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Full text of "Organ-Stops And Their Artistic Registration"

786.7 A9lo cop 1 

Audsley 

Orpan-stops and their artistic 

registration,,. 




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? 1318 



WAR 14 1979 



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3 1148 00076 3458 




CHURCH OF SAINT-OUKN, UOUtiN 



ORGAN -STOPS 

AND THEIR 

ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 

NAMES, FORMS, CONSTRUCTION, 
TONALITIES, AND OFFICES IN 
SCIENTIFIC COMBINATION * * 



BY 

GEORGE ASHDOWN^UDSLEY, LL.D. 

ECCLESIASTICAL AND ORGAN ARCHITECT 

AUTHOR OF "TEE ART OF ORGAN-BUILDING," "THE ORGAN OF THE 

TWENTIETH CENTURY," NUMEROUS ARTICLES ON ORGAN MATTERS 

AND ACOUSTICS, AND AUTHOR AND JOINT AUTHOR OF TWENTY-THREE 

WORKS ON ARCHITECTURE, ART, AND INDUSTRY 



ILLUSTRATED 



NEW YORK 

THE H. W. GRAY CO. 
AGENTS FOR NOVELLO & CO., LTD. 



COPYRIGHT, 1921, BY THE IT. W, GRAY Co, 
COPYRIGHT RENEWED, 1949 



FOREWORD 

An attempt has been made in the present work to furnish the 
organist, and especially the organ student, with a work of ready ref- 
erence respecting the numerous Stops which have been and now 
are introduced in the Organ: giving, so far as is practicable in a 
necessarily brief and condensed form, their various names in dif- 
ferent languages, peculiarities of formation, tonal characteristics, 
and value and office in scientific and artistic combination and 
artistic registration. 

It is hoped that the work will be accepted as a text-book in 
Organ Schools and Conservatories of Music, leading toward, and 
lending help to, a branch of study of the greatest value and impor- 
tance to the organ student; but one which, in too many quarters, 
has been seriously neglected. That a thorough knowledge of the 
tonal forces of the Organ and their varied powers in scientific and 
artistic combination and registration, for the production of special 
and expressive qualities of both compound, unimitative organ, and 
imitative orchestral tones, is essential to the accomplished organist, 
admits of no question. Accordingly, it is highly desirable that the 
student should leave the organ school with, at least, a foundation 
laid for that thorough knowledge. It is with the earnest desire 
to contribute effectively to the laying of that foundation that the 
present work is placed at the command of both teachers and pupils. 

In another direction, and one of great importance at the present 
time, this work, if properly understood, will prove of considerable 
value; namely, in giving reliable advice and assistance in the prepa- 
ration of stop appointments and apportionments for new Organs. 
It will lead away, if read aright, from the present systemless, in- 
sufficient, and largely retrograde prevailing method of stop appoint- 
ment, toward a logical, scientific, and definite artistic system, in 



FOREWORD 

which compound tone production in all its desirable Conns can be 
carried out in accordance with the natural laws of sound. 

Care has been taken to render correctly all stop-names in the 
different languages in which they originated and are employed 
to-day: reference to which will prevent the use of the incorrect 
names, either wrongly spelt or improperly compounded of words in 
different languages, which are so commonly found on English and 
American organ-builders' draw-stop knobs or tablets. With such a 
Glossary as is provided in the present work, there need be no mis- 
takes made or incorrect renderings of stop-names perpetrated in new 
organ consoles, 

Certain stop-names introduced by organ-builders have been 
omitted from the Glossary on account of their absurd or meaning- 
less character. These are names which have no relation to 
anything connected with either the formation or tonality of the 
pipes forming the stops. All such meaningless names should be 
condemned by every organist and lover of the Monarch of all 
Instruments. 



GEORGE ASHDOWN AUDSLKY, 



BLOOMFIKLD, NEW JERSEY, 
JANUARY, 1921. 



PLATES 



CHURCH OF SAINT-OUEN, ROUEN . . Frontispiece 



PAGE 



PLATE I. BASSOON; BASSOON; BELL GAMBA; CLARINET; 
COR ANGLAIS 4 

PLATE II CORNO DI BASSETTO; DIAPASON; DOLCAN; 
FLITTE A PAVILLON; FLUTE HARMONIQUE ... 78 

PLATE III GEMSHORN; HORN; KERAULOPHONE; OBOE; 
ORCHESTRAL OBOE H^ 

PLATE IV THE HASKELL LABIAL TUBA MIRABILIS . 266 



ORGAN-STOPS 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 



*' Without the least hyperbole it may be said, that c&teris paribus, the man 
who is capable of being affected by sweet sounds, is a being more perfectly 
organized,, than he who is insensible to, or offended by them. " 

DR. CHARLES BURNEY. 

In Organ-stop Registration, as in artistic orchestration, "there 
is no royal road to learning. 71 Natural musical taste and apprecia- 
tion of the beautiful in musical sounds may go far in the education 
of the organist ; but earnest studies along scientific and artistic lines 
are in all cases necessary for the complete command of tonal color- 
ing, by means of registration and the knowledge of the tonal values 
of the multitudinous and varied voices of the Organ. As Dr. 
Burney truly says: "The science of musical sounds, though it may 
have been deprecated, as appealing only to the ear, affording nothing 
more than a momentary and fugitive delight, may be with justice 
considered as the art that unites corporal with intellectual pleasure 
by a species of enjoyment which gratifies sense without weakening 
reason; and which, therefore, the Great may cultivate without de- 
basement and the Good enjoy without depravation."* 

Let the organ student realize, once for all, if he is to become an 
artist, that haphazard methods of registration must be shunned, 
and dependence placed on knowledge acquired by study, observa- 
tion, and experience. The earnest study of artistic registration and 
the tonal value of organ-stops, singly and in combination, should 
accompany all lessons on, and the practice of, the technical branch 
of organ playing: but how seldom, in organ schools, is a student's 
attention specially directed to the all-important matter of tonal 
coloring. 

* " A General History of Music, " by Dr. Charles Burney, London, 1776. 

I 



2 ORGAN-STOPS 

Excellence and precision of manual and pedal technic are, of 
course, imperative in the satisfactory rendition of an organ composi- 
tion; but technic is not the only, or, perhaps, the most important, 
factor. It may be said to be the skeleton which has to bo clothed 
with the flesh and nervous power of beautiful and expressive sounds 
alone secured by scientific combination and artistic registration 
of appropriate and expressive tonal elements. The most consum- 
mate technical skill is altogether insttfficient in the presence of a 
careless and inappropriate registration to produce a truly artistic 
and expressive rendering of an organ composition. 

With the acquisition of manual and pedal technic should go a 
serious study of the tonal forces of the Organ, their combination, 
and effective registration; for it is appropriate tonal coloring which 
gives the spirit and expressiveness to the music, which no single 
performer save the organist is capable of producing, and for which 
no instrument save the Organ can furnish the necessary tonal ele- 
ments music which can only be surpassed by the united forces of 
the grand orchestra under the control of an accomplished conductor. 
The organist is as the conductor; the many and diverse tonal forces 
of the Organ are his instrumentalists : it rests with him to marshal 
those forces, in ever-changing groups, so as to produce the artistic 
and life-giving effects his music demands; and for the interpretation 
of his most refined conceptions. Again, the organist is as the painter 
before his canvas, brush in hand; the stops of his Organ are the 
colors of many tints, hues, and shades, spread for his ready use on a 
serviceable palette; to be combined, at will, in endless variety as the 
spirit of the tone-picture inspires him. What a wonderful world of 
tone the organist can live in if he only realizes his birthright his 
citizenship in the land of beautiful sound. The organist stands 
supreme in the musical world the master of the most stupendous, 
the most wonderful musical instrument ever conceived by the mind 
and fabricated by the hand of man. Think of it, ye Organists, 
tod rise to the level of your birthright ! 

Before going deeper into our subject, we may here give a few 
more pertinent words from the able pen of England's great musical 
historian. Alluding to tonal matters and the Organ of his day, he 
remarks: "Of Musical Tones the most grateful to the ear are such 
as are produced by the vocal organs. And next to singing, the most 
pleasing kinds are those which approach the nearest to vocal ; such as 
can be sustained, swelled, and diminished, at pleasure. Of these, 
first in rank are such as the most excellent performers produce from 
the Violin, Flute, and Hautbois. If it were to be asked what in- 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 3 

strument is capable of affording the GREATEST EFFECTS ? I should 
answer, the ORGAN, which can not only imitate a number of other 
instruments, but is so comprehensive as to possess the power of a 
numerous orchestra. It is, however, very remote from perfection, 
as it wants expression, and a more perfect intonation." Much of 
what is said in the concluding sentence is true of the Organ of to- 
day, greatly superior as the best examples are to the Organ known to 
Dr. Burney. The Organ still wants full powers of expression com- 
bined with tonal flexibility throughout all its divisions. Accordingly, 
while much has been done of late years in certain directions, still 
more has to be achieved by the organ-designer and organ-builder 
before the Organ can be pronounced an instrument for the true 
artist and inspired virtuoso. Certainly, what has been done during 
the last seventy years in the direction of imitative orchestral-toned 
stops, was hardly foreshadowed in Burney's day. The Swell Organ 
known to him was usually of short compass and very indifferently 
_stop-apportioned. Writing in 1771, this distinguished author 
remarks : 

"It is very extraordinary that the swell which has been introduced into the 
English organ more than fifty years, and which is so capable of expression and of 
pleasing effects that it may well be said to be the greatest and most important 
improvement that ever was made on any keyed instrument, should be utterly 
unknown in Italy ; and now I am on the subject, I must observe that most of the 
organs I have met with on the Continent seem to be inferior to ours by Father 
Smith, Byfield, or Snetzler, in everything but size! As the churches there are 
very often immense so are the organs; the tone indeed is somewhat softened and 
refined by space and distance; but when heard near, it is intolerably coarse and 
noisy ; and though the number of stops in these large instruments is very great, 
they afford but little variety, being for the most part duplicates in unisons and 
octaves to each other, such as the great and small I2ths, flutes, and I5ths; hence 
our organs, not only the touch and tone, but the imitative stops are greatly supe- 
rior to those of any other organs I have met with."* 

Alluding to the first swell introduced in a German Organ, which 
is understood to have been in the Organ, built by Hildebrand, in 
1764, for the Church of St. Michael, Hamburg, Burney says: "A 
swell has been attempted in this instrument, but with little effect; 
only three stops have been put into it, and the power of crescendo 
dimimiendo is so small with them, that if I had not been told there 
was a swell, I should not have discovered it."f 

We have introduced the subject of the swell at this early point 

* " Present State of Music in France and Italy," 1771, P- 375- 

f" Present State of Music in Germany, the Netherlands, and United Provinces," 1775- 
Vol. II., p. 103- 



4 ORGAN-STOPS 

of our brief essay because it has a direct and very important bearing 
on the matter of artistic registration. If one examines the stop 
appointments of the Organs of Burncy's days, or of all the old Organs 
in which no swell was introduced; and, indeed, of those, of later 
times, which possessed only a single flexible and expressive division, 
one cannot avoid being impressed with the very limited opportuni- 
ties they present for varied registration artistic registration being 
practically out of the question. So few were the useful combina- 
tions of the stops in the older Organs that they were commonly 
commanded by foot-levers, called "combination pedals/' Artistic 
registration, as it is understood to-day, was practically unknown in 
connection with the old Organs : and, it must be acknowledged that 
it still continues undesirably difficult in too many of the modern 
Organs tonally schemed on old-fashioned lines. Stops properly 
chosen and apportioned among the different divisions of the Organ, 
under the principles of class grouping, tonal contrast, absolute 
flexibility regarding strength of voice, and compound expression, as 
long advocated and first practically introduced by us in the Organ, 
are the only efficient means by which scientific tonal combination 
and truly artistic registration can be carried out to the extreme 
extent, now necessary in the proper and effective rendering of the 
works of the great and distinguished composers of organ music, and 
especially the modern transcriptions of orchestral scores. 

The system of stop-apportionment and control which we have 
devised and strongly advocate, is widely different from the old- 
fashioned and seemingly purposeless method which has so long ob- 
tained in organ-building, and may be briefly described here. It 
comprises the grouping of stops of different tonalities in the several 
manual divisions of an Organ, according to their special offices in 
the complete tonal scheme of the instrument, and for the ready 
production, without recourse to undesirable coupling, of the numer- 
ous and very varied organ and orchestral tonal combinations and 
effects, absolutely called for in modern artistic organ playing. To 
secure what is essential, each division has a distinct general and 
special tonality, contrasting with that of every other division; un- 
necessary duplication of stops of the same tonality being thereby 
avoided. Each division, having its own office to fulfil, is given 
special powers of flexibility and expression; those devoted to the 
stops representing the "wood-wind" and "brass-wind" forces of 
the grand orchestra being divided into two tonally contrasting por- 
tions, each of which is given independent powers of flexibility and 
expression. The division devoted to the foundation stops and those 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 5 

properly belonging to the Organ, commonly designated Great Organ, 
is also divided into two portions, only one of which, comprising 
special registrational, harmonic-corroborating, and lingual stops, is 
rendered flexible and expressive; although both subdivisions may 
be so treated if deemed desirable. The Solo, String, and Ancillary 
Organs are rendered flexible and expressive, but do not require to 
be divided.* 

On a first and hasty consideration, the introduction of the new 
principles of divisional and subdivisional tonal contrast and flexibil- 
ity and expression may not seem to the organist, who has only 
known the present unsystematic and haphazard method of stop- 
apportionment (to be observed in every modern organ specification) , 
to be of any great scientific or artistic importance or value. But let 
him devote sufficient time to the study of those principles, with an 
open and unprejudiced mind, and he will find that for the conven- 
ient and certain production of refined and beautiful tonal combina- 
tions and orchestral effects, and for facility in scientific and artistic 
registration, the combined principles form the greatest and most 
valuable improvement in the tonal branch of organ-building ever 
instituted in modern days, since the time we placed in the year 
1870 three independent tonal subdivisions on one manual clavier; 
two of which are flexible and expressive, being inclosed in separate 
swell-boxes. This unique step may or may not be considered a small 
beginning; but, as Burney pertinently remarks: "The feeble be- 
ginnings of whatever becomes great or eminent, are interesting to 
mankind. To Artists, therefore, and to real lovers of art, nothing 
relative to the object of their employment or pleasure is indifferent." 

Let us consider briefly what is possible to be done with a single 
clavier, tonally appointed in the manner alluded to. Say that it 
commands sixteen stops of varied and artistically chosen tonalities 
and pitches; eight of which are inclosed in, say, swell-box A and 
eight in swell-box B ; the stops being divided so as to provide con- 
trasting voices and be practically independent. It also being ar- 
ranged that either one or both the subdivisions shall be available on 
the clavier at the pleasure of the performer. Now, for the considera- 
tion of registration, we shall confine our remarks to the element of 
flexibility, neglecting for the present the all-important element of 
expression, and suppose both the subdivisions to be commanded by 
the clavier. It can be readily realized that by simply opening either 



* For full particulars, see Chapter XI., on the Co ncert-room Organ, in our work, "The Organ 
the Twentieth Century." 



6 ORGAN-STOPS 

swell, more or less, the voices of the inclosed stops can be graduated 
to any desirable strength of intonation an absolutely invaluable 
property in refined and artistic registration, multiplying the utility 
and combinational effects of the stops at least tenfold. Now suppose 
a registration of certain stops of both subdivisions is essayed, the 
voices of which are in sharp contrast, the character of the compound 
tone produced can be altered, at will, without changing a stop, 
either on one side or the other; and the relative strengths of its con- 
trasting elements adjusted through the flexibility imparted to the 
voices of the inclosed stops, by the simple opening or closing of the 
shutters of the allied swells, commanded by the expression levers. 
By the simple touching of these levers any desirable intensity of 
tone and effects of light and shade can be imparted to the music 
being performed: and this without removing the hands from the 
clavier, or having any resort to undesirable coupling, which would 
unavoidably cripple the independence of another clavier. 

What we have attempted to describe may not appear, on first 
impressions, as in any way remarkable to the organist acquainted 
only with the one-ply stop-apportionments of the Organs of to-day. 
But let us inform him of the fact that the multitudinous and prac- 
tically inexhaustible tonal effects, colorings, and refined nuances, 
easy of production, under our system of divisional and subdivision^ 
stop-apportionment and compound flexibility, on this single clavier, 
could not be produced on the claviers of the largest Concert-room 
Organ ever constructed up to this year of grace (1920), And let 
him try to realize what could be done on an Organ in which three or 
four of its manual divisions are equipped in the compound manner 
described above. We foolishly essayed the task, and our mind was 
quickly baffled in the attempt. 

Up to this point we have treated only of the stationary com- 
pound tones, produced by registration, under the simple graduation 
of strength, effected by the property of flexibility, which merely 
called for a set or temporarily fixed adjustment of the shutters of 
the swells. We have now to consider the operations of the allied 
property of compound expression, which can be exercised in four 
different ways. i. Expression can be given simultaneously to the 
tones of both subdivisions; by operating the expression levers of the 
swells (located close together) at the same time, 2. Expression 
can be given to the tones of cither subdivision, the tones of the other 
subdivision remaining unaffected at the fixed degree of strength 
desired; by adjusting one expression lever at any set point, and 
operating the other as required. 3. Expression can be given to the 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 7 

tones of the subdivisions alternately; by operating the expression 
levers alternately. 4. Expression can be given to the tones of the 
subdivisions simultaneously in contrary directions, one series under- 
going a crescendo while the other series is undergoing a decrescendo; 
by operating the expression levers, in contrary motion, by both feet 
(sans pedale). 

The principles of compound flexibility and expression would be 
of comparatively little value in the absence of the correlative system 
of classified stop-apportionment and tonal contrast we have in- 
troduced. There are two grand divisions of organ-stops. First, 
that division embracing those stops essentially of a solo character 
which imperatively demand the fullest possible powers of expression ; 
but which are practically independent of combination or registra- 
tion, save for the purpose of accentuation or coloration of tone, 
Among such stops are those which represent important orchestral 
instruments such as the Violin, Violoncello, Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, 
Trumpet, Horn, and Trombone. Secondly, that much larger divi- 
sion composed, for the most part, of organ-toned and unimitative 
stops, which are largely, and to a considerable extent exclusively, 
employed in combination and registration, for the production of 
compound tones of great variety and pronounced colorings. For 
the full development of these purposes, the system of classified 
divisional and subdivisional stop-apportionment, under complete 
control as regards flexibility and expression, we advocate, is abso- 
lutely necessary from the simple fact that such essential artistic 
conditions cannot be met tinder the aimless and heterogeneous 
method of stop-appointment followed, practically without varia- 
tion, in the organ-building world to-day. If this view of the matter 
is questioned, let anyone, capable of forming an open-minded opin- 
ion of a scientific and artistic caliber, take a hundred or more of the 
so-called specifications of the more important and representative 
modern Organs and carefully consider their lists of stops and judge 
for himself.* 

There are two classes of labial stops which are of great value in 
scientific combination and artistic registration; but which have been 
very unwisely neglected of late years, partly on account of a want of 
a full knowledge of their great offices in tone-production ; but chiefly 
on the part of those organ-builders who desire to evade the trouble 
and uncertainty attending their proper formation, artistic voicing, 



* It may be helpful to compare any of their tonal schemes with that given for the Concert- 
room Organ in "The Organ of the Twentieth Century.' ' 



8 ORGAN-STOPS 

and scientific regulation. We allude to the harmonic-corroborating 
mutation and the compound stops; the latter commonly designated 
MIXTURES, which, as has been wisely said of other things, "when 
they're good they're very good, but when they're bad they're 
horrid." They are usually bad! It is quite easy to understand, in 
this inartistic and dollar-worshiping epoch, the objection of the 
organ-builder to the introduction of the necessary amount of har- 
monic-corroborating work in a large Organ. A MIXTURE, of five or 
more ranks, requiring three hundred and five or many more pipes, 
properly composed, scaled, and artistically voiced, and, what is of 
equal importance, scientifically graduated in tone in strict accord- 
ance with the natural laws of compound musical sounds, is a problem 
very few organ-builders will care to solve. It cannot be satisfac- 
torily essayed in the hurry and noise of the ordinary factory voicing- 
room. On simple trade grounds, such troublesome and labor-de- 
manding stops are to be omitted in all possible cases; and an ex- 
amination of the great majority of modern organ stop-appointments 
clearly show how systematically they are omitted. Alas for Art ! 

We have before us as we write the lists of the stops of two large 
and important Organs, which may be accepted as representing the 
latest and highest achievements in organ-designing, in the direction 
of stop-appointment. The largest presents upwards of two hundred 
and seventy complete and independent speaking stops; and in this 
immense number there are only five MIXTURES, comprising in all 
only twenty ranks of pipes. The other list presents one hundred and 
one speaking stops (including derived and borrowed stops) ; in which 
there are three MIXTURES, comprising, in all, only eight ranks of 
pipes. 

The most effective criticism we can pass on the insufficient 
harmonic appointments detailed above, is to give the contrasting 
appointment of our scheme for the Concert-room Organ, set forth in 
"The Organ of the Twentieth Century." In this there are two 
hundred and twenty-three complete and eight derived speaking 
stops; among which are apportioned fourteen MIXTURES, compris- 
ing, in all, sixty-four ranks of pipes. Great as this number may 
appear, by comparison, we are prepared to prove, on both scientific 
and artistic grounds, that for such an Organ there is not a rank too 
many; indeed, had we not introduced the Ancillary Harmonic Organ 
a larger number of compound harmonic-corroborating stops would 
have been necessary to meet the demands of artistic and effective 
registration and tone coloration. 

A great injury was done to the tonal structure of the Organ by 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 9 

the false idea, introduced by self-interested parties, that the har- 
monic-corroborating stops, simple and compound, could be dis- 
pensed with, provided certain stops were introduced, the voices of 
which were naturally rich in harmonic upper partials, such as 
heavily-blown, small-scaled, string-toned stops ; but a greater mistake 
was never made. Such highly-colored penetrating tonalities are of 
very little use in artistic registration, generally objectionable, and 
absolutely valueless in the creation of delicately colored qualities 
of tone. Such qualities of compound tone are only possible by the 
use of softly- voiced stops associated with such stops as the scientifi- 
cally formed and tonally graduated DULCIANA CORNET or HAR- 
MONIA ^ETHERIA. 

In artistic registration, two distinct classes of musical tones 
obtain those due to the Harmony of Analogy and those due to the 
Harmony of Contrast. The former class is produced by the regis- 
tration of stops of the same family or of very closely allied families, 
differing only slightly in strength of voice, or between which a very 
close affinity exists. The latter class, and much the more effective 
and important, is produced by the skillful registration of stops of 
widely different families, of contrasting tonalities, and of pitches 
far apart. In both classes harmonic-corroborating stops are valu- 
able, and, if properly chosen, enrich without altering to any unde- 
sirable degree their characteristic tonalities. Light and shade can 
be imparted to a compound tone without changing its dominant 
character; while, on the other hand, very refined colorings can be 
imparted by introducing compound harmonic timbre-creating stops. 
Organists will, however, have to wait patiently for these; for organ- 
builders are at present trying to get rid of, rather than contemplat- 
ing the introduction of new and more valuable, compound harmonic- 
corroborating stops: that must be evident to everyone who takes 
the trouble to critically examine the lists of stops in the so-called 
specifications of Organs being turned out to-day. 

The beauty that perfectly constructed and scientifically bal- 
anced compound harmonic-corroborating stops impart to the vari- 
ous tonal groupings characteristic of the Organ is hardly known 
to the organists of the present time. This is greatly to be regretted ; 
and the knowledge will be very difficult to obtain until some thor- 
oughly scientific artist in compound harmonic tone production 
furnishes organists with the means of acquiring it. 

In scheming the stop-apportionment of every division and sub- 
division of an Organ, the special value and office of every stop, in 
solo effects and in artistic, combination, should be studiously con- 



io ORGAN-STOPS 

sidered. There should be no combinational stops inserted which 
would prove of little use. It should be realized that each division 
and subdivision of an Organ should be devised to occupy a distinct 
place, and fulfil a special office, in the tonal economy of the entire 
instrument. As great a degree of tonal independence should be 
aimed at as general conditions permit of; thereby preventing any 
undesirable resort to coupling of the claviers. When any two 
claviers are coupled, one or the other is for the time being crippled 
tonally, unless under some exceptional conditions. Such coupling 
should seldom have to be resorted to, unless necessary for the mass- 
ing of different and contrasting tones and the production of full 
effects. The more perfectly an Organ is stop-apportioned in its 
several divisions, the less will the resort to coupling be required, 
especially in artistic registration for music of an orchestral or sym- 
phonic character. 

There never has been a more serious blow given to the science 
and art of organ tonal-appointment than that given when Leonard 
Dryvers, organ-builder, of Wesscl-Loo-Louvoin, sprang on the 
organ-building world his unscientific, inartistic, and pernicious 
system of stop-appointment, tinder the appellation "I/Orgue 
Simplifie." A system founded on trade expedients, find devoid of a 
single scientific or artistic clement in its favor. Had it been con- 
fined to its originator and his interested supporter Couwenbergh 
little injury might have accrued. Unfortunately it was espoused 
by the late Robert Hope-Jones, and is still advocated by some of his 
followers. On the other hand, and very fortunately for the true art 
of organ-building, the system (if system it can be called) is con- 
demned by every thoughtful and accomplished organist and lead- 
ing organ-builder of the present hour. Prom a purely artistic and 
common-sense point of view we raise our voice in protest against a 
system of tonal appointment at variance with all the laws and 
canons of musical sound. 

The Organ, tonally appointed on the Dryvers system, described 
by H. V. Couwenbergh, of Averbode, in his pamphlet published in 
1887, comprises only the following stops: MONTRK, 16 FT,; BOUR- 
DON, 16 FT. ("dont le dessus est ouvert en FLOTE HARMONIQUE"); 
VroLON, 16 FT.; and BOMBARDE, 16 FT. From these four stops, of 
extended compass, are formed no fewer than thirty-one stops of 
i6ft, 8ft, 4ft, and 2 ft pitch: the MONTHE furnishing seven stops, 
all of the same quality and strength of tone; the BOURDON furnish- 
ing ten stops of somewhat irregular quality and strength of tone; the 
VIOLON furnishing seven stops of the same quality and strength of 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION u 

tone; and the BOMBARDE furnishing also seven stops of the same 
quality and strength of tone : only four qualities of tone, and no 
mutation and high-pitched harmonic-corroborating ranks, in an 
instrument presenting after a fashion thirty-one speaking stops. 
Can anyone gifted with musical knowledge and refined taste imagine 
such a tonal monstrosity anywhere save in a noisy merry-go-round 
at a seaside resort or a country fair? To conceive it an instrument 
for the performance of true and refined organ music is impossible : 
to speak of its stops being capable of scientific combination and 
artistic registration would be laughable.* Yet the fact remains 
that instruments we will not call them Organs have been con- 
structed on such a system in this country : but we are not aware of 
any examples having been perpetrated either in England or France 
We sincerely trust that such an outrage on the noble and scientific 
art of organ-building will not be encouraged. 

Only slightly less objectionable and destructive of tonal powers 
is the present growing system of borrowing stops from certain divi- 
sions of an Organ to make up deficiencies in other divisions. This 
method has the effect of making a poor and badly schemed stop- 
apportionment look impressive on paper and on the draw-stops of 
the Organ; and that is all that can be said in its favor. This un- 
desirable and inartistic practice is carried to the extreme in the 
formation of the Pedal Organ from manual stops; and is necessarily 
destructive of clavier independence, effective tonal grouping, and 
artistic registration. To show to what an extent this objectionable 
practice is now being carried, we may state that lying before us as 
we write is an organ-builder's Specification for an Organ, showing 
an ostensible list of sixty speaking stops. The Pedal Organ of 
twelve stops is entirely borrowed from the manual divisions, with 
the exception of twenty-four pipes which strictly belong to it. 
Comment is unnecessary. 

Borrowing between manual divisions, if limited in extent and 
done with well-considered scientific and artistic ends in view, and 
without having the effect of crippling the independence of the con- 
tributing divisions, may be productive of valuable aid in compound 
tone creation and artistic registration; and, accordingly, may well 
receive serious attention in scheming the stop-apportionments of 
the tonal divisions of Organs of moderate dimensions. But unless 
such borrowing is done with great judgment, care, and a full know- 

*For further particulars, respecting "I/Orgue Simplified" and of a larger example of the 
application of the "nouveau systSme d'orgues." see "The Art of Organ-Building," Vol. II.. 
PP 13-18. 



12 ORGAN-STOPS 

ledge of tone production, the result may be largely destructive of the 
musical qualities of the instrument, as past experience has amply 
proved. 

The great value of Mutation harmonic-corroborating stops in 
registration, for the creation of special compound tonalities and 
orchestral coloring, must not be overlooked. We desire to impress 
this important matter on organists generally, and especially on 
those who may have the opportunity of scheming the tonal appoint- 
ments of Organs. The importance of such stops is little understood 
or realized in this country at the present time; simply because they 
so seldom appear in the stop-appointments of the Organs that have 
been turned out of our workshops. 

For proofs of this statement, we may refer to the two large 
organ schemes, already commented upon as seriously deficient in 
compound harmonic-corroborating stops. They display a still 
greater disregard of the important and tonally essential Mutation 
stops. In the larger scheme, comprising upwards of two hundred 
and seventy speaking stops, there are only three fifth-sounding 
stops, one belonging to the 32 ft. harmonic series; one belonging 
to the 16 ft. series; and one belonging to the 8 ft. scries. In the 
lesser scheme, comprising, ostensibly, one hundred and one speak- 
ing stops, there is only one Mutation stop, fifth-sounding, and 
belonging to the 16 ft. harmonic series. Not a single one belonging 
to the all-important 8 ft. series! We have no desire to be severe in 
our comments: but to us it seems very astonishing that the cles^gn- 
ers of these Organs intended to represent the latest advance on 
old-fashioned tonal appointment should have so seriously over- 
looked the important scientific and artistic offices of the Mutatio-i 
stops. And the question naturally arises : Did they know, or simply 
ignore, the necessity, on both scientific and artistic grounds, of 
introducing third-sounding Mutation stops? 

Again, by way of comparison and furnishing an example, we 
may refer to the scheme for the Concert-room Organ given in our 
work. In the two hundred and thirty-one speaking stops it pre- 
sents, are included twenty-five Mutation stops, divided as follows : 
Of the 64 ft. harmonic series there is one fifth-sounding labial stop; 
of the 32 ft. series there are two labial and one lingual fifth-sound- 
ing stops; of the 16 ft. series there are seven labial and two lingual 
fifth-sounding stops; and of the 8 ft. series there are six fifth-sound- 
ing and six third-sounding Mutation stops. The interested student 
should note the introduction of the three lingual Mutation stops. 
Again we say, large as the number is, there is not a stop too many 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION ij> 

to furnish an accomplished performer with adequate means for 
scientific and artistic registration and orchestral-tone production. 

It is to be regretted that no definite rules of universal applica- 
tion can be formulated to direct the organist in the all-important 
art of registration; because, on the one hand, there are no univer- 
sally adopted standards of tone in the stops bearing similar names, 
produced by different makers, at different times, and under differ- 
ent voicing conditions; and because, on the other hand, Organs 
differ very widely in their stop appointments. So much so, that 
what may be highly satisfactory and artistic registration on one 
Organ, may be the reverse on another instrument. 

Composers and writers of organ music render great assistance 
to performers by indicating what to them is desirable and effective 
registration for their works: but it must be remembered that such 
registration has been formulated from the tonal material furnished 
by some special Organ, at the command of the composer, or domi- 
nant in his mind. It is, accordingly, questionable to what extent 
such specific registration will be possible or satisfactory on other 
Organs of different stop-appointments or stop-tonalities. Marked 
differences in both directions are almost certain to obtain. It would 
seem, under such conditions, that special artistic registration, to 
properly render the composer's intentions, would be absolutely 
called for on each Organ on which his works are to be performed. 

We may close our brief remarks on this introductory branch of 
our general subject with a few words, which may be of interest to 
the organ student desirous of acquiring skill in the all-important art 
of registration. In the first place, it is very desirable that the 
student should form a clear and comprehensive concept of the tonal 
structure of the Organ in its fullest scientific and artistic develop- 
ment. This can only be properly arrived at by becoming familiar 
with the special tonalities, combinational properties, and color- 
values of all the stops which form that structure; and which are to 
be found, or are available for introduction, in the Organ of to-day: 
all of which are more or less fully commented upon in the following 
pages, under their accepted names. It must be borne in mind, 
however, that the names given to the stops found in modern Organs 
do not invariably, or, indeed commonly, indicate their correct or 
most desirable tonalities. This is simply due to the fact that there 
are no universally recognized standards of tone in organ-pipes: 
each organ-builder or voicer invariably adopting his own pipe-scales 
and system of voicing; thereby producing his own peculiar or pre- 
ferred quality of tone in each individual stop or family of stops. 



I 4 ORGAN-STOPS 

This diversity of tonal quality and color-value is very noticeable 
in even the principal organ-toned stop the DIAPASON -the voice 
of which varies, often widely, in Organs by different builders. In the 
voices of both the labial and lingual imitative stops the difference of 
tonality is generally very marked. In this class, one seldom hears 
the same quality of tone in stops of the same name in any two 
Organs. 

Such being the case, it is very important that the student should 
become thoroughly acquainted with the special tonalities and color- 
values of all the stops which are comprised in the appointment of 
the Organ on which he studies and performs: and that he should 
follow up the knowledge so gained by a study of the tonal effects 
produced by the combination of the stops of different colorings, 
strengths of voice, and pitches; carefully noting their mixing quali- 
ties and their harmonies of analogy and contrast, until he becomes 
thoroughly familiar with the tonal resources of his instrument. This 
somewhat exacting study, requiring time, thoughtful observation, 
the exercise of memory, and not a little scientific and artistic cul- 
ture, goes to prove, as we have already said, " there is no royal road 
to learning." 

TONALTIY OF ORGAN -STOPS 

The stops which are at the disposal of the designers of modern 
Organs are very numerous, as the present Glossary plainly shows; 
and their tonalities display a diversity almost as great as that of 
their names. Certain stops have distinct and pronounced voices, 
which are either peculiar to them, or which belong to families formed 
of members having difference of scale, slightly modified voicing, and 
especially varied pitch. Others, less pronounced in their voices, are 
more or less derivatives from special or more assertive stops, 
Further, stops are either unimitative in their voices and strictly 
belong to the Organ, their tones being unproducible by any other 
instrument; or they are, in their voices, more or less closely imita- 
tive of the tones produced by the string, wood-wind, and brass- 
wind instruments of the orchestra. Under these conditions, two 
grand divisions obtain in the tonal forces of the Organ ; one formed of 
stops strictly belonging to the Organ proper, and the other of stops 
which are imitative and orchestral in their tonalities. In th e modern 
Organ, and especially in the Concert-room Organ, both divisions of 
the tonal forces must be adequately represented, if the instrument is 
to be sufficient for the artistic rendition of all classes of organ music, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 15 

A careful study of the tonal forces which properly group them- 
selves under the two grand divisions has led us to classify them into 
eight subdivisions, each of which has a distinctive general tonality: 
and this system of tonal grouping and subdivision will prove a valu- 
able aid to the organ student in the study of registration and the 
production of tone-color. The system may be presented in the 
following form: 

FIRST DIVISION SECOND DIVISION 

Organ-Tone Orchestral-Tone 

Unimitative Quality Imitative Quality 

1. PURE ORGAN-TONE. i. ORCHESTRAL STRING-TONE. 

2. FREE ORGAN-TONE. 2. ORCHESTRAL FLUTE-TONE. 

3. FLUTE ORGAN-TONE. 3. ORCHESTRAL REED-TONE. 

4. VIOL ORGAN-TONE. 4. ORCHESTRAL BRASS-TONE. 

The eight different qualities of tone thus set forth may be 
accepted as completely covering the tonal forces of the Organ of to- 
day in its highest development; and the several classes of -stops which 
yield them may, with advantage, and necessarily briefly, be alluded 
to here. 

It may, in the first place be pointed out that all the stops of the 
Organ, so far as their formation is concerned, are of two kinds, 
labial and lingual; the former being constructed of either metal or 
wood pipes open, covered, or half -covered provided with mouths 
which form their sound-producing portions, hence the term labial* 
The lingual stops are also constructed of metal and wood pipes, the 
resonators of which are either open or partially closed; their sounds 
being produced by tongues, or languettes, which vibrate against 
openings in reeds, or echalotes, hence the term lingual. Such stops 
are confined to the production of the imitative orchestral reed- and 
brass-tones. All other varieties of tone are produced by labial stops. 

PURE ORGAN TONE. This is the foundation tone of the Organ 
proper. It is sui generis, peculiar to the Organ, and cannot be imi- 
tated by any other musical instrument. It is yielded in its purity 
by the true English DIAPASON, 8 FT., formed of full-scaled open 

*The objectionable term "flue" has been hitherto used by English and American organ- 
parlance: but as the term flue pipe is strictly appropriate in connection with a stove or heating 
apparatus, it certainly should be abandoned, along with other misnomers in organ-building 
language, in favor of the proper and expressive term labial, A labial pipe is literally a mouthed 
pipe; just as a lingual pipe is literally a iongued pipe. 



i6 ORGAN-STOPS 

metal pipes, unslotted, and voiced on a copious supply of wind of 
moderate pressure. The tone is full, round, and dignified, singularly 
free from harmonic upper partial tones; the absence of which leaves 
a simple or pure tone, which, when used alone, is somewhat cloying 
and unsatisfying to the ear familiar with the complex tonality of 
orchestral sounds. Nevertheless, the DIAPASON'S tone has alway k s 
been, and always will be, the unique and special glory of the Organ 
a foundation on which to build compound tones of surpassing 
grandeur and beauty. 

In addition to the fundamental DIAPASON, 8 FT,, which strictly 
belongs to the manual department, and especially to the Great 
Organ, there is the DIAPASON, 16 FT., which furnishes the true 
foundation tone of the Pedal Organ. This is, in its correct form, an 
open metal stop, of large scale, constructed similar to the manual 
DIAPASON, and, like it, yielding pure organ-tone. Under the name 
DOUBLE DIAPASON, 16 FT., a similar stop, but of much smaller scale 
and less powerful voice, is introduced in the manual department, 
and, properly, in the First or Great Organ. This important stop 
also yields pure organ-tone. 

The early organ-builders found that unison stops alone, however 
massed, produced tones of too monotonous and unsatisfying a 
character; and to obtain relief and desirable variety they resorted to 
the formation of ranks of pipes yielding higher and concordant tones, 
This proceeding led to the early and the mediaeval Organs becoming 
great MIXTURES of several unison-, octave-, fifth-, and third-sound- 
ing ranks. The original introducers of this system of stop-appoint- 
ment had no clear knowledge of the science of compound musical 
sounds or their natural harmonic constituents ; they simply realized 
the tonal value of the concordant ranks, and were content with their 
introduction, unscientifically voiced as they were, and the musical 
effects they produced. Since their introduction, such octave and 
mutation harmonic-corroborating stops have never been omitted 
from the appointment of the Organ. While the old European organ- 
builders certainly introduced high-pitched harmonic-corroborating 
stops and MIXTURES to excess, and voiced them unscientifically and 
undesirably loud;* it does not follow that their formation and 
introduction in the Organs of to-day should be neglected, in the 
manner in which they are, by the unscientific organ-designers and 

* An example may be given of this excess. In the Organ in the Monastic Church, at WeJn- 
garten, Swabia, built by Gabler, of Ravemburg, in 1750, there are sixty-six speaking stops, 
having 6,666 pipes, and of this number there are ten compound harmonic-corroborating stops, 
having a total of 9$ ranks and 4,797 pipes. While these numbers are given on authority, the 
number of pipes are probably not Quite accurate. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 17 

labor-saving organ-builders of the present time; with a serious loss 
to the musical resources and beauty of the modern Organ; and a 
very undesirable narrowing of the opportunity for a wide exercise 
of artistic and expressive registration, and the production of varied 
tonal colorings which are unproducible in their absence. 

The harmonic-corroborating stops, alluded to, directly asso- 
ciated witr^the DIAPASONS, are, like them, formed of open metal 
pipes, yielding pure organ-tones of graduated degrees of assertive- 
ness, becoming perceptibly softer in tone as they rise in pitch, in 
accordance with the natural laws of compound musical sounds. 
These stops, accordingly, require to be properly scaled with refer- 
ence to the scale of the fundamental DIAPASON, 8 FT., and voiced so 
as to combine with, and be absorbed in, the prime tone; brightening 
and richly coloring it without asserting undue prominence individ- 
ually. It has been the neglect of the teachings of the natural laws 
of compound musical sounds, either through ignorance or careless- 
ness, that has rendered the single and compound harmonic-cor- 
roborating stops in so many Organs unsatisfactory and of little 
value in combination and artistic registration. It is, accordingly, 
desirable that organists who take any interest in the Organ, beyond 
merely playing it, should see that in instruments, over the tonal 
appointment of which they have any control, a sufficient proportion of 
properly formed and voiced harmonic-corroborating stops be 
provided. 

The more important associated harmonic-corroborating stops 
are the OCTAVE, 4 FT., TWELFTH, 2% FT., FIFTEENTH, 2 FT., SEVEN- 
TEENTH, i% FT., NINETEENTH, i J^ FT., and TWENTY-SECOND, i FT. 
These stops are introduced in separate ranks of full compass, voiced 
to yield pure organ-tone, and introduce and corroborate the first, 
second, third, fourth, fifth, and seventh upper partial tones of the 
foundation unisons, represented by the DIAPASON, 8 FT. To com- 
plete the harmonic series it is desirable to add the FLAT TWENTY- 
FIRST i l /7 FT., corroborating the sixth upper partial tone. This stop 
is almost unknown, in a complete form, in English Organs, al- 
though it has been used in certain breaks of rare MIXTURES. Under 
the name SEPTIME, it appears as a separate and complete stop in 
certain French Organs. In the Grand Organ in the Cathedral of 
Notre-Dame, Paris, constructed by Cavaill6-Coll, there is a SEP- 
TlfeME, i l /7 FT., in the Grand-Choeur, belonging to the foundation- 
work; a SEPTI^ME, 2 2 /7 FT., in the Bombardes, belonging to the 16 
ft. harmonic series; and a SEPTIEME, 4 4 /7 FT., in the P&lale, be- 
longing to the 32 ft. harmonic series. We have not found an instance 



1 8 ORGAN-vSTOPS 

of the SEPTIEME being introduced in a French MIXTURE. The 
higher-pitched harmonic-corroborating stops, owing to the smallness 
of their pipes, cannot be carried throughout the compass of the 
manual clavier without a break; accordingly, they appear only in 
broken ranks of MIXTURES. These stops are the TWENTY-FOURTH, 
4/5 FT., TWENTY-SIXTH, % FT., TWENTY-NINTH, }/> FT,, THIRTY- 
THIRD, y$ FT., and THIRTY-SIXTH, Y^ FT., corroborating the ninth, 
eleventh, fifteenth, twenty-third, and thirty-first upper partial tones 
of the foundation unisons. 

There are, in addition to the stops already named, certain others, 
properly pure organ-toned, which belong to the series founded on 
the DIAPASON, 16 FT., of the Pedal Organ. These are the OCTAVE, 
8 FT., which is practically a DIAPASON, the TWELFTH, 51/3 FT,, and 
the SUPER-OCTAVE, 4 FT., introducing and corroborating the first, 
second, and third upper partial tones of the 16 ft. harmonic series. 
Harmonic-corroborating stops of higher pitch are introduced in the 
MIXTURES sometimes inserted in the Pedal Organ, 

The stops, complete and incomplete, enumerated above are all 
that practically belong to the foundation-work of the Organ ; and all 
should be present in a completely appointed instrument. They are 
necessary for the production of the entire range of pure organ-tones; 
and are essential in effective tonal coloration and artistic registration. 

FREE ORGAN-TONE. The few stops which may be properly 
classed as yielding free organ-tone are strictly of mediate or transi- 
tional character; that is, in addition to a foundation of pure organ- 
tone they encroach, more or less, as it were, upon tones of some dis- 
tinctive character; producing voices of different shades of tonal 
coloring, never pronounced, and on this account of extreme value in 
artistic registration. While the compound voices of such stops 
cannot be classed as belonging to any special tonality, for they differ 
greatly, they are invaluable in building-up and delicately tinting 
other distinctive voices, by means of which the artist organist is 
painting his musical picture. 

Between pure organ-tone, as previously defined, and what must 
be recognized as free or impure organ-tone, there is a very fine line 
of demarkation. Immediately on this line stands the beautiful 
English DULCIANA, 8 FT,, the tone of which is only distinguishable 
from pure organ-tone by its delicate, silvery, singing quality, due 
to the presence of almost imperceptible harmonic over-tones, Like 
the foundation DIAPASON, the DULCIANA is properly attended by its 
family of harmonic-corroborating stops, forming very lovely com- 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 19 

pound tones, the delight of the tonal colorist. The most useful of 
these stops are the OCTAVE DULCIANA, 4 FT. ; DULCIANA TWELFTH, 
2% FT.; SUPER-OCTAVE DULCIANA, 2 FT.; and DULCIANA CORNET. 
There are several other stops yielding free organ-tones of a more 
pronounced mediant character, in which pure organ-tone is more 
absorbed and a richer coloring imparted. Among these may be 
named the DOLCAN, yielding a voice of a refined and somewhat 
plaintive character; and the KERAULOPHONE, yielding a richer tone, 
which, in good examples, approaches a horn-like quality, extremely 
valuable in the production of rich and quiet colorings. This fine 
stop is rarely introduced in Organs built to-day. Still more pro- 
nounced in tone are the stops known as the HORN DIAPASON and 
BELL DIAPASON, the voices of which are rich colorings on grounds of 
pure organ-tone. Certain stops yielding what must be classed as 
free organ-tone have their voices comparatively rich in harmonic 
upper partial tones. Prominent among these stops is the GEMS- 
HORN, the pipes of which, Helmholtz says, have the property of ren- 
dering some higher partial tones comparatively stronger than the 
lower; hence its peculiar value in registration in which brightness 
is desired, without a cutting quality which is so frequently destruc- 
tive of refinement and repose. Perhaps such terms as these are 
rarely used in speaking of organ registration, but they will be under- 
stood by the artist organist and the musician, and their meaning 
should be grasped by the organ student. 

FLUTE ORGAN-TONE. By the term flute organ-tone is signified 
that wide and varied range of flute-like tones, produced by several 
varieties of organ-pipes, which are not strictly imitative of the clear 
and penetrating voices of the Flutes of the orchestra. Some of these 
unimitative tones differ widely from those of the orchestral Flutes, 
while others are so closely allied as to be almost undistinguishable 
from them. It is in this great range of flute-like voices that the 
organist finds a richly spread palette for the production of innumer- 
able beautiful tonal colors. The organ-toned FLUTES are not only 
widely varied in strength and character of voice, but they, of all the 
stops of the Organ, lend themselves most readily and efficiently to 
effective registration, combining perfectly with the stops of every 
other tonality, both labial and lingual. 

The stops yielding flute organ-tone may be divided into four- 
families, each of which produces a characteristic tonality. These 
are formed, respectively, of open, covered, half-covered, and har- 
monic pipes. The variation of their voices is mainly due to the 



20 ORGAN-STOPS 

presence of different groups of harmonic upper partiuls and their 
relations to the prime tones. As all the stops just alluded to are 
described in the Glossary, it is unnecessary to go into particulars of 
their^special voices in this brief essay; but the names of a few of the 
representative ones may be mentioned. Of the open family, may be 
named the TIBIA PLENA, HOIILFLOTK, SiTran/rrK, and WALD- 
FLOTE; of the covered family, the TIBIA CLAUSA, DOPPKLFLOTK, and 
LIEBLICHGEDECKT; of the half-covered family, the ROURKLOTK and 
FLUTE A CHEMINE; and of the harmonic family, the French FuOrii 
HARMONIQUE. 

So numerous and varied are the voices of the unirnitative flute- 
toned stops of the modern Organ, and so valuable are they in artistic 
registration with the voices of all other tonalities, that the organist 
should make a careful study of them; acquainting himself with all 
their coloring properties and their peculiar mixing and separating 
qualities. It must be observed that certain flute-tones hold them- 
selves distinct and remain assertive; while others become absorbed 
and completely lose their individuality in the compound tones. 

VIOL ORGAN-TONE. Although the stops yielding unimitative 
string-tone, which, for the sake of distinction, we have designated 
viol organ-tone, are comparatively few in number, they occupy an im- 
portant place in the stop-appointment of the Organ, and a prominent 
place on the color palette of the organist skilled in artistic registration. 

Standing on the border-line between pure organ-tone and viol 
organ-tone is the refined and beautiful voice of the true SALICIONAL, 
The most important stop of this tonality is the VIOLIN DIAPASON 
or GEIGENPRINCIPAL. The tone of this fine stop varies in different 
examples, according to the taste of the voicer; but it should be dic- 
tated by the position it holds in the tonal scheme of the Organ, and 
how it can be of the greatest value in effective registration. While 
in this stop the string tonality is, properly, not more than the pure 
organ-tone, there are others, under different names, in which the 
string-tone is the more assertive; and these are very desirable, in 
Organs of large dimensions, for registration with labial and lingual 
stops of powerful intonation. In the Concert-room Organ, they are 
required for the building-up of the necessary volumes of string-tone. 

There are certain other stops which may be classed as yielding 
viol organ-tone, but which may claim to be imitative, in so much 
that they are accepted as reproducing the tones of the obsolete 
Viola da Gamba and Viola d'Amore. But when their tones are 
compared with those of the modern stops which imitate so closely 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 21 

the assertive and complex tones of the Violin, Viola, and Violon- 
cello, their timid voices seem to fall back into what may be correctly 
considered viol organ-tone. When these desirable stops appear in 
an Organ they deserve the careful attention of the organist. 

ORCHESTRAL STRING-TONE. This is the first and most essential 
of all the orchestral imitative tones of the modern Organ; and may 
almost be said to be the foundation of the tonal structure of the 
true Concert-room Organ; just as the string forces are the founda- 
tion of the grand orchestra. Obvious as this must have been, one 
would think, to every thoughtful musician and accomplished or- 
ganist, it is truly remarkable that such a self-evident fact remained 
unacknowledged and unacted upon in the organ-building world, 
cramped by old-fashioned tradition, until we instituted a separate 
and complete string division, comprising eighteen ranks of string- 
toned pipes, including full harmonic elements, and endowed with 
full and special powers of expression and flexibility, in our scheme 
of the Concert-room Organ installed in the Festival Hall of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, Mo., 1904.* We feel very 
proud of having been the first in the history of the art of organ- 
building to realize the necessity for, and to carry into effect, so im- 
portant and art-serving a step in advance in tonal appointment ; now 
becoming tardily acknowledged by organ-builders and organists as 
essential in every Organ suitable for recital purposes, and which has 
any pretension toward completeness. 

The stops are comparatively few which strictly fall under the 
class now under consideration, being primarily the VIOLIN, VIOLA, 
VIOLONCELLO, and CONTRABASSO, which also pass under other equiv- 
alent names. These stops are, however, attended by certain deriv- 
atives which are required in the Organ for the production of well- 
known orchestral effects, and for purposes of artistic registration. 
The derivatives are those which represent the orchestral instru- 
ments played under characteristic conditions; namely, con sordini 
and vibrato. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to remark that the great 
value of the orchestral string stops lies in the closeness and beauty 
of their imitative voices and their perfect regulation; but such 
artistic perfections are rarely the products of the competitive and 
hurried organ-building of to-day. The cry is for quick production, 
not artistic and painstaking work; and no class of stops suffers more 

*See Specification of this Organ given on pages 503-8; and our scheme for the Ancillary 
String Organ, of twenty-three ranks of pipes, in the Concert-room Organ on page 323. of our 
work, "The Organ of the Twentieth Century/' New York, 1919. 



22 ORGAN-STOPS 

from this than that which forms the orchestral string-tone forces of 
the Concert-room Organ. 

Notwithstanding that the foundation orchestral string-toned 
stops are in themselves very rich in harmonic upper partials, so 
much so as to practically require no additions in purely solo work: 
yet for the production of full orchestral effects, it is necessary to 
have for registration string organ-toned harmonic-creating and cor- 
roborating ranks of pipes, belonging to both the 8 ft. and 1 6 ft. series, 
and including an effective OCTAVE VIOL or VIOLETTA, 4 FT. These 
afford great opportunities for tonal coloring and registration of a 
high order, leading to the production of volumes of brilliant and 
expressive tone, hardly dreamt of in the Organ of to-day, and only 
to be surpassed by the full string forces of the grand orchestra. 
When will the distinguished and respect-commanding musician 
arise to teach the thoughtless organist and organ-builder what the 
Concert-room Organ of the twentieth century must be? 

ORCHESTRAL FLUTE-TONE. Little need be said respecting the 
tonality of the stops yielding orchestral flute-tone. They are only 
three in number; namely, the ORCHESTRAL FLUTE or FLAUTO 
TRA VERSO, 8 FT., the PLAUTO TRA VERSO, 4 FT, and the PICCOLO, 
2 FT. ; and their voices successfully imitate, especially in the finer 
examples, those of the Flutes and Piccolo of the orchestra, and ably 
represent them in the tonal appointment of the Organ. Their 
voices are refined and penetrating having few assertive upper 
partials except the octaves, naturally subordinated; and they are of 
extreme value in both solo-work and artistic registration. Seeing 
the great importance that has been given to the Flute by the great 
composers, who frequently gave it the leading wind part in their 
scores, there can be no excuse for the insertion of an indifferent 
ORCHESTRAL FLUTE in any important Organ. In registration with 
the orchestral string-toned stops the ORCHESTRAL FLUTES produce 
beautiful qualities of tone. In general registration, however, they 
do not stand preeminent, for there are several of the flute organ- 
toned stops that are equal, if not superior, in imparting effective 
coloring. 

ORCHESTRAL REED-TONE, The important instruments of the 
grand orchestra which are more or less closely imitated by the stops 
of the Organ yielding orchestral reed-tone are the Oboe, Clarinet, 
Corno di Bassetto, Cor Anglais, Bassoon, and Saxophone. The 
stops bearing these names, or their equivalents in other languages, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 23 

are all of unison pitch on the manuals; but the DOUBLE BASSOON 
or CONTRAFAGOTTO, 1 6 FT., a stop of great value, is also placed on 
the manuals in important instruments. 

The OBOE appears in two forms, the one commonly introduced 
not being strongly imitative in its tonality; indeed, it has been 
found very difficult to imitate the "small acid-sweet voice, having a 
pastoral character, full of tenderness, 1 ' as Berlioz cleverly de- 
scribes it. Certain attempts have been made to imitate this charac- 
teristic voice, and results of a fairly satisfactory nature have been 
obtained from stops of special formation, named ORCHESTRAL 
OBOES. The Oboe of the orchestra is essentially a melodial instru- 
ment, and the ORCHESTRAL OBOE of the Organ must also be ac- 
cepted as a melodial or solo stop, which is comparatively of little 
value in registration save for the production of very unusual effects 
of a pathetic character. 

Much more closely imitative is the CLARINET, 8 FT. ; indeed, 
when made by a master-hand, it may be pronounced the best rep- 
resentative of an orchestral reed instrument to be found in the 
Organ. It is especially satisfactory when associated with a unison 
covered stop, such as a soft-toned DOPPELFLOTE or a LIEBLICH- 
GEDECKT, 8 FT. These voices impart the full and somewhat hollow 
tonality of the orchestral instrument in its best register. The tube 
of the orchestral Clarinet is of the nature of a covered pipe, pro- 
ducing, in addition to the prime tone, the second, fourth, sixth, and 
higher even upper partial tones. Such being the case, it can be 
realized that the tone of the lingual CLARINET derives considerable 
richness and increase of character by combination with the tone of 
a covered stop, which has in its voice the same progression of har- 
monic upper partials. This affords a simple lesson in scientific 
combination. The peculiar quality of the tone of the CLARINET 
renders it a valuable addition to the voices of almost all the labial 
stops of medium power, producing compound tones of rich and 
varied colorings: accordingly, in registration, the stop deserves 
greater attention than seems to have been hitherto bestowed 
upon it. 

More effective and fuller in tone-creation is the CORNO DI BAS- 
SETTO, 8 FT., which belongs to the CLARINET family. The orchestral 
instrument from which it derives its name, and of which it is the 
organ representative, is practically a Tenor Clarinet having the 
compass from FF to c 3 . The voice of the Corno di Bassetto is fuller 
and more reedy than that of the Alto Clarinet; and, accordingly, 
the tone of CORNO DI B ASSEtTO is bolder and richer than that of the 



24 ORGAN-STOPS 

CLARINET, 8 FT. Properly made and voiced by a master-hand, the 
CORNO DI BASSETTO is of greater value than the CLARINET in effec- 
tive registration. Unfortunately it is a stop rarely found even in 
large Organs. While it is properly of 8 ft. pitch, the insertion of a 
CORNO DI BASSETTO, 16 FT. is greatly to be desired in the expressive 
"wood-wind" division of the Concert-room Organ; where it would, 
in combination with the unison CORNO DI BASSETTO and other 
wood-wind stops of the Organ, be productive of compound tones 
absolutely unknown in the old-fashioned tonal-appointments of the 
Organs of to-day. 

The Bassoon of the orchestra is a double-reed instrument like 
the Oboe, of which it is considered to furnish the proper bass. Its 
representative in the Organ, the BASSOON or FAGOTTO, 8 FT., fails 
like the OBOE, in yielding a perfectly satisfactory imitative voice. 
Nevertheless, the tone of a really good example is extremely valu- 
able in artistic registration and tonal coloration; so much so, that 
no Concert-room Organ can be considered complete in which the 
stop does not appear in the manual department. Its proper place 
is in the "wood-wind" division of the instrument.* The orchestral 
Bassoon has a conical bore of about eight feet in length, regularly 
increasing in diameter from -3% inch at the reed end to I % inches at 
the open end. This form of tube generates or favors the production 
of the uneven upper partials (natural to an open organ-pipe), and, 
accordingly, yields a compound tone essentially different from 
that of the Clarinet, while it partakes of that of the Oboe. The 
voice of the BASSOON, 8 FT., while it closely resembles that of the 
orchestral instrument, has the advantage of being more uniform in 
color throughout its compass, and in being entirely free from the 
grotesqueness which characterizes certain of its lower notes. 

The tonal value of the Double Bassoon or Contrafagotto has 
long been recognized by the great composers; Beethoven, Haydn, 
Mozart, and Mendelssohn having introduced it in their great works. 
As Dr. W. H, Stone remarks: "In all cases it forms a grand bass 
to the reed band, completing the 1 6-foot octave with the six lowest 
notes wanting on three-stringed Double Basses. J> These facts are 
enough to show the value of, and the necessity for, the DOUBLE 
BASSOON or CONTRAFAGOTTO, 16 FT., which represents the orchestral 
instrument in a properly-appointed Organ. Its presence in an im- 
portant Church Organ is highly desirable; while in a Concert-room 
Organ it is imperative. The value of its voice in tonal coloration, 

*See "The Organ of the Twentieth Century, " Pages 307 and 505, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 25 

and in the registration of grave tones is so great, that in the Con- 
cert-room Organ it may, with advantage, be introduced in more 
than one manual division; preferably in the expressive subdivision 
of th, First or Great Organ, and in the Organ containing the stops 
representing the wood-wind instruments of the orchestra. In the 
latter it may be of the more assertive variety, distinguished by the 
name FAGOTTONE, 16 FT. It is never desirable to have two stops 
of precisely similar tones in an Organ, however large it may be. 
Variety of tone is an essential element in artistic registration. 

When properly made and artistically voiced, the DOUBLE 
BASSOON yields a tone of the same quality as that of the BASSOON, 
8 FT., but of rather a greater body. Accordingly, if the tone of the 
middle c r (4 ft.) pipe of the former is carefully compared with that 
of the tenor C (4 ft.) of the unison stop, it will be observed that 
while they are of the same pitch and character, they are different in 
tonal value, the unison being somewhat lighter and brighter the 
voicing having properly generated one or two higher harmonic 
upper partials. The true orchestral relationship is thereby 
established. 

Judging from what one observes in the unscientific and inartistic 
competitive organ-building of to-day, organ-builders certainly will, 
and many organists probably will, consider such refinements as 
have been advocated in the preceding remarks quite unnecessary. 
Certainly they will call for scientific and artistic culture and a high 
sense of duty on the part of the former; and for a keen appreciation 
of tonal values on the part of the latter. But the obvious absence 
of such tonal refinements only goes to prove that the culture alluded 
to is much to be desired on both sides. 

It is unnecessary to comment at length respecting the tone of 
the COR ANGLAIS, 8 FT., which in its present state imitates as closely 
as seems practicable that of the orchestral Cor Anglais; which is in 
reality an Alto Oboe, bearing about the same relation to the ordi- 
nary Oboe as the Corno di Bassetto does to the Clarinet. Regarding 
the orchestral instrument, Berlioz remarks: "Its quality of tone, 
less piercing, more veiled, and deeper than that of the Oboe, does 
not so well as the latter lend itself to the gaiety of rustic strains. . . . 
It is a melancholy, dreamy, and rather noble voice." The organ 
COR ANGLAIS, in its best form, yields a tone which has very valuable 
mixing and coloring properties; and these, combined with its some- 
what subdued or " veiled " voice, renders the stop highly suitable 
for the chief accompanimental divisions of both the Church and 
Concert-room Organs. In such a position it will prove of the maxi- 



26 ORGAN-STOPS 

mum service in artistic registration. While it would seem to belong 
to the "wood-wind" division, the kindred nature of its voice to that 
of the OBOE renders its presence there unnecessary. In an accom- 
panimental division it is most desirable to have a considerable range 
of different tonalities, so that by skillful registration expressive 
accompaniments of all tones and colors may be formed. 

The latest addition to the orchestral reed-tone forces of the 
Organ is the SAXOPHONE, 8 FT., a fine stop of the CLARINET family. 
The Saxophones of the orchestra are single-reed instruments, having 
wooden mouthpieces, similar to those of the Clarinets, attached to 
conical tubes of brass. They are of several keys, covering a compass 
of from BBB to c 3 , one octave short of the present full manual 
compass of the Organ. The lingual SAXOPHONES made up to the 
present time have only been moderately successful in their imitative 
tones, while otherwise fine stops. The most satisfactory imitative 
stop hitherto produced, so far as our knowledge extends, is a labial 
one formed of wood. The character and value of its voice may be 
in some way realized from the following description by Berlioz of 
the tones of the orchestral Saxophones, which he states as possess- 
ing, "Most rare and precious qualities. Soft and penetrating in the 
higher part, full and rich in the lower part, their medium has some- 
thing profoundly expressive. It is, in short, a quality sui generis, 
presenting vague analogies with the sounds of the Violoncello, of the 
Clarinet, and Corno Inglese, and invested with a brazen tinge 
which imparts a quite peculiar accent." Dr. Stone comments on the 
peculiar Violoncello quality of the tone ; he says : " It reproduces on a 
magnified scale something of the Violoncello quality, and gives great 
sustaining power to the full chorus of brass instruments, by intro- 
ducing a mass of harmonic overtones," Prom these particulars it 
can be readily realized how valuable such a compound tone must 
prove in the Organ, and, at the same time, how difficult its produc- 
tion must prove from a single lingual stop. The prominence of the 
Violoncello quality clearly points to the labial stop formation in 
which a string-tone can, with skillful voicing, be produced accom- 
panied by a pronounced reedy quality. 

ORCHESTRAL BRASS-TONE. The lingual stops of the Organ, 
which produce tones imitative, more or less closely, of those of the 
brass wind-instruments of the orchestra and band, are not numerous 
but of very great importance. To them are added brass-toned stops 
which belong exclusively to the Organ, and which have tonal powers 
and compasses beyond those possible in instruments blown by the 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 27 

human breath; and these impart an element of impressiveness and 
grandeur, when properly used, which alone is sufficient to stamp the 
Organ the Monarch of all Instruments. 

The brass instruments of the orchestra which have representa- 
tives in the Organ are the Trumpet, Horn, Trombone, and Ophi- 
cleide. Of these the Horn is the instrument of which a satisfactory 
tonal equivalent is most desirable in the Organ; but which it has 
been found, up to the present time, practically impossible to produce. 
Berlioz calls the Horn a " noble and melancholy instrument," and its 
peculiar tonality supports that description. Although its tones are 
produced from a large brass instrument, sounded by the lips and a 
cupped mouthpiece, they have properly no trace of clang and brassi- 
ness. The Horn has two series of sotinds, known as the open and 
closed; and it is the imitation of the latter, also called the "hand 
notes, " which the pipe-voicer has found the crux, in the production 
of the organ HORN, 8 FT, Certain painstaking organ-builders have 
prodticed stops which, though not strictly imitative in all respects, 
are fine tonally, and extremely valuable in refined registration with 
string-toned stops. The HORN properly belongs to the "brass- 
wind" division of the true Concert-room Organ; where it is useful 
as a solo and combinational stop. Every exertion should be made 
by the organ-designer to obtain a satisfactory HORN; for it is ab- 
solutely essential in the artistic rendition of orchestral scores. 

The brass wind-instrument of the orchestra most commonly 
represented in Organs of all classes is the Trumpet, and its normal 
tone is more satisfactorily imitated by a lingual stop than that of 
any other brass instrument. The desirable tone for the ORCHESTRAL 
TRUMPET, 8 FT., is that of the Trumpet played mezzo forte, yielding 
a bright silvery voice with just sufficient brassiness to give it true 
character. This tone under expression is valuable in solo effects 
and in general registration, mixing perfectly with tones of all classes. 
The stop to be preferred for the Solo Organ is the more powerful 
HARMONIC TRUMPET, which represents the orchestral Trumpet 
played fortissimo. This powerful and penetrating stop must be 
placed under perfect control. A TRUMPET should never be placed 
en chamade, as in the Organ in the Church of Saint-Ouen, Rouen, 
and in several large Spanish Organs. To imagine any orchestral 
instrument, or its organ representative, played without expression, 
could only be possible in the brain of a musical ignoramus. 

The Trombone of the orchestra is a member of the Trumpet 
family, and, indeed, it may be properly considered as furnishing the 
bass to the orchestral Slide Trumpet. Its tone is, accordingly, an 



28 ORGAN-STOPS 

enlargement of that of the Trumpet, capable, on account of the 
important" size of the instrument which produces it, of great power, 
brilliancy, and brazen clang. The three Trombones alto, tenor, 
and bass along with the Trumpet, form the only complete enhar- 
monic wind quartet in the orchestra. These instruments are per- 
fectly true in their intonation ; in this respect rivaling the stringed 
and bowed instruments. 

The organ representatives the TROMBONE, 8 FT., and CONTRA 
TROMBONE, 16 FT., are fine and valuable stops when voiced by 
master-hands; but they cannot be considered perfectly satisfactory 
tonal equivalents of the orchestral instruments. There is great 
difficulty in producing the characteristic brazen clang in lingual 
pipes, without objectionable coarseness and reedy clatter; but, 
perhaps, this is not to be regretted, for the more desirable tones of 
the orchestral Trombones are those in which this extreme clang is 
absent. The TROMBONES of the Organ are of great importance, 
especially in the Concert-room Organ, and their tonalities and 
strengths of voice should in all cases be dictated by the places they 
occupy and the offices they have to fulfill in the tonal economy of the 
Organ. Although the use of the TROMBONES is somewhat limited in 
artistic registration, their employment is of supreme value in the 
proper rendition of certain classes of orchestral music, and in 
the production of impressive effects and in full organ passages. The 
proper position of the TROMBONES in the properly stop^apportioned 
Concert-room Organ is in the expressive division chiefly devoted to the 
representatives of the "brass-wind" forces of the grand orchestra.* 

The Ophicleide of the orchestra is a large key instrument of the 
Bugle family, being practically the bass correlative of the Key or 
Kent Bugle. The usual Ophicleide is of 8 ft. pitch, extending only 
one semitone below the compass of the Violoncello: but as a " Con- 
trabass Ophicleide " has been used in the orchestra (at the Musical 
Festival in Westminster Abbey and the Birmingham Festival, both 
in 1834), there is good authority for a representative of this im- 
pressive instrument, of 16 ft. pitch, finding a place in the Concert- 
room Organ of the twentieth century. The tone of the Ophicleide is 
broad and dignified, so much so, that Wagner found it necessary to 
fill its place in the orchestra by the Bass and Contra Tubas. Men- 
delssohn introduces the Ophicleide freely in the scores of his impor- 
tant works, notably in the " Elijah" and the "Midsummer Night's 
Dream" music. 

*See "The Organ of the Twentieth Century, Pages 311-14 and 506. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 29 

As the Ophicleide has for many years disappeared from the 
orchestra, it is practically impossible for voicers of to-day to realize 
the tone they are called upon to reproduce in the organ representa- 
tive. Some idea may, however, be gathered from the tonality of the 
substitutes Wagner adopted. The Tuba is a large bass instrument of 
the Saxhorn family, the tone of which is smooth and rich when 
produced by a master. It is such a tone, not too assertive, and 
entirely free from brassiness, that is required in the OPHICLEIDE 
employed in the performance of orchestral scores. The OPHICLEIDE, 
8 FT., of the ordinary modern Organ is a widely different class of 
stop, yielding a powerful and strident tone. It is voiced on wind of 
high pressure, as in the representative example in the Solo of the 
Organ in St. George's Hall, Liverpool, which speaks on wind of 22 
inches: and as this dominating stop has very foolishly been planted 
. on an uninclosed wind-chest, and is, accordingly, devoid of powers 
of flexibility and expression, it is valueless in artistic registration. 

Of the tones of the band brass instruments the Cornopean, 
Euphonium, and Tuba and their organ representatives; and of 
those of the several brass-toned stops which are practically unimi- 
tative, and strictly belong to the Organ, it is unnecessary to enlarge 
here: all useful particulars will be found, under their respective 
names, in the following Glossary. 

DO MATERIALS AFFECT THE TONE OF ORGAN- 
PIPES? 

A question of no little importance has frequently been asked, but 
never, so far as we are aware, has it been satisfactorily answered. 
The question is : Does the material of which an organ-pipe is con- 
structed affect the quality of its tone ? We have, by long observation 
of the behavior of organ-pipes, and some special experimenta- 
tion, given the question careful and thoughtful consideration; yet 
we are far from being prepared to be dogmatic upon it. The only 
answer would seem to be this paradoxical one: It does and it does 
not. 

We know that the old German, Dutch, and French organ- 
builders were very careful about the metals and woods they used 
for their pipes; and that their finest qualities are very rarely em- 
ployed in modern organ-building : but whether they were selected on 
account of their value in tone production, or on the score of their 
durability only, it is impossible to decide. We do know, on the one 
hand, that their durability has been remarkable; and, on the other 



30 ORGAN-STOPS 

hand, that the tones of the pipes formed of them are very beautiful. 
Take for example the Organ in the Cathedral of Haarlem, built in 
1738, All its displayed pipe-work including the Pedal SUB-PRINCI- 
PAL, 32 FT., is of pure Cornish tin; while all the rest of the metal 
pipes in the instrument are of an alloy of equal parts, by weight, of 
Cornish tin and pure lead. All these pipes one hundred and 
eighty-two years old are as good as the day they were made. For 
extreme purity and beauty of tone we have only to go to the Kilber- 
mann Organs in the Cathedral and churches of Strasbourg, the 
pipes of which are formed of similar high-class materials. We 
know, from examination of existing pipes of wood and metal, that 
the English organ-builders of the seventeenth century used Cornish 
tin and fine woods in their fabrication. Bernard Smifli seems to 
have invariably used wainscot for his STOPPED DIAPASONS and 
GEDACKTS, as specified for his Temple Church Organ (1688),* 
Examples of these which have been preserved to our time are char- 
acterized by great beauty of tone. Even in quite recent times we 
find, in the construction of the Organs in the Cathedral and St. 
Pauls-Kirche, Schwerin, the organ-builders Ladegast and Priese 
using oak, maple, pear-tree, and mahogany in the formation of their 
pipe-work. While it is quite reasonable to suppose that these cele- 
brated builders used these special woods on account of their dur- 
ability, and to favor perfect workmanship, it is still more reasonable 
to suppose that they were employed for a still higher reason, namely, 
that they were found to be conducive to the perfection of voicing 
and the production of beautiful tones. Where do we find such fine 
woods used in the pipes made for our organs to-day? 

It is well known that the column of air within a pipe, while 
speaking, is in a state of extreme pulsation or tremor, especially so 
in pipes blown by winds of high pressures ; and it is obvious that this 
tremor must be conveyed to, and properly resisted by, the walls of 
the pipe, be it of metal or wood. By careful observation we have 
found that the maximum effect of this pulsation is on the sides of a 
pipe, not on its front in which the mouth is formed, or back, This 
would point to the necessity of specially fortifying the sides of wood 



* Dr. Burney, speaking of this master, says: " I have been assured by Snetzler, and by the 
immediate descendants of those who have conversed with Father Smith, and seen him work, 
that he was so particularly careful in the choice of his wood, as never to use any that had the* 
least knot or flaw in it ; and so tender of his reputation, as never to waste his time in trying to 
mend a bad pipe, cither of wood or metal, so that when he came to voice a pipe, if it had any 
radical defect, he instantly threw it away, and made another, This, in a great measure, account** 
for the equality and sweetness of his stops, as well as the soundness of his pipes to this 
day,"- "History of Music." 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 31 

pipes, and imparting a sufficient power of resistance to the walls of 
metal pipes. The former requirement would be met by the use of a 
hard wood of sufficient thickness : and for perfection in voicing, and 
the production of pure and beautiful tones, a close-grained hard 
wood should be used for the mouth fronts of pipes of moderate size, 
and for the mouths of large pipes. In the case of a metal pipe, a 
metal or alloy of a firm body and sufficient thickness to withstand 
the pulsation of the internal column of air is absolutely necessary 
for the production of a satisfactory tone. Tin has been found to be 
suitable in all respects, being much firmer and more resisting than 
the usual alloys, cast in sheets in the ordinary way which leaves 
them soft and undesirably open in structure; but tin is much too 
expensive for general use; and the same may be said "of the high- 
grade alloys of tin and lead. What has long been wanted is a pipe- 
metal having all the good qualities of tin, without its prohibitive 
cost; and this has at last appeared in the Hoyt Two-ply Pipe-metal 
a product, not of the open casting-table, but of the rolling-mill. 
The body of this compound pipe-metal is, in its perfected form, an 
alloy of pure lead, tin, and copper, on which is laid a substantial 
layer of pure tin. The combination is rolled, under great pressure, 
into sheets, perfectly uniform in thickness, remarkably tough, and 
of great resisting properties. These sheets are furnished in twenty- 
two standard thicknesses, regularly graduated from 0.015 to 0.120 
of an inch. Both surfaces are perfectly smooth and polished, giving 
the interior of a pipe the surface most conducive to the production of 
refined intonation. From severe tests we have made of its several 
properties, we have no hesitation in saying it is superior to the 
ordinary cast spotted-metal so long used in high-class pipe-work. 
It has everything in its favor, including a moderate price.* 

Beyond what has already been said regarding the importance of 
using fine hard woods and firm and tremor-resisting metals in pipe 
formation, little seems to have been decided respecting their more 
direct influence on tone-production: and the deeper one goes into 
the question the more complex it seems to become. We must admit 
that we have heard tones in every way satisfactory yielded by pipes 
formed of nearly all classes of pipe metal, from the deadest alloys 
of lead and antimony to the richest alloys of tin and lead, and even 
tin itself, and have been compelled to acknowledge that, after all 
is said, it would appear that the skill of the voicer was the dominat- 
ing factor. As we have said elsewhere: although in general practice 

* For further particulars and Table of standard thicknesses and weights of the Hoyt Two- 
ply Pipe-metal, see " The Organ of the Twentieth Century," pp. 345, 346. 



32 ORGAN-STOPS 

certain classes of pipes appear to be most satisfactory in tone when 
formed of tin or high-class spotted-metal, their tonal character and 
excellence depends chiefly on their correct scaling, proper thickness 
of material, perfection of formation, the pressures of wind used, and, 
above all, on their skillful and artistic voicing. It is largely on the 
score of strength, rigidity, and durability that high-class materials 
are essential in organ-pipe construction. 



GLOSSARY OF ORGAN-STOPS 



A 

ACUTA. Vox ACUTA (from Lat. acutus sharp). Ger,, 
AKUTA, SCHARF. Dtch., SCHERP. A compound harmonic-corrob- 
orating stop, composed of three or more ranks of open metal labial 
pipes, preferably of small scales. All the ranks are high-pitched and 
voiced to yield bright and penetrating tones hence the name of the 
stop. When in its best form it has a third-sounding rank which adds 
greatly to its acute tonality. As the pipes forming the stop are 
necessarily very small, the ranks will have to break three or four 
times in the manual compass of five octaves. The following are 
examples of the composition of stops of three and four ranks:- 

ACUTA III. RANKS, 
CC to B 22 24 26. 

C 1 tO b 1 17 19 22. 

c 2 to b 3 15 17 19- 

C3 tO C< 12 15 17. 

ACUTA IV. RANKS. 

CC to BB 24 26 29 33. 

C to B 22 24 26 29. 

C 1 tO b 2 19 22 24 26. 

C3 tO C4 12 15 17 19. 

In compound stops of the CORNET class, in which third-sounding 
ranks are introduced, it is desirable to subdue such ranks so as to be 
less assertive than the octave- and fifth-sounding ranks; but the same 
practice should not be followed in voicing and regulating the ACUTA, 
because the sharpness given by the third-sounding rank is an impor- 
tant element in its characteristic tonality. The standard rule which 
dictates that all compound harmonic-corroborating stops must be 
gradually softened in tone as they rise in pitch has to be observed in 
the regulation-of the ACUTA. 

3 33 



34 ORGAN-STOPS 

The ACUTA is only required in Concert-room Organs ot" the first 
magnitude, and even in them it has been seldom introduced. One 
of four ranks is in the Great of the Organ in the Cincinnati Music 
Hall; but in it there is no third-sounding rank. 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION. As the ACUTA, when prop- 
erly made, is strictly a member of the fundamental unison har- 
monic structure based on the DIAPASON, 8 FT., it properly enters 
into numerous combinations either directly with that stop in full 
harmonic sequence; or with it and other stops in varied registrations, 
its presence being desired on account of its special brightness and 
life-giving character. The ACUTA is specially valuable in registra- 
tion with full-toned lingual stops such as are properly inserted in 
the First or Great Organ. With the TRUMPET alone or with the 
TRUMPET and CLARION it is valuable, imparting great brilliancy and 
a singular orchestral coloring to the brass-tones, by powerfully cor- 
roborating the higher harmonics present to some extent in the voices 
of the lingual stops. 



. Lat.,^EoLiNA. Ger., A.OLINE. Fr., UOUNE. Ital., 
EOLINA. The name employed by different organ-builders to desig- 
nate extremely soft-toned stops both lingual and labial. Seidel de- 
scribes it as a lingual stop voiced in imitation of the ^Eolian Harp. 
He adds: " The bodies of the pipes are very small and of a narrow 
measure. . . . The stop cannot be used by itself, but only in 
combination with some soft 8ft. covered or open stop of narrow 
measure, such as the GAMBA." This definition is supported by 
Hamel, who remarks: 

"C'est un jeu d'anches libres qui, ainsi que son nom 1'indique, doit imiter le 
munnure de la harpe aeolienne, et qui, par consequent, doit avoir une intonation 
extremement tendre et adricnne. Le corps dcs tuyaux qui sonnent quelquefois le 
seize pieds, sont tres-petits et d'un diapason tres-dtroit. On trouvc ce jeu dispose* 
avec des huit pieds dans le nouvel orgue (le Sainte-Marie & Wisrnar,"* 

The ^EOLINE of the old builders was evidently a free-reed stop 
furnished with small resonators. Topfer describes it as a free-reed 
stop of 1 6 ft, and 8 ft, pitch, either like the PHYSHARMONICA or fur- 
nished with small conical tubes or resonators* Walcker has placed 
on the Second Manual of his Organ in Riga Cathedral an ^ELODICON, 
1 6 FT., a lingual stop of the ^EOLINE class; and on the Fourth Man- 
ual an ^EOLINE, SFT., a labial stop of tin, with the bass octave of 
wood, as in the Third Manual of his Organ in St. Petri-Kirche in 
Hamburg. Speaking of the ^EOLINE, Carl Locher, of Berne, re- 

* ** Manuel Complet du Facteur d'Orgues." 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 35 

marks: "It is of a soft string-toned character, occurring in Ger- 
many and Switzerland on almost all large and small Organs as an 
8-ft. solo stop. It is considered the most delicate of all string-toned 
stops."* 

FORMATION. The MOLINE, properly of eight feet pitch, in its most approved 
modern form may be classed in the SALICIONAL family, of which it forms the 
softest-toned member. If voiced to yield a more decided string-tone, it may be 
considered an ECHO VIOLA DA GAMBA. The stop is formed of small-scale cylindri- 
cal pipes, preferably of tin or Hoyt two-ply, hard-rolled, pipe-metal. The mouths, 
which are about one-fifth the circumference of the pipes, are cut low and sharp, 
furnished with ears, and voiced with either some form of j rein harmonique or har- 
monic-bridge, and on a wind between iX inches and 2^ inches. The scale may 
vary according to the class of Organ in which the stop is placed, and its position 
in the Organ ; but a suitable one, which may be accepted as normal, in the ratio of 
1 : 2 -S l 9> g* ves the CC pipe a diameter of 2.51 inches; the C pipe a diameter of 1.54 
iuches; and the middle c 1 pipe a diameter of 0.94 inches. Lochersays: "The 
MOLINA was originally a metal stop throughout, but as the art of intonation in 
modern organ-building is capable of making the transition from metal to wood 
quite imperceptible, it is permissible to construct the lower notes of wood in this 
and other stops." As before mentioned, Walcker, of Ludwigsburg, has used wood 
basses for this stop. A certain English organ-builder has used a bass octave of 
stopped wood pipes, and even gone farther by grooving the ^EOLINE to a soft 
covered stop. None of these money-saving devices should be followed. 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION. The extreme softness of the 
voice of the ^OLINE renders its value in combination and registra- 
tion, comparatively speaking, very limited; yet it has a delicate 
timbre-creating property which is worthy of the organist's study. 
For instance, it combines well with such a stop as the FLAUTO 
D'AMORE, 8 FT. , creating a compound tone of peculiar charm. It also 
combines in an effective manner with the MELODIA, HARMONICA, 
and other flute-toned stops, provided they are not too loudly voiced 
to be tonally affected. In simple registration it will be found of 
value as a solo stop ; its delicate singing string-tone rendering it very 
fascinating to the lover of refined organ music. The ^OLINE is 
frequently drawn with the Voix CELESTE. 

JiLODICON, Grk. The name originally used to designate a 
keyboard, free-reed instrument and the precursor of the Harmonium. 
As an organ-stop it is a variant of the free-reed ^EOLINE. An ex- 
ample, under the name ALODICON, 16 FT., by Walcker, of Ludwig- 
burg, occupies a place in the Second Manual Division of the Organ 
in the Cathedral of Riga, where it is a soft-toned lingual stop. As ' 

* "Aeoline 16' und 8', ein zartes Rohrwerk von schdnwirkendem, sanftem, sauselndem Tone f 
mit freischwingenden Zungen und Kurzem Schalltrichter." "Die Orgel," P. Zimmer. 



36 ORGAN-STOPS 

such its presence, in this age of noisy, high-pressure stops, would, 
indeed, be most welcome. 

^QUALPRINZIPAL, Ger. The term which has been used by 
German organ-builders to designate the principal manual unison 
stop. In early times of the art in Germany the simple term ^EQUAL 
or AQUAL was deemed sufficient. The term, signifying unison, was 
sometimes applied to other stops, 

AMOROSA, Lat. The name that has been used by Steinmcyer 
and other German organ-builders to designate a wood FLUTE, 8 FT., 
of small scale and soft and pleasing tone, resembling that of the 
PLAUTO D'AMORE. The extended term Vox AMOROSA has occa- 
sionally been used. 

ANGENEHMGEDECKT, Ger. The term which has occa- 
sionally been used by German organ-builders, instead of the usual 
term LIEBLICHGEDECKT, to designate a small-scaled covered stop 
yielding a refined tone. It is formed from the word angenehm 
pleasant. 

ANTHROPOGLOvSSA, Grk. The name that has been given by 
old German organ-builders to the lingual stop yielding a tone some- 
what resembling the human voice; now designated Vox HUMANA. 

APFELREGAL, Ger. Eng., APPLE-REGAL. An obsolete lin- 
gual stop which must now be classed among the curiosities of Ger- 
man organ-building. The stop received its peculiar name from the 
shape of its resonators; which were formed of very short cylindrical 
portions surmounted by apple-shaped heads, perforated with numer- 
ous small holes for the emission of wind and sound the latter nec- 
essarily muffled. Seidel tells us that the cylindrical portion of the 
largest resonator was only about 4 inches long. The stop was also 
called KNOPFREGAL; and was made of both 8 ft. and 4 ft. tone. 
See REGAL, 

ASSAT. The term occasionally met with in the stop-lists of old 
Organs. It is obviously a corruption of the proper term NASAT. 

B 

BAJONCILLO, Span. Port., BAIXONILIKX A lingual stop 
found in Spanish and Portuguese Organs; the tones of which re- 
semble those of the orchestral Bassoon, which, however, they do not 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 37 

imitate very closely. The stop is of 8 ft, pitch. BAJON or BAIXO 
being the stop of 16 ft. pitch. 

BARDUEN. The name used by Praetorius to designate a 
covered stop in all essentials similar to that now known as the 
BOURDON. He gives the stop as of 8 ft. pitch. 

BARDONE, Ital The term that has occasionally been em- 
ployed to designate the stop commonly known as the BOURDON. 
There was an old bass stringed instrument called Viola di Bardone, 
which may have suggested the term. It is now rendered, more in 
keeping with modern nomenclature, BORDONE. 

BAREM, Ger. The name given to a covered wood stop of 16 ft. 
and 8 ft. pitch, voiced to yield a pure and soft tone. The term is de- 
rived from the old German word baren to sing. The stop is prac- 
tically identical with that commonly known as the STILLGEDECKT. 

BARPFEIFE, Ger. Dtch., BAARPYP. An old lingual stop, the 
resonators of which assume very peculiar forms. The most common 
seems to be that of two cones joined together at their bases, and both 
truncated ; the lower one soldered to the reed-block and the upper 
one open at top, the opening being comparatively small so as to 
subdue the tone. The illustration given by Seidel shows these 
double cones surmounted by a third truncated cone, forming a bell 
to the resonator. The tone of the stop is described by Wolfram* as 
of a soft growling character. The stop was made of both 16 ft. and 
8 ft. pitch. A BAARPYP, 8 FT., is to be found in the Echo of the 
Organ in the Cathedral of St. Bavon, Haarlem, and in several Organs 
in Holland and Germany. See REGAL. 

BARYTON, (Grk. jtopuirovoq deep-toned). Ital., BARITONO. 
Span., VARITONO. The name given by certain organ-builders to a 
lingual stop of 8 ft. pitch, properly yielding a singularly rich and full 
tone of medium strength when voiced on wind of moderate pressure. 
Under the name BARITONE, 8 FT., a stop of this class exists in the 
Solo of the Roosevelt Organ in the Cathedral of the Incarnation, 
Garden City, Long Island. Another example, of 16 ft., obtains in 
the Organ in the Royal Albert Hall, London, built by Willis in 1871. 

FORMATION. For the production of the desirable tone, the reeds should be the 
"closed " variety, and the tongues somewhat light and finely curved so as to avoid 
all brassiness. The resonators to be inverted conical in form, and shaded for fine 
regulation. 

* ' ' Anleitung zur Kenntniss, Beurtheilung und Erhaltung der Orgeln." J. Christian Wolfram, 
Gotha, 1815. 



3 8 ORGAN-STOPS 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION. A lingual stop of this class, 
having a refined and sympathetic voice, should be placed in one of 
the accompanimental manual divisions of every important Organ. 
Its value in artistic registration could not well be overrated. Its 
rich and full tone would combine with those of the flute-toned and 
string-toned stops, producing numerous beautiful lights and shades 
of tonal coloring, not possible with the usual and assertive lingual 
stops. The day is coming, we feel sure, when the value of soft 
normal or unimitative lingual stops will be realized in refined and 
artistic registration. 

. BASSET-HORN. FT., COR DE BASSET. Ger., BASSETHORN. 
ItaL, CORNO DI BASSETTO. A lingual stop of 8 ft. pitch, voiced to 
yield a tone resembling that of the orchestral instrument of the same 
name. See CORNO DI BASSETTO. Locher says the German BASSET- 
HORN, 8 FT., and the SERPENT, 16 FT., "measured on the same foun- 
dation, are smooth-toned, free-rcecl, Pedal Organ stops, as a rule 
without resonators, like the PHYSHARMONICA. They represent the 
smooth reed-tone on the Zweitcs Pedal of the Ulm Cathedral Organ. " 

BASS FLUTE. Ger., BASSFLOTE. An open labial stop, of 
8 ft. pitch, formed commonly of wood but sometimes of metal, 
voiced to yield a powerful unimitative flute-tone. This stop prop- 
erly belongs to the Pedal Organ, where it is frequently derived 
from the DIAPASON, 16 FT., by means of tin extra octave of pipes and 
an octave coupler. For the purpose of combination and artistic 
registration it is very desirable that it should be an independent stop 
of distinctive strength and character of tone; and for this purpose it 
should be made of metal, The German name PLOTENBASS is some- 
times given to this independent stop. 

BASSONELL. Described by Wolfram as a lingual stop of 8 ft. 
and 4 ft. pitch, made of metal. Its tone was, in all probability, that 
of a soft Bassoon character. This is seemingly the stop referred to 
by Hamel under the Italian name BASSANKLLO- ' ' BASSANELLI. Ce 
sont des instruments & vent du si&cle dernier [xviii* 5 ] ; ils resemblent 
beaucoup au chalumeau. Dans Torgue, ils ont &t& imit^s par des 
jeux d'anches particuliers de huit et de quatre pieds." 

BASSOON. Ital, FAGOTTO, Pr., BASSON. Ger., FAGOTT. 
Span., BAJON. A small-scaled lingual stop, voiced to imitate as 
closely as practicable the tone of the orchestral instrument of the 
same name. As a manual stop of 8 ft. pitch, it is sometimes, and 
correctly, associated with the OBOE or HAUTBOY; being labeled 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 39 

OBOE & FAGOTTO or HAUTBOY & BASSOON. It is preferable that, in 
the modern Organ, the BASSOON, 8 FT., should be introduced as a 
complete and independent stop. This is very desirable, to facilitate 
artistic registration. As a stop of 16 ft. pitch, the BASSOON fre- 
quently appears in the Pedal Organ, and occasionally in a manual 
division. When of this grave pitch it is more expressively called 
DOUBLE BASSOON or CONTRAFAGOTTO. A BASSON, 16 FT., appears 
in the pedal department of the Grand Organ in the Church of Saint- 
Sulpice, Paris ; and a CONTRA-FAGOTTO, 16 FT., is placed in the Solo 
of the Organ in St. George's Hall, Liverpool. It seems, howev&rr-ta 
have been left to Walcker, of Ludwigsburg, to realize the true value 
of this important stop. In his original Organ in the Cathedral of 
Ulm were the following stops: A CONTRA-FAGOTT, 16 FT., and a 
FAGOTT-DISCANT, 16 FT., in the Hauptwerk (First Clavier); a FA- 
GOTT, 8 FT., on the Z^gites Clavier; a CONTRA-FAGOTT, 16 FT., a 
SECUND-FAGOTT, 16 FT., and a FAGOTT, 8 FT., on the Yiertes Clavier; 
and a FAGOTTBASS, 16 FT., on the Erstes Pedal. In all, seven im- 
portant stops of the BASSOON family in an Organ of 113 speaking 
stops. What an opportunity here for unique registration ! 



FORMATION. The BASSOON, when in its best form as a striking reed, has 
resonators of the inverted conical form and small scale. The manual stop of 8 ft. 
pitch may be constructed entirely of metal, or the resonators of its bass octave 
may be made of some suitable hard wood, so as not to require undesirable thick- 
ness. The same remark applies to the two lower octaves of the DOUBLE BASSOON, 
1 6 FT. The resonators of the Pedal Organ stop may be of wood throughout. For 
fine regulation the resonators should be shaded, or both shaded and slotted. Satis- 
factory tonal results have been obtained from metal resonators, closed at top and 
slotted or perforated in some manner near their closed ends. The wooden resona- 
tors are square in transverse section, their lower ends being rounded externally 
so as to fit into metal socket pieces soldered to the reed-blocks; and they must be 
bored vertically with holes corresponding with the size of the reeds below. These 
holes must be coif Js&ued until they open clearly into the interior of the resonators. 
T n Fig. I, Plate I, is shown a CC BASSOON pipe of metal, the resonator of which is 
closed and slotted. Fig. 2 shows a corresponding pipe with a resonator of wood, 
shaded with an adjustable plate of thick pipe-metal. , The illustrations are drawn 
to scale. The reeds are of the closed variety, and the tongues are narrow and 
specially curved so as to produce the characteristic Bassoon tone. 

Continental organ-builders have largely resorted to free-reeds in the formation 
of their FAGOTTS, probably finding their style of striking-reed work productive of 
too much clang and brassiness, altogether foreign to the tone of the orchestral 
Bassoon. They have used for the free-reeds comparatively short resonators, 
formed of two truncated cones, soldered together at their bases, the upper one 
having a small opening for the emission of the wind and sound. Seidel, however, 
gives an illustration of a BASSOON pipe having a slender cylindrical resonator, like 
that tx^w sed for the CLARINET. 



40 ORGAN-STOPS 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION. The orchestral Bassoon fur- 
nishes the proper bass to the Oboe. Both arc double-reed instru- 
ments. The value of a good imitation of its peculiar voice in the 
Organ may be realized from what Berlioz says: "The Bassoon is of 
the greatest use in the orchestra on numerous occasions. Its sonor- 
ousness is not very great, and its quality of tone, absolutely devoid 
of brilliancy or nobleness, has a tendency toward the grotesque 
which should be always kept in mind when bringing it forward into 
prominence. Its low tones form excellent basses to the whole group 
of wooden wind instruments. . . . The character of its high notes 
is somewhat painful, suffering, even, I may say, miserable, 
which may be sometimes introduced into either a slow melody, or 
passages of accompaniment, with most surprising effect." Even 
when voiced by an artist, the organ BASSOON, 8 FT., is only moder- 
ately imitative; and on this account it may be recognized as being 
more generally useful than if its voice were absolutely imitative. 
An artistically made and voiced BASSOON is a stop of the greatest 
value in an Organ, combining with all the medium- and softly-voiced 
labial stops, producing dual or fuller tonalities of great beauty. In 
combination with the OBOE or CLARINET it produces reed-tones of 
singular fullness and charm. These facts go to prove that registra- 
tion in which the BASSOON enters deserves the artist organist's 
careful study. Unfortunately, the stop is very rarely introduced in 
the ordinary Organs of to-day. In the wood-wind division or sub- 
division of the Concert-room Organ, its presence, as a complete stop, 
is imperative. For remarks on the DOUBLE BASSOON, see CONTRA- 

FAGOTTO. 

BASSPOSAUNE, Ger, Eng., BASS TROMBONE. The Pedal 
Organ lingual stop of 32 ft. pitch, also termed CONTRAPOSAUNK, as 
in the Organ in Christ Church, at Hirschberg. It appears in several 
important German Organs, termed POSAUNE, 32 FT. ; as in the Organ 
in St. Peter's Church, Berlin. It also appears, under the same name, 
as a free-reed stop, in the Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral of 
Merseburg, built by Ladegast in 1855; an d a l so as a free-reed stop 
in the Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral of Gothenburg, built by 
Marcussen in 1849. See CONTRAPOSAUNE* 

BASS TUBA. Ger., BASSTUBA. A powerfully-voiced lingual 
stop, the tones of which are supposed to represent in the Organ those 
of the Bass Tuba of the modern orchestra as constituted by Wagner 
and others. See CONTRA-TUBA. 



PLATE I 



BASSOON 



7 

BASSOON BELL GAMBA CLARINET COR ANGLAIS 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 41 

BASS VIOL. An appropriate name for an organ stop of 8 ft. 
pitch, formed of metal and voiced to yield a string-tone less pro- 
nounced than that of the ORCHESTRAL VIOLONCELLO, 8 FT. Its tone- 
may be accepted as representing in the Organ that of the old Bass 
Viol, the largest of the four instruments in the old English "Chest of 
Viols." This stop, if voiced to yield a bright, singing string-tone, 
would be invaluable in refined and artistic registration. In com- 
bination with all the softer stops of pure organ-tone, flute-tone, and 
reed-tone, it would impart to their different voices a delicate coloring 
without destroying their individuality, adding, at the same time, 
volume to their voices. 

BAUERFLOTE, BAUERPFEIFE, Ger. Literally Peasant 
Flute. A covered stop of small scale, commonly made of wood, and 
of 8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., and I ft. pitch. The stops of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch 
have clear fluty tones; while those of 2 ft. and i ft. have whistling 
tones resembling those of the human mouth. An example of 8 ft. 
pitch, under the name BAUERPFEIFE, appears in the Choir of the 
Organ in the Church of St. Jacobi, Hamburg. The stop in its high 
pitches has been commonly, and strangely we may add, introduced 
in Pedal Organs; one of 2 ft. is to be found in the Bedal of the Organ 
in the Church of SS. Peter and Paul, at Goerlitz, and one of I ft. 
pitch in the Pedal of the Church of St. Dominico, at Prague. Wol- 
fram gives the terms BAUERNFLOTE and BAUERNFLOTENBASS. The 
stop has been made with perforated stoppers, and called BAUERN- 

ROHRFLOTE, 

BEARDED GAMBA. An open metal labial stop of medium 
scale, producing an unimitative string-tone. The name is given on 
account of the peculiar treatment of the mouths of its pipes. Each 
mouth is provided, in addition to its projecting ears, with a project- 
ing plate, soldered to the lower lip and attached to the ears. While 
this beard exercises an influence on the tone, it must not be con- 
founded with the harmonic-bridge or the frein harmonique. The 
stop is not of much importance and has fallen into disuse. 

BELL DIAPASON. FT., FLUTE A PA VILLON. This stop was 
invented in France, and introduced into England at the London Ex- 
hibition of 1851. For some time it was much esteemed by English 
builders, but for certain reasons it is no longer made. The English 
name is not appropriate, while the French name conveys the proper 
classification of the stop tonally, as well as the distinguishing feature 
in the formation of its pipes, technically termed the pavilion. Ton- 



42 ORGAN-STOPS 

ally the stop belongs to the flute-work of the Organ, and not to the 
foundation- or diapason-work. For further particulars, see FLUTE A 
PAVILLON. 

BELL GAME A. Ger., GLOCKENGAMBA. A metal labial stop 
of 8 ft. pitch ; the pipes of which have their bodies of a conical form, 
and of medium scale, surmounted by a slender pavilion or bell, in 
the manner shown in Fig. 3, Plate I. The name was used to distin- 
guish the stop from the ordinary German GAMBA, which has pipes of 
plain cylindrical form. The stop has very rarely been carried below 
tenor C in its characteristic form, the bass octave either being 
omitted or inserted in cylindrical pipes. As the form of the BELL 
GAMBA does not allow of its being tuned at top in the ordinary 
manner, its mouth is furnished with large, projecting, flexible ears, 
as shown in Fig. 3, which flatten or sharpen the tone as they are bent 
toward or away from the mouth. This stop was usually made of tin 
or high-class alloy; and when artistically voiced yielded a string-tone 
of great delicacy and charm, strongly resembling that of the old 
orchestral Viola da Gamba. The trouble attending its construction, 
voicing, and perfect regulation has led to its disappearance from the 
Organs of to-day. See VIOLA DA GAMBA. 

BIFARA, Ger. Lat, TIBIA BIFARIS or BIFARIUS. This term 
has been employed by certain old German organ-builders to desig- 
nate two different labial stops, both of which were double-toned, and 
one positively dual in formation. Seidel, who one must recognise 
as an authority on old German organ-building, says: the BIFARA "is 
a fine but scarce labial stop in the manual, eight or four feet, open, of 
PRINCIPAL scale. Every pipe has, like those of the DOPPLFLOTE, 
two mouths, one of which stands a little higher than the other, 
whereby a pleasant sort of vibration is caused, similar to that of the 
UNDA MARIS. To obtain from this stop a very soft and agreeable 
tone, the feet of the pipes are but partly open, so as to admit only 
a small amount of wind. The BIFARA is also produced in another 
way; namely, by giving one tone to two pipes, one of which is tuned 
a little higher than the other. A BIFARA of tin, of two ranks, first 
rank a GEDECKT, 8 FT., second rank open pipes of 4 ft., of a soft 
string-tone, stands on the Third Manual of the colossal Organ built 
by Walcker, of Ludwigsburg, in St. Peter's Church, St. Petersburg/ 1 

The BIFARA is extremely interesting as the first step toward the 
artistic formation of dual stops, for the production of compound 
tones, impossible to be produced from single stops, or even two stops 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 43 

not specially combined.* For many years we have pleaded for 
attention to be given to tone-coloring in this direction, but in this, 
as in other matters, our appeal has fallen on deaf ears. Dollars and 
don't-careism have blocked the way 

BLOCKFLOTE, Ger. Lat, TIBIA VULGARIS. Eng., BLOCK- 
FLUTE. The name given to an open metal labial stop of the ordinary 
cylindrical form, of very large scale, and usually of 4 ft. pitch. The 
tone of this stop was of a normal flute character, which varied in 
power in different examples. Respecting the original German ver- 
sions of the stop, Seidel remarks: "It is of Flute-work, sometimes 
open, sometimes stopped, and now and then made of conical pipes. 
It is made of tin or pipe-metal, of 16 ft., 8 ft., 4 ft., and 2 ft. tone. 
It imitates the tone of the Flute into which the wind is blown at the 
end." In the concluding remark, allusion is evidently made to the 
old FlUte & Bee, or Direct Flute. "Father Smith" introduced the 
BLOCKFLOTE in his Durham Cathedral Organ (1683), and in that he 
built for St. Paul's Cathedral, London (1697). 

BOMBARDE, Fr. A lingual stop of 16 ft. pitch and powerful 
intonation. The BOMBARDE is commonly found in important French 
Organs; for instance in the Organ in Saint-Sulpice, Paris, built by 
Cavaill6-Coll, there are four BOMBARDES; and in his Organ in the 
Cathedral of Notre-Dame there are also four a CONTRE-BOMBARDE, 
32 FT., and three BOMBARDES, 16 FT. In his notable scheme for the 
"Orgue Monumental" to be erected in St. Peter's, at Rome, we 
find in the Pedal Organ a CONTRE-BOMBARDE, 32 FT.; a BOMBARDE, 
16 FT. ; and a QUINTE BOMBARDE, 10% FT. The tonal effect of these 
three commanding voices in combination, heard in such a building 
as St. Peter's, is beyond one's power to imagine. This important 
stop gives a name to a manual division in large French Organs; 
namely, "Clavier des Boxnbardes." The resonators of the BOM- 
BARDE are of the inverted conical form, constructed of stout metal 
and to a large scale. 

There was an old lingual stop sometimes called BOMBARD, but 
more commonly BOMMER or BARBOMMER, evidently deriving its 
name from Bombardo a mediaeval reed instrument of large size and 

* " La BIFARA (de bifaris) est done une autre espece de flute a deux tuyaux ouverts, de moy- 
enne taille, de huit-pieds, et en etain. Ses deux benches, etroitement pincees, mais dorit 1'une 
est plus haute que 1'autre, n'aspirent que peu de vent par un seul pied, et rendent une harmonie 
plus ou moins agreable. On la fait encore de deux tuyaux separes, ayant chacun leur pied; 1'un 
des deux tuyaux ayant un peu plus hauteur nue 1'autre, et par consequent de rondeur de son." 
Regnier. 



44 ORGAN-STOPS 

coarse intonation, and probably the precursor of the Fagotto. The 
old instrument, or some modification of it, was called Pommer, and 
led to the formation of a family of six instruments under the name,* 
According to Wolfram (1815), the old BOMMER, BOMBARD, or BAR- 
BOMMER, was a Pedal Organ stop of 16 ft. and 8 ft. pitch, having 
resonators of wood, which were sometimes partly covered to soften 
the tone. 

BOMBARDON, Pr. Ital., BOMBARDONE. A Pedal Organ 
lingual stop, full-toned, and of 32 ft. and 16 ft. pitch. It derives its 
appellation from the large brass instrument of the same name, the 
powerful and grave tones of which it is designed to imitate so far as 
its compass extends. The accepted compass of the Bombardon is 
from FPF to d 1 , but five notes lowerto CCC can, with difficulty, 
be produced by a skillful performer. The BOMBARDON has been 
confounded with the BOMBARDE, but they are properly two distinct 
stops tonally. The voice of the BOMBARDON should be between the 
voices of the BOMBARDE and the BASSOON, while partaking of the 
character of both, hence the value of such a stop in Pedal Organ 
registration. A BOMBARDON, 32 FT., exists in the Pedal of the Organ 
in the Cathedral of Ulm. 

BORDUNALFLOTE, Ger. The name given to an open wood 
stop of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are properly of inverted 
conical form, and slightly oblong in transverse section. The pipes 
are voiced to yield a smooth fluty-tone, having, owing to the creation 
of certain upper partials, a trace of string quality. An example, of 
8 ft. pitch, made of pine and pear-tree, by the celebrated organ- 
builder, Ladegast, exists on the Second Manual of the Organ in the 
Cathedral of Schwerin. Another, by the same builder, exists on the 
Second Manual of the Organ in the Nicolaikirche, Leipzig, The 
stop deserves consideration for introduction in important Organs; 
but, owing to more than ordinary labor being required in its forma- 
tion, it is not likely to be favored by organ-builders to-day, The 
stop has been frequently, but less correctly labeled PORTUNALFLOTE, 

BOURDON, Pr. Ital,, BORDONE. Ger., BORDUN, BRUMMBASS, 
BASSBRUMMER. In English and American Organs the BOURDON 
may be said to invariably appear in the form of a covered, labial wood 
stop, of large scale and 16 ft, pitch. Its characteristic tone has a 
somewhat dull droning quality, which is well expressed by the old 

* The entire family of Pommers is shown in the Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instru- 
ments in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 45 

German synonyms BRUMMBASS and BASSBRUMMER(from brummen 
to hum or drone). 

The BOURDON, 16 FT., most frequently appears, in English and 
American instruments of moderate dimensions, in the Pedal Organ; 
while in small Organs it is too frequently the only pedal stop. In 
large instruments it is introduced in one or more of the manual divi- 
sions, and commonly in the Swell Organ. In the Concert-room 
Organ in the Town Hall of Leeds, England, the BOURDON, 16 FT,, is 
introduced in the Great, Swell, and Echo Organs. As might be 
expected, the manual stops are made of a smaller scale than those 
introduced in the Pedal Organ. In German instruments the BOUR- 
DON, 1 6 FT., may be said to be a manual stop, although it sometimes 
appears in the Pedal Organ. In important instruments it is found 
on the manuals of 32 ft. and 16 ft. pitch. In the Organ in the Cathe- 
dral of Bremen, built by Schulze in 1850, we find in the Hauptwerk 
BORDUNS of 32 ft. and 16 ft., and in the Unterwerk BORDUNS of 
32 ft. and 1 6 ft. ; but no stop under the name in the Pedal. It occa- 
sionally appears of 8 ft. pitch, as on the First Clavier of the Organ in 
St. Peter's Church, Hamburg. In French instruments the BOURDON 
is introduced in the manual divisions of 16 ft. and 8 ft. pitch. In the 
Organ in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris, there are no fewer 
than five manual BOURDONS two of 16 ft. and three of 8 ft. pitch. 
In some rare instances the French organ-builders have applied the 
name to a covered metal stop of large scale and of 4 ft. pitch. 

FORMATION. In modern English and American Organs the true BOURDON, 
1 6 FT., is invariably and properly made of wood; but we are told in Dr. Burney's 
"History of Music" that the old English builders sometimes constructed it of 
metal. Speaking of Snetzler's Organ in St. Margaret's Church, Lynn Regis, he 
says : " One of the metal stops of this instrument, called the Bourdon, is an octave 
below the Open Diapason, and has the effect of a double bass in the chorus." In 
all probability the quint was somewhat prominent in the tone of this covered metal 
stop, imparting to it a similarity to that of the orchestral Double Bass. Both the 
French and German organ-builders use metal pipes in the higher octaves of their 
manual BOURDONS, especially in those of 8 ft. pitch. In the Great of the celebrated 
Haarlem Organ, the BOURDON, 16 FT., is of metal throughout the compass of the 
manual. 

The pipes of the BOURDON, like those of all quadrangular wood stops, are 
formed of four boards, glued together at their edges and at one end to a block, or, 
in large pipes, to two cross-pieces of wood, which assume the position and function 
of the block. The large scale of the pipes renders the use of solid blocks undesir- 
able save in the upper octaves. The block or upper cross-piece should be faced 
with hard wood, as its upper edge forms the lower lip of the mouth, which is 
cut in the front board of the pipe. In the accompanying illustration, Fig. 4, is 
shown the construction of the lower part of a CCC pipe, and the formation of the 
mouth according to the German and English methods. The former is shown in 



4 6 



ORGAN-STOPS 



Diagram A, in which will be observed the depression of the upper cross-piece, 
and its front edge beveled and cut so as to form the wind- way of the mouth, and 
placed level with the upper edge of the cap. In Diagram B is given the correspond- 
ing Section of the English mouth, showing the horizontal upper cross-piece, and 






FIG. 4 

the adjustment of the hollowed cap,- in which is formed the wind- way, slightly 
below the lower lip of the mouth. Both these treatments have an influence on the 
tonality of the pipes. In Diagram C is given a Front View of the lower portion of 
the pipe showing the German mouth. 

SCALE. The scale of the BOURDON pedal or manual- is a 
matter of considerable importance, as it afTcctvS both the power and 
tonality of the stop, and, accordingly, its value in combination and 
registration. It should be dictated by the general character of the 
Organ, and specially with regard to the tonality of the other stops 
of the division in which it is placed. It would seem, from the many 
examples we have examined, that this matter has not been fully 
considered by the builders of many Organs. Inordinate scales are 
not uncommon. The BOURDON, in its normal form, varies greatly 
in scale, chiefly because it is inserted in both the pedal and manual 
departments of the Organ, and in its different manual divisions, 
The most suitable scales for the Pedal Organ stops range from a 
width of 5% inches by a depth of 8 inches to a width of 8J^ inches 
by a depth of 10 inches internal measurement for the CCC pipe; 
all scales having the ratio I : V^, halving on the seventeenth pipe. 
The former scale has been adopted by Schutec for the stop in the 
Pedal Organ of his fine instrument in St. Peter's Church, Hindley, 
England ; the CCC pipe of which has a mouth 4 inches high. The 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 47 

scale of 6.60 inches by 8.56 inches is ample for all ordinary Church 
Organs which have properly apportioned pedal departments : while 
the scale of 4.10 inches by 5.56 inches is suitable for a small Church 
or a Chamber Organ. Larger scales than the maximum given above 
have been used by English builders, but with no advantage in any 
direction. 

The scales of the manual BOURDON, 16 FT., may range from a 
width of 3.76 inches by a depth of 5.10 inches, to a width of 5.10 
inches by a depth of 7.20 inches. Schulze's effective BOURDON in 
the Great of the Hindley Organ has its largest pipe measuring 37/3 
inches in width by 6% inches in depth. This scale is noteworthy on 
account of its proportionate depth, which is unusual. This pipe has 
its mouth 3 J/g inches in height. 

TONALITY. The tones of the BOURDON vary almost as greatly 
as its scales. Those which have characterized so many of the stops 
made and voiced by the older English builders are the least satis- 
factory; due to largeness of scale, lowness of mouth, and undue 
thinness of the upper lip. The tones of such stops being tubby and 
often unmusical in the extreme. The BOURDONS usually made by 
English organ-builders have mouths seldom over half their width in 
height, and often less than one-third. Blown by wind of moderate 
pressure, these stops yield tones in which the twelfth, or first har- 
monic of a stopped pipe, is more or less prominent in combination 
with a somewhat dull prime tone, sometimes approaching the tone 
of the QUINTATEN. In certain tonal apportionments it may be desir- 
able to introduce a BOURDON with, this compound voice. The 
BOURDONS of the German organ-builders, usually of moderate scale, 
and copiously blown by wind of moderate pressure, have their 
mouths cut up very high ; rising from about two-thirds their width 
to a height exceeding their width, as exemplified by the stop in the 
Swell of the Hindley Organ, labeled LIEBLICHBOURDON, 16 FT., 
the largest pipe of which measures 3^ inches in width by 5 inches in 
depth, and has a mouth 3^ inches in height. This beautiful stop 
yields almost a pure organ-tone of singular fullness and sweetness 
a perfect stop for artistic registration. 

The tones yielded by small-scaled and high-mouthed BOURDONS 
are fuller and purer than those produced by the large-scaled and low- 
mouthed English stops; and on this account, combined with the 
comparatively small standing room they require on the wind-chest, 
they are most suitable for insertion in the manual divisions of the 
Organ, and especially those inclosed in swell-boxes. The tone of the 
BOURDON pipe is affected to a considerable extent by the thickness 



48 ORGAN-STOPS 

and finish of its upper lip. These facts were realized by the late T. C. 
Lewis, one of England's most artistic and accomplished organ- 
builders. The largest pipe of the fine BOURDON, 16 FT. , in the Great 
of his Organ in the Public Halls, Glasgow, measures 5^-3 inches in 
width by 6 ^ inches in depth, having a mouth 3 7/8 inches in height, 
with a square-cut upper lip -J-J inch in thickness. The tone of the 
BOURDON pipe is also affected by the shape given to the upper lip of 
the mouth, which may vary from the straight line, as shown in Fig. 
4, to an arch approaching a semicircle. To produce the desirable 
ground-tone from pipes so voiced, a copious flow of wind, at a moder- 
ate pressure, is absolutely necessary. 

While the tones yielded by the different types of BOURDON are 
somewhat indeterminate and difficult to classify, it is certain the 
stop belongs to the flute-work of the Organ. It has been considered 
the bass to the so-called STOPPED DIAPASON, 8 FT. ; but it is just as 
little allied to the DIAPASON proper as the unison stop, which also 
belongs to the unimitative flute-work. 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION. The BOURDON, when prop- 
erly scaled and voiced, is a valuable stop in artistic registration; 
combining in a highly satisfactory manner with both labial and lin- 
gual stops of almost all pitches. Combined with stops of unison 
(8 feet) pitch, it adds gravity without prominently affecting their 
characteristic timbres; this is due to the indeterminate or neutral 
nature of its tonality, which is, perhaps, its greatest virtue. The 
true tone of the BOURDON gives firmness and body to the softer 
lingual stops, and a certain fullness and orchestral richness to such 
lingual stops as the DOUBLE TRUMPET, CONTRAFAGOTTO, and TROM- 
BONE, 1 6 FT.; losing itself in their assertive voices so far as their 
individuality is concerned. 

The indeterminate character of the BOURDON tones renders it 
impracticable to form such a family as one finds in the LIEBLICH- 
GEDECKTS, but that is not a matter for regret, for little is gained by 
massing neutral tones. 

We strongly recommend the organist who has the command of an 
Organ which contains a good BOURDON in any of its manual divisions 
to carefully study what may be called the Registration of the BOUR- 
DON. He will be repaid if only education of the ear is the result, 
rendering it sensitive to the perception of compound tones on a 16 ft, 
foundation. 

BOURDON DOUX, Pr. The name given by French organ- 
huilders to a soft-toned covered stop of wood and metal, somewhat 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 49 

resembling in formation and tone the German LIEBLICHGEDECKT. 
This is a very desirable stop in registration, with the more refined 
labial and lingual stops, on the 16 ft. base. 

BOURDONECHO Ger., BORDONECHO The term which has 
been employed to designate a BOURDON of small scale and of a soft 
humming tone, differing widely from the covered tone of the LIEB- 
LICHGEDECKT. The pipes, made on the BOURDON model, should be 
of wood in the three lower octaves. This stop should be voiced on a 
wind-pressure not exceeding 3 inches, but preferably lower. 

The value of a 16 ft. stop of this class, which would bear about 
the same relationship to the BOURDON as the DULCIANA does to the 
DIAPASON, would unquestionably be great in a soft-toned manual 
division in which an unassertive double voice would prove highly 
effective in a wide range of artistic registration, in which an assert- 
ive double voice would be inadmissible. 

BUCCINA, Lat. The name originally given to an instrument 
formed from the horn of an ox, blown by a shepherd to gather his 
flock. It is understood to be derived from bucca the cheek puffed 
out. Subsequently used by the old organ-builders to designate a 
POSAUNE. The term is now obsolete in organ nomenclature. 

BUZAIN, Dtch. The name commonly used by the Dutch 
organ-builders to designate a stop generally known as the POSAUNE. 
It is applied without any qualification to the stop in its different 
pitches. In the Pedal Organs of the large instruments in the Cathe- 
drals of Haarlem and Rotterdam it appears of both 32 ft. and 16 ft. 
pitch. 



CAMPANA, Ital Ger., GLOCKLEIN. Lat., TONUS FABRL 

The exact nature of the stop to which this name is strictly applicable 
has not been decided. That its voice shall resemble the sound of 
bells, or the clang of metal against metal, is evidently implied. 
Seidel, under the term GLOCKLEIN-TON (Tonus fabri), describes it 
as a stop of a large scale and high pitch, the tone of which resembles 
the clang of hammers beating on a sonorous anvil; an example of 
which is to be found, of 2 ft. pitch, in the Oberwerk of the Organ in 
St. Peter's, at Goerlitz. The term has also been applied to a stop 
of I ft. or 6 in. pitch, which, on account of the smallness of its pipes 
and tonal reasons, consists of similar octaves, repeating at every 



50 ORGAN-STOPS 

octave throughout the compass of the manual clavier. It was in- 
troduced, of I ft. pitch, in the Organ in the Church of St. Paul, at 
Rusthale, Kent, built by Bryceson Brothers, in 1876. It was in- 
serted in the Swell Organ, in which, in certain registrations, it pro- 
duced bell-like tones. There is an idea suggested by the tonal effects 
of this probably unique stop well worth consideration, We are of 
opinion, after some study of the subject from a scientific point of 
view, that some remarkable tonal effects could be produced in regis- 
tration, in which a small-scaled and softly-voiced octave-repeat- 
ing stop, of i ft. or 6 in. pitch throughout, would be introduced along 
with both labial and lingual voices. The capabilities of organ-stops 
of a refined nature are by no means exhausted. 

CARILLON, Fr. Ger., GLOCKENSPEIL. The term used to 
designate a timbre-creating compound stop, formed of two, three, or 
four ranks of medium-scaled open metal pipes, the clang-like tones 
of which somewhat resemble the sounds of bells. The characteristic 
features of the labial CARILLON lie in the scales and voicing of its 
pipes, and in its composition presenting octave-, third-, and fifth- 
sounding ranks. The following is an example of a three-rank stop, 
in which a third-sounding rank appears throughout its compass. 

CARILLON III. BANKS. 
CC to E 17- 19 22. 

F to e x ...,.., 15 17 19. 

f 1 to e 3 12 -15- 17. 

f a tO C 10- 12- 15. 

In the regulation of the stop, the third-sounding rank has to be 
kept bright and slightly prominent, as on it largely depends the 
clang and bell-like effect. Good examples are to be found in some of 
the important Organs constructed by Cavailld-Coll. The CARILLON 
in his Organ in the Town Hall of Manchester has a fifth-sounding 
rank only from CC to F#, and a fifth-, a third-, and an octave-sound- 
ing rank from G to c 4 . On examining this effective stop, we found 
the pipes of large scale, having wide and low mouths, and languids 
finely and closely nicked. It would appear that Cavaill6~Coll con- 
sidered it unnecessary to carry the bell effect below G- There is a 
four-rank stop of this class, under the name GLOCKENSPIEL, in the 
Echo of the Organ in the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. The 
CARILLON is to be found in certain old Dutch Organs, as in that in 
the Church of St. John the Baptist, at Gouda, built in 1736. The 
stop is in the Choir, and is divided and labeled Discant III. ranks 
and Bass II. ranks; the third-sounding rank being confined to the 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 51 

Discant. The stop has been introduced in some German Organs, 
but we have not been able to find it in the stop-lists of any impor- 
tant modern instruments made by German organ-builders. For 
particulars respecting the percussion stops, see GLOCKENSPIEL. 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION. As the compound labial 
CARILLON is both harmonic-corroborating and timbre-creating, it 
can readily be understood that it would enter into numerous tonal 
combinations with both labial and lingual stops, and produce, in 
artistic registration, many very effective tonalities. The effects 
produced in registration in which labial stops are combined with a 
bell-toned percussion stop are now fairly well known; but the more 
legitimate organ effects, produced by the employment of the labial 
CARILLON in registration is almost unknown in this country en- 
tirely so we think. We have heard them and can speak very strongly 
in their favor. In our study of registration for the production of 
uncommon tonal effects we struck one, in the Cavaille-Coll Organ 
in the Albert Hall, Sheffield, worthy of note. When the combination, 
in the Solo Organ, of the FLUTE HARMONIQUE, 8 FT., the DOUBLETTE 
2 FT., and the TIERCE, i% FT., was drawn and played staccato, the 
most remarkable bell-like effect was produced. This would seem to 
point to a type of registration not commonly adopted or understood : 
but it might be studied with advantage. 

CELESTA. A percussion stop of recent introduction in the 
Organ. In its best form it consists of a series of metal plates, of 
graduated dimensions, adjusted over resonators; all of which being 
accurately tuned produce pure and agreeable tones which combine 
well, when in strict accord, with the voices of the softer labial stops. 

CfiLESTE, Fr. A stop formed of small-scaled open labial pipes, 
preferably of tin, voiced to yield a singing tone, inclining in good 
examples to a string quality. It is tuned slightly sharp, so as to 
produce when drawn with another stop of similar tonality and of 
standard pitch a delicate undulating effect, supposed to imitate a 
celestial voice. See Voix CELESTE. 

CELESTINA. The name given by English organ-builders to 
stops of different forms and tonalities. The name appears to have 
been introduced by William Hill, of London, and given to a small- 
scaled and softly-toned wood FLUTE of 4 ft. pitch, invented by him. 
A stop of this name and pitch, and, doubtless, of the same character, 
is introduced in the Choir of Hill's great Organ in the Centennial 
Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. A CELESTINA formed of metal pipes, yield- 



52 ORGAN-STOPS 

ing a louder tone differing from that of the original stop, is to be 
found in the Willis Organ in the Royal Albert Hall, London. 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION. In the present school of 
organ-building in this country, with its craze for high wind-pres- 
sures, too little attention is paid to stops of the CELESTINA class and 
octave pitch : yet anyone who has studied registration must realize 
the great value of their voices in giving a certain brightness and life 
to unison combinations, without in any way disturbing their pitch. 
From a scientific point of view, one must look upon the introduction 
of such an octave stop as merely corroborating the first harmonic of 
the open unison stop or stops, while it may, at the same time, in- 
troduce a new element into the timbre of the tonal combination. 
Hence the value of the CELESTINA, 4 FT., in artistic and scientific 
registration. See QELESTINA. 

CHALUMEAU, Pr. Ger., SCHALMEI. Ital., SCIALUMO. Eng., 
SHAWM. The name given to a soft-toned lingual stop, commonly 
of 8 ft. pitch, the voice of which is supposed to imitate that of the 
obsolete instrument called the Schalmei or Shawm, the precursor of 
the Clarinet. So far as reed instruments are concerned, the term 
Chalumeau is applied now only to the low register of the Clarinet. 

Describing the old SCHALMEI, Seidel says: "It is a soft, agree- 
able reed stop, in imitation of the instrument of the same name used 
by the shepherds of Southern Europe. It is of 8 ft. and 4 ft. on the 
manuals, and 16 ft. in the Pedal Organ, when it is termed SCHAL- 
MEIBASS. The tubes are generally funnel-shaped, and of a larger 
scale than those of the TRUMPET. Sometimes they were closed with 
the exception of a few sound-holes. The tone of the stop varies as 
greatly as the form of its pipes." Examples of the stop are to be 
found in several German Organs, but it is no longer in favor. It 
appears, of 8 ft. pitch, in the Oberwerk of Ladegast's Organ in the 
Cathedral of Merseburg, built in 1855. Stops labeled CHALMEAUX, 
of 8 ft. tone, were inserted by Silbermann in the Choir^of his fine 
Organs in the Catholic Church and the MarienkircsSeTat Berlin. In 
Schulze & Son's notable Organ in the Marienkirche, at Lubeck, 
there is a SCHALMEI, 4 FT, , in the Erste Pedal, thus described ; " Von 
engerer Mensur und schonem singenden Ton, vortrefflich zur Fuhr- 
ung des Cantus firmus geeignet ' ' In the Great of the Organ built by 
Elliot & Hill for York Minster there was isTSHAWM, 8 FT, There is, a 
SCHALMEI, 16 FT., the resonators of which are cylindrical terminating 
in a partly covered bell, in the Organ in the Colston Hall, Bristol, 
built by Norman & Beard, The tone of this stop is rich ; partaking, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 53 

as might be expected, of the tones of the CLARINET and the COR 
ANGLAIS in effective combination. A Pedal Organ stop of this de- 
scription would be a valuable addition to a large Organ. Softly- 
voiced lingual stops are much called for in Pedal Organs to-day. 
They are conspicuous by their absence. 

CHAMADE, Fr. The term affixed by French organ-builders 
to the name of a lingual stop, to indicate that its resonators are dis- 
posed in, or near to, a horizontal position, and so displayed as to 
send their sounds perfectly unobstructed to the ear. In the descrip- 
tion of the Organ erected by Cavaille-Coll in the grand Church of 
Saint-Ouen, at Ruen, we find in the Grand-Orgue, TROMPETTE EN 
CHAMADE and CLAIRON EN CHAMADE. These are projected, in fan- 
form, from the lateral divisions of the case, and free of the advanced 
Positif . See Frontispiece. This treatment is so common in Spain 
that it may be considered a characteristic of the important Organs 
of that country. It is to be condemned on all musical grounds ; for 
the powerful lingual stops so disposed should be inclosed in swell- 
boxes, and so endowed with powers of flexibility and expression. 
Uncontrollable lingual stops are an abomination from every musical 
point of view. 

CHIMNEY FLUTE. Fr., FLUTE A CHEMINEE. The names 
given by English and French organ-builders to the half-covered 
labial stop more appropriately called in German nomenclature 

ROHRFLOTE (REED-FLUTE). See ROHRFLOTE. 

CHORALBASSET, Ger. Described by Wolfram (1815) as 
an open labial stop of 2 ft. pitch introduced in the Pedal Organ. 
The stop is also called CHORALBASS. The term CHORAL has been 
prefixed to several loud-toned stops to indicate their special suit- 
ability for giving out the melody of a Choral. With this meaning, 
we meet with such stop-names as CHORALPRINZIPAL, CHORALPRAS- 
TANT, and CHORALFLOTE. According to Seidel, the Pedal Organ 
CHORALBASSET has been made of large-scaled pipes of 4 ft., 2 ft., 
and i ft. pitch : the manual stops, CHORALPRINZIPAL and CHORAL- 
PRASTANT, being of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch. 

CINQ, Dtch. The name given to a lingual stop, of 2 ft. pitch, 
inserted in the Pedals of the Organs in the Cathedrals of St. Bavon, 
Haarlem, and St. Lawrence, Rotterdam; and churches in Delft and 
Utrecht. The introduction of high-pitched stops is a characteristic 
of Dutch Pedal Organs; desirable on account of their brightening 
effects, and much to be desired in the Pedal Organs of to-day. 



54 



ORGAN-STOPS 



CLAIRON, Fr. A lingual stop of large scale and 4 ft. pitch, 
commonly attending the TROMPETTE wherever it is introduced, as 
in the pedal and four manual divisions of the Grand Organ in Notre- 
Dame, Paris. See CLARION. 

CLAIRON-DOUBLETTE, Fr. Eng., OCTAVE CLARION. A 
very uncommon lingual stop, of 2 ft. pitch; an example of which 
exists in the Grand-Chceur of the Organ in the Church of Saint-Sul- 
pice, Paris. As "this-Jaigh-pitched stop cannot well be carried in 
lingual pipes of its true pitch above treble c 2 , the two higher octaves 
may either be duplications of the treble octave, or be formed of 
large-scaled and loudly-voiced labial pipes. The value of such a 
stopis very questionable; so much so that the example alluded to is 
the only one we have found in an Organ. Regnier docs not mention 
the stop. 

CLARABELLA. Ger., OFFJENFLQTE. The name given to an 
open wood stop of 8 ft. pitch, which, in its original form, was 
invented by J. C. Bishop, of London. It became a great favorite of 



B 




FIG. 5 



the English organ-builders; and during the latter half of the last 
century was inserted in the majority of the organs then constructed. 
A fine example of the stop exists in the Great of the Bishop Organ 
in the Church of St. Mary, Nottingham. The CLARABELLA, in its 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 55 

original and most desirable form, has of late years been compara- 
tively seldom made, a fact to be regretted. 

FORMATION. The CLARABELLA was devised by J. C. Bishop to take the place 
of the higher octaves of the STOPPED DIAPASON, 8 FT., which he found insufficient 
in volume of tone to cope with the increase of power being given to the OPEN DIA- 
PASON and other stops of the Great Organ. At first it occupied the treble octaves 
from middle c 1 only, but later it was carried down to tenor C, as in the Great of 
the Organ in St. Mary's, Nottingham ; the bass being in covered pipes. The stop 
has, however, been made with its open pipes throughout, as in the Organ built by 
Booth, of Wakefield, for the Brunswick Chapel, Leeds. When properly made and 
voiced the CLARABELLA is an extremely valuable stop, and in an important Organ 
it should be carried throughout the manual compass in its open pipes. 

The CLARABELLA pipe is of the usual quadrangular form and construction, as 
shown in the accompanying illustration, Fig. 5. It has the direct, English mouth, 
usually about one-quarter its width in height, having the upper lip somewhat thin 
and carefully rounded. It requires no ears; and its cap is hollowed for the wind- 
way, level on top, and without a beard, as indicated in Section A.. The propor- 
tions of the mouth are shown in Front View B. The scale of the stop should vary 
according to the volume and the strength of the tone required; but as a rule it has 
been made to what may be considered a large scale for an 8 ft. open wood stop. 
The following scales, to different ratios, may be accepted as normal: 

CLARABELLA SCALE IN INCHES RATIO 1:2.66 
PIPES CC C c 1 c 2 c3 C 4 

WIDTH 4.26 2.62 1. 60 0.98 0.60 0.37 

DEPTH 5.24 3.21 1.97 1.20 0-74 0.45 

CLARABELLA SCALE IN INCHES RATIO 1:2.519 
PIPES CC C c 1 c 2 cs c< 

WIDTH 3.79 2.39 1.50 0.95 0.60 0.38 

DEPTH 4.96 3.13 1.97 1.24 0.78 0.49 

TONALITY. The tone of the stop as voiced by its inventor was 
of a full, round fluty quality, naturally brighter and more penetrat- 
ing than that of the STOPPED DIAPASON pipes it displaced; and, 
accordingly, it did not join satisfactorily with the tones of the 
covered tenor and bass octaves, whose harmonics were different. 
That fact is a strong reason for the formation of the stop with open 
pipes throughout. The tone of the CLARABELLA, in its best form 
and when voiced by a master, is beautiful and invaluable in any 
property apportioned Great Organ, and whether the stop is inclosed 
or free. Its tone should be midway between that of the DIAPASON 
and the full-toned German HOHLFLOTE, differing from the tone of 
the wood DIAPASON as made by Schulze. The true tone of the 
CLARABELLA is clear, singing, and reposeful; making it valuable in 
every direction in which it may be employed. 



56 ORGAN-STOPS 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION, The CLARABELLA can be 

used as a solo stop with good effect, especially when strains of a 
placid nature are desired; when its liquid tones afford an agreeable 
relief to those of a more assertive and cutting character so commonly 
resorted to in solo passages. But it is in combination and artistic 
registration that the chief value of the stop is found. There are 
very few wood stops which enter so satisfactorily into combination 
with lingual stops of all classes. When under control, as it should 
be in a properly appointed Organ, it is a desirable addition to the 
Vox HUMANA and CLARINET. The true CLARABELLA has the de- 
sirable property of building up the tone of almost every unison stop 
to which it is added without prominently affecting its character. In 
registration it may be considered an all-round helper. It may, in 
another important direction, be used as a unison base, on which to 
build up many beautiful compound tones. For this purpose it may 
be combined with the softer octave, mutation, and harmonic-corrob- 
orating stops. With such a refined stop as the DULCIANA CORNET, 
V. RANKS (q. z;.), it produces a charming compound tone,* practi- 
cally unknown in the Organs of to-day, with their high wind-pressures 
and MIXTURES of unregulated and screaming voices. 

CLARIBEL FLUTE, An open wood stop of 4 ft, pitch, which 
in its original form is practically an OCTAVE CLARABELLA, but 
slightly more fluty in tone. Willis, in his dislike of wood stops,! 
made his CLARIBEL FLUTES, 8 ft., of metal from middle c r , and har- 
monic from g 1 . The bass and tenor octaves being of wood pipes. 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION. The value of octave stops of 
varied tonalities has not been fully realized, judging from their 
sparing introduction even in important Organs. Too much depend- 
ence being placed on octave coupling, always to be avoided when 
possible. The CLARIBEL FLUTE, on account of the good mixing and 
not too assertive qualities of its tone (when properly voiced on wind 
of moderate pressure), is a most serviceable stop in registration in 
both its offices of harmonic-corroborator and timbre-creator. Its 
best position in the Organ is in the division in which the CLARABELLA 
is placed ; for in combination with that stop it produces a beautiful 
unimitative tone, upon which string- or reed- tone can be thrown with 
fine effect, 

* This tone is well known to us by long experience, for, under the names PLAUTO TBDBSCA, 
8 FT., and RIPIENO DI CINQUE, both stops were in our Chamber Organ, placed in different swell- 
boxes, and, accordingly, subject to compound flexibility and expression, 

f So great was his dislike that in all the manual divisions of his large Organ in the Royal 
Albert Hall, London, there are only two wood stops, Ho assured us, on asking his reason, that 
he obtained better wood-tones from metal pipes, We questioned it. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 57 

CLARIN, Span. A lingual stop of the TRUMPET class and usu- 
ally of octave pitch. It is labeled in Spanish Organs with several 
qualifications as follows : CLARIN REAL, CLARIN DE B ATALLA, CLARIN 
CLARO, CLARIN SORDINO, CLARIN PARDO, CLARIN DE BAJOS, and 
CLARIN DE Ecos. 

CLARINA, Ital. An open metal labial stop of large scale and 
2 ft. pitch, voiced to yield a powerful tone. It is introduced in the 
Pedal Organ to impart clearness and distinctness to heavy pedal 
combinations, and especially when they are used in solo passages 
and fugues. A stop of so high a pitch is very rare in a Pedal Organ. 
It is desirable in combination. See COMPENSATIONSMIXTUR. 

CLARINET. Pr., CLARINETTE. Ger., CLARINETTE. Ital., 
CLARINETTO. The lingual stop formed and voiced to imitate as 
closely as possible the tones of the orchestral Clarinets. When made 
by master hands, it is one of the most successful imitative stops in 
the Organ. It is invariably and correctly of 8 ft. pitch, and has very 
frequently in English Organs been commenced at tenor C, probably 
because the orchestral Clarinet in A does not go lower than C# ; but 
as the Bass Clarinet descends about an octave below this note, the 
CLARINET of the Organ should be carried, in all cases, throughout 
the manual compass. The term CLARIONET has been commonly 
used by English organ-builders, but should never be employed. It 
has no relation to the English word "clarion" any more than the 
CLARINET has to the CLARION of the Organ. 

FORMATION.- The resonator of the CLARINET pipe is cylindrical throughout 
save where it is attached, by a short conical piece, to the reed-block : it is entirely 
open at top, where it should be furnished with an adjustable slide for fine regula- 
tion. The form of the complete pipe is shown in Fig. 6, Plate i . It is to this form 
of resonator that is mainly due the imitative voice of the stop, resembling as it 
does the cylindrical tube of the orchestral Clarinet. The resonator of the CC pipe, 
yielding a note of 8 ft. pitch, instead of being, approximately, the true speaking 
length of 8 ft., is only a little more than 4 ft. in length. Both in length and scale 
of its resonators the CLARINET differs from all the lingual stops belonging to other 
families. The reeds of the stop are of medium scale and of sufficient length to 
receive tongues to speak the unison tone; they are properly of the closed variety, 
their triangular openings extending directly from the thick discs which cover their 
lower ends. The tongues are firm and finely curved so as to get rid of brassiness. 
In German and Swiss Organs the CLARINET is almost invariably a free-reed stop, 
of a somewhat large scale and generally feeble in tone and far from imitative. 
Some examples have inverted conical resonators which in no way favor the pro- 
duction of a characteristic Clarinet tone. 

TONALITY. The tones of an artistically voiced CLARINET are 
extremely pleasing and full of character, and surpass in imitativeness 



58 " ORGAN-STOPS 

all the other lingual voices of the Organ. From the point of view of 
uniformity of tone the organ stop may be considered superior to the 
orchestral instrument. The middle register of the stop its most 
valuable portion for solo work is as satisfactory as the correspond- 
ing portion of the Clarinet ; but in the low register, the tone does not 
reach the rich tonality of the chalumeau of the orchestral instrument. 
The harmonic upper partial tones of the Clarinet are those proper 
to a covered organ-pipe; and these are present in the imitative tones 
of the organ CLARINET, secured by the cylindrical form of its res- 
onators and, on account of their half-length, their influence on the 
motions of the tongues of the reeds. The voicer should do his ut- 
most to impart to the bass and tenor of the stop as much of the 
chalumeau quality as his skill can accomplish. It is possible that 
some modification of, or addition to, the resonators would assist in 
this direction. 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION. Although the CLARINET, 
in both its single and dual form, is par excellence a solo stop, it ad- 
mits of combination and artistic registration with numerous labial 
stops both simple and compound of refined and contrasting 
tonalities, producing beautiful qualities of tone. It loses too much 
of its peculiar voice or individuality when combined with loud-toned 
labial stops; and becomes entirely absorbed when combined with 
powerful lingual stops. Yet in suitable cases it never fails to be a 
timbre-creator. With both unison and octave flute-toned stops of 
the softer varieties it produces compound tones which demonstrate 
the value of contrasting voices in registration. In combination with 
the string-toned stops it produces tones strong with orchestral 
coloring. In these directions the organist will find no little profit in 
studying what may be designated the Registration of the CLARINET, 
It is only by means of such studies that the student of the Organ 
can become a master of the art and science of stop registration. 
The mere following of registrations marked by the composer or 
transcriber on a piece of organ music, which have been schemed, as 
a rule, on some special Organ, and which may or may not be possible 
or satisfactory on another Organ, will not conduct the student very 
far in acquiring a personal knowledge and mastery of artistic regis- 
tration. As we have said elsewhere: In organ-stop registration, as 
in artistic orchestration, "there is no royal road to learning." 

CLARINET FLUTE. The name which has been given by 
certain English organ-builders to a half -covered wood stop, of me- 
dium scale, and 8 ft, pitch. It is a species of ROHRFLOTK, differing 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 59 

from that stop in having longer stopper-handles through which 
larger holes are bored; and also in having much lower mouths 
usually under one-quarter their width in height and voiced with 
thin upper lips and fine and close nicking. This formation and 
voicing on a light wind-pressure produces a somewhat reedy tone, 
so remote from that of the orchestral Clarinet, or the organ stop so- 
called, as to give no support to the inappropriate name CLARINET 
FLUTE. Many examples exist in English Organs by different build- 
ers, varying in tonality, and commonly labeled CLARIONET FLUTE. 

CLARION. Fr., CLAIRON. ItaL, GLARING. A lingual stop of 
4 ft. pitch, the reeds and resonators of which are similar in all re- 
spects to those of the TRUMPET, to which stop it stands in the rela- 
tion of a true Octave, save in regard to its resonators, which should 
be somewhat smaller in scale. As an octave stop it should be less 
assertive in tone than the TRUMPET, or other unison lingual stop 
with which it may be registered, yet its voice should impart richness 
and brilliancy to every combination into which it enters. When 
artistically voiced and finely regulated it becomes a stop of general 
utility in registration, and a good solo voice on special occasions. 
More care should be given to the CLARION than is usually bestowed 
upon it, and organists should give it more attention. Owing to the 
difficulty of constructing lingual pipes of very high pitch, it has been 
usual to insert the top octave of the CLARION, 4 FT., in loudly- voiced 
labial pipes. French organ-builders have frequently formed the top 
octave of unison or TRUMPET pipes, with a satisfactory result.* 

CLARION MIXTURE. The name given by Walker & Sons to 
a labial stop, introduced by them to take the place of the lingual 
CLARION; as in both the Great and Swell of the Organ in Holy 
Trinity Church, Chelsea; and in the Swell of the Organ in the 
Church of St. John the Divine, Kennington, London. The stop is 

* " En France, le CLAIRON a toujours quatre-pieds; en Allemagne, quatre et huit. C'est un 
re"gistre d'harmonie mordante et claire, comme 1'indique son nom, et destin6 a donner de la 
pointe aux huit-pieds d'anches. Cependant on peut le faire chanter seul, ou melange avec les 
fonds; mais dans ce dernier cas il est bon de ne pas le toucher sur les notes le plus hautes, ou il 
devient d'une grande aigreur. On fait ce rSgistre detain fin et de forme conique. Comme ces 
tuyaux extremes sont fort exigus, on lui donne ordinairement une reprise a la derniere octave; 
et pour le toucher, on y joint le PRESTANT et la DOUBLETTE, qui dissimulent la reprise en suivent 
la marche ascendante qu'est cense suivre le CLAIRON. L'habitude de mettre deux clairons au 
meme clavier expose 1'ensemble des jeux de ce clavier a 6tre criard et mal d'accord. On met un 
CLAIRON a chaque clavier complet, m6me a la pe"dale; il forme ainsi le sommet d'une pyramide 
harmonique defe jeux d'anches des trois degr6s, quatre, huit et seize pieds. A la pSdale, son 
melange est peut-e*tre plus utile que partout ailleurs; il donne aux huit-pieds d'anches, c'est-a- 
dire &. la TROMI^ETTE, un vif e"clat, de m&me qu'au melange de TROMPETTS et BOMBARD ES, c'est-a- 
' dire aux huit et seize-pieds. " Regnier. 



60 ORGAN-STOPS 

composed of an OCTAVE, TWELFTH, and FIFTEENTH, of open metal 
pipes of full scale, heavily blown, and voiced to yield a powerful 
tone. The effect of the stop was found, as might be expected, to be 
unsatisfactory. Like too many screaming compound stops to be 
found in modern Organs in this country and abroad, the CLARION 
MIXTURE was valueless in artistic registration. 

CLAVAOLINE, Ger. In the year 1830 Beyer, an organ-builder 
of Niirnberg, invented a manual lingual stop, giving it the name 
CLAVAOLINE or KLAVAOLINE, the name being rendered in both forms 
in old stop-lists. From its name it would seem its inventor consid- 
ered it to have some relation to the AOLINE, probably in its tone. 
From the best authority we have been able to find, the stop seems 
to have been a free-reed something of the nature of the PHYSHAR- 
MONIKA (q. v.). The free-reeds appear to have been attached to 
small blocks of wood standing directly on the wind-chest, some- 
what after the fashion of the reeds of the Harmonium, and devoid 
of resonators. The tone under such conditions must be extremely 
feeble. The CLAVAOLINE appears in the stop-lists of the Organs in 
the Town Church of Fulda, placed in the Echo; and in the Church of 
St. Wenzel, at Naumburg, where it appears in the Swell.* 

CLEAR FLUTE. Ger., HELLFLOTE. The stop to which this 
somewhat indefinite English name was given is said to have been 
first introduced by Kirtland & Jardine, of Manchester. It is an 
open wood stop of 4 ft. pitch, yielding a full and clear unimitative 
flute-tone, but without any particular charm or good mixing quality. 
The pipes are of medium scale, the CC, 4 ft., pipe measuring 2% 
inches by 3j/ inches internally; their ratio being i : \/8. The chief 
characteristics of the CLEAR FLUTE pipe are its inverted mouth, 
sloped block carrying the wind-way, and flat cap. It is voiced on a 
copious wind supply, necessitating a moderately high mouth. The 
name can, with equal propriety, be given to any stop producing a 
clear unimitative flute-tone. 

CGELESTINA, Lat. An open metal labial stop of 4 ft. pitch, 
of small scale, and of a soft singing voice. It may be considered the 
Octave of the true English DULCIANA. An example occurs in the 

* Alluding to the CLAVAOLINE, Seidel says: " The Organ in St. Wenzel'a, at Naumburg; 52 
registers, 3 manuals, 3000 pipes, 7 pairs of bellows. Was first built in 1613 by Joachim Tzchug, 
and underwent several repairs, the last one by Beyer, on which occasion several alterations were 
made in the arrangement, in order to obtain a tone as full and pompous as possible. Among tbu* 
new registers introduced, the TRAVERSFLtJTE, GEMSHORN, H FT., and CLAVXOUNU, 8 KT.. tire 
particularly beautiful," 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 61 

Choir of the Organ in the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. The 
stop has been less correctly labeled CELESTINA and CELESTIANA. 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION. The value of such a stop in 
artistic and refined registration cannot well be overrated; and it is 
much too seldom that OCTAVES of the nature of the CCELESTINA are 
introduced in even large Organs in which some unison stops are 
inserted which are, comparatively, of less general use in effective 
registration. It is not very generally realized, even among good or- 
ganists, that the tonal value and beauty of many a unison voice are 
never fully developed until a suitable octave tone is combined with 
it. This is according to the natural law of musical sound in respect 
to the tones produced by open pipes, to which the octave gives an 
effective reinforcement to the first and most important upper partial. 
But, on the other hand, when the OCTAVE is associated with a 
covered stop, it introduces a foreign element into the unison tone, 
which, in its nature, does not "contain the octave in its harmonic 
upper partials. Accordingly, a new tonality is created often of a 
very beautiful character, and one probably impossible in the absence 
of such a stop as the CCELESTINA, 4 FT. These considerations would 
lead to the conclusion that a larger number and a greater variety of 
OCTAVES should be provided in Concert-room Organs and other 
important instruments. 

COMPENSATIONSMIXTUR, Ger. Eng., COMPENSATING 
MIXTURE. The stop to which the name was originally given is a 
Pedal Organ compound stop of a harmonic-corroborating character, 
invented by Musickdirecktor Wilke, of Neu-Ruppin, and first in- 
stalled in the Organ in the Church of St. Catherine, at Salzwedel. 
Its purpose was not only to give to the lower pedal notes the most 
distinct speech possible, but to impart to the Pedal Organ through- 
out such an even tone that rapid passages could be rendered with the 
same roundness and clearness from the lowest to the highest note of 
the clavier. According to Seidel, all experts who tested the stop 
agreed that it fulfilled its mission. Notwithstanding such approval 
the invention did not receive the consideration it deserved by the 
conservative and slow-going organ-builders of Germany. Wilke's 
stop was of very short compass, extending only to ten notes. It was 
composed, according to Seidel, of five ranks, as follows : 

I. TIERCE, 3)^ FT. CCC to GGG, eight pipes; the tone of which is gradu- 
ally reduced from DDD until almost inaudible at GGG. 
II. QUINT, 2% FT. CCC to AAA, ten pipes; the tone of which is reduced 
from EEE in like manner. 



62 ORGAN-STOPS 

III. OCTAVE, 2 FT. CCC to GGG #, nine pipes ; the tone of which is reduced 

from DDD in like manner. 

IV. QUINT, iH FT. CCC to FFF #, seven pipes; the tone of which is re- 

duced from CCC $ in like manner. 

V. SIFFLOTE, i FT. CCC to FFF, six pipes; the tone of which is reduced 
from CCC ft in like manner. 

It is difficult to conceive on what principle Wilke designed the 
stop, for it is both insufficient and inartistic. While it may have 
ameliorated the lower ten notes of the heavy Pedal Organ of the 
Salzwedel instrument, it certainly could do nothing to impart an 
"even tone" throughout its compass. The stop, however, suggested 
an artistic development which we decided to test practically, with 
tonal results that proved eminently satisfactory. We included a 
COMPENSATING MIXTURE, VI. RANKS, in our scheme for the Pedal of 
the Concert-room Organ installed in the Festival Hall of the Louis- 
iana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1904. Again, and for the first 
time in a Church Organ outside Germany, we inserted a COMPEN- 
SATING MIXTURE, III. RANKS, in the Pedal of the Grand Organ we 
designed for the Church of Our Lady of Grace, Hoboken, N. J.* 

FORMATION. The following particulars and suggestions are necessarily given 
as results of our own studies and practical tests ; for we are not aware of any Bng- 
lish or American organ-builder having paid any attention to the stop under con- 
sideration. The simple fact that it calls for more than one rank of pipes will deter 
organ-builders from advocating its adoption. The stop may be composed of from 
three to six ranks of open metal pipes, of the usual DIAPASON form, and, preferably, 
of different scales: all the ranks to commence on CCC and to terminate on different 
notes, as the judgment of the designer may decide, properly taking into considera- 
tion the stop-apportionment of the Pedal Organ. The scale adopted for the first, 
the longest, and the lowest pitched rank is to determine the smaller scales for the 
shorter and higher-pitched ranks. No rule has been formulated in this matter, 
but a regular gradation derived from a complete scale is to be recommended. It is 
essential that provision be made for a regular decrease in strength of tone, pipe by 
pipe, in every rank, from the CCC pipe to the top pipe, the tone of which is to be 
only just clearly audible. To assist in obtaining this diminution of tone, the scales 
should decrease so as to place the half diameter on the thirteenth pipe. The follow- 
ing is a suggestion for the composition of a stop of three ranks : 

PEDAL ORGAN COMPENSATING MIXTURE III. RANKS. 

L CCC to G SUPER-OCTAVE, 4 FT. . . 32 Notes. 
II. CCC to GG# SUPER-OCTAVE QUINT, 2% FT. 21 M 
III. CCC to EE TWENTY-SECOND, 2 FT . , 17 " 

Should a stop of four ranks be required for an important Pedal Organ, in which 

*For a detailed description of this stop, see our work, "The Organ of the Twentieth Cen- 
tury," page 497- 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 63 



there is a stop of 32 ft. pitch, add to the above, from CCC to D, a TIERCE, 
2 7 Notes. 

We suggest the following composition for a stop of six ranks, suitable for the 
Pedal of a Concert-room Organ of the first magnitude: 

PEDAL ORGAN COMPENSATING MIXTURE VI. RANKS. 

I. CCC to G SUPER-OCTAVE, 4 FT. . . 32 Notes. 
II. CCC to D TIERCE, 3> FT. . . . 27 " 

III. CCC tO BB OCTAVE-QUINT, 2% FT. . 24 " 

IV. CCC to GG TWENTY-SECOND, 2 FT. . . 20 " 

V. CCCtoDDS TWENTY-SIXTH, i J4 FT. . 16 " 

VI. CCC to BBB TWENTY-NINTH, i FT. . . 12 " 

A five-rank stop may be formed by omitting the fifth rank, which is of the 
least importance. It is usually desirable to have both the lowest and highest ranks 
octave-sounding. 

TONALITY AND REGISTRATION. While the stop is devised as a 
tonal compensating agent, for the purpose of giving clearness and 
richness of articulation to the lower and somewhat indeterminate 
notes of the Pedal Organ unison and double stops, gradually de- 
creasing in its effect toward the higher notes where its help is less 
required, an office it fulfills in a satisfactory manner it is, at the 
same time, a harmonic-corroborating stop of considerable value in 
registration; and as such it may take the place of an ordinary MIX- 
TURE with advantage to the Pedal Organ. The most desirable voice 
for the stop is pure organ-tone, for that will prove most useful in 
Pedal Organ registration. As has already been remarked, the tone 
of each rank must be uniformly reduced in strength from that of the 
first and complete rank; and each rank must be evenly reduced in 
strength of tone as it ascends the scale, until at its highest note its 
voice is only just clearly audible. The initial strength of tone, or 
that of the CCC (4 ft.) pipe of the first rank, must be adjusted 
according to the demands of the foundation unison, 16 ft., of the 
Pedal Organ, and from it all graduations of tone in its own and the 
other ranks have to be regulated. In registration, the COMPEN- 
SATING MIXTURE will be found extremely valuable, especially when 
well-marked articulation is necessary, as in Solos, Fugues, and pro- 
nounced pedal passages. 

We introduced, for the first time in the history of organ-building, 
a COMPENSATING MIXTURE, V. RANKS, in the String-toned Sub- 
division of the Third Organ in the Concert-room Organ installed at 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. We strongly recommend the 
introduction of compound harmonic-corroborating stops of the com- 



64 ORGAN-STOPS 

pensating class in manual divisions in which there are double stops 
likely to make the bass unduly heavy. The subject is a new one, and 
we recommend it to the attention of organ and tonal experts. 

CONCERT FLUTE. Ger., CONCERTFLOTE. The name occa- 
sionally given to an open labial stop, commonly of wood, and of 4 ft. 
pitch; the tone of which imitates, as closely as practicable, that of 
orchestral Flute. See ORCHESTRAL FLUTE. 

CONE GAMBA. The name given to an open metal labial stop 
of 8 ft. pitch, yielding an unimitative string-tone; the pipes of which 
are conical, being about half the diameter at top of that at the 
mouth line; hence the name of the stop. The mouth has a width of 
about one-third or two-sevenths the larger circumference of the pipe, 
is cut low, and voiced with the harmonic-bridge, held between, pro- 
jecting ears. In some examples afrein harmonique takes the place 
of the bridge and ears. The pipes are of medium scale and should be 
made of high-grade alloy. 

The tone of the CONE GAMBA naturally varies in different ex- 
amples; but, as a rule, it is, when artistically voiced by a master- 
hand, of a singing string quality, delicate, and very beautiful. The 
unison stop suggests the introduction of a complete family of 16 ft., 
8 ft., 4 ft., and 2 ft. pitch, which would be of great value in artistic 
registration, combining admirably with the family of the LIEBLICH- 
GEDECKTS, the other softer flute-toned stops, and the reed-toned 
lingual stops. A CONE GAMBA, 16 FT., of full compass, was in- 
serted in the Choir of the Organ erected by Hill, in 1863, in the nave 
of York Minster. This fine stop was extremely effective in com- 
bination. As a timbre-creating and tone-supporting stop the CONE 
GAMBA, 8 FT., will be found very useful in artistic registration. 

CONTRABASS, Ger. Ital., CONTRABASSO, Pr,, CONTRB- 
BASSE. Eng., DOUBLE BASS. The name appropriately used to 
designate an open labial stop of 16 ft, pitch, of wood or metal, voiced 
to yield a tone imitating, as closely as practicable, that of the Double 
Bass of the orchestra. In French Organs the CONTRE-BASSE is in- 
variably a Pedal Organ stop, appearing as such in the Organs in the 
Cathedrals of Paris, Amiens, and Orleans, and the Churches of Saint- 
Eustache, Saint-Sulpice, and la Madeleine, Paris. French organ- 
builders and experts do not seem to have realized the possibility- of 
introducing so grave an imitative string-toned stop in a manual 
division. It does not appear, save in the Pedal, in Cavaill^-CoU's 
scheme for the Monumental Organ to be installed in St. Peter's, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 65 

Rome. But no French organ-builder ever contemplated the desir- 
ability of introducing an independent string-toned division in the 
Organ : indeed, no one seems to have ever done so, until we realized 
its necessity, and introduced one in the Organ installed in the Fes- 
tival Hall of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.* 

FORMATION. The pipes of the CONTRABASS, 16 FT., are in the best examples of 
wood, and of what may be considered small scales; although metal pipes can be 
used with satisfactory results, especially in the higher octaves of the manual stop. 
For the Pedal Organ stop wood is to be preferred, as it aids in producing a tone 
fuller in character than is commonly yielded by small-scaled metal pipes. The 
best example of the stop which has been directly examined and tested by us is that 
labeled VIOLONBASS, 16 FT., in the Pedal of the Organ constructed by Edmund 
Schulze for the Church of St, Peter, Hindley, Lancashire, England. In this fine 
stop the pipes are square and of the following measurements: CCC, 16 ft., 5^ ins. 
by 5 1 A ins. ; width of mouth 5^ ins. ; height of mouth i # ins. CC, 8 ft., 3 J^ ins. 
by 3% ins. ; mouth 3% ins. by I in. C, 4 ft., 2 ins. by 2 ins. ; mouth 2 ins. by % in. 
The pipes have sunk blocks, the German form of mouth, caps hollowed externally, 
no projecting ears, upper lips cut almost to a sharp edge, and furnished with har- 
monic bridges of an unusual form.f No wood pipes of imitative string-tone were 
known in England prior to their appearance in the Organs installed by Schulze in 
the Parish Church of Doncaster and St. Peter's Hindley. They were first made in 
this country by Roosevelt, from models furnished by us in 1883. By special 
voicing with the harmonic-bridge, covered pipes can be made to yield imitative 
string-tone, the prominence of the upper partial the Twelfth contributing 
to the tone. The covered stop, owing to its moderate dimensions, is most suitable 
for a manual division in all save an Organ of the first magnitude. 

TONALITY AND REGISTRATION. In tonality, the voicer of the 
CONTRABASS should aim at the imitation of the peculiar tones of the 
different stiings of the orchestral instrument, giving greater body to 
the tones of the 8 ft. and higher octaves, so as to differentiate them 
properly from the corresponding tones of the VIOLONCELLO, 8 FT. 
This is important when the stop is associated with a VIOLONCELLO 
in a manual string-toned division, as it should be in a Concert-room 
Organ. The tones of the VIOLONBASS in the Hindley Organ are so 
closely imitative, even to the rasp of the bow on the strings, as to be 
deceptive to the ear. That is as it should be, if such an important 
voice is to be of full value in the artistic registration of orchestral- 
toned stops. The building up of a mass of orchestral string-tone in 
the Organ, which we were the first to render possible, is a matter in 
registration of the greatest importance in the artistic and proper 
rendition of orchestral scores or transcriptions. The student of the 

* See "The Organ of the Twentieth Century." Page 505. 

t Full details of the mouth are given in "The Art of Organ Building," Vol. II., p. 470; 
anfl, in "The Organ of the Twentieth Century," p. 443. 

S 



66 ORGAN-STOPS 

art of registration will soon discover the value of so effective and 
colorful a voice as that of the CONTRABASS. When artistically voiced 
and perfectly regulated it is a beautiful voice for a bass solo; and 
may for this purpose be combined with the CONTRAFAGOTTO, or with 
a good Vox HUMANA in sub-octaves. It is to be regretted that so 
little attention has been paid to the stop by the organ-builders and 
experts of this country. It must, however, appear in the Organ of 
the Twentieth Century. 

CONTRA-BOURDON, SUB-BOURDON. Ger., UNTERSATZ. 
Fr., SOUS-BASSE. The name given to a covered wood stop of 32 ft. 
pitch, properly belonging to the stop-apportionment of the Pedal 
Organ, but occasionally appearing, in an incomplete form, in the 
First or Great Organ. It is occasionally resorted to as a Pedal Organ 
stop when either space or funds prevent of the DOUBLE DIAPASON or 
SUB-PRINCIPAL, 32 FT., being introduced. As a substitute it is any- 
thing but satisfactory tonally. The tone of the stop is that common 
to the ordinary BOURDON, 16 FT.-, being carried an octave lower, 
where its voice becomes painfully indeterminate, as might be ex- 
pected. It appears in Pedal Organs under the following names: 
UNTERSATZ in the Organs in the Cathedral of Merseburg and the 
Royal Catholic Church, Dresden. GROSSUNTKRSATZ in the Organ 
in the Church of Waltershausen, Gotha. SUBBASS in the Organ in 
the Church of St. Michael, Hamburg. GRAND BOURDON in the 
Pedal of the Organ, by Cavaill6-Coll, in the Church of Saint Vincent 
de Paul, Paris. CONTRA-BOURDON in the Organs in the Auditorium, 
Chicago, and the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S, W. 

When the CONTRA-BOURDON, 32 FT., is introduced in the Great 
Organ, it commonly is of short compass, not extending below tenor 
C. It appears under the following names: UNTERSATZ on the First 
Clavier of the Riga Cathedral Organ. BORDUN, 32 FT. , in the Haupt- 
werk of Merseburg Cathedral Organ, and in the Second Division of 
the First Organ in the instrument in Schwerin Cathedral. SUB- 
BOURDON in the Great of the Organs in the Parish Churches of Leeds 
and Doncaster, England. On tonal grounds we do not advocate the 
introduction of this incomplete stop in any manual division; while 
we are of opinion that a pure and soft organ-tone, of 32 ft. pitch, 
would be valuable in the First Organ of a large Concert-room Organ. 
See DOLCIANO PROFUNDO. 

CONTRA-DULCIANA. An open metal labial stop of small 
scale, of 32 ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ and 16 ft. pitch when in- 
troduced in a manual division, as in the Choir of the Organ in the 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 67 

Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. It is also named DOUBLE DUL- 
CIANA (g. v.). We have introduced it, in an extended form and for 
a double purpose, in the Pedal Organ of our scheme for the Concert- 
room Organ of the Twentieth Century.* See DOLCIANO PROFUNDO. 

CONTRAFAGOTTO, ItaL Ger., CONTRAFAGOTT. Eng., DOU- 
BLE BASSOON. A lingual stop, of 16 ft. pitch, the resonators of 
which are of small scale and either of wood or metal. In the former 
material they are square and cf inverted pyramidal form : when of 
metal they are inverted conical in form. When properly scaled, 
voiced, and regulated, its tone closely approaches that of the orches- 
tral instrument of the same name. While usually and correctly 
placed in the Pedal Organ, where its voice furnishes the true bass to 
the manual FAGOTTO and OBOE, its presence is, however, to be 
greatly desired in a suitable manual division, where its rich and 
quiet tonality would contribute a remarkable coloring to every 
effective registration into which it might enter. In our opinion, 
there is no lingual stop of 16 ft. pitch so generally useful on the 
manual claviers; and we know it to be so important, tonally, that a 
series of most effective and refined registrations can be based upon 
it. We introduced it, accordingly, in the First Subdivision ex- 
pressive of the Third Organ in the instrument installed in the 
Festival Hall of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition; and we also 
inserted it in the Second Subdivision expressive of the Third 
Organ in the Grand Organ in the Church of Our Lady of Grace, 
Hoboken, N. J. 

CONTRA-GAMBA, ItaL A labial stop, of 16 ft. pitch. Its 
pipes are of medium scale, of metal, cylindrical in form, and open. 
It is introduced in both manual and pedal departments of the Organ, 
but usually, when it is introduced, it appears in a manual division, 
as in the Great of the Willis Organ in the Church of St. Margaret, 
Liverpool, and in the Swell of the Walker Organ in the Church of 
St. Matthew, Northampton, England. In the latter Organ it has a 
covered wood bass, dictated by its position in a swell-box. An 
example appears in the Great of the Roosevelt Organ in the Cathe- 
dral of the Incarnation, Garden City, L. I. When introduced in the 
Pedal Organ, it is of unison pitch, and may be labeled, simply, 
GAMBA, 16 FT., as in the -Organ in the Centennial Hall, Sydney, 
N. S. W. When properly voiced, the CONTRA-GAMBA has a full 
string-like tone, but not so pronounced as to be imitative. The 

* " The Organ of the Twentieth Century." Pages 291, 297, 317, 319. 



68 ORGAN-STOPS 

stop is less valuable now than it used to be when string-toned stops 
were few and very little developed in comparison to what they are 
to-day. VIOLS now take the place of the German GAMBAS, and their 
prompter English equivalents. 

CONTRA-OBOE, ItaL Eng., CONTRA-HAUTBOY. A very un- 
common lingual stop of 16 ft. pitch, the form and tone of which 
resemble those of the ordinary OBOE, 8 FT. A fine and note- 
worthy example, voiced by George Willis, exists in the Swell of the 
Organ in St. George's Hall, Liverpool, labeled CONTRA-HAUTBOY, 
1 6 FT. This valuable stop should find a place in the " wood-wind" 
division of the Concert-room Organ, where it would be associated 
with the unison OBOE and, possibly, with the OCTAVE OBOE, 4 FT., 
forming a complete family.* All would afford valuable voices in 
artistic registration. While the CONTRAFAGOTTO may be regarded 
as affording the bass to the OBOE, 8 FT., the CONTRA-OBOE would be 
found, in many registrations, to produce closer and clearer effects 
when combined with the unison stop : but, after all is said, much 
depends on the voicing and tonality of the respective stops. 

CONTRAPOSAUNE, Ger. A powerfully-voiced lingual stop 
of 32 ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ and 16 ft. pitch on the manuals. 
It appears under the name in the Pedal of the Organ built by Buch- 
holz for the Cathedral of Cronstadt. In the generality of German 
Organs it appears as simply POSAUNE, 32 FT., or 16 FT. An example 
of the CONTRAPOSAUNE, 16 FT., exists in the Great of the Organ in 
the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. ; and a CONTRAPOSAUNE, 
32 FT., is inserted in the Pedal of the same Organ, and in that of the 
Organ in the Parish Church of Doncaster. The pipes of the stops 
have open-reeds and broad tongues; their resonators being of the 
usual inverted conical form and of large scale, producing tones in- 
tended to imitate those of the Bass Trombones of the orchestra 
played fortissimo. The resonators are sometimes constructed of 
wood, square, and inverted pyramidal in form; but resonators of 
thick zinc are to be preferred. Sheet iron may be used in the 32 ft, 
octave. 

CONTRAPRINZIPAL, Ger. The term which has been used to 
designate the open metal labial stop known in English nomenclature 
as the OPEN DIAPASON, 32 FT., in the Pedal Organ and of 16 ft. pitch 
when inserted in a manual division. 

* See "The Organ of the Twentieth Century." Pages 307, 308. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 69 

CONTRA-SALICIONAL, DOUBLE SALICIONAL. As the 
name implies, this is a SALICIONAL of 16 ft. pitch. In material and 
formation its pipes are in all respects similar to those of the manual 
unison stop. The stop is valuable in the Pedal Organ, to which it 
properly belongs, and, accordingly, its tone should be fuller than 
that of the manual stop, especially if it is inclosed and rendered 
expressive. See SALICIONAL. 

CONTRA-SAXOPHONE. The stop of 16 ft. pitch, the voice 
of which furnishes the true bass to the manual SAXOPHONE, 8 FT. 
It is, when of imitative quality, a valuable voice in the Pedal of a 
Concert-room Organ, where it should be inclosed and rendered ex- 
pressive. The stop can be made with either free- or striking-reeds. 
On account of the smoothness of the tones of the orchestral Saxo- 
phones, we are of opinion that their closest imitation is to be ob- 
tained from free-reed pipes ; but the most favorable form of resona- 
tor has yet to be discovered. The tone of the CONTRA-SAXOPHONE 
should imitate as closely as practicable that of the Double Bass or 
Bourdon Saxophone. There is a good free-reed example in the 
Pedal of the Chamber Organ in Ham House, Richmond, Surrey, 
England. While an almost deceptive imitation of the tones of the 
Saxophones have been obtained from labial pipes of wood of 8 ft. 
pitch, we are not aware of any attempt having been made to pro- 
duce a corresponding labial CONTRA-SAXOPHONE. See SAXOPHONE. 

CONTRA-TROMBONE, A lingual stop of 32 ft. pitch in the 
Pedal Organ and 16 ft. pitch on the manuals. In formation it is 
similar to the CONTRAPOSAUNE, but its resonators are of a smaller 
scale. An example of the CONTRA-TROMBONE, 32 FT., exists in the 
Pedal of the Walker Organ in York Minster. Another example 
exists in the Pedal of the Organ in Leeds Parish Church, where it 
speaks effectively on a wind of only 3^ inches an eloquent argu- 
ment in support of our plea for low pressures, now so thoughtlessly 
neglected by the inartistic lovers of coarse tones and musical noise 
in this country. A CONTRA-TROMBONE, 16 FT., occurs in the Great 
of the Concert-room Organ in the Town Hall, Leeds. 

The tone of the CONTRA-TROMBONE is intended to imitate that 
of the Bass Trombone, in G, of the orchestra. The voice of the 
organ-stop extends far below that of the orchestral instrument, but 
this is a gain of great value which no authority on the Organ will 
question. While the tone is similar to that of the CONTRAPOSAUNE, 
it should not be so brassy and powerful. The value of the CONTRA- 



70 ORGAN-STOPS 

TROMBONE, 16 FT., in the "brass-wind" division of a Concert-room 
Organ of the first magnitude would, unquestionably, be great, for 
not only would it enter with great effect into assertive registration, 
but it would prove a most dignified and impressive solo voice. 

Under the name of CONTRA-TROMBONE, Messrs. Hill & Son, of 
London, have inserted a monster lingual stop, of 64 ft. pitch (if such 
a pitch can be recognized as obtaining in the range of audible or de- 
terminate musical sounds, a proposition we cannot accept), in the 
Pedal of the Organ in the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. We 
examined this unique stop, and heard it during a recital on the Organ 
before it left the factory. While its slow and powerful vibrations 
succeeded in shaking us bodily, its noise did not impress our musical 
sense. It seemed to support the old saying : ' ' The game is not worth 
the candle," 

CONTRA-TUBA. The most powerfully-voiced lingual stop 
of 1 6 ft, pitch introduced in the Organ. It is commonly voiced on a 
wind-pressure of between fifteen and thirty inches. Its resonators 
are of the inverted conical form, and are necessarily made of thick 
metal, now usually zinc, so as to withstand the extreme vibration; 
and they are of large scale. An example exists in the Solo of the 
Organ in the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. The tone of the 
stop is intended to imitate that of the Bass Tuba of the orchestra, 
but is much more powerful. It is, accordingly, singularly grand and 
impressive, but of little general use unless it is inclosed and rendered 
flexible and expressive, which it should invariably be in all properly 
appointed Organs. In the Sydney Organ neither it nor any of the 
Solo Organ stops are inclosed and rendered expressive; surely an 
anomalous absurdity in a Concert-room Organ, showing a want of 
artistic taste and common-sense. 

CONTRA-VIOLONE, Ital A labial stop, of 16 ft. pitch, the 
pipes of which are open and of medium scale, formed of either metal 
or wood, or of wood in the lower and metal in the higher octaves. 
The CONTRA- VIOLONE, 16 FT,, is strictly a manual stop; the corre- 
sponding stop in the Pedal Organ being properly labeled VIOLONE, 
1 6 FT. The tone of the stop should imitate that of orchestral instru- 
ment of the same name. While practically identical with the CON- 
TRABASS, 1 6 FT. (g. v.), its tone should be smoother and somewhat 
less assertive. A very beautiful example of the class, from the 
master hand of Edmund Schulze, is to be found in the Great of the 
Organ in St. Peter's, Hindley, Lancashire. The stop is formed of 
wood pipes from CC to B, and of metal pipes from c 1 to the top note. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 71 

The proper place for the CONTRA-VIOLONE, 16 FT., is in the string- 
toned division or subdivision of the Concert-room Organ. In regis- 
tration for the production of massed string effects of an orchestral 
character it is extremely valuable. The CONTRA-VIOLONE, in its 
perfect form and tone, is extremely rare; but it can be easily made 
now by an artistic voicer of string-toned pipes. 

CONTRE-BOMBARDE, Fr. The lingual stop of 32 ft. pitch, 
introduced in the Pedal of most of the large Organs in French cathe- 
drals and churches. It is to be found in the Organs in the Cathedral 
of Notre-Dame and the Churches of Saint-Sulpice and Saint-Eus- 
tache, Paris, and in the Royal Church, Saint-Denis, and Saint-Ouen, 
Rouen. It was introduced by Cavaille-Coll in the Organ in the 
Albert Hall, Sheffield. The stop has resonators of the usual inverted 
conical form and of large scale. As common in French lingual stops, 
the tone of the CONTRA-BOMBARDE is somewhat dry and hard; 
widely different from the rich, round, and velvety tones of the Willis 
stops. In its usual exposed position, the use of so grave and powerful 
a voice is necessarily very limited, and hardly worth its great cost; 
but inclosed in a swell-chamber, its tonal value would be increased 
more than tenfold. A crescendo on such a voice would have a stupen- 
dous effect one never yet heard on the Organ; but will be when 
our scheme for the Concert-room Organ of the Twentieth Century is 
carried into effect.* 

COR ANGLAIS, Fr. Ital., CORNO INGLESE. Eng., ENGLISH 
HORN. A lingual stop of 8 ft. pitch. It has been made in two ways; 
namely, with striking- and free-reeds, and probably the most success- 
ful examples, tonally, have been of the latter class. The stop, in its 
free-reed form, has long been a favorite with the French organ- 
builders, being introduced in most of their more important instru- 
ments, in either its 8 ft. or 16 ft. pitches. Of the former pitch, it was 
inserted by Merklin in the Positif of the Organ in the Cathedral of 
Senlis; and in the Clavier de Bombarde of his Grand Organ in the 
Church of Saint-Eustache, Paris. It was introduced, in the same 
unison pitch, by Cavaille-Coll, in the Clavier du Grand Orgue of the 
Organ in the Royal Church of Saint-Denis. Of 16 ft. pitch, it was 
inserted by Cavaill6-Coll in the Positif of the Organ in the Church 
of Saint-Ouen, Rouen; in the Solo Expressif of his scheme for the 
Monumental Organ in St. Peter's, Rome; and in the Recit Expressif 
of the Concert-room Organ in the Albert Hall, Sheffield, in which it 

* See "The Organ of the Twentieth Century." Pages 273-332. 



72 ORGAN-STOPS 

is a striking-reed. In his later work, Cavaille-Coll abandoned the 
free-reed. The COR ANGLAIS, in both its pitches, has been intro- 
duced in a few English Organs, the pipes having, for the most part, 
been imported from France. We inserted a CORNO INGLE SE, 8 FT., 
in the Second Organ of the instrument installed in the Festival Hall 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. It is a free-reed stop im- 
ported from Germany. 

FORMATION. The pipes of the COR ANGLAIS arc invariably made of metal; 
and, in the most satisfactory examples of the stop, have resonators of a compound 
form that has been arrived at as most effective after many experiments. The 
form is that of a slender inverted conical tube, surmounted by an expanded, res- 
onant chamber formed of two truncated cones soldered together and to the tube, 
in the manner shown in the drawing of the complete pipe given in Fig. 7, Plate I. 
The scale and relative proportions of the parts forming the resonator have a great 
influence not only on the strength but also on the timbre of the tone produced. 
The reed and tongues, in the best examples, are similar in form and general treat- 
ment to those of the OBOE. The value of the stop is considerable; but the time 
and trouble involved in the proper formation of its resonators have largely pre- 
vented organ-builders from encouraging its introduction. It should, however, 
find a place in every Concert-room Organ of any pretensions. 

TONALITY and REGISTRATION. The tone of the COR ANGLAIS of 
the Organ is intended to imitate, as closely as possible, that of the 
orchestral instrument of the same name, which is, strictly considered, 
a Tenor Oboe. The Italians call it the Oboe di Caccia as well as 
Corno Inglese; while the Germans use the name Englisches Horn. 
Speaking of the instrument, Berlioz remarks: "Its quality of tone, 
less piercing, more veiled, and deeper than that of the Oboe, does not 
so well as the latter lend itself to the gaiety of rustic strains. Nor 
could it give utterance to anguished complainings; accents of keen 
grief are almost interdicted to its powers. It is a melancholy, 
dreamy, and rather noble voice, of which the sonorousness has 
something of vague, of remote, which renders it superior to all 
others, in exciting regret, and reviving images and sentiments of the 
past, when the composer desires to awaken the echo of tender mem- 
ories." These remarks, by so great an authority on orchestration, 
ought to enthuse the voicer in the production of the organ COR 
ANGLAIS, and inspire the organist who finds a sympathetic one in an 
Organ. A good COR ANGLAIS is a beautiful solo stop, while it is 
extremely valuable in artistic registration, producing in combina- 
tion with softly-voiced stops of contrasting and harmonic-corrobor- 
ating qualities compound voices of remarkable tonalities. At the 
present time organists and others in this country have little oppor- 
tunity of judging the merits of the stop. Many attempts have been 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 73 

made to produce the characteristic voice of the Cor Anglais by regis- 
tration ; for instance, as we are informed, a distinguished organist 
succeeded in producing an almost perfect imitation on the Choir of 
the Organ in York Minster, by combining the GAMBA, 8 FT., CLARI- 
NET, 8 FT. , and GEMSHORN, 4 FT. We venture to think a better imi- 
tation would have been the result had an OBOE, 8 FT., been intro- 
duced instead of the fuller-toned CLARINET; but the Choir Organ 
does not contain one; neither, alas for art, is the Choir Organ 
expressive. 

COR DE BASSET, Fr. The name employed by French organ- 
builders to designate the lingual stop more commonly known under 
the Italian name CORNO DI BASSETTO (q. v.). 

COR D' HARMONIE, Fr. This term, associated with HAUT- 
BOIS, 8 FT., occurs in the stop apportionment of the Positif of the 
Cavaill^-Coll Organ in the Royal Church of Saint-Denis. It would 
appear, in this connection, to be applied to the bass extending 
downward the tone of the HAUTBOIS, which would properly be of 
Bassoon quality, and, accordingly would be furnished by BASSOON 
pipes from CC to A, almost two octaves. 

CORDEDAIN. A labial stop of metal and of 4 ft. pitch, which 
is inserted in both the Choir and Echo of Silbermann's Organ in the 
Church of St. Thomas, at Strasbourg. The tones of the stops are 
described of a bright flute quality, almost imitative. 

COR DE NUIT, Fr. Gear., NACHTHORN. Ital., PASTORITA. 
An open or covered stop of metal or wood, and of 8 ft., 4 ft., and 2 ft. 
pitch. The tone is a combination of flute and soft horn qualities. 
See NACHTHORN. 

CORMORNE, Fr. The name which has occasionally been 
given by French organ-builders to a lingual stop of metal and 8 ft. 
pitch. It is probably formed from cor horn, and morne sombre or 
mournful. But as the stop is commonly met with in the Cavaille- 
Coll Organs labeled CROMORNE, the term may be a corruption of the 
German name KRUMMHORN. See CROMORNE. 

CORNAMUSA, Ital. Fr., CORNEMEUSE. This name, which 
was originally used to designate an instrument of the Bagpipe 
family, has been occasionally applied by Italian and French organ- 
builders to a labial stop of 16 ft. pitch. Examples are rare, but one 
exists, according to Hopkins, on the second manual of the Organ in 



74 ORGAN-STOPS 

the Church of Santissimo Crocifisso, at Como. It is evidently a 
covered stop of wood, and probably derived its name from the drone- 
like character of its tone. Examples of the Cornemeuse, in Bagpipe 
form, and of eighteenth century date, are to be seen in the Crosby 
Brown Collection of Musical Instruments in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York City. 

CORNET. A compound labial stop of several ranks of metal 
pipes. There are two distinct varieties of the stop, which may be 
called the ancient and the modern and which hold different offices 
in the tonal economy of the Organ offices varying greatly. 

The old and original form comes first in order. It was usually 
formed of three, four, or five ranks of large-scaled pipes voiced to 
yield powerful and dominating tones.* Its compass seems never to 
have descended below tenor C, while it usually, and invariably in 
old English Organs, commenced at middle c 1 . The lowest rank, 
which was invariably of unison pitch, was, probably on account of 
the size of its pipes when the stop descended to tenor C, of covered 
pipes. In French examples it was usually a BOURDON, 8 FT. All the 
other ranks were of open metal pipes. The stop was much in favor 
with the old English organ-builders. In Bernard Smith's Organ 
built, in 1684, for the Temple Church, London, were two CORNETS 
one of five ranks in the Great and one of three ranks in the ' ' Ecchos. " 
In the Organ built by John Harris, of London, in 1 740, for the Parish 
Church of Doncaster there were also two CORNETS, of five and three 
ranks. All these stops extended from middle c* to the top note. 
Sometimes, as the CORNET required considerable space for its ac- 
commodation, its pipes were planted on a special wind-chest, ele- 
vated above the main wind-chest, and connected thereto by a series 
of metal tubes or conveyances one for each note of the CORNET. 
When disposed in this manner the stop was designated MOUNTED 
CORNET. A MOUNTED CORNET, of 4 ranks, was inserted in the 



* "Le CORNET, jeu bruyant, clair et dominateur de 1'harmonie entiere de 1'orgue. Un Cornet 
complet dans sa facture a par note cinq tuyaux de grosse taille, dont chacun porte un nom et un 
caractere diff6rents, Le premier tuyaux est un Bourdon de huit ; le second un Prestant; le troisi- 
eme un Nusard, quinte superieure du Prestant; le quatrieme une Quarts de Nasard, octave du 
Prestant; le cinquieme enfin est une Tierce au-dessus de cette octave. Ainsi, Vut du Cornet est & 
la fois ut de huit-pieds en Bourdon, ul de quatre en Prestant, sol de trois en Nasard, ut de deux en 
Quarts enfin mi d'un-pied cinqseptiemes. 

"Ainsi, dans toute sa longueur, le Cornet appuie chacune de ces notes ou de ses marches, 
comme on dit, sur cinq notes & la fois; il y a done cinq tuyaux sur marche. Son re'gistre est done 
un ensemble de cinq r6gistres, cinq ranges de tuyaux au lieu d'une, comnie le jeux simples. 
Mais le Cornet n'a pas toujours toute la longueur du clavier; quoique ces cinq range 1 es soient & 
1'unisson du Bourdon, du Prestant, etc,, cependant clles on different par la taille, qui est plus 
grosse et 1'harmonie plus forte," Rcnier, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 75 

Great of the Organ built by Snetzler, in 1777, for the Parish Church 
of Rotherham, England: and we understand, from a pamphlet in 
our possession, that the stop still exists in the Organ under that 
name. Schulze introduced MOUNTED CORNETS in the Great and 
Swell Organs of the instrument he built for Doncaster Parish Church 
in 1862. These still remain in the renovated Organ. In Bernard 
Smith's Organs the CORNET was never mounted. 

In all cases the scales of the pipes of the old CORNET were larger 
than those of the corresponding pipes of the major DIAPASON or 
PRINCIPAL, and were much more loudly voiced. The compound tone 
of the CORNET was, on account of the large scale of its pipes, flutey 
in character : and owing to its highest pitched rank being a Tierce, 
and uncovered by a fifth- or an octave-sounding rank, the voice of 
the stop was necessarily somewhat harsh and cutting. 

The old CORNET was chiefly used for playing out the melody of 
the Chorals, its powerful voice rendering it highly effective for such 
an office.* Being unbroken in its ranks, it was found serviceable in 
covering the breaks in the screaming MIXTURES of the time. In 
England the old CORNET was frequently used in the rendition of 
what were known as Cornet Voluntaries, the chief features of which 
were runs and figurative passages on the stop by the right hand. 
The best known of such compositions are those by Stanley, Dupuis, 
Bluet, and Russell, all of whom wrote between the years 1726 and 

1813- 

The old, short-compass, and loud-voiced CORNET finds no place 
in the modern Organ ; and the name is now applied to stops of widely 
different construction and office. At the present time the name is 
usually given to a compound harmonic-corroborating stop of full 
compass, composed of five or more ranks of small-scaled and high- 
pitched pipes, voiced to yield a bright and singing quality of pure 
organ-tone. But different qualities of tone may be obtained by 
using flute-toned or string-toned pipes of small scales. Such being 



* " CORNET, or 'CORNETTO,' is a mixture of a very wide measure, which begins generally at 
c 1 or at the G below, and goes through the upper octaves of the manual. It has a strong intona- 
tion, and a horn-like tone, which is well adapted for filling out. Sometimes, when hymns are to 
be sung with a melody which is not familiar to the congregation, this register will be found very 
efficient for the purpose of making the melody prominent, since the right hand plays the melody 
upon that manual which contains the CORNET, while the left hand plays the accompaniment 
upon some other manual, for which weaker registers are drawn. This MIXTURE has sometimes 
five ranks, 8, 4, 3%, 2, and i % feet; sometimes four ranks, 8, 4, 2%, and i % feet; and some- 
times three ranks, 4, 2%, and i % feet. In France, the lowest rank of this register is nothing 
but a ROHRFLOTE, 8 FT. Wilke deems it best to construct the CORNET with three ranks only, 
but so that the lowest of them is a fifth, and next an octave, and the last a third, 5 M ** 4 
ft., and 3 > ft., or 2 % ft.. 2 ft., and i % ft. The latter arrangement is better suited for small 
Organs, the former for large ones." Seidel. 




76 ORGAN-STOPS 

the case, it will be seen that the modern CORNET is the antithesis in 
every respect of the loud and harsh stop of the old masters. It is 
usual and desirable in labeling the CORNET to qualify the name, so as 
to convey some idea of its general tonality, accordingly, such terms 
as DULCIANA CORNET, DOLCE CORNET, VIOL CORNET, etc., are ap- 
propriate. The following is the composition of a five-rank stop, 
formed of DULCIANA pipes, which has been tested and found highly 
satisfactory in registration : 

DULCIANA CORNET V. RANKS. 

CC to BB 

c to B .... 

c r to b 1 .... 
c 3 to c< .... 

It will be observed that the middle rank is third-sounding 
throughout, and that it is properly covered by the fourth and fifth 
ranks, while the fifth rank is octave-sounding throughout all its 
breaks. It would be difficult to devise a more satisfactory composi- 
tion for a stop of this beautiful tonality. In the Swell of the Concert- 
room Organ in the Music Hall, Cincinnati, there is a CORNET of six 
ranks of small-scaled pipes, the composition of which is here given: 

DOLCE CORNET VI. RANKS. 
cc to BB . . . 15 19 22 26 

C to B . . 12 15 19 22 

c i to b 1 . . . 8 12 15 19 2; 

c 2 to c 4 . . , i 5 8 ro 12 

Artistically voiced and scientifically graduated in strength of 
tone throughout its ranks and breaks, such a CORNET would prove 
extremely valuable in registration. In this direction, it is to be ob- 
served that the composition in the lower two octaves CC to B 
points to considerable brilliancy; that in the middle octave c 1 to 
b 1 to sufficient richness of tone; while that in the two higher oc- 
taves, c 2 to c 4 , which belongs to the 16 ft. harmonic series, points 
to great fullness, just where it is most required. 

There is another form of modern CORNET which more fully de- 
serves the name, and one we strongly recommend for general intro- 
duction in all important Organs : we allude to the form in which all 
the ranks are carried throughout the compass without a break. Of 
this form we introduced two special CORNETS in our scheme for the 
Organ installed in the Festival Hall of the Louisiana Purchase Ex- 
position. One of four ranks in the Expressive Subdivision of the 




THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 



77 



First Organ, composed of a SEVENTEENTH, NINETEENTH, SEPTIEME, 
and TWENTY-SECOND: and the other, a VIOL CORNET IV. RANKS 
(muted), in the string-toned Expressive Subdivision of the Third 
Organ, composed of a TWELFTH, FIFTEENTH, NINETEENTH, and 
TWENTY-SECOND. The pipes are of tin and of small scale. All Pedal 
Organ MIXTURES which have no breaks or short ranks in their com- 
pass are strictly CORNETS. The largest and most remarkable ex- 
ample of this class of compound stop is that in the Pedal of the 
Organ in the Wanamaker Store in Philadelphia, Pa. It consists of 
ten complete ranks of open metal pipes, yielding pure organ-tone, 
the principal rank being a DIAPASON, 16 FT. As a corroborating 
stop it belongs to the 32 ft. harmonic series, and comprises four 
octave, two third-, and four fifth-sounding ranks as follows : 

PEDAL ORGAN GRAND CORNET X. RANKS. 



1. DIAPASON . 

2. QUINT . 

3. OCTAVE 

4. TIERCE 

5. OCTAVE QUINT 



Metal. 1 6 feet 
" 10% " 
8 

6% " 



6. SUPER-OCTAVE Metal. 4 feet 

7. OCTAVE TIERCE " 3^ " 

8. TWELFTH . " 2% " 

9. FIFTEENTH . " 2 " 
10. NINETEENTH " iM " 



The compound tone of this stupendous CORNET is that of a mag- 
nificent lingual stop, and when registered with the DOUBLE DIA- 
PASON, 32 FT., or the CONTRA-BOMBARDE, 32 FT., or with both, it 
produces a majestic harmonic tonal structure impossible on any 
other Pedal Organ ever constructed. The only other stop of the 
same class, in any way approaching that just described, known to 
us is the one labeled GRAND BOURDON in the Organ in the Cathedral 
of Riga. It is composed of the following five complete ranks of open 
wood pipes: PRINCIPAL, i6FT. QUINT, IO%FT. OCTAVE, 8 FT. 
TIERCE, 6^ FT. SUPER-OCTAVE, 4 FT. 

TONALITY AND REGISTRATION. The value of the compound 
harmonic-corroborating CORNET of the DULCIANA or DOLCE class 
in artistic registration depends entirely on its tonality the product 
of its correct composition, the scales of its several ranks, and, above 
all, of its fine voicing, and the scientific graduation of the tones of all 
its ranks and their breaks in accordance with the natural laws of 
musical sounds. Provided the CORNET is correctly constructed along 
all these lines, it is a stop to be treasured in every Organ in which it 
is introduced; and will become the delight of the organist in his 
registrations, forming with stops of all tonalities combinations of 
rare beauty and charm. From long experience with just such a 
CORNET we can speak with authority in this direction. We have 



78 ORGAN-STOPS 

found it to combine with labial and lingual stops of different pitches, 
producing numerous very beautiful compound tones which are ab- 
solutely unknown to organists who preside at Organs unprovided 
with such refined tonal aid; and which have only the crude and 
screaming MIXTURES which characterize the prevailing inartistic 
and rule-of -thumb methods of organ tonal appointment. Before a 
truly satisfactory condition of tonality, offering the maximum of 
opportunity for artistic registration, obtains in the Organ, all the 
compound stops CORNETS and MIXTURES must undergo a radical 
change in treatment: more art and science must be concentrated on 
their production, and more time and care must be devoted to their 
correct regulation and graduation of tone. 

CORNET A PA VILLON, Fr. The name given by Cavailte- 
Coll to a lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, inserted in the Grand-Orgue of 
the instrument constructed by him, in 1841, for the Royal Church 
of Saint-Denis. The name was suggested by the form of the resona- 
tors employed, just as in the case of the FL^TE A PAVILLON, the 
pipes of which are surmounted by bells. Another example exists in 
the Organ in the Church of Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris. 

CORNETTINO, Ital. Ger., ZINK. A lingual stop of 2 ft. 
pitch, and necessarily of short compass. This favored its introduc- 
tion in the Pedal Organ. An example, labeled CORNETTINO, exists 
in the Erstes Pedal of the Organ in St. Paul's Church, Frankfurt am 
Main, built by Walcker. Respecting this stop Schlimbach remarks : 
"CORNETTINO. Bin Rohrwerk, sell das zu den Posaunen gebrauch- 
liche, unter dem Namen Zinken bekannte Discantinstrument nach- 
ahmen. Es ist klein, und sollte eigntlich nur durchs halbe Clavier 
gehen, indem man keine Basszinken hat," See ZINK. 

CORNO DI BASSETTO, Ital. Fr., COR DE BASSET. Ger., 
BASSETHORN. A lingual stop of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are 
formed, in most examples, after the fashion of those of the CLARI- 
NET. Topfer describes the stop as made of labial pipes; but, in its 
best form, it has always been a lingual stop, made with free- or 
striking-reeds, preferably the latter. The stop is by no means a 
common one and few examples are to be found. As a manual stop 
it is to be found on the third manual of the Organ in the Cathedral 
of Lund, Sweden. A fine example exists in the Solo of the Organ in 
St, George's Hall, Liverpool; and we inserted one in the Expressive 
First Subdivision (Wood-wind) of the Organ installed in the Fes- 
tival Hall of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. As a Pedal Organ 



PLATE IT 




'17 



CORNO DI 

BA.SSETTO 



'16 



FL-CTTE 

A PA VILLON HARMONIQUE 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 79 

stop of 8 ft. pitch it is introduced in the Organs in the Cathedrals of 
Ulm and Riga. According to Hopkins, a stop labeled CORNO BASS- 
ETTO, SOPRANO, 32 FT., was to be found in the Organ in the Cathe- 
dral of Como, but regarding the form of this stop we have been 
unable to obtain information. 

FORMATION. The form of the CORNO DI BASSETTO or BASSETHORN seems to 
have varied greatly in the hands of different organ-builders in Germany and else- 
where on the Continent. Topfer describes it as made in the form of a labial stop : 
while Locher describes it as a smooth- voiced stop made with free-reeds, and, as a 
rule, without resonators, similar to the PHYSHARMONIKA. In all probability, as 
their voices are described to be of a "smooth reed-character, " the stops in the Ulm 
and Riga Organs are free-reeds with some form of resonators. But these matters 
are now of very little practical value. 

The CORNO DI BASSETTO, 8 FT., in its best form, as made to-day, is a striking 
reed, and, being of the CLARINET family, is commonly furnished with plain cylin- 
drical resonators completely open at top, similar to that shown in Fig. 6, Plate I., 
but properly of a larger scale, so as to develop a fuller tone than that of the CLARI- 
NET. With a similar aim, we strongly recommend the addition of a resonant 
chamber to the top of the cylindrical tube of the form shown in the drawing of the 
complete pipe, Fig. 8, Plate II. This should have a screw adjustment for regula- 
tion, as indicated, and may be further provided with a shade for fine toning. 
Although organ-builders will not look with much favor on this form of resonator, 
on account of its troublesome construction, yet every means should be adopted to 
perfect a stop of such importance. It can be made one of the most beautiful 
lingual stops in the Organ. While the reeds and their tongues generally resemble 
those of the CLARINET in form and curvature, they should be slightly larger in all 
directions, to accord with the larger scale of the resonators. Larger boots are also 
to be recommended, for they have more influence on tone than is commonly under- 
stood ; unfortunately large boots cost more than small ones. 

Although no authority is furnished by an orchestral instrument, there seems 
to be no reason why a very valuable voice should not be given to the Concert-room 
Organ in the form of a CONTRA-CORNO DI BASSETTO or DOUBLE BASSET-HORN, 
1 6 FT. We are strongly in favor of such a stop being introduced in every Concert- 
room Organ just as it has been in the Organ in the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. 
W. A beautiful family might be created by the addition of an OCTAVE BASSET- 
HORN, 4 FT. 

TONALITY AND REGISTRATION. The orchestral Corno di Bass- 
etto is, strictly considered, a Tenor Clarinet with a compass from 
FF to c 3 , but its tone is fuller and of richer reedy quality; and this 
has to be produced very clearly in the organ stop, so as to differ- 
entiate it distinctly from the CLARINET. Voiced by a master-hand 
and with this aim, the CORNO DI BASSETTO becomes invaluable as a 
timbre-creator in artistic registration, combining perfectly and 
- producing a beautiful series of tones with all classes of labial stops, 
including such a compound stop as the DULCIANA CORNET (q. .). 
The stop should be carefully developed by artistic voicers, and it 



8o ORGAN-STOPS 

should find a place in every important Organ. In the properly ap- 
pointed Concert-room Organ its place is in the division appropriated 
to the stops representing the wood-wind forces of the grand orches- 
tra. There its voice would be valuable both in tonal massing and as 
a solo. One has only to turn to the compositions of Mozart and 
Mendelssohn to realize the high estimation in which these masters 
held the tones of the Corno di Bassetto. 

CORNO DOLCE. The name given to a stop of 8 ft. pitch, con- 
structed of inverted conical pipes, after those of the DOLCE or DOL- 
CAN. The name is misleading, for the tone of the stop has no horn 
quality, inclining, on the other hand, to a flute-tone. It is not a 
common stop, having nothing characteristic to recommend it. A 
few examples exist in English Organs, as in the Organ in the Free 
Trade Hall, Manchester. 

CORNO FLUTE. This name has been given to two widely 
different stops, to neither of which it can be said to be highly appro- 
priate; the two constituents forming it conflicting in a tonal sense. 
The original CORNO FLUTE is a lingual stop of 8 ft. pitch, formed 
with resonators of wood, and voiced to yield a quiet tone inclining 
to an Oboe quality. It was invented by the distinguished London 
organ-builder, William Hill. An example of this stop exists in the 
Organ in the Church of St. Olave, Southwark, Surrey. 

The second form, of later date, is a metal labial stop of 8 ft. 
pitch, invented by Herbert Norman, organ-builder, of Norwich. 
The name, in this instance, seems to have been given to the stop 
on account of the Horn-like tonality in its tenor portion and the soft 
fluty character of its higher octaves. We are not surprised at this 
tonal peculiarity, for we have long been of the opinion that the 
characteristic tones of the orchestral Horn will be most successfully 
imitated by labial pipes.* 

CORNO INGLESE, Ital A lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, yield- 
ing a reedy tone in imitation of that of the orchestral instrument 
bearing the same name. For particulars respecting the stop, see 
COR ANGLAIS. 

CORNOPEAN. A lingual stop of 8 ft. pitch, the tone of which 
is intended to imitate that of the brass, wind-instrument originally 
called Cornopean, but now known as the Cornet & Pistons (Fr.)- 

* The stop in our Chamber Organ, of the KKRAULOPHONE class, was named by us CORNO DI 
CACCIA because of the remarkable imitation of the Horn tones it yielded in its tenor and middle 
octaves. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 81 

Stone describes the instrument as "intermediate between the 
French Horn, Trumpet, and Bugle"; and this description would 
point to the quality of tone desirable in the CORNOPEAN of the 
Organ, but which very rarely attends it. 

The CORNOPEAN was invented by the distinguished organ- 
builder William Hill, of London, and was introduced in several of his 
organs. The firm placed one in the Swell of the Organ in the Cen- 
tennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. When made and voiced by a master- 
hand the stop is distinct and agreeable, occupying a place, tonally, 
between the TRUMPET and the HORN. The resonators of the CORNO- 
PEAN are, like those of the TRUMPET, inverted conical in form, and 
vary considerably in scale, according to the quality and strength of 
voice aimed at. The reeds should be of the closed variety ; and the 
tongues should be thick and carefully curved to produce a tqne free 
from the brassy clang of the TRUMPET, but of a firm and singing 
quality. There is no question respecting the value of a fine lingual 
stop, having such an intermediate voice, in refined and expressive 
registration in which the assertive clang of the TRUMPET would be 
destructive and that of the HORN too dead. In the properly ap- 
pointed Concert-room Organ the CORNOPEAN should find its place 
in the division appropriated to the brass-wind stops. 

Locher describes the CORNOPEAN as " an 8 ft. labial stop of horn- 
like tone." Allihn describes it much in the same manner in the 
following words: " CORNOPEAN (ital), Paanshorn, ein veraltete 
Labialstimme von hornartigem Ton. Zu deutsch etwa : Jubelhorn. ' ' 

COPULA, Lat. Ger. KOPPEL. This term is used in two senses 
in German organ nomenclature. It alludes to the mechanical appli- 
ance, commonly known as the coupler, which connects claviers or 
other portions of an Organ together temporarily. It is also applied 
to certain labial stops having a tonality which seems to have the 
property of binding together in a harmonious manner extreme voices 
of other stops. The KOPPELFLOTE is an example. See KOPPEL. 

CREMONA. This very meaningless and inappropriate name 
for an organ stop labial or lingual is obviously a corruption. 
Hawkins, in his "History of Music." says: "The names and de- 
scriptions of several musical instruments instruct us as to the nature 
and design of many Stops in the Organ, and what they are intended 
to imitate. For instance, in the Krummhorn, the tone of it origi- 
nally resembled that of a small Cornet, though many organ-makers 
have corrupted the word into Cremona, supposing it to be an imita- 
tion of the Cremona Violin." 

6 



82 ORGAN-STOPS 

Max Allihn gives a more sensible usage of the term in the follow- 
ing words: "CREMONA bedeutet eine Labialstimme von streichen- 
dem Tone. Die Cremonesergeige wird in Prankreich kurzweg Cre- 
mona genannt." Under any conditions, the name of a town must be 
inappropriate for an organ-stop, although not more so than the 
name of a person written backwards, which has recently been added 
to the list of stops. Such a method of naming is ridiculous and 
should be discontinued. Surely the name of an organ-stop should 
either indicate tone or some special formation of its pipes. 

CROMORNE, Fr. Ger., KRUMMHORN. The name used by 
French and German organ-builders to designate a lingual stop, the 
tone of which somewhat resembles that of the CLARINET, but with a 
smoother and mournful character. It is commonly of 8 ft. pitch. 
Seidel, in his remarks on the KRUMMHORN, says: "Properly 'CoR- 
MORNE,' from cor 'horn' and morne 'mournful, still, soft/ signifying 
a soft, quiet Horn, is a lingual stop of a delicate intonation, of 8 ft. 
or ,4 ft, pitch, of tin or pipe metal, open or shaded, and sometimes 
formed of small-scaled cylindrical pipes " (like the CLARINET). This 
stop has been constructed in imitation of an old instrument, called 
the Krummhorn (crooked horn), which had six holes, and was, at its 
lower end, bent in the form of a half circle. 

The CROMORNE, 8 FT., has long been a favorite stop with the 
French organ-builders. It appears in the Positif of the Organs in 
the Royal Church of Saint-Denis; the Cathedral of Chartres; and 
the Basilique du Sacrd-Coeur, Paris: in these Organs there is no 
CLARINET. It is inserted in the Rcit of the Organ in the Church of 
Saint-Sulpice, Paris, in which there is no CLARINET: and in the 
R6cit, along with the CLARINET, in the Organ in the Conservatoire 
Royal de Musique, Brussels. It occupies a place, along with the 
CLARINETTE-BASSE, 16 FT., and CLARINETTE-AIGUE, 4 FT., in the 
Positif of the Organ in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris* It is 
inserted in the Positif of the Concert-room Organ in the Palais du 
Trocad&x>, Paris; and in the Positif Expressif of the Organ in the 
Albert Hall, Sheffield. We are not aware of any stop under the 
name CROMORNE, or having the characteristic tonality of the French 
stop, having been inserted in an Organ constructed in England or 
America, It may be taken for granted that unless the CROMORNE 
had been found valuable in registration by French organists, and 
held in high estimation by such distinguished organ-builders as 
Cavaill<5-Coll, Merklin, Abbey, and Mutin, it would not have been 
so systematically inserted in almost all the more important Organs 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 83 

constructed in France. Such being the case it is worthy of considera- 
tion as to the desirability of adding such a stop to the tonal appoint- 
ment of the Organ of the Twentieth Century. To us it would seem 
highly desirable.* 

CYMBAL. Fr., CYMBALE. Ger., CYMBEL, ZYMBEL. ItaL, 
CIMBALO. The name used to designate a compound harmonic- 
corroborating stop, usually composed of from four to seven ranks 
of open, organ-toned pipes, of high pitch, breaking at every octave. 
Its ranks are alternately octave- and fifth-sounding. Its name was 
suggested by the likeness of its compound tone the clang of the or- 
chestral Cymbals. Such a tone would seem at variance with the 
harmonic-corroborating office of the stop; and as noise even if it is 
musical noise is not desirable in any form of musical instrument, 
there would seem to be little in favor of introducing so space-taking 
and costly a stop in the Organ. The CYMBALE seems, however, to 
have been esteemed for some reason by the great French organ- 
builder Cavaille-Coll. In the Organ in the Royal Church of Saint- 
Denis there is a GROSSE CYMBALE, of four ranks, and a CYMBALE, 
also of four ranks, in the Grand Orgue; and a CYMBALE, of four 
ranks in the Positif. In the Organ in the Church of Saint-Sulpice 
there is a CYMBALE of five ranks in the Rcit Expressif . In the Con- 
cert-room Organ in the Albert Hall, Sheffield, there is a CYMBALE of 
four ranks in the Grand Orgue (Premier Clavier). There is a re- 
markable example, of seven ranks, in the Concert-room Organ in 
the Music Hall, Cincinnati; the composition of which is here given: 

CYMBAL VII. RANKS. 

CC to BB . . . . 15 19 22 26 29 33 36. 
C to B . . . . 12 15 19 22 26 29 33. 

C 1 tO b 1 . . . . 8 12 15 19 22 26 29. 

c 2 to b 2 .... i 5 812151922. 

C* tO C4 . . . DOUBLE I 5 8 12 15 19. 

* "LE CROMORNE (de 1'allemand Krumm-Horn, Cornu 'torse), est encore un quatre-pieds qui 
en forme huit, en raison de sa forte languette. On conQoit que, n'ayant pas la hauteur de tuy- 
aux que comporte son ton, il rende des sous ne~cessairement moins forts que la Tro-mpette, ou la 
hauteur et le ton se trouvent d'accord. C'est n<anmoins le meilleur des jeux d'anches acces- 
soires. II a le timbre clair, plus nourri que le Hautbois, tenant du Cor anglais et de la Clarinette 
avec une teinte plus me"tallique et une certaine mollesse gutturals qui n'est pas sans grace et qu'on 
nomme cruchement. La difficult^ est d'obtenir cet effet & son point: avec trop de mollesse, le 
Cromorne rale; avec trop de raideur, au lieu de crucher, il crache. ... On peut le placer k tous 
les claviers en lui donnant des tallies diverses, mais il ne faut pas les jouer ensemble : leur timbre 
est trop saillant et nerveux pour bien s'accorder 6n se doublant lui-me'me. II ne pourrait pas 
meTne se poser en p6dale pour appuyer son chant au grand orgue; quoique, en tout autre cas, 
iso!6 en pe"dale, il puisse faire bon effet, ici 6videmment le Cromorne en pdale de"truira le peu 
d'inte're't qu'offre le Cromorne manuel. M616 & quelques fonds, il perd son aprete et se pr&t 



84 ORGAN-STOPS 

The CYMBAL does not appear to have assumed any importance 
In the practice of the organ-builders of Germany : we have, after a 
somewhat hurried review, been able to find one instance of its intro- 
duction. The stop appears on the Erste Manual of the Organ built 
by Priedrich Ladegast for the Cathedral of Schwerin in 1871. It is 
described thus: "CYMBEL 3 fach, 14 lothig; einen halben Ton enger 
als, Mixtur grosster Chor 2! \ c 1 g 1 c 2 , repetirt nur einmal." 

CYMBELREGAL, Ger. An obsolete lingual stop, of either 4 
ft. or 2 ft. pitch; the tone of which was of a metallic and ringing 
character. See REGAL. 

CYMBELSTERN, Ger. Literally Cymbal-star. This so-called 
organ-stop, which was merely a mechanical device actuated by the 
organ-wind, has been properly classed among the several puerilities 
of old German organ-building. It was in the form of a star, to the 
points of which small bells or metallic "jingles" were attached. 
When caused to revolve, at the will of the organist, it gave forth a 
tinkling sound. A few examples are said to exist ; as in the Organs 
in the Cathedral of Merseburg; the Abbey Church, Weingarten; and 
the Church of Waltershausen, near Gotha. 

D 

DECIMA, Ital. The term used by Italian organ-builders to 
designate the TIERCE or TENTH, 33^ FT. The following terms are 
used by them for other harmonic-corroborating stops: DECIMA 
QUINTA the FIFTEENTH, 2 FT.; DECIMA SETTIMA the SEVEN- 
TEENTH, i% FT.; and DECIMA NONA the NINETEENTH, ij^ FT. 



DIAPASON. Ger., PRINZIPAL. Ital., PRINCIPALS. Fr., MON- 
TRE. The word employed by the early English organ-builders, and 
commonly qualified by the prefix OPEN, to designate the stop yield- 
ing the foundation tone of the Organ.; and which has been retained, 
with the same signification, by English-speaking organ-builders to 
the present day. In the term Diapason Normal it is used in the 
sense of a standard of pitch. The word is derived from the Greek 
SccxTuacr&v, the concord of the first and last tones. In Latin it 
signifies an octave. 

souvcnt mieux quo les grands jeux d'anches & la diversity des expressions, M61ang6 avec une 
Wl&tf ou un Bourdon de huit, ses notes sup6rieures imitent jusqu'& un certain point la Clarinette; 
avec le Prestant, ses notes inf6rieures joucnt Ic Basson, Le Cromorne, chantant & plusieurs par- 
ties, lea laissc ressortir tcmtes; avantage qui manque sou vent & la Trompette, dont les basses 
^crascnt les tlcssua; certains organistcs Vaccouplent & un Nasard, pour lui donner plus d'6nergie 
mais settlement dans le cas o& il parle avcc lea fonds." Regnier. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 85 

As a name for an organ-stop the word does not seem highly ap- 
propriate, and we much prefer the more expressive one, PRINCIPAL; 
but it is not likely that the time-honored word will ever be altogether 
abandoned. Under certain conditions, and for the sake of distinc- 
tion, tonally, it may be desirable to use both words in the same stop 
appointment. 

PITCH. The stop appears in the Pedal Organ in two pitches 
32 ft. and 1 6 ft. When of the former pitch it is properly termed 
DOUBLE DIAPASON, 32 FT. ; and when of the latter it may be simply 
termed DIAPASON, its -Unison pitch being understood. In the Organs 
commanded by the manual claviers it also appears in two standard 
pitches 16 ft. and 8 ft. When of the graver pitch it is correctly 
termed DOUBLE DIAPASON, 16 FT.; and when of 8 ft. pitch it is 
simply termed DIAPASON, its unison pitch being understood. In 
preparing an Organ Specification, the pitches of all the DIAPASONS 
must be given. 

FORMATION. The pipes of the DIAPASON are cylindrical in form and of large 
scale, as shown in proper proportions in Fig. 9, Plate II. ; and when properly made 
are of good pipe-metal, of ample thickness to withstand firmly the vibrations of the 
air within them while speaking. The desire to save money has led to the use of 
undesirably thin metal, as well as metal of inferior and insufficient quality. Such 
a practice should be rigorously condemned and guarded against by every one 
specifying or purchasing an Organ. It is impossible to obtain the necessary full 
and firm foundation tone, characteristic of the perfect DIAPASON, from pipes con- 
structed of poor or thin metal. The thickness of the upper lip of the mouth, 
securing perfect rigidity and favoring correct and artistic voicing, is a factor of the 
greatest importance. Different metals have been and still are being used in the 
formation of the pipes of this important stop. The old builders used tin almost 
pure, or very rich alloys of tin and lead; and, accordingly, we find, as in the cele- 
brated Haarlem Organ, pipes one hundred and eighty years old in perfect condi- 
tion to-day. How many DIAPASONS, constructed of poor, thin pipe-metal or zinc, 
as commonly placed in modern Organs, will be found in good condition after the 
lapse of even half that length of time ? Whatever the metal or alloy may be, it is 
essential that it be of ample thickness. This is particularly the case when cast 
alloys of tin and lead are used, such as the different grades of spotted-metal. Even 
when hard rolled metals are used, such as zinc or the Hoyt two-ply metal, the 
matter of adequate thickness must be carefully attended to. Organ-builders, 
depending upon the firmness of rolled zinc, combined with the desire to save 
money, have very commonly used it of too thin gauges for DIAPASON pipes, in- 
serting lips of spotted-metal or some such alloy. We strongly advise the disuse of 
zinc for DIAPASON stops of 8 ft. pitch, but in the 16 ft. octave of the DOUBLE DIA- 
PASON it may be used if of ample thickness. Zinc may, with advantage, be used 
for the feet of heavy pipes, provided they are properly lipped and toed with good 
pipe-metal. The following Table may be accepted as a reliable guide, showing 
the minimum desirable thicknesses of good spotted-metal for DIAPASON pipes. 
The thicknesses are given in thousandths of an inch, and these are carried through 



86 



ORGAN-STOPS 



seven octaves, and are calculated on a scale for the CC pipe, 8 feet, not exceeding 
seven inches in diameter, voiced on a wind-pressure not exceeding six inches. 

TABLE SHOWING MINIMUM THICKNESSES OF GOOD SPOTTED- 
METAL FOR DIAPASON PIPES. 





16' 


8' 


4' 


2' 


I' 


6" 


3" 


c 


O.IIO 


0.080 


0.065 


0-055 


O.O4O 


0.030 


0.025 


c# 


O.I 10 


0.080 


0.065 


O.05O 


O.O4O 


0.030 


0.025 


D 


0.105 


0.080 


0.065 


0.050 


0.040 


0.030 


0.025 


D# 


0.105 


0.075 


0.060 


0.050 


O.O4O 


0.030 


0.025 


E 


O.IOO 


0.075 


0.060 


0.050 


0.040 


0.030 


O.O20 


F 


O.I 00 


0.075 


0.060 


0.050 


0.040 


0.030 


0.020 


P# 


0.095 


0.070 


0.060 


0.045 


0.035 


0.030 


O.020 


G 


0.095 


0.070 


0.060 


0.045 


0.035 


0.030 


O.020 


G# 


0.090 


0.070 


0.055 


0.045 


0-035 


0.025 


O.020 


A 


0.090 


0.070 


0-055 


0.045 


0^035 


0.025 


O.O20 


A# 


0.085 


0.065 


0-055 


0.045 


0.035 


0.025 


0.020 


B 


0.085 


0.065 


0-055 


0.045 


0.035 


0.025 


0.020 



If the Hoyt hard-rolled two-ply pipe-metal is used, the Table may be started, 
for the CC, 8 ft., pipe, at gauge 0.070. 

SCALE. The scaling of the DIAPASONS in Organs of the different 
classes, and which are to be heard under different conditions, re- 
quires the careful consideration of the organ expert. When two or 
more DIAPASONS are inserted in an Organ, either in one or separate 
Divisions, they should be scaled differently, so as to aid the voiccr 
in the production of the desirable diversity of tone. Large and in- 
ordinate scales have been used by certain organ-builders, apparently 
with the view of producing great volumes of sound, but the undue 
preponderance of the bass destroyed their general tonal value. As 
the true bass of the Organ obtains in the pedal department, the 
value of the tenor and higher octaves of the manual stops, and of the 
DIAPASONS in particular, should not be overshadowed by any ab- 
normal development of the bass octave, Even under the most 
scientific treatment the trebles of the finest DIAPASONS are unde- 
sirably weak in proportion to their basses. The tonality of the 
tenor and middle octaves have to be taken most care of by judicious 
scaling and artistic voicing. Experience has gone far to prove that 
nothing is gained by using a larger scale than 7 inches in diameter 
for the CC, 8 ft., pipe. Indeed, Edmund Schulze, of Paulinzelle, the 
artist representing the best school of German organ-building of the 
nineteenth century, and who did much splendid work in England^ 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 87 

maintained that for the chief DIAPASON of the largest Church Organ, 
63^ inches in diameter was the extreme scale for its CC pipe, pro- 
vided it was properly voiced. The CC pipe of his superb DIAPASON 
in the Organ in the Parish Church of Leeds, Yorkshire, is only 6^ 
inches in diameter; yet the stop is the grandest of its class known to 
us. The same scale appears in his celebrated DIAPASON in the Organ 
in the Church of St. Mary, Tyne Dock. Equal in importance to the 
measurement of the scale is its ratio. That favored by the great 
German builders Sauer, Ladegast, Walcker, Reubke, and Schulze, 
and adopted by the last named for his DIAPASONS in the Leeds and 
Tyne Dock Organs, is the ratio 1:^8, which halves on the sixteenth 
step or seventeenth pipe. We, however, prefer the ratio i : 2.66, 
which halves on the eighteenth pipe, favoring a slight increase of 
tone in the treble, always desirable. The following Tables give de- 
sirable scales for DIAPASONS suitable for Concert-room, Church, 
and Chamber Organs, voiced on winds of proper pressures: 

TABLE OF DIAPASON PIPE DIAMETERS IN INCHES, RATIO i : v 



PIPES 


CC 


C 


c 1 


C 2 


C3 


C4 


L 


6.60 


3-93 


2-33 


-39 


0.82 


0.49 


II. 


6.32 


3.76 


2.23 


-33 


0.79 


0.47 


III. 


6.06 


3.60 


2. 14 


.27 


0.76 


o-45 


IV. 


5-56 


3-30 


1.96 


.16 


0.69 


0.41 


V. 


5-10 


3-03 


I. 80 


,07 


0.64 


0.38 



TABLE OP DIAPASON PIPE DIAMETERS IN INCHES, RATIO 1:2.66. 



PIPES 


CC 


C 


c 1 


c 2 


C3 


C4 


L 


6.68 


4. 10 


2-51 


1-54 


0.94 


0.58 


II. 


6.42 


3-94 


2.41 


1.47 


0.91 


0-55 


III. 


6.06 


3-78 


2.31 


1.42 


0,87 


0-53 


IV. 


5-56 


3-34 


2.05 


1-25 


0.77 


0.47 


V. 


5-io 


3.08 


1.89 


I-I5 


0.71 


0-43 



TONALITY. The true tone of the DIAPASON is that which is 
peculiar to and characteristic of the Organ, and which cannot be 
produced by any other musical instrument. When at its best, it is 
singularly pure and simple, being, like the normal tone of the tuning- 
fork, almost entirely free from harmonic over-tones or upper partials. 
It is this fact that makes the true DIAPASON ineffective as a melodic 
stop, played in single notes; while played in full chords its tones are 
rich and impressive and generally beautiful. If prolonged, however, 
it becomes cloying and palls upon the ear. It is this simple quality 
which makes the DIAPASON tone the proper foundation of the tonal 
structure of the Organ; upon which may be laid tonal combinations 
of endless variety and beauty. 



88 ORGAN-STOPS 

The following remarks from the pen of Professor R. H. M. 
Bosanquet, an authority on tonal matters, are of interest: 

"The scales, character, and voicing of the OPEN DIAPASON vary with fashion, 
and are different in different countries. We may distinguish three principal types. 
The old English DIAPASONS of the days before the introduction of Pedal Organs 
into England were characterized by a rich sweet tone, and were not very powerful. 
They were generally voiced on a light wind, having a pressure equivalent to that 
of a column of water of from 2 to 2 J^ inches. The scale was in some cases very 
large, as in Green's two OPEN DIAPASONS in the old Organ at St. George's, Windsor; 
in these the wind was light and the tone very soft. In other cases the scale was 
smaller and the voicing bolder, as in Father Smith's original DIAPASONS in St. 
Paul's Cathedral. But on the whole the old English DIAPASONS presented a lovely 
quality of tone. English travelers of those days, accustomed to these DIAPASONS, 
usually found foreign Organs harsh, noisy, and uninteresting. And there arc 
many still in England who, while recognizing the necessity of a firmer diapason- 
tone in view of the introduction of the heavy pedal bass, and the corresponding 
strengthening of the upper departments of the organ-tone, lament the disappear- 
ance of the old diapason-tone. However, it is possible with care to obtain DIA- 
PASONS presenting the sweet characteristics of the old English tone, combined with 
sufficient fullness and power to form a sound general foundation. And there can 
be no doubt that this should be one of the chief points to be kept in view in organ 
design. 

"The German DIAPASON was of an entirely different character from the Eng- 
lish. The heavy bass of the pedals has been an essential characteristic of the 
German Organ for at least two or three centuries, or, as it is said, for four. The 
development of the piercing stops of high pitch was equally general. Thus founda- 
tion-work of comparatively great power was required to maintain the balance of 
tone; the ordinary German DIAPASON was very loud, and we may say coarse, in 
its tone when compared with the old English DIAPASON. The German stop was 
voiced as a rule on from 3}^ to 4 inches of wind, not quite twice the pressure used 
in England. 

" The French DIAPASON is a modem variety. It may be described as present- 
ing rather the characteristics of a loud GAMBA than of a DIAPASON. In other 
words, the tone tends towards a certain quality which may be described as ' tinny ' 
or metallic; or as approaching to that of a string instrument of rather coarse 
character. Some modern English builders appear to aim at the same model, and 
not without success. 

"The tone of a DIAPASON must be strong enough to assert itself* It is the 
foundation of the whole organ tone, It is the voicer's business to satisfy this con- 
dition in conjunction with the requirement that the tone shall be full and of agree- 
able quality."* 

That we agree with everything stated by Professor Bosanquet is 
proved by every word we have written on the subject during the 
past forty years. Unquestionably, to the lover of sweet sounds 
which we claim to be the true English diapason-tone is the most 
lovely ; that of the French MONTRE the most unsatisfactory : yet to 

* Encyclopedia Britannica: Ninth Edition. "Organ." 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 89 

French ears, and those satisfied with power rather than refinement 
of tone, it seems to be agreeable. Different tastes are born and 
fostered under different conditions. 

VOICING AND REGULATING. As there are various tones produced 
by stops labeled DIAPASON, so there are different schools of voicing, 
not only peculiar to different countries but to varied classes of 
voicers. Such being the case, it is obvious that no standard of dia- 
pason- or pure foundation organ-tone has been in any way estab- 
lished, or even suggested, in modern organ-work. Yet it must be 
admitted that for such an all-important foundation organ-tone a 
well-defined standard should be set and universally adopted. 

At the present time, when wind-pressures of great variety are 
used at the caprice of organ-builders, it seems a hopeless thing to 
look for anything approaching a standard diapason-tone. As Pro- 
fessor Bosanquet has pointed out, it has ranged in the past from the 
refined and beautiful tones of the true English DIAPASONS, on 
through the loud and coarse tones of the German PRINCIPALS, to 
the stringy and unsympathetic voices of the French MONTRES. 
While it is obviously desirable that when two or more DIAPASONS 
are inserted in an Organ, they should be of different scales, and 
voiced to produce varied strengths and, within due limits, different 
tints of true organ-tone; there is certainly no call for them to yield 
the coarse German quality, on the one hand, or the dry, "tinny," 
or gambaish tonality favored by the French voicers, on the other 
hand. 

Scale, of course, is a matter of great importance, but it must be 
conceded that other conditions are of equal, if not of greater, im- 
portance in the production of true diapason-tone. These conditions 
may be embraced under the general term Voicing, which includes 
wind-pressure, wind-supply, and the artistic treatment of the mouth 
and top of every pipe. First in order is the proper wind-pressure. 
Experience has shown that for the production of the pure, smooth, 
and beautiful tone characteristic of the true English DIAPASON, a 
moderate wind-pressure is essential, accompanied by a copious 
supply. The finest DIAPASONS in existence to-day speak on wind 
of from 3 to 5 inches. For instance, the grandest and most beautiful 
DIAPASON known to us is the larger of the two, made by Schulze, 
in the Great of the Organ in the Parish Church of Leeds, already 
alluded to, which speaks on a copious wind-supply of only 3% inches 
pressure. It is just worth while stating, as a lesson to voicers hit by 
the high-pressure craze of the present time, the several pressures 
used in this fine instrument, which owes so much of its grandeur and 



90 ORGAN-STOPS 

beauty to the genius of Schulze. All the stops of the Pedal Organ 
with its 32 ft. and 16 ft. reeds, are on wind of 3% inches. The stops 
of the Great Organ, with the exception of the POSAUNE, are on wind 
of 3^ inches; the POSAUNE being on wind of 7 inches. The Swell 
Organ is on wind of 3 inches; the Choir Organ is on wind of 2^ 
inches; the Solo Organ, with the exception of the TUBA, is on wind 
of 5 inches, the TUBA being on wind of 8 inches; and the Echo Organ 
is on wind of ij^ inches. Although tonally appointed and appor- 
tioned in the "good old-fashioned way," this instrument is par ex- 
cellence a Church Organ; dignified and refined in tone, and admirable 
in its fundamental office the accompaniment of the musical service. 
The Organ comprises 77 speaking stops, 1 1 of which are in the Pedal; 
having in all 5,060 pipes. 

Careful experiment and observation go to prove that in the pro- 
duction of a pure, pervading, and musically perfect normal diapason- 
tone (or organ-tone) a volume of, and not high-pressure, pipe- wind 
is the principal factor. The loud and coarse tones which character- 
ize the great majority of the modern DIAPASONS voiced on winds of 
undue pressures, have nothing like the pervading, traveling, and 
sympathetic qualities and powers of the stops artistically voiced on 
a copious supply of low-pressure wind. 

It is somewhat surprising that the French voicers have so utterly 
failed in realizing the value and beauty of the English diapason-tone. 
They seem to have been satisfied with the cutting, "tinny, " tone of 
their MONTRES. Even the great Cavaill6-Coll apparently did not 
aim at anything better : and much of the stringy tonality of his stops 
is due to the practice, he invariably followed, of slotting his pipes at 
the top, for convenience in tuning. The true English DIAPASON 
was never slotted; and no DIAPASON ever should be. Let modern 
voicers take note of these important facts. 

A certain method of voicing DIAPASONS has been introduced 
during recent years, and is now practised by a certain class of voicers 
a method which we would never allow to be used in any Organ 
over the construction of which we had any control. We allude to 
the leathering of the upper lips of the pipes, with the view of im- 
parting to them the necessary thickness and the desirable roundness 
and smoothness. It is claimed, by the organ-builders who resort to 
it, to greatly improve the tones of their pipes. Probably it does in 
comparison with the tones produced by the unduly thin pipe-metal 
they may have been accustomed to use. None of the great and 
truly artistic organ-builders have resorted to this cheap and un- 
desirable expedient. Let the mouths of the pipes be properly 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 91 

formed with lips of sufficient thickness, as in old work and in that of 
the great builders, and let their upper lips be properly adjusted and 
smoothly rounded and there will be no necessity for leathering. We 
presume the question of durability does not trouble the organ- 
builder who calculates that the leathering will, in all probability, 
outlast the rest of his lifetime; but the question is of great impor- 
tance to the Organ Committee or purchaser of the Organ. In what 
condition would the DIAPASONS of the celebrated Haarlem Organ 
be in to-day had its builder used thin metal, and leathered the 
mouths of their pipes, in the money-saving method now in vogue? 
We unhesitatingly affirm that the fine work of the past proves that 
there is not the slightest excuse for leathering the lips of organ-pipes : 
and the objectionable practice should be discountenanced by every 
purchaser of an Organ. If a very thick and well-rounded lip is 
desired, let a strip of pipe-metal be folded just as the leather is 
folded and slipped on the upper lip and soldered in position. This 
method would be most efficient, but unless imperatively specified 
there would be no chance of its being adopted by the organ-builder 
or voicer. Let lips of sufficient thickness be furnished, as in old 
work, and let a proper school of voicing, on winds of moderate pres- 
sures, be instituted, and there will be no need to resort to objec- 
tionable and perishable leathering for the production of perfect 
diapason-tone. 

Next in importance to the production of a pure and beautiful 
diapason-tone is its perfect regulation. This is a matter requiring a 
sensitive ear and the expenditure of considerable time. Accordingly, 
it is very seldom that one finds a DIAPASON accurately and artist- 
ically regulated throughout its compass. Perfect regulation is essen- 
tial to the beauty of an Organ; for a few badly regulated stops will 
go far to destroy that beauty : this will especially be the case if the 
DIAPASONS are not properly regulated, with due regard to an effec- 
tive balance of tone in the treble octaves. There is always a ten- 
dency to undesirable preponderance of tone in the bass octave; and 
this should be overcome to as large an extent as possible both in the 
voicing and regulating. A perfect DIAPASON is a work of science and 
art that any pipe-maker and voicer may point to with justifiable 
pride. 

COMBINATION AND REGISTRATION. The diapason-tone is to the 
tonal structure of the Organ what the solid foundation of a building 
is to its superstructure. As has already been stated, the pure organ- 
tone yielded by the true and properly-voiced DIAPASON is simple in 
Jts nature: and such being the case, it naturally lends itself to en- 



92 OAGAN-STOPS 

richment by the addition of those tones which, by their presence, 
impart so great a charm and beauty to the compound sounds of the 
stringed instruments of the orchestra and the cultivated human 
voice. Accordingly, to the simple prime tone of the DIAPASON must 
be added a superstructure of upper partials or harmonic over-tones, 
scientifically graduated in strength in accordance with the natural 
laws of musical sounds. For this purpose are introduced in the 
properly-appointed Organ the several derivatives of the DIAPASON 
the Octave, Mutation, and compound harmonic-corroborating 
stops, A deficiency in any one of these classes seriously impairs 
the desirable range of compound diapason-tones; and, accordingly, 
divests the Organ proper of much of its usefulness and beauty. 
This important fact is too largely neglected in the tonal appointment 
of modern Organs. For the production of the various colors of 
foundation-tone, not only have greater or lesser proportions of these 
different harmonic-corroborating stops to be added to the DIAPASON ; 
but greater or lesser strengths in their voices are required. This 
latter requirement points conclusively to the necessity for their tonal 
control, through their inclosure in a swell-box. The numerous modes 
of combining the DIAPASON and its harmonic derivatives alone, may 
be classed under the term Diapason Registration. 

In artistic registration the DIAPASON has a very important rdle; 
for upon its foundation tone can be built an infinite number of effec- 
tive and beautiful combinations the most dignified and impressive 
the properly-appointed Organ places at the command of the musi- 
cian. Colorings derived through combinations with flute-, string-, 
reed-, and brass-toned stops are simply endless in their variety. 
Indeed, registration on the foundation of the diapason-tone is a 
study in itself, worthy of the organist's earnest attention; for upon it 
is based the entire fabric of artistic organ tonal combination. Such 
registration and the tonal effects it produces belong exclusively to 
the Organ. 

TUNING. The tuning of DIAPASON pipes deserves the attention 
of those interested in artistic and good organ-building, The practice 
of tuning such pipes by means of slotting them near their open ends, 
so commonly adopted by the French organ-builders, is to be con- 
demned on the ground that such slotting seriously injures the true 
diapason-tone. Coning, which either expands or contracts the open 
ends of the pipes, flattening or sharpening their tones, has, from 
old times, been commonly adopted in tuning pipes of the DIAPASON 
class from tenor C (4 ft.) upwards; but the practice has nothing to 
recommend it save convenience. It is not desirable on tonal grounds, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 



93 



because in any case of excessive spreading or contracting of the top 
of a pipe the tone undergoes a certain alteration : and, further, the 
necessary smart and often heavy blows of the weighty metal cones, 
frequently repeated, tend to, and ultimately do, seriously injure the 
top, mouth, or feet of the pipe. The most, and, indeed, only, de- 
sirable system of tuning DIAPASON pipes is by means of adjustable 
slides, which only require to be slightly raised or lowered in tuning; 
but it is not to be expected that organ-builders will adopt this sys- 
tem unless compelled to do so. Pipes that may be considered too 
large to be conveniently tuned by slides should be cut a little longer 
than their correct speaking lengths, and tuned by means of broad 
tongues, cut in the manner shown in the accompanying illustration, 
Fig. 10. If the pipes are properly cut to length, only fine tuning will 





FIG. 10 



be necessary by the easy and slight manipulation of the tongues. 
No injury need ever be done to the pipes. This method can be 
carried from the CC to the tenor C pipe, or even farther with ad- 
vantage. The method will, of course, be carried through the 16 ft. 
and 8 ft. octaves of the DOUBLE DIAPASON. 

DIAPASON, WOOD. Although German organ-builders have 
proved that true diapason-tone can be produced from quadrangular 
wood pipes, no French, English, or American organ-builder seems to 
have devoted serious attention to the construction of DIAPASONS of 
wood throughout. This is to be regretted, for we are convinced, 
from observation of what has been done by German builders, that, 
associated with metal DIAPASONS, a wood DIAPASON would be of 
great value, doing away with all risk of sympathy, while building up 
a grand volume of tone. Our attention was first directed to the 
matter when we inspected the fine Organ in the Church of St. Bar- 
tholomew, Armley, Yorkshire, constructed by Edmund Schulze. 



94 



ORGAN-STOPS 



In this instrument the bass octave of the MAJOR PRINCIPAL, 8 FT., 
in the Great Organ a grand stop of pure organ-tone is carried 
down in wood pipes in a manner so perfect that the ordinary ear 
fails to detect the transition from metal to wood. In the accom- 
panying illustration, Fig. n, is given the Front View and Longitu- 
dinal Section of the lower portion of the BB pipe of this stop, drawn 
to scale. It will be observed that the external slopes of the lower 




FIG. ii 



and upper Hps, shown in the Section, closely resemble those of the 
usual metal DIAPASON. The principal feature here is the recessed 
and splayed cap A, which is brought almost to a sharp edge where it 
forms the lower lip, in this respect resembling the metal lip. The 
upper lip is thin and cut thin, as shown. As regards scale, the most 
important dimensions are those of the BB pipe which immediately 
adjoins the tenor C metal pipe. The tenor C pipe is 3% inches in 
diameter, with a mouth 3 inches wide and % inch high, and with a 
wind-hole in the foot -f$ inch in diameter. The BB wood pipe 
measures, internally, 2}$ inches in width by 3^ inches in depth, 
with a mouth 7 /s inch high. In the same Organ, the SUB-PRINCIPAL, 
16 FT., has its two lower octaves of wood; and the MINOR PRINCIPAL, 
8 FT., in the Choir Organ, has its bass octave of wood. All are speci- 
mens of artistic voicing. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 95 

Both the DIAPASON, 16 FT., and DOUBLE DIAPASON, 32 FT., of 
the Pedal Organ are commonly made of wood; but it is seldom one 
hears the true diapason-tone produced by such stops as made at the 
present time. The desire to obtain a powerful intonation, through 
the use of large scales and wind of undue pressure, goes far to de- 
stroy the tone which should always be sought for in such foundation 
stops, and especially in those of the refined Church Organ. The now 
common practice of applying the harmonic-bridge, with the view of 
securing promptness and a certain clearness of speech, imparts a 
stringy quality to the tone, in itself by no means disagreeable, and 
which may, perhaps, be considered desirable in this age of borrowed 
and poverty-stricken Pedal Organs. If properly voiced on a copious 
flow of wind of a pressure not exceeding 6 inches, scales between 8 
inches by 10 inches and 12 inches by 14^ inches for the CCC (16 ft.) 
pipe will be ample. The German and other Continental builders, 
in their appreciation of the true nature and office of the Pedal Organ, 
and also of its adequate stop-apportionment, never, so far as we 
have been able to learn, used inordinate scales. The largest scale 
known to us in a German Organ is 12 inches by 14 inches; while the 
majority of Pedal Organ PRINCIPALS, 16 FT., rarely exceed 9 inches 
by n inches. The late W. T. Best, of Liverpool, the best judge of 
organ-tone in his day, invariably specified the scale of 10 inches by 
12 inches. We have conclusively proved the scale of 8 inches by 
10 inches to be perfectly suitable for a Chamber Organ, voiced even 
on the low pressure of 2^ inches. On a higher pressure say 4 
inches it would be sufficient for a Church Organ of ordinary size. 
' It must be borne in mind that this stop has to provide a properly 
balanced bass to the Great Organ DIAPASON, 8 FT. 

The most satisfactory scales for the DOUBLE DIAPASON, 32 FT., 
are not proportionately so large as those desirable for the DIAPASON, 
1 6 FT. It is undesirable, on the ground of scientific and artistic tonal 
balance, that the sub-octave pitch should be as assertive as that of 
the fundamental unison. 

The most suitable minimum scale is n inches by 13 J^ inches for 
the CCCC pipe, halving on the eighteenth pipe: while the maximum 
scale may be that adopted by Schulze for the fine stop in the Organ 
in St. Bartholomew's Church, Armley ; namely, 14^ inches by iSJ^ 
inches. This scale is larger than that adopted by the same builder 
for his DOUBLE PRINCIPALS, in the Organs in Bremen Cathedral and 
St. Mary's Church, Wismar, which measure only 12 inches by 15 
inches. The equally celebrated builder, Ladegast, uses a still smaller 
scale nYs inches by 14^3 inches for the CCCC pipe of the 



96 ORGAN-STOPS 

DOUBLE PRINCIPAL, 32 FT., in his celebrated Organ in Schwerin 
Cathedral. 

DIAPASON PHONON. The name introduced during late 
years to designate a metal labial stop of 8 ft. and 16 ft. pitch, and 
large scale, voiced to yield a powerful and pure organ-tone. The 
pipes of the stop are of the same form and construction as those of 
the standard DIAPASON. The stop and its name were introduced by 
Hope-Jones, who adopted the cheap method of forming thick and 
smoothly rounded upper lips to the mouths of its pipes so desir- 
able in all pipes" of the DIAPASON class by covering the thin metal 
with perishable leather. For further remarks on this practice, see 
DIAPASON. The DIAPASON PHONON will, naturally, be favored by 
those who love loud sounds; and who advocate the construction of 
brick-and-mortar or reinforced-concrete swell-boxes. 

DIAPASON, STOPPED. This name is an example of loose 
terminology : the stop so named does not belong to the class yielding 
pure organ-tone, and is not a DIAPASON in any sense of the word. 
The so-called STOPPED DIAPASON belongs to the Covered Flute- 
work of the Organ. Long usage, however, is likely to prevail; and 
in all probability, as there is no English equivalent for the German 
term GEDECKT, it will be retained by English and American organ- 
builders, in organ-stop nomenclature, for many years to come. For 
form and other particulars, see STOPPED DIAPASON. 

DIAPHONE. The name of a stop invented by Hope-Jones. 
It is of peculiar construction. The tone of the DIAPHONE pipe is 
created by pulses or vibrations generated in its resonator by the 
rapid motions of a pallet actuated by compressed air (pipe-wind) 
that enters the boot, which contains the mechanical portion of the 
pipe. The pallet simply closes and opens the lower orifice of the 
resonator so many times in a second, according to the size and pitch 
of the pipe, acting much in the same manner as the striking tongue 
in an ordinary lingual pipe. As the vibrating column of air in the 
resonator controls the action of the pallet, when adjusted, the pitch 
of the pipe is not affected by a change in the wind-pressure, while 
the strength and quality of the tone are altered. The tone pro- 
duced by the best examples is full and commanding; but owing to 
the complex character of the mechanical portion of the pipes, and 
the difficulty of regulating the action of the same, it is almost im- 
possible to secure uniformity throughout even the short compass of 
the Pedal Organ. There are also very grave questions regarding the 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 97 

durability of the stop. These facts will effectually militate against 
anything approaching a free introduction of the DIAPHONE. In all 
probability it is destined to swell the ranks of the curiosities of 
organ-building.* 

DIVINARE. The somewhat inappropriate term used to desig- 
nate a covered stop of 4 ft. pitch, belonging to the Covered Flute- 
work, the tone of which is singularly soft and singing, f Such a stop 
is very desirable in the Choir of a Church Organ, in a Chamber 
Organ, and in the Echo or Ancillary Aerial Organ of a Concert- 
room instrument. Its presence would be productive of many charm- 
ing effects in refined registration. The stop is made of both wood 
and metal : when of wood, the pipes are of small scale, and made 
narrow and deep so as to secure small mouths. Low-pressure wind 
is desirable. 

DOIFLOTE, DUIFLOTE, Ger. Names used to designate the 
covered, flute-toned stop, the pipes of which have double mouths, 
commonly called DOPPELFLOTE (q. v.). 

DOLCAN. The name given to an open labial stop of 8 ft. pitch, 
the pipes of which are of metal in the best examples tin the 
bodies of which are in the form of a slender, inverted truncated cone, 
as shown in Fig. 12, Plate II., which depicts a CC pipe in correct 
proportions. The bass octave has been formed of inverted pyra- 
midal pipes of wood, but the metal ones are to be preferred. The 
scale of the DOLCAN varies, as in other labial stops, according to the 
volume and quality of the tone desired. The following scales in the 
ratio of 1 12.519 halving on the nineteenth pipe may be accepted 
as productive of satisfactory tones : 

DOLCAN PIPE DIAMETERS IN INCHES RATIO 1:2.519. 

PIPES CC C C 1 C a C3 C4 

AT MOUTH 3.38 2.13 1.34 0.84 0,53 0.33 

AT TOP 4.96 3.13 1.97 1.24 O./S 0.49 



ATMOUTH 3.25 2.05 1.29 0.8l 0.51 0.32 

AT TOP 5.16 3.25 2.05 1.29 O.Sl 0.51 

* Particulars respecting the origin of the DIAPHONE, its forms and construction, accompanied 
by fully detailed illustrations, are given in our work, "The Art of Organ-Building, " Vol. I,, pp. 
399-400. Vol. II., pp. 619-622. 

t " DIVINARE, flute de bourdon de quatre-pieds, fl&te divine, est une singuliere traduction de 
ce mot, et c'est la seule indiquee pour exprimer la qualite" divinement superieure de cette flute 
... a peu pres inconnue. Regnier. 

"DIVINARE (vom Lat. divinus, gSttlich), sondern es gedecktes Flotenwerk zu 4'. Die In- 
tonation dieser Stimme muss dem Namen nach sehr schon sein." Seidal. 



9 ORGAN-STOPS 

The width of the mouth may be two-ninths or one-fifth the 
internal circumference of the pipe at its mouth-line, according to 
the strength of tone required; and its height may vary from one- 
fifth to one-fourth its width, subject to the wind-pressure employed 
and the tone aimed at by the voicer. When a very delicate tone is 
required, on a low pressure of wind, say 2j/ inches, a mouth of 
one-fifth the circumference should be adopted, having a height about 
one-quarter its width ; and the languid should be finely nicked. The 
upper lip should be of good substance, cut straight, and smoothly 
rounded. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. When properly formed and artist- 
ically voiced, the DOLCAN yields a tone which is freer or more open 
in quality than that of the true English DULCIANA, having a some- 
what plaintive and singing character, which is highly effective in 
soft accompanimental music, and extremely valuable in the more 
delicate and refined school of registration. The tone combines in 
the most satisfactory manner with all the varieties of flute-tones, 
giving them a peculiar charm; and also with the voices of the softer 
lingual stops. The DOLCAN 's place is in the softer accompanimental 
division of the Organ, where it need not displace the DULCIANA. 

DOLCE, Ital. This name has been used to designate stops of 
different formation and tone; but, as the name implies, all being 
similar in one important direction the possession of sweetness of 
voice. The stop is introduced in important German Organs in both 
8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, as in the instrument in the Cathedral of Ulm.* 
The DOLCE has been made by German organ-builders of both wood 
and metal, and of both cylindrical and inverted conical pipes, after 
the fashion of those of the DOLCAN (Pig. 12, Plate II.). A beautiful 
example of this latter form, made by Edmund Schulze, exists in the 
Echo of the Organ in the Parish Church of Leeds, England. It is of 
small scale and its pipes are slightly conical, yielding a tone of a 
quiet nasal quality; and, being on wind of only ij^ inches pressure, 
has a tendency to be slow, imparting a peculiar intonation to its 
speech. In certain German examples the tones are inclined to be 
stringy; but it is questionable if this is desirable. In our opinion, a 
smooth, extremely soft, and horn-like tonality is to be preferred, 
differentiating it from that of the DOLCAN and DULCIANA. The 
DOLCE, formed of inverted conical pipes, seems to have been intro- 

*"DotCE 8' von Metall, ist eine Stimme, welche im aten Manual cler neuen Orgel in der 
Peterskirchc zu Petersburg disponiert ist and einen ausscrst weichen Toncharakter hat, Im 
3tcn Manual wtcht dasselbe Register von Zinn zu 4', Auch haufiger in Sauerschen Orgeln findcn." 
S oid el. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 99 

duced at an early date in English Organs; for it is stated on good 
authority that John Snetzler inserted one in the Organ he built, in 
1741, for the Parish Church of Chesterfield, Derbyshire. 

It is to be regretted that the DOLCE, in its proper form, has not 
been more frequently introduced in important Organs : but it would 
seem that the space it requires on the wind-chest, and the additional 
metal and labor its construction calls for beyond what a small-scaled 
cylindrical stop, such as the kindred DULCIANA, demands, have 
militated against its more general adoption by organ-builders. 
There are, however, several good examples to be found in English 
Organs constructed by leading English builders. A fine one exists 
in the Organ in Emmanuel Church, Leicester. A DOLCE, 16 FT., of 
very beautiful tone voiced by the artist, W. Thynne is to be 
found in the Chapel of St. Katherine's Convent, London. A DOLCE, 
8 FT., is inserted in the Swell of the Organ in the Centennial Hall, 
Sydney, N. S. W. Roosevelt inserted a DOLCE, 8 FT., in the Swell of 
the fine Organ he built for the First Congregational Church, Great 
Harrington, Mass. The proper place for the DOLCE in the Organ 
would seem to be quite undecided by organists and organ-builders, 
as the following particulars show; yet, in artistic tonal apportion- 
ment, it has its proper and logical position. In the Great of the 
Organ in the Second Church, West Newton, Mass. In the Swell of 
the Gallery Organ in Emmanuel Church, Boston, Mass. In the 
Choir of the Concert-room Organ in the Carnegie Music Hall, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. In the Echo of the Organ in St. Peter's Episcopal 
Church, St. Louis, Mo. 

The scale of the DOLCE, 8 FT., varies in different examples, 
though not to a large extent. The following scale of a representative 
stop may be accepted as satisfactory, with low wind-pressures: 

DOLCE PIPE DIAMETERS IN INCHES RATIO 1:2.66. 
PIPES CC C c 1 c a c3 c* 

AT MOUTH 3.08 1.89 I.I5 0.71 0.43 0.27 

ATTOP 4.10 2.51 1.54 0.94 0.58 0.35 

The width of the mouth should not exceed one-fifth of the in- 
ternal circumference of the pipe at its mouth line; and its height 
need not exceed one-fourth its width unless a leaning toward a flute- 
tone is desired. 

DOLCE CORNET. This stop, as the name implies, is com- 
pound, harmonic-corroborating, and sweet-voiced. It is properly 
formed of several ranks of very small-scaled open metal pipes, yield- 



ioo ORGAN-STOPS 

ing a soft, singing quality of tone. When extreme softness is re- 
quired, the ranks should be octave- and fifth-sounding only: but 
when a more assertive tone is desired, a third-sounding rank should 
appear in every break, as in the following example of five ranks: 

DOLCE CORNET V. RANKS. 

CC tO f * . 12* 15 1/* 19 22. 

f# to f a 8 12* 15 17*- 19. 

f#* to 1)3 1 8 12* 15 17*. 

e>i to c^ ... . i 8 ro 12 15. 

It will be observed that the introduction of the SEVENTEENTH 
makes the stop a SESQUIALTERA in all save the top octave. Artist- 
ically voiced and scientifically graduated in tone this CORNET would 
be extremely valuable in refined registration. The following is a 
satisfactory composition for a CORNET of four ranks, octave- and 
fifth-sounding : 

DOLCE CORNET IV. RANKS. 

CC to BB 

C to B 

C 1 tO g3 

g# 3 to c< 

A DOLCE GRAND CORNET composed of complete, through ranks 
of true DOLCE pipes, of small scale, would be of great value in any 
of the softer toned divisions or subdivisions, expressive, of the Con- 
cert-room Organ, in which its presence would tend to complete the 
harmonic structure. It may be composed of an OCTAVE, 4 FT.; a 
TWELFTH, 2% FT.; a FIFTEENTH, 2 FT.; a SEVENTEENTH, i% FT,; 
and a NINETEENTH, i J^ FT. The SEVENTEENTH may be omitted if 
considered too harsh in tone. 

DOLCE FLUTE. A softly-voiced stop of unimitativc flute- 
tone, more commonly known by the Italian name PLAUTO DOLCE 

(2- "-) 

DOLCETTE. The term, as a diminutive, properly applied to 
designate the OCTAVE DOLCE, 4 FT. This is a valuable stop in re- 
fined registration, corroborating the first upper partial tone of all 
soft-voiced unison open stops, and imparting a foreign element to 
the voices of the softly-toned covered stops, such as the LIEBLICH- 

GEDECKTS, FLi>TE A ClIEMINfeE, COR DE NUIT, etc, 

DOLCIANO PROFUNDO. The distinctive name we have 
suggested for a CONTRA-DULCIANA, 32 FT,, when such a stop ia 




THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 101 

commanded by a manual clavier. We have shown, in our tonal 
scheme for the Concert-room Organ of the Twentieth Century, how 
this grave and most desirable soft-toned, open metal stop, of 32 ft. 
pitch, can be derived from the Pedal Organ CONTRA-DULCIANA, 
adequately extended in compass, and be commanded, as an auxiliary 
stop, by the First or Great Organ Clavier.* 

DOLCISSIMO, Ital. The term appropriately used to designate 
the softest flute-toned stop made. The extended term, FLAUTO 
DOLCISSIMO, will, however, be found more expressive, especially if 
the stop is voiced to yield an imitative tone that of the orchestral 
Flute played pianissimo. In its best form, the DOLCISSIMO is of 
8 ft. pitch, constructed of small-scaled hard wood pipes, having very 
narrow inverted mouths. It should be voiced on wind of low pres- 
sure, not exceeding 2]/ 2 inches, preferably of ij/g inches. It is an 
ideal stop for a refined Chamber Organ; and for the Choir or Echo 
of a Church Organ, and the Ancillary Aerial Organ or other very 
softly-toned division of a Concert-room instrument. In registration, 
the DOLCISSIMO, 8 FT., will be found extremely valuable in imparting 
a beautiful effect and a. desirable firmness and body to the Vox 
HUMANA and all the other softer-toned lingual stops, without de- 
stroying their characteristic tonalities, which a loud-voiced FLUTE, 
8 FT., would certainly do in combination. f 

DOLZFLOTE, DULZFLOTE, Ger. The name given by old 
German organ-builders to an open wood stop of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, 
the pipes of which are of medium scale, yielding a soft and sweet 
unimitative flute-tone. Seidel describes the stop thus : 

" DOLZFLOTE, DULZFLOTE, Flauto dulcis (susse Flote), auch 
Tibia angusta, ist eine eng mensurierte offene Flotenstimme von 
Holtz zu 4' und 8', von ausnehmend lieblichem und angenehmem 
Tone. Im Pedal soil diese Stimme zu 16' unter dem Namen Flau- 
tone vorkomen." See FLAUTO DOLCE. 

DOPPELFLOTE, Ger. The term commonly used to designate 
a covered wood stop of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which have two 
mouths placed directly opposite each other, hence the name. As 
usual with stops that require unusual conditions for their accommo- 
dation on the wind-chest, and which call for special skill and more 
than ordinary labor in their construction, the DOPPELFLOTE has 
never been a favorite with English and American organ-builders; 

* See "The Organ of the Twentieth Century." Chap. XI., pp. 297 and 319. 

t See the Aerial Organ in "The Organ of the Twentieth Century," pp. 329-331. 



102 ORGAN-STOPS 

while its great tonal value seems to have been unrealized by the 
organists of both countries. One, assuming to be an authority on 
organ-stops, writing on the DOPPELFLOTE, displays a strange igno- 
rance of its tonal character and value in registration. So far as we 
have been able to learn, the first DOPPELFLOTE that appeared in an 
English Organ was the one we inserted, in 1883, in our own Chamber 
Organ, under the Italian name, FLAUTO PRIMO, 8 FT. It occupied a 
prominent position in the Second Expressive Subdivision of the 
First Organ.* This beautiful stop was presented to us by the late 
Hilborne L. Roosevelt, of New York. A few examples have since 
appeared in English Organs, for the most part made by Continental 
builders, Roosevelt held the DOPPELFLOTE in high estimation and 
invariably placed one in the Great of all his important Organs. It 
is to be regretted that so few examples appear in even large Organs 
constructed in this country during the present period. One has been 
wisely inserted in the Great of the Organ in the Carnegie Music Hall, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

FORMATION. The DOPPELFLO'TE, 8 FT., is usually formed of pipes of two 
different scales and treatments, those from CC to BB being medium-scaled GE- 
DECKT pipes with single mouths, voiced to yield a full, round tone to carry clown, as 
closely as practicable, the characteristic quality of the principal portion of the 
stop. From tenor C to the top, each pipe has two mouths, placed on the opposite 
and narrower sides of a block in which a semicircular depression has been cut, 
leaving two thin lower lips to the mouths. The mouths and caps are of the English 
form, the lower lips being somewhat widely nicked, and the upper lips arched and 
carefully formed and rounded. These and all other details are correctly shown 
in the accompanying illustration, Fig. 13. In the -Drawing i, is given a Longitu- 
dinal Section of a pipe, cut through the mouths, at A, and showing the forms of 
the block, cap, and wind-ways. Above, at B, is given a section of the stopper, 
edged with cork and covered with soft leather. A Front View of one of the mouths 
is given in Drawing 2, showing its height, the arching of the upper lip, the nicking 
of the lower lip, and the lateral splays. In the Drawing 3 is given a Transverse 
Section through the mouths, showing the depression in the block, the lower nicked 
lips, the windways, and the upper edges of the caps. All the parts are drawn in 
correct proportion and to scale. It would seem to have been the practice of the 
German organ-builders to use different woods in the formation of their DOPPEL- 
FLdTEs. In that on the Third Manual of the Organ built by Ladcgast for the 
Cathedral of Schwerin the pipes are of pine fronted with oak; and in that on the 
First Manual of the Organ of St. Paul's Church, in the same city, the pipes are of 
pine fronted with oak and mahogany. In the Roosevelt DoppELFLtiXE, to which 
allusion has been made, the pipes have sides of sugar-pine and fronts and caps of 
close-grained mahogany. These are examples of fine pipe-making, 

* We may here record the fact that, for the first time in the history of organ-building, three 
independent tonal subdivisions were placed on a single clavier that of the First Organ; 
namely, one unexpressive and two independently expressive. So far as we know this remarkable 
and beautiful arrangement of tonal apportionment remains unique to-day (1920), See "Tha 
Organ of the Twentieth Century," p. 334, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 



103 



SCALE. The pipes of the DOPPELFLOTE, having double mouths, 
require a scale providing a considerable depth in proportion to width. 
This is exemplified by the following internal measurements taken 
from the Roosevelt standard scale: Tenor C pipe 2)^ inches in 
width by 3^ inches in depth; middle c 1 pipe i% inches in width by 
2^- inches in depth; c 2 pipe % inch in width by iffe- inches in depth. 
This is an example of an irregu- 
lar scale, arrived at by experience. 
It will be observed that the pro- 
portions of depth to width vary 
as the scale ascends; the C pipe 
being a little over one and a half 
its width in depth; while the c 2 
pipe is a little under twice its 
width in depth. The height of the 
mouth at the spring of its arched 
upper lip ranges between one- 
third and one-half its width, ac- 
cording to the wind-pressure and 
the volume of tone required. 
The arching and thickness of the 
upper lip are also important fac- 
tors in tone production that the 
voicer must decide. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. 
The DOPPELFLOTE, when proper- 
ly scaled and artistically voiced, 
yields a singularly full and pure 
unimitative flute-tone, having 
more filling-up power and better 
mixing quality than any other 
unison covered stop of medium 
power in the Organ. It is especi- 
ally this mixing quality that gives 
the stop its great value in refined 
registration. Owing to the rarity 
of the stop, organists have few opportunities of learning its import- 
ance in tonal coloring. But having a beautiful DOPPELFLOTE in our 
own Organ, and having carefully observed the use made of it in regis- 
tration by a large number of distinguished English, French, and Ameri- 
can Organists, during a period of eight years, supplemented by our 
own studies, we have been able to learn the great value of the stop 




Fig- 13 



104 ORGAN-STOPS 

as, perhaps, no other man has done. The DOPPELFLOTE is specially 
effective in combination with the softer-toned lingual stops of all 
classes, imparting to their voices firmness and fullness, and in some 
cases considerable richness, without injuring their characteristic 
tonalities. In this direction, however, the DOPPELROHRGEDECKT or 
DOPPELROHRFLOTE may be preferred (q. v.}. 

DOPPELFLOTENBASS, Ger. A medium-scaled covered wood 
stop of 1 6 ft. pitch, formed with double mouths. This stop, which 
furnishes the true bass to the DOPPELFLOTE, 8 FT., has its proper 
place in- the Pedal Organ, where its full and smooth fluty voice 
is of great value for accompaniment and in combination with the 
lingual stops. A fine example of this uncommon stop exists in 
the Second Pedal Organ of Schulze's important instrument in the 
Marienkirche, at Liibeck, It is described thus: 

*' DOPPELFLOTENBASS 16'. Holz. Eine weite, gedeckt Stimme 
mit doppelten Labien. Der Ton ist etwas voller und runder, als 
der des SUBBASS, und bildet zu den sanften Stimme der Orgel den 
schonsten Bass." 

DOPPELGEDECKT, Ger. The name given to a covered wood 
stop of 8 ft. and 16 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are of large scale, 
and made, after the fashion of the DOPPELFLOTE, with two 
mouths: the scale, however, differs from that of the DOPPELFLOTE, 
in not having so great a depth in proportion to width. The tone is 
fuller and richer than that of the ordinary single-mouthed GEDECKT, 
8 FT., or BOURDON, 16 FT. 

DOPPELROHRPLOTE, Ger. A labial stop of 8 ft. and 4 ft. 
pitch, which, as the name implies, is a modification of the DOPPEL- 
FLOTE in so much as it is what is known as a half-covered stop, while 
thje DOPPELFLOTE is a wholly-covered one. It is properly made of 
wood throughout when of 8 ft. pitch; and when of 4 ft, pitch, of 
wood save in its top octave, which is properly of metal, the pipes 
there being too small to be conveniently made of wood. The wood 
pipes are constructed in all essentials similar to those of the DOPPEL- 
FLOTE (Pig. 13), with the exception of the stopper, which is per- 
forated as in the normal ROHRFLOTE (q. v.). 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. Owing to the perforation of the 
stoppers of its pipes, the tone of the DOPPELROHRFLOTE is brighter, 
lighter, and more open than that of the DOPPELFLOTE; and on this 
account is better adapted for combination with the tones of the 
softer lingual stops. This fact should incline the designer of a Con- 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 105 

cert-room Organ to place the DOPPELROHRFLOTE in the division 
devoted to the stops representing the wood-wind forces of the or- 
chestra. Placing the stop there, he will properly insert the fuller- 
toned DOPPELFLOTE in the First or Great Organ, where its good 
mixing voice will prove valuable in registration. The position of the 
stop, of either of its pitches, in the Church Organ will properly de- 
pend on the general tonal apportionment of the instrument. Ex- 
amples of the DOPPELROHRFLOTE of both 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitches are to 
be found in the Great of Mullet's Organ (1843) in the Catholic 
Church, at Katcher. Other examples, of both pitches, are inserted 
in the Echo of the Grand Organ in the Cathedral of St. John, Bres- 
lau.* The DOPPELROHRFLOTE, 4 FT. , is an octave stop having all the 
properties which render a labial stop of that pitch valuable in refined 
registration. It is both a good harmonic-corroborating and timbre- 
creating stop, the latter on account of its clear fluty voice. It can 
be properly associated with the DOPPELFLOTE, 8 FT., in any suitable 
division of the Organ; or, as in the instances given, with the unison 
stop of its own class. 

DOPPELROHRGEDECKT, Ger. While this term may be 
accepted as another name for the DOPPELROHRFLOTE (q. v.), the 
stops alluded to being similar in general formation while differing 
somewhat in scale proportion, the term may be properly applied to a 
stop, of 8 ft. pitch, yielding a fuller tone than either that stop or the 
DOPPELFLOTE. To produce this more assertive voice, the scale of 
the DOPPELROHRGEDECKT is larger than, and not so deep in propor- 
tion to width as are the scales of the other stops alluded to. In 
preference to duplicating the DOPPELFLOTE, it may, on the leading 
principle of tonal variety, be desirable to introduce the DOPPEL- 
ROHRGEDECKT, 8 FT., along with the DOPPELROHRFLOTE, 4 FT., in a 
contrasting division of the Organ. 

DOPPELSPITZFLOTE, Ger. As the name implies, this stop 
is a variation of the SPITZFLOTE (q. .) its pipes having double 
mouths. It has been made of metal and wood and of 8 ft. and 4 ft. 
pitch. An example, of the latter pitch and of wood, exists in the 
Echo of the Grand Organ in the Church of St. Mary Magdalene, 

* In our remarks on the formation of the DOPPELFLOTE, we mentioned the use of different 
hard woods in the construction of its pipes as displaying conscientious care on the part of Ger- 
man organ-builders. Here, again, we have similar evidence of this care, and examples of fine 
pipe-making. The DOPPELROHRFLSTES in the Organ in the Catholic Church, at Katcher, are 
chiefly of oak, pine "being used only in the treble of the 8 ft. stop. In the same stops in the Organ 
in the Cathedral of Breslau all the pipes are made of maple. When will such a commendable 
practice be followed by the organ-builders of this country? 



io6 ORGAN-STOPS 

Breslau. Wood was, in all probability, used on account of the con- 
venience it afforded, in the quadrangular pipes, for the formation 
of the double mouths. It is also probable that, as in the case of the 
other double-mouthed wood stops, the pipes of the DOPPELSPITZ- 
FLOTE were made of greater depth than width; a treatment which 
could not be applied to metal pipes. We are of opinion that very 
beautiful and valuable voices could be added to the Organ by stops 
of 1 6 ft. and 8 ft. pitch, of wood, of medium scale, and constructed 
in the pyramidal form of the DQPPELSPITZFLOTE. But we are afraid 
that the time and trouble such stops would entail, beyond what the 
construction and voicing of ordinary straight and single-mouthed 
wood stops call for, will effectually prevent organ-builders advocat- 
ing their introduction. 

DOUBLE BASSOON, The lingual stop of 16 ft. pitch, the tone 
of which imitates as closely as practicable that of the Double Bas- 
soon of the orchestra, the compass of which extends from BBBb to 
F, and, accordingly, covers the compass of the Pedal Organ, with the 
exception of the two top notes, to which department of the Organ 
the stop may be considered to properly belong. See BASSOON and 

CONTRAFAGOTTO. 

DOUBLE CLARINET. A lingual stop of 16 ft, pitch, the 
pipes of which are similar in formation to those of the unison CLARI- 
NET (q. v.). The stop was, so far as we can learn, first made by 
Wedlake, organ-builder, of London, in 1863, and inserted in an 
important Chamber Organ. Artistically voiced, and placed in an 
expressive division, the DOUBLE CLARINET would prove a valuable 
voice in the Concert-room Organ, affording a different tonal coloring 
from that of the DOUBLE BASSOON, 16 FT. It would also be valuable 
as a Pedal Organ stop, carrying down the manual CLARINETS. 

DOUBLE DIAPASON. The stop formed of large-scaled open 
cylindrical metal, or quadrangular wood, pipes, voiced to yield pure 
organ-tone. When introduced in a manual Organ it is of 16 ft. 
pitch, and when placed in the Pedal Organ it is of 32 ft. pitch. In 
almost all satisfactory examples of the manual stop the pipes are 
formed of metal throughout their compass. In all the finest existing 
examples the pipes are of tin or high-class alloy; their larger pipes 
being displayed in the cases, forming salient towers or other effec- 
tive features. A notable exception to this general and desirable 
rule is to be found in the remarkably fine stop, labeled SUB-PRINCI- 
PAL, 16 FT., in the Great of the Organ in St. Bartholomew's Church, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 107 

Armley, Yorkshire, which is formed of open wood pipes from CC to 
B, and of metal from C T to the top note. Though perfectly successful 
in this instance, such a method should not be ventured upon by any 
one less skilled than the master who made and voiced the Armley 
stop. 

The manual DOUBLE DIAPASON, 16 FT., has its pipes formed in 
all respects similar to those of the manual DIAPASON, 8 FT. (q. .), 
while its relative scale should be smaller; its tenor C (8 ft.) pipe 
being from two to four pipes less in scale than the CC (8 ft.) pipe of 
the unison stop. The voices of the respective stops should follow 
the same relative proportions. The tone of the double stop should 
never dominate that of the foundation unison stop. 

The DOUBLE DIAPASON, 32 FT., as introduced in the Pedal Organ, 
is formed throughout of either metal or wood; but on account of its 
great cost metal has been comparatively seldom used. In Organs of 
the first magnitude the stop exists in both materials complete, as in 
the Concert-room Organs in St. George's Hall, Liverpool, and the 
Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. The DOUBLE DIAPASON scale 
varies greatly in different metal stops : for instance, the CCCC pipe 
in the Liverpool Organ measures 25 inches in diameter; that in the 
Organ built by Walcker for the Music Hall, Boston, Mass., in 1863, 
was 22% inches in diameter; that in the Organ in the Monastery 
Church, at Weingarten, is about 15^ inches in diameter; and that 
in the celebrated Haarlem Organ is 15 inches in diameter. In the 
last named three Organs English tin was used for all the displayed 
pipes of the stop including those of which the diameters are given. 
The bottom octave of the stop in the Liverpool Organ is of thick zinc. 
Several stops having scales ranging between those just quoted are to 
be found in other important Organs. While it is not possible or 
desirable to lay down a hard and fast rule for general adoption in 
the scaling of this exceptional stop, we can strongly recommend the 
use of the moderate scales favored by the most advanced German 
and other Continental organ-builders. It is, however, quite safe to 
say that with proper voicing and a copious winding there can be no 
necessity to exceed the scale of the SUB-PRINCIPAL, 32 FT., of the 
Haarlem Organ. 

The Pedal Organ DOUBLE DIAPASON, 32 FT., formed of wood 
throughout is the prevailing form, and when properly scaled and 
voiced is all that can be desired in so grave a stop. It must be borne 
in mind that its office is not to disturb the unison fundamental tone 
of the Pedal Organ, but to enrich it by harmonic creation. As in 
the case of the metal stop, inordinate scales have been adopted with 



io8 



ORGAN -STOPS 



no appreciable advantage. One extreme example may be given: the 
DOUBLE DIAPASON, 32 FT., in the Organ in the Wanamaker Store in 
Philadelphia, Pa., has its CCCC pipe measuring internally 22% 
inches in width by 27^ inches in depth.* The Scales adopted by 
two of the most celebrated German builders may be safely accepted 
as the most desirable maximum and minimum ones for general use. 
The fine stop in the Organ, by Schulze, in St. Bartholomew's, Arm- 
ley, measures 14^ inches in width by i8J^ inches in depth. This 
scale is larger than that adopted by the same builder for his DOUBLE 
PRINCIPALS in the Organs in Bremen Cathedral and St. Mary's 
Church, Wismar, which measure 12 inches in width by 15 inches in 
depth. The equally distinguished builder Ladegast used a still 





FIG. 14 



smaller scale n % inches in width by 14*^ inches in depth for the 
32 ft. stop in his Organ in the Cathedral of Schwerin. We can speak 
from experience of the satisfactory character of a stop of a similar 
small scale in an Organ constructed to our Specification. As it is of 
more importance in so large and grave a stop that it should speak 
promptly and distinctly than that its exact timbre should be con- 
sidered, steps were taken by the German builders to secure this de- 
sirable result by the most effective means at their disposal, leading 
to the application of the harmonic-bridge. Different forms of the 
bridge were employed, which, by creating harmonic upper partial 
tones, added greatly to the clearness of speech and tonal value of 
the stop. The unique method in which the bridge was applied by 
Schulze, is shown at A in Pig. 14, which is a Section through the 

* This monster pipe called for in its construction over one thousand square feet of j inch 
sugar pine. It weighs 1,735 Ibs, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 109 

mouth of the largest pipe of the DOUBLE PRINCIPAL, 32 FT., in his 
Armley Organ. In Section B is shown the usual form and manner 
of applying the harmonic-bridge. The bridge . imparts not only 
prompter speech to the pipes but a string quality to their tones. 
This must have been sufficiently marked in the stop in the Schwerin 
Organ to decide Ladegast to label it VIOLON, 32 FT. 

^ In German Organs the DOUBLE DIAPASONS bear the more appro- 
priate names PRINZIPAL, 16 FT., PRINZIPALBASS, 16 FT. In the Pedal 
Organ they appear under the names PRINZIPALBASS, 32 FT., GROSS- 
PRINZIPAL, 32 FT., and GROSSPRINZIPALBASS, 32 FT. In French Or- 
gans the stops appear as: MONTRE, 16 FT. (when mounted in the 
case), PRINCIPAL BASSE, 16 FT. and 32 FT., CONTREBASSE, 16 FT., 
FLUTE OUVERTE, 16 FT. and 32 FT., and simply FLUTE, 32 FT. In 
Italian Organs the stops are commonly named PRINCIPALS BASSO, 
1 6 FT. and 32 FT. In Spanish Organs the usual name is FLAUTADO. 

DOUBLE DULCIANA The name properly employed to desig- 
nate a manual stop of 16 ft. pitch, formed in all respects similar 
to the unison DULCIANA. When correctly made and artistically 
voiced by a master-hand it yields a pure organ-tone of extreme 
beauty and refinement. It is greatly to be regretted that voices of 
this class are so much neglected by organ-builders and so little 
desired by organists; but these tacts may be accounted for by the 
modern and present craze for loud tones and high wind-pressures. 
Purity, refinement, and delicacy of intonation seem to be at a dis- 
count in the organ-building of to-day. The DOUBLE DULCIANA 
forms a perfect Double for the Choir Organ, especially should it be 
in an uninclosed division; and it is the most beautiful open stop of 
16 ft. for the Chamber Organ. On account of its small scale, it fur- 
nishes desirable display pipes, while its soft and beautiful tone favors 
such an exposed disposition. When inserted in the Pedal Organ, it 
is correctly labeled DULCIANA, 16 FT., being simply a unison stop in 
that department. In the Pedal Organ, a DOUBLE DULCIANA would 
be a small-scaled open metal stop of 32 ft. A DOUBLE DULCIANA, 
1 6 FT., exists in the Swell of the Organ in St. Mark's Church, St. 
John's Wood, London. For further particulars see CONTRA-DUL- 
CIANA and DULCIANA. 

DOUBLE MELODIA An open wood stop, of medium scale 
and of 1 6 ft. pitch, belonging to the manual department of the 
Organ. On account of the great length of the pipes in its lower 
octave, and especially when height is limited for its accommodation, 
the stop is usually formed of open pipes from tenor C (8 ft.) to the 



no ORGAN-STOPS 

top note; the bass octave being in LIEBLICHGEDECKT or some suit- 
able form of covered pipes, of soft tone, voiced to carry down as 
closely as possible that of the open pipes. The open pipes, like those 
of the unison MELODIA, have inverted mouths. A fine example of 
the DOUBLE MELODIA, 16 FT., exists in the Great (tower section) of 
the Organ in the Cathedral of the Incarnation, Garden City, Long 
Island, N. Y. See MELODIA. 

DOUBLE TROMBONE. The Pedal Organ lingual stop of 
32 ft. pitch, similar in all respects to the CONTRA-TROMBONE, 32 FT. 
(2- ) 

DOUBLE TRUMPET. The manual lingual stop of 16 ft. 
pitch, formed of metal pipes of the same construction, and voiced in 
the same manner, as the pipes of the unison TRUMPET, 8 FT., of 
which stop it is the true Sub-octave. It is the most appropriate and 
generally useful lingual stop of 16 ft. pitch for the Great Organ; 
forming with the TRUMPET, 8 FT., and CLARION, 4 FT., the complete 
family of the Trumpet-toned stops. To be of full value in combina- 
tion, the voice of the DOUBLE TRUMPET must be markedly sub- 
ordinate to that of the unison stop, so that it can be freely used 
without destroying the dominance of the unison tone of the TRUM- 
PET. This subordination also renders the DOUBLE TRUMPET ex- 
tremely valuable in general registration with the foundation stops 
of the Great Organ, and especially so if it is inclosed so as to be flex- 
ible and expressive. It may be accepted as an axiom that in proper 
organ-building and tonal appointment every lingual stop must be 
endowed with powers of flexibility and expression. Without such 
powers, lingual stops are practically valueless in solos and in refined 
and artistic registration. For particulars of formation, see TRUMPET. 

DOUBLETTE, Fr. In French Organs the DOUBLETTE is an 
open cylindrical metal stop of 2 ft. pitch, belonging to the harmonic- 
corroborating series of the manual foundation-work, properly yield- 
ing pure organ-tone.* The term is used by German and English 

* The following particulars, from the pen of a distinguished French authority on the Organ 
will be read with interest and profit by the Organist: 

"La DOUBLKTTK, ou simplemexit le deux-pieds, car c'est le ton de son plus grand tuyau.est 
par cette raison m&me la double octave du huit-pieds pris pour base g6ne>ale du ton d'orgue, 
puisque le huit-pieds, avons-nous dit f cst a 1'unisson de la voix commune de 1'hornnie. La dou- 
blette est done 1'octave du prcstant, ouvcrte comme lui, de taillc m6diocre commelui.etcomme 
lui detain fin. Cependant, la finesse cle l'6tain est g6n6ralement ne"glig6e, parce qutsl'exiguitd 
de diametre et de hauteur compense, ou est cens6e compenser le tranchant que donne la finesse 
du mc'tal. 

"Elle embrasse toute l'6tendue du clavier, parce que son harmonic sert de liaison entreles 
.ieux de mutation et les fonds, et donne aux jeux d'anches me"lang6s de jeux de fond un degr6 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION in 

organ-builders to designate a stop composed of two ranks of open 
metal pipes of different pitches. In the Organ in the Cathedral of 
Merseburg, a DOUBLETTE of 4 ft. and 2 ft. ranks is inserted in the 
Hauptwerk: and in the same Division of the Organ in the Refor- 
mirten Kirche, Elberfeld, there is one of 2% ft. and 2 ft. The 
DOUBLETTE is not a common stop in English Organs, but examples, 
of 2 ft. and i ft. ranks, exist in the Great and Swell of the Organ in 
St. George's Hall, Liverpool. We are strongly in favor of DOU- 
BLETTE s being made timbre-creating by their ranks being formed of 
pipes of contrasting tonalities: they would then belong to the tonal 
appointment of the entire Organ, not specially to its foundation- 
work, 

DRUMS. Ital., TIMPANI. Ger., PAUKEN. Drums were intro- 
duced in many old Organs, and were, in some cases, mounted on the 
case and mechanically beaten by figures of angels. After having 
long been classed among the curiosities of the organ-builders' art, 
Drums are again being introduced in Theater Organs and in a cer- 
tain type of Concert-room Organ. To what extent such accessories 
are desirable may be left to individual opinion: we would rather see 
them remain as obsolete curiosities, 

DUIFLOTE, Ger. The old and practically obsolete name for 
the double-mouthed, covered wood stop now known as the DOPPEL- 
FLOTE (q. v.). 

DULCET. An open metal labial stop of 4 ft. pitch. In its 
proper and most desirable form it is a DULCIANA OCTAVE, and has 
been sometimes called DULCIANA PRINCIPAL in English organ 
nomenclature. The pipes are of small scale, and formed and voiced 
in all respects similar to those of the unison DULCIANA, 8 FT. Its 
scale may properly vary according to the tonal apportionment of 
the division of the Organ in which it is placed: but when associated 
with the DULCIANA in any manual division its scale should be two 
or three pipes less, accordingly, the CC pipe of the DULCET, 4 FT., 

d'acuit6 particuliere, Cependant, quoique placee aux claviers de grand orgue et depositif, elle ne 
se trouve guere sur celui de r'ecil, ou ne ngurent que des jeux de solo, ni sur le clavier connu id. 
Paris surtout) sous le nom de clavier de bombardes. La doublette ne s'emploie guere seule que 
par accident, par exemple pour imiter 1'effet d'un sifflet adouci. Unie a la quarte de Nazard, 
qui est son unisson, elle siffle avec une grande vigueur. Melangee aux fonds de qua tre-pieds, elle 
y produit 1'effet semblable ; mais sit6t qu'on la mele aux huit-pieds, surtout sans y joindre comme 
transition le quatre-pieds, elle crie, siffle ou gemit desagreablement et fait perdre toute noblesse 
aux r6gistres de fonds. Cependant, j 'ai oul souvent la doublette, accouplee a un seul bourdon de 
seize, produire sous des doigts habiles et dans certains passages un effet singulier, que je n'oserais 
direagr6able, de peur de donner aux organistes mediocres 1'idee de 1'essayer; 1'effet ne serait pas 
le nifime." Regnier. 



112 ORGAN-STOPS 

would be of the same diameter as the D or D# pipe of the unison 
DULCIANA. The most desirable material for the stop is tin, and 
next to that Hoyt's Two-ply Pipe Metal, which lend themselves to 
the delicate manipulation necessary for the production of the light 
and singing "silvery tone," characteristic of the stop. The DULCET, 
4 FT., was introduced by Samuel Green (probably between 1780 and 
1790), when soft and refined organ-tones were appreciated by music 
lovers, and was used by him, in association with the DULCIANA, in 
certain of his Swell Organs under the name DULCFANA PRINCIPAL. 
Octave and Super-octave stops of the DULCET class are prac- 
tically unknown in modern Organs; the prevailing craze for high 
wind-pressures and the crude taste (or want of taste) for musical 
noise, having swept away such beautiful and winning voices. Or- 
ganists have to learn what tonal wonders lie in refined registration 
into which such voices enter with tonal effects absolutely unknown 
to them on the noisy Organs of fco-day. 

DULCIAN, DOLCIAN, Ger. The name given to a lingual stop 
yielding a soft tone, resembling that of the BASSOON, and of 8 ft. 
and 1 6 ft. pitch. It is formed with striking- and free-reeds, and with 
slender inverted conical and pyramidal resonators of metal and 
wood. Examples are found, in either of the pitches, in different 
divisions of the Organ. The DULCIAN, 8 FT., exists in the Echo of 
the celebrated Haarlem Organ ; and in the Pedal of the Organ in the 
Evangelical Church, Minister. The DULCIAN, 16 FT., is introduced 
in the Oberwerk of the Organ in the Cathedral of Konigsberg; in the 
Pernwerk (Third Clavier) of the Organ in St Petri-Kirche, Berlin; 
in the Rtickpositiv of the Organ in St. Catherine's Church, Ham- 
burg; as a free-reed stop, in the Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral 
of Merseburg; and in the Piano Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral 
of Schwerin, where it is a free-reed furnished with resonators of wood. 

DULCIANA. A stop formed of open labial pipes of cylindri- 
cal form and small scale, of 8 ft. pitch in the manual Organs and 
1 6 ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ, The stop appears to have been in- 
troduced for the first time by John Snetzler in the Organ he built in 
t754, under the direction of the distinguished Dr. Burney, for the 
Church of St. Margaret, Lynn Regis, Norfolk, liver since then the 
DULCIANA has been a great favorite with English organ-builders, 
and numerous beautiful examples exist in English Organs, We have 
not been able to find the DULCIANA, 8 FT., in its true form in any 
French Organ; and neither it, nor any equivalent under another 
name, is mentioned by Rcgnier, We find a DOLCIANE, 8 FT., in the 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 113 

Rcit of the Chamber Organ built for the late Alexandre Guilmant 
by Mutin, of Paris : this was in all probability suggested by the Eng- 
lish stop, with which M. Guilmant was familiar. On the other hand, 
however, we find an octave stop, labeled DULCIANA, 4 FT., in several 
important Organs; for instance, in the Recit of the Organ in the 
Church of Saint-Sulpice, and in the Bombarde of the Organ in the 
Church of Saint-Eustache, Paris. We have not been able to find 
any trace of the DULCIANA in connection with old German Organs; 
but it appears, invariably on the First Clavier (Hauptwerk), in 
several of Walcker's large Organs, as in those in the Cathedral of 
Riga, and St. Petrikirche, Liibeck. 

FORMATION AND SCALE The pipes of the DULCIANA are cylindrical and 
formed similar to those of the DIAPASON, 8 FT., of which it is, strictly considered, 
the proper diminutive. Its scale being small and its voice having to be extremely 
clear and perfectly uniform in tone, the pipes must be carefully made of tin or 
high-class metal. The scale of the true DULCIANA, 8 FT., varies slightly, according 
to the class of Organ for which it is designed, the position it is to occupy in the 
Organ, and the acoustical conditions under which it has to be heard. In so delicate 
and sensitive a stop as the true English DULCIANA every condition should be 
carefully considered affecting its scaling and voicing. The following scales, in two 
desirable ratios, will be found, with careful formation and artistic voicing of the 
pipes, to produce satisfactory results under favorable conditions: 

DULCIANA PIPE DIAMETERS IN INCHES, RATIO 1:2.519. 

PIPES CC C c 1 c 2 c^ c4 

I. 3.25 2.05 1.29 0.81 0.51 0.32 

II. 3-38 2.13 1.34 0.84 0.53 0.33 

DULCIANA PIPE DIAMETERS IN INCHES, RATIO 1:2.66. 

PIPES CC C c 1 c 2 c3 c4 

I. 3.34 2.05 1.25 0.77 0.47 0.29 

II. 3.48 2.13 1.31 0.80 0.49 0.30 

The smaller scales to the ratio i : 2.519 give a comparatively full treble; while 
tnose to the quicker ratio 1 : 2.66 keep the lower octaves comparatively full toned. 
The selection made by the tonal artist will, or should, depend on the special stop- 
appointment of the division of the Organ in which the DULCIANA is to be placed. 
In the tradesman organ-building of to-day, and the general don't-careism on the 
part of organists, such considerations of tonal propriety and refinement are either 
not realized or are ignored. When will the organist arise who will gloat over the 
beauties of his glorious instrument, as the violinist gloats over the wonders of his 
Stradivarius? The width of the mouth of the DULCIANA pipe should not exceed 
one-fifth the internal circumference, while, except in a stop intended for a true 
Chamber Organ, it should rarely be less. The height of the mouth may vary from 
one-fifth to one-third its width, according to the method of the voicer, the wind- 
pressure employed, and the character of the tone desired. The mouths of all the 
pipes, except, perhaps, those of the top octave, should be furnished with ears of 



ri4 ORGAN-STOPS 

slight projection, aiding clean articulation. On no account arc the pipes to tc 
slotted for tuning if the true tone of the DULCIANA is desired. The larger pipey 
should be furnished with tuning-slides, as recommended for the DIAPASON, This 
expedient will prevent the pipes being injured by repeated tuning with the cones ; 
and will secure uniformity in their voices, their open tops remaining at all times of 
the correct internal diameters. Such matters as these should be attended to by 
the organ expert in his Specifications. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The true English DULCIANA has a 
pure organ-tone of a sweet singing, silvery, quality a tone seldom 
heard in Organs built during late years. To ears vitiated by con- 
stant association with powerful and more or less coarse musical 
sounds the product of inordinate wind-pressures- such refined 
tones as those of the DULCIANA, in their purity, seem poor and in- 
sipid; accordingly, voicers proceed to improve the stop by what they 
call giving it color; removing it from its proper and time-honored 
place in the tonal appointment of the Organ, and throwing it among 
the SALICIONALS and quasi string-toned stops. The DULCIANA is 
either a DULCIANA or it is not one; and every voicer should be re- 
quested to remember that important fact, and, at the same time, 
asked to improve his overblown labial and lingual stops, leaving the 
DULCIANA queen of the soft organ-toned cantabile group. 

The place for the DULCIANA, 8 FT., is in the Choir or chief accom- 
panimental division of the Church Organ; certainly not in the Great 
(or Hauptwerk) where Walckor has invariably placed it. In the 
Concert-room Organ its proper position is in the softest-toned divi- 
sion, whatever it may be. In such approved situations it will prove 
most valuable in registration, furnishing a foundation or background 
for numerous combinations of tone-colors. Its reposeful and can- 
tabile voice renders it of great use in quiet solo effects; and in giving 
body to combinations of special tones without in any marked manner 
affecting their normal character. In registration with soft-toned 
open, covered, and half-covered FLUTES, 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch; with 
delicately voiced string-toned stops; with the more refined lingual 
stops; and with its Octave, the CCELKSTINA, 4 FT., and such a com- 
pound stop as DULCIANA CORNET, or, better still, the HARMONIA- 
^ETHERIA, the DULCIANA contributes to the production of numerous 
compound tones of great beauty, refinement, and charm, Let not 
the true DULCIANA disappear from the Organ. 

DULCIANA CORNET. The compound harmonic-corroborat- 
ing stop, commonly formed of five ranks of high-pitched DULCIANA 
pipes; yielding delicate silvery tones, representing the higher upper 
partials of the prime unison, suitable for combination with the softer 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 115 

labial and lingual voices of the Organ, and, accordingly, entering 
into countless tonal combinations into which the ordinary full-toned 
MIXTURES could not possibly be introduced. The stop has been 
formed of octave- and fifth-sounding ranks, and also of octave-, 
third-, and fifth-sounding ranks, in all cases, owing to their high 
pitch, requiring several breaks in their compass. The following is 
the composition of an example of proved excellence under all tests 
in combination and artistic registration: 



DULCIANA CORNET V. RANKS. 
B 

to b 



C t0 B 12 15 1 7 10 22. 



8 12 1; 19 22. 

This stop carefully regulated and graduated in tone in strict 
accordance with the natural laws of compound musical sounds, 
becomes one of the most useful agents in the building up of expres- 
sive tonal structures of a refined and fascinating character. It is so 
sympathetic that it can be used with a single DULCIANA or any soft 
unison stop in the Organ. The DULCIANA CORNET or some equiva- 
lent, should be introduced in every Organ of any importance ; and 
it should be the only compound stop in the true Chamber Organ. 

DULCIANA PRINCIPAL. The term employed by Samuel 
Green, organ-builder to King George the Third (1780-1796), to 
designate, according to the English nomenclature, a stop of 4 ft. 
pitch and of the DULCIANA class : what would now be more correctly 
called DULCIANA OCTAVE. It has been said: ''The organs built by 
Green are characterized by a peculiar sweetness and delicacy of tone, 
entirely original; and, probably, in this respect he has never been 
excelled." It is to be hoped that the mantle of Green will some day 
fall on the shoulders of one of the aspiring organ-builders of the 
twentieth century. 

DULCIMER. The name given by Thomas Schwarbrook to a 
stop, composed of metal strings, inserted in the Organ erected by 
him, in 1733, in the Church of St. Michael, Coventry. It was, in all 
probability, sounded by a hammer action, as the real Dulcimer was 
played. Respecting this notable Organ, Dr. Rimbault remarks; 
" This noble instrument (Schwarbrook's masterpiece) cost 1400. 
It originally contained three remarkable stops the HARP, LUTE; 
and DULCIMER; but, in consequence of the 'difficulty of keeping the 
strings in tune/ they were removed in 1763." 



ORGAN-STOPS 

DUOPHONE. The name given by G. W. Till, of Philadelphia, 
to an open labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, recently invented by him; the 
pipes of which are of wood, having inclined sides, and mouths fur- 
nished with metal upper lips and cylindrical harmonic-bridges.* 
The tone of the stop is dual, the prime tone and its first upper partial 
being produced in almost equal volume, and is remarkable on ac- 
count of its penetrating and traveling quality without undesirable 
loudness. 

E 

ECHO BOURDON. A BOURDON, 16 FT., of small scale and 
soft intonation, the pipes of which are of wood, preferably of oak or 
maple, finished as thin as conditions will permit, and otherwise con- 
structed like the ordinary BOURDON. This stop differs from the 
I ;EBLICHGEDECKT in its tone, chiefly on account of the different 
proportions and treatment of the mouths of its pipes, and, accord- 
ingly, in a special style of voicing. The best tone is obtained on 
wind of low pressure, between I J^ and 2 J/o inches. The stop may be 
considered the English equivalent of the German BOURDONECHO, 
and is an ideal stop for the true Chamber Organ. 

ECHO DIAPASON. The appropriate name for a pure organ- 
toned unison stop, the scale of which is midway between that of the 
full-toned DIAPASON, 8 FT., and that of the true DULCIANA, and tlK 
voice of which i* also a medium one, Such a medium stop is ex- 
tremely valuable in certain divisional tonal apportionments, fur- 
nishing foundation organ-tone commensurate with the requirements 
of the divisions, 

The pipes of the ECHO DIAPASON are formed precisely as those of 
the foundation DIAPASON; their only difference lying in the subdued 
character of their tones largely due to their being voiced on wind of 
low pressure not exceeding 2% inches, but preferably less. The 
following scale is suitable for the stop ; 

ECHO DIAPASON PIPJB DIAMETERS IN INCHES, RATIO 1:2.66. 

PIPES CC C e* c 9 c* c* 

4.82 2.95 1,81 i. ii 0,68 0.42 

The mouth, in width, should not exceed two-ninths of the inter- 

* For full particulars and drawings of thif, stop, See " The Organ of the Twentieth Century, 
^w,oa 109*451-2, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 117 

nal circumference of the pipe, and should be cut up only sufficient to 
produce the pure organ-tone required. The upper lip must not be 
leathered; and the pipes must not be slotted for tuning. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. Like all unison stops yielding pure 
organ-tone, the ECHO DIAPASON furnishes a foundation or back- 
ground for fine effects of tonal coloring, to which it gives richness 
and neutral body. The delicate tone of this stop is extremely recep- 
tive and lends itself to the most refined nuances and effects of tonal 
light and shade. It combines perfectly with all the softer tonal 
colors that can be thrown upon it by the contrasting voices of labial 
and lingual stops; in this direction resembling the still softer and 
equally pure-voiced DULCIANA (q. .). 

ECHO DULCIANA. A small-scaled, open, metal stop, of 8 ft. 
pitch, the pipes of which are formed similar in all respects to those 
of the English DULCIANA, of which stop it is the proper diminutive 
in scale and tone. It may be said to occupy an intermediate posi- 
tion between the DULCIANA and the Vox ANGELICA, 8 FT., when 
these stops are properly related. It should have a pure organ-tone 
of a cantabile character, rendering it peculiarly suitable for the 
softest division of the true Chamber Organ. The following scale 
may be accepted as suitable for the stop, relative to the scales given 
for the DULCIANA (q. .), ratio 1 : 2.66: 

ECHO DULCIANA PIPE DIAMETERS IN INCHES, RATIO 1:2.66. 
PIPES CC C c 1 c a c* c4 

2.84 1.74 i. 06 0.65 0.40 0.24 

The width of the mouth should not exceed one-fifth the internal 
circumference of the pipe; while its height may vary from one-fifth 
to one-third its width, according to the wind-pressure employed, 
the volume of the tone desired, and the special method of voicing 
followed. 

REGISTRATION. As the ECHO DULCIANA yields a tone which is 
properly a diminutive of that of the DULCIANA, its offices in regis- 
tration are practically similar with regard to the stops of soft tonal- 
ity suitable for combination, and, accordingly, reference may be 
made to the remarks under DULCIANA. As a single echo voice this 
stop is the most desirable in the Organ. It completes the family, 
which stands thus : DULCIANA, 8 FT. ; ECHO DULCIANA, 8 FT. ; DUL- 
CET, 4 FT. ; and DULCIANA CORNET, V. RANKS. 

ECHOFLOTE, Ger. The name that has been used to designate 
an extremely soft flute-toned stop of 8 ft. or 4 ft. pitch, commonly 



H8 ORGAN-STOPS 

of wood and covered or half-covered, made still softer by inclosure 
in a box. Sometimes the stop has been simply labeled ECHO; and 
Locher remarks : "When this word alone appears on a draw-stop 
knob, it indicates an exceedingly soft, flute-like stop, which is often 
placed in a swell-box, separate from the main body of the Organ." 
On the same single term, Seidel says: "A simple Echo consists of a 
single flute-toned register of soft intonation' which stands behind the 
Organ, and receives its wind through long conveyances. A com- 
pound Echo consists of several stops, standing behind the Organ in a 
separate box, the inside of which is lined with felt or cloth, so that 
if this Echo-work is played upon, the tones will seem to come from 
without the church. The Echo often contains also a MIXTURE, for 
instance a CORNETT, which is then called the ECHO-CORNETT," 

ECHO GAMBA. The name found in certain English Organs, 
designating a stop of the GAMBA class yielding a soft and somewhat 
cold string-tone. An example, of 8 ft. pitch, exists in the Swell of 
the Organ in York Minster, It is usually made of small-scaled metal 
pipes from tenor C, the bass octave being added, very inappro- 
priately, in covered wood pipes, as in the Organs in St, Saviour's 
Church, Eastbourne, and All Saints' Church, Wokingharn. In its 
original tonality the stop is of little interest or value. 

ECHO OBOE. The name given by Edmund Schulzc, organ- 
builder, of Paulinzclle, to an open wood labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, 
invented by him, the pipes of which are of small scale and about 
twice their width in depth* The mouth is furnished with a small, 
snaip-edged harmonic-bridge, which rests on a sunk and sloped 
cap; the edge of the cap at the wind-way is thin; and the upper lip 
is cut sharp.* The voice of the stop is a peculiar compound of reed- 
tone and string-tone, and is singularly delicate and pleasing, though 
not highly suggestive of that of the Oboe of the orchestra. A beau- 
tiful example, made by Schutee, exists in the Echo of the Organ in 
St. Bartholomew's Church, Armley, Yorkshire: it is of tenor C 
compass, being grooved into the bass of the Vox ANGELICA, 8 FT. 
Another fine example, by Abbott & Smith, of Leeds, exists in the 
Echo of the Organ in the Parish Church of Leeds, Both these re- 
markable stops speak on wind of i l /i inches pressure. 

ENGELSTIMMB, Ger. The name originally given to a lingual 
stop of the Vox HUMANA class; and subsequently to a stop also 

* A full description and drawings of the Ecuo OBOIS arc given in our work, " The Art of Organ. 
Building/' Vol. II., pp. 481-48** 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 119 

called Vox ANGELICA ( 2 . v.). Of the stop Seidel remarks: "ANGEL- 
ICA (vox), die ENGELSTIMME, ein angenehmes, aber jetzt veraltetes 
Rohrwerk zu 8'. Es geht nur durch die oberen Oktaven vom ein- 
gestr. c an. Dieses Register scheint eine fruhere Art der Vox HU- 
MANA zu sein." 

ENGLISH HORN. Ger., ENGLISCH HORN. FT., COR ANGLAIS. 
Ital, CORNO INGLESE. This stop derives its name from the orches- 
tral instrument, which is a reed of the Oboe family, having a com- 
pass extending from tenor E two octaves and a fifth. Accordingly, 
the stop need not be carried below tenor C; but, as incomplete stops 
are undesirable in a properly appointed Organ, it is proper to insert 
it, as a stop of 8 ft. pitch, of the full compass. For further particu- 
lars see COR ANGLAIS. 

ENGPRINZIPAL, Ger. (fromeng narrow). The name which 
has been sometimes used by the old German organ-builders to desi fe 
nate a PRINCIPAL, 8 FT., of small scale and soft intonation, so as to 
distinguish it from the foundation PRINCIPAL of full scale and tone. 

ERZAHLER, Ger. The name given by Ernest M. Skinner, 
organ-builder, of Boston, to an open metal labial &top, of 8 ft. pitch, 
introduced by him in 1904. The ERZAHLER pipe is similar to that 
of the GEMSHORN in being conical in form; but differing from it in 
having the diameter of its top opening only one-fourth of the dia- 
meter at its mouth line, in being slotted near the top, and having a 
mouth width equal only to one-fifth of the larger circumference of 
the body. 

The tone of the stop is compound and singularly bright; this is 
due to the octave being distinctly produced in combination with the 
unison or prime tone. In addition to this there is a peculiarity in the 
tone which suggested the somewhat fanciful name to the introducer 
of the stop. Examples exist in several Skinner Organs. 

EUPHONE, EUPHONIUM. Fr., Eupn6NE. Ger., EUPHON. 
The name derived from the Greek word so^ovoq, and properly 
given to a lingual stop, the tone of which is intended to imitate that 
of the brass instrument of the same name, a member of the Saxhorn 
family, the compass of which is a little over three octaves from CC. 
The stop is, accordingly and properly, of 8 ft. pitch, extending, in 
keeping with the Euphonium, over the richest portion of the manual 
compass of the Organ, but necessarily carried through the higher two 
octaves. Fine stops of the same tonality and 16 ft. pitch have been 
made, and these are, perhaps, the more valuable. A EUPHON, 8 FT., 



I2O 



ORGAN-STOPS 




exists on the First Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of Riga: 
and representative examples of the stop of 16 ft. pitch exist in the 
Roosevelt Organs in the Cathedral of Garden City, L. I., and the 
Auditorium, at Chicago. All are free-reed stops, 

FORMATION, The EUPHONE as made by German 
and French organ-builders arc invariably free-reca 
stops, and their tones are smooth and pleasing. Differ- 
ent forms of resonators have been devised for the pur- 
pose of producing the desired tone, some of very pec- 
uliar form, but those most approved are cither of the 
plain inverted conical form, shorter and of smaller 
scale than those used for the TRUMPET, as adopted 
by Roosevelt; or of the same form surmounted by 
some contracting or shading device, preferably a short 
truncated cone, as shown at the top of the resonator IP 
the drawing of the complete pipe, 2, Fig. 1 5. In other, 
and less effective, examples the inverted conical res- 
onators are closed at top and slotted for the emission 
of wind and sound. The drawings in Fig. 15 are 
accurately made to scale from a C (4 ft. pitch) pipe 
constructed by the well-known German organ-pipe 
maker, August Luakhuff. All free-reed pipes re- 
quire for their prompt and satisfactory speech large 
boots; and this is shown in the Section i, which also 
shows the free-reed, the block in which it is inserted, 
and the tuning- wire. The length of the boot is 13^4 
inches, while the entire length of the resonator is only 
25 Ji inches. The largest diameter of the resonator 
is 2 7 / H inches, and that of the opening at top i J^ 
inches. The length of the tongue is 2.25 inches and 
its width 0,27 inch. 



TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tones 
produced by the several stops, of different 
formation, that have been named EUPHONE 
have varied greatly. It appears that in the 
first and earlier forms no attempt was made 
to imitate the voice of any particular wind 
instrument. The first stop to which the name 
appears to have been given was that inserted 
in the Organ of the Cathedral of Beauvais, 
FIG. 15 in 1829. During the following year, Sebas- 

tian Erard inserted aEuPudNK, as an expres- 
sive free-reed, in the Organ of the Royal Chapel of the Tuileries, 
Paris. Regarding the tones of these stops nothing is clearly known, 
but, judging from the peculiar forms of their resonators, which were 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 121 

short, covered, and slotted, their tones must have been somewhat 
muffled and probably inclining toward the Bassoon quality. The 
tones of the later examples, such as those made by Roosevelt, Luak- 
huff, Zimmermann of Paris, and others, are open, smooth, and full; 
but not strongly resembling those of the Euphonium.* 

A soft, full tone, imitative of that of the Euphonium played by 
a master, is greatly to be desired in the Organ; but, like that of the 
orchestral Horn, it seems almost impossible to obtain it from lingual 
pipes. It might, however, be produced by a dual stop, formed by 
the artistic combination of a labial and a lingual rank of pipes. 
Such a stop would be very valuable in impressive solos; just as the 
Euphonium is par excellence a solo instrument: and one can easily 
realize that it would also be extremely valuable in refined registra- 
tion, especially in its proper 8 ft. pitch. In its 16 ft. pitch it would 
be an important addition to the expressive forces of the Pedal 
Organ. 



FAGOTTO, Ital A lingual stop, of small scale, and 8 ft. pitch, 
voiced to yield a tone imitative of that of the orchestral instrument 
of the same name. See BASSOON. 

FAGOTTONE, Ital. This term, which has the Italian aug- 
mentative ending, has been used to designate a lingual stop of the 
FAGOTTO family, properly of 32 ft. pitch, and of a full and impressive 
voice. It is a Pedal Organ stop, and practically carries down the 
voice of the CONTRAFAGOTTO, 16 FT., an octave lower. It has, how- 
ever, no equivalent in the orchestra. An example exists in the. Organ 
of the Church of San Alessandro, Milan. The name has also been 
given to stops of 16 ft. pitch, the scales of which are larger and the 
voices fuller than those of the imitative CONTRAFAGOTTO. An 
example exists in the Swell of the principal Organ in the Cathedral 
of Como. 

FELDFLOTE, FELDPFEIFE, FELDPIPE, Ger. Lat., FIS- 
TULA MILITARIS. An open labial stop, of a penetrating flute- or 
fife-tone, hence its names. It has been made by German organ- 
builders, according to Schneider (Organist of the Cathedral of 
Merseburg, 1835), of metal and wood, and of 4 ft., 2 ft., and i ft. 

* The beautiful stop made by Roosevelt for our Chamber Organ, and named by him Eu- 
PHONE, had a voice which seemed to incline so much, in its higher compass, to the tone of the 
Bass Saxophone that we labeled it CONTRA-SAXOPHONE, 16 FT. 



122 ORGAN-STOPS 

pitch. Owing to its very assertive voice, the stop seems never to 
have been a favorite, and it does not appear in modern German 
Organs. Organs of every class are better without high-pitched 
screaming voices; and one can understand the disappearance of the 
FELDFLOTES of 2 ft. and i ft. pitch. 

FERNFLOTE, Ger. Literally Distant or Echo Flute. Prop- 
erly applied, this name indicates a small-scaled labial stop of 8 ft. 
and 4 ft. pitch, yielding the softest flute-tone produced by organ- 
pipes; but the name has been applied to softly- voiced stops of differ- 
ent classes, and both of wood and metal, open and covered. In the 
Organ in the Church of St. Mary, Tyne Dock, constructed by Ed- 
mund Schulze, the PERNFLOTE, 8 FT., is in the form of an extremely 
soft SPITZFLOTE. 

FERNHORN, Ger. Literally Distant or Echo Horn. The 
name that has been given to a half-covered labial stop of metal and 
of 8 ft. pitch. It is practically an ECHO NACHTHORN. The stop 
would be suitable for the true Chamber Organ, and for a soft an- 
cillary division of a properly appointed Concert-room Organ. It 
should be voiced on wind of a pressure not exceeding 2% inches. 

FIFE. Fr., FIFRE. Ger., PFEIFE. An open metal labial stop 
of 2 ft. or i ft. pitch, yielding a shrill flute-tone, resembling that of 
the military Fife, the compass of which extends about two octaves 
from d 2 . As an organ-stop l the FIFE, 2 FT., differs from the PICCOLO, 
2 FT., only in the character and loudness of its voice. The latter 
stop is much to be preferred; accordingly the FIFE is seldom met 
with. An example of the FIFRE, i FT., as made by the French build- 
ers, and of comparatively soft tonality, exists in the Postif of the 
Organ in the Cathedral of Abbeville. It is not a desirable stop for 
the Organ of to-day. 

FIFFARO, Ger. The name sometimes given by the old German 
organ-builders to a stop, the voice of which imitated that of the or- 
chestral Flute. Schneider thus briefly describes it: " FIFFARO, 
QUEERPFEIFE, eine kleine Stimme von 4 oder 2 Fuss. " See QUER- 

FLOTE. 

FIFTEENTH, SUPER-OCTAVE. The names used to desig- 
nate open, metal labial stops, yielding pure organ-tone, and sounding 
two octaves above the unisons. Accordingly, in the aianual divi- 
sions the FIFTEENTH is of 2 ft. pitch, and in the Pedal Organ of 4 ft. 
pitch. The stop belongs to the foundation-work of the Organ, rep- 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 123 

resenting the third upper partial tone of the prime unison of the 
department in which it is placed. Its scale is, accordingly and 
properly, calculated from that of the foundation DIAPASON or PRIN- 
CIPAL, 8 ft. or 1 6 ft., being usually made two or three pipes less in 
diameter; the voicer taking care of the necessary reduction in the 
strength of tone. The old English organ-builders, including Ber- 
nard Smith, of Temple Church fame (1684), and John Harris, made 
their FIFTEENTHS only one pipe less in scale than the corresponding 
pipes of their DIAPASONS, simply voicing them softer than the in- 
termediate OCTAVES, 4 FT. In modern Organs, as a rule, the FIF- 
TEENTH, 2 FT., is made of too large a scale, and voiced much too 
assertive in tone; builders, desiring to get as much sound as possible 
out of the pipes, overlooking the scientific side of the matter, and 
the fact that the true office of the stop is primarily a harmonic-cor- 
roborating one, and that it should be treated as such in the tonal 
appointment of the Organ. In proportionate strength, the tone of 
the FIFTEENTH should be about 50% that yielded by the fundamen- 
tal DIAPASON, and be clear and singing in quality. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the FIFTEENTH, 2 FT., 
being of the pure organ class, as required by its primal office in the 
tonal structure of the Organ, proves to be of considerable value in 
registration, especially so when of the proper relative strength, as 
recommended above. Its pure organ-tone practically free from 
harmonics blends perfectly with every other tone produced by 
organ-pipes, labial and lingual; imparting the elements of clearness 
and brilliancy to the heavier and duller tones of many unison and 
double stops, without sensibly impairing their characteristic voices. 
This is surely a valuable property and one to be made much use of 
in artistic registration. Of course, to be of maximum value, the 
FIFTEENTH must be voiced to the proper strength of tone, as stated 
above. 

FIFTH, QUINT. Fr. and Ger., QUINTE. Ital, QUINTA. 

The name properly applied to a stop the voice of which is at the in- 
terval of a perfect fifth above the unison. In the Pedal Organ the 
FIFTH is of 10% ft. pitch, and in the manual divisions it is of 5^ ft. 
pitch. These stops, under different qualifications, may be of metal 
or wood, and open, covered, or half-covered. See QUINT. 

FLACHFLOTE, Ger. The name given to a labial stop of 8 ft., 
4 ft., or 2 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are of metal or wood, and 
either conical or of the same measurement throughout, according 
to the fancy of the builder and the quality of the tone desired. 



124 ORGAN-STOPS 

According to Wolfram the stop resembles the GEMSHORN and 
SPITZFLOTE.* Seidel describes its tone as somewhat thin but not 
disagreeable, f In his illustration, the FLACHFLOTE pipe is shown 
cylindrical, terminating in a truncated cone having a small opening 
at top, closely resembling the SPINDEFLOTE pipe. The mouth is 
shown very narrow; but as the illustration is badly drawn this detail 
cannot be depended on. Although the stop seems to have usually 
been made of metal, there is one, of 4 ft. pitch, made of pear-tree 
(Birmbaumholz) in the Organ of the Church of St. Boniface, at 
Langensalza. It would seem probable, from the name, which means 
Flat Flute, that the original FLACHFLOTE was made of wood, its pipes 
being flat in form, with the mouth on a wider side. Under other 
conditions the name would seem meaningless; and German organ- 
builders generally had some sensible reasons for naming their stops. 
It would be well if such a practice obtained here to-day; for some 
names, having no relation to form or tone, which have appeared in 
certain stop lists of late, if they were not objectionable in their ab- 
surdity, would be only laughable. 

FLAGEOLET. Ger. } FLAGEOLETT. Ital, FLAGEOLETTA. 
Span., FLAUTIM. Lat., FISTULA MINIMA. A metal labial stop of 
2 ft. and I ft. pitch, the pipes of which are cylindrical in form and of 
a medium scale. The proper tone of the stop is liquid, clear, and 
somewhat penetrating, in imitation of the voice of the old English 
Flageolet, the instrument for which it is generally understood Han- 
del wrote the obbligato in the song, "0 ruddier than the cherry" 
("Acis and Galatea"). In some English Organs the FLAGEOLET, 
2 FT., is a wood stop, of small scale, and a clear fluty voice. The 
metal stop appears in several German and Dutch Organs in both 
pitches. Of 2 ft. pitch, the FLAGEOLET exists in the Organs of the 
Cathedral of Magdeburg, and the State Church, Triebel : and of I ft. 
pitch in the Organs in the Marienkirche, Liibeck, and the Church of 
St. Stephen, Nymengen. In the celebrated Haarlem Organ the stop 
appears in the Echo of I }4 ft. pitch. A FLAGEOLET, 2 FT. , is inserted 
in the Swell of the Roosevelt Organ in the Cathedral of the Incarna- 
tion, Garden City, L. I. ; but it is rarely inserted in modern Organs. 

*" FLACHFLSTE, eine offene sehr angenehme P16tenstimme 4 oder 8 Fuss mit kegelfdrmigen 
K5rpern. Sie erhalt breite Labien rait engem Auf schnitt, und ist ubrigens dem GEMSHORN und 
der SpmFLtfTE ahnlich." Wolfram. 

t" FLACHFLOTE ist eine Labialstimme, deren Pf eif en nach Art des GEMSHORNS spitz zulauf en 
Die Pfeif en haben breite Labien, einen weiten Aufschnitt und Seitenbarte, daher ist der Ton der 
Stimme nichtvoll.sondern nach, ubrigens geradenicht unangenehm. Sie wirdzu 8, 4, 2, und i' 
und zwar konisch und cylindrisch zugleich angetroffen, die 8- und 4 fussige heisst zuweilcn 
GROSSFLACHFLQTE. "Seidel. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 125 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The position of the FLAGEOLET, in 
the tonal economy of the Organ, is somewhat undecided; but as a 
stop of 2 ft. pitch, having a pure flute-tone of less power than that 
of the ORCHESTRAL PICCOLO, 2 FT., it would unquestionably prove a 
valuable addition to an Organ, properly occupying a place in a 
manual division to which the softer-toned accompaniment al stops 
are apportioned. Voiced to imitate as closely as possible the tone 
of the true Flageolet, it would become the best stop of super-octave 
pitch for a solo or an accompanimental obbligato, just as the Flageo- 
let was employed by Handel in ' ' Acis and Galatea. ' ' In registration, 
it would be found more generally useful than either the FIFTEENTH 
or the ORCHESTRAL PICCOLO; both of which are too assertive in any 
combinations save those of full tonality. 

FLAGEOLET HARMONIQUE, Fr. An open metal labial 
stop, yielding a bright tone, closely resembling that of the true 
Flageolet. Its pipes are cylindrical, of medium scale, and double 
the standard speaking length; and have the perforation in their 
bodies, as usual in harmonic pipes. See FLUTE HARMONIQUE. A 
FLAGEOLET HARMONIQUE, 2 FT., appears in the Postif of the Grand 
Organ in the Royal Church of Saint-Denis, constructed by MM. 
Cavaill6-Coll, in 1841. 

FLAUTADA, Span. The name applied by Spanish organ- 
builders to open lingual stops yielding flute- and organ-tone. Thus : 
FLAUTADA DE 13 signifies a FLUTE or PRINCIPAL, 8 FT.; FLAUTADA 
DE 26 signifies a FLUTE or DOUBLE DIAPASON, 16 FT.; and FLAU- 
TADA DE 52, the stop belonging to the Pedal Organ, is in all essen- 
tials similar to the DOUBLE DIAPASON, 32 FT. Examples are to be 
found in the Organs of the Cathedrals of Burgos, Seville, and Valla- 
dolid. and also in other important Spanish instruments. 

FLAUTINO, Ital. This word, terminating in the Italian dim- 
inutive, mo, is employed to designate a flute-toned stop of small 
size. In its best form, it is an open metal stop of 2 ft, pitch, formed 
of cylindrical pipes of small scale, voiced to yield a flute-tone softer 
than that of the proper FLAGEOLET, 2 FT. Examples exist in the 
Organs in the Cathedral of Milan and the Church of San Gsetano, 
Florence. In the Choir of the Organ in the Jesuit's Church, at 
Cologne, is a FLAUTINO of 4 ft. pitch. In modern Organs the name 
should be given only to the stop of 2 ft. pitch. The stop has been 
frequently and incorrectly labeled FLAUTINA. 

REGISTRATION. The FLAUTINO, 2 FT., when properly voiced is 



126 ORGAN-STOPS 

a very valuable stop; and being so closely allied to the FLAGEOLET, 
of the same pitch, in tonality it can be used instead of that stop in 
artistic registration. In this direction reference may be made to the 
remarks under FLAGEOLET. 

FLAUTO AMABILE, Ital. The suggestive name given to a 
small-scaled labial stop, of either 8 ft. or 4 ft. pitch, properly con- 
structed of open wo'od pipes, yielding an extremely delicate and 
sweet unimitative flute-tone. In its best form, its pipes are slender, 
about one and a half times their width in depth, and have inverted 
mouths. The pipes should be made of clear spruce, fronted with 
mahogany or white maple so as to allow their mouths being carefully 
and accurately formed. Examples of the stop exist in the Organs 
of the German Church, at Montreux, and the Church of Saint- 
Martin, at Vevey. 

Voiced on wind of low pressure, the FLAUTO AMABILE 4 FT., is an 
ideal stop for the true Chamber Organ ; and of either 8 ft. or 4 ft. 
pitch it is suitable for insertion in the softest division of a Church or 
Concert-room Organ. 

FLAUTO AMOROSO, Ital. This name has been employed to 
designate an open metal stop of small scale and 4 ft. pitch, voiced 
to yield an extremely soft and singing quality of unimitative flute- 
tone. A fine FLAUTO AMOROSO, 4 FT., exists in the Echo of the im- 
portant Organ in the Church of SS. Peter and Paul, Liegnitz, in 
Silesia, built by Buckow, in the year 1839. Stops of this refined class 
are held in little esteem by organ-builders of to-day in their craze 
for high-pressures and loud voicing. When will the musical world 
protest against such crude and inartistic treatment of the Monarch 
of all Instruments ? 

FLAUTO D'AMORE, Ital. Pr., FLUTE D'AMOUR. The name 
given to special stops formed of small-scaled wood pipes, yielding a 
peculiarly delicate and fascinating flute-tone. The stop is generally 
of 4 ft. pitch, which is that most desirable in solo passages and regis- 
tration; but it has been made of 8 ft. pitch. An example, labeled 
FLUTE D'AMOUR, 4 FT., exists in the Choir of the small Organ in the 
Marienkirche, at Goerlitz, built by Buckow, in the year 1838. It is 
the only stop of 4 ft. pitch in the Choir formed entirely of soft- 
voiced stops. 

FORMATION. The pipes of the FLAUTO D'AMORE, 4 FT., have been made of 
different forms and proportions, according to the fancy of the organ-builder, 
resulting, of necessity, in slight differences in tonality. The most satisfactory 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 



127 




n 




form, in our estimation, is that here briefly described. The pipes partake of the 
character of those of the LIEBLICHGEDECKT and the ROHEFLOTE ; being small in 
scale and in general formation like those of the former; and having perforated 
stoppers like those of the latter stop. The tone of the FLAUTO D'AMORE is, accord- 
ingly, a combination of the voices of the two stops just named, but properly softer 
than either. The construction of the FLAUTO D'AMORE pipe is clearly shown in 
the accompanying illustration, Fig. 16. In the Longitudinal Section, i, the for- 
mation of all portions of the mouth is correctly delineated ; and the manner in 
which the stopper, A, is formed and perforat- 
ed is shown. It will be observed that the 
vertical perforation (Fr. cheminee) does not 
extend through the entire length of the stop- 
per, but opens into the larger transverse 
perforation , B . This is an important exped- 
ient. As the perforations of the stoppers af- 
fect the quality of the tone of the pipes, their 
lengths must, of necessity, be graduated reg- 
ularly throughout the compass of the stop : 
and as this graduation of length would be 
difficult, and would make the stoppers in 
the higher octaves inconveniently short, if 
the perforations were carried through them 
and dictated their lengths, the expedient 
of the transverse perforation was happily 
adopted, rendering correct graduation possi- 
ble without interfering with the convenient 
length of the stoppers. The transverse per- 
forations would not be required in the stop- 
pers of the lower pipes, for they could be per- 
forated throughout and made of the proper 
graduated lengths. The diameters of the 
vertical perforations may vary according to 
the scale of the pipes and the quality of the 
tone desired : that of the largest pipe need not 
exceed % inch, while that of the smallest pipe 
may be y% inch. The Front View, 2, shows 
the desirable proportions of the mouth ; but its height may vary according to the 
wind-pressure used and the quality of tone desired. For its most characteristic 
tones, the FLAUTO D'AMORE should be voiced on wind of from i l A to 2^2 inches. 




FIG. 16 



TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the FLAUTO D'AMORE, 
when correctly made and voiced by a master, is the most beautiful 
of those produced by the half-covered stops; occupying a place in 
the tonal economy of the Organ that neither the FLUTE A CHEMINEE 
nor the ROHRFLOTE can fill. Its extremely delicate and sympathetic 
voice fails to recommend it during the present craze for loud and 
screaming stops: its appearance will, accordingly, be rare in Organs 
in this country never, probably, voiced on the proper low wind- 



128 ORGAN-STOPS 

pressures.* Its. proper place is in the accompanimental division of 
the Church Organ and in the softest-toned division of the Concert- 
room Organ, where it will be invaluable, as an octave voice, in re- 
fined and artistic registration. It imparts a beautiful tonality, as 
we have proved, to the Vox HUMANA, especially for a soprano solo. 

FLAUTO DI PAN, Ital. The name given to an organ-stop, 
probably on account of the similarity of its tone to the sounds of the 
time-honored Pandean Pipes one of the precursors of the Organ. 
It has been made of 2 ft. and i ft. pitch, but is very uncommon m 
either, having been found, in all probability, to have little to re- 
commend it tonally. As a stop of 2 ft. pitch it appears in the Ober- 
werk, and as one of I ft. pitch in the Pedal of the Organ in the 
Cathedral of Lund, Sweden. It is likely to be classed among ob- 
solete stops. 

FLAUTO DOLCE, Ital. Fr., FLUTE DOUCE. Ger., DOLZFLOTE, 
DULZFLOTE. An open labial stop of small scale, the pipes of which 
are of metal or wood, and of 8 ft. or 4 ft. pitch. As the name implies, 
the tone of the stop is soft, and when at its best it resembles that of 
the orchestral Flute in piano passages. Regnier describes it thus: 

<c FLAUTO DOLCE, la Flftte douce, Dulzfl&te, que les facteurs de 
France ont eu tort de confondre avec la flute allemande beaucoup 
plus fine et vive, est un registre egalement ouvert et de tres-menue 
taille, mais d'un ton plus rond et eminemment doux." 

The FLAUTO DOLCE, in either pitch, is suitable from every point 
of view for insertion in the Chamber Organ; or in the Choir or Echo 
of larger Organs when extreme delicacy and refinement of intona- 
tion is desired. An example of 8 ft. pitch, of wood, exists in the 
Choir of the Organ in the Marienkirche, at Goerlitz.f A beautiful 
example of 4 ft. pitch, of metal, exists in the Echo of the Organ in 
the Parish Church of Leeds, where it speaks on the appropriate wind 

* We made one of fine cedar for our own Organ, voiced on wind of 2 % inches, and its tone 
was very delicate and beautiful. 

f The Organ in the Marienkirche, at Gorlitz, in Silesia, constructed by the celebrated organ- 
builder,Buckow, in 1838. It is a small instrument, containing only fifteen speaking stops, three 
of which are given to the Pedal Organ. It is, however, to the stop-apportionment of the Choir 
Organ that we desire to direct the attention of organists and others interested in refined organ- 
building. It comprises the following four stops: VIOLA DA GAMBA, 8 FT., metal; DOLCIANO, 
8 FT., wood; FU)TE DOUCE, 8 FT., wood; and FL{)TE D'AMOUR, 4 FT., wood. It requires little 
imagination on the part of anyone, with some knowledge of organ-stops, to realize the beauty 
and charm which must characterize the tones of this little Choir: and it, as the work of a dis- 
tinguished artist, certainly gives a lesson to twentieth-century lovers of musical noise. But it 
seemshopeless to look for any immediate improvement so long as organists continue to approve 
of, or remain indifferent toward, the inartistic and tasteless doings in the great majority of 
voicing-rooms to-day. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 129 

pressure of i J^ inches. This fine stop was made by Edmund Schulze 

FLATJTO MAGGIORE, Ital. Ger., MAJORFLOTE. The term 
appropriately employed to distinguish the most important or dom- 
inating flute-toned stop in the Organ the stop holding the same 
commanding position in the flute-work as the PRINCIPAL or DIA- 
PASON holds in the foundation-work of the instrument. The FLAUTO 
MAGGIORE is properly an open wood and metal stop of 8 ft. pitch 
and large scale, voiced to yield a rich unimitative flute-tone of con- 
siderable volume. We find the principal flute-toned stop, of 8 ft. 
pitch, in the Great of the Organ in the Cathedral of Breslau, labeled 
MAJORFLOTE : and the same name is given to a corresponding stop 
in the Choir Organ. The term has also been applied to a full-toned 
covered stop of 8 ft. pitch, in the Great of the Grand Organ in the 
Church of St. Elizabeth, at Breslau. There is much to recommend 
the name for general adoption, when confined to a unison stop of 
dominating unimitative flute-tone, for it clearly denotes its position 
in a tonal scheme. 

FLAUTO MINORE, Ital. The name appropriately employed 
to designate an unimitative flute-toned stop of secondary impor- 
tance as regards strength of tone, placed in any division of the Organ 
in which a more powerful flute-toned stop, labeled FLAUTO MAG- 
GIORE (q. v.), is inserted. The German equivalent MINORFLOTE 
has been adopted to designate a flute-toned stop of 4 ft. pitch, as in 
the Organ in the choir of the Cathedral of Breslau. In this latter 
sense the term is undesirable; for the terms FLAUTO MAGGIORE and 
FLAUTO MINORE should refer to tone, the only matter of impor- 
tance to the organist, not to the sizes of the stops only, which call 
for other distinguishing names. 

FLAUTONE, Ital. Fr., FLUTON. The name given by the 
Italian organ-builders to a large-scaled, flute-toned stop, yielding a 
smooth and somewhat subdued voice. The pipes of this stop are 
either open or covered, according to the ideas of the builder, or, 
probably, according to the stop-apportionment of the divisional 
Organ in which it is placed. The FLAUTONE in the North Organ in 
the Cathedral of Milan is of metal with a covered wood bass; while 
that in the Choir of the Organ in the Church of San Gaetano, 
Florence, is a metal stop of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are appar- 
ently open.* 

* "A la pedale, les Italiens 1'emploient sous le nom de Flaulone, Fluton, ou grosse flute douce: 
Celle de huit-pieds, qui est la plus usit6e, chante admirablement les adagios en solo ou en choeur, 



130 ORGAN-STOPS 

PLAUTO TEDESCO, Ital. The name given by the old Italian 
organ-builders to an open wood stop, of medium scale, and 8 ft. 
pitch. The stop resembles, both in the form and tone of its pipes, 
the English CLARABELLA. Examples are to be found in several 
Italian Organs; as in the North Organ in the Cathedral of Milan; 
and in the Organ in the Church of Santa Maria des Vignes, Genoa. 
It also existed in the old Organ, by Hermann, in the Church of 
Santa Maria di Carignano, Genoa; but was removed when the 
present Organ was constructed by Bianchi in 1863.* 

PLAUTO TRAVERSO, Ital. Pr., FLUTE TRAVERSIERE. Ger., 
TRAVERSFLOTE, QUERFLOTE. The names used by different organ- 
builders to designate the stop of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, the pipes of 
which are properly of wood and harmonic, yielding a tone closely 
imitating that of the orchestral Plute. Ever since the invention of 
harmonic pipes, this important stop has deservedly become a great 
favorite, and many fine examples are to be found in well-appointed 
Organs, notably in those of the great German builders; as in the 
Ladegast Organ in Schwerin Cathedral. The stop is made of pine 
and pear-tree, and is thus described by J. Massmann, Grossherzogl, 
Musikdirector in Wismar : 

"FLAUTO TRAVERSO 8', off en aus Tannen- und Birnbaum-holz; 
hat einen weichen und schonen Ton, der Querflote des Orchesters 
sehr ahnlich; die Pfeifen der hochsten Octaven tiberblasend." See 
ORCHESTRAL FLUTE. 

FLOTENBASS, Ger. An open labial stop of 8 ft. pitch, the 
pipes <3t whicri are of wood, of large scale, and yield a powerful un- 
imitative flute-tone. It is properly a Pedal Organ stop, appearing 
in 1 that department of the Organs in the Gewandhaus, at Leipzig, 
and the Domkirche, Lubeck. As a covered stop, an example ap- 
pears in the Piano Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral of Schwerin. 
As a stop of 1 6 ft. pitch, examples exist in the Walcker Organs in the 
Cathedrals of Riga and Vienna. The stop is the same as the BASS 
FLUTE (q. v.) of English and American Organs. 

FLOTENPRINCIPAL, Ger. The name given by Walcker to 
the principal unison and the attendant octave stop placed on the 
Fourth Manual (Echo) of the Organ in the Cathedral of Riga. The 

mais seule a la main; 11 ne faut pourtant pas trop augmenter le nombre des parties, la confusion 
s'y jetterait, et adieu 1'effet instrumental. " Regnier. 

* In adopting a consistent Italian stop nomenclature for our own Chamber Organ, we applied 
the name PLAUTO TEDESCO to what was practically a soft-voiced English CLARABELLA, 8 FT. 
See "The Organ of the Twentieth Century," pp. 334~S- 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 131 

stops are of open pipes, yielding flute organ-tone, and are valuable 
in imparting a distinctive tonality to the division, which is strongly 
flute-toned throughout. Of its seventeen stops, nine are flute-toned 
and the most important labial stops in the division. The two stops 
specially alluded to are labeled respectively FLOTENPRINCIPAL, 8 FT., 
and FLOTENPRINCIPAL, 4 FT. 

FL0TE A EEC, Fr. The name that has been given to a flute- 
toned stop of ordinary form the tone of which was supposed to imi- 
tate that of the old Flute a Bee. Engel, speaking of this instrument, 
says: "The most common FMte a bee was made with six finger 
holes, and its compass embraced somewhat more than two octaves. 
. . . There was often a key on this instrument in addition to the 
finger-holes. This flute was much in favor in England; hence it was 
called in France ' Flute d' Angleterre. ' The flageolet, the smallest 
fiUte a bee, was formerly played in England even by ladies." The 
instrument was also called the Whistle Flute, and was played by a 
small ivory mouthpiece or beak, hence its French name. The Ital- 
ians appear to have called this instrument Flauto a Becco or Flauto 
Suabile. 

FLtTE A CHEMINfiE, Fr. Eng., CHIMNEY FLUTE. Ger., 
ROHRFLOTE. The stop in its proper form, as constructed by the 
French organ-builders, is of metal and of large scale; its pipes being 
furnished with sliding caps, from the centers of which rise small 
tubes, or so-called chimneys, which give the stop its peculiar name.* 
The FLUTE A CHEMINEE appears in certain French Organs of both 
8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, although it is properly a unison stop. There can 
be no doubt, however, regarding the value of the octave voice in 
effective registration. An example of 4 ft. pitch exists in the Choir 
of the Organ in the Cathedral of Abbeville. For particulars respect- 
ing the formation of the pipes of the stop, see ROHRFLOTE. 

* La FLt)TE X CHEMINEE tient le milieu entre les jeux bouch6s et les flutes ouvertes. Si elles 
e"taient tout a fait bouche" es, il ne leur faudrait que la demi-hauteur des tuyaux ouverts; mais 
ouvertes en partie, elles doivent avoir environ les deux tiers de hauteur des fonds ouverts de 
mme ton. Dans cette hauteur des Rohrflozten, on comprend celle de la chemine*e posSe au centre 
de la calotte. Nous 1'avons eatplique" : une partie du son se propage par cette ouverture, 1'autre 
par la bouche, apres s'e'tre heurte"e k la partie couverte du sommet. Le son qui sort par la chem- 
in6e demande la m6me 616vation de tuyau que dans les jeux ouverts; et il faudrait bien la lui 
dormer si la partie calotte"e du sommet ou viennent se heurteur les vibrations, pour ressorth ^n 
partie par les levres du tuyau, ne ramenaient pour leur part ce tuyau & l'6tat de bourdon, et n'en 
diminuaient par consequent la hauteur. Pour donner plus de facilit6 au son de se propager par la 
bouche, on ouvre celle-ci davantage, on tgueule* comme on dit, les flutes k chemine'e plus queles 
flutes ouvertes et que les simple^ bourdons. II va sans dire que plus on les veut sonores, plus 
on 61argit la taille, qu'en ge"ne"ral on tient tres-grosse. Ces flutes se font detain et i, barbes de 
chaque cdte" de la bouche, pour en diriger 1'intonation et 1'accord. " Regnier. 



132 ORGAN-STOPS 

FLtJTE A FUSEAU, Fr. A metal labial stop, of 8 ft. and 4 ft. 
pitch, yielding an unimitative flute-tone, the pipes of which are 
tapered or spindle-shaped, hence its name. An example exists on the 
Fourth Manual of the Organ in the Church of Saint-Nicholas, at 
Blois. The FLUTE A FUSEAU is practically the same as the German 
SPINDELFLOTE (q. v.). 

FLtfTE A PAVILLON, Fr. The name given by the French 
organ-builders to a full-scaled metal labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the 
pipes of which have cylindrical bodies surmounted with bells of in- 
verted conical form. Hence the distinctive and appropriate name. 
It is to be regretted that the labor attending the construction of its 
pipes, combined with the difficulty of finding proper standing room 
for them on wind-chests of ordinary dimensions, has seriously inter- 
fered with a desirable introduction of this fine stop in important 
Organs. The FLUTE A PAVILLON was first brought before the notice 
of the English organ-builders by Ducroquet, of Paris, in the Organ 
he sent to the London Exhibition of 1851. It was received with 
great favor, and several fine examples were made by different build- 
ers and pipe-makers, especially by John Courcelle, the celebrated 
reed voicer, and teacher of George Willis, of equal fame.* So fine 
were his stops, that in one Organ the name COURCELLINA was given 
to the stop. An example, under this name, exists in the Organ of 
the Church of St. John, Portsea. One, under the proper French 
name, exists in the Back Great of the Concert Organ in the Town 
Hall, Leeds, Yorkshire; and one, under the English name, BELL 
DIAPASON, in the Great of the Organ in the Oratory, Brompton, 
London. Notable French examples exist in the Grand Orgue of the 
Organ in the Church of Saint-Sulpice; and in the same division of 
the Organ in the Church of Saint-Eustache, Paris. Both in France 
and England the stop appears to have fallen into disuetude. We 
introduced a FLUTE A PAVILLON, 8 FT., in the scheme of the Fourth 
Organ (Solo) of the Concert-room Organ installed in the Festival 
Hall of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 

FORMATION. The FL^TE A PAVILLON pipe comprises two leading portions, a 
cylindrical body, and a bell (pavilion) in the shape of an inverted truncated cone, 
attached to a short cylindrical portion which slides on the open end of the body 
for the purpose of tuning, as neither coning nor slotting is admissible for that 
operation. The cylindrical body is formed in all respects similar to that of the 
PRINCIPAL or DIAPASON, 8 FT., as shown in Fig. 17, Plate II. The short cylindrical 



* In our own Chamber 1 Organ the TROMBA and CLARINETTO were by Courcelle and the OBOE 
by Willis. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 133 

portion, to which the bell is attached, fits closely to the body , its lower edge being 
diagonally cut, so as to have a screwlike motion against a small projecting button 
of solder on the body, as indicated. Accordingly, in tuning the pipe it is only 
necessary to raise or lower the bell by turning it slightly of the right or left. By 
such a simple method of tuning, the timbre of the pipe will remain constant, and 
the bell will remain firmly in position : both important matters. The mouth of the 
FLUTE A PA VILLON is of the same width as that of a DIAPASON pipe of the same 
scale, but is cut higher; the height depending largely on the pressure of the wind 
used and on the volume of tone desired. The pipes should, in all cases, be copi- 
ously winded and high pressures avoided. It is questionable if any of the French 
or English stops were voiced on wind of higher pressure than 3 % inches. The 
proportions of the bell vary according to the quality of the tone required, but its 
desirable dimensions are one and one-half the diameter of the pipe in height, and 
one and two-thirds the diameter of the pipe in its diameter at top, as shown in 
Fig. 17. The proportions have been modified by different pipe makers. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The stop has been labeled by certain 
English organ-builders BELL DIAPASON, as by Bishop in the Organ 
of the Oratory, Brompton; but the term is misleading, for the tone 
of the stop is not the pure organ-tone of the true DIAPASON. The 
stop belongs to the flute-work of the Organ, and this fact the French 
organ-builders recognized when they gave the original name to it. 
The proper tone of the stop is a combination of pure organ-tone and 
unimitative flute-tone, characterized by a singular richness and 
fullness, yet not unduly assertive. It inclines, in certain fine ex- 
amples, to a horn timbre, which can be intensified, if desired, by 
slotting or perforating the bell after the fashion of the KERAULO- 
PHONE tuning-slide. There can be no question as to the tonal value 
of the FLUTE A PAVILLON in full registration, in which important 
lingual stops take prominent part, and call for effective backgrounds 
of labial tones. Accordingly, while the stop finds a proper place in 
the Great or Grand Orgue of French and English instruments, its 
rich compound tone makes it a valuable, and, perhaps, a more valu- 
able, voice in another division of the Organ richer in lingual stops. 
It was that consideration led us to insert it in the Fourth Organ of 
the instrument installed at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 
which contained seven very important lingual stops. If the science 
and art of tonal combination and artistic registration were carefully 
studied by organ-builders, and better understood by organists than 
they seem to be in many quarters to-day, a better and more rational 
system of stop-apportionment would soon appear in new Organs. 

FL0TE A PYRAMIDS, Fr. The term used to designate an 
open labial stop of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are square 
and inverted pyramidal in form, resembling those of the DOLCAN in 



134 ORGAN-STOPS 

being larger at the top than at the mouth-line, and especially in the 
pipes of the bass octave, which have been made of wood (See DOL- 
CAN). The name would be more appropriately applied to a stop 
the pipes of which are directly pyramidal; that is, square, and larger 
at the mouth-line than at the top, in this respect resembling the 
pipes of the SPITZFLOTE, GEMSHORN, and CONE GAMBA. We have 
made wood pipes of this form, having extremely low inverted 
mouths, which, voiced on wind of 2^ inches, yielded exquisite tones 
having a rare combination of imitative flute- and string-tones, both 
of which could be distinctly heard as if fighting for supremacy. 
There is much to be done in this direction that has not been dreamt 
of : but the trouble and skill involved in the formation of such pyra- 
midal pipes will effectively condemn them in the organ-building 
world. 

FLtTE CONIQUE, Fr. The name given by Cavaille-Coll to 
open stops, of 16 ft. pitch, inserted by him in the Grand-Orgue and 
Solo of the Organ in the Church of Saint- Sulpice, Paris. The stops 
are flute-toned, and are practically DOUBLE SPITZFLOTES. 

FLtTTE CREUSE, Fr. The term that has been used by 
French organ-builders to designate a stop, of full scale, yielding a 
powerful unimitative flute-tone: it is in all essentials, as the name 
implies, similar to the German HOHLFLOTE (q. v.). 

FLftTE DOUCE, Fr. An open labial stop, of small scale, 
yielding a soft and pure flute-tone, approaching an imitative quality. 
An example exists in the Positif of the Organ in the Church of Saint- 
Sulpice, Paris. Another example is to be found in the same division 
of the Organ in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. Both stops are of 4 
ft. pitch; evidently the one preferred by the distinguished builder, 
Cavaill<-Coll, although he introduced one, of 8 ft. pitch, in the 
Positif of the Organ in the Madeleine, Paris. See FLAUTO DOLCE. 

FLCTE HARMONIQUE, Fr. Eng., HARMONIC FLUTE. 
The principle of formation which obtains in the FLUTE HARMONIQUE 
was long known as applied to wood pipes, the tones of which were 
more or less imitative of those of the orchestral Flute. The first 
metal stops to which the principle was applied were constructed by 
MM. Cavaill6-Coll, of Paris, and inserted in the Organ erected by 
them, in the year 1841, in the Royal Church of Saint-Denis, near 
Paris. The series of HARMONIC FLUTES in the Organ is so note- 
worthy that the stops which belong to it deserve enumeration here. 
In the Grand Orgue FLUTE TRAVERSIERE HARMONIQUE, 8 FT., and 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 135 

FLUTE OCTAVIANTE HARMONIQUE, 4 FT. In the Positif FLUTE 
HARMONIQUE, 8 FT., and FLAGEOLET HARMONIQUE, 2 FT. In the 
Recit-ficho Expressif FLTJTE HARMONIQUE, SFT., FLUTE OCTAVI- 
ANTE HARMONIQUE, 4 FT., and FLUTE OCTAVIN HARMONIQUE, 2 FT. 
The stop derives its name from the fact that the pipes which form 
the larger portion of its compass are so formed and voiced as to yield 
their first harmonic upper partial tones instead of the tones which 
normally belong to their full lengths; the tones so produced having 
a distinctive timbre of special tonal value, which has secured the 
stop universal adoption. 

FORMATION. The FLUTE HARMONIQUE, properly so-called, is formed of open 
cylindrical pipes of metal, or straight quadrangular pipes of wood, of large scale. 
From about the note f r the pipes are made of twice the standard speaking length. 
In the HARMONIC FLUTE, 4 FT., the harmonic pipes are carried to about G; and the 
HARMONIC PICCOLO, 2 FT., should be harmonic throughout. Indeed, it is desirable 
in the unison stop to commence the harmonic pipes on middle c 1 . Open pipes of 
wood or metal of the normal speaking lengths are used for the lower portions of 
the stops of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch ; of these, which present no unusual treatment, it is 
unnecessary to speak here. The FLUTE HARMONIQUE, 8 FT., we select for descrip- 
tion and illustration is that in the Great of the Concert-room Organ by Cavaille*- 
Coll in the Town Hall of Manchester, a stop we had the opportunity of examining 
and measuring. The lowest harmonic pipe of this stop is g 1 , as shown in correct 
proportions in Fig. 18, Plate II. The pipe is 2.37 inches in diameter and 29^ 
inches in effective length from the mouth line. At a distance of 13 inches from the 
lower Hp of the mouth, a hole y% inch in diameter is pierced, as indicated, opposite 
A, in the illustration. The mouth is i% inches in width and H inch in height, 
having a straight upper lip, and the languid closely and finely nicked. Through 
the agency of the small perforation in the body, which prevents the formation of a 
node in the middle of the internal column of air, and by the pipe being slightly 
overblown, a note is produced which is about an octave of that which normally 
belongs to a pipe of the length of 29 % inches. The bass and tenor of this stop are 
of open wood pipes the CC pipe having the scale of 5.00 inches in width and 6.50 
inches in depth. The metal non-harmonic pipe c 1 , has a diameter of 2. 75 inches, 
and a speaking length of 22 inches, belonging to a very large scale. Certain organ- 
builders prefer, and, we think, wisely, to form the HARMONIC FLUTE, 8 FT., entirely 
of metal, commencing the double-length harmonic pipes at f *.* For particulars 
respecting the formation of harmonic pipes of wood, see ORCHESTRAL FLUTE. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tones produced by the har- 
monic pipes of the FLUTE HARMONIQUE differ considerably from 
those yielded by open pipes of the standard speaking lengths: this is 
due to the large scale allowed by the perforated double-length pipes, 
which would be excessive and undesirable in pipes of half their 
length, yielding notes of similar pitch under ordinary conditions; 

* For further details respecting formation of harmonic pipes, see "The Organ of the Twen- 
tieth Century," page 388. 



136 ORGAN-STOPS 

and also to the prominence of certain upper partial tones, generated 
by the necessary and special voicing and overblowing of the pipes, 
which impart a peculiar and characteristic timbre to the compound 
sounds they produce. Although the tones of the metal FLUTE 
HARMONIQUE, as originally and usually formed and voiced, are not 
strictly imitative they differ considerably from those of the ordinary 
stops which belong to the flute organ-tone class : they are clearer, 
more penetrating, and to some extent more valuable in combina- 
tions and registration of an assertive character. In artistic registra- 
tion with all classes of lingual stops, except the Vox HUMANA, the 
FLUTE HARMONIQUE, 8 FT., fulfills its highest office; and, accordingly, 
should find a place in the division of the Organ which is richest in 
lingual stops. This is especially desirable in a properly stop-appor- 
tioned Concert-room Organ, in which provision for the greatest 
range of tonal contrasts by means of effective and convenient regis- 
tration should be made.* 



^ OCTAVIANTE, Fr. The term used by French organ- 

builders to designate an open flute-toned stop, of either metal or 
wood, and of octave, or 4 ft. pitch. This stop in its most effective 
form is constructed of harmonic pipes from tenor F, or better still 
from tenor C, the lower pipes being of large scale and standard 
speaking lengths. In this form it is called FLIJTE OCTAVIANTE HAR- 
MONIQUE ; the first example of which was inserted by MM. Cavaille- 
Coll in the Organ erected by them in the Royal Church of Saint- 
Denis. See FLUTE HARMONIQUE. 

FLOTE OUVERTE, Fr. The general name given by French 
organ-builders to large-scaled open stops, formed of metal or wood, 
and yielding an indeterminate flute-tone: hence its convenience can 
be realized. The FLUTE OUVERTE is of 32 ft., 16 ft., 8 ft., and 4 ft. 
pitch, as shown by the tonal appointment of the Pedal Organ of the 
Organ in the Royal Church of Saint-Denis, in which examples of all 
these four pitches are to be found. In English nomenclature, these 
four Pedal Organ stops would be labeled DOUBLE DIAPASON, 32 FT., 
DIAPASON, 16 FT., OCTAVE or FLUTE, 8 FT., and SUPER-OCTAVE^ 
4 FT. 

FLtTE POINTUE, FLtTE A POINTE, Fr. The name given 
to an open metal stop of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are 
conical in form, resembling those of the SPITZFLOTE. A flute-toned 

* See the tonal apportionment of the Fourth Organ, in Chapter XL of "The Organ of the 
Twentieth Century, " page 311. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 137 

stop of 4 ft. pitch bearing this uncommon name exists in the Grand 
Orgue of the instrument built by Clerinex for the Church of Saint- 
Martin, at Liege. 

FLUTTUAN, Get. The uncommon name given to a short com- 
pass manual stop of 16 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are of open 
wood. An example, having the compass from middle c 1 to g 3 , con- 
structed of pear-tree, exists on the Second Clavier of the Organ in the 
Church of Neu-Ruppin. Seidel describes the stop and its tonality 
thus: 

<c FLUTTUAN 16' steht in der Orgel zu Neu-Ruppin im Mittel- 
klavier von c 1 bis g 3 und hat sehr schwache Bretter von Birnbaum- 
holz. Diese Stimme ist sehr weit mensuriert, hat engen Aufschnitt, 
starke Intonation und einen hornartigen Klang; die Bassoktaven 
sind durch Quintaton erganzt." 

FOURNITURE, Fr. Eng., FURNITURE. The name given to a 
compound harmonic-corroborating stop composed of three or more 
ranks of open metal pipes of medium scale, the ranks usually being 
alternately octave- and fifth-sounding. With the aim of obtaining 
greater assertiveness, a third-sounding rank has sometimes been 
added; but this rank will not be called for if there is a SESQUIALTERA 
on the same manual. The general pitch of the FOURNITURE is, 
properly, higher than that of any other compound stop introduced 
in the Organ ; and as the pipes composing the stop are of necessity 
very small, the ranks have to break at every octave. When prop- 
erly voiced and scientifically graduated in strength of tone, the 
stop adds great richness and brilliancy to all combinations in which 
it enters. This fact has been pointedly commented on by Regnier.* 
The following examples of FOURNITURES of four and five ranks may 
be accepted as representative compositions suitable for insertion in 
important Organs. The first, of four ranks, is composed of octave- 

* "La FOURNITURE, ou mixture, est un jeu multiple, ordinairement quadruple, de menue 
taille, fait de 1'etain le plus fin et le plus doux. Le plus grand tuyau de la Fourniture mesure sa 
hauteur sur celle des tuyaux rang6s sur le mSme sommier et correspondant au mSme clavier. 

" Ainsi le premier ut d'une Fourniture plac6 au grand orgue d'un seize-pieds y a quatre-pieds, 
et deux au positif . L 'harmonic de la Fourniture est brillante, fine, et destinee a des roulements 
rapides. On peut dire que son effet sur 1'oreille est comparable en harmonie a celui que ferait 
sur la vue une parure d'acier poli et talle en diamants. On lui donne toute 1'etendue du clavier, 

' 




ut^oa b |juu.i i cj-n cu.ia.Lc;, viuj.ii.uie nuuo <aij<Jiis j.c vuj.ii 10. ^vjiiipus>i uiun u.c let yj.ciij.icic IIVLC. i MI> jjuuo. 

la Fourniture a trois rangs est celle-ci: wt 1 , 50/ 1 , wf 2 : on ajoute le sol 2 , si la Fourniture a quatre 
tuyaux par note : I'wf3, si elle en a cinq; le sols, si elle en a six; enfin l'w4, si elle en a sept, comme 
nos plus grandes orgues. Au positif, on prend la Fourniture & 1'octave superieure. Si le positif 
n'est qu'un quatre-pieds, on prend la Fourniture a la super octave. " Regnier. 




138 ORGAN-STOPS 

and fifth-sounding ranks : the second, of five ranks, is composed of 
octave-, third-, and fifth-sounding ranks : 

FOURNITURE IV. RANKS. 

CC to BB 22 26 29 33. 

C to B 19 22 26 29. 

c r to b 1 15 19 22 26. 

C 2 to b 3 12 15 19 22. 

C^ tO C4 8 12 15 19. 

FOURNITURE V. RANKS. 

CC to BB 

C to B .... 
c 1 to b 1 .... 
c 2 to 'b 2 .... 
c 3 to c 4 

As all the intervals in these examples belong to the 8 ft. harmonic 
series, both stops are suitable for insertion in any manual division of 
the Organ in which extreme brightness of harmonic structure is 
desired: relative strength of tone and perfect regulation being ob- 
served in all cases. 

The FOURNITURE was introduced by the old English builders in 
several of their Organs, commonly of few ranks. Renatus Harris, 
in 1670, introduced one, of three ranks, in the Great of his Organ 
in the Church of St. Sepulchre, London, John Avery, in 1794, in- 
serted one, of three ranks, in the Choir of his Organ in Croydon 
Church; and one of two ranks, in the Choir of his Organ in St. 
Margaret's Church, Westminster. Although, for obvious reasons, 
the stop has not been a favorite with later builders, Willis inserted 
FOURNITURES, of five ranks, in the Pedal Organ and the Swell of his 
instrument in St. George's Hall, Liverpool; and Hill has inserted 
FOURNITURES, of five ranks, in the Great and Swell of the Organ in 
the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. 

The FOURNITURE appears in numerous Organs by French build- 
ers. Confining our remarks to instruments constructed by France's 
greatest organ-builder, Aristide Cavaille-Coll, we find a GROSSE 
FOURNITURE, of four ranks, in the Grand-Choeur of the Organ in 
the Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris; a FOURNITURE, of five ranks, in 
the Grand-Orgue of the Organ in the Church of Saint-Sernin, Tou- 
louse; a FOURNITURE, of five ranks, in the Bombarde of the Organ 
in the Church of Saint-Ouen, Rouen; and a FOURNITURE, of five 
ranks, in the Grand-Orgue of the Concert-room Organ erected by 
him in the Albert Hall, Sheffield, England. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 139 

FRENCH HORN. The name commonly given to a lingual stop 
of 8 ft. pitch, formed and voiced to yield tones imitating as closely 
as practicable those of the orchestral Horn. It is undesirable to 
continue this full name; for, as Dr. W. H. Stone points out, "The 
designation 'French' is commonly added to the name of the orches- 
tral Horn, from the fact that a circular instrument of this nature, 
without crooks or other appliances, was, and still is, used in France 
for hunting. Its tones are, "coarse and boisterous, only fit for the 
open air and for woodland pastimes." For description of the organ- 
stop see HORN. 

FUGARA. The name that has been used to designate an open 
stop of metal or wood, commonly of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, the tone of 
which is somewhat indeterminate in character; in some examples 
inclining to a cutting string quality, and in others to a combination 
of string and horn tones. Locher says: "The FUGARA has much in 
common with the GAME A, while in quality of tone it stands between 
it and the GEIGENPRINCIPAL."* The stop appears to have been 
held in high favor by German organ-builders of the later school. 
Examples, of 8 ft. pitch, exist in the Organs in the Cathedrals of 
Ulm, Vienna, Lubeck, Merseburg, and Schwerin; and, of 4ft. pitch, 
in the Organs in the Cathedrals of Riga and Schwerin. The FUGARA 
does not seem to have been valued by the French organ-builders, 
very seldom appearing in their Organs. One, of 4 ft. pitch, is in- 
troduced in the Positif of Merklin's Organ in the Church of Saint- 
Sulpice, Paris. 

FULLFLOTE, Ger. The name given by German organ-build- 
ers to a covered metal stop of large scale, yielding a powerful un- 
imitative flute-tone. It is described by Seidel thus: "FULLFLOTE, 
4 Fusston gedeckt, aus 10 lot. Metall, steht im Hauptwerk der von 
Buckow in Jahren i8f-J in der Stadtpfarrkirche zu Triebel in der 
Niederlausitz erbauten Orgel von 25 klangbaren Stimmen." 

FULL MIXTURE. A compound harmonic-corroborating stop, 
formed of full-scaled open metal pipes, yielding pure organ-tone of 

* " La PUGARA est une varie"te de la longue et incisive famille des registres e~troits et f ermes de 
metal. Elle a plus de clarte et non moms de mordant que la Viole. Malgre sa douceur de voix, 
elle rappelle plus aussi le son de Violon que la Gambe de huit-pieds. La Fugara se fait gen6raie- 
ment de huit et de quatre, rarement de seize." Regnier. 

4 ' FUGARA, VOGARA, auch Tibia aperta (offene Plate), ist ein zieralich bekanntes offenes 
Fldtenwerk zu 4' und 8' im Manual, von enger Mensur aus Holz oder Zinn, schwerer Ansprache 
und fast so schneidendem aber hellerem Tone wie die Garaba. Diese Stimme soil, wiewohlsehr 
selten, auch zu 16' vorkommen/'' Seidel. 



140 ORGAN-STOPS 

volume and strength commensurate with the requirements of the 
tonal appointment of which it forms a part. It belongs to the tonal 
structure of the foundation-work, and, accordingly, finds its proper 
place in the First or Great Organ, imparting great richness and full- 
ness to all combinations in which it enters. The following is the 
composition of an effective stop of five ranks: 

FULL MIXTURE V. RANKS. 

CC tO G 12 15 19 22 26. 

G# tO f 1 8 12 15 19 22. 

fft 1 to f 5 8 12 15 19. 

f# 2 to c< i 5 8 12 15. 

The intervals in the two higher breaks fft 1 to c 4 belong to the 
16 ft. harmonic series, and give great fullness and firmness to this 
usually weak portion of the compass. A MIXTURE, of four ranks, 
can be formed by omitting the fifth rank, without seriously impairing 
the tonal value of the stop which lies in the ranks of lower pitch. 
This, like all other compound harmonic-corroborating stops, must 
be graduated in strength of tone as it ascends the manual compass. 

FDXLQUINTE, Ger. The name used by some German organ- 
builders to designate the manual QUINT, 5J^ FT., which belongs to 
the 1 6 ft. harmonic series, and should appear only in a tonal division 
in which there is a stop of 16 ft. pitch. The PULLQUINTE may be of 
wood or metal, and of open or covered pipes. When drawn with a 
full-toned stop of 8 ft. pitch, it produces the differential 16 ft. tone. 



GAME A, Ital. Fr., GAMBE. Ger., GAMBE. This term ap- 
plied alone in stop nomenclature, as it very frequently has been and 
still is, is senseless; it literally signifies leg, and it would seem difficult 
to apply that term to an organ-stop with any degree of propriety. 
It is merely a wrong abbreviation of the name Viola da Gamba given 
to the old instrument which was the precursor of the Violoncello. 
Long usage, however, has so established the single term GAMBA, 
that it will probably remain, along with other undesirable terms, for 
a long time in the modern organ-builder's nomenclature. We 
strongly recommend the abandonment of the senseless term, and 
the adoption of the expressive term VIOL in its place.* The stop 

* Viol was the English generic name of the stringed and bowed instruments which, developed 
from the mediaeval Fiddle, preceded the Violin, and were used in England between the fifteenth 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 141 

which has passed under the simple name GAMBA has commonly 
been formed of open cylindrical pipes of metal, of medium scale, and 
8 ft. pitch, voiced to yield a more or less pronounced unimitative 
string-tone. In its original form, as made by German organ-builders, 
the stop was slow of speech and had a disagreeable "spitting" effect 
when commencing to speak: these defects have been removed in all 
later examples. We find the term used alone in the Organ in York 
Minster, and in the generality of the Organs made by Walker & 
Sons. The term is frequently used in combination with other terms 
having reference to the shape of the pipes forming the stop or some 
peculiarity in its tonality, thus: BELL GAMBA, CONE GAMBA, ECHO 
GAMBA, CONTRA-GAMBA, 16 FT., etc. Translate these terms into 
English and realize how absurd they are. See VIOLA DA GAMBA. 

GAMBENBASS, Ger. The labial stop of 16 ft. pitch, formed of 
open cylindrical metal pipes of medium scale, which furnishes the 
true Pedal Organ bass to the manual VIOLA DA GAMBA, 8 FT. The 
stop has been labeled in full, showing this relationship, as stated by 
Seidel: "Die gewohnliche Tongrosse der Gamba ist im Manual 
gewohnlich 8', selten 4', wo sie im letztern Palle Viola heisst, mit 
der Altviola oder Bratsche im Einklang steht und der wahre Rep- 
rasentant derselben ist, im Pedal kommt sei zu 16' unter dem Namen 
Viola di Gambenbass oder Gambenbass vor." 

GAMBETTE, Fr. An open metal stop of the VIOL DA GAMBA 
family, of 4 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are of the same form and 
tone as those of the unison stop. An example of the GAMBETTE, 
4 FT., exists in the Great of the Organ in the Marienkirche, Lubeck. 
It also exists in the Great of the Organ in the Cathedral of the In- 
carnation, Garden City, L. L, and other large Roosevelt Organs. 
In Organs of any importance the GAMBETTE should accompany the 
VIOLA DA GAMBA, 8 FT., giving desirable aid in tonal grouping and 
artistic registration. 

GEDAMPFTREGAL, Ger. The name used to designate an 
old lingual stop of the REGAL family, characterized by a muted or 
muffled tone. Both the stop and its name are now obsolete. See 
REGAL. 

century and the end of the eighteenth. The "Chest of Viols" occupied an honored place in 
almost every lordly mansion. It commonly comprised a Bass Viol, Tenor Viol, Alto Viol, and a 
Treble Viol. In more important " Chests" these four instruments were duplicated. In some 
"Chests" the Altos were omitted. The curious can see all these instruments in the Crosby 
Brown Collection, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. 



142 ORGAN-STOPS 

GEDECKT, Ger. The term is here given in its correct orthogra- 
phy (past participle of decken to cover). The form GEDACKT is 
frequently used both by German and English-speaking organ- 
builders, but, being incorrect, should be abandoned in stop nomen- 
clature. The simple term GEDECKT is used generally to indicate a 
covered stop of wood or metal and of four, eight, sixteen, or thirty- 
two feet pitch. In the Walcker Organ in the Cathedral of Ulm three 
GEDECKTS of 8 ft. pitch and two of 16 ft. pitch are so labeled. These 
five stops have, beyond their pitches, no distinctive tonal coloring, 
all yielding normal covered flute-tone. The only other stop-name in 
which the term appears is KLEINGEDECKT, 4 FT. To distinguish the 
several covered stops, the pipes of which vary either in form or the 
quality of covered tone they yield, German organ-builders have 
introduced such compound names as the following; ANGENEHM- 
GEDECKT, DOPPELGEDECKT, DOPPELROHRGEDECKT, GELINDGEDECKT, 
GROBGEDECKT, GROSSGEDECKT, HUMANGEDECKT, KLEINGEDECKT, 
LlEBLICHGEDECKT, MUSICIERGEDECKT, K.OHRGEDECKT, STARK- 
GEDECKT, STILLGEDECKT, and WEITGEDECKT. See these names. 
The GEDECKTS are made of all pitches from 16 ft. to 2 ft. ; but rarely 
of the last high pitch. 

GEDECKTBOMMER, Ger. The term, rarely used, to desig- 
nate a covered stop of 8 ft. foundation tone, voiced and overblown 
so as to sound the harmonic twelfth, if not exclusively, more promi- 
nently than the prime tone. A stop of this name and tonality was 
inserted in the Hauptmanual of the Organ built by Eugenius and 
Adam Casparini (1703) for the Church of SS. Peter and Paul, Gor- 
litz. It is described by Seidel and other authorities as a QUINT- 
ATEN.* The name given the stop would seem to imply a disturbed 
or uncertain tonality, caused by its dual voice. The only covered 
stop of this class introduced in modern Organs is the ZAUBERFLOTE 
(q. v.), invented by the late W. Thynne, of London. 

GEDECKTFLOTE, Ger. A covered wood or metal stop of 
medium scale and of 8 ft. or 4 ft. pitch, but commonly of the latter. 
Its tone is of an unimitative flute quality as free from the harmonic 
Twelfth as possible. Generally its tone resembles that of the DOP- 
PELFLOTE, but, necessarily, less full owing to its pipes having single 
mouths and being smaller in scale. 

* 4 ' GBD ACT-POMMER. Pommer soil so viel sein als Bombarda. In der Gdrlitzer Orgel hinge- 
gen soil, wie Adelung anffthrt, nach Boxbergs Beschreibung, diese Stimme eine starke QuiNTA' 
gewesen sein." Schlimbach-Becker, Leipzig, 1843. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 143 

TONE ^AND REGISTRATION. Such a voice as that described is 
valuable in registration, combining well with, and imparting de- 
sirable body to, imitative string-toned and lingual stops. As a rule, 
there are too few stops of 4 ft. pitch introduced in modern Organs 
for effective tonal combination and artistic registration: too much 
dependence being placed on octave coupling, which, in its only 
desirable- form, interferes with the independence of the coupled 
claviers. An octave obtained on any clavier by coupling on itself is 
inadmissible in' tonally correct and artistic registration. 

GEDECKTQUINTE, Ger. A covered harmonic-corroborating 
stop of 5^ ft. pitch, belonging to the 16 feet harmonic series, and, 
accordingly, suitable for insertion in any division of the Organ in 
which there are important stops of 16 ft. pitch. When combined 
with a stop of 8 ft. tone it creates the differential 16 ft. tone. Of 
10^ ft. pitch it belongs to the 32 ft. harmonic series, and is suitable 
for the Pedal Organ, where in combination with the DIAPASON, 
1 6 FT., it generates the differential 32 ft. tone. These differential 
tones, however, are not so effective as those generated by open stops. 

GEIGENOCTAV, Ger. Eng., VIOL OCTAVE. The appropri- 
ate name for the open metal stop of 4 ft. pitch which is the true 
Octave of the GEIGENPRINCIPAL, 8 FT. (q. .). The scale of its pipes 
should be a little smaller than that of the corresponding pipes of the 
unison stop. Its voice should be distinctly softer than, while similar 
in tonal character to, that of the GEIGENPRINCIPAL, rendering it 
extremely valuable in artistic registration. 

GEIGENPRINCIPAL, GEIGENPRINZIPAL, Ger Eng., 
VIOLIN DIAPASON. A metal labial stop of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of 
which are cylindrical, and of medium scale in the best examples. 
Its tone is, as the name implies, a combination of organ-tone and 
string-tone, the former predominating in a decided manner. The 
German name is to be preferred, for the stop is not, strictly classed, 
a DIAPASON. Better English terms, in any case, would be those we 
have used; namely, VIOL PRINCIPAL, GRAND VIOL, and VIOL DIA- 
PASON; the last being less appropriate than the others, while, in 
part, it recognizes old terminology. In form, the pipes of the GEI- 
GENPRINCIPAL are similar to those of the PRINCIPAL or DIAPASON, 
only being smaller in scale and slightly different in mouth-treat- 
ment. The scale of the CC (8 ft,) pipe varies in different examples 
from 4 inches to sJ^ inches in diameter, the mean being the most 
desirable scale for general adoption. While the GEIGENPRINCIPAL 



144 ORGAN-STOPS 

is rightly a unison manual stop, and invariably appears as such in 
English and American Organs, German organ-builders have formed 
it of 1 6 ft., 8 ft., and 4 ft. pitch, as shown in Walcker's Organ in the 
Cathedral of Riga. In that important instrument, comprising 116 
speaking stops, there is a GEIGENPRINCIPAL, 16 FT., on the Second 
Manual, and GEIGENPRINCIPALS, 8 FT. and 4 FT., on the Third 
Manual. It would be more expressive to label the 4 ft. stop GEIGEN- 
OCTAV. The stop does not seem to have found favor among French 
organ-builders, for we have not been able to find a single instance of 
its insertion, or that of an equivalent, in any French Organ. The 
French organ-builders appear to have been, and indeed are, 
strangely conservative in all matters of tonal appointment. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the GEIGENPRINCIPAL 
varies considerably in examples made by different builders ; in this 
as in almost all the other stops, there being no standard studiously 
worked up to. It is easy to imagine an organist saying: " I have a 
beautiful GEIGENPRINCIPAL in my Organ which I find very valuable 
in registration"; while another may, with equal propriety, say: 
"I rarely use my GEIGENPRINCIPAL, for its tone is neither agreeable 
alone, nor sympathetic in combination with other stops." This 
should not be. The proper voice of the stop is a combination of pure 
organ-tone with a bright string-tone in due subordination; the latter 
imparting that richness to the foundation tone which has won the 
stop universal approval among German- and English-speaking organ- 
builders and organ-lovers. This compound voice, in which certain 
concordant upper partial tones are present, is extremely valuable 
in artistic registrations, in which fullness combined with a delicate 
string quality is called for, and in which so refined a string-tone as 
that of the VIOLA D'AMORE would be too pronounced. We admit 
that such tonal refinements are not appreciated by the general class 
of organists in the noisy craze of to-day. 

GEIGENREGAL, Ger. An old lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the 
tone of which, from a slight string quality, somewhat resembled that 
of the Geige or Violin. Both stop and its name are now obsolete. 
See REGAL. 

GELINDGEDECKT, Ger. (from gelind mild). A covered 
stop, of 16 ft. or 8 ft, pitch, the pipes of which are of the usual forms, 
and constructed of wood or partly of wood and partly of metal. As 
its name implies, the stop, when properly scaled, and voiced under a 
moderate wind-pressure, yields a soft and refined tone which should 
be less assertive than that of a LIEBLICHGEDECKT, inserted in the 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 145 

same Organ, and of the same pitch. It is rarely, if ever, desirable to 
duplicate stops of the same character having the same strength of 
tone in an Organ, even should they be inserted in different tonal 
divisions. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The GELINDGEDECKT, 8 FT., is a 
stop of great value in refined registration, specially so when its voice 
partakes of the tonality of the QUINTATEN. This desirable voice is 
best obtained from small-scaled wood pipes, voiced on wind of very 
low pressure: and to be of the greatest value it should occupy a 
place in the softest tonal division of the Organ.* In such a position 
it would combine in a charming manner with practically every other 
stop, labial or lingual, in the division. 

GEMSHORN, Ger. Fr., COR DE CHAMOIS. The name given 
to an open labial stop, the pipes of which are conical in form when of 
metal and pyramidal when made of wood. As a manual stop, it is 
made of 8 ft., 4 ft., and 2 ft. pitch; and as a Pedal Organ stop it is of 
1 6 ft. pitch, properly designated GEMSHORNBASS (q. v.). The tone 
of the true GEMSHORN is rich, clear, and penetrating, having a beau- 
tiful timbre which may be classed as between a normal reed-tone 
and a string-tone. This most desirable tone differs according to the 
tastes of the organ-builders of different countries and the ideas of 
different voicers.f Of 8 ft. pitch, the stop is inserted in the Haupt- 
werk (First Manual) of all Walcker's Organs of any importance from 
that in the Cathedral of Riga, downwards. It is invariably of 8 ft, 
pitch, and, we presume, of metal throughout, as it should be in all 
good Organs. In the Choir of the Organ in the Town Church of 
Fulda it exists as an 8 ft. stop, the bass and tenor octaves of which 
are of wood and the others of tin. The GEMSHORN, 8 FT., in the 
Hauptwerk of the Organ in St. Paul's Church, Schwerin, has its 
bass octave of covered wood pipes, the remainder of the stop being 
of tin. In the Great of the Organ in the chief Protestant Church of 

* We have placed the GELINDGEDECKT, in our tonal scheme for the Concert-room Organ of 
the Twentieth Century, in the Ancillary Aerial Organ, all the nineteen stops of which are on wind 
of iH inches. We give the scale of the CC (8 ft.) pipe 1.78 inches in -width by 2.28 inches in 
depth, the scale ratio being i: 2.3, halving on the twenty-first pipe. See "The Organ of the 
Twentieth Century," pp. 329-330. 

f " Le COR DE CHA.MOIS ou Ge-mshorn est une des jolies flutes e*troites et ouvertes dont 1'har- 
monie suit celle du Sa-licional, mais plus d61icate encore. Ses tuyaux, plus pointus que ceux dela 
Spitz-Flcete, les sons clairs mais lointains qui s'6chappent de ses levres senses, lui ont sans doute 
valu le nom qu'il porte. On le fait d'6tain ou d'6toff e tant qu'il ne descend pas plus bas quehuit- 
pieds. A seize on peut employer le bois. On le conf ond, mais a tort, avec deux registres d'assez 
semblable timbre, mais a tuyaux Douche's, Coppel-Flcele, Spielfloete; enfin, il ne dedaigne pas de 
figurer comme quinte (Gemshorn-Quinte ou Cylinder-Quinte} et de produire alors sur une mass* 
de violes un assez curieux eftet. Le Gemshorn chantant se melange volontiers avec la Hohljlcete, 
qui lui donne beaucoup de force par son harmonie voi!6e, mais profonde," Regnier. 
10 



146 ORGAN-STOPS 

Utrecht GEMSHORNS of both 4 ft. and 2 ft. pitch are inserted. The 
stop has been made of 16 ft. and several mutation pitches, but these 
have been seldom resorted to.*" As a Pedal Organ stop of 16 ft. 
pitch it deserves the attention of every artist organ-builder and 
expert. 

FORMATION. The pipes of the GEMSHORN are invariably of the form of 
elongated and slender truncated cones; their open tops having diameters equal to 
one- third of the diameters at their mouth lines. This is a generally recognized 
rule; but, like all rules in pipe-proportions, it is open to slight modification under 
artistic treatment and special voicing. The scale of the GEMSHORN like that of 
all other stops, varies according to the ideas and aims of different organ-builders, 
and the volume and qua) ity of the tone desired. A scale suitable for a Church or a 
Concert-room Organ stop, in the ratio 1:2.519, gives the CC (8 ft.) pipe a diameter 
at the mouth line of 4.96 inches, and a diameter at the top of 1.62 inches; theC 
pipe diameters of 3.13 inches and 1.02 inches; and the c 1 pipe diameters of 1.9 
inches and 0.64 inch. The illustration, Fig. 19, Plate III., shows a CC pipe accu- 
rately drawn to this scale. For a GEMSHORN placed in a softly-toned division of a 
large Organ or inserted in a true Chamber Organ a smaller scale should be used. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. As before stated, the proper tone 
of the GEMSHORN is rich, clear, and penetrating, having a beautiful 
timbre which may be classed between a normal unimitative reed- 
tone and a viol-tone. It is this compound tone, more or less rich in 
the lower harmonics, which renders the stop, in its different pitches, 
so valuable in artistic registration. The tone, however, differs under 
the treatments and ideas of different voicers; and is, of necessity, 
affected by different scales and the relative proportions of the lower 
and upper diameters of the pipes. Under all conditions the tone of 
the true GEMSHORN is so desirable and distinctive that it favors the 
introduction, when possible, of the entire family of 16 ft., 8 ft., 4 ft., 
2% ft., and 2 ft. stops. Such a family would give practically limit- 
less means for effective and refined registration, and, accordingly, the 
creation of numerous beautiful timbres in combination with labial 
stops of the FLUTE and VIOL classes, and with all the softer-voiced 
lingual stops. The great value of gathering families of stops of dis- 
tinctive tonalities, and placing them in contrasting divisions, is 
absolutely unrecognized in the organ-building and organ-designing 
world to-day, which continues to be quite satisfied with the old- 

*" GEMSHORN ist eine allgemein bekannte, brauchbare und sehr angenehme Pldtenstimme 
welc.he, mit oben spitzig zulaufenden Pfeifen versehen ist. Dei Pfeifen haben zuweilen Seiten- 
barte zu beiden Seiten des Auf schnittes. Man findet dies Register im Manual zu 8', 4', 2" und i ', 
zuletzten beiden Grdssen zuweilen unter dem Namen SUPER-GEMSHORN und im Pedal zu 16' 
wo es GEMSHORNBASS heisst. Als Quintstimme zu 10^', $ 1 A'> *%' und I %' kommt dieses 
Register ebenfalls im Pedal und Manual unter dem Namen GEMSHORNQUWTE vor. Die Pfeifen 
sind gewdhnlich von Zinn oder Metall, bei den 16 fussigen durfte vielleicht hier und da Holz in 
Anwendung gebracht werden." Seidel. 



I 



PLATE III 




l\9 
GEM SHORN 



HORN 



I 2* 

KERAULOPHONE 



26 

ORCHESTRAL OBOE 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 147 

fashioned and systemless manner in which stop-appointments are 
made. 

GEMSHORNBASS, GROSSGEMSHORN, Ger. The Pedal 
Organ stop, of 16 ft. pitch, which furnishes the proper bass to the 
manual GEMSHORN, 8 FT. The pipes of this important and beautiful 
stop are either made of metal throughout, or of wood and metal, 
the former material being confined to the 16 ft. octave. This stop 
should be inserted in every Pedal Organ of the first rank, furnishing 
a beautiful bass, of a medium weight, to countless manual tonal 
combinations. By extension to forty-four notes, a very desirable 
OCTAVE can be derived from it, extremely valuable in Pedal Organ 
registration. The subject of such registration has not received the 
attention it deserves; mainly, if not altogether, owing to the gener- 
ally insufficient and too often miserable tonal appointments of 
modern Pedal Organs. See GEMSHORN. 

GEMSHORNQUINTE, Ger. An open labial stop, the pipes 
of which are of metal throughout, or, as in the case of the largest 
stop, of wood and metal. The pipes are formed in all respects simi- 
lar to -those of the GEMSHORN (q. v.). This stop is fifth-sounding, as 
its name implies; and, accordingly, is found of 10% ft., 5}^ ft., 2^ 
ft. , and i J^ ft. pitch ; the last pitch being rarely used. A GEMSHORN- 
QUINTE, 10^ FT., of metal throughout, exists in the Pedal of the 
Grand Organ in the Cathedral of Breslau; one of 51^ ft., also of 
metal, exists in the Pedal of the Organ in the Church of St. Eliza- 
beth, in the same city; and one of 2^ ft. is introduced on the Second 
Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of Schwerin. 

GERMAN GAMBA. The name given by English organ- 
builders to an unimitative string-toned labial stop made by old 
German organ-builders, the speech of which was so slow as to render 
it necessary to draw along with it another quick-speaking stop or 
KOPPEL (q. v.), commonly in the form of a KOPPELFLOTE. The 
GERMAN GAMBA, as made by a German organ-builder, was first 
introduced into England by Schulze, of Paulinzelle, in the Organ he 
built for the Parish Church of Doncaster, Yorkshire. The stop, un- 
desirable on account of its tardy speech as well as its peculiar in- 
tonation, has properly fallen into desuetude, being interesting only 
as the precursor of the modern string-toned stops. 

GLOCKENSPIEL, Ger. Fr., CARILLON. Ital., CAMPANELLA, 
CAMPANETTA. Correctly considered under its original German 
name this is a mechanical or percussion stop, of short compass, 



148 ORGAN-STOPS 

formed of dish-shaped bells, spiral rods, stee A bars, or bell-metal 
tubes, sounded by a hammer-action, somewhat resembling that 
of a pianoforte, actuated by a pneumatic or electro-pneumatic me- 
chanism in the modern Organ. In old Organs the GLOCKENSPIEL 
was generally little better than a curiosity in organ-building. Ex- 
amples still exist in some old German Organs, as in those in the 
Churches of St. Catherine, St. Nicholas, and St. Jacobi, at Hamburg.* 
The percussion GLOCKENSPIEL, or what is commonly and appro- 
priately called the CARILLON in its modern form of tubular bells, 
although it cannot be strictly considered a legitimate organ-stop, 
has now become a recognized adjunct to the tonal appointment of 
both Church and Concert-room Organs: and it must be admitted 
that when artistically used it is not without its claim for recognition, 
as an effective element in tone production in combination with cer- 
tain labial stops, and occasionally in solo-effects. Indeed, it might 
be extended in compass and depth of tone so as to admit of the 
proper rendition of bell-music, such as that composed and performed 
by the great carillonneur, Matthias van den Gheyn, of Louvain. 

GLOCKLEINTON, GLOCKENTON, Ger. An open metal 
labial stop properly of large scale and 2 ft. pitch, voiced to yield a 
tone which has a ringing quality suggestive of that of bells. It is 
described by Seidel thus: "GLOCKLEINTON (Tonus fabri) ist ein 
weit mensuriertes Pfeifenregister, welches so klingen soil, als wenn 
man mit einem Hammer auf einen wohlklingenden Amboss schlagt. 

*" GLOCKENSPIEL. Carillon. C'est chez les Allemands un jeu compost de clochettes au lieu 
del'Stre de tuyaux. Ordinairement, on le place dans 1'interieur derriere le principal en montre; 
quelquefois il est a 1'exterieur ou Ton volt des anges places dans une gloire tenant d'une main une 
clochette sur laquelle ils frappent avec un marteau qu'ils portent dans 1'autre main. . . . Les 
carillons ne s'entendent Ordinairement que dans les deux octaves superieures du clavier; cepen- 
dant, il parait qu'il s'en trouve de quatre octaves, et que celui de 1'eglise Saint-M ichel a Ohrdruff 
a cette etendue. II en existe aussi & la pe~dale. Au lieu de timbres en forme de cloche, on emploie 
quelquefois des tiges m6talliques tourne'es en spirales et assuj^ties sur une caisse sonore qui aug- 
mentel'intensit^ deleurssons. Un des inconvenients des carillons, est den'etre presquejamais 
d'accord avec 1'orgue dont la temperature fait varier continuellement les jeux de fond dans des 
proportions qui ne sont point dans le me'me rapport que celles des variations dss me'taux. Les 
marteaux qui frappent les timbres ou les tiges metalliques sont repousses par un ressort apresles 
avoir mis en vibration, afin de n'en pas arr^ter le son. " Hamel. 

"GLOCKENSPIEL, Carillon, ist ein Register, welches statt der Pfeifen abgestimmte Glocken 
hat. Gewohnlich ist es im Innern der Orgel hinter den Prinzipalpfeifen angebracht, urn den 
Klang recht nahe zu bringen, zuweilen wird es auch von Engeln, welche in einer Glorie ange- 
bracht sind und in der einen. (beweglichen) Hand ein Hammerchen, in der andern eine Glocke 
halten, geschlagen. Manche Glockenspiele smd mit einem Dampfer von Leder, Tuch u. dergl. 
versehen, urn das Ineinanderschwirren der Tdne zu verhindern. Die Glockenspiele gehen ge- 
wohnlich nur durch die zwei oberen Oktaven des Manuals, doch giebt es auch Glockenspiele im 
Pedal. Da der Glockenton sich auf eine hochst auffallende Art von dem Pfeifenton absondert, 
und die Glocken nie mit den Pfeifen genau zusammenstimmen, auch die Andacht der Gemeinde 
durch dieses Klimperwerke gestort wird, so ware es zu wiinschen, dass dergleichen unnutze 
Register gar nicht mehr verfertigt wurden und die hier und da vorhandenen .ausser Gebrauch 
kamen. " Seidel-Kothe. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 149 

Diese Stimme steht zu 2' im Oberwerk der Gorlitzer Petri-Orgel." 

A stop of this class and pitch is hardly to be recommended for 
insertion in the proper tonal appointment of g,ny Organ constructed 
to-day. As a SUPER-OCTAVE it would be much too assertive in tone 
to be used in refined and artistic registration; except, perhaps, in 
full organ effects, and even in such it might disturb perfect tonal 
balance. 

GRAND BOURDON, GROS BOURDON, Fr. A covered stop 
of wood, of large scale, and of 32 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are 
formed in all respects similar to those of the ordinary BOURDON, 
1 6 FT. (<?. v.). It appears in the Pedal of the Organ in the Church 
of Saint- Vincent de Paul, Paris. See CONTRA-BOURDON. 

The term GRAND BOURDON has been employed by Walcker to 
designate a very important Pedal Organ compound harmonic-cor- 
roborating stop, of five complete ranks, belonging to the 32 ft. har- 
monic series. The composition of this stop and the scales of its 
CCC pipes are as follows : 

GRAND BOURDON V. RANKS. 

PRINCIPAL, 16 FT Width, 220 mm. Depth, 280 mm. 



QUINT, 10% FT. 

OCTAVE, 8 FT 

TIERCE, 6% FT. At mouth, 



At top, 



SUPER-OCTAVE, 4 FT. 



no 
108 

74 
48 

65 



153 



1 06 
64 
80 



It will be observed that all the ranks are formed of wood pipes; 
and that the TIERCE 62/5 FT., is formed of pyramidal pipes of the 
SPITZFLOTE type, doubtless with the aim of imparting a lighter and 
timbre-creating voice to this third-sounding rank; as is always desir- 
able in the third-sounding ranks of compound harmonic-corrobo- 
rating stops. 

GRAND CORNET. The name properly employed to designate 
a compound harmonic-corroborating stop, the several ranks of which 
belong to the 16 ft. harmonic series, and extend throughout the 
manual compass without a break. An example, of V. ranks, exists 
in the Bombarde of the Cavaill-Coll Organ in the Church of Saint- 
Ouen, Rouen. The stop is desirable only in a tonal division in which 
there are two or more assertive stops of 1 6 ft. pitch, preferably lin- 
gual. But when the GRAND CORNET is made, as it should be, a 
timbre-creating stop, its value is great in combination with both 
labial and lingual stops. An example of such a stop is here given: 



150 ORGAN-STOPS 

TIMBRE-CREATING GRAND CORNET V. RANKS. 

I. FL^TE A CHEMINEE . . . Metal 8 Feet 

II. SPITZQUINTE Metal sJ^ " 

III. VIOLETTA Tin 4 

IV. GEMSHORN Metal 2% " 

V. PICCOLO Metal 2 

The composition of timbre-creating compound stops will, of 
necessity, be dictated by the stop-apportionments of the Organs in 
which they are placed. 

GRAND PRINCIPAL, GRAND DIAPASON. Names that 
have been employed to individualize the most important unison 
(8 ft.) stop of pure organ-tone, occupying a place in the foundation- 
work of an Organ. It was used in the First or Great Organ of the 
Concert Organ installed at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, in 
1 904. The term is desirable when there are three or more DIAPASONS 
introduced together in any Organ, indicating the tonal preeminence 
of one of the series. 

GRAND VIOL. The name employed to individualize the most 
important unison (8 ft.) stop yielding unimitative viol organ-tone, 
inserted in an Organ: in this respect occupying a more command- 
ing position, tonally, than the GEIGENPRINCIPAL, 8 FT. An example 
exists in the unexpressive Subdivision of the First or Great Organ 
of the principal Organ in the Church of Our Lady of Grace, Hoboken, 
N. J. 

The term grand has been applied to other stops for the purpose 
of indicating their relative importance; we, accordingly, find such 
terms as GRAND FLUTE, GRAND OCTAVE, GRAND CORNET, and 
GRAND MIXTURE. 

GRAVISSIMA, Lat. This term, which appears in the tonal 
schemes of certain important modern Pedal Organs, must not be 
understood to designate an independent stop. It is simply the 
acoustical effect, or what is properly designated the differential tone, 
produced naturally by the combination of tones of 32 ft. and 21% 
ft. pitch, standing at the interval of a perfect fifth apart, thus: 

GENERATING TONES. DIFFERENTIAL TONE. 



CCCC32FT. GGGG2IMFT. ' " ! CCCCC 64 FT. TONE 

1 6 24 8 vibrations 

There are three ways of producing what is more expressively 
termed the Vox GRAVISSIMA, varying in effectiveness, i. By 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 151 

associating with the DOUBLE DIAPASON, 32 FT., an independent 
SUB-QUINT, 21 y$ FT., tonally the most effective method. 2. By 
extending the compass of the DOUBLE DIAPASON seven notes, and 
introducing a Quint coupler acting on the same stop and sounding 
its notes in fifths. 3. By extending the DIAPASON, 1 6 FT. , downward 
to GGGG, and coupling it to the DOUBLE DIAPASON, 32 FT. We 
are in favor of the first method, because it allows the SUB-QUINT or 
GROSSQUINTENBASS, 21 J^ FT. (q. .), to be used in combination with 
any other labial or lingual stops of 32 ft. pitch. This arrangement ob- 
tains in the Pedal of the Schulze Organ in the Cathedral of Bremen. 
In the Organ erected by the Hutchins-Votey Organ Company, in 
Woolsey Hall, Yale University, the GRAVISSIMA was produced by 
the combination of the open wood DOUBLE DIAPASON, 32 FT., and a 
QUINT, 21 J^ ft. tone, derived from the CONTRA-BOURDON, 32 FT. 

There has not been sufficient experience gained as yet respecting 
the acoustical effects of the extremely grave differential tones on the 
proper voices of the Organ for any accurate conclusion to be reached 
respecting their nature. It is quite evident, however, that they 
can have no claim to be classed as musical sounds of a 64 ft. octave. 
When, as Helmholtz states, determinate musical tones cease at that 
produced by 41.25 vibrations, what can be said of those sounds 
produced between 8 and 16 vibrations per second? The combina- 
tion of the two generating -stops certainly produces a remarkable 
acoustic effect, evidently due to the generation of a great series of 
harmonic over-tones: hence the sole value of the Vox GRAVISSIMA. 

GROBGEDECKT, GROSSGEDECKT, Ger. Lat., PILEATA 
MAGNA. The terms signifying " great covered stop, " and used by 
German organ-builders to designate a large-scaled and loud-voiced 
covered stop of 16 ft. or 8 ft. pitch, commonly inserted in a manual 
division. A GROSSGEDECKT, 16 FT., exists in the Great of the Organ 
in the Church of St. Dominic, Prague; and a GROBGEDECKT, 8 FT., is 
placed on the First Manual of the Walcker Organ in the Synagogue, 
Berlin. 

The word grobe has been used as a prefix, for the purpose of indi- 
cating strength of tone, in the case of several other stop-names. We 
accordingly find in old lists such terms as GROBCYMBEL, GROBMIX- 
TUR, GROBPOSAUNE, GROBREGAL, etc. 

GROSSDOPPELGEDECKT, Ger. A covered wood stop of 
1 6 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are properly of large scale, deep in 
proportion to their width, and have double mouths, after the fashion 
of the DOPPELFLOTE (q. v.). The stop is suitable for the Pedal Or- 



152 ORGAN-STOPS 

gan or for a manual division in which there are powerful labial or 
lingual stops of unison (8 ft.) pitch. Carefully made and artistically 
voiced, this important stop, in combination, would be productive of 
many fine and uncommon tonal effects in which gravity would be a 
special element. 

GROSSFLOTE, Ger. Fr., GROSSE FLUTE. An open wood 
stop of medium scale and properly of 8 ft. pitch; usually placed in a 
full-toned manual division of the Organ, while it forms a good OC- 
TAVE, 8 FT, for the properly appointed Pedal Organ. In the general 
form of its pipes it resembles the English CLARABELLA, but it is 
voiced to yield a more powerful tone of an unimitative flute organ- 
tone. For this purpose, the mouths are cut high and their upper 
lips made thick, carefully rounded, and polished with black-lead: 
this last is seldom done in ordinary trade practice. Leathered lips 
should be avoided. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. When the GROSSFLOTE is properly 
made and voiced to yield its characteristic tone, it is very valuable 
in registration in which a background of full unimitative flute-tone 
is required. It combines in the most effective manner with all the 
more powerful lingual stops, imparting great body and firmness to 
their tones without destroying their characteristic voices. 

GROSSGEDECKT, Ger. The term appropriately applied to a 
large-scaled covered stop, of 16 ft. pitch, yielding a pure covered- 
tone similar to that of the true LIEBLICHGEDECKT, 16 FT., but of 
much greater volume and assertiveness. Its place is in a manual 
division of the Organ, in which there are powerful lingual and other 
commanding stops, where it will play an important rdle in effective 
registration.* 

GROSSHOHLFLOTE, Ger. The Pedal Organ stop of 16 ft. 
pitch, the open pipes of which are of wood and formed and voiced 
in all respects similar to those of the manual HOHLFLOTE, 8 FT. 
See HOHLFLOTE. 

GROSSNASAT, Ger. Fr., GROS NASARD, GROSSE QUINTE. 

This mutation stop, which is of 10% ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ 
and 5 J^ ft. pitch in the manual divisions, is made of either wood or 
metal and both in open and covered forms. In the first pitch it 
belongs to the 32 ft. harmonic series, and in the higher pitch to 
1 6 ft. harmonic series. As GROSSNASAT, 10% FT., it exists as an 

*See " The Organ of the Twentieth Century," pp. 311, 312. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 153 

open stop in the Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral of Halberstadt, 
As GROSSNASARD, 10% FT. of wood, it is inserted in the Pedal of 
the Organ in the Cathedral of Merseburg. It appears as GROSSE 
QUINTE, 10^3 FT., in the Pedale, and as GROSSE QUINTE, 5^ FT., 
in the Clavier des Bombardes, in the Grand Organ in the Cathedral 
of Notre-Dame, Paris. The stop of 10^ ft. pitch was inserted in the 
Pedal, and of both 10^ ft. and 5^ ft. pitch in the First or Great 
division of the Concert Organ installed in the Festival Hall of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The value of the harmonic-creating 
or corroborating tones, such as those of 10% ft. and 5^ ft. pitch, in 
registration is hardly realized at the present time, owing to the 
rarity of their introduction in modern Organs. In a scheme lying 
before us, for a much-divided Organ of 283 speaking stops, there is 
only one Pedal Organ stop of 10% ft. pitch, and only one manual 
stop of 5 % ft. pitch, showing how little attention is paid by the or- 
gan-builder of to-day, even in his greatest essays, to the scientific 
side of his art; and how little thought or care he bestows on provid- 
ing the organist with proper material for varied and artistic regis- 
tration.* How long are organists to remain content with the results 
of incompetency which handicap them at every turn in their essays 
in registration? Surely it is time that science and art are infused 
into the tonal appointment of important Organs. 

GROSSOCTAV, Ger. The name given by Walcker to an open 
labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, placed on the First Manual of the Organ 
in Paulskirche, Frankurt a. M. The term is used because, strictly 
considered, the manual is of 1 6 ft. pitch, containing, including the 
PRINCIPAL, three stops of 16 ft. pitch. In the Pedal of the same 
Organ is a stop of 16 ft. pitch labeled GROSSOCTAVBASS. 

GROSSPOSAUNE, Ger. The term employed by German organ- 
builders to designate the dominating lingual stop, of 32 ft. pitch, 
belonging to the Pedal Organ. It is, as its name implies, similar in 
all essentials to the CONTRA-TROMBONE, 32 FT. (q. v.). This grave 
stop has not been a favorite with German organ-builders. In the 

* If the reader will refer to our scheme for the Concert-room Organ, given in Chapter XI, of 
"The Organ of the Twentieth Century," he will find we have provided in the Pedal Organ one 
fifth-sounding labial stop of 21 M ft., one labial stop of 10 % ft., and one lingual stop of 10 % ft. 
pitch. Properly distributed in the several manual Organs, are six labial stops of 5 % ft., and two 
lingual stops of 5 K ft. pitch. In addition to these important stops, there are six fifth-sounding 
stops of 2 % ft. pitch. In all, seventeen fifth-sounding stops out of the total number of 230 
speaking stops in the entire tonal scheme: yet we know, on both scientific and artistic grounds, 
there is not one fifth-sounding stop too many to meet the requirements of artistic registration 
and scientific timbre-creation. 



154 ORGAN-STOPS 

Pedal of the Organ in the Nicolaikirche, Leipzig, the stop is labeled 
POSAUNE, 32 FT. The stop is a free-reed. 

GROSSPRINZIPAL, Gen Fr., GROS PRINCIPAL. The name 
appropriately given to the open labial stops of 16 ft. pitch in the 
manual divisions and 32 ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ, yielding pure 
organ-tone, and, accordingly, belonging to the foundation-work of 
the Organ. It exists, of 32 ft. pitch in the Pedal of the Organ in the 
Marienkirche, Liibeck. It also exists, as a displayed stop of English 
tin, of 1 6 ft. pitch, in the Organ in the Church of Waltershausen. 
These stops are similar to the English DOUBLE DIAPASONS of 
corresponding pitches. 

GROSSQUINTENBASS, Ger. This name is given to a covered 
stop, of 21 J^ ft. pitch, inserted in the Pedal of the Organ in the 
Cathedral of Bremen. The stop strictly belongs to the 64 ft. har- 
monic series, and was evidently introduced with the view of pro- 
ducing the acoustic differential tone which we have termed Vox 
GRAVISSIMA (see GRAVISSIMA). This fine Organ of 59 speaking 
stops, was built by Schulze, of Paulinzelle. 

GROSSREGAL, Ger. An old lingual stop of the REGAL family, 
the only peculiarity of which existed in its grave pitch, which was of 
1 6 ft. The stop is no longer made and its name is obsolete. See 
REGAL. 

GROSSTERZ, Ger. Fr., GROSSE TIERCE. This mutation 
harmonic-corroborating stop is of 6 2 /5 ft. pitch in the Pedal and 3)^ 
ft. pitch in the manual Organs. In the former it belongs to the 32 
ft. harmonic series, and in the latter to the 16 ft. harmonic series; 
in each case corroborating the fourth upper parial tone of the prime 
of the corresponding series. A GROSSE TIERCE, 6 2 /5 FT., is inserted 
in the Pddale, and a GROSSE TIERCE, 3)^ FT., in the Bombardes, in 
the Grand Organ in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris. 

The stop may be formed of pipes of metal or wood and either 
open or covered, according to the quality of the tone desired. In 
any case, the tone should be somewhat subdued, for third-sounding 
tones are liable to be undesirably assertive and penetrating, and, 
accordingly, have to be confined to full-toned combinations. When 
properly subordinated to the fifth-sounding stops, the TIERCES 
become extremely valuable in artistic registration, imparting dis- 
tinctive tonal coloring. 

GROSSUNTERSATZ, Ger. A large-scaled covered stop of 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 155 

wood, and of 32 ft. pitch, belonging to the Pedal Organ. An ex- 
ample, under the name, exists in the Pedal of the Organ in the 
Church of Waltershausen. The Organ was built by Trost, of Alten- 
burg, in 1730. When of medium scale, the stop has been commonly 
labeled UNTERSATZ, 32 FT., as in the Pedals of the Organs in the 
Cathedral of Merseburg and the Nicolaikirche, Leipzig. A stop of 
the same form and pitch, but of smaller scale, occupies a place on 
the First Manual of Walcker's Organ in Paulskirche, Frankfurt, a. 
M., where it is labeled MANUAL-UNTERSATZ, 32 FT. 

A covered stop of this grave pitch cannot be pronounced entirely 
satisfactory, and utterly fails to take the place of an open stop of 
32 ft. Cheapness and limitations of space are the only arguments 
that can be advanced in favor of its introduction, either as a Pedal 
Organ or a manual stop. If it is made, we strongly advise its being 
voiced with the harmonic-bridge, so as to generate as great a series 
of harmonic upper partials as possible: these partials alone give 
tonal value to the lower octave and a half of the stop; the prime tones 
of which are not per se musical sounds. 

H 

HALBPRINZIPAL, Ger. The term sometimes used by the old 
German organ-builders to designate the half-length PRINCIPAL; 
namely, the ordinary organ-toned OCTAVE, 4 FT. Schlimbach says: 
"H ALB PRINCIPAL so viel als Principal 4 Fuss, weil das gewohnliche 
Hauptprincipal 8 Fuss hat. Zuweilen bedeutet es auch Octav 8 
Fuss." The old English organ-builders abbreviated the term, and 
called the stop, simply and illogically, PRINCIPAL, 4 FT. The correct 
term, now coming into general use, is OCTAVE, 4 FT. 

HARFENPRINZIPAL, Ger. A manual, open labial stop of 
8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are cylindrical and of small scale. 
The stop was commonly made of tin, and voiced to yield a delicate 
compound tone, which, in quick arpeggio passages, bore a faint re- 
semblance to those of the orchestral Harp. The effect was secured 
by the presence of certain upper partial tones which are prominent 
in the sounds produced by plucked gut strings. Seidel says : " HAR- 
FENPRINZIPAL ist ein lieblich intoniertes Principal, welches einen 
der Harfe ahnlichen schnarrenden Ton haben soil." The stop is 
disused and the name is obsolete. 

HARFENREGAL, Ger. A soft-toned lingual stop, the tones 



156 ORGAN-STOPS 

of which bore a remote resemblance to the twang of harp strings 
when roughly plucked. The stop and its name are both obsolete. 

HARMONIA ^ETHERIA, Grk A compound harmonic-cor- 
roborating stop, composed of two or more ranks of very small-scaled 
and delicately voiced metal pipes. In its most desirable form it is 
composed of ^EOLINE labial pipes (See ^EOLINE); but in this ex- 
tremely refined form it is at present practically unknown. The stop 
has been made in different forms. It appears, under the unusual 
name "HARMONICA ^ETHERICA, " of two ranks, in the Echo of the 
Organ, built by Schulze, in the Parish Church of Doncaster, York- 
shire. In Walcker's Organ in Riga Cathedral a HARMONIA J&THE- 
RIA, of three complete ranks TWELFTH, 2^ FT., FIFTEENTH, 2 FT., 
and SEVENTEENTH, i% FT., is placed on the Third Manual. 
Similar stops are inserted in the Organ in the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, 
and several other Walcker Organs. The German organ-builders do 
not seem to have carried the stop beyond three ranks, nor do they 
appear to have made breaks in the ranks. 

FORMATION. While a stop of through ranks, such as adopted by Walcker and 
other builders, formed of small-scaled and softly voiced pipes, could not fail to be 
very useful ; a HARMONIA ^STHERIA, in the form of a MIXTURE, composed of several 
ranks of high-pitched JEouNE or Vox ANGELICA pipes would be extremely valu- 
able as a harmonic-corroborating stop in the softest toned manual division of an 
artistically appointed Organ. It certainly should find a place in the Organ of the 
twentieth century. The following is the appropriate composition for a full stop 
of six ranks : 

HARMONIA ^ETHERIA VI. RANKS. 
CC to F# . . . . 15 17* 19 22 26 -29. 

G to f# .... 12 15 17* 19 22 26. 
g 1 tO f# .... 8 12 15 17* 19 22. 

g a to c* .... i 8 12 15 17* -19. 

Should this composition be considered too full, the third-sounding break* in 
each rank may be omitted, making a five-rank stop. If the SEVENTEENTH is re- 
tained, it should be voiced softer than the octave- and fift;h-sounding ranks, for 
that interval is, otherwise, very liable to be too assertive. This refined harmonic- 
corroborating stop should speak on wind of ij^ inches to 2% inches, and be most 
scientifically regulated. The pipes to be of tin. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. Properly made and artistically 
voiced, the HARMONIA ^THERIA should yield a singing, silvery, 
compound tone of great beauty; so delicate that, in registration, it 
may be employed with any of the softest unison stops in the Organ, 
string- or flute-toned. As a harmonic-corroborating or timbre- 
creating stop it would be difficult to overrate its value a value 
absolutely unrealized in the present noisy-organ epoch. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 157 

HARMONICA, HARMONIKA, Ger. An open labial stop, 
usually of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are of wood, of small scale! 
and voiced to yield a combination of flute-tone and string-tone of a 
soft and beautiful quality. The stop has long been a favorite with 
German organ-builders, while it is practically unknown by those of 
this and other countries: indeed, both in the design and construc- 
tion of wood stops, generally, the German organ-builders have 
always taken the lead, surpassing all others. Both French and 
English organ-builders have favored metal pipes, under the mis- 
taken impression, perhaps, that a better tone could be obtained 
from them than from wood pipes; but more likely from the fact that 
metal-pipes are more easily made and voiced. This was the rock 
Willis split upon in his tonal appointment of the Organ in the Royal 
Albert Hall, South Kensington, London. In that large Organ there 
are only two complete wood stops, and the tone of the instrument 
suffers accordingly. 

Fine examples of the HARMONIKA, 8 FT., exist on the Third 
Manuals of the Organs, by Walcker, in the Cathedrals of Riga and 
Ulm, and in the Concert Organ in the Gewandhaus, Leipzig. It 
exists in the Echo of the Organ in the Cathedral of Lund, Sweden, 
in which it is said to produce "a most beautiful effect." The stop 
is of wood. Equally good examples, labeled HARMONICA, 8 FT., 
exist in the Echo of the Schulze Organ in the Parish Church of Don- 
caster, and in the Choir of the Organ in the Church of St. Bartholo- 
mew, Armley, Yorkshire. 

FORMATION. The scale and form of the HARMONICA vary in different examples; 
and while in the generality of cases its pipes are straight, in some examples they 
are slightly pyramidal. For the stop of 8 ft. pitch, formed of straight, square 
pipes, Haas, the distinguished German organ-builder, has recommended the 
following small scale : 

SCALE OF HARMONICA, 8 FT. 

CC C c 1 c 2 c* 

66 mm. 40 mm. 24 mm. 15 mm. 9 mm. 

We are in favor of a slightly larger scale and the slower reduction secured by 
the ratio 1 : 2.66, which halves on the eighteenth pipe. The following is our pro- 
posed scale, in inches, for square pipes : 

SCALE OF HARMONICA, 8 FT. RATIO 1:2.66. 

CC C c 1 c 2 c* c4 

2.84 1.74 i. 06 0.65 0.40 0.25 

Some German organ-builders use scales which give the pipes of the HARMONICA 
a greater depth than width. An example of this treatment obtains in the fine stop 



158 



ORGAN-STOPS 



in the Armley Organ, in which the pipes from middle c r to the top note are about 
twice their width in depth. Schulze seems to have found this extreme proportion 
favorable to the production of very soft and refined qualities of tone. The chief 
peculiarity of the HARMONICA pipe is the formation of its mouth and attendant 
cap, shown in the accompanying illustration, Fig. 20, which presents a Front View 
and Sections of the mouth portion of the c 1 pipe of the Armley stop. It will be 
seen that the mouth is circular, hollowed on the inside of the pipe so as to present 




FIG. 20 

a thin lip to the wind-stream. The manner in which this is done is shown in the 
Sections 2 and 3. The size of the circular mouth varies according to the quality 
and strength of the tone desired, but it should not be less than one-half the internal 
width of the pipe. It will be observed in Section 2 that the cap is compound, 
being formed of an inner, wedge-shaped piece, which forms the lower lip of the 
mouth ; and an outer piece, in which the wind- way is carefully cut in the manner 
shown, in black, in the Transverse Section of the mouth, 3. In the formation of 
the compound caps extreme care and accuracy must be observed in graduating 
the thickness and slope of the wedge-piece, and smoothly rounding and polishing 
with black-lead its upper edge or lip.* The chief difficulty in connection with the 
voicing of this beautiful stop lies in the adjustment of both parts of the caps with 
relation to the circular mouths, and the exact proportions of the wind-ways, so as 
to obtain a perfectly even intonation throughout the compass. As a rule, the cap 
is adjusted to cover about one-third of the diameter of the mouth, but different 

* The dimensions given by Tdpf er-Allihn for the outer portion of the cap (Frosch) and the 
inner wedge-piece (Platte) are of sufficient importance to be given here : " Die Lange der grOssten 
Frdsche kann 50 mm betragen und nimmt ab bis zu 36 bis 40 mm. Die Dicke kann filr die 
grdsseren Pfeifen 20 mrn und fur die kleineren zwischen 8 bis 10 mm betragen. Es versteht sich, 
dass die vordere Dicke der Platte von den hdchsten T6nen bis zum tiefsten gleichmassig zuneh- 
men muss, weil ausserdem die Gleichmassigkeit des Tones darunter leiden wurde. ' Man kann 
diese Dicke fur C 8 Fuss 5 mm und fur c3 0,2 mm setzen. Bei diesen Annahmen erhalt man die 
vordere Dicke der Platte fur c = 2.2 mm; fur c 1 = I mm; fur c 2 = 0.45 mm. Die hintere Dicke 
nimmt von 8 mm bis zu 3 mm ab. " " Die Theorie und Praxis des Orgelbaues, " p. 232. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 159 

positions are adopted according to the tonality desired. While pine may be used 
for the sides and backs of the pipes, it is necessary, with such a form of mouth, for 
their fronts and caps to be of some close-grained hard wood: preferably beech for 
the caps. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the HARMONICA in its 
finest quality is extremely refined, being a combination of flute- and 
string-tone, in some examples inclining to one and in some to the 
other tonality. Locher says it "is a very tender 8-ft. string-tone 
stop, of narrow scale, intonated between the MOLINA and SALI- 
CIONAL." According to Topfer-Allihn, "Es ist eine Stimme von 
atherischem Charakter, welche bei sanften Altargesangen zum 
Gemtite des stillen Beters spricht." Although in the case of this 
stop one cannot speak from actual experience, it is not difficult to 
arrive at a fairly accurate estimation of its value in refined registra- 
tion. It has hitherto been, and will continue to be inserted in the 
softest-toned division of the Organ, where it will be associated with 
stops labial and lingual of varied tonalities and, properly, of 
equally refined voices, admitting of combinations of great variety 
and beauty. If the HARMONICA inclines to flute-tone, the most 
effective registrations will be those with labial stops of string-tone 
and the lingual stops. It will be specially valuable with the Vox 
HUMANA, should one be present. On the other hand, if the HAR- 
MONICA inclines (as many German examples seem to do) to string- 
tone, its most effective registrations will be with stops of flute-tone 
and pure organ-tone, imparting to them a delicate brilliancy and 
clearness. To the lingual stops it will add firmness and richness. 
In the registration of stops of soft and refined tonalities the principle 
of tonal contrast should always be observed. The HARMONICA 
should speak on wind of i^ inches to 2^ inches pressure. 

HARMONICABASS, Ger. A Pedal Organ labial stop, of 16 
ft. pitch, formed of small-scaled open pipes of wood, voiced on a 
low-pressure wind, and yielding (like the HARMONICA, 8 FT., to which 
it is the true bass) a tone in which both refined flute-tone and string- 
tone are combined. A representative example of this uncommon 
stop exists in the Pedal of the Organ in the Catholic Church, at 
Berne, Switzerland. Locher describes this stop as "specially suita- 
ble for the accompaniment of soft passages. J> 

The pipes should be constructed and voiced in the same manner 
as those of the HARMONICA (q. y.) ; and the following scale will be 
found suitable. As this stop would be required to furnish the bass 
to combinations of soft stops, it should be voiced on wind of 2^ 
or 3 inches. 



160 ORGAN-STOPS 

SCALE OF HARMONICABASS, 16 FT. RATIO i: 2.66. 

CCC CC C G 

4-44 2.73 1.67 1.25 

HARMONIC CLARIBEL. The name given by Thomas 
Casson, organ-builder, of London, to a HARMONIC FLUTE of a large 
scale and full intonation, constructed by him. Other English organ - 
builders have used the name to designate harmonic stops of a similar 
character. A fine example exists in the Organ constructed by Nor- 
man & Beard, of Norwich, in 1905, for the Colston Hall, Bristol. 
This stop is of 8 ft. pitch, and speaks on high pressure wind. Its 
pipes have inverted mouths, and are of double standard length and 
harmonic from c 1 to the top note. Such a treatment is favorable to 
the augmentation of the treble. 

HARMONIC CLARION. Fr., CLAIRON HARMONIQUE. This 

lingual stop is the true Octave of the HARMONIC TRUMPET, 8 FT., 
and is, accordingly, of 4 ft. pitch. The pipes are formed in all re- 
spects similar to those of the unison stop, being of about double the 
normal speaking lengths, voiced on high-pressure wind to speak the 
octave pitch. The CLAIRON HARMONIQUE was invented by Aristide 
Cavaille-Coll, and introduced for the first time in the Rcit-Echo 
Expressif of the Organ in the Royal Church, Saint-Denis, con- 
structed in 1841. 

HARMONIC DIAPASON. The name used by Bryceson 
Brothers, organ-builders, of London, to designate a large-scaled 
labial stop of DIAPASON formation, the pipes of which are, in the 
more important examples, of double the standard speaking length 
and harmonic from G or c 1 to the top note. The aim of the build- 
ers was to produce a volume of powerful foundation-tone; but, as 
might be expected on scientific grounds, the result was anything but 
pure organ-tone. The step was in the wrong direction, and, natur- 
ally, the result was a powerful and unpleasant flute-tone. Examples 
exist in certain Organs by Bryceson Brothers, notably one in the 
Organ built in 1882 for the Concert Hall, Paisley, Scotland. Such a 
stop is not a desirable addition to the Organ of to-day, which is 
over-furnished with unduly assertive voices. 

HARMONIC FLUTE. Fr., FLUTE HARMONIQUE. The stop 
formed of cylindrical metal pipes of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch. In the uni- 
son stop the pipes from the middle octave to the top note are made 
of double the normal speaking lengths; and are voiced and so blown 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 161 

as to speak the octaves of the tones properly belonging to the full 
lengths of the pipes so treated. For full particulars respecting this 
important stop, see FLUTE HARMONIQUE. This stop was invented 
by Cavaille-Coll, and inserted, for the first time, in the Organ in the 
Royal Church, Saint-Denis, in the year 1841. 

The HARMONIC FLUTE has been very successfully constructed of 
wood in several forms. For particulars respecting those yielding 
imitative flute-tone, see ORCHESTRAL FLUTE. 

HARMONIC PICCOLO. Fr., PICCOLO HARMONIQUE. A 
cylindrical metal stop, of 2 ft. pitch ; the pipes of which are double 
the standard speaking lengths, and are formed and voiced in all 
respects similar to those of the harmonic portion of the HARMONIC 
FLUTE, 8 FT. (q. v.). An example of this stop under the name Oc- 
TAVIN HARMONIQUE, 2 FT., was inserted by Cavaille-Coll in the 
Rcit-Echo Expressif of the Organ in the Royal Church, Saint- 
Denis, in the year 1841. See FLUTE HARMONIQUE. 

HARMONIC TRUMPET. Fr., TROMPETTE HARMONIQUE. 
Ger., HARMONIETROMPETE. A lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the reeds 
of which are of special formation, and the resonators of inverted 
conical form are, for the greater portion of its compass, of greater 
lengths than those required for the ordinary TRUMPET, 8 FT. The 
reeds are of the open class and of large scale, and the tongues are 
thick and well curved, so as to respond properly to the high-pressure 
wind on which the stop is voiced; producing powerful tone's, which 
are the octaves of those which naturally belong to the lengths of the 
resonators. Accordingly, the resonator of eight feet in length in the 
HARMONIC TRUMPET yields a note of the same pitch as that pro- 
duced by the resonator of four feet long in the ordinary TRUMPET, 
both stops being of 8 ft. pitch. The double-length resonators usually 
commence at tenor C. 

The TROMPETTE HARMONIQUE was invented by Aristide Cavaille- 
Coll, and used for the first time in the Organ erected, in 1841, in 
the Royal Church, Saint-Denis. One TROMPETTE HARMONIQUE was 
placed in the Positif ; two in the Grand Orgue; and two in the Recit- 
ficho Expressif; all of 8 ft. pitch.* These stops, voiced on compara- 

* " La trompette harmonique du clavier dere"cit est, par sa puissance et par Texcellence des sons 
qu'elle produit, incomparablement superieure a tout ce que Ton connalt en ce genre. Le carac- 
tere tout-a-fait particulier de ses basses, lorsqu'on 1'emploie comme partie chantante accom- 
pagn6e des jeux de fond, est d'un effet admirable. On en peut dire autant des series de jeux de 
fldtes harmoniques qui donnent a 1'ensemble de i'orgue tant de rondeur et de puissance." J. 
Adrian de La Page, in Report to the Societe des Beaux- Arts, on the Organ in the Royal Church 
Saint-Denis, 1844. 



162 ORGAN-STOPS 

tively low-pressure wind, were widely different in tone from the 
corresponding stops subsequently developed by Willis and other 
leading English organ-builders, who adopted suitable high wind 
pressures to produce the rich tone desired. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the HARMONIC TRUM- 
PET varies considerably, according to the method in which it is 
voiced and the pressure of the wind on which it speaks. The tones 
of the French stops are, like the generality of the French striking- 
reed stops, somewhat hard and brassy, due to the thinness and 
peculiar curvature of their tongues, combined with wind of moder- 
ate pressure. On the other hand, the HARMONIC TRUMPETS made 
by the Willis school of reed-voicers, in which thick tongues are used, 
beautifully curved so as to strike the echalote with a smooth uncurv- 
ing motion, yield, under high-pressure wind, full rich tones, which, 
practically free from objectionable brassy clang, are imitative of the 
tones of the orchestral Slide Trumpet played by a master. 

The office of so powerfully- voiced a stop as the HARMONIC TRUM- 
PET is necessarily limited in artistic registration. Its chief value is 
in solo passages of an orchestral character, and when suitably 
accompanied. It is also suitable in very full combinations in which 
it assumes the dominating tonality, assisted, perhaps, by its true 
Octave the HARMONIC CLARION, 4 FT., or the TUBA CLARION, 4 FT. 
Powerful as its voice is and naturally rich in harmonics, it can be 
effectively colored by the addition of loud-toned harmonic-cor- 
roborating stops, simple and compound. The HARMONIC TRUMPET 
should never be placed in an unexpressive division of an Organ. 

HARMONIC TUBA. The most powerful lingual stop, of 8 ft. 
pitch, inserted in the Organ. Its pipes are of large scale, having 
resonators of inverted conical shape and double the normal standard 
length. The reeds are formed similar to, but slightly larger in scale 
than, those of the HARMONIC TRUMPET (q. .). The stop is voiced 
on wind of fifteen inches upward, according to the volume and power 
of the tone required. Reeds with double tongues have been sug- 
gested for this impressive stop; but they are too troublesome to 
make, too uncertain in speech, and too difficult to tune, ever to 
favor their adoption: and it is questionable if they are desirable; for 
sufficient musical noise can be produced by the single-tongued reeds 
for all legitimate effects in dignified music. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The proper tone of the HARMONIC 
TUBA is full, sonorous, and commanding; dominating all the voices 
of the 8 ft. stops, labial and lingual, in the Organ. Its use is, accord- 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 163 

ingly, limited to rare and very special effects, chiefly of an orchestral 
character, and to grand climaxes in which a "full organ" burst of 
sound is called for. The stop is, therefore, only necessary and appro- 
priate in Concert-room Organs of the first magnitude. Although 
stops of this dominating assertiveness have in several noteworthy 
cases been thoughtlessly not to use a stronger expression planted 
in exposed and uncontrollable positions, it is surely unnecessary to 
insist, on both artistic and common-sense grounds, that the HAR- 
MONIC TUBA be placed under control and in an expressive division 
of the Organ. Its place is either in the Solo Organ or, better still, in 
the Brass-wind division of the properly schemed Concert-room 
Organ. Generally, the remarks anent the registration of the HAR- 
MONIC TRUMPET apply in the case of the stop under review, although 
the HARMONIC TRUMPET must be considered to be more generally 
useful than the more powerful HARMONIC TUBA. 

HARMONIC TWELFTH. A covered labial stop, of 2^ ft. 
pitch, the pipes of which are of metal, of medium scale, and stopped 
so as to have speaking lengths equal to one and one-half times the 
lengths of the standard open pipes of the corresponding pitch. Thus, 
the CC pipe of the HARMONIC TWELFTH, having a speaking length 
of 4 ft., yields, on being properly voiced and overblown, a tone of 
the same pitch as that of an open pipe of 2% ft. speaking length. 

The HARMONIC TWELFTH was introduced by Thomas Casson, 
and inserted in the Organ installed in the London Organ School and 
certain other instruments constructed, under his supervision, by 
the Positive Organ Company, of London. It has been made by some 
other builders. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the stop is properly full, 
smooth, and clear; and owing to its having comparatively few upper 
partial tones of an assertive character it mixes well, and is more 
agreeable in combination than the open TWELFTH, 2^3 FT., which 
belongs to the foundation harmonic series. It is on this account less 
prominent, while it is more effective as a timbre-creating stop in 
combination with both labial and lingual stops of the softer class. 
It may, accordingly, be considered more valuable in artistic regis- 
tration than any open-toned TWELFTH. In fact, it can be used in 
such registration ten times for once that the TWELFTH of the foun- 
dation-work can be used. Its proper position is in a soft-toned divi- 
sion of the Organ ; and it is specially to be recommended for insertion 
in the chief accompanimental division of the properly appointed 
Church Organ. 



1 64 xjKGAN-STOPS 

HARMONIEFLOTE, Ger. The name given to an open labial 
stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are of wood and of small scale, 
narrow and deep, voiced on wind of low pressure. In the best 
examples the tone is soft and singing, in character between the 
voices of the HARMONICA and the MELODIA, while it is less assertive 
than either. Desirable as a stop of this tonality would be when re- 
finement is aimed at, it is not likely to be favored during the present 
prevailing craze for loud and crude intonation. Such a flute-toned 
stop would be ideal for a properly appointed Chamber Organ. We 
are not aware of a single example obtaining in an English or Ameri- 
can Organ. 

HARP. Commonly, in modern Organs, a percussion stop, of 8 
ft. pitch, formed of metal or wood plates or bars, suspended over 
tuned resonators, and struck by a hammer-action, electrically com- 
manded by a manual clavier. The compass of the stop is usually of 
49 notes CC to c 3 but is properly made of the full manual com- 
pass, 6 1 notes. Different opinions obtain respecting the most desir- 
able material for the resonant bars; some maintaining that the Harp 
tone is better imitated by sonorous wood than metal. The latter, 
however, is generally used. To produce the desired tone, the 
hammers have to be very carefully padded, and the action artis- 
tically adjusted. 

In 1733, Thomas Schwarbrook inserted in his Organ in the 
Church of St. Michael, Coventry, three remarkable string stops 
HARP, LUTE, and DULCIMER. But owing to the difficulty of keeping 
the strings in tune, the stops were removed in 1763. Some attempts 
have been made to furnish the modern Organ with a string HARP, 
sounded by plectra. 

HAUTBOIS D'AMOUR, Fr. Ital., OBOE D'AMORE. A lingual 
stop of the OBOE species, the pipes of which have resonators of small 
scale, partly covered so as to impart to the tone a singular softness 
and refinement which, in all likelihood, suggested its name.* This 
stop seems to be no longer made, being displaced, along with other 
softly-toned stops, by those of more powerful and less beautiful 
voices. The stop should be revived for insertion in the true Cham- 
ber Organ, and in the softest and accompanimental divisions of the 
Church and Concert-room Organs. 

* ' ' HAUTBOIS D'AMOUR. Hat mit cler vorhergehenden Stimme viel Aehrvliches, doch muss sie 
wie die Vox humana halb gedeckt sein. Man findet sei zu 8 Fusston, und kleiner darf sie ihrer 
Natur nach auch nicht sein." Sclilimbach, 1845. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 165 

HAUTBOY.- Fr., HAUTBOIS. Ital. and Ger., OBOE. A lingual 
stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the tone of which imitates, more or less closely, 
that of the orchestral instrument of the same name. The resonators 
of the ordinary HAUTBOY are slender and of standard length, and 
are surmounted by long inverted conical bells, which are sometimes 
shaded. The variety of the stop designated the ORCHESTRAL OBOE 
has been made with resonators of different forms and proportions, 
with the view of obtaining a close imitation of the tone of the or- 
chestral instrument. In England and America the HAUTBOY is 
invariably a striking-reed; but in France and Germany the free- 
reed stop seems to have been preferred. An example exists on the 
Second Manual of Ladegast's fine Organ in Schwerin Cathedral. 
For description and illustration of the striking-reed stops, see OBOE 
and ORCHESTRAL OBOE. 

HELLFLOTE, HELLPFEIFE, Ger. This name, which signi- 
fies Clear-toned Flute, has been given by German organ-builders to 
an open labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are of wood and 
of small scale, voiced to yield a clear semi-imitative flute-tone, of 
medium strength, and of good mixing quality. Schlimbach does not 
mention the stop; and Seidel dismisses it in these words: " HELL- 
PFEIFE, ein offenes Flotenwerk zu 8' von besonders helium Ton." 
For description of the corresponding English stop, see CLEAR FLUTE. 

HOHLFLOTE, HOHLPFEIFE, Ger. Pr., FLUTE-CREUSE. 
Dtch. HOLFLUIT, HOLPIJP. This name, which means Hollow-toned 
Flute, is used to designate an open labial stop, of 8 ft., 4 ft., and, 
sometimes, 2 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are of large scale, made, in 
the most characteristic examples, of wood, and voiced to yield a 
full, somewhat dull, and hollow tone, which has suggested its name. 
Examples exist in several of the more important Walcker Organs, 
including those in Riga Cathedral and the Gewandhaus, Leipzig. 
In both these Organs they are of 8 ft. pitch. In the Organ in Pauls- 
kirche, Frankfurt a. M., the HOHLFLOTE is of 4 FT. pitch. They are 
all placed on the First Manual the proper division (the Great) in a 
Church Organ. In the properly stop-apportioned Concert-room 
Organ it should find a place in the Wood-wind division, and in the 
subdivision devoted specially to the FLUTES.* 

* "La FLOTE-CREUSE (die Hohlflcete) est une flute de grosse taille en gtoffe e' mieux en bois 
pour repondre & son nom et sonner le creux du sapin par ces levres 6troitement pmcees. On la 
peutfaire detoutesles hauteurs; & seize-pieds, elle est fort originate, mais aussi rare qu' deux; a 
huit-pieds, elle chante avec beaucoup de melancolie; gen6ralement, on ne la melange qu'avecles 
jeux effiles et tranchants." Regnier. 



1 66 



ORGAN-STOPS 



FORMATION. The HOHLFLOTE, of wood, is made in different forms; all with the 
aim of obtaining from pipes of moderate scales the maximum volume of the tone 
peculiar to the stop, while speaking on a copious supply of wind at a moderate 
pressure. We cannot do better than describe the formation of the pipes of two 
representative stops, made and voiced by the distinguished artist, Edmund 
Schulze, of Paulinzelle. The first stop, from the Organ formerly in the Town Hall 
of Northampton, was formed of quadrangular pipes of greater width than depth, 
with the mouth cut on a wide side. The lower portion of a pipe of this stop is 
shown, in Front View and Longitudinal and Transverse Sections, in Fig. 21. The 




II 





FIG. 21 



mouth is of the German form, cut up equal to one-half its width, having a straight 
upper lip, and its side-pieces and the upper portion of the cap sloped toward the 
lower lip. The second stop, from the Organ in the Church of St. Peter, Hindley, 
is formed of triangular pipes of greater depth than width, with the mouth cut on 
the narrow side. The lower portion of the middle c 1 pipe of this stop is shown in 
Front View and Longitudinal and Transverse Sections, in Fig. 22. The peculiar 
formation of the pipe is clearly indicated by the Sections. The internal dimen- 
sions are I Y% inches in width at the mouth by 2 J^ inches in depth.* These meas- 
urements give an internal transverse area equal to that of a quadrangular pipe of 
1 5^8 inches in width by i & inches in depth. The adoption of the triangular form 
is simply for the purpose of obtaining a mouth large in proportion to the transverse 
area of the pipe, as in the case of the preceding example. The mouth is % inch in 
height and arched as shown. HOHLFLOTE pipes have also been made of greater 
depth than width, as in the stop in the Great of the Organ in the Public Halls, 
Glasgow, constructed by Lewis, of London. The tenor C pipe of this stop meas- 
ures 2 J/6 inches in width by 2$ inches in depth. The mouth, formed on the wide 
way of the pipe, is cut up i/% inches in height, and its upper lip is thick and care- 
fully rounded, as is generally the case in HOHLFLOTE pipes. The bass octave of 
this stop is, as usual, of large-scaled covered pipes. Provision for a copious supply 

* In speaking of the width of a pipe, allusion is invariably made to the internal dimension of 
the side in which the mouth is cut. A pipe may, therefore, be described as having a greater depth 
than width, or greater width than depth, according to the location of its mouth. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 167 

of wind is necessary in the pipes of the HOHLFLOTE. The stop has in some in- 
stances been made of metal ; but, in the matter of tone, it cannot be considered the 
true stop when of that material. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The proper full unimitative flute- 
tone of the HOHLFLOTE, 8 FT., somewhat dull and hollow in its char- 
acter, places the stop almost in a class by itself. Its recognized 
place is in the Great Organ, where its voice is of the most value in 
combination, imparting great firmness and tonal solidity to the uni- 




FIG. 22 

son foundation tone, and fullness to the voices of the lingual stops 
belonging to that fundamental division. The tone being deficient 
in harmonic upper partials of high pitch, and free from any of an 
assertive character, prevents its assuming the office of a timbre- 
creator, while it admits of its being freely used in registration as a 
body-builder. To be of maximum use, the stop should be placed 
under control and rendered flexible and expressive. By affording 
tones of different degrees of assertiveness, its value in registration 
with exposed stops will be greatly increased. In full effects it will 
largely help in binding the various tonalities and the several pitches 
together, admitting of a free use of the compound harmonic-cor- 
roborating stops at their full tones. In the Second Pedal of the Organ 
in the Cathedral of Ulm there is a HOHLFLOTE of two feet pitch. 
Speaking of this stop, Locher remarks: "As a particularly rare 
specimen, I found this stop in Ulm Minister, as a 2 ft. pedal stop, 
where combined with other stops on the Upper Pedal, it gives, with- 
out need of any coupler, a power of expression belonging almost ex- 



168 ORGAN-STOPS 

clusively to the manuals. To explain the term ' Upper Pedal, ' I 
must say that at Ulm, as well as in the Church of St. Paul, Frank- 
furt-on-the-Main, in the Marienkirche, Lubeck, and in the Stifts- 
kirche, Stuttgart, there aru two pedal claviers placed one above the 
other (like the manuals) instead of the customary single clavier."* 

HOHLFLOTENBASS, Ger. An open labial stop, of 16 ft. 
pitch, the pipes of which are of wood, quadrangular in form, and 
mouthed and voiced similar to those of the HOHLFLOTE (q. #.). It 
furnishes the proper bass to the manual unison stop, and is, accord- 
ingly, a Pedal Organ stop; but rarely introduced in modern Organs. 

HOHLQUINTE, Ger. An open labial stop, of 5^ ft., 2% ft., 
and i J^ ft. pitch, the pipes of which, in the two lower pitches, are 
commonly made of wood, and, in the ij^ ft. pitch, of metal. In 
formation and tone, the stop resembles the unison HOHLFLOTE. As 
a tone-building harmonic-corroborating stop it would prove valu- 
able in either the Great or the Solo of a large Church or Concert- 
room Organ. Its tone not being highly distinctive, the stop lends 
itself very freely to combinations of both labial and lingual stops. 
In the Pedal Organ the HOHLQUINTE, 5% FT., finds its most use- 
ful place; while those of 2% ft. and i}-^ ft. belong to the manual 
department, f 

HOHLSCHELLE, Ger. The term that has been employed by 
German organ-builders to designate a QUINTATEN. Schlimbach 
says: "HOHLSCHELLE. 1st ein veralteter Beiname der Quintaton." 
From the name, which means Hollow-Bell, it might be supposed that 
the tone of the stop resembled that of the HOHLFLOTE, strongly in- 
clining to that of the HOHLQUINTE a compound tone that might 
prove very valuable in artistic registration. Perhaps it is to be re- 

* In our work, "The Art of Organ-Building," Vol. II., pp. 145, 146, we give a Section and 
Plan of the double pedal claviers of the Ulm Organ, made from drawings furnished by Messrs. 
Walcker, of Ludwigsburg, the builders of the Organ. 

f ' ' Mais ce qu'il faut bien retenir, comme nous 1'avons de* ja fait remarquer et comme le prou- 
vent encore les quintes tirdes des r6gistres etroits, c'est qu'& peu pr&s tous les jeux de f onds alle- 
mands engendrentleur quinte, et que sa ge'nfc'ration par un r6gistre special donne & la quinte cous 
lescaracteresdecergistre,la montre, par exemple, a sa quinte ouverte, et de mme mesure 
qu'elle et de mSmes proportions. 

" Cette affection des Allemands pour la quinte est logique; ils ne veulent pas accompagner 
leursf onds avec des fonds seulement, parce que c'est un accompagnement sans vigueur; ils nele 
feront pas non plus avec des timbres 6clatants comme les jeux d'anches; la quinte leur offreun 
renforttout simple et se marie convenablement avec le chant, qui occupe une part siimportante 
dans leur culte exte"rieur. Quand la quinte est & chemine'e, comme en France, c'est souventle 
Nasard; elle se nomme Rohrnasad, Rohrquinl; quand elle ne s'accorde qu'avec les fonds d'un 
degre'su.pe'rieur, onl'appelle souvent Quinta ex octavo.; quand elle est a la douzieme, on la nomme 
en Italic Dodecima, & la dix-neuvieme, Deci ma-Nona." Regnier. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 169 

gretted that some of the tones due to the skill of the old voicers are 
no longer heard in the Organ. 

HORN, ORCHESTRAL HORN. Fr., COR D'ORCHESTRE. 
ItaL, CORNO. Ger., HORN. Stops named HORNS were introduced 
by some of the old English organ-builders. Renatus Harris, Junr., 
erected an Organ, in 1724, in St. Dionis Backchurch, in which he 
inserted a stop labeled FRENCH HORN. In 1730, Richard Bridge 
inserted a similar stop in the Organ he built for Christ Church, 
Spitalfields; and another, in 1741, in the instrument he erected in 
the Church of St. Anne, Limehouse, London. All these stops were 
doubtless designed to imitate in their tones those of the Horn of the 
time, which was first used in England, in 1720, at the performance, 
in London, of Handel's opera <{ Radamisto." What success attended 
the organ-builders' imitations can only be surmised. 

The orchestral Horn of to-day produces tones open and hand- 
closed which are sui generis, and particularly difficult to imitate 
by organ-pipes, lingual or labial. Yet essays have been made by 
skillful pipe-makers and voicers, chiefly with lingual pipes, which 
have been attended with such good results that there are hopes of a 
satisfactory imitation some day rewarding their labors. The tones 
of the orchestral Horn are so peculiarly smooth and tender, that we 
have long held the opinion, supported by effects that have come 
before our notice, that there is a likelihood of a good imitation of the 
Horn tones being produced by metal labial pipes. At present, how- 
ever, no serious attempt has been made in this direction. 

Neither the French nor German organ-builders seem to have 
considered the beautiful tones of the orchestral Horn either capable 
or worthy of imitation; and, accordingly, have made a great mistake. 
In all the lists of stops of Walcker Organs we have examined, we 
have only found HORN, 8 FT., given once, in that of the Concert- 
room Organ in the Philharmonie, Warschau. In this instrument it 
is inserted, along with the OBOE, 8 FT., in the soft-toned Third 
Manual division, where it is expressive. Two HORNS, of 8 ft. pitch, 
were inserted by the celebrated German organ-builder, Edmund 
Schulze, in the Organ in the Parish Church of Doncaster, but neither 
of these can be considered imitative. In the stop-appointments of 
French Organs we have been unable to find a single instance of the 
introduction of the imitative HORN or COR D'ORCHESTRE. It, 
accordingly, seems to have been left to English and American artists 
in reed- voicing to develop the imitative HORN to a state approach- 
ing all that can reasonably be expected of lingual organ-pipes. 



170 ORGAN-STOPS 

FORMATION. In certain attempts made, during the latter part of the last 
century, by English organ-builders to produce tones resembling those of the or- 
chestral Horn, lingual pipes were used having resonators of inverted conical form, 
like those of the TRUMPET, but usually of a larger scale; in which some device of a 
muting character, such as a perforated disc of metal, was inserted so as to obtain 
tones having the peculiar tonality of the closed or "hand notes " of the orchestral 
instrument, which are absolutely free from brassiness or reediness. In other stops, 
the resonators were shaded to obtain the desired subdued tones. Such expedients 
proved only partly successful, and merely pointed the way to more effective 
methods, involving the adoption of resonators of widely different forms and pro- 
portions : of these two representative examples will be sufficient, both due to Ameri- 
can ingenuity and skill. 

The most successful HORN which has come under our notice is that recently 
produced by the Hook and Hastings Company, organ-builders, of Kendal Green, 
Mass., through whose courtesy we are able to describe and illustrate the formation 
of the pipes of the stop. It will be seen, on referring to the illustration, Pig. 23, 
Plate III., that the resonator employed is mainly of the inverted conical form, but 
differing from all other resonators of the form, in being closed at top with a conical 
cap, soldered on, and having a slot, with double adjustment for regulating and 
tuning, cut close to its upper end, as shown. It can be readily understood that the 
peculiar cap exerts a considerable mellowing effect on the tone in conjunction with 
the adjustable slot through which alone the subdued sound finds free egress. The 
slot is properly placed in a line with the tuning-wire, but it is so placed in the illus- 
tration that both it and the wire can be properly shown. The measurements of 
the pipe are as follows: The length of the resonator, exclusive of the conical cap, is 
2 feet 3% inches; diameter at top 3% inches; height of cap internally %inch. 
Length of slot (subject to alteration) 2 rg- inches; width & inch; distance from top 
edge of resonator i J^ inches. The measurements of the sound-producing portions 
are : The length of the reed (echalote) from the under side of the block is i % inches, 
the width of the tongue (languette) at its free end is &k inch, and where it enters 
the block & inch. The reed is of the closed form, its perforation commencing & 
inch from the lower end. 

The second noteworthy example is the HORN which Mr. E. M. Skinner, organ- 
builder of Boston, Mass., added some years ago to the list of imitative stops. 
The formation and proportions of the pipes of this stop forcibly illustrate by 
what very dissimilar treatments similar results are obtained. In this case it may 
be stated that the resonator, instead of being of large scale and after the TRUM- 
PET model, is extremely slender and, accordingly, very slightly tapered. Also 
unlike that of the other HORN, it is open at top, and has a short cylindrical por- 
tion carrying an adjustable slide shaded by a partially attached disc of metal. 
The measurements of the tenor C pipe are as follows: The length of the res- 
onator is 3 feet 3}^ inches (subject to slight alteration), and its internal diameter 
at top is 1.63 inches. The measurements of the sound-producing portions are: 
The length of the reed from the under side of the block is 2 3^- inches; the width of 
the tongue at its free end is ^ inch, and where it enters the block <& inch. The 
reed is of the closed form, its perforation being about i & inches long, commencing 
about y% inch from the lower end. Of examples of less importance it is unnecessary 
to speak. As a specially refined tone, entirely free from clang or brassiness, is 
required, it is necessary that a suitable wind-pressure be adopted for the imitative 
HORN. This may vary under certain conditions; but, in our opinion, it should 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 171 

never exceed twelve inches. The stop represented by the pipe illustrated in Fig. 
23 was wisely voiced on wind of eight inches, which should never be exceeded in a 
Church Organ HORN. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The closer the tone of the organ 
HORN approaches the tones of the orchestral instrument the greater 
will its value be in solo work and in registration. But, it may reason- 
ably be asked, to which of the characteristic tones of the orchestral 
Horn is it most desirable for the tone of the organ stop to approach? 
The two tones of the Horn are the open and dosed; the latter being 
also designated the hand-tones, because they are formed by inserting 
the hand, in a special manner, and more or less, into the bell of the 
instrument while it is being played. These tones are widely different 
in sonorousness, and call for great skill on the part of the performer 
to reconcile them.* It would seem most desirable for the voicer of 
the HORN to aim at obtaining a tone as free from brassy clang as 
possible in striking-reed pipes, and approaching closely the tender 
sympathetic tonality of what are known as the " half -stopped notes" 
of the orchestral Horn. Such a tonality would give the HORN, 8 FT., 
an individuality of peculiar charm and value both in solo effects and 
in refined registration; separating its voice from the voices of all the 
other lingual stops in the Organ; and placing itself, as it were, mid- 
way between them and the voices of the organ-toned labial stops. 
With such an intermediate tonality it is not difficult to realize the 
unique position the imitative HORN would occupy in registration 
with the more refined and contrasting stops of the Organ. To even 
such a distinctive stop as the Vox HUMANA it would impart volume 
and dignity of peculiar value in a tenor solo. In combination with 
the FLUTES it would create tones of beautiful colorings. In the 
properly-appointed Concert-room Organ its correct place is in the 
Brass-wind division ; while in the Church Organ its appropriate place 
is in an expressive accompanimental division. 

HORNBASSLEIN, Ger. The name given, according to Schlim- 
bach (1843), to a Pedal Organ stop, of 2 ft. pitch, formed of open 
metal pipes of medium scale. The stop is represented in the Pedal 
Organ of Walcker's instrument in the Cathedral of St. Stephen, 
Vienna, under the name OCTAVBASS, 2 FT. While stops of this high 

* Dr. W. H. Stone remarks: "Between the stopped or 'hand notes ' and the open notes there 
is an obvious difference in character and quality which it is impossible wholly to suppress, but 
which may be sufficiently modified so as not to offend the ear. This object is attained by blowing 
the open notes softly, so as to reduce the contrast between their sonorousness, and the closed or 
'stuffed' (&ouff) character of those modified by means of the hand." Grove's " Dictionary of 
Music." 



172 ORGAN-STOPS 

pitch are common in German Pedal Organs, they are practically 
unknown as independent stops in French, English, and American 
Pedal Organs. They should, however, appear both in the full COM- 
PENSATING MIXTURE, and the Pedal GRAND CORNET. 

HORN DIAPASON. The name that has been used to designate 
a metal stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which resemble in formation 
and scaling those of the true DIAPASON, but which are modified in 
tone by being boldly slotted and, necessarily, slightly increased in 
length. The effect of the slotting is the introduction of certain har- 
monic upper partials into the pure organ-tone belonging to the 
normal DIAPASON, changing it into a horny and somewhat stringy 
quality which fails to satisfy the sensitive musical ear. The value of 
the tone is, in our opinion, not sufficient to warrant its insertion in 
any save a Concert-room Organ of the first magnitude, in which it 
may be valuable in building up a full volume of foundation tone 
through the absence of tonal sympathy with the pure DIAPASON 
voices. With this view, it may occupy a place in the First or Great 
Organ. Messrs. Walker & Sons, organ-builders, of London, appear 
to favor the stop, having introduced it in several of their important 
instruments. They inserted a HORN DIAPASON, 8 FT., in the Greats 
of the Organs in St. Martin's Church, Leicester, and the Church of 
St. Mary-le-Bow, London; and in the Swells of the Organs in York 
Minster; and Holy Trinity Church, Chelsea, London. We inserted 
the stop in the Third Organ, or Wood-wind division, in our scheme 
for the Organ installed in the Festival Hall of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, 1904, chiefly on account of its value in contrasting 
combinations. 

HORNLEIN, Ger. The name employed, according to Schlim- 
bach (1843), to designate a manual stop, of 2 ft. pitch, which may 
be either of the GEMSHORN or the NACHTHORN tonality. Such a stop, 
both as a harmonic-corroborator and timbre-creator, would be 
found valuable in artistic registration, furnishing a vivid contrast 
to the PICCOLO, 2 FT. The term HORNLEIN was applied, in the orig- 
inal Organ in the Cathedral of Lucerne, to a soft-toned lingual stop 
of 8 ft. pitch. 

HUMANGEDECKT, Ger. A covered stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the 
soft and compound tone of which seemed to imitate a refined human 
voice.* The pipes were of similar formation to those of the LIEB- 

* "Human heifst so viel als lieblich, dar HUMANGEDECKT: ein liebliches, angenehmes, ge- 
decktes Register. Man findet es gewohnlich zu 8 Pusston." Seidel. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 173 

LICHGEDECKT, 8 FT., but of somewhat smaller scale, and voiced on 
wind of lower pressure. 

A stop of this description would be a valuable addition to the 
tonal forces of the true Chamber Organ, and also to the tonal appor- 
tionment of the Choir or chief accompaniment al division of the 
Church Organ, in which great refinement of tone is essential. 

J 

JEU ERARD, Fr. The name given to a free-reed stop, invent- 
ed by rard, of Paris, and inserted by him in the Organ erected in the 
Tuileries, now destroyed. Like all properly-constructed free-reed 
stops, the JEU ERARD was furnished with very large boots. Its res- 
onators were in the form of a short inverted cone, surmounted by a 
hemispherical capping, having a perforation, where the two forms 
joined, for the escape of the condensed air and the emission of the 
sound. The tone of this stop is stated to have been agreeable but 
rather muffled, as might be expected from a free-reed under such a 
resonator. The stop is now obsolete. See REGAL. 

JUBALFLOTE, Ger. An open labial stop of 8 ft. and 4 ft. 
pitch, the pipes of which have double mouths, and yield a full un- 
imitative flute-tone.* A JUBALFLOTE, 8 FT., exists in Walcker's 
Organ in St. Paul's Church, Frankfurt. It also exists, of both 8 ft. 
and 4 ft. pitch, in the Pedal of the Organ in the Church of SS. Peter 
and Paul, Goerlitz. Hopkins gives, in his specification, a third 
JUBALFLOTE, of 2 ft. pitch, but we question his accuracy in this 
small matter. 

JULA, Ger. The name given, according to Schlimbach and 
Seidel, to the SPITZFLOTE, 8 FT., but for what reason neither au- 
thority gives any information. The term JULAQUINTE has, after the 
same fashion, been used to designate a similar stop of either 5^ ft. 
or 2^ ft. pitch. 

JUNFERNREGAL, Ger. An old lingual stop, which was 
usually made of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch; but an example of 1 6 ft. pitch 
exists, or did exist about fifty years ago, in the Choir of the Organ 
in the Church of St. Dominick, Prague. Like all old REGALS, the 
stop is one of the tonal curiosities of the art of organ-building. See 
REGAL. 

* "JUBALFLOTE, ein Bezeichnung fur ein offenes Flotenwerk 8' oder 4', auch mit doppelter 
Labiierung, kommt im deutschen und amerikanischen Orgelbau vor. Der Name ist entnommert 
aus I, Mos. 4, 21." Topfer-Allihn. 



174 ORGAN-STOPS 

JUNGFERNSTIME, Ger. Lat., Vox VIRGINE. The term 
which has occasionally been employed by German organ-builders 
to designate an open labial stop , the pipes of which were cylindrical, 
of small scale, and properly made of tin in the best examples. The 
stop, voiced on wind of low pressure, yielded a tone of an extremely 
refined and delicate character, probably closely resembling that of 
the Vox ANGELICA, 8 FT. , of to-day. It was usually and properly 
made of unison (8 ft.) pitch, but an OCTAVE seems to have sometimes 
been made. 

K 

KALBERREGAL, Ger. An obsolete lingual stop of the old 
REGAL family, which received its remarkable name from the subdued 
and lowing character of its voice, which somewhat resembled that 
of a calf (KalV). See REGAL. 

KERAULOPHONE, Grk. This name, compounded from the 
Greek words ^epag a horn, auXos a pipe or flute, and cpcovq voice 
or sound, is used to designate an open metal labial stop, of 8 ft. 
pitch. The stop was originally made by Gray & Davison, organ- 
builders, of London; and was introduced by them, for the first time, 
in the Organ they constructed, in 1843, for the Church of St. Paul, 
Knightsbridge, London. The stop is common in English Organs, 
but has very seldom been made by Continental builders : an example 
appears in the Positif of Merklin's Organ in the Church of Saint- 
Eustache, Paris. We have been unable to find an example in any 
Organ built by Walcker, Ladegast, or any other great German organ- 
builder: but Locher states that a KERAULOPHONE was inserted by 
Steinmeyer, in 1880, in the Organ in the Frauenkirche, Munich. 
Roosevelt, of New York, showed his wise appreciation of the value 
of this stop by inserting it in some of his important Organs. He 
placed it in the Great of his Organ in Grace Church, and in the Solo 
of the Organ in the Church of St. Thomas, New York City; in the 
Echo of the Organs in the Auditorium, Chicago; the Cathedral of 
The Incarnation, Garden City, L. L, and the First Congregational 
Church, Great Barrington, Mass. English organ-builders are, to- 
day, very unwisely abandoning the stop. 

Although the name of the stop under consideration has com- 
monly been rendered KERAULOPHON, it seems clear to us that, as its 
last syllable is derived from the word cpwv-iq, it should be rendered 
KERAULOPHONE ; agreeing with many other words which derive their 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 175 

terminations from the same Greek word such as EUPHONE, STEN- 
TORPHONE, DIAPHONE, graphophone, microphone, telephone, etc. 
The French term is KERAULOPHONE. Roosevelt invariably used the 
final E in his stop names. 

FORMATION. The pipes of the KERAULOPHONE are cylindrical in form and of 
medium scale. The desirable maximum scale in the ratio i : 2.66 halving on the 
eighteenth pipe gives the CC pipe a diameter of 3.94 inches; the C pipe a di- 
ameter of 2.41 inches; the c 1 pipe a diameter of 1.47 inches, and the c 4 pipe a diame- 
ter of 0.34 inches. Smaller scales have been adopted by different builders, and 
are desirable when the stop is destined for an Echo Organ or a Chamber Organ: 
but too small a scale will destroy the characteristic tone of the stop, which should 
be round and rich. The mouth of the KERAULOPHONE pipe should be one-fifth 
the circumference of the pipe in width, and about one-fourth its width in height. 
This latter proportion, however, depends upon the wind-pressure which should 
not exceed 3% inches and the quality of the tone desired. The upper lip is 
straight and not cut sharp, being smoothly rounded, and the nicking of the 
languid is moderately fine. The mouth has ears of small projection and without 
any harmonic attachment. The characteristic feature of the pipe, and that which 
is the principal factor in the production of its special tone, is its perforated tuning- 
slide, as shown at A in Fig. 24, Plate III. The length of the slide is about two and a 
half times its own diameter ; and its perforation is made the distance of one diame- 
ter from its top edge, as indicated. In the CC pipe the diameter of the perforation 
should be 0.79 inch; in the C pipe 0.56; and regularly diminishing to 0.14 inch in 
the c 4 pipe. The slides must be so accurately fitted to the bodies of the pipes as to 
firmly retain their position, while they can be easily tapped up or down in 
the process of tuning. Metal of good substance must be used for this stop; and 
Hoyt's Two-ply Pipe-Metal is highly suitable, being specially firm at moderate 
thicknesses. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the KERAULOPHONE 

when in its true form and artistically voiced is full, smooth, and in 
the principal portion of its compass so strongly resembling the tone 
of the "hand notes " of the orchestral Horn as to have suggested its 
name.* In this respect the KERAULOPHONE may be said to stand 
alone among labial stops : and its present neglect by English organ- 
builders goes far to show how little they appreciate refinement of 
tone, and the great value of timbre-creating voices in the Organ. 
There is not sufficient roar or scream in the KERAULOPHONE to please 
the present prevailing want of taste in the organ-building world. 

We can speak, from long experience, of the great value of the 
true English KERAULOPHONE in refined and artistic registration. 
Its building-up and vivid-coloring properties are remarkable; and 
in this direction it is specially valuable in association with both open 
and covered, unimitative, flute-work. It combines admirably with 

* In the KERAULOPHONE in our own Chamber Organ this horn-like tone was so pronounced 
that we labeled it CORNO DI CACCIA. It spoke on wind of 2 % inches. 



1 76 ORGAN-STOPS 

all the softer lingual stops; and would form an effective helper to the 
ORCHESTRAL HORN. The proper situation of the stop is in the true 
accompanimental divisions of the Church and Concert-room Organs. 
It would also be very valuable in the Wood-wind division of the 
properly-apportioned Concert-room instrument. 

KINURA. The name, derived from the Greek word /avupa 
Harp; and given by Hope- Jones to a lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, 
somewhat resembling a poor OBOE in tone, and, accordingly, having 
nothing to recommend it for adoption in any class of Organ. It was, 
however, introduced by him in the Organ installed in McEwan Hall, 
Edinburgh; and in a few other instruments. 

KLEINGEDECKT, Ger. The name given to a covered stop 
of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, of small scale, and yielding a delicate unimita- 
tive flute-tone. This stop, according to Regnier, is of metal and of 
4 ft. pitch only, and of small scale; but this is not altogether correct, 
for in the Choir of the Organ in the Church of St. Michael, Hamburg, 
there is a KLEINGEDECKT, 8 FT., of wood probably a diminutive in 
scale and voice of the usual LIEBLICHGEDECKT, 8 FT. Examples, of 
4 ft. pitch, exist in the Organs in the Cathedral of Ulm and the Town 
Church of Fulda. 

The prefix klein small, has been employed by German organ- 
builders in the names of other organ-stops; we, accordingly, find the 
following: KLEINCIMBEL, KLEINFLOTE, KLEINFLOTENBASS, KLEIN- 
REGAL, and KLEINTERZ (i % FT.). The prefix is employed to indicate 
either octave pitch or small scale. 

KLEINPRINZIPAL, Ger. Literally Small Principal. The 
term which has occasionally been employed to designate the OCTAVE, 
4 FT., of pure organ -tone, the scale of which is adjusted from that of 
the MAJORPRINZIPAL, 8 FT. This octave stop is identical with the 
old English PRINCIPAL, 4 FT., and the HALBPRINZIPAL of the old 
German organ-builders. See OCTAVE. 

KLEINREGAL, Ger. An obsolete stop of the old REGAL 
family, which derived its name from the small size of its pipes of 4 ft. 
pitch. There seems to have been nothing special about its tone. 
See REGAL. 

KNOPFREGAL, Ger. Literally Knob-Regal An obsolete 
lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, which, as in the case of several other old 
REGALS, derived its name from the peculiar form of the resonators 
of its pipes. The resonator consisted of a short cylindrical body or 
tube surmounted by a globular head, across which a narrow slit or 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 177 

opening was cut for the escape of the pipe-wind and the emission 
of the sound. The head in some examples assumed a pear-shape or 
some other bulbous form. See REGAL. 

KOPFREGAL, Ger. One of the curious and now obsolete 
lingual stops, which, like several others of the REGAL family, de- 
rived its name from the form of the resonators of its pipes. The 
usual form of the resonator was that of a short body surmounted by 
a headpiece in the shape of two truncated cones joined together at 
their bases ; a form which, considerably modified, has been followed 
in the resonators of the free-reed COR ANGLAIS. This form, however, 
was not invariably adopted in the old KOPFREGAL of the early Ger- 
man organ-builders. See REGAL. 

KOPPEL, Ger. The term employed by old German organ- 
builders to designate a labial stop, usually of the flute-toned family, 
and of different pitches; peculiarly suitable, on account of its un- 
pronounced tone and good mixing quality, for. combination or cou- 
pling with almost any other stop in the Organ. Another somewhat 
useful office of the KOPPEL was that of a "helper, "commonly em- 
ployed to help or cover the slow speech of certain stops, notably the 
GERMAN GAMBA (g. v.). This valuable stop in the old Organs was 
sometimes labeled KOPPELFLOTE when of . ft. pitch, and KOPPEL- 
OCTAVE or KOPPELOKTAV when of 4 ft. pitch. Seidel remarks: " It 
is a common labial stop, covered, of 4 ft., 8 ft., or 16 ft. pitch, and in 
some very few cases it is open, like the HOHLFLOTE. It belongs to 
the manual department. The 16 ft. stop is termed GROSS-KOPPEL; 
the 8 ft. stop is found under the name COPULA MAIOR; and the 4 ft. 
stop under the name COPULA MINOR. Some call the GEMSHORN a 
KOPPELFLOTE. The KOPPEL is sometimes a description of QUINT, 
5> ft., 2% ft, and i^ ft., and in this case it is open, like the HOHL- 
FLOTE. KOPPEL means also a variety of MIXTURE, of two or three 
ranks. There is a KOPPEL of three ranks in the Pedal of the Organ 
in the Church of St. Dominick, Prague, composed of a TWELFTH, 
2^ FT., a FIFTEENTH, 2 FT., and a SEVENTEENTH, i% FT." 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. Although such a stop as the German 
KOPPEL is not required in its office of helper in the Organ of to-day, 
it is just worth while considering the use of a unison stop, preferably 
of wood, having a pure organ-tone of medium strength, for the pur- 
pose of coupling with, and imparting desirable smoothness and body 
to certain labial and lingual stops especially the latter. Such a 
stop, which might appropriately be called a body -builder, would be 
extremely valuable in artistic registration, in combination with the 



1 78 ORGAN-STOPS 

more cutting string-toned stops and such lingual stops as the CLARI- 
NET, CORNO DI BASSETTO, FAGOTTO, and Vox HUMANA. With the 
last-named it would go far to remove the prominence of the objec- 
tionable nasal twang so commonly and unfortunately characteristic 
of the stop.* 

KURZFLOTE, Ger. Pr., FLUTE COURTE. Literally Short 
Flute. A cylindrical metal labial stop, of medium scale, and 4 ft. 
pitch, yielding an unimitative flute-tone of an agreeable quality. 
An example exists in the Echo of the Organ in the Cathedral of 
Lund, Sweden. 

KUTZIALFLOTE, Ger. This, according to Wolfram (1815), is 
a small-scaled, flute-toned stop, of 4 ft. and 2 ft. pitch. According 
to both Seidel and Hamel, it is an open stop of 4 ft,, 2 ft., and I ft. 
pitch; while it is sometimes met with of 1^3 ft. pitch. The pipes of 
the KUTZIALFLOTE, 4 FT., have been properly made of wood, while 
those of the stops of higher pitch are of metal. A KUTZIALFLOTE, 
i FT., exists in the Great of the Church of St. Dominick, Prague; 
and one, of ij^ ft. pitch, in the Organ in Kreuzkirche, Dresden. 
Beyond its affording examples of the employment of complete stops 
of such high pitches, there is nothing further calling for special 
comment. 



LARIGOT, Fr. Eng., NINETEENTH. Ital, DECIMA NONA. 
An open cylindrical metal stop, of ij^ ft. pitch in the manual de- 
partment and 2%j ft. in the Pedal Organ, f The pipes are properly of 
small scale; but, when forming the independent stop, are invariably 
voiced too loud and piercing. The fact seems to be ignored that the 

* While performing on the Organ in St. George's Hall, Liverpool, the great master of the 
Organ, the late W. T. Best, invariably used a body-giving stop along with the Vox HUMANA, 

f "LARIGOT (from an old French word Varigot, for a small flute or flageolet, now obsolete), 
the old name for a rank of small open metal pipes, the longest of which is only i ) ft. speaking 
length. . . . It is first met with, in English Organs, in those made by Harris, who passed many 
years in France, and who placed one in his instrument in St. Sepulchre's, Snow Hill (London), 
erected in 1670. " E. J. H., in "A Dictionary of Music and Musicians." 

' ' Le LARIGOT est la quinte de la Doublelte,p&r consequent 1'octave sup6rieure du Nasard,$t la 
superoctave du Gros-Nasard. On le fait, ou plutdt on le faisait de grosse taille et d'<$toffe: seize 
pouces, ou Quarante-trois centimetres, & son premier tuyau. On le placait d'ordinaire au positif , 
It cause de son peu de hauteur; mais il est tombS en de"sue"tude dans la facture franchise oft Ton 
ne s'est pas suffisamment pntr6 de la ne"cessit6 d'assembler toujours les trois degr6s de Thar- 
roonie pour 1'avoir complete, quatre, huit et seize-pieds, et dans ceux-ci, les deux et demi, cinq 
et dix-pieds. Quand les trois degre"s de quinte 6taient tir6s avec les trois, quatre et cinq degree de 
sons toniques, 1'effet ce qu'il parait en etait si pergant qu'on a encore gard6 dans la conversation 
1'expression vulgaire de jouer & Tire-Larigot, pour signifier un vacarme solennel." Regnier, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 179 

LARIGOT is a mutation stop belonging, in its different pitches, to an 
8 ft. or 1 6 ft. foundation harmonic series; and, to be of true value as 
a harmonic-corroborating stop should be subordinated in tone to the 
prime unison tone of the series to which it belongs. The LARIGOT, 
i% FT., seldom appears as a complete and independent stop, but 
examples exist in the Grand Chceur of the Organ of the Cathedral of 
Notre-Dame, and in the Positif of the Organ in the Church of Saint- 
Sulpice, Paris. There is much to be said in favor of this practice of 
introducing the LARIGOT as an independent stop. For further 
particulars see NINETEENTH. 

LIEBLICHFLOTE, Ger. The name sometimes used to desig- 
nate a small-scaled labial stop, formed of either wood or metal. 
The name refers to the tone only, which, freely rendered, signifies 
Lovely-toned Flute. The pipes are invariably covered, and form the 
correct OCTAVE LIEBLICHGEDECKT. If properly made and artis- 
tically voiced, the wood stop is to be preferred to that of metal, 
although fine examples in the latter material have been produced. 
So long as zinc or inferior pipe-metal can be used, the wood stop is 
not likely to be favored by organ-builders. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The true LIEBLICHFLOTE, 4 FT., 
yields a soft unimitative flute-tone free from any prominent har- 
monics: accordingly, as an octave stop it is extremely valuable in 
registration, brightening and enriching almost all classes of unison 
(8 ft.) tone, without impairing their individual colorings. As a rule, 
there are too few stops of 4 ft. pitch introduced in modern Organs; 
for, as they corroborate the first and principal upper partial tone of 
all open labial stops of 8 ft. pitch, their value is unquestionable and 
their importance only second to that of the unison stops. The LIEB- 
LICHFLOTE should be introduced in the manual division in which the 
LIEBLICHGEDECKTS of 1 6 ft. and 8 ft. pitch are placed, practically 
completing that valuable family of covered stops. It may be re- 
marked, that as the stops of 16 ft. and 8 ft. pitch will properly be 
made of wood, it may be desirable to secure a somewhat lighter and 
brighter tone by having the LIEBLICHFLOTE made of a high-grade 
alloy or Hoyt's hard-rolled Two-ply Pipe-Metal. 

LIEBLICHBORDUN, Ger. A covered wood stop, of 16 ft. 
pitch, and small scale; the pipes of which are constructed on the 
BOURDON model, and voiced, on wind of moderate pressure, to 
produce a soft and good mixing quality of tone, in which the second 
upper partial is slightly in evidence. In this respect differing from 
the purer-toned LIEBLICHGEDECKT. A good example exists in the 



i8o ORGAN-STOPS 

Great of the Schulze Organ in the Church of St. Peter, Hindley, 
Lancashire. The CCC pipe of this stop measures, internally, 3% 
inches by 5 inches, with a mouth 3^ inches in height. 

LIEBLICHGEDECKT, Ger. The name appropriately given 
by the German organ-builders to a covered labial stop, of small 
scale, and 16 ft. and 8 ft. pitch. The larger stop is usually and 
properly made of wood throughout; while the stop of 8 ft. pitch, 
which should, preferably, be made of wood throughout, has in some 
examples its two or three higher octaves made of metal. On the 
Fourth Manual of the Ladegast Organ in the Cathedral of Schwerin, 
the LIEBLTCHGEDECKT is formed of rnetal throughout.* Both the 
stops belong to the manual divisions of the Organ. Instances of the 
insertion of the stops of both pitches in the same division obtain on 
the Second Manuals of the Organs in Christuskirche, Aachen, and 
Predigerkirche, Erfurt. The stop of 16 ft. pitch is inserted on the 
Second Manual and that of 8 ft. pitch on the Third Manual of the 
Organ in St. Petrikirche, Lubeck. We have not been able to find a 
single instance of the insertion of the LIEBLICHGEDECKT, 16 FT., in 
the Pedal of a German or other Continental Organ. 

It is strange that the value of a soft- toned unison stop in the 
Pedal Organ has been so systematically overlooked by all Continen- 
tal organ-builders and organists. It would seem that the desirability 
for refinement in Pedal Organ tone never entered their brains; yet 
on artistic grounds alone its necessity must be obvious to everyone 
endowed with musical sense and taste. It is not too much to say 
that the presence of such a stop as the LIEBLICHGEDECKT, 16 FT., is 
imperative in all well-appointed Pedal Organs; unless its insertion 
is not absolutely necessary through the presence of a DULCIANA, 
1 6 FT. In the Pedal of a Concert-room Organ, or a Church Organ of 
any pretensions to proper tonal appointment, both stops should 
certainly be present, and from these, by extension, may be derived 
valuable OCTAVES, 8 FT. 

FORMATION AND SCALE. In general formation the pipes of the LIEBLICHGE- 
DECKT differ in no essential from those of the BOURDON, the only distinction lying 
in scale, proportions of mouth, and treatment in voicing. The LIEBLICHGEDECKTS 
of different German organ-builders vary in scale and in the proportions of depth 
to width, the latter, carrying the mouth, being of the most importance. In the 
softer toned stops the pipes are narrow in proportion to their depth ; while in the 
louder voiced stops the pipes approach the square. The most satisfactory propor- 
tion being as two to three. This is practically the proportion adopted by Edmund 

* It is described thus: "LIEBLICHGEDBCKT 8', aus I2l6th, Zinn; Mensur 4^; cbenfalls von 
zarter Intonation, das schwachste Gedeckt in der Orgel." 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 181 

Schulze, of Paulinzelle, for the LIEBLICHGEDECKT, 8 FT., in the Choir of his Organ 
in the Church. of St. Peter, Hindley, England, the CC pipe of which measures, 
internally, 2}^ inches in width by aJi inches in depth. The following scale, in 
inches, to the ratio i : 2.66 -halving on the eighteenth pipe is practically that 
adopted by Schulze: 

SCALE OF LIEBLICHGEDECKT, 8 FT. RATIO 1:2.66 
PIPES CC C c 1 c a cs c 

WIDTH 2.13 1.3! O.8O 0.49 0.30 O.2O 

'DEPTH 3.08 1.89 I.I5 0.71 0.43 0.27 

As the pipes in the two high octaves are very small, it will be generally deemed 
desirable to form them of metal in the usual shape. It is not in these octaves that 
the individuality of the stop obtains. For insertion in a large Concert-room Organ, 
the following slightly larger scale may be found desirable: 

SCALE OF LIEBLICHGEDECKT, 8 FT. RATIO 1:2.66. 

PIPES CC C c 1 c a cs c< 

WIDTH 2.95 1.81 i. ii 0.68 0.45 0.26 

DEPTH 3.94 2-41 1.47 0.91 0.55 0,34 

Regarding the LIEBLICHGEDECKT, 16 FT., suitable for insertion in a manual 
division, different opinions obtain among organ-builders on the question of scale. 
It is certain, however, that a small scale is desirable: and when it is inserted along 
with the LIEBLICHGEDECKT, 8 FT., in the same division, it should be of a somewhat 
smaller scale than the unison stop, so as to be voiced slightly subordinate in tone. 
Dr. Hopkins, in his work, "The Organ," gives a scale for a Choir or Swell LIEB- 
LICHGEDECKT, 1 6 FT., apparently of German origin. The CCC pipe is 3-^ inches 
in width by 5 inches in depth; the CC pipe is 2 ^ inches in width by 3 inches in 
depth ; and the C pipe is i % inches in width by 1 7 /% inches in depth. The scale 
is irregular, not being developed on any standard ratio. It approaches most closely 
to the ratio i : 2.519, halving on the nineteenth pipe. The following scale will be 
suitable for a Pedal Organ stop of 16 ft. pitch: 

SCALE OF PEDAL LIEBLICHGEDECKT, 16 FT., RATIO 1:2.519. 

PIPES CCC CC C G 

WIDTH 3.79 2.39 1.50 1.15 

DEPTH 5.36 3.38 2.13 1.62 

Of equal importance to the scale is the form of the mouth; and that, in its pro- 
portions of height to width, differs considerably from the mouths of the generality 
of wood pipes belonging to other stops of the flute-toned family. The height of 
the mouth is an important factor in the production of the pure organ flute-tone of 
the true LIEBLICHGEDECKT. In no case should it be less than half its width in 
height; while it may with advantage exceed its width in height, as in the stop in 
the Swell of the Organ in St. Peter's, Hindley, the CC pipe of which has a mouth 
2% inches wide and 2}^ inches high. The lower portion of this pipe, in correct 
proportions, is shown in Front View and Section in the accompanying illustration, 
Fig. 25. The mouth of the CC pipe of the Choir stop is 2}^ inches wide and iH 
inches high. In the smaller scales, mouths ranging from three-quarters to their 



1 82 



ORGAN-STOPS 



entire width in height may be used with advantage tonally. The thickness of the 
upper lip is another factor in the production of satisfactory tone. This may vary 
in the CC pipe, from a quarter to half an inch (the thicker lip producing the 
smoother tone), and be cut square or have carefully rounded edges: and the lip 
may be straight, as in the illustration, or arched. Pipes having mouths of so 
great a height in proportion to width require a copious supply of wind, desirably 
of moderate pressure, for their proper speech. The manual stop should speak on 
wind of 33/2 inches and the pedal stop on wind of from 4 inches to 5 inches. 





PIG. 25 

TONE AND REGISTRATION The tone of the properly made and 
artistically voiced LIEBLICHGEDECKT is very beautiful, being of a 
singularly pure organ flute quality almost free from its first upper 
partial tone. It may be accepted as the most refined tone produced 
by the covered stops of the Organ; while it is equal to the finest 
tones of the half-covered stops. The purity of its tone renders it 
extremely valuable in simple combination and artistic registration,, 
chiefly on account of its perfect mixing quality, and its forming so 
fine a background for the display, so to speak, of pronounced tone- 
colors furnished by stops having imitative voices. The value, from a 
registration point of view, of the entire family of the LIEBLICH- 
GEDECKTS, 1 6 ft., 8 ft., sJ^ ft., and 4 ft., has not been properly, if at 
all, recognized by organ experts and designers; and their special 
value when grouped in the same division has been altogether un- 
realized. The LIEBLICHGEDECKT, 5^ FT., may be omitted should a 
stop of the same pitch and of the flute-toned class be considered 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 183 

more desirable in the stop apportionment of the division.* But we 
strongly recommend retaining the complete family. 

LIEBLICHGESCHALLT. The name, derived from the 
German, given by Hope-Jones to a small-scaled metal LIEBLICH- 
GEDECKT, 8 FT., voiced to yield a very soft tone, as if it was an echo 
of that of the normal full-toned LIEBLICHGEDECKT. Otherwise of no 
special interest. 

LIEBLICHQUINTE, Ger. The covered labial stop, of 5^ ft. 
pitch, belonging tc the LIEBLICHGEDECKT family; the pipes of which 
are formed in all respects similar to those of the LIEBLICHGEDECKT 
(q. .) 

LITICE. Lat., LITUUS. "A curved brass trumpet, clarion, 
used by cavalry " (Nail). The name that has been used by old 
German organ-builders to designate a lingual stop yielding a piercing 
tone. It is described by Seidel: " ' Litice oder Lituus ist einerlei mit 
Zink, Krummhorn oder Cornett." Schlimbach agrees with this 
definition. Now obsolete. 

LLENO, Span. The name used by Spanish organ-builders, as a 
general appellation for all compound harmonic-corroborating stops 
or MIXTURES. 

LUTE. The name given to an organ-stop formed of strings, in 
all probability sounded by plectora or "jacks, 77 after the method 
followed in the Harpsichord. The stop was introduced by Thomas 
Schwarbrook, organ-builder, of Warwick, in his masterpiece, the 
Organ in the Church of St. Michael, Coventry, constructed in 1733. 
Dr. Rimbault says: "This noble instrument cost 1400. It origi- 
nally contained three remarkable stops the HARP, LUTE, and DUL- 
CIMER ; but, in consequence of the 4 difficulty of keeping the strings 
in tune,' they were removed in 1763." History is repeating itself: 
after the lapse of more than a century and a half the HARP stop is 
again appearing in the Organ, and, perhaps, the Lute and the Dulci- 
mer will find their imitations in the Organ of the Twentieth Century. 

M 

MAJORBASS, Ger. The name that has sometimes been used 
to designate the Pedal Organ covered labial stop, of 32 ft. pitch, as 

* The stop apportionment here alluded to will be found fully developed in the First Expres- 
sive Subdivision of the Second Organ, in our scheme for the tonal appointment of the Concert- 
room Organ, given in "The Organ of the Twentieth Century," page 303. 



1 84 ORGAN-STOPS 

in the Organ in the Church of St. Elizabeth, Breslau. The stop has 
been better known as the UNTERSATZ, 32 FT., as in the Organ in the 
Cathedral of Schwerin. Walcker has employed the term GRAND 
BOURDON, 32 FT., in the Organs in the Cathedrals of Ulm and Frank- 
furt a. M. : and this term is appropriate for the stop in our own 
Organs to-day. We find the stop under the name CONTRA-BOURDON 
in certain English and American Organs. 

MANUALUNTERSATZ, Ger. The name to be found in cer- 
tain important Organs constructed by Walcker, of Ludwigsburg, 
designating a manual covered labial stop, of 32 ft. pitch. This very 
grave stop is never carried below tenor C, chiefly on account of the 
great size of the pipes composing its bottom octave, but also to avoid 
giving undesirable gravity and dullness to the manual bass. Ex- 
amples of the MANUALUNTERSATZ, 16 FT., under that name, exist in 
the First Manual divisions of the Organs in the Cathedrals of Ulm 
and Vienna. This grave stop has been seldom introduced in English 
Organs; examples exist in the Greats of the Organs in the Parish 
Churches of Leeds and Doncaster, labeled SUB-BOURDON, 32 FT. 
Under the name CONTRA-BOURDON, 32 FT., Hill has inserted it in 
the Great of the Organ in the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. 
All these stops commence at tenor C. We have not been able to 
find a single example in a French Organ. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. It is very questionable if such a stop 
as the MANUALUNTERSATZ is necessary in any Church Organ, es- 
pecially if it is of the ordinary BOURDON quality of tone. If, however, 
it should be deemed desirable in a very large instrument, it should 
certainly be of the LIEBLICHGEDECKT family. The heavy droning 
tone of the ordinary BOURDON should be avoided. In the Concert- 
room Organ of the first magnitude such a stop, in its most desirable 
form, may be introduced in the foundation division First or Great 
Organ but there an' open stop of pure organ-tone is greatly to be 
preferred. To meet this demand, without entailing the necessity of 
cumbering the division with a rank of such large pipes, a soft-unison 
Pedal stop, preferably a DULCIANA, 16 FT., may be borrowed and 
made to speak on the manual clavier from tenor C. In our scheme 
for the Concert-room Organ of the Twentieth Century, we have 
suggested adding an Auxiliary Stop, of full compass, under the 
name DOLCIANO PROFUNDO, 32 FT., derived from the CONTRA- 
DULCIANA, 32 FT., of the Pedal Organ, necessarily extended to 61 
notes.* It is quite obvious that a stop of this soft and pure organ- 

* See "The Organ of the Twentieth Century, " pp. 297 and 319. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 185 

tone would be productive, in registration with the double and unison 
foundation stops of the First Organ, of many tonal effects of a dig- 
nity and grandeur never yet heard in organ music. 

MEERFLOTE, Ger. The name that has been given to the 
stop commonly designated UNDA MARTS (q. z>.). 

MELODIA. An open labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, having an un- 
imitative flute-tone of a smooth and singing quality, in certain 
examples inclining slightly to a horn-like intonation. This fine stop, 
in its proper form, may be said to be unknown in English organ- 
building; its closest representative being the WALDFLOTE (q. v.}, 
many fine examples of which exist in English Organs. In the soft- 
toned Fourth Manual of the Walcker Organ in the Cathedral of 
Riga, the stop exists under the name MELODICA, 8 FT. An example 
exists in the Choir of the Hook and Hastings Organ in the Music Hall, 
Cincinnati, 0. ; the tone of which is described as "round, rich, and 
mellow. " A MELODIA, 8 FT., of a pure and beautiful tone, existed in 
the Choir of the Organ constructed by the Hutchings-Votey Com- 
pany for Woolsey Hall, Yale University. The organ-builders who 
seem at the present time to realize most clearly the value of the 
MELODIA are MM. Casavant Frres, of St. Hyacinthe, P. Q. Ex- 
amples exist in the Choirs of their Organs in Emmanuel Church, 
Boston, and the Second Church of West Newton, Mass.; and in 
the Positif of the Organ in the Church of Notre-Dame, Montreal, 
Canada; where it bears the French name MELODIE. 

FORMATION AND SCALE. The pipes forming the true MELODIA are of wood 
and quadrangular: white pine being used for their sides and backs, and some close- 
grained hard wood, such as mahogany or maple, for their fronts from tenor C to 
the top note. The pipes of the bass octave may have fronts of pine with hard 
wood mouth pieces. The mouths are of the inverted form, and are cut up about 
one-third their width in height. The caps to be of hard wood, hollowed, and the 
wind-way formed in them, and to be set below the under lip of the mouth just 
sufficiently to produce perfect intonation. The block is set about half the internal 
width of the pipe below the under lip. The scale of the stop varies in different 
examples, but the following may be accepted as suitable: 

SCALE OP MELODIA, 8 FT., IN INCHES RATIO i : 2.66. 
PIPES CC C c 1 c* cs c* 

WIDTH 3.34 2,05 1.25 0.77 0.47 0.29 

DEPTH 4.44 2.73 1.67 1.02 0.63 0.38 

It is a common practice to insert the bass octave in covered pipes, so as to save 
money; but this practice is contrary to the canons of artistic and correct organ- 
building, one of which is: Each stop in the Organ must be carried throughout its 
compass in pipes of its own class and tonality. 



1 86 ORGAN-STOPS 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. When artistically voiced, on wind of 
low pressure, the tone of the true MELODIA is very beautiful: as 
before stated, it is of an unimitative flute quality, smooth and sing- 
ing, inclining in the tenor and middle octaves to a horn tonality. 
This latter is largely due to the smooth speech of the pipes; just as 
in the case of the KERAULOPHONE. The appropriate place for the 
MELODIA is in the Choir or accompanimental division of the Church 
Organ, and in the softest-toned division of the Concert-room Organ.* 
It is a perfect stop for the true Chamber Organ. 

It is hardly necessary to point out that a stop of this beautiful 
and refined tonality is invaluable in artistic registration. Perfect in 
mixing quality and capable of receiving tonal coloring of any class, 
it furnishes an admirable foundation for the most delicate labial and 
lingual combinations. It is a perfect body-giver to the Vox HU- 
MANA, imparting roundness and fullness where it is so greatly required. 

MENSCHENSTIMME, Ger. The term employed by the old 
German organ-builders to designate a lingual stop which, in its 
peculiar tone, imitated in some respects the human voice while 
singing. See Vox HUMANA. 

MESSINGREGAL, Ger. An obsolete lingual stop, the tone of 
which was strongly suggestive of the clang of brass wind instruments. 
See REGAL. 

MITTELFLOTE, Ger. This term, which has neither reference 
to formation nor tonality, has been employed to designate a FLUTE, 
of 4 ft. pitch, simply because it occupied a middle position between 
FLUTES of 8 ft. and 2 ft. pitch in the same division of the Organ. 
This name is a good example of the vagueness and senselessness one 
too frequently meets with in organ-stop nomenclature. 

MITTELGEDECKT, Ger. The term that has been used by 
old German organ-builders to indicate a GEDECKT which occupies a 
middle position between two other stops of the same family, placed 
in the same division of an Organ. Schlimbach says: "Wenn z. B. 
auf einen Clavier Gedact 8, 4, und 2 Fusston sich zugleich befindet, 
so ist das von 4 Fusston das Mittelgedact." 

MIXTURE. Lat., MISCELLA. Ger., MIXTUR. Dtch., Mix- 
TUUR. ItaL, RIPIENO. Span. LLENO. The generic name for all 

*In our tonal scheme for the Concert-room Organ, the MELODIA, 8 FT., is placed in the 
Ancillary Aerial Organ, where it speaks on wind of ij^ inches. It is, accordingly, available 
for registration purposes on any manual clavier. See " The Organ of the Twentieth Century.' ' 
Pages 329 and 331. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 187 

compound harmonic-corroborating stops, applied generally to such 
stops as are composed of octave- and fifth-sounding ranks of ordi- 
nary open metal labial pipes, and to such compound stops as do not 
call for any special name indicative of peculiar composition, forma- 
tion, or intonation. The MIXTURE may be composed of two or 
more ranks of pipes, according to the tonal structure or appoint- 
ment of the division of the Organ in which it is placed. The different 
pitches of the separate ranks and their breaks are dictated by that 
tonal structure, and the number and nature of the single harmonic- 
corroborating stops that are included in the divisional appointment. 

The presence of a MIXTURE, of suitable size and appropriate 
composition and tonality, is essential in every important division of 
an Organ pedal and manual in which a proper scientific and ar- 
tistic tonal structure or effective stop apportionment is essayed. 
This fact has, of late years, been systematically neglected or ignored 
by unscientific and inartistic organ-builders: and almost completely 
unrealized or misunderstood by organists, who have been content to 
accept the opinion of self-interested organ-builders on the subject. 
It is quite easy to see on what grounds organ-builders hate all com- 
pound harmonic-corroborating stops; and it is proper that some 
light be let in upon the matter. 

In the first place, the willingness of musicians to allow the elimi- 
nation of MIXTURES in the tonal appointment of Organs has been 
largely, if not entirely, due to the very crude, unscientific, and 
highly objectionable form in which organ-builders have commonly 
constructed, voiced, and regulated them. Such stops, producing 
loud screaming voices, more like the noise of smashing glass than 
musical sounds, entirely at variance with their scientific and tonal 
office in the economy of the Temple of Tone, are certainly better 
absent than present in any Organ. It seems questionable if or- 
ganists have given sufficient study to the subject to realize the great 
value, both from a scientific and musical point of view, of a correctly 
proportioned and artistically voiced and regulated MIXTURE, in 
effective registration, and in the production of the richest tones the 
Organ can furnish. 

In the second place, organ-builders have, during recent times, 
strongly advocated the elimination of compound harmonic-cor- 
roborating stops, not on any contention based on scientific or musical 
grounds, which they were in no form able to advance; but because 
the formation of such complex stops are undesirably troublesome; 
involving a considerable amount of scientific knowledge, and what to 
them seems an unprofitable expenditure of high-class skilled labor 



188 ORGAN-STOPS 

in their formation, artistic voicing, and scientific tonal graduation. 
In short, the organ-builder fails to see sufficient remuneration, in 
dollars, for such stops; and relying on the apathy, if not the want of 
knowledge, on the part of the organist, he cries, "Away with all 
MIXTURES!" 

In old Organs the introduction of compound stops was carried 
to an extent altogether unwarranted by either scientific or artistic 
demands. Two instances may be given : in the Great of the Organ 
in the Old Church, Amsterdam, finished in 1686, there are eighteen 
ranks, and also in the Choir eighteen ranks of MIXTURE work ; and 
in the Organ in the Monastery Church, at Weingarten, finished in 
1750, there are no fewer than ninety-five ranks of MIXTURE work, 
two stops alone having twenty and twenty-one ranks, respectively. 
Such excessive apportionment out of all reason on any grounds 
has naturally led to a swing in the opposite direction, which has 
ended, as we now see, in a too sparing introduction, or frequently in 
the entire omission, of MIXTURES ; creating a starvation in the true 
and the most characteristic tones of the Organ, a fact that is greatly 
to be regretted. 

The largest compound harmonic-corroborating stop we have 
examined and know of in a modern Organ is the HARMONIC MIX- 
TURE, of fourteen ranks (784 pipes), in the Organ in the Edinburgh 
University. Turning to examples in modern German organ-build- 
ing, and selecting two representative instruments by Walcker, of 
Ludwigsburg, we find in the Organ in the Cathedral of Riga an 
instrument of 124 speaking stops on the First Manual, fifteen 
ranks of MIXTURE work; on the Second Manual, ten ranks; on the 
Third Manual, four ranks; on the Fourth Manual, three ranks; and 
in the Pedal Organ, twelve ranks, including the GRAND BOURDON, 
V. RANKS. In all, forty-four ranks. In the Organ in the Cathedral 
of Ulm an instrument of 107 speaking stops on the First Manual, 
twenty-one ranks of MIXTURE work; on the Second Manual, eleven 
ranks; on the Third Manual, five ranks; and in the Pedal Organ, 
five ranks. In all, forty-two ranks. No such apportionments of 
MIXTURE work are to be found in modern Organs built in any other 
country. In the Organs constructed by Cavaille-Coll we find an 
adequate amount of MIXTURE work provided: for instance, in the 
Organ in the Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, there are in the Grand- 
Choeur (portion of the Grand-Orgue) , nineteen ranks; in the Positif, 
six ranks; in the Recit, fourteen ranks; and in the Solo, five ranks. 
This is the largest apportionment of MIXTURE work we have been 
able to find in a French Organ. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 189 

FORMATION. The formation of a MIXTURE, properly proportioned to the stop- 
appointment of the division of the Organ in which it is placed, calls for a certain 
amount of scientific knowledge and a keen appreciation of the value of musical 
sounds. The prevailing "rule-of-thumb" methods are invariably attended by 
failure. 

A properly formed MIXTURE comprises different ranks of pipes of high pitches ; 
which, as they cannot be carried complete throughout the compass of the division 
in which the stop is placed, have to be divided into two or more portions, tech- 
nically termed breaks; each of which, in each rank, commences on a pipe of a lower 
pitch, so as to allow the stop to be carried throughout the compass of the division. 
This arrangement is shown in the following example a MIXTURE, of five ranks, 
composed of octaves and quints, breaking on each octave of the compass ; 

MIXTURE V. RANKS. 

RANKS I. II. III. IV. V. 

BREAK I. CC tO BB . . 19 22 26 29 33. 

2. C to B . . 15 19 22 26 29. 

3. C 1 tO b r . . 12 15 19 22 26. 

4. c 2 to b 2 . . 8 12 15 19 22. 

5- C3 tO C4 . . j 8 12 15 1 9 . 

All the sounds produced by the pipes, in the several breaks and ranks, serve to 
corroborate the harmonic upper partial tones of the unison sounds, with which 
they combine, throughout the compass of the clavier. Accordingly, to everyone 
conversant with the phenomena of compound musical sounds, the value of, and, 
indeed, the necessity for the introduction of compound harmonic-corroborating 
stops represented by MIXTURES of proper formation in the Organ must be 
evident and incontestable. 

It is well known to all who have devoted any serious study to the phenomena 
of musical sounds, that in those produced by the cultivated human voice and the 
string instruments of the orchestra, the prime tones are accompanied by a great 
number of upper partials or harmonic over-tones; and that these sensibly decrease 
in strength as they rise in pitch, until they become inaudible. This important 
natural law has to be recognized in the proper voicing and regulating of the MIX- 
TURES and all the harmonic-corroborating stops in the Organ. It is not too much to 
say, and our extended observation supports the assertion, that this acoustical 
phenomenon has been seriously, if not altogether, ignored by all organ-builders 
who have hitherto constructed MIXTURES: and, accordingly, stops so unscien- 
tifically constructed have outraged the natural laws of musical sounds, and have 
destroyed, instead of enriching and beautifying, the voices of the Organ with which 
they were combined. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the MIXTURE varies ac- 
cording to the nature of the pipes of which it is composed. It may be 
of pure organ-tone, belonging to the foundation-work, corroborat- 
ing the harmonic upper partial tones of the prime tones of the DIA- 
PASONS; and infusing into them rich compound tones, so satisfying 
to the cultivated musical ear. ^Or the MIXTURE may be so construct- 
ed of pipes of special tonalities as to become both harmonic-cor- 



190 ORGAN-STOPS 

roborating and timbre-creating; finding its proper place in different 
tonal divisions, according to their stop-apportionments. 

In artistic registration, a properly constructed, voiced, and re- 
gulated MIXTURE is of the greatest value; entering into combina- 
tions of infinite variety, either in its office of harmonic corroborator 
or timbre-creator, and imparting to them elements of singular 
brilliancy and beauty all but unknown in organ music to-day. We 
have practically proved that a five-rank MIXTURE can be scaled, 
voiced, and regulated, so as to become one of the most valuable and 
generally useful stops in refined and effective registration. We have 
heard beautiful passages rendered on such a MIXTURE while in com- 
bination with a PICCOLO, 2 FT., only; and equally beautiful solo 
passages when combined with the Vox HUMANA alone. The MIX- 
TURE, in whatever division of the Organ it is placed, should be in- 
closed and rendered flexible and expressive. 

For further particulars respecting MIXTURES, see ACUTA, CARIL- 
LON, CLARION MIXTURE, COMPENSATIONSMIXTUR, CORNET, CYMBAL, 
DOLCE CORNET, DULCIANA CORNET, POURNITURE, FULL MIXTURE, 
HARMONIA ^ETHERIA, PLEIN-JEU, SESQUIALTERA, and TERTIAN. 

MONTRE, Fr. The term commonly used by French organ- 
builders to designate such foundation and organ-toned and highly- 
finished metal stops as may be mounted and displayed in the buffet 
or case of an Organ. For such a purpose, the MONTRE s are usually 
made of tin, highly burnished, and may be of 32 ft., 16 ft., or 8 ft. 
speaking lengths, as in the Organ in the Royal Church of Saint-Denis. 
Sometimes the term is applied to the PRESTANT, 4 FT., when its pipes 
are mounted and displayed. All the MONTRES are most carefully 
fashioned, having the boldly-formed French mouth, and being of 
tin brightly burnished, produce a fine effect in combination with the 
dark woodwork of the case.* 

MOUNTED CORNET. The name given by the old English 

* "LA MONTRE. Jeu labial ouvert, le plus ordinairement de moyenne taille, dont tous les 
tuyaux ou la plupart sont en Evidence, en montre, comme les plus brillants et les plus parfaits. 
Le metal, qui est ou doit etre d'etain fin, revet un poll digne de rivaliser avec les m6taux d'Ulra 
ou de 1'Escurial. Les bouches de montre sont ordinairement 6cussonnees, c'est-a-dire que leurs 
levies, au lieu d'etre simplement pliees comme dans le tuyau commun, sont formees de deux 
pieces rapporte"es, courbees et terminees en forme d'ecusson. . . 

" Nos montres frangaises ont les trois degr6s de ton, seize, hu.it, et quatre-pieds: cette der- 
niere dimension, elles prennent le nom de prestant; elles vont rarement a trente-deux ou meme 
vingt-quatre-pieds, a cause de la quantite" de vent, de metal, et d'espace necessaire; souvent 
meme la montre de seize n'exhibe pas ses plus gros tuyaux, qui, simplement en bois, cachent leur 
humble costume a 1'interieur du buffet. D'autres fois, on apergoit en montre de magnifiques 
viugt-quatre et trente-deux-pieds qui n'appartiennent qu'a la pedale de 1'orgue; mais la montre 
s'entend toujours des tuyaux correspondent aux claviers manuels, " Regnier. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 191 

organ-builders to a compound stop, of short compass, which, to 
economize room inside the Organ, was mounted, above the main 
wind-chest, on a small wind-chest designed for its reception alone; 
the wind to its pipes being conveyed from the grooves of the main 
chest by conveyances one for each note of its compass. The 
MOUNTED CORNET consisted usually of five ranks of large-scaled 
open metal pipes, yielding a full dominating tone, though sometimes 
the unison rank was inserted in covered pipes. Its ranks comprised 
a DIAPASON, or a FLUTE A CHEMINEE, and an OCTAVE, TWELFTH, 
'FIFTEENTH, and SEVENTEENTH. In old English Organs its compass 
never extended below middle c 1 ; but in German Organs, in which 
the stop held a more important office, it usually was carried down to 
tenor C. Hopkins says the MOUNTED CORNET "was chiefly used for 
playing out the melody of the chorals upon, and for the performance 
of an obsolete kind of voluntary : but it is of great use in large Organs 
in hiding the breaks in the several compound stops, as it proceeds 
itself without any 'repetitions.' In Father Smith's Organs the 
CORNET was never 'mounted,' but stood on the sound-board." 
Schulze introduced a MOUNTED CORNET, of four ranks and tenor C 
compass, in both the Great and Swell divisions of the Organ in the 
Parish Church of Doncaster. There is no call for the CORNET of 
short compass, in any form, in the Organ of the Twentieth Century. 

MUNDFLOTE, Ger. Literally Mouth-Flute. An open labial 
stop of metal, and of 2 ft. pitch; similar in all essentials to the 
French FLUTE A BEC (q. v.). The stop has no distinctive flute 
tonality. A stop under the name exists in the Organ in the Cathe- 
dral of Konigsberg. 

MUSETTE, Fr. Ger., SACKPFEIFE. The Musette was a small 
Bagpipe much used in olden times by the people of different Euro- 
pean countries ; and the MUSETTE of the Organ is supposed to imi- 
tate the characteristic tone of that old instrument. The MUSETTE, 
as made in France, is a free-reed stop, having resonators of small 
scale and inverted conical form, made of tin, and yielding a bright 
and pleasing tone, as might be produced by a small and weak species 
of Bagpipe.* Examples of the stop have been made with striking- 

* " LA MUSETTE, le CHALUMEAU (Sackpfcife, Schalmey). Jeu d'anche de forme pyramidale, 
en Stain fin comme la plupart des timbres effile~s. La Musette a quatre-pieds de hauteur et huit de 
ton. Le timbre, plus faible que celui du Cromorne, imite assez bien le chetif instrument dont on 
lui a donne" le nom. Dom Bedos disait de la Musette: *Ce jeu est encore peu connu, dans le 
royaume.' II y est tous les jours moins connu, et si dans certaines melodies populaires et rares, 
to!6res par 1'feglise qui se fait toute a tous, il peut paraitre utile, il n'est jamais n4cessaire." 
Regnier. 



192 ORGAN-STOPS 

reeds and slender cylindrical, covered, and perforated resonators, 
producting refined and characteristic tones. We introduced a free- 
reed MUSETTE, 4 FT., to serve as an OCTAVE to the free-reed CORNO 
INGLESE, 8 FT., in the Second Organ of our scheme for the Organ 
installed in the Festival Hall of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 
1904. The MUSETTE when of its true and characteristic tonality is a 
valuable voice in the properly-appointed Concert-room Organ. It 
mixes well and, accordingly, enters freely into combinations of a soft 
and distinctive character. It is peculiarly useful in music of a pas- 
toral description. 

MUSICIRGEDECKT, Ger. A name sometimes given by the 
old German organ-builders to a covered stop, of 8 ft. or 4 ft. pitch, 
yielding a peculiarly soft and sweet unimitative flute-tone. Schlim- 
bach, a great authority on old stops, describes it thus: "MusiciR- 
GEDACKT. Die Bestimmung dieses Gedacts ist: zur Begleitung der 
Musik gebraucht zu werden. Man findet es zu 8 und 4 Fusston, 
still intonirt. Man vergleiche Kammerflote. " This stop was prob- 
ably identical with the later GELINDGEDECKT (q. v.}. 

N 

NACHTHORN, Ger. Fr., COR DE NUIT. Ital, PASTORITA. 

In addition to the name first given, German organ -builders have 
occasionally employed the term NACHTSCHALL, which signifies 
Night-sound. The stops bearing these names in German and French 
Organs are formed of covered or open labial pipes, usually of metal 
but in some examples of wood. It is found of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, 
and very rarely of 2 ft. pitch. According to Wolfram (1815), the 
covered NACHTHORN resembles the QUINTATEN both in formation 
and tone, but its pipes are of larger scale. The open stop has pipes 
resembling those of the HOHLFLOTE. The tone of the NACHTHORN 
is round, soft, and agreeable; and in fine examples has, as its name 
implies, a combination of flute and horn tones, which imparts in- 
dividuality to the stop.* Wolfram alludes to this horn-like tonality. 

*"La PASTORITA ou le NACHTHORN, cor de nuil. Cette flute de bois ou d*6toffe, tantdt 
bouche'e. tant6t ouverte, mais toujours largeet trapue,se fait souvent dequatre-pieds etnedes- 
cend jamais a plus de profondeur que huit; son timbre est agreable, son harmonie delicate. 
Ouverte, elle se rapprodhe de la flute creuse, mais on tient alors sa taille plus e"troite et ses levres 
plus senses. Bouch6e> elle imite le son du cor dans le lointain et dans le silence des nuits, d'ou 
lui vient son nom; a cette fin, on lui donne une plus large taille qu'& tin des plus curieux bourdons 
allemands, le Quintaton, si Ton ne veut pas qu'elle lui emprunte son principal effet. Bien des 
facteurs promettent un nachthorn de quatre-pieds, qui ne tiennent pas autre chose que 1* " 
Regnier. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 193 

A representative example of the covered NACHTHORN, 8 FT., of large 
scale, exists in the Positif Expressif of the Cavaille-Coll Organ in the 
Albert Hall, Sheffield. One of 4 ft. pitch appears in the Pedal of the 
Organ in the Garrison Church, Berlin; and one of 2 ft. pitch in the 
Echo of the celebrated Haarlem Organ. Seidel says: "Im Pedal 
heisst diese Stimme NACHTHORNBASS, ist sie 2 fussig, so kommt sie 
zuweilen unter dem Nameh NACHTHORNCHEN vor." 

NASARD, FT. Ger., NASAT, NASSART. Ital. and Span., 
NASARDO. The name given to a manual labial stop, of 2^ ft. pitch, 
the pipes of which are of metal, and either open or covered. It is 
the equivalent of the TWELFTH, 2% FT. in English and American 
Organs, when in its open form, although it differs in tone according 
to its position in the stop-appointment of the Organ. In all cases it 
is a harmonic-corroborating stop, representing the nth upper par- 
tial tone of the 32 ft., the 5th upper partial tone of the 16 ft., and the 
2nd upper partial tone of the 8 ft. harmonic series. When inserted 
in the foundation division of the Organ, it is properly formed of open 
metal pipes, scaled, voiced, and regulated in strength of tone with 
respect to the MAJOR PRINCIPAL or DIAPASON, 8 FT. (See TWELFTH). 
When inserted in a soft-toned division of an Organ, it sometimes 
assumes the form of a FLUTE A CHEMINEE. A NASARD, 2.% FT., 
exists in the Recit Expressif of the Organ in the Church of Saint- 
Sulpice; and others are introduced in the Grand Orgue and the 
Bombarde of the Organ in the Royal Church, Saint-Denis. The stop 
frequently appears in French Organs, named QXJINTE, 2% FT. 
NASARDS are to be found on the Third Manual of the Organ in the 
Cathedral of Ulm, and on the First Manual of the Protestant Church 
at Mulhausen. A NASAT, 2% FT., exists in the Echo of the Grand 
Organ, and another in the Choir Organ in the Cathedral of Breslau. 

The corresponding stop, of 5^ ft., called GROS NASARD, belongs 
to the harmonic structure of the Pedal Organ. An example exists 
in the Pedal of the Organ in the Royal Church, Saint-Denis. See 
GROSSNASAT. 

NASARD FLtTTE. The name given by its introducer, George 
W. Till, of Philadelphia, Pa., to a labial dual stop, formed of a 
metal FLXJTE HARMONIQUE, 8 FT., and a metal NASARD HARMONI- 
QUE, 2 % FT. ; and introduced, for the first time, in the Concert Organ 
in the Wanamaker Store, in Philadelphia, Pa., where it occupies a 
place in the Great Organ, speaking on wind of 5 inches. This com- 
pound stop is essentially timbre-creating, yielding a tone of a re- 

13 



194 ORGAN-STOPS 

markable quality and volume, impossible of production by a stop, 
however voiced, having only a single rank of pipes. As we have said 
elsewhere, the existence of such a dual stop multiplies to an un- 
dreamt of extent the resources of the flute-toned forces of the Organ, 
when used in combination. The tone might well earn the stop the 
name GRAND QUINTATEN, 8 FT.* 

NASARD GAME A. The name given by its introducer, George 
W. Till, of Philadelphia, Pa., to a labial dual stop, formed of a metal 
GAMBA, 8 FT., having the compass of CC to c s , and a tin NASARD 
GAME A, 2^ FT., of the same compass. The unison stop is voiced to 
yield a powerful string-tone, so as to firmly establish the unison pitch. 
The NASARD is voiced to yield a clear but a decidedly subordinate 
string-tone. The combined ranks, which speak on wind of 1 5 inches, 
produce a tone of wonderful richness and color-value; unlike any- 
thing known to be yielded by a single-ranked string-stop. The 
NASARD GAMBA was designed for, and introduced for the first time 
in, the Swell of the Concert Organ in the Wanamaker Store, in Phila- 
delphia, Pa.f 

NASON. The name used by the old English organ-builders to 
designate a covered stop of wood, of 4 ft. pitch, yielding a soft flute- 
tone, inclining to that of a QUINTATEN. The stop was practically 
an OCTAVE STOPPED DIAPASON. A NASON, of ij^ ft. pitch, was 
inserted by Casparini in the Echo of the Organ he erected, in 
1703, in the Church of SS. Peter and Paul, Gorlitz. It is probably 
still in existence. The name has entirely disappeared from modern 
nomenclature. 

NINETEENTH. Fr., LARIGOT. Ital, DECIMA NONA. A 
mutation, harmonic-corroborating stop, of ij^ ft. pitch in the 
manual department, and 2^ ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ. In its 
proper form, it corroborates the fifth upper partial tone of the unison 
tone of the department of the Organ in which it is placed. The 
NINETEENTH is invariably formed of open metal pipes, which should 
be scaled in proportion to the scale of the principal unison stop with 
which it is associated. When it appears as a separate stop it is 
almost invariably voiced much too loud, seriously impairing its 
tonal value in combination and registration. It, however, seldom 
appears as a complete and separate stop : but certain old English and 

* Full particulars of the formation and scales of this stop are given in "The Organ of the 
Twentieth Century," pp. 104-5. 

f Pull particulars of the formation and scales of the NASARD GAMBA are given in "The Organ 
of the Twentieth Century.*' pp. 105-6. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 195 

modern French organ-builders have favored it in that form. Under 
the name LARIGOT, i J^ FT., it appeared as an independent stop in 
the Great of the Organ built by Renatus Harris, in 1670, for the 
Church of St. Sepulchre, Snow Hill, London. He also introduced 
one in the Organ he built for the Church of St. Peter, Mancroft, 
Norwich. The stop is inserted, in its complete form, in the Grand- 
Chceur of the Organ in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame; and in the 
Positif of the Organ in the Church of Saint Sulpice, Paris: both by 
Cavaille-Coll. 

The NINETEENTH, i^ FT., may form a complete rank in a COR- 
NET; but it commonly appears, in a broken form, in the ranks of 
MIXTURES. As a harmonic-corroborating stop, it should, in what- 
ever form it appears, be graduated softer in tone as it rises in pitch, 
in accordance with the natural laws of musical sounds. 



o 

OBOE, Ital. Eng., HAUTBOY. Fr., HAUTBOIS. Ger., HOBOE. 
A lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, which belongs to the manual depart- 
ment of the Organ. Two varieties of the stop are introduced in the 
Organ to-day. The older and still prevailing form cannot be con- 
sidered as imitative in tone; but in the finest examples of the strictly 
modern forms the tones produced closely resemble those of the 
orchestral Oboe. The former stop is labeled, simply, OBOE ; while 
the imitative stop is properly labeled ORCHESTRAL OBOE; under 
which name it will be found fully described. The OBOE in its com- 
mon and unimitative form is best suited for a Church Organ in 
which only one is inserted; because, unlike the ORCHESTRAL OBOE 
with its somewhat thin and characteristic voice, it is an all-round 
useful stop when a soft-toned lingual voice is desirable. It is gen- 
erally found in Organs of any pretensions toward completeness; and, 
indeed, in most small instruments. 

FORMATION. The resonators of the unimitative OBOE, 8 FT., are approxi- 
mately of the standard speaking lengths; and are in the form of slender tapered 
tubes surmounted by long inverted conical bells, after the fashion of the conical 
and belled tube of the orchestral Oboe. In its best treatment, the resonator has 
its bell shaded by a disc of spotted-metal, soldered to its edge so as to allow about 
one-half being bent up, to any required extent, in the process of regulating the 
tone of the pipe. Shaded resonators are not invariably used but they are unques- 
tionably the most desirable, for without them artistic toning is practically im- 
possible. The form of the OBOE pipe just described is shown in Fig. 26, Plate III., 
which represents a pipe of a lower octave of the stop. As the pipes become shorter, 
the relative proportions of their tubes and bells are largely altered; until in the top 



196 ORGAN-STOPS 

octave there is little difference in their respective lengths. The reeds or echalotes 
of this stop are of medium scale and are invariably of the closed class, having 
small triangular openings which extend from the thick discs which close their 
lower ends. The tongues or languettes are correspondingly slender in form and of 
medium thickness, and have a slight and finely-formed curve, preventing coarse- 
ness or brassiness of intonation. 

The formation just described is that of the striking-reed stop, as constructed 
in this country and in England; but the OBOES of the French and German organ- 
builders have frequently been made with free-reeds. An example exists on the 
Second Manual of the Organ, built by Friederich Ladegast, in 1 87 1 , for the Cathe- 
dral of Schwerin. Of late years, however, the French have adopted the striking- 
reed. French examples are rare. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the unimitative OBOE 
varies according to the proportions of its pipes, the pressure of the 
wind on which it speaks, and the method and musical sense of its 
voicer : but its most desirable tone is smooth and of medium strength, 
inclining, in the finer examples, to a plaintive quality, which imparts 
a certain charm and impressive character to it. With such a voice, 
the stop becomes extremely valuable both in solo passages and in 
combination; occupying in a softly-toned division about the same 
position as that held by the TRUMPET in the Great or fundamental 
division of the Organ. Under such conditions the OBOE is extremely 
valuable in artistic registration. It combines perfectly with both 
open and covered flute-toned stops, imparting to their voices rich- 
ness and dignity. It also imparts to the keen voices of the string- 
toned stops, imitative and unimitative, a fullness and impressiveness 
highly desirable, without seriously affecting their characteristic 
voices. It is questionable if there is another lingual stop in the 
modern Organ more generally useful in refined registration: of course 
this last remark applies only to the OBOE produced by a master- 
hand. It is remarkable that so valuable a stop should have been 
systematically neglected by Cavaille-Coll. In not one of his Organs 
have we been able to find an OBOE. 

OBOE D'AMORE, ItaL The orchestral instrument of this 
name the French, Hautbois d'Amour now almost obsolete, has a 
"tone more veiled and pathetic than that of the ordinary orchestral 
Oboe.'* This tone is due to the different form of its bell, which is 
globular with a somewhat contracted opening, contrasting with the 
flaring bell of the ordinary Oboe. This fact leads to the construction 
of an organ-stop, having resonators formed with the slender tubes of 
the OBOE surmounted by small bells, in the shape of two truncated 
cones soldered together at their bases, after the fashion of those of 
the CORNO Di BASSETTO, Fig. 8, Plate II. The addition of a stop 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 197 

producing a quality of tone between that of the unimitative OBOE 
and the imitative ORCHESTRAL OBOE would be a valuable addition 
to the tonal forces of the Concert-room Organ. 

OBOE-FLUTE. The name given by William Hill, organ-build- 
er, of London, to an open labial stop, of 4 ft. pitch, and small scale, 
which yielded a soft flute-tone combined with a slight reedy intona- 
tion. He introduced it in the Organ he installed in Worcester Cathe- 
dral. It was probably not considered sufficiently distinctive to 
recommend its general adoption, for it was disused. There is room, 
however, in the Organ of the present century for a timbre-creating 
OCTAVE, in the voice of which flute- and reed-tones are in full com- 
bination. Ample proof obtains that such a desirable stop could be 
made, wood pipes being used. 

OBOE-HORN. The name given by Hope-Jones to a stop de- 
veloped by him from the common unimitative OBOE, by imparting 
to it a broader and somewhat hornlike intonation. As a compromise 
between the OBOE and HORN, without the advantage of either, such 
a stop has very little to recommend it. An example exists in the 
Organ in Llandaff Cathedral, Wales. 

OCARINA. An open metal labial stop, of 4 ft. pitch, which 
yields a hollow fluty tone, resembling that of the instruments of the 
same name.* The special pipes of this purely modern and uncom- 
mon stop commence at tenor C and extend to the top note. The 
pipes have cylindrical bodies surmounted by long and slightly 
spreading bells, the proportions of which may be realized from the 
following dimensions of the c 2 pipe. The speaking length of this 
pipe is 63/s inches; the cylindrical body being 3 j/ inches long and 
1.13 inches in diameter; while the bell is 3 inches long and the diame- 
ter of its open end is 1 .69 inches. The mouth is 7 /s inch in width, and 
about one-fourth its width in height : its upper lip is straight, and the 
languid is finely nicked. The pipe is tuned by means of a strip cut 
from a small slot in the belL We obtained these particulars from the 
stop in the Choir of the Organ in the Church of St. Mary, Bradford, 
Yorkshire, constructed by M. C. Annessens, of Gramont, Belgium. 
There is a stop of the same name in the Positif of the Organ, built 
by A. Amezua, in 1903, for Seville Cathedral. 

* " OCARINE (It.}. A series of seven musical instruments [of different pitches] made of terra 
cotta pierced with small holes [and having whistle-like mouthpieces], invented by a company of 
performers calling themselves the Mountaineers of the Apennines. With these instruments, 
which are of a soft and sweet, yet 'traveling' quality of tone, operatic melodies with simply- 
harmonized accompaniments were given." "A Dictionary of Musical Terms. " Stainer and 
Barrett. 



I 9 8 ORGAN-STOPS 

OCTAVE. Get., OCTAV. Ital., OTTAVA. Span., OCTAVA. 
Dtch., OCTAAF. The name properly used by German, Italian, 
Spanish, Dutch, American, and to some extent by English and 
French organ-builders, to distinguish the chief stop of octave or 
4 ft. pitch in a manual division, and of 8 ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ. 
The French organ-builders commonly use the term PRESTANT for 
the stop, of 4 ft. pitch, which belongs to the foundation-work; occa- 
sionally applying the term OCTAVE, of the same pitch, to some sub- 
ordinate stop. In this relationship we find both terms in the stop- 
apportionment of the Grand-Orgue in Cavaille-Coll's fine instru- 
ment in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris. In the P6dale of the 
same Organ, we find the term OCTAVE illogically applied to a stop of 
4 ft. pitch. In this department such a stop is strictly a SUPER- 
OCTAVE or FIFTEENTH. But organ-builders are not distinguished 
for their regard to correct stop nomenclature. 

The old English organ-builders invariably used the term PRINCI- 
PAL, 4 FT.; and the practice has been largely followed up to the 
present time. Proof of this may be readily found. In a list of speci- 
fications of thirty-three Organs, constructed by J. W. Walker & 
Sons, of London, between the years 1858 and 1904, we find the term 
PRINCIPAL, 4 FT., used fifty-nine times in the manual divisions, and 
PRINCIPAL, 8 FT., twelve times in the Pedal Organ: whereas the 
term OCTAVE occurs only eight times, chiefly in the Organ in York 
Minster, constructed in 1903. At the present time American organ- 
builders wisely and almost invariably use the term OCTAVE. 

As the OCTAVE, 4 FT., is the leading stop of medium pitch in the 
manual foundation-work, it is commonly and properly the one first 
correctly pitched and tuned, the other stops below and above it in 
pitch being tuned from it. It was probably on this account that the 
old English builders gave the name PRINCIPAL to the stop. There 
seems to be no other apology possible for so illogical an appellation. 

FORMATION. The OCTAVE, 4 FT., which strictly belongs to the foundation- 
work of the Organ, is composed of open cylindrical metal pipes, formed in all re- 
spects similar to the pipes of the DIAPASON, to which they are tonally related. In 
old English work the scale of the CC (4 ft.) pipe was commonly made one pipe 
smaller than the tenor C (4 ft.) pipe of the DIAPASON, 8 FT. In modern work it has 
frequently been made two pipes smaller in scale. Unscientifically voiced as the 
OCTAVE commonly is, a smaller scale would seem desirable. When the DIAPASON 
scale is of the ratio i : 2.66 (See DIAPASON), halving on the eighteenth pipe, 
it may be desirable to have the scale of the OCTAVE of the ratio i : I/ 87 halving 
on the seventeenth pipe. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The OCTAVE is essentially and prop- 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 199 

erly a harmonic-corroborating stop, and its chief office is to establish 
the first and most important upper partial of the tone produced by 
the fundamental unison. Accordingly, while its voice should be of 
pure organ-tone, similar to that of the DIAPASON, it must be suffi- 
ciently soft to intimately combine with and enrich the unison tone 
without disturbing its pitch. A properly proportioned OCTAVE is 
of great importance and value in registration ; combining with other 
labial stops than the DIAPASONS, and also with lingual stops, im- 
parting to their voices clearness and brilliancy. 

In a division of the Organ in which there is no DIAPASON, the 
OCTAVE should partake of the character of the principal labial unison 
or be suitable for combination with it in artistic registration. In this 
case the OCTAVE will generally serve as a solo stop, a timbre-creating, 
and a harmonic-corroborating one. 

The term OCTAVE has been frequently applied as a prefix to the 
names of stops, to indicate their pitch with relation to the unison 
pitch of the divisions in which they are placed, or with relation to 
some musical interval calculated from that unison. Accordingly, 
we find stops bearing the compound names: OCTAVE DULCIANA, 
OCTAVE FIFTEENTH, i FT., OCTAVE FLUTE, OCTAVE GAMBA, OCTAVE 
QUINT, 2% FT., OCTAVE TWELFTH, i J^ FT., etc. 

OCTAVE OBOE. The lingual stop, of 4 ft. pitch, bearing 
this name has been inserted in certain important modern Organs. 
It is the proper OCTAVE of the unimitative OBOE, 8 FT. An example 
exists on the Second Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of Riga; 
and examples exist in the Choir and Solo of the Organ in the Cen- 
tennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. Hutchings inserted one, under the 
name OBOE CLARION, 4 FT., in the Chancel Swell of the Organ he 
installed in the Church of St. Bartholomew, New York City. We 
inserted one in the First Subdivision of the Third Organ repre- 
senting the wood-wind forces of the orchestra in our tonal scheme 
of the Organ installed in the Festival Hall of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, 1904. 

Although the introduction of such a soft-toned stop as the 
OCTAVE OBOE is, or should be, is extremely rare, there can be no 
question regarding the value of its voice in expressive registration. 
The present prevailing craze for musical noise is not favorable to 
the introduction of refined voices in the Organ, or to the develop- 
ment of artistic registration. 

OCTAVE VIOLA. An open metal labial stop, of 4 ft. pitch, 
the tone of which is intended to imitate that of the orchestral Viola. 



200 ORGAN-STOPS 

An example exists in the Swell of the Willis Organ in St. George's 
Hall, Liverpool. Another, labeled VIOLA, 4-FT., exists in the Great 
of the same instrument, where it serves as the OCTAVE to the VIO- 
LONCELLO, 8 FT. Neither stop is highly imitative. 

Imitative string-toned stops, of 4 ft. pitch, are extremely rare; 
but their value in tonal-coloring and artistic registration must be 
evident to everyone who has studied the combinations of organ- 
stops scientifically and practically. The imitative stop is more 
appropriately termed VIOLETTA (q. v.). As a harmonic-corroborat- 
ing and timbre-creating stop it should find a place in every Concert- 
room Organ; preferably in the String division, ancillary or otherwise, 
where it forms the most perfect OCTAVE. 

OCTAVIN, Fr. The term sometimes employed by French 
organ-builders to designate an open metal labial stop, of 2 ft. pitch; 
equivalent, in all essentials, to the SUPER-OCTAVE or FIFTEENTH in 
English and American Organs. Examples of the OCTAVIN exist in 
the Recit Expressif of the Organs in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame 
and the Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris. 

OCTAVIN HARMONIQUE, Fr. The name given to an open 
labial stop, of 2 ft. pitch, all the pipes of which are of double the 
standard speaking length, and voiced harmonically; examples of 
which exist in the Recit-ficho Expressif of the Organ in the Royal 
Church, Saint-Denis, and in the Organ in the Church of Saint- 
Vincent de Paul, Paris. The stop is flute-toned, and is practically a 
HARMONIC PICCOLO. 

OFFENBASS, Ger. The name that has been used by certain 
German organ-builders to designate an open bass stop simply in 
contradistinction to the covered stop GEDECKTBASS. It is an open 
appellation, conveying no idea of pitch or tonality. Without the 
addition of some expressive qualification such a term must be con- 
sidered practically valueless. 

OFFENFLOTE, Ger. The name given by German organ- 
builders to an open wood stop, of 8 ft. or 4 ft. pitch, yielding an 
unimitative flute-tone closely resembling that of the English CLARA- 
BELLA. The stop obtains, under the simple name FLOTE, in the 
Organ in the Cathedral of Ulm. We find the German word off en 
used in other compound stop-names, as OFFENQUINTFLOTE and 
OFFENFLQTENQUINTE, meaning Open flute-toned, Quint. 

OPEN DIAPASON. The term employed by English organ- 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 201 

builders from the middle of the seventeenth century to designate the 
principal foundation stops both in the manual and pedal depart- 
ments of the Organ. In the former it is invariably of 8 ft., and in 
the latter of 16 ft. pitch; these being the standard unison pitches of 
the respective departments. The prefix open was applied to dis- 
tinguish the stop from the one, of the same pitch, illogically named 
STOPPED DIAPASON, which is in no sense a DIAPASON, being a 
covered wood stop, strictly belonging to the Flute-work of the 
Organ. For full particulars see DIAPASON. 

OPHICLEIDE. Fr., OPHICLEIDE. Ger., OPHICLEID. Ital., 
OFFICLEIDE. The name derived from o<c<; a serpent, and xXsfq 
a key, and given to a large brass instrument of extensive compass 
and powerful voice. The organ-stop to which the name is applied 
is supposed to imitate the tone of the orchestral instrument. It is a 
striking-reed of large scale and powerful intonation, of 8 ft. pitch 
in the manual divisions, and 16 ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ. The 
OPHICLEIDE was first introduced by W. Hill, of London, in the Great 
of the Organ he erected in the Town Hall of Birmingham. It is 
labeled GREAT OPHICLEIDE, 8 FT., and speaks on high-pressure wind. 
In the Organ in St. George's Hall, Liverpool, there are three OPHI- 
CLEIDES, of 8 ft. pitch, inserted in the Great, Swell, and Solo divi- 
sions, and one, of 16 ft. pitch, in the Pedal Organ. As a proof of the 
old-fashioned system of tonal appointment pervading this instru- 
ment, the only OPHICLEIDE endowed with flexibility and power of 
expression is that in the Swell Organ.* The stop in the Solo Organ 
speaks on a wind of 22 inches pressure : it is a superb stop of its class, 
but its value is unfortunately circumscribed through its voice being 
beyond artistic control. 

FORMATION. The pipes of the OPHICLEIDE have resonators of inverted conical 
form, of full speaking length and large scale, made of thick spotted-metal or zinc. 
Their reeds or echalotes are also of large scale and of the open variety. These have 
tongues or languettes of hard rolled brass, thick, and carefully curved, so as to 
produce a tone full and commanding, but without brassy clang; so as to resemble 
as closely as practicable the full round tones of the orchestral Ophicleide. 

* "Before the recent renovation [1898], the Swell Organ was the only expressive division in 
the instrument; for in the year 1855 the introduction of more than a single swell-box was neither 
appreciated nor understood. It is, indeed, remarkable that for upwards of forty years the Solo 
Organ of fifteen stops, including four high-pressure reeds, remained uninclosed and entirely 
devoid of flexibility and powers of expression; and, to our mind, it is still more remarkable that 
when the swell-box was applied to the Solo Organ in 1898, the four high-pressure and very power- 
ful reed stops were left uninclosed. It is not too much to say that had these noisy stops been 
placed under control their utility and effectiveness would have been increased tenfold. In our 
opinion, while it was right to inclose the eleven stops of the Solo Organ, it was positively bar- 
barous to leave the very stops which call most loudly for tonal control in the whole Organ ab- 
solutely uncontrollable. ""The Art of Organ-Building. " Vol. II., p. 730. 



202 ORGAN-STOPS 

REGISTRATION. Unless used under perfect control and more or 
less subdued, the OPHICLEIDE is practically valueless in general 
artistic registration, and even under such control it is only good in 
exceptional effects. It is occasionally employed as a solo stop when 
it is expressive; but its principal use and value is in impressive cres- 
cendo passages and grand climaxes. Under all circumstances, a 
lingual stop of so powerful a voice has to be very carefully used; and 
will always be so when commanded by a true musician and artist. 
It will, however, be beloved by the lover of musical noise. 

ORCHESTRAL BASSOON. The name properly given to the 
lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the tones of which successfully imitate 
those of the orchestral Bassoon. The pipes of the most satisfactory 
examples of the stop have resonators of wood or metal, conical or 
pyramidal in form and of very small scale. The true compass of the 
Bassoon of the orchestra does not extend beyond eb 1 ; accordingly, 
above this note the stop is completed in what are practically OR- 
CHESTRAL OBOE pipes (See ORCHESTRAL OBOE). The tone of the 
ORCHESTRAL BASSOON should throughout its compass be of greater 
body than that which characterizes the ORCHESTRAL OBOE, so as to 
give a marked individuality to the stop. For further and full par- 
ticulars, see BASSOON. 

ORCHESTRAL CLARINET. The name properly employed 
to designate the lingual solo stop formed and voiced to yield a tone 
imitative of that of the orchestral Clarinets. For general particulars 
respecting the formation, tonality, etc., of the CLARINET, 8 FT., of 
the Organ, see CLARINET. As it has been found that the CLARINET, 
in its usual form, is rendered much more closely imitative.of the tone 
of the orchestral instruments, by having a soft-toned labial stop of 
perfect blending quality combined with it, we would suggest that 
the term ORCHESTRAL CLARINET be confined to a dual stop so 
formed. In our experience we have found that a covered wood flute- 
toned stop preferably a small-scaled and softly-voiced DOPPEL- 
FLOTE, 8 FT. combines perfectly with the lingual stop, and pro- 
duces a compound tone of remarkable imitative quality. It is in 
the imitation of the chalumeau register of the Clarinet of the orches- 
tra that the voicer will meet with the principal difficulty; but this 
can be largely overcome by skillful voicing, without causing any 
perceptible break in the tone of the stop. 

ORCHESTRAL FLUTE. Fr., FLUTE TRAVERSIERE. Ital, 
FLAUTO TRA VERSO. Ger. CONCERTFLOTE. The stop to which these 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 203 

names are properly applied yields tones as closely imitative of those 
of the Flute of the orchestra as are practicable in a rank of organ- 
pipes, blown by wind of uniform pressure. There are only two 
Flutes employed in the orchestra, the Flauto Traverso and the 
Flauto Piccolo; accordingly, the range of tone to be imitated is very 
limited. Several forms of both metal and wood pipes have been 
devised, by organ-builders of different nationalities, for the produc- 
tion of satisfactory ORCHESTRAL FLUTES. The most effective 
examples which have come to our observation are those labeled 
FLAIJTO TRAVERSO, of both 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, in the Organ in the 
Parish Church of Doncaster, Yorkshire, made by Edmund Schulze 
of Paulinzelle. In these we find cylindrical pipes of wood employed 
yielding tones almost identical with those of the orchestral instru- 
ment. Another beautiful example, by the same artist, of 8 ft. pitch 
and tenor C compass, exists in the Echo of the Organ in the Parish 
Church of Leeds, where it speaks on wind of ij/ inches. The stop 
appears under the names CONCERTFLOTE, 8 FT., and TRAVERSFLOTE, 
4 FT., on the Second Manual of theOrgan in the Cathedral of Liibeck. 
In its most expressive name, ORCHESTRAL FLUTE, 8 FT., it exists in 
the Solo of the Organ in the Music Hall of the Carnegie Institute, 
Pittsburgh : and, of 4 ft. pitch, in the Solo of the Organ in St. George V 
Hall, Liverpool. Under the name FLAUTO TRAVERSO, of 8 ft., 4 ft., 
and 2 ft. pitch, it is introduced in the Solo of the Organ in the Cen- 
. tennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. The stop of 2 ft. pitch should have 
been labeled ORCHESTRAL PICCOLO. The stop exists in French 
Organs under the name FLUTE TRAVERSIERE, 8 FT., as in the Organ 
in the Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris; and under the uncommon 
name FLUTE D'ORCHESTRE, 8 FT., in the Recit of the Organ in the 
Cathedral of Albi. 

FORMATION. Three forms have been adopted for the wood pipes of the 
ORCHESTRAL FLUTE; namely, cylindrical, quadrangular, and triangular; all of 
which are, in the best examples, harmonic in the principal portion of their com- 
pass. In the 8 ft. stop the harmonic pipes should commence on c x , and in the 4 ft. 
stop on tenor C. 

The pipes which produce tones most closely resembling those of the orchestral 
Flute are formed of circular tubes of hard wood, having small mouths, placed in 
relation to their blocked ends just as is the embouchure of the orchestral Flute. 
Their caps are formed so as to direct the wind-stream across their mouths, just as 
the wind from the human mouth is directed across the embouchure of the orches- 
tral instrument. The cylindrical pipes are invariably harmonic, and, accordingly, 
are about double the standard speaking length.* Flutes of this imitative form are 

* A full description, accompanied by accurately detailed drawings, of the fine cylindrical 
stops in the Organs in the Parish Churches of Doncaster and Leeds, made by Schulze, is given in 



204 ORGAN-STOPS 

met with in high-class German work; but we are not aware of one ever having 
been made by a French, English, or American organ-builder; their cylindrical 
FLUTES being invariably of metal, and, when imitative, harmonic. 

Very successful ORCHESTRAL FLUTES have been made with quadrangular 
harmonic pipes, usually of 4 ft. pitch. These are usually square, though in some 
cases slightly deeper than wide. Their mouths are circular and inverted: and 
their caps, which cover a small portion of the mouths, are formed so as to direct 
the wind-stream in the manner described above.* A good example of the ORCHES- 
TRAL FLUTE, 4 FT., formed of harmonic triangular pipes, is furnished by the stop 
in the Echo of the Concert-room Organ in the Town Hall of Leeds. The harmonic 
pipes commence on the tenor C key and are carried to the top. The bottom octave 
is of nonharmonic pipes. The form and construction of the triangular pipes are 
shown in Fig. 27, in which are given a Front View and Longitudinal and Trans- 
verse Sections of the largest one. The following are the measurements of the three 
pipes yielding the 2 ft., I ft., and M ft- notes, taken in the Organ. C, 2 ft. tone, 
width 2 M ins. ; depth along sides 2 ins. ; length from lower lip 3 ft. 10 ins. ; distance 
of perforation from lower lip I ft. 9 ins. ; diameter of perforation J4 in. ; width of 
mouth i % ins. ; height of mouth $ in. ; and block sunk below lower lip of mouth 
% inch. Pipe c 1 , I ft. tone, width i^ ins.; depth along sides i^ ins.; length 
from lower lip I ft. 10 ins. ; distance of perforation from lower lip 1 1 ins. ; diameter 
of perforation xV in.; width of mouth J^ in.; height of mouth ^ in.; and block 
sunk below lower lip 5^ in. Pipe c 2 , J^ ft. tone width i y$ ins. ; depth along sides 
Y| in. ; length from lower lip 10 % ins. ; distance of perforation from lower lip $$ 
ins. ; diameter of perforation J^ in. ; width of mouth 5^ in. ; height of mouth -^ in. ; 
and block sunk below lower lip fg- in. The wind pressure is 2 J^ inches; and the 
tone is pure and of medium strength. The FLUTE TRAVERSIERE and FLUTE 
D'ORCHESTRE, of the French organ-builders appear to be formed invariably of 
metal harmonic pipes of usual shape and treatment. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. While the strictly imitative voice of 
the ORCHESTRAL FLUTE renders the stop essentially a solo one, and 
most effective in that capacity, it is extremely valuable in combina- 
tion and artistic registration. Its pure and singularly liquid intona- 
tion, when not undesirably prominent, creates beautiful qualities of 
compound tone of an orchestral character, through its decided con- 
trast with the voices of the imitative string-toned and reed-toned 
stops, with which it combines perfectly. In both its solo and com- 
binational offices, the ORCHESTRAL FLUTE is valuable in both its 
8 ft. and 4 ft. pitches. 

ORCHESTRAL HORN. The name given to the important 
lingual stop, the voice of which imitates that of the Horn of the 
orchestra. For full particulars respecting formation, tone, etc., see 
HORN. 

"The Art of Organ-Building," Vol. II., pp. 463-4; and in '* The Organ of the Twentieth Century," 
PP- 438-9. 

* A fine quadrangular example is described and illustrated in "The Art of Organ-Building, " 
Vol. II., pp. 465-7 : and in "The Organ of the Twentieth Century, " pp. 439-40. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 



205 




^ ORCHESTRAL OBOE. The lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, voiced 
to imitate the tones of the Oboe of the orchestra. Both in formation 
and tonality it differs from the ordinary unimitative OBOE of the 
Organ. The ORCHESTRAL OBOE, 8 FT., is of comparatively rare 
introduction in even the large Organs of to-day; the difficulty of 
producing the peculiar voice of 
the orchestral instrument being 
the principal cause. Speaking of 
the Oboe, Berlioz correctly re- 
marks: "It is especially a me- 
lodial instrument, having a pas- 
toral character, full of tenderness 
nay, I would even say, of tim- 
idity," From such a description 
one can readily realize the prob- 
lem before the pipe-maker and 
reed-voicer. The most success- 
ful examples of the ORCHESTRAL 
OBOE, 8 FT., which have come 
under our direct observation are 
those constructed by Willis, and 
inserted in several of his import- 
ant Organs, including those in 
St. George's Hall, Liverpool; the 
Town Hall, Huddersfield; and 
the Cathedrals of Durham and 
Glasgow. The ORCHESTRAL 
OBOE was invented and first 
made by George Willis, brother 
of Henry Willis, England's most 
distinguished organ-builder. 
George voiced all the superb 
series of lingual stops in the St. 
George's Hall Organ (1855) 
founding thereby the unequalled 
Willis school of reed-voicing. 




FIG. 27 



The stop has been, so far as our observation extends, completely 
ignored by French organ builders : we have been unable to find an 
example even in their most important Organs. The stop labeled 
BASSON-HAUTBOIS exists in many instruments, but it cannot be con- 
sidered orchestral in character. Stops labeled ORCHESTRAL OBOE, 
8 FT., exist on the First Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of 



206 ORGAN-STOPS 

Ulm ; and on the Third Manual of the Organ in the Synagogue, Berlin. 

FORMATION. In briefly describing the formation of the pipes of the ORCHES- 
TRAL OBOE, one cannot do better than follow that adopted by Willis. The re- 
sonators are of an extremely slender inverted conical form, devoid of bells, and 
having closed upper ends and long and narrow slots adjoining them. This form of 
resonator is shown in Fig. 28, Plate III., which is drawn from the Willis ORCHES- 
TRAL OBOE in the Organ in the Town Hall, Huddersfield. The reeds or echalotes 
are of very small scale, and have their stopped ends formed at an acute angle up- 
ward from the lower edge of their faces. The tongues or languettes are very narrow, 
of good substance, and finely curved, as usual in all Willis reeds. Other makers 
have adopted resonators of the ordinary OBOE form but of very slender propor- 
tions. Others have been content to use plain inverted conical resonators, of ex- 
tremely small scales, and open at top : these have only cheapness to recommend 
them a very strong recommendation in the mind of the pipe-maker. 

Up to this point lingual stops have been alluded to, but we have now to briefly 
describe a labial stop, formed of quadrangular wood pipes, invented by Mr. 
William E. Haskell, which yields a tone closely imitative of that of the Oboe of the 
orchestra. It will be more convenient to describe a single pipe, taking the middle 
c 1 pipe as representative. The stop is of 8 ft. pitch. The pipe measures ^ inch 
square, internally, at its mouth line; and, while its width remains the same, its 
depth is gradually reduced to JJ- inch at its open top end, the reduction com- 
mencing about 12 inches above the mouth and taking a curve inward from that 
point in the front of the pipe. The block is slightly sunk below the mouth, which 
is inverted, carefully formed, and furnished with a sloping cap and cylindrical 
harmonic-bridge. The length of the pipe from the mouth is i foot 1 1 J^j inches. 
The stop speaks on wind of 3^ inches pressure. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. It is somewhat difficult to describe 
the peculiar tone of the Oboe of the orchestra. In addition to his 
description, quoted above, Berlioz speaks of its "small acid-sweet 
voice" a very happy expression. Judging from the number of 
compositions written for it, and the place it has always held in or- 
chestral music, it is obvious that the voice of the Oboe was highly 
esteemed by all the great composers. As the Oboe of the orchestra 
does not go below tenor Bb, it is obvious that the imitative tones of 
the ORCHESTRAL OBOE, 8 FT., of the Organ must commence on that 
note. Below that note the pipes should strictly be of the FAGOTTO 
class, because the Fagotto provides the proper bass to the Oboe in 
the orchestra: it is this fact that led the French organ-builders to use 
the term BASSON-HAUTBOIS. But it is neither necessary nor desir- 
able to break the organ-stop in either its tone or the form of its pipes. 
In correct Oboe solos, the performer will never be compelled to go 
below the compass of the instrument; while in general organ playing 
the complete stop of uniform tone will be extremely valuable in 
combination and registration. While the ORCHESTRAL OBOE will 
not be so generally useful in registration as the unimitative OBOE 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 207 

(q. 0.), it will lend itself to the production of many beautiful com- 
pound tones having very marked tonal colorings. In this direction, 
the stop and its effects are well worthy of the organist's careful study. 

ORCHESTRAL PICCOLO. An open labial stop of metal or 
wood, sometimes of both; formed, in the finest examples, of harmonic 
pipes. It is of 2 ft. pitch; and is voiced to yield bright and piercing 
flute-tones, imitative of those of the orchestral Plauto Piccolo. See 
PICCOLO. 

ORLO, CRO ORLO, Span. A lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, of the 
MUSETTE or CHALUMEAU character. It exists in certain large Span- 
ish Organs, including those in the Cathedrals of Burgos and Valla- 
dolid. In the North Organ in the former Cathedral there are two 
ORLOS on the First Clavier, probably of different pitches; and on the 
Second Clavier there are two stops labeled CRO ORLO. The Spanish 
organ-builders seem to have had a great love for lingual stops, judg- 
ing from the number introduced in their Organs, and the manner 
they disposed them, en chamade, in their sumptuous cases. 



P 

PANFLOTE, Ger. Ital, FLAUTO DI PAN. The name that has 
been given to a very rare Pedal Organ labial stop, of I ft. pitch, 
formed of open metal pipes, yielding acute tones resembling those 
of the Pan-pipes. An example exists in the Pedal of the Grand 
Organ in the Cathedral of Lund, Sweden. See FLAUTO DI PAN. 

PASTORITA, Ital. The name that has occasionally been used 
to designate the labial stop now commonly known as the French 
COR DE NUIT or the German NACHTHORN (q. v.). 

PAUKE, Ger. The stop so called by German organ-builders 
was one of the curiosities to be found in old Organs. It consisted of 
two large-scaled and loudly-voiced covered wood pipes, sounding 
the notes of the proper pitches of the Pauken or Kettle-drums of 
the orchestra, placed in the Pedal Organ. The loud and thumping 
sounds produced by these special pipes, when played staccato, were 
supposed to imitate those of the Kettle-drums. 

Another curiosity, called PAUKERENGEL, was a mechanical 
accessory, which took the form of an angel playing the Drum. Two 
or more of these were mounted on the case, chiefly as ornaments 
and were actuated by pedal mechanism. Examples are said to have 



208 ORGAN-STOPS 

existed in the Organ built by Joachim Wagner in 1725, for the Garri- 
son Church, Berlin. 

PERDUNA. The name which has sometimes been employed 
by old German organ-builders to designate a covered wood stop, of 
1 6 ft. pitch, and similar in all essentials to the BOURDON. 

PPEIFE, Ger. This term when used alone properly designates 
an open metal labial stop, of 2 ft. pitch, yielding a bright flute-tone. 
It is, in the generality of examples, practically identical with the 
stop named FIFE (q. v.). In certain compound names, used by 
German organ-builders, the terms PFEIFE and FLOTE seem to be 
synonymous. An instance of both terms being used in combina- 
tion is given by Seidel-Kothe : " PFEIFERFLOTE wird zuweilen NASAT 
2%' genannt." 

PHILOMELA. Ital., FILOMELA. The name, which means 
Nightingale (Daulias philomela), has been used to designate stops of 
widely different tonalities so different, indeed, that one is disposed 
to ask, so far as organ-builders' terminology is concerned, "What's 
in a name? 1 ' In the first place, it has been applied, appropriately, 
to a small-scaled wood stop voiced to yield an extremely refined and 
soft flute-like tone, suggestive of the voice of the Nightingale. 
Clarke, in his " Structure of the Pipe Organ," describes the PHILO- 
MELA, 8 FT., as a flute-toned stop formed of "Small scale stopped 
wood pipes, voiced with the sweetest and most delicate quality." In 
the second place, and with a widely different signification, the name 
is given to wood stops of large scale and powerful intonation. The 
PHILOMELA, 8 FT., in the unexpressive Solo of the Organ in the Cin- 
cinnati Music Hall, built by Hook & Hastings in 1878, is thus de- 
scribed by the builders: "Open pipes of wood, having two mouths. 
Tone full, rich, and mellow. ' ' This stop speaks on wind of ten inches 
pressure. As a large-scaled, open, double-mouthed stop, the PHILO- 
MELA has been styled a wood STENTORPHONE. If the name is to be 
retained in modern stop nomenclature, let it be confined to the stop 
which, however imperfectly, yields a tone having some resemblance 
to that of the Nightingale's song. 

PHOCINX. An uncommon term that has been applied, in a 
few instances, to the German lingual stop usually known as the 
KRUMMHORN. Fr. CROMORNE (q. v.). 

PHYSHARMONIKA. A soft-vdiced lingual stop, of 16 ft. 
and 8 ft. pitch, to be found in several German and Swiss Organs. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 



20Q 



It is placed on the Fourth Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of 
Riga; and on the Third Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of 
Ulm. Both stops are of 8 ft. pitch. In the well-known Organ in the 
Cathedral of Lucerne, the PHYSHARMONIKA, 8 FT., is placed in the 
Swell. In the Organ in the Cathedral of Fribourg, in Switzerland, 
there are PHYSHARMONIKAS, of 16 ft. and 8 ft. pitch. The stops in 
both the Lucerne and Fribourg Organs we personally examined, 
accompanied, in Lucerne, by F. Haas, the organ-builder who in- 
serted them: accordingly, we are able to describe the stops. In the 
Organ in the Cathedral of Magdeburg there is an 8 ft. stop of similar 
description, labeled HARMONIUM. 

FORMATION. The best examples of the PHYSHARMONIKA to be found in 
modern European Organs have been made by J. & P. Schiedmayer of Stuttgart, 
through whose courtesy we are able to give an illustration showing the formation 
of the stop. Fig. 29 is a Transverse Section of the complete appliance in its most 
improved form. A is the chamber into which the compressed pipe-wind is con- 




FIG. 29 

ducted by a suitable wind-trunk or conveyance. This chamber is connected 
through the opening D, with the bellows B, which, together with the chamber A, 
forms the compressed-air reservoir. The bellows B is acted on by the spiral spring 
C, which properly regulates the wind-pressure at all times on the many tongues. 
E is a small escape-valve, held against its port by a light spring. A Longitudinal 
Section of a free tongue or vibrator with its brass frame is shown at F; and its 



2io ORGAN-STOPS 

tuning-clip and wire are shown at G. The wire passes air-tight through the side 
of the chamber A, to enable the tuning to be done from the outside. H is the reed- 
groove special to the vibrator F, furnished with the pallet-hole I. J is the pallet, 
covering the hole I, and commanded by the key-action of the Organ through the 
agency of the rocking-lever K and the pull-wire L. The pallet is held against its 
seat by the spring M, which is strong enough to resist the downward pressure of 
the wind on the surface of the pallet. N is the sound-chamber, general to all the 
reed-grooves: this is properly made much deeper than is shown. It is furnished at 
its end, or ends, with a pivoted or sliding appliance for crescendo and diminuendo 
effects. The free-reeds of the PHYSHARMONIKA are similar in all respects to those 
used for the ordinary free-reed stops; the only difference lies in the manner in 
which they are mounted. 

The PHYSHARMONIKA, 8 FT., in the Lucerne Organ is, in its sounding portion, 
similar to that just described, but is inclosed in a special swell-box, in one side of 
which several heart-shaped openings are cut for the egress of sound ; and these are 
commanded by a sliding shutter in which corresponding perforations are made. 
The to-and-fro motions of the shutter, under the action of a small expression lever, 
produce a perfect and gradual crescendo and diminuendo. In the Fribourg Organ 
the PHYSHARMONIKAS have their reeds furnished with short resonators. They are 
inclosed in the same manner as in the Lucerne instrument. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tones of the PHYSHARMONIKA 

are somewhat indeterminate but generally pleasing, combining in a 
satisfactory manner with the tones of the labial stops of all tonalities, 
chiefly in the capacity of timbre-creator. In this direction one tonal 
difficulty obtains; for, like all free-reed stops, the PHYSHARMONIKA 
is not affected by changes of temperature in the same manner as are 
the labial stops ; and, accordingly, is not always in perfect tune with 
them. It, however, can be easily tuned and that difficulty is readily 
overcome. 

Free-reed stops devoid of resonators have recently been intro- 
duced by certain English organ-builders, with favorable results in 
tonal combination and registration. In the Organ in Colston Hall, 
Bristol, built by Norman & Beard in 1905, there are three such free- 
reed stops, labeled HARP ^EOLONE, KEROPHONE, and SAXOPHONE. 

PICCOLO, FLAUTO PICCOLO, Ital A labial stop, of 2 ft. 
pitch, formed of metal, or of wood and metal, the pipes of which are of 
small scale, and voiced to yield a clear flute-tone. While 2 ft. pitch 
is obviously the correct and most desirable one, the PICCOLO some- 
times appears as a stop of i ft. pitch, as in the Positif of the Organ 
in the Church of St. Sulpice, Paris. Under the name HARMONIC 
PICCOLO, 4 FT., it is inserted in the Solo of the Organ in the Town 
Hall of Leeds; while in the Great there is a PICCOLO, 2 FT. In the 
case of a stop like this, which is, or should be, imitative of the orches- 
tral Piccolo, it is most desirable that organ-builders should adopt a 



rflEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 211 

uniform pitch, that of 2 ft. When voiced to closely imitate the voice 
of the orchestral instrument, it is appropriately called ORCHESTRAL 
PICCOLO. The French organ-builders usually fashion this imitative 
stop with harmonic pipes, and label it PICCOLO HARMONIQUE. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The PICCOLO, 2 FT., in its proper 
and most desirable form, may be considered the FIFTEENTH or 
SUPER-OCTAVE of the Flute-work of the Organ: but, being highly 
imitative in its voice, it holds a decided position in the orchestral 
forces; its proper place being in the Wood-wind division, or in the 
Solo, of the properly-appointed Concert-room Organ. It is very 
questionable if its voice is called for in the legitimate Church Organ. 
The tone of this imitative stop should be carefully proportioned to 
those of the ORCHESTRAL FLUTES, 8 FT., and 4 FT., so that whilst it 
will prove amply sufficient for any solo work, it will not dominate, 
by its high pitched and necessarily piercing voice, the graver and 
richer voices of those more important stops. In artistic registration 
its chief office will be in the production of bright qualities of orches- 
tral tone, in which it will prove invaluable, never, however, losing 
its identity ; in this respect resembling the Piccolo of the orchestra. 

PICCOLO D'AMORE, ItaL The true OCTAVE of the FLAUTO 
D'AMORE, 4 FT. It is a softly-voiced flute-toned stop of 2 ft. pitch, 
properly formed of half -covered wood pipes of small scale, from CC 
to c 2 , and thence to top note in small-scale open metal pipes, prefer- 
ably of SPITZFLOTE form. The PICCOLO D'AMORE, 2 FT., is an ideal 
SUPER-OCTAVE for the true Chamber Organ, or for an Ancillary 
Aerial Organ. 

PIFFERO, ItaL Literally Fife. The name used by Italian 
organ-builders to designate a stop which is in all essentials similar to 
the French CHALUMEAU (q. .). 

PILEATA, Lat. Literally Hooded. A generic name for labial 
covered stops, having no direct reference to their tone.* When used 
alone it simply means a GEDECKT. Combined with other terms, 
we find PILEATA MAXIMA a GROSSUNTERSATZ, 32 FT.; PILEATA 
MAGNA a GROBGEDECKT, 16 FT.; PILEATA MAJOR a MITTEL- 
GEDECKT, 8 FT. ; and PILEATA MINOR a KLEINGEDECKT, 4 FT. 

* " VOX-PILEATA, ou simplement PILEA.TA. C'est encore un de ces noms gene"riques de jeu 
bouche, dontla facture allemande abonde mme par tradition, puisqueles premiers trait6sde 
facture furent 6crits en latin. Cela veut dire voix couverte, ou, mot a mot, coijfee; la coiff e est ce 
quel'on nommeaujourd'nuicaZoWedansles bourdons de metal, et tampon oubouchon dans ceux 
de bois. La qualification de Pileata se modifie selon la grandeur du registre ; de tous petits r<S- 
gistresbouches, tels quela Bauer-Fldte d'un pied s'appelleront Pileata-Minima. Un bourdon de 



212 ORGAN-STOPS 

PLEIN-JEU, Fr. The name used by French organ-builders to 
designate a compound harmonic-corroborating stop, of several 
ranks of medium-scaled open metal pipes, yielding pure organ-tone. 
A fine example of the stop exists in the Organ in the Town Hall of 
Manchester, constructed by Cavaille-Coll. The composition of this 
stop is here given ; 

PLEIN-JEU VII. RANKS. 

CC to E ..... 15 19 22 26 29 33 36. 

F to e 1 .... 812151922 2629. 

f 1 to e 3 .... i 8121519 2226. 

f 3 to b 2 . . . . 15 812151922. 

C3 to f3 . . . . DOUBLE I 5 8 12 15 19 

fit' to C< ... DOUBLE-;-!- 5 - 8-I2-I5. 



This PLEIN-JEU has no special feature to distinguish it from an 
ordinary MIXTURE in which octave- and fifth-sounding ranks only 
are employed, except in its extreme richness of structure, and the 
introduction of breaks lower in pitch than the unison of the manual 
division (Grand-Orgue) in which it is placed. It may be remarked 
that this division, of fourteen speaking stops, contains three stops 
of 1 6 ft. pitch, which fact accounts for the introduction of the 
DOUBLES and DOUBLE QUINT in the upper breaks of the PLEIN- 
JEU, and also the fifth-sounding ranks in the three higher breaks 
which strictly belong to the 16 ft. harmonic series. A PLEIN-JEU 
of ten ranks is the only compound stop in the Grand-Orgue of the 
Organ in the Madeleine, Paris. In the Positif of the Organ in 
Saint Sulpice there is a PLEIN-JEU HARMONIQUE of three and 
four ranks. Further particulars are given in the appended note.* 

seize, fagonne" de maniere a prendre un nom quelconque de flute, ajoutera a ce nom de fantaisie 
la qualification de Pileata-Magna qui empe'che 1'organiste de 1'employer comme jeu ouvert. 
Enfin Pileala-Maxima de"signera les bourdons gigantesques de la p6dale. " Regnier. 

*" LE PLEIN-JEU. Les modernes ont souvent donn6 le mme nom a toute espece de mix- 
tures; c'est une de ces petites erreurs de detail qui entrainent apres elles 1'oubli des principesen 
facture. Ainsi ai-je rencontre souvent dans de petites orgues un rdgistre appelS Plein-jeu, qui 
n'avait rien de plein, et qui n'etait un jeu que dans le sens ridicule du mot. II y avait de quoi 
faire prendre en horreur toute espece de mixture; et j 'attribue k ce vol, fait aux vraies conditions 
du Plein-jeu par les f acteurs charlatans, la reaction qu'on voit se prononcer centre la venerable 
antiquite" de cette harmonic. ' Dans un seize-pieds, ' dit Dom Bedos, ' le moindre Plein-jeu est de 
neuf tuyaux sur marche (ou par note). ... Si c'est un huit-pieds, le Plein-jeu est (au moins) 
de sept tuyaux sur marche; si 1'orgue est un trente-deux-pieds ouvert avec bourdon de trente- 
deux, on doit mettre Fourniture entiere et Cymbale entiere (c'est-a-dire que chacun de ces rSgis- 
tresdoitavoirsa plus grande force connue). Pour un positif, si c'est un huit-pieds enmontre.on 
met le Plein-jeu de sept tuyaux sur marche. S'il n'y a point de huit-pieds ouverts, le Plein-jeu 
nesera que de cinq tuyaux sur marche, c'est-a-dire compos6 des trois dernieres rangees dela 
Fourniture et des deux dernieres de la Cymbale.' (Parce qu'alors un Plein-jeu plus fort serait 
trop dur, n'etant pas soutenu par la force des huit-pieds ouverts.) Dom Bedos donne encore les 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 213 

PORTUNAL, PORTUNALFLC^; Ger.-An open wood stop, 
of medium scale, and of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch. Its pipes are, in the 
finer examples, of inverted pyramidal form, after the fashion of the 
DOLCAN, yielding a very pleasing fluty tone inclining, in good rep- 
resentative examples, to a Clarinet quality. 

POSAUNE, Ger. A lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch on the manuals 
and 1 6 ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ; the pipes of which have resona- 
tors of large scale and inverted conical form. In the manual stop, 
metal resonators are invariably employed; while in the Pedal stop 
they are made of either metal or wood; and sometimes of both, 
wood being used for the lower octave. The tone of the POSAUNE is 
intended to imitate as closely as possible that of the orchestral Trom- 
bone when played forte and firmly; it, accordingly, should have more 
brassiness than the TROMBONE or TRUMPET. 

Examples of the POSAUNE, 8 FT., exist in the Greats of the Organs 
in Westminster Abbey and the Royal Albert Hall, London; and in 
the Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral of Riga." Examples of the 
POSAUNE, 16 FT., are to be found in the Pedals of the Organs in the 
above-named churches; and in those of the Organs in the Cathedral 
of Ulm, and the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. Under the name 
POSAUNENBASS, 1 6 FT., it exists in the Pedals of the Organs in the 
Cathedral of Lubeck, and the Gewandhaus, Leipzig. See CONTRA- 

POSAUNE. 

PRESTANT, Fr. The name commonly employed by French 
organ-builders to designate the principal OCTAVE, 4 FT., in a manual 
division; yielding pure organ-tone. .Its scale is properly derived 
from, and proportioned to, that of the MONTRE, 8 FT., or chief uni- 
son of the division. The PRESTANT occupies the same tonal position 
and fulfils the same office in a French Organ, as the so-called PRIN- 

regles pour un Plein-jeu de quatre tuyaux sur marche, mais dans ce cas la maigreur du re*gistre 
doit le faire rejeter, car il est deja trop grincant, mime avec cinq tuyaux seulement. * Si le Plein- 
jeu est de fruit ou de six tuyaux sur marche, on prend la moiti6 dans la Fourniture, et 1'autre 
moitie dans la Cymbale: voila les regies ordinaires. . . . ' Dom Bedos ajoute : ' Je ne f erai point 
remarquer ici toutes les variations de quelques facteurs dans la composition et I'arrangement du 
Plein-jeu (il paralt que des ce temps-la on cherchait 6conomiser sur la peine et la depense qu'oc- 
casionne la facture du vrai Plein-jeu) ; mais tous s'accordant a ne mettre que des quintes et desoc- 
taves, et jamais de tierces.' Je ne puis omettre ici la citation de l'e"loge du Plein-jeu par le grand 
artiste b6n6dictin; il donne trop d'autoritS a ce que nous avons d6ja dit: 'Tout ce qu'il y a de 
plus harmonieux dans 1'orgue, au jugement des connaisseurs et de ceux qui ont du gout pour la 
vraie harmonic, c' est le Plein-jeu t lorsqu'il est m61angavec tous lesf onds qui le nourrissent dans 
une juste proportion; et la raison pour laquelle on met toujours ensemble les fonds de 1'orgue 
avec la Fournilure et la Cymbale, est que si Ton employait celles-ci seules dans les diffSrentes 
combinaisons d'accords que fait un organiste, elles f ormeraient des sons d6sagr6ables. qui dis- 
paraissent a I'oreille, lorsque le melange des sons fondamentaux les mettent au rang des sons 
harmoniques.' ' ' Regnier. 



214 ORGAN-STOPS 

CIPAL does in an English instrument, and the OCTAVE, 4 FT., in an 
American and German Organ.* The name PRESTANT, derived from 
the Latin Pr&stare to stand in front, was given to the stop because, 
like the MONTRE, it was commonly displayed in the case-work. 
See OCTAVE. 

PRINZIPAL, Ger. Ital., PRINCIPALS. The name appropri- 
ately and logically employed by German and Italian organ-builders 
to designate the principal unison stop in both the manual and pedal 
departments of the Organ that which is commonly named DIA- 
PASON in English and American Organs, and MONTRE in French 
Organs. French organ-builders have in some instances used the 
borrowed terms PRINCIPAL and DIAPASON, as in the Recit and Solo 
of the Organ in the Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris. In a manual 
division the PRINCIPAL is correctly of 8 ft. pitch, and in the Pedal 
Organ of 16 f t. pitch : but in many German Organs, as in those of the 
Cathedral of Bremen and the Marienkirche, Lubeck, we find PRINZI- 
PALS of both 8 ft. and 16 ft. pitch in the chief manual division 
(Hauptwerk), while the foundation unison in the Pedal Organ is 
labeled PRINZIPALBASS, 16 FT. German organ-builders have applied 
the term PRINZIPAL alike to the organ-toned foundation stops of 
32 ft., 1 6 ft., 8 ft., and 4 ft. pitch. 

English organ-builders have from old times continued to apply 
the term PRINCIPAL to the open metal stop, of large scale, and 4 ft. 
pitch, which is the true OCTAVE of the DIAPASON, 8 FT. The term, 
so applied, is both illogical and undesirable. See OCTAVE. 

PRINZIPALDISKANT, DISKANTPRINZIPAL, Ger. 
A PRINCIPAL or DIAPASON, 8 FT., of large scale and short compass, 
which extends throughout the treble octaves of the manual compass, 

* " Le PRESTANT, c'est la suite de la Montre, dont il a toutes les proportions. Nous avons vu 
qu'en Allemagne, le prestant allait du seize-pieds au quatre-pieds: en France, le prestant a tou- 
jours quatre-pieds a son plus grand tuyau, tellement que souvent les facteurs ne Tappellent que 
le quatre-pieds. Et lorsq'ils disent tout court aussi le huit-pieds, ils ne de"signent pourtant pas 
1'octave du prestant, c'est-a-dire la montre de huit, mais bien une flute qu'on adjoint a la montre 
etqui, au besoin, la supple"e I'interieur de 1'orgue, quand on n'a paslemoyend'avoir d'autre 
montre qu'un prestant. Faisant sinte a la montre, le prestant est done, comme elle, ouvert, de 
moyenne taille, et construit en etain fin. Son harmonie, en rapport avec cette taille elance"e 
et ce m6tal de choix, est fine et brillante; elle donne un tel eclat, un tel tranchant auxfondsde 
taille ordinaire et de grosse taille, que son adjonction ou son silence se font vivement sentir. Le 
prestant parle rarement seul ; marie" aux flutes de quatre, il prend un corps dont il n'a que 
rombre dans 1'isolement, et devient une flute 6clatante si les timbres sont bien d 'accord.^ Lie aux 
huit-pieds .illeur donne du brillant; il ne supporte la grave adjonction des seize-pieds que 
moyennant celledes huit, qui serventde transition. . . . Quelques facteurs intitulent prestant 
le quatre-pieds dela pSdale; ce n'est qu'une flute de grosse taille en e"toffe, qui domine ses deux 
compagnes ordinaires, flutes de huit et de seize, surtout quand ces flutes sont en bois, et 
meme bouch&es. " Regnier. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 215 

or from middle c 1 to the top note. The stop has very rarely been 
carried to tenor C. This short stop was considered of considerable 
value by the old German organ-builders, on account of its power of 
reinforcing the weaker octaves of the unison foundation-work. This 
weakness was so forcibly realized by Christian Muller, that he in- 
serted two pipes to each note in the treble of several of the more 
important stops in his noble Organ in the Cathedral of Haarlem. 
This matter might, with advantage, receive serious consideration 
at the present time; for the natural weakness of the treble in the 
Organ still remains one of its tonal short-comings.* 

PRINZIPALFLOTE, Ger. A powerfully-toned, open metal, 
labial stop, of large scale, and 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch; the voice of which 
is a compromise between pure organ-tone and flute-tone. It has 
been introduced as a Solo stop; as, 'by Walcker, in the Organ in St. 
Peterskirche, Frankfurt. Such a stop, of unison pitch, would be 
valuable as a timbre-creator; and might, with advantage, take the 
place of a DIAPASON, 8 FT., when several are introduced. It would 
form an admirable foundation stop in the wood- wind division of the 
true Concert-room Organ. 

PROGRESSIO HARMONICA. A compound harmonic-cor- 
roborating and treble-enriching stop, the ranks of which have no 
breaks, but increase in number as the stop progresses upward 
through the manual compass. According to Seidel the stop was 
invented by Musikdirektor Wilke, of Neu-Ruppin, and recom- 
mended by him especially for small Organs. The stop, as originally 
devised, begins at CC with two ranks of i^ ft. and i ft. pitch, and 
at tenor C a third rank of 2 ft. pitch is added. Seidel adds: "The 
scale of the stop is between those of the PRINZIPAL and the CORNETT. 
The intonation is strong and the effect very fine. The tone of the 
Organ becomes by this stop distinct, full, and bright." The PRO- 
GRESSIO HARMONICA in the Brustwerk of the Organ in the Cathedral 
of Merseburg, in Saxony, built by Ladegast in 1855, commences with 
two ranks in the bass and finishes with four ranks in the treble. A 
similar stop exists on the Third Manual of his Organ in the Cathedral 
of Schwerin. The stop in the Unterwerk of the Organ in St. Peters- 
kirche, Berlin, commences with three ranks and finishes with five 
ranks in the treble. 

To any one who has given serious consideration to the subject 
of compound-tone production in the Organ, the advantages attend- 

* See " Weakness and Augmentation of the Treble, " Chap. XV., Vol. II., pp. 1-12, of **The 
Art of Organ-Building." 



2i6 ORGAN-STOPS 

ing the introduction of stops of the PROGRESSIO HARMONICA class 
must be obvious and deserving of careful study. The inventor of 
the stop was also the inventor of the COMPENSATIONSMIXTUR (q. v.), 
applied to the Pedal Organ, in which the opposite treatment is 
adopted; the purpose being to impart distinctness and richness to 
the lower and somewhat indeterminate notes of that grave depart- 
ment. 

PYRAMIDFLOTE, Ger. Eng., PYRAMIDAL FLUTE. A wood 
stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are square and, as the name 
implies, are smaller at the top than at the mouth line. The tone 
differs in stops made by different organ-builders, but in the best 
examples it is light and clear, resembling a combination of the tones 
of the MELODIA and the GEMSHORN. A good example exists in the 
Unterwerk of the Organ in the Church of SS. Peter and Paul, Lieg- 
nitz, in Silesia, built by Buckow in 1839. A stop of this class is more 
statable for a Chamber Organ than for either a Church or a Concert- 
room Organ: its tone is refined but without marked individuality. 

PYRAMIDON. The name given to an open wood stop, of 16 
ft. pitch, the pipes of which were of inverted pyramidal form and 
remarkable proportions. It was invented by the Rev. Sir Frederick 
A. Gore Ouseley, and made by Flight. The peculiarity of the stop, 
which was applied to the Pedal Organ, lay chiefly in the form and 
proportions of its pipes, which were covered, the CCC pipe measur- 
ing 2 feet 3 inches square at top, 8 inches square at the mouth line, 
and only 2 feet 6 inches speaking length. The 16 ft. tone produced 
by this pipe resembled that of a BOURDON, but had nothing special 
to recommend it. - The chief interest of the stop lay in the acoustical 
problem it presented : its disadvantages were several. It now takes 
its place among the discarded curiosities of organ-building. - 

Q 

QUARTE DE NASARD, Fr. The term sometimes employed 
by French organ-builders to designate the open metal stop, of 2 ft. 
pitch, belonging to the 8 ft. harmonic series. It is practically iden- 
tical with the English FIFTEENTH or SUPER-OCTAVE, 2 FT. It derives 
its name from the fact that its pitch is at the interval of a fourth 
above that of the NASARD, 2% FT.* An example exists in the Positif 
of the Organ in the Church of Saint-Remi, Amiens. 

*"QUARTE. Jeu del'orgue. Quoique ce jeu. soit a 1'unisson de la doublette onluiadonn6 
le nom de quarte, parce qu'en suivant la progression ascendante des jeux du cornet dont ilest 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 217 



, Ger. The name, which is formed of the words 
quer cross or athwart and Fldte Flute, has been frequently used 
by German organ-builders to designate the stop which, in its voice, 
imitates, as closely as practicable in organ-pipes, the tone of the 
Flute of the orchestra. Under the heading QUERFLOTE, QUER- 
PFEIFE, Seidel gives the following particulars: 

" QUERFLOTE is a labial stop of a particularly fine tone, imitative 
of that of the real Flute. Organ-builders, in their endeavor to make 
this imitation as striking as possible, have essayed with this stop all 
sorts of shapes and proportions. The pipes are usually made of oak, 
pear-tree, or maple; and they are either cylindrical or quadrangular, 
open or stopped. Some organ-builders make the pipes twice as long 
as they usually appear, and overblow them so as to make them 
sound the octave higher. Other organ-builders bore out the bodies 
of the pipes, and provide them with mouths of an oval form, like the 
embouchure of the real Flute. The QUERFLOTE made by Muller, of 
Breslau, for his Organ in the Cathedral of his city, has oval mouths 
in its pipes, against which the wind is directed sidewise, imitating the 
method of blowing the real Flute. " 

A QUERFLOTE, 8 FT., of the compass of the orchestral Flute, was 
inserted in the Organ reconstructed by Engelbert Maas, in 1821, 
for the Cathedral of Cologne. For further particulars see FLAUTO 
TRAVERSO and ORCHESTRAL FLUTE. 

QUINT. Fr. and Ger., QUINTE. Ital. and Lat., QUINTA. 
The stop, correctly termed, which speaks a fifth above the unison 
pitch of the division of the Organ in which it is placed: it is, accord- 
ingly, of 5]^ ft. pitch on the manuals, and 10% ft. pitch in the Pedal 
Organ. The pipes forming the manual QUINT are properly of open 
metal, and of medium scale; while those of the Pedal Organ QUINT, 
though preferably of open metal, may be made of wood. Covered 
pipes have been used, but they are not to be recommended; they do 
not satisfactorily fulfil the office for which they are intended. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The QUINT, 5^ FT., is a mutation or 
harmonic-corroborating stop, belonging to the i6ft. harmonic series, 
and, as it is strictly a member of the foundation-work of the Organ, 
its voice should be of pure organ-tone of medium strength, produced 
by cylindrical metal pipes of the DIAPASON formation. Its presence 
is not called for in any save the First or Great Organ, and only there 

une des parties constituantes, il se trouve a la quarte au-dessus du nasard. Aussirappelle-t-on 
r6ellem^nt quarte de nasavd, et ce n'est que par abrSviation qu'on dit simplement quarte." 
Hamel. 



218 ORGAN-STOPS 

when a DOUBLE DIAPASON, 16 FT., is present. Under certain condi- 
tions, however, it may be introduced in the division when no foun- 
dation stop of labial character below 8 ft. pitch is present, for the 
purpose of generating the differential 16 ft. tone, in combination 
with the DIAPASON, 8 FT. In registration, the QUINT, 5^ FT., may 
be effectively combined with any lingual stop of 16 ft. pitch, pro- 
ducing beautiful compound tones, not possible of production with- 
out it. Much, however, depends on the quality of the voice of the 
stop and the pipes from which it is produced. To save expense, 
English organ-builders have commonly used covered pipes, inartis- 
tically voiced, producing undesirable thick and dull effects in com- 
bination. Better results are obtained by Continental builders, who 
use open metal and wood pipes, cylindrical, quadrangular, conical, 
and inverted conical in form; producing various tones, all of which 
introduce colorings, and affect artistic registration. 

The QUINT, 10% FT., should be introduced, in one form or 
another, in every important Pedal Organ in which there is no stop 
of 32 ft. pitch. The stop may be either of metal or wood, and either 
open or covered preferably open according to the stop appor- 
tionment of the department. In the Organ built by Schulze, in 
1850, for the Cathedral of Bremen, there is a stop labeled QUINTEN- 
BASS, 10% FT., and another labeled GROSSQUINTENBASS, 21 J^ FT. 
The former is legitimate, corroborating the second upper partial 
tone of the 32 ft. prime, and in combination with the DIAPASON, 
1 6 FT. , corroborating the 32 ft. tone ; while the latter could have been 
introduced solely with the view of generating the differential tone 
of the 64 ft. pitch, just as it has been employed in other important 
Organs. See GRAVISSIMA. 

QUINTADENA. Stops bearing this name have been intro- 
duced in numerous Organs. The earliest instances of its introduc- 
tion we have been able to find are those in the Organ in the New 
Church, Amsterdam. It is an old instrument, enlarged in 1673 by 
Duyshor van Goor, of Dordrecht. In the Great there is a QUINTA- 
DENA, 16 FT., and in both the Choir and Echo a QUINTADENA, 8 FT. 
The stop seems to have been a favorite with the old Dutch organ- 
builders. 

The QUINTADENA is in all essentials similar to the covered stop 
correctly designated QUINTATEN (q. u), yielding a compound tone 
in which the twelfth, or second upper partial tone, is present in a 
pronounced degree along with the prime or fundamental tone. The 
stop is formed of covered pipes of metal or wood: as a rule the metal 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 219 

stop is to be preferred, if not too large a scale, and artistically voiced. 
We find some variations of the prevailing name; namely, QUIN- 
TADEN, QUINTADENE, and QuiNTADEMA. Under the last name, the 
stop exists in the Swell of the Organ in the Music Hall, Cincinnati. 
It is formed of covered pipes of tin, of 8 ft. pitch. 

QUINTATEN. The name derived from the Latin words quin- 
tain tenentes (holding the fifth), and properly applied to covered 
stops which yield compound tones, in which the second upper 
partial tone is almost as pronounced as the prime or ground tone. 
Helmholtz correctly remarks : ' ' Narrow stopped pipes let the twelfth 
be very distinctly heard at the same time with the prime tone; 
and have hence been called Quintaten (quintam tenentes)"* The 
term QUITATEN has comparatively seldom appeared in organ speci- 
fications or stop-knobs , several corruptions having been substituted 
according to the caprice of different organ-builders in different 
countries. We give these corruptions so that they may be known 
and avoided in the stop nomenclature of to-day: QUINTATON, 

QUINTATON, QUINTADEN, QlJINTADON, QUINTADINER, QUINTADENE, 

and QUINTGETON. 

The QUINTATEN is formed of covered pipes of metal and wood, 
and of 1 6 ft., 8 ft., and 4 ft. pitch: all are very valuable in their re- 
spective places; and collectively they form a remarkable family, the 
importance of which has been altogether overlooked by organ de- 
signers; in this direction it is on an equality with the LIEBLICH- 
GEDECKT family. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The compound tone of the QUIN- 
TATEN, when produced from pipes correctly scaled, and artistically 
voiced on wind of proper pressure, is extremely valuable in combina- 
tion and artistic registration. As before stated, the tone yielded by 
a QUINTATEN pipe is a compound of the prime and its second upper 
partial tone, the first harmonic produced by a covered pipe, 
and it is from this acoustical phenomenon that the stop derives its 
special value, enabling the Octave-quint or Twelfth to be introduced 
in registration in a degree of softness and refinement impossible to 
be imparted by an independent fifth-sounding stop. The relative 
strength of the Twelfth varies in different stops. In some it is sub- 
dued, while in others it is almost as prominent as the prime tone. 
In a really fine QUINTATEN, 8 FT., the prime tone should be firmly 



*" On the Sensations of Tone," by Hermann L. F. Helmholtz, M.D. Translated by A. J. 
Ellis, B.A., 1875. 



220 ORGAN-STOPS 

established as the pitch of the stop; but as regards the relative 
strength of the upper partial, much will depend on the general stop 
apportionment in which the QUINTATEN is inserted : it should, how- 
ever, in all cases be distinctly pronounced, otherwise the stop will 
lose much of its value. 

An artistically voiced QUINTATEN forms an effective solo stop, 
notwithstanding the argument advanced against its use on account 
of the production of consecutive fifths. But this objection is of no 
real value, for it must be recognized that the natural fifths, produced 
as harmonic upper partial tones, have a widely different tonal effect 
from the independent consecutive fifths condemned in musical 
theory and composition. The fifth-sounding stops and ranks in 
compound stops, introduced in the Organ as harmonic-corroborators 
if properly apportioned and scientifically graduated in strength of 
tone, produce no objectionable tonal effects: on the contrary, they 
are demanded in .the tonal structure of the Organ, and are abso- 
lutely necessary for the creation of many desirable qualities of com- 
pound tone; and, accordingly, have very important offices in artistic 
registration. 

The QUINTATEN, 16 FT., although by no means so valuable in 
manual divisions as the unison stop, is greatly to be preferred to a 
BOURDON, 16 FT., of the ordinary class. Its subordinate upper 
partial, sufficiently representing the sH ft. tone, gives great fulness 
and richness to all combinations in which the stop is introduced. 
The stop imparts great solidity and dignity to the tones of lingual 
stops of 1 6 ft. pitch. Voiced with the harmonic-bridge, the QUIN- 
TATEN, 1 6 FT., can be made an imitative DOUBLE BASS suitable for 
a small Organ. 

The QUINTATEN, 4 FT., is comparatively of little value unless in 
association with the 16 ft. and 8 ft. stops completing the family: 
but certain organ-builders have introduced it as the only octave stop 
in a manual division, rendering a TWELFTH, 2% FT., unnecessary, 
but the presence of a SUPER-OCTAVE, 2 FT., is imperative to cover the 
prominent upper partial of the QUINTATEN. 

QUINTENBASS, Ger. The name used by German organ- 
builders to designate the mutation or harmonic-corroborating stop, 
of 10^3 ft., pitch belonging to the 32 ft. harmonic series, and prop- 
erly introduced in the Pedal Organ along with the DOUBLE DIAPA- 
SON, 32 FT. ; or, in the absence of that important stop, with the view 
of producing in combination with the DIAPASON, 16 FT., the differen- 
tial tone of 32 ft. pitch, sometimes designated "acoustic bass." The 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 221 

stop has been made of wood and metal, and of both open and covered 
pipes; but open pipes are to be desired in all cases. An example of 
the stop exists in the Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral of Bremen; 
another, under the name QUINTBASS, exists in the Pedal of the Organ 
in the Cathedral of Riga; and one labeled MAJOR-QUINTE, 10^ FT., 
is inserted in the Pedal of the Organ in the Marienkirche, Lubeck. 
Under the name GROSSQUINTENBASS, 21^ FT., a stop exists in the 
Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral of Bremen. See QUINT. 

QUINT FLUTE. Ger., QUINTFLOTE. An unimitative flute- 
toned stop of 5^ ft. and 2% ft. pitch. Examples of the QUINT- 
FLOTE, 5 J^ FT., exist on the Second Manuals of the Walcker Organs 
in the Cathedral of Ulm and St. Paulskirche, Frankfurt a. M. A 
QUINTFLOTE, 2% FT., is inserted in the Choir of the Organ in the 
Music Hall, Cincinnati. This stop is of open metal pipes, yielding a 
flute-tone which combines well, as a harmonic-corroborator and 
timbre-creator, with the unison and octave flute-work of -the divison. 

A compound QUINT FLUTE, 8 FT., has recently been introduced 
by Mr. George W. Till, of Philadelphia, Pa., and inserted in the so- 
called Etherial Organ of the large Concert instrument in the Wana- 
maker Store, in Philadelphia. So far as our knowledge extends, this 
is the most noteworthy dual stop of 8 ft. pitch ever constructed; and 
one that could only be inserted, under favorable conditions, in 
Concert-room Organs of the first magnitude. Its compound voice 
is of considerable grandeur, its tonality surpassing in depth and 
richness of color that of any other flute-toned stop known to have 
been produced up to the present time (1920). 

The principal rank is a CLEAR FLUTE, 8 FT., formed of open wood 
pipes from CC to c 4 , to which are added twelve open metal pipes for 
octave coupling. The scale is large, the CC pipe measuring, inter- 
nally, 8 inches in width by ioj^ inches in depth. The subordinate 
rank is a QUINT, 5^ FT., formed of covered wood pipes from CC to 
f$ 3 43 notes, and open metal pipes from g 2 to c s 30 notes, all 
yielding a normal tone. The stop speaks on wind of 25 inches 
pressure.* 

- QUINTVIOLE. The name given by Zollner to a string-toned 
stop, of 8 ft. pitch, introduced by him in the Organ of the Stadt- 
kirche, Wittenberg, f 



* Full particulars of formation and scales of this QUINT FLUTE are given in our ^ork, " The 
Organ of the Twentieth Century," pp. 102-4. 

t" QUINTVIOLE 8' ist eine Stimme, welche im Hauptwerke der Jahre 1814 vom Orgelbau- 
meister Zdllner aus Hubertusburg erbau+en Orgel der Stadtkirche zu Wittenberg steht. Die 



222 ORGAN-STOPS 

R 

RANKET, RACKET. An old and now obsolete lingual stop, 
of 1 6 ft. and 8 ft. pitch, the resonators of which were short, and 
closed with exception of a few small perforations near their lower 
ends, necessary for the egress of wind and sound, after the fashion of 
certain REGALS. Under such treatment, the tone was necessarily 
muffled and probably humming or buzzing in character. When the 
stop was first introduced is not known ; but Prastorius, in his " Theat- 
rum Instrumentorum seu Sciagraphia" (1618), mentions it along 
with other lingual stops of a similar character. See REGAL. 

RAUSCHFLOTE, RAUSCHPFEIFE, Ger. Literally, Rustling 
Flute. A dual stop commonly formed, according to Wolfram (1815), 
of two ranks of open metal pipes, of 2 ft. and I J^ ft. pitch, respec- 
tively. A RAUSCHPFEIFE of three" ranks, probably 2% ft., 2 ft., 
and i }^ ft. , was inserted in the Brustwerk of the Organ built by 
Hildebrand, in 1762, for St. Michaeliskirche, Hamburg. The name 
seems to have disappeared from German stop nomenclature now in 
use. 

RAUSCHQUINTE, Ger. Literally, Rustling Quint. The stop 
found in German Organs, usually formed of two ranks of open metal 
pipes, of 2% ft. and 2 ft. pitch respectively, standing at the interval 
of a fourth apart. An example exists in the Hauptwerk of the Organ 
in the Church of St. Mary Magdalen, Breslau. The RAUSCHQUINTE 
of high pitch consists of two ranks, of i J^ ft. and i ft. pitch respec- 
tively, as in the stop in the Hauptwerk of the Organ in the Christ 
Church, Hirschberg. As the interval between the pitches of the 
ranks of the RAUSCHQUINTE is a fourth, the name QUARTE, or 
QUARTA, has been given it by old German organ-builders. 

While the value of such a dual stop in harmonic-corroboration is 
unquestionable; yet, in its usual tonality, its ranks would be still 
more useful as separate stops. Dual stops are only really desirable 
when they are so formed as to produce new compound tones of ex- 
ceptional beauty and value; which could not be created, under 
ordinary conditions, by the combination of stops of the usual or 
standard tonalities. Dual stop formation opens up a field for in- 
vention and skill, only just touched by the plow of the artistic pipe- 
maker and voicer. 

Eigenschaften dieses Registers sind dem Verf . nicht bekannt; soil es vielleicbt eine QuintatSn 
die eine, der Viola ahnliche Intonation hat, sein? " Seidel-Kothe. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 223 

RECORDER. A rare term in old organ-stop nomenclature, 
but one not difficult to understand and account for. The employ- 
ment of the term by the early English organ-builders is shown in the 
following extracts: In an Agreement entered into by John Loose- 
more, in 1665, for the building of a Chamber Organ, we find, among 
the wood stops, "One Recorde" specified. And in the "Articles of 
Agreement" between the Dean and Chapter of York Cathedral and 
Robert Dallam, organ-builder, of London, in 1632, for an Organ to 
be erected in the cathedral, we find specified for the Great Organ: 
" Itmone Recorder unison to the said Principall. vi li. "; and for the 
Chaire Organ: "Itm one Recorder of tynn, unison with the voice, 
viij li. Accordingly, these stops were respectively of 4 ft. and 8 ft. 
pitch. The instrument called Recorder was in all essentials similar 
to the Flute Douce, belonging to the Whistle Flute or Flute & Bee 
family. It is therefore very probable that the old organ RECORDER 
was simply a flute-toned stop, imitating the voice of the old instru- 
ment. 

REGAL, Ger. Ft., REGALE. Ital., REGALE. The generic 
name for a large family of ancient lingual stops, which in their 
original forms have long ceased to be used in the stop appointments 
of Organs. The name, however, still lingers in some old German 
Organs, as in those in certain Liibeck churches. A REGAL, 8 FT., 
occupies a place in the Choir of the great Haarlem Organ; and there 
are in the Choir of the Organ in the Church of St. Dominick, Prague, 
a REGAL, 8 FT., and a JUNGFERNREGAL, 16 FT. 

The term "Regal" was originally used to designate a portable 
reed organ, or " Portative," used in court ceremonies; from which 
fact it is understood to have derived its name. Subsequently the 
term was extended to certain lingual stops, introduced in large 
Organs, or " Positives," which in their voices more or less closely 
resembled those of stops in the earlier Regal. Widely different 
names have been employed to designate the various REGAL stops; 
some of which refer directly to the character of the tones they pro- 
duce, while others refer to the peculiar forms of the resonators used. 

The old organ-builders certainly exercised their inventive powers 
and fancy in devising curious shapes for the resonators of their 
lingual pipes termed REGALS. In the accompanying illustration, 
Fig. 30, are given the forms of REGAL pipes which have been pre- 
served on the pages of old treatises. No. i is the SORDUNREGAL, 
having a capped resonator pierced with four holes for the emission 
of sound. As the name implies, its tone was very subdued. No. 2 



224 



ORGAN-STOPS 



is the KNOPFREGAL, deriving its name from its pear-shaped head, 
cut after the fashion of a sleigh-bell. No. 3 is the APFELREGAL, 
deriving its name from the form of its head, which is spherical and 
pierced with numerous small holes for the emission of sound. No. 4 
is the KRUMMHORNREGAL, the tone of which is said to have re- 
sembled that of the old Krummhorn (see CROMORNE). No. 5 is 
the SCHALMEI, a stop of the REGAL family, the tone of which imi- 
tated that of the old instrument called Schalmei or Shawm. Other 
forms have been given to the pipes of the SCHALMEI (see CHALU- 
MEAU). No. 6 is the BARPFEIFE, also a stop of the REGAL family, 
which yielded a low growling tone (See BARPFEIFE). No. 7 is the 
MESSINGREGAL, the tone of which had a brazen clang, probably re- 
sembling that of a Trumpet. No. 8 is the RANKET, the resonator 



rn 




FIG. 30 



of which is cylindrical, furnished with a tuning stopper, and pierced, 
in the neighborhood of the reed, with sound-holes (see RANKET). 
Fig. 9 is a REGAL which received the name JEU SRARD, after its 
inventor (see JEU RARD). Other REGALS have been introduced in 
old Organs, of which the following are the names and probable 
tonalities: CYMBELREGAL, the tone of which was singularly bright 
and ringing. GEDAMPFTREGAL, the tone of which was subdued or 
muffled. GEIGENREGAL, the tone of which somewhat resembled 
that of the Geige or Violin. HARFENREGAL, the tones of which bore 
the character of the sounds of roughly-plucked harp strings. JUNG- 
FERNREGAL, the tones of which were of so refined a character as to 
resemble, to some degree, the youthful female voice "La Voix ou 
Regale virginale." KALBERREGAL, the voice of which was of a soft 
and lowing character, like that of a calf (Kalb). KLEINREGAL, ai 
octave or 4 ft. lingual stop of soft intonation. SCHARFREGAL, yield- 
ing a keen and cutting tone. SINGENDREGAL, the voice of which 
was of a singing tonality. SUBTILREGAL, the tone of which was sub- 
dued in character. TRICHTERREGAL, which derived its name from 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 225 

Its funnelshaped resonators, probably yielded a bright horn-like 
tone. The term REGAL has now entirely disappeared from organ- 
stop nomencl attire. 

REGULA MINIMA, Lat. The usual open metal SUPEROCTAVE 
or FIFTEENTH, 2 FT., belonging to the foundation-work, and corrob- 
orating the third upper partial tone of the foundation unison or 
prime 8 ft. tone. Yielding pure organ-tone. See FIFTEENTH. 

REGULA MINOR, Lat. The ordinary open metal OCTAVE, 
4 FT., yielding pure organ-tone; belonging to the foundation-work, 
and corroborating the first upper partial tone of the prime 8 ft. tone 
yielded by the PRINCIPAL or DIAPASON, 8 FT. See OCTAVE. 

REGULA MIXTA, Lat. A compound harmonic-corroborating 
stop formed of several ranks of high-pitched pipes. See MIXTURE. 

REGULA PRIMARIA, Lat. An open metal stop, of full scale, 
and unison pitch, yielding pure organ-tone. It forms the founda- 
tion of the tonal structure of the manual department of the Organ, 
being identical with the PRINCIPAL or DIAPASON, 8 FT. 

REIM, Ger. The name given to a lingual stop, of 16 ft. pitch, 
the voice of which is of medium strength and good mixing quality. 
An example is to be found in the Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral 
of Bremen, constructed by Schulze, the celebrated organ-builder, of 
Paulinzelle. 

Lingual stops of comparatively soft intonation have been greatly 
neglected by organ-builders and organ-designers in the stop appor- 
tionment of modern Pedal Organs ; yet the value of a unison lingual 
stop, that could be used alone or in combination with such stops 
as the LIEBLICHGEDECKT or DULCIANA, 16 FT., could not well be 
overrated. 

REINFORZA A LIGNE, ItaL A stop, of 16 ft. pitch, formed 
of free-reeds without the addition of resonant tubes, resembling in 
this respect the PHYSHARMONIKA in the Organ in the Cathedral of 
Lucerne. Italian organ-builders have introduced the REINFORZA 
A LIGNE only in cases where space was too limited for the accom- 
modation of a proper lingual stop of 16 ft. pitch. An example ex- 
ists in the largest Organ in the Basilica of St. Peter, Rome. See 
PHYSHARMONIKA. 

RIPIENFLOTE, PtlLLFLOTE, Ger. A stop, of 8 ft. pitch, 
yielding an unimitative flute-tone, of considerable volume without 



226 ORGAN-STOPS 

being unduly assertive or penetrating, used for filling up or imparting 
firmness and body to combinations of unison or foundation tone in a 
manual division, chiefly in the Hauptwerk or Great Organ. The 
term might be applied, with propriety, to such stops as the CLARA- 
BELLA or OFFENEFLOTE; also to the DOPPELFLOTE, which possesses 
remarkable filling-up properties in all combinations in which it is 
introduced. 

REGISTRATION. Stops of the RIPIENFLOTE tonality are of great 
importance in artistic registration; forming backgrounds for the 
production of numerous tonal colorings which otherwise might lack 
firmness or richness; as is notably the case with lingual stops of thin 
quality and medium tone. 

RIPIENO, Ital. The name used by Italian organ-builders to 
designate a MIXTURE. As the term Ripieno signifies filling-up, it is 
appropriately applied to a compound harmonic-corroborating stop 
of the Organ. MIXTURES of two, three, four, and five ranks are re- 
spectively labeled RIPIENO DI DUE, RIPIENO DI TRE, RIPIENO DI 
QUATTRO, and RIPIENO DI CINQUE. 

ROHRBORDUN, Ger. The name that has been given to a full- 
scale labial stop, of 16 ft. pitch, the lower octaves of which are 
formed of covered pipes, and the higher octaves of half-covered 
ROHRFLOTE pipes of large scale. The stop is properly made of wood 
throughout, but the two higher octaves are occasionally made of 
metal, capped and tubed, or fitted with perforated wooden stoppers. 

ROHRFLOTE, ROHRSCHELLE, Ger. Dtch., ROERFLUIT. 
Fr., FLUTE A CHEMINEE. The names given to a half-covered stop 
of metal or wood, or partly of both, usually of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch. 
When as a Pedal Organ stop of 16 ft. pitch, it is appropriately named 
ROHRFLOTENBASS. Other names are employed by German organ- 
builders to designate certain members of the ROHRFLOTE family.* 
The stops of both 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch have been held in high estima- 
tion and justly so by all the great German organ-builders. It is 

* ' * ROHRFLOTE ist ein sehr angenehmes und wohl anwendbares Flotenwerk von Zinn, Metall 
und Holz, welches zwar gedeckt ist, aber in dem Hut oder Deckel eine Rohre hat, wodurch der 
Klang heller wird als bei gewohnlichen Gedaeckten. Die Pfeifen warden der besseren Intonation 
wegen mit Seitenund Querbarten versehen und haben weitere Mensur als die Quintatdn. Die 
Rohrflote kommt zu 16, 8, 4, 2 und i Fusston (mit letzterer Grosse unter dem Namen Rohr- 
schelle) sowohlim Manual als Pedal vor. Im Pedal heisst sie Rohrflotenbass. Als Quintregister 
trifft man diese Stimme zu 10 %, 5% und i ^ Fusston an, wo sie Rohrflautquinte oder Rohr- 
quinte genannt wird. Es giebt Rohrfloten, welche nach Art der Doppelflote mit doppelten 
Labien versehen sind und daher noch einen helleren Klang als die gewohnlichen Rohrflfiten 
haben, diese heissen Doppelrohrfloten. Die Namen : Gross-, Klein-, und Superflote sind Benen- 
nungen, welche die Grosse des Registers naher bezeichnen." Seidel-Kothe. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 



227 



usual to find the ROHRFLOTE, in one form or another, inserted in 
their Organs of any pretensions. Of 8 ft. pitch, it is inserted on the 
Second Manual and, of 4 ft. pitch, on the First Manual of the Organ 
in the Cathedral of Riga; and it appears, of 8 ft. pitch, on the First 
Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of Vienna. Of 8 ft. pitch, and 
made of tin, it is inserted in the second division of the Second Man- 
ual of the Organ in Schwerin Ca- 
thedral. It exists, of 8 ft. pitch, in 
the Great and, of 4 ft. pitch, in the 
Swell of the Organ in the Centen- 
nial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. It is 
remarkable that this beautiful and 
valuable stop should have been, 
and still is, so systematically neg- 
lected by French, English, and 
American organ-builders. It calls 
for too much labor and skill in its 
formation we suppose. 

FORMATION. ROHRFLOTE pipes are 
made of both wood and metal, the latter 
being preferred. The wood pipes are 
quadrangular in form, the only radical 
difference between them and the pipes 
of the wood GEDECKT or BOURDON lying 
in the longitudinal perforation of their 
stoppers. The distinctive feature of the 
metal ROHRFLOTE pipe is its peculiar cap, 
to which is attached an open tube com- 
municating directly with the interior of 
the pipe and prolonging its air-column, 
in the manner shown at A, Section 2, in 
the accompanying illustration, Fig. 31. 
As the relative diameter and length of 
the tube, or so-called chimney, in propor- 
tion to the scale and length of the body 
of the pipe, affect the tone in a marked 
manner, its dimensions vary considerably 
in examples made by different builders.* 

The internal diameter of the tube varies in ordinary examples from one-sixth to 
one-third of the internal diameter of the body, while its length varies from one- 




FIG. 31 



* " De tous les bourdons mStalliques, il est facile de faire une Rohrflcete en percant la calotte 
et y dressant une chemine'e du calibre trace par le trou qu'on vient d'y faire. ' Elle doit Stre/dit 
Dom Bed os, 'd'autant plus haute qu'on la fait grosse; et plus elle est menue, plus elle doit Sire 
courte.' II est juste, en eff et, de proportionner la taille & la hauteur. ' Les plus grosses, ajoute-t- 
il, out la moitie" du diametre du corps de tuyau. En ce cas, elles doivent 6tre presque aussihautes 



228 ORGAN-STOPS 

fourth to one-half the speaking length of the body of the pipe. In the fine illus- 
tration given by Dom Bedos, the tube is exactly one-third the diameter and one- 
half the length of the body of the pipe. In all cases, the changes in the proportions 
of the tube not only affect the pitch but also the quality of the tone produced, due 
to the creation of certain inharmonic upper partial tones. The acoustical problem 
involved is somewhat obscure, and is complicated by the strange fact that the 
tone of the pipe is in no way affected by the tube being turned downward into the 
body of the pipe, in the manner indicated at B, in Section 3, Fig. 3 1. The central 
drawing, i, shows the complete pipe and the most approved form of mouth. The 
rough tuning is done by moving the cap, and the fine tuning is done by bending 
the large flexible ears to or from the mouth. In a ROHRFLOTE, 8 FT., it is neither 
usual nor necessary to carry the pipes with tubed caps below tenor C. The bass 
octave may be formed of covered pipes of wood or metal, preferably the latter. 
Large scales have been adopted by both German and French builders, but it is 
questionable if they are desirable in modern Organs. A scale, in the ratio i : 2.66, 
giving the tenor C pipe an internal diameter of 2.62 inches, would be generally 
suitable. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The exact tone of a fine ROHRFLOTE 
is difficult to describe. It is an unimitative flute-tone of a liquid, 
bright, and singing quality, created by the presence of a special 
combination of harmonic upper partials. Professor Helmholtz 
treats of the question very slightly. He only remarks: " Narrow 
stopped pipes let the Twelfth be very distinctly heard at the same 
time with the prime tone, and have hence been called Quintaten 
(quintam tenentes). When these pipes are strongly blown, they also 
give the fifth partial [fourth upper partial], or higher major Third, 
very distinctly. Another variety of quality is produced by the 
ROHRFLOTE, here a tube, open at both ends, is inserted in the cover 
of a stopped pipe, and in the examples I examined its length was 
that of an open pipe giving the fifth partial tone of the stopped pipe. 
The fifth partial tone is thus proportionately stronger than the 
rather weak third partial on these pipes, and the quality of tone 
becomes peculiarly bright." This is doubtless correct so far as it 
goes, but it does not go far enough to account for the refined and 
beautiful tones of certain ROHRFLOTES, voiced on winds of low 
pressures. 

The peculiar liquid and singing quality of the properly propor- 
tioned and artistically voiced ROHRFLOTE, 8 FT., renders it highly 
suitable for insertion in the chief accompanimental division of the 

que le corps de leurs tuyaux. ' Les plus petites ont le quart et mme le demi-quart du diametre, 
Le timbi e done tient i la f ois du tuyau ouvert et dubourdon ; mais il tient d'autant plus du tuyau 
ouvert, que la chemine'e est plus grande et grosse; et d'autant plus du bourdon, que la chemin6e 
est plus mince et basse. La douceur des Rohrflceten est toujours m61ang6e de finesse, et c'estavec 
raison que souvent les facteurs les pre"ferent aux bourdons dans une grande masse de fonds de 
grosse taille, parce qu'elles en relevent la rondeur." Regnier. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 229 

Church Organ. There it would be associated with stops of a simi- 
larly refined character, and would lend itself to highly effective 
combinations. As, tonally, it stands midway between covered and 
open unimitative flute-tones, its medium voice, combining body and 
brightness, is invaluable in artistic registration, especially with such 
lingual stops as the OBOE, CLARINET, FAGOTTO, and Vox HUMANA. 

ROHRFLOTENQTJINTE, Ger. The name given to the ROHR- 
FLOTE of 5^ ft. pitch, an example of which exists on the First Man- 
ual of the Organ in St. Nicolaikirche, Leipzig, built by Ladegast 
in 1862. 

ROHRQUINTE, Ger. The name commonly employed by 
German organ-builders to designate the half -covered stop, of 2^ 
ft. pitch, belonging to the ROHRFLOTE family. The stop does not 
appear a common one in German Organs, but it exists on both the 
Second and Third Manuals of the Organ in St. Nicolaikirche, Leip- 
zig. A ROHRQUINTE, 5 J/ FT. , is inserted in the second division of the 
First Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of Schwerin. The name 
ROHRNASAT has been given to the stop of 2%j ft. pitch. 



SACKBUT, SAKE UT. The original wind instrument of this 
name was a species of Trombone in use during the Middle Ages : and 
the name was applied by Hill, of London, to a lingual stop, of 32 ft, 
pitch, inserted by him in the Pedal of the Organ he erected in York 
Cathedral in 1833. This was the first lingual stop of that grave 
pitch introduced in an English Organ; and it remained in use until 
removed by Walker, when he reconstructed the Organ in 1903, and 
inserted, in its stead, the combined Contra-Trombone and Trom- 
bone in the north aisle Pedal Organ. 

SADT. In the "Schedule/ 7 prepared by Bernard Smith for the 
stop-appointment of the Organ he built for Temple Church, London, 
dated 1688, we find in the Choir list the following: "A SADT of 
m ettle 61 pipes 06 foote tone." This is the only instance of the 
use of the term we have been able to find. While the exact nature 
and tonality of the stop are not known, it is believed to have, re- 
sembled the stop now named GEMSHORN. The meaning of the term 
has not been determined. 

SALAMINE. This is one of the fancy names that organ- 
builders have introduced for reasons only known to themselves. It 



230 ORGAN-STOPS 

is always desirable that a stop name should have some meaning, and 
should convey either some idea of the tone or the characteristic 
form of the pipes forming the stop. The present name is meaning- 
less from a constructional or a musical point of view. Meyer, organ- 
builder, of Hanover, gave the name to certain stops he inserted in 
Organs he constructed for churches in that city. The name was 
also used by Poster & Andrews, of Hull, in an Organ they built for 
the Church of All Souls, Halifax. The SALAMINE in this Organ (now 
removed) is stated to have been of 8 ft. pitch, formed of small-scale, 
open metal pipes, yielding a delicate tone slightly inclining to stringi- 
ness. This would point to a stop that would have been more ex- 
pressively labeled ECHO SALICIONAL. Meaningless stop-names 
should be condemned by every organ-lover. 

SALICETBASS, Ger. The name given by Ladegast to an open 
wood stop, of 1 6 ft. pitch, inserted in the Piano-Pedal of his Organ 
in the Cathedral of Schwerin. The stop is of small scale, constructed 
of pine, and voiced to carry down the tone of the SALICIONAL, 8 FT., 
on the Third Manual. The value of a soft Pedal stop of this tonality 
is unquestionable. 

SALICIONAL, SALICET. The names given to open labial 
stops formed of cylindrical metal pipes of medium or small scales, 
belonging to the VIOL family. The stops are frequently introduced 
in German, French, English, and American Organs; usually of 8 ft. 
pitch, but other pitches are occasionally adopted, chiefly by Ger- 
man builders. Seidel says the SALICIONAL is "on the Manuals of 
four, eight, or sixteen feet pitch; and in the Pedal Organ, of eight or 
sixteen feet pitch, called SALICETBASS." A SALICIONAL, 8 FT., is 
inserted on the First Manual, and one, of 16 ft., on the Second Man- 
ual, of the Walcker Organ in the Cathedral of Vienna. In the Organ 
in the Cathedral of Riga, SALICIONALS, of 16 ft. and 8 ft. are placed 
on the Third Manual; a SALICET, 4 FT., is inserted on the Second 
Manual; and a SALICET, 2 FT., is placed on the Fourth Manual. 
The last stop is very rarely introduced. In French Organs, only the 
SALICIONAL, 8 FT., seems to have been introduced; and it is usually 
inserted in the Positif, as in the Organ in the Cathedral of Notre- 
Dame. It appears, however, in the Bombarde of the Organ in the 
Church of St. Eustache; and in the Grand-Orgue of the instrument 
in the Madeleine, Paris. In English and American Organs, the 
SALICIONAL, 8 FT., occupies its usual place in the Swell; but it cannot 
be said to be held in the estimation it deserves, for it is, by no means 
of general introduction. The omission of so valuable a stop from 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 231 

the tonal appointment of several very important Organs shows little 
thought on the part of their designers. There is no SALICIONAL, 
8 FT., in the Organ in St. George's Hall, Liverpool, nor in one of the 
most important Concert-room Organs recently constructed in this 
country: but there is a SALICIONAL, 16 FT., in the Pedal of the St. 
George's Hall Organ, the only one of that grave pitch known to us 
in England. 

The name of the stop has been rendered in different spellings, 
but that followed in this article is clearly the most correct and desir- 
able.* It is also desirable to adopt Walker's mode, as shown in the 
Riga Organ, applying the term SALICIONAL to the stops of 8 ft. and 
1 6 ft., and the term SALICET to the stops of 4 ft. and 2 ft. 

SCALE AND FORMATION. The pipes forming the SALICIONAL, when of metal, 
are invariably cylindrical, varying in scale according to the ideas of the- organ- 
builder regarding the most desirable tone. A satisfactory medium scale for the 
stop, speaking on a wind of from 3 to 4 inches, is that adopted by F. Haas, the dis- 
tinguished organ-builder, of Lucerne. This scale, in the ratio 1 : 2.66, gives the CC 
pipe a diameter of 3.21 inches; the tenor C pipe a diameter of 1.97 inches ; and the 
middle c 1 pipe a diameter of 1.20 inches. A slightly larger scale was favored by 
T. C. Lewis, of London : this scale, in the same ratio, gives the CC pipe a diameter 
of 3.34 inches; the C pipe a diameter of 2.05 inches; and the c 1 pipe a diameter of 
1.25 inches. Roosevelt, of New York, used a similar scale for his beautiful SALI- 
CIONALS. Various widths of mouths have been adopted and their heights have 
rarely exceeded one-third their widths. The finer stops have been voiced with 
harmonic-bridges, or some form of beard attached to the lower lip. Some ex- 
amples of the stop are slotted and others have plain pipes, their tones being affected 
accordingly. The German and French stops have usually been made of tin, or 
what is described by German organ-builders as " 14 lothig Zinn " that is, an alloy 
composed of 14 parts pure tin and 2 parts pure lead. We are of opinion that for 
this and similar stops not requiring thick walls, the hard-rolled Hoyt two-ply 
pipe metal will be found in every way satisfactory and economical. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the SALICIONAL varies 
considerably in different examples of the stop : the difference being 
greater between the tones of those made by the Continental organ- 
builders of the latter half of the last century and those usually made 
by the English and American builders of to-day, than the difference 
between the tonalities of purely modern examples, which are usually 
characterized by too pungent and cutting voices. A broad survey 
of the subject inclines one to ask: What is the proper tone for the 

* " Le Salcional, Solcional (on dit aussi Salicional et Solicioncf), ou Salicet, est un jeu de flute 
ouverte dont lestuyaux sont fort 6troits et dont les sons ont quelque analogic avec ceux de 
violoncello. Ce jeu, qui se trouvait dans "beaucoup d'orgues allemandes s'est introduit depuit 
peu de temps dans celles de France. " Orgue de 1'eglise royale de Saint-Denis: Rapport par J. 
Adrien de La Fage, 1844. 



232 ORGAN-STOPS 

true SALICIONAL? A question, perhaps, not easily answered, because 
the tone of such a stop, if artistically conceived, should be dictated 
by the position the stop occupies in the Organ, and the nature and 
tonalities of the stops with which it is directly associated, and with 
which it will have, chiefly, to be combined in artistic registration. 
The late T. C. Lewis, of London, who was recognized as the greatest 
authority on matters of organ-tone among English organ-builders, 
places the SALICIONAL third in importance in his list of manual stops. 
After describing the tones of the DIAPASONS as "full, mellow, 
brilliant, and powerful ; and the string-tone of the GEIGENPRINCIPAL 
as "next in power to the Great DIAPASONS, and of a bright and tell- 
ing quality/' he says the SALICIONAL is "another description of 
small reedy and quiet DIAPASON, but still retaining the clear, life- 
like quality of the preceding stops. It can be made with various 
widths of mouths, and therefore of various strengths of tone, accord- 
ing to the place it occupies with regard to other stops." This de- 
scription points to a rounder and richer voice than that commonly 
given to the SALICIONAL made to-day. The most desirable tone for 
the stop would seem to be a combination of that of the true English 
DULCIANA and the delicate singing string-tone of the VIOLA D' AMORE 
(q. v.). Anything approaching a keen, thin, and cutting string-tone 
is to be avoided; for not only is this quality furnished by the pro- 
nounced and imitative string-toned stops; but because the SALI- 
CIONAL has a valuable office to fulfil in artistic registration in which 
such a pronounced tone would prove undesirable. The SALICIONAL 
when artistically voiced, with just the proper proportion of pure 
organ-tone and string-tone, is a beautiful solo stop ; while, as a body- 
giver and timbre-creator, it is extremely valuable in effective regis- 
tration with both open and covered flute-toned stops, and also with 
the more delicately-voiced lingual stops, producing many very 
charming and refined compound tones, very seldom heard in these 
days of hurriedly-voiced and over-blown work. 

SANPTGEDECKT, SANFTFLOTE, Ger. The names that 
have been given to covered stops of wood or metal, and commonly of 
8 ft. pitch, yielding a quiet unimitative flute-tone. They properly 
belong to the LIEBLICHGEDECKT family, but are softer in tone. Stops 
of this quality would be admirably suited for insertion in the true 
Chamber Organ or the Echo Organ of larger instruments. 

SAXOPHONE. The name which has been given, in some few 
instances, to stops made in both lingual and labial forms. Several 
essays have been made by ingenious pipe-makers and voicers to 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 233 

construct an organ-stop which shall imitate in a satisfactory manner 
the peculiar compound tones of the single-reed instruments of the 
Saxophone family. All attempts hitherto made in the direction of 
lingual stops have fallen short of being satisfactory, for it has been 
found difficult, by the employment of either striking- or free-reeds 
to produce the rich compound tones of the brass Saxophones. While 
the Saxophone strictly belongs to the Clarinet family, and is fitted 
with the single reed of the Clarinet, its tone is decidedly sui generis. 
On carefully studying the tone, one finds it to be a remarkable com- 
pound of orchestral reed- and string-tone, with a slight admixture of 
flute-tone, a remarkable combination and one difficult, if not im- 
possible, to imitate in a single lingual stop. Dr. W. H. Stone, speak- 
ing of the instrument, says: "The Saxophone, though inferior in 
compass, quality, and power of articulation to the Clarinet, and 
Bassethorn, and especially to the Bassoon, has great value in mili- 
tary combinations. It reproduces on a magnified scale something 
of the Violoncello quality, and gives great sustaining power to the 
full chorus of brass instruments, by introducing a mass of harmonic 
overtones." It would seem highly probable that the SAXOPHONE 
of the Organ will in its most satisfactory form be dual, constructed of 
lingual and labial pipes of CORNO DI BASSETTO and VIOL tonalities. 
The very few stops which have appeared in English Organs, under 
the name SAXOPHONE, have been merely full-tone CLARINETS, and, 
accordingly, by no means satisfactory. 

Up to this point we have alluded to lingual stops only. We have 
now to speak of the wonderfully imitative labial SAXOPHONE, in- 
vented by W. E. Haskell, America's most distinguished artist in 
labial pipe formation and voicing; and first introduced, in 1897, 
in the Organ in the Church of the Holy Trinity, Philadelphia, 
Pa. This remarkable stop is of 8 ft. pitch and extends throughout 
the compass of the clavier. It is formed entirely of straight, quad- 
rangular wood pipes, of small scale, the CC pipe measuring inter- 
nally 3-5^- inches in width by 4^- inches in depth; the ratio of the 
scale apparently being i: 2.66. The pipes have sunk blocks, in- 
verted mouths, beveled caps, and are fitted with cylindrical har- 
monic-bridges.* 

Voiced on wind of 3^ inches, this fine stop yields a compound 
tone so closely imitative of that of the true Saxophones as to be posi- 
tively deceptive to the ear. The tones of the Saxophones are thus 

* Further details of formation, accompanied by illustrations of the sound-producing portion 
of a pipe, are given in "The Art of Organ-Building, " Vol. II., p. 485; and in "The Organ of the 
Twentieth Century," pp. 450-1. 



234 ORGAN-STOPS 

described by Berlioz as possessing "most rare and precious qualities. 
Soft and penetrating in the higher part, full and rich in the lower 
part, their medium has something profoundly expressive. It is, in 
short, a quality of tone sui generis, presenting vague analogies with 
the sounds of the Violoncello, of the Clarinet, and Corno Inglese, 
and invested with a brazen tinge which imparts a quite peculiar 
accent. " We were naturally very doubtful regarding the possibility 
of producing so complex a tonality from wood labial pipes: but all 
doubts were put to rest, on our being afforded the means of judging 
by direct comparison of the tones of the stop with those of the true 
Saxophone, performed upon within the Organ immediately along- 
side the stop. The imitation was practically perfect; while in cer- 
tain parts of the compass the SAXOPHONE of the Organ was more 
even and pleasing than the reed instrument. This is only one of the 
inventor's notable achievements in wood pipe formation and voicing 
as these pages show. 

SCHALMEI, Ger. Ital, SCIALUMO, A lingual stop, of 8 ft. 
pitch, the tone of which is supposed to imitate the voice of the old 
Schalmei or Shawm, the precursor of the Clarinet, and an instru- 
ment commonly used during the Middle Ages. See CHALUMEAU. 

SCHARF, Ger. Dtch., SCHERP. A compound harmonic- 
corroborating stop, composed of three or more ranks of metal pipes, 
of high pitch and moderate scale, voiced to yield a bright and sharp 
tone, hence its name. Alluding to the old stop, Wolfram says it was 
usually of three ranks, starting with a I5th, igth, and 22nd. Seidel, 
on the other hand, says the SCHARF differs from the ordinary MIX- 
TURE by having one of its ranks third-sounding; and gives the start- 
ing composition for the three-rank stop, I5th, lyth, and igth; for 
the four-ranked stop, isth, 17th, igth, and 22nd; and for the five* 
ranked stop, I2th, isth, i;th, and 22nd. The introduction of the 
third-sounding rank adds greatly to the sharp intonation of the stop, 
especially under the somewhat crude system of voicing of compound 
stops followed by the German organ-builders, who made the SCHARF 
of pipes of too large scales, and voiced it too loud and piercing in 
tone. It seems strange that the old German builders either mis- 
understood or systematically ignored the true and scientific office of 
the compound stops. And it seems equally strange that the organ- 
builders of to-day are omitting, or discouraging the introduction of, 
the compound harmonic-corroborating stops in modern Organs. 
Is it through ignorance of their invaluable office in the tonal struc- 
ture of the Organ? Or is it the narrow trade desire to avoid having 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 235 

to make such stops, requiring both scientific knowledge and high 
artistic skill in their proper formation? It unquestionably must be 
one or the other, and neither is creditable to the organ-builders of 
the twentieth century. See ACUTA. 

SCHARFFLOTE, Ger. A metal labial stop, of 4 ft. pitch, 
voiced to yield a bright and piercing flute-tone. It is valuable, in 
the absence of a COMPENSATING MIXTURE, for imparting brightness 
to the Pedal Organ. A SCHARFFLOTE, 4 FT. , exists in the Pedal of the 
Organ in the Cathedral of Merseburg. 

SCHARFREGAL, Ger. An old and obsolete lingual stop, of 
4 ft. pitch, and very keen intonation, as its name implies. See 
REGAL. 

SCHLANGENROHR, Ger. An old and now disused name for 
the lingual stop, of 16 ft. pitch, commonly inserted in the Pedal 
Organ, which is better known as the SERPENT (q. v.). 

SCHGNGEDECKT, Ger. The name that has sometimes been 
used to designate a small-scaled covered stop, yielding a beautiful 
tone. The name is practically synonymous with LIEBLICHGEDECKT. 
The prefix Schon signifying beautiful has been applied to other 
names of labial stops. 

SCHREIER, SCHREIERPFEIFE, Ger. The names given 
by old German organ-builders to compound labial stops yielding, as 
the name implies, screaming tones; and also to a labial stop of a 
shrill and penetrating flute-tone, an example of which is said to exist 
in the Organ of the Barfusskirche, at Erfurt. The stop was usually 
of three ranks, and was simply a large-scaled and loudly-voiced 
ACUTA (q. z>.).* Stops of this noisy class are very objectionable, and 
have too often been introduced by inartistic organ-builders. 

SCHUFFLET, Ger. An old name given to the mutation har- 
monic-corroborating stop, of iJ/ ft. pitch, representing the fifth 
upper partial tone of the fundamental manual unison, 8 ft. pitch. 
A stop of this name existed in the old Organ in the Church of St. 
Lambert, Munster. 

SCHWEIZERFLOTE, SCHWEIZERPFEIFE, Ger. Liter- 

* ' * SCHREIER, SCHREIERPFEIFE, Schryari, ist eine veraltete, gewohnlich 3 f ache Mixtur, welche 
aus Oktavchoren zu i', J# und % r besteht. Sie wurde, also disponiert, mit der Cymbel ein und 
dasselbe Register sein, wenn nicht vielleicht eine Verschiedenheit in der Mensur und namentlich 
in der Intonation obwaltet. Auch 2 f ach soil diese Stimme gefunden werden, wo sie aus 2' und i' 
besteht. Der Ton dieses Registers muss, dem Namen nach, sehr grell sein. " Seidel-JCothe, 



236 ORGAN-STOPS 

ally Swiss Flute. An open labial stop of 8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., and rarel> 
i ft. pitch; the pipes of which are cylindrical, of small scale, and 
have low mouths, yielding a yoice between a flute- and string-tone, 
of a refined and pleasing character. In good work, the pipes are 
made of tin. Seidel says: " Dieses Register findet man sowohl im 
Manual als im Pedal, wo es alsdann SCHWEIZERPFEIFBASS oder 
SCHWEIZERBASS heisst. Im Manual trifft man diese Stimme zu- 
weilen nur in den oberen Octaven an, wo sie unter dem Namen 
SCHWEIZERPFEIFDISKANT vorkommt." Locher says there is no 
foundation for the name SCHWEIZERFLOTE, any more than for the 
name WIENERFLOTE; and "in spite of its name it belongs to the 
string family, as for example in the Great Organ of the instrument 
in Magdeburg Cathedral, where it assumes the form of a full-toned 
GAMBA." 

SCHWIEGEL, SCHWAGEL, Ger. The term that has been 
employed by old German organ-builders to designate metal labial 
stops of different formation and intonation. According to Schlim- 
bach, the stop belongs to the Flute-work, and is of the scale of the 
QUERPFEIFE, with the intonation of the BAUERFLOTE. Seidel, on 
the other hand, describes the stop as formed of pipes having cylin- 
drical bodies surmounted by truncated cones; resembling those of 
the FLACHFLOTE or SPILLFLOTE. Respecting the tone, he remarks: 
<k Der Klang dieser Stimme ist angenehm und dem Klang der Quer- 
flote ahnlich, aber er soil noch etwas sanfter als der Ton der Spill- 
flote sein." The stop was made of 8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., and I ft. pitch; 
that of 4 ft. pitch being termed SCHWIEGELDISKANT or DISKANT- 
SCHWIEGEL. An example, of 8 ft. pitch, was introduced in the Echo 
of the Organ built by Jagermann, of Dresden, for the Kreuzkirche 
in that city. 

SEPTADECIMA, Lat. Eng. SEVENTEENTH. The mutation 
stop, of i % ft. pitch, corroborating the fifth upper partial tone of 
the manual unison prime, 8 ft. See SEVENTEENTH. 

SEPTIEME, Fr. The mutation harmonic-corroborating stop, 
of 4 4 /? ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ, and 2 2 /7 ft. and i l fy ft. pitch in 
the manual divisions. The pipes forming the stops are of open 
metal, cylindrical in form, of medium scale, and voiced to yield soft 
pure organ-tone. The SEPTIEME represents the sixth upper partial 
tone of the prime tone, produced by seven times the number of 
vibrations that belong to the prime tone. Thus, if the CC prime 
tone is of 64 vibrations per second, the sixth upper partial tone, 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 237 

lying between aft 1 and bb 1 (of the physical scale), is yielded by a 
pipe of say i 1 /? feet speaking length, having 448 vibrations per 
second. Although very much higher partial tones are corroborated 
by stops in the Organ, the sixth upper partial tone has been very 
seldom corroborated by the introduction of the SEPTIEME. The 
only example, in complete form, in an English Organ, known to us, 
is to be found, under the name " SHARP TWENTIETH," in the instru- 
ment in the Collegiate Institution of Liverpool, built by Jackson, of 
that city, in 1850. We know of no example in an American or Ger- 
man Organ. The only Organ in which the SEPTIEME has been 
systematically and scientifically introduced is that built by Cavaille- 
Coll, in 1868, for the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris. In the Pedal 
Organ the stop is inserted, of 4 4 /7 ft. pitch, belonging to the 32 ft. 
harmonic series. In the Clavier des Bombardes it appears, of 2 2 /7 
ft. pitch, belonging to the 16 ft. harmonic series: and in the Grand 
Choeur it is introduced, of i 1 /? ft. pitch, belonging to the 8 ft. har- 
monic series. 

This systematic introduction of the SEPTIEME in all the har- 
monic series was due to Aristide Cavaille-Coll's scientific knowledge 
and researches in tone production ; and it is to be regretted that we 
do not see evidences of a similar knowledge and investigation in 
even the more important Organs built to-day. It is, however, 
hardly to be expected that such a stop as the SEPTIEME should ap- 
pear in Organs in which very little attention is paid to the provision 
of even a reasonably adequate harmonic structure. In the foun- 
dation-work of an important Organ the SEPTIEME should certainly 
be introduced, preferably as a rank in a through compound stop in 
which it can be correctly adjusted tonally. The following four- 
rank CORNET would be a favorable stop for its introduction: 

CORNET IV. RANKS. 

I. SEVENTEENTH Metal. 1 3/s Feet 

II. NINETEENTH Metal. 1 1/3 " 

III. SEPTIEME Metal. iV? " 

IV, TWENTY-SECOND .... Metal, i " 

The pipes forming the stop to be of medium scale, and voiced 
to yield pure organ-tone. Ranks II. and IV. to be the most pro- 
nounced in strength of voice; rank I. to be softer; and rank III. to 
be regulated so as not to be unduly assertive. It is in the voicing 
and regulating of such an important stop that the artist can show 
himself. 

SERAPHONFLOTE, Ger. The name given to a flute-toned 



238 ORGAN-STOPS 

stop, of 8 ft. pitch, and very powerful voice; invented by "W. P. 
Weigle, of Stuttgart. An example exists in the Organ of St. Sebal- 
duskirche, Nurnberg. Under the name SERAPHONPFEIFE, a similar 
stop was, for the first time, introduced in the Organ constructed by 
Steinmeyer for the City Church of Wertheim, Baden. 

The pipes forming these stops are of metal, cylindrical in form 
and of large scale. They have two mouths, formed in the usual 
manner, and placed as close to each other as practicable.* The 
large lineal measurement of the combined mouths about four- 
tenths of the circumference of the pipe affords the opportunity for 
the production of a remarkable volume of tone. The stop so formed 
is practically a metal DOPPELFLOTE. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. A powerful stop of this class, pro- 
ducing a pronounced unimitative flute-tone, would be of consider- 
able value in two manual expressive divisions of the Concert-room 
Organ; namely, the Solo Organ and the expressive portion of the 
First or Great Organ, where its voice would be under control. In 
the former it would impart great body, solidity, and color to the 
more powerful lingual stops, while it would give great dignity to the 
Flute-work. A powerful normal flute-tone is absolutely necessary 
for the production of broad effects and tone-coloring in a properly 
stop-apportioned Solo Organ. In the expressive subdivision of the 
First Organ, a fine SERAPHONFLOTE would be extremely valuable, 
as it would, under control as to its strength of voice, combine per- 
fectly with the pure organ-tones of the PRINCIPALS or DIAPASONS; 
increasing their volume, and infusing into their somewhat monot- 
onous voices an agreeable coloring by the introduction of certain 
of the lower harmonic upper partial tones. The stop would 
also prove highly effective in registration with the lingual stops 
which are enclosed along with it; and, generally, in all full-toned 
combinations. 

SERPENT. ItaL, SERPENTINO. A lingual stop, of 16 ft. pitch, 
the tone of which is between those of the BASSOON and the TROM- 
BONE stops of the Organ. It is supposed to imitate in its voice the 
old instrument invented by Edme Guillaume, a Priest of Auxerre, 
France, in the year 1590. The instrument was an improvement on 
the older Bass Zinken. It was a conical tube of wood, covered with 
leather, and bent into the form of a serpent, hence its name. It was 
played with a mouthpiece, not with a reed. Examples of the stop, 

* Further particulars respecting this stop, accompanied by illustrations, as patented by G. 
F. Weigle, are given in "The Art of Organ-Building," Vol. II., pp. 534-6. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 239 

of 1 6 ft. pitch, exist in the Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral of 
Uim; and in the Schwell-Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral of 
Riga. In the latter it would seem to be a species of DOUBLE CORNO 
DI BASSETTO. Under the name SERPENTINO, a similar stop exists 
in the Organ in the Church of Sanctissimo Crucifisso, at Como. 

An artistically-voiced CORNO DI BASSETTO, 16 FT., would be a 
valuable addition to the tonal forces of the Pedal Organ of the 
Twentieth Century. The name SERPENT might be retained for such 
a stop. 

SESQUIALTERA, SEXQUIALTERA. The compound har- 
monic-corroborating stop, formed of two or more ranks of open 
metal pipes of medium scales, yielding, in the foundation- work, pure 
organ-tone. The true SESQUIALTERA consists of two ranks of pipes 
only, carried throughout the compass of the clavier without a 
break; the ranks standing at the interval of a major sixth apart. 
This interval is secured by placing a fifth-sounding rank below a 
third-sounding one; as, in the eight feet harmonic series, a TWELFTH 
2% FT., and a SEVENTEENTH, i% FT., sounding G e 1 on the CC 
key. On the First Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of Riga 
there is a SEXQUIALTERA, belonging to the sixteen feet harmonic 
series, formed of a QUINT, 5^ FT., and a TIERCE, 3% FT. ; while on 
the same manual there are, in addition, independent stops of the 
same pitches, but of different tonality a unique apportionment, so 
far as our knowledge extends. As independent stops, the QUINT, 5^ 
FT., and TIERCE, 3)^ FT., are inserted on the First Manual of the 
Organ in the Cathedral of Ulm; and they appear in other Walcker 
Organs. A QUINT, 2^ FT., and TIERCE, i% FT., as independent 
stops, are inserted on the Second Manual of the Riga Organ. When 
a SESQUIALTERA, belonging to either the eight feet or sixteen feet 
harmonic series, is placed in any manual division, its ranks should 
be made to draw separately. 

The SESQUIALTERA belonging to the thirty-two feet harmonic 
series is necessarily rare; but one, formed of a QUINT, 10% FT., and a 
TIERCE, 6 2 /s FT., exists in the Pedal of the Riga Organ; and in addi- 
tion there is a QUINTBASS, 10% FT., and a TERZBASS, 6 2 /s FT. This 
grand Pedal Organ has a remarkable harmonic structure; and in this 
direction affords a valuable lesson to organ-designers of to-day. 

The so-called SESQUIALTERAS, of the old English organ-builders, 
were invariably harmonic-corroborating stops, formed of several 
rknks of open metal pipes, requiring two or more breaks in their 
compass. In these stops, the sexts did not invariably obtain in 



240 ORGAN-STOPS 

every break ; those omitted being formed by the addition of an in- 
dependent TWELFTH, 2% FT. An example of this incomplete form 
of SESQUIALTERA is furnished by the stop inserted by John Snetzler 
in the Organ he constructed, in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, for St. Mary's Church, Nottingham. The composition of 
the stop is here given : 

SESQUIALTERA IV. RANKS. 

CC to G 15 17 19 22. 

G# to g 1 12* 15 17* 19- 

g# J to top 8 12* 15 17*. 

The following example of a five-rank SESQUIALTERA, in which 
sexts of different pitches obtain in the two breaks, gives the com- 
position of the stop inserted in the Great of the Organ constructed by 
Harris and Byfield, of London, in 1740, for the old Parish Church of 
Doncaster. 

SESQUIALTERA V. RANKS. 

CC tO C 1 . . . 19* 22 24* 26 20. 

c# r to top ... 8 12* 15 17* 19. 

The sexts are indicated by the asterisks. This SESQUIALTERA is 
here given in modern compass: the original stop in the Harris-By- 
field Organ had the old compass of GGG to d 3 . It is interesting to 
note that in this Organ the SESQUIALTERA was accompanied by a 
TWELFTH, 2% FT., and a TIERCE, i% FT., both complete and in- 
dependent stops. A good four-rank SESQUIALTERA can be formed 
by omitting the acute fifth-sounding rank in both breaks, 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the SESQUIALTERA may 
properly vary with the stop-apportionment of the division of the 
Organ in which it is inserted. When associated with the foundation- 
work, in the First or Great Organ, it should, as essentially a har- 
monic-corroborating stop, yield pure organ-tone: but when inserted 
in any other manual division, its tone may properly be dictated by 
the stop-apportionment with which it is associated. When con- 
sidered desirable, the SESQUIALTERA may be formed of through 
ranks of pipes of special and different tonalities, becoming a timbre- 
creating stop. In all cases it is desirable that, in its voicing and 
regulating, the third-sounding rank should be made subordinate in 
tone to the fifth-sounding rank, so as to avoid undue assertiveness. 

The value of harmonic-corroborating stops of the SESQUIALTERA 
class in the production of distinct tonal coloring deserves to be better 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 241 

known. The neglect of such stops in the tonal appointment of 
modern Organs is a mistake; and seriously cripples the means of 
producing compound tones of great variety and beauty. The regis- 
tration of unison, octave, and super-octave stops alone, whatever 
their tonal character may be, must fail to satisfy the cultivated ear 
of the musician seeking to paint his tone-pictures in rich musical 
chiaroscuro. It is the tradesman, not the artist, who is to-day 
omitting such stops from the Organ. 

SEVENTEENTH. Fr., TIERCE. Ger., TERZ, TERTIE ItaL, 
DECIMA SETTIMA. A third-sounding mutation stop, formed of open 
metal pipes of medium scale, of i y$ ft. pitch in the manual divisions, 
standing at the interval of a seventeenth above the unison, 8 ft., and 
a major third above the SUPER-OCTAVE, 2 FT.* The SEVENTEENTH 
represents and corroborates the fourth upper partial tone of the 
prime or unison tone In the Pedal Organ, the SEVENTEENTH is of 
33/5 ft. pitch, belonging to the 16 ft, harmonic series. When a stop of 
3/^ ft. pitch is introduced in a manual division, it is termed by 
French organ-builders GROSSE TIERCE, | as in the Clavier des Bom- 
bardes of the Cavaill-Coll Organ in the Church of Saint-Sulpice, 
Paris. A GROSSE TIERCE, 6% FT., exists in the Pedal of the Organ 
in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. A TERZ, 3)^ FT., is placed on the 
First Manual, and a TERZBASS, 6% FT., in the Haupt Pedal of the 
Walcker Organ in the Cathedral of Riga. A SEVENTEENTH, 6% FT., 
under the name TERTIA, exists in the Pedal of the Church at Perle- 
berg: this stop is formed of wood pipes. 

The SEVENTEENTH, 6% FT., made either of open metal or wood 
pipes, is of considerable value in the Pedal Organ, brightening and 
enlivening its normal foundation tone: here it may be more pro- 
nounced in tone than is desirable for third-sounding stops in the 
manual divisions. This SEVENTEENTH belongs to the 32 ft. har- 
monic series. 



*"La TIERCE, jadis nomme'e par certains auteursSwgwj-Ocfatfl et mieux Sesqui-Quarta, est 
unjeuouvertdedix-neufpouces,oucinquante-uncentimetres,degrossetaille r detain oud'etoffe 
selon qu'on veut lui donner ou lui 6ter du tranchant. II parle a la Tierce de la Doublette, par con- 
sequent a la dixieme du Preslant; c'est pourquoi les Italiens 1'appellent quelquefois Decima. Au 
positif , on la designe par le nom de Petite-Tierce, en opposition avec celle du grand orgue quiest 
de taille plus forte, mais de mme degre. Les Allemands 1'appellent Terz et Tertia, et encore Des t 
abr6g6 de Decima." Regnier. 

f " La GROSSE-TIERCE parle a r octave inf erieure de la Tierce ordinaire, c'est-a-dire a la Tierct 
du Preslant, et a la dixieme du huit-pieds. Elle est grosse taille, tout ouverte et d'etoffe, I'Stak 
serait trop mordant. Pour que ce registre fasse bon effet, il lui faut associer une grande mass* 
de f onds, surtout en hurt pieds; un bourdon de seize ne nuira point. Le plus grand tuyau de Is 
Grosse-Tierce a trois-pieds deux pouces, lorsqu'elle se trouve aux claviers de la main. En AUe 
magne, on la trouve en p6dale de six-pieds, sous le nom de Decem-Bass" Regnier. 



242 ORGAN-STOPS 

SHARP MIXTURE. The term that has been used to designate 
a compound harmonic-corroborating stop formed of four or more 
ranks of open metal pipes, of high pitch, and penetrating tone. The 
SHARP MIXTURES of the old English organ-builders appear to have 
been invariably formed of octave- and fifth-sounding ranks; third- 
sounding ranks being confined to their SESQUIALTERAS. 

Properly scaled, voiced, and regulated, a SHARP MIXTURE would 
be a useful stop, in either the wood-wind or brass-wind division of 
the artistically appointed Concert-room Organ, for the production 
of ringing qualities of compound tone. But as MIXTURES are made 
to-day by the generality of organ-builders, without regard to the 
dictates of science or art, the SHARP MIXTURE had much better be 
omitted altogether from the Organ. 

SIFFLOTE, SIEFFLOT, Ger. Fr., SIFFLET. A small open 
metal stop, of medium scale, and 2 ft. and i ft. pitch, yielding a clear 
unimitative flute-tone. In some rare instances it has been intro- 
duced of i J^ ft. pitch. The stop, of 2 ft. pitch, exists on the Second 
Manual of the Organ in the Protestant Church, Mulhausen; and, 
of i ft. pitch, in the Oberwerk of the Organ in the Cathedral of 
Merseburg. 

SINGENDREGAL, Ger. An old lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, 
which received its appellation on account of the singing character of 
its voice. Both the stop and name are obsolete. See REGAL. 

SOAVE, Ital. The name given to an open labial stop, of 8 ft. 
pitch, yielding an unimitative flute-tone of great softness and 
beauty.* It is to be regretted that unison stops of this refined 
tonality are so greatly neglected in the appointment of modern 
Organs. 

SORDUN, Ger. Fr., SOURDINE. Ital., SORDINI. The name 
given by old Continental organ-builders to a covered labial stop, of 
1 6 ft. and 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which were commonly made of 
wood, and so treated as to produce a subdued or muffled tone; 
considered desirable before the swell was invented, f 

*" SOAVE (ou suabile), htdt-pieds, de grosse taille, lent parler, mais tres-doux et gracieux, 
commel'mdique son nom italien. On le de"signe aussi sous le nom d'englische Flcete, flute-ange~li- 
que, qu'il ne faut pas confondre avec le jeu d' anche, qui porte a peu pres le nom de angelica vox." 
Regnier. 

t" SORDINI (ital.), Sordun (all.), Sourdine. C'est un ancien bourdon de huit, ou de seize, 
selon qu'il se trouvait k la main ou & la pe"dale. Les tuyaux 6taient caches chacun dans une boite,- 
pDur rendre un son plus e"tient. " Regnier. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 243 

SORDUNREGAL, Ger. An old lingual stop of the REGAL 
family, of 8 ft. pitch, softly voiced, and probably muted by being 
inclosed in some form of box. Both the stop and its name are now 
obsolete. See REGAL. 

SPILLFLOTE, SPINDELFLOTE, Ger. Eng., SPINDLE FLUTE. 
A half-covered labial stop, of 8 ft., 4 ft., and 2 ft. pitch. The 
name is expressive of the peculiar form of its pipes, the bodies of 
which are cylindrical surmounted by long conical portions, trun- 
cated, leaving small openings at top. The form of the 
pipe, including its tapering foot, somewhat resembles 
that of a covered spindle, and has suggested the name. 
The form is shown in the accompanying illustration, Fig. 
32. As it is not possible to tune the pipe by any manip- 
ulation of its small top orifice, without altering its tone, 
the fine tuning is done by means of large projecting ears, 
bent toward or from the mouth. As its name implies, the 
SPILLFLOTE belongs to the Flute-work; but its tone is 
bright and without any distinctive flute quality, lying 
between the tones of the ROHRFLOTE and the SPITZFLOTE. 
Seidel compares it with the SCHWIEGEL (q.v.). Under the 
hands of a skillful and artistic voicer, and probably with 
the addition of the harmonic-bridge, there is little doubt 
but the SPILLFLOTE pipe could be made to yield both a 
characteristic and a beautiful compound tone. The stop 
seems to have been introduced during the second quar- 
ter of the sixteenth century; but has become practically 
a curiosity in organ-building, doubtless due to the time 
and trouble involved in its construction. 

SPITZFLOTE, Ger. Fr., FLUTE A POINT, FLUTE A 
FUSEAU. Eng., SPIRE FLUTE. A metal labial stop, of 8ft., 
4 ft., and 2 ft. pitch; which derives its names from 
the form of its pipes, which is that of a slender truncat- 
ed cone, open at top; closely resembling the form of the 
GEMSHORN pipe (See Fig. 19, Plate III). The stop is 
justly held in high estimation by German organ-builders, 
being introduced, usually of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, in all FIG. 32 
their more important Organs. In Walcker's Organ in 
the Cathedral of Vienna, it is inserted, of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, on 
the Second Manual. In the Organ in the Cathedral of Riga, it is 
inserted, of 4 ft. pitch, on the Third Manual. 



244 ORGAN-STOPS 

SCALE AND FORMATION. The scale of the SPITZFLOTE varies in different ex- 
amples and according to the character and strength of the tone desired ; and the 
proportion of the diameters at the mouth line and at the top of the pipe also varies 
slightly. The dimensions given by Topfer, and apparently adopted by Friedrich 
Haas, the rebuilder of the Lucerne Organ, are practically as follows: For the CC 
8 ft. pipe, 4.60 inches diameter at the mouth line, and 1.50 inches diameter at the 
open top. The diameter at top is, accordingly, a trifle under one-third of the 
diameter at the mouth line, approaching closely the proportion recommended 
for the GEMSHORN pipe. But Seidel says the SPITZFLOTE pipes are more pointed 
than those of the GEMSHORN; and this would seem desirable for the production of 
the characteristic tone of the stop. The diameter at top should, however, never be 
less than one-fourth of that at the mouth. The width of the mouth may be one- 
fourth or two-ninths of the larger circumference; and its height may range from 
one-fourth to one-third of its width, according to the wind-pressure and the tone 
desired. As in certain half-covered stops, the upper lip of the mouth may be 
slightly arched, and the lower lip and languid nicked moderately fine. As the pipes 
must not be slotted at top, or coned in tuning, fine tuning must be done at the 
mouth by means of flexible ears. While the 4 ft. and 2 ft. stops have invariably 
been made of metal throughout, the bass octave of the 8 ft. stop has been made of 
pyramidal pipes of wood. This practice is not to be recommended. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The voice of the true SPITZFLOTE 
is compound, which, owing to its delicate harmonics, partakes of 
both flute- and string-tone; inclining to either one or the other 
according to the manner in which the pipes are voiced, and, to some 
extent, according to their scales. This variable compound tone is a 
valuable property of the stop, as the artist voicer can adapt it to 
suit the tonal apportionment of which it is to form a part. We know 
that such refinement in tonal adjustment is paid very little atten- 
tion to in this age of commercial organ-building; but it is, never- 
theless, just such refinement, carried consistently throughout the 
stop-work of an Organ, that marks the artist-craftsman and makes 
the Organ a work of art. 

It must be obvious to everyone conversant with compound tone 
production, that such a stop as the SPITZFLOTE, standing midway in 
voice between the flute-toned and string-toned stops, must lend it- 
self to the production of refined colorings in registration with the 
softer-voiced stops, both labial and lingual. With the latter es- 
pecially, to which it will impart a desirable body and richness with- 
out destroying their characteristic tonalities. The true SPITZFLOTE, 
8 FT., combines perfectly with the CLARINET, CORNO DI BASSETTO, 
FAGOTTO, and COR ANGLAIS, producing beautiful compound tones. 
It also adds richness and body to the imitative string-toned stops; 
and, in both 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, a certain crisp fullness to the imita- 
tive flute-toned stops. The SPITZFLOTE should find a place in the 
Choir of the Church Organ; and in the Second or accompanimental 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 245 

Organ of the properly stop-apportioned Concert-room Organ. 



SPITZQUINTE, QUINTSPITZ, Ger. A SPITZFLOTE, of 
ft. and i^i ft. pitch, the pipes of which are formed in all respects 
similar to those of the unison SPITZFLOTE (q. v.). As a harmonic- 
corroborating and timbre-creating stop, the SPITZQUINTE may be 
found valuable in special stop-apportionments: and, of 2% ft. pitch, 
it may, with advantage, take the place of the ordinary TWELFTH, 
2% FT., in Organs of small size; lending itself more effectively to 
artistic registration, and proving more generally useful in combina- 
tion. 

STENTORFLOTE, Ger. The name given by Herr Weigle to a 
loudly-voiced, high-pressure, labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of 
which are constructed in accordance with his patented system.* An 
example exists on the First Manual of the Walcker Organ in the 
Synagogue, Strasbourg. 

STENTORGAMBA. The name used by Walcker to designate 
a loudly-voiced, string-toned, labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of 
which are constructed in accordance with the high-pressure, Weigle 
system. An example exists on the Second Manual of the Organ in 
the Synagogue, Strasbourg. Under the name SOLO-GAMBE, a simi- 
lar stop exists on the Second Manual of the Weigle Organ in the 
Grand Hall of the Liederhalle, Stuttgart. 

STENTORPHONE. The name, derived from the Greek 
SiivTwp Stentor, and <PUVTQ voice or sound, and employed to 
designate a large-scaled metal labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of 
which are cylindrical in form and made of thick metal, so as to with- 
stand the powerful pulsations of the columns of air within them, 
generated by the high pressures employed in the voicing. Properly 
this wind-pressure should range between seven and ten inches; but 
during the present prevailing craze for high wind-pressures and loud 
voicing, such reasonable pressures will be considered insufficient. 
Properly voiced, the STENTORPHONE yields a tone of great breadth, 
richness, and dignity. True to its name, it should be the most 
stentorian labial stop introduced in the Organ. Its large scale and 
its tonality places it, strictly considered, in the Flute-work of the 
Organ. This position is shown by the fact that the best substitute 
for the true STENTORPHONE, at present known, is a large-scaled 

* Royal Letters Patent, Great Britain, No. 17718. United States Patents, Nos. 457686 and 
520344- 



246 ORGAN-STOPS 

open wood flute-toned stop, to which the name TIBIA PLENA has 
been given. 

The powerful voice of the STENTORPHONE naturally points to the 
only two manual divisions in which it could be properly introduced; 
namely, the First or Great Organ and the Solo Organ. In its full 
tonality it is of most value in the latter, imparting a remarkable 
breadth and grandeur to the tones of the powerful lingual stops 
properly inserted there; and that without unduly increasing their 
assertiveness. In the First Organ, it should be inserted in the ex- 
pressive subdivision, where its dominating voice will be under con- 
trol. There it will lend itself to the production of impressive 
crescendoes, and impart great dignity to the TRUMPETS. 

Examples of the metal STENTORPHONE, 8 FT., appear in several 
American Organs, notably in those by Roosevelt. He inserted it in 
the Solos of the Organs in the Auditorium, Chicago; and the Cathe- 
dral of the Incarnation, Garden City, L. I. A fine STENTORPHONE 
is inserted in the Solo of the Organ in the Cincinnati Music Hall. 
We inserted one in the Fourth Organ of our scheme for the Grand 
Concert Organ installed in the Festival Hall of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition (1904) ; now in the Wanamaker Store, Philadelphia, 
Pa. The STENTORPHONE has been introduced in certain German 
Organs. An example exists in the Organ in the great Concert Hall 
in Mannheim; and Walcker has inserted one, under the name STEN- 
TORFLOTE, 8 FT., on the First Manual of the Organ in the Synagogue, 
Strasbourg. The STENTORPHONE is one of the large-mouthed, high- 
pressure, objectionable stops introduced and patented by Weigle, 
an example of which exists in the Organ he constructed, in 1895, for 
the Liederhalle, Stuttgart. The STENTORPHONE has not commended 
itself to either French or English organ-builders. We known of no 
example in a French Organ; and of only one in an English Organ, 
and that, strange to relate, in a Chamber Organ. 

STARKGEDECKT, Ger. A large-scaled covered stop, of 16 
ft. pitch, the pipes of which are of wood, copiously blown with wind 
of moderate pressure, and voiced to yield a full and round tone of 
good mixing quality. Of this stop, Regnier says: "Grand bourdon 
de seize fortement embouche et donnant aux flfites ouvertes de huit 
un velout et une profondeur remarquables. " 

STILLCcEDECKT, Ger. This name, which signifies a quiet- 
toned covered stop, is employed by German organ-builders to desig- 
nate stops which are softer in their intonation than the LIEBLICH- 
GEDECKTS. The STILLGEDECKT is usually made of wood, and of 8 ft. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 247 

and 4 ft. pitch. The pipes are of a small scale, and speak on low- 
pressure wind. The stop is highly suitable for insertion in the softer 
toned manual divisions of the Concert-room Organ, and in the chief 
accompanimental division of the Church Organ; it is also an ideal 
stop for the true Chamber Organ. An example, of 8 ft. pitch, exists 
in the Choir of the Organ in the Town Church of Fulda; and one, of 
4 ft. pitch, is inserted in the Echo of the Organ in the Church of 
Waltershausen. 

STOPPED DIAPASON, Eng. Ger., GEDECKT. Fr., BOURDON. 
Span., TAPADO, TAPADILLO. A covered labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch in 
the manual divisions, and of 16 ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ. The 
English name, though time-honored, is neither correct nor desirable, 
for the stop has no resemblance to a true DIAPASON in form or ton- 
ality. The stop yields an unimitative flute-tone, and belongs to the 
Flute-work of the Organ. The proper English equivalent is STOPPED 
FLUTE. The English practice is to make the pipes of the stop en- 
tirely of wood, but in some late examples metal pipes have been 
used in the higher treble octaves. The so-called STOPPED DIAPASON, 
1 6 FT., is invariably constructed of wood throughout : the stop is only 
a medium-scaled BOURDON, voiced to be as free from the second 
upper partial as possible. The old builders in England, and notably 
Bernard Smith, made their STOPPED DIAPASONS of oak, and no 
better material could be used for the purpose. In the "Schedule" 
of the Organ constructed by Smith for the Temple Church, London, 
are mentioned two "GEDACKTS of wainescott" a superior quality 
of straight-grained oak grown abroad. The German organ-builders 
have made their GEDECKTS of both wood and metal; while the 
French builders have preferred metal for their manual unison BOUR- 
DONS. See BOURDON and GEDECKT. 

SUABE FLUTE. The name given to a quadrangular wood 
stop, of 4 ft. pitch, invented by William Hill, organ-builder, of Lon- 
don. The stop is of medium scale; the pipes of which are open, have 
sunk blocks and inverted mouths, and yield a soft and clear unimita- 
tive flute-tone which lies between the tones of the CLARABELLA and 
the WALDFLOTE, but is softer than either. It is difficult to under- 
stand the signification of the name SUABE, for it seems to have no 
appropriate derivation ; it certainly cannot be derived from the law 
term suable. The term SUABILE certainly obtains in Seidel-Kothe's 
list of stops, applied to a flute-toned stop of 8 ft. pitch.* 

* " Suabileist em Flotenwerk zu 8', von angenenmer Intonation, welches sick zum sanften und 
langsamen Vortrage besonders eignet. Diese Stimme wird auch englische Flote genannt." 



248 



ORGAN-STOPS 



SUAVE FLUTE. A name, suggested by the Latin suavis 
sweet, pleasant; and which we have considered appropriate for a 
flute-toned stop of peculiar formation, and of singularly smooth and 
agreeable intonation. The pipes of the stop are of wood, open, and 
of medium scale; their peculiarity obtaining in the formation of the 
mouth, the upper lip of which has a cylindrical piece of polished hard 
wood attached to it, in the manner shown in Fig. 33. This form of 





FIG. 33 

mouth clearly demonstrates the value of the thick and rounded 
upper lip in the production of smooth and full flute-tone. Organ- 
builders of to-day have resorted to the easy, objectionable, and per- 
ishable expedient of covering the upper lip with leather in both 
metal and wood pipes. It is a cheap expedient to save labor and 
care in voicing; otherwise, it would never have been so readily 
adopted by organ-builders. 

SUAVIAL. According to Locher, a name given to a soft-toned 
stop of the GEIGENPRINCIPAL class, found in old Organs; usually of 
8 ft. pitch, and of short compass, beginning at C. An example of 
which exists in the Organ in the French Church, at Berne. 

SUB-BASS. Ger., SUBBASS. Fr., SOUBASSE, SOUS-BASSE. 
According to Wolfram (1815), the old German organ-builders used 
the name to designate Pedal Organ GEDECKTS, of 32 ft. and 16 ft. 
pitch, constructed of wood; and the practice has been followed by 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 249 

the French builders, as is shown by the Pedals of the Organs built by 
Cavaille-Coll for the Cathedral of Orleans and the Church of Saint- 
Ouen, Rouen, in which we find a SOUS-BASSE, 32 FT., and a SOUS- 
BASSE, 16 FT., inserted. It also appears as a manual stop, of 16 ft. 
pitch, in the Bombarde of the Organ in the Cathedral of Notre- 
Dame, Paris; and in the Positif of the Organ in the Cathedral of 
Albi. The SUBBASS, 32 FT., exists in the Pedal of the Organ in the 
Church of St. Michael, Hamburg; and, of 16 ft. pitch, in the Pedals 
of the Organs in the Cathedrals of Riga and Ulm. In English instru- 
ments, we find the term SUB-BASS applied to both open and covered 
stops of 32 ft. pitch. In the Pedal of the Organ in the Temple 
Church, London, the SUB-BASS, 32 FT., is a covered stop of wood; 
while the SUB-BASS, 32 FT., in the same department of the Organ in 
the Town Hall of Leeds is an open stop of metal. It would seem very 
desirable, in the stop nomenclature of to-day, to confine the term 
SUB-BASS to the Pedal Organ covered wood stop of 32 ft. pitch. See 
CoNTRA-BouRDON and SUB-BOURDON. 

SUB-BOURDON. A covered wood stop, of large scale, and of 
32 ft. pitch, commonly introduced in the Pedal Organ when there is 
no accommodation for an open stop of 32 ft. A SUB-BOURDON, 32 
FT., was introduced in the Pedal of the Organ constructed by Willis" 
for the Alexandra Palace, Muswell Hill, near London. A SUB- 
BOURDON, 32 FT., is inserted in the Great of the Organ in the Parish 
Church of Doncaster; and another, of wood and metal, of tenor C 
compass, is inserted in the Great of the Organ in the Parish Church 
of Leeds, Yorkshire. For other names used to designate stops of 
this class, see CONTRA-BOURDON. 

SUBPRINZIPAL, GROSSPRINZIPALBASS, Ger. Fr., PRIN- 
CIPAL BASSE. The names employed to designate the open labial 
stop, of wood or metal, and 32 ft. pitch, belonging to the Pedal 
Organ. Its usual name in English Organs is DOUBLE OPEN DIAPA- 
SON, 32 FT. Under that name, metal and wood stops exist in the 
Pedal of the Willis Organ in St. George's Hall, Liverpool. A PRINCI- 
PAL BASSE, 32 FT. exists in the Pdale of the Concert Organ in the 
Salle des Fetes, Palais du Trocadero, Paris. A SUB-PRINCIPAL, 32 
FT. , is inserted in the Pedal of the Organ in the Cathedral of Haarlem. 
The pipes of this fine stop are of pure Cornish tin, burnished, and 
displayed in the case. The CCCC pipe, which stands in the left 
tower, is nearly forty feet long and is fifteen inches in diameter. 
Under the name PRINCIPALBASS, 32 FT., the stop exists in the Pedals 
of the Organs in the Cathedrals of Riga, Vienna, and Ulm. Under 



250 ORGAN-STOPS 

the simple term FLUTE, 32 FT., this important stop exists in the 
Organ in the Basilique du Sacre-Cceur, Montmartre, Paris. For 
further particulars see DOUBLE DIAPASON. 

SUBTILREGAL, Ger. The name given to an old lingual stop, 
of 8 ft. pitch, the tone of which was of a soft and agreeable quality, 
probably differing slightly from that of the GEDAMPFTREGAL (q. u.). 
Both stop and name are obsolete. See REGAL. 

SUPER-OCTAVE. The open, metal, labial stop, sounding two 
octaves above the foundation unison tones of the manual and pedal 
departments of the Organ, being of 2 ft. pitch in the former and of 
4 ft. pitch in the latter. The term, unqualified, signifies that the stop 
is harmonic-corroborating and belongs to the Foundation-work, and 
yields pure organ-tone. The term SUPEROCTAV is commonly used 
by German organ-builders. In both the Riga and Ulm Organs, 
built by Walcker, the term is incorrectly applied to stops of i ft. 
pitch. The French builders commonly use the name DOUBLETTE, 
2 FT. See FIFTEENTH. 



TAPADILLO, TAPADO, Span. The names given by Spanish 
organ-builders to covered labial stops, in all essentials similar to the 
English so-called STOPPED DIAPASON and the German GEDECKT. 
Under the name TAPADILLO, the stop exists in the Organs in the 
Cathedrals of Burgos and Valladolid; and under the name TAPADO, 
in the Organ in the Cathedral of Orense. A stop named FLAUTADO 
TAPADO exists in the Organ on the south side of the Coro in Burgos 
Cathedral, built in 1706. 

TENOROON. The name given by certain English organ- 
builders during the middle years of the last century, when incom- 
plete stops were more in favor than they happily are now, to a 
covered stop, of 16 ft. pitch, which was carried downward only to 
tenor C on the manual clavier. The term is now obsolete, and it is 
to be hoped the incomplete stop it designated is equally so. 

The term Tenoroon was originally employed to designate the 
Tenor Bassoon or Alto Fagotto in F; and it is, accordingly, evident 
that the name given to the organ-stop had no reference to the or- 
chestral Tenoroon. Should it, however, be considered desirable to 
introduce in the Organ a FAGOTTO, of 4 ft. pitch, the name TENOR- 
OON could be given, appropriately, to it. Such a stop would 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 251 

complete the FAGOTTO family, and be of great value in artistic 
registration. At present the Organ is sadly deficient in soft octave 
reed-tone. 

TENTH. ltd., DECIMA. Fr., GROSSE TIERCE. Ger., TERZ. 
A third-sounding mutation stop, introducing and corroborating the 
fourth upper partial tone in the 16 ft. harmonic series, introduced on 
the manuals, of 3)^ ft. pitch ; and corroborating the fourth upper 
partial tone in the 32 ft. harmonic series, introduced in the Pedal 
Organ, of 6% ft. pitch. The unscientific English organ-builders 
have seriously failed to realize the value of this stop, for it appears 
in only one of their Organs known to us. On the other hand, both 
the French and German builders have thoroughly realized its value 
in both the manual and pedal departments. The GROSSE TIERCE, 
3> FT., exists in the Solo of the Organ in the Church of Saint-Sul- 
pice, and in the Bombarde of the Organ in the Cathedral of Notre- 
Dame, Paris. The GROSSE TIERCE, 6% FT., is introduced in the 
Pedal of the Notre-Dame Organ. The TERZ, 3^ FT., exists on the 
First Manuals of the Organs in the Cathedrals of Riga, Vienna, and 
Ulm. The TERZ, 6% FT. , exists in the Pedal of the Riga Organ ; and, 
under the term TERZBASS, 6% FT., it exists in the Pedals of the Riga 
and Vienna Organs. We agree with Topfer that BASSTERZ would 
be the better name. The extended term TERZENBASS, 6% FT,, has 
also been used by German organ-builders. Under the names GREAT 
TIERCE, 6% FT., and TIERCE, 3% FT., both stops exist in the Pedal 
of the Organ in the Parish Church of Doncaster, Yorkshire, built 
by Edmund Schulze, of Paulinzelle, in 1 862. The term TIERCE, 3> 
FT., is, in our opinion, more expressive and desirable than the term 
TENTH. 

The manual stop is formed of open metal pipes; and, as it belongs 
to the 1 6 ft. series, its scale should be derived from that of the 
DOUBLE DIAPASON, 16 FT., which is, properly, smaller than that of 
the principal DIAPASON, 8 FT. All third-sounding stops, wherever 
they are introduced, should be softer in tone than the unison, octave, 
and fifth-sounding stops with which they are associated. For ar- 
tistic registration, this regulation of tone will be found of great im- 
portance. The Pedal Organ TENTH, 6% FT., should be formed of 
open pipes of wood or metal, preferably yielding a bright tone, im- 
parting a desirable life to this grave department of the Organ. See 
SEVENTEENTH. 

TERPODION. The term derived from the Greek words 
to delight, and O>&TQ a song. The musical instrument 



252 ORGAN-STOPS 

which gave this name to an organ-stop was invented by David 
Buschmann, of Berlin, in 1816. It was a clavier instrument, vari- 
ously described as frictional and percussive, in form resembling a 
Pianoforte: its sounds were produced from sonorous wood in a 
manner not clearly described by writers on old instruments. 

The stop to which the name was originally given was invented by 
J. Priedrich Schulze, of Paulinzelle, and inserted, for the first time, 
in the Organ he constructed, in 1838, for the Cathedral of Halber- 
stadt. Other examples of the TERPODION, 8 FT., exist in the Ober- 
werk of the Schulze Organ in the Cathedral of Bremen; on the Third 
Manual of the Organ in the Marienkirche, Lubeck; and in the Swell 
of the Organ in the Parish Church of Doncaster, Yorkshire, built 
by Edmund Schulze, of Paulinzelle. As made by this master, 
the stop is formed of open cylindrical metal pipes, which have wide 
and low mouths, yielding a tone of a pronounced raedy quality. 
The stop, even at its best, seems to be of little tonal value. Accord- 
ing to Schlimbach-Becker (1843), the TERPODION in the Halberstadt 
Organ, when combined with the LIEBLICHGEDECKTS, of 16 ft. and 
8 ft. pitch, and the HARMONIKA, 8 FT., produced atone resembling 
that of the instrument invented by Buschmann. What must the 
tone of this wooden instrument have been? 

TERPOMELE. The term, derived from the Greek words 
Tepicsiv to delight, and ^sXo<; melody or song; and first used to 
designate a free-reed stop, of 8 ft. pitch, which was inserted, about 
the year 1828, in the Organ in the Cathedral of Beauvais. The 
reeds were furnished with slender resonators, introducing the proper 
construction of free-reed stops. Availing himself of the fact that 
free-reeds can produce varied strengths of tone under different pres- 
sures of wind without alteration of pitch, the organ-builder arranged 
to impart powers of expression to the TERPOMELE by means of a con- 
trivance placed under the control of the organist. 

TERTIAN, TERZIAN, Ger. A compound harmonic-corrob- 
orating stop, formed of two ranks of open metal pipes, properly of 
medium scales, which stand at the interval of a major third apart. 
The position is, accordingly, an inversion of that of the SESQUIAL- 
TERA, the third-sounding being larger, and lower in pitch, than the 
fifth-sounding one. The TERTIAN is composed of ranks of i % ft. 
and i^i ft. pitch when it belongs to the 8 ft. harmonic series; of 
ranks of 3> ft. and 2%j ft. when it belongs to the 16 ft. harmonic 
series; and of ranks of 6% ft. and 5}^ ft. when it belongs to the 32 
feet harmonic series. Seidel tells us that in certain old Organs it 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 253 

comprised three ranks; namely, of 4. ft, 3^ ft., and 2% ft. pitch. 
When the two relative ranks are introduced as separate stops in 
any division of the Organ, it is not necessary to contemplate the 
addition of a TERTIAN, unless on special grounds directly relating to 
the very important matter of artistic and varied registration. In 
this case, the stop should be of small scale and carefully voiced, 
giving slight prominence in tone to the third-sounding rank. The 
stop may also, and very properly, be made timbre-creating, its 
ranks having contrasting tonalities. Only those who have made a 
special study of compound-tone production can realize the value of 
such a TERTIAN in imparting color in refined and artistic registra- 
tion. 

THIRTY-FIRST. Ital., TRIGESIMA PRIMA. A third-sounding 
MIXTURE rank, of open metal pipes, corroborating the fourth upper 
partial tone of the super-octave (2 ft. pitch) stops; its extremely 
acute pitch preventing its being considered, in anything save a 
purely philosophical sense, as belonging to a lower harmonic series. 
Owing to the smallness of the pipes forming this rank, it can only be 
introduced in the two lower octaves of a manual MIXTURE. While 
it appears to have been used, in some way, by the Italian organ- 
builders, as in one of the Organs in the Cathedral of Milan, we have 
been unable to find an instance of the insertion of this extremely 
acute third-sounding rank in a MIXTURE made by any known organ- 
builder. It may, however, exist in the ninety-five ranks of MIXTURE 
which are inserted in the Organ in the Monastic Church, Weingarten. 

THIRTY-SIXTH. Ital. , TRIGESIMA SESTA. An octave-sound^ 
ing MIXTURE rank, of open metal pipes, corroborating the 
seventh upper partial tone of the super-octave (2 ft. pitch) stops; 
its extremely acute pitch preventing its being considered, in any- 
thing save a purely philosophical sense, as belonging to a lower 
harmonic series. Owing to the very small size of the pipes forming 
this rank, it can only be introduced in the bass octave of a manual 
MIXTURE. It appears, as in the case of the THIRTY-FIRST (j. v.)> 
in one of the Organs in the Cathedral of Milan; but we have not been 
able to find the THIRTY-SIXTH introduced in any MIXTURE of Eng- 
lish, French, or German origin. The only instance of its introduc- 
tion known to us, is afforded by the seven-rank CYMBALE in the 
Great of the Organ in the Music Hall, Cincinnati; in this compound 
stop, the THIRTY-SIXTH is confined to the bass octave. 

THIRTY-THIRD. Ital., TRIGESIMA TERZA. A fifth-sound- 



254 ORGAN-STOPS 

ing MIXTURE rank, of open metal pipes, corroborating the fifth 
upper partial tone of the super-octave (2 ft. pitch) stops; its ex- 
tremely acute pitch preventing its being considered, in anything 
save a philosophical sense, as belonging to a lower harmonic series. 
The THIRTY-THIRD was introduced by the old English builders in 
their compound harmonic-corroborating stops. Harris inserted it, 
in conjunction with the TWENTY-NINTH, in the bass octave of the 
two-rank MIXTURE in the Organ erected by him, during the closing 
years of the seventeenth century, in the Church of St. Peter Man- 
croft, Norwich. It appears, in conjunction with the THIRTY-SIXTH, 
in the North Organ in the Cathedral of Milan. The THIRTY-THIRD 
is inserted in the bass and tenor octaves of the CYMBALE in the Organ 
in the Music Hall, Cincinnati. 

TIBIA ANGUSTA. (Lat. Tibia a, pipe; A ngustus narrow). 
The term that has been employed by German organ-builders to 
designate a flute-toned stop, of small scale, and 8 ft. pitch. It 
resembles in formation and tone the DOLZFLOTE (q. v.). 

TIBIA BIFARA. (Lat. Tibia- -a pipe; Bifarius, double). 
The stop, commonly named BIFARA (without the prefix), is formed 
in two ways ; both with the view of imparting a tremulous or wavy 
effect to its voice. For full particulars of this stop, see BIFARA. 

TIBIA CLAUSA. (Lat. Tibia & pipe; Clausus closed). 
The name given to a large-scaled covered stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the 
pipes of which are of wood. The mouths of the pipes are cut up 
about half their widths; their upper lips being thick, and very 
smoothly rounded and polished with black-lead. To save trouble 
and labor, the rounding and polishing are omitted, and the lips are 
covered with leather a perishable expedient. When properly 
voiced, on a copious supply of wind of moderate pressure, the stop 
yields a beautiful and singularly pure quality of tone. A full scale 
for this stop, in the ratio I : V8, gives the CC pipe a width of 5.56 
and a depth of 7.52 inches; the C pipe a width of 3.30, and a depth 
of 4.46 inches; and the middle c 1 pipe a width of 1.96, and a depth 
of 2.66 inches. The name and modern treatment of this large-scaled 
GEDECKT were introduced by Hope- Jones. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the TIBIA CLAUSA, 
when artistically produced, is freer from harmonic over-tones than 
the voices of the generality of covered stops, and especially those of 
the BOURDONS; hence its peculiar value. In this respect it ap- 
proaches the voice of the true LIEBLICHGEDECKT; but, on account 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 255 

of its large scale, the TIBIA CLAUSA yields a much greater volume of 
sound, and, accordingly, lends itself more effectively to the building- 
up of a valuable series of highly-colored compound tones. Its proper 
place is in the expressive divisions of the Organ, in which a firm 
ground-work of unison tone is required to balance and carry the 
assertive string-, reed-, and brass-tones of the orchestral stops : such 
as the so-called Swell in the Church Organ; and the wood-wind, 
brass-wind, and string-toned divisions of the properly stop-appor- 
tioned Concert-room Organ. In registration with the octave, muta- 
tion, and softly- voiced compound harmonic-corroborating stops, the 
TIBIA CLAUSA, 8 FT., produces a family of very beautiful tones. 

TIBIA DURA. (Lat. Tibia & pipe; Item hard). The 
name given to an open wood stop, of 4 ft. pitch, introduced by Hope- 
Jones; the tone of which is cold and penetrating ; hence the name. 
The approved form of the pipes is quadrangular and inverted pyra- 
midal, and wider than deep, so as to allow of a large mouth, which 
is of the inverted form. The tone of the stop has no special charac- 
ter to render it valuable in artistic registration. Examples exist in 
several Organs constructed under the superintendence of Hope- 
Jones. 

TIBIA MAJOR, (Lat., Tibia -a pipe; Major greater). 
The term employed^-by German organ-builders to designate a man- 
ual, covered labial stop, of the BOURDON class, and of 16 ft. pitch. 
It is commonly of large scale and of a full tone. Examples exist on 
the First Manuals of the Walcker Organs in the Cathedrals of Ulm 
and Vienna. Another exists in the Echo of the Schulze Organ in the 
Parish Church of Doncaster; in this instance the stop is of a com- 
paratively soft tone. All the Echo Organs made by this builder 
being characterized by extreme delicacy and beauty of tone, as all 
Echo Organs should be. 

TIBIA ]$INOR. (Lat., Tibia -a pipe; Minor smaller). 
German organ-builders have, in some instances, given the name to a 
large-soiled covered stop, of 8 ft. pitch, which is practically the 
Octave^of the TIBIA MAJOR, 16 FT. (q. v.). An example of the stop, 
under the simple name TIBIA, 8 FT., exists on the First Manual of 
the Organ in St. Paulskirche, Frankfurt. We are not certain, how- 
ever, if this stop is covered. The name TIBIA MINOR has been given 
by John H. Compton, of Nottingham, England, to covered stops, 
introduced by him in certain of his Organs, the pipes of which are of 
large scale, and of wood and metal. The wood stop differs only 



256 ORGAN-STOPS 

slightly in treatment and tone from the TIBIA CLAUSA (q. *>.) The 
metal TIBIA MINOR, 8 FT., as made by Compton, is a fine and valu- 
able contribution to the flute-tone of the Organ of the Twentieth 
Century; and deserves the attention of every progressive organ- 
builder. The chief characteristics of its pipes are their very large 
scale and their very narrow mouths. The CC pipe has a diameter 
equal to that of a medium-scaled CC DIAPASON pipe. The mouths 
are cut high, arched, and leathered. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the Compton metal 
TIBIA MINOR, 8 FT., is sui generis; differing widely from that of the 
ordinary large-scaled GEDECKT; and therein lies much of its value. 
The Organ of to-day calls loudly for new voices of a refined, building- 
up, and timbre-creating character; not old voices coarsened by the 
use of inordinate pressures of pipe-wind, which seems to be the chief 
aim of the generality of voicers at the present time. The tone of the 
f stop under consideration is thus clearly described by J. I. Wedgwood, 
who has had ample opportunity of forming an accurate estimate of 
its character: "The tone of the TIBIA MINOR is extraordinarily 
effective. In the bass it is round and velvety with a suspicion of 
smooth French Horn quality. In the treble the tone becomes very 
clear and full. The top notes of the stop, indeed, bear in them some 
resemblance to the full liquid notes of the Ocarina, though free, of 
course, from the undesirable features of that instrument. Whilst 
entirely devoid of the objectionable hooting quality sometimes dis- 
played by powerful FLUTES, it forms a solo stop of remarkably fine 
effect, and in combination serves to add much clearness and fullness 
of tone to the treble, and, in general, exercises to the fullest extent 
the beneficial characteristics of the TIBIA class of stop/' In regis- 
tration, this stop lends itself to the creation of many beautiful com- 
pound tones and artistic colorings. See TIBIA CLAUSA. 

TIBIA MOLLIS. (Lat, Tibia & pipe; Mollis soft). The 
name given by Hope-Jones to an open wood stop, of a soft flute- 
tone; the pipes of which have their mouths cut parallel to their sides, 
and the caps so placed as to direct the wind-stream transversely, in 
a manner similar to that from the mouth while playing the orches- 
tral Flute. An example exists in the Organ in St. George's Church, 
Blackheath, London. The name is equally appropriate for any very 
soft flute-toned stop. 

TIBIA PLENA. (Lat, Tibia -a pipe; Plenus full). The 
name given to an open wood stop of 8 ft. pitch; the pipes of which 
are of greater depth than width, of very large scale, and have mouths 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 257 

cut moderately high, their upper lips being thick and carefully 
rounded and polished when properly finished. Leathering the lips 
has been adopted to produce sufficient smoothness. Lips carefully 
rounded and burnished with black-lead are to be preferred, as 
leather is certain to change and decay in a few years. The TIBIA 
PLENA is the most powerful of the wood stops of unimitative flute- 
tone; and should find a prominent place in every important Organ, 
preferably on the First or Great Manual and in its expressive sub- 
division. The stop has been made of several different scales, all of 
which are necessarily large. For instance, that stated for the stop 
in the Organ in the Cathedral of Worcester, gives the CC (8 ft.) pipe 
a measurement of 7yf inches by 9 inches, and middle c 1 (2 ft.) pipe 
2^-| inches by 3^ inches. This is an extreme and unnecessarily 
large scale. Examples of the stop exist in several Organs in England 
and the United States. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the TIBIA PLENA when 
artistically voiced, is singularly full and dignified; the presence of 
certain low harmonics imparting to it considerable richness, and 
rendering it of the greatest value in* registration with the DIAPASONS, 
to the voices of which it imparts a remarkable color and grandeur. 
It is also of the greatest value in combination with such lingual stops 
as the DOUBLE TRUMPET and unison TRUMPET of the First or Great 
Organ, to which division it properly belongs. To be of maximum 
value it should be rendered expressive and flexible, so as to be largely 
available throughout the other more important divisions of the 
Organ. In a very large Concert-room instrument, a TIBIA PLENA 
may with the greatest advantage be inserted, as a tone-builder, in 
either the Solo Organ or that devoted to the brass-wind division; or, 
indeed, in both. 

TIBIA PROFUNDA. (Lat., Tibia -a pipe; Proj undis deep) . 
The name given to the Pedal Organ stop, of 16 ft. pitch, the pipes 
of which are similar in formation and quality of tone to those of the 
TIBIA PLENA (q. v.). An example exists in the Pedal of the Organ 
in the Church of St. Mary, Warwick, England. 

TIBIA RURESTRIS, FISTULA RURESTRIS. (Lat., Fis- 
tula, Tibia a pipe; Ruralis rural). Names that have been used 
by the early organ-builders to designate a flute-toned stop in all 
essentials similar to the BAUERFLOTE (q. v.). 

TIBIA SILVESTRIS. (Lat., Tibia a, pipe; Silvestrisdi a 
wood). The term that has been used to designate an open wood. 



258 ORGAN-STOPS 

flute-toned stop, identical with that commonly named WALDFLOTE 
(q. v.). Seidel and Wolfram render the name TIBIA SYLVESTRIS. 

TIBIA TRANSVERSA, TIBIA TRAVERSA. (Lat., Tibia 

a pipe; Transversus, Traversus across). The names given by old 
builders to the open labial stop, yielding imitative flute-tone, which 
is now commonly designated FLAUTO TRA VERSO (q. v.) or ORCHES- 
TRAL FLUTE. 

TIBIA VULGARIS. (Lat., Tibia a pipe; Vularis common). 
The name given in early times to the unimitative flute-toned stop, 
now commonly termed BLOCKFLOTE (q. v.). 

TIERCE, Fr. Ger., TERZ. Eng., SEVENTEENTH. A muta- 
tion harmonic-corroborating stop, of 1^5 ft. pitch in the manual 
divisions, where it belongs to the 8 ft. harmonic series; and 3^ ft. 
pitch in the Pedal Organ, where it belongs to the 16 ft. harmonic 
series. See SEVENTEENTH. 

TIERCINA. The name given to a metal labial stop, of 8 ft. 
pitch, the pipes of which are of small scale, covered, and voiced to 
yield a tone in which the fourth upper partial tone (the Seventeenth) 
is strongly in evidence; hence the name. This compound tonality is 
enriched by the presence, in a subordinate degree, of the second 
upper partial, the Twelfth. To enrich the harmonic structure, we 
inserted a TIERCINA, 8 FT., in the Second Subdivision (String) of the 
Third Organ of the instrument installed in the Festival Hall of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904). 

TIERCE FLUTE. The name given by its introducer, George 
W. Till, of Philadelphia, Pa. to a labial dual stop, formed of a metal 
HARMONIC FLUTE, 8 FT., having the compass of CC to c s , and a 
metal TIERCE, 3)^ FT., of the same compass, yielding pure organ- 
tone, and belonging to the 16 ft. harmonic series. In this instance, 
however, the TIERCE is a timbre-creating rather than a harmonic- 
corroborating stop or rank. In combination with the HARMONIC 
FLUTE it produces a compound solo voice of an absolutely new and 
remarkable tone-color, impossible to be produced from a single- 
ranked FLUTE, however made and voiced. 

This dual stop is inserted in the Choir of the Organ in the Wana- 
maker Store, in Philadelphia, where it speaks on wind of 15 inches. 
The stop is unique; and it is safe to say that such a dual stop has 
never been even contemplated in the preparation of the tonal scheme 
for any other Organ hitherto constructed. We know of no Organ 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 259 

in which the component parts of the stop exist in any single manual 
division. The tone of the TIERCE FLUTE must be heard ; it cannot be 
described. It is especially a solo stop.* 

TRAVERSPLGTE, Ger. Ital., FLAUTO TRAVERSO. The lab- 
ial stop, properly formed of cylindrical or quadrangular wood pipes 
voiced to yield a tone as closely imitating that of the orchestral Flute 
as possible. Fine examples, of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, voiced by Ed- 
mund Schulze, exist in the Choir and Echo of the Organ in the Parish 
Church of Doncaster, England. See FLAUTO TRAVERSO and OR- 
CHESTRAL FLUTE. 

TRAVERSENBASS, Ger. The name given to a labial metal 
stop, of 1 6 ft. pitch, the higher notes of which produce tones similar 
to those of the TRAVERSFLOTE, 8 FT. According to Wolfram (1815), 
an example exists in the Pedal of the Organ in the Church of St. 
Bonifacii, Langensalza. A clear flute-toned stop, of this class, and 
of medium strength of tone, would be extremely valuable in the 
Pedal of a Concert-room Organ. 

TRICHTERREGAL, Ger. Literally, Funnel Regal An old 
lingual stop of the REGAL class furnished with funnel-shaped re- 
sonators; hence its name. A TRICHTERREGAL, 8 FT., was inserted 
by Schnittker in the Organ he built for the Church of St. Jacobi, 
Hamburg. See REGAL. 

TRINONA. The name given by the builder of the Organ in the 
Church of St. Vincent, Breslau, to stops, of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, in- 
serted on the Second or Upper Manual. These stops are said to be 
of wood and of a soft viol quality of tone. The name would seem to 
imply the presence, in some prominence, of the fourth upper partial 
tone the Seventeenth in the voices of the stops, quite compatible 
with good viol-tone. 

TRIPLETTE. The term employed to designate a compound 
harmonic-corroborating stop formed of three unbroken ranks of 
open metal pipes, similar in treatment to the DOUBLETTE of the 
German organ-builders. The TRIPLETTE furnishes a favorable op- 
portunity for the formation of a valuable timbre-creating stop. Its 
ranks may be of metal, or of wood and metal, open or covered, pipes, 
voiced to yield any desirable tones. Its ranks may be of 2% ft., 2 ft., 
and i% ft.; 2 ft, i% ft, and i^ ft; or i% ft, ij^ ft, and i ft 

* Full particulars of the formation and scales of this stop are given in "The Organ of the 
Twentieth Century." Page 104. 



26o ORGAN-STOPS 

pitch; all the ranks representing and corroborating upper partial 
tones of the 8 ft. harmonic series. Unless designed as a strictly 
timbre-creating stop, the TRIPLETTE has nothing to specially re- 
commend its adoption : its ranks would be more useful as separate 
stops. 

A finely-voiced timbre-creating TRIPLETTE would unquestion- 
ably be of great value in artistic registration; producing compound 
tones of great variety and beauty, unknown in the Organs hitherto 
constructed. It should be so placed as to be available on any manual 
clavier. 

TROMBA, Ital. Italian organ-builders have employed this 
term to designate lingual stops of the TRUMPET class, of both 8 ft. 
and 16 ft. pitch, as in the Organ in the Church of St. Allessandro, 
Milan. We find the term applied to a stop, of 32 ft. pitch, in the 
Great of the Organ in the Church of Sta. Maria di Carignano, 
Genoa; reconstructed by C. G. Bianchi, in 1863. Spanish and Por- 
tuguese organ-builders have applied the name, commonly with the 
addition of certain qualifying terms, to their TRUMPETS of powerful 
and special intonation. In the Organ on the north side of the Coro 
in Burgos Cathedral there are two lingual stops, labeled, respec- 
tively, TROMBA REAL (Royal Trumpet) and TROMBA BATALHA 
(Battle Trumpet). We find stops in the Organ in the Church of the 
Martyros, Lisbon, labeled TROMBA REAL, TROMBA BATALHA, and 
TROMBA MAGNA (Great Trumpet). 

The TROMBAS, of 8 ft. and 16 ft. pitch, as made by German and 
English organ-builders, differ widely in tonality from those of the 
old Spanish builders : they are TRUMPETS yielding a full and smooth, 
unimitative brass-tone, more powerful than that of the ORCHESTRAL 
TRUMPET, but less assertive than the tones of the TUBAS. A 
TROMBA, 8 FT., made by Walcker, exists on the First Manual of the 
Organ in the Accademia di Sta. Cecilia, Rome. An example, by 
Norman & Beard, exists in the Organ in the Church of All Saints, 
Netting Hill, London. The late Edmund Schulze of Paulinzelle 
invented a labial TROMBA, 16 FT., the pipes of which were of wood, 
square and inverted pyramidal in form, and of medium scale, and 
voiced with the harmonic-bridge. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. Given that the tone of the TROMBA, 
8 FT., is distinct in strength and quality from the tones of the HAR- 
MONIC and ORCHESTRAL TRUMPETS, on the one hand; and from the 
tones of the TROMBONE, OPHICLEIDE, and TUBA, on the other hand, 
there can be no question as to the great value of the stop in tne ap- 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 261 

pointment of a large Church Organ or a Concert-room instrument. 
Like all lingual stops, its place is in an expressive manual division. 
In a properly stop-apportioned Concert-room Organ, its proper 
place is in the division devoted to the representatives of the ' ' brass- 
wind" forces of the orchestra.* Its presence there will be of the 
greatest service in artistic registration, furnishing a rich and full 
lingual tone, of a neutral and good mixing quality, combining per- 
fectly with any pure organ-tones, flute-tones, and viol-tones. 

TROMBA CLARION. The appropriate name for a TROMBA, 
of 4 ft. pitch, voiced considerably softer than the unison TROMBA 
(q. v.). Softly voiced octave lingual stops have been too much neg- 
lected in the stop-appointments of modern Organs; yet their value 
in artistic registration cannot well be overrated. They effectively 
enrich, brighten, and impart life to volumes of unison and double 
tones; which, without them, would be dull, heavy, and unmusical. 

TROMBONE, Ital., Eng., Pr A lingual stop of 8 ft. pitch in 
the manual divisions and of 16 ft. pitch in the Pedal Organ. The 
stop belongs to the TRUMPET family; and its pipes are similar in 
form to, but of larger scale than, those of the ordinary TRUMPET, 
8 FT., only having tongues and reeds yielding a distinctive and more 
powerful intonation. The stop is properly voiced to closely imitate 
the tones of the orchestral Trombones when played forte, but not 
fortissimo. The more powerful intonation being desirable in the 
POSAUNE (q. v.). 

FORMATION. The manual TROMBONE, 8 FT., is constructed of metal through- 
out; its resonators being of the inverted conical form, of large scale, and either 
of good pipe-metal or zinc; the latter being commonly used at the present time. 
The Hoyt Two-ply Pipe-metal is strongly to be recommend for high-class work. 
The Pedal Organ TROMBONE, 16 FT., is made either entirely of metal or of wood 
and metal. When of metal, it differs in no essential, save in dimensions, from the 
TROMBONE, 8 FT. When chiefly of wood, the pipes are necessarily different in 
form and construction. The resonators are quadrangular and of inverted pyra- 
midal shape. The boots, when of wood, are square and of ample dimensions to 
receive the feet of the resonators, the reed-blocks, and all fittings. The reeds or 
echalotes are of the open class; and the tongues or languettes are of hard-rolled 
brass, of medium thickness, and finely curved so as to produce a bright quality 
of tone. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The proper tone of the manual 
TROMBONE, 8 FT., should resemble as closely as possible the tones of 
the orchestral Trombones when played without the production of 

* See stop-apportionment of the Fourth Organ, in our scheme for the Concert-room Organ. 
i,' ven on page 31 1 of "The Organ of the Twentieth Century." 



262 ORGAN-STOPS 

their extreme brazen clang. Fine examples of this stop, voiced by 
the masterly hand of the late George Willis, exist in the Great and 
Solo of the Organ in St. George's Hall, Liverpool. The value of this 
unison stop seems to be overlooked by the organ-builders and organ- 
designers of to-day, but its introduction in important instruments is 
strongly to be recommended. So firmly convinced are we of the 
value of its distinctive tone, that in our suggestive tonal scheme for 
the Concert-room Organ of the Twentieth Century, we have in- 
serted in the First Organ (Great) a TROMBONE, 8 FT., and in the 
Fourth Organ (Brass-wind) the complete TROMBONE family; namely, 
a CONTRA-TROMBONE, 16 FT., TROMBONE, 8 FT., TROMBONE QUINT, 
5J" FT., and TROMBONE OCTAVE, 4 FT.* It would be difficult to over- 
rate the importance of such a combination of lingual stops at the 
disposal of the organist; yet it has never appeared in any executed 
Organ. The neglect of the manual TROMBONE, 8 FT., is as remark- 
able as it is unwise, yet it is the only one which can properly repre- 
sent the orchestral Trombone. In a large collection of 'stop-lists of 
Organs, designed in this country, which lie before us, we fail to find a 
single TROMBONE, 8 FT., mentioned. Indeed, in the list of an im- 
mense divided Organ, embracing 283 speaking stops, there is only 
one TROMBONE given, and that, of 16 ft. pitch, in one of the Pedal 
Organs. In the Fourth or Solo Organ of the large instrument we 
designed, and which was installed in the Festival Hall of the Louis- 
iana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, there was a TROMBONE, 
8 FT., and a BASS TROMBONE, 16 FT. ; both of metal. 

TROMPETTE EN CHAMADE, Fr. The term employed by 
French organ-builders to designate a TRUMPET, the pipes of which 
are projected horizontally and fan wise from the front of the case, as 
in the Organ in the Church of Saint-Ouen, Rouen (See Frontispiece). 
This treatment is common in important and noisy Spanish Organs. 
On both artistic and common-sense grounds the treatment is to be 
condemned. No lingual stop should be without expression. 

TROMPETTE HARMONIQUE, Fr. This important lingual 
stop was invented by Cavaill6-Coll, and introduced, for the first 
time, in the Organ of the Royal Church of Saint-Denis, constructed 
in 1 841 . In this remarkable instrument there were inserted no fewer 
than five examples of the stop of 8 ft. pitch; one in the Positif, two 
in the Grand-Orgue; and two in the R6cit-ficho Expressif. In his 
" Rapport" on the Organ, J. Adrien de la Page remarks: 

* See " The Organ of the Twentieth Century, " page 31 1. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 263 

"La trompette harmonique du clavier de rScit est, par sa puissance et par Tex- 
cellence des sons qu'elle produit, incomparablement suprieure a tout ce qtie Ton 
connait en ce genre. Le caractere tout-a-fait particulier de ses basses, lorsqu'on 
1'emploie comme partie chantante accompagnee des jeux de fond, est d'un effet 
admirable. On ne peut dire autant des series de jeux de flUtes harmoniques qui 
donnent a I'ensemble de 1'orgue tant de rondeur et de puissance." 

For further particulars respecting the TROMPETTE HARMONIQUE, 
see HARMONIC TRUMPET. 

TRUMPET. Fr., TROMPETTE. Ger., TROMPETE. Ital., TROM- 
BA. Dtch., TROMPET. Span., TROMPETA. The manual lingual 
stop, of 8 ft, pitch, to which these names are given by the organ- 
builders of different countries, may reasonably, and under usual 
conditions, be considered the most generally useful, if not the most 
important lingual stop in the Organ. So much so is this the case, 
that no Organ of any pretension is constructed without one, com- 
monly occupying a place in the Great or foundation division of the 
instrument. Unless when it is strictly of the solo or orchestral tonal- 
ity, the TRUMPET is a chorus-reed of the first importance. Realizing 
this fact, the German organ-builders place the stop on different 
manuals. In the Organ in the Cathedral of Ulm the TROMPETE, 
8 FT., is inserted on the Second and Third Manuals only, and also in 
the Pedal Organ. It commonly occupies a place in the Pedal Organ 
of Walcker's important instruments. In the Cavaill-Coll Organ 
in the Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, there are two TROMPETTES 
in the Grand-Choeur, one in the Positif , one in the R6cit, one in the 
Solo, and one in the Pdale six TROMPETTES, of 8 ft. pitch (none 
harmonic), in an Organ of 100 speaking stops. The builder of this 
Organ fully realized the value of the chorus TRUMPET.* In English 

* " La TROMPETTE est le registre d'anches le plus pur, le plus rond, le plus fin d'harmonie et 
de sonorit6, quand il est bien fait; le plus desagreable, quand il est manque*. Chose singuliereil 
reussit moins souvent en Allemagne qu'en France; j'ai dj& cherch6 la raison de cette difference 
dans la difference d'allures des deux nations: le bruit guerrier, I'eclat, tout ce qui tend a accen- 
tuerla musique, et mieux marquer son rhythme, semble etre de notre domaine. De leurcdte, 
les f acteurs allemands se vengent de la maigreur de leurs Trompettes par la variete, la finesse 
melancolique de leurs jeux de fonds. 

' ' Une bonne Trompette doit avoir le tuyau un peu plus long que de rigueur, de grosse tailleet 
de solide epaisseur, en etain fin et bien battu, pos6 sur un-pied in6branlable et bien proportionne" 
en hauteur et en embouchure. La languette, de laiton f ortement 6croui, mediocrementrecour- 
bee al'entr6e de 1'anche, s'y posera bien 6galement sans devier, et sera comme cette anchede 
large'ur et d'epaisseur proportionnees a la vigueur du courant d'air centre lequel elle combat. 
Le tuyau trop long ferait octavier; trop court, il pourrait donner un son plus tranchant , mais 
criard. Trop d'epaisseur serait inutile, et la minceur ferait grincer le tuyau. La languettetrop 
lachefait raler le son, trop ferine ou d6viee de son aplomb, courbde trop haut ou trop bas, elle 
devient capricieuse, raide jusqu'au mutisme. Les justes proportions du tuyau de Trompette 
combineesaveccelles du vent doivent donner un son egal, brillant sans trop d'eclat, mais male et 
doux ct la f ois. C'est cette derniere qualite, si rare que les bons accordeurs distinguent au bour- 
don quiressort toujours d'une Trompette arriv6e IL sa juste harmonic. Toutes ces perfections 



264 ORGAN-STOPS 

Organs of the usual Church type a single TRUMPET, 8 FT., is com- 
monly introduced, inserted almost invariably in the Great. Even 
in the important Organ, of 70 speaking stops, in the Cathedral of 
York, there are only two TRUMPETS, one in the Great and the other 
in the Swell. In the Concert Organ in St. George's Hall, Liver- 
pool, there is a TRUMPET, 8 FT., in the following manual divisions, 
Great, Choir, Swell, and Solo; and also one in the Pedal Organ. 
Judging from a survey of the tonal-appointments of American 
Organs, it would seem that organ-builders here have failed, as a 
rule, to realize the great value of the TRUMPET. An example of 
this neglect may be given: in an important College Organ, of 46 
speaking stops (exclusive of 13 borrowed stops), built by a dis- 
tinguished firm, there is not a single TRUMPET, or any lingual stop 
that can take its place in registration. Surely this is a step in the 
wrong direction. In another Organ, of 52 speaking stops, there is 
not a single TRUMPET or any stop of its tonal character. Further 
comment is unnecessary. 

FORMATION. The pipes of the TRUMPET are invariably made of metal; their 
resonators being of the inverted conical shape and of medium scale, formed of a 
good alloy of tin and lead (spotted-metal) or zinc. The Hoyt Two-ply Pipe-metal 
is to be recommended. The resonators are of about the same lengths as open 
labial metal pipes of the corresponding pitch, and are entirely open at top : they 
should be accurately cut to length and not slotted. The form of the complete 
TRUMPET pipe is shown in the accompanying illustration, Fig. 34. The scale of 
the resonators varies according to character and strength of the tone desired. The 
reeds or echalotes are properly of the open class; but in the case of the ECHO TRUM- 
PET, or a stop suitable for a true Chamber Organ, the reeds may properly be of 
the closed variety. The tongues or languettes must in all cases be such as to im- 
part a true Trumpet tonality: this should be pronounced in the case of the ORCHES- 
TRAL TRUMPET. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the ordinary chorus 
TRUMPET, while of a true Trumpet character, should not too closely 
resemble that of the orchestral instrument played forte. A certain 
amount of brazen clang is desirable to give individuality to the stop; 
but it should not be such as to prevent its free use in general regis- 
tration with stops of organ-tone. When of this tonality, the stop is 

doivent se trouver dans chaque tuyau s6par6ment, et dans tous compares 1'un & 1'autre. II faut 
y joindre enfin celle d'une grande promptitude et nettetS de langage. 

"La taille des Trompettes doit 6tre en rapport avec leur place; ainsi, la pSdale de Trompelte 
sera de plus forte taille que celle qui chante k la main; celle du recit, plus delicate ue celle du 
grand orgue. Quoiqu'on joue avantageusement la Trompette seule, 1'alliance de ces octaves 
extremes avec celles du Cl&iron lui donne une grande vigueur, surtout & la p^dale; 1'habitude de 
certains facteurs de loger sur un seul clavier deux Trompettes de moyenne taille ne vaut Hen, 
parce qu'elles sont rarement d'accord, et qu'il vaut mieux un seul instrument de forte taille, 
dont les vibrations aient 1'avantage de la clarU et de I'unitS." Regnier. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 



265 



most valuable in the First or Great Organ, where it can enter into 
combination with the DIAPASONS and the entire foundation-work, 
producing compound tones of great richness and dignity; this is due 
to the great number of upper partial tones its voice comprises. When 
enclosed and rendered flexible and expressive, as it 
should be in every artistically appointed Great Organ, 
the value of the TRUMPET is increased ten-fold. The 
solo stop, properly designated ORCHESTRAL TRUMPET, 
8 FT., should be voiced to imitate as closely as pos- 
sible the characteristic tones of the orchestral instru- 
ment. Its voice will, accordingly be singularly bright, 
silvery, and jubilant; differing, in these desirable qual- 
ities, from every other lingual stop of the Organ. It will 
be used in registration for the production of rich orch- 
estral effects, in which its brilliant voice will prove invalu- 
able. It properly belongs to the brass-wind division of 
the Concert-room Organ; where it will be found to be of 
the utmost service both in solo and combinational effects.* 

TUBA, TUBA MIRABILIS. Known by both names, 
this stop, of the TRUMPET class, is the most assertive 
lingual stop in the modern Organ, having a voice of 
great sonority and grandeur. The stop is of 8 ft. pitch, 
and has been placed in different divisions of important 
Organs; but its most desirable place is in the manual 
division containing the principal solo stops. In this posi- 
tion it exists in the Concert Organs in the Centennial 
Hall, Sydney, N. S. W., the Auditorium, Chicago, and 
the Music Hall, Cincinnati. It also exists in the Solos 
of the Organs in Westminster Abbey, the Cathedral of 
York, and the Cathedral of the Incarnation, Garden 
City, L. I. It exists on the First Manual of the Organ 
in the Cathedral of Riga, and in the Dome Organ in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, London. 



FIG. 34 



FORMATION, The pipes of the TUBA are, like those of the 
TRUMPET (Fig. 34) of inverted conical form, of large scale, and of 
thick and firm metal. Its reeds or &chalotes are properly of the open 
class, and its tongues or languettes are wide, thick, and boldly 
curved. The TUBAS of different organ-builders have been 
voiced on, winds ranging from eight to twenty-five inches: the higher octaves of 
the stop in the Dome Organ in St. Paul's Cathedral speak on the latter pressure. 
The scale of the resonators varies in different examples ; but the maximum may be 

* See "The Organ of the Twentieth Century, " page 311. 



266 ORGAN-STOPS 

accepted as seven inches diameter at top for the resonator of the CC (8 ft.) pipe. 
A remarkable labial stop, designated TUBA MIRABILIS, has recently been in- 
vented by the distinguished artist in stop formation, W. E. Haskell, of Brattle- 
boro, Vt. This is an open wood stop of very peculiar form and general treatment, 
in which the harmonic-bridge holds a prominent position. The form and construc- 
tion of the pipes of this unique stop are fully shown on Plate IV. All the details 
given deserve the careful study of those interested in pipe formation. The stop 
speaks on a very copious supply of wind of fifteen inches pressure ; yielding a tone 
of great volume and dignity, and of a most valuable quality. It may be said to 
open an entirely new chapter in the history of wood pipe development, and points 
the way to further achievements. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The Tuba of the modern orchestra, 
favored by Wagner on account of its majestic and impressive bass 
tones, belongs to the Saxhorn family; and its voice should, properly, 
be imitated by that of the TUBA of the Organ ; but such a desirable 
imitation seems to have been completely neglected in the desire to 
produce the greatest volume and dominance of tone possible from 
lingual pipes and high-pressure voicing. This aim has certainly 
been reached in the HARMONIC TUBA (q. v.). A truly imitative 
TUBA, 8 FT., similar in power to the pure and unstrained voice of the 
orchestral instrument in Bb, would be an invaluable addition to the 
brass-tone forces of the Concert-room Organ. The extremely power- 
ful tone of the TUBA, as it usually obtains in English and American 
Organs, is of very limited use in registration ; but in full organ effects 
and fortissimo climaxes it is most impressive, dominating all other 
tonalities. Its presence is of most value in the Fifth or Solo Organ 
of the properly stop-apportioned Concert-room Organ. 

TUBA CLARION. A TUBA of octave or 4 ft. pitch, the pipes 
of which are formed in all respects similar to those of the unison 
TUBA, 8 FT. As this stop will accompany the unison stop, in what- 
ever division of the Organ it is inserted, it should be subordinate in 
scale and strength of voice. 

TUBA MAGNA. The name given either to the TUBA MIRA- 
BILIS or the HARMONIC TUBA when voiced to yield a tone of great 
volume and assertiveness. 

TUBA MAJOR. The name employed in some instances to 
designate the CONTRA-TUBA, 16 FT., but more commonly applied to 
such a stop as the TUBA MAGNA (q. v. ). 

TUBA MINOR. The name appropriately given to a TUBA, 
8 FT., of small scale, yielding a softer voice than that of the other 
TUBAS. This stop may be introduced in the Swell or in the expres- 



PLATE IV 




THE HASKELL LABIAL TUBA MIRABILIS 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 267 

sive subdivision of the Great Organ; its subdued voice rendering it 
of considerable value in full combinations, especially with the DIA- 
PASONS, of 8 ft. and 16 ft. pitch. Good examples of this useful stop 
exist in several English Organs. 

TUBA PROFUNDA. The term employed to designate a stop 
of the TUBA class and of 16 ft. pitch, properly belonging to the Pedal 
Organ. When introduced in a manual Organ, the stop is commonly 
and appropriately named CONTRA-TUBA (q. v.). An example exists 
in the Solo of the Organ in the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. S. W. 

TUBA QUINT. A mutation stop of the TUBA class, of 5^ ft. 
pitch, voiced to yield a tone considerably softer than that of the 
unison TUBA (8 ft.) in the same division. As it strictly belongs to 
the 1 6 ft. harmonic series, it can only be properly introduced in asso- 
ciation with the CONTRA-TUBA, 1 6 FT. The complete family will 
accordingly comprise the CONTRA TUBA, 16 FT.; TUBA, 8 FT.; TUBA 
QUINT, 5^ FT.; and TUBA CLARION, 4 FT.; a series of powerful 
lingual stops capable of producing compound tones of surpassing 
grandeur. The four stops alone admit, in registration, of eight 
perfectly satisfactory combinations, each of which would have a 
distinctive coloring. We know of no Organ in which the complete 
family is introduced.* 

TUBA SONORA. The name given by Robert Hope- Jones to a 
TUBA, 8 FT., voiced to yield a peculiarly full and pure tone, largely 
free from the clang due, in other stops of the TRUMPET class, to the 
prominence of high upper partial tones. A stop of this tonality is 
much more generally useful in artistic registration than the ordinary 
dominating TUBA. A fine example of the TUBA SONORA, 8 FT., 
voiced on wind of twenty inches pressure, exists in the Solo of the 
Organ in the Cathedral of Worcester, England. 

TUBASSON, Fr. The name tljat has been used by French and 
Belgian organ-builders to designate a Pedal Organ lingual stop of 
the TROMBONE class, of 16 ft. pitch, and softer in tone than the or- 
dinary TROMBONE, 16 FT., as made by English and American organ- 
builders. 

TWELFTH. A fifth-sounding mutation stop, belonging to the 
8 ft. harmonic series in the manual divisions, where it is of 2% ft. 
pitch; and to the 16 ft. harmonic series in the Pedal Organ, where it 

* We have inserted the four stops in the tonal-apportionment of the F^th Organ in our 
scheme for the Concert-room Organ. See "The Organ of the Twentieth Century," page 315- 



268 ORGAN-STOPS 



is of 5 K ft* pitch. In both cases it corroborates the second upper 
partial tone of the prime tone, as yielded by the DIAPASON, 8 FT., 
of the manual divisions, and the DIAPASON, 16 FT., of the Pedal Or- 
gan. The TWELFTH is properly formed of open cylindrical metal 
pipes, of a smaller scale than those of the OCTAVE, 4 FT., and voiced 
to yield pure organ-tone, softer than that of the OCTAVE. In old 
Organs, the TWELFTH, 2% FT., was almost invariably made of too 
large a scale and voiced too loudly. The practice of making the 
TWELFTH of the same scale as the DIAPASON is strongly to be con- 
demned, for with so large a scale it is not possible to obtain a scien- 
tific adjustment of power or the refined singing tone so desirable in 
this harmonic-corroborating stop. 

The TWELFTH, 2% FT., frequently enters into the composition 
of compound harmonic-corroborating stops ; and as it requires to be 
covered by the SUPER-OCTAVE, 2 FT., it is sometimes associated with 
that stop as a two-rank MIXTURE, as in the RAUSCHQUINTE (q. v.). 
For further particulars, see NAZARD. 

TWENTY-FOURTH. ItaL, VIGESIMA QUARTA. A third- 
sounding MIXTURE rank, corroborating the ninth upper partial tone 
in the 8 ft. harmonic series, and the fourth upper partial tone in the 
4 ft. harmonic series. The TWENTY-FOURTH does not often appear 
in modern MIXTURES, but it should always be introduced in those in 
which a third-sounding rank is used. The old English builders in- 
troduced it along with the SEVENTEENTH, in many of their MIX- 
TURES. When properly scaled and proportioned in tone, the 
TWENTY-FOURTH has a very good effect in the bass and tenor oc- 
taves. It appears, associated with the SEVENTEENTH (DECIMA 
SETTIMA), in the North Organ in Milan Cathedral. 

TWENTY-NINTH. Ital, VIGESIMA NONA. An octave- 
sounding MIXTURE rank, corroborating the seventh upper partial 
tone in the 4 ft. harmonic series, and, philosophically considered, 
the fifteenth upper partial tone in the 8 ft. harmonic series. The 
TWENTY-NINTH was commonly introduced in the acute MIXTURES 
of the old builders. It appears, associated with the TWENTY-SIXTH 
(VIGESIMA SESTA), in both the Organs in the Cathedral of Milan. 

TWENTY-SECOND. ItaL, VIGESIMA SECONDA. An octave- 
sounding harmonic-corroborating rank, of I ft. pitch, commonly 
found in MIXTURE work, but sometimes as an independent stop, as 
in the Grand Choeur of the Organ in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, 
and the Positif of the Organ in the Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 269 

In both these noted instruments it appears as a PICCOLO, I FT. The 
extremely small size of the pipes forming the TWENTY-SECOND 
renders it almost impossible to carry the stop throughout the man- 
ual compass without a break. In MIXTURE work it is very seldom 
carried above the tenor octave. Associated with the NINETEENTH 
(DECIMA NONA) it appears in the North Organ, and separately in 
the South Organ, in the Cathedral of Milan. 

TWENTY-SIXTH. Ital, VIGESIMA SESTA. A fifth-sounding 
MIXTURE rank, corroborating the eleventh upper partial tone in the 
8 ft. harmonic series, and the fifth upper partial tone in the 4 ft. 
harmonic series. The TWENTY-SIXTH appears in the majority of 
high-pitched MIXTURES, but never above middle eft 1 , and rarely 
going so high as that note. Associated with the TWENTY-NINTH 
(VIGESIMA NONA) it appears in the North Organ in Milan Cathedral. 

u 

UNDA MARIS, Lat. Literally Wave of the Sea. A name used 
to designate a single or a dual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which 
are usually open and made of metal, though occasionally of wood. 
In old Organs, the stop was formed of either open or covered flute- 
toned pipes, having soft intonation, and tuned slightly flat, so as to 
produce, when drawn with a unison stop of correct pitch, an undu- 
lating or wave-like effect. When in its best dual form, the stop 
produces slow undulations that may be counted; and not the objec- 
tionable fluttering tones which characterize it in Organs constructed 
by inartistic builders. This slow undulation, coupled with a soft 
flute-tone, properly distinguishes the UNDA MARIS from the Voix 
CELESTE.* There seems, however, to be no recognized standard 
of tonality for the UNDA MARIS at the present time. In Prance it 
has been formed successfully of two ranks of pipes of a QUINTATEN 
tonality, tuned flat and sharp. In England and Germany the stop 
varies but slightly, if any, from the recognized character of the Voix 
CELESTE (g. .) The UNDA MARIS is to be fornd in numerous 



* ' ' UNDA- MARIS. Flute de huit, en bois ou en e"toffe. Elle s'accorde une idee plus haut que 
la montre, aveclaquelle ce disaccord doitfaire constamment unel6gere oscillation, unbaltement 
comme disent les accordeurs. Les ondulations que produit ce battment sont traduites parson 
nom latin d'unda-maris. Son effet.assez bizarre, est plus sensible avec des jeux moins accentue"s 
que la montre ; et quand ce dernier rgistre est f ortement embouche\ il parle trop haut pourlaisser 
entendre son auxiliaire. Quelquefois, Vunda-maris est composee de maniere se passer de ses 
voisins; alors, comme la flute double, appel^e bifara, elle a deux bouches & chaque tuyau, maissa 
puissance estd'autant moindre que les deux bouches sont aliment6es par un seul pred." Regnier. 



270 ORGAN-STOPS 

Organs constructed by French and German builders, as on the 
Fourth Manual of the Walcker Organ in Riga Cathedral, and in the 
Positifs of the Cavaille-Coll Organs in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, 
the Church of Saint-Sulpice, and the Palais du Trocadero, Paris. 
Good examples by English builders, formed of two ranks of pipes, 
exist in the Organs in Norwich Cathedral and the Centennial Hall, 
Sydney, N. S. W. An example exists in the Echo of the Roosevelt 
Organ in the Auditorium, Chicago. A dual stop of unusual forma- 
tion, named UNDA MARIS by its inventor, George W. Till, of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., has recently been inserted in the Choir of the Organ 
in the Wanamaker Store in that city. It consists of a GEMSHORN, 
8 FT., of wood and metal, and a GAMBA, 8 FT., of tin. The former is 
tuned flat so as to produce about three undulations at tenor C, in- 
creasing to about double the number in the top octave.* How far it 
is desirable to introduce stops of the UNDA MARIS class in an Organ 
is open to question; but it is quite certain it is not required in dig- 
nified organ music. 

UNTERSATZ, Ger. Eng., CONTRA-BOURDON, SUB-BOURDON. 
Fr., SOUSBASSE. A large-scaled covered wood stop, of 32 ft. pitch. 
It is inserted in both the manual and pedal departments of large 
Organs. When in a manual division it is usually labeled MANUAL- 
UNTERSATZ, 32 FT., as on the First Manuals of the Walcker Organs 
in the Cathedrals of Ulm and Vienna, and the Church of St. Paul, 
Frankfurt a. M. It appears, labeled UNTERSATZ, 32 FT., in the Pedal 
Organs of the Ladegast instruments in the Nicolaikirche, Leipzig, 
and the Cathedrals of Merseburg and Schwerin. See CONTRA- 
BOURDON. 

v 

VIOL. Fr. and Ger., VIOLE. A name that may be accepted 
as generic of all labial stops of unimitative string-tone, commonly 
known by the inappropriate name GAMBA; which, signifying leg, 
has no possible relation to tone. The term VIOL is, accordingly, to 
be strongly recommended for adoption in all appropriate cases; 
confining the term GAMBA to the only one stop to which it can be 
properly applied. The term Viol or Viole was originally applied to a 
family of string instruments commonly used in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. The Chest of Viols, mentioned by old 

* Pull particulars of the formation of this unique stop are given in " The Organ of the Twen 
tieth Century, " pages 106-107. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 271 

writers, consisted, in its complete form, of two Bass Viols, two Tenor 
Viols, and two Treble Viols : but a smaller Chest, which was much 
more common, comprised one Bass, one Tenor, and two Treble 
Viols. These instruments were severally strung with seven, six, and 
five strings; and had not the powerful tones of the perfected instru- 
ments of the Violin family. The term VIOL may be variously 
qualified, indicating tonal character ;, such terms as GRAND VIOL, 
MAJOR VIOL, MINOR VIOL suggesting themselves. 

VIOLA, Ital. The name properly given to an open labial stop, 
of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, formed of metal or wood pipes, of small scale, 
voiced to yield an imitative string-tone of a fuller and richer quality 
than that of the stop known as the VIOLE D'ORCHESTRE or ORCHES- 
TRAL VIOLIN, 8 FT. The following names are to be found in impor- 
tant Organs. On the Second Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral 
of Riga, there is a VIOLA DI ALTA, 8 FT. ; on the Fourth Manual, a 
VIOLA TREMOLO, 8 FT.; and in the Schwell-Pedal, a VIOLA, 4 FT. 
On the First Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of Vienna, there 
is a VIOLA MAJOR, 16 FT. In the Organ in the Monastic Church, 
Weingarten, there is a VIOLA DOUCE, 8 FT. 

FORMATION. The pipes of the VIOLA are usually made of metal, preferably 
tin, although fine examples have been formed of spotted-metal. The scale should 
be somewhat larger than that proper for the VIOLIN, 8 FT. The mouths are of 
medium width, low, and furnished with the harmonic-bridge. The pipes are 
slotted, and tuned by slides, in preference to coiled or bent tongues. VIOLAS of 
beautiful quality of tone have been made of wood. A fine example, made by 
Edmund Schulze, exists in the Choir of the Organ in the Church of St. Peter, 
Hindley, England. Its scale gives the CC (8 ft.) pipe an internal width of 2$^ 
inches and a depth of 3^' inches: the mouth is 13 /16 inch in height, and furnished 
with a harmonic-bridge of unusual form, attached immediately above a sunk cap, 
without the usual supporting ears. The stop speaks on wind of about 2 inches 
pressure, and its tone is imitative and remarkably effective. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. It must be obvious to everyone in- 
terested in correct and expressive stop nomenclature, that the name 
VIOLA should be given only to the stop which yields tones imitative 
of those of the orchestral Viola. But the fact is, that in the large 
majority of cases the stops to which the name VIOLA has hitherto 
been given yield no imitative tones, many being less effective in this 
direction than ordinary SALICIONALS. It is, accordingly, most 
desirable that in the stop nomenclature of the Organ of the Twen- 
tieth Century the name VIOLA should be confined to the stop repre- 
senting, in the tonal appointment of the Concert-room Organ, the 
Viola of the orchestra; and that its tone should be as closely imita- 
tive as the pipe-maker's and voicer's skill can reach. 



272 ORGAN-STOPS 

In artistic registration, the tones of the VIOLA will be found much 
more valuable and of wider range in combination than the thinner 
and more cutting tones of the VIOLIN, especially as that stop has 
lately been made and voiced. The full and rich tones of the VIOLA, 
8 FT., will impart strength and peculiar color to every combination 
into which they enter. With pure organ-tones and flute-tones, un- 
imitative and imitative, they will produce very beautiful compound 
tonalities; while they will combine perfectly with the voices of all the 
softer lingual stops, creating singular and valuable tonal colorings. 
The VIOLA properly belongs to the String Division of the Concert- 
room Organ; but it may, with considerable advantage, find a place 
in other manual divisions, and in any expressive division of the 
Church Organ. 

VIOLA DA GAME A, Ital. FT., VIOLE DE GAMBE. The only 
stop in the Organ in the name of which the word Gamba can be 
properly introduced. The name of the stop is derived from the old 
Viola da Gamba, a large string instrument, and the precursor of the 
Violoncello; which, like the latter, was supported by the legs of the 
player, hence the peculiar name. The stop is of 8 ft. pitch, and is 
formed of open metal pipes of small scale, usually cylindrical in 
form, but have frequently been made conical, surmounted by a long 
and slender bell. Owing to the trouble and expense of making pipes 
of this compound form, they now rarely, if ever, appear in the Organ. 
See BELL GAMBA. The VIOLA DA GAMBA is to be found in nearly all 
important German Organs; but it is very seldom of an imitative or 
refined quality of tone. It exists, of 8 ft. pitch, in most of Walcker's 
larger instruments, and placed invariably on the First Manual 
(Great). On that of the Organ in the Cathedral of Riga, the stop is 
inserted of 16 ft. and 8 ft. pitch. The VIOLE DE GAMBE, 8 FT., ap- 
pears, often duplicated, in almost all of Cavaille-Coll's important 
instruments. In the Organ in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, it is 
inserted in both the Grande-Orgue and the Recit. The stop is to 
be found in numerous English Organs, though rarely in those of 
recent construction. It has usually been inserted of tenor C com- 
pass, as in the Organ in the Foundling Hospital, London, in which it 
is placed in both the Choir and Swell. The VIOLA DA GAMBA, 8 FT., 
is inserted in the Choir, Swell, and Solo of the Organ in St. George's 
Hall, Liverpool; furnishing the only unison string-tone in those divi- 
sions of the instrument. Name incorrectly rendered VIOLA DI 
GAMBA. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. Properly formed and artistically 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 273 

voiced, the stop should yield a tone imitating, as closely as practi- 
cable, that of the old Viola da Gamba; the tone of which was of a 
lighter and less expressive quality than that of the Violoncello, to 
the construction of which it led the way, and before the superiority 
of which it ultimately fell into disuse. The Viola da Gamba, or Bass 
Viol, had seven strings tuned in fourths, with a major third between 
the third and fourth strings. From these facts it will be realized that 
the voice of the VIOLA DA GAMBA of the Organ should be distinctly 
subordinate to that of the VIOLONCELLO, 8 FT. ; and on account of 
this tonal subordination it will be of considerable value in artistic 
registration. Imitative string stops of a powerful and penetrating 
tonality are of very limited use in registration, save in that of a pro- 
nounced orchestral character, or for the production of assertive solo 
effects. With the DOPPELFLOTE, ROHRFLOTE, QUINTATEX, 8 FT., 
CLARABELA, and other flute-toned stops, the VIOLA DA GAMBA pro- 
duces compound tones of great beauty and fine color, suitable for 
both accompanimental and melodic passages. 

VIOLA D'AMORE, ItaL Fr., VIOLE D'AMOUR. The name 
given to an open labial stop, of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch; formed of very 
small-scaled pipes of metal (preferably tin), or partly of wood and 
metal when of 8 ft. pitch. The stop derives its name from the beau- 
tiful old instrument called the Viola d'Amore; which is a Tenor Viol, 
having seven strings played with the bow, and underneath which, 
passing through the bridge and under the finger-board, are stretched 
and tuned slender metal strings (from ten to fourteen in number) 
which sound sympathetically with the bowed strings. 

The VIOLA D'AMORE of the Organ is the softest and sweetest of 
the imitative string-toned stops, and deserves a prominent place in 
every true Chamber Organ, in which refinement and delicacy of 
tone is preferred to musical noise. It also should find a place in the 
Choir or Echo of the properly appointed Church Organ. When 
formed of metal, the pipes are cylindrical, and are voiced with the 
harmonic-bridge, or the appliance called the frein harmonique. 
Wood pipes may be used, in the unison stop, from CC to tenor F, 
made either straight or pyramidal, having thin sides of choice spruce 
and fronts of a close-grained hard wood. The scale of the CC pipe 
should not exceed 2 inches square. All to be voiced with the har- 
monic-bridge. The VIOLA D'AMORE is by no means a common stop, 
preference being given to string-toned stops of more assertive tonal- 
ity. German examples exist, incorrectly labeled VIOLA D'AMOUR, 
in the Organs in the Cathedrals of Riga and Liibeck, and St. Petri- 

18 



274 ORGAN-STOPS 

kirche, Hamburg. A VIOLE D' AMOUR, 4 FT., is inserted in the Recit 
of the Organ in the Church of Saint-Ouen, Rouen, where it is asso- 
ciated with two unison soft-toned stops, the Voix EOLIENNE and 
Voix CELESTE. A VIOLE D 'AMOUR, 8 FT., and another of 4 ft. pitch 
exist in the Echo of the Organ in the Centennial Hall, Sydney, N. 
S. W. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. When carefully made and voiced by 
a master-hand, the tone of the stop should closely resemble that of 
the old Viola d'Amore, thus described by Berlioz: "The quality of 
the Viole d' Amour is faint and sweet; there is something seraphic 
in it partaking at once of the Viola and the harmonics of the Violin. 
It is peculiarly suitable to the legato style, to dreamy melodies, and 
to the expression of ecstatic or religious feelings. " Though it does 
scant justice to the appealing voice of this unique and beautiful 
instrument, it is, perhaps, sufficient to convey a fair idea of the 
peculiar singing tone of the Viola d'Amore to those who have not 
enjoyed the privilege of hearing the instrument played upon, and 
studying its complex tonality the privilege that has been enjoyed, 
under varied and favorable conditions, by the writer. 

It cannot be difficult for the organist, who has given some special 
attention to the subject of tone creation, to realize the important 
r6le the VIOLA D'AMORE, with its soft, singing, and sympathetic 
voice, can play in the production of numerous delicate and beauti- 
ful tone-colors, based on foundations of pure organ-tone, produced 
by such stops as the ECHO DIAPASON and DULCIANA; of flute-tone, 
produced by the MELODIA, FLAUTO DOLCE and FLAUTO D'AMORE; 
and of reed-tone, produced by the CHALUMEAU and OBOE D' 
AMORE. The VIOLA D'AMORE, 8 FT., should be introduced in the 
String-Organ Ancillary or otherwise of every properly appointed 
Concert-room instrument; and in the Choir of every large Church 
Organ, where its sympathetic voice will be of the greatest value in 
accompanimental music. 

VIOLA SORDA, ItaL A stop, of 8 ft. pitch similar in form to, 
but smaller in scale than, the VIOLA. Its voice is intended to imitate 
the tone of the muted Viola of the orchestra. If a very subdued in- 
tonation, combined with a slight modification of timbre, is desired, 
the pipes forming the stop may be conical in form : the scale giving 
the CC (8 ft.) pipe the diameter of 2 inches at the mouth line, and of 
7 /s inch at top. Artistically voiced, the tone of this MUTED VIOLA 
will be found extremely valuable in refined registration. Its proper 
place is in the String Ancillary of the Concert-room Organ. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 275 

VIOLE A PAVILLON, Fr. The name that has been employed 
by French organ-builders to designate a string-toned labial stop, of 
8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which have conical bodies surmounted by 
bells (pavilions), similar to those of the BELL GAMBA (q, v.) ; and, like 
them, tuned by means of larger flexible ears. The pipes were usually 
made of tin; and voiced to yield a soft and agreeable string-tone. 
The stop has fallen into disuse. 

VIOLE CELESTE, Fr. The name given to a stop of the VIOL 
class, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are tuned sharp so as to pro- 
duce a bright undulatory effect in combination with another unison 
stop (preferably of string tone) correctly tuned. As a dual stop, it is 
properly formed of two softly-voiced VIOLS, of 8 ft. pitch, one of 
which is tuned a few beats sharp, sufficient to create an agreeable 
tremolo, but not sufficient to produce an objectionable out-of-tune 
effect. See Voix CELESTE. 

VIOLE D'ORCHESTRE, Fr. Eng., ORCHESTRAL VIOLIN. 

The appropriate name given by William Thynne, organ-builder of 
London, to a stop constructed by him; the tone of which is, in our 
opinion, the most satisfactory imitation of that of the orchestral 
Violin which has been produced by organ-pipes up to the present 
time (1920).* In the construction and voicing, Thynne followed the 
teaching of Edmund Schulze, but surpassed him in the production 
of Violin tone from metal pipes. Fine examples of the VIOLE D'OR- 
CHESTRE exist in Organs built by William Thynne. For further 
particulars, see VIOLIN. 

VIOLE SOURDINE, Fr. The name given by William Thynne, 
organ-builder, of London, to a delicately voiced string-toned, open 
metal stop, the tone of which is imitative of that of the muted 
Violin. It was first introduced, by its inventor, in the Organ now in 
Tewkesbury Abbey. The stop is formed of slender cylindrical pipes, 
smaller in scale than those of the Thynne VIOLE D'ORCHESTRE, but 
voiced in a similar manner with the harmonic-bridge. The tone of 
the stop is extremely refined and beautiful; and, on account of its 
subdued and perfect mixing quality, it may be recognized as the 
most generally useful of the imitative string-toned stops in artistic 
registration with stops of contrasting tonalities. 

* We have had pipes of the Thynne VIOLE D'ORCHESTRE tested, by being sounded with corre- 
sponding notes of a fine Violin, under conditions which prevented the hearers from positively 
knowing which was speaking. It was found impossible to decide which instrument was produc- 
ing the notes; or, when both were sounded together in unison, which one became silent. No 
severer test could well be instituted. How many of the stops bearing the name, made by other 
organ-builders, would stand so exacting a comparison? 



276 ORGAN-STOPS 

Modifications of the Thynne stop, subsequently introduced and 
appropriately named MUTED VIOLS, are formed of very small-scaled 
pipes, conical in shape, seldom exceeding, in the CC pipe (8 ft.), I J^ 
inches in diameter at the mouth line and tapering to about half that 
diameter at top; having mouths rarely exceeding one-sixth of the 
circumference, furnished with the harmonic-bridge. Like the orig- 
inal VIOLE SOURDINE, these MUTED VIOLS yield tones of great 
beauty and value. 

VIOLETTA, ItaL Literally Small Viol. The name appro- 
priately given by Italian organ-builders to a string-toned stop, of 
4 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are open, cylindrical, of small scale, 
and made of tin. The stop is properly voiced to yield an imitative 
tone of medium strength, which is very valuable in combination 
with the unison stops of imitative string-tone; brilliantly corrob- 
orating their first and most important upper partial tones, while 
enriching them with its own series of less pronounced harmonics. 
As an Octave, the VIOLETTA, 4 FT., is extremely valuable in artistic 
registration, imparting a bright and special coloring to all unison 
tones with which it may be combined. The Organs of to-day are 
very deficient in stops of 4 ft. pitch; far too much reliance being 
placed on the crude expedient ot octave coupling, which, in its best 
form, interferes with the desirable independence of the claviers. This 
is a matter deserving careful consideration. 

VIOLIN. ItaL, VIOLINO. Fr., VIOLON. Ger., VIOLINE. An 
open, metal labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the tone of which imitates, as 
closely as practicable in organ-pipes, that of the orchestral Violin. 
This name appears at an early date in stop nomenclature; for in 
Bernard Smith's "Schedule" of the Organ he erected in the Temple 
Church, London, in 1688, we find mentioned "A VIOLL and VIOLIN 
of mettle, 61 pipes, 12 foote tone/* The compass being GGG to g 3 . 
Notwithstanding the early use of the name, it seems very improb- 
able that the builders of the seventeenth century knew anything of 
a highly imitative stop, such as we would now consider worthy of 
representing the Violin in the stop-appointment of the Organ. The 
modern use of the name appears to be extremely free and meaning- 
less. On one hand, we find in the Pedal Organ of the Schulze instru- 
ment in the Church of St. Bartholomew, Annley, a VIOLIN, 16 FT., 
and, on the other hand, turning to American organ-building, we find 
in the Choir of the Organ in the Music Hall, Cincinnati a VIOLIN, 
4 FT. In fact, neither of these stops can be correctly called a VIOLIN 
for neither is of proper pitch or imitative in tonality. To prevent 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 



277 



confusion, the practice should be adopted of labeling the strictly 
imitative stop either ORCHESTRAL VIOLIN or VIOLON D'ORCHESTRE, 
8 FT. The single terms are not in common use; but we find a Vio- 
LINE, 8 FT., on the First Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of. 
Ulm, and a VIOLIN, 8 FT., in the Pedal of the Organ in Paulskirche, 
Frankfurt a. M. Neither of these stops is likely to be strongly 
imitative. 

SCALE AND FORMATION. The variation of the scales which have been adopted 
in the formation of stops of imitative string-tone is greater than that shown in any 
other class of labial stops. This statement is supported by the fact that the scales 
used by William Thynne and other eminent labial pipe voicers for the CC (8 ft.) 
pipes of their VIOLINS, range from a diameter of 3.13 inches to the small diameter 
of 1. 08 inches; the former scale being developed on the ratio of i : 2.519, halving on 
the nineteenth pipe; and the latter mainly on the ratio 1:2, halving on the twenty- 
fifth pipe. Thynne did not highly favor the adoption of very small scales, and our 




FIG. 35 

experience leads us to agree with his practice; for we have never heard VIOLINS 
equal in fullness, richness, and imitativeness to those voiced by his master-hand. 
The thin, scratchy, and penetrating tones of the over-blown, small-scaled VIOLINS 
of certain makers are offensive to the cultivated ear, and of little value in artistic 
registration. 

The pipes of the VIOLIN are invariably cylindrical; and, chiefly on account of 
their extremely small scale, should be made of tin or very high-grade alloy of tin 
and lead. They are usually slotted, and tuned by a metal slide in good work. It 
is very questionable if slotting is favorable to the tone, for it has a tendency to 
impart a horn-like timbre. The mouths of the pipes vary slightly in their widths. 
In the largest scale adopted by Thynne, the mouth of the CC pipe is two-ninths its 
circumference; this width being graduated to one-third the circumference at treble 
c a , that proportion being carried to the top note. The heights of the mouths vary 
between one-fourth and one-third their widths, according to the wind-pressure 
used, and the character of the tone desired. The VIOLIN has been artistically 
voiced on pressures varying from 2% inches to 15 inches. The VIOLIN is invari- 



278 ORGAN-STOPS 

ably, and of necessity, voiced with the harmonic-bridge. In the accompanying 
illustration, Fig. 35, is shown the mouth of a Thynne C pipe, accurately drawn 
from one presented to us by its distinguished voicer and long a valued friend. 
The harmonic-bridge is semi-cylindrical in form, and of hard alloy, is shown in the 
Section, as carried between the ears, and in its position with regard to the mouth. 
This position is a matter of extreme nicety. Cylindrical bridges, formed of alu- 
minium tubing or some hard wood, are commonly used by voicers. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. Accepting the tone of the VIOLIN, 
8 FT., to be as close as practicable to that of the Violin of the orches- 
tra, as we have found it to be in certain examples (see VIOLE D'OR- 
CHESTRE), its value in registration will be found in some directions 
to be considerable, while in others it will be questionable. The dis- 
tinctive tonality of the stop so assertive and penetrating renders 
it unsuitable for general combinational purposes. With certain 
labial stops, notably the FLUTES, it will not fully combine; always 
dominating and asserting its individuality. With other and unimi- 
tative string-toned stops it unites agreeably, imparting richness, 
brightness, and force; creating volumes of string-tone very necessary 
in orchestral effects : accordingly, its proper place is in the special or 
Ancillary String Organ, where it joins in producing the volume of 
orchestral string-tone required in the adequate and artistic rendition 
of orchestral compositions. On this subject we have some right to 
speak, having been the first, in the history of organ-building, to in- 
troduce a complete and independent String Organ into the tonal 
appointment of the Organ. The VIOLIN combines well with most of 
the full-toned lingual stops ; largely losing its identity in their some- 
what kindred voices, so far as their harmonic structure obtains, 
which it improves in effectiveness and expressive force. A really 
fine imitative VIOLIN, 8 FT., is par excellence a solo stop, especially 
valuable in its compass from fiddle G to c 5 ; above that its imitative- 
ness falls short of what is desirable. The bass and tenor notes from 
CC to F$ will never be used in a correctly rendered Violin solo, for 
these belong to the Viola and Violoncello, but their necessity and 
utility cannot be denied. Besides, stops of short compass, or formed 
of pipes of different tonalities in different portions of their compass, 
are to be condemned from every artistic point of view, whatever 
argument may be advanced in their favor. 

VIOLINA. The name given by certain organ-builders to a 
string-toned stop of 4 ft. pitch, similar to that called VIOLETTA, 4 FT. 
(q. v.). Examples exist in the Swell of the Organ in the Music Hall 
Cincinnati, and in the Swell of the Organ in the Cathedral of the 
Incarnation, Garden City, Long Island. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 279 

VIOLIN DIAPASON. The term that has been used by Eng- 
lish organ-builders to designate an open labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, 
similar in all essentials to that more commonly known as the GEI- 

GENPRINCIPAL (q. V.). 

VIOLINO SORDO, ItaL Literally Muted Violin. A stop, of 
8 ft. pitch, similar in form to, but voiced softer than, the VIOLIN. 
Its voice is intended to imitate the tone of the muted Violin of 
the orchestra. Under the name VIOLE SOURDINE (q. a.)., the stop 
was first introduced by W. Thynne, of London. As the imitative 
tone of the VIOLINO SORDO is much less assertive and penetrating 
than that of the VIOLIN, 8 FT., it is accordingly much more gener- 
ally useful in registration. It will be found a valuable stop in the 
soft accompanimental division of the Church Organ, and should 
find a place in the special or String Ancillary of the Concert-room 
Organ, where it will be valuable in combinational and delicate solo 
effects. 

VIOLINO VIBRATO, Ital. A stop of 8 ft. pitch similar in the 
form and scale of its pipes to the VIOLIN (q. v.) t but slightly softer in 
tone; occupying, in this respect, an intermediate place between the 
VIOLIN and the VIOLINO SORDO (q. .). The distinctive peculiarity 
of this stop lies in its being tuned a few beats sharp, so as to produce 
a wavering effect when sounded in combination with a correctly 
tuned unison string-toned stop. As the VIOLINO VIBRATO occupies 
a similar place in the tonal scheme of the Organ to the VIOLONCELLO 
VIBRATO, its offices in the stop-apportionment of the Ancillary String 
Organ may be considered identical. Such being the case, reference 
may properly be made to what is said under VIOLONCELLO VIBRATO. 

VIOLONCELLO, Ital. Fr., VIOLONCELLE. An open labial 
stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are cylindrical when of metal 
and square when of wood, voiced to imitate, as closely as practicable 
in organ-pipes, the tone of the orchestral Violoncello. When made 
of metal, the pipes are cylindrical and of small scale, but somewhat 
larger than the scales commonly adopted for the VIOLIN; and are 
properly voiced to yield a fuller and richer tone than that produced 
by either the VIOLA or VIOLIN. It is obviously desirable, as it is 
essential, that these three important unison imitative string-toned 
stops should have their voices clearly distinct both in volume and 
quality ; otherwise, it would be undesirable to introduce them all in 
any one Organ. The VIOLONCELLO is the only one of the three which 
is imitative down to the CC note; and this fact gives it special value 



280 ORGAN-STOPS 

both in solo and combinational effects. A very fine VIOLONCELLO, 
8 FT., voiced by William Thynne, exists in the Organ built under his 
directions, now in Tewkesbury Abbey.* This is one of the two 
finest VIOLONCELLOES we have ever heard in Organs. The most 
beautiful VIOLONCELLO formed of wood pipes, known to us, is that 
in the Solo of the Concert-room Organ in the Battersea Polytechnic, 
London, the work of John W. Whiteley, one of England's most cele- 
brated labial pipe voicers. The pipes of this interesting and unique 
stop present several novel features deserving the attention of all 
interested in the formation of imitative string-toned stops.f A 
VIOLONCELLO, 8 FT., of the ordinary type exists in the Great of the 
Organ in St. George's Hall, Liverpool. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. Ttxe tone of the VIOLONCELLO being 
imitative of that of the orchestral Violoncello, it is obvious that its 
utility in the tonal appointment of the Organ, and especially of the 
Concert-room Organ, does not admit of question. It is valuable 
both in solo effects and in registration. As a solo stop, it is to be 
desired in the Pedal and Solo of the Concert-room Organ ; while in 
the Ancillary String Organ it is indispensable. It has, in some form 
or other, been usually inserted in the Pedal Organ, and invariably, 
hitherto, without being given powers of expression, seriously limit- 
ing its usefulness. It is remarkable how seldom this beautiful and 
valuable stop has been introduced on the manual claviers of even 
large Organs. The tone of a properly formed and voiced VIOLON- 
CELLO is much more valuable in artistic registration than the thinner 
and more penetrating tone of the VIOLIN ; and this fact should not be 
overlooked in scheming the tonal appointment of an Organ. 

VIOLONCELLO SORDO, ItaL Literally Muted Violoncello. 
A stop, of 8 ft. pitch, similar in form to, but voiced softer than, the 
VIOLONCELLO. Its tone is intended to imitate that of the muted 
Violoncello of the orchestra. As the imitative tone of the VIOLON- 
CELLO SORDO is less assertive than that of the VIOLONCELLO, it will 
be f ound more generally useful in registration with the softer-toned 
stops, with which it will form numerous combinations of fine and 
varied colorings. Drawn with the VIOLONCELLO VIBRATO (q. v.), 

* During the Recital at the Dedication of this Organ, at which we were present, the most 
beautiful number was a Sacred Song, accompanied by that stop only. The effect produced by 
the pure soprano voice and the sympathetic and expressive SOLO VIOLONCELLO was one we have 
never forgotten. 

f Pull particulars and dimensioned drawings of the formation of the pipes of this stop are 
given in "The Art of Organ-Building," Vol. II. t pp. 475-6; and in "The Organ of the 
Twentieth Century, " pages 447~8, Plate XXIX. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 281 

It will produce a beautiful VIOLONCELLE CELESTE, 8 FT. The most 
important place for the VIOLONCELLO SORDO is in the Ancillary 
String Organ ; but, when such a tonal division does not exist, it may 
be properly inserted in the chief accompanimental division of the 
Church Organ, or the softest-toned division of the Concert-room 
Instrument, where it will be valuable in combinational and delicate 
solo effects. 

VIOLONCELLO VIBRATO, ItaL A stop, of 8 ft. pitch, simi- 
lar in the form and scale of its pipes to the VIOLONCELLO (g. v.), but 
slightly softer in tone; properly occupying, in this respect, an in- 
termediate place between the VIOLONCELLO and the VIOLONCELLO 
SORDO (q. v.). The distinctive peculiarity of the stop under con- 
sideration lies in its being so tutted slightly sharp as to produce a 
wavering effect when sounded in combination' with a correctly tuned 
unison string-toned stop, preferably the VIOLONCELLO SORDO, imi- 
tating as closely as possible, under the conditions, the effect of the 
vibrato on the orchestral Violoncello. Drawn with such stops as the 
VIOLA SORDA, VIOLE SOURDINE, or VIOLA D'AMORE, it forms an 
effective VIOLONCELLE CELESTE. In full combinations of imitative 
unison and harmonic-corroborating octave, mutation, and com- 
pound stops, such as are provided in the proper stop-apportioned 
Ancillary String Organ, the VIOLONCELLO VIBRATO imparts to the 
volume of string-tone the nervous force which characterizes the full 
string effects of the grand orchestra a forcefulness much to be 
desired in the adequate and truly artistic rendition of important 
orchestral compositions, or improvisations of an orchestral charac- 
ter and coloring. 

VIOLONE, ItaL Fr., VIOLON-BASSE. An open labial stop, of 
1 6 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are of small scale and formed of either 
metal or wood. It has almost invariably been confined to the Pedal 
Organ, and when artistically voiced is accepted as the organ equiva- 
lent to the Contrabasso of the orchestra; and its excellence is judged 
in proportion to the closeness of its imitation of the tone of that 
instrument. Artistic voicers, accordingly, endeavor to impart to 
their VIOLONE s as much of the harmonic richness of the Contrabass 
as their expedients in formation and skill in voicing can accomplish; 
aiming also to secure that peculiar rasping effect which imitates the 
attack of the bow on the string, and which is only heard in the finer 
specimens of the stop. Although hitherto the VIOLONE, in its proper 
form and tonality, has been practically confined to the Pedal Organ, 
it is most desirable that it should find its proper place in the manual 



282 ORGAN-STOPS 

Organs, especially in those of the Concert-room Instrument. As its 
pipes admit of mitering, it can be accommodated in swell-boxes of 
the size proper in Organs of large dimensions. When necessary, its 
lowest octave may be of covered pipes; or, indeed, the stop may be 
formed of covered pipes throughout. 

The ordinary metal VIOLONES, such as exist in important Eng- 
lish Organs, are not strongly imitative, and are slightly slow in 
speech, their notes sounding with more or less of a preparatory rasp. 
Representative examples exist in the Willis Organ in the Royal 
Albert Hall, London, and the Hill Organ in Centennial Hall, Sydney, 
N. S. W. As a rule the VIOLONES of the German builders, com- 
monly named VIOLONBASS, 16 FT., are somewhat tardy in speaking 
their full tones, and on that account have frequently to be drawn 
with another and prompt-speaking stop or "helper/ 1 such as a 
softly-toned FLUTE, 8 FT. In the Pedal of the Organ in the Stifts- 
kirche, Stuttgart, the stop, labeled VIOLON, 16 FT., is of two ranks of 
pipes the stop proper of 16 ft. and its helper of 8 ft. Under the 
name VIOLONBASS, 16 FT., the stop exists in the Pedals of the Organs 
in the Cathedrals of Riga, Ulm, Lubeck, and Frankfurt, and in 
almost all the important Church Organs built by Walcker. The 
VIOLON-BASSE, 16 FT., is not a common stop in French Organs, but 
examples exist in the Pedals of the Organs in the Palais du Troca- 
dero and the Basilique du Sacre-Coeur, Paris. 

The finest and most thoroughly imitative VIOLONE, 16 FT., that 
we have ever heard, is that in the Pedal of the Organ in the Church 
of St. Peter, Hindley, Lancashire. The stop is labeled VIOLONBASS; 
and its pipes are of wood and of small scale, the CCC (16 ft.) pipe 
measuring, internally, only 5% inches square.* Another fine 
example, labeled VIOLON, 16 FT., exists in the Pedal of the large 
Organ (94 speaking stops) in the Parish Church of Doncaster, York- 
shire, England. Both these Organs were constructed by Edmund 
Schulze, of Paulinzelle, and the stops alluded to were voiced by 
him.f In the Organ in the Marienkirche, Lubeck, is another repre- 
sentative example by the same artist. 

* A full description of the formation of this stop, accompanied by accurate drawings, is given 
in "The Art of Organ-Building, " Vol. II., pp. 470-1 ; and in ** The Organ of the Twentieth Cen- 
tury, " pages 443-5- 

f In a description of the Doncaster Organ, from the pen of an authority, the following per- 
tinent remarks obtain: "The individuality of the stops is remarkable, and must be ascribed to 
the artistic feeling possessed by all genuine organ-builders who perform that particular part of 
the work the voicing themselves, and do not delegate so important a branch of the art to 
workmen who, however skillful, will not on occasions devote the care necessary. 

"The wood pipes of this instrument are very solid, clear, and firm in tone ; and the muddiness 
often heard in many Organs from wooden stops, is not perceptible in this. Professor Tcepfer. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 283 

VIRGINREGAL. Ger., JUNGFERNREGAL. An old lingual 
stop, of 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, the tone of which was, in the best ex- 
amples, soft and pleasing. The origin of the name has not been de- 
cided; but it is supposed that the stop was originally in a Portative, 
and was commonly played by young maidens. An example, of 4 ft. 
pitch, was inserted in the Pedal of the Organ in the Church of SS. 
Peter and Paul, Goerlitz, built by Eugenius Casparini & Son, and 
finished in 1703. Under the name JUNGFERNREGAL, the stop ap- 
pears in the Choir of the Organ, of 71 speaking stops, in the Church 
of St. Dominico, Prague. According to Hopkins, this stop is of 16 
ft. pitch. See REGAL. 

VOCE FLEBILE, ItaL Literally Mournful Voice. The name 
given to stops, of 16 ft. pitch, inserted in the Swell of the Organ, of 
49 speaking stops, in the Church of St. Alessandro, Milan. The 
name is expressive of the subdued and colorless character of their 
tones. We have not found the name in any other Italian Organ. 

VOGELFLOTE, Ger. Literally Bird-Flute. The name given 
to a flute-toned stop, of 4 ft. pitch, voiced to yield a clear sound, 
somewhat resembling that of a bird's song. The stop was inserted 
on the First Manual of the Organ in the Church of Quittelsdorf, 
constructed by Andreas Schulze, of Paulinzelle, in the year 1791 

VOGELGESANG, Ger. Lat., AVICINIUM. Port., PASSARIN- 
HOS. A stop which has been introduced in some old Organs, and 
which may be classed amongst the curiosities of organ-building. It 
was devised to imitate the warbling of birds. It was formed of three 
or more small metal pipes, of different tones, bent, and partly im- 
mersed in water.* The stop labeled PASSARINHOS in the Organ in 
the Church of the Martyros, Lisbon, built in 1785, is formed of six 
pipes so disposed. Stops of the class were introduced in several old 
German Organs. 

VOIX CELESTE, Fr. Lat., Vox CCELESTIS. Span., Voz 
CELESTE. The name employed to designate an open labial stop, of 
8 ft. pitch, formed of one, two, or three ranks of small-scaled pipes, 
one or two of the ranks being tuned slightly sharp or flat to the 



the author of elaborate works on organ-building, says, *that wooden pipes in theirloweroctaves 
as voiced by Herr Schulze. are as good as, or even superior to, metal pipes.' " 

*" VOGELGESANG. Unter alien lappischen Spielereien die grosste, indem das Gezwitscher 
der Vogel nachgeahmt werden sollte ! Welch ein Einfall ! ! Diess wird auf f olgende Artbewerk- 
stelligt : In einem blechernen Kastchen, das mit Wasser gef ullt wird, ragen 3 6 kleinePf eif chen 
mitihrem obern Endein das Wasser, und geben dann eiuen gurgelnden, zwitscherndenTon." 
W. Schneider (Merseburg, 1835)- 



284 ORGAN-STOPS 

correct unison pitch of the Organ in which the stop is inserted. In 
the large majority of examples, the stop is of one rank only, of either 
string-toned or pure organ-toned metal pipes, tuned a few beats 
sharp; which, when combined with another unison stop of correct 
pitch, produces a peculiar tremulous effect; and which, by a wonder- 
ful stretch of the imagination, has been likened to a celestial voice, 
whatever that may be. In some instances, the single-rank Voix 
CELESTE has been tuned flat, but its effect is not so satisfactory as 
in the case of the sharp stop. In our opinion, the flat tuning should 
be confined to the UNDA MARIS (q. v.). The most important single- 
rank stops, tuned sharp, are those designed to impart to the volume 
of sound produced by the massing of imitative string-toned stops 
the nervous force which characterizes the full string effects of the 
grand orchestra. See VIOLINO VIBRATO and VIOLONCELLO VIBRATO. 
The most satisfactory Voix CELESTE is that formed of two ranks 
of pipes of special tonality, carefully voiced to produce a pleasing 
and refined effect, one of which is voiced just sufficiently sharp to 
create an artistic tremolo, not too pronounced. To avoid having to 
tune one rank too discordant with the correct pitch of the Organ, the 
discordancy has been divided by tuning one rank very slightly flat 
and the other rank equally sharp. This variety of the stop is to be 
preferred. In the Organ in St. Paul's Cathedral, London, recon- 
structed by Willis, in 1901, there is a Voix CELESTE of three ranks, 
tuned flat, correct, and sharp. A stop of this formation could be 
made a valuable timbre-creator. 

VOIX EOLIENNE, Pr. The name given by Cavaille-Coll to a 
labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, inserted in the Recit Expressif of the Organ 
in the beautiful Church of St. Ouen, Rouen. The stop is tuned sharp 
and according to Philbert was designed to produce undulations of 
tone when drawn along with the FLUTE HARMONIQUE, 8 FT.* This 
seems worthy of notice from the fact that the FLUTE alluded to is 
placed in the Grand-Orgue. Such a disposition of the two stops 

* Alluding to this stop, M. Philbert remarks: "A Saint-Ouen, on rencontre encore un troi- 
siemejeuondulantja Voix EOLIENNE, destine a produire 1'ondulation avec la FLUTE HARMO- 
NIQUE. Ilconsiste en unerangSe de tuyaux bouches accord6s a battements, et 1'effet m'ena paru 
mSdiocrementsatisfaisant, parce qu'il est un peu lourd. Ce que j'ai vu de mietix comme jeu 
ondulant destine a agir sur une FLUTE on un BOURDON, c'est le suavial de la Suisse allemande, 
forni6 de tuyaux ouverts, de taille a peu pres identique a celle du SALICIOKAL, mais dont le pied 
n'admetabsolument qu'un filet d'air, de facon que le son propre en est extremement faibls et se 
perd pour ainsi dire dans celui du jeu auquel on 1'associe, La difference d'accord est en mme 
temps treslegere, au point que 1'ondulation est k peine perceptible comme battement et nefait 
qu'imprimer au timbre de la PLUTE et surtout du BOURDON comme une teinte crystalline un peu 
vaguereellement suave et empreinte de recueillement. Vogt aimait assez ce jeu et s'en servait 
habilement. " Causerie sur le Grand Orgue a Saint-Onen de Rouen, p. 30. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 285 

deserves consideration, for it opens a nice question in artistic regis- 
tration. Doubtless Cavaille-Coll, the most scientific organ-builder 
of his time, realized the possibility of beautiful effects being produced 
by the combination of the uniform flute-tone and the changing and 
expressive tone of the Voix EOLIENNE. 

VOX ANGELICA, Lat. Fr., Voix ANGELIQUE. ltd., FLAUTO 
ANGELICO. Ger. , ENGELSTIMME. These names appear to have been 
employed to designate stops of any description which yielded some 
specially beautiful and refined quality of tone. They have, accord- 
ingly, been applied to both labial and lingual stops. When applied 
to the former, the term Vox ANGELICA properly indicates an open 
metal labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are cylindrical 
and of very small scale, voiced to yield the softest unison tone in 
the manual department of the Organ. Fine examples of this form, 
voiced, on very light wind, by Edmund Schulze, exist in the Echos 
of the Organs in the Parish Church of Doncaster and the Church of 
St. Bartholomew, Armley, Yorkshire, England. We have been able 
to find one example in Walcker's Organs; the Vox ANGELICA, 4 FT., 
on the Fourth Manual of the Organ in Riga Cathedral. Soft-toned 
stops have not been favored by German organ-builders to any note- 
worthy extent. The labial Vox ANGELICA, 8 FT. may be either 
organ-toned or string-toned, according as it is voiced to approach 
the DULCIANA or the SALICIONAL or VIOL. 

Both Wolfram and Seidel describe the Vox ANGELICA as a lingual 
stop, of 8 ft. pitch, but do not give any particulars respecting its 
formation. The former writer, alluding to its tone, says its name is 
the best part of it, which, when one thinks of what the lingual stops 
were in his day and country, may be readily accepted as a just state- 
ment. Clarke, in his " Outline of the Structure of the Pipe-Organ," 
describes the stop as formed of " Free-reed pipes of the most delicate 
voicing," giving no further information. In this form it was in- 
serted in the Solo of the Roosevelt Organ erected in the Church of 
St. Thomas, New York City. In the same form it exists in the Choir 
of the Organ in the Church of St. Paul, Antwerp.* 

VOX GRAVISSIMA, Lat. The appropriate name to designate 
the acoustical tone or effect which is produced by the simultaneous 
sounding of stops of 32 ft. and 21^ ft. pitch, standing at the inter- 
val of a perfect fifth apart. It is the differential tone generated by 

*"L' ANGELICA (Vox) est la premiere maniere de Voix humaine; elle avait stir la nouvelle 
1'avantage d'avoir 6te construite d'apres une pens4e sinon ang&lique, du moms religieuse et non 
purement humaine. " Regnier. 



286 ORGAN-STOPS 

the combination that is the Vox GRAVISSIMA, 64 FT. For full par- 
ticulars see GRAVISSIMA. 

VOX HUMANA, Lat Fr. Voix HUMAINE. ItaL, VOCE 
UMANA. Ger., MENSCHENSTIMME. A lingual stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the 
pipes of which, in the most satisfactory examples, have resonators 
of cylindrical form, covered at top, and slotted for the emission of 
wind and sound, and much shorter than the standard lengths of 
open pipes. Other forms of resonators have been employed with 
varying and, generally, very unsatisfactory results. The most 
common form is cylindrical, very short, and entirely open at top; 
the tones of pipes of this form are generally objectionable. The stop 
is voiced with the view of producing tones, rich in harmonics, in 
imitation of the human singing voice ; hence the name Vox HUMANA : 
but even the best results that have been obtained up to the present 
time fall far short of what is to be desired. The Vox HUMANA re- 
quires the aid of the TREMOLANT to impart the characteristic in- 
tonation to its voice ; and that is greatly improved by the addition 
of a soft unison, unimitative flute-toned stop, such as the MELODIA, 
8 FT., which would impart desirable body to the usually thin and 
nasal voice of the stop. In high-class work, the solo Vox HUMANA 
should be a dual stop, permanently formed of the lingual rank, 
associated with a properly voiced, body-giving, labial rank of unison 
pitch. If the Vox HUMANA is properly made and artistically voiced 
it forms, when drawn without the TREMOLANT, a valuable stop in 
registration, imparting a distinctive coloring to soft combinations 
of contrasting tonalities. The tonal and imitative effects of the 
Vox HUMANA depend to a considerable extent on the position it 
occupies, and the manner in which it is treated in the Organ; and its 
imitative quality is also greatly affected by the acoustical properties 
ot the building in which the Organ is placed. Of all the stops in 
the Organ, the Vox HUMANA is the one to which distance lends the 
greatest charm. Speaking of this stop, Max Allihn remarks : " The 
Vox HUMANA is intended to imitate the human voice, which will 
only be possible when the stop occupies a distant and covered place 
within a large instrument in a large room/' Alluding to the forma- 
tion of the stop, he adds: "The blocks and tongues correspond to 
those proper for an 8 ft. stop of large scale and delicate intonation, 
but the bodies of the Vox HUMANA pipes are of quite different pro- 
portions and form. Definite measurements or forms do not exist. 
Every organ-builder follows his own predilection and experience. 
Some use short cylindrical bodies, closed at top with the exception 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 287 

of a small opening; others make larger bodies with larger openings; 
while others prefer conical bodies closed with the exception of a 
small lateral opening. All treatments are alike in that the bodies 
are more or less covered." 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. There can be no question that the 
only desirable tone for the Vox HUMANA is that which, when com- 
bined with the tremolo, is as satisfactory as possible in its imitation 
of a human voice; and, when used without the tremolo, is perfectly 
suited for combination and artistic registration. That such a stop 
can be produced we have had ample proof. We inserted in our own 
Chamber Organ a VOCE UMANA, 8 FT., made by a most skillful and 
artistic voicer E. Franklin Lloyd, of Liverpool which was emi- 
nently satisfactory under both conditions. Mr. Clarence Eddy, the 
distinguished organist, in a written criticism of our Organ, says: 
"The reeds are exceptionally fine; and it would be difficult to find so 
satisfactory a Vox HUMANA; while its accessory, the Tremolo, is 
absolutely perfect." Mr. Eddy judged the stop while seated at the 
claviers, not ten feet distant from its pipes and the TREMOLANT. 
Apart from the TREMOLANT, the stop proved in combination as 
usef til as any of the other four lingual stops Mr. Eddy has alluded to ; 
while as a timbre-creator and color-giver it occupied the first place 
in registration. Played, alone, in full chords its tones were rich and 
beautiful. Such, in our opinion, the artistically voiced Vox HU- 
MANA should be in every Organ. 

The Vox HUMANA, of the tonality alluded to, enters into effec- 
tive combination with all the softer-voiced labial and lingual stops 
of unison pitch; giving a special coloring to the tones of stops more 
assertive than itself, and intensity and fullness to the tones of stops 
of its own value. It combines perfectly with such lingual stops as 
the OBOE, CLARINET, COR ANGLAIS, and FAGOTTO, warming and 
enriching their voices; with string-toned stops it produces refined 
and effective -compound tones rich in harmonics; and with open, 
half -covered, and covered flute-toned stops it produces a family of 
compound tones of beautiful colorings. Considering its value in 
artistic registration, the Vox HUMANA should find a place in all 
Organs of any pretensions. Its position on the claviers may vary; 
but it is imperative that it be placed in an expressive division. In 
the properly stop-apportioned Concert-room Organ, it should cer- 
tainly find a place in the wood-wind division, and also in one of the 
soft-toned accompanimental divisions.* 

* See "The Organ of the Twentieth Century, " pages 307, 329, 334, 483, 505, and 506. 



288 ORGAN-STOPS 

VOX MYSTICA. The name given to a lingual stop, of 8 ft. 
pitch, the pipes of which have cylindrical resonators surmounted by 
a bell which is slotted. The tone of the stop is a modification of 
that of a Vox HUMANA. The stop exists in the Echo of the Concert- 
room Organ in the Colston Hall, Bristol, constructed by Norman & 
Beard in 1905. 

VOX RETUSA, Lat. Literally Dull Voice. The name given 
to a labial covered stop of subdued tone which exists in the Organ in 
the Cathedral of Lund, Sweden.* 

VOX VINOLATA, Lat. A very remarkable name given to a 
labial stop, of 8 ft. pitch, the pipes of which are of metal and conical 
in form, resembling the SPITZFLOTE. The apparently unique ex- 
ample of the stop exists in the Organ in the Cathedral of Lund, 
Sweden, f 

w 

WALDFLOTE, PELDPLOTE, Get. Lat., TIBIA SYLVESTRIS. 
Ft., FLUTE DES Bois. Dtch., WOUDFLXJIT. Literally Forest Flute. 
An open labial stop, of 8 ft., 4 ft., and, rarely, of 2 ft., and i ft. pitch, 
the pipes of which are of large scale, and of either wood or metal, 
preferably of the former material. The WALDFLOTE (under its 
mixed name WALD FLUTE) appears in numerous English Organs, of 
8 ft. or 4 ft. pitch, but very rarely of both pitches in the same Organ. 
An instance, however, obtains of the insertion of both stops, in the 
Great of the Organ in the Church of St. Matthew, Northampton. 
As a rule, English organ-builders prefer the stop of 4 ft. pitch, com- 
monly inserting it in the Choir Organ. In the instruments made by 
Walker & Sons, of London, the WALDFLOTE, 8 FT., is almost invari- 
ably inserted in their Great divisions. In several important 
German Organs, the stop of 2 ft. pitch is to be found, as on the 
Second Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of Riga, and on the 
First Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of Ulm. We have not 
been able to find an instance of the insertion of the stop of i ft. pitch, 
although Seidel and others say that it is made of that high pitch. 

* * * Vox RETUSA., 8' von Zinn ist em FlStenregister, welches im obersten Manual der Domor- 
gel zu Lund in Schweden vornanden ist. Retusa ist eine veraltete Benennung welche eine ge- 
dampfte Stimme anzeigt. Em ahnlicher, aber richtiger Ausdruck ist das schon erwahnte Ob- 
tusa. " Seidel. 

t " Vox VINOLATA, 8' von Metall, spitz auf warts, von enger Menstir und schwacher Intona- 
tion, ist ein Plotenwerk im 3 (Qber-) Manual der Domorgel zu Lund. Wie der Ausdruck vi- 
nolata zu einem Orgelregister passt, durfte schwer zu entratseln sein." Seidel. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 289 

SCALE AND FORMATION. The WALDFLOTE is not only made of different pitches 
but also of different forms and materials, and, necessarily, of different scales. 
Both German and French authorities describe it of large scale.* In German and 
French Organs the stop is to be found either of metal or wood; and, when of- the 
former, of either a cylindrical or conical form. An example of the latter form exists 
on the Third Manual of the Schulze Organ in the Marienkirche, Lubeck. It is of 
tin and of 2 ft. pitch. In English Organs, the WALDFLOTE, of 8 ft. or 4 ft. pitch, is 
invariably of wood and of the usual quadrangular form, deeper than wide. It is 
understood to have been first made in England by William Hill, of London, in 
1841, and since then has been commonly made by all English organ-builders, its 
tonal value having been fully recognized. In the 8 ft. stop, the bass and tenor 
octaves were commonly of covered pipes; but in later and better examples the 
covered pipes are confined to the bass octave. In the 4 ft. stop no covered pipes 
should be introduced. The mouth of the English WALDFLOTE pipe is inverted, 
placed on the narrow side, and usually cut up about one-third its width in height. 
In some examples the upper lip is cut thin, while in others it is somewhat thick, 
and carefully rounded and burnished, preferably with plumbago. In the best 
examples the block is depressed below the lower lip, the distance being equal to 
one- third the width of the mouth; this distance varies and influences the tonality 
to some extent. The front of the pipe, in which the inverted mouth is cut, should 
be of either close-grained mahogany or maple. The pipe is tuned by a metal shade 
at top, but it should be so accurately cut to length as to require fine tuning only by 
means of the shade. The entire stop must be very carefully regulated. 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. As the WALDFLOTE is made of differ- 
ent forms and materials, it naturally follows that there are consider- 
able differences in its tonality. These differences are marked be- 
tween the stops of German and English formation and voicing. 
Seidel describes the tone as nothing peculiar, being rather broad, 
woody, and hollow. This is not descriptive of the voice of the proper 
English WALDFLOTE, which is of unimitative flute-tone, peculiarly 
sweet, and inclining, in some fine examples, to a horn-like coloring. 
It is this compound tonality which renders the stop so valuable in 
combination and artistic registration. When artistically voiced, the 
stop, in both its 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitches, is valuable in solo passages 
if they are not too lengthy. In combination with the softer-toned 
lingual and the string-toned stops it produces beautiful and varied 
colorings of great artistic value and expression. Such being the case, 
it would seem very desirable to insert the stop in some soft and ex- 
pressive division of the Organ: yet it is strange to find it inserted, 



* " WALDFLQTE, WALDPFEIFE, Tibia sylvestris, ist em offenes weit xnensuriertes FlStenwerk 
von Zinn, Metall, zuweilen auch. von Holz, 8, 4, 2 und i'. Die Intonation dieser Sttmme is nicht 
sonderlich, denn sie ist breit-,holzern-, und hohl-klmgend. " Seidel. 

"La FU&TE DES Bois ( Waldflcete),&z grosse taille, en stoffe, quelquefois meme en bois, sefait 
depuishuit-pieds jusqu'a un pied. Elle ne se distingue guere de la Hohlflcete ni de IzHolzflcete, 
dontellea-tour a tour et pirfois tout ensemble la double caractere. C'est peut-etre parce 
qu'elle n'a rien d'assez tranche qu'elle devient chaque jour plus rare." Regnier. 



290 ORGAN-STOPS 

apparently without exception, in the unexpressive Greats of Walker 
& Sons' important Organs, including that in York Minster, recon- 
structed in 1903. In the Concert-room Organ, WALDFLOTES, of 8 ft. 
and 4 ft. pitch, would prove of great value in the expressive division 
chiefly devoted to the stops representing the brass-wind forces of the 
grand orchestra. In such a situation they would have to be of large 
scale and full intonation, voiced on wind of not less than 6 inches' 
pressure. To the voice of the HORN that of the WALDFLOTE will 
impart richness, smoothness, and an increase of orchestral character : 
while, in registration with the other necessary labial stops of the 
division, it will create numerous valuable compound tonalities 
and colorings with or without the impressive lingual stops properly 
apportioned to the division. 

WALDHORN, Ger. The name given to a lingual stop, the 
voice of which is intended to imitate in its tonality that of the old 
Hunting Horn. It seems to have been made of 8 ft., 4 ft., and 2 ft. 
pitch;* but it appears that the imitative quality was confined to the 
8 ft. stop or only the lower portion of its compass. On the Third 
Manual of the Organ in the Cathedral of Lund, Sweden, we find the 
stop labeled WALDHORN, BASS CLARINETTE, DISCANT, 8 FT. This 
would clearly indicate that in this stop the WALDHORM portion is of a 
Bass Clarinet tonality: accordingly, the voice of the stop can have 
no relation to that of the Hunting Horn or Cor de Chasse. What- 
ever the tonal value of the Lund Organ stop may be; it may be safely 
said that a strictly imitative WALDHORN would not be desirable in 
the Organ of to-day. 

WALDQUINTE, Ger. This stop is mentioned by Seidel, Reg- 
nier, and Schlimbach. It has been made of 5% ft., 2^ ft., and i J^ 
ft. pitch; but Seidel says that in Organs constructed in his time it 
was very seldom inserted. This would appear to have been the case, 
for we have failed to find a single record of the insertion of a WALD- 
QUINTE in any Organ. Wolfram (1815) and Schlimbach describe 
the stop as similar in form and tonality to the WALDFLOTE. 

WEIDENPLOTE, WEIDENPFEIPE, Ger. Literally Willow 

*" WALDHORN, Cornetto di Caccia, Corau par force, C. sylvestre, Cors de chasse, sind Be- 
nennungen ernes seltenen Rohrwerkes, welches zu 8, 4 und 2' im Pedal und Manual vorkommt 
und den Ton des gleichnamigen Blasinstruments nacnahmen soil. Bis jetzt durfte diese Stimme 
wohl noch keinem Orgelbauer gelungen sein. Musikdirektor Wilke ist der Meinung, dass der 
Charakter des Waldhorns eher durch Labialpfeifen als durch Zungenstimmen ZM erzielen sei 
und zwar durch die r in der Karrkirche zu Neu-Ruppin stehende Stimme FLUTTUAN, deren 
Klang dem Waldhornton sehr nahe kommt, " Seidel-Kothe. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 291 

Flute. The name that has been used to designate a metal labial 
stop of extremely small scale and soft intonation. Its name would 
imply a flute-tone, which was probably somewhat indeterminate in 
its character. Such a stop would be suitable for a true Chamber 
Organ, or for insertion in an Echo or Ancillary Aerial Organ. 

WIENERFLOTE, Ger. Literally Vienna Flute. Locher says 
this stop "is one of the most charming wood flutes, intonated rather 
brighter than the PLAUTO DOLCE. As a rule, it occurs on one of the 
upper manuals as an 8 ft. or 4 ft. solo stop, more particularly in Swiss 
Organs. . . . The denomination 'WIENERFLOTE' lacks all ety- 
mological or historical foundation. In the new [1888] Votiv Organ, 
although this stands in Vienna itself, there is not a single WIENER- 
FLOTE amongst its sixty-one speaking stops." On the Third Manual 
of the Walcker Organ in the Cathedral of Vienna there is a WIENER- 
FLOTE, 8 FT. Another example exists on the Third Manual of the 
Organ in the Cathedral of Riga. 

Carl Locher, Chief Organist of the Catholic Church, at Berne, 
who had favorable opportunities of judging the tonal value of the 
stop, remarks : * ' WIENERFLOTE is one of the most useful stops on the 
upper manuals, not only as a solo, but also for combination with 
any other stop. I found it particularly beautiful in combination 
with the OBOE and FLAUTO TRA VERSO." It has been generally 
understood that the tone of the WIENERFLOTE closely resembled the 
imitative tone of the FLAUTO TRA VERSO; but Locher's example of 
effective combination would seem to indicate a different tonality; 
unless the combination of the labial stops merely increased the imi- 
tative flute-tone. 

The pipes of the WIENERFLOTE are open, quadrangular, and have 
inverted circular or semicircular mouths, partly over or against 
which are adjusted sloping caps. Such a formation would point to 
the production of an imitative quality of flute-tone, but not so pro- 
nounced as that of the harmonic FLAUTO TRA VERSO, nor so valu- 
able in solo effects or registration. 

x 

XYLOPHONE. A percussion musical instrument recently in- 
troduced as a stop in certain Organs. Pine examples are made in 
this country by the Kohler-Liebich Co., and by J. C. Deagan, both 
of Chicago. The XYLOPHONE, made by the former firm, is con- 
structed of four octaves, chromatic, of Rosewood bars, graduated 



292 ORGAN-STOPS 

in size, and adjusted over properly tuned cylindrical metal resona- 
tors. The percussion action is electrically operated from the clavier 
of any Organ in which the stop is placed. Stops of this class are 
not suited for the dignified Church Organ, 



ZARTFLOTE, Ger. The stop bearing this name was, according 
to Seidel, invented by the organ-builder Friedr. Turley, who first 
called it a GAMBA; but as its tone was of a soft and refined fluty 
quality rather than of a string character," Musikdirektor Wilke ad- 
vised its inventor to adopt the more expressive name ZARTFLOTE. 
The stop is formed of small-scaled open pipes, usually of wood, 
voiced to yield an extremely tender flute-tone; hence its name. It 
has been made of both 8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch. As a stop of 8 ft. pitch 
it is inserted in the Swell of the Organ in the Marienkirche, Wismar; 
and as a wood stop, of 4 ft. pitch, it is to be found in the Echo of 
the Schulze Organ in the Marienkirche, Lubeck. In the Echo of the 
fine Organ in the Church of St. Bartholomew, Annjey, Yorkshire, 
built by Edmund Schulze, there is a ZARTFLOTE, 4 FT., formed of 
conical metal pipes from tenor C to c 4 . The bass octave is of small- 
scaled wood pipes. This stop speaks on wind of i J^ inches, and has 
a voice of an extremely soft and refined flute-tone. We do not find 
the ZARTFLOTE in any of Walcker's important Organs. A ZART- 
FLOTE, 8 FT., the pipes of which are of pine and pear-tree, exists on 
the Fourth Manual of the Ladegast Organ in the Cathedral of 
Schwerin. The stop is to be found in some English Organs; usually 
of 4 ft. pitch, and inserted in the Choir or Swell. 

The name ZARTFLOTE has been used by John W. Whitely to 
designate a beautiful stop invented by him in 1896. This stop, of 
8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch, is formed of covered metal pipes with project- 
ing ears carrying cylindrical aluminium harmonic-bridges. The 
stop is a modification of the QUINTATEN, with every trace of coarse- 
ness removed.* Its voice is a light, bright, flute-tone, with sufficient 
reedy quality to impart to it a distinctive tonal coloring. A stop of 
this beautiful tonality would be of the greatest value in the soft 
divisions of the Organ; contributing largely to refined and artistic 
registration. 

ZARTGEDECKT, Ger. The name that has been used to desig- 
nate a covered stop of wood or metal, of 8 ft. pitch, yielding an unimi- 

* Full particulars, with illustration, of this stop are given in " The Art of Organ-Building " 
Vol.II., p. 549 ; and in "The Organ of the Twentieth Century, ** pages 391-2. 



THEIR ARTISTIC REGISTRATION 293 

tative flute-tone softer and sweeter than that of the LIEBLICH- 
GEDECKT, 8 FT. The stop requires, for the production of its charac- 
teristic voice free of any pronounced harmonic to be voiced on 
wind of very low pressure, preferably i J/ inches. This stop is in all 
essentials similar to the STILLGEDECKT (g. v.}. 

ZAUBERFLOTE, Ger. Literally Magic Flute. A covered 
harmonic stop, invented by William Thynne, of London, and first 
introduced by him in the Organ installed in the Inventions Exhibi- 
tion, at South Kensington, London; and which was afterwards 
erected in Tewkesbury Abbey. It is of 4 ft. pitch, and is inserted in 
the Choir of the Organ. In the ZAUBERFLOTE, 4 FT., in the Organ 
in the Church of St. John, Richmond, Surrey, the harmonic pipes 
commence at tenor C; and, as they are covered, they speak their 
first harmonic, or the second upper partial tone the Twelfth. To 
prevent its speaking the prime tone, or that proper to its length, 
each pipe is pierced with a small hole, as in the case of the open pipes 
of the FLUTE HARMONIQUE. The ZAUBERFLOTE was made of both 
8 ft. and 4 ft. pitch. When of the former pitch, the bass octave was 
formed of covered wood pipes, voiced to carry down the characteris- 
tic tone of the harmonic portion of the stop as closely as possible, 
but by no means satisfactorily, as can be supposed.* 

TONE AND REGISTRATION. The tone of the ZAUBERFLOTE, as 
voiced by its inventor, is sui generis and of a very refined and sym- 
pathetic character, highly appreciated by those endowed with ears 
sensitive to tonal values. In artistic registration it is of great value; 
and as an OCTAVE, it lends itself to the production of a series of 
effective tonal colorings in combination with the softer string-toned 
labial and reed-toned lingual stops; imparting a distinctive harmonic 
structure to all dual combinations in which it is introduced, and to 
which it gives a special brilliancy and vivid coloring. The stop is, 
accordingly, of the greatest value in its 4 ft. pitch; and this fact its 
inventor realized, as we know. He was for several years our valued 
friend. 

ZINK, ZINKEN, Ger. A lingual stop made by the old German 
organ-builders, and intended to imitate the tone of the obsolete 
wind instrument known as the Zinken, or by the Italian name Cor- 
netto Curvo and the French name Cornet-a-Bouquin. Describing 

* Pull particulars, with illustration, of the formation of this stop are given in "The Art of 
Organ-Building," Vol. II., pp. 546-7; and in "The Organ of the Twentieth Century /' pages 
389-90. 



294 ORGAN-STOPS 

the instrument, Carl Engel says: "Although the Zinken is blown 
through a mouth-tube somewhat similar to that of a trumpet, it has 
finger-holes like a flute. Its sound is harsh, and would be unpleasant 
in a room, but the Zinken was intended for the open air, and for 
performing chorales on the towers of churches, so that all the people 
in the town could hear the solemn music. They were, in fact, com- 
pelled to hear, for it vibrated through the air over their heads like 
the church bells themselves. Thus the Zinken may have served its 
purpose well in olden time, notwithstanding its harshness of sound." 
The organ ZINKEN was, apparently, a lingual stop, of 2 ft. pitch, 
having a strident voice, and finding its place in the Pedal Organ. 
Under the Dutch term, CINQ, 2 FT., stops of the class exist in the 
Pedals of the Organs in the Cathedral of St. Bavon, Haarlem, the 
Cathedral of St. Lawrence, Rotterdam, and other important 
Churches in Holland. In the Pedal of the Organ in the principal 
Protestant Church in Utrecht, built in 1826, there is, in addition tc 
the CINQ, 2 FT., a CLARION, i FT. 



A A 



651