second. The 
strepitvs vibrans, which it is possible to make between 
the lips, is, from the size and thickness of the lips, very 
difficult to produce, and is not so sharp and clear as the 
vibrating noise of the oral cavity ; it is, therefore, never 
employed as an articulate sound. 

All the forms of the strepitus repentinus can be pro- 
duced by the lips, and have already been given as 



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270 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

examples; we need not, therefore, allude to them 
again. 

The three other forms of the closure of the lips, 
when only one lip creates the closure with the opposite 
row of teeth, or the upper lip with the apex of the 
tongue, have no special influence upon the formation 
of noise, and only differ from the closure formed by both" 
lips in the sound being less full and characteristic. 

The noises formed in the air-passages may, there- 
fore, be classified according to the localities in which 
they are produced, as — 

I. Strepitiis laryngeua 

produced in the glottic. 

II. Strepitus oralis 

produced in the oral cavity, 

(1) atrej^tus oralis strictly speaking 

the entire oral cavity taking part, 

(2) strepitus gutturalis 

between the root of the tongue and the soft 
palate, 

(3) strepitus paladnus 

between the middle of the tongue and the hard 
palate, 

(4) strepitus dentalis 

between the apex of the tongue and the alveolar 
part of the palate corresponding to the in- 
cisors. 

III. Strepitus laUalis 

(1) strepitus labialis strictly speaking 

between the two lips, 

(2) and (3) two forms of the strepitus dento-labialis 

between one lip and the opposite incisors, 
(4) strepitus linguo-lahialis 

between the apex of the tongue and the xcp^ 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNOa 271 

lip ; partially replacing the strepitus dentalis 
•when the upper incisors are absent. 

We have already shown which of the noises enume- 
rated above can be produced at these different places. 
The number of noises which are possible in the air- 
passages by voluntary muscular activity is, therefore, 
very considerable, and they appear in great variety even 
after those have been set aside which are not adapted 
for the formation of articulate sounds. 

We are now in a position to point out the elements 
which give a distinctive character to the different 
articulate sounds. 

At the commencement of this chapter we showed 
that a well-defined group is formed by a number of 
sounds, which we distinguished as "tone-sounds" 
(musical sounds, tones), because they are merely a 
laryngeal tone, modified by different forms of resonance. 

We now find that a second category may be formed, 
from the noises which are voluntarily created in the air- 
passages. These sounds are those which are generally 
called consonants by grammarians (with the exception 
of m, n, ng). Some of the consonants are formed only 
by their distinctive noise, as, for instance, r (strepitm 
vibrans), while others may be produced in two ways, 
either as a pure noise or as a noise mixed with tone ; 
in other words, the current of air passing from the 
larynx into the other air-passages to produce these 
noises may be either accompanied by tone or it may 
be toneless. The consonants formed in this manner 
by the addition of tone are called soft or medice, while 
the corresponding consonants (formed by the same 
noise) which are not accompanied by tone are known 
as hard or tenties. This difference is most striking in 
the consonants formed by the strepitus explosiviis, and 



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272 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

has, therefore, been observed even in the letters of the 
alphabet. We find for the toneless explosive sounds 
the letters p, t, k, and the corresponding tone-sounds 
6, d, g. It was formerly thought that the difference 
between the " hard " and " soft " consonants could be 
explained by regarding the " hard " consonants as the 
** soft," with the addition of an aspirate, as expressed 
in letters : p = b + h or bh. The ground for this view 
was undoubtedly the same which gave rise to the terms 
"hard " and " soft," the fact, namely, that the toneless 
explosive sounds are generally uttered with a greater 
pressure of air. 

We have hitherto only considered the characteristics 
of speech produced by the ordinary voice. There is, how- 
ever, another kind of speech, which we call whispering. 

The general idea of whispering is that it is only a 
peculiar manner of speaking, the object of which is 
that it should not be audible at any distance, and 
therefore stands in direct opposition to loud, far- 
reaching speech. Softness is at once accepted as the 
characteristic of whispering, and the only difference 
recognized is that of intensity. If this were so, the 
distinction between the two ways of speaking would be 
no more than that between the piano and forte produc- 
tion of the same note. 

It cannot, however, escape the attention of any one 
endeavouring to discover the true nature of whispering, 
that this softness is something auxiliary, and that 
whispering, is distinguished from loud speech by a more 
specific feature, which is at once its characteristic. 

We see, moreover, if we look still more olosely, that 
this specific feature is due to an entire absence of tone ; 
that is to say, in whispering the element of tone is 
entirely excluded from the formation of articulate 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 273 

sounds. It, is therefore, very generally supposed that if 
tone is not allowed to take part in the formation of 
articulate sounds a whisper will be produced, and con- 
sequently its elements can only comprise the noises 
which are employed in loud speech. 

This conclusion cannot but strike us as extraordinary 
when we remember that some of the articulate sounds, 
the vowels and resonants, namely, are entirely founded 
upon tone. This class of sounds should, therefore, be 
entirely absent in whispering ; and in addition to this, 
the " soft " consonants could not be pronounced, or would 
be replaced by the corresponding ** hard" consonants. 

Now, it is not only possible to produce all the vowels 
and resonants in a whisper, but also to mark the 
difference between the " hard" and " soft *' consonants. 
Undisturbed activity must, therefore, be allowed to those 
relations by which the laryngeal tone is moulded into 
those sounds. Thus we find that absence of tone cannot 
be regarded as the characteristic of whispering, but that 
we must seek some other element which will so stand 
in the place of tone as to be equally affected by those 
modifying influences, and thus perfectly replace it as an 
element of speech. 

This substitute for tone must have its origin in the 
larynx, or its subsequent fate in the air-passages would 
not be so entirely analogous to that of the tone produced 
in the larynx. Briicke* takes the very probable view 
that in whispering a noise is formed in the glottis 
instead of the tone which constitutes an element of loud 
speech. This noise is no other than that which has 
been described above as the strepitm continuus spirans ot 
the larynx. 

* Grundziige der Physiologie nnd Systematik der Sprachlauto (Wien, 
1866). 



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274 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

This view, which from the present state of onr 
knowledge seems to have most in its favour, leads us to 
find the characteristic of whispering in the fact that, 
the mechanism being in other respects the same, the 
element of tone in loud speech is replaced by a laryngeal 
noise. 

The Vowels. 

By " vowels " we understand those articulate sounds, 
the basis of which consists of a tone produced in the 
larynx, and in which, the mouth being open, the sonant 
current of air passes out either directly through the cavity 
of the mouth alone, or also through the nasal cavity. 
They approach in many ways very nearly to the con- 
sonants, but the sounds most nearly related to them 
are n, m, and w^, which, like the vowels, are based 
upon laryngeal tone, and are only distinguished from 
the latter by the fact that the mouth being shut the 
current of air which produces them can only escape 
through the nasal cavity. From this close relationship 
with the vowels the three sounds have been excluded 
from the category of consonants, and formed into a sepa- 
rate group, under the name of "resonants." Although, 
however, this division is entirely justifiable and well 
founded, the designation *' resonants " is not happily 
chosen, as it seems to imply that the influence of re- 
sonance is characteristic of the conformation of these 
sounds, while the vowels stand in precisely the same 
relation and are equally indebted to the influence of 
resonance for their peculiar conformation. 

Moreover, the character of this resonance has even 
occasioned the division of the vowels into two classes : 
pure vowels and nasal vowels. The resonance of the 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 276 

cavity of the mouth alone is engaged in the formation 
of the first group, while both the resonance of the nasal 
cavity and that of the open mouth together contribute 
to the formation of the nasal vowels. 

In the compound resonance of the nasal vowels, that 
contributed by the nasal cavity must always be the 
same, the form of that cavity being invariable. The 
individuality of the different nasal vowels cannot, there- 
fore, be due to the nasal cavity, but must rather be sought 
for in the resonance of the cavity of the mouth. It is 
just this, however, which gives individuality to the pure 
vowels ; they, therefore, must be regarded as the typical 
vowels of which the nasal vowels are modifications. 
This view will appear the more correct when we find how 
comparatively limited is the actual application of the 
nasal vowels* 

The Pure Vowels. 

In the formation of the pure vowels the nasal cavity 
is entirely shut off from the cavity of the mouth by the 
elevation of the soft palate, and moreover, as we have 
already shown, the closure is most complete in uttering 
the vowel ♦, and least so in uttering a, the intervening 
degree following in the succession of a, e, o, u, t. Although, 
however, the strength may vary (that is to say, the 
pressure of the soft palate upon the posterior wall of the 
pharynx), the closure is always so perfect that the entire 
current of air can only escape through the cavity of the 
mouth. 

The resonance tube, through which the current of air 
has to pass after it has been thrown into musical vibra- 
tion in the larynx, is so formed that the current of air 
first traverses the superior cavity of the larynx, and 

18 



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276 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

then passes through the laryngeal and oral divisions of 
the pharynx into the cavity of the mouth, from which it 
finally escapes between the lips. Thus the path marked 
out for the current of air is by no means straight, but 
turns oflf rapidly above the larynx. Ascending vertically 
through the glottis, the current of air strikes against the 
lower surface of the epiglottis, and is consequently de- 
flected backwards, so that, after issuing from the pha- 
ryngeal opening of the superior cavity of the larynx, it 
breaks upon the posterior wall of the pharynx, which it 
then ascends. If now the soft palate is hanging down, the 
most direct and natural path that it can follow will be 
through the nasal cavity ; if, however, the nasal portion 
of the pharynx is cut oflf by the elevation of the soft palate, 
the current of air will be conducted along its lower surface 
into the cavity of the mouth. Thus the soft palate not 
only cuts oflf the nasal cavity from the current of air, but 
turns the latter directly into the cavity of the mouth. It 
follows, further, that the current of air thus deflected will 
naturally follow the roof of the cavity of the mouth, and, 
descendhag at the back of the upper incisors, will flow 
outwards past their lower margin, and finally through 
the lips. Thus the current of air, in passing from the 
glottis to the lower margin of the incisors and the 
opening of the mouth, describes a large curve along the 
intervening surfaces described above ; opposite to all 
these surfaces lies the arched dorsum of the tongue, so 
that ^ve might almost say the current of air, in following 
these walls, forms an eddy round the dorsum of the tongue 
from its root to its apex. 

The form of this curved resonance tube may be 
modified in a variety of ways, and so exercise a marked 
influence upon the resonance of the tone passing through 
ii. These modifications aflfect the length as well as the 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 277 

width and internal conformation of the resonance tube. 
The production of the different vowel-sounds rests 
entirely upon these relations, for the element of tone 
contained in vowels is the same for all, and can only 
vary as regards pitch and intensity, and therefore can 
in no way affect the vowel-sounds as such. 

That the resonance tube, by adding its resonance to 
the tone passing through it, has the power of giving a 
vowel character to the sound produced which will vary 
in accordance with its shape, has been shown by Willis 
in two series of experiments. He attached a resonance 
tube to a reed instrument with a vibrating reed, and by 
altering the length of the tube he succeeded in pro- 
ducing a recognizable imitation of the five typical vowels 
when the reed was thrown into vibrations ; the longest 
resonance tube gave u, the shortest an t, the other 
vowels resulting from the intermediate lengths. He 
also attached to the same instrument a wooden funnel, 
15 mm. ('58 inch) deep and 75 mm. (2*9 inches) in 
diameter, as a resonator, by means of which, when the 
reed sounded, he again produced the five vowels in a re- 
cognizable manner, by pushing forward a wooden slip 
so as gradually to diminish the size of the mouth of the 
funnel, the smallest opening corresponding to u. Briicke,* 
who repeated these experiments, found that the vowels 
produced by the second method were more distinct than 
those resulting from the first. Although there was no 
similarity between the vowel-soimds produced by these 
methods and those of the human voice, yet they were 
quite sufficient to prove that on the one hand the length 
of the resonance tube, and on the other the size of its 
free opening, has a modifying influence upon the general 

• GrundzQgo der Physiologie und Systematik der Spraolilaute (Wien, 
1856), S. 17. 



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278 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

vowel character imparted to the tone by the tube itself, 
and therefore that the vowels of speech could be ap- 
proximately imitated. The great difference between the 
material of such artificial apparatus and the human 
organs of speech naturally puts perfect imitation out of 
the question. 

The resonance tube of the glottis may be lengthened 
at two points — ^in its most backward position and in its 
most forward portion; the length of the cavity of the 
mouth, from the posterior wall of the pharynx to the in- 
cisor teeth, must always remain the same. The posterior 
portion may be lengthened by depressing the larynx; 
when the depression is slight it is merely slightly drawn 
away from the hyoid bone, which remains quiescent ; as, 
however, it can only be moved a very short distance 
from the hyoid bone to which it is attached, when the 
depression is greater the hyoid bone, and also the root 
of the tongue, are obliged to descend with it. The an- 
terior portion, the cavity of the lips, can be lengthened 
by the protrusion of the lips. The increase in the length 
of the resonance tube attainable by these means may be 
as much as 2-3 cm. ('TS-l'l? inch). On the other 
hand, the resonance tube may be shortened by elevating 
the larynx and pressing the lips upon the incisors, to 
the extent again of 2-3 cm. The difference between the 
greatest and shortest length of the resonance tube will, 
therefore, be about 5 cm. (1-95 inch). Such a difference 
cannot but have an influence upon the pitch of the tone, 
as a longer resonance tube always creates a deeper tone ; 
consequently, the tone produced in the glottis being the 
same, u, when the resonance tube is at its greatest 
length, will sound deeper than i, when the tube is at 
its shortest; thus the deepest notes can only be sung 
upon 14, the highest upon i. This was particularly 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 279 

striking, as regards the u^ in the bass of the so-called 
Jubilee Singers, who some time ago went through 
Europe ; he had to sing his lowest note upon o in the 
words " We are rolling," but distinctly sang '* We are 
ruling." 

Although it cannot be denied that the length of the 
resonance tube has an influence upon the characterization 
of the different vowel-sounds, yet this influence chiefly 
eflfects the speech when it is pure and natural; for, 
though with some effort, t may be uttered with a de- 
pressed larynx, and u with a raised larynx ; the sounds, 
however, as well as being difficult to create, are less pure 
and clear. 

On the other hand, the different conformation of the 
interior of the cavity of the mouth is of the greatest 
importance in the differentiation of the vowels. 

If, with the mouth fairly opened by the withdrawal 
of the lower jaw and the tongue lying quiescent upon the 
floor of the cavity, a tone is created in the glottis, the 
sound a is heard. This being the most simple confor- 
mation of the cavity, a is regarded as the fundamental 
vowel. 

The modifications of this simple conformation, which 
are necessary for the production of the other vowels, can 
only be effected by raising the tongue from the floor of 
the cavity of the mouth towards the palate, and by 
bringing the lower jaw towards the upper, thus generally 
approximating the floor of the cavity to the palate. 

Passing at once to the most extreme positions em- 
ployed in the formation of vowels, we see directly that the 
closest approximations of the tongue to the palate must 
be regarded as examples of this kind of conformation, 
when at the same time the lower jaw is so depressed as 
to allow the current of air to pass out freely between the 



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280 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

incisors. A general approximation of the dorsum of 
the tongue cannot take place, because even when the 
mouth is closed it does not quite touch the hard palate ; 
and, moreover, such d. general approximation would not 
materially affect the conformation of the cavity of the 
mouth, but merely diminish the size of the aperture. A 
new and characteristic conformation of the cavity of the 
mouth is only obtained when part of the tongue is so 
approximated to the palate that a very narrow passage 
only is left for the air, while the remaining less elevated 
portion forms with the corresponding portion of the 
hard palate a considerable cavity, the resonance of which 
is of the greatest importance in deciding the character 
of the vowel-sound. 

The simplest form ot approximation is that of the 
anterior portion of the tongue to the alveolar process 
and the anterior portion of the hard palate, because the 
mouth may retain the moderate degree of opening cha- 
racteristic of the formation of the vowel a. The lateral 
edges of the tongue at the same time are brought against 
the molar teeth of the upper jaw so that only a narrow 
passage outwards is left along the dorsum of the tongue, 
though not so narrow as to occasion a fricative noise. 
In this position of the tongue a cavity of some size is 
left between the hinder part of the tongue and the 
elevated soft palate and posterior wall of the pharynx. 
If now, with this conformation of the cavity of the mouth, 
a tone is produced in the glottis, it will receive the 
character of the vowel i, and this i becomes particularly 
pure and clear if, when it is uttered, the larynx is raised, 
and the lips, by the retraction of the angles of the 
mouth, pressed against the incisors. 

If, on the contrary, the posterior part of the tongue 
is so approximated to the soft palate and posterior wall 



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THE FORMATION OF AUTICULATB SOUNDS. 281 

of the pharynx that a narrow passage only is left for the 
current of air, though not sufl&ciently narrow to cause a 
fricative noise, then the air breaks through this cleft 
into a large cavity which remains between the anterior 
portion of the tongue and the corresponding portion of the 
palate. If, with the mouth in this position, a tone is now 
produced in the glottis, it will receive the vowel-character 
u. A clear, good u can, however, only be formed when 
at the same time the larynx is depressed, and the orifice 
of the mouth altered in a twofold manner ; namely, con- 

Fia.42. 




BhUIoii of tbe mouth Ibr A. 

traded by the elevation of the lower jaw, and prolonged 
by the tube-like protrusion of the lips. 

We can now understand why the soft palate seems 
to be most raised when u and t are uttered. Since, in 
forming u, the current of air must force its way through 
the narrow space between the tongue and the soft palate, 
the lateral pressure which it then exercises will force the 
yielding soft palate upwards ; and this is still more the 
case when, during the formation oft, the exit of the air is 
hindered in the narrow passage above the anterior por- 
tion of the tongue, and it must, therefore, accumulate in 



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282 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

the cavity above and behind the root of the tongne. 
So, again, in i the soft palate finds its greatest elevation 
and its firmest contact with the posterior wall of the 
pharynx. 

Upon comparing these various conformations of the 
cavity of the mouth with resonators, we find the follow- 
ing characteristics : — 

When a (ah) is uttered, the cavity of the mouth 
assumes the form of a large resonator, with 
a fairly wide inlet, and a very large outlet, 
which, however, is smaller than the space con- 
tained in the cavity of the mouth. 

FlO. 43. 




Boeition of the mouth for L 

When i is uttered, the posterior portion of the cavity 
of the mouth constitutes a smaller resonator, 
the inlet of which is formed by the orifice of 
the larynx, and the outlet assumes the form of 
a long narrow tunnel. 

When u is uttered, the anterior portion of the cavity 
of the mouth forms a small resonator, the inlet 
to which is a long narrow tunneli and the outlet 
more or less contracted. 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 283 

The creation of these three sounds depends entirely 
upon these conditions, since, if the conditions fure ful- 
filled, the corresponding sounds at once result. These 
leading features do not, however, fully represent the 
conformation of the entire air-passage ; for, though still 
giving the first place to those just described, we find 
several other possible modifications of the air-passages, 
which are based upon (1) the degree of perfection to 
which the form of the resonance cavity is carried, (2) 
the degree of elevation or depression of the larynx, and 

Fio. 4i. 




^)6ltIon of the mouth for U. 

(3) the different conformation of the orifice of the mouth. 
Thus the modification of sound produced will vary 
according as the form of the air-passage is decided by 
the action of one or more of these factors, and as there 
can be no limit to the variety of forms thus possible to 
the air-passage, there is also an equally wide range given 
for the modification of the three sounds in question, 
which modifications are partly individual, partly cha- 
racteristic of certain languages or dialects. We shall 
presently draw attention to the more important of these 



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284 THE onaANS op speech, 

modifications. We have, however, described the con- 
ditions under which those modifications arise which 
ensure the clearest and fullest sound accompanied by 
the least exertion. To recapitulate briefly, they are — 

For a, a large orifice to the cavity of the mouth. 

For i, compression of the lips upon the incisors and 
elevation of the larynx. 

For u, tube-Uke protrusion of the lips and depression 
of the larynx. 

In addition to these three typical positions of the 
mouth there is a fourth, which in two modifications gives 
rise to distinctly characterized vowel-sounds. Taking 
the mouth opened for a as a starting-point, we may 
describe this fourth position as a general contraction of 
the cavity of the mouth, which is effected by approxi- 
mating the lower jaw to the upper, and by raising the 
middle of the dorsum of the tongue towards the palate. 
The whole of the back of the tongue is thus arched, and 
runs parallel to the arch of the palate. The cavity, 
which in this position acts as resonator, is both longer 
and less capacious. If a tone is produced in the glottis, 
it will receive from a resonator of this form the vowel- 
character e. This sound is not the clear e generally 
distinguished by this letter, but a dull e, often noticed 
in German dialects; for instance, in the abbreviated 
form of the infinitive, as machcy reite, for machen, rdten.* 
It is called by the French efermS. 

The two modifications of this conformation of the 
cavity of the mouth, which are characterized as giving 
rise to distinct vowel-sounds, are analogous to the two 
positions which have been described above as those for i 
and u ; they are to a certain extent an indication of the 
latter. 

* English equivalents, a in hay and e in tet. — Tb. 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 285 

In the first modification the tongne is brought more 
forward, so that the cavity situated between the tongue 
and the palate is narrower before than behind. This 
position is similar to that by which i is formed, and pro- 
duces the long,, clear e. When uttered with perfect 
purity and clearness, the larynx is slightly raised and 
the cavity of the lips contracted, though not so much as 
for f . 

In the second modification the tongue is drawn more 
backward, and the apex consequently removed to a 
greater distance from the incisors. This gives a position 

FI0.4S. 




Position of the mouth for e fermd. 



which is analogous to that for u, the posterior half of the 
cavity being somewhat narrower and the anterior half 
rather wider. The vowel-character which is thus pro- 
duced is that of 0. This o will gain in purity and fulness 
if the larynx is somewhat depressed, and the lipp pro- 
truded, so as to extend the cavity of the lips, which, how- 
ever, must not be carried to such an extent as in u. 

We have so far recognized six different vowel-sounds, 
each of which is characterized by a special conformation 
of the cavity of the mouth, i.e. of the space between the 



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286 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

posterior wall of the pharynx and the incisors. They may 
be roughly classified as follows : — 

I. The entire cavity of the mouth acting as resonator : 

(1) Wide-open mouth, a. 

(2) Half-open mouth, efermi. 

II. Half the cavity of the mouth acting as resonator : 

(1) Anterior half, 

(a) Wide open with a narrow inlet, «. 
(6) Half open with a less narrow inlet, o. 

(2) Posterior half, 

(a) Wide open with a narrow outlet, t . 
(&) Half open with a less narrow outlet, e. 

Fio.46. 




m 

PMMon of the mouth for the long M, 

We saw that the vowel-character depends chiefly upon 
the form of the resonator, but found that, in creating a 
clear full sound, other secondary conditions must be 
fulfilled, which consist in variations in the length of the 
resonance tube ; that is to say, of the passage for the 
current of air from the glottis to the margins of the lips. 
This increase or decrease in the length of the resonance 
tube can take place either in the posterior portion of the 
air-passage — i.e. in the division between the vocal chords 
and the palate — or in the division between the teeth and 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 287 

the margins of the lips ; or, again, in hoth simultaneously. 
The sound will he hest in the latter case. 

The posterior alteration in the length of the reso- 
nance tube is effected by the elevation or depression of the 
larynx. Our observations have shown that in forming 
full clear vowel-sounds, the ascent of the larynx, begin- 
ning with its greatest depression, will correspond with 
the following succession of vowels : — 
u, 0, a, eferme, e, t. 

The anterior alteration is effected by the protrusion 
or retraction of the lips. The several degrees in the 

Fio.47. 




Podtkm of the moath for 0, 

length of the cavity of the lips, again supposing a full 
clear sound is to be produced, beginning with the great- 
est length, correspond to 

u, 0, a, efermS, e, i. 

We see that the two series of vowels are the same, 
and thus it appeals that a gradual decrease in the length 
of the resonance tube is necessary for the perfect utter- 
ance of those vowels placed in that order. 

We have, however, been only studying certain typical 
forms which are distinguished as being more sharply 



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288 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

characterized from the infinite number of possible vowel* 
sounds. Thus they are susceptible of various modifica- 
tions, and may therefore be regarded as a foundation for 
the formation of all possible vowel-sounds. It would be 
altogether impossible to attempt to mention all the 
varieties of vowels produced in such a manner, and we 
must therefore be satisfied with examining the laws upon 
which these varieties depend. When once these laws 
are rightly understood, there will be no difficulty, when 
any new vowel-sound is met with, in recognizing its 
origin and assigning to it its proper place. 
These varieties may, however, arise — 

(1) Within the limits of the typical sound itself. 

(2) From the transition or mixture of the several 

types. 

For the first class of varieties a single example will 
suffice, which will further show how necessary it is to 
distinguish between the primary and secondary condi- 
tions necessary for the production of the vowel-sounds 
mentioned above. 

If we only employ the resonance of the cavity of the 
mouth in uttering an u, without either depressing the 
larynx or protruding the lips, we shall obtain a perfectly 
distinct u, but with no ring in it. If we push forward 
the lips without depressing the larynx, the u will have 
rather more ring. If we then lower the larynx, the pure 
full u will appear, which we generally regard as the true 
one. If, with the lips still protruded, we raise the larynx 
abovd its ordinary position, we obtain a very clear tt, 
which, however, is accompanied by a strong rushing 
sound ; if the lips remain quiescent, not being protruded, 
the larynx, on the contrary, being depressed, we obtain 
the English u (in could), which will be improved if the 
floor of the cavity of the mouth is still more depressed. 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDa 289 

thus enlarging the resonance cavity; retaining this 
increased depression of the floor of the cavity of the 
mouth, we may raise the larynx above its ordinary posi- 
tion, when we shall obtain a clearer u, as it is often 
heard in English dialectic varieties. 

Thus by different combinations of the conditions under 
which u is formed, we obtain no less than six varieties, 
the greater number of which are in actual use. 

The second class of varieties is composed of sounds 
which have not the pure character of the above-mentioned 
typical sounds, but partially represent the character of 
two sounds, thus bei^g intermediate between them. 

Such a mixture may arise in two ways : the confor- 
mation of the cavity of the mouth may either not agree 
with any of the types described above, but be interme- 
diate between the conformations belonging to any two 
types ; or the conformation of the cavity of the mouth 
may be typical, while the secondary conditions either of 
the conformation of the lips or the position of the lips 
may not be the true ones, but those corresponding to the 
formation of another typical sound. 

The first of these two categories will be best under- 
stood by starting from the position of the mouth serving 
for efermS. The greatest convexity of the tongue is here 
so situated that the space between the dorsum of the 
tongue and the palate are the same in height before and 
behind that point. If the arch is formed further back, 
thus approaching to the position for o, a dull oe results, 
which will have more of the o sound in it the further 
back the arch of the tongue is removed, and more of the 
e as it has remained nearer to the central position. Both 
sounds are found in English ; for instance, that which 
approaches to o in but, and that which resembles e in 
whet. Uf on the contrary, the convexity of the tongue is 



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290 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

brought more forward, so as to approach the position for 
the pure 6, the sound gains in clearness, without, how- 
ever, arriving at the pure e. This sound, again, is found 
in English ; for instance, in yet. 

In the same way ^e may start from the conformation 
for a, and we shall then find that if the tongue is pushed 
further back, a different o sound mingles with the a, 
which becomes more perceptible as the tongue recedes. 
This sound is very general. As an a with a trace of o it 
appears in the North-German dialects, in Swedish (writ- 
ten a), in English (for instance, in aU, or more nearly in 
the a of what) ; and as an o with a &ace of a in French — 
for instance, in encore. If, on the contrary, the tongue 
is brought more forward, a broad ae is produced, as it is 
heard, for instance, in the Alemannic dialect ; it is also 
the scornful "Ah!" 

If, when the cavity of the mouth is in the position for 
a, the middle of the tongue is moved towards that for e 
ferme, a dull ae is produced, which is often heard in 
English ; as, for instance, in at. 

In the same way intermediate sounds may be pro- 
duced between e and i, and also between o and u. These 
series of sounds have not, however, the distinctive cha- 
racter of those mentioned above, but rather appear as 
dialectic peculiarities of pronunciation; still we may 
give, as an example of the first intermediate sound, the 
Alemannic diminutive, which is generally written " K," 
and for the second the Hessian pronunciation of "durch," 
which has almost the sound of " dorch." 

With regard to the second category we may remark, 
in the first place, that a higher position of the larynx 
gives a clearer sound to the vowels, and a lower position 
a duller sound; we can, therefore, by depressing the 
larynx to the position for u, give a dull sound to i ; and 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 291 

vice versd, if the larynx is raised as it should be for t ^ u 
will be glear. 

But that modification of vowel-sounds is more impor- 
tant which is effected by giving a conformation to the 
cavity of the lips characteristic of a different vowel. The 
number of intermediate sounds produced in this manner 
is not very great, but offers much that is interesting. 

If, when uttering the pure e, the orifice of the mouth 
is put into the position for a, the clear ae is heard, as pro- 
nounced in German — ^for instance, in wdhlen ; if, on the 
contrary, the orifice of the mouth is put into the position 
for o, the clear oe is heard, also as pronounced in Ger- 
man — ^for instance, in Kohler. 

If, in uttering e, the orifice of the mouth is shaped as 
for u, the sound tie is heard. The sound wiU, however, 
be clearer and more distinct if the position for u is com- 
bined with the utterance of t. 

The position of the orifice of the mouth for u in the 
utterance of o gives to the latter a decided sound of u. 
If, however, we try to combine this position with the 
utterance of a, the result is an unpleasant noise bearing 
some resemblance to o. That a better sound should not 
be produced under these circumstances is scarcely to be 
wondered at, as a contraction of the orifice of the mouth 
must be antagonistic to the character of a, which requires 
the mouth to be widely opened. 

The Diphthongs. 

By diphthongs we understand a combination of 
vowel-sounds ; but such a combination as will only 
make a simple impression, or, as we may equally well 
express it, as shall be monosyllabic. It is often 
supposed that the character of tiie diphthong is due 



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292 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

to the rapid ntterance of the two vowels of which it 
is composed. This cannot, however, be the right view, 
for if such were the case any combination of two vowels 
might become a diphthong, as there is no difficulty in 
quickly pronouncing any succession of vowels. Yet how- 
ever quickly the ItaUan^^ot^o, for instance, is pronounced, 
the diphthong au is never heard, but always fla-u-to 
{trisyUabic), although in poetry Jlau may be used as a 
single syllable. The true character of the diphthong 
must, therefore, be traced to other causes. What these 
causes are will appear when we have discovered in what 
way the vowel-combinations constituting reiddiph^iongs 
are distinguished from other combinations. 

In the first place, it must be observed that the two 
vowel-sounds forming a true diphthong are never of the 
same value. One of the two is always distinguished by 
its richer sound and stronger accent. This pecuUarity 
is most striking in cases where the same diphthong is dif- 
ferently pronounced, at one time the first vowel and at 
another the second predominating in the manner de- 
scribed. An interesting example of this fact is afforded by 
the different pronunciations of au and ei which are to be 
observed in the Swabian dialect. In Frcm, for instance, 
the a predominates, but in Ma/us the u; and thus, again, 
in theilen the e predominates (or rather the a, as if it were 
written thaiUn), and in treiben the i. That we have here a 
real fundamental difference is shown by the fact that the 
diphthongs having this distinction suffer a different fate 
in the various dialects ; for instance, the au in Frau fur- 
ther north, in the Hessian dialect, becomes a (fraa), but 
remains unaltered in the Alemannic dialect ; on the other 
hand, the au in Maus is changed in the Alemannic dialect 
to an u (Mum), and remains unaltered in the Hessian 
dialect ; in the same manner theilen in the Hessian dialect 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 293 

becomes thalen, and treibm remains nnaltered> while in 
the Alemannic theilen remains unaltered^ and treiben 
becomes triiben. 

We may, if not quite accmrately, yet quite intelligibly, 
designate those diphthongs in which the first sound has 
more emphasis trochaic diphthongs, and those in which 
the emphasis is laid on the second sound iambic diph- 
thongs. 

The simplest and therefore the principal class of 
diphthongs consists of the trochaic, in which the second 
sound is an t. It is an important fact that t in the second 
position can form true diphthongs with all the other vowels. 
We have ai (written ai or ei — Main, Rhein, Germ.*), 
of (written eu or oi — Heu, Germ., oyster, Engl.), ui {oui, 
French, pfui. Germ.), ei (with the clear e — ^ys, paysan 
French ; also in the German dialectic pronunciation of the 
written ei), ei (with e ferme, dei, as in some dialects for 
die). This shows that i in the second position amal- 
gamates so easily with all the other vowels as entirely to 
lose its individuality in the diphthong thus formed. 
Upon inquiring into the origin of this phenomenon, the 
simplest explanation appears to lie in the fact that the 
position of the tongue when at rest is the same as that 
for the utterance of t. Thus, if we utter a vowel and 
then, without interrupting the current of air, allow the 
tongue to return to its quiescent position, an t-sound 
will be heard after the vowel, with which, however, from 
the manner of its production, it will be most intimately 
connected, the more so as there is no break in the sound 
during the transition of the tongue from one position to the 
other, although in the instant of transition its character 
is somewhat uncertain ; there is, therefore, no appearance 

* In English expressed by many combinaiioDS : thy, thine, dye, otsle, 
buff, guide, height, eye, aye. — ^Tb. 



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294 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

of a separating hiatas. In the same manner a p may 
nnder certain circumstances follow immediately upon an 
m, or a * an n or r mthout hiatus, resulting merely 
from the sudden opening of the closure effected between 
the lips, or between the tongue and the teeth. This 
explanation, moreover, is supported by the fact that this 
t is often impure, having a sound of € in it. The reason 
for this is at once evident when we remember that the 
position of the apex of the tongue for e and i is similar, 
being merely further back for e ; the sound of e would, 
therefore, be produced if, when returning to its quiescent 
position, the apex of the tongue was not sufficiently 
advanced to produce a pure t. 

In close connection with this group of diphthongs we 
have another, which, also trochaic, is pecuhar to the 
guttural dialects (Swabian, Alemannic) ; we have here, 
namely, diphthongs, the second sound of which is the 
e fermey the first u, ue, or i. We may safely assume that 
in these dialects the tongue when at rest Ues more back- 
ward, thus corresponding with the position for e ferme. 
The appearance, therefore, of this sound may be regarded 
as the result of the return of the tongue to its position of 
rest, as was also the case when i appeared as the second 
sound. Here, again, according to the position of the 
tongue, we have either a piure e ferm6 or an approach to 
a pure e, an a, or o. In names or provincial hterature, 
therefore, the second sound is written a, e, or o ; for in- 
stance, Bua (Bub), Muetter (Mutter), Muottathal,Fluelen, 
Brienz, Liab (Lieb). The interrogative wie also may often 
be heard pronounced as a diphthong ; also the demonstra- 
tive pronoun die (for diese), names of places — Wien, etc. 

The second class of diphthongs is composed of those 
which are formed by the combination of the vowels u, a, 
and o, and which may either be trochaic or iambic. We 



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THE FORMATION OP ARUCULATE SOUNDS 295 

shall presently show why i and e cannot be used as first 
sounds in this class^ nor u in the iambic form. The fol- 
lowing are the diphthongs — au (trochaic and iambic), ou 
(trochaic), uo (trochaic), oa (iambic) : ao is difficult to 
pronounce as a trochaic, easily turning into au; do is 
formed with much greater ease as an iambic, though in 
neither form does it appear to be in use. As examples, 
it will be sufficient to mention — ^for au (trochaic), blau; 
for au (iambic), Haus; for <m (trochaic), dou (provincial- 
ism for du\ ; for uo (trochaic), stradicciuola (Ital.) ; for 
oa (iambic), mot (French). The trochaic uo should pro- 
bably be struck out of this list, as it bears a strong 
resemblance to the form already mentioned of u with e 
fermL The manner in which these diphthongs are 
formed will most easily be seen in the case of au. Thus, 
if we examine the origin of au attentively, we shall find 
that it is produced by an a being first formed, and that 
then while it is still sounding the lips are protruded in a 
tube-like manner, thus giving rise to the t^-sound, the 
position of the tongue being unaltered. Thus a tone is 
created by the resonance of the cavity of the mouth, 
which first, escaping through the wide-open mouth, 
sounds as a, but which afterwards, from the change in 
the form of the mouth by the rounded and protruded 
lips, becomes u. Although the influence of the position 
of the lips is undoubtedly great in the formation of 
sound, it should always be remembered that the primary 
soimd is formed in the cavity of the mouth, and that it 
is merely completed or modified by the position of the 
lips. If the sound formed in the cavity of the mouth is 
to give an a with the a-position of the mouth, as well as 
an u with the t^-position of the mouth, its production 
cannot correspond to the true a-position or w-position of 
the tongue and cavity of the mouth, but it must be an 



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296 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

intennediate tone, which can with eqnal ease become 
an a if the lips are widely separated, or u it they are 
formed into a tube ; and if we look closely, we shall find 
that neither of the two sounds are perfectly pure like the 
spoken a or u. That when au is uttered an intermediate 
tone is really formed in the cavity of the mouth, and suc- 
cessively modified into a and u by the position of the 
hps, is shown by a comparison with ou. The dialectic 
(Hessian) form dou for du was the only example given 
above ; here the o is not pure, but approaches to a, bo 
that the result often resembles au, according to the 
word, or the person speaking ; the sound of this diph- 
thong in the dialectic form of the word Bruder is more 
au, Brauder. Having thus seen that the a in aw is not 
pure, but nearer to u, and finding the transition just 
alluded to from au to ou, it appears that the foundation 
for au and ou must he in a dull a, which in one case will 
more resemble a, in the other o. This further agrees 
with the fact that au and ou are sometimes used indif- 
ferently in orthography — for instance, Spandau and 
Spandow — ^while Nassau is Latinized into Nassovia. 

We at once see from the above remarks that oa must 
be formed in the same manner; that an impure a 
incUning to o must be created in the cavity of the mouth, 
which by opening the mouth is afterwards changed to a. 
It should, however, be remembered that in the formation 
of this species of diphthongs only those sounds can be 
employed between which intermediate forms exist — ^those 
sounds, for instance, which assume a different character 
according to the conformation of the lips. Thus a, o, u 
can form such combinations with each other, but not 
with e and i. On the other hand, we should expect to 
find a similar relation between e and i, which is really 
the case. Among the diphthongs ending in i, ei was 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 297 

mentioned, in the formation of which a clear e takes 
part (pays, paysan) ; if now we examine the origin of 
this ei, we find that the e uttered is very clear, approach- 
ing to t, to which by a quick retraction of the lips the 
t-character is given. This method of production is, how- 
ever, the same as that which we have just been discuss- 
ing ; and this ei belongs, strictly speaking, more to this 
category than to the foregoing one. We shall also readily 
comprehend why, from the great ease with which the 
tongue assumes the position for the clear e and for i, 
this method of formation is not so simple for ei and for 
the diphthongs ending with t. These diphthongs do not, 
however, belong to this class, but rather to that already 
described, as is further shown by the fact that in form- 
ing the i the position of the hps remains unaltered. 

The third class of diphthongs is the iambic, the first 
sound of which is an t or an u. Any of the other vowels 
may act as a second sound. This class can, however, 
scarcely be included in the diphthongs, as a consonantal 
element enters into it, which gives a different character 
to the combination of sound. Let us endeavour to show 
this peculiarity in the relation between i and J, u and w. 
If the tongue is laid against the palate as in forming i, 
and a fricative noise is then created either by the closer 
approximation of the tongue or by an increase in the 
current of air, the consonant J will be heard; if, again, 
during the formation of i the apex of the tongue is 
quickly»drawn backwards into the position, for instance, 
for a, this movement against the current of air will pro- 
duce, if not a perfect J, yet a sound approaching to it, 
thus giving rise to the consonantal element. The same 
relation exists between u and w, the latter being pro- 
duced by a fricative noise between the protruded lips, 
and also, though less perfectly, by the rapid retraction 



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298 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

of the lips against the current of air. Thus the corre- 
sponding consonantal noise is heard when either i or ti 
are uttered and immediately followed hy another vowel, 
examples of which we see in the Italian piede, scuola, the 
EngUsh water, and the German Quelle. By means of 
this modification an i so placed can be employed in very 
complex arrangements of vowels, as in the Italian miei, 
tuoi, operaio, scrittaio, etc. ; for these complex sounds, 
when resolved into their elements, are almost mjei, twoi, 
operajo, scrittqjo, etc., the j and w, it is true, being imper- 
fect. On account of this consonantal element the first 
sounds of these diphthongs, especially at the commence- 
ment of a word, are often written as consonants, parti- 
cularly in English, as in yonder, year, vnU, wax, so 
that in some the traditional pronunciation alone shows 
whether it is a true diphthong or not. 



The Nasal Vowels. 

The nasal vowels are not separate distinct sounds, 
but merely a modification of the vowel-sounds. This 
modification is due to the nasal cavity not being cut off 
by the soft palate during the formation of the vowels, so 
that the air contained in the cavity can directly partici- 
pate in the creation of resonance. The only European 
languages in which their existence is recognized by 
grammarians are the French and Portuguese. They 
are, however, very general in dialects, and in this 
form are often met with even in German. All vowels 
which are known to us as pure or intermediate vowels 
can be pronounced as nasal vowels. 

If, the posterior orifice of the nasal cavity being 
open, the current of air is allowed to escape through the 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 299 

cavity of the mouth as well as through the nasal cavity, 
it follows that the two cavities will each have a distinct 
resonance, and that we can only hear the nasal vowel 
when the two resonances reach the ear simultaneously, 
and hlend together to form one impression, in the same 
way as the different instruments of an orchestra, when 
played together, produce a single impression. 

Adopting this conception of the formation of the nasal 
vowels, we recognize a mixture of two separate elements, 
the resonance of the cavity of the mouth, which distin- 
guishes the vowel-sound, and the resonance which, added 
by the nasal cavity to the laryngeal tone, produces the 
nasal quality and forms the foundation of the nasal 
vowels. 

In the French nasal sounds acknowledged by gram- 
marians, the soft palate is slightly depressed, so that a 
considerable portion of the current of air finds its way 
into the nasal cavity, the resonance thus becoming fuller 
and more sonorous. The French, as we know, on^ make 
general use of a, o, and ae (clear), as nasal vowels (ae 
written in, en, or ein), either at the beginning, in the 
middle, or at the end of words, as, for instance, angoisse, 
avancer, marchand, — tncliner, attdndre, marin, payen, — 
ondee, prononcer, dragon. 

In dialects, or by individuals, either all vowels or a 
few may be pronounced nasally. 

The former arises either from indolence, or from not 

having the power to raise the soft palate so as to form a 

pure vowel-sound. The entire speech then assumes a 

"nasal quality; " as, however, no action is perceptible 

by which a fuller current of air is conducted into the 

nasal cavity, a portion of the air merely taking this 

course by chance, the sounds produced in this manner 

are not so much sonorous nasal vowels as vowels which, 
u 



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300 THE 0RGA2^S OP SPEECH. 

by a more or less strong nasal resonance^ are spoilt or 
rendered impure. 

When, as is very generally the case in German 
dialects, a few only of the vowels are pronounced nasally 
in speaking, they will almost invariably be found in words 
or syllables ending in n. The nasal vowel-sounds, there- 
fore, generally represent the compound sounds an, en, in, 
on, mi ; and there is no doubt that they are due to the soft 
palate during the formation, or even at the commence- 
ment, of the vowel-sound, being adjusted for «, which, 
however, is not distinctly uttered. It is to some extent 
an intermediate sound between the vowel and n, produced 
by uttering the vowel when the soft palate is adjusted for 
n, just as ue is an intermediate sound formed by uttering 
i with the lips in the position for u. Here, again, as in 
French, the vowels a, o, and e are those which are gener- 
ally pronounced in this manner, though without the same 
full sound. The nasal i and u are, however, very com- 
monly^ met with in the Swabian and Alemannic dialects ; 
as, for instance, in thun^ unverschdmt, bin, Win (Wein). 

The Eesonants. 

The term resonants has, since its introduction by 
Briicke, been understood to express a distinct class of 
articulate sounds, which, though generally included by 
grammarians among the consonants, have, when the 
elements are considered of which they are composed, 
much greater affinity with the vowels. They are the 
three sounds m, n, and ng (as pronoimced in German). 
Grammarians are, however, conscious of some peculiarity 
in these sounds, and readily allow, if they examine into 
the character of articulate seirnds with any minuteness, 
that the sounds m and n (disregarding ng) are semi- 



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THE FORMATION OF ABTICULATB SOUNDS. 301 

vowels. That this distinction is, however, only felt, is 
shown by the circumstance that r and i, and even/, w, h, 
t, and 8, are placed in the same category. 

The peculiarity which justifies the separation of the 
three sounds just mentioned from the list of true conso- 
nants, is due to the absence of noise in their formation, 
they, like vowels, consisting merely of a modification of 
the laryngeal tone by the varying resonance of the air- 
passage. 

In order better to understand the position in which 
these sounds stand with regard to the vowels, we will 
first direct our attention to a particular form of the 
vowels which is not and cannot be adapted to speech. 
If we try to utter a nasal vowel, at the same time closing 
the nostrils, the quality of the nasal vowel will be dull 
and impure. Moreover, to carry out the experiment 
successfully, a gentle current of air must be employed, 
which should not be driven with too great force into the 
nasal cavity, but allowed freely to escape through the 
cavity of the mouth. Such impure sounds are some- 
times involuntarily produced when the nasal cavity is 
filled with mucus. We shall be perfectly justified in 
regarding such a vowel, which can only pass outwards 
through the cavity of the mouth, as an oral vowel. The 
dull nasal quality of the vowel is, however, due to part of 
the current of air employed in its formation being driven 
into the nasal cavity, from which, the anterior orifice 
being closed, it is again expelled. The nasal cavity is, 
therefore, a blind appendage of the air-passage, into 
which part of the current of air eddies, afterwards again 
joining the main stream. It is this hollow resonance of 
the nasal cavity which creates the dull nasal quality. 
The peculiar vowel-character is, however, given by the 
conformation of the cavity of the mouth, and thus the 



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302 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

sound in question is a vowel accompanied by the nasal 
quality. Unfortunately, it is impossible to show by ex- 
periment how this resonance will differ according to the 
more forward or backward position of the closure of the 
nasal cavity. Theoretically, however, there can be no 
doubt that the point at which the closure takes place in 
the nasal cavity will affect the sound, since the resonance 
in a deep vessel is different to that in a shallow one. 

It is an interesting fact that this same nasal quality 
is heard if a stronger current of air is employed in the 
formation of the pure i and the nostrils are closed. The 
soft palate in i is raised to its greatest height, which 
causes it to become extremely tense, and enables it to 
transmit the vibration to the air of the nasal cavity, and 
so to excite the resonance which is blended with the 
vowel-sound. This experiment is not so successful with 
the other vowels ; it succeeds best with u, which stands 
nearest to i as regards the position of the soft palate. 

The same peculiarities form the foundation of the 
three sounds which, as resonants, constitute a separate 
class of articulate sounds. Their origin, namely, is due 
to a current of air which, rendered sonant as it issues 
from the larynx, passes outwards through the nasal 
cavity ; the cavity of the mouth, closed anteriorly, forming 
a closed expansion, so to speak, at one side of the stream, 
and mingling its resonance with that of the nasal cavity. 
The three sounds, therefore, owe their individuality to 
the point at which the closure of the cavity of the mouth 
is effected ; that is to say, to the depth of the lateral 
expansion of the air-passage formed by the portion of 
the cavity of the mouth employed. For m the closure is 
effected by the lips ; for n, by the apex of the tongue and 
the hard palate ; for ng, by the root of the tongue and 
the soft palate. 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 303 

The form of closure formed by the lips for m is so 
clearly defined as to render any important modifications 
of this sound impossible. It is true that even when the 
lips are closed the form of the cavity of the mouth may 
be altered in different directions, by expanding or drawing 
in the cheeks, by protruding or retracting the lips, by 
more or less firmly closing the jaws ; these alterations 
do not seem, however, materially to affect the character 
of the m. The only perceptible influence arises from 
the position of the tongue, the sound of m being more 
sonorous when the tongue is depressed than when it is 
elevated. It is, however, difficult to say whether this 
difference is due entirely to the depression of the tongue, 
or whether it is not caused by the depression of the 
larynx, which would almost necessarily accompany that 
of the tongue, and which would lower the fundamental 
tone. 

The case is different with n, in the formation of which 
the point of closure is less accurately defined, being in 
some instances more forward, in others more backward. 
The most forward point at which the closure can take 
place is between the apex of the tongue and the incisors 
of the upper jaw, the most backward that between the 
dorsum of the tongue and the posterior portion of the 
hard palate. The farther forward the point of closure 
the clearer is the sound, the more backward the duller. 
This may arise from the difference in the capacity of the 
portion of the cavity of the mouth thus marked off by 
this varying point of closure ; the greater clearness of 
the n formed by the more forward point of closure may, 
however, be due to a less complete stoppage of the 
cavity of the mouth, some air escaping on either side of 
the tongue, and imparting to the sound something of 
the clearer character of the oral sounds. This view 



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304 THE ORGAKS OP SPEECH. 

seems to be supported by the fact that the m, which is 
formed by a still more forward perfect closure, never has 
the clear quality of the n formed by the contact of the 
apex of the tongue with the teeth. 

For ng the point of closure is between the root ol 
the tongue and the soft palate. Here again, however, 
the point at which the closure takes place is not ac- 
curately defined, but may be anywhere between the free 
margin of the soft palate and its attachment with the 
hard palate. The latter point of contact for ng so closely 
approaches that for n, that the sound resulting from this 
closure contains almost as much n as ng. Thus a con- 
tinuous series of resonants may be formed by contact 
of the tongue with the soft and with the hard palate, 
which, beginning with the clear n by closure at the 
teeth, passes through the various stages just alluded to, 
and terminates with the pure, deep ng by closure at the 
free margin of the soft palate. This explains why the 
sound ng is often either not mentioned at all, or merely 
regarded as a very backward (guttural) n. The existence 
of such transitional forms does not, however, justify us 
in uniting two typical forms connected by a chain of 
intermediate forms so that one is regarded as the typical 
form and the other merely as a modification; if we 
wished to give a single expression for the two typical 
forms we should take the middle transitional form, re- 
garding the other forms as special developments of it. 
We might, therefore, consider the sound ae as typical, 
and the sounds a and e as modifications in opposite 
directions ; but we could never regard a as a variety of e. 
There is another difficulty in explaining the formation 
of ng ; when, for instance, it arises from contact between 
the root of the tongue and the free margin of the soft 
palate, the cavity of the mouth is entirely cut off from 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 305 

the air-passage, and cannot, therefore, as in the formation 
of other resonants, form a blind expansion at one side of 
the air-passage. There is, however, no doubt that a 
resonance arising from such a relation forms one of the 
components of ng. We must suppose, therefore, that in 
this case the vibrations are first transmitted to the soft 
palate, and by the latter to the quiescent layer of air in 
the cavity of the mouth, just as we explained the partici- 
pation of the resonance of the nasal cavity in the for- 
mation of the pure i when the nostrils are closed. If 
the point of closure is slightly advanced, the portion of 
the cavity of the mouth opening into the air-passage 
will still be comparatively small, and we may therefore 
assume that when ng is produced under these conditions 
the resonance of the cavity of the mouth will still be 
partly excited by the soft palate. The point at which ng 
passes into n should perhaps be considered as marked 
by the cessation of this action of the soft palate, and the 
difiference between n and ng will therefore consist less in 
the difference of the point of closure as in the partici- 
pation or non-participation of the soft palate in the 
production of the resonance of the cavity of the mouth. 



The Consonants. 

The characteristic foundation for the formation of 
that class of articulate sounds which we call consonants, 
is supplied by the noises which can be voluntarily created 
in the air-passages by the current of air passing through 
them. It has already been shown that the cavity of the 
mouth alone possesses the power of creating any number 
of such noises, and that these only are capable of being 
employed as articulate sounds ; we shall now, therefore. 



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306 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

devote oar attention entirely to the noises belonging to 
the cavity of the mouth. 

Noise alone has no loud quality, but derives its im- 
portance from being combined with and interspersed 
between musical sounds. Hence the name '^con-sonants " 
for the articulate sounds thus founded upon noises. The 
value of such a consonant will, moreover, be greatly 
increased if a sonant current of air is employed in its 
formation. Thus there are consonants with tone and 
without tone, or, according to the general terminology, 
tenties (without tone) and medioe (with tone). Since, 
however, with few exceptions, every noise employed as 
an articulate sound can be uttered either with or without 
tone, and so assume two forms, it would be better to 
distinguish a tone-containing and a toneless form or 
variety of consonants. 

The toneless forms of consonants are again commonly 
called hard consonants, and the forms with tone soft, the 
diflference between which was formerly supposed to be 
that the hard consonants were connected with an as- 
pirate which was wanting in the soft, so that, for instance, 
p = b + h, that is to say, the (hard) p was produced by 
uniting b with the aspirate h. Although this view is 
now generally rejected, being superseded by the dis- 
tinction given above, yet at the same time it rests upon 
the perfectly correct observation, that the consonants 
with tone (soft) are produced by a weaker current of air 
than those without tone (hard). This fact is the more 
worthy of attention, since it is not due to chance but 
to an arrangement which is of absolute necessity. We 
know that the toneless current of air passes through the 
wide-open glottis ; when, on the contrary, the current 
is sonant, the glottis must be greatly contracted and 
adjusted for tone ; much less air will, however, pass in a 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 307 

given time through the glottis in its contracted form 
than when it is wide again; consequently the sonant 
current of air will be weaker (softer) than the toneless. 
A consonant with tone can, therefore, never be uttered 
with so much force as one without tone. On the other 
hand, the consonant without tone is to some extent 
obliged to make use of this greater force of utterance ; 
for the consonant with tone, on account of its admixture 
of tone, is full and sonorous. So, if the toneless con- 
sonant, which has no volume (therefore tenuis, thin), is 
to become of equal importance, it must make up by force 
of utterance what it lacks in tone. Therefore it not 
only can but must be uttered more forcibly, that is to 
say, with a stronger current of air, and hence the idea 
that the addition of a stronger aspiration distinguished 
the " hard " consonants from the " soft.** 

We now see, moreover, that the difference between 
the two forms of consonants is not merely marked by 
the absence or presence of tone, but that, the fundamental 
noise being the same, the toneless consonant is as much 
characterized by a more forcible utterance as the con- 
sonant with tone by the admixture of tone. Thus, 
adhering to the example given above, and /3 standing for 
the noise as created by a moderate current of air, the 
difference just described may be expressed by the for- 
mula : 2> = /3 -f increased pressure of air, and b = 
/3 + tone. 

The two sounds h and r may be regarded as the 
limits of the consonants in these two directions ; when 
used they are both toneless, though from entirely different 
reasons. We find that h, produced by a current of air 
escaping through the wide-open mouth upon the walls of 
which it makes but little fricative noise, combines most 
readily with tone; but that a sonant current of air, 



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308 THE OKGANS OP SPEECH. 

passing through the wide-open month, at once assumes 
the vowel-character a, the full sound of which completely 
annihilates the weak noise h. If % is to he heard, it must 
be uttered without tone. It is different with r, a fuU- 
sounding vibratory noise, which cannot combine with 
tone, for a sonant current of air has not sufficient force to 
throw the uvula or the apex of the tongue into vibration. 

As we are now about to take a survey of the possible 
consonants, or those in general use, we must make 
our so-called alphabet the starting-point, notwithstanding 
the many deficiencies and inconsistencies which, as we 
have already remarked, it contains. We must, however, 
strike out the following superfluous letters before making 
use of it : c (hard, as in call) and q as being the same 
sounds as fc, v as being the same sound as / or w, and 
Xy c (ci), and z as not being simple sounds, but the 
double sounds ks and te. We may further strike out 
w, b, d, g, as they are merely modifications of/, p, t, and 
k, made by addition of tone, which we are the more 
justified in doing as the series is incomplete, there being 
no letter in our alphabet to represent the modifications 
of 8 and ch. 

The remaining consonants may be classified in two 
ways — either from the nature of their distinctive noise, or 
from the place where the noise is produced. The first 
method gives a division into continuae and repentinae; the 
latter are generally called explosivae, because these 
sounds predominate in the repentinae. The second 
method employs the terms labiate, dental, and palatal 
sounds, according as the conditions for their formation 
are present at either of these three places. Dividing the 
consonantal noises, therefore, into labials, dentals, and 
gutturals, we have the following table of noises and the 
consonants arising from them : — 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDa 309 



Strepitub. 


Labialis. Dentalis. Gutturalis 


1. continuus 




apirans 


— h — — 


stiidulus 


/ 8 ch 


vibrans 


r r r 


2. repentinua 




avuUivus 


— clicking sounds — 


explosivvs 


p {pa) t {to) k (ka) 


occhaivus 


p (ap) t (at) k (ak) 



This table is obviously imperfect ; for we miss three 
very chaxacteristic sounds, namely, I, j, and sch. They 
are generally included among the dentals, but though 
the apex of the tongue is approximated to the teeth, as 
in the formation of the dentals, they cannot properly be 
classified with the latter, for they oflfer one most im- 
portant diflference, namely, the direction of the current 
of air. In all the consonants given in the above table, 
the current of air is confined to the middle line of the 
cavity of the mouth, or better, the current of air traverses 
the cavity of the mouth in the direction indicated by the 
middle line. Thus it passes along the entire length of 
the dorsum of the tongue, finding an exit between the 
apex of the tongue and the upper incisors. In the three 
sounds in question, to which must be added a particular 
form of r, the current of air is impeded by the contact 
between the apex of the tongue and the incisors; it flows, 
therefore, over either side of the dorsum of the tongue, 
and passes out between the lower surface of the tongue 
and the lower incisors. These four sounds consequently 
form a separate group, which, as their production is due 
to the edges of the tongue, may be termed marginals. 

Those points at which the noise is produced are called 
the points of articulation, because there the approxi- 



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310 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

mation or contact of the opposite portions of the month 
necessary for the formation of the noise takes place, and 
we therefore distinguish a labial, dental, and a guttural 
point of articulation. From what has just been said^ 
this number must be increased to four, and the marginal 
point of articulation added to the three already enume- 
rated. 

Again, it may be asked, are we not justiiSed in re- 
cognizing a fifth point of articulation in the larynx, that 
is to say, in the glottis of the larynx ? That an explosive 
can undoubtedly be formed here has already been re- 
marked in speaking of the " groan." A contimia stridula 
is also possible when a strong, forced expiration is made ; 
this, when the mouth is open, has the sound of a deep, 
rough h, and is in general use as the first sound of a 
syllable. It is heard distinctly in " panting." The deep 
English r in are and more may be regarded as a continua 
vibrans, having little of the rattling sound which is 
generally characteristic of the r, but bearing more re- 
semblance to a hoarse breath ; it has, therefore, been 
described as " something between a and nothing." 

In the following description of the separate consonants 
the "clicking sounds" (avulsivae) are left entirely un- 
noticed, as a place was assigned to them in the section 
upon noises, and they are never employed in the languages 
of civilized peoples. 

We need also pay no further attention to h, than to 
remark that when the tongue is depressed almost to the 
position for u, the sound is somewhat duller than when 
the tongue is more raised. 

The Labials, 
p, b; f,w. 
The labials are remarkable for simplicity in their 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 311 

formation, t'or the explosive p the lips are firmly 
closed so as to resist the pressure of the current of air 
which is driven against them by the force of expiration, 
and further increased in strength by the elevation of the 
floor of the cavity of the mouth. If now the lips are 
suddenly opened, either voluntarily or through the 
pressure of the air accumulated against them, the ex- 
plosive sound is heard. The sound cannot be produced 
alone, for the current of air which is thus let loose 
follows upon it with a breathing sound so closely, that 
even when it precedes a vowel this breathing sound, 
though scarcely audible, forms a hiatus between the two. 
The occlusive p has a somewhat different sound, namely, 
a short and hard one ; it cannot, of course, be followed 
by the breathing sound, if formed with perfect purity. 
This, however, is very rarely the case. The occlusive p, 
namely, cuts off the current of air with a force which 
considerably exceeds that with which the lips are brought 
into a position of rest. It follows, therefore, that a 
relaxation takes place in the force of closure after the 
sound is formed, and the air which is compressed by 
the sudden obstruction breaks through the now powerless 
closure, and gives rise to a weak explosive p. A par- 
ticular effort is required to avoid this second sound. It 
is not, however, in any way detrimental to speech, 
offering, on the contrary, the slight advantage of giving 
a little more volume to the very soundless occlusive p. 

In 6 we have the p with tone in the explosive as well 
as in the occlusive form. In the explosive form it is not 
followed by the breathing sound for many reasons, all of 
which are based upon the character of the current of 
air producing the sound, which is weak and with tone. 
The separation of the lips is, therefore, generally effected 
by voluntary muscular activity, and the current of air 



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312 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

after its momentary obstruction flows rather than 
bursts out (explodes) ; the air, therefore, does not follow 
the sound with such force or in such quantity as in p. 
Then, again, the current of air, being sonant, may be 
immediately attached to a vowel. For this purpose the 
cavity of the mouth assumes the position necessary for 
the formation of the vowel, and the lips are opened at 
the moment when the tone is produced; if the tone 
commences before the opening takes place, an m is heard 
before the h, this being the resonant formed by closure 
at the lips. The occlusive b is less short and hard than 
the occlusive p, resembling it, however, in being very 
wanting in volume, and in acquiring more sound from 
being almost necessarily followed by an explosive b. It 
would almost seem as if the occlusive b were altogether 
without tone, therefore a weak p, and only acquired its 
{^-character from this attachment to an explosive b. 

The origin of / is due to a fricative noise produced 
by a current of air escaping through the contracted 
opening of the mouth. The small orifice may be created 
by the most different conformation of the lips, an / 
ensuing when the lips are rounded and protruded as well 
as when they are drawn back and flattened ; it can also 
be formed by allowing the air to escape through one 
angle of the mouth, or, again, firmly closing the central 
part of the lips, through both angles. It would be 
useless to discuss the characteristics of these unimportant 
varieties of/; it will be sufficient to remark that when 
the floor of the cavity of the mouth is raised and the 
upper lip protruded a clear / is heard ; a somewhat 
duller/, on the contrary, when the floor of the cavity of 
the mouth is depressed and the lower lip protruded 
beyond the upper. 

The German w (English v) is due to the same causes 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 313 

as /, of which it is produced by addition of tone, and 
under similar conditions exhibits the same varieties as 
those just described for/. 

The Dentals. 

t, d; $, th (English). 
In the formation of the explosive t the air-passage is 
obstructed by bringing the apex of the tongue against 
the anterior portion of the hard palate ; a partial 
stoppage is, it is true, sufficient, but of course the better 
the contact the more complete will be the sound. The 
apex of the tongue alone is not sufficient for the most 
perfect contact, but the entire margin of the dorsum of 
the tongue must be brought into contact with the molar 
teeth, so that the air becomes compressed in the space 
between the palate and the dorsum of the tongue. In 
this case, however, the sudden removal of the tip of the 
tongue suffices to produce the explosive t. The point at 
which the apex of the tongue effects this closure is by no 
means fixed, but varies considerably, between, namely, 
the free margin of the upper incisors and the posterior 
margin of the hard palate. The upper or lower surface 
of the apex of the tongue may be placed with equal 
facility against the teeth ; higher up, or further back, the 
under surface is more readily used. This difference in 
the manner and locality of the closure effected by the 
apex of the tongue gives rise to several varieties of the t, 
but it is only necessary to mention the more important 
fact, that the sound of t becomes clearer if the closure is 
made more forward, and duller if it takes place further 
back. The same remark applies to the pure formation 
of t as to j> ; that as in ^ the explosive t is necessarily 
followed by a breathing sound, which, when a vowel is the 



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314 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

next sound, intervenes as a hiatus. The occlusive t, which 
may be formed at any of the points of closure for the 
explosive t, is, like the occlusive p, a short hard sound of 
little volume, which, however, and with advantage to its 
sound, is almost necessarily combined with an explosive 
t, because the apex of the tongue immediately puts an 
end to the closure in returning to its position of rest. 

D is the modification of t produced by the addition of 
tone, to which it stands in exactly the same relations as 
h to p. It can be formed both as an explosive and as 
an occlusive at the points of closure effected by the 
tongue for t. Like b, and for the same reasons, it lacks, 
if explosive, the subsequent breathing sound ; and again, 
like by if occlusive, it only acquires its full sound when 
followed immediately by the explosive form. As regards 
combination with vowels, the explosive d differs somewhat 
from the corresponding b. The necessary adjustment of 
the cavity of the mouth for the vowel which follows can- 
not take place before the formation of d, as was the case 
with by but must be brought about by a rapid change 
in the position of the tongue after the closure. If tone 
is formed during the time of closure, an n is heard with 
every variety of d; all the points of closure for t and 
d being the same as those employed in the formation of 
the resonant n. 

S is a fricative noise produced between the apex of 
the tongue and the points of closure employed for t; a 
pure 8 can, however, only be produced when the upper 
surface of the tongue serves to form the obstruction ; this 
surface, again, must be hollowed from side to side, so that 
the current of air flows forward along a more or less 
narrow path. The different varieties of « which can be 
formed are due partly to the different character of the 
closure, partly to the width of the path along which the 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 316 

current of air flows upon the dorsum of the tongue. A 
broad stream gives rise to an impure hissing s ; a forward 
closure gives a clearer^ a backward a duller s. The 
attempt to form an s with the under surface of the 
tongue only succeeds in producing a hissing or rushing 
sound, which calls to mind sch {sh English), from which, 
however, it is as far removed as from s. 

If contact by the upper surface of the apex of the 
tongue is effected in such a manner that it is only 
brought against the lower margin of the upper incisors, 
though at the same time the apex of the tongue may 
protrude beyond the level of the teeth, the English th or 
the modem Greek is heard. 

There is a sharp, toneless form of «, th, and corre- 
sponding to the/ of the labials, and a soft form with tone 
which corresponds to the w (English v) of the labials. 



The Gutturals, 

k,g: ch. 

If contact is formed between the back part of the 
tongue and the back part of the palate, an explosive 
sound k will be heard. The anterior limit of this region 
for closure is also the posterior limit of that for *, which 
explains why children, before they are able to form the 
more difficult guttural closure, employ t instead of k 
{tind, dive, instead of kind, give). Briicke,* however, 
correctly remarks that the question whether t or A; 
is formed depends not only upon the situation of 
the point of closure, but also upon the position of the 
tongue. Between the distinct space upon the palate for 

* Grundzuge der Physiologie und Systematik der Sprachlaute (Wien, 
1856), 8. 43. 



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316 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

t and the distinct space for k hes, namely, a third space, 
which may be employed at will either for k or for t. 
The limits of this space are very clearly marked ; we 
need only remember that in forming t the upper sur- 
face as well as the lower surface of the apex of the 
tongue may be employed. If the contact between the 
dorsum of the tongue and the palate is gradually made 
further back, a point is at length reached, when the 
explosive sound corresponding to the closure changes 
from a t to a A:. If the experiment is made with the 
lower surface of the apex of the tongue, a point will 
again be reached, when the explosive sound changes 
from t to k; this point will, however, be more backward 
than when the experiment was made with the dorsum of 
the tongue. The space between these two points is .that 
intermediate region, which begins, therefore, with the 
posterior limit of the t formed by the dorsum of the 
tongue, and terminates with the posterior limit of the t 
formed by the lower surface of the tongue. Varieties of 
A; as of t are formed by altering the locality of the 
closure, but here the varieties form two distinct classes, 
that, namely, of the forward k, and that of the backward 
i. The cause for this division lies clearly in the different 
nature of the parts of the palate employed for the 
closure, the posterior portion of the hard palate being 
used for the forward k, the soft palate, on the contrary, 
for the backward k. These varieties of the explosive k 
are represented by an equal number of varieties of the 
occlusive k ; the occlusive A;, however, even more than 
the occlusive t or p, only acquires its full importance 
when followed by the corresponding explosive sound. 

In g (hard) we have k with tone. To g, moreover, 
applies aU that has been said with reference to A;, both 
as regards the limits of the region of closure, and the 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 317 

correspondence between the explosive and occlusive 
forms. 

The corresponding fricative noises are those which 
are expressed in German by ch. The difference which 
has been pointed out between the forward and backward 
k is still more marked in the fricative noise. To the 
forward k (formed with the hard palate) corresponds, 
namely, the pure, clear, fricative noise which is heard 
after i and e (in Licht, Peek, Germ.) ; to the backward k 
(formed with the soft palate) corresponds the rougher, 
deeper fricative noise following a, u, o (in Dock, Wucht, 
Germ., Loch, Scotch). In the latter we readily notice 
the addition of a trembling noise produced by the 
vibration of the soft palate, which to a certain extent 
assimilates this ch to the guttural r, as appears, for 
example, from the name of the river Aar, which is the 
same word as Ach in the names of the rivers Wolfach, 
Gutach. The diflference between the two sounds of eh is, 
however, so great that we seem to be justified in dis- 
tinguishing them as chi and ach. The chi-foim com- 
bines more easily with i and e, and the ach-form more 
easily with a, o, and u, because in the formations of i 
and e the tongue is placed more forward, and therefore 
easily passes to the c/ii-position, while the oc/i-position 
more resembles the backward position of the tongue for 
a, o, and u. In proof of the correctness of this assertion we 
find that the ach-sormd can only be combined with an i 
or e by means of an intermediate a {i[a]ch, Re[a]chen, 
provincialisms for ich, Rechen). This shows that the 
tongue, in its transition from the i-position to the ach- 
position, must pass through the a-position. 

The two kinds of guttural fricative noises can also be 
made with tone, though these sounds are not recognized, 
at least in the grammars of the German, English, and 



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318 TAB ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

Romance languages. They do» however, appear in dia- 
lects. The ch with tone is heard in the North-German 
pronunciation of g (for instance, in gut), which resembles 
;, though it is not j, as we shall presently show. The 
ach with tone also appears in the North-German dialect 
as a peculiar pronunciation of k (for instance, in Konig), 
and again in tbe Alemannic dialect in the pronunciation 
of k (for instance, in komm). 

The Marginals* 
I, j, 8ch, 

We have already described the peculiarities which 
are common to the marginal sounds. The three sounds 
just enumerated all belong to the fricative noises, and 
though we should also distinguish a marginal explosive, 
it has not been given with the above, as it can scarcely 
be employed as a separate sound. We shall, however, 
presently describe it. 

In the formation of the three sounds enumerated 
above, the apex of the tongue, or a part of the tongue 
near to the apex, is brought more or less firmly against 
the anterior portion of the hard palate, and the current 
of air is thus forced to flow over the sides of the tongue. 

In I the apex of the tongue touches the posterior surf&ce 
of the upper incisors, though the point of contact may 
be either higher or more backward ; the entire dorsum 
of the tongue is at the same time so much depressed that 
its edges lie rather below the lower margin of the molar 
teeth. It can also be formed with tone as well as 
without tone. 

In the formation of j a somewhat longer portion of 
the upper surface of the apex of the tongue is brought 
against the alveolar process of the upper jaw, and the 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 319 

entire dorsum is so raised that its edges lie lightly 
against the molar teeth. The apex may, however, be 
placed lower against the posterior surface of the teeth, 
or further back, against the hard palate, provided the 
edges of the tongue occupy the position described with 
regard to the molar teeth. The under surface of the 
tongue may also be employed in forming contact at any 
of the points mentioned, but the j thus produced will be 
dull and impure. Thus the formation olj is due to the 
apex of the tongue being placed firmly against the upper 
jaw and the air then passing through the narrow crevice 
between the edges of the tongue and the molar teeth. It 
is clear, therefore, that the similar sound which was 
described above as the chi with tone cannot be identified 
with it, being produced by a perfect cAi-position of the 
tongue. The toneless j is more used in German, as in 
jetztf the modification with tone more in English, where 
it is written y, as in year, yonder. 

For sch the upper surface of the apex of the tongue 
is brought against the alveolar process of the upper jaw, 
and the dorsum so raised that its edges lightly press 
against the inner surface of the molar teeth. While 
forming this sound the apex of the tongue frequently 
falls iaway from the upper jaw, and thus an s is mixed 
with the sound. When uttered as a pure marginal 
without this admixture, the sch has a more hissing 
sound. The English sch (written sh) has more this 
sound than the German, though it also is not without 
the s-sound. The sch in general use cannot, therefore, 
be regarded as a pure marginal sound, but as being 
principally a fricative noise produced by the edges of the 
tongue, and therefore as belonging to the marginals. 
Sch also maybe either toneless {Asche) or be pronounced 
with tone {schon, Geim,, jamais, French). 



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320 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

If the tongue is placed in the position for the for- 
mation of 8ch, and a strong current . of air suddenly 
driven through the cavity of the mouth, without re- 
moving the apex of the tongue, a hard tech is heard, 
which may be analyzed into a marginal explosive t and 
a pure marginal sch. This double sound appears in the 
well-known German refrain : tschin Uchin rataplan. 



The VibranU. 

Vibrating noises can be created at all the points of 
closure suitable for the formation of consonants, and all 
have the sound of r. Thus there is a labial r, a dental 
r (formed by the apex of the tongue), a forward guttural 
r, and a backward guttural r, a marginal r, and pro- 
bably a laryngeal r. 

Of these six, the labial r can scarcely be employed as 
an articulate sound, though this is said to be the case 
in an island not far from New Guinea.* With this 
exception it is only used as a kind of interjection, and in 
some countries as a sign to horses to stop; in both 
cases it is, however, accompanied by a vibratory noise of 
the protruded apex of the tongue. 

For the dental r, also called the lingual r, the 
apex of the tongue is turned upwards and placed behind 
the teeth ; and when driven downwards by the force of 
the current of air, it springs back again to its former 
position. 

The forward guttural r is formed between the raised 
dorsum of the tongue and the hard palate. As, however, 
the dorsum of the tongue has little capacity for vibra- 
tion, there is not much roughness in this r, and it can- 

* Briioke, Grnndzttge der Physiologie nnd Systematik di r Sprachlanto 
(Wien, 1856), S. 35. 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 321 

not be pronounced very londly. Still, it is the form 
most commonly used in German. 

The backward guttural r arises from the vibration of 
the uvula in a groove formed by the depression of the 
root of the tongue. It is very common in French. 

The marginal r is caused by the vibration of the 
edges of the tongue, when the apex is pressed against 
the most forward part of the palate and the air is thus 
driven between the molar teeth and the edges of the 
tongue which lie close to them. 

The possibility or probability of a laryngeal r has 
already been discussed. 

These varieties of the r must be regarded less as 
different articulate sounds than as different forms of the 
articulate sound r, and thus the choice of one or the 
other form depends partly upon the combination with 
other sounds, partly upon individual or national pecu- 
liarities. 



The Double Consonants. 

Any two consonants can be pronounced quickly one 
after the other, some easily, others with more difl&culty. 
When this association is difficult, either from the cha- 
racter of the sounds or from individual incapacity, a 
small pause intervenes between the two consonants, 
which may be merely a breath or silent pause (hiatus) , 
or else may take the form of a transitional sound. 

The pure hiatus is most frequently met with when 
two consonants are situated between two vowels, even 
when the two consonants belong to the same syllable, 
and are otherwise easily associated : Ak-se, Achse; 
Fiik-se, Fiichse ; Kat-se, Katze; Oel-der, Gelder. This 



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322 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

hiatus again invariably appears when the consonants 
belong to two combined words : ab-legen, un-genau, 
aU-seitig. 

The hiatus may be filled either by a vowel or a 
consonant. 

This vowel will be an indistinct vowel-sound formed 
accidentally by the mouth assuming the position for 
such a vowel in passing from the position for one con- 
sonant to that for the other, the current of air flowing 
continuously. It is generally an eferm^, with, however, 
a sound of a or o — Kremel, Dnieper; a distinct w-sound 
appears if we try to associate ch with p — ch{u)p; a 
similar sound, though approaching to o, is heard if we 
try to pronounce fk with the most backward k—f{o)k. 
Individual incapacity is in a great measure the cause of 
such interpositions ; there are persons who find a diffi- 
culty in pronouncing successively almost any two con- 
sonants, even those which are most easily associated, 
saying schdr-ef, gSleb, etc., instead of scharf, gelh. 

It can scarcely be said that the hiatus is actually 
filled by a consonant, but rather that the transition is 
facilitated by the interposition of a consonant which is 
easily connected with one, especially the first of the two 
other consonants. As a rule, however, a hiatus follows 
even the interposed consonant ; but the duration of the 
hiatus is so diminished by the interposition of the con- 
sonant, that the latter may be said at least to partially 
fill it : gelegentlich, Hundsveilchen. 

Many combinations of two consonants are so easily 
pronounced that in writing they are expressed by one 
letter {x, z, \P). This fact gives rise to the question 
whether among the consonants there are not double 
sounds similar to those which in the vowels assume the 
form of diphthongs. Before answering this question, we 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 323 

mast have a clear idea as to the conditions which must 
be fulfilled for any combination of consonants to be 
regarded as a double consonant (consonant-diphthong). 
There will be no difficulty in doing this if we consider 
the consonant-diphthongs from the same point of view 
as the vowel-diphthoifgs — regarding, namely, each one 
as an unit, in which indeed we recognize the constituent 
elements, but which under any conditions can or must 
remain a unit. The best way of proving this seems to 
be to pronounce such a combination of consonants 
between two vowels. If they are separated by a hiatus 
it shows that the combination is imperfect, and renders 
it impossible to regard them as consonant-diphthongs. 
If now, setting aside the resonants, we try all possible 
combinations of consonants in this manner, we find that 
no two can be pronounced between two vowels without 
a hiatus, though in some instances it may be almost 
imperceptible. We may consider this a sufficient proof 
that there are no true consonant-diphthongs. 

This, however, should not deter us from investigating 
those combinations of pure consonants (with the excep- 
tion of the resonants) which under certain conditions 
can be pronounced without hiatus, and therefore under 
these conditions may be regarded as analogues of con- 
sonant-diphthongs. These conditions will naturally be 
(1) when pronounced alone, (2) when employed at the 
commencement, (3) when employed at the termination 
of a word. 

As the remarks we shall make upon each tenuis apply 
equally to the corresponding media, we shall in the fol- 
lowing discussion devote our attention to the former, 
though the mediae may sometimes be employed as ex- 
amples. It will, however, be well first to particularize 
a few sounds for the sake of brevity, namely — 

15 



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324 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

The k and ch (chi) formed at the anterior part of the 

soft palate as h^ and ch}. 
The A; and ch (ach) formed at the lower part of the 

soft palate as A? and ch^. 
The four middle r's as r^ (labial r), r^ (lingual r, 

formed by the apex of the tongue), r^ (palatal r, 

formed at the hard palate), r* (formed at the 

soft palate). 
Let us consider first the combination of an exjplosiva 
followed by a continua. It would seem that such a com- 
bination should be very easily accomplished, as the 
current of air which has been held back for the formation 
of the exploaiva would, when the closure is at an end, 
be well adapted to form a continua. This is, in fact, 
often the case, though there are not many in the number 
of possible combinations which can be pronounced with- 
out hiatus, while others can be formed alone, but are 
with difficulty attached to other sounds, so that only a 
few can readily be employed in speech. There is, more- 
over, an important difference in these combinations 
according as they are used at the commencement or 
termination of a word. At the commencement of a word 
the explosiva in question is really an explosiva to which 
the remark made above applies perfectly ; at the termi- 
nation of a word the same sound stands, however, to the 
preceding sounds in the relation of an occlusiva, to which 
another sound cannot be attached without a distinct 
hiatus. Such combinations are, however, met with at 
the ends of words, and must, therefore, be explained by 
the fact already mentioned, that though a pure occltisiva 
undoubtedly exists both in theory and practice, it is not 
in actual use ; for when the parts which have produced 
the closure separate to return to a position of rest, 
an exphsiva necessarily follows immediately upon the 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 326 

occlmiva. Therefore if it is possible to form a combina- 
tion of this kind at the end of a word, the possibility is 
given by this explosive element, which, however, being 
weak, confines the application of these combinations 
within narrow limits. 

The most perfect combination is formed by an ex- 
plosiva and a stridula of the same region, as the air which 
breaks out after the formation of the explosiva can be 
used at the same point for the fricative noise ; thus we 
have the combinations 

These can all be formed as double consonants, in the 
broader sense given above, though the first only can 
be used as easily at the commencement as at the termi- 
nation of a word, for there is so much difficulty in com- 
bining the two last with other sounds that they can 
never be generally employed. There is nothing to choose 
between pf and ts for the commencement of a word 
{Pfund, Zoll), but in ending a word with pf a hiatus can 
scarcely be avoided, because /requires a stronger current 
of air and a different position of the lips (Kopf), while, on 
the contrary, the current of air which is liberated by t is 
quite sufficient for the formation of s (Platz). The ease 
with which t combines with s in either position has also 
led to its being represented by the simple sign z. 

Next in order we have the stridula of a more forward 
region joined to a preceding explosiva — 

tf, kf, kh. 
The two first can be produced by adjusting the lips 
for/ and then forming the k or t with a strong current 
of air. An easy succession both at the beginning and 
ending of words is, however, only afforded by kh, to express 
which, therefore, the simple sign x was introduced. The 
k must, however, be the forward /c^, else the current of 



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326 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

air would not immediately reach the teeth ; at the com- 
mencement of a word Ic^ can also be employed, though 
with some effort (jpax, rex, Klecks, Fuchs, Xaver). 

Thirdly, there is the connection of a stridula of a more 
backward region with a preceding explosiva, such as 

ps, pch}, pch? ; tch}, tch^. 
If, before the formation of the explosiva, the narrow 
outlet necessary for the stridula is prepared, the latter 
will follow immediately upon the outburst of the air. 
The only combination which can easily be employed both 
at the beginning and end of words is ps, which had, 
therefore, even in Greek the simple sign \p (\pi\og, Psalm, 
Reps) : tch} at the beginning of a word can be heard in 
the afifected pronunciation of " ja " as tch}a. At the end 
of words tch} and pch} are heard in dialects, though not 
quite without hiatus (Jitch} for Fittich, tepch for Teppich). 

The second class of continuae to be considered are the 
marginals, and here we have combinations of a preceding 
explosive with a marginal. 

The combinations with I are 

pi, ti, m, m. 

These are all formed easily at the commencement of 
words, if the mouth is adjusted for the 7-position before 
the formation of the explosive, so that the Uberated air 
in passing over the dorsum of the tongue will produce 
the sound of L The only dilBficulty lies in tl, for the apex 
of the tongue, which has been removed from the palate 
for t, has to be instantly replaced for the formation of I, 
and thus a small hiatus can scarcely be avoided ; this 
combination of consonants is almost confined to names 
derived from the ancient language of Mexico. Whether W^ 
or 1^ is to precede I depends upon the vowel which follows 
I; those vowels which require a contraction of the anterior 
part of the cavity necessitating the utterance of &*/ i*, 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 327 

on the contrary, depending upon the more posterior con- 
traction of the cavity of the mouth — ^thus showing, from 
the difference in the A;, that there is a preparation for 
the ensuing vowel. It is possible to pronounce kl with 
a k not thus decided by the vowel ; it is, however, more 
difificult. Plan, Tlaskala, Klinge Q^linge), Klotz (J^lots). 
At the end of a word these combinations are always 
accompanied by a hiatus. 

The combinations of explosives with sch are 
psch, tsch, ksch. 
Of these ksch is the most difficult to form, and is, in 
German at least, only met with in dialects, and then 
always as &^, because the point for the formation of this 
sound lies nearest to that of sch. The cause of this 
difficulty is that for /c* the back part of the dorsum of 
the tongue is raised and the apex depressed, while for 
sch the apex must be elevated and the back part of the 
dorsum depressed. The change from one position to 
the other cannot, however, be well performed without a 
hiatus, though it may be an exceedingly small one. 
O'schdd, tvfcksch. Psch is easily pronounced, if the mouth 
is adjusted before the formation of p; still it is only 
employed, in German at least, in dialects, except for 
names (Pschorr, Berlepsch), and has a strong inclination 
for a hiatus : tsch, on the contrary, is like ts, and for 
similar reasons easy to pronounce ; still it is little met 
with in German, and then only at the end of words 
(Klatsch) ; it is, however, used in ItaUan both with and 
without tone (cima, giro), and in English, though written 
in a great variety of ways {chain, ginger, jump, patch, 
pledge). 

The third class of continuoe comprises the different 
forms of r, which are joined to explosives in the following 
combinations : — 



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328 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

At the end of words these combmations cannot be 
uttered without hiatus, as the current of air required for 
r is too strong. The r which combines with the explo- 
sive is that which lies nearest to the point at which the 
former is formed, as may be seen from the above group. 
E}7^y like ft^Z, and for the same reason, precedes i and e ; 
A;V, like A?Z, precedes a, o, u. The 7^ in pr^ and ti^ is, 
from this preadjustment for the ensuing vowel, pro- 
nounced more forward before i and e than before a, o, u. 
Prinz, Pracht, Trieb, trocken, Krieg, Kragen. 

The relations which characterize the combinations 
considered in the foregoing remarks, are exactly reversed 
in those combinations where a continua stands first and 
is followed by a p, *, or A. With a continua the latter 
sounds assume the occlusive character which they retain 
even when the combination is situated at the end of a 
word ; when, however, it stands at the commencement of 
a word the impure character of the occlmive is very 
marked, for to the following sound it appears as an 
explosive. 

Starting with the continuae stridvlae we find that the 
sounds in questions may be grouped as follows : — 
fPf ft, fk ; sp, St, sk^, sA? / chp, chH, chH, ch}k, ch^k. 

Of these,^, ch^k\ and also ch^k^ can be uttered alone, 
but they require such a forcible current of air that they 
cannot be attached to any other sounds ; fk^, fk^, sh^ 
ch^p, ch?p, ch}k?, and ch^k^ cannot be pronounced without 
a very considerable hiatus. Of all this series, therefore, 
which is greatly simplified if we remark that sk is the 
only sound which distinguishes between the two forms 
of k, there remain only the six combinations, /i^, sp, at, 
sk, chH, and chH, which can be included amongst the 
double consonantSk In ft the /-stream is suddenly inter- 
rupted by closure with the tongue (t) ; it is found at the 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 329 

begimimg of words (though not entirely without hiatus) 
in Greek (^So/ooc), at the termination of words in schuft, 
cleft. In the three combinations of 8 the a-stream is in 
the same manner interrupted by an occlusive sound; 
that k^ is the only one of the two forms of k which can 
be used for this purpose, is due to the circumstance that 
in changing from the ^-position the tongue can only 
reach the A^-position, for the « must not disappear till 
the k is formed. AU three combinations are equally 
well adapted for commencing and ending words (speed, 
Visp, Germ, grasp; start, ist, Germ, fast; sky, risk). In 
English, at the termination of a word after a, a more 
backward impure » may be heard combined with P, as, 
for instance, in ask. We find cht used at the beginning 
of words in Greek (x^wv), and at the end of words we 
find chH after i and e, Licht, Eeeht, and chH after a, o, u, 
Nacht, Docht, Wucht. 

Adding the sounds p, t, k to the marginals, we have 
the series 

Ip, U, Ik^, Ik^ ; schp, scht, schh. 

Of these sounds those formed with I can be pro- 
noimced without effort if the second sound appears as a 
true occlusive before I is silent ; this also applies to the 
two forms of k, if when the combination is with 1^ the I 
is formed a little further back. This combination can 
therefore only be used without hiatus at the end of 
words : Ik^ follows i and e, Ik^ a, o, u (help, geJb, hilt, 
Bild, milk, Schalk); schp and scht can, hke sp and st, 
and for the same reason, be formed without difiSculty 
and used both at the beginning and end of words. They 
may be heard in ordinary German at the beginning of 
words written sp, st (Spiel, Stein, Stand, Vischp (in dia- 
lects), Gischt) ; schk is not difl&cult to form with k, but 
seems to have no application. 



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330 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

"With the vibrants we have the series 
t^, A r»*, r*A2, 
all fonr of which are easily formed as terminations to 
words. K while r is still vibrating the second sound is 
formed as a pure occlmive, r^h^ follows % and e, r*fc^ a, o, 
u {sharp, hart, Werk, stark, shark). They cannot be 
formed at the beginning of words without a hiatus. 

We have shown the relation which springs from the 
attachment of an explosiva oi occhmva to a preceding 
stridvla; it now remains to discuss the relation pro- 
duced by annexing other continuae to the latter. 

A succession of two stridulae gives the series 
fsyfch; sf, sch; chf, chs. 
None of these combinations can be formed without 
hiatus, though if the tongue is protruded while ch is still 
sounding a chh or chh may be produced almost without 
hiatus, for instance, in the genitive form of Schlich and 
Dach, Schlichs, Dachs, which, however, from the difficulty 
of the double sound generally have the sound of Schliches, 
Daches. 

A marginal joined to a stridula gives 
Jl, si, chl; fsch, ssch, chsch. 

Of these combinations those with an sch in the second 
place cannot, on account of the great change in the 
position of the tongue, be pronounced without a hiatus. 
Those with I in the second place are, on the other hand, 
possible at the beginning of words, if, before the first 
sound is ended, such preparation is made for { by the posi- 
tion of the tongue that the apex only has to be brought 
against the palate to produce the I. Example : Floh, 
slave, chHi (Alemannic for klein), chHoyd (the right pro- 
nunciation of the name Lloyd, which for this reason is 
always spelt Floyd by the unlettered housekeeper in 
"Humphry Clinker." 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 331 
The combinations between vibrants and stridulae are 

all of which can be pronounced if the tongue is placed 
for the stridula in the proper position for the correspond- 
ing r; thus when the stridula is « in the position for r*, 
when ch} in the position for r®, and when ch^ in the posi- 
tion for r\ a slight expiratory effort then gives rise to 
the stridula and if gradually increased develops from it 
the r. With/ the tongue must be placed in the position 
for r*, as r^ cannot be used as an articulate sound. These 
combinations, again, can only be used at the beginning 
of words, and that to a limited extent ; they can scarcely 
be pronounced without hiatus at the end of words, for 
the dilBficulty which they ofifer when pronounced alone is 
increased when they follow immediately upon a vowel. 
The most difl&cult form, sr, is scarcely ever heard ; ft^ is 
in very common use ; the r which follows the / may, 
however, be either r* or r\ according to the succeeding 
vowel, though the change is not absolutely necessary, as, 
for instance, /ra^m can be as easily pronounced with r^ 
as with r® or r* ifrisch,frech, froh, Frucht). Chr is found 
at the commencement of words in Greek, xpv, xpovoq, 
when, according to the rule we have found to hold good 
in so many cases, the yp in x/»»» must be cfeV, and in 
Xpovoc cfe^r*, because in the first case n follows, and in 
the second o. 

The relations between marginals and explosives, or, 
as the case may be, occlusives, have already been dis- 
cussed, and also those when they are connected as a 
second sound with a stridula as a first sound. We have 
now, therefore, to consider their properties as a first 
sound connected with stridulae and vibrants. 

With the stridulae the following combinations can be 
formed : — 

If, Is, Ich ; schf, schs, schch. 



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332 THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 

Of these combinations those which have 2 as a first 
sound stand in the same relation as tf, ts, tch, the 
tongue in both cases being brought against the palate. 
For instance, If and Ich can be produced if the lips are 
protruded while I is sounding, the current of air being 
increased in force for the former combination, and for 
the latter the dorsum of the tongue being raised ; the 
only ch which can be used is ch}. For Is it is sufficient 
to remove, while I is sounding, the apex of the tongue 
from its position of contact and to raise its edges ; this 
combination is, therefore, more often met with than the 
others. All three can only be formed at the end of 
words, because if placed at the beginning the com- 
bination is broken up by the closer connection between 
the second sound and the succeeding vowel. {Elf, Hals, 
Kelch.) Passing to the combinations with sch, we find 
that 8chf and schch can be formed, though not without 
care and some difficulty ; schs is, however, easier when 
placed at the end of a word, for if the apex of the 
tongue is depressed and the edges raised, the transition 
can be made from sch to s. (Fischs genitive of Fisch.) 
Two combinations are possible with the vihrants 

**■ fo", sclir, 

the first of which (Zr) can only be pronounced with 
difficulty, the formation of the I being interrupted by 
the vibration of the extreme tip of the tongue ; it has, 
therefore, no value as an articulate sound : sch, on the 
contrary, can, if the dorsum of the tongue is raised, 
be easily connected with an r^, and sometimes, as an 
individual peculiarity or in a dialect, with an r^ ; this 
combination, however, like all those with r as a second 
sound, can only be used at the beginning of words. If 
i ox e follows, the r* is formed a little more forward; 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 333 

if a, o, or Uy more backward {Schrift, Schreck, Schramme, 
Schrot, Schrunde). 

Lastly, we have the combinations between vibrants 
in the first place and stridulae and marginals in the 
second ; and, as we found with rp, rt, rk, these com- 
binations can|^ be employed at the beginning of words. 

The combinations with stridulae are 
ff, rs, rch. 
The character of the r is regulated by the preceding 
vowel, though it is always a little more forward for 
/ and s than with the same vowel for ch. It is, however, 
in our power to form, though not always without effort, 
these combinations with any of the forms of r, of 
course excepting r^. The ch following r is always cfe^, 
because the formation of ch^ resembles that of r^ too 
closely for the two sounds to be separated. (Dilrf-en, 
scharf; Birs, iners, ars, Werch [Werg], Sarch [Sarg].) 

The combinations with the marginals are 

rl, rsch. 
Both are formed without difficulty, if during the utter- 
ance of r^ or r^ the tongue is gradually advanced to the 
I or, as the case may be, to the sch position. Here, 
again, the r^ or r* is forward after i or e, and the 
r* more backward after a, o, u. In grammars we find 
the use of rl confined within very narrow limits (Quirl, 
Germ, gnarl, Eng.), though in the Austrian dialects 
it is widely distributed as a diminutive (Ganserl). The 
two following examples will suffice for rsch : — Hirsch, 
marsch. 

Consonants and Eesonants. 

Having now discussed the question whether double 
consonants do not exist in the same sense as double 



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334 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

vowels, and having found that certain combinations of 
consonants, under the condition that they are not placed 
between two vowels, can be formed with more or less 
ease without a hiatus, and therefore may be regarded 
as analogues of double vowels, it remains to see 
whether similar relations do not exist between the 
resonants themselves or between resonants and con- 
sonants. 

The resonants depend, as we know, upon a closure 
at three different points : at the lips for m, the teeth 
and tongue for n, the tongue and soft palate for ng. 
In the closure for ng the entire cavity of the mouth in 
front of the soft palate is open ; in that for n, the cavity 
of the lips. As in the closure for m the cavity of the 
mouth is completely closed to the front, the tongue may 
assume any position, and though for a full-sounding 
m it should be depressed, yet it may be raised and the 
apex placed against the upper incisors. If, when in 
this position, a deep tone is sounded, a pure m is heard ; 
if a higher tone, an intermediate sound, which is neither 
m nor n, but bears some resemblance to both, and thus 
stands towards the two sounds in the position of ae to 
a and e. We have already shown, when describing the 
resonants, that a similar intermediary sound exists 
between the region of closure for n and that for ng. 
Intermediary sounds similar to the intermediary vowel- 
sounds are, therefore, met with among the resonants. 

It is possible, moreover, to pass or glide from one 
resonant into another, if the position of the closure is 
gradually either advanced or removed further back. 
Thus if ng is uttered the closure may be gradually 
advanced along the entire palate to the anterior end of 
the w-region at the teeth, and then by closing the lips 
pass into m. Then, again, if the apex of the tongue 



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THE FORMATION OF ABTICULATE SOUNDS. 335 

is placed behind the teeth and m is uttered, when the 
lips are opened n will be heard, and if the closure is 
gradually moved backwards along the palate, the whole 
series of resonants can be formed backwards in an 
unbroken succession. The Greek initial sound fiv 
ifivriiuLa) can, therefore, be pronounced without hiatus. 
This peculiarity more resembles those of vowels, as, for 
instance, the transition from a to o, than the relation 
between consonants. 

Among consonants the explosive sounds only can be 
immediately connected with the resonants, and, more- 
over, the combination can only take place between a 
resonant and the explosive corresponding to its point of 
closure ; the only combinations are, therefore, mp, nt, 
ngk. The combination nk is, indeed, written, but as k 
must be preceded by a closure at the soft palate, ng 
must of necessity be formed {Lump, Rand, trink, 
Bchrank). As an explosive is due to the opening of a 
closure, it is often more or less distinctly heard as an 
after sound at the end of a word or before a vowel ; 
formerly, indeed, it was written (Irrthumb), and is now 
in some languages retained, in others lost in the same 
word both as written and spoken {Zimmer, timber ; kin. 
Kind ; numerus, nombre). The explosive is heard even 
more distinctly when the resonant is followed by a 
consonant, and here, again, it is vmtten in some cases 
and not in others. Rumpf, Triumf; Oans, gants (ganz) ; 
Drangs (genitive), beengt (pronounced Drangks, beengkt). 

L AND N MouiLih. 

By the term mouiJU is meant a manner of pro- 
nouncing I and also n when a j is annexed to these 
sounds. This pronunciation is generally heard between 



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336 THE OBGANS OP SPEECH. 

two vowels, but not nnfrequently at the beginning of 
words, and sometimes at the end, as, for instance, in the 
French detail. 

Before attempting to assign to this phenomenon its 
proper place we must consider it in connection with 
other phenomena, and especially the relation between u 
and sounds to which it is annexed. 

The close connection between i and j^ and between 
% and w, was alluded to in the remarks upon iambic diph- 
thongs with t or ti as a first sound, and it was then shown 
that the two consonants in question can be developed 
from the corresponding vowel in two ways, namely, (1) if 
while the tone is sounding the force of the current is so 
increased that a fricative noise is produced, when the 
vowel is u by the protruded lips, and when i by the apex 
and the edges of the tongue over which the stronger 
current of air is driven towards either side; (2) if in 
passing to another sound the tongue, or, as the case may 
be, the lips, are rapidly drawn back, thus producing a 
fricative noise. Both causes have the same eflfect — an i 
spoken quickly and strongly before another vowel, turning 
it into a j (Je, ja) — and under the same conditions a 
sound beginning as u becoming w, as in the English w 
(double ju). 

Besides appearing in several other iambic diphthongs, 
we often find u after k, and followed by another vowel. 
The u in such words appears to be nothing more than the 
transition from one vowel to the other — so, at least, the 
fact would seem to show; that it is present in many 
Italian words (guanto, guerra), and absent, or, if written, 
not pronounced, in the corresponding French words (gant, 
guerre). We find further, in connection with this pecu- 
liarity, that this u follows k less frequently before o than 
before other vowels, especially when the k is the A;-sound 



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THE FORMATION OP ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 337 

with tone, namely, g, the explanation of which lies in the 
manner in which the intervening ti-sound is produced. 
For the formation of k the tongue is drawn very far back, 
and its anterior portion lies, therefore, both backward 
and low ; this is, however, the position of the tongue 
for u. The lips, it is true, need not necessarily be in the 
position ascribed for a full, round ti, but this, as we 
showed when speaking of the vowels, is not of primary 
importance. Now when, after the formation of the ex- 
plosive k, the current of air is released, this position of 
the tongue gives rise to an u during the short time 
which elapses before the tongue can be adjusted for the 
following vowel. The position of the tongue for o so 
closely resembles that for u that there is little need for 
u before o, for it will either be imperceptible in the 
rapid change of position which the tongue can here 
make, or else the o-position will have been assumed 
before the formation of k. 

It may, however, be asked, why, if the above is true, 
an t£ is not heard after every k followed by a vowel, it 
being possible to pronounce hihn, kehren. This objection 
may be answered at once as follows: If k is uttered 
independently, and the tongue afterwards adjusted 
for the following vowel, the w-sound will result from 
.the position of the tongue for k being the same as 
that for u ; this can be, however, and is prevented by 
placing the tongue either exactly or approximately in 
the position for the succeeding vowel, before k is allowed 
to break out. This will at once be seen from the follow- 
ing experiment : Let k be pronounced alone ; it will be 
followed by an indistinct u ; if then k-eUe is pronounced, 
it will be distinctly heard as Quelle ; if, however, Kelle is 
pronounced, we shall observe that the tongue is raised 
before the formation of k, and thus is prepared for e. 



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338 



THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 



Thus u constitutes a kind of hiatus between the full deep 
k and the following vowel. 

There is another point of interest in connection 
with the above-mentioned relation between u and w, 
namely, the difference in the sound of this intervening u 
after k and after gr If the first sound is k with tone, 
namely, g, after the explosion the current of air will be 
quiet and sonant, and the u will then, however quickly 
uttered, have a distinct t*-sound {guanto, guerra, guida). 
If, however, the hard toneless k is uttered, the current 
of air which breaks out is more forcible, and at first 
toneless ; the following u will then have more or less de- 
cidedly the sound of w (Quelle is pronounced Kwelle, and 
also quadra, questo, quinta, qv^ota, cuore). In the first case 
the u is rather attached to the following vowel, forming a 
kind of iambic diphthong ; in the second to A;, whence 
this combination is particularized in our alphabet as qu. 

Other consonants are in Italian and Spanish followed 
by a similar w, in words, namely, which in Latin have 
an after the consonant in question, which o remains o 
in Itahan but becomes e in Spanish. Example : — 



Latin. 


Italian. 


Spanish. 


honvs 


huono 


bueno 


porta 


{porta) 


puerta 


domm, donnm 


duovio 


duena 


tonus 


tuono 


{tone) 


tortus 




tuerto 


focus 


fuogo 


fuego 


locus 


luogo 


laego 


mors 


(inorte) 


muerte 


movere 


muovere 


61 mii&oe 


novus 


nuovo 


nuevo 


rota 


ruota 


rueda 


solus 


suolo 


suelo 


vola-re 


(volo) 


vueh. 



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TOE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDa 339 

The words which do not exhibit this change are pro- 
nounced with a cramped feeling. The reason for these 
exceptions cannot be discussed here. It will be sufficient 
to show from these examples that u is inserted after 
every consonant, if not in both, yet at least in one of 
the two languages. We may infer from this fact that the 
insertion is here due less to the consonant than to the 
succeeding vowel, a view which is supported by the same 
insertion taking place in words which do not begin with 
a consonant {ovum, uovo, huevo; homo, uomo, hombre). 
It would seem, therefore, as if this u were merely 
employed to lead up to o or e, just as we often hear j led 
to by n (n-ja), or as in Italian « is preceded by i (scopus, 
iscopo), 01 why g (Welfe, Guelfo), or, again, in French 
and Spanish « by e {sperare, esperer, esperanza ; spiritus, 
esprit, espiritu). The cause of this insertion is, however, 
of little importance to our present purpose, for which it is 
sufficient to note the fact of its existence, and that the u 
is pronounced so rapidly that it forms a single syllable 
with the following vowel. It is, however, of interest in 
the question before us that this u sounds more as u or 
w, according to the consonant by which it is preceded 
(rmta, swolo). It is also worthy of remark that, for the 
same reason as that given above for u sounding more 
after g and w after k, a diflference of pronunciation is to 
be observed after d and t (duomo, twono). 

Before examining the entirely similar relation main- 
tained by t, we must first draw attention to the fact that 
jmsij arise in three different ways, namely, (1) voluntarily 
as J, (2) in the above-mentioned manner after a short i 
{Bavaria, fiore), and (3) after aj' formed very far forward 
and with an imperfect closure. (Latin : cingere, plan- 
gere, jungere. Italian : cignere, lagnare, giugnere ; pro- 
noimced tschinjere, lanjare, dschuniere.) 



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340 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

The relation in which u stands to A; is the same as 
that in which i stands to I and n, both of which conso- 
nants are formed by closure at the teeth. We should 
rather have expected, from the relation of u to k, that i 
would have been connected with t The reason why this 
is not the case is that s or sch is much more easily joined 
to t, both, particularly sch, being very audible fricative 
noises, and capable of being produced by the same cur- 
rent of air as that with which t breaks out, so that if any 
after-sound is heard after t, it will naturally be s or sch. 
Analogy would, after this explanation, lead us to expect 
ch to be the after-sound for k. In the first place, how- 
ever, ch does not readily join with k ; and secondly, it is 
not a very audible sound, so that u follows at once upon k 
without any perceptible ch. The following examples will 
show that t really is modified by an after-sound of s 
or sch. 

Latin. Italian. Spanish. 

turma ciurma chusma 

ob'turator turaggio 

attactus (French attaque) acciacco 

lucta lutta lucha 

gutta goccia 

div/rnus giomo 

sedecuLa seggiola 

lac, Idctis latte leche 

dictiis detto, ditto dicho 

pectus petto pecho 

To the same cause is due the general pronunciation 
of tio, tia, tills as tsio, tsia, tsius, while in French and 
Spanish even the primary sound is omitted {nattis, 
natio, nation, nadon) ; in English also the t is omitted, 
an schf however, taking the place of s (nation). In the 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 341 

same manner tio is changed to tscho, tech, sch (viator 
[viatio] , viaggio, voyage [English] , voyage [French] ) ; 
ovatio, omaggio, homage (English), homage (French). 

The two somids I and n are formed by the tongue 
being advanced, and laid gently against the teeth, or the 
margin of the teeth. If the tongue is drawn back from 
this position, it will be in the position for t. When, 
therefore, ? or n is to be followed by a vowel, the tongue, 
in order to reach the desired position, must pass 
through the t-position, and this transition is often 
made perceptible by the sound of i being heard. From 
the slight contact required for I and ti, and the rapidity 
with which it can be broken, this i-sound becomes j, 
just as the u after k becomes w ; and just as the intimate 
relation between k and w is represented specially by qu, 
so the intimate relation between j and I and n is recog- 
nized, and these sounds, when pronounced in this manner, 
are specially termed I mouille and n mouille; and, again, 
Ij is expressed orthographically by gl or M, and nj by 
gn or "fl (Spanish). That, however, these sounds are not 
peculiar in this respect will appear from the following 
remarks. Examples show that I and n may be thus 
softened before all the vowels, even before i, when the 
softening J marks the transition to the position necessary 
for a clear, true i, and thus is in a measure only the 
impure commencement of L 



Italian. 


Spanish. 


French. 


figlia 


Uano 


Ullard 


moglie 


Ueno 


vieillesse 


gli 


cuchillito 


bouillir 




Uover 


billon 


luglio 


Uuvia 


caillou 


campagna 


duefla 


Armagnae 



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342 



THE ORGANS OF SPEECH. 



Italian. 

ingegnere 

ogni 

sogno 

ignvdo 



Spanish. 

niTiera 

nifiita 

8ueflo 

panueh 



FftBNOH. 

regner 
Ligny 
vignohle 



In the same manner as we saw an u intervene before 
o and e in words which in Latin have an o, and that this 
u is more uoiw according to the consonant which pre- 
cedes, so also we find in words, which in Latin begin with 
a consonant followed by «, an i intervening after the 
consonant. To this we may apply thfe same explanation 
as that given to the corresponding w, namely, that it 
serves merely to facilitate the transition, and to lead up 
to the u. As the words in question in the ItaUan and 
Spanish languages cannot, like those containing uo and 
uBy be chosen from the same Latin examples so as to give 
a full series of initial consonants in both languages, a 
separate list has been taken for each, which mutually 
complete each other. 



Latin. 


Italian. 


Latin. 


Spanish. 






bene 


bien 


pes 


piede 


pellis 


piel 


coecus 


cieco 


coelvm 


cielo 


decern 


died 


dens 


diente 


tepidm 


tiepido 


tempus 


tiempo 


gelare 


gielare 






levis 


lieve 


Upus 


liebre 


mel 


miel 


memhrum 


miembro 


redire 


riedere 


graecus 


griego 


seps 


siepe 


semper 


siempre 


vetare 


vietare 


ventus 


viento 



We shall readily allow that, in this series also, a dif- 



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THE FORMATION OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. 343 

ference similar to that "which was noticed with regard to 
u may be observed in i ; that, namely, after certain conso- 
nants the t-sound will predominate, after others the j — 
for instance, in miel the i, in siepe the J. Again, as was 
the case with u, after the consonants with tone (soft) 
more of the i will be heard {Men, diedy diente) ; after the 
toneless (hard consonants), on the contrary, more of the 
j (piede, piel, tiepido, tiempo). 

There is, moreover, a third kind of t, which appears 
as the first sound of iambic diphthongs, and, as it 
thus bears some resemblance to the interjected i under 
discussion, it must be examined a little more closely. 
The i here alluded to is that which seems to have arisen 
from an I after /, p {b), or k (g) {jiammay Jiore, fiume ; 
piacere, piega, pieno, piombo, piu; bianco, biondo (blond) ; 
chiamare, chiericale, chiostra; ghiaccio, ghiottone [glou- 
ton] ). It would almost seem as if this i, which some- 
times sounds more as i (ghiacdo), sometimes more as^* 
(pieno), were nothing more than a weak and carelessly 
uttered I, the tongue not being sufficiently elevated or 
brought properly into contact; and, indeed, in this 
manner an i oij may be obtained as an abortive L If, 
however, we compare the corresponding Spanish words 
in which the i is present and the I nevertheless retained 
(clamare, chiamare, llamar; clavis, chiave, llave; plaga, 
piaga, Uaga; plenus, pieno, lleno; flamma, Jiamma, Uama; 
piovere, llover), we shall rather draw the conclusion, that 
this i was originally inserted as an i of the former class 
after I, so that forms have existed like cliamare, plieno, 
etc., and that the I in Italian and the p, c, etc., in 
Spanish was subsequently dropped. We shall accept 
this view with the less hesitation when we observe how 
readily the Bomance languages, and particularly the 
Italian, set aside everything which offers any difficulty 



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344 THE ORGANS OP SPEECH. 

in pronunciation. The following examples will show the 
truth of this remark : — j>omeridiano (postmeridianus), Una 
(halena), strano (extraneus), spiucere {displacere) , scendere 
(descendere), sonno (somntu), sintoma {symptoma), dittongo 
{diphthongtis), granaio (granarium), saetta (sagitta), tisico 
(phthmciLs), siquico, Span, (psychicvs), etc. 

Upon comparing the facts brought forward in the 
preceding pages, the conclusion is forced upon us that 
the { and the n ** mouille " are not special phenomena, 
but merely an example of the insertion of a vowel so 
frequently met with ; and the distinct j-sound resulting 
from this softening is explained by the intimate relation 
between the short i and I and n, the same connection 
being also observed in other consonants. The softening 
at the end of a word {detail, grille) must, however, be 
regarded as a supplementary sound, resembUng the 
explosive after-sound of the occlusives (" topp-€ "), which 
arises from the return of the tongue to its position of 
rest, and is only pronounced more consciously from habit. 
Further, we must remember that the e, a, or o which in 
many dialects follow upon w or i are to be explained in 
the same manner (lAab, MtLotta). 



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INDEX. 



a, 279 

Abdominal muscles, 23 

Adam's apple, 43 

Alr-cuirent, 5 

in superior cavity of larynx, 

69 

in the pharynx, 78, 276 

J modifications of, 165 

f regulation of, in speech, 166 

, strength of, in speech, 198, 

213 

strengthening of, 17 

Air-passage in restricted sense, 27 

above the tongue, 263 

below the tongue, 263 

for formation of nasal vowels, 

299 
for formation of pure vowels, 

276 

through cavity of mouth, 243 

through the pharynx, 247 

Air-passages, 9 

, motor-nerves o^ 167 

, nerves, 164 

, relation to alimentary canal, 

28,67 

, sensory nerves of, 169 

, survey of, 24 

Alsa of the nose, 94 
Alto, 202 
Alphabet, 252 

, general division of, 253 

Anterior nares, 85 
Antrum, 108 
Articulate sounds, 251 

1 compound, 255 

— — , elements of, 255 



Articulate sounds, physiological 

division of, 254 
Articulation, points of, 309 
Arytenoid cartilage, 47 
, mechanism of, 49 

6,311 

Bass, 202 

*' Blowing the nose," 231 

Brachycephalous skulls, 117 

Cai-tilage, arytenoid, 47 

• , cricoid, 40 

, thyroid, 42 

of 8antorini, 67 

of Wrisberg. 67 

Cavity of the cheeks, 120, 241 

mouth, 120, 241 

thorax, 14 

Gatalani's compass, 192 

cfe, 317 

chf, 330 

Chest-notes, 210 

ehk, 328 

chl, 330 

Chords, vocal, 42 

chpy 328 

chr, 331 

chsj 330 

chsch, 330 

cht, 328 

Clicking noise, 185 

Consonants, 261, 271, 305 

, dental, 312 

, double, 321 

, guttural, 315 

, hard and soft, 271 



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346 



INDEX. 



Consonants, labial, 310 

, laryngeal, 310 

, marginal, 318 

, tenues and medise, 271 

Corset, 21 
Coughing, 178 
Cribriform plate, 81 
Crico-thyroid membrane, 43 

d, 314 

Dentals, 313 
Diaphragm, 14 
Diphthongs, 291 
, division of, 293 

, iambic, with t and «, 297 

— , trochaic, with t , 293 

with eferm^, 294, 343 

with li, o, and o, 294 

Dolioooephalous skulls, 117 
Double consonants, 321 

e, 284 

6 as commencement of word, 339 
eferm€, 285 
Epiglottis, 30 

^ structure of, 66 

Ethmoidal cells, 90 

sinus, 108 

Expiration, 8, 15 

, altered forms of, 177 

strengthened, 23 

/,312 

Falsetto, 210 

fch, 330 

Fischer's compass, 201 

/A;, 328 

A 330 

/p, 328 

/r,331 

Frontal sinus, 108 

Frenum linguae, 130 

/«, 330 

fsch, 330 

ft, 328 

Sf,315 

g as commencement of word, 339 
Glosso-epiglottic ligament, 130 
Glottis, 41, 190 

, adjustment of, 48, 194 

, elevation and depression of, 55 



Glottis respiraioria, 49, 64 

, closure of, 197 

, structure of, 46 

vocalis, 49 

Groaning, 184 
Gums, 120 
Gutturals, 315 

ft, 307 

Head-notes, 210 
Hiatus, 321 

filled by consonants, 322 

filled by vowels, 322 

Hiccough, 174 
Hissing, 188 
Hyoid bone, 62 

t, 282, 336 

i as commencement of word, 839 
f interjected, 341 
Inspiration, 8, 15 

, altered forms of, 174 

strengthened, 23 

Isthmus of fauces, 120 

i, 297, 318, 336, 339 
Jaw, lower, structure, 124 

, , mechanism, 124 

Jaws, movement of, 123 

fe,315 
kch, 325 
fe/, 325 
A:;, 326 
hr, 327 
hs, 325 
Itsch, 327 
&M, 337 

1.318 

I and n mouilM, 335 
I changed to t, 343 
Labials, 310 
Lachrymal canal, 109 
. Larynx, 26, 32 

, artificial, 38 

, depression of, 148 

, elevation of, 148 

^ noise produced in, 264 

, relation to production of tone. 

37, 190 
, structure of, 32 



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INDEX 



347 



Larynx, anperioor cavity of, 3i, 61, 
64,247 

tone produced by, 189 

Laughing, 178 

fcA, 331 

If, 331 

Ligament, glosso-epiglottic, 130 

Ligamenta interannularia, 35 

Lips, 129 

, cavity of, 242 

, muscles of, 130 

, noise produced by, 269 

Vt, 329 

Loop- muscles, 152 

Ip, 329 

Ir, 332 

28,331 

W,329 

Lungs, 8, 10, 17 

, air-cells of, 11 

, development of, 26 

^ root of, 11 

m, 303, 334 

Marginals, 318 

Masseter muscles^ 128 

mn, 334 

Morgagni, ventricles of, 70, 191, 

248 
3foutZZ^,335 
Mouth, cavit]^ of, 119 

, depression of floor, 145. 

i diaphragmatic closure, 144 

, division of, 241 

, elevation of floor, 144 

, inner, 241 

, isolation from pharynx, 228 

, mechanical movements, 121 

, noises peculiar to, 265 

, orifice of, 120 

, posterior, 242 

, restricted sense, 120, 241 

mp, 335 

Muscle, aryteno-epiglottideus, 68 

, arytenoid, oblique, 68 

, transverse, 59, 64 

, buccinator, 130 

, chondro-pharyngeus, 150 

, compressor narium, 97 

, constrictores pharyngis, 153 

, crico-arytenoid, anterior, 56 

, , posterior, 57 

16 



Muscle, crioo-pliaryngeus, 154 

, crico-thyroid, 45 

, depressor alse nasi, 97, 136 

, depressor anguli oris, 134 

, depressor oartilaginis aryte- 

noidifs 68 

, depressor labii inferioris, 133 

, depressor septi mobilis, 98 

, digastric, 145 

, genio-hyo-glossus, 139 

, genio-hyoid, 147 

, hyo-glossus, 139 

, incisivi, 136 

, intercostal, 23, 24 

^ kerato-pharyngeus, 154 

, levator alse nasi, 97 

, levator anguli oris, 134 

,'levatores costarum, 23 

, levator labii superioris, 133 

, levator menti, 137 

, levator uvuIsb, 162 

, levator veli, 162 

, lingualis longitudinalis, 146 

, lingualis trausversus, 140 

, mylo-hyoid, 145 

, mylo-pharyngeus, 154 

, orbicularis oris, 136 

, risorius Santorini, 134 

, omo-hyoid, 147 

, palato-pharyngeus, 158 

, pterygoid, external, 127 

, pterygo-pharyngeus, 154 

, pyramidalis nasi, 98 

, salpingo-pharyngeus, 161 

, Bcaleni, 23 

, serratus posterior et superior, 

23 

■, stemo-hyoid, 147 

, stomato-pharyngeus, 155 

— — , stylo-glossus, 139 

, stylohyoid, 147 

, stylo-pharyngeus, 161 

, tensor palati, 162 

, thyro-arytenoid, 54 

, tbyro-epiglotticus, 68 

, thyro-hyoid, 63 

, thyro-pharyngeus, 154 

, triangularis menti, 134 

, zygomatic, 134 

n, 303, 334 

n, as intonation, 389 



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348 



INDEX. 



Kasal bone. 87 

cavity, 27 

, air-passage of, 87 

, bony framework of, 83 

, cartilage of, 92 

, division of, 81 

, horizontal section, 104 

, imperfect isolation of, 

238 
, individual variations, 

, isolation from cavity of 

moutli, 223 

, meatuses, 106 

, noises of, 231 

, resonance of, 233 

J septum, 100 

, stoppage of, 237 

, turbinated bone, inferior, 

102 
J turbinated bone, middle, 

102 

, turbinated bone, supe- 
rior, 106 

, walls of, 100 

"Nasal twang," 236 

vowels, 298 

ng, 304 

nyk, 335 

Noise, 256 

, burring, 259 

, clapping, 260 

, clicking, 260 

, explosive, 260 

, fricative, 258 

, hissing, 259 

, rattling, 259 

Nose, alffl of, 94 

^, external, 92 

\ lateral cartilage of, 95 

, moveable septum of, 94 

, muscles of, 96 

, side chambers of, 107 

, their importance, 109 

Nostrils, 82 

nt, 335 

0,285 

Olfactory nerve, 87 

Organ of smell, 81 



©,310 

Palate, hard, 29 

, soft, 29 

pch, 326 

pA 325 

Fharnyx, 26, 73, 152 

, constrictor muscle of, 122, 153 

1 division, 79 

, form of the cavity, 74 

, walls of, 75 

pi, 326 

l>r, 327 

ps (i|^), 322, 326 

psch, 327 

gw, 338 

r, 307, 320 
rch, 333 

Keed-instruments, 138 
Beeds, membranous, 191 

, vibration of, 192 

Besonance, 256 
Resonants, 257, 300 

, combination with consonants, 

333 
Respiration, mechanism of, 14 

, unusual forms of, 178 

Respiratory noises, 181 

organs, 6 

process, 6 

rf, 333 
Ribs, 19 

, mechanism of, 21 

rk, 330 

W, 333 

rp, 330 

re, 333 

rsch, 333 

r«, 330 

Rudimentary skull, 98 

8,314 

8 interjected after *, 340 

Santorini's cartilage, 67 

8ch, 320 

8ch interjected after t, 340 

schch, 331 

8chf, 331 

8chk, 329 

96hp, 329 

sc^r,332 



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INDEX, 



349 



9ch8, 331 

8cht, 329 

Scream, 207 

Sessi, compass of, 201 

«/, 330 

Sinj^ers, respiratory process of, 21 

Si^'hing, 178 

8k, 328 

sZ, 330 

Sneezing, 178 

Snoring, 191 

Snorting, 191 

Soprrtno, 202 

sp, 328 

Speech, 33, 217 

, audible, 33 

Spheno-ethmoidal recess, 111 
Sphenoidal sinus, 108 
«r, 331 
8sch, 330 
Kt, 328 

Staccato, 167 
Stammering, 176 
Strepitus avulsivus, 267 

continuus, 267 

explosivus, 268 

occlusivus, 268 

repeutinus, 269 

spirans, 266 

stridulus, 267 

vibraus, 267 

Stuttering, 177 
Swallowing, 149, 160 

<,312 

t changed into 8 and sch, 340 

t marginal, 320 

ieh, 326 

Teeth, 120 

Tenor, 202 

//, 325 

th (English), 315 

Thorax, 19 

Thyro-hyoid membrane, 63 

Thjroid cartilage, 42 

Tight lacing, 21 

e?, 326 

Tone, conditions for pitch, 203 

, crescendo and decrescendo, 

213 

distinguished from noise, 256 

, intensity 213 



Tone, production of, in air passages, 

187 
Tongue, 26, 122, 137 

, alteration of form, 140 

, dorsum, 138 

, muscles, 143 

f root of, 138 

, tip of, 138 

Tonsils, 159 
tr, 327 
fe, 325, 340 
tsch, 327, 340 
Tympanum, 109 

tt, 283, 336 

tt, interjected, 338 

Uvula, 159 

Velum palati, 26, 30, 122, 156 

i adjustment of, 158, 220 

» division of, 222 

Vt utricles of Morgagni, 70 
Vibrants, 320 
Vocal apparatus, 35 

chords, 33, 42, 190 

, division, 48 

, superior, 249 

, tension, 204 

Vocal plates, 60, 190 

, material of, 191 

Voice, 33, 216 

, compass of, 194, 202 

, quality of, 212 

Vowels, 274 

, cause of difference between, 

276 

, closure of nasal cavity, 225 

, mixed, 289 

, nasal, 257, 298 

, pure, 257, 275 

, summary, 2^6 

^— , varieties, 288 

w, 297, 312, 336 
Whispering, 272 
Windpipe, 12 

, structure of, 35 

Whistling, 189 
Wrisberg, cartilage of, 67 

05,325 

^325 



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THE USE OF THE VOICE 

IJf BEADIJfQ AKB SPEAKIJ^G. 
A Mannal far Clergymen and Candidates for Holy €h*ders. 

By the Bey. FRANCIS T. BUSSELL, M. A., 

Lecturer in Elocution at (he General Theological Seminary^ New Tork^ etc. 



1 VOL., 12mo, cloth - - - Price, |1.50. 



This treatise records the results of some thirty years of study and 
observation in the expressive uses of the voice. It has been prepared in 
the sincere hope that it may be of use to the Clergy and Candidates for 
Orders in the discharge of Divine Service. 



CONTENTS : Part I.— Elocution. Introduction : Primary Conditions of 
Vocal Power ; Breathing Exercises ; Articulation ; Delivery of the Voice—Mode 
of Utterance ; The Voice — Quality: Force ; Pitch; Stress; Inflection, or Slide ; 
Movement ; Panses ; Emphasis : Melody. Part II. — ^Beadino of the Sebvicb. 
Introduction— Expression ; Analysis of the Characteristics contained in the Book 
of Common Prayer as a Guide to Expression ; The Opening Sentences, etc.. of 
Morning and Evening Prayer ; The Anthems, Creed, etc. ; The Prayers : The 
Lessons ; The Decalogue ; The Offertory ; The Burial Service. Part UI.— Man- 
ner IN the Pulpit. Introduction ; Essential Requisites for Effectiveness ; Ges- 
ture ; MisceDaneous Examples ; The Order for Daily Morning Prayer ; The Order 
for Daily Evening Prayer: The Litany, or General Supplication ; The Order for 
the Administration of the Lord^s Supper, or Holy Communion ; The Ministration 
of Baptism to such as are of Riper Tears, and are able to answer for Themselves. 



" We can not see why this work should be announced merely as a manual for 
clergymen, for it contains information and advice of great importance to speakers 
Mid readers of all kinds. It is one of the best works on voice-culture that we 
have seen, and should be studied by all public speakers."— 2Vvy (N. Y.) Frees. 

"A book which should be useful to any student of oratory. Mr. Russell gives 
the experience of a practical teacher, in a clear, simple, and intelligent manner." 
^New York Herald, 

•' No public reader or speaker can fail to profit ftrom a reading of the book." 
—New York Daily Graphic, 

" This admirable treatise was prepared specially for clergymen, and is quite 
as valuable to the teacher and public instructor in secular work as to the clergy." 
—Boston Journal cf JEkiucation. 

" Professor Russell is fitted, both by comprehension of the requirements of 
liturgical worship, and by sound common sense and good judgment, to be a safe 
adviser of his brethren in orders. His directions for the pulpit are as valuable 
as those for acts of worship, though distinctly different in kind. His suggestions 
of hygienic care and training of the vocal organs are wise and helpfiil. His 
pointing out of the common faults of many of our clergy are sensible and keen. 
By the help of this volume, each man can be something of an elocutionist to 
himself. It will be found, moreover, very vivacious re&dingJ*''— Chicago Living 
Church, 

New York : D. APPLETON & CO., 1, 3, & 5 Boiid Street. 



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MAN BEFORE METALS. 

By N. JOLY, 

Professor at the Science Faculty of Toulouse. 

With 148 lUnitratioxiB. .... 12mo, cloth, $1.75. 

CONTENTS.^Vkvs I. The Antiquitt of the Hxtman Race : I. The Pre- 
historic Agee ; II. The Work of Boucher de Perthes ; UI. The Bone GayeB ; IV. 
The Peat Mosses and the Kitchen Middens; V. The Lake Dwellings and the 
Nnraghi: VI. Burial Places; VII. Prehistoric Man in Aanerica; VIII. Man of 
the Tertiary Epoch; IX. The Grejit Antiquity of Man. Pabt II. Pwmitivk 
CiTiLiZATiON : I. Domeetic Life ; II. Industry ; III. Agriculture ; IV. NaYiga- 
tion and Commerce ; V. The Fine Arts; VI. Language and Writing; VII. He- 
ligion ; VIII. The Portrait of Quaternary Man. 

'•*' The discussion of man^s origin and early history, hy Professor De Ouatre- 
fages, formed one of the most aseral yolames in the * International Scientific Se- 
ries/ and the same collection is now (hrther enriched by apopular treatise on 
paleontology by M. N. Joly, Professor in the University of Toulouse. The title 
of the book, * Man before Metals/ indicates the limitations of the writer's theme. 
His object is to bring together the numerous proofs, collected by modem research, 
of the great age of the tinman race, and to show us what man was, in respect of 
customs, industries, and moral or religious ideas, before the use of metals was 
known to him.*'— -ivdto York Sun, 

'* Professor Joly's * Man before Metals * is a good elementary hand book on 
primitive humanity. The author gives somewhat in detail the various proofs 
with regard to the antiquity of man, including chapters on prehistoric man in 
America, and man of the Tertiary epoch. The second part of the book deals with 
primitive civilization, with chapters on the development of domestic life, indus- 
try, agriculture, navigation and commerce, the fine arts, language and writing, 
and religions ideas. Professor Joly pictures man dnring the Quaternary age as 
living in caves, subsisting largely on raw flesh, although £*e had Tone been known, 
armed with stone hunting implements, and clothed In skins which were sewed 
together by means of the none needle. The indications of cannibalism and hu- 
man sacrifice Professor Joly regards as * overwhelming.* But in spite of these 
barbarous customs Quaternary man resembled his descendants of to-day * in all 
essential points.* *He was man in all senses of the word— anatomically, intt;!- 
lectually, and morally.* '''—Boston Daily Evening Traveller. 

** An interesting, not to say fascinating, volume.**— i\r«t0 York Churchman. 

** M. Joly's book sums up the discoveries of modem science bearing on the 
primeval history of man, on the antiquity of the human race, and on the circum- 
stances attending its slow and partial ascent to the modem level of civilization. 
It also presents with brevity but thoroughness the generally accepted theories 
relating to the habits and environment of primitive man. Its useftilness nnd in- 
terest are much Increased by numerous and excellent illustrations.**— ^PAtfo<le/- 
phia North American. 

" This is a book worth owning.**— i\r«£> York Christian Advocate. 

" it is a book of value for study or for readers generallv, and the many impor- 
tant dfscoveries of comparatively recent date give it special interest to American 
scholars, who have made so many of them.**— i\r€tt; Haven Daily Palladium, 

" Professor Joly does not even attempt to guess at the age of prehistoric man. 
Many times ten thousand years is probably as near as reasonable conjecture can 
come to it. The chapters are on general notions of the structure of the earth, 
the splintered rocks of Abbeville, the bone-caves, the Danish peat-mosses, the 
lake-dwellings of Switzerland, various modes of sepulture, prehistoric man in 
America, man of the Tertiary epoch, the great antiquity of man, the origin of the 
rise of fire, the making of stone implements, primitive agricmture. navigation, 
arts of design in caves, the origin of speech, religious ideas of primitive man, 
and the portrait of Quaternary mATL*'— Cincinnati Commercial- Gcusette. 



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Animal Intelligence, 

By OEOBGE J. BOMANES, F.B.S., 

Zoological Secretary of the Linnsean Society, etc 



12mo. Cloth, ll.YS. 

** My object in the work as a whole is twofold : FitBt, I have thought it de- 
sirable that there Bhoold be Homethlng reBembling a textbook of the ficicts of 
Comparative Psychology, to which men of science, and also metaphysicians, may 
tarn whenever they have occasion to acquaint themselves with the particular 
level of iiiteliigence to which this or that species of animal attains. My second 
and mach more important object is that of considering the facts of animal intel- 
ligence in their relation to the theory of desceut."— ^rom the Pr^ace. 

** Unless we are greatly mintaken, Mr. Romaneses work will take its place as 
one of the most attractive volumes of the Intbbnational Scibntific Seribs. 
Some persons may, indeed, be disposed to say that it is too attractive, that it 
feeds tne popular taste for the curious and marvelous without supplying any 
commensurate discipline in exact scientific reflection ; but the author has, we 
think, folly justified himself in his modest preface. The result is the appearance 
of a collection of facts which will be a real boon to the student of Comparative 
Psychology, for this is the first attempt to present systematically well-assured 
observations on the mental life of animals.'^— iSio^t/re/ay Seview. 

"The author believes himself, not without ample cauf^e, to have completely 
bridged the supposed gap between instinct and reason by the authentic proofs 
here mar^halea of remarkable Intelligence in some of the higher animals. It is 
the seemingly conclusive evidence of reasoning powers furnished by the adapta- 
tion of means to ends in cases which can not be explained on the theory of inner- 
ited aptitude or habit.'*— iVew Fork Sun. 

" The high standing of the author as an original investigator is a sufficient 
guarantee that his task has been conscientiously carried out. His subject is one 
of absorbing interest. He has collected and classified an enormous amount of 
information concerning the mental attributes of the animal world. The result 
is astonishing. We find marvelous intelligence exhibited not only by animals 
which are known to be clever, but by others seemingly without a glimmer of 
light, like the snail, for instance. Some animals display imagination, others 
affection, and so on. The psychological portion of the discussion is deeply in- 
teresting."— iVisw York Herald, 

" The chapter on monkeys closes this excellent work, and perhaps the most 
instructive portion of it is that devoted to the life-history of a monRey."— iVetir 
York Times, 

*' Mr. Romanes brings to his work a wide information and the best of scientific 
methods. He has carefully culled and selected an immense mass of data, choos- 
ing with admirable skill those facts which are reallysignificant, and rejecting 
those which lacked sustaining evidence or relevancy. The contents of the volume 
are arranged with reference to the principles which they seem to him to estab- 
lish. The volume is rich and suggestive, and a model in its way."— Boston Courier, 

" It presents the facts of animal intelligence in relation to the theory of de- 
scent, supplementing Darwin and Spencer in tracing the principles which are 
concerned in the genesis of mind."— Newton CommonwealtA, 

** One of the most interesting volumes of the series."— J\reM> York Christian at 
Work. 

" Few subjects have a greater fescination for the general reader than that 
TTfth which this book is occupied."— Gtood Literature^ New York, 



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The Science of Politics. 

By SHELDON AMOS, M. A., 

Aathor of *' The Science of Law,'* etc. 



12mo. Cloth, $1.75. 



CONTENTS: Chapter I. Nature and Limits of the Science of Politics ; II. 
Political Teras; III.- Political Reasoning; IV. The Geographical Area of Mod- 
em Politics ; V. The Primary Elements of Political Life and Action ; VI. Con- 
stitations ; VIL Local Gto^emment ; VIIL The GoTernment of Dependencies ; 
IX. Foreign Relations; X. The Province of Government; XI. Revolations in 
States; XII. Right and Wrong in Politics. 



** It is an able and exhaustive treatise, within a reasonable compass. Some 
of its conclnsions will be disputed, although sterling common sense is a char- 
acteristic of tlie book. To the political student and the practical statesman it 
ought to be of great valae."— iV«(; York Herald. 

** The author traces the subject fh>m Plato and Aiistotle in Greece, and Cicero 
in Rome, to the modem schools in the English field, not slighting the teachings 
of the American Revolution or the lessons of the French Revolution of 1793. 
Forms of government, political terms, the relation of law written and unwritten 
to the subject, a codification from Justinian to Napoleon In France and Field in 
America, are treated as parts of the subject in hand. Necessarily the subjects 
of executive and legislative authority, police, liquor, and land laws are con- 
sidered, and the question ever growing in importance in all countries, the rela- 
tions of corporations to the State."— iViPW York Observer. 

"The preface is dated at Alexandria, and the author says in it that a two 
years* journey round the world— in the course of which he visited the chief 
centers of political life, ancient and modern, In Europe, America, Australasia, 
Polynesia, and North Africa— not only helped him with Illustrations, but was of 
no small use to him In stimulating thought. Mr. Amos treats his subject broad* 
ly, and with the air of having studied It exhaustively. The work will be of real 
assistance to the student of political economy, and even to the reader who wishes 
to extend his general knowledge of politics without a regular course of reading." 
—Boston Transcript. 

" The work Is one of the most valuable of its series, discussing Its subject in 
all Its phases as illustrated in the world^s history. The chapters on Constitu- 
tions, on Forelo:n Relations, on the Province of Government, and on Right and 
Wrong in Politics, are particularly able and thoughtful. In that on Revolu- 
tions In States, the unreasonableness of the attempted revolution of the South- 
era States In this country Is disposed of in a few Incisive sentences."— Boston 
Gazette. 

For sale by all booksellers ; or sent by mail, post-paid, on receipt of priC4, 
New York: D. APPLETON & CO., 1, 3, <fe 5 Bond Street 



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Scientifie Publications. 



ANTS, BEES, AND WASPS. A Becord of Obseryations on the Habits of the 
Social HjmeDoptera. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M. P., F. B. 8., etc., author 
of '' Origin of Civilization, and the Primitive Condition of Man,'" etc, etc With 
Colored Plates. 12iiio, cloth, $2.00. 
"This volume contains the record of various experiments made v«rith ants, bees, and 
wasps during the last ten years, with a view to test their mental condition and powers 
of sense. The principal point in which Sir John's mode of experiment differs from 
those of Huber, Forel, McCook, and others, is that he has carefully watched and 
marked particular insects, and has had their nests under observation for long periods 
— one of his ants^ nests having been under constant inspection ever since 1874. His 
observations are made principally upon ants because they show more power and flexi- 
bility of mind;^aod the value of his studies is that they belong to the department of 
original research.^^ 

" We have no hesitation in saying that the author has presented us with the most 
valuable series of observations on a special subject that has ever been produced, charm- 
ingly written, fhll of logical deductions, and, when we consider his multitudinous en- 
gagements, a remarkable illustration of economy of time. As a contribution to insect 
psychology, it will be long before this book finds a paraHeV^— London Athenceum, 

DISEASES OF MEMORY : An Essay in the Positive Psychology. By Th. 
BiBOT, author of " Heredity," etc. Translated from the French by William 
Huntington Smith. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

" M. Ribot rednces diseases of memory to law, and hie treatise is of extraor- 
dinary inteTeBV—PhUadelphia Pi'ess. 

*'Not merely to scientiflc, but to all thinking men, this volume will prove 
intensely interesting."— j^^ew; York Observer. 

**M. Bibot has bestowed the most painstaking attention upon his theme, 
and numerous examples of the conditions considered greatly increase the value 
and interest ol the Y6\vLme.'''-Fhiladelphia North American. 

" To the general reader the work is made entertaining by many illustrations 
connected with such names as Linnseus. Newton, Sir Walter Scott, Horace Ver- 
net, Gostave Dor6, and many others."— //arri«6ur^ Telegraph. 

** The whole subject is presented with a Frenchman's vivacity of style."— 
Providence Journal. 

*'It is not too much to say that in no single work have so many curious 
C9ses been brought together and interpreted in a scientific manner."— .So^^on 
Evening Traveller, 

MYTH AND SCIENCE. By Tito Vignoli. 12mo, doth, price, $1.50. 

" His book is ingenious ; . . . his theory of how science gradually differen- 
tiated from and conquered myth is extremely well wrought out, and is probably in 
essentials correct."— ^a^urday Review. 

**The book is a strong one, and for more interesting to the general reader than its 
title would indicate. The learning, the acuteness, the strong reasoning power, and the 
scientific spirit of the author, command admfration."— iVew York Christian Advocate. 

"An attempt made, with much ability and no small measure of success, to trace the 
•rigin and development of the myth. The author has pursued his inquiry vrith much 
patience and ingenuity, and has produced a very readable and luminous treatise."— 
Philadelphia North American. 

"It is a curious if not startling contribution both to psychology and to the early 
history of man's devek)pment."—iV<sw York World. 



For sale by aU booksellers ; or sent by mail^ post-paid^ on receipt qf pries. 
New York: D. APPLETON & CO., 1, 3, & 5 Bond Street. 

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Scientific Publications. 



THE BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS. By J. Lurs, Fhyelcian to the 
Hospice de la Salf^tridre. With Illastrations. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50. 

*^No livinsf physiologist is better entitled to speak with authority upon tho 
stmctare and ranctions of the brain than Dr. Lnys. His studies on the anatomy 
of the nervuus system are acknowledged to be the fullest and most systematic 
ever undertaken. Dr. Luys supports his conclusions not only by his own ana- 
tomical researches, but also by many functional observations of various other 
physiologists, including of course Professor Ferrier^s now classical experi- 
ments."— 5!?. Jameses Oazette. 

^* Dr. Luys, at the head of the great French Insane Asylnm, is one of the most 
eminent and successful investigators of cerebral science now living; and he has 
given unquestionably the clearest and most interesting brief account yet made of 
the structura and operations of the brain. We have been fascinated oy this vol- 
ume more than by any other treatise we have yet seen on the machinery of sen- 
sibility and thought ; and we have been instructed not only by mnch that is new, 
but by many sagacious practical hints snch as it is well for everybody to under- 
stand."— TAa Popular Science Monthly. 

THE CONCEPTS AND THEORIES OF MODERN PHYSICS. By 

J. B. Staixo. 12mo. Cloth, $1.75. 

" Judge Stallo's work is an inquiry into the validity of those mechanical con- 
ceptions of the universe which are now held as fundamental in physical science. 
He takes up the leading modern doctrines which are based upon this mechanical 
conception, such as the atomic constitution of matter, the kinetic theory of gases, 
the conservation of energy, the nebular hvpothesis, and other views, to find how 
much stands npon solid empirical i;ronna. and how much rests upon metaphys- 
ical speculation. Since the appearance of Dr. Draper*s ' Religion and Science,' 
no book has been published in the country calculated to make so deep an impres- 
sion on thoughtfiil and educated readers as this volume. . . . The range and 
minuteness of the author's learning, the acuteness of his reasoning, and the 
simrular precision and clearness of his style, are qualities which very seldom 
have been joindy exhibited in a scientific treatise."— iV<n(7 York Sun. 

THE FORMATION OF TEGETABLE MOULD, THROUGH THE 
ACTION OF WORMS, WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THEIR 
HABITS. By Charles Darwin, LL. D., F. R. 8., author of " On the 
Origin of Species," etc., etc. With Illustrations. 12mo, cloth. Price, $liiO. 

** Mr. Darwin's little volume on the habits and instincts of earth-worms is no 
less marked than the earlier or more elaborate efforts of his j^enius by freshness 
of observation, unfailing power of interpreting and correlating facte, and logical 
vigor In generalizing npon them. The main purpose of the work is to point ont 
the share which worms have taken in the formation of the layer of vegetable 
mould which covers the whole surface of the land in every moderately nnmid 
country. All lovers of nature will unite in thanking Mr. Darwin for the new and 
interesting light he has thrown upon a subject po long overlooked, yet so fhll of 
interest and Instruction, as the stracture and the labors of the earth-worm." — 
Saturday Review. 

** Respecting worms as among the most usefhl portions of animate nature. 
Dr. Darwin relates, in this remarkable book, their structure and habits, the part 
they have played in the burial of ancient buDdings and the denudation of the 
land, in the disintegration of rocks, the preparation of soil for the growth of 
plants, and in the natural history of the world."— .Bo9^o» Advertiser. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

1. 3, & 5 Bond Street, Kew To>k. 



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Scientific Publications. 



BUI€II>E : An Essay in Gomparatiye Moral Statistics. By Henbt Mobselli, Pro* 
feasor of Psychologricai Medicine in Boyal University, Turin. 12mo, Cloth, $l.t5. 
** Suicide " is a scientific inquiry, on the basis of the statistical method, into the laTrs 
of suicidal phenomena. Dealing with the subject as a branch of sociaJ science, it con- 
siders the increase of suicide in different countries, and the comparison of nations, 
races, and periods in its manifestation. The influences of age, sex. constitution, cli- 
mate, season, occapation, religion, prevailing ideas, the elements of character, and the 
(tendsncies of civilization, are comprehensively analyzed in their bearing upon the pro- 
pensity to self-destruction. Professor Morselli is an eminent European authority on 
this subject. It is accompanied by colored maps illustrating pictonally the results of 
statistical inquiries. 

VOIiCANOES : What they Are and what they Teach. By J. W. Jfdd, 
Professor of Geology in the Boyal School of Mines (London). With Ninety-six 
Illustrations. 12mo. Cloth, |2.00. 

" In no field has modern research been more fruitftil than in that of which Professor 
Judd gives a popular account in the present volume. The great lines of dynamical, 
geological, and meteorological inquiry converge upon the grand problem of the interior 
constitution of the earth, and the vast influence of subterranean agencies. . . . Kls 
book is very far from being a mere drjr description of volcanoes and their eruptions ; it 
is rather a presentation of the terrestrial facts and laws with which volcanic phenomeiia 
are associated."— jRM?i//ar Science Monthly. 

^ The volume before us is one of the pleasantest science manuals we have read for 
some tivae.^—Athenoium. 

^ Mr. Judd''s summary is so fhU and so concise that it is almost impossible to give 
a fair idea in a short review."— Pa// MaU Gazette. 

THE SUN, By C. A. Toitng, Ph. D., LL. D., Professor of Astronomy in the College 
of New Jersey. With numerous Illustrations. 12mo. Cloth, |2.00. 

" Professor Young is an authority on ' The Sun,' and writes from intimate knowl- 
edge. He has studied that gre&t luminary all his life, invented and improved instru- 
ments for observing it, gone to all quarters of the world in search of the best places 
and opportunities to watch it, and nas contributed important discoveries that have 
extendel our knowledge of it. 

'"'' It would take a cvcloptedia to represent all that has been done toward clearing up 
the solar mysteries. Professor Young has summarized the information, and presented 
it in a form completely available for general readers. There is no rhetoric in his book ; 
he trusts the grandeur of his theme to kindle interest and impress the feelings. His 
statements are plain, direct, clear, and condensed, though ample enough for his purpose, 
and the substance of what is generally wanted will be found accurately given in his 
pages."— Popw/ar Science MontJUy. 

HiliUSIONS : A Psychological Study. By James Sullt, author of " Sensa- 
tion and Intuition," etc. 12mo. Gloth, $1.50. 

This volume takes a wide survey of the field of error, embracing in its view not only 
the illusions commonly regarded as of the nature of mental aberrations or hallucina- 
tions, but also other illusions arising from that capacity for error which belongs essen- 
tially to rational human nature. The author has endeavored to keep to a strictly scien- 
tific treatment— that is to say, the description and classification of acknowledged errors, 
and the exposition of them by a reference to their psychical and physical conditions. 

"" This is not a technical work, but one of wide popular interest, in the principles and 
results of which every one is concerned. The illusions of perception of the senses and 
of dreams are first considered, and then the author passes to the illusions of introspec- 
tion, errors of insight, illusions of memory, and illusions of belief. The work is a note- 
worthy contribution to the original progress of thought, and may b3 relied upon as 
:representing the present state of knowledge on the important subject to which It is 
devoted."— Popwor Science Monthly, 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

1. 3. and 6 Bond Street, New York* 



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GENBBAI. PHYSIOIiOOY OF MUSCI^S AND NERTBS. BjDr. 1 

Rosenthal, Professor of Physiology at the University of Brlangen. With 
seventy-five Woodcuts. (** International Scientific Series/^) 12mo, cloth, 
$1.50. 

" The attempt at a connected account of the general physiolosy of muscles 
^nd nerves is, as far as I know, the first of its kind. The general data for thlrf 
'branch of science have been gained ouly within the past thirty years. ^*—J!^rac/ 
from Frtfaoe. 

SIGHT : An Exposition of the Principles of Monocular and Binocular Visioo 
By Joseph Le Conte, LL.D., author of *' Elements of Gteology "; "Re- 
ligion and Science " ; and Professor of Geology and Natural History in the 
University of California. With numerous Illustrations. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

*^ It is pleasant to find an American book which can rank with the very best 
of foreign works on this subiect. Professor Le Conte han long been known as 
an original investi^tor in this department; all that he gives us is treated with 
a master-hand.'"— 7%« Nation. 

ANIMAIi LIFE, as aff'ected by the Natural Conditions of Existence. By 
Karl Semper, Professor of the University of Wfirzbui^. With 2 Maps 
and 106 Woodcuts, and Index. 13mo, cloth, $2.00. 

" This is in many respects one of the most interesting contributions to 
zo6\og'ica\ literature which has appeared for some time."— ^a^ur^. 

THE ATOMIC THEORY. By Ad. Wurtz, Membre de Tlnstitut ; Doyen 
Honoraire de la Faculty de M^decine ; Professeurd la Faculty des Sciences 
de Paris. Translated by E. Clbxinshaw, M. A., F. C.S., F. I. C, Assist- 
ant Master at Sherborne School. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

** There was need for a book like this, which discusses the atomic theory both 
in its historic evolution and in its present form. And perhaps no man of this 
age could have been selected so able toperform the ta»k in a masterly way as 
the illustrious French chemist, Adolph Wurtz. It is impossible to conve;r to the 
reader, in a notice like this, any adequate idea of the scope, lucid instructiveness. 
and scientific interest of Professor Wurtz' s book. The modern problems of 
chemistry, which are commonly so obscure from imperfect exposition, are here 
made wonderfully clear and attractive.'*— 7^ Foptdar Science Monthly. 

THE CRAYFISH. An Introduction to the Study of ZoOlogy. By Professor 
T. H. HuxLET, F. R. S. With 82 Illustrations. 12mo, cloth, $1.75. 

" Whoever will follow these pages, crayfish in hand, and will try to verify for 
himself the statements which they contain, will find himself brou{;ht face to face 
with all the erreat zoological questions which excite so lively an interest at the 
present day." 

*' The reader of this valuable monograph will lay it down with a feeling of 
wonder at the amount and variety of matter which has been got out of so seem- 
ingly slight and unpretending a B\i\i}QcV— Saturday Review. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

1, 8, & 5 Bond Street, New York. 



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